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Berkeley, California 

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an tfie \mn Jmptotjement^ i 




By J. C. LOUDON, F. L. G. Z. & H.S. &c. 










Mam U^' 

Printed by A. & R. Spottiswoode, 
New- St reel- Square. 


the cultivation and treatment of its more useful a,!L»I !nH ^'"^''"'^ f^onomy ; and 
are called HuA.niry, or ^,nc«*«« Tna more HmUed "use ff Se l?™ "^"'''"'' "''''^'' 
have been the publications on rural matters durin",! uT, ^™- Numerous as 

two or three of them whose titles mXZn.^ ^ ' "''"'>' >'«'"^' "'"'^ »« but 

of these departments. Th« "one oTI,em dfd ^w'TT". '^' ""^ '^'"'^'^ "oth 
appearance of this Encyclop^d,: m'ay b^ ct^fiXntTraSed""^"'' -^^™""^ -^ «" 
comp L^Sen ss .iLTl'u^ an^».yc V«*„ „/ ^gn.^ft^r., ^n account of its superior 
expeLnce and XrvT.l /;: l^Frto^^^^ ''T ^ ^"^^'^ P™"'"' 
embrace everv part of the subiect and wht.T "^ u-^ " ''°°'"'- '' Professes to 

a general History of A^ricuSin alt'co,^^^^^^ "T '""'T" '^" -"«'"P"^<J. to give 
state in every coLty of th" British lerTsv-sS-",^ '.™"''^"='"' =""^y of i«» Pre^n, 
far the best for instruction, andTso ^ l^st tlSr^f "'■''"«""• "' '^ ="'°P""* »^ '')' 



of the Agriculture o;:nVo;re\'r;^:sTtdrrs*n 




bailiffs, and othTr irvlnl aJ^^fcuISs wtS '" ^^"«-"g ?-_, ^"ties of land stewards, 
(See § 7834. 78^ and^7953 "mso ) C"? '"''"''''!^- '"^ .'*"'• ''■'^'' >'"??<'«• 



buildings have noTfornd^rir wty inVl^tl J^ 'anTforTem" 'b '""'^?'"'^ """ 


Agricultural Repository oXd Ifreet l^^Tf^ ^"^ ■" ^' foP"^'"'^ «f heir's 

from their extensive colfe^donrandmoreVSlarif of ^w^^ "' '" """^ '''''''"^ 

which the late Mr. Weir iny^ni^A^JZ. Pf "!'^""™y f «hosc implements and machines • 

to Mr. Morton LiAwLlk Edinbumh wrr""'' „ *'"' !"'' *""''' "^"^ "''« <>"« 
mechanist in Scotland ^ to Met" Cotta^ and Tu" T'i^^' ,"' ^" -«"''=""--'J 


of agricultural implements both in timber and iron. There is no implement or 
machine mentioned in this work which will not be found on sale, or may not be 
made to order, in the establishments of these gentlemen, in the best manner, and at 
an equitable charge. 

For important assistance in the Veterinary Part of this work, our best thanks are due 
to an eminent professor. Through the kind assistance of this gentleman we have been 
enabled to bring together a body of useful information on the anatomy, physiology, 
pathology, breeding, rearing, and general treatment of the horse, the ox, the sheep, and 
other domestic animals, even to dogs and poultry, such as we can safely assert is not to 
be found in any other single volume on Agriculture. 

It may be necessary to mention, as a key to this work, that such technical terms as are 
used in a more definite sense than usual, or such as practical readers in the country, or 
mere general readers, may be supposed not familiar with, are explained in a Glossarial 
Index (p. 1241.) ; and that the abridged titles of books are given at length in an appro- 
priate catalogue, (p. viii.) The systematic nomenclature of plants adopted is that of our 
Hortus Britdnnicus, with some exceptions which are noted where they occur. In the 
specific names of the more common animals, we have followed Turton's edition of the 
Sysiema Natiirce of Linnseus ; in those of insects, \^'e have followed modern authors : such 
chemical, mineralogical, and geological terms as occur, are those used by Sir H. Davy 
in his Agricultural Chemistry, and by Professor Brande in his Geology : the weights and 
measures are always according to the standard of Britain, and the temperature to that of 
Fahrenheit's thermometer, unless otherwise expressed. Systematic names of animals, 
vegetables, and minerals are accented, and their derivations indicated, in the manner 
adopted in the Gardener s Magazine and in the Magazine of Natural History, as ex- 
plained in a separate article, (p. vii.) 

The recent changes which have taken place in the market value of currency, render 
price a criterion of much too temporary a nature to be employed in any work which 
aims at general and permanent utility. For this reason we have in this Encyclopaedia 
generally avoided money calculations, preferring to indicate the value of objects or 
operations by the quantity of materials and labour requisite to produce them, or by 
stating their cost relatively to the cost of other articles. 

We have also avoided entering on the subject of state policy, as to the relative pro- 
tection of agriculture and manufactures, or of the protection of the home against the 
foreign grower of corn. Natural prices will always be safer for the farmer than arti- 
ficial ones ; and with low prices the farmer has the chance of deriving a greater benefit on 
an extraordinary rise, and sustaining less loss on an extraordinary fall. If the prices of 
corn were one half lower than they are, neither farmers nor proprietors would find their 
comforts diminished ; for the value of manufactures and importations would fall in pro- 
portion to that of agricultural produce. Price, it is true, is not always value ; but they 
are never materially different for any length of time. 

The first edition of this work was written in the autumn and winter of 1822-3, and 
published in June, 1825. In this second edition, commenced in January, 1828, and 
completed in January, 1831, will be found very considerable additions and improvements, 
including nearly 500 new engravings. Of these engravings nearly 200 are more useful 
figures, substituted for others considered less so ; and the remainder, consisting of nearly 
300 are entirely additional. A catalogue of all the engravings in the work arranged 
systematically is also given (p. xxxii. ), for more convenient reference, when the purpose 
of the reader is a choice of implements or machines. 

The principal additions to the letter-press of this edition have been (nade at the 
suggestion of our much esteemed friend Mr. Cleghorn, of Edinburgh, late editor of 
the Farmer''s Magazvie, formerly published in that city ; ana, in consequence of the 
assistance procured by the Proprietors, on our recommendation, from Mr. Swainson, the 
eminent naturalist. The former gentleman perused an interleaved copy of the Ency- 
clopaidia, and suggested on the blank pages whatever he thought wanting ; indicating at 
the same time the books or other sources which might be consulted for the purpose of 
supplying these wants. Mr. Swainson most obligingly took the trouble of writing 
some paragraphs in the Agricultural History of South America (p. 200.), and the whole 
of the article on Insects (from p. 1 112. to p. 1121.), with some other sentences and para- 
graphs in different parts of the work, not always considered of sufficient importance to 
be marked with his signature. Dr. Trail, of Liverpool, on our suggestion to the Pro- 
prietors, examined the chemical and geological departments of Part II. Book III., and 
was good enough to send us some corrections and additions, most of which are indicated 
by the letter T. With the exception of the additional engravings of implements before 
mentioned, Mr. Swainson's article on Insects is by far the most valuable addition which 
the Encyclopaedia has received ; and it is l)ut doing justice to him to state, that he is 
the only gentleman among the List of Contributors (p. vi.), who took the trouble to 
write out his additions in such a manner as to accommodate them to the portions of the 


work for which they were intended. The amalgamation of the information sent by the 
other contributors, and the selection and description of the engravings, are of course our 
own ; together with what we have been able to collect ourselves, not only from books 
and correspondence, but also from the personal observations we made, during a tour in 
France and Germany undertaken in 1828-9 on purpose for this work. 

In consequence of repeated invitations given on* the cover of the Gardener's Magazine, 
a considerable number of corrections, additions, and suggestions, have been sent us by 
the anonymous and other correspondents enumerated in the list (p. vi.) before referred 
to. The essence of the greater part of these communications was inserted in the 
Gardener's Magazine at the time they were received, and the whole of these are either 
given, quoted, or referred to, in this edition of the Encyclopaedia, in the proper places ; 
but some which arrived too late for being used in the body of the work are given 
in the Supplement, (p. 1279.) Similar Supplements are intended to be published occa- 
sionally, perhaps every two years, and sold separately at the lowest possible price. 
To every supplementary paragraph will be prefixed the number of the paragraph in the 
body of the work to which the additional information belongs; and every future im- 
pression of the body of the work will contain references from the proper paragraphs 
to the additions to these paragraphs given in the different Supplements : the manner 
is exemplified in p. 1138., viz. by the star (*) placed before §7790., which signi- 
fies that an addition to that paragraph will be found in the Supplement given in 
the present edition after the General Index, (p. 1279.) Where the supplementary 
matter contains figures, similar references will be made from the Systematic 
List of Engravings, as in (p. xxxii.), where the star (*) prefixed to Threshing 
Machines indicates that the Supplement contains a figure or figures of one or more 
kinds of threshing machines. This improvement in the manner of rendering supple- 
mentary information available to a work already in type, and, considered in all its 
bearings, a very great one it is, can only be effected in consecutive editions of a 
stereotyped book, in the plates of which stars or other marks can at any time be 
easily introduced It is calculated to save the reader much trouble that would other- 
wise be unavoidable in referring to numerous Supplements at random ; to prevent any 
additional information from escaping his attention ; and to render it unnecessary on the 
part of the Proprietors to publish, or on that of the possessors of the work to purchase, 
a new edition for several years to come. 

We have stated above that the essence of most of the improvements contained in this 
edition, and many of the new engravings, have been given from time to time in the 
published volumes of the Gardener's Magazine j into which they have been introduced in 
conformity with that object of the work indicated in the titlepage by the expression " Re- 
gister of Rural and Domestic Improvement." We think it right here to repeat, whatwa 
stated in the Prospectus and Introduction to that Periodical (see vol. i.), that though chiefly 
intended as a perpetual Supplement to the Encyclopcedia of Gardening, it is also meant 
to be a perpetual Supplement to the Encyclopcedia of Agriculture in all matters of vegetable 
culture, implements, buildings, and territorial improvements, with a view to farm bailiffs 
ind land stewards. Temporary agriculture and statistics, and matters connected with, 
live stock and other things which more immediately interest the commercial farmer, we 
leave to journals and newspapers wholly agricultural. 

In order to show how much we are indebted to contribv-tors for the improvements 
contained in this second edition, as well as to simplify the duty of thanking them, 
we have placed their names or signatures in the following alphabetical Ust; and 
we beg leave, on the part of the Proprietors and ourselves, to return them sincere 
thanks. We have earnestly to request that these contributors and all our readers will 
examine the present work with a scrutinising eye, and send us whatever they think will 
contribute to its farther improvement. Our ardent wish is, by means of frequent 
Supplements, to keep it at all times on a pace with the rapidly advancing state of agri- 
cultural knowledge and practice ; and we are well aware that this can only be done by 
the extensive cooperation of scientific and practical men. 

By referring to the Calendarial Index (p. 1233.), those parts of this work which treat 
of Farm and Forest Culture and Management may be consulted monthly, as the 
operations require to be performed; by recurring to the General Index (p. 1248.), 
any particular subject may be traced alphabetically, through all its ramifications of 
history, theory, practice, and statistics; and, by turning to the Glossarial Index 
(p. 1241.), the meaning of all words not familiar to general readers may be found. Thus 
we have here combined an Agricultural Treatise, embracing every part of the subject, a 
Husbandman's Calendar, a Dictionary of Rural Affairs, and a Glossary of Agricul- 
tural Terms. 

J. C. L. 

Bayswatcr^ January, 1831. 




An Amateur NaturaUst,8iC. ; Anon., Coleshill, War- 
wickshire; a Reader of the Gardener's Magazine 
from its commencement; a Subscriber to the 
Magazine of Natural History. 
Suggestions, corrections and hints. 

Anderson, John, 49. Park Street, Grosvenor Square, 
London, agricultural engineer ; formerly an ex- 
tensive farmer in Northumberland ; afterwards 
draughtsman and manager at E. Weir's agricul- 
tural repository, Oxford Street. 

Various elaborate drawings of machines, par- 
ticularly of the bone-mill, and of the very excellent 
machine for threshing and other purposes erected 
at Bagshot Park, Berkshire. 

J?., a retired veterinary surgeon of eminence, author 
of various works. 

The greater part of the article on the horse, 
p. 949., and the veterinary part of the subsequent 
articles on agricultural and domestic animals. 

Bt;ll, the Rev. Patrick, of Mid Lioch, Auchter 
House, near Dundee, inventor of a greatly 
improved reaping-machine. 

Drawings and an elaborate description of his 
excellent invention, p. 41'2. 

Booth and Co., distillers, Brentford, Middlesex. 

The details of their establishment for fattening 
cattle, furnished to us on the spot, p. 1025. 

Burncs, — , Farm manager to the Duke of Glouces. 
ter, at Bagshot Park. 

Various hints, and pennission to publish plans 
of his machine, &c. 

Cleghom, James, Accountant, Edinburgh; editor of 
the latter volumes of the Farmer's Magazine, till 
that work was discontinued ; characterised by the 
late Professor Coventry to us, in 1822, as the first 
agricultural writer in Scotland. Author of the 
article Agriculture in the Supplement to the 
Encyc. Brit, and of other works. 

A general examination of the whole work, with 
numerous corrections, various suggestions for im- 
provements, and references to works where the 
requisite information might be obtained. 

Cottajn and Hallen, agricultural implement manu- 
facturers, chiefly in iron, Winsley Street, Oxford 

Corrections, additions, and every assistance in 
delineating some new implements and machines. 

Dickson, W. formerly a farmer near Edinburgh, now 
of Kidbrook, in Kent 

Various details respecting his farm when in- 
spected by us, in April, 1829. 

Dombasie, C. J. A. Mathieu de, director of the agri- 
cultural establishment at Koville, near Nancy, in 
France, and author of various agricultural works. 
Various information respecting the agriculture 
of France, and the inspection of all the details of 
the establishment at Koville. 

Eichthal, M. le Baron de, an extensive proprietor in 
Bavaria,who has resided sometime in Britain, and 
especially in Scotland; studied our agriculture; 
and introduced it on his Bavarian estates by means 
of Scotch farmers. 

Various information respecting the agriculture 
and state of property in Bavaria, in London in 
1826, and at Munich and Eichthal in 1828. 

Torsyth, William, F.H.S. &c., Nottingham Place, 

Various corrections and additions, more espe- 
cially to the bibliography, p. 1206. 

F. and W., the latter a Scotch farmer of experience 
both in Fifeshire and Middlesex. 

Notes on the agriculture of France and Italy, 
from a tour made there in 1828. 

Gihbs and Co., Messrs., nursery and seedsmen, Lon- 

Lists of hardy fruits suitable for a field orchard 
in the midland counties of England, p. 667, and 
information respecting the Serradilla, p. 886. 

Gibbs, M. sen., late nurseryman at Inverness ; after- 
wards superintendent of a British colony attempt- 
ed to be established at Caraccas. 

Information respecting the agricultural capa- 
bilities of some parts of Noith and South Ame- 

Gladstojte, M., engineer, Chester. 

Drawings of several of his late father*s inven- 
tions ; among otliers, of the bean reaping-machine, 
p. 427., and water-furrowing plough, p. 397. 
Gorrie, Archibald, F.H.S., &c., Annat Gardens, 
Errol, Perthshire. 

Various corrections and additions, as to the 
wheat-fly and other matters. 
Gassier, M. 1' Abb«5 de, of Rouen, late president of 
the Agricultural Society there. 

Information respecting the state of agriculture 
in Normandy. 
Graham, James, formerly a farmer in Perthshire; 
afterwards in Middlesex; and latterly in the neigli- 
bourhood of Sydney, in Australia. 
Some notice's respecting Australia. 
Hazzi, M., president of the Agricultural Society of 
Bavaria, and the father of improved agriculture 
in that country; author and editor of various 
works. ^ 

Various corrections and additions relative to the 
agriculture of Bavaria. 
Headrick, the Rev. J., author of the Survey of For- 
farshire, and of various chemical and agricultural 

Various additions and corrections to the sta- 
J. C, near Alnwick, Northumberland, a very ex- 
tensive farmer, and an enlightened political 
Various corrections and additions. 
J. W. L. 

Corrections and additions to the statistical de- 
partments, and especially to Worcestershire and 
Laycock, M., Islington. 

The details of his dairy establishment, from 
which we drew up the account, p. 1029. 
Lindtey, John, F.R.S. L.S. &c., professor of botany 
in the University of London. 
Botanical corrections. 
M., an extensive proprietor, who cultivates a part 
of his own estate in Suffolk, 

A general examination of the whole work, and 
various corrections, suggestions, and additions. 
Main, James, A.L.S., &c., editor of the British Far- 
mer's Magazine ; author of the Cottage Florist's 
Directory, and other works. 
General corrections and additions. 
Masclet, M. le Chevalier de, late French consul at 
Edinburgh, and then a writer in the Farmer's 
Magazine and other periodicals; now residing in 

Various corrections and additions relative to 
the agriculture of France and Flanders. 
Menteath, C. G., stuart of Closeburn, Dumfries- 

An account of his limekilns, waggons, andmode 
of improving grass lands, p. 626. et seq. 
Morton and Co., Leith Walk, Edinburgh, agricul- 
tural implement manufacturers, chiefly in wood. 

Various information respecting agricultural im- 
plements, and several drawings of some new 
ploughs, drill-machines, &c. 
Fearson and Co., Messrs., nurserymen, Chilwell, 
near Nottingham. 

Lists of hardy fruits suitable for a field orchard 
in the northern counties of England, p. 668. 
R. M. of Devonshire. 

Additions to the dairy department 
Ransome and Co., agricultural implement makers, 
Drawings of ploughs and other implements. 
Rhodes and Co., Islington. 

The details of their dairy establishment, from 
which we drew up the account, p. 1028. 
Ronalds and Sons, Messrs., nurserymen, Brentford. 
Lists of hardy fruits suitable for a field orchard 
in the midland counties of England, p. 668. 
Sherriff, Patrick, of Mungo's Wells, near Hadding- 

Several important suggestions, and various cor- 
Sinclair, George, F.L.S., H.S., &c. of the firm of 


Cormack, Sons, and Sinclair, nursery and seeds- 
men, Newcross, London. 
Various corrections and suggestions. 
Snoivden and Co., agricultural implement manu- 
facturers, Oxford Street, London. 

Drawings of the leaf-gathering machine, and 
other implements. 
Swainson, IVUliam, F.R.S., L.S., &c., author of vari- 
ous important works on natural history. 

Various corrections and additions ; more espe- 
cially the entire article on insects injurious to 
agriculture, p. 1112. 
Tay/or, R. C, F.G.S., &c. 

Geological and statistical corrections, and in- 
formation from North America. 
Tat/lor, Samuel, F.R.S., &c., late editor of the agri- 
cultural department of the Country Times news- 

Various corrections and additions. 
Trail, Dr., of Liverpool. 

Geological and chemical corrections. 
Tredgold, Thomas, civil engineer, author of various 
works, who died in 1829. 

Some hints as to the subject of the application 
of steam to agriculture. 
T. W. H,. agricultural pupil with a farmer near 
Wooler in Northumberland. 
Information and corrections. 
Vilmorin, M., of the firm of Vilmorin and Co., 
seedsmen, Paris. 

Various corrections as to the agriculture of 
France, and additions to the forage plants and 
W., proprietor of the Metropolitan Dairy establish- 
ment, in the Edgeware Road, London. 

The details of his dairy establishment, fVom 
which we drew up the account, p. 1029. 
Weir and Co., Oxford Street, London, agricultural 
implement manufacturers, chiefly in wood. 

Corrections, additions, and every assistance in 

making drawings and descriptions of a great 

variety of new implements, machines, and utensils. 

Wilkie, J., of Uddistone, near Glasgow, agricultural 

implement maker, both of wood and iron. 

Various drawings and descriptions ; especially 
of his new plough, p. 392., and cultivator, p. 405. 


The systematic names employed in the sciences are for the greater part derived from the Greek or 
Latin, as being dead, and consequently fixed, languages ; and partly also as being languages more or less 
understood by men of science throughout the world. The Greek language is preferred to the Latin, as 
being more copious and flexible. In general, family or generic names are composed of two or more Greek 
words, indicating some quality common to the family or genus ; and specific or individual names, of 
Latin words indicative of some quality in the individual or species. A number of names, however, are 
formed by giving Greek or Latin terminations to aboriginal names, or by aboriginal words unchanged ; 
not a few names, generic and specific, are given in honour of individuals ; and some, more especially 
specific names, point to countries, towns, or other places connected with the history of the plants. 

All systematic names, whether generic or specific, which Greek or Roman authors have applied to the 
same class of beings as the moderns, and which on this account are called classical names, are indicated 
by the first letter being put in Italic when the remainder of the word is in Roman, or in Roman when 
the remainder of the word is in Italic ; as, J5^quus, the horse ; Pinus, the pine tree; il/armor, marble : 
or, TS^quus, the horse ■ Fmus, the pine tree ; M(ir?nor, marble. 

Names, whether generic or specific, formed from aboriginal words by altering the termination of the 
aboriginal word, or by adopting the aboriginal word without altering its termination, and names of 
uncertain derivation, are distinguished by all the letters being in Italic when the preceding and following 
words are in Roman, and in Roman when the preceding and following words are in Italic ; as, Gluma 
(Cam^lusG/owfl), the lama; Tabucnm (Nicotjana Tiafiacwml, toDacco; and TiV/rt (Cemdntum 7Y//a), vol- 
canic earth : or, Glkma {Camilus Gl^ma), the lama ; Tabacum {Nicotikna Tab^um), tobacco y and 
Tiifa {Cemdntum Tiifa), vulcanic earth. 

Names, generic or specific, commemorative of individuals, are indicated by putting the letters added 
to the name of the person, or the final letter if none are added, in Italic when the preceding and 
following words are in Roman, and in Roman when the preceding and following words are in Italic ; 
as, Cygnus Yarrelli, Yarrell's Swan ; L^cium Shaw», Shaw's Lycium, andOlivlnus Wern^ri, the Olivine 
of Werner : or, Cygnus Yarrell'i, Yarrell's Swan s Lycium Shawn, Shaw's Lycium ; and Olivinus 
Wemeri, the Olivine of Werner. 



In classical words there are as many syllables as there are vowels ; except when « with any other vowel 
follows g, q, or s, and when two vowels unite to form a diphthong. The diphthongs are ee, ee, at, ei, at, ui, 
au, eu, and ou. These seldom coalesce in final syllables, oo, ee, ea, and other combinations which never 
occur as diphthongs in classical words, follow, in commemorative names, the pronunciation of their primi. 
tives, as Teedia, Woodsta. 


In this work the sounds of the accented vowels are indicated by the mark placed over each ; the long 
sound by a grave accent O, and the short by an acute ( ), as M&ry, M&rtha. 

In addition to the primary accent, every word of more than three syllables contains a secondary accent, 
which is regulated by the same rules. The secondary accent must always be at least two syllables before 
the primary accent, as in Ch<!'lidf)nium ; for its place the ear is a sufficient guide, and even were it entirely 
omitted, still, however inharmonious, the pronunciation would not be incorrect 


C and g are hard before a, o, and u, as C6rnus, Galium • soft before e, i, and y, as Cetr^ria, Citrus. 

T, s, and c, before ia, ie, ii, to, iu, and eu, when prececled by the accent, change their sounds, t and c 
into sh, as Bletm, ficia ; and s into xh, as BRs/a : but, when the accent is on the first diphthongal vowel, 
the preceding consonant preserves its sound, as aurantiacum. 

Ch, before a vowel, is pronounced like *, as Chelidfmium [kel), C61chicum {kolkekum) ; but in comme- 
morative names it follows their primitives, as Richardsunm, in which the ch is soft. 

Cm, en, ct, gm, gn, mn, tm, ps, pt, and other incombinable consonants, when they begin a word, are 
pronounced with the first letter mute, as Ptferis [teris), Cnicus {nikus), Gmellna {tnelina), Gnidia {nidia) ; 
m the middle of a word they separate as in English, as Lap-skna, Z,6m-na. 

PA, followed by a mute, is not sounded ; but, followed by a vowel or a liquid, sounds like/, as Phlfeum 

Sch sounds like sk, as Schoe'^nus (skenus) ; in tl and zm both letters are heard. 

S, at the end of a word, has its pure hissing sound, as D&ctylis ; except when preceded by e, r, or n, 
when it sounds like z, as Kibes {ez). 

X, at the beginning of a word, sounds like z, as X&nthium ; in any other situation it retains its own 
sound, as T^xus, Timnix. {Gardener's Magazine, vol. v. p. 232.) 

A 4 



0/ those marked * some further account, or some notice of their authors, will be found in the Agricultural 

Bibliogruyhy, p. H'OS. 

Account of the Shetland Sheep, by Thos. John, 
son, page 1052. Report on the subject of Shet- 
land Wool. Lond. 1790. 8vo. 25. 

Advt by Cormack, Son, and Sinclair, p. 894. A few 
pages printed and given away by Cormack, Soii, 
and Sinclair, aeedsmen. New Cross. Lond. 8vo. 

• Agriculture appliqufee, &c. p. 321. See Chaptal. 
Agriculture appliquee k Chimie, p. 322. See Chaptal. 
Agr. Chim. app. p. 895. See Chaptal. 

• Agricultural buildings, p. 741. See Waistell's Agri- 

cultural Buildings. 

Agr. Rep of Cheshire, p. 713. See Holland. 

Agr. Mem., p. 306. Agricultural Memoirs ; or, 
History of the Dishley System, in answer to 
Sir John Sebright. Lond. 1812. 8vo. 

Agricultural Memoirs, &c., p. 305. See Agr. Mem. 

• Agr. Tuscan, p. 50. Tableau de I'Agriculture Tos- 

cane. Geneva, 8vo. 1801. 

• Alton, p. 1015. A Treatise on Dairy Husbandry. 

Edin. 8vo. 1825. 

• Alton's General View, p. 1185. General View of 

the Agriculture of the County of Ayr, with Ob- 
servations on the Means of its Improvement. 
Glasg. 1811. 8vo. 

Amer. Quart Rev., p. 266. American Quarterly 
Review, New York. 8vo. 

American Farmer, lOyO. New York. 4to. 

Amcpn. Acad., p. 109. Amoenitates Academicje, seu 
Dissertationes variae, &c. By Charles Linna;us, 
&c. 3d edition. Erlang. 1787. 

• Amos*s Essay on Agricultural Machines, p. 391. 

Minutes of Agriculture and Planting, illustrated 
with specimens of eight sorts of the best, and 
two sorts of the worst, natural grasses, and 
with accurate drawings and descriptions of prac- 
tical machines, on seven copper-plates, &c.. 
Lond. 1804. 4to. 

• Anderson's Recreations in Agriculture, p. 387. 

Recreations in Agriculture, Natural History, 
Arts, and Miscellaneous Literature. Lond. 
1799—1802. 6 vols. 8vo. 

Andrew's Continuation of Henry's Hist, p. 42. See 
Henry. A Continuation of Henry's History of 
(Jreat Britain. Lond. 1796. 4to. 21s. 2 vols. 

Annalendes Ackerbaues. Vol. 1 1 1, s. 389. Berlin,8vo. 

• Annals of Agriculture, p. 428. See Young's Annals 

of Agriculture. 

• Annals of Agric, p. 47. See Young's Annals of 


Annals of Phil. Annals of Philosophy, &c. In 
monthly Nos. 8vo., continued in conjunction 
with the Philosophical Magazine. 

Annual Biography, p. 1208. Annual Biography 
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Archer's Dublin, p. 1224. Statistical Survey of the 
County of Dublin, with Observations on the 
Means of Improvement, drawn up for the Dub- 
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Archer's Statistical Survey, &c,, p. 1199. See 
Archer's Dublin. 

• Arthur Young's Survey, p. 1155. General View of 

the Agriculture of the County of Lincoln ; 
drawn up for the Board of Agriculture. Lond. 
1799. 8vo. 

• Arthur Young's Oxfordshire, p. 1137. General 

View of the Agriculture of Ojifordshire. Lond. 
1808. 8vo. 

• Arthur Young's Survey, p. 1150. General View of 

the Agriculture of Hertford.sliire; drawn up for 
the Board of Agriculture. Lond. 1804. 8vo. 

A. Young's Sussex, p. 1127. A General View of the 
Agriculture of the County of Sussex ; drawn 
up for the Board of Agriculture. By the 
Rev. Arthur Young. Lond. 1808. 8vo. 

A. and W. Driver's General View, p. 1165. General 
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Lond. nSM'. 4to. 

App. to Flinders' Voyage, p. 166. A Voyage to Terra 
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of that vast country, and prosecuted in the years 
1801, 1802, 1803, in His Majesty's ship the Inves- 
tigator, and subsequently in the armed vessel 
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1814. 2vols. 4to., with an atlas and plates. 

A Series of Plans for Cottages, by J. Wood of Bath, 
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♦Bailey, p. 1161. A General View of the Agriculture 
of the County of Northumberland, with observ- 
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up for the Board of Agriculture. Newcastle, 
1797. 8vo. 1800. 8vo. 

* Bailey and Culley's General View, p. 1160. See 

♦Bailey's General View, p. 1159. A General View 
of the Agriculture of Durham, with observ- 
ations on the means of its improvement ; drawn 
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* Baily's Tables, p. 541. Tables for the purchasing 

and renewing of leases. 1803. 8vo. 3d. edit. 

* Bakewell's Tarentaise, p. 94. Travels in the 

Tareiitaise, &c. By Robert Bakewell, Esq. 
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Bakewell, p. 63. See Bakewell's Tarentaise. 

Bakewell's Travels, p. 59. See Bakewell's Taren- 

Barrington's Observations on the Statutes, p. 40. 
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Magna Charta to the 21st James V., cap. xxvii., 
with an api)endix, being a proposal for new mo- 
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Batcliclor's Bedfordshire, p. 1132. General View of 
the Agriculture of Bedfordshire. Lond. 1808. 

Bath Society's Papers. Letters and Papers on Agri- 
culture, Planting, &c., selected from the Cor- 
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8vo. 1780. 

* Bayldon's Valuation of Rents and Tillages, p. ,541. 

The Art of Valuing Rents and Tillages, and the 

Tenant's Right on entering and quitting farms. 

Lond. 8vo. 1825. 
Bedffi Hist Abbat Weremath., p. 36. Historic 

Ecclesiastic£e libri quinque, Latine. Ant 1550. 

Belsche's General View, p. 1187. Belsche's General 

View of the Agriculture of Stirlingshire. Lond. 

4to. 1794. 
Berenger's History and Art of Horsemanship, p.1002. 

The History and Art of Horsemanship ; from 

the French of Mons. Bourgelat 1754. 4to. 

Lond. 1771. 2 vols. 4to. 
Bibliographia Britannica, p. 1206. Bibliotheca Bri- 

tannica; or. General Index to British and 

Foreign Literature. By Robert Watt, M. D. 

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Biblioth. Univcr. de G^nfeve, p. 810. Geneva, 8vo. 


Bicheno's Ireland, p. 1202. Ireland and its Eco- 
nomy. By J. E. Bicheno, Esq., F.R.S. Lond. 
12mo. 1830. 

Billington's Facts on Oaks and Trees, 1111. A 
Series of Facts, Hints, Observations, and Expe- 
riments on the different modes of raising, 
pruning, and training young trees in plant- 
ations. Shrewsbury, 8vo. 1830. 

Billingsley's General View, p. 116a General View 
of the Agriculture of the County of Somerset, 
with observations on the means of its improve- 
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in the year 1795. Bath, 1798. Svo. 

Birkbeck, p. 68. Notes in a Journey in America, from 
the coast of Virginia to the territory of the 
Illinois. Lond. Svo. 1818. 

Bishop's Causal Botany. Causal Botany ; or, a 
IVeatise on the causes and character of changes 
in plants, especially of changes which are pro- 
ductive of subspecies or varieties. Lond. 1829. 

Bishton's General View of the Agriculture of the 
County of Salop. Brentford, 1794. 4to. 

Bishton's Shropshire, p. 1 145. 

Blackstone's Commentaries, p. 560. Commentaries 
on the Laws of England. Oxf. 1765-8. 4vols. 4to. 

Blyth's Improver Improved, ed. 1652, p. 391. The 
Improver Improved. 1652. 4to. 

Bot Reg., p. 935. The Botanical Register. Lond. 
In monthly Nos. 8vo., continued. 

Boys's Kent, p. 1128. A General View of the Agri- 
culture of the County, with observations on the 
means of its improvement ; drawn up for the 
Board of Agriculture, with additional remarks 
of several respectable country gentlemen and 
farmers. Lond. 1796. Svo. 

British Colonies, p. 167. See Kingdom. 

* British Farmer, p. 393. Finlayson's Treatise on 

Agricultural Subjects. Svo. plates, subsequently 
changed to the British Farmer, &c. Lond. 
1830. Svo. 

* Brit. Farm. Mag., p. 306. Fleming's British Far- 

mer's Magazine. Lond. 2 vols. 8vo. : continued 
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Bright's Travels, p. 98. Travels from Vienna through 
Lower Hungary, with some Account of Vienna 
during the Congress. Edin. 1818. 4to. 

♦Brodigaivp. 938. A Botanical, Historical, and Prac- 
tical Treatise on the Tobacco Plant, in which 
the art of growing and curing tobacco in the 
British Isles is made familiar to every capacity, 
as deduced from the observations of the author 
in the United States of America, and his prac- 
tice in field cultivation in Ireland. Lond. 

Brown's Derbyshire, p. 1152. General View of the 
Agriculture of Derbyshire. Lond. 1794. 4to. 

* Brown's Treatise on Rural Affairs, p. 129. Treatise 

on Rural Affairs ; being the substance of the 
article, Agriculture, originally published in the 
Edinburgh Encyclopaadia, with improvements 
and additions. Edin. 1811. 2 vols. Svo. 

* Brown's West Riding, p. 1157. General View of 

the Agriculture ofthe West Riding of Yorkshire, 
surveyed by Messrs. Rennie, Brown, and Sheriff; 
in 1793 ; with observations on the means of its 
improvement, and additional information since 
received ; drawn up for the Board of Agricul- 
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Browne, p. 195. The Civil and Natural History of 
Jamaica ; containing an accurate description of 
that island, its situation and soil, and a brief 
account of its former and present state, govern- 
ment, revenues, produce, and trade ; a history 
of its natural productions, including various 
sorts of native fossils, perfect and imperfect 
vegetables, birds, fishes, reptiles, insects, &c.; 
an account of the nature of climates in general, 
and their different effects upon the human 
body, with a detail of the diseases arising from 
this source, particularly within the tropics. 
The whole illustrated with fifty copper-plates. 
Lond. 1789. fol. 420. 

Browne's Hist, of Jam., p. 196. See Browne. 

Bull, in Caled. Hort. Mem., p. 657. Memoirs ofthe 
Caledonian Horticultural Society. Edin. 8vo. 
5 vols, to 1831. 

Bull, du Comit6 d'Agri. de la Soc. des Arts de 
GiJnfeve, p. 341. Geneva, Svo. 

Bull, des Sci. Agr. Feby. 1828., p. 837. Ferrusac's 
Bulletin des Sciences Agricolcs. Paris, Svo. 

Burchell's Travels, p. 182. Burchell's Travels m 
Africa. Lond. 1821, 4to, 

Caesar de BelL GalL, p. 36. De Belle Gallico, k Main 
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Cat., p. 14. Cato de Re Rustica, cum Notis Beroaldi. 
Reg. 1496. fol. 

Chalmers's Caledonia, p. 45. Caledonia; or, an Ac- 
count, Historical and Topographical, of North 
Britain, from the most arcient to the present 
times, with a Dictionary of Places, Chronolo. 
gical and Philological ; in 4 vols. Lond. 4to. 

* Chaptal de 1' Industrie Fran^aise, p. 68. De 1' In- 

dustrie Fran9aise. Paris, 1819. 2 vols. 8vo. 
La Chimie appliqu^e a 1' Agriculture. Paris, 
1822. 2 vo4s. Svo. 

Chateauvieux, p. 268. Italy, its Agriculture. Trans- 
lated by Dr. Rigby. Norwich, 1819. Svo. 

Chimie appliquee, p. 345. See ChaptaL 

Chimie appliquee k 1' Agriculture, p. 135. See 

Chron. Gervas., p. 37. A Chronicle of the Kings 
of England, trom. the year 1122 to 1200. 

Claridge's General View, p. 1168. General View of 
the Agriculture of the County of Dorset. Lond. 
1793. 4to. 

Clarke's Enquiry into the Nature and Value of 
Leasehold Property and Life Annuities, p. 541. 
An Enquiry into the Nature and Value of 
Household Property, Reversionary Interest in 
Estates, and Life Annuities ; with a variety of 
tables, demonstrating the ratio of fines due on 
the renewal of leases of church, college, and 
other estates, and for the purchase and sale of 
leases of every denomination. Lond. 1808. Svo. 

Clark's Herefordshire, p. 1144. General View of 
the Agriculture of the County of Hereford. 
Lond. 1794. 4to. 

Clarke's Observations upon Roads, p. 589. Dublin 

Clarke's Scandinavia, p. 109. Travels in various 
countries in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Lond. 
1810 and 1812. 4to. 

Clarke's Travels, p. 7. See Clarke's Scandniavia, 
p. 109. 

Clavigero, p. 191. The Historj' of Mexico, collected 
from the Spanish and Mexican historians, from 
MSS. and ancient paintings of the Indians ; to 
which are added, critical dissertations on the 
land, the animals, and the inhabitants of 
Mexico. Lond. 1782. 2 vols. 4to. 

* Cleghorn on the Depressed State of Agriculture, 

p. 125. Edin. 8vo. 
Climate of Britain, p. 368. Williams's Climate of 

Great Britain. Lond. 1818. Svo. 
Climate of Great Britain, p, 353. See Climate of 

Britain, p. 368. 
Cobbett's Treatise on Cobbett's Corn, p. 1208. Lond. 

1829. 12mo. 
Code. See Sinclair. 

Code of Agriculture, p. 453. See Code. 
Col, p 14. Columella De Re Rustica. 
Collection of Antiquitie, p. 24. A collection of 

curious Travels, Voyages, Antiquities, and 

Natural Histories of Countries. 

* Collection de Machines, p. 26. Collection de 

Machines, d'Instrumens, &c. employes dans 
I'Economi^ Rurale, Domestique et Indus- 
trielle, d'apres les Dessins faits dans diverses 
Parties de I'Europe. 2 vols. 4to. 2U0 pis. Paris, 

CoU. de Mach., p. 51. See Collection de Machines, 
p. 26. 

Commun. to Board of Agriculture, p. 21. Com- 
munications to the Board of Agriculture. Lond. 
7 vols. 4to. New Series, 1 vol. Svo. 1797— 

Communications to the B. of Ag., p. 304. See Com- 
mun. to the Board of Ag. p. 21. 

Com. B. Ag., p. 1153. See Commun. to Board of Ag., 
p. 21. 

* Complete Farmer, p. 441. Dickson's complete Sys- 

tem of Modern Husbandry. Lond. 1811. Svo. 
Co-operative Magazine, p. 1230. Lond. 1827. Svo. 
Cooper's Lectures on Political Economy, p. 1226. 

New York, 1830. Svo, 
Coote's Agricultural Survey of King's County, 

p. 120(1. Dublin, 1801. Svo. 
Coote's Statistical Account of Cavan, p. 1204. 

Dublin, 1801. Svo. 


Coote's Survey of Monaghan, p. 1204. Dublin, 1801. 

Coote's Survey of Armagh, p. 1305, Dublin, 1804. 

Cours, &c., p. 739. Nouveau Cours Complet d'Agri- 

culture, 16 vols. 8vo. Paris, 1821. 

* Cours Complet d' Agriculture, p. 333. See Cours, 

&c. p. 739. 

County Reports, p. 470. The Reports of the different 
Counties of Great Britain and Ireland, drawn 
up for the consideration of the Board of Agri- 

Country Times, p. 826. A weekly agricultural news- 
paper, commenced in, 1830 : the agricultural 
part of which was for some time edited by 
S. Taylor, Esq., F.R.S. 

* Coventry on Live Stock, p. 1017. Observations on 

Live Stock, in a letter to Henry Cline, Esq. 

Edin. 8vo. 
Cruickshank's Practical Planter. The Practical 

Planter; containing directions for the planting 

of waste land, and management of wood ; with 

a new method of rearing the oak. Edin. 1830. 

Crutchley's Report, p. 1156. Crutchley's General 

Vie w of the Agriculture of Rutlandshire. Lond. 

1794. 4to. 

* CuUey's Introduction, p. 302. Observations on 

Live Stock ; containing hints for choosing and 
improving the best breeds of the most useful 
kinds of domestic animals. Lond. 1786. 8vo. 

* Culley on Ljve Stock, p. 954. See Culley's Intro- 

duction, p. 302. 
Cumming's Essay on the Principles of Wheels and 
Wheel Carriages, p. 605. The destructive ef- 
fects of the conical broad wheels of carriages, 
controverted ; with the improving effects of 
cylindrical wheels of the same breadth, as they 
regard the roads, the labour of cattle, &c. 1804. 

* Curwen, p. 1201. Letters written during a Tour 

in Ireland. Lond. 1819. 2 vols. Svo. 
Curwen's Letters, p. 132. See Curwen. 
Curwen's Observations, p. 1231. Observations on 

Live Stock, &c. Workington, 1810. Svo. 

* Dairy Husbandry, p. 1015. See Aiton. 
Daniel's Rural Sports, Lond. 1810. 3 vols. Svo. ; 

vol 4. 1813. Svo. ; supplement, 1813. 4to. 
Darby's View of the United States, p. 184. 
Davis's Report, 1137. General View of the Agri- 

culture of the County of Oxford. Lond. 1794. 

Davis's Report of Wilts, p. 905. General View of 

the Agriculture of Wiltshire, drawn up for the 

Board of Agriculture. Lond. 1811. Svo. 
Davis's Wiltshire, p. 1166. See Davis's Report, 

Davv's Ceylon, p. 150. An Account of the Island 

of Ceylon, &c. Lond. 1820. 4to. 
Dearn's Tract on Hollow Walls. Hints on an im- 

proved method of building. Lond. 1821. Svo. 
Denson's Peasant'sVoice, p. 1231. A Peasant's Voice 

to Landowners on the best means of benefiting 

Agricultural Labourers, and of reducing Poor 

Rates. Cambridge and Lond. 1830, Svo. 

* Derbyshire Report, p. 724. See Farey. 

Des Etablissemens pour I'Education Publique, &c. 
p. 1226. Des Etablissemens pour I'Education 
Publique en Bavifere, dans le Wittemberg, et k 
Bade, avec Remarques sur les Ameliorations k 
introduire dans ces Etablissemens pour les faire 
adopter en France, en Angleterre, et autres 
Pays. Par J. C. Loudon. Paris, 1829. Svo. 

Des Institutes de Hofwyl, &c. Par Cte. L. de V., 
p, 62. Paris, Svo. 

Description of Britaine, p. 42. Hollingshed's Chro- 
nicles of England, Ireland, and Scotland. Lond. 
1587. 2 vols. fol. Vol. 1. contains An Histori- 
cal description of the Island of Britanne, in 3 
books. By William Harrison. 

* Designs for Farms and Farm Buildings in the 

Scotch style, adapted to England, &c., p. 1138. 
By J. C. I>oudon. Lond. 1811. fol. 
Dewar, p. 135. Observations on the Character, 
Customs, Superstitions, Music, Poetry, and 
Language of the Irish ; and on some of the 
causes which have hitherto retarded the moral 
and political improvement of Ireland. Lond. 
1812. Svo. 

Dial, on Bot. p. 264, Dialogues on Botany. Lond. 
1810. Svo. 

* Dickson, p. 1163. General View of the Agricul- 

ture of Lancashire. By R. W. Dickson, M, D. 
Lond. 1815. Svo. 

* Dickson's General View, prenared by Stevenson, 

p. 1162. See Dickson, p. 1163. 

* Dickson's Practical Agr., vol. 2. p. 915. Practi- 

cal Agriculture ; or a complete system of mo- 
dern husbandry; with the methods of planting 
and the management of live stock. Plates 
Lond. 1804, 1805. 2 vols. Svo. 

Diet, de r Agr., p. 13. Cours complet d' Agriculture, 
Theorique, Practique, Economique, &c. ; ou 
Dictionnaire universel d'Agriculiure. 12 vols, 
4to 1796. 

Diet, of Chem. p. 317. Ure's Dictionary of Che- 
mistry. Lond. 1821. Svo. 

* Donaldson, p. 914. Modern Agriculture ; or the 

present state of Husbandry in Great Britain. 
Edin. 1795, 1796. 4 vols. Svo. 

* Donaldson's Report, p. 1156. General Views of 

the Agriculture of the Counties of Perth, Banff, 
Northampton, and Mearns or Kincardine. 
London, 1794. 4to. 

Douglas's General View, p. 1183. A General View 
of the Agriculture of the County of Roxburgh 
and Selkirk. Edin. 1798. Svo. 

Douglas's Roxburghshire, p. 1182. See Douglas's 
General View. 

Douglas's Surv. of Roxb., p. 129. See Douglas's 
General View. 

Dr. Abel's Nar., p. 158. Personal Observations made 
during the Progress of the British Embassy 
through China, and on its Voyage to and from 
that Country, in the Years 1816, 1817, 1818. 4to, 
Lond. 1821. 

Dr. Brewster's Edin. Journ. p. 744. The Edinburgh 
Journal of Science. In Quarterly Numbers, 
Svo. continued. 

Dr. Hutton's Mathematical Dictionary, p. 535. A 
Mathematical and Philosophical Dictionary; 
containing an explanation of the terms, and an 
account of the several subjects comprised under 
the heads, Mathematics, Astronomy, and Phi- 
losophy both natural and experimental; with 
an Historical account of the rise, progress, and 
present state of these sciences ; also memoirs of 
the lives and writings of the most eminent 
authors, &c. With numerous plates, Lond. 
1795, 1796. 2 vols. 4to. 

Dr. Mavor, p. 1139. General View of the Agricul- 
ture of Berkshire. Lond. 1809. Svo. 

Dr. Parry's Tracts on Wool and Merinos, p. 1064. 
Facts and Observations, tending to show the 
practicability and advantage to the individual 
and the nation, of producing in the British Isles, 
clothing. wool equal to that of Spain : together 
with some hints towards the management of 
fine-wooled sheep. Lond. 1800. Svo. 

Dr. Rigby's Holkham, its agriculture, &c., p. 1136. 
Norwich. 1818. Svo. 

Dr. Robertson's General View, p. 1189. General View 
of the agriculture in the County of Perth, with 
observations on the means of its improvement ; 
drawn up for the Board of Agriculture. Perth, 
1799, Svo. 

Dr. Thomson's System of Chemistry, p. 226. Lond. 
4 vols. Svo. See Thomson. 

Dr. Young, p. 291. Young's Lectures on Mechanical 
Philosophy. Lond. 1807. 2 vols. 4to. 

Dublin Society's Transactions. Transactions of the 
Dublin Society. Dublin. Svo. 

Dubourdieu's Survey of Antrim, p. 1205. Statistical 
Survey of the County of Antrim. Dublin, 1812. 
2 vols. Svo. 

Dubourdieu's Down, p. 134. Statistical Survey of 
the County of Down. Dublin, 1802. Svo. 

Dubourdieu's Survey of Down. See Dubourdieu's 

Duncombe's Report, p. 1144. Survey of the Agri- 
culture and Rural Economy of Herefordshire; 
drawn up for the Board of Agriculture. Lond. 
1805. Svo. 

Dutrochet, Agent Imm^diat du Mouvement Vital, 
p. 287. Agent immddiat du Mouvement Vital 
devoil^ dans sa Nature et dans son Mode 
d' Action chez les Vegfetaux et chez les Ani- 
maux. Paris. Svo. pp. 226. 

Dutton's Survey of Galway, p.l203. A Statistical and 
Agricultural Survey of the County of Galway, 
with observations on the means of improve- 
ment; drawn up for the consideration, and by 


the direction of the Royal Dublin Society. By 
Hely Dutton, landscape gardener and land 
improver. Dublin, 1824. 8vo. 
Button's Survey of Clare, p. 1202. Dublin, 1808. 8vo. 


Edgeworth on Roads, p. o70. An Essay on the Con- 
struction of Roads and Carriages. Lond. 1810. 
1812. 8vo. 

Edin. Encyc, p. 44. The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia 
Edited by Dr. Brewster. Edin. 18 vols. 4to. 

Ed. Encyc, p. 125. See Edin. Encyc. 

Ellin. Encyc. Roads. See Edin. Encyc. 

Edin. Gaz', p. 1125. The Edinburgh Gazetteer, or 
Geographical Dictionary, &c. In 6 vols. Lond. 

Edin. Gaz. abridged, p. 1171. The Edinburgh Ga- 
zetteer, &c. abridged from the larger work. 
Edin. 1829. 1 vol. 8vo. 

Edinb. Phil. Journal, p. 1117. The Edinburgh Phi. 
losophical Journal. Conducted by Dr. Brewster. 
In quarterly Nos. 8vo. continued. 

Edin. Phil. Tr., p. 357. Edinburgh Philosophical 
Transactions. Edin. 4to. 

Ed. Rev , p. 201. The Edinburgh Review. In 
quarterly Nos. 8vo. 

Eleni. of Agric. Chem., p. 311. Davy's Elements of 
Agricultural Chemistry ; in a course of lec- 
tures for the Board of Agriculture, 1813. 4to., 
and 1829. 8vo. 

Elements of Agr., p. 328. Elements of Agriculture ; 
being an essay towards establishing ihe culti- 
vation of the soil, and promoting vegetation on 
steady principles. Lond. 1807. 8vo. 

Elements of Natural Philosophy, p. 525. Elements 
of Physics, or Natural Philosophy, General and 
Medical, explained independently of Technical 
Mathematics, and containing new Disquisitions, 
and practical Suggestions. By Neil Arnott, 
M. D. Lond. 1827. 

• Ellis's Practical Farmer, p. 521. Practical Farmer, 

or Hertfordshire Husbandman ; containing 

many improvements in Husbandry. Lond. 

1732. 8vo. 
Encyc. Brit., p. 41. Encyclopaedia Britannica. 

Edin. 4to. 
Encyc. of Gard., p. 5. Loudon's Encyclopedia of 

Gardening, &c. Lond. 1824. 8vo. 
Encyc. Brit. Sup., p. 310. Supplement to the Ency- 
clopedia Britannica. Edin. 4to. 
Encyc. Methodique, p. 11. EncyclopMie M^tho- 

dique. Paris, 4to. 
Erskine's General View, p. 1187. General View of 

the Agriculture of the County of Clackmanan. 

Edin. 1795. 4to. 
Essai sur la Geographic des Plantes, p. 264. Paris, 

1807. Svo. 

• Essay on the Construction of the Plough on 

Mathematical Principles, by Baillie of Chil- 
lingliam, p. 390. 1795. Svo. 

Essay on Dew, p. 352. An Essay on Dew; with 
several appearances connected with it. By 
W. C. Wells, M. D. Lond. 1814, 1815. 8vo. 

Essay on the Improvement of Peat-moss, 1795. p. 329. 
Smith's Essay on the Improvement of Peat- 
moss. Edin. 1795. Svo. 

• Essay on Manure, p. 328. Essay on Manures. By 

Arthur Young. Bath Soc. Papers, vol. x. p. 97. 

Essay on Wheel Carriages, &c., p. 484. Fry's Ebiiay 
on Wheel Carriages. Lond. Svo. 

Every Man his own Road-maker, p. 587. Fall's 
Surveyor's Guide; or Every Man his own Road- 
maker. East Retford, 1828. 12mo. 

Examiner, p. 1225. The Examiner Newspaper. 
Lond. In weekly Nos. 4to. , 


Fell's Surveyor's Guide, p. 591. See Every Man his 

own Road-maker. 
• Farcy's Agricultural and Mineral Survey, p. 1152. 

General View of the Agriculture and Minerals 

of Derbyshire. Published by order of the 

Board of Agriculture; with a map and sections. 

vol. i. Lond. 1811. Svo. vol. ii. 1813. vol. iii. 

Farcy's Derbyshire, vol. i. p. 65.3. See Farcy's 

Agricultural and Mineral Survey. 
Farmer's Journal, p. 327. The Farmer's Journal 

Newspaper, In weekly Nos. fol. 

Farmer's Magazine, p. 327. The Farmer's Maga- 
zine. Edin. 26 vols. Svo. pis. ' 

Fife Report, p. 1018. General View of the Agricul- 
ture of the County of Fife ; with observations 
on the means of its improvement By the Rev. 
John Thomson, D.D. Edin. 1800. Svo. 

Fitzherbert on the Statute Ex.tenta Manerii, p. 560. 
The Reading on the SUtute 4 Edw. 1. De 
Extenta Manerii, 15^:9. 

* Findlater's Report, &c., p. 1183. General Survey of 

the Agriculture of the County of Peebles ; with 
various suggestions as to its improvement; with 
^ a map and plates. Edin. 1K02. Svo. 

* Fleming's Fanner's Journal, p. 127. A weekly 

Agricultural Newspaper, begun in 1825, and 
discontinued in 1827. 

Fieta, p. 39. Fleta Book with Mr. Selden's Dissert- 
ation. Lond. 2d edit. 168.5. 

F15ra Brit., p. 316. Compendium Flora Britannica?. 
By Sir J. S. Smith. Lond. 1800 Svo. 

Flbra Grse^ca, 1138. Flora Grasca, sive Plantarnm 
rariarum Historia, quas in Provinciis Gracias 
legit, investigavit et dcpingi curavit Joannes 
Sibthor|)e, M. D. By Sir J. E. Smith. 1808. 

Forest Pruner, p. 6)2. The Forest Pruner, or Tim- 
ber Owner's Assistant ; being a treatise on the 
training or management of British timber trees, 
&c. By William Pontey. Lond. 1805. Svo. 

Forsyth's 'I'reatise on P'ruit trees, p. 513. Treatise 
on the Culture and Management of Fruit 'i'rees ; 
in which a new method of pruning and training 
is fully described. With plates. Lond. 1802. 
4to. 1827. Svo. 

For. Rev. and Cont. Misc., p. 61. The Foreign 
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In quarterly Nos. Svo. 

For. Quart. Rev. The Foreign Quarterly Review. 
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Eraser's General View, p. 1169. General View of 
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observations on the means of its improvement. 
Lond. 1794. 4to. 

Eraser's Cornwall, p. 1171. A General View of the 
Agriculture of the County of Cornwall. Lond. 
1794. 4to. 

Eraser's Survey of Wexford, p. 1199. A General 
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ford. Wexford, 1796. Svo. 

Fr.-,ser's Survey of Wicklow, p. 1 199. General View 
of the Agriculture of the County of Wicklow. 

Frazer's Dissertation, &c. A Dissertation on the 
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ancient as modern ; done from the French. 
1729. Svo. 

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Galpine's Compendium, p. 316. A Synoptical Com- 
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Lond. 1806. i2mo. 

* Gardener's Magazine, p 167. Lond. 1826. In Svo. 
Nos. every two months. 

Garten Magazin, p. 98. Neues AUgemeines Garten 
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Gaufrid. Vinisauf Iter Hierosolymit. p. 38. Galfridi 
Itmerarium Regis Ricardi in Terram Hiero- 
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General Report of the Agricultural State of Scot- 
land, p. 470. General View of the Agriculture of 
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General Survey of the Agriculture of Shropshire. 
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p. 310. 

General View, by J. Bailey and G. Culley, p. 1161. 
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Georg. p. 21. The Works of Virgil, translated into 
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Geschichte, p. 270. Sickler's Geschichte der Obst. 
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Gloucestershire Report, p. 724. Survey of the Agri- 
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Rudge. Lond. 1807. 8vo. 

Gooche's Cambridgeshire, p. 1134. General View of 
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Granger's General View, p. 1159. General View of 
the Agriculture of the County of Durham. 
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Gray's Implements, p. 400. The Plough Wright's 
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* Grisenthwaite, p. 318. A New Theory of Agricul- 

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* H. G. Wob., 2d. edit p. 420, 421. 889. H6rtus Gra- 

mineus Woburnensis ; or, an account of the re- 
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fattening properties of different grasses, and 
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By G. Sinclair. Lond. Royal 8 vo. 1825. 

Harleian Dairy System, p. 446. The Harleian Dairy 
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1770. 8vo. 

Hassal's Report, p. 1143. A General View of the 
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» Headrick's General View, p. ] 190. General View 
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Forfarshire; with observations on the means 
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* Headrick's Survey, p. 1197. See Headrick's Ge- 

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Henderson's General View, p. 1193. General View 

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1812. 8vo. 
Henderson's Treatise on Swine, p. 1076. Treatise 

on the Breeding of Swine and Curing of Bacon, 

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Hints to Paviors, p. 602. Hints to Paviors. By 
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History of Britain, p. 39. See Henry. 

History d'un Morceau de Bois, Hort Tour, p 235 
See Neill's Horticultural Tour. 

History of Java, p. 153 A Statistical Account of the 
Island of Java. By T. S. Raffles, Lieutenant 
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History of Moscow, p. 107. Lyall's History and De- 
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History of Northumberland, p. 1112. The Natural 
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Wallis, A. M. Lond. 1769. 2 vols. 4to. 

History of Sumatra, p. 164. The History of the 
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1811. 4to. 

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* Holland's General View, p. 1163. General View of 
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observations on the means of its improve- 
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Lond. 1795. 8vo. 

Homer's Enquiry into the State of the Public Roads, 
p. 567. An Ejiquiry into the Means of Preserving 
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dom. Oxford, 1767. 8vo. 

Horner's Art of Delineating Estates, p. 546. De- 
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Estates. Lond. 1813. 8vo. 

Horse-hoeing Husbandry, p. 126. See Tull. 

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to 1831. 

Houghton's Collections, p. 4t. Collections for the 
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Lond. 1727. 4 vols. 8vo. 

Huish's Treatise on Bees, p. 1107. A Treatise on the 
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Husb. of the Anc, p. 22. The Husbandry of the 
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♦Husbandry of Scotland, p. 1 138. An Account of the 
Systems of Husbandry adopted in the more im- 
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Sinclair, Bart Edin. 1812. 8vo. 

Hunt's Agricultural Memoirs, p. 127. See Agricul- 
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Huntingdonshire Report, p. 746. General View of 
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inson. Lond. 1811. 8vo. 

* Illust. of L. G. Illustrations of Landscape Garden- 

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♦Improvements on theMarquess of Stafford's Estates, 
p. 1145. Loch's Improvements on the Marquess 
of Stafford's Estates. Lond. 1819. 8vo. 

Introd. to Gerardin's Essay, p. 16. An Essay on 
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Lond. 8vo, 

* Italy, p. 50. See Chateauvieux. 

Jacob on theTradein Com, and on the Agriculture 
of Northern Europe, p. 90. Lond. fol 1826. 


Jacob's Travels, p. 1 15. Travels in the South of Spain, 
in Letters written A. D. 1809 and 1810 ; illus- 
tratetl with 13 plates. Loud. 1811. 4to. 

Jamaica Planter's Guide, p. 194. Roughley's Ja- 
maica Planter's Guide. Lond. 1823. 8vo. 

* Johnstone's Account of Elkington's Mode of 
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approved mode of draining land, according to 
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for farther improvement of bogs and other 
marshy grounds, after draining ; together with 
observations on hollow and surface draining in 
general. The whole illustrated by explanatory 
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of the Board of Agriculture. Edin. 1797. 4to 

Journ. de Med., p. 10o6. Journal de M^decine. Pa- 
ris, in Svo. Nos. monthly. 

* Kames, Gent. Farmer, p. 742. The Gentleman 
Farmer ; being an attempt to improve agricul- 
ture, by subjecting it to the test of rational 
principles. Edin. 1776, 8va ; fifth edit., Edin- 
1802. Svo. By Henry Home, usually called 
Lord Kames. 

Keith's General View, p. 1191. General View of the 
Agriculture of Aberdeenshire ; drawn up for 
the Board of Agriculture. Lond. 1811. Svo. 15*. 

Kent's Hint*, p. 316. Hints to Gentlemen of Landed 
Property. Lond. 1775. Svo. 

Kent's Hints to Gentlemen of Landed Property, 
p. 542. See Kent's Hints, p. 316. 

Kent's Norfolk, p. 1136. General View of the Agri- 
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up for the Board of Agriculture, and Internal 
Improvement; with additional remarks from 
several respectable Gentlemen and Farmers, &c. 
Norwich, 1796. Svo. 

Kerr's Berwickshire, p. 1181. Statistical, Agri- 
cultural, and Political Survey of Berwickshire. 
1809. Svo. 

Kingdom, p. 167. Account of British Colonies. 
Lond. 1820. Svo. 

Kirby, p. 298. An Introduction to Entomology ; or 
elements of the natural history of insects. Il- 
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181.5 — 1817. A fourth edition, much improved, 
in 1822. 

Kirby and Spence, Int. to Entomology, p. 1120. See 

Klapuieyer in Thaer's Annalen., p. 875. SeeThaer. 

Kincardineshire Report, p. 1052. General View of 
the Agriculture of Kincardineshire, By James 
Robertson, D.D. 1811. Svo. 

Lancashire Report, p. 903. General View of the 
Agriculture of the County of Lancaster ; with 
observations on the means of its improve- 
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By John Holt. Lond. 1795. Svo. 

Lancisis Disputatio Historica de Bouvilla Peste, 
Paris, p. 1032. Svo, 

Lardner's Cyclo. Dom. Econ., p. 672. Lond. 1829. 

Last Col. de Machines, &c., p. 740. See Col. de 

Leatham's General View, p. 1158. General View 
of the Agriculture of the East Riding of York- 
shire. Lond. 1794. 4to. 

Lectures on Natural Philosophy, p. 311. A Course 
of Lectures on Natural Philosophy, and the 
Mechanical Arts. By Thomas Young, M. D., 
F. R. S. Lond. 1807. 2 vols. 4to. 

Leges Burgundiorura, p. 34. See Ranken's History 
of France. The History of France, Civil and 
Military, Ecclesiastical, Political. Literary, 
Commercial, &c., from the time of its conquest 
by Clovis, A. D. 486. Lond. 1801—1805. 3 vols. 

Leges Wallicae, p. 36. See Henry's History of Bri- 

Lehman's Topographical Plan Drawing, p. 543, 
Lond. 1819. Oblong folio. 

Leslie's General View, p. 1192. A General View of 
the Agriculture of the Counties of Nairn and 
Murray. 1811. Svo. 

Les Pr^jug^s Dfetruits, &c., p. 1226. Les Prfejugfes 
Di^truits ; par J. M. Lequinio. Membre de la 
Convention National de la France, et Citoyen 
du Globe. Paris, 1792. Svo. 

Letter to a Young Planter, p. 195. Lond 1785. Svo. 

Letters and Communications, p. 578. See Communi- 
cations to the Board of Agriculture 

Letters on Italy, p. 56. See Chateauvieux. 

Letters on Road-making, p. 578. See Paterson. 

Life of the Duke ofOrmond, p. 134. Tho History of 
the Life of James Duke of Ormond, from his 
birth in 1610, to his death in 1688 ; with a 
collection of his letters to verify the said his- 
tory. By T. Carte. Lond. 1735, 1736. 3 vols, 

Linn. Trans., p. 258. Transactions of the Linnaan 
Society of London, Lond, 1782—1831. 17 vols. 

* Loch, p. 708, See Loch's Improvements of the 

Marquess of Staftbrd, 470. Lond. 1820. Svo, 
Loch's Improvements, p, 1148. See Loch. 
London Encyc, p. 237. Tegg's London Encyclops- 

dia, Lond. 1S25. 8vo, 
London Journal of the Arts, p, 591, See Newton's 

Long's Jam., p. 195. History of Jamaica, Lond, 

1774. 3 vols. 4to. 
Lord Kames's Gentleman Farmer, p. S9I. See 


* Lord Somerville's Facts, p. 1054; Facts and Ob- 

servations relative to Sheep, Wool, Ploughs, 
and Oxen; in which the importance of improv- 
ing the short- woolled breeds by a mixture of the 
Merino breed, is deduced from actual practice. 
Together with some remarks on the advantages 
which have been derived from the use of salt. 
Lond. 1803. New edition, 1809. Svo. 

* Loudon's Hortus Brit, p. 316. Loudon's H6rtus 

Britannicus. A Catalogue of all the Plants, 
indigenous, cultivated in, or introduced to, 
Britain. Lond. 1830. 1 vol. 8vo. 
Lowe's Report, p. 1155, General View of the Agn- 
culture of the County of Nottingham ; with ob- 
servations on the means of its improvement 
Drawn up for the Board of Agriculture and- 
Internal Improvement Lond, 1794. 4to. 

M'Adam's Remarks on Roads, p, 577. Lond, 1819. 

M' Adam's Report to the Board of Agriculture, p. 

577. See M' A dam's Remarks on Roads. 
Macdonald's General View, p. 1197. General View 

of the Agriculture of the Hebrides, 1811. 

Macdonald's Report of the Western Islands, p, 519. 

General View of the Agriculture of the 

Hebrides. A new edition. 1811, Svo, 
Macdonald's Report of the Hebrides, p. 1052. See 

Macdonald's Report of the Western Islands, 

p. 519, 

ivoy's Survey of Tyrone, p. 1204. A General 
View of the Agriculture of the County of 
Tyrone. Dublin,' 1802. Svo. 

Mackenzie's General View, p. 1192. A General 
View of the Agriculture of the Counties of 
Ross and Cromarty. Lond. ISIO. Svo. 

M'Nab's Hints on Planting Evergreens. Hints on 
the Planting and General Treatment of Hardy 
Evergreens in the Climate of Scotland. Edin. 
1830. Svo. 

M'Parlan's Survey of Leitrim, p. 1203. A General 
View of the Agriculture of the County of 
Leitrim. Dubl. 1802. Svo. 

M'Parlan's Survey of Donegal, p. 1204. A General 
View of the Agriculture of the County of Done- 
gal. Dubl. 1802. Svo. 

M'Parlan's Survey of Mayo, p. 1203. A General 
View of the Agriculture of the County of Mayo. 
Dubl. 1802. Svo. 

M'Parlan's Survey of Sligo, p. 1204. A General 
View of the Agriculture of the County of Sligo. 
Dubl. 1902. Svo. 

Maison Rustique de Cayenne, p. 201. Paris, Svo. 

Mag. Nat Hist, p. 1126. Loudon's Magazine of 
Natural History. Lond. in Svo. Nos. every 
two months. 

Major's Treatise on Insects. A Treatise on the 
Insects most prevalent on Fruit Trees and 
Garden I'roduce ; giving an account of the 
states they pass through, the depredations they 



commit, including the Kecipes of various au- 
tiiors for tiieir destruction, with remarks on 
rtieir utility ; also, a few Hints on the Causes and 
Treatment of mildew and canlier on fruit trees, 
cucumbers, &c. &c. London and Leeds. 8vo. 
Malcolm's Survey, p. 1126. General View cf the 
Agriculture of the County of Surrey. Lond. 
1794. 4to 

* Manual of Cottage Gardening, 1225. Loudon's 

Manual of Cottage Gardening, Husbandry, and 
Architecture, &c., with 3 Plans for Cottages. 
Lond. 1830. 8vo. 

* Marquess of Stafford's Improvements, p. 562. See 


* Marshall's Midland Counties, Minute 27, p. 731. 

Rural Economy of the Midland Counties ; in- 
cluding the management of livestock in Leices- 
ter and its environs ; together with Minutes on 
Agriculture and Planting in the District of the 
Midland Station. Lond. 179(). 2 vols. 8vo. 

* Marshall's Review, p. 1125. Reviewof The Land- 

scape ; a Didactic Poem : and also, an Essay on 
the Picturesque ; together with practical re- 
marks on rural ornament. Lond. 1795. Svo. 
Marshall's Rural Economy of Norfolk, p. 1061. The 
Rural Economy of Norfolk ; comprising the 
Management of Landed Estates, and the present 
Practice of Husbandry in that County. Lond. 
1788. 2 vols. Svo, 

* Marshall's Yorkshire, vol. L, p. 744. The Rural Eco- 

nomy of Yorkshire; comprising the Management 
of Landed Estates, and the present Practice of 
Husbandry in the Agricultural Districts of that 
County. Lond. 1788. 2 vols. Svo. 

Martin's Essay on Plantership, in Young's Annals 
of Agriculture, p. 195. See Young. 

Massinger's New Way to Pay Old Debts, p. 550. 
Plays, with Notes critical and explanatory, by 
William Gifford. I^nd. 1805. 4 vols Svo. 

Matthew on Naval Timber, &c. A Treatise on 
Naval Timber, and Arboriculture; to which 
are added. Critical Notes on Authors who have 
recently treated the Subject of Planting. Lond. 
1831. Svo. 

* Mavor's Report, p. 1138. Mavor's Agricultural 

Survey of Berkshire. 

* Maxwell's Practical Husbandman, p. 391. The 

Practical Husbandman ; being a collection of 
miscellaneous papers on Husbandry. Edin. 
1757. Svo. 

* Maxwell, p. 11S4. See Maxwell's Practical Hus- 

bandman, p. 391. 

Mech. Mag., p. 429. Mechanics' Magazine, Mu- 
seum, Register, Journal, and Gazette. Lond. 
Svo. In weekly Nos. and Monthly Parts. 

M^m. de la Soc. Agr. du Seine, tome ii. p. SOS. M^-- 
moires de la Socitte d' Agriculture du Seine et 
Oise. Paris. 8vo. 

M^m. de la Soc. Agr., p. 49. See Mem. de la Soc. 
Agr. de Seine. 

Mt^m. de la Soci^t^ Royale et Centrale d'Agr. de 
Paris, p. 333. Paris, 8va 

Middlesex Report, p. 731. A View of the Agricul- 
ture of Middlesex ; with observations on the 
means of its improvement ; with several Essays 
on Agriculture in general. Drawn up for the 
Board of Agriculture. Lond. 1798. Svo. 

Sliddleton's Survey, p. 1125. See Middlesex Report, 
p. 731. 

Middleton's Survey of Middlesex, p. 519. See Mid- 
(llesex Report, p. 731. 

Minutes of Evidence before a Committee of the 
House of Commons, p. 372. Lond. fol. 

Montfaucon, M., Monumensde la Monarchie. Les 
Monumens de la Monarchie Frangaise,avec les 
fig. de chaque Regne, que I'injure du Temps a 
^pargnees. Par. 1729—1733. 5 vols. fol. 

Month y Magazine, p. 744. The Monthly Magazine, 
Lond. In Monthly Nos. Svo. 

* Morel de Vindt^, p. 340. Essai sur les Construc- 

tions Rurales et Economiques ; conteuant leurs 
Plans, Cou()es, Elevations, Details, et Dt'vis, 
etablis aux plus bas Prix possibles. Paris, folio, 
1822. 40 pages, with 36 plates. 
Morier's Second Journey, p. 141. A Second Jour- 
ney through Persia to Constantinople, between 
the Years 1810— 1816; with a Journal of the 
Voyage by the Brazils and Bombay to the Per- 
sian Gulf; together with an Account of the 
Proceedings of h\s Majcstv's Embassy, under 
his Excellency Sir GoreOusley, Bart, F.R.S.L 
With maps, coloured costumes, and other en- 
gravings, from the designs of the Author. 1818 

Moryson's Itin., p. 42. Itinerary ; written first in 
the Latin tongue, and then translated by him. 
self into English ; containing twelve Years' 
Travels through Germany, Bohmerland, Switz- 
erland, Netherlands, Denmark, Poland, Italy, 
Turkey, France, England, Scotland, and Ire- 
land. In three parts. Lond. 1617. fol. 

Mowbray, p. 1086. A Practical Treatise on the Me- 
thod of Breeding, Rearing, and Fattening 
Domestic Poultry, Pigeons, and Rabbits. Lond. 
1815. Svo. 

Munro's Guide to Farm Book-keeping. A Guide 
to Farm Book-keeping, founded upon actual 
practice and upon new and concise principles. 
Iklin. 1822. 8va 


Naismith's General View, 1185. General View of 
the Agriculture of the County of Clydesdale, 
with Observations on the Means of its Improve- 
ment. Drawn up for the Consideration of the 
Board of Agriculture' and Internal Improve- 
ment. Brent. 1794. 4to. 

Narrative, p. 155. Personal Observations made dur- 
ing the Progress of the British Embassy through 
China, and on its Voyage to and from that 
Country, in the Years 1816-1817. By Clerk Abel. 
Lond. 1818. 4to. 

Nat. Hist., p. 14. See P!in. 

Nicholson's Journal of Natural Philosophy, Che- 
mistry, and the Arts. Illustrated with engrav- 
ings. Lond. 1797—1802. 5 vols. 4to. 

Nic. Jour., p. 1223. New Series. Lond 1802—1814. 
36 vols. Svo. 

Neill, p. 69. Journal of a Horticultural Tour 
throughout some parts of Flanders, Holland, 
and the North of France, in the Autumn of 
1817, by a Deputation of the Caledonian Hor- 
ticultural Society. Drawn up by P. Neill, one 
of the Deputation. Edin. Svo. 1823. 

New System of Cultivation, by General Beatson, 
p. 402. A New System of Cultivation, without 
Lime or Dung, or Summer Fallows, as practised 
at Knowle Farm, in the County of Sussex. 
Lond. 1820. Svo. Plates and Supplement, 1821. 
Sva plates. 

* New Theory of Agr., p. 260. A New Theory ot 

Agriculture, in which the Nature of Soils, Crops, 
and Manures is explained, many prevailing 
Prejudices are exploded, ard the Application of 
Bones, Gypsum, Lime, Chalk, &c., determined 
on scientific Princii)les. By William Grisen- 
thwaite. 1820. 12mo. 

Newenham, p. 135. A Statistical and Historical En- 
quiry into the Progress and Magnitude of Popu- 
lation in Ireland. Lond. 1805. Svo. 1818. Svo. 

Newenham's Statistical Survey, p. 1205. See Newen. 
ham, p. 135. 

Newton's Journal, p. 372. The London Journal 
of Arts and Sciences, &c. Lond. Monthly Nos. 

* Northum. Survey, p. 127. A General View of 

the Agriculture of the County of Northumber- 
land, with Observations on the Means of its Im- 
provement. Drawn up for the Board of Agri- 
culture. By John Bailey. Newcastle, 1797. 
Svo. 18C0. Svo. 

* Northumberland Report, p. 501. See Northum. 

Survey, p. 127. 
Notes, p. 107. Notes on the Crimea. By Mary Hol- 

derness. Lond. 18'21. 12mo. 
Notes to Sir H. Davy's Agr. Chem., p. 353. Davy's 

Agricultural Chemistry. Edit. 1826. Svo. 
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Odyss., p. 10. The Iliad and Odyssej' of Homer, 
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Pal. p. 21. Translation of the Fourteen Books of 
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National Churches of England, Scotland, and 
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Pearce's Berkshire, p. 1138. General View of the 
Agriculture of Berkshire. Lond. 1794. 4to. 

Perth Miscellany. The Perth Miscellany of Litera- 
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Peyrouse, p. 71. A Sketch of the Agriculture of a 
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Phil. Trans., p. 1118. The Philosophical Transac- 
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• Phytologia, p. 329. Phytologia, or the Philosophy 

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Pitt's Report, p. 11.56. A General View of the 
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Edward Sang. Edin. 1820. 2d edition. 8vo. 

Planter's Guide, 193. The Planter's Guide ; or, a 
practical essay on the best method of giving 
immediate effect to wood, by the removal of 
large trees and underwood, &c. By Sir Henry 
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Plin. Nat. Hist, p. 17. Pliny's Natural History of 
the World, translated into English by Phile- 
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Plumtree's Residence in Ireland, p. 133. London, 
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Plymley's Shropshire, p. 1145. A General View of 
the Agriculture of Shropshire. Lond. 1804 

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Pomeroy's Worcestershire, p. 1142. General View 
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Potter's Antiq., p. 10. Archsologia Grajca ; or, the 
Antiquities of Greece. Oxf. 1697—1699. 2 vols. 

Present State of Turkey, p. 121. The Present State 
of Turkey ; or a description of the political, ci- 
vil, and religious constitution, government, and 
laws of the Ottoman empire, &c. By F. Thorn- 
ton. Lond. 1807. 4to. 

Principles of Botany, p. 243. See Willdenow. 

Pringle's General View, p. 1162. A General View 
of the Agriculture of the County of Westmore- 
land, with observations on the means of its 
improvement. Edin. 1794. 4to. 

Pringle's Present State of Albany, South Africa, 
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* Prof. Plant., 639. The Profitable Planter ; a trea- 
tise on the cultivation of the larch and Scotch 
pine timber,showing that their excellent quality, 
especially that of the former, will render them 
so essentially useful, as greatly to promote the 
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Quarterly Journal of Agric, p. 316. The Quarterly 
Journal of Agriculture : and the Prize Essays 
and Transactions of the Highland Society of 
Scotland. Edin. 1828. In 8vo numbers, quar- 

Quar. Jour. Science, p. 602. The Quarterly Journal 
of Science. Edited at the Royal Institution of 
Great Britain. In 8vo numbers, quarterly. In 
October, 1830, it was given up, and the Journal 
of the Royal Institution of Great Britain sub- 

Quayle's General View, &c. of the Norman Islands, 
p. 1 172. Quayle's General View of the Agricul. 
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Raccolta dei Autori che trattano del' Aque, p. 
329. Firenze, 8vo. 

Rawson's Survey of Kildare, p. 1200. A General 
View of the Agriculture of the County of Kil- 
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Recherches de Physiologic et de Chimie Patholo- 
gique, par P. N. Nysten., p. 311. Paris, 1811. 8vo. 

Recr., p. 144. See Anderson. 

Recueil Industriel, p. 810. Recueil Industriel Ma- 
nufacturier, Agricole, et Commerciel, &c. Paris, 
1829. In monthly numbers, 8vo. Continued. 

Rees's Cyc, p. 1224. The New Cyclopaedia, or Uni- 
versal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences, formed 
upon a more enlarged plan of arrangement 
than the Dictionary of IVIr. Chambers, compre- 
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additions and improvements ; together with the 
new subject of biography, geography, and his- 
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Reflections on the Commerce of the Mediterranean. 
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Regiam Majestatem, p. 39. See Henry's History of 

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of Experiments and Instruments depending on 
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Relat du Voy. fait, en Egypte, p. 7. Relation du 
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Edmund Gibson. Oxf. 1698, Fol 



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Report of Northum., 1182. See Bailey. 

* Report of the Workington Society, p. 77L By John 

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* Robertson's Rural Recollections, p. 11/8. Rural 

Recollections ; or, the progress of improvement 
in agriculture and rural affairs. Irvine, 1829. 

* Robertson's Survey, p. 1178. General View of the 

Agriculture of the County of Mid. Lothian, 
with observations on the means of its improve- 
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respectable gentlemen and farmers in the 
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Roughley, p. 193. Jamaica Planter's Guide. Lond. 
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Roughley's Jamaica Planter's Guide, p. 195. See 
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Roxburghshire Report, p. 1060. A General View 
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Rudge's Report, p. 1140. Survey of the Agriculture 
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Rural Economy of Norfolk, p. 518. The Rural Eco- 
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of landed estates, and the present practice of 
husbandry in that county. Lond. 1788. 2 vols. 

* Rural Recollections, p. 1178. See Robertson. 

Saggio Botanico Georgico intorno I'Hibridismo delle 
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Sampson's Survey of Londonderry, p. 1205. Memoir 
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Smith's Geological Map, p. 1136. See Smith's 
County Geological Maps, 1125. 

Smith's Geological Map of England, Wales, and 
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Smith's General View, p. 1184. General View of 
the Agriculture of Galloway ; drawn up for 
the Board of Agriculture. Lond. 1811. Svo. 

Smith's Geological Table of British organised Fos- 
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* Small's Treatise on Ploughs and Wheel Carriciges, 

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* Somerville's General View, p. 1180. General View 

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* Specimen of a work on Horse-hoeing Husbandry. 

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* Stevenson, p. 1127. General View of the Agricul- 

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Strutt's Complete View of the Manners, &c. Horda 
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Vancouver's Cambridgeshire, 1134. A General 
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Vancouver's General View, p. 1165. General View 
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Warner's Isle of Wight, p. 1165. The History of 

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Widowson's Present State of Van Diemen's Land, 

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Hen. III.; et Dissertatio GuiL Nicolsoni, de 

Jure Feud. Vet. Saxonum, cum Notis, &c. ; 

Lat. et Sax. Lond. 1721. foL 
Willdenow, Princ. Bot., p. 263. The Principles of 

Botany and Vegetable Physiology, translated 

from the German. Edin. 1805. 8vo. With 

Withering, p. 935. An Arrangement of British 

Plants. 3d edition. Birmingham, 1796. 4 vols. 


Worgan's Cornwall, p. 1171. General View of the 
Agriculture of the County of Cornwall. Lond. 
1811. 8vo. 

Worgan's Survey, p. 1171. Sec Worgan's Cornwall, 
p. 1171. 

Works, p. 5. See Stillingfleet. 

Wotton's Leges Wallicae, p. 1176. Leges Wallicse 
Ecclesiasticae et Civiles Hoeli Boni et aliorum 
Principum Walliis, &c. Welsh, with a Latin 
translation. Notes, and a Glossary. To which 
is added a Preface by Mr. Clarke. Lond. 1730. 
Fol. Posth. 

* Young, p. 135. See Young's Tour, and Arthur 


* Young's Annals of Agr., p. 194. Annals of Agri- 

culture, and other useful Arts. Published in 
Nos. Bury St. Edmund's, 17S0— 1804. 40 vols. 

* Young's Norfolk, p. 1136. General View of the 

Agriculture of the County of Norfolk. Lond. 
1804. Bvo. 

* Young's Report, p. 1155. General View of the 

Agriculture of the County of Lincoln. Drawn 
up for the Board of Agriculture. Lond. 1799. 
♦Young's Suffolk, p. 1136. General View of the Agri- 
culture of the County of Suffolk. Drawn up for 
the Board of Agriculture. Lond. 1797. 8vo. 

* Young's Survey, p. 1129. General View of the 

Agriculture of the County of Essex. Lond. 
1806, 1807. 2 vols. 8vo. 

* Young's Tour, p. 1200. Tour in Ireland ; with ge- 

neral Observations on the present State of that 
Kingdom; made in 1776—1779. DubL 1780. 
2 vols, 8vo. 

N.B. Such as are in possession of some of the County Surveys above enumerated, may probably find 
the year of publication in the titlepage different from what is here given. The reason is, these surveys, 
most of which belonged to the late Board of Agriculture, were twice sold to different booksellers, on 
which occasions new and altered titlepages were printed. We have generally endeavoured to give the 
original title ; and, through the kind assistance of Mr. Forsyth, we have been enabled to do so in most 


As a source of reference to the readers of agricultural works, foreign as well as domestic, we have 
deemed it useful to bring together in this place comparative views of the land and corn measure of Eng. 
land, Scotland, and Ireland, and of different foreign countries. We have also given a general view of the 
French metrical or decimal system, as being the most perfect which has hitherto appeared, and alone 
worthy, in our opinion, of universal adoption. All young persons ought to make themselves masters of this 
system as one likely to be in general use, at least in Europe, North America, and Australia, before they 
become old men. 


Contents of a single Measure 

of each sort. 

Number of 
each equal to 


Acre .... 

Square Yards. 

French Acres. 

10 English 





Acre . . - 





Acre ..... 


65 549 



Hectare .... 





Great Morgen . . . 




Little Morgen 





Morgen .... 





Acre .... 





Scheffel of Corn Land 




Morgen . . . - 





Morgen . . . . 



15 613 


Corn Land Morgen 




Meadow Morgen ... 





Morgen ... 





Morgen . ... 





Arpent .... 





Morgen - - "- 





Vierkantebunder ... 





Moggia ... 





Fanegada - - . - 





Geira .... 





Tunneland . . . 





Faux . ... 





Quadrato ... 





Length of a single Measure 

of each sort. 

Number of 
each equal to 

• French 

10() English 


Mile .... 

English Yards. 




100 000 

Mile, geographical ... 





Mile .... 

- 1984 




Mile - . . . 





Kilometre ... 




League of 2000 toises 




League of 25 to the degree . 




League, marine . . _ 



28 966 


Mile, geographical 




Mile, long 




Mile, short 





Mile, metrical ... 





Mile, long .... 




Mile, short 





Mile .... 





Mile .... 





League, common ... 




League, judicial ... 



37 972 







Mile .... 



15 042 


Mile - . . : . 



19 228 


Mile - . .~ . 



97.345 , 
96-385 I 


Berri . ... 






















Foot . . - - 
Pied de Roi ... 
IMetre . . - - 
Foot . - - .. 
Foot .... 
Rhineland Foot ... 
Foot .... 
Foot .... 
Rhineland Foot ... 
Foot .... 
Foot - - - - 
Foot .... 
Foot - - - - 
Builder's Foot ... 
Foot .... 
Foot - - 
Rhineland Foot ... 
Foot .... 
Foot . ... 
Foot - ... 
Foot - - . . 
Foot .... 

Length of a single Measure 
of each sort. 

Number of 

each equal to 

100 English 






93 896 


Contents of a 

single Measure of each sort | 

Number of 

each equal to 
One English 



Cubic Inches. 


French Litres. 







Wheat Firlot - - 





Barley Firlot 
















Boisseau Usuel 






Mudde - . 






Scheffel - . . 












Fanega - 






Toende . 






Killow . 






Scheffel - - - 






Stajo . - 






Malter . 












Scheffel - - . 






Mudde - 






Korzee . - - 






Chetwert - 





Sicily , 

Salma grossa - 





Salma generale - 






Fanega ... 






Tunna of 32 Kappar 





Kann ... 






Metzen . - - 


■ 1745 










What is called a standard in weights and measures is merely an authority ; and this in rude ages 
is founded on custom, or some arbitrary quantity ; while, in the progress of improvement, a standard is 
derived from nature. Among the various natural standards, the two following may be considered the 
best : — 

1. The length of a pendulum that vibrates seconds of mean solar time. 

2. The length of an arc or portion of a meridional circle. 

From the measurement of a meridional arc in France ; the length of the quadrantal arc was computed ; 
and the ten.millionth part of this quadrant is the metre, which is the standard unit for all French mea- 

The standard unit for all weights is the gramme, which is the weight of a cubic vessel of water of the 
greatest condensation and purity ; the side of such cube being the hundredth part of the metre. 

From these two units the other measures are derived by decimal division or multiplication, and hence 
this system is generally called. 



In order to express the decimal proportion, the following vocabulary of names has been adopted, in 
which the terms for multiplying are Greek, and those for dividing are Latin : — 

For multipliers, the word 

Deca prefixed means.,.. 10 times. 

Hecto 100 times. 

Kilo 1000 times. 

Myria ^ 10,000 times. 

On the contrary, for divisors, the 

word Deci expresses the 10th part. 

Ce7in lOOth part. 

Milli lOOOth part. 

Thus, Decametre means 10 metres. 

Decimetre the 10th part of a metre. 

Kilogramme 1000 grammes, &c. 

The are is the element of square measure, and is 
a square decametre, equal to 3955 English perches. 

The stere is the element of cube measure, and 
contains 35.317 cubic feet English. 

The litre is the element of all measures of capacity. 
It is a cubic decimetre, and equals 21135 English 
pints. 100 litres make the hectolitre, which equals 
26-419 English gallons, or 2-838 Winchester bushels. 

The decimal Weights and Measures of France, compared with the Weights and Measures 
at present considered the National Measures of Britain. 

Long Measures. 

British arbitrary System. 

003937 inches. 

0-39371 inches. 

3-93710 inches. 

39-37100 inches. 

82-80916 feet. 

328-09167 feet. 

Decimal System. 







Kilometre 10936389 yards. 

Myriametre 1093638900 yards, or 

6 miles, 1 furlong, 28 poles. 

Superficial Measures. 

Centiare 1-1960 square yards. 

^de^tSe? ] 1^9-6«6 square yards. 

Decare 11960460 square yards. 

Hectare 11660-4604 square yards, 

or 2 acres, 1 rood, 35 perches. 

Measures of Capacity. 

0-06103 cubic inches. 

0-61028 cubic inches. 

610280 cubic inches. 

I Decimal System. 

British arbitrary Systen 




Litre (a cubic 7 

decimetre) 3 

Decalitre ~ 61028028 cubic inches, 

or 2-642 wine gallons, 

5 61-02802 cubic inches. 

or 21 135 wine pints. 

, 3-5317 cubic feet, or 

26419 wine gallons, 22 Imperial gal- 
lons, or 2-839 Winchester bushels. 

Kilolitre 353171 cubic feet, or 

1 tun and 12 wine gallons. 

Myrialitre 353-17146 cubic feet. 

Solid Measures. 

Decistere 35317 cubic feet. 

Stere (a cubic metre) 353174 cubic feet. 

Decastere 353-1714 cubic feet. 


Milligramme 00154 grains. 

Centigramme 01543 grains. 

Decigramme 15434 grains. 

Gramme 15*4340 grains. 

Decagramme 154*3402 grains, or 

564 drams avoirdupois. 

Hectogramme 3-2154 oz. troy, or 

3527 oz. avoirdupois. 

Kilogramme 21b. 8oz. 3dwt. 2gr. troy, 

or 2 lb. 3 oz. 4.428 drams avoirdupois. 

Myriagramme 26-795 pounds troy, 

or 22-0485 avoirdupois 

Quintal 1 cwt 3qrs. 251b. nearly. 

Millier, or Bar .^ 9 tons 16 cwt. 3qrs. 12 lb. 


The Systhne Usuel has the metrical standards for its basis ; but their divisions are binary ; and instead 
of the new nomenclature, the names of the ancient weights and measures are used, annexing the term wiwe/ 
to each : thus, the half kilogramme is called the livre usuelle, and the double metre, the toise usuelle, &c. 

This system was legalised by an imperial decree in 1812, for the use of retail traders, and the decimal 
system was continued for all other kinds of business and measurement : but as the law was left optional, 
it led to many difficulties, insomuch that in 1816 the syst&me usuel was enforced by a royal decree, 
in which the use of weights or measures decimally divided is absolutely prohibited in shops or any 
departments of trade connected with retail business, while the decimal system is confirmed for afl 
other purposes. 

As the systime usuel has the metre and gramme for its basis, any of its divisions may be easily com- 
puted from the foregoing tables. The following, however, are the contents of its principal units in Eng- 
lish measure :— 

The toise usuelle of 2 metres equals 6 feet 6f inches English. 

The pied usuel equals \ of the toise, and the inch -^^ of the foot. 

The aune usuelle equals 3 feet 11^ Inches English, with all its divisions in proportion. 

The long measures are also divided into thirds, sixths, and twelfths, which are easily computed from 
the foregoing dimensions of the toise and aune. 

The boisseau usuel is i of the hectolitre, and equals 0-35474 English bushels, with halves, quarters, &c. 
in proportion. 

The litron usuel equals 1-074 Paris pints, with halves, quarters, &c. in proportion. 

Apothecaries have adopted the systhne usuel in compounding medicines ; which weight, in small quan- 
titles, scarcely differs from the poids de marc. 

Diamonds are still weighed by carats of 4 grains each ; but these grains differ from the foregoing : thus, 
1 carat equals 3.876 grains poids de marc, or 3798 grains usuels, and also answers to 201 decigrammes, or 
3^ English grains. 

The livre usuelle = 500 grammes = 9413-575 grains poids de marc, or 7717 English grains ; and all its di- 
visions and multiples in proportion. Hence the common pound of France equals lib. 11 oz. 10|^ drams 
avoirdupois ; and therefore the quintal metrique of 100 kilogrammes answers to 220486 lb. avoirdupois, 
orlcwt. 3qrs. 24| lb., which is 1000 grains less than has been hitherto reckoned, on account of the undue 
proportion allowed to the French weight. {Kelly's Catnbisi, vol. i. p. 140 ) 

The Sysleme Usuel of the French, compared ivith the British System. 
Comparison of Weight. 

Troy \\'eight. 
Grammes, lb. oz. dwt. gr. 

Kilogramme 1000 2 8 3 2 

Livre usuelle 500 1 4 1 13 

Half 250 8 18-5 

Quarter 125 4 C 925 

lb. oz. dr. 


Troy Weight. 
Grammes, lb. oz. dwt 

62-5 2 

31-3 1 

gr. lb. oz. dr. 
4-5 2 Si 
2-25 1 If 

? ? 3 


15-8 10 

. 1-125 8| 
0-5 4i 
12-25 2i 

1 1 lOi 
8 131 

Quarter .... 
Gross ....,., 

7-8 5 

3-9 2 

4 6i 



Comparison of Linear Measures. 
Mesurea usuelles. 

Toiseusuelle 2 ... 6 6 

Pied, or Foot 0^ ... 1 1 

Inch 0<ri ... 1 

Aune ij ... 3 11 

Half (^ ... 1 11 

Quarter 0-^ ... 11 

Eighth O^i ... 5 

Sixteenth (% ... 2 

Mesures usuelles. English Measures. 

Metres. Feet. Inches. Parts. 
One third of an aune ... 0| ...1 3 9 

Sixth Qi ... 7 10| 

Twelfth 0/j, ... S Hi 

Comparison qf Measures of Capacity. 

Litres. English bushels. 

Boisseau usuel 12'5 0'35474 

With halves and quarters in proportion. 

Paris pinte. 

Litron usuel 1-074 .... 

English pint. 

m3 I With halves and quarters in proportion. 


The following Tables show the state of English weights and measures as long established ; but a new 
law has lately passed, which proposes the following alteration in measures of capacity, that is to say, both 
in liquid and dry measures, from the 1st of January, 1826. Thus, instead of the three different gallons 
heretofore used, viz. the wine, ale, and corn gallons, one measure only is to be adopted, called the imperial 
gallon, with its divisions and multiples, which are to be as heretofore for wine measure. But for corn or 
other dry goods not heaped, the divisions and multiples are to be as in corn measure. 

The imperial gallon is to measure 277274 cubic inches, and to weigh 10 lb. avoirdupois of water at the 
temperature of 62 degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer, thebarometer being at thirty inches. 

The imperial bushel is to measure and weigh eight times the above, and all the other multiples and di- 
visions of the imperial gallon are to be in proportion. 

All new measures in future are to be constructed on the imperial plan ; but the old measures may con- 
tinue to be used, provided their contents be marked on them, that is, the proportion which they may be 
found to bear to imperial measure. 

The following Table shows the contents of the differ- 
ent Gallons, both in Measure and Weight. 

Imperial gallon 

Corn gallon 

Wine gallon.... 
Ale gallon 





lb. oz. dr. 

9 10 If 
8 5 6J 

10 2 111 

lb. oz.dwtgr. 
12 1 16 16 

11 9 7 12 
10 1 9 22 

12 4 6 8 

Tlie above Table will be found useful in compar- 
ing different vessels where gauging cannot be relied 

Rules for converting the Old Measures to the Xew, 
and the contrary. 

\. Wine Measure multiplied by r> and divided by 
6 will give imperial measure, and the contrary. 

2. Corn Measure multiplied by 31 and divided by 
32 will give imperial measure, and the contrary 

3. Ale Measure multiplied by 59 and divided by 
60 will give imperial measure, and the contrary. 

The coal measure is scarcely changed by the new 
law, and therefore will probably remain unaltered 
in practice. 

Tables of English Weights and Measures, compared 
with those of France. 


French grammes. 

1 grain 0-06+8 

24 grains 1 pennyweight 1-5552 

20 pennyweights 1 ounce 31-1027 

12 ounces 1 pound 373-2330 

The grain troy is divided into 20 mites, the mite 
into 24 doits, the doits into 20 periots, and the pe- 
riot into 24 blanks. These divisions are imaginary • 
but there are real weights of decimal divisions to 
the thousandth part of a grain. 

apothecaries' -weight. 

Fr. gram. 

1 grain 0C648 

20 grains 1 scruple 1-29.5 

3 scruples 1 dram 3888 

8 drams 1 ounce 31102 

12 ounces 1 pound 373-233 

This weight is es-ssentially the same as troy 
weight, but differently divided. It is chiefly used 


Frencli gram. 

1 dram 1-771 

16 drams 1 ounce <2.9,'3iG 

16 ounces 1 pound 453-;)44 

28 pounds 1 quarter 12699 kilog. 

4 quarters 1 hundred wt .')0-796 

20 hundred wt 1 ton 1015920 

The dram is subdivided into three scruples, and 
each scruple into ten grains ; the poimd or 76SO 
grains avoirdupois, equals 7000 grains troy, and 
hence one grain troy equals 1.097 grains avoirdupois. 
Hence also 1441b. avoird 1751b. troy. 

and 192 oz. ditto 175 oz. do. 

The stone 'is generally 14 lb. avoirdupois, but for 
butcher's meat or fish it is 8 lb. Hence the hundred 
equals 8 stone of 14 lb. or 14 stone of 8 lb. 

A stone of glass is 5 lb. A seam of glass 24 stone, 
or 120 lb. 

Hay and straw are sold by the load of 56 trusses. 

The truss of hay weighs ,56 lb. and of straw 36 lb. 
The truss of new hay is 60 lb. until the 1st of Sep- 
tember. The hay is by that time become dry, and 
the same quantity weighs less. 

The custom of allowing more than 16 ounces to 
the pound of butter is very general in several parts 
of the country. 

Other customary Weights, Sfc. 


8 pounds 1 clove. 

32 cloves 1 wey in Essex. 

42 ditto 1 ditto in Suffolk 

56 pounds 1 firkin of butter. 


8 pounds 1 stone of beef, 

mutton, &c. 

64 pounds of soap 1 firkin. 

30 pounds of ancnovies 1 barrel. 

112 pounds of gunpowder 1 ditto. 

112 pounds of raisins 1 ditto. 

120 pounds of prunes 1 puncheon. 

7J pounds of oil 1 gallon. 

8 pounds of vinegar 1 ditto. 

36 pounds of straw 1 truss. 

60 pounds of new hay 1 ditto. 

56 pounds of old hay 1 ditto. 

36 trusses of hay or straw 1 load. 

7 pounds of salt 1 gallon. 

56 pounds or 8 gallons 1 bushel 


Wool, like all other common articles, is weigheil 
by avoirdupois, but the divisions differ : thus. 




2 Stone 1 tod 12-fi992 

61 tods 1 wey 82543 

2 weys 1 sack 165-087 

12 sacks 1 last 1981044 


Fr. metres. 

... 1 inch 0-0254 

... 1 foot 0-3048 

... 1 yard 0-9144 

.... 1 pole or rod 5-0291 

... 1 furlong 201-1632 

.... 1 mile 1609-3059 


3 barleycorns 

12 inches 

3 feet 

5| yards 

40 poles 

8 furlongs 

3 miles 1 league 

60 geographical, "I 

or 69^ Eng. }- 1 degree 11120.7442 

lish miles... J 
Besides the above, there are the palm, which 
equals 3 inches ; the hand, 4 inches ; the span, 9 
inches ; and the fathom, 6 feet. 


Fr. sq. metres. 
144 inches 1 square foot 0-0929 

9 square feet 1 square yard 08361 

30i square yards... 1 square pole 25-2916 

40 square poles ... 1 rood 1011-6662 

4 roods 1 acre 40646648 

The inch is generally divided, on scales, into 
tenths, or decimal parts ; but in squaring the di- 
mensions of artificer's work, the duodecimal system 
is adopted ; — thus, the inch is divided into 12 parts 
or lines, each part into 12 seconds, and each second 
into 12 thirds. 

In land measure there are (besides the above pole 
of 16| feet, which is called statute measure) the 
woodland pole of 18 feet, the plantation pole of 21 feet, 
the Cheshire pole of 24 feet, and the Sherwood Fo- 
rest pole of 25 feet. A rope in some kinds of mea- 
surement is reckoned 20 feet, 30 acres is called a 
yard of land, 100 acres a hide of land, and 640 acres 
a mile of land. 

Land is usually measured by a chain of 4 poles, or 
22 yards, which is divided into 100 links. 10 chains 
in length and 1 in breadth make an acre, which 
equals 160 square perches, or 4840 square yards. 


Fr. cubic metres. 

1728 cubic inches 1 cubic foot -0283 

27 cubic feet 1 cubic yard -7645 

40 ft. of rough timber 1 , , , . f 1-13^6 

or 50ft. hewn ditto] ^ ^^^"^ °'^^°" 1 14157 

42 cubic feet 1 ton of shipping 11892 

By cubic measure marble, stone, timber, masonry, 
and all artificers' works of length, breadth, and 
thickness, are measured, and also the contents of 
all measures of capacity, both liquid and dry. 

cub. in. 

4 gills 1 pint 33.6 . 

2 pints 1 quart 67.2 . 

2 quarts 1 pottle ... 134.4 . 

2 pottles ... 1 gallon ... 268.8 . 

2 gallons... 1 peck 537.6 

4 pecks 1 bushel. ..2150.42 

4 bushs 1 coom 

2 cooms .... 1 quarter.. 

'"'■ l'o7&,] 

2 weys 1 last 

Fr. litres. 
,.. 35-23430 

4.977 feet 140-93721 

9.954 ditto .... 281-87443 

49.770 ditto 
99.540 ditto . 


The Winchester bushel, which is the legal mea- 
sure for corn and seeds, should be 18^ inches wide, 
and 8 inches deep. Its contents are therefore, as 
above, 2150-42 inches. Corn and seeds are measured 
in the port of London by striking the bushel from 
the brim, with a round piece of light wood, about 2 
inches in diameter and of equal thickness from one 
end to the other. All other dry goods are heaped. 

There are two other bushels of different shapes, 
but containing the same quantity ; the one, called 
the drum bushel, generally used for the London 
granaries, is 13 inches in diameter, and 16.2 inches 
in depth ; and the other, called the farmer's bushe), 
is chiefly used in the country, its diameter is 15.375, 
and depth 11-589 inches. These shapes are chosen 
for the convenience of working and loading ; but 
the shallow vessel or standard, to avoid the effects 
of pressure in filling, which depth might cause. 

The dimensions of the imperial standard bushel 
are as follows : — The outer diameter 19^ inches, and 
the inner diameter 18^. The depth is 8^, and the 
height of the cone, for heaped measure, is 6 inches. 
Hence the contents of the stricken imperial bushel 
are2218 192 cubic inches, and it is to weigh 801b. 
avoirdupois of water. The contents of the imperial 
heaped bushel are 2815-4887 cubic inches. The 
subdivisions and multiples of this measure are of 
course in the same proportion. 

In some markets corn is sold by weight, which is 
the fairest mode of dealing, but not the most conve- 
nient in practice. Even where measures are used, 
it is customary to weigh certain quantities or pro- 
portions, and to regulate the prices accordingly. 
The average bushel of wheat is generally reckoned 
at 60 lb. — of barley 49 lb. — of oats 38 lb. — peas 64, 
beans 63, clover 68, rye and canary 53, and rape 
481b. In some places a load of corn, for a man, is 
reckoned five bushels, and a cart load 40 bushels. 


Coals are generally sold by the chaldron, which 
bears a certain proportion to Winchester measure. 

; 4 pecks 1 bushel 

3 bushels 1 sack. 

3 sacks 1 vat 

4 vats 1 chaldron. 

21 chaldron 1 score. 

The coal bushel holds one Winchester quart more 
than the Winchester bushel ; it therefore contains 
221762 cubic inches. This bushel must be 19| inches 
wide from outside to outside, and 8 inches deep. In 
measuring coals, it is to be heaped up in the form 
of a cone, at the height of at least 6 inches above 
the brim (according to a regulation passed at Guild- 
hall in 1806). The outside of the bushel must be 
the extremity of the cone, and thus the bushel 
should contain at least 28149 cubic inches, which is 
i nearly equal to the imperial heaped bushel. Hence 
I the chaldron should measure 58.64 cubic feet. 

The chaldron of ccfals at Newcastle is not a mca 
I sure, but a weight of 53 cwt., which is found some- 
j times to equal two London chaldrons ; but the 
i common reckoning is, that the keel, which is S 
I Newcastle chaldrons, equals 15| London chaldrons. 
! In such comparisons, however, there can be no cer. 
I tainty, as coals not only differ in their specific gra- 
{ vity, but even those of the same quality weigh more, 
I measure for measure, when large, than when 
i broken into smaller parts. — (Mortimer's Ck)7?imer. 
I cial Dictionary, art. Weights and Measures.) 


The act for this purpose, which came into force in 1826, contains the following clauses which more 
immediately concern the agriculturist : — 

Standard yard d^ned as the measure of length. — The straight line or distance between the centres of 
the two points in the gold studs in the straight brass rod, now in the custody of the clerk of the House of 
Commons, whereon the words and fig^ures " Sta.ndard Yard, 1760," are engraved, shall be the original 
and genuine standard of that measure of length or lineal extension called a yard ; and the sam.e straight 
line or distance between the centres of tlie said two points in the said gold studs in the said brass rod, the 
brass being of the temperature of sixty-two degrees by Fahrenheit's thermometer, shall be and is hereby 
denominated the " Imperial Standard Yard," and shall be the unit or only standard measure of exten- 
sion, wherefrom or whereby all other measures of extension whatsoever, whether the same be lineal, su- 
perficial, or solid, shall be derived, computed, and ascertained, s. 1. 

Standard pound defined treight. — The standard brass weight of one pound troy weight, made in the 
year 1758, now in the custody of the clerk of the House of Commons, shall be declared to be the oiiginal 
and genuine standard measure of weight, and such brass weight shall be denominated the imperial stand, 
ard troy pound, and shall be the unit or only stardard measure of weight from which all other weights sl)all 
be derived, computed, or ascertained, s. 4. 


Standard gallon to be the measure of capacity. —- The standard measure of capacity, as well for liquids 
as for dry goods not measured by heaped measure, shall be the gallon, containing ten pounds avoirdu- 
pois of distilled water weighed in air, at the temperature of sixty-two degrees of Fahrenheit's thermo- 
meter, tlie barometer being at thirty inches ; and a measure shall be forthwith made of brass, of such con- 
tents as aforesaid, under the directions of the commissioners of his majesty's treasury ; and such brass 
measure shall be the imperial standard gallon, and shall be the unit and only standard measure of capacity, 
from which all other measures of capacity to be used, as well for wine, beer, ale, spirits, and all sorts of 
liquids, as for dry goods, not measured by heap measure, shall be derived, computed, and ascertained ; 
and all measures shall be taken in parts or multiples or certain proportions of the said imperial standard 
gallon, and the quart shall be the fourth part of such standard gallon, and the pint shall be one eighth of 
such standard gallon, and two such gallons shall be a peck, and eight such gallons shall be a bushel, and 
eight such bushels a quarter of corn or other dry goods not measured by heaped measure, s. 6. 

Standard for heaped mcasxire. — The standard measure of capacity for coals, culm, lime,fish, potatoes^ 
or fruit, and all other goods and things commonly soldby heaped measure, shall be the aforesaid bushel, 
containing eighty pounds avoirdupois of water as aforesaid, the same being made round with a plain and 
even bottom, and being nineteen inches and a half from outside to outside of such standard measure as 
aforesaid, s. 7. 

In making use of such bushel, all coals and other goods and things commonly sold by heaped measure, 
shall be duly heaped up in such bushel, in the form of a cone, such cone to be of the height of at least six 
inches, and the outside of the bushel to be the extremity of the base of such cone j and that three bushels 
shall be a sack, and that twelve such sacks shall be a chaldron, s. 8. 

Measure of weight, or heaped measure, to be used for wheat. — Provided always that any contracts^ 
bargains, sales, and dealings, made or had for or with respect to any coals, culm, lime, fish, potatoes, or 
fruit, and all other goods and things commonly sold by heaped measure, sold, delivered, done, or agreed 
for, or to be sold, delivered, done, or agreed for by weight or measure, shall and may be either 
according to the said standard of weight, or the said standard for heaped measure; but all con- 
tracts, bargains, sales, and dealings, made or had for any other goods, wares, or merchandise, or 
other thing done or agreed for, or to be sold, delivered, done, or agreed for by weight or measure, shall 
be made and had according to the said standard of weight, or to the said gallon, or the parts, multiples, 
or proportions thereof; and in using the same the measures shall not be heaped, but shall be stricken 
■with a round stick or roller, straight, and of the same diameter from end to end. s. 9. 

Weight in Ireland. — But nothing herein shall authorise the selling in Ireland, by measure, of any ar- 
ticles, matters, or things, which by any law in force in Ireland are required to be sold by weight only.' 
s. 10. 

Contracts for sale, S(c. by weight or measure. — All contracts, bargains, sales, and dealings, which shall 
be made or had within any part of the United Kingdom, for any work to be done, or for any goods, wares, 
merchandise, or other thing to be sold, delivered, done, or agreed for by weight or measure, where no spe- 
cial agreement shall be made to the contrary, shall be deemed to be made and had according to the standard 
"weights and measures, ascertained by this art ; and in all cases where any special agreement shall be made, 
■with reference to any weight or measure established by local custom, the ratio or proportion which 
every such local weight or measure shall bear to any of the said standard weights or measures, shall be 
expressed, declared, and specified in such agreement, or otherwise such agreement shall be null and 
"void. s. 15. 

Existing weights and measures may be used, being marked. — And as it is expedient that persons should 
be allowed to use the several weights and measures which they may have in their possession, although 
such weights and measures may not be in conformity with the standard •weights and measures established 
by this act ; it is therefore enacted, that it shall be lawful for any person or persons to buy and sell goods 
and merchandise by any weights or measures established either by local custom, or founded on special 
agreement : provided that in order that the ratio or proportion which all such measures and weights shall 
bear to the standard weights and measures established by this act, shall be and become a matter of com- 
mon notoriety, the ratio or proportion which all such customary measures and weights shall bear 
to the said standard weights and measures shall be painted or marked upon all such customary 
weights and measures respectively ; but nothing herein contained shall extend to permit any maker of 
weights or measures, or any person or persons whomsoever, to make any weight or measure at any time 
after the 1st day of May, 1825, except in conformity with the standard weights and measures established 
under this act. s. 16. 

American Weights. — The several European colonies make use of the weights of the states or kingdoms 
of Europe they belong to. For, as to the aroue of Peru, which weighs twenty-seven pounds, it is evi- 
dently no other than the Spanish arroba, with a little difference in the name. 

African Weights — As to the weights of Africa, there are few places that have any, except Egypt, and 
the countries bordering on the Mediterranean, whose weights have been already enumerated among 
those of the ports of the Levant. The island of Madagascar, indeed, has weights, but none that exceed 
the drachm, nor are they used for any thing but gold and silver. 

The above information is taken from an elaborate quarto volumes of Dr. Kelly, and the very use- 
ful Commercial Dictionary of Mortimer. It is impossible to turn over the leaves of such a book as 
Kelly's, without lamenting the time which every commercial man must lose in acquiring, and in 

Practising, the art of overcoming the obstacles which not only impede the intercourse of nations, 
ut open a fertile source for deception and chicanery. How easy it would be for one nation to 
become acquainted with another, even if they spoke different languages, provided their weights, mea- 
sures, monies, and all that was done by figures, were the same ! How easy for the three leading powers 
of the world, France, Britain, and America, to effect this ! Naturalists in every part of the world use 
the same language, and the same names for natural objects, and they accordingly form but one family, 
every member of which, however remotely situated, holds ready communication with all the others. 
How easy for the great powers alluded to, by prospective measures, which would occasion no inconve- 
nience to any one, not only to render one description of weights, measures, and monies, universal, but 
one language 1 The establishment in one nation after another oi Parochial Institutions, such as those al- 
ready existing in Wirtemberg and Bavaria, and obliging some one language to be taught to every one in 
addition to that which was the native tongue, would have the complete effect in two generations. But 
legislators, at least in Europe, have hitherto been too much occupied with the concerns of their own day 
and generation to think of futurity ; and the policy has too generally been to devise measures which 
should isolate nations, and separate their interests, rather than unite them in one common intercourse, 
commercial and intellectual. 


Preface - - " - - iii 

List of Contributors - . . vi 
Indications and accentuation of Systematic 

Names - - - - vii 

Rules for pronouncing Systematic Names - vii 
List of Books referred to - _ . viii 

Tables of Weights and Measures . . xix 

List of Engravings ... xxii 





Chap. I. Page 

Of the History of Agriculture in the Ages of 
Antiquity ; or from the Deluge to the Esta- 
blishment of the Roman Empire, in the Cen- 
tury preceding the vulgar iEra ... 4 

I. Of the Agriculture of Egypt - - 5 

II. Of the Agriculture of the Jews, and other 

Nations of Antiquity - - -7 

III. Of the Agriculture of the Greeks - 9 

IV. Of the Agriculture of the Persians, Cartha- 

ginians, and other Nations of Antiquity - 11 

Chap. II. 
History of Agriculture among the Romans, or 
from the Second Century B. C. to the Fifth 
Century of our JEra - - - 12 

I. Of the Roman Agricultural Writers - 12 

II. Of the Proprietorship, Occupancy, and 

General Management of Landed Pro- 
perty among the Romans - -13 

III. Of the Surface, Soil, Climate, and other 

Agricultural Circumstances of Italy, 
during the Time of the Romans - - 15 

IV. Of the Culture and Farm Management of 

the Romans - - . - 16 

1. Of the Choice of a Farm, and of the Villa 

or Farmery - - . - 16 

2. Of the Servants employed in Roman Agri- 

culture - - . - 18 

3. Of the Beasts of Labour used by the 

Romans - - - _ - 21 

4. Of the Agricultural Implements of the 

Romans . - . - 22 

5. Of the Agricultural Operations of the 

Romans - - . . -24 

6. Of the Crops cultivated, and Animals 

reared by the Romans - - 28 

7. Of the General Maxims of Farm Manage- 

ment among the Romans - - 29 

V. Of the Produce and Profit of Roman Agri- 

culture - - - - 30 

VI. Of the Roman Agriculturists, in respect to 

General Science, and the Advancement 
of the Art - - -31 

VII. Of the Extent to which Agriculture was 
■ carried in the Roman Provinces, and of 

its Decline - - . - 32 

Chap. III. 
History of Agriculture during the Middle Ages, 
or from the Fifth to the Seventeenth Cen- 
tury - - . . .33 

I. History of Agriculture in Italy, during the 

Middle Ages - - - - 33 

II. History of Agriculture in France, from the 

Fifth to the Seventeenth Century - 34 

III. Of the Agriculture of Germany and other 

Northern States, from the Fifth to the 
Seventeenth Century . . .35 

IV. History of Agriculture in Britain, from the 

Fifth to the Seventeenth Century . 35 

1. History of Agriculture in Britain during 

the Anglo-Saxon Dynasty, or from the 
Fifth to the Eleventh Century - 35 

2. Of the State of Agriculture in Britain 

after the Norman Conquest, or from the 
Eleventh to the Thirteenth Century . 37 

3. History of Agriculture in Britain, from 

the Thirteenth Century to the Time of 
Henry VIII. . . .39 


4. History of Agriculture, from the Time of 
Henry VIII. to the Revolution in 1688 - 40 
V. History of Agriculture in Ultra-European 

Countries during the Middle Ages - 47 

Chap. IV. 

Present State of Agriculture in Europe - 47 

I. Of the present State of Agriculture in 

Italy - - - - 47 

1. Of the Agriculture of Lombardy - 48 

2. Of the Agriculture of Tuscany - -50 

3. Of the Agriculture of the Maremmes, or 

the District of Pestilential Air - 54 

4. Of Farming in the Neapolitan Territory, 

or the Land of Ashes - - -56 

II. Of the present State of Agriculture in 

Switzerland - - - 58 

1. Of the Agriculture of the Swiss Cantons - 68 

2. Of the Agriculture of the Duchy of Savoy 62 

III. Of the present State of Agriculture in 

France - - - - 65 

1. Of the Progress of French Agriculture, 

from the Sixteenth Century to the pre- 
sent Time - - - 65 

2. Of the general Circumstances of France, 

in respect to Agriculture - -66 

3. Of the common Farming of France - 68 

4. Of Farming in the warmer Climates of 

France - - . _ 70 

IV. Of the present State of Agriculture in 

Holland and the Netherlands - - 72 

1. Of the present State of Agriculture in 

Holland - ... 72 

2. Of the present State of Agriculture in the 

Netherlands - - - 73 

V. Of the present State of Agriculture in Ger- 

many - - - - 87 

1. General View of the Agricultural Circum- 

stances of Germany - - 87 

2. Agriculture of the Kingdom of Denmark, 

including Greenland and Iceland - 89 

3. Of the Agriculture of the Kingdom of 

Prussia - - - - 90 

4. Of the Agriculture of the Kingdom of 

Hanover . .. - - 92 

5. Of the present State of Agriculture in 

Saxony - - - - 94 

6. Of the present State of Agriculture in the 

Kingdom of Bavaria - - 95 

7. Of the present State of Agriculture in the 

Empire of Austria - - - 96 

VI. Of the present State of Agriculture in the 

Kingdom of Poland - - lOO 

VII. Of the present State of Agriculture in 

Russia . - . - 104 

VIII. Of the present State of Agriculture in 
Sweden and Norway. - - 109 

IX. Of the present State of Agriculture in 

Spain and Portugal - - - 113 

X. Of the present State of Agriculture in Eu- 

ropean Turkey - - - 121 

Chap. V. 

Modern History and present State of Agricul- 
ture in the British Isles - - 123 

I. Political History of Agriculture in Britain, 

from the Revolution in 1688 to the pre- 
sent Time - - - 123 

II. Professional History of Agriculture, from 

the Revolution to the present Time - 125 

III. Of the Literature of British Agriculture 

from the Revolution to the present Time 130 



Chap. IV. 


Animal Physiology; the Digestive, Circulat- 
ing, and Reproductive Functions of Animals 292 

I. Of the Digestive System . . .292 

II. Of the Circulating System . - .293 

III. Of the Reproductive System of Animals . 293 

Animal Pathology ; or the Duration, Diseases, 
and Casualties of Animal Life - - 295 

Chap. VI. 

On the Distribution of Animals 

Chap. VII. 
Of the Economical Uses of Animals 


Chap. VIII. 

Principles of Improving the Domestic Ani- 
mals used in Agriculture - - 300 

I. Objects to be kept in View in the Improve. 

ment of Breeds . - - . 300 

n. Of the Meaiis of Improving the Breed of 

Animals - . - . 300 

III. Of the General Principles of rearing, ma- 

naging, and feeding Domestic Animals - 306 

IV. Of Feeding for Extraordinary Purposes 

- 310 

V. Of the Modes of killing Animals 



Chap. I. 
Of Earths and Soils - . .312 

L Of the Geological Structure of the Globe, 

and the Formation of F.arths and Soils - 312 

II. Classification and Nomenclature of Soils - 314 

III. Of discovering the Qualities of Soils - 315 

1. Of discovering the Qualities of Soils by 

means of the Plants which grow on them 315 

2. Of discovering the Qualities of Soils by 

Chemical Analysis - . . 317 

3. Of discovering the Qualities of a Soil me- 

chanically and empirically . . 318 

IV. Of the Uses of the Soil to Vegetables - 318 

V. Of the Improvement of Soils - - 322 

1. Pulverisation . - - 322 

2. Of the Improvement of Soils bv Com- 

pression . - '. . 323 

3. Of the Improvement of Soils by Aeration 

or Fallowing ... 323 

4. Alteration of the constituent Parts of 

Soils - . . .325 

Cy. Changing the Condition of Lands in re- 
spect to Water , . . 328 

6. Changing the Condition of Lands, in re- 

spect to Atmospherical Influence - 331 

7. RoUtion of Crops - . .331 

Chap. IL 

Of Manures . . .333 

I. Of Manures of Animal and Vegetable 

Origin - . . .333 

1. The Theory of the Operation of Manures 

of Animal and Vegetable Origin - 333 

2. Of the different Species of Manures of 

Animal and Vegetable Origin . .334 

3. Of the Fermenting, Preserving, and Ap. 

plying of Manures of Animal and Vege- 
table Origin ... 344 

II. Of Manures of Mineral Origin . - 3*3 

1. Theory of the Operation of Mineral Ma- 

nures - . . .343 

2. Of the different Species of Mineral Ma- 

nures - . . .344 

Chap. III. 
Of the Agency of Heat, Light, Electricitv, and 
Water in Vegetable Culture - ' - 549 

I. Of Heat and Light . . . 34<) 

I I. Of Electricity . . .353 

III. Of Water . . . . 353 

Chap. IV. 
Of the Agency of the Atmosphere in Vegeta- 
tion - - - . . 3.54 
I. Of the Elements of tlie Atmosphere - 354 


II. Of the Means of Prognosticating the Wea- 

ther - . . .364 

III. Of the Climate of Britain . .367 



Chap. I. 
Of the Implements of Manual J.Abour used in 
Agriculture - - - 369 

I. Tools used in Agriculture - - . 369 

II. Instruments - . . . 372 

1. Instruments of Labour . - 372 

2. Instruments of Science . -375 

III. Utensils used in Agriculture - .378 

IV. Hand Machines used in Agriculture - 379 

Chap. IL 
Of Agricultural Implements and Machines 

drawn by Beasts of Labour . . 389 

I Tillage implements and Machines . - 389 

1. Swing Ploughs, or such as are constructed 

without W^heels - - - 389 

2. W^heel Ploughs . . . 397 

3. Tillage Implements, known as Scarifiers, 

Stnifflers, Cultivators, and Grubbers - 402 

4. Tillage Implements of the Hoe Kind - 405 

II. Machines for Sowing and Planting -408 

III. Harrows or Pronged Implements for 

Scratching the Surface Soil, for covering 
the Seed, and for other Purposes . 413 

IV. Rollers - - - - 416 

V. Machines for laying Land even, and other 

occasional or anomalous Tillage Ma- 
chines .... 419 

VI. Machines for reaping and gathering the 

Crop . - - - 420 

1. Horse Rakes and Haymaking Machines - 420 

2. Reaping Machines - . . 421 

VII. Machines of Deportation - -428 

1. Carts . . - - 428 

2. Waggons . . - - 433 

VIII. Machines for threshing and otherwise 
preparing Com for Market - . 435 

IX. Mechanical and other fixed Apparatus, 

for the Preparation of Food for Cattle, 
and for grinding Manure - - 444 

Chap. III. 
Edifices in use in Agriculture - - 442 

I. Buildings for Live Stock - - 443 

II. Buildings as Repositories, and for perform. 

ing in-door Operations - - 449 

III. The Farmer's . - 453 

IV. Cottages for Farm Servants - - 454 

V. Stack-yard, Dung-yard, and other Enclo- 

sures immediately connected with Farm 
Buildings - - - . 459 

VI. Union of the different Farm Buildings and 

Enclosures in a Farmery . 461 

Chap. IV. 
Fences used in Agriculture - - 473 

I. Situation or Emplacement of Fences . 473 

II. Difffercnt Kinds of Fences - - 474 

1. Ditch or Drain Fences - - 474 

2. Hedge Fences - . - 475 

3. Compound Hedge Fences - - 480 

4. Paling Fences ... 492 

5. Wall Fences . - - 496 

Chap. V. 
Gates and Bridges appropriate to Agriculture . 498 



Chap. I. Page 

Manual Labours and Operations - . 506 

I. Mechanical Operations common to all Arts 

of Manual Labour ... .506 

IT. Agricultural Labours of the simplest Kind 507 

III. Agricultural Operations with Plants -510 

IV. Mixed Operations performed by Manual 

Labour - - - 517 


Chap. II. 


Agricultural Operations requiring the Aid of 

Labouring Cattle - - - 524 

I. Operations for the Care of Live Stock - 524 

II. Labours with Cattle on the Soil - - 525 

III. Labours and Operations with the Crop, 

performed with the Aid of Cattle - 530 

Chap. III. 

Scientific Operations, and Operations of Order 

and general Management - - 533 

I. Scientific Operations required of the Agri- 
culturist - - . . 533 

1. Measuring relatively to Agriculture - 534 

2. Taking the Levels of Surfaces - . 535 

3. Division and laying out of Lands - 536 

4. Estimating Weight, Power, and Quanti- 

ties - . . _ 538 

5. Estimating the Value of Agricultural La- 

bour and Materials, Rents and Tillages - 539 

6. Professional Routine of Land Surveyors, 

Appraisers and Valuators, in making up 
their Plans and Reports - . 543 

I II. Operations of Order and Management 548 




of the valuation, purchase, and transfer of 
landed property. 

Chap. L 
The difFerent Kinds and Tenures of Landed 

Property in the British Isles - - 551 

I. The Kinds of Landed Property, and its dif- 

ferent Tenures, in England - - 551 

II. The Kinds and Tenures of Landed Pro- 

perty in Scotland - - - 552 

IIL The Kinds and Tenures of Landed Pro- 

perty in Ireland - - - 552 

Chap. II, 
Valuation of Landed Property 

Chap. IIL 
Purchase or Transfer of Landed Property 

- 553 

- 557 



Chap. I. 
Consolidated detached Property 


Chap. II. 

Appropriating Commonable Lands - - 560 

I. Origin and difFerent Kinds of Commonable 

Lands - - - - 560 

II. General Principles of Appropriating and 

dividing Commonable Lands - - 562 

Chap. III. 
Choice of the Demesne or Site for the Proprie- 
tor's Residence - - .565 

Chap. IV. 
Formation and Management of Roads - - 567 

I. Different Kinds of Roads - - 568 

II. Line of Direction, or laying out of Roads . 570 

III. Form and Materials of Roads - - 574 

1. Formation of Roads, and of their Wear 

or Injury - . - - 574 

2. M' Adam's Theory and Practice of Road- 

making - . - - 576 

3. Road-making, as treated of and practised 

by various eminent Engineers and Sur- 
veyors - - . . 579 

I V. Paved Roads . _ .597 

V. Milestones, Guide-posts, and Toll-gates - 602 

VI. Preservation and Repair of Roads . 605 

VII. Railroads - ... 513 

Chap. V. 

Formation of Canals - - . 616 

I. Utility and Rise of Navigable Canals - 616 

II. Of discovering the most eligible Route for 

a Line of Canal - . . 517 

III. Powers granted to Canal Companies by 

Government - . - 6I9 

IV. Execution of the Works - . 619 

Chap. VL 

Improvementof Estates by the Establishment of 
Mills, Manufactories, Villages, Markets, &c, 622 

Chap. VIL 

Of Mines, Quarries, Pits, and Metalliferous 

Bodies - _ _ 624 

Chap. VI IL 

Establishment of Fisheries - . 629 

I. Marine Fisheries . - - 629 

II. River, Lake, and other Inland Fisheries - 630 

Chap. IX. 

Plantations and Woodlands - . 635 

I. Soils and Situations which may be most pro- 

fitably employed in Timber Plantations - 633 

II. Trees suitable for different Soils, Situations, 

and Climates - . - 634 

III. Forming Plantations - - - 636 

IV. Mixture of Trees in Plantations - 644 

V. Culture of Plantations - - 645 

1. General Influence of Culture on Trees - 615 

2. Culture of the Soil among Trees - 647 

3. Filling up of Blanks or Failures in Plant- 

ations - - - - 648 

4. Pruning and Heading down Trees in 

Plantations - . - 648 

5. Thinning young Plantations - - 652 

VI. Improvement of Neglected Plantations 6,54 
VI J. Treatment of Injured and Diseased Trees 655 
VJII. Products of Trees, and their Preparation 

for Use or Sale - - - 657 

IX. Estimating the Value of Plantations and 
their Products, and exposing them to 
Sale - - - 662 

Chap. X. 

Formation and Management of Orchards - 66i 

I. Soils and Situations most suitable for Or- 

chards - - - 664 

II. Sorts of Trees and Manner of Planting - 665 

III. Cultivation of Farm Orchards - 669 

IV. Gathering and Keeping of Orchard Fruit - 671 

V. Manufacture of Cider and Perry - 671 

VI. Machinery and Utensils necessary for 

Cider-making - - - 675 

Chap. XL 

Laying out of Farm and other Culturable 
Lands - - - 676 

I. Extent or Size of Farm and Cottage Lands 677 

II, Laying out Farms and Farmeries - 677 

1. Situation and Arrangement of the Farmery 677 

2. Laying out Cottages - - - 685 

3. Laying out the Farm Lands - - 687 



Chap. I. 

Draining Watery Lands - - 690 

I. Natural Causes of Wetness in Lands, and 

the general Theory of Draining -690 

TI. The Methods of Draining Boggv Land - 693 

III. Draining Hilly Lands - -698 

IV. Methods of draining Mixed Soils - 699 

V. Methods of draining of Retentive Soils -701 

VI. Methods of draining Mines, Quarries, Pits, 

Ponds, and Lakes . . 705 



VII. Formation of Drains, and Materials used 

in filling them - - - 706 

VIII. Of the Implements peculiar to Draining 712 

Chap. II. 

Embanking and otherwise protecting Lands 
from the Overflowing or Encroachment of 
Rivers or the Sea - . . 713 

I. Embanking Lands from Rivers or the Sea - 713 

1. General Principles of designing Embank- 

ments . . - . 714 

2. Diflferent Descriptions of Banks in general 

Use for excluding Waters - - 715 

II. Guarding the Banks and otherwise improv- 

ing the Courses of Rivers and Streams - 719 

1. Guarding River Banks - - 719 

2. Changing the Courses of Rivers, deepening 

their Beds, or raising their Waters to a 
higher Level . - - 721 

Chap. III. 

Irrigation, or the Improvement of Culturable 
Lands and Farmeries by the means of Water 722 

I. Irrigation, or the Preparation of the Surface 

of Lands for the profitable Application 
of Water - - -723 

1. Soils and Situations suitable for Watering 723 

2. Implements made Use of in Watering 

Lands ; and the Terms of Art peculiar to 
such Operations - - - 723 

3. Preparation of Surfaces for Irrigation - 723 

II. Warping, or the Improvement of Land by 

muddy Water - . - 730 

1. Irrigation of Arable Lands, and Subter- 
raneous Irrigation - - 731 

III. Artificial Means of Procuring Water for 

the Use of Live Stock - . 732 

Chap. IV. 
Improvement of Lands lying Waste, so as to fit 

them for Farm-Culture - - 739 

I. Mountainous and hilly Grounds and their 

Improvement - _ - 740 

II. Rocky or Stony Surfaces - .740 

III. Improving Woody Wastes or Wealds . 742 

IV. Moors and their Improvements - - 743 

V. Peat Mosses, Bogs, and Morasses, and their 

Improvement ... 744 

VI. Marshes and their Improvement - - 747 
VI L Downs and other Shore Lands - - 748 

Chap. V. 
Improvement of Lands already in a State of 

Culture - . - - 749 

L General Phrinciples and Modes of Procedure, 

in improving Estates already more or less 

improved . . . 750 

II. Improvement of Farmeries and Farm 

Lands . . .750 

Chap. VI. 

Execution of Improvements - -756 

I. Different Modes of procuring the Execution 

of Improvements on Estates - - 756 

II. General Cautions on the Subject of Execut- 

ing Improvements - _ 757 



Chap. I. 
Superintendents, or Executive Establishment of 

an Estate - . . .759 

L Steward or Manager of an Estate, and his 

Assistants . . _ 759 

II. Land Steward's Place of Business, and what 

belongs to it . . . 76I 

Chap. II. 
Duties of Managers of Estates . . 762 

I. General Principles of Business considered 

TT „^«^l^tively to Land Stewardship . -763 

II. Management of Tenants . .763 

1. Proper Treatment of Tenants . . 763 

2. Business of letting Farms - .764 

3. Different Species of Tenancy . . 764 

4. Rent and Covenants of a Lease . . 766 
TT» Receiving Rents . . .758 
in. Keeping and Auditing Accounts - 769 



Chap. I. Page 

Circumstances of a Farm necessary to be con- 
sidered by a proposed Tenant - . 771 

I. Climate, in respect to farming Lands - 771 

II. Soil in respect to farming Lands - 773 

III. Subsoil relatively to the Choice of a Farm 774 

IV. Elevation of Lands relatively to Farming - 775 

V. Character of Surface in regard to farming 

Lands - - . .775 

VI. Af?pect in regard to farming Lands . 776 

VII. Situation of Farm Lands in regard to 

Markets - - - .776 

VIII. Extent of Land suitable for a Farm - 777 

IX. Tenure on which Lands are held for Farm- 

ing - . . .777 

X. Rent . . - . 777 

XI. Taxes and other Burdens which affect the 

Farmer - .... 779 

XII. Other Particulars requiring a Farmer's 

Attention, with a View to the Renting 
of Land . . . 779 

Chap. II. 

Considerations respecting Himself, which a 
Farmer ought to keep in view in selecting 
and hiring a Farm - . . 78O 

I. Personal Character and Expectations of a 

professional Farmer . - 780 

II. Capital required by the Farmer . . 781 

Chap. IIL 
Choice of Stock for a Farm . . -782 

I. Choice of Live Stock . . ,. 782 

1. Live Stock for the Purposes of Labour . 782 

2. Choice of Live Stock for the Purposes of 

breeding or feeding - . 733 

II. Choice of Agricultural Implements, Seeds, 

and Plants . . . 785 

III. Choice of Servants . - - 788 

Chap. IV, 

General Management of a Farm . .789 

I. Keeping Accounts ... 789 

II. Management of Servants - . 795 

III. Arrangement of Farm Labour - 796 

IV. Domestic Management and personal Ex- 



culture of farm lands, 

Chap. L » 

General Processes common to Farm Lands - 798 

I. Rotation of Crops suitable to different De- 

scriptions of Soils . - - 798 

II. The working of Fallows - - 800 

III. General Management of Manures - 803 

1. Management of Farm-yard Dung - 804 

2. Lime, and its Management as a Manure 805 

IV. Composts and other Manures - - 807 

Chap. IL 

Culture of the Cereal Grasses 

I. Wheat 

II. Rye - . . 
IIL Barley 

IV. The Oat 

V. Cereal Grasses cultivated in Europe, some 

of which might be tried in Britain 

1. Maize, or Indian Corn 

2. Canary Corn 

3. The Millets 

4. Rice, and some other Cereal Gramina 

Chap. III. 
Culture of Leguminous Field. Plants, the Seeds 
of which are used as Food for Man or 
Cattle - - - .834 

I. The Pea . - . . 835 

II. The Bean . . - 838 
HI. The Tare . . . . 841 
IV. Various Legumes which might be culti- 
vated in British Farming „ . 843 

- 826 

- 834 


Chap. IV. Page 

Plants cultivated for their Roots or Leaves in 

a recent State as Food for Man or Cattle 844 

I. The Potato . - .845 

II. The Turnip . - . 854 

III. The Carrot - . . 862 

IV. TheParsnep . - . 865 

V. The Field Beet - - -866 

VI. The Cabbage Tribe - - - 867 

VII. Other Plants which might be cultivated 

in the Felds for their Roots or Leaves, as 
Food for Man or Cattle, In a recent State 869 

Chap. V. 

Culture of Herbage Plants - -871 

I. The Clover Family - . - 871 

II. Lucern - - . . 877 

III. Saintfoin - . .880 

IV. Various Plants which are or may be culti- 

vated as Herbage and for Hay . 883 

Chap. VL 

Cultivated Grasses - . . 886 

I. Tall-growing or Hay Grasses - . 887 

1. Tall or Hay Grasses of temporary Dura. 

tion - - - -887 

2. Tall or Hay Grasses of permanent Dura- 

tion - . . .889 

II. Grasses chiefly adapted for Pasturage 893 
HI. General View of the Produce, Uses, Cha. 

racter, and Value of the principal Bri- 
tish Grasses, according to the Result of 
John Duke of Bedford's Experiments at 
Woburn . - - - 895 

Chap. VIL 

Management of Lands permanently under 
Grass - . - 901 

I. Perennial Grass Lands fit for mowing, or 

Meadow Lands - - - 901 

II. Permanent Pastures - - 905 

1. Rich or feeding Pastures - - 905 

2. Hilly and Mountainous Pastures - 908 

III. Improvement of Grass Lands, by a tem- 

porary Conversion to Tillage - - 909 

1. Grass Lands that ought not to be broken 

up by the Plough - - - 909 

2. Advantages and Disadvantages of break- 

ing up Grass Lands - - - 910 

3. Breaking up Grass Lands, and afterwards 

restoring them to Grass - - 911 

Chap. VIIL 
Plants cultivated on a limited Scale for various 
Arts and Manufactures - - - 912 

I. Plants grown chiefly for the Clothing Arts - 912 

1. Flax - . - - 913 

2. Hemp - - - - 917 

3. The Fuller's Thistle, or Teasel - 918 

4. Madder - . - 919 

5. Woad - - . .920 

6. Weld, or Dyer's V^'eed - - 921 
7- Bastard Saffron - - - 922 
8. Various Plants which have been proposed 

as Substitutes for the Thread and dyeing 
Plants grown in Britain . - 923 

II. Plants cultivated for the Brewery and Dis- 

tillery - - - - 923 

1. The Hop - - . . 924 

2. Culture of the Coriander and Caraway - 930 

3. Plants which may be substituted for 

Brewery and Distillery Plants - 930 

III. Oilplants - - - 931 

IV. Plants used in Domestic Economy - 933 
1. Mustard - - -933 
2 Buck-wheat - - - 934 

3. Tobacco - - -936 

4. Other Plants used in Domestic Economy, 

which are or miay be cultivated in the 
Fields - - -942 

V. Plants which are are or may be grown in 

the Fields for Medicinal Purposes . 943 

Chap. IX. 
Marine Plants used in Agriculture . - 945 

Chap. X. 

Weeds or Plants injurious to those cultivated 

in Agriculture - - - 947 



Chap, I. Page 

The cultivated Horse . . .94^ 

I. Varieties of the Horse . .950 

II. Organology or exterior Anatomy of the 

Horse - - . 955 

III. The Bony Anatomy or Osseous Structure 

of the Horse - - - 962 

1. Osseous Structure of the Head - - 9G2 

2. Bony Anatomy of the Trunk - -964 

3. Bony Anatomy of the Extremities . 964 

4. General Functions of the Bony Skeleton - 966 

IV. Anatomy and Physiology of the soft Parts 966 

1. Appendages to Bone, the Muscles, and 

Tendons - - . gsG 

2. Blood-vessels of the Horse . - 967 

3. Absorbents of the Horse - . 9(18 

4. Nerves and Glands of the Horse . 968 

5. Integuments of the Horse's Body . 9(58 

6. The Head generally - - - 969 

7. The Ear - - . . c.'69 

8. The Eye and its Appendages . . 970 

9. The Nose and Sense of Smelling - 971 

10. The Cavity of the Mouth . . 972 

11. The Neck . . . 972 
12 The Thorax or Chest - . - 973 

13. The Abdomen - . .973 

14. The Fcetal Colt - - - 975 

15. The Foot - - .976 

V. Diseases of the Horse - .977 

1. General Remarks on the Healthy and 

diseased State of the Horse . .977 

2. Inflammatory Diseases of the Horse - 978 

3. Diseases of the Head . . 979 

4. Diseases of the Neck . . 9S() 

5. The Chest . . . 980 

6. Diseases of the Skin . - - 984 

7. Glanders and Farcy - . . 985 

8. Diseases of the Extremities - .985 

9. Diseases of the Feet . . -987 

VI. Veterinary Operations - . 989 

1. Treatment of Wounds . . 989 

2. Balls and Drinks . . -989 

3. Fomentations and Poultices - - 989 

4. Setons and Rowels - . . 990 

5. Blistering and Firing - - 990 

6. Clystering and Physicking - . QirO 

7. Castration, Nicking, Docking, &c. - 991 

8. Bleeding - - -991 

VII. Veterinary Pharmacopoeia - - 991 

VIII. Shoeing of Horses - -993 

IX. Criteria of the Qualities of Horses for 

various Purposes - - - 995 

X. Breeding of Horses - - - 997 

XI. Rearing of Horses - - - 999 

XII. Training of Horses . . 1000 

XIII. The Art of Horsemanship - -1003 

XIV. Feeding of Horses - . 1004 

XV. Stabling and Grooming of Horses - 1006 

XVI. Management and Working of Horses - 100/ 

1. Management and Working of Race 

Horses - - - 1007 

2. Management and Working of the Hunter 1009 

3. Working and Management of Riding 

Horses - . - 1009 

4. Horses in Curricles and Coaches . 1010 

5. Working of Cart, Waggon, and Farm 

Horses - - , . 1010 

Chap. II. 

The Ass 

- 1012 

Chap. III. 
The Mule and Hinny, Hybrids of the Horse 

and Ass - - . - 1013 

Chap. IV. 
Neat or Horned Cattle - . -1014 

I. The Ox . . . 1014 

1. Varieties and Breeds of the Bull - 1014 

2. Criteria of Cattle for various Objects and 

Purposes ... 1019 

3. Breeding of Horned Cattle - - 1020 

4. Rearing of Horned Cattle - - 1021 

5. Fattening Calves by Suckling - - 1023 

6. Fattening Horned Cattle - - 1024 

7. Management of Cows kept for the 

Dairy .... 1025 




8. Working of Horned Cattle - - 1029 

9. Anatomy and Physiology of the Bull and 

Cow - - . - 1031 

10. Diseases of Horned Cattle - - 1032 
II. The Buffalo - . - 1035 

Chap. V. 

The Dairy and its Management - - 1035 

I. Chemical Principles of Milk, and the Proper- 

ties of the Milk of different Animals - 1036 

II. The Dairy House, its Furniture and Uten- 

sils - - - - 1037 

III. Milking and the general Management of 

Milk - ... low 

IV. Making and Curing of Butter . . 1041 

V. Process of Cheese-making - - 1043 

VI. Catalogue of the different Sorts of Cheeses 

and other Preparations made from Milk 1045 

Chap. VI. 

The Sheep . . . . 1049 

I. Varieties of Sheep - - - 1049 

II. Criteria of Properties in Sheep - - 1052 

III. Breeding of Sheep . . 1053 

IV. Rearing and general Management of 

Sheep . - . 1055 

1. Rearing and Management of Sheep on 

rich grass and arable Lands . - 1056 

2. Rearing and general Management of 

Sheep on Hilly and Mountainous Dis- 
tricts, or what is generally termed Store 
Sheep Husbandry - - . 1058 

V. Folding of Sheep - . - . 1061 

VI. Of Fattening Sheep and Lambs - 1062 

VII. Probable Improvement to be derived 

from Crosses of the Merino Breed of 
Sheep . . . . 1063 

VIII. Anatomy and Physiology of Sheep . 1064 

IX. Diseases of Sheep - . 1064 

Chap. VIL 

The Swine 

I. Varieties of the Common Hog 

II. Breeding and Rearing of Swine 

- 1067 

- 1068 


III. Fattening of Swine ... 1070 

IV. Curing of Pork and Bacon - -1070 

V. Diseases of Swine - - . . 1071 

Chap. VIIL 

Of the Goat, Rabbit, Hare, Dormouse, Deer, 
and various other Animals, that are or may 
be subjected to British Agriculture . - 1071 

Chap. IX. 
Animals of the Bird Kind employed in Agri- 
culture .... 1083 

I. Poultry Houses and their Furniture and 

Utensils ... 1083 

II. Gallinaceous Fowls, their Kinds, Breeding, 

Rearing, and Management . - 1084 

III. Anserine or Aquatic Fowls . .1091 

IV. Diseases of Poultry . . 1095 

V. Birds of Luxury which are or may be cul. 

tivated by Farmers ... 1095 

Chap. X. 

Fish and Amphibious Animals subjected to 

Cultivation - - . 1100 

Chap. XI. 

Insects and Worms which are or may be sub- 
jected to Culture - - - . 

Chap. XIL 

Animals noxious to Agriculture 

I. Noxious Mammalia - . - 

II. Birds injurious to Agriculture 

III. Insects injurious to Agriculture 

1. Physiology of Insects 

2. Arrangement or Classification of Insects 

3. Insects injurious to live Stock 

4. Insects injurious to Vegetables 

5. Insects injurious to Food, Clothing, &c. 

6. Operations for subduing Insects 

IV. Worm-like Animals injurious to Agri. 

culture . - . 








Chap. I. 
Different Descriptions of Men engaged in the 
Practice or Pursuit of Agriculture . 1121 

I. Operators, or serving Agriculturists - 1121 

II. Commercial Agriculturists - - 1122 
IIL Agricultural Counsellors, Artists, or 

Professors . - . 1123 

IV. Patrons of Agriculture - - 1123 

Chap. II. 

Different Kinds of Farms in Britain relatively 
to the difl'erent Classes of Society who are 
the Occupiers . . . .1124 

Chap. III. 

Topographical Survey of the British Isles in 

respect to Agriculture - . . 1125 

I. Agricultural Survey of England - -1125 

II. Agricultural Survey of Wales . . 1173 
IIL Agricultural Survey of Scotland -1178 
IV. Agricultural Survey of Ireland - 1198 

Chap. IV. 

Literature and Bibliogaphy of Agriculture - 1206 

I. :Kbliography of British Agriculture - - 1206 

II. Bibliography of Agriculture in Foreign 
Countries - - . . 1214 
1. Bibliography of French Agriculture - 1214 

2. Bibliography of German Agriculture - 1219 

3. Bibliography of Italian Agriculture - l'i21 

4. Bibliography of the Agriculture of other 

Countries of Europe - - 1222 

5. Agricultural Bibliography of North Ame- 

rica - ^ ^ : . 1223 

Chap. V. 

Professional Police and Public Laws relative 
to Agriculturists and Agriculture - - 1223 


OP the FirruRE progress op agriculture in 


Chap. I. 

Improvement of Agriculture, by refining the 
Taste of the Purchasers of its Products, and 
creasing the Knowledge of Agricultural 
Patrons - - - 1225 

Chap. II. 
Improvement of Agriculture, by the better 
Education of those who are engaged in it as 
a Profession - - . . 1226 

I. Degree of Knowledge which may be at- 
tained by Practical Men, and general Powers 

of the human Mind as to Attainments . 1226 

II. Professional Education of Agriculturists - 1228 

III. Conduct and Economy of an Agricul- 

turist's Life - - - 1229 

Calendarial Index 
Glossarial Index 
General Index 

- 1233 
. 1241 

- 1248 



Those marked f are chiefly of historical interest ; those marked * are considered the best of their kind. 


Picks and Mattocks. 
2 t Primeval pick of Egypt 
25 t Pick of the ancient Britons 
124 t Picks or Pick hoes of Java 
460 * The planter's foot-pick 
590 6 * The planting-mattock 
590 c * The planter's adze 
1115 a, b Grubbing-mattocks of Devonshire 

14 t The Roman spade . . . 
155 t The Bushman's spade 
1136 t The caschrom or Highland spade 

210 The Flemish spade 

211 * The turf spade 
661 * Draining-spades 
679, 680 * Irrigating.spades 
469 6 * The hedger's spade 

655 a The semicylindrical draining-spade 

Shovels and Scoops. 
459 * The ditcher's shovel 
661 d * The drainer's shovel 
680 a,b* Irrigation shovels 
1115 c The Devonshire paring-shovel 
661 a,b,c* Drain ing-scoops 
680 c * The irrigator's scoop - . - 

25, 26, 27 f Forks of the Ancient Britons - 
682 c * I'he irrigator's fork . - - 

753 * Forks for spreading dung 
548 * The road-maker's fork - _ - 

Drags or Hacks, and Pronged Hoes. 

752 * A light dung drag 

756 * A turnip-hook, or pronged hoe 

215 * A three-pronged double hoe 

282 * The pronged hoe and turnip chopper - 

25 t Rake of the Ancient Britons 

212 * The English corn-rake 

213 * The East Lothian corn-rake 

214 * The daisy rake . . . . 

121 c t The hoe of Ceylon . . - 

124 6, c t The hoes of Java . . - 

215 * The double hoe, with a pronged blade 

216 Ducket's hoes .... 
469 a The common Dutch hoe . . - 

217 * The improved Dutch hoe 

218 * Knight's improved thrust-hoe 

219 * The Spanish draw-hoe . . . 
513 The Dutch wheel-hoe 

590 d * Sang's plantation-hoe . . . 
760 * The best turnip hand-hoe 

Weeding Implements. 

220 * Baker's thistle-extirpator - • 

221 a * The Scotch thistle-drawers 

221 b * The Havre weeding-pincers 


222 The common twisting-crook 

223 ♦ The improved twisting-crook 



. 38 
. 152 

- 481 

- 641 
. a51 

- 1170 







91 The Swedish dibbling-board . - 112 

224 * The double corn-dibble - - . 372 


21 t Italian scythe and scythe stone of the 

middle ages . ... 33 

25 t 26 t Scythes of the Ancient Britons - 38 

49 The Brabant cradle scythe ... 69 

61 The great Brabant scythe . - 83 

60 * The Hainault scythe - . - 83 

225 * The improved Hainault scythe - - 372 

226 * The improved cradle scythe . - 373 


6 f The reaping-hook of Egypt - - 7 

25 t 27 t Ancient British reaping-hooks - 38 

121 1 1 The reaping-hook of Ceylon - . 149 

125 fl, 6 t Reaping-hooks of Java . . 152 

227 * The improved reaping.hook . - 373 

Boring Instruments. 

228 * The stack-borer . - . - 373 
238 * 239 * 240* Good's improved well.borers 377, 378 

241 * Busby's quicksand borer . - 378 

242 * The peat borer . - - - 378 

662 The common draining-borer - . 712 

663 * The horizontal boring-machine - - 713 
708 * The root borer for rifting roots by gun- 
powder - ... 744 

704—707 Stone borers, or jumpers for blasting 

stones - - - - 743 

Hedge-bills and Pruning-axes, and ground Knives. 


36 t The pruning-hook of the middle ages - 
121 a t The jungle-hook of Ceylon 
121 b t The pruning-axe of Ceylon 
125 c to ^ f The pruning-hooks of Java - - 
229 a * The Berwickshire hedge-bill or hedge- 
scimitar - _ - - 
229 c * The bill-hook . . - - 
229 d * The dressing-hook . . - 
229 e * The lopping-hook . - - - 
£29 b * The hedge axe - . - - 
469 d * The hedge switching-bill 
469 e * Stephens's hedge-cutting bill 
469/* Stephens's hedge-axe . . . 
661 e * The drainer's sod knife ... 

681 * The turf knife - - - - 

682 o * The water scythe . . - - 
682 b * The water-hook - - - - 

Level Instrmnents. 

234 * The common road-level - - - 
233 * Parker's level . - . - 

235 a * The American level - - - 
235 6 * The square level . - - 
235 c * The object staff - - - - 
235 dto h* The levelling stafF - - 

549 * Telford's road-level - - - 

ern a* Brown's irrigator's portable level - 
678 * The compass-level ... 

Hand-Hummelling Implements. 

405 * The hummelling-roller 

406 The hummelling-beater - ■. i 







Na Page 

Miscellaneous Implements and Instruments. 

230 * The woodman's scorer . - . 374 

231 * 232 * Potato-set scoops - - - 374 
2.36, 237 * Hunter's odometer - . - 376 

598 * Barking instruments - - - 659 

599 * Broad's callipers for measuring standing 

timber . . . . GQo 

703 * Callipers for raising stones - - 745 

600 * Rogers's dendrometer . - - 663 
708 * The blasting screw for rending roots of 

trees ^ . ... 744 

892 * Sheep crooks - ... 1057 

870 * Syringe and ^nema tubes for relieving 

horses, cattle, sheep, and swine - 1034 
838 * The fleam for bleeding horses . . 991 

866 * Ring for fastening cattle . . - 1030 

867 * Yoke and bow for oxen . - . lUoO 

Miscellaneous Utensils. 

27 t The ancient British harvest-horn - 58 
1119 d Cornish dung panniers - . -1171 

1119 e Cornish faggot and sheaf corn panniers 1171 

243 * The corn-screen - . . . 378 

244 * The iron corn-basket - - - 378 

245 * The seed.carrier . ... 378 

246 * Jones's corn and seed drier . . 379 
811 Barrel for blanching endive . - 942 
977 * The turnip beetle-net - . - 1120 
S78 * Curtis's lime-duster - - . -1120 

* Utensils for Poultry, 

926 a, b, c Poultry coops .... 1084 

926 d Portable shelter for poultry . - 1084 

927 * The improved poultry-feeder . . 1084 
1145 * The pheasant-feeder - . -1282 

Scientific Utensils. 

203 Vessels for examining soils - . - 318 

208 * Leslie's hygrometer . . - Sm 

209 * The rain-gauge - . - - 366 

Utensils for the Dairy. 

81 f The cowherd's lure of Norway . - 110 
33 t The dairy caldron of Lodi - - 49 

879 * The box churn ... 1040 

880 * The Derbyshire churn - -1040 

881 The Lancashire plough.churn - - 1040 

877 The cheese-press .... 1039 

878 The lactometer . . . - 1039 


247 * The earth barrow . - -379 

248 * The iron barow for dung - . - 379 

249 * The corn barrow - . - 379 

250 * The hay and straw barrow - - 379 

251 The package barrow - - . 379 

252 * The Normandy barrow . - - 380 

253 The French truck . . -380 

254 * The common hand-barrow - - 380 

255 * The earth hand-barrow - - 380 

256 The dung hand-barrow ... 380 

257 * The improved dressing machine . S80 

258 * The hand threshing-machine - .380 

259 * The maize sheller - - .381 

260 * Marriott's improved maize separator . 381 

1120 The box barrow of Cornwall . -1172- 


261 * A hand flour-mill for grinding maize - 381 
734 The maize sheller . . - 831 

262 * A hand bolting-machine - - 381 

263 * The furze bruiser . - - . 382 

266 * The root breaker or bruiser . . 383 

267 * The corn bruiser - . .383 

268 * The potato flour.mill - - . 383 

269 * The chaff-cutter . . .384 
281 * The turnip-slicer - . - 386 

Weighing and Draught Machines. 

276 * The weighing-cage - - - 385 

277 * Weir's cattle weighing-machine . 385 

279 * Smith's potato-weighing machine - 38& 

278 * The sack- weighing machine . . 385 

280 * Ruthven's farmer's steelyard . . 386 
272 * The hay-weighing machine - . S84 
274 * Finlayson's draught-machine . .385 
275. ♦ Braljy's draught-machine . - - 385 

No. Page 
Hand-drills, Dibbling and Sowing Machines. 

284 * The common hand-drill . . 387 
287 * The hand turnip-drill - - . 388 
286 * Coggins's corn-dibbler . - . 387 
283 * Plunknet's bean or potato dibbler - 387 

285 * The broadcast sowing-machine - . ^7 

290 * Field rat-trap 

291 * Improved rat-trap 

292 Wooden mole-traps 
964, 965 * Paul's rattery 

Traps for Vermin. 

1110, 1111 

Miscellaneous Hand Machines. 

\11 f The whin-bruiser of Britany - - 207 

270—272 * The hay-binder - - - 384 

273 * The rope-twister . ... 385 

288 * The hand turnip-roller . - . 388 

289 Doxat's mechanical power - - 388 

293 * An improved grindstone . . - 3S9 
750 Machine for washing potatoes . - 853 
872 The gin-wheel potato-washer . . 1038 

767 Cabbage-cutter for sauerkraut - - 869 

768 Newton's cabbage-chopper - - 869 

408 A lime-pounding machine ... 442 

409 Low's machine for raising large stones . 442 
705, 706 Richardson 's machine for raising large 

stones .... 745 

987 Hill and Bundy's flax.breaking machine 918 

Ploughs of Historical Interest. 
2 f 3 f 4 1 Primitive tillage implements 

of the greatest antiquity - . -5,5 

9 f Primitive plough of Sicily . - 10 

11 t Plough of the South of France . . 23 

12 t Plough of Valencia . . .23 

13 a,b,c\ Wheel-ploughs of the greatest 

antiquity 23 

22 f A Saxon wheel-plough of the eighth 

century - . . . . SQ 

23 t 24 t Ancient British ploughs . 37 
38 f The modern plough of Rome . . 55 

50 t The plough of Toulouse ... 70 

51 f The Arabian plough - . - 70 
74 t The plough of Tykochin, in Poland - \02 

89 + The plough of Osterobothnia . - 112 

90 + The ancient Samnite plough - 112 
97 f The Castilian plough . . .119 

100 t The Arcadian plough . . .121 

109 t The plough of Erzerum . . 141 

113 + The plough of Yemen, in Arabia . 142 

119 f Hindustanee ploughs - • - - 14S 

121 d + The plough of Ceylon - . 149 

131 t Chinese ploughs - . - Vk) 

Modern Swing Ploughs. 

294 * Small's plough - - - . 392 

295 * * Wilkie's iron swing plough - - 392 

296 • Finlayson's crane-necked self-cleaning 

iron plough ... . 392 

297 • Finlayson's open beam self-cleaning 

iron plough - . . . 393 

298 • Finlayson's skeleton self-cleaning 

turn-wrest plough - . . 393 

299 » Finlayson's line plough . . 393 

300 • Gray's turn- wrest plough . . 394 

301 * Weatherley's movable stilt plough - 394 

302 * Ducket's skim-coulter plough - . 394 

303 » Somerville's double-furrow plough . 395 

304 Clymer's iron plough ... 396 

305 • Morton's trenching plough - . 39S 

306 Gladstone's water-furrowing plough . 397 
1130 An addition to a plough called a ridder, 

used in Fifeshire ... 1188 

Modern ffTiecl-Ploughs. 

308 * Improved Scotch wheel-plough - 398 

309 The Beverstone wheel-plough . . S98 

310 The Norfolk wheel-plough . . 398 

311 * Wilkie's single-horse wheel-plough . 399 

312 ** Wilkie's improved friction-wheel 

plough - • - - - 399 

313 The paring wheel-plough . - - 400 
1128 * * Wilkie's one-wheel two-horse plough, 

with shifting muzzle . . 1186 

Draining- Ploughs 

314 Clarke's draining.plough - - 400 

315 Gray's draining-plough . - - 400 


No. Page 

316 * Morton's draining-plough - - WO 

317 * The gutter drain-plough . - 401 

318 Lumbert's mole-plough - . _ 401 

319 Lumbert's working power for his mole- 

plough . . . - 401 

320 Weir's improved working power for 

Lumbert's mole-plough - - 401 

321 * Bridgewater's draining-plough - 402 
656, 657 Pearson's pipe draining-plough - 710 

Pronged 'Tillage Implements. 

322 * Wilkie's parallel adjusting-brake - 403 

323 Wilkie's improved prongs for brakes ex- 

plained - - . - . 403 

324 * Finlayson's cultivator and liarrow - 403 
721 * Kirkwood's grubber - . - 803 

325 Weir's improved cultivator . - 404 

326 The Scotch cultivator or grubber - 404 

327 Parkinson's cultivator - - - 404 

328 Hayward's cultivator - - 405 

Horse-hoes and Drill-Harrows. 

380 * Wilkie's horse-hoe and drill-harrow - 405 

331 ** Finlayson's self-cleaning horse-hoe 

and drill-harrow - . . 406 

332 * Blaikie's inverted horse-hoe - - 406 

333 The Scotch horse-hoe - . - 407 
33i Henry's improved scarifier - - 407 

335 Amos's horse-hoe and harrow - - 407 

336 The horse-hoe and castor wheel - 407 

337 The thistle hoe, or hoe scythe - - 408 
982 A scuffler used in Essex - - 1129 
995 A drill hoe used in Worcestershire - 1142 

Horse Machthes for sowing and planting. 

338, 339 Cooke's corn-drill and horse-hoe 408, 409 

340 The Norfolk lever-drill - - -409 

341 * Morton's improved grain-drill - 409 

342 * The improved bean-drill - - 410 

343 The horsebean dibbler - - - 410 
344, 345 * The Northumberland two-row tur- 
nip drill - - - - 411 

346 *The Northumberland one-row turnip 

drill 411 

347 * * Weir's manuring one-row turnip drill 412 
722 * * The improved broad-cast sowing- 
machine - - - - 809 

Watering Machines. 

348 * Young's drill-waterer - - 413 

362 The watering-roller - - 418 
569 * The road water-barrow - - - 610 


124 t Harrow of the Singalese - - 152 
323. 349 Principles on which harrow prongs 

are formed 403. 413 

350 * The Berwickshire harrow - - 414 

351 The angular-sided harrow - - 414 
795 The grass-ground harrow - - . 906 

352 * The grass-seed harrow - - 414 

353 The common brake - - - 415 

354 * The grubber, or levelling-harrow - 415 

355 * Morton's revolving brake-harrow - 415 
356, 357 Gray's wet-weather harrow - 416 

358 The bush harrow . . - 416 
518 The improved single harrow - - 528 

565 The road-harrow - . - 608 
990 Circular harrows ... 1136 

1003 * An excellent harrow used in Derby- 
shire - - - . 1152 

Rollers, Cutters, and Scrapers. 

121 g,hi Scrapers of Ceylon - - - 149 

359 * The loaded roller . - - 417 

363 The furrow roller - - - 418 
362 The roller and water-box - - 418 
364, 365 * The pressing-plough - - 418 

360 Bartlett's cutting roller or cultivator - 417 
366 Brown's furrow cross-cutter - - 418 

566 The road roller - . .608 
567, 568 * Boase's road scraper and sweeper 

£70 Biddle's road-maker . - - 611 

709 Peat rollers - . - 746 

No. Page 

Levelling Machines, 

59 The Mouldebaert or Flemish leveller - 82 

367, 368 * The Scotch land-leveller - 419 

369 The improved Flemish leveller - - 419 

Horse-Rakes, and Hay-making Machines. 

370 The Norfolk horse-rake . . 420 

371 * Weir's improved hay or corn rake - 420 

372 * Salmon's hay tedder improved by Weir 421 

373 The hay sweeper - - - 421 

Reaping Machines. 

16 + A Roman reaping machine - - 26 
375 Smith's reaping machine - . 422 
376, 377 * Bell's reaping.machine - 423. 425 

378 • Gladstone's bean reaper - - 427 

379 The clover.pod reaper - - 427 


39 + The modern Roman cart - .55 

48 T The gairabarde, or one-horse hay and 

wood cart of Paris - - 69 

78 t Cart of Livonia - - - 108 

103 f The cart of Albania - - 122 

1119 t Cornish sledges - - - 1171 

380--383 Principles respecting wheels and 

axles, as applied to one-horse carts 428,429 
386. 388. 390, 391, 392 Principles of adjusting 

draught and drags - - 430. 432, 433 

384 The Scotch one-horse cart - - 450 

385 The Scotch corn-cart - - - 430 

386 The Scotch two-horse cart, with adjusting 

traces - - - - 430 

387 Somerville's drag cart - - 431 
1008, 1009 Simple carts in use in Yorkshire - 1158 


62 t The Flemish grand waggon . - 83 

65 t The old Danish waggon - - 88 

67 t The Hungarian travelling waggon - 9(i 

68 t The Hungarian agricultural waggon - 97 
75 t A Polish waggon - - - 102 

149 t Dutch waggon of the Cape of Good 

Hope - - - - 180 

1118 The Cornwall harvest waggon - - 1171 

393, 394 Baddeley's waggon with bent axle - 433 

395 * The Berkshire waggon - - 434 

396 Rood's waggon - . - - 434 
397,398 Gordon's one-horse waggon - 435 

* Threshing Machines. 

17 t The Roman threshing machine - 26 
32 t Threshing-rollers of modern Italy - 49 

399, 400 * Meikle's two-horse threshing 

machine ... - 437 

401 * Meikle's water threshing machine - 438 

402 * Meikle's water and horse threshing 

machine . . - - 438 

984 * A threshing machine driven by water 1130 

Smut and Hummelling Machines. 

403 Hall's smut machine - - - 439 

404 Mitchell's hummelling machine - 440 

Cider and Oil MUls impelled by Horses or Water. 

. 675 

- 675 

- 676 
. 1141 

- 1117 
157, 158 

- 160 

602 Common cider.miU 

603 * Improved cider.mill 

604 French cider-mill 
994 The cider-press 

95 t The olive-oil mill of Spain 
128, 129 t Oil-mills of China 
133 t Water oil-miU of China 

Miscellaneous Horse Machines. 
98 The Noria, or bucket-wheel of the Moors 119 
374 Snowden's leaf collector - ".S^i 

565 Harriott's road harrow - - ^ - oU« 

566 Beatson's road roller or protector for 

common carts - - - ^° 

567 * 568 * Boase's road scraper and sweeper 6('», buy 

- 610 

The improved road-waterer 
„,^, 571 Biddle's machine for re. 
592, 593 Steuart's machine for transplanting 

670, 571 Bii 
— —3 St 

large trees 

machine for repairing roads 611 


No. Page 

Miscellaneous Machines impelled by Water. 
44 fThe Noriaofthe Alps ... 64 

204—206 The Persian wheel of Blair-Drum- 

mond - - . - 326 

Fixed Apparatus. 
407 * A cattle food-steaming machine - 441 

597 * Boiler for distilling the spray of trees - 657 
934 * Bonnemain's apparatus for hatching 

eggs by hot water . - . 1087 

Portable Structures for Corn or Forage. 

519 * The stack guard . . .532 

520 * The stacking stage . - - 533 
1136 Structures for drying hay and corn in use 

in Argyleshire - . - 1197 

79 t The Russian roofed frame for drying 

com in the sheaf . - . 108 

Farmeries or HoinestalU. 
123 t A Singalese farmery - - - 150 

175 t An Alpine farmery of Norway - - 205 
55, 56 t A Flemish farmery - . - 74, 75 

418 * An octagon corn farmery, ground plan 

and isometrical views, designed and 
drawn by J. C. L. in 1820 - .449 

419 * A rectangular farmery, ground plan 

and isometrical view, designed and 
drawn by J. C. L. in 1820 - - 450 

420 * Circular farmery, ground plan and 

isometrical view, designed and drawn 

by J. C. L. in 1820 . . - 450 

443 * Waistell's farmery for a grazing farm 

in a hilly country ... 46.5 

444 * Waistell's arable and grazing farmery 466 

445 Marshal's octagon farmery . . 467 

446 Beatson's small farmery . . . 468 

447 * A Berwickshire farmery - . 468 

448 * A proprietor's farmery with bailiff's 

house .... 469 

449 * A very commodious farmery . . 470 

450 * A very complete farmery . .471 
451, 45C' ♦ Waistell's large farmery . . 472 
G05 * Fearn farmery with steam-power 

threshing machine ... 679 

606 * Knolwell farmery - - .680 

607, 608 * A Middlesex farmery, designed by 

J.C.L. - . ! . 681 

609, 610 Farmery for a hay farm in Middlesex, 

designed by J. C. L. . . . 682 

611, 612 * A corn and stall feeding farmery, 

designed by J. C. L. . . - 683 

613 * A farmery for a meadow farm, designed 

by J. C. L. - . . . 684 

614, 615 * A farmery for a turnip farm . 684, 685 
1011 A Northumberland farmery - . 1161 

1112 A Cheshire farmery . . -1154 

1116, 1117 A farmery in Cornwall ... II71 


35 f A farm-house in Tuscany 

(18 to 21) * Position of the farm-house 



relatively to the farmery explained - 4.50 
422, 423 Farm-houses of the lowest class . 453 
424 * 425 * Small farm-houses . - . 454 
986, 987 An octagonal farm-house, erected by 

Francis, Duke of Bedford . - 1132 

988 A square farm-house, erected by Francis. 

Duke of Bedford - . _ II33 

998 * A farm-house of the Marquess of Staf. 

ford's in Shropshire . - - II45 
1132 A farm-house combining an inn, erected 
by the Marquess of Stafford in Suther- 
land 1194 


83 A Swedish log cottage . . - 110 
104 t A Hungarian cottage ... 123 
139 t Hut of the Arabs - . - - 173 

84 f Circular huts of the Laplanders - . Ill 
142 t Mud huts of Nubia . . . 175 
141 t Straw huts of Egypt . . .175 
146 t Reed huts of the Foulahs . . . 177 
150—152 t Huts of the Hottentots . . 181 
160 f American cottage built of logs . . 189 
169 f Brazilian .shelter - . - 200 
431 An economical stair for cottages , . 457 
422, 423 Cottages approaching to the character 

of farm-houses . . -453 


No. Page 

426 * 427 * Cottages for farm.servants . . 455 

428 * A double cottage for farm-labourers . 456 

429 * * Waistell's double cottage with cow- 

houses ..... 456 

430 * * Another double cottage by Waistell im 
432 * 433 * Gothic cottages by Holland . 458 

434 * An ornamental cottage, erected by 

Lord Penryn . _ . . 458 

435 * An economical double cottage, designed 

by J. C. L. . r - - 458 

6!6 * An economical double cottage . - 685 

617 * A labourer's cottage with cow-house 

and piggery - . . . 686 

618 * A good mechanic's cottage - . 688 

619 A group of three cottages - - . 686 

620 An ornamental Gothic cottage for a la. 

bourer - ... 686 

621 An Italian cottage - - - 686 

622 An entrance lodge to a farm . . 686 
981 A cottage for a small farmer . - 1129 
991 A cottage erected in Berkshire - - 1139 

1002 A cottage erected in Staffordshire . 1148 

1122 A cottage in North Wales - . 1174 

1125 A cottage in Berwickshire - . 1181 

1126 A cottage in Ayrshire ... 118S 
1129 Two cottages in West Lothian . -1187 
1138 t A cabin in King's County, Ireland , 1200 

Buildings or other fixed Structures for Horses, 
Cattle, and Implements. 

410 Trevises or partitions - _ . 444 
1004 * A mounted crib for hay, in use in the 

field in Derbyshire ... 1152 
1113 A rustic shed or shelter - . . 1165 
1121 The cow or cattle feeding house in Corn- 
wall 1172 

421 Open cart or cattle shed - - . 452 

See the details of the Farmeries. 

411 * Cattle hummels - - - .445 

412 Section of Harley's cow-house - . 446 

413 * Calf-pens 446 

421 Open cattle-shed for fields - . 452 

865, 866 Fastenings for cattle . . - 1030 

868 A shoeing-stall . - . 1030 

Buildings a- other fixed Structures for Cows and 
the Dairy. See p. xxxix. 

Buildings or other fixed Structures for Sheep and 

416 A sheep-house and dove-cot combined - 449 
891 * Inclosure for washing sheep - -1057 
89.5—897 Rustic sheep-houses by Kraft - 1063 

1138 A rustic sheep-house - - - 1197 

414 Harley's pigsties ... 447 

Fixed or Portable Structures for Poultry, Pigeons, 

Babbits, SfC. 

110 t Pigeon-houses of Persia - . - 141 

415 * Section for general poultry-house - 448 

416 A dove-cot and sheep-house combined - 449 
908, 909 The rabbit-hutch - . . 1074 
924, 925 A complete set of poultry-houses - 1083 
926 a A portable nest - . - 1084 
926 b, c Hen-coops . - - - 1084 

926 d Portable shelter for turkeys . . 1084 

927 * An improved poultry.feeder . .1084 
1143 * A pheasant-feeder « - 1281 

734 Bonnemain's apparatus for hatching eggs 

by hot water - . - 1087 

940 * A decoy for wild ducks . - 1092 

946. 948 Pigeon-houses - - - 1097 

954, 95.5 Bird-cages .... 1100 
47 t Elevated hen-roost of France . . 69 

Fixed or Portable Structures for Bees, 

417 - - . - 449 

960 The chained hive . - - 11(J6 

961 * The Polish hive - . . 1106 

Portable Structures for Cattle or Sheep. 
796 Portable shelter . - - . 908 

894 A portable hav-rack - . . 1061 

983 Wakefield's portable bridge . . .1130 

Buildings or Fixed Structures for Corn or Forage. 
122 + A Singalese threshing-floor . - 150 

436 * The common rick-stand . .460 

437 * The cast-iron rick-stand . . - 460 



No. Page 

438 Waistdl'8 circular rick-stand - - 460 

439 The timber and iron rick-stand - - 451 
440 — 442 Ground-plans of barns, illustrative 

of first principles - - - 464 

92, 93 Swedish racks for drying corn - 113 

728 The Russian kiln for drying corn in the 

sheaf - - . . 828 

579 Booker's lime-kiln ... 626 

681— 686 Menteath's lime-kilns - - 626,62? 
587 Heathorn's lime-kiln and coke oven - 628 

Miscellaneous Buildings or Structures, Landscapes, 
and Diagrams, chiefly qf Historical Interest, 
1 f Mount Ararat . ... 4 

5 -f- Raising. water from the Nile . . 6 
10 A Roman villa and its environs, accord. 

ingtoCastel . -• - - 19 

41 Arrangements in the Lake Facino for 

breeding oysters - - - 57 

45 Map of France, showing its climate - 67 
66 t A post-house, combining a farm, situ- 
ated on the Frisclie Hoff, between 
Memel and Konigsberg in Prussia - 89 

72 t A post-house and farm in Poland . 100 

73 t A Jewish village in the south of Poland 101 

76 t A Russian village - . - 106 

77 t A farmery in the British style in the 

neighbourhood of Moscow - - 106 
80 t A church and mountain scenery in 

Norway - - - .110 

84 t Lapland huts - . . - 111 

102 t The plain of Thessaly - - - 122 

106 f Buschire and its territory - - 139 

120 A corn-mill in Penang ... 149 

126 t A Chinese village - - .156 

131 t Villa of Thibet . - .163 

141 t Camps of the nomadic agriculturists of 

Morocco - - . - 177 

157 + Small English villa or cottage ornee . 186 
162 f A West Indian overseer and his maid 193 
172, 173 t Stedman's cottage and sleeping- 
place while at Surinam . . 202 
176 t The Sunday dance of Norway ^ . 205 
201 t View in Mexico . - .271 
1134 t View of Dunrobin house in Sutherland 1195 
1114 t The Dartmoor dep6t for prisoners of 

war 1169 

Live Fences. 

455 The double ditch and hedge between - 475 
457, 458 Pruning and repairing old hedges - 479 
462—467 Diagrams illustrating the art of 

planting hedges - - 482, 483 

468 Hedge drains . . - -484 

470—473 Illustrative diagrams - - 486, 487 

476 Protecting young hedges . . 488 

477 Cutting down an old hedge . - 489 
482, 483 The poplar or willow fence - . 494 
589 Fences for plantations - . .636 

Dead Fences. 

453 • Medium between a sunk and raised 

fence . . - .474 

454 The double ditch with bank between - 475 

456 The dead hedge . ... 475 

474 A hedge paling - ... 487 

475 A stake and rice fence - - - 487 
478—481 Wooden and iron hurdles, 13 sorts 494 

484 The wattled fence . ... 495 

485 Primitive paling fence . - - 495 
82 Swedish paling fence . . .110 

486 Iron park fence - - . 495 
487, 488 Light iron pasture fences . - 496 

489 The field wall - - - . 496 

490 The Galloway wall - - . . 496 

491 Mould for stamped-earth walls . . 498 

53 t Field gate of Holland . . .72 

492. 494 First principles - . . 499, 500 

493 * Waistell's gate - ... 499 

495 * Parker's compensation hinge - . 501 

496 Iron gates 501 

4')7 — 500 Improved fastenings for gates - 502 
.501 * 502 * Field gates, by Parker - - 502 

503 * Menteath's gate . . - - 503 

504 * Hunter's field gate . - .503 

505 * The imi)rovcd park gate - . - 503 

No. Page 

506 The Florence barrier - - - 504 

507 The double or folding gate . - 504 
508, 5U9 Clarke's window-sash gate - - 505 

510 The sympathetic park gate . . 505 

511 The stile gate - . - . 505 
997 An iron gate and gate-posts used in Mon. 

mouthshire .... II43 


461 • Planting corners of fields - - 481 

588 Distributing plantations over a country . 634 

589 Fences for plantations ... 636 
590, 591 Planting implements and operations 

641, 642 

592, 593 Steuart's transplanting machine . 643 

594 Effects of good and bad pruning - - 650 

595 Cutting over copse-wood stools . . 655 
^6 Pruning hedge-row trees . . 655 
597 Distilling spray for pyrolignous acid - 657 
593 Barking instruments ... 659 
599, 600 Timber measures . . - 663 
717, 718 Planting irregular grounds - - 754 

Fruit Trees. 
601 Portraits of five sorts of standard pear 

trees . - - .667 

Operations on the Soil. 
512 Trenching 
517 Burning clay 

. 508 

. 523 

591 Slitting for tree planting - . . 642 

1010 t Section of a coal district in Durham - 1159 
22,t 23,t 24 1 Ploughing in Britain inthemid- 

dleages - - - . 36, 37 

985 Straightening ridges - - - 1131 

Operations on Plants. 
6 f Reaping in Egypt - - - 7 

15 t Roman manner of striking off" the ears 

of corn - - - - 24 

19 t 20 t Training the vine in ancient 

Italy - - - - 29 

34 t Training the vine in modern Italy . 50 
26—29 1 Mowing, reaping, and threshing 

in Britain in the middle ages - 38, 39 

514 Cutting in pruning - - - 512 

515, 516 Thatching - . - 517, 518 

594 Pruning timber trees - . . 650 

595 Pruning copse-vi^ood and stools - » &55 

596 Pruning hedge-row timber - - 655 
996 * Saddle grafting .... 1143 

1005 1 Tapping a birch tree for wine . - 1153 

Scientific Operations. 

521 Levelling - - . . 5S5 

522 Dividing a field - - - .5m 

523 Mapping - - - .537 

524 Delineating . - . .543 
525—530 Mapping and delineating . 644— >546 
531 Isometrical perspective illustrated - 547 

Plans of Estates. 
532, 533 A country residence, laid out as a 

park - - - - 566 

999 The Lilleshall estate of the Marquess of 

Stafford in Shropshire - - 1146 

1000 The Wildmoor estate of the Marquess of 

Stafford in Shropshire - . -1147 
1124 The Tremadok estate in North Wales - 1175 
1131 The Marquess of Stafford's estate in 

Sutherland - - - 1194 

Plans of Farms. 

623 * A newly inclosed farm - .689 

712 A farm in Norfolk - - - 751 

713, 714 A farm in Middlesex, laid out by 

J. C. L. - - - - 752 

715, 716 A grass farm in Middlesex - - 753 

719,720 A hill farm in Berkshire - - 755 

893 A store sheep farm . - - 1059 

980 A seed farm in Essex . - - 1129 

1007 A cottage farm in Derbyshire - -1156 

1123 Cottage farms in North Wales 


Plans qf Villages. 

511 The village of Bridekirk - - 623 

578 Village sea-port - - - 624 

1183 A fishing village in Sutherland . .1195 

150. t 153 Villages of the Hottentots - 181,182 

170 A Surinam village - - - ^-'01 



Na Page 

Road-making and Roads. 
534, 535 Sections - ... 568, 569 

546, 5*6, 547, and 550 Sections - 592, 593, 594. 597 
5m Field or farm roads - - - 569 

537 Street roads with stone tracks - - 569 

538 Road over a hill ... 573 

539 Leverage of the feet of animals - . 575 

540 Leverage of wheels . . , 575 

541 Locomotive table for breaking stones - 590 

542 Gauge ring for the size of stones . - 590 

543 Hand-barrow measure for broken stones 590 

544 Wire-guard for the faces of stone- 

breakers ... - 590 

548, 549 Implements ... - 596 
551 — 555 Stone railways for roads of different 

kinds .... 598, 599 
55Q—55^J 512 Different modes of paving 

601, 602. 612 

563 Comparative effect of broad and narrow 

wheels on roads ... 605 

564 Effect of heavy waggons . . • 607 
565—570 Machines for repairing or cleaning 

roads . , . . 608—511 


573 Railroad carriage ... 614 

574 Flat railways . - . .616 

Milestones, Guide-posts, and Toll-gates. 

560 An improved milestone ... 603 

561 Improved guide-posts ... 604 

562 Edgware toll-house and gate - • 604 

515, 576 SecUons ..... 619, 620 

Draining and Drains. 
624—628 Plans and sections - 693—696 

629—631 Plans and sections - - 698, 699 

632—635 Plans and sections . - 700, 701 

636 Section of a drain - . . . 701 

637 Section of a conduit drain . - 703 
638—640 Essex draining - j . - 704 
641, 612 Sections . . . -705,706 
643—55-2 Different kinds of drains - 707, 708, 709 
646,647* Draining tiles - . .708 
653 — 655 * Draining implements - 709, 710 
656 Pearson's draining-plough - . 710 

658 The Cheshire turf drain . .711 

659 The mole drain . . - . 711 

660 Cartwheel draining - - - 711 
661 — G63 Draining implements and boring 

machines .... 712, 713 


661— 669 Sections of banks - .115—111 

670 Seawall - . - - 718 

671 — 673 Protecting river banks, and chang- 
ing the course of rivers - -719 — ^721 
674 — 676 Dams, heads, or banks . - 722 


677—682 Implements and instruments - 725 

683 Sluices - - - .726 

684—687 Examples of flooded land . 729, 730 

688 Section of a circular pond . . 734 

735 Plans and sections of field ponds - - 735 

Boring for Water and Wells. 
Ill tPersian wells . . . .141 

691 The manner of boring an Artesian well 736 
132 1 Universal lever well - . - 160 

Lifting Water. 

697 Buckets moved by horse power . . 739 
699 Raising a bucket obliquely as practised 

on the Continent - . .740 

698 * • Siebe's pump . . .739 

Filtering Water. 

700 Filtering by two casks 
700 Filtering into a Unk 
702 Filtering salt water 

- 740 
.. 741 

- 741 


Nd Page 

Removing Rocks, Stones, and Roots. 
703. 705, 706 Machines for raising large stones 745 
704 — 707 Modes of blasting stones - . 745 
708 Blasting or rending roots of large trees - 744 

The Culture of the Potato. 

747 Cutting a tuber into sets - . . 848 

748 Planting in Lancashire ... &19 

749 Planting in Argyleshire - - 850 

750 Machine for washing potatoes - - 853 

Tlie Culture of the Turnip. 

151 — 766 The improved mode of cultivating 
in drills, from the preparation of the 
ground to the taking up and storing 
or consumption of the crop . 856 — 859 

Scientific Diagram. 
207 Nomenclature of the clouds . -358 

Plants, or Parts qf Plants, to illustrate Vegetable 
Anatomy and Physiology. 

178 a DionfflV Muscipula, Venus's fly-trap - 211 
178 b Sarracfenj'a purpilrea, purple side-saddle 

flower - . . - 211 

178 c A'ep^nthes distillatbria, the pitcher 

plant . - . . 211 

179 a b The Musci . . .212 

179 c The Hepaticae . ► . .212 

180 a Lamin^ria saccharina - - 212 
180 b Halymfenia palmita , . 212 

180 c HalymJjnia ediilis . - .212 

181 a i^ungi which grow on the surface of 

the earth . . - 213 

181 o Fungi which grow on the stumps of 

rotten trees . . .213 

182 Interior integument in the garden bean 213 

183 Section of the stem of herbaceous and 

annual or biennial plants . - 214 

184 Section of the stem of trees and shrubs . 214 
185, 186 The cortical layers - - .215 

187 Simple tubes - - - 216 

188 Physical phenomena of the germination 

of seed .... 228 

189 The foxtail root .... 2!5 

190 The flattened stem . . .246 

191 a Bunches or knot exhibiting a plexus of 

young shoots - . - 246 

191 6 The oak apple - - - 246 

192 The knot or bunch formed on the branches 

of the dog rose ... 247 

193 The proliferous flower - - , 248 

194 The flower of the fig . . 248 

195 A fruit with an unnatural appendage of 

leaves - - . . 249 

195 Vallisnerirt spiralis, spiral vallisneria - 249 

197 Pericarp of the dorsiferous fern . . 252 

198 Av^wa. fatua, the wild oat . . 252 

199 Specimens of genus CoralRna or Coral. 

lines . . - - 258 

200 Cuscuta europse^a, the dodder . - 269 

Botanical Figures of Trees and Shrubs, of His- 
torical Interest, or belonging to Foreign Agri- 

31 Paliiirus austrklis, southern Christ's thorn 48 
37 Pinus Pinea,5/owepine - - 54 

46 C&pparis spin6sa, common spiny caper 

tree . - . . 67 

96 Cistus ladanfferus, labdanum-bearing 

rock rose - . .117 

99 Qu^rcus Suber, cork tree oak . .120 
101 O^lea europjB^a, European olive . 121 

117 Cdcos nucffera, common nut-bearing 

cocoa-nut tree ... 146 

127 a Camellia Bohka, bohea tree camellia . 157 
127 b Cam^lUa Sasdnqua, sasanqua camellia 157 

135 Piper nigrum, black pepper . - 164 

136 Musa paradislaca, the plantain - - 169 

137 Arhca olericea, the cabbage tree . 169 

147 Mimijsa nil6tica, the gum arabic tree . 177 

148 Pentad^sma butyrkcea, the butter tree - 178 
161 Swietfenja Mahdgoni, the mahogany tree 192 
161 Coffea ar^bica, the cofffee tree - - 196 
167 Theobrbma, the chocolate plant - .198 
166 Eixa Orelldna, the annotto plant . 198 
145 Ceratonia siliqua, carob tree, or St. John's 

bread - - . . 177 



No. Page 

Botanical Figures of Herbaceous and Culmiferous 
JPlants of Historical Interest, or belonging to 
Foreign Agriculture. 

94 a A'\oe soccotorina, the pita, or aloe - 116 
91 b Cactus Opuntia, the hina, or Indian fig 116 
18 S^samum orientale, the oily grain - 28 

30 Convolvulus Batatas, the sweet potato - 44 
40 Gossypium herbaceum, the cotton plant 57 
43 >/elilotus officinalis, the common melilot 61 
52 Clcer arietlnum, the chick pea - . 70 
54 3/elamp^rum pratdnse, the meadow cow- 
weed - - - - 73 

68 Spfergula arv^nsis, the field spurry - 80 

69 a C^'pt-rus escui(5ntus, the eatable cyperus 98 
69 b /Astragalus boe'ticus, Boetic milk vetch 98 

86 Lycopbdium complan^tum, the flattened 

club moss - - - 112 

87 J?iibus Chamaemorus, the cloud berry - 112 
105 iiicinus communis, the common castor 

oil nut - - .138 

116 Indigofera tinct^ria, the dyer's indigo - 145 
140 Cdrtha^nus tinctt>rius, the dyer's saf- 

flower ... 174 

154 T^mus elephS-ntipes, the elephant's foot 182 
156 b Salsbla Kali, kali saltwort . - 183 

165 Dioscbrea satlva, the cultivated yam - 196 
196 Vallisnferia spiralis, spiral vallisneria - 249 
200 (Mscuta europce^a, the common dodder 269 

Cereal Grasses, or Bread Coi-ns. 
723 a Triticum sestivum, summer wheat, or 

spring wheat ... 812 

723 6 Triticum hybernum, Lammas wheat - 812 

723 c Triticum compOsitum, Egyptian wheat 812 

723 d Triticum turgidum, turgid wheat - 812 

723 e Triticum polonicum, Polish wheat - 812 

723 / Triticum Spelta, spelt wheat - . 812 
723 g Triticum monoc6ccum, one-grained 

wheat - - - . 812 

725 SecJile cereMe, rye - - - 821 

726 a //6rdeum vulgJire, spring barley - 823 
726 b J/6rdeum hexastichon, winter barley 823 
726 c i/ordeum distichon, common or long- 
eared barley - - - 823 

726 d Hordeum Zeocriton, sprat or battledore 

barley - - - 823 

727 a A\lx\a. sativa v. vulgaris, the white or 

common oat - - - 826 

727 b Ay^na. sativa v. sibirica, the Siberian or 

Tartarian oat ... 826 

729 — ^733 Zha. Mays, maize or Indian corn 

829, 830 

735 Ph&laris canari^nsis, Canary corn - 832 

736 a Set^ria germ&nica, the German millet 833 
736 b Setkria W2ilikceum,the common or cul- 
tivated millet - - - 833 

736 c Set^ria italica, the Italian millet - 833 

739 Oryza sativa, the rice - - - 834 

740Zi2^niaaquatica, water Canada rice - 834 

Tall-growing or Hay Grasses. 
789 a Zblium perenne, the perennial rye- 
grass - - - - 888 
789 6 Dactylis glomerata, the cock's-foot grass 889 

789 c i/.)lcus lanktus, the woolly soft grass . 889 

790 a FestUca pratensis, the meadow fescue. 

grass - . - . 890 

790 b Festiica elktior, the tall fescue-grass - 890 
790 c Festiica /oliacea, the spiked fescue- 
grass - . . - 890 
790 d ^lopectirus pratensis, the meadow fox- 
tail grass - _ - 890 

790 e Poa. pratensis, the great or smooth- 

stalked meadow grass . 89 ) 

790/Pba trivi^lis, the rough-stalked mea- 
dow grass - _ . . 891 

791 a Phlfeum prat^nse, the cat's-tail or 

Timothy grass . _ . 891 

791 b Festiica fliiitans, the floating fescue. 

grass - - - - 892 

791 c Pba aqu&tica, the water meadow-grass 892 

791 d ^gr6stis stolonifera, the fiorin-grass - 892 

Pasture Grasses. 

792 a Anthox&nthum odorktum, the sweet- 

scented vernal-grass - - 893 

792 b Avhna pubdscens, the downy oat-grass 893 

792 c Poa ^nnua, the annual meadow-grass 893 

792 d -4gr6stis vulgaris, the fine bent-grass - 893 
792 e Pba. angustifblia, the narrow-leaved 

meadow-grass ... 8C3 

No. Page 
793 a Cynosilrus cristktus, the dog's-tail grass 894 
793 b Festiica duriuscula, the hard fescue- 
grass - . - - 894 
793 c Festiica glkbra, the smooth fescue-grass 8J)4 

793 d Festiica Aordeif6rmis, the barley-spiked 

fescue-grass - - - 894 

794 a Festiica ovina, sheep's fescue-grass - 894 
794 6 Pba alp'ina, alpine meadow-grass - 894 
794 c ^iracasspitbsa, the tufted air-grass - 894 
794 d ^iza m^dia, the common quaking- 
grass - - - - 894 

Grasses for fixing Drift Sands. 

710 ^rUndo arenkria, the sand reed, or Mar- 

ram grass ... 749 

711 a £1ymus arenkrius, the sand or sea-side 

Lyme-grass . - - 749 

711 6 jE'lymus geniculktus, the knee-jointed 

Lyme-grass . _ - 749 

711 c £'lymus sibiricus, the Siberian Lyme- 
grass - - - - 749 

Leguminous Field Plants. 

741 Plsum sativum, the pea - - - 835 

742 ricia sativa, the tare, vetch, or fitch - 841 

743 £'rvum Lens, the lentil - - 843 

744 iathyrus sativus, the Spanish lentil - 844 

745 Ffciapisiformis, the lentil of Canada - 844 

746 iupinus albus, the white lupine - - 844 

Clovers and other Herbage Plants, 

769 dchiirium J'ntybus, the chiccory - - 870 

770 Symphytum asperrimum, the rough com- 

frey - - - - 870 

771 JSemerocallis fulva, the day lily - - 870 

772 a TYifulium pratense, the red clover - 872 
772 b Trifolium ripens, the white or creeping 

Dutch clover - ... 872 

772 c Ttifblium proclimbens, the yellow clover 872 

772 d Trifolium mfedium, the meadow clover 872 

773 Medic^go lupWina, the hop medick . 872 

774 Trifolium incarn^tum, the flesh-coloured 

clover - - - - 872 

775 MedicJlgo sativa, lucern - - - 877 

776 MedicJlgo falckta, yellow lucern - 878 

777 //edysarum Onobrychis, saintfoin - 880 

778 Potferium Sanguis6rba, the burnet - 883 

779 Planttlgo lanceolkta, the ribwort plantain 833 

780 f/Mex europae^a, the whin, furze, or gorse 884 

781 iSpergula arvensis, the spurry - - 885 

782 Sp&^rtium scoparium, the common broom 885 

783 Spartium jiinceum, the Spanish broom - 885 

784 ^pium Petroselinum, the parsley - 885 
786 Zbtus corniculatus, the bird's-foot trefoil 886 

786 ibtus tetragon61obus,the four-wing podded 

trefoil - - - - 886 

787 TrigonfeUa Poe^num-grze^'cum, the fenu- 

greek - - - - 886 

788 a ^iinias orientalis, the oriental bunias - 886 
788 b ^chillfea 3/illefblium, the yarrow - 886 

Plants used in various Arts and Manufactures. 
797 a J.lnum usitatissimum, the common flax 913 
797 b iinum perenne, the perennial flax 

799 Dipsacus fullonum, the fuller's thistle or 

teasel - - - - 

800 ^ubia tinctbrum, the madder 

801 /s&tis tinctoria, the woad - - 

802 Reshda Luteola, weld or dyer's weed . 

803 Hiimulus Ltipulus, the hop 

804 a Coriandrum sativum, the coriander - 
lot 6 Ctirum Ckrui, the caraway 

805 a Sinkpis alba, the white mustard 

805 b Sinkpis nigra, the black or common 

mustard - - - - ^"^ 

806 Polygonum Fagopyrum, the buck wheat 934 

807 a Polygonum tataricum, Tatarian buck 

wheat - " " T " 

807 b Polygonum emarginiltum, emarginated 

buck wheat - - - - 

808 Wicotidna Tabdcum, the Virginian 

tobacco - - - - 

809 Nicotiawrt riistica, the common green 

tobacco - - ,, " , ^ ■ 

810 a Kicotidna repanda, the scolloped to- 

bacco - " o " 1 J 

810 b tiicotidna quadriv&lvis,the four-valved 

tobacco - " „ ^' 

810 c Nicot/dna n§ina, the dwarf tobacco - 

812 Astragalus boe'ticus, Boetic milk vetch - 

813 a Crocus sativus, the saft'ron or autumn 











'" 943 


No. Page 

813 b Glycjrrrhlza glJlbra, the liquorice - 943 

813 c Bhhum palmktum, the rhubarb - 943 

813 d Lavandula Sp'ica, the lavender - « 943 

814 jBh^um aiistr^le, southern rhubarb - 944 

815 a Fucus vesiculbsus, bladdered fucua - 946 
815 b Fhcus nodbsus, knotty fucus - - 946 
815 c JPucus serrktus, serrated fucus - 946 

815 d LaminSria digitata, digitate laminaria 946 


816 a Arenaria, sandwort - . - 947 
816 6 ^iimex Acet6sa, sorrel - - 947 

816 c Tussilkgo Farfara, coltsfoot - - 947 

817 a Polygonum amohibium - - 948 
817 b jEquistitum, the'horse-tail - - 948 
917 c Serratula arvfensis, the corn thistle - 948 

Animals of Historical Interest, or belonging to 

Foreign Agriculture. 

8 t The camel - - . - 9 

42 The goat as harnessed in Switzerland - 60 

70 t OVis Strepsiceros, the original Hun- 

garian sheep - - - - 99 

107 t Persian camels and horSe - - 140 

112 t Bds griinniens, the ox of Thibet - 142 

114 + The dromedary ... 143 

118 t The jackal - - - - 147 

138 t Abyssinian oxen - . - 171 

141 f The dromedary in Egypt - - 175 

143 t The zebu or humped ox - . 175 

168 t The wild swine of Paraguay - - 198 

174 + The true Amazonian parrot - - 202 

71 Hfelix pom^tia, edible snail - - 99 
171 a,b ^ The CurcWio palmkrum of Suri. 

nam .... 201 

F^qutis Cabdllus, the horse. 

818 The Arabian horse . . - 

819 The race horse ... 

820 The hunter - - . - 

821 The improved hackney 

822 The old English road horse 

823 The black horse - - . 

824 * The Cleveland bays 

825 * The Suffolk punch 
826. 1127 The Clydesdale or Lanarkshire horse 

954 1186 
827 a The Welsh horse - . ." 954 

827 b The Galloway horse - - - 954 

827 c Horse of the highlands and isles of 

Scotland - - - - 954 

828 Exterior anatomy of the horse - - 956 
830 Anatomical skeleton of the horse - 963 
831. 833 Interior anatomy of the horse - 969. 974 
832 Eye of the horse - . - 970 
834 The ccecum, or grst large intestine of the 

horse . . . . 

835—837 Anatomy of the foot of the horse 
838 A fleam for bleeding the horse 
839—843 Horse shoes of different kinds 993—995 
829. 844, 845 Teeth of the horse - 957. 996, 997 

846 A horse as in the act of trotting . 1001 

847 Position of the reins of the bridle in the 

hands of the rider . . . 1003 

848, 849 Position of the rider's feet in the 

stirrup .... 1003, 1004 
850 Russian carriage horses - . 1010 

IT'quus A'sinus, the Ass. 

851 Female ass and foal 

852 The use of the ass in Syria 

853 Z^^quus /4'sinus y Mulus, the mule 



B6s Taurus, Homed Cattle. 

t The ox of Thibet . . . . 
t The zebu or humped ox of Africa 
The long-homed or Lancashire breed - 
* The improved Leicestershire breed 
The short-horned or Dutch breed 
The Devonshire breed - - - 

The Sussex and * Herefordshire breed - 
The polled or hornless breed 
864 * The Ayrshire breed - 1017, 

The Argyleshire breed . . . 

The Welsh breed . . . . 

The wild breed - . . . 

866 Fastenings for cattle 
A yoke and bow for draught oxen 
Shoeing-stall for cattle - - - 

Ox shoe for cattle . . . 





No. Page 

870 Syringe and enema tubes for relieving 

cattle - ... 1034 

The Dairy, as connected with Horn Cattle. 

871 * A dairy and cow-house ... 1037 
873 * A dairy for a private family . . 1038 
874—876 * A dairy on a large scale - - 1038 

877 The cheese press ... 1039 

878 A lactometer - - . 1039 

879 * 880 * 881 Churns . . 1038. 1040 
989 The Chinese dairy at Wobum Abbey . 1133 
993 The milk tankard (or cart) of Berkshire 1140 

1006 The milk tankard of Derbyshire . 1153 

O^vis A\ies. The Sheep. 

70 f The Hungarian sheep ... - 99 

882 The Teeswater sheep . - . 1050 

883 The Dishley sheep - . - 1050 

884 The Devonshire Nots sheep . . 1050 

885 The Dorsetshire sheep . . 1051 

886 The Herefordshire sheep - . 1051 
992 The Berkshire polled sheep . . 1140 

887 * The South Down sheep . . 1051 

888 The Herdwick sheep ... 1051 
889, 890 The Spanish or Merino - . 1052 

891 Arrangements for washing sheep - 1057 

892 Crooks for catching sheep . - 1057 

893 A store sheep farm in Scotland w . 1059 
895—897 Sheep houses - . . 1063 

S^ Scr^a, the Swine. 
168 f The wild swine of Paraguay 

898 t The wild boar of the continent of Eu- 

rope ... 

899 The common European hog 

900 The Chinese hog . - 

901 * The Berkshire swine . . - 

902 The Hampshire swine ... 

903 The Herefordshire swine * . . 

904 The SuflPolk swine 



Cdpra MgagruSy the Goat. 

42 + The goat of Switzerland, as harnessed 60 

905 The common goat _ . _ 1071 

906 The Syrian goat - - - . 1072 

Cdnis/amilidrts, the Dog. 

917 The English sheep dog 
918, 919 * Sheep dogs of Scotland 

920 The mastiff, or guard dog 

921 The terrier 

922 The pointer, setter, and spaniel 

The Hare, Rabbit, %c. 

907 Zfepus Cunfculus, the rabbit 

910 i^pus tfmidus, the hare 

911 Cdvia Cobdya, the guinea pig 
923 Jfustbla Furo, the ferret 


912 a C^rvus £:'lephas, the stag 
912 b C^rvus Capreolus, the roe 

912 c C^rvus D^ma, the fallow deer 

913 C^rvus Tardndus, the rein deer 

914 a Antelhpe ijupfcapra, the chamois 

914 b Antelope picta, the nilgau 

Camel Family. 

915 Camfelus bactria.nus, the dromedary 

916 Camfelus Glama, the lama 


. 1073 
. 1075 
. 1075 
. 1083 



- 1078 

- 1078 

Poultry or Birds which are or may be cultivated in 
British Agriculture. 

928 GkUus SonnerMtV, the jungle cock - 1084 

929 The game cock and hen . . - 1084 

930 * The Dorking cock and hen . . 1085 

931 rt * The Poland cock and hen . . 1085 

931 6 The golden Poland fowl . . 1085 

932 The bantam cock and hen . . 1085 

933 The Chittagong or Malay hen . - 1085 

936 TV/eldagris Gallipavo, the turkey . 1090 

937 Numidia 3/elfeagris, the guinea hen . 1091 

938 Crkx ^l^ctor, the crested curassow - 1091 

939 ^nas 56schas, the duck . - 1091 
941 A"tiaa A'naer, the goose - . . 1093 



Na Page 

M2 Cfgnus mansufttusj the mute or tame 

swan - - - - 1094 

943 O^tis t&rda, the bustard - - - 1094 

944 The grey pigeon - - - 1095 

945 a The carrier pigeon « - - 1096 
945 b The tumbler pigeon - - - 1096 
945 c The pouter pigeon - - - 1096 

949 retrao Perdix, the partridge . - 1099 

950 Tetrao Coturnix, the quail - - 1099 

951 T^trao sc6ticus, the red grouse or moor 

cock . . - . 1099 

952 Tetrao Tutrix, the black grouse or black 

cock .... 1099 

953 T^trao Urog&Uus, the wood grouse - 1099 
108 Hunting the quail - - - 140 
924, 925 A complete set of poultry-houses - 1083 

926 Portable nests, coops, and shelters . 1084 

927 An improved poultry-feeder . - 1084 
1143 An improved pheasant-feeder - - 1281 

934 Bonnemain's apparatus for the incubation 

of chickens by hot water - - 1087 

935 Pinioning fowls - - - 1090 
940 A decoy for wild ducks or wild fowl - 1092 
946—948 Pigeon.houses .... 1097 
953, 955 Bird-cages .... 1100 


956 a Cyprinus Carpio, the carp - . 1101 

956 b Cyprinus Tinea, the tench . . 1101 

956 c Cyprinus Gobio, the gudgeon . . 1101 

956 d Pirca fluviitilis, the perch . . 1101 

956 e E\ox iiicius, the pike - . - 1101 

956 / cyprinus Ph6xinus, the minnow . 1101 

Miscellaneous cultivated Animals. 

957 a JRknn esculenta, the esculent frog - 1103 

957 * Rhna arbbrea, the tree frog - - 1103 

958 a Testudo grae^ca, the common tortoise 1103 

958 b TestMo lutkria, the mud tortoise - 1103 

962 Cancer ^'stacus, the craw or cray fish . 1108 
71 Hfelix pom^tia, the edible snail . . 99 

959 J56mbyx m6ri, the silk-worm . . 1104 

Quadruped Vermin. 

963 Mus Rattus, the domestic rat - - 1109 
966 a Miis sylvSticus. the long-tailed field. 

mouse - . - - 1111 

966 b The short-tailed field mouse - - 1111 

964 *, 965 * Paul's rattery . . 1110, 1111 

Insects, Worms, and MolMsca. 
63 B6strichus pinip^rdus - . . 86 

724 a Cecidom^ia trftici - - . 820 

724 b Cecidom^ia destructor, the Hessian fly 820 

967 a A'^grion virgo, the green dragon-fly ' * 1113 

No. Page 

967 b ffphgmera vulgata, the day fly .1113 

967 c PhrygJinea rhombica, the spring fly . 1113 

968 Papilio urtica;, the small tortoiseshell 

butterfly - . . -1113 

969 a ffi'strus iTqui, the horse bee, male • 1114 
969 b tB'stiUS £^qui, the horse bee, female - 1114 
969 c ffi'strus £*qui, the larva of, commonly 

called " the bots " . . .1114 

969 d, e,f, m ffi'strus i?bvis, the ox fly _ 1114 
969 g, h, i ffi'strus OVis, the sheep fly - - 1114 

969 k, I Tabhxxi, horse flies - . , 1114 

970 a 5carab£e'*us 3/elol6ntha, the cock-chafer 

or midsummer dor . - -UK 

970 b 5carabae^us Melol6ntha, the larva of - IIU 
970 c, d Curculio niicum, the nut maggot, 

the larva of - ... lllf 

970 e, e Curculio nticum, perfect insects of - 1116 

971 a Caterpillar of Pieris br^ssicae, or white 

cabbage butterfly . - - 1116 

971 b Caterpillar of Pieris, in thechrysalis state 1116 
971 c Pleri^ br&ssicae, perfect insect of . 1116 

971 d Green caterpillar of another species of 

white butterfly ... 1116 

971 e Green caterpillar, chrysalis of . - 1116 

971 / Green caterpillar, perfect insect or but- 

terfly - . . . 1116 

972 a C6ccus persicbrum, natural size - 1117 
972 b Coccus persicbrum, magnified - - 1117 
972 c C<iccus persicbrum, turned on its back 1117 
972 d, e, e C6ccus fcilii qu^rcus . - 1117 
972 g Excrescences on beech twigs . .1117 
972/ TTirips Physapus, natural size - - 1117 
972 h rhrips Phy^sapus, magnified . - 1117 
972 i The gall apples of the oak - . 1117 
972 k C^nips quercus fblii, the oak gall fly - 1117 
972 / A^his in the winged state, magnified 1117 

972 m A^his in the larva or apterous state, 

magnified .... 1117 

973 a Sc61ytus destructor, female, natural size 1117 
973 b Passages made in the bark by the 

winged Scolytus destructor - .1117 
973 c Passages made in the bark by the larvee 

of Scolytus destructor . . 1117 

973 d Scolytus destructor, magnified - 1117 

974 a, b Coccintlla, the lady-bird orlady.cow 1118 

974 c S^rphus, the larva of, . . .1118 

975 a 2'lpula croca,ta, saflfron-coloured crane 

fly 1118 

975 b, d, e,f,g, h TYpula tritici, the wheat fly 1118 

975 c T^pula rivbsa, the river crane fly - 1118 

976 a, b, c, Bl&tta orientalis, the cock-roach 1119 

977 Net for capturing the turnip beetle - 1120 

978 Curtis's lime duster ... 1120 

979 a, b ilmax agr^stis, the common slug . 1121 
979 c, d Testacellus mdngi, the shell slug - 1121 
979 e Helix nemorklis, the variegated wood 

snail - - - - 1121 



THE first want of man is food, and his first resource for it the ground. Whether 
herbs or fruits were resorted to, must have depended on their relative abundance 
in the country where man found himself ; but the latter would probably be preferred, 
till the use of fire was discovered in the preparation of the former. The first cai-e and 
labour of man would thus be bestowed on fruit trees, and hence gardening may be said 
to be the art of earliest invention. But man is also a carnivorous animal, and this pro- 
pensity of liis nature would soon induce him to attempt domesticating such beasts of the 
earth as he found most useful in affording milk, clotliing, or food, or in performing 
labour. Hence the origin of pasturage, and the management of live stock. The in- 
vention of tillage would be coeval with the discovery of the use of the cereal grasses, and 
may be considered as the last grand step in the invention of husbandry, and the most 
important, as leading to the establishment of property in territorial surface. 

In the earlier stages of civilisation, these branches of economy, in common with 
all the arts of life, would be practised by ev^ry family for itself ; but the advantages of 
separating occupations would soon present themselves, and the result of tliis principle 
in regard to rural culture and management, the res ruslica of the Romans and hus- 
bandry of old English authors, is, that all their operations are now classed under the 
two designations of agriculture and gardening. 

Agriculture, the art to which we here confine ourselves, as compared to gardening, 
is the culture and management of certain plants and animals for the food and service of 
man ; but, relatively to the present improved state of the art, it may be defined, the cultiva- 
tion and management of territorial surface on an ext nded scale, by manual and animal 
labour, for the production of objects and materials used for the food and service of man, 
and for various important purposes in arts, manufactures, and civilised life. 

The importance of agriculture is obvious, not only by its affording the direct supply 
of our greatest wants, but as the parent of manufactures and commerce. Without 
agriculture there can be neither civilisation nor population. Hence it is not only the 
most universal of arts, but that which requires tlie greatest number of operators : the 
main body of the population in every country is employed in the pursuit of agriculture ; 
and the most powerful individuals, in almost all nations, derive their wealth and conse- 
quence from tiieir property in land. 

In tlie earliest ages of mankind, before tillage was invented, the surface of the 
earth would be common to all the inhabitants, and every family would pasture its 
flock, and pitch its tent, or erect its hut, where it thought fit : but when tillage came 
in use, it became necessary to assign to each family a portion of territory, and of this 
portion that family became the proprietor and cultivator, and the consumer of the product. 


Hence the invention of property in land, and progressively of purchased cultivators, 
or slaves; of hired cultivators, or labourers; of commercial agriculturists, or farmers; 
and of the various laws and customs in regard to the proprietorsliip and occupation of 
landed property. 

The practice of agriculture, however rude in early times or in countries still com- 
paratively uncivilised, assumes a very different character among the most advanced 
nations. Not to mention the peculiarities of implements, machines, and domestic ani- 
mals, and tlie different kinds of culture and management requisite for the different 
countries and climates of the world, the local variations requisite even in Britain are so 
considerable, that an agriculturist whose experience and observation had been confined to 
one district, may be comparatively unfit to exercise his profession in another. Tlie sheep 
farming of the North Highlands, the dairy farming of Gloucestershire, the hop culture of 
Kent, the woodlands of Buckinghamshire, and the hay management of Middlesex, have 
given rise to commercial agriculturists of very distinct varieties from the common com 
farmer. The previous preparation of land for culture, by enclosure, drainage, embanking, 
road-making, &c., demands considerable science ; and has given rise to artist agricul- 
turists, known as land-surveyors and land-engineers. The relative changes as to rent and 
occupancy which take place between land-owners and farmers, and the valuation and 
transfer of landed property among monied men, have produced land-valuators and land- 
agents ; from the direction of extensive estates, and the management of small, concerns 
and farms, have originated the serving agriculturists, known as land-stewards and bailiffs ; 
and the operators are shepherds, her^men, ploughmen, carters, spadesmen, and hands of 
all work. 

The practice of agriculture, from having been chiefly confined to men of humble 
station, who pursued it as a matter of business or profit, has of late years been engaged 
in by men of rank, and other opulent or amateur practitioners, as matter of taste and 
recreation. The contrast between the simple and healthy pursuits of the country, and 
such as require intense application, and confine men chiefly to to\»-ns and cities, gives 
them a peculiar charm to the industrious and active citizen, while the idle and the opu- 
lent find relief in it from ihe weariness of inaction or a frivolous waste of time. Some 
magnificent displays of the art have thus been made by great landed proprietors on their 
demesne or home farms ; and very neat and tasteful specimens of culture, by retired 
citizens and other possessors of villas, farms, and fermes orrJes. These circumstances may 
be said to have raised the pursuit of agriculture to a comparatively dignified state, with 
reference to that in which it was formerly held ; while the political advantages which are 
enjoyed by all classes in a free and commercial country, have improved the circum- 
stances of agriculturists of every grade, and tended to raise them in the scale of society. 

Tlie recent discoveries in chemistry and physiology, have led to the most important 
improvements in the culture of plants, and the breeding and rearing of animals ; agri- 
culture is, in consequence, no longer an art of labour, but of science ; hence the 
advantage of scientific knowledge to agriculturists, and the susceptibility, in the art, of 
progressive advancement. " Agriculture," Marshall obser\es, " is a subject, which, 
viewed in all its branches and to their fullest extent, is not only the most important and 
the most diflficult in rural economies, but in the circle of human arts and sciences." 

For the purpose of agricultural improvement, societies have been established in every 
country of Europe, and in almost every county of Britain. Most of these, as well as se- 
veral eminent individuals, have stimulated cultivators and breeders to exertion, by the offer 
of premiums, and other honorary rewards. Professorships of rural economy have also been 
instituted in some colleges ; and other independent georgical institutions have been 
established for public instruction, especially on the Continent : to which we may add, 
the publication of numerous books on the subject of agriculture and territorial im- 

Such are the origin, the extent, the importance, and the interest of the subject of 
agriculture ; from which it cannot be surprising that a varied and voluminous mass 
of knowledge has been accumulated on the subject, and is consequently more or less 
necessarj' to every one who would practise the art with success himself, or understand 
when it is well practised for him by others. To combine as far as practicable the whole 
of this knowledge, and arrange it in a systematic form, adapted both for study and 
reference, are the objects of the present work. The sources from which we have selected, 
are the modem British authors of decided reputation and merit ; sometimes we have 
recurred to ancient and to Continental authors, and occasionally, though rarely, to our 
own observation and experience : observation chiefly in Britain, but partly also on 
the Continent; and experience in Scotland, under the patemal roof, during our early 
years, — during some years' occupancy of two extensive farms in England, — and, in the 
engineering and surAcying departments, during our practice for upwards of twenty years 
as a landscape-gardener. 


With tliis purpcjse in view, Agriculture is here considered, in 

Part Book 

I, As to its origin, progress, and f 1. Among ancient and modem nations. 

present state, ^2. Under different geographical, physical, and political circumstances. 

The study of the vegetable kingdom. 
The study of the animal kingdom. 

II. As a science founded on ^ 3. The study of the mineral kingdom and the atmosphere. 
The study of the mechanical agents employed in agriculture. 
The study of the operations of agriculture. 

'1. The valuation, purchase, and transfer of landed property. 

2. The laying out, or general arrangement, of landed property, 

3. The improvement of culturable lands. 

4. The management of landed estates. . 

5. The selection, hiring, and stocking of farms. 

6. The culture of farm lands. 
,7. The economy of live stock, and the dairy. 

IV. SUtMican, ,„ B,i..l„. g ^ ;° lEl ?;L1fp?i'?^. 

A Calendarial Index to those parts of the work which treat of cixlture and manage- 
ment, points out the operations as they are to be performed, in the order of time and of 
season : and 

A General Index explains the technical terms of agriculture, the abbreviations here 
made use of, and presents an analysis of the whole work in alphabetical, as the Table 
of Contents does in systematic, order. 

[II. As an art comprehending 



1. The history of agriculture may be considered chronologically, or in connection 
with that of the diflferent nations who have successively flourished in various parts 
of the world ; politically, as influenced by the different forms of government which have 
prevailed ; geographically, as affected by different climates ; and physically, as influenced 
by the characters of the earth's surface. The first kind of history is useful, by displaying 
the relative situation of different countries as to agriculture ; instructive, as enabling 
us to contrast our present situation ^^-ith that of other nations and former times ; and 
curious, as discovering the route by which agriculture has passed from primitive ages and 
countries to our own. The political and geographical histories of the art, derive their value 
from pointing out causes favourable and unfavourable to improvement, and countries and 
climates favourable or unfavourable to particular kinds of cidtivation and management. 




2. Traditional history traces man back to the time of the deluge. After that catastrophe, 
of which the greater part of the earth's surface bears evidence, man seems to have 
recovered himself (in our hemisphere at least) in the central parts of Asia, and to have 
first attained to eminence in arts and government on the allurial plains of the Nile. 
Egypt colonised Greece, Carthage, and some other places on the Mediterranean sea ; 
and thus the Greeks received their arts from the Egyptians, afterwards the Romans from 
the Greeks, and finally the rest of Europe from the Romans. Such is the route by 
which agriculture is traced to our part of the world : how it may have reached the 
eastern countries of India and China is less certain ; though, from the great antiquity of 
their inhabitants and governments, it appears highly probable that arts and civilisation 
were either coeval there, or, if not, that they traveUed to the east much more rapidly than 
they did to the west. 

B 2 


Part I. 

3. The early history of man in America rests on very indistinct traditions : there arts 
and civilisation do not seem qf such antiquity as in Asia ; in North America they are 
of very recent introduction ; but of the agriculture of either division of tliat continent, 
and of India and China, we shall attempt little more than some sketches of the modern 
liistory, and its present state. 

4. The history of agriculture, among the nations qf what may be called classic antiquity, 
is involved in impenetrable obscurity. Very few facts are recorded on the subject pre- 
viously to the time of the Romans. That enterprising people considerably improved the 
art, and extended its practice with their conquests. After the fall of their empire, it 
declined tliroughout Europe ; and, during the dark ages, was cliiefly preserved on the 
estates of the church. With tlie general revival of arts and letters, which took place 
during the sixteenth century, agriculture also revived ; first in Italy, and then in France 
and Germany ; but it flourished most in Switzerland and Holland ; and finally, in recent 
times, has attained its highest degree of perfection in Britain. The modern agriculture 
of America is copied from that of Europe ; and the same may be said of the agriculture 
of European colonies established in different parts of the world. The agriculture of 
China, and the native agriculture of India, seem to have undergone no change for many 
ages. — Such is the outline which we now proceed to fill up by details, and we shall adopt 
the usual division of time, into the ages of antiquity, the middle ages, and the modern 

Chap. I. 

Of the History of Agricidture in the Ages of Antiquity ; or from the Deluge to the Establish- 
ment of the Roman Empire, in tJte Century preceding the vulgar ^ra. 

5. The world, as known to the ancients, consisted of not more than half of Asia, and 
of a small part of Africa and Europe. During the inundation of the deluge, a rem- 
nant of man, and of other animals, is related to have been saved on the top of 
tlie high mountain of Ararat, near the Caspian sea (Jig. 1.), and, when the waters sub- 

sided, to have descended and multiplied in the plains of Assyria. As they increased in 
numbers they are related to have separated, and, after an unknown length of time, to 
have formed several nations and governments. Of these the principal are those of the 
Assyrian empire, known as Babylonians, Assyrians, Medes, and Persians, in Asia ; of the 
Jews and the Egyptians, chiefly in Africa; and of the Grecians, chiefly in Europe. 
Least is known of the nations which composed the Assyrian empiie ; of the Jews, more 
is known of their gardening and domestic economy, than of their field culture ; the 
Egyptians may be considered the parent nation of arts and civilisation, and are supposed 
to have excelled in agriculture ; and something is known of that art among the Greeks. 

6. The authors whose ivritings relate to the period under consideration are few, and the 
relations of some of them very contradictory. The eailiest is Moses, who flourished 
B. C. 1 600 ; Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, who wrote more particularly on the 
history and geography of Egypt, lived, the former in the fifth, and the latter in the sixth, 
century B. C. ; and Hesiod, the ancient Greek writer on husbandry, in the tenth century 
preceding our aera. 

7. Estimating the value of the writers of antiquity on these principles, they may be con- 
sidered as reaching back to a period 1 600 years before our aera, or nearly 8500 years 
from the present time ; and it is truly remarkable, that, in the Eastern countries, the state 
of agriculture and other arts, and even of machinery, at that period, does not appear to 
have been materially different from what it is in the same countries at the present day. 


Property in land was recognised, the same grains cultivated, and the same domestic 
animals reared or employed : some led a wandering Hie and dwelt in tents like the 
Arabs ; and others dwelt in towns or cities, and pursued agriculture and commerce like 
the fixed nations. It is reasonable indeed, and consistent with received opinions, that this 
should be the case ; for, admitting the human race to have been nearly exterminated at the 
deluge, those who survived that catastrophe would possess the more useful arts, and 
general habits of life, of the antediluvian world. Noah, accordingly, is styled a husband- 
man, and is said to liave cultivated the vine and to have made wine. In little more than 
three centuries afterwards, Abraham is stated to have had extensive flocks and herds, slaves 
of both sexes, silver and gold, and to have purchased a family sepulchre with a portion of 
territory around it. Isaac his son, during his residence in Palestine, is said to have sown 
and reaped a hundred fold. Com seems to have been grown in abundance in Egypt ; 
for Abi'aham, and afterwards Jacob, had recourse to that country during times of famine. 
Irrigation was also extensively practised there, for it is said {Gen., xiii. JO.) that the plain 
of Jordan was watered everywhere, even as the garden of the Lord, like the land of Egypt. 
Such is the amount of agricultural information contained in the wTitings of Moses, from 
which the general conclusion is, that agriculture, in the East, has been practised in all or 
most of its branches from time immemorial. The traditions of other countries, however, 
as recorded by various writers, ascribe its invention to certain fabulous personages ; as 
the Egyptians to Osiris ; the Greeks to Ceres and Triptolemus j the Latins to Janus ; and 
the Chinese to Chin-hong, successor of Fo-hi. 

Sect. I. Of the Agriculture of Egypt. 

8. The origin of agriculture has been sought by modern philosophers in natural cir- 
cumstances. Man in his rudest state, they consider, would first live on fruits or roots, 
afterwards by hunting or fishing, next by the pasturage of animals, and lastly, to all of 
these he would add the raising of corn. Tillage, or the culture of the soil for this pur- 
pose, is supposed to have been first practised in imitation of the effects produced by the 
sand and mud left by the inundations of rivers. These take place more or less in every 
country, and their effects on the herbage which spontaneously springs up among the 
deposited sand and mud must at a very early period liave excited the attention of the coun- 
tryman. This hypothesis seems supported by the traditions and natural circumstances 
of Egypt, a country overflowed by a river, civilised from time immemorial, and so 
abundant in corn as to be called the granary of the adjoining states. Sir Isaac Newton 
and Stillingfleet, accordingly, considered that corn was first cultivated on the batiks of the 
Nile. Sir Isaac fixes on Lower Egypt ; but, as Herodotus and other ancient Greek 
writers assert that that country was once a marsh, and as Major Rennel in his work on 
the geography of Herodotus is of the same opinion, Stillingfleet {Works, vol. ii. 524.) 
considers it more probable that the cultivation of land was invented in Upper Egypt, and 
proceeded downwards according to the course of the Nile. 

9. The situation and natural phenomena of Upper Egypt, Stillingfleet considers, 
rendered it fitter for the invention of cultivation than the low country ; " for, while 
Lower Egypt was a marsh, formed by the depositions of the Nile, the principal part of 
Upper Egypt was a valley a few leagues broad, bounded by mountains, and on both sides 
declining to the river. Hence it was overflowed only for a certain time and season ; the 
waters rapidly declined, and the ground, enriched by the mud, was soon dry, and in a 
state fit to receive seed. The process of cultivation in this country was also most obvious 
and natural ; for the ground being every year covered with mud brought by the Nile, 
and plants springing up spontaneously after its recess, must have given the hint, that 
nothing more was necessary than to scatter the seeds, and they would vegetate. Secondly, 
the ground was prepared by nature for receiving the seed, and required only stimng 
suflicient to cover it. From this phenomenon the surrounding nations learned two 
things : first, that the ground before sowing should be prepared, and cleared from plants j 
and secondly, that the mixture of rich mould and sand would produce fertility. What 
is here stated may appear without foundation as to Upper Egypt ; because at present, in 
the vicinity of Thebes, water is raised by art. But this objection is obviated by the 
testimony of Dr. Pococke, who is of opinion that formerly Upper Egypt was overflowed, 
in the same manner as Lower Egypt was afterwards, and is to 
this day." {Stilling feet's Life and Works, ii. 524.) 

10. The invention of agricultural imj^lements must have 
been coeval with the invention of aration ; and, accordingly, 
they are supposed to have originated in Egypt. Antiquarians 
are agreed, that the primeval implement used in cultivating 
the soil, must have been of the pick kind, {fig, 2.) A 
medal of the greatest antiquity, dug up at Syracuse, con- 
tained an impression of such an instrument {Encyc of Gard., fig. 77.) : and its pro- 

B 3 


Part I. 

gress till it became a plough has been recognised in a cameo, published by Menestrier, on 
which a pick-like plough is 
drawn by two serpents {Jig. 
3. a) : it may be also seen on 
a medal from the village of 
Enna, in Sicily, published by 
Combe (6) ; in a figure given 
by Spon, as found on an an- 
tique tomb (c) J in an Etrus- 
can plough, copied from a 
fragment in the Roman col- 
lege at Rome, by Lasteyrie 
(d)j and as we still see in 
the instrument depicted by 
Niebuhr, as used for plough- 
ing inEgypt and Arabig. at the 
present day (e). What seems 
to confirm these conjectures 
is, that the image of Osiris 
is sculptured with a similar 
plough in each hand {Jig. 4. 
abed), and with a harrow (e) 
suspended by a cord (/) 
over the left shoulder. This 
plough there can be little 
doubt was used in war as well 
as in agriculture, and seems to have been of that kind with which the Israelites fought 
against their enemies the Philistines (1 Sam., xiii. 19. 23.) : it is thought, by some, to be 

the archetype of the letter alpha (the hieralpha of 
Kircher) ; and, by others, the sounds necessary to 
conduct the processes of culture are thought to have 
founded the origin of language. Thus it is that agri- 
culture is considered by some antiquarians, as not only 
the parent of all other arts, but also of language and 

11. Whether the culture of com were invented in 
Egypt or not, all testimonies concur that cultivation 
was carried to a higher degree of perfection there 
than in any other country of antiquity. The canals 
and banks wliich still remain in Lower Egypt, and 
especially in the Delta, are evidences of the ex- 
tent to which embanking, irrigation, and drainage 
have been carried. These works are said to have been greatly increased by Sesostris, 
in the 17th or 18th century B. C. Many of the canals and drains have been 
long obliterated ; but there are still reckoned eighty canals, like rivers, all excavated by 
manual labour, several of which are twenty, thirty, and forty leagues in length. These 
receive the inundations of the Nile, and circulate the waters through the country, wliich 
before was wholly overflown by them. The large lakes of Moeris, Behire, and Mareotis, 
formed vast reservoirs for containing the superfluous waters, from which they were con- 
ducted by the canals over the adjacent plains. Upon the elevated ridges, and even on 
the sides of the hills which form the boundary to the fiat alluvial grounds, the water was 
raised by wheels turned by oxen ; and by a succession of wheels, and gradations of 
aqueducts, it is said, some hills, and even moun- 
tains, were watered to their summits. All the 
towns at some distance from the Nile were sur- 
rounded with reservoirs for the supply of the 
inhabitants, and for watering the gardens. For 
this last purpose the water was raised in a very 
simple manner, by a man walking on a plank with 
raised edges, or on a bamboo or other tube, 
which, it is observed in Calmet's Bible, is 
the machine alluded to by Moses, when he 
speaks of sowing the seed and watering it 
" with the foot." (Deut., xi. 10.) They also 
raised water by swinging it up in baskets (Jig. 5.) ; a mode wliich, like the others, 
remains in use at the present day. Tlie water is lifted in a basket lined with leather. 
" Two men, holding the basket between them, by a cord in each end fastened to the edge 


of it, lower it into the Nile, and then swing it between them, till it acquires a velocity 
sufficient to enable them to throw the water over a bank into a canal. They work stark 
naked, or, if in summer, only with a slight blue cotton sliirt or belt." (^Clarke's Travels.) 
] 2. Of these immense embankmerits, some of which served to keep in the river, and 
others to oppose the torrents of sand wliich occasionally were blown from the Great Desert, 
and which tlireatened to cover the country as effectually as the waters of the Nile, the 
ruins still remain. But, in spite of these remains, the sand is accumulating, and the 
limits of cultivated Egypt have been annually decreasing for the last 1200 years ; the 
barbarous nations, to which the banks of the Nile have been subject during this period, 
having paid no attention to cultivation, or to the preservation of these noble works of 

13. Landed property, in ancient Egypt, it would appear, was the absolute right of the 
owners, till by the procurement of Joseph, in the eighteenth century B.C., the paramount 
or allodial property of the whole was transferred to the government. The king, however, 
made no other use of tliat right, than to place the former occupiers in the situation of 
tenants in capitc ; bound to pay a rent or land-tax of one fifth of the produce. This, 
Moses says, continued to be the law of Egypt down to his time ; and the same thing is 
confirmed by the testimony of Herodotus and Strabo. 

14. The soil of Egypt is compared by Pliny to that of the Leontines, formerly regarded 
as the most fertile in Sicily. There, he says, corn yields a hundred for one ; but Cicero, 
as Gouguet observes, has proved tliis to be an exaggeration, and that the ordinary increase 
in that part of Sicily is eight for one. Granger [Relat. du Voy. fait, en Egypte, 1730.), 
who paid much attention to this subject, says that the lands nearest to the Nile, which 
during the inundation were covered with water forty days, did not, in the most favourable 
seasons, yield more than ten for one ; and that those lands which the water covered only 
five days, seldom gave more than four for one. This, however, is probably owing to 
their present neglected state. 

15. Of the aiiimal or vegetable products of Egyptian agriculture very little is known. 
The ox seems to have been the chief animal of labour from the earliest period ; and rice 
at all times the principal grain in cultivation. By a painting 
discovered in the ancient Elethia {fg. 6.), it would appear that 
the operation of reaping was performed much in the same way 
as at present, the ears being cropped by a hook, and the prin- 
cipal part of tlie straw left as stubble. Herodotus mentions 
that, in his time, wheat was not cultivated, and that the bread 
made from it was despised, and reckoned not fit to be eaten ; 
beans were also held in abhorrence by the ancient inhabitants : 
but it is highly probable, that in latter times, when they began 
to have commerce with other nations, they laid aside these and 
other prejudices, and cultivated what they found best suited to 
tlie foreign market. 

1 6. Agriculture was, no ,doubt, the chief occupation of the Egyptians : and though they 
are said to have held the profession of shepherd in abhorrence, yet it appears that Pharaoh 
not only had considerable flocks and herds in liis own possession, but was desirous of 
introducing any improvement which might be made in their management ; for when Jacob, 
in answer to his questions, told him that he and liis family had been brought up to the 
care of live stock from their youth, he expressed a wish to Joseph to have a Jewish 
bailiff for the superintendence of his grazing farm : " If thou knowest any men of activity 
among them, then make them rulers over my cattle." (Gen., xlvii. 6.) 

Sect. II. Of the Agriculture of the Jews, and other Nations of Antiquity. 

17. Of the agriculture of the nations contemporary ivith the Egyptians and Greeks nothing 
is distinctly known ; but, assuming it as most probable thai agriculture was first brought 
into notice in Egypt, it may be concluded tliat most other countries, as well as Greece, 
would begin by imitating the practices of that country. 

18. On the agriculttire of the Jews, we find there are various incidental remarks in the 
books of the Old Testament. On the conquest of Canaan, it appears that the different 
tribes had their territory assigned them by lot ; that it was equally divided among the 
heads of families, and by them and their posterity held by absolute right and impartial 
succession. Thus every family had originally the same extent of territory ; but, as it 
became customary afterwards to borrow money on its security, and as some families 
became indolent and were obliged to sell, and others extinct by death witliout issue, 
landed estates soon varied in point of extent. In the time of Nehemiah a famine 
occurred, on which account many had " mortgaged their lands, their vineyards, and 
houses, that they might buy corn for their sons and daughters ; and to enable them to 
pay the king's tribute." (Nehem., v. 2.) Some were unable to redeem their lands other- 
wise than by selling their children as slaves, and tliereby " bringing the sons and daugh- 

B 4 


ters of God into bondage." Boaz came into three estates by inheritance, and also a 
wife, after much curious ceremony. (Ruth, iv. 8 — 12.) Large estates, however, were 
not approved of. Isaiah pronounces a curee on those " that join house to house, that 
lay field to field, till there be no place, that they may be placed alone in the midst." 
While some portions of land near the towns were enclosed, the greater part was in 
common, or in alternate proprietorship and occupation, as in our common fields. This 
appears both from the laws and regulations laid down by Moses as to herds and flocks ; 
and from the beautiful rural story of Ruth, who, to procure sustenance for herself and 
her widowed mother-in-law Naomi, " came and gleaned in tlie field after tlie reapers, 
and her hap was to light on a part of the field [that is, of the common field] belonging 
unto Boaz." (Ruth, ii. 3.) 

1 9. It would appear that evert/ j^roprietor cultivated his oum lands, however extensive ; 
and that agriculture was held in high esteem even by their princes. Tlie crown-lands 
in King David's time, were managed by seven oflficers : one was over the storehouses, 
one over the work of the field and tillage of the ground, one over the vineyards and wine- 
cellars, one over the olive and oil-stores and sycamore (jPicus jSycomorus imn.) plant- 
ations, one over the herds, one over the camels and asses, and one over the flocks. 
(1 Chron., xxvii. 25. ) King Uzziah " built towers in the desert, and digged many wells ; 
for he had much cattle both in the low country and in the plains ; husbandmen also and 
vine-dressers in the mountains, and in Carmel, for he loved husbandry." (2 Chron., xxvi. 
10.) Even private individuals cultivated to a great extent, and attended to the practical 
part of the business themselves. Elijah found Elisha in the field, with twelve yoke of 
oxen before liim, and liimself with the twelfth. Job had five hundred yoke of oxen, and 
five hundred she-asses, seven thousand sheep, and three thousand camels. Both asses 
and oxen were used in ploughing ; for Moses forbade the Jews to yoke an ass with an 
ox, their step or progress being different, and of course their labours unequal. 

20. Among the operations of agriculture are mentioned watering by m.achinery, plough- 
ing, digging, reaping, threshing, &c. " Doth the ploughman ploughe all day to sow ? 
doth he open and break the clods of his ground ? When he hath made plain the face 
thereof, doth he not cast abroad the fitches, and scatter the cummin [Cuminum 6'yminum 
Linn.}, and cast in the principal wheat, and the appointed barley, and the rye, in their 
place?" (/saiaA, xxviii. 24,25.) The plough was probably a clumsy instrument, re- 
quiring the most vigilant attention from the ploughman ; for Luke (ch. ix. 62.) uses the 
figure of a man at the plough looking back, as one of utter worthlessness. Covered thresh- 
ing-floors were in use ; and, as appears from the case of Boaz and Ruth, it was no 
uncommon thing to sleep in them during the harvest. Corn was threshed in different ways. 
" The fitches," says Isaiah, " are not threshed with a threshing instrument, neither is a 
cart-wheel turned about upon the cummin ; but the filches ai-e beaten out with a staff, 
and the cummin with a rod [flail]. Bread corn is bruised, because he will not ever be 
threshing it, nor break it with the wheel of his cart, nor bruise it with his horse- 
men." (Ch. xxviii. 27,28.) The bread corn here mentioned was probably the /ar of 
the Romans (maize, Zea Mut/s L.), which was commonly separated by hand-mills, or 
hand-picking, or beating, as is still the case in Italy and other countries where this 
corn is grown. Corn was " winnowed with the shovel and with the fan." (Id., xxx. 24.) 
Sieves were also in use, for Amos says, " I will sift the house of Israel, as corn is sifted 
in a sieve" (Ch. ix. 9.); and Christ is re- 
presented by St. Luke as saying, " Simon, 
Simon, Satan hath desired to have you, that 
lie may sift you as wheat." Isaiah men- 
tions (vii. 25.) the " digging of- hills with the 
mattock .•" to which implement the original ^ 
pick (j^^. 2.) would gradually arrive, first, 
by having the head put on at right angles, 

and pointed (fig. 7. a) ; next, by having it 

flattened, sharpened, and shod with iron (b c) ; is=^^=^^ ^ 

and lastly, by forming the head entirely of ^ 

metal, and forked (d), such probably as we see it in use in Judea, and the land of Canaan, 

at the present day. 

21. Vineyards were planted on rising grounds, fenced round, the soil well prepared, and 
a vintage-house and watch-tower built in a central situation (Isaiah, v. 2.), as is still 
done in European Turkey and Italy. Moses gives directions to the Jews for culti- 
vating the vine and other fruit trees ; the three first years after planting, the fruit is not 
to be eaten ; the fourth it is to be given to the Lord ; and it is not till tiie fifth year 
that they are " to eat of the fruit thereof." (Levit., xix. 25.) The intention of these 
precepts was, to prevent the trees from being exhausted by bearing, before they had 
acquired sufficient strength and establishment in the soil. 

22. Of other agricultural operations and customs, it may be observed with Dr. Brown, 


(Antiq. of the Jews, vol. ii. partxii. sect. 5, 6.) that they differed very little from the 
existing practices in the same countries, as described by modem travellers. 

23. IVie agricultural produce of the Jews was the same as among the Egyptians ; com, 
wine, oil, fruits, milk, honey, sheep, and cattle, but not swine. The camel then, as now, 
was the beast of burden and long journeys (Jig. 8. ) ; and the horse, the animal of war and 

luxury. The fruit of the sycamore-fig was abundant, and in general use ; and grapes 
attained an astonishing size, both of berry and bunch ; the melon and gourd tribes were 
common. The returns of corn were in general good ; but as neither public stores, nor 
com monopolisers, seem to have existed, dearths, and their attendant miseries, happened 
occasionally. A number of these are mentioned in Scripture, and some of extraordinary 

Sect. III. Of the Agriculture of the Greeks. 

24. The Aboriginal Greeks, or Pelasgi, were civilised by colonies from Egypt, and 
received from that country their agriculture, in common with other arts and customs. 
Some of the ancient Greeks pretend that the culture of corn was taught them by 
Ceres ; but Herodotus, and most of the ancients, concur in considering this divinity as 
the same with the Egyptian Isis. There is no particular evidence that the Greeks were 
much attached to, or greatly improved, agriculture ; though Homer gives us a picture of 
old King Laertes, divested of wealth, power, and grandeur, and living happy on a little 
farm, the fields of which were well cultivated. (^Odi/ssei/, \ih. xxiv.) On another occa- 
sion, he represents a king standing amongst the reapers, and giving them directions by 
pointing with liis sceptre. (Ibid., v. 550.) Xenophon highly commends the art; but 
the practical instances he refers to, as examples, are of Persian kings. 

25. JFhat we know of the agriculture of Greece is chiefly derived from the poem of 
Hesiod, entitled Works and Days. Some incidental remarks on the subject may be 
found in the writings of Herodotus, Xenophon, Theophrastus, and others. Varro, a 
Roman, writing in the century preceding the commencement of our aera, informs us, 
that there were more than fifty authors, who might at that time be consulted on the 
subject of agriculture, all of whom were ancient Greeks, except Mago the Carthaginian. 
Among them he includes Democritus, Xenophon, Aristotle, Theophrastus, and Hesiod. 
The works of the other writers he enumerates have been lost ; and indeed all that remain 
of Democritus are only a few extracts preserved in the Geoponika, an agricultural treatise 
published at Constantinople by the Greeks of the fourth or fifth centuries of our aera. 
Xenophon, Aristotle, Homer, and others, touch on our subject but very slightly. 
Xenophon, after his banishment to Scillus, is said to have spent his time in literary pur- 
suits, and in improving and decorating his estate ; he wrote a treatise expressly on rural 
and domestic affairs, the third book of which is devoted to agriculture, entitled (Econo- 
mics, in the form of a dialogue, and he is even said to have given lessons on the subject. 
Of his treatise, Harte {Essays, p. 201.) says, " I. take it to be one of the plainest and 
most sensible performances amongst the writings of the ancients." Theophrastus, a 
disciple of Aristotle, wrote on natural history, and his history of plants possesses an 
astonishing degree of merit, for the age in which it was written. He is justly considered 
the father of botany, and his work contains some curious observations on soils and 
manures, and on various parts of agriculture and gardening. 

26. But the writings of Hesiod are the chief resource for details as to Grecian agri- 
culture. This author flourished in the tenth century B. C, and was therefore contem- 
porary with Homer. He lived at Askra, a village at the foot of Mount Helicon, in 
Boeotia. There he kept a flock, and cultivated a soil which he describes as " bad in 
winter, hard in summer, and never good," probably a stiflf clay. As a poet who had 
written on various subjects, Hesiod was held in great veneration ; and Aristotle states, 
that when the Thesprotians destroyed the village of Askra, and the Orchomenians re- 
ceived the fugitives who escaped, the oracle ordered them to send for the remains of the 
poet who had given celebrity to the place. 

27. The Works, which constitute the first parts of his Poem, are not merely 
details of agricultural labours, but comprise directions for the whole business of family 
economy in the country. The poem sets out by describing the state of the world, past 
and present, for the purpose of exemplifying the condition of human nature. This con- 
dition entails on man the necessity of exertion to preserve the goods of life, and leaves 
him no alternative but honest industry or unjust violence ; of which the good and evil 


consequences are respectively illustrated. Dissension and emulation are represented as 
two principles actively at work ; much is said of the corruption of judges, and the evils 
of litigation ; contentment is apostrophised as the true secret of happiness ; virtue and 
industry strongly recommended. The poet now proceeds to describe the prognostics of 
the seasons of agricultural labour, and gives directions for providing a house, wife, slaves, 
and two steers ; how and when to cut down timber ; to construct carts and ploughs, and 
make clothes and shoes ; when to sow, reap, dress the vine, and make wine. He then 
treats of navigation, and gives cautions against risking every thing in one voyage : he 
describes the fit seasons for the coasting trade, and advises taking great care of the 
vessel at such time as she is not in use, and hanging up the rudder and other tackle in 
the smoke of the chimney. He concludes the Works with some desultory precepts of 
religion, personal propriety, and decorum ; and enjoins some curious superstitious ob- 
servances relative to family matters. The Days contain a division of the lunar month 
into holy, auspicious, and inauspicious, mixed and intermediary days, the latter being 
such as are entitled to no particular observance. 

28. Property in land, among the Greeks, seems to have been absolute in the owner, or 
what we would term freehold. The manner of inheritance seems to have been that of 
gavelkind ; the sons dividing the patrimony in equal portions. One of Solon's laws 
forbade that men should purchase as much land as they desired. An estate containing 
water, either in springs or otherwise, was highly valued, especially in Attica : and there 
a law existed relating to the depth of wells ; the distance they were to be dug from oilier 
men's grounds ; what was to be done when no water was found ; and other matters to 
prevent contentions as to water. Lands were enclosed, probably with a ring-fence, or 
boundary-mark ; or, most likely, the enclosed lands were such as surrounded the vil- 
lages, and were in constant cultivation ; the great breadth of covmtry being, it may be 
presumed, in common pasture. Solon decrees, that " he who digs a ditch, or makes a 
trench, nigh another's land, shall leave so much distance from his neighbour, as the ditch 
or trench is deep. If any one makes a hedge near his neighbour's ground, let liim not 
pass his neighbour's landmark : if he builds a wall, he is to leave one foot between him 
and Ids neighbour ; if a house, two feet. A man building a house in his field, must place 
it a bowshot from his neighbour's." (Potter s Antiq.) 

29. The surface of Greece was, and is, irregular and hilly, with rich vales, and some 
rocky places and mountains : the soil is various ; clayey in some places, but most gene- 
rally light and sandy, on a calcareous subsoil. 

30. The operations of culture, as appears by Hesiod, required to be adapted to the 
season : summer fallows were in use, and the ground received three ploughings, one in 
autumn, another in spring, and a third immediately before sowing the seed. Manures 
were applied : in Homer, an old king is found manuring his fields with his own hands ; 
and the invention of manures is ascribed by Pliny to the Grecian king Augeas. The- 
ophrastus enumerates six different species of manures ; and adds, tliat a mixture of soils 
produces the same effects as manure. Clay, he says, should be mixed with sand, and 
sand with clay. The seed was sown by hand, and covered with a rake. Com was reaped 
with a sickle ; bound in sheaves ; carted to a well-prepared threshing-floor, in an airy 
situation, where it might be threshed and fanned by the wind, as is still practised in 
modern Greece, Italy, and other countries of the Continent. Afterwards it was laid up 
in bins, chests, or granaries, and taken out as wanted by the family, to be pounded in 
mortars or quern-mills, into meal. Thorns and other plants for hedges were procured 
from the woods, as we find from a passage in Homer, in which he represents Ulysses as 
finding Laertes digging and preparing to plant a row of quicksets. {Odyss., lib. xxiv.) 

31. The implements ermmeraXQAhy Hesiod are, a plough, of which he recommends 
two to be provided in case of accident ; and a cart ten spans (seven feet six inches) 
in width, with two low wheels. The plough consisted of tln-ee parts ; the share-beam, 
tlie draught-pole, and the plough-tail. The share-beam is to be made of oak, and the 
otlier parts of elm or bay: they are to 
be joined firmly with nails. Antiquarians 
are not agreed as to tlie exact form of 
this implement. Gouguet conjectures 
it may not have been unlike one still 
in use in the same countries, and in the 
south of France ; others, with greater 
probability, refer to the more simple 
plough still in use in Magna Graecia and 
Sicily {fig. 9.), originally Greek colonies. 
The rake, sickle, and ox-goad are men- 
tioned ; but nothing said of their construction, or of spades or other manual implements. 

32. The beasts of labour mentioned are oxen and mules : the former were more common ; 
and it would appear, from a passage in Homer (/A, lib. xiii. v. 704.), were yoked by tlic 


horns. Oxen of four years and a half old are recommended to be purchased, as most 
serviceable. In winter, both oxen and mules were fed under cover, on hay and straw, 
mast, and tlie leaves of vines and various trees. 

33. The most desirable age for a ploughman is forty. He must be well fed, go naked 
in summer, rise and go to work very early, and have a sort of annual feast, proper rest, 
good food, and clothing consisting of coats of kid skins, worsted socks, and half boots of 
ox hides in winter. He must not let his eye wander about while at the plough, but cut a 
straight furrow ; nor be absent in mind when sowing the seed, lest he sow the same furrow 
twice. The vine is to be pruned and stalked in due season ; the vintage made in fine 
weather, and the grapes left a few days to dry, and then carried to the press. 

34. The products of Grecian agriculture were, the grains and legumes at present in 
cultivation, with tlie vine, fig, olive, apple, date, and other fruits : the live stock con- 
sisted of sheep, goats, swine, cattle, mules, asses, and horses. It does not appear that 
artificial grasses or herbage plants were in use ; but recourse was had, in times of scarcity, 
to the mistletoe and the cytisus : what plant is meant by the latter designation is not 
agreed on; some consider it the Medicago arborea L., and others the common lucerne. 
Hay was, in all probability, obtained from the meadows and pastures, which were used 
in common; flax, and probably hemp, were grovra. Wood for fuel, and timber for 
construction, were obtained from the natural forests, which, in Solon's time, abounded with 
wolves. Nothing is said of the olive or fig by Hesiod ; but they were cultivated in the 
fields for oil and food, as well as the vine for wine. One of Solon's laws directs that olive 
and fig trees must be planted nine feet from a neighbour's ground, on account of their 
spreading roots ; other trees might be planted witliin five feet. 

35. In Hesiod' s time almost every citizen ivas a husbandman, and had a portion of land 
which he cultivated himself, with the aid of his family, and perhaps of one or two slaves ; 
and the produce, whether for food or clothing, appears to have been manufactured at 
home. The progress of society would, no doubt, introduce the usual division of labour 
and of arts ; and commercial cultivators, or such as raised produce for the purpose of 
exchange, would in consequence arise ; but when this state of things occurred, and to 
what extent it was carried at the time Greece became a Roman province (B. C. 100), 
the ancient writers afford us no means of ascertaining. 

Sect. IV. Of the Agriculture of the Persians, Carthaginians, and other Nations of Antiquity. 

36. Of the agriculture of the other civilised and stationary nations of this period, scarcely 
any thing is known. According to Herodotus, the soil of Babylon was rich, well cul- 
tivated, and yielded two or three hundred for one. Xenophon, in his book of (Eco- 
nomics, bestows due encomiums on a Persian king, who examined, with his own eyes, 
the state of agiiculture throughout his dominions ; and in all such excursions, as 
occasion required, bountifully rewarded the industrious, and severely discountenanced 
the slothful. In another place he observes, that when Cyrus distributed premiums with 
his own hand to diligent cultivators, it was his custom to say, " My friends, I have a like 
title with yourselves to the same honours and remuneration from the public ; I give you 
no more than I have deserved in my own person ; having made the selfsame attempts 
with equal diligence and success." (CEconom., c. iv. sect. 16.) The same author else- 
where remarks, that a truly great prince ought to hold the arts of war and agriculture in 
the highest esteem ; for by such means he will be enabled to cultivate his territories 
eflPectually, and protect them when cultivated. (Harte's Essays, p. 19.) 

37. Phoenicia, a country of Asia, at the east of the Mediterranean, has the reputation 
of having been cultivated at an early period, and of having colonised and introduced 
agriculture at Carthage, Marseilles, and other places. The Phoenicians are said to 
have been the original occupiers of the adjoining country of Canaan ; and when driven 
out by the Jews, to have settled in Tyre and Sidon (now Sur and Saida), in the fifteenth 
century B. C. They were naturally industrious ; and their manufactures acquired such a 
superiority over those of other nations, that, among the ancients, whatever was elegant, 
great, or pleasing, either in apparel or domestic utensils, was called Sidonian ; but of their 
agriculture it can only be conjectured that it was Egyptian, as far as local circumstances 
would permit. 

38. The republic of Carthage included Spain, Sicily, and Sardinia, and flourished for 
upwards of seven centuries previous to the second century B. C. Agriculture was 
practised at an early period in Sicily ; and, according to some, Greece received that art 
from this island. It must have been also considerably advanced in Spain, and in the 
Carthaginian territory, since they had books on the subject. In 147 B. C, when Car- 
thage was destroyed by Scipio, and the contents of the libraries were given in presents to 
the princes, allies of the Romans, the senate only reserved the twenty-eight books on 
agriculture of the Carthaginian general Magon, which Decius Syllanus was directed to 
translate, and of which the Romans preserved, for a long time, the original and the 
translation. (Encyc. Methodique, art. Agriculture.) 


39. Italy, and a part of the south of France, would probably be partially cultivated, 
from the influence of the Carthaginians in Sicily and Marseilles ; but the north of 
France, and the rest of Europe, appear to have been chiefly, if not entirely, in a wild 
state, and the scene of the pastoral and hunting employments of the nomadic nations, 
the Kelts or Celts, the Goths, and the Slaves. 

40. The Indian and Chinese nations appear to be of equal antiquity with the Egyptians. 
Joseph de Guignes, an eminent French Oriental scholar, who (fied in the first year of 
the present century, has written a memoir (in 1759, 12mo), to prove that the Chinese 
were a colony from Egypt ; and M. de Guignes, a French resident in China, who pub- 
lished at Paris a Chinese dictionary in 1813, is of the same opinion. The histories of 
the Oriental nations, however, are not yet suflSciently developed from the original sources, 
to enable us to avail ourselves of the information they may contain, as to the agriculture 
of so remote a period as that now under consideration. 

41. With respect to the American nations, during this period, there are no facts on 
record to prove either their existence or their civilisation, though Bishop Huet and the 
Abbe Clavigero think that they also are descendants of Noah, who, while in a nomadic 
state, arrived in the western world, through the northern parts of the eastern continent. 

Chap. II. 

History of Agriculture among the Romans, or from the Second Century B. C. to the Fifth 
Century of our j^ra. 

42. We have now amved at a period of our history where certainty supplies the place 
of conjecture, and which may be considered as not only entertaining but instructive. 
The attention of the Romans to agriculture is well known. The greatest men amongst 
them applied themselves to the study and practice of it, not only in the first ages of the 
state, but after they had carried their arms into every country of Europe, and into many 
countries of Asia and Africa. Some of their most learned men and one of their greatest 
poets wrote on it ; and all were attached to the things of the country. Varro, speaking 
of the farms of C. Tremellius Scrofa, says, " they are to many, on account of their 
culture, a more agreeable spectacle than the royally ornamented edifices of others." 
(Var. de R. R., lib. i. cap. 2.) In ancient times, Pliny observes, tlie lands were culti- 
vated by the hands even of generals, and the earth delighted to be ploughed with a share 
adorned with laurels, and by a ploughman who had been honoured with a triumph. {Nat. 
Hist., lib. xviii. c. 3.) The Romans spread their arts with their conquests; and their 
agriculture became that of all Europe at an early period of our aera. 

43. The sources from which we have drawn our information being first related, we 
shall review, in succession, the proprietorship, occupancy, soil, culture, and produce of 
Roman agriculture. 

Sect. I. Of the Roman Agricultural Writers. 

44. The Roman authors on agriculture, whose works have reached the present age, 
are Cato, Varro, Virgil, Columella, Pliny, and Palladius ; there were many more, 
whose writings are lost. The compilation of Constantine Poligonat, or, as others 
consider, of Cassius Bassus, entitled Geoponika, already mentioned (18.), is also to be 
considered as a Roman production, though published in the Greek language at Constan- 
tinople, after the removal thither of the seat of government. 

45. M. Porcius Cato, called the Censor, and the father of the Roman rustic writers, 
lived in the seventh century of the republic, and died at an extreme old age, B. C. 150. 
He recommended himself, at the age of seventeen, by his valour in a battle against 
Annibal ; and afterwards rose to all the honours of the state. He particularly distinguished 
himself as a censor, by his impartiality and opposition to all luxury and dissipation ; and 
was remarkably strict in his morals. He wrote several works, of which only some 
fragments remain, under the titles of Origines and Be Re R^istica. Tlie latter is the 
oldest Roman work on agriculture : it is much mutilated, and more curious for the 
account it contains of Roman customs and sacrifices, than valuable for its georgical 
infonnation. . ^-r i j 

46. M. Terentius Varro died B. C. 28, in the 88th year of his age. He was a learned 
writer, a distinguished soldier both by sea and land, and a consul. He was a grammarian, 
a philosopher, a historian, and an astronomer ; and is thought to have written five hundred 
volumes on different subjects, all of which are lost, except his treatise De Re Rustica. 


This is a complete system of directions in three books, on the times proper for, and the 
different kinds of, rural labour ; it treats also of live stock, and of the villa and offices. 
As Varro vi^as for some time lieutenant-general in Spain and Africa, and afterwards 
retired and cultivated liis own estate in Italy, his experience and observation must have 
been very considerable. 

47. Publius VirgUius Maro, called the prince of the Latin poets, was born at a village 
near Mantua in Lombardy about 70 B. C, and died B. C. 19, aged 51. He culti- 
vated Ms own estate till he was thirty years old, and spent the rest of his life chiefly at 
the court of Augustus. His works are the Bucolics, Georgics, and JEneid. The 
Georgics is to be considered as a poetical compendium of agriculture, taken from the 
Greek and Roman writers then extant, but especially from Varro. 

48. Luc. Jun. Moderatus Columella was a native of Gades, now Cadiz, in Spain, 
but passed most of his time in Italy. The time of his birth and death are not known, 
but he is supposed to have lived under Claudius in the first century. His work De 
Re Rustica, in twelve books, of which the tenth is still extant, was a complete treatise on 
rural affairs, including field operations, timber trees, and gardens. 

49. C. Plinius Secundus, sumamed the elder, was born at Verona in Lombardy, and 
suffocated at the destruction of Pompeii in his 56th year, A.D. 79. He was of a noble 
family ; distinguished himself in the field and in the fleet ; was governor of Spain ; and 
was a great naturalist, and an extensive writer. Of tlie works which he composed none are 
extant but his Natural History in thirty-seven books ; a work full of the erudition of the 
time, accompanied with much erroneous, useless, and frivolous matter. It treats of the 
stars and the heavens, of wind, rain, hail, minerals, trees, flowers, and plants ; gives an 
account of all living animals ; a geographical description of every place on the globe ; 
and a history of commerce and navigation, and of every art and science, with their rise, 
progress, and several improvements. His work may be considered as a compendium of 
all preceding writers on these subjects, with considerable additions from his personal 
experience and observation. >^ 

50. Rutilius Taurus Emilianus Palladius is by some supposed to have lived under 
Antoninus Pius, in the second century, though others place him in the fourth. His 
work De Re Rustica is a poem in fourteen books, and is little more than a compendium 
of those works which preceded it on the same subject. The editor of the article Agri- 
culture, in the Encyclopedie McHhodiqu£, says it is too dull to be read as a poem, and too 
concise to be useful as a didactic work. 

51. These works have been rendered accessible to all by translations ; and a judiciotis 
and instructive treatise composed from them by Adam Dickson, a Scotch clergyman, was 
published in 1788, under the title of The Husbandry of the Ancients. To this latter 
work we are indebted for the greater part of what we have to submit on Roman 

52. The Roman authors, as Rozier has observed (Diet, de VAgr., art. Hist.), do not 
enable us to trace the rise and progress of agriculture, either in Italy or in any other country 
under their dominion. What they contain is a picture of their rural economy in its 
most perfect state, delivered in precepts, generally founded on experience, though some- 
times on superstition ; never, however, on theory or hypothesis. For, as the Rev. Adam 
Dickson states, " instead of schemes produced by a lively imagination, which we receive 
but too frequently from authors of genius unacquainted with tihe practice of agriculture, 
we have good reason to believe that they deliver, in their writings, a genuine account of 
the most approved practices ; practices, too, the goodness of which they had themselves 
experienced." (Husb. of the Anc, p. 16.) He adds, that if in the knowledge of the 
theory of agriculture, the Roman cultivators are inferior to our modern improvers ; yet in 
attention to circumstances and exactness of execution, and in economical management, 
they are greatly superior. 

Sect. II. Of the Proprietorship, Occupancy, and General Management of Landed Property 

among the Romans. 

53. The Roman nation originated from a company of robbers and runaway slaves, vi'ho 
placed themselves under their leader Romulus. This chief having conquered a small 
part of Italy divided the land among his followers, and by what is called the Agrarian 
Law, allowed 2 jugera or li acre to every citizen. After the expulsion of the kings in the 
6th century B. C., 7 yoke, or 3f acres were allotted. The custom of distributing the 
conquered lands, by giving 7 jugera to every citizen, continued to be observed in latter 
times ; but when each soldier had received his share, the remainder was sold in lots 
of various sizes, even to 50 jugera ; and no person was prevented from acquiring as large 
a landed estate as he could, till a law passed by Stolo, the second plebeian consul, B. C. 
377, that no one should possess more than 500 jugera. This law appears to have remained 
in force during the greater period of the Roman power. Whatever might be the size of 
the estate, it was held by the proprietor as an absolute right, without acknowledgment to 


any superior power ; and passed to his successors, agreeably to testament, if he made one ; 
or if not, by common law to his nearest relations. 

54. I7t the first ages of the commonwealth, the lands were occupied and cultivated hy 
the jrroprietors themselves ; and as this state of things continued for four or five centuries, 
it was probably the chief cause of the agricultural eminence of the Romans. When a 
person has only a small portion of land assigned to him, and the maintenance of liis 
family depends entirely upon its productions, it is natural to suppose that the culture 
of it employs his whole attention. A person who has been accustomed to regular end 
systematic habits of action, such as those of a military life, will naturally carry those 
habits into whatever he undertakes. Hence, it is probable, a degree of industrious appli- 
cation, exactness, and order in performing operations, in a soldier-agriculturist, which 
would not be displayed by men who had never been trained to any regular habits of 
action. The observation of Pliny confirms tliis supposition : he asserts that the Roman 
citizens, in early times, " ploughed their fields with the same diligence that they pitched 
their camps, and sowed their corn with the same care that they formed their armies 
for battle." {Nat. Hist.iliib. xviii. c. 3.) Corn, he says, was then both abundant and 

55. Afterwards, when Rome extended her conquests, and acquired large territories, 
rich individuals purchased large estates,- the culture of these fell into different hands, 
and was carried on by bailiffs and farmers much in the same way as in modern times. 
Columella informs us that it was so in his time, stating, that " the men employed 
in agriculture are either farmers or servants ; the last being divided into free servants 
and slaves." (Col., lib. i. cap. 7.) It was a common practice to cultivate land by slaves 
during the time of the elder Pliny ; but his nephew and successor let his estates to 

56. In the time qf Cato the Censor, the author of The Husbandry of the Ancients observes, though the 
operations of agriculture were generally performed by servants, yet the great men among the Romans 
continued to give particular attention to it, studied its improvement, and were very careful and exact 
in the management of all their country affairs. This appears from the directions given them by this 
most attentive farmer. Those great men had both houses in town, and villas in the country ; and, as they 
resided frequently in town, the management of their country affairs was committed to a bailiff or over- 
seer. Now their attention to the culture of their lands and to every other branch of husbandry, appears, 
from the directions given them how to behave upon their arrival from the city at their villas. " After the 
landlord," says Cato, " has come to the villa, and performed his devotions, he ought that very day, if pos- 
sible, to go through his farm ; if not that day, at least the next. When he has considered in what 
manner his fields should be cultivated, what work should be done, and what not ; next day he ought to 
call the bailiff, and enquire what of the work is done, and what remains ; whether the labouring is far 
enough advanced for the season, and whether the things that remain might have been finished ; and 
what is done about the wine, corn, and all other things. When he has made himself acquainted with all 
these, he ought to take an account of the workmen and working days. If a sufficiency of work does not 
appear, the bailiff will say that he was very diligent, but that the servants were not well ; that there 
were violent storms ; that the slaves had run away ; and that they were employed in some public work. 
When he has given these and many other excuses, call him again to the account of the work and the 
workmen. When there have been storms, enquire for how many days, and consider what work might be 
done in rain ; casks ought to have been washed and mended, the villa cleaned, corn carried away, dung 
carried out, a dunghill made, seed cleaned, old ropes mended, new ones made, and the servant's clothes 
mended. On holidays, old ditches may have been scoured, a highway repaired, briars cut, the garden 
digged, meadows cleared from weeds, twigs bound up, thorns pulled, far (bread-corn, maize) pounded, all 
things made clean. When the servants have been sick, the ordinary quantity of meat ought not to have 
been given them. When he is fully satisfied in all these things, and has given orders that the work that 
remains be finished, he should inspect the bailiff's accounts, his account of money, of corn, fodder, wine, 
oil, what has been sold, what exacted, what remains, what of this may be sold, whether there is good 
security for what is owing. He should inspect the things that remain, buy what is wanting for the year, 
and let out what is necessary to be employed in this manner. He should give orders concerning the 
works he would have executed, and the things he is inclined to let out, and leave his orders in writing. 
He should inspect his flocks, make a sale, sell the superfluous oil, wine, and corn ; if they are giving a 
proper price, sell the old oxen, the refuse of the cattle and sheep, wool, hides, the old carts, old iron tools, 
and old and diseased slaves. Whatever is superfluous he ought to sell j a farmer should be a seller, not a 
buyer." {Cat., cap. ii.) 

57. The landlord is thus suirposed hy Cato to he perfectly acquainted with every kind of 
work projier on his farm, and the seasons for performing it, and also to be a perfect judge 
how much work, both without and within doors, ought to be perfoi-med by any number of 
servants and cattle in a given time ; the knowledge of which is highly useful to a farmer, 
and what very few perfectly acquire. It may be observed, likewise, that the landlord 
is here supposed to enquire into all circumstances, with a minuteness of which there is 
scarcely even an actual farmer in this age who has any conception. 

58. Varro complains that, in his time, the same attention to agriculture was not given 
as in former times ; that the great men resided too much within the walls of the city, 
and employed themselves more in the theatre and circus, than in the com fields and 
vineyards. {Var. de R. R., lib. i. praef.) 

59. Columella complains that, in his time, agriculture was almost entirely neglected. 
However, from the directions which he gives to the proprietors of land, it appears that 
there were still a few who continued to pay a regard to it ; for, after mentioning some 
things, which he says, by the justice and care of the landlord, contribute much to im- 
prove his estate, he adds, « But he should likewise remember, when he returns from the 
city, immediately after paying his devotions, if he has time, if not, next day, to view his 


marches, inspect every part of his farm, and observe whether in his absence any part 
of discipline or watchfulness has been dispensed with ; and whether any vine, any other 
tree, or any fruits are missing. Then likewise he ought to review the cattle and servants, 
all the instruments of husbandry, and the household furniture. If he continue to do all 
these things for some years, he will find a habit of discipline established when he is old ; 
and at no age will he be so much impaired witli years as to be despised by his servants." 
{Col, lib. i. cap. 9.) 

60. The earliest farmers among the Romans seem not Uy have been upon the same 
footing as in Britain. The stock on the farm belonged to the landlord, and the farmer 
received a certain proportion of the produce for his labour. The farmer, who possessed 
a farm upon these terms, was called politor or polintor, from liis business, being the 
dresser of the land ; and jjartuarius, from his being in a kind of copartnership with his 
landlord, and his receiving a part of the produce of the farm for his labour. Cato taltes 
notice of this kind of farmers only, and it is probable that there were no others in his time. 
" The terms," says he, " upon which land ought to be let to a politor : in the good land 
of Casinum and Venafrum, he receives the eighth basket ; in the second kind of land he 
receives the seventh ; in the tliird kind he receives the sixth. In this last kind, when the 
grain is divided by the modius, he receives the fifth part ; in the very best kind of land 
about Venafrum, when divided by the basket, he receives only the ninth. ...If the land- 
lord and politor husk the far in common, the politor receives the same proportion after 
as before; of barley and beans divided by the modius, he receives a fifth." (Ch. xl. 
xli. ) The small proportion of the produce that the politor received, makes it evident 
that he was at no expense in cultivating the land, and that he received his proportion 
clear of all deductions. 

61. The coloni or farmers mentioned by ColumeUa, seem to have paid rent for their 
farms in the same manner as is done by the farmers in Britain. The directions given by 
this author to landlords, concerning the mode of treating them, are curious as well as 
important. A landlord, he says, " ought to treat his tenants with gentleness, should show 
himself not difficult to please, and be more vigorous in exacting culture than rent, because 
this is less severe, and upon the whole more advantageous. For, where a field is care- 
fully cultivated, it for the most part brings profit, never loss, except when assaulted by a 
storm or pillagers ; and therefore the farmer cannot have the assurance to ask any ease (rf 
his rent. Neither should the landlord be very tenacious of his right in every thing to 
which the farmer is bound, particularly as to days of payment, and demanding the wood 
and other small things which he is obliged to, besides paying his I'ent, the care of which 
is a greater trouble than expense to the rustics. Nor is every penalty in our power to 
be exacted, for our ancestors were of opinion, that the rigour of the law is the greatest 
oppression. On the other, the landlord ought not to be entirely negligent in this matter ; 
because it is certainly true, what Alpheus the usurer used to say, that good debts become 
bad ones, by being not called for," &c. {Col., lib. i. cap. 7.) 

62. These directions are valuable even with reference to the present times ; and they 
instruct us respecting the general management of landed property among the Romans. 
It appears that the landlord was considered as understanding every thing respecting the 
husbandry of liis estate himself ; and that there was no agent, or intermediate person, 
between him and the farmer. The farmers paid rent for the use of their farms, and were 
bound to a particular kind of culture, according to the conditions of their lease ; but they 
were perfectly free and independent of their landlords ; so much so, as sometimes to 
enter into lawsuits vnih them. On the whole, they seem to have been upon tlie same 
footing as the farmers of Britain in modem times. 

Sect. III. Of the Surface, Soil, Climate, and other Agricultural Circumstances of Italy, 
during the Time of the Romans. 

63. The agriculture of any country must necessarily take its character from the nature 
of that country. The extent and manner of cultivating the soil, and the kind of plants 
cultivated, or animals reared, must necessarily be regulated by the surface of the soil, the 
natural productions, the climate, the artificial state, and the habits of the people. 

64. The climate of Italy is regular, dry, clear, and considerably warmer than that of 
Britain. At the bottoms of the mountains, it is subject to severe storms of hail in 
summer, and snow in winter, which often do considerable damage ; but these are only 
accidental disadvantages ; and in the champaign lands and gentle declivities, the vine, 
the fig, and the olive, ripened anciently, as now, in open plantations, from one extremity 
of Italy to the other. 

65. The surface of Italy is very irregular. A ridge of hills, and mountains passes 
through its whole length, forming numerous valleys of different degrees of extent; 
some elevated and narrow, others low and watered by a river, a stream, or by lakes. 
The immense plain of the Po constitutes a capital feature towards the north-east ; the 
sandy plain of Calabria towards the south j and the marsliy plain of Terracino, and 


the rocky coast of Genoa, towards the western shore. Columella and Palladius agree in 
stating, tliat the best situation for lands is, not so much on a level as to make the water 
stagnate, nor so steep as to make it run off with violence ; nor so low as to be buried in 
the bottom of a valley, nor so exposed as to feel the violence of storms and heats ; for 
in these a mediocrity is always best : but champaign lands exposed, and whose declivity 
affords the rain a free passage j or a hill whose sides gently decline ; or a valley not too 
much confined, and into which tlie air has easy access ; or a mountain defended by a 
higher top, and thereby secured from the winds that are most pernicious, or, if high and 
rugged, at the same time covered witli trees and grass. (Col., lib. ii. cap. 2. ; Pallad., 
lib. i. cap. 5.) Tlie situation of lands which Cato reckons the best, is at the foot of a 
mountain with a south exposure. Varro and Pliny concur in this opinion, and the latter 
states tliat the best lands in Italy are so situated. 

66. The soil of Itcdy is as varied as the surface. About Genoa a yellow marly clay 
forms a base to schistous cliffs and hilly slopes ; a blue clay containing sulphur and 
alum on the west coast between Florence and Venice ; volcanic earth about Rome and 
Naples ; sand about Florence, and at tlie estuaries of most of the rivers ; rich black 
loam in the central parts of Tuscany ; and rich, deep, soft, moist earth, and mild marly 
clay, in Lombardy. Columella divides the soils of Italy into six kinds ; fat and lean, 
free and stiff, wet and dry : these mixed with one another, he says, make great varieties. 
In common with all the other writers, he prefers a free soil. 

67. The native productions of Italy, in an agricultural point of view, are, timber on the 
mountains, pastures on the hill sides, and meadow or very luxuriant grass-lands in the 
alluvial plains. The rich, low, and yet dry lands do not produce a close pasture, but a 
rough herbage, unless they are covered with trees ; the sandy soils produce little of any 
thing ; and the fens and marshes reeds and other coarse aquatics. Such were the pro- 
ductions of Italy antecedent to culture. 

68. The artificial state of the country, in respect to agriculture, during the time of the 
Romans, seems to have differed less from its present state than will be imagined. The 
cultivated lands were open, and enclosures only to be seen near the villas. These were 
of small size, and chiefly gardens and orchards, except in the case of parks for game, 
formed by the wealthy, wluch never were very numerous. With the exception of part 
of Tuscany and Lombardy, this is still the case ; and the landscape, as Daniel Malthus 
has observed {Introd. to Girardiiis Essay), which Pliny observes as seen from his villas, 
does not appear to have been different two thousand years ago, from what it is at this 
day. But the roads, canals, markets, and artificial water-courses for the irrigation botli 
of arable and grass-lands, are undoubtedly greatly increased since the time of the Ro- 
mans : though they also practised irrigation. 

69. The habits of a people take their rise, in a great degree, from the climate in which 
they live, and the native or cultivated productions with which the country abounds. As 
respects agriculture, it may be sufficient to mention, that the great heat of the climate, by 
relaxing the frame, naturally produces indolence in many, and leads to a life of plunder 
in some. Hence then, as now, tlie danger from tliieves and robbers in that country ; 
and hence, also, the custom of performing field labours early in the morning, and in the 
evening, and resting during the mid-day heat. Tlie general use of oil and wine as 
food and drink, and also of the fig as an article of nourishment, are habits which arise 
immediately from the circumstance of these articles being the artificial produce of the 
country ; but are ultimately, like most other habits, to be referred to the climate. 

70. These hints respecting the natural and agricultural geography of Italy, during the 
time of the Romans, are confessedly too scanty to be of more use than to recal to the 
reader's recollection the information on the same subject with which liis mind is already 
stored ; and by this means to enable him to form a due estimate of the nature and merits 
of the agriculture which we are about to describe. 

Sect. IV. Of the Culture and Farm Management of the Romans. 

71. The Roman authors are much more copious in describing farm cidture and economy, 
than in relating the state of landed property as to extent and proprietorsliip. Their 
directions, being founded on experience, are in great part applicable at the present day : 
they are remarkable for their minuteness ; but we can only give a verj' brief compen- 
dium, beginning with some account of the farm and the villa, or farmery, and taking in 
succession the servants, beasts of labour, implements, operations, crops cultivated, animals 
reared, and profit produced. 

SuBSECT. 1. Of the Choice of a Farm, and of the Villa or Farmery. 

72. In the choice of a farm, Cato recommends a situation where there are plenty of 
artificers and good water ; which has a fortified town in its neighbourhood ; is near the 
sea or a navigable river, or where the roads are easy and good. {Cat., cap. 1.) To these 
requisites Varro adds, a proper market for buying and selling, security from tliieves and 


robbers, and tbe boundaries planted with useful trees. Tlie interior of the farm was not 
subdivided by enclosures, which were seldom used but for tlieir gardens, and to form 
parks in the villas of the wealthy. 

73. The soil preferred by Columella and all the Roman authors is the fat and free, 
as producing the greatest crops, and requiring the least culture ; next, fat stiff soil j 
then stiff and lean soil, that can be watered ; and, last of all, lean dry soil. 

74. The state of a farm preferred by Cato and some other writers is that of pasture, 
meadow, and watered grass-lands, as yielding produce at least expense ; and lands under 
vines and olives, as producing the greatest profit according to the expense. Tlie opinions 
of the Roman agriculturalists, however, seem to disagree on the subject of meadows, 
apparently from confounding a profitable way of management, with a capacity of yielding 
great profit with superior management, and none without. 

75. The ivord Villa onginally denoted a farm-house and its appurtenances. In the first 
age of the commonwealth, these were very plain and small, suitable to the plain manners 
of the people, and adapted to the small size of their farms : but, when the Romans had 
extended their empire, when they had become rich and luxurious, and particular persons 
were possessed of large landed estates, then tlie villas became large and magnificent. In 
the time of Valerius Maximus, there were villas that covered more gromid than was in 
the estates of some of the ancient nobles. " Now," says he, " those think themselves 
very much confined, whose houses are not more extensive than the fields of Cincinnatus." 
{Val. Max., lib. iv. cap. 4. sect. 7.) In the days of Cato, it is probable that they had 
begun to extend their villas considerably, which makes him give a caution to the proprie- 
tors of land not to be rash in building. He recommends to them to sow and plant in 
their youth, but not to build till somewhat advanced in years. His words are remark- 
able : " A landliolder," says he, " should apply himself to the planting of his fields early 
in his youth ; but he ought to think long before he builds. He ought not to think 
about planting ; but he ought to do it. When he is about thirty-six years of age, he 
may build, provided his fields are planted." {Cat., cap. 3.) 

76. Men should plant in their youth, and not build till their fields are planted ; and even 
then ought " not to be in a hurry, but take time to consider. It is best, according to the 
proverb, to profit by the folly of others." {Plin. Nat. Hist., lib. xviii. cap. 5.) The rea- 
son why these authors recommend greater attention to planting than building is, that the 
labouring oxen in Italy, in the time of the Romans, were fed, for several months in. the 
year, with leaves and mast ; and the vine, the fig, the olive, and oUier trees, were cul- 
tivated for their fruit. 

77. Build in such a manner that your villa may not be too small for your farm, nor your 
farm too small for your villa. (Cat., cap. 3.) Varro assigns proper reasons for this. "In 

not attending," says he, " to the measure of the farm, many have gone wrong. Some 
have made the villa much smaller, and others much larger than the farm required. One 
of these is contrary to a man's interest, and the other hurtful to the produce of his lands. 
For we both build and repair the larger buildings at a greater expense than is necessary ; 
and, when the buildings are less than what the farm requires, the fruits are in danger of 
being destroyed." (Var. de R. li., lib. i. cap. 11.) Columella expresses himself to the 
same purpose, and mentions two persons in particular who had fallen into each of the 
extremes. " I remember," says he, " that many have erred in this point, as these most 
excellent men did, L. Lucullus and Q,. Scaevola, one of whom built a villa much larger, 
and the other much less than the farm required." {Col., lib. i. cap. 4.) 

78. Pliny, noticing the above remark of Caio's, observes that Lucullus had thereby rendered himself 
liable to the chastisement of the censors, having less occasion to plough his lands than to clean his house. 
" In this case," says he, " to plough less than to sweep, was a foundation for the chastisement of the 
censors." {Flin. Nat. Hist., lib. xviii. cap. 6.) 

79. Proportion the exjjense of the building to the rent, or the profits arising from the 
farm. " An edifice should be built according to the value of the farm and fortune of 
tlie master, which, immoderately undertaken, it is commonly more difficult to support 
than to build. 'Die largeness of it should be so estimated, that, if any tiling shall happen 
to destroy it, it may be rebuilt by one, or at most by two years' rent or profits of the farm 
in which it is placed." {Pal., lib. i. tit. 8.) 

80. The position of the villa, and the situation of its different parts, are also noticed by 
some of these authors. " Some art," says Pliny, " is required in this. C. Marius, of a 
very mean family, seven times consul, placed a villa in the lands of Misenum, with such 
skill in the contrivance, that Sylla Felix said, that all others in this respect were blind, 
when compared to him." {Plin. Nat. Hist., lib. xviii. cap. 7.) All of them advise that 
it shall not be placed near a marsh, nor fronting a river. Pliny cites the authority of 
Homer for this. Varo says, that such a situation is cold in winter and unhealthful in 
summer ; that, in such a place, there are many small insects which, though invisible, enter 
the body at the mouth and nostrils, and occasion diseases. {Var. de R. R., lib. i. tit. 12.) 
Palladius gives reasons of the same kind. {Pal., lib. i. tit. 7.) Besides tliis, Varro 



directs, that, if possible, it shall be placed at the foot of a mountain covered with woods, 
in such a manner as to be exposed to the most healthful winds, and to enjoy the sun in 
winter and the shade in summer. An east exposure, he tliinks, is the best for this pur- 
pose, ( Var. de R. R., lib. i. cap. 12.) Palladius proposes that, for the same purpose, the 
villa shall front the south-east ; that the prcetoriufn, or master's house, shall be a little 
higher than the rest of the villa, both to secure the foundations, and to have a more agreeable 
prospect. (Pal., lib. i. tit. 8.) It is probable that both these authors have Italy particu- 
cularly in view. But Pliny extends his views further ; for he says, that the villa in warm 
climates ought to front the north, in cold climates the south, and in temperate cli- 
mates the east. (Plin. A^at. Hist., lib. xviii. cap. 7.) Columella is more particular than 
any of the other authors, both in giving directions as to the situation of the villa, and 
giving reasons for the situation he recommends. (Col., lib. i. cap. 5.) 

8 1 . The villa is divided into three parts, the urbana, the riistica, and the fructuarin. 
All the particulars of these, Columella says, ought to be properly placed with respect to 
each other. The urbana contained the apartments of the landlord ; the rustica con- 
tained the kitchen, the houses of the labouring servants, the stables, piggeries, and poultry 
houses, ponds for water, dunghills, on wliich, says Varro, some persons place necessary 
conveniences for the family. (§ xii.) Adjoining the villa rustica, in the residence of 
opulent Romans, were placed the aviary, apiary, a place for dormice, a warren for hares 
and rabbits, a place for snails, and a large enclosure or park of fifty acres or more for 
retaining live deer and wild beasts taken in the chase. Thefructuaria contained the oil 
and wine cellars, the places for the oil and wine presses, the corn-yards, barns, granaries, 
store-houses, repositories for roots and fruits, &c. 

82. Both Columella and Palladius give directions hoiv all these parts should be situated 
and constructed; but, though minute, they are not so explicit as to enable any one to 
delineate their ground plan. The same may be said as to the directions given by these 
autlior , and by Pliny (N^at. Hist., lib. xviii.), respecting the laying out of the viila 
urbana, and the apartments for summer and winter. The subject of designing villas 
for the opulent belongs no doubt more to architecture than to agriculture ; and therefore 
we shall refer, for details, to the plans given by Cast el (Jig. 10.) and other modern authors, 
who have attempted to embody the descriptions of the ancient writers. 

83. CasteVs general arrangement of a grand Roman villa and its environs, is as 
follows : — 

1, Praetorium. 11, Omithon of Varro. 20, Mill driven by water. " 

2, Farm-house and offices. 12, Vivarium, or park for wild beasts. 21, Temple of Ceres. 

3, Canal, parting the farm from the 13, Small woody islands for peacocks. 22, Corn-fields. 

praetonum. 14, Place for turkeys(! ! ),ratnerswans, 23, Vineyards. 

4, Stone-banks to the canal. and their keepers: turkeys being 24, Olive grounds. 

5, Bridges. natives of Americ;i, and conse- 2.5, Meadows. 

6, Museum. quently unknown to the Romans. 26, Orchard. 

7, River Vinius. ' 15, For geese and their keeper. 27, (Jarden. 

8, Part of the island surrounded by 16, Cochlearium. 28, Osier ground. 

that river. 17, Dormice. 29, Woods, &c. 

9, The other river. 18, Apiarv. 30, Coppices. 
10, Walk on the bank of that river. 19, Threshing floor and bam. 

84. It is remarkable that no directions are given as to the materials of which the villa 
should be built. These would, in all probability, depend on local circumstances ; rammed 
earth, timber, brick burned or only dried in the sun, or stone, would be taken according 
to convenience. The remains of villas which have reached modem times, are chiefly 
of brick stuccoed over. Pliny mentions walls in Africa and Spain, called formacii, the 
formation of which, by cramming the earth between two boards, exactly agrees with the 
French mode of building mud walls, called en pise. He also mentions walls of unbumt 
brick, of mud, of turf, and frames filled up wdth bricks and mud. (Nat. Hist., lib. xxxv. 
cap. 14.) 

SuBSECT. 2. Of the Servants employed in Roman Agriculture. 

85. The servants employed in Roman agriculture were of two sorts, freemen and slaves. 
"When the proprietor or farmer lived on the farm and directed its culture, these were 
directly under his management ; in other cases there was a bailiff or overseer, to whom 
all the other servants were subordinate. This was the case so early as Cato's time, who 
is very particular in his directions respecting the care a bailiff ought to take of the 
servants, the cattle, the labouring utensils, and in executing his master's orders. 

86. The bailiff" was generally a person who had received some education, and could 
write and keep accounts ; and it was expected that he should be careful, apt to learn, 
and capable to execute his master's orders with a proper attention to situations and 
circumstances. Columella, however, says that " the bailiff may do his business very well, 
though he is illiterate." Cornelius Celsus says that " such a bailiff will bring money to 
his master oftener than his book ; because, being ignorant of letters, he is the less capable 
to contrive accounts, and is afraid to trust another, being conscious of fraud." (Col., lib. i. 
cap. 8.) There are some other things mentioned by this author, with respect to the 
bailiff, that are very proper, and show particularly the attention of the Romans. " He 

Bock I. 



ought not," says he, " to trade on his own account, nor employ his master's money in 
purchasing cattle or any other goods ; for this trading takes off his attention, and prevents 


him from keeping square accounts with liis master. But when he is required to settle 
them, he shows his goods in the place of money. This, above all, he should be careful 
of, not to think he knows any thing he does not know ; and always to be ready to learn 
what he is ignorant of. For as it is of great advantage to do a thing well, so it is most 
hurtful to have it ill done. This one thing holds true in all rustic work, to do but once 
what the manner of culture requires ; because, when imprudence or negligence in work- 
ing is to be set to rights, the time for the work is already wasted ; nor are the effects of 
the amendment such as to make up the lost labour, and balance tlie advantages that might 
have been gained by improving the season that is past." {Col.', libi. cap. 8.) 

87. The qualities of the other villa servants are represented- by the same author in this 
manner : " The careful and industrious," says he, " should be appointed masters of the 
works ; these qualities are more necessary for this business than stature or strength of 
body, for this service requires diligent care and art." Of tlie ploughman he says, 

88. In the ploughman, though a degree of genius is necessary, yet it is not enough. " There should be 
joined to it a harshness of voice and manner, to terrify the cattle : but he should temper strength with 
clemency ; because he ought to be more terrible than cruel, that so the oxen may obey his commands, 
and continue the longer at their work, not being spent, at the same time, both with the severity of 
labour and stripes. But what the offices of masters of works and of ploughman are, I shall mention in 

C 2 


their proper places. It is sufficient at present to observe, that tallness and strength are of great use in the 
one, and of very little in the other ; for we should make, as I have said, the tallest man a ploughman, 
both for the reason I have already mentioned, and because there is no rustic work by wliicli a tall man is 
less fatigued than by ploughing ; because, when employed in this, walking almost iipriglit, he may lean 
upon the handle of the plough." Of the common labourer he says, " The common labourer may be of any 
size, provided he is able to endure fatigue." And of the vine-dresser, " Vineyards do not require such 
tall men, provided they are thick and brawny; for this constitution of body is most proper for digging, 
pruning, and the other culture necessary for them. In this work diligence is less necessary than in the 
other works of husbandry ; because the vine-dresser ought to perform his work in company and under 
the eye of a director. Commonly wicked men are of a quicker genius, which this kind of work requires ; 
and, as it requires not only a stout servant, but one of an active contrivance, vineyards are commonly 
cultivated by slaves in chains." {Col.y lib. i. cap. 9.) Thus we see, that, among the Romans, labourers were 
appointed to the different works of husbandry, according to their strength, size, and genius. 

89. With res5)ect to the wages of agricultural labour aynong the Romas, very little benefit 
can be derived from knowing the absolute sum of money paid for any article, unless it 
can be compared with the price of other commodities. The price of a slave in Cato's 
time, was about 50/. ; in the time of Columella it had risen to 60/. ; or to the price of 
eight acres of good land. A good vine-dresser cost 661. 13s. 4d., and a good ploughman 
or labourer not less than 60/. The interest of money at this time was 61. per cent per 
annum ; therefore, in stating the expense of farm labour, a slave must be rated at not less 
than 12/. per cent, as being a perishable commodity ; so that one who cost 60/. would 
fall to be charged at the rate of 7/. 45. per annum, besides his maintenance and clothing. 
Tliis may give some idea of the wages tliat would be paid to a free servant who hired him- 
self by the year ; of which, however, there appears to have been no great number, their 
wages not being stated. 

90. All the -servants were maintained and clothed by the farmer or proprietor ; and as may 
be supposed, it was the interest of the latter that this should be done in a good and suffi- 
cient manner. Columella mentions what he calls an old maxim, concerning the bailiff : 
" That he should not eat but in the sight of all the servants, nor of any other thing but 
what was given for the rest." He mentions the reason of this : " For thus," says he, 
" shall he take care that both the bread be well baked, and the other things prepared in a 
wholesome manner." (Co/., lib. i. cap. 8.) The same author mentions the treatment 
that masters ought to give their slaves : " So much the more attentive," says he, " ought 
the master to be in his enquiry concenaing tliis kind of servants, that they may not be 
injured in their clothes and other things afforded them, inasmuch as they are subject to 
many, such as bailiffs, masters of works, and gaolers ; and the more they are liable to 
receive injuries, and the more they are hurt through cruelty or avarice, the more they are 
to be feared. Therefore a diligent master ought to enquire, both at themselves, and 
likewise the free servants in whom he may put greater confidence, whether they receive 
the full of what is allowed them ; he himself ought likewise to try, by tasting the good- 
ness of the bread and drink, and examine their clotlies, mittens, and shoes." (Co/., lib. i. 
cap. 8.) In another place, he says, " That the bailiff should have the family dressed 
and clothed rather usefully than nicely, and carefully fortified against the w'ind, cold, and 
rain ; all which they will be secured from, by sleeved leathern coats, old centones (thick 
patchwork as bed-quilts) for defending their heads ; or cloaks with hoods. If the labourers 
are clothed with these, no day is so stormy as to prevent them from working without doors. 
{Col., lib. i. cap. 8.) Cato likewise makes particular mention of the clothes of the slaves : 
" The vestments of the family," says he, " a coat and a gown three feet and a half long 
should be given once in two years ; whenever you give a coat or a gown, first receive the 
old one ; of these make centones. Good shoes should be given once in two years." (C«f., 
cap. 59.) 

91. Cato informs us what quality of bread and wine, and what other kinds qf meat, ivere given to la- 
bourers. Of bread, he says, each labourer was allowed at the rate of three pounds avoirdupois, or of 
three pounds twelve ounces avoirdupois in the day, according to the severity of his labour. " During 
the winter," says he, " the bailiff she ild have four 7nodii of wheat each month, and during the summer 
four fnodii and a half; and the housekeeper, or the bailiff's wife, and the shepherd, should have three. 
During the winter, the slaves should have four pounds of bread each in the day ; from the time that they 
begin to dig the vineyard, to the ripening of the figs, they should have five pounds each ; after which 
they should return again to four." (CaA, cap. 56.) To this bread, there was a daily allowance of wine; 
during the three months that immediately followed the vintage, the servants drank a weak kind of wine 
called lora. The manner in which this liquor was made, is described both by Pliny and Columella ; and 
from the description given by them, it may well be supposed to be as good as the small beer given to 
servants in Britain. [Plin. Nat. Hist., lib. xiv. cap. 10.) It does not appear that the Roman slaves were 
much restricted in the quantity; Cato mentions no measure; he only says, that they have this to drink 
for three months after the vintage ; he proceeds in this manner : " In the fourth month, each should get 
a heinitia of wine in the day, which is at the rate of two and a half congii in the month ; in the fifth, 
sixth, seventh, and eighth months, each a sectary in the day, which is five congii in the month ; in the 
ninth, tenth, and eleventh, each three hemituB in the day, which is an amphora in the month. More 
than this, at the saturnalia and cofnpitalia, to each man was given a congius. The quantity of wine for 
each man in the year is eight quadrantals ; however, as addition must be made according to the work in 
which the slaves are employed, it is not too much for each of them to drink ten quadrantals in the year." 
This allowance of wine, it must be acknowledged, was not inconsiderable, being at least seventy-four 
gallons in the year, or at an average 1-62 parts of a pint in the day. 

92. Besides bread and wine, the slaves got what was called pulmentarium, which an- 
swers to what in some parts of the country is called kitchen dripping or fat. (Plin. 
Nat. Hist.f lib. xviii. cap. 8.) For this purpose Cato recommends the laying up as 


many fallen bifves as can be gathered ; afterwards the early olives from which the smallest 
quantity of oil is expected ; at the same time observing that these must be given sparingly, 
that they may last the longer. When the olives are finished, he desires salt fish and 
vinegar to be given, and besides, to each man a sextarius of oil in the month, and a 
fnodius of salt in the year. (Cat., cap. 18.) Columella, for this purpose, directs apples, 
pears, and figs, to be laid up : he adds, if there is a great quantity of these, tlie rustics 
are secured in no small part of their meat during the winter, for they serve for dripping 
or fat. (Col., lib. xii. cap. 14.) 

SuBSKCT. 3. Of the Beasts of Labour used by the Romans. 

93. The labouring cattle used by the Romans, as well as by all the ancient nations, were 
chiefly the ox, the ass sometimes, the mule for burdens, and but very rarely the horse. 
The horse, however, was reared ; but almost exclusively for the saddle, the chase, or 
for war. The respect for the ox which existed among the Egyptians, Jews, and Greeks, 
was continued among the Romans, so much so that Varro, and after him Columella and 
Pliny, adduce an instance of a man having been indicted and condemned, for killing one 
to please a boy who longed for a dish of tripe. 

94. The breeding, breaking, feeding, and working of the ox are very particularly treated 
of by the ancient authors. 

95. Bulls, says Palladius, " should be tall, with huge members, of a middle age, rather young than old, 
of a stern countenance, small horns, a brawny and vast neck, and a confined belly." {Pal., lib. iv. 
sect. 11.) 

96. The cows Columella " most approves of, are of a tall make, long, with very large belly, very broad 
forehead, eyes black and open, horns graceful, smooth, and black, hairy ears, strait jaws, very large 
dewlap and tail, and moderate hoofs and legs." {Col., lib. vi. cap. 21.) 

97. Breeders both of horses and cows, Virgil observes, should attend principally to ihe 
make of the female. " If any one," says he, " fond of the prize at the Olympic games, 
breeds horses ; or if any one breeds stout bullocks for the plough, he chiefly attends to 
the make of the mother, who ought to be large in all her parts." (^Georg., iii. v. 49.) The 
same maxim is enforced scientifically by Cline. (Commun. to Board of Ag., vol. iv.) 

98. For breaking and training cattle to the yoke, Varro and Columella give very parti- 
cular directions. " To break bullocks," says Varro, " put their necks between forked 
stakes ; .set up one for each bullock, and give them meat from the hand ; they will become 
tractable in a few days : then, in order that by degrees they may become accustomed to 
the yoke, let an unbroken one be joined with a veteran, whom he will imitate j then 
let them go upon even ground without a plough ; then yoked to a light plough in a sandy 
soil. That they may be trained for carriages, they should first be put to empty carts, and 
driven, if convenient, through a village or town ; the habit of hearing frequent noise, and 
seeing a variety of objects, will soon make them fit for use. ( Var., lib. i. cap. 20.) 

99. Training commences with the calf state ; and " calves," says Virgil, " which 
you intend for country labour, should be instructed while their youthful minds are 
tractable, and their age manageable : first bind round their necks wide wreaths of tender 
twigs ; tlien, when their free necks have been accustomed to servitude, put real collars 
upon them ; join bullocks of equal strength, and make them step together ; at first let 
them frequently be employed in drawing along the ground wheels without any carriage 
upon them, so that they may print their steps only upon the top of ihe dust ; afterwards 
let the beechen axle groan under the heavy load, and the pole draw iie wheels joined t(» 
the weighty carriage." (Georg., iii. v. 163.) 

100. Labouring oxen zverefed with the mast or nuts of the beech or sweet chestnut, grape 
stones and husks after being pressed, hay, wheat and barley straw, bean vetch and lupine 
chaff, all parts of corn and pulse, grass, green forage, and leaves. Ihe leaves used 
were those of the holm oak, ivy, elm (considered the best), the vine, the poplar, &c. 
The poplar leaves were mixed with the elm leaves to make them hold out, and when there 
were no elm leaves, then oak and fig leaves were used. (Cat., cap. 54.) The food pre 
ferred before all others by Columella, is good pasturage in summer, and hay and com in 
winter; but he says the food and manner of feeding differ in different countries. 

101. Oxen ivere worked in pairs abreast both with the cart and plough, and stood in the 
stables also in pairs, in bnbilia or stalls formed on purpose. They were carefully matched, 
in order that tlie stronger might not wear out the weaker. They were yoked either by 
the horn or neck ; but the latter mode was greatly preferred. 

102. Yoking by the horns. Columella observes, " is condemned by almost all who have written on hus- 
bandry ; because cattle can exert more strength from the neck and breast, than the horns ; as in the one 
way, they with the whole weight and bulk of their botlies ; whereas in the other way, they are tor- 
mented with having their heads drawn back and turned up, and with ditficulty stir the surface of the 
earth with a light plough." {Col., lib. ii. cap. 11. 22.) 

103. Oxen, when in the plough, were not allowed to go a great way without turning ; 
one hundred and twenty feet was the length fixed upon, and further than this it was 
thought imjjioper for them to pull hard without stopping. The Reverend A. Dickson 
thinks it probable, that « the breaks or plats for the different kinds of corn and pulse 

C 3 


were laid out nearly of this length and breadth " (Husb. of the Anc, ii. 452.) ; and there 
appear grounds for concluding that the case was the same among the Jews and Greeks. 
It was thought proper that oxen, in ploughing, should be allowed to stop a little at the 
turning, and when they stopped, that the ploughman should put the yoke a little forward, 
that so their necks might cool. " Unless their necks are carefully and regularly cooled," 
says Columella, " they will soon become inflamed, and swellings and ulcers will arise." 
The same author directs that " the ploughman, when he has unyoked his oxen, must rub 
them after they are tied up, press their backs with his hands, pull up their hides, and not 
suffer them to stick to their bodies ; for this is a disease that is very destructive to working 
cattle." No food must be given them till they have ceased from sweating and high 
breathing, and then by degrees, in portions as eaten ; and afterwards they are to be led to 
the water, and encouraged by wliistling." (Co/., lib. ii. cap. 3.) 

104. In purchasing working oxen, Varro directs to choose such as have " spacious horns, 
rather black than otherwise, a broad forehead, wide nostrils, a broad chest, and thick 
dewlap." (Lib. i. cap. 20.) All the Roman authors agree that the best colour of the body 
is red or dark brown ; that the black are hardier, but not so valuable ; that the hair should 
be short and thick, and the whole skin veiy soft to the touch ; the body in general very 
long and deep, or, as Columella and Palladius express it, compact and square. The 
particular parts they also describe at length in terms such as would for the most part be 
approved by experienced breeders of cattle ; making due allowance for the difference be- 
tween choice for working, and choice for fatting. They all concur in recommending 
farmers to rear at home what oxen they want, as those brought from a distance often 
disagree with the change of soil and climate. 

105. The ass was the animal next in general use. Varro says they were chiefly used for 
carrying burdens, or for the mill, or for ploughing where the land was light, and that they 
were most common in the south of Italy, especially in Campania. (Lib. ii. cap. 6.) He 
gives directions for breeding and rearing them ; and states that the female sliould not 
be allowed to work when in an advanced state of pregnancy, but that the male does 
not improve by indulgence in labour. The foal is removed from the dam a year after being 
foaled, and broken for labour in the third year. 

106. Mules, Columella says, " are very proper both for the road and the plough, provided 
they are not too dear, and the stiff lands do not require the strength of the ox." " Mules 
and hinni," Varro observes, " are of two kinds ; the first being the offspring of a mare and 
an ass, and the second of a horse and an ass. A hinnus is less than an ass in the body, com- 
monly of a brighter colour ; his ears, mane, and tail like those of the horse. The mule is 
larger than the ass, but has more of the character of that animal in its parts than the 
hinnus. To breed mules, a joung jackass is put under a mare when he is foaled, and 
being reared with her is admitted to her the third year ; nor does he despise the mare on 
account of former habits. If you admit him younger he soon gets old, and Ms offspring 
is less valuable. Persons who have not an ass wluch they have brought up under a mare, 
and who wish to have an ass for admission, choose the largest and the handsomest they 
can find, from a good breed." {Varro, lib. ii. cap. 8.) Mules are fed like the ass, on 
spray, leaves, herbage, hay, chaff, and corn. 

107. The horse was scarcely, if at all, used in Roman agriculture, but was reared for the 
saddle and the army, by some farmers. Varro and Columella are particular in their 
directions as to the choice of mares, and breeding and rearing their young ; but as these 
contain nothing very remarkable, we shall merely remark that the signs of future merit 
in a colt are said to be a small head, well formed limbs, and contending with other colts 
or horses for superiority in running, or in any other thing. 

108. The dog is a valuable animal in every unenclosed country, and was kept by the 
Roman farmers for its use in assisting the shepherd, and also for watching. Vari'o men- 
tions two kinds : one for hunting, which belongs to fierce and savage beasts ; and one for 
the shepherd and the watch-box. The latter are not to be bought from hunters or 
butchers, because these are either lazy, or will follow a stag rather than a sheep. The 
best colour is white, because it is most discernible in the dark. They must be fed in the 
kitchen with bread and milk ; or broth with bruised bones, but never with animal food, 
and never allowed to suffer from hunger, lest they attack the flock. That they may not 
be wounded by other beasts, they wear a collar made of strong leather set with nails, the 
inward extremities of which are covered with soft leather, that the hardness of the iron 
may not hurt their necks. If a wolf or any other beast is wounded by these, it makes 
other dogs that have not the collar remain secure. ( Varr., lib. ii. cap. 9.) 

SuBSECT. 4. Of the Agricidtural Implements of the Romans. 

109. The Ro7nans used a great many instruments in their culture and farm manage- 
ment ; but their particular forms and uses are so imperfectly described, that very little is 
known concerning them. » 

110. The plough, the most important instrument in agriculture, is mentioned by Cato as 

Book I. 



of two kinds, one for strong, and the other for light, soils. Varro mentions one witli two 
mould boards, with which, he says, " when they plough after sowing the seed, they are said 
to ridge." Pliny mentions a plough with one mould board for the same purpose, and 
otiiers with a coulter, of which, he says, there are many kinds. It is probable indeed, 
as the Rev. A. Dickson has remarked, that the ancients had many kinds of ploughs, 
though, perhaps, not so scientifically constructed as those of modern times. " lliey had 
ploughs," he says, " with mould boards, and without mould boards ; with and without 
coulters ; with and without wheels ; with broad and narrow pointed shares ; and with 
shares not only with sharp sides and points, but also with high-raised cutting tops." 
(Husb. of the An., ii. 388.) But amidst all this variety of ploughs, no one has been able 
to depict the simplest form of that implement in use among the Romans. Professor John 
Martyn, in his notes to Virgil's Georgics, gives a figure of a modern Italian plough to 
illustrate Virgil's description. Rosier says the Roman plough was the same as is still 
used in the south of France (Jig. 11.) Some authors have made fanciful representations 

of it of the rudest construction ; others have exhibited more refined pieces of mechanism, 
but most improbable as portraits. 

111. From the different parts of the plough mentioned by the Roman authors, a 
figure has been imagined and described by the author of the Husbandry of the 
Ancients, which, from his practical knowledge of agriculture, and considerable classi- 
cal attainments, it is to be regretted he did not live to see delineated. A plough in 
use from time immemorial in Valentia (^. 12.), is supposed to come the nearest to 

the common Roman imple- 
ment. In it we have the 
buris or head (a) ; the temo, 
or beam (b) ; the stiva, or 
handle (c) ; the dentale, or 
share head (d) ; and the vo- 
mer or share (e). The other 
parts, the aura or mould 
board, and the culter or 
coulter, com})Osed no part 
of the simplest form of Ro- 
man plough ; the plough- 
staff, or paddle, was a detached part ; and the manicula, or part which the ploughman 
took hold of, was a short bar fixed across, or into the handle, and the draught pole (/) 
was that part to which the oxen were attached. 

112, The plough described by Virgil had a mould board, and was used for 
covering seed and ridging ; 
but that which we have de- 
picted, was the common 
form used in stirring the 
soil. To supply the place 
of our mould boards, this 
plough required either a 
sort of diverging stick (g), 
inserted in the share head, 
or to be held obliquely and 
sloping towards the side to 
which the earth was to be 
turned. The Romans did 
not plough their fields in 
beds, by circumvolving fur- 
rows, as we do ; but the cat- 
tle returned always on the 
same side, as in ploughing 
with a turnwrest plough. 

113 Wheel ploughs, Lasteyrie thinks, were invented in or not long before the time of 
Pliny, who attributes the invention to the inhabitants of Cisalpine Gaul. Virgil seems 

C 4 


to have known euch ploughs, and refers to them in his Georgics. In the Greek monu- 
ments of antiquity are only four or five examples of these. Lasteyrie has given figures 
of tliree wheel ploughs from Caylus's Collection of Antiquities (Jig. IS. a and b), and from 
a Sicilian medal (c). 

114 The urpex, or irpex, seems to have been a plank- with several teeth, used as our 
brake or cultivator, to break rough ground, and tear out roots and weeds. - 14 

115. The crates seems to have been a kind of harrow ; ^^^X 

116. The rastrum, a rake used in manual labour ; f }\ 

117. The sarculum, a hand hoe, similar to our draw hoe j and ' ' ' ' 
I IB. The marra, a hand hoe of smaller size. '— t't— 
119. The bidens (bi-dens) seems to have been a two-pronged hoe of large size, « fj^' 

with a hammer at the other end used to break clods. These were used chiefly 
in cultivating vineyards. 

120 The ligo seems to have been a spade (Jig. 14.), and the paia a shovel or 
sort of spade, or probably a synonym. The ligo and pala were made of wood 
only, of oak shod with iron, or with the blade entirely of iron. 

121. The securis seems to have been an axe, and the same term was applied to 
the blade of the pruning knife, which was formed like a crescent, C. 

122. The dolabra was a kind of adze for cutting roots in tree culture. 

123. The reaping hook seems to have been the same as that in modern use : some were 
used for cutting off tiie ears of far or maize, and these, it may be presumed, were not 

serrated like our sickles ; others for cutting wheat and 
barley near the ground, like our reaping hooks. In the 
south of Gaul, Pliny informs us, they had invented a reap- 
ing machine : from his description this machine must have 
borne a considerable resemblance to that used in Suffolk, 
for cropping the heads off clover left for seed, and not 
unlike other modern attempts at an engine of this descrip- 
tion. (See Jig. 16.) 

124. There were threshing implements for manual labour, 
and for being drawn by horses ; and some for striking off 
the ears of corn (Jig. 15.), like what are called rippling 
combs, for combing off the capsules of newly pulled flax. 

125. A variety of other inst-ruments for cleaning corn, 
and for the wine and oil press, are mentioned j but too 

obscurely to admit of exact description. 

SuBSETCT. 5. Cf the Agricultural Operations of the Romans. 

126. Of simple agricultural operations, the most important are ploughing, sowing, 
and reaping ; and of such as are compound, or involve various simple operations, fallow- 
ing, manuring, weeding, and field-watering. 

127. Ploughing is universally allowed to be the most important operation of agri- 
culture. " What," says Cato, " is the best culture of land ? Good ploughing. 
What is the second? Ploughing in the ordinai-y way. What is *he third? Laying 
on manure." (Cap. Ixi.) The season for plougliing was any time wheu land was not wet : 
in the performance, the furrow is directed to be kept equal in breadth throughout, one 
furrow equal to another ; and straight furrows. The usual depth is not mentioned, but it 
was probably considerable, as Cato says corn land should be of good quality -for two feet 
in depth. No scamni or balks (hard unmoved soil) were to be left, and to ascertain that 
this was properly attended toj the farmer is directed, when inspecting the work done, to 
push a pole into the ploughed land in a variety of places. The plough was generally 
drawn by one pair of oxen, which were guided by the ploughman without the aid of a 
driver. In breaking up stiff land he was expected to plough half an acre, in free land 
an acre, and in light land an acre and a half, each day. Land, as already noticed 
(103.), was ploughed in square plots of 120 feet to the side, two of which made a jugerum 
or acre. A similar practice seems to have existed among the Eastern nations, and is 
probably alluded to in the book of Samuel (chap. xiv. 5. 14.), where Jonathan and his 
armour-bearer are said to have slain about twenty men within half an acre, or literally 
" half a furrow of an acre of land." 

128. Fallowing ivas a universal practice among the Romans. In most cases, a crop and 
3 year's fallow succeeded each other ; though, when manure could be got, two crops or 
more were taken in succession ; and on certain rich soils, which Pliny describes as 
favourable for barley, a crop was taken every year. In fallowing, the lands were first 
ploughed after the crop was removed, generally in August ; they were again cross- 
ploughed in spring, and at least a third time before sowing, whether spring corn or 
winter corn was the crop. There was, however, no limit to the number of ploughings 
and sarclings, and, when occasioned required, manual operations ; the object being, as 


Tlieophrastus observes, " to let the earth feel the cold of winter, and the sun of summer, 
to invert the soil, and render it free, light, and clear of weeds, so that it can most easily 
afford nourishment." {Theo. de Cans. Plant., lib. iii. cap. 25.) 

129. Manuriyig was held in such high esteem by the Romans, that immortality was 
given to Sterculius for the invention. They collected it from every source which has 
been thought of by the moderns, vegetable, animal, and mineral, territorial, aquatic, and 
marine. Animal dung was divided into three kinds, that produced by birds, that by 
men, and that by cattle- Pigeon-dung was preferred to all, and next human ordure and 
urine. Pigeon-dung was used as a top-dressing ; and human dung, mixed with clean- 
ings of the villa, and with urine, was applied to the roots of the vine and the olive. " M. 
Varro," says Pliny, " extols the dung of thrushes from the aviaries, as food for swine 
and oxen, and asserts that there is no food that fattens them more quickly." Varro pre- 
fers it also as a manure ; on which Pliny observes, " we may have a good opinion of the 
manners of our times, if our ancestors had such large aviaries, as to procure from them 
dung to their fields." (Nat. Hist., lib. xvii. cap. 9.) Dunghills were directed to be 
placed near the villa, their bottoms hollowed out to retain the moisture, and their sides 
and top defended from the sun by twigs and leaves. Dung usually remained in the 
heap a year, and was laid on in autumn and spring, the two sowing seasons. No more 
was to be spread than could be ploughed in the same day. Crops that were sickly were 
revived by sowing over them the dust of dung, especially that of birds, that is, by what is 
now called a top-dressing. Frequent and moderate dungings are recommended as pre- 
ferable to occasional and very abundant supplies. Green crops, especially lupines, were 
sown, and before they came into pod ploughed in as manures : they were also cut and 
buried at the roots of fruit trees for the same purpose. Trees, twigs, stubble, &c., were 
burned for manure. Cato says, " If you cannot sell wood and twigs, and have no 
stone that will bum into lime, make charcoal of the wood, and bum in the com fields the 
twigs and small branches that remain." Palladius says that " lands which have been 
manured by ashes of trees will not require manure for five years." (Lib. i. 6.) Stubble 
was very generally burned, as it was also among the Jews. Lime was used as a manure, 
especially for vines and olives. Cato gives particular directions how to form the kiln 
and burn it. He prefers a truncated cone, ten feet in diameter at the bottom, twenty- 
feet high, and three feet in diameter at the top. The grate covers the whole bottom ; 
tliere is a pit below for the ashes, and two furnace-doors, one for drawing out the burnt 
stone, and the other for admitting air to tlie fire. The fuel used was wood or charcoal. 
(Cap. 38.) 

1 30. Marl was known to the earlier Roman authors, but not used in Italy. It is men- 
tioned by Pliny as having been " found out in Britain and Gaul It is a certain rich- 
ness of earth," he says, " like the kernels in animal bodies that are increased by fatness." 
Marl, he says, was known to the Greeks, " for is there any tiling," he adds, " that has 
not been tried by them ? They call the marl-like white clay leucargillon, which they use 
in the lands of Megara, but only where they are moist and cold." (Nat. Hist., lib. xvii. 
cap. 5. 8.) But though the Romans did not use marl, because they had not dis- 
covered it in Italy, they were aware, as Varro and others inform us, of its use. " When 
I marched an army," says Varro, " to the Rhine, in Transalpine Gaul, I passed through 
some countries where I saw tlie fields manured with white fossil clay." (Lib. i. 
cap. 7.) This must have been either marl or chalk. 

131. Sowi7ig was performed by hand from a basket, as in modem times ; the hand, as 
Pliny observes, moving with the step, and always with the right foot. The corns and 
leguminous seeds were covered with the plough, and sometimes so as to rise in drills ; the 
smaller seeds with the hoe and rake. 

132. In reaping com, it was a maxim, that it is " better to reap two days too soon than 
two days too late." Varro mentions three modes of performing the operation : cutting 
close to the ground with hooks, a handful at a time ; cutting off their ears with a curved 
stick, and a saw attached ; and cutting the stalks in the middle, leaving the lower part or 
stubble to be cut afterwards. Columella says, " Many cut the stalks by the middle, with 
drag-hooks, and these either beaked or toothed : many gather the ears with mergce, and 
others with combs. This method does very well where the crop is thin ; but it is very 
troublesome where the corn is thick. If, in reaping with books, a part of the straw 
is cut off vvdth the ears, it is immediately gathered into a heap, or into the nubilarium, and 
after being dried, by being exposed to the sun, is threshed. But if the ears only are cut 
off, they are carried directly to the granary, and tlireshed during the winter." (CoA, lib. ii. 
cap. 21.) To these modes Pliny adds that of pulling up by the roots; and remarks, 
generally, that, « where they cover their houses with stubble, they cut high, to preserve 
this of as great a length as possible ; when there is a scarcity of hay, they cut low, that 
straw may be added to the chaff." (Nat. Hist., lib. xviii. cap. 30.) 

133. A reaping machine used in the plains of Gaul, is mentioned both by Pliny and Palladius, which is 
thus described by the latter : — " In the plains of Gaul, they use this quick way of reaping, and, without 



Part I. 

reapers, cut large fields with an ox in one day. For this purpose a machine is made, carried upon two 
wheels; the square surface has boards erected at the side, which, sloping outwards, make a wider space 
above ; the board on the fore part is lower than the others; upon it there are a great many small teeth, 
wide set in a row, answering to the height of the ears of the corn, and turned upwards at the ends; 
on the back part of this machine two 

short shafts are fixed, like the poles 16 

of a litter ; to these an ox is yoked, 
with his head to the machine, and 
the yoke and traces likewise turned 
the contrary way : he is well trained^ 
and does not go faster than he is 
driven. When this machine is pushed 
through the standing corn, all the 
ears are comprehended by the teeth, 
and heaped up in the hollow part of 
it, being cut off" from the straw, which 
is left behind ; the driver setting it 
higher or lower, as he finds it neces- 
sary ; and thus, by a few goings and 
returnings, the whole field is reaped. 
This machine does very well in plain 
and smooth fields, and in places 
where there is no necessity for feed- 
ing with straw." {Pal., lib. vii. tit. 2.) 
A conjectural delineation of this ma- 
chine {Jig. 16.) is given by Lasteyrie, 
in his Collection des Machines, S[c. 

134. The Roynans did not bind their com into sheaves, as is customary in northern cli- 
mates. When cut it was in general sent directly to the area to be threshed ; or, if the 
ears only were cropped, sent in baskets to the barn. Among the Jews, Egyptians, 
and Greeks, the corn was bound in sheaves j or at least some kinds were so treated, as 
appears from the story of Ruth " gleaning among the sheaves ;" of Joseph's dream, in 
which his " sheaf arose ;" and from the harvest represented by Homer, on one of the 
compartments of Achilles's shield. (II., lib. xviii. 550.) Reapers were set in bands on 
the opposite sides of the field or plot, and worked towards the centre. As the land was 
ploughed in the same manner from the sides to the middle, there was an open furrow 
left there, to which the reapers hastened in the way of competition. A reaper was 
expected to cut down a jugerum of wheat in a day and a half; of barley, legumes, and 
medica or clover, in one day ; and of flax in three days. 

1 35. Threshing was performed in the area or threshing floor, a circular space of from 40 
to 60 feet in diameter, in the open air, with a smooth hard surface. The floor was generally 
made of well wrought clay mixed with amurca or the lees of oil ; sometimes it was 
paved. It was generally placed near the nubilarium or barn, in order that^ when a 
sudden shower happened, during the process of threshing, the ears might be carried in 
there out of the rain. Sometimes also the ears or unthreshed corn of the whole farm 
were first put in this barn and carried out to the area afterwards. Varro and Columella 
recommended that the situation of the area should be high and airy, and within sight of 
the farmer or bailiflf's house, to prevent fraud ; distant from gardens and orchards, 
because, though dung and straw are beneficial to the roots of vegetables, they are de- 
structive when they fall on their leaves." (Var., lib. i. cap. 51.) 

136. The corn being spread over the area a foot or two 
in thickness, was threshed or beaten out by the hoofs 
of cattle, or horses driven round it, or dragging a ma- 
chine over it. This machine, Varro informs us, was 
" made of a board, rough with stones or iron, with a 
driver or great weight placed on it." A machine com- 
posed of rollers studded with iron knobs, and furnished 
with a seat for the driver {fig. 17.), was used in the 
Carthaginian territory. Sometimes also they threshed 
with rods or flails. Far, or Indian corn (Zt!a Muys 
L.), was generally hand-picked, or passed through a 

137. Corn was cleansed or winnowed by throwing it from one part of the floor to another 
(in the wind when there was any), with a kind of shovel called ventilabrum ; another im- 
plement, called a van, probably a kind of sieve, was used when there was no wind. After 
being dressed, the corn was laid in the granary, and the straw either laid aside for litter, 
or, what is not a little remarkable, " sprinkled with brine ; then, when dried, rolled up in 
bundles, and so given to the oxen for hay." (PUn. Nat. Hist., lib. xviii. cap. 30.) 

138. Hay-making among the liomans was performed much in the same way as in 
modern times. The meadows were mown when the flowers of the grass began to fade ; 
" as it dries," says Varro, " it is turned with forks ; it is then tied up in bundles of four 
pounds each, and carried home, and what is left strewed upon the meadow is raked 
together, and added to the crop." " A good mower," Columella informs us, " cuts a 
jugerum of meadow, and binds twelve hundred bundles of hay." It is probable that this 
quantity, which is nearly two tons, was the produce per acre of a good crop. A second 
crop was cut, called cordum, and was chiefly used tar feeding sheep in winter. Hay 


was also made of leafy twigs for the same purpose. Cato directs the bailiff to " cut 
down poplar, elm, and oak spray, and put them up in time, not over drj, for fodder for 
the sheep." (Cap. 5.) 

139. f Feeding and stirring the soil were performed, the first by cutting with a hook, or 
pulling the weeds up with the hand ; and the second by sarcling or hoeing. Beans were 
hoed three times, and corn twice : the first time they were earthed up, but not the second or 
third ; " for," says Columella, " when the corn ceases to tiller, it rots if covered with 
earth." Lupines were not sarcled at all, " because so far from being infested with weeds, 
they destroy them." Horse-hoeing was also practised, the origin of wliich is thus given 

by Pliny : " We must not omit," says he, " a particular method of ploughing, at this 

time practised in Italy beyond the Po, and introduced by the injuries of war. The 
Salassi, when they ravaged the lands lying under the Alps, tried likewise to destroy the 
panic and millet that had just come above ground. Finding that the situation of the crop 
prevented them from destroying it in the ordinary way, they ploughed the fields; 
but the crop at harvest being double what it used to be, taught the farmer to plough 
amongst the corn." This operation, he informs us, was performed, either when the stalk 
was beginning to appear, or when tlie plant had put forth two or three leaves. The 
corn being generally sown in drills, or covered with the plough, so as to come up in 
rows, readily admitted this practice. 

140. PastU7-i7ig and harrowing corny when too luxuriant, were practised. Virgil says, 
** What commendation shall I give to him, who, lest his corn should lodge, pastures it 
while young, as soon as the blade equals the furrow." (Geor.,i. 111.) Pliny directs 
to comb the corn with a harrow before it is pastured, and sarcle it afterwards. 

141. Watering on a. large scale was applied both to arable and grass lands. Virgil 
advises to " bring down the waters of a river upon the sown corn, and when the field is 
parched, and the plants dying, convey it from the brow of a hill in channels. (Geor., i. 
106.) Pliny mentions the practice, and observes that the water destroys the weeds, 
nourishes the com, and serves in place of sarcling. Watering grass lands was practised 
wherever an opportunity offered. " As much as in your power," says Cato, " make wa- 
tered meadows." Land that is naturally rich and in good heart, says Columella, " does 
not need to have water set over it, because the hay produced in a juicy soil is better than 
that excited by water ; when the poverty of the soil requires it, however, water may be 
set over it." The same author likewise describes, very particularly, the position of the 
land most proper for water meadows. " Neither a low field," says he, " with hollows, 
nor a field broken with steep rising grounds, are proper. The first, because it contains 
too long the water collected in the hollows ; the last, because it makes the water to run 
too quickly over it. A field, however, that has a moderate descent, may be inade a 
meadow, whether it is rich or poor, if so situated as to be watered. But the best situation 
is, where tlie surface is smooth, and the descent so gentle, as to prevent either showers, or 
the rivers that overflow it, from remaining long ; and, on the other hand, to allow the 
water that comes over it gently to glide off". Therefore, if in any part of a field intended 
for a meadow, a pool of water should stand, it must be let off" by drains ; for the loss is 
equal, either from too much water or too little grass." (Col., lib. ii. cap. 17.) 

142. Old water meadows were renewed hy breaking up and sowing them with com for 
three years ; the third year they were laid down with vetches and grass seeds, and then 
watered again, but " not with a great force of water, till the ground had become firm and 
bound together with turf." (Co/., lib. ii. cap. 18.) Watering, Pliny informs us, was 
commenced immediately after the equinox, and restrained when the grass sent up flower 
stalks ; it was recommenced in mowing grounds, after the hay season, and in pasture 
lands at intervals. 

143. Draining, though an operation of an opposite nature to watering, is yet essential 
to its success. It was particularly attended to by the Romans, both to remove surface 
water, and to intercept and carry off" under the surface the water of springs. 
Cato gives directions for opening the furrows of sown fields, and clearing them so as the 
water might find its way readily to the ditches : and for wet-bottomed lands he directs 
to make drains three feet broad at top, four feet deep, and a foot and a quarter wide at 
the bottom ; to lay them with stones, or, if these cannot be got, with willow rods placed 
contrariwise, or twigs tied together. (Cap. 43.) Columella directs both open and 
covered drains to be made sloping at the sides, and in addition to what Cato says respecting 
the water-ways of covered drains, directs to make the bottom narrow, and fit a rope made 
of twigs to it, pressing the rope firmly down, and putting some leaves or pine branches 
over it before throwing in the earth. Pliny says the ropes may be made of straw, and 
that flint or gravel may be used to form the water-way, filling the excavation half full, 
or to within eighteen inches of the top. 

144. Fencing was performed by the Romans, but only to a limited extent. Varro 
says " the limits of a farm should be fenced (rendered obvious) by planting trees, that 
families may not quarrel with their neighbours, and that the limits may not want the 


decision of a judge." (Lib. i. 15.) Palladius directs to enclose meadows, and gardens, 
and orchards. Columella mentions folds for enclosing the cattle in the night-time ; but 
the chief fences of his time were the enclosures called parks for preserving wild beasts, 
and forming agreeable prospects from the villas of the wealthy. Pliny mentions these, 
and says they were the invention of Fulvius Lupinus. (Nat. Hist., lib. viii.) Varro 
describes fences raised by planting briars or thorns, and training them into a hedge ; and 
these, he says, have the advantage of not being in danger from the burning torch of the 
wanton passenger ; fences of stalks, interwoven with twigs, ditches with earthen dykes, 
and walls of stone or brick, or rammed earth and gravel. (Lib. i. cap. 14.) 

145. Trees were pruned and felled at different times, according to the object in view. 
The olive was little cut ; the vine had a winter dressing, and one or two summer 
dressings. Green branches or spray, of which the leaves were used as food for oxen and 
sheep, were cut at the end of summer ; copse wood for fuel, in winter ; and timber trees 
generally in that season. Cato, however, directs that trees wliich are to be felled for 
timber should be cut down at different times, according to their natures : such as ripen 
seeds, when the seed is ripe ; such as do not produce seeds, when the leaves drop ; such as 
produce both flowers and seeds at the same time, also when the leaves drop ; but if they 
are evergreens, such as the cypress and pine, they may be felled at any time. 

146. Fruits were gathered hy hand. The ripest grapes were cut first ; such as were 
selected for eating were carried home and hung up ; and those for the press were put in 
baskets, and carried to the vdne-press to be picked and then pressed. Olives were plucked 
by hand, and some selected for eating ; the rest were laid up in lofts for future bruising, or 
they were immediately pressed. Such as could not be reached by ladders, Varro directs 
to be " struck vnXh a reed rather than with a rod, for a deep wound requires a physician." 
It does not appear that green olives were pickled and used as food as in modern times. 

147. Such are the chief agricidtural operations of the Roinans, of which it cannot fail to 
be observed as most remarkable, that tiiey differ little from what we know of the rural 
operations of the Jews and Greeks on the one hand, and from the practices of modem 
times on the other. 

Sdbsect. 6. Of the Crops cultivated, and Animals reared by the Romans. 
1^8. The cereal grasses cultivated by the Romans were chiefly the triticum or wheat, the 
far, or Indian corn (Zea), and the hordeum or barley : but they sowed also the siligo or 
rye, the holcus or millet, the panic grass (Panicum miliaceum), and the avena or oat. 

149. Of legumes they cultivated the faha or bean, the pisum or pea, the lupimis or 
lupine, the ervum or tare, the lens or flat tare (idthyrus Cicera), the chickling vetch (Za- 
thyrus sativus), the chick or mouse pea (Cicer arietinum), and the kidneybean (Phas^olus). 
The bean was used as food for the servants or slaves, the others were grown principally 
for food to the labouring cattle. 

150. The sesamum, or oily grain (S'^samum orient^le X.) 
{fig. 18.), was cultivated for the seeds, from which an oil was 
expressed, and used as a substitute for that of olives, as it 
Btill is in India and China, and as the oil of the poppy is 
in Holland, that of the walnut in Savoy, and that of the 
hemp in Russia. 

151. The Jierbage plants were chiefly the trifolium or clover, 
the medic or lucem, and the cytisus. What the latter plant 
is, has not been distinctly ascertained. Tliey cultivated also 
the ocymum and fcenum grcecum, vnth several others, which 
from the descriptions left of them cannot now be identified. 
The napus or turnip, and rapa or rape, were much esteemed 
and carefully cultivated. Pliny says " they require a dry 
soil ; that the rapa will grow almost any where ; that it is 
nourished by mists, hoar-frosts, and cold ; and that he has seen 
some of them upwards of forty pounds* weight. The napus," 
he says, " delights equally in colds, which make it both 
sweeter and larger, while by heat they grow to leaves." He 
adds, " the more diligent husbandmen plough five times for the napus, four times for tlie 
rapa, and apply dung to both." (Mat. Hist., lib. xviii. cap. 13.) Palladius recommends 
soot and oil as a remedy against flies and snails, in the culture of the napus and rapa. 
While the turnips were growing, it appears, persons were not much restricted from pulling 
them. Columella observes that, in his time, the more religious husbandmen still ob- 
served an ancient custom, mentioned by Varro as being recorded by Demetrius, a Greek. 
This was, that w'lile sowing them they prayed they might grow both for themselves and 
neighbours. Pliny' says the sower was naked. 

152. Of crops used in the arts may be mentioned the flax, the sesamum already men- 
tioned, and the poppy ; the two latter were grown for their seeds, which werebioiised for oil. 

Book I. 



1 53. The ligneous crops were willows, both for basketmaking, and as ties and poles for 
olives and vines. Copse wood was grown in some places for fuel ; but chiefly in natural 
woods, which were periodically cut. Timber was also pro- 1 ! 
cured from the natural forests, w^hich were abundant in oak, 
elm, beech, pine, and larix. 

154. The fruit trees cultivated extensively were the vine and 
the olive. The fig was grown in gardens and orchards, and 
also the pear ; and in the gardens of the wealthy were found 
most fruits in present use, with the exception of the pine- 
apple, the gooseberry, and perhaps the orange, though the 
lemon seems to have been known in Palladius's time. The vine 
was supported by elms or poplars {jtg> 19.), or tied to differ- 

20 ent sorts of trellises {Jig- 20.), as in Italy at the present day. 

155. Such are the principal Jield crops of Roman agriculture 
from which, and from the list of cultivated vegetables given by 
Pliny, it appears that they had most plants and trees now in 
use, with the exception of tlie potato, and one or two others 
of less consequence. 

156. Ofaniynals reared, the quadrupeds were of the same kinds 
as at present ; and to the common sorts of poultry they added 
thrushes, larks, peacocks, and turtle doves ; they also reared snails, dormice, bees, and 
fish. The care of the poultry was chiefly committed to the wife of the farmer or bailiflp; 
and it was principally near Rome and Naples that the more delicate birds were ex- 
tensively reared. When Rome was at her greatest height, in the time of the Caesars, the 
minor articles of farm produce bore a very high price. Varro informs us that " fat birds, 
such as thrushes, blackbirds, &c., were sold at two shillings, and sometimes 5000 of 
them were sold in a year from one farm. ( Var.i lib. iii. cap. 2.) Pea-fowls were sold at 
1/. 13s. 4cZ. ; an egg was sold at 3s. 4rf. A farm produced sometimes as many of these 
fowls as to sell at 500/. {Var., lib. iii. cap. 6.) A pair of fine doves were commonly of 
the same price with a peacock, 1/. 13s. 4d. If very pretty, they were much higher in 
the price, no less than 8/. 6s. 8d. L. Anius, a Roman knight, refused to sell a pair 
under 13/. 6s. 8rf." {Far., lib. iii. cap. 7.) Some kinds of fishes were very highly valued 
among the Romans in the time of Varro. Hortensius, whom Varro used frequently 
to visit, would sooner have parted with a pair of his best coach-mules, than with a bearded 
mullet. {Var., lib. iii. cap. 17.) Herrius's fishponds, on account of the quantity offish, 
were sold for 33,333/. 6s. 8d. {Plin. Nat. Hist., lib. ix. cap. 55.) ; Lucullus's, likewise, 
for the same price. {Id., lib. ix. cap. 54.) 

SuBSECT. 7. Of the general Maxims of Farm, Management among the Itomans. 

157. In every art which has been long jyractised, there are maxims of management 
which have been handed down from one generation to another ; and in no art are there more 
of these than in agpculture. Maxims of this sort were held among the Romans in the 
greatest estimation, and their writers have recorded a number derived from the lost 
Greek writers, and from their own traditionary or experimental knowledge. A few of 
these shall be noticed, as characteristic of Roman economy, and not without their use in 
modem times. 

158. To sow less and plough better was a maxim indicating that the extent of farms 
ought to be kept in their proper bounds. Pliny and Virgil consider large farms as pre- 
judicial, and Columella says, one of the seven wise men has pronounced that there 
jdiould be limits and measures in all things. " You may admire a large farm, but cul- 
tivate a small one ; " and the Carthaginian saying, that " the land ought to be weaker 
than the husbandman," were maxims to the same eflPect. 

159. The importance of the master s presence in every operation of farming, was in- 
culcated by many maxims. " Whoever would buy a field ought to sell his house, lest 
he delight more in tlie town than in the country," was a saying of Mago. " Wherever the 
eyes of the master most frequently approach," says Columella, " there is the greatest 
increase." It is justly remarked by the Rev. A. Dickson, that though " every person 
knows that the presence and attention of the master is of great importance in every 
business ; yet every person does not know, that in no business are they so important as 
in farming." {Hu^. of the An., \. 206.) 

160. That more is to be gained by cultivating a small spot well than a large space indif- 
ferently, is illustrated by many sayings and stories. " A vine-dresser had two daughters 
and a vineyard ; when, his eldest daughter was married, he gave her a third of his vine- 
yard for a portion ; notwithstanding which, he had the same quantity of fruit as formerly. 
When his younger daughter was married he gave her the half of what remained, and still 
the produce of his vineyard was not diminished." {Col., lib. iv. cap. 3.) Pliny mentions 
a freedman, who having much larger crops than his neighbours, was accused of witchcraft 


and brought to trial. He produced in the forum a stout daughter, and his excellently 
constructed iron spades, shears, and other tools, with his oxen, and said, " These, Romans, 
are my charms." He was acquitted. (^Nat. Hist., lib. xviii. cap. 6.) 

161. Ostentatious or profuse culture is not less condemned than imperfect culture. 
" The ancients," says Pliny, " assert that notliing turns to less account tlian to give land 
a great deal of culture. To cultivate well is necessary, to cultivate in an extraordi- 
nary manner is hurtful. In what manner, then," he asks, " are lands to be culti- 
vated to the best advantage ?" To this he answers, " In the cheapest manner, if it is 
good ;" or " by good bad things," which, he says, were the words in which the ancients 
used to express this maxim. 

162. Industry is recommended by numerous maxims. " The ancients," says 
Pliny, " considered him a bad husbandman who buys what his farm can produce to him ; 
a bad master of a family, who does in the day-time wliat he may do at night, except in 
the time of a storm ; a worse, who does on common days what is lawful on holidays ; 
the worst of all, who on a good day is employed more within doors than in the fields." 
{Nat. Hist., lib. xviii. cap. 6.) 

163. Kindness and humanity to servants and slaves is strongly recommended. " Slaves," 
says Varro, " must not be timid nor petulant. They who preside must have some de ree 
of learning and education ; they must be frugal, older than the workmen, for the latter are 
more attentive to the directions of tliese, than they are to those of younger men. Besides, 
it must be most eligible that they should preside, who are experienced in agriculture ; 
for they ought not only to give orders, but to work, that they may imitate him, and that 
they may consider that he presides over them with reason, because he is superior in 
knowledge and experience : nor is he to be suffered to be so imperious to use coercion 
with stripes rather than words, if this can be done. Nor are many to be procured of the 
same country, for domestic animosities very often arise from this source. You must en- 
courage them who preside, by rewarding tliem, and you must endeavour to let them have 
some privilege, and maid servants wedded to them, by whom they may have a family ; 
for by these means they become more steady and more attached to tlie farm. On account 
of these connections, tie Epirotic families are so distinguished and attached. To give the 
persons who preside some degree of pleasure, you must hold them in some estimation ; 
and you must consult with some of the superior workmen concerning the work that is to 
be done : when you behave thus, they think tliat they are less despicable, and that they 
are held in some degree of esteem by their master. They become more eager for work 
by liberal treatment, by giving them victuals, or a large garment, or by granting them 
some recreation or favour, as the privilege of feeding something on the farm, or some such 
thing. In relation to them, who are commanded to do work of greater drudgery, or who 
are punished, let somebody restore their good will and affection to their master by afford- 
ing them the benefit of consolation." 

164. Knowledge in matters relative to agriculture is inculcated by all the rustic authors. 
" Whoever," says Columella, " would be perfect in this science, must be well acquainted 
with the qualities of soils and plants ; must not be ignorant of the various climates, 
that so he may know what is agreeable, and what is repugnant, to each ; he must know 
exactly the succession of the seasons, and the nature of each, lest, beginning his work 
when showers and wind are just at hand, his labour shall be lost. He must be capable to 
observe exactly the present temper of the sky and seasons ; for these are not always re- 
gular, nor in every year does the summer and winter bring the same kind of weather, nor 
is the spring always rainy, and the autumn wet. To know these things before they hap- 
pen, without a very good capacity, and the greatest care to acquire knowledge, is, in my 
opinion, in the power of no man." {Col., lib. i. praef.) To these things mentioned by 
Columella, Virgil adds several others. " Before we plough a field to which we are 
strangers," says he, " we must be careful to attain a knowledge of the winds, from what 
points they blow at the pai-ticular seasons, and when and from whence they are most 
violent ; the nature of the climate, which in different places is very different ; the cus- 
toms of our forefathers ; the customs of the country ; the qualities of tlie different soils ; 
and what are the crops that each country and climate produces and rejects." {Virg. 
Georg.,1. 1.) 

165. The making of experiments is a thing very strongly recommended to the farmer by 
some of our authors. " Nature," says Varro, " has pointed out to. us two paths, which 
lead to the knowledge of agriculture, viz. experience and imitation. The ancient hus- 
bandmen, by making experiments, have established many maxims. Their posterity, for 
the most part, imitate them ; we ought to do both, imitate others and make experiments 
ourselves, not directed by chance, but reason." {Var., lib. i. cap. 18.) 

Sect. V. Of tlie Produce and Profit of Roman Agriculture. 

166. The topics of produce and profits in agriculttire, are very difficult to he discussed 
satisfactorily. In manufactures the raw material is purchased for a sum certain, and tlie 


manipulation given by the manufacturer can be accurately calculated ; but in farming, 
though we know the rent of the land and price of seed-corn, which may be considered 
the raw materials ; yet the quantity of labour required to bring forth the produce, depends 
so much on seasons, accidents, and other circumstances, to which agriculture is more 
liable than any other art, that its value or cost price cannot easily be determined. It is 
a common mode to estimate the profits of farming by the numerical returns of the seed 
sown. But this is a most fallacious ground of judgment, since the quantity of seed given 
to lands of different qualities, and of different conditions, is very different ; and the acre, 
which, being highly cultivated and sown with only a bushel of seed, returns forty for one, 
may yield no more profit than that which, being in a middling condition, requires four 
bushels of seed, and yields only ten for one. 

167. The returns of seed sown, mentioned by the ancients, are very remarkable. We 
have noticed Isaac's sowing and reaping at Gerar (7.), where he received a hundred for 
one. In Mark's gospel, " good seed sown upon good ground, is said to bring forth in 
some places tliirty, in others forty, in others sixty, and in others even an hundred fold." 
(Afark, iv. 8.) A hundred fold, Varro informs us, was reaped about Garada in Syria, 
and Byzacium in Africa. Pliny adds, that from the last place, there were sent to 
Augustus by his factor nearly 400 stalks, all from one grain ; and to Nero, 340 stalks. 
He says he has seen the soil of tliis field, " which when dry the stoutest oxen cannot 
plough ; but after rain I have seen it opened up by a share, drawn by a wretched ass on 
the one side, and an old woman on the other." (A^at. Hist., lib. xviii. cap. 5. j The returns 
in Italy were much less extraordinary. Varro says, there are sown on a jugenim, four 
modii (pecks) of beans, five of wheat, six of barley, and ten of far (maize) ; more or less 
as the soil is rich or poor. The produce is in some places ten after one, but in others, as 
in Tuscany, fifteen afler one." (Lib. i. cap. 44.) This, in round numbers, is at the rate 
of twenty-one and thirty-two bushels an JEnglish acre. On the excellent lands of Leon- 
tinum in Sicily, the produce, according to Cicero, was no more than from eight to ten for 
one. In Columella's time, when agriculture had declined, it was still less. 

1 68. The farmer's profit cannot be correctly ascertained ; but, according to a calculation 
made by the Rev. A. Dickson, the surplus produce of good land in the time of Varro, 
was about fifteen pecks of wheat per acre ; and in the time of Columella, lands being 
worse cultivated, it did not exceed three and one third pecks per acre. What proportion 
of tliis went to the landlord cannot be ascertained. Com, in Varro's time, was from 4rf. 
to 5^d. per peck ; seventy years afterwards, in the time of Columella, it had risen to 
Is. 9d. per peck. Vineyarck were so neglected in the time of this autlior, that they did 
not yield more to the landlord as rent, than 145. or 15s. per acre. 

169. The price of land, in the time of Columella and Pliny, was twenty-five years' 
purchase. It was common, both these writers inform us, to receive 4 per cent for capital 
so invested. The interest of money was then 6 per cent ; but this 6 per cent was not 
what we would call legal interest ; money among the Romans being left to find its value, 
like other commodities, of course the interest was always fluctuating. — Such is the 
essence of what is known as to the produce, rent, and price of lands among the Romans. 

Sect. VI. Of the Roman Agriculturists, in respect to general Science, and the 
Advancement of the Art. 

1 70. The sciences cultivated by the Greeks and Romans were chiefly of the mental and 
mathematical kind. They knew nothing of chemistry or physiology, and very little of 
ottier branches of natural philosophy ; and hence their progress in the practical arts was 
entirely the result of observation, experience, or accident. In none of their agricultural 
writers is there any attempt made to give the rationale of the practices described : abso- 
lute directions are either given, as is frequently the case in Virgil and Columella ; or the 
historical relation is adopted, and the reader is informed what is done by certain persons, 
or in certain places, as is generally the case with Varro and PUny. 

171. Jflierever the phenomena of nature are not accounted for scientifically, recourse is 
had to supernatural causes,- and the idea of this kind of agency once admitted, there is 
no limit that can be set to its influence over the mind. In the early and ignorant ages, 
good and evil spirits were supposed to take a concern in every thing ; and hence the 
endless and absurd superstitions of the Egyptians, some of which have been already 
noticed, and the equally numerous though perhaps less absurd rites and ceremonies of the 
Greeks, to procure their favour, or avert their evil influence. Hesiod considered it of not 
more importance to describe what works were to be done, than to describe the lucky and 
unlucky days for their performance. Homer, Aristotle, Theophrastus, and all the Greek 
authors, are more or less tinctured with this religion, or superstition as we are pleased to 
call it, of their age. 

172. As the Romans mudefew advances in science, consequently tliey made equally few 
in divesting tliemselves of the superstitions of their ancestors. These, as most readers 
know, entered into every action and art of that people, and into none more than agri- 


culture. In some cases it is of importance for the general reader to be aware of this, 
before perusing their rustic authors ; as in the case of heterogeneous grafting, and the 
spontaneous generation and transmutation of plants, which, though stated by Virgil and 
Pliny, and others, as facts, are known to every physiologist to be impossible : but other 
relations are too gross to be entertained as truths by any one. Of these we may mention 
the lunar days, the impregnation of animals by particular winds, &c. It is impossible 
not heartily to concur with Lord Kaimes in congratulating the present age on its delivery 
from such " heavy fetters." It is curious to observe the religious economy of Cato. 
After recommending the master of the family to be regular in performing his devotions, he 
expressly forbids the rest of the family to perform any, either by themselves or others, 
telling them that they were to consider that the master performed sufficient devotions for 
the family. (Ca?., cap. 43.) This was probably intended not only to save time, but also 
to prevent such slaves as had naturally more susceptible imaginations than the others, 
from becoming religious enthusiasts. 

173. What degree of improvement agriculture received from the Romans, is a question 
we liave no means of answering. Agriculture appears obviously to have declined 
from the time of Cato and Varro to Pliny ; and therefore any improvement it received 
must have taken place antecedently to their era. As these authors, however, generally 
refer to the Greeks as their masters in this art, it appears very doubtful whether they 
did any thing more than imitate their practice. As a more luxurious people, tliey 
introduced new fruits, and probably improved the treatment of birds, and other minor 
products ; but these belong more to gardening and domestic economy, than to field 
cultivation. In the culture of corn, herbage, plants, and fruit trees, and in the breeding 
and rearing of cattle, Noah and his sons, the Jews, the Babylonians, Egyptians, and 
Greeks, may have been as far advanced as die Romans, for any thing that appears to the 
contrary. The great agricultural advantage which mankind have derived from the 
Romans, is the diffusion of the art by their almost universal conquests. 

Sect. VII. Of tlie Extent to which Agriculture was carried in the Roman Provinces, and 

of its Decline. 

174. The art of agriculture was not only familiar to, hut held in estimation hy, every Ro- 
man soldier. It was practised by him in every foreign country where he was stationary ; 
and he taught it to the inhabitants of such as were uncultivated. In some countries, as in 
Carthaginia, great part of Spain, and a part of the soutli-east of France, agriculture 
was as far advanced as in Italy ; because at Carthage and Marseilles the Greeks had 
planted colonies, which flom-ished anterior to the Romans, or at least long before they 
extended their conquests to these countries : but in Helvetia, Germany, and Britain, it 
was in a very rude state or unknown. 

175. In Germany, except on the borders of the Rhine, agriculture was never 
generally practised. The greater part of the country was covered with forests ; and 
hunting and pasturage were the chief occupations of the people when not engaged in war. 
The decline of the Roman power in that country, therefore, could make very little dif- 
ference as to its agriculture. 

176. In Britain, according to Caesar, agriculture was introduced by colonies from 
Belgium, which took shelter there from the encroachments of tlie Belgce from Germany, 
about B.C. 150. These colonies began to cultivate the sea coasts ; but the natives of the 
inland parts lived on roots, berries, flesh, and milk, and it appears from Dionysius 
that they never tasted fish. Pliny mentions tlie use of marl as being known to the 
Britons ; and Diodorus Siculus describes their method of preserving corn, by laying it 
up in the ear in caves or granaries. 

177. JSut the general spread of agriculture in Britain was no doubt effected by the 
Romans. The tribute of a certain quantity of com, which they imposed on every part of 
the country, as it fell under their dominion, obliged the inhabitants to practise tillage ; 
and from the example of the conquerors, and the richness of the soil, they soon not only 
produced a sufficient quantity of corn for their own use and that of the Roman troops, but 
afforded every year a very great surplus for exportation. The Emperor Julian, in the 
fourth century, built granaries to receive this corn, and on one occasion sent a fleet of 
eight hundred ships, '* larger than common barks," to convey it to the mouth of the 
Rhine, where it was sent up the country for the support of the plundered inhabitants. 

178. Agriculture among the Romans themselves had begun to decline in Varro' s time, and 
was at a low ebb in the days of Pliny. Many of the great men in Rome, trusting 
to their revenues from the provinces, neglected the culture of their estates in Italy ; 
others, in want of money to answer the demands of luxury, raised all they could upon 
credit or mortgage, and raised the rents of tlieir tenants to an oppressive height to 
enable them to pay the interest. The farmer was in this manner deprived of his capital ; 
his spirits were broken, and he ceased to exert himself, or became idle and rapacious like 
his landlord, The civil wars in the end of the second century, tlie tyrannic conduct of 


the emperors in the third ; and the removal of the seat of empire to Constantinople in the 
middle of that which followed, prepared the way for the entrance of the Goths in the 
beginning of the fifth century, which completed the downfal of agriculture and every 
peaceful art. It declined at the same time in all the western provinces : in Africa and 
Spain, from the incursions of the Moors ; in France, from the inroads of the Germans ; 
in Germany and Helvetia, from the inhabitants leaving their country and preferring a 
predatory life in other states ; and in Britain, from the invasion of the Saxons, and the 
inroads of the Scots and Picts. 

Chap. IIL 

History of Agriculture during the Middle Ages, or from the Fifth to the Seventeenth 


179. In the ages of anarchy and barbarism which succeeded the fall of the Roman pouter 
in Europe, agriculture appears to have been abandoned, or at least extremely neglected. 
Pasturage, in troublesome times, is always preferred to tillage, because sheep or cattle 
may be concealed from an enemy, or driven away on his approach ; but who would 
sow without a certainty of being able to reap ? Happily, the weaknesses of mankind 
sometimes serve to mitigate the effects of their vices. Thus, the credulity of the bar- 
barians of those times led them to respect the religious establishments, and in these were 
preserved such remains of letters and of arts as had escaped from utter destruction. 
These institutions were at first very limited, both in their buildings and possessions, and 
the inhabitants frugal and virtuous in their habits ; but in a very few years, by the grants 
of the rich warriors, they acquired extensive possessions ; erected the most magnificent 
buildings, and lived in abundance and luxuiy. Their lands were cultivated by servants, 
under the direction of the priests, who would have recourse for information to the Roman 
agricultural writers, which, in common with such other books as then existed, were almost 
exclusively to be found in tlieir libraries. We know little of tlie progress of agriculture 
under these circumstances for nearly ten centuries, when it began to revive throughout 
Europe among the lay proprietors. We shall notice some particulars relative to this 
revival, first in Italy, and next in Germany, France, and England. So little is known 
of the husbandry of Spain and the Netherlands during this period, that we shall defer 
what we have to say of those countries till we treat of their modem state. 

Sect. I. History of Agriculture in Italy, during the Middle Ages. 

180. Little is known of the agriculture of Italy from the time of Pliny till that of 
Crescenzio, a senator of Bologna, whose work In Commodum Buralium, written in 
1300, was first printed at Florence in 1478. He was soon followed by several of his 
countrymen, among whom Tatti, Stefano, Augustino Gallo, Sansovino, Lauro, and 
Torello deserve to be mentioned with honour. From some records, however, it appears 
that irrigation had been practised in Italy previously to 1037. The monks of Chiarevalle 
had formed extensive works of this kind, and had become so celebrated as to be consulted 
and employed as hydraulic engineers, by the Emperor Frederic I., in the thirteenth 
century. Silkworms were imported from Greece into Sicily by Roger, the first king of 
that island, in 1146 ; but they did not extend to the Continental states for many years 

181. In the early part of the fourteenth century, the inhabitants of the south of Italy 
were strangers to many of the conveniences of life ; they were ignorant of the proper 
cultivation of the vine, and the common people were just beginning to wear shirts. 
The Florentines were the only people of Italy who, at that time, traded with England and 
France. The work of Crescenzio is, in great part, a compilation from the Roman 
authors; but an edition published at Basil in 1548, and illustrated with figures, may 
probably be considered as indicating the implements then in use. The plough is drawn 
by only one ox : but different kinds to be drawn by two and four oxen are described in 
the text. A driver is also mentioned, which shows that the ploughmen in those days were 
less expert than during the time of the Romans, who did not use drivers. A waggon is 
described with a wooden axle and low wooden wheels J each wheel formed A^^ 
either of one piece or of four pieces joined together. Knives, scythes (j^rrTy ~ ^ 
{fig. 21.), and grafting tools, as well as the mode of performing the ^^^f^^ \ 
operation, are figured. Sowing was then performed exactly as it was V4k I 
among the Romans, and is still in most parts of Europe, where a sowing |nlN 
machine is not employed. The various hand tools for stirring and T|) I 
turning the soil are described and exhibited; and the Roman bidens ..„id(4^w« 

shown as in use for cultivating the vine. All the agricultural and horti- ^^^-^--=' 

cultural plants described by Pliny are treated of, but no others. 



182. Towards the end of the sixteenth century., Torello's Ricordo d^Agncultura was 
published. In 1584, Pope Sixtus, according to Harte {Essay i.)> forced his subjects to 
work, that they might pay the heavy taxes imposed on them ; and by this means rendered 
them happy and contented, and himself rich and powerful. He found them sunk in 
sloth, overrun with pride and poverty, and lost to all sense of civil duties ; but he 
recovered them from that despicable state, first to industry, and next to plenty and 

183. Naples being at this period a Spanish province, the wars in which Spain was 
engaged obliged her to put a tax upon fruit ; and as fruits were not only the chief 
delicacies, but articles of subsistence, among the Neapolitans, this imposition is said to 
have rendered them industrious. But though some agricultural books were published at 
Naples during the sixteenth century, there is no evidence that they ever made much pro- 
gress in culture. Their best lands are in Sicily ; and on them a com crop and a fallow 
was and is the rotation, and the produce seldom exceeded eight or ten for one, as in the 
time of the Romans. This is the case in Sicily at present ; and it is likely that it was not 
different, or at least, that it was not better, from the fifth to the seventeenth centuries. 

• 184. The greatest agiicultural improvements in Italy which took place during the 
period in question, were in Tuscany and Lombardy, In the former country the culture 
of the vine and the olive were brought to greater perfection than any where else in 
Europe. The oil of Lucca and the wines of Florence became celebrated in other coun- 
tries, and the commerce in these articles enriched the inhabitants, and enabled the pro- 
prietors to bestow increased attention on the cultivation of their estates. Lombardy 
excelled in the management of com and cattle as well as of the vine. The butter, cheese, 
and beef of the country, were esteemed the best in Italy. The pastures were at that 
time, and still are, more productive than any in Europe, or perhaps in the world, having the 
three advantages of a climate so temperate in winter that the grass grows all the year, a 
soil naturally rich, and an abundant supply of river water for irrigation. The irrigation 
of Lombardy forms the chief feature of its culture. It was begun and carried to a con- 
siderable extent under the Romans, and in tlie period of which we speak extended and 
increased under the Lombard kings and wealthy religious establishments. Some idea 
may be formed of the comfort of the farmers in Lombardy in the thirteenth century, by 
the picture of a farm-house given by Crescenzio, who lived on its borders, which, as 
a French antiquarian (Paulinay) has observed, differs little from the best modem ones of 
Italy, but in being covered wiUi thatch. 

Sect. II. History of Agriculture in France, from the Fifth to the Seventeenth Century. 

185. The nations who conquered France in the fifth century were the Goths, Vandals, 
and Franks. The two former nations claimed two thirds of the conquered lands {Leges 
JBurgundiorum, tit. 54. ), and must of course have very much altered both the state of 
property, and the management of the affairs of husbandry. The claim of the Franks is 
more uncertain ; they were so much a warlike people, that they probably dealt more 
favourably with those whom they subjected to their dominion. 

1 86. All that is known of the agriculture of these nations and of France, till the ninth 
century, is derived from a perusal of their laws. These appear to have been favourable 
to cultivation, especially the laws of the Franks. Horses are frequently mentioned, and 
a distinction made between the war horse and farm horse, which shows that this animal 
was at that period more common in France than in Italy. Horses, cattle, and sheep 
were pastured in the forests and commons, with bells about the necks of several of them, 
for their more ready discovery. The culture of vines and orchards was greatly encouraged 
by Charlemagne in the ninth century. He planted many vineyards on the crown lands 
which were situated in every part of the country, and left in his capitularies particular 
instructions for their culture. One of his injunctions prohibits an ox and an ass from 
being yoked together in the same plough. 

1 87. During great part of the ninth and tenth centuries, France was harassed by civil 
wars, and agriculture declined ; but to what extent, scarcely any facts are left us to ascer- 
tain. A law passed in that period, respecting a farmer's tilling the lands of his superior, 
enacts that, if the cattle are so weak that four could not go a whole day in the plough, he 
was to join these to the cattle of another and work two days instead of one. He who 
kept no cattle of his own was obliged to work for his superior three days as a labourer. 

188. In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, the country enjoyed more tranquillity, and 
agriculture was improved. Judging from the Abb6 Suger's account of the abbey lands 
of St. Denis, better farm-houses were built, waste lands cultivated, and rents more than 
doubled. Tlie church published several canons for the security of agriculture during 
this period, which must have had a beneficial effect, as the greatest proportion of the best 
lands in every country was then in the hands of the clergy. 

189. In the thirteenth century little alteration took place ; but the number of holidays 
were diminished, and mills for grinding corn driven by wind introduced. 


190. In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, agriculture suffered greatly by the English 
wars and conquests, and by political regulations relative to the export and market price 
of corn. 

191. About the middle of the sixteenth century, the first agricultural work produced in 
France made its appearance. It was entitled, Les Mai/ens de devenir riche, and was com- 
posed by Bernard de Pallisy, a potter, who had written on various subjects. It is a very 
short tract, composed of economical remarks on husbandry, or rural and domestic 
economy. Towards the end of this century, under Henry IV. , and his virtuous minister 
Sully, considerable enterprise was displayed. Canals were projected, and one begun, and, 
according to Sully, France in his time abounded with corn, grain, pulse, wine, cider, flax, 
hemp, salt, wool, oil, dying drugs, cattle great and small, and every thing else, whether 
necessary or convenient for life, both for home consumption and exportation. {Mem., 
xvi. 225. ; Rankens Hist, of France, i. 433.) 

Sect. III. Of the Agriculture of Germany and ot/ier Northern States, from the Fifth to 
the Seventeenth Century. 

1 92. The nations north of the Rhine and the Danube, during the first half of these 
centuries, were chiefly employed in making inroads or conquests on their southern neigh- 
bours ; and during the whole period they were more or less engaged in attacking one 
another. Under such circumstances, agriculture must either have remained in the state 
wliich we have already described (178.), or it must have declined. In some states or 
kingdoms it may have been less neglected than in others, or may even have improved ; 
but, during the whole of this period, notliing was effected wliich demands particular 

193. The earliest German author on husbandry is Conradus Heresbachius, who was 
born in 1508, and died in 1576. His work, De Re Rustica, was published after his 
death. It is an avowed compilation from all the authors who had preceded him, and 
contains no information as to the state of agriculture around him. It is a dialogue in 
four books, and also includes gardening. The persons are Cono, a gentleman retired 
into the country ; Rigo, a courtier ; Metelea, wife of Cono ; and Hermes, a servant. 
The conversation is carried on in Cono's house, and on his farm, and the different 
speakers are made to deliver all that has been said by all the Greek and Roman writers, 
from Hesiod to Pliny, by Crescenzio and other Italians, and by various writers on 
general subjects : they converse on the advantages of agriculture as a pursuit ; on its 
general maxims and practices ; on the culture of particular plants ; and on the economy 
of the house and garden. 

1 94. No other books on agriculture, of any note, appeared in Germany during the period 
under revieiv. About the middle of the sixteenth century, the Elector «f Saxony, 
Augustus II., is said to have encouraged agriculture, and to have planted the first vine- 
yard in Saxony ; but, from the implements with which he worked in person, which are 
still preserved in the arsenal of Dresden, he appears to have been more a gardener than a 
farmer. It is to be regretted that the histories of the arts in the nortliem countries during 
the middle ages are very few, and so little known or accessible, that we cannot derive 
much advantage from them. 

Sect. IV. History of Agriculture in Britain, from the Fifth to the Seventeenth Century. 

1 95. Britain, on being quitted by the Romans, ivas invaded by the Saxons, a ferocious 
and ignorant people, by whom agriculture and all other civilised arts were neglected. 
In the eleventh century, when the Saxons bad amalgamated with the natives, and con- 
stituted tlie main body of the English nation, the country was again invaded by the Nor- 
mans, a much more civilised race, who introduced considerable improvement. These 
two events form distinct periods in the history of British agriculture, and two others will 
bring it down to the seventeenth century. 

SuBSECT. 1. History of Agriculture in Britain during the Anglo-Saxon Dynasty, or from 
the Fifth to the Eleventh Century. 

196. At the arrival of the Anglo-Saxons this island, according to Fleury (History, 
vol. iv. p. 97.), abounded in numerous flocks and herds, which these conquerors seized, 
and pastured for their own use ; and, after their settlement, they still continued to follow 
pasturage as one of the chief means of their subsistence. This is evident from the great 
number of laws that were made in the Anglo-Saxon times, for regulating the prices of all 
kinds of tame cattle, for directing the manner in which they were to be pastured, and 
for preserving them from thieves, robbers, and beasts of prey. (JFilkins, Leges Saxon., 
passim. ) 

1 97. The Welsh in this period, from the nature of their country and other circum- 
stances, depended still more on their flocks and herds for their support ; hence their laws 
respecting pasturage were more numerous and minute than those of the Saxons. (Leges 

D 2 


WalliccB, passim.) From these laws we learn, among many other particulars which need 
not be mentioned, that all the cattle of a village, though belonging to different owners, were 
pastured together in one herd, under the direction of one person (with proper assistants) ; 
whose oath, in all disputes about the cattle under his care, was decisive. 

198. By one of these laws, they ivere prohibited from ploughing with horses, mares, or cows, 
and restricted to oxen. (Leges Wallicce, p. 288.) Their ploughs seem to have been very- 
slight and inartificial : for it was enacted that no man should undertake to guide a plough, 
who could not make one ; and that the driver should make the ropes with which it was 
drawn of twisted willows. {Ibid., p. 283.) Hence the names still in use of ridge- withy, 
wanty or womb-tye, whipping-trees, tail-withes, &c. But slight as these ploughs were, 
it was usual for six or eight persons to fomi themselves into a society for fitting out one of 
them, and providing it with oxen, and every thing necessary for plougliing ; and many 
minute and curious laws were made for the regulation of such societies. This is a sufficient 
proof both of the poverty of the husbandmen, and of the imperfect state of agriculture 
among the ancient Britons in this period. 

1 99. Certain privileges were allowed to any person who laid dung on a field, cut down a 
wood, or folded his cattle on another's land for a year. , . Such was the state of agriculture 
during this period in Wales ; it was probably in a still more imperfect state among the 
Scots and Picts, but this we have no means of ascertaining. 

200. Our Anglo-Saxon ancestors derived their origin and manners from the ancient 
Germans, who were not much addicted to agriculture, but depended chiefly on their 
flocks and herds for their subsistence. {Straho, 1. vii. ; Cessar cle Sell. Gall., 1. vi.) These 
restless and haughty warriors esteemed the cultivation of their lands too ignoble and 
laborious an employment for themselves, and therefore committed it wholly to their 
women and slaves. [Tacit, de Morib. German., c 15.) They were even at pains to con- 
trive laws to prevent their contracting a taste for agriculture, lest it should render them 
less fond of arms and warlike expeditions. {Id., c. 26.) 

201. The division of landed estates into what are called inlands and outlands, originated 
with the Saxon princes and great men, who, in the division of the conquered lands, ob- 
tained the largest shares, and are said to have subdivided their territory into two parts, 
which were so named. The inlands were those which lay most contiguous to the mansion- 
house of their owner, which he kept in his own immediate possession, and cultivated by 
his slaves, under tlie direction of a bailiff, for the purpose of raising provisions for his 
family. The outlands were those which lay at a greater distance from the mansion- 
house, and were let to the ceorls or farmers of those times at a certain rent, which was 
very moderate, and generally paid in kind. {Reliquice Spelmanniance, p. 12.) 

202. The rent of lands in these tim^s was established by law, and not by the owners of 
the land. By the laws of Ina, king of the West Saxons, who flourished in the end of 
the seventh and beginning of the eighth century, a farm consisting of ten hides, or plough 
lands, was to pay the following rent, viz. ten casks of honey, three hundred loaves of 
bread, twelve casks of strong ale, thirty casks of small ale, two oxen, ten wethers, ten 
geese, twenty hens, ten cheeses, one cask of butter, five salmon, twenty pounds of forage, 
and one hundred eels. {Wilkins, Leges Saxon., p. 25.) The greatest part of the crown 
lands in every county was farmed in this manner by ceorls or farmers, who in general 
appear to have been freemen and soldiers. 

203. Very little is known of the implements 
or operations of husbandry during this period. 
In one of Strutt's plates of ancient dresses, 
entitled, Saxon Rarities of the Eighth Cen- 
tury, may be seen a picture of a plough and 
ploughman, {fg. 22.) This is sufficiently 
rude, though it has evidently undergone some 
improvement from the art of the delineator. 
The laboiirers were no doubt slaves, and the 
animals of draught, oxen. The lands be- 
longing to the monasteries were by much the ^,, — ^^^g, . ,niurs:s--'--5^ii,-/- , -- 

best cultivated; because the secular canons '^J^:-'^^: '^^::z:^=^^^-^,-r^^-:'i>^^'''^^^^ 
who possessed them spent some part of their 
time in cultivating their own lands. The venerable Bede, in his life of Easterwin, 
Abbot of Weremouth, tells us that " This abbot, being a strong man, and of an humble 
disposition, used to assist his monks in their rural labours, sometimes guiding the plough 
by its stilt or handle, sometimes winnowing corn, and sometimes forging instruments 
of husbandry with a hammer upon an anvil." {Bedce Hist. Abbat. Weremath., p. 296.) 
For in those times the husbandmen were under a necessity of making many implements 
of husbandry with their own hands. 

Book I. 



SuBSECT. 2. (yf the State of Agriculture in Britain after the Norman Conquest, or from 
the Eleventh to the Thirteenth Centuries. 

204. That the conquest of England by the Normans contributed to the improvement of 
agriculture in Britain is undeniable. " For by that event many thousands of husband- 
men, from the fertile and well cultivated plains of Flanders, France, and Normandy, 
settled in this island, obtained estates or farms, and employed the same methods in the 
cultivation of them that they had used in their native countries. Some of the Norman 
barons were great improvers of their lands, and are celebrated in history for their skill 
in agriculture." " Richard de Rulos, lord of Brunne and Deeping," says Ingulphus, 
" was much addicted to agriculture, and delighted in breeding horses and cattle. Be- 
sides enclosing and draining a great extent of country, he imbanked the river Wielland, 
(which used every year to overflow the neighbouring fields) in a most substantial manner, 
J)uilding many houses and cottages upon the bank ; which increased so much, that in a 
little time they formed a large town called Deeping, from its low situation. Here he 
planted orchards, cultivated commons, converted deep lakes and impassible quagmires 
into fertile fields, rich meadows, and pastures ; and, in a word, rendered thie whole 
country about it a garden of delights." (Hist. Ingulphi., Oxon. edit. 1684, tom. i. 
p. 77, 78.) From the above description, it appears that this nobleman (who was 
chamberlain to William the Conqueror) was not only fond of agriculture, but also that 
he conducted his improvements with skill and success. 

205. The Norman clergy, and particularly the monks, were still greater improvers than 
the nobility ; and the lands of the church, especially of the convents, were conspicuous 
for their superior cultivation : for the monks of every monastery retained such of their 
lands as lay most convenient in their own possession, which they cultivated with great 
care, under their own inspection, and frequently with their own hands. It was so much 
the custom of the monks of this period to assist in the cultivation of their lands, especially 
in seed-time, hay-time, and harvest, that the famous Thomas Becket, after he was 
Archbishop of Canterbury, used to go out to the field, with the monks of the monasteries 
where he happened to reside, and join with them in reaping their corn and making their 
hay. (Chron. Gervas., col. 1400.) This is indeed mentioned by the historian as an act 
of uncommon condescension in a person of his high station in the church ; but it is 
sufficient proof that the monks of those times used to work with their own hands, at 
some seasons, in the labours of the field : and, as many of them were men of genius and 
invention, they no doubt made various improvements in the art of agriculture. The 
twenty-sixth canon of the general council of Lateran, held A.D. 1179, affords a further 
proof that tlie protection and encouragement of all who were concerned in agriculture, 
were objects of attention to the church. For by that canon it is decreed, " That all 
presbyters, clerks, monks, converts, pilgrims, and peasants, when they are engaged in 
the labours of husbandry, together with 23 
the cattle in their ploughs, and the seed 
which tliey carry into the field, shall 
enjoy perfect security ; and that all who 
molest or interrupt them, if they do not 
desist when they have been admonished, 
shall be excommunicated. " ( Ibid. , col . 

206. The implements of husbandry, in 
this j)eriod, were of the same kind with 
those that are employed at present, 
though all of them, no doubt, much less 
perfect in their construction. One sort 
of plough, for example, had but one 
stilt or handle, which the ploughman guided with one hand, having in his other hand an 
instrument wliich served both for cleaning and mending his plough, and breaking the clods. 
(Jig. 23.) This implement was pro- 

bably intended for breaking up strong ^ ^"-t. 24 

lands ; for such a purpose the wheels 

would contribute much to its steadiness, , . .. >. > ^.^.^^^ ,, . 

which would render two handles unne- / (j <^VJ ""^^W^ 

cessary, and thus leave the holder with ' ' ^ ' '''^ " ^"^ "'' '^ 

one hand at liberty to use his axe-like 

instrument in clearing away roots and ^ _ 

clods, or otherwise aiding the operation '^•^ ^<>^ifc^.^^ ff j [ ^ l--^^\ W^ ^X^'.'^t^ 

of the plough. Anotlier plough (^g.24.) '^ 

seems to have been without wheals, and was propably intended for light soil. (See 

Strutt's Co7nplete View of the Manners, ^c. of Englan^ vol. ii. p. 12.) Tlie Norman 

D 3 



Part I. 

plough had two wheels ; and, in the light soil of Normandy, was commonly drawn by 
one ox, or two oxen ; but in England a greater number, according to the nature of the 
soil, were often necessary, (ilf. Montfaucon, Monumens de Monarchie Francois, torn. i. 
plate 47. ; Girald. Cambrens. Descript. CambruE, c. 17.) In Wales, the person who con- 
ducted the oxen in the plough walked backwards. (Girald. Cambrens., c. 17.) Their carts, 
harrows, scythes, sickles, and flails, from the figures of them still remaining, appear to have 
been nearly of the same construction with those that are now used. (^Strutt^s View, vol. i. 
pi. 26. 82, 33. and our Jig. 25.) In Wales they did not v r-^ 25 
use a sickle in reaping their corn, but an instrument 
like the blade of a knife, with a wooden handle at each 
end. (Girald. Cam., c. 17.) Water-mills for grinding 
Com were very common, but they had also a kind of 
mills turned by horses, which were chiefly used in 
their armies, and at sieges, or in places where running 
water was scarce. (Gaufrid. Vinisauf. Iter Hieroso- 
lymit., 1. i. c. 33.; M. Paris, Vit. Abbot., p. 94. col. 2.) 
207. The various ojierations of husbandry, as 
manuring, ploughing, sovdng, harrowing, reaping, 
threshing, winnowing, &c., are incidentally men- 
tioned by the writers of this period ; but it is impossible to collect from them a distinct 
account of the manner in which these operations were performed. Marl seems to have 
been the chief manure next to dung, employed by the Anglo-Normans, as it had l>een 
by the Anglo-Saxon and British husban(inen. (M. Paris, Hist., p. 181. ; In Vit. Abbot., 
p. 101. col. 1.) Summer fallowing of lands designed for wheat, and ploughing them 
several times, appear to have been common practices of the English farmers of this 
period : for Giraldus Cambrensis, in his description of Wales, takes notice of it as a 
great singularity in the husbandmen of that country, " that they ploughed their lands 
only once a year, in March or April, in order to sow them with oats ; but did not, like 
other farmers, plough them twice in summer, and once in winter, in order to prepare 
them for wheat." (Girald- Cambrens. Descript. Cambrue, c. viii. p. 887.) On the border 
of one of the compartments in the famous tapestry of Bayeux, we see the figure of one 
man sowing with a sheet about his neck, containing the seed under his left arm, and scat- 
tering it with his right hand ; and of another man harrowing with one harrow, drawn by 
one horse. (Montfaucon, Monumens de Monarchie Franqois, tom. i. plate 47.) In two 
plates of Strutt's very curious and valuable work (Jigs. 26, 27.), we perceive the figures 

of several persons engaged in mowing, reaping, threshing, and winnowing ; in all which 
operations there appears to be little singular or different from modern practice. (Stridt^s 
Complete View of the Manners, Custom^ ^c, of England, vol. i. plates 11, 12.) 

208. Agriculture in Scotland seems to have been in a very imperfect state towards the 
end of this period. For in a parliament held at Scone, by King Alexander II., A. D. 

1214, it was enacted, that such farmers as had four oxen or cows, or upwards, should 
labour their lands, by tilling tl^^ with a plough, and should begin to till fifteen days 


before Candlemas ; and that such farmers as had not so many as four oxen, though they 
could not labour their lands by tilling, should delve as much with hand and foot as would 
produce a sufficient quantity of corn to support themselves and their families. (Regmni 
Majeslatem, p. 307. ) But this law was probably designed for the highlands, and most 
uncultivated parts of the kingdom ; for in the same parliament a very severe law was 
made against those farmers who did not extirpate a pernicious weed called guilde (Chrysan- 
themum s^getum L.) out of their lands, which seems to indicate a more advanced state 
of cultivation. {Ibid., p. 335.) Their agricul- '29^ 
28 tural operations, as far as can be gathered 
from old tapestries and illuminated missals, 
were similar to those of England. Thresh- 
ing appears to have been performed by women 
(Jig. 28.), and reaping by the men (Jig. 29.), 
which is the reverse of the modern practice 
in that and in most countries. Such is the account of Henry. 
(History of Britain, vol. vi. p. 173.) 

209. Thejield culture of the vine, which had been commenced by 
tlie monks for their own use, was more extensively spread by the 
Normans. William of Malmsbury, who flourished in the early part of the twelfth 
century, says there were a greater number of vineyards in the vale of Gloucester than 
any where else, and that from the grapes was produced a wine very little inferior to that 
of France. Orchards and cider were also abundant, and the apple trees, it is said, lined 
the roads in some parts of the country, as they still do in Normandy, whence in all pro- 
bability tlie plants or at least the grafts were imported. 

SuBSECT. 3. History of Agriculture in Britain, from the Thirteenth Century to the Time 

of Henry VIII. 

210. Agriculture in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, it appears, was still carried 
on with vigour. Sir John Fortescue, in a work in praise of the English laws, mentions 
the progress that had been made in planting hedges and hedge-row trees before the end 
of the fourteenth century. Judge Fortescue wrote his Legum Anglice in the fifteenth 
century, but it was not published till the reign of Henry VIII. In the law book called 
Fleta (supposed to have been written by some lawyers, prisoners in the Fleet, in 1340), 
very particular directions are given as to the most proper times and best manner of 
ploughing and dressing fallows. (Fleta, lib. ii. chap. 73. p. 163.) The farmer is there 
directed to plough no deeper in summer, than is necessary for destroying the weeds ; nor 
to lay on his manure till a little before the last ploughing, which is to be with a deep and 
narrow furrow. Rules are also given for the changing and choosing of seed ; for pro- 
portioning-the quantity of different kinds of seed to be sown on an acre, according to the 
nature of the soil, and the degree of richness ; for collecting and compounding ma- 
nures, and accommodating them to the grounds on which they are to be laid ; for the 
best seasons for sowing seeds of different kinds on all the variety of soils ; and, in a 
word, for performing every operation in husbandry, at the best time, and in the best 
manner. (Fleta, lib. ii. chap. 72, 73. 76.) In the same work, the duties and business 
of the steward, bailiff, and overseer, of a manor and of all the other persons concerned in 
the cultivation of it, are explained at full length, and with so much good sense, that if 
they were well performed the manor could not be ill cultivated. (Ibid., chap. 72. 88. ; 
Henry, viii. 267.) lliis work, as well as others of the kind, is written in Latin, and even 
the farming accounts were in those days kept in that language, as they still are in the 
greater part of Hungary. 

211. During the greater part of tlie fifteenth century England was engaged in civil wars, 
and agriculture, as well as other arts, declined. The labourers, called from the plough by 
royal proclamation or the mandates of their lords, perished in battle, or by accident and 
fatigue, in immense numbers. Labour rose in price notwithstanding various laws for its 
limitation, and this at last produced a memorable revolution in the state of agriculture, 
which made a mighty noise for many years. The prelates, barons, and other great 
proprietors of land, kept extensive tracts around their castles, which were called their 
demesne lands, in their own immediate possession, and cultivated them by their villains, 
and by hired servants, under the direction of their bailiffs. But these great landholders 
liaving often led their followers into the fields of war, their numbers were gradually 
diminished, and hired servants could not be procured on reasonable terms. Tliis obliged 
the prelates, lords, and gentlemen to enclose the lands around their castles, and to con- 
vert them into pasture grounds. This practice of enclosing became very general in 
England about the middle of this period, and occasioned prodigious clamours from those 
who mistook the effect of depopulation for its cause. 

212. The habit of enclosing lands and converting tJiem to pasture continued after the 
cause had ceased, and an act was passed to stop its progress in the beginning of the reign 

D 4 * 


of Henry VII. Tlie dearths of this period furnish another proof of the low state of 
agriculture. Wheat in 1437 and 1438 rose from 4s. or 45. 6(/., the ordinary price per 
quarter, to 11. 6s. Sd., equivalent to 131. 6s. 8d. of our money. Stow observes that, ip 
these extremities, the common people endeavoured to preserve their wretched lives, by 
drying the roots of herbs and converting them into a kind of bread. Land in those days 
was sold for ten years' purchase, so great was the insecurity of possession. 

213. Aj^riculture in Scotland was at a low ebb during the tliirteenth, fourteenth, and 
fifteenth centuries, on account of the long and ruinous wars in which the country was 
engaged. A law passed in 1424 enacts that every labourer of " simple estate " dig a 
piece of ground daily, of seven feet square ; another in 1457, that farmers who had 
eight oxen should sow every year one firlot (bushel) of wheat, half a firlot of pease, and 
forty beans, under the pain of ten shillings to be paid to tlie baron ; and if the baron did 
not do tlie same tiling to the lands in liis possession, he should pay the same penalty to 
the king. 

214. From the accession of Henry VII. in 1485, to nearly the middle of the seventeenth 
century, England enjoyed peace. To remove the effects of former wars, however, 
required a considerable time. The high price of labour, and the conversion of so much 
land to tillage, gave rise to different impolitic statutes, prohibiting the exportation of 
corn ; while a great demand was created for wool by the manufactures of the Nether- 
lands, which tended to enhance tlie value of pasture lands, and depopulate the country. 
The flocks of individuals, in these times, sometimes exceeded twenty thousand, and an 
act was passed by Henry VIII., restricting them to a tenth of that number, apparently 
eluded from the partial exception of hereditary opulence. Had the restraints imposed on 
the exportation of com been transferred to wool, the internal consumption would have 
soon regulated the respective prices of those articles ; the proportion between arable and 
pasture lands would soon have been adjusted ; and the declining cultivation of the country 
restored. An improved cultivation was reserved, however, for a future period, when 
persecution extirpated manufactures from the Netherlands ; then, when the exportation of 
English wool had subsided, and its price diminished, the farmer or landholder, disap- 
pointed of his former exuberant profits, discovered the necessity of resuming tlie plough, 
and restoring his pastures to culture. {Henry, xii. 261.) 

215. Of the state of agriculture in Scotland during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries 
little can be stated. According to Major {^Historia Britnnnica, Paris, 1526), a native of 
Bermck, " the peasants neither enclosed nor planted, nor endeavoured to ameliorate the 
sterility of the soil." According to Fynnis Moryson, the produce of the country consisted 
cliiefly of oats and barley j but it would appear from Chalmers that wheat was cultivated 
in Scotland, at least upon the church lands, so early as the thirteenth century. Different 
laws were enacted for planting groves and hedges, pruning orchards and gardens, and 
forming parks for deer : but it is not the barren injunctions of statutes that will excite a 
spirit of improvement in a country. 

SuBSECT. 4. History of Agriculture, from the Time of Henry VIII. to the Revolution 

in 1688. 

216. Agriculture, soon after the beginning of the sixteenth century, partook of the general 
improvement which followed tlie invention of the art of printing, the revival of literature, 
and the more settled authority of government; and, instead of the occasional notices of 
historians, we can now refer to regular treatises, written by men who engaged eagerly in 
this neglected, and hitherto degraded, occupation. 

217. The culture of hops was either introduced or revived early in the reign of Henry 
VIII. ; and that of flax was attempted, but without success, though enforced by law. 
(Holinshead, p. 110, 111. ; 24 Hen. 8. c. 4.) The legislature at that time endeavoured 
to execute, by means of penalties, those rational improvements which have since been 
fostered and cherished by bounties j or, what is better, pursued from the common motive 
of self-interest. 

218. The breeding of horses was now much encouraged. To tlie passion of the age, 
and the predilection of the monarch for splendid tournaments, may be attributed the 
attention bestowed on a breed of horses of a strength and stature adapted to the weight 
of tlie complicated panoply with which the knight and his courser were both invested. 
Statutes of a singular nature were enacted, allotting for deer parks a certain propor- 
tion of breeding mares, and enjoining, not the prelates and nobles only, but those 
whose wives wore velvet bonnets, to have stallions of a certain size for their saddle. 
The legal standard was fifteen hands in horses, thirteen in mares, and *' unlikely tits " 
•were, without distinction, consigned to execution. (27 Hen. 8. cap. 6. ; 36 Hen. 8. 
cap. 13. See Barringtoiis Observations on the Statutes, p. 443.) James the Fourth, 
of Scotland, with more propriety, imported horses from foreign countries in order to 
improve the degenerate breed of his own. (Pitscotlic, p. 153.) The cultivation of 
grasses for their winter provendfl§ was still unknown ; nor were asses propagated in 


England till a subsequent period. (Holinshead, p. 220. ; Polydore Virgil, p. 13. ; Henry y 
xii. 268.) 

219. The first English treatise on husbandry now appeared, written by Sir A. Fitzherbert, 
judge of the common pleas. It is entitled The Book of Husbandry, and contains directions 
for draining, clearing, and enclosing a farm ; and for enriching and reducing the soil 
to tillage. Lime, marl, and fallowing are strongly recommended. The landlords are 
advised to grant leases to farmers who will surround their farms, and divide them by 
hedges into proper enclosures ; by which operation, he says, " if an acre of land be 
worth sixpence before it is enclosed, it will be worth eightpence when it is enclosed, by 
reason of the compost and dunging of the cattle." Another reason is, that it will pre- 
serve the corn without the expense of a herdsman. From the time of the appearance of 
this work, in 1534, Harte dates the revival of husbandry in England. 

220. The Book cf Surveying and Improvements, by the author of The Book of Hus- 
bandry, appeared in 1539. In the former treatise we have a clear and minute description 
of the rural practices of that period ; and from the latter may be learned a good deal of 
the economy of the feudal system in its decline. The author of The Book of Husbandry 
writes from his own experience of more than forty years ; and, if we except his biblical 
allusions, and some vestiges of the superstition of the Roman writers about the influence 
of the moon, there is very little of his work that should be omitted, and not a great deal 
of subsequent science that need be added, with regard to the culture of corn, in a manual 
of husbandry adapted to the present time. It may surprise some of the agriculturists of 
the present day, an eminent agricultural writer remarks, to be told that, after the lapse of 
almost three centuries, Fitzherbert's practice, in some material branches, has not been im- 
proved upon ; and tliat in several districts abuses still exist, which were as clearly pointed 
out by him at that early period, as by any writer of the present age. His remarks on 
sheep are so accurate, that one might imagine they came from a storemaster of tlie pre- 
sent day : those on horses, cattle, &c., are not less interesting ; and there is a very good 
account of the diseases of each species, and some just observations on the advantage of 
mixing different kinds in the same pasture. Swine and bees conclude this branch of the 
work. He then points out the great advantages of enclosures ; recommends " quyck- 
settynge, dychynge,and hedgyng ;" and gives particular directions about the settes, and the 
method of training a hedge, as well as concerning the planting and management of trees. 
We have then a short information " for a yonge gentylman that intendeth to thryve," and 
a " prolouge for the wive's occupation," in some instances, rather too homely for the pre- 
sent time. Among other things, she is to " make her husband and herself some clothes ;" 
and " she may have the lockes of the shepe, either to make blankettes and coverlettes, or 
both." This is not so much amiss ; but what follows will bring our learned judge into 
disrepute, even with our most industrious housewives. " It is a wive's occupation to 
wynowe all manner of cornes, to make malte, to washe and wrynge, to make heye, shere 
come, and, in time of nede, to helpe her husbande to fyll the muckewayne or dounge 
carte, drive the ploughe, to loade heye, corne, and suche other. And to go or ride to the 
market, to sel butter, chese, mylke, egges, chekyns, capons, hennes, pygges, gese, and all 
manner of cornes." The rest of the book contains some useful advices about diligence 
and economy j and concludes, after the manner of the age, with many pious exhortations. 
(Encyc. Brit., art. Agr.) 

221. The state of agriculture in England in the early part of the sixteenth century, and 
probably for a long time before, is thus ascertained ; for Fitzherbert no where speaks of 
the practices which he describes or recommends as of recent introduction. The Book of 
Surveyinge adds considerably to our knowledge of the rural economy of that age. 
" Four maner of commens" are described ; several kinds of mills for corn, and other 
purposes, and also " qu ernes that goo with hand ;" different orders of tenants, dovm to 

the ** boundmen," who "in some places contynue as yet; and many tymes, by 

color thereof, there be many freemen taken as boundmen, and their lands and goods is 
taken from them." Lime and marl are mentioned as common manures ; and the former 
was sometimes spread on the surface to destroy heath. Both draining and irrigation 
are noticed; though the latter but slightly. The work concludes with an enquiry 
" How to make a township that is worth XX merke a yere worth XX li. a year :'* 
this is to be done by enclosing, by which, he says, live stock may be better kept and 
vdthout herds ; and the closes or fields alternately cropped with corn, and " let lye " for a 

222. Agriculture had attained a considerable degree of respectability during the reign of 
Elizabeth. According to Tusser, who wrote in that age, and whose work will be pre-' 
sently noticed, agriculture was best understood in Essex and Suffolk ; at least enclosures 
were more common in these counties than in any other, which is always a proof of 
advancement. A farmer, according to Harrison the geographer, " will thinke his gaines 
very small towardes the end of his terme if he have not six or seven years rent lieing by 
him, therewith to purchase a new lease ; beside a fair garnish of pewter on his cupboard. 


with as much more in odd vessels going about the house ; three or four feather-beds ; so 
many coverlets, and carpets of tapestrie ; a silver salt ; a bowle for wine, if not a whole 
neast; and a dozen of spoones to furnish owte the sute." {Harrisons Description of 
England, p. 188.) 

223. The condition of a yeoman, before or about Elizabeth* s lime, is exemplified in the 
case of Bishop Latimer's father. " My father," says Hugh Latimer, " was a yeoman, 
and had no land of his own ; only he had a farm of three or four pounds by the year at 
the utmost ; and hereupon he tilled so much as kept half a dozen men. He had a walk 
for a hundred sheep ; and my mother milked thirty kine, &c. He kept his son at 
school till he went to the university, and maintained him there ; he married his daugh- 
ters with five pounds, or twenty nobles apiece ; he kept liospitality with his neighbours, 
and some alms he gave to the poor ; and all this he did but of the said farm." [Gilpin s 
Life of Latimer.) 

224. Cattle were not jylentiful in England at the beginning of Elizabeth'' s reign. In 1563 
it was enacted that no one should eat flesh on Wednesdays or Fridays, on forfeiture of 
three pounds, unless in oase of sickness, or of a special license, neither of which was to 
extend to beef or veal. (^Stat. 5 Eliz. cap. 4. ) Great pains were taken in the act to prove 
that it was a political, not a religious measure. 

225. The vast number of parks in the kingdom are complained of by Harrison. " There 
are not less," he says, " than an hundred in Essex alone, where almost nothing is kept 
but a sorte of wilde and savage beasts, cherished for pleasure and delight." And pursuing 
the same subject, he says, " that if the world last a while after this rate, wheate and rie 
will be no graine for poore men to feed on." (Description of Britaine, p. 168.) 

226. Ln Scotland the civil dissensions, and even anarchy, which prevailed until a late 
period in the sixteenth century, operated as a harsh check on every improvement in 
agriculture, and the total expulsion of ecclesiastical landholders increased this evil ; 
as the monks were easy landlords, and frequently not uninstructed in georgical know- 
ledge. The tillers of the earth in Scotland had at least their full share of their country's 
misfortunes, when private vengeance for private wrongs superseded the regular but timid 
proceedings of public justice. A statute was then formed for their particular benefit, 
whereby (Stat. 110. Pari. 7. Jac. 6.) " the slayers and houchers (houghers) of horses 
and uther cattel," with their employers and maintainers, are declared " to have incurred 
the paine of death, and confiscation of alle their gudes movvabil. " A second act passed 
in 1587 for the further protection of husbandmen, declaring all such as destroyed or 
maimed horses, oxen, &c., cut or destroyed ploughs or plough-geers (in time of tilling), 
or trees and com, should suffer death. {Stat. 83. Pari. 2. Jac 6.) Several acts of parlia- 
ment were made to protect the farmers from petulant tithe-gatherers ; the proper times of 
notice were herein pointed out, and liberty given to the tiller of the land to proceed in 
his work if this notice were neglected. The last (Stat. 84. Pari. 2. Jac 6.) confirmed and 
explained the others. (Andrew* s Continuation of Henry* s Hist., ii. 124.) 

227. Great attention was still paid to the breed of horses in England ; but, during the 
reign of Elizabeth, it was found necessary to lower the standard appointed by Henry VIII. 
for stallions, from fourteen hands to thirteen. This modification, however, was only to 
take place in the counties of Cambridge, Huntingdon, Northampton, Lincoln, Norfolk, 
and Suifolk. (18 Eliz. cap. 8.) No stallion of less height could be turned out on com- 
mons, forests, &c., for fear of deteriorating the breed. Harrison extols the height and 
strength of the English draught-horses ; five or six of them, he says, will with ease draw 
three thousand weight of the greatest tale for a long journey. 

228. An English traveller, who visited Scotland in 1598, observed a great abundance of 
all kind of cattle, and many horses ; not large, but high-spirited and patient of labour. 
(Morysons Itin., part iii. p. 154.) Great care, indeed, was taken by the English, while 
the kingdoms were separate, to prevent the Scots from improving their breed by southen 
stallions; it was even made felony to export horses thither from England. (1 Eliz. 
cap. 7.) This unneighbourly prohibition was answered by a reciprocal restriction in 
1567, as to the exportation of Scottish horses (Stat. 22. Pari. 1. Jac. 6.) ; but France, 
rather than England, seems to be aimed at by that statute. One circumstance, 
pointed out by a curious antiquary (Paper ajmd Transactions of Sc. Ant. Soc, vol. i. 
p. 171.), is a convincing proof of the modern improvement in the breed: for many 
years past eight nails have been used to each horse's shoe in the north ; six used to be the 

229. The proper seasons for turning horses to grass was thought a consideration worth 
the attention of the Scottish government, avowedly to prevent the waste of corn. All 
horses were, therefore, ordered to be put to grass from May 15th to Oct. 15th, on 
pain of forfeiting each horse, or its value, to the king. Gentlemen of 1000 marks, 
yearly rent, and all upwards, are excepted. (Stat. 122. Pari. 7. Jac 6.) The 1st of 
June was substituted in a subsequent act (Stat. 56. Pari. 2. Jac 6.) for the 15th of 


230. The vine in England continued to he cultivated for wine ; but not generally, for 
the vineyards of the Lords Cobham and Williams of Thames, are pointed out by Bamaby 
Gooch as eminently productive. It is probable this branch of culture declined with the 
suppression of the monasteries, and the more general culture of barley ; as farmers and 
others would soon find that good beer was a cheaper and better drink, than any wine that 
could be made in this country. Though in 1565, in this reign, the potato was intro- 
duced from Santa Fe by Capt. Hawkins, yet it did not come into general use, even in 
gardens, for nearly two centuries afterwards. 

23 1 . Tlie principal agricultural authors of Elizabeth* s reign are, Tusser, Googe, and 
Sir Hugh Piatt. Thomas Tusser was born at Rivenhall in Essex, in 1 527. Having 
a fine voice, he was impressed for the royal chapel, and sang in St. Paul's, under a 
celebrated musician. " Afterwards he was a scholar at Eton, and next a student at 
Cambridge. He next became, by turns, musician, farmer, grazier, and poet; but 
always unsuccessfully, although guilty of neither vice nor extravagance." His Five 
Hundred Points of Husbandry was published in 1562, and has been recommended by 
Lord Molesworth to be taught in schools. (Some Considerations for the Promolitig of 
Agriculture and employing the Poor, Dublin, 1723.) It is written in hobbling verse, 
and contains some useful notices concerning the state of agriculture in diflferent parts of 
England. Hops, which had been introduced in the early part of the sixteenth century, 
and on the culture of which a treatise was published in 1574, by Reynolds Scott, are 
mentioned as a well known crop. Buck-wheat was sown after barley. It seems to have 
been the practice then, in some places, to " geld fillies " as well as colts. Hemp and flax 
are mentioned as common crops. Enclosures must have been numerous in several 
counties ; and there is a very good " comparison between champion (open fields) coun- 
try, and severall." There is nothing to be found in Tusser about serfs or bondmen, as in 
Fitzherbert's works. (Encyc. Brit., art. Agricul.) 

232. The next writer is Bamaby Googe, a Lincolnshire gentleman, whose Whole Art of Husbandry was 
printed in 1578. It is, for the most part, made up of gleanings from all the ancient writers of Greece and 
Rome, whose absurdities are faithfully retained ; with here and there some description of the practices of 
the age, in which there is little novelty or importance. Googe mentions a number of English writers 
who lived about the time of Fitzherbert, whose works have not been preserved. 

233. Sir Hugh PlatVs Jewel Houses of Art and Nature was printed in 1594. It is chiefly a compilation 
from other writers. The author appears to have been a lawyer of Lincoln's Inn, but he had a seat in 
Essex, and another in Middlesex, where he spent great part of his time. — The Rev. William Harrison, 
a contemporary of Piatt, and chaplain to Baron Cobham, wrote a description of Britain, and translated 
Boeth'ms's History of Scotland. In the former work are many valuable hints on the progress of hus- 
bandry in the early part of the reign of Elizabeth. Among other curious things he asserts that the 
Spanish, or Merino sheep, was originally derived from England, 

234. The seventeenth century is distinguished by some important improvements in agricul- 
ture, among which are the introduction of clovers and turnips in England ; of hedges 
in Scotland and Ireland ; and the execution of extensive embankments and drainages. 
Some useful writers also appeared, especially Norden, Gabriel Plattes, Sir Richard 
Weston, Hartlib, and Blythe, to whom may be added Evelyn. 

235. For the adoption of the clover, as an agricultural plant, we are indebted to Sir 
Richard Weston, who, in 1645, gives an account of its culture in Flanders, where he 
says " he saw it cutting near Antwerp, on the 1st of June 1644, being then two feet 
long, and very thick ; that he saw it cut again on the 29th of the same month, being 
twenty inches long; and a third time in August, being eighteen inches long." Blythe, 
in 1653, is copious in his directions for its cultivation ; and Lisle (06s. on Husbandry), 
in the beginning of the eighteenth century, speaks of it as commonly cultivated in Hamp- 
shire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and other counties. 

236. Turnips were probably introduced as a field crop by the same patriotic author, 
though they may probably have been grown in the gardens of the church establishments 
long before. They are cultivated, he observes, " for feeding kine in many parts of England ; 
but there is as much difference between what groweth in Flanders and here, as is between 
the same thing which groweth in a garden and that which groweth wild in the fields." It is 
probable the English turnips he alludes to were rape, which is mentioned by Googe in 
1586 ; but, though Gerarde, in 1597, and Parkinson, in 1629, mention the turnip as a garden 
vegetable, yet neither of these authors gives the least hint of their field culture : be that as 
it may, Ray, in 1686, informs us, that they are sown every where in fields and gardens, 
both in England and abroad, for the sake of their roots. Lisle also, in 1707, mentions 
their being common in Norfolk, Hampshire, Berkshire, and various counties. The 
common story, therefore, that their culture was first introduced by Charles Lord Viscount 
Townsend, cannot be true ; but their culture was probably greatly improved by him, 
when he retired from public business to Rainham in Norfolk, in 1730. 

237. The first notices of sheep being fed on the ground with turnips, is given in Houghton's 
Collections on Husbandry and Trade, a periodical work begun in 1681. In 1684, Wor- 
lidge, one of Houghton's correspondents, observes, " sheep fatten very well on turnips, 
which prove an excellent nourishment for them in hard winters, when fodder is scarce ; 



Part I. 

for they will not only eat the greens, but feed on the roots in the ground, and scoop them 

hollow even to the verj- skin Ten acres," he adds, « sown with clover, turnips, &c, 

will feed as many sheep as one hundred acres thereof would before have done." {Hough- 
tons Collections, vol. iv. p. 142— 144.) 

238. Potatoes, first introduced in 1565 (230.), were at this time beginning to attract 
notice. " The potato, " says Houghton, " is a bacciferon^ herb, with esculent roots, 

bearing winged leaves, and a bell flower This, 1 have been informed, was brought 

first out of Virginia by Sir Walter Baleigh ; 
and he stopping at Ireland, some was 
planted there, where it thrived verj- well, 
and to good purpose ; for in their succeed- 
ing wars, when all the com above ground 
was destroyed, this supported them ; for 
the soldiers, unless they had dug up all the 
ground where they grew, and almost sifted 
it, could not extirpate them. From thence 
they were brought to Lancashire, where 
they are very numerous, and now they be- 
gan to spread all the kingdom over. They 
are a pleasant food, boiled or roasted, and 
eaten with butter and sugar. There is a 
sort brought from Spain that are of a longer 
form (Convolvulus ^a/uVas) {fg. 30.), and 
are more luscious than ours ; tliey are much 
set by, and sold for sixpence or eightpence the pound." (lb., vol. ii. p. 468.) 

239. Embankments were made on the eastward of England, in various places, by the 
Romans, when in possession of the country, and afterwards by some wealthy rehgious 
houses, and by the government. Considerable exertions were made at Boston during the 
reign of Henry VII., under the direction of Mayhave Hake, a Flemish engineer, and 
fourteen masons ; but the principal effort, as far as respects gaining land for agricultural 
purposes, was made during tlie protectorate, by Col. Vermuyden, a Fleming, who 
served in Cromwell's army. Speaking of this engineer's exertions, Harte obsenes, " if my 
accoimt stands right (and it comes from the best authority extant), our kingdom in the 
space of a few years, till the year 1651 only, had recovered, or was on the point of 
recovering, in Lincolnshire, Cambridgeshire, Huntingdonshire, and Kent, 425,000 acres 
of fens and morasses, which were advanced in general, from half a crown an acre to 
twenty and thirty shillings. So that, perhaps, few statesmen and generals have better 
deserved a statue or mommient from this country than Vermuyden, the principal un- 

240. The exportation of com was regulated by various laws, during the sixteenth cen- 
tury ; and importation was not restrained even in plenty and cheapness. In 1 663 was 
passed the first statute for levying tolls at turnpikes. Enclosures by consent and by act 
of parliament began also to be made during this century. 

241. The agriculture of Scotland during the Jtfieenth and sixteenth centuries continued 
to languish, especially upon the estates of the barons, where the profession of a soldier 
was regarded as of greater importance than that of a cultivator of the ground ; but the 
ecclesiastical lands were considerably improved, and the tenants of them were generally 
much more comfortably circmnstanced than those upon the estates of laymen. The 
reformation of religion, beneficial as it was in other respects, rather checked than pro- 
moted agricultural improvement ; because the change of property, which then occurred, 
occasioned a similar change of tenantrj', and almost took husbandrj' out of the hands of the 
monks, the only class of people by whom it was practised upon correct principles. The 
dissolution of the monasteries and other religious houses was also attended -n-ith injurious 
consequences in the first instance ; though latterly the greatest benefit has been derived 
from tithes and church lands having come into the hands of laymen. It is probable, had 
not these circumstances occurred, that the tithe system would have still remained in force, 
and Scottish husbandry have continued under a burthen, which sinks and oppresses the 
cultivator of England and Ireland. But tithes having got into the hands of lay titulars, 
or impropriators, were in general collected or farmed with such severity as to occasion the 
most grievous complaints, not only from the tenantry, but also from the numerous class 
of proprietors, who had not been so fortunate as to procure a share of the general spoil. 
This, added to the desire shown by the crown to resume the grants made when its power 
was comparatively feeble, occasioned the celebrated submission to Charles I., which ended 
in a settlement, that in modem times has proved highly beneficial, not only to the interest 
of proprietors, but likewise to general improvement. Tithes, in fact, are a burthen, 
which operate as a tax upon industry, though it was a long time before the beneficial 
consequences of withdrawing them were fully understood. (J?dm. Encyc, art. Agr.) 


242. Of the state of agriculture in Scotland during the greater part of the seventeenth 
centuiy very little is known ; no professed treatise on the subject appeared till after the 
revolution. The south-eastern counties were the earliest improved, and yet, in 1660, 
their condition seenns to have been very ^>Tetched. Ray, who made a tour along the 
eastern coast in that year, says, " We obser^-ed little or no fallow grounds in Scotland j 
some ley ground we saw, which they manured with sea wreck. The men seemed to be 
very lazy, and may be frequently observed to plough in their cloaks. It is the fashion of 
tliem to wear cloaks when they go abroad, but especially on Sundays. They have neither 
good bread, cheese, nor drink. They cannot make them, nor will they learn. Their 
butter is very indifferent, and one would wonder how they could contrive to make it so 
bad. They use much pottage made of colewort, which they call kail, sometimes broth 
of decorticated l)arley. The ordinary country houses are pitiful cots, built of stone, and 
covered with turfs, having in them but one room, many of them no chimneys, the win- 
dows very small holes, and not glazed. The ground in the valleys and plains bears very 
good com, but especially bears barley or bigge and oats, but rarely wheat and rye." 
(Select Remains of John Ray. Lond. 1760.) 

2i.3. // is probable thai no great change had taken place in Scotland from the end of the fifteenth century, 
except that tenants graduaUy became possessed of a little stock of their own, instead of having their 
farms stocked by the landlord. " The minority of James V., the reign of Mary Stewart, the infancy of 
her son, and the civil wars of her grandson Charles I., were all periods of lasting waste. The very laws 
which were made during successive reigns, for protecting the tillers of the soil from spoil, are the best 
proofs of the deplorable state of the hustwndman." {^Chalmers's Caledonia, vol iL p. 732. ; Encyc. Brit., 
art. Agr.) t 

244. The accession of James VI. to the crown of England is understood to have been 
unfavourable to the agricultural interest of Scotland ; inasmuch as the nobles and gentry, 
being by that event led into great expenses, raised the rents of the tenantry considerably, 
wliilst the very circumstance which occasioned the rise, contributed to lessen the means 
of the tenant for fulfilling his engagements. Scotland, however, was much benefited by 
the soldiers of Cromwell, who were chiefly English yeomen, not only well acquainted 
with husbandry, but, like the Romans at a former period, studious»also to improve and 
enlighten the nation which Aey had subdued. The soldiers of Cromwell's army were 
regularly paid at the rate of eightpence per day, a sum equal at least to the money value 
of two shillings of our currency ; and as this army lay in Scotland for many years, there 
was a great circulation of money through the country. Perhaps the low country districts 
were at that time in a higher state of improvement than at any former period. In the 
counties of Lanark, Renfrew, Ayr, and Kirkcudbright, the rentals of various estates 
were greater in 1660, than they were seventy years afterwards ; and the causes which 
brought about a declension in value are ascertained without diflSculty. The large fines 
exacted from country gentlemen and tenants in these counties, during the reign of 
Charles II. and his brother James, were almost suflBcient to impoverish both proprietors 
and cultivators, had they even been as wealthy as they are at the present day. In addi- 
tion to those fines, the dreadful imprisonments, and other oppressive measures pursued by 
those in power, equally contrary to sound policy and to justice and humanity, desolated 
large tracts, drove the oppressed gentry and many of their wealthy tenants into foreign 
countries, and extinguished the spirit of industry and improvement in the breasts of those 
who were left behind. 

245. Yet in the seventeenth century tvere those laws made which paved the way for the 
present imjrroved system of agriculture in Scotland. By statute 1 633, landholders were 
enabled to have their tithes valued, and to buy them either at nine or at six years' pur- 
chase, according to the nature of the property. The statute 1685, conferring on land- 
lords a power to entail their estates, was indeed of a very different tendency, in regard to 
its effects on agriculture ; but the two acts in 1695, for the division of commons, and 
separation of intermixed properties, have facilitated in an eminent degree the progress of 
improvement. {Encyc. Brit., art. Agr.) 

246. The literary history of agriculture, during the seventeenth century, is of no great 
interest till about the middle of that period. For more than fifty years after the appear- 
ance of Googe's work, there are no systematic works on husbandry, though several trea- 
tises on particular departments of it. From these it is evident, that all the different 
operations of the farmer were performed with more care and correctness than formerly ; 
that the fallows were better worked ; the fields kept free of weeds ; and much more 
attention paid to manures of every kind. A few of the writers of this period deserve to 
be shortly noticed. 

247. Sir John Nordens Surveyor's Dialogue, printed in 1607, is a work of consider- 
able merit. The first three books of it relate to the rights of the lord of the manor, 
and the various tenures by which landed property was then held, and the obligations 
which they imposed : among others, we find the singular custom, so humorously described 
in the Spectator, about the incontinent widow riding upon a ram. In the fifth book, 
there are a good many judicious observations on the " different natures of grounds, how 


they may be employed, how they may be bettered, reformed, and amended." The 
famous meadows near &ilisbury are mentioned ; and when cattle have fed their fill, hogs, 
it is pretended, " are made fat with the remnant, namely, with the knots and sappe of 
the grasse." So many extravagant assertions have been made about these meadows by 
several of our early writers, that we ought to receive their statements with some degree 
of scepticism, wherever they seem to approach the marvellous. " Clover grass, or the 
grass honeysuckle " (white clover), is directed to be sown with other hay-seeds. *' Car- 
rot-roots " were then raised in several parts of England, and sometimes by farmers." 
London street-dung and stable-dung were carried to a distance by water ; though it 
appears from later writers to have been got almost for the trouble of removing. And 
leases of twenty-one years are recommended for persons of small capital, as better than 
employing it in purchasing land ; an opinion that prevails very generally among our 
present farmers. 

248. Bees seem to have been great favourites with these early writers ; and among others, 
there is a treatise by Butler, a gentleman of Oxford, called the Feminine Mo7iarchie, or 
the History of Bees, printed in 1609, full of all manner of quaintness and pedantry. 

249. Markham, Mascall, Gabriel Plattes, Weston, and other authors, belonged to this 
period. In Sir Richard Weston's Discourse on the Husbandry of Brabant and Flanders, 
published by Hartlib, in 1645, we may mark the dawn of the vast improvements which 
have since been effected in Britain. This gentleman was ambassador from England to 
the Elector Palatine and King of Bohemia, in 1619, and had the merit of being tlie first 
who introduced the great clover, as it was then called, into English agriculture, about 
1 645, and probably turnips also. In less than ten years after its introduction, that is, 
before 1655, the culture of clover, exactly according to the present method, seems to 
have been well known in England, and had made its way even to Ireland. 

250. A great many loorks on agriculture appeared during the time of the common- 
wealth, of which Blythe's Improver improved and Hartlib's Legacy are the most valu- 
able. The first edition of the former was published in 1649, and of the latter in 1650 ; 
and both of them were enlarged in subsequent editions. In the first edition of the 
Improver improved, no mention is made of clover, nor in the second of turnips ; but, in 
the third, published in 1 662, clover is treated of at some length ; and turnips are recom- 
mended as an excellent cattle crop, the culture of which should be extended from the 
kitchen-garden to the field. Sir Richard Weston must have cultivated turnips before 
this ; for Blythe says, that " Sir Richard aflirmed to himself, he did feed his swine vnth 
them ; they were first given boiled, but afterwards the swine came to eat them raw," and 
" would run after the carts and pull them forth as they gathered them ;" an expression 
which conveys an idea of their being cultivated in the fields. 

251. Blythe's hook is the first systematic work in which there are some traces of the convertible husbandry, 
so beneficially established since, by interposing clover and turnip between culmiferous crops. He is a 
great enemy to commons and common fields ; and to retaining land in old pasture, unless it be of the 
best quality. His description of different kinds of ploughs is interesting ; and he justly recommends such 
as were drawn by two horses (some even by one horse), in preference to the weighty clumsy machines 
which required four horses or oxen, or more. Almost all the manures now used seem to have been then 
well known ; and he brought lime himself from a distance of twenty miles. He speaks of an instrument 
which ploughed, sowed, and harrowed at the same time; and the s^^//7?g o/ cor/i was then a subject of 
much discussion. " It was not many years," says Blythe, " since the famous city of London petitioned 
the parliament of England against two anusancies or offensive commodities, which were likely to come 
into great use and esteem ; and that was Newcastle coal, in regard of their stench, &c. ; and hops, in 
regard they would spoyle the taste of drinck, and endanger the people !" 

252. Hartlib's Legacy is a very heterogeneous performance, containing among some very judicious 
directions, a great deal of rash speculation. Several of the deficiencies which the writer (R. Child) 
complains of in English agriculture, must be placed to the account of our climate, and never have been 
nor can be supplied. 

253. Houghton s valuable Collections o/" IfMs&andry have been already mentioned. (237.) 

254. Worlidge's Systema Agriculturce was published in 1668 ; it treats of improve- 
ments in geneiul, of enclosing meadows and pastures, and of watering and draining 
them, of clovers, vetches, spurry, Wiltshire long-grass (probably that of the meadows 
of Salisbury), hemp, flax, rape, turnips, &c. A Persian wheel was made by his direc- 
tion in Wiltshire, in 1665, that carried water in good quantity above tvj^enty feet high, 
for watering meadows, and another near Godalming in Surrey. Sowing clover and 
other seeds preserved the cattle in the fatal winter of 1673, in the southern parts of Eng- 
land ; whereas in the western and northern, through defect of hay and pasture, the 
greater part of their cattle perished. Hops enough were not planted, but we imported 
them from the Netherlands of a quality not so good as our own. The authors he chiefly 
quotes are Weston, Hartlib, and Blythe. 

255. Among other writers of this century may be mentioned Bacon, who, in his natural 
history, has some curious observations on agriculture ; Ray, the botanist, whose works 
are rich in facts; and Evelyn, a great encourager of all manner of improvements, as 
well as a useful writer on planting. 

256. Some of the works of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are now very scarce, 


and most of them little known to agriculturists of the present day. In almost all of 
them there is much that is now useless, and not a little that is trifling and foolish ; yet the 
labour of perusal is not altogether fruitless. He who wishes to view the condition of the 
great body of the people during this period, as well as the cultivator who still obstinately 
resists every new practice, may, each of them, be gratified and instructed, in tracing the 
gradual progress of improvement, both in enjojTnent and useful industry. {Encyc. 
Brit., art. Agr.) 

Sect. V. History of Agriculture in Ultra- European Countries during the Middle Ages. 

257. The general history of the old Ultra- European countries, during this period, is not 
known with sufficient precision and detail, to enable us to give a progressive account of 
their agriculture. There is no evidence of any improvement having been made in the 
agriculture of the Indian and Chinese nations, from the earliest period of their known 
history to the present time. The agriculture of Persia, of the African shores of the 
Mediterranean sea, and of all the countries under the Turks, seems, if any change has 
taken place, rather to have declined than advanced during the latter centuries of the 
middle ages. 

258. The history of the n£w Ultra-European countries of America and Australasia, only 
dates its commencement (with the exception of part of America) from the latter end of 
the period under notice, and therefore cannot furnish sufficient materials for any useful 
account of their agriculture. Under these circumstances we think it better to defer an 
account of the origin and progress of Ultra-European agriculture till the succeeding 
Chapter, where it will precede some account of its present state. We have adopted the 
same plan with respect to the agriculture of some of the northern European nations, as 
Russia and Sweden, and also with regard to that of Spain and Ireland* .» 

Chap. IV. 
Present State of Agriculture in Eurojye. 

259. Agriculture began to be studied, as a science, in the principal countries of Europe, 
about the middle of the 16th century. The works of Crescenzio in Italy, Olivier de 
Serres in France, Heresbach in Germany, Herrera in Spain, and Fitzherbert in Eng- 
land, all published about that period, supplied the materials of study, and led to improved 
practices among the reading agriculturists. The art received a second impulse in the 
middle of the century follovring, after the general peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. Then, as 
Harte has observed {Essays, i. p. 62.), " almost all the European nations, by a sort of 
tacit consent, applied themselves to the study of agriculture, and continued to do so, 
more or less, even amidst the universal 'confusion that soon succeeded." During the 
18th century, the march of agriculture has been progressive throughout Europe, with 
little exception ; and it has attained to a very considerable degree of perfection, in some 
districts of Italy, in the Netherlands, and in Great Britain. In Spain it has been least 
improved, and it is still in a very backward state in most parts of Hungary, Poland, and 
Russia. We shall, in the following sections, give such notices of the agriculture of these 
and the other countries of Europe, as we have been enabled to glean from the very scanty 
materials which exist on the subject. Had these been more abundant, this part of our 
work would have been much more instructive. The past state of agriculture can do 
little more than gratify the curiosity, but its present state is calculated both to excite our 
curiosity and aflfect our interests. Independently of the political relations which may be 
established by a free trade in corn, there is probably no European country that does not 
possess some animal or vegetable production, or pursue some mode of culture or manage- 
ment, that might not be benefidaily introduced into Britain ; but, with the exception of 
Flanders and some parts of France and Italy, there are as yet no sufficient data for 
obtaining the necessary details. 

Sect. I. Of the present State of Agriculture in Italy. 

260. Italy is the most interesting country of Euro^ye in respect to Us rural economy. Its 
climate, soils, rivers, and surface are so various, as to have given rise to a greater variety 
of culture than is to be found throughout the rest of Europe j while the number of 
governments and petty states into which it is divided, has occasioned an almost equally 
great variety in the tenure of land, and the political circumstances which affect the cul 
tivator. The great advantage which Italy possesses over the rest of Europe, in an agricul- 
tural point of view, is its climate ; for though, as the learned Sismondi has shown {Annals 
qf Agric', vol. i.), it is, in point of health and agreeableness, one of the worst in the 


world, yet the cool temperature of some of the northern districts admits of the finest 
pastures, while, from the warmth of others, the rocky sides of hills are as productive of 
grapes and olives as the plains are in corn. It is the only country in Europe, with the 
exception of some parts of Spain, where corn, grass, butcher's meat, cheese, butter, rice, 
silk, cotton, wine, oil, and fruits are produced, all in the highest degree of perfection. 
Only a fifth of its surface is considered sterile ; while only a fifth of the surface of France 
is considered fertile. The population of Italy is greater in proportion to the surface, 
than that of either France or Britain. 

261. The ivriters on the rural economy 'of Italy are, Arthur Young, in 1788; Sis- 
mondi, in 1801 ; and, Chateauvieux, in 1812. From the works of these authors, from 
those of Forsyth, Wilson, and other recent tourists, and from our own observations in 
1819, we shall select some of the most characteristic traits as to the agriculture of Italy, 
adopting the division of Chateauvieux, of the region of irrigation, and the rotation of 
crops, in Lombardy ; the region of vines and olives, exemplified in Tuscany ; the region 
of insalubrious air, or the states of the church ; and the region of volcanic ashes, or the 
Neapolitan culture. 

SuBSECT. 1. Of the Agriculture of Lombardy. 

262. The climate of Lombardy is less irregular than that of some other districts. It 
is temperate on the declivities of the mountains in Piedmont, where the richest sheep 
pastures are situated ; subject to great vicissitudes and to severe storms at the base of 
the Alps ; and warm and humid in the plain of the Po. In some parts the olive and 
the orange endure the open air throughout tlie year, as in the islands of the lakes ; in 
other places, at Milan for example, they require nearly as much protection in winter as 
in England. 

263. The soil of the plain of the Po has evidently been formed by the recession or 
deposition of water, and is a rich black mould, deep, and every where perfectly level. 

264. These lands are every where enclosed, either with hedges and ditches, or with open 
water-courses for irrigation. The hedges, however, are not very well kept : they are a 
mixture of different plants ; often of willows chiefly, occasionally of the mulberry for 
feeding the ' silkworms, and sometimes of reeds. The hedge-plants of the country are 
the Christ's thorn (Paliilrus australis,^. 31.), common hawthorn, and pomegranate. 

265. The lands are generally farmed by metayers 
(from meta, one half, Ital.). The landlord pays the 
taxes, and repairs the buildings ; the tenant provides 
cattle, implements, and seed ; and the produce is di- 
vided. In some cases the landlord's half is delivered to 
him in kind ; in others it is valued annually at har- 
vest, and paid in money, or partly in money and 
partly in produce. There are some farmers who have , 
leases, generally for short periods, not exceeding nine 
years, and pay fixed rents. The size of farms is from 
ten to sixty acres ; but there are a few of two or three 
hundred acres. The latter, however, are chiefly cul- 
tivated by the proprietors. Farm-houses are of brick, 
sometimes stucc6ed, and covered with tiles. They are not always detached ; but two, 
three, or more, farmeries are often grouped together, and their united buildings might be 
mistaken for those of one large farm. One side of a square contains the houses of the 
farmers, the stables, and cattle-sheds ; and the three otliers are sheds, supported by 
colutnns, and open on all sides, for implements and produce. The metayers never get 
rich, and are seldom totally ruined ; they are not often changed ; the same farm passes 
from father to son, like a patrimonial estate. 

266. Landed property is generally managed by a steward or factor (fattore), whose 
business it is to inspect tibe cultivation of the lands, to direct repairs, pay taxes and tithes, 
and see that the landlord has his proper share of the produce. Tithes have been greatly 
lessened by the sale of a great part of the church lands at the revolution ; but are still 
taken in kind, or commuted for, in order to support the parish clergy. 

267. The irrigation of Lombardy is its most remarkable feature. The antiquity of the 
practice has been already noticed (180). In most states of Italy, the right and property 
of all rivers, and in some, as Venice, even of springs and rain, are considered as 
vested in the king or govermnent. All canals taken from rivers are, therefore, purchased 
from the state, and may be carried through any person's lands, provided tliey do not pass 
through a garden, or within a certain distance of a mansion, on paying the value of the 
ground occupied. Such canals, indeed, are generally considered as enhancing the value 
of the property they pass through, by enabling them to purchase water, which is sold by 
the hour, half hour, or quarter, or by so many days' run, at certain fixed times, in the 
year. ITie right to water from such canals may even be purchased j and Arthur Young 

Book I. 



They are 

mentions that the fee-simple for an hour's run per week, through a sluice of a certain 
dimension, near Turin, was, in 1788, 1500 livres. The water is not only used for grass- 
lands, which, when fully watered, are mown four, and sometimes five, times a year, and in 
some cases (e. g. Prato Marcita) as early as March ; but is conducted between the narrow 
ridges of corn-lands, in the hollows between drilled crops, among vines, or to flood, a foot 
or more in depth, lands wliich are sown with rice. It is also used for combles, or 
depositing a surface of mud, in some places where the water is charged with that mate- 
rial ; and this is done somewhat in the manner of what we call warping. The details of 
watering, for these and other purposes, are given in various works ; and collected in those 
of Professor Re. In general, watered lands let at one third higher than lands unwatered. 

268. The implements and oj}erations of agriculture in Lombardy are very imper- 
feet. The plough is of very rude contrivance, with a handle thirteen or fourteen feet 
long. It is drawn by two oxen without a driver or reins, the ploughman using a long 
light rod or goad. The names given to the different parts 32 
of the plough are corruptions or variations of the Roman 
terms already mentioned. (111.) Corn is generally beaten 
out by a wheel or large fluted cylinder {^Jig. 32.), which 
is turned in a circular track, somewhat in the manner of a 
bark-mill in England. 

269. The cattle of Piedmont are, in some cases, fed with extraordinary care, 
tied up in stalls ; then bled once or twice ; cleaned and rubbed with oil ; 
combed and brushed twice a day : their food in summer is clover, or other green herbage ; 
in winter a mixture of elm leaves, clover-hay, and pulverised walnut-cake, over which 
boiling water is poured, and bran and salt added. Where grains (pouture) can be 
procured, they are also given. In a short time, the cattle cast their hair, grow smooth, 
round, fat, and so improved as to double their value to the butcher. {Mem. della Sac. Agr.^ 
vol. i. p. 73.) 

270. The dairies on the plain of the Po, near Lodi, produce the Parmesan cheese. The 
peculiar qualities of this cheese depend more on the manner of making than on any thing 
else. The cows are a mixed breed, between the red Hungarian or Swiss cow, and 
those of Lombardy. The chief peculiarity in their feeding is, that they are allowed to eat 
four or five hours in the twenty-four ; all the rest of the time they are stalled, and get 

33 C3 hay. Both their pasture and hay are chiefly from irri- 

. 1.,'j gated lands. The cheeses are made entirely of skimmed 
' ozl milk ; half of that which has stood sixteen or seventeen 
^^ hours, and half of that which has stood only six. The 
'■^^' milk is heated and coagulated in a caldron {fg. 33.), 
placed in a very ingenious fire-place, being an inverted 
T~ semi-cone in brickwork, well adapted for preserving 
iizx^ heat and for the use of wood as fuel. Without being 
iC-i;t3^X taken out of the caldron, the curd is broken very small 
' Cj;rJ^I-j3:^ by an implement, consisting of a stick with cross wires ; 
tp:.,Xl;.rr it is again heated, or rather scalded, till the curd, now a 
deposition from the whey, has attained a considerable 
degree of firmness ; it is then taken out, drained, salted, 
and pressed, and in forty days is fit to put in the cheese- 
loft. The peculiar properties of this cheese seem to 
depend on the mode of scalding the curd ; though the 
dairyists pretend that it also depends on the mode of 
feeding the cows. Where one farmer has not enough of cows to carry on the process 
himself, it is common for two or more to join and keep a partnership account, as in 
Switzerland. More minute details will be found in Book IV. Part VII. 

271. Sheep are not common in Lombardy : there are flocks on the mountains, but in the 
plains only a few are kept, in the manner pigs are in England, to eat refuse vegetables. 
The Merino breed was introduced, and found not to succeed. 

272. The rotations of crops are not so remarkable for preserving the fertility of the soil, as 
for an immediate return of profit. The produce however being seldom bulky, the object 
is defeated. As examples, we may mention, 1. maize drilled; 2, 3, and 4. wheat; 
5. maize drilled; 6, 7, and 8. wheat. Another is, 1. fallow; 2, 3, and 4. rice; 5. 
fallow ; 6. wheat and clover, &c. Hemp, flax, lupines, rape, millet, panic, rye, and 
sometimes oats, with other crops, enter into the rotations. Rice is reckoned the most 
profitable crop ; the next, wheat and millet. The rice-grounds receive but one plough- 
ing, which is given in the middle of March, and the seed is sown at the end of the same 
month ; sometimes in water up to the seedsman's knees, but more frequently the water is 
not let on till the rice is come up. The water is then admitted, and left on the ground 
till the beginning of June, when the crop is weeded by hand, by women half naked, with 
their petticoats tucked to their waists, wading in the water ; and they make so droll a 



figure, that parties are often made at that season to go and view the rice-grounds. When 
the weeding is finished, the water is drawn off for eight days ; it is again drawn off 
when the ear begins to form, but after its formation is let in again till the rice is nearly- 
ripe, which is about the end of August or beginning of September. The produce is from 
ten to twenty fold. 

273. Among tlie herbage crops cultivated, may be mentioned chiccory, very common in 
the watered meadows, rib-grass, also very common, oat-grass, and some other grasses ; 
but not near the variety of grasses found in the English meadows and pastures ; fenu- 
greek (Trigon^lla i.), clovers, lucerne, saintfoin, and in some places burnet and spurry. 

274. Among the trees grown hy the farmer, the mulberry predominates, and is pollarded 
once or oftener every year for the silkworm. The tree is common in the hedge-rows, and 
in rows along with vines parallel to broad ridges. The vine is generally cultivated ; 
trained or rather hung on mulberry, maple, or flowering ash pollards, or climbing up tall 
elms, or in the hedges, or against willow poles or rude espalier rails. The olive is not 
very common, but is planted in schistous declivities in warm situations ; the apple, pear, 
and green gage plum are common. 

275. Though the agriculture of Lombardy aj)pears to be practised, more for subsistence, 
than for the employment of capital and the acquisition of riches, yet, from the effect of 
irrigation in producing large crops of grass, the profits of rearing silk, and the rigid 
economy of the farmers, it is thought by Chateauvieux that it sends more produce to 
market than any district of Italy. {Italy, let. iv.) 

SuBSECT. 2. Of the Agriculture of Tuscany. 

276. The picture of the agriculture of Tuscany given by Sismondi, a distinguished literary 
character of Geneva, who resided five years as a cultivator in that country, is well known. 
Sismondi arranges the rural economy of this district into that of the plains, the slopes, 
and the mountains ; and we shall here state the most interesting or characteristic circum- 
stances which occur in his work, or that of Chateauvieux, under these heads. According 
to Forsyth, one half of Tuscany consists of mountains which produce nothing but timber ; 
one sixth of olive and vine hills ; and the remaining third is plain. The whole is distri- 
buted into eighty thousand fattorie, or stewardships. Each fattoria includes, on an average, 
seven farms. This property is divided among forty thousand families or corporations. 
The Riccardi, the Strozzi, the Feroni, and the Benedictines rank first in the number. 
Tlie clergy keep the farmers well disciplined in faith, and through the terror of bad crops, 
they begin to extort the abolished tithes. This was in 1802: tithes are again fully 
established under the Austrian power. 

277. The climate of Tuscany is esteemed the best in Italy, with the exception of that 
of its maremme, or pestilential region on the sea-coast. The great heats commence at 
the end of June, and diminish in the middle of September ; the rest of the year is a 
perpetual spring, and vegetation in the plains is only interrupted for two or three weeks 
in the middle of winter. On the mountains there is snow all the year ; and the hilly 
districts enjoy a temperate but irregular weather in summer, and a winter of from one to 
thi'ee months. 

278. The soil of the plains is either sand or mud of " inexpressible fertility ;" some 
parts were marshy, but the surface is now comparatively elevated and enriched (as was 
that of the Delta) by combles (colmata), or warping, a process ably described by 
Sismondi. (Agr. Tuscan., § ii.) 

279. Irrigation in the plains is practised in all the different modes as in Lombardy, but 
on a smaller scale, correspondent with their extent. 

280. The plain is every where enclosed. The fields are parallelograms, generally one 
hundred feet broad, and four or five hundred feet long, surrounded by a ditch planted 
with Lombardy poplars and vines, with rows, lengthwise, of mulberries, maple, or the 
flowering or manna ash, also interspersed with vines ; and ^ 34 
often, by the way-sides, these hang in festoons, from tall elms. 
(fg. 34. ) The poplars supply leaves for feeding heifers, rods 
which are sold for making espaliers for vines, and spray for 
fuel. Every now and then a few are cut down for timber, as 
at twenty years they are found to be too large for the situation. 
The top of the ash and maple is used for fuel ; the timber for 
implements of husbandry. The mulberry is pollarded every 
other year for the leaves, which are stripped off for the silk- 
worms, and the spray used as fuel. The produce of raw silk 
is one of the most important in Tuscany, and is almost the only article the farmer of the 
plains has to exchange for money. He has wine also, it is true, but that, though pro- 
duced in abundance, is of so wretched a quality, compared with that of the hills, that it 
brings but little. Hedges are only planted on the road sides to keep off beggars and 
thieves, who are veiy numerous, and who steal the grapes and the ears of maize. Some- 



times the grapes next the road are sprinkled with mud or lime-water to deter them ; at 
other times a temporary dead fence of thorns is used during the ripening season and taken 
down afterwards. The hedge plants are the hawthorn, sloe, bramble, briar, evergreen 
rose, ilex, service, myrtle, pomegranate, bay, laurel, &c. 

281. In the arable lands of the plains, the row and mostly the raised drill culture are 
generally followed, or the land is ploughed into beds of three or four feet broad, between 
which water is introduced in the furrows. Every year a third of the farm is turned over 
with a spade to double the depth of the plough, so as to bring a new soil to the surface. 
The sort of trenching which effects this is performed diflferently from that of any other 
country ; the spade being thrust in horizontally or obliquely, and the trench formed by 
taking off successive layers from the top of the firm side, and turning them regularly over 
in the trench. In this way the surface is completely reversed. 

282. The rotation of crops in the plain includes a period of three or five years, and five 
or seven crops. There are, for a three-years* course ; 1. wheat or other grain, and lupines 
in the autumn ; 2. corn of some sort, and turnips or clover in the autumn ; 3. maize, 
panic, or common millet, and Indian or black millet (IZ'61cus Sorghum). Com is cut 
about the end of June close to the earth, left to dry a day or two, and then tied in bundles 
(bottes), and put in cocks for a week or two. At the end of this period the ears are cut 
off, and beaten out on a smooth prepared piece of ground in the farm-yard. The straw 
is stacked, and the corn cleaned by throwing it with shovels, &c. The corn is laid up 
till wanted in oval excavations in dry ground, wliich are covered with tiled roofs. The 
excavations are lined with straw ; one holds from twenty to a hundred sacks, and being 
covered with straw, is heaped over with earth. In this way it is kept in perfect pre- 
servation a year or longer, and untouched by insects. The lupines sown after wheat are 
often ploughed in for manure ; sometimes French beans are substituted, and the ripe 
seeds used as food ; or turnips are sown for cattle. They have few sorts of turnips that 
are good ; and Sismondi complains that half of them never bulb. Maize is sown in drills, 
and forms a superb crop in appearance, and no less important, constituting the principal 
food of the lower classes in every part of 
Italy where the chestnut does not abound. 
When the male flowers of the maize be- 
gin to fade, they are cut off by degrees, 
so as not to injure the swelling grain ; 
the leaves are also cut off about that 
time, cattle being remarkably fond of 
them. In the plain of Bologna, hemp, 
flax, and beans enter into the rotation. 

283. Cattle in the plains are kept con- 
stantly in close warm houses, and fed 
with weeds, leaves, or whatever can be 
got. The oxen in Tuscany are all dove- 
coloured ; even those which are im- 
ported from other states, are said to 
change their coat here. They are guided 
in the team by reins fixed to rings which 
are inserted in their nostrils ; sometimes 
two hooks, jointed Uke pincers, are used 
for the same purpose. In general, only 
one crop in four is raised for the food of 
cattle, so that these are not numerous ; 
it may thus appear that manure would 
be scarce, but tiie Tuscan farmers are as 
assiduous in preserving every particle 
both of human and animal manure as the 

284. The farm-houses of the plain of 
Tuscany, according to Lasteyrie {Coll. 
de Mach.), are constructed with more 
taste, solidity, and convenience, than 
in any other country on the Continent. 
They are built of stones generally, in 
rubble work, with good lime and sand, 
which become as hard as stucco, and 
they are covered with red pantiles. 
The elevation {fig. 35.) presents two 
deep recesses, the one a porch or com- 
mon hall to the ground floor, or hus- 

j^artlfii^ '^ 








E 2 


bandry part of the edifice (a) ; and the other above it to the dwelling family apartments. 
The ground floor consists of this porch, which is arched over (a), a workshop (6), a harness 
and tool-room (c), pigsty (d), poultry-house (e), a stove (f), staircase [g), stable (/«), 
cow or ox house (i), and sheep-house {k). The dwelling floor consists of the upper 
gallery or open hall (/), which serves as a sort of kitchen, work-room, or scullery, a kitchen 
(m), a master and mistress's room (n), a girls' room (o), a boys' room (p), a store room 
(y), and silkworm room (r). 

285. The peasants, or fanners, of the plains are for the most part metayers ; their farms 
are from five to ten acres, each having a house and offices, like that just described, towards 
its centre. Some pay a fixed rent on short leases ; and some hold farms on improving 
leases wliich extend to four generations. They are more than economical ; never tasting 
butcher's meat but on Sunday. The three repasts of the other days are either of porridge 
of maize and a salad ; porridge of bread and French beans, seasoned with oUve oil ; or 
of some sort of soup. In general the whole family remain at home, and aid their parents 
in performing the labours of the farm. Seldom any but the oldest son marries; and 
when the father dies he succeeds in his turn, and lus brothers and sisters serve him as 
they did their father till they die off, and are replaced by tlieir nephews and nieces. Such 
is the state of things which, as Chateauvieux has observed, is the result of early civilisation 
and excessive population. 

286. The culture of the hills and declivities, Chateauvieux supposes to have been intro- 
duced from Canaan at the time of the crusades : but, though that culture, and also the 
irrigation system, have, no doubt, been originally copied from that country and Egypt, 
yet some think it more likely to have been imported by the Romans or the priests, than 
by the chivalric adventurers of the eleventh and twelfth centuries. 

287. The soil of the hills is in general either schistous or calcareous, on a pliable rocky 
or gravelly bottom. It is cut into horizontal terraces, of diflPerent widths according to the 
steepness of the declivity, and each terrace is supported by a wall or sloping bank of turf 
or stones. Intercepting gutters are formed every sixty or seventy feet, in the direction of 
the slope, to carry off the waters which do not sink in the rainy season. Sismondi con- 
siders the turfed terraces of the hills of Nievole the most elegant. On the terraces of the 
most rapid and least favourably exposed slopes, olives are planted ; on the best exposure, 
vines. Where th6 terrace is broad, two rows of mulberries, and sometimes of fig trees, 
are planted, and between these, where the soil is not too dry, early crops of grain or 
legumes are taken. The walls of turf are mown. 

288. The olive being an evergreen, and in a state of growth all the year, requires a more 
equable climate than the vine ; but it vdll grow on any dry soil, and in an inferior 
exposure, because the fruit never ripens till tlie hoar frosts have commenced. Tlie young 
plants are raised from cuttings or suckers in a nursery, and in the same manner in 
which it was during the time of the Romans. " An old tree is hewn down, and the 
ceppo, or stock (that is, the collar or neck between the root and the trunk, wliere in all 
plants the principle of life more eminently resides), is cut into pieces of nearly the size 
and shape of a mushi'oom, and wliich from that circumstance are called novali ; care at 
the same time is taken that a small portion of bark shall belong to each novalo ; these, 
after having been dipped in manure, are put into the earth, soon throw up shoots, are 
transplanted at the end of one year, and in three years are fit to form an olive yard." 
{Blunt' s Vestiges, 216.) They are planted generally fifteen feet apart in rows, with the 
same distance between the rows. 

289. The olive is of very slow growth hut of great duration. Some plantations exist, which 
are supposed to be those mentioned by Pliny, and therefore must have existed nearly 
two thousand years, if not more. In one of these, which we have seen in the vale 
of Marmora, near Temi, the trunks of many trees have rotted at the core, and the 
circumference has split open and formed several distinct stems. Though in ruins, these 
trees still bear abundant crops. The olive requires little pruning, and is seldom otherwise 
manured than by sowdng lupines under it, and digging them in. The fruit becomes 
black in November ; is gathered in the course of that and the three foUovdng months ; 
and ground in a stone trough by a stone turned by a water-wheel. The paste formed by 
the fruit, and its kernels, is then put in a hair cloth and pressed, and the oil drops in a tub 
of water somewhat warm, from which it is skimmed and put in glass bottles for sale, 
or glazed jars for home consumption. The paste is moistened and pressed a second and 
third time for oils of inferior quality. The crop of olives is very uncertain ; sometimes 
one that yields a profit does not occur for six or eight years together, as in the culture of 
wine and cider : and these departments of culture on the Continent are considered as 
injurious to the peasant, because in the year of plenty he consumes his superfluous profits, 
without laying any thing aside to meet the years of loss. Hence the remark common in 
France and Italy, that wine and oil farming is less beneficial than that of corn. 

290. The vine on the hills is generally raised where it is to rem'ain, by planting cuttings ; 
but it is also planted with roots procured by layering : in either case, it seldom bears fruit 


till the fifth year after planting. It is trained on trees, poles, and trellised roofs, over 
paths, and different kinds of espalier rails. The poles are of barked chestnut, and the 
lesser rods used are generally of reeds ; the latter forms a profitable article of culture on 
the brink of water-courses for this purpose. These reeds last from one to four years, 
according to their size. The ties used in binding the vine both on the hills and plains are 
of willow, often the yellow or golden sort. The general maxim in pruning the vine is to 
leave as much wood to one stool as possible, in order to prevent two shoots from proceeding 
from one eye, in which case both are generally barren. They give no summer 
pruning ; but, when the fruit is nearly ripe, they cut off the extremities of the 
shoots for the sake of the leaves as forage, and to admit the sun and air more 
directly to the fruit. The pruning-hook they use {Jig. 36.) is not unlike a 
hand hedge-bill. The fruit is gathered by women, and put into baskets and 
hampers ; then carried to a tub or cistern of masonry, where it lies and ferments, 
being frequently stirred, but not pressed as in France and other parts of Italy. 
The management of the wine is not considered good ; and there are but few 
sorts of Tuscan %vine that will keep above a year. 

291. The potato, little known in Lombardy, was introduced in the hills of Tuscany 
by Sismondi, but was little cultivated or esteemed. It is only known, he says, to the 
gardeners of Florence and Leghorn. If not taken up about the middle of July, the 
tubers are either burned and rotted by the heat, or they germinate at every bud. An 
early sort, he tliinks, might be introduced both in the plain and liill culture with great 

292. The hill farmers, like those of the plains, are generally metayers, and rent their 
farms, which seldom exceed seven or eight acres j and the most general conditions of their 
lease (bail), according to M. Sismondi, are the follovnng : — 1 . The farmer engages to 
cultivate the lands, and find the requisite props for the vines. 2. To advance the half of 
the seed, and the half of the dung that is obliged to be purchased. 3. To deliver to 
the proprietor half the crop, or sell it for his account. 4. To divide with the proprietor 
the profit made on cattle, and to deliver a certain number of eggs, chickens, and capons 
in lieu of that on poultry. 5. To wash the whole or a part of the proprietor's linen, 
he finding soap. The proprietor on his part engages to advance the other half of the 
seed, and of the manure which must be purchased ; to be at the expense of making up 
new grounds and other radical improvements, to effect repairs, &c., and to find the first 
props for newly planted vines. Tliis contract goes on from year to year, and can only be 
dissolved by a year's notice ; changes, however, very seldom take place. The conditions 
in some places are more severe for the farmer ; and on oil and certain other articles he 
only receives a third of the profits. 

293. The culture of the mountains of Tuscany consists of the harvesting of chestnuts, 
and the management of live stock and of forests. The chestnut trees, Sismondi is of 
opinion, have been originally planted, but they now receive no other care than that of 
replacing a worn out tree by a young one, and cutting out dead wood, which is done 
more for the sake of fuel than any thing else. The fruit is gathered in November, after 
it drops on the turf: it is eaten either in its natural state, or it is ground into meal 
and prepared as flour. Such as are to be ground, are first kilndried ; next, they 
are put into small bags, which hold half a bushel each, and these are beat against 
the ground till the outer husk is removed ; they are then taken out, the outer husks 
separated, and the chestnuts replaced, and beat as before till the inner husk comes off; 
they are then cleaned in the wind, and sent to a corn-mill to be ground. The flour they 
produce has no bran, and is mild and sweet, and keeps well. Lands covered with 
chestnuts are valued, not by their extent, but by the number of sacks of fruit annually 
produced. Chestnut flour is chiefly used in the form of porridge or pudding. In the 
coffee-houses of Lucca, Pescia, and Pistoja, pat^s, muflBns, tarts, and other articles are 
made of it, and are considered delicate. 

294. The management of sheep in the mountains is rude and unprofitable, and so little 
is mutton esteemed in Tuscany that it always sells at two or three sous a pound under 
every other meat. The sheep are pastured all the summer under the chestnut trees ; but 
in October, when the fruit begins to fall, they are sent to the maremmes, where they 
remain till the May or June following, at the cost of not more than a penny a head. 
A wretched cheese is made from the milk ; but, bad as it is, it is better than what is 
made from the milk of goats or cows. The Tuscans, indeed, are so unwilling to believe 
that good cheese can be produced from the latter animals, that they consider the Dutch 
and other excellent foreign cheeses which they purchase at Leghorn, as all made from the 
milk of sheep. 

295. Forests of timber trees cover the highest parts of the mountains. These form 
sources of profit to the peasantry, independently of the sale of timber, which is very • 
limited, owing to the diflSculty of carriage. Hogs are pastured there, left to themselves 
the whole year, and only sought for when wanted for the butcher. Their flesh is excellent, 

E 3 


and, being very abundant in the markets of most parts of Italy, is not dear. Acorns 
are collected in some places, and sold to the farmers of the plains, for feeding swine. 
The cones of the Finns Finea, (Jtg. 37.) are "V \ \ k i 

collected, and the seeds taken out : these are _ C^^^^^V U v ^^ 

much esteemed, and bear a high price. The , 
same thing is, in some places, done with the 
cones of the wild pine, commonly but erro- 
peously called the Scotch fir (Pinus sylves- 
tris i.), whose seeds are equally good, though 
smaller. Strawberries, bramble-berries, goose- 
berries, currants, raspberries, and other wild 
fruits, ai*e collected, and either sold publicly 
in the markets of the plains, or privately to 
the confectioners for flavouring ices; an article 
in great demand throughout all Italy. Sismondi seems to have been the first who noticed 
that the black mulberry was grown in the mountains for its leaves, being considered as 
hardier than the white. The fruit was only eaten by children. In the plains and gardens 
of Italy the mulberry is scarcely known as a fruit tree, though the white species is every 
where grown for the silkworm. 

296. The mountain farmers are generally proprietors of their farms. They live together 
in villages, which are very numerous ; many of them hire themselves to the farmers of the 
maremmes, where there is a scarcity of population, to assist in their harvests ; and with the 
money saved in this way, and by sending fruits, collected by their wives and children, to 
the towns in the plains, they are generally better off than the farmers of the hills, or of the 
low country. 

297. The agricultural establishment of Rossore may be mentioned as belonging to 
Tuscany. It is situated at the gate of Pisa, and was founded by the family of Medici, in 
the time of the crusades, and now belongs to government. A league square of ground, 
which was so poor and sandy as to be unfit for culture, was surrounded by a fence, and, 
having been left to itself, has now the appearance of a neglected park. A building was 
erected in its centre as a lodge, and the grounds were interspersed with stables and sheep 
houses. The park was stocked with an Arabian stallion and a few mares, and some Asiatic 
camels ; and these were left to breed and live in a state of nature. About the beginning 
of the present century a flock of Merino sheep was added. The horses have formed 
themselves into distinct tribes or troops, each of fifteen or twenty mares governed by 
a stallion. These tribes never mix together, each has its quarter of pasture which they 
divide among themselves without the interference of shepherds. TTie shape of these 
horses is wretched, and the spare or superfluous ones are sold only to fuel-drivers 
(coalmen, carbonari) and the post. Tliere are more than two hundi-ed camels which 
associate together, and multiply at pleasure. They are worked in the plough and cart, 
and the spare stock supplies all the mountebanks of Europe, who buy them at the low 
price of six or seven louis each. The next feature of this establishment is a herd of 1 800 
wild bulls and cows, fierce and dangerous : the superfluous stock of these is either hunted 
and killed for their hides and flesh, or sold alive to the farmers to be fed or worked. The 
flock of Merinos are but lately introduced. Such are the chief features of this establish- 
ment, which Chateauvieux terms a specimen of Tatar culture. It is evident it has no 
other art or merit than that of allowing the powers and instincts of nature to operate in 
their own way ; and it forms a very singular contrast to the highly artificial state of rural 
economy in Tuscany. 

SuBSECT. 3. Of the Agriculture of the Maremmes, or the District of Pestilential Air. 

298. The extent of this district is from Leghorn to Terracina in length; and its 
widest part is in the states of the church ; it includes Rome, and extends to the base 
of the Apennines. 

299. The climate of the maremmes is so mild that vegetation goes on during the whole 
of the winter ; but so pestilential that there are scarcely any fixed inhabitants in this 
inmiense tract of country, with the exception of those of the towns or cities on its 

300. The surface is flat or gently varied ; and the soil in most places deep and rich. 
In the .maremmes of Tuscany it is in some places a blue clay abounding in sulphur and 
alum, and produces almost nothing but coltsfoot ( Tussilkgo).' 

301. The estates are generally extensive, and let in large farms, at fixed rents, to men 
of capital. The maremmes of Rome, forty leagues in extent, are divided into a few 
hundred estates only, and let to not more than eighty farmers. These farmers grow 
com, and pasture oxen of their own ; and in winter they graze the wandering flocks of 
tlie mountains of Tuscany and other states at so much a head. The corn grown is 
chiefly wheat, which is reaped by peasants from the mountains, some of whom also stay 

Book I. 



and assist in sowing the succeeding crop ; after which the whole disappear, and the 
maremmes remain a desert with a few men, whom Chateauvieux designates as " half 
savages, who run over these solitudes like Tatars, armed with long lances, and covered 
with coarse woollens and untanned skins." The lance they use in hunting down the 
oxen wrhen they are to be caught for the butcher, or to be broken in for labour ; and the 
clothing alluded to has been recommended by the medical men of Rome, as the most 
likely to resist the attacks of the malaria (bad air), or pestilence. 

302. The agricultural implements and operations differ little from those of other parts 
of Italy. The plough, or araire, of Rome 
(.fiS' ^^0 ^^ ^ rude implement, with a broad 
flat share, on the hinder end of which the 
ploughman stands ; and thus drawn along, 
his weight makes a deeper furrow. Two 
strips of wood (the bince aures of Virgil), 
about eighteen inches long, are often attached 
to the share, diverging a little from each other, 
and these serve to lay open the furrow like 
our mould-board. In the operation of propagating the vine, cuttings are planted in 

trenches four feet 
u9 I! nli r li r I r II .d . deep, into which stones 

have been previously 
thrown, for the alleged 
purpose of encouraging 
moisture about the 
roots. The same mode 
was practised in Vir- 
gil's time. (Georg., ii. 
346.) The common 
Roman cart (Jig. 39.) 
is supposed to have 
been originally de- 
signed by the celebrated Michael Angelo, in his quality of engineer and wheeler. (See 
Lasteyrie, Col. des Mach.) 

303. The farm ofCampo Morto (field of death) includes the whole property of St. Peter's 
church in Rome, which is supported from its sole revenue. Tliis vast estate is situated in 
the Pontine marshes, and the following outline of its management is taken from a letter 
of Chateauvieux^ written in July 1813 • — 

504. The farmery, the only Building on an estate of many thousand acres, consists of a central building 
and two wings, the ground-floor of the central part consists of an immense kitchen and five large rooms, 
the latter without windows, and unfurnished. The first story consists of six rooms, used as corn-chambers, 
with the exception of one, which was furnished, and served to lodge the principal officers. The two wings 
contained large vaulted stables, with hay-lofts over. One female lived in the house, in order to cook for 
Uie officers or upper servants, whose wives and families live in the towns as do those of the shepherds. 
There was no garden, nor any appearance of neatness or cleanliness, and not a fence or a hedge, and 
scarcely a tree on the whole farm. 

305. The fattore, or steward, was an educated man, and a citizen of Rome, where his family lived ; he 
and all the other officers, and even shepherds, always went out mounted and armed. 

306. The reapers were at work in a distant part of the estate, when Chateauvieux went over it : they 
were an immense band, ranged as in the order of battle, and guarded by twelve chiefs or overseers on 
horseback, with lances in their hands. These reapers had lately arrived from the mountains; half 
were men and the rest women. " They were bathed in sweat ; the sun was intolerable ; the men were 
good figures, but the women were frightful. They had been some days from the mountains, and the foul 
air had begun to attack them. Two only had yet taken the fever ; but they told me, from that time a 
great number would be seized every day, and that by the end of harvest the troop would be reduced at 
least one half What then, 1 said, becomes of these unhappy creatures ? They give them a morsel of 
bread, and send them back. But whither do they go? They take the way to the mountains ; some remain 
on the road, some die, but others arrive, suJBering under, misery and inanition, to come again the following 

307. The corn is threshed fifteen days after being cut : the grain is trodden out under the feet of horses, 
cleaned, and carried to Rome. The straw was formerly suffered to be dispersed by the wind ; but it is 
now collected in heaps at regular distances over the country, and always on eminences : there it lies ready 
to be burned on the approach of " those clouds of grashoppers which often devastate the whole of this 

308. The live stock of the farm consisted of a hundred working oxen ; several hundreds of wild cows and 
bulls, kept for maintaining the stock, and for the sale of their calves and heifers ; two thousand swine, 
which are fatted upon nuts and acorns in the'forests belonging to the estate; and a hundred horses for the use 
of the herdsmen. There were four thousand sheep on the low grounds, and six hundred and eighty thou- 
sand on the mountains belonging to the estate. Of the latter, eighty thousand were of the Negretti breed, 
whose wool it was intended to have manufactured into the dresses of all the mendicant monks in Italy, and 
into the great coats of the shepherds : the rest were of the Pouille breed, which produces a white wool, 
but only on the upi)er part of the body. As mutton is not good in Italy, and but little eaten, they kill most 
of the tup-lambs as soon as they are born, and milk the ewes to make cheese. The temporary flocks had 
not arrived when Chateauvieux was at Campo Morto, the fields not being then cleared of their crops. 

309. The farmer of this extensive domain is M. Trucci, who pays a rent for it of 
22,000 piastres (4950/.). This, said M. Trucci to Chateauvieux, *< supposes an extent 
of three thousand rubbi, or six thousand acres, of culturablc land. I have nearly as 

E 4 


much that is not fit for the plough, and it is there my pigs and my cows principally feed. 
My three thousand rubbi are divided into nearly nine equal parts of three hundred and 
thirty rubbi each : one of these is in fallow, another in corn, and the seven others in 
pasture. On the two thousand three hundred rubbi, wliich remain in grass, I support 
four thousand sheep, four hundred horses, and two hundred oxen, and I reserve a portion 
for hay. In the macchie (bushy places, woody wastes) I have seven hundred cows, 
and sometimes nearly two thousand pigs. 

810. My expenses " are limited to paying the rent of the farm, to purchasing bread for 
the workmen, and to the entire maintenance of my army of shepherds, superintendents, 
and the fattore ; to paying for the work of the day-labourers, of the harvest-men, &c. ; 
and, in short, to the expense of moving the flocks, and to what, in large farms, are called 
the extra-charges, the amount of which is always very high. There must also be deducted 
from the gross profits of the flock about one tenth, which belongs, in different proportions, 
to my cliiefs and to my shepherds, because I support this tenth at my expense. We have 
also, in this mode of culture, to sustain great losses on our cattle, notwithstanding which 
I must acknowledge that our farming is profitable. 

311. Of annual profit " I average above five thousand piastres, besides five per cent 
on the capital of my flocks. You see, then, that the lands in the Campagna of Rome, so 
despised, and in such a state of wildness, let at the rate of eighteen francs (fifteen shillings) 
the Paris acre : there is an immense quantity in France which does not let for so much. 
They would, doubtlessly, let for more if they were divided and peopled, but not in the 
proportion supposed : for the secret in large farms consists in their economy ; and notliing 
on the subject of agricultural profit is so deceptive as the appearance they present to our 
view, for the profit depends solely on the amount of the economical combinations, and not 
on the richness of the productions displayed to the eye." (Letters on Italy.) 

SuBSECT. 4. Of Farming in the Neapolitan Territory, or the Land of Ashes. 

312. Hie farming on the volcanic soil, in the neighbourhood of Vesuvius, belongs 
to the valley farming of Tuscany ; but, as it varies a little, and as the farmers are much 
more wretched, we shall give the following relation, as received by Chateauvieux from a 
Neapolitan metayer : — 

3 1 3. We, poor inetayers, he said, " occupy only so much land as we can cultivate by 
our own families, that is to say, four or five acres. Our condition is not a good one, 
since we get for our trouble only a third of the produce, two thirds belonging to the 
owner, which we pay in kind into the hands of the steward. We have no ploughs, and 
the whole is cultivated by the spade. It is true that the soil, being mixed with ashes, 
is easily stirred ; and even our children assist us in this work. At times the mountain, 
hence named Vesuvius, pours forth showers of ashes, which spread over our fields and 
fertilise them. 

314. The trees which you see on the land, " are not without their use; they support 
the vine, and give us fruit ; we also carefully gather their leaves : it is the last autumnal 
crop, and serves to feed our cattle in the winter. We cultivate, in succession, melons, 
between the rows of elms, wliich we carry to the city to sell ; after which we sow wheat. 
When the wheat crop is taken off, we dig in the stubble, which is done by our families, 
to sow beans or purple clover. During six months, our children go every morning to 
cut a quantity of it with the sickle, to feed the cows. We prefer the females of the 
buffaloes, as they give most milk. We have also goats, and sometimes an ass, or a small 
horse, to go to the city and carry our burthens ; but this advantage belongs only to the 
richer metayers. 

315. We plant the maize " the following spring, after clover or beans. We manure 
the land at this time, because this plant is to support our families ; this crop, therefore, 
interests us more than all the others, and the day in which it is harvested is a day of 
festivity in our country. All the villagers assemble together, the young women dance, 
and the rest of us walk slowly, being laden with our tools : arrived at our dwellings, 
each family goes into its own ; but they are so near each other, that we can still converse 

316. We often gather seven ears from one stalk of maize, « and many of thena are three 
palms long. When the sun is high, the father of the family goes into the adjoining field 
to get some melons, wliile the children gather fruit from the surrounding fig trees. The 
fruit is brought under an elm tree, round which the whole family, sits ; after this repast 
the work begins again, and does not cease until the close of day. Each family then visits 
its neighbours, and tells of the rich crop the season has bestowed upon them. 

317. We have no sooner gotten in the maize thaii the earth is again dug, to be sown once 
more with wheat; after this second crop, we grow in the fields only vegetables of different 
kinds. Our lands thus produce wine and fruit, corn and vegetables, and leaves and grass 
for the cattle. We have no reason to complain of their fertility : but our conditions are 

Book L 



hard, litde being left for our pains ; and if the season is not propitious, the metayer has 
much to complain of." {Letters on Italy.) 

318. The cotton plant (Gossypium herbaceum) {Jig. 40.) is beginning to be cultivated 
in the neighbourhood of Vesuvius, and in Sicily. It is sown 
in March, in lines three feet distant, and the plants two 
feet apart in the lines. The earth is stirred by a one-horse 
plough, or by hoes, and carefully weeded. As soon as the 
flowering season is over, about the middle of September, the 
ends of the shoots are nipped off, to determine the sap to the 
fruit. The capsules are collected as they ripen ; a tedious 
process, lasting two months : the cotton and the seeds are then 
separated ; an operation still more tedious. Tlie most ex/- 
tensive cotton farmers are in the vale of Sorento. There the 
rotation is, 1 . maize ; 2. wheat, followed by beans, which 
ripen next March; 3. cotton; 4. wheat, followed by clover ; 
5. melons, followed by French or common beans. Thus, in 
five years, are produced eight crops. In this district, wherever 
water can be commanded, it is distributed, as in Tuscany and 
Lombardy, among every kind of crop. 

"319. The tomato, or love apple (.Solanum Lycop^rsicum L.), 
so extensively used in Italian cookery, forms also an article of 

field culture near Pompeii, and especially in Sicily, whence they are sent to Naples, Rome, 
and several towns on the Mediterranean sea. It is treated much in the same way as the 
cotton plant. 

320. The orange, lemon, peach. Jig, and various other fruits, are grown in the Nea- 
politan territory, both for home use and exportation : but their culture we consider to 
belong to gardening. 

321. The Neapolitan maremmes, near Salerno, to the evils of those of Rome, add 
that of a wretched soil. They ai-e pastured by a few herds of buffaloes and oxen ; the 
herdsmen of which have no other shelter during the night than reed huts ; these desert 
tracts being without either houses or ruins. The plough of this ancient Greek colony is 
thought to be the nearest to that of Greece, and has been already adverted to (31.). 

322. The manna, a concrete juice, forms an article of cultivation in Calabria. This 
substance is nothing more than the exsiccated juice of the flowering ash tree (O'mus 
rotundifolia), which grows there wild in abundance. In April or May, the peasants 
make one or two incisions in the trunk of the tree with a hatchet, a few inches deep ; and 
insert a reed in each, round which the sap trickles down : after a month or two they return, 
and find this reed sheathed with manna. The use of manna, in medicine, is on the decline. 

323. TheJUberts and chestnuts of the Calabrian Apennines are collected by the farmers, 
and sold in Naples for exportation or consumption. 

324. The culture of indigo and sugar was attempted in the Neapolitan territory, under 
the reign of Murat. The indigo succeeded ; but sufficient time had not elapsed to judge 
of the sugar culture when it was abandoned. Tlie plants, however, grew vigorously, and 
their remains may still (1819) be seen in the fields near TeiTacina. 

325 Oysters have been bred and reared in the kingdom of Naples from the time of the 
Romans. The subject is mentioned by Nonnius {De Reb. Cib., 1. iii. c 37.) ; and by 

Pliny {Nat. Hist., h. xviii. c. 54.). Count Lasteyrie {Col. desMach.) describes the place 
mentioned by the latter autlior, as it now exists in the Lake Facino, at Baia. This lake 
{Jig, 41 .) communicates with the sea by a narrow passage. On the water near its margin, 


a house (c) is constructed for those who take care of the oysters, and who sell them to 
the dealers in Naples, or to those who come and eat them on the spot ; and adjoining 
the house is a covered enclosure (6), where the oysters are kept till wanted. Along the 
margin of the lake, and in most parts of it, are placed circles of reeds (a), with their sum- 
mits above the water. The spawn of the oysters attaches itself to these reeds, and grows 
there till of an edible size : the oysters are then removed to the reserve (6), and kept there 
till wanted. In removing them the reeds are pulled up one by one, examined, and the 
full-grown oysters removed and put in baskets, while the small-sized and spawn are suffered 
to remain, and the reed is replaced as it was. The baskets are then placed in the reserve, 
and not emptied till sold. In two years from the spawn, Lasteyrie observes, the oyster 
is fully grown. 

Sect. II. Of the present State of Agriculture in Switzerland. 

326. The agriculture of Switzerland is necessarily of a peculiar nature, and on a very 
confined scale. The country is strictly pastoral ; little corn is produced, and the crops are 
scanty and precarious. Cattle, sheep, and goats constitute the chief riches and 
dependence of the inhabitants. Each proprietor farms his own small portion of land ; or 
the mountainous tracts belonging to the communities are pastured in common. But, 
whether private or common property, it is evident thai mountainous pastures are little 
susceptible of improvement. {For. Quart, and Continent. Miscell., Jan. 1828.) 

327. Though of a very primitive kind, this agriculture is not without interest, from the nice 
attention required in some parts of its operations. The surface, soil, and climate of the 
country, are so extraordinarily irregular and diversified, that in some places grapes ripen, 
and in many others corn will not arrive at maturity ; on one side of a hill the inhabitants 
are often reaping, while they are sowing on the other ; or they are obliged to feed the 
cattle on its summits with leaves of evergreens while they are making hay at its base. A 
season often happens in which rains during harvest prevent the corn from being dried, 
and it germinates, rots, and becomes useless ; in others it is destroyed by frost. In some 
cases there is no corn to reap, from the effect of summer storms. In no country is so 
much skill required in harvesting com and hay as Switzerland ; and no better school 
could be found for the study of that part of Scotch and Irish farming. After noticing 
some leading features of the culture of the cantons which form the republic, we shall cast 
our eye on the mountains of Savoy, 

SuBSECT. 1. Of the Agriculture of the Swiss Cantons. 

328. Agriculture began to attract public attention in Switzerland about the middle of 
the eighteenth century. In 1759, a society for the promotion of rural economy esta- 
blished itself at Berne : they offered premiums, and have published some useful papers in 
several volumes. Long before tliat period, however, the Swiss farmers were considered 
the most exact in Europe. (Stanyans Account of Switzerland in 1714.) Chateauvieux 
attributes the progress which agriculture has made, near Vevay, on the Lake of Geneva, 
to the" settlement of the protestants, who emigrated tliither from France, at the end of the 
seventeenth century. They cut the hills into terraces, and planted vines, which has so 
much increased the value of the land, that what was before worth little, now sells at 
10,000 francs per acre. {Let. xxi.) Improvement in Switzerland is not likely to be 
rapid ; because agriculture there is limited almost entirely to procuring the means of 
subsistence, and not to the employment of capital for profit. 

329. Landed proj^erty in Switzerland is minutely divided, and almost always farmed 
by the proprietors and their families : or it is in immense tracts of mountain belonging 
to the bailiwicks, and pastured in common : every proprietor and burgess having a right 
according to the extent of his property. These men are, perhaps, the most frugal 
cultivators in Europe : they rear numerous families, a part of which is obliged to 
emigrate, because there are few manufactures j and land is excessively dear, and seldom 
in the market. 

330. The valleys of the Alpine regions (f Switzerland are subject to very peculiar injuries 
from the rivers, mountain rocks, and glaciers. As the rivers are subject to vast and 
sudden inundations, from the thawing of the snow on the mountains, they bring down 
at such times an immense quantity of stones, and spread them over the bottoms of the 
valleys. Many a stream, which appears in ordinary times inconsiderable, has a stony 
bed of half a mile in breadth, in various parts of its course ; thus a portion of the finest 
land is rendered useless. The cultivated slopes, at the bases of the mountains, are subject 
to be buried under dboulemens, when the rocks above fall down, and sometimes cover 
many square miles with their ruins. 

SSI. E'boulement (Fr.) denotes a falling down of a mountain or mass of rock, and consequent covering 
of the lower grounds with its fragments ; when an immense quantity of stones are suddenly brought down 
from the mountains by the breaking or thawing of a glacier, it is also called an eboulement. {Bakewell, 
vol. i. p. 11.) Vast eboulemens are every year falling from the enormous precipices that overhang the 
valley of the Rhone ; many of these are recorded which have destroyed entire villages. 


332. One qf the most extraordinary eboulemens ever known was that of Mont Grenier, five miles 
south of Chambery. A part of this mountain fell down in the year 1248, and entirely buried fiVe 
parishes, and the town and church of St. Andri The ruins spread over an extent of about nine 
square miles, and are called Les Abymes des Myans. After a lapse of so many centuries, they stUl 
present a singular scene of desolation. The catastrophe must have been most awful when seen from the 
vicinity ; for Mont Grenjer is almost isolated, advancing into a narrow plain, which extends to the valley 
of the Isere. 

333. Mont Grenier rises very abruptly upwards of 4000 feet above the plain. Like the mountains of 
Les Echelles, with which it is connected, it is capped with an immense mass of limestone strata, not less 
than 600 feet in thickness, which presents on everyside the appearance of a wall. The strata dip gently 
to the side which fell into the plain. This mass of limestone rests on a foundation of softer strata, 
probably molasse. Under this molasse are distinctly seen thin strata, probably of limestone, alternating 
with soft strata. There can be little doubt that the catastrophe was caused by the gradual erosion of the 
soft strata which undermined the mass of limestone above, and projected it into the plain ; it is also pro- 
bable that the part which fell had for some time been nearly detached from the mountain by a shrinking 
of the southern side, as there is at present a rent at this end, upwards of two thousand feet deep, which 
seems to have cut off a large section from the eastern end, and that now " Hangs in doubtful ruins o'er 
its base," as if prepared to renew the catastrophe of 1248. 

334. Avalanches, or falls of immense masses of snow from the mountains, often occasion dreadful 
effects. Villages are overwhelmed by them ; and rivers, stopped in their course by them, inundate narrow 
valleys to a ruinous extent. In February 1820, the village of Obergestelen, with eighty-eight of its inha- 
bitants, was overwhelmed by an avalanche. 

335. The glaciers, or ice-hills, or ice-heaps, slide down into the mountain valleys, and form dams across 
them, which produce large lakes ; by the breaking up of the glacier, these lakes are sometimes suddenly 
poured into the lower valleys, and do immense mischief. Man, in such a country, as Bakewell has 
observed, is in a constant state of warfare with the elements, and compelled to be incessantly on his guard 
against the powers that threaten his destruction. This constant exposure to superhuman dangers is 
supposed to have given the aged inhabitants, especially of the Vallais, an air of uncommon seriousness and 

336. The Swiss cottages are generally formed of wood, with projecting roofs, covered 
with slates, tiles, or shingles. A few small enclosures surround or are contiguous 
to them, some of which are watered meadows, others dry pasture ; and one or more 
always devoted to the raising of oats, some barley, and rye or wheat, for the family con- 
sumption. In the garden, which is large in proportion to the farm, are grown hemp, 
flax, tobacco, potatoes, white beet to be used as spinach and asparagus, French beans, 
cabbages, and turnips. The whole has every appearance of neatness and comfort. There 
are, however, some farmers who hire lands from the corporate bodies and others at a fixed 
rent, or on the metayer system j and in some cases both land and stock are hired ; and 
peasants are found who hire so many cows and their keep, during a certain number of 
months, either for a third or more of the produce, or for a fixed sum. 

337. The villages of Switzerland are often built in lofty situations, and some so high 
as 5000 feet above the level of tiae sea. " In a country where land is much divided, and 
small proprietors cultivate their own property on the mountains, it is absolutely necessary 
that they should reside near it, otherwise a great part of their time and strength would 
be exhausted in ascending and descending, as it would take a mountaineer four hours 
in each day, to ascend to many of these villages and return to the valley. In building 
theii houses on the mountains, they place them together in villages, when it can be done, 
and at a moderate distance from their property, to have the comforts of society, and be 
more secure from the attack of wolves and other wild animals. Potatoes and barley can 
be cultivated at the height of 4500 feet in Savoy, and these, with cheese and milk, and 
a little maize for porridge, form the principal part of the food of the peasantry. The 
harvest is over in the plains by the end of June, and in the mountains by the end of 
September. Several of the mountain villages, with the white spires of their churches, 
form pleasing objects in the landscape, but on entering them the charm vanishes, and 
nothing can exceed the dirtiness and want of comfort which they present, except the cabins 
of the Irish." {BakeweW s Travels, vol. i. 270.) Yet habit, and a feeling of independence, 
■which the mountain peasant enjoys under almost every form of government, make him 
disregard the inconveniences of his situation and abode. Damsels and their flocks form 
pleasing groups at a distance ; but the former, viewed near, bear no more resemblance to 
les bergeres des Alpes of the poets, than a female Hottentot to the Venus de Medicis. 

338. The vine is cultivated in several of the Swiss cantons on a small scale ; and either 
against trellises, or kept low and tied to short stakes as in France. The grapes, which 
seldom ripen well, produce a very inferior wine. The best in Switzerland are grown in 
the Pays de Vaud round Vevay. They are white, and, Bakewell says, " as large and 
fine-flavoured as our best hot-house grapes. " The physicians at Geneva send some of their 
patients here during the vintage, to take what is called a regular course of grapes ; that is, 
to subsist for three weeks entirely on this fruit, without taking any other food or drink. In 
a few days a grape diet becomes agreeable, and weak persons, and also the insane, have 
found great relief from subsisting on it for three or four weeks. {BakeweWs Travels, 
ii. 206.) 

339. Of fruit trees, the. apple, pear, cherry, plum, and walnut, surround the small field 
or fields of every peasant. The walnut tree also lines the public roads in many places, 
and its dropping fruit is often the only food of the mendicant traveller. 

340. The management qf woods and forests forms a part of Swiss culture. The 
herbage is pastured with sheep and swine as in Italy ; the copse wood and lop are used 


for fuel, as in all countries ; and when a mode of conveyance and a market can be found 
the timber is sold, but in many places neither is the case. A singular construction was 
erected for the purpose of bringing down to the Lake of Lucerne the fine pine trees 
which grow upon Mount Pilatus, by the engineer Rupp. The wood was purchased by 
a company for 3000^., and 9000;. were expended in constructing the slide. The length 
of the slide is about 44,000 English feet, or about eight miles and two furlongs ; and 
the difference of level of its two extremities is about 2600 feet. It is a wooden trough, 
about five feet broad and four deep, the bottom of which consists of three trees, the middle 
one being a little hollowed ; and small rills of water are conducted into it, for the pur- 
pose of diminishing the friction. The declivity, at its commencement, is about 22^°. 
The large pines, with their branches and boughs cut off, are placed in the slide, and 
descending by their own gravity, they acquire such an impetus by their descent through 
the first part of the slide, that they perform their journey of eight miles and a quarter in 
the short space of six minutes ; and, under favourable circumstances, that is, in wet 
weather, in three minutes. Only one tree descends at a time, but, by means of signals 
placed along the slide, another tree is launched as soon as its predecessor has plunged 
into the lake. Sometimes the moving trees spring or bolt out of the trough, and when 
this happens, they have been known to cut tlirough trees in the neighbourhood, as if it 
had been done by an axe. When the trees reach the lake, they are formed into rafts, and 
floated down the Reuss into the Rhine. 

341. Timber is alsojloated down mountain torrents from a great height. The trees are 
cut down during summer and laid in the then dry bed of the stream : with the first heavy 
rains in autumn they are set in motion, and go thundering down among the rocks to the 
valleys, where what arrives sound is laid aside for construction, and the rest is used as fuel. 

342. The chamois goats abound in some of the 42 
forests, and are hunted for their fat and flesh, and 
for their skins, which are valuable as glove and 
breeches leather. They herd in flocks, led by a 
female ; live on lichens, and on the young shoots 
and bark of pines ; are remarkably fond of salt ; and 
require great caution in hunting. {Simond's Swit- 
zerland, vol. i. p. 245. ) The common goat is fre- 
quently domesticated for the sake of its milk, and 
may be seen near cottages, curiously harnessed 
(Jig. 42.) to prevent its breaking through, or 
jumping over, fences. 

343. The care of pastures and mowing grounds 
forms an important part of the agricultural economy 
of Switzerland. In places inaccessible to cattle, the peasant sometimes makes hay with 
cramps on his feet. Grass, not three inches high, is cut in some places three times a 
year ; and, in the valleys, the fields are seen shaven as close as a bowling-green, and all 
inequalities cropped as with a pair of scissors. In Switzerland, as in Norway, ar.d for 
the same reasons, the arts of mowing and hay-making seem to be carried to the 
highest degree of perfection. Harvesting com is not less perfect ; and the art of pro- 
curing fodder for cattle, from the trees, shrubs, and wild plants, and applying this fodder 
with economy, is pushed as far as it will go. In some parts, very minute attention is 
paid to forming and collecting manure, especially that liquid manure, which, in the 
German cantons, is known under the name of jauche or mist-wasser, and in the Canton 
de Vaud, of sissier. {For. Quart. Bev. and Cont. Mis., Jan. 1828.) 

344. Cows, goats, and sheep constitute the wealth of the Swiss farmers, and their principal means of sup. 
port ; or, to discriminate more accurately, the goats, in a great measure, support the poorer class ; and (he 
cows supply the cheese from which the richer derive their little wealth. The extent of a pasture is esti- 
mated by the number of cows it maintains : six or eight goats are deemed equal to a cow, as are four calves, 
four sheep, or four hogs ; but a horse is reckoned equal to five or six cows, because he roots up the grass. 
Throughout the high Alps, they are of opinion that sheep are destructive to the pastures, in proportion to 
their elevation, because the herbage, which they eat down to the roots, cannot, in such a cold climate, 
regain its strength and luxuriance. The mountain pastures are rented at so much per cow's feed, from 
the 15th of May to the 18th of October ; and the cows are hired from the peasants for the same period : at 
the end of it, both are restored to their owners. In other parts, the proprietors of the pastures hire the 
cows, or the proprietors of the cows rent the land. The proceeds of a cow are estimated at 31. or 31. 10s., 
▼iz. 255. in summer ; and, during the time they are kept in the valleys or in the house, at Zl. The Grin- 
delwald Alps feed three thousand cows, and as many sheep and goats. The cattle are attended on the 
mountains by herdsmen ; when the weather is tempestuous they are up all night calling to them, other- 
wise they would take fright and run into danger. Chalets are built for the use of the herdsmen : these 
are log-houses of the rudest construction, without a chimney, having a pit or trench dug for the fire, the 
earth thrown up forming a mound around it, by way of a seat. To those chalets, the persons whose 
employment it is to milk the cows, and to make cheese and butter, ascend in the summer time. When 
they go out to milk the cows, a portable seat, with a single leg, is strapped to their backs ; at the hour of 
milking, the cows are attracted home from the most distant pastures by a handful of salt, which the shep- 
herd takes from a leathern pouch hanging over his shoulder. During the milking, the Ranz dcs Faches 
is frequently sung. {For. Quart. Rev. and Cont. Misc.) 

345. The Swiss cows yield more milk than those of Lombardy, where they are in great demand ; but 
after the third generation their milk falls off In some parts of Switzerland they. yield, on an average. 


twelve English quarts a day ; and with forty cows, a cheese of forty-five pounds can be made daily. In 
the vicinity of Altdorf they make, in the course of a hundred days, from the 20th of June, two cheeses 
daily, of twenty-five pounds each, from the milk of eighteen cows. On the high pastures of Scarla, a cow 
during the best season, supplies near sixty pounds of skim-milk cheese, and forty pounds of butter. 
Reckoning twenty pounds of milk, observes our author, equivalent to one of butter, the produce in milk 
will be eight hundred pounds for ninety days, or less than nine pounds a day. This small supply he 
ascribes to the great elevation of the pastures, and the bad keep of the cows in the winter. {For. Quart. 
Rev. and Cont. Misc.) 

SiS. Great variety of cheese is made in Switzerland. The most celebrated are the Schabzieger and 
Gruyfere ; the former made by the mountaineers of the canton of Glarus, and the latter in the valley of 
Gruyfere. The cheese of Switzerland must have been for a long period a great article of commerce ; for, 
Myconius, of Lucerne, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, in a commentary on a poem of his friend 
Glarianus, expatiates on the large quantities of butter and cheese which his fellow-citizens sent into 
Burgundy, Suabia, and Italy : he adds, that twenty cows would bring in, annually, a net sum of 100 crowns. 
In 1563, a law was passed in the Upper Engadine to guard against fraud in the manufacture of cheese 
meant for sale. Formerly, the depots of rich cheese were principally near Lake Como; it was supposed 
that the exhalations, at once warm and moist, ripened the cheese, without drying it too much ; at present, 
however, these depots are not near so numerous. In the Upper Engadine, cheese loses, by drying, a 
twentieth part ot its weight in the first ten weeks ; and skim-milk cheese the half of its weiglit in two years. 
Of the quantity of cheeses exported from Switzerland we have no information that can be relied upon j but 
it is computed that thirty-thousand hundred-weight of Gruyfere cheese 
alone, fit for exportation, is annually made ; and that, from the middle 
of July to October, three hundred horses, weekly, are employed in trans- 
porting Swiss cheese over Mount Grias. {For. Rev. and Cont. Misc.) 

347. The Schabzieger cheese is made by the mountaineers of the Can- 
ton of Glarus alone ; and, in its greatest perfection, in the valley of 
Kloen. It is readily distinguished by its marbled appearance and 
aromatic .flavour, both produced by the bruised leaves of the melilot. ;^ 
The dairy is built near a stream of water ; the vessels containing the "^ 
milk are placed on gravel or stone in the dairy, and the water con- 
ducted into it in such a manner as to reach their brim. The milk is 
exposed to this temperature, about six degrees of Reaumur (forty-six 
degrees of Fahrenheit), for five or six days, and in that time the cream 
is completely formed. After this it is drained off, the caseous particles are 
separated, by the addition of some sour milk, and not by rennet. The 
curd thus obtained is pressed strongly in bags, on which stones are laid j 
when sufficiently pressed and dried, it is ground to powder in autumn, 
salted, and mixed with either the pressed flowers or the bruised seeds of 
the melilot trefoil (Melil?)tus officinalis), {fig. 43.) The practice of mixing 
the flowers or the seeds of plants with cheese was common among the 
Romans, who used those of the thyme for that purpose. The entire sepa- 
ration of the cream or unctuous portion of the milk is indispensable in the - 
manufacture of Schabzieger. The unprepared curd never sells for more 
than three halfpence a pound ; whereas, prepared as Schabzieger, it sells 
for sixpence or seven-pence. {For. Rev. and Cont. Misc.) 

348. The Gruyere cheese of Switzerland is so named after a valley, where the best of 
that kind is made. Its merit depends chiefly on the herbage of the mountain pastures, 
and partly on the custom of mixing the flowers or bruised seeds of ilfelilotus oflScinalis 
with the curd, before it is pressed. The mountain pastures are rented at so much per 
cow's feed from the 15th of May to the 18th of October ; and the cows are hired from 
the peasants, at so much, for the same period. On the precise day both land and cows 
return to their owners. It is estimated that 15,000 cows are so grazed, and 30,000 cwt. 
of cheese made fit for exportation, besides what is reserved for home use. 

349. Ewe.milk cheese of Switzerland. One measure of ewe's milk is added to three measures of cow's 
milk ; little rennet is used, and no acid. The best Swiss cheese of this kind is made by the Bergamese 
sheep-masters, on Mount Splugen. {For. Rev. and Cont. Misc.) 

350. The establishment at Hofwyl, near Berne, may be considered as in great part 
belonging to agriculture, and deserves to be noticed in this outline. It was projected by, 
and is conducted at the sole expense of, M. Fellenberg, a proprietor and agriculturist. 
His object was to apply a sounder system of education for the great body of the people, 
in order to stop the progress of misery and crime. Upwards of twelve years ago he 
undertook to systematise domestic education, and to show, on a large scjile, how the 
children of the poor might be best taught, and their labour at the same time most pro- 
fitably applied ; in short, how the first twenty years of a poor man's life might be so 
employed as to provide both for his support and his education. The peasants in his 
neighbourhood were at first rather shy of trusting their children for a new experiment ; 
and being thus obliged to take his pupils where he could find them, many of the earliest 
were the sons of vagrants, and literally picked up on the highways : this is the case with 
one or two of the most distinguished pupils. 

351. Their treatTuent is nearly that of children under the paternal roof. They go out 
every morning to their work soon after sunrise, having first breakfasted, and received a 
lesson of about an hour: they return at noon. Dinner takes them half an hour, 
a lesson of one hour follows ; then to work again till six in the evening. On Sunday 
the different lessons take six hours instead of two ; and they have butcher's meat on that 
day only. They are divided into three classes, according to age and strength ; an entry 
is made in a book every night of the number of hours each class has worked, specifying 
the sort of labour done, in order that it may be charged to the proper account, each par- 
ticular crop having an account opened for it, as well as every new building, the live stock, 
the machines, the schools themselves, &c. &c. In winter, and whenever there is not out- 


of-doors work, the boys plait straw for chairs, make baskets, saw logs with the cross-saw 
and split them, thrash and winnow corn, grind colours, knit stockings, or assist the wheel- 
wright and other artificers, of whom there are many employed in the establishment. For 
all which different sorts of labour an adequate salary is credited to each boy's class. 

S52. The boys never see a newspaper, and scarcely a book ,• they are taught, viva voce, a few matters of 
fact, and rules of practical application : the rest of their education consists chiefly in inculcating habits of 
industry, frugality, veracity, docility, and mutual kindness, by means of good example, rather than pre. 
cepts ; and, above all, by the absence of bad example. It has been said of the Bell and Lancaster schools, 
that the good they do is mostly negative : they take children out of the streets, employ them in a harm, 
less sort of mental sport two or three hours in the day, exercise their understanding gently and pleasantly, 
and accustom them to order and rule, without compulsion. Now, what these schools undertake to do 
for a few hours of each week, during one or two years of a boy's life, the School of Ijidustry at Hofwyl 
does incessantly, during the whole course of his youth ; providing, at the same time, for his whole 
physical maintenance, at a rate which must be deemed excessively cheap for any but the very lowest of 
the people. 

353. The practicability of this scheme for inculcating individual prudence and practical 
morality, not only in the agricultural, but in all the operative, classes of society, M. 
Simond considers as demonstrated ; and it only remains to ascertain the extent of its 
application. Two only of the pupils have left Hofwyl, for a place, before the end of 
their time ; and one, with M. de Fellenberg's leave, is become chief manager of the 
immense estates of Comte Abaffy, in Hungary, and has, it is said, doubled its proceeds 
by the improved method of husbandry he has introduced. This young man, whose name 
is Madorly, was originally a beggar boy, and not particularly distinguished at school. 
Another directs a school established near Zurich, and acquits himself to the entire 
satisfaction of his employers. M. Fellenberg has besides a number of pupils of the 
higher classes, some of whom belong to the first families of Germany, Russia, and Swit- 
zerland. They live enfamille with their master, and are instructed by the different tutors 
in the theory and practice of agriculture, and in the arts and sciences on which it is 
founded. (See SimoncCs Account of Switzerland, vol. i. ; JEd. Rev. 1819, No. 64. ; JDes 
Institutes de Hofwyl de par Cte. L. de V. Paris, 1821.) 

SuBSECT. 2. Of the Agriculture of the Duchy of Savoy. 

354. Of the agriculture of Savoy, wliich naturally belongs to Switzerland, a general 
view, with some interesting details, is given by Bakewell. {Travels in the Tarantaise, &c., 
1820-22.) Landed property there is divided into three qualities, and rated for a land- 
tax accordingly. There is an office for registering estates, to which a per centage is paid 
on each transfer or additional registering. There is also an oflSce for registering all 
mortgages, with the particulars ; both are found of great benefit to the landed interest 
and tfie public, by the certainty which they give to titles, and the safety both to borrowers 
and lenders on land. 

355. Land in Savoy is divided into very small farms, and is occupied by the proprietors 
or pay sans, who live in an exceedingly frugal manner, and cultivate the ground with the 
assistance of their wives and children ; for in Savoy, as in many other parts of Europe, 
the women do nearly as much field labour as the men. 

356. The lands belonging to the monasteries were sold during the French revolution, when Savoy was 
annexed to France. The gradual abolition of the monasteries had been begun by the old government of 
Sardinia before the revolution, for the monks were prohibited from receiving any new brethren into their 
establishments, in order that the estates might devolve to the crown, on the extinction of the different 
fraternities. This measure, though wise in the abstract, was not unattended with inconvenience, and 
perhaps we may add, injustice. The poor, who had been accustomed to fly to the monasteries for relief 
in cases of distress, were left without any support, except the casual charity of their neighbours, who had 
little to spare from their own absolute necessities. The situation of the poor is therefore much worse in 
Savoy, than before the abolition of the monasteries. The poor in England suffered in the same manner, 
on the abolition of the monasteries in the reigns of Henry VIII. and Elizabeth, before the poor's rates 
were enacted. The charity of the monks of Savoy lost much of its usefulness by the indiscriminate manner 
in which it was generally bestowed : certain days and hours were appointed at each monastery, for the 
distribution of provisions, and the indolent were thereby enabled to support themselves during the whole 
week, by walking to the different monasteries on the days of donation. This was offering a premium to 
idleness, and was the means of increasing the number of mendicants, which will, in every country, be 
proportionate to the facility of obtaining food without labour. 

357. The peasantry in Savoy are very poor, but they cannot be called miserable. In the neighbourhood 
of towns, their situation is worse than at a distance ; and not far from Chambery may be seen a few 
families that might almost vie in squalid misery, rags, and filth, with the poor of Ireland ; but the general 
appearance of the peasantry is respectable. Having learnt the price of labour in various parts of Savoy, 
Bakewell proposed the following question : Is it possible for a labourer, with a family, to procure a 
sufficient quantity of wholesome food for their consumption ? One of the answers was, " Cela est tres-facile 
(It is very easy)", the other was, " The labourer lives very frugally {tres-sobrement)." " In general 
he eats very coarse, but wholesome, bread, and, except in the mountains, he eats very little meat, and 
rarely drinks wine, but he has a great resource in potatoes." 

358. One day's labour of a farming man will purchase about twelve pounds avoirdupois of wheat, or from 
four to five pounds of beef, veal, or mutton ; but these are dainties which he rarely tastes; potatoes, rye- 
bread, chestnuts, and milk, form the principal part of the food of the poor. The day-labourer in Savoy has 
to deduct, from the amount of his labour, about seventy days in the year, including saint-days and Sundays, 
on which he receives no wages. {Bakeweirs Travels, vol i. 314.) 

359. There are four modes of occupying land for cultivation in Savoy : by the pro- 
prietors ; by farmers ; by grangers ; and by tacheurs. 

360. Land very near to towns is generally cultivated by the proprietors, who either keep cattle, or take 
them in to graze at so much per head. 


361. By farming land, is understood, letting it at a fixed rent, to be paid according to the value of the 
produce, taken at an average often years. 

3fi2. By grangers, or renting land d moitie fruit, is understood, that the proprietor takes half of all the 
grain and fruit, half the produce or increase of the cows, half the eggs, and, in short, half of every thing 
which is productive. 

363. By tacheurs, is another mode of cultivating land, in the immediate vicinity of towns. The pro- 
prietors, to avoid keeping too many servants in their own houses, place a father of a family in the house 
upon the farm. This man is called le tacheur. He takes care of the cows, for half their produce : he 
ploughs the ground, receiving for every pair of oxen employed, or for three horses, from seventy to eighty 
francs per annum : he has half the wine : the share he receives of the wheat and grain is in the proportion 
of two parts for every nine taken by the proprietor. The latter pays all the taxes, and keeps the accounts. 
The tacheur may be changed every year. When he is employed in repairing fences, &c., he is paid by the 
day ; this is always undertaken when he enters the farm. 

364. Tlie leases granted to the farmers and grangers are on terms of three, six, or 
nine years ; but when the leases are for six or nine years, a reservation is always made, 
that at the expiration of every three years the proprietor may revoke the lease, by giving 
three months' notice, if he be not satisfied with the tenant. The proprietor always 
supplies the farmer or granger with a sum of money without interest, called chaptal 
(capital), to aid him in buying oxen : for a farm of two oxen it is generally about twenty 
louis ; for a farm of four oxen, forty louis ; and so on. The proprietor, for this sum, 
has an exclusive right to seize the cattle of the farmer, should he sell them clandestinely. 

365. The mode of pasturage in Chamouny will apply, with little variation, to all the 
Alpine communes in Savoy. The rich peasants in the Alps possess meadows, and 
even habitations, at different heights. In winter they live in the bottom of the valley, 
but they quit it in spring, and ascend gradually, as the heat pushes out vegetation. In 
autumn they descend by the same gradation. Those who are less rich have a resource 
in the common pastures, to which they send a number of cows, proportionate to their 
resources, and their means of keeping them during the winter. Tlie poor, who have no 
meadows to supply fodder for the winter, cannot avail themselves of this advantage. 
Eight days after the cows have been driven up into the common pasture, all the owners 
assemble, and the quantity of milk from each cow is weighed. The same operation is 
repeated one day in the middle of the summer, and at the end of the season, the quantity 
of cheese and butter is divided, according to the quantity of iQilk each cow yielded on 
the days of trial. (Bakewell.) 

366. There are chalets, or public dairies, near the mountain pastures in Savoy, as well as in Switzerland ; 
persons reside in these chalets during the summer months, to make cheese and butter. In many 
situations it is the labour of a day to ascend to these chalets, and return to the valleys immediately below 
them. There are also public dairies in some of the villages, where the poorer peasants may bring all the 
milk they can spare, from the daily consumption of their families. The milk is measured, and an account 
kept of it ; and at the end of the season the due portion of cheese is allotted to each, after a small deduc- 
tion for the expense of making. {Id.) 

367. "No large flocks of sheep are kept in Savoy, as it is necessary to house them during the winter, at 
which time they are principally fed with dried leaves of trees, collected during the autumn. Many poor 
families keep a few sheep to supply them with wool for their domestic use. These little flocks are driven 
home every evening, and are almost always accompanied by a goat, a cow, a pig, or an ass, and followed 
by a young girl spinning with a distaff As they wind down the lower slopes of the mountains, they form 
the most picturesque groups for the pencil of the painter ; and, seen at a distance, carry back the imagination 
to the ages of pastoral simplicity, sung by Theocritus and Virgil. {Id.) 

368. The vineyards in Savoy are cultivated for half the produce of the wine. The 
cultivator pays the whole expense, except the taxes, which are paid by the proprietor. 

369. Walnut trees, of immense size and great beauty, enrich the scenery of Savoy, and 
supply sufficient oil for the consumption of the inhabitants, and for the adjoining canton 
of Geneva. The walnut has been called the olive of the country. The trees belong 
principally to the larger proprietors. They are planted by nature, being scattered over 
the fields, and in the woods and hedge-rows, intermixed witli chestnuts and forest trees 
of various kinds. {Bakewell.) 

370. The loalnut harvest at Chateau Duing commences in September. " They are 
beaten off the trees with long poles ; the green husks are taken. off as soon as they begin 
to decay ; the walnuts are then laid in a chamber to dry, where they remain till November, 
when the process of making the oil commences. The first operation is to crack the nuts, 
and take out the kernel. For tliis purpose several of the neighbouring peasants, with their 
wives and elder children, assembled at the chateau of an evening, after their work was 
done. The party generally consisted of about thirty persons, who were placed around 
a long table in the kitchen. One man sat at each end of the table, with a small mallet to 
crack the nuts by hitting them on the point : as fast as they are cracked, they are 
distributed to the other persons around the table, who take the kernels out of the shell, 
and remove the inner part ; but tliey are not peeled. The peasants of Savoy are naturally 
lively and loquacious ; and they enliven their labour with facetious stories, jokes, and 
noisy mirth. About ten o'clock the table is cleared to make room for the goute, or sup- 
per, consisting of dried fruit, vegetables, and wine ; and the remainder of the evening 
is spent in singing and dancing, which is sometimes continued till midnight. In a 
favourable season, the number of walnuts from the Duing estate is so great, that the party 
assemble in this manner every evening for a fortnight, before all the walnuts are cracked ; 
and the poor people look forward to these meetings, from year to year, as a kind of 



Part I. 

festival. They do not receive any pay ; the gouU and the amusement of the evening are 
their only reward." (Bakewell.) 

371. The walnut kernels are laid on cloths to dry, and in about a fortnight are carried to the crushing- 
mill, where they are ground into a paste; this is put into cloths, and undergoes the operation of pressing 
to extract the oil. The best oil, which is used for salads and cooking, is pressed- cold ; but an inferior 
oil for lamps is extracted by heating the paste. Thirty people in one evening will crack as many walnuts 
as will produce sixty pounds of paste; this yields about fifteen wine-quarts of oil. The walnut-shells are 
not lost among so frugal a people as the Savoyards, but are burned for the ashes, which are used for washing. 
Two pounds of these ashes are equal in strength to three of wood-ashes ; but the alkali is so caustic, that 
it frequently injures the linen. The paste, after it is pressed, is dried in cakes, called pain amerj this is 
eaten by children and poor people, and it is sold in the shops in Savoy and Geneva. 

372. T/ie best walnut oil, pressed cold, has but very little of the kernelly taste ; but it may be easily 
distinguished from the best olive oil, which it resembles in colour. If the peel were taken off the 
walnuts, the oil would probably be quite free from any peculiar flavour; but this operation would be 
too tedious. {lb.) 

373. Tobacco, which is much used in Savoy, was cultivated with success in the 
neighbourhood of Ramilly ; but on the restoration of the old despotism, its culture was 
prohibited, and the implements of manufacture seized. 

374. The culture of artificial grasses is spreading in Savoy, but is not yet very general. 
In the neighbourhood of Aix, Ramilly, and Annecy, wheat is succeeded by rye. The 
rye-harvest being over in June, they immediately sow the land with buck- wheat (sarrasin), 
which is cut in September ; the following year the land is sown with spring corn. 

375. The grass-lands are always mown twice, and the latter mowing is sufficiently 
early to allow a good pasturage in the autumn. Water-meadows are occasionally found 
near towns. The water is generally let down from mountain sti-eams ; but sometimes it 
is raised from rivers by a sort of bucket- wheel (Jig. 44. ), which is called the Noria of the 

Jlps. This wheel is raised or lowered by means of a loaded lever (a), which turns on a 
fulcrum {b), formed by a piece of wood with its end inserted in the river's bank. 

376. Agriculttiral improvement in Savoy must be in a very low state, if the answers 
Bakewell received respecting the average quantity of the produce are correct. One of 
the answers stated the average increase of wheat to be from three to five on the quantity 
sown, and near the towns from five to seven. Another agriculturist stated the average 
increase on the best lands to be nine, and, in the neighbourhood of Annecy, thirteen, fold. 
One part of Savoy is, perhaps, the finest corn-land in Europe ; and the very heavy crops 
Bakewell saw in the neighbourhood of Aix and Annecy, made him doubt the accuracy of 
the above statements : but, on referring to Arthur Young's account of the agriculture of 
France before the revolution, it appears that four and a half was regarded as the average 
increase in that country, which is very similar in climate to Savoy. (Travels, i. 328.) 

377. The salt-works of Moutiers, in the valley of the Isere, in the Tarantaise, are parti- 
cularly deserving attention, being perhaps the best conducted of any in Europe, with respect 
to economy. Nearly three million pounds of salt are extracted annually from a source of 
water which would scarcely be noticed, except for medical purposes, in any other country. 

378. The springs that supply the salt-works at Moutiers, rise at the bottom of a nearly perpendicular rock 
of limestone, situated on the south side of a deep valley or gorge. The temperature of the strongest 
spring is ninety-nine Fahrenheit, it contains 183 per cent of saline matter. It may seem extraordinary 
that the waters at Moutiers, which have only half the strength of sea-water, should repay the expense 
of evaporation ; but the process by which it is [effected is both simple and ingenious, and might be 


introduced with great advantage on many parts of our ovm coast, more particularly in Ireland It 
IS obvious that water, so weakly impregnated with salt as to contain only one pound and a half in every 
thirteen gallons, could not repay the expense of evaporating by fuel in any country. The water of the 
North Sea contains two and a quarter' per cent of salt, and yet it has never been attempted to make 
salt from it by evaporation with coal-fires, even on the coast of Northumberland or Durham where 
refuse coal, suited to the purpose, might be purchased for one shilling and sixpence per ton. In order to 
make salt from the saline water at Moutiers, it was necessary to concentrate it by natural evaporation • 
and to effect this speedily, it was required to spread the surface of the fluid over as large a space as 
possible, the ratio of evaporation being, ctetens paribus, in proportion to the extent of the surface exposed 
to the action of the atmosphere. The first attempt at Moutiers was made in 1550, by arranging pyramids 
of rye straw in open galleries, and letting the water trickle through the straw gradually and repeatedly 
This was abandoned, and faggots of thorns were substituted : these faggots are suspended on frames the 
water is raised to their height, and spread by channels so as to trickle through them : it passes through 
three separate sets or frames of thorns, and has then become so concentrated as to contain nearly 22 per 
cent of salt : it is then boiled in nans in the usual manner. 

379. Evaporating on ver Hear cords, erected in a house open on all sides, is a third method, which 
succeeds even better than the mode by thorns. The water, by repeatedly passing over the cords is found 
in forty.five days to deposit all its salt on thiem, and the saline cylinder is then broken off. The cords are 
renewed once in twenty or thirty years, and the faggots once in seven years. Minute details of these 
simple but very ingenious processes will be found in the very scientific Travels of Bakewell (vol, i. 230.'). 

Sect. III. Of the present State of Agriculture in France. 

380. The first agricultural survey of France was made in 1787, 8, and 9. by the 
celebrated Arthur Young. Since that period no similar account has been published either 
in France or England : but several French writers have given the statistics and culture of 
different districts, as the Baron de la Peyrouse, Sinetti, Cordier, &c. ; and others have 
given general views of the whole kingdom, as La Statistique Generate de la France, by 
Penchet ; De I' Industrie Franqoise, by Chaptal ; and Les Forces Productes et Commer- 
ciales de la France, Sec, by Dupin. From these works, some recent tours of Englishmen, 
and our own observations in 1815, 1819, and 1828, we have drawn the following outline 
of the progress of French agriculture since the middle of the sixteenth century, and 
more especially since the time of Louis XIV. ; including the general circumstances of 
France as to agriculture, its common culture, its culture of vines and maize, and its 
culture of olives and oranges. 

SuBSECT. 1. Of the Progress of French Agriculture, from the Sixteenth Century to tlie 

present Time. 

381. That Fra7ice is the most favourable country in Europe for agriculture, is tlie opinion 
both of its own and foreign writers on the subject. For, though the country " suffered 
deeply from the wars in wliich she was engaged, first by a hateful conspiracy of kings, and 
next, by the mad ambition of Bonaparte, the purifying effects of the revolution have 
indemnified her ten fold for all the losses she has sustained. She has come out of the 
contest with a debt comparatively light, with laws greatly amended, many old abuses 
destroyed, and with a population more industrious, moral, enlightened, and happy, than 
she ever had before. The fortunate change which peace has made in her situation, has 
filled her with a healthy activity, which is carrying her forward with rapid strides ; she has 
the most popular, and therefore the most rational, liberal, and beneficial, system of govern- 
ment of any state in Europe, Britain not excepted ; and, altogether, she is perhaps in a 
condition of more sound prosperity than any other state in the old world." (Scotsman, 
vol. xii. No. 861.) 

382. The agriculture of France at present, a,\ Mr. Jacob has observed (Itejjort, ^c, 
1828), occupies one of the lowest ranks in that of the Northern States of Europe; 
but the fertility of the soil, the suitableness of the subsoil and of the surface for aration, 
and, above all, the excellence of the climate, are such as are not united to an equal extent 
in any other European State. When we consider these circumstances in connection 
with the extraordinary exertions now making for the education of the laborious classes, 
and the no less extraordinary progress that has been made witlain these few years in 
manufactures (For. Rev., Jan. 1829, art. 1.), it is easy to see that in a few years the 
territorial riches of France will be augmented to an extraordinary extent. 

383. Of the agriculture of France, previous to the middle of the sixteenth century, scarcely 
any thing is known. Chopin, who it appears resided in the neighbourhood of Paris, 
wrote a treatise on the Privileges of Labourers, in 1574, which, M. Gr^goire remarks 
(Hist, of Agr. prefaced to edit, of Olivier de Serres, pub. in 1804), is calculated rather 
for the advantage of the proprietor than of the farmer. A Code Rural, published some 
time after, is characterised by the same writer as a Manual of Tyranny. 

384. French agriculture began to fiourish in the beginning of the seventeenth centurj', 
under Henry IV., and its precepts at that time were published by Olivier de Serres, and 
Charles Estienne. In 1621, great quantities of corn were exported to England, in con- 
sequence of a wise ordinance of Sully, passed some years before, permitting a free 
commerce in com. In 1641, the draining of fens and bogs was encouraged; and, in 
1756, the land-tax taken off newly broken up lands for the space of twenty years. 
Mazarin, during the minority of Louis XIV., prohibited the exportation of corn, and 
checked the progress of its culture. This circumstance, and the wars of that king, greatly 



discouraged agriculture, and produced several dearths. Fleury, under Louis XV. , was 
not favourable to agriculture ; but, in 1754, an act was passed for a free corn trade, which 
effected its revival. Tlie economists of this time, however mistaken in their views, 
inspired a taste for the art ; and agricultural societies were first established in France 
under the patronage and at the expense of government. In 1761, there were thirteen 
such societies in France, and nineteen cooperating societies. Those of Paris, Lyons, 
Amiens, and Bourdeaux, have distinguished themselves by their published Memoirs. At 
Tours a georgical society was established and directed by the Marquis of Tourbili, a 
patriot and agricultural writer. Du Hamel and Buffon gave eclat to the study of rural 
economy, and many other writers might be mentioned as having contributed to its im- 
provement. M. de Trudaine introduced the Merino breed of sheep in 1776, and Comte 
Lasteyrie has studied that breed in Spain, and written a valuable work on the subject ; 
as has the Baron de Mortemart on the English breeds, some of which he has introduced. 

385. The agnculture of France in 1819, as compared with what it was in 1789, 
presents, Chaptal observes, astonishing improvements. Crops of every kind cover 
the soil ; numerous and robust animals are employed in labouring it, and they 
also enrich it by their manure. The country population are lodged in commodious 
habitations, decently clothed, and abundantly nourished with wholesome food. The 
misery which existed in France in former times, when properties of immense extent 
supported little more than a single family, is banished, and its place supplied by ease and 
liberty. We are not to suppose, however, the same author observes, that the agriculture 
of France has arrived at perfection ; much still remains to be done : new plans of im- 
provement should be more generally introduced ; and a greater quantity of live stock is 
wanted for every province of France, except two or three which abound in natural meadows. 
Few domains have more than half the requisite number of labouring cattle ; the necessary 
result of wliich is a deficiency of labour, of manure, and of crop. The only mode of 
remedying these evils is to multiply the artificial pastures, and increase the cultivation of 
plants of forage. Abundance of forage is indeed the foundation of every good system of 
agriculture, as a proper succession of crops is the foundation of abundance of forage. 
The rich inhabitants of France have already adopted these principles ; but they have not 
yet found their way among the lowest class of cultivators. According to M. Dupin, 
four fifths of the peasantry of France are proprietors of land, which they cultivate them- 
selves ; and though they are at present very ignorant, yet knowledge of every kind is 
rapidly advancing. The wages of labourers in France, compared with the price of corn, 
are calculated to be higher than the wages paid to labourers in England. 

SuBSECT. 2. Of the general Circumstances of France, in respect to Agriculture. 

386. The surface of France has been divided by geographers into what are called 
basins, or great plains, tlirough which flow the principal rivers, and which basins are 
separated by original or secondary ridges of mountains. The chief basins are those of tlie 
Loire {fig. 45. a), of the Seine (6), of the Garonne (r), and of the Rhone and Saone {d). 
{Journal de Physique, tom. xxx.) 

387. The soil of France has been divided by Arthur Young into the mountainous district 
of Languedoc and Provence {e) ; the loamy district of Limosin (/) ; the chalky districts of 
Champagne and Poitiers {g) ; the gravelly district of Bourbonnois {h) ; the stony district 
of Lorraine and Franche Comte {i) ; the rich loam of Picardy and Guienne {k); and 
the heathy surface on gravel, or gravelly sand, of Bretagne and Gascoigne (/). {Agr. 
France, chap, ii.) 

388. The climate of France has been ingeniously divided by the same author into that 
of corn and common British agriculture, including Picardy, Normandy, French Flanders, 
Artois, Hainault, &c. {fig. 45. /, b, k) ; that of vines, mulberries, and common culture 
{y, a, h, g,i)', that of vines, mulberries, maize, and common culture {c,f, d, i) ; that of 
oUves, vines, mulberries, maize, oranges, and common culture (o, e). It is singular that 
these zones (m m, n n, and o o) do not run parallel to the degrees of latitude, but obliquely 
to them to such an extent that the climate for the vines leaves off at 46° on the west coast 
{y m), but extends to 49^° on the east {g m). The cause is to be found chiefly in the soil 
and surface producing a more favourable climate in one place than in another ; but partly 
also in the wants of cultivators. The vine is cultivated in Germany in situations where 
it would not be cultivated in France, because wine is of more value in the former country 
than in the latter. The northern boundary of the vine culture has even extended in 
France since the revolution, from the natural wish of small proprietors to supply them- 
selves with wine of their own growth. In Germany the vine is cultivated as far north as 
latitude 52°, on the warm sides of dry rocky hills. 

389. The central climate, which admits vines without being hot enough for maize^ 
(y, a, h, g, i), Young considers as the finest in the world, and the most eligible part of 
France or of Europe as to soil. " Here," he says, " you are exempt from the extreme 
humidity which gives verdure to Normandy and England j and yet equally free from the 

Book I. 




burning heats which turn verdure itself into a russet brown : no ardent rays that oppress 
with their fervour in summer, nor pinching tedious frosts that chill with their severity in 
winter, but a light, pure, elastic air, admirable for every constitution except consumptive 
ones." This climate, however, has its drawbacks ; and is so subject to violent storms of 
rain and hail, that " no year ever passes without whole parishes suffering to a degree of 
which we in Britain have no conception." It has been calculated, that in some provinces 
the damage from hail amounts, on an average of years, to one tenth of the whole produce. 
Spring frosts are sometimes so severe as to kill' the broom : few years pass that they do not 
blacken the first leaves of the walnut trees ; the fig trees are protected with straw. 

390. Of the vine and maize climate (c,f, d, i) some account is given by M. Picot, Baron 
de la Peyrouse, an extensive and spirited cultivator. He kept an accurate account of the 
crops and seasons in his district for twenty years from 1 800 ; and the result is, twelve years 
of fair average crops, four years most abundant, and four years attended with total loss. 

391. In the olive climate (o, e) insects are incredibly 
numerous and troublesome, and the locust is injurious to 
corn crops ; but both the olive and maize districts have 
tliis advantage, that two crops a year, or at least three 
in two years, may be obtained. The orange is cultivated 
in so small a proportion of the olive climate as scarcely 
to deserve notice. The caper (Capparis spinosa) (fig. 46.) 
and the fig are also articles of field culture in this climate. 

392. The climate of Picardy and Normandy is the 
nearest to that of England, and is rather superior. 
The great agricultural advantage which France possesses 
over Britain, in regard to climate, is, that, by means of 
the vine and olive, as valuable produce may be raised on 
rocky wastes as on rich soils ; and that in all soils what- 
ever, root weeds may be easily and effectually destroyed 
without a naked fallow. [Young'' s France, ch. iii.) 

393. The lands of France are not generally enclosed and subdivided by hedges or other 
fences. Some fences are to be seen near towns, and in the northern parts of the kingdom 
more especially : but, in general, the whole country is open ; the boundaries of estates 
being marked by slight ditches or ridges, with occasional stones or heaps of earth, rows of 
trees, or occasional trees. Depredations from passengers on the highways are prevented 
by gardes champetres, which are established throughout all France. Farms are sometimes 
compact and distinct, but generally scattered, and often alternating in the common field 
manner of England, or run-rig of Scotland. The farm-houses of large fanns are gene- 
rally placed on the lands ; those of smaller ones in villages, often at some distance. 

F 2 


S94. The value of landed proper tij is in general lower than in England, being at present 
(1829) sold at from twenty-two to twenty-six years' purchase. 

395. The farming of lands in France, according to Professor Thonin, naturally divides 
itself into tliree kinds : 1. The grand culture, in which from two to twelve ploughs are 
employed, and corn chiefly cultivated ; 2. The middle culture, including the metayers, 
who also grow corn, but more frequently rear live stock, maintain a dairy, or produce 
silk, wine, cider, or oil, according to the climate in which tliey may be situated ; and 3. 
The minor culture, or that which is done by manual labour, and into which live stock or 
corns do not enter. The middle culture is by far the most common. There are very 
few farms of six or eight ploughs in France, and equally few farmers who do not labour 
in person at all times of the year. It is acknowledged by Professor Thouin, tliat each 
of these divisions is susceptible of very great improvement. 

Sdbsect. 3. Of the common Farming of France, 

396. The corn farming in France is carried on in the best manner in French Flanders, 
Picardy, and Brie. The first may be considered as equally well cultivated with Suffolk ; 
and the last produces three crops in two years, or five in three years. The crops of these 
districts are wheat, beans, turnips, maize, and buckwheat. The most frequent rotations 
are, two corn crops and a fallow, or an alternation of com and green or pulse crops, 
without a naked fallow. In the heath district, broom enters into the rotation for fuel, 
and is cut the fourth year ; buckwheat is also extensively sown, and rye and oats. After 
lands have borne crops, it is usual to let them rest a year or two, during which they 
produce nothing but grass and weeds, and they are afterwards broken up with a naked 
fallow. Potatoes enter more or less into the field culture of the greater part of France, 
and especially of the northern districts ; but in Provence, and some parts of Languedoc, 
they are still little known. Irrigation, both of arable and grass lands, is adopted where- 
ever it is practicable. It is common in the Vosges, and remarkably well conducted 
in the lands round Avignon, formerly for many miles the property of the church. 

397. The meadows of France contain nearly the same herbage, plants, and grasses as 
those of England ; but though clovers and lucerne are cultivated in many places, yet rye- 
grass and other grasses, either for hay crops or temporary or permanent pasture,' are not 
generally resorted to. {Chaptal de Vindustrie Fra7i^aise, vol. i. p. 157.) 

398. To sheep the French have paid considerable attention from the time of Colbert ; 
and there are now considerable flocks of short-woolled and Spanish breeds in some 
places, besides several national flocks. That of Rambouillet (established in 1786 by 
Louis XVI.) is managed by M. Tessier, a well known writer on agriculture, and when 
visited by Birkbeck, in 1814, was in excellent order. Sheep are housed, and kept in 
folds and little yards or enclosures, much more than in England. Great part of the 
sheep of France are black. (^Birkbeck.) Some curious attempts have lately been made to 
inoculate them for the claveau and the scab, but a definite result has not yet been ascer- 
tained, at least as to the latter disease. Birkbeck considers the practice of housing as the 
cause why the foot-rot is so common a disease among sheep in France. Where flocks 
remain out all night, the shepherd sleeps in a small thatched hut or portable watchhouse, 
placed on wheels. He guides the flock by walking before them, and his dog guards them 
from the wolves, which still abound even in Picardy. During summer, in the hottest 
districts, they are fed in the night, and housed in the heat of tlie day. Hay is the 
general winter food; and, in some parts of the Picardy climate, tuniips. In 1811, 
Bonaparte monopolised the breeding of Merinos, and from that time to the passing 
of an act for the exportation of wool and rams in 1814 they declined; but they are 
now greatly on the increase. Among the most extensive flocks, are those of the cele- 
brated M. Ternaux. 

399. The beasts of labour are chiefly the ox on small farms, and the horse on the larger. 
Both are kept under cover the greater part of the year. The breeds of oxen are very 
various; they are generally cream-coloured. The best oxen are in Auvergne, Poitiers, 
and Languedoc. Normandy furnishes the best breed of working horses ; as Limosin 
does of those for the saddle. In the south of France the ass and mule are of frequent use 
in husbandry. There, as in many parts of Italy, the poor people collect the stolones of 
-^igrostis, and creeping roots of couch, and sell them in little bundles to the carriers and 
others who keep road horses. A royal stud of Arabians has been kept up at Aurillac in 
Limosin, for a century ; and another has been lately formed near Nismes. Studs of 
English horses and mixed breeds of high blood, have been established by government 
in several departments. 

400. The best dairies are in Normandy ; but in tliis department France does not excel. 
In the southern districts, olive, almond, and poppy oil supply the place of butter j and 
goats' milk is that used in cookery. 

401. The goats of Thibet, have been imported by M. Ternaux, who has been success- 
ful in midtiplying them and in manufacturing their hair. 


Book I. 



402. Poultry is an important article of French husbandry, and well understood as far 
as breeding and feeding. Birkbeck thinks the consumption of poultry in towns may be 
equal to that of mutton. The smallest cottage owns a few hens, 4JJ 
which often roost under cover, in a neat little structure [Jig, 4:1. ), 
elevated so as to be secure from dogs, wolves, and foxes. 

403. The breed of swine is in general bad ; but excellent hams are 
sent from Bretagne, from hogs reared on acorns, and fatted off 
with maize. Pigeon-houses are not uncommon. 

404. The management of Jish-ponds is well understood in France, 
owing to fish in all catholic countries being an article of necessity. 
In the internal district there are many large artificial ponds, as well 
as natural lakes, where the eel, carp, pike, and a few other species, are 
reared, separated, and fed, as in the Berkshire ponds in England. 

405. The implements and operations of the common farms of 
France are in general rude. The ploughs of Normandy resemble 
the large wheel-ploughs of Kent. Those farther south are generally 
without wheels ; often without coulters ; and an iron mould-board 
is rare. In many parts of the south the ploughs have no mould- 
board, and turn the earth in the manner of the simplest form of 
Roman plough. (110.) Harrows are in general wholly of wood; and, 
instead of a roller, a plank is for the most part used. Large farmers, as in Normandy, 
plough with four or six oxen : small farmers with two, or even one ; or, when stift* 

soils are to be worked out 
^ of season, they join to- 
gether, and form a team of 
four or six cattle. Their 
carts are narrow and long, 
with low wheels, seldom 
shod in the remote parts 
of the country. The gnim- 
barde of the Seine and 
Oise {fig. 48.) is a light 

and useful machine. Corn is reaped with sickles, hooks, and the Brabant and cradle 

scythes, {fg. 49.) Threshing, in 

Normandy, is performed with the flail 

in houses, as in England ; in the 

other climates, in the open air with 

flails, or by the tread of horses. There 

are few permanent threshing-floors ; 

a piece of ground being smoothed in 

the most convenient part of the field 

is found sufficiently hard. Farmers, 

as we have already observed, perform 

most of their operations without extra 

labourers ; and their wives and daugh- 
ters reap, thresh, and perform almost every part of the farm and garden work indifferently. 

Such farmers " prefer living in villages ; society and the evening dance being nearly as 

indispensable to them as their daily food. If the farm be distant, the farmer and his 

servants of all descriptions set off eao-ly in the morning in a light waggon, carrying with 

them their provisions for the day." {NeiJl.) Hence it is, that a traveller in France may 

pass through ten or twenty miles of corn-fields, without seeing a single farm-house. 

406. Large farms, which are extremely rare, have generally farmeries on the lands ; 
and there the labour is in great part performed by labourers, who, as well as the tradesmen 
employed, are frequently paid in kind. (Birkbeck.) 

407. ^11 the plants cultivated by the British farmer are also grown in France ; the 
turnip not generally, and in the warm districts scarcely at all, as it does not bulb; but 
it is questionable, whether, if it did bulb, it would be so valuable in these districts as the 
lucerne, or clover, which grow all the winter ; or the potato, from which flour is now 
made extensively ; or the field beet, which may be used either as food for cattle, or for. 
yielding sugar. Of plants not usually cultivated on British farms may be mentioned, 
the chiccory for green food, fuller's thistle for its heads, furze and broom for green 
food, madder, tobacco, poppies for oil, rice in Dauphine (but now dropped as pre- 
judicial to liealth), saiFron about Angouleme, iathyrus sativus, the pois Breton or 
lentil of Spain, iathyrus setifolius, Ficia Zathyroides and sativa, Cicer arietinum, JJ'rvum 
i^ns, il/elilotus sibirica, Coronilla varia, ^edysarum coronkrivim, &c. They have a hardy 
red wheat, called Vepcautre (spelt), which grows in the worst soil and climates, and is 
common in Alsace and Suabia. They grow the millet, the dura or douro of Egvpt 

F 3 



Part I. 

(^olcus S6rghum L.), in the maize district. The flower-stalks and spikes of this plant 
are sold at Marseilles and Leghorn, for making chamber-besoms and clothes-brushes. 
Ilie hop and the common fruit trees are cultivated ; and the chestnut is used as food in 
some places. An oil used as food, and also much esteemed by painters, is made from 
the walnut. The other fruits of field-culture, as the almond, fig, vine, caper, olive, 
and orange,' belong to the farming of the southern districts. 

408. The forest culture of France is scientifically conducted, both in the extensive 
national forests, and on private estates. ' The chief objects are fuel, charcoal, and bark ; 
and next, timber for construction : but in some districts other products are collected, as 
acorns, mast, nuts, resin, &c. The French and Germans have written more on this 
department of rural economy than the English, and understand it better. 

409. ^ remarkable feature in the agriculture of France, and of most warm countries, 
is the use of leaves of trees as food for cattle. Not only are mulberry, olive, poplar, 
vine, and other leaves gathered in autumn, when they begin to change colour, and acquire 
a sweetness of taste ; but spray is cut green in July, dried in the sun or in the shade of 
trees in woods, faggoted, and stacked for winter use. During that season they are given 
to sheep and cattle like hay ; and sometimes, boiled with grains or bran, to cows. The 
astringency of some sorts of leaves, as the oak, is esteemed medicinal, especially for 
sheep. Such are the outlines of that description of agriculture which is practised more or 
less throughout France, but chiefly in the northern and middle districts. 

SuBSECT. 4. Of Farming in the warmer Climates of France. 

410. The culture peculiar to the vine, maize, olive, and orange climates, we shall extract 
from the very interesting work of Baron de la Peyrouse. The estate of this gentleman 
is situated in the maize district at Pepils, near Toulouse. Its extent is 800 acres ; and 
he has, since the year 1788, been engaged, and not without success, in introducing a 
better system of agriculture. 

411. The farm-houses and offices in the ivarm districts are generally built of brick ; 
framework filled up with a mixture of straw and clay ; or, en pise; and they are covered 
with gutter-tiles. The vineyards are enclosed by hawthorn hedges or mud walls ; the 
boundaries of arable farms are formed by wide ditches ; and those of grass lands by fixed 
stones or wild quince trees. Implements are wretched, operations not well performed, 
and labourers, and even overseers, paid in kind, and 
allowed to sow flax, beans, haricots, &c., for them- 
selves. The old plough (fg. 50.) resembles that used Mf^. 
by the Arabs, which the French antiquarian, Gouguet, 
{Origine des Lois) thinks, in all probability, the same 
as that used by the ancient Egyptians. They have also a light one-handled plough 

for stirring fallows, called the araire. 
{fig. 51.) A plough with coulters 
was first employed at Pepils ; and 
a Scotch plough, with a cast-iron 
mould-board, was lately sent there, 
and excited the wonder of the whole 
district. In notliing is France more 
deficient than in suitable agricultural 

412. Fallow, wheat, and maize con- 
stitute the common rotation of crops. 

413. The live stock consists chiefly of oxen and mules; 
the latter are sold to the Spaniards. Some flocks of sheep 
are kept ; but it is calculated that the rot destroys them 
once in three years. Beans are the grain of the poor, and 
are mixed with wheat for bread. The chick pea (Cicer 
arietinum) (fig. 52. ) is a favourite dish with the Proven9als, 
and much cultivated. Spelt is sown on newly broken up 
lands. Potatoes were unknown till introduced at Pepils 
from the Pyrenees, where they had been cultivated for fifty 
years. In the neighbourhood they are beginning to be 
cultivated. Turnips and rutabaga were tried often at 
Pepils, but did not succeed once in ten years. Maize 
is reckoned a clearing crop, and its grain is the principal 
food of the people. 

414. The vine is cultivated in France in fields, and on 
terraced hills, as in Italy, but managed in a different 
manner from what it is in that country. Here it is kept low, 
and treated more as a plantation of raspberries or currants 


is in England. It is either planted in large plots, in rows three or four feet apart, and 
the plants two or three feet distant in the row ; or it is planted in double or single 
rows alternating with ridges of arable land. In some cases, also, two close rows and a 
space of six or seven feet alternate, to admit a sort of horse-hoeing culture in the wide 
interval. Most generally, plantations are made by dibbling in cuttings of two feet in 
length, pressing the earth firmly to their lower end ; an essential part of the operation, 
noticed even by Xenophon. In pruning, a stem or stool of a foot or more is left above 
ground, and the young shoots are every year cut down vnthin two buds of this stool. 
These stools get very bulky after sixty or a hundred years, and then it is customary, 
in some places, to lay down branches from them, and form new stools, leaving the old for 
a. time, which, however, soon cease to produce any but weak shoots. The winter pruning 
of the vine generally takes place in February : a bill is used resembling that of Italy 
(Jtg. 36. ) ; the women faggot the branches, and their value, as fuel, is expected to pay 
the expense of dressing. In summer, the ground is twice or thrice hoed, and the young 
shoots are tied to short stakes wdth wheat or rye straw, or whatever else comes cheapest. 
The shoots are stopped, in some places, after the blossom has expanded ; the tops are 
given to cows. In some places, also, great part of the young wood is cut off before 
vintage for feed for cows, and to let the sun directly to the fruit. The sorts cultivated are 
almost as numerous as the vineyards. Fourteen hundred sorts were collected from all 
parts of France, by order of the Comte Chaptal, and are now in the nursery of the 
Luxembourg : but little or no good will result from the collection, or from attempting to 
describe them ; for it has been ascertained that, after a considerable time, the fruit of the 
vine takes a particular character from the soil in which it is planted ; so that fourteen 
hundred sorts, planted in one soil and garden, would in time, probably in less than half a 
century, be reduced to two or three sorts ; and, on the contrary, two or three sorts planted 
in fourteen hundred different vineyards, would soon become as many distinct varieties. 
The pineau of Burgogne, and the auvernat of Orleans, are esteemed varieties ; and these, 
.with several others grown for wine-making, have small berries and branches like our 
Burgundy grape. Small berries and a harsh flavour are universally preferred for wine- 
making, both in France and Italy. The oldest vines invariably give the best grapes, and 
produce the best wines. The Baron de la Peyrouse planted a vineyard twenty years ago, 
which, though in full bearing, he says, is still too vigorous to enable him to judge of the 
fineness and quality of the wine, which it may one day afford. " In the Clos de Vougeot 
vineyard, in which the most celebrated Burgundy wine is produced, new vine plants have 
not been set for 300 years : the vines are renewed by laying (provigner) ; but the root 
is never separated from the stock. This celebrated vineyard is never manured. The 
extent is 160 French arpents. It makes, in a good year, from 160 to 200 hogsheads, of 
260 bottles each hogshead. The expense of labour and cooperage, in such a year, has 
arisen to 33,000 francs ; and the wine sells on the spot at five francs a bottle. The vine- 
yard is of the pineau grape. The soil, about three feet deep, is a limestone gravel on a 
limestone rock." (^Peyrouse, 96.) 

415. The white mulberry is very extensively cultivated in France for feeding the silkworm. It is placed 
in corners, rows along roads, or round fields or farms. The trees are raised from seeds in nurseries, 
sometimes grafted with a large-leafed sort, and sold generally at five years, when they have strong stems. 
They are planted, staked, and treated as pollards. Some strip the leaves from the young shoots, others cut 
these off twice one year, and only once the next ; others pollard the tree every second year. 

416. The eggs of the silk-moth (J?6mbyx mhr'i) are hatched in rooms heated by means of stoves to 18° of 
Reaumur (72|o Fah.). One ounce of eggs requires one hundred-weight of leaves, and will produce from 
seven to nine pounds of raw silk. The hatching commences about the end of April, and, with the feeding, 
is over in about a month. Second broods are procured in some places. The silk is wound off the coccoons, 
or little balls, by women and children. This operation is reserved for leisure days throughout the rest of 
the season, or given out to women in towns. The eggs are small round objects ; the caterpillar attains a 
considerable size ; the chrysalis is ovate ; and the male and female are readily distinguishable. '-■ 

417. The olive, of which the most luxuriant plantations are between Aix and Nice, is treated in 
France in the same way as in Italy. (288.) The fruit is picked green, or, when ripe, crushed for oil, 
as in the latter country. 

418. The fig is cultivated in the olive district as a standard tree ; and dried for winter use, and 
exportation. At Argenteuil it is cultivated in the gardening manner for eating green. 

419. The almond is cultivated about Lyons, and in different parts in the department of the Rhone, as 
a standard, in the vineyards. As it blossoms early, and the fruit is liable to injury from fogs and rains, it is 
a very precarious article of culture, and does not yield a good crop above once in five, or, according to 
some, ten, years. 

420. The caper is an article of field culture about Toulon. It has the habit of a bramble bush, and is 
planted in squares, ten or twelve feet plant from plant every way. Standard figs, peaches, and other fruit 
trees are intermixed with it. 

421. The culture of the orange is very limited; it is conducted in large walled enclosures at Hieres and 
its neighbourhood. The fruit, like that of Geneva and Naples, is very inferior to the St. Michael's and 
Maltese oranges, as imported to Britain ; but the lemons are good. 

422. The winter melon is cultivated in different parts of Provence and Languedoc, and especially in the 
orange orchards of Hieres. It forms an article of exportation. 

423. Various other fruits are cultivated by the small proprietors in all the districts of 
France, and sold in the adjoining markets ; but tliis department of rural economy belongs 
rather to gardening than to agriculture. 

F 4 



Part I. 

Sect. IV. Of the present State of Agriculture hi Holland and the Netherlands. 

424. The agriculture of the Low Countries, and especially of Flanders, has been celebrated 
by the rest of Europe for upwards of 600 years ; that of Holland for its pasturage, and 
that of the Netherlands for tillage. We shall notice a part of the agricultural circum- 
stances of the two countries. 

SuBSECT. 1. Of the present State of Agriculture in Holland. 

425. The climate of Holland is cold and moist. The surface of the country towards 
the sea is low and marshy, and that of the interior sandy and naturally barren. A 
considerable part of Holland, indeed the chief part of tlie seven provinces comprising the 
country, is lower than the sea, and is secured from inundation by immense embankments ; 
while the internal water is delivered over these banks into the canals and drains leading 
to the sea, by mills, commonly impelled by wind. In the province of Guelderland and 
other internal parts, the waste grounds are extensive ; being overrun with broom and 
heath, and the soil a black sand. The marshes, morasses, and heatlis, which are 
characteristic of the different provinces, are, however, intermixed with cities, towns, 
villages, groves, gardens, and meadows, to a degree only equalled in England. There 
are no hills, but only gentle elevations, and no extensive woods ; but almost every 
where an intimate combination of land, water, and buildings. The soil in the low 
districts is a rich, deep, sandy mud ; sometimes alluvial, but more frequently siliceous, 
and mixed with rotten shells. In a few places there are beds of decayed trees ; 
but no where rough gravel or rocks. The soil of the inland provinces is in general 
a brown or black sand, naturally poor, and, wherever it is productive, indebted entirely 
to art. 

426. The landed property of Holland is in moderate or rather small divisions ; and, in the 
richer parts, generally in farms of from twenty to one hundred and fifty or two hundred 
acres, often farmed by the proprietor. In the interior provinces, both estates and farms 
are much larger ; and instances occur of farms of five hundred or seven hundred acres, 
partly in tillage, and partly in wood and pasture. 

427. The agriculture of Holland is almost entirely confined to a system of pasturage 
and dairy management, for the production of butter and cheese ; the latter well known 
in every part of the world. Almost the only objects of tillage are some madder, 
tobacco, and herbage plants and roots for stall-feeding the cattle. The pastures, and 
especially the lower meadows, produce a coarse grass, but in great abundance. The 
cows are allowed to graze at least a part of the day throughout the greater part of 
the year, but are generally fed in sheds, once a day or oftener, with rape cake, grains, 
and a' great variety of other preparations. Their manure is preserved with the 
greatest care, and the animals themselves are kept perfectly clean. The breed is 
large, small-legged, generally red and white, with long slender horns ; they are 
very well known in England as the Dutch breed. The fuel used in Amsterdam 
and most of the towns is peat, and the ashes are collected and sold at high prices, 
chiefly to the Flemings, but also to other nations. A considerable quantity has been 
imported to England ; they are found excellent as a top dressing for clovers and other 
green crops, and are strongly recommended by Sir John Sinclair and other writers. 
Other particulars of Dutch culture and economy correspond with the practice of the 

428. The field implements, buildings, and operations of Holland, are more ingeniously 
contrived and better executed than those of any other country on the Continent. The 
best plough in the world (the Scotch) is an improvement on the Rotheram or Dutch 
implement. The farmeries, and especially the cow-houses and stables, are remarkable 
for arrangements which facilitate and economise manual labour, and insure comfort to the 
animals and general cleanliness. Even 
the fences and gates are generally found 
in a better state than in most other 
countries. They have a simple field 
gate [fig. 53.) constructed with few rails, 
and balanced so as it may be opened 
and shut without straining the posts 
or hinges, which deserves imitation. ^^ 
Their bridges, foot-planks, and other "- 
mechanical agents of culture, are in general indicative of more art and invention than is 
usual in Continental agriculture. 


SuBSECX. 2, Of the i)resent State of Agriculture in the Netherlands. 

429. The Netherlands and Holland, from the tenth to the fifteenth century, were tlie 
great marts of manufactures and commerce in the west of Europe ; and, at the same 
time, made distinguished progress in other arts. The particular causes wliich first 
contributed to the advancement of agriculture are not exactly known at this distance of 
time ; but it is certain that even in the thirteenth century the art was in an advanced 
state, and, ever since, the culture of the Low Countries, both agricultural and horticul- 
tural, has been looked up to by the rest of Europe. 

430. About the beginning of the seventeenth century, according to Harte, the Flemings 
dealt more in the practice of husbandry, than in publishing books upon the subject : so 
that, questionless, their intention was to carry on a private lucrative trade without 
instructing their neighbours ; and hence it happened, that whoever wanted to copy their 
agriculture, was obliged to travel into their country, and make his own remarks ; as 
Plattes, Hartlib, and Sir R. Weston actually did. 

431. To make a farm resemble a garden as nearly as possible was their principal 
idea of husbandry. Such an excellent principle, at first setting out, led them of course to 
undertake the culture of small estates only, which they kept free from weeds, continually 
turning the ground, and manuring it plentifully and judiciously. Having thus brought 
the soil to a just degree of cleanliness, health, and sweetness, they ventured chiefly 
upon the culture of the more delicate grasses, as the surest means of acquiring wealth in 
husbandry, upon a small scale, without the expense of keeping 
many draught horses or servants. After a few years' experience, 
they soon found that ten acres of the best vegetables for 
feeding cattle, properly cultivated, would maintain a larger stock 
of grazing animals, than forty acres of common farm grass : and 
the vegetables they chiefly cultivated for tliis purpose were 
lucerne, saintfoin, trefoils of most denominations, sweet fenu- 
greek (Trigonella),buck and cow wheat (ilfelampyrum prat^nse) 
(Jig. 54.), field turnips, and spurry (Sp^rgula), by them called 
Marian grass. 

432. The political secret of Flemish husbandry was, the letting 
farms on improvement. Add to this, they discovered eight or 
ten new sorts of manures. They were the first among the 
moderns, who ploughed in living crops for the sake of fertilising 
the earth, and confined their sheep at night in large sheds 
built on purpose, whose floor was covered with sand, or earth, 
&c., which the shepherd carted away every morning to the 
compost -dunghill. Such was the chief mystery of the Flemish 
husbandry. (Harte.) 

433. The present state of agriculture in the Netherlands corresponds entirely with 
the outline given by Harte, and it has probably been in this state for nearly a thousand 
years. The country has lately been visited with a view to its rural economy by Sir John 
Sinclair, and minutely examined and ably depicted by the Rev. Thomas RadclifF. To 
such British farmers as wish to receive a most valuable lecture on the importance of 
a proper frugality and economy in farming, as well as judicious modes of culture, we 
would recommend the latter work ; all that we can do here, is to select from it the leading 
features of Flemish farming. 

434. The climate of Flanders may be considered the same as that of Holland, and not 
materially different from that of the low parts of the opposite coast of England. 

435. The surface of the country is every where flat, or very gently elevated, and some 
extensive tracts have been recovered from the sea. The soil is for the most part poor, 
generally sandy ; but in various parts of a loamy or clayey nature. " Flanders," RadclifF 
observes, " was in general believed to be a soil of extreme natural richness ; whereas, with 
the exception of some few districts, it is precisely the reverse." He found the strongest 
and best soil near Ostend ; and between Bruges and Ghent some of the worst, being little 
better than a pure sand. 

436. From confounding the Dutch Netherlands with the Flemish Netherlands, a good 
deal of confusion in ideas has resulted. RadclifF, on arriving in Flanders, was informed 
that, " with respect to culture, not only the English, but the French, confounded under 
the general name of Brabant or Flanders, all the provinces of the Low Countries, however 
different might be their modes of cultivation ; but that in Flanders itself might best be 
seen, with what skill the farmer cultivates a bad soil {un sol ingrat), which he forces to 
return to him, with usury, a produce that the richest and strongest lands of the neigh- 
bouring provinces of Holland refuse to yield." The districts described as East and West 
Flanders, are bounded on the east by Brabant and Hainault ; on the west by the German 
Ocean ; on the north by the Sea of Zealand and the West Scheldt ; and on the south by 



Part I. 

French Flanders. It is about ninety miles long, and sixty broad, and abounds with towns 
and villages. 

437. The landed property of Flanders is not in large estates : very few amount to 
2000 acres. It is generally freehold, or the property of religious or civil corporations. 
When the proprietor does not cultivate his own lands, which, however, is most frequently 
the case, he lets it on leases ; generally of seven, fourteen, or twenty-one years' endurance, 
at a fixed money rent, and sometimes a com and money rent combined. The occupier is 
bound to live on the premises, pay taxes, effect repairs, preserve timber, not sublet 
without a written agreement, and to give the usual accommodations to an incoming 
tenant at the end of the lease. Leases of fourteen or twenty- one years are most common : 
there are scarcely any lands held from year to year, or on the metayer system. Estates 
are every where enclosed with hedges, and the fields are generally small. 

438. Farmeries are convenient, and generally more ample in proportion to the extent 
of the farm than in England. On the larger farms a distillery, oil mill, and sometimes 
a flour mill, are added to the usual accommodations. The buildings: on a farm of 150 
acres of strong soil, enumerated by Radcliff, are : — 1. The farm-house, with an arched 
cellar used as a dairy, an apartment for churning, with an adjoining one for a horse 
wheel to turn the churning machinery. 2. A small building for the use of extra- 
labourers, with a fire-place for cooking. 3. The grange or great bam, 130 feet long, by 
35 feet wide. The ground floor of this structure, besides accommodating by its divisions 
all the horses and cows of the farm in comfortable stables, and fumisliing two threshing 
floors for the flail, is sufficient also for ^ considerable depot of com in the sheaf, in two 
extensive compartments to the height of twelve feet, at which elevation an open floor of 
joists, supported by wooden pillars, is extended over the entire area of the bam, and is 
repeated at every five feet in height, to the top. Each floor is braced from the pillars, and 
not only forms a connection of strength throughout the whole, but separates at the same 
time, without much loss of space, the different layers of com, securing them from damage, 
by taking off the pressure of the great mass. 4. A house for farming implements, with 
granary over, and piggery behind. In the centre is the dunghill ; the bottom of which is 
rendered impervious to moisture. 

439. A plan of a Flemish farmery, is given by Sir John Sinclair, as suited to a farm 
of 300 acres : it is executed with great solidity and a due attention to salubrity, being 
vaulted and well aired. Sir John mentions that he saw, in some places, " a mode of 
making floors by small brick arches, from one beam to the other, instead of using deals, 
and then making the floor of bricks," a mode generally adopted in British manufac- 
tories, where the beams which serve as abutments are of cast-iron, tied together with trans- 
verse wrought-iron rods. 

440. The accommodations of this farmery (fg- 55.) are. 

1, The vestibule, or entrance of the farm-house. 

2, The hall. 

3, 4, 5, Closets. 

6, Sheds destined for different purposes, but more espe- 
cially.for elevating or letling down grain from the jp-anaries, bj 

7, ICitchen. 

8, Washing-house. 

9, Chambar for female servants. 

10, HalL 

11, 12, Closets. 

13, Necessaries. 

14, Room for the gardener. 

15, Shed for fuel. 

16, 16, Kitchen-garden. 
\l' Hoggery. 

18, Poultry-yard. 

19, 20, Stables for cows and calves. 

'21, Necessaries for the servants, connected with tlie cis- 
22, 23, Sheep-folds. 

24, 25, Sheds for carts- 

26, Bam. 

27, Area. 

28, Flax bam. 

29, 30, Sheep-houses 

31, 32, Stables for the horses and foals. 
33, 34, 55, 36, Places for the hogs. 

37 and 38, Cisterns destined to receive the urine of the 

39, Well. 

40, Dung-pit, concave in the middle. 

41, Pool serving to receive the superabundant waters of 
the dung-pit, the weeditigs of the gardens, &c. 

42, 42, Reservoirs to receive the waters of the farm-yard. 

43, Entrance gateway with dovecot over. 

44, Small trenches, or gutters. 

45, 45, Sheds destined for clover, cut green in summer, or 
dry in winter. 

46, Cistern for the wash-houses. 

47, 47, Situations of the com stacks, in years of abundance. 




Book I. 



Four elevations {Jig. 56.) represent the four internal sides of the quadrangle j the north side (a); the 
barn, or west side (6) ; the south side (c) ; and the house, or east side {<£). 

Ok Q 


iJ Q ED Ei 




O O o 



















i i 


441. t/rmc cisterns are formed in the fields, to receive purchased liquid manure ; but, for that made in 
the farm-yard, generally in the yard, or under the stables. In the latter case, the urine is conducted from 
each stall to a common grating, through which it descends into the vault, whence it is taken up by a 
pump : in the best-regulated farmeries there is a partition in the cistern, with a valve to admit the con- 
tents of the first space into the second, to be preserved there free from the more recent additions, age 
rendering it considerably more efficacious. This species of manure is relied on beyond any other, upon 
all the light soils throughout Flanders ; and, even upon the strong lands (originally so rich as to preclude 
the necessity of manure), it is now coming into great esteem, being considered appUcable to most crops, 
and to all the varieties of soil. 

442. The arable lands of Flanders include by far the greater part of the surface of the 
country. The crops raised are the same as those in Britain ; but, from local circumstances, 
flax, hemp, chiccory, rape, spurry, madder, woad, tobacco, and some others, enter more 
generally into rotations. 

443. Fallows, according to Sir John Sinclair, are in a great measure abolished, even on strong land ; by 
means of which, produce is increased, and the expense of cultivation, on the crops raised in the course of 
a rotation, necessarily diminished ; and by the great profit they derive from their flax and rape, or colsat, 
they can afford to sell all their crops of grain at a lower rate. The Flemish farmers, however, understand 
their interest too well, to abolish naked fallows on strong clayey soils in a humid climate. 

444. In regard to soil and culture, Radcliff arranges Flanders into eleven agricultural 
divisions, and of the principal of these we shall notice the soil and rotations, and some 
other features of culture. 

445. The first division extends along the North Sea, and includes Ostend. This 
district consists of the strongest and heaviest soil which Flanders possesses, and a similarity 
of quality prevails generally thi'oughout, with some occasional exceptions. It may be 
represented as a clay loam of a greyish colour, and yields the various produce to be 
expected from a strong soil ; rich pasture, wheat, beans, barley, and rape, considered as 
primary crops ; and, as secondary (or such as are not so generally cultivated), oats, carrots, 
potatoes, flax, and tares. In this division, however, though the nature of the soil may be 
stated under the general description of a clay loam, yet there are of this three degrees of 
quality, not to be marked by regular limits, but to be found throughout the whole, in 
distinct situations. It becomes the more necessary to remark this, as the succession of 
crops depends on the quality of the soil ; and as there are here three different degrees of 
quality, so are there tlu-ee different systems of rotation. 

446. Upon the first quality of soil, the succession is as follows : first year, barley ; 
second, beans ; third, wheat ; fourth, oats ; fifth, fallow. For the second quality of soil, 
the succession is as follows : first year, wheat ; second, beans or tares ; third, wheat or 
oats ; fourth, fallow. For the third quality of soil, the succession is as follows : first 
year, wheat; second, fallow; third, wheat; fourtli, fallow. Besides these three qualities 
of strong soil, another of still superior fertility prevails in this district in considerable 
extent, known by the denomination of Polders. 

447. The polders, or embanked lands of Flanders, are certain areas of land reclaimed 
from the sea by embankment, whose surface, once secured from the influx of the tide, 
becomes the most productive soil, without requiring the assistance of any description of 
manure. They owe their origin partly to the collection of sand, in the small branches of 
rivers, gradually increasing, so as naturally to embank a portion of land, and convert it 
into an arable and fertile soil. They also have proceeded from the contraction of the 
river itself, which, by the effect of the tides, is diminished in one place, whilst an alluvial 
soil is formed in another by its overflow. Hence it is, that, within a century, entire 
polders in certain situations have been inundated, whilst, in others, new and fertile land 
has appeared, as if from the bosom of the water. These operations of nature pointed out 
facilities many centuries back, which excited the industry of the Low Countries, an industry 


which has been rewarded by the acquisition of their richest soil. These newly-formed 
lands, before their embankment, are called schotn^es. They are flooded at every tide by the 
water of the sea, and are augmented by mire, bits of wood, rushes, sea-weeds, and other 
marine plants decayed and putrid, also by shells and fishy particles which the ebb always 
leaves behind in considerable quantity. This growing soil soon produces various plants and 
grasses, and improves daily. When such lands have acquired a crust or surface of black 
earth, three or four inches deep, they may be embanked and fallowed. Those are always 
the most productive which have been deepened in their soil by the augmentations of the 
sea ; and experience proves that in the corners and hollows, where, from an obstructing 
boundary, the greatest quantity of mire has been deposited, the soil is doubly rich and 
good, and cannot be impoverished by the crops of many years. In some instances, the 
embankments are made on the part of government ; in others, by companies or individuals, 
under a grant of a specific tenure (generally twenty-one years), rent free, or, according to 
circumstances, at some moderate annual payment. 

448. The polder of Snaerskirke, near Ostend, contains about 1 300 acres. It is of late 
formation, and was overflowed by a creek with its minor branches every spring tide. By 
constructing two banks and a flood-gate at the creek, the sea is excluded, and the space 
subdivided by roads, and laid out in fields of thirteen acres each, surrounded by ditches. 
The bank is fifteen feet in height, thirty feet in the base, and ten feet across the top : the 
land which has been reclaimed by it, was let for a sheep pasturage at 600 francs (25/.) per 
annum, and was thrown up by the farmer as untenable. Upon being dried by tliis sum- 
mary improvement, the lots, of which there are one hundred of thirteen acres each, were 
sold by auction at an average of 7000 francs (291/. 135. 4(1.) a lot, and would now bring 
nearly double that rate. They are let to the occupying fanners at 3G guilders the mesure, 
or about 21. 15s. the English acre, and are now producing superior crops of rape, of 
sucrion (winter barley), and beans, which constitute the usual rotation ; this, however, is 
varied according to circumstances, as follows : — 1 . oats, or rape ; 2. winter barley, or 
rape ; 3. winter barley ; 4. beans, pease, or tares. 

449. Olher examples of reclaimed lands are given. One called the G^^eat Moor, recovered 
through the spirited exertions of M. Hyrwein, contains 2400 acres. Attempts had been 
made to recover it by the Spaniards, in 1610, but without success. This marsh was 
seven feet below the level of the surrounding land ; therefore, to drain it, the following 
operations became necessary : — 

450. To surround the whole with a bank of eight feet in height, above the level of the enclosed ground, 
formed by the excavation of a foss<!, fifteen feet wide and ten feet deep, which serves to conduct the 
water to the navigable canal. — To construct mills to throw the water over the bank into the fosse. — To 
intersect the interior by numerous drains from eight to twelve feet wide, with a fall to the respective mills, 
to which they conduct all the rain water, and all the soakage water which oozes through the banks. 

451 . The mills in use for raising the water, are of a simple but effectual construction, and 
are driven by wind. The horizontal shaft above works an upright shalt, at the bottom of 
which a screw bucket, twenty-four feet in length, is put in motion by a bevil wheel, at such 
an angle as to give a perpendicular height of eight feet from the level of the interior drain 
to the point of disgorgement, whence the water is emptied with great force into the exterior 
canal. With full wind, each mill can discharge 150 tonneavx of water every minute. 
The height of the building from the foundation is about fifty feet, one half of it above the 
level of the bank. The whole is executed in brickwork, and the entire cost 36,000 francs, 
about 1500/. British. It is judiciously contrived that the drains, which conduct the water 
to the mills, constitute the divisions and subdivisions of the land, forming it into regular 
oblong fields of considerable extent, marked out by the lines of osiers which ornament 
their banks. Roads of thirty feet wide lead through the whole in parallel directions. 

452. The soil of this tract, which has been formed by the alluvial deposit of ages, is a 
clay loam, strong and rich, but not of the extraordinary fertility of some polders, which are 
cropped independent of manure for many years. The first course of crops, commencing 
with rape, is obtained without manure, and the return for six years is abundant j the 
second commences and proceeds as follows : — 

1. Fallow, with manure from farm-yard. 5. Clover. 

2. Sucrion (winter barley). 6. Beans and Peas mixed. 

3. Beans. 7. Oats. 

4. Wheat. 

453. The second division adjoins French Flanders, but does not extend to the sea. The 
soil may be described as a good loam of a yellowish colour, mixed with some sand ; but 
is not in its nature as strong as that of the former division. Its chief produce is wheat, 
barley, oats, hops, tobacco, meadow, rape-seed and flax, as primary crops ; and, as 
secondary, buckwheat, beans, turnips, potatoes, carrots, and clover. This division, unlike 
the former in this respect, is richly wooded. 

454. The general course of crops in this division is as follows : — 

1 . Wheat upon manured fallow. 5. Flax, highly manured with urine and rape cake, 1 t Fallow, manured. 

2. Clover, top dressed with ashes. 6. Wheat, >or< Rye. 

4; feps,}--ye"> without manure L&, manured, ^ ^'^"'' 


9. Wheat. 14. -Wheat. 

10. Oats. 15. Hops, with abundant manure. 

11. Turnips. This last crop remains generally five years, and the ground 

12. Rye. is afterwards fit for any kind of produce. 
I.''. Tobacco, three times ploughed, and richly manured. 

455. In another j)art of this division, where hops are not grown, the following rotation 
is observed : — 

1. Potatoes, with manure. 9. Wheat. 

2. AVheat. 10. Oats, l^^^,^,, 

3. Beans, with manure. 11. Turnips, J ^*™°y®"* • 

4. Rye. 12. Fallow, without manure. 
a. VVheat, with manure. 13. Rye. 

6. Clover, top-dressed with ashes. 14. Tobacco, richly manured. 

7. Turnips, with manure. 15. Wheat. 

8. Flax, highly manured with urine and rape cake. 

456. In addition to these crops in some parts of the district, particularly in the line 
between Woomen and Ypres, magnificent crops of rape are cultivated, and are relied on 
as a sure and profitable return. Flax is also a crop upon which their best industry- 
is bestowed, and their careful preparation of the soil is scarcely to be surpassed by that of 
the neatest garden. 

457. In the third division the soil is a good sandy loam, of a light colour, and is 
in a superior state of cultivation; it yields a produce similar to that of the foregoing 
division, with the same quality of hay j but plantations are here more numerous. The 
succession is as follows : — 

1. -Wheat, with dung. 10. Clover, with ashes, seeds sometimes saved. 

2. Clover, with ashes, seed sometimes saved. 11. Oats, without manure. 

3. Flax, with urine and rape cake. 12. Flax, with urine and rape cake. 

4. ■VVheat,with compost ofshort dung and various sweepings. 13. Wheat, with dung. 

5. Potatoes, with farm-yard dung or night soil. f Beans, with dung. 

6. Rye, with urine. 14. <J Beet root, with rape cake, or 

7. Rape seed, with rape cake and urine. (. Tobacco, with rape sake in great quantities. 

8. Potatoes, with dimg. Timiips are also grown, but are taken as a second crop after 

9. -yVheat, with manure of divers kinds. rape, flax, wheat, or rye. 

458. Passing over the other divisions to the eighth and ninth, we find the reporter describes 
them as of considerable extent, and, in the poverty of their soil and abundance of their 
produce, bearing ample testimony to the skill and perseverance of the Flemish farmers. 
The soil consists of a poor light sand, in the fifteenth century exhibiting barren gravel and 
heaths. The chief produce here consists of rye, flax, potatoes, oats, buckwheat, rape- 
seed, and wheat, in a few favourable spots ; clover, carrots, and turnips generally. 

459. On the western side of these districts, and where the soil is capable of yielding 
wheat, there are two modes of rotation : one comprising a nine years' course, in which 
wheat is but once introduced ; and the other a ten years' course, in which they contrive 
to produce that crop a second time ; but in neither instance without manure, which, 
indeed, is never omitted in these divisions, except for buckwheat, and occasionally for 
rye. The first course alluded to above is as follows : • — 

1. Potatoes or Carrots, with four ploughings, and twelve tons 5. Oats with Clover, with two ploughings, and ten tons and a 

of farm-yard dung per English acre. half of farm-yard dung per English acre. 

2. Flax, with two ploughings, and 105 Winchester bushels 6. Clover, top-dressed, with 105 Winchester bushels of peat or 

of ashes, and 48 hogsheads, beer measure, of urine Dutch ashes per English acre. 

_ per English acre. 7 . Rye, with one ploughing, and 52 hogsheads, beer measure, 

3. Wheat, with two ploughings, and ten tons and a half of of night soil and urine. 

farm-yard dung per English acre. 8. Oats, with two ploughings, and 52 hogsheads, beer measure, 

4. Rye and Turnips, with two plotighings, and ten tons and of night soil and urine. 

a half of farm-ya^d dung per English acre. 9. Buckwheat, with four ploughings, and without any manure. 

460. Of the Flemish mode of cultivating some particular crops we shall give a few 
examples. The drill husbandry has never been generally introduced in the Low Countries. 
It has been tried in the neighbourhood of Ostend, forty acres of beans against forty acres 
of drilled crop, and the result was considered to be in favour of the system. But the row 
culture, as distinguished from the raised drill manner, has been long known in the case of 
tobacco, cabbages, and some other crops. 

461. Wlieat is not often diseased in Planders. Most farmers change their seed, and 
others in several places steep it in salt water or urine, and copperas or verdigrise. The 
proportion of verdigrise is half a pound to every six bushels of seed ; and the time in 
which the latter remains in the mixture is three hours, or one hour if cows' urine be used, 
because of its ammonia, wliich is considered injurious. The ripest and plumpest seed is 
always preferred. 

462. Rt/e is grown both as a bread corn, and for the distillery. In Flanders 
frequently, and in Brabant very generally, the farmer upon the scale of from one 
hundred to two hundred acres of light soil is also a distiller, purely for the improvement 
of the land by the manure of the beasts, which he can feed upon the straw of the rye, and 
the grains of the distillery. 

463. Buckwheat enters into the rotations on the poorest soils, and is sown on lands 
not got ready in time for other grain. The chief application of buckwheat is to the 
feeding of swine and poultry, for which it is preeminent ; it is also used in flour as a 
constituent in the liquid nourishment prepared for cattle and horses ; and bears no incon- 
siderable share in the diet of the peasant. Formed into a cake, without yeast, it is a very 
wholesome, and not a disagreeable, species of bread; but it is necessary to use it while 


added to the precipitate, which being boiled again, the lime was disengaged ; the saccharine matter, being 
then freed from the liquor, granulated, and was ready for the refiner. The pulp has been found to yield, 
upon distillation, a wholesome spirit, very inferior, but not very unlike, to geneva, and has been proved 
excellent as a manure, but not valuable as food for cattle, beyond the first or second day from the press. 
The foregoing process required but a fortnight to complete it. 

479. Flax is cultivated with the utmost care. The field intended for this crop, after 
two or three ploughings and harrowdngs, is again ploughed, commencing in the centre, 
and ploughing round and round to the circumference, so as to leave it without any 
furrow. The heavy roller is drawn across the ploughing by tliree horses; the liquid 
manure is then spread equally over the entire surface, and when well harrowed in by 
eight or nine strokes of the harrow, the seed is sown, which is also harrowed in by a light 
harrow, with wooden pins of less than three inches; and the surface, to conclude the 
operation, is again carefully rolled. Nothing can exceed the smoothness and cultivated 
appearance of fields thus accurately prepared. 

480. The manure universally used for the Jlax crop, demands particular notice : it is 
termed liquid manure, and consists of the urine of cattle, in which rape-cake has been 
dissolved, and in which the vidanges conveyed from the privies of the adjoining towns 
and villages have also been blended. This manure is gradually collected in subter- 
raneous vaults of brickwork, at the verge of the farm next to the main road. Those 
receptacles are generally forty feet long, by fourteen wide, and seven or eight feet deep, 
and in some cases are contrived with the crown of the arch so much below the surface of 
the ground, as to admit the plough to work over it. An aperture is left in the side, 
through which the manure is received from the cart by means of a shoot or trough, and 
at one end an opening is left to bring it up again, by means of a temporary pump, which 
delivers it either into carts or tonneaus. 

481. The liquid is carried to the field in sheets or barrels, according to the distance. 
"Where the cart pUes, the manure is carried in a great sheet called a voile, closed at the 
comers by running strings, and secured to the four uprights of the carts ; and two men, 
standing one on each side of the cart, scatter it with hollow shovels upon the rolled 
ground. Where the tonneaus are made use of, each is carried by two men with poles, 
and set down at equal intervals across the field in the line of the rolling. There are two 
sets of vessels, which enable the men, who deposit the loaded ones, to bring back the 
others empty. One man to each vessel, with a scoop, or rather a kind of bowl with a 
long handle, spreads the manure, so as to cover a certain space ; and thus, by preserving 
the intervals correctly, they can precisely gauge the quantity for a given extent of 
surface. For the flax crop they are profuse ; and of this liquid mixture, in this part of 
the country, they usually allow at the rate of 2480 gallons, beer measure, to the 
English acre. 

482. Spurry (Sp^rgula arvensis) {fig. 58.) is cultivated 
on the poorest soils. It is so quick of growth and short of 
duration, that it is often made to take an intermediate 
place between the harvest and the spring sowing, without 
any strict adherence to the regularity of succession. It 

is sown sometimes in the spring, but in general in the ^^j^ \ Mdnh 58 

autumn, immediately after harvesting the corn crops. One 
light ploughing is suflScient ; and as the grain is very 
small, it is but very lightly covered. About twenty- four 
pounds of seed to the acre is the usual quantity. Its growth 
is so rapid that in five or six weeks it acquires its full 
height, which seldom exceeds twelve or fourteen inches. 
The crop is of course a light one, but is considered of great 
value, both as supplying a certain quantum of provender 
at very little cost, and as being the best food for milch cows, to improve the quality of 
the butter. It lasts till the frost sets in, and is usually fed off by milch cows tethered on 
it, but is sometimes cut and carried to the stalls. 

483. Where spurry is sown in spring the crop is occasionally made into hay ; but from 
the watery nature of the plant, it shrinks very much in bulk, and upon the whole is much 
more advantageously consumed in the other manner. It is indigenous in Flanders ; and, 
except when cultivated, is looked on as a weed, as in this country. 

484. The hop is cultivated on good soils, and generally after wheat. Tlie land being 
four times ploughed, the plants are put in, in the month of May, in rows with intervals 
of six feet, and six feet distant in the row. In the month of October they raise the 
earth round each plant, in little mounds about two feet and a half high, for the purpose 
of encouraging a number of shoots, and of preserving them from the frost. When all 
harsh weather has disappeared, about the beginning of April in the second year, they 
level those little heaps, and take away all superfluous shoots at the root, leaving but 
four or five of the strongest. They then spread over tlie entire surface, at the rate 
of twelve carts of 1500 lbs. each, by the English acre, of dung, either of cows, or of cows 


and swine mixed ; but they avoid the heat and fermentation of horse-dung. This dress- 
ing is given when the shoots begin to appear ; at which time also, they fix in the eartJi, 
close to each hill, a pole of dry wood, about eighteen feet in length, for the vines to 
cling by. In the month of July, they give the surface another dressing with urine, at 
the rate of 1000 gallons the English acre. In the month of August, the crop has 
nearly arrived at its full growth, and flourishes in all its beauty. 

485. The crop is ready to gather in the month of September, when they cut the runners at about three 
feet from the ground, and in November they cut them to the earth ; they then heap up the soil about 
each plant as before, to the height of two feet and a half, and follow precisely the same course as above- 
mentioned each year, dunng five, which is the usual time they suffer the plantation to continue, and at 
the expiration of which the land is in the highest condition, and suited to the reception of any other 

48G. Madder Is sometimes cultivated, but only on land of the best quality, and with 
plenty of manure. At the end of April or May, accordingly as the young plants are 
large enough to be transplanted, the land must be ploughed in beds of two feet and two 
feet and a half wide ; the beds are then to be harrowed and raked, and the young suckers 
of the roots or plants are to be put down in rows, at intervals of a foot or a foot and a 
half, and six or eight inches distant in the row. 

487. During the entire summer the land should be frequently stirred, and kept free from weeds. In the 
month of November, when the leaves are faded, the plants are covered with two inches of earth by a 
plough, having the point of the coulter a little raised or rounded, so as not to injure the young plants. 

488. In the folloioing spring, when the young shoots are four or five inches long, they are gathered or 
torn off, and planted in new beds, in the same manner as has been pointed out above ; and then in the 
month of September or October, after the faded leaves have been removed, the old roots are taken up. 

489. The madder thus taken up should be deposited under cover, to protect it from the rain ; and, after 
ten or twelve days, placed in an oven moderately heated. When dried sufficiently, it is gently beaten 
with a flail, to get rid of any clay that may adhere to the plants ; and, by means of a small windmill, is 
ground and sifted, to separate it from any remaining earth or dirt. It is then replaced in the oven for a 
short time, and when taken out is spread upon a hair-cloth to cool ; after which it is ground and 
cleaned once more. It is then carried to a bruising-mill, and reduced to a line powder, after which it is 
packed in casks or barrels for market. 

490. The culture of woad, though not general, has been practised in Flanders. It 
was an object with the French government to spread the cultivation of it, and a con- 
siderable quantity of seed was sent gratis into the country for that purpose. 

491. Woad thrives only on gravelhj and sandy soils, which must be well pulverised, 
manured, and formed into beds, as in the case of madder culture. It is sown in March 
or April in rows, or broad-cast, and harrowed or covered with a rake. All weeds are 
cleared away, and the plants thinned, if a careful culture is followed. The leaves are the 
part of the plant which is used by the indigo manufacturer. They should be gathered 
singly, like those of spinach, as soon as they begin to show signs of maturity, and the 
mature leaves taken off from time to time as they grow. This operation goes on from 
June to September in the first year, and from June to August in the second ; when the 
plant being a biennial, shoots into flower stems. The leaves are fermented, and the dye 
precipitated from the liquor and dried, &c., in a manner analogous to what is practised 
in India with indigo ; but with great improvements, made at the instance of the French 
government, which, in 1810, called forth the process described in a French work, and 
translated in the appendix to Radcliff's report. At present it is to be considered more 
as matter of curious historical infonnation, or of local adoption, than of general utility ; 
because no mode of cultivating or preparing woad could bring it into competition, either 
in the European or American market, with indigo. 

492. JFith culinary ves;etables the Flemish markets are abundantly supplied. Most of 
these are grown by the small fai-mers, and are of excellent quality. To every cottage 
in Flanders a garden of some description is attached ; and according to the means, the 
leisure, and the skill of the possessor, is rendered more or less productive. The general 
principles of management with all are, frequent digging, careful weeding, ample ma- 
nuring, and immediate succession. The rotation depends on circumstances. The 
chief vegetables in common use are, parsnep, carrot, turnip, scorzonera, savoy, jettechou 
cabbage (Brussels sprouts), onions, leeks, peas, beans, and all kinds of salading, with 
another vegetable called feve haricot, a large species of French bean, which has a place 
in the field or garden of almost every farmer, and being sliced down, pod and seed, is 
made a chief ingredient in all farm-house. cookery. 

493. The treatment of asparagus here, and generally in Flanders, differs considerably 
from our method. In forming their beds, they are not by any means particular as to 
very deep trenching, or a profusion of manure ; nor, as they grow up, do they cover the 
beds with litter for the winter, nor fork and dress them in the spring. In the furrows 
they form a rich and mellow compost of earth and dung, with which, before winter 
sets in, they dress up the beds to the height of nearly eighteen inches from the level of 
the crowns ; and, without any further operation (except supplying the furrows again for 
the ensuing year), as soon as the buds appear, they cut them nine inches under the 
surface, by which means, having but just reached the light, the whole of the stock is 



494. The frequent manurings given hy the Flemish farmer astonish a stranger ; the 
sources whence it is obtained in sufficient quantity form the difficulty, and this can only 
be resolved by referring to the practice of soiling ; to the numerous towns and villages ; and 
to the care with which every particle of vegetable or animal refuse is saved for this 
purpose. Manure in Flanders, as in China, is an article of trade. The selling price 
of each description is easily ascertained ; the towns let the cleansing of the streets and 
public retiring places at great rents. Chaptal says there are in every town sworn brokers, 
expressly for the purpose of valuing night soil ; and that these brokers know the exact de- 
gree of fermentation in that manure which suits every kind of vegetable, at the different 
periods of its growth. {Chimie ajypliquee a V Agnculture, 1. 137.) 

495. Every substance that constitutes, or is convertible to, manure, is sought cfter with 
avidity, which accounts for the extreme cleanliness of the Flemish towns and pavements, 
hourly resorted to, with brooms and barrows, as a source of profit. Even the chips 
which accumulate in the formation of the wooden shoes worn by the peasantry, are made 
to constitute a part of tlie compost dung-heap ; and trees are frequently cultivated in 
barren lands, merely to remain till their deciduous leaves shall, in course of time, have 
formed an artificial surface for the purpose of cultivation. The manures in general use 
are, — 

496. The farm-yard dung, which is a mixture of every matter that the farm-yard produces, formed into 
a compost, which consists of dung and litter from the stables, chaff, sweepings, straw, sludge, and rubbish, 
all collected in a hollow part of the yard, so prepared as to prevent the juices from being wasted ; and the 
value of this, by the cart-load of 1500 lbs. of Ghent, is estimated at five francs. 

497. The dung of sheep, pigeons, or poultry, by the same cart-load, five francs and a half. 

498. Sweepings of streets and roads, same "quantity, three francs. 

499. Ashes of peat and wood mixed, same quantity, eight francs. 

500. Privy manure and urine, same quantity, seven francs. 

501. Lime, same quantity, twenty-four francs. 

502. Rape-cake, per hundred cakes, fifteen francs. 

503. Gypsum, sea mud, and the sediment of the canals, have been all tried experimentally, and with 
fair results ; but the two former have been merely tried ; the latter is used successfully in the vicinity of 

504. Bone manure was altogether unknown in Flanders j but, at the suggestion of Rad liff, is now 
under experiment in that country. 

505. The agricultural implements of Flanders are by no means such as the excellence 
of the Flemish culture would lead us to suspect. They are in general of rude work- 
manship, but constructed with attention to strength, durability, and cheapness. 

506. The plough has a rude appearance, but works easily, and makes excellent work in 
loose friable soil ; though it would not make a sharp angled furrow-slice in breaking up 
pastures. It is never dbrawn by more than two horses, and on light sands often by one, 
or by a single ass. 

507. The binot, or Walloon plough, used in Brabant, described by Sir John Sinclair, is a plough with a 
double or scuffler share, two mould-boards, but no coulter. It is chiefly used for breaking up lands. If 
the soil is foul, they employ it two or three times, for the purpose of cleaning it thoroughly. The land 
is not turned over, as by the plough, and the weeds buried, but the soil is elevated into small ridges, by 
means of which the couch and other root-weeds are not only cut, but they are exposed to the frost in 
winter, and to the drought of spring ; and when the land becomes dry, which it does quickly when thus 
elevated, these weeds are collected by the harrow, by a trident (or large pitchfork), by a rake, or by the 
hand. After the binot, the land is always ploughed for the seed furrow. This implement and its appli- 
cation are strongly recommended to the British farmer, by Sir J. Sinclair, as improvements ; but, as the 
editor of the Farmer's Magazine observes, the implement is nothing more than a double mould-board 
plough, and the operation of ridging with it is the justly exploded practice of " ribbing." The late 
machinist Weir informed us, that he had orders for several binots from Sir J. Sinclair and others, and 
that he used exactly the same form, as when a double mould-board plough was ordered. 

508. The mouldebaert {fig. 59.) is a curious and useful implement. It resembles a 
large square malt or cinder shovel, strongly prepared with iron on the cutting edge, and 

Book I. 



is drawn by a pair of horses with swingle-trees. It is used to lessen inequalities of 
surface, by removing a part of the soil from the heights to the hollows, which it does 
in an easy and expeditious manner. The driver, who uses long reins, by pressing 
moderately on the handle (a) as the horses go forward, collects and transports about five 
hundred weight of earth to the place where it is to be deposited ; which is effected in the 
most summary manner by his letting go the handle : this causes the front, or edge of 
the machine, (6) to dip, and catch against the ground, whereby it is at once inverted and 
emptied of its load. The extremity of the handle, to which a rope (c) is affixed, by this 
inversion strikes against, and rests upon the swingle-tree bar, arid in this manner the 
mouldebaert is drawn along towards the accumulated earth, when, by taking up the rope, 
the driver draws back the handle, collects his load as before, ^ gO 

proceeds to the spot which is to receive it, and the horses are 
never for a moment delayed. The saving of time and labour, in 
filling and emptying, gives this implement a decided superiority 
over the cart j nor is the ground so much injured by this, as by 

509. The Hainault scythe {fig. 60.) is the general reaping instrument both 
in the Netherlands and in French Flanders. The handle is fourteen inches, 
with a shield for the hand of four and a half inches, in all eighteen and a half 
inches : the blade is two feet three inches in length, the point a little raised,!^ 
and the entire edge bevelled upwards so as to avoid the surface of the ground, " 
and the frequent use of the sharpening stone. The handle of the crook being 
of hard wood, is used as a scythe board. A farther account of the mode of 
using this instrument, and of a series of trials which have been made with it in Scotland, will be found 
in a succeeding part of this work. 

510. The great Brabant scythe [fig. 61.) differs little from the British implement, and is in general use 
for mowing clover. 

511. The kylanderie, to which Radcliff seems to attach unmerited importance, is 
nothing more than a screen for freeing grain from vermin, dust,, or small seeds. It 
resembles a gravel screen, and is used in the same manner. 

512. The trenching spade consists of a blade of iron fifteen inches long, and a han- 
dle of two feet. The labourer standing in the last formed trench, with his left hand at 
the bottom of the handle, and his right near the top, by the weight of his body, and 
without the assistance of his foot, sinks the spade about eighteen inches, and 
standing sideways, throws off the soil with a peculiar sleight and turn of the wrist, 
so as to lodge it in an oblique position in the trench, and against the preceding line 
of work, retiring as he casts it from the spade, and thereby effecting some little mix- 
ture of the two strata, though the upper surface is at the same time placed below the 

513. The pronged hoe has a pronged blade on one side, and a common plate on the 
other ; it is exceedingly useful ; one side may be used for cutting weeds where they 
prevail, and the other for stirring a surface already clean. 

514. The chariot, or great cart {fig. 62.), is the only machine of the Flemish farmer 
which appears to transgress the bounds of a rigid economy. This, as it is not only 
to be used for the transport of grain, but of the farmer and his family occasionally, 
to the market-town, is more ornamentally finished than any other, and is painted 

in showy colours, chiefly green and red ; an awning also is very ingeniously contrived, as an occasional 
defence against the rain and sun. From the natural spring of so long a perch, the centre part of this machine 

is by no.means an uneasy conveyance ; and there the farmer sits in all solemnity, whilst a well appointed 
boor acts as a postilion, and his fine and spirited pair of well-trained horses bring him home from market 
at a rapid trot. 

515. Agricultural operations of every kind are performed with particular care in 
Flanders. The most remarkable feature in the operations of culture consists in the fre- 
quent ])loughings given on all soils ; in strong soils for the sake of pulverisation as well as 
cleanliness ; in the lighter, chiefly for the destruction of weeds, and blending the manure 
with the soil. But, considering that but one pair of horses is in general allowed to about 
thirty acres, it is surprising how (with the execution of all the other farming work) 
time can be found for the number of ploughings which is universally given. Very 
generally, the number, for the various crops, respectively, is as follows : — 

G 2 


Fdc IVketH, two plouRhitiRS, with two han-owings. For Oilettes, two or three ploughlngs, with twt) harrowlngs. 

R,ye, two or three ditto, ditto. Tobacco, four ditto, ditto. 

Oats, three ditto, ditto. Hemp, four ditto, ditto. 

two or 

three ditto. 























Carrvts, four ditto, ditto. ^' 1 one as a second crop, ditto, ditto. 

Flax, two ditto, ditto. s„uri-« /three as a first crop, ditto, ditto. 

Bucktvheat, four ditto, ditto. ^ •"(. one as a second crop, ditto, ditto. 

tlape, three ditto, ditto. Beam, two ditto, ditto. 

Uarley, three ditto, ditto. Fallows, four or five ditto, ditto. 

516. Trenching is a feature almost peculiar to Flemish farming, and that of Tuscany, 
This remarkable practice is confined to the lighter soils, and is not used where the strong 
clay prevails. In the districts in which it is adopted, the depth of the operation varies 
with that of the soil ; but till this has arrived at nearly two feet of mellow surface, 
a little is added to it at each trenching, by bringing to the top a certain proportion of 
the under stratum ; which, being exposed to the action of the atmosjDhere, and minutely 
mixed with a soil already fertilised, gradually augments the staple till the sought-for 
depth be required. 

517. Tlie management of live stock in Flanders, though good, is not so eminently ex- 
emplary as their tillage culture. The cattle are the short-horned Dutch breed ; the colour 
generally black, or black and white. Little attention is given to the improvement of the 
form by selection. The sheep are long-wooUed and long-legged, and afford a coarse fleece 
and very indifferent mutton. They are housed at night, and, in the daytime, follow the shep- 
herd and his dog through pathways and along the verges of the fields and roads, picking 
up a mere subsistence, and never enjoying the range of a sweet and wholesome pasture. In 
winter they are let out but once a day, and are fed in the sheep houses on rye and hay, 
&c. A cross with the INIerino breed has been tried ; but, as might have been predicted 
from the incongruous parentage, with no benefit. The swine are long-legged, narrow- 
backed, and flat-ribbed ; not easily fatted, but, when well fed and long kept, making 
excellent pork and bacon. 

518. The horse is the animal for wliich Flanders has long been noted, with regard to the 
excellence of its working breed ; and that of England has been considerably improved 
by the frequent importation thence of stallions and mares, previous to the French 
revolution. The Suffolk punch horse comes nearest to the most prevalent variety in 
Flanders ; the resemblance is strong, not only in colour, but in some of the essential 
points of form : however, though the prevailing colour is chestnut in all its shades, yet 
other colours are likewise to be met with ; and, with very few exceptions, the Flemish 
horses are of superior strength, and of the true working character. The chief, indeed 
almost the only, defects to be observed in any are, a want of depth in the girth, and a 
dip behind the vsdthers ; for symmetry, perhaps the shoulder also, at the top, should be a 
little finer ; but in all other respects they possess the best shapes. 

519. Every farmer breeds his own work-horses, and disposes of the redundance. Even the total absence 
of pasture is not suffered to prevent it ; and the foals are found to thrive remarkably well in a close 
house. For this purpose, as well as for the general keep of the stock, a regular dietary is observed. The 
manger is formed of well cemented brickwork. In summer clover, and in winter carrots, are usually 
given ; hay in very small quantities, but in all cases chopped straw mixed with corn or beans, or both, 
and water aired by keeping in the stable, and whitened with a pretty strong proportion of barley-meal. 
With every symptom of sufficient spirit, they are extremely docile ; and, besides being obedient to the 
word, are guided in intricate cases, in a manner surprising to a stranger, by a single cord ; this rein is 
never thick, and, in some instances, is as small as a stout whipcord, and yet in the deeper soils 
three powerful horses abreast (the bridles of the middle and ofi'-side horses being connected with 
that upon the near-side horse, to which this rein is affixed) are guided by it at all the turnings, the 
ploughman holding the rein in one hand, and his single-handed plough in the other, and performing his 
v/ork with the most accurate straightness and precision. Of corn to market, a pair of horses generally 
draw two tons ; of manure to the field, one ton and half; and on the pavement in the towns, three tons, 
without appearing to be overloaded. 

520. The shoeing of horses in Flanders is attended to with particular care, and in 
that country has long been practised the mode of preserving the bars of the hoof, and of 
letting the frog come in contact with the ground, recommended in England by Freeman 
and Professor Colman. The use of cockers, or turned heels, is, except in part, 
entirely abandoned. In two respects, however, the shoeing in Flanders differs from any 
of the methods in use with us. In 07ie, that to prevent ripping, the hoofs of the fore- 
feet are pared away towards the toe, and the shoes so fitted, that the fore part shall not 
touch (within three fourths of an inch) the same level surface, upon wliich the heel and 
middle of the shoe shall rest. 

521. This preparation of the foot is in general use ; the horses are not thereby in any degree injured, 
and are particularly sure-footed. The other point of difference is, that the shoe is nailed on fiat and close 
to the foot, which, in depriving the iron of all spring, and all unequal pressure against the nails, may be 
in part the cause of the durability of the shoeing. 

522. For shoeing vicious horses every precaution is taken by the use of the forge machine, a common 
appendage to the smithies in Flanders. If the horse is not altogether unmanageable, his hind foot is tied 
to a cross bar, or his fore leg to a stilt and bracket ; but if he is extremely vicious indeed, he can be raised 
from the ground in a minute, by means of a cradle-sling of strong girth web, hooked to the upper side- 
rails, which, with a slight handspike, are turned in the blocks that support them (the extremities of the 
sling thereby coiling round them), till the horse is elevated to the proper height, and rendered wholly 

523, The Flemish and Dutch dailies are more remarkable for the abundance than the 
excellence of their products ; owing to the inferiority of their pastiu-es, and the cows 


being kept the greater part of the winter in the house. In summer the principal article 
of food in Flanders is clover, cut and carried to the stall. On a small scale, when 
pasturage is to be had, they are left at liberty ; when this is not the case, each cow is led 
by a rope, and permitted to feed round the corn fields, the grassy borders of which are 
left about ten feet wide for this purpose. 

524. The food for one cow in winter, for twenty-four hours, is straw, eighteen pounds ; turnips, sixty 
pounds. Some farmers boil the turnips for them ; others give them raw, chopping them with the spade : 
one or other operation is necessary to obviate the risk of the animal being choked, where the turnips, 
which is usually the case in Flanders, are of too small a size. In lieu of turnips, potatoes, carrots, and 
grains are occasionally used. Bean-straw is likewise given, and uniformly a white drink, prepared both for 
cows and horses, consisting of water in which some oilcake has been dissolved, whitened with ryemeal, 
oatmeal, or the flour of buckwheat. 

525. In the dairies the summer feed is pasturage day and night; in winter, hay, 
turnips, carrots, grains from the breweries, cakes of linseed, rapeseed, bean and other 
meals, and the white drink before mentioned. For the sake of cleanliness, the tails 
of the cows are tied to the roof of the cow-house with a cord during the time of milking. 
The cow-houses, both in Flanders and Holland, are kept remarkably clean and warm ; so 
much so, that a gentleman " spoke (to Radcliff) of having drunk coffee with a cow- 
keeper, in the general stable, in winter, without the annoyance of cold, of dirt, or of 
any offensive smell." The Dutch are particularly averse from unfolding the secrets of 
their dairy management ; and, notwithstanding the pointed queries of Sir John Sinclair 
on the subject, no satisfactory idea was given him of their mode of manufacturing 
butter or cheese. 

526. The woodlands of Flanders are of considerable extent ; but more remarkable for 
the care bestowed on them, than for the bulk of timber grown. To this purpose, in- 
deed, the soil is inadequate ; most of these woods having been planted or sown on land 
considered too poor for tillage. 

527. lit forming artificial plantations, the general mode is to plough the ground three or four times, and 
take a crop of buckwheat ; afterwards the plants or seeds are inserted and hoed for a year or two, till they 
cover the surface. For the Scotch pine, which is sometimes sown alone on the poorest soils, the most 
common and the simplest mode is that of burning the surface, for which process its heathy quality gives 
great facility. The ashes being spread.the ground is formed into beds from six to fifteen feet wide, accord- 
ing to circumstances ; the seed sown at the rate of six pounds to the English acre, and covered by a 
light shoveling from the furrows, Avhich are sunk about two feet, not only to supply covering to the beds, 
but as drains to carry off the surface water. 

528. Extensive artificial woods have been created in this manner, converting a barren 
soil into a state of productiveness, the least expensive, very profitable, and highly orna- 
mental. Of six years' growth, there exist flourishing plantations (treated in this manner), 
from five to nine feet in height. At about ten years from its formation, they begin to thin 
the wood, and continue to do so annually, with such profit by the sale, as at the end of 
thirty years to have it clear of every charge ; a specific property being thus acquired, by 
industry and attention merely, without the loss of any capital. 

529. Pine woods are often sown, and with great success, without the labour of burning 
the surface ; as at Vladsloo, in the neighbourhood of Dixmude, where a luxuriant crop, 
seven feet high, though of but five years' growth, had been cultivated by Madame de Cleir, 
by merely ploughing the heathy surface into beds of fifteen feet, harrowing, sowing at the 
rate of six pounds to the English acre, raking in the seed, and covering the beds lightly 
from the furrows, which are sunk about eighteen inches deep. 

530. Another mode of sowing, practised by the Baron de Serret, in the vicinity of Bruges, was productive 
of a growth not less luxuriant, merely by sowing the seed upon sand (taken from the excavation for a 
building) which was spread over the heathy surface, the seed raked in, and the furrows shoveled up. 

531. The sowing of pine seed in many cases is adopted for the purpose of bringing waste land into an 
arable state, which, when the timber has been disposed of, is found to yield admirable crops, from a 
surface soil formed by the accumulation of the leaves which have fallen for so many years. For this 
purpose also, the broom is frequently sown upon waste lands of a similar description, and at the end of 
four or five years is pulled away, leaving the soil capable of yielding crops of corn. 

532. The preservation of trees is attended to in the strictest manner, not only by 
proprietors, but by the government. As an example of this, Radcliff mentions that at 
a certain season of the year, when the caterpillars commence their attack upon the trees, 
every farmer is obliged to destroy those upon his own premises, to the satisfaction of the 
mayor of his particular commune, or to pay the cost of having it done for him. As a 
proof of the strictness with which this is enforced, the governor sends round a circular 
letter annually, reminding the sub-intendants and mayors of the obligations and penalties 
for nonperformance. 

533. There are a number of royal forests in Flanders ; and, besides these, all the trees 
on tlie sides of the public roads belong to the government. In West Flanders there are 
five, amounting together to nearly 10,000 acres. They are supei'intended by eighteen 
persons : an inspector, resident at Bruges ; a deputy inspector, resident at Ypres ; two 
gardes generaux, and fourteen particuliers, or privates. The inspector is answerable for 
all : from him tlie garde gena-al takes his instructions, and sees that they are enforced by 
the privates, to whom is conunitted the regulation of the necessary labour, 

G 3 



Part I. 


53i. The cuttings take place periodically with respect to small trees and fire-wood, so as to secure an 
annual produce ; but reserves are always lett to become, eventually, large and valuable timber. 

Son. The cutting of the taillis or coppice, chiefly used as fire- wood, takes place every eleventh year ; 
that of the high and grosser coppice, every twenty-fifth year ; the felling of the half-grown forest trees, 
every sixtieth year ; and that of the full-grown forest trees, once in a hundred years. 

536. hi the manageinent of coppices, it is considered essential to preserve tlie roots from 
stagnant water ; the trenches originally formed for that purpose are from time to time 
cleared out; and the sediment and manure from the falling leaves, which have accumulated 
in them, are carefully spread upon the ridge, or rounded set, which the wood occupies. A 
second branch of regular attention is to remove all brambles and briars ; a third, to 
replace the old and fading stocks by new plantations ; a fourth, to thin the stems with 
regularity and care. 

537. The sorts of trees are birch, oak, service, ash, maple, elm, beech, poplar, aspen, wild pine, Wey- 
mouth pine, plane, lime, larch, Spanish chestnut, and alder. A variety of pine, called the Pinus mari- 
tima, but not the plant of that name which is known on the coast of Italy and Greece, has been tried on 
the sea-coast, and found to resist the sea-breeze. It is said extensive plantations have been made of this 
tree on the coast of France, at Bourdeaux, and that it produces excellent timber ; but whether it is 
a distinct species, or a variety possessing any particular qualities, or merely the common wild or Scotch 
pine, in a favourable situation, does not appear. Most probably the last circumstance is the case. The 
pine is liable to the attacks of the Bostrichus joinip^rdus {fig. 63.), 
on the wood of the old branches, and of the larva of a species of moth 
on the leading young shoots. The moth deposits its eggs among the 
buds at their extremities : the turpentine or resin which oozes from 
the buds, protects the eggs till the insect is brought out by the 
warmth of the atmosphere, when vegetation commences ; it then 
inserts itself into one of the young shoots, about five or six inches below the 
end {fig. 64. a), and works upwards till it finds its way out at the extremity (6), 
which at this time begins to shoot, and lodging itself in the centre of it, perforates 
the young shoot up and down, till it either breaks off, or withers. 

538. The domestic circumstances of the Flemish fanner and his 
servants are depicted by RadclifF in a favourable point of view. 
" Nothing," he says, " tends more to the uniform advancement of good^ 
fanning, than a certain degree of ease and comfort in those who occupy 
the soil, and in the labouring classes whom they employ. Without it, 
an irregular, speculative, and anticipatory extraction of produce, always 
followed by eventual loss, is resorted to, in order to meet the emei-gen- 
cies and difficulties of the moment ; whereas, under different circum- 
stances, the successive returns of a well regulated course become the 
farmer's object, rather than the forced profit of a single year ; and whilst 
he himself is thus intrinsically served, his landlord is secured, and 
his ground ameliorated. 

539. The laborious industry/ of the Flemish fariner is recruited by intervals of decent 
and comfortable refreshment; and the farm -servants are treated with kindness and 
respect. They uniformly dinevnth the farmer and his family, at a clean tablecloth, well 
supplied with spoons, with four-pronged forks, and every thing necessary for their 
convenience. In Flanders, the gentlemen are all farmers ; but the farmers do not aspire 
to be gentlemen, and their servants feel the benefit. They partake with them of a plen- 
tiful and orderly meal, which varies according to circumstances. One standing dish, 
however, is universal, a soup, composed of buttermilk, boiled and thickened with flour or 
rye-bread. Potatoes, salt pork, salt fish, various vegetables, and eggs are common ; fresh 
meat and fresh fish occur occasionally, though not for daily consumption : add to these, 
a plentiful supply of butter, or rendered lard, which is sometimes substituted ; and when 
it is recollected that these articles of provision are always made palatable by very tolerable 
cookery, it will be allowed that the farmer's table is comfortably supplied. The potatoes 
are always peeled, and are generally stewed in milk ; a particular kind of kidneybean, 
as mentioned before, the feve haricot, sliced and stewed in milk also, is a frequent dish. 
No farmer is without a well cultivated garden, full of the best vegetables, which all 
appear at his own table ; and apples are also introduced into their cookery. The great 
fruit and vegetable markets of the towns are supplied by gardeners who make it tlieir 
means of subsistence ; but the gardens of the farmers, unless in case of redundance, are 
cultivated wholly for their own consumption." 

540. The farm^ervants partake of their master's fare, except in his refreshments of tea, coffee, and 

541. The day-labourers are not so well provided : they have, however, rye-bread, potatoes, buttermilk, 
and occasionally some salt pork. The labourer is, in general, very well able to support himself by his 
work : in a country where so much manual labour is required in weeding, the labourer s family is 
occupied pretty constantly in summer ; and in winter they spin. Each day-labourer has, in most cases, a 
small quantity of land, from a rood to half an acre, for his own cultivation. , , ^ r tv, t 

542. Beggars in common times are scarcely to be seen, except in the towns, and but lew there, in 
the country, habits of industry are kept up till health fails ; and to meet the infirmities of age, the poor 
possess a revenue from pious donations, regulated by the government, and vested by them in commissions, 
of which the mayors of the different communes are presidents, respectively, m right of their othce. 

543. The clothing of the peasantry is warm and comfortable, good shoes, stockings, and frequently 
gaiters of leather or strong linen, which are sold very cheap ; their innate frugahty leads theni, however, 
to economise in those articles, substituting on many occasions coarse flannel socks and wooden sabots, 
both of which are supplied in all the public markets at about eightpcnce cost. Their comfortable supply 


of linen is remarkable ; there are few of the labouring classes without many changes. In riding with a 
landed proprietor through a part of the country in which his property was situated, a neat cottage pre- 
sented itself: the clipped hedge which surrounded the garden, covered with linen very white, suggested 
an enquiry, " whether it did not belong to a washerwoman ?" The answer was, " That it was occupied 
by a labourer and his family, and that the linen was all their own." It must, however, be observed, that 
universally in proportion to the supply is the postponement of the washing, which causes the greater 
display, and particularly at the beginning of May, which is a chosen season for this purpose. Any 
circumstance connected with the cleanliness, health, and comfort of the lower classes is interesting ; and 
to this of which we have been speaking, a peculiar degree of decency is attached. If the labourer is com- 
fortable in point of apparel, the farmer is still more so. In home-work, the farmer generally protects his 
clothes by a smock-frock of blue linen ; and great attention to cleanliness prevails throughout his operations. 

544. JVith respect to the farm-house, the exterior is for the most part ornamented with 
creepers, or fruit trees trained against the w^alls ; and within, the neatness which prevails 
is quite fascinating. Every article of furniture is polished ; the service of pewter dis- 
plays a peculiar brightness ; and the tiled floor is purified by frequent ablutions. 

545. The cottage of the labourer, though not so well furnished, is, however, as clean ; 
a frequent and periodical use of water and the broom pervades every house, great and 
small, in the country and in towns; originating, perhaps, in the necessity of cleanliness, 
and the public enforcement of it, when Flanders was visited by the plague. 

546. The Flemish farmer seldom amasses riches, but is rarely afflicted by poverty : in- 
dustry and frugality are his characteristics ; he never looks beyond the enjoyment of 
moderate comforts ; abstains from spirituous liquors, however easily to be procured ; 
never exceeds his means ; pays his rent punctually ; and, in case of emergency, has 
always something to command, beyond his necessary disbursements. 

Sect. V. Of the present State of Agriculture in Germany. 

547. The agriculture of Germany is, in many respects, less different from that of Britain 
than is the agriculture of France or Italy. It is, however, but very imperfectly known in 
this country ; partly from the numerous petty states into which the German empire is 
divided, which greatly increases the variety of political circumstances affecting agricul- 
ture ; but principally from the German language being less generally cultivated by 
Britons, than that of France or of Italy. The outline which we submit is drawn chiefly 
from the published journals of recent travellers, especially Jacob, Hodgson, and Bright, 
and from our own observations made in 1813, 1814, and 1828. Those who desire more 
copious details may consult Thaer's Annals der Landuirtschaft, Hassel's Erdebeschreibung, 
and the agricultural writings of Hazzi, Schwartz, and Krunitz. 

SuBSECT. 1. General View of the Agricultural Circumstances of Germany. 

548. A great variety of soil, surface, climate, and culture must necessarily exist in a 
country so extensive as Germany. From the south of Hungary to the north of Den- 
mark are included upwards of twelve degrees of latitude, which alone is calculated to 
produce a difference of temperature of twenty degrees : and the effect of this difference 
of geographical position is greatly increased by the variations of surface ; the immense 
ridges of mountains, inlets of the sea, lakes and rivers, and extensive plains. The 
winters in Denmark and Prussia are very severe, and last from six to eight months ; the 
winters in the south of Hungary are from one to three months. The south and south- 
east of Germany, comprising part of Bohemia, Silesia, and Hungary, are the most 
mountainous : and the north-east, including Prussia and part of Holstein and Hanover, 
presents the most level surface. The richest soil is included in the interior and south- 
western parts ; in the immense plain of the Danube, from Presburg to Belgrade, an 
extent of three hundred miles ; and great part of Swabia, Franconia, and Westphalia. 
The most barren parts are the mountains and sandy plains and heaths of the north, and 
especially of Prussia ; and that country, and part of Denmark and Holstein, abound 
also in swamps, marshes, and stagnant lakes. 

549. Landed property, throughout Germany, is almost universally held on feudal 
tenure, and strictly entailed on the eldest son. It is generally in estates from one hun- 
dred acres upwards, which cannot be divided or increased. Most of the sovereigns have 
large domains, and also the religious and civil corporations. 

550. The farmers of Germany are still in many instances metayers; but the variety of 
this mode of holding is much greater there than in France and Italy. In some cases the 
fanner does not even find stock ; and in others, more particularly in Hungary, he and 
his family are little better off than the cultivators of Russia. In Brandenburg, Saxony, 
and part of Hanover, the farmers hold on the metayer tenure, or that of paying a fixed rent 
of corn or money, unalterable either by landlord or tenant. In Mecklenburg, Fries- 
land, Holstein, Bavaria, &c., most of the property is free, as in Britain, and there 
agriculture is carried to great perfection. Tithes are almost universal in Germany ; but 
are not felt as any great grievance. Poor-rates are unknown. 

551. The consequence of these arrangements of landed property in Germany is a com- 
paratively fixed state of society. The regulations which have forbid an augmentation 

G 4 


of rent, or a union of farms, and which have secured to the ov/ner the full enjoyment 
of tlie use of the land, have prevented any person, except the sovereign, from amassing 
an enormous quantity, and have preserved, among the inhabitants a species of equality as 
to property. There are, comparatively, few absolutely destitute labourers. The mass 
of the people do not live in such affluence as Englishmen ; but this is more than com- 
pensated to them by all being in some measure alike. In civilised society, it is not 
destitution, but the craving wants wliich the splendour of other persons excites, which are 
the true evils of poverty. Tlie metayer regulations have hindered improvement ; but they 
have also hindered absolute destitution and enormous accumulation. (JIodgso?i.) 

552. From the regtUadons concer7iing landed property in Gerrnany, it has resulted that 
fewer paupers are found there than in our country. Some other regulations are known, 
which have probably assisted in protecting Germany from the evil of pauperism to tlie 
same extent in which it exists with us. There is no legal provision for paupers. A 
law of the guilds, which extended to most trades, forbade, and still forbids^ where guilds 
are not abolished, journeying mechanics from marrying ; and, in most countries of 
Gennany, people are obliged to have the permission of the civil magistrate, before it is 
legal for the clergyman to celebrate a marriage. The permission seems to be given or 
withheld, as the parties soliciting it are thought by the magistrates to be capable of main- 
taining a family. At least, it is to prevent the land from being overrun with paupers, 
that the law on this subject has been made. 

553. The agricultural produce of Germany is for the greater part consumed there; 
but excellent wines are exported from Hungary and the Rhine ; and also wool, flax, 
timber, bark, hams salted and smoked, geese, goosequills, the canary, goldfinch, and 
other singing birds, silk, &c. 

554. The culture of the mulberry and rearing of the silkworm^ in Germany, are carried 
on as far north as Berlin ; that of the vine, as Dresden ; and that of the peach, as a 
standard in the fields, as Vienna. The maize is little cultivated in Germany ; but patches 
of it are to be found as far north as Augsburg, in Swabia. Rice is cultivated in a few 
places in Westphalia. The olive is not planted, because to it, even in the warmest part 
of Germany, the winters would prove fatal. 

555. The common cultivation includes all the different corns, and many or most of 
the legumes, roots, herbage, and grasses, grown in Britain. They grow excellent hemp, 
flax, and oats ; and rye is the bread-corn of all Germany. They also cultivate turnips, 
rapeseed, madder, woad, tobacco, hops, saffron, teasel, caraway ; many garden vegetables, 
such as white beet, French beans, cabbage, carrots, parsneps, &c. ; and some medicinal 
plants, as rhubarb, lavender, mint, &c. ; independently of their garden culture of fruits, 
culinary vegetables, and herbs for apothecaries. The most common rotation in Ger- 
many is two com crops and a fallow ; or, in poor lands, one or two com crops, and two 
or three years' rest; but in rich lands, in the south- western districts, green crops or 
legumes intervene with those of corn. 

556. The best pastures and meadows are in Holstein, and along the margin of the Ger- 
man Ocean ; and for the same reasons as in Holland and Britain, viz. the mildness and 
moisture of the winters. There are also good pastures and meadows on the Danube, in 
Hungary; but the great heats of summer stimulate the plants too much to send up 
flowers ; and the culture there is not so perfected as to regulate this tendency by irrigation. 
Irrigation, however, is very scientifically conducted in some parts of Holstein, and on the 
Rhine and Oder. 

557. The operations and implements of Gei-man agriculture vary exceedingly. Tliey 
are wretched in Hungary, and some parts of Bohemia, where six or more oxen may be 
seen drawing a clumsy plough, entirely of wood, and vrithout a mould-board. In 
Denmark, Hanover, and in l^ssia, they use much better ploughs, some of which have 
iron mould-boards ; and in many places they are drawn by a pair of oxen or horses. 
The plough, in the more improved districts, has a straight beam, two low wheels, a share, 
which cuts nearly horizontally, and a wooden mould-board sometimes partially shod with 
iron : it is drawn by two horses. In Friesland, and some parts of Holstein, the Dutch 
swing-plough is used. The common waggon 
is a heavy clumsy machine on low wheels. 
(^fig- 65.) The theoretical agriculturists are 
well acquainted with all the improved im- 
plements of Britain, and some of them have 
been introduced, especially in Holstein, 
Hanover, and Westphalia ; but these are 
nothing in a general view. Horses are the 
most common animals of labour in the north 
and west of Germany, and oxen in the south. Fallows are rarely w^ell cultivated ; and 
nothing can be worse than the mode of resting lands, and leaving them to be covered with 
weeds during two or three years in succession. 


558. Of the live stock of Germany, the best breeds of working horses and of oxen are in 
Ilolstein, and some districts between Hamburg and Hanover. The best saddle horses are 
reared in Hungary. There are also excellent oxen and cows reared in that country, and 
exported to Italy and Turkey. The best sheep are in Saxony and Prussia, where the 
Spanish breed has been naturalised. Swine are common ; but the breed is every where 
very indifferent. Goats are reared in the mountains ; and also asses and mules. The 
forests are stocked with wild deer, boars, stags, hares, and other game. Fish are carefully 
bred and fattened in some places, especially in Prussia'; and poultry is every where attended 
to, and carried to a liigh degree of luxury at Vienna. Bees are attended to in the neighbour- 
hood of the forests ; and silkworms in the southern districts, as far as Presburg. Canary 
and other singing birds are reared in Westphalia, and exported to most parts of Europe. 

559. Tlie culture afforests is particularly attended to in Germany, for the same reasons 
as in France, and the details in both countries are nearly the same. The number 
of German books on Forst-wissenschaft is astonishing, and most of the writers seem 
to consider woodlands in that country as a more eligible source of income than any other. 

560. The common agriculture of Germxiny may be considered as every where in a state 
of gradual improvement. Both governments and individuals have formed institutions for 
its promotion, by the instruction of youth in its principles and most enlightened practices ; 
or for the union of men of talent. The Imperial Society of Vienna, the Georgical Institu- 
tion of Presburg, and that of the late Professor Thaer, in Prussia, may be mentioned 
as recent efforts. The farmers in Germany are particularly deficient in the breeding and 
rearing of horses, cattle, sheep, and swine. Of the latter two, tliey require new breeds 
from judicious crosses ; and the former require selection, and much more care in 
rearing. The implements of husbandry also require to be improved, and the importance 
of working fallows in a very different manner from what is now done should be inculcated. 
If peace continue, there can be no doubt that these, and all other ameliorations will go 
rapidly forward ; for the spirit of agricultural improvement is at present, perhaps, more 
alive in Germany than in any other country of Europe. 

561. In noticing some traits of agriculture in the different states of Germany, we shall 
begin witli Denmark at the most northerly extremity, and proceed, in the order of 
geograpliical position, to Hungary in the south. 

SuBSECT. 2. Agriculture of the Kingdom of Denmarlc, including Greenland and Iceland. 

562. The improvement of the agnculture of Denmark maybe dated from 1660, when 
the king became despotic, and was enabled to carry measures of national benefit into 
execution without the jarring interference of councils. The slaves of the crown were 
immediately made free, and the example followed by several wealthy proprietors. Acts 
were passed for uniting and consolidating landed property by equitable exchanges, and 
for preventing the right of free way ; both which led to enclosures, draining, and irrigation. 
There are now better meadows, and more hedges and walls, in Denmark, than in any 
country of Germany of the same extent. Various institutions for instruction and reward 
were formed, and among others, in 1686, the first veterinary school founded in Germany. 
Artificial grasses and herbage plants enter into most rotations, and rye-grass is perhaps 
more sown in Holstein than any where, except in England. In a word, considering 
the disadvantages of climate, the agriculture of Denmark is in a more advanced state than 
that of any other kingdom of Germany. 

563. The Danish farm-houses are described by Dr. Neale, in 1805, as " generally built upon the same 
plan, having externally the appearance of large barns, with folding doors at each end, and of sufficient size 
to admit loaded waggons ; on one hand are the apartments occupied by the farmer and his family ; on the 
other, the stable, cow-house, dairy, and piggery ; in the centre, a large space, set apart for the waggons, 
ploughs, harrows, and other implements of husbandry ; and overhead, the granary and hay-loft." As 
the postmasters are generally farmers, it is customary to drive in at one end ; change horses, and then 
drive out at the other, which is the case in the north of Germany and in Poland, and more or less so in 
every part of the north of Europe. 

564. Of the farmer's family, the same accomplished traveller observes, " we were often agreeably 
surprised at finding the living-apartments funiished with a degree of comfort and neatness bordering 
upon luxury ; every article was substantially good in itself, and was preserved in the greatest order and 
cleanliness. Thus, white muslin curtains, with fringes and draperies, covered the windows ; looking- 
glasses and chests of drawers were placed around ; excellent large feather beds, and a profusion of the 
best well-bleached linen displayed the industry of the good liousewives, while their dinner tables were 
equally well supplied with damask cloths, and snow-white napkins ; and near the doors of the dairies 
were ranged quantities of large, singularly shaped, brass and copper vessels, bright as mirrors." 

565. The dimensions of sorne of their buiklingSyhe says, 6sY^ 66 
" is surprising ; one measured 110 yards long, resembling ^ te»=»->.^ 
in extent the area of Westminster Hall. On the tops 
of their roofs are generally displayed a set of antlers, 
and a weathercock ; on others, two horses' lieads 
are carved out in wood, and announce the rank of the4 
inhabitants ; the antlers, or rather bulls' horns, denot- 
ing the house of a tenant ; and the horses' heads, that | 
of a landed proprietor. This form of building {Jig. 66.) = 
seems to have been adopted from the earliest ages; 
amongst the inhabitants of northern Germany," as 
similar ones are described by Joannes Lasicius in the 
middle of the sixteenth century. {Travels through Germany, Poland, ^c. 13.) 


566. The rural economy of Greenland and Iceland has been given, the former by Crantz, 
and the latter by Sir G. Mackenzie. Only a small part of Greenland produces pasture, 
and a still smaller part grain. The culture of the last, however, is now given up. 
Cabbages and turnips grow well in the gardens, and there are some oak trees, brambles, 
and junipers between the 60° and 65° N. lat. Sir G. Mackenzie thinks potatoes and 
barley might succeed in some places. There are considerable pasture farms, a good and 
hardy breed of horses, and herds and flocks of cattle and sheep. Farmers have no leases, 
but pay rent in kind, and cannot be removed from the land unless it can be proved that 
they have neglected its culture ; that is, they hold on tlie metayer system. The stock of 
cattle and sheep is considered as belonging to the soil of the landlord. A tenant may 
quit his farm whenever he chooses, but must leave the proper amount of stock to 
be taken by his successor. 

Sdbsect. 3. Of the Agriculture of the Kingdom of Prussia. 

567. The agriculture of Prussia was considerably advanced by its second king, 
Frederic William, who is said to have imported 16,000 men from Saltzburg, and 
expended 25 millions of francs in building villages and distributing lands among them. 
His successor, Frederick the Great, after having procured a peace, made exertions in 
agriculture as extraordinary as in war and architecture. He di-ained and brought into 
cultivation the borders of the lakes of the Netz and the Wasta, and established 3500 
families oh wh^t before was a marsh. He di-ained the marsh of Fridburg, and established 
on it 400 families. He made extensive drainages, enclosures, and other improvements 
in Brandenburg, and in Pomerania, and built the extensive embankments of Dallast, in 
Friesland, by which, by degrees, a large tract of land was recovered, which the sea sub- 
merged in 1 724. He formed a Council of Woods and Waters for managing the national 
forests, and regulating rivers and lakes. He established the Royal Economical Society 
of Potsdam, and other societies, and cultivated a farm. He created a market for agri- 
cultural produce, by the establishment of manufactures ; and, in short, he left nothing 
unattempted that might benefit his kingdom. The successors of the great Frederic have 
not distinguished themselves as encouragers of agriculture, with the exception of the 
present king, Frederic William I. 

568. The surface and soil of a country so extensive as Prussia are necessarily various ; 
but, nevertheless, there are few or no mountainous or hilly districts, or fertile plains. 
The prevailing soil is sand, and almost the whole of the country is in aration. 

569. The soil of the maritime provinces of Prussia is in general so light, that it may be 
easily ploughed with two oxen, and those of diminished size, and no great strength. 
Jacobs not unfrequently saw, on tlie smaller portions of land, a single cow drawing the 
plough, and whilst the plough was guided by the owner, the cow was led by his wife. 
The more tenacious soils, on the banks of the streams, are commonly but of small extent. 
There is, indeed, a large portion of land in the delta, formed by the separation of tlie 
Nogat from the Vistula, between Derschau and Marienburg, which, under a good 
system of management, would be highly productive, and which requires greater strength 
to plough ; there are some others, especially near Tilsit, of less extent ; but the whole 
of them, if compared with the great extent of the surface of the country, are merely suffi- 
cient to form exceptions to the general classification which may be made of tlie soil. 
{Jacob on the Trade in Com'., and on the Agriculture of Northern Europe. ) 

570. The landed estates in Prussia, previously to the year 1 807, were large, and could 
only be held by such as were of noble birth, or by merchants, manufacturers, or artisans, 
who had obtained a patent of nobility. When the French had overrun the country, in 
1807, these restrictions were removed; and, by successive measures, personal services 
have been abolished, and the whole of the enslaved peasants have become converted into 
freemen and freeholders. These small and numerous freeholders are the occupiers and 
principal cultivators of the soil ; rent-paying farmers being seldom to be met with, except 
in the vicinity of large towns, and on the domains of the crown. (Ibid. ) 

571. The general course of cultivation in Prussia is to fallow every third year, by 
ploughing three times when designed for rye, or five times if intended for wheat, and 
allowing the land to rest without any crop during the whole of the year, from one autumn 
to the next. Most of the land is deemed to be unfit for the growth of wheat, under any 
circumstances. Where it is deemed adapted to that grain, as much as can be manured, 
from their scanty supply of that article, is sown with wheat, and the remainder of the 
fallow-ground with rye. The portion which is destined for wheat, even in the best farms, 
is thus very small ; and, as on many none is sown, the whole of the land devoted to wheat 
does not amount to one tenth of that on which rye is grown. (Ibid.) 

572. The live stock, in proportion to the surface, is veiy deficient. According to a 
calculation by Mr. Jacob, the proportion of animals to an acre, over the whole of East 
Prussia, West Prussia, and Pomerania, is less than one third of Avhat it is in England. 


573. The implements of husbandry are quite of as low a description as the working 
cattle. The ploughs are ill-constructed, with very little iron on them. The harrows are 
made of wood, without any iron, even for the tines or teeth. The waggons are mere 
planks, laid on the frame loose, and resting against upright stakes fixed into its sides. 
The cattle are attached to these implements by ropes, without leather in any part of the 
harness. The use of the roller is scarcely known, and the clods, in preparing the fallow- 
ground, are commonly broken lo pieces by hand with wooden mallets. In sowing, the 
seed is carried in the apron or the skirts of the frock of the man who scatters it on the 
ground. (Ibid.) 

574. The produce of the soil, whether in corn or cattle, is of an inferior quality, and 
bears a low money price. The scale of living of all classes, is influenced by this state of 
things. The working classes, including both those who work for daily wages", and those 
who cultivate their own little portions of land, live in dwellings provided with few con- 
veniences, on the lowest and coarsest food ; potatoes, rye, and buckwheat form their chief, 
and frequently their only, food ; linen, from flax of their own growth, and cloth from 
wool spun by their own hands, both coarse, and both worn as long as they will hold 
together, furnish their dress ; whilst an earthen pot that will bear fire, forms one of the 
most valuable articles of their furniture. (Ibid.) 

575. The improvement of the agriculture of Prussia is ardently desired by the present 
government, and in consequence, about twenty-four years ago, the Agricultural Institution 
of Moegelin on the Oder, conducted by the late Von Thaer, justly celebrated in Ger- 
many as an agricultural writer, was founded. This institution was visited by Jacob 
in 1819 ; and from his Travels we shall give a short account of it. 

576. The Agricultural Institution of Moegelin is situated in the country or march of Brandenburg, about 
forty.five miles from Berlin. The chief professor, Von Thaer, was formerly a medical practitioner at 
Celle, near Luneburg, in the kingdom of Hanover ; and had distinguished himself by the translation 
of various agricultural works from the French and English, and by editing a Magazine of Rural 
Economy. About 1804, the King of Prussia invited him to settle in his dominions, and gave him the 
estate of Moegelin to improve and manage as a pattern farm. 

577. This estate consists of 1200 acres. Thaer began by erecting extensive buildings for himself, three 
profess6rs, a variety of tradesmen, the requisite agricultural buildings, and a distillery. The three pro- 
fessors are, one for mathematics, chemistry, and geology ; one for veterinary knowledge ; and a third for 
botany and the use of the different vegetable productions in the Materia Medica, as well as for 
entomology. Besides these, an experienced agriculturist is engaged, whose office it is to point out to 
the pupils the mode of applying the sciences to the practical business of husbandry. The course com- 
mences in September. During the winter months, the time is occupied in mathematics, and the first six 
books of Euclid are studied ; and in the summer, the geometrical knowledge is practically applied to the 
measurement of land, timber, buildings, and other objects. The first principles of chemistry are 
unfolded. By a good but economical apparatus, various experiments are made, both on a large and small 
scale. For the larger experiments, the brew-house and with their respective fixtures are 
found highly useful. 

578. Much attention is paid to the analysation of vat-ious soils, and the different kinds, with the 
relative quantity of their component parts, are arranged with great order and regularity. The classifica- 
tion is made with neatness, by having the specimens of soil arranged in order, and distinguished by 
different colours. Thus, for instance, if the basis of the soil is sandy, the glass has a cover of yellow 
paper ; if the next predominating earth is calcareous, the glass has a white ticket on its side ; if it is 
red clay, it has a red ticket ; if blue clay, a blue one. Over these tickets, others, of a smaller size, 
indicate by their colour the third greatest quantity of the particular substance contained in the soil. This 
matter may appear to many more ingenious than useful, and savouring too much of the German habit of 
generalising. The classification of Von Thaer is, however, as much adopted, and as commonly used on 
the large estates in Germany, where exact statistical accounts are kept, as the classification of Linnsus in 
natural history is throughout the civilised world. 

579. There is a large botanic garden, arranged on the system of the Swedish naturalist, kept in 
excellent order, with all the plants labelled, and the Latin as well as German names. A herbarium, 
with a good collection of dried plants which is constantly increasing, is open to the examination of the 
pupils, as well as skeletons of the different animals, and casts of their several parts, which must be of 
great use in veterinary pursuits. Models of agricultural implements, especially of ploughs, are preserved 
in a museum, which is stored as well with such as are common in Germany, as with those used in 
England, or other countries. 

580. The various implements used on the farm are all made by smiths, wheelers, and carpenters, 
residing round the institution ; the workshops are open to the pupils, and they are encouraged by 
attentive inspection, to become masters of the more miimte branches of the economy of an estate. 

581. The sum paid by each pupil is four hundred rix-doUars annually, besides which they provide their 
own beds and breakfasts. In this country, such an expense precludes the admission of all but youths of 
good fortune. Each has a separate apartment. They are very well behaved young men, and their 
conduct to each other, and to the professors, was polite, even to punctilio. 

582. Jacob's opinion of this institution is, that an attempt is made to crowd too much instruction into 
too short a compass, for many of the pupils spend but one year in the institution ; and thus only the 
foundation, and that a very slight one, can be laid in so short a space of time. It is, however, to be 
presumed, that the young men come here prepared with a considerable previous knowledge, as they are 
mostly between the ages of twenty and twenty-four, and some few appeared to be still older. 

58 J. The farm at Moegelin was examined by Jacob in the autumn. The soil is light and sandy, and 
the climate cold. The wheat was put in the ground with a drill of Thacr's invention, which sows and 
covers nine rows at once, and is drawn by two horses. The saving of seed Thaer considers the only 
circumstance which makes drilling preferable to sowing broad-cast, as far as respects wheat, rye, barley, 
and oats. The average produce of wheat is sixteen bushels per acre : not much is sown in Prussia, as 
rye is the bread corn of that country ; it produces, with Thaer, twenty-two bushels and a half to the 
acre. The usual rotation of crops is, potatoes or peas, rye, clover, and wheat. Winter tares are killed 
by the frost, and the summer species come to nothing, owing to the dry soil and drought. The spurry 
(Spergula) is therefore grown for the winter food of sheep : it is sown on the stubbles immediately after 
harvest, and in six weeks furnishes an herbage of which the sheep are very fond, and which is said to be 
very nutritious. Potatoes are a favourite crop ; and the small-tubered and rather glutinous ill-flavoured 
sort common in France and Germany is preferred, as containing more starch in proportion to bulk, than 
the large kinds, Thaer maintains that, beyond a certain size, the increase of the potato is only water and 


not nutriment. The produce per acre is 300 bushels or five tons, which, Thaer contends, contain more 
nutriment than twenty tons of turnips, because the proportion of starch in potatoes to that in turnips is 
more than four to one. The soil is excellent for turnips, but the long series of dry weather, common on 
the Continent in the beginning of summer, renders them one of the most uncertain of crops. 

584. A brewery and distillery are the necessary accompaniments of every large farming establishment 
in Germany. The result of many experiments in the latter proved that the same quantity of alcohol is 
produced from 100 bushels of potatoes as from twenty-four bushels of wheat, or thirty-three of barley. 
As the products of grain or of potatoes are relatively greater, the distillery is regulated by that propor- 
tion. During the enforcement of the Continental system, many experiments were tried in making sugar 
from native plants. Von Thaer found, after many trials, that the most profitable vegetable from which 
sugar could be made was the common garden turnip (of which variety Jacob did not ascertain), and 
that whilst sugar was sold at a rix-doUar the pound, it was very profitable to extract it from that root. 
The samples of sugar made during that period from different roots, the processes, and their results, are 
carefully preserved in the museum, but would now be tedious to describe. They are certainly equal in 
strength of sweetness, and those refined, in colour and hardness, to any produced from the sugar-cane of 
of the tropics. ^ 

585. The improvement of the breed of sheep, which has been an important object of this establishment, 
as far as the fineness of the wool is regarded, has admirably succeeded. By various crosses from select 
Merinos, by sedulously excluding from the flock every ewe that had coarse wool, and, still more, by 
keeping them in a warm house during the winter. Von Thaer has brought the wool of his sheep to great 
fineness, far greater than any that is clipped in Spain ; but the improvement of the carcass has been 
neglected, so that his, like all other German mutton, is very indifferent. 

586. The various kinds of wool have been arranged by Von Thaer, with the assistance of the professors 
of the institution, on cards ; and the fineness of that produced from different races of sheep, is dis- 
criminated with geometrical exactness. The finest are some specimens from Saxony, his own are the 
next. The fine Spanish wool from Leon is inferior to his, in the proportion of eleven to sixteen. The 
wool from Botany Bay, of which he had specimens, is inferior to the Spanish. He had arranged, by a 
similar mode, the relative fineness of the wools produced on the different parts of the body of the sheep, 
so as to bring under the eye, at one view, the comparative value of the different parts of the fleeces ; 
and he had, also, ascertained the proportionate weight of those different parts. The application of optics 
and geometry, by which the scales that accompany the specimens are constructed, is such as to leave no 
doubts on any mind of the accuracy of the results. The scales, indeed, show only the fineness, and not 
the length of the fibre ; which is, I believe, of considerable importance in the process of spinning. The 
celebrity of the Moegelin sheep is so widely diffused, that the ewes and rams are sold at enormous prices 
to the agriculturists in East Prussia, Poland, and as far as Russia. 

587. The breeding of cows and the manasement of a dairy are secondary objects, as far as the mere 
farming is regarded ; but it is attended to with care, for the sake of the pupils, who thus have before their eyes 
that branch of agricultural practice, which may be beneficial on some soils though not adapted to this. 
The cows are in good order, of an excellent breed ; and, considering that they are, like the sheep, fed 
only on potatoes and chopped straw, are in good condition. They yield, when in full milk, from five to 
six pounds of butter weekly. The custom of kiUing the calves, when only a fortnight or three weeks old, 
prevails here as well as elsewhere in Germany. There is no disputing about taste ; but though veal is a 
favourite food in Germany at the tables of the rich, it always seems very unpleasant to an Englishman. 

588. The ploughs at Moegelin arc better constructed than in most parts of Germany. They resemble 
our common swing-plough, but v/ith a broader fin at the point of the share. The mould-board is con- 
structed on a very good principle and with great skill; the convexity of its fore-part so gradually 
changing into concavity at the hinder-part as to turn the soil completely upside down. The land is 
cleanly and straightly ploughed, to the depth of six and a half or seven inches, with a pair of oxen, 
whose usual work is about an acre and a quarter each day. 

589. A threshing-machine is rarely used, and only to show the pupils the principle on which it is con- 
structed, and the effect it produces ; but having neither wind nor water machinery to work it, the flail is 
almost exclusively used, the threshers receive the sixteenth bushel for their labour. The rate of wages 
to the labourers is four groschcn a day, winter and summer, besides which, they are provided with 
liabitations and fuel The women receive from two to three groschen, according to their strength and 
skill. They live on rye-bread or potatoes, thin soup, and scarcely any animal food but bacon, and a very 
small portion even of that ; yet they look strong and healthy, and tolerably clean. 

590. The culture of the vine and the rearing of the silkworm are carried on in the more southerly of 
the recent territorial accessions which have been made by Prussia. The culture of culinary vegetables is 
carried on round Erfurth, and other towns furnished with them whose neighbourhoods are less favourable 
for their growth. Garden seeds are also raised at Erfurth, and most of the seedsmen of Germany 
supplied with them. Anise, canary, coriander, mustard, and poppy seeds are grown for distillers and 
others, and woad, madder, teasel, saffron, rhubarb, &c., for dyers and druggists. 

591. The present king of Prussia has done much for agriculture, and is said to design more, by lessen- 
hig the feudal claims of the lords ; by permitting estates even of knightly tenure to be purchased by 
burghers and non-nobles ; by simplifying the modes of conveyance and investiture ; by setting an 
example of renouncing most of the feudal dues on his vast patrimonial estates ; and by making good 
communications by roads, rivers, and canals, through his extensive territories. {Jacob's Travels, 189.) 

SuBSECT. 4. Of the Agriculture of the Kingdom of Hanover. 

592. The agriculture of the kingdom of Hanover has been depicted by Hodgson as it 
appeared in 181 7. The territory attached to the free town of Hanover, previously to its 
elector being made king of Britain, was very trifling ; but so- many dukedoms and other 
provinces have been since added, that it now contains upwards of 11,045 square geo- 
graphical miles, and 1,314,104 inhabitants. 

593. All agricidiural society was founded in Hanover in 1751, by Geo. II., and 
about the same time one at Celle in Luneburg. The principal business of the latter 
was to superintend and conduct a general enclosure of all the common lands j it was 
conducted by Meyer, who wrote a large work on the subject. The present Hanove- 
rian ministry are following up the plans of Meyer, and, according to Hodgson, are 
" extremely solicitous to promote agriculture." 

594. The landed properly of Hanover may be thus arranged : — One sixth belongs to 
the sovereign, possibly three sixths to the nobles, one sixth to tlie corporations of towns 
and religious bodies, and less than one sixth to persons not noble. The crown lands are let 
to noblemen, or rather favoured persons, at very moderate rents, who either farm them or 
sublet them to farmers. There are six hundred and forty-four noble properties, but 
few of them with mansions, the proprietors living in towns. For a nobleman to live in 


the country without being a magistrate, or without holding some office, is looked on 
as degrading. Hodgson met with only three instances of nobles cultivating their own 
estates, and then they lived in towns. The farmers of these estates are bauers or 
peasants, who hold from ten to eighty acres each, at old fixed rents and services long since 
established, which the landlord has no power to alter. " It may be from tliis cause 
that so few nobles reside in the country. They have in truth no land, but what is occu- 
pied by other people. The use of these small portions of land on certain conditions, is 
the property of the occupier, which he can sell, as the stipulated rent and services are the 
pi-operty of the landlord. The bauer has a hereditary right to the use ; the landlord 
a hereditary right to be paid for that use." 

595. The land of religious corporations is let in the same manner as the crown lands. 
That of towns is generally divided into very small lots of twelve or ten acres, and let to 
the townsmen as gardens, or for growing potatoes and com for their own consumption. 
Almost every family of the middling and poorer classes in towns, as well as in the country, 
has a small portion of land. Most of the towns and villages have large commons, and 
the inhabitants have certain rights of grazing cows, ^c. 

596. The occupiers of land may be divided into two classes, metayers and leibeigeners. 
The first occupy from eighty to twenty acres, and pay a fixed corn or money rent, which 
the landlord cannot alter; nor can he refuse to renew the lease, on the death of the- 
occupier. The money rent paid by such farmers varies from seven to twelve shillings 
per acre. The term leibeigener signifies a slave, or a person who owns his own body 
and no more. He also holds his land on fixed terms independently of the will of liis 
lord. His conditions are a certain number of days' labour at the different seasons of 
sowing, reaping, &c., bringing home his lord's fuel, supplying coach or cart horses when 
wanted, and various other feudal services. The stock of the leibeigener is generally the 
property of the landlord, who is obliged to make good all accidents or deaths in cattle, 
and to supply the family with food when the crops fail. This wretched tenure the 
governments of Hanover, Prussia, and Bavaria are endeavouring to mitigate, or do away 
altogether ; and so much has already been done that the condition of the peasants is said 
to be greatly superior to what it was a century back. 

597. The free landed property of the kingdom of Hanover lies principally in Fries- 
land and the marsh lands. There it is cultivated in large, middling, and small farms, as 
in England, and the agriculture is evidently superior to that of the other provinces. 

598. The large farmers of Hanover have in general extensive rights of pasturage ; 
keep large flocks of sheep, grow artificial grasses, turnips, and even fiorin ; and have 
permanent pastures or meadows. Sometimes a brewery, distillery, or public house, is 
united with the farm. 

599. The farm of Coldiiigen, within eight miles of Hanover, was visited by Hodgson. 
It contained two tihousand six hundred acres, with extensive rights of pasturage : it 
belonged to the crown, and was rented by an amptman or magistrate. The soil was a 
free brown loam, and partly in meadow, liable to be overflowed by a river. The rota- 
tion on one part of tlie arable lands was, 1 . drilled green crop ; 2. wheat or rye ; 
3. clover ; 4. wheat or rye ; 5. barley or peas ; and 6. oats or rye. On another portion, 
fallow, rape, beans, the cabbage turnip or kohl-rabi, flax, and oats were introduced. 
Seven pair of horses and eight pair of oxen were kept as working cattle. No cattle 
were fattened ; but a portion of the land was sublet for feeding cows 

600. Of sheep there were two thousand two hundred, of a cross between the Rhenish or Saxon breed 
and the Merino. No attention was paid to the carcass, but only to the wool. The " shepherds were all 
dressed in long white linen coats, and white linen smallclothes, and wore large hats cocked up behind, 
and ornamented by a large steel buckle. They all looked respectable and clean. They were paid in pro- 
portion to the success of the flock, and had thus a considerable interest in watching over its improve- 
ment. They received a ninth of the profits, but also contributed on extraordinary occasions ; such as 
buying oilcake for winter food, when it was necessary, and on buying new stock, a ninth of the expenses. 
The head shepherd had two ninths of the profits." 

601. Of the workmen on this farm, some were paid in proportion to their labour. The threshers, for 
example, were paid with the sixteenth part of what they threshed. Other labourers were hired by the 
day, and they received about sevenpence. In harvest-time they may make eightpence. Some are paid 
by the piece, and then receive at the rate of two shillings for cutting and binding an acre of corn. 

602. The farming of the cidtivators of free lands resembles that of England, and is 
best exemplified on the Elbe, in the neighbourhood of Hamburg. A distinguishing 
characteristic is, that the farm-houses are not collected in villages ; but each is built on 
the ground its owner cultivates. " This," Hodgson observes, " is a most reasonable 
plan, and marks a state of society which, in its early stages, was different from that of 
the rest of Germany, when all the vassals crowded round the castle of their lord. It is 
an emblem of security, and is of itself almost a proof of a different origin in the people, 
and of an origin the same as our own. So far as I am acquainted, this mode is fol- 
lowed only in Britain, and in Holland, on the sea-coast, from the Ems to the Elbe, to which 
Holstein may be added, and the vale of Arno in Italy. It is now followed in America ; 
and we may judge that this reasonable practice is the result of men thinking for them- 
selves, and following their individual interest." {Travels, \ol.i. p, 247.) We may 


add that it is also followed in great part of the mountainous regions of Norway, Sweden, 
and Switzerland. (See Clarke s Scandinavia and BakeweWs Tarentaise.) 

603. Many proprietors of free lands near Hamburg also farm them. Speaking of 
these farmers, Hodgson observes, " compared with the other farmers of Germany, they 
live in affluence and splendour. They eat meat three or four times a day, and instead of 
being clad in coarse woollen, which has been made by their wives, they wear fine English 
clothes, and look like gentleman. Their sons go for soldier officers, and their daughters 
are said to study the Journal des Modes. The proprietors ride into town to take their 
coffee and play at billiards, and hear and tell the news, and at home they drink their 
wine out of cut glass, or tea out of china. Their houses are all surrounded by lofty 
trees and handsomely laid-out gardens ; the floors are carpeted, and the windows of plate 
glass. The dwelling-apartments, the barns, and the places for the cattle, are all covered 
with one immense roof, and every house looks something like a palace surrounded with 
a little park. The proprietors direct the agriculture, without working a great deal them- 
selves, and resemble much in their hearty manners English farmers." 

604. In Friesland they use a swing -plough, known in England as the Dutch plough, 
the mediate origin of the Rotherham plough, and remotely of Small's Scotch plough. 
Even the cottagers who rent free lands are totally different from the bauers. Their cot- 
tages are white- washed ; and they have gardens neatly enclosed, planted with fruit trees, 
and carefully cultivated. Such is the influence of liberty and security. 

605. T/ie farming of the bauers, like that of the metayers, is prescribed by the lease, 
and consists of two crops of corn and a fallow. " Sometimes," Hodgson observes, " they 
may sow a little clover, lucerne, or spergel (spurry) ; but they seldom have meadows, 
and keep no more cattle than is necessary for their work, and those the common lands 
can feed : sheep are only kept where there are extensive heaths ; one or two long-legged 
swine are common ; and poultry. The large farmers sometimes plough with two oxen ; 
but the bauers, except in the sandy districts, invariably use horses. When they are very 
poor, and have no horses, they employ their cows. Two or more join their stock, and, 
with a team of four cows, they plough very well. Sometimes they work their land with 
the spade. The houses of the bauers in Hanover, as in most parts of Germany, are 
bviilt of whatever materials are most readily come at, put together in the coarsest 
manner. They are seldom either painted or white-washed, and are unaccompanied by 
either yards, rails, gates, gardens, or other enclosures. They seem to be so much 
employed in providing the mere necessaries of life, that they have no time to attend 
to its luxuries. A savage curiously carves the head of his war spear, or the handle 
of his hatchet, or he cuts his own face and head into pretty devices ; but no German 
bauer ever paints" his carts or his ploughs, or ornaments his agricultural implements." 
(Vol. i. 246.) 

606. To improve tlie agriculture of Hanover, Hodgson justly observes, " the simplest 
and most effecttial way would be for government to sell all the domains by auction 
in good-sized farms, as the Prussian government has done in its newly acquired 
dominions." This would end in introducing the Northumberland husbandry, to which, 
according both to Jacobs and Hodgson, the soil and climate are well adapted, and double 
the present produce would be produced. To these improvements we may suggest 
another, that of limiting the rank of noble to the eldest son, so that the rest might without 
disgrace engage in agriculture or commerce. This last improvement is equally wanted 
for the whole of Germany. 

SuBSECT. 5. Of the present State of Agriculture in Saxony. 

607. The husbandry and state of landed property in Saxony have so much in common with 
that of Hanover and Pnissia, that it will only be requisite to notice the few features in 
which they differ. 

608. The culture of the vine and the silkworm are carried on in Saxony, and the latter 
to some extent. The vine is chiefly cultivated in the margravate, or county, of Theissen, 
and entirely in the French manner. (414.) The mulberry is more generally planted, and 
chiefly to separate properties or fields, or to fill up odd corners, or along roads, as in the 
southern provinces of Prussia and Hanover, and in France. 

609. The wool of Saxony is reckoned the finest in Germany. There are three sorts, 
that from the native short-woolled Saxon sheep ; that from the produce of a cross 
between this breed and the Merino ; and that from the pure Merino. In 1819, Jacob 
inspected a flock of pure Merinos, which produced wool that he was told was surpassed 
by none in fineness, and the price it brought at market. It was the property of the lord 
of the soil, and managed by the amptman, or farmer of the manorial and other rights. 
Till the year 1813, it consisted of 1000 sheep ; but so many were consumed in that year, 
first by the French, and next by the Swedes, that they have not been able to replace them 
further than to 650. The land over which they range is extensive and dry ; not good 
enough to grow flax ; but a course of 1. fallow, 2. potatoes, 3. rye or barley, was followed. 


and the straw of the rye and barley, with the potatoes, constituted the winter food of the 
sheep. {Travels, p. 265.) 

610. The general rolalion of crops in Saxony, according to Jacob, is two corn crops, 
and a fallow, or two corn crops and pease. There are some exceptions ; and cabbages, 
turnips, and kohl-rabi are occasionally to be seen. The plough has two wheels, and is 
drawn by two oxen ; " and sometimes, notwithstanding the Mosaic prohibition, with a 
horse and a cow." There are some fine meadows on the borders of the brooks near the 
villages ; but they are in general much neglected, and for want of draining yield but 
coarse and rushy grass. The houses of the farmers are in villages, the largest for the 
amptman, and the next for the metayers and leibeigeners. " The whole tract of land, from 
Meissen to within two English miles of Leipsic, is a sandy loam, admirably calculated 
for our Norfolk four-course system, by which it would be enabled to maintain a great 
quantity of live-stock, and produce double or treble the quantity of corn it now yields. 
In the whole distance from Wurzen, about fifteen miles, I saw but three flocks of sheep ; 
two were small, the other, which I examined, consisting of about one thousand ewes, 
wedders, and tags, belonged to a count, whose name I did not ascertain. As he is lord 
of a considerable tract of country, the flock has the range of many thousand acres in the 
summer, and in the winter is fed with chopped straw and potatoes. Upon our system, which 
might be advantageously introduced, the same quantity of land would maintain ten times 
as many sheep, and still produce much more com than it does at present." {Ibid. 301.) 

611. The cows near the villages, between Meissen and Leipsic, were numerous compared with the sheep, 
but generally looked poor. " As I saw," continues Jacob, *' no hay or corn stacks in the whole distance, 
I had been puzzled to conceive in what manner their cows could be supported through the winter. Upon 
enquiring, I learnt a mode of keeping them, which was quite new to me, but which I cannot condemn. 
The land is favourable to the growth of cabbages, and abundant quantities are raised, and form a material 
article of human sustenance ; the surplus, which this year is considerable, is made into sour-krout, with 
a less portion of salt than is applied when it is prepared as food for man. This is found to be very good 
for cows, and favourable to the increase of their milk, when no green food, nor any thing but straw can 
be obtained. ' ' ( Travels, 303. ) 

612. The land within two miles of Leipsic is almost whoUy in garden-culture, and is vastly productive 
of every kind of culinary vegetable. The fruit trees and orchards, notwithstanding many of them showed 
vestiges of the war, surprised Jacob by their abundance. The inhabitants subsist much less on animal 
food than we do, but a larger quantity of fruit and vegetables is consumed ; and hence they have greater 
inducements to improve their quality, and to increase their quantity, than exist in those rural districts of 
Great Britain which are removed from the great towns. 

613. Jacob's opinion of the agriculture of Saxony is, that it is equal to that of Prussia. 
In one respect he thinks it superior, as no portion of the soil is wholly without some 
cultivation; but that cultivation is far below what the land requires, and the produce 
much less than the inhabitants must need for their subsistence. 

SuBSECT. 6. Ofthej^resent State of Agriculture in the Kingdom of Bavaria. 

614. Bavaria, till lately, was one of the most backward countries of Germany, in regard to 
every kind of improvement. A bigoted and ignorant priesthood, not content with possess- 
ing a valuable portion of the lands of the country, had insisted on the expulsion of the 
Protestants, and on the strict observance of the endless holidays and absurd usages which 
impede the progress of industry among their followers. " Hence a general habit of 
indolence and miserable backwardness in all arts, and especially in agriculture ; and in 
point of learning, a complete contrast to the north of Germany." During the electorate 
of Bavaria, one of its electors, contemporary with Joseph II. of Austria, desirous of 
introducing improvements, abolished monastic orders in some parts of his dominions ; but 
the people were not ripe for such a change, notwithstanding the existence of masonic 
societies, ignorantly supposed to have rendered them ripe for any sort of revolution. 

615. The agricultural improvement of Bavaria commenced at the time of the French 
revolution, when the church lands were seized by the government, and sold to the people, 
and a system of schools was established in every canton or parish, for the education of the 
lower classes. Soon- afterwards agriculture was taught in these schools by a catechism, 
in the same way as the Christian religion of Scotland is taught in the schools there. In 
consequence of this state of things the country is rapidly improving in every respect, and 
will soon be equal to any other in Germany. The names of Monteglas and Hazzi should 
not be passed over in this brief statement; nor that of Eichthal, who spent upwards of a year 
in Britain, and chiefly in Scotland, to study its agriculture, which he has introduced on 
his estate near Munich by a Scotch manager and a Scotch rent-paying farmer. 

616. The surface of Bavaria is mountainous towards the south ; the ground rising in 
the direction of the Alps, and containing a number of lakes and marshes. To the 
northward are extensive plains and also wooded mountains ; round Nuremberg is a tract 
of warm sandy soil, and along the Danube are occasional plains of fertile alluvion, partly 
in meadow and partly under com. 

617. The crops cultivated are the usual corns, legumes, and roots; and the produce 
of corn and turnips, under proper culture, is equal to what it is in the north of England, or 
in Haddingtonshire. In the dry warm sand around Nuremberg garden seeds are raised 


to such an extent as to supply the greater part of Germany and a part of France, and tliey 
are even sent to Holland and England. 

618. The forests of Bavaria are extensive; and, in consequence of a law of the state, 
all the public roads are bordered with rows of fruit trees, chiefly the cherry and the apple. 
These trees are raised in nurseries by the government, and sold at cost. 

SuBSECT. 7. Of the present State of Jtgriculture in the Empire of Austria. 

619. Agricidture is in a very backward state throughout the whole of the Austrian 
dominions. The soil, surface, and climate are almost every where favourable for hus- 
bandry ; but the political circumstances of the country, and the ignorance of its 
inhabitants, which is greater than in most other parts of Germany, have kept it in nearly 
a fixed state for several centuries. Various attempts have been made during the eighteenth 
century to improve the condition of the peasantry, and simplify the laws relating to 
landed property, especially by Joseph II. ; but they have produced no effect, chiefly, as 
it appears, because too much was attempted at once. There are agricultural societies at 
Vienna, Pesth, Prague, and other places ; and a very complete agricultural school has 
been established at Keszthely in Hungary, by the patriotic Graf Festetits. A copious 
account of it has been given by Dr. Bright {Travels in Hungary, in 1814, 341. et seq.), 
by which it appears much more extensive than those of Hofwyl or Moegelin. 

620. The landed property of Austria is under similar circumstances of division and 
occupation with that of the rest of Germany. Perhaps the number of large estates is 
greater in proportion to the small properties. In Hungary they are of immense extent, 
and cultivated aJmost entirely by their proprietors. " In considering a Hungarian pro- 
perty," Dr. Bright observes, " we must figure to ourselves a landed proprietor possessing 
ten, twenty, or forty estates, distributed in different parts of the kingdom, reckoning his 
acres by hundreds of thousands, and the peasants upon his estates by numbers almost as 
great ; and remember that all this extent of land is cultivated, not by farmers, but by his 
own stewards and officers, who have not only to take care of the agricultural management 
of the land, but to direct, to a certain extent, the administration of justice amongst the 
people : and we must further bear in mind, that perhaps one third of this extensive 
territory consists of the deepest forests, affording a retreat and shelter, not only to beasts 
of prey, but to many lawless and desperate characters, who often defy, for a great length 

. of time, the vigilance of the police. We shall then have some faint conception of the 
situation and duties of a Hungarian magnate." 

621. To conduct the business of such extensive domains, a system of officers is formed, 
which is governed by a court of directors ; and on w^ell regulated estates, this band of 
managers exhibit, in their operations, all the subordination of military, and the accuracy 
of mercantile, concerns. For this purpose an office is established at or near the estate 
on which the magnate resides, in which a court of directors is held at stated periods, 
usually once a week. This court consists of a president or plenipotentiary, a director 
or solicitor, a prefect, auditor, engineer or architect, a fiscal for law affairs, the keeper 
of the archives, besides a secretary, clerks, &c. Its business is to review all that has 
taken place on the different estates, whether of an economical or judicial nature, to 
examine accounts, and regulate future proceedings. The steward of each separate estate 
has also a weekly court. It consists of the fiscal or lawyer, the bailiff, the forest master, 
the engineer, the treasurer, foreman and sub-foreman, police oflScers to guard prisoners 
and keep them at work, forest-keeper, rangers, and a gaoler. The estates of Prince 
Esterhazy, which are the largest in Europe, of Graf Festetits, and Prince Ballhyani, are 
examples of this mode of government and culture ; of which it may be observed, that, like 
many German plans, it is very accurate and systematic, but very unproductive of profit. 

622. The crown has immense tracts of lands, especially in Gallicia ; and, independently 
of these, the personal estates of the reigning family amount to upwards of 100,000/. 
sterling a year, all of which are farmed by stewards. In the Moravian, Bohemian, and 
Austrian districts, however, where the estates are not so large as in Hungary, and the 
people in rather better circumstances as to property and knowledge, they are frequently 
farmed on the meyer system. 

623. The Austrian dominions, like the rest 
of Germany, are unenclosed, with the usual 
exceptions ; the farm-houses and cottages are 
usually built of wood, and thickly covered 
with thatch or with shingles. The cottages 
are remarkably uniform in Hungary, and vil- 
lage scenery there, according to Dr. Bright, 
must be the dullest in Europe. Not less so 
are their cultivated plains. Speaking of a plain near Presburg, he says, " The peasants 
were employed in ploughing the land, and my driver {fig. 67.) cheered the way by a 

Book I. 



Sclavonian song. But let no one be induced, by these expressions, to figure to his 
imagination a scene of rural delight. The plain is unenlivened by trees, unintersected 
by hedges, and thinly inhabited by human beings ; a waste of arable land, badly culti- 
vated, and yielding imperfect crops to proprietors, who are scarcely conscious of the extent 
of territory they possess. It is for some branch of the families of Esterhazy or Palfy, 
known to them only by name, that the Sclavonian peasants who inhabit these regions are 
employed. Their appearance bespeaks no fostering care from the superior, no independ- 
ent respect, yielded with free satisfaction from the inferior. It is easy to perceive that all 
stimulus to invention, all incitement to extraordinary exertion, are wanting. No one peasant 
has proceeded in the arts of life and civilisation a step farther than his neighbour. When 
you have seen one, you have seen all. From the same little hat, covered with oil, falls 
the same matted long black hair, negligently plaited, or tied in knots; and over the 
same dirty jacket and trowsers is wrapped on each a cloak of coarse woollen cloth, or 
sheep-skin still retaining its wool. Whether it be winter or summer, week-day or 
sabbath, the Sclavonian of this district never lays aside his cloak, nor is seen but in heavy 

624. Their instruments of agriculture (Jig. 68.) are throughout the same ; and in all 
their habitations is observed a perfect uniformity of design. A wide muddy road separates 

two rows of cottages, 
which constitute a vil- 
lage. From amongst 
them, there^ is no possi- 
bility of s^cting the best 
or tiie worst ; they are 
absolutely uniform. In 
some villages the cottages 
present their ends, in 
others their sides, to the 
road ; but there is sel- 
dom this variety in the 
same village. Tlie in- 
terior of the cottage is in 
general divided into three small rooms on the ground floor, and a little space in the roof 
destined for lumber. The roof is commonly covered with a very thick thatch ; the walls 
are whitev/ashed, and pierced towards the road by two small windows. The cottages 
are usually placed a few yards distant from each other. The intervening space, defended 
by a rail and gate, or a hedge of wicker-work towards the road, forms the farm-yard, 
which runs back some way, and contains a shed or outhouse for the cattle. Such is the 
outward appearance of the peasant and his habitation. The door opens in the side 
of the house into the middle room, or kitchen, in which is an oven, constructed of clay, 
well calculated for baking bread, and various implements for household purposes, which 
generally occupy this apartment fully. On each side of the room is a door, communicating 
on one hand with the family dormitory, in which are the two windows that look into the 
road. This chamber is usually small, but well arranged ; the beds in good order, piled 
upon each other, to be spread out on the floor at night ; and the walls covered with a 
multiplicity of pictures and images of our Saviour, together with dishes, plates, and vessels 
of coarse earthenware. The other door from the kitchen leads to the store-room, the 
repository of the greater part of the peasant's riches, consisting of bags of grain of various 
kinds, both for consumption and for seed, bladders of tallow, sausages, and other articles 
of provision, in quantities which it would astonish us to find in an English cottage. We 
must, however, keep in mind, that the harvest of the Hungarian peasant anticipates the 
income of the whole year ; and, from the circumstances in which he is placed, he should 
rather be compared with our farmer than our labourer. The yards or folds between the 
houses are usually much neglected, and are the dirty receptacles of a thousand uncleanly 
objects. Light carts and ploughs (Jig. 68. ), with which the owner performs his stated 
labour, his meagre cattle, a loose rudely formed heap of hay, and half a dozen 
ragged children, stand there in mixed confusion ; over which three or four noble dogs, 
of a peculiar breed, resembling in some degree the Newfoundland dog, keep faithful 
watch." (Trav. in Hung., 19.) 

625. The agricultural produce of Austria ismore varied than that of any other part of Ger- 
many. Excellent wheat is cultivated in Gallicia, where the soil is chiefly on limestone, and 
in the adjoining province of Buckowine ; and, from both, immense quantities are sent down 
the Vistula to Dantzic. Wheat, rye, and all the other corns, are grown alike in every 
district, and the quantity might be greatly increased if there were a suflScient demand. 
Maize is cultivated in Hungary and Transylvania ; millet in Hungary, Sclavonia, and 
Carinthia ; and rice in the marshy districts of Temeswar. Tobacco is extensively 
cultivated in Hungary, and excellent hops are produced in Moravia and Bohemia. It is 




Part I. 

estimated that about a sixtli part of the Austrian dominions is under tillage. The most 
common rotation is two com crops, and fallow or rest. 

626. The Austrian province of Moravia is very fertile ; and, with the exception of some 
districts of the Netherlands, scarcely any part of the Continent is so well cultivated. 
It bears too, a larger proportion of wheat than any other district in the east of Europe. 
Of the winter corn, wheat is estimated at one fourth, and rye at three fourths ; whereas, 
in the adjoining province of Silesia, the land sown with rye is nearly ten times that sown 
with wheat. Moravia is defended by the Carpathian mountains from the east winds ; 
and the harvest, the whole way from Teschen to Olmutz, and indeed to Brunn, is nearly 
six weeks earlier than in Silesia. This better state of things arose from the circumstance 
of Moravian agriculture finding domestic consumers. It is the chief manufacturing 
province of the Austrian empire. A greater proportion of the population can afford to 
live on meat, and to use wheaten flour ; and hence the agriculturists find a market near 
home for their productions. The demand for animal food, too, being greater, a greater 
stock of cattle is kept, and more of the land is destined to clover and other green crops ; 
and it may thence be inferred, that the growth of corn does not exhaust the land, so much 
as the cattle, by their manure, renew its prolific qualities. (Jacob on the Trade in Com, 
and on the Agriculture of northern Europe. ) 

627. The vine is cultivated to the greatest extent in Hungary. The well known 
Tokay is raised on the last chain of the Carpathian hills, in the neighbourhood of the 
town of Tokay. The district extends over a space of about twenty English miles. 
** Throughout the whole of this country it is the custom to collect the grapes which 
have become dry and sweet, like raisins, whilst hanging on the trees. Tliey are 
gathered one by one ; and it is from them alone that the prime Tokay, or, as it is termed, 
Tokay Ausbruch, is prepared, which, in 1807, sold for 100 florins the cask of 180 
halbes on the spot. They are first put together in a cask, in the bottom of which holes 
are bored to let that portion of the juice escape which will run from them without any 
pressure. This, which is called Tokay essence, is generally in very small quantity, and 
very highly prized. The grapes are then put into a vat, and trampled witli the bare 
feet, no greater pressure being permitted. To the squeezed mass is next added an 
equal quantity of good wine, which is allowed to stand for twenty-four liours, and 
is then strained. This juice, without further preparation, becomes the far-famed wine of 
Tokay, which is difficult to be obtained, and sells in Vienna at the rate of 12/. sterling 
per dozen. The greater part of these vineyards is the property of tlie emperor ; 
several, however, are in the hands of nobles." (Biighfs Travels.) 

628. Another species of Hungarian wine, called M^neser, is said to equal Tokay; next 
to that in value come riie wines of (Edenburg, Rusth, St. Gyorgy, and Ofen, followed 
by a great variety, whose names are as various as the hills which produce them. The grape 
which is preferred for making the Tokay and other Hungarian wines of that character, is 
a small black or blue grape, figured and described by Sickler in his Garten Magazin of 
1 804, as the Hungarian Blue. 

629. Plums are cultivated, or rather planted and left to themselves ; and an excellent 
brandy is distilled from the fermented fruit. 

630. The culture of silk is in the least flourishing state in Hungary ; but succeeds well 
in Austria and Moravia ; that of cotton was tried, but left off chiefly on account of the 
unfavourableness of the autumns for ripening the capsules. The mountain rice (Oryza 
miitica), from the north of China, was cultivated with success, but neglected during the 
late wars. " The greatest advantages which it 
promised arose from the situations in which it 
would flourish, and the fact of its not requiring 
marshy lands, which are so destructive to the 
health of those who are engaged in the cultiva- 
tion of common rice." The Rhds Cotinus is 
extensively collected from the wastes, and used 
as a tanning plant, especially in the preparation 
of morocco leather. Woad is cultivated as a 
substitute for indigo ; the Cyperus escul^ntus 
(fig. 69. a), and the Astragalus boe'ticus (6), 
as substitutes for coffee ; the seeds of the latter, 
and the tubers of the former, being the parts 
used. The ^cer camp^stre, ^jlatanoides, and 
Pseudo-pUtanus have been tapped for sugar, 
and the A. saccharinum extensively cultivated 
for the same purpose, but without any useful 
result: it was found cheaper to make sugar 
from the grape. The culture of coffecj olives, 
indigo, and other exotics, has been tried, bx?t failed. 

Book I. 



631 The rxaiing and care of bees were much attended to during the latter part of 
the eighteenth century ; wath a view to which a public school was opened at Vienna, and 
some in the provinces ; and great encouragement was given to such as kept hives. Some 
proprietors in Hungary possessed 300 stock hives. It is customary there to transport 
them from place to place, preferring sites where buckwheat or the lime tree abounds. The 
honey, when procured, is greatly increased in value by exposure to the open air for some 
weeks during winter ; it then becomes hard and as white as snow, and is sold to the ma- 
nufacturers of liquors at a high price. The noted Italian liqueur, rosoglio, made also in 
Dantzic, is nothing more than this honey blanched by exposure to the frost, mixed A\'ith a 
spirituous liquor : though the honey used is said to be that of the lime tree, which is 
produced only in the forests of that tree near Kowno on the Niemen, and sells at more 
than three times the price of common honey. 

632. The live stock of Austria consists of sheep, cattle, horses, pigs, and poultry. 
Considerable attention has lately been paid to the breeding of sheep, and the Merino 

breed has been introduced 
on the government estates 
and those of the great pro- 
prietors. 'Die original Hun- 
garian sheep (O'vis strepsi- 
ceros) (fg. 70. )bears upright 
spiral horns, and is covered 
with a very coarse wool. 
" Improvement on this stock 
by crosses," Dr. Bright in- 
forms us, " is become so 
general, that a flock of the 
native race is seldom to be 
met with, except on the 
estates of rehgious establish- 
ments." Baron Giesler has 
long cultivated the Merino 
breed in Moravia. In Hun- 
gary, Graf Hunyadi has 
paid great and successful attention to them for upwards of twenty y'fears His flock, 
when Dr. Bright saw it in 1814, amounted to 17,000, not one of which whose family he 
could not trace back for several generations by reference to his registers. 

633. The hor?ied cattle (f the Austrian dominions are of various breeds, chiefly Danish 
and Svriss. The native Hungarian breed are of a dirty white colour, large, vigorous, 
and active, with horns of a prodigious length. The cow is deficient in milk ; but where 
dairies are established, as in some parts near Vienna, the Swiss breed is adopted. 

634. The Hungarian horses have long been celebrated, and considerable attempts 
made from time to time to improve them by crosses with Arabian, English, and Spanish 
breeds ; and, lately, races have been established for this purpose. The imperial breeding 
shed, or huras, of Mezohegyes, established in 1783, upon four commons, is the most 
extensive thing of the kind in Europe. It extends over nearly 50,000 acres ; employs 
500 persons; and contains nearly 1000 breeding mares of Bessarabian, Moldavian, 
Spanish, or English extraction. 

635. The breed of swine in some parts of Hungary is excellent. 

636. Poultry are extensively reared near Vienna, and also frogs and snails. Townson 
has described at length the method of treating these, and of feeding geese for their livers. 
{^Travels in Hungary in 1796.) 

637. The land tortoise likewise occurs in 
great numbers in various parts of Hungary, 
more particularly about Fuzes- Gyarmath, 
and the marshes of the river Theiss ; and, 
being deemed a delicacy for the table, is 
caught and kept in preserves. The preserve 
of Kesztheley encloses about an acre of land, 
intersected by trenches and ponds, in which 
the animals feed and enjoy themselves. In 
one corner was a space separated from the 
rest by boards two feet high, forming a pen 
for snails. The upper edge of the boards was 
spiked with nails an inch in height, and at 
intervals of half an inch, over which these 
animals never attempt to make their way. 
This snail (H^lix pomatia) {fg. 71. a) is in 



great demand in Vienna, where sacks of tbem are regularly exposed to sale in the market, 
alternating with sacks of beans, lentils, kidneybeans, and truffles. {Jig. 71. b.) 

638. IVie implements and operations of the agriculture of Austria differ little from those 
of Saxony. Dr. Bright has given figures of the Hungarian plough and cart {fig. 68.), 
and blames the mode of depositing the corn in holes in the ground, lined with straw, by 
which it acquires a strong mouldy smell. Vineyards are carefully dug and hoed, and 
the shoots of the vines, in places where the winter is severe, laid down and covered with 
earth to protect them from the frost. Many of the great proprietors are introducing the 
most improved British implements on their estates, and some have taken ploughmen from 
this country to instruct the natives in their use. Prince Esterhazy has Engli;;h gardeners, 
bailiffs, grooms, and other servants. 

6.39. The forests of the Austrian dominions are chiefly in Hungary, and on the 
borders of Gallicia, on the Carpathian mountains. They contain all the varieties of needle 
or pine-leaved, and broad-leaved trees, which are indigenous north of the Rhine. The 
oaks of Hungary are perhaps the finest in Europe. The forest of Belevar on the 
Drave was visited by Dr. Bright. It consists chiefly of different species of oak, the 
most luxuriant he ever beheld. Thousands measured, at several feet above the root, 
niore than seven feet in diameter ; continue almost of the same size, without throwing out 
a branch, to the height of thirty, forty, and fifty feet, and are still in the most flourishing 
and healthy condition. Timber there is of little value, except for the buildings 
wanted on an estate, or for hoops and wine barrels. In some cases the bark is not even 
taken from oak trees ; but in others the leaf galls, and the knoppern, or smaller galls, 
which grow on the calyx of the acorn, are collected and exported for the use of tanners. 

640. The improvement of the agriculture of Austria seems anxiously desired both by 
the government and the great proprietors. Various legislative measures are accordingly 
adopted from time to time, societies formed^ and premiums offered. These will no 
doubt have a certain quantum of effect ; but the radical wants, in our opinion, are inform- 
ation and taste for comfortable living among the lower classes ; and these can only be 
remedied by the general diffusion of village schools ; and by establishing easy rates, 
at which every peasant might purchase his personal liberty, or freedom from the whole or 
a certain part of the services he is now bound to render his lord. 

Sect. VI. Of the present State of Agriculture in the kingdom of Poland. 

641. Poland was formerly called the granary of Europe: but this was when its 
boundaries extended from the Baltic to the Black Sea ; and when the Ukraine and 
Lithuania were included. At present its limits are so circumscribed, and its arable 
surface so indifferently cultivated, or naturally so infertile, that the kingdom of Poland 
strictly speaking, or what is called Vice regal Poland, furnishes little more corn than 
supplies its own population. The immense supplies of wheat sent to Dantzic are chiefly 
from the republic of Cracow, the province both of the kingdom and republic of Gallicia, 
united to Austria, and from Volhynia and Podolia, now belonging to Russia. 

642. The landed estates are almost every where large, and either belong to the crown, 
to the nobles, or to religious corporations. One third of the surface of Vice-regal Poland 
belongs to the crown. Estates are farmed by the proprietors, by means of stewai-ds ; or 
let out in small portions on the metayer or leibeigener tenure. Tliere are scarcely any 
rent-paying farmers. Tlie nobles have generally houses on their estates, which they 
occupy, at least, part of the year ; at other periods they are taken care of by the stewards, who 
are always admitted at the table of their lords, being themselves what is called of noble de- 
scent. The estates of religious houses are of great extent : they are sometimes let to nobles 
or others on a corn rent, who generally sublet them ; and in a few cases they are farmed 
by the corporation. The postmasters on the different main roads invariably rent a con- 
siderable portion of land for the support of their horses. Many of these are metayers, but 
some pay a money rent ; and there are one or two instances of nobles farming the post. 

643. The houses and offices qf these noble postmasters {Jig. 72.) afford the only distant resemblance to a 
British farm-yard, that is to be met with m Poland. The farm-house and farmery of the peasant post- 


master are both included in an immense shed or barn, with a small apartment at one end for the master's 
dwelling ; the remaining space divided for live stock and implements of every description, and for the 
cattle, carriages, and lodging-place of travellers who may stop during night. Most of these places are 
sufficiently wretched as inns ; but in the present state of things they answer very well for the other pur- 
poses to which they are applied, and are superior to the hovels of the farmers who are not postmasters 
and who are clustered together in villages, or in the outskirts of towns. Some villages, however, in the 
south of Poland are almost entirely composed of Jews. There the houses are generally of a superior con- 
struction {fig. 73.), but still on the same general plan of a living-room at one end of a large barn, the 

main area of which serves for all the purposes of a complete farmery. The buildings in Poland, except 
those of the principal towns, are constructed of timber and covered with shingles. The sheds and 
other agricultural buildings are boarded on the sides ; but the cottages arc formed of logs joined by mosS 
or clay, of frames filled up with wickerwork and clay, or in modes and of materials still more rude. The 
commonest kind have no chimneys or glass windows. 

644. The climate of Poland, though severe, is much less precarious than that of the 
south of Germany or of France. A winter of from five to seven months, during the 
greater part of which time the soil is covered with snow, is succeeded by a rapid spring 
and warm summer ; and these are followed by a short cold wet autumn. Under such a 
climate good meadows and pastures cannot be expected ; but arable culture is singularly 
easy on free soils, which the frost has rendered at once clear from most sorts of weeds and 
soft and mouldy on the surface. 

645. The surface of the vice-regal kingdom of Poland is almost eveiy where level, 
with scarcely an ascent or descent, except where the courses of tlie rivers have 
formed channels below the general level of the country. As these rivers, though 
in summer they appear small streams, are swollen by the rains of autumn, and the 
melting of the snow on the Carpathian mountains in tiie spring, they form large chan- 
nels, extending over both sides to a great distance ; and their deposit, in many parts, 
enriches the land, which presents, in the summer, tihe aspect of verdant and luxuriant 
meadows. In other parts the periodical swellings of the streams have formed morasses, 
which, in their present state, are not applicable to any agricultural purposes. The plains, 
which extend from the borders of one river to another, are open fields with scarcely any 
perceptible division of the land, and showing scarcely any trees even around the villages. 
The portion of woodland on these plains is very extensive ; but they are in large masses, 
with great intervals of arable land between them, {Jacobus Report on the Trade in Corn, 
and on the Agriculture of Northern Eurojte, 1826, p. 25.) 

646. The soil of Vice-regal Poland is mostly sandy, with an occasional mixture of a sandy 
loam ; it is very thin, resting chiefly on a bed of granite, through which the heavy rains 
gradually percolate. Such a soil is easily ploughed ; sometimes two horses or two 
oxen, and not unfrequently two cows, perform this and the other operations of husbandry. 

647. The southern part of the ancient kingdom of Poland, now forming the republic 
of Cracow, presents a comparatively varied surface, and a more tenacious and fruitful 
soil, which produces excellent wheat, oats, and clover. The best wheat of the Dantzic 
market comes from this district. 

648. The province of Gallicia, a part of the ancient kingdom of Poland, but now 
added to the dominions of the Austrian empire, in surface, soil, and products, resembles 
the republic of Cracow. 

649. The landed estates of Vice-regal Poland and the republic, belonging to the nobility 
of the highest rank, are of enormous extent : but, owing to the system of dividing the 
land among all the children, unless a special entail secures a majorat to the eldest son 
(which is, in some few instances, the case), much of it is possessed in allotments, which we 
should deem large ; but which, on account of their low value, and when compared with 
those of a few others, are not so. Of these secondary classes of estates, 5 or 6,000 acres 
would be deemed small, and 30 or 40,000 acres large. There are, besides these, nume- 
rous small properties, some of a few acres, which, by frequent subdivisions, have descended 
to younger branches of noble families. The present owners are commonly poor, but too 
proud to follow any profession but that of a soldier, and prefer to labour in the fields 
with their own hands, rather than to engage in trade of any kind. As titles descended 
to every son, and are continued through all the successors, the nobility have naturally 

H 3 



Part I. 

become very numerous ; but since the Emperor of Russia has gained the dominion over 
Poland, the use of titles has been restricted. The whole of the lands being made alien- 
able may now be purchased by persons of any rank, and ai'e actually held by some who 
are burghers or peasants j the Jews alone are prohibited from becoming proprietors of the 
soil, though they have very numerous mortgages upon it. "When they foreclose, the 
lands must consequently be sold ; and as these Jews, the monied capitalists, cannot 
become purchasers, the prices they yield are very trifling. (/6irf. ) 

650. The cultivators are chiefly peasa7its. They have a limited property in the lands 
which they occupy, and the cottages in which tliey live, under the condition of working a 
stipulated number of days in each week, on their lord's demesne, and paying specified 
quantities of produce, such as poultry, eggs, yarn, and other tilings, in conformity with 
ancient usage. The extent of these holdings varies, according to the quality of the land, 
and the quantity of duty-work, or of payments in kind, which are to be fulfilled. The 
peasantry of Poland were declared free in 1791, and this privilege was confirmed to 
them in 1815 ; and though their ignorance and poverty have hitherto prevented the prac- 
tical effects of liberty from being very obvious among them, yet they are so far elevated 
in sentiment, at least, as to feel their superiority to the peasantry of Russia. (^Ibid.) 

651. The arable culture of Poland is abundantly simple : the course of crops is, in 
most places, 1st, wheat, barley, or rye ; 2d, oats ; 3d, fallow, or several years' rest to 
commence with fallow. In a very few places clover is sown, and also beans or peas, 
but only in small quantities. The Digitaria sanguinalis is sown as a plant of luxury in 
a few places, and the seeds used as rice ; the buckwheat is also sown, and the seeds 
ground and used as meal. Almost every farmer sows linseed or hemp, to the extent 
required for home use, and some for sale. Rye is the bread corn of the country. 
Potatoes are now becoming general, and succeed well. The mangold, or white beet, 
was cultivated in many places in 1811 and 1812, by order of Bonaparte, in order that 
the natives might grow their own sugar ; but that is now left off, and the peasants have 
not even learned its value as a garden plant, producing chard and spinach. Turnips 
or cabbages are rarely seen even in gardens ; few of the cottagers, indeed, have any 
garden ; those who have, cultivate chiefly potatoes, and kohl riibe. Many species of 
mushrooms grow wild in the woods and wastes, and most of these are carefully ga- 
thered, and cooked in a variety of ways as in Russia. The wastes or common pastures 
are left entirely to nature. There are some tracts of indifferent meadow on the Vistula, 
at Warsaw, Thorn, and Cracovie, and some on the tributary streams, which afford a 
tolerable hay in summer, and would be greatly improved by draining. 

652. The implements and operations are incredibly rude. We have seen lands ploughed 
(after their manner) by one cow, tied by the horns to the trunk of a young fir tree, one 
of the roots sharpened and acting as a share, and the other serving the ploughman as a 
handle. In other instances we have seen 
a pair of oxen dragging a wretched imple- 
ment (Jig. 74. ) formed by the peasant, who 
is in all cases his own plough and wheel 
wright, as well as house carpenter and 
builder. Their best or usual plough has 
no mould-board ; and the crop is in many 
cases more indebted to the excellence of the 
soil, and the preceding winter's frost, than 
to the farmer. Horses are their general beasts of labour ; their harness is very rude, 
often of straw ropes, and twisted willow shoots.^ The body of their best market carts, 

in which even the lesser nobles visit each 
other, are of wicker-work (Jtg, 75.), and 
the axle and wheels are made without any 

653. The live stock of Poland is very 
small in proportion to the land. Poultry 
are abundant, and swine ; but the latter 
of the yellow long-legged breed. The 
horses are very hardy animals, and of 
better shapes than might be expected from their treatment. The best-shaped are in the 
province of Lublin, but they are far inferior to the breed of Saxony. The cows are 
a small race, and generally kept in bad condition both as to food and cleanliness. 
Warsaw and Cracow are supplied with beef and veal, chiefly from the Ukraine. Mutton 
is little used. 

654. The extensive forests of Poland are little attended to, except on the banks of 
the principal rivers, and where oak abounds, from which bark and wheel spokes may be 


procured. Tliese are cut over regularly at intervals, and standaids left in the usual 
way. The wild or Scotch pine forests are the most extensive ; these perpetuate them- 
selves by semination ; and the trees are often so crowded as to be of little use but an 
fuel. The chief proprietors of these forests are the crown and the religious corporations, 
who, whenever they can find purchasers, are glad to let them thin out the best trees at a 
certain rate, and float them, down the neareststream, to the Vistula, Pregel, or Nieraen. 
A good deal has been said about the importance of felling timber at particular seasons. 
In Poland, the operation generally takes place in summer, but not, as far as we could 
learn, from any regard to the effect on the timber. The trees are often notched half 
through a year or two before, in order to obtain rosin. The other products of forests, 
as fuel, charcoal, ashes, hoops, poles, &c., are obtained in the usual manner. Game is 
abundant in them ; and bears, polecats, &c., are to be seen in some places. The- woods 
belonging to the crown consist of upwards of two millions of acres, and are felled in 
portions annually, so as to cut them every fifty years. 

655. The ma?iagement of bees is a material article in the forest culture of Poland. 
The honey is divided into three classes, namely lipiec, leszny, and stepowey prasznymird, 
thus described by How. (Gen. Rq). Scot, app.) 

656. Lipiec is gathered by the bees from the lime tree alone, and is considered on the Continent most 
valuable, not only for the superiority of its flavour, but also for the estimation in which it is held as an 
arcanum in pulmonary complaints, containing very little wax, and being, consequently, less heating in its 
nature ; it is as white as milk, and is only to be met with in the lime forests in the neighbourhood of the 
town of Kowno, in Lithuania. The great demand for this honey occasions it to bear a high price, inso- 
much, that a small barrel, containing hardly one pound's weight, has been known to sell for two ducats on 
the spot. This species of the lime .tree is peculiar to the province of Lithuania ; and is quite different 
from all the rest of the genus TKlia, and is called Kamienna lipsUy or stone lime. The inhabitants have no 
regular bee-hives about Kowno ; every peasant who is desirous of rearing bees, goes into the forest and 
district belonging to his master, without even his leave, makes a longitudinal hollow aperture or apertures 
in the trunk of a tree, or in the collateral branches, about three feet in length, one foot broad, and about 
a foot deep, where he deposits his bees, leaves them some food, but pays very little further attention to 
them, until late in the autumn ; when, after cutting out some of their honey, and leaving some for their 
maintenance, he secures the aperture properly with clay and straw against the frost and inclemency of 
the approaching season : these tenements (if they may be so called), with their inhabitants and the pro- 
duce of their labour, are then become his indisputable property ; he may sell them, transfer them ; in 
short, he may do whatever he pleases with them ; and never is it heard that any depredation is com. 
mitted on them (those of the bear excepted). In Poland, the laws are particularly severe against robbers 
or destroyers of this property, punishing the offender, when detected, by cutting out the navel and 
drawing out his intestines round and round the very tree which he has robbed. 

657. When spring arrives, the proprietor goes again to the forest, examines the bees, and ascertains 
whether there is sufficient food left, till they are able to maintain themselves ; should there not be a 
sufficient quantity, he deposits with them as much as he judges necessary till the spring blossom appears. 
If he observes that his stock has not decreased by mortality, he makes more of these apertures in the 
collateral branches, or in the trunk of the tree, that in case the bees should swarm in his absence, they 
may have a ready asylum. In the autumn he visits them again, carries the June and July work away 
with him, which is the lipiec, and leaves only that part for their food which was gathered by them before 
the commencement and after the decay of the flowering of the lime tree. 

658. The lesxny, the next class of honey, which is inferior in a great degree to the lipiec, being only for 
the common mead, is that of the pine forests ; the inhabitants of which make apertures in the pine trees, 
similar to those near Kowno, and pay the same attention, in regard to the security of the bees, and their 
maintenance. The wax is also much inferior in quality ; it requires more trouble in the bleaching, and 
is only made use of in the churches. 

659. The third class of honey is the stepowey prasxnymird, or the honey fVom meadows or places where 
there is an abundance of perennial plants, and hardly any wood. The province of Ukraine produces the 
very best, and also the very best wax. In that province the peasants pay particular attention to this 
branch of economy, as it is the only resource they have to enable them to defray the taxes levied by 
Russia ; and they consider the produce of bees equal to ready money ; wheat, and other species of corn, 
being so very fluctuating in price, some years it being of so little value that it is not worth the peasant's 
trouble to gather it in (this has happened in the Ukraine, four times in twelve years) : but honey and 
wax having always a great demand all over Europe, and even Turkey, some of the peasants have from 
four to five hundred ule, or logs of wood in their bee-gardens, which are called pasieka, or bee-hives ; 
these logs are about six feet high, commonly of birch wood (the bees prefer the birch to any other wood), 
hollowed out in the middle for about five feet ; several lamina of thin boards are nailed before the 
aperture, and but a small hole left in the middle of one of them for the entrance of the bees. As the 
bees are often capricious at the beginning of their work, frequently commencing it at the front rather 
than the back, the peasants cover the aperture with a number of these thin boards, instead of one entire 
board, for fear of zlisturbing them, should they have begun their work at the front. It may appear 
extraordinary, but it is nevertheless true, that in some favourable seasons, this aperture of five feet in 
length, and a foot wide, is full before August ; and the peasants are obliged to take the produce long 
before the usual time, with the view of giving room to the bees to continue their work, so favourable is 
the harvest some summers. 

660. The process of brewing mead in Poland is very simple : the proportion is three parts of water to 
one of honey, and 50 lb. of mild hops to 163 gallons, which is called a waar, or a brewing. When the 
water is boiling, both the honey and hops are thrown into it, and it is kept stirring until it becomes milk- 
warm ; it is then put into a large cask, and allowed to ferment for a few days ; it is then drawn off into 
another cask, wherein there has been aqua-vitas, or whisky, bunged quite close, and afterwards taken to 
the cellars, which in this country are excellent and cool. This mead becomes good in three years' time ; 
and, by keeping, it improves, like many sorts of wine. The mead for immediate drink is made from malt, 
hops, and honey, in the same proportion, and undergoes a similar process. In Hungary, it is usual to put 
ginger in mead. There are other sorts of mead in Poland, as wisniak, dereniak, maliniak ; they are made 
of honey, wild cherries, berries of the Cornus mascula, and raspberries ; they all undergo the same 
process, and are most excellent and wholesome after a few years' keeping. The lipiec is made in the same 
way, but it contains the honey and pure water only. The honey gathered by the bees from the Azalea 
ptjntica, at Oczakow, and in Potesia in Poland, is of an intoxicating nature ; it produces nausea, and is 
used only for medical purposes, chiefly in rheumatism, scrophula, and eruption of the skin, in which com- 
plaints it has been attended with great success. In a disease among the hogs called weugry (a sort of 
plague among these animals) a decoction of the leaves and buds of Azalea is given with the greatest 

U 4 


effect, and produces alaiost instantaneous relief. The disease attacks the hogs with a swelling of their 
throat, and terminates in large hard knots, not unlike the plague, on which the decoction acts as a 
digestive, abates the fever directly in the first stage, and suppurates the knots. It is used in Turkey, with 
the same view, in the cure of the plague. 

661. Such is the preseiit slate of agriculture in Poland, as it appeared to us during a 
residence of four months in Warsaw and its neighbourhood in 1813, and the details in 
Mr. Jacob's Report of 1826 (p. 25. to 37.) afford us but little reason for altering our 
opinion. But it must always be recollected, that the above view does not include either 
Lithuania or Gallicia, the agriculture of which districts is of a much superior description. 
Since the middle of the 18th century some of the principal Polish nobles have occa- 
sionally made efforts for the improvement of the agricultifre of their country ; but they 
have not been designed and directed in the best manner, and what is much worse, 
not steadily pursued. Splendid wooden houses and villages have been built, and foreign 
farmers induced to settle and cultivate the lands. In the first heat of the business, all 
went on well ; but the proprietors soon began to cool, to neglect their new tenants, and 
leave them to the mercy of their stewards, who, in Italy and Poland, are known to be 
the most corrupt set of men that can be met with. The oppression of these stewards, 
and the total disregard of their masters to their promises and agreements made to and 
with these strangers, have either forced the latter to return home, or reduced them to the 
necessity of becoming servants in the towns, or in Germany j and we know of instances 
where it has ruined men of some property. Tliere are one or two exceptions ; but we 
could produce names and dates in proof of the general truth of what we have asserted. 
The failure of a dairy establishment, and of a brewery, both established before the com- 
mencement of the French revolution, is attributable to this sort of conduct in the 

662. The efforts to introduce a better culture into Poland, since the peace o/'I8i4, have 
been more general, and conducted on more moderate and rational principles. British 
implements have been imported in considerable numbers, and an iron-foundery and 
manufactory of machinery of most kinds and agricultural implements is now established 
in Warsaw. Improved breeds of cattle and sheep have been procured from Prussia and 
Saxony ; scientific managers are obtained from the German agricultural schools ; and 
what will contribute essentially to improvement, encouragement is given to foreigners to 
settle, by letting or selling the crown lands at moderate rates, and not only free from all 
feudal services for ever, but for a certain period exempted from government taxes. Add 
to this, that the leibeigeners and metayers of every description may buy up the services which 
they now render their lords, at very easy rates established by law ; and thus, according 
to their ambition and means, render themselves partially or wholly independent men. 
In short, the most judicious measures have been taken, by the new government of 
Poland, for the improvement of the country ; and they have been followed up with con- 
siderable vigour by the proprietors. These proprietors are now a different and very 
superior class of men to what they were fifty or sixty years ago. They have mostly 
been officers in the French army, and with it traversed the greater part of Europe ; 
better educated than many of the French, and more engaging in their manners than the 
Germans, they may be considered among the first gentlemen of the Continent. The 
Polish peasantry are naturally a much more lively and ingenious race than those of 
Russia, and since they have been rendered free, they have learned to feel their superiority, 
and they will gradually participate in the improvement of their masters. 

Sect. VII. Of the prexent State of Agriculture in Russia. 

663. The rural economy of the Russian empire was first described by Professor Pallas 
in his travels to explore that countiy, made by order of the Empress Catherine. It has 
also been incidentally noticed by various travellers, as Tooke, Coxe, Clarke, and several 
French and German authors. From these and other works, and a personal residence 
which occupied nearly a year in 1813 and 1814, we shall present a very concise state- 
ment of the agricultural circumstances of that semibarbarous country. 

664. The territory of Russia which may be subjected to aration commences at the 
43° and ends at the 65^^ of north latitude. Farther north, the summers are too short for 
ripening even barley, and the climate too severe for the growth of pasture or trees. It 
is a black waste, productive of little more than lichens, and supporting a few reindeer. 
The southern extremity of Asiatic Russia, on the other hand, admits the culture of Italy, 
and even the southern parts in Europe, that of the maize district of France. 

665. The climate of Russia has been divided into four regions, the very cold, cold, 
temperate, and hot. The very cold extends from 60° to 78° of N. latitude, and includes 
Archangel. In many of its districts there is scarcely any summer ; the spring has in 
general much frost, snow, and rain ; and the winter is always severe. In this region 
there is no agriculture. 

666. The cold climate extends from 55^ to 60° N. latitude and includes Cazan Mos- 


cow, Petersburg, and Riga ; the summer is short, yet in many districts so warm and 
the days so long, that agricultural crops usually come to perfect maturity in a much 
shorter space of time than elsewhere. The winters are long and severe, even in the 
southern parts of the region. The ground round Moscow is generally covered with snow 
for six months in the year, and we have seen it covered to the depth of several inches in 
the first week of June. 

667. The moderate region extends from 50° to 55° and includes Kioff, Saratoff, Wilna, 
and Smolensko. The Siberian part of this region being very mountainous, the winters 
are long and cold ; but in the European part the winter is short and tolerably temperate, 
and the summer warm and agreeable. The snow, however, generally lies from one to 
three months, even at Kioff and Saratoff. 

668. The hot region reaches from 43° to 50°, and includes the Taurida, Odessa, 
Astracan, and the greater part of Caucasus and the district of Kioff. Here the winter 
is short and the summer wann, hot, and very dry. The atmosphere in all the different 
climates is in general salubrious, both during the intense colds of the north, and the 
excessive heats of the southerly regions. The most remarkable circumstance is the 
shortness of the seasons of spring and autumn, even in the southern regions ; while in 
the very cold and cold regions they can be hardly said to exist. About Moscow the ter- 
mination of winter and the commencement of summer generally take place about the 
end of April. There the rivers, covered a yard in thickness w^ith ice, break up at once 
and overflow their banks to a great extent ; in a fortnight the snow has flisappeared, the 
rotten-like blocks of ice dissolved, and the rivers are confined to their limits. A crackling 
from the bursting of buds is heard in the birch forests ; in two days afterwards, they are 
in leaf; corn which was sown as soon as the lands were sufficiently dry to plough is now 
sprung up, and wheat and rye luxuriant. Reaping commences in the government of 
Moscow in September, and is finished by the middle of October. Heavy rains and sleet 
then come on, and by the beginning of November the ground is covered with snow, which 
accumulates generally to two or three feet in thickness before the middle of January, and 
remains with little addition till it dissolves in the following April and May. The climate 
of Russia, therefore, though severe, is not so uncertain as that of some other countries. 
From the middle of November till April it scarcely ever snows or rains; and if the cold 
is severe, it is dry, enlivening, and at least foreseen and provided for. Its greatest evils 
are violent summer rains, boisterous winds, and continued autumnal fogs. Late frosts 
are more injurious than long droughts ; though there are instances of such hot and dry 
summers, tliat fields of standing corn and forests take fire and fill whole provinces with 
smoke. ( Tooke's View of the Russian Empire. ) 

669. The surface of Russia is almost every where flat, like that of Poland, with the 
exception of certain ridges of mountains which separate Siberia from the other provinces, 
and which also occur in Siberian Russia. In travelling from Riga, Petersburg, Wilna, 
or Brody, to Odessa, the traveller scarcely meets with an inequality sufficiently great to 
be termed a hill ; but he will meet with a greater proportion of forests, steppes or immense 
plains of pasture, sandy wastes, marshy surfaces, and gulleys or temporary water-courses, 
than in any other country of Europe. 

670. IVie soil of Russia is almost every where a soft black mould of great depth, and 
generally on a sandy bottom. In some places it inclines to sand or gravel ; in many it 
is peaty or boggy from not being drained : but only in Livonia and some parts of Lithu- 
ania was it inclined to clay, and no where to chalk. The most fertile provinces are 
those of Vladimir and Riazane, east of Moscow, and the whole country of the Ukraine on 
the Black Sea, and of the Cossacks on the Don. In Vladimir thirty-fold is often pro- 
duced, and still more in Riazane. In many parts of the Ukraine no manure is used ; 
the straw is burned ; successive crops of wheat are taken from the same soil, and after a 
single ploughing each time, the stalks of which are so tall and thick that they resemble 
reeds, and the leaves are like those of Indian corn. 

671. Landed properti/ in Russia is alipost everywhere in large tracts, and is either 
the property of the emperor, the religious or civil corporations, or the nobles. There 
are a few free natives who have purchased their liberty, and some foreigners, especially 
Germans, who have landed estates ; but these are comparatively of no account. In tlie 
Ukraine, within the last tliirty years, have been introduced on the government estates a 
number of foreigners from most countries of Europe, who may be considered as pro- 
prietors. These occupy the lands on leases of a hundred years or upwards, at little or no 
rent, on condition of peopling and cultivating them and residing there. In the country 
parts of Russia, there is no middle class between the nobles, including the priests, and 
the slaves. Estates are, therefore, either cultivated directly by the proprietors, acting as 
their own stewards ; or indirectly, by letting them to agents or factors, as in Poland and 
Ireland, or by dividing them in small portions among the peasantry. In general, the 
proprietor is liis own agent and farmer for a great part of his estate ; and the rest he lets 



Part I. 

to his slaves at certain rates of labour, com, personal services, and sometimes a little money. 
These slaves, it is to be observed, are as much his property as the soil ; and in seasons of 
scarcity, or in the event of any disaster, the lord is bound to provide for them, and indeed 
deeply interested in doing so, in order at least to maintain the population, and, if pos- 
sible, to obtain a surplus for sale or for letting out to the towns. As in Poland, the lands 
are every where unenclosed. 

672. The farmeries attached to the houses of noblemen, and the cottages of the peasants, 
resemble those of Poland. They are almost every where constructed of timber ; the 
stove and its chimney being the only part built of brick or of mud and stones. Tlie 
noblemen generally reside on their estates, and their houses are surrounded by the village 
which contains their peasants. These villages (Jig. 76.) are in general dull and miserable 

assemblages of log-houses all of one size and shape, with a small wooden church. 
The mansions of the poorer nobles are merely cottages on a larger scale, with two apart- 
ments ; one used for the purposes of the kitchen and other domestic offices, and the 
other for all the purposes of the family living-rooms : the more wealthy have wooden 
or brick houses stuccoed, or mudded, and whitewashed. One nobleman in the neigh- 
bourhood of Moscow has a British steward, who has drained, enclosed, and greatly 
improved his estate, and has built some farmeries (Jig. 77.) which might be mistaken 
for those of another country. 


673. The agricultural products of Russia may be known from its climates. The 
vegetables of the most northerly region are limited to lichens, some coarse grass, and 
some birch, abele, and wild pine forests. The animals there are the reindeer, bear, fox, 
and other beasts of the chase, or in esteem for their furs or skins. Some cows and sheep 
are also pastured in the northern parts of that region during the summer months. 

674. The farming crops of the more southern regions are the same as in similar climates 
and countries. Winter and summer rye and oats are cultivated in every part of the 
empire south of latitude 60° ; winter wheat only in Russia as far as the Kama ; summer 
wheat botli in Russia and Siberia ; barley and spelt plentifully in Russia. Peas, vetches, 
and beans are not cultivated in great quantities : but buckwheat is extensively grown, 
s»nd there is a large variety, called the Tartarian millet ; PAnicum germanicum and maize 

ire grown in Taurida. Rice is cultivated in some parts of Taurida, and what is called 
nanna ( Festuca fliiitans) grows wild in most places that are occasionally overflown with 
»vater, particularly in the governments of Novogorod, Twer, Polotsk, and Smolensk. 
But the grain the most universally cultivated in Russia is rye, which is the bread corn 
of the country ; next oats, which furnish the spirit in common use : and then wheat and 

675. The culture of herbage plants, of grasses, clover, turnips, &c., is rare in Russia. 
Hay is made from the banks of rivers or lakes ; and pasture obtained from tlie steppes, 
forests, grass lands in common, or arable lands at rest. 


676. For clothing and other economical purposes the plants in cultivation are flax, which 
is cultivated to a great extent on the Volga ; and hemp, which is indigenous, and is culti- 
vated both for its fibre and its seed. From the latter an oil is expressed much used as food 
during the time of the fasts. Woad is abundantly grown, madder and cotton have been 
tried in Astracan and Taurida. Hops grow wild in abundance in some parts of Siberia, 
and are cultivated in some European districts. Tobacco is planted in great abundance, 
and the produce in the Ukraine is of excellent quality. The potato is not yet in general 
cultivation, but has been introduced in different districts. Water melons, cabbages, 
turnips, and a variety of garden vegetables, are cultivated in the Ukraine and Taurida. 
Asparagus is extensively cultivated in the government of Moscow for the Petersburg 
market, and also turnips, onions, and carrots. Mushrooms are found in great plenty in 
the steppes and forests. About thirty species are eaten by the peasants, exclusive of our 
garden mushroom, \\hich is neglected. Their names and habitats are given by Dr. 
Lyali. {History of Moscow, 1824.) The common and Siberian nettle are found wild on 
tlie Ural mountains, and their fibres are prepared and woven into linen by the Baschkirs 
and Tatars. The rearing of silkworms has been tried in the Ukraine, and found to 
answer, as has the culture of the caper and various other plants. 

677. Hemp and flax are extensively cultivated, and form the principal article of exportation. There 
is nothing very peculiar in their culture ; the soil of the Ukraine is in general too rich for hemp, until 
reduced by a series of com crops. Wheat, rye, barley, and oats are succeeded by one or two crops of 
hemp, and that Iry a crop of flax ; the whole without any manure. The time of sowing is from the 25th 
"" - .. . ~ . ^ j.,^^ - - - _ . 

of May to the 10th of June, and that of reaping from the end of August to the end of September. In 
general the flax is three, and the hemp about four, months i ~ ■ 

ing, drying, and other processes, are the same as in Britain. 

general the flax is three, and the hemp about four, months in a state of vegetation. The pulling, water- 
the - - ■ ■ 

678. Of fruits grown on a large scale, or plentiful in a wild state in Russia, may be 
mentioned the raspberry, currant, strawberry, and bilberry. The hazel is so plen- 
tiful in Kazan, that an oil used as food is made from the nuts. Sugar, musk, and 
water melons thrive in the open air, as far north as lat. 52°. Pears are wild almost every 
where, and cherries found in most forests. On the Oka and Volga are extensive 
orchards, principally of these fruits and apples. The apricot, almond, and peach suc- 
ceed as standards in Taurida and Caucasus, and other southern districts. The quince is 
wild in forests on the Terek. Chestnuts are found singly in Taurida and districts 
adjacent. The walnut abounds in most southern districts. Figs and orange trees 
grow singly in Kitzliar and in Taurida, planted no doubt by the Tatars before they 
were driven out of that country. Lemons, oranges, and olives, according to Pallas, 
would bear the winter in Taurida, and have been tried by Stevens, the director of a 
government nursery at Nikitka, in tliat country. The vine is cultivated in the govern- 
ments of Caucasus, Taurida, Ekatorinoslaf, and other places ; and it is calculated that 
nearly one fourth part of the empire is fit for the culture of this fruit for wine. An 
account of the products of the Crimea is given by Mary Holderness (Notes, 1821), 
from which it appears that all the fruits of France may be grown in the open air there, 
and that many of our culinary vegetables are found in a wild state. The Tatar inhabit- 
ants, who were driven out by the ambitious wars of Catlierine, had formed gardens and 
orchards round their villages, which still exist, and present a singular combination of 
beauty, luxuriance, and ruin. The gardens of the village of Karagoss form a wilderness 
of upwards of three hundred and sixty English acres, full of scenes of the greatest 
beauty, and tlirough which, she says, it requires a little experience to be able to find 
one's way. (Notes, 125 — 136.) 

679. The live stock of the Riissian farmer consists of the reindeer, horse, ox, ass, 
mule, and camel, as beasts of labour ; the ox, sheep, and swine, and in some places the 
goat and rabbit, as beasts of clothing and nourishment. Poultry are common, and 
housed with the family to promote early laying, in order to have eggs by Easter, a great 
object witli a view to certain ceremonies in the Russian religion. Bees are much 
attended to in the Ural, in some parts of Lithuania, and in the southern provinces. The 
Russian working horses are remarkably strong and hardy, rather small, with large heads, 
long flabby ears, not handsome, but not without spirit : the best saddle horses are those 
of the Cossacks and Tatars in the Crimea. The horned cattle of the native breeds are 
small and brisk ; the cows give but little milk, which is poor and thin : a Dutch breed 
was introduced by Peter the Great, near Archangel, and do not degenerate. Oxen are 
much less used than horses, as beasts of labour. The original Russian sheep is distin- 
guished by a short tail about seven inches in length : the Merinos, and other breeds 
from Germany, have been introduced in a few places, and promise success. The great 
graziers and breeders of horses, cattle, and sheep, in Russia, are the Cossacks of the Don, 
the Kalmucks, and other nomadic tribes. These supply the greater part of the towns 
both of Russia and Poland with butcher's meat ; and with the hides and tallow that 
form so material an article of export. In the northern districts of Russia and Siberia, 
the chase is pursued as an occupation for a livelihood or gain. The chief object is to 




entrap by dogs and snares those animals whose skins are used as furs, and especially the 
sable. Next to the latter animal, the grey squirrel is the most valuable ; but foxes, mar- 
tins, fish, otters, bears, wolves, lynxes, gluttons, ferrets, polecats, and a variety of others, 
are taken for their skins by the hunters, who pay a rent or tribute to government in sable 
skins, or in other furs regulated by the value of those. 

680. The forests of Russia are least abundant in the southern districts ; but the cold 
region may, like Poland, be described as one entire forest with extensive glades. Forests 
of pine-leaved trees (^or needle-leaved trees, as the German expression is) are chiefly 
indigenous in the very cold and cold regions. These include the spruce fir, the wild, 
and black pine, and the Siberian cedar or stone pine (Piuus Ce rubra). The larch grows 
on most of the Siberian mountains. Among the leafy trees, the birch is the most com- 
mon, next the trembling poplar, willow, lime, and ash. Tlie oak is not indigenous in 
Siberia ; the beech, elm, maple, and poplar, are found chiefly in the southern districts. 
Timber for construction, fuel, charcoal, bark, potashes, barilla, rosin, tar, pitch, &c., are 
obtained from these forests, which can hardly be said to have any sort of culture applied 
to them. 

681 Tar is extracted from the roots of the wild pine These are cut into short pieces, then split, and 
put into an iron boiler which is closely covered. Fire being applied below, the tar oozes out of the roots, 
and collecting in the bottom of the boiler, runs oft" by a pipe into a cask, which when closed is fit for 
exportation. When pitch is wanted, the tar is returned to the boiler, and boiled a second time. 

682. Ashes for the purposes of lixiviation are obtained by burning every sort of timber indiscriminately. 
After being lixiviated they are barrelled up and sold for exportation. 

683. The implements and operations of Russian husbandry are the most simple and art- 
less that can well be imagined. Pallas has given figures of ploughs and other articles ; 
the former mere crooked sticks pointed, and drawn by horses attached by ropes of bark 
or straw. Speaking of the operations, he says, " the cultivator sows his oats, his rye, or 
his millet, in wastes which have never been dunged ; he throws down the seed as if he 
meant it for the birds to pick up ; he then takes a plough and scratches the earth, and 
a second horse following with a harrow terminates the work ; the bounty of nature 
supplies the want of skill, and an abundant crop is produced." This applies to the 
greater part of ancient Russia and Siberia ; but in Livonia and other Baltic provinces, 
and also in some parts of the Polish provinces of the Ukraine, the culture is performed 
in a superior manner, with implements equal to the 78 

best of those used in Germany. The most improved 
form of their carts {fig 78.), in use round Peters- 
burg, is evidently copied from those of the Dutch, 
and was, probably, introduced by Peter the Great. ; 
In the Ukraine tliey thresh out their own corn 
by dragging boards studded with flints over it. and 
preserve it in pits in dry soil. In the nortliern provinces it is often dried on roofed 
frames of different sorts {fig 79.), as in Sweden ; and about Riga and Mittau it is even 
79 kiln-dried in the sheaf before it can be stacked or threshed. The 

. -T^- ^^'^-" - -- -^' manner of performing the operation of kiln-drying in the sheaf, as 
it may sometimes be applicable in North Britain or Ireland in 
very late and wet seasons, we shall afterwards describe. ( Part 
III. Book VL Ch. II.) 

684. In no part of Europe are the field operatio7is performed with 
such facilitt/ as in Russia, not only from the light nature of the 
soil, but from the severity and long continuance of the winters, 
which both pulverises the surface and destroys weeds. The same 
reasons prevent grass lands, or lands neglected or left to rest, from 
ever acquiring a close sward or tough rooty surface, so that even 
these are broken up with a very rude plough and very little labour. 
In short, there is no country in Europe where corn crops may be 
raised at so little expense of labour as in Russia ; and as no more 
than one com crop can be got in the year in almost any country, so Russia may be 
said to be, and actually is, even with her imperfect cultivation, better able to raise im- 
mense quantities of com than any part of the world, except, perhaps, similar parts of 
North America. 

685. The improvement of Russian agriculture was commenced by Peter the Great, 
and continued by Catherine, and the late and present emperor. The peasants, on many 
of the government estates, were made free ; some of these estates were let or sold to 
freemen, and foreign agriculturists encouraged to settle on them. Rewards and premiums 
were given, and professorships of rural economy established in different parts of the 
empire. Some of the principal nobles have also made great efforts for the improvement 
of agriculture. Count Romansow, about the end of the last century, procured a British 
farmer (Rogers), and established him on his estate near Moscow, where he has intro- 

Book I. 



duced the improved Scotch husbandry, drained extensively, established a dairy, and 
introduced the potato there and on other estates belonging to his master. Others have 
made similar efforts, and several British farm bailiffs are now settled in Russia. The 
foreigners, merchants in Petersburg, or Riga, or in the employ of government, have also 
contributed to the improvement of agriculture. Many of these, intending to establish 
their families in Russia, purchase estates, and some receive presents in land from the 
emperor. On these they in general introduce the culture of their native country, which, 
if only in the superiority of the live stock and implements, is certain of being better 
than that of the natives. In short, from these circumstances, and from the comjmratively 
rational views of the present government, there can be no doubt of the rapid increase of 
agriculture and population in Russia. 

Sect. VIII. Of the present State of Agriculture in Sweden and Norway. 

686. Sioeden and Norway are not agricultural countries ; but still great attention has 
been paid to perfect such culture as they admit of, both by the government and indi- 
viduals. From the time of Charles XI., in the end of the seventeenth century, various 
laws for the encouragement of agriculture have been passed, professorships founded, 
rewards distributed, and the state of the kingdom, in respect to its agricultural resources, 
examined by Linnaeus and other eminent men. Norway, till lately under the dominion 
of Denmark, is chiefly a pastoral country ; but its live stock and arable culture have 
been much improved during the end of the last, and beginning of the present, century, 
by the exertions of the Patriotic Society established in that country, which gives pre- 
miums for the best improvements and instructions in every part of farming. Our notices 
of the rural economy of these countries are drawn from Clarke, Thomson, James, and 
our own memoranda, made there in 1813. 

687. The climate of Sweden and Norway is similar to that of the cold and very cold 
regions of Russia, but rather milder in its southern districts, on account of the numer- 
ous inlets of the sea. The lands on the sea- coast of Norway are not, on this account, so 
cold as their latitude would lead us to expect ; still the winters are long, cold, and dreary ; 
and the summers short and hot, owing to the length of the day and the reflection of the 
mountains. So great is the difference of temperature, that at Sideborg, in the latitude of 
Upsal, in June or July, it is frequently eighty or eighty-eight degrees, and in January 
at forty or fifty below the freezing point. The transition from sterility to luxuriant 
vegetation is in.this, as it is in similar climates, sudden and rapid. In the climate of 
Upsal, the snow disappears in the open fields from the 6th to the 10th of May ; barley 
is sown from the 13th to the 15th of that month, and reaped about the middle of August. 
In some parts of Norway corn is sown and cut within the short period of six or seven 
weeks. According to a statement published in the Amcen. Acad. vol. iv., a Lapland 
summer, including also what in other countries are called spring and autumn, consists 
of fifty-six days, as follows : — 

June 23. snow melts. 
July 1. snow gone. 

9. fields quite green. 

17. plants at full growth. 

25. plants in full blow. 

Aug. 2. fruits ripe. 

10. plants shed their seeds. 

18. snow . 
From this time to June 23. the ground is every 
where covered with snow, and the waters with ice. 

In such a climate no department of agriculture can be expected to flourish. The cul- 
ture of corn is only prevalent in two districts, east Gothland, and the eastern shores of 
the Gulf of Bothnia, now belonging to Russia. 

688. The surface of Sweden every body knpws to be exceedingly rocky and hilly, and 
to abound in fir and pine forests, and in narrow green valleys, often containing lakes or 
streams. " Sweden," Dr. Clarke observes, " is a hilly, but not a mountainous country, 
excepting in its boundary from the Norwegian provinces. It has been remarked, that in 
all countries, the abutment of the broken strata, which constitute the earth's surface every 
where, causes a gradual elevation to take place towards the north-west ; hence, in all 
countries, the more level districts will be found upon the eastern, and the mountainous 
or metalliferous region upon the western side ; either placed as a natural boundary 
against the territory occurring next in succession ; or terminating in rocks of primary 
formation opposed as cliffs towards the sea." [Clarke's Scandinavia.) This is precisely 
the case with Sweden : the south-eastern provinces are level and cultivated ; a ridge 
of mountains on the west separates it from Norway ; and the intermediate space, from 
Gothenberg to Tornea, may be considered as one continued forest, varied by hills, rocks, 
lakes, streams, glades of pasture, and spots of com culture. Norway may be consi- 
dered as a continuation of the central country of Sweden, terminated by cliflTs opposed 
to the ocean. " The tops and sloping sides of the mountains," Dr. Clarke observes, 
" are covered with verdure ; farms are stationed on a series of tabular eminences, 
and grazing around them the herds of cattle all the way from the top to the bottom. 



Part I. 

and sometimes in places so steep, 

that we wonder how they could find a foot- 
ing. In some places the elevation of 
these farms is so extraordinary, that the 
houses and flocks appear above the clouds, 
and bordering on perpetual snow, and 
<^ the actual site of them is hardly to be 
^\^ credited. Every hanging-meadow is pas- 
tured by cows and goats ; the latter often 
browsing upon jutties, so fearfully placed, 
that their destruction seems to be inevit- 
able ; below is seen the village church 
with its spire, the whole built of plank 
{jig. 80. j ; the cheerful bleatings of 
the sheep, mingled at intervals with the 
deep tones of the cow-herds' lures 

(Jig. 81.), resounding from the woods. The lure is a long trumpet made of splinters of 

wood, bound together by withy." 

689. Of FirUand, which we have included with 
Sweden and Norway, a considerable part is under 
com culture ; the forests cleared, the lands enclosed, 
and population increased. The whole country ap- 
pears decked with farm-houses, and village churches, 
rising to the view or falling from it, over an undulat- 
ing district, amidst woods and water, and rocks, and 
large loose masses of granite : it may be called 
Norway in miniature. Farther up the country, 
towards the north, there are scenes which were de- 
scribed to Dr. Clarke as unrivalled in the world. 
Every charm which the effect of cultivation can give 
to the aspect of a region where Nature's wildest 
features — headlong cataracts, lakes, majestic rivers, 
and forests — are combined, may there be seen. {Scandinavia, sect. ii. p. 459.) 

690. The soil of the valleys is, in general, good friable loam, but so mixed with stones 
as to render it very troublesome to plough or harrow ; and in many places so much so, 
that where the valleys are cultivated it is chiefly vrith the spade. The only exception to 
these remarks is a considerable tract of comparatively even surface in South and East 
Gothland, where the soil inclines to clay and is well cultivated, and is as prolific in com 
crops as any in Europe. 

82 ,„ft^«&. 691. The landed jyropei'ty of Sweden 

is generally in estates of a moderate 
size ; in many cases their extent in 
acres is unknown, their value being 
estimated by the number of stock 
grazed in summer. The proprietors 
almost constantly farm their own 
estates, or let them out at fixed rents, 
in money or grain, to cottagers or 
farmers. The largest arable farms 
not occupied by the proprietors are in 
Gothland ; but few of these exceed 
two hundred acres. The fai-m-build- 
ings and cottages are there almost al- 
ways built of timber and thatched, on account of the warmth of these materials, though 
stone is abundant in most places. There are a few small enclosures near the farm-yard; 
but to enclose generally could be of no use in a country where the 83 
snow, during six or eight months in the year, renders them nuga- 
tory either as shelters or fences. The fence in universal use is 
made of splinters of deal, set up in a sloping position, and fastened 
by withies to upright poles. (Jig. 82.) This is the only fence used 
in Sweden, Norway, Lapland, and Finland ; and it is very com- 
mon in Poland, Russia, and the northern parts of Germany. 

692. The Swedish cottages are built of logs, like those of 
Poland {fg. 83.), but they are roofed in a different manner. 
Above the usual covering of boards is laid birch bark in the 
manner of tiles, and on that a layer of turf, so thick that the 
grass grows as vigorously as on a natural meadow. The walls 
are often painted red. They are very small, and generally very close and dirty 

Book I. 



within, at least in winter. Tliere are various exceptions, however as to cleanliness, 
especially among the post-masters, who are all farmers. The post-house at Yfre, 
north of Stockholm, was found by Dr. Clarke and his party so " neat and com- 
fortable, and every thing belonging to it in such order," that they resolved to dine 
there. *' The women were spinning wool, weaving, heating the oven, and teaching 
children to read, all at the same time. The dairy was so clean and cool, that we 
preferred having our dinner there rather than in the parlour. For our fare they readily 
set before us a service consisting of bacon, eggs, cream, curd, and milk, sugar, bread, 
butter, &c. ; and our bill of fare for the whole amounted only to twenty pence ; 
receiving which they were very thankful. Cleanliness in this farmer's family was quite 
as conspicuous as in any part of Switzerland. The tables, chairs, and the tubs in which 
they kept their provisions, were as white as washing could make them ; and the most 
extraordinary industry had been exerted in clearing the land, and in rendering it produc- 
tive. They were at this time employed in removing rocks, and in burning them for 
levigation, to lay the earth again upon the soil." {Scandinavia, sect. i. p. 179.) 

693. The cottages in 
Norway are formed as 
in Sweden, covered with 
birch, bark, and turf. On 
some of the roofs, after 
the hay was taken, Dr. 
Clarke found lambs pas- 
turing ; and on one house 
he found an excellent 
crop of turnips. The gal- 
leries about their houses 
remind the traveller of 
Switzerland. *" 

694. The cottages of 
the Laplanders are round huts of the rudest description. {Jig. 84. ) 

695. The agricultural produce of Sweden are the common corns. Wheat and rye are 

chiefly grown in South and East Gothland ; oats 

85 are the bread com of the country; and big, or 

Scotch barley, is the chief corn of Lapland and 
the north of Norway. The bean and pea are 
grown in Gothland, and potatoes, flax, and 
enough of tobacco for home consumption, by 
every farmer and cottager. Only a few districts 
grow suflScient corn for their own consumption, 
l^ji and annual importations are regular. 
'^ 696. The Cenomyce rangiferma, or reindeer moss 
''^^ (Jig' 85.), is not only used by the reindeer, 
"^ but also as fodder for cows and other horned 
cattle. It adds a superior richness to the milk 
and butter. It is sometimes eaten by the inha- 
bitants ; and Dr. Clarke, having tasted it, found 
it crisp and agreeable. 

697. Rocc^lla. tinctoria (Jig. 86.), which abounds 
near Gottenburg and in other parts of Sweden, 
was in considerable demand in the early part of last war as a scarlet dye. 

698. The Lycopbdiuvi complanhtum (Jig. 86.) 86 
is employed in dyeing their woollen. Even 
the leaves, as they fall from the trees, are care- 
fully raked together and preserved, to increase 
the stock of fodder. {Scandinavia, chap, xviii.) 

699. Tar, in Sweden, is chiefly extracted from 
the roots of the spruce fir, and the more 
marshy the forest the more the roots are said to 
yield. Roots or billets of any kind are packed 
close in a kiln, made like our limekilns, in 
the face of a bank. They are covered with 
turf and earth, as in burning charcoal. At 
the bottom of the kiln is an iron pan, into 
which the tar runs during the smothered 
combustion of the wood. A spout from the iron pan conveys the tar at once into 
the barrels in which it arrives in this country. 



Paiit I. 

700. The native trees and plants afford important products for the farmer. " The industry 
of the Norwegians." Dr. Clarke observes, " induces them to appropriate almost every 
thing to some useful purpose. Their summum bonu?n seems to 
consist in the produce of the fir (i. e. the wild pine, not the 
spruce fir). This tree affords materials for building their 
houses, churches, and bridges ; for every article of their 
household furniture ; for constructing sledges, carts, and 
boats ; besides fuel for their hearths. With its leaves (here 
the spruce fir is alluded to) they strew their floors, and after- 
wards burn them and collect the ashes for manure. The 
birch affords, in its leaves and tender twigs, a grateful fodder 
for their cattle, and bark for covering their houses. The 
bark of the elm, in powder, is boiled up with other food, to 
fatten hogs ; sometimes, but rarely, it is mixed in the com- 
position of their bread. The flowers of the haeg-ber (Comus 
mascula) flavour their distilled spirits. The moss, as a sub- 
stitute for mortar, is used in calking the interstices between 
their under walls. The turf covers tlieir roofs. 

701. The berries of the Cloud-berry (Riiftus ChanKBmbrus) 

{fig. 88.) are used in Lapland and the north of Sweden and 

Norway like the strawberry-, and are esteemed as wholesome as they are agree- 
able. Dr. Clarke was cured of a 
bilious fever chiefly from eating freely 
of this fruit. They are used as a sauce 
to meat, and put into soup even, in 

702. The livestock of the Swedish 
; farmer consists chiefly of cows. These 
are treated in the same manner as in 
Switzerland. About the middle of 
May they are turned into meadows ; 
[towards the middle of June driven to 
'the heights, or to the forests, where 
they continue till autumn. They are 
usually attended by a woman, who 
inhabits a small hut, milks them twice a day, and makes butter and cheese on the spot. 
On their return, the cattle are again pastured in the meadows, until the snow sets in 
about the middle of October, when they are removed to the cow-houses, and fed during 
winter with four fifths of straw and one of hay. In some places, portions of salted 
fish are given with the straw. The horses are the chief animals of labour ; they are a small, 
hardy, spirited race, fed with hay and oat-straw the greater part of the year, and not 
littered, which is thought to preserve them from diseases. Sheep are not numerous, requir- 
ing to be kept under cover so great a portion of the year. Pigs and poultry are common. 

703. The implements and 
operations of Swedish agricul- 
ture are simple, and in many 
places of an improved descrip- 
tion. The swing plough, with an 
iron mould-board, is general 
throughout Gothland, and is 
drawn by two horses. The 
plough of Osterobothnia {jig. 8 9) 
is drawn by a single horse, and 
sometimes by a peasant, and called to Dr. Clarke's mind " the old Samnite plough, as it is 

still used in the neighbourhood of Beneventum, in Italy ; 
where a peasant, by means of a cord passed over his shoulder, 
draws the plough, which his companion guides. It only 

90 "^-y^V differs from the most ancient plough of Egypt, as we see 

it repi'esented upon images of Osiris {Jig. 90.), in having a 
double instead of a single coulter." {Scandinavia, ch. xiii.) 

They have a very convenient cradle-scythe for mowing oats 

and barley, which we shall afterwards describe ; a smaller scythe, 

not unlike that of Hainault, for cutting grass and clovers ; and, 

among other planting instruments, a frame of dibblers {Jig. 91.) 

for planting beans and peas at equal distances, 

704. Farming operations are, in general, as neatly performed 
as any where in Britain. The humidity of the climate has given 

Book I. 



rise to various tedious but ingenious processes for making hay and drying corn. Tlie 
jj II ^^ i latter often remains in the fields in shocks or in small 

I \\ J) ricks, after the ground is covered with snow, till the 

clear frosts set in, when it becomes dry, and may be 
taken home. Besides the common mode of placing 
the sheaves astride with the ears downwards on hori- 
zontal fir poles (Jig. 92.), there are various others. 
In some places young fir trees, with the stumps of the 
branches left on, are fixed in the ground, and the 
sheaves hung on them, like flowers on a maypole, the 
topmost sheaf serving as a cap or finish to all the rest. Sometimes covered rails or racks 
are resorted to (Jig. 79.) : at other times skeleton roofs or racks are formed, and the sheaves 
distributed over them. (Jig 93.) Often in Norway the com is obliged to be cut green, 
from the sudden arrival of winter. Dr. Clarke found it in this state in October ; and 
near Christiana it was suspended on poles and racks to dry, above fields covered with 
ice and snow. Corn is threshed in the north of Sweden by passing over it a threshing- 
carriage, which is sometimes ^ g.} 
made of cast-iron, and has twenty 
wheels, and sometimes more. 
The sheaves are spread on a floor 
of boards, and a week's labour of 
one carriage, horse, and man will 
not thresh more than a ton of corn, 
because the crop being always cut 
before it is fully ripened, its tex- 
ture is exceedingly tough. The 
hay is sometimes dried in the same 
manner. After all, they are in some seasons obliged to dry both, especially the corn, in 
sheds or bams heated by stoves, as in Russia. (683.) In mowing hay in Lapland the 
scythe, the blade of which is not larger than a sickle, is swung by the mower to the right 
and left, turning it in his hands with great dexterity. 

705. The forests of Sweden are chiefly of the wild pine and spmce fir ; the latter 
supplies the spars, and the former the masts and building timber so extensively exported. 
The roads in Norway, as in some parts of Russia, are formed of young trees laid across 
and covered with earth, or left bare. Turpentine is extracted from the pine : the outer bark 
of the beech is used for covering houses, and the inner for tanning. The birch is tapped 
for wine ; and the spray of this tree, and of the elm, alder, and willow is dried with the 
leaves on in summer, and fagoted and stacked for vrinter fodder. The young wood and 
inner bark of the pine, fir, and elm, are powdered and mixed with meal for feeding s-w'ine. 

706. The chase is pursued as a profitable occupation in the northern parts of Sweden, 
and for the same animals as in Russia. 

707. If any one, says Dr. Clarke, wishes to see what English farmers once were, and 
how they fared, he should visit Norway. Immense families, all sitting down toge- 
ther at one table, from the highest to the lowest. If but a bit of butter be called for in 
one of these houses, a mass is brought forth weighing six or eight pounds ; and so highly 
omamented, being turned out of moulds, with the shape of cathedrals, set oflT with 
Gothic spires and various other devices, that, according to the language of our English 
farmers' wives, we should deem it " almost a pity to cut." (Scandinavia, ch. xvi.) 
They do not live in villages, as in most other countries, but every one on his farm, 
however small. They have in consequence little intercourse with strangers, except 
during winter, when they attend fairs at immense distances, for the purpose of disposing 
of produce, and purchasing articles of dress. " What would be thought in England,' 
Dr. Clarke asks, " of a labouring peasant, or the occupier of a small farm, making a 
journey of nearly 700 miles to a fair, for the articles of their home consumption ? " 
Yet he found Finns at the fair at Abo, who had come from Torneo, a distance of 679 
miles, for this purpose. 

708. JFith respect to improvement the agriculture of Sweden Is, perhaps, susceptible of 
less than that of any of the countries we have hitherto examined ; but what it wants will 
be duly and steadily applied, by the intelligence and industry of all ranks in that country. 
It must not be forgotten, however, that it is a country of forests and mines, and not of 

Sect. IX. Of the present State of Agriculture in Spain and Portugal. 

709. Spain, when a Roman province, was undoubtedly as far advanced in agriculture 
as any part of the empire. It was overrun by the Vandals and Visigoths in the be- 
ginning of the fifth century, under whom it continued till conquered by the Moors in 
the beginning of the eighth century. The Moors continued the chief possessors of Spain 



until the middle of the thirteenth century. They are said to have materially improved 
agriculture during this period; to have introduced various new plants from Africa, 
and also bucket-wheels for irrigation. Professor Thouin mentions an ancient work by 
Ebn-al-Awam of Seville, of which a translation into Spanish was made by Banquieri 
of Madrid, in 1802, which contains some curious particulars of the culture of the Moors 
in Spain. The Moors and Arabs were always celebrated for their knowledge of plants ; 
and, according to Harte, one fourth of the names of the useful plants of Spain are of 
Arabian extraction. 

710. Agricidlure formed the jmncipal and most honourable occupation among the Moors, 
and more especially in Granada. So great was their attention to manure, that it was 
preserved in pits, walled round with rammed earth to retain moisture : irrigation was 
employed in every practicable situation. The Moorish or Mohammedan religion forbade 
them to sell their superflous corn to the surrounding nations ; but in years of plenty it 
was deposited in the caverns of rocks and in other excavations, some of which, as Jacob 
informs us (Travels, let. xiii.), are still to be seen on the hills of Granada. These ex- 
cavations were lined with straw, and are said (erroneously, we believe) to have preserved 
the com for such a length of time, that, when a child was born, a cavern was filled with 
corn which was destined to be his portion when arrived at maturity. The Moors were 
particularly attentive to the culture of fruits, of which they introduced all the best kinds 
now found in Spain, besides the sugar and cotton. Though wine was forbidden, vines 
were cultivated to a great extent ; for forbidden pleasures form a main source of enjoy- 
ment in every country. An Arabian author, who wrote on agriculture about the year 
1140, and who quotes another author of his nation, who wrote in 1073, gives the follow- 
ing directions for the cultivation of the sugar-cane : — 

711. The canes " should be planted in the month of March, in a plain, sheltered from the east wind, and 
near to water ^ they should be well manured with cow-dung, and watered every fourth day, till the shoots 
are one palm in height, when they should be dug round, manured with the dung of sheep, and watered 
every night and day till the month of October. In January, when the canes are ripe, they should be cut 
into short pieces and crushed in the mill The juice should be boiled in iron caldrons, and left to cool 
till it becomes clarified ; it should then be boiled again, till the fourth part only remains, when it should 
be put into vases of clay, of a conical form, and placed in the shade to thicken ; afterwards the sugar 
must be drawn from the canes and left to cooL The canes, after the juice is expressed, are preserved for 
the horses, who eat them greedily, and become fat by feeding on them. {Ebn-al-Awam, by Banquieri. 
Madrid, 1801, fol.) From the above extract it is evident sugar has been cultivated in Spain upwards of 
700 years, and probably two or three centuries before. 

712. Ahmit the end of the fifteenth century the Moors were driven out of Spain, and 
the kingdom united under one monarchy. Under Charles V., in the first half of the 
sixteenth century. South America was discovered; and the prospect of making fortunes, 
by working the mines of that country, is said to have depressed the agriculture of Spain 
to a degree that it has never been able to surmount. (Heylins Cosmographia. Lond. 1657.) 
Albyterio, a Spanish author of the seventeenth century, observes, " that the people who 
sailed to America, in order to return laden with wealth, would have done their country 
much better service to have staid at home and guided the plough ; for more persons 
were employed in opening mines and bringing home money, than the money in effect 
proved worth : " tlus author thinking with Montesquieu, that those riches were of a 
bad kind which depend on accidental circumstances, and not on industry and ap- 

713. The earliest Spanish work on agriculture generally appeared in 1569, by Herrera : 
it is a treatise in many books, and, like other works of its age, is made up of extracts 
from the Roman authors. Herrera, however, had not only studied the ancients, but 
visited Germany, Italy, and part of France : his work has been translated into several 
languages ; and the later editions contain some essays and memoirs by Augustin, author 
of Secrets de f Agriculture, Gonzalo de las Cazas on the silkworm, and Mendez and 
others on bees. 

714. The agriculture of Spain in the middle of the eighteenth century was in a very neg- 
lected state. According to Harte, " the inhabitants of Spain were then too lazy and proud 
to work. Such pride and indolence are death to agriculture in every country. Want of 
good roads and navigable rivers (or, to speak more properly, the want of making rivers 
navigable) has helped to ruin the Spanish husbandry. To which we may add another 
discouraging circumstance, namely, ' that the sale of an estate vacates the lease : Venta 
deschaze renta.' Nor can corn be transported from one province to another. The 
Spaniards plant no timber, and make few or no enclosures. With abundance of ex- 
cellent cows, they are strangers to butter, and deal so little in cows' milk, that, at 
Madrid, those who drink milk with their chocolate, can only purchase goats' milk. 
What would Columella say (having written so largely on the Andalusian dairies), if it 
were possible for him to revisit this country ? For certain it is that every branch of 
rural economics, in the time of him and his uncle, was carried to as high perfection in 
Spain as in any part of the Roman empire. Tliough they have no idea of destroying 
weeds, and scratch the ground instead of ploughing it, yet nature has been so bounti- 


ful to them, that they taise the brightest and firmest wheat of any in Christendom." 
{Essays, i.) 

715. A general sjnritfor improvement seems to have sprung up in Spain with the nine- 
teenth century, though checked for a while by the wars against Bonaparte ; subsequently 
retarded by internal discords ; and again by the cruel interference of the French in 1 823. 
In the midst of these troubles, economical societies have been established at Madrid, Valen- 
cia, and Saragossa. That of the latter place is connected with a charitable bank in favour 
of distressed farmers. Money is advanced to defray the expenses of harvest, and two years 
allowed for returning it. It commenced its operations in June 1801, and then dis- 
tributed 458^. 2s. to one hundred and ten husbandmen. In the August following 
it had furnished sixty-two horses to as many indigent farmers. The Patriotic Society 
of Madrid distinguished itself by a memoir on the advancement of agriculture, 
and on agrarian laws, addressed to the supreme council of Castile, in 1812. It 
was drawn up by a distinguished member, Don G. M. Jovellanos, who recommends the 
enclosure of lands, the enactment of laws favourable to agriculturists, the prevention of the 
accumulation of landed property in mortmain tenure ; exposes the noxious state of the 
estates of the clergy, of various taxes on agricultural productions, and of restrictions on 
trade and the export of corn. His whole work breathes the most liberal, enlightened, 
and benevolent spirit, and was in consequence so offensive to the clergy, that they pro- 
cured his condemnation by the inquisition, (Ed. Rev. ; Jacobus Travels.) 

716. The climate of Spain is considei'ed by many as superior to that of any country in 
Europe. It is every where dry, and though the heat in some provinces is very great in 
the day, it is tempered during the night by breezes from the sea, or from the ridges of 
high mountains which intersect the country in various directions. In some provinces 
the heat has been considered insalubrious, but this is owing to the undrained marshes, 
from which malignant effluvia are exhaled. The mean temperature of the elevated 
plains of Spain is 59*^ ; that of the coasts, from 41° to .36° of latitude, is between 
6.3^° and 68°, and is therefore suitable for the sugai--cane, coffee, banana, and all plants 
of the West India agriculture, not even excepting the pine-apple. The latter is cultivated 
in the open air in some gardens in Valencia and at Malaga. 

717. The surface of Spain is more irregular and varied by mountains, than that 
either of France or Germany. These intersect the country at various distances from 
east to west, and are separated by valleys or plains. The strata of the mountains are 
chiefly granitic or calcareous ; but many are argillaceous, some silicious, and Mont. 
serrat, near Cordova, is a mass of rock salt. A remarkable feature in the surface of 
Spain is the height of some of its plains above the level of the sea. According to 
Humboldt, the plain of Madrid is the highest plain in Europe that occupies any 
extent of country. It is 309f fathoms above the level of the ocean, which is fifteen 
times higher than Paris. This circumstance both affects the climate of that part of the 
country, and its susceptibility of being improved by canal or river navigation. The rivers 
and streams of Spain are numerous, and the marshes not very common. Forests, or 
rather forest-wastes, downs, and Merino sheep-walks are numerous, and, with other un- 
cultivated tracts and heaths, are said to amount to two-thirds of the surface of the 
country. Some tracts are well cultivated in the vine districts, as about Malaga; 
and others in the corn countries, as about Oviedo. The resemblance between the 
Asturias and many parts of England is very striking. The same is the aspect of the 
country, as to verdure, enclosures, live hedges, hedge-rows, and woods ; the same 
mixture of woodlands, arable, and rich pasture ; the same kind of trees and crops, and 
fruit, and cattle. Both suffer by humidity in winter, yet, from the same source, find 
an ample recompense in summer ; and both enjoy a temperate climate, yet, with this 
difference, that as to humidity and heat, the scale preponderates on the side of the 
Asturias. In sheltered spots, and not far distant from the sea, they have olives, vines, 
and oranges, (Townsend's Spain, i. 318.) 

718. The soil of Spain is in general light, and either sandy or calcareous, reposing on 
beds of gypsum or granite. The poorest soil is a ferrugineous sand on sandstone rock, 
only to be rendered of any value by irrigation. The marshes, and also the best meadow 
soils, are along the rivers. 

719. The landed property of Spain till the late revolution was similarly circumstanced 
to that of France and Germany ; that is, in the possession of the crown, great nobles, 
and religious and civil corporations. Tithes were more rigidly exacted by the clergy 
of Spain, than by those of any other country of Europe (Jacob's Travels, 99.), and a 
composition in lieu of tithes was unknown in most provinces. Great part of the 
lands of the religious corporations are now sold, and a new class of proprietors are ori- 
ginating, as in France. Some of these estates are of immense extent. The monks of 
Saint Hieronymo told Jacob that they could travel twenty-four miles from Seville on 
their own property, which is rich in corn, oil, and wine. Such was the coiTuption 
of this convent, that, notwithstanding all their riches, they were deeply in debt. Lands 

I 2 



Part I. 

were and are cultivated in great part by their proprietors; and even the monasteries 
held large tracts in hand before their dissolution. What is farmed, is let out in small 
portions of arable land, with large tracts of pasture or waste, and a fixed rent is gene- 
rally paid, chiefly in kind. The lands are open every where, except immediately round 
towns and villages. Many persons in Granada are so remote from the farmeries, that 
during harvest the farmers and their labourers live in tents on the spot, both when they are 
sowing the corn, and when cutting and thresliing it. The hedges about Cadiz are formed 
of the soccotrine aloe and prickly pear ; the latter producing at the same time an agree- 
able fruit, and supporting the cochineal insect. Farm-houses and cottages are generally 
built of stone or brick, and often of rammed earth, and are covered with tiles or thatch. 

720. A bad feature in the polici/ of the old government, considered highly injurious to 
agriculture and the improvement of landed property, desei-ves to be mentioned. This 
is, the right which the corporation of the mesta or merino proprietors possess, to drive 
their sheep over all the estates which lie in their route, from their summer pasture in tlie 
north, to their Vinter pasture in the south, of the kingdom. This practice, which we 
shall afterwards describe at length, must of course prevent or retard enclosing and 
aration. 'ITie emfiteivtic contract is another bad feature. It prevails in Catalonia, and 
is found in various other parts of the kingdom. By the- emjUeutic contract the great 
proprietor, inheriting more land than he can cultivate to profit, has power to grant any 
given quantity for a term of years ; either absolute or conditional ; either for lives or in 
perpetuity ; always reserving a quit rent, like our copyhold, with a relief on every suc- 
cession, a fine on the alienation of the land, and other seignorial rights dependent on the 
custom of the district ; such as tithes, mills, public-houses, the obligation to plough his 
land, to furnish him with teams, and to pay hearth-money, with other contributions, by 
way of commutation for ancient stipulated services. One species of grant for unculti- 
vated land, to be planted with vines, admitted formerly of much dispute. The tenant,^ 
holding his land as long as the first planted vines should continue to bear fruit, in 
order to prolong this term, was accustomed to train layers from the original stocks, 
and, by metaphysical distinctions between identity and diversity, to plead that the first 
planted vines were not exhausted, claiming thus the inheritance in perpetuity. After 
various litigations and inconsistent decisions of the judges, it was finally determined, that 
this species of grant should convey a right to the possession for fifty years, unless the 
plantation itself should previously fail. 

721. The agricultural products of Spain include all those of the rest of Europe, and 
most of those of the West Indies ; besides all the grains, for the production of which 
some provinces are more celebrated than others, and most of them are known to produce 
the best wheat in Europe. Boswell of Balmuto, a Scottish landholder, when at Xeres 
de la Fronteira, in the winter of 1809, was shown, on the estate of Mr. Gordon, a very 
beautiful crop of turnips, with drills drawn in the most masterly style. The drills were by 
a ploughman of East Lothian, and therefore their accuracy was not to be wondered at ; but 
the turnips showed what the soil and climate were capable of producing under judicious 
management. Other products are flax, hemp, esparto, palmetto (ChamaeVops humilis), 
madder, saffron, aloe, cork tree ( Qu^rcus S'uber) ; the kermes grana, a species of coccus, 
whose body in the grub state yields a beautiful scarlet colour, and wliich forms its nidus 
on the shrub Qu^rcus coccifera ; soda from the Salic6mia and other plants of the salt 
marshes ; honey from the forests ; dates (Phoe^x dactylifera), coflfee, almonds, filberts, 
figs, olives, grapes, peaches, prickly pears, carob 
beans (the locust trees of scripture, Ceratonia 
siliqua), oranges, lemons, pomegranates, and 
other fruits. 

722. The esparto rush {Sttpa tenadssima L.) 
grows wild on the plains, and is made into a 
variety of articles for common use. It is em- 
ployed for making ropes and cables, and is 
particularly calculated for the latter purpose, 
as it swims on the water, and the cables formed 
of it are, consequently, not so liable to rub 
against the rocks as those which are made of ■ 
hemp. It is also woven into floorcloths and 
carpets, and made into baskets or panniers, for 
carrying produce to market, or manure to the '■■ 
fields. In Pliny's time this plant was used by 
the poor for beds, by the shepherds for gar-, 
ments, and by the fishermen for nets ; but it is 
now superseded for these and various other ends 
by the hemp and flax. 

723. The pita, or aloe (^'loe soccotorina, fig. 94.), is an important plant in the hus- 


bandry of Spain. It grows by the leaf, which it is only necessary to slip off, and lay 
on the ground with the broad end inserted a little way in the soil : it makes excellent 
I'ences ; and the fibres, separated from the mucilage, have been twisted into ropes, and 
woven into cloth. Bowles, the best Spanish writer on natural history, says, the mucilage 
might easily be made into brandy. The same plant is used as the boundary fence for 
villages in the East Indies, and is found a powerful obstacle to cavalry. 

724. The hina, or Indian fig (Cactus Opuntia, Jig. 94. b), is cultivated in the plains 
of Seville for its fruit, and also for raising the cochineal insect. It is either grown on 
rocky places or as hedges. 

725. Tlie jjcdmetto, or fan palm (ChamaeVops humilis), is grown near Seville. From 
the foot-stalks of the leaves, brushes and brooms of various kinds are formed both for 
home use and exportation. 

726. The potato is grown, but not in large quantities ; nor so good as in England. 
The Irish merchants of the sea-ports import them for themselves and friends. The 
batatas, or sweet potato (Convolvulus Batatas), turnips, carrots, cabbages, broccoli, 
celery, onions, garlic, melons, pumpkins, cucumbers, &c., are grown in large quantities. 

727. Though the olive is grown to greater 
perfection in Spain than in Italy, yet the 
oil is the worst in Europe ; because the 
growers are thirled, that is obliged to grind 
their fruit at certain mills. To such mills 
{fig. 95.) all the olives of a district are 
obliged to be carried ; and, as they cannot all 
be ground alone, they are put into heaps to 
wait their turn ; these heaps heat and spoil, 
and when crushed, produce only an acrid 
rancid oil. 

728. The vine is cultivated in every pro- 
vince of Spain, and chiefly in those of the 

east and south. The old sherry wine, Xeres seco, the sherry sack of Shakspeare, is pro- 
duced in Valencia and Granada, and especially near Malaga. On the hills surrounding 
this city are upwards of seven thousand vineyards, cultivated by the proprietors, or by 
petty tenants who pay their rent monthly when in money, or during harvest when in 
kind. The first gathering of grapes commences in the month of June, and these are 
dried in the sun, and form what are known in Europe as Malaga raisins. A second 
crop is gathered in September, and a wine made from it resembling sherry ; and a third 
in October and November, which furnishes the wine known on the Continent as Malaga, 
and in England as mountain. In Valencia the grapes for raisins are steeped in boiling 
water, sharpened with a ley made from vine stems, and then exposed in the air, and sus- 
pended in the sun till they are sufficiently dry. 

729. The sugar-cane {Saccharum officinarum) is cultivated to a considerable extent in 
Malaga and other places, and the ground is irrigated with the greatest care. The sugar 
produced resembles that of Cuba, and comes somewhat cheaper than it can be procured 
from the West India Islands. Sugar has been cultivated in Spain upwards of seven 
hundred years ; and Jacob is of opinion that capital only is wanted to push this branch 
of culture to a considerable extent. 

730. The white mulberry is extensively grown for rearing the silkworm, especially 
in Murcia, Valencia, and Granada. The silk is manufactured 
into stuffs and ribands in Malaga. 

731. Of other fruits cultivated may be mentioned the fig, 
which is grown in most parts of Spain, and the fruit used as 
food, and dried for exportation. The gum cistus (Cistus 
ladaniferus, ^g. 96.) grows wild, and the gum which exudes.] 
from it is eaten by the common people. The caper shrub 
grows wild, and is cultivated in some places. The orange 
and lemon are abundant, and also the pomegranate. 

732. Other productiotis, such as coffee, cotton, cocoa, 
indigo, pimento, pepper, banana, plantain, &c., were culti- 
vated in Granada for many ages before the West Indies or 
America was discovered, and might be carried to such an 
extent as to supply the whole or greater part of Europe. 

733. The rotations of common crops vary according to 
the soil and climate. In some parts of the fertile plains of | 
Malaga, wheat and barley are grown alternately without 
either fallow or manure. The common course of crops 
about Barcelona, according to Townsend, is, 1. wheat, wliich, being ripe in June, is 
immediately succeeded by 2. Indian corn, hemp, millet, cabbage, kidneybeans, or 

I 3 


lettuce. In the second year the same crops are repeated ; and in the third, the place of 
wheat is supplied by barley, beans, or vetches. In this way six valuable crops are obtained 
in three years. Wheat produces tenfold ; in rainy seasons fifteen, and in some places 
as much as fifty, for one. Near Carthagena the course is wheat, barley, and fallow. For 
wheat they plougli thrice, and sow from the middle of November to the beginning of 
December ; and in July they reap from ten to one hundred for one, as the season happens 
to be dry or humid. The Huerta, or rich vale of Alicant, yields a perpetual suc- 
cession of crops. Barley is sown in September, and reaped in April ; succeeded by 
maize, reaped in September ; and that by a mixed crop of esculents. Wheat is sown 
in November, and reaped in June ; flax sown in September is pulled in May. In the 
vale of Valencia, wheat yields from twenty to forty fold ; barley from eighteen to twenty- 
four fold ; oats from twenty to thirty fold ; maize, one hundred fold ; rice, forty fold. 

734. The live stock of the Spanish agriculturist consists of oxen, asses, and mules, as 
beasts of labour ; sometimes, also, horses are used on the farm, but these are chiefly 
reared for the saddle and the army. During the reign of Philip II. an act was passed 
forbidding their use even in coaches. The horses of Andalusia are celebrated : they 
are deep-chested, somewhat short-backed ; rather heavy about the legs, but with a good 
shoulder. In general their appearance is magnificent when accoutred for the field. 
But for the last half century their numbers have been diminishing. The mules and 
asses are large, and carry heavy loads. The Spanish cows are an esteemed breed, re- 
sembling those of Devonshire. They are used chiefly for breeding, there being little 
use made of cow's milk in most parts of Spain ; they are sometimes also put to the 
plough and cart. Goats are common about most towns, and furnish the milk used in 

735. The sheep of Spain ha\e long been celebrated. Pliny relates, that in his time 
Spanish clothes were of an excellent texture, and much used in Rome. For many 
centuries the wool has been transported to Flanders, for the supply of the Flemish 
manufactories, and afterwards to England, since the same manufacture was introduced 
there. By far the greater part of Spanish sheep are migratory, and belong to what is called 
the mesta or merino corporation ; but there are also stationary flocks belonging to 
private individuals in Andalusia, whose wool is of equal fineness and value. The carcass 
of the sheep in Spain is held in no estimation, and only used by the shepherds and poor. 

736. The term mesta (equivalent to meslin, Eng.) in general signifies a mixture of 
grain ; but in a restricted sense a union of flocks. This collection is formed by an 
association of proprietors of lands, and originated in the time of the plague in 1350. 
The few persons who survived that destructive calamity, took possession of the lands 
which had been vacated by the death of their former occupiers ; united them with their 
own ; converted nearly the whole to pasturage ; and confined their attention principally 
to the care and increase of their flocks. Hence, the immense, pastures of Estremadura, 
Leon, and other provinces ; and the prodigious quantity of uncultivated lands throughout 
the kingdom. Hence, also, the singular circumistance of many proprietors possessing 
extensive estates without any titles to them. 

737. The Jlocks which form the mesta usually consist of about 10,000 sheep each. 
Every flock is under the care of a directing officer, fifty shepherds, and fifty dogs. The 
whole flocks, composing the mesta, consist of about five millions of sheep, and employ 
about 45 or 50,000 persons, and nearly as many dogs. The flocks are put in motion in the 
latter end of April, or beginning of May, leaving the plains of Estramadura, Andalusia, 
Leon, and Old and New Castile, where they usually winter, and they repair to the moun- 
tains of the two latter provinces, and those of Biscay, Navarre, and Arragon. The sheep, 
while feeding on the mountains, have occasionally administered to them small quantities 
of salt. It is laid upon flat stones, to which the flocks are driven, and permitted to eat 
what quantity they please. During the days the salt is administered the sheep are not 
allowed to depasture on a calcareous soil, but are moved to argillaceous lands, where 
they feed voraciously. (Toivnsend.) 

738. At the end of July the ewes are put to the rams, after separation has been made of those already 
with lamb. Six or seven rams are considered sufficient for one hundred ewes. 

739. In September the sheep are ochred, their backs and loins being rubbed with red ochre, or ruddle, 
dissolved in water. This practice is founded upon an ancient custom, the reason of which is not clearly 
ascertained. Some suppose that the ochre, uniting with the oleaginous matter of the fleece, forms a kind 
of varnish, which defends the animal from the inclemency of the weather ; others think the ponderosity 
of this earth prevents the wool growing too thick and long in the staple : but the more eligible opinion is, 
that the earth absorbs the superabundant perspiration, which would otherwise render the wool both 
harsh and coarse. 

740. Toivards the end of September the flocks recommence their march. Descending from the moun- 
tains, they travel towards the warmer parts of the country, and again repair to the plains of Leon, Estre- 
madura, and Andalusia. The sheep are generally conducted to the same pastures they had grazed the 
preceding year, and where most of them had been yeaned : there they are kept during the winter. 

741. Sheej^shearing commences in the beginning of May, and is performed while the 
sheep are on their summer journey, in large buildings called esquileos. Tliose, which are 
placed upon the road, are capable of containing forty, fifty, and some sixty thousand sheep. 

Book I. 



They are erected in various places ; but the principal are in the environs of S^ovia, and 
the most celebrated is that of Iturviaca. The shearing is preceded by a pompous prepa- 
ration, conducted in due fonn, and the interval is considered a time of feasting and recre- 
ation. One hundred and twenty-five men are usually employed for shearing a thousand 
ewes, and two hundred for a thousand wethers. Each sheep affords four kinds of wool, 
more or less fine according to the parts of the animal whence it is taken. The ewes pro- 
duce the finest fleeces, and the wethers "the heaviest : three wether fleeces ordinarily weigh 
on the average twenty-five pounds ; but it will take five ewe fl eces to amount to the same 

742. The journey which thejlocks make in their peregrination is regulated by particu- 
lar laws, and immemorial customs. The sheep pass unmolested over the pastures be- 
longing to the villages and the commons which lie in their road, and have a right to feed 
on them. They are not, however, allowed to pass over cultivated lands ; but the pro- 
prietors of such lands are obliged to leave for them a path ninety varas, or about forty 
toises (eighty- four yards), in breadth. When they traverse the commonable pastures, they 
seldom travel more than two leagues, or five and a half miles, a day ; but when they walk 
in close order over the cultivated fields, often more than six varas, or nearly seventeen miles. 
The whole of their journey is usually an extent of one hundred and twenty, thirty, or forty 
leagues, which they perform in thirty or thirty-five days. The price paid for depasturing 
the lands where they winter is equally regulated by usage, and is very low ; but it is not 
in the power of the landed proprietors to make the smallest advance. 

743. The mesta has Us particular laws, and a tribunal before which are cited all per- 
sons who have any suit or difference with the proprietors. The public opinion in Spain 
has long been against the mesta, on account of the number of people it employs, the ex- 
tent of land it keeps uncultivated, the injury done to the pasture and cultivated lands of 
individuals, and the tyranny of the directors and shepherds. These have been grievances 
from time immemorial. Government, yielding to the pressing solicitations of the people, 
instituted a committee to enquire into them about the middle of tiie eighteenth century ; 
but it did no good, and it was not till the revolution of 1810, that the powers and pri- 
vileges of the mesta were greatly reduced. 

744. The implements of Spanish agriculture are very simple. The common plough of 
Castile and most of the provinces (Jig- 97.) 
is supposed to be as old as the time of the 
Romans. It it thus described by Townsend : 
" The beam is about three feet long, curved, 
and tapered at one end, to receive an addi- 
tional beam of about five feet, fastened to it 
by three iron collars ; the other end of the 
three-foot beam touches the ground, and has 
a mortise to receive the share, the handle, 
and a wedge." From this description it is evident that the beam itself supplies the place 
of the sheath ; the share has no fin, and instead of a mould-board, there are two wooden 
pins fastened near the heel of the share. As in this plough the share, from the point to 
its insertion in the beam, is two feet six inches long, it is strengthened by a retch. That used 
near Malaga is described by Jacob as " a cross, with the end of the perpendicular 
part shod with iron. It penetrates about six inches into the soil, and is drawn by two 

oxen with ropes fastens- 
ed to the horns. The 
plough of Valencia, on 
the eastern coast, we 
have already given (Jig- 
12.) as coming the 
nearest to that described 
by Virgil. There are 
many wheels and other 
contrivances used for 
raising water ; the most 
general, as well as the 
most primitive, is the 
noria (Jig. 98.), or 
bucket wheel, intro- 
duced by the Moors, 
from which our chain 
pump is evidently de- 
rived. A vertical wheel 
jars, fastened together by cords of esparto, 
themselves; by the motion of the wheel they 
I 4 

over a well has a series of earthen 
which descend into the water and fill 


rise to the surface, and then by the same motion empty themselves into a trough, 
from which the water is conveyed by trenches into the different parts of the garden 
or field. The vertical wheel is put in motion by a horizontal one, which is turned by a 
cow." (Jacob's Travels, 152.) The construction of dung-pits has already been men- 
tioned, (710.) as introduced by the Moors, and the practice of preserving the dung in 
that manner is still continued in Granada and Valencia. Threshing-floors are made in 
the fields, and paved with pebbles or other stones. 

745. Few of the operatiotis of Spanish agriculture afford any tiling characteristic. No 
hay is made in Spain (Toivusend) ; and so dry and brittle is tlie straw of the corn crops, 
that in the process of treading out, which is generally done by mares and colts, it is bro- 
Jcen to pieces. The grain being separated, the straw is put in stacks, and preserved for 
litter, or mixed with barley as food for cattle. Irrigation is carefully performed, and is the 
only effectual mode of insuring a crop of grain, or any sort of herbaceous vegetable. On 
some farms on the Vega in Malaga, scarcely any attention is paid to stirring the soil, but 
by the very complete irrigation which can be there given, the land yields fifty bushels per 
acre. Where the soil is naturally light, situated in a warm climate, and not irrigated, it is 
remarkably free from weeds; because from the latter end of May, or the beginning of 
June, when the crop is harvested, till October or November, they have no rain ; and the 
heat of the sun during that period destroys every plant, and leaves the soil like a fallow 
which only requires tlie seed furrow. In effect it gets no more ; and thus, under such cir- 
cumstances, one crop a year, after only one ploughing, may be raised for an endless period. 
• — In the Asturias, after the women milk the sheep, they carry the milk home in leather bags, 
shaking it all tlie way, till by the time of their arrival butter is formed. ( TownsencCs 
Travels, i. 273.) 

746. The labouring man of Spain adopts a custom which might be useful to the 
reapers and haymakers of Britain, in many situations. The labour and heat of hay time 
and harvest excite great perspiration and consequent thirst, which it is often necessary 
to quench with sun-warmed water. To cool such water, the Spanish reaper puts it in 
a porous eartlien pitcher (alcarraza), the surface of which being constantly moist vrith 
the transudation of the fluid, its evaporation cools the water within. The frequent appli- 
cation of wet cloths to a bottle or earthen vessel, and exposure to the sun and wind, 
effects the same object, but with more trouble. 

747. The culture of forests is very little attended to in Spain. The best charcoal is 
made from heath, chiefly the JE'rica mediterranea, which grows to the size of a small tree, 
and of which tliere are immense tracts like forests. The 93 
cork tree (Qu^rcus ^Siiber, fg. 99.) affords the most valuable 
products. The bark is taken off for the first time when the 
tree is about fifteen years old ; it soon grows again, and may 
be rebarked three times, the bark improving every time, till 
the tree attains the age of thirty years. It is taken off in 
sheets or tables, much in the same way as oak or larch bark 
is taken from the standing trees in this country. After 
being detached, it is flattened by presenting the convex side ; 
to heat, or by pressure. In eitlier case it is charred on both 
surfaces to close the transverse pores previously to its being 
sold, Tliis charring may be seen in bungs and taps ; but 
not in corks, which, being cut in the long way of the wood, 
the charring is taken off in the rounding. 

748. The exertions that have been made for the improvement 
of the agriculture of Spain we have already noticed, and need 
only add, that if the late government had maintained its 
power, and continued in the same spirit, perhaps every thing 
would have been effected that could be desired. Time, indeed, would have been requi- 
site ; but improvement once heartily commenced, the ratio of its increase is astonishing. 
But the French invasion of Spain, first under Bonaparte, and again under the Bourbons, 
has spoiled every thing, and for the present almost annihilated hope. 

749. The agricultural circumstances of Portugal have so much in common with those 
of Spain, that they do not require separate consideration. The two countries differ in 
the latter having a more limited cultivation, the sugar-cane, and most of the West 
India plants grown in Spain, requiring a warmer climate than that of Portugal. The 
vine and orange are cultivated to great perfection ; but common agriculture is neglected. 
The breed of horses is inferior, and there are few cows or sheep. Swine form the most 
abundant live stock, and fatten, in a half wild state, on the acorns of the numerous oak 
forests which cover the mountains. 

Book I. 



Sect. X. Present State of Agriculture in European Turkey. 

■ 750. The Turkish empire includes a variety of climates and countries, of most of which 
so little is correctly known, that we can give no satisfactory account of their agriculture. 
Asiatic Turkey is nearly three times the extent of the European part j but the latter is 
better cultivated and more populous. " European Turkey," Thornton observes, " de- 
pends upon no foreign country for its subsistence. The labour of its inhabitants produces, 
in an abundance unequalled in the other countries of Europe, all the alimentary produc- 
tions, animal and vegetable, whether for use or enjoyment. The com countries, in spite 
of the impolitic restrictions of the government, besides pouring plenty over the empire, 
secretly export their superfluities to foreign countries. Their agriculture, therefore, 
tliough neglected and discouraged, is still above their wants." {Present State of Turkey, 
vol. i. p. 66.) 

751. The climate and seasons of European Turkey vary with the latitude and local 
circumstances of the different provinces, from the Morea, in lat. 37° and surrounded by 
the Mediterranean sea, to Moldavia, between Hungary and Russia, in lat. 48°. The 
surface is generally mountainous, with plains and vales ; some rivers, as the Danube in 
Wallachia, and numerous gulfs, bays, estuaries, and inlets of the Adriatic, the Archi- 
pelago, the Mediterranean, and the Black Seas. The soil is in general fertile, alluvial in some 
of the richest plains of Greece, as Thessaly ; and calcareous in many parts of Wallachia 
and Moldavia. These provinces produce excellent wheat and rich pasture ; while those 
of the south produce maize, wheat, and rice. The vine is cultivated in most provinces ; 
and there are extensive forests, especially in tlie north. The live stock consists of the 
horse, ox, camel, sheep, and swine. (^Thornton.) 

752. Some traits of the agriculture of the Morea, the southernmost province of European 
Turkey, have been given by Dr. Pouqueville. Tlie climate holds the exact medium 
between the scorching heat of Egypt and tlie cold of more northern countries. The 
winter is short, but stormy ; and the summer is hot, but tempered by breezes from the 
mountains or the sea. The soil of the mountains is argillaceous ; in some places inclin- 
ing to marl, and in others to peat or vegetable earth : the richest parts are Arcadia and 
Argos. The plough consists of a share, a jv^^ 100 
beam, and a handle (Jig. 100.); the share is NT 
shaped somewhat like the claw of an anchor, 
and the edges armed with iron. In some cases 
it has tw^o wheels. It is drawn by one horse, by 
two asses, or by oxen or buffaloes, according to 
the nature of the soil. The corn grown is of 
excellent quality, though no attention is paid to selecting the seed. The rice of Argolis 
is held at Constantinople the next in excellence to that of Damietta. The vine is suc- 
cessfully cultivated ; but cit Corinth, " situated in a most unwholesome atmosphere," the 

culture of that sort which produces the raisins of Corinth is 
less attended to than formerly. The olive trees (O^lea europaeV, 
g. 101.) are the finest in the world ; the oil of Maina is the 
best, and held in esteem at all the principal markets of Eu- 
rope. The white mulberry is extensively cultivated for the 
support of the silkworm. Elis yields the best silk. The 
cotton is cultivated in fields, which are commonly divided by 
hedges of Nepal or Indian fig, which is eaten, but is here 
more vapid than in Egypt. 

753. The figs of the Morea " are perhaps the most exquisite 
that can be eaten." The tree is cultivated with particular 
care, and the practice of caprification adopted. They collect 
the little figs which have fallen from the trees while very 
young, and which contain numbers of the eggs of the gnat 
insect (Cynips). Of these they make chaplets, which are 
suspended to the branches of the trees. The gnats are soon 
hatched, and spread themselves over the whole tree. The 
females, in order to provide a nidus for their eggs, pierce the 
fruit with their sting, and then deposit them. From this puncture a gummy liquor 
oozes ; and after this the figs are not only not liable to fall, but grow larger and finer 
than if they had not undergone this operation. It is doubted by some modern physiolo- 
gists whether this process is of any real use, it being now neglected in most fig countries 
where it was formerly performed. Some allege that it is merely useful as fecundating 
the blossoms, which most people are aware are situated inside of the fruit ; others that it 
promotes precocity, which the puncture of an insect will do in any fruit, and which any 
one may luive observed in the gooseberry, apple, or pear. 


754. The almond tree is very pi'oductive. The orange tribe abounds ; and the pomegra- 
nates, peaches, apricots, grapes, &c., are of the finest flavour. The banana is cultivated in 
the gardens, as are melons, dates, and many other fruits. Carobs (Ceratonia), quinces, 
medlars, cherries, &c. are wild in abundance. Bees are found in the hollows of trees ; 
and their excellent white honey is exported. 

755. Tke oxen of the Morea are low, and have longiwhite hair. The most fleshy do not 
weigh more than from 300 to 400 pounds. The cows give little milk, and are much injured 
by the jackals, who tear away their teats ; and by large serpents, which are said to suck 
the milk. The sheep are small, and have large horns ; their wool is considered of the second 
quality of the wool of the East. Cheese is made from their milk, and that of goats. 
The horses of the Morea are of a breed between the Moravian and Thracian : their foim 
is not admired ; but they are full of fire and courage ; and so vigorous, that they run 
with a firm and rapid step over the mountains without ever stumbling. The asses are 

756. The forests of the Morea produce the cork-tree ; the kermes oak ; the Qu^rcus E'sculus, or Velonia 
oak, the acorns of which are eaten, and their cups used as oak-galls, in preparing black dye ; the 
azarole, plane, larch, wild olive, sweet chestnut, manna ash ; grains d' Avignon (/Zhamnus infectbrius 
L.), from the grains or seeds of which a fine yellow dye is prepared ; Lawsbnm int^rmis, which furnishes 
a fine aurora colour, with which the women of the East dye their nails ; the turpentine tree, barren 
date trees, silk tree (Mimbsa Julibr'tssin) with its beautiful tufts, pine fir, and a variety of others. Chest- 
nuts were at one period the temporary food of nearly the whole country : on Mount Pholoe, where the 
peasants are half savages, they form the principal food for the whole year. A variety of plants used in 
the arts and in pharmacy grow wild in the wastes, and there are venison and game in the woods, and 
fishes in the rivers, lakes, and the surrounding ocean. The Morea, Dr. Pouqueville concludes, is " a fine 
country:" and though one does not find the golden age here renewed, yet, " under a better order of 
things, it will produce abundantly every thing necessary to supply the wants of man." {Travels, 
transl. by A. Plumtree, p. 206.) 

757. Some notices of the agriculture of Thessaly and Albania have been given by Dr. 
Holland. The plain of Thes- ^ ^ ^^ 102 

saly (Jig. 102. ) is an immense 
tract of level country, with a fine 
alluvial soil, which tradition 
and external appearance concur 
in testifying, was once covered 
with water. *< The capabili- 
ties," Dr. Holland observes, 
« are great throughout the 

whole of this fine province; 

and it would not be easy to fix a limit to the amount and variety of produce which might 
be raised from its surface. In their present state, the plains of Thessaly form one of the 
most productive districts of the Grecian peninsula, and their annual produce, in grain of 
different kinds, cotton, silk, wool, rice, and tobacco, allows a very large amount of regular 
export from the provinces." The cultivation is not deficient in skill or neatness. Their 
plough is of a primitive form ; and their carts are small cars, some of them, as Dr. 
Clarke observes, simple enough \jtg. 103.) ; both are drawn by oxen or buffaloes. The 
103 p « U a wool of the sheep is moderately fine ; the mulberry is 

grown in dwarf pollards ; and the cotton in drills, well 
hoed. The men are a stern-looking race, and the women well 
I made, and not unlike the antique. " The circumstances 
by which the amount of produce might be increased, are 
' chiefly, perhaps, of a more general nature, — a better form 
of government ; greater security to private property ; a 
more uniform distribution of the inhabitants ; and the prevention of those monopolies 
in the export of grain, which have hitherto been exercised by the Turkish rulers of the 
country. {Travels, 2d. edit. p. 281.) 

758. The agriculture of Albania differs in no essential particular from that of Thessaly. 
The common tenure on which land is let, is that of paying to the landlord half the 
produce. The vale of Deropuli is the most fertile and populous in Albania. The 
tillage, generally speaking, is remarkable for its neatness. The products are chiefly 
wheat, maize, tobacco, and rice. The returns afford a considerable surplus for export- 
ation J and the tobacco is esteemed the best in Albania. Large flocks of sheep feed on 
the declivity of the mountains, and afford much coarse wool for the manufactures of the 

759. The agriculture of Moldavia and Wallachia, two the most northerly provinces 
of European Turkey, has been given by various authors, as Carra, Bauer, and Thornton. 
The climate of those provinces is very severe in winter. Spring begins in April ; sum- 
mer in June ; and in July and August the days are excessively hot, and the nights cold. 
Heavy rains begin in September, and snows in November. The surface is generally 
mountainous : but the valleys are dry and rich. The usual grains are cultivated, and also 

Book I. 



maize. Tliey plough deep with six oxen, and never employ manure. They take a crop, 
and leave the land to rest, alternately. The corn is trodden out by horses, and then 
laid up in pits. Flax and hemp are sown for local manufacture. Newly broken up 
lands are planted with cabbages, which grow to a great size. The vine is cultivated on 
the southern declivities of hills, and the wine is said to equal that of Hungary. The mul- 
berry is cultivated for the silkworm ; and forests are extensive on the mountains. The 
common fruit trees are abundant, and an excellent variety of apple, called the doiniasca, 
grows wild. The olive and fig are too delicate for the climate. 

760. But the pasture lands are tbe most valuable parts of these provinces. The oxen are 
large and fleshy, and so numerous that they form a principal article of export to Russia, 
Poland, and Germany. The buffalo thrives better here than in most parts of Europe ; 
and is valued for its strength and milk. The sheep winter on the Danube, and pass the 
summer on the Carpathian mountains ; their mutton is excellent, and the annual export- 
ation of the wool into Germany is very considerable. There are various breeds of 
horses ; they are brought up in great numbers, for the Austrian and Prussian cavalry. 
They are well formed, spirited, docile, and remarkable for the soundness of their hoofs. 
The carriage and draught horses are small but active, and capable of resisting fatigue. 
They live in the open air in all seasons, though in winter they are often attacked by wolves. 
Domestic fowls and game abound, especially hares. The honey and wine are of the finest 
quality. One author (Carra) mentions a kind of green wax, which, being made into 
tapers, diffuses an excellent perfume when lighted. Many of the cottages partake of the 


Swiss character, and are more 
picturesque than those of Hun- 
gary or Russia. {Jig. 104.) 

761. The poorest agriculture 
in. European Turkey is that of 
Romelia, including the coun- 
try round Constantinople. The 
surface is hilly, and the soil dry 
and stony, chiefly in pasture or 
waste. " The capital of the 
empire," Thornton observes, ' 
" as the soil in its immediate 
vicinity is barren and ungrateful, 
receives from the neighbouring 
villages, and from the sur- 
rounding coasts of both the seas which it commands, all fhe culinary herbs and fruits of 
excellent flavour, which the most fastidious appetites can require ; and from the Asiatic 
coasts of the Black Sea, all materials necessary for fuel, or for the construction of ships 
and houses." 

Chap. V. 

Modem History and present State of Agriculture in the British Ides, 

762. Having, in the preceding chapter, brought down the history of British 
agriculture to the revolution, we shall resume it at that period, and continue our view to 
the present time. As this period may be considered the most interesting of the whole 
series, we shall, for the sake of distinctness, arrange the matter under the separate sec- 
tions of the political, professional, and literary history of agriculture in Britain, and sub- 
mit a separate view of the progress and present state of agriculture in Ireland. 

Sect. I. Political History of Agriculture in Britain, from the Revolution in 1 668 to 
the present Time. 

763. That the agriculture and general prosperity of this country were greatly benefited by 
the revolution is an undisputed point. That prosperity, as far as respects agriculture, has 
been ascribed to the corn-laws then promulgated. " In 1670," a masterly writer on the 
subject remarks, " exportation was permitted, whatever the price might be; and im- 
portation was virtually prohibited, by a duty of 16s. per quarter, when wheat did not 
exceed 53s. 4d. ; of 8s. when above that, and not exceeding 80s. ; and when above 80s. 
the duty of 5s. 4d., imposed by the act of 1663, continued to be payable. Still, how- 
ever, as there was a duty payable on exportation ; and as importation, from some defect 


in the law respecting the mode of ascertaining the prices at which the diflferent duties 
were exigible, still continued at the low duty, the system by which exportation was 
encouraged, and importation in ordinary cases prohibited, was not completely established 
till 1688 and 1700. In the former of these years, a bounty of 5s. a quarter was given on 
exportation, when the price of wheat did not exceed 48s., and in the latter the duties 
on exportation were wholly repealed. Under these laws, not only was the excess of 
exports very considerable, but the prices of grain, down to 1765, were much lower 
than during an equal number of years preceding 1688. lliis is not the place to enquire 
how far these laws had an influence in producing this phenomenon ; but the facts 
themselves are indisputable. Yet the mere circumstance of large exportations of grain 
does by no means prove the prosperity of agriculture ; far less is its cheapness in the 
home markets any evidence of the comfortable subsistence of the lower orders. Corn 
seems to have been raised in such abundance, not merely because the market was ex- 
tended by means of the bounty, but because there was little demand for other products 
of the soil, which have, since that time, withdrawn a large portion of the best arable 
land from the growth of corn. And the price was low, because neither the number nor 
wealth of the consumers had increased in a proportion corresponding to the supply. 
Before the accession of his present majesty, the number of acts for enclosure was only 
two hundred and forty-four ; a clear proof that agricultural improvements proceeded 
much more slowly than they have done since. And it cannot be disputed, that, owing 
to the imperfect culture of that period, when ameliorating crops did not enter largely 
into the courses of management, any given extent of land did not produce so much corn 
as under the improved rotations of modern husbandry." 

764. The exportation of wool was prohibited in 1647, in 1660, and in 1668 ; and the 
prohibition strictly enforced by subsequent statutes. The effect of this on its price, 
and the state of the wool trade, from the earliest period to the middle of last century, 
are distinctly exhibited by the learned and laborious author of Memoirs on Wool, 
printed in 1747. 

765. In 1765 the corn-laws established in the end of the seventeenth century began to be repealed, and ex- 
portation was prohibited, and importation permitted without payment of duties, by annual acts, during 
the seven subsequent years. " A new system was established in 1773, allowing importation when the price 
of wheat was at or above 48s. per quarter, at the low duty of Qd. Exportation was prohibited when the 
price was 44s. ; and below that the former bounty of 5s. per quarter continued to be payable." 

766. By an act passed in 1791, the bounty on exportation, when the price was under 44s. per quarter, 
remained unaltered ; but " exportation was permitted till the price was 46s. Importation was virtually 
prohibited by high duties when the price was below 50s. ; and permitted, on payment of a duty of 6rf., 
when at or above 54s." 

767. In 1804, " the corn-laws were altered for the third time, and the bounty on exportation was paid 
till the price of wheat was 48s. per quarter ; and at 54s. exportation was prohibited. The high duty of 
24s. 3d. was payable on importation till the price was 63s. ; above 63s. and under 66s. a duty of 2s. 6d. ; 
and above ^s. the low duty of Qd. By an act in 1805, importation into any part of Britain is to be regu- 
lated by the aggregate average price of the twelve maritime districts of England. Importation was 
never stopped under the law of 1804, till February 1815. 

768. During the twenty-two years preceding 1821, about sixty millions of pounds sterling have been 
paid for foreign grain. " In bad seasons the prices have been enhanced to a most alarming degree, not- 
withstanding large bounties have been paid on importation. The average price of every successive period 
of ten years, from 1765 to 1814, has risen considerably ; and since 1795, the price has been seldom less 
than double the average of the first sixty years of the last century." 

769. The corn-laws since 1814 have undergone a change in almost every session of 
parliament. According to the corn act of 1828, foreign corn is admitted at 52s. per 
imperial quarter for a duty of 34s. 8rf. per quarter, and from 52s. to 73s. at a graduated 
scale of duties, being admitted at the latter price at Is. per quarter. Barley at 24s. is 
admitted on a duty of 25s. lOrf. per quarter, and from 24s. to 41s. on a graduated scale of 
duties ; so that at the latter price it is admitted at Is. per quarter. Oats are admitted at 
18s. per quarter, at a duty of 19s. 9d. per quarter, and from 18s. to 31s. on a graduated 
scale of duties ; so that at the latter price the duty is Is. per quarter. In like manner 
rye, peas, and beans, when at 29*. are admitted at 25s. 9d. per quarter, and when at 
46s. at Is. (Quar. Jour, of Agriculture, vol. i. p. 228.) 

770. Agriculture in Scotland was at low ebb at the period of the revolution. *' The 
calamity of that evil had so oppressed the tenantry of Scotland, that many farms re- 
mained unoccupied. Proprietors were then as eager in searching after tenants who were 
able to stock and cultivate the ground, as farmers were assiduous in seeking after farms 
previously to the late general peace. Improvements began to be made soon after the union, 
especially by some gentlemen of East Lothian, and by the efforts of the Agricultural 
Society of Scotland, established in 1723. It was now found beneficial to grant long 
leases, which were found greatly to increase the skill and industry of the tenants, by 
rendering them secure of enjoying the benefit of their improvements. A great stimulus 
was also given to farmers by the money circulated during the rebellion of 1745, which 
raised prices, and increased the tenants' capital stock." 

771. A desire to improve the roads of Scotland now began to manifest itself among the 
proprietors. The first act of parliament for collecting tolls on the highways in Scotland, 
was passed in 1 750, for repairing the road from Dunglass bridge to Haddington. In 


ten years after, several acts followed for the counties of Edinburgh and Lanark, and for 
making the roads between Edinburgh and Glasgow. The benefit which agriculture has 
derived from good roads it would not be easy to estimate. The want of them was one 
great cause of the slow progress of the art in former times. At present, all the improve- 
ments introduced by M'Adam in the construction and preservation of the roads of 
England, are spreading with equal rapidity and good effect in Scotland. 

772. The relaxing of the rigour of entails, and abrogating the feudal system, greatly bene- 
fited the agriculture of Scotland. The first was effected by an act in 1770, which re- 
laxed the rigour of strict entails, and extended the powers of proprietors, in so far as 
regards the improvement of their estates, and the granting of leases. 

773. But the general progress of agriculture in Britain, from the revolution to the 
middle of the eighteenth century, was by no means so considerable as from the great 
exportation of corn we should be led to imagine. " The gradual advance in the price of 
land produce, soon after the year 1760, occasioned by the increase of population, and 
of wealth derived from manufactures and commerce, has given a more powerful stimulus 
to rural industry, augmented agricultural capital in a greater degree, and called forth 
a more skilful and enterprising race of cultivators, than all the laws for regulating the 
corn trade could ever have effected. Most of tlie inventions for increasing produce and 
economising labour have either been introduced, or improved and greatly extended, since 
that time ; and by means of both, the free surplus has been vastly increased for the supply 
of the general consumption. The passing of more than three thousand bills of enclosure, ^ 
in the late reign, is a proof how much more rapidly the cultivation of new land has 
proceeded than in the former period : and the garden-like appearance of the country, as 
well as the striking improvement in the condition of all classes of the rural population, 
display, in the most decided manner, the skill and the success with which this great 
branch of national industry is now followed throughout the greater part of Britain." 

774. Since the conclusion of the American war in 1782, " improvement has pro- 
ceeded with singular rapidity in every district ; and while the rental rolls of proprietors 
have been doubled, tripled, and quadrupled, the condition of the tenantry, and of the 
lower ranks, has been ameliorated almost in a proportional degree," (£d. Ency. art. 

775. Since the period of 1815, agriculture has sustained a severe shock from the fall of 
prices, occasioned by the lessened circulation of currency, the necessary preliminary to a 
return to a currency of the precious metals. In this shock many hundreds of farmers lost 
all their capital, and were obliged to become operatives to others ; while some, more for- 
tunate, contrived to retain as much of the wreck of their property as enabled them to 
emigrate to other countries. Cleghorn, whose pamphlet on the depressed state of agri- 
culture was honoured with the prize of the Highland Society of Scotland, thinks this loss 
cannot have been less than one year's rental of the whole island. " The replies sent to 
the circular letter of the Board of Agriculture, regarding the agricultural state of the 
kingdom, in February, March, and April, 1816, furnish a body of evidence which cannot 
be controverted, and exhibit* a picture of widely spread ruin among the agricultural 
classes, and of distress among all that immediately depend upon them, to which there is 
probably no parallel." (See Cleghorn on the Depressed State of Agriculture, 1822.) After 
upwards of fourteen years' severe suffering, both by landlords and tenants, things have now 
assumed a more stationary condition. Rents have been greatly lowered every where in 
proportion to the fall of prices and the rise of parocliial burdens, and both fanners and 
landlords are beginning gradually to recover themselves. 

Sect. II. Professional History of Agriculture, from the Revolution to the 
present Time. 

776. In England, from the restoration to the middle of the eighteenth century, very little 
improvement took place, either in the cultivation of the soil, or in the management of 
live stock. Even clover and turnips (the great support of the present improved system 
of agriculture) were confined to a few districts, and at the close of this period were scarcely 
cultivated at all by common farmers in the northern parts of the island. From the Whole 
Art of Husbandry, published by Mortimer in 1 706, a work of considerable merit, it does 
not appear that any improvement was made on his practices till near the end of last cen- 
tury. In those districts where clover and rye-grass were cultivated, they were cut green, 
and used for soiling as at present. Turnips were sown broadcast, hand-hoed, and used for 
feeding sheep and cattle, as they were used in Houghton's time, and are still in most 
districts of England. 

777. In the beginning of the eighteenth century, a considerable improvement in the process 
of culture was introduced by Jethro TuU, a cultivator of Berkshire, who began to drill 
wheat and other crops about the year 1701, and whose Horse-hoeing Husbandry was pub- 
lished in 17S1. " In giving a short account of the innovations of this eccentric writer, it is 


not meant to enter into any discussion of their merits. It will not detract much from his 
reputation to admit, that, like most other men who leave the beaten path, he was some- 
times misled by inexperience, and sometimes deceived by a too sanguine imagination. 
Had Tull confined his recommendation of drill husbandry to leguminous and bulbous- 
rooted plants generally, and to the cereal gramina only in particular circumstances ; and 
had he, without puzzling himself about the food of plants, been contented with pointing 
out the great advantage of pulverising the soil in most cases, and extirpating weeds in every 
case, he would certainly have deserved a high rank among the benefactors of his country. 
A knowledge of his doctrines and practice, however, will serve as a necessary introduction 
to the present approved modes of culture." 

778. TulVs theory is promulgated with great confidence; and in the controversy which he thought 
proper to maintain in support of it, he scrupled not to employ ridicule as well as reasoning. Besides the 
Roman writers de Re Rustica, Virgil in particular, whom he treats with high disdain j he is almost equally 
severe on Dr. Woodward, Bradley, and other writers of his own time. 

779. Tull begins by showing that the roots qf plants extended much fai'ther than is commonly believed j 
and then proceeds to enquire into the nature of their food. After examining several hypotheses, he de- 
cides this to be fine particles of earth. The chief, and almost the only use of dung, he thinks, is to divide 
the earth ; to dissolve the " terrestrial matter which affords nutriment to the mouths of vegetable roots ;" 
and this can be done more completely by tillage. It is therefore necessary, not only to pulverise the soil 
by repeated ploughings before it be seeded ; but, as it becomes gradually more and more compressed after- 
wards, recourse must be had to tillage or horse-hoeing, while the plants are growing j which also destroys 
the weeds that would deprive the plants of their nourishment. 

780. The leading feature of TulVs htisbandry, is his practice of laying the land into narrow ridges of 
five or six feet, and upon the middle of these drilling one, two, or three rows ; distant from one another 
about seven inches, when there were three ; and ten inches, when only two. The distance of the plants 
on one ridge from those on the contiguous one, he called an interval ; the distance between the rows on 
the same ridge a space, or partition ; the former was stirred repeatedly by the horse-hoe, and the latter by 
the hand-hoe. 

781. The extraordinary attention Tull gave to his mode of culture is, perhaps, without a parallel. " I 
formerly was at much pains," he says, " and at some charge, in improving my drills, for planting the rows 
at very near distances ; and had brought them to such perfection, that one horse would draw ^ drill with 
eleven shares, making the rows at three inches and a half distant from one another ; and, at the same 
time, sow in them three very different sorts of seeds, which did not mix ; and these too at different depths. 
As the barley rows were seven inches asunder, the barley lay four inches deep. A little more than three 
inches above that, in the same channels, was clover ; betwixt every two of these rows, was a row of saint- 
foin, covered half an inch deep. I had a good crop of barley the first year ; the next year two crops of 
broad clover, where that was sown ; and where hop clover was sown, a mixed crop of that and saintfoin ; 
but I am since, by experience, so fully convinced of the folly of these, or any other mixed crops, and more 
especially of narrow spaces, that I have demolished these instruments (in their full perfection) as a vain 
curiosity, the drift and use of them being contrary to the true principles and practice of horse-hoeing." 
{Horse-hoeing Husbandry, p. 62. London, 1762.) 

782. In the culture of wheat he began with ridges six feet broad, or eleven on a breadth of sixty-six feet ; 
but on this he afterwards had fourteen ridges. After trying different numbers of rows on a ridge, he at 
last preferred two, with an intervening space of about ten inches. He allowed only three pecks of seed for 
an acre. The first hoeing was performed by turning a furrow from the row, as soon as the plant had put 
forth four or five leaves ; so that it was done before, or at the beginning of, winter. The next hoeing was 
in spring, by which the earth was returned to the plants. The subsequent operations depended upon the 
circumstances and condition of the land, and the state of the weather. The next year's crop of wheat 
was sown upon the intervals which had been unoccupied the former year ; but this he does not seem to 
think was a matter of much consequence. " My field," he observes, " whereon is now the thirteenth crop 
of wheat, has shown that the rows may successfully stand upon any part of the ground. The ridges 
of this field were, for the twelfth crop, changed from six feet to four feet six inches. In order for this al- 
teration, the ridges were ploughed down, and then the next ridges were laid out the same way as the 
former, but one foot six inches narrower, and the double rows drilled on their tops ; whereby, of conse- 
quence, there must be some rows standing on every part of the ground, both on the former partitions, and 
on every part of the intervals. Notwithstanding this, there was no manner of difference in the goodness 
of the rows ; and the whole field was in every part of it equal, and the best, I believe, that ever grew 
on it It is now the thirteenth crop, likely to be good, though the land was not ploughed cross ways." 
{Ibid., p. 424.) 

783. According to Tull, a rotation of crops of different species was altogether unnecessary ; 
and he labours hard to prove, against Dr. Woodward, that the advantages of such a change, 
under his plan of tillage, were quite chimerical ; though he seems to admit the benefit of 
a change of the seed itself. But the best method of determining the question would have 
been, to have stated the amount of his crops per acre, and the quality of the grain, instead 
of resting the superiority of his management on the alleged saving of expense, when com- 
pared with the common broadcast husbandry. 

784. On the culture of the turnip, both his principles and his practice are much more correct. The ridges 
were of the same breadth as for wheat ; but only one row was drilled on each. His management, while 
the crop was growing, differs very little from the present practice. "When drilled on the level, it is impos- 
sible, he observes, to hoe-plough them so well as when they are planted upon ridges. But the seed was 
deposited at different depths, the half about four inches deep, and the other half exactly over that, at the 
depth of half an inch. " Thus planted, let the weather be never so dry, the deepest seed will come up ; 
but if it raineth immediately after planting, the shallow will come up first. We also make it come up at 
four times, by mixing our seed, half new and half old, the new coming up a day quicker than the old. 
These four comings up give it so many chances for escaping the fly; it being often seen that the seed 
sown over night will be destroyed by the fly, when that sown the next morning will escape, and vice versa: 
or you may hoe-plough them when the fly is like to devour them; this will bury the greatest part of those 
enemies j or else you may drill m another row without new ploughing the land." 

785. Drilling, and horse and hand hoeing, seem to have been in use before the publi- 
cation of TuU's book. " Hoeing," he says, « may be divided into deep, which is our 
horse-hoeing ; and shallow, which is the English hand-hoeing ; and also the shallow 
horse-hoeing used in some places betwixt rows, where the intervals are very narrow^, as 


sixteen or eighteen inches. This is but an imitation of the hand-hoe, or a succedaneum 
to it, and can neither supply the use of dung, nor of fallow, and may be properly called 
scratch-hoeing." But in liis mode of forming ridges, his practice seems to have been 
original ; his implements display much ingenuity ; and his claim to the title of father of 
the present horse-hoeing husbandry of Great Britain seems indisputable. A translation of 
Tull's l)ook was undertaken at one and the same time in France, by three different per- 
sons of consideration, without the privity of each other. Two of them afterwards put 
their papers into the hands of the third, M. Du Hameldu Monceau, of the Royal Academy 
of Sciences, at Paris, who published a treatise on husbandry, on the principles of Tull, 
a few years after. But Tull seems to have had very few followers in England for more 
than thirty years. The present method of drilling and horse-hoeing turnips was not 
introduced into Northumberland till about the year 1780 {Northum. Survey, p. 100.) ; 
and it was then borrowed from Scotland, tlie farmers of which had the merit of first 
adopting Tull's management in the culture of this root, and improving on it, about 
1760, and from them it has since made its way, but slowly, in the southern part of the 
island. Tull was bom in Oxfordshire, was bred a barrister, and made the tour of 
Europe. He commenced his experiments on his own estate, but being unsuccessful, was 
obliged to sell it. He afterwards took a farm in Berkshire, where he renewed his oper- 
ations. He published his book in 1731, and died in 1740, leaving a son, an officer in 
the army, who ruined himself by projects, and died in the Fleet prison in London in 1764. 

786. In the live stock of British agriculture, very little improvement had been made pre- 
viously to the middle of the eighteenth century, or later. About this time, the best breed 
of cattle and sheep were about Doncaster, in Yorkshire, and in Leicestershire, and the 
first grand and successful effort to improve them was made by Robert Bakewell, of 
Dishley, in the latter county. Bakewell was born about 1 725 or 26 ; and soon after 
arriving at the years of maturity, took an interest in improving the breed of sheep. His 
father was a farmer, and died in 1 760 ; but the son had taken an active management of 
the farm for many years before that time, having began, about the year 1755, that course 
of experiments winch terminated in the important improvements for which his name is 
celebrated. (Hunt's Agricultural Memoirs, p. 35 ; Fleming's Farmer s Joumaly August, 
1828, p. 319.) 

787. By BakeweWs skilful selection at first, and constant care afterwards, to breed from 
the best animals, without any regard to their consanguinity, he at last obtained a variety 
of sheep, which, for early maturity, and the property of returning a great produce of 
mutton for the food they consume, as well as for the small proportion which the weight 
of the offal bears to that of the four quarters, are altogether unequalled either in this or 
any other country. The Dishley or New Leicester sheep, and their crosses, are now 
spread over the principal com districts of Britain ; and from their quiet domesticated 
habits, are probably still the most profitable of all the varieties of sheep, on farms where 
the rearing and fattening of live stock are combined with the best courses of tillage 

788. The practice of Bakewell and his followers furnishes an instance of the benefits 
of a division of labour, in a department of business where it was little to be expected. 
Their male stock was let out every year to breeders from all parts of England ; and thus, 
by judiciously crossing the old races, all the valuable properties of the Dishley variety 
descended, after three or four generations, to their posterity. By no other means could 
this new breed have spread so rapidly, nor have been made to accommodate itself so easily 
to a change of climate and pasture. Another recommendation of this plan was, that the 
ram-hirer had a choice among a number of males, of somewhat different properties, and 
in a more or less advanced stage of improvement ; from which it was his business to select 
such as suited his particular object. These were reared by experienced men, who gave 
their principal attention to this branch alone ; and having the best females as well as males, 
they were able to furnish the necessary supply of young males in the greatest variety, 
to those farmers whose time was occupied with other pursuits. The prices at which 
Bakewell's rams were hii'ed appear enormous. .^' In 1789, he received twelve hundred 
guineas for the hire of three brought at one birth ; two thousand for seven ; and, for his 
whole letting, at least three thousand guineas. (Encyc. Brit. art. Agr.) 

789. Messrs. Matthew and George Culley carried the improvements of Bakewell into Durham and 
Northumberland, and perpetuated them in the north of England and south of Scotland. Messrs. Culley 
were pupils of Mr. Bakewell in 1762 and 1763, and Mr. George CuUey soon became Mr. Bakewell's 
confidential friend, and was always considered his favourite disciple. After practising their improve- 
ments for a number of years in the county of Durham, they removed, in 1767, to Fenton farm, near 
Wooler, in Northumberland, containing upwards of 1100 acres. At this time, the sheep flocks that 
were kept on the arable and grazing districts of Northumberland were a large, slow-feeding, long-woolled 
kind ; and a mixed breed, between those long-wooUed sheep and the Cheviot. These breeds were rarely 
got fattened before three years old ; but the improved Leicesters (which were introduced by Messrs. 
Culley) were sold fat at little more than a year old ; and though they met with much opposition at their 
first introduction, there is now scarcely a flock to be found that has not been improved by them. Their 
breed of short-horned, or Teeswater, cattle, was also a great acquisition to the district ; and the breed of 
draught horses was considerably improved by their introducing a stallion of Mr. Bakewell's. Tliey were 


always amongst the first to adopt and make experiments of any new mode of culture, new implements of 
husbandry, or new varieties of grain ; and they practised draining, irrigation, fencing, and other improve- 
ments, on the most correct principles. Their great attention to minutite, unremitting industry, and supe- 
rior cultivation, not only raised a spirit of exertion and emulation in the surrounding neighbourhood, 
but gained them such celebrity as first-rate breeders and agriculturists, that they had pupils from various 
parts of the island, with whom they received considerable premiums, besides being amply paid for their 
board and instruction. To all those acquirements, they added strict economy; the consequence of which 
was a great accumulation of wealth, which they appUed (as occasions offered) to increasing their farming 
concerns ; and this to such an extent, that for several years they occupied farms to the amount of about 
8000/. a year. The large capital which such extensive concerns required, applied with so much attention 
and judgment, could not fail of producing the most lucrative effects. The result is, that, from a small original 
capital, their respective families are now enjoying landed property to the amount of nearly 4000/. a year 
each (besides a very large sum invested in farming), the well merited reward of unremitting industry 
and extensive agricultural knowledge. In 1786, Mr. George Culley published his Observations on Live 
Stock, which was the first treatise on the subject that attempted to describe the domesticated animals of 
Britain, and the principles by which they may be improved. The great merits of this work are evinced 
by the number of editions it has gone through. In 1793, Mr. G. Culley, in conjunction with Mr. Bailey 
of Chillingham, drew up the Agricultural Reports for Durham and Northumberland, and in 1813 he 
died at Fowberry Tower, the seat of his son, in the 79th year of his age. {Farmer's Mag. vol. xiv. p. 274.) 

790. Merino sheep were first brought into England in 1788, when His Majesty procured 
a small flock by way of Portugal. In 1791, another flock was imported from Spain. In 
1 804, when His Majesty's annual sales commenced, tliis race began to attract much notice. 
Dr. Parry, of Bath, has crossed die Ryeland, or Herefordshire sheep, with the merinos, 
and brought the wool of the fourth generation to a degree of fineness not excelled by that 
of the pure merino itself; while the carcass, in which is the great defect of the merinos, 
has been much improved. Lord Somerville, and many other gentlemen, have done them- 
selves much honour by their attention to this race ; but it does not appear that the 
climate of Britain, the rent of land, and the love of good mutton, admit of substituting 
it for others of native origin. (^Encyc. Brit. art. Agr.) 

791. The agriculture of Scotland, as we have seen, was in a very depressed state at 
the revolution, from political circumstances. It was not less so in point of professional 
knowledge. Lord Kaimes, tliat excellent judge of mankind and sound agriculturist, 
declares, in strong terms, that the tenantry of Scotland, at the end of the seventeenth and 
beginning of the eighteenth century, were so benumbed with oppression or poverty, that 
the most able instructor in husbandry would have made nothing of them. Fletcher of 
Saltoun, who lived in the best part of Scotland, and in the end of the seventeenth century, 
describes their situation as truly deplorable. 

792. John Cockburn, of Ormiston, East Lothian, a spirited individual, who rose at this 
time, and to whom the agriculture of Scotland is much indebted, deserves to be men- 
tioned. He was born in 1685, and succeeded to the family estate of Ormiston in 1714. 
He saw that internal improvement could only be effected by forming and extending a 
middle rank of society, and increasing their prosperity. In fact, as an able writer. Brown, 
the founder of the Farmer's Magazine, has remarked, " the middling ranks are the 
strength and support of every nation." In former times, what we now call middling 
classes were not known, or at least little known in Scotland, where the feudal system 
reigned longer than in England. After trade was introduced, and agriculture improved, 
the feudal system was necessarily overturned ; and proprietors, like other men, began to 
be estimated according to their respective merits, vs^ithout receiving support from the ad- 
ventitious ciixumstances under which they were placed. 

793. In 1723, a number of landholders, at the instigation of Mr. Cockburn, formed 
themselves into a Society of Improvers in the Knowledge of Agriculture in Scotland. The 
Earl of Stair, one of their most active members, is said to have been the first who culti- 
vated turnips in that country. This society exerted itself in a very laudable manner, 
and apparently with considerable success, in introducing cultivated herbage and turnips, 
as well as in improving on the foratier methods of culture : but there is reason to 
believe, that the influence of the example of its members did not extend to the common 
tenantry, who are always unwilling to adopt the practices of those who are placed in a 
higher rank, and supposed to cultivate land for pleasure, rather than profit. Though 
this society, the earliest in the united kingdom, soon counted upwards of three hundred 
members, it existed little more than twenty years. Maxwell delivered lectures on agri- 
culture for one or two sessions at Edinburgh, which, from the specimens he has left, 
ought to have been encouraged. 

794. Draining, enclosing, summer-fallowing ; sowing flax, hemj), rape, turnip, and grass 
seeds ; planting cabbages after and potatoes with the plough, in fields of great extent, are 
practices which were already introduced : and, according to the general opinion, more com 
was now grown where it was never known to grow before, than, perhaps, a sixth of all that 
the kingdom used to produce at any former period. It is singular that though the prac- 
tice of summer-fallowing seems to have prevailed in England since the time of the 
Romans, yet it was neglected in Scotland till about the beginning of the eighteenth 
century, when it was first practised by John Walker, tenant at Beanston, in East Lothian. 
The late Lord Milton considered this improvement of so much importance, that he was 


" eager to procure the erection of a pillar to the memory of Mr. Walker." {Farm. 
Mag., vol. i. p. 164.) 

795. Thejirst notice of a threshing machine is given by Maxwell, in his Transactions 
of the Society/ of Tmj^rovers, ^c. ; it was invented by Michael Menzies, advocate, who 
obtained a patent for it. Upon a representation made to the society, that it was to be 
seen at work in several places, they appointed two of their number to inspect it ; and in 
their report they say that one man would be sufficient to manage a machine which would 
do the work of six. One of the machines was '* moved by a great water wheel and 
treddles ;" and another, " by a little wheel of three feet in diameter, moved by a 
small quantity of water." This machine the society recommended to all gentlemen and 
farmers. {Encyc. Brit, and Ed. Encyc. art. Agr. ; Browns Treatise on Rural Affairs, 
Introduction, ^c.) 

796. Dawson, of Frogden, in Roxburghshire, is a man to whom Scottish agriculture is perhaps more in- 
debted than to any other. Findlater, the author of the Survey of Peeblesshire, one of the best judges, terms 
him the " father of the improved system of husbandry in Scotland." Dawson was born at Harperton, 
in Berwickshire, a farm of which his father was tenant, in 1734. At the age of 16 he was sent to a fann 
in the neighbourhood of Sheffield, and thence into Essex, where he directed his attention chiefly to 
grazing. He afterwards travelled through several other counties of England, " accurately examining 
the best courses of husbandry, and storing up for his own use whatever seemed likely to be introduced 
witli advantage into his own country." On his return to Scotland he tried, with the consent of his father, 
the culture of turnips on the farm of Harperton, but he did not commence the culture of this root upon 
a large scale until he entered on the farm of Frogden on his own account in 1759. Great exertions were 
required in enclosing, draining, liming, and manuring the arable part of this farm ; but the soil being 
sandy, the expense was ultimately more than repaid. It was here that Mr. Dawson perfected the drill- 
system of cultivating turnips, but not before he had grown them for several years in the broadcast man- 
ner. The first drills were drawn in the year 1763, and the extent of turnip crop was about 100 acres 
annually. In a few years the success which attended Mr. Dawson's management enabled him first to 
rent two contiguous farms, and afterwards to purchase and improve, in that county, the estate of Graden, 
a property of considerable extent, adjoining Frogden. On these lands he introduced and exemplified, 
for the first time in Scotland, what has been called the convertible husbandry ; i. e. the growth of clover 
and sown grasses for three or more years in succession, alternately with corn crops and turnips. 

797. Mr. Dawson was thejirst to introduce to Scotland the practice qf ploughingwith tiro horses abreast 
without the aid of a driver. The first ploughman who effected this was James M'Dougal, who, after being 
14 years overseer to Mr. Dawson, in 1778 took a farm of his own at West Linton, in Peeblesshire, where he 
died in 1822, aged 82 years. It was the desire of Mr. Dawson that justice should be done to the memory 
of this able and worthy man, whose example, as the Rev. Charles Findlater observes, has had more 
effect in diffusing the improved system of husbandry than all the premiums ever given by landlords. 
{Douglas's Surv. of Roxb. ; Farm. Mag., vol. xiii. p. 512.) Mr. Dawson spent the last years of his life in 
Etlinburgh, where he died in January, 1815, in his 81st year, leaving a numerous family in prosperous 

798. The character of Dawson is thus given by his biographer in the Farmer's Magazine, and may well 
be quoted here as a model for imitation. " He was exceedingly regular in his habits, and most correct and 
systematical in all his agricultural operations, which were not only well conducted, but always executed 
at the proper season. His plans were the result of an enlightened and sober calculation ; and were per- 
sisted in, in spite of every difficulty and discouragement, till they were reduced to practice. Every one 
who knows the obstacles that are thrown in the way of all innovations in agriculture, by the sneers of 
prejudice and the obstinacy of ignorance, and not unfrequently by the evil offices of jealousy and male- 
volence, must be aware, that none but men of very strong minds, and of unceasing activity, are able to 
surmount them. Such a man was Mr. Dawson ; and to this single individual may be justly ascribed the 
merit of producing a most favourable change in the sentiments, in regard to the trial of new experiments, 
as well as in the practice, of the farmers of Scotland. The labouring classes were not less indebted to this 
eminent person for opening up a source of employment, which has given bread to the young and feeble in 
almost the only branches of labour of which they are capable in merely rural districts. Most of his ser. 
vants continued with him for many years ; and such as had benefited by his instructions and advice were 
eagerly engaged to introduce their master's improvements in other places. This benevolence, which often 
sought for objects at a distance that were not personally known to him, was displayed, not only in pecu- 
niary donations, while the giver frequently remained unknown, but was strikingly evinced in the attention 
which he paid to the education of the children of his labourers, for whom he maintained teachers at his 
own expense. If fame were always the reward of great and useful talents, there are few men of any age 
or country that would live longer in the grateful remembrance of posterity than the subject of this 
memoir." {Farm. Mag., vol. xvi. p. 168.) 

799. As the leading features of practical agricultural improvement in Britain dunngthe 
eighteenth century, and to the present time, we may enumerate the following : — The gra- 
dual introduction of a better system of rotation since the publication of Tull's Horse- 
hoeing Husbandry, and other agricultural works, from 1700 to 1750; the improvement 
of live stock by Bakewell, about 1 760 ; the raised drill system of growing turnips, the 
use of lime in agriculture, and the convertible husbandry, by Pringle, and more especially 
by Dawson, about 1765; the improved swing plough, by Small, about 1790; and the 
improved threshing machine, by Meikle, about 1795. As improvements of compara- 
tively limited application might be mentioned, the art of tapping springs, or what has 
been called Elkington's mode of draining, which seems to have been discovered by Dr. 
Anderson, from principle, and Mr. Elkington, by accident, about 1760, or later; and the 
revival of the art of irrigation, by Boswell, about 1 780. The field culture of the potato, 
shortly after 1750 ; the introduction of the Swedish turnip, about 1790 ; of spring wheat, 
about 1795; of summer wheat, about 1800; and of mangold wurtzel more recently, 
have, with the introduction of other improved field plants, and improved breeds of animals, 
contributed to increase the products of agriculture ; as the enclosing of common field lands 
and wastes, and the improvements of mosses and marshes, have contributed to increase the 
produce and salubrity of the general surface of the country. 



800. The pi'ogress of the taste for agriculture in Britain is shown by the great number 
of societies that have been lately formed ; one or more in almost every county, for the 
diffusion of knowledge, and the encouragement of correct operations and beneficial dis- 
coveries. Among these, the Bath and fVest of England Society, established in 1 777, and the 
Highland Society of Scotland, in 1784, hold the first rank. The establishment of the Board 
of Agriculture, in 1793, ought to have formed a new era in the history of the agriculture 
and rural economy of Britain ; but it effected little beyond the publication of the County 
Agricultural Surveys, and, to a certain extent, rendering the art fashionable among the 
higher classes. 

Sect. III. Of the Literature of British Agriculture from, the Revolution to the 

present Time. 

801. The literature of English agriculture from the revolution is rich in excellent works. 
We have already, in detailing the professional improvements, noticed the writings of 
Mortimer and Tull. To these we now add the numerous works of Bradley, which 
appeared from 1717 to his death in 1732. They are all compilations, but have been of 
very considerable service in spreading a knowledge of culture, and a taste for rural 
improvement. Stephen Switzer, a seedsman in London, in 1729 ; Dr. Blackwell, in 1741 ; 
and Hitt, a few years afterwards, published tracts recommending the burning of clay as 
manure, in the manner recently done by Governor Beatson, of Suffolk; Craig, of Cally 
in Kircudbrightshire, and some others. Lisle's useful Observations on Husbandry were 
published in 1757 ; Stillingfleet's Tracts, in which he shows the importance of a selection 
of grasses for laying down lands, in 1759 ; and the excellent Essays of Harte, canon of 
Windsor, in 1764. The celebrated Arthur Young's first publication on agriculture, 
entitled. The Farmer's Letters to the People of England, &c., appeared in 1767; and 
was followed by a great variety of excellent works, including the Tour in France, and 
the Annals of Agriculture, till his pamphlet on the utility of the Board of Agriculture, in 
1810. Marshall's numerous and most superior agricultural works commenced wdth his 
Minutes of Agriculture, published in 1787, and ended with his Review of the Agricultural 
Reports, in 1816. Dr. R. W. Dickson's Practical Agriculture appeared in two quarto 
volumes, in 1 806, and may be considered as giving a complete view of the present state 
of agriculture at the time. The last general work we shall mention is the Code of Agri- 
culture, by Sir John Sinclair, which may be considered as a comprehensive epitome of 
the art of farming. It has already been translated into several foreign languages, and 
passed through more than one edition in this country. In this sketch a great number of 
useful and ingenious authors are necessarily omitted ; but they will all be found in their 
places in the Literature of British Agticulture, given in the Fourth Part of this work. 

802. The Scottish writers on agriculture confirm our view of the low state of the art 
in that country in the beginning of the eighteenth century. The first work, written by 
James Donaldson, was printed in 1697, under the title oi Husbandry Anatomised; or, 
an Enquiry into the present Manner of Teiling and Manuring the Ground in Scotland. 
It appears from this treatise that the state of the art was not more advanced at that time 
in North Britain, than it had been in England in the time of Fitzherbert. Farms were 
divided into infield and outfield ; corn crops followed one another, without the interven- 
tion of fallow, cultivated herbage, or turnips, though something is said about fallowing 
the outfield ; enclosures were very rare ; the tenantry had not begun to emerge from a 
state of great poverty and depression ; and the wages of labour, compared with the price 
of corn, were much lower than at present ; " though that price, at least in ordinary years, 
must appear extremely moderate in our times. Leases for a term of years, however, 
were not uncommon ; but the want of capital rendered it impossible for the tenantry to 
attempt any spirited improvements. 

803. The Countryman^s Rudiments ; or, an Advice to the Fanners in East Lothian how to labour and 
improve their Grounds, said to have been written by Lord Belhaven, about the time of the union, and 
reprinted in 1723, is the next work on the husbandry of Scotland. In this we have a deplorable picture 
of the state of agriculture, in what is now the most highly improved county in Scotland. His Lordship 
begins with a very high encomium on his own performance. " I dare be bold to say, there never was 
such a good, easy method of husbandry as this, so succinct, extensive, and methodical in all its parts, 
published before." And he bespeaks the favour of those to whom he addresses himself, by adding, 
" neither shall I affright you with hedging, ditching, marling, chalking, paring and burning, draining, 
watering, and such like, which are all very good improvements indeed, and very agreeable with the soil 
and situation of East Lothian ; but I know ye cannot bear as yet such a crowd of improvements, this 
being only intended to initiate you in the true method and principles of husbandry." The farm lands 
in East Lothian, as in other districts, were divided into infield and outfield, the former of which got all 
the dung. " The infield, where wheat is sown, is generally divided by the tenant into four divisions or 
breaks, as they call them, viz. one of wheat, one of barley, one of peas, and one of oats ; so that the 
wheat is sowed after the peas, the barley after the wheat, and the oats after the barley. The outfield 
land is ordinarily made use of promiscuously for feeding their cows, horses, sheep, and oxen : it is also 
dunged by their sheep, who lay in earthen folds ; and sometimes, when they have much of it, they fauch 
or fallow part of it yearly. " Under this management, the produce seems to have been three times the 
seed ; " and yet," says His Lordship, " if in East Lothian they did not leave a higher stubble than in 
other places of the kingdom, their grounds would be in a much worse condition than at present they 
are, though bad enough. A good crop of corn makes a good stubble, and a good stubble is the equaUest 


mucking that is." Among the advantages of enclosures, he observes, " you will gain much more labour 
from your servants, a great part of whose time was taken up in gathering thistles, and other garbage, for 
their horses to feed upon in their stables ; and thereby the great trampling and pulling up, and other 
destruction of the corns, while they are yet tender, will be prevented." Potatoes and turnips are recom. 
mended to be sown in the yard (kitchen-garden). Clover does not seem to have been known. Rents 
were paid in corn ; and, for the largest farm, which he thinks should employ no more than two ploughs, 
the rent was " about six chalders of victual, when the ground is very good, and four in that which is 
not so good. But I am most fully convinced they should take long leases or tacks, that they may not be 
straitened with time in the improvement of their rooms (farms) ; and this is profitable both for master 
and tenant." 

804. Maxwell's Select Transactions of the Society of Improvers of the Knowledge of Agriculture in 
Scotland was published in 1743 (see 793.), and his Practical Husbandtnan, in 1757, including an Essay on 
the Husbandry of Scotland. In the latter he lays it down as a rule, that it is bad husbandry to take two 
crops of grain successively, which marks a considerable progress in the knowledge of modern culture ; 
though he adds that, in Scotland, the best husbandmen after a fallow take a crop of wheat ; after the 
wheat, peas, then barley, and then oats ; and after that they fallow again. The want of enclosures was 
still a matter of complaint. The ground continued to be cropped so long as it produced two seeds for 
one ; the best farmers were contented with four seeds for one, which was more than the general produce. 
In 1765, A Treatise on Agriculture was published by the Rev. Adam Dickson, minister of Dunse, in Ber. 
wickshire, which was decidedly the best work on tillage which had then appeared in the Enghsh language, 
and is stiU held in esteem among the practical farmers of Scotland. In 1777, Lord Kaimes published The 
Gentleman Farmer, being an attempt to improve agriculture by subjecting it to the test of rational prin- 
ciples. His Lordship was a native of Berwickshire j and had been accustomed to farm in that country 
for several years, and afterwards at Blair Drummond, near Stirling. This work was in part a compilation, 
and in part the result of his observation ; and was of essential service to the cause of agriculture in Scot- 
land. In 1778, appeared Wight's Present State of Husbandry in Scotland. This is a valuable work ; but 
the volumes not appearing but at intervals of some years, it was of less benefit than might have been 
expected. In 1783, Dr. Anderson published his Essays relating to Agriculture and rural AJtairs ; a work 
of science and ingenuity, which did much good both in Scotland and England. In 1810, appeared The 
Husbandry of Scotland, and, in 1815, The General Report of the Agricultural State and Political Circum- 
stances of Scotland, both by Sir John Sinclair, and excellent works. The Code of Agjiculture, by the 
same patriotic and indefatigable character, has been noticed as belonging to English publications on 
agriculture. (801.) 

805. Agricultural Periodicals. — The Farmers Magazine; a quarterly work, exclu- 
sively devoted to agriculture and rural affairs, was commenced in 1800, and has done 
more to enlighten both the proprietors and tenantry of Scotland than any other book 
vj^hich has appeared. It was at first conducted jointly by Robert Brown, farmer of 
Markle ; and Robert Somerville, M. D. of Haddington. Afterwards, on Dr. Somer- 
ville's death, by Brown alone ; and subsequently, on the latter gentleman's declining it, 
by James Cleghorn, one of the most scientific agriculturists of Scotland. The frequent 
recurrence that will be made to The Farmer s Magazine in the course of this work, will 
show the high value which we set on it. In November 1825, this work terminated with 
the 26th volume, and has since been succeeded by The Farmer s Register and Monthly 
Magazine, and The Quarterly Journal of Agriculture, in Scotland ; and by The British 
Farmer's Magazine in England. The Farmer's Journal is the first agricultural news- 
paper which appeared in Britain; it was commenced in 1808, and is still continued. 
The Irish Farmers Journal was commenced in 1812, but discontinued for want of 
patronage in 1 827. The names and writings of all the British agricultural authors, 
with abridged biographies of all such as could be procured, will be found in chro- 
nological order in Chap. IV. of Book I. of Part IV. of this work. (See Contents or 
Index. ) 

806. A j)rofessorship of agriculture was established in the university of Edinburgh, in 
1790, and the professor. Dr. Andrew Coventry, is well known as a man of superior 
qualifications for fulfilling its duties. Professorships of agriculture, and even of hor- 
ticulture, or rather of culture in general, are said to be partly provided for, and partly in 
contemplation, both in Oxford and Cambridge. The professor of botany in the London 
University, John Lindley, in the Prospectus of his Lectures, announces " the application 
of the laws of Vegetable Physiology to the arts of Agriculture and Horticulture." 

Sect. IV. Of the Rise, Progress, and present State of Agriculture in Ireland. 

807. Of the agriculture of Ireland very little is known up to a recent period. With a 
soil singularly prolific in pasture, and rather humid for the easy management of grain, 
it is probable that sheep and cattle would be the chief rural products for many cen- 
turies. In the twelfth century and earlier, various religious establishments were 
founded, and then it is most probable tillage on something like the Roman mode of 
culture would be introduced. The monks, says O'Connor, fixed their habitations in 
deserts, which they cultivated with their own hands, and rendered them the most delight- 
ful spots in the kingdom. 

808. During the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, the English were obliged 
to suppress the numerous rebellions of their Irish subjects by war, and the forfeited 
estates of the rebels would in part be divided among the troops. This might end in 
introducing some agricultural improvements ; but there is no evidence that such was 
effected before the time of Elizabeth, when the enormous demesnes of the Earl of 
Desmond were forfeited, and divided amongst a number of English undertakers, as they 
were called, who entered into a stipulation to plant a certain number of English families 

K 2 


on their estates, in proportion to the number of acres. Among others who received 
portions were, Sir Walter Raleigh, and Spenser, the poet. The former is said to have 
then introduced the potato. 

809. The reign of James I. was one of comparative tranquillity for Ireland: the power 
of the judges, and of the English government, was extensively fixed ; the Irish laws 
and customs were abolished, and the English laws were established in all cases without 
exception, through the whole island. Numerous colonies were also sent from England 
and Scotland, especially the latter, to occupy the forfeited estates ; and seven northern 
counties were wholly allotted to undertakers. This was called the " plantation of 
Ulster," and was attended by the introduction of an improved agriculture, and by the 
linen manufacture, which is still carried on by the descendants of the first colonists in the 
same counties. 

810. The city of London participated in this distribution of land. The corporation 
having accepted of large grants in the county of Deny, they engaged to expend 
20,000/. on the plantation ; to build the cities of Derry and Colerain, and at the same 
time stipulated for such privileges as might make their settlement convenient and re- 
spectable. Under a pretence of protecting this infant settlement, or perhaps with a 
view of raising money, the king instituted the order of Irish baronets, or knights of 
Ulster ; from each of whom, as was done in Scotland with respect to the knights of Nova 
Scotia, he exacted a certain sum, as the price of the dignity conferred. (Wakefeld.) 

811. Of the husbandry of Londonderry a curious account was published about a 
century ago, by the archbishop of Dublin. He states that there was little wheat grown, 
and that of very inferior quality ; the soil being considered as unsuitable to its production. 
Potatoes remained three or four years in the ground, reproducing a crop, which at the 
best was a very deficient one. Lime was procured by burning sea shells. The appli- 
cation of them in an unburnt state arose from accident. A poor curate, destitute of the 
means for burning the sea shells which he had collected, more with a view to remove an 
evidence of his poverty, than in any hope of benefit, spread them on his ground. The 
success which attended the experiment occasioned surprise, and insured a rapid and 
general adoption of the practice. ( Wakefield.) The improvements made since the period 
of which the archbishop treats, Curwen remarks, are undoubtedly very considerable : 
and whilst we smile at the very subordinate state of agriculture at that time, may we not 
on reasonable ground expect that equal progress will at least be made in this century as 
in the last? {Letters on Ireland, vol. ii. p. 246.) 

812. A considerable impulse was given to the agriculture of Ireland after the rebellion of 
1641, which was quelled by Cromwell, as commander of the parliamentary army in 1652. 
Most of the officers of this army were yeomen, or the sons of English country gentlemen ; 
and they took pleasure in instructing the natives in the agricultural practices to which 
they were accustomed at home. Afterwards, when Cromwell assumed the protectorship, 
he made numerous grants to his soldiers, many of whom settled in Ireland ; and their 
descendants have become men of consideration in the country. Happily these grants 
were confirmed at the restoration. Some account of the state of culture in that country 
at this time, and of the improvements which it was deemed desirable to introduce, will 
be found in Hartlib's Legacy. 

813. The establishment of the Dublin Society in 1749 gave the next stimulus to agri- 
culture and general industry in Ireland. The origin of the Dublin Society may be 
dated from 1731, when a number of gentlemen, at the head of whom was Prior of Rath- 
downey. Queen's county, associated themselves together for the purpose of improving 
the agriculture and husbandry of their country. In 1749, Prior, through the interest 
of the then lord-lieutenant, procured a grant of 10,000/. per annum, for the better pro- 
motion of its views. Miss Plumtree considers this the first association ever formed in 
the British dominions expressly for such purposes ; but the Edinburgh Agricultural 
Society, as we have seen (793.), was founded in 1723. 

814. Arthur Young^s Toiir in Ireland was published in 1780, and probably did more 
good than even the Dublin Society. In this work he pointed out the folly of the bounty 
on the inland carriage of corn. His recommendation on this subject was adopted ; and, 
according to Wakefield, " from that hour may be dated the commencement of extended 
tillage in Ireland." (Wakefield's Statistical Account s Curwen s Letters.) 

815. The state of agriculture of Ireland, in the beginning of the present century, is given 
with great clearness and ability in the supplement to the Encyclopcedia Britannica ; and 
from that source we have selected the following condensed account : — 

816. The climate of Ireland is considerably more mild than that of England, and the 
southern and western part of the island greatly more so than the northern. The difference 
in this respect, indeed, is greater than can be explained by the difference of latitude ; 
and is probably ovnng to the immediate vicinity of the western ocean. On the mountains 
of Kerry, and in Bantry Bay, the arbutus and some other shrubs grow in great luxu- 
riance, which are not to be met with again till the traveller reaches the Alps of Italy. The 


snow in these parts of the island seldom lies for any time, and frost hardly ever continues 
beyond a few days, and while it lasts it is by no means intense. The mildness and hu- 
midity of the atmosphere produce a luxuriance and rapidity of growth in vegetation, to 
which no other part of the empire can afford any parallel ; and this appears in the most 
remarkable manner in the ivy, and other evergreens, with which the kingdom abounds. 
These are not only much more plentiful, but far more luxuriant, and of much quicker 
growth, than in the most favoured parts of Great Britain. To those who are accustomed 
to the dry weather of this island, the continued rains of the south and west of Ireland are 
extremely disagreeable ; but it is to this peculiarity in their climate, that the Irish have 
to attribute the richness of their pasturage, an advantage which, coupled with the re- 
markable dryness and friability of the soil, points, in an unequivocal manner, to a rotation 
of crops, in which grazing should occupy a principal place. 

817. The territorial surface of Ireland affords a pleasing variety, consisting in some 
parts of rich and fertile plains, in others of little hills and acclivities, which succeed one 
another in frequent succession. The most elevated ground is to be found in the bog of 
Allan. Its height above the sea does not exceed 270 feet, yet, from this ridge, the 
waters of the rivers run to the different seas. This elevated ground is connected with the 
principal mountains of Ireland, diverging in the north from the hills of Tyrone, and 
leading in tlie soutli to those of Sleeve Bloom and the Galtees. The chains of moun- 
tains are neither numerous nor considerable ; the most remarkable are, the Kerry 
mountains, those of Wicklow, the Sleeve Bloom chain between the King's and Queen's 
county, and the mountains of Mourne, in the south of the province of Ulster. 

818. The soil of Ireland is, generally speaking, a fertile loam, with a rocky sub- 
stratum ; although there are many exceptions to this description, and many varieties. 
Generally speaking, it is rather shallow ; to which cause the frequent appearance of 
rocks near the surface, or at no considerable depth, is to be attributed. It possesses a much 
greater proportion of fertile land, in proportion to its extent, than either England or Scot- 
land. Not only is the island blessed with this extent of cultivable ground, but it is 
almost all of such a quality as to yield luxuriant crops, with little or no cultivation. Sand 
does not exist except on the sea shore. Tenacious clay is unknown, at least near the 
surface. Great part of the land of Ireland throws up a luxuriant herbage, without any 
depth of soil, or any skill on the part of the husbandman. The county of Meath, in 
particular, is distinguished by the richness and fertility of its soil ; and, in Limerick and 
Tipperary, there is a dark, friable, sandy loam, which, if preserved in a clean state, will 
yield crops of corn several years in succession. It is equally well adapted for grazing as 
for arable crops, and seldom experiences either a winter too wet, or a summer too dry. 
The vales in many of the bleakest parts of the kingdom, as Donegal and Tyrone, are 
remarkable for their richness of soil and luxuriance of vegetation, which may be often 
accounted for by the deposition of the calcareous soil, washed down by the rains of 
winter, which spreads the richest manure over the soil below, without subjecting the 
farmer to any labour. {Wakefeld, i. 79, 80.) 

8 1 9. The bogs, or peat mosses, of Ireland, form a remarkable feature of the country, 
and have been proved by the parliamentary commissioners to be of great extent. They 
estimate the whole bogs of the kingdom at 2,330,000 acres, English. These bogs, for 
the most part, lie together. In form, they resemble a great broad belt, drawn across the 
centre of Ireland, with its narrowest end nearest to the capital, and gradually extending 
in breadth as it approaches the western ocean. The bog of Allan is not one contiguous 
morass, but this name is indiscriminately applied to a great number of bogs, detached 
from each other, and often divided by ridges of dry country. These bogs are not, in 
general, level, but most commonly of an uneven surface, swelling into hills, and di- 
vided by valleys, which afford the greatest facility to their being drained and improved. 
In many places, particularly in the district of Allan, the rivulets wliich these inequalities 
of surface produce have worn their channels through the substance of the bog, down to 
the clay or limestone gravel beneath ; dividing the bog into distinct masses, and pre- 
senting, in themselves, the most proper situations for the main drains, for which pur- 
pose, with the assistance of art, they may be rendered effectual. 

820. The commissioners employed by government to report on the bogs of Ireland found three distinct 
growths of timber immersed below three distinct strata ot bog. The timber was perfectly sound, though 
deprived of its bark, which has communicated its antiputrescent quality to the water, and of course has 
preserved every thing embedded in the mass ; though, as Miss Plumtree remarks, without " any thing 
like a process of tanning ever taking place." The bogs of Ireland are never on low ground, and have 
therefore evidently originated from the decay of woody tracts. {Plumtree^s Residence in Ireland.) 

821. Landed properti/ in Ireland is more generally in large estates of some thousands 
of acres, than in small ones ; but in its occupation it is subdivided in a degree far beyond 
any thing which occurs in any other part of the empire. In some counties, as Mayo for 
example, there are upwards of 15,000 freeholders on properties of not more than 40s. 

K 3 


value, and who are perhaps not worth 10/. each. These are, for the most part, tenants 
of the great proprietors, possessing a life interest in their little farm. 

822. In Ireland there are no manorial lights separable from the right to the soil, as 
in England, nor legal poor rates, which are circumstances materially in favour of the for- 
mer country. ( Wakejield, i. 242. ) 

823. Leases are generally of long endurance ; and three lives, or thirty-one years, is a 
common rate. The price of land varies in different parts of Ireland. In the neighbour- 
hood of Belfast, and thence to Armagh, it brings thirty years' purchase ; in the greatest 
part of the island it does not exceed twenty ; and, in the richest districts, it may often 
be bought for sixteen or eighteen. The exposure of landed estates to public sale takes 
place very seldom, which is, perhaps, one cause of their not bringing so high a price as 
they would otherwise do. ( Wakejield.) 

824. Farming in Ireland is, generally speaking, in a very backward state. With 
a few exceptions, such as the county of Meath, and some other well cultivated dis- 
tricts, the farmers are destitute of capital, and labour small crofts, which they hold of 
middlemen interposed between them and the landlord. The fact that in Ireland 
the landlord never lays out any thing upon repairs or buildings, coupled with the general 
inability of the farmer to do either in a substantial manner, is very significant as to the 
state of agriculture. {Tighe's Surveij of Kilkenny, 412. ; Wakejield, i. 244.) But the 
worst features of the rural economy of this island are the entire want of capital in the 
fanners, and the complete indifference of the landlord to the character, wealth, or indus- 
try of his tenant. " Capital," says Wakefield, "is considered of so little importance in 
Ireland, that advertisements constantly appear in the newspapers, in which it is stated, 
that the preference will certainly be given to the highest bidder. Bargains are con- 
stantly made with a beggar, as a new tenant, who, offering more rent, invariably turns 
out the old one, however industrious." 

825. The rent of land in Ireland from these causes, coupled with the excessive com- 
petition of the peasantry for small faniis, as their only means of subsistence, has risen to 
a great height. (Townsend's Cork, 218. ; Wakejield, i. 582.) 

826. Ireland is divided, by Wakejield, into nine agricultural districts, in each of which 
the mode of culture is somewhat different from what it is in the others. 

827. The first district comprehends the flat parts of Antrim ; the eastern side of Tyrone, Down, Armagh, 
Monaghan, and Cavan. Throughout this district, the farms are extremely small, and the land is ge- 
nerally dug with a spade. Potatoes, flax, and oats are the crops usually cultivated, and these are grown 
till the land is exhausted, and suffered to " lie at rest," as they term it, till its strength is recruited by 
the cow, the goat, two or three sheep, and the poultry lying upon it for some years. The ploughs used in 
this district are of the rudest structure, and perform their work in the most slovenly manner. Three ot 
four neighbours unite their strength to each plough, every one bringing his horse, his bullock, or his cow. 
All the other operations of agriculture are performed in an equally slovenly manner. The little wheat 
that is raised is " lashed," as they call it ; that is, the grain is knocked out by striking the sheaf across a 
beam placed above a cloth : it is, however, afterwards threshed with a flail. The operation of threshing 
usually takes place in the highway, and it is dressed by letting it fall from a kind of sieve, which, during 
a pretty strong wind, is held breast-high by a woman. Many cottiers in this district have a cabin with no 
land attached to it. They hire an acre or two, for grass or potato land, from some cottier in their vicinity. 
The custom of hiring labourers is unknown. The neighbours all assist each other in their more con. 
siderable occupations, such as sowing and reaping. The dwellings here are miserably small ; often too 
small to contain the numerous families that issue from their doors. Land is every where divided into the 
most minute portions. ( Wakefield, i. 363. ; Duhourdicu's Down, 39.) 

828. Under the second district may be comprised the northern part of Antrim, Londonderry, the north 
and west of Tyrone, and the whole of Donegal. Agriculture here is in a worse state than in the pre- 
ceding district. There is no clover, and hardly any wheat. 

829. Ttie third district comprehends the northern parts of Fermanagh. Here the farms are much larger 
than in the former, and the agricultural system pursued far superior. They plant potatoes on a lea, 
twice reversing the lands ; and flax, oats, and weeds constitute the course. Some wheat is grown, but 
oats still form the prevalent crop. In the neighbourhood of Enniskillen, the farmers are so rich as to be 
able to eat butcher's meat daily, and drink smuggled wine. ( Wakefield, i. 379.) 

830. The fourth district comprehends Sligo, Mayo, Galway, Clare, and parts of Roscommon, and 
Longford. In some parts of this district the spade culture is pursued ; but, in general, the land is 
cultivated by a plough drawn by four horses abreast. In Roscommon, the old custom of yoking the 
horses by the tail is still continued ; although, as early as 1634, an act of parliament was passed against 
this absurd practice. {Life of the Duke of Ormond, i. 79.) Oats are chiefly raised in this district, and, 
along the coast, barley is cultivated. A large portion of the rent depends on the illegal distilleries, 
and much of the district is let on lease to several persons jointly, according to the village system. 
{lUd., i. 381.) 

831. In the fifth district, which comprehends Limerick, Kerry, the south side and northern part of 
Cork, and the county of Waterford, cultivation is in a very rude state ; little corn is grown here, with 
the exception of the southern part of Cork. Land is extremely divided, and the farms very small The 
greater part is a grazing country. {Ibid., i. 387.) 

832. The sixth district includes the southern parts of Cork. The spade culture is here almost universal, 
and the farms unusually small. Hogs constitute the main support of the poor. (Townsend's Cork, 194.) 

833. The seventh district includes part of Tipperary, with Queen's county and King's county. The best 
farming in Ireland is observable in this district ; a systematic course of husbandry being pursued, by 
which the land is kept in good heart. Oxen and horses are used in the plough, and hedgerows and good 
wheat fallows are to be seen. Near Roscrea the cultivation of turnips is followed, and they succeed well. 
Ninety acres are considered a large farm. Leases are generally for three lives. {Wakefield, i, 398.) 

8.34. The eighth district comprises Wexford and a part of Wicklow. Beans are here sometimes intro- 
duced into cultivation, but they are sown broadcast, and never hoed. The mode of ploughing is very 
awkward : one man holds the plough, another leads the horse, and a third sits on it to keep it down. 
Notwithstanding this rude culture, however, the rents are enormous, owing to the demand for land 
created by an excessive population, who, if they had not a portion of land to grow potatoes (getting no 
employment), could not live. {Ibid., i 407.) 


835. The ninth district comprehends the northern part of Kilkenny, Kildare, the cultivated parts of 
Westmeath, Meath, and Louth. Wheat here enters into the system of culture, but the preparatory 
fallows are very bad. Clover has been introduced into the district, but under the bad system of sowing 
it upon land exhausted, and covered by weeds. Farms are large, and the mode of culture similar to what 
is pursued in England, though the details are executed in a slovenly manner. {Ibid., i. 413.) 

836. The agricultural implements and operations used in Ireland are all of the rudest 
construction. The plough, the spade, the flail, the car, all equally partake of imper- 
fections and defects. The fallows are not well attended to ; three ploughings are usually 
deemed sufl[icient, and, from the imperfection of the plough, the ground at the end is 
generally full of weeds. Trenching land is very general ; they form it into beds, and 
shovel out a deep trench between them, throwing up the earth. The expense of this 
operation is about eight shillings an acre. Wheat, as will be seen from the preceding 
details, is not by any means generally cultivated. It is unknown in Monaghan, Tyrone, 
Derry, Donegal, Sligo, Mayo, Leitrim, and Cavan, though it is grown to a consider- 
able extent in Kilkenny, Carlow, Dublin, Meath, Louth, and parts of Limerick, 

lipperary, Clare, and Cork. It is generally sown after potatoes or fallow. The Irish 
wheat is, for the most part, coarse and of inferior quality, and does not yield so much 
saccharine matter by twenty per cent, as the English. (^Ibid., i. 429. 442.) 

837. Barley is ?nore generalbj cultivated in Ireland thaii wheat, and it is generally sown 
after potatoes. Oats, however, constitute the species of grain most extensively raised ; 
it is calculated that, throughout the whole kingdom, there are ten acres of oats sown for 
one of any other species of com. The Irish oats, however, are decidedly inferior to 
the English. 

838. The potatoes of Ireland have long been celebrated, both on account of their 
quantity and excellent qualities : they are cultivated on every species of soil, either in 
drills or lazy beds. Potato land lets from six pounds six shillings to ten pounds ten 
shillings per acre ; and the expense of culture, including rent, varies from thirteen 
pounds to sixteen pounds per acre. The produce is from eight hundred stone to one 
thousand stone the acre, at twenty-one pounds to the stone j that is, from sixteen 
thousand eight hundred to twenty-one thousand pounds. {Ibid., i. 450.) 

839. The indigenous grasses of Ireland axe not of any peculiar excellence. Notwith- 
standing all that has been said of the florin grass, its excellence and utility may be called 
in question. Tlieir hay is seldom from sown grasses, generally consisting of the spon- 
taneous produce of the soil. Clover is almost unknown. Newenham calculates that 
there are not five thousand acres under this crop in the whole island. {^Newenham, 314. ; 
Wakefield, i. 467.) 

840. There are few live hedges in Ireland ; in the level stone districts, stone walls, and 
in other places turf banks, are the usual fences. 

841. The dairy is the most extensive and the best managed part of Irish husbandry. 
Kerry, Cork, Waterford, Carlow, Meath, Westmeath, Longford, and Fermanagh, as 
well as the mountains of Leitrim and Sligo, are principally occupied by dairy farms. 
Butter is the chief produce. The average number of cows on a dairy farm amounts to 
thirty or forty ; three acres of land, of middling quality, are deemed necessary for the sub- 
sistence of each cow. A cow produces on an average eight quarts in twenty-four hours in 
summer, and five in winter ; four good milkers will yield a quarter of a cwt. of butter 
in a week. The best butter is made in Carlow ; the worst in Limerick and Meath. 
Generally speaking, the Irish are very cleanly in making this article ; and it is exported 
to England, the East and West Indies, and Portugal. {Wakefield, i. 325. et seq.) The 
art of salting butter, Chaptal observes, is better known in Ireland than in any other 
country. {Chimie applique d V Agriculture.) The grazing of Ireland is not, as in 
England, a part of the regular rotation of crops, but is carried on in a country exclusively 
devoted to the breeding of cattle, like the highlands of Scotland. Great tracts of the 
country also are devoted to the grazing of sheep. Roscommon, Galway, Clare, Limerick, 
and Tipperary are the chief breeding counties for sheep ; and Galway, Clare, Roscom- 
mon, Tipperary, and Meath are the places where they are fattened. The sheep are of 
the long-woolled kind, and very large : they are never kept in sheepfolds, and hardly 
ever fed on turnips ; which is chiefly owing to the very limited demand for mutton 
among the labouring people. {Ibid., i. 341.) 

842. The depressed state of the agriculture of Ireland is considered as proceeding from 
the depressed state of the people. The main cause of their suffenngs is traced by most 
writers (Young, Dewar, Newenham, Wakefield, Curwen, &c.) to the redundancy of 
population. In 1791, the population of the whole kingdom amounted to 4,200,000 per- 
sons, and it increases at the rate of one forty-sixth part per annum ; or, in other words, 
it doubles itself every forty-six years. As might be expected in a country where the 
increase in the number of mankind has so far outstripped the progress of its wealth, and 
the increase of its industry, the condition of the people is in every department marked by 
extreme indigence. {Dewar, 91. ; Yoimg, ii. 123.) The houses in which they dwell, 
the furniture in their interior, their clothing, food, and general way of life, all equally 

K 4 


indicate the poverty of the country. The dress of the people is so wretched, that, to 
a person who has not visited the country, it is almost inconceivable. The Irish poor, 
indeed, have no conception of the comforts of life ; and, if they felt their full value, they 
could not afford them, for though necessaries are cheap, conveniences of all sorts are very 

843. But while the Irish poor are in general destitute of all the accommodations, they 
hardly ever, except in years of extraordinary distress, know what it is to want the absolute 
necessaries, of life. The unsparing meal of potatoes, at which the beggar, the pig, the 
dog, the poultry, and the children seem equally welcome, seldom fails the Irish 

844. Hence the laziness of the lower Irish. Limited as their wants are to the mere sup- 
port of animal life, they do not engage in labour with that persevering industry which 
artificial desires inspire ; and the mode in which they are often paid, that is, giving 
them a piece of potato land by the year, at once furnishes the means of subsistence, and 
takes away every stimulus to farther exertion. The farm -servants of the English or 
Scotch farmers, who carry on agriculture upon the iinproved system, are constantly em- 
ployed in some species of labour ; but, after the potatoes of the Irish cottier are planted, 
tliere is hardly any thing to be done about his little croft till the season of digging ar- 
rives. During a great portion of the year he is doomed to idleness, and the habits he 
acquires during the long periods of almost total inaction, are too strong to be overcome 
when he is transferred to a more regular occupation. Such is the condition of the 
labouring classes. 

845. Ireland exhibits an assemblage of the ynost contradictory circumstances. It is a 
country in which, under the most distressing circumstances, population has advanced 
with the most rapid pace, in which cultivation has advanced without wealth, and education 
without diffusing knowledge ; where the peasantry are more depressed, and yet can ob- 
tain subsistence with greater facility, than in any other country of Europe. Their 
miserable condition will not appear surprising, when the numerous oppressions to which 
they are subject are taken into consideration. 

846. In the foremost rank of their many grievances, the general prevalence of middle- 
men must be placed. It is difficult to estimate the extent of the misery which the system 
of letting and subletting land has brought upon the Irish cultivators. Middlemen have, 
in every countiy, been the inseparable attendants of absent proprietors : and in such a 
country as Ireland, where there are numbers of disaffected persons in every quarter, the 
vigilant eye of a superior inspector is more particularly required. 

847. The system of under-letting lands often proves a great evil in Ireland. By the law 
of England, the landlord is entitled to (Hstrain for payment of rent, not only the stock 
which belongs to his immediate tenant, but the crop or stock of a subtenant ; on the 
principle that whatever grows on the soil ought to be a security to the landlord for his rent : 
and in Scotland the same rule holds where the landlord has not authorised the subtack ; 
but if he has, the subtenant is free when he has paid to the principal tenapt. There is 
little hardship in such a rule in England, where the practice of subletting is, generally 
speaking, rare ; but when applied to Ireland, where middlemen are universal, it becomes 
the source of infinite injustice ; for the cultivator being liable to have his crop and stock 
distrained on account of the tenant from whom he holds, and there being often many 
tenants interposed between him and the landlord, he is thus perpetually liable to be dis- 
trained for arrears not his own. The tenant, in a word, can never be secure, though lie has 
faithfully paid his rent to his immediate superior ; because he is still liable to have every 
thing which he has in the world swept off by an execution for arrears due by any of the 
many leaseholders, who may be interposed between him and the landlord. It is obvious 
that such a system must prevent the growth of agricultural capital : this, joined to the 
exactions of the middlemen, has been the true cause of the universal prevalence of the 
cottage system, and the minute subdivision of farms. 

848. The tithes in Ireland have long been collected with a severity of which hardly 
any European state furnishes an example. This has arisen from the wealth and influence 
of the clergy, joined to the destitute situation of their parishioners. They fall, by the 
law of that country, only on the tillage land ; the greater part of which is held by cottier 
tenants ; and thus the rich are exempted from bearing their share of the burden. 

849. Another grievance, though not so extensive, is the fine imposed upon a township, for 
having had the misfortune to have a seizure for illicit distillation made within its bounds. 

850. These evils have been attended with the usual depressing effects of oppression. They 
have prevented the growth of any artificial wants, or any desire of bettering tlieir con- 
dition, among the mass of the people. Despised by their superiors, and oppressed by all 
to whom they might naturally have looked for protection, the Irish have felt only the 
natural instincts of their being. Among the Presbyterians of the north, and the pea- 
santry in the vicinity of manufactming towns, who are to a certain extent educated, 
higher notions of comfort may have imposed some restraint on the principle of popu- 
lation J but the humiliated poor of other parts, enjoying no respectability or consideration 


in society, have sought only the means of subsistence ; and finding, without difficulty, 
potatoes, milk, and a hovel, have overspread the land w^ith a w^retched ofTspring. 

851. To these causes of a redundant population, of which the government of the 
country is, directly or indirectly, the source, are to be added others of a different kind. 

852. The first is the influence of the parish priests, who encourage marriage, in order to increase their 
own emoluments, and the superstition of the people, who regard it as a religious duty. 

853. The second cause is, the general ignorance of the people. 

85't. On the influence of education, in restraining the tendency to early and imprudent marriage, it 
would be superfluous in this place to enlarge. 

855. Various other circumstances have combined to multiply to a great degree the 
facilities of population, and to expand, in tliis country, beyond almost any other, the 
means of subsistence. 

856. The fertility of the country may be mentioned as one of the most obvious of these 
circumstances. The soil of Ireland is in general so rich, that it will yield an alternate 
crop of wheat and potatoes for ever, without any very great labour, and with little manure. 
The introduction of the potato, and its singular adaptation to the soil and climate of 
Ireland, are other concurring causes. An acre of potatoes, according to Newenham, will 
yield four times as much nourishment as one of wheat. By thus expanding the means 
of human subsistence, the potato has greatly promoted the population of Ireland ; but 
as the able writer, from whom we have selected the above remarks, observes, " unless 
the people are predisposed, from other causes, to press upon the means of subsistence, 
it has no tendency to augment their redundance. Under the government and political 
institutions of the Irish, the population of the country would have been equally redundant, 
though much smaller that it now is, if they had lived on oats or wheaten bread. The 
introduction of the potato may be the cause why the population is now six in place of 
three millions : but it is not the cause why, during the whole period of this increase, 
the numbers of the people have been greater than, under existing circumstances, could 
be comfortably maintained." {Sup' EncyC' Brit., art. Ireland.) 

857. That agriculture has made considerable progress in Ireland since the above was 
written, nearly twenty years ago, is obvious from the increased exports of wheat and 
other grain from her ports ; but it may be questioned whether during this period any 
advance has taken place in the comforts of the general mass of her population. It is a 
remarkable fact, that in the year 1823, when great numbers of the labouring class in 
Ireland were starving from a failure in the potato crop, and when large subscriptions 
were raising in England, and even on the Continent, for their relief, the exportation of 
grain was going on from Cork and other Irish ports, as if nothing had happened. Be- 
fore much improvement can take place in the condition of the mass of Irrsh population, 
it is necessary that they should possess such a taste for the comforts of life as will restrain 
the principle of population, by lessening the number of early marriages, or inducing 
that degree of restraint rendered expedient by a prudent foresight. At present nothing 
more is necessary for the happiness of an Irish country labourer and his family than straw 
and potatoes : if these fail him he is lost, because he can fall no lower j if any thing is su- 
peradded to his means, it only increases the desire for these necessaries, produces a greater 
number of children, and creates an additional demand for straw and potatoes. It is gratify- 
ing, however, to be able to state that the time seems arrived for the introduction of domestic 
improvement among the peasantry of Ireland. At no former period has the British 
government manifested so much anxiety to discover the real causes of Che miseries which 
afflict that country, and in every session of parliament some enactments are made for its 
amelioration. The enlightened principles of political economy which are now acted on 
by ministers, and the knowledge of this science which within these few years has spread 
among all classes, cannot fail to bring Ireland rapidly forward in civilisation and refine- 
ment ; and we wish it may be to such a degree, as in a very few years to render the 
account which we have above given mere matter of history. No one can desire this 
result more ardently than we do. 

Chap. VI. 

Of the present State of Agriculture in Ultra-European Countries. 

858. In this department of our huttory the reader will not expect more than a very slight 
outline ; not only from our limited space and the comparative scarcity of materials, but 
because the subject is less interesting to general readers. We shall notice in succession 
the principal countries of Asia, Africa, Australia, and America. 


Sect. I, Of the present State of Agriculture in Asia. 

859. The agricvJture of Asia is of a very different character from that of Europe, 
owing chiefly to the great difference of climate, and partly to the difference of civili- 
sation. The culture of this division of the globe is chiefly of two kinds, water culture 
and pasturage. Very little can be done without artificial watering, except in the 
northern and mountainous parts, where the climate resembles that of Europe. Even 
the palm and other fruit trees are watered in some parts of Persia and Arabia, and 
several fruit trees are regularly irrigated in India. The grand bread corn of Asia is rice, 
a watered grain ; and the most valuable fruits, those of the palm family ; the most 
useful agricultural labourer is the ox, and his species are also the most valuable as pastur- 
age animals. 

SuBSECT. 1. Of the present State of Agriculture in Asiatic Turkey. 

860. Asiatic Turkey extends from the Archipelago 1050 miles to Ararat in Persia on 
the east, and from the Euphrates 1100 miles to the Caucasian mountains on the north. 
It contains a number of provinces differing materially from each other in natural circum- 
stances, and artificial culture ; but, unfortunately for us, very little is known of their 
agriculture. In general, the Asiatic Turks are to be considered as a wandering and pas- 
toral people, cultivating no more corn than what is suflScient for their own maintenance ; 
and scarcely half civilised. 

861. The climate of Asia Minor has been always considered excellent. The heat of 
the summer is tempered by numerous chains of high mountains, some of which are covered 
constantly with snow. The aspect of Asiatic Turkey is mountainous, intermingled with 
spacious and beautiful plains, which afford pasture to the numerous flocks and herds of 
the Turkomans. The soil is varied; but the chief agricultural products are wheat, 
barley, and doura (millet). It abounds also with grapes, olives, and dates. In Syi-ia, the 
agriculture is deplorable, and the peasants are in a wretched condition, being sold, as in 
Poland, with the soil, and their constant fare being barley bread, onions, and water. 

862. The numerous mountains of Asiatic Turkey are frequently clothed with immense 
forests of pines, oaks, beeches, elms, and other trees ; and the southern shores of the Black 
Sea present many gloomy forests of great extent. The inhabitants are hence supplied with 
abundance of fuel, in defect of pit-coal, which has not been explored in any part of 
Asiatic Turkey. Sudden conflagrations arise from the heed- 
less waste of the caravans, which, instead of cutting off a few 
branches, often set fire to a standing tree. The extensive 
provinces of Natolia, Syria, and Mesopotamia have been little 
accessible to European curiosity, since their reduction under 
the Turkish yoke. In Pinkerton's Geography we have a 
catalogue of those plants and trees that have been found wild 
in the Asiatic part of the Ottoman territory. Several dyeing 
drugs and articles of the materia medica are imported from ^^ 
the Levant, among which are madder, and a variety called 
alizan, which grows about Smyrna, and affords a much finer 
red dye than the European kind ; jalap, scammony, sebesten, 
the ricinus (JRicinus communis, ^g. 105.) yielding by expres- 
sion castor oil, squirting cucumber, coloquintida, opium 
poppy, and spikenard. The best horses in Asiatic Turkey 
are of Arabian extraction ; but mules and asses are more gene- 
rally used. Tlie beef is scarce and bad, the mutton superior, 
and the kid a favourite repast. Other animals are the bear, 
tiger, hyaena, wild boar, jackal, and dogs in great abundance. On the summits of Cau- 
casus is found the ibex, or rock-goat; at Angora, singular goats and cats ; the gazel, 
deer, and hares in great abundance, are found in Asia Minor. The partridges are gene- 
rally of the red-legged kind, larger than the European ; fish is plentiful and excellent. 

SuBSECT. 2. Of the jjresent State of Agriculture in Persia. 

863. The climate of Persia is various in different parts ; depending less on difference 
of latitude than on the nature and elevation of the country, so that it is said to be the 
country of three climates. The northern provinces on the Caspian are comparatively cold 
and moist : in the centre of the kingdom, as Chardin observes, the winter begins in 
November and continues till March, commonly severe, with ice and snow, the latter 
falling chiefly on the mountains, and remaining on those three days' journey west of 
Ispahan for eight months in the year. From March to May high winds are frequent ; 
but from May to September the air is serene, refreshed by breezes in the night. The heat, 


Iiowever, is during this period excessive in the low countries bordering on the Indian 
Ocean and Persian Gulf, in Chusistan, the deserts of Kerman, and also in some parts of 
the interior, particularly at Tehraun, the capital. From September to November the winds 
again prevail. In the centre and south the air is generally dry ; thunder and lightning 
are uncommon, and a rainbow is seldom seen ; earthquakes are almost unknown ; but 
heat is often destructive in the spring. Near the Persian Gulf the hot wind, called 
" samiel," sometimes suffocates the unwary traveller. The summers are, in general, 
very mild, after ascending the mountains. To the north of Shiraz the winters are severe, 
insomuch that, in the vicinity of Tehraun and Tabreez, all communication is cut off for 
several successive weeks between these cities and the adjoining villages. The climate, 
notwithstanding this sudden transition from heat to cold, is singularly healthy, with the 
exception of the provinces of Ghilan, and Mazanderam. The air is dry ; the dews not 
insalubrious. The atmosphere is always clear, and at night the planets shine with a 
degree of lustre unknown in Europe ; and as it seldom rains, here are none of those 
damps or pestiferous exhalations so common in the woody parts of Hindustan. 

864. The surface of Persia is distinguished by a deficiency of rivers and a multitude 
of mountains ; its plains, where they occur, are generally desert. So that Persia may be 
divided into two parts by deserts and mountains ; and this division, it is said, has generally 
influenced its history and destinies in all ages. It is every where open, and no where 
presents a thriving populous appearance. Even the cities and their environs have some- 
thing of desolation and decay in their aspect, and many of them are actually ruined or 
neglected, of which Buschire and its territory {fig. 106.) is an example. The most fer- 
tile and thriving provinces are those on the north. 

.,r«^/^ lOG 

865. The soil may be regarded as unfertile, and, according to Chardin, not more than 
one tenth part was cultivated in his time. The mountains of this country, which are for 
the most part rocky, vnthout wood or plants, are interspersed with valleys, some of which 
are stony and sandy, and some consisting of a hard dry clay, which requires continual 
watering ; and hence the Persian cultivator is much employed in irrigation. In general 
the soil of Persia is light and sandy in the south and east ; hard and gravelly in the west, 
and rich and loamy on the borders of the Caspian Sea. 

866. The landed properti/ of Persia, like that of other despotic countries, is considered 
as wholly the property of the sovereign ; and held by the proprietors and occupiers on 
certain conditions of military service, and supplies of men and provisions in time of war. 

867. The agricultural products of Persia are as various as the climate and soils. The 
wheat is excellent, and is the common grain used in bread-making. Rice, which is in 
more universal use, is produced in great perfection in the northern provinces, which are 
well watered. Barley and millet are sown, but oats are little cultivated: in Armenia 
there is some rye. llie vine is generally cultivated ; but in the north-west countries they 
are obliged to bury the shoots to protect them from the frost. The silkworm is culti- 
vated in most parts of the country ; cotton and indigo are also grown ; and no country in 
the world equals Persia in the number and excellence of its fruits. 

868. The date tree is grown in plantations in the proportion of fifty females to two 
males. The natives begin to impregnate the females with the blossoms of the male in 
March and April, alleging that their proximity is not sufficient to insure the produce of 
fruit : this practice has been cai-ried on among them from the earliest ages. (Scot Waring^ $ 
Persia, chap, xxix.) 

869. The most esteemed of the cultivated fruits of Europe are indigenous in Persia, and 
have probably been hence diffused over the western world. These are the fig, the pome- 
granate, the mulberry, the almond, peach, and apricot. Orange trees of an enormous 
size are found in the sheltered recesses of the mountains, and the deep warm sand 
on tlie shore of the Caspian is peculiarly favourable to the culture of tlie citron and the 
leguminous fruits. Apples, pears, cherries, walnuts, melons, besides the fruits already 
mentioned, are every where to be procured at very low prices ; the quinces of Ispahan are 



Part I. 

the finest in the East ; and no grape is more delicious than that of Shiraz. In the pro- 
vinces bordering on the Caspian Sea and Mount Caucasus, the air is perfumed with roses 
and other sweet-scented flowers. Among the vegetable productions we may enumerate 
cabbages, cucumbers, turnips, carrots, peas, and beans ; and the potato, which has been 
lately introduced, thrives remarkably well. Poppies, from which an excellent opium is 
extracted, senna, rhubarb, saffron, and assafcetida are produced in many parts of the king- 
dom. The vine grows here luxuriantly, and further to the south cotton and sugar are 
articles of common cultivation. Poplars, large and beautiful, and the weeping willow, 
border the courses of the streams, and the marshy tracts abound with the kind of rush that 
serves for the Persian matting. Ornamental shrubs or herbaceous plants are little known ; 
but the jasmine and the blue and scarlet anemone in the tliickets, and the tulip and ra- 
nunculus in the pastures, are abundant and beautiful, and give an air of elegance to 
the country. 

870. Tlie saline deserts of Persia are for the most part destitute of trees, and support 
hardly any plants except such as are also found on the sea-shore. On the high moun- 
tains they are much the same as those observed on the alps of Switzerland and Italy. 
The plants on the hills and plains adjoining the Caspian are better known. 

871. The live stock of Persia is the same as in European countries with some addi- 
tions. According to Chardin, the Persian horses are the most beautiful in the East ; 
but they yield in speed, and, as some say, in beauty also, to the Arabian ; however, they 
are larger, more powerful, and, all things considered, better calculated for cavalry than 
those of Arabia. There are several breeds of horses, but the most valuable is that called 
the Turkoram ; these are so hardy that they have been known to travel nine hundred 
miles in eleven successive days. The Arabian blood has been introduced into this 
country. Their usual food is chopped straw and barley ; their bed is made of dung, 
dried and pulverised, and every morning regularly exposed to the sun. They are clothed 
with the greatest attention, according to the climate and season of the year ; and during 
the warm weather are kept in the stable all day, and taken out at night. 

872. Mules are also here in considerable request, and the ass resembles the Euro- 
pean ; but a breed of this animal has been brought from Arabia, of an excellent kind, 
the hair being smooth, the head high, and tlie motion spirited and agile. Although tlie 
mules are small, they are fairly proportioned, carry a great weight, and those that are 
intended for the saddle are taught a fine amble, which carries the rider at the rate of five 
or six miles an hour. The camel (^^. 107.) is also common ; and the animals which 
are exported from 
Persia to Turkey 
have, as Chardin 
says, only one 
hunch, while those 
of India and Ara- 
bia have two. The 
Persian cattle in 
general resemble 
the European. 
Swine are scarce, 
except in the 
north-west pro- 
vinces. The flocks of sheep, among which are those with large tails, are most nume- 
rous in the northern provinces of Erivan, or the Persian part of Armenia and Balk. 
The few forests abound with deer and antelopes ; and the mountains supply wild goats, 
and probably the ibex, or rock goat. Hares are common. The ferocious animals are 
chiefly concealed in the forests, such as the bear and boar, the lion in the western parts, 
the leopard, and, as some say, the small or common tiger. Seals occur on the rocks of 
the Caspian. The hyaena and jackal belong to the southern provinces. The seas 
abound with fish of various descriptions ; the Caspian affords sturgeon and delicious 
carp. The most common river fish is the barbel. The same sorts of wild and tame 
fowl are common in Persia and in Europe, with the exception of the turkey, whose 
nature does not seem to be congenial to this climate. Pigeons are numerous, and par- 
tridges are large and excellent. The bul-bul, or Oriental 
nightingale, enlivens the spring with liis varied song. 
The Persians have been long accustomed to tame beasts 
of prey and even to hunt with lions, tigers, leopards, 
panthers, and ounces. 

873. The Persians hunt the quail in a curious manner. {Jig. 108.) 
' They stick two poles in their girdle, upon which they place either 
their outer coat, or a pair of trowsers, and these at a distance are 

intended to look like the horns of an animal; they then with a 

hand-net prowl about the fields, and the quail, seeing a form more like a beast than a man, permits it to 

Book I. 



approach so near as to allow the hunter to throw his net over it. In this manner they catch these birds 
with astonishing rapidity. 

874. Of the implements and operations of Persian agricul- 
ture little is known with precision. ITie plough is said to be 
small, and drawn by lean cattle, so that it merely scratches the 
ground. The plough of Erzerum [Jig. 109 ) is a clumsy 
implement, on the share of which the driver stands, both for 
the sake of being carried along and of pressing down the 
wedge. After the plough and harrow the spade is used for 
forming the ground into squares, with ledges or little banks to retain the water. The 
dung used is chiefly human, and that of pigeons, mingled with earth and preserved for 
two years to diminish its heat. 

87.'?. The dung of 
pigeons is so highly 
prized in Persia that 
many pigeon-houses 
(^5. 110.) are erect- 
ed at a distance from 
habitations, for the 
sole purpose of col- 
lecting their ma- 
nure. They are 
large round towers, 
rather broader at 
the bottom than at 
the top,and crowned 

by conical spiracles through which the pigeons descend. Their interior resembles a 
honeycomb, forming thousands of holes for nests ; and the outsides are painted and 
ornamented. The dung is applied almost entirely to the rearing of melons, a fruit indis- 
pensable to the natives of wann countries during the great heats of summer, and also the 
most rapidly raised in seasons of scarcity ; and hence the reason that during the famine 
of Samaria a cab of dove's dung was sold for five pieces of silver. (2 Kings, vi. 25.) In 
Persia are grown the fines-t melons in Asia. The nobles pride themselves in excelling 
in tliis fruit, and some are said to keep pigeons to the extent of 10,000, and upwards, 
solely for their dung, as a manure for this fruit, the pigeon not being eaten by Persians. 
(^Moriers Second Journey, 141.) 

876. No arable culture is carried on in Persia without artificial watering ; and various 
modes are adopted for raising the element from wells and rivers for this purpose. The 
Persian wheel is well known. The deficiency of rivers in Persia has obliged the natives 
to turn all their ingenuity to the discovery of springs, and to the bringing of their streams 
to the surface of the earth. To effect this, when a spring has been discovered, they dig a 
well until they meet with the water ; and if they find that its quantity is sufficient to 
repay them for proceeding with the work, they dig a second well, so distant from the 
other as to allow a subterranean communication between both. They then ascertain the 
"hearest line of communication with the level of the plain upon which the water is to be 
brought into use, and dig a succession of wells, with subterranean communications 
between the whole suite of them, until the water at 
length comes to the surface, when it is conducted by 
banked-up channels into the fields to be irrigated. The 
extent of country through which such streams are 
sometimes conducted is quite extraordinary. In making 
the wells (Jig. 111.) a shaft is first dug, then a wooden 
handle is placed over it, from which is suspended a 2 
leathern bucket, which is filled with the excavated 
matter by a man below, and wound up by another above. Where the soil is against the 
mouth of the wells, they are secured by masonry. This mode of procuring water is 
common to the whole of Persia, and has the great defect of being easily destroyed by an 
enemy. (Morier^s Second Journey, 164.) 

877. The forests of Persia are few, and chiefly in the mountains of Mazanderam and 
Ghilan, and those towards Kurdistan. The trees are several kinds of pines, the cedar 
and cypress, limes, oaks, acacias, and chestnuts ; the sumach is abundant, and used for 
tanning ; manna is procured from the jprdxinus O'rnus. Very little fuel is consumed 
in Persia, and timber is seldom used j in the castles and principal houses, arches are 
employed instead of timber floors. 


SuBSECT. 3. Of the present State of j4griciilture in Independent Tatari/. 

878. The extent of Independent Tatary can hardly be considered as well defined ; 
but Pinkerton measures it from the Caspian Sea on the west to the mountains of Belus 
on the east, a space of 870 miles ; and from the mountains of Gaur to the Russian boun- 
daries on the north of the desert of Issim, a distance of 1500 miles. It is occupied by 
the Bucharian, Tungusian, Kirgusian, and other Tatar hordes ; and is a celebrated and 
interesting country, as being the probable seat of the most ancient Persian kingdoms, 
and as having given birth to Zoroaster and other men eminent in Oriental literature. 
Modern travellers represent the more civilised of this nation as indolent, but good- 
natured. They are easily recognised among other varieties of man, 

879. The climate of this extensive country appears to be excellent, the heat even of 
the southern provinces being tempered by the high mountains capped with perpetual 
snow ; and though situated in the parallel of Spain, Greece, and Asiatic Turkey, the 
proximity of the Siberian deserts and the lofty alps render the summer more temperate. 

880. The surface of the country presents a great variety; and there are numerous 
1 ivers, hills, and mountains. 

881. The soil near the rivers is very productive, so that the grass exceeds the height of 
a man. In any other hands but those of the Tatars, this country might rival any Euro- 
pean region. 

882. All that is known of the tillage of the Tatars is, that rice and other grains are cul- 
tivated near the towns, but that the great dependence of the people is upon their flocks 
and herds. Bucharia is the richest country, both in corn and cattle. There they have 
horses, camels, oxen, sheep, and goats, which some individuals reckon by thousands, and 
make large sales, especially of horses, to the Persians and Turks. They have also 
dromedaries, which furnish a considerable quantity of woolly hair, which they clip off' 
periodically and sell to the Russians. The lambskins are celebrated, being damasked, as 
it were, by clothing the little animal in coarse linen ; but the wool of the sheep is coarse, 
and only used in domestic consumption for felts and thick cloths. The steppes, which 
are of immense extent, supply them with objects of the 1 12 
chace, wolves, foxes, badgers, antelopes, ermines, wea- 
sels, marmots, &c. In the southern and eastern 
mountains are found wild sheep (0\is il/usimon), the 
ox of Thibet {Bos grunniens, fig. 112.) which seems 
to delight in snowy alps, chamois, tigers, and wild 
asses. There seems throughout the whole of Tatary 
to be a deficiency of wood ; and the botany of this im- - ^^^"- - 
mense region is as little known as its agriculture. 

SuBSECT. 4. Of the present State of Agriculture in Arabia. 

883. The extent of Arabia is somewhat greater than that of Independent Tatary. The 
climate is hot, but there is a regular rainy season, from the middle of June to the end of 
September, in some mountainous districts, and from November till February in others. 
Tlie remaining months are perfectly dry ; so that the year in Arabia consists only of two- 
seasons, the dry and the rainy. In the plains, rain is sometimes unknown for a whole 
year. It sometimes freezes in the mountains, while the thermometer is at 86" in the 
plains, and hence at a small distance are found fruits and animals which might indicate 
remote countries. 

884. The general surface presents a central desert of great extent, with a few fertile 
oases or isles, and some ridges of mountains, chiefly barren and unwooded. The flou- 
rishing provinces are those situated on the shores of the Red and Persian Seas, the interior 
of the country being sterile for want of rivers, lakes, and perennial streams. The soil is 
in general sandy, and in the deserts is blown about by the winds. 

885. I'he agricultural products are wheat, maize, doura or millet, barley, beans, lentils, 
and rape, with the sugar-cane, tobacco, and cotton. Rice seems unknown in Yemen, 
and oats throughout Arabia ; the horses being fed with barley, and the asses with 
beans. They also cultivate " uars," a plant which dyes yellow, and is exported in great 
quantities from Mocha to Oman j and " fua," used in dyeing red ; likewise indigo. 
The wheat, in the environs of Maskat, yields little more than ten for one; and in the best 
cultivated districts of Yemen, fifty for one ; but 
the doura sometimes much exceeds this ratio, 
yielding in the highlands 140, and in the Te- 
hama, or plain, from 200 to 400. By their 
mode of sowing and watering this grain, the ^-^^ 
inhabitants of Tehama reap three successive ^^^'"'^ 
crops from the same field in the same year. 
The plough {fig. 113.) is simple, and the pick is used instead of the spade. 


886. The indigenous, or partially cultivated, plants and trees of Arabia are numerous, 
and several of them furnish important articles of commerce. The vegetables of the dry 
barren districts, exposed to the vertical sun, and refreshed merely by nightly dews, belong 
for the most part to the genera of ^'loe, Mesembryanthemum, jEuphorbia, Stapeha, and 
Salsola. On the w^estern side of the Arabian desert, numerous rivulets, descending into 
the Red Sea, diffuse verdure ; and on the mountains from which they run vegetation is 
more abundant. Hither many Indian and Persian plants, distinguished for their beauty 
or use, have been transported in former ages, and are now found in a truly indigenous 
state : such is the case probably with the tamarind, the cotton tree (inferior to the Indian), 
the pomegranate, the banyan tree or Indian fig, the sugar-cane, and many species of 
melons and gourds. Arabia Felix may peculiarly boast of two valuable trees, namely, 
the coffee [Coffea arAbica), found both cultivated and wild ; and the ^myris Opobalsamum, 
which yields the balm of Mecca. Of the palms, Arabia possesses the date, the cocoa-nut, 
and the great fan-palm. It has also the sycamore fig, the plantain, the almond, the apricot, 
the peach, the papaw, the bead tree, the Mimosa nilotica and seiisitiva, and the orange. 
Among its shrubs and herbaceous plants may be enumerated the ricinus, the liquorice, 
and the senna, used in medicine ; and the balsam, the globe amaranth, the white lily, 
and the greater pancratium, distinguished for their beauty and fragrance. 

887. The live stock of Arabia is what constitutes its principal riches, and the most 
valuable are those species of animals that require only succulent herbs for their nourish- 
ment. The cow here yields but little milk ; and the flesh of the ox is insipid and juice- 
less. The wool and mutton of the sheep are coarse. The bezoar goat is found in the 
mountains. The buffalo 1 L4 
is unknown ; but the 
camel and dromedary 
( Jig. 114.) are bothin use 
as beasts of burden. The 
civet cat, musk rat, and 
other mountain animals, 
are valuable in commerce. 
Pheasants,partridges, and 
common poultry abound 
in Yemen; and there are 
numerous ferocious animals, birds of prey, and pestiferous insects. 

888. But the horse is of all the animals of Arabia the most valuable. This animal is said 
to be found wild in the extensive deserts on the north of Hadramant : this might have been 
the case in ancient times, unless it should be thought more probable, that the wild horse 
of Tatary has passed through Persia, and has been only perfected in Arabia. The horses 
here are distributed into two classes, viz. the kadischi, or common kind, whose genealogy 
has not been preserved, and the kochlani, or noble horses, whose breed has been ascertained 
for 2000 years, proceeding, as their fables assert, from the stud of Solomon. They 
are reared by the Bedouins, in the northern deserts between Bassora, Merdin, and the 
frontiers of Syria ; and though they are neither large nor beautiful, their race and here- 
ditary qualities being the only objects of estimation, the preservation of their breed is 
carefully and authentically witnessed, and the offspring of a kochlani stallion with an 
ignoble race is reputed kadischi. These will bear the greatest fatigues, and pass whole 
days without food, living, according to the Arabian metaphor, on air. They are said to 
rush on a foe with impetuosity ; and it is asserted that some of them, when wounded in 
battle, will withdraw to a spot where their master may be secure ; and if he fall, they will 
neigh for assistance ; accordingly, their value is derived from their singular agility, 
extreme docility, and uncommon attachment to their master. The Arabian steeds are 
sometimes bought at excessive rates by the English at Mocha. The Duke of Newcastle 
asserts that the ordinary price of an Arabian horse is 1000/., 2000/., or even 3000/. ; and 
that the Arabs are as careful in preserving the genealogy of their horses, as princes in re- 
cording that of their families. The grooms are very exact in registering the names of the 
sires and dams of these animals ; and some of these pedigrees are of very ancient date. 
It is affirmed that Arabian colts are brought up with camels' milk. 

889. Of the agricultural implements and operations of Arabia almost nothing is known. 
Their plough, as we have seen, is a poor implement, and instead of a spade they use the 
pick. The principal exertion of the husbandman's industry is to water the lands from 
the rivulets and wells, or by conducting the rains. Barley is reaped near Sana in the 
middle of July ; but the season depends on the situation. At Maskat, wheat and barley 
are sown in December, and reaped in March ; but doura (the great millet) is sown in 
August, and reaped in the end of November. The Arabians pull up their ripe com by 
the roots ; but the green corn and grass, as forage for their cattle, are cut with the sickle. 
In threshing their corn, they lay the sheaves down in a certain order, and then lead over 
them two oxen dragging a large stone. 


SuBSECT. 5. Of the present State of Agriculture in Hindustan. 

890. The climate and seasons of this extensive region are considerably diversified by 
difference of latitude and local situation ; nevertheless, throughout the wide regions of 
Hindustan there is some similarity of climate. Although in Thibet the winter nearly 
corresponds with that of Switzerland and other parts of Europe, in tlie whole extent of 
Hindustan, except in Cashmere, there can hardly be said to be a vestige of winter, except 
the thick fogs similar to those of our November ; and excessive rains, or excessive heats, 
form the chief varieties of the year. 

891. The surface of the country is much diversified; but there are no mountains of 
any very great height ; the ghauts not being estimated at above three thousand feet. The 
vast extent of Hindustan consists chiefly of large plains, fertilised by numerous rivers and 
streams, and interspersed with a few ranges of hills. The periodical rains and intense 
heats produce a luxuriance of vegetation almost unknown to any other countiy on the 
globe ; and the variety and richness of the vegetable creation delight the eye of every spec- 
tator. Bengal is a low, flat country, like Lower Egypt, watered and fertilised by the 
Ganges, as the latter country is by the Nile ; and, like the Nile, the Ganges forms an 
immense delta before it falls into the sea. The interior of the country is so flat, that the 
water runs only at the rate of three miles an hour ; and the ground rises from the sea 
towards the interior, at not more than four inches in a mile. 

892. The soil varies, but is in most places light and rich : that of Bengal is a stratum 
of black vegetable mould, rich and loamy, extending to the depth of six feet, and in 
some places fourteen, and even twenty feet ; lying on a deep sand, and interspersed with 
shells and rotten wood, which indicate the land to have been overflowed, and to have been 
formed of materials deposited by the rivers. It is easily cultivated without manure, and 
bad harvests seldom occur. In this country they have two harvests ; one in April, called 
the " little harvest," which consists of the smaller grains, as millet; and the second, called 
the " grand harvest," is only of rice. 

893. Landed property in Hindustan, as in all the countries of Asia, is held to be the 
absolute right of the king. The Hindu laws declare the king to be the lord and pro- 
prietor of the soil. All proprietors, therefore, paid a quitrent or military services to the 
king or rajah, except some few, to whom it would appear absolute grants were made. 
In general, the tenure was military ; but some lands were appropriated to the church and 
to charitable purposes, and in many places commons were attached to villages as in Europe. 
Lands in Hindustan, and in Bengal more especially, are very much divided, and culti- 
vated in small portions by the ryots, or peasants, who pay rent to subordinate proprietors, 
who hold of others who hold of the rajah. The actual cultivators have hardly any secure 
leases ; they are allowed a certain portion of the crop for the maintenance of their families 
and their cattle ; but they are not entrusted with the seed, which is furnished by the 
proprietor or superior holder. The ryot, or cultivator, is universally poor ; his house, 
clothing, and implements of every kind, do not amount to the value of a pound sterling ; 
and he is considered as a sort of appendage to the land, and sold along with it, like his 
cattle. So little attention is paid to any agreement made with him, that in a good season, 
Dr. Tennant informs us, the zemindar, or superior holder, raises his demands to a fourth 
more than the rent agreed on. Custom has rendered this evil so common, that the 
miserable ryot has no more idea of obtaining redress from it than from the ravages of the 
elements. Since Bengal was conquered by the British, the government is, properly 
speaking, the proprietor of all the lands ; and Tennant accordingly observes, that " nine 
tenths of all the rent of Bengal and the provinces constitute the revenue of the company, 
who are, in room of the Mogul emperor, the true proprietors of the soil." {Recr. ii. 184.) 

894. The agricultural jn-oducts of Hindustan are very 
various. Rice, wheat, and maize are the common grains ; 
but barley, peas, a species of tare or cytisus called dohl, and 
millet, are also cultivated. Next to them the cotton plant 
and the sugar-cane are most extensively grown. To these 
may be added, indigo, silk, hemp, poppy for opium, palma 
Christi, sesamum, mustard ; the cocoa-nut, which supplies 
a manufacture of cordage, and also a liquor called toddy; 
guavas, plantains, bananas, pompelos, limes, oranges, and a 
great variety of other fruits, besides what are cultivated in 
gardens, where the settlers have all the vegetables of Eu- 
ropean horticulture. The potato has been introduced, and 
though it does not attain the same size as in Europe, is yet of 
good quality. It is not disliked by the natives, but cannot 
be brought to market at so low a price as rice. 

895. The sugar-cane {Saccharum qfUcinhrum) (^^ 115.) is cultivated 
in low grounds that may be flooded. The ground being cleaned and pulverised by one or two years 

Book t. 



fallow is planted with cuttings of two or three buds, in rows four feet apart and eighteen inches 
wide in the row ; as they grow, each stool, consisting of three shoots or more, is tied to a bamboo reed 
eight or ten feet long, the lower leaves of each cane being first carefully wrapt round it, so as to cover 
every part, and prevent the sun from cracking it, or side shoots from breaking out. Watering and 
flooding in the dry season, and keeping open the surface drains during the periodical rains, are carefully 
attended to. Nine months from the time of planting, the canes are ten feet high, and ready to cut. 
The process of sugar-making, like all others in this country, is exceedingly simple. A stone mortar and 
wooden pestle turned by two small bullocks express the juice, which is boiled in pots of earthenware 
sunk in the ground^ and heated by a flue which passes beneath and around them, and by which no heat 
is lost. 

896. The indigo (Indigqfera tinctoria. Jig. 116.) is one of the most profitable articles of 
culture in Hindustan ; because an immense extent of land is required to produce but a 
moderate bulk of the dye ; because labour and land here are cheaper than any where else j 
and because the raising of the plant and its manufacture may 
be carried on without even the aid of a house. The first step 
in the culture of the plant is to render the ground, which 
should be friable and rich, perfectly free from weeds and dry, 
if naturally moist. The seeds are then sown in shallow drills 
about a foot apart. The rainy season must be chosen for 
sowing, otherwise, if the seed is deposited in dry soil, it heats, 
corrupts, and is lost. The crop being kept clear of weeds is 
fit for cutting in two or three months, and this may be re- 
peated in rainy seasons every six weeks. The plants must not 
be allowed to come into flower, as the leaves in that case 
become dry and hard, and the indigo produced is of less 
value ; nor must they be cut in dry weather, as they would 
not spring again. A crop generally lasts two years. Being 
cut, the herb is first steeped in a vat till it has become mace- 
rated, and has parted with its colouring matter ; then the liquor 
is let off into another, in which it undergoes the peculiar 
process of beating, to cause the fecula to separate from the 
water. This fecula is let off into a third vat, where it remains some time, and is then 
strained through cloth bags, and evaporated in shallow wooden boxes placed in the shade. 
Before it is perfectly dry it is cut in small pieces of an inch square ; it is then packed in 
barrels, or sowed up in sacks, for sale. Indigo was not extensively cultivated in India 
before the British settlements were formed there ; its profits were at first so considerable, 
that, as in similar cases, its culture was carried too far, and the market glutted with the 
commodity. The indigo is one of the most precarious of Oriental crops ; being liable to 
be destroyed by hail storms, which do comparatively little injury to the sugar-cane and 
other plants. 

897. ne mulberry is cultivated in a different manner from what it is in Europe. It is raised from cut- 
tings, eight or ten of which are planted together in one pit, and the pits are distributed over the field at 
the distance of two or three feet every way. These cuttings being well firmed at the lower ends soon 
form stools about the height of a raspberry bush, and from these the leaves are gathered. The stools are 
cut over once a year to encourage the production of vigorous shoots from the roots. _ 

898. The poppy {Fapnver somnlferum) is cultivated on the best soil, well manured. The land sometimes 
receives as many as fifteen stirrings, and the seed is then dropped into shallow drills about two feet 
apart. During the growth of the plants the soil is stirred, well watered, and sometimes top-dressed. In 
two months from the time of sowing, the capsules are ready for incision, which process goes on for two or 
three weeks; several horizontal cuts being made in the capsule on one day, on the next the milky juice 
which had oozed out, being congealed, is scraped off. This operation is generally repeated three times on 
each capsule, and then the capsules are collected for their seed. The raw juice is kneaded with water, 
evaporated in the sun, mixed with a little poppy oil, and, lastly, formed into cakes, which are covered with 
leaves of poppy, and packed in chests with poppy husks and leaves. 

899. Tobacco in Hindustan is cultivated in the same manner as in Europe. The soil must be rich and 
well pulverised, the plants transplanted, and the earth stirred during their growth ; the main stems are 
broken off, and the leaves are dried by being suspended on beds of withered grass by means of ropes, and 
shaded from the sun and protected from nightly dews. The leaves afford a much weaker odour than 
those of the tobacco of Europe or America. 

900. The mustard, Sesamum orientdle, Jlax, palma Christi, and some other plants, 
are grown for their seeds, which are crushed for oil. The use of the flax, as a clothing 
plant, is not understood in India, hemp supplying its place. The mustard and sesamum 
are sown on the sand left by the overflowings of the rivers, vnthout any other preparation 
or culture than that of drawing a bush over the seeds to cover them. The palma Christi 
is sown in patches three or four feet apart, grows to the size of a little tree, and is cut 
down with an axe when the seeds are to be gathered. The mill for bruising the seeds 
of these plants is simply a thick trunk of a tree hollowed into a mortar, in which is 
placed the pestle, turned by oxen. 

901. Palm trees of several species are in general cultivation in Hindustan. The 
most useful is the cocoa-nut tree {Cocos nucifera, Jig. 117.), which grows almost per- 
fectly straight to the height of forty or fifty feet, and is nearly one foot in diameter. 
It has no branches, but about a dozen leaves spring immediately from the top : these 
are about ten feet long, and nearly a yard in breadth towards the bottom. The leaves 
are employed to cover the houses of the natives ; and to make mats either for sitting or 




Part I. 

lying upon. The leaf when reduced to fine fibres is tlie material of which a beautiful 
and costly carpeting is fabricated for those in the higher ranks ; the coarser fibres 

are made into brooms. After these useful mate- 
rials are taken from the leaf, the stalk still remains, 
■which is about the thickness of the ancle, and fur- 
nishes firewood. 

902. The wood of this palm, when fresh cut, is spongy ; 
but becomes hard, after being seasoned, and assumes a dark- 
brown colour. On the top of the tree a large shoot is pro- 
■ duced, which when boiled resembles broccoli, but is said to 
be of a more delicate taste ; and, though much liked, is 
seldom used by the natives ; because on cutting it off the 
pith is exposed, and the tree dies. Between this cab- 
bage-like shoot and the leaves spring several buds, from 
which, on making an incision, distils a juice differing 
little from water, either in colour or consistence. It is the 
employment of a certain class of men to climb to the tops 
of the trees in the evening, with earthen pots tied to their 
waists, these they fix at the top to receive the juice, which 
is regularly carried away before the sun has any influence 
upon it This liquor is sold at the bazaars by the natives, 
under the name of toddy. It is used for yest, and forms 
an excellent substitute. In this state it is drank with 
avidity, both by the low Europeans and the natives ; and it is 
reckoned a cooling and agreeable beverage. After being 
kept a few hours, it begins to ferment, acquires a sharp 
taste, and a slightly intoxicating quality. By boiling it, a coarse kind of sugar is obtained ; and by distil- 
lation it yields a strong ardent spirit, which being every where sold, and at a low price, constitutes 
one of the most destructive beverages to our soldiers. The name given to this pernicious drink by 
Europeans is pariah arrack, from the supposition that it is only drank by the pariahs, or outcasts that 
have no rank. 

903. The trees from which the toddy is drawn do not bear any fruit, on account of the destruction of 
the buds ; but if the buds be left entire, they produce clusters of the cocoa-nut. This nut, in the husk, is 
as large as a man's head : and when ripe falls with the least wind. If gathered fresh, it is green on the 
outside ; the husk and the shell are tender. The shell, when divested of the husk, may be about the size 
of an ostrich's egg, and is lined with a white pulpy substance, which contains about a pint and a half of 
liquor like water ; and, though the taste be sweet and agreeable, it is different from that of the toddy. 

904. In proportion as the fruit grows old, the shell hardens, and the liquor diminishes, till it is at last 
entirely absorbed by the white milky substance ; which gradually acquires the hardness of the kernel of 
the almond, and is almost as easily detached from the shell. The natives use this nut in their victuals ; 
and from it they also express a considerable quantity of the purest and best lamp oil. The substance 
which remains after this operation supplies an excellent food for poultry and hogs. Cups and a variety 
of excellent utensils are made of the shell. 

905. The husk of the cocoa-nut is nearly an inch thick, and is, perhaps, the most valuable part of the 
tree ; for it consists of a number of strong fibres, easily separable, which furnish the material for the 
greatest part of the Indian cordage ; but is by no means the only substitute which the country affords 
for hemp. This the natives work up with much skill. 

906. The palmyra, a species of Corypha, is taller than the cocoa tree ; and affords still 
greater supplies of toddy ; because its fruit is in little request, from the smallness of its 
size; the produce of the tree is therefore generally drawn off in the liquid state. .This 
tree, like the cocoa, has no branches ; and, like it too, sends forth from the top a number 
of large leaves, which are employed in thatching houses, and in the manufacture of mats 
and umbrellas. The timber of the tree is much used in building. 

907. The date tree (Fhoe'nix dactylifera), being smaller, does not make so conspicuous 
a figure in the Indian forest as the two last described. Its fruit never arrives at maturity 
in India, owing to the heat : toddy is drawn from it, but not in such quantity, nor of so 
good a quality, as that which is produced by the other species of the same genus. 

908. The bamboo (Bambusa a,rundindcea) is, perhaps, one of the most universally useful 
trees in the world ; at all events it is so in the tropical regions. There are above fifty 
varieties, all of which are of the most rapid growth, rising from fifty to eighty feet the first 
year, and the second perfecting its timber in hardness and elasticity. It grows in stools, 
which are cut over every two years, and thus the quantity of timber furnished by an acre 
of bamboos is immense. Its uses are almost without end. In building it forms entire 
houses for the lower orders, and enters both into the construction and furniture of those 
of the higher classes. Bridges, boats, masts, rigging, agricultural and other implements, 
and machinery, carts, baskets, ropes, nets, sailcloth, cups, pitchers, troughs, pipes for 
conveying water, pumps, fences for gardens and fields, &c., are made of it. Macerated 
in water it forms paper ; the leaves are generally put round the tea sent to Europe ; the 
thick inspissated juice is a favourite medicine, is said to be indestructible by fire, to resist 
acids, and by fusion with alkali to form a transparent permanent glass. 

909. The fruits of Hindustan may be said to include all those in cultivation ; since 
the hardier fruits of Europe, as the strawberry, gooseberry, apple, &c., are not only 
grown by the European settlers in cool situations, but even by the native shahs. The 
indigenous sorts include the mango, the mangostan, and the durion, the noblest of known 
fruits next to the pine-apple. 

910. The natural pastures of Hindustan are every where bad, thin, and coarse, and 
mere is no such thing as aitificial herbage plants. In Bengal, where the soil is loamy 
to the depth of nine and ten feet, a coarse bent, or species of Juncus, springs up both in 


the pasture and arable lands, wJiicb greatly deteriorates the former as food for cattle, 
and unfits the latter for being ploughed. This Juncus, Tennant observes, pushes up 
a single seed stem, which is as hard as a reed, and is never touched by cattle so long as 
any other vegetable can be had. Other grasses of a better quality are sometimes inter- 
mixed with this unpalatable food ; but, during the rain, their growth is so rapid that their 
juices must be ill fitted for nutrition. In Upper Hindustan, during the dry season, and 
more particularly during the prevalence of the hot winds, every thing like verdure disap- 
pears ; so that on examining a herd of cattle, and their pasture, you are not so much sur- 
prised at their leanness as that they are alive. The grass-cutters, a class of servants kept by 
Europeans for procuring food for their horses, will bring provender from a field where 
grass is hardly visible. They use a sharp instrument, like a trowel, with which they cut 
the roots below the surface. These roots, when cleared of earth by washing, afford the 
only green food which it is here possible to procure. 

911. The live stock of Hindustan consists chiefly of beasts of labour, as the natives are 
by their religion prohibited the use of animal food. The horses are chiefly of Persian or 
Arabian extraction. The Bengal native horse is thin and ill-shaped, and never equals the 
Welch or Highland pony, either in figure or usefulness. The buffalo is common, both 
tame and wild, and generally jet black, with semicircular horns laid backwards upon the 
neck. They are preferred to the ox for carrying goods, and kept in herds for the sake 
of their milk, from which ghee, a universal article of Hindoo diet, is made. 

912. The common ox of Hindustan is white, and distinguished by a protuberance on 
the shoulder, on which the yoke rests. Those kept for travelling-coaches are