(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Agriculture in Canada."

DOMINION OF CANADA 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

PUBLICATIONS BRANCH 



AGRICULTURE 

IN CANADA 



Pamphlet No. 



Reprinted from THE AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE OF CANADA, Vol. Ill, by the authority 
of the Hon. MARTIN BURRELL. Minister of Agriculture. 

JANUARY 1917 
63o<f Tf ) 



p 



DOMINION OF CANADA 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 

PUBLICATIONS BRANCH 



AGRICULTURE 

IN CANADA 



Pamphlet No. 



Reprinted from THE AGRICULTURAL GAZETTE OF CANADA, Vol. Ill, by the authority 
of the Hon. MARTIN BURRELL. Minister of Agriculture. ■"*"•»"» 

JANUARY 1917 



To provide a concise account of the agricultural industry 
of Canada, a representative of the Minister of Agriculture for 
each province consented to deal with his respective province 
in a descriptive article for The Agricultural Gazette. The 
series, which began in the May number for 1916 and continued 
to the end of the volume, dealt with the area and character 
of the agricultural lands, the history and development of the 
farming industry and the outlook for its future growth. By 
the authority of The Honourable Martin Burrell, Minister 
of Agriculture, the series is here reprinted as Pamphlet No.J 
of The Publications Branch. 



LIST OF CONTENTS. 

Prince Edward Island-— Pa £e 

5 

Nova Scotia: — 

New Brunswick: — 

NX-XuSk^ Climate » Typographical Features, The Soil of 

■ 15 

QUEBEC: — 



rARio: — 
nitoba: — 



36 

SASKATCHEWAN : — 

S^iSS oSSSfeXfr^fKSS&S^Sffif^S^ ? anch « ing <**•• The Er * 

Mixed Farming Coming Horses Cattle Sh™ oduc t lon > Some Prize Winners, 
Vegetables, Organization'of Extensio^n Work P ' SWme ' DalFylng ' Fruit and 

. 46 

Ai.berta: — 

Da lr y Production, Directive and Educational ^^JSl^S^b* ?*: 
British Columbia:— 

&5S& K e e r ts Cr ° PS '. R °° tS : ***»*&. %S&£J SSfe 



ures 

55 



66 



AGRICULTURE IN CANADA 



PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 

BY W. R. REEK, B.S.A., DIRECTOR OF AGRICULTURAL INSTRUCTION 



PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND, 
the "Garden of the Gulf", 
though the smallest of the 
provinces, with an area of 1,397,991 
acres, has compensation for its 
smallness in size in the great poten- 
tialities of its soil and climate. The 
soil is exceedingly fertile and re- 
sponsive; the uncultivateable areas 
are negligible. The climate is such 
that seldom do we have crop fail- 
ures owing to extremes over which 
we have no control; it is truly 
temperate. Small forest areas are 
prevalent in all parts, which supply 
the necessary lumber and wood; 
groves are numerous and scarcely 
can a homestead be found that does 
not nestle in one of these which 
affords protection in winter, and 
adds greatly to the beauty of the 
rural parts. Beautiful landscapes 
of green fields, birch and evergreen 
clumps and whitewashed buildings, 
a bracing atmosphere and an ex- 
ceedingly hospitable people, cause the 
first impressions received by the 
traveller to be favourable. 

A PROVINCE OF SMALL FARMS 

It is a province of comparatively 
small farms. There are 14,369 
holdings; those classified are: (1) 
between 100 and 200 acres, 3,227; 
(2) between 50 and 100 acres, 
5,494; (3) between 10 and 50 acres, 
3,849. There are a few larger 



holdings, but as yet the general 
tendency is to keep between 50 and 
125 acres to a farm. General agri- 
culture is followed, with emphasis 
upon dairying, because the climate 
is ideal for the production of high 
class products; the pastures are 
generally good, owing to the rather 
high precipitation; the soil suitable 
for raising the foods essential for 
the dairy cow; springs are numerous, 
which ensures an abundant supply 
of fresh cool water; the factories are 
well established, and the labour 
question was never serious, until the 
war came. Because 90 per cent of 
the people are engaged in agri- 
culture, the contingents princi- 
pally came from rural districts. 

THE PRINCIPAL CROPS 

Hay, oats, turnips and potatoes 
are the principal crops, whereas 
wheat, barley and mangels are 
grown in rather small areas as yet. 
The Banner oat has already made a 
reputation for the Island; many 
thousands of bushels are supplied to 
the Eastern Provinces yearly for 
seed purposes. Nearly every farmer 
grows potatoes as a commercial 
commodity. The blue potatoes are 
the favourite, because the maritime 
markets such as Sydney and 
Newfoundland, demand large quan- 
tities, but the white varieties are 
gaining and doubtless will continue 



Agriculture in Canada 



to do so as the markets become 
extended. The "Old Island Two- 
Rowed" barley is a promising 
variety; it accommodates the farmer 
by dropping its awns in the field 
when ripe. Clover is gradually 
replacing timothy. 

The soil is a red, sandy loam, 
with occasional stretches of heavy 
clay or sand, rather easy to cultivate 
and very responsive to proper 



the cost of tile made under-drainage 
appear an economic impossibility. 
The peaty areas may be of value 
at some future time. The blue- 
berry barrens and cranberry fields 
produce heavily, and are not to be 
despised, because the markets in 
the New England States and the 
Eastern Provinces will consume all 
that can be gathered with the 
available labour. 




A VILLAGE HOME 

The white birch trees are native and greatly add to the beauty of the province. 



treatment, In many parts, which 
is true of all the Maritime Provinces, 
a slight acid state is prevalent, but 
is corrected by an application of 
mussel mud or lime. All wet soils 
can be easily drained ; land drainage 
is in its infancy, but the building of a 
tile plant will bring about the 
reclamation of every unreliable or 
swampy area for a reasonable ex- 
penditure, -because expensive out- 
lets are unnecessary. Previously, 



TOPOGRAPHY AND PRODUCTION 

The contour of the land in King's 
and Queen's counties is gently un- 
dulating, allowing excellent drainage, 
but not causing any large areas of 
waste land, whereas in Prince county 
the flatter and wetter areas are 
prevalent and in a few districts the 
heavy clays are present, but generally 
sandy loams prevail throughout. 

The production of small seeds, 



Prince Edward Island 



such as turnip, mangel, clover and 
others, is as yet practised on a small 
scale only, but every indication points 
to an excellent future— the seed is 
good and the season quite suitable. 

Tree fruits are grown in restricted 
areas only. Several years past, 
many purchased nursery stock and 
the orchards were generally well 
cared for, but some were disappointed 
to find, when bearing time arrived, 
that often inferior varieties had been 
purchased. A depression in orchard- 
ing naturally resulted. However, 
some are producing apples of ex- 



cellent quality, but the growing of 
apples commercially on a large scale 
requires careful consideration. Small 
fruits, such as the strawberry, rasp- 
berry, gooseberry and currants can 
be produced successfully and mar- 
keted with decided advantage, be- 
cause of the superior quality and 
rather late ripening season which 
eliminates competition on the larger 
markets from many outside districts. 

TOTAL CROP PRODUCTION 

The following table will give an 
idea of the crop production:— 




PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND SOILS PRODUCE LARGE CROPS OP BANNER OATS 



Crop. 



Wheat 

Oats 

Barley 

Peas and Beans 
Buckwheat, . . 
Mixed Grains. , 

Potatoes 

Roots 

Hay 



Aver. 1909-14. 



533,000 bus. 

6,368,400 " 

156,800 " 

11,800 " 

88,400 " 

558,400 " 

6,000,000 " 

4,368,800 " 

260,000 tons 



Yield 1914 



550,000 bus. 

7,250,000 " 

160,000 " 

15,000 " 

90,000 " 

600,000 " 

6,000 COO " 

4,200,000 " 

300,000 tons 



Yield 1915 


Value 1915 


600,000 bus. 


{ 720,000 


6,500,000 " 


3,120 000 


130,000 " 


100,000 


12,000 " 


30,000 


80,000 " 


60,000 


480,000 " 


275,0*0 


3,750,000 " 


2,125,000 


4,000,000 " 


700,000 


300,000 tons 


4,000,000 




$11,130,000 



8 



Agriculture in Canada 



Averages per acre are as follows :~ 

Wheat 19 bus. per acre. 

Oats 38 

Barley 27 

Potatoes 200 " ' 

Hay 1 y 2 tons per acre 

The value of dairy products for 
1915 was $478,764.53. 

SEAWEED AS A FERTILIZER 

Islands, and most particularly 
those surrounded by ice for a season, 
may have drawbacks, and doubtless 
Prince Edward Island has suffered, 



manures. Probably the greatest sea 
manure available is the mussel mud. 
This is deposited in all the bays and 
estuaries at the river's mouths and 
is a product of the oysters, mussels 
and clams. The decaying shells give 
large percentages of lime and in 
addition there is some ammonia, 
potash, and vegetable matter. 
Twelve to fifteen tons per acre are 
applied. 

The digging and distribution of 
the mud, on a large scale, has been 
undertaken by the provincial Govern- 
ment, and this is proving a great 




BRIDGE AND ROAD AT BONSHAW, P.E.I. 



but the advantages accruing very 
often more than counter-balance the 
disabilities. On every shore, whether 
it be an arm of the sea penetrating 
the land, or just the ordinary sea- 
shore, large deposits of seaweeds 
such as dulce, kelp and eel grass, are 
to be found and are gathered in 
quantities by every farmer within 
hauling distance. The value has not 
been, and probably cannot be, esti- 
mated, but the high state of fertility 
of those farms is unquestionable 
evidence of the importance of sea 



boon to all the people within easy 
reach of the railway. It is delivered 
at cost. 

STORY OF THE ISLAND 

The Island was ceded to Great 
Britain by the French in 1763. The 
Indians called it "Abegweit" — 
"Cradled in the Waves." The 
British divided the Island into town- 
ships, or lots of about 20,000 acres, 
and gave them to public men upon 
the condition that they undertook to 
place a number of settlers upon the 



Prince Edward Island 



land. The early settlers were Eng- 
lish, Scotch, Irish and French. 
Practically no immigration has taken 
place of late and probably in no other 
district in America was a superior 
class of people to be found. All were 
of good ancestry and were worthy 
descendants. The lure of the New 
England States and of the West 
depleted the population very much 
and many of the ablest migrated and 
many prospered in their new homes. 
Probably no other settlement of 
people has wielded a greater influence 
in the development of America. 
In 1875 the Government bought 



should cease, and Prince Edward 
Island become in reality a part of the 
Dominion. 

Governor Ready in 1827 was 
responsible for the introduction of 
agricultural organization, but agri- 
cultural societies were formed in 
1855 and the former ceased to exist. 
A stock farm was established in 1866 
and large numbers of superior stock 
were distributed throughout the 
Island. To-day that large, roomy, 
Shorthorn cow of excellent quality 
can be found which traces back to the 
early stock farm. Several subse- 
quent changes were made and finally 




A PASTURE SCENE IN PRINCE EDWARD ISLAND 



out the landlords and the tenants 
became the owners of the land. 
Absentee landlordism had not been 
conducive to progress. 

PROGRESS OF AGRICULTURE 

Agricultural development was 
greatly retarded, because of poor 
communication with the mainland, 
which doubtless accounted for the loss 
of so many settlers. However, the 
present arrangements are much better 
than those of a few years ago, and 
when the car ferry commences opera- 
tions the transportation difficulties 



the farm was handed over to Fal- 
conwood asylum. Dairying received 
its great impetus from Dr. James W 
Robertson in 1891, when co-opera- 
tive factories were established, forty 
of which are still in operation. 
During the last few months great 
improvements in plants and output 
have taken place. 

A regular Department of Agri- 
culture was organized in 1901. Far- 
mers institutes were organized as 
m other provinces. Owing to lack of 
funds the major portion of the work 

ASieSre d ° nbytheSeCreta ^ for 



10 



Agriculture in Canada 



The Agricultural Instruction 
Act made possible a much more 
yigourous campaign and new activ- 
ities were undertaken. 

Women's institutes were organized 
and the people very eagerly engaged 
in the new work, with the result that 
35 active institutes were formed. 
Red Cross and similar work has been 
carried on since the outbreak of the 
war. Short courses are attended by 
women from the country and ac- 
commodation for the numbers ap- 
plying is the greatest problem. 

agricultural education 

The teaching of elementary agri- 
culture and nature study in the 
public schools has received consider- 
able attention, and, to properly train 
the prospective teachers, a depart- 
ment has been fitted up in the Prince 
oi Wales College, and a teacher with 
a normal training and an agricultural 
education is regularly employed. 

All branches of agricultural work 
are now being undertaken, as in 
other provinces, though on a smaller 
scale. Particular effort is being 
made to assist those people who own 
tne^ low, wet land in order that 
underdrains may be installed and 
open ditches built. 

MIXED FARMING ENCOURAGED 

The Island will continue to be a 
mixed farming district, with dairying 



the most prominent branch and sheep 
raising following closely. The pro- 
duction of pork is now on the up- 
grade but must continue as an 
adjunct to the dairy industry. Few 
realize the immense value of the 
poultry products, and, with a prov- 
ince of small farms, the possibilities 
are almost beyond comprehension. 
More particularly is this so because 
in no other branch of agriculture is 
so much intelligent effort being ap- 
plied. Glimate, soil, markets, and 
an inclination on the part of the 
people, ensure the future of the small 
fruit industry. 

OPTIMISM EXEMPLIFIED 

The improved transportation facil- 
ities have engendered optimism and 
a greater faith in the possibilities is 
becoming crystallized into definite 
activities, not in agriculture only but 
in the development of other natural 
resources which have lain dormant 
for generations. Probably, never 
before, was the future so promising. 
The necessary essentials, which must 
enter into the upbuilding of prosperous 
communities, are all in evidence, and 
all forces are silently, but, neverthe- 
less, surely, working together. The 
ultimate outcome cannot be other- 
wise than that Prince Edward Island 
will be more widely advertised and 
conceded to be the " Garden of the 
Gulf." 



NOVA SCOTIA 

BY 1|. CUMMING, B.A., B.S.A., SECRETARY FOR AGRICULTURE 

Area of Nova Scotia 13,483,671 acres along the north-eastern and south-western 

Owned by farmers 5,260,455 " shores of Cape Breton. 

In forests 5,750,000 " 2. The German settlement of Lunen- 

In barren lands 2,276,000 burg, dating from 1751 (now one of the 

Unissued 196,116 " most loyal and progressive peoples in the 

farmers' lands province). 

Under the plough 1,257,459 acres 3. The settlement from the New Entr- 

Pasture land 2,002,996 " land states, beginning about 1760 (follow- 

^ ~^ZT7^ — 7T~ mg the ex P u lsion of the Acadians) and 

Total cleared 3,260,45o augmented by the Loyalists, 1775-83 

Wood lands 2,000,000 " These people settled the vacated lands of 

T , , KOflAK , the French in the western half of the 

10tal o,^60,4o5 acres province as well as various localities along 

It* * ~ +•— + j 4-u j. /?a r tne South Shore and in the east. 
I is estimated that 60 per cent of ^ TU i . ... , ^ ^ . 
+v^ u^o ^ vr~ « o 4-- i 4 * Tne colonization from Great Britain, 
l he i a nnn A°L N ° Va Sc ° tia ' W 1 co ™ men cing with grants of land given to 
to 8,090,000 acres, could be disbanded regiments (principally High- 
tilled. The remaining 40 per cent |f nd) about 1769, whose favourable report 

is composed for the most part of fought a further large influx of their 

ffranitir and slate rnr-k formation* coimtrymen, who continued to come m 

granitic ana si ate rocK iormations quite large numbers until about 1830 

Which constitute the greater part Since that time there has not been a large 

of the southern half of the province, inn ux of outsiders into the province. 

(Cambrian era) and more or less The main ]ines f settlement as 

tTe^rov^e %t^ ^^ ^^nt^fo^i^^iS 

he I tT^ni Jfc Pait * hlch C0Ul ^ most P art we » Preserved and easily 

2 % n <*£ ! l tl™ w is composed re cognized by anyone who is familiar 

mainly ot lorest area. Until manu- w ;+u the nrnvin^ 

vdorSffi^ntfv^ £??? de " *> '» « 5*1 agriculture is 

Sf^S^isVS tVK -e«»«ltH C most impoSant event, 

these iands in forests and to centre 

attention upon the improvement of l,^ 1 ?^ 8 of ,AF icola i John Young) 

the alreadv cleared amnQ published 1818, which paved the way for 

tne already cieaied aieas. the development of improved methods of 

agriculture and for the organization of 

HISTORY agricultural societies, which are still a 

Agricultural development of the Prominent feature (now numbering 247) 

Province commenced at the Freneh °i il ova Sco . tlan agriculture. Twenty-five 

piuvmce Lommencea at tne i^rencn of these socie ties were organized by 1820. 

colony at Port Royal (now Annapolis) The King's County Agricultural Society, 

in 1605, from which time until 1755, st iU «* existence, was organized in 1789 (I 

When the expulsion of the Acadians understand that there is only one agri- 

occurred nraptipallv all the farmma cultural society in America, in the state of 

occurrea, practically ail tne larming Pennsylvania, older than the Kine's 

in the province was carried on by County Society). 

the French. It is interesting to note 2. Organized agriculture and the agri- 

that the first wheat raised and ground cultural societies were placed under the 

in America was at this place. Sub- control of the Central Agricultural Society 

sequent to 1755 there were four main ^t Halifax m 1819 

lin^s of settlement- 3 - Contro1 was placed in the hands of a 

iin.s or settlement. provincial Board of Agriculture in 1864. 

1. The returned French settlement occu- 4. In 1884, the office of secretary for 

pying the coast areas along the Bay of agriculture was created and the control of 

tundy on the north-western shore of the these organizations placed under that 

province and similar coast settlements office. 

11 



12 



Agriculture in Canada 



5. In 1885, a chair of agriculture was 
established in connection with the prov- 
incial Normal College and in 1888 the 
nucleus of the present Agricultural College 
property was purchased and the Nova 
Scotia School of Agriculture, then a 
faculty of the Normal College, was erected. 

6. In 1893 a School of Horticulture was 
established in Wolfville. 

7. In 1905 the School of Horticulture 
and the School of Agriculture were united 
into the present College of Agriculture at 
1 ruro. 

8. The Nova Scotia Fruit Growers' 
Association, the parliament of the fruit 
growers of Nova Scotia, was organized in 
1861, and the Nova Scotia Farmers' Asso- 
ciation, the parliament of the general 



inches in comparison with about one-third 
of that amount in parts of Canada. 

2. The temperature is free from ex- 
tremes. Springs are often delayed and the 
season, except in parts of the Annapolis 
Valley, is in general too short and too cool 
for such crops as corn, peaches, etc. A 
study of the census tables of the Dominion 
of Canada shows that the average yield per 
acre in Nova Scotia surpasses the average 
yield for the whole Dominion of Canada in 
hay, roots and potatoes. It compares 
favourably though falling somewhat lower 
in cereal crops. 

3. No province in the Dominion has 
better transportation facilities. 

4. While the province is in general suited 
to general farming it has a great asset in the 




A NOVA SCOTIA HARVESTING SCENE 



farmers of the province, was organized in 
1895, and the Nova Scotia Dairymen's 
Association was organized in 1912. These 
bodies have been pioneer bodies in de- 
veloping many phases of the agricultural 
policy of the province. 

9. The establishment of the Dominion 
Experimental Farm at Nappan in 1888 
and the establishment of a Dominion 
Experimental Fruit Station at Kentville 
in 1910. 

AGRICULTURAL ADVANTAGES OF 
THE PROVINCE 

1. Serious droughts never occur and 
general crop failure is unknown. The 
annual average precipitation is about 40 



Annapolis Valley, one of the finest fruit 
farming areas on the continent. 

5. Nova Scotia has from 50,000 to 
100,000 acres of dyke marsh lands along the 
Bay of Fundy of extreme fertility. 

6. Diversified forms of employment are 
open to everyone, a matter which militates 
against the highest development of agri- 
culture but ensures a livelihood for every- 



THE OTHER SIDE OF THE QUESTION 

The soils of Nova Scotia are of 
just average fertility, neither very 
rich nor yet very poor. The aver- 
age of some 200 analyses recently 



Nova Scotia 



13 



made at the College of Agriculture, 
Truro, indicates amounts of nitrogen, 
phosphoric acid and potash just about 
equal to the amount which the late 
English chemist, Warrington, and 
the American chemist, Snyder, con- 
sidered should be found in an everage 
fertile soil. In general the soils are 
slightly below average in their con- 
tent of lime and organic matter. 

A consideration of all these mat- 
ters points to the necessity of livestock 



ducts of the farm is carried on to the 
detriment of the soil. 

So far as live stock is concerned 
the biggest returns are to be made 
from dairying and from sheep 
raising. The humid conditions, fa- 
vouring as they do the growth of 
grasses and other succulent crops, are 
especially favourable to these classes 
of live stock. 

Fortunately dairy farming is mak- 
ing progress, a fact well established 




APPLE-PICKING IN AN ANNAPOLIS VALLEY ORCHARD 



farming combined with systematic 
rotation of crops as the right kind of 
farming for the greater part of the 
province, for it is this kind of farming 
that will keep up the organic matter 
of the soil. While this is the case, 
however, the fact remains that al- 
though the most successful farmers 
follow this practice, yet in many 
parts of the province the practice of 
growing and selling hav especially, 
and to some extent, other crude pro- 



by the returns of the creameries of 
the province, which, since the year 
1910, have increased their output 
from 30 to nearly 50 per cent an- 
nually. Perhaps even more indica- 
tive are the official returns from in- 
dividual herds under government 
test, some of which reveal as high as 
300 per cent increase in the return 
m c J e ? s t ] ian a deca <te. The matter 
ot dairy development is being actively 
pushed forward by the College of 



14 



Agriculture in Canada 



Agriculture, the whole Department 
of Agriculture and the recently 
organized Nova Scotia Dairymen's 
Association. 

Sheep raising, for which the pro- 
vince is equally well suited, has made 
no such progress as dairying. Be- 
tween 1871 and 1911 the sheep popu- 
lation of the province, in sympathy 
with the sheep population of the 
whole Dominion, decreased over 40 
per cent. Since that time it has 
slightly increased, but the increase 
has not been in any sense commen- 
surate with the possibilities. Beef 
raising except in the vicinity of the 
marsh lands has not been and does 
not promise to be as extensive an 
industry as the dairy. Hogs are in- 
creasing in sympathy with the dairy 
industry and poultry are increasing 
both in numbers and productivity. 

Unquestionably, the future of the 
agriculture of the province lies 
largely along the line of a develop- 
ment of the dairy industry accom- 
panied by a reasonable development 
of the other lines which will fit in 
with that industry. 

FRUIT GROWING IN THE PROVINCE 

Nova Scotia has a great asset in 
the so-called Annapolis Valley, which 
is really a series of valleys in the 
north-western half of the province 
about one hundred miles long by ten 
miles wide. Here the apple grows 
to perfection. Besides there are 
sections of the south shore and local 
areas elsewhere in the province 
where fruit growing can also be car- 
ried to a high stage of development. 

While fruit was grown ever since 
the early French settlement in the 
seventeenth century, yet the indus- 
try did not begin to make rapid 
strides until the year 1880, at which 
time the export of apples was about 



20,000 barrels. By 1911, this export 
had increased to over 1,500,000 bar- 
rels, and while there have been off 
years since then, when fruit produc- 
tion has fallen over 50 per cent, it is 
held that the ultimate possibilities 
are very much in excess of the present 
accomplishment. Apples are the 
principal fruit exported, but plums 
and cherries and the hardier varie- 
ties of pears all do well. Straw- 
berries and the various small fruits 
grow to perfection not only in the 
valley but throughout the whole pro- 
vince. Peaches and grapes are 
grown only to a limited extent. 

The outstanding advantages which 
the Annapolis Valley fruit-growers 
possess are: 

1. Practically every fruit-grower owns 
in addition to his orchard fifty or more 
acres of land just as well suited to general 
farming as the lands in any other part of 
the province. Consequently the fruit 
farmer may also be a general farmer and 
can make a living whether fruit sells or not. 
From the standpoint of economics in the 
province, the writer hopes that this condi- 
tion of affairs will always continue to 
exist, for it ensures ultimate prosperity 
among the fruit-growers no matter what 
may happen the fruit markets of the 
world. 

2. Transportation facilities are extremely 
favourable, no other part of America having 
easier access to the seaboard and to the 
overseas" markets of the world. 

RESUME 

A consideration of the foregoing 
must reveal to the reader the fact 
that the Nova Scotia farmer has 
only made a commencement. His 
reach far excels his grasp. There 
are ultimate possibilities as yet un- 
dreamed of and it is with respect to 
the realization of these that the 
farmers and fruit-growers of the pro- 
vince and the various members of the 
Department of Agriculture are now 
bending their very best efforts. 



NEW BRUNSWICK 

BY J. B. DAGGETT, SECRETARY FOR AGRICULTURE 



NEW Brunswick, which is the 
largest of the three Maritime 
Provincesjies mainly between 
the 45th and 48th parallels of latitude 
and the 64th and 68th degrees of 
longitude. It is almost square in 
shape and is surrounded on three 
sides by the ocean; on the north by 
the Bay Chaleur, on the east by the 
Gulf of St. Lawrence, and on the 
south by the Bay of Fundy. This 
gives it a larger coast line in propor- 
tion to its area than most continental 
countries possess. The area of the 
province is 27,985 square miles, or in 
round numbers 17,500,000 acres, 
about twenty-five per cent of which 
is occupied, with a population of 
351,889, the holdings running from 
ten to three hundred acres. 

HISTORY 

Xew Brunswick was first dis- 
covered by Jacques Cartier, a French 
explorer in the year 1534, but no 
attempt at settlement was made 
until the year 1604, when DeMonts 
and Champlain wintered on an 
island in the St. Croix River. It was 
for more than a century after this a 
French possession, being a portion of 
the province of Acadia, but, when 
Acadia passed to Great Britain under 
the Treaty of Utrecht, it formed a 
part of the English Province of 
Nova Scotia. During the French 
occupation the settlements were in- 
considerable, and it had been a long 
time in possession of the English 
before much progress was made in 
settling it, notwithstanding the re- 
markable fertility of much of its 
soil. 

The first English settlement was 
established on the St. John River in 



15 



the year 1762 at Maugerville, and 
about the same time a settlement 
was also founded at the mouth of the 
river. The people who came to New 
Brunswick at that time were from 
the colony of Massachusetts. At 
the close of the war of the American 
Revolution, large numbers of loy- 
alists came to New Brunswick, and 
the city of St. John was founded. 
New Brunswick was separated from 
Nova Scotia in the year 1784, and 
since then has enjoyed a government 
ot its own. After that time large 
numbers of immigrants came to it 
from the United Kingdom. Its 
people therefore are mainly descended 
from the loyalists and from immi- 
grants from Great Britain, but there 
is also a considerable French popu- 
lation in the counties along the Gulf 
of St. Lawrence and in Madawaska. 
These people are the descendants of 
the ancient Acadians who were settled 
here more than two centuries ago. 

WATER COMMUNICATION 

In the earlier history of the province 
the rivers of New Brunswick supplied 
a means of passing from one settle- 
ment to another, but since the de- 
velopment of railways, and the con- 
struction of good roads, the river 
system has become less important. 
Steamboats ply regularly on the St. 
John River between St. John and 
Fredencton. There are also steam- 
boats plying m the lower stretches of 

™ rj John 1 to Grand Lake and the 
Washdemoak, Belleisle and Hamp- 
stead, and to Hampton on the Kenne- 
beccasis. These boats supply ad- 
mirable facilities for the farmers in 
reaching the market at St. John, 
bteamers also ply on the St. Croix 



16 



Agriculture in Canada 




New Brunswick 



17 



between Eastport, St. Andrews and 
St. Stephen and on the Miramichi 
between Chatham, Nelson and New- 
castle, also to points above Nelson 
and below Chatham. The city of St. 
John is connected by steamer with 
Portland and Boston in the United 
States, with Yarmouth, Digby and 
other ports in Nova Scotia and with 
the island of Grand Manan. Steamers 
also run in the Bay Chaleur between 
Dalhousie and Gaspe and to Prince 
Edward Island from Point du Chene. 

CLIMATE 

New Brunswick possesses a climate 
of exceptional healthfuiness and there 
is no country in the world that 
is more free from epidemic diseases, 
or where people live to a greater age 
than in this province. The most 
northerly portion of New Brunswick 
is two degrees south of the most 
southerly portion of England, and 
the northern line of New Brunswick 
is almost a degree south of the lati- 
tude of Paris. The city of St. John 
is in the same latitude as Milan and 
Venice. The climate, however, differs 
very considerably from that of West- 
ern Europe and especially from that 
ot the British Islands. It is free 
from humidity, so that the heat and 
cold are less felt than they are in a 
damp climate. The change from 
winter to summer is sudden, and the 
autumn is protracted and long drawn 
out, and is the most delightful season 
of the year. The winter of New 
Brunswick, when the ground is cov- 
ered with snow for from three to four 
months, serves a most useful purpose 
in the economy of nature, as well as 
for the business of man. It is during 
the winter that the lumberman gets 
!*u S '^together and places them on 
the banks of the rivers ready tor the 
spring freshet. Without this season 
the business of lumbering would be 
tar more costly than it is. The snow 
and frost also have a beneficial effect 
on the soil. Under the frosts of 
winter the soil becomes loosened and 
in a fit condition to receive the seed. 



The winters of New Brunswick are 
healthful and much more favourable 
to delicate persons than a damp, 
chilly atmosphere. The summers 
of New Brunswick are delightfully 
warm, although nor excessively so. 
Vegetation advances with rapid 
strides. Not only do wheat, oats 
barley, buckwheat, and all kinds of 
root crops, grow to perfection in 
the climate of New Brunswick, but 
also maizs or Indian corn, tomatoes 
and grapes. New Brunswick also 
produces m abundance apples and all 
kinds of small fruits. 

TOPOGRAPHICAL FEATURES 

New Brunswick is what has been 
described as a rolling country, which 
means that it is not a dead level like 
the prairie regions, neither is it 
mountainous as some portions of this 
continent are. It is full of hills and 
valleys, the valleys being very fertile. 
I he highest land of the province is 
m the northern highlands. West of 
the St. John river, in York and 
Carleton counties, it rises into several 

pe ^ s ^ nd rid 2 es t0 a hei £ ht of 800 
or 900 feet, while the general level is 
about 500 feet. East of the St. 
John river the land rises to the 
watershed dividing the Tobique and 
other tributaries of the St. John from 
the nvers which flow eastward. 
Mountains and broken ranges cross 
this tract of land in all directions and 
reach the St. John valley in the 

SY 5 ¥^ Hill > which * 
1,688 feet in height. 

THE SOIL OF NEW BRUNSWICK 

Half a century ago the Govern- 
ment of New Brunswick engaged 
Professor Johnston, a distinguished 
authority on agriculture and 
honorary member of the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England and 
author of lectures on agricultural 
chemistry and geology, for the pur- 
pose of obtaining from him a report 
with respect to the agricultural 
capabilities of the province. This 
report may be said to be the basis 



18 



Agriculture in Canada 



of all the agricultural information 
which exists with reference to New 
Brunswick, although it has been 
supplemented by additional informa- 
tion which was not available at the 
time Professor Johnston visited the 
country. As no man could go over 
the country within the limited period 
allowed him for the work, Professor 
Johnston's estimate of the agri- 
cultural value of certain districts has 
had to be extensively revised. He 
divided the soils of the province into 
five classes: First, the soils of the 
very best quality consisting of river 
intervales, islands and dyked marsh 
lands, of this he estimated the 



Brunswick was quite inaccessible 
and its area was unknown. There 
is no doubt that the upland of the 
very first quality in New Brunswick 
can b? safely estimated at 3,000,000 
acres, a very large portion of which is 
still available for settlement. This 
land Professor Johnston estimated to 
be capable of producing two tons of 
hay or forty bushels of oats to the 
acre. The third class of soil dealt 
with by Professor Johnston was what 
he described as second class upland, 
that is, land capable of producing one 
and a half tons of hay or thirty 
bushels of oats to the acre. Of this 
he estimates that the province con- 




NURSERIES IN * 

province to contain 50,000 acres. 
This estimate, however, is much too 
low, and should be nearer 100,000 
acres. The second class of land which 
he described consists of the best qual- 
ity of upland and such portions of 
good intervale and marsh land as has 
not reached the highest point of 
productiveness. Professor Johnston 
estimated that the province con- 
tained a million acres of this land. 
This estimate, however, has been 
shown to be far too low. When 
Professor Johnston visited the prov- 
ince the splendid agricultural region 
n the northern portion of New 



tains 7,000,000 acres. After this 
came third class upland, inferior in 
quality to the others, consisting for 
the most part of light, sandy or 
gravelly soil, hungry but easily 
worked, and lands covered with 
hemlock and other soft woods, which, 
although difficult to clear, were very 
favourable for certain crops when 
cleared. 

Some years ago New Brunswick 
was visited by Professor Sheldon, 
then of Downton College, and a very 
practical English farmer, Mr. J. 
Sparrow. These gentlemen went 
over a considerable portion of the 



New Brunswick 



19 



province, including some of the new 
settlements, such as New Denmark, 
and were highly impressed with the 
availability from an agricultural 
point of view. Their reports on this 
subject are extremely valuable, as the 
views of persons wholly disinterested, 
and who were familiar with agricul- 
ture and agricultural methods as 
practised in the British Islands. 




LIME ROCK CRUSHER IN OPERATION 



The farmers of the province are 
organized into agricultural societies, 
under the supervision of the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. There are at 
present 124 societies, with a total 
membership of about 9,000. An 
annual grant of $16,500 is made by 
the Government of the province to 
the societies, which must be used in 



the improvement of seed, live-stock, 
etc. There are also 82 women's 
institutes, with a membership of 
2,500. Ninety-five per cent of these 
are in the rural districts. The Pro- 
vincial Government gives generous 
assistance in the work of the insti- 
tutes. 

Agricultural education is being 
carefully considered by the Govern- 
ment of the province, 
special attention be- 
ing given to elemen- 
tary agriculture. 
School gardens are 
being encouraged and 
generously assisted. 
During the summer 
months short courses 
are held at Wood- 
stock and Sussex for 
the training of teach- 
ers in elementary ag- 
riculture. These 
courses are very large- 
ly attended. Special 
short sourses are held 
at several points 
during the winter 
months; in fact, the 
entire winter is pretty 
much given to short 
course work. These 
courses are especially 
planned to meet the 
needs of those who 
cannot take advant- 
age of the long courses 
at the regular agri- 
cultural colleges. 
This is the third 
year since the courses 
were instituted and 
they have been stead- 
rru u j i] y Rowing in favour. 
1 he abundance of New Brunswick 
lands pre-eminently adapted to the 
successful production of the apple 
and other fruits, together with the 
unexcelled social and marketing 
facilities afforded by their geographi- 
cal position, have of late years 
attracted a large amount of interest 
and favourable comment, and the 



20 



Agriculture in Canada 



Department of Agriculture now feels 
that nothing short of a special 
publication, devoted exclusively to 
the orcharding opportunities in the 
province, will meet the requests for 
information being received from all 
parts of the world. 

To men of moderate capital with a 
preference for fruit growing, or either 
of its kindred businesses, market 
gardening and poultry raising, New 
Brunswick offers special advantages. 
Such men feel that the price of land 
in the sections of Canada where fruit 
growing is of older establishment is 
altogether prohibitive, and they wish 
to locate more economically. From 
the fact that the province has not 
been exploited as a commercial 
orcharding country, she is able to 
offer many excellent farm properties, 
considerable proportions of which 
are well adapted to fruit growing, at 
prices ranging from $20 to $40 per 



acre, according to the location, the 
state of cultivation, the percentage 
of land cleared, and the presence 
there-on of buildings, etc. Five, ten 
and fifteen-acre lots of choice fruit 
land cleared and ready for planting, 
and especially selected with refer- 
ence to transportation facilities, etc. 
will cost from $50 to $100 per acre. 

The northern part of the province 
is especially adapted to the growing 
of potatoes, a quality of potatoes 
being produced in that section which 
has found very special favour in both 
the American and Canadian markets. 

During the year 1915 crops pro- 
duced in the province were as fol- 
lows: — 

Buckwheat 1,085,449 bushels 

Oats 5,841,850 

Potatoes 8,384,591 

Turnips 3,733,763 

Wheat 268,899 






QUEBEC 

BY H. NAGANT, EDITOR OF THE JOURNAL D'AGRICULTURE 



THE province of Quebec covers 
703,653 square miles, or 
450,337,762 acres, including 
New Quebec, formerly Ungava Ter- 
ritory, the annexation of which in 
1912 has doubled the area of the 
province. It is the largest province 
of the Dominion. 

According to the Census of 1911, 
the rural population of the province 
numbered 1,032,618 and the urban 
population 970,094 a total of 
2,002,712. French-Canadians num- 
ber 1,605,339 or 80.14 per cent of 
the total population. 

The land occupied covers an area 
of 15,576,809 acres, of which 
8,147,633 acres are improved (arable 
land). Out of this total, 5,204,874 
acres are in forests, 560,889 in 
marshes, 5,399,223 in field crops, 
63,216 in vegetables and 36,730 in 
orchards, nurseries, small fruits, etc. 

There are 130,000,000 acres in 
forests. 

Large areas are still open to the 
settler. 

HISTORICAL NOTES 

Samuel de Champlain, who had 
just laid the foundations of the city 
of Quebec (1608) expressed his faith 
in the agricultural future of Canada 
by saying: 

"It will be a great grain and grass pro- 
ducing country; first of all it requires 
farmers/' 



21 



As early as 1613, he wrote: 

"We always had difficulties in haying 
during the last few years because hay was 
cut too late. To avoid this, I had the hay 
at Cape Tourmente cut in the month of 
August this year." 

Cattle were imported in the first 
days of the colony. In 1626, Cham- 
plain established a farm at the foot 
of Cap Tourmente, for which cattle 
were sent from Quebec. 



THE FIRST FARMER 

But the first farmer settler who 
lived on the produce of the soil was 
Louis Hebert, an apothecary from 
Paris, who landed in Quebec in 1617 
with his wife and children, and at 
once started to clear and cultivate 
the soil on what is now the site of 
ths Cathedral of Quebec, of the 
Seminary and of this part of the 
Upper Town extending from Ste- 
Famille street to the Hotel-Dieu. 
At that time, that part of the city 
was called "Hebert's Farm". With 
a spade as his only tool, he worked 
and re-worked the soil, until it was 
ready to receive seed. He threw in 
the seed from France, planted apple 
and rose trees and, at last, saw un- 
dulating in the breeze, the golden 
ears, the flowers and fruits from his 
motherland. The third centenary 
of the landing of Louis Hebert will be 
commemorated in Quebec in 1917 



22 



Agriculture in Canada 



and a citizens' committee has been 
formed to erect a monument to the 
first farmer of the colony. 

The second pioneer in agriculture 
was Guillaume Couillard, Hebert's 
son-in-law, who is mentioned by 
Champlain as being possessor, in 
1629, of seven or eight arpents of 
seeded land. 

OTHER PIONEERS 

Later came Abraham Martin, who 
also farmed for a living, 1643-1646, 



In the district of Three Rivers, 
Pierre Boucher encouraged agri- 
culture as Seigneur and as farmer. 
He claimed that all crops grew well 
and that he found in the gardens 
almost all the vegetables and many 
of the flowers known in Europe. 

In Montreal, Pierre Gadois took 
possession, in 1648, of the land on 
which the Ste-Anne market is now 
situated and became one of the 
first habitants. Let us also mention 
among the first settlers the names of 




RESIDENCE, BARNS AND STABLES OF M. PAPHUS BONIN, STE. ELIZABETH, 
JOLIETTE COUNTY, QUEBEC 



the land which was subsequently 
known as " Plains of Abraham", and 
which became (in 1759), the battle- 
field of the armies of Wolfe and 
Montcalm. 

Another early pioneer, Robert 
Giffard, also gave his time to agri- 
culture, and we are told that he 
grew large crops of wheat, peas and 
corn. So much for the Quebec 
district. 



Maisonneuve, Simon Richomme, 
Blaise Guillet, Leonard Lucault, 
Francois Gode. The blood of these 
pioneers of agriculture still runs in 
the veins of a large number of 
Canadian families, who are proud to 
claim them as ancestors. 

The land produced good crops: 
" Providence has so blessed our 
labours", wrote Reverend Mere de 
Flncarnation, Superior of the Ursu- 



Quebec 



23 



lines at Quebec, in 1650, "that the 
land gives very good wheat and in 
sufficient quantity. The air is 
warmer now that the land is cleared 
and that those great forests which 
kept it so cold have been partly 
removed. " ' * 

AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATION 

The agricultural organization of 
the province covers three phases of 
development : 

Seigneuries.— As late as 1626 
there was no regular system of 
colonization in New France and the 
system established on that date was 
based on what is called the "tenure 
seigneuriale". similar to that pre- 
vailing in old France, but modified 
according to the circumstances. Two 
hundred and fifty seigneuries were 
established under the French regime 
and four new ones under the English 
regime. This system, which lasted 
until 1854, facilitated the organiza- 
tion and the development of the 
rural population, by insuring its 
stability and by encouraging its 
grouping into parishes. At least 
torty-seven parishes were estab- 
lished between the beginning of the 
colony and the year 1700. At the 
present time 275 families are still 
living on land which was occupied by 
their ancestors before 1700, living 
witnesses after eight or ten genera- 
tions of the energy of the first 
pioneers, who firmly attached them- 
selves to the soil they had cleared. 

Colonization of the Eastern Town- 
ships.— While the French-Canadian 
habitants had established them- 
selves on both shores of the St. 
Lawrence the district more to the 
south, and now known as the Eastern 
Townships, was settled about the 
end of the 18th centuiy by English 
farmers or settlers. This settlement, 
which was started in 1774, made 
some progress between 1784 and 
1799, and great progress from 1800 
to 1817, when the French element 
from the seigneuries came to estab- 
lish themselves in proximity to the 



English families which had formed 
the townships. In 1875, there were a 
large number of French-Canadians 
in 36 of the English Townships. 

Settlement in our times.— New dis- 
tricts were opened by a third group of 
settlers, leaving the old settlements 
towards the middle of the 19th 
century. In this way were created 
the first establishments of Lake St. 
John and Chicoutimi in 1840, Lake 
Temiskaming in 1860, Matawan 
Valley in 1863, Matapedia Valley in 
1870 and Lake Nomining in 1880. 

IMPORTATION OF LIVE STOCK 

It is very probable that the first 
cattle imported by Champlain in 
1608 came from Normandy. The 
French- Canadian cattle, which are 
now found in pastures of the prov- 
ince of Quebec, came from cattle 
imported by Champlain. Boucher 
says: 

"In 1663, oxen, pigs, sheep, dogs, cats, 
turkeys and pigeons were imported from 
France." 

The first horse brought to Quebec 
in 1647 was presented to the 
governor, M. de Montmagny. Other 
horses sent by the King of France, 
Louis XIV, were forwarded in 1665, 
1667 and 1670, and were placed, 
under certain conditions in charge 
of the habitants. 

The Canadian horse of the 17th 
century was extremely popular for a 
period of 150 years, and was looked 
upon as the best horse in Canada. 
This was the cause of its disappear- 
ance, as the best stallions of the 
breed were purchased by Americans, 
only a small number being left, by 
means of which, however, the breed 
was reconstituted gradually, thanks 
to the efforts of enthusiastic agri- 
culturists and of the breeders' asso- 
ciation of the province. 

Later importations.— The real 
breed of French-Canadian cattle 
has had a Herd Book since 1886 
There are now in Quebec eight 
other breeds of cattle. Ayrshires 



24 



Agriculture in Canada 



and Shorthorns were imported in 
1830, Galloways and Herefords in 
1850, Jerseys in 1865, Guernseys 
and Polled Angus in 1878 and 
Holsteins in 1881. 

As to the horses, with the excep- 
tion of the Canadian horse, the 
Clydesdales were imported in 1840, 
Percherons in 1855, Suffolks in 1868, 
Shires in 1883, Anglo-Normands, 
Normands and Bretons in 1889 and 
Belgians in 1902. 

Up to the last forty years the 
Quebec farmer never kept enough 



into the district of Montreal. After 
1854, the Cotswolds made their 
appearance; in 1880, came the 
Shropshires and, later on, the Ox- 
fords and Lincolns. 

Pigs. — Pigs of the Berkshire breed 
were imported into the Montreal 
district in 1835; until then there 
was only the common breed imported 
from France. The introduction of 
other foreign breeds, American and 
English, such as Chester- White, Es- 
sex, Poland China and Yorkshire, is 
due to the influence of the Board of 




I 'RENCH CANADIAN COW -'FILLIE," 2130, A TYPICAL REPRESENTATIVE OF THE 
NATIVE BREED OF CATTLE OF THE PROVINCE 



stock on his land. On the other 
hand, horse breeding was carried on 
to such an exaggerated extent that 
Intendant Raudot, in 1709, had to 
issue a decree with a view to reduce 
the number of horses and encourage 
the breeding of cattle. 

Sheep. — In addition to the sheep 
already in the country, American 
immigrants brought with them grade 
sheep of various breeds. Towards 
1850, Merinos, Leicesters and South- 
downs were imported from Ontario 



Agriculture, established in 1853. The 
last breed introduced was the Tam- 
worth, a bacon hog which appeared 
in 1895. 

CULTIVATION OF THE SOIL 

During two centuries and a half, 
the French-Canadian farmer fol- 
lowed a system which consisted in 
ploughing half the land in three con- 
secutive years. The greater part of 
this ploughed area was seeded with 
cereals, a very small part was 



Quebec 



25 



planted in roots, and during these 
three years the other half was kept 
for the production of hay and as 
pasture for the live stock. The 
pasture was ploughed in the fourth 
year and the plough-d land was used 
as pasture for three years, and so on. 
\ ery little live stock was kept com- 
pared to the area of the farm; 
some cows and horses, a small flock 
of sheep and a few hogs and fowls. 
The small quantity of manure that 
was produced was applied to the 
root land. Potatoes, which are now 



PERIOD OF TRANSITION 

Writes Turcotte in "Le Canada, 
Sous V Union :" 

" When Canada passed under the Eng- 
lish domination, French Canadians num- 
bered about 65,000. They were left in a 
critical situation by the conquest. Most 
of them were ruined. They were aban- 
doned by most of their leaders: nobles, 
influential citizens, officers, educated men, 
and they lost, owing to this compulsory or 
voluntary migration, an element of the 
population valuable by its knowledge and 
experience. However, they were not to be 
discouraged. With the help of the Cath- 




THE ORCHARD \\l> APIARY OF M. LUC DtJPUIS VILLAGE DES AULNAIES 
COUNTY i. 'ISLET. QUEB1 



grown in large quantities, were long 
unknown and were grown for the 
first time in 1758. 

This system was not very scien- 
tific, but the soil of New France was 
so rich that for over a century the 
Quebec farmers had good crops. 
Grain, roots and hay were always in 
abundance and in 1749 they were 
exported by Quebec merchants. At 
the beginning of the colony the 
agricultural industries were flax and 
wool for clothing, butter, cheese and 
maple sugar. 



olic clergy they isolated themselves from 
their conquerors and by this fact, from the 
rest of the universe, to cultivate their 
istated lands and worked with energy 
to repair their losses." 

They belonged to a strong and 
healthy race, these farmers whom 
the English General Murray ad- 
mired, in 1762, and whom he found 
virtuous in their morals and tem- 
perate in their mode of living: 

"They will become good and faithful 
subjects of His Majesty and the country in 
which they live will be before long a rich 
and valuable colony of Great Britain M 



26 



Agriculture in Canada 



But these valiant farmers resisted 
all attempts of absorption on the 
part of their conquerors, and the 
second English governor, Carleton, 
writes to Lord Shelburne: 

"The Canadian race is so prolific that it 
will eventually populate this country to 
such an extent that any other people that 
will be brought to Canada would be en- 
tirely absorbed, except in the cities of 
Quebec and Montreal." 

For almost a century, agriculture, 
hampered by isolation and the lack 
of agricultural organization, could 
not make appreciable progress. In 
1850 it was still limited to the 
growing of cereals without fertilizers 
and to the growing of hay in meadows 
that had been seeded to grasses or 
clovers. The soil which had been so 
fertile still gave crops, but in de- 
creasing quantity every year, as no 
manure was ever applied. 

Our governors and legislators were 
too much engrossed by the serious 
political events which took place 
almost continuously from 1760 to 
1845 to give any attention to agri- 
culture. In 1845, there was, as yet 
in the province of Quebec, no organi- 
zation whatever to protect or en- 
courage the interests of the agri- 
cultural community. 

In 1847, the government, realizing 
the great needs of the industry 
introduced in the legislature the first 
bill concerning agriculture. By this 
law the formation of agricultural 
societies was authorized, the govern- 
ment agreeing to give subventions 
amounting to three times the amount 
subscribed by the members of these 
associations. This money was to be 
used as prizes at fairs or used for the 
importation of live stock and to 
purchase improved seeds. However, 
these associations, left to themselves 
and lacking experience and direction, 
did almost nothing. 

Five years later (1852) a law was 
passed creating the Department of 
Agriculture, the Board of Agricul- 
ture, and authorizing the establish- 
ment of schools of agriculture and 
model farms. But the most useful 



work of the Board of Agriculture 
(which became the Council of Agri- 
culture in 1869), in addition to a few 
improvements from 1853 to 1880, 
was the encouragement given to the 
breeding of Ayrshire cattle and to the 
improvement of the breeds of pigs 
(Dr. J. A. Couture, Quebec, 1908). 

But, after all, if agriculture had 
not made very marked progress, 
work was going on preparatory to a 
more rapid progress which, for the 
last forty years, has not been checked 
and has taken, specially during the 
last few years, a magnificent de- 
velopment, in all the branches of 
farm husbandry. 

TO-DAY 

The province of Quebec now has a 
model agricultural organization and 
we are witnessing with confidence the 
development of the resources which 
Divine Providence has sown with 
such a lavish hand on our magnifi- 
cent country, and which only requires 
the persevering efforts of our rural 
population to reach a full develop- 
ment. 

VALUE OF THE FIELD CROPS OF THE 
PROVINCE FOR THE YEAR 1915 



Wheat, 
Oats. . . 
Barley. 
Rye. . . 
Peas. . . 
Beans. 



$ 1,891,000 

23,200,000 

1,939,000 

162,000 

998,000 

327,000 

Buckwheat 2,157,000 

Mixed grains 2,188,000 

f la 5 15,000 

Seed corn 569,000 

Potatoes 9,631.000 

Turnips etc 1,132,000 

Hay and clover 58,507,000 

Fodder com 1,872,000 

Alfalfa 95,000 



Total value of crops $104,683,000 

This regeneration of agriculture in 
the province of Quebec, and the 
prosperity which it now enjoys, are 
due in a large measure to the develop- 
ment of the dairy industry. 

The production of milk which, in 
1900, was valued at $21,000,000, 



Quebec 



27 



amounted to $31,000,000 in 1910 and 
had reached in 1915 an approximate 
value of $35,000,000, or an increase 
of $1,000,000 annually. 

According to Mr. G. E. Marquis, 
chief of the Quebec Statistical Office, 
the creameries and cheese factories 
of the province manufactured in 
1915, butter and cheese valued at 
$17,302,400. 

THE CLIMATE OF THE PROVINCE 

Considering the climate and the 
length of the season, the province of 
Quebec may be divided into three 
districts: one extending from Gaspe 
to Rimouski, another one from Ri- 
mouski to Three Rivers and the 
third from Three Rivers, towards the 
West, to the frontiers of the province 
in the county of Soulanges. The first 
district has a very damp climate 
owing to its proximity to the At- 
lantic Ocean and the temperature 
varies between 30 and 80 degrees F. 
The land can be worked only from 
the 20th of May to the 15th of 
October (about five months) . In the 
second district the season is much 
longer (six months) and the tem- 
perature varies from 30 to 90 de- 
grees F. The third district has the 
largest variation of temperature (27 
to 93 degrees P.), and the longest 
season of cultivation, from April 20th 
to November 20th (seven months). 

The rigour of the Canadian climate 
is no obstacle to the growing of grain, 
fodder plants, roots and fruit; quite 
the contrary. The province of Que- 



bec has an exceptional productivity; 
breeding operations are in no wise 
hindered by the snow; the cattle have 
a remarkable strength, which, to a 
great extent, wards off contagious 
diseases. Snow gives the land an 
absolute rest; in the spring, water 
from the melting snows permeates 
the soil and prepares it for a rapid 
and healthy growth. 

CONCLUSION 

It has been said that this province 
is the country of milk, sugar (maple 
sugar) and honey; to this may be 
added the fact that the soil and 
climate are also favourable for the 
breeding of all farm live stock (cattle 
sheep, pigs, fowls, etc.), for which 
almost unlimited markets are open. 
From this point of view, the province 
of Quebec possesses immense re- 
sources still undeveloped. 

Our rural population, intelligent 
and active, helped and encouraged by 
the efforts of the provincial Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, progresses con- 
tinuously and brilliant prosperity 
may be hoped for. 



N.B. — In the preparation of these 
notes, I consulted the works of several 
competent authors such as those of the 
Rev. Ivanhoe Caron, Agricultural Mission- 
ary, Mr. G. E. Marquis, chief of the Que- 
bec Statistical Office, and specially the 
"Three Centuries of Agriculture" (pub- 
lished in one of the volumes of "Canada 
and its provinces") by Mr. J. C. Chapais, 
Assistant Dairy Commissioner. 



ONTARIO 

BY W. BERT RQADHOUSE, DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE 



TO visualize the extent of the 
province of Ontario a few 
Tn tfc» C ? m P ar , lsons may be helpful. 
In the first place take the British 
Isles and multiply them by three 

ft* ^^ or take France with 
its wea lth and resources ^ 1 1 

Ply its area by two, or even take 
Germany and double its size and you 



ican Republic. With these geo- 
graphical comparisons in mind then 
it can be appreciated that the entire 
extent of the province is slightly 
over two hundred and sixty million 
acres. Of this, of course, compara- 
tively only a small portion is as yet 
developed. A very large amount, 
probably over thirty million acres, 




A TYPICAL ONTARIO FARM SCENE 



X1L ♦£ e an area whlch is waller 
than the aggregate area of the prov- 
ince of Ontario. For comparisons 
on our own continent it would be 
necessary to take nine or ten of the 
average Eastern States of the Amer- 



28 



is covered by great lakes and some 

55 SfcSs, tTro e nS h an s 

which includes a great hnuV £ Jt 
Population repre S e^s a Uo U ut k twin? y e - 



Ontario 



29 



five million assessed acres, of which 
about fifteen million acres are cleared. 
There is in addition the vast region 
known as New Ontario, which in- 
cludes the clay belt, which alone is 
estimated to contain twenty million 
acres. This is now being opened up 
and there is no doubt but what there 
are agricultural possibilities as yet 
untouched far greater than what have 
so far been developed. This gives 
scope for work for years to come, but 
the purpose of this article is to out- 
line what has been accomplished 
rather than attempt to unfold the 
future. 



ought else. Accordingly they left 
their homes and everything almost 
that they possessed in order to live 
in British territory. Immigration 
continued very slowly at first but 
after the European wars of 1816 a 
considerable flow of immigration 
from the British Isles started this 
way. Included among these were 
many of the very best types of Eng- 
lish, Irish and Scotch blood, and to 
these men, together with the United 
Empire Loyalists of the earlier days 
and their respective descendants, 
is due the enduring credit for having 
laid so well the foundations of this 




A FARM SCENE IN NEW ONTARIO 



EVOLUTION OF THE PROVINCE 

. It is not yet a century and one-half 
since even the best settled sections 
ot Ontario were but a vast forest, 
tractless, except for the trail of the 
Indian. It was British territory, 
however, and when the American 
War of Independence wrenched the 
English settlers along the Atlantic 
coast from beneath the British flag, 
there were ten thousand or more 
sturdy Britishers who thought more 
of their British connection than of 



province. 

STAGES IN DEVELOPMENT 

There is no doubt but that Ontario, 
or Upper-Canada, as it was then 
called, had many attractions for the 
settler even in its early days. Its 
soil was fertile, its land was rolling, 
rivers and lakes abounded everywhere 
and there was a variable conformation 
which was also attractive. Even 
the sturdy forests did not daunt the 
stout hearts of the rugged pioneers. 



30 



Agriculture in Canada 



Then too it was practically the last 
West available to adventurous spirits, 
for in those early days few had 
dreamed of the possibilities of the 
prairies beyond. The first settle- 
ment was along the lakes and rivers 
which constituted the means of 
necessary transportation. Gradu- 
ally the forests were pushed farther 
back and still better homes arose 
and to-day, if one would picture the 
development which has taken place 
one must place on one side the al- 
most unbroken forest of a century 
ago, and on the other side the nearly 



3 t£f * lly ' against the P ictu re 
nL^ t farm ? r of to-day who in his 
new automobile speeds gaily over the 
same twenty-five miles of road in a 

scenP T tha i a ~ n hour " To this 
adrW tvf rUral 0ntario must be 
added the scores of prosperous and 

STff !? towns and cities which 
are dotted every few miles and play 

PonL PJU ?- m serving the Provincial 
* Un L tles af well as the great 
country beyond. 

The population of Ontario has 
snown a steady and uninterrupted 
increase. What fluctuations there 




ELECTRICITY FOR POWER AS WELL AS LIGHT 



two hundred thousand splendid farm 
homes and buildings, reached by 
Wty-flve thousand miles of rural 
highways and served by three thou- 
sand miles of steam railways and 
about five hundred miles of electric 
railways, and equipped with approxi- 
mately eighty-five thousand rural 
telephones. To this contrast one is 
also tempted to add the contrast of 
the early pioneer, who shouldered a 
bag of wheat on his back and trudged 
twenty-five miles to the nearest mill 
taking the flour home to make bread 



IS BEING ADOPTED ON MANY ONTARIO 



FARMS 



5fY e .been as to the rural and urban 
distributions! At first of course, 

wheTVi" 1 ? 1 ? ntirely rura1 ' but 
wnen the clearings assumed even 

W Q i P r° porti ^ ns v"'^ 8 and ^wns 
3 ° s P ri . ng U P- In 1871 the 
rural population represented 80.6 

P en,f nt ^ the whole and in 1881 it 
rB S n nted ™.2 per cent. The 
[n ?ss P i PUlat i° n reached its highest 
irqiX' and ^tween that time and 
rS Jf 6 W f? a s,ig ht decline. The 
wa? nn2 PUl ^!° n in the last census 
was one million two hundred and 



Ontario 



31 



ninety-five thousand three hundred 
and twenty-three (1,295,323) against 
eight hundred and eighteen thousand 
2 hu ? dred and ninety-nine (818,- 
999) urban. In the early nineties 
there was a slight trend to the West 
and this gained in volume in the 
latter part of the nineteenth century 
and early part of the twentieth. 



the low prices of agricultural produce 
created an economic condition which 
made the openings of the West look 
specially attractive. As the tide 
flowed to the West another economic 
factor developed. The West being 
largely agricultural, it required to be 
clothed and fed on other things than 
cereals and consequently there was 




SHADED ROADWAYS LIKE THIS MAKE 

Along with these Western opportun- 
ities, mechanical inventions light- 
ened farm work so that fewer men 
were actually required on the land. 
Kirthermore the number of men on 
!J and m 0nta ™ was out of pro- 
portion to the number of consumers 
in other pursuits, and, consequently, 




ONTARIO LANDSCAPE PICTURESQUE 

a market created for the products 
of Ontario factories, and these in turn 
created a demand for help in Ontario 
factories to supply the Western needs. 
Rural Ontario from 1891 to 1911 
contributed about one hundred thou- 
sand (100,000) of her sturdiest and 
best sons and daughters. The rural 



32 



Agriculture in Canada 



population as disclosed in the last 
census of 1911 was one million one 
hundred and ninety four thousand 
seven hundred and eighty five 
(1,194,785), as compared to an urban 
population of one million three 
hundred and twenty eight thousand 
four hundred and eighty nine (1,328,- 
489) . Hence the balance was entire- 
ly changed and the result was an 
improvement in market conditions 
and better prices for agricultural 
produce. The decrease in the rural 
population, however, is worthy of 



The early settlers laid the foundation 
}+ )y e stoek indus try by bringing 
out to Ontario some splendid speci- 
mens of horses, cattle, sheep and 
swinewinch flourished in the old land. 
At the same time it must be noted 
tftat in early years growing of both 
iau and spring wheat and barley 
as cash crops was a general practice, 
liooking back over twenty-five years 
only it is interesting to note the 
changes which have taken place in 
this regard. While the change in 
regard to fall wheat is not so notice- 




SEEDING OPERATIONS ON AN ONTARIO FARM 



special note in the subsequent con 

ii:vv he p^d U r of x 

E* hZ W 5 1Ch ' ^withstanding this 
tact, has shown material increase. 

EVOLUTION IN FARMING 

wJf J°T d > condit ions of soil, 

^ S i he T Pr ° ducts from 0n tario farms 
have always set a high standard! 

constituted a branch of activities 

Sirelv S .? r ° VmCe . has never been so 
entirely given up to grain growing as 

have some of the newer provinces 



able, there is on the whole a striking 
decrease in the acreage devoted to 
wheat and barley, and an equally 
striking increase in the acreage de- 
voted to oats, corn, hay and clover, as 
well as roots and mixed grains for 
feeding. Along with this there has 
been a steady increase in the number 
of Jive stock, and there has been an 
entirely beneficial tendency to feed 
the stock of the farm on the farm 
and to sell the finished article on the 
market. The following figures as to 
acreages in 1890 and 1914 may be of 
interest: — 



Ontario 



33 



1890 
1914 



F. Wheat 



720,101 
685,692 



S. Wheat 



601,753 

118,607 



Barley 



701,326 
579,473 



Oats 



1,882,366 
2,776,883 



Corn Hay and Clover 



223,836 

708,922 



2,462,002 
3,415,484 



Along with this it is interesting to 
note the increases in live stock over 
the twenty-five year period. Of 
course there have been fluctuations 
from year to year in that time, but 
the following figures tell the story:— 



generally to beef cattle, but herds 
of beef cattle and swine may be 
found in every county. 

There is now in the province a fruit 
industry which represents possibly 
twenty million dollars annually, and 




A PICTURESQUE SCENE, BUT ALSO SUGGESTIVE OF THE WEALTH OF ONTARIO'S 

DAIRY INDUSTRY 



1890 

p° rs * s i, 659,636 

Milch Cows .... 777 838 

Other Cattle .... l,lie'874 

Sfiae l,14o!559 

Sneep 1,339,695 

Poultry 6,854,864 



1915 

779,131 

1,022,518 

1,652,228 

1,769,295 

908,095 

14,273,091 



SPECIALIZED FARMING 

Practically all parts of what is 
known as Old Ontario are now en- 
gaged in mixed farming with most 
farms having some line on which 
they specialize. Dairying is adopted 
very generally in Eastern Ontario, 
where there are nearly nine hundred 
cheese factories, and in Western On- 
tario, where there are a large number 
of creameries and a few cheese fac- 
tories. In the more northerly coun- 
ties, districts are devoted more 



a vegetable industry which aggregates 
several million dollars. Fruit grow- 
ing has flourished in Ontario and 75 
per cent of all the fruit in the Domin- 
ion is grown in this province. This 
includes 99 per cent of the peaches 
and grapes, 60 per cent of the plums, 
70 per cent of the apples and 80 per 
cent of pears and small fruits. The 
peach-growing areas are located for 
the most part in the Niagara district 
skirting Lake Ontario as far west as 
Niagara, but new and promising dis- 
tricts are now being developed in Nor- 
folk, Essex, and Lambton counties. 
The Niagara district is also the large 
vineyard of the province, but plums 
and apples are grown in most sections. 
The special apple sections, however, 
are in Western Ontario, especially 



34 



Agriculture in Canada 



along Lake Erie and Lake Huron 
and north as far as Georgian Bay, 
and in Eastern Ontario along Lake 
Ontario and the St. Lawrence, in- 
cluding in the latter Dundas county, 
which is the native home of the fam- 
ous Mcintosh Red apple, now com- 
memorated by a monument markino- 
the place where the first Mcintosh 
tree was grown over one hundred 
years ago. Altogether 306,767 acres 
are devoted to orchards, 24,360 to 
small fruits and 11,136 to vineyards 
The products are marketed in the 
provinces in the West and to some 
extent in the export markets of Great 
Britain. 



country home. This movement has 
assumed considerable popularity in 
the vicinity of the larger centres and 
is likely to continue in the years to 
come. J 

Ontario's annual returns from her 
fields aggregate in a good year over 
two hundred million dollars. To 
this should be added possibly over 
another one hundred million from 
ner live stock products. Thus it is 
seen, in spite of the very substantial 
contribution which the province 
has made towards the building up'of 
the other provinces of Canada,^ a 
contribution which she does not be- 
grudge and which has undoubtedly 




FARM HOMES LIKE THIS ARF mht ttxt^ 

THIS ARE NOT UNCOMMON IN THE NIAGARA FRUIT BELT 

Another phase of the development }*»„ k^ c • , , 
">nt*rio d™™i+„™ Jts.™ been beneficial from a national stand 



of Ontario agriculture which may be 
mentioned is the number of splendid 
country estates which are being built 
up adjacent to our large towns and 
cities. There has in recent years 
been a considerable trend, on the part 
of the men who have made their 
money in other pursuits, to purchase 
the old homestead, or some other 



good farm, and appreciating it for plemente an^r^' W^ im " 
its agricultural value m ake it also a vin™- lmj stock in this P ro " 



Pomt as well as conducing to indi- 
w 1 Plenty in many cases, she 
nas at the same time succeeded in 
showing progress at home. To fur- 
£?£ eni P hasi ze this point it is of 
interest to quote the following figures 

tT ng A th T contrast in twenty-five 
SiS el ° pn ! ent , in connection 



1890. 
1914.. 



Farm Land 



622,886,000 
790,538,706 



Buildings 

193,438,826 
347,348,643 



Implements 

50,515,583 
91,703,876 



Live Stock 

104,086,626 

250,870,078 



Total Farm Property 

970,927,035 
1,480,461,303 



Ontario 



35 



In connection with this develop- 
ment the work of the Ontario De- 
partment of Agriculture has un- 
doubtedly had an important phase 
as a guiding factor, but that is an- 
other story, which space does not 
permit being told here. 

AS TO THE FUTURE 

As to the future there is scarcely 



maintained, and in many cases it is 
possible to point to larger returns 
per acre in recent years than in years 
long gone by. There is a growing 
demand on the part of the farmers 
in general for knowledge of the best 
methods, and there is every reason to 
believe that the rising generation will 
maintain, if not surpass, the efforts 
of the generation now passing away. 
With the splendid resources which 




APPLE BLOSSOM TIME IN OLD ONTARIO WHERE SEVENTY-FIVE PER CENT 
OF THE FRUIT OF CANADA IS GR< 



room for anything but optimism. 
Ontario, because of the diversity of 
the agriculture of the province, as 
above outlined, has many problems 
to face which are not in evidence m 
other provinces, but there is every 
reason to believe that these problems 
will be solved to the advantage of the 
people as a whole. The fertility of 
the soil, which is the basis of agricul- 
ture, is for the most part being well 



this province, therefore, possesses, 
unequalled anywhere on the contin- 
ent, with the advantages in the way 
of markets and increasing conveni- 
ences which population make possi- 
ble, there is every reason for stating 
that the progress of the past will be 
fully duplicated by achievements of 
the future in Old Ontario, the Mother 
of Provinces. 



MANITOBA 



BY GEORGE BATHO, EDITOR OF AGRICIJITITpa, o„ d , 

of U a L JrTuJu J r B e ICATIONS> man "oba DEPARTMENT 



NL^ y f 1 % Man , itoba in the 
S. ^ f f Canada geographi- 
cally, but in many other re- 
spects it stands, in the conditions 

w Ch * represents > about midway 
between the extremes. More than 

ft n ble°nd e s r t P hr in f *? the Domin ^ 
it blends the maturity and develop 

ment of the East with the o PP o?: 

tunity and freshness of the WeS 

AREA AND DESCRIPTION 

251 , 8?2 t0 o 1 S area °/ Manitoba is 

2! T are miles > ° f which, 

roughly, about nine-tenths is land 
surface and one-tenth water The 
7$"^? dlSt£ T e north and south t 
492 Sfr a p d S 6 ***** wi ^h s 

evfr ZJf the time bein *' how- 
ever these figures are practically 

meaningless, as the great rtStehS 

whir JVi qi northern hinterland, 
which in 1912 were added to the 
almost perfect square that the prov! 
ince formerly presented, are not as 
f W °f Upied °I ex P!oited except by 

Pu55Tni Ur t + raders ^ Prospwtore. 
Putting our tape across the southern 
and older portion of Manitoba «£ 
once dubbed/'postage stamp'' 'part 

extends SS1T' W t find that it 
exxenas ^76 miles east and west and 

™»g southward to the inter- 
national boundary line from Bowl- 
man, which is the most northed 



36 



agricultural settlement, we have a 
distance of 225 miles. Even these 
figures might suggest a very exag- 
gerated notion as to the amount of 
land occupied for agricultural pur- 
poses for, even though Manitoba is 
the longest-settled of the three 
prairie provinces, it has still big 
areas of arable land that are not 
occupied by farmers. The official 
Tr^ns for the current year show us 
that Manitoba has, in 1916, a total 
area under all crops of 6,583,387 
acres, which, if all pushed together 
into a solid square block, would 
measure 101 miles either way. These 
figures however, take no account of 
lands being summer fallowed, nor 
yet of those being used for pasture, 
and the latter, especially, would be 
hard to gauge, as with so much un- 
lenced area, where occupancy is as 
yet on a free and easy basis, it is 
very difficult even to estimate what 
acreage of land is grazed. 

The two principal variations from 
the agricultural landscape which are 
to be found in the southern half of 
Manitoba are the three big lakes 
(Winnipeg, Manitoba and Winni- 
Pegosis) and the hilly timbered 
country known as the Duck Moun- 
w mS -md the Riding Mountains. 
When it is observed that Lake Winni- 
peg is 250 miles in length and 65 
miles wide, it will be seen that these 



Manitoba 



37 



natural features are of considerable 
account, and no doubt they exercise 
an influence upon the climate in the 
way of increasing summer rainfall 
and comparative immunity from 
summer frosts. 

The altitude of most of the agri- 
cultural land of Manitoba lies be- 
tween 750 feet and 1,700 feet above 
sea level The Red River valley 
lands lie lower than any other area 
now being farmed in the province, 
and the most elevated lands occupied 
are along the south slopes of the 
Riding Mountains, where some very 
excellent farms are well up to the 
maximum heights of these hills. 

The subsoil almost universally is 
clay, with a dark mould overtop. 
In the Red River valley the soil is 
much heavier and denser than farther 
west, where, mainly, the top stratum 
has in it a generous admixture of 
sand. Though boulders abound in 
a few areas, the older portion of the 
province as a whole is largely devoid 
of loose surface stones, there being 
in many localities not enough for 
building foundations. 

Perhaps three-quarters of that 
portion of the province so far settled 
was found by the farmer in a condi- 
tion of open prairie, while the other 
one-quarter has been lightly tim- 
bered, mainly with scattered groves 
of aspen poplar and in some cases by 
willows or thinly studded scrub oaks. 
The open prairie being the easiest of 
all kinds of wild land to bring under 
the plough it is natural that it 
should have been selected for the 
earliest settlement. That the wooded 
land, when cleared, is just as produc- 
tive, is the general experience of 
those farming in these areas. 

The availability of good supplies 
of drinking water varies according to 
locality, but, generally speaking, 
well water is readily obtained at 
depths of less than fifty feet. 

GENESIS OF MANITOBA AGRICULTURE 

The earliest agricultural settle- 
ment to be established in Manitoba 



was that made by the Red River 
colony, which, coming in by way of 
Hudson Bay, and boating southward 
over Lake Winnipeg, on August 30th, 
1812, pushed its canoes to land on 
the east bank of the Red River, im- 
mediately north of the spot where 
the city of Winnipeg now stands. 
The history of this early colony is 
very largely a story of hardship and 
suffering, but the site of the earliest 
settlement still possesses a number 
of families who are the descendants 
of the Selkirk settlers. The relics 
of the agriculture of that day show 
how primitive the farming of that 
time really was. 

For almost sixty years after the 
arrival of the Selkirk settlers Mani- 
toba attracted scarcely any further 
notice as a place for agricultural 
settlement. In 1870 the province 
entered confederation, and two years 
later one of the largest early colonies 
arrived, these being the Menno- 
nites, who came from Southern 
Russia and settled in the Red River 
valley, close to the international 
boundary line. The census figures 
of 1881 show that there were then 
7,776 Mennonites in Manitoba, and 
these practically all came to the 
country in the one movement. The 
settlement still remains in its original 
location. 

From quite early times a few 
settlements of French speaking people 
have been assembling themselves 
here and there in the province, 
mostly in the Red River valley, and 
these settlements are practically solid 
and undisturbed to-day. 

But by all means the greatest 
factor in the agricultural coloniza- 
tion of Manitoba was the westward 
flow of British-bred stock from the 
province of Ontario, and this move- 
ment set in during the latter part of 
the " seventies' ' and early "eigh- 
ties," gaining perhaps its maximum 
early magnitude in the "boom" 
year of 1882. Though varying 
somewhat from year to year, this 
movement has to some extent been 
going on ever since. Thus the main part 



38 



Agriculture in Canada 



of the early stock of Manitoba is of 
Ontario origin; and right good stock 
it is. 

During the past twenty or thirty 
years the immigration to the prov- 
ince has been of a decidedly mixed 
nature until now the people of Mani- 
toba are of quite a cosmopolitan 
complexion. This remark especially 
applies to those in our cities, but not 
exclusively so. Here and there are 
rural areas in which are large ad- 
mixtures of people from Iceland 
Sweden, Norway, Austria, Hungary 
Germany Russia and Belgium, while 
the British Isles, the United States 
and all the eastern provinces of 
Canada have supplied their 
quota. 

CLIMATE 

I spoke at the outset of Manitoba 
as a province not greatly given to 



extremes, but perhaps that remark 
^a^dy applicable to the climate, 
lne Manitoba climate is positive, 
the summers are warm and the 
winters are cold. Rainfall between 
October 31st and April 15th is very 
rare. Our annual precipitation at 
Winnipeg averages 20.42 inches, of 
which 10.9 inches fall during the 
tour months of summer growth, May, 
June, July and August. As a rule 
the late autumn months are dry and 
tme, and the snowfall of the winter 
is much more scant than in those 
places of moister atmosphere. The 
climate is very uniform over the 
entire province. 

TRANSPORTATION 

, The settled portion of Manitoba 
is well supplied with railroads. The 
various steam railroads have within 
the province the following mileages: 




THIS PICTURE TAKEN ON THE BRANDON PXWRru^n, 

TREES THAT MaT BE^R^^ ^^HOWS THE VARIETY OF 

H? n - Saskatchewan & Hudson Bay Railway Miles 

Canadian Northern Railway. . . ay 69 4 



Canadian Pacific Railway 
Grand Trunk Pacific Railwa 
Manitoba Great Northern Railway 
Midland and Manitoba Railway 
National Transcontinental Railway 
Greater Winnipeg Waterways Railway 



Total. 



69.45 
2,215.39 
1,728.1 
306.5 
91.77 

6.4 
94. 
91. 

4,602.61 



Manitoba 



39 



When the partially built Hudson 
Bay railway is completed, a new 
route across the Atlantic will be 
open. The extent to which this 
route will serve Manitoba remains 
as yet to be seen. 

By all means the largest class of 
eastward going freight is grain, and 
the comparative proximity to the 
head of the Great Lakes enjoyed by 
Manitoba is much in its favour. The 
freight rate on grain from Winnipeg 
to Fort William or Port Arthur is 
10 cents per 100 pounds, or 6 cents 
per bushel for wheat. Almost all of 



Practically all the commercial live 
stock shipped within the province 
passes through the Union Stock 
Yards at Winnipeg, the receipts 
from Manitoba points during the 
years 1914 and 1915 being as follows: 

1914 1915 

Cattle 46,730 69,972 

Sheep 13,290 8,169 

Hogs 131,637 124,390 

Horses 1,069 2,770 

The following summary of maxi- 
mum and minimum prices per 100 
pounds paid for choice cattle and 
hogs at the Union Stock Yards, for 




MANITOBA PRODUCED NINETY-SEVEN MILLION BUSHELS OF WHEAT IN 1915 
There are still Thousands of Acres like this in Manitoba available for Settlement. 



the grain grown in Manitoba enjoys 
a rate of not more than 13 or 14 
cents per 100 pounds. 

MARKETS 

Manitoba's markets lie to the 
east and south. Her cereal ship- 
ments are almost entirely sent to 
Europe and the provinces farther 
east. Her cattle are well divided 
between the markets of the east and 
those of the United States, while 
her hogs and bacon are mostly sent 
eastward. 



each month of the year 1915 fur- 
nishes a basis for comparison with 
the markets for live stock elsewhere: 

Cattle Hogs 

January... $6. 50 to $7.25 $6. 75 to $7.25 

February.. 7.00 " 7.50 6.90 " 7.35 

March.. .. 7.15 u 7.60 7.15 " 7.80 

April 7.25 " 8.50 7.90 " 8.35 

May 8.50 " 9.15 7.90 " 8.85 

June 8.25" 8.85 8.00" 8.75 

July 7.25 " 8.85 8.00 " 8.75 

August 7.25" 8.00 8.00" 8.75 

September 6.65 " 7.50 9.00 " 9 50 

October... 6.50 " 7.15 8.40 " 9 50 

November 6.50 " 7.05 8.50 " 9 25 

December. 6.50 " 7.10 8.40 " 9.10 



40 



Agriculture in Canada 



AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION 
The phrase "Manitoba Hard" 
wheat, together with the world-wide 
reputation for excellent milling 
quality that that product has gained 
has caused many folk to think of 
this province as though wheat grow- 
ing were our only agricultural ambi- 
tion, this is not the case. There 
are several areas, especially in the 



£ p S h th « higher altitudes, 
sS ?. ats are ««>wn more exten- 

esSci,lw an + ^ eat ' and live st °ck, 
especially cattle and swine are re- 

E n LT e and ™oro ne att a ention 

norn year to year. 

each r fifr S h^ Tak l ng the fi g ures f °r 
we h^l \£ ear from 1885 to !915,- 
ductfon S reC ° rd in Cereal P ro! 




■£M 






ALFALFA GROWING ON THE ASYI TTmr * A 

Thi8 8hows Z T-JIHZ ~£?ig$™<- MAN »™ A 



Year 




1885 
1890 
1895 
1900 
1905 
1910 
1915 



357,013 
746,058 
1,140,276 
1,457,396 
2,643,588 
2,962,187 
3,664,281 



157,026 

235,534 

482,658 

429,108 

1,031,239 

1,486,436 

2,121,845 



51,189 
66,035 
153,839 
155,111 
432,298 
624,644 
1,039,849 



82,668 
20,437 
24,707 
41,002 
64,863 



Ten-year averages as to yield arc nffi^i 
very satisfactory and inforEg fig- f^£ a v V f *** * yields per acre 
ures, and the following are the s?ve) :- Y 19 ° 6 to 19 15 (inclu- 



Manitoba 



41 



Ten -Year Average 
-_, per Acre 

VVheat 18.4 bushels 

g at ? 39.4 

Barley 28.5 

Flax 12.1 

Potatoes and Roots.— Though po- 
tatoes and all root crops grow luxuri- 
antly in Manitoba, the acreage de- 
voted to them is comparatively small. 
Potatoes are grown only for local 
consumption, and although farmers 
could use very many more roots for 
live stock feeding, the general short- 
age of farm help, together with the 
keen freezing nature of our winter, 
has restrained them from doing so. 
The figures for 1915 were as follows: 



boundary of thej province. Fodder 
corn has commanded an increasing 
measure of attention during the past 
few years, and there were grown last 
year 52,713 acres. 

Cattle, — Manitoba was never, even 
in the "early days", devoted to that 
romantic type of open grazing on the 
public domain that flourished farther 
west. There were two reasons for 
this. One was that once the flow 
of settlers began to move westward 
the wheat growing possibilities of 
Manitoba lands were at once patent, 
and the settlement became too dense 
for large ranch companies to occupy. 
The second reason was that our 




COWS SECURED FOR DISTRIBUTION TO MANITOBA SETTLERS UNDER THE SETTLERS' 
ANIMAL PURCHASE ACT, 1916 



Area, 
r. . Acres 

Potatoes 67,343 

Ro °ts 17,352 



Average Yield, 

Bushels 

114.8 

179.5 



FoMer Crops.— As yet the greatest 
source of hay supply in Manitoba is 
the native grasses of the prairie, 
and many of these produce hay very 
rich in nitrogen. Still these are not 
the only grasses grown. Western 
rye grass, awnless brome, and tim- 
othy are all sown somewhat, while 
alfalfa and red clover are also used 
to a lesser extent, the latter being 
most successful in the Red River 
valley and from there to the eastern 



grasses, having a generous supply of 
summer rainfall, remained unripe 
until too late in the season, and this, 
together with our usually constant 
carpet of snow, made it difficult for 
cattle to "rustle" a living during the 
winter without hand feeding. But 
we have a good climate for all 
classes of live stock, and, although 
our winter temperatures are low, it 
is remarkably easy to provide suffi- 
cient shelter for animals. As indicat- 
ing this fact, it is noteworthy that 
experiments in steer feeding at the 
Brandon Experimental Farm, con- 



42 



Agriculture in Canada 



ducted now for several years, go to 
show that where tree shelter is 
available for fattening animals, they 
will make almost as good gains as 
those in barns, or at least so close 
that the advantage of the barns 
would scarcely pay for their build- 
ing. This refers to fattening steers- 
with milch cows and young stock it 
is quite different. 

The beef breeds predominate, the 
Shorthorn being the favourite, with 
the Hereford and Aberdeen-Angus 
less freely represented. The Holstein 
Ayrshire and Jersey are the most 
popular daily breeds. 

The present year has seen the 
inauguration of a new policy on the 
part of the Provincial Government 
in the way of aiding settlers who are 
financially unable to stock their land 
with cattle. Into some of the newer 
districts, where there is abundance 
of pasturage, but where the lands are 
not first-class cereal areas, colonists 
have gone without sufficient capital 
to stock their lands with animals 
Under the new Settlers' Animal Pur- 
chase Act, cows are supplied under 
hen to these settlers. It is as yet 
too early to record the outcome of 
this scheme. 

Horses.— Manitoba has not pro- 
duced horses to export to any ex- 
tent; indeed, during the past 20 years 
the province has imported more horses 
than it has shipped out. This has 
largely been because of the expan- 
sion of acreage being cultivated, 
rather than because of any natural 
difficulty in the way of horse raising 
lhe cass of horse being reared is 
generally of a superior type, the 
heavy breeds having a decided pre- 
ference. 

Commencing with this season a 
new Stallion Enrolment Act is opera- 
tive, which provides that all stallions 
stood for public service at a fee shall 
be pure-bred and enrolled with the 
provincial Department of Agricul- 
ture, acting in concert with the 
Stallion Enrolment Board. A less 
advanced system of stallion enrol- 



ment which permitted grade stal- 
hons also to stand for service) has 
been m vogue for a few years past. 

able !T S °fu 1915 ' the 'a*** avail- 

wpS AV hat stallions enroIled 
weie divided among the breeds thus: 

Clydesdales ^ 

Percherons ?9£ 

Shire I 57 . 

Suffolk. 1|> 

Draught I 

Hackney £? 

Coach. 21 

Thoroughbred -.5 

Standard-bred " i? 

Grades •..':::::::::::::::: m 



Total. 



972 



Sheep— Sheep keeping has never 
EA^ lm Portant branch of 
Manitoba farming. This is not be- 
cause our lands, our climate or our 
thvtj** un ? ui table. Indeed, sheep 
thme remarkably well in Manitoba; 
«™L- ..occasional annoyance by 
2f eS ' l 0geth . er with the facing 
£2? ™' have been the chief deter- 
nH in . ^ hee P expansion. During 
hS v^ five years ' however, there 
in thf n an ^-growing increase 
est a hfe^ Um ^ r of farm fl ocks 

tSSmftt Pr uring the veare 1915 

of A Jl l he Mam toba Department 
of Aguculture acting as agent for 
onL?™? 18 . has .sold on a co- 
?t?n?S e ba ^f a11 WGo1 consigned to 
Si n? 6 - • Thl £ ugh the kindness of 
cffiturp T 10n De Partment of Agri- 
culture this wool has all been graded 
ffrarW ° mmion Government wool 
where*. 1?? * is significant that 
oounrk lMt year about 70,000 
pounds were sold, this year the 

a ^ • c° nsi gned amounted to 

PS 160,000 pounds. The 

Kt tv Zed Iast v ear was 26.8 

wnte.' year rt has been 3L9 

in MfnlK 1 ' 6 ^^ sh eeP are kept 

reallv £2?' but the Down br eeds 
really predominate, with a con- 
stable sprinkling of iJrfeeX 

Swine.— Pig raising has alwavs 
occupied an important place (n 
Manitoba agriculture, and it is safe 



Manitoba 



43 



to say that the popularity of the 
hog will continue. The bacon type 
finds almost exclusive favour, 
although of late years the Poland 
China breed has attracted more at- 
tention to the lard type of hog. In 
the city of Winnipeg are several 
large packing houses, and a consider- 
able proportion .of the hogs reaching 
Winnipeg are made into bacon and 
hams within the province. 

Dairy Products.— The strongest 
feature of Manitoba's dairy enter- 
prise is factory butter-making. 
Within the province are 36 cream- 



Within the past decade one very 
important development has occurred 
in connection with Manitoba dairy- 
ing. This is the centralized cream- 
ery movement. Today the patrons 
of creameries are not confined to the 
wagon range of a local butter fac- 
tory. The large city creameries, 
doing an ever-increasing business, 
receive no cream except that coming 
by rail, and almost every railway 
train carries its load of cream and 
milk cans. Whatever else may be 
said in regard to this development, 
it can at least be claimed that it 




FIELD OF t'ABBAGES ON THE BRANDON EXPERIMENTAL FARM 

tables of Almost Every Sort Produce Abundantly in Manitoba. 

eries and 22 cheese factories. It is makes for the development of the 

rather remarkable that practically dairy industry in districts where 

all of the latter are in the French and there is not as yet a sufficiently 

Mennonite settlements, while the solid block of dairy farmers to 

former are well scattered over the support a local creamery. In this 

province. In 1915, a total of 53 way the enterprise is decidedly 

carloads of creamery butter was beneficial to the province, 

exported by Manitoba, and the D ,. , u . 

production and prices were: . Poultry.— So far poultry keeping 

pHee in this province is pretty much a 

Product Pounds Cents domestic industry. We have got 

Dairy butter 4,150,444 23.0 pretty well past the day of con- 

cK ery buUer 5 '522'SSZ ?H spicuous importation, and we cannot 

Milk : ; 44 079'ooo 21 yet . claim to ex P ort either eggs or 

Sweet cream in pounds poultry to any great extent. - All 

butter fat 496,334 32. kinds of poultry thrive in our 



44 



Agriculture in Canada 



climate, and, with the manifest econ- 
omy of poultry keeping where grain 
is produced so cheaply, it is safe to 
predict a steady growth in the 
industry. 

Fruits and Vegetables.-— XJp to the 
present tree fruit growing is in the 
pioneer stage. In no other sphere of 
plant production did old Dame 
Nature so positively assert to the 
early settlers that the Manitoba 
climate was unlike the climate 
"down east". Thousands of trees 
from eastern nurseries, of varieties 
quite hardy in Ontario, have gone to 



experimentation; and every farmer, 
by planting suitable varieties, can 
easily raise all of these fruits needed 
lor his home use. The most trying 
tactor, perhaps, is a shortage of 
summer rainfall. 

Vegetables of almost all sorts 
thrive wonderfully and yield 
abundantly. 

THE AGRICULTURE OF THE FUTURE 

There is always danger in prophe- 
cies; yet there seem to be a few fore- 
casts that may be made with com- 




SUCCESSFUL PRODUCTION OF APPI FS »v L „ 

APPLES BY A. P. STEVENSON, MORDEN, MANITOBA 



the brush pile. Forty below zero 
demands varieties with a new kind 
of iron in their blood. But those 
kinds are coming, and already small 
apple and plum orchards here and 
there are coming into bearing, the 
most conspicuous success, of course 
being that attained by Mr. A. P 
Stevenson, of Morden, who annually 
gathers apples, plums and cherries 
of scores of varieties. 

Success with small fruits is quite 
a different matter. Currants, rasp- 
berries, strawberries and goose- 
berries are all beyond the stage of 



T^ safety. I think the safest 
oi all these is that as the years go by 
mixed farming will come into more 
general practice. This movement is 
not waiting for converts, because 
practically everyone is converted to 
tne greater economy and efficiency 
ol this method of farming. It is 
mainly waiting for the day when the 

3Sf«wu the land wil1 be able to 
£ £1 i P ercenta g e of his capital 
to be locked up in land, and increase 
the percentage that he can invest in 
live stock and equipment needed in 
connection with the keeping of 



Manitoba 



45 



animals. The spread of weeds and 
the waste of humus, which inevit- 
ably accompany continuous crop- 
ping, are making converts to a change 
of methods quicker and more surely 
than any other process could possibly 
accomplish it. Silos, dairy herds, 
sheep, hogs, and chickens will save 
the situation and enable the boys 
and girls to attend the agricultural 
college even after the mortgage 
company has foreclosed and ended 
the chapter of continuous wheat 
cropping and straw burning. 

Only in a few cases will the mort- 
gage company ever have a chance to 
foreclose. In most cases the change 
to a better balanced kind of farming 
is proceeding as an evolution, and 
will need no revolution. Better 
homes, better fences, better shelter 
for live stock and a better class of 
live stock kept, better treatment of 
the land in the way of return of 
manure and crop rotation, — these 
are some of the things now on the 
agricultural landscape. 

AGRICULTURAL ORGANIZATIONS 

An account of Manitoba agri- 
culture would scarcely be complete 
without some reference to those 
organized agencies that have to do 
with its promotion. 

The Manitoba Agricultural Col- 
lege, equipped at a cost of four 
million dollars, is located about 
three or four miles south of Winni- 
peg, on the banks of the historic 
Red River. The governing body is 
a board of ten directors, four 
elected by the directors of the Live 
Stock and Grain Growers' Associa- 
tions and five by Order-in-Council. 
The Minister of Agriculture is ex- 
officio a member of the board. The 
enrolment has grown since the open- 
ing in 1906 (at a site previously 



occupied) from 83 students to 350 
students in the regular winter courses 
in agriculture and home economics. 

Manitoba has its full quota of 
agricultural associations, most of 
them incorporated by special act 
of the Legislature and financially 
aided through the Department of 
Agriculture. Among these may be 
named the four live stock associa- 
tions — Horse Breeders, Cattle 
Breeders, Sheep Breeders, and 
Swine Breeders. Also there are 
poultry and horticultural associa- 
tions at different points, and a pro- 
vincial dairy association. 

Among the agricultural exhibi- 
tions of Manitoba, the summer show 
at Brandon is practically, and the 
winter show there is actually, pro- 
vincial in character. Most of the 
exhibitions in the province, how- 
ever, are held under the auspices of 
agricultural societies, of which, ac- 
cording to the figures for 1915, 
sixty-eight are in operation. 

Then there are 102 Home Eco- 
nomics societies organized, mainly 
among the farm women, with a total 
membership of 3,730; and there are 
Boys' and Girls' clubs with about 
12,000 members. 

Very important and very influ- 
ential, though not drawing any 
Government aid, is the Manitoba 
Grain Growers' Association, which 
convenes annually the largest single 
agricultural gathering that is held 
within the province. The member- 
ship of this association numbers 
9,000. 

These are among the agencies 
that are seeking to give direction 
and impetus to our agricultural 
efforts and enable the farmers of 
Manitoba to avail themselves of our 
undoubtedly vast agricultural re- 
sources. 



SASKATCHEWAN 

BY F. H. AULD, DEP UTY MImsTER op AGRICULTURE 



SASKATCHEWAN" and 
'Wheat Growing" are al- 
vt « most O s y? on ymous. Half a 
Me time ago Saskatchewan was the 
centre of the great lone land, now it 
is the centre of the grain production 
of Canada and was the producer of 
half of Canada s wheat in 1915. 

AREA AND DESCRIPTION 

1 J ™ k A a !fs h n eWan has , a land area of 
155,764,480 acres and a water sur- 
face of 5,323,520 acres. A line 
drawn from east to west, a little north 
of Prince Albert, marks the division 
between the agricultural south and 
the practically unexplored north 
Northern Saskatchewan is known to 
possess valuable resources in timber 
minerals, fish, fur and game, at 
though on account of their limited 
development their annual produc- 
tion ranks in importance far below 
agriculture. South of township 64 
he the great prairie lands which 
have made Saskatchewan so well 
«9A 9?A This a ^ ea con tains 86,- 

fn rinn non Cres ' of , which P° ssi *>ly 
50,000,000 acres rank as arable land 

? f ,£ he ^st or second class. About 
half of this southern portion is level 
or undulating prairie, while the re- 
mainder varies from open park 
country diversified with light poplar 
bluffs to rougher land in the districts 
east and _ north of Prince Albert 
heavily timbered with spruce 



46 



WHEAT-GROWING DISTRICTS 

The districts where soil and cli- 
matic conditions favour wheat grow- 
ing are, to use a general classification, 
those south of the QuAppelle river, 
west of the Last Mountain and the 

S r£ es r? nd south of the main 
line of the Canadian Northern Rail- 
way west of Humboldt. This is an 
™5 n*u ry and vei *y general division 
and the area therein dedicated to 
wheat growing contains some splen- 
oma mixed farming country just as 
tne area outside these boundaries 
contains a few splendid wheat-grow- 
ing districts. Flax may be grown 
'"^y Part of this area as well as 
oats, barley and winter rye. But 
the area north and east of the boun- 
? a y A i , have outlined is better 
adapted tor the growing of oats than 

hLSTw.! 1 also P^duces abun- 
dantly both rye and barley and a 
luxurious growth of both native and 
tame grasses, which, with an abund- 

a £?f -°n nat M ral shelt er, render it 
espec aiy suitable for live stock 
Pioduction and for dairying. 

THE RANCHING STAGE 

chJwanS 168 ^ 86 ^ 1 ' 8 in Saskat - 
aSnHn? 1 , ^ pastoral rather th an 
?attfe S Pursuits - Hors <* and 
to alSS gF T x exte nsively, while 
mnc t d and rest ricted area sheep 
ranching was practised. The short. 



Saskatchewan 



47 



thick natural grasses of the range, 
cured where they grew, afforded 
pasturage in winter as well as in 
summer, and the chinook wind was 
relied upon in the south-west to 
clear away the snowfall and render 
the grasses available for stock. If 
it failed to do so heavy losses were 
only averted when hay was available 
in sufficient quantities. But this 
was the exception rather than the 
rule, and the occurrence of severe 
weather with a heavy snowfall was 
the main menace of the cattle or 
sheep rancher. Horses are better 
rustlers and were more independent 
of the chinooks. 



for the production of all kinds of 
live stock. 

The historic range has now been 
parcelled out to homesteaders, but 
the live stock industry instead of 
suffering will be carried on along 
different lines and greatly extended. 
Ten or more acres to support a steer 
was the basis for stocking the range. 
We shall leave it to the farmers of 
Saskatchewan to see how many 
cattle can be profitably raised on ten 
acres without reducing our export of 
wheat. 

THE ERA OF WHEAT GROWING 

While the ranching stage marks 



^^•^r 

* *?:•: 



HERDING CATTLE IN NORTHERN SASKATCHEWAN 




The passing of the range is now, 
however, almost a matter of history 
except in so far as the rougher lands 
are concerned and save for those 
areas preserved from settlement 
through being leased for grazing 
purposes. But in such districts as 
the Moose Mountain, Wood Moun- 
tain, Cypress Hills, Beaver Hills, 
Touchwood Hills, Last Mountain, and 
generally through all the country 
tributary to the main line of the 
Canadian Northern Railway, thous- 
ands of splendid specimens of grass- 
fed beeves are marketed annually, 
and these localities will some day 
rank with the best on the continent 



the first period in the development 
of agriculture in Saskatchewan, the 
second may be described as the era 
of wheat growing. The wheat-grow- 
ing period is again divided by the 
discovery by Angus McKay of the 
system of summer fallowing, which 
was almost epochal. By this dis- 
covery crop uncertainty was very 
largely removed and owing to the 
success which attended the efforts of 
the pioneer grain growers, Saskat- 
chewan soon became the third prov- 
ince of Canada in point of popula- 
tion and the first in grain production. 
Before the completion of the rail- 
way in 1885 homesteaders were 



48 



Agriculture in Canada 



attracted to the valley of the 
Qu'Appelle and to districts north and 
south of it west of the Manitoba 
boundary. It is also interesting to 
note that even in the early days of 
wheat growing in Saskatchewan 
bonanza farms were not unknown 
The Bell farm at Indian Head and 
the Tanner farm at Qu'Appelle are 
notable examples, and at about the 
same time Sir John Lister Kay's 
farming experience was being Ob- 
tained. Settlements of English 
Scotch and Canadian farmers came 
early, and even by 1886, colonies 
from Germany, Finland, Sweden 
Iceland, Roumania and Hungary 



thousands of farmers from Eastern 
Canada, Great Britain and con- 
tinental Europe, while the more 
recent American " invasion' ' from 
the Western States is so well known 
as to require no comment. 

ACTUAL AND POTENTIAL GRAIN 
PRODUCTION 

According to the Dominion Cen- 
sus of 1911 the land occupied at that 
time in Saskatchewan was 
28,642,973 acres, of which possibly 
one-third is not yet under cultiva- 
tion. The same authority estimates 
the area of possible farm land in 




CREAMERY AT WADENA, SASK. 



were being planted at various places 
in the eastern part of the province 
which have done their share Tn 
developing the country. But nre* 
vious even to this there were settle- 
ments of whites at Fort EHice 
Touchwood Hills, Carlton, pjg£ 
Albert and Battleford, and it is 
related that it required the use of 
four threshing machines for s£ 
months to thresh the Prince Albert 
wheat crop of 1879. These were 
the pioneers, "the first low wal of 
waves where yet shall roll a hZan 
sea who were followed, not imme- 
diately but within a few yeaiVby 



Saskatchewan at 93,459,000 acres, 
bince the bumper crop of 1915 was 
grown on 10,967,160 acres it is a 
safe guess that the area of occupied 
tarms in 1916 is not more than a 
third of the foregoing estimate of 
possible farm land. 

These figures of area and occu- 
pancy are interesting from the stand- 
point of production, as they indicate 
a potential development of grain 
growing to a billion bushels in a single 

So SSh k a u r ? p in excess of m >~ 

000,000 bushels was grown in 1915 

I r T Al 8 than n »000,000 acres, 
nalt of the crop being wheat, while 



Saskatchewan 



49 



sixteen years ago six and three- 
quarter million bushels of grain 
from 642,000 acres was considered a 
great accomplishment. Wheat is, 
of course, the principal export crop 
°f Saskatchewan and all of the 
surplus of suitable quality after 
providing for local flour mills and 
seed requirements is exported. Oats 
a [ € -becoming more of an export crop, 
although the greater part of this 
crop continues to be used locally for 
feeding. Barley is not largely 
grown. Flax was in great favour a 
tew years ago because of the high 
Pnce, because of the acre yield re- 



choicest quality of grain. Seager 
Wheeler has become almost a 
national celebrity through his pains- 
taking care in growing and preparing 
exhibition grain. In 1911, he won the 
championship of America at the New 
York Land Show. In 1913, Paul 
Gerlach of Saskatchewan won the 
championship for wheat at the Dry 
Farming Congress. At the national 
exhibition, Dallas, Texas, Hill & 
Sons won for the third time the 
world's prize for the best peck of 
oats. At the Dry Farming Congress 
in 1915, Saskatchewan won first and 
second for hard spring wheat and 






CUTTING WHEAT NEAR MOOSEJAW, SASK. 



quiring less storage space relatively 
than other crops, and because it 
could be grown on newly ploughed 
prairie the same season. It has 
since fallen somewhat into disfavour, 
partly because of the facility with 
which it spreads weeds, but mainly 
because of the decline in values. 

SOME PRIZE WINNERS 

The success of Saskatchewan ex- 
hibitors of grain at national and 
international exhibitions of soil pro- 
ducts proves the suitability of the 
province for the production of the 



first for hard winter wheat and 
white oats, with firsts also for alfalfa, 
brome and rye grass, and several 
other premiums in addition to firsts 
and championships. Seager Wheeler 
again drew first and championship at 
this exposition. 

MIXED FARMING COMING 

It is neither desirable that the 
present methods and practices in 
agricultural production should be 
followed indefinitely nor probable 
that they will not soon change. As 
surely as the period of ranching was 



50 



Agriculture in Canada 



succeeded by the era of wheat 
growing will the development of 
mixed farming supersede exclusive 
grain growing. The "summer- 
fallow , a necessary part of grain 
growing under the present system 
while immediately profitable is im- 
mensely wasteful of nitrogen and 
humus and has already developed a 
serious condition known locally as 
drifting which means that the 
finely pulverized top soil is readilv 
transported by strong winds, to the 
loss of the owner, and his neighbour 
as well, if it contain seeds of noxious 
weeds. Exclusive grain growing 
favours the spread of noxious weeds 
and interferes with their control 



a very limited market value as 
forage. But if sufficient stock were 
S? k° ? onvert the crop into milk 
™ + i ^ and WOGl and mutton, 
Sed results would b * 

Live stock farming as compared 
with grain growing is more dependent 
ior its success upon an adequate sup- 
Ply of water, and this more than 
anything else is the determining 
factor with regard to the number of 
stock which may be maintained on 
any iarm, or in any district in Sas- 
katchewan. Important sections of 
the area which I have described as 
being adapted to wheat growing are 
still inadequately supplied with water 




nmpni 




THRESHING SCENE ON THE ,500 ACRE FARM OF^OmTr, »„ 

1 U * JOHN f-ILROY, GOVAN. SASK. 



Live stock farming is the only per- 
manently successful and economi- 
cally profitable way of dealing with 
a h , e Pr obl , em of noxious weeds and 
drifting soils, and while the public 
generally may not be prepared to 
admit the fact it is becoming more 
and more apparent. I may illus- 
trate my point by referring to wild 
oats, under our conditions one of our 
most serious noxious weeds, which 
soon ceases to be a problem when 
crops of oats or fall rye are grown 
and used as hay. The "hay" 
would be too abundant on many 
farms to be consumed by the present 
supply of live stock and would be 
expensive to market, besides having 



jMft and until this P ro blem is 
solved the farmer cannot be expected 

SW m stock raising. Condi- 
tions differ from the balmy days of 

ranched 1 "" 8 | ndustr y when the 
ancheis corrals were near some 

n£ C ° U TT Se . and his stock ^nged the 
plains. Unless a local supply of 
water is available it is not now ex' 
S n t i Un( ! er I farmin « conditions to 
Sf- « St0 . ck ^ ven a few mi >es to 
SSk ' T- t0 - ^ raw wate r to the 
tw • U ls nght > however, to say 
that in many districts where water 

5 hS h g the a # an P te to obtain 
it have been insufficient to prove the 

suontv & ^\ °- f a suitab ' e wat er 
supply, and it is not unlikely that 



Saskatchewan 



51 



more persistent efforts will bring 
success. Much is possible in provid- 
ing a water supply by collecting the 
run off from the fields and slopes into 
natural basins, and there retaining 
it for future use. The heavy impervi- 
ous clay prevents much wastage by 
percolation and this condition almost 
invariably obtains where subter- 
ranean water is difficult to find. 

HORSES 

At an early date some of the horse 
ranchers began the use of draft stal- 
lions for breeding purposes, although 
fnost of them used thoroughbred 
sires and raised a lighter type of ani- 
mal. At present the use of sires of 
the draft breeds is the rule rather 
than the exception, as the accom- 
panying enrolment figures for 1916 
indicate: — 

Clydesdale 1,868 

£ercheron 670 

|? lre ; 68 

standard Bred.. 189 

^ackney 52 

ihoroughbred 27 

^rench Canadian 1 

French Coach 3 

^erman Coach 7 

Suffolk... 36 

Be^mn Draft...;;;;::;;;;;;:;:; 126 

gaddle Horse 6 

^hetland Pony.. 1 

Morgan. . / 1 

Jack 1 

Total pure breds 3,056 

grades 606 

trossbreds. 2 

Sc rubs ::::::;:;::::.: 584 

Total 4,248 

Advanced legislation with respect 
to horse breeding provides for the 
annual enrolment of all stallions used 
tor breeding purposes and the exam- 
ination and licensing of all stallions 
used for service in municipalities in- 
cluded in the Licensed Stallion Dis- 
trict. This measure has been found 
effective in driving out unsound and 
inferior animals and in encouraging 
the introduction and use of a better 
class of stallions. Saskatchewan 
Clydesdales are famous throughout 



Canada as representative of the best 
development of this famous breed, 
and show ring champions both male 
and female are owned by Saskatche- 
wan breeders. The following figures 
indicate the development of the 
horse-breeding industry in Saskatche- 
wan. Figures for 1881 and 1891 are 
for Alberta and Saskatchewan com- 
bined: In 1881, 10,870; in 1891, 
60,976; in 1901, 83,801; in 1911, 
507,468, and in 1915, 667,443. 

CATTLE 

The dual-purpose cow is the popu- 
lar type of bovine in Saskatchewan. 
Shorthorns and Shorthorn grades 
predominate. Hereford and Aber- 
deen Angus, while popular in some 
districts, are less numerous in the 
province. Grade cows of Holstein 
and Ayrshire breeding have been 
introduced to a limited extent by 
the Saskatchewan Government, and 
sold on credit terms under its live 
stock distribution policy, but the 
use of bulls of the dairy breeds is not 
general and there is little if any in- 
dications of a tendency in this direc- 
tion, although dairying is increasing 
rapidly in popularity and importance. 
Jerseys are regarded as unsuitable 
for Saskatchewan. 

Statistics show an imposing de- 
velopment of the cattle industry in 
Saskatchewan. Although a division 
has not been made between ranch 
and farm stock, the balance except 
in the earlier years is largely in favor 
of the latter. The figures for 1881 
and 1891 include Alberta cattle: 

In 1881, 12,872; in 1891, 231,827; 
in 1901, 268,779; in 1911, 633,638, 
and in 1915, 931,561. 

There is only one large abbatoir 
in Saskatchewan, located at Moose 
Jaw, but a large number of cattle are 
slaughtered locally for home con- 
sumption. Saskatchewan, however, 
supplies only slightly less than half 
of the cattle marketed at Winnipeg. 
If these animals were consigned to 
Saskatchewan markets it would 
doubtless result in a large proportion 



52 



Agriculture in Canada 



of the unfinished animals, which are 
numerous, being returned to the 
farms for winter feeding. At present 
a Royal Commission is investigating 
the question of the marketing of Sas- 
katchewan live stock and live stock 
products and, if as a result of their 
investigations and recommendations 
there should develop local markets 
which would absorb the bulk of the 
stock marketed from this province 
the feeding on our farms of the un- 
finished portion of the receipts would 
probably be a direct result. Few if 
any of these animals are returned 
under present conditions from Win 
nipeg, and persons desirous of feeding 
have restricted opportunities of buy- 
ing animals which leave the province 



able originally to the Merino and 
Kamboml et breeds, but also possess 
blood of the medium wool breeds. 

Sheep ranching was followed main- 
ly in the south-west, and onlv in a 
restricted area therein could " lands 
be leased from the Dominion Govern- 
ment for sheep ranching. The range 
ewes have proven a profitable farm 
investment, and mated with rams of 
the popular mutton breeds produce 
m a couple of generations a very 
suitable type of sheep for our western 
tarms. A. few pure-bred flocks are 
Kept in Saskatchewan consisting of 
Shropshires, Oxford Downs, Leices- 
ter's, and representatives of a few 
other breeds. Statistics show that 
there were 144,370 sheep in Saskat- 







FARM HOME AND BUILDINGS OF 



It has been proven by test in the 
JS?. wh ? re natural shelter is 
plentiful and water available that 
cattle will winter outside and make 
substantial and profitable gains if fed 
sheaf oats or other suitable rations 
Freedom from tuberculosis is claimed 
for cattle raised and fed under these 
conditions. 

SHEEP 

The noxious weeds problem is res- 
ponsible for the recent introduction 
ol many flocks of sheep on prairie 
iarms where, owing to the lack of 
suitable fences, they were formerlv 
strangers. Many of these new flocks 
consist of range ewes which are trace- 



R- D. FAIRBAIRN, CARNDUFF, SASK. 

S^an in 1915 as compared with 
114,216 in 1911 and 66,048 in 1901. 
1 here were 64,920 in Alberta and 
Saskatchewan in 1891 and only 346 

J . r , T he live stock distribution 
Policy of the Saskatchewan Govern- 
ment and the annual sales held bv the 
Saskatchewan Sheep Breeders'' As- 
sociation have materially assisted in 
tne establishment of promising farm 
Hocks m Saskatchewan during the 
past five years. Coyotes and dogs are 
a constant source of danger, but the 
g-eatest obstacle is the comparative 
lack of fenced farms. 

SWINE 

The barometer of prices for hogs 



Saskatchewan 



53 



in Alberta and Saskatchewan in 
1891, 16,283, and in 1881, 2,775. 
There is practically no limit to the 
possibilities of hog-raising in Sas- 
katchewan when provision is made 



rather than for pork products is a 
fair index of the fate of the hog. 
Un a rising market, money is in- 
vested in brood sows, and when 

prices fall sales are heavy. But the ««<~ . 

man who stays with the game gets for a supply of suitable forage 
what there is in it and with recent 
Prices there should be considerable. dairying 

A he bacon hog is the kind generally . , . 

raised in Saskatchewan, and the No description of Saskatchewan 
Yorkshire is the favourite, with the agriculture would be complete 
Tamworth a runner-up for first without a special reference to the 
Place, but not very close. The fat, dairying industry. The develop- 
quick-maturing Berkshire, however, ment of co-operative dairying in 




ONIONS-A SPLENDID MONEY-MAKER AND POPULAR CROP AROUND SASKATOON 



f!u s backers a- 8 welL The bulk 
°t the hogs exported from Saskatche- 
wan go to Winnipeg; Saskatchewan 
applying 237,403 head for that 
market in 1915, in addition to 
S f V ^ al thousand head slaughtered 
at Moose Jaw and at local points 
throughout the province. During 
WU and 1915, Saskatchewan sup- 
plied more than half the hogs 
marketed in Winnipeg. 

There were said to be 329,246 
S2JPL in Saskatchewan in 1915; 
^86,295 in 1911; 27,847 in 1901, and 



Saskatchewan really dates from 1907, 
although several creameries were 
started about 1895, when, owing to 
uncertain returns from grain grow- 
ing due to an imperfect knowledge 
of right tillage operations, it was 
deemed that the establishment of 
creameries would impart agricultural 
stability to the country. However, 
when success began to attend wheat 
growing, the support of many of the 
creameries languished and of the 
original creameries only two are 
still in operation, although large 



54 Agriculture in Canada 

operative enterprises. More success oeXJ^L nufacture of butter in 

however, was attained by the c^ eries ^ream-gathering cream- 
operative creameries which survived 

this period and those subsequentlv ,,„„,„„ 

organized, although in 1907 there PR UITS and vegetables 

were altogether only six creameries The space at my disposal does not 

operated in Saskatchewan. Four of Permit of further reference to the 

these were operated under the direc- agricultural development of Sas- 

i n i he Dail T Commissioner and katchewan, but while S, and IWe 

one of them was privately owned and stock are at present tKtaXnro 

u<uiy r>rancn nad Zld patrons and can a finer quality of small fmit« ™a 

manufactured 66,246 pounds of but vegetables be ^own ™hL in |al 

tei. Fifteen co-operative creameries katchewan. True there K not tlfp 

thT & Und6r ^ direction of Variety which obSrS f m or "souS 

the Dairy Commissioner in iqi^ ern climes hn+ +^V rx T 

SStSi Utp, S °! 2 ' 012 ' 401 Pounds" quantirwhic^can'be SuUrf 

increased their annual output verv 

Much" tTor * ORCANIZATZON OP EXTENSION 

is due to the thorough and oro w rga ? ,Zatlons thr ough which the 
gressive policy introduced bv the nfS * orma . tlon available with res- 
u"7 Commissioner about 1907 ££„ j°,i a g ricultui 'al production is 
which provided, among other things' de^L d ^f e the ^cultural so- 
f or the uniform management S£ X Ti™} hom ;™kers' clubs, under 
Government supervision of the co ,,t directlon ; <>f the College of Agri- 
operatiye creameries which desireTt 2£53< and £* Grain Growers' 
the centralization of creameries to £ f^^ations. There are 126 agri- 
erected and a measure oTSs^ce b£SS ¥ Ci £ ties ' with a total mem ' 
from provincial funds for the pav- S'F - f , a > ut 20 ' 000 > which are 
ment of express charges on cream £! legislative grants of $50,000 
shipments the payment for cream" zotJS™™ ! ? Portion to work 
on a quality basis, the market?™ S ally u Panned. The home- 
through one office of the prod uct f S^ 8 *£ ve ^° clubs with a ^rge 
of all creameries operated by the K • f^ T > Grain Growe *s' 
Dairy Branch, and the grading of X m Sas katchewan number about 
all export butter. K uing ot 1 - 40 9 and the membership is ap- 
. More than half of the creameries ^'t^^ 35 ' 000 - 
in Saskatchewan are in the mixed «..~ • C °" ege of Agriculture has 
arming districts, or in cities, but a X* ™*T and . direeti on of extension 
few are located in what are essen* $% althou g h *? the performance 
tially wheat-growing districts. That mJ? e f cutl Y e duties the Depart- 
the latter are doing a successful £«* ° f Agriculture exercises an 
business is another indication thai and H?^ Agricultural secretaries 
Saskatchewan agriculture is rJo a " d d i? tnct re P re sentatives also take 
feeding along sane and progresK ™itSi V< L I 2 rt in the work of agri- 
hnes. p "gies8i\e cultural betterment, and while the 

There are no cheese factories Hw US ^ en l es have not achieved 

operated m Saskatchewan, afffi ^^^!^T ""* 



ALBERTA 

BY J. MCCAIG, EDITOR OF PUBLICATIONS, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 



THE total area of Alberta is 
255,285 square miles. 
The land surface is estimated 
at 252,925 square miles and the 
water surface at 2,360 square miles, 
yhile it is not possible to give 
close figures on the acreage of good 
land in Alberta, it is estimated that 
°i the 161,872,000 acres, 100,000,000 
acres are suitable for cultivation. 
Ut this area less than 4,000,000 acres, 
°r 4 per cent, have been brought under 
cultivation. The crop area for 1915 
is given as 3,834,738 acres. 

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES 

The province of Alberta displays 
a large diversity in its agriculture. 
>nis is due, primarily, to variations 
in climate of both a general and 
special sort and, secondarily, to soil 
and surface character, though the 
wo factors of climate and surface 
conditions are rather closely con- 
nected. Generally speaking, the 
area known as the Prairie Provinces 
consists of two more or less distinct 
jnnxte of country. The southern 

nf+u 1S - open P rai ™ over the whole 
P_i the interior great plain district, 
^ne northern part is practically 
°.Pen and is principally covered with 
ngnt timber or scrub in bluffs, with 
neavier patches of timber along the 
^ver valleys. In the extreme upper 
h * u!?' the ve S e tation declines in 
nei gnt, luxuriance and variety. In 



Alberta the same conditions do not 
prevail. There is a greater diver- 
sity in surface features, a much 
greater variety in climate, and also 
a difference in the adaptations of 
different parts of the province to 
productive use. While the greater 
part of Alberta is open prairie and 
constitutes what is commonly called 
the third prairie steppe, the eleva- 
tion varying from 2,000 to 4,000 feet, 
and on the west side of the province 
as far north as the Rocky Moun- 
tains touch it, which is about half 
way up the west side, there is a 
strip about sixty miles wide con- 
sisting of what is called the foot- 
hills country. There is no second 
range of mountains within the main 
range of the Rockies, but the foot- 
hills are so numerous as to give a 
consistently broken and varied 
character to the surface. It is cut 
by deep canyons and there is con- 
siderable timber, particularly along 
the rivers. On the open prairie 
itself, the bench land is cut by 
numerous coulees running back for a 
considerable distance at right 
angles to the rivers. This des- 
cription of surface applies chiefly to 
the southern part of the province, 
approximately 200 miles in width 
from north to south. 

The central part of the province 
is a good deal like the corresponding 
area in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. 



55 



56 



Agriculture in Canada 



There is considerable scrub on the 
land, in some places light and in 
others rather heavy, and there are 
also numerous bluffs or taller growth 
made up principally of poplar, which 
is commonly described as pole tim- 
ber. The rivers likewise cut deep 
channels, sometimes 200 or 300 
feet, just as they do in the southern 
part of the province. Along the 
rivers there is considerable timber- 
spruce, fir, birch and poplar. The 
northern part of the province, on the 

f°™™ +,? and ' J? somew hat different 
from the northern part of the other 
provinces. Towards the eastern 
boundary of the province, there is 



S^ el ° P /?u nt tow ards the northern 
parts of the province. 

CLIMATE 

While the climate of all three 
prairie provinces is generally char- 
acterized as extreme, there are in- 
fluences operating directly in the 
case of Alberta that mitigate its 
extreme character. The same con- 
ditions are responsible for differences 
in effective precipitation between the 
southern and central parts of the 
province, and also for the matter of 

r .u ettlement of the northern part 
ot the province, as has been already 
mentioned. 




PURE-BRED SHORTHOR 

some rough and broken country but 
m the western part, that is, the upPer 
Peace River valley, there is excehent 
agricultural land, a great deal oMt 
being open and such as the ranch- 
man would call short grass county, 
it has already undergone con- 

fn d ^ able i ettl ? ment " and - with ?he 
farther extension of transportation 
will become well populated. With 
respect to this feature of a possi- 

Albertn I T^ 6 " 1 de ^lopment 

itSS \£ and jJ° some extent by 
itself. The difference in surface 

appearance and vegetation of these 

different areas is largely a matter of 

climate, as is also the matter of 



"■NTRAL ALBERTA 



THE CHINOOK INFLUENCE 

;o Tu e ^tending feature of climate 
* the , Chinook wind. The chinook 
may be described as a warm, dry 
wind descending from the south- 
S°^ the int erior slope of the 
SS ? y fountains. Its warmth was 
T^ P ° Sed to be actually due to the 
S cur >-ent. This belief is still 
common, but by the best authorities 
it is now explained as a dissipation of 
t> i a hlgh Pressure area in the 
Kocky Mountain plateau itself, 
condensation of moisture on the 
western side of the mountains re- 
leases the heat which is communi- 



Alberta 



57 



cated to the air itself and the com- 
pression of the air by the upper 
layers as it travels down the descent 
of the eastern slopes makes it to a 
still greater extent a warm, dry air. 
The chinook influence is quite strong 
and characteristic in the southern 
Part of the province, and the same 
general influence operates through- 
°ut the whole of the inner slope of 
the Rockies, but to a much lesser 
degree in the central and northern 
Parts of the province. It is this 
influence that gave Southern Alberta 
its reputation as a ranch country. 
The chinook is not a persistent 
wind, but occurs from time to time 
during both winter and summer. In 
winter it breaks up the severity of 
the season probably four or five 
times between November and April, 
and uncovers the native grasses, so 
that it has been possible to graze 
stock outside during the whole year. 
It was due to the chinook winds that 
the first cattle enterprises were 
established in Alberta. As far back 
?s the early 70's, cattle were brought 
Jj! from Montana to the Macleod 
district, the first being the property 
of Mr. Joseph McFarlane. This 
gazing enterprise was the beginning 
oi Alberta agriculture. Since that 
time, the development has been 
extremely rapid and we have ha < in 
quick succession, or side by side, the 
Rancher, the grain-grower, the 
dairyman, the stock-raiser and 
the irrigator. 

THE UPPER SASKATCHEWAN 

It might have been expected that 
L *ie settlement of the province would 
Proceed from the nucleus of western 
development in the Selkirk Colony 
on the Red River, but population 
and transportation were covering 
iY e . West much more rapidly in the 

thu d States than in Canad a, and 
x ne beginnings in activity in the use 
ot land in Alberta appeared first as 
s\de springs from the United States 
J^eering movement. So far as 
tn e Selkirk Colony had shown any 



expansion, growth promised chiefly 
along the north Saskatchewan valley 
by way of the Touchwood hills to 
North Battleford and Edmonton. 
This was but the spur of fever in the 
blood of the pioneer and had practi- 
cally no commercial aspect. Such 
settlement as did take place was that 
of isolated cabin buildings on garden 
spots backed by the woods and 
warmed by the sun, and beside the 
flowing springs. A garden was as 
good as all outside, for there was no 
fat traffic in the things the earth 
provided anyway. There is a cer- 
tain type of real pioneer who is not 
of the neighbour hunting sort. There 
are a few of these left in all the west- 
ern provinces, men of great individu- 
ality with a simple code of honour 
and a simple standard of living. 

THE STEEL LINK 

The integration of Alberta with 
the rest of Canada for modern busi- 
ness occurred in 1885, with the com- 
pletion of the Canadian Pacific 
railway. Whether the blacklands of 
the Upper Saskatchewan were in- 
trinsically more desirable than the 
chocolate soil of the open prairie was 
not the question. There is no doubt 
but that wood is a desirable accessory 
to land, and in some cases the lack 
of water is a drawback, but the rail- 
way determined the movement of 
settlement from 1885 on. Calgary 
became an important town by reason 
of its connection with the commercial 
world. It still remained, however, 
a cow town until about 1900, and 
the country tributary to Calgary, to 
the boundary on the south, and the 
Red Deer on the north, was cow 
country. The other important cen- 
tres about which the cow business 
was active were MacLeod, Leth- 
bridge and Medicine Hat. To say 
that the country was a cow country 
is not to say that there were no set- 
tlers who contemplated farming, 
but that ranging was the dominant 
interest. The fundamental reasons 
for this type of development in 



58 



Southern Alberta were the chinook 
winds and the superior quality for 
both summer and winter grazing 
the native grasses. g X 

CENTRAL ALBERTA 
In 1891, the Calgary and Edmrm 
ton branch of the Canadian fife 
railway was laid through Central 
Alberta with terminus at Strathcona 
The country opened up by this north 
and south line is scarcely the same 
m .the country under theYharacter! 
stic influence of the chinook. The 
land is heavier and blacker; it has a 



Agriculture in Canada 



the soSh ^^derably greater to 
Sf« , + ha ? Jt ls t0 ^ north of 
Sostoftl- ?> ^ this area that 

SS ente^rorif^ 1 >™ 
occur. pnses ot the province 

PEACE RIVER VALLEY 

intne erta Tt iS re ? l } y , three Provinces 
the chin?i C ° nsl ^, of the are a under 
SoutSrn & JT hlch ^ we sha " c aU 
and 5 ^ lbe ^ a ' of Central A1 berta, 
The hJ he Pe , ace River cou ntry 
the history of the Peace River 




heavier type of vegetation; it retain, 
its moisture well and there is w 
dissipation of moisture thronat lu 
influence of drying winds ThfclSs 
of settlement that took place alS 

h fl l S h me 7 lght from ^e beginning 
has been farm settlement, ft £ ef ' 
sentially a mixed farmine 1JS 

Si a ^ P ^ sent . ex ^PlSmo?e;p7 
cial and intensive farming entprnr£f" 
than any other part S^ESE? 

ft;™^ 186 ' Carries ^e densest popul 
i n n of an yPart of Alberta. Ed- 
monton may be taken as the centra 
of this area, though the developS 



RANGE BANDS ARE sttt t 



is ev Went 8 ^ 11 1° be ***■■ but it 
ties an \h L that home-making activi- 
to a S H P roduct ion will extend 
vhce Thi 8 ^ 6 . nort h *» this pro- 
been ^'raniHit^! din *, of railwa y s has 
and ah P S followe . d J b y settlement 
of IroSl a considerable volume 
alsJhoS ■ h^ h as , oats ' wheatand 
mont on gS ma Xte Und ltS Way t0 Ed " 

an T attrac a fl RiVe - ? ountr y P resent * 
A good Pdeai of T^ °J ^o^es. 
short «l„ of the country s open. 

of theS n t 0Untry and the severity 
tne climate seems to be, to some 



Alberta 



59 



extent, ameliorated by a modified 
chinook influence. Other parts are 
a happy combination of open country 
and useful bluffs and the land is well 
watered. 



THE IRRIGATOR 

While the history of the northern 
Part of the province is still to be 
Written, and, while the character of 
the agricultural development of the 
central part of the province is more 
or less definite and fixed in character 
and has been the same from the be- 
ginning, Southern Alberta, on the 
other hand, has passed through a 
number of interesting and varied 
phases of development in a short 
Period of time. The simple type 
°f pastoral industry, represented in 
cattle, horse and sheep ranching, 
and which lasted up till 1900, was 
rather suddenly and drastically 
changed through the introduction 
°f irrigation enterprises rather than 
through the gradual substitution of 
farm enclosures for the open range. 
It is not uncommon to read that 
Southern Alberta is too dry to raise 
crops without irrigation. This is a 
Matter of superficial inference prompt- 
ed by the fact of irrigation having 
been established in Southern Al- 
berta. 

Southern Alberta now has three 
large irrigation enterprises. The 
&*st of these was established about 
the year 1900, with headquarters at 
Lethbridge. It receives its water 
supply from the St. Marys river and 
the scheme takes account of the 
effective watering of about one-half 
million acres of land. This enter- 
prise has been acquired by the Cana- 
dian Pacific Railway. The Canadian 
■Pacific Railway Company establish- 
ed a still larger enterprise east of 
^algary, with water service supplied 
from the Bow river, which under- 
took to water one million out of the 
three million acres of the total pro- 
perty in land held in this area by the 
company. The third enterprise was 
that of the Southern Alberta Land 



Company, with headquarters at 
Medicine Hat. It likewise draws its 
supplies from the Bow river. It 
controls a total of one and three- 
quarter millions acres of irrigable 
land in these three enterprises alone, 
and there are a number of small 
ones besides. 

Irrigation commonly means crop 
insurance, heavier crops, a greater 
diversity of crops, particularly in 
forage, roots, etc., and it makes live 




THE RAPE PLANT IN ALBERTA 

stock breeding and the establish- 
ment of commercial feeding enter- 
prises certain and profitable. The 
value of irrigation in the production 
of crops has been fully demonstrated 
in Southern Alberta in relation to 
grain, fodders, especially alfalfa, 
roots, potatoes, etc., but there is 
scarcely so much to be said for the 
use that is made of the crop. 

Irrigation is somewhat expensive 
in relation to ordinary grain farming, 



60 



Agriculture in Canada 



and there is considerable straight 
grain farming carried on in the irri- 
gated districts. Of better profit on 
irrigated lands is the practice of 
growing large quantities of a superior 
type of fodder, also some roots and 
a little grain, and the marketing of 
these through live stock. Besides 
the habit of grain-growing being too 
prevalent, where fodders are grown 
they are likewise sold off the farm. 
Seventy-five per cent of the alfalfa, 
for example, grown in the Leth- 
bridge district is marketed for cash 
instead of through live stock. 

DRY FARMING 

The irrigation enterprises of the 
province as such are large and am- 
bitious enterprises, but in relation 
to the whole of the agriculture of 
Southern Alberta, their importance 
is over emphasized. They are among 
the big things that stick out for the 
newspaper man. They are really 
important in Alberta agriculture on 
account of the intensive modern type 
of work for which they stand in the 
first place, and for starting the dry 
farmer coming in the second place. 
Irrigation was no sooner established 
in Alberta than there followed quickly 
a large immigration of farmers, who 
believed that they could produce 
crops successfully in Southern Al- 
berta without artificial watering, 
and there is no doubt but that they 
have made out their case, but with- 
out reduction in the credit, benefit 
or advantage of irrigation. 

There is no doubt but that the 
making common of the knowledge 
underlying the practice of dry farm- 
ing, and the making common of the 
practice itself, have been of the 
greatest benefit to general agricul- 
ture. An examination of the pre- 
cipitation records for points in Al- 
berta shows that there is not much 
difference between Central and 
Southern Alberta as to the total or 
absolute precipitation. The average 
for the Edmonton district is between 
eighteen and twenty inches and for 



the Calgary district the average falls 
within the same limits. To put the 
matter in a simple way; Southern 
Alberta looks dry on the unbroken 
prairie and in a certain sense is dry 
because the run-off is very rapid on 
unbroken prairie. The chinook wind 
likewise gets away with a lot of 
moisture both in summer and winter. 
It will remove a foot of snow in three 
or four hours, or, what it does not re- 
move, it will drive into the coulees, 
and it is likely to do this two or three 
times during a winter. Towards the 
end of June or the first of July, it 
will change the whole prairie vegeta- 
tion into well-cured hay. 

The problem of the man who 
decides to change a piece of the 
prairie into a farm is to get the water 
into the land and keep it in. The 
breaking of the prairie creates a 
reservoir for moisture, the working 
of the surface keeps the moisture 
from travelling back into the air. 
The dry farmer is really in conflict 
with the chinook and he can beat 
it out by deep ploughing, the summer 
fallow, surface working and in some 
cases by cover crops, packing, stubble 
manure, etc. 

The largest yields of grain in the 
province during .the past two years 
have been in Southern Alberta on 
lands that were not artificially 
watered. It is quite true that the 
seasons have been very favourable. 
The rainfall has been heavy during 
the growing season. In 1912-13-14, 
there were a good many failures in 
Southern Alberta, but there were 
likewise some successes. 

MIXED FARMING UNIVERSAL 

The changes which have come over 
Southern Alberta have resulted in 
making the whole of the province 
a mixed farming country. The 
big stock ranges are, to a large 
extent, a thing of the past. They 
are, at least, in the cases of horses 
and cattle. The sheep men, how- 
ever, are holding on successfully. 
They have to dodge about more 



Alberta 



61 



than pleases them among the wire 
fences, but sheep have to be herded 
in any case and are better adapted 
than either horses or cattle to use 
the scattered pieces of unoccupied 
land between the farms. There is 
no doubt, but that the proportion 
°i land devoted to grain on Southern 
Alberta farms is, and will continue 
to be, larger than in Central Alberta. 
At the same time Southern Alberta 
farmers are trying to increase their 
stock. 

ANNUAL FODDER CROPS AND 
ENSILAGE 

It cannot be said that on Southern 
Alberta lands we have succeeded m 



alfalfa com and oats, and other 
mixtures have been used for ensilage 
with entire success. 

The purpose of this somewhat 
lengthy setting out of the history of 
Alberta agriculture is to show that 
over the whole of the province of 
Alberta there has been an effects 
adjustment of farming methods to 
coSions such as to make all good 
S productive and profitable, and 
lo give ?o all our work the necessary 
quSty of conservation besides. 

FIGURES ON ALBERTA PRODUCTION 

The habit of setting out our 




FODDER CORN IN 

establishing good tame meadows. 
Alfalfa, however, succeeds on both 
jrngated and unwatered lands. The 
bulk of summer fodder on cultivated 
land is from such crops as fall rye 
and grain mixtures, rape, etc. The 
Production of adequate forage, how- 
j*er, is wholly possible. On both 
fne provincial demonstration farms 
m Southern Alberta large dairy 
e nterprises are carried on and home- 
grown feed is plentiful on both 
Places. There is a silo on each 
demonstration farm in the province. 
A * Claresholm, Medicine Hat, Sedge- 
*"ick and Vermilion, fodder corn for 
th is use succeeds well. At Olds and 
?* some of the farms already men- 
tioned, green oats, oats and peas, 



SOUTHERN ALBERTA 

developments every «£ has been 

Sough m ar. b ™n increasing the pro- 
duction of s-arn: 

Area Grain 

591614 19,333,266 

1906 576821 14,588,852 

1907 f| 7 '641 25,073,147 

1908 1242 644 36,761,493 

1909 ! 193 261 22,027,184 

1910 A4ili 50,90V 

1911 I'm'm 64 465,058 

1912 I'tqo 267 75,575,682 

1913 IWl69 58 895,709 

[8}{::;:::::::::i:SSSS 164,332,483 



62 



Agriculture in Canada 



This, roughly speaking, is a seven 
or eight -fold increase in acreage and 
grain in a decade. The total pro- 
duction of 1915 grain in the table 
above is nearly three times as much 
as the production for the year 1914. 
There are two reasons for this. The 
first is the encouragement given by 
both the Dominion and the Pro- 
vincial Governments for the pro- 
duction of food supplies during the 
war time. The other reason is the 
phenomenal season of 1915. During 
the grain season of 1915 (this may be 
taken to include May, June and 
July), the total precipitation in 
Southern Alberta was two and one- 



in the province will take comfort in 
observing that, while the wheat 
yield of 1915 was such as to establish 
a wonderful reputation for produce 
tion, and was such as to put many 
farmers, very much in need of it, 
well on their feet, we in Alberta 
swing strongly towards the pro- 
duction of coarse grains. While our 
total wheat production last year ran 
to sixty millions, our production of 
oats, barley and rye ran over one 
hundred millions. This is a neces- 
sary condition for the support of the 
live stock and dairy enterprises, 
which are becoming year by year 
more important in the agricultural 




A CHARACTERISTIC WHEAT FIELD 
In 1915 Alberta produced 60,000,000 bushels of wheat. 

half times as great as it was in the work of the country. 

previous year. Some phenomenal The average yields of standard 

yields of wheat were reported from grains, spring wheat, winter wheat, 

Southern Alberta both last year and rye, barley and oats, over a period of 

this year, which show the adapta- ten years, are as follows: 

bility of the Southern Alberta climate „ . u ^ mM 

and its soil for wheat production. fTwhlat 22 11 

An outstanding example is the case Oats V. ".'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. ','. 36' 99 

of Mr. Noble, of Nobleford, Alberta, Barley 2%, w 

who this year breaks the thousand- Rye 19 - 32 

acre record for spring wheat with 

the yield of 54.39 bushels. In spite constitution of northern 

of the signal successes here recorded SEED grain 

in wheat growing in Alberta, those As has been shown, Alberta, in 

who are interested in the achieving common with the other prairie prov- 

of a permanent type of agriculture inces, shares an enviable reputation 



Alberta 



63 



«i the contribution of liberal sup- 
Plies of commercial grain to the food 
resources of the Empire. In addi- 
tion to this, there is an important 
development of specialized seed pro- 
duction appearing in the province. 
It is a recognized law in seed pro- 
duction that the farther north a crop 
can be made to mature satisfac- 
torily, the better constitution the 
seed has. There has already been 
considerable evidence of the superi- 
ority of Alberta seed grain. Turkey 
Red from Kansas, when grown in 
Alberta, was given a separate grade 
by reason of its superior quality, and 
became Alberta Red. It weighed 
more to the bushel and produced a 
larger and bolder kernel. The same 
thing is happening with regard to 
spring wheat. Samples of Alberta 
oats have been known to go fifty-one 
Pounds to the bushel, and at one of 
the provincial seed shows the ten 
first samples went over forty-eight 
Pounds to the bushel. Within the 
Past two years sufficient business 
has been done in the placing ot 
timothy seed on eastern markets to 
indicate that in the future we shall 
have considerable business in the 
Production of grass seed. The pro- 
duction of alfalfa seed is in its 
beginning, but experiments with 
home-grown seed have demonstrated 
its superiority over the imported 
seed that is used. On the whole, 
there appears to be a chance ot 
building up on our general agricul- 
tural production a superstructure ot 
specialized work in the furnishing ofa 
good class of seeds to some of the 
other provinces of the Dominion, and 
to the northern tier of states. Large 
supplies of oats have already found 
their way through the seed houses to 
the United States' markets and, this 
^ar, spring wheat will probably be 
burnished in large quantities. 



LIVE STOCK CENSUS 



It appears to be difficult to show 
hv fteures the development of the 
live stock industry of the province. 
Sort fimires are commonly secured 
fr^ the transportation .companies 
Ke records are kept in different 
wavs by the different companies 
Pv^ort figures, likewise, do not 
teSfusih'with respect to pro- 
i +• vT Thpre have been times 

Trapid in the province ^hat pro 
duction could not an? mo , 

ranching to farm co ^ 

fhThog busineL hasgone up and 
down in the different years with 
Scteristic suddenness The 

sheep tofJfflSSaSSffin any 
less subject to . a ^eOo6k work. 

and a ^P^f h bot h in the 

sEKHFMhs 

three millions. 1 he pure "'f, £ 
husiness is mproving. .^berra* 

in sheep of all kinds. 



64 



Agriculture in Canada 



DAIRY PRODUCTION 

The dairy interests of the province 
are in a very healthy condition. Our 
production is increasing rapidly. The 
standard of our products is improv- 
ing and is now recognized as high. 
The work of the Department of 
Agriculture which stands between 
the consumers, including the trade, 
on the one side, and the producers, 
including the manufacturers, on the 
other side, is resulting in good 
things. During the year 1915, the 
total production of creamery butter 
was 7,376,871 lb., which was an 
increase of 35.48 per cent over the 
production in the previous year. 
The output of cheese was 372,693 lb., 
as against 70,580 lb. in 1914. There 
were 57 creameries and 13 cheese 
factories in operation during the 
year. The principal markets for 
Alberta butter have been, and still 
are, British Columbia and the Yukon. 
In British Columbia, the Alberta pro- 
duct is displacing New Zealand but- 
ter. Last year, ten cars were, like- 
wise, shipped to Montreal and 
Toronto. The Commissioner's 
office in Calgary marketed ten per 
cent of the creamery product. The 
Dairy Commissioner has succeeded 
in making the closest possible ad- 
justment to the needs of consumers 
and the trade with respect to the way 
butter is put up. On the side of 
production, the closest scrutiny and 
inspection are carried on in regard to 
the manufacturing processes, and 
during the year ninety-six per cent of 
the cream used was bought on grade. 

The development of production in 
both butter and cheese over the last ten 
years is shown in the following table: 

Creamery 
Butter Cheese 

1906 2,000,000 97,739 1b. 

1907 1,500,000 195,000 " 

1908 2,100,000 190,000 " 

1909 2,550,000 224,000 " 

1910 2,315,000 220,000 " 

1911 2,540,000 100,000 " 

1912 3,000,000 40,000 " 

1913 4,115,000 70,716 " 

1914. 5,450,000 70,581 " 

1915 7,376,871 372,693 " 



DIRECTIVE AND EDUCATIONAL FORCES 

The discussion of Alberta agri- 
culture would be wholly incomplete 
which did not take account of the 
work of the Department of Agricul- 
ture for the province. The organiza- 
tion and working of administrative 
and educational agencies are as much 
a part of agricultural achievement 
and potentiality as the growing of 
fifty pound oats or the making of 
Alberta creamery firsts. The De- 
partment of Agriculture has always 
carried out active educational work 
in the interests of the fundamental 
industry of the province. This in- 
cludes both popular education and 
systematic agricultural education. 
We quote from the annual report of 
1915 what may be taken to be the 
position of the Department with 
regard to the need of aid to the set- 
tler: 

"The conditions of the country by- 
reason of its newness involves active 
administrative and executive work, but, 
likewise and chiefly, a great deal of 
educational and directive work. Most 
of our people are on the land. Most of 
them are from other countries or other 
provinces of the Dominion itself. The 
conditions of soil, season and general 
climate are new to them. Many of them 
have not farmed in any country 
or at any time before. This makes 
necessary the carrying on of a vigourous 
policy in popular and practical educa- 
tion, that is, the education of adults who 
are actually engaged in farm work. To 
this end, all the branches of the Depart- 
ment carry on active educational work, 
through the demonstration farms, fairs, 
and institutes, conventions, district 
agents' work, short course schools, 
demonstration trains and through bul- 
letins and correspondence. There is 
likely to be a constant and continuous 
demand and need for this type of work. 
New crops, new methods of soil and farm 
management and the opening of new 
areas are going to make it necessary to 
give all the direction and assistance 
possible to those on the land to enable 
them to establish prosperous homes and 
enterprises and to promote national 
production. It is true likewise that western 
farm communities are eager for informa- 
tion and improvement and are quick to 
put into practice new plans and ideas." 



Alberta 



65 



large towns or cities. The schools, 
AGRICULTURAL schools large w nt in agricultural 



Sprovfde a complete system of edu- 
SSal services in agncultu^ 
The Department of Agriculture 
x , -J -«~.t«ro harmony with the 



province, mere are tnree ui w*^ 

now in operation and the number will 

probably increase. Stated briefly, 

these schools give a two years 

course, with five-month sessions in The Ue pan,meuu ^ " e "f t u the 

each year, beginning in November ^ . effective harmony wA the 

and closing at the end of March- Department of £ducatwn * 

The work for boys consists of field un £ ersi ty. TheDepata*^^ 

husbandry, animal husbandry, farm cation has arrived at a Jetaitton an^ 

mechanics, veterinary science, dairy, limita tion of the scope ;™ agr icui u fo 

poultry and horticulture, elementary in the public «^ .^f/Sture 



gemeirc, DOOK-Keepm^ ai^ ^-"& 
nsn. The girls have cooking, sew- 
ing, laundry, home-nursing, sanita- 
tion, together with the sciences 
underlying their work, English and 
mathematics. The courses in dairy, 
poultry and horticulture are open to 
girls as well as boys. Courses are 



of Education aoes au ^ ~- - 
The province «to°*£ i fining 



girls as well as boys. Courses »« hools witn reg^'u - -^ , q 
free; they are held in winter when d science of agriculture and^ 3m 
the boys can get away from the farm. king for boys and arte wno 

tory schoo Is ; a ire ati on university- 



possible. Considerable attention is 
paid to extending the social expen- 
£***„ „£ „ :i~ a 4- +Vi^ caTYiA time. 



paid to extending the social expen- tory schools in ire au univers ity. 

ence of pupils. At the same time, of agn^ure i boys from the 

the schools are actually situated on Last year ™ lture were in attend- 

farms and are, in all cases, essentially s*fS the university, 

rural districts, and not adjacent to ance o. 



BRITISH COLUMBIA 

BY WM. E. SCOTT, DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE 



BRITISH COLUMBIA, the 
Pacific Maritime Province of 
Canada, has an area of 
approximately 372,000 square miles, 
or 238,080,000 acres. To give an 
idea of size by comparison, this 
area is greater than the combined 
areas of the British Isles, France, 
and Belgium, or slightly less than 
the combined areas of Germany and 
Austria-Hungary. 

The province is bounded on the 
south by the American States of 
Washington, Idaho, and Montana, 
on the north by the Yukon and 
Mackenzie territories, on the east by 
the Rocky Mountains, and on the 
west by the Pacific Ocean and a 
portion of Alaska. 

British Columbia is the western 
gateway of Canada, and through its 
portals in the future is bound to flow 
a large part of Canada's trade to the 
Orient, antipodes, and, now that the 
Panama canal is an accomplished 
fact, to the nations of the old 
world also. A considerable por- 
tion of the produce from the golden 
grain fields of the Middle West will 
also be diverted this way, and passing 
through the ports of Vancouver, 
Victoria, and Prince Rupert, will 
then be carried to the markets of the 
world by sea-going traffic. 

Before it was better known, 
British Columbia used to be re- 
ferred to as a "sea of mountains". 



It is true that a large proportion of 
the province is composed of moun- 
tain ranges covered with stately 
trees of Douglas fir, cedar, spruce, 
hemlock, tamarack, pine, and other 
commercial timbers — an inex- 
haustible supply of national wealth — 
and, also, hidden in the bowels of the 
earth, awaiting development and 
exploitation by the enterprising hand 
of man, are unlimited supplies of 
gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron, 
coal, and other minerals. 

But, in addition to these potential 
sources of wealth, we have a large 
area of the finest kind of agricultural 
land, in our fertile valleys, benches, 
and plateaus, where everything that 
is necessary for the most successful 
prosecution of agriculture in all its 
branches, and for the highest pro- 
duction from the soil, is present. 

EVOLUTION OF FARMING 

The first farming done in the 
province was in the neighbourhood 
of the city of Victoria, on Vancouver 
Island, and New Westminster on the 
Lower Mainland. These are the 
two oldest cities of the province, and 
on the neighbouring lands, stock and 
farm produce was grown to supply 
the wants of these small, but growing 
cities. 

Later, in the Ws, the great gold 
rush to the Cariboo took place, and 
many people realized that here 



66 



British Columbia 



67 



i nrovince suitable for agriculture, 

was a golden opportunity to supply gov ib , in a province of the 

with produce at good prices the " * J t £ q{ Bmsh Columbia to 

mining camps that were constantly ■"£ liable igures, owing to 
o^^^rr;^«- n-n nn sill .dides. 



sssv i ay vs.?^ 

•STthrttot option" £e are at 
f^rf MOO00O0 ires of land suit- 

Sf s '« rj y he js"f 

Trl now on, agriculture hegan Srei ifbSr pastun.^^; 

having amassed a competency rej lored a„d g»"S 

tired from the strenuous Me oi the agncnmnal POssi 

u„v,+: — *„« +v,^ ™*>piniis metal, ana , ,, nminpca. uassiai, <um 



til 1 1111 lg uaiil^o i/iac*v y - 

springing up on all sides. 

It was at this time that the 
beginning of the stock ranging indus- 
try took place, and bands of carae 
were pastured on the Chi cotin, 
Thompson, and Nicola valleys- 
districts in which the bunch grass 
grows. 



having amassed a competency re lored and very ^ 1C ~ ibmties 

tired from the strenuous Me of about the. agricultural^^ ]in 

hunting for the precious metal, and rf ^ 0mine ca, Cassiar, anu 

took im lnnH on the picturesq Aiatrit4». 



oftheOmineca, Cassiar, and Athn 
took up land on the Picturesque d ^ icts . 
banks of the Fraser or Thompson ^ MnTTTONS 

rivers, or on the fertile plains of the climatic conditions 

Lower Mainland, or Vancouver 

To! 01-1 i-l 



t „ province the size of British 

is] and. „, n I n \g°Tk only natural that 

It is onlv however, during the Columbia it is u ^ v on . 

past twentTyears that any material climatic cond* ons sh° nfines 

nr,wp SS his been made in agncul- siderably. in 1 the grow 



past twentyyea^Tharanfmaterial climatic ^X^'orttern confines 

progress has been made in agncul- aderab^in thegrow- 

ture. During this time, many set- of the Peace itiv ^ ters 

tiers, principally from the mother «g ^on 1 yhort ^ 

land have been attracted to th s cold ., whiWm m ^ ical condl - 

province and have settled in all oui sections aimo 

agricultural districts, engaging in tions exist^ g ^ he 

fruit growing and mixed farming. The ^^westerly drift, laving 

A considerable settlement has also Pacific J f a ^ ou / e ,. Island the 

taken place from Eastern Canada the shores o p&ci g ? littoral, 

and the P Prairie Provinces , and the WJam^ to these districts a 

United States, people being at thereby g chmate the jear 

tracted bv the many advantages mild anu h 

offered for the making of happy round. ^^ ^ autumn 
^~™ *™^o+ T^ioocnnt surroundings. 



offered for the making » 'W ,ou T n , d ; SDringi summer, and autumn 

homes anridst pleasant surround.ngs. ™f ™Vi gh t, »n*mjr and 

po?Sn c eSS, h S Wg JiSSS&fefiSffi 

Out of this, the farming POP^JJ P°P u l ar S attracted thither rom 

is about 75 000. Home production people bmgattrac he delight . 

for the year 1915 ___ totaHed al parte of the wo ^ 



&.m> Ving .^Jg* JJ SJ£&tff3^ which 



$31,127,000, giving a P« r "££* 
production for every man, woman, 
and child in the province of aboire 
$70. 



a ;»^=- wh^ 
Tffs- s ds .art ££ 

Japanese ejj^fg an easterly 
the coast, are carrfai d by 



AREA OF AGRICULTURAL LANDS the"coast, are ■ «««£ a ^ ^{by 

Various estimates have been made ggj ^ * p ^ ing over which 
as to the amount of land in the 



68 



Agriculture in Canada 



they lose their moisture-laden con- 
tents, and become rarified, thus giv- 
ing to the interior valleys and plateau 
lands a drier climate, with warmer 
summers and colder winters. 

AGRICULTURAL AREAS 

In order to give a general idea of 
the different conditions obtaining in 
the various sections of the province, 
the following short description is 
submitted : 



parts in which the costs of land clear- 
ing are reasonably low, and conse- 
quently a considerable amount of 
land settlement has been effected. 

Vancouver Island is essentially 
adapted for intensive diversified 
farming on a comparatively small 
acreage. It is particularly well suit- 
ed for dairying, poultry, sheep and 
hogs. 

Tree and small fruits grow well on 
suitable soils, and yield abundant 
crops of the best quality of fruit. 




STRAWBERRY GROWING, VANCOUVER ISLAND 



For the sake of convenience the 
province may be divided into five 
different districts, each with different 
climatic conditions: — 

(1) Vancouver Island and adja- 
cent Gulf Islands. — This district is 
covered with a growth of commercial 
timber varying in density, and con- 
sisting principally of Douglas fir, 
cedar, spruce and hemlock. Whilst 
the cost of clearing the heavier tim- 
bered portions is high, and in many 
cases prohibitive, there are many 



A great variety of garden produce is 
also grown to the best advantage. 

The average rainfall of the south- 
eastern part of Vancouver Island is 
approximately 40 inches, whilst on 
the west, northern coasts, and inter- 
ior parts of the island, there is a 
considerably heavier precipitation, 
ranging all the way from 40 to 120 
inches. 

Some settlement has been effected 
on the west coast of the island, and 
crops of all kinds yield well. 



British Columbia 



69 



The cost of clearing the s virgn 
forest and the excessive P/ecipitation 
are the chief retarding factors to a 
more rapid settlement. 

On the east coast of ^«"£ei 
Island, between Victoria and Wince 
Rupert, are many islands, on which 
there is a considerable amount ot 
farming carried on. The most south 
erly of these islands are veritable 
gems of the Pacific with ideal IcU- 
matic conditions, and wonderful scenic 



washed down from the mountain 
ranees of the interior by the turbu- 
Sf waters of the mighty Fraser 

^This highly Productive are^ t grows 

u QVV rr0 Ds of gram, nay, grasses, 

gr#S2r$g 

quite common, and hay will yield as 
h ^r P SS%^o3anddairying 




DAIR V AN P ULT KV FAB M.-W ER M^N,B.C. 



attractions. As on Vancouver Island 
mixed farming is principally foil jweo. 
A very fine quality of fruit is grown 
on the Gulf islands, with good coiour 
and keeping qualities. di 

(2) Lower Mainland^* 
trict includes what is ^ m g.^ r 
known as the ™*«*£jy be- 
river. It is a tract ui 
tween the coast range and the se 
formed of a luvwl sUt, w 
through countless ages, nas 



district. P^rwlth^e mud wS 
luxuriance, and ^^pasture 
ters experienced, s tock can y > 
outside Practically the yea^ 

a,1 Thetimber on the uncleared land 

these 1^* „^ H Xir wonderful pro- 
BBSrfST'S expense o f 



70 



Agriculture in Canada 



clearing in most instances. 

Poultry raising is also extensively 
followed. Some sections of the high- 
er lands are well suited to both tree 
traits and small fruits. There is a 
considerable trade done with the 
prairie provinces, in rhubarb, straw- 
berries, raspberries, loganberries, etc. 

The rainfall m this district will 
average about 65 inches. 

(3) Interior valleys of Southern 
British Columbia.— This section takes 
m t 2? ~ e countr y south of the line 
ol the Canadian Pacific railway to 
the international boundary line be- 
tween the coast range and ' the 
Rocky Mountains, the principal dis- 
tricts being the Thompson valley 



wan he and r m" °l $****> Sask *tche- 
wToi.- Manitoba, and considera- 
7 6 i hl 3 m f nts are also made to New 

ThesT d vanev traHa ' "2$ S ° Uth ^ 
tW rtw -7 S ' m addi tion to being 

Ktad&ff llfalf " ^ 
grow to tvfl v g l A , lfalfa and corn 

XTdin/Sl be - St u + advanta g e > thus 
thP ^i f the nght conditions for 
the most economical raising of stock 

farmed ff' tendenc / amongst 
£S B >» more in mixed 

S3* S fi tlon to their fm[t - 

Place fnd thnf P ^!T? re l tock onthe 
and at ^ S add to their returns 

Sil^ofeS^ C ° nSerVe ffi 
Sdos are being erected on all 




Nicola, Okanagan and Shuswap, 
Similkameen, Boundary, Kettle val- 

y j w° cai V and Arrow lak es, East 
valle;^ K °° tenay ' and Columbia 

Most of these valleys have been 
developed along fruit-growing lines 
for which they are so eminently adapt- 
ed. A remarkable quality of fruit is 
f°^ in , t he se beautiful sheltered 
fertile valleys, which has captured 
leading awards at all centres in which 
fruit has been exhibited. 

It is estimated that the Okanagan 
valley alone will ship out during the 
present year about 2000 carloads of 
fruit, and 1000 carloads of vegeta- 
bles, this produce going principally 



HAVING OPERATIONS. LOWER MAI NLAND , Bc 



ent from £e V adl ? aIly - differ - 
Coast sections Thl m - g in the 
mer, and autumn \r fP nng > sum- 
whilst the winters aTSrf TJ dea] > 
Plenty of brighUuSiSf'^* 

" C STfC U i^tion 
extensive irriiitSX va, ."W > many 
been inSaH " Systems hi »™e 



British Columbia 



71 



river, which flows into the Pacific 
Ocean near Prince Rupert, the 
Pacific terminus of the Grand Trunk 
Pacific railway, some of the prin- 
cipal districts being Lillooet, Cariboo, 
Chilcotin, Nechaco, Fraser lake, 
Ootsa and Francois lake country, 
Bulkeley valley, Kispiox valley, 
Kitsumkelum, and Lakelse Lake 
valleys, and the Naas river country. 
This part of the province is rapidly 
coming to the fore as a great agri- 
cultural country. The recent corn- 



Grand Trunk Pacific. 

The Chilcotin, Cariboo, and 
Lillooet districts are essentially 
suitable for stock-raising purposes. 
Here, the nutritious bunch grass 
holds sway, and beef cattle come off 
these ranges in the fall of the year in 
prime condition for the butcher 
without the necessity for any 
artificial fattening. 

The country is open rolling land, 
with timber here and there. As a 
rule, irrigation is necessary for grow- 




PirTURESQUE AND PROFITABLE 
This Plot Averaged 103 Bushels per Acre in 1916 



pletion of the transcontinental line 
of the Grand Trunk Pacific and the 
Canadian Northern railways, and 
the near completion of the Pacific 
Great Eastern railway have afforded 
good transportation facilities to the 
different districts, and, as a con- 
sequence, rapid settlement is being 
effected. 

The Pacific Great Eastern railway 
when completed, will link up the 
cities of Vancouver and Prince 
Rupert, on the main line of the 



ing crops, though experimental 
work in crop production by dry 
farming methods has clearly demon- 
strated that good results can be 
obtained in many parts where water 
is not available, and these areas of 
land will undoubtedly in the near 
future be cultivated by these 
methods. 

Further north, between Tete 
Jaune Cache, where the Grand 
Trunk Pacific and the Canadian 
Northern railways pass into the 



72 



Agriculture in Canada 



province through the portals of the 
Rocky Mountains, and the city of 
Prince Rupert are many good areas 
ot farming lands, and this part of the 
province is attracting a considerable 
settlement at the present time. 

The districts mentioned are all 
well suited for grain growing, stock 
raising and general mixed farming 

Primarily this is a stock countrv 
Pea-vine and wild grasses grow 
everywhere, and afford the best of 
pasturage. The cost of land clear- 
r g fJ\ g ^: com Pared with the 
Coast districts. Light alder, poplar 
and cottonwood. are the predomi- 
nant trees, with spruce groves here 
and there There are many tracts of 
open land ready for the plough 

The rainfall averages between 20 
and 40 inches, according to districts 
The summers are fine and warm, with 

Su~ ^ l' apid gr ? win 8 *^S 
bummer frosts occasionally cause 

trouble, but with the settlement S 
clearing of the land, these frosts 3 
no doubt disappear. The winter* 
are fairly cold, but dry and b™ ng 
Excessive low temperatures, when 
they occur, are of short duration 

(5) Peace River. -The Peace River 
is the north-eastern part of th P 
province Lack of transportation 
faci hties in the past has kept back 
settlement, but the near completion 
ot the Dunvegan-British Columbia 
railway has brought in many land- 
seekers during the past few years, and 
a considerable settlement has taken 
Place m the Fort St. John and Pouce 
toupe districts of the Dominion 

««£, B1 °* ™»«™* 

The writer has not yet had an 
opportunity to visit this part of the 
Province, but all reports would 
indicate that in these northern Jori- 
n ? es °j the province are vast areas 

Brofirlr hlC ^ **?' in the ^ur^ S 
profitably developed on grain- 
growing and stock-raising lines 
-The shortness of the erowincr 

v^° n V oim ter-balanced b^thf 
very rapid growth made during the 



cm D r a 2?-V + AU *•** y ield heavy 

"ops, whilst potatoes and other 
vegetables do well. 

ex^nSM ^ th ^ u is a very large 
SEh t lw ? ^ hlch would be well 
Wintt f &t ° C \ ran ^ n g Purposes. 
v\mtei temperatures are low but 
not excessively so. 

des^rintl^T?^' in this short 
KK ° f . the different agri- 
cultural areas, to give a general idea 

posseiprf k armm u g opportunities 

Sant fS+ J u-^ h - The Predomi- 

rSards l- Wh iV Ch stands forth as 
regards agriculture in British Cn\ 

umbia is that with the exception of 

provinoP 9Ck " ranging dist ™ts, the 
Csivp % P n .maiily suited for 
intensive diversified farming on a 
smaller acreage than is tRas? in 
the provinces of the Middle West 

British Columbia is the youngest 
to^JSTT 68 in a ^ulture" g but 
Our Trtl ^ T second to none, 
climite i\S S ' alon S.with the fine 
St con^- Ch T enjov ' g»ve the 
vStv n? ° nS f ° r « rowin 8 a wide 
Iffiage Cr ° ps t0 the best 

HORSE-RAISING 

areVeTnTl? 16 ^ mher of horses 
on th Tw£ e provmce > Principally 
raised on t^? f a f ands " H «^s 
M stamps ?f e , ,and s have a wonder- 

monv of th- i V1 - aHty ' M the testi " 
Sh/pu^ff r wh ^. t made ex - 
Poses wSSftaSaS; ""^ PU1 '- 

coSeMtil^T" main land and Van- 
rakinl i K many stoc k men are 

SUS 6 ^ / Cly . desd H e and 
anH m,?Jl— • , rhe cessation of civic 
and + mui »cipal activities during the 

horset he breedin g of heavy 

DAIRYING 

folSw S J U t C n atiVe ph ^ e of fa ™»"g ^ 
in ail districts of the province the 
coast districts leading i n the quat 



British Columbia 



73 



tity of milk and butter produced 

for milk supply, the Jersey, Guernsey 
and Ayrshire for butter. 

The health of of dairy herds m 



testimony to the suitability of the 
province for dairying. 

SHEEP 

Sheep-raising has not been given 
the attention which its importance 
as a profitable phase of the live stock 
industry would justify, but with the 
rapid advance in prices of wool and 
mutton which have lately taken 
place, stock men are beginning to 




THE HOLSTE.N IS A FAVOURITE FOR 



of bovine tuberculosis iron dairy 

herds. . Testing ^ J^Srthod, 
disease is by the ir >t r aaerm 
and all dairy cattle are at r g 
periods sub ected to the test, a 
reactors destroyed, compensation 

Jtfe ^dumbiacow is g 
er than in any ;other pwiig m 



MILK SUPPLY IN BRITISH COLUMBIA 



realize that they have not been alive 
to their opportunities, and, in all parts 
of the province, sheep are being kept 
in increasing numbers by farmers. 

Whilst there are certain districts in 
which sheep may be ranged in con- 
siderable numbers, as a rule the sheep 
industry will be developed as a 
branch of mixed farming, and small 
flocks of well-bred sheep on the farm 
will be the rule. 



74 



Agriculture in Canada 



BEEP CATTLE 



The bunch grass lands of the in- 
tenor are where our prime steers are 
produced. There are many large 
cattle owners in the Thompson, 
Nicola, Princeton, Boundary, Chil- 

*u 'ST b °°' and LilIooet districts 
though the extensive ranges, origin- 
ally controlled by a few large cattle 
owners, are now being cut up by the 
settlement of preemptors and others 
thus putting the industry into the 
hands of many in the place of few 
The growing of alfalfa and other 
crops for winter feeding by these set- 
tlers will mean that a large number 



GRAINS 

crSrt [S L Colum . bia ca ™°t be des- 
TW if ^in-growing country. 
trZl a c ° nsiderable amount of 
Sfed t ^J\ but Poetically all of it 
« led to stock on the farm, very little 
being exported. Our lands are too 
iSteV* Stmight ™-g"win°g° 
feeditn T'l 2 an ** secured by 
ers nmHnf °%t he grain that fa1 ™- 
tothl Ce - These remarks apply 

Provbce OTe SGttled P° rUo ™ of ? he 

ke?wilf a i n f Pl ^ duCtion for the ma «'- 
from til P future . Principally come 
irom the Peace River district, and 




POLLS 



LOW 



of cattle will be kept, which, of course 
is a desirable consummation. 

A trip through these stock dis- 
tricts at the time of the fall round-uo 
is a pleasant experience. 

Thousands of head of prime fat 
steers m ideal condition for the block 
bear eloquent testimony to the nutri- 
tive and fattening qualities of the 
famous bunch grass. The beef in- 
dustry will also in the near future 
be greatly extended in the more nor- 
therly parts of the province, where 
conditions are eminently suitable 



KR MAINLAND, B.C. 

croos? nn lln r S y 7 ield abundant 
crops m all parts of the province. 

CoTumST tof tf ain yields of Br * *h 
Slows:- he year 1915 wer e as 

Wheat. ... Q1 , . , 

Oats. . . 2 1 . bushels per acre 

Barl *y ■'■'■'.'.:::':.:: ll H " :: 

HAY 



British Columbia 



75 



FODDER CROPS 
A large quantity of fodder crops 
is grown, especially in those districts 
whK are principally given over to 
dairying. Corn is gro wnin al 1 parte 
of southern British Columbia ior 
ensilage purposes and in some parte 
of central British Columbia albO. 
Silos are rapidly being constructed 
in all parts of the province, due to a 
large extent to the demonstration 
wofk on silo construction and the 
Sowing of corn, that has been carried 
out during the past few years by the 
Department of Agriculture. 



POTATOES 

The acreage devoted to potatoes 
is yearly increasing, and tubers of 
the finest quality are produced. A 
considerable export business has been 
built up during the past few years. 
A careful inspection of all potatoes 
shipped out of the province is made 
by officials of the Department, thus 
ensuring a good standard of quality. 

FRUIT 

British Columbia has made a name 
for itself in fruit-growing. Though 
this industry is of comparatively 




TOtJNG ORCHARD, KELOWNA. B.C. 



Alfalfa gives good returns in all 
the interior districts of southern 
British Columbia, and in many parte 

months. 

ROOTS 

should be. 



recent origin, it has made very 
rapid strides. The value of the 
fruit crop of 1910 was approximately 
$250,000, whilst it is estimated that 
the value of the crop for the present 
year will be as high as $1,700,000. 

Fruit is successfully grown in all 
districts of the province, with the 
exception of some of the more 
northerly confines. The quality of 
Vancouver Island strawberries, 
Lower Mainland raspberries, and the 
big red apple of the Thompson, 
Okanagan and Kootenay, is well 



76 



Agriculture in Canada 



known to dwellers in the Prairie 
Provinces, where the larger part of 
our crop is marketed. 

British Columbia secured the gold 
medal of the Royal Horticultural 
Society, Vincent Square, London, 
the blue ribbon of fruit growing, for 
eight consecutive years, against all 
comers, whilst the province each 
year captures the leading awards at 
the Spokane Apple Show. 

VEGETABLES 

A considerable quantity of veget- 
ables is produced to supply home 
markets, and, in addition, a large 
quantity is exported to the Prairie 
Provinces. Tomatoes, celery, 
onions, cauliflower, cabbages' 
potatoes, etc., are shipped in large 
quantities from the Coast districts, 
the Okanagan and Kootenay coun- 
tries, and find a ready sale as far 
east as Winnipeg. 

FARM CREDIT 

At the session of the Provincial 
Legislature of 1915, the Agricultural 
Act, commonly known as the Agri- 
cultural Credit Act, was passed. 
Lnder the provisions of this Act 
authorization is given for the bor- 
rowing by the Government of the 
sum of $15,000,000 for the purpose 
of loaning to farmers. The Act 
provides for the appointment of a 
Board of Commissioners, which has 
now been made. 

Early in the present year, the 
sum of $1,000,000 was secured, and 
the Act put into operation. The 
money is loaned for certain specific 
purposes, such as drainage, land 
clearing, fencing, the erection of 
farm buildings, purchase of stock, 
implements, and other purposes, 
which are calculated to increase 
agricultural production. 

Long dated loans are made on the 
amortization plan for periods of 
36J-2 years, 30 years, or 20 years. 
Short dateti loans for a period to be 
determined in each case at the dis- 



cretion of the Commission, not less 
than three years and not to exceed 
10 years, may also be made. Such 
loans need not be amortizable, but 
may be made on such terms and 

ssir m the Commission 

Single seasonal loans may also 
be made for financing crop opera- 
tions, etc. Such loans shall be 

E y S Ie ^ ith J n twelve months 
from the date of the application. 

JWH any ^ is S ranted b y ^ 
Board a careful valuation of the 

^ P • + y ^ 1S u made ^ the appraisers 
appointed by the Board, and not 
more than 60 per cent of' the value 

™i Ji t e T ne i by the appraiser, 
calculated on the basis of value and 
productiveness, when the improve- 

£!w m . "W to which th « loan 
is desired, shall have been effected, 
can be loaned. 

A considerable portion of the 
money required has already been 

ll Ce i ? Ut i n loans - The chief 
drawback under which farmers have 
aboured in the p ast has been the 
impossibility of securing a long- 
term loan at a reasonable rate of 
mterest for the legitimate develop- 
Th£ i and . «?*«»*<»» of his farm, 
lbs legislation of the Provincial 

.nH^L™ 6 ?* 8 this difficulty, 
„? d 1 f T nfident >y expected that the 
successful experience of New Zealand 

W . thi countnes will be repeated 
in tlus province, and that a great 
stimulus and encouragement ^wfll 
be afforded to agriculture. 

CO-OPERATION 

mSf i a 1 mei 2 are beginning to 
leahze that effective co-operation 

sarv g fo S ? U tS b K U t eSS Hnes ' ^S 

evident bvth? SUCC6SS ' is plain, y 
eviaent by the many co-operative 

societies that have been incorporated 

under the Agricultural Act. Many 

co-operative creameries, fruit 

growers, associations, and similar 

organizations, have recently been 

started, and are doing good work for 

their supporters in reducing the 

cost of production by co-operative 



British Columbia 



77 



buying and securing better prices 
for produce by co-operative selling. 
This work is in every way encouraged 
and supported by the Department of 
Agriculture. 

MARKETS 

British Columbia farmers can pro- 
duce goods of the highest quality, 
but successful marketing is the all- 
important question. The solution 
of this problem is gradually being 
effected by proper organization, 
through the aid of this Department. 

Material assistance is afforded 
towards the best placing of the 
farmers' produce by the work of the 
market commissioners in the prairie 
provinces and in our Coast markets, 
who keep the farmer and fruit 
grower in close touch with market 
conditions and requirements. 

The wealth of the province in 
minerals, timber and fish is well- 
known, but we have not sufficiently 
in the past realized the additional 



source of national wealth we have in 
our millions of acres of fertile soil, 
which are awaiting the hand of man 
to bring forth the fruits of the earth 
in abundance. The soil is the basis 
of national wealth, and permanent 
prosperity can only come to the 
country that develops to the fullest 
extent its agricultural opportunities. 



VALUES, BRITISH COLUMBIA AGRICULTURAL 
PRODUCTION, 1913-15 

1913 $26,222,033 

1914 30,184,100 

1915 31,127,801 

VALUES, AGRICULTURAL IMPORTS FROM 

OTHER PROVINCES IN CANADA INTO 

BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1913-15 

1913 $12,936,980 

1914 19,908,455 

1915 13,493,807 

VALUES, AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS IM- 
PORTED FROM FOREIGN POINTS INTO 
BRITISH COLUMBIA, 1913-15 

1913 $7,133,777 

1914 5,290,670 

1915 2,941,163 



>l. vnl^