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Full text of "[Miscellaneous reports of agricultural experiment stations"


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LBOMBAY- 



Department of Agriculture .J 



cMiscellaneous j9^abl3r ca t ± o n a y 



Annual report ofi the experimental work of the 
Dhulla Agricultural station. 

Annual report on the experimental work of the 
Ganeshkhind Botanical station. 

Annual report on the experimental work of the 
Mirpurkha's Agricultural station. 

Annual report on the experimental work of the 
Mangri Agricultural station and the 
Baramati Demons traU on station* 

Annual report on the experimental work of the 
Nadiad agricultural station. 

Annual report on the experimental work of the 
Poona Agricultural station including 
Kirkee civil dairy and Lanowli Agricul- 
tural station* 

Annual report on the experimental work of the 
Surat Agricultural station. 



1906-1907 • 



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i3cpaitmcnt of agiirultti^, / Uoinliaii. 



ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OP THE 

DHULIA AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(West Khandesh District,. Deccan) 

FOR THE YEAR 



1906-1907 



BY 



F. FLETCHER, M.A, B.Sc, kt( ., 

.Depulij Direclur of A;)ricuUure. 



BOMBAY 

PRINTED AT THE G0VI:BNM1<:NT CENTRAL PRESS 

190.7 



[I'rkc— I'l ■ "/• od.\ 



OFFICIAL AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF INDIAN OFFICIAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

In England. 

E. A. Arnold, 41 & 48^ Maddox Street, Bond Street, W., London. 

Constable & Co., 10, Orange Street^ Lsicester Square, W. C, London. 

Grindlay & Co., 54, Parliament Street, S. W., London. 

Henry S. King" & Co., 65, Comhill, E. C, London. 

P. S. King" & Son, 2 & 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W., 
London. 

Kegan Panl, Trench, Trnbner & Co., 43, Gerrard Street, Sobo, W., 
London. 

B. Qnaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W., London. 

T. Fisher Unwin, 1, Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C 

W. Thacker & Co., 2, ('reed Lane. London. E. C. 

B. H. Blackwell, 50 & 51, Bread Street; Oxford. 

Deighton Bell & Co., Cambridge. 

On the Continent. 

Friedlander & Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin. 

Rudolf Haupt, Ilalle-a-S., Germany. 

Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 

Ernest Leroux, 28, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 

Martinns Nijhofif, The Hague. 

In India, 

Higginbotham & Co., Madras. 

V. Kalyanarama Iyer & Co., Madras. 

p. R. Rama lyar & Co , Madras. 

Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta. 

W. Newman & Co., Calcutta. 

S. K. Lahiri & Co., Calcutta. 

R. Cambray & Co., Calcutta. 

Thacker & Co. (Ld.), Bombay. 

A. J. Combridge & Co., Bombay. 

Curator, Government Ceotral Book Depot, Bombay 

D. B. Taraporevala, Sons & Co., B)mi)ay. 

Sunder Pandurang, Bookseller, etc., J Bombay. 

Gopal Narayen & Co., Booksellers, et'.*., Bombay. 

N. B. Mathur, N. K. H. Press, AUahabad. 



iScpavtmtnt of asiirultmt, iUoinbaii. 



ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THK 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

DHULIA AGRIjyjJLTURAL STATION 

(West Ivhandesh District, Deccan) 
FOR THE YEAli 



1906-1907 



BY 

F. FLETCHEB, M.A, B.Sc, etc, . 

Veimty Director uf Agriculture. 



BOMBAY 

PRINTED AT THK GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1007 



MAIS LIB, imn^ 






Vernacular names of crops, &c, mentioned in the report witli their 
Botanical and English equivalents. 



Botauical. 


English. 


Vernacular. 


Cereals. 








Andropogon sorgbmu var vulgare ... 

Peimisetum typlioideum 
Triticum sativum 

Hordeum vulgare 
Avena sativa 


Great millet 

Bulrush millet 
Wheat 

Barley 
Oats 


.., 


.JowAr (Mcthi, Gudghi, 

Chapti, &c.). 
Bdjri. 
Cahu (Moondi, Bansi, 

Bakshi, Kitha, Kempu- 

godbi. &c.). 
t>iltu, Jav. 


Pulses. 








Cajaiuis indicus 
CiecT arietininn 
Pbaseolus radiatua 


Pigeon-x)ea 
Gram 

Black gram 
Saidi beans 


... 


Tur. 

Harbhara. 

Udid. 


Oilseeds. 








.Sesamum indicum 
Arachis hypogea 


Jr'esamum 
Groundnuts 


... 


Til. 
BLuImu^. 


Fibre plants. 








Ciossypluin neglectum 
Do. indicum 
Do. herbaceam 

Do. birsatuiii 


Khdndesh cotton 

Hinganghat cotton 

Gujarat and Karnatak cotton . 

Diiiirwar — American cotton ... 


Kapns (.Tari, Va:dd5). 

Kapus (Eani). 

Kapai (Broach, Goghdri* 

Lalio, Kumpta). 
Vildyati-Hattj. 


Condiments. 








Capsicum fruitescens 


Chillies 


... 


Mirchi. 


Sugar. 








.- acbbarum officinarum 


Sugarcane 


... 


Us (Gul). 


Vegetables. 








fc'olanum melongena 

Do. tuberosum 

Hibiscus escnlentus 


Brinjal 

Potatoes 
Edible hibiscus 


... 


Vangi. 
Batata. 
Bhendi. 


Fodders. 








Medicago sativa 


Lucerne . 


... 


Alfalfa, Lasur.ghds. 



B 993— a 



ivi739i00 



\ 




THE DHULIA AGRICULTURAL STATION, 

1908-07. 



Established — 1905 ; North Zatittide — 21° 10'; East Eongi- 
tude — 75° 20' ; Etevatiou — 8M feet above sea level ; Soil — medium 
black; Average rainfall — 22' ^0" \ Temperature — maximum 114j° 
in May ; minimum 36° in January. 



Area—2^ 


acres. 
























Stiperintendent — 1 


Ir. Mohoniraj G 


. Atbalye. 




Season. 






< 


>% 

1 


June. 
July. 


! 


1 


1 

1 


i 


t 


s 

'-i 





i 


J 


Raiafall (1906-07) 


1 II 




/ // 



7 77 ! 5 C3 


7 19 


1 II 

2 24 


/ II 

16 


/ II 

.M 


/ // 


1 II 


/ // 

32 




23 31 


Average ... 


03 


00 


3 90 


5 7V 


3 97 


6 28 


1 19 


74 


14 


15 


003 


14 


22 40 


Temperature (1906-07)— 




























Mean maximum 


105° 


108° 


96° 


91° 


87° 


88° 


92° 


91° 


90° 


as° 


88° 


97° 


... 


Mean minimum 


67" 


71° 


71° 


70° 


67° 


6S° 


62° 


50° 


47° 


45° 


4(3° 


55° 


... 



2. The monsoon began earlier than ususal. 

The germination of cotton sown after the first showers was 
checked to a certain extent by subsequent continuous and heavy 
downpours and the seedlings looked pale. In the first fortnight of 
July cotton gained a healthy appearance and gathered vigour. Later 
rains much interfered with the interculturing operations. Rains 
in August proved very injurious to early sown Bajri inasmuch as 
they washed off the inflorescence and left earheads grainless. 

The failure of October rains spoiled the grain formation of 
Tur and caused a partial loss of the crop. 

On the whole the season was favourable to cotton and Jowar, 
but less so to Bajri and Til and still less to Tur and late Jowar 
varieties. 

It was also very favourable to insect life. There were several 
generations of harmful cotton pests, root worms and borers, all of 
which did considerable damage to the food crops. 

B 9&3— 1 



Manurial Experiments. 

3. The chief work of the station is the improvement of the 
local cotton. Incidentally a few manurial experiments were made. 
These consisted in the treatment of (1) cotton with ammonium 
sulphate, farm-yard manure and lime in comparison with no 
manure and of (2) wheat with ammonium sulphate and farm-yard 
manure separately and with both combined. In the case of cotton 
the quantity of farm-yard manure applied was adjusted in such 
a way that its cost was kept nearly equal to that of the special 
fertilizer. 

The results arc as below : — 





Area. 


Variety 
of Cotton. 


Drill. 


Avorage per Acre. 


Namber 
of plot. 


Manure applied. 


Yield of 

seed 
cotton. 


Value of 1 Cost of 
produce, jeultivation 


Not 
profit. 


2 

8a 

3& 

24c 


... 

30 
020 
20 
10 


1 


oO 


None 

Farm-yard mannro 7J ton.s 
AnrtEonitim Sulphate 1 ewt. ... 
Slaked lime 3,100 lbs 


Ll)s. 
740 
90S 
714 

40G 


Rs. a. p.l Bs. a. p. 
67 4 4 21 9 .T 
82 8 9 , 32 10 
CI 14 6 j 30 8 2 
S6 14 6 28 4 C 


Rs. a. p. 
45 10 11 
49 14 9 
£3 G 4 
8 10 



Ammonium sulphate prolongs the vegetative period and so 
the late formed bolls remain imperfectly developed and do not 
open freely in the succeeding cold season. In the above results 
farm-yard manure has shown a decided advantage over ammonium 
sulphate, which fact is corroborated in the following results of j 
wheat experiments : — 



Serial 
uvmbci 

of 
wheat 

pl«!t.. 


Ana. 

1 


Variety 

of 
wheat. 


Average per Acre. «■ 


Manure applied. 


Number 

of 
waterings. 


1 

Quantity 
of V uter. 


Yield of 
grain. 


StBlkB 

and 
chaff. 


Value 
of 
prodii. 


21 
22 

23 
21 
15 

26 


.J 

1- 
1 

1 
1 
1 

1 


■1 

1 

1 


Ammoninm Sulphate 1 cwt. ... 

Fanrryard manure 5 tons and 
Aocmoniura Sulphate 1 cwt. ... 

Farmyard manure u tons 

Ammonium Sulphate 1 cwt. 

Farm-yard manure 5 tous and 
Ammoninm Sulphate 1 cwt. ... 

Fann-ynrd mamiro r> ion.s 


[ 4 

1 
J 

1 

j 


C. ft. 

r 

8.3,2(0 -?' 
1 

I 

r 

109 120 \ 

1 

I. 


Ll).s. 
SOO 
336 

COO 

m 

810 

f^SO 


Lbs. 
C80 
C80 

880 
1,380 

1,.'?20 
1.400 


Rs. 9^ 
15 14H 
17 159 

27 119 

40 2 2 

41 9 7 
43 Ij s 



I 



Rotation Experioients. 



4. No permanent rotation series has yet been introduced here. 
However the distribution of this year's crops was done in 
accordance with local rotations. The results obtained are given 
below : — • 











Average per Acre. 


Xunibcv 






The crop 
rotated. 






of 
plot. 


Area. 


Previous crops. 


Principal 


By 


Value of 










product. 


product. 


produce. 




A. g. 






Lhs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


2 


30 


Jowdr ... ... 


Cotton 


74:0 


... 


67 4 4 


U 


20 


O'Bajri 

\ ii Gram failed 


] Do. ... 


993 


... 


90 8 8 


Via 


10 


Bdori 


Gram 


160 


188 


7 14 


Vih 


10 


Udid 


Do. 


lOi 


160 


4 12 9 


12c 


10 


Fallow 


Do. 


276 


376 


12 8 


Mi 


1 


Jowar 


Wheat 


080 


1,160 


33 


VJii 


1 


Bdjri 


Do. 


880 


1,800 


44 3 2 


Ylixi 


1 


Fallow 


Do. 


920 


1,880 


46 3 2 



The results indicate that Bajri is preferable to Jowiir as a 
preparation for cotton and irrigated wheat and that a dry-crop of 
gram can also be more nrofitably grown after kharif Bdjri than 
after Udid. 

■ The following table shows results of simultaneous rotations of 
Udid, Jowitr, Til and Tur :— 



riot. 


Area. 


Crop. 




Average per Acre. 




Prlucipal. 


Subordinate. 


Seed rate. 


Principal 
product. 


By 

product. 


Taluc of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 




A. g. 






i ""■ " ■ 


Lbs. 


LbB. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Ub 


2) 


Udid 


Jowar as spiiukling ... 


j- Udid 6 lbs. ... 
ljowar2lbs. ... 


412 
1,374 


480 
3,270 


l64 15 8 


28 12 8 


2oa 


23 


Jowar 


Udid mixed 


r Jow4r 6 lbs. ... 
Iudid21bs. .,. 


1,408 
60 


5,690 
HO 


■SO 7 


28 7 3 


256 


20 


Po. 


2 rows of Udid after 
every 4 rows of Jowar. 


r Jowar 6 lbs ... 
\udid 2 lbs. ... 


1,274 
64 


4,860 
260 


j.53 » . 


17 8 


20 


20 


Do. 


Alone 


Jowur 8 lbs. 


1,303 


6,256 


54 15 8 


19 13 10 


21tf 


20 


Til 


Tur mixed 


J Til 4 lbs. 
(Tur 8 lbs. 


408 
252 


324 


|46 10 


20 14 4 


Ub 


CO 


Do. 


2 rows of Tur after 
c\cry 1 rows of Til. 


( Til 1. lbs, 
(TurSlbs. 


692 
72 


108 


H = * 


18 6 4 





















A mixed crop of Udid with Jowar as a sprinkling appears to 
be more productive than any other mixture or Jowar alone, and Til 
and Tur in separate rows appears to be better than both grown 
mixed. 

Cultural Experiments. 

5. Wide and narrow drilling and thinning of cotton were tested 
with the following results : — 



Plat, 



Arc«. 



Crop. 



DriU. 



Tillase. 



A. g. 
20 




20 (-Mumdcsh cot-) (21" ) Plo 

A ton, I 2 f p 

20 CDhu:iasced..J CIS" 3 J? 



Treatir.ent, 



Seed 
cotton. 



Average per Acre. jpcrceiit- 

! age 

: of fibre 
Value of Cost of I to seed 
produce, cultivation.! cotton. 



20 I r Khjlndcsh cot- ) ( 1 8" ^ 
20 i (Choixiasccd.M I 118" / 



PloDghcd for ^^ji„^^j ^,rti. 
uarily, 

fThijincd to 4' 
< in rows. 
I Not lliinncd. 



pre V 1 o u p 
ram 



Harrowed only 



Lbs. 

^ 82t 

I 99o 

BjO 

842 



Bs. a. p. I Bs. a. p. 

74 11 6 f 15 15 

90 8 8 I 17 7 2 

77 1 4 ' 22 8 

76 8 8 i 18 3 4 



371 
36-3 
40-4 



New Crops. 



6. East African Bajri^ Virginia groundnuts, barley and alfafa 
lucerne were the new crops tried this year. 

Of these East African B^jri and Virginia groundnuts were 
successful and yielded at twice the rate of the local varieties. 
The grain of the former is however inferior, but it is thought 
that the variety will be useful for breeding purposes. 

Barley and oats were grown under irrigation simultaneously 
with wheat on small half guntha plots. The crops took 6 months 
and did not mature properly, yielding very poorly. 

Saidi beans were grown after Bajri on a small 5 guntha plot. 
The seed was sown after wetting the land. Germination was good 
and two more waterings were given afterwards. But the crop 
after standing li months gradually got rusted inspite of the 
removal of diseased plants and died away altogether, yielding no '• 
grain. 

The four varieties of Turkestan Alfalfa (lucerne) were grown 
to test their drought-resisting property, but they were not found 
superior to the ordinary variety. 



5 

The seeds germinated evenly and plants did well till 
September when they showed signs of drying. Afterwards the 
crop was irrigated whenever the plants appeared to require it, 
care being taken not to supply water unless it was absolutely 
necessary to keep them alive. Till November the crop was poor, 
but afterwards in the cold season it flourished. 

The detailed results are tabulated below : — 









Average per acre. 


Plot. 


Area. 


Crop, 


Principal 
product. 


By 

product. 


Value of 
produce. 




A, g. a. 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


19 


5 0' Bull nish millet 


2,240 


6,248 


68 8 


21a 


15 5 Virginia groundnuts 


2,157 


4,129 


118 11 1 


21d 


9 5 Local groundnuts 


1,128 


4,501 


62 12 7 


14 


5; Barley ,., 


145 


2,880 






5 Oats 


260 


1,040 


...I*. 


A 


i 1 


i ^ • ii (» • 


.T • 


• - A* . 


2.^ 



A statement showing dates of sowing and irrigating the crop 
of Lucerne is given below : — 







Crop. 


Date 
of 

sow* 
ing. 


Dates of waterings. 


Weight 
of crop. 


i\ 


No. 

13331 
13999 
18391 
18425 


Name. 


Ist. 


2nd. 


3rd. 


4th. 


5th. 


6th. 


7th. 


8th. 


9th. 


10th. 


Ist. 


2ad. 


Id 


A. g. a. 

15-! 




S 


^ 


I 


i 

i 


i 


i 

CI 


1 




i 




3 


Lbs. 
r 19 

26 

22 

L 27 


Lbs. 
50 

57 

83 

58 



Varietal Experiments. 

7. Several varieties of Jowar, Biijri, cotton and wheat were 
grown for comparison and the results are as follows : — 





Area. 


Crop. 


Average per acre. 


Plot. 








i 


By product. 








Name. 




Variety. 


Principal 
product. 




Value of 








produce. 












i 


Stalks. 


Chaff. 






A. g. 








1 
Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lb. 


Us. a. p. 


lU 


20) 
205 


Rijri 


( 


Nacluid 


814 


2,720 


... 


34 8 


Hi 


} 


Local 


853 


1,710 


... 


30 12 3 


10 


1 


Cottoa 




Bani 


27G 


••• 


... 


25 1 


15 


1 


Do. 


... 


Comilla .. 


325 


,,, 




40 10 


36 


1 


Do. 




Khdndesh 


987 


... 


... 


89 11 8 


c 


3 


Do. 


«•> 


Broach 


80 


... 


... 


8 


21? 


3 


Do. 




Kumtha 


66 


• •« 


... 


6 9 7 


( 


3 


Do. 


... 


GoghAri 


93 


... 


... 


9 4 9 


2ea 


20) 
20) 


Jowdr 


( 


Motlii 


1,302 


5,840 


416 


54 15 8 


26i 


-U 


Gudgbi > 


906 


5,120 


320 


37 12 10 



The results of wheat are as under : — 











Average per acre. 


Plot. 


Area, 


Name of VVlicat, 


Wdterings. 


Grain, 


Straw and 
chaff. 


Value of 
produce. 




A. g. 






Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 




1 


Mooudi 




1,275 


1,8<J0 


64 11 




1 


Bakshi 




560 


1,720 


31 14 11 




1 


Bausi 


5 


800 


1^20 


39 14 11 




1 


Kdtha 




1,120 


1,760 


48 9 8 




1 


Kempu 


-^ 


373 


080 


18 4 10 



Mcthi Jowiir, Khandesh cotton and Moondi m lieat have given 
the highest yields. 

Ginning Experiments. 

8. Several varieties of Indian cottons were also grown — a few 
plants of each — to ascertain the percentages of fibre to seed 
cotton. 



The following are their ginning outturns : — 



^'o. 
1 

2 

a 

4 


Name. 


Percentage 

of lint to 
seed cotton. 


No. 


Name. 


Percentage 

of lint to 
seed cotton. 


No. 


j Percent age 
Name. j of lint to 
1 seed cotton. 

1 


Broach 
Kumtha 
Goghdri 
Madeu 


.32 03 
26-0 
.37-5 
29-6 


I 

7 
8 


WAgad 
Mathio 

Jari 

VarAdi 


27-3 
29-3 
30'2 
35-9 


li; 


nam 
ComiUa 


26'5 
44'R 



9, An experiment consisting of the analysis of a field of 
Khdndesh cotton into several types was conducted. 

The number of plants found, yield of seed cotton and per- 
centage of lint of each of the types are given in the following 
table : — 



Name of 

cotton 

analysed. 


—• — — # ■ 

Name of type. 


Average 


per acre. 


Percentage 
of lint. 


Common. 


Latin. 


Number 
of plants. 


Yield of 
seed cotton. 


s r 


1 Jari a 


G. Neglectum Vera 


1,190 


Lbs. 
30 


31-G 


P 


2 Jaii b 


a. N. V. Malvensis 


200 


li 


25-0 


5h Cotton 
seed. 


3 Jari c 

4 Varidiff 


G. N. V. Kathiavarcnsis ... 
G. N. Rosea 


5,190 
12,850 


90 
310 


28-5 
387 




5 Var4di h 


G. N. E. Cutcbica 


34,320 


420 


85-7 


i 


C) Bani 


G. Indicum 


190 


n 


24-2 


33.940 


852 





Varddi is the predominating type forming nearly 80 per cent, 
of the crop. Its ginning outturn is also the highest. Nos, 2, 3 
and 6 produce cotton worth about 3 per cent, more than the rest 
which, however, form the greater part of the mixture owing to 
their heavier ginning outturn. 

On Crop Breeding. 

10. 91 varieties of indigenous cotton crosses were grown, of 
which.some were retained and their seed preserved for next season. 



The numbers selected and the quantity 
each are as below : — 



of seed obtained oi' 



Serial 
Ko. 

1 


Number 
of cros?, i 


Quantity 
of seed 
Tom select- 
ed bolls. 


Serial 

No. i 


Number 
of cross. 


Quantity 
of seed 
'rom select- 
ed bolls. 


Serial 

No. i 


Number 
of cross, i 


Quantity 
of seed 

:iora select- 
ed bolls. 


1 


1,074 


libs. 07.. 

1 


20 


1,133 


Lbs. r/. 
2\ 


39! 


1,101 


Lbs. oz. 

i 


2 


1,079 


2 


21 


1,131 


2 


40 


1,162 


2 


3 


1,085 


i 


22 


1,136 


2^ 


41 


1,163 


H 


4 


1,089 


2 


23 


1,137 


2 


42 ; 


1,164 


41 


5 


],093 


li 


24 


1,140 


2 


43 i 


1,165 


n 


6 


1,096 


8 


25 


1,141 


"2 


44 


1,200 


3i 


7 


1,097 


2 


20 


1,142 


h 


45 


1,201 


11 4 


8 
9 


1,101 
1,10S 


n 

c 


27 

28 


1,143 
1,145 


1 

1 


46 

47 


1,202 
1,205 


3 
U 


10 


1,111 


5 


29 


1,146 


24 


48 


1,200 


2 


11 


1,112 


h 


30 


1,147 


2 


49 


1,228% 


i 


]2 


1,113 


h 


31 


1,149 


h 


50 


1,232^ 


li 


13 


1,122 


n 


32 


1,161 


2 


51 


1 l,232g 


1 


14 


1,125 


5 


33 


1,152 


2 


52 


1,23.^ 


i 


15 


1,127 


2 


34 


1,154 


3i 


53 


1,235 


1 


16 


1,128 


2 


35 


1,157 


3!- 


54 


1,293 


6 


17 


1,129 


1 


36 


l,t58 


2 


55 


1,312 


4 


18 


1,130 


i 


37 


1,169 


I 








19 


1,131 


li 


38 


1,160 


2 




1 





Out of these, Nos. 1096, 1108, 1183 and 1201 produced com- 
paratively much finer lint. Nos. 1133 and 1201 were exhibited at 
the Surat Exhibition for the superior quality of their fibre. 

A cross of Dharwar American and Varadi from Dharwar station 
was grown. Most of the plants were attacked by leaf blight. 
Seed from selected bolls of healthy and prolific plants has been 
obtained and preserved for next season. 

Crosses were also made between rough but dense fibred 
Comilla and finer and more prolific Jari and Varadi types, and a 
sufficient number of bolls was obtained for sowing next season. 



9 

On Pests. 

11. Last season was particularly favourable for the growth of 
insects and other pests. The following are the more important 
insects that appeared : — 



Ko. 


Common name of 
insect. 


1 
I 

Ijatiu name. 


Food plant. 


Remedies suggested. 

• 


1 
2 
3 
4 


Brlnjal stemlorer ... 
Cotton leaf hci>pcr ... 
PiLk boll worm 
Cotton bud worm ... 
Wire worms 
D->. 


Lu:.inodes Orbonalis . 
Jaasidaj family 

Cblorida Obgoleta ... 


Brinjal 

Cotton 

Do 

Do 

Roots of chillies . 

Do. o£ ground- 
nuts. 


Picking, 

Spraying with keroshio 

emulsion. 
Bhendi as t:ap. 


5 
6 


\ Allow them to col- 
j lect undt-r pieces of 
f potato placed near 
1 plants and then 
J destroy them. 



In addition to the insect pests there were attacks of fungoid 
diseases. 

American cottons — both annual and perennial — suffered much 
from rust, while the crop of Saidi beans totally succumbed to rust, 
though the diseased plants were removed as they appeared. 
Some damage was done to the cotton crop by wilt. 



12. 



Irrigational. 
These experiments were conducted on several varieties of 



wheat with the object of determining the quantity of irrigation 
required to produce the heaviest crop. 

The results are given in the following statement. It will be 
seen that the produce of wheat grain has varied in many cases 
according to the quantity of water and that later waterings 
produced distinct effects on produce. Moondi has yielded highest 
for each particular amount of irrigation. 



B C93--3 



10 



Moo.idi wheat. 



Bakshi wheat. 



Xo. of 
water- 


Quantity 

of water 

in cable 

feet. 


■ 

Yield per asrci 


Value of 
produce. 


Y ield per acre. 


Value of 
piodnco. 




/•i„,!„ i^'traw and 
^'^^'»- cliaff. 


Grain. 

Lbs. 
560 
440 
147 
192 


Straw and 
chaff. 


5 
4 
3 
1 


91,424 
64,960 
47,010 
16,800 


Lbs, 

1,275 

1.20O 

605 

381 


Lbs. 

1,800 

1,280 

1,380 

720 


Rs., .1. p. 
6t 6 11 
68 9 2 
33 3 
20 2 31 


Lbs. 

1,7?0 

1,280 

S60 

5&3 


Rs. a. p. 
31 14 n 
24 11 9 
10 15 2 
10 13 2 







Bansi wheat. 


Kitha wheat. 


Ke;npu Godi. 


No. of 
« ater- 


Quantity 

of water 

in cubic 

feet. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


) 


Grain. 

■ 


Straw 

and 

chaff. 


Grain. 


Straw 
and 
chaff. 


Grain. 


Stiaw 

and 

chaff. 


5 

4 
3 

1 


91,424 

64,900 
47,040 
16,800 


Lbs. 
800 
695 
389 
277 


Lbs. 

1,320 
840 
640 
520 


Rs. a. p. 
39 H 11 
33 2 6 
19 6 4 
14 2 2 


Lbs. 
1,120 

702 
4G1 
463 


Lbs. 

1,760 

1,210 

680 

6 to 


Rs. a. p. 
53 9 8 
31 4 4 
21 13 7 
21 11 11 


Lbs. 
372 
192 
185 
175 


Lbs. 
6S0 
460 
420 
320 


Rs. a. p. 
18 4 10 
10 

9 8 
8 9^ 



New Implement g. 

13. The only new implement that received trial was 
made winnower. 



far 



I 



m- 



The machine is economically useful only when there are no 
natural winds or when these are uncertain. It can winnow about 
3,000 lbs. of grain in a day of 9 hours costing per day 8 to 
12 annas. 

Experiments made off the Station. 

14, The sugarcane crop near Chalisgaon belonging to Mr. 
Garud was treated with the following nitrogenous fertilizers, viz^t 
ammonium sulphate and sodium nitrate singly as well as in com- 
bination with different quantities of farm-yard manure. 

The special manures were applied in two doses — one before and 
the other after the first rainfall. 



11 



The I'esults are tabulated in the following statement. 



Field 
No. 


Plot 
No. 


Area. 


Maimve applied per acre. 


Nitro- 
gen sup- 
plied in 


Outturn of 
Qui. 


Value of 

Gul per 

acre. 


llemarks. 










manure 












Acre. 


Gun- 


Fjrm-ytCl-d ' Chemical 


p?racre. 


Per 


Per 










thas. 


manure. 


manure. 




plot. 


acre. 
Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 














Lbs. 


Lbs. 




(■ 


1 


... 


10 


100 Cartloads.' 2fil ..."^ - 

1 i» 


300 


972.^ 


3,890 


307 15 4 


Like last year Am- 
monium Sulphate 




2 


... 


10 


50 Do. ...,400 ... rSrt 


232 


1.659^ 


6,638 


525 8 1 


has apparently 


!■{ 










J-g-p. 










acted as preventive 


1 


3 


... 


10 


75 Do. ... 


- Ill 


307 


1,496^ 


5,936 


473 14 3 


against white ants ; 
for plot 1 was con- 


L 


4 


... 


10 


1()0 Do. ...! 40O ...)'' 
i 


382 


229 


916 


72 8 S 


siderably damaged 
by white ants and 
the rest were free. 


r 
1 


1 


... 


li^ 


100 Cartloads. 40O ..."i 

1 


342 


1,037^ 


4,150 


328 8 8 


There was no attack 
of white ants in 


1 


2 




10 


50 Do. ...' 40(1 ... S« 


192 


861 


3,456 


273 9 7 


any of these four 


2^ 








\-a^ 










plots. 


1 


3 


... 


10 


75 Do. ... 4fJ0 ... |o^ 

1 0D« 


■2G7 


465 


1,860 


149 14 2 




1 
L 


4 


... 


10 


100 Do. ... Nil ...J 

j 


3:o 


3181 


1,275 


100 15 








Farm-yard manure 


•5 per cent. Nitrogen, 






Ammonium Sulpbjite .' 


... 20-5 






S " 


odium 


Nitrate ... 







... 1 


0-5 


.. »i 





Poona^ \ 

September 1907.^ 



F. FLETCHER, 
Deputy Director of Agriculture. 



BOMBAY: IKINTKD AT THIS GOVERNMEJJT CEXTEAL I'EJiSS. 



'« -w^'WIWi 



nrj tra 



I v.i, 151937 

(^ u u u 



Heyartment of ^grituUuit/ /iSomfaaB. 



ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

GANESHKHIND BOTANICAL vSTATION 

(Poona District, Deccan) 

FOR THE YEAK 

1906-1907 



BY 

G. A GAVIMIE; F.LS, etc., 

Economic Botanist. 



\ 

V, O M V> A Y 

PHINTED AT THE GO\"EUNMENT CENTRAL TRESS 

1907 



iPrice — 5a. or 6d.] 



OFFICIAL AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF INDIAN OFFICIAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

In England, 

E. A. Arnold, 41 & 43^ Maddox Street, Bond Street, W., Loadon. 

Constable & Co., 10, Orange Street^ Leicester Square, W. C, London. 

Grindlay & Co., 54, ParKament Street, S. W., London. 

Henry S. King & Co., 65, Cornhill, E. C, London. 

P. S. King & Son, 2 & 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W., 
London. 

Kegan Panl, Trencli, Triibner & Co., 43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W., 
London. 

B. Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W., London. 

T. Fisher Unwin, 1, Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C. 

W. Thacker & Co., 2, Oeed Lane-. London, E. C. 

B. H. Blackwell, 50 & 51, Broad Street; Oxford. 

Deighton Bell & Co., Cambridge. 

On the Continent. 

Friedlander & Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin. 

Rudolf Haupt, Ilalle-a-S., Germany. 

Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 

Ernest Leroux, 28, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 

Martinus NijhoflT, The Hague. 

In India, 

Higginbotham & Co., Madras. 

V. Kalyanarama Iyer & Co., Madras. 

p. R. Rama lyar & Co , Madras. 

Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta. 

W. Newman & Co., Calcutta. 

S. K. Lahiri & Co., CalcutA^. 

R. Cambray & Co., Calcutta. 

Thacker & Co. (Ld.), Bombay. 

A. J. Combridge & Co., Bombay. 

Curator, Government Central Book Depot, Bombay. 

D. B. Taraporevala, Sons & Co., Bombay. 

Sunder Pandurang, Bookseller, etc., Bombay. 

Gopal Narayen & Co., Booksellers, etc., Bombay. 

N. B. Mathur, N. K. H. Press, Allahabad. 



iScjpartment of Slgrftulttire, ^omba^. 



ANNUAL, REPORT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

GANESHKHIND BOTANICAL STATION 

" ^ (Poona District, Deccan) 

FOR THE YEAR 



1906-1907 



BY 

G. A GAMMIE, F.LS., etc., 

Sconomic Botanist. 



BOMBAY 

PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1907 



THE GANESfiKHIND BOTANICAL STATION, 

190S-1907. 



Ee'established—ldOi; North latitude — 15° 30'; JEJcist longi^ 
tude — TS'^oO'; Elevation — 1,850 foet above sea level; Soil — 
reddish alluvial deep loam and modium black ; Average 
rainfall — 32 laches ; Tempemtm^e—va^ximwoa 109° 
minimum 45° in January. 

Area — 80 acres. 

Curator — Mr. G. B. Patwardhan. 



m 



May, 





•< 


i 


i 




I 


1 
i 


1 


>5 


1 




1 


1 


3 
S 




/ II 


1 II 


/ // 


/ // 




, „ 


/ 11 


' // 


/ // 


1 II 


/ // 


/ .'/ 


Haiafall (1900-1907) 


3 31 


... 


8 73 


4 GO 


3 08 


1S2 


43 


2 05 


1 


... 


IS 


3 


25 85 


Average 


88 


1 31 


02 


8 53 


4 77 


1 33 


5 13 


48 


31 


01 


10 


02 


31 92 


Temperaturo (1908-1907)— 




























Mean niaximuin 


103° 


101" 


88° 


82" 


82° 


83° 


eo° 


80° 


80° 


87° 


90° 


80° 


... 


Moan rainiinuni 


07° 


72° 


72° 


71° 


Ga° 


67° 


03° 


5S° 


55° 


53° 


5a° 


01° 


... 



History. 

2. The Botanical Garden at Ganeshkhind was established 
in 1873 and attached to it was a smaller garden at Hivra in the 
Junnar taluka. The principal object of these gardens was to 
supply the Medical Department with drugs. 

In 1872-1873 the outturn of the garden included 700 lbs. of 
senna, 1,300 lbs. of henbane, and 1,036 lbs. of dandelion. 

In the same year experiments were made with various artifi- 
cial manures — nitro-phosphate, citrate, dissolved bones, nitrate of 
soda, hop manure and superphosphate. 

In 1873-1874 experiments were made with European artificial 
manures, but the result was not satisfactory. It was proved that 
silt from the drains of the Poona City is a valuable manure, at least 
equal for one year's crop to dung from oil-cnke-fed cattle. 

B 989—1 



Experiments were also being made in the cultivation of cork- 
oak trees, but they ultimately proved unsuccessful. Experiments 
were also made on the growth of fibre for paper. 

In 1874-1875 the area under tillage was 57 acres, 7 of which 
were watered » It was ascertained that prickly-pear made a 
valuable manure if it was left to rot in a cistern, through which 
the water of an irrigation channel was led. A fairly successful 
attempt was made to grow vanilla. Elax was also grown of fair 
quality, but of excessive dearness. 

In 1875-1876 the most important new introductions were 
Balsamocarpon h^evifoUum — a plant yielding pods useful in 
tanning, and the Liberian coffee. Cereal crops were raised with 
a view to selecting the seed. JH 

In 1876-1877 experiments in the production of tasar silk were 
continued. 

In 1877-1878 experiments were carried on with mahogany 
trees, the seed of which had been sent from Kew Gardens and 
planted in 1874. The trees could be established if well watered 
during the first two years. 

The blue gum tree {Eucalyptus globulus) was found to thrive 
well for 4 or 5 years and then to die off. Cinchona died in the 
hot season if planted out. Taraxacum was grown with success. 
The tasar silk experiments were not satisfactory. 

In 1878-1879 it was decided by Government that the Gardens 
should be constituted the recognized chief botanic* gardens of the 
Presidency, and that arrangements should be made for forming 
in them as complete a collection as possible of the local plants 
of Western India, a herbarium of which was to be kept perma- 
nently on the spot along with a selected library of diagrams and 
botanical works of reference. Botanical teaching was begun at 
the end of Eebruary 1879 by means of lectures at the Gardens 
and at the College of Science and Deccan College. 

Experiments witli ^^ankin cotton showed that it could not 
be profitably grown in the Deccan. 

In 1879-1880 a room was partially fitted as a herbarium. 

Experiments with the thornless prickly-pear, a favourite food, 
when skinned, for cattle, showed that it grows freely as a fence. 

The yield of the foraire grass {Euchlcena Juxurians) seemed 
nearly the same as that of Guinea grass, A crop sown in November 
and cut in April gave 16 tons per acre of green forage at one 



I 



'cutting. Experiments Avitli lucerno grass soemod to prove the 
8 French variety superior to the acclimatised. The plant was quite 

as vigorous, the stalk was more delicate and the seed was only 

half the weight. 

In 1880-1881 a numher of full grown specimens of AlUzzla 
procera, which had heen transplanted in the cold season o£ 1878- 
1879, showed satisfactory results. 

In 1881-1882 a mangosteen plant from Singapore died from 
cold in November. Potatoes received from the Secretary of 
State grew surj^risingly well. In May ' 1882 the oarob tree 
yielded a crop of fully SO pounds weight of pods, the greater part 
of which were equal in size to the imported pods. 

The herbarium building was altered and repaired and numer- 
ous specimens were added. 

Experiments were made in collecting the India rubber-yield- 
ing milky sap of the Cryptostegiagrandiflora,di.hQ2iuiiivlG\imh(^v. 
As the plants could not bear tapping more than twice a year, the 
yearly acre outturn would be 24 pounds of coutchouc. 

(Extract Gazetteer.) 

Season. 

3. The south-west monsoon was satisfactory and the cold 
weather fall was less than what is usually expected. An excess 
of rain fell in the hot weather, 3*31 inches being registered during 
the month of April. The total raiufall recorded in the gauge 
was 25*85 inches. 

Distribution of Soils. 

4. The river Mula forms the northern boundary of the Garden, 
and the plots lying on its bank — 7, 8, 9, 10, il, lower part of 15. 
and IG — are composed of a great depth of reddish alluvial loam 
deposited by the successive annual floods. This is an ideal soil 
for the growth of a great variety of trees and other plants many 
of which refused to grow on the black soil, A large quantity of 
this soil is also used for mixing in flower beds, and it is found 
that vegetables can only be successfully grown on black soil after 
a licavy admixture of this alluvium. The plot marked " Banana " 
on the right is very lo#-lying and is often deeply flooded. It is 
now utihzed for the growth of jute. Plots No. 14 and the upper 
parts of 15, 16 are of very inferior murum soil, and attempts are 
being made to use the worst patches for the cultivation of fodder 
grasses and fibre plants. The remainder of the Garden is inter- 



4 



from 2 feet upwards, 



mediate black soil, rangins^ in depth 
becoming deeper to the northward. 

Indigenous Trees and Shrubs. 

5. Specimen plants in Botanical Section No. 7 are doing 
well, with the exception of a certain number which are intolerant 
of drought, and these have been transferred to more suitable 
positions in the Garden. 

Rubber Experiments. 

6. Ceara, — The average increment in girth of the first set ol' 
trees planted in July 1903 is 1''27 inches and that of the second sot 
planted in August 1904!, 3 inches in the 12 months under report. 
The heights of these vary from about 15 feet to 30 feet. Tho 
following table shows the progressive increments : — 



First set 



Second set. 



Year. 



ITcidit. 



1901-1905 
1905-1906 
1906-1907 



] Ft. incbej 

,| 4 9 
I 5 2'5 



Girth. 



Inche?. 
2-75 
2'! 

1-27 



Height. 



Girth. 



Ft. 



Incbes. 
1-25 
2-5 
3 



In July a plot of about half an acre was selected and planted 
with 892 seedlicgs, 6 by 6 feet apart. These are making satisfactory 
progress without irrigation, and a glance at the plot would convince 
one regarding the irregularity of groAvth in height of tlie Ceara 
rubber plant in general. The plants here vary from 2 feet to 
8 feet in height and some of the best are equal in girth to 3-year 
old plants in plot No. 11. The majority of our plants have been 
transplanted into the plot and wo find that the check caused by 
this method retards growth in the plants for a considerable time. 
We find that by sowing filed seeds in situ no retardation of 
growth occurs in the first year and the plants are not so suscep- 
tible to drought. This is an important factor in the cultivation 
of Ceara in the Daccan, because in black soil it is exceedingly 
intolerant of long-continued moisture. During spells of cold nights 
the leading shoots often die; on recovering, the plants throw out 
forkc^d branches, thus marring their sy*mmetry. In order to 
arrive quickly at some definite conclusion regarding the advisa- 
bility or otherwise of extending the cultivation of Ceara in the 
Deccan and Karnatak we have distributed seeds to Agricultural 
Teachers in all Training Colleges and also to Head Masters of High 



Schools and to a few others interested in agricultural experiments 
who have promised to furnish periodical reports on the results 
attained by them. 

7, Ci'yptostegia grandijlora. — A sample of this rubber was 
forwarded to the Imperial Institute in order that its quality 
and commercial value should be ascertained. The report received 
runs as follows : — 

'* The sample weighed aboufc 13 ounces and consisted of a large porous lump 
of rubber which had been formed apparently by the aggregation of thin sheets 
and scrap. It was dark coloured, slightly sticky, and contained a considerable 
quanitity of vegetable and mineral impurities. The rubber exhibited very 
fair elasticity and tenacity. 

Results of examination, 

^' The rubber was examined in the Scientific and Technical Department of 
the Imperial Institute and found to have the following percentage composi- 
tion : — 

Moisture ... ... ... 3*6 

Caoutchouc (true rubber) ... ... 64*3 

Resin ... ... ... 101 

Albuminoid matter ... ... 7*9 

Insoluble matter (including ash) ... 14' 1 

Ash ... ... . ... 8-22 

'•' The percentages of resin and albuminoid matter are both -a little high, but 
the chief defect of the rubber is the presence of the large amount of insoluble 
matter consisting of vegetable and mineral impurities. The presence of 
mineral impurity points to the contamination of the rubber, possibly the scrap 
rubber present in the sample^ by contact with the soil, and precautions should 
be taken to avoid this in future, The percentage of caoutchouc is rather low, 
but this is chiefly due to the excessive amount of the impurities contained in 
the present sample. 

" Two specimens of the rubber of Cryptostegia grandiflora from India were 
examined at the Imperial Institute in 1903. A specimen forwarded by the 
Secretary of the Agri- Horticultural Society, Teynampett, Madras, was 
analysed and the dry material was found to contain 7*9 per cent, of resin and 
2*6 per cent, of insoluble impurity. A second sample from Jalaun, which was 
rather inferior in physical characters, contained 9 percent, of resin and 6*5 per 
cent, of: insoluble impurity. Both these specimens therefore contained less resin 
and insoluble impurity than the present sample from Bombay. The amount 
of resin in the rubber varies with the age of the plants, a large percentage being 
present in the product frcm young vines. 

Commercial valuation. 

'^ A sample of the rubber was submitted for valuation to brokers who 
reported that it was rather sticky and slightly heated and would be worth 
85, Qd, per pound in London at the present time. For comparison with this 



6 

valuation it raay be stated that the current value of fine bard Para from 
South America (the market standard for price) was bs. ^d. per pound. 

Conclnsions and recommendations. 

" The investi^-ation has shown that this sample of the rubber of Cr9/ptostegia 
grandiflora from Bombay is of very fair quality, and there is little doubt that 
the carefully prepared product would sell readily in the market at remunei*ativo 
prices. The elimination of the vegetable and mineral impurities would consi- 
derably improve the quality of the rubber. 

'' In view of the statement that lar^e supplies of this rubb^^r are available 
it is suggested that a trial consignment of one or two hundredweights should be 
prepared and forwarded to the Imperial Institute for sale in London so that 
its commercial value can be definitely ascertained." 

8. Gastilloa elastica. — After another year's experience and 
observation this plant has proved to be absolutely unsuitable for 
the Deccan and, in company with JECevea hrazlliemis, it is simply 
grown under shelter as a natural curiosity. 

9. The plants of Funtumia elastica referred to in last year's 
report under the synonym of Kickxia africana are in perfect 
health. Their growth is now remarkably slow and this is said to 
be a characteristic of the plant. Conflicting reports are published 
on the value of the rubber produced by this plant, but the general 
concensus of opinion in India seems to be that the plant is not 
worth growing, 

10. Ficiis elastica. — We have one young specimen, and the 
following interesting information was received from the Reporter 
on Economic Products to the Government of India, on a sample 
of rubber produced by the parent of this plant in the Empress 
Gardens, which is approximately 20 years old. It is gratifying 
to hear that this Assam rubber plant, which would thrive 
admirably in the Konkan near rivers, produces a rubber more 
valuable than that collected in its native country. 

'' Here are some figures of the proportion of resin to caoutchouc in the 
latex of Ficm eladica grown in Java : — 



Soebang, 


35 years old 


Buitenzorg, 


15 


)} 


10 „ 


Tjiandjoer, 


„ 


Tjipetir, 


^> .> 


Blitar, 


6 „ 


i) 


12 „ 



Resin. 


Caoutchouc 


4-9 


95-1 


8-3 


91-7 


6-.X 


93-9 


8-9 


911 


9^3 


90-7 


20-9 


79-1 


13-1 


86-9 



Liiigasaiiaj 


7(?) 


years old 


» 


12(?) 


55 


Moga, 


8 


if 


if 


12 


if 


Simpar, 


9 


>t 




12 
13 


91 



Resui. 


Caoutcho 


... 5-9 


94-1 


... 5-3 


9i-7 


... 13-1 


86-9 


... 11-5 


88-5 


. 170 


880 


... 13-0 


87-0 


... 12-4 


87'(5 



'• These places are arjaiiged in inereaslDg' altitude above sea level : the author 
ihowing by them that altitude increases the resin, but you see from them how 
lo-e decreases it. 

" I am trying to get materials for working this out in India. 

-^ 

"Your rubber contains much less resin than the trees of the Government 
plantation of Assam. ^' 

11. The following rubber samples were collected and are 
exhibited in the Garden Museum : — 

Manihot Glaziovii (Ceara rubber). 

Hevea braziliensis (Para rubber). 

Castilloa elastica (Central American rubber). 

Crypfcostegia grandiflora. 

Ficus elastica (India rubber). 

Fibre Experiments. 

12. J2tte. — This was tried on two plots — the first situated on 
ligh ground and heavily manured with poudrette and the other 
n low unmanured ground inundated twice during the con- 
inuance of the crop. The seed was received from the Director 
f Agriculture, Bengal, and the cultivation and extraction of the 
ibre was conducted under the advice of a Mahomeden jute 
ixpert cultivator from Bengal. The results of the trial are given 
Q the table below. Early sowing was considered an important 
actor in the cultivation of the crop and the current year's experi- 
lents are arranged accordingly. No final opinion can of course 
•e arrived at through one year's experience but the trial seemed 
mrthy of repetition. A preliminary note on the cultivation 
f jute was drawn up from instructions given and carried by the 
Xpert and embodying the experience ol its cultivation at the 
*oona, MciQJri, Bassein and Lanowli Stations and subsequently 
orrected by Mr. Einlow, Jute Expert to the Government of 
!]astern Bengal and Assam, and is placed on record for future 
uidance. It is given below : — 

Note on the cultivation of Jute in the Beccaii. 

Soil and situation, — The medium black soil of the Deocan on moderately 
igh ground is excellent ; that at the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardnes is 



8 

typical. The alluvial (red) soil formed of the debris washed from the western 
hill ranges is also suitable Sandy soils of Bassein and its vicinity are also 
good, provided they are on high level ground. Small stones lying about on 
the surface will not be harmful and even stones of the size of an ordinary 
lemon will not matter at all. In all cases level ground so situated as to 
ensure good drainage should always be selected. [Climatic influences have 
also to be taken into account, — R. S. F.] 

Preparation and manuring, — The land should be well ploughed and 
cross-ploughed in Fdlgun (February-March) and the weeds, rubbish, hiinda, 
etc., collected and destroyed. It should be left open to atmospheric influences 
for about 20 to 30 days and in Chaitra (March- April) it should be dressed with 
manure. Any ordinary manure such as stable refuse, farm-yard manure, will 
do. Poudretta is very good. Costly manures such as oil-cakes are not needed. 
It should be broad-casted into the furrows made by the ploughings. The 
field should then be levelled and covered over by means of a light maind 
or sarmr. The quantity of manure required for any soil would depend 
upon its suitability for jute. Best soils require one cart-load per higha 
(25,312 square feet, a little more than half an acre). About 6 cart-loads per 
acre are absolutely necessary for inferior soils. [I think many soils would 
require more manure than this. Five tons per acre of farm-yard manure is 
common. — R. S. F.] A large quantity is said to kill the young jute seedlings 
by its ^* souring '' effect.- [This may hold as regards the Deccan. It is not 
quite correct with reference to Bengal. — R. S. F.] It is absolutely necessarj'' 
to manure every land, however superior it may happen to be, for no jute will 
prosper even in the best lands without a dressing of manure. As a rotation j 
crop to sugar-cane fields it wUl answer well, provided it be manured. 

Sowing, — In the month of Vaishdkh (April-May) the land should be 
irrigated thoroughly. In about 4 or 5 days thereafter, the land will have 
become sufficiently dry to allow of the working the harrow or a light dantal 
with which furrows should be made length- ways and cross- ways. The surfac 
soil at this time should be such that, if crushed between the fingers, it should 
not stick to them. The furrows made by the implements in use here (pdbhar, 
etc.) are at a distance of 9 inches. The Bengal implement used for this purpose 
makes small furrows at a distance of about 2 inches. In the absence of similar 
implements the necessity of cross-furrows with such as are locally available is 
evident in order to secure an even distribution of seeds. The seed is broad- 
casted in those furrows and then covered over by running th3 kulav or a 
light leveller. The seed rate is 2J seers per acre, [6-9 lbs. per acre is tht 
normal rate. Early sowing is a powerful factor in determining the sucjcjss o\ 
a crop. Experimental crops in Behdr sown in July have not been a suecesj 
but those sown in March and even as late as May have. Obviously the tini: 
of sowing depends on rainfall or irrigation. — R. S. F.] 

Weeding and thinning, — The seed will germinats in 3 or 4 days. Ii 
about a month the seedlings will grow 10-1 1. inches high. The field shoul( 
now be weeded and seedlings thinned out. Only the overcrowded plant 
should be removed, leaving a space of about 1-1 J inches round cacl 
plant. Blanks may now be filled by transplanting from the thicker an« 
crowded portion. At this time the land may be irrigated if deemed necessary/ j 
Generally plants, 9 inches high and above, do not require much watering a 



9 

they are then capable of obtaining it by their roots. Another thinning when 
about 3 feet high is needed, and with it weeding should also be done. This 
time the plants should be thinned 3 inches clear, which provides space to grow 
to a girth of 4 inches or more. If at this time the soil is cracked, or seems to 
want watering, the field may be irrigated. By AshMh (June-July) they 
will be upto 13-15 feet. [I think weeding and thinning operations are of 
great importance. I think the distance between any two plants should not be 
less than 3-4 inches and the final thinning should be done when the plants are 
less than 3 feet high. Rather less than 1 foot would be better. I believe 
that early thinning is a considerable advantage. — R, S. F.] 

Flooding;. — Jute seedlings will not stand flooding when young and will 
certainly die if covered by water. When they grow up to about 5 feet high 
no harm will be caused by floods which usually soon abate. If the land 
selected is likely to be flooded, sowing should be put off till the chance of 
inundation is over. [If the plant has reached 5 feet before the flood it will 
probably not come to harm if it is inundated even though the water remains 
some time. The fibre becomes coarse in the latter case. — R. S. F.] 

Flowering, — The jute flowers in Shrdvan (July- August). It flowers 
simultaneously at this time in all localities. If the sowings are late the plants 
will still flower in Shr^van. Hence it is advisable to obtain the best possible 
development of bark tissue before the flowering season by sowing in good 
time. 

Cutting. — The plants are ready to cut for fibre when just about to flower. 
[The Burdw^n results indicate that a better yield of excellent fibre is obtained 
by cutting the plant when the fruits are just set. This also may be tried. — 
R. S. F.] They should be cut close to the ground by means of a 
sickle which has small teeth in the bend. The plants should on no account 
be pulled cue ; thereby the outer skin of the root interferes with the bark at 
the time of the latter^s removal. The sticks should now be tied into small 
sheaves or bundles, which should be immediately put in standing water. In 
no case should the bundles be left to dry or neglected before putting in water. 

Betting, — After about one week a trial test should be made to ascertain 
whether the bark is ready for removal. For this one stick should be taken out 
and held between the thumb and the next two fingers and tightly drawn 
between them from top to bottom ; this removes all the cellular matter which 
may have undergone complete putrefication. The thick or lower end of the 
stalk should now be held in the left hand and attempt should be made to loosen 
the bark at the tip ; if it has become sufficiently retted, it will come off very 
easily. This should now be stripped off by a small jerk or pull. It should 

oj} now be stirred or waved in water, by which the undesirable constituents are 
washed away, leaving the fibre alone. If the bark is found soft and the fibre 
easily washed clear and is wliite and shining, then the whole lot may be considered 
ready to undergo the same treatment. If not, they should be lef-t another day 
or two and again tested as before. Every day tests should be taken till it 
seems ready. Usually the bundles are ready for manipulation in from 8 to 14 
days. Oversteeping weakens the fibre, which crumbles to pieces, and under- 

aii^ steeping causes it to become hard and dark ; so the utmost attention should be 
maintained on the retting process and every day tests should be made. [In 

B 9S9— 2 



10 

many eases the sticks are allowed to lie in such a way on the ground after 
cutting that while the leafy tops are exposed most of the stem is hidden. 
In this way the leaves are and can be shaken off; the upper branched portion 
of the stem is then cut away and the plant is immersed. They remain 
thus until the retting process has commenced in the lower portion after which 
the plants are completely immersed. In this way there is even retting 
throughout the plant ; if the practice is not carried out the softer upper 
portion of the plant is often overretted by the time the lower portion is 
finished.— R. S. F.] 

Extracting fibre. — All the fibre is extracted and washed in the manner 
described for the test sticks. The bark on separating from the wood should 
never be beaten wifh a wooden mallet, as is done for the ambddi (Hibiscus 
eannabinns) fibre. That spoils the jute fibre. It should only be stirred and 
washed in water to extricate all the intervening cellular matter. 

Drying, — The wet fibre should be hung on horizontal lengths of bamboos 
in the open air for drying. The knots of these bamboos must have been made 
smooth. The fibre should not be hung on a string. The bamboo admits of 
spreading of the fibres at the points of suspensions, which facilitates 
thorough drying, while on the string the fibres are apt to collect into 
groups whicli retard drying 'and blacken the fibre. J 

Crop on rainfall alone, — Jute can also be grown successfully without 
irrigation, provided the ante-monsoon rains in the earlier part of May soak the 
soil well after it has been made ready, manured, etc., in the manner described 
above. Soon after the seeds should be sown. Subsequent rains in a normal 
season do generally fall at the proper times and the crop becomes a success. 
Indeed, it was grown this year in the Ganeshkhind Gardens without irrigation 
and the showers came on when it was just arranged to irrigate the field, the 
plants being then about 4 feet high. 

Varieties of jute. — The following are varieties of jute : — 

Dhavla Sunder ... The stalks of this are white. 

Kajali ... The stalks are red. 

Hatia ... Stalks are brownish green. 

Bidda Sunder ... Stalks and leaves are red. 

The white-stalked variety is considered to yield the best fibre. [Opinion 
differ widely about this in different districts. — R. S. F.] 

The peculiarity of the jute plant seems to be that its full 
flowering period commences in August irrespective of the date of 
sowing so that to insure a chance of a crop of full height, sowing 
must be accomplished by the middle of April at the latest. This 
implies the necessity of irrigation until the setting in of the south 
west monsoon. In spite of a considerable fall of rain in the present 
season three supplies of irrigation water were also necessary. 
Corchorus capsularis, which is probably the true jute plant, grows 
normally. Eut Corchorus olitorius which is a common wild 
plant in the Deccan reverts to its unsatisfactory branched and 
stunted habit. In procuring the seed for future experiments 



i 



11 



from Bengal it should bo distinctly specified that the seeds of 
C. capaularis only are required. 

Other fibres tried in comparison are denoted below : — 



Plant. 


Area of 
experi- 
ment. 


Stalka. 


Weight 
of dry 
fibre. 


Percent- 

fibre to 
stalks. 


Outturn 
of fibre 
per acre. 


Value per 
acre. 


Remarks. 


Jute (Corchorua cap- 
Sularis)-' 

Upper plot 


Gunthas. 
2-3 


Lbs. 
1,427 


Lbs. 
35 


Lbs. 
2-45 


Lbs. 

009 


Rs. 76 @ 
Bs. 10-4-0 
per Bengal 
maund. 




Lower plot 


5»5 


1.029 


31 


31 


208 


Us. 20 @ Rs. 
8 per mauud. 




Sesbaniaaculeata 


•*' 


S27 


7 


2 


" 


"'•" 


Stray plants collected. 
Messrs. Ralli Bro- 
thers say that it lacks 
strength and is un- 
suitable for spinning 
and rope-making. 


Hibiscus (Sp.) 


•- 


64 


4 


6-2 


... 





Stalks which had 
seeded were taken. 



13. Bamie fibre. — Eurther experiments with this confirm the 
conclusion that the soil of the Deocan is unsuitable for this plant 
which requires more evenly distributed rainfall and lighter 
soil than we have in the west. The soil is probably most in fault 
because plants grown in pots in prepared compost thrive fairly 
well. Careful irrigation of the plants in the open is useless. 

14. Sisal Hemp, — In the ordinary course this plantation 
in Plot No. 16 ought to have commenced to pole last year, ^ew 
of the plants show signs even of ordinary vigour, the leaves of 
most are curled and dry at the tips. This condition is probably 
due to the rank growth of grass around them. All our experi- 
ments go to prove that this fibre plant requires as good cultivation 
as any other crop if it has to yield a profit. Plants growing under 
the shelter of babul trees are distinctly superior. 

15. Agave, — Last year half-acre plots of the following were 
put out with the idea of ultimately arriving at the approximate 
outturn of fibre by area : — 

Agave Wightii. 
Agave Cantala. 
Agave Vera-cruz. 
Agave Sisalana, 
Furcrsea gigantea. 



12 



16. Malachra capitata, — This plant, which grows so well 
round Bombay during the rains, has after two years' trial been 
found unsuitable for cultivation in the Deccaa owing to its low 
habit induced by the lighter rainfall. 



and branching 



17. 

museum : — 



The following local fibres are now exhibited in the 



Agave Cantala. 
Agave Sisalana. 
Agave Vera-cruz. 
Yucca gloriosa. 
Malachra capitata. 
Hibiscus panduriformis. 
Corchorus capsularis (jute). 



Agave Wightii. 

Furcrsea gigantea. 

Sanseveira zeylaciea. 

Musa textilis (Manilla hemp). 

Hibiscus sp. 

Sesbania segyptiaca. 



18. Cotton. — Special investigations in the botany of the 
cotton have been continued. A set of seeds to be grown for iden- 
tification were received from the Inspector-General of Agriculture, 
in India, and a long series of seeds of botanical and commercial 
varieties of cottons cultivated in America were received for trial 
and identification from Mr. F. J. Tyler of the* Bureau of Plant 
Industry, United States Department of Agriculture. Owing to 
the satisfactory rainfall during the year under report the whole 
of the cotton sample plots were not irrigated. A commencement 
was made this year in the estimation of the average yield per 
plant of every variety grown, and the first results obtained in this 
line of enquiry are detailed in the following table: — 



o 




-2 

2 


^1 


§ 


•s 




1 


•R 


1 


■si 


Name. 




1? 

hi 


It 


1. 
a 


Name. 


09 

I! 


1§ 


8 

•s 


1* 




1-^ 


1*- 


.1° 


|5 






|St 


ii 








Tol 8. 








Tolas 




61 


Bagar Siah 


16 


0-75 


30-0 


74 


Laiio 


17 


1-07 


26-6 


62 


.. Safed 


10 


1-8 


33-8 


76 


Kdnvi 


22 


1-8 


30 7 


63 


., Siah 


11 


1-3 


33-3 


76 


Jowiir Haiti 


16 


1*4 


33-3 


64 


.. Safed 


11 


2-3 


33-3 


78 


Mungari 


26 


0-8 


33 3 


66 


„ Siah 


10 


03 


33-3 


79 


Northerns 


21 


2-8 


33 vi 


66 


„ Safed 


11 


2-4 


33'8 


80 


Prodatur 


27 


0-6 


33-3 


67 


Deehi, MultAn 


17 


1-3 


33-3 


93 


Haldia 


15 


0-5 


33-.S 


69 


Eagar Siah 


19 


0'7 


33»3 


94 


Bani 


12 


1-5 


33-,! 


69 


„ Safed 


9 


0-8 


83-:j 


95 


DhArwAr, Niinar 


11 


I'S 


33;{ 


70 


Lilio 


16 


5-3 


812 


r6 


Tiflania 


12 


0-8 


2ft 


72 


Broach 


18 


18 


8S*i 


{•7 


Oaiigri 


14 


1-6 


33 .) 



13 



I 


Name. 


2 
1 


1% 

2 a 


li 

1- 


1 

CI 

128 


Name. 


1 
ll 

S5^ 


ll 

111 


a 


I 
1° 


98 


Cawnpnr indigenous 


14 


Tolas. 
1-07 


33 3 


Deshi, Lahore 


17 


Tolas. 
0-5 


25 


99 


Chanda, Cold Weather 


8 


2'3 


33-3 


129 


Hissar ... 


15 


11 


28-6 


100 


Yerapatti ... .« ... 


15 


01 


S3'3 


130 


Deshi Lyallpur 


19 


1-7 


33-3 


101 


Narma 


9 


208 


33-3 


131 


DharwJlr Dewas 


18 


2-5 


33-3 


102 


Deshi, Dehra GSzikhau 


13 


0-9 


33-3 


132 


Deshi JhAnsi 


2 


1'2 


25-0 


103 


„ Ludhiana 


9 


1-6 


33-3 


133 


Kiipshi ., ... 


12 


2-2 


c6-3 


104 


„ Rawalpindi 


13 


1-4 


33-3 


134 


Barrueca 


23 


2-2 


33-3 


106 


Sutra, Mnltan 


22 


1-1 


33 3 


136 


Deshi. Sadadabad 


5 


1-5 


33*3 


106 


Majha „ 


18 


0-8 


33-3 


137 


Kadir 


8 


0-6 


25-0 


1C7 


Deshi, Lahore .« 


12 


0-9 


33-3 


138 


Deshi, UmbjiUa 


23 


0-4 


33-3 


108 


„ Hissar 


10 


0-7 


33-3 


139 


Abaspur 


6 


0-5 


250 


109 


„ Lyallpur 


14 


107 


33-3 


140 


Deshi, Aligarh 


15 


01 


33*3 


110 


„ Malvi 


19 


0-7 


33-3 


141 


Jalna 


13 


8 


33-3 


111 


Wona * ... 


10 


1-0 


25-0 


142 


Deshi, Meerut 


6 


0-6 


333 


112 


Deshi. MdM ..; 


7 


1-4 


25-0 


143 


Wan ... ... 


7 


1-06 


33-3 


113 


Baua 


17 


0-4 


33 


144 


Marwari No. 3 


2 


1-2 


250 


114 


Bani 


11 


0.7 


28 5 


145 


Deshi M&lvi No. 1 


22 


0'4 


25'0 


115 


Nimari ... .^ 


21 


0-7 


28-2 


146 


)i ,* No. 2 


6 


1*8 


33-3 


116 


Rajgar 


9 


0'9 


38-4 


147 


„ Mohilabad 


9 


11 


33' 3 


117 


Safed Kapjts 


12 


1*5 


333 


148 


,) Bunurally 


6 


1-2 


33-3 


118 


Malvi or Baui 


15 


1-02 


33-3 


150 


„ Kulpahar 


6 


1*6 


37-5 


119 


Bani 


11 


0-5 


30-0 


151 


„ Modha 


7 


0-6 


250 


120 


Thigalia 


15 


0-6 


312 


152 


„ Paharpur 


12 


104 


80-0 


1-21 


Dcshi 


6 


10 


25 


153 


„ Islamnagar ... 


11 


0'9 


26'0 


121a 


Deshi cotton 


23 


0-3 


28-5 


154 


„ Bhjidarpur 


12 


1-04 


40-0 


nib 


Laeing -iugungba 


14 


0-8 


33-3 


155 


„ Muradabad 


18 


2-8 


36'5 


121c 


Khilgivi cotton 


18 


0-8 


33-3 


i:6 


Tiffania 


14 


80 


30X) 


12!rf 


Mirpurkhcis 


12 


02 


250 


157 


Deshi, BareiUy 


12 


15 


33-3 


121« 


Nujingyan 


14 


0-5 


33-3 


159 


„ Babasona 


4 


09 


33-3 


121/ 


B&rsi 


6 


0-6 


33 3 


160 


„ Radhia 


12 


1-2 


33-3 


121</ 


Deshi 


17 


0-8 


33-3 


161 


1. Unao 


6 


1-2 


33 3 


122 


Tiffania 


13 


0«8 


33'3 


161a 


BhogiKapah 


. 15 


10 


33-3 


123 


Mr. Mollisou'8 Bani 


12 


1-6 


37 5 


162 


Pdnipat 


1 


2-5 


260 


124 


Narma ... 


4 


1-2 


250 


163 


Kapah 


8 


0-9 


333 


125 


Deshi, Dehra Gazikhan 


8 


28 


33*3 


161 


Deshi Perozpur 


10 


V3 


33.3 


126 


Ludhiana 


20 


1-6 


333 


166 


„ Jalandar 


16 


1-1 


333 


127 


„ Majha ... 


16 


2.7 


34-2 


167 


Kathiapak ... ... 


20 


15 


33 3 



14 



§:5 



168 
168 

170 

171 

172 

173 

174 

175 

176 

177 

178 

180 

181 

182 

183 

184 

186 

187 

188 

188o 

189 

101 

192 

193 

194 

195 

196 

197 

198 

200 

201 

201a 

2016 

2()lc 

202 

204 

205 



Deshi, Sialkot 

Worr-kapah 

Sindhi Cotton No. I 

„ „ No. 2 

„ „ Kapro 

Pithro 

„ .. Upper Sind 

Frontier. 
MArwdri No. 1 

„ No. 2 

Deshi Unite d Provinces 

„ Allahabad 

„ Rahalpur 

„ Cawnpore 

„ called Kapas 

„ ShiKljpur 

LfUfikra ••• ••• •*■ 

Hirwani 

Mathio ... 

Berkley, Ealli Brotiiers 

Deshi, Umbaia 

Khnmra 

Bhurila ... .m ... 

BanwJlla... •• 

Braisa soft lint 

„ coarse lint 

Haldia 

Wotha 

Ndgpur Yellow 

Chinto white 

Khong ... 

Deshi Saim 

Kapas, Jowai 

Ohimpti KMki 

Kulthang 

Lasingangaba 

Bung 

Wapya 



1 

p 


lit 




•5 

i. 
it 


17 


Tolas. 
0-8 


33 3 


208 


10 


33 


33-3 


209 


18 


2*4 


33'3 


210 


17 


0-2 


33-3 


211 


12 


1-2 


33 3 


212 


11 


1-7 


333 


213 


12 


2-5 


33 3 


214 


13 


23 


33 3 


215 


12 


2-1 


33*3 


216 


9 


2-9 


33-3 


217 


5 


10 


25-0 


219 


11 


1-02 


33-3 


220 


16 


1'4 


S3-3 


221 


10 


22 


33-3 


222 


8 


2-3 


33-3 


223 


15 


20 


33-3 


225 


10 


1-8 


33-3 


227 


24 


1-4 


33 3 


228 


22 


1-2 


333 


229 


23 


2-4 


33-3 


230 


29 


1-2 


33-3 


231 


18 


1-04 


33-3 


232 


22 


2-7 


333 


233 


16 


1-4 


33-3 


234 


20 


0-5 


31-2 


235 


26 


1-2 


33-3 


236 


10 


1-1 


33-3 


237 


23 


2-3 


44-4 


233 


21 


07 


34-5 


239 


15 


2*0 


33-3 


240 


9 


11 


29 4 


241 


22 


1*3 


33-3 


242 


3 


10-0 


33 3 


243 


14 


2*4 


33*3 


241 


7 


21 


33*3 


245 


20 


3-2 


307 


246 


15 


1-7 


33-3 


317 




Wapya 

Wa-gale 

Maudalay 

Shan 

White cotton, Langan 

„ Mynima 
Wa-gale, Notogyir ... 

Burma cotton 

„ Mandalay 

Wa-pya 

Wa-pya 

Wa-bya 

Wani 

Wa-bya 

„ Myingyan ... 

Eokati 

Lasinganganba 
Khaki, Shewbo 

Pini 

Kh^i, Langan 

„ Pank Division 
„ Mynima 
Wani, Allanmyo ... 

„ Moniva 

„ Budalin 

„ Zimbavim 

„ Mynigyan ... 

Kiti 

Deshi, UmbSJla 

Narma ... 

Abaspur , 

Deshi Aligarh ... .» 

w cUUck ••• tff ff« 

Achena 

Mccrat, Deshi ... 

Waradi 

Jari 



IS 

11 


1 

lit 


9 


Tohs. 
63 


11 


3-7 


26 


21 


23 


0*9 


17 


2*9 


16 


2-3 


20 


2-4 


11 


1-5 


18 


1-8 


10 


2-2 


22 


11 


12 


2-6 


13 


5-1 


19 


1-3 


25 


1-5 


9 


1'6 


23 


2-7 


13 


2-8 


24 


2-8 


13 


2-5 


23 


2-4 


15 


27 


19 


1*3 


19 


1-9 


10 


1-8 


9 


1-6 


1 


60 


9 


2-08 


21 


1-0 


13 


0-9 


15 


I'O 


14 


107 


17 


1-5 


15 


0-6 


19 


2 7 


21 


1-9 


23 


16 



15 



h 

H 


Name. 


r 

11 

1' 


= 1 

111 


fi 

1- 


■s ■ 

1 

if 


Name. 


1 


Is 

ill 


§ 
1 

h 








Tolas. 








Tolas. 




m 


Kupra 


20 


1-8 


33-3 


283 


Assam No. 3 


21 


17 


333 


249 


Deshi 


18 


1*6 


33 3 


284 


Kar 


27 


2-9 


347 


250 


Sindhi cotton ... 


18 


1-3 


33-3 


285 


Chapti Kapah 


10 


1-5 


33-3 


251 


Bednore 


15 


1-2 


33 3 


286 


Deshi Jutri 


16 


1-4 


33-3 


252 


Deshi Muttra 


19 


1*5 


333 


287 


Assam No. 22 


21 


•07 


33*3 


253 


„ Allahabad 


13 


2-01 


33 3 


288 


Comilla KhAki 


15 


1-0 


33-3 


254 


„ Garaikran 


20 


1-8 


33'3 


289 


„ Siud 


25 


11 


36'6 


255 


„ Aligarh 


18 


0-8 


33 3 


290 


Dhowna 


16 


1-6 


33-3 


256 


Tiphakia 


10 


1-1 


33-3 


291 


Kjithi 


15 


1*5 


33-3 


25S 


Chompakia 


9 


1-6 


33-3 


292 


Assam No. 21. 


22 


r3 


33-3 


259 


Deshi, Bakim 


27 


1-6 


33-3 


293 


Foreiga No. 4 


17 


13 


33-3 


26;) 


Kulpahar 


18 


208 


33-3 


293i 


Kheltan 


24 


1-2 


33-3 


261 


Deshi, Bhelo 


17 


1-7 


33*3 


293c 


Chimti 


15 


30 


33-3 


261 o 


Mr. Mollison's Jari type ... 


24 


14 


33-3 


293i 


Kil 


19 


2*3 


33'3 


2616 


Barsi 


9 


1-6 


33-3 


2me 


Mii-purkhsia 


13 


2-4 


33-3 


262 


Hirawani ••• 


21 


1'2 


33-3 


293/ 


Burma cotton 


11 


1-2 


33-3 


263 


Mathio 


19 


11 


33-3 


294 


Dhdrwar-American 


27 


1-6 


33 3 


' 264 


MothoMathio 


23 


1*1 


33-3 


295 


Upland ... 


26 


2-5 


30-4 


205 


White cotton 


20 


1-1 


33-3 


299 


Jethia 


25 


2*4 


333 


267 


Deshi, Hardee 


28 


0-8 


33-3 


304 


Manchan 


16 


2-5 


3V3 


268 


Khonko 


27 


0-9 


333 


307a 


Barsi, -American 


18 


11 


35'6 


269 


„ Akao 


22 


1-2 


333 


308 


Khaki, Lyallpnr 


14 


2-5 


28-5 


270 


SoruKapah 


24 


1-4 


33-3 


309 


„ Sujabad 


21 


1-6 


268 


271 


BarKapah 


11 


16 


33 3 


310 


Hujardasta 


20 


3-4 


297 


272 


Khunsa 


24 


1-4 


33-3 


312 


Jogya 


17 


2-2 


30-0 


273 


Bhung 


14 


1*8 


33 3 


313 


Narma 


17 


32 


27-2 


274 


Kil 


17 


13 


333 


314 


PiliKapaa 


16 


1-8 


37-5 


275 


Nagpor white ... 


11 


2-04 


33-3 


315 


Manwa Khiki 


2^ 


2-8 


28-6 


276 


„ creamy white 


12 


2-8 


33*3 


316 


Brown cotton 


32 


1-9 


32"0 


277 


Comilla ,„ ..* 


6 


27 


333 


317 


Vilayti, Jhaasi ... ... ... 


21 


3-3 


357 


278 


.. Sind 


10 


3 


33 3 


318 


Rani Peela 


9 


4-1 


333 


279 


Chapti Kapah 


13 


31 


33-3 


319 


Narma Khaki 


18 


5*6 


30-0 


280 


Dhawria 


14 


3*6 


365 


320 


VUayti hrown 


19 


2-5 


33-3 


281 


Khilgiri 


9 


3-3 


33'3 


321 


„ white 


19 


2*1 


34-3 


282 


Kil ... ^ ... 


12 


0-7 


250 













16 

19. The results of the special varieties of cotton that are 
being experimented with are given below. ^ 

Bourbon. — American Cotton No. 2. — A small plot was planted 
in July 1905, the plants standing 8 feet apart. The plot is not 
irrigated but is sheltered from prevailing winds by a belt of trees. 
During the first year the plants did not boll. In 1906 they 
started boiling in ' October and continued till the end of 
May. 

Kidney cotton^ — American Cotton No. 4. — This was planted 
at the same time as and in a plot adjoining that of Bourbon. A 
numl)er suffered from lack of sufficient humidity in the atmosphere 
in the cold weather. Some, which were sheltered towards the 
west, survived and flowered in 1906, but the number of bolls was 
low. We are disposed to believe that this variety is not promising 
and its requirements of perfect shelter is difficult to satisfy in a 
treeless country like the Deccan. 

Soft Peruvian. — American Cotton No. 1. — This was also 
planted in July 1906. During the first season the plants made fairly 
rapid vegetative growth and some of them were distinctly inclin- 
ed to form bolls also. In 1906 they flowered and boiled quite satis- 
factorily. This tree cotton answers to the definition of a tree 
more nearly than any of the four species we have at present. 
Some stems attain a girth of 14 inches in one year. 

Dhdrwdr- American. — This was tried as an inter-crop between 
the lines of oranges in order to suppress the weeds as far as possible. 
Two separate lines of this cotton planted in July 1905 were 
retained to see whether they would yield well for another season. 
These yielded very meagrely the first year, but the results in the, 
second season showed a great improvement in yield. ijfl 

Pertivian cotton, — American Cotton No. 3.— Plants put out 
in 1905 have not yet flowered. They are grown without irriga- 
tion. 

Dhdrwdr- American and Ohogdri cotton. — One quarter acre 
was sown along with other annuals to ascertain the yield by 
area. 

Spence cotton. — These were planted in Pebruary 1907 and 
are under observation. In the Deccan soil these are not distin- 
guishable from Bourbon. 



17 

Prom the following valuation receiyod from Messrs. Tata & 
DBS, Bombay, it is very satisfactory to learn that Bourbon and 
►ft Peruvian, which we consider the varieties of American tree 
)ttons most suitable for introduction into the Deccan, have been 
jported on so favourably. The valuation is based on the quota- 
ons ruling on 20th May 1907. 

^^ Boitrhon cotton. — The sample shows too many yellow stains and is very 
tedy. The class of the cotton is not satitfactory, but the staple is long and 
Iky and the fibre shows much strength. We value it at Rs. 270 per Jchandy 
*84 lbs.). 

^' Dhdnodr and Ghogdri cotton. — It is seedy, dirty and stained_, and we 
m place it in the lowest class, viz.^ * good ' (fine, fully good and good). The 
;aple is mixed and irregular. Price Ks. 165 per khandy. 

*' Gossypium neglectutriy No, i(S5C— It is stained and can be classed as 
fully good.-* The feel is soft and silky and the staple is good. Price 
ts, 240 per hhandy, 

*' Bkdrtodr- American. — Stained and seedy and can be classed as ' good 
lir ' (good, fully good fair, good fair aad fair). The cotton is silky and of 
cod staple. We value it at Rs. 260 per khandy. 

*' We may add that the seeds are removable by proper ginning and the 
tains by judicious pickinj*. By removing these two defects you will enhance 
he value of the cotton about 5 per cent. 

'^ Bourbon cotton {J^dk^BQvcL sample).— The sample is Kap^s (cotton with 
eed) and not pure cotton. If properly ginned so as to remove all stains, 
eed§ and unripe fibres, the cotton may fetch about Rs. 290 per khandy of 
S4 lbs. The fibre is very strong, colour creamy white and feel soft and siiky. 
Che cotton is good for spinning 403. 

" Soft Peruvian, — Very long-stapled, white, nice cotton, but fibre very 
veak. Good for spinning higher counts in combination With other varieties 
laving strong fibre, of which it would be advisable to make a mixing. Feel 
•ather harsh, value today (5th July 1907) about 8^. per pound.'^ 

Below are tabulated the results of these special varieties of 
oottons :— 



E 889—8 



18 





1 

u 

s 


Market quotation for Broach 
fine of the tame date was 
Rs. 274. 


A Bassein sample from the 
same seed was valued at 
Rs. 290. 

The best Broach on this day 
was quoted at Rs. 272, 
Westerns Rs. 249, Dhirwar, 
Rs. 235. 

Saw ginned Dhirwir is quoted 

at Rs. 251. 
Last year the same two lines 

yielded 3 lbs. of cotton. 




This is classed as "fully good." 
Similarly classad Broach was 
quoted the same day at 
Rs. 269, Niigpur Rs. 222, 
Yeotmal Rs. 210, Dhiman- 
gaum Rs. 203, Bhivnagar 
Rs. 220, Westerns Rs. 248, 
B^galkot Rs. 242. 


Market 
valuation 

from 
Messrs. 
Tata& 

Sons. 


Rs. per 
khandy of 
784 lbs. 
270 


e<i io o 

Oi CD »0 
CO 1-1 <M 

: 


: 


o 

1 


Percentage 
of lint 
to seed. 




*^ (M (M CO 

«^ do lb W 

<N CO CO 


CO 


= 11 


i 

s 

1 


i 
■z 


lbs, 
. 166-2 


eo -^ o 

i, CD ** 


• 






1 - 


154-2 

184 
38 
... 


: 


CO 


Yield of 
seed cotton 
per plane. 


1 ■== 


qp OJ 

OV CD 

• • 


5^ 




Total 

yield of 

seedcottcn 


U5 

1 ^ 


W «o S eo 


• 


ox 

CO 


Number - 
of plants 
experi- 
mented. • 


S 


^ g 




: 


Area of 
experi- 
ment. 




2-5 

10 

1 2-5 
••• 


•• 


tH 

o 




Name of variety. 


1 

1 


Soft Peruvian 

Dhirwar- American -f- Gho- 

DhArwir-American, first 

season's plants. 
Dh4rw4r- American, second 

season's plants. 


^-1 

i 
i 

1 


i 

i 

6 



PP 20. The following table gives the measurements of girth and 
'height of the plants : — 



19 



Camphor (Cinnamomum Camphora). 



Situation of the plant. 


Planted in 


Height. 


Girth. 


Remarks. 






Ft. in. 


Icclies. 




Planted iu No. 10 


1903 


3 2 


1-5 


V 

1 


Planted in No. 7 


1904 


2 8 


35 


[Girth— one inch from 
j ground. 


Near office 


1906 


6 


2-5 


^ 



The plant near the office is sheltered and partially shaded by 
a Duranta tree on the west but open on the remaining sides, and 
receives an almost regular supply of water from a waste channel. 
This plant is very bushy and seems full of vigour. 

I have hopes that the camphor plant will thrive well, treated 
as a hedge under irrigation, and experiments are being undertaken 
with that view. As the plants we have can be propagated only 
by layers their numbers are increased very slowly. 

Fruit Plantations. 

21. Mangoes, — For many years the lack of produce from the 
great number of mango trees established in this Garden has been 
a disappointing feature. After a long series of observations, 
carried over some years, it was decided that the trees were held in 
perpetual check by excessive irrigation and the consequent rank 
growth of perennial pasture grasses. It is a well known fact that 
young mango trees should be irrigated at short intervals for two 
to three years after being planted; when they are thoroughly 
established the rainfall of the locality should suffice to carry them 
on throughout the year, with the exception perhaps of the flower- 
ing period when one good supply of irrigation water should be 
given to assist in the formation of the fruit. Grasses should be 
systematically cleared away from the plots* The large trees which 
have originated from seedlings in this garden cast sufficient shade 
to prevent the undue growth of grass, but grafted plants which 



^0 

never attain large dimensions do not seem to "be able to 
smother grass unless very closely planted, when an enormous 
reduction in the produce of fruit occurs. After a few years of 
careful treatment many plants which were once in a moribund 
condition are now strong, healthy trees producing good crops. 
Mango trees seldom bear well two years in succession. Last year 
the crop was very good, this year it was short, and next year we 
expect a good crop again. There are 5 varieties of mangoes grown 
on a pretty large scale, the majority being Pairi, the remainder 
are Alphonse, Cowasji Patel, Borsha, and a set of large country 
mangoes dating from the time of the Peishwas, 

22. Tomegraymtes. — Seven varieties grown from seeds of 
specially selected fruits were put out in July 1905. All these are 
progressing satisfactorily, many of them already producing fruit. 
Some particularly strong individuals fruited in the first year. This 
is contrary to the general idea that pomegranates only fruit in four 
to five years after germination. 

The following varieties are cultivated : — 

Poona No. 1, — Emit surface scarlet,, red strips in the 
middle about 1^ inches broad ; basal and apical portions paler, 
blat;k dotted all over. Length. 3^ inches; circumference 12 
inches, 7-angled. Apex tubular truncate ; base hollow ; peduncle 
attached in the hollow. Pericarp tough. Seeds many, attached 
to a short funiculus, oblong, slightly tapering at base, 6-angled, 
deep scarlet at apex. Taste more astringent and less agreeable 
than Poona No. 3. Pruit dehiscing on one side only. Weight a 
little over one pound. 

Poona No. 2. — Pruit 5-angled, split on one side near the 
apex. Weight little less than one pound. Apex as Poona No. 1, 
Surface dark red spot at one side of the base, pale red above the 
spot up to the apex, remaining portion brownish white, dark 
spotted on the dark and pale red jportions. Length 3^ inches, 
circumference 11^ inches. Seeds obTong, 5-angled, conical, smaller 
and redder than Poona No. 1 ; less pulpy and astringent than 
Poona No. 1. 

Foona 'No. 8. — Fruit weight equal to Poona No. 2. 
Surface green yellow with black spots all over. Colour one half 
deeper and the other half mixed scarlet. Tube of the calyx 
6-lobed. Seeds equal in size and pulp to Poona No. 1, 5-cornered. 
Taste more agreeable than Poona Nos. 1 and 2. Pericarp thicker 
than Nos. 1 and 2. 



21 

Sangamner No. 1. — Pruit quite similar in all respects to 
Poona No. 3 except in weight which is a little less. 

Sangamner No, 2. — Emit 6 -cornered, scarlet red all over, 
deeper towards the extremities. Taste rather inferior to Sangam- 
ner No. 1. Calyx tube not conspicuous. 

CahuL — Fruit 8-cornered. Integuments thicker than Muscat 
variety. Colour rather deep red mixed with a little pale yellowish 
white. Calyx lobes absent. Base of style distinct and protrud- 
ing, having the shape of an inverted glass. Seeds have a darkish 
pulp on them and the taste rather bitter which might have been 
due to the fruit being slightly rotten. The fruit was hollow at 
the base, the hollows being surrounded by hard rim on the inner 
side. Weight one pound. Circumference 11 inches, 

. Muscat. — Emit weight one pound. Length 3 inches. 
Circumference 10 inches at basft and towards the apex 6 inches. 
Apex hollow. Calyx lobes deciduous. Base of style distinct. 
Surface upper part shining whitish with a red tinge and the 
lower reddish. Pericarp stiff and hard. Seeds 5 -cornered. Pulp 
jjale red. The fruit was 8-angled. 

The Muscat and Cabul varieties seem plants of dwarf er habit 
and have not grown even half so much as the other indigenous 
kinds, but at the same time they must be considered as being in 
perfectly healthy condition. 

23. Custard apples (Anona squamosa) are making compara- 
tively slow progress, and the same remark applies to the Bullock's 
Heart {Anona reticulata) and Sour Sop {Anona muricata). 

24. Oranges and Lemons, etc. — This area has become infested 
with kunda grass {Ischcemum pilosum). Attempts have been 
made to root it out periodically, and it will take long before the 
pest is completely suppressed. In spite of this difficulty, however, 
the Nagpur and Mdlta oranges are progressing very satisfactorily. 
Santra, Mosambi, Kavla, Sakhar Limbu, Citron, Mah^lungi and 
other species of citrus have grown fairly well. Citron Turanja 
has fruited this year. 

Orange de Societe compared with other varieties seems to 
lack vigour. Pear la Conte, Orange de calbre blood. Lime Deshi 
Kalamba, Citron finger are not adapting themselves to the climate 
and conditions. Steps are being taken to replace the few blanks 
and to bring the weeds under control. 



23 



As kunda grass is killed out by shade Dharw^r- American 
cotton was grown between the lines of oranges for one year with 
the hope that this would keep the grass down. This year juto 
has been thickly grown with the same object after the land had 
been ploughed and hand weeded, and it is too early yet to state 
whether any benefit accrued. In the course of years the oranges, 
limes, etc., will probably kill this noxious weed with their own 
shade. Kunda grass and lamia {Gyperus rotundus) are the most 
intractable weeds in good black soil in the Deccan. No remedy 
except deep digging and hand picking proves effectual, and being 
drought-resisting even a long period of dry weather does no harm 
to them. 

The following varieties are cultivated : — 



Citron Turanj, 
Citron finger. 
Lime at Annui. 
Lime at Annui kala. 
Deshi Kalamba. 
Lemon Florida. 
Lime Galgal. 
Lime Jamberi. 
Lime Jamberi, brown. 
Lime Kagzi. 
Lime Khatta. 
Lime Sylhet. 
Lime Sweet cbickna. 
Lime Galgal. 
Lemon Bijori. 
Lemon Malta. 



Lemon Italian No. 76. 
Lemon Edratin de cilabra. 
Oranges Nagpur. 
Pomeloes from Chimbore (Bom- 
bay). 
Orange de calabra. 
Orange de Societe. 
Orange de Malta. 
Orange Sour Florida. 
Peach, country, No. 1. 

Do. No. 2. 

Do. No. 3. 

Do. No. 4. 

Pear^ China. 
Pear la conte. 



Garden Crops. 

25. Potatoes. — Marseilles and Italian potatoes were tried on 
small plots in November and the yields calculated came to 2 tons 
and I ton per acre respectively. As the areas experimented with 
were very small we do not consider these figures reliable and pur- 
pose repeating the trials on a larger scale next season. 

26. Yams, — ^The following statement shows the varieties 
tested with results : — 



23 



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.s 

II 



m 



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Num- 
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plant- 
ed. 


-4« 


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Date 
of 

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I 




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26 

27. Sugarcane. — Mr. Meggitt, the Agricultural Chemist, ha$ 
selected a small plot for growing sugarcane with the intention oi 
personally selecting individual canes by chemical and othei 
methods for propagation. The results will be reported on in due 
course. Very valuable results have been obtained by thesi 
methods in the West Indies and- only experience will prov< 
whether or not they are suitable for Indian conditions. 

Grain Crops. 

28. Bhddli. — An enquiry was instituted on the identity o 
this crop and seeds were obtained from the chief centres of cult! 
vation in the Bombay Presidency. The seed was grown this yea 
in the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens. It was sown about th< 
middle of June 1906 and ripened too late to be included in las 
year's report. 

Bhddli is distinguished from the other small millets by th 
long drooping rarely erect bristly heads. Some of the latte 
are often cylindrical and slightly tapering towards the apex. The; 
are divisible into 4 types, roughly recognizable by the — 

(1) short or absent bristles. Nasik, Ahmednaga 

Set aria italica, var, 1. 

(2) long bristles and crowded branches of the panich 

Panch Mahals. S, italica, var, 2. 

(3) purple colour of the head and much laxer branches c 

the panicle. Barsi and Poena Farm. S. Italia 
var, 3. 

(4) this is rather distinct from the others and is known b 

the more slender heads with yellowish bristles an 
the grains (spikelets) arranged in whorls direct! 
on the slender axis. Setaria glauca. Kdm 
Poena Parm (Ratnagiri). Navanif Hang; 
(Dharwar). 

The cultivation of Bhiidli does not seem to be of any in 
portance. Its distribution in the Presidency is as shown below 

Acres. 

KhAudesh .,. ... ... 4,104 

Nasik ... ... ... 3^985 

Ahmednagar ... ... ... 4,087 

Poona ,. ... ... 4,728 

ShoUpur ,,. ... ... 404 

Panch Mahals ... ... ... 117 

Broach ... .,, .,. 165 



i 



27 



• 



Fanicum pilosiim of: Dalzell and Gibson's Bombay Flora 
'upplement, page 98, is probably No. 2. 

Fanicum (?) sp. of Dalz. and Gib/s Bombay Flora supple- 
ment, page 98, is probably No. 1. 

'^ Fanicum (?) sp. of Dalz. and Gib.'s Bombay Flora supple- 
nent, page 98, is probably No. 3. 

29. Wheat. — Ten plots making np one acre in all were 
own with wheat in order to test the soil capabilities and suitabi- 
ity for an elaborate manurial testing scheme, as also to test the 
mif ormity of the soil in the difiEerent portions of the area selected, 
[•he crop was very poor and the inequalities between the different 
)lots and between portions of the same plots showed the unsuit- 
.bility of the soil for such experiments and consequently the 
cheme was abandoned. 

The following report and valuations were received from 
Messrs, Ralli Brothers on a number of wheat crosses which have 
)een evolved during the last few years : — 

'^ We have examined the 113 samples of wheat you sent us and find them 
n the whole unsatisfactory. Barring about a dozen samples, amongst which 
here are some very good hard yellows and some fairly good soft whites, all 
he other samples do not come in the class of wheat exportable from Bombay 
nd can only be sold for local consumption. 

'* Herewith our report on the various samples. What we would have 
nshed to see is the improvement of standard Bombay qualities, viz* — 

Soft white wheat as pure as possible. 

Hard yellow wheat as pure as possible. 

Hard red Dharwdr quality as pure as possible. 

" The samples which in our opinion are really very good are Nos. 6, 25, 63, 
)5, 73, 103, 107, 112, We may further add that the examination of a good 
nany of the samples was rendered rather difficult through their not having 
een freed from their chaff. 

Sample No. 1. 11. 36. Khapli + Kdldkusal, spikelets broad. 

Hard red wheat, of no great value. Quality good. 

„ 2. (39^.) Rangrih+ ALUstralian 46, very small awns. 

Glossy wheat, good with fairly easy sale. 

„ ' 3. Naiski (plot 2). 

„ 4. IV. Khapli + PivlaNslsik. 

Undesirable. 



28 

Sample No. 5." 31. DaudkMni!+ Australian 27. Soft wheat, fairlj 
good, coBtains some immature and small grains, 

,, 6, Siah Das. 

Very good superior hard yellow wheat. 

^, 7. 65. Chaval K^tha + Khapli. 

Mixed bard red, quality undesirable, 

„ 8. 9. Khapli + Pans^ngli. 

Good hard red of the Khapli description. Very littl 
of such quality is exportable and as a rule fetche 
a Icwer price than any other kind of wheat. 

„ 9. Dhayak. 

„ 10. VI. Pivla N^sik + Khapli. 

Fairly good hard red. 

11. Surkh. 

12. 70. Khapli + Chaval Katha. ^ 

Quality undesirable. 
,, 13. VI. 0. Pivla Ndsik + Khapli, Extra grains. 

14. IX. Pivla Ndsik -t- Khapli. 

15. XII. Pivla N^sik + Kdlakusal. 

16. VIIT. Pivla Nasik + Khapli. 

Hard yellow, not very good quality, being small ii 
grain. 

., 17. 11. 3 c. Khapli + KaMkusal, spikolets large, 

„ 18. 31. Daudkh^ni + Australian 27. 

'Undesirable. 

„ 19. Dhayak. 2nd sample of the same name. 

„ 20. Saiok. 

A mixed quality of soft and glossy wheat, immature 
small. 

., 21* VI. A, Pivla Nasik + Khapli. Short, congested. 

22, XII. Pivla Nasik + K^Ukusal. 
Inferior hard yellow, 

„ 23. 40. Kfitha Nagpore + Khaph. 

Mixed bard red and glossy, of a difficult sale. 

„ 24. LX. Pivla Ndsik + Khapli. 



29 



Sample No 


25. 


1. Australian 28/32 + Australian 27, 3 grains. 
Very good. 


i) 


26. 


61. Katha Baroda + Kliapli. 


>' 


27. 


Q2. Khapli + Kcltha Baroda. 
Fairly good hard red. 


f 


28. 


111. Khapli -f Pansdugli. 


>> 


29. 


Surkh Kosha. 
Undesirable. 


a • 


30. 


31. Khapli + Shet of Parner. 


t> 


31. 


Pansdngli + Kaldkusal. 
Very good. 


i> 


32. 


VIL Pivla N^sik + Khapli. 

Hard yellow, of fairly good quality, might be im- 
proved. 


If 


38. 


61. Kdtha Baroda + Khapli. 
Undesirable. 


}> 


34. 


63. Pissikhaberia + Khapli. 


!> 


35. 


11. 1 A. Kbapli + Kdldkusal, short head. 


)} 


36. 


21. Khapli + Wheat of Parner. 
Eather small, hard red, of not very good quality. 


3> 


37. 


39. a. Rangrih + Australian 46. 
"White glossy, of very good quality. 


)■> 


38. 


1.' KdldkusaH- Khapli. 
Good hard yellow. 


JJ 


39. 


Naishki, plot 2. 
Altogether undesirable. 


a 


40, 


Bolani. 
Altogether undesirable. 


a 


41. 


IX. A. Pivla Nasik + Khapli, head short. 


a 


42. 


11 2 a. Khapli + Kaldkusal, long heads. 


jt 


43. 


VIII. Pivla Nasik + Khapli. 
Good hard yellow. 


-•> 


44. 


Kallah. 

Fairly good white Mundi. 


»; 


45. 


42. Kempu Godhi + Khapli. 

Although the grains are very small the appearaoce : 
rather good. 


- 


46. 


Mundi white + Australian 34, loDg awns. 
Good white Mundi. 



30 

Sample No. 47. K^la Gandam. 

Undesirable. 
„ 4cS. 9. Khapli + P^ns^ngli. 

„ 49. 3 c. Khapli + Kalakusal, spikelets large. 

,j 50. 2 b. Khapli + KdUkusal, hairy head. 

„ 51. 3 a. Khapli + KaUkusal. 

„ 52. 1. Khapli -f- Kdlakusal. 

Undesirable. 
„ 53. Safed + ChalL 

Undesirable. 
„ 51. C9. KhapU + llansia Broach. 

Inferior hard red. 
„ 55. 11 3 b. Khapli + Kaldkusal, spikelets broad. 

Inferior hard red. 

„ 56. Ill a. KhapU + Kdlakusal. 

,^ 57. Ill c. Khapli + PdnsAngli. Head congested. 

„ 68. 74. Khapli -f Pissikhabeiia. 

„ 59. Ill a. Khapli + Pansdngli. Head short. 

„ 60. 76. KhapU + Sudhe of Rahuri. 

„ 61. 8. Pans^ngli -f- Khapli. 

„ 62. 71. KhapU + Pivla Khandesh. 

„ 63. 50. Hybrid N^gpur + Muzafamagar. 

Soft wheat. Had the grains been slightly bolder, the 
(luality would be very good indeed. 
„ 64. XI. A. Daudkhani -♦- Khapli. Extra grain. 

„ 65. 30. Shet of P^rner + KhapU. 

Hard ^ yellow, containing some proportion of spotted 
grains. Quality good on the whole. 
„ 66. 75. KhapU + Ldl pissi. 

„ 67. IX. b. Pivla Msik + KhapU. Extra grains. 

„ ^d,. VI. b. Pivla Ndsik + Khapli. Head long. 

,/ 69. 24. Khapli + Howrah Ndgpur. 

„ 70. 111. b. KhapU + Pdnsdngli. Head hairy. 

„ 71. XI. b. Daudhkhdni + Khapli. Congested heads. 

„ 72. 11. 1. b. Khapli + Kalakusal. Long head. 

„ 73. Australian. 28/32 22. 

White Mnndi. Very good quality. 

„ 74. Hansia Broach. 

Soft white wheat mixed with some hard yellow. 
Cannot be sold by itself in Europe. 



81 

Sample No. 75. 18, Deshi Athni. Belgaum. 

Soft red fairly good, not easily saleable in Europe. 
„ 76. Koni of Jhelum. 

Hard yellow, good in appearance but very small and 
the grains are under-fed. 

„ 77. Daudkhdni. Damoh, 

Far from perfect, soft. Just passable. 

„ 78. Mundi of Ludhiana. 

„ 79. Daudkhani A. 

Soft wbeat ; good, but grains are too small. 

;, 80. Chaval Kdtha. Bhandara. 

White, mixed with soft and hard yellow. 

„ 81. Australian. 1/24. 

„ 82. Australian. 34/25. 

„ 83. Jowaria. Damoh. 

Small round grains and unsaleable in Europe; may 
find some demand for local consumption. 

„ 84. Pivla Botka. Baglan, Nasik. 

„ 85. Australian 56/32. 

Small round grains and unsaleable in Europe ; may find 
some demand for local consumption. 

„ 86. Safed of Hoshiarpur. 

Small hard yellow with shrivelled and glossy grains. 
,, 87. Rangrih of Kangra. 

Small hard yellow with shrivelled and glossy grains. 

„ 88. Ghoni of Silhet. 

Small yellow, containing too many dead grains, 
undesirable. 

,, 89. Kopergaon wheat. 

Hard yellow, of very good quality. 
„ 90. Ban si Bdlaghat. 

Hard yellow, good. 

91. Australian 13/32. 21. 

White Mundi, good. 

92. Australian 29/32— 23. 

Soft white, containing too large a percentage of 
shrivelled and small grains. 

„ 93. Australian 46/31. 

Spotted white Mundi, not very good. 
„ 94. Dandan of Multan, 

Round wheat, would only be used for local consumption. 




32 

Sample No. 95. Australian 26/28. 

Very good, soft white wheat. 
„ 96. Dodi of Muzafargarh. 

Undesirable. 
„ 97. Australian 27/29. 

„ 98. Australian 20/20^20. 

White glossy, grains are rather small. 
„ 99. Pivla Pote, Malegaon. 

Undesirable. 
„ 100. Australian 3/20-19. 

Undesirable. 
„ 101. Daudkhani C. 

„ 102. Paman Sirsa. 

Soft white, fairly good. 
„ 103, Kalakusal wheat. 

Very good, hard yellow. 
„ 104. Buddha wheat. 

Soft red, of a good quality. 
„ 105. Lai of Batala. 

Soft red, rather small. 
„ 106. Rod Deshi of Audh. 

Soft red, rather small. 
„ 107. Potia, Nadiad. 

Very good, soft red. 
,, 108. Malaya, Belgaum. 

Spotted red, of difficult sale. 
„ 109. Safed o£ Amritsar. 

Soft white, good quality but rather small. 
„ 110. Dadhak, Amritsar. 

Hard yellow, good quahty. 
„ 111. Black awnel Athni. 

Uard red, quality good. 
„ 112. Farner wheat, obtained at tho Nagar Show, 1905. 

Very good, hard yellow. 
„ 113. Shutar Dandam. 

Undesirable. 

'' Ncs. 1, 7, 13, 14, 17, 21, 24, 26, 27, 28, 30, 34, 35, 41, 42, 48, 50, 51, 
56, 57, 58, 60, 61, 62, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 72 and 101 are all hard red wheat, 
rendered inferior by an admixture of what is called Kl.apli wheat, and would 
only be sold on the spot for local consumption. 



33 

'' All the numbers on which we Uave not reported represent wheat of a 
SeidecUy inferior quality/' 

Grass Experiments. 

30. Panicum bulbo8um,—^mGe last year this is standing in a 
mall plot. It seems a perennial grass. It is barely able to 
urvivo drought and cannot be cut at intervals to furnish a regular 
upply of fodder in summer. The grass propagates easily by its 
)ulbs which strike root very readily and it may ultimately prove 
be a good grazing grass but probably not superior to many 
ndigenousones. Eurther tests as to its feeding value, etc., can l)e 
mdertaken only whe« it is propagated on a larger scale so as to 
insure a seed supply for an extended area. 

31. Italian rye grass, perennial rye grass, Daoiylis glomerata, 
^estiwa elatioVi Fhleimi prafense, — These were sown in separate 
)eds but all failed to germinate. 

Silo. 

32. A pit of 1 ,000 cubic feet capacity was dug in ordinary soil 
n the gardens to test the value of ensilage of a large quantity of 
oarse grass. The quantity placed in the pit in September was 
:6,821 lbs. On being opened in the month of March the yield of 
attle feed weighing 205000 lbs. was abstracted at the rate of 500 
bs. per day until jinished. The Superintendent of the Kirkee 
)ivil Dairy reports that the cattle ate it readily and that the 
eculiar strong smell passed away quickly on e:&posure to air, 
aaving the smell of half dried hay. Arrangements have been 
aade this year for the prej)arations of 6 siloes in munim ground 
Li order to permanently maintain the experiment on a larger scale. 

Trial with new Plants. 

33. The following plants have been introduced into the 
lardens for trial : — 



Vitis gl<yantea, 
Vitis latifolia. 
Schimatoglottis crispata, 
Maranta Binote. 
Musssenda lateola. 
Ansemia rotundifolia. 
Dieffenhachia Jenmaui. 
Scutellaria discolor. 
Amomum Tuagnificum, 
B 989—5 



Billbergia decora. 
Aechraea fulgens. 
Aechmea sp. 
Karatus sj)ectabilis. 
Carugata lingulata, 
Cryptantbus acaulis. 
Passiflora Watsoniana. 
Buddle'a diversifolia. 
Cacoalia carnosa. 



34i 



Strobilanthus colorata. 

Hernia myrtifolia. 

Psederla foetida 

Gymnema tingens. 

Peristrophe angustifolia. 

Eranthemum sp. 

Capparis zeylanica. 

Sikkim orange. 

Tight skiuned orange. 
Loose skinned orange. 

Coffea stenophylla. 

Hemerocallis flava. 

Tibocbina semidecandra. 

Salvia Betheli. 

Qiimqnat (Citrus japonica). 

Arundo conspicua. 

Lemon grass. 

Moraea iridioides. 

Persian rose. 

Rose Leschenaultii. 

Bieiama pulcherrinaa. 

Romneya Coulteri. 

Echeveria glauea. 

Aloe horrida. 

Mulberry. 



Oenothera Lamar ckii. 
Spiny-leaved Furcrea 
Agave vivipara. 
Impatiens repens. 
Holboellia latifolia. 
Asystasia coromandeliana. 
Asystasia violacea. 
Billbergia speciosa. 

Do. raalanthus. 

Do. vittata. 

Do. pyramidalis. 

Do. porteana. 
Yucca gloriosa. 
AnMbryllis Belladonna, 
Crinum Moorei. 
Galtonia candicana. 
Abiitilon sp. 
Berrya Ammomilla. 
Marogogipe Coffee. 
Cinnamomum zeylanicum. 
Carica Candamariensis. ^ 
Abutilon pale pink. V 

Tacsonia tubuliflora (p'.nk). 

„ „ (white). 



Miscellaneous. 

3^. The following Economic products were sent to the Agri- 
cultural Chemist for examination and report as to their oil-bearini 
properties. The results of his examination run thus : — 

1. Andropogon Schcenanthus, — Just before flowering. 

Yielded about '5 per cent, of oil. 

2. Andropogon Schcenanthus, — After flowering. 

Yielded about '5 per cent, of oil ; showing that; the stag 
of flowering is probably not of Consequence. 

3. Andropogon montanus. 
Yielded nothing. 

4. Andropogon odoratus, —Leaves and flowers. 
Yielded '25 per cent, of oil. 

5. Ptoots of Cyperus rotundus from Lanowli. 

Yielded no oil by distillation with steam, but of cours 
might give it by other methods. 



Owing to Avant of apparatus the quantities dealt with were 
far too small but arrangements are being made for a larger installa- 
tion during the coming season, as the subject of perfume-yielding 
plants has nofc received the attention it deserves in India. 

35. Museum. — TJie collection now consists of 500 species 
of sample seeds, 500 samples of cottons and about 1,000 mis- 
cellaneous Economic Products including fibres, rubbers, gums, 
etc. 

G. A. GAMMIE, 

Foona, Economic Botanist. 

August WOT, 






BOMBAY: rRlXTKD AT TUE OOVEKNMENT CENTRAL PUKSS. 



n 



department of agiiculturtJ /aeombaa. 



ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OP THK 

MIRPURKHA'S AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(Thar and Parkar District, Sind) 

FOR THE YEAR 

1906-1907 



BY 

G. S. HENDERSON, N.D.A, N.D.D., etc., 

Second Deputy Director, Sind. 



B M BAY 

PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1907 



[Price — Sa. or 3d.] 



OFFICIAL AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF INDIAN OFFICIAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

In England, 

E. A. Arnold, 41 & 48^ Maddox Street, Bond Street, W., Loiidon. 
Constable & Co., 10, Orange Street^ Leicester Squara, W. C, London. 
Grindlay & Co., 54, Parliament Street, S. W.^ London. 
Henry S. King & Co., 65, Comhill, E. C, London. 

P. S. King & Son, 2 & 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W., 

London. 
Kegan Panl, Trench, Trnbner & Co., 43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W., 
London. 

B. Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W., London. 
T. Fisher Unwin, 1, Adelphi Terrace, I^ondon, W. C. 
W. Thacker & Co., 2, Creed Lane.. London, E. C. 
B. H. Blackwell, 50 & 51, Broad Street; Oxford. 
Deighton Bell & Co., Cambridge. 

On the Continent, 

Friedlander & Sohn, H, Carlstrasse, Berlin. 

Rudolf Hanpt, Ilalle-a-S., Germany. 

Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 

Ernest Leroux, 28, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 

Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague. 

In India, 

Higginbotham & Co., Madi-as. 

V. Kalyanarama Iyer & Co., Madras. 

p. R. Rama lyar & Co , Madras. 

Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta. 

W. Newman & Co., Calcutta. 

S. K. Lahiri & Co., Calcutta. 

R, Cambray & Co., Calcutta. 

Thacker & Co. (Ld.), Bombay. 

A. J. Combridge & Co., Bombay. 

Cnrator, Government Central Book Depot, Bombay 

D. B. Taraporevala, Sons & Co., Bombay. 

Sunder Pandurang, Bookseller, etc., Bombay. 

Gopal Narayen & Co., Booksellers, etc., Bombay. 

N. B. Mathur, N. K. H. Press, Allahabad. 



i 



Beyartment of Agriculture^ S^ombaji. 



AKNUAL REPOliT 

ON THIv 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

MIRPURKHA'S AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(Thar and Parkar District, Sind) 
lOU THE YEAR 

1906-190; 



BY 

G. S. HENDEESON, N.D.A., N.D.D., etc., 

Second Deputy Director, Sind. 



r, M B A Y 
PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

too? 



I 



Vernacular names of orops, &o., mentioned in the report with their 
Botanical and English equivalents. 



Eotanica\ 


English. 


Vernacular. 


Cereals. 








Andropogon sorghum rar. vulgarc . 
Penmaetum typhoid cum 
Triticum vulgaro 
Zea mays 


Great millet 
Bull-rush millet 
Wheat 
Maize 


... 


Jow^r (Chapti, Naroli). 

Bijri. 

Gahu. 

Makai. 


Pulses. 








Cajanus indicus 
Cicer arietinum 
Len^ esculenta 


Pigeon pea 
Gram 
Lentil 
Saidi beans 


... 


Tur. 

Ghana, 

Masnr. 


Oil-seeds. 








Arachis hypogea 
Linum usitatissimum 
Sesamum indicuni 


Groundnuts 

Linseed 

Sesamum 


... 


Bhuimug. 
Alshi. 
Til, Tir. 


Fibres. 








Gossypium barbadeuse 

Do. hirsutum 

Do. neglectiun 

Do. arboreum ... 
Corchorus capsularis 
Crotolaria juncea 


Egyptian and Sea Island Cotton. 

American Cotton 

Sindhi Cotton 

Tree Cotton 

Jute 

Bombay hemp 


Abbassi, Vanovitch, &c. 

ViUyati Kap^s. 

Sindhi Kaprts. 

Devkapas. 

Jute. 

San. 


Sugars. 








Sachharum officinarum . 


Sugarcane 


... 


Sherdi (Product Gur). 


Miscellaneous. 








Phoenix bilvestris 
TrigonoUa fo^num grcrcum 


Date palm 
Egyptian clover 
Fenugreek 


... 


Khajari. 
Berseem. 
Methi. 



B 067 



I 



THE MIKPURKHA'S AGRICITLTTJRAL STATION, 

1906-07. 



Established — 1904 ; Elevation — approximately 50 feet above 
sea level; Soil — light coloured clay ; North Latitude — 25° 32'^; 
East Longitude— Q^"^ 2" ; Average rainfall — & ^T ; Tempera" 
ture — maximum 116^ in May, minimum ^2" in February, 

Area — 62 acres. 

Superintendent— My. S. B. Mahli, M.R.A,C. 





i 

< 


1 


•-9 




1 


1 


1 


1 
5^ 


j 


1 


t2 


.g 


• 

3 
5 




» tt 


' tt 


t It 


' " 


' tt 






' tt 


' II 


' ff 


f 1, 


' » 


Rainfall (1906.1907) 




... 


50 


22 


2 27 


3 15 


... 


.•• 


... 


... 


1 18 


024 


7 56 


ATerago 


!•» 


8 


66 


1 83 


118 


1 22 


... 


... 


2 


10 


1 3 


53 


6 67 


Temperature (1906-07)- 




























Mean maximum 


100" 


106" 


104* 


100° 


94" 


90° 


98» 


93° 


85 


82° 


75° 


87° 


••• 


Mean minimura 


70« 


79» 


81° 


81» 


80° 


78° 


72° 


64° 


56° 


65° 


55' 


64° 


... 



2. This Station was started in October 1904 and has con- 
sequently now been in operation for nearly 3 years. The results 
for the year under report have not been very satisfactory chiefly 
owing to the causes mentioned in the report for this ^Station for 
the year 1905-06. 

3. The land is typical of much of the perennially irrigated 
country in Sind, where the land, naturally a high class alluvium 
soil, contains alkali patches which are said to be increasing under 
irrigation. The same phenomenon is widely prevalent in the 
United States of America. Irrigation sets up capillary action 
with the highly salt impregnated subsoil layers, with the result 
that the alkali is transferred to the surface layer. 

4. The Station is laid off in 1 acre plots for each of which a 
separate cultivation sheet is kept. The plots, however, are useless 
for the purposes of comparative tests, as most of them contain 
Kalar or alkali patches on which no germination can take place. 
It will probably be advisable in the future to group the plots into 
larger areas. 

For these reasons also, manurial experiments especially those 
with artificial fertilisers are at present of little value for comparison. 



5. The neighbouring Zemindars were inclined to criticise the 
Station management owing to the amount of labour expended in 
preparatory cultivation for the different crops. An effort will be 
made in future to keep cultivation charges, etc., within the range 
of the ordinary cultivator. With a knowledge of the soil and 
with proper use of water all the cultivation operations can be done 
cheaply and efficiently with native implements. 

Season. 

6. The season under report was as usual marked by hot winds 
from April to June. They have an adverse effect on all vegeta- 
tion, especially on Egyptian cotton. The leaves wilt up and all 
growth seems to stop for some weeks ; it is then that the plants 
fall an easy prey to the white ants. It also seems to have con- 
siderable delaying effect on the time of flowering and consequently 
of harvesting. 



Experiments with Fibre Crops. 

7. Egyptian Cotton, — The yields of the cotton plots are 
follows : — 



I 



No. 

of 

plot. 


Area. 


Varitty of cotton. 


Time of 
sowing. 


! 
Manure, 


NuT,bcr 

of 
waterings. 


Yield per 
acre. 


17 


\% 


Abbassi 


March ... 


6 tons lime 


10 


Lbs. 

C77 


18 


1 


Do 


Do. ... 


Nil 


35 


412 


20 


1 


Do 


April 


4 tons lime 


13 


457 


21 


1 


Do 


March ... 


Nil 


12 


355 


29 


33 


Do 


April ... 


4 tons lime and 1 
ton bouc-meal. 


15 


158 


30 


33 


Do 


Do. ... 


4 tons lime 


15 


383 


34 


1 


Dd. Bced grown iu Sind. 


Do. ... 


Do. 


15 


345 


37 


1 


Do. 


Do. ... 


4 tons Hmo and 1 
ton bone-meal. 


15 


590 





25 


Yanovitch 


Do. ... 


Nil 


13 


1 272 



These results are not particularly good, though still profit- 
able on the average yield at a price of Es. 14 per maund of 
80 lbs. If the knd were uniformly '* sweet" and proper care 
were taken of the sowing, there is no reason why an averao-e of 
1,000 lbs. per acre might not be expected. " 



8. Upland American Cottons, — Thirty varieties were grown 
at the Station ; from these the following eight have been selected 
for extended trial : — 

i. — Texas long staple. 

ii. — Smith's Improved. 

iii. — Truitt. 

iv. — Tata's Allen Hybrid. 

v.— W. A. Cook. 

vi. — Henderson Black, 

vii. — Boyd's Prolific. 

viii. — Texas Big Boll. 

9. Sea Island Cotton. — Five varieties were grown last 
season but did not seem suitable for the land, 

10. Local Sindhi Cotton. — Two plots were grown of which 
the earlier sown did well and gave a yield of 988 lbs. of seed 
cotton per acre ; its value however is only about Rs. 5 per maund 
of 80 lbs, 

11. Tree Cottons. — Seven varieties were sown in a small 
plot of good land but do not appear to be suitable for the soil 
and climate of Sind. 

12. Jute and San. — The jute was not successful, yielding 
a small crop and poor fibre. San which is grown locally is much 
more resistant and will grow where jute will not germinate. 
The fibre is however not of much value. It is probable that 
hemp would be more successful than jute. It will be tried on the 
Station. 

Cereal Crops. 

13. Wheat. — The following statement gives the results of 
the wheat varieties grown at the Station : — 



1 

No. 

of 

plot. 




V„V,Vf«- 


Month 

of 
sowing. 


Number 

of 
water- 
ings. 


Harvest, 

April ... 

Do. ... 
Do. ... 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 

March . 

Do. ... 


Yield per aero. 


Valuation. 




Grain. 


Straw. 


8 

9 
10 

I'y 
19 
23 
36 


Acre. 

1 

1 
1 

1 
1 

1 
1 


Punjab, Red ... 

Sindhi, Red ... 
biidhi, White ... 

Nandero 

Do. 
Bubak 
Delhi, White ... 


December, 

Do. ... 

November. 

December 

Do. ... 

November. 

October... 


2 

2 
3 

1 
3 
2 
3 


Lbs. 
335 

730 
570 

4S0 
1»050 

546 
1,520 


Lbs. 
635 

1,220 
1,700 

840 
1,952 

845 
2,130 


Quality poor, 
rust. 
Do. 
Rs. 4-2-6 per 
cwt. 
„ 4;3-0 „ 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



The valuation was made by Messrs. Sanday Patrick & Co. of 
Karachi. 

Rust was exceptionally bad during this season and yields all 
round were very poor. Consequently the above crops are very 
satisfactory. On the Station the red wheat suffered the most but 
that was owing more to the condition of the plots on which they 
were sown, 

14. Bdjri. — Nine acres were sown with Bajri ; the yields 
per acre were very varying depending on the amount of Kalar in 
each plot. Natal Bijri was tried against the local variety with 
indefinite results. The best yield per acre was 623 lbs. of grain 
in plot 31. 

A small quantity of Bullrush millet was sown and the result 
is very promising. The yield was 750 lbs. of grain per acre. 
This crop attracted the attention of many cultivators and there was 
a big demand for the seed. It will be tried on a larger scale this 
year. 

15. Jowdri. — Chapti Jowar and Naroli from Africa were 
both sown. All plots were however destroyed by the borer. 

16. Maize. — One acre was sown with Jawnpur maize. The 
yield was 613 lbs. grain which was satisfactory. Twelve other 
varieties of maize were grown for observation. 



Experiments with other Crops. 

17. Tur. — One plot was sown in July on a good piece of land ; 
it came up splendidly and gave a dense mass of foliage about 8 feet 
high so thick that the pods could not be gathered till the crop was 
cut in February. The yield of grain was 1,624 lbs. per acre. 
There is however no market for this in Sind but it is being fed to 
the cattle with excellent results. It is being grown this year to 
test its value as a fodder crop and its effect on the soil. 

18. JBeraeem or Egyptian Clover, — This crop is particularly 
suited for rabi cultivation in Sind and is the most valuable 
fodder crop that can be grown on perennially irrigated lands. 
It requires great care in the first stages of its growtli and 
is not tolerant of a large amount of alkali. Seed for Sind 
is this year being obtained from the northern coast lands of 
Egypt where the conditions of soil more nearly resemble those of 
Sind. Six plots were sown at the Station in December. This 
was probably two months too late and the seed was of poor quality ; 
consequently the yield suffered. Some of the plots had a nice 






thick growth by February and there is no doubt that a large part 
of the Station is suitable for the growth of berseem. 

19. Groundnuts. — Several varieties of groundnuts grown at 
the Station did not prove successful, the physical texture of the 
soil not being suited for their growth. 

20. Sugarcane. — One acre was sown with Sets. It grew 
well all through and was much remarked on by visitors. Part 
was made into Gur and part sold for seed at Rs. 10 per -^acre. 
On cutting the cane it was found that much of it was attacked by 
the borer. From 1 guntha cut and weighed 2,680 lbs. cane were 
obtained yielding 335 lbs. Gur. 

21. Among other crops Saidi Beans, Gram, Russian Linseed, 
Til, Fenugreek and Lentils were tried but all did badly. They 
are all unsuitable for growing on alkali land. 

Date-palms. 

2i4. Thirteen varieties of date-palms, in all 303 plants, were 
planted at the Station. The Station has not a typical date-palm 
soil but on the whole the plants that are left are beginning to 
show signs of growth. Some were planted on alkali land and 
have died. One hundred and forty plants in all have been 
removed as dead. 

Cross Breeding. 

23, Breeding operations in cotton and wheat are being 
continued but it is still too early for any definite results to be 
shown. 

Mirpurkhds, 1 G. S. HENDERSON, 

August 1907. J Second Deputy Director of Agriculture, 



BOMBAY: FZUMfil) AT THK G0VKBNMIfiI4T C£2<TRAL tiULH^. 



if 



I 




iStpartment of ^giitttlturc| ISomibas* 
AKNUAJ. REPORT 

ON THK 

EXPEKIMENTAL WOIIK 

01' THE 

MANJRI AGRICULTURAL STATION 

AKD THE 

bAramati demonstration station 

(Poona District, Deccan) 
FOR THE YEAR 

1906-1907 



BY 

h\ FLETCHER, M.A, B.Sc , i tc, 

A^. Professor of Agrufylture. 



BOMBAY 

PRlJsTEl) AT THK GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1907 



OEFlCiAl AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF INDIAN OFFICIAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

In England. 

B, A. Arnold, 41 & 4S, Maddox Street, Bond Street, W., tioadon. 
Coxistable & Co., 10, Orange street, Leicester Square, W. C, Londoi. 
Grindlay & Co., 64, Parliament Street, S. W., Lond<m. 
Henry S. King & Co., 65, Cornhill, E. C, London. 

P. S. King & Son, 2 & 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W.. 

London. 
Kegan Paul, Trench, Trubner & Co., 43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W., 
London. 

B. Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W., London. 
T. Fisher Unwin, 1, Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C. 
W. Thacker & Co., 2, ('reed Lane. London. E. C. 
B. H. Blackwell, 50 & 51, Inoad Street, Oxford. 
Deighton Beil & Co., Cambridge. 

On the Cojitinent. 

Friedlander & Sohn, 11. Carlstrasse, Berlin. 

Rudolf Haupt, Halle-a-S., Gerniany, 

Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 

Ernest Leroux, ^^, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 

Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague, 

In India, 

Higginbotham & Co., Madras. 

V. Kalyanarama Iyer & Co., Madras. 

p. R. Rama lyar & Co., Madras. 

Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta. 

W. Newman & Co., Calcutta. 

S. K. Lahiri & Co., Calcutta. 

R, Cambray & Co., Calcutta. 

Thacker & Co. (Ld.), Bombay. 

A. J. Combridge & Co., Bombay. 

Curator, Government Central Book Depot, Bombay. 

D. B. Taraporevala, Sons & Co., Bombay. 

Sunder Pandurang, Bookseller, etc., Bombay. 

Gopal Narayen & Co., J^ooksellers, ^ic, Bombay. 

N. E Mathur, N. K. H. Press, Allahabad. 



department of ^giitultuit, IJomljaa. 
ANNUAL. REPORT 

ON THK 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

MANJRI AGRICULTURAL STATION 

AND THE 

BARAMATI DEMONSTRATION STATION 

(Poena District, Deccan) 

FOR THE YEAR 

1906-1907 



BY 

F. FLETCHER, M.A., B.Sc, etc., etc., 

Aff. Projessor of Agricvllm'e. 



BO MBAY 

PRINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1907 



Vernacular names of Crops, fee, mentioned in the report and their 
Botanical and English equivalents. 



Botanical. 



Cereals. 

Andropcgon sorghum var. vulgare. 

Do, var. cernuum 

Pennisetum typhoideum 
Triticum sativum 
Co. speltum 
Oryza sativa 

Elusine corocana 
Paspalum scrobiculatum 
Panicum miliaceum 

Do, italicum 
Hordeum vulgare 
Avena sativa 
Zea mays 
Sorghum sachharatum 

Pulses. 

Cajanus indicus 
Cicer arietinum 
Phaseolus mungo 

Do, radiatus 

Do. ac'onitifolius 
Dolichos catiang 

Do. lablab 

Do- biflorous 
Pisum sativum 
Lathyrus sativus 
Ervum lens 

Oil-seeds. 

Araohis hypogea 
Linum usitatissimum 
Carthamus tinctorius 

Fibres. 

Gossypium herbaceum 
Corchorus Capsularis 
Crotolaria juncea 

Sugar. 

Sachharum officinarum 

Condiments. 
Carcumalonga 

Vegetables. 

Ipomsea batatas ••< 

Phaseolus vulgaris 

Fodders. 

Medicago sativa 



English. 



Great millet 

Do. 
Bull rush millet 
Wheat 
Spelt 
Rice, Paddy 

Muma millet 

Kodra millet 

Common millet 

Italian millet 

Barley 

Oats 

Maize 

Sorghum 



Pigeon pea 
Gram 

Green gram 
Black gram 
Kidney bean 
Cow pea 
Indian bean 
Horsegram 
Pea 
Jarosse 
Lentil 



Groundnuts 

Linseed 

Safflower 



Cotton 
Jute 
Bombay hemp 



Sugarcane 



Turmeric 



Sweet potato 
Fieldbean 



Lucerne 



Vernacular, 



Jowir (chapti, ShoMpuri, 
Gidgap, Nilva, &c.). 

Sundhia. 

B^jrl 

Gahu (KdMkusal). 

Khapli. 

Bhdt (Ambemohor, Dodka, 
Kamod). 

Ndchani. 

Kodra. 

Sdva, VarL 

RAla. 

Jav. 

Vat. 

Maka. 

Amber, Collier (exotic). 



Tur. 

Harbhara. 

Mug. 

Udid. 

Math. 

Chavli. 

V&l. 

Kulith, 

Vdt&na. 

Lakh. 

Masur, 



Bhnimug. 

Javas, 

Kardai. 



Kdpus (Broach, Enmpta). 
San. 

Us (Product Gul). 

Halad. 



Rat&ln. 
Shrivan Ghevda. 



Lasun ghis. 



B 1059— a 



I 



1.— THE MA'NJRI AGRICULTURAL STATION, 

1906-07. 



Ustablished—lSQii ; North Latitude— IS"" 32' ; East Longi- 
tude 74P 2'; Elevation — 1,850 feet above sea level; Soil — 
medium black and light murum ; Average rainfall — 16 inches ; 
Temperature — maximum 109° in May, minimum 45^ in January. 

Area — 62J acres. 

Superintendent — Mr. Hari Krishna Dandekar. 





1 


1 


1 






< 


1 
i 


1 


i 


1 
1 


1 




1 


1 


t 


Rainfall (1906-07) ..» 


/ 






7 58 


2 64 


/ » 

2 47 


1 89 


8 


/ It 

86 


38 





;." 


/ 1) 
15 80 


AYerage ... 





2 10 


1 59 


i 69 


1 49 


2 7 


3 61 


11 














15 66 


Temperature (1»64)7)— 




























Mean maximam 


103* 


101° 


88* 


82' 


82' 


82' 


90' 


86' 


86* 


87* 


90' 


96' 


... 


Mean minimum 


67» 


72' 


72* 


71' 


69* 


67' 


63° 


68' 


66' 


53' 


56' 


61' 


... 



I/ote.— The temperature details are for Poooa 8 miles off. The rainfall average is for 3 years only for which 
data available. 



I.— History and Aim of the Station. 

2. This Station owes its beginning to the difficulties that were 
experienced in carrying out the sugarcane experiments at Poena. 
Up to 1894 sugarcane experiments were carried at Poena. When 
it became necessary for sanitary reasons to discontinue these 
experiments there, a tract of 9 acres was leased at Md,njri 8 miles 
from Poena on the Poona-Sholdpur road, in the heart of the sugar- 
cane growing tract, watered by the Mutha Right Bank Canal. 
In 1895, 13 acres were purchased including the 9 acres already 
leased. In 1902, 31 adjoining acres were purchased. In 19D5, 
an additional area of 17 acres was purchased. 

3. This Station has from the very beginning had for its main 
line of work experiments connected with the cultivation of sugar- 
cane ; and the best methods of utilizing when under irrigation the 

B 1069-1 



shallow soil areas found so frequently alternated with a better 
class of soil throughout the Deccan. It is a very representative 
tract of the region, 

4. The following lines of experiments for sugarcane were 
suggested : — 

(1) To study the more economic system of manuring 
cane. 

(2) To ascertain the most profitable way in which bone- 
manure can be used. 

(3) To test the various methods of cultivation. 

(4) To acclimatize newly imported varieties of sugar- 
cane from Mauritius. 

(5) To compare sugar sorghums with cane as sugar 
producers. 

Questions 2 and 5 have been quite thoroughly settled. 
Question 4 has been carried on for 13 years. During th( 
year under report attention was maiiily given to question No. 1, 

II.— Area and Charaoiter of the Soil. 

5. Mdnjri Station consists of four Survey Nos.«61 to 64 
inclusive, a total area of 62 acres 10 gunthas. Of this area 2 L 
acres 38 gunthas are deep black soil, 6 acres light soil and 1 acre 
3 1 gunthas rocky or murmdd soil. The new and old buildings and 
the ndla occupy about 8 acres. 

III.— Plotting. 

6. For the convenience of experiments the whole area of the 
Station was permanently plotted this year into five series, leaving 
a space between each series. Each series was then divided into 
square one acre fields and the end portions of the series and near 
the canal wore left as irregulars. Each one acre field was then 
divided into four 10 guntha plots. In all the whole area was 
divided into 46 one acre fields and 8 irregular fields. 

IV.— Lines of Work. 

7. Manure experiments to test potash and phosphoric acid 
requirements for sugarcane and the trial of mineral manures 
compared with cake and poudrette as top-dressing, water 
demonstration plots, varieties for distribution that were carried 
on last year with new cane are carried on this year with 
ratoon cane. 



Varieties of maize, Bajri, Jowdr and sweet potatoes were 
grown for testing, selection and distribution. 

Growing of irrigated cotton, was continued. Various crops 
were grown for study of their cultivation, as fieldbeans, Kulthi, 
Math, Mug, Udid, Naohani, Kodra, Sava, Vai'i, llala, paddy, 
barley, oats, Khapli, peas, gram, Lang, Masur, and Tur. 

V.^Meteorology. 

8. The season was on the whole a favourable one. There 
wore no ante-monsoon showers ; the preparation of the fields was 
therefore difficult. On the 7th and 8th of June it rained 3 inches 
60 cents. The work of sowing was continued from 19th of June 
to the 4th of July. The crops were looking well till the end of 
July. In the first fortnight of August only 2 cents of rain was 
recorded. The Station crops were therefore irrigated. But in the 
second fortnight of August 2 inches 45 cents fell which saved all 
the crops. The whole of October was without rain. The rabi 
crops had therefore to be sown under irrigation. Although the 
total amount of rain was only equal to that of the last year, it 
was better distributed for the kharif season, in the year under 
report. 

VI— -Area planted to different Crops. 

9. The statement below shows the area cropped and the 
purpose of each crop : — 



Field 
No. 


Khari crop. 


Area. 


Purpose. 


Eabi crop. 


Area. 


Purpose. 


Kemarka. 






A. g. 






A.g. 






1 


Fieldbeans ... 
Kulthi 


10 
10 


^ 


}Barley ... 


20 


1 To study the 
most profitable 






Math 

MU£f 


10 
10 


To studj' the most 
profitable cse of the 
light murum 80il^ 
of the irrigated re- 


j Oats 


20 


use of the 
light murum 














soils of the 




2 


Udid 


10 


Khapli 


lo 


1 irrigated regi- 
^ ons of the 






N^chani 


10 


' gions of the Deccan 


Peas 


10 






Kodra 


10 


Also selection of seed 


Gram local ... 


10 


Deccan. Also 






Sava 


10 


and methods of cul- 
tivation. 


Gram Kabuli. 


10 


selection of 
seed and me- 




8 


Vari 


10 




Masur 


10 


thods of cul- 






Eala 


10 


; 


Lang 


10 


) tivatiou. 




8&4 


Sugarcane ... 
Do. 


30 
030 


Experimonta in har- 
vesting and boiling. 

Study of the s^ stem ol 
planting and cultiva- 
tion. 




... 







A 


Do. 


18 


For distribution 











B,5to8 


Do. 


4 


Mannrial experiments ^ 




... 






9 


Do. 


1 


Water experiments ... 




... 







10 


Bajri 


20 


Comparison and seed 
selection, 


English peas. 


20 


New crop. 




lO&ll 


Cotton 


30 


To test ratoon cotton 


" ' 








under irrigation. 


1 









Field 
No. 


Kharif crop. 


Area. 
A.g. 


Purpose, 


Rabi crop. 


Area. 


Purpose. 


Remarks. 










A.g. 






11&12 


BSjri 


120 


Comparison and seed 


Gram 


30 


) 










selection. 


Masur 
Lang 


020 
20 


f 

>-Seed selection. 




13 


CbavU and 

Maize. 


1 


Fodder 


Wheat 


1 


Selection of seed 
and distribution. 




14 


Cotton 


30 


To tost the growing of 
this tj'pe of cotton on 
the light soiL 


....at 


... 






14&16 


B^jri 


1 10 


) Seed selection and 
r equalizing the land. 


...It. 




..«..« 




16 to 25 


Jowir 


10 










26 


Do. — 


1 


To demonstrate the 
advantages of tillage. 


...... 


... 


...... 




27 


Sogarcane .^ 


1 


Farther test of the 
Mauritius variety. 


...... 


... 







28 


Do. 


1 


To test the most profit- 
able sets for planting. 





• M 







28 


Sweet potatoes 


1 


Comparison of the 
varieties and raising 
cuttingB for distribu- 
tion. 





... 





^H 


80 


Tur 


1 


Study of the cultivation 
of this crop as rotatioa 





... 


•••.•a 


^M 














^H 








crop. 










81 


Maiae 


1 


^ 








i^^^H 


82 


Sorghum 


1 


1 Seed selection and dift- 


Wheat 


3 


Seed selection and 


^SU 


33 


Sundhia 


1 


( tribution. 






distribution. 




31 


Maize 


1 


) 








1 










Linseed ... 


30 


For fibre 


Fibre was iiofi 
extracted as 
the plants had 
branched too 
much. 










Safflower ... 


10 


Seed selection. 




86&86 


Cotton 


2 


To ascertain the best 
time for planting 
Gujarit cotton. 










87&83 


Sugarcane 


2 


To ascertain the best 
rotation for sugarcane 
in the Deccan. 


M.«.. 


... 





r 


39 


Cotton 


020 


Do. 





... 


wa.a 






San for fibre ... 


20 


Do. 


... .. 


«. 


!!!".' 




40 


Lucerne 


1 


To ascertain the correct 
quantity of water re- 
quired for lucerne. 























, 


41 


Gronndnuts ... 


020 


To ascertain the best 
rotation for sugarcane 
in the Deccan. 


..••«. 


... 









San green 


20 


Do. 


.M... 


... 









manure. 














43 


BarefaUovr ... 


20 


Do. 


...... 


... 









Cotton 


20 


Do. 


... 


!.! 


..a,." 




43 


Tur 
Cotton 


30 
20 


Do. 
Do. 


'.'.!... 


... 






44 


Jovr&r 


1 


To ascertain the quan- 
tity of water required 
for Jow&r. 


...»» 


... 


.M.a. 


Not undertaken 
this year as 
the guage was 
not ready. 


46 


Rice varieties... 


20 


For comparative test ... 


) 














Jviu 


020 


To ascertain the 


Not carried on 




Rioe 


020 


Water experiments ... 


\ 




effect of pulses. 


this year as 
the beds could 
not hold water 
owing to the 
new embank- 
ments* 


Ir. D 


....« 




.i%>.. 


Am e r i c a n 


18 


For seed. 


J 


E 


Groundnut ... 


030 


For seed 


peas. 








Ir. I 


Jute 


10 


For fibre 


KhapU" ... 


10 


For green fodder. 




J 


Groundnut ... 


18 


For seed* and distribu- 
tion. 


...M. 










Tnnneric 


8 


For seed 





... 


...... 






^Uva 


30 


Do. 


Sweet pota- 
toes. 


30 


For cuttings. 





VII.— Experiments in Care and Cultivation of Crops. 

A.— Manure Experiments. 

10, Potash manure for sugarcane. — Last year a series of four 
plots was selected and manured with potash at the rate of 50 Ihs., 
100 lbs., 150 lbs. and 200 lbs. per acre in the form of sulphate of 
potash in addition to 350 lbs. of nitrogen from safflower cake. 
This year the same experiments are carried on with ratoon, but 
two- thirds of potash and nitrogen of the last year have been given. 

The results with the outturn of the last year are tabulated 
below for comparison. 



Manurial treatment per acre. 


Results per acre ; crop Pnndia cane 

(plant cane. 1905-06 ; ratoon 

cane, 1906-07J. 


1 


Kind of manure. 


U" 


Containing 


Cost of 
manure. 


No. of 

canes. 


Weight 
3f canes 
jtripped 

and 
topped. 


Weight 
tops. 


Weight 


1' 


N. 


P2O6. 


K2O. 


of juice 
obtained. 






Lhs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 




Lbs. 


LbB. 


Lbs. 


■f 


Safflower cake 
Sulphate of potash. 


3.408 


233i 


70 


393 


115 10 


f 22,876 
I 30,880 


64,076 
83,400 


12.996 
13,724 


47.640 
64.000 


■( 


Safflower cake 
Sulphate •£ potash . 


3,108 
56 


233i 


70 


39§ 
27 


[121 


r 22.936 
I 26,120 


67,208 
70.440 


13.716 
11,262 


48,836 
52,000 


•1 


Safflower cake ... 
Sulphate of potash. 


3.408 
125 


233J 


70 


39S 
60i 


1 127 10 


i 25.664 
{ 30,420 


70.3C4 
86,476 


14.420 
16.972 


63,412 
68.000 


•1 


Safflower cake 
Sulphate of potash . 


3,408 
196 


233J 


70 


391 
931 


|l34 2 


. 24,644 
i 31,048 


73,828 
88,172 


14,804 
16,728 


63,104 
68.000 






1 

i 


Kind of manure. 




R< 


esultspe 


r acre j ci 


'op Pundia ct 
itoon cane, IJ 


ine (plant cane, 1906-06; 




Per- 

eentage 

of 

juice 
to cane. 


Gul. 


Per- 
centage 

of 
Quito 

juice. 


Per- 
centage 

of 
Quito 
cane. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Profit. 


Year. 








Lbs. 






Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p 


Rs. a. p. 






A 


Safflower cake 


74-3 


9.460 


19-8 


14-7 


271 9 4 


591 4 


319 10 8 




1906^ 


n 


Sulphate of potash . 


76-8 


10.444 


16-2 


12-5 


291 14 4 


696 4 3 


404 5 11 




1906-06 


^{ 


Safflower cake 


72-6 


9,056 


18-5 


13'5 


278 15 8 


566 


287 4 




1906-07 


Sulphate of potash. 


73*9 


8,396 


161 


11-8 


288 11 


559 11 11 


271 11 




1906-06 


J 


Safflower cake 


76-9 


10,280 


19-3 


14-6 


295 4 C 


642 8 


347 4 




1906-07 


'1 


Sulphate of potash. 


78-6 


11,452 


16-8 


13-3 


318 6 8 


763 7 4 


445 8 




1905-06 


4 


Safflower cake 


72-9 


10,252 


19*3 


14-8 


300 12 


640 12 


340 




1906-07 


Sulphate of potash. 


76-6 


11,620 


17-9 


131 


325 12 4 


774 10 8 


448 14 4 




1905-06 



6 



These results clearly show that there is an increase of outturn 
by potash manure. Eurther experiments with increased quantity 
of potash are necessary. 

11. Phosphoric acid requirements for sugar cane, -^M-Sltij 
questions were received from cultivators with regard to the use 
of bones in some form as a sugarcane manure. To settle this 
question a series of four plots was laid out last year and manured 
with 50 lbs., 100 lbs., 150 lbs. and 200 lbs. of phosphoric acid in 
the form of superphosphate in addition to 360 lbs. of nitrogen 
from safflower cake, 'fhis year the same experiments are carried 
with the ratoon cane, but two-thirds of phosphoric acid and 
nitrogen of the last year have been given. 

Plots 1 and 2 being manured alike last year as the quantity 
of cake contains more than 100 lbs. of P2O5, plot 1 was 
converted into a complete manure plot this year and hence 
sulphate of potash was also given in addition to cake and super- 
phosphate. 

The results with the outturn of the last year are tabulate 
below for comparison. 



* 



Manurial treatment per acre. 


Results per acre ; crop Pundia 

cane (plant cane, 1905-06; 

ratoon cane, 1906-07). 


1 


Kind of manure. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Containing 


Cost of 
manure. 


No. of 
canes. 


Weight 
of canes 
stripped 

topped. 


Weight 
tops. 




N. 

Lbs. 
233i 


P2O5. 


K20. 




SaflBower cake 


Lbs. 
3.408 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Bs. a. p. 




Lbs. 
57,716 


Lbs. 


ll 


70 


39S 


^ 


l' 23,196 


12.996 


Sulphate of potash 


195 


... 




938 


1^150 9 


j 






Bapcrphosphate ... 


184 


... 


63i 


... 


J 


L 35,949 


87,944 


17,136 




Safflower cake 


S.l'JS 


233» 


70 


391 


115 10 


r 22,920 


66,100 


12,092 




Superphosphate ... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


\ 26,284 


65,288 


11,732 


ftl 


Safflower cake 


3,408 


233J 


70 


391 


|l23 1 


r 22,024 
l 30,C83 


4S,4i4 


10,272 


Superphosphate ... m. 


88 


... 


30 


•»• 


86.740 


16,444 


4J 


Safflower cake 


3,408 


233J 


70 


39S 


|l31 3 


r 18,096 
1. 29.366 


38,556 


8,724 




Superphosphate ... 


184 


... 


m 


... 


77,724 


13.043 



1 


Kind of manure. 


Results per acre ; crop Pundia (plant cane, 1905-06 j 
ratoon cane, 1906-07;. 


E 

•c 

1 


Weight 

juice 
ob- 
tained. 


Per- 
centage 
of 

juioe 
to cane. 


Weight 
GuU 


Per- 
centage 

of 
Gul to 
juice. 


Per- 
centijie 
of^ 
Gul to 

cane. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Value 

of 

outturn 


Profit. 


Year. 


4 


Safflower cake r 
Sulphate of potash - 
Superphosphate 
Safflower cake 
Superphosphate 
Safflower cake 
Superphosphate 
Safflower cake 
Superphosphate 


Lbs. 
41,868 

68,000 
38.580 
52,000 
34,716 
68.000 
26,788 
60,000 


72 5 

77-3 
70 01 
79-6 
71-6 

78'4 
694 
77-02 


Lbs. 
8,096 

11,952 
7.680 
9,296 
6.632 

11,876 
5,252 

10,405 


19-3 

17-5 
19-9 
17-9 
19-1 
17*4 
19-6 
17-6 


14 9 

136 
140 
14 2 
13 7 
13'7 
13*6 
13 5 


Rs. a. p. 

297 

29'? 2 8 
257 
279 2 4 
257 2 
307 11 »• 
249 10 
312 13 4 


R& a. p 

506 I 

792 12 f 
480 ( 
619 11 t 
414 8 ( 
791 13 ! 
328 4 ( 
702 10 fc 


Rb. a p. 

209 1906-07 

496 10 1906^)6 
223 1906-07 
340 9 4 1905-06 
157 6 1906-07 
484 2 1 1905-OS 
78 10 1906-07 
389 13 4 1905-06 



These results show that there is no increase in the outturn by 
using larger amount of phosphoric acid. These experiments may 
therefore be discontinued, 

12. Top-dressing for sugarcane, — To compare the value of 
different nitrogeneous manures, including mineral manures, a 
series of five plots was manured last year with 200 lbs. of nitrogen 
in the form of farmyard manure and 150 lbs. nitrogen in the 
form of various top-dressings, plot 1 receiving all nitrogen 
from farmyard '.manure in the beginning. 

This year the dressing given to these plots was similar to 
that of the last year's top-dressings, but only 233J lbs. of 
nitrogen per acre was supplied. Plot 1, which received only one 
application of farmyard manure last year, received the same 
dressing as the second plot and the residual effect of the farm- 
yard manure will be observed. 

The results with the outturn of the last year are tabulated 
below for comparison. 



♦5 


Manurial treatment per acre. 


Results per acre ; crop Pundia (plant cane, 
190&i06 i ratoon cane. 1906K)7). 


1 


Kind of manure. 


Quan- 
tity. 


Containing 


Cost of 
manure. 


Number 

of 
caues 


Weight 
of canes 
stripped 

and 
topped. 


Weight 

of 
tops. 


Weight 

of 
juice 


o 

1 


N. 


'2\ 


K^O. 


obtain- 
ed. 






Lbs. 


Lb8. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


1 


Safflower cake 


3.408 


233J 


70 


39i 


115 10 


r 20,300 
124.450 


44,264 
40,368 


8,576 

6,888 


31,492 
28,000 


8 


Do. 


3.408 


233i 


70 


393 


115 10 


(24.524 
I3O.304 


49,300 
49,888 


10,612 
12,044 


34,444 
36.000 


3 


Nitrate of soda ... 


1.606 


233^ 


... 


... 


171 4 


j 21,308 
( 29,208 


60.716 
53.316 


11,672 
11.716 


35.32) 
40.000 


4 


Poudrette 


28.807 


333^ 


3m 


1981 


200 


|24,072 
126,744 


61,996 
62.648 


13.452 
9.740 


36.688 
40.000 


6 


Crude nitre 


1,800 


233^ 


••• 


••« 


205 


(30.860 
l27.79« 


74,840 
71,128 


15,584 
15,088 


52,496 

56,3ao 



i 


Kind of manure. 




ElesnltB per 


acre ; crop Pundia (plant cane, 1905-06 ; ratoon cane, 1906-07). 1 


1 


Percent- 
age of 
juice 

to cane. 


Gul. 


Percent- 
age of 
Gul to 
juice. 


Percent- 
age of 
Gul to 
cane. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Value 

of 

outturn. 


Profit. 


1 








Lbs. 






Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 




1 


Safflower cake —-1 


71-1 


6,596 
6,096 


17-6 
18-2 


12 6 
12-6 


241 14 

221 11 4 


349 12 
339 11 9 


107 14 
118 5 


1906-07 
1905 08 


8 


- "1 


69-8 
72-4 


6.104 
6.204 


17-7 
17-2 


12-4 247 4 

i 
12 4 1 248 2 8 


381 8 
413 9 11 


134 4 
166 7 3 


1906-07 
1905-06 


3 


Nitrate of soda... 


69-6 
75-02 


6.420 
6.952 


18-2 
17-4 


12-7 
13-4 


304 
344 9 4 


401 4 
463 7 5 


97 4 
118 13 7 


1906-07 
1905-08 


4 


Po«idrette ...| 


70-5 
75-5 


6.812 
7.212 


18*5 
18*03 


131 
13-6 


823 9 
299 13 


426 12 
480 12 10 


102 3 
180 15 10 


1900-07 
1905-06 


6 


Crude nitre ... < 


70*1 
79-2 


9.724 
9.632 


18-5 
17-02 


12-9 
13'5 


237 15 

382 3 8 


605 12 
642 2 3 


377 13 

259 8 7 


1903-07 
1905-06 



Erom these results it will be seen that the plot of crude nitre 
comes first, of poudrette second, and that of nitrate of soda comes 
third in point of outturn. 

13. Mineral manures, — As mineral manures have been 
brought to the attention of cultivators considerably of late, it is 
deemed advisable to compare them with safflower cake. Two 
plots were therefore manured, one with nitrate of soda and the 
other with safflower cake. 



The application of nitrate of soda was made in three dressings 
last year. IVo-thirds of tlie manures were given this year, but 
nitrate of soda was given in 21 applications before an ec[ual 
number of waterings. 

The results with the outturn of last year avs tabulated 
below for comparison. 



i 


Man.ulal trca'.raontpor acre. 


Results per acre; crop Pundia (plant 
cane, llK'5-06 j rat->on cane, 1 000-07) . 


•5 

1 


Kind of manure. 


Qnan- 
tity; 


Containintr. 


Cost of 
manure. 


Number 

of 
canes. 


Weight 

of canes 

stripped 

and 

topped. 


Weight 

of 

tops. 


Weight 
of juice 


c 
<5 


N. 


^2^5- 


S°- 


obtain- 
ed. 


1 
2 


Safflower cake 
Nitrate of soda ... 


Lbs. 
3,403 

1,505 


Lb?. 

233^ 

233^ 


Lb3 

70 


Lbs. 
393 


Ks. a. p. 
115 10 

171 4 


(25,510 
120,883 
1 20,501 
129,301 


Lbs. 
53,038 

80,828 
50,988 
70,243 


Lba. 
13.492 

13.641 
13,261 
10,600 


Lba. 
37,481 
64,000 
35,.5o6 
56,000 



i 

g 


Kind of manure^ 


Results per acre ; crop Pundia (plant cane, 193&-96; ratoon cane 1903-07), 


s 

& 

o 
O 
d 


Percent- 
age of 
juice 

to cane. 


Weight 

ot 

Gul. 


Percent- 
age <>f 
Gul 
to juice. 


Percent- 
to cane. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


1 

I 

Value of p-^fif 
outturn. ^^^^^ 

■ 1 


Year. 


1 1 

1 Safflower cake 

i 

2 ' 

Nitrate of soJa ... 


( 70-6 
( 79-1 
[ 69-5 
( 79-7 


Lbs. 
7,140 
11,372 
6,52t 
9.492 


190 
17-8 
18 3 
16 9 


13 5 

14-07 
12-8 
135 


Rs. a. p 
254 8 
2.^5 6 8 
302 12 

473 1 8 


Rs. a. p.j Rs. a. p. 
416 4 191 12 
7c8 2 1 462 11 5 
407 12 105 
632 12 8 159 H 


1800-07 
1005-OC 
1906 07 
100.--03 



The safflower cake gave more outturn of Grul. 

14, An experiment with a balanced manure containing all the 
elements of plant food was attempted last year. The crop received 
only two-thirds of the manure this year. It is interesting to 
compare this plot with the first plot of phosphoric acid manure 
experiment as this plot has also received a similar dressing. 

Tlie results with the outturn of the last year are tabulated 
below. 



B 1059—2 



10 



Manurial treatment per acve. 



Results per acre ; crop Puudia (plant cano. 
1905.00 ; Ratoon cane, 1906-07;. 



Kind of nianiir.^ 



Quan- 
titj. 



Containing. 



N- ^3^6. 



Cost of 
manure.. 



Number 

of 

canes. 



Weight 
of canes 
stripped 

and 
topped. 



Weight 

of 

tops. 



Weight 
of j Dice 
obtain- 
ed. 



Nitrate of soda ... 
Snlphate of potash, 
Superphosphate .., 



Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


1,505. 


233J 


•M 


139 


... 


M« 


195 


- 


661 



Lbs. 



6C| 



a. p. 



1-142 



U 



rS3.400 

I 

< 

I 

^39,712 



Lbs. 
83,S96 

07,C88 



Lbs. 
17,768 



17.040 



Lbs. 
69,144 

76,000 



Kind of manure. 



Results per acre ; crop Pundia fplant cane, 1905-C6 ; Ratoou cane, 1906-07). 



Percent- 
age of 
juice 

to cane. 



Weight 

of 

Gul. 



Percent- 
age of 
Gul 
tcjuic . 



Percent- 
age of 
Gul 
to cane. 



Cost of 

cnitiva- 

tion. 



Value of 
outturn. 



Profit. 



Year. 



K 







Lbs. 






Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Nitrate of soda ... 


^70-4 


11,340 


19*2 


135 


318 8 


708 12 


390 4 


Sulphate of pot::sh. 


[ 














Superphosphate ... 


;78-2 


13,014 


17-2 


13-4 


531 12 4 


669 9 7 


334 13 3 



1906^ 



IP05 06 



B. — Irrigation Experiments. 

16. Sugarcane. — A demonstration irrigation plot was put 
down to Pundia cane and the results are in accordance with those 
of the previous year, that is apparently in favour of the smaller 
supply of w^ater. 

The details are given below. 



Details of Irrigation. 


Resmts per acre ; crop Puudia (ratoon). 


Each 
watering 
equal to 
inches of 
rainfall. 


Interval 
between 

each 

watering 

Days. 


Number 
of water- 
ings. 


Quantity 
of water 
in cubic 
feet ex- 
clusive of 
rainfall. 


Number 
of canes. 


Weight 
of canes 
stripped 

and 
topped. 


Weight 
of tops. 


Weight 

of juice 
obtained. 


Percent 

age of 

juice 

to cane 


n 


10 
16 


31 
20 


223,862 
269,237 


20,674 
21,534 


Lbs. 

55,330 
40,720 


Lbs. 

] 3,484 
10,816 


Lbs. 

39,466 
33,758 


71-3 
72-2 



11 







Results per acre j crop 


Pundia (ratoon 


I. 




Weight 
of Gul. 


Percent- 
age of 
Gul 
to juice. 


Percent- 
age of 
Gul 
to cane. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Valiie of 
outturn . 


Profit. 


Outturn of 

Gul last 

year. 


Lbs. 
7,940 
6,582 


14-4 
14-1 


2C-1 
19-5 


Bs. a, p. 
258 9 
246 


Rs. a. p. 
4£6 4 
411 6 


Rs. a. p. 
237 11 
165 6 


Lbs. 

7,228 

6,068 



Quantity of water= 
inches of rain. 
1 

2 
2 
3 

2 

3 
of April, but it was attacked 
It was therefore resown on the 



16. Lucerne. — To ascertain the quantity of water required 
for lucerne a field was divided into six plots. They were irrigated 
as follows : — 

Plot, Interval of days, 

1 6 

2 5 

3 7 

4 7 

5 10 

6 10 
Lucerne was sown on the 28th 
by mealy wings (Aleurodidse). 
22nd of November. 

As there was only one catting till the end of March the 
outturn is not given, 

C. — New Methods of Cultivation. 

17. Sugarcane. — The methods used in the cultivation of 
this crop in the Deccan are so labourious that they could only be 
employed in a land where labour is very cheap, and even here it 
is thought that part of the expensive process of weeding and earth- 
ing could be done by bullock power. Different widths between 
the rows are being tried to see which will be the best for bullock 
cultivation. The usual dressing of farmyard manure and safflower 
cake has been given. 

The results are tabulated below. 



System of 
planting. 








Eosults per acre ; crop 


Fund 


a (ratoon). 






Num- 
ber 
cf 
ex- 
peri- 
ment. 


Dis- 
tance 
between 
the rid- 
ges in 
feet. 


tVumher 

of 
canes. 


Weight 

of canes 

stripped 

and 

topped. 


Weight 
of tops. 


Weight 
of juice 
obtain- 
ed. 


Per- 
cent- 
age of 
juice 

to 
cane. 


Weight 
of Gul. 


Per. 
cent- 
age of 

Gul 

to 
juice- 


Per- 
cent- 

Tu.°' 

to 
cane. 


Cost of 

cultisa« 

tton. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Profit. 


1 

2 

3 


2 
3 

Si 


29,318 
20,552 
21,672 


Lbs 
69,696 

59,896 

69,784 


Lbs, 
11,444 

8.592 

9,160 


Lbs. 
60,010 

a9,200 

42.600 


71-8 
65-5 
61*0 


Lbs. 
8,620 

6,528 

7.320 


17-2 
16-6 
17-5 


12-4 
10-9 
10*2 


Rs. a. p. 
371 3 

365 1 

350 15 ( 


Rs. a. p. 

594 8 

450 3 4 
504 13 4 


Rs. a. p. 
223 5 

So 2 4 

163 14 4 



12 



18. Jowdr, — Of the two idiots of Jowiir one was interculturcd 
with the Planet Junior hoe every week as long as the bullocks 
were able to walk through the rows and the other was not 
intercultured. 

The intercultured plot being the end plot of the series was 
so much attacked by birds that the outturn of the two plots 
cannot be compared. 

The yields are given below. 



Kuinbcr 

of 
experi- 
ment. 


Tillage. 


Yield per acre ; crop Jowar. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Cost of cul- 
tivation. 


1 
2 


Not intercultared ... 
Intercultured ..% 


Lbs. 

110 

224 


Lbs. 

6,800 
6,960 


Ks. a. p, 
26 2 8 
28 12 6 


Rs. a. p. 

27 5 2 

28 7 2 



D. — System or planting. 

19. Several times in the past, experiments with tin 
planting of the tops and butts of sugarcaae have been tried at 
Manjri, but it is not carefully recorded what is meant by tops. 
In some places only the leafy portion of the top is planted. 

Three plots have been planted this year as follows : — Plot 1 
top or upper third of the cane ; 2nd butts ; 3rd mixed as they 
come. An experiment in ratooning and transplanting cuttings 
has been added. All these plots are manured with fish manure 
and gurdl ashes. 

The details of the experiment are given below. The trans- 
planted plot being very late has not yet been harvested. The 
result is contrary to those ordinarily obtained from experiments 
on this point. 



Num- 
ber 
of ex- 
peri- 
ment. 


System of planting. 


Results per acre j crop Puudia. 


Number 
of canes. 


Weight 
of canes 
stripped 

and 
topped. 


Weight 
of tops. 


Weight 

of 
juice. 


Percent- 

. age of 

juice 

to cane. 


Weight 
of Gul. 


1 
2 
3 


Tops ... 
Butts 

Mixed, as tliey come 


24,108 
80,280 
27,976 


Lbs. 
69,332 
70,912 
71,185 


Lbs. 
12,052 
12,528 
11,452 


Lbs. 

47,120 
48,756 
48,143 




87-5 

68-8 
07-6 


Lbs. 
9,004 
9,380 
9,043 



13 



Num- 


System of planting. 


Results per acre ; crop Tundia. 


ber 
of ex- 
peri- 
ment. 


Percent- 
age of 
Gul. 

to juice. 


Percent- 
age of 

Gul 
to cane. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Profit. 


1 
2 
3 


Tops 
Bulls 
Mixed, as they come 


19-6 
lC-2 
17-9 


12-3 
13'2 
12-7 


Rs. a. p. 
410 11 
414 5 
437 4 8 


Rs. a. p. 
620 15 4 
616 14 4 
623 11 6 


Rs. a. p. 
210 4 4 
232 9 4 
186 6 10 



E. — EoTATioN Experiments. 

20. notation experiments for sugarcane for block system 
of irrigation, — To ascertain which are the most profitable crops to 
rotate with sugarcane in the block system of irrigation, 6 acres 
are devoted to rotation experiments and three-year, four-year, 
and six-year rotations have been made out. 

The following? is the list of the rotations : — 



Plot. 


Rjjtatious, 


Year. 


Crop. 


Plot. 


Rotations. 


Year. 


Crop. 


1 


Three-year 


1906-07 


Bare fallo'w. 


8 


Four year. 


1906-07 


Cotton. 


1 


190708 


Cane. 






1907-08 


Groundnut. 


1 


1908-09 


Cane ratoon. 






1908-09 


Cane. 


2 1 Do. ... 


1906-07 


San for manure. 






1909-10 


Cane ratoon. 


1 
i 


1907-08 


Cane. 


9 


Do. ... 


1906-07 


San for fibre. 


1 


1908-09 


Cane ratoon. 






1907-08 


Fodder Jowdr. 


3 ! Do. ... 


1906-07 


Groundnuts. 






1908-09 


Cane. 




1907-06 


Oane. 






1909-10 


Cane ratoon. 


i 


1908-09 


Care ratoon. 


10 


Six-year . 


1906-07 


Cane. 


4 1 Do. ... 


1906-07 


Cane. 






1907-08 


Cane ratoon. 






1907-08 


Cane ratoon. 






1908-09 


Cotton. 






1908-09 


San for fibre. 






1909-10 


Tur- 


5 


Do. ... 


1906-07 


Cane. 






1910-11 


Jowar, 






1907-08 


Cane ratoon. 






1911-12 


San for fibre. 






1908-09 


Jowdr. 


11 


Do. ... 


1906-07 


Cane. 


6 


Four-year. 


1906-07 


Cotton. 






1907-08 


Cane ratoon. 






1907-08 


San for fibre. 






1908-09 


Cotton. 






1908-09 


Cane. 






1909-10 


Groundnut. 






1909-10 


Cane ratoon. 






1910-11 


Jowar. 


7 


Do. ... 


1906-07 


Tur. 






1911-12 


San for fibre 






l907-0b 


Fodder Jowar. 


12 


Do. ... 


1906-07 


Cotton. 






1908-09 


Cane. 






1907-08 


San for fibre. 






1909-10 


Cane ratoon. 






1908-09 
1909-10 
1910-11 
1911-12 


Wheat. 
Jowar. 
Cane. 
Oane ratoon. 



M 



In all these cases of rotations the usual country manures, viz, 
fish manure and oil cake, etc., will be supplied to sugarcane. 
Other plots will be manured as they require it. As these plots 
have been replaced by a more complete and definite series, the 
yields are not given. 

F. — Treatment of Murum Soils. 

21. Cotton. — A portion of the irrigated tracts of the 
district consists of light murum soil, and the best and the most 
economical system of managing these soils is under investigation. 
One of the crops suggested for these soils is cotton of the 
Hirsutum type, and as the Dharwar- American is the only variety 
of which seed was available it has been selected. It was sown 
according to three different methods. The first plot was sown in 
July according to the Dharwar method, the second plot in July 
on ridges 3 feet apart, and the third on ridges 3 feet apart in 
September. The following are the results of the experiment : — 



Crop, cotton DhJlrwar-American. 


Per aero. i 


Plot. 


Method of sowing. 


Date of sowing. 


Outturn 

seed 
cotton. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Loss. ' 


1 
2 
3 


Ordinary 

Three feet apart on ridges 
Do. 


July 
July 
September 


Lbs. 

304 

132 

20 


Rs. a. p, 
28 2 
32 8 
19 14 


Rs. a, p. 
25 5 4 
11 
1 10 8 


Ks. a. p. 

2 12 8 

21 8 

18 3 4 



22. Cereals and Fuhes. — The remaining portion of the light 
soil area was divided into ten 10-guntha plots. Eive plots were 
cropped with kharif pulses and rabi cereals and the other five with 
kharif cereals and rabi pulses, to see which of the systems or which 
crops are most paying and what manures are necessary for them. 

The statement below shows the details of the experiment. 






Results per acre. 




Name of Crop. 


Oattiirn 
grain. 


Cost of 
cultivation 


Value of 
outturn. 


Profit ( + )or 

l0S3(-). 


rvcmarks. 


Kharif -Fieklbcana 
Rabi— Barley 


1 
Lbs. 1 Bs. a. p. 
840 i 17 3 7 
480 I 21 2 


Bs. a. p. 
70 
12 


Rs. a. p 

+ 52 12 5 
—9 2 




Totel ... 




38 5 7 


87 


+ 43 10 5 




Kharif— Kultbi 
Rabi— Barley 


320 17 3 7 
480 1 21 2 


8 
12 


-9 3 7 
—9 2 




Total ... 


38 5 7 


20 


—18 5 7 


i 



15 





Crop. 


Results per acre. 




Name of 


Outturn 
grain. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Profit ( + )or' 
loss ( -J. 


Benoarks. 


Kharif — Mng 
Rabi— Oats 


Total ... 

Total ... 

... 

Total ... 

Total ... 

Total ... 

:Dli 

Tctal ... 

Total ... 
Total ... 


Lbs. 
6i0 

784 


Rs, a. p. 
17 3 7 
21 2 


Rs. a. p. 
16 U 
23 9 8 


Rs. a p. 
-13 7 

+ 2 7 8 






... 


38 5 7 


39 9 8 


+ 1 4 1 




Kbarif— Math 
Rabi— Oats 


5G 
784 


IT 3 7 
21 2 


1 G 4 
23 9 8 


—15 13 3 

+ 2 7 8 






... 


38 5 7 


25 


—13 5 7 




Kbarif— Udid 
Rabi— Khapli 


952 

808 


17 3 7 
23 14 


23 13 
20 1 8 


+ 6 9 5 
—3 12 4 






... 


41 .1 7 


43 14 8 


+ 2 13 1 




Kharif— Niicbui 
Rabi— Peas 


G60 
32 


10 14 
10 15 


16 8 
1 9 7 


+ 5 10 
-8 7 5 


■ 






21 13 

- 


18 1 7 


—3 11 6 




Kbarif— Kodra 
Rabi— Gram 


300 
952 


10 14 
12 4 


7 8 
31 11 10 


—3 6 

19 7 10 






... 


23 2 


39 3 10 


+ 16 1 10 




Kharif— Sitva 
Rabi— Gram Kiil 


... 
152 


12 4 


5 10 


—7 3 


Grubbed up as it was 
nofc promising. 




... 


12 4 


5 10 


—7 3 




Kharif— Vari 
Rabi— Masur 


376 


17 


18 12 10 


+ 1 12 10 


Grubbed up as it was 
not promising. 






17 


18 12 10 


+ 1 12 10 




Kharif— Rdla 
Rabi — Lang 


424 
1,288 


10 14 
17 


10 8 
51 8 


—0 

+ 34 8 






.«• 


27 14 


62 


+ 34 2 





VIII.— New Crops. 

23. Cotton. — The great demand for cotton has led to try 
every possible means of growing a long stapled cotton. It does 
not seem possible to raise with profit the Egyptian or American 
varieties anywhere on the black cotton soil ; but the Broach type 
of cotton will grow very well in soils where there is sufficient 
supply of moisture. Experiments were commenced in 1904 
to ascertain the value of this crop and the best methods of 
growing it, Tn May 1905, 30 gunthas of Broach cotton were 



16 

sown. This gave a fair outturn; but an inoppurtune rain in 
January caused a set of bolls to fall. As the cotton was bearing 
in May 1906, it was decided to carry the plants over to see what 
results will be obtained with the plants two years old. The plants 
were pruned to half their growth and manured and intertilled. 

The results of the experiment with those of the last year are 
tabulated below for comparison. 





1905-06. 


1906-07. 


Crop. 


Outturn 

per acre 

seed cotton. 


Value of 
Outturn. 


Outturn 

per acre 

seed cotton. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Broach 


Lbs. 
429 


Bs. a. p. 
35 12 


Lbs. 
143 


Rs. a. p. 

29 5 4 


Rs. a. p. 

14 4 9 



24. The best time for sowing Broach cotton under irriga- 
tion has not yet been established ; to ascertain this eight plots ofj 
10 guntha each were sown half with Broach and half wdth] 
Kumpta cotton at an interval of a fortnight from the 15th' 
of March. 

The following statement shows tho inconclusive results of 
the experiment : — 



Results per acre, 



Date of 

sowing. 


Variety. 


Outturn 

seed 
cotton. 


Cost of 

cultiva- 

tiou. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Profit ( + ) or 

l088(-). 


Remarks. 






Lbs. 




Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 




15th March ... 


Broach 


GSO 


? 


103 9 8 


^84 


-19 9 8 


This plot received 
extra water from 








c 


j 




the adjoining field. 


Do. 


Kumpta ... 


*'-872 


) 




(72 10 8 


-30 15 




1st April 


Broach 


480 




81 13 8 


(48 C 
> 72 JO C 


-33 13 8 




Do. 


Kumpta ... 


872 


-9 3 8 




15th April ... 


Broach 


392 


■^ 


76 5 8 


(39 3 4 
5 64 


-37 2 4 




Do. 


Kumpta ... 


768 


) 


-12 5 8 




IstMay 


Broach 


672 


■} 


71 9 8 


1 67 3 4 

i55 5 4 


-4 6 4 




Do. 


Kumpta ... 


66 1 




-16 4 4 




15th May ... 
Do. 


Broach 
Kumpta ... 


704 
592 




56 11 8 


(70 6 
{49 5 4 


+ 13 10 4 
-7 6 4 




1st June 


Broach 


624 




69 7 8 


(62 C 
H2 c 


+ 2 8 4 




Do. 


Kumpta . . . 


504 




-17 7 8 




15th June 


Broach 


464 


] 


51 7 


r46 6 
26 10 8 


-5 1 




Do. 


Kumpta ... 


008 


-24 12 4 




IstJuly 


Broach 


440 


1 


55 11 8 


(44 


-11 11 8 




Do.' 


Kumpta ... 


448 


( 


^36 4 


-19 7 8 





17 



25. Jute, — Jute was sown on a small plot of 11 gunthas. 
Half was sown with drill and half was broad-casted. It was sown 
in black soil. As the seed was received very late, it was not sown 
before the 3rd of July. This plot was adjoining to the main 
irrigation distributary and hence received seepage water. The 
plants were 4 feet high when they were cut. The cost of extreme- 
tion of the fibre is small compared to San. 

The statement below gives the outturn. 





Result!? per ncrc. 


Name of crop. 


Oulturn of 
fibre. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Juto 


Lbs. 
72 


Rs. a. p. 





26. Sugarcane — Mr. Mollison imported two varieties of 
sugarcane from Mauritius, and these have been grown at this 
Station ever since. The red variety yielded, in 1904, 55^ tons 
of stripped canes which is over 10 tons higher than Pundia, and 
although the Gul obtained was less than that from the Pundia, it 
seemed desirable to try this variety on a larger area. Accordingly 
one acre was put down to this crop dressed with fish manure, 
gurdl ashes and safEower cake. 

The following statement gives the results; these cannot 
apparently be compared with any of the Pundia plots : — 











Results per acre. 










Crop. 


No. 

of 

canes. 


VVeigbt 

canes 
stripped 

and 
topped. 


i 
Weight i^^t^^* 

tops ! 3ni- 
^^^^- obtained 

i 


Percent- 
age of 
juice 

to cane. 


Weight 

Of 

Gul. 


Percent- 
age of 
Oul to 
juice. 


Percent- 
age of 
Gulto 
cane. 

0-9 


Cost 
of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Value of 
outturn. 


f 

1 

Profit. 


Red AFauri 


i5,816 


Lb8. 

8i,816 


Lbff. j Lbs. 
11.233 1 6M03 


76-9 


Lbs. 


13-1 


Rs. a. p. 
431 3 2 


Rs. a. p. 

i5S2 lo I 


Rs. a. p. 


tiiM 


8,453 


lol 12 3 



IX —Comparative variety tests. 

27. JBdjrl. — Two varieties of Bajri (Nadiad and Bhavnagar) 
are found in Gujarat which yield larger outturn of superior 
character to the ordicary country Bajri. If tUest? are grown on 
lands full of plant food from sugarcane cultivation and watered a 
little they will yield a paying crop. 

B 1059—3 



18 



The statement below gives the results. 





Besults per acre. 


Kame of crop. 


Outturn. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Value of 
outturn. 


• 
Profit. 


* 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


Nadidd 
lihilvnajar ..* 


Lba. 
3,080 
1,120 


Lbs. 
5,200 

5,230 


Rs. a. p. 

. 26 5 8 

27 2 4 


Ea. a. p. 

62 

63 7 8 


Bs. a. p. 

35 10 4 

36 6 4 



Atoned Bdjri. — The awned cli-iraoter of tliis variety is not 
thoroughly fixed. To fix this and to select the seed 1 acre 20 
gunthas were sown with this variety. 

The following statement shows the outturn and cost of 
cultivation : — 





Results per acre. _ 


Kame of crop. 


Outturn. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Value of 

outturn. 


Pro6t. 


Bemarks. 1 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Awncd Bafjri 


Lbs. 

46G 


Lbs. 
1,724 


Bs a. p. 
IG 5 7 


Bs. a. p. 
24 3 10 


Rs. a. p. 
7 14 3 


Mucb attackei 
by bird?. 



28. Jowdr. — In order to equalize the land for next year' 
sugarcane experiments, 5 varieties of Jo war were grown for seed 
selection and distribution. As these plots were between the two 
series of sugarcane the outturn was much lessened by birds who 
found shelter in the sugarcane crops, although special care was 
taken to scare them away. Varieties which ripened late were 
most afPectod. It has been decided to 
Jow^r for seed from next year at this Station. 

The following is the outturn of each variety : 



discontinue growing 





variety. 




Besults per acre. 




Name of 


Outturn. 


Cost of 


Value of 




Griin. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


outturn. 


ShoUpuri 

Perio 

Glapti 

Khondi 

Gldgap 





Lbs. 
533 
378 
345 
806 
73 


Lbs. 

7,484 

7,551 

6,357 

5,1'38 

6,270 


Bs. a. p. 

28 12 7 
30 4 10 

29 4 1 
27 5 6 
26 5 3 


Rs a. p. 
41 5 3 
34 10 1 
30 2 4 
37 4 
20 15 9 



Bemark?» 



All the Jowiir varieties were 
much attacked by birds and 
hence the outturn so low, and 
as the watching charges were 
heavy (Bs. 14-0 per acre) the 
cost of cultivation is high. 






19 

29. lUce, — Three varieties of paddy were grown for com- 
parison. At the same time to see if there is any advantage in 
growing rabi pulses in the rice beds, half the plot of each variety 
was sown with Val this year in the rabi season. 

The following statement gives the results of the experi- 
ment : — 



• 


Hojul.'ri pel- acre. 


Crop. 


Oatturn of Cost of 
graiu, cultivation. 

1 


• 

Valine of 
outturn. 


Ambemohor 

Kamod ... 

Dodka 


Lbs. 
926 
840 

1,212 


Rs. a. p. 

51 6 8 
51 6 8 
51 6 S 


Rs. a. p. 

29 4 
26 4 
37 14 3 



30. Fodder crops for grain. — A large amount of seed is 
required for sowing fodder on the agricultural Stations. Two 
varieties of Jowar — Sorghum and Sundhia — and two varieties of 
American maize — Golden Beauty and Yellow Dent — were grown. 
Golden Beauty was much damaged by wild pigs. 

The following statement gives the outturn of these 
fodders : — 







Outturn per acre. 




Kame of crop. 


Outturn, 


Cost of 
cultivation. 






Grain. 


Fodder. 


outturn. 


Sorg-bum ... ... 

Suudbja 
Golden Beauty 
Yedow Dent ... 


Lbs. 

985 
1,050 
1,821 

805 


Lbs. 
2,520 
1,470 
2,010 


Rs. a p. 
20 2 11 
20 11 11 
24 4 
2n 1 


Rs. a. p. 
33 3 
33 6 7 
41 11 6 
3j 1 6 



X— Miscellaneous crops. 

81. Gram, Masur and Lang were grown after Bdjri to 
improve the land. Gram was damaged by wild pi^s. 



.20 

32. Three American varieties of siceet potcdo were grown for 
further test and for distribution. Much damage was done to 
sweet potatoes by wild jngs. These varieties are inferior in taste 
to the local ones. They were therefore sold very cheap at one- 
third the average price of the local sweet potatoes. 

33. Blue and white flowered Unseed were grown for fibre, 
but as the plants were branchy tbey were allowed to go to seed. 
As the seed of Russian linseed was not available the plot was sown 
with safliower. Safflower was very badly aft'ected by aphides. 

.Kerosine emulsion was tried on a small portion, but it produced 
no effect. 

34. Tar (Arhar) was grown for seed distribution, but as it 
was affected by wilt disease, all the plants were uprooted as they 
withered, 

35. Wheat (Kalakusal) was grown after harvesting fodder 
Jow^r and maize. This variety of wheat was found at the 
Nagar Exhibition last year. The seed is hard and heavy. 

36. Pondicherry (jroundnuts were grown on a small area. 
This seed was newly imported. The germination of this was 
not good. 

The statement below shows the results of these miscellaneous 
crops. 





Kcsults per acre. 




Name of Crcp. 


Onttarfr 
of grain. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Vnhie of - 
outturn. 


liemarks. 


(jraiii . 

jVIasur ... 

Lang ... 

Kansemond 

Virginia 

New Jersey 

T/inseed, blue flowered 

„ white flowered • . 
Wheat (Kalakusal) 
Groundnut (Pondicherry) • 
Vjil 


Lbs. 

780 

350 

1,504 

2,G67 

1,834 

824 

398 

588 

285 

1,377 

567 


Rs. a. p. 

14 10 
10 8 
24 13 6 

■ 92 6 

' ' ■ 

17 12 
17 12 
20 13 9 
30 6 
27 12 9 


Rs. a. p. 

26 3 2 
37 8 
CO 2 6 

' 31 4 

10 2 8 
24 8 
14 6 6 
68 13 6 
17 6 6 


- 

Watcliiug charges too higli. 
These sweet potatoes are 
not liked by the public and 
hence they were sold at 
low price. 



37. The experiments referred to in this report were planned 
by Mr. Knight. 

Foona, ^ F. FLETCHER, 

September 1907:) Acting Professor of Agriculture. 



II.— THE BA'RA'MATI DEMONSTRATION STATION, 

1906-07. 



Established — 1906 ; North Latitude —l^' 8' ; East LotKji- 
tiide — 1^^ 37'; Elevation — 1, 7 74i feet above sea level; Soil — light 
aud heavy black ; Average raiiifall — 22 inches. 

Af^ea — lOf acres. 



Overseer 



-Mr. P. K. Bhagwat. 











OC 


ct-su 


LL* 




















'j 

s 


"-9 


^ 
^ 


< 


%1 

1 




1 
1 


-a 




2 

1 


1 


-3 


JSdnimati, 

IvuiufaU (1908 07) 

Average 

Wadgaon (ucar Hoi). 
Rainfall (1906.07) 








as 

2 17 

1 6 


' 1/ 

3 00 

4 50 


1 II 

1 9 

2 65 
67 


1 II 
10 3 

1 53 
10 92 


/ II 
5 

6 65 

2 82 


1 2 

3 81 




49 
69 

3^3 


' 7 

13 





/ '/ 






/ '/ 






' '/ 






1 '1 
23 8ti 

21 39 
23 25 



I.— Introduction. 

2. These demonstrations consist of three detached plots. 
Two near the town of Banimati and one at Hoi about 17 miles from 
Baramati. One of the two plots near Baramati is a light soil plot 
and measures one acre, the other plot has a heavy black soil anci 
measures 3 acres 27 gunthas.' These two plots are rented at an 
annual rent of Bs. 51^. 

The plot at Hoi' has been lent by Eao Bahadur B. M. 
Xenjale on the condition that the Agriculture Department is to 
supply only the manure and the owner to take the produce in 
return for the cultivation charges. 

,A 11 the three plots are under the command of irrigation 
from the Nira Canal. 

The plots near Baramati are devoted to the cultivation of 
Broach cotton under irrigation and the plot at Hoi to irrigation 
and manurial experiments with sugarcane. 



22 

The demonstrations were commenced in 1906 nnder Govern- 
ment Resolution No. 5126, dated 25th May 1906. They had their 
origin in the investigation of the question of water-logging and 
saline efflorensence in the Baramati tract. 

II. — Meteorology, 

3. The monsoon commenced timely in June and was suf- 
ficient for sowing of kharif crops. In the month of July rain was 
in defect of the average, bub was sufl&cient for the standing crops. 
The rainfall in August was much in excess of the usual quantity. 
Heavy rain in the third week of September caused the cotton 
plants to lodge. The crop continued in fairly good conditions 
till January when cloudly weather caused bolls and flowers to fall. 
The unusual rain in April 1907 affected the outturn of cotton which 
was then being picked. The season was on the whole a fair one., 

III. —Cotton Experiments. 

Ja, The rented land came into the hands of the Agricultural 
Department by the 23rd of June, which was rather late for 
prexmration of the field. On account of heavy rain by the end of 
June the deep soil field had become inaccessible for several days. 
The i)reparatory tillage was complete by the 7th of August when 
the field was divided into two equal plots. One plot was planted 
according to the ordinary method (bed system), and the second 
according to the ridge system. 

In the former system seed was dibbled 3' apart in rows and 
in the latter, the field was put up into ridges 1' apart and 5 seeds 
were dibbled on the side of the ridge one foot apart. Sowing was 
done on the 7th, 8th and 9th of August. In all three waterings 
were given to the plots. One in August, the second in October, 
and the third in January. Picking commenced on the 1st of 
April 1907 and was finished by the 24th ot* May. 

In a similar manner, the light soil area was divided into 
two half-acre plots which were sown according to the bed and ridge 
systems. These plots were sown on the 24th and 25th of July 
19()0. They received five waterings, first on ilst July, Jsecoud 
on 12th August, thira on i5th September, fourth on 1st iNovember, 
and the 6th on the iird of i'ebruary. PicJ^ing was commenced at 
the end of March and ended by the Ibt of May 1907, 



23 



Tlie outturn results are tabulated below 









Besults per aero. 








Area 
under 
expcri- 
meat. 


System, 






Number 

of canal 

waterings. 




Survey 
No. 


Seed 
cotton. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Remarks. 




A. fc'. 




Lbs. 


Rs. a, p. 


Es. a. p. 






107 


133^ 


Bed 


251 


28 13 


..» 


3 


Soil hea\ y ; germination fair ; heavy 
rains in August and September 
















,, 


133?. 


Ruhe ^ .« 


139 


9 13 


•.. 


3 


affected the plants eon«iderablv ; 














1 


several plants on rid.ufcs lodged, 
growth stunted; owing to cloudv 
weather bolls and flowers dropped 
in January; aphides appeared in 
the crop in February ; by the end 
of the month plants appeared 
healthy, but many bolls dried 
when young. 


126 


20 


Bed 


808 


£0 8 


Gl li S 


5 


Soil light ; germination uneven ; 
heavy rains caused the plants 
grown on ridges to lodge ; bolls and 


,, 


20 


Bidgc 


G18 


38 10 


59 8 2 


5 
















tiowers dropped in J..nuary; 
















aphides appeared in February ; on 








i 








tlio whole the crop \ias healthy. 



X.B.—The cost of cultivation is rather hgh owing to tho watchinar ch-irgca which were necessary on account 
of the isolated position of tho fields. 

On account of lieavy rainfall, the sowing could not be under- 
taken in time in the heavy soil and the effect of late sowing has 
shown itselE in the poor outturn. The over-saturation of tho 
field from the adjoining sugarcane plot may have also affected 
the outturn. 

In the light soil plot the sowing was also rather late, but the 
heavy rain does not appear to have affected the yield much, and 
in spite of aphides the crop yielded 618 lbs. of seed cotton in the 
ridge system and 808 lbs. in the bed system. 

IV.— Irrigation Experiments with Sugarcane. 

5. These experiments were divided into two blocks. 

In the first block the sugarcane was planted on the 1st of 
February 1906 ; the experiment was commenced on the 27th of 
May, when the crop stood about 4' high and had received about 
ten waterings. At this time the cane crop was almost even in 
growth in all the plots. 

In this block the following was the scheme of experiments: — 

Plot I — To receive water equal to 8" of rainfall every 10 days. 

,, II— To receive water equal to 4" of rainfall every 10 days. 

J, 111 — To receive water equal to 3'' of rainfall every 10 days. 

,, IV— To receive water equal to 2^ of rainfall at an interval of 
G days in the hot weather and 8 days in the cold 
weather. 



24i 



Tlie following table sliows the results :— 



No 

of 

plot. 



I 
II 
III 
IV 



Water 
eqnal to 
inches of 
rainfall. 



ilntervals 
between 
waterings. 

Davs. 



No. 
of 
water- 
ings. 



10 

10 

10 

6 in hot 

weather 

and 8 in 

cold 



Results per acre. 



Quantity 

of water 

in cubic 

feet. 



wea 



ther. 



813,120 
377.520 
261.360 
475,092 



Weight 
of canes 
topped. 



Lbs. 
104,947 
102.440 

97,4S2 

99.29(3 



Weight I Weight 

of j of 
tops. ; juice. 



Weight 
of Gul. 



Lbs. 
15.162 

15,75u 
17.557 
18,533 



Lbs. 
80,405 
80.139 
78.055 
80,133 



Lbs. 
13.704 
13.4'Jf) 
l-473:i 
13,15<7 



Percentage of 



Juice 

to 
cane. 



76-6 

78-2 
80*0 

80-7 



Gul 


Gul 


to 


to 


juice. 


cane. 


17-2 


13 


16 7 


13 


16-3 


13 


16-4 


13 



The results are inconclusive. 

6. In the second block sugarcane was planted on the Ist of 
March 1906. At the time of the commencement of the experiment 
(27th May), the cane crop was 3' to 3^' high and had received 
about 8 waterings. 

In this block the scheme of experiments was this : — 

Plot I — To receive water equal to 1§" of rainfall every oth day. 
j^ II — To receive water equal to 2" of rainfall every 7th „ 
III— To receive water equal to 2|'' of rainfall every 10th ,, 
^^ lY — To receive water equal to V of rainfall every 15th „ 

The outturn results are tabulated below. 





Water 
equal to 
inches of 
rainfall. 


Interval 
between 
water- 
ings. 

6 
T 

10 

15 


No. 

of 
water- 
ings. 


Results per acre. Percentage of 


No. 

of 

plot. 


Quantity 

of water 

in cubic 

feet. 


Weight 
of canes, 
topped. 


Weight 

of 

tops. 


Weight 
ju^ce. 


Weight. 

Gul. 


Juice 

to 
cane. 


Gul 

to 

juice. 


Gul 

to 

cane. 


I 

II 

III 

IV 




63 
89 

23 
18 


820 660 

283,140 
251,680 
261,360 


Lbs. 
98,289 
98,080 
101,699 
95,033 


Lbs. 
16.151 
13,464 
16,077 
16,807 


Lbs. 
78.683 
79,475 
86.112 
79.6S5 


Lbs 
12.779 
13,397 
14,776 
13,402 


799 

810 
84 

aro 


16-2 
16-8 
171 
lC-8 


130 
13 G 
145 
IVl 



From the above statement it will be seen that the plot 
receiving 2%" of water every 10th day has produced a compara- 
tively high outturn (14,776 lbs.). The crop in plot I was rather 
poor at the commencement of the experiments. The other plots 
II and IV have given yields above the average. The percentages 
of juice to cane and Gul to juice are comparatively high in 
all the plots. 



25 

v.— Manurial Experiments with Surgarcane. 

7. The soil was medium red and had grown a crop of gram in 
the previous season. The field was divided into seven 10 guntha 
plots. The planting of cane was done between 25th and 27th of 
March 1906 and crushing was finished in June 1907. 

The following was the scheme of experiments : — 

Plot I.— -Poudrette manure applied in two dressings. 

,; II. — Farmyard manure before planting- + Safflower cake as a 
top-dressing'. 

„ III. — Farmyard manure before planting + Nitrate of Potash 
as a top-dressing", 

_,, IV, — Farmyard manure before planting + fish as a top-dressing. 

,, v.— Farmyard manure before planting + ashes + fish as a 

top-dressing. 
,, YI. — Farmyard raamu'e before planting + castor cake as a 

top-dressing. 

^, VII.— The usual quantity of manure ordinarily applied by the 
cultivators. Farmyard manure, castor cake and fish 
manure were used. 

The results are tabulated beloAV :-— 



r, 1051«-i 



26 



.5 

e 

I 



M 



il 

a> o 



Sj5 
I I If 

5 a ' "" 



Z^^ .1 

o^ o •: '-' 
, I c o « • 



o ? 



be a. 
.2S 



u-s-s 2 



iifi* ^ 



I ^- I g o 



sag -g^S^ 



t. <u o 



^■2 §^1 ^-9 







gs g^ 














1 


§°i 






? 

M 


s 


I-l 


C-1 




i4 


g s 


1 


CO 










•35 S 


S 1 


s 


to 


■* 

s 




1 




»4 

1 




3i- -- 


i 

2" 




1 




o 






3 1 1 


3 




»o* 


«D 


I 




M 


Lbs, 
10,660 

15,764 


1 

■* 


1 


1 


r1 


oT 





'S O C 

is 8 



I =■ 



S5 



£S.? 



o 


o 


o 


o 


00 


o 


^ 


^ 


$ 



o la 

O r-f 



S ^ 



§ I g I i i § 



I S 8 

5 U} M 

s" "■ »" 



I I 



O 3 









5 ^ 
S "2 



• * I s _ 

o ct tt «• :-« .«8 r' -** CD .s 0* es 



PH ^ (l4 (14 Pm 



oc5 




1 



27 

From tlie above statement, it will be seen that the farmyard 
manure + nitrate of potash has given the highest outturn. 
Poudrette and farmyard manure + fish plots have comparatively 
produced low yields. 

The plot No. 7 treated according to the cultivator's method 
of manuring has not given high yield when compared with the 
value of manure. 

The results require verification after a further trial. Not 
more than about 500 lbs. of nitre should be applied per acre. 

8. The demonstrations referred to in this report were planned 
by Mr. Knight. 

Foom, I E. ELETCHER, 

September 1907. ) Acting Professor of Agriculture. 



BOMEAYI rHINXEl> /.T 123 OOVEBSMRiCT CE»'TRA{i t^ASA. 



'{V ^uruRlWA 



■^. 



■■' 15 t93p 
u u u 

UQRARY 



ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

01' THE 

NADIAD AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(Kaira District, Gujarat) 

FOR THE YEAR 

1906-1907 



BY 

F. FLETCHEE, M.A., B.Sc, etc, 

l)e]}uty Director of Agriculture, 



BOMBAY 

PRINTED AT TUE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL TRESS 

1907 



[Frice—ba. ur hi] 



OFFiCIAL AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF INDIAN OFFICIAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

In Englatfd. 

E. A. Arnold, 41 & 43, Maddox Street, Bond Street, "W., Loadon. 

Constable & Co., 10, Orange Street, Leicester Squar.^, W. C, London. 

Grindlay & Co., 64, Parliament Street, S. W., London. 

Henry S. King* & Co., 65, Cornhill, E. C, London. 

P. S. King & Son, 2 & 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W., 
London. 

Kegan Paul, Trench, Trnbner & Co., 43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W., 
London. 

B. Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W., London. 

T. Fisher Unwin, 1, Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C. 

W. Thacker & Co., 2, (^-eed Lane. London. E. C. 

B. H. Blackwell, 50 & 51, Bread Street, Oxford. 

Deighton Bell & Co., Cambridge. 

On the Continents 

Friedlander & Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin. 

Rudolf Haupt, Ilalle-a-S., Germany. 

Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 

Ernest Leroux, 28, Rue Bonaparte, Paris. 

Martinus Nijhoflf, The Hague. 

In India, 

Higginbotham & Co., Madras. 

V. Kalyanaraiiia Iyer & Co., Madras- 

p. R. Rama lyar & Co , Madras. 

Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta. 

W. Newman & Co., Calcutta. 

S. K. Lahiri & Co., Calcutta. 

R. Cambray & Co., Calcutta. 

Thacker & Co. (Ld.), Bombay, 

A. J. Combridge & Co., Bombay. 

Curator, Government Central Book Depot, Bombay 

D. B. Taraporevala, Sons & Co., B)ml)ay. 

Sunder Pandurang, Bookseller, etc., liombay. 

Gopal Narayen & Co., Booksellers, et"., Bombay. 

N» B. Mathur, N. iC H. Press, Allahabad. 



i3«jpartmcnt of asvicultuie, Uomliag. 



ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OP THE 

NADIAD AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(Kaira District, Gujardt) 

FOR THE YEAR 



1906-190'; 



BY 

l\ FLETCHEB, M.A., B.Sc, e.ec., 

Deputy Dircoior of Agriculture, 



BO MBAY 

PRINTED AT THE (JOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1007 



Vernacular names of crops, &c., mentioned in the report and their 
Botanical and English equivalents. 



Botanical. 



Oryza sativa 

Peniiisetcuin typhoideum 

Pauicum scrobiculatum 

Ilordeuni vulgare 

Andropogou sorghum var. vulgare. 

Do* ceruuum 
Elusine coracana 
Triticuni vulgare 



Pulses- 

Cajanus indicus 
Cicer arietinum 
Phageolu8 mungo 
Phaseolus radiatus 
Dolichos lablab 
Cyamopsis psoralioides 
Glycine hispida 

Oilseeds- 

Sesan^nm indicus 
Kicinus communis 
Arachis hypogea 
Eruca sativa 

Fibre Plants, 

Gossypium herbaceum 

Do. ne^ectura 
Hibiscus cannabinus 
Crotolaria juncea 

Condiments. 

Cuminum cyminum 
Capsicum frutescens 
Pimpinella anisum 
Allium cepa 
Brassica juncea 

Sugar* 

J-'achharum officinarum 
Narcotics. 
Nicotiana tabacum 

Vegetables. 

Solanum melongtna 
8olanuni tuberosum 
Momordica charantia 



English. 



Rice 

Buirush millet 
Kodra millet 
Barley 
Great millet 

Do. 
Mama millet 
Wheat 



Pigeon pea 
Gram 

Green gram 
Black gram 
Indian bean 
Field vetch 
Soy beans. 



Sesamum 

Castors 

Groundnut 



Gujardt and Dhdrwdr cotton 

Do. 
Brown hemp 
Bombay hemp 



Cumine 

Chillies 

Anise 

Onions 

Mustard 



Sugarcane 



Tobacco 



Brinjal 
... Potato 
... Bitter gourd 



Veruacular. 



Ddngar (Sutarsdl, Kamotlj. 

Bdjri, Bajro, 

Kodra. 

Jao. 

Jowdr, 

b'undhia. 

B&vto. 

Ghau. 



Tuver. 

Ghana. 

Mag. 

Adad. 

Vdl. 

Guvdr. 



Tal. 

Diveli. 

Bhoising, 

Jdmbho, 



Broach, Ghogari, 

&c., kapis. 
Kozi kapas. 
Sheria, Atnbddi. 
San. 



Jiru. 

Marcha, 

Varidli. 

Kdnda. 

RAi. 



Kumta, 



Sherdi. 



Tamb^khu. 



Vengan, 

Batata. 

K4reli. 



One guntha 



5*^5 of an acre. 



b992— a 



THE NADIA^D AaRICULTURAL STATION, 

1906-07. 



UstablisJied—ldOS; North Latitude —22'' 41'; East Lon- 
gitude — 73° 0'; Elevation — approximately sea level; Soil — alluvial 
loam (Var. Goradu) ; Average rainfall— ^^' 6i'' ; Temperature — 
maximum ll^"^ in May, minimum 43° in January. 

Area — 44 acres. 

Superintendent — Mr, Dattatraya Hari Tagdre. 



Season. 





1 


1 
"' 


1 


3 


a 
be 


1 


1 


1 

S5 


S 


r 
1 


1 


A 
^ 

;! 


1 


Ral!»fail- 


/ ft 


' // 


' " 


' // 


' II 


/ // 


/ // 


/ // 


I n 


1 II 


/ // 


' II 


' // 


(1906-07) ... 








6 35 


11 15 


13 26 


12 





6 








75 


2 


30 67 




' // 




' // 


/ H 










' " 




/ // 


' // 


' // 


Avera-fft 


1 


15 


4 49 


U 8 


9 64 


6 16 


44 


37 


5 


3 


16 


6 


34 61 


Temperature (1906-07J— 




























Mean maximum 


105° 


103° 


97" 


i)3" 


91° 


89° 


96° 


94° 


90° 


83° 


88" 


98° 




Meau miaiirum 


74» 


83° 


83° 


81° 


79° 


78° 


72° 


62° 


.6- 


51° 


55° 


64° 





2. The monsoon commenced early; The first shower of rain 
came on the 16th June and by the 29th June there was sufficient 
rain to sow all crops. Since the famine this was the first year in 
which sowing could be commenced in June. The rain was quite 
favourable for germination. During the first fortnight of July, 
there was slight rain and cultivators were very anxious to have 
heavy rains for transplanting rice. Seedlings of rice were rather 
overgrown as they could not be planted till 25th of July. Heavy 
rainfall on the 24th and 25th of July damaged the young cotton 
plants to some extent. There was only an inch of rain during the 
first fortnight of August. Bajri, Tal, Tuver, etc., crops grew 
vigorously, Bajri grew very vigorously and promised a good 
yield. About the middle of August, Kodra plants began to wither 
in some places. On the 26th August there was a heavy rainfall 
and the fine crop of Bajri was badly laid. The flowers were washed 
off and the subsequent constant rain for a weelt caused the ears to 
rot. This season there was Bajri smut very prevalent in the 
district and naturally the farm suffered along with the rest, with 
the result that the Bajri crop was a total failure. Some of the 
cultivators did not even take the trouble to harvest the crop as it 
consisted of nothing but inferior Bdjri straw. 

B 992—1 



Owing to the favourable time of transplanting even the small 
seedlings of tobacco were planted ; but on account of constant 
rain, they rotted and there were several blanks in the fields. The 
scarcity of seedlings was much felt this year and many a cultivator 
made a profitable business in selling extra seedlings. Kodra, 
barley, rice, etc., were much benefited by this rain. In the month 
of September there were only 3*65 inches of rain. On the whole 
it may be said that the season was a favourable one for crops in 
general when compared with the past few years. 

Manurial Experiments. 
3. Irrigated Tobacco, — The object was — 

(1) to compare the effects of the following manures : 

(a) Farmyard manure, 

(6) Castor-cake, 

{c) Earni} ard manure + castor-cake, 

{d) Farmyard manure + nitre, 

{e) Farmyard manure 4 sodium nitrate, 

(/) Farmyard manure + ammonium sulphate, 

{g) San ploughed in as green manure ; 

(2) to compare tobacco grown in rotation with tobacco 

grown continuously ; 

(3) to compare the effects of ordinary and deep ploughing 

on tobacco. 

By deep ploughing is meant ploughing with an English Turn- 
wrest plough followed by a country wooden plough in the same 
furrow. 

The following table shows the details of cultivation of the 
several tobacco plots ; — 



3 



if 



±^ « 






O.J- 

"3 









00 00 C» 



© 00 



^ I- 1:- »0 TK O O CI lO ^^ ^^ '^^ "^^ •=. <^„ '■''„ l"i "^ 

(.j i-T r-T i-J M I-? i-T rH i-T .-T r-T i-T oT e-f —T r-T r^ ,_r 

TJ::;::: : •:: :::::: 

o 

§-opo ddo o dod 006660 



ll 



So 






ft R 



Ic3 



ft ft 



2 Q ■ Q ft 



35 






OS 



,0 . 
O > 



"go 

o 



o a 






fi -2 



»-5fi: 



^ d o 5 d t-^^Q 
S ft o S« |§^ 



2 • 
I 

la 



3 Q 



« o 






Q a s 



Q P 



i'2 i 

P4 < 



. a 



OOP 



O P 



O Q 



5 Q 



2 o 
ft O 



o o 



o o 



£§0 



i 



Owing to the saltish irrigation water the cured leaves were not 
bright in colour. The nitre and sodium nitrate plots were severely 
damaged by wilt disease. Green manure (San) has produced a 
better yield. The cured leaves are thinner and rather whitish in 
appearance. This green manure makes the soil very soft and is 
likely to encourage the growth of Yacuinba (Orobanche Nicotiana). 
No conclusions can be drawn as some of the plots are damaged by 
wilt disease. 

4. JRice. — The object was — 

(1) to compare farmyard manure with nitre, 

(2) to compare rice manured and irrigated with rice manured 

but not irrigated, 

(3) to compare rice grown unman ured and unirrigated with 

rice grown manured but not irrigated. 

The variety of rice grown was Sutarsal. 
The results are as under : — 













Manure. 


! 
i 


Yield 
per acre. 




riot 

Ko. 


Area. 


Cror. 


Tillage. 








IiTigation. 




Value ICost of 












of cultira- 








Kind. 


Quantity 
per acre. 


Time of 




Grain. 


Straw. 


produce. 


tion. 




Gun- 




1 
1 








Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 




thap. 




( I F. y. M. ... 

Ordinary < ' + 

( 1 Nitre ... 


71 1on8«. 


June ... 


1 










90 


6 


Klcc ... 






}Nil ... 


],2fiC 


2,046 


46 6 2 


57 8 G 








80 lbs. ... 


August... 


/ 










01 


6 


Do. ... 


Do. ...j Nil 


Nil ... 


•" 


Nil ... 


1,200 


2,146 


44 10 6 


36 4 


93 


6'* 


To. ... 


Do. ...1 F. Y. M. ... 


7i tons ... 


June ... 


Nil ... 


1,127 


2,051 


43 8 


50 10 11 








Cl F. Y.M.... 


75 tons... 


Juue ... 






1 




94 


6 


Do. ... 


Do. .^ + 






> Irrigat- 


1,933 


2,413 es 7 6 


64 6 








I Nitre ... 


BOlbs. ... 


August.,. 








95 


8-6 


Do. ... 


Do. . F.y. M.... 

! • i 


7i tons... 


June ... 


Do. ... 


1,529 


1,915 54 1 4 


58 8 6 



The crops are all below Ihe average; 



owmg 



to the sandy 



nature of the soil these rice beds cannot at present hold sufficient 
moisture. Nitre has apparently produced a considerable increase 
in the irrigated rice. On the irrigated plots the addition of nitre 
(worth Rs. 8) to farmyard manure increased the value of the crop 
by some Rs. 14. 

Rotation Series Experiments. 

5. Series L — The object was to see the effects of ordinary and 
deep ploughing on the following rotation and to compare it with 
others : — 

1st year ^^^^ Jim and Kareli. 
2nd year — Sundhia. 
3rd year — Kodra and mixture* 



The following statement shows the details of plots and cultiva« 
tion ill this series : — 













Manure. 


In rotation 

or 
continuous. 




Plot 
No. 


Area. 


Crop. 


Tillage. 


Kind. 


Quantity 
per acre. 


Time of 
applica- 
tion. 


Irrigated 
or not. 


8 


Guulhas 

"1 


(a) Bajri 

(b) Jiru 

Karcli 


... 


\ 
) 

Ordinary ... 


Nil ... 
F. Y. M.. 


Nil ... 
10 tons ... 


November 


In rotation ... 


Nil. 
Irrigated. 


19 


10 


Do. 


... 


Peep 


Do. ... 


Do. ... 


Do. ... 


In rotation ... 


Do. 


6 


'» 


Stindhia 


... 


Ordinary 


Nil ... 


Nil ... 


... 


Do. ... 


Nil. 


17 


10 


Do. 


... 


Deep 


Nil ... 


Nil ... 


... 


Do. ... 


Nil. 


7 


10 


Kodra and mix- 


Ordinary 


Nil ... 


Nil ... 


... 


Do. ... 


Nil. 


18 

1 
1 


10 


Do. 


... 


Deep 


Nil ... 


Nil ... 


... 


Do. ... 


Nil. 


The results of Bajri and Jiru are as under : — 




Crop. 


Plot No. 8 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No, 19 deeply ploughed. 




Yield 
per acre. 


Value 

of 

produce. 


Cost 

of 

cultivation. 


Yield 
per acre. 


Value 

of 

produce. 


Cost 
of 




Grain. 


Straw, 


Grain. 


Straw. 


cultiyation. 






Lbs. 


Lbs, 


Rs. a. p. 


! 

Rs. a. p. 1 Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs, a. p. 


Bs. a. p. 


Bajri 





540 


4,536 


22 15 4 


19 13 8 1 624 


4,800 


29 1 4 


22 5 8 


Jiru 
Karcli 




476 




54 9 4 


58 13 8 


588 


tM 


67 6 8 


63 1 8 









N 


t fi ni 


shed. 









The yield of Bajri is below the average owing to heavy rains at 
the end of August. 

The Jiru was a promising crop but was damaged seriously by 
rain in February, The quality of the produce was inferior. 

The results of Sundhia are as under : — 





Crop. 


Plot No. 6 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 17 deeply ploughed. 




Yield per acre. 


Vjvlne of Cost of 


Yield per acre 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain 


Straw. 


produce. 


cultivation. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


cultivation. 


fiundhia 





Lbs. 

128 


Lb. 

5,i;2 


Rs. a. p. 

25 6 


Rs, a. p. 

19 9 4 


Lbs. 
212 


Lbs. 

6,780 


Rs. a. p. 
31 4 8 


Rb. a. p. 
23 9 







The results of the Kodra mixture are as under :• 





Crop. 


Plot No. 7 


ardinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 18 deeply ploughed. 




Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


YicUl per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Straw. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


cultiTation. 






Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs, a. p. Rs. a. p. 


Lbs. Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Koira . 





252 


648 


4 15 4 p 


189 548 


3 12 4 


^ 


Tal 
Shcria . 


. ... ... .» 


SOS 
148 


Fibre 
80 


26 1 

i M7 8 

7 7 4| 


372 

i Fibre 
96 44 


31 6 

4 7 


'20 


Tuver . 




556 


668 


20 7 


1 

i 


416 \ 500 

1 


15 i 8 




58 13 8 






5t 14 





Tlie crop of Tal was very good. 

6, Series II, — The object was to see the effects of ordinary 
and deep ploughing on the following rotation and to compare it 
with others : — 

Ist year ... ... ... Bajri^ Math and Tuver. 

2nd year ... ... ... Kodra and mixture, 

3rd year ... ... ... Sundhia. 

The following statement shows the details of plots and culti- 
vation under this series : — 



Plot 


Area. 


Crop. 




Manure. 


In rotation 

or 
continuous. 


Irrigaicu 
or not. 

• 


No. 


TUlagc. 


Kind. 


Quantity Time of 
I)er acre, application. 


11 

82 

9 

20 
10 


Guntlias. 

w 

10 
10 

10 
10 

10 


Bajri, Math and 
Tuvcr. 
Do. 
Kodra and mix- 
ture. 
Do. 
Sundhia 
Do. 


Ordinary ... 

Deep 
Ordinary ... 

Deep 

Ordinary ... 
Deep 


F. Y. M. ... 

Do. ... 
Nil 

Nil 
Nil 
Nil 


5 tons ... 

Do. 

Nil 

Nil 
Nil 
Nil 


June 
Do. 

;;;;;; 


In rotation. 

Do. ... 
Do. ... 

Do. ... 
Do. «, 
Do. ... 


Nil. 

Nil. 
Nil. 

Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 





The 


results of Bajri, Math and Tuvei 


• are 


as under : — 


J 




Crop. 




Plot No. 11 ordinarily plousfhcd. 


Plot No. 22 deeply ploutfhed. 1 




Yield per acra 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of ■ 


• 


Grain. 

■ 

Lbs. 

228 

212 

308 


Straw. 


Grain. 


straw. 


cultivatiffl 


R^jri 
>Iat]i 
Ttivcr 


'■; 


Z '..'. 


Lbs. 

2.284 

l,«i)6 

341 


Rs. a. p. 

]2 3 4 

S 11 

11 4 4 


Rs. a. p. 
1 32 ] 4 


Lbs. 
272 
]80 
408 


Lbs. 

2.272 

1,264 

o61 


Rs. a. p. 

13 11 

7 4 

13 5 

31 4 


Rs. a. iS 

34 9 4 




32 2 8 





The yield of Bajri is much below the average. There is not 
much difference between ordinarily ploughed and deeply ploughed 
plots. 

The results of Sundhia are as under : — 



Crop. 


Plot No. 10 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 21 deeply ploughed. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 

Rs. a. p. 

21 8 


Yie'.d p er acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 


Grain. 


Straw.- 


Grain. 


Straw. 


oiiltivutiou. 


Sundhia 


Lbs. 
388 


Lbs. 
4,452 


Es. a. p. 
32 14 


Lbs. 
412 


Lbs. 
4,132 


Rs. a. p. 
33 6 4 


Rs. a. p. 

24 4 8 


The results of Kodra are as under : — 


Crop. 


Plot No. 9 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No 20 deeply ploughed. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Valne of 
produce. 


Cost of 


Grain. 


Straw. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


cultivation. 


Kodra 

Tal 

Sheria 

TuYcr ' 


Lbs. 

4S2 

56 

132 
432 


Lbs. 
863 

pVbre 

72 

4C0 


Rs. a. p. 

8^8 
4 11 8 

6 11 
15 12 4 


Rs, a. p. 
M9 6 8 

J 


Lbs. 

528 
120 

140 
312 


Lbs. 
1.100 

Fibre 

76 

352 


Rs. a. p, 
10 4 4 

10 2 

7 1 4 

11 7 


Es. a, p, 
1 21 li 8 


85 9 8 


38 14 8 





There is no difference between the two plots ; the value of 
produce is similar. 

7. Series III. — The object was to see the effects of deep and 
ordinary ploughing on the following rotation and to compare it 
with others^l — 

{a) 1st year Tobacco manured with fariu yard manure, 

2ncl year Kodra mixture, 

(h) 1st year Tobacco manured with green manure, 

2nd year Kodra mixture. 

The details of plots and cultivation in the series are as under : — 



riot 

No. 



Area in 
gunthas. 



Manure. 



Crop, 



25 


10 


36 


10 


24 


10 


35 


10 


27 


10 


38 


10 


26 


10 


37 


10 



Tobacco 

Do. 
Kodra niiiture 

Do. 
Tobacco 

Eo. 
Kodra mixture 
Do. 



Tillage. 



Ordinary 

Deep 

Ordinary 

Deep 

Ordinary 

Deep 

Ordinary 

Deep 



Kind. 



Green 



Nil 
Nil 
P. Y, M. 

Do. 
Nil 
Nil 



Quantity 
XDcr acre. 



Time of 
a)>plieation. 



maniire (of San) 

Do. 
Nil 
Nil- 
15 tons 

Do, 
Nil 
Nil 



.June 
Do. 



In rotation 

or 
continuous. 



In rotation. 

Do. ,. 

Do. ... 

Do. .,. 

Do ... 

Do. ... 

Do, ... 

Do. ... 



Irrigated 
or not. 



Irirgated 

Do. 
Nil. 
Nil, 
lrris:at(d. 

Do. 
Nil. 
Nil. 



8 

The results of tobacco have already been noted (page 3). 
The results of Kodra grown in rotation with tobacco manured | 
with green manure are as under : — I 





Crop. 


Plot No. 24 ordinarily ploughed. 


riot No. 35 deeply ploughed. 




Yield per acre. 


1 

Value of ! Cost of 
produce. , cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce . 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Straw. 


Grain. 


Straw, 


cultivation. 






Lbs, 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. Rs. a. p. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Codn 





1,416 


3,153 


27 8 8 A 


1,304 


2.941 


25 11 2 


1 


Tal 
Sheria 





CO 

208 


Fibre 
160 


5 1 1 

)' 20 G 
14 4 4 1 

11 13 4 \j 


112 
152 


... 
Fibre 
84 


9 7 4 
7 12 


1- 22 14 
1 


Taver 





324 


3(30 


432 


492 


15 13 4 


1 










1 
58 11 4 1 




58 11 10 





Yield of both the plots is similar. 

The results of Kodra grown in rotation with tobacco manured 
with farmyard manure are as under : — 





Plot No. 26 


ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 37 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 

Rs. a. p. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Straw, 


Grain. 


Straw. 


cultivation. 




Lbs. 


Lb!.. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


Ifodra 


1,203 


3,372 


24 C 4 


^ 


1.272 


3,512 


23 9 7 


^ 


Tal 

Sberia 


223 
218 


Fibre 
120 


19 4 
11 13 


1 
1 
r 20 32 

J 


208 
9 


Fibre 
44 


17 8 8 

4 7 


)^ 23 4 


Tuvcr 


752 


910 


27 12 


600 


633 


22 4 


J 








83 3 4 








70 13 3 





If the above four plots be compared, it seems that Kodra aften 
a crop manured with farmyard manure grows better than after a 
crop manured with green manure. 

8. Series IF.— The object was to see the effects of deep and 
ordinary ploughing on the following rotation and compare it with 
others : — 



Ist year 
2nd year 

3rd year 



Vari^li. 

(a) BAjri. 

(b) Onions. 
Kodra and mixture. 



9 



Tlu^ following table gives the details of j)lots and cultivation 
in this series : — 













Manure. 








Plot 


Area in 
gunthas. 


Crop, 


Tilb-e. 








In rot 't ion 

or 
continuous. 


Irrisfatoi 
or not. 


No. 


Kind 


Quantity 


Time of 


' 










per acre. 


application. 






31 


10 


Varii'ili 


Ordinary ... 


F. Y. M. ... 


1-2 V tons 


Juno 


In rotition. 


Irri)?atcd , 


41 


10 


Do. 


Deep 


D). ... 


D,-. 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Uo. 




,o{ 


(«) r^ajri 


Ordinary ... 


Nil 


Nil 




Do. ... 


Nil. 


28 


















6) O:iio..s ... 


Do. 


Caator-cakc. 


sro lbs. ... 


Jar.nary ... 


Do. ... 


Irrizated. 


39 


10 Do. 


Dfep 


Do. ... 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Du. ... 


Do. 


29 


10 


Ko'Jri ini.<ture 1 


Ordinary ... 


Nil 


1 Nil 




Do, ... 


Nil. 


40 


10 


Do. ... 


Deep 


Nil 


; Nil 





Do. ... 


Nil. 



The results of Variali are as under : — 



VarliV.i 





Plot No. 30 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 41 deeply ploughed. 


Cro;', 


Yield i)er acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cosl of 
(iiltivatioii. 


Yield per aero. 


Viilne of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


blraw. 


Grain, i Straw. 


cultivation . 





Lbs. 
1.744 




Rs. a. p. 
140 5 8 


Rs. a. p. 
101 8 8 


2,1»4 


Rs. a, p 

176 9 4 


Rs. a. p. 
104 8 



The resu 


I Us of Bajri a 


nd onions are as unc 


er :- 


- 








1 

Plot No. 8 ordinarily plougl ed. } Plot No. 39 deeply ploughed. 


Crop, 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yie'd per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain, 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


A. najii 

E. Onions 


Lbs 

19,2r0 


Lbs. 
6,li'2 


Rs. a. p 

29 5 8 

210 10 4 


Us, a. p. 

■JO 13 

112 4 4 


Lb3. 

621 

19,:'70- 


Lbs." 
.%792 


Rs. a, p 

24 

2il 13 8 


Rs, a. p. 

-'3 r, 

117 4 4 



Bajri was a very promising crop but was damaged by late 
rains* Both the plots of onions are similar in yield. 
The results of Kodra are as under : — 





Plot No. 29 ordinarily ploutfhcd. 


Plot No. 40 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
culfivatioi!. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 

Rs. a p. 

8 15 

20 9 4 

(5 12 4 
20 1 8 


Cost of 




Grain, j Fodder. 


Grain. 


F-dder 


cultivatioa. 


Koh-a 

T 1 

Slieria 

Tuver 


Lbs. 
460 

288 

1-28 
G12 


Lbs. 
952 

Fibre 
OS 

:o3 


Rs. a, p 
9 
24 4 -8 

6 4 
22 10 8 


Rs. a. p 

^ IS 4 


Lbs. 
4o6 

144 
5.52 


Lbs. 

Fibre 

68 

023 


I.'s. a. p. 

' 20 12 
) 




62 5 8 




cG 6 4 





B 992-3 



10 



9. Series V. — The object was to see the effects of deep and 
ordinary ploughing on the following rotation and to compare it 
with others : — 

Ist year ... ... B^jri and mixture. 

2nd year ... ... Kodra and mixture. 

8rd year ... ... Bavto^ V^l and castors. 

The following table shows the details of plots and cultivation 
in this series: — 





1 


Crop. 


Tillage. 


Manure. 


In rotation 
or continuous. 


iTrigat- 

ed or 

not. 


Plot Areain 
No. gnnthas. 

1 


Kind |Q«antities 
'^^ '" 1 per acre. 


■ 
Time of 
appli- 
cation. 


33 
44 
31 

f. 

43 


10 
10 
10 
10 
10 

10 


B.ijri and mixture . Ordina»y 

Do. ...i Deep 
Kodra and mixture,! Ordinary 

Do. ...1 Deep 
Havto, castors and Ordinary „ 
Val. 1 

Do. ... Deep 


F. Y. M. 
D>. ... 

Nd 

Nil ... 

Nil 

Nil ... 


5 to-s ... 
Do. ... 
V»7 
Nil 
Nil ... 

Nil 


June ... 

Do. ... 

... 

... 


In rotation ... 
Do. 
Do. ... 

Do. 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 


Nil. 
Ml. 
Nil. 
tid. 
Nil. 

Nil. 



The results of Bdjri mixture are as under : — 



Crop* 



BAjri 
Math 
Mag 
Tuyer 



Plot No, 32 ordinarily ploughed. 



Yield per acre. 



Grain. 



Lbs. 

304 

44 

360 

308 



Fodder. 



Value of 
produce. 



Lbs. 
2.533 



2,5SS 
428 



Rs. a, p. 

1.5 10 

1 11 

16 6 8 

11 7 



Cost of 
cnltivatiou. 



Rs. a. p. 



[36 



6 8 



45 2 8 



Plot No, 43 deeply ploughed. 



Yield per acre. 


Val'io of 
produce. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


Lbs. 

34^ 

40 

280 

184 


Lbs. 
2,(580 

2S8 
1,816 

216 


Ks. a. p. 
17 8 4 

19 4 
12 6 

12 8 




88 4 4 



Co.3t of 

cultivation. 



Rs. a. p. 

S8 12 8 



The results of Koira mixture are as under : — 





Plot No. 31 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 42 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 1 Falder. 

1 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


Koii*. 

Tal 

I'livor 


L'.R. 

1J2S 
•iS 

lOfi 
232 


Lbs. 

2,0S4 

Fibre 

81 

2W 


Rs. a. p. 
22 2 4 

4 8 

8 1-3 4 

8 7 8 


Rs. a. p. 

vl8 12 

J 


Lb«. 

1,076 
241 

27(5 
2.2 


Lbs. 
2,040 

Fibre 
100 
300 


Rs. n. p. 
21 2 8 
23 9 4 

11 7 4 
10 15 4 

63 2 8 


Rn. n. p. 

i 

1 

1^21 4 

1 

J 




43 7 









11 



The results of B.-ivfo, castors and Vdl are as under :—r 





Plot No, 83 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 43 deeply ploughed. 


Crop, 


Yield per aero. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Valne of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Gniiii. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


eultivatioti. 


Bavto 
Castors 

Val green pods 
Do. Graiu 


Lbs. 

L.-iSO 
292 
7«8 
101 


Lb3. 
2,843 


Rs. a. p, 

53 15 
IS 4 
10 10 
3 4 


Rs. a. p. 
Csi 14 8 


Lbs. 

1.33 'i 

2H8 
712 
84 


Lbs. 

2.55(> 

••• 


Rs. a. p. 

47 5 4 
16 12 
9 14 
2 10 

76 9 4 


Rs. a. p. 
•34 6 8 




86 1 





10. Series VI, — The object was to see the effects of ordinary 
and deep ploughing on the following rotation and to compare it 
with others : — 

1st year ... ... Sugarcane. 

2nd year ... ... ChiUies. 

3rd year ... ... B?^jri. 

The following state nent shows the details of plots, crops, 
cultivation, etc., in this series; — 











Manure. 










Ar(>i\ 














riot 

2^0. 


in 
Kun- 
thas. 


Crop. 


Tillage. 


Kind. 


Quantities 
per 
acre. 


Time of 
application. 


In rotation or 
coutiauous. 


Irrigated 
or not. 


45A 


5 


Sucrarcaue. 


Ordinary ... 


Castor-cake.. 


8,000 lbs. 


May -July ... 


In rotation ... 


Irrigated. 


63A 


5 


Do. .. 


Deep ... 

( 


Do. 
Cast or- cake 


Do. ... 
.000 lbs. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


45 i^ 


5 


Do. .. 


Ordinary. < 


+ 
Amnion i u n 


400 lbs. 


[ Do, 


Do. 


Do. 


53B 


5 


To. .. 


Deep 
Ordinary | 


sulphate. 
Castor-cake... 


Do. ... 

1.000 lbs. 


' Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


-4; A 





Do. ... 


-^ 




• Do. 


Do. 


Do. 








Nitre 


400 lbs. 


j 






54A 


a 


Do. .. 


Deep 

c 

Ordinary \ 
: 


Do. 
Castor-cake.. 

+ 


Do. ... 

k.OOO lbs 


Do. ... 

1 


Do. 


Do. 


46B 


5 


Do. ... 


Nitre 


200 lbs. 


l-Do. ... 


Do. 


Do. 








Amnion i u m 


200 lb. 


1 












V 


sulphate. 




/ 






5AB 


5 


Do. ... 


Deep 
Ordinary... 


Do. 


Do. ... 


' Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


49 


10 


Cl-.illes .. 


Castor-cake.. 


3,0iK) lb. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


57 


10 


Do. 


Deep 

i 


Do 

Castor -cake 


Do. ... 

3.000 lbs. 


Do. 
) 


Do. 


Do. 


50 


10 


Do. .. 


Ordinary. \ 


4- 
Supe r p h 8- 
phatc. 


500 lbs, 


\ Do. 


Dj. 


Do. 


53 


10 


Da. .. 


Deep 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


17 


10 


BAjri 


Ordinary ... 


Nil 


Nil ... 




Do. 


Do. 


5.T 


10 


Do. 


I'eep 


mi 


Nil ... 




Do. 


Do. 


48 


10 


Do. 


Ordinary ... 


Nil 


Nil ... 


... 


Do. 


Do. 


5(3 


10 


Po. 


Deep 


Nil 


Nil 





Do. 


Do. 



Sugarcane was planted in May but on account of white ants, 
germination waa very poor. It was also attacked by borers after- 
wards and the crop was ploughed up. 



12 



Results of Bajri are 


as under : — 












Plot Nos. 47-18 ordinarily ploughed. 


riot Xos. 55.56 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cnltivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 




B.jri ... 


Lbs. 
544 


Lbs. 

5,503 


Rs. a. p. 
2S 4 2 


Rs. a. p. 

19 12 4 


Lis. 

578 


5,072 


Rs. a. p. 

•M 10 


Rs. a. p. 
22 4 4 



The crop was damaged by late rains. 
The results of chillies are as under : — 



Plot 

No. 



Crop. 



Chillies 



Po. 
To. 



Do. 



Tillage. 



Ordinary 

Deep 
Ordinary 



Deep 



Manure. 


Yield 

per 

acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


[ 
Cost of 
cultivation. 


Castor-cake 

Do. 
Superphosp hate 
+ ca.stor-cake. 
Do. 


Lbs. 
752 

2,636 
1,786 

5,133 


Rs. a. p. 
15 10 8 

54 14 8 
37 3 4 

107 8 


Rs, a, p. 
119 11 

138 13 4 
132 14 4 

1-50 15 4 



Kcmar];s. 



Totally dams 
by white ant 



and 
it w 



The resuUs are very poor. 

11. Series VII. — The object was to see the effects of deep 
ordinary ploughing on the following rotations and to compare 
ith ethers : — 

1st year ... ... {a) Bajri, 

{h) Wheat. 
2n(l year ... ... Kodra and mixture 

Ihe details of plots, crops, cultivation, etc., are as under :— 













Manure. 










Area 
iu 


Crop, 


Tillao-c, 








Iu rotation 




Plot 




1 




Irrigated 


Ho. 


gnn- 
thas. 




Kind. 


' Quantity 
per 
acie. 


Time of 
application. 


or continuous. 


or not. 


62 


10 


Kodr;i rr.ix- 
turo. 


OrLlinavy ... 


Nil 


m 





In rotation... 


Nil. 


60 


10 


Do. 


Deep 


i\il 


Ml 





Do. 


NH. 


fil 


:«[ 


(a) liajri ... 
(6) Wheat ... 


1 Ordinary . . 


/F Y. M.. 


10 tons ... 
Nil 


I June 


Do. 


CNil. 
\Init,'ate3. 


59 


10 


Do. ... 


Deep 


\\ii 


Nil 


Juoo 


Do. 


D«. 



13 



The results of Kodra mixture are as under 





Plol 


No. 52 ordinarily ploug 


bed. 


Plot No. CO deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 






Yiold per acre. 








Value of 


Cost of 




Value of 


Cost of 






produce. 


cultivation. 






produce. 


cultivation. 




Grain. Fodder. 




Grain. 


Fodder. 








Lbs. 


Lbs. 


■ 
Rs. a. p. 


Rs a. p. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Ko<ir.i 


508 


1.188 


10 4 


1 


924 


2,036 


IS 10 4 


^ 


T.l 


84 


Fibre 


7 1 4 


1 

}- 18 13 


60 


Fibre . 


5 1 


!- 21 5 


Shcri-i 


156 


56 


6 7 


1 


llti 


66 


5 8 


J 


Tuver 


860 


680 


20 9 4 


; 


444 


628 


16 8 








44 2 








45 11 4 





The results of Bajri and wheat are as under 





1 
Plot No, 51 ordinarily ploughed. ! Plot No. 59 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per aero. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


A. Bajri 
IJ. Wheat 


Lbs. 

743 

933 


Lbs. 
5,408 

1.964 


Rs. a. p. 

34 8 

35 15 4 


Rs. a. p. 

42 6 4 

CO 


Lbs. 

576 

l,r.28 


Lbs. 
5,408 

2, -'56 


Rs. a. p. 
29 12 

60 7 4 


Rs. a. p. 
44 13 

e-o 14 



The 
12. 

(1) 

(2) 

(3) 

The 



yield is below the average. 

Series VIIL — The object was — 

to compare the effects of farmyard manure 4 castor- 
cake + green manures ; 

to compare the effects of deep ploughing ; 

to compare the eflPects of taking 3 crops in a year with 
those of taking the same crops in 2 years. 

details of plots, crops and treatment are as under : — 













Manures. 










Area 
in 


Crop. 


Tillage. 








In rotation 




Plot 








Irrigated 


No. 


guii- 


Kind. 


Quantity 


Time of 


or continuous. 


or net. 




thas. 




1 


per afire. 


application. 








-[ 


BAjri 


Ordinary ... 


F. Y. M. ... 


10 tons... 


June 


Continuous ... 


Nil. 


n 


Potatoes ... 


Do. ... 


Castor-cake... 


800 lbs. . 


December ... 


Do . 


Irrigated. 




Sundhia ... 


Dc 


Ifil 


Nil ... 


Nil 


Do. 


;i 


10 


Do. ... 


Deep 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 




{ 


Potatoes ... 


Ordinary ... 


San 


Green 


manure 


■In rotation ... 




03 


10 ] 










August 
Nil 


Do. 




\ 


Sundhia ... 


Do, .. 


mi 


Nil .. 




~l 


10 


Do. .. 


Deep 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 




( 


Potiitoes ... 


Ordinary ... 


Cast ir cake . 


SJOlbs. . 


December ... 


) 




64 


10^ 












> In rotation ... 


Do. 




1 


Sundhia ... 


Do. ... 


mi 


Nil ... 


Nil 


i 




74 


10 


Do. ... 


r>eep ». 


Do. ... 


Do. ... 


Do. 


Do . 


Do. 


6.i 


10 


Bdjri 


Ordinary ... 


mi 


Nil ... 




^ Ist year Bcliri. 
2nd year 
r Potatoes 
1 with green 
j manure. 


Nil. 


7'> 


10 


Do. 


Deep 
Ordinary ... 


Nil 


Nil 





Nil. 


05 


10 


Do. 


Nil 


Nil ... 




^ Ist year Bajri, 


Nit, 
















1 2nd yoai 


















y Potatoes 


















1 with castor- 




73 


10 


Do. 


Deep 


Nil 


Ml ... 





J cake. 


Nil. 



li 



The results of Bajri, potatoes and Sundliia grown in one year 
are as under : — 





Plot No. 61 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot Xo. 71 deeply plouj. 


^hed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation 


A. Bajri 

B. Potatoes 

C. SundhiH 


Lbs. 

680 

4.080 


Lbs. 

5,028 

6.068 


Rb. a. p. 

31 11 8 
55 15 4 

30 5 4 


Rs a. p. 

?8 11 8 

137 11 4 

20 12 


Lbs. 

79fi 

4,0J0 


Lbs. 

5,463 

5.516 


Rs. a, p. 

S5 10 
68 
27 4 


Rs. a. p. 

41 3 8 

144 7 4 

31 12 



The results of potatoes and Sundhia grown in rotation with 
the above plot are as under : — 





Plot No. 62 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 72 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


roFt of 




Grain. Fodder. 


Grain, j Fodder. 


cultivation. 


A. Pooatccs 

B. Suiidbia 


Lbs. i Lbs. 
7.520 1 ... 
... , 4,f)16 


Rs. a. p. 
Wi 2 
23 1 4 


Rs. a. p. 
133 10 8 
31 2 


Lbs, 

8,4'i0 


Lbs. 
6,724 


Rs. a. p. 

115 3 

33 10 


Rs. a. p. 

las 8 

36 10 



The results of potatoes and Sundhia grown in rotation with 
the above plot are as under : — 





Plot Na 64 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 74 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 




Lbs. 
6,180 


Lbs. 
l!924 


Rs. a. p. 
84 12 
45 10 


Rs. a. p. 
140 

32 12 


Lbs. 
6,860 


Lbs. 

8,'243 






A. Potatoes 

B. Sundhia 


Rs. a. p. 
94 1 4 
41 4 


Rs. a. p. 
144 I 

39 



The results of Bajri grown in rotation with potatoes manured 
with green manure are as under : — 





Crop. 


Plot No. 63 ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 73 deeply ploughed. 




Yield per aero. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


yield per a-re. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


culti vatiou 


Bajri 





Lbs. 

688 


Lbs. 

5,428 


Rs. a. p. 
31 4 8 


Rs. a. p. 
27 14 4 


Lbs. 
624 


Lbs. 
6,31*5 


Rs. a. p. 
33 6 8 


Rs. a. p. 

SO 6 4 



15 

The results of Bajri grown in rotation with potatoes manured 
with castor-cake are as under : — 





Plot No. r.5 ortlinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 75 deeply pbiighed. 


Crop. 


Yifcl 1 per aero. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivatio.!. 


YicM po/ cere. 


Value of 
produce. 


Co«!t of 


- 


Grain. 

Lbs. 
672 


Fodder. 


Gra-n. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


BAjri 


Lbs. 
5,980 


Rs. a. p. 
33 9 


Es. a. p. 
47 13 


Lbs. 
552 


Lbs. 
6,012 


Rs. a. p. 
29 11 4 


Rs. a. p. 
50 7 8 



Bajri in all plots is below the average owing to the damage 
done by the late rains. Potato cultivation was costly owing to the 
high price of seed potatoes. The seed was purchased at Rs. 2-8-0 
per niaund and the produce was sold at As. 10 per maund. This is 
due to the variation in the market. The plot m mured with green 
manure and deeply ploughed has alone given an average outturn. 
S;ilt water of the well seems to have had some effect on the potatoes. 
From the Jowar plots it seems that the green manure leaves less 
manurial residue for the next crop than farmyard manure. 

13. Series JX— -The object was to compare the effects of 
deep and ordinary plouij^hing on the following crops and rotations 
and to compare Rozi cotton with Broach cotton : — 

(a) Ist year ... ... Kodra and mixture. 

2nd J, ... ... B^jri mixture. 

3rd „ ... ... Broach cotton. 

{h) 1st year ... ... Kodra mixture and Rozi cotton. 

2nd „ B^jri do. 

The details of plots, crops, cultivation, etc., are noted below : — 



Plot 

No. 


Area 

in 

gunthas. 


Crop. 


Tillage. 


Manure. 


In rotation 

or 
continuous. 


Irrigated 
or not. 


Kind. 


Quantity 
per acre. 


Time of 
application. 


6} 

73 
6(5 

76 

07 

77 
70 

80 
69 

79 


10 

10 

10 
10 

10 
10 

10 
10 

10 


Kodra :r.is.ture. 

Do. 
Bijri and mix- 
ture. 
Do. 
Cotton 
Do. 
K -dra mixture 
and Rozi 
cotton. 
Do. 
Bajri mixture 
and Rozi 
cotton. 
Do. 


OrUnary .. 
Deep 
Ordinary ... 

Deep 

Ordinary ... 
Deep 
Ordinary 

Deep 
Ordinary ... 

Deep 


Nil 
Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

F. Y. M.... 
Do. 

Nil 

Nil 

F. Y. M.... 

Do. ... 


Nil 
N)l 

Nil 

Nil 

5 tons ... 
Do. 
Nil 

Nil 

5 tons .., 

Do. 


June'" ... 
Do. 

June 
Do. 


In rotatior.. 
Do. ... 
Do. ... 

Do. ... 
Do. ... 
Do. ... 
Do. ... 

Do. ... 

Do. ... 


m. 

Ni\ 
Nil. 

Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 
Nil. 

Nil. 
Nil. 

Nil. 



16 



Results of Kodra mixture are as under : — 





Plot No. 08 


ordinarily p'.outjhed. 


Plot No. 73 deeply ploughed. 


Crop. 


Yield per acie. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


i 
Value of 1 Cost of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


FoJder. 


produce. |cultivation. 

! 


Kodra 

Tal 

Sheria 

Tuver 


Lbs. 

2,080 

40 

300 
624 


Li>s. 
4,44 t 

F-iire 
168 

723 


lis. a. p. 

41 4 

3 6 

15 6 8 
22 14 4 


Bs. a. p. 

I- 18 4 8 
1 

) 


Lbs. 

1,520 

44 

14S 

828 


Lbs. 
3,080 

Fibre 

S4 
941 


■ 
Rs a. p. r.3. a. p, 
30 I) ^ 
3 11 4 1 

j J- 20 12 3 
7 10 4 ' i 
30 5 8 J 
[ 




82 11 


71 11 4 i 

1 



Kodra mixture was a very good crop. 
The results of Bajri mixture are as under 





Plot No. 06 


ordinarily ploughed. 


Plot No . 76 deeply ploughed. : 


Crop. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost of ■ 
cultivation. 


Yield pt-r acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


1 
Cost of 




Grain. 


Fodder. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


R^ri 

Math 

^Ing 

Tuver 


Lbs. 

684 

48 

208 


Lbs. 
5.2':0 
308 
1,148 
Nil 


Rs. a p. 

7 9 
1 12 9 

8 12 8 


Rs. a. p. 
■ 31 15 4 


Lbs 
480 
44 
160 


Lbs. 
5,056 

2as 

4»3 
Nil 


Rs. a. p. 

26 5 

1 11 

6 12 4 


Rs. a. p. 
( 34 7 4 




40 13 4 


34 12 4 





Bajri crop is bdow the average. Tuver plants were totally- 
smothered when the Bajri plants were laid down by rain. Math 
and Mag also suffered. 

The results of Broach cotton are as under : — 





Plot \o. 67 ordinarily ploughed 


Pl.il No. 77 .leeply plonjjhcd. 


Crop. 


Yield per acic. 


Viilr.c of 
produce. 


Cost cf 
cu!t:vatl>n 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
proda oe . 

Rs. a. p. 

83 7 


Cost of 




feed cottcu. 


Seed cottou. 


cuUivatlon. 


Broach cottou 


Lbs. 

828 


Rs a. p. 

C7 4 4 


Rs, a. p. 

so 14 8 


Lbs. 
99 J 


Rs. a. p. 
S3 G S 



On these plots cotton was not attacked with wilt disease. 
The outturns were very good. The deep ploughed plot has given 
the better yield. 



17 

The results of Kodra mixture with Rozi cotton are as under : — 



Crop. 



Plot No. 70 ordinarily ploushctl. 



Yield par aero. 



Grain. 



Kodra 
Tal 



Sheria 
Tuver 



llozi cotton 



Lbs. 
864 
£2 

140 

603 

Seed 

cotton 

42 



Fodder. 



Lbs. 
1,748 

Fibre 

84 

724 



Value of 
produce. 



Rs, a. p. 
17 3 
4 6 



Cost of 
cultivation. 



22 5 4 ; 



2 10 



Rs. a. p. 



1- 17 8 8 



53 15 8 



Plot No. 80 deeply ploughed. 



Yield por aoro. 



Grain. 



Lbs 



184 

400 

Seed 

C3tton 

26 



Fodder. 



Lbs. 
593 

Fibr.? 
100 

4S3 



Value of 
produce. 



Rs a p. 
17 8 
3 8 



Cost of 
•ultivation. 



Rs. a. p. 



y o u I 
It 11 8 h 

1 10 jj 



2) 8 



43 3 4 



The results 


of B 


ijri mixture i 


ire as under 


: — 








Plot No. 69 c rdinarily ploughed. 


Plot No. 79 deeply plou,arhed» 


('••op. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 


Cost r.f 
cultivation. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
pr >duce. 


Cost of 




Graiu. 


>tra\v. 


Grain 


Straw. 


3ultivation. 


n<5jrl 

Math 

Macf 

Tuvor 

Rozi cotton 


Lbs. 

572 

24 

2^0 

88 < 

Seed 

cotton 

15 


Lbs. 
4,310 
1£2 
1,26 1 

410 


Rp,. a. p 

28 2 4 

U 4 

9 6 4 

14 3 4 

15 


Rs. a. p. 

[• 37 8 4 

J 

37 8 4 


Lbs. 

11 

H6 
Seed 
cotton 
16 


Lhs. 

3,96S 

96 

1,714 

210 


Rs. a. p. 

23 13 

9 4 

13 11 

7 2 8 

10 


Rs. a. p. 
^ 40 4 

I 

1 

J 




63 9 4 


46 4 


40 4 



14. Series X. — The object was to find out which of the follow- 
ing croj)S, viz. Tal, Tuver and Tal and Tuver mixed, leaves a better 
residue for the next crop. Tal-f Tuver and Tal Tuver were sown 
last year. Bajri was sown on all these plots this year. 



The following are the details : — 



No, 
of 

piol. 


Area ill 
;runthas. 


TiUajre. 


Last vear's crop. 


This year's 
crop. 


Yield per a:;re. 


Value of 
prodnce." 


Cost or 

cultivation. 






Grain 


Straw. 




S3 

8i 

85&83 


10 
]0 
20 


Ordinary ... 
Do. 
Do. 


Tal 
Tuver 
Tal + Tuver 


Bajri 
Do. 
Do. 


Lbs. 
546 


Lbs. 
6 220 
6.4«>8 
4,»2' 


Hfl. a. p. 
.S3 2 
2^ 10 f 
21 3 10 


Rs a. p. 
23 2 4 
22 14 4. 
19 5 10 



The yield of all the plots is b low the average. The plot of 
Tal has produced a better yield than either Tuver or Tuver -f Ta| 
together. 

B 992—3 



18 



16. Series XI, — The object was to investigate the theory of 
rotations. Tobacco and Bajri are the crops experimented with. 
All the plots mentioned below are to receive 2U loads of farm- 
yard manure every second year. This will always be applied 
to tobacco when this crop is grown on the plot. The following 
are the details : — 













Manure 










Area 

in 

gunthas. 


Crop. 


TUlage. 








In rotation 

or 
continuous. 




Plot. 


Kind. 


Quantity 
p r 


Time 
of 


Irrigated 
or nut. 












acre. 


application 






108 


10 


Tobacco 


Ordinary ... 


F. Y. M.... 


10ton.s ... 


June 


In rotation. 


Nil, 


109 


10 


Bdjri 
Tobacco 


Do. . . 


Nil. 


Nil. 


Nil. 


Do. 


N.l. 


1!0 


10 


Do. 


F. Y. M.... 


1.) tons ... 


.Tune 


Continuous. 


Nil. 


111 


10 


Do. 


Do. ... 


D). ... 


Do. ... 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Nil. 


112 


10 


Do, 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Do. ... 


Dd. 


Do. ... 


Nil. 


113 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Do. ... 


Do. 


Do, ... 


Nil. 


114 


10 


Bdjri 
Fallow 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Do. ... 


Do. 


dotation ... 


Nil. 


116 


10 










Do. ... 


J 


116 


10 


Tobacco 


Ordinary ... 


F. Y M.... 


10 tons ... 


.Tune 


R(tation ... 


Nil. .1 


117 


10 


Fallow 










D3. ... 


1 


J 18 


10 


BAjri 


Ordinary ... 


P. Y.M. .. 


10 t ns ... 


Jr.ne 


Continuous. 


Nil. 


119 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Do. ... 


no. 


1)0. ... 


Nil, 


120 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


D .. ... 


Do. ... 


Do. 


Do ... 


Nil, ^ 


121 


10 


Do. 


Do. ... 


Do. ... 


Do. ... 


1"- - 


Do. ... 


Nil. J 



2^/^.— Plots .NTos. 112, 113. 118, 119 aro v\x\% plots to teat tli3 coiito.n- 
poraiieous effects of a fallow aud are not under experimont. 

The results of Bajri are as under: — 



Plot 


Crop. 


^lanure. 


Yield per acre. 




X'alue of 


Cost of 


Remarks. 


No. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


produce. 


cultivation. 


109 

114 

118 
119 

120 
121 


Brijri 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 

Do. 
Do. 


Nil 

NMl 

Farmyard manure. 

Do! Z. 
Do. 


Lbs, 

536 

624 
S08 
410 

508 


Lbs. 
a. 741 

4.&18 

4.012 
4.1 

3.4'58 
3.728 


R.«. a. n 
21 4 8 

26 7 4 

30 12 4 
17 12 
21 14 
^^ J2 


\\^. a. p, 
16 9 8 

59 15 

.S8 13 
37 7 
3« 
34 1 


la rotation with 

tobaco. 
1\\ rotation with 

fallow, 
C/ntiuuous. a 


The crop is below the average. 1 
The results of tobacco are as under :— | 


Plot 


Crop. 


.Manure. 


1 Yield per 
1 acre. 


Value of 
produce 


Cosf of 
cu.tivaiion. 


Heni.arks. 


No. 


1 Cired 
leaves. 


lOR 

110 
111 
112 
113 
116 


Tobacco 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


1 
Fannyaid manure 

To. 
Do. 

1)0. 

Uo. 
Do. 


Lbs. 
280 

828 

1 816 

' 1.024 

1,40U 


Rs. a, p. 
22 6 4 

26 3 8 
68 1 4 
06 4 4 
61 7 
84 


Rs a. p 

45 6 b 

46 6 4 

51 J> 8 
£0 8 8 
67 8 
62 


Dam^igcd by wilt. 

Do. 
Damnued by rain. 

Damaged by mil. 
Do. 























19 

Experiments on crops grown continuously. 

16. The object was — 

(1) to see how lonoj the following crops can be grown 
profitably without any mar.ure on the same plots; 

(2) to see the effects of deep and ordinary ploughing on 

Kodra mixture and on Bajri mixture grown continuously. 

The following crops were grown continuously : — 

(fi) Bajri and mixture. 
(^) Kodra and mixture. 
{c) Bajri. 

(d) Cotton, Broach. 

(e) Tobacco (dry). 

The Bajri and Kodra mixtures were grown on the following 
plots : — 

Plot No. 137. — Area 5 gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, sown with Bdjii and mixture. 

Plot No. 139. — Area 5 gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manure<l, sown with Kodra and mixture. 

Plots Nos. 138, 140.— Area 6 gunthas each, deeply 
ploughed, otherwise crops and treatment same as in plots 137 
and 189 respectively. 

The results of Bdjri mixture are as under : — 



Plot No. 137 ordinarily ploughed. 



Plot No. 138 deeply ploughed. 



Croji 



Yie'.d per aero. 







Grdiu. 






Lbs. 


Bajri 


,,. 


172 


MiVh 


•>. 


16 


Ma^' 





•156 


Tuvir 


Total ... 


376 



Straw. ; 



Value of I Cost of 
produce. I cultivation. 



yield per acre. 



Lbs. 

3,6;?G 

96 

2,356 

408 



Bs. a. p. 

2i 8 b 

9 4 

18 13 

l;j 11 4 



Bs. a. p. 



29 11 4 



oO 



9 1 



29 11 1 



Grain. 



Lbs. 
360 

24 
400 
290 



Straw. 



Lbs. 
3,123 

123 

2,232 

321 



I Value of 
1 produce. 



Cost o£ 
cultivation. 



Bs. a p. 

19 8 

13 4 

16 Ifj 4 

10 12 8 



48 1 4 



Bs. a. p. 



32 3 4 



The results uf Kodra mixture are ;iS under : — 



Crop. 



Kodra 
Tal 
Bheria 
Tuvev 



Total 



Plot No. 139 ordinarily ploughed. 



Plot No 140 deeply ploughed. 



Yield per acre. 



Grain. < Straw. 



Lbs. 
941 
200 
112 
552 



Lbs. 
1,9J6 



56 fibre 
016 



Vulue of 
produce. 



Rg. a. p. 

18 7 4 

16 14 

5 6 8 

20 3 4 



60 15 4 



Cost of I. 
cultivation, i 



Yield per acre. 



Grain. 



Straw, 



Bs. a. p, i Lbs. > Lbs. 

610 ! 1.272 
200 

152 80 fibre 

408 ; 45:i 



19 3 4 



19 3 4 



Value of 
produce. 



Ill a. p 

12 4 

16 14 

7 8 9 

11 14 8 



Copt of 
cultivation. 



Rs. a. p. 
21 11 4 



61 7 4 t 21 11 4 



20 

Cotton, Bajri and tobacco crops were grown on the following 
plots : — 

Plot No. 97. — Area 6 gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, sown with Broach cotton. 

Plot No. 98. — Area 6 gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, sown wiih Bajri, 

Plot No. 101. — Area 4 J gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, planted with tobacco. 

The results are as under : — 









Yield PL) 


V acre. 






Plot 


Crop, 


Manure. 






Vahic of 
pruduce. 


Co>t of 
cultivation. 


Ko. 




i 








Grain. 


straw. 




M 








Lbs. 
Seed cotton. 


Lbs. 1 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. pP 


9.1 


Cotton 


Nil ... 


263 


... 


21 6 2 


13 13 1 


98 


Bjjri 


Do. ... 


360 
Cured leaves 


2,833 


23 3 


25 3 10 


10113 


Tobacco 


Do. ... 


533 


*" 


42 6 10 


38 5 1 



Bajri was damaged by rain. More than half the area of cotton 
was destroyed by wilt. 

Cultural Experiments. 

Series J, — The object was — 

(1) to compare Bajri and Bajro sown V apart with Bajri and 

Bajro sown 1^' apart ; 

(2) to compare the yield of Bajri with that of Bajro ; 

(3) to compare Broach cotton sown 1|' apart with cotton 

sown 2' apart, 

Bd.jri and Bajro were grown on tlie followinof plots : — 

Plot No. 104. — Area 10 gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, sown with Bajri 1' apart. 

Plot No. 105. — Area 10 gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, not 
manured, sown with Bdjro V apart. 

Plot No. 122A. — Area 8-5- gunthas, ordinarily plonghed, 
not manured, sown with Bajri IV apart. 

Plot No. 122B, — Area 8^ gunthas, ordinarily ploughed, 
not manured, sown with Bajro 1^' apart. 



21 



The results of Biijri and Bajro are as under 




The crops are below the average. Bajri sown 1' apart has 
given the better return, while Bdjro sown 1 J' apart has given the 
better outturn. 

Cotton was sown under similar conditions in the following 
plots : — 

Plot Nos. 102-103. — Area 10 gunthas each, ordinarily 
ploughed, not manured, and sown with Broach cotton 1^' 
apart. 

Plot Nos. 106-107. — ^Area 10 gunthas each, ordinarily 
ploughed, not manured, sown with Broach cotton 2' apart. 

The results are as under : — 



riot 

No, 


Crop. 


Treatment. 


Yield 

of seed 

cotton per 

acre. 


Vcilue of 
produce. 


Cost of 
cultiYation. 


102 
103 
106 
107 


Broach cotton 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


Sown IV apart ... 
Do. 

Sown 2' apart 
Do. 


Lbs. 
228 
694 
394 
384 


Rs. a. p. 
18 8 4 
56 7 
32 4 
SI 3 1 


Ks. a. p. 

17 4 

18 4 4 
16 13 
15 9 



The plots were much affected by wilt disease. 

18. Series II. — The object was to compare Biijri and Guwar 
sown as separate crops with Bajri and Guwar sown mixed 
together. 

Plot Nos. 123-124.— Area 1 acre, ordinarily ploughed, 

not manured, sown with Bajri and Guwar mi.Ked together. 

Plot Nos. 125-126.— Area 1 acre, ordinarily plouglif^d, 
not manured, sown with Guwdr. 

The results are as under : — 



22 



riot 

No. 



104 
125, 12G 

123, 124 j 



Crop. 



Bajri 
Guw4r 
Bdjri 
Guvvar 



Manured. 



Yield piT 
acre. 



Grain. Fodder. 





Lbi. 


Nil 


464. 


J):). 


865 


Do. 


352 


iDo, 


380 



4.i72 

4,266 
355 



Value o^ 
produce. 



Ks, a. p. 

25 8 

23 6 8 

j 29 2 4 



Cost of 
cultivation. 



Rs. a. ]\ 

10 13 8 

30 13 10 

21 12 8 



Bajri was damaged by rain. This year Gawdr alone seems 
to be profitable. 

Trial of new crops. 

19. Cotton* — The object was — ^ 

(1) to introduce Lalio and Wagad cottons which are exten- 

sively grown in the Ahmedabad District ; 

(2) to see whether I/dio cotton can be grown profitably 

with irrigation. 

The results are as under : — 



Plot 
No. 


Area. 


Crop. 


Tillage. 


Manure. 


Irrijrated 
or not. 


Yield 
of sef d 

cotton 
per acre. 


Vnlue 0? 
produc •. 


Cost of 
cultivation 


81 
82 

127 
128 


1- 

20 
20 


Uiio ... 

Do. 

Wdgud ... 


Ordinary . 

Do. ... 
Do. ... 


F. Y. M. . 

Nil 
Do. 


Irrigated . 

Nil 
Do. 


Lbs. 
709 

491 
311 


Bs. a. p. 
57 11 

39 14 4 
25 4 4 


Us. a. p. 
52 7 8 

15 1 
10 8 2 



Lalio irrigated was a very promising crop but nearly half 
the area was destroyed by ** wilt disease." 

20. J) hdnodr- American cotton. — About 20 gunthas were sown 
with this cotton. The germ nation was not satisfactory. Th^ ger- 
minated plar ts were attacked with white ants and wilt disease. 
The whole plot was ploughed in. 

The following varieties of cotton were sown on a small area 
to see the variation in the percentage of lint due to differences in 
soil and climate ; — 



23 















Poreentag.> of 


No. 




Name of ilio coit-.n va 


"ioly. 






lint to eocl- 
cottoiu 


1 


Devkapds 










26-3 


2 


Rozi 


... 








26-8 


3 


Naden 


• •• 








31-6 


4 


W^gad 


• •• 








28 


5 


Knmpta 


... 








27-5 


6 


Broach 


••• 








31-8 


7 


Gogh^ri 


.•• 








33-8 


8 


Mathio 


• •• 








27-2 


9 


Jari 


• •• 








285 


10 


Vavc^di 


»»t 








35-2 


11 


Coniiila 


• •< 








44-5 


12 


Bani 


... 








26 



21. Bdjru — The following new varieties were grown 

(1) Natal Bdjri. 

(2) West African Bajri. 

The 1 esnlts are as under : — 



riot 


Area 

ill 

gunthas. 


Crop. 


Till! go. 


Manure. 


Yield per 
aero. 


Value 

of 

produce. 


Cost 
of 


No. 


Grain. 


Fodder 


cultivation. 


1 

1 

96 13 

142 ! 6 


Natal Bdjri ... 
Wcit African 
Bajri. 


Ordinary . 
Do. ... 


Nil ... 
Do. ... 


Lbs. 

323 
1,066 


Lbs. 

4,997 

5,506 


R5>. a.' p. 
ly 8 3 
37 15 9 


Rs. a. p. 
17 4 6 
27 2 5 



Natal Bajri was much damaged by rain. The growth was 
just like ordinary Bdjri : the ear was somewhat longtr and the grain 
smaller. 

West African Bc4jri was not much affected by rain. The 
stalks were thiok with plenty of aereal roots. The leaves were 
broader than ordinary Bajri plants and the appearance of the crop 
was like maize. Tne e?irs were very long, some measuring 21 inches. 
The grain was very small and yellow. 

22. Soj/beans. — The following varieties of soybeans were 
grown : — 

I. — Black-seeded, 
II. — Yellow-seeded. 
III. — Extra early black-seeded. 
IV. — Extra early. 



24 



These varieties were first sown in May. The germination was 
not satisfactory owing to excesssive heat. The germinated plants 
were parched up. The seed was again sown in the monsoon. 
The germination was fair. The plants were progressing well till 
the end of August, but owing to heavy and constant rains all the 
plants rotted. The yield was practically nothing. A few plants 
only seeded, 

23. Groundnut. — The object was to treat the plots as a pro- 
tection against white ants. 

Four plots, each one guntha in area, were put under ground- 
nut as under : — 

(1) To be treated with Jambho as green. 

(2) To be treated with kerosine. 

(3) To be treated with castor-cake. 

(4) To be treated with nothing. 

The results are as under : — 



I 









Area 

in 

gantbaa. 


Crop. 


Treatment. 


1 


Groundnut . 


Green manure, 
of Jambho. 


1 


Do. ... 


Castor-cake.. 


1 


Po. ... 


Kerosine ... 

1 


1 


Po. ... 


Kil 



Number 

of 
water- 
ings. 



Yield per 
acre. 



Good 
Pods. 



Rotten 
Pods. 



443 



Extent of 
damage. 



33-3 per ceut 



1,12;) 1 320 27-7 ., 

i i 

810 ; 2.0 I 2o 

0?0 I 4>0 ! 413 ,, 



1\ eniarks. 



Jambho was trrown in the cold 
weather of IfOiandwas ploughed 
ill ; a few patches were made by 
white ants. Crop was looking 
rather pale. 

A few plants were seen dcstroved l>y 
whi ants ; 15 lbs. castor-eako was 
applied in 2 doses. 

K lO iue '3ib3. • was applied to (i 
waterings; a few i)lant8 were seen 
attncked by white auts. Crop 
h'Oked paler. 

Mut-h attacked vitli white ai 
Crop raiK'h p.Jor. 



\ 



Green manure in addition to its manurial value seems to hav^ 
some effect on white ants. 

Castor-cake seems to have less effect on white ants than 
kerosine, but appears to influence the yield greatly. 

The kerosine oil appears to have had a good effect on white 
ants. 

24. GUna mmtard, — Two varieties, viz,, Cai Trang and Cai 
Sen, were transplanted in December. The plants irrew very 
luxuriantly but the yield of grain was very poor. 



The percentages of oil in these varieties are as under : — 

Cai trang ... ... 30*57 per cent. 

Cai sen ... ... 31'42 „ 

25, yS'rty/,— This year again san was sown for fibre and seed. 
The plants grew very vigorously but owing to heavy rains no 
pods were formed. 

The results arc as under : — 



No. 



Area ill 

guntbas. 



Crop. 



9G 



12 



Suu 



Yield per acrCi 



Grain. I Fibre. 



Lbs. I Lbs. 

I 

C6 I 473 



Value of 
produce. 



Rs. a. p. 
25 5 3 



C03t Of 

cultivation. 



Rs. a. p. 

28 7 



Extracting fibre by hired labour is very costly. A sample 
of San fil)re was valued by the Bombay Chamber of Commerce 
at Rs. 60 per candy of 588 lbs. and of Ambadi at Rs. 40. 

26. Kamocl rice. — Kamod rice was again planted this year, 
but owing to the sandy nature of the soil it was not successful as 
this variety requires plenty of water. It was watered four times 
from the well. 

The following are the results : — 



No. 
02 


Area in 
gunthas. 


Cro;. 


Treatment. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of 
produce. 

Es. a. p. 

30 4 7 


Cost of 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


cultivation. 


7 


Rice ... 


F. Y. M. ... 


Lbs. 
G85. 


lbs. 
2,783 


Rs. a. p. 
55 9 


Mand 
seed 

was s 
did n( 


27. I 
lescher 
did nol 

28. T\ 
own or 
3t s:r)\ 


Parley.— 

idi was s 
t germin 

nieat ha 
1 a small 
v^ vigoro 


-A sample 
own on a 
ate. 

rley, — A g 

area, Ti 

Lisly. Th 


of a six 
small ai 

>ample oi 
le germi 
ey were 


-rowed 
•ea in t' 

[wheat I 
natiou m 
siaallcr 


jarley vari 
^e rabi sea 

3arley from 
'as good. 1 
than ordina 


ety called 
son. The 

Cawnpore 
'he plants 
ry barley. 



The yield was poor, ^?/J., 120 lbs. per acre. 

B 992^1 



26 



29. Tobacco. — The following statement gives the details of 
several varieties of tobacco grown on this farm : — 



Name of the 
variety. 



Talaon 
Havana 
Java P. 
Wlingi 
Spanish 

Florida 
Java D. 
Sumatra 



No. 
of 


Height 


Measnrement 


Mcas,urement 


of the 


of the 


of the 


leaves. 


plant. 


top leaf. 


largest leaf. 


17 


2' 10" 


7" xl4" 


11" xlS" 


15 


2' 8" 


6" xir 


12" xl6" 


IG 


3' 5" 


(>" xlO" 


llV'xlo" 


18 


2' 6" 


7" xU" 


9*" X 15" 


16 


2' 10" 


6^x10" 


9" xl4" 


18 


3, 2'' 


5i"xl3" 


9" x]5V' 


19 


3' 5" 


7i"xl2" 


9y'x]5" 


21 


3' 6" 


r xi2" 


9" xl5" 



Uemarl'0. 



Greenish, thickest, not spotted. 
Reddish, thick, brittle spotted. 
YelloAvish, thick, spotted. 
Whitish, thick, spotted. 
Reddish yellow, thick midrib, 

very thick spotted. 
Yellowish leaves thin and narrow. 
Yellowish, brittle thick and narrow. 
Yellowish, leaves conical. 



All these varieties are more or less degenerating, A curing 
house is now constructed and experiments on curing on improved 
methods will be undertaken next season. 

Pests. I^H 

30. Sugarcane borer (Gliilo simplex), — The attack was detect 
ed in May when the sugarcane sets were sprouting. The attack 
was severe and the damage done to the young crop was great. 

31. Caterpillars. — The crops of rice, tobacco, cotton and 
brinjals were attacked with caterpillars. The attack was slight. 

32. Kdtras or hairy caterpillars. — In the beginning of July 
Katras were seen attacking Bajri, cotton, San, etc. They preferred 
San to other crops. The attack was slight. 

33. White ants. — Owing to the sandy nature of the soil white 
ants are very disastrous. The wiiole crop of chillies and sugar- 
cane was damaged by them. 

31^ Smut. — See above. 

The farm seed was steeped before sowing in A per cent, copper 
sulphate solution but unfortunately the printed instructions 
followed (not issued by me) were faulty. Correct instructions 
have now been issued. 

85. Wilt disease. — Some of the cotton and tobacco plots were 
very much damaged by this disease. 

86. Bfwgcll blight. — A very few plants of potatoes were seen 
attacked with this blight in the young stage. The damage was 
very slight. The attacked plants w^ere removed and burnt. 



27 



37. Mildew. — On account of rain in the beginning of February 
the crop of jiru was attacked with mildew. Subsequently much more 
damage was done to the crop by subsequent rain than by mildew. 

Cross Breeding. 

38. Several crosses made last year were sown this season. 
The following crosses gre\M vigorously : — 

Tree cotton + Abassi. 
Do. + Sea Island. 
Do. 4- Texas big boll. 

The following table gives the details of crosses made daring 
this year : — 



Rough Peruvian 

X 

Kidney. 


Kidney 

X 

Rough Peruvian. 


Kidney 

X 

16 X, 


Number of 
flowers 
crossed. 


Number 
of bolls 
formed. 


Number of 

bolls 
obtained. 


Number of 
fiowers 
crossed. 


Number 
of bolls 
formed. 


Number of 

bolls 
obtained. 


Number of Number 
flowers 1 of fco'ls 
crossed, ioimed. 


Number 
of bolls 
obtained. 


64 


50 


9 


134 


73 


43 


55 


20 


12 



Irrigational Experiments. 

39. To find out what quantity of water is required by each 
irrigated crop, the quantity of water supplied at each irrigation was 
measured either through the rectangular notch or by measuring 
tanks. 

The following table gives the details of the quantity of water 



taken by several crops per 


acre daring the 


year under report : — 




' 


Quantity 


Quantity 


Quantity 


Total 

Number 

of 

Wc-tcr- 
ings. 


Totil 




Crop. 


of water 


of water 


of water 


quantity 




at the time 


at the first 


afcthe2nd 


of water 






of s'owing. 


watering. 


watering. 


applied. 


• 




Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 




Gallans. 


Tobacco ... 




Nil. 


41,250 


40,000 


3 


112,8t>5 


VariAli .., 


... ... ... 


Do. 


56,250 


70000 


9 


486,012 


Chillies ... 


... 


Do. 


S2,o03 


52,500 


13 


5''.2,700 


Wheat ... 





107,500 


76,250 


80,000 


7 


500,262 


Rice 


... ... .. ... 


Nil. 


94,117 


67.576 


2 


161,692 


Brinjals ... 


... ... ... ... 


Do. 


44 444 


41,666 


32 


52^,830 


Jiru 


... ... ... 


' 77,500 


43,750 


37,500 


4 


201,250 


Lalio cotton 




j N:l. 


60 000 


40.000 


3 


127,250 


Potatoes ... 


••• 


i 07,500 


37,500 


37,500 


7 


313,750 


Sundh:a Jowdr 


•«. ... ... ... 


! 6i,650 


66,562 


42,975 


6 


294,262 


Onicn 


... 


1 CO,OCO 


37,500 


38,812 


14 


528,437 



58 



New Implements. 

40. Watt's chain plough works well in the moist alluvial 
soils. It is like a Swedish plough with oue handle. 

Other implements, such as Turn-wrest plough and the Nile 
plough, continue to give satisfaction. 

Experiments made off the Station. 

41. To make popular special fertilizers sodium nitrate was 
distributed to cultivators for trial on tobacco. The fields were 
manured and irrigated as usual. 

Sodium nitrate was applied at the rate of 120 lbs. per acre to 
half the plot in addition to the farmyard manure. The cost of 
sodium nitrate is Rs. 12 per acre. 

The results are as under : — 













Yield of 




1 

Increment 


Field 
No. 


Area. 


. Manure used. 




cured 
leaves per 


Value of 
produce. 


in value due 
to sodium 












acre. 




nitrate. 












Lbs. 


Ks, a. p. 


Ks. a. p. 


r 


14 


Farmyard manure 


... 


... 


1,045 


104 9 


) 


I] 


23 


Farmyard mmuro 


and 


sodium 






> 33 14 


( 




Bit rate 


•*. 




1,381 


138 7 


) 


c 


24 


Farmyard raaunre 


... 


... 


1,283 


128 5 


] 


2j 


24 


Farmyard manure 


and 


sodium 






[ 27 13 


( 




nitnro 


• •• 


... 


1,561 


156 2 


J 


I 


32 


Farmyard manure 


... 




2,296 


229 10 


^ -25 8 


3 


32 


Farmyard manure 


and 


sodium 










nitrate 

1 


... 


... 


2,041 


204 2 



i 






In the first two fields the sodium nitrate has produced a better 
outturn. 

Engine and Pump. 

42. Tlie oil engine and j)ump installed for irrigation purposes 
on this farm are working well. The details were re^wrted in 
the last re],x)rt. 

Eneilage. 

43. This season the silo was filled with green ^rass. In 
September G5,000 lbs. green grass was put in the silo witiiin four 
days. The contents were covered with a layer of earth 1|' di^ep on 
the top. The silo was opened on the 14th April. The grass on the 
sides of the wall of the silo was rotten to the extent of 6'" all round. 



29 



The following analyses show the comparative value of silage 
made from grass and green Sundhia. Silage will be of great use 
in the hot weather where dairy cattle are kept : — 



• 


Sundhia silage. 


Green grass 
silage. 


Kemarks. 


Moisture 

Oil, wax, &c. 

Albuminoids 

Soluble carbohydrate 
Woody fibre 
Soluble mineral matter 
Sand 


61'69 
1-96 
2-87 
21-05 
15-52 
2-93 
3-98 


73-64 
1-31 
KO 

12-26 

7-77 
1-45 
1-87 


Sundhia silage was 
reported on as a 
sample of very good 
silage, and that of 
the green grass as an 
average sample of 
moderately sour 
silage. 




100-00 


100 


Total nitrogen 
Albuminoid nitrogen 


-806 
•468 


•342 
•272 





Poona, \ 

September 1907, ) 



F. FLETCHER, 

Deputy Director of Agriculture. 



M ^92—5 



BOMBAY: PRINTED AT THE QOVJiRNMKNT CRNTKAL PRKS9» 



^^'FORjViA, 



iicpaitment of Slgiicultu 




ANNUAL REPORT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

POONA AGRICULTURAL STATION 

INCLUDING 

KIRKEE CIVIL DAIRY 

AND 

LANOWLI AGRICULTURAL STATION 

FOR THE YEAR 



1906-190;^ 



BY 



F. FLETCHEK, M.A., B.Sc, etc., 

Aff. Frofessor of Argicallure. 



BOMBAY 

I'RINTED AT YWV. UOVERNMEN'J' CENTRAL PRKSS 

1907 



\Fric6 — 7a. or Sd.'\ 



OffiCiAL AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF INDIAN OFFICiAl 
PUBLICATIONS. 

In JSngland. 

E. A. iTHold, 41 & it, Maddox Street, Bond Strert, W., London. 

Constable & Co., 10, Orai^e Street^ Leicester Square, W. C, London 

Grindlay & Co., 54, Parliament Street, S. W., London. 

Henry S. King & Co., 65, Comhill, E. C, London. 

P. S. King & Son, 2 & 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W., 
London. 

Kegan Panl, Trench, Trnbner & Co., 43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W., 

London. 

B. Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W., London. 
T. Fisher Unwin, 1, Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C. 
W. Thacker & Co., 2, Oeed Lane London. E. C. 
B. H, Blackwell, 50 & 51, Broad Street, Oxford. 
Deighton Bell & Co., Cambridge. 

On the Continent. 

Friedlander & Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin. 

Rudolf Hanpt, Halle-a-S., Germany. 

Otto Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 

Ernest Leroux, 2^, Kue Bonaparte, Paris. 

Martiniis Nijhoff, The Hague. 

In India. 

Higginbotham & Co., Madras. 

V. Kalyanarama Iyer & Co., Madras. 

p. R. Rama lyar & Co , Madras. 

Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta. 

W. Newman & Co., Calcutta. 

S. K. Lahiri & Co., Calcutta. 

R. Cambray & Co., Calcutta. 

Thacker & Co. (Ld.), Bombay. 

A. J. Combridge & Co., Bombay. 

Curator, Government Central Book Depot, Bombay. 

D. B. Taraporevala, Sons & Co., Bombay. 

Sunder Pandurang, Bookseller, etc., Bombay. 

Gopal Narayen & Co., Booksellers, et*. I^ombay. 

N. B. Matkur, N. K. H. Press, Allahabad. 



I 



l^epartment of ftgciculture, j&ombafi. 



ANNUAL JREPORT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THB 

POONA AGRICULTURAL STATION 

INCLUDING 

KIRKEE CIVIL DAIRY 

AND 

LANOWLI AGRICULTURAL STATION 

FOR THE YEAE 

1906-1907 

BT 

F. FLETdHEB M.A., B.Sc, etc., 

Ag» Frofessor of Argiculture. 



BOMBAY 

PUINTBD AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRKS8 

1907 



Vernaoiilar names of Cropa, &c., mentioned in the report and their 
Botanical and English equivalents. 



Botanicali 


English, 


Vernacular. 


Cereals. 










^And^opog)n sorghum vai. 


vulgar e... 


Qreat millet 


•• 


Jowdr (Utivali, Hundi, 
Shdlu, Nilva, Cholam, 
&c.). 


Do. var 


. ceruuum. 


Do. 


... 


Sundhia. 


Penniaetura typlioideum 




Bull rush millet 


... 


Bdjri. 

Gahu (Kdld-kusal, Daud- 


rriticum sativum 




Wheat 


••• 










khini, Shet, &c.). 


Do, speltum 




Spelt 


... 


KhapH. 


Oryza sativa 


... 


Rice, Paddy 


... 


Bhdt (Ambemohor, Dodka, 
Kamod, &c.). 


Elusinc corocaua 




Muma millet 


... 


Ndchani, Ndgli. 


Paspalum scrobiculatum 




Kodra millet 


!•• 


Kodra. 


Panicum miliaceum 


••1 


Common miUet 


... 


Sava, Vari, Chino, Dhenglf. 


Do. italicam 


t*. 


Italian millet 


... 


R41a. * 


Avena saLiva 




Oats 


.. 


Vat. 


Zea mays 




Maize 


... 


Maka, 


Sorghum sachharatura 




fc'orghum 


... 


Amber, Collier (exotic). 


Panicum crusgalli var. 


frumenta- 






Barti, Banti. 


ceum. 










Setaria italica 




Italian millet 


... 


Kang. 


Setaria glanca 




Bottle grass 


... 


Bh&dli. 


Fagopyrum esculoutam 


... 


Buck wheat 


... 


Kutu. 


Pulses. 










Oajanus indicus 




Pigeon pea 




Tur. 


Cicjr arieninum 




Gram 


... 


Harbhara. 


Phaseolus mungo 




Greort gram 


... 


Mug. 


Do^ radiatug 




Black gram 


... 


Udid. 


Do. aconitifoUaa 




Kidney beau 


^^ 


Math. 


DoJichos catiang 




Cow pea 


• •• 


Uhavli, Oholi. 


Do. biiloi-ous "^ 




Horse gram 


... 


Kulith. 


Pisum sativum 




Pe^ 


(•« 


V4tfina, 


Lathy rus sativus 




Jarosse 




Ldkh, Lang, 


Ervum leas 




Lentil 




Masur. 


Cyamopsis psorAlioules 
Glycine hispida 


!!! 


Field vetch 


... 


Guvar. 


.... 


Soybean 


... 


(Exotic.) 


Oilseeds. 










Arachia hypogea 




Groundnuts 


... 


Bhuimug. 


Linum usitatisaimum 




Linseed 


... 


Javas. 


Carthamua tinctorius 




Safflower 


... 


Kardai, 


Ricinus communis 




Castor 


... 


Brand i. 


Pongamia glabra 


.!. 


•••••t 




Karanj. 


Quizotia abissynica 


... 


Niger seed 


. - 


Kirhale. 


Fibres. 










Qossypiam herbaceum 


••• 


Cotton 


.•1 


KApus (Broach, Kumpta, 
Goghtlri). 


Do. hirsnbura 


... 


American cotton 




Vilayati K^pus. 



9 1095— « 



2 



Botanical. 




Fibres— CO ntin ued, 

Gossypium neglectum 

Do. jndicum 

Do. arboreuni 
Corchorns Capsularis 
Crotolaria j uiicea 
Hibiscus caunabiiuis 

Condimeiits. 
Capsicum frateseens 

Vegetables. 

Ipomaja batatas 
Solannm melongena 
Phaseolus lunatus 



Grasses. 

Medicago sativa 
Panicura jumentomm 

Do. muticum 
Reana luxnriuns 

Miscellaneous. 

Moras indica 
Manihot utilissima 
Masa saplentum 
Mimosops hexaudra 
Cabphyllum inophyllum 
TtTininalia tome^ta&a 



Khandesh cotton 
Hinganghit cotton 
Tree cotton 
Jute 

Bombay hemp 
Hemp 



Chillies 



Sweet potato 
Brinjal 
lama bean 
Velvet bean 



Lucerne 
Guinea gra83 
Water grass 
Teosinte 



Mulberry 
Tapioca 
Plantains 
(Timber tree) 
Alexandrian Laurel 
(Timber tree) 



Vernacular. 



Varddi Kdpus. 
Bani, Chinda Kdpus. 
Dev Kipus. 



San. 
ArabAdi. 



Mirchi. 



Ratdlu. 
V^ngi, 
Dabbal-bce. 
(Exotic.) 



Lasun ghas. 
(Exotic) 

Do. 

Do. 



Tot. 

(Exotic.) 

Kel. 

Rayan. 

Unai. 

A in. 



I.-THE POONA AGRICULTURAL STATION, 

1906-19^7. 



Established—lSrd ; North Latitude— l^"" %^' \ East Lonfii- 
tilde — 73° 50' ; Elevation — 1,850 feet above sea level ; Soil — • 
I medium black and^ \\<^\it mur urn ; Average rainfall — 32 inches; 
Temperature — maximum 108° ia May, luioimum 42° ia Eebruary, 

Superintendent — Mr. V. K. Kogekar. 

Area — Q'o acres. 





1 


>> 
a 


i 


3 




»4 
1 


1 

O 


1 

e 


o 

1 
1 




1 


i 

a 


O 

H 






f n 


, 


/ // 


1 V 


/ " 


/ II 


/ w 


/ II 


# // 


/ /» 


/ II 


/ « 


Rainfall (1906-1907; 


26 


?6 


9 S 


.J 66 


4 -zr, 


1 GO 


3 28 


47 


4 


2 


... 


10 


23 23 


Average 


88 


1 3i 


6 2 


8 53 


4 77 


4 33 


5 13 


48 


Zl 


1 


10 


2 


31 02 


Temperature — 




























Meaa u.axinium 


103^ 


101" 


88" 


b2° 


82° 


S2° 


90° 


80° 


^6° 


87° 1 90° 
5a° 56° 


90'^ 




il- fvu iDinimum 


67- 


72° 


72° 


71° 


6&° 


67= 


03° 


5.° 


55° 


61° 





I.— History. 

2, The Poona Station bad its orio^iu iu a small piece of land 
taken for tbe agricultural class at the College of Science, which 
was opened iu 1879. In 1882 this area was extended to QQt acres. 
Up to 1883 it was iu charge of the Lecturer in Botany aud 
Agriculture at the College. But in that year it was handed over 
to the Agricultural Department where it has remained ever since. 
Primarily the Station was for demonstration in agriculture to 
the students. Upon other agricidtural problems arising^ the 
Station was used for experimental purposes, 

A small area has for the last three years been devoted to 
raising varieties for Professor Gammie's classification. 

II.— Area, character of Soil and Irrigation. 

3. The Poona Station consists of Survey Nos. .^)7, 59 and CO 
of Bopudi, situated about 2 miles from Poona. Of this area about 
35 acres are arable while the rest is used for building and pastur- 
age; 20 acres and 19 gunthas are medium black soil and 8 acres 
and 8 gunthas light soil. Survey Nos. 57, 59 and GO are irrigable 

E 1095—1 



from the Mutlia Left Bank Canal. Survey No. 57, which is 
occupied by the pasturage and most of the buildings, may be 
considered as belonging to the Dairy. 

III.— Line of work. 

4. This year the Station entered on a new phase of work. 
Up to this time it was used partly as an educational and partly 
as a fodder-producing farm. But owing to the opening of a new 
S'ation in connection with the scheme of a separate Agricultural 
College this Station has become purely an experimental and 
demonstrative one. 

The area which was set apart as a Dairy farm and used 
principally for raising fodder for the Dairy was also utilized this 
year for experimental purposes, the fodders being raised on the 
College Station. 

The principal lines of experiments are noted below : — 

(1) Cultivation of the different types of cottons {a) fo 
resting the land successively cropped to fodders, {b) fo 
selection of a cotton better adapted to the Deccan con 
ditions of irrigated cultivation. 

(2) Growing of tree cottons on light soil portions of 
the Station to determine their productive quality. 

(3) Growing of varieties of Jowd,r, Bdjri, maize and Tur 
for seed. 

(4) Growing a set of varieties in small plots of pulses 
and millets for classification by the Economic Botanist. 

(5) Growing light soil crops and variety tests. 

(6) Trial of different green manures on wheat. 

(7) Cultivation of rabi pulses in rotation after fodder 
Jowars to hold the land in good condition. 

(8) Fibre crops for comparative fibre test. 

(9) Plant diseases. The work with Tikka disease of 
groundnut and Wilt disease of Tur was continued. 

(10) Growing of varieties of groundnuts on areas not 
known to be affected with Tikka. 

(11) Trial of new crops. 

IV.— Meteorology. 

5. The rainfall was somewhat below the average but was 
well distributed. 



I 



There were no anti-monsoou showers for the preparation of 
the land. The regular monsoon burst seasonably in the Isi week 
of June. Sowing* at the Station commenced in the 2ncl week of 
June. The rains during the secood fortnight of July, Au ust 
and September were timely and saved the crops which otherwise 
would have suffered from want of moisture. During long breaks 
the crops were irrigated. The rainfall in the 1st week of October 
was useful for the sowing of rabi crops. Owing to the faihire of 
rains in November and December the rabi crops had to be irrigated 
from the canal. 



v.— Area planted to different crops. 

6. The following statement shows the area cropped and 
the purpose of each crop : — 



Field 
No. 


j Kharif crop. 

1 


Area. 


Purpo-e. 


Rabi crop. 


Area. 
6 


Pnrposo, 


1 


1 

2 


3 


4 


5 


7 






A. y-. 






A. p. 




1 


Kulthi 
Guinea grass 


30 
20 


Green niamirc 

For fo;'dcr. Pcrciiijia]. 


Oats 


30 


For seed. 


2 


Do. 


30 


Do. 





••• 




2 


Cotton, Broach 


30 


Seed selection for irri- 
gated C0tt03. 





... 





2 


Cotton, Ghogari 


20 


Do. 




... 


...... 


2 


Cotton, Kumpta 


20 


Do. 





... 





2 


AuacrJcau cotton 


1 


Further acclimatization. 




... 





3 


Tree cottons 


15i 


Testing' the cottons on 
light soil. 









3 


Guinea srasa 


4i 


For fodder. Perennial . 





... 





3 


Barti 


10 


For Feed ... 









3 


Maize, Goldeu Beauty 
and Cliavli (1} ft. long 
legume). 


10 


Do. 


.«... 


... 




4 


Cotton, Varadi 


15 


Seed selection for irri- 
gated cotton. 


...... 


... 




1 


Bajri and Tur, red Khan- 
deshi. 


20 


Selection and test of 
samar. 





•t. 





1 


Groundnut, Pondicberry . 


20 


ForsceJ ... 




... 


...... 


1 


„ Virginia 

„ Poona local . 


30 
10 


Do 

Do 


Khapli 


20 


For fodder. 


i 


Guinea grass 


10 


For fodder. Perennial . 





..• 


•••i.« 


4 


Tree cottons 


1 15 


Testing tree cottons on 
light soil. 





... 





5 


Cotton, Bani 


20} 


Seed selection for irri- 
gated cott-)n. 




— 





Flfltl 

^0. 


Kkiiif c op. 


Arcti. 


Pu:-po3C. 


llabi crop. 


1 
Area. 1 

i 


Purpose. 


I 


2 


3 


4 


6 


1 
' 1 


7 


- 




A. g. 






A. g,| 




5 


C•ol'.o:^ Chiiid-i 


15 


Seed selection for irri- 
gated cotton. 












Buck svhvat 


1S\ 


To ttcst the crop on 
light soil. 





- 








Guinea grass 


12 


For fodder. Ferenuial . 




... 







Sweet potatoes 


29 


For botanical study ... 





... 




G 


Tapioca varieties 


1 11 


Variety identification , 





... 




G 


Tar .« 


18 


Study of wilt disease ... 








6 


S>y-b(au3 


1 8 


Variety test 




... 




7 


Tree cottons 


12 


Botatjieal study 









7 


Chillies 


15 


Test of yield 




... 


...... 


7 


Brinjals 


9 


Do, 





... 





7 


Guinea grass 


1 C 


For fodder. Perennial . 









8 


Groundnut ... 


... 


Study of Tikka disease , 


Khapli 


34 


For fodder. 


... 





... 


•.••a. 


Gram 


6 


Study of grai 
wilt. 


8 


Water grass 


P 2 


To occupy a moist place. 
Perennial. 




... 





8 


Plantains 


2 


Do. 





... 




\) 


Guinea grass 


18 


For fodder. PcTennlal . 





«> 


...... 


9 


Flantains 


6 


To occupy a moist 
place. Perennial. 





... 





9 


Pulses an! millets 


1 


Botanical classification. 


••...• 


... 





9 


San 


15 


Test of comparative 
fibre. 




... 




9 


Amkidi 


2) 


Do. 


...... 


«. 


..«■•. 


10 


Sorghum 


15 


1 








10 
10^ 


Cawnporc maize 

Tar, ^ iiriegated Baugalorc. 


15 

4i 


}• For seed 

J 


Wheat varieticf- 
and crosses. 




Variety testi 


10 


Tree cottons 


2 


Botanical study 





... 





10 


Guiuca grasi 


- 28 


For fodder. Perennial . 





..1 




11 


San, Chavli, S )yhoaiiS and 
velvet beaas. 


2 


Green raaiiurcs 


Wheat 


1 2 28 

1 


Variety ica' 


J2 


Scndliia 


11 


For seed ... 


Tiang 


1 11 


Rotation. 


12 


Mha 


11 


Po. 


Gram, Kabuli... 


I 11 


Do. 


13 


Utivali 


' 11 


Do. 


Masur 


1 11 


Do. 


13 


Rice varieties 


31 


Do. 





... 





14 


Mu'.bcrrj- 


8J 


For starting a planta 
tion. Perennial. 





»• 





13 


Jawnporo Maize and Tur, 
Barnmati. 


20 


For seed ... 




... 





• M 


Yelbw Cbolara 


20 


Do 




... 





... 


Rcana Imurians 


20 


Do 





.., 


• 



Field 

IN'O. 


Khauf cop. 


Arc-a. 


Tur pose. 


1 
liabi crop. Area. 


Purpose. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


6 6 


7 






A. g. 




i A. {f. 






African Bajri iind Tur, 
Kcd Bellan . 


10 


For seed 









... 


Broom Corn 


10 


Do. 




.. 








Sindh Bajri ami Castor, 
Peruvian. 


10 


Do. 





••• 






... 


Nilva 





Do. 





... 




«... 


... 


Utuvali 


5 


Dr>. 







..... 


... 


Guinea grass 


9 


For fodder. Perennial... 





... 




..... 


10 


Juto 


10 


Trial of new croi> 





... 







16 


Garden vegetable;^ 


2 13 


For study of genei-al 
culture. 











10 


Guinea grass 


4 


For fodder. Perennial. 




.« 








VI— Crop Diseases and Insect Pests. 



7. Red bugs on cotton, siigarborer on Jowar, catterpillar on 
Sau, bugs and leaf-eating beetles on almost all the crops were 
among the insect pests. The damage from these was not of 
a serious nature. The red cotton bugs were collected and 
destroyed. The other pests were checked by hand-picking where 
possible. 

Smut appeared on both Bdjri and Jowar. The smutted heads 
of Bajri were sent to the Imperial Mycologist for examination. He 
writes thus: — " L'his is the first occasion I have seen such a disease 
on this cereal and the fungus is probably a new species.'^ 

The wheats were attacked by rust the common Puccinia 
Grammonis, and the gram by wilt caused by a species of 
Fusarium. 

8. Tikha disease of groundnut. — la all five varieties of 
groundnuts were grown on the plot devoted to the study of this 
disease. The varieties were sown on the 3Cth of June. The 
germination of all was fair. The disease first made its appearance 
on the 23rd of July 1906 on three varieties, viz.^ Spanish peanuts, 
small Japanese and Virginia and gradually spread to all the rest. 

The diagrammatic statements overleaf show the relative 
positions of the plots, the treatment and the yields in lbs. per acre 
for the two seasons 1905-06 and 190d-07. The yields are written 
on each plot : — 



YIELD or GROUNDNUT IN THE PLOTS OF 

riELD NO a (SEASON ISOB-OBAiSOB-O?) 



1305-06, 



—^ '*' 



Spraj/mg 



s 

25B 


P A K 
30Z 


f s 

/41 




_ r» 


C A 
/S8 


240 Z2/ 


n 

65 


~ r 
/25 


s 

2 S3 


M A L 

^67 


1 


— t ( 


A P 

238 


A N 

392 


£ S 

-f-73 


£ 
23 1 


353 


ZZl 


L . 

t094 


/363 


6 C 
//5Z 


/04'2 


J A 
877 


P A 

/sze 


/V £ ,S £ 
/008 8/>'f- 


8/2 


to 4-0 


too/ 


J / 

928 


A/ 

8/3 


/ A 

84-6 


812 


799 


1128 


r A : 


^ A 5 
/517 


— G 

i5Z3 


R O 
//as 


U // 
/8Z9 


D JV U 
//5^ 


T 
766 


1079 


p a 

1509 




D / 
/503 


C 

/073 


H £ 
390 


936 


r 

so/ 


686 


F 

7^9 




833 


A/ 

770 


7^9 


L 


C A L 
S92 


385 


SO ggf. soya/, sags/ 
^^tvice twice. Oftce. 


Wot. /^ot. 


BO^al. 50 gal SOgal 
0/1 ce fty/ce tM^tce^ 



16 



fdOS'-'O? 



s 

/92 


M A 

23Z 


L i 

286 


J 

/68 


A 

/36 


P A 
/2S 


Af £ < 

/18 


^ £ 
S6 


s 

//6Q 


P A 

M80 


880 


• H — - 
510 


P £ 

320 


A N 


U T ^ 


SBC 


/O20 


V 

720 


I 
/620 


R 

8/3 


G / 

7'^0 


A/ 


/ A 

6t3 


600 


P O 
680 


N 

3'fo 


a / 

600 


C H 

Z20 


£ 

250 


R R > 

3-^0 


2SO 


/ao 


P 

-f-^O 


O O 

-f33 


A/ A 

26 3 


^55 


a c 

3^0 


A L 

320 


Z66 



40 

i 

4 
t 

^8' 



Spta^mg r /cegs^. sag^/. Sfffal /yof ^o/ toi> tfj/ 75 ^^Z- 5//j/al 

trtafMtn/- ^ f/t^/ce thrice t/y/ce. 3prai/e<^^Spraue//- once. 0/1 ce. o^ce. 
Se^o/^ iz/fSteeoe/i. SeeJ^Sfeepeof. 

(A/OT TO SCAIS) 



From the statements given it is probable that neither spraying 
nor steeping has had any effect but that the differences in the 
yields of the plots are due to differences in the soil. 

The yield on the average decreases from west to east and this 
may be due to the fact that on the west was a heavily watered plot of 
Guinea grass or that the soil to the east is more seriously infected. 

9. Wilt disease of Tiir, — All the nine varieties of Tur, which 
had shown some resistance to the disease last year, were grown on 
the same piece of land. Out of the nine varieties six have shown 
a higher percentage of resistance this year than last year, and 
one has remained the same. The variety Sambalpore No, 9, 
which had shown above 78 per cent, of resistance last year, has 
gone down to 48 this year, while the last year's second best 
Bilaspur No. I has increased in its percentage to 70. These 
results are probably due to variations in soil and season and not to 
any quality inherent in the varieties. 

The statement below shows the counts taken, the percentage 
of resistance and yield per plant of the nine varieties : — 

















i 


i 


i 


i 


i 








1 

5 

1 


Name of vaiiely. 


i 


1 

< 


< 

5 
2 


i 

< 

57S 


< 

s 

578 


1 

1 
1 

561 


u 

1 

t 

■& ■ 

560 


1 


1 

1 


1 

i 


■1 


u 

1 

1 


i-i 
1 


1 


No. 9 Sambalpore ... 


642 


596 


582 


547 


543 


534 


528 


628 


516 


2 


No. IBikispur 


9i0 


900 


8^8 


893 


883 


865 


8(34 


860 


847 


843 


835 


809 


800 


3 


No. 2 Bi'asinu- 


813 


790 


783 


783 


738 


7-26 


725 


723 


721 


715 


694 


680 


662 


4 


No. 3 Bilaspar 


4fc« 


4C« 


446 


443 


425 


425 


425 


421 


416 


407 


389 


380 


379 


5 


No. 8 Sambalixn'e ... 


141 


127 


126 


125 


114 


103 


100 


93 


91 


87 


74 


65 


65 


C. 


No. 4 Sambalpore ... 


113 


108 


100 


87 


85 


78 


75 


6S 


64 


55 


44 


42 


39 


7 


No, 6 Sambalpore ... 


1,021 


961 


936 


931 


888 


884 


866 


860 


852 


846 


811 


770 


766 


H 


No. 10 Sambalpore ... 


159 


1.54 


l.vi 


145 


137 


136 


135 


130 


125 


118 


112 


111 


in 


9 


No. 2a Variegatea 
Bangalore. 


2,502 


2,426 


...0, 


2,382 


•i.28l 


2.220 


2,116 


2,207 


2,201 


2,154 


2,103 


2,086 


2,056 



. i 
1 ; Niiine (f vaiiety. 


1 


i 

1 


i 


i 
1 


B 


»4 

1 


! 


1 


i 




i 


1 


i 

t 


« 

■^ 


1 


§ 


1 


^ 


1 


1 


rf 


1 


^ 


s 
•? 


1 


1 




.2 
1 


A 
^ 


■5 




1 

•^ 


i 


1 


g 


1 


i 


i 


i 




5 


1 


No. 9 Samtalporc ... 


514 


515 


509 


503 


502 


500 


499 


497 


415 


427 


422 


415 


409 


2 


No. 1 HiLlspur 


793 


783 


76! 


759 


757 


757 


757 


757 


757 


753 


753 


738 


730 


3 


No. 2 Bilispur 


633 


6J2 


6J9 


6)9 


603 


603 


698 


596 


567 


521 


521 


520 


613 


4 


No. 3 BiWspur 


b73 


870 


361 


.?62 


355 


3.54 


352 


350 


:;«) 


340 


336 


315 


305 


5 


No 8 Sambilpore ... 


6,> 


56 


52 


51 


51 


51 


50 


49 


49 


45 


42 


38 


37 


6 


No. 4 Sambalpore ... 


36 


30 


3". 


35 


35 


35 


85 


:3 


32 


.32 


30 


27 


2> 


7 


No. - ambalpore ... 


757 


716 


743 


731 


7:^1 


728 


72(i 


713 


68:J 


63:? 


633 


623 


615 


8 


No. 10 Sambalpore ... 


no 


108 


103 


103 


103 


102 


98 


96 


92 


8S 


86 


82 


81 


9 


No. 20 Yaritgaicc! 
Bar.ivalore. 


2,027 


2,014 


1951 


1,959 


1,955 


1,947 


1,93* 


1.899 


I,82J 


1,757 


1,727 


1,632 


1,680 



8 



s 




i 


g 




1 


1 


1 




i 


h 


i-3 




1 


Name of variof y. 


1 


1 


2 




JA 


.£3 


rS 




?rr 


8.2 


'p. 


^ 






1 


1 


1 


1 


-•> 




•p. 

5 


-2 rt 


i! 


O 


s 




- 


" 


- 


CI 


CO 


o 


'-^ 


;;; 


iS^ 


tS5 


P^ 


























Drams. 


1 


No. 9 Sambalporc ... 


398 


3S-) 


377 


361 


360 


a5i 


319 


813 


4S'7 


77-8 


3 


2 


No. 1 Bilaspnr 


729 


726 


726 


719 


6^7 


672 


657 


G48 


70-4 


51-6 


•8i 


3 


No. 2 Bilispm- 


497 


4(19 


437 


431 


39:? 


387 


378 


863 


45 


3« 


7 


4 


No. 3 Bilasp'ir 


2J^6 


284 


2-7 


257 


226 


215 


200 


ltX"> 


390 


11-1 


9-9 


5 


No. 8 Saml)»lpore ... 


31 


SI 


31 


cO 


29 


29 


29 


29 


20 5 


20-5 


5 





No. 4 Sancbal^wre ... 


22 


19 


18 


17 


17 


17 


16 


16 


14'2 


81 





7 


No. 6 SambaliX)te ... 


557 


4S7 


475 


461 


460 


452 


4L6 


415 


40G 


16 2 


41 


8 


No. 10 Sam bal pore .. 
No. 20 Variegated 


79 


77 


76 


72 


70 


70 


69 


69 


43-4 


271 


•92 


9 


1,38^ 


1,353 


],20i 


1.277 


1.203 


1,168 


1,119 


1.(31 


41*2 


22-1 


2-6 




Baujjalore. 

























VII.— Experimeats with Fibre Crops. 

10. Cotton. — Six varieties of cotton — Broach, Goghjiri, 
Kumpta of theherbaceum typo, Bani and C/ianda cold weather of 
the indicum and Varadi of the neglecfcuai typo were grown under 
irrigation. 

They were top-dressed with Karanj {Pongemia glabra) cake 
and superphosphate at the rate of 1,000 lbs. aud 400 lbs. per acre 
respectively. 1 

The statement below gives the area, outturn, etc , of the 
several varieties grown: — 



9 



■li 



I 

I 






tjlean 
taple 
fibre 
3 per 




r oQ oj is 




lass "Fine." Very 
and white, but the 
is medium and th 
weak ; value Ks. 2-^ 
khandy. 


ame as Goghari, but 
in staple; value K 
per khandy. 


o 


CO 




3 



^1 >» M< t.^ 



J a' 



^M 



ga§g 






fill 

»- o -is w 



2 c3 S S 



I 



t 



P4 

03 






6C ^ 

<5' o 



s 



^1 



a 



I 



2 d 



B 1095 .-2 



10 



The yields given are unreliable as the land is of very unequal 
capacity. It will be seen from the above statement that Bani has 
yielded well. The growth of this variety was very vigorous and 
the bolls opened very freely. It is earlier than all the others. 
The outturn of Chaiida cold weather is very poor; this is due to 
ihe lodging of many of the plants owing to the forcing growth 
caused by the liquid manure from the byres, which the field had 
received for some time before the crop was sown. The bolls also 
did not open freely. The yields of Kumpta and Yarddi are 
moderate. The percentage of lint to seed cotton in the case of 
Goghari is higher than any of the other varieties. 

Samples of the above cottons were forwarded to Messrs, 
Tata and Co., for their opinion and valuation. Their remarks are 
included in the statement above referred to, 

11. A few plants of each of the 25 varieties of American 
cottons were grown for trial. The following five varieties, viz.^ 
(L) Truitt, (2) Whittle, (3) Texas long stapled, (4) Tata's Allen 
Hybrid, and (5} Doughty, were vigorous in growth and yielded fine 
big bolls. 

12. Tree Cottons. — The following varieties of tree cottons^ 
viz.^ Bourbon, Peruvian, Brazilian (3 varieties), Caravonica, 
and Tytler's Kidney, have been grown this year on light soil 
portions of fields Nos. 3 and 4, 4 gunthas being planted to each. 

In addition to the above a few plants of each of the varieties 
of tree cottons from the Central Provinces, Madras, Bengal, 
Central India, and a few plants of the arboreum type have b^en 
planted in portions of the same field. 

All the cottons came up well. During the hot season the 
young plants had to be irrigated to keep them alive. 

13. San and Ambddi — These were gro tvn for test of com- 
parative fibre. 

The following statement shows the percentage of fibre to dry 
:StalkB and yield per acre : — 





Name of crop. 


Area. 


Per acre. 




Field 

No. 


Dry ripe 

stalks, 

leaves and 

feeds 
. removed. 


Fibre. 


Percentage 

of ni)re 

to dry 

stalk. 


9 
9 


San. 

Ambddi ,. 


Gunthas. 
15 • 
10 


Lbs. 
' 5,619 
2,7;6 ^ 


Lbs. 

679 

' 658 


12-09 
2415 



11 

The Sau pods were attacked by catterpillars, when they were 
just forming", hence no San seed was obtained. Ambadi yielded 
656 lbs. of seed per acre in addition to the fibre. 

VIII. -Varietal Experiments. 



14. Bdjri. — The following three varieties of Bdjri were 
grown for seed with subordinate rows of Tur and castors : — 

(1) Awned or bearded Bajri and red Tur of Khandesh. 

(2) African Bdjri and red Tur from Bellary. 

(3) Sindhi Bajri with Peruvian castor. 

A plot 20 gunthas was sown with Bajri bearded, with a row 
of Tur for every second row of Bdjri. After the crop attained the 
height of 15 inches half the portion was * samfired ' as is the 
practice in Gujarat, the other half was left as it was for com- 
parison. The following statement shows the outturn per acre of 
the two portions separately : — 



Field 
Jso. 


Name of crop. 


Area. 


Date of sowing. 


Yield per acre. 


Remarks. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


4 
4 


Bajri bearded 
Do. 


Gts. 
10 

10 


10th July 1996. 
Do. 


lbs. 
724 

616 


lbs. 

4,480 
4,368 


Satn^red on 19th 

August 1906. 
Not sam^red. 



There is a slight increase in yield in the case of the Samd^red 
portion. The Samdring increases the tillering power of the young 
plants. 

The red Tur of Khandesh was attacked with wilt and only a 
few plants survived ; these yielded only 40 lbs. of the pulse. 

15. African Bdjri, — The ear-heads of this foreign Biljti are 
long with closely packed white grains on them. It tillers freely 
but is a very late variety. It was attacked with smuf, and only a 
few sound heads could be found. These have been selected and 
kept for seed. 

The red Tur from Bellary ^rrown with the Bajri was wilted 
and gave an outturn of 57 lbs. of pulse. 



12 



16. Sindhi JBdjri, — A small quantity of seed of this variety 
was obtained from the Bombay Exhibition in 1904, and was sown 
in small plots in 1905 to get sufficient seed for sowing on a larger 
area. It was sown on a lO-guntba plot this year. It yielded at 
the rate of 336 lbs. of grain and 2,080 lbs. of straw per acre. 

The yield is below the average. This is partly due to smut and 
partly to a portion of the crop occupying a shady place along the 
boundary of the field. 

The castor grown with this was very irregular in growth and 
yielded a nominal outturn. 

17. Jowdr. — The variety of Jowar known as Yellow Cholum 
is grown in Madras for fodder. The seed was obtained from 
Madras and sown on a 20-guntha plot to get sufficient seed for 
sowing as a fcdder crop in the next year. The seed was sown o^| 
the 21st of June. The plants grew well and high, but all tfad 
heads were found to be devoid of grain, and light, owing probably 
to the non-fertilization of the flowers. The stalks were cut dow] 
toud yielded dry fodder weighing 13,652 lbs. per acre. 

18. SundMciy Nilva^ Utdvali and So7'ghum. — These foui 
fcdder Jowars were grown for seed. The following statement 
gives the per acre results : — 



Field 


Name of crop. 


Area. 


Yield per acre. 


Value of yield per acre. 


Cost of 

cultivation 

per acre. 


No. 


Grain. 


Fodder, 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


12 

io 


{^undhia 
Nilva 
Utdvali 
Sorghum 


Gts. 

11 
11 
11 

35 


lbs. 

1,116 
696 
6i8 
815 


lbs. 

2,461 
10,167 

7,927 
11,733 


Rs. a. p. 

55 13 2 

29 13 2 

30 10 4 
42 


Rs. a. p. 

12 4 10 
50 13 4 
39 10 2 
39 1 9 


Bs. a. p. 

28 1 4. 
35 13 7 , 
38 9 3 
58 8 5 



19. Broom Corn. — A plot of lOgunthas was sown with this, 
The ear heads are developed into a loose panicle, which can be 
used for making brooms after threshing out the grain. This year 
the crop was almost a failure owing to the uneven nature of the 
field ; many of the plants became stunted in growth, others getting 
yellow owing to excess of water in a portion of the field, A. few 
heads have been selected for seed for the next year. 

iO. Afaize, — Two varieties of maize, t?t>. (1) Cawnpore, (2) 



Jawnpore, with white Tur from Baramati were 



grown 



for seed. 



13 



Both the varleUes are early, 
outturn results : — 



The following statement gives the 



rield 


Name of crop. 


Area. 


Date of 
sowing. 


Date of 
flowering. 


Yield per acre. 


Percent- 
age of 


^^o. 


Grain. 


Fodder. 


grain to 
cobs. 


30 


Caw n pore Maize 

Jawnpore Maize 
Tur Edramati 


Gts. 
15 

20 


lf>tb June 

lyoe. 

2lst June 
1906. 


22nd July 
1906. 

2nd August 
19U6. 


Lbs. 
2,248 

672 
880 


Lbs. 
3,125 

1,080 

Bhusa 

900 


77 
66 



The yield of Jawnpore maize is small owing to the attack of 
parrots upon the inflorescence which interfered with the proper 
fertilization of the flowers. The Baramati Tur has yielded well. 

21. Wheat varieties and crosses, — The wheat varieties and 
crosses, grown on the Station in the rabi season of 1905, were 
sent to the Cbamber of Commerce, Bombay, for valuation and 
opinion. Out of the 113 samples (including varieties and crosses) 
sent, the following 8 were reported upon as good : — 



No. 


Name of the Variety. 


Class. 


Remarks by the Chamber of Commerce. 


1 


SiahDas 


Kalakusal .. 


Very good superior hard 
yellow wheat. 


4 


Australian || 
4- 


/ Aust r a 1 i a D 


Very good. 


\ 


Australian 27 


C class. 




( 


Shft Parner 


"J Cross between 


Hard yellow, containing some 


A 


+ 


> Popatia and 


proportion of spotted grains. 


I 


Khapli 


J Khaph. 


quality good on the whole. 


c 


Hybrid Nagpore ... 


^ 


/ Soft wheat ; had the grains 


4 




f Inter-cross of 


\ been slightly bolder, the 


+ 


\ Daudkhani. 


i quality would be very good 


( 


Muzafargarh 


3 


(, indeed. 


5 


Australian || 22 ... 


Australian 


White moondy very good 
quality. 


6 


Paman Sirsa 


Daudkhdni ... 


Soft white fairly good. 


7 


Potia Nadiad 


Do. 


Very good soft red. 


8 1 P^rner wheat 


Kala kiisal ... 


Very ^ood hard yellow. 



These eight and a few others selected as {a) good yielders, 
{b) showing resistance to rust in 1905-06 were sown in the rabi 
season of the year under report on a field treated with different 
green manures. The rest of the varieties and crosses were sown 
in ^ guntlia plots in another field for seed. 



14 



The field to be sown with the selected varieties was divided 
into 6 sections and each was sown with San, Chavli, soybeans, and 
velvet beans respectively, the last and the 5th section being kept 
fallow for comparison. 

The above crops were ploughed in as they came into flowers. 

The following statement shows the dates of sowing and 
ploughing in of the several crops grown : — 



No. 



Name of Crop. 



San 
Chavli 

Soybeans 
Velvet beans 



Date of Sowing. 



18th June 1908 
Do. 

22ud June 1906 
Do. 



Date of ploughing in 
the crop. 



2nd, 3rd, August 190o. 
4ih, 5th, 6th, August 

1906. 
S9th, 30th July 1906 . 
19th,21stAugustl906. 



Number 

of 

days 

required. 



When the field was harrowed on the 25th September foi 
preparing it for sowing no portions of any of the crops, except a 
few pieces of San stems which could be broken down by the 
slightest pressure, could be found undecayed. Within about 
2 months' time all the crops had thoroughly decayed. In this 
period of 2 months there were good showers of rain in August 
and September which helped the process of decay. 

Each of the five sections was divided transversely into 
23 plots — 4 of 8 gunthas each, 12 of 4 gunthas each and seven of 
1 guntha each and 23 varieties selected according to the above- 
mentioned three qualities, were sown in these. Thus, each 
variety got a treatment of the four green manurial crops and the 
fallow portion. 

The varieties were sown on the 14th and 15th of October 1906. 
The germination of all was fair. All were irrigated 4 times till 
they came to maturity. 

The statement below shows the yield of the 5 portions 
separately of each variety on the different green manured and 
the fallow portion. 



lis 



geral 


Nair.e of Variety. 








Eesults per acre 


. 








Green 
manured 
with San, 


Green 

TORuured 

with Ghuvli. 


Green 

manured with 

6oy-beana. 


Green 
manured with 
Velvet beaus. 


Fallow. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


Grain, 


Straw. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


Grain. 


Straw. 






Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs, 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lb8. 


1 


Stet PS.rner + KhapM 


102 


2.381 


212 


3.260 


63 


1.266 


63 


1.503 


44 


2,380 


2 


Potia, Nadiad 


497 


763 


513 


1,256 


481 


3,256 


534 


ai,oi2 


600 


3,46d 


' 8 


R&Ia Kusnl (Pooua) 


400 


2,262 


675 


3.050 


6»7 


2.419 


550 


2f9 


500 


3,250 


4 


Pirner Wheat 


462 


2.237 


635 


1^98 


353 


2,3.50 


350 


2,034 


626 


3,016 


5 


Siah-Das 


387 


2,012 


412 


2,875 


487 


3.050 


237 


2.231 


500 


3.0 2 


e 


Hinsia, Broaob 


312 


3,012 


394 


4.837 


825 


4.300 


1,631 


2,625 


775 


3,326 


7 


Dcsbi, Athni. Belgaum 


656 


1,212 


535 


1.475 


612 


1.437 


660 


1,250 


837 


1,512 


8 


Malj-a, Belgaum 


613 


2.250 


600 


2.500 


612 


3,560 


600 


1,719 


1.000 


2,61! 


9 


Mtindi of Ludhiaiia 


700 


2.6J0 


600 


3.087 


650 


2,444 


362 


2.800 


900 


2,531 


10 


Paman Sirsa 


225 


1.500 


463 


3,500 


687 


4,103 


400 


2,144 


900 


4,609 


11 


Budha Wheat 


512 


2.537 


450 


1.950 


225 


1,275 


400 


3.187 


762 


9.012 


12 


Red i:)C8hi of Oudh 


425 


2.(12 


863 


3.000 


800 


2,000 


662 


2,131 


1.900 


2.512 


13 


Safed of Amritsar 


531 


2,C06 


500 


1,903 


625 


2.437 


600 


7,050 


1.250 


6,250 


14 


Auptralian |J 22 


650 


2,537 


1,150 


5.270 


1.050 


4,987 


812 


3.050 


1.150 


5.500 


15 


Hybrid Nilgpore + Mnzafar- 
garh 


600 


2,287 


530 


2,109 


650 


1,012 


600 


3,360 


1.300 


4.987 


16 


Australian fj -f Australian 37 


375 


3,100 


463 


3,537 


800 


4,957 


681 


4.512 


987 


6.100 


J7 


Bansi, Bileghat 


200 


2,400 


300 


3,000 


650 


5.760 


450 


6.30O 


900 


6.025 


18 


II Kala Knsal + Khapli ... 


600 


6,425 


400 


3.626 


800 


5,760 


760 


6,000 


76( 


5.325 


19 


Ila Do. 


400 


5.150 


625 


6,550 


760 


8.150 


560 


5.660 


400 


6.8fO 


20 


[I 3c Khapli + K41a Kusal ... 


150 


3.2C0 


200 


4,000 


125 


6,000 


425 


4.437 


625 


2,826 


21 


69 Khapli + Hdnsia, Broach . 


135 


3.000 


413 


5.350 


412 


6,800 


550 


6,000 


750 


7.876 


22 


71 Do. + Pivla Kbdndcsb 


200 


2,400 


212 


8.200 


1.200 


1,200 


800 


9,000 


1.200 


13,450 


33 


16 Do. + Sudlie, Bihuri... 


300 


4,000 


1,200 


7,150 


1.600 


10,000 


1,000 


6,600 


1,20C 


9.000 



All the varieties were very badly rusted and the value and 
effect of the different green manurial crops are not comparable. 
The yields of all are below the average. 

Khapli, which is said to be rust prooP, was also affected with 
rust. The rust began from the north-west corner of the field, 
when the grains were first forming and gradually spread all over 
the field. 

IX.— Light Soil Crops and Variety Tests. 

22. Five varieties of Soybeans, which had given hopes of 
|)roving good yielders at Maujri in 190i, were grown on a 



16 



an 



early 



maturing 



light soil portion of field No. 6, The crop is 
one, and can be grown successfully as a preparatory for a 
rabi crop. The many leaves that fall add organic matter to the 
soil. If sown early in the beginning of June, no irrigation is 
required. This year the crop was tried as a green manure crop 
among the different crops tried for that purpose. It comes to 
maturity very early and can be ploughed up early before the close 
of the rains so as to get the advantage of the rains for the 
thorough decay of the crop. 



The following statement gives the dates of sowing 
flowering of the several varieties and their yield per acre : — 



and 



Field 
No. 


Crop. 


Area. 


Date of 
Sowing, 


Date of 
flowering. 


Date of 
ripeuiug. 


Yield 
por 
acre. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion per 
acre. 


6 
6 
6 
6 
6 


Soybeau Variety No. 5... 
Da do. No. 6... 
Do. do. No. 7... 
Do. do. No. 18 ... 
Do. do. No. 18.- 


Gunthas 
8'4 
7-8 
8 
8 
15-8 


16th Jnne 1906 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


16th July 1906 . 
12th do. .. 
14th do. ... 
Do. do. ... 
loth do, ... 


15th August 1906. 
4th do. ... 
14th do. ... 
13th do. 
Do. do. «. 


Lb8. 

1,166 
613 
660 
676 
SDS 


Rl. a. p. 

1- 34 6 7 



The increased yield in the case of variety No. 5 is due to a 
portion of the crop bordering upon black soil. The beans can 
be used for human consumption. 

23. Buck wheat (Knttu). — This was sown in another light soil 
portion of the Station in field No. 5. Two varieties of Kuttu seeds 
were obtained from Kalimpong (Darjeeling). One is called Mitha 
Paphar and other Titta Paphar. The yield from both tbe varieties 
is very low. Starch can be prepared from the seed. The use of 
the crop is unknown on this side. But at Darjeeling whence the 
seed was obtained, it is largely used for making bread. 

X.— Trial with New Crops. 

24. Jute» — An area of 10 gunthas was sown with jute on the 
2nd of July 1906. On the 3rd day after sowing the seeds germinat- 
ed. The crop was weeded twice on 20th July and 5th August. 
The plants were thinned out, and a few were transplanted to fill in 
the blanks on the 7th of August 1906. The crop was irrigated 
once in August during long break in the rains. On the 4th 
of September the crop was cut when in 
of the crop at the time was 4J feet to 
stems were retted in tbe river for nine 
extracted. 



flower. The height 
5 feet. The green 
days and the fibre 



±i 



The following statement gives the outturn per acre of clean 
fibre, and the percentage of fibre to green stalks : — 





Name of crop. 


Per acre. 


Field 
No. 


Weight of 
green stalks. 


Weight of 

clean and 

dried fibre. 


Percentage of 

fibre to green 

stalks. 


16 


Jute 


Lbs. 
11,064 


Lbs. 
272 


2-4 



The fibre was sent to the Indian Jute Mill Association afc 
Calcutta for valuation. It was valued at Rs, 8-8-0 per maund. 

25, Oroundnut. — Three varieties of groundnuts — Pondi- 
cherry, Poona local and Virginia — were grown in field No. 4 away 
from the Tikka affected field and on areas not sown to ground- 
nuts before. 

The disease appeared upon all the varieties, but the attack 
was very mild, and no serious damage was done to the crop. 

The following statement gives the per acre results : — 



Field 
No. 



Name of variety. 



Pondicherry 
Poona Local 
Virginia 



Gts. 
20 
10 
20 



Per acre yield. 



Unhusk- 
ed nnts. 



Lbs. 

1,800 

948 

2,016 



Haulms. 



Lbs. 

3,986 
3,060 
1,692 



Cost of 
cultivation. 



Rs. a. p. 

101 6 

81 12 4 

96 13 8 



Value of 
outturn. 



Rs. a. p. 
116 9 7 

67 12 
112 1 4 



The unevenness of the field has to a certain extent influenced 
the yield, there being great difficulty in distributing water 
regularly. 



26. Variegated Bangalore Tut. — Like other varieties of Tur, 

a few plants of this variety also had become wilted. It gave 

an outturn of 695 lbs. of grain and 844 lbs. of Bhusa per acre. 

Owing to natural cross fertilizatiouj which is so very common in 

Tur, the colour of the seeds has changed. 



B 1095—3 



18 



XI.— Botanical Experiments. 

27. A. portion of field No. 9 was devoted to the growing of 
pulses and millets for botanical classification by the Economic 
Botanist, 

The plot was divided into 1 79 small plots of the dimensions 
of lO'x 20' each. Out of the 179 plots 63 were sown with pulses 
and millets collected at the agricultural show held at Ahmednagar 
in 1905. Eighty-seven were sown with the following varieties : 
16 varieties of Tur, 2 varieties of Kulthi, 4 varieties of Guvd,r, 7 
of Mug, one variety of Matki, 6 varieties of Udid, 29 varieties of 
Chavli, 2 Nagli varieties, one variety of each of Banti, Barti, 
Chino, Dhengli, Kang, Bhadli and Kodra, 6 varieties of Vari, 3 
of Rdla, and 4 of Sava. The remaining 29 were sown with the 
varieties of Soybeans, Lima beans and peas, 

XII.— Forage Crops, 

28. The statement below gives the yields per acre of tl 
Guinea grass in various fields : — - ^ 



Field 
No. 



Name of crop. 



Results per acre. 



Outturn. 



Value of out- 
turu. 



Cost of 
cultivation. 



Bemarks* 



1 

2 
3 
4 

6 
7 
9 

10 
15 
16 



2 




3 






lbs. 


Guinea grass. 


21,152 


Do. 


.•• 


11,736 


Do. 


*• . 


17,3i2 


Do. 


... 


3,144 


Do. 


... 


6,217 


Do. 


... 


13,129 


Do. 


••• 


6,462 


Do. 


••• 


13,815 


Do. 


•*• 


16,223 


Do. 


••1 


1,470 


Average 


1L062 


Water gra's. 


31,660 



Ks. a. 

105 15 
58 12 
86 11 
15 12 



4 

4 




31 3 
65 10 4 

32 5 

69 1 2 

81 1 10 

7 6 7 



55 5 4 
15 13 3 



Rs. a. p. 

67 8 4 

34 14 
38 9 
62 1 

79 3 11 
38 14 
73 d 9 

35 5 7 

38 2 
01 2 4 



52 14 8 
57 14 8 



Plantation starte< 
this year. 
Do. do. 

Plantation started 
this year. 



Plantation started 
this year. 

Very old plantation. 



" 19 

A portion of about 20 gunthas of tlie plantation of this grass 
has been removed from field No. 10 as this field has been under 
guinea grass for a long time. 

Field No. 13 was formed into a rice field by puttiog dykes 
after removing the guinea grass plantation. Border portions of 
fields Nos, 4, 6, 9, 16 situated under a shade have been planted 
with this grass this year. The average per acre 11,062 lbs. has 
slightly increased over that of the last year. 

XIII.— Miscellaneous. 

29. Three rabi pulses — Lang, gram and Masur — were grown 
after fodder Jowars as a rotation crop. The pulses were grown 
solely under irrigation. 

The following statement shows the yield, etc., per acre : — 



rield 
No. 


Name of crop. 


Area. 


Per acre. 


Grain, 


Ehusn. 


Co.t of 
cultivation. 


Value of 
outturn. 


12 
12 
12 


Lang 

Gram, Kabuli 

Masur 


Gunthas. 
11 
11 
11 


Lbs. 
869 
507 
309 


LbB. 

1,447 
618 
636 


Rs. a. p. 
26 15 


Rg. a. p. 
38 10 1 
33 14 11 
24 13 5 



XIV. — Ensilage. 

30. A pit of the dimension of 10' X 10' x 10' was dug in 
the Ganeshkhind Botanical Gardens for a silo. It was filled with 
26,821 lbs. of green grass from the gardens in September last. 
It was then pressed down with a layer of earth 2 feet thick. 
The silo was opened in May when there was deficiency of green 
fodder for the Dairy animals and they ate it readily. The grass 
was found to be shrunk to 6 feet. The colour of the silage was 
greenish-brown. From the total quantity of 26,821 lbs. of grass 
put 16,876 lbs. of silage was obtained. The silage has been sent 
to the Agricultural Chemist, Bombay Presidency, for analysis. 



Foona, 
September 1907, 



} 



F. FLETCHBE, 
Ag. Professor of Agriculture. 



20 

IL-THE KIRKEE CIVIL DAIRY, 
190607. 

I.— Introduction. 

Tbe objects of the Dairy are : — 

(1) To afford instructions for the students of the 
College of Agriculture. 

(2) To serve as a model Dairy to the public, 

(3) To give opportunity for experiments in feeding and 
dairying. 

(4) To improve dairy breeds. 

(5) To supply pure milk to the invalids and children of 
Poona. 

^ (6) To allow owners of milch cattle the free services 

of good bulls. 

II. — Health of animals. 

2. The Dairy was seriously handicapped in this year's work 
owing to outbreaks of two contagious diseases, viz, foot-and- 
mouth disease and rinderpest. No animals were lost from the 
former, but their milk yields were appreciably reduced. 

Rinderpest was very common in the district and as a precau- 
tionary measure the entire herd was inoculated in November and 
again in January. The disease made its first appearance in the 
herd in February and a third inoculation was performed. But 
even in spite of the three inoculations 18 animals were attacked 
and 10 succumbed to this deadly disease. Among the cattle kept 
at Mdnjri Kuran, which had also undergone two inoculations, thera 
were 34 attacks but the mortaUty was less as only 4 died. 

Rinderpest was more fatal in the case of Australian animals, 
English-Indian hybrids and Adens. Only one Gir was attacked. 
Among the second class was the hybrid short-horn Aden known || 
as Harishi wliose milk record for previous 4 years averaged ' 
nearly 5,000 lbs. "The Dairy has two heifers and a bull out of 
her. The Aden herd was reduced to two bulls, one cow and a 
calf ; but two more have been purchased recently. 

Twelve buffaloes aborted soon after the casting for inocula^ 
tion, rendering them useless for the season. 



21 
III— Milk Supply. 

3. The milk supply was greatly affected as shown above. 

220,572 lbs. of milk were produced during the year. The 
Sassoon Hospital contract was continued. No branch dairy was 
established at Mahdbaleshvar, but all milk was sold in Poona and 
Kirkee, and no Ghee was made. 

Some cows have been selected to furnish milk suitable 
for infants. These animals are always those that have freshened 
within five months. They are never fed with oil-cake, cotton 
seed, or green food, and are never allowed to graze. The demand 
for this special milk is increasing. 

IV.- Yield. 

4. The largest yields for the year under report are as 
follows : — 

Among cows, the first in yield for the year, now that 
Harishi, the cross bred English-Aden has died, is Pitarabari 
(Sindhi) 4,430 lbs., second Bulakhi (Sindhi) 3,778 lbs., third Shendi 
(Sindhi cross) 3,750 lbs , fourth Bhavali (Gir) 3,712 lbs., fifth 
Yeshi (Sindhi cross) 3,571 lbs., and sixth Budhi (Gir) 3,552 lbs. 

Among buffaloes, Ratan (Jafferabadi) 4,815 lbs., K^veri 
(Surati) 4,504 lbs., Sdlu (Dehli) 3,147 lbs., Ganga (Surati) 3,033 
lbs., and Nandi (Deccaui) 2,798 lbs. 

The usual milk record is given below with the necessary 
explanatory notes. 



22 



Names. 



Cows I. 



Adens. 

Balculi 

Bhdgi 

Guldbi 

M4di 

NAri 

Harishi (crosi) 

Shiti 

Sindhi. 

Ambi 

Annapurna 

Bhasmi 

BuUkhi 

Giti 

Honshi 

Kesar 

KbiUri 

Lihiri 

Makbmal 

Mhitiri 

Mori 

Mntri 

P4ri 

Piri 

Pttdmbari 

PoUri 

Putali 

Rddhi 

Hira 

Dabi 

Sabani 

Samarthi 

Soni 

Sukhi 

T&mbhori 

Tuf&ni 

Zank4r 

Mohan 

Sindhi- Cross. 



1 j Kara 

2 t Mekini 
8 ' MungU 

J 



Age. 



Y. 



d. 



8 
Aged 

4 

7 
10 
Medinm .. 

3 8 11 



1 10 

8 29 
<8 

9 11 



6 4 20 

7 3 25 

10 11 22 
3 9 16 

3 3 19 
Medium .. 

Do. 
Young 

4 4 4 
Medium .. 

Do. 
Aged 
Medium .. 

6 8 18 
Medium .. 

11 2 29 
11 7 18 

Medium .. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

7 2 7 
Medium .. 

14 

4 2 22 

7 10 4 

7 10 4 

Medium .. 

Do. 
4 2 27 



9 8 10 

Medinm .. 

5 2 3 



Total 
number 
of years 
under 
observa- 
tion. 



Results during the period shown in 



3iV 

8 

H 

7 
5 



3 

7 
H 

n 

5 

5 

3^ 

U 

5 

5 

5 

5 

21 

7 

8 

8 

7 

7 

5 

43 

2f 

8 

8 

u 

H 

5 

^ 

5 
••t 



Total 
number 

of 
days in 

milk. 



Total 

dry 

days. 



Average 

of 

Maximum 

daily 

yield. 



1,044 


81 


2,231 


680 


328 


88 


724 


299 


1,805 


710 


1,202 


600 


129 


•*• 


388 


70 


765 


330 


1,481 


1,074 


446 


• •* 


389 


17 


1,761 


64 


1,368 


417 


718 


467 


426 


35 


1,338 


487 


1,235 


590 


1,285 


544 


1,528 


297 


865 


124 


1,837 


718 


2,273 


647 


2,658 


362 


1,640 


915 


1,575 


976 


1,394 


427 


3-,293 


373 


382 


654 


1,720 


1,200 


2,095 


826 


406 


52 


1,149 


251 


1,388 


434 


986 


778 


1,604 


821 


8 


... 


1.367 


823 


2,204 


704 


444 


... 



Lbs. oz. 



16 4 
15 4 
8 13 
7 12 
15 
27 6 
13 4 



IS 9 

10 1 

14 9 

15 13 

16 7 
14 10 

12 14 

11 6 

12 5 
16 14 
11 10 
11 13 
14 13 
11 7 
14 8 

13 12 
16 14 
16 9 

14 11 

13 3 
13 8 
11 13 

13 8 

11 3 

1*2 3 

12 14 

14 3 
18 2 
11 



15 1 

16 
16 4 



Average 
daily 
yield. 



Lbs. oz. 



7 12 
10 5 



5 

7 
10 



16 6 
9 9 



9 1 
6 3 

8 12 
10 13 

9 1 
9 12 
8 3 
6 7 



9 6 
8 4 
7 3 

7 3 

8 9 
8 2 
8 14 

8 15 

10 5 

9 3 
8 5 

8 13 
7 ]0 
7 

9 3 

6 13 

7 13 

8 6 

9 6 

11 9 



10 2 
10 11 
10 



23 



colamn4 



Yearly 
average 
out-put. 



Yield 
of milk 
during 
1906-07. 



10 



2,641 
2,885 
1,588 
1,695 
2,604 
3,726 



2,828 
1,591 
1,861 
3,857 
3,026 
3,451 
2,255 
1,425 
3,181 
2,217 
1,776 
1,854 
2,632 
2,560 
2,341 
2,542 
3,307 
2,166 
1,871 
2,467 
2,144 
949 
1,982 
1,787 

2,351 
2,341 
1,922 
3,476 



2,312 
».949 
3,560 



Lbs. Lbs. oz. 



2,849 8 

3,273 8 

1,477 12 

406 8 

2,793 

3,444 8 

1,240 



2,411 
2,028 4 

587 12 
3,778 32 
3,095 8 
3,383 
1,486 
1,333 
2,904 
3,364 
1,242 

235 
2,943 
3,109 
2,172 
3,305 
4,430 
2,209 
1,690 12 
2,015 12 

665 4 

982 
40 
1,047 
2,290 
3,344 
2,512 
2,326 
3,059 
52 



Financial results for total period shown in 
column 4. 



2,910 8 
2,453 8 
3,515 12 



Value of 
^ilk. 



11 



Cost of 
feeding. 



12 



Bs. a. p. Rs« a. p. 



685 
2,013 

154 







469 

1,6^ 

1,629 

103 6 



294 

394 

1,178 

402 

294 

1,573 

1,032 

442 

332 

982 

807 

850 

1,177 

566 

1,472 

1,844 

2,295 

1,335 

1,153 

1,119 

845 

224 

1,388 

1,242 

279 

754 

1,047 

836 

1,549 

4 



































6 



1.234 

2,013 

371 



341 

736 

80 
252 
603 
579 

81 7 



129 

214 

693 

125 

115 

504 

445 

265 

117 

300 

352 

301 

497 

186 

564 

676 

878 

552 

520 

440 

482 

134 

717 

621 

115 

257 

431 

315 

501 



1 11 



Cost of 
attendance. 



571 
784 
136 



13 



Es. a. p. 



53 

304 

13 

45 

252 

153 

9 



22 

39 

230 

31 

25 

154 

138 

30 

26 

152 

136 

130 

153 

44 

242 

302 

314 

244 

231 

141 

135 

18 

280 

287 

21 

62 

148 

117 

153 





4 3 



197 

293 

18 



Net profit. 



14 



a* p. 



291 
973 

61 
172 
775 
897 

13 



143 
141 
255 

246 
154 
715 
449 
147 
189 
530 
319 
419 
527 
336 
666 
866 
1,103 
539 
402 
538 
228 
72 
391 
331 
143 
435 
468 
404 
895 



4G6 
966 
217 



Average 

net 

profit 

per 

year. 



15 



Rs. 



94 

321 

52 

49 

110 

179 



114 

48 

93 

197 

132 

183 

89 

75 

151 

105 

64 

83 

113 

119 

95 

108 

152 

77 

57 

107 

52 

24 

38 

41 

114 

113 

94 

79 

185 



77 
120 
173 



Remarfes. 



24 





Name. 


Age. 


Total 
number 
of 
years 
under 
observa- 
tion. 


Results during tbe period shown in 


Ko. 


Total 
number 

of ^ 
days in 

milk. 


Total 

dry 

days. 


Average 

of 

Maximum 

daily 

yield. 


Average 
daily 
yield. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

1 

2 

8 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

1 
2 


Cows I—contd. 

Sindhi-Crosft— 

continued, 

S^raji 

^hendi 

Tiki 

YesM 

Sarangi 

Glr. 

Bhavali 

BhudU 

Godi 

K&bari 

Kamali i.. 

Ldbiri 

Ling4di 

Mukharau 

Narbaii 

Pavali 

Sngaran 

Umbari 

K4jali 

Mab&li 

T&pi 

Glr-CrosB. 

Bigul 
Pdndhari 


Y. m. d. 

14 9 10 

6 8 19 
Young 

Do. 

7 6 20 

Young 

Do. 
Medium ... 
Young 
Do. 
Do. 
Medium ... 
Do. ... 
Do. 

Do. ... 

Do. 

Aged 

Young 

Do. 

Do. 

Medium ... 
Do. 


8 

li 

5 

m 

H 
3* 
2i 

y^ 
It 

iv 

8 


2,487 

477 

1,524 

1,008 

851 

520 
527 
1,034 
393 
591 
761 
393 
518 
409 
521 
307 
424 
263 
273 
190 

2,308 
229 


433 

"298 
57 

214 

801 
290 
121 
433 
301 
131 
499 
247 
332 
372 
544 
i26 

••• 

**• 
345 

608 
220 


Lbg. oz. 

13 14 

16 8 

13 10 

17 15 

14 9 

17 12 

15 2 
15 5 

12 
11 14 
15 2 

9 13 

18 10 

13 3 

14 7 
8 8 

13 
11 4 
13 8 
10 8 

13 5 
3 4 


Lbs. oz. 

7 3 

11 2 

7 15 
9 10 

5 1ft 

12 6 
9 14 

8 5 

6 11 

7 5 

9 7 

6 12 
9 2 

7 2 

7 9 
5 6 

8 6 

"6 12 

8 4 
4 12 



Note. — The average yearly yield per cow comes to 2,101 lbs. ; the average d^ily yield 7 lbs. 
8 OE. ; the average cost of feeding the cow Rs. 95-15-1, and the average net profit per cow Rs. 67-7-10, 

Column 7, — The maximum day's yield of the year is always quoted at a sale as an indication 
of an animal's productiveness and the average of these record yields for the whole period of 
observation is here given as affording a fair basis for comparison between the various animals when 
in milk. 

Column 8 — Gives the average for the whole period inclusive of days dry. 

Column 11. — The price of milk has varied for customers from 10 to 14 lbs. per rupee, but an 
attempt has been made to fix a slightly higher arbitrary figure to cover cost of distribution. It 
mu!-t however be remembered that these statements are only intended to afford a basis for com- 
parison between animals and the figures do not give an accurate indication of the total profit or 
loss. Sales of dairy produce in the shape of Ghee and sometimes .butter when the demand for 
milk is very small are generally unprofitable, and an^ in such cases the price estimated for milk 
is not realised in practice. Charges for supervision, etc, are also not taken into account ift 
estimating these comparative net profits per animal. 









25 










column 4 




Financial results for total period shown 


•n 














column 4. 












Yield 
of milk 
































Yearly 


during 












Average 


Remarks. 


1906-07. 


Value of 


Cost of 


Cost of 






net 




average 
out-put. 




milk. 


feeding. 


attendance. 


Net profit. 


profit 
per 


















year. 




9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


Lbs. 


Lbs. oz. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. 


P- 


Rs. 




2,246 


1,799 8 


1,565 


628 


294 0. 


690 





fO 


Died. 


3,980 


3,750 


442 


117 


32 


293 





220 




2>416 


2,204 4 


1,089 


396 


147 


546 





108 


Died. 


3,323 


3,571 4 


838 


287 


57 


494 





369 




1,737 


141 8 


471 0. 


223 


42 


181 





' 71 


Died. 


2,855 


3,712 


535 


181 


35 


319 





14G 




2,318 


3,552 12 


435 


191 


34 


210 





82 




2,714 


1.959 12 


774 


297 


48 


429 





135 




1,174 


1,066 4 


220 


158 


IC 


46 





20 


Sold. 


1,800 


1,162" 8 


362 


203 


27 


142 





54 




2,982 


2,175 12 


601 


232 


39 


330 





136 




935 


1,580 8 


187 


335 


20 


32 





13 


Sold. 


2,274 


2,189 12 


394 


159 


£9 


206 





98 




1,166 


1,446 


221 


144 


21 


56 





24 




1,639 


1,916 8 


330 


172 


24 


134 





54 




708 


53 4 


137 


134 


12 







—30 


Loss. 


1,707 


2,070 4 


297 


147 


20 


130 





61 




•.. 


1,997 


366 


129 


14 


23 





... 


New. 


... 


2,794 


233 


109 


21 


103 







Do. 


729 


... 


72 


67 


8 


—3 





" 3 


Sold. 


2,394 


3,128 12 


1,645 


663 


302 


680 





86 




8C9 


82 


45 


12 


25 





28 bold. 



Column 12.— These figures are actuals. It may be noted that cost of feeding and attendance 
varies with dififerent animals according to period of lactation, size, yield of milk and individual 
'diosyncrasies. 

Column 75.— These figures are actuals for the last three years and approximate estimates for 
pieceding years. 



B 1095—4 



26 



Jsaines. 



Buffaloes II. 

Jaflfarabadi. 

Kundal 
Ratan 
SardAri 
Makna 



Delhi. 

Mabilan 
Rambha 
S£la 
Sdvali 
Godi (cross) 



Surati. 



Aditwari 

Bkrshi 

Bayaja 

Bhandiri 

Bhavari 

Bhori 

Chhabeli 

Chandani 

Dalbhiri 

Durga 

Ciahina 

Gajari 

Ganga 

Ghdri 

GhosAli 

Ghambiri 

Girji 

Gujar 

JamildAr 

K&yerl 

Maini 

Mangi 

Mori 

Paroli 

Patangi 

Putali 

Ranga 

Rupi 

Shevri 

Tavali 

Fajaui 



... 



Age. 



Y. m. d. 



Medium 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



Aged 

13 11 19 
Medium .. 

Do. 

Young 



Medium .., 

Do. 

16 6 24 
Aged 

Medium .. 
Aged 

14 9 11 
Aged 

14 4 9 
Young 
Medium .. 
Aged 
Do. 
Medium .. 
Ycupg 
Medium ,. 

Do. 
Aged 

14 3 27 

14 3 17 
Young 

13 S 18 
Medium 

Do. 
Young 
Aged 

Medium .. 
Young 
Medium ., 
Young 



Total 

number 

of 

years 

under 
obsei va- 

tion. 



Results during the period shown in 



Total 
number 

of 
days ill 

milk. 



4 


889 


4 


1,076 


2,-^ 


709 


li 


349 


7i 


1,773 


8 


1,839 


2i 


600 


m 


469 


A 


145 



2:^2 

4 

8 

8 
4 

n 

4 

8 
8 
8 

2^2 

8 
8 

7 
5 

4 
2', 



599 

1,021 

2,046 

1,022 

685 

?,329 

2,195 

645 

1,934 

947 

595 

1,920 

2,062 

2,051 

765 

629 

654 

1,838 

1,965 

2,221 

436 

1,364 

787 

1,999 

657 

5,672 

999 

719 

P62 

786 

103 



Total 
dry 

days. 



571 

380 
182 
195 



903 

1,081 

245 

486 



Average 

of Average 

Maximum 
daily 
yield. 



Ll:«. oa. 



17 5 
23 
22 2 

18 



29 9 
13 4 
17 12 
10 14 
15 



352 


12 6 


439 


16 15 


874 


14 12 


379 


15 4 


270 


14 1 


591 


15 6 


755 


16 12 


815 


13 8 


896 


14 14 


613 


13 7 


175 


16 10 


996 


16 15 


868 


17 8 


866 


17 4 


190 


12 3 


320 


11 4 


291 


15 6 


1,078 


13 8i 


951 


15 91 


696 


19 7 


102 


11 4 


fcOl 


12 7 


164 


14 16 


911 


14 14 


288 


19 6 


879 


12 4 


822 


17 12 


376 


13 3 


558 


16 10^ 


216 


16 13 


202 


18 8 













27 














ooltinin 4. 








Financial results for total period shown 
column 4. 


in 








Yield 
of milk 
durinj* 
1906-07. 
























Yearly 
average 
ont-put. 




















Average 


Remarks, 


Yaloe of 
milk. 


Cost of 
feeding. 


Cost of 
attendance. 


Net 


profit. 


net 

profit 

per 


























year. 




9 


10 


11 


12 


13 


14 


15 


16 


Lbs. 


Lbs. oz. 


Rs. 


a. 


P- 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. 


P- 


Rs. 


a. 


p- 


Rs. 




2,474 


2,235 8 


807 








351 


93 





363 








90 




3,966 


4,815 


1,289 








309 


114 





866 








216 




4,236 


2,617 4 


853 








246 


42 





565 








234 




1,942 


268 4 


243 








324 


16 





—97 








-118 


Died. 


3,883 


1,707 


2,187 








845 


281 





1,061 








149 


Died. 


2,107 


1,600 4 


1,309 








714 


288 





307 








37 




3,292 


3,147 8 


640 








218 


40 





382 








363 




1,433 


... 


190 








147 


20 





23 








12 


b'old. 


... 


1,466 12 


122 








120 


11 





-9 








... 


New. 


2,021 


356 8 


436 








196 


27 





212 








87 




2,818 


2,606 12 


912 








366 


96 





451 








112 




2,?57 


2,036 


1,410 








788 


282 





340 








44 




2,016 


8:o 


613 








318 


88 





237 








59 


Died. 


2,512 


2,846 


540 








226 


38 





176 








107 




3,071 


1,899 


1,906 








924 


291 





691 








86 




8,245 


2,207 


2,05 fc 








875 


293 





886 








112 




1,180 


230 8 


384 








244 


75 





65 








16 




2,533 


743 


1,541 








727 


283 





531 








68 




1,974 


1,531 12 


641 








316 


87 





208 








62 




3,000 


2,177 4 


520 








224 


34 





262 








125 




2,531 


413 8 


1,579 








778 


284 





577 








73 




8,314 


3,033 4 


2.034 








882 


300 





902 








113 




3,157 


2,821 12 


1,981 








847 


302 





832 








103 




2,354 


1,865 4 


507 








243 


31 





233 








90 




2,038 


670 4 


439 








261 


26 





152 








58 




2,462 


2,095 


628 








222 


35 





271 








106 




1,926 


269 


1,194 








688 


282 





224 








28 




2,468 


2,271 


1,553 








757 


297 





499 








62 




3,458 


4,504 12 


2,179 








908 


311 





960 








119 




1,763 


1,147 12 


208 








146 


16 





47 








33 




1,753 


1,135 


977 








674 


229 





174 








256 


Died. 


2,910 


2,577 8 


626 








226 


40 


' 


360 








107 




2.132 


1,812 12 


1,339 








729 


290 


; 


320 








39 




8,294 


2,481 4 


709 








24^ 


38 





431 








112 




2,374 


1,220 4 


1,256 








661 


240 


i 


355 








61 




2,208 


675 4 


893 








478 


136 


i 


278 








55 




2,779 


2,900 8 


599 








220 


42 


1 


337 








130 




2,268 


2,881 


736 








325 


99 





312 








78 




8,024 


2,188 12 


692 








249 


38 





405 








U7 




«•• 


2,284 


190 








110 


17 





63 










Ne\r. 



28 









Total 


Results during the period shown in 








number 
of 




















Ko. 


Names. 


Age. 


years 


Total 




Average 










under 


number 


Total 


of 


Average 








observa- 


of 


dry 


Maximum 


daily 








tion. 


days in 
milk. 


days. 


daily 
yield. 


yield. 


1 


2 


3 


4> 


5 


6 


7 


8 




Bufialoes II 


Y. m. d. 








Lbs. 02. 


Lbs. oz. 




— continued. 
















Deocani. 














1 


Ghevada 


Medium .. 


1 


288 


66 


11 12 


• .* 


2 


Kevada 


Do. .. 


1 


230 


74 


10 


... 


3 


Chandri 


Aged 


f 


262 


42 


13 12 


... 


4 


Rura^li 


Do. 




206 


98 


10 


... 


5 


Hira 


Medium .. 


,j 1 


244 


60 


9 8 


... 


6 


Hang^mi 


Do. 


f 


245 


59 


7 12 


... 


7 


N4ndi 


Young 




304 


... 


13 4 


... 


8 


Gharol 


Do. .. 


*1 ^ 


238 


66 


13 4 


... 



Note, — The average yearly yield per buffalo comes to 1,887 lbs. ; the average daily yields lbs. 
2 oz. and the average cost of feeding the buffalo Rs. 95-13-10, and average net profit per 
bufialo Ks. 49-8.0. 

Column 7' — The maximum day's yield of the year is always quoted at a sale as an indication 
of an animal's productiveness and the average of these record yields for the whole period of 
observation is here given as affording a fair basis for comparison between the various animals 
when in milk. 

Column 8 — Gives the avenge for the whole period inclusive of days dry. 

Column ii.— The price of milk has varied for customers from 10 to 14 lbs. per rupee, but 
an attempt has been made to fix a slightly higher arbitrary figure to cover cost of distribution. 
It must however be remembered that these statements are only intended to afiford a basis for 
comparison between animals and the figures do not give an accurate indication of the total profit 
or loss. Sales of dairy produce in the shape of Ghee and sometimes butter when the demand 
for milk is very small are generally unprofitable, and in euch cases the price estimated for milk 
is not realibed in practice. Charges for supervision, etc., are also not taken into account in 
estimating these comparative net profits per animal. 

Column 12. — These figures are actuals. It may be noted that cost of feeding and attendance 
varies with different animals according to period of lactation, size, yield of milk and individual 
idiosyncrasies. 

Column J5.— These figurea are actuals for the last three years aud approximate estimates for 
preceding years. 



29 



colamn 4. 



Yearly 
average 
o;it-put. 



Yield 
of milk 
during 
1906-07. 



10 



Lbs. Lbs. oz. 



1,865 
1,517 
2,432 
1,733 
1,168 
1,499 
2,798 
1,968 



Financial results for total period shown in 
column 4. 



Value of 
milk. 



11 



Rs. a. p. 



155 

126 C 

203 

144 

97 

126 

233 

163 



Cost of 
feeding. 



12 



Bs. a. p* 



Cost of 
attendance. 



97 








05 








97 








93 








92 








96 








.10 








94 









13 



Bs. &» p. 



13 
11 
18 
18 
9 

11 
21 
15 



Net profit. 



Average 

net 

profit 

per 

year. 



14 



15 



Remarks. 



16 



Es. 


a. p. 


Rs. 


45 







10 





.*• 


88 







38 





•*• 


4 





... 


38 





,,, 


102 





... 


54 





... 



1^ s 



§ 



30 



v.— Strength of the Herd. 

6. The following statement) shows the strength of the herd 
on the 1st of April 1907 as compared with that on the 1st of 
April 1906:— 





Strength 
on 
let 


Increase. 


Decrease. 


Stren- 
gth 
on Ist 
April 
1007. 


Valuation. 


Increase 


Description. 


Pur- 
chased 

or 
Trans- 
ferred. 


Born. 


Total. 


Sold. 


Died. 


Trans- 
ferred. 


Total. 


1906. 


1907 


or 

decrease 

during 

the 

year. 


CJows. 

Shed-bulls 

Cows 

Heifers 

Cow-calves 
Bull-calves 


11 

eo 

3 
22 

84 


2 
2 
3 

• •a 


«M 

20 
24 


2 

2 

3 

20 

24 


3 

8 

1 

22 

30 


... 
10 
••• 

7 
11 


2 
3 
2 


3 
18 

S 
32 
43 


10 
44 
3 
20 
15 


660 

3,305 

55 

295 

211 


620 

2,415 

90 

212 

172 


-40 
-890 
.f35 
-83 
-39 


Total ... 


140 


7 


44 


51 


64 


28 


7 


99 


92 


4,526 


3,509 


-1,017 


Buffaloes. 

Buffalo-bulls ... 
She-buffaloes ... 

Heifers 

Buffalo-cow- calves 
Do- bull-calves 


5 
38 

5 

26 
17 


1 

10 
1 
4 


... 

13 
10 


1 
10 

1 
17 
12 


1 

IS 

9 


... 

5 

18 
14 


2 

1 
1 


6 

2 

32 
24 


6 
42 

4 
11 

5 


260 

2,875 

165 

126 

37 


340 

1,565 

135 

107 

22 


-I- 80 
—1,310 
-30 
-19 
-15 


Total ... 


91 


16 


23 


41 


23 


37 


4 


64 


68 


3,463 


2,169 


-1,294 


Dairy cart horses . 


2 


... 


.«• 


... 


... 


... 


... 


... 


2 


300 


250 


-50 



I 



From the above statement it will be seen that there is a 
decrease of 71 in the total number which is principally due to 
the fact that on account of low prices the casters of the previous 
years were held over and disposed of this year, 

VI.— Breeds kept. 

6. Three breeds of cows — Karachi or Sindhi, Aden, and Gir — 
and four of buffaloes, — Jaffarabadi, Dehli, Kaira or Surati, and 
Varadi or Deccani — are kept. 

As already stated the Adens were nearly wiped out by the 
rinderpest. The present Gir herd has only had three seasons at 
the dairy ; it contains some good cows but they have not been in 
the dairy long enough to have off-spring in milk. 

Very little has been done in breeding of buffaloes at Poena 
as only the Deccanis really do well here as youngsters ; but the 



31 

Dairy has some good representative animals of Jafferabadi, Surati, 
Dehli and Deccani, A few fine females of the Deccani breed 
have been obtained and they will be crossed with a Kaira bull. 

The Sindhi cows have been bred continuously for about 11 
years and we now have 29 farm bred heifers and cows ; of these, 
17 are in milk. Pit^mbari (3,307 lbs. average for eighfc years) 
out of Jd.nki (record 3,481 lbs, of milk) stands first. Bulakhi as 
a three year old gave over 4,000 lbs. and had her second calf 
without going dry a day, Giti with 3,400 lbs. as three years old, 
are some of the most promising. 

The four breeding Sindhi bulls are : — Daulat, bought in 
Sind ; Battashia out of the cow Battashi (daily yield of 22-8 lbs. 
and a record of 2,871 lbs. in 333 days,) sired by Mansur, bought 
in Sind; Rdja out of Devri (daily yield 19-12 lbs., 4,705 lbs. in 
420 days,) Sire Mansur; and Bansia out of Houshi (average for 
5 years 3,451 lbs.,) sired by Battashia, 

VII.— Service of bulls. 

7. Free service of bulls is given to the public for healthy 
animals. 

VIII.-Farm. 

8.. No feeding experiments were carried out in the year 
under report. Fodder was grown on the Agricultural College 
lands and the usual statement is appended. The total area 
cropped was 75 acres and 33 gunthas. The details ore given in 
the following statement : — 



Survey 
No. 


Plot 


Kharif crop. 


Area. 


Purpose, 


Rabi crop. 


Area. 


Purpose. 








A.g. 






A. g. 




137 


1 


BAjri and 
Chavli mixed. 


2 


Green fodder. 


Bdjri ra- 
tion. 


2 


Green fodder. 


... 


2 


Do. 


2 


Do. ... 




• •• 




... 


8 


Do. 


2 


Do. ... 


... 


... 




..• 


4 


Do. 


2 


Dry fodder . 


... 


... 


...*.• 


150 


3 


Nilva 


2 8 


Greeu fotlder. 


... 


... 




151 


2 


Do. 


7 18 


Do ... 


.«. 


... 




152} 
258 i 


2 


Sundhia ... 


35 


Dry fodder . 


... 


... 




153 


1 


Hundi Ratoon 


2 20 


Green fodder. 


Hundi . . . 


2 20 


Green fodder. 



Bemarks. 



Hundi was sown 
in March and 
the Ba.toon 
crop was 

taken in 

kharif, hence 
shown under 
kharif. 



82 



Survej> 
No. 


Plot 


Kharif crop. 


Area. 


Purpose, 


Rabi crop. 


Area. 


Purpose. 


Remarks* 








A. ^. 






A. g. 








1 


...• .. 




..••.• 


Maize ... 


5 


Green fodder. 






2 


HundiRatoon 


2 30 


Green fodder. 


Hundi ... 


2 30 


Do. ... 


Hundi was sown 
in March and 
the Ratoon 
crop was taken 
in kharif, 
hence shown 
under kharif. 




2 









Maize ... 


2 30 


Do, ... 






3 




•*• 




Do. ... 


34 


Do. ... 




••• 


4 


Lucerne 


17 


Green fodder. 
Perennial 


... 


... 








5 


Handi Ratoon 


2 20 


Green fodder. 


Hundi ... 


2 20 


Green fodder. 


Do. 


«•• 


5 




... 




Peas&OatsI 1 34 


Do, ... 




... 


6 


Sorghum ... 


38 


Green fodder. 


Sbtllu ... 


38 


Do. ... 




... 


7 


UUvali ... 


1 2 


Do. ... 


Maize ... 


1 26 


Do. ... 






8 


Sundhia 


2 20 


Dry fodder... 


Do, ... 


2 20 


Do. ... 




... 


9 


Maize 


1 8 


Green fodder. 


.., 






^^^mm 


••• 


10 


Lucerne ^ 


1 2 


Green fodder. 
Perennial. 


... 


... 


.w.... 


■ 


..• 


11 


Sundhia 


3 20 


Green fodder. 


Maize ... 


3 20 


Greenfodder. 


i| 


154 


2 


UUvali ... 


1 4 


Do. ... 


... 






1 


• •• 


3 




... 


...».• 


Khapli ... 


2 10 


Greenfodder. 




156 


I 


Nilva 


4 33 


Grem fodder. 








157 


1 


Ut&vali ... 


1 23 


Do. ... 


Peas&Oats 1 23 


Greenfodder. 




158 


1 


Suudhia .. 


4 


Do. ... 










... 


2 


Bdjri 


15 


Do. ... 


... 




• ••..a 






3 


Mixed Jowdr. 


10 


Do. ... 


... 


... 


•a*.,. 





IX.— Fodder Crops. 

9. The following statement gives the outturn, cost of 
cultivation, etc., of the several fodder crops grown : — 







Per acre. 


OoBtof 

100 lbs. 

of the 

fodder. 








Name of crop. 


Area. 


Outturn 

of 
fodder. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Date of sowing. 


Date of 
flowering. 


RenaarkB. 




A. g. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


Ss. a. p. 






i 


B&jri and Chavli 


6 


6,413 


8 13 5 


3 2 


16th June 1906 ... 


29th July 1906 „. 


) 1 


(mixed). 










24th June 1906 ... 


2nd AugURt 1908 . 


f Sown in three 
> plots. 












3l8t July 1906 ... 


4th October 1906. 


NUva 


926 


5,926 


13 9 


3 8 


22nd July 1907 ... 
Do. 


24th September 
1907. 
Do. 


1 Sown in two plots. 


Sundhia 


7 20 


7,942 


13 6 


2 8 


19th June 1906 ... 
13th July 1906 ... 


5th August 1906 . 

10th September 
1906. 
19th June 1906 ... 


i Sown in two ploti. 


Hundi 


7 30 


16.668 


45 6 2 


4 7 


2nd March 1906... 


^ 












12th April 1906 ... 


16th June 1906 ... 


'Sown jc three 
1 plots. 












14th May 1908 ... 


23nd July 1908 ... 



33 





^■Namo of crop. 


Area. 


Per acre. 


! 

Cost of 
100 lbs, 
of the 
folder. 


Date of 
sowing. 


Date of 
flowering. 




Outturn 
of 

fodder. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Rcm.irki. 


1 


A. jf. 


Lbs. 


as. a, p. 


Rs. a. p. 










Hundi Ratoon ... 


7 30 


1,817 


8 9 9 


7 7 


2nd March 1906... 


12th August 1906. 


Sown in th'ce 
plots. 














I2th April 1906 ... 


14th October 1906. 














14th May 1903 ... 


20th October 1906. 




Maizo 


12 23 


•»-<:58 


32 12 7 


9 5 


4th May 19(6 ... 

15th May 1906 ... 

6th August ICOO . 

25th September 
1906. 
27th Oetobei 1906. 


12th June 1908 ... 
17th June 1000 ... 
24th October 1900. 
1st January 1907 . 
Do. 


1 

1 

Sown in eeven 
plots. 




Sorghum 


38 


6,098 


20 5 2 


i 10th Deaember 
1906. 

15th December 
; 1906. 
5 3 i 9th Juno 19C6 ... 


16th February 

1907. 
14th February 

1907. 
29th July 1906. 


- 




Shdlu 


38 


2,488 


15 12 7 


10 2 


23rd October 1906. 


6th Febr-ary 1907. 




Poas and oats 
(mixed). 

Utavall 


3 17 

3 29 


3,078 
5.970 


33 2 2 
11 7 


1 1 2 
2 11 


16th November 

1906. 
26th Deoembor 

1906. 
2jd July 190G ... 


19th Pebruarv 
1907. 
5th March 1907 ... 

231 h August 1906. 


1 Sown in two pIo'iS. 

'Sowa in three 
\ plots 


|k 










20th August 1906. 


6th reeember 
19J6. 


I^Klixed) Jowar... 


10 


2,920 


12 8 8 


6 10 


30th August 1906 
25th January 1907 


9th December 

1906. 
29th March 1907 . 


J 


IBhapli 


2 10 


2.867 


15 13 


8 10 


25th January 1907. 


Do. 




P- 


15 
2 


3,663 


12 8 5 


5 4 


Ist August 1906... 


27th September 
1908. 

•»t... 


The standing crop 
was fed to the 
bullocks, the 
ratoon crop being 
too poor. 


Try Fodders. 
















Bijii 


2 


702 


5 4 11 


12 1 


31st July 1906 ... 


22nd November 
1906. 




i Sundhia 


3 15 


4,864 


27 4 


8 10 


6th June 1908 ... 
8th July 1906 ... 


3rd * September 

1906. 
16th September 

1P03. 
11th November 

1903. 


Sawn in two p'.ots 




Nilva 


4 33 


4.803 


8 15 7 


2 11 


29th July 1906 ... 





B 1005—5 



1 




35 

III.-LANOWLI AGEICULTTTRAL STATION, 

1906-07. 

Fstablished—ldOi ; North Latitude— IS"" 45' ; East 
'iongitude — 73° 27'; Elevation— "2,^^^ feet above sea level; 
Soil — light ; Average rainfall — 186 inches. 

Area — 30 acres. 

Overseer — Mr. A, R. Nikam. 



. 


1 


J 


5 




1 


i 

B 

ft 


J 


i 

o 

>!5 


>7 




^ 


1 


i 




/ // 


/ // 


' ri 


1 
II < It 


' It 


i" n 


' ft 


' >l 


t n 


' 7 


' W 


/ II 


Rainfall (1903-07) 


... 


... 


21 93 


64 y 35 76 


19 74 


53 




... 


... 


... 


64 


140 7:j 


Average 


43 


87 


29 2 


71 81 


56 46 


23 66 


3 9 


81 


025 


5 


8 




183 56 



I.— Introduction, 

2, This StatioQ consists of 6 survey numbers and is situated 
at a distance of about two miles to the south from the Railway 
station. This area is situated in the Bhusi village. The follow- 
ing statement shows the areas, rent and assessment : — 



Survey No. 


Area. 


Rent, 


Assessment. 






A. g. 




Rs. 






Rs. a. p. 


51 


••• ••• 


4 37 


} 


75 


f 




9 


91 


••• ... 


7 10 


I 




18 


74 


••• •»• 


8 6 




15 






5 


100 
10^ 


tt* t** 


3 11 

7 2 


} 


100 


{ 




9 
3 


102 


Total ... 


4 31 _ 




50 


1 
1 


12 




30 17 




240 


1 
1 


39 8 




Out of this area. 


11 acres and 


1 , 


Tjunthas 


w 


ere 


under cultiva- 



tion, the rest of the portion being hilly. 

3. J?lotting» — The six survey numbers were divided into 
16 fields for convenience. Field V was divided into 14 half-guntha 
plots and 8 one-gun tha plots. Field VI was divided into 18 half- 



36 

guntba plots and S oDe-guntha plots. Field No, VII was divided 
into 4 one-guutha plots. Field No. IX was divided into 9 quarter- 
guntha, 12 half-guntha and 5 one-guntba plots. Field No. XII 
was divided into 3 two and a half guntha plots. The above 
fields were devoted to raise seedlings of experimental plots. The 
seedlings of varieties were raised in field No. XIV. The fields 
I, II, III, IV, VIII, X, XI, XIIT, XV and XVI were divided 
into several plots to receive the seedlings raised on difi^erent kinds 
of rab and manures. All the varieties were transplanted in field 
No. XVI. 

Inthehilly portion of survey No. 104, two varieties of N%li 
(Mutki and Zipri), Vari and Sava were grown. The tree cottons 
transplanted in 1905 occupy a part of this hilly portion. 

II.— Season. 

4. During the year under report there were no ante-monsoou 
showers. The seed was broad-casted in rab beds as usual by the 
end of May. The monsoon broke out on the 7th of June. The 
rainfall during the months of June and July was falling almost 
daily with breaks at intervals. This was quite favourable for the 
growth and transplantation of seedlings. The transplantation 
commenced by the middle of July and was finished by the end of 
the month. In the second fortnight of July the rainfall was heavy, 
viz. 36f inches. In August the rain fell just when wanted. 
From the latter part of September the rainfall was deficient for 
the standing crops. This deficiency has reduced the outturn of 
rice considerably. There was a thunderstorm on the 8th of 
October followed by strong winds. This caused the vigorous 
growing crops to lodge. Harvesting of rdb experimental plots 
was commenced on the 26th of October and was over by the 24th 
November. During the season 135 inches of rain was recorded 
against 106| inches of last year. 

III.-Ra'b Experiments. 

5. Rice may be sown direct in the field or may bo sown first 
in seed-beds and then the seedlings transplanted to the field. In 
the preparation of seed beds in this tract it is the custom to cover 
them with a layer of branches, grass, leaves or cowdung or a 
mixture of all and slowly burn. The ground is then lightly 
stirred with a harrow and the seed sown. The burning of this 
material constitutes the process known in vernacular as '^ Dadha 
Bhajane *' and the material used as '* Kiib ". 



si 

6. Objects of the present experiments. — Tlie practice of 
\ibing as at present carried on is very iujurious to forest 
[rowth and in the case of cowdung, there is a great loss of 
lauurial substance. The present experiments were instituted to 

investigate the following questions : — 

I. — What does the efficiency of rab depend upon ? 

11. — What rabs are most beneficial? 

III. — Can any substitute for the present custom be found ? 

IV. — Will any after-treatment of the crop secure the 
effects of rab ? 

7. Treatment of seed-beds, — The experiments were divided 
into eleven series which were further sub-divided into 63 plots. 
Series la, lb. III, VII and IX had duplicate plots. 

Series la. — Object. — To ascertain the merits of the practice 
of rabing. 

Plot No. 1. — -Aiu loppings covered with the usual quantity 
of grass and earth. All materials were weighed and burnt. 

Plot No. 2. — This was treated with ashes obtained in the 
following way : An equal quantity of Aiu loppings, grass and 
earth was spread on corrugated iron sheets in the same thickness 
as in Plot No. 1. The material was weighed and burnt. Ashes 
were collected, weighed and spread out equally on the plot and 
mixed lightly with earth by rakes (Dan tale). 

Plot No. 3. — No treatment of any kind. 

Plot No. 4 — The soil in this plot was pulverized until the 
condition of dust. 

Plot No. 6. — The earth to the depth of 3 inches was taken 
off and spread in a layer 3 inches deep on sheets of corrugated 
iron raised on stones, one foot high. The earth was heated for one 
hour by burning fuel underneath the sheets. When the earth was 
cooled down, it was collected and spread again evenly on the plot. 

Series lb. — Plots 6 to 10. — Received the same treatment as 
Series 1 (a), but the rdb used was mixed branches. 

Series IL — Object — To compare different kinds of rdb. 
Plot No. 11.— Ain rab as usual. 
„ No. 12. — Cowdung rab as usual. 
,, No. 13. — Mixed branches rab as usual. 
„ No. 14.— Grass rab. 
„ No. 15. — Leaf rab. 



^hod 



38 

ISeries III. — Object — To ascertain the usefulness of certain 
possible substitutes to be applied to the seed bed in lieu of rab. 

Plot No. 16. — Treated with mixed branches rab, 20,000 lbs, 
per acre. 

„ No. 17. — Safflower cake, 12,S00 lbs, per acre. 

„ No. 18. — Treated with cowdung rab, 44i,24i0 lbs. 
per acre. 

„ No. 19. — Poudrette, 44,240 lbs. per acre. 

„ No. 20. — Fish manure, 12,960 lbs. per acre. 

„ No. 21, — Sheep manure, 2,880 lbs. (6 bags) per acre. 

„ No. 22. — Nitre, 8,400 lbs. per aero. 

5, No. 23. — Outside ashes, 16,000 lbs. per acre. 

Series IV. — Object — To ascertain the most economical method 
of applying cowdung for raising seedlings. 

Plot No. 24.— Cowdung rab, 44,240 lbs. per acre. 
„ No. 25.— Cowdung ashes, 12,280 lbs. per acre 
„ No. 26. — Cowdung ploughed in 22,120 lbs. per acre. 

Series V, — Object — To ascertain the comparative value of 
oilcakes. 

Plot No. 27. — Manured with safflower cake, 6,480 lbs. 
per acre. 

„ No. 28. — Undi cake manure, 16,000 lbs. per acre. 

5, No. 29. — Karanj cake manure, 11,080 lbs. per acre. 

„ No. 30. — Niger cake manure, 13,000 lbs. per acre. 

„ No. 31, — Rayan cake manure, 13,000 lbs. per acre. 

Series VI. — Object— To ascertain the most profitable quantity 
of safflower cake required for raising seedlings. 

Plot No. 32. — Treated with safflower cake manure equal 
to the value of cowdung nib at normal 
price, 9,600 lbs. per acre. 

„ No, 33.— Treated with cowdung rab, 44,240 lbs. 
per acre. 

„ No. 34, — Manured with safflower cake, 8,000 lbs. 
per acre. 

„ No. 35. — Manured with safflower cake, 4,000 lbs. 
per acre. 



139 
Series VIL — Object — To ascertain the most beneficial 
leraents of plant-food for raising seedlings. 
Plot No. 36.— Manured with safiHower cake, L5,920 lbs. 
per acre. 

„ No. 37. — Manured with sulphate of potash, 1,920 lbs, 
per acre. 

„ No. 38. — Manured with superphosphate, 22,880 lbs. 
^ per acre. 

„ No. 39, — No treatment of any kind. 

„ No. 40. — Cowdung rab ... 44,160 lbs. per acre. 

( Safflower cake ... 25,920 

J, No. 41,— ] Sulphate of potash 1,920 

(.Superphosphate... 22,880 

T^ .n C Safflower cake ... 25,920 

„ iN 0. ^i J. I Sulphate of potash 1,920 

nyr .0,^ r Safflower cake ... 25,920 

„ INO. ^d. I Superphosphate... 22,880 

nyj- .. J Sulphate of potash 1,920 

„ iNo. 44i. I Superphosphate ... 22,880 

Series VII L — Object — To ascertain lime requirements. 
Plot No. 45. — Cowdung nib ,.. 44,240 lbs. per acre. 
„ No. 46.— Lime ... 2,400 „ „ 

„ No. 47. — No treatment. 
„ No. 48.— Lime ... 6,000 „ „ 

Series IX (Duplicate). — Object — To compare field manuring 
with seed-bed manuring. 

Plot No. 49. — Mixed branches nib as usual. 

„ No. 50. — Cowdujag rab as usual,. 

„ No. 51.— No ra;b. 

The seedhngs raised in each of the above plots (49, 50 and 
51) were transplanted in 5 two-guntha plots and manured iu the 
fields as under : — 

{a) Manured with cowdung manure 7,360 lbs. per acre. 
{h) Safflower cake ... ... 720 „ „ 

((?) Poudrette ... ... 7,360 „ 

{d) No treatment. 

\e) Nitre ... ... 380 „ 



J> 




J» 




5> 




35 




5) 




J> 




>J 




9> 




>> 





40 



Series X. — Object— To compare field manuring with seed-bed 
manuriDg. 

Plots Nos. 52 to 59. — The seed-l?eds were treated with cow- 
dung rab as usual and the transplanted area received different 
manures as follows : — 

(1) Sulphate of potash ... ... 330 lbs. per acre. 

(2) Safflower cake ... ... 360 

(3) Superphosphate ... ... 100 

j 330 

(4) Manures same as plots ], 2 and 3, ^. eA 360 

( 100 

(5) No treatment. 



(6) Manure same as plots 1 and 2 

(7) Manure same as plots 2 and 3 

(8) Manure same as plots 1 and 3 






330 




360 




360 




100 




330 




iOO 





1 



Series XL — Object — To compare field manuring with seed- 
bed manuring. 

Plots Nos. 60 to 63. — The seed-beds were treated with cow- 
dung r^b as usual. The transplanted area received the field 
applications as below : — 

(1) Lime ... ... 1,600 lbs. per acre. 

(2) Lime and cowdung .,.\ o'qoq '* " 

(3) Cowdung manure only ... 3,680 „ „ 

(4) No treatment. 

The following statement shows the quantity of rdb materials 
used for different plots and their cosU: — 



No. of 
plot. 



Area. 



Kind of treatment. 



Guntlias. 



Series I-A In duplicate, 

Ain rub ... I 



Do, 



Quantity of r&b materials 
put on in the sccd-bed. 



Lbs. 

240 branches of Ain 
112 grass 
93 earth 
265 branches of Ain 
126 grass 
124 earth 



Cost of rdb 

materials and 

application 

cliarges. 



\^ 



Rs. a. p. 
14 

1 4 



41 











Cost of rib 


No. of 

plot. 


Area. 


Kind of treatment. 


Quantity of rib materials 
put ou in the seed-bed. 


materials and 

application 

charges. 






Series I-A in duplioate— 








Gunthas. 


continued. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


2 


k 


Ashes of Ain rib 


122 ashes of Ain branches .. 


1 8. 


7 


i 


Do. 


115 do. 


18 


3 


i 


No treatment ... 






8 


i 


Do. 


•.»•.. 


..... 


4: 


i 


Earth pulverized 


••..■.. 


6 


9 


h 


Do. 


•.. .. 


6 


5 


i 


Earth heated 


...... 


1 12 


10 


i 


Do. 

Series I-B in duplicate 
( 


260 branches 


1 12 


1 


i 


Mixed branches rib ... \ 


120 grass 

94 earth 
260 branches 


V 14 
\ 


6 


i 


Do. .•• X 


128 grass 

124 eartH 


V 14 


2 


h 


Ashes of mixed branches 


142 ashes of mixed bran- 
ches. 


10 


7 


k 


Do. 


175 do. 


12 


3 


i 


No treatment 


...... 




8 


h 


Do. 


.«•••• 




4 


h 


Earth pulverized ... 




OQ 


9 


i 


Do. 




6 


5 


h 


Earth heated 




1 12 


10 


h 


Uo. 

Series II. 

{ 


830 branches 


1 12 


1 


t 1 


Ainrib ... J 
( 


171 grass 

217 earth 

1,106 cowdnng 


y 2 4 


2 




Cowdnng rib ... I 
( 


162 grass 

365 earth 

538 branches 


S 8 


3 




Mixed branches rib ... X 


159 grass 

185 earth 


[ 2 8 


4 




Grass r^b 


415 grass 

155 earth 

887 leaves 


i 10 

7 


6 




Leaf rib ... j 
Series III in dupli^a e 


160 grass 

193 earth 

260 branches 


y 2 
> 


1 


i 


Mixed branches rdb ... \ 
( 


145 grass 

124 earth 


f 13 






Do. ... \ 


255 branches 


i 13 


9 


\ 


128 grass 






( 


93 earth 


i 


2 


■ \ 


Safflower cake ... ... 


162 safflower 


1 11 4 


10 


\ 


Do. 


162 do. 

553 cowdung 


1 11 4 
) 


3 


i 


Cowdung rab ... X 


112 grass 
80 earth 


C 2 10 



B 1095— G 



42 



Ko. of 
plot. 



11 

4 
12 

5 
13 

G 
14 

7 
15 

3 
10 



Ganthas. Series III in duplicate- 
con/ tnitecf. 



Area. 



Kind of treatment. 



Cowdung r&b 

Poudrette 

Uo. 
Fish 
Do. 
Duug from folded sbecp 

Do. 
Nitro 
Do. 

Outside ashci *•• 

Do. 



Series IV. 
Cowdung rdb 

Ashes of cowduug 
Cowdung ploughed in . 

Series V. 

SafSower cake • 

I'ndi cake . 

Karanj cake 
Niger cake 
H&y&n cake 

Series VI. 



... i 



Safflower cake 

Cowdnng r&b 

Safflower cake 
Do. 



; ] 



Quantity of rdb materials 
pat on in the seed-bed. 



Lbs. 

553 cowdung 
114 grass 

80 tarth 
553 poudrette 
5.^3 do. 
^62 fish 
162 do. 
260 sheep-dung 
1:60 do. 

^0 nitre 

80 do. 
200 outside ashes 
200 do. 



1,106 cowdung 
198 grass 
"■65 e^^th 
. 807 ashes 
553 cowdung 



1B2 safflower cake 
400 Undicuke 
2*^7 Karanj cake 
32') niger cake 
825 lUyan cake 



Cost of rib 

materials and 

appi cation 

cha.ges. 



1 


i 


10 




2 
11 


1 


3 




12 




4 




U 




5 




14 




« 


J 


15 





Series VII in duplicate- 

Safflower cake 

Do. 
Sulphate of potash 

Do. 
Soperphospliates 

Do. 
No treatment 
Do. 

Cowdung r4b 



Do. 

Safflower cake 
+ sulphate of potash 
+ PuperphospbaLes 
Do, 



120 safflower cake 
553 cowdung 
100 grass 

75 earth 
100 Bufflower cake 

50 do. 



162 safflower cake ... 
162 do. 

12 sulphat i of potash 

12 do. 

143 superphosphates 
143 do. 



2"6 cowdung 

60 gr.iss 

36 earth 
276 cowdung 

60 grass ... 

86 earth 
16"^ safflower 

12 sulphate of potash 
14.T superphosphates 
Do. 



E 



Rs. a. p. 



2 10 



1 7 





1 7 





6 2 


4 


t> 12 


4 


1 5 





1 5 





8 10 





8 10 





5 





6 





8 7 





3 8 





2 2 





1 11 


4 


14 2 





7 


9 


3 6 





5 4 






I 



14 9 

1 12 

1 1 8 
8 10 



1 10 4 
1 10 4 
1 3 
1 3 
11 14 11 
II 14 11 



1 

10 

14 10 3 

14 10 3 



43 













Cost of rib 


No. of 
plot. 


Area. 


Kind of treatment. 


Quantity of rib materials 
put ou iu the seed-bed. 


mateii .Is aud 
applica'.ijn 












chai'i^es. 






Series VII in duplicate 










Gunthas 


— continued. 


Lbs. 




Rs. a. p» 


7 


i' 


^'afflowcr cake 


162 safflower cake ... 




] 2 12 4 


+ snip hate of potash 


j2 sulphate of LOtash 


.** 


13 


i 


Do. 


Do. 


... 


2 72 4 


8 


i\ 


Siflaowercake 


162 8fcfflow«ir cake 


,^ 


j 13 8 3 


+ superphosphates 


143 superphosphates 


V, 


17 


i 


I>0. 


Do 


... 


13 8 3^ 


9 


*^ 


Sulphate of pot" sh 


12 sulphate of potash 


... 


[ 13 11 




4- sui. erphosphaies 


143 superphosphates 


.. 


18 


i 


Do. 

Series VIII. 

( 


Do. 
£53 cowdung ... 


... 

..a 


13 U 


1 


i 


Cowdung rib ... 


210 grass 
7.^ ear;h 


... 


[ 1 12 


2 


^ 


Lime 


30 lime 


... 


7 6 


3 


^ 


No treatment 








4 


t 


Lime 

Series IX in duplicate. 


76 lime ... 

3 cart 1 branches 




0*12 10 
I 7 


1 


2i 


Mixed branches rib ... 


445 gi-a38 


'•„ 






( 


310 eaith 


*•. 






(■ 


3 cart loads branchea 


... 




4 


n 


Do. 

c 

( 


4 7 grass 
:^50 earth 
2,7t»5 cuwdung 


• •* 


[ 7 6a 
i 


2 


21 


Cowdung rab •„ j 

{' 


3«)0 grass 
17i) earth 
2,765 c<»wdung 


.*;; 


V 9 13 

'1 


5 


2i 


Do. ... I 


300 grass 
170 earth 


... 


• 9 12 


3 


2i 


No rib 


•••••• 






6 


2t 


Do. 

Series X 


1,106 cowdung ,^ 


*•• 


) 


1 


1 


Cowdung rib 

c 


344 gra>» 
fe3 earth 


... 


2 9 


2 


1 


Do, 


Same as above ... 




2 9 


8 


1 


Do. 


Jo. 


.*!.* 


2 9 


4 


1 


Do. 


Do. 


... 


2 9 


5 


1 


Do. 


Do. 


... 


2 9 


6 


1 


Do. 


Do. 




2 9 


7 


1 


Do. 


Do. 


... 


2 9 


8 


1 


Do. 

Series XT. 


Do. 
1,105 cowdung 


... 


2 9 
) 


^ 


1 


Cowdung rab ... / 


144 gl•a^s 
03 earth 


... 


2 9 


2 


1 


Do. 


Do 


... 


2 9 


3 


1 


Do. 


Do. 


,, 


2 9 


4 


1 


Do. 


Do. 


... 


2 9 



4i4 



8. Besults with regard to seedlings. — During the year under 
report the seedlings from Series I A, IB and IX were very much 
damaged by crabs. The following statement shows the area 
actually transplanted and the cost of raising seedlings sufficient 
for transplanting an acre : — 



Kind of treatment. 



Series I*A. 

Ain rab 

Ashes of Ain rab ... 
No treatment 
Earth pulverized ••• 
Earth heated 

Series I-B in duplicate. 

Mixed branches r^b 

Do. 
Ashes of mixed branches 

Do. 
No treatment 

Do. 
Earth pulverized ... 

Do. 
Earth heated 
Do. 

Series II. 

Ain rab 
Cowdung rih 
Mixed branches r^b 
Grass rdb «•■ 

Leaf rdb 

Series III in duplicate. 

Mixed branches r^b 

Do. 
Safflower cake 

Do. 
Cowdung rdb 

Do. 
Poudrette 




n 

2 

2 

n 

H 
H 
H 
H 
If 



2i 



Corrected 
for crab 

eaten 
portions 

acd blanks. 



Cost of raising 
seedlings sufRciect 
for transplanting 



one acre. 



Gunthas, 
2 
2 

li 

2 

2 



Rs. a. p. 
^8 2 
33 2 
4 1 
10 6 8 
37 14 8 



2 


1 20 6 


8 


2 


i 20 6 


8 


2 


25 6 


8 


2 


22 14 


8 


1* 


3 12 


8 


14 


3 12 


8 


2 


10 6 


8 


2 


10 6 


8 


2 


37 14 


8 


2 


87 14 


8 


5 


20 6 





8 


38 15 


9 


5 


22 6 





5 


10 6 





5 


\6 6 


a 


H 


21 5 


4 


24 


21 5 


4 


2i 


2b 15 


4 


2i 


25 15 


4 


2% 


30 14 


8 


24 


30 14 


8 


3 


25 5 


4 



45 



No. of 
plot. 



Kind of treatment. 



12 

5 
13 

6 
14 

7 
15 

8 
16 



1 
10 

2 
11 

3 
12 

4 
13 

6 
14i 



Series III in duplicate.— co«^<f. 

Poudrette ... • 

Fish manure 

Do. «.. • 

Sheepdung 

Do. 
Nitre 
Do. 

Outside ashes 
Do, 

Series IV. 

Cowdung r^b ,.. 
Ashes of cowdung 
Cowdung ploughed in 

Series V. 

Safflower cake ,,, • 

Undi cake 

Karanj cake 

Niger cake ... • 

R^yan cake 

Series VI. 

Safflower cake 
Cowdung rdb 
Safflower cake 
Do. 

Series VII in duplicate. 

Safflower cake 

Do. 
Sulphate of potash 

Do. 
Superphosphates ... 

Do. 
No treatment 

Do. 
Cowdung rdb 
[ Do. 



Area 

actually 

trans- 

plauted* 



Gunthaj 

3 

24 

H 

24 

H 

24 

H 



54 

5 

6 



6 
6 
6 
7 
64 



24 

24 
2 

2 



11 

14 
li 

14 
li 
14 
1 

n 
li 

14 



Corrected 

for crab 

eaten 

portions 

and blanks. 



Gunth^s. 

24 
8 

^ 

24 

24 

24 
2 

24 

2 



6 
6 
6 

7 
64 



24 
24 
2 
2 



14 

14 
14 
14 
14 

14 
1 

14 

li 
14 



Cost of raising 

seedlings sutticiout 

for transplanting 

one acre. 



Rs. a. p. 

20 9 4 

92 3 6 

110 10 8 

23 5 4 

2'd 5 4 

175 6 8 

140 6 4 

9 2 8 

7 5 4 



24 4 9 
30 6 
15 2 2 



12 8 6 

90 2 2 

45 14 4 

22 6 

33 4 6 



23 1 4 

30 5 4 

25 

13 15 4 



42 15 


6 


42 15 


6 


31 8 


2 


31 8 


2 


300 2 


1 


300 2 


1 


2 14 


8 


1 13 


2 


8i 5 


4 


26 13 


',) 



46 



Ko. of 
plot. 



Kind of treatment. 



Series VII in duplicate.— co»^i. 

Safflower cake + Sulphate of 
potash + Superphospiiates ... 



Do. 

Safflower cake + 
pota>li 
Do. 
Safflower cake + 
phutes 
Do. 
Sulphate of potash 
phosphates 
Do. 



do. 
Sulphate of 

■• ■ 
do. 
Super phos 



do. 
+ 

do. 



Super- 



Area 
actufvlly 

tiaiis- 
planted. 



Qunthas- 



U 



Serias VIII. 



Cowdung rab 

Lime 

No treatment 

Lime 

Series IX in duplicate. 

Mixed branches r^b 

Do. 
Coudung rdb ••• 

Do. 
No rab 
Do. 

Series X. 

Cowdung rdb 

Do. ••• 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. ••• 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Series XI • 

Cowdung idb 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



1 

li 

1 



If 

2 






10 
5 

9 
2 



6i 

6i 

H 

5 

5 

5 

6 

5 



Corrected 

for (;rab 

eaten 

poiiions 

and blanks. 



Qunthas. 

n 

1 

H 
I 

2 






10 
10 

9 
9 



6i 

ei 

5 
6 
5 

6 
5 



Cost of rai-ins? 

seedlings suffid nt 

for trans J !an:iug 

one acre. 



Rs. a. p. 

470 1.3 4 

367 16 5 

91 

113 12 

43i 13 4 

543 8 8 

288 13 10 
262 9 



30 5 
11 1 
2 10 
24 10 4 



32 
3> 
33 



83 9 
ii 4 
3 4 



17 2 6 

17 2 6 

17 2 6 

22 14 

22 14 

22 14 

22 14 

22 14 



22 14 

22 14 

22 14 

22 14 



47 

The area of the seed beds was nofc the same in all cases* 
The cowdung rd,b plot of on^ guntha supplied seedlinors sufficient for 
transplRMtiiig 8 guntlias, and almost all oilcake plots, poudrette 
and fish manure plots supplied seedlings for 6 gunthas each. 

The cost of raising seedlings varies greatly and is very high. 
The Ain and mixed branches had to be brought from long dis- 
tances and t'ne artificial manures were yevy costly. The Uudi 
cake was brought from Ratndgiri and Hay an from Nadiad. 

9. Restilts of field crops. — The seedlings from cake, fish, 
poudiette and cowdung plots were healthy and vigorous in the seed 
beds as well as in the transp'anted area. The seedli'iors raised on 
artificial manures were healthy and strong in the seed beds, bub 
they fared poorly in the transplanted area. 

So far as the fiorures given below prove anything, they indi- 
cate that cowdung rao has j istified its reputation amonj cultiva- 
tors as the bt'St preparation fjr the seed bed. Tue yields are 
however much too uneven to be reliable. 



48 



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+ 




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a 


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M 


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1.460 
1,220 
1,045 
2.900 




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o o o o o 


. 


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Cost 

cultiva 

tion 

in the 

trane. 

plant ec 

area. 


J 

^ 


20 
20 
20 
20 
26 14 




i 


** "S 


d 


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55 



■ 


10. 


EeauUsfrom seed-beds.-'On 


the whole the outturn results 


IH seed-beds are superior in yield to the transplanted area, and 
fcecially so in the Series III, VI and VII. 


Field 
No. 


Plot 

No. 


Kind of treatment. 


Cost per Acre. 


Outturn per Acre. 


Profit {+) 

or 
loss(-). 




Cost of 

raising 

seedlings. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion in the 
trans- 
planted 
Area. 


Total 
cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


Total 
value of 
outturn. 


Remarks. 






Series lA. 


Rs. a. p. 


Kb. a. p. 


Us. a. p. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 




6 


1 


Ain rjib 


28 2 


20 


48 2 


1,600 


1,760 


69 2 6 


-fll 6 




»» 


2 


Ashes of Ain 


33 2 


20 


53 2 


960 


1.410 


37 8 


-15 10 




,. 


3 


No treatment 


4 10 




4 10 


... 


... 


... 


—4 10 


Seedlings washed 
away by rain. 


t* 


4 


Earth pulverized ... 


10 6 8 


20 


30 6 8 


960 


1,280 


36 10 6 


+Q 8 10 


•> 


6 


Earth heated 


37 14 8 


20 


57 14 8 


960 


1,920 


40 


-H7 10 8 








N. B.-Seedl 


ings from the duplicate seed-beds were enough 
only for transplantation area. 








SerieglB. ... 


Seed 


lings Buffi 


cient for 


tran 


splant 


ation 


area only. 








Series II. 


















5 


1 


Ain r4b 


20 6 


26 10 8 


47 8 


1.600 


1,520 


57 14 6 


■f-lO 13 10 




»» 


2 


Cowdung ritb 


18 15 9 


26 10 8 


45 10 5 


1,880 


2,160 


70 


-f-24 5 7 




n 




Mixed branches r4b. 


22 6 


26 10 8 


40 8 


1.449 


1,440 


52 8 


+3 7 4 




t» 




Grass rdb 


10 6 


26 10 8 


37 8 


1.320 


1.6G0 


49 9 3 


+ 12 8 7 




" 




Leaf r&b 

Series III. 


18 6 


26 10 8 


45 


1,360 


1,630 


51 4 


+8 3 4 








Mixed branches rfib. 


21 5 4 


23 8 


43 13 4 


1,760 


1,920 


65 


+21 2 8 








Do. 


21 5 4 


27 1 4 


48 6 8 


2,240 


3,040 


85 13 3 


+86 6 7 








Safflower oake 


25 15 4 


22 8 


43 7 4 


2.720 


2,880 


100 


+51 8 8 








Do. 


25 15 4 


27 1 4 


63 8 


2,240 


i,320 


92 8 


+89 7 4 








Cowdung r&b 


30 14 8 


22 8 


53 6 8 


2,560 


2,880 


95 


+41 9 4 








Do. 


30 14 8 


27 1 4 


58 


2,240 


3,360 


87 8 


+29 8 








Poudrelte 


20 9 4 


22 8 


43 1 4 


2,560 


2,880 


95 


+51 14 8 




9 




Do. 


25 5 4 


27 1 4 


52 6 8 


2,320 


3,840 


92 8 


+40 1 4 






10 


Fish manure 


10 10 8 


22 8 


133 2 8 


2,773 


5.120 


112 1 


-21 1 8 








Do. 


92 8 6 


27 1 4 


119 4 10 


2.400 


4,160 


96 10 6 


-23 10 4 






11 


Sheep dung 


23 6 4 


22 8 


46 13 4 


2,347 


3.093 


89 7 3 


+43 9 11 








Do. 


23 6 4 


27 1 4 


60 6 8 


2.160 


3.680 


86 10 6 


+86 8 10 






12 


Nitre 


Seedli 


ngs RUffl 


clenl for 


trans 


planta 


tion ar 


ea only. 








Do. 


140 5 4 


.27 1 4 


167 6 8 


1,760 


3.200 


71 10 6 


—95 12 2 








13 


Ashes 


Seedli 


ngs saffi 


cient for 


trans 


planta 


tion ar 


ea only. 










Do. 


9 2 8 


27 1 4 


36 4 

I 


1.920 


3,660 


79 2 6 


+ 42 14 6 


























56 














Plot 
No. 


Kind of treatment. 


Cost per Acre. 


Outturn per Acre. 


Proat ( + ) 
or 

loss (-;. 


Remarks. 


Field 
No. 


Cost of 

raising 

seedlinga. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion iQ the 
trans- 
planted 
Area. 


Total 
cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


1 

1 

Grain Straw. 

i 


Total 
value of 
outturn. 






Series IV. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p 


Rs. a. p. 




6 


6 


Cowdung r&b 


24 4 4 


26 10 8 


50 15 


1,920 


3.160 


71 4 


+20 5 




i» 


7 


Ashes of cowdung . 


30 6 


28 10 8 


57 8 


1,440 


1.840 


64 9 3 


-2 7 5 




•* 


8 


Cowdang ploughed 
in 

Series V. 


15 2 2 


26 10 8 


41 12 10 


1,920 


2,440 


72 11 3 


+30 14 6 




9 


21 


Safflower cake 


12 8 6 


26 


37 8 6 


1,920 


4,080 


81 4 


+ 43 11 6 




»i 


22 


Undi cake 


<J0 2 2 


25 


115 2 2 


1.840 


3,600 


76 8 


-38 10 2 




»> 


23 


Karanj cake 


45 14 4 


25 


70 14 4 


1,84 u 


3.520 


75 13 3 


+4 14 11 




*i 


21 


Niger cake 


22 6 


26 


47 6 


1.280 


2,720 


54 2 6 


+ 7 2 


J 


»> 


26 


Riyan cake 

Series VI. 


33 4 6 


26 


68 4 6 


1.280 


2,040 


53 12 


-4 8 6 




5 


9 


Safflower cake 


23 1 4 


26 10 8 


49 12 


2,240 


2.880 


85 


♦ 35 4 


■ 


t> 


10 


Cowdung T&h 


30 5 4 


26 10 8 


57 


1,760 


2,240 


67 11 3 


+ 10 11 3 


1 


• 1 


11 


Safflower cake 


25 


26 10 8 


51 10 8 


2,240 


2.8S0 


85 


+33 5 4 


1 


•• 


12 


Do. 

Series VII. 


13 15 4 


26 10 8 


40 10 


2.160 


2,560 


80 13 3 


+39 3 3 




8 


9 


Safflower cake 


42 15 6 


35 


77 15 6 


1,920 


3,840 


80 


+ 2 6 




*• 


10 


Sulphate of Potash. 


31 8 2 


36 


66 8 2 


1,920 


3,340 


80 


+13 7 10 




*• 


11 


Superphosphates ... 


300 2 1 


35 


335 2 1 


2,240 


3,840 


90 


-245 2 1 




,. 


12 


No treatment 


2 14 8 


35 


37 14 8 


2,240 


2.660 


83 5 3 


+45 6 7 


Received manui 


„ 


13 


Cowdung ri(b 


34 6 4 


33 


69 5 4 


•2,660 


4,480 


103 5 3 


+83 15 11 


from adjacent pioti 


»f 


14 


Safflower cake + 
sulphate of potash 
+ 8uperpho6- 
phates. 


470 13 4 


35 


505 13 4 


1.280 


5,120 


66 10 6 


-439 2 10 




" 


16 


Safflower cake + 
sulphate of potash 


91 


35 


126 


1,280 


6,400 


73 5 


-62 11 




tt 


16 


Safflower cake + 
superphosphates. 


434 13 4 


35 


469 13 4 


1.280 


6,120 


66 10 6 


-403 2 10 




•< 


17 


Sulphate of potash 
+ 8uperp ho6- 
phates. 


288 13 10 


35 


323 13 10 


1,280 


3,840 


62 


-261 13 10 








N.B.— Seedlings from the duplicate seed-beds were just 
enough for the transplantation area. 








Serieg VIII. 


















e 


18 
19 


Cowdung rib 
Lime 


30 6 4 
11 1 


25 6 8 

26 6 8 


65 12 
36 7 8 


1,120 
1,280 


2.080 
1.920 


45 13 3 
50 


-9 14 9 

+ 13 8 4 


Isoll rocky. Oro) 
)■ thia and e»t« 
by crabs. 

J 


li 


20 


No treatment 


2 10 


26 6 8 


28 8 


960 


9C0 


35 


•»6 15 4 


»» 


21 


Lime 


Seedli 


ngs BUffi 


nient for 


trans 


plantation ar 


ea only. 



























57 



1 

ield 
Ho. 


1 

Plot 
No. 

1 
1 
1 


Kind of treatment. 


Cost per Aero. 


Outturn per Acre, 


Profit (+) 

or 
lo?s(-). 




Co£t of 

raising 

seedlings. 


Cost of 
cultiva- 
tion in the 

trans- 
planted 

Area. 


Total 
cost of 
cultiva- 
tion. 


Grain. Straw. 

1 


Total 
value of 
outturn. 


Remarks. 




1 


Series IX. 


j Es. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Lbs. Lbs. 


Ra. a. p. 


R3. a. p. 




12 


1 

1 


Mixoil branches rab 


Soedli 

I 


ngs suffl 


cient for 


trans planta 


tion ar 


aa only. 




.. 


2 


Cowdiing rab 


! 32 7 4 


22 


54 7 4 


1.088 


1.520 


41 14 (. 


-12 8 10 




.' 


3 


No rub 


Seedli 


ngs saffi 


cient or 


trans'planta 


tion ar 


ea only. 








N. B.-Seedlings from the duplicate seed-beds were not 
; enough for transplantation. 








Series X. 


- 
















6 


14 


C'owdnngrab 


17 2 6 


24 9 4 


41 11 10 


1.640 


1.860 


60 10 


+ 18 14 2 






15 


Do. 


17 2 C 


24 9 4 


41 11 10 


1.600 


1,720 


58 15 3 


+ 17 3 5 




„ 


16 


Do. 


17 2 6 


24 9 4 


41 11 10 


1.64) 


1,720 


CO 3 3 


+ 18 7 5 




•> 


17 


Do. 


22 14 


24 9 4 


47 7 4 


1.320 


1.410 


48 12 


+ 14 8 




«• 


18 


Do. 


22 14 


24 9 4 


47 7 4 


1,360 


1,600 


50 13 3 


+3 5 11 




» 


19 


Do. 


22 14 


24 9 4 


47 7 4 


1,480 


1.560 


54 6 


+6 14 8 




9 


20 


Do. 


22 14 


21 9 4 


47 7 4 


1,160 


1.360 


43 5 '^ 


-4 2 1 




h 


21 


Do. 

Series XI. 


22 14 


24 9 4 


47 7 4 


1.320 


1,560 


49 6 


+1 14 8 




¥ 


1 


Cowdnng rab 


22 14 


24 


47 4 


1,560 


1,800 


58 2 


+ 10 14 




f* 


2 


Do. 


22 14 


24 6 


47 4 


1,560 


1,680 


57 8 


+11 4 




.V 


3 


Do. 


22 14 1 


24 6 


47 4 


1,560 


1,720 


57 11 3 


+ 10 7 3 




» I 


4 


Do. 


22 14 


24 6 


47 4 


1.4S0 


1,640 


34 12 6 


+7 8 6 





Variety Jests. 

11. Fifty-four varieties of rice from the Bombay Presidency and 
53 varieties from Beni^al were tried this year on a very small area. 
)nly fifteen bunches of each variety were transplanted. The yield 
L'om each bed varied from 2 to 8 ozs. The produce has been preserved 
or sowing in the next year. 



B 1095—8 



58 



The notes as to the characteristics of the Bengal varieties are given 
in the statement helow : — 



Kg. 


Name of Variety. 


Colour of 
stem. 


Final 
height. 


Length, 
of ear. 


Date of 
sowing. 


Date of 
transplant- 
ing. 


Date of 
flowering. 

i 


Date of 
harvest- 
ing. 


1 


2 


3 


' 


1 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 








Ft. 


In. 


Inches. 










1 


Uraibutta (old) 


Wh'.te... 


2 


8 


7 


30th May. 


19th July. 


24th Sept. 


29th Oct. 


2 


Sainharpuchhi 


>j ••• 


3 


3 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


28th Sept. 


30th Oct. 


3 


Chitrakot (old) 


Reddish 


2 


7 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Se[.t. 


18th Oct. 


4 


Sailo 


White .. 


2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


21st Sept. 


24th Oct. 


5 


Sont 


)) *•• 


3 


2 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


9th Nov. 


6 


Chhatri 


]> ... 


2 


7 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


27th Sept. 


30th Oct. 


7 


Suwapankhi . 


>i ••• 


3 


2 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Oct. 


9th Nov. 


8 


Dudhkhoa (old) 


» 


2 


8 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Nov. 


9 


Radhavahme (old) . 


» 


3 


3 


30 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct. 


9th Nov.,- 


10 


Tonga 


» ••• 


3 


11 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


Do.il 


11 


Kakeii rice (new) ... 


» ••• 


' 3 





7 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Aug. 


31st Ofl 


12 


Amagoli 


Reddish 


1 ^ 


6 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


20th Sept. 


Do.a 


13 


Chiunor 


}» 


2 





10 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


16th SM 


14 


Telasi 


Gi-eenish 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


14th Sept. 


16th Cfl 


15 


Haradgunda 


White... 


1 2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


25th Sept 


9th NoH 


16 


Ponga 


}> 


! 3 


2 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


7th Oct. 


Do. m 


17 


Tedi 


» ••• 


2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


Do. 


18 


Pandhari (old) 


»> ' * 


! 2 


5 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


27th Sept. 


Slst Oct. 


19 


Kari Konj 


tf ••• 


2 


5 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


9th Nov. 


20 


Girar Koth 


>i ■ • • 


2 


4 


C 


Do. 


Do. 


7th Oct. 


Do. 


21 


Cbipda 


>) • •• 


2 


5 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


16th Sept 


18th Oct. 


22 


Garadkat 


« ••• 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Sept. 


1st Nov. 


23 


Mahurdheti 


» ... 


i 2 


3 





Do. 


Do. 


1st Oct. 


Do. 


24 


Chiuga 


t> ••• 


2 


i 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


15th Sept. 


16th Oct. 


25 


Bagmuchhi (old) 


s, 


2 


11 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


13th Sept. 


16th Nov. 


26 


Bhera Kawar 


i» ... 


3 


2 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


26th Sept 


31st Oaim 


27 


Rupraj (old) 


« ••• 


2 


7 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Oct. 


1st Nol 


28 


Padamsar 


)> *** 


2 


4 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


29th Aug. 


29th Sfl 


29 


Kari Konga 


>» 


2 


11 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Sept. 


9th No 


30 


Nonga 


» ••• 


2 


G 


C 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Sept. 


llthOc 


31 


Sonth 


» • •• 


2 


10 


8 


Bo. 


Do. 


22nd Sept 


3l8t 


32 


Samudrasoakh 


>» ••• 


3 


9 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


30th Sept. 


1st No 


83 


Chinikapur 


»> ••• 


3 





C 


Do. 


Do. 


28th Sept. 


Do. 


34 


Sooapankh 


„ ... 


3 





8 


Do. 


Do. 1 


29th Sept. 


Slst 0( 


35 


Bhakwa 


V ••• 


2 


9 


6 


Do^. 


Do. ! 


3rd Oct. 


1st No 


86 


Chiuga (old) 


a 


2 





6 


Do. 


Do. 1 


23rd Aug. 


25th S 


37 


Nagsar 


it ••• 


2 


5 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


2Gth Sept. 


9th No 


38 


Tulsizak 


if .*• 


2 


4 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct. 


Do. 


39 


Terhi 


Greenish 


2 





7 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Oct. 


Do. 


40 


Ramkel 


White... 


2 


6 


G 


Do. 


Do. 


28th Sept. 


Do. 


41 


No name 


>» ••» 


2 


2 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


24th Aug. 


Do. 


42 


t3 


„ ... 


2 


6 


G 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Oct. 


Do. 


43 


if ... ... 


„ ... 


1 


8 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct. 


Do. 


44 


i* ... 


»» ... 


2 


2 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


25th Auj?. 


4th Otf 


45 


)| ••• ... 


»> *.* 


3 


4 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


1 0th Oct. 


9th No 


46 


»» • • • 


}» ••. 


1 


9 


5 


Do. 


Do, 


30th Aug. 


2ndOc 


47 


H ... ••• 


>» •.» 


2 





G 


Do. 


Do. 


3fd Sept. 


4th Oct. 


48 


if ••• ... 


» ••. 


2 


2 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


22nd Sept. 


24th Oct. 





















r 



ss 



Kame of Variety. 


Colour of 
stem. 


Final 
height. 


Length 
of ear. 


Date of 
sowing. 


Date of 
transplant- 
ing. 


Date of 
flowering. 


Date of 

harvest" 

ing. 


2 


3 


4 


6 


6 


7 


8 









Ft. 


In. 


Inches. 










No name 


White.. » 


1 


4 


6 


30th May. 


19th July. 


8th Oct. 


9th Nov. 


)> ... ... 


Reddish. 


1 


9 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Sept. 


11th Oct. 


» ••» ••• 


White... 


1 


3 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


6th Oct. 


9th Not. 


,> ... ••. 


<» ... 


2 


9 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Sept. 


Ist Nov. 


j» ••• 


Reddish. 


1 


10 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


7th fc'ept. 


11th Oct, 


>j ••• ••• 


}, ... 


1 


8 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Sept. 


13th Oct. 


), ... i.t 


»» ••• 


1 


8 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


7th Sept. 


Do. 


;> •.• »•» 


»» ... 


2 


2 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


27tb Aug. 


29th fc'ept. 


)> ati 


White... 


2 





5 


Do. 


Do. 


2l8t ^ept. 


24th Oct. 


}> ... ••• 


» ••• 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oct, 


19th Nov. 


:■) ... ••. 


») 


1 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


29th Aug. 


4th Oct. 


»> ..« ••• 


» ... 


2 


2 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


7th Oct. 


19th Nov. 


3) .•» ••• 


)> ... 


1 


10 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Sept. 


5th Oct. 


}) ... 


j> ... 


1 


8 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Sept. 


2nd Oct. 


J> ... ••» 


)} ... 


1 


7 


4 


Do. 


Do. 


9th tiept. 


18th Oct. 


Karuniayaial 


>> ••• 


2 


5 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oct. 


19th Nov. 


Chatteparneclai 


,, ... 


3 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


20th Kept. 


24th Oct. 


Chavannaga Aryan ... 


}> ... 


3 





7 


Do. 


Do. 


25th Sept. 


Ist Nov. 


Ponnacbatta Aryan ... 


it ••• 


2 


4 


6 


Do, 


Do. 


6th Sept. 


23rd Oct. 


No name 


>j ... 


2 


10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


19th Not 


}i ..t 


ft ••• 


1 


5 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


2l8t Sept. 


1st Nov. 


)) ... ••. 


»» •»• 


2 


5 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


17th fc'ept. 


Do. 


„ ... ••• 


#» ••» 


2 


8 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


Ist Oct. 


19th Nov. 




f> 


2 


7 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


25th Sept. 


2nd Nov, 


„ ... 


,, ... 


2 


6 


6 


Do. 


s°- 


20th Sept. 


Do. 


jf ... .»• 


» ... 


8 





7 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Sept. 


Do. 


jj ... ... 


„ ... 


2 


10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


27th Sept. 


Do. 


j> ••• »•• 


)» ••• 


3 





9 


Do. 


Do. 


26th Sept. 


19th Nov. 


M • • • t • . 


}> ... 


2 


5 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


25th Sept. 


2nd Nov. 


J, ... ... 


,, ... 


3 


1 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Sept. 


Do. 


Karanai sora (Bankral) 


„ ... 


2 


10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


27th Sept. 


19th Nov. 


KamalBhog 


a ••• 


3 





9 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct. 


Do. 


Bamsal 


,, ... 


3 


3 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


26th N )V. 


Mota Balanc 


Reddish. 


3 


2 


9 


Do, 


Do. 


6th Oct. 


19th Nov. 


Pankharas ..« 


White... 


3 


3 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


7th Oct. 


26th Nov. 


Bhoourh' sylhet 


}> ••• 


2 


10 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oct 


19th Nov. 


Lanimi Bhandar 


11 ••• 


2 


5 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Sept. 


Do. 


Bank Tulai 


>i ••• 


2 


5 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


26th Nor. 


Hoorie (heavier yield) 


s> ... 


2 


5 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Palnai Nabason 


Reddish. 


2 


9 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oct. 


l;9th Nor. 


Bankari 


,, ... 


3 


4 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


26th Nov. 


Yatukulma ... 


„ ••. 


2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Sept. 


2l8t Oct. 


MarichHhal 


White... 


2 


2 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oct. 


19th Nov. 


PatnaiBhoginal 


» «•. 


2 


4 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


Sylhet 


Reddish. 


2 


2 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


21st Nov, 


Kumrah Gorh 


White... 


2 


10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oct. 


Do. 


KamalBhog 


M ... 


2 


5 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


13th Oct. 


Do. 


HariMayee 


M ... 


1 


11 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Golap Saru ... 


}> ••• 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


Kusumsal ... 


)» ••« 


2 


6 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


14th Oct. 


Do. 


BadsbaBhoy 


„ ..1 


2 


11 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


13th Oct. 


Do. 


Ealam Kathee 


1) •• 


2 


6 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


17th Oct. 


27th Nor, 










• 











60 



No. 


Kame of Variety. 


Colour of 

stem. 


Final 

height. 


Length, 
of ear. 


Dato of 

Bowing. 


Date of 
transplant- 
ing. 


Date of 
flowering. 


1 

! Date of 
1 harvest- 
ing. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


\ 9 

i 








Ft. In. 


Inches. 










101 


Marich Fal 


White... 


2 10 


7 


30th May 


19th July 


H\i Oct. 


16Lh Nov 


102 


Dhulay Meti 


>i ••• 


2 6 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct. 


Do 


103 


Chaudan Sal 


>» ••• 


2 7 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


104 


Sagha Bitchi Patui ... 


Reddish. 


2 9 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


105 


Bagiui 


» ••• 


3 4 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


106 


Bamashal .*• 


White- 


3 5 


10 • 


Do. 


Do. 


8tli Oct. 


Do. 


107 


Nilkanth 


Blue ... 


2 10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct, 


Do. 


108 


Dadshal 


White . 


2 10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


26th Nov 


109 


Dhaleatalum 


>i ••• 


3 5 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


2l8t Nov 


110 


BanakchuT 


i) *•• 


3 2 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


Do. 


111 


K.almisal 


ii •.. 


2 10 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 




112 


B ona 


•> ••• 


2 9 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


Dojl 


113 


MadhuMalti 


j> .. 


2 7 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


Btb Oct. 


D^l 


114 


Mogi Balam 


« ... 


2 11 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


6th Oct. 


D^H 


1]5 


Nagra 


>) ... 


2 10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


D«| 


]16 


Marich Sal 


») ... 


2 10 


9 


Do, 


Do. 


nth Oct. 


Do^ 


117 


Hingcheyloga 


>» 


3 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


118 


BansGo^al 


>» ••• 


2 6 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


119 


Melesorh 


Reddish. 


2 5 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


26th. Aug. 


4th Oct. 


120 


BankChur 


White 


2 8 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


21st Noy 


121 


Panik Sal 


« ... 


2 7 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


nth Oct. 


Do, 


122 


Gonth 


>i ••* 


3 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


Do. 


123 


Dadhiynoun .. 


>> ... 


3 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Sept. 


Do. 


124 


Salayhat 


w 


2 11 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct. 


Do. 


125 


Sita Sal 


Reddish. 


2 6 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct. 


Do, 


126 


Candheswari 


White... 


2 7 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


127 


MantBhog 


» ••• 


3 4 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct, 


Do. 


128 


UtturiaSal 


» ••• 


3 3 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct. 


Do. 


129 


Kanak Chur 


}> ... 


2 10 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


8rd Oct. 


26th No\' 


180 


Lona 


i> •»■ 


2 10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


22nd No 


131 


Rupshal 


^ '*,. V 


2 10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct. 


Do. 


132 


Mahipat 


Reddish. 


2 7 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


Do, 


133 


Uthuriakhna 


y. 


3 2 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


Do. 


134 


Chiby 


White... 


2 3 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


135 


Kanakchur 


»t •«. 


a 6 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


Do. 


136 


Bolam 


.f ... 


3 8 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


2ud Oct. 


Do.J 


137 


Rupshal 


i> ••• 


3 5 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 




138 


Bankchur 


,. ... 


2 11 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


D^l 


139 


Karmonl 


>i ... 


2 7 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


6th Oct. 


Do^l 


140 


Rupsal 


„ ... 


3 4 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


Do. 1 


141 


Gayabahi 


1} ... 


3 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct. 


26th No^. 


142 


Katwhoby 


»i ••• 


2 11 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


22ud No^ 


143 


Avat 


}» •'« 


2 4 
2 8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Sept. 


2nd Nov. 


144 


Shankchpr 


)f ••• 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


ISth Oct. 
Tth Oct. 


^ st ec. 


145 


Bhankni 


„ ... 


3 6 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


22nd Not. 


146 


Kelny bankchur 


„ ... 


2 10 
2 6 

2 5 

3 2 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


25th Sept. 


2nd Not. 


L47 


Bankcmoti 


i» ••• 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


16th Oct. 


22nd Noi 


148 


Khijoor Chari 


it ••• 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


14th Oct. 


1st Dec. 


L49 


Dudkalma 


„ ... 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


18th Oct. 


26th Not. 


160 


Thara 


Reddish. 


8 6 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


i^2nd No\ 


151 


Goyabali 


White... 


2 10 
2 » 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


18th Oct. 


26th Nov 


162 


Sftbau ••• ^•• 


„ ... 


8 


• Do. 


Do. 


Do, 


Do. 













6i 










1 


i 
Name of Variety. | 


[Jolour of 
stem. 


Final 
height. 


1 

Length, 
of car. 


Date of 
sowing. 


Date of 

iransplint- 
ing. 


Date of 
flowering. 


Date of 
harvest- 
ing. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 








Ft. 


In 


! Inches. 

1 










153 


Bank Tulsi 


White... 


2 


10 


, 7 


30fch May. 


19th July. 


nth Oct. 


26th Nov. 


154 


Khijshkhani or Shit- 
ghhoga. 


» ••• 


2 


3 


5 

1 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


22nd Nov. 


155 


Katnianu 


)> ••• 


3 


2 


1 8 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


Do. 


150 


Kanakchur .. 


»» •••! 


2 


11 


\ 9 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct. 


27th Nov. 


157 


Patnai flong) 


jj ••» 


2 


6 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


22nd Nov. 


158 


Changoasal 


» ••• 


2 


10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Nov. 


150 


I'anlay 


Reddish. 


3 


3 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct. 


26ih Nov. 


IGO 


Sarobati 


White... 


2 


4 


1 6 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Nov. 


161 


Govind Bhoi 


>> • • 


2 


4 


■ 7 


Do. 


Do. 


15th Oct. 


Do. 


16-2 


Balam 


j> • *• 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


163 


Kamini Saru 


>5 ••• 


2 


1 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


164 


Badshalbhog 


» ••♦ 


2 


4 


1 5 


Do. 


Do. 


14th Oct. 


Do. 


165 


Yaniai Lara 


}y .. • 


2 


10 


i 7 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct„ 


Do. 


166 


Hati-Sal 


jj ... 


2 


7 


i 6 


Do. 


Do. 


32th Oct. 


Do. 


167 


Dadkhani 




2 


11 


i 8 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


26th Nov. 


168 


Kali Mane 


i1 ••• 


2 


2 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


Do. 


169 


Piprebank 


Reddish. 


2 


5 


1 6 


Do. 


Do. 


27th Aug. 


4 th Oct. 


170 


Oi-a 


White... 


3 





1 8 


Do. 


Do. 


13th Oct. 


26th Nov. 


171 


Kanakchur 


>> . .. 


2 


6 


1 6 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct. 


Do. 


172 


Ash Kill 


•t ..• 


2 


11 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


Do. 


173 


Jhiggu Sal 


Reddish. 


2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


Do. 


174 


Muoguray 


i* ... 


2 


3 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


175 


Khair Mori 


W^hite... 


2 


9 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


Do. 


176 


Lai Kalama 


Reddish. 


2 


10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


177 


Karbi llaugi 


White... 


2 


7 


' 5 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


Do. 


178 


Padshabhog ... 


a ■*• 


2 


3 


^ G 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


Do. 


179 


Sunder Mukhi 


%y . a. 


2 


10 


i 7 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


ISO 


Laxiui Kajal 




2 


11 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


35th Oct. 


Do. 


381 


Mow 


ty . .. 


2 


10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


18th Nov. 


182 


Anion 




2 


3 


' 6 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


183 


Mardu Kaj 


» ••• 


2 


8 


i ^ 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


Do. 


184 


Dhali 


" 


2 


10 


! 6 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


Do. 


185 


Bonbota 


' 


2 


10 


i. 7 


Do. 


Do. 


19th Sept. 


30th Oct. 


186 


"Khirshey bhog 




2 


8 


i 9 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


18th Nov. 


187 


PaddiShal 




3 


4 


i 9 


Do. 


Do. 


14th Oct. 


Do. 


188 


Horkul 


Reddish 


2 


7 


1 (3 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


189 


Gandhia Virajs 


„ •«. 


2 


5 


! 10 


Do. 


Do. 


6th Oct. 


Do. 


190 


Songra 


*5 " 


3 





i 9 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Occ 


26 th Nov. 


191 


Begum Bichy 


j» • • 


3 





i 9 


Do. 


• Do. 


4th Oct. 


18th Nov. 


192 


Bhathi Sal ... 




2 


10 


! 8 


Do. 


Do. 


15th Oct. 


Do. 


193 


Madan Mohan 


White!! 


3 





8 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


194 


Magau Shal 


Reddish 


. 3 


5 


U 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


196 


GandhaMalti 


White.. 


3 


1 


: 10 


Do. 


Do. 


14th Oct. 


Do. 


196 


Megi Rani 


5 • • 


3 


1 


! 7 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


26th Nov. 


197 


Pairanri 


Reddish 


3 


1 


i 9 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


18th Nov. 


198 


Randhani Pagal 


7| •• 


3 





! 9 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


Do. 


199 


Khepu 


1» ••• 


2 


10 


1 8 


Do. 


Do. 


loth Oct. 


Do. 


200 


Laximi Bilas 


White... 


3 


4 


; 8 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oct. 


Do. 


201 


Hingchug Loghu 


Red ... 


3 


5 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


Do. 


, 202 


Banafuti 


>> * •* 


3 


3 


' 8 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


203 


Lalkalraa 


Reddish 


3 


6 


1 9 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oct 


Do, 












I 





















62 










No. 


Name of Variety. 


i 

Colour oi 
stem. 


Final 
height. 


Length 
of ear. 


Date of 
sowing. 


Date of 

transplant 
iug. 


Date of 

flowering. 


Date of 
harvest- 
ing. 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 








Ft. 


In. 


Inches. 










204 


Karlick Rangi 


White.. 


3 





9 


30th May. 


19ih July. 


8th Oct. 


26th Nov. 


205 


Moulata ... 


» .. 


3 


5 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


206 


Parabat Rangi 


1) ••• 


2 


10 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


Do. 


207 


Yamai Lam 


»> • •* 


2 


9 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd J^opt. 


Do. 


208 


JHatmya Kuli 


,j ... 


3 


4 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


6ih Oct. 


Do. 


209 


KenlaSlial 


Reddish. 


2 


6 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


27th Nov. 


210 


Govind bhog 


(xreenish 


3 


4 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


Do. 


211 


Shamoti «.• 


White... 


2 


10 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


2nd Oct. 


Do. 


212 


Murara Sbati 


»> ••• 


1 2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


13th Oct. 


Do. m 


213 


Kalindi 


Reddish. 


3 


2 


G 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oct. 


Do. 1 


214 


Parabat Gira 


W^hio... 


2 


10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Oct. 


Do. 1 


215 


KaleGira 


it ... 


3 


9 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


Do. m 


216 


Horia Kbura 


fi ••» 


2 


7 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


7th Oct. 


Do. 1 


2J7 


Bans Mugoor 


„ ... 


2 


8 


1 5 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct. 


1st Dec. 


218 


Kala Moti 


Reddish. 


2 


11 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


27th Nor. 


219 


Kocho 


White... 


2 


6 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


11th Oct. 


Ist Dec. 


220 


Paramsal 


)> ... 


2 


4 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


27th Nov. 


221 


Alegi 


»» •«• 


2 


10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


14th Oct. 


1st Dec. 


222 


Durga Megi 


» ••• 


2 


6 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


223 


MalaBati 


» ••• 


2 


3 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


224 


Keley Bokrab 


)i ... 


2 


5 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


Do. 


225 


Pipniesbal ..• 


)t ••• 


2 





5 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Sept. 


2nd N'ov. . 


226 


Baldar 


Reddish. 


2 


8 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


9th Oct. 


27th Nov. 


227 


Longra 


White... 


2 


10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


12th Oct. 


Do. 


228 


Tat Mugoor 


}} ... 


2 


10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


13th Oct. 


1st Dec. 


229 


.vlahipal 


}« • •• 


3 


4 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


7th Oct. 


17th Nov. 


230 


Sowera 


Reddish. 


3 


2 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


22nd fc'ept. 


Do. 


231 


Gagameli ..* 


White... 


2 


11 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


Do. 


232 


Black Arabemohor 
Girga. 
Ambarsall 


Greenish 


2 


10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oct. 


Do. 


233 


White... 


3 


2 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


13th Oct. 


Do. 


234 


Lhaba Mugud 


a ••• 


3 


1 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


22ud Sept. 


3rd Oct. 


235 


Kotbimbir Sail 


>i ••• 


2 


10 


9 


Do. 


Do, 


10; h Sept. 


17th Nov. 


236 1 


Lhaba Mugud 


)» •• 


3 


2 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


25th bept. 


30th Oct. 


237 


Autu Sali 


Reddish. 


4 


5 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


4th b'ept. 


17th Nov. 


238 


White Ambemohor ... 


White... 


3 


9 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


13th Sept. 


Do. 


239 j 


Mal-dodga 


„ ... 


o 


10 


8 


Do, 


B?. 


9th bept. 


13th Oct. 



The rest of the Bengal varieties did not germinate. 



03 



The following statement gives similar notes for the 54 varieties 
this Presidency : — 



w 


Name of y8^riety. 


Colour of 
stem. 


Final 
height. 


Length 
of ear. 


Date of 
sowing. 


Date of 
transplant- 
ing. 


Date of 
flowering. 


Date of 
harvest- 
ing* 


1 


2 

I 


3 


4 


5 


6 


' 


8 


9 








Ft. 


In 


Inches. 










1 


7 Ambemohor Halva... 


White... 


2 


9 


6 


30th May 


21st July. 


29th Sept 


5th Nov. 


2 


9 Halva Ambemohor... 


jj ... 


3 





7 


D. ' 


Do. 


19th Sept 


Do. 


3 


20 Ambemohor Garva. 


» 


2 


7 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


16th Nov. 


4 


45 Ambemohor Lam- 
boda. 


» 


2 


10 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


25th Sept 


Do. 


5 


49 Amoemohor Botka.. 


}> ••• 


3 


2 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


23rd Sept. 


Do. 


C 


50 Konkani Garva ... 


>i ..• 


2 


10 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


6th Oct. 


Do. 


7 


51 Konkani Halva ... 


ff • .. 


2 


5 


7 


Do, 


Dc. 


18th feept. 


5th Nov. 


8 


54 Kamod 


JJ ... 


3 


4 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


26th Sept. 


16th Nov. 


9 


48 Konod 




2 


5 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


1st Oct. 


5th Nov. 


10 


12 Ghudya Suni Garva 


JJ ••• 


3 


5 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


26th b'ept 


Do. 


11 


18 Tulsia Suni Garva... 




2 


10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


19th Sept. 


23rd Oct. 


12 


25 Raj^wal Garva ... 




3 


2 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


30th Sept. 


5th Nov. 


13 


28 Bodka Garva 


J J ••• 


2 


10 


9 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct, 


Do. 


14 


6HalvaMahidi 




2 


3 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


2l8t Sept. 


24th Oct. 


15 


19 Garvi Patni 


Eed '.'.'. 


2 


8 


8 


Dj. 


Do. 


nth Oct. 


10th Nov. 


16 


17 Garva Dodka ... 




3 


4 


10 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


Do. 


17 


18 Mdlbha:t Halva ... 


JJ ■ • • 


2 


4 


5 


Do. 


23rd July, 


18th Sept. 


16th Nov. 


18 


26 Nirpunji Garva ... 


White... 


2 


5 


5 


Do. 


Do.' 


4th Oct. 


14th Nov. 


19 


18 Kachora Garva ... 


JJ . ■ • • 


2 


2 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


25th Sept. 


Do. 


£0 


44 Kdli S^l 


}j • • • 


2 


8 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


Do. 


21 


52 Chiman S;41 


}> •• ' 


2 


5 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


3rd Oct. 


Do. 


22 


42 Scil White 


JJ ' *• 


2 


6 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


29th Sept. 


24th Oct. 


23 


40 Dangi or Dinger ... 


Reddish. 


2 


7 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


19th Sept. 


7th Nov. 


24 


23 Ghosilwel Garva ... 


White... 


2 


10 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


25th Sept. 


Do. 


25 


4 GhosAwel 


)» " *• 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


6th Sept. 


15th Oct. 


26 


1 Tarn IrYil Halva ... 


ff ••» 


2 


7 


G 


Do. 


Do. 


17th b^ept. 


24th Oct. 


27 


22 Tavsal Garvi 




3 


1 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


2nd Oct. 


7th Nov. 


28 


53 T^mb Kudai 


JJ ••• 


3 





7 


Do. 


Do. 


17th Sept. 


24th Oct. 


29 


41Welchi 


Reddish. 


2 


8 


G 


Do. 


Do. 


7thfc-'ept. 


15th Oct. 


SO 


46 White Kolamba ... 


White... 


2 


U 


7 


Do. 


Do. 


2nd Oct. 


8th Nov. 


31 


^3Kamod Jiri Patni... 


Reddish. 


2 


2 


5 


D». 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


14th Nov. 


32 


30 Bih-ka Kolamba ... 


White... 


2 


6 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct. 


Do. 


83 


29 Zina Kolamba 


JJ ... 


1 


11 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


6th Oct. 


Do. 


34 


27 Mahadya Varangal 


JJ ••• 


2 


5 


G 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


8th Nov. 


35 


21 Sonwel Garva 


JJ > •« 


2 


2 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


14th Nov. 


36 


16 Barki Mahadi ... 


JJ ... 


2 


4 


5 


Do. 


Do. 


5th Oct. 


Do. 


37 


31 Dodka 


Red ... 


2 


5 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


10th Oct. 


13th Nov. 


38 


33 Kudurthi (Thana). . 


J J ••• 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


17th Sept. 


17th Oct. 


39 


47 Thin Paki Kadai ... 


White... 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


4th Oct. 


14th Oct. 


40 


3 Halvar Halva 


JJ ... 


2 


4 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


21st Sept. 


16th Nov. 


41 


5 Bhadas Halva ... 


jj ... 


2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


18th Sept. 


16th Oct. 


42 


10 Hal vi Patni 


JJ • •• 


2 


6 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


S3rd Sept. 


16th Nov. 


43 


11 Dodka Suni Garva... 


Red ... 


2 


7 


G 


Do. 


Do. 


16th Sept. 


14th Nov. 


44 


32 Dodka (Khadak- 

wdsla). 


>j ••• 


2 


8 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


17th Sept. 


17th Oct. 


45 


34 Patni (Thana) ... 


White... 


2 


10 


8 


Do. 


Do. 


21st Sept. 


24th Oct. 


46 


36 Torna (Thana) ... 


)t •«• 


2 


7 


6 


Do. 


Do. 


8th Sept. 


16th Oct. 


47 


39Bhura 


J) ... 


2 


8 


G 


Do. 


Do. 


17th Sept. 


24th Oct. 



64 



No. 


Name of Variety. 


Colour Final 
of stem. ; height. 

I 


Length 
of ear. 


Date of 
sowing, 

C 


Date of 

transplan. 

ting. 


Date of 
flowering. 


Date of 
harvest- 
ing. 


1 


2 


3 4 

i 


5 


7 


8 


9 


48 
49 

eo 

51 
52 
53 
54 


UHemdi 

15 Khdri Patni 
24 JAda Kolamba 

2 Mahddi 

35 Mahidi 

37 Rata 

SSMundaRtita 


Reddi.sh. 
Red ... 
White... 
Red ... 
Reddish. 

White.;; 


Ft. In. 

3 2 
3 1 

2 11 
2 4 
2 3 
2 4 
2 3 


Inches. 

7 
7 
8 
5 
6 
6 
7 


30th May. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


1 

23rd July. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 


23rd Sept. 
5th Oct. 
4th Oct. 
19th Sept. 
22nd Sept. 
10th Sept^ 
15th Sept. 


7th Nov. 

Do. 

Do. 
17th Oct. 
^th Oct. 
17th Oct. 
16th Nov. 



12. Pourfceen selected varieties of the Bombay rice were grown oi 
a little larger area (2 guntlias for each variety). The outturn resu' 
from field plots as well as from seed-beds are tabulated below : — 



i 









1 


Cost per acre. 


[ Outturn per acre. | 








S 






.31 


:2 


<? 


Name of Variety. 




Cost of 


Cost of cul- 
tivation in 


Total cost 






Total 


5 




o 

a 


raising 
.seedlings. 


the trans- 
planted 


of cultiva- 
tion, 


Grain. 


Straw. 


value of 
Outturn. 


f^ 


s 




2 




area. 










16 




Field plots. 




Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a. p. 


Rs. a, p. 


Lbs. 


Lb3. 


Bs. a. p. 




1 


BirkaMah^ya 




^ 






1,080 


1,400 


41 C 




2 


Garva Dodka 










1,040 


1,440 


40 




3 


Tamsdl Garvi 










800 


800 


29 2 




4 


Patni 










680 


1,280 


27 14 6 




6 


Mahddi ... 


^ 








840 


1,200 


32 8 




6 


KAWm ... 


^ 








1,040 


1.1?0 


38 5 3 




7 


Ambemhor Ldmboda ... 


be 








960 


1,400 


37 4 




8 


Zina Kolamha 


£3 
El 


37 13 8 


12 13 8 


50 11 4 


1,080 


1,280 


40 6 




9 


Dodka ... 


1 








020 


1,200 


35 0^ 




10 


Kamod Jiri Patni 


O 








800 


3,200 


31 4 a 




11 


Chiman Hdl 








1,000 


1,280 


37 14^ 




12 


Kamod ... 




1 






907 


1,067 


33 14 3 




13 


Tin Paki Kudai 










853 


1,013 


31 14 9 




14 


Ambemohor 










1,280 


1,440 


"'1 


14 




Seed-heds. 














1 


BdrkaMahddya 










2,000 


1,600 


70 13 ol 




2 


Garva Dodka 








1,440 


2,400 


57 8 ol 




3 


Tdmsdl Garvi 










1,600 


1,600 


58 5 ol 




4 


Patni 


4 








880 


1,760 i 36 10 G 




5 


MahAdi ... 


u 
bo 

a 








960 


1,760 . 39 2 6 




6 


K&liS^l ... 


.37 13 8 


3 3 5 


41 1 1 


1,600 


2,003 60 6 6 




7 


Ambemohor Lambcda... 









2,000 


2,560 1 75 13 3 




8 


Zina Kolamba 


1 








2,000 


1,600 1 70 13 




9 


Dodka ... 


Q 








1,520 


1.920 1 67 8 




10 


Kamod Jiri Patni 










1,3G0 


1,920 52 8 




11 


Chiman Sal 










1,680 


2,880 67 8 




12 f 


No seedlings remained 












; 




to 


after transplanting for 
















14 C 


these seed-bed plot.s. 


. 










[ 



65 

13. In the present season, weights (dry) were taken of 
the seedlings from differently treated plots. The statement 
>elow gives details : — 





Average weight of seedlings (in grammes) 


Treatment. 


in each of the triplicate plots. 




1 
A. B. 


c. 


Mean 
of all. 




Weight per plant. 




Safflower cake 

Ain rab 

Mixed branches nib 

Ashes of mixed branches rab 

Cowdung ploughed in ... 

Cowdung rdb 

Earth pulverised 

Earth heated 


0-4097 
0-0879 
0-2181 
0-0797 
0928 
0-2561 
0909 
0-3562 


0-4967 

0-1708 
0-1094 
0-0772 
0-3172 
00625 
0-2968 


... ' 0-4532 

... 1 0-0879 

01430 0-1778 

0-0954 0-2948 

0-0850 

0-2866 

01000 1 0-0845 

0-2276 0-2935 



In the case of the '^ earth heated " plot the soil was excavated 
to a depth of 3 inches, spread on iron sheets and heated from 
below to a temperature of between 200^ and 230° F. The soil 
was on the sheets for a period of about an hour before this 
temperature was reached. After cooling down it was replaced in 
the seed-beds. 

Probably neither the *' earth heated '* plot nor the rdbed 
plots did as well as they would ordinarily have done owing to the 
fact that the soil was moist, an unseasonable shower having 
fallen a few days before the date of burning. This undoubtedly 
prevented the earth in all cases being heated to so high a 
temperature as ordinarily. 



B 1005—9 



66 



Experiments off the Station. 

14. Experiments were continued as last year on cultivators* 
fields in Karjat, Kaly^n and Salsette Talukas. 



Name of the village and district. 


Number of 
plots. 


Area treated. 




Kola'ba District. 




' 


GiiQthas. 


Bhansoli 
Chincholi 


•'•| Taluka Karjat 
Tha'na District. 


...{ 


12 

19 


12 

28 


Maharal 

Kambe 

Kalve 


'•• I Taluka Kaly^n 
.!! Taluka Salsette 


••■{ 


18 

9 

21 


18 
18 



The selection of site was made in the month of May and th( 
plots were measured by the Circle Inspectors. 

15. The following varieties of rice were grown in the manured 



fields 



Name of place. 



Name of variety. 



Bhansoli 

Chincholi 

Maharal 

Kambe 

Kalve 






Kolamba and Ilalvi Patni. 
Podka and Kolamba. 



The manures were applied to the fields in the month of 
August — in Karjat on the 3rd ; in Kalyiln on the 8th and in 
Sdlsette on the 10th and 11th August. The seedlings were 
well established at the time of the application of the manure. 

Throughout the growth of the crop there was enough of 
rain, but was rather insufficient at the time of the formation 
of seed. 

The statement bolow shows the details. 



67 



anieof 
illage. 



isoli ... 



sliol .. 



Survej' 
No. 



Plot 
No. 



Pot 
No. 1. 



lOJ 

11) 



Name of rice 
variety tried. 



Kind of manure. 



Halvi-Patui 



Do. 



Do. 



Do 



{i 

t: 

,:!! - ■■■{; 



isj ^" 

"I 

loi 

20 j 

21 i 



lamb a- 
Garva 



1 



Do. 
Do. 

Do, 

Do. 
Do, 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 



Do. 
Do. 
Do, 



: ) 



' Karjat Series. 

Nitre 
Do. 
Chili Saltpetre 

Do. 
Suljjliate of Potash . 

Do. 
Superphosphate 
Do. 
I Safflower cake 
' Do. 

I No manure 
I Do. 
I 

Chili Saltpetre 
! Do. 

Sulphate of Potash 
j Do. 

{ Supei-phosphate 
Do. 

Safflower cake 
Do. 

No manure ,., 

Do. 

Nitre 

Chili Saltpetre 

Sulphate of Potash ... 

Snperphoephate ,. 

Ammonium Sulphate .. 

Safflower cake 

Sulphate of Potash ... 
Superphosphate 
Safflower cake 



No manure (in dupli- 
cate). 



Quantity 

of manure 

applied 

per acre, 



Value of 
manure. 


Outturn 


per acre. 


^Grain. 


Straw. 


7 


8 






Value of 
outturn. 



10 



Lis. 

500 
500 
192 
192 
C2 
62 
Gj 
65 
728 



192 
193 
62 
62 
65 
65 
728 
728 



500 
102 
62 
62 
lU 
7J 



C5 

728 



Rs. a. p. 


LbB. 


1 50 


2,C40 


i oO 


1,960 


1 21 13 5 


1,520 


1 21 15 6 


2,200 


i 5 8 


2,040 


5 8 


1,620 


5 8 4 


1.760 


5 8 4 


1,760 


1 24 4 3 


1.840 


24 4 3 


2,080 


i ■■■ 


2,C40 
^600 


' 21 15 5 


2,120 


•:i 15 5 


2,24a 


! 5 8 


2,C.00 


5 8 

K O A 


2,240 



I 5 8 4 

! 24 4 3 

24 4 3 



50 

j 21 15 5 

15 8 

j 5 S 4 

13 

24 4 3 



63 j 5 8 

I 



5 8 4 
24 4 3 



1,920 
2,320 
2,2S0 
2,160 
1,880 
2,000 
l,f80 
J, 860 
1,860 
1,860 
2,200 



2,S00 
1.840 
J. 780 



Lb8< Bs. a. p« 



3,040 i 

3,200 

2,400 

3,360 

3,250 

3,320 

2.560 

3,040 

2, .500 

3.210 ' 

3,160 

2,620 



51 14 2 
50 1 4 
38 12 4 
f.6 « 

52 1 4 
49 3 5 

44 11 4 

45 1 

46 9 7 

53 4 
52 2 
40 12 11 



3,120 
?,8C0 
3,240 
3,680 
3,000 
3,e60 
8,720 
3,600 
3,040 
3.280 
2,600 
2,520 
2.660 
2.520 
2,680 

2,700 



2,760 
2,640 
2,580 



66 11 4 
70 14 6 
63 2 10 
70 12 10 
60 14 2 
72 15 3 
72 10 

68 5 2 

69 6 S' 
63 3 i 
69 4 
58 5 7 
68 7 5 
58 5 7 
68 12 3 

••« 

68 3 7 



71 14 II 
fi7 13 5 

5 15 7 



68 



Name of i 


5uney 
No. 


Plot 
No. 


Name of rico 
raricty tried. 


Quantity | 
Kiudofxnanuvc. of^---| 
per acre. 


( 
Value of 
manure. " 


)utturn per acre. 


Value of 
outturn. 


Tillage. 


Grain. 


Straw. 


1 


' \ 


3 


4 


6 


" i 


7 


8 


9 


10 












LI)S. 


Re, a. p. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 










Kalya'n Series. 














r 


31 


Dodka-Gar\a ... 


Nitre 


5(0 


50 


2,080 


3,000 


53 5 3 






35 


Do. 


Chili Saltpetre 


192 


21 15 5 


1,920 


2,600 


50 12 ( 






36 


Do. 


Sulphate of Potash ... 


62 


6 8 


1.760 


2.320 


46 7 ] 






37 


Do. 


Supci-ijhosi)liate 


65 


5 8 4 


2,0C0 


2,400 


63 : 






38 


Do. 


Ammomum Sulphate ... 


141 


13 


3,040 


4.080 


feO 5 


Maharal ... 


42- 


39 


Do. 


Safflower cake 


728 


24 4 3 






... 


j 




Do. 


Sulphate of Potaeh ... 


02 


5 S 


3,000 


5,100 


95 11 




... 


Do. 


Supei phosphate 


63 


5 8 4 




... 


i 






40 


Do. 


Safllowcr cake 


728 


24 4 3 


2,240 


2,000 


.a| 




41 


Do. 


Poudrcttc 


5,0C0 


20 


2,000 


3,8C0 


"1 




. 


12 


Do. 


No inauuro 


- 


... 


2,080 


2,480 


.1 






43 


Kolamba-Garva. 


Nitre 


500 


50 


1,760 


2,920 


4,? 






44 


Do 


Chili faltpetre 


193 


21 15 5 


1,702 


3,000 


46 9 






43 


Do. 


Sulphate of Potash ... 


02 


5 8 


2,000 


2,920 


53 4 






46 


Do. 


Supcrphophate 


65 


5 8 4 


1,9:^0 


3,010 


51 8 






47 


Do. 


Aumionium Sulphate ... 


144 


13 


l,fOO 


3,020 


61 13 




n- 


48 




SafHowcr cake 


72S 


21 4 3 


1 










••» 


Sulphate of Potash" ... 


02 


5 8 


>-i,e20 

1 


3,280 


51 1|| 






... 


Supcrphosph.itc 


05 


5 8 4 


J 




J 






49 


Do. 


Safflower cake 


728 


24 4 3 


1,840 


3,080 


48 1^ 






50 


Do. 


Poudretle 


5,C0O 


20 


J,400 


2,320 


37 11 






61 


1 Do. 


No manure 


... 




1,800 


2,840 


48 4 






' 52 


Do. ... 


Nitre 


500 


50 


2.040 


3.020 


66 11 






53 


Do. 


Chili Saltpetre 


192 


21 15 5 


2,080 


2.460 


67 






61 


Do.- ,.. 


Sulphate of Potash ... 


62 


5 8 


1.740 


2,120 


56 4 






65 


Do. 


Superphosphate 


66 


5 8 4 


3,280 


4.080 


205 2; 






66 


Di 


Ammonium Sulphate'... 


144 


13 


2,880 


4.000 


93 9 


Kambe ... 


Alien- 
ated. 


57 


r 

[ 


Safflowcr cake 
Sulphate of Potash ... 


728 
62 


24 4 3 
5 8 


>-3.000 


3,780 


97 






... 


Superphosphate 


65 


6 8 4 










58 


Do. ... 


Safldowcr cake 


728 


24 4 3 


3,660 


6.080 


38 8 






59 


to. 


Poudrette 


5,<X»(> 


20 


2,680 


3.420 


86 9 


• 




. CO 


Do. 


No manure .« 


... 


... 


3,800 


3.200 


89 15: 



69 



Name of 
village. 



Survey 
No. 



Plot 
No. 



Name of rice 
variety tried. 



Kind of uiamire. 



Quantity 

of manure 

applied 

per acre. 



Value of 
manure. 



Outturn per acre. 



Grain. 



Straw. 



Value of 
outturn. 



10 



Kalve 



Halve 



Kalvc 



Pot 
No. 2 



172 -( 
Pot 

No. 1 



103 
Pot 
No. 8 



61 I Kolamba-Garva, 
63 I Do. 



67 



Eo. 
Do. 
l"o. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



70 , Dodka 

71 ! Do. 

72 ! Do. 



To. 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



79 J Kolamba 
I 

Do. 



81 



83 



84 



Do. 

Do. 
Do. 
Do. 



...-< 



Sa'lsette Series. 

Nitre 

Chili Saltpetre 

Sulphate of Potash 

Aniuioiiium Sulphiitc ... 

Superphosphate 

Safflower cake 

trulphate of Potash 

Superphosphate 

Safflower cako 

Poudrettc 

No manure 

Nitre 

Chili Saltpetre 

Sulphate of Potash 

Superphosphate 

Ammonium Sulphate 

Safflower cake 

Sulphate of Potash , . . 

Superphosphate 

Safflower cake 

Poudrettc 

No manure 

Superphosphate 
Ammonium Sulphate ... 
Safflower cake 
Sulphate of Potash ... 
Superphospliatc 
Safllower cake 
Poudrettc 
No manure 



Lbp. 


Bs.a. 


P. 


Lbs. 


501' 


50 





1,760 


192 


21 15 


5 


1,760 


62 


5 8 





1,8C0 


144 


13 





3,C40 


65 


5 8 


4 


2,C0J 


728 


24 4 


3 


j. 2,103 


63 


5 8 





63 


5 8 


4 


728 


21 4 


3 


2,0*00 


. 5,000 


20 





3,360 


. 


... 




1,840 


500 


50 





1,080 


192 


21 15 


5 


1,680 


62 


5 8 





1,760 


65 


5 8 


4 


2,080 


144 


13 





2,060 


728 


24 4 


3 


1 

J'2,C80 


62 


5 8 





63 


5 8 


4 


728 


24 4 


3 


1.P60 


5,000 


20 





3,209 


... 


.•• 




1,920 


05 


5 8 


4 


1,560 


144 


13 





1,800 


728 


24 4 


3 


^ 


63 


5 8 





). 1.760 


65 


5 8 


4 


J 


728 


24 4 


3 


1,760 


6,000 


20 





1,920 
1,600 



Lbs. 



2,4«0 
2,680 
2,800 
J, 980 
3,760 

3,440 

3,000 
4,920 
2,880 

2,i00 
2,600 
2,760 
2,840 
4,840 

3,410 

8,0CO 
4,680 



2,840 
3,040 

3,040 

3,080 
2,960 
2,720 



Rs. a. p. 



57 5 8 

67 11 

69 2 7 

ICO 3 2 

65 1 3 

71 10 

65 7 8 
110 12 11 

CO 7 

54 12 10 

55 3 2 

57 13 2 

67 10 4 
97 9 3 

68 10 4 

64 4 4 

104 9 6 
62 13 9 

58 3 1 

66 12 1 

66 6 1 

65 7 3 
70 11 9 

59 6 11 



B 1095—10 



70 

16. Karjai Series. — The yield of the duplicate plots is nearly 
equal to one another, while the outtuini takeu iu general averages 
from 1,700 to 2,300 lbs. of rice per acre. 

17. Kalydn Series. — The complete manure plot gives the 
highest outturn. The results of outturn are in favour of the 
poudrette and ammonium sulphate plots. In survey No, 74i the 
poudrette manure plot shows very low yield. In the alienated 
village the safflower cake and superphosphate plots show the best 
results. The yield in other plots is fair, 

18. Sdlsette Series, — The per acre results of rice in Survey 
Nos. 82 and 172 are in favour of poudrette and ammonium sulphate 
plots, while those of nitre, Chili saltpetre and sulphate of potash 
are comparable. The outturn from the safflower cake plot is 
moderate. The complete manure plot does not show any appreciable 
increase in yield. The increased yield in the unmanured plot may 
be due to the washing of manures from the adjoining plots. 
When the value of manures is taken into consideration the super- 
phosphate plot shows better results. The outturn in field No. 103 
is proportionately low as compared with the above fields. 

19. It is impossible to draw conclusions of any kind from 
these experiments, the variations between duplicate plots being 
often greater than between either of the plots and tho '' no-manure " 
plot. The plots are too small {-^s^cvq usually) and the difference 
in the water-supply probably produce a greater effect than 
differences in the manure applied. The figures are given for what 
they are worth. 

Foona, \ F. FLETCHEB, 

September 1907. ) Acting Professor of Agriculture. 



eOMSAY f rRTNTKD Af THB QOVERNVKST OFNTRAL PE£SS. 






iitpaitmcnt of Slgilrnlttirit, / aSomftaB^ 

ANNUAL IlEPOllT 

ON THE 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

SURAT AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(Surat District, Gujarat) 

FOR THE YEAK 

1906-1907 



BY 

F. FLETCHEK, M.A, I3.Sc, etc. 

Depulij Dir^'clor >/' Ar/r {culture. 



BOMBAY 
PraNTKI) AT THE (iOVI^RNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1007 



\_rrice — da. or 7(1.\ 



OFFICIAL AGENTS FOR THE SALE OF INDIAN OFFICIAL 
PUBLICATIONS. 

In England. 

E. A. Arnold, 41 & 48, Maddox Street, Bond Street, W., Loadon. 
Constable & Co., 10, Orange Street, Leicester Square, W. 0., London. 
Grindlay & Co., 54, Parliament Street, S. W., London. 
Henry S. King & Co., 65, Cornhill, E. C, London. 

P. S. King & Son, 2 & 4, Great Smith Street, Westminster, S.W., 

London. 
Kegan Paul, Trench, Trnbner & Co., 43, Gerrard Street, Soho, W., 

London. 

B. Quaritch, 11, Grafton Street, New Bond Street, W., London. 
T. Fisher Unwin, 1, Adelphi Terrace, London, W. C. 
W. Thacker & Co., 2, Creed Lane^ London, E. C. 
B. H. Blackwell, 50 & 51, Broad Street, Oxford. 
Deighton Bell & Co., Cambridge. 

On the Continent. 

Friedlander & Sohn, 11, Carlstrasse, Berlin. 

Rudolf Haupt, Ilalle-a-S., Germany. 

Ot£o Harrassowitz, Leipzig. 

Karl W. Hiersemann, Leipzig. 

Ernest Leroux, 28, Rue Bonapai-te, Paris. 

Martinus Nijhoflf, The Hague. 

In India, 

Higginbotham & Co., Madras. 

V. Kalyanarama Iyer & Co., Madras. 

p. R. Rama lyar & Co , Madras. 

Thacker, Spink & Co., Calcutta. 

W. Newman & Co., Calcutta. 

S. K. Lahiri & Co., Calcutta. 

R. Cambray & Co., Calcutta. 

Thacker & Co. (Ld.), Bombay. 

A. J. Combridge & Co., Bombay. 

Cnrator, Government Central Book Depot, Bombay. 

D. B. Taraporevala, Sons & Co., Bjmbay. 

Sunder Pandurang, Bookseller, etc., Bombay. 

Gopal Narayen & Co., Booksellers, eto-., Bombay. 

N. B. Mathur, N. K. H. Press, Allahabad. 






ilcpartmtnt of SlsvUultuit, J3omba|i. 



ANNUATi REPORT 

ON THK 

EXPERIMENTAL WORK 

OF THE 

SURAT AGRICULTURAL STATION 

(Surat l)istrict, Gujarat) 
FOR THE YEAR 

1906-190; 



BY 

h\ FLETCHEE, M.A., B.Sc, etc., 

Ve^utj^ Director of AgricuUure. 



« 



B O ]M B A Y 

PHINTED AT THE GOVERNMENT CENTRAL PRESS 

1907 



List of Vernacular names of crops mentioned in the Report together 
with their Botanical and English equivalents. 



Botanical. 


English. 


Vernacular. 


Cereals. 




• 




Aiidropogoii sorghum var. vulgave ... 

Do. var. cermium ... 
Peunisctum typhoideuai 
Triticnm eativum 
Zca re ays 
Uvyza sativa 


Great millet 

1 

Do. 

Bulrush millet 

Wheat 

jNfaizo 

1 i:ice 


Jowdr (Chapti, Perio, 

Sholapuri). 
Sundhia. 
Bdjri. 
Ghau. 
Makai. 
Ddngar. 


Pulses. 








Cajanus iudicus 
Phasiolus radiatus 
Vigna cat.i;i)ig 
C'yamopbis psoralioides 


... 


Pigeon pea 

l>lack gram. 

Chinese bean ... 

Field vetch 

Saidl beans 

• 


Tuver, Tur. 
Udid, Adad. 
Chavli, Chela. 
Guvar. 


Oil-seeds. 






- 


Scsamum indie urn 
Araehis hypogea 


... 


Scsamnm 
Grcnndnr.t 


Tal. 
Bhoising. 


Fibre Plants. 








Cossypium herbaceuni 
Crotolaria juncca 


*" i 
1 


Cot..on 
Bombay hemp 


Dcshi Kapas (Broach, Gho- 

ghari, etcj. 
San. 


Sugars. 








Saehharum otficinavum 


... 


t:;ui^ arcane 


Shcrdi. 


Grasses. 








Medicago sativa 
Panicum jumentorum 


• *s 


Lucerne 
Guinea grass 


La.sun Ghas. 


Miscellaneous. 








Zingiber oflicinalo 


... 


Ginger 

1 


Adc. 



£ 990— a 



THE SURAT AGRinuLTURAL STATION, 
1906 07. 



Esiahlished—lSdO ; North Latitude— 2^ \2' -, East Longitude 
— 72° 52'; Elemlion—A.^^voxim'^iiQ\y sea level; ^o«Z —Black 
cotton; Average rainfall — 38' 42'' ; Temperature — Maximum 106^ 
ia May, minimum 51° in February. 

Area.—Si acres arable and 150 acres pasture. 

Superintendent. — Mr. Bbimbliai Morarji Desai. 











Season. 




















? 




>% 

"S 


= 
^ 


.a 

a 
1* 


1 


1 
5 


1 
S 




i 


i 


i 




■< 


^- 


hs 


•-s 


-^ 


CO 


d 


sz; 


« 


-," 


fc^ 


S 


^ 


Rainfall- 






1 II ' II 


' // 


1 II 


' « 












/ <r 


(1906-07) 


... 


... 


10 G 10 51 


7 89 


1 61 


10 












30 17 












» H 


' // 


' // 


' /■/ 


' // 


' // 


» // 


' df 


' u 


Arerage « 


7 


5 


7 c5 


17 33 


G77 


5 6 


1 18 


17 


5 


6 


12 


1 


33 43 


Tempernture (l?C6-07; — 




























Mean maximum ... 


104" 


98» 


yi» 


87° 


85° 


92^ 


94° 


93° 


83° 


89° 


81° 


94° 




Mean minimum 


70° 


SCO 


89° 


73° 


7G° 


76' 


71° 


65° 


or 


6j« 


es' 


68° 





2. In February a little abnormal rain fell vrluoli did neither 
good nor harm. The monsoon burst favourably oq the 9th June but 
the season was on the whole unfavourable. With the exception of 
a few days, there was rain almost every day till the end of the 
month. General sowing was, therefore, delayed till the first week 
of July. During this period, weeds grew unchecked and there 
was no time left for preparing the fields before sowing. 

Weeding and interculturing operations were very much in- 
terrupted by continuous rains in July from the beginning of the 
second week till the end of the month. A very short time was 
therefore available for kharif sowings, which, together with the 
fact that the heavy rains had encouraged a vigorous growth of 
weeds, prevented many fields from being sown. Owing to too 
much moisture the crops assumed a yellow appearance and many 
of the germinating plants di'fd, so that some fields had either to be 
re-sown or the blanks in them filled up by dibbling seed. 

Similarly in nearly the whole of August and the first half of 
September there was more or less rain abiaost every day, thus 
seriously interrupting weeding and .other agricultural operations 

■& 930—1 



2 

and favouring the growth of weeds. Thus this very long wet 
weather made tlie plants moisture-sick, retarded the growth 
hadly and turned them yellow. The total rainfall was only 
about f ths of the average, but the number of rainy days was 
perhaps unprecedented. Theraius stopped abruptly iuthe middle 
of September. Want of labour was then badly felt because all 
agricultural operations including weeding, interculturing and 
preparing land for winter sowing came on simultaneously. 

Owing to the absence of rain in the latter half of September 
and early half of Octobei' both the kharif and rabi crops (espe- 
cially cotton) suffered to a greater or less extent throughout the 
district except in the eastern portion of the Mdndvi, Bardoli and 
Jalalpor Tdlukas. The rice crop was in most cases below 
normal. 

Manurial Experiments. 

3. The experiments were laid out with a view to see whether 
costly artificial manures such as nitre, sodium nitrate, ainmoniu 
sulphate, etc«, could be profitably applied to such dry crops a 
cotton, Jowdr, Tuver and Tal, &c. Owing to abnormal season 
of the previous years no practical conclusions had hitherto bee 
possible. 

This year, too, on account of want of one rain towards the 
close of the monsoon, the cotton crop suffered from want of 
moisture and failed to give a normal yield, But the crops of 
Jowa^r, Tal and Tuver gave a fairly normal yield. 

The results were as follows :— 



er 

I 









P4 

eS 



^ 







to 


O 


V< 


oo 






tS 


o 


o 


\fi 


CO 


o 


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o 


o 


QO 


o 


o 


h5 


CO 


CO 


r-t 


<N 


CO 






e 


^ 


«> 


-^ 


% 






*^ 


CO 


CO 


CO 


e^^ 


« 


m 


-^S 


>H CO 

CO 


on 




^8 ^ 




3 




CO 




f-T 


o^ 



♦5« 



s 







«l 


e? 


«4 


«* 


<3':j 


a 


s 


>-?oo 




^28 


^^^ 


^S 


c3 


■* 


<M 




CO 




O 


1-? 


r^ 











.J 




s 


S 


o 


g 


^^ 


^ 


^^ 


S- 


CO* 


r-T 




CO 


N 


w 




« 


tO 


« 


IS 


«> 


^^ 






>H 


>N 


>s 


>*1 


>H 


>s 







•"s 




^ 


>S -M 


.2 






00 


O 








r-l 


»H 


o 


g 

O 


-^ 




lO 


T? 


« 


)-3 




r-l 


rH 


tH 



CD 
Ci 



CO 



»-5 



»fS CO 

«o 



CO 

00 

00 



^ 



w 



^ 



e CO 



»o 

CO 

<i CO 



(M r-l 

to T}i 

^SCI « CO 



c CO 



, CO 



« « 

05 «H 









'd 






.a 

00 

o 

-a 



p4 

CO 

+ 



5»> 



4 

Each of the 36 plots was } acre in area. 

Of the G cotton plots, the first three which were better 
established than the other three, gave superior returns. The 
superphosphate + sodium nitrate gave the best results. Unlike in 
the previous years of scant rainfall, the no-manure plots yielded 
less than any of the manured plots (except the sodium nitrate 
plot). The sodium nitrate plot has throughout not done so well 
as the other manured plots, but the results might have been 
changed to some extent with sujOBioient rain. A normal rainfall 
would doubtless have enhanced the increase due to the artificials. 

The results duo to these manures are more marked in the 
case of Jo war than cotton. With one more rain the yield would 
have been still better. The application of sodium nitrate in 
conjunction with superphosphate has increased the yield of grain 
by about 25 per cent, and practically doubled the yield of Kadbi, 

The Tuver crop w^as greatly damaged by hares and deer and] 
practically no grain was obtained and hence the results are omitted. 
Tlie experiments will be continued next year. 

The increments duo to each of the manures and the cosfcl 
thereof are given in the following statement. 



i 











p. 00 


o 


a 


"* 


CO 


'^ 








J 




















ca 


ej iH 


rH 


-* 


(M 


CO 


-«}< 








o 
u 




rH 




rH 












Pli 


4 t 


O 


Tt* 


*> 


eo 


<M 












t-t 




rH 


1-{ 




V 1 


& M 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 


CO 








« "S "^ .2 


a o 


CO 


C^l 


CO 


CO 


CO 




H 








rH 


»H 












^§1^ 


« S 


I-- 

iH 


a 


I-* 

i-H 








eoo S 


s, t- 


O 


o 


1- 


OJ 


t^ 








ill 


eJ t- 


o 


tH 


t~-* 


lO 


^ 








<?% 


^=2 t- 


I-' 


-♦< 


lO 


r-i 


o 








K CI 


M 


C> 


(M 


CO 


CO 










P, O 


i> 


o 


lO 


o 


CO 








4-» 




















CC3 
O 


cS O 


O 


(M 


CO 


t-i 


r-i 
















f-1 


rH 








P^ 


^ 2 


CO 


ei 


o 


o 


CQ 


< 








CO 


CO 


CO 


CQ 


r-t 




m • 


Ph -• 


iH 


o 


t-( 


rH 


rH 


(4 

i2 


is 
. o 




cost of 

cultiva 

tion. 


a O 


-* 


C5 








1 

P-f 


1 


cl 


tH 


(N 


<N 


(M 


l~ 


1 A\erage 
1 value of 

produce. 

1 


P. -H 


00 


^ 


o 


04 


■* 






rt o 


r? 


UO 


rH 


i-O 


lO 




,' 


«• s 


T-l 

8 


»o 


s 


rH 
CO 


o 








""p; CO ■" 


!>• 


-* 


rH 


rH 


C-l 








-w 




















c(3 


c3 >0 


CO 


o 


CO 


o 


,_, 












iH 




rH 






1 




Ph 


« »- 


r-t 


o 

I-l 


rH 


1-t 


rH 






a. p. 
13 9 


CS 

r-4 


CO 

o 


CS 

1—1 


Ci 

rH 


Ci 

rH 




a 




> O 3 ^J 


^ ;^ 


§5 


10 


CO 


CO 


CO 
C4 




««Hi 


A o 


"* 


s 


O 


g 










§ p| 


« t^ 


o 


o 

l-H 


^ 


r->. 
rH 


<M 








^Is. 


Ph rji 


g 


^ 


CO 


00 

CO 


1.0 

CO 








o 


o 




o 


o 


O 








p^ 
















(M 


o 




o 


O 


O 






es --1 




I 










ai 




2 *^ 


l> 




l> 


t^ 


i> 


1 


1 










i 




1 




^. 




g ^ 






i 


w 

^ 


LO 




«H 




rl 






rH 




^ 




O 




i i 






i 


O 






a 
'>4 




1^-4 


i 


o 


1 


CO 


i 








« s 


o 




J2 


•3 


':3 








s -a 


s 


1 


s 


V 


1 








1 I 


1 


o 


_a 


9t 


M 

,* 










CC VJ 


"A 


}^ 


W2 


Q 


PC4 



El 



600 



M, 



7^ *« 



2 13 



CO w 

5< <?< 



.2«^ 
'^^ 

OiP^ 

o.S 

«^ 

p<«> 

C a 
U 'J 

m ^ 

P4 H 



S3 



«oE> 

8 cK 



6 



4. The experiments to test the effect of gypsum with farm- 
yard manure and no manure on Jowar, cotton and Tal plus 
Tuver were also continued in the year under report. The results 
were as tabulated below :~ 





Yield per acre. 








Tal and Tuver mixed. 


Manure applied per acre. 




Jowiir. 






Cotton. 


Tal. 


Tuver. 




in feed. 










Grain. 


Kadbi. 


Grain. 


Stalks. 


Grain. 


stalks. 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


LbP. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbi?. 




* 


2 


oa 




2, 


7 a 




Cypsuni, 2.000 lbs. 


3£1 


1,039 


1,597 


199 


457 


4^' 


31 






2 


56 




2 


7& 




No mancre 


351 


1,063 


1.529 


175 


473 


3 


35 






2 


c 






7c 




Farm yard manure, 5 tons ... 


291 


1,115 


1.795 


139 


454 


n- 


33 



* Average yield of plots 20 and '.8, 

In the case of Jowi^r, the farmyard manure plot has yielded 
a little Letter than either the gypsum or no manure plot. The 
plot gave similar results last year with cotton. 

In the case of cotton and Tal plus Tuver, the gypsum plots 
have yielded best, and the farmyard manure plots the worst 
just in the same way as these plots did with Jowar and Tuver last I 
year. The difference in yield might possibly be due to the 
reasons given last year at the end of paragraph 4. The following 
sketches show the plan of these experiments : — 

Experiments in 1905-06, 





B r 


Plot 26 

B 
a c h C t t 


A 

on. S 




c 

" c 


" Hot 29 

o 

B 

"u V 




^A 
r. 


« 

" c 

a 

JowAr 


a Plot 27 

2 B 

and Tuver 

o 


mixed. 


C 

Tal 


Plot 28 

B 

and Tuver 


O 

A 

mixed. 





Experiments in 1906-07, 








Plot 25 








c 


B 


A 






J 


6 , 
w Ji 


r. 


E 




a 

a 
g 


c 

B r 


** Plot 2G 

B 

a c h C t t 


A 

n. 


3 






rt Plot 27 


C 


a 


c 

Tal 


a B 

and Tuver 

o 


A 

mixed. 


>> 






Plot 28 




O 




C 


B 


A 






B r 


a h C t t 1 n. 


_ 



5, A plot of Jowiir of 30 guntlias manurod with superphos- 
pliato ol: lime at the rate of 400 lbs. per acre yielded only 771 lbs. 
14 ozs, of grain, which could not pay the extra cost of manure; 
the yield being only equal to the ordinary yield of a good 
cultivator. This plot grow cotton last year and was manured 
with the same manure. 



6. Night'soil Experiments of previous years. — The plots, as 
re-arranged last year, Avere sown with selected seed of Perio Jowdr 
and Bazar Jowar in rotation with the cotton sown last year 
without further application of manure, 

The results are tabulated below : — 











Yield per aore. 






• 


Plot 32. 


Plot 33. 


Plot 31. 




Sub- 
livision 












Maaure applied. 
















of 


X 


Y 


X 


Y 


X 


r 




Plot. 


















Perio 


Perio 


Perio 


Perio 


Perio 


redo 






Jowdr 


Jowar 


Jowir 


Jowir 


Jaw^r 


Jowiir 






relccted 


bazSr 


selected 


bazar 


selected 


bazar 






soed. 


seed. 


seed. 


seed. 


seed. 


seed. 






Lb3. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lis, 


Night-3oiI applied in beds in 1904, 
b.t no m.inure since 


IaI 


G, 627 
C. 310 


1,232 
256 


1,237 
3^8 


1,525 
339 


1,153 

292 


1.25d 
301 


) I 


K. 5,016 


2,608 


5.1^61 


3,416 


3.12 1 


2.512 


No manure in 1904, bub 20 loads of faitix 
yard man-re applied in 1905 1) na-ike 
it even vsritu other plots, no manure 
8^»<--e 


) ( 


G. 768 
C. 269 
K. 1,322 


755> 
176 

1.200 


852 

235 

1,305 


R83 
160 
980 


692 

177 

1,153 


669 

14i 

1,115 


Farmyard manure applied in 1901 but ) p ( 


G. 1,003 
0. 803 ■ 


934 

208 


85-1 
209 


a38 
2.59 


961 
227 


909 
256 


lio,ie Since ,,. , ... ( j 


K. 1,827 


1,60 J 


1.5J6 


1.313 


1,6 J7 


1,818 


Nlnht'soil applied in trenches nad* by ) ( 


G. 1,302 


1,277 


1,114 


1,53) 


1.231 


1,502 


T. W, plou:,'h in lOOi, but no manure > D < 


C. 339 


307 


307 


320 


307 


374 


since ' " ... |J \ 

i 


K. 4.377 


2,905 


3,885 


2,803 


2,969 


3,410 



G. = Grain j C. « Chaff ; K. = Kadbi. 

Note.— A, B, C. D reprcsJut sub-divisions of plots acoordin<ir to the manorial treatment, while X and Y represent 
the sub-divisioiis of the plots according to the seed sown; the latter sub-division is made at right angles to the 
former. 

Prom the abDve statement it will be seen from the weight of 
the Kadbi and chaff that the crops grown on the plots treated with 
night-soil still continue to grow more vigorously and give much 
better outturns except in the caso of plot 32 where it is only 
927 lbs. ; this is due to want o£ moisture. 

That the results of Bazar seed are better than those of 
Earm selected seed is due to the impossibility of obtaining an even 
stand of plants owing to the character of the season. The Bazar 
seed plots had to be resown while blanks in the selected seed 



8 



plots could, owing to lack of surplus seed, only be filled in by 
transplantation. It was observed that transplanted plants m 
the no-manure and farmyard manure plots did not fall behind 
the original plants grown from seed, but this was not so in the 
case of the night-soil plots where the originally sown plants 
grew very vigorously and far outstripped those which were trans- 
planted. 

It is noticeable in some eases in plots treated with night- 
soil, that the proportion of Kadbi to grain increases enormously. 
This was mainly due to the deficiency of one rain at the end of 
the season ; a very forcing manure promotes quick and vigorous 
growth of the crop and requires therefore more moisture than 
ordinary manure for its full benefit to be felt. Lastly, the effect 
of a heavy application of night-soil and farmyard manure is 
greater in the 3rd year after its application than in the first or 2nd 
year as will be seen from the fact that the plots which received 
these in 1904i did better than those which got them in 1905. 

From this and last year's results and those of one or two 
favourable seasons to come, it will be possible, it is hoped, to 
suggest a practicable and profitable method of applying fresh 
night-soil to ordinary dry crops even though the application 
involves fallowing for a season. 

7. Another set of manurial experiments on cotton and 
Jowdr with rotted cactus manure and farmyard manure gave 
the following results : — 





Yield per acre. 


Manure applied per acre. 


Cotton. 


Jowar. 




Grain. 


Kadbi. 


Rotted cactus 5 tons 

No manure 

Farmyard manure 5 tons ... 


Lbs. 

15 
122 

16 

177 

169 


Lbs. 

C 16 

1,7G0 

D 16 
1,480 

B 17 
3,640 


Lbs. 

B 

3,612 

A 

3,278 

A 

3,580 



^■OTB.— The figures and letters in italics show the plots and their sub-divisionB. 

In the case of cotton, the no-manure plot has given better 
results than either of the manured plots and the farmyard 
manure plot yielded better than the rotted cactus manure plot. 



I 



9 



But in the caso of Jowar, the results are (Ufterent ; rotted cactus 
manure yielded the highest and farm yard manure gave hetter 
results than the no manure plot. 

This year the rainfall was not deficient for a Jowiir crop 
except in the ease of the night-soil plot, but it was so for 
cotton. 

The rotted cactus manure was made from fresh cactus cut 
and buried in a pit for a full year. The total cost of lal)our for 
making a ton of rotted manure camo to Rs. 2-2-0, L ^., very nearly 
the same price as that of farm yard manure near, a big town or 
where cultivators know the value of manure well and pay a good 
price. But in country districts where farm yard manure can be 
had cheaply, say about Re. 1 a ton, the cactus manure will be 
dearer. 

The plots under these manures will be continued this year 
to see the after effects of the manures without adding any fresh 
supplies. 

8. Another manurial experiment on a crop of cotton with 
ammonium sulphate versus no manure gave the following 
results : — 





Area. 


Crop. 


Per r.cre. 




No. of 
plot. 




YicUl of 


Remarks. 




Manure. 


Seed 
cotton. 


Stalks . 




30 
31 


1 


Broach cotton 
Do. 


Ammonium sulphate 

lOOlbs. 
No manure 


Lbs. 

202 

187 


Lbs, 

770 On aecomit of want of rain 
the result is not conclnsive. 
950 



9. Plots 38« and SSb which grew Broach Deshi cotton 
and Perio Jowar respectively were manured with ammonium 
sulphate for comparison with other plots getting artificial manures, 
but the yield of cotton was only 164j lbs. even less than in other 
artificial manure plots and the yield of Jowar is 1,313 lbs. of grain 
and 3,682 lbs. of Kadbi which is nearly equal to other artificial 
manure plots. 

Rotation and manurial experiments. 

10. As noted in last year's report the old cropping scheme 
of the permanent series of experiments (in old Panas area) was 
abandoned. Series I was sown throughout with Jowar, while 
Series II was sown throughout with cotton except the first four 
plots, half of each of which was treated differently and the yield 

B 990-2 



10 



i)i these plots was therefore calculated on half then' area. Simi- 
larly in the year under report Series I was cropped throughout 
with coltou and Series II with Jowar except in the case of plots 
1, 2, 11, 14, 24i and 25, the northern halves of which were treated 
differently ; and hencQ the results of these plots are calculated 
from the yield obtained on their southern halves. 

No manure was given to any of the plots. The plots were 
all even and uniform in growth. 

Cotton suffered from want of moisture on account of scant 
rain. It also suffered from * Dahido,' a mite (Phytoptus). 

The results are tabulated below but the review is published 
scjiarately : — 

Series I (Cottoa). 









j 


Yield per acre. 




Serial 




No. of 


Crops of tlie ! 
rotation. [ 

1 
1 






Previous niftnurial J 


letter of 
rotation. 


plot. 


Secd-cotton. 


stalks. 












Lbs. ! 


Lbs. 


n 


B 




1 
2 
3 
4 


Jowar 

Cotton 

Jowar and Tuvei 

Cotton 


284 : 

313 i 

314 1 
318 


076 
1,152 
1,060 

980 


J 5 tons of farm yard 
> manure to eaeli 
1 plot every 2 years . 






5 


Jowdr 


301 


1,084 


1 


C 




C 


Tuver 


320 


860 


1 






7 


Cotton 


363 


1,072 








8 


Jowdr 


296 


962 




D 


9 


Fallow 


326 


9C0 






10 


Cotton 


334 


960 








n 


Jowdr 


628 


2,704 


5 tons of farm yard 


E 




12 


Fallow 


Fal 


low. 


y manure to each 






13 


Cotton 


490 


1,356 


plot every 3 years. 






f 14 


Jow^r 


533 


, 2,648 




V 


15 


Fallow 


Fal 


low. 








16 


Cotton 


457 


1 1,392 








1 17 


Jowdr 


2.55 


880 




G 




18 


Fallow 


22G 


800 








19 


Cotton 


278 


860 








20 


Jowdr 


251 


836 


'j 500 lbs. of castor 


H 


! 








V cake to each plot 




! 21 


Cotton 


247 


736 


j every 2 years. 






i 22 


JowAr 


272 


j 960 


\ 5 tons of poudrette 
J- to each plot every 
j 2 years. 


I 




] 

i 




i 








1 23 


Cotton 


252 


1,028 


J 




' 24 
25 

i 


Jowar 
Cotton 


252 
437 


! 680 
i 976 


i No manure. 



I 



11 

Series II (Jo war). 



b'crial 
Icltcr of 
rotation. 



B 



H 



No. of 
plot. 



^ { 



1 






Crop of llio 
rotation. 



Yield per acre. 



Grain, 



Kadbi and 
chaff. 



rrcvioub maunriar 
trcatuicut. 



I 
Jo war 
Cotton 
Jo war 
Tuver 
4 Cotton 



5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 

11 
12 
13 

U 
15 
16 

17 
18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

28 

24 
25 



JoWcir 
Tuver 
Cotton 
Jov/ar 
Fallow- 
Cotton 

Jow^r 
Fallow 
Cotton 

Jowar 
Fallow 
Cotton 

Jowar 
Fallow 

Cotton 

Jowar 
Cotton 
Jowar 

Cotton 

Jowar 
Cotton 



and 



••• 
••t 



Lbs. 
1,112 
1,190 
1,371 

1,487 

1,^44 
1,432 
1,496 
1,332 
1,316 
1,532 

1,764 

Fal 
1,754 

1,826 
Fal 

1,799 

1,394 
1,250 
1,059 

1,304 

1,324 

1,710 

1,745 

962 
1,171 



Lbs. 
2,239 
2,208 
3,259 



\^ 



I 5 tons of farm yard 
y manure to each 



3,383 J 



plot every 2 years. 



low 



3,540 

2,872 
3,376 
3,520 
2,876 
4,428 

4,453 

V, ■ 
4,400 



j 5 tons of farm yard 
manure to each 
plot every 3 years. 



I 

r 

J 



4.245 



low, 



4,403 

3,442 

2,877 
3,902 

2,948 

3,192 

3,793 

3,770 

1,908 
2,598 



5 tons of farm yard 
> manure to each 
plot every 3 years. 



500 lbs. of castor 
cake to each plot 
every 2 years. 

5 tons of pondrettc 
to each plot every 
2 years. 

No manure. 



11. A new manurial experimental series with its duplicate 
was laid out in the newly acquired area of Bhafchar in order to avoid 
the end error as already pointed out in the report for 1904-05 and 
further confirmed last year by taking the yields of each row or a 



12 



set of rows of eacli plot separately. The plots were made broader 
and shorter than the old series. Even this precaution was found 
insufficient and the whole series b.as this year been recast, each 
plot being protected from external influence by a protective ring 
plot 6' wide surrounding it. As the area was altogether a new 
one acquired only just before the rains, no manures were applied 
and no other treatment was given to the plots, but as was 
expected the yields differ in several cases owing probably to the 
previous cropping and treatment of the owners. The results are 
given below as showing what a good cultivator would have got 
from this land in its present condition and as indicating also the 
large diflPerences in yield of various crops within a small area 
and the consequent difficulty that must always be met Avith in 
attempting to ascertain the average state of a crop in a district, 
in a taluka or even in a village. 



Serial No^ 

of 
rotation. 



I 

11 

III 

IV 



'•{ 



Yll| 
VIII { 



No. of 
plot. 



1 
2 
3 
4 
.5 
6 

7 
8 


10 

11 
12 

13 
14 



Crop. 



Cotton 

Jowjir 

Tuver 

Tal 

Cotton 

Jowflr 

Cotton 
Jowar 

Cotton 
Jowfir 

Cotton 
Tuvcr 

Cotton 
Tal 



15 I Cotton 
j^f Jowar 
( ' Tuvcr 



lsc<v Scries I. 



New J ones II. 



Yield per acre. 



Grain. 



L1)S. 

279 
86 J 
464 



stalks and 
cbaff. 



910 
2,950 
3,414 



Did not g- erniinate. 
I 1.040 



186 
1,565 

151 
1,520 

175 
1,418 

116 
260 

183 
227 

108 
800 



'6860 

620 
3,470 

585 
3,396 

595 
1,083 

770 
460 

670 
2,040 

304 



Yickl 



pel 





stalks and 


Grain. 

Lbs. 


cbafF. 


Lbs. 


93 


790 


970 


2,400 


273 


1,300 


107 


230 


155 


840 


1,070 


2,380 


134 


650 


1,130 


2,520 


152 


1,090 


1,080 


2,510 


208 


870 


see 


1,090 


264 


980 


191 


495 


197 


8:o 


760 


1,810 


27 


131 



13 



1 


• No. of 

plot. 


Crop. 


New Series I. 


New Scries II. 


leHal^Kc 


Yield per acre. 


Yield per acre. 


I rotation. 






1 








Grain. 


stalks and 
chaff. 


Grain. i^^J^^-^O 




1 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. ; Lbs. 


XI 


[1 17 


Jowitr 


977 


2,738 


810 


2,240 


18 


Tuver 


288 


1,166 


210 


780 


( 


H 19 


JowiCr ... 


1,117 


2,921 


740 


2,260 


XII < 


20 


Tal 


205 


416 


182 


397 


l 


^ 21.^ 

r i 

L| 22 


Jowar 


903 


2,471 


860 


2,290 


XIII < 


Tuvcr 


27 


86 


3 


41 


Tal 


214 


4,355 


219 


480 


XIV- 


ri 28 


Tuvcr 


369 


1,392 


261 020 


L; 24 


Tal 


175 


369 


235 


580 




r! 25 


Cotton 


314 


960 


273 


800 




1 26 


Fallow 


Fall 


ow. 


Fall 


ow. 


XV- 


1 27 


Cotton 


275 


980 


248 


960 




! 28 


Do. 


160 


1,020 


160 


770 




29 


Do. 


182 


830 


206 


690 




r' 30 


Jowar ... 


1,227 


2948 


1,480 


3,710 




i ^^ 


Fallow 


Fall 


ow. 


Fall 


ow. 


XVI^ 


1 32 


Jow^r 


1,123 


2,947 


1,350 


3,150 




1 33 


Do. 


820 


2,200 


1,330 


2,580 




^ 34 


Do. 


726 


2,183 


1,830 


3,220 




\ 35 


Tuvcr 


435 


1,381 


374 


1,400 




j 36 


Fallow 


Fall 


ow. 


Fall 


ow. 


XVII^ 


' 37 


Tuver 


333 


1,266 


261 


1,240 




1 ; 38 


Do. 


216 


1,036 


112 


1,070 




i; 39 


Do. 


275 


1,293 


192 


1,100 




ri 40 


Tal 


261 


512 


149 


507 


XVIII^ 


i 41 


Fallow •.. 


Fall 


ow. 


Fall 


ow. 


1 42 


Tal 


240 


542 


271 


677 




43 


Do. 


234 


501 


271 


612 




44 


Do. 


212 


468 


223 


535 


XIX- 


r 45 

t 46 


Cotton 


238 


700 


169 


760 


Jowar 


1,030 


3,310 


1,260 


3,220 


XX 


f 47 


Cotton 


112 


770 


103 


960 


i 48 


Jowar 


1,050 


3,100 


1,160 


3,160 



14 



' 






New Scries I, 


New S 


rrics II, 


Serial Ko. , 


\o of 




Yield per acre. 


Yield per acre. 


of 


plot. 


Crop. 










rotation. 










i 

i 






Grain. 


stalks and 
chaff. 


Grain. 


b'talka and 
chaff. 


1 




• 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Lbs. 


r 


49 


Cotton 


no 


980 


114 


740 


XXI -^ 


50 1 


Jow^r 


1,200 


2,830 


1,320 


3,240 


1 


Tuver 


24 


129 


2 


27 




51 


Cotton 


1133 


780 


■•• 




XXII 1 


52 


Jowar 


1,300 


3,100 




... 


XXIII 1 


53 


Cotton 


111 


760 






54 


Jow^r 


1,180 


2,810 






XXIV [ 


55 


Cotton 


110 


700 


... 




56 


Jowdr ... 


1,210 


2,880 


... 





12. An attempt was made to demonstrate the toxic effect of 
Jowar roots when used as manure by manuring with this material 
small areas (about a yard square) lying in a plot otherwise treated 
naturally. Eoth cotton and Jowdr failed on the spots containing 
Jowar roots. It is probable that the almost universal practice 
of collecting and burning Jowar stubble in the fields constitutes 
an attempt to obviate this toxic effect. The whole question 
forms the subject of a separate publication. 

Cultural experiments. 

13. The plots under deep and shallow cultivation of last 
year were continued this year, with the change that the jJots 
under Jowar last year were sown with cotton in the year under 
report and those under cotton were sown with Jowar. 

The results were as under : — 



I 





Yield per acre. 


Cultivation* 


Seed cottoD. 


Jowilr. 




Grain, 


Kadbi. 


Deep cultivation ••• ••. 
Shallow cultivation ••• 


LbF, 

307 
411 


Lbs, 

910 

882 


Lbs. 
2,460 
2,340 



15 



In the case of cotton the deeply cultivated part apparently 
absorbed more moisture than was required for a young cotton 
crop when grown according to local custom and licnce most of 
the plants died on account of too much moisture and this part 
had to be resown, while the crop on the shallow cultivated 
area survived. Hence the difference in yield. 

In the case of Jowar the results are bettor in the deop 
cultivated plot than those in the shallow cultivated plot, as Jowar 
plants can withstand more moisture than cotton plants. 

Possibly by sowing the cotton at a longer interval after rain 
a good stand might be obtained ; in this way only can a real test 
be made. 

14i. A set of plots under cotton and Jowar was set aside to 
ascertain the most suitable distance at which they should be sown. 

The results were as under : — 



JowAr. 


Distance 
between rows. 

18'' 


Cotton. 


No. of 

riot. 


Yield per acre. 


No. of 

riot. 
21 B 


Yield of 


Grain. 


Kadl-i. 


Seed cotton 
per acre. 


21 A 


Lbs. 
1,933 


Lbs. 
4,212 


Lbs. 
314 


22 A 


2,038 


4,274 


22'' 


22 B 


337 


23 A 


1,929 


3,470 


28" 


23 B 


415 


2iA 


2,172 


3,700 


32" 


24 B 


392 


24 C 


2,027 


3,088 


36" 

i 


24 D 


493 



The plots were under a green manurial series last year but 
owing to unfavourable conditions the land was practically fallow 
except plot 23 A which produced a middling crop of Udid which 
however was not ploughed in. Spacing has had little effect on 
Jowdr, but the quality of Kadbi in the wide spaced plots is poor, 
being thick stemmed.' In the case of cotton the wider the spaciiig 
the greater the yield under the conditions of the experiment. 

15. Groundmit under irrigation treated differently gave 
the following results : — 



IG 




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Affected to eonie extent 
with Tikka disease. 

Very litflc affected with 
Tikka diseapo and hence 
the difference in yield. 

Affected to some extent 
with Tikka disease. 
The little higher yield is 
due to the addition of 
lime. 


"1 This plot was originally 
intended for sowinj.' 
I with Poona seed ; but 
1 as the seed coul<l not 
Y be obtained from 
Poona, it was sown 
with the varieties men- 
tioned for seed pur- 
J poses only. 


Owinfr to rather Inti- 
sowing the yield was not 
satisfactory. 

"1 


Object of the 
Experiment. 




~1 f 
To see whether 
soil which 1 
fc'rew diseased J 
1 gro u n d n u t 1 
}- carries the-( 
1,'erniB of dis 
ease and to see 
whether lime 
can check the 
disease. 


iM 




Us H 




eo CO » 

Cl CJ CT 


S? S5 


o 

o 

in 
»i 


Per- 
oentajfe 

of oil 
in seed. 




; • ; 


I I 




Per- 
centage 
ofse^ 
to husk. 




: : : 


I : 


: 


M 

1 ^'-^i 


X 

03 


76 1 6 
93 9 1 

80 


43 7 
66 5 5 


o 
o ' 


Yield 
per acre. 


i 


3 % I 


S 1 


i 


Value of 

yield 
per plot. 


eS 
of 


13 5 0. 
16 6 

12 


7 13 

11 9 9 




if 


5 


2 9. 2 


g s 


s 






Inoculated with 
Poona soil. 

Nil 

Inoculated with 
Poona soil and 
treated with 640 lbs. 
of lime. 


- - : : 

•j i 
1 


i 


Area 

sown 

in 

gunthas 




t, I- <e> 


CO t« 


L-> 


11 




Japanese small 

Do. ... 

Po. 


Japanese large. 

Spanif-h pea- 
nut. 


"3 

i 

5" 


mi 




< » o 


< « 


o 


Serial 
No. 




»1 





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^ 


•4^ 


-M 






O 


p£3 . 


CQ 


^ O 






-l-a 


^ ss 


o 


'^ -M 


a 


-sg 


i 


|« 


fe 


So 


s 


.S'S 




-M 

s ^ 


^ 


^ 9 


w 


rr-^ 


k 


« c8 




11 




CO CO 


i 


t-t 


^ .15 


M 


o 


< 


-5^ 


1^ u! 


.e^ 


c8 ;:{ 




eS 


rq 


H^ 


E-i 



4S 



21 

A study of the above statement shows that— 

(1) The heaviest yielding varieties remain the same, vi:: , 
Virginia, JajDanese big and Pondicherry, but in the reverse order. 

(2) The average yield of all the varieties is less than that 
of the previous year as the varieties were sown about a month 
later. On account of the continuous rainy season it was not 
possible to prepare beds for sowing ; but the average yield of the 
heaviest yielding varieties can be safely taken at between 
8,500 lbs. and 4,000 lbs. per acre under favourable conditions. 

(8) The charges of harvesting the varieties have been com- 
j^aratively less than those of the last year partly due to the 
diiference in yield and mostly due to the fact that they were 
harvested soon after irrigation water was applied, i. e., when the 
soil was sufficiently moist. Cultivators generally follow this 
system to minimize the expenditure and sell off their produce 
soon after it is lifted in order to secure more weight. But this 
practice will not suit on a farm where fully matured and dried 
seed has to be collected. This year's experience shows that the 
produce thus harvested takes several days to dry the nuts on a 
threshing yard. 

The "liftiDg" charges have been less for local than for 
Virginia as the crop was not fully established. 

(4) It Avill be seen from the statement that many of the 
foreign varieties are commercially superior to the local in havino* 
a higher percentage of seed to husk and also to a higher ])qY' 
centage of oil in them. In the current year the percentage of 
oil has remained almost the same in many of the varietiesj except 
the Spanish peanut, where it has fallen by about 3 per cent., and 
in the Japanese big and local by about 1 per cent, each due 
mostly to the quality of the produce. 

(5) Some of the foreign varieties, viz., Spanish peanut, 
Japanese small and big, ripen much earlier than the local, i, e., in 
about 5 to 7 weeks ; other varieties, too, ripen 2 to 3 weeks earlier 
than the local. 

On account of the early ripening qualities of the first three 
they can be grown as a kharif crop without any irrigation, making 
them most suitable for cultivators who cannot afford to irrigate 
or who have no wells. Two varieties, Spanish peanut and 
Japanese small, were tried as kharif crops, and though sown 
about 3 weeks later than they should have been, have yielded a 
fairly good outturn which can equal the gcod profits which can 
be realized from either Jo war or cotton. One more trial will be 



^2 



made with these and Japanese big, also with the newly introduced 
most promising varieties, Senegal and Mozambique. 

(6) Of the newly introduced varieties, Mozambique and 
Senegal seem to do best. Each of them is found to bear more 
than 175 nuts to a single plant, i- e., nearly three times more 
than any of the old or newly introduced varieties. 

(7) Application of lime seems to do more good in the Athva 
area than in the Panas area. 

(8) As will be seen :from the statement, the application of 
lime fur checking Tikka disease has not given satisfactory results 
and a further trial seems necessary. 

16, The following table compares the percentage of oil as- 
oertained by Dr. Leather last year with that ascertained by 
Mr. Meggitt, Agricultural Chemist, Bombay, this year : — 



Name of variety 






PercenUgo of oil 
in 1905-06. 


1 

Percentage of oil 
in 190607. 


Virginia 






47 -il 


47-21 


Pondicheny 


,, 




48-31 


48-30 


Japanese big 


., 




47-68 


43-21 


Japanese small ... 


,, 




60-4.0 


50-48 


Spanish peanut . . . 


•• 




51-43 


47-31 


Surat Local 


., 




47-43 


46-64 


Ei,-yptian 








46-43 


Mauritius 


,. , 






46 43 


Mozambique 


• • 






48-32 


Senegal 


••« 




; 


45-36 



17. Groundnut under irrigation treated with slaked lime 
to see if Tikka disease could be checked by it and also to see if 
the disease could be carried by the infected soil gave the following 
results : — 



yo. of 

Plot. 


1 






Yield of 


Area. 


Name of crop. 


Treatment. 


Nuts per 






- 




aero. 




Quntlias, 






lbs. 


15Ai 


0-7 


Japanese small 


Soil iuoaulatcd with Pcoiia in- 


1,217 






fected soil. 




15Aa 


0-7 


Do. 


Ordinary ... 


1,497 


16Ag 


0-6 


Do. 


Soil inoculated with Poona in- 


1,280 






fected soil and manured 










with 2i tons of lime per acre. 





23 



Originally plots 15Ai and 15A3 were intended to be sown with 
diseased seed from Poona, but as the seed was not received these 
plots were all sown with Surat seed and the soil inoculated with 
Poona soil which had grown diseased groundnut for several years. 

The sowing was delayed for some time in the hope of getting 
diseased seed from Poona and hence the very low yield. 

Plots Ai and A3 were affected more than plot Ao and henee 
the yield is less in both of them. Erom the above it can be said 
that lime does not seem to have any effect on the disease. 

Similarly plot 20B was divided into three sub -plots and 
2OB1 and 20H:j were to be sown with Poona diseased seed but not 
inoculated with Poona soil. But as seed was not received the 
area was sown with Spanish peanut, and small and big Japanese 
very late in the season for the purpose of obtaining seed and hence 
the outturn was veiy poor as tabulated below : — 



Ko. of 
Plot. 




?0 13. 



Gunthas. 
0-6 
0-7 

07 



Japanese large 
Spanish peanut 
Japanese small 



18. TJnirrigated Groundnut — The two early ripening erect 
varieties were tried as kharif crop which gave the following 
results : — 



Ko. of 
Plot. 



Area. 



35 \ 

3513 



A. g 

20 
20 



Variety, 



Yield of „ ,„„ „ 

Nuts per ^^^J^ ^^ 

acre. ! P'^*^"^^" 



Japanese small 
Spanish peanut 



Lbs. 

522 

590 



Bs. a. p. 

32 10 
3G li 



Cost of 
pre duct ion. 



Bs. a. p. 

24 6 
22 10 



Charges for 
lifting. 



Bs. a. p.^ 

9 8 G 
8 2 



N.B» — Date of sowing, 4th July 3906 ; of harvesting, 8tb November 1906. 

A cultivator would have harvested it 10 or 15 days earlier, 
hut for seed purposes fully ripe fruits are necessary. 

The above varieties, though sown about three weeks later 
than they should have been, have yielded a fairly good outturn and 
if sown earlier appear likely to prove a profitable dry-crop. 
Purther trial will be made with these and the large Japanese, also 
with the newly introduced varieties, Mozambique and Senegal. 



I 



24 

Experiments with new crops. 

19. Eight new Tarieties of groundnut, viz., Java, East 
Africa, Egyptian, Brazil, Barbados, Mauritius, Mozambique and 
Senegal, received from different parts, were tried during the year 
under report. Most of them naturally did not germinate well. 
But by observing the growth of the surviving plants and count- 
ing the number of nuts borne by each of the varieties, Mozam- 
bique and Senegal seem to be the most promising. They will all 
be tried during the current year under irrigation. The two best 
will also be tried as kharif crops. 

20. The following 17 varieties of Tuverfrom different parts 
w^ere also tried at the Station :— 

(1) Bilaspur No. 1. 

(2) Do. No. 2. ♦ 

(3) Do. No. 3. 

(4) Sambalpur No. 4. 

(5) Do. No. 5. • 

(6) Do. No. 8. 

(7) Do. No. 9. 

(8) Do. No. 10. 

(9) Bangalore. 

(10) Variegated. 

(11) Bellari No. 35. 

(12) Do. No. 40. 

(13) Do. No. 43. 

(14) Arhar. 

(15) Nadiad led. 

(16) Do. white. 

(17) Khandesh early. 

Of these, the following having done well are to be tried this 
season for cross-breeding : — 

(1) Bilaspur No. 1. 

(2) Sambalpur. 

(3) Bangalore. 

(4) Nadiad. [ii 

(5) Khandesh. 

(6) Local. 

Of the above, Khandesh Tuver (early) was tried on a fairly 
large scale to see if it could be inticduced in the district for 
mixture with Jowar and Eajri in order to minimize the trouble 
of the cultivator of watching the late Tuver long after the main crop 



26 

*i8 harvested. It would also e?ivo the cultivator a sufficiently 
long time for preparing his fisMs owing to its being cut early. 
But the Tuver is inferior, being small grained and red in colour and 
there is no sale for it in the market. It yielded i4i2 lbs. per 
acre. It also took a longer time to ripen than is the case in 
Khandesh. 

21. Nine varieties of Tal received from Poena were tried 
on the Station ; some were eaten up after germination, while 
others failed to germinate, and there was no moisture left in the 
soil for re-sowing. 

An indigenous variety of Tal known as Tali, which is grown 
generally as a kharif crop on light soils, was tried to see if it would 
pay and whether the area sown by it could be ploughed after 
harvest with an English plough as the crop matures in Septem- 
ber. But the yield was very poor, 53 lbs. per aore, as the 
germination was defective owing to excessive moisture. 

22. Saidi beans from seed received last year were also tried 
again, but as the seed was old they failed to germinate. 

23. Chavli was also tried on the Station in the year under 
report. The seed was treated before sowing with inoculating 
material received from America. The germination and growth in 
the beginning were very good. But just before the flowering period 
the crop was badly attacked by a stem-borer and never recovered, 
yielding only 85 lbs. of grain per acre. 

24. Four varieties of maize received from Poona were 
tried at the Station. Their growth and yield were not promising. 

25. Ratoon rice received from the Director of Bengal 
entirely failed to germinate at all. 

26. Pour varieties of lucerne seed, viz.-^ 

Name. Locality. 

(1) Turkestan alfalfa Imported, 

(2) do. do. Montana, 
(8) do. do. Texas, 
(4) do. do. Etah, 

were received, and though sown thrice were every time eaten up by 
insects when the seeds were germinating or soon after germination. 

27. Two hundred and seventy-nine varieties of Jowar were 
grown on the 'Station for determining their botanical characters. 
They grew very well. As the work of classifying is now over, 
only four varieties, viz.y Lain, Lalio, Egyptian white and red, have 
been selected for sowing next season for cross-breeding and all the 
rest are to be discontinued, 

B 990—4 



26 



Breeding Experiments. 

28. Breeding of cotton was continued on the lines previously 
followed, 

29. Preliminary experiments in breeding on Jowar were also 
made this year, but as the work was commenced late it was con- 
fined to an investigation of the process of pollination as it occurs 
naturally in the field. 

Pests. 

30. During the year under report all the cotton crop on the 
Station as well as in the district was attacked by a disease locally 
known as *' Dahido " — a mite. 

Another disease which made its appearance on the Station 
was the stem-borer in Ohavli. 

Young seedlings of Tal were in some cases attacked and 
eaten up by a kind of caterpillar. 

Boll-worm, the common disease, was also present to a greater 
or less extent. 

There were casual attacks on young Jowar plants by l)eetle3 
and on the little advanced plants by sugar-borer. 

Irrigation Experiments. 

31. These experiments, started last year, with Broach 
Deshi cotton and lucerne were carried during the year under 
report with slight modifications, mz,^ (1) last season half the area 
under Broach cotton was watered twice after the rains ceased, 
while the other half received no artificial watering. In the season 
under report the area was divided into 3 parts. One of these 
received 3 waterings, the second two waterings and the third no 
watering after the cessation of the rains, (2) In the case of lucerne 
the interval of 20 days between waterings was changed to 
30 days. 

32. The results of cotton are given below : — 



Remarks. 



No. 
of Plot. 


Area. 


Dat«of 
sowing. 


Pates of wateringf. 


Y ield perl 

acre of \ 

seed { 

cotton. 1 


l8t. 2nd. 3rd. 


19B 


\§i 


20th June 
19O0. 


None ... 


None 


None ... 


Lbs. 
329 


20A(1) 


10 


Do. ... 


6th NoTem- 
bor 1908. 


26thNovemJ 
bcrlOOe. 1 


330 


20A(2) 


10 


Do. ... 


Sid Novem- 
ber 1006. 


22nd Nov 10th Decern- 
fi m b e r her 1808, 
1903. 


GU 



"^ The plots were in 
fall flower at the 
1 time of the 2iid 
J- w.iterinj;' ; the 3rd 
watenug wftS civeu 
I wheu the fniits 
J were forming. 



27 



It will be seen that the yield in the unirrigated plot is nearly 
the same as in the twice irrigated plot, a result quite contrary to 
that of last year when under a rainfall of only 20'' the 
twice irrigated plot yielded 3| times as much as the unirrigated 
one. The watering appears to have been most effective when the 



bolls are forming. 



The plots were very even in germination and the difference 
in yield is only due to irrigation water applied. 

33. The results with lucerne are shown below : — 



Xo. 
of PJot. 


Area. 


Crop. 


Date of sowing. 


Interval 

between 

waterings. 


Yield 
per acre. 


Value of 
produce 
per acre. 


Ucniarks. 


Ikt 


6 " Gi 


Luce rue 


ISth October 
1905. 


15 doya ... 


Lbs. 

30,608 


Rs. n. p. 
333 5 7 


Seed iuocalafed and 
sown on ridges. 


lib 


6i 


D>. 


Do. 


Do. 


22,056 


275 11 2 


Seed uninoculated and 
sown on ridges. 


lie 1 


71, 


Do. ... 


October 1901 ... 


Do. 


24,389 


304 13 9 


Compare with 14c 2, 


Ik 2 


7i 


Do. 


Do. 


30 days ... 


18,289 


228 9 9 


Compare witli 14c 1. 


Hd 


9i 


D. 


18th October 
190o. 


15 days ... 


28,164 


3-52 9 


Duplicate of Ua. 


113 


71, 


Do. 


Do. 


Do. 


23.148 


280 5 7 


Duplicate of 146. 


11/ 


9 


Do. 


16th October 
1905. 


Do. 


19,289 


241 1 9 


Seed inoculated and 
sown in beds. 



It will be seen from the above that though the seed inocu- 
lated last year failed to give the highest results that year, still it 
has given the highest results this year. 

It will also be seen that plots receiving irrigation every 15 
days have yielded much better than the plot receiving irrigation 
water every 30 days, and that the lucerne sown on ridges does far 
better than that sown in beds. It is also less liable to disease 
than that sown in beds. Established lucerne appears to give 
much better results in the 2nd year than in the year of sowing. 

34. The following statement shows the outturn of Guinea- 
grass and fodder Jowar (both irrigated). Guinea-grass has been 
grown from 1898-99 and fodder Jowar has been added for compa- 
rison onl^ since 1905-06. 



28 



Year. 


Yitid p 


cv acre. 


Value of 
Guinea-grass. 


Cuct uf 

production 
of Guinea- 
grass, 


Value of 
fodder J owdr. 


Co.,t oi 
production 


G uinea- 
Grass, 


Fodder 
Jow&T. 


of fodder 
Jowdr. 




Lbs. 


Lbs. 


Rs. a. p. 


Es. a. p. 


Es. a. p. 


Es. a. p. 


1S9S90 


28,580 


... 


190 8 


172 6 


• •••.. 




1899-1900 


29,546 




196 15 G 


116 7 






1900-01 


42,594 


•(• 


212 15 6 


1G9 11 2 


ii« ... 




3902-03 


29,341 


... 


146 11 3 


175 1 4 






1903-04 


25,835 


... 


1 172 3 9 


175 13 






1904-05 


13,972 


.*• 


i 93 2 4 


1G6 15 9 


...... 





1905-06 


18,613 


19,240 


' 124 1 4 


193 9 9 


128 -1 G 


58 15 7 


1906-07 


13,454 


8,13G 


89 14 

I 


113 7 


54 4 


41 4 



The Guinea-grass plot was specially planted in tbo Athvr. area 
near the buildings to remove the excess of water from the manure 
pit and so Jong as it was kept there and received liquid manure 
from the manure pit the yield was good. But when the planta- 
tion was removed elsewhere to compare its yield with a plot of 
fodder Jowar the Guinea-grass proved inferior to the latter. 

It will be seen from the statement that depriving Guinea- 
grass of liquid manure has reduced the yield to less than half. 
Of the total yield, nearly two-thirds is produced in the monsoon 
season when there is no necessity for this grass. The raising of 
a Jowar crop is apparently much more profitable to a cultivator 
than growing Guinea-grass, It is also not advisable for a cultivator 
to cultivate Guinea-grass which does not give him green fodder in 
fair weather when he requires it. 

The yield of Jowar in the year under report was less because 
it was grown on the same j^lot as that of 1905-06, No manuro 
was given either to Jowar or Guinea-grass. 

The experiment is considered to be conclusive and is dis- 
continued. 

Measurements of irrigation water applied to crops. 

r)5. These experiments as planned out last year with the 
objects stated in paragraph 18 of the last year's report were 



I 



2^ 

continued during the current year. The results may be sum- 
marised as under : — 

(1) That crops like lucerne, groundnut, &c„ grown on the 
black soil of Surat either in beds or on ridges require irrigation 
water equal to between 4 to 5 inches of rainfall after a month 
or a month and a half from the time the rains stop, and that sub- 
sequent waterings are required at intervals of 15 days equal to 2 
to 3 inches of rainfall. But sbould irrigation be given only once 
a month instead of every 15 days then an application equal to 
3'^ to 4i' of rainfall should be given. As the season advances and 
the temperature goes up a heavier application will be found 
necessary so that in the hot weather an increase equal to V of 
rainfall over the ordinary cold weather amount should be 
given. 

In the case of drilled Deshi cotton two to three months after 
the rains cease, when the soil has not cracked so badly as it does 
later on in the hot season, irrigation water for the first watering 
equals 5^ to 6| inches of rainfall and the subsequent waterings 
at intervals of twenty days require water equal 3 to 3| inches 
of rainfall. 

Trials with new implements. 

86. Two iron hand-gins and three iron * mots' (buckets 
for raising water) were tried on the Station during the year under 
report with the following results :— ^ 

The iron hand-gins were received from the Inspector-General 
of Agriculture in India. They are on the principle of McCarthy 
gins, but have no moveable knives and the roller is studded with 
small pins. Every effort was made to get them to work, but the 
cotton always stuck to the roller and was gradually chopped into 
fine particles. 

Of the two iron ' mots,' one was [received from Ndsik and 
another from Belgaum, 

The first worked like the Sundhia leather * kos ' with the 
only defect that it took a very long time to fill. This makes it; 
useless. The price is Rs. 9. 

The second from Belgaum weighs 50 lbs., i^e,, double the 
weight of an ordinary ^ kos.' It is circular in shape and though 
it works well if cautiously used, it has some drawbacks, viz.. 



30 

(1) that when the bullocks go a little further than the stopping 
point, the whole adjustment of the frame with the lower pulley 
is upset ; (2) that the price of this ' kos ' is Rs. 15, i.e., the 
sams as of the leather one. Unless it shows more durability 
than the leather ' kos' it is not profitable. 

Manurial Experiments made oif the Station on 
cultivators' fields. 

37. Experiments on the effect of nitrate of soda, crude 
nitre and ammonium sulphate on rice were performed on culti- 
vators' fields in the villages of At and Amalsad, taluka Jalalpor, 
and on rice in the village of Shiker, taluka Bardoli. 

The results of rice experiments are tabulated below : 



ii 


Survey 
No. 


Area. 


Manure apiilied. 


Manure 


Vioul per plot. 


Yield p 


.r acre. 


1 


Name of mar ure. 


Quantity 
applied. 


per 
acre. 


Rice, 


Straw. 


Rice. 


Straw. 


Kcuiarkij. 

m 


H 


59 i 31 

1 


Ammonium sul- 
phate. 


Lbs. 
150 


Lbs. 

2(X) 


Lbs. 

2,720 


Lbs. 

4,S45 


Lbs. 
3, -'00 


Lbs. 

5,70© 




11 


f«a 


036 


Nitre 


150 


200 


3,000 


6,220 


3,333J 


5,800 




i 


tM 


32 


No manure 


... 


Mi 


2,230 


4.323 


2,7^71 


5,400 




c 


450 


9 


xNitrc 


6'J 


200 


460 


502 


2,044i 


2.23U 






419 


6 


No manure 


... 


... 


200 


202 


1.333i 


1,7461 




1 


433 


20 


Sodium nitrato ... 


100 


200 


1,000 


1,095 


2,000 


2,1S0 




38 to 41 

&5i to 

&7 


23 


Nitre 


150 


200 


1,040 


1,140 


l.COO 


l,75i 




i 


433 


20 


No manure 


... 


... 


700 


862 


1,100 


3,724 




r 
4. 


9 

197 


16 
10 

32 
• 16 


Nitre 

No manure 

Sodium nitrate ... 

Ammonium ; buI* 
phatc. 
Nitre 


100 

go 

175 
100 


200 

200 
200 
200 


1,000 
680 
620 
960 
760 


960 

525 

615 

1,155 

750 


2,500 

2,720 

2,7564 

1,200 

1,9C0 


2,400 
2,100 
2,733i 
1.443J 
1,875 


This crop at At was 
attackeJ by the 
" rice hispa " aivj 
hence though the 
growth was good 
the results arc 
unreliable. 




ISl 


20 


Sodium nitrate ... 


150 


2D0 


1,160 075 


2,320 


1,950 




L 177 1 12 


No manure ... 


... 


... 


400 325 


1,333J 


1,083^ 





The owner of the field at Shiker was much impressed on 
seeing the results of the manure, especially as the manured 
fields were in much poorer condition than the no-manure plot. 
He has asked for either a repetition of the experiment or a supply 
of manure for which he is prepared to pay. The extra yield from 



31 

the manured plots only pays for the extra expenditure incurred on 
the manure. Had conditions been equal the value of the extra 
yield would have exceeded the cost of the manure. 

At Amalsad the rice crop seems to be a 12-anna one due 
to want of water. 

33. Similar experiments with the same manures were made 
at the villages of Amalsad and Kachholi, taluka Jaldlpor, on 
sugarcane. The results are tabulated below : — 




•* 








o 




*N. 




00 




US 




t^ 


:i 


s 


i; 


1^ 


s 


CO 


s 


CI 


"» 


ou 


* 










•* 




rji 




in 




•* 





IT 



S3 



■^ ft o 2i 

>-> c « 



« M 



CO CO 



3J,2 



4.§ 



ii '^ C * *?'« Ci 






o 5 S", 



© 2 ** * 2 •- -^ 






U5 iH 

i-l -* 

o 0> 

CO cp 



2> ■n" i-« o 

o :c C5 o 

O i--;^ CC^ o 

^" « cf of 



CO 



eo CO 
eo CO 

r-J^ 00 



oc o 

CO h- 

»0 I-l 



iH O 
00*" -^ 



O C-5 



<« 



CD W 



8 



QO O 



o o 

o ^ 
eo ci 



o o o 

O 00 

^ «i '^ 

W C-. w 



cs 



• 


o 




2 









rs 








rt 




e3 




te 


s 


s 


?i 


S 




o 


-U 


o 


is 


^ 


55 


5^^ 


CO 


tv 


^ 


g^ 



t. S 5h 

Sag 

e8 o " 

s s a 

o ?3 o 



T> 



5?q 



2 S 
.IS o 



»0 iO oi M to 

r-l iH t-i r-l I— I 

o o o o o 



00 

■<Tl 


" 




:; 


5^ 


jj 


g 


S 


_i_ 


s 


i 


"" 


n 
i 


5^ 


?1 


^ 


lis 

CI 


; 



P 990^;"i 



•yioM'P^H 



34 

*The term *^ no-manure plot ** in the above statement is used 
only in contrast with the plots artificially manured. Otherwise 
the unmanured and manured plots have had an even treatment 
given by their owners which is given below against each survey 
number referred to in the above statement : — 

Amalsad, 



urvey 
No. 


Artificial treatment given 




Treatment by the cultivator. J 


474 


{a) Ammonium Bulpbate 


..."1 Manured with farm ya-d manure at || 
...J the rate of 35 cart-loais per acre. II 




{h) No n anure 




(c) AmmoD um sulphate 


. . . ^ Cane grown after ginger without any 
...j manure. 




{d\ ^ manure 


476 


(a) Sodium nit ate 

/ » V "XT 


'" > Green manured with San. 
• •• ) 




(^) No manure 


467 


(a) Sodium nitrate 


... ) Top-dressed with silt from surrounding 
... 3 drains, J 




(') No manure 


528 


\n) Sodium nitrate 


... 1 ""ane grown after ginger ; no manure ■ 
...J given to Cane. fl 




[b) No manure 


485 


[a) Nitre 

(6) No manure 


••* V Same as above. fl 


488 


(a) Nitre 


... f Manured with farm yard manure at fll 
... J the rate of 35 cart-loads per acre. W 




[b) No manure 


496 


(a) Nitre 

(h) No manure 


•*• 1 No manure was given to the crop. f 




KachholL ] 


277 


(//) Sodium nitrate 


... 1 Cane grow^n after ginger without any 1 
... 1 manure. || 




{b) No manure 


407 


{a) Ammonium sulphate 


... 


^ No manure S'iven. |l 




{bS No manure 


... 


II 


408 


\a) Amm nium sulphate 

. 7 . Tk.T 


...1 


• Green manured with Udid. H 




[b) No manure 


...J 


1 11 


290 


(fl) Sodium nitrate 


... ) Cane grown after ginger without any ll 
... J manure. II 




{b) No manure 


406 


[a) Nitre 

(b) No manure 


•> 

'"• • Same as above. 


269 


{a) Sodium nitrate 
(b) No manure 


••• !- Same as abovew 
••• ; 


287 


[a) Nitre 

[h) No manure 




No manure given by the cultivators. 



Note, — In the group of garden villages the ginger crop gets the best 
possible treatment. It is grown in fields which are manured w th green 
ma;iu e a'i far as possble; any aVciiUble farmyard manure is also given and 
the crop is finally top dress d with castor cake at tbj rat * of 20 to 30 maunds 
per acre and it is also earthed wi»h silt from the surrounding drains. The 
ge. e^al practice there is to grow a sugarcane crop after ginger so as to get the 
advantage of heavy manuring given to ginger. 



85 



In tho onse of Survey Nos. 467 and 528, the results of the 
unmanured plot are better than those of tho mnnured plots. The 
difference may be due to differences in the soil which cannot 
be ascertained from the appearance of the crop when very young. 
As far as these results go they appear to indicate that of the 
manures tried, ammonium sulphate alone will pay. 

Dairy Herd. 

39. Tho following statement shows the strength of the dairy 
herd on the Surat Station : — 





i 

; §1 


Increase 


• 


1 

! 


Decrease. 




2 

|5 


V'alualio!!. 
ISiUO. 1007. 




Dcbcriptioii. 




1 


5* 


1 

i 


1 


1 


s 

^ 


Increase 
or De- 
crease. 






















Its. 


K. 


Us. 


Stud bulls 


3 




... 


... 


3 


... 


... 


2 


1 


21o 


135 


-90 


COWB 


12 




... 




..« 




... 


... 


12 


565 


605 


+ 40 


Heifers 


8 




.«• 


•" 


... 


... 


... 




8 


111 


230 


+89 


Cow calves 


6 




6 





... 


... 




„ 


12 


142 


133 


+80 


Bull calves 


2 









2 


..• 


... 


... 


2 


c 


100 


+35 


Total ... 


31 


... 


6 


■ 


2 


33 


1.182 




+154 


lie buffaloes 


. 


••» 


... 


... 


M\ 


... 


... 




1 


. 


.';o 


-25 


8be-l'ufifaloc6 


11 


3 


... 


3 


... 


... 


... 


... 


U 


575 


I.OIO 


+435 


Heifors 


1 


... 


... 




... 


... 


1 


1 


... 


30 


... 


-35 


Sbc-buffalo calves ... 


8 


1 


2 


3 


... 


1 


... 


1 


10 


88 


114 


+26 


fiuU buffalo calves . 


9 


1 


5 


C 


6 


3 


... 


9 


c 


51 


80 


+ 29 


Total ... 


30 


• 


7 


12 


6 


4 


1 


11 


31 


8C1 


1.234 
2,416 


+430 


Grand Total ... 


61 


. 


13 


18 


8 


4 


1 


13 


66 


1.8C3 


•»-584 



40. The following statement shows the monthly milk yield 
of each cow and buffalo, average monthly milk yield and dates of 
calving of each animal during the year : — 



36 



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41 

These experiments were started to test the milk-increasmg 
properties of the different fo;lders, dry and green. They were also 
made last year, but on account of want of sufficient green fodder 
at the time and other difficulties the results were not conclusive. 
This year, too, difficulties had to be faced The supply of green 
fodder did not last for the period for which they were to he made, 
and either the fodders had to be substituted by others or the 
experiinent stopped. As the cattle are not box-fed the experi- 
ments have to be conducted when they do not get anything to 
graze outside. The fodders were given in such a way that the 
dry weight of the green fodders was equal. The concentrated 
foods remained the same as usual. 

It will be seen that the fortnightly average milk yield of the* 
four animals under trial previous to the commencement of the 
experiment was lbs. 10-8, lbs. 10-9, lbs. 17-1 and lbs. 13-15, 
respectively. The average rose during the second fortnight to 
lbs. 11-8, lbs. 13-9, lbs. 17-11, lbs. 15-15, respectively, for each 
animal. During the third fortnight the yield was nearly maintain- 
ed without any green fodder except in the case of the fourth 
animal, which was ill for three days. During the fourth fortnight 
no guinea grass or green fodder was available and lucerne was 
given to all animals, but that too lasted only for a week, during 
which period the milk yield went down a little. 

The yield would have showed a bigger diiference when the 
animals were fed both with dry and green fodder if the animals 
were all newly calved; but such animals were not in tlie dairy 
when the experiment was conducted, as many animals at that 
period go dry or are nearly at the middle of their milking period. 

The trial showed tliat no appreciable difference in milk yield 
was obtained by the changes of rations tried. 

F. ELETCHEll, 
Deputy Director of Agriculture. 

JPoona, September 1007. 



990-6 



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