(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "A guide to Ripon Harrogate, Fountains abbey, Brimham rocks, and several ..."

This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 
to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 
to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 
are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other marginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 
publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing this resource, we have taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 

We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain from automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attribution The Google "watermark" you see on each file is essential for informing people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liability can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 



at |http : //books . google . com/ 






f'J 



i- 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized 



by Google — 



Digitized by 



Google 



Digitized 



by Google 




1. Ctmv: 

4. Aiihsiv 

5. MarkJian 

6. Jferiev 

7. Ban^ Wert 

8. Hang£ast 

9. Hi, 

TL.Ba/mrr 

12. OuseSJ)en*vnt £< 



by Google 



A GUIDE 



TO 



EIPOK, HAEEOGATE, FOUNTAINS 
ABBEY, BOLTON PEIOEY, 

AND 

SEVERAL PUCES OP INTEREST IN THEIR 



.«# 



' /.-li- 




st 

JOHN RICHARD WALBRAN, F.S.A. 

MAYOR OP RIPON, 

CorrMponding Member of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotiand ; Honorary Member of the Society 

of Antiqnaries of Meitcaetle-npon Tyne ; and Local Secretary of the Archaological 

institate of Great Britain and Ireland. 



&xA) aita. 



R 1 P N 1 
PUBLISHED BY A. JOHNSON & Co., MARKET-PLACE ; 

BELL AND DALDY, 186 FLEET STHEfiT, LONDON. 
1856. 



Digitized 



google 



BIPON: VRINTBD BT ANN JOHNSON AND COMPANY. 



Digitized by 



Google 



CONTENTS. 



TJie initial letters at pp. 14, 24, 58, 65, 103, 96, 108, and 138, are fac-nmilet from m 
ChartuUtry qf Fountains^ written about the close qf the fourteenth century. 

Page 

AxLOT Hiu .. ..5 

Alofibld Spa .. ..100 
Babdbn Bbiogb, Chapel, & Tower 135 

Bolton Fbiobt .. ..122 

Barn .. .. ..136 

Bridge and Chapel .. ..124 

Chapter-bouse .. •• 132 

Churchyard.. .. ..133 

Cloister Court .. ..132 

Close .. .. .. 132 

Conventual Church •. 126 

Dormitory .. .... 132 

Gate-house .. ..124 

Bolm-terrace .. ..136 

Lodge •• .. .. 136 

Mill .. .. .. 133 

Park .. .. .. 135 

Strid .. .. .. 133 

White Doe of Bylstone . . 133 

BoLTOH Hall .. .. ..124 

Bolton Woods .. ..136 

Bbiuhau Rooks '.. .. 103 

EuBSAT Fbiobt .. ..123 

Fountains Abbbt, List of Abbots 69 

Abbot's House .. ..94 

Brewhouse .. .. ..90 

Buttery.. .. .. 94 

Bridge .. .. 71 

Cellar .. .. .. 90 

Chapter-house .. .. 86 

Church.. .. .. 74 

Cloister .. .• .. 72 

Cloister Court .. ..85 

Close .. .. ..70 

Court-house .. ..90 

Coins, discovery of .. .. 90 

Dissolution of .. ..67 

Dormitory .. .. ..72 

Frater-house .. ..90 

Gard-robes .. .. 73,94 

Gatehouse .. ..71 

Historical notice of .. •• 65 

Hospitium .. ..71 

Infinnary .. .. .. 72 



Page 
Fountains Abbey— continued 

Kitchen .. .. .. 92 

Library .. ..88 

Mill .. .. .. 70 

Muniment Boom . . . . 92 

Offices .. .. .. 70 

Orchards ... ..70 

Owners of .. .. .. 68 

Park .. .. .. 70 

Pavements.. .. ..82,98 

Prisons .. .. 94 

Ponds .. .. .. 70 

Befectory .. .. 92 

Belies, arranged in Court-room 91 

Scriptorium .. .. 88 

Yew Trees .. .. 70 

Fountains Hall .. .. 71 

Haokfall.. .. ..105 

Halikbld .. .. .. 3 

Habbogath .. ..108 

BaUs .. .... 121 

Baths .. .. .. 119 

Churches and Chapels .. 110 

Harlow Carr and Tower 118, 121 

Hospital .. .. ..120 

Hotels.. .. ..120 

Origin of .. .. .. 108 

Beereation .. .. mi 

Victoria Rooms ., .. 121 

WeUs, Cheltenham .. 116 

Crown .. .. 114 

MontpeUier .. 114 

MontpeUier Cheltenham 1 17 

Starbeck .. ..115 

Sulphur .. .. 112 

Sweet ,. .. 112 

Tewit .. .. Ill 

Walker's Saline . . 117 

How-Hill and Chapel .. .. 63 
Hutton, Celtic Temples and Bar- 
rows at .. .. 3 
Knabbsbrouoh Fobbst 108, 124 
Latbb Riybb .. .. .. 17 

LiNDBICK .. .. .. 4 



Digitized 



google 



CONTENTS. 



Mabkbnpiblo Hall.. 

Arms of Markenfield ., 

Tombs.. 
NiDD BiTsa .. 
Skbll Bivbr .. 9,17, 

Btudlbt Hall 

Gardens 

Park 
BoBiN Hood's Well 
Thornbbouoh» Celtic Temples 
BiPON, Abbey of 

Bathing-house . . 

Canal .. 

Cathedral, Historical Notices 

■ Survey of 

Chapel of our Laidy . . 

Chapels, Dissenting 

Church, Trinity 

College of Vicars.. 

College, Projected 

Corporation, Municipal 

Court-house . . 

Common 

Cross, Market •• 

Dispensary 

Fairs 

Gas Works 



Page 
101 
103 

40,41 
104 

59,95 
59 
60 
59 
65 
3 
18 
57 
57 
84 
31 
82 

55,56 
58 
51 
88 

10,14 
58 
8,58 
18 
56 
16 
57 



of 



Page 
Riro^f—eontimted 

Hospitals .. .. 54 

Local Government .. .. 14 

Liberty of .. .. 14 

Library, Public .. .. 56 

Limekilns .. .. 17 

Manor .. .. .. 5,14 

Manufactures at . . . . 8, 15 

Markete .. .. .. 16 

Market-place .. ..55 

Mechanics* Institution . . 56 
Palace and Park of Archbishop 

of York .. ..7,58 

Palace of Bishop of Bipon . . 53 

Population.. .. .. 57 

Baces .. .. .. 16 

Booms, Public .. .. 56 

Sanctuary .. .. 81 

School, Grammar .. .. 55 

National .. .. 56 

Town Hall.. .. .. 55 

Waterworks .. .. 57 

Wells .. .... 57 

BouAK Bioa .• .. 4 

Urb BivBB .. .. 8.17,105 

Watling-Stbbbt .. .. 4 

Wha&vb and Wbabfboalb .. 136 



digitized 



by Google 




I-- '''^'''^^S^'''^^J^S;^^-^^''^^*^Jt^JC^'^'^=^^' 



BIPOM, r«OM TBI rrtTDLBT UVI KIUI8. 



EIPON. 




mSTOBICAL INTRODUCTION. 

F all the divisions of our favoured island, the 
County of York has pre-eminent claims to 
the attention of that numerous class of the 
community who delight in reviewing the 
abundant beauties of their own insufficiently 
appreciated country. Comprising an area 
sufficient for a principality, meted by great 
natural features, containing the proudest 
memorials of ancient piety and chivalry, as well as the most 
diversified and ingenious applications of modem science, it is, in 
itself, an epitome of the kingdom, and needs not the aid of its 
peculiar natural beauties, to allure those who are uncertain whither 
to direct their steps, with the greatest certainty of enjoyment 

There is however, unfortunately, another class of persons who 
are tempted to this particular part of the kingdom, not so much 
from inclination as necessity. Its mineral springs and salubrious 
climate offer a most powerful remedial influence to those for whom 
restoration to health would be the greatest earthly blessing. And 
it is not less singular than fortunate that the central portion of the 



Digitized 



bfGoogle 



2 WPON. 

county, which is thus chiefly resorted to, has, within the compass 
of moderate excursions, an imusual variety of most interesting 
ohjects, hy the inspection of which the mind may he refreshed and 
engaged, whilst physical strength is invigorated or attained. 

It is, on this account, that the vicinity of Kipon is particularly 
deserving of consideration to those who would, thoroughly, enjoy 
their visit to Harrogate. Situated on the immediate verge of t^t 
" Yorkshire plain," of which, the competent judgment of Bancroft 
has affirmed the like is not to he seen on this side the Alps, yet 
elevated gently ahove commingling streams, on the last slope of 
the great western hills, its landscape scenery comprehends all those 
features on which a lover of the cultivated aspect of Nature loves 
to dwell, — ^pervaded everywhere hy a feeling of order, tranquility, 
and continuance, and enriched hy ^ose associations and memorials 
incident to a hye-past centre of progress and civilisation. 

To the consideration of these monuments, and of the institutions 
which originated them, the greater part of the following pages will 
necessarily he devoted ; and seldom may he who recognises, even 
in local history, "philosophy teaching hy example," ohserve a more 
diversified series and intelligihle development of those elements 
which have produced our present social and political condition. 

As early, indeed, as shelter for himself and pasturage for his 
cattle were among the most pressing necessities of uncivilised man, 
it is evident that the advantageous position of this place would 
often induce its temporary occupation, and several conical pits oji 
the "High Common" have heen considered the site of these dwell- 
ings. Yet— even in this migratory and unsettled period — ^we have 
far more direct and conclusive evidence, that the immediate vicinity 
of Eipon was regarded with peculiar interest and veneration; since 
one of the trihes of the Brigantian Celts had chosen it as their 
station for the dispensation of justice and the celehration of reli- 
gious rites ; in fact, had made it the seat of their government. 
This position — novel as it may he — ^is, I helieve, sufficiently proved 
hy a remarkahle earth-work on the high land near " Blois Hall," 
commanding extensive prospects up and down the Vale of Ure, as 
well as of the distant ranges of hills which form the side screens 
of the great Yorkshire plain. like Ahury and Stonehenge, which 
it rivals in antiquity, its outline is that of a circle, of which the 
diameter is not less than 680 feet; hut no stones remain, nor in- 
deed does that material seem to have heen used in its formation. 
Though ^cent agricultural operations have partially effaced the 



Digitized 



by Google 



HISTORICAL INTRODUCTION. 3 

regularity and proportion of its plan/it is sufficiently evident that 
it was enclosed by a lofty mound and corresponding trench. — the 
latter being inside, and a platform or space about thirty feet wide 
intervening. This opinion, however, may be reduced to certainty, 
by an inspection of the three similar temples at Thombrough, near 
Tanfield, about six miles hence, one of which remains perfect. At 
two opposite points, bearing nearly north and south, the mound 
and trench, for about the space of twenty-five feet, have been dis- 
continued, in order to form an approach to the area of the temple. 
Outside the mound, also, are some slight vestiges of a forther 
avenue, but too indefinite to be traced. But, however obscure the 
denotation of its several parts may have become, the antiquity 
and purpose of the place, as a temple for the performance of Dru- 
idical rites, is satisfEtctorily ascertained by the eadstenoe of, at least, 
eight large Celtic barrows in its immediate vicinity ; one of which, 
being on the very ridge of the vale, and planted vdth fir trees, 
forms a conspicuous and useful object to guide a stranger to the 
site. Two of these barrows were opened ten years ago, but I 
found nothing except a few calcined human bones, the ashes of the 
oaken funeral pile, and some fragments of flint arrow-heads, such 
as are still used by the North- American Indians. Several bronze 
spear-heads and celts have, however, been found in the neighbour- 
hood, within recollection. 

There is, unfortunately, no access to the earth-work by a public 
path; but its situation is rendered visible, from the high road 
leading from Bipon to Rainton, by the presence of two small pyra- 
mids or obelisks, built on the mound of the temple, about fifty 
years ago ; in the place, it is said, of two similar erections, appa- 
rently of high antiquity. 

It may not be unreasonable to believe, that a spring which rises 
in a piece of enclosed ground, called ^'Halikeld Field," about 
midway between this earth-work and the village of Melmerby, 
was the ^^fonfi sacer " necessary for the due performance of Dru- 
idical rites ; and, in the absence of all direct evidence, may, by its 
consequent pre-eminent sanctity, be supposed to have given a 
name, in Saxon times, to the Wapentake of Halikeld, in which 
both it and the earth-work are situated. << Hailekelde landes," 
in Melmerby, are mentioned in charters of the thirteenth century. 

Besides the remains of the temple, several evidences of the Celtic 
occupation of the immediate neighbourhood of Kipon have been 
found in the shape of celts, Druid beads, and fragments of coarse 



B 2 oogle 



4 BIPON. 

pottery ware. The most interestmg object, however, is a splendid 
golden torque, found about thirty years ago near Studley Hall, 
concealed between two large stones, which had probably once 
formed a portion of the substratum of a barrow. Within 640 yards 
of this place, and near some broken ground in lindrick farm, was 
also found a large sword of bronze, which the discoyerer — ^inhe- 
riting the spirit of the age when it had been fabricated — ^immedi- 
ately threw away, lest, as he sagely averred, he might be bewitched 
by its possession. 

The few opportunities that have fsivoured investigation of the 
soil have not presented proof that there was any considerable 
settlement, either on the site or in the immediate vicinity of 
Eipon, during the Roman period ; though its position, on a lingula 
of land declining between two converging rivers, and its proximity 
to their city of Isurium, may induce the idea that it was not 
entirely unoccupied by that people. Indeed, among the papers of 
the learned Gale, was the sketch of a tesselated pavement of that 
period, which was discovered here ; and, a smaU vase of Homan 
workmanship— now in my possession — ^was found not many years 
ago at the depth of seven feet, on the west side of the "Horsefair." 
But these indicia, with a few silver and copper coins, dating from 
the reign of Vespasian to that of Constantine, turned up in and 
near the streets, comprehend, at present, all the evidence I can 
offer on the subject. The great Homan road, which retained, here, 
its name of " Watling Strete " in the thirteenth century, passed 
Bipon, at the distance of three miles, on the east ; and a vicinal 
way, still called <* Roman Rigg" — stretching towards the explora- 
tory camp behind Hackfall — ^may be traced, through Lindrick 
fann, to the river Laver, at an equal distance on the west side of 
the city. 

Descending, now, to the period when written evidence imparts 
the assurance of detail and dates to our narration, we find that, as 
early as the seventh century, the industry of Saxon agriculturists 
was rewarded, here, by the fertility of the Vale of Ure. Alchfrid, 
king of Deira, or the southern portion of the kingdom of North- 
imibria, was lord of the soil, and about the year 660, bestowed on 
Eata, abbot of Melrose, a portion of ground, at Ripon, whereon 
to erect a monastic foundation. 

It is probable, notwithstanding, that the village which, conse- 
quently, arose might have remained in the same insignificant 
condition which was the doom of many places where monasteries 



Digitized 



by Google 



HISTOKIGAL INTBODVGTION. 5 

were fonnded in the Saxon times, if it had not happened that, on 
the expulsion of the Scottish monks, king AlchMd gave the 
monastery to WilMd, a pious, learned, and enthusiastic character, 
who had been his tutor, and who, ever after, regarded the place 
with peculiar affection. With the monastery was bestowed the 
lands appurtenant to thirty, or, as some write, forty dwellings, 
being probably the whole adjacent territory which was then 
brought into cultivation. After Wilfrid was elevated to the see of 
York, he rebuilt this monastery with all the superior elegance and 
taste he had acquired during his sojourn in Italy and foreign lands ; 
and by his patronage and exertions, unquestionably, the huts that 
had been reared round the oratory of the holy feithers became the 
centre of civilisation to the adjacent country, and the germ of the 
future town. 

The silence of the early chronicles allows us to hope that there 
was peace at Kipon, during the warfiEure and brutal devastation 
that prevailed in the north during the eighth and ninth centuries. 
According, however, to some indefinite accounts, it shared this 
cruel £Eite towards the close of the latter period; for about the year 
860, when the Danes were rav6iging the country with insatiable 
fury, they are said to have razed the town to the ground, and done 
much injury to the monastery. 

There remains, indeed, to our own day, a monument of some 
dreadM carnage that occurred here awhile after. This is a large 
conical tumulus at the east side of the town, about a bow shot from 
the cathedral, composed throughout of sand, gravel, and human 
bones, mingled in that indiscriminate manner that would occur 
when the victims of the battie-field were hastily collected in one 
vast mound, that served alike as their memorial and their tomb. 
The teeth and bones of horses, too, have been found in quantities 
within a short distance around its base. This singular and myste- 
rious object, which was called in Leland's time Bshow, but now 
Ailcy Hill, measures about three hundred yards in circumference 
at its base, and about seventy in eloping height. Etymologists 
have connected its name with a presumption that Ella, the North- 
umbrian king, fought, or was subsequentiy slain here in 867, and 
that he, or those who fell with him, were deposited in a " how " 
or hill that was designated by his name. The fact of his death 
having occurred here is, however, clearly disproved by several 
ancient chroniclers,* who state that he fell with king Osbert, at 
• Chron. Sax. ed. Wheloe p. 532. Asserij Annales XV Scrip. 159. 



Digitized 



by Google 



6 



BIPON. 



York; and the Saxon personal appellation of ''EIsi" harmonifles 
better with the vulgar pronunciation, which has been ibimemoriaUy 
« Alley ." Still its own internal eyidence has proved that it was 
thrown np, in, or very shortly after, Ella's time j for, in^ digging 
in the hill, — ^which, until the late enclosure of the common where 
it stood, was used as a gravel pit, — ^there was fonnd, in the early 
part of 1695, several stycas of Osbert and Ella, Ethelred, Eanred, 
and Aelred. Within memory, also, many have been fomid in the 
hUl ; but, through ignorance of their vahie, have all been dispersed 
or lost. 

Hitherto, the soil of Kipon may have been possessed by the suc- 
cessive monarchs of Northumbria, with the exception of what had 
been given by them to Wilfrid and his monastery ; if the statement 
— ^believed as early as 1280* — is correct, that Athelstane, who 
reigned from 926 to 940, gave the Manor of Kipon to Wolstan, 
Archbishop of York. Yet little reliance can be placed on the 
medisBval interpretation of a Saxon grant, and the truth, — as 
suggested both by the authentic portion of the charters of Athel- 
stane, printed in the " Monasticon,"t as well as by the petition of 
Archbishop Bowet to Parliament, in 1415,:( — seems, rather, to be 
that Athelstane, when he came with his army to Bipon, on his 
expedition against the Scots, vowed, that, if it should prove suc- 
cessful, he would endow the churches of York, Bipon, and Beverley, 
with profitable privileges ; and that his grant consisted in the cre- 
ation and conveyance of peculiar and exempt legal jurisdiction 
over those manorial and appurtenant lands already ;acquired by 
the see of York, and, since, comprehended in what is termed the 
franchise, or " Liberty of Bipon.** 

When king Edred proceeded to the north, to revenge the perfidy 
of the Northumbrians, about the year 948,§ he devastated and 
burned the town and monastery of Bipon, in consequence, as is 
supposed, of Archbishop Wolstan, its lord, being implicated in the 
rebellion. Odo, Archbishop of Canterbury, visited the province of 
York very soon after this devastation.|| He had pity, as Leland 
observes,^ on the desolation of Bipon monastery, and began, or 
caused a " new work to be edified wher the present minstre now 
is." Prosperity seems to have folbwed his exertions so effectually 



• Flacita de Quo Warr. R. C. p. 197. t Mon. Angl. i 178. 

% Eot. Pari. vol. iv., p. 85. 

$ A. D. 948, says Matt. Westm., p. 368 ; but A. D. 950, Sim. Dunelm., X Scrip, i., c. 166. 

II B. de Dieeto. X Scrip, c. 455. % Itin. L 91. 



Digitized 



by Google 



HI8T0BIGAL Iin!BODUCnON. 7 

that, after the lapse of a century, and in the reign of Edward the 
Confessor, the manor had acquired the annual value of 32/.* Arch- 
bishop Aldred was then its lord. He was the last Archbishop of 
York under the Saxon dynasty, and crowned William the 
Conqueror. 

It has been fortunate for the town that the Conqueror bestowed 
the manor on Aldred's successor, Thomas,t rath^ than on a layman, 
who might have neglected it, in consequence of its comparatiyely 
defenceless position. He had been a Qmon of Bayeux; and having 
aided William with a large sum of money to prosecute his expedi- 
tion, was thus rewarded with the primacy of York. During his 
time the town shared, so severely, in the devastation that succeeded 
the siege of York in 1069, that, when Domesday survey was taken 
sixteen years after, the value of the manor was depredated to 
7/. lOs. ; and most of the appurtenant berewics were still desolate 
and waste. Under the fostering and powerful patronage of the 
Archbishops of York, with whom Bipon was a favourite residence^ 
until Walter Qrey erected the palace at Bishopthorpe, the prospe- 
rity of the town increased apace. The death of Archbishop Thomas 
occurred here Nov. 18th, 1100 ;$ and Murdac retired hither, when 
at issue with his Chapter. The hosts of retainers and followers 
that these great dignitaries, daily maintained* together with the 
influx of persons who attended Qie £Burs they had been privileged 
to hold by kings Henry and Stephen, could not fail in tiiat day — 
when commerce was confined to chartered localities — ^to confer 
lasting benefit on the town. The number of persons employed in 
the erection of the church, and the several ecclesiastical structures 
around, must, also, from the long period over which these worics 
extended, have contributed to the same result. Before the close of 
the thirteenth century, and, probably, at a £90* earlier period, the 
manufacture of woollen cloth had been established in the town, 
which had arrived at such importance as to be deemed worthy of 
representation in parliament. 

On the drd of October, 1295,|| it was summoned to send two 
members to a parliament, to be held at Westminster on the 13th 
of November following. It was summoned four times afterward, 
and until the 19th Edward II., when it ceased to send members, 
until the last parliament of Edward VI.,5[ from which period it 
has been summoned to the present time. 

• Domesday Book. t Ibid. t Stubbs, Aet. Pont. Ebor. X Scrip, ii., e. 1709. 

1 Bromton., X Scrip, ii. 801. 

li Palgrave*8 Pari. WriU, L 36, 85. IT WiUis's Not Pari., viii., p. 66-7. 



Digitized 



by Google 



8 BIPON. 

About the year 1319, when the country was distracted by the 
contentions of the imbecile Edward and his barons, Robert Brace 
seized on several of the towns and military stations in the north. 
He sacked and ravaged the Yorkshire towns of Northallerton, 
Boronghbridge, Skipton, and Scarborough ; and having turned his 
army in this direction, remained at Bipon three days, where he 
imposed a tribute of one thousand marks on the terrified inhabi- 
tants ; two hundred and forty of which they immediately paid, 
fearing lest he should put his threat of burning the town into 
execution. 

The evil day was only protracted for a while : for, after his 
pursuit of King Edward to York, his army again visited Bipon, 
when, finding the wretched inhabitants unable to comply with 
their demands, they perpetrated many brutal atrocities : putting 
to death, among others, several ministers of the collegiate church, 
which, according to Walsingham, they endeavoured to destroy 
by fire. 

Notwithstanding the calamity which had befallen the town. 
King Edward smnmoned a parliament to meet here on the 14th 
of November, 1322 ; but it did not assemble, being removed, by 
writ of proclamation, to York. 

Though this incident may be indicative only of a temporaiy 
condition, yet the manufacture of woollen cloth, on which the 
staple and progressive character of the town depended, was, pro- 
bably, never after prosecuted with its former success. Indeed the 
woollen trade, generally, was, at this period, in a very hopeless 
condition, and never revived, until Edward III. induced certain 
Flemish manufacturers to settle in England, one of whose estab- 
lishments at York would, alone, interfere unfevourably with the 
more unskilful operations conducted here. Yet the resort of the 
country people to its Mrs and markets, where — ^in the deficiency 
of shops — goods of all descriptions were sold, together with the 
presence and patronage of two great ecclesiastical establishments, 
must have maintained the town in a reputable commercial 
position. 

During the remainder of the fourteenth century, nothing occurred 
of general interest in the annals of Bipon; and through that which 
succeeded it, we would hope that the absence of striking incident 
is indicative of a state of peace and contentment; escaping the 
vicissitudes and troubles to which it might have been exposed by 
the possession of a permanent fortification, and subjection to a 



Digitized 



by Google 



mSTOEICAL INTRODUCTION. 9 

military lord of the fee, during the desolating wars of York and 
Lancaster. 

Bnt whatever may have been the degree of vigour with which 
the staple manu&>ctiire was prosecuted here, during these periods, 
in the middle of the sixteenth century, when a new combination 
of the elements of social progress was evolved, it sensibly declined ; 
and the trade was transferred to the more congenial site of Halifax. 
Leland, who was here about the year 1534, observed that " there 
hath bene, hard on the farther Bipe of Skelle, a great numbre of 
tenters for woollen clothes, wont to be made in the town of Bipon. 
%ut now idelness is sore encresid in the town, and clothe makeing 
almost decayed." 

The simultaneous dLssolution of the religious houses interfered 
also, unfavourably, with the social comfort and temporal prosperity 
of the town ; not only by diverting the proceeds of large and dis- 
tant estates, which had been fireely expended here, into absent or 
avaricious hands, but, by exchanging the solace of ancient ties and 
associations for the poisonous infusion of theological strife ; sd that 
when a "great plague" visited Bipon, in 1546, the full measure 
of its affliction was filled up. 

This state of derangement and discord continued with little 
abatement until the famous " Rising in the North," in 1569, when 
Bichard Norton and Thomas Markenfield, the lords of domains 
hard by Bipon, that had bestowed on their race these ancient and 
chivalrous names, allowed the long suppressed bitterness of their 
religious discontent to plot and urge on that ill-starred expedition, 
in which the earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland were put 
forward as the ostensible leaders. The former of these noblemen 
had a seat at Topcliffe, seven miles from Bipon, where the rebels 
held their early meetings. They came here, on their road from 
Durham, on Friday, the 18th of November, 1569, and were here 
on the 19th, when many joined them. They had a muster at the 
Market-cross; and the earls made a proclamation, which Sir 
George Bowes — ^their adversary— describes as the most effectual 
thing they did. Here Norton displayed his memorable banner, 
and mass was celebrated in the collegiate church. After putting 
Sir William Ingilby, who had opposed them, to flight, they 
marched to Knaresborough ; and at length to Clifford Moor, 
whence they, injudiciously, returned to the north ,* but the foot- 
men risen in Bipon and the vicinity had seen enough of the 
campaign ; and refused to pass their homes. On the night of the 



digitized 



by Google 



10 BIPON. 

16th of December, the lords Warwick and Clinton arriyed at 
Kipon, in pursuit of the rebels ; and in the next month a dreadful 
demonstration of their victorious arms was exhibited in this place. 
As a significant and memorable warning, there was ordered to be 
executed here, all the rebel constables of the West-Biding, except 
those of Wetherby, Boroughbridge, and Tadcaster; aU the of- 
fending serving-men of the West-Biding; and lastly — ^within 
sight of their neighbours, and homes, and kindred — ^the misguided 
townsmen of Bipon. 

Towards the close of the sixteenth century, there seems, also, to 
have prevailed much animosity and discord in the borough, chiefly 
caused by the uncertain mode of electing the chief officer, who was 
called ** the Wakeman," and the irregular constitution of the mu- 
nicipal body ; which, having existed — ^though, perhaps, originally 
as a Merchant Guild — ^apparently from the Saxon times, became, 
in the absence of legally defined powers, a law xmto itself, and 
therefore unable either to command respect, or to withstand that 
rising spirit of inductive argument which waa not to be satisfied 
merely with traditional authority. With the consent of Archbishop 
Hutton — Lord of the Manor and Liberty — whose predecessor, 
Cardinal Wolsey, had similarly interfered in 1517, a definite 
arrangement was attempted in 1598 ; and a code of By-laws 
framed for the general constitution of the body and government 
of the town. Much of the irregularity being " supposed a long 
time by y« most p'te of y« wisest and best accompt in and about 
y« said Towne to have fallen out by reason of y« confusion and 
ye number of aldermen being never limited w^ any certaine 
number," they were then reduced from twenty-nine to twelve. 
Twelve more were added not long after ; but the system being 
still open to objection, the inhabitants, soon after the accession of 
king James, petitioned the monarch for a ''more certain and 
xmdoubted mode of election." 

This was granted to them, June 26th, 1604, in a Charter of 
Incorporation, obtained chiefly by the eflbrts of Mr. Hugh Bipley, 
a '' merchant and mercer" of the town, who was Wakemon at that 
time, and was nominated by the Crown, as the first mayor. 

In consequence of the plague raging at York in 1604» the Court 
of the Lord President of the North was adjourned to Bipon, where 
it was held a short time. 

When King James I. was on his progress to Scotland in 1617, 
he honoured Bipon with a brief visit He left York on Tuesday, 



Digitized 



by Google 



mSTOEICAL INTRODUCTION. 11 

Angiut 15th, and came here that evening ; when as the official 
minnte in the Corporation Register says, he lodged at " the honse 
of Mr. George Dawson, and at his Highnes comynge to the said 
towne, Mr. Thomas Procter, Beoorder of this corporation, made a 
speech vnto his Ma^«, vr^^ done, there was presented nnto his 
Highnes, by Mr. Symon Browne Maior, the Aldermen and Bur- 
gesses of the said Corporation, a gilte bowle and a pair of Bippon 
spnrres, vr^^ spmxes coste yU and were snch a contentment to his 
Ma^« as his Highnes did weare the same the day followynge at his 
dep'ture forth of the said towne." 

The plague again visited Bipon in 1625, so severely, that the 
country people dreaded approaching the town, and their children 
were, more than once, baptised on the common pasture. From the 
commencement of its fatality on the second of June, 1625, to its 
teraiination on the 4th of May, 1626, there died in all ninety-six 
persons, whose names and places of abode are entered, separately, 
in the Parish Register. 

In the spring of the year 1632, Charles I. passed through Bipon 
on his way to Edinburgh, where he was crowned on the 18th of 
July following. 

The untenable position of the town exempted it from sharing, 
severely, in the horrors of the Grand Rebellion. One of those wars 
of words that preceded that most dire explosion was, however, 
for a while, maintained here : for the Scottish lords having reused 
in 1640, to treat, at York, vdth the English Conmiissioners, Ripon 
was the place agreed on for their meeting. 

The house in which this extraordinary conference was held, 
together with the table and benches that remained in the apart- 
ment used by the Commissioners, are still remembered by several 
persons. The great interest that attached to this building could 
not preserve it from destruction. It was pulled down many years 
ago, and Its site now forms part of Mr. Cayle/s gardens, near 
Ailcy HiU. 

Another brief incident of this sad drama was enacted here, in 
March, 1642-3, when Sir Thomas Mauleverer entered the town 
with a detachment of the parliamentary forces. In the exercise 
of their usual blasphemy and licentiousness, they riotously and 
profanely intruded themselves into the Collegiate Church, and 
showed what kind of liberty they desired, and were worthy to 
enjoy, by breaking the painted windows, and defadng the memo- 
rials of the dead. " But," says Gent (writing about ninety years 



Digitized 



byGoogTe 



12 SIPON. 

after, in his nsnal quaint style), "they were soon after attacked 
hy a detachment of Eoyallists from Skipton Castle, then goyemed 
hy that glorious sufferer for his loyalty, Sir John Mallory, of 
Studley Eoyal, assisted hy several Bippon champions, whose duty 
and allegiance were unalterable ; who, coming upon the rebels hy 
surprise, in the Market-place, where they had kept their main 
guard, made them feel the sharpness of tiieir swords, by a better 
&,te than they deserved." Some were taken prisoners, and sent 
"to Skipton and other places." 

But the energies of many " glorious sufferers for loyalty " could 
not quench that fierce blaze that was so soon to scathe the land. 
In the very streets where the "Eippon champions" had enjoyed 
their little triumph, they soon after beheld their unfortunate and 
misguided king a captive in the hands of his subjects. On his way 
from Newcastle to Holmby, he came here on the 6th of February, 
1646, having then left Blchmond ; and remained imtQ the 8tik, 
when he was conveyed to Wakefield. He was attended by a strong 
guard of horse and foot, and it is remarkable that Bipon was the 
only place, of the ten stages, where he was allowed to remain two 
nights. 

The ascendancy of the Parliament affected materially the insti- 
tutions of the town, which were all in antagonism with the popular 
feeling. The Manorial rights were seized, and sold to Lord Fairfax 
in 1647. The lands appurtenant to the Boyalty were alienated 
between that year and 1650. The Chapter of the Cathedral was 
suppressed : and many members of the Corporation became so 
insensible to the welfare of their country and their town, as to 
advocate the principles of puritanical dissent and licentious insub- 
ordination. 

When order was restored by the accession of King Charles 11., 
the Corporations were purged of their unworthy members ; and 
a Commission for that purpose sat here, the 23rd of September, 
1662. The vacancies were supplied by persons of great respect- 
ability, who did all that corporate influence could effect for the 
advancement of the town. For some time, they directed their 
attention to the renewal of their charter, and the grant of two 
fiEurs for cattle and horses, that they deemed would be beneficial 
to the inhabitants. Nothing, however, was effected imtil the 
accession of James 11., when, after a consultation with the Arch- 
bishop of York, they surrendered their charter, September 2nd, 
1684, to the King, who was pleased to restore it, with another 



Digitized 



by Google 



HISTOKICAL INTRODUCTION. 13 

from himself, dated 12th Januaiyi 1686, confirming the privileges 
of the Corporation, and conceding the fairs they desired. 

From the close of the seventeenth centmy, the history of the 
town becomes devoid of general interest. It had its own little 
squabbles about the Pretender and the Pope ; but, basking in the 
sunshine of agricultural prosperity, and restrained by the influence 
of a wealthy and benevolent family, in one bond of political feeling 
that taught " Whatever 'is, is right," there was generated a dis- 
belief in the possibility of change, that has, too often, been ruth- 
lessly dispelled, in the great social and commercial struggles which 
have ensued. 

During the last twenty years, the ancient institutions of the 
town — and, especially, from that exclusive character in which their 
original efficacy existed — ^havebeen despoiled in silent antagonism 
with those measures by which legislators have attempted to re- 
direct their operation, in a changed condition of society. The 
special privilege of the burgage holders to elect the members of 
Parliament was taken away by the Eeform Bill. The numerical 
as well as the administrative power of the Corporation was reduced 
by the general statute of 1835. The manorial jurisdiction of the 
Archbishop of York has been abridged, his Court of Pleas all but 
absorbed in the County Court, and his once lucrative franchise of 
fairs and markets infringed even within the parish. The consti- 
tution of the Chapter of the Cathedral has been remodelled : and, 
lastly, the mercantile competition of other and distant places is 
encouraged, by the formation of a railway to the city. 

The last, however, is the only change which may, ultimately, 
affect the prosperity or settled condition of the place. Although, 
of course, it was expected to work — ^here as elsewhere — such an 
hopefiil effect as no man would limit, even in imagination ; it may 
be as probable that — with no peculiar advantage of mineral wealth, 
nor of position, except an unlimited water power — ^Bipon vrill not 
escape that dominaat conunercial influence which has risen on the 
ruin of local immunities and associations ; but that-, henceforth, it 
vrill be, exclusively, sought and enjoyed by those who would retire 
from successful contention vrith the world. 



Digitized 



by Google 



14 MPON. 




LOCAL GOVERNMENT. 



IRCUMSCRIBING the city is a district-KJompre- 
hending 33,330 acres and twenty-four townships — 
in which, from the time of the Saxon king Athel- 
stane, the Archbishop of York, in right of his manor, 
has exercised an exclnsive.franchise or jurisdiction, 
immemorially known by the name of " the Liberty 
of Bipon,'* and, occasionally, by that of "Riponshire." Its outline 
— which has diverted the boundary of the West Biding from its 
natural and general direction with the river Ure, — agrees, as might 
have been supposed, nearly with that of the parish ; but several 
townships which are included, geographically, in the parochial, are 
without the civil district; in consequence, I presume, of their ancient 
feudal dependence on the barony and castle of Kirkby Malzeard. 
It comprehends also the adjacent parish of Nidd. 

Within this district, xmtil successive restrictions of the legisla- 
ture, the Archbishop enjoyed those extraordinary privileges termed, 
legally, ^^Jura Regalia" the nature of which cannot be detailed 
here. Suffice it to say, that by the exclusion of the High Sheriff, 
he had unlimited judicial authority, both over the property and the 
lives of the resiants, the one branch remaining in the Court of 
Pleas, the other represented, in an abridged form, by the Court of 
Quarter Sessions. The "Liberty" also maintains its exempt 
character, in its offices of High Steward, Justices of the Peace, 
Coroner, Clerk of the Peace, Chief Constable, and Gaoler. 

The incorporation of the borough has been already alluded to, 
as well as that reformation in 1835, by which it has obtained 
neither an accession of influence nor energy, but an additional 
element of excitement and contention, and the burthensome admi- 
nistration of formal provisions, unnecessary to the welfere or 
government of a small commimity. The Corporation now con- 
sists of a Mayor, four Aldermen, and twelve Councillors. The 
Mayor and his predecessor are Justices of the peace for the 
Borough, by virtue of the Act 5 and 6 William IV., c. 76, s. 57, 
together with other gentlemen named in Her Majesty's Commission 
dated 23rd September, 1854. The Mayor is also in the commission 
for the Liberty of lUpon, during his year of office. 



Digitized 



by Google 



COMMEKCIAL POSITION. 16 

If a visitor should remain in the city during the evening, he may- 
hear the sounding of the Mayor's horn, one of the most ancient 
customs that lingers in the kingdom. It formerly announced the 
setting of the watch, whence the chief officer of liie town derived 
his Saxon style of " Wakeman," hut has, of course, now lapsed into 
a formality. Three hlasts, long, dull, and dire, are given at nine 
o'clock at the Mayor's door, hy his official Hom-hlower, and one 
afterwards at the market-cross, while the seventh heU of the cathe- 
dral is ringing. It was ordained in 1598 that it should he hlown, 
according to ancient custom, at the f(mr comers of the cross, at 
nine o'clock j after which time, if any house " on the gate syd 
within the towne " was rohhed, the Wakeman was hound to com- 
pensate the loss, if it was proved that he " and his servants did not 
their duetie at yt time." To maintain this watch he received fix)m 
every householder in the town that had hut one door, the annual 
tax of twopence ; hut from the owner " of a gate door, and a hacke 
dore iiij hy the year, of dutie." The original horn, worn hy the 
Wakeman, decorated with silver hadges and the insignia of the 
trading companies of the town, hut shamefully pillaged in 1686, 
has heen several times adorned, especially hy John Aislahie, Esq., 
Mayor in 1Y02 ; and in 1854. Since the year 1607 it has heen 
worn on certain days hy the Serjeant-at-Mace, in procession. 

The other corporate hodies and institutions in the city may, most 
conveniently, he noticed, in surveying the places where they are 
held or administered. 



COMMERCIAL POSITION. 

There is no staple manufacture carried on in the city, unless the 
estahlishment of three individuals may he allowed to represent the 
trade of saddle-tree making, carried on here as early as the time of 
Queen Elizaheth. After the manufacture of woollen cloth declined, 
in the sixteenth century, that of spurs was carried on with such 
skill and success that the phrase *<As true steel as Bipon rowels*' 
— applied to express the character of a man of honest principles — 
hecame proverhial throughout the kingdom. Ben Johnson in his 
" Staple of Newes," has,— 

" Why, there *8 an angel, if my spurs 
Be not right Sippon." 



Digitized 



by Google 



16 Bipoy. 

and Davenant, in his " Wits," — 

** Whip me with wire, beaded with roweli of 
Sharp Bippon Spurs.** 

This trade, together with that of button-making, and some other 
kinds of hardware, prospered throughout the seventeenth and part 
of the eighteenth century, but the advantages obtained, in the 
great seats of general hardware manufacture, by the division of 
kbour and a more liberal application of capital, at length caused 
its decline, Alderman John Terry, who occupied the site of the 
second house westward from the Town-hall, and died within recol- 
lection, having been the last spurrier. Subsequently, no kind of 
manufacture has been peculiarly followed in the city, though well 
directed and persevering individual exertion, in several branches 
of trade and manufacture, has been successAilly rewarded. 

The weekly market is held on Thursday, and ia well supplied 
with all kinds of agricultural produce of superior quality, large 
quantities of butter, eggs, and fowls, being particularly required by 
agents from the manufacturing districts. There is a supplementary 
market on Saturday evening, for the sale of garden produce and 
butcher's meat ; and a wool market, held in the " Old Market- 
place,'' occasionally during the season. 

There are fairs here, also, on the first Thursday after the 20th 
day succeeding old Christmas day ; on the 13th and 14th of May; 
on the first Thursday and Friday in June ; on the first Thursday 
in November ; and on the 2drd of November, which is a general 
hiring day for servants. A most graphic idea of the scenes 
enacted, occasionally, at the mediaeval fiiirs here, may be gathered 
from an interesting narrative, recently published in " the Plumpton 
Correspondence." 

From a very early period — doubtless far more remote than the 
thirteenth century, when there is record of the feet — Ripon seems 
to have been a noted place for horse-fairs, and the most spacious 
street in it is still called " the Horsefeir," though it is now used 
rather for the periodical exhibition than the sale of horses. It also 
promoted, at a comparatively early period, the breeding of horses, 
by the establishment of races ; a course having been formed, on the 
High CiJmmon, in 1713, at the expense of the Corporation. During 
the time of the Aislabies, they were well encouraged; but subse- 
quently fell off considerably in character, and finally were aban- 
doned on the enclosure of the common in 1826. With a view 
chiefly to afford amusement, at the annual feast of St Wilfrid in 



Digitized 



by Google 



TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY. 17 

August, they were re-established, on a new course on the opposite 
side of the river, in 1837, and have since been continued with 
increasing prospect of success. 



TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY. 

The general position of the city is sufficiently indicated by the map, 
and the vignette at the head of our first chapter, showing its bear- 
ing with reference to the vale of Ure,and the great Yorkshire plain 
beyond. It will be sufficient^ therefore, now, to say that Ripon 
stands chiefly on a sheltered situation, declining from the north- 
west towards the confluence of the river Ure with the Laver and 
the Skell. The geological stratiflcation, in its inmiediate vicinity, 
is of the Tertiary character, the city standing on the boundary 
between the new red-sandstone of the Yorkshire Plain, which 
shows itself prominently in a quarry beyond the railway station, 
and its great western terrace of magnesian limestone, which ap- 
pears on the opposite side of the valley at Studley, Whitclifle, 
Morkershaw, and especially at Quarry Moor, where extensive 
lime-kilns have long been established. The soil — occasionally af- 
fording usefiil beds of clay — ^is generally of a gravelly nature, 
though there is much fertile land aroxmd the city, and trees show 
their satisfeiction in its quality, both in their unusual size and 
exuberant foliage. 

The antiquary Leland, who was here in the time of king Henry 
YIII., observed — and appearances still conflrm his position — that 
" the olde Towne of Ripon stoode much by North and Est " as he 
" could gather by veuing of if Stammergate and Allhallowgate, 
from their proximity to the Monastery that was the germ of the 
town, were therefore indubitably the most ancient portion of it ; 
and from them the dwellings diverged, until the Market-place and 
its western and southern adjacencies were formed, before the six- 
teenth century. These later parts, in Leland's day, were " the best 
ofthetounej" and he remarks, too, what few could have other- 
wise imagined, that " the very place wher the Market stede and 
Hart of the Towne is, was sumtyme caulled holly hille, of holy 
trees ther growing, wherby it apperith that this parte of the Towne 
is of a newer Buyldynge." 

The plan and prospect of Ripon, recorded upwards of a hundred 



Digitized 



by Google 



18 SIPON. 

years ago, in the seyeral works of Oent and Bnck, exhibit much 
the same appearances as remained until the beginning of the pre- 
sent century, since which time many improvements have been 
effected by paving, flagging, and draining streets ; the enclosing 
of the adjacent common lands; the rebuilding of many old, humble, 
and inconvenient houses ; and the erection and embellishment of 
new ones, especially in the immediate environs. The era of recon- 
struction preceding the present, appears to have been during the 
seventeenth century ; but the outline of the picturesque gable, that 
was so channing a feature in our old street architecture, is still 
unwittingly retained in many of the modem erections. Most of 
these fronts were but formed of timber frames, covered with lath 
and plastei>— each story projecting over that below. One by one, 
they have been gradually superseded by more convenient arrange- 
ments, and substantial materials; and, I believe, an ancient 
hostelry, in the north-west comer of the Market-place, remains 
now the least mutilated example. 

Most of the streets are narrow, like those of other ancient towns, 
where, originally, little more was required than passage for man 
and horse. The chief Market-place is very spacious, and nearly 
square, measuring at the widest points 115 yards by 81. It is 
adorned by a handsome Cross 90ft. high, erected in 1781, by 
William Aislabie, Esq., of Studley, who represented the borough 
in Parliament sixty years : and an elegant Town-hall, of which 
more will be said hereafter. 



"THE OLD ABB AY OF RIPON." 

We have already noticed that Eata, abbot of Melrose, obtained, 
about the year 660, certain lands in Eipon, from Alchfrid, king of 
Deira, whereon to construct and maintain a monastic establish- 
ment The monks, however, had scarcely erected their humble 
dwelling, before AlchMd was dissatisfied with their discipline, 
particularly their mode of computing the time of Easter. Having 
the option, therefore, given, either to quit the place, or to conform to 
his wishes, they chose the more independent alternative, and de- 
parted.* 

On this untoward circumstance, which occurred before 664, 

• E4diJ. Vit WUfridi, c. Tiii. Bede Hist Bed.. L. ▼., e. 80. and L. iU., c. 8S. 

Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



OLD ABBEY OF HIPON. 



19 



King Alchfrid bestowed the monasteiy, and the lands appnrtenant 
to thirty dwellings, on one WilMd, whose learning and piety had 
captivated the monarch and his court; and who henceforth fills 
an important page, not merely of the annals of the town, but of 
the whole Christian church. 

The intercourse of this monarch with Wilfrid, and the peculiar 
tendency of his own mind to adopt the ceremonial practices of the 
Church of Home, in several matters that agitated the clergy of 
this island, inclined him to join his fieither in holding a synod, 
which might furnish grounds for regulating the ecclesiastical 
practice of Northumbria in these particulars. This assembly met 
at Whitby, in 664, King Oswi himself being present, who, although 
educated in the Scottie^ discipline, pronounced now in favour of 
the Church of Home. 

The Bishoprick of York or Northumbria being soon aft^ vacant, 
Wilfrid, who had shown much zeal and ability iu supporting the 
Romish cause at the Synod, was elected to that important office. 

Soon after his elevation, he began to realise those principles of 
architecture, he had acquired in his continental tours, in the im- 
provement of his Cathedral church at York i and, immediately 
after, it would seem, from the consecutive narrative of his Chap- 
lain,* determined to erect a new monastery at Bipon. Of what 
form and extent the old Abbey had been, is, of course, unknown. 
Its site, occupying upwards of two acres and a half, is still circum- 
scribed, I presume, by a portion of Stamm^gate, Priest-lane, and 
a nameless road on the south ; and has immemonally been called 
" Scots' Monument Yard." The buildings were undoubtedly of 
wood— judging alike from the fEushion of the SootSyf and the 
ability of the times. When the present National School was built 
in 1853, the raised platform-— on which Dean Waddilove planted 
two poplar trees, to mark the presumed site of the monaatery — 
was foimd, as I previously conjectured, only to be composed of 
gravel: but there are foundations divei^ging from it that have 
disclosed large stones. Several Saxon stycas, of the Northumbrian 
king Ethelred, have been dug up in this field ; and a portion of a 
oylindxical column of grit-stone 4fL 5in. in circumference. This 
might, however, have formed part of some subsequent oratory. 

Wilfrid, from some cause now unintelligible, chose the site of 
his new foundation about 200 yards from the old building ; and on 

• Edd^. Vita Wilfridi, c xvii. f BediB Hist. EccL, L. UL, c. zzIt. 



Digitized 



b^Google 



20 



KIFOy. 



the western side of what is now the public street ; but we have, 
nnfortimately, no more definite idea of its design and magnitude, 
than is suggested in the observation of his Chaplain Eddi, that it 
was built of wrought or polished stone, and that divers columns 
and porticos entered into its construction. William of Mahnesbuiy , 
however, amid the more magnificent erections of after ages, 
records its curious arches, fine pavements, and winding recesses. 
Yet these particulars, combined with the fact that Wilfrid brought 
workmen from Italy, who wrought in the Koman manner, and 
guided by the description Richard, Prior of Hexham, gives of that 
church, which was built by Wilfrid in 674, will afford us a toler- 
able idea of the celebrated Monastery of Bipon. 

The foundation of this structure seems to have occurred between 
the first regnal year of King Egfrid, who was present at its con- 
secration, and 678, when that monarch, by the advice of his wife, 
persuaded Theodore, Archbishop of Canterbury, to depose Wilfrid, 
who then departed to Rome to receive justice from the Pope. 
Theodore substituted two bishops in his stead — ^Bosa having his 
see at York, and £ata at Hexham or UndLsfame. At the same 
time he ordained, at York, Eadhead, Bishop of Sidnacester ; and 
three years after Wilfrid's departure, placed Trumbert over the 
church of Hexham, and Tromwine over the province of the Picts* 
-~£ata being removed to lindisfame. 

StiU deeming that a more minute supervision was required, the 
Church of Bipon was constituted an Episcopal See, and Eadhead, 
who had returned from Sidnacester, was appointed its Bishop.f 

From the continual aim and endeavour of Wilfrid to subject the 
Saxon Kings to the papal infiuence, he was allowed but brief and 
occasional enjoyment of his monastery here ; yet he outlived or 
wearied out his most pertinacious adversaries, and, after the synod 
of Nidd, was allowed to retire here in peace. Shortly after, on a 
journey, he was taken ill at the Abbey of Oundle, in Northamp- 
tonshire, where he died on the 12th of October, 711, in the 
seventy-sixth year of his age ; but in obedience to his own par- 
ticular request his body was brought to Bipon for interment, 
where it was deposited on the south side of the altar of his con- 
ventual church. 

King Athelstane, as I have previously observed, granted certain 



• BediB Hift Eed., L. W., e. 18, Whdoe, 891. 
t Ibid.— •• Bhipend Ectlesis prafeolt.*' Ibid. L. iiL, e. 8»-«* Hrypentis Eecleda 
pnetul &ctiu ett.*' 



Digitized 



by Google 



OLD ABBEY 07 EIPON. 



21 



valuable inmmnities to the Monasteiy of Bipon ; the particulaTB 
of which are defined in two charters of that monarch, printed in 
the Monasticon. I presume, however, that both these documents 
were &brications of much later days,* and framed more in the 
nature of an inspeximus, than that of an original grant, particu- 
larly the one in prose, which is witnessed by " G," or Geoflfrey, 
Archbishop of York,t and natural son of King Henry 11. By the 
rhyming charter, which is a curious specimen of English verse, as 
written at the end of the thirteenth century, the valuable privi- 
lege of Sanctuary was conceded to the church, together with the 
ordeal of fire and water ; freedom from tax and tribute ; and other 
immunities. 

The boimdary of this place of refuge was marked, at the end of 
the thirteenth century, by 6^A^ crosses circumvallatingthe church, 
and called mile crosses ; where, at that period, the Archbishop of 
York claimed that his bailiffs had the right to meet the homicide, 
who should fiee thither ; and, after administering to him the ne- 
cessary oath, admit him within the privileged jurisdiction. The 
position of three are only now distinguished. Athelstane's cross 
was situate on the road between Bipon and Nunwick, by a field 
stiU called Athelstane-close. The stump of Archangel cross was 
lately sunk in the hedge of a lane leading from the Navigation 
bridge to Bondgate ; and Sharow cross still remains entire in the 
highway from Bipon to that village. Another nameless cross 
formerly stood on the farther side of Bishopton toll-gate; but 
whether one of this series I cannot at present ascertain. The 
Grithstool that stood in the church, and conferred the last degree 
of security on its occupant, is now destroyed, and I am unable to 
say in what part of the choir it stood. 

The monastery had no sooner received these valuable immunities 
than it was doomed to irretrievable destruction ; for in 948 or 950,| 
when King Edred devastated the North, it was destroyed by fire 
and rendered no longer tenable. 

• lion. Angl. V. 1., p. 173. t Camden** Bemains, p. 198. 

X Sim. Danelm. X. Scrip., vi., e. 16S. 



Digitized 



by Google 



22 



RIPON. 



"THE CHAPELLE OF OUR LADY." 

Yet the ruin of the " Old Abbay of Bipon " was not entirely 
abandoned to desolation. A chapel weis founded there, no doubt, 
within the walls of some portion that wsis left undisturbed — ^for 
the ravages of Edred could scarcely have extended to the shell of 
the building" — and Leland* has left us the following circumstan- 
tial account of what otherwise would have perished irretrievably. 

" The Old Abbay of Bipon," says he, " stode wher now is a 
Giapelle of our Lady, in a Botom one close distant by * * * * , 
from the new minstre. 

" One Marmaduke, Abbate of Fountaines, a man familiar with 
Salvage, Archebishop of York, (1501-7) obteined this Chappelle 
of hym, and Prebendaries of Bipon : and having it gyven onto 
hym and to his Abbay, puUid down t?ie est end oj^it, a pece of 
exceding auncient Wark, and buildid a feir pece of new Werk 
with squarid stones for it, levtng the west ende of very old toerk 
stonding, 

" He began also and finished a very fair high waul of Squarid 
ston at the est end of the Garth that this chapel stondeth yn : and 
had thought to have inchsyd the hole garth with a like tcatdle, 
and to have made there a cell of white monks. There lyethe one 
of the Englebys in the est end of this chapell, and there lyith 
another of them yn the chapelle garthe, and in the chapel singith 
a cantuarie prest. 

" One thing I much notid, that was 3 crossis standing in row at 
the Este Ende of the Chapelle Garth. They were things anti- 
quissimi operis, and monumentes of some notable men buried 
there, so that of al the old monasterie of Bipon and the toun, I 
saw no likely tokens left after the dex>opulation of the Danes in 
that place, but only the WauUes of our Lady chapelle and the 
crossis." 

The indefatigable antiquary was, noLjioubt, correct in his sup- 
position ; and little did he imagine, as he viewed the venerable 
remains which would have thrown a most vivid light on the inte- 

• Itinerary, Vol. t, p. 92. 



Digitized 



by Google 



CHAPEL OP OUR LADY. 



23 



resting snbject of Saxon architecture, could we now see them as 
he did, that in a few years, the ** fair pece of new werk,*' and the 
"pece of exceding anncient wark," would be involved in one 
common rmn. The chapel having been suppressed in 1547, the 
fabric became, no doubt, a quarry for all who were wicked enough 
to remove " the remnants of the shattered pile j " though, I have 
reason to suspect that the hands of fidse Mends contributed not a 
little to its demolition. There is now nothing above ground to mark 
the site : nor any fragmentary relics of the building, unless the capi- 
tal of a transition Norman column, now in the Deanery yard, has 
been brought from thence ; for the adjacent large round font — deco- 
rated with a deeply trifoliated arcade supported on circular shafts — 
has more probably been brought from the Cathedral when the pre- 
sent Tudor font was introduced. Abbot Hub/s wall, which merits 
Leknd's encomium of a Mr piece of work, remains at the East 
end of the " Chapelle garth." I have reason to believe the foun- 
dations and outline of the Saxon Monastery might still be traced, 
and such an operation on a building, whose pre-eminent antiquity 
is so well ascertained, could not fail to be deeply interesting. 
Nothing of any importance has been found within memory, except 
a few small and curious tesserae of the floor, that were turned up 
in 1837. 



Digitized 



by Google 




TBS CATHB0B.1L FROM THB BIMKS OF THB SKBLI.. 



THE CATHEDRAL CHURCH OF ST. PETER AND 
ST. WILFRID. 




OT long after the destruction of Wilfrid's 
Monastery, Leland informs us it was " the com- 
mune opinion" in his day, that "Odo, Arch- 
' bishop of Cantewarbyri, (Canterbury) cuniming 
ynto the Northe partes with King. . . . (Edred ?) 
had pitie on the desolation of Ripon Chirch, and 
began, or causid a new work to be edified wher the Minstre now 
is ; '* but that no part of this structure then remained. Odo him- 
self, in his preface to Frithgode's Metrical Life of Wilfrid, also 
informs us that, on visiting the old Monastery, he found the grave 
of Wilfrid in a state of scandalous and indecent neglect ; and 
removed his bones to a proper receptacle in his Metropolitan Church. 
This statement has, nevertheless, been questioned. 

K the Benedictine monks obtained the benefit of the new erec- 
tion, they did not retain it long. Between 1060 and 1069 Aldred, 



Digitized 



by Google 



Digitized 



by Google 



THE CATHEDRAL. 25 

Archbishop of York, and Lord of the manor, had fotmded certain 
Prebends in the church, either in addition to a preyions number, 
or as an original endowment, and these Canons of St. WilMd 
were in the enjoyment of their privileges when the Domesday 
survey was made. 

In the beginning of the century succeeding the Norman Con- 
quest, Archbishop Thurstan gave to the " church of St WilMd," 
one carucate of land, " in dedicatione,'' and also two oxgangs of 
land in Sharow, for the foundation of a prebend that has since 
borne that name. An erroneous interpretation of the intent of the 
former donation has induced the general statement, most promi- 
nently developed in the seventeenth volume of the Archseologia, 
that Thurstan built the Collegiate Church of Bipon ; and that, 
except the additions and alterations in the Decorated and Perpen- 
dicular style, it remains a monument of his genius and liberality 
to this day. 

This noble work, I have, however, had the pleasure to ascertain, 
is another of the many benefits which the See of York derived from 
the Pontificate of the wealthy and talented Roger of Bishopbridge, 
who held it from 1154 to 1181 ; for the chroniclers have recorded 
comparatively nothing of one whose generosity and piety, in raising 
the ancient choir of York Cathedral, and the adjacent Collegiate 
Chapel of St. Sepulchre, will now acquire, at the distance of nearly 
seven centuries, the honour of another most important work. It 
was fortunate, therefore, that in this instance he had evaded their 
neglect ; and, in a record which he caused to be prepared, has 
himself notified — " quod dedimus operi beati Wilfiidi de Ripon ad 
eedificandam basilicam ipsius quam de novo inchoavimus mille 
libras veteris monetse." With this treasure a noble pile was begun, 
as is still evident in those members of it which remain in the 
transepts, and north-west portions of the choir. 

We are not informed how much of the structure was perfected 
before the Archbishop's decease, though the state of the nave at 
that period seems only doubtful. After the plan, originally devised 
by Roger, was completed, the elegant taste and ample resources of 
some unknown benefactor, dissatisfied with the tall nave, termi- 
nating abruptly without aisles on the west, renewed that front in 
the lancet style, and produced a noble and imposing fa9ade, by the 
addition of a tower on each side, adorned with lofty spires of tim- 
ber and lead. The centre tower had, perhaps, been originally 
adorned by a similar termination, though of much less altitude. 



Digitized 



by Google 



26 



BIFON. 



It was, I apprehend, in fortherance of this work, that Archbishop 
Wickwane in 1284, and Archbishop Bomayne in 1287, had issued 
their letters of indulgence for forty days to those who should con- 
tribute to the works of this chnrch. 

Thus efficiently completed, the chnrch remained in beauty and 
strength until the inroad of the Scots, in 1319, when they set fire 
to the building, and destroyed some of its inmates. 

At this time William de Melton, who had endeavoured to repulse 
the Scots, held the Archiepiscopal staff with a firm and apostolic 
hand. His generosity and efficient patronage of architectural 
science, confirms the statement that he applied himself to the 
reparation of the misfortone, and the eastern portion of the choir 
is pointed to as his work. 

Though the injuries caused by the Soots had not probably 
extended beyond tiie Boof, Screens, Stalls, and other inflammable 
portions of the building, the work of renovation and amplification 
proceeded slowly. We do not learn how the valiant Archbishop 
Zouch, who resided awhile at his palace here, encouraged his 
Canons in the undertaking ; but immediately after the appointment 
of the great Thoresby to the Archiepiscopal chair, he issued, 26th 
October, 1354, his Letters of Request to Thomas Button and others, 
to 'collect the charitable ahns of all faithful and well disposed 
persons within the diocese of York, to the use of the &bric of this 
Church, and, with the money thus obtained, the work was no 
doubt completed. 

A century had but just elapsed before the Canons were again 
called upon to repel the attacks of an enemy more insidious and 
irresistible than the violence of man. The Lantern Tower, *< which 
at first was so sumptuously built, was then, as well by neglect of 
workmen that first made it, as by thunder, and frequent storms and 
tempests, so much shaken and broken that the greatest part thereof 
was already fSEdlen, and the rest expected to follow, if no speedy 
remedy was applied." The &bric fimd being unable to meet the 
emergency, William Booth, Archbishop of York, was moved, on 
the 4th of February, 1469, 37 Henry VI., to grant an indulgence 
of forty days pardon to all such as should afford their charitable 
relief towards the re-edification, construction, and snstentation of 
the said steeple. 

The rebuilding of the steeple was not folly accomplished. The 
south and east sides, that called for immediiate restoration, were 
rebuilt after a noble and elegant design; and a preparation, that 



Digitized 



by Google 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



27 



now disfigures the interior of the nave, denotes that the rest was 
intended to be removed ; but the east wall of the transept, and the 
southern portion of the choir contiguous to the vitiated angle of the 
tower, seem to have demanded such immediate attention, that I 
presume it was deemed more advisable to expend the ftmds in their 
reconstruction, than in the completion of the tower. The arms of 
the See of York, Fountains Abbey, the families of Pigot of Clother- 
holme, and Norton of Norton, that adorned the late wooden ceiling 
of the south transept, showed who were the chief contributors to 
this work. The masses of masonry that had been projected from 
the tower, had, it is probable, so mutilated the rood-screen and the 
wooden lattices of the choir, with their contiguous stalls, tiiat a 
new series of stalls was begun in 1489, and completed in 1494, 
about which period the rood-screen and sedilia were erected. The 
lady-loft likewise was built before 1482. 

Having thus vigorously " set their hand to the plough," our 
Canons proceeded, with that enthusiasm and lofty unity of purpose 
that actuated, so triumphantly, the architectural works of those 
earlier days, and next turned their attention to the ruined condi- 
tion of the nave. Its monotonous lengUi, inaccordant with the 
aided amplitude of the rest of the structure, probably suggested 
its removal, in preference to its restoration ; and it must be allowed 
that he who was selected to prepare the new design, wrought with 
no ordinary or unskilful hand. 

The precise time when the work was commenced, is at present 
unknown. The arms of Pigot of Clotherholme, in conjunction with 
those of the town, on the lower portion of one of the pillars, has 
been supposed to indicate that this part was erected while Ran- 
dolph Pigot was Wakeman, in 1471 ; but this is doubtful authority. 
A local Chronicle, written in 1615, says that, " On the 6th day of 
Febmarie, 1502, did the Chapter of the Church of Eippon make 
ordinances & statutes for the repaire & Re-edifiing of the same, 
heinge at that tyme in great decay e 8^ Ruine ; " and the arms of 
Savage, Archbishop of York, and tiiose of his successor, Baynbridge 
— as a Cardinal — are good evidence that an interval of at least 
nine years elapsed before its completion. Leland, who was at 
Bipon about 1634, observed " the body of the Church of late dayes^ 
made of a great widnesse by the Treasour of the Church and the 
Gentilmen of the Cuntery." 

Even when an unprophetic eye might note the surging clouds of 
an impending and most fearful reformation, the Chapter once more 



Digitized 



by Google 



28 



BIPON. 



met under the preddeiicy of the rich and learned Bradley, late 
Abbot of Fountains, and Snffiragan Bishop of Hull, to deliberate on 
the renovation of a pile in which they could not reasonably predict 
that their imposing rites and ceremonies could be celebrated long. 
On Sunday, the 31st of October, 1546, they set apart a certain 
portion of their revenue to repair the bell-tower and wall of the 
north aisle,* which threatened to fall; but before their plan could 
be brought into operation, the structure had passed into ruthless 
and unfriendly hands. 

After the dissolution of the Collegiate Church, with its Chantries, 
by virtue of the statute of 1 Edward VI., their possessions were 
leased out by the Crown, and but the pittance of a few pounds 
reserved to the minister who was appointed to conduct the 
parochial services. Archbishop Sandys, aided by the influence of 
the great Burghley, and the Lords Huntingdon and Shef&eld, en* 
deavoured to obtain from Queen Elizabeth an endowment equal at 
least to the dignity of an extensive and populous parish; but 
<< they never obtained anything but £Edr, unperformed promises." 

In the awfiil state of spiritual destitution which then prevailed, 
not only here, but generally in the North, the establii^mient of 
"An Ecclesiastical College" at Bipon was proposed in 1596 — as 
well to supply the parochial cure of souls, as to maintain the Pro- 
testant £Edth by the creation of a learned and intelligent ministry. 
The list of patrons contained the names of many persons of rai^ 
and learning, including Dean Nowell and Hooker, and improvable 
frmds were provided; yet neither then, nor in 1604, when the 
burgesses influenced Ajine of Denmark in its favour, could the 
project be carried into effect, although there is evidence that the 
building was in a state of preparation, and other arrangements 
made for the reception of students. 

The local necessity of the case, however, was so &r recognised, 
that on the 2nd of August, 1604, King James constituted ti^e late 
dissolved Collegiate Church of Austin Canons, a CoUegiate Church, 
to consist of a Dean and six Prebendaries for ever, and granted to 
them many of the ample sources of revenue which the old foundaF- 
tion had received from the piety and charity of numerous benefac- 
tors. In consequence of arrangements which need not be detailed, 

* The trords of the act of Chapter are " Sunt nonnulli defectus et Buinoaitat' 
aperte tarn Campanilis qtutm inuri lapidis insnle borealis ^aad*m Eeerie qui 
inrumpunt*r,** fte. Yet the north aisle of the Nave tras of recent work, and that of 
the Choir is still in no danger. Was it their intention to renew the old and still 
fractured sides of the central tower 1 



Digitized 



by Google 



THE CATHEDEAL. 29 

the Dean and Chapter surrendered the said revenues, hy deed 
enrolled 8th of June, 1608, to the King, who, by charter dated the 
same day, constituted the office of Sub-dean, and granted to them, 
with their ancient Canon Fee Court and many other privileges, 
the source of revenue they have since enjoyed. 

The architectural history of the structure since the Keformation 
may be briefly narrated. Alderman Theakstone's MS. Chronicle, 
written in 1615, says, on the 5th of May, 1593, " wsis the greate 
speare of Sainct Wilfray steeple in Bippon sett on fire by lighten- 
inge about thre of the clocke in the morning, and by God's ayde, 
& helpe of the Towne's men, it was quinshed before seaven of the 
Clocke in ye mominge." From intentions more commendable for 
their reverence for antiquity, than prudence for the safety of the 
fSa,bric, the shattered << speare '^ was allowed to remain until the 8th 
of December, 1660, when, " by reason of a violent storm of winde, 
the great steeple (by which the brief I quote designates the spire) 
was blown down,'' and demolished the roof of the chancel, "which 
was the only part where the people could assemble for the duties 
of public worship." "The body, likewise, of the said church, which 
was before very ruinous, being, by the fell of the said steeple, sorely 
shaken and much weakened, insomuch as the charge for the more 
necessary repair of the said church, without rebuilding the steeple," 
was supposed to amount to 6000/., the inhabitants obtained the 
King's letters patent, enabling the Mayor of Bipon, with the Dean 
and other Commissioners, to receive the contributions of those who 
should wish to forward the good work — pertinently remind- 
ing them that '4he Lord loveth the gates of Sion more than all 
the dwellings of Jacob." 

The people responded liberally to the royal exhortation ; but, in 
consequence of the embezzlement of a great portion of the contri- 
butions, little more was accomplished than the imperative resto- 
ration of the choir roof, and the woodwork it had crushed in its 
descent. In 1664, the spires of the western towers were removed 
to obviate the recurrence of another catastrophe. 

From this period, though the Chapter paid all the attention 
which their funds would allow to the immediate requirements of 
the febric, the hand of time was effectually performing its insidious 
and lamentable work, until the appointment of Dr. Webber to the 
Deanery, in 1829, when it was found that serious and most exten- 
sive renovation was required in all portions of the building. Mr. 
Blore having reported that 30967. would be required to effect an 



Digitized 



by Google 



30 



EIPON, 



efficient and substantial repair, and 2*JS5L more "to give to the 
interior a uniform and consistent dLaracter," the Chapter, according 
to ancient precedent, publicly stated the urgency of the case to 
their parishioners and Mends, who provided fimds which ulti- 
mately amounted to upwards of 3000/. 

A new roof and ceiling was now bestowed on the nave, and its 
clerestory lights were repaired. The choir was groined, its win- 
dows re-glazed and repaired, a new altar-screen was erected, and 
some minor operations effected in the choir. 

In consequence of the Report of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, 
and under the provisions of an Act of Parliament, 6 & 7 Will. IV., 
c. 77, an Episcopal See was erected at Ripon, consisting of that 
part of the County of York heretofore in the Diocese of Chester, 
of the Deanery of Craven, and of such parts of the Deanery of 
the Ainsty and Pontefract, in the County and Diocese of York, as 
lie to the westward of the Liberty of the Ainsty afid the Wapen- 
takes of Borkstone Ash, Osgoldcross, and Staincross — a district 
containing the great towns of Leeds, Bradford, HalifiEuc, Wakefield, 
and Huddersfield, among a host of lesser note. 

By this act, also, the Collegiate Church of Ripon, and the 
Chapter thereof, were made the Cathedral and Chapter of the new 
See ; and, according to ancient precedent, the town of Ripon 
became dignified with the appellation of a City. 

The Hev. Charles Thomas Longley^ D.D., the amiable and 
learned head master of Harrow School, was appointed first Bishop 
of Ripon ; and was ccmsecrated in York Minster, Nov. 6, 1836. 

The couBtitutLon of this Chapter was further changed by the 
Act 3 & 4 Vic, c. 113, which directs that the Prebendaries shall 
in future be designated Canons, and be reduced to four — each one 
of whom shall keep residence three months in each year, and the 
Dean eight months ; that the first vacant Canonry shall be 
suspended, and the second filled up, and that the Sub-deanery, 
also, shall be sui^pended on the next avoidance; that the Canonries 
shall be in the patronage of the Bishop of Ripon, who is consti- 
tuted visitor of the Chapter ; and that a certain sum shall be paid 
by the Ecclesiastical Conmiissioners, to provide for the efficient 
performance of the duties of the said Chapter, and /or the mainte- 
nance of the fabric thereof - It had been previously directed, by 
2 & 3 Vict, c. b^i that upon the vacancy of any two Canonries or 
Prebends Residentiary in the Cathedral Church of Ripon, among 
others, that a successor should be appointed to the second of such 



Digitized 



by Google 



THE CATHEDRAL. 31 

vacant stalls respectively. It is enacted, also, by the 4 & 5 Vict., 
c. 39, that Honorary Canons shall be forthwith established in this, 
among other Cathedral Churches; but none, as yet, have been 
appointed. 



SURVEY OF THE CATHEDRAL. 

*' They dreamt not of a perishable home. 
Who thas could build. Be mine, in hours of fear 
Or groTelling thought, to seek a refuge here." 

The first Christian chnrch that occupied the site of the present 
Cathedral was, doubtless, that of which we find remains in the 
Saxon crypt, called St WilMd's Needle ; but since, according to 
Leland, tiie monastery was situated elsewhere, and the original 
parish church of Rix>on stood in Allhallowgate, we must conclude 
that WiL&id built another, besides his conventital church at Ripon, 
as he did at Hexham, and that this was its identical site. 

This structure would certainly not escape that devastation of 
King Edred, in 948, when even the monastery was not spared ; 
and the next which arose on the site was a chm*ch which, Leland 
says, Odo, then Archbishop of Canterbury, " caused to be edified 
wher the Minstre now is." Of this building no traces remain ; 
and the ruthless visit of William the Conqueror to the North will 
sufficiently account for its disappearance. 

This state of destitution, I apprehend, then called on Thomas 
the Norman, whom the Conqueror had appointed Archbishop of 
York, to commence a new work, of which a portion — apparently 
the south aisle of the choir — remains attached to the corresponding 
member of the present church. 

The rapid development of architectural science, rather, perhaps, 
than the necessity of the case, next prompted the taste and liber- 
ality of Roger, Archbishop of York, to begin, between the years 
1154 and 1181, the erection of anew "Basilica," of which the 
proportions are amplified only in the present structure, by the 
addition of the western towers, the aisles of the nave, and the 
elongation, by one bay, of the clerestory of the choir. The greater 
part of this work is now re-edified, yet sufficient remains to indi- 
cate the entire plan and design of a work which deserves consi- 
derable attention ; not merely as the work of a noted builder and 



Digitized 



by Google 




Digitized 



by Google 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



33 



a member of the Church of Canterbury when the << glorious choir 
of Conrad" was in existence, but as haying respect to a Conti- 
nental, rather than to an English development of the Romanesque 
method; and as forming a useful study in comparison with the 
neighbouring and contemporary structures of Fountains and 
Kirkstail, Jeryaux and Byland. ^ 

The several alterations, which were subsequently introduced, 
have been sufficiently indicated in the brief historical account of 
the building; from which, also, it will ]^ve been perceived that, 
the Cathedral contaiDis an example of every style of Christian archi- 
tecture that lias been used in England, from its introduction in the 
Saxon times, to its debasement in the sixteenth centoiy.* 



WEST FBONT. 

On approaching the church by Elirkgate, which leads thither 
from the market-place, the western facade rises before the spectator 
in imposing dignity and beauty. Except the modem addition of 
pinnacles and battlements to the towers, it remains free from those 
Buperinductions which, however intrinsically beautiful, often offend 
the eye in this portion of cathedral and conventual churches, aad 
presents one of the most majestic specimens of the Early English 
style in this kingdom. Though it was erected nearly a century 
after the death of Archbishop Roger, in amplification of his west 
end of the nave, which probably resembled ia spirit ^hat of the 
north transept ; yet, with all its more artistic subdivision of indi- 
vidual parts, the general spirit — allowing for just assimilation — ^is 
strongly respective of Romanesque distribution, as exhibited in 
Roger's work, as the particular treatment of the design ia shown 
to be, by the west end of Southwell Collegiate Church. 

The elevation exhibits a gabled compartment, 103 feet high 
and 43 feet wide, flanked by two towers of little superior altitude. 
In the basement story are three deeply -recessed doorways, 



* fieferences to the plan : — 
A Nave. 

B West entrance. 
CC West Towers. 
D D North and South Transepts. 
E Centre.or St. Wilfrid*8 Tower. 
E The Markenfield Chapel. 
G The Mallorie Chapel. 



H Steps leading to the Librarj. 
I Choir. 
K Altar. 

L Chapter House. 
M Vestry. 
N Entrance to St. WUfiid** Needle. 



Digitized 



by@oogle 



34 



BIFON. 



sonnoimted by two tiers of lancet lights, occupying its whole width 
— and divided by dnstered and banded shafts, enriched with the 
toothed ornament, and terminated by foliated capitals. Each of 
these ten windows is divided into trefoil-headed lights, and a snr- . 
mounting qnatrefoil — an arrangement which has been thought 
subsidiary to the original design ; though the date I have assigned 
to the work will prove not to be incongruous vnth the last grada- 
tion of the Early English style. Above the upper tier — ^the centre 
window being the tallest, and the rest receding- in proportion, 
according to the spirit of the old Lombard fronts— are three lancet 
lights conjoined, in the swiftly declining pediment, which 
is finished by a bold corbel table, and crovmed by a modem 
cross. 

The towers are on the same plane as the central compartment, 
though divided from it by unstaged buttresses, that give a slight 
projection to each of their angles, and relieve the flatness that 
pervades the vast expanse of the western elevation. They are 
divided, above the basement story — ^which shows in front a trifo- 
liated arcade — into three stages, in each of which, the face 
originally disengaged from the old nave has an arcade of three 
members ; the centre compartment of each being pierced vdth a 
lancet light, and the archivolt supported by tall banded shafts, 
some single, some clustered. A corbel table surmounts the last 
stage, and prepared originally for the lofty octagonal spires of 
timber and lead, that long and ably completed the effect of an 
original and striking design. 

To finish the curtailed extremities, battlements were erected; 
but these having been much injured by a violent wind iin 1714, 
the offensive appearance remained until 1797, when Dean Waddi- 
love added a similar work, vnth pinnacles — ^the best relief Ihat, 
under circumstances, could have been devised. 

The southern tower contains a peal of eight Bells, of the 
aggregate weight of 90cwt. Oqrs. 31bs., cast by Lester and Pack, 
in March, 1762. There hung there previously five bells; and one 
in the opposite tower, which was said to have been brought from 
Fountains Abbey. 

The Clock was put up by Thwaites, of London, at the cost of 
400J., in the south tower, in 1809, in the.place of a wTm'Kr public 
convenience, provided by Dean Dering, in 1723. 



Digitized 



byGoogk 



THE CATHEDBAL. 35 



EXTKRIOB OP THE NAVE. 



Before a yisitor enters the church, I would advise him to examine 
its northern elevation, in order to obtain a definite idea of some 
features that might, otherwise, seem inexplicable within ; though 
the eye — ^refreshed by the beautiful western facade — ^may not 
relish the more severe character of the transept, or even tliat of 
the nave that rises by his side. The nave is divided in length into 
six bays ; the windows of the clerestory, from the absence of a 
triforium, being each sufficiently capacious to contain five lights, 
while those of the side aisles have but three, and consequently less 
ramified tracery. On the south, and, perhaps, earlier side, the 
tracery of the aisle windows, as well as the section of the vaulting 
shafts, are of less angular character than that of the opposite 
members, and the buttresses have also a third or additional stage. 
On both the sides, the buttresses have been prepared for pinnacles, 
which should be supplied, as also to the battlement of the cleres- 
tory ; where they would contribute much to break the monotony 
of its long horizontal lines and the gloom of the slated roof. 



TRANSEPT. 

The north transept is the best example of the style of Archbishop 
Roger's " Basilica,'' — ^the corresponding member having been par- 
tially rebuilt in the fifteenth century. Each side is divided into 
bays by a pilaster process, though — ^from the addition of an eastern 
aisle — difierently treated in detaQ. Yet, in front, the unfashionable 
Norman arrangement of a central pilaster — easily to be contrasted 
at Fountains — is discarded, and those at the angles are expanded 
and elevated sufficiently to form two square beU turrets, which 
rise to a level with the apex of the pedknent. They are pierced 
in the summit of each face by a plain round-headed aperture, 
divided by a mullion, while cylindrical shafts enrich the angle of 
each turret; and form rudely-pointed pinnacles to its pyramidal 
" termination, surmounted by a plain knob or pommel j the whole 
being a good example of an arrangement which shows the germ 
of a spire and pinnacles. The semicircular-headed lights of the 
transept are arranged in two tiers, between which the triforium 



)igitize(JJ)y 



pnogk 



36 MPON. 

intervenes in the interior. Below the six windows of the front is 
the doorway, not placed in the centre, but towards the west, and 
immediately opposite to one of nearly similar design in the south 
transept. This doorway is very remarkable, having a plain trefoil 
head, rising from a corbel-like projection, placed at the impost of 
the soffit, and is flanked by three receding shafts, whose elegantly 
foliated capitals assimilate with this Komanesque trefoil, and sup- 
port an archivolt of bold but undecorated mouldings. 

Above the aisle of the north transept was originally a chapel, 
communicating with the triforium both of the transept and of the 
choir ; but, when that member of the structure was considered 
superfluous, its apertures in the transepit wall were closed, and the 
roof settled to the crown of the vaulting below. A parapet wall, 
and a mullion to some of the windows, is all that intrudes on the 
original integrity of this part of the church. 

The original design of the. Central Toweb may here be ad- 
vantageously observed. The extreme pitch of the ancient roofe 
nearly hid its exterior walls, except where the space on each side 
of the gables was pierced with a semicircul^-headed window. A 
shaft that runs up the angle is checked only from forming a pin- 
nacle, by a capital that ranges with the corbel table ; and may 
have suggested the moulding that was afterwards used in the same 
portions of the western towers. The octagonal spire of timber and 
lead, that surmounted this tower until 1660, was of the height of 
120 feet — Shaving four spurs of the height of 21 feet, and a battie- 
ment at its base. 

On passing towards the Choib, we see' the most perfect speci- 
men, there, of Archbishop Koger's work in its three western bays ; 
though, from the intrusion of Decorated windows in the side aisles, 
we may judge better of the original effect, by inspecting the con- 
tiguous side of the transept. The elevation of the clerestory 
exhibits, simply, a succession of bays — ^made by pilaster strips — 
each occupied by an arcade of one round, between two pointed, 
members, the central one being pierced for a window — alloman- 
esque design, which was, judiciously assimilated in the subsequent 
construction of the western front. The remainder of this side of 
the Choir — ^being the two bays of the Presbytery — ^was rebuilt in 
the Decorated style, probably by Archbishop Metton (1319-1340) 
and is worthy of examination, if only from the amount of evidence 
it contributes to the disputed history of the Chapter-House at 
York, to which it bears strong resemblance in much of its character 
and detail. 



Digitized 



byUoogle 



THE CATHEDBAL. 37 

The elevation of the east end, though simple in outline, is 
rendered extremely effective by the massy buttresses, surmounted 
by corresponding pinnacles or rather miniature turrets, which 
break it into three divisions, and flank its sides. Each of the 
aisles shoves but a plain window like the lateral lights ; but the 
great vdndow of seven lights, occupying an area 51 feet high and 
25 vdde, is a magnificent example of the Early Decorated style, 
though not so rich as the ruined east vdndow at Guisbrough 
Priory, vdth which the whole of this facade may, indeed, be very 
usefully compared^ 

The south side of the church, being enclosed by the waU of the 
burial ground, cannot be conveniently viewed by a visitor, before 
he is conducted through the interior. 



INTERIOR OF THE NAVE. 

On entering the church, by the western door, an imposing 
perspective, to the extent of 270 feet, is presented to the eye, 
intercepted only by the rood screen and the superincumbent organ j 
but presenting, in the unseemly protrusion of one of the piers of 
the central tower, an anachronism, which a previous external 
inspNBction could alone instantly explain. The harmonious design 
of the spacious nave, captivating even to a spectator unacquainted 
vdth the principles and capabilities of Gothic architecture, vdll 
fill him vnth astonishment, who finds that, at least, the proportions 
of the plan were defined by antecedent operations ; and that a 
judicious apportionment of its constituent parts has effected all 
but this triumphant result The tall and graceful pillars that 
support, vnthout an intermediate triforium, a range of lofty 
vnndows of elaborate tracery, extending from the summit of the 
arcade to the panels of the roof, range on the foundation walls of 
Archbishop Boger's nave; the aisles having been obtained by 
comprehending a space defined by the towers that projected to give 
breadth to the western front Iliis combination has rendered the 
nave the widest of any cathedral in the kingdom, except those of 
YcMrk, Chichester, Winchester, and St. Paul's — ^measuring 87 feet 
K we may judge from the bays still incorporated^with the extremi- 
ties of the present nave, the structure which preceded it must have 
had a sombre, though singular effect, having presented a lofty 
pointed triforium, surmounted by plain round-headed lights, and 



Digitized 



by Google 



38 



MPON. 



diidded into bays by shafts resembling those in the transept. Tlie 
aisles remain open to the roof; but it is evident that they were . 
intended to have been groined, from the springers, whose capitals 
are adorned with angels holding shield^, five of which are charged. 
On the north side are, 

Three horse-shoes, for Fountains Abbey. 

Quarterly, 1 and 4, two hattleaxes in pale, in chief two mullets; 
2 andSf a squirrel sejant, cracking a nut, surmounted by a CardinaVs 
hat : being the arms of Archbishop Bainbridge, created a Cardinal 
in 1511, and poisoned at Home in 1514. 

Three stars of six rays ; the mediaeval insignia of St. WilMd. 

On the south side, the last-mentioned shield ; and that of 

Savage, Archbishop of York, 1501-7 — a pall imp. a pale Justly* 

On the west pillar of the northern colonnade are sculptured, also 
two contemporary shields : 

1st. Three mill-picks, two and one — ^Pigot of Clotherholme. 

2nd. A hugle-horn, belted and garnished ; being the arms of the 
town. The letters k.i.p.p.o.n., now interspersed on the seal of 
the city, are here omitted ; but the belt is studded with bosses 
similar to those of silver on that worn by the Serjeant-at-Mace in 
procession. Bandal Pigot was the Wakeman in 1471. 

The font, an octagon of blue marble, supported by a shaft jand 
splayed base of the same mystical form, is coeval with the present 
Tudor nave, and stood in its canonical — ^but inconvenient — situation, 
at its western extremity, until 1722, when it was removed to that 
end of the south aisle. 




BIS-KBUKV OM A TOMB 



THB aOCTH AltLS. 



Near the font, and contiguous to the outer wall, will be observed 
an Altar-tomb covered with a slab of grey marble, on the hori- 
zontal surface of which is sculptured, in low relief, the representa- 
tion of a man and a Hon in a grove of trees ; its romantic allusion 



Digitized 



by Google 



THE GATHEDBAL. 39 

being rendered more tantalimng by a black-letter inscription, 
which is irretrievably de&oed on the vertical stone below. A 
century ago, tradition recounted that it covered the body of an 
Irish Prince, who died at Eipob, on his return from Palestine, 
whence he had brought a Hon that followed him with all the 
docility and Mthfulness of a spaniel; bat the precatory position 
of the man induces me rather to suppose that the sculpture is in 
memory of his consequent providential deliverance from the fero- 
cious animal, whose attitude is indicative of fear. 

Near the north-west pier of the central tower is a monumental 
bust and quaint inscription commemorating Hugh Bipley, the 
last Wakeman and first Mayor, who died in 1637 ; restored, after 
its destruction by the Quixotes of the Civil War, by Mr. Harvey, 
at the expense of the Corporation, in 1725. 

It is much to be regretted that the fall of the sonthem and eastern 
sides of the Central, or St. Wilfrid's tower, previously to 1459, 
should have deprived us of the e£fect of its four elegant Eoman- 
esque arches, springing from an altitude of little less than forty 
feet. Though the eye will be o£fended by the mixture of the 
Perpendicular with the original style, and especially — on entering 
the church — by the obtSfusion of its south-western pier, it is some 
consolation to find that this defection in the design — or rather in 
the Chapter fimds— has preserved such an interesting specimen of 
art as the remnant of Archbishop Koger's tower. On the &ce of 
the western piers opposite the nave, there remain, at the height 
of 28 feet, two brackets, for the support of the original rood beam, 
which must have formed a most conspicuous object on entering 
the church. 

The Transept demands particular attention from the architec- 
tural antiquary, as it presents, in all but the eastern wall of the ' 
southern member, a specimen of imperfectly developed Early 
English work ; which, by comparison with the two transepts of 
the adjacent Abbey of Fountains, will alone afford a valuable 
illustration of the progress of architectural design in the latter 
half of the twelfth century. 

Though the original arches of the eastern aisle, and the triforium 
above, with its germ of double lights and tracery, apparently give 
to the interior of this part of Roger's church a more developed 
character than the exterior ; yet, in its round and fiat trefoils, its 
lintels, its alternating round and pointed arches, a strong attach- 
ment is still manifested for the Romanesque ; which must have 



Digitized 



by Google 



40 RIPON. 

been considerably increased, when the original flat roof neutralised 
the upward aspiring tendency, which was the sonl of the pointed 
style. This feeling may be also observed in each end of the tran- 
sept, where the three bays are not continued on one plane upwards 
to the roofy^but are each crowned with a semicircular head rising 
from the shafts that divide the windows of the clerestory. 

I need not, unfortunately, warn even a careless observer that 
the groining of the Transept is a recent work — in which papier 
mache has been used ; — ^nor that its character is aggravated by 
grafting new capitals on the old shafts, in a style and position 
wholly inconsistent vdth the origuial design. 

In the aisle of the North Transept — the groining of which, still 
lingering with the square bay and flat dividing arch, merits notice, 
on account of its early character — ^was formerly the Chantry of 
St. Andrew : the piscina, a roundly trifoliated aperture, with a 
projecting basin, remainiag in the south wall. This chapel was 
also the burial-place of the Markenfields of Markenfleld, near 
thi^ city ; but no other memorial of them now remains in it, except 
a fine altar-tomb of Sir Thomas Markenfield, a warrior in the time 
of Eichard II., and Dionisia his vnfe,N daughter of Sir William 
FitzwiUiam, of Elmley. He is vested in a suit of complete armour, 
and wears a collar, which exhibits the design of a park-pale and 
a stag couchant, above the elongated, but depressed, pales in front. 
His arms (argent) on a bend (sable J three bezants, are sculptm^d 
on his breast, and on the hilt of his richly-decorated sword ; as 
weU as repeated, impaling Fitzv^liam and Miniot, in a series of 
15 shields, graven round the tomb, commemorative of the alliances 
of his powerful and chivalrous race. 

There has been removed from the north-east angle of this chapel 
— ^without the rails — ^that noble altar-tomb, of unusual height, on 
which are placed the effigies of Sir Thomas Markenfield and 
Elenor his wife, daughter of Sir John Conyers of Hornby Castle. 
On the champ or filleting of this tomb is the following memorial, 
in defaced and obscure characters, which consanguinity with the 
persons commemorated has alone famished me with patience to 
explain. 

|l^c iaccnt tomajs m'littcfen^ xa}U^ et (Unot uxor ((fu$( ille 
rtijt pri)mo menc' mat} anno l>['ni mcc]cc«biiibij q* fult 
^enedc^allud W ffilU tt iturlt6i mall^eDe et elenor loix\i] f^ 
We menc' malj a® D'ni mcccc%xii"J» 



Digitized 



by Google 



THE GATHEDBAL. 



41 



The arms on the end and side are, a saUire ; a chevron ; a cross 
Jhry 4)r Ward of Givendale; a maunch, for Conyersj Marken- 
field ; and three water bottgets, probably, for Boos. 
. The Markenfield Chapel has been used, since the seventeenth 
century, as the burial-place of the Blackets of Newby-on-Ure ; 
and, among several tablets to their memory, contains a cumbrous 
pile, recently restored, in honour of Sir Edward Blacket, Bart., 
who died in 1718, and is represented in a recumbent position, with 
two of his wives standing by him. The inscription is diffuse, but 
fortunately genealogical. 




fi. 




TOMB OP MB THOMAS MABUWriBU), 1497. 

A Stone Pulpit, of Early Perpendicular character, and unu- 
sual form— inasmuch as it is without a stem — stands by the entrance 
to the north aisle of the Choir. It has evidently been removed 
from another position, though it has been, originally, attached to a 
wall or a pillar. 

The destruction of the east and south sides of the Great tower, 
about the year 1459,* caused the renovation of the contiguous 
side of the transept, in massy Perpendicular character, which may 

* See page 26. 



Digitized 



by Google 



42 BIFOIC. 

» 

be usefully contrasted mth the original Early English mode of 
treatment, in the corresponding member of the north transept. 

The South Tbansept has been, immemorially, the burial place 
of the Lords of Studley BoyaL Here, among many other of their 
less renowned ancestors and descendants, rest Sir WiUiam Mallorie» 
one of the Conncil of the North under Queen Elizabeth ; Sir John 
MaUorie, who defended Skipton Castle for King Charles, in the 
grand rebellion ; his grandson John Aislabie, Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, and his son William Aislabie, Auditor of the Imprest, 
and Member of Parliament for Bipon, sixty years. The south 
aisle was appropriated especially for their use in 1733. 

It will be almost needless to observe that the memorial of Mr. 
Weddell, at the end of the sotith transept, is designed after the 
Choragic monument of Lysicrates at Athens. The bust is by 
Nollekens, and the tripod, on which it is placed, was modelled, 
from an antique, in his noble statue gallery at Newby. ' • 

The stone Screen at the entrance to tiie Choir — " a work of 
rich entayle and curious molde " — was erected when the Perpen- 
dicular piers between which it is placed were renewed, after the 
ruin of the tower, about the year 1469 ; but whether to replace 
another, cannot at present be ascertained, since the Choir may 
have been previously prolonged to the rood screen which once 
stood between the western piers of the tower. The present work is 
19 feet high, and presents the arrangement, simple in outline, but 
elaborate in detail, of a doorway having four niches on each side, 
a tier of twenty-four smaller niches above, and a cornice bearing 
shields with rests, that appear to have been coloured and charged. 
On the lower pedestals are shields, bearing a cross flory, for Ward 
of Givendale ; three mill-picks for Pigot ; a chevron between three 
muUets, for Pudsey ; three billets ; and the mark of a merchant. 
The folding doors, adorned with, elaborate tracery, are a good 
example of their style. They bear, carved on shields, a mitre ; 
three mascles ; three stars of 5 rays ; a stoord in pale ; two keys 
in saltire, surmounted by a regal croton, for the see of York j and 
a cross of Calvary ragtUed, 

The Oegan, above this screen, usurped, in 1833, the place of 
one constructed, on the spot, by Gerard Schmidt, in 1695 and 6, 
and accounted one of the sweetest-toned in the kingdom. The 
diapasons of the great organ were of rich, full, inimitable melody ; 
but there was no swell, and only eighteen stops. The whole of 
its choir-organ comprehending the open and stop diapason, prin- 



Digitized 



by Google 



THE CATHEDEAL. ^ 43 

cipal, dnldana, and flute, are, however, fortunately, retained in 
the present instroment, which was hnilt by Mr. Booth of Leeds. 



THE SAXON CETPT, OB "ST. WILFEID's NEEDLE." 

Before quitting the nave, an antiquary must not forget to 
examine the far-£Eimed Crypt under the Central Tower, the posi- 
tion of which — and therefore of the tohole of Roger's Church — ^it has 
directly influenced. After a narrow and inconvenient passage of 
45 feet from the nave, he will arrive in a cylindrically-vaulted cell, 
7 feet 9 inches wide, 11 feet 3 inches long, and 9 feet 4 inches 
high, dark and cheerless as the grave. As it is all but destitute of 
those indicia by which its precise antiquity might be determined, 
a wide scale of chronology has been applied to it, and some have 
supposed it to have been, originally, a Roman sepulchral vault ; in 
imitation of which it has indeed been coastructed. By the com- 
parison, however, of its ground plan, with that of a crypt at 
Hexham in Northumberland, it will become evident that both 
these crypts were built on the same very peculiar plan, and in the 
saine mode of construction ; and that as we know, on the authority 
of Richard Prior of Hexham, that Wilfrid introduced a crypt of 
this remarkable character into the Conventual Church of Hexham, 
it is reasonable to conclude that this also was of his foundation. 
Yet, since Leland has proved that the Monastery of'Ripon did not 
occupy the precise site of the present Cathedral, this crypt has, 
doubtless, not been in immediate connexion with the Conventual 
Church, but with another of Wilfrid's churches, now forgotten. 
The annexed ground-plan will explain the arrangement of the 
crypt better than any other description I can adopt. It may, 
however, be added, in its illustration, that in consequence of the 
subsequent construction of the piers of the tower, it is uncertain 
whether the passages remain on their original plan. That the 
western portion of the passage from the nave has been disturbed, 
is evident, indeed, both from the masonry of the walls, and an 
early monumental stone, bearing a plain cross, that forms a portion 
of the roof. It may be added, too, that the space at the west end 
of the chapel is covered biL a semi-vault rising towards the east, 
which has originally carried the stairs of the superincumbent 
altar, and that the doorways, corresponding in size and form with 
those at Hexham, are but rude apertures in the wall, each covered 



3itized by Google 



Digitized 



44 



KIPON. 



by a lintel, in which the semicircalar heads are gained. The 
niches also are but plain recesses, with semicircalar heads. One 
in the western wall, has the addition of a deep basin in the base; 
and others, a funnel-like aperture behind the arch, as if to cany 
off the smoke of a lamp. " The Needle " has been formed by 
perforating the niche— 13 inches wide and 18 inches high — on the 
north side, through the thickness of the wall to the parallel pas- 
sage behind, said to ascend to the porch, in the choir screen, 
behind the residentiary's stall. 




The purposes to which this very singular place has been suc- 
cessively applied, are not certainly ascertained — though there 
seems no doubt but that, originally, it was intended to serve as a 
place of retirement, hiuniliation, penance, and prayer. Camden 
was told, within memory of the reformation, that females were 
drawn through the needle as an ordeal of their chastity — the 
culprit being miraculously detained ; or, as Fuller wittily observed, 
" They prick'd their credits who could not thread the needle." As 
far, however, as the contraction of space was concerned, the frailest 
of the frail might have rioted in intrigue unconvicted. A conscious 
reluctance to assume the necessary prostrate position was, I appre^ 
hend, the real difficulty. 

As it is very evident that the " Needle " is but an enlargement 
of one of the original niches of the Crypt, it may be presumed 
that its purpose, whatever it may have been, has been devised at 



Digitized 



by Google 



THE CATHEDBAL. 45 

a period long subsequent to the construction of the bnilding, when 
anxiety prevailed in the religious houses of exhibiting miraculous 
agency through the intervention of their patron saint, or of some 
notable person connected with their foundation. The manner in 
which this purpose was developed, is, however, in this case, very 
pecidiar, and may have been derived from an extremely ancient 
heathen superstition, which ascribed miraculous powers, though 
generally of a sanitary nature, to certain objects, such as cloven 
rocks and ash trees, through which the patient was to pass ; the 
practice being perhaps symbolical of a *' second birth, whereby a 
living being is ushered into the world free from those impurities 
and imperfections incorporated with a former life." 

Although a knowledge of the legerdemain practised by our 
Canons wiU support the belief of an ordeal more absurd than that 
which Camden has recorded ; it was, perhaps, through its medium 
as a confessional, that the Needle mortified the spirit rather than 
the flesh; the penitent kneeling by tihe narrow orifice he had 
reached from the nave, while the priest sat near the expanding 
embouchure, to which he descended from the choir. 

Lastly, this convenient peculiarity of ingress and egress might 
also render the vault a fit sepulchre, whence the host, or image of 
Christ — ^removed on Good Friday from the nave, a type of the 
church militant on earth — ^wonld be brought up into the choir, the 
emblem of the church trium'pKant in heaven, on the anniversary 
of the mom of the resurrection. 



INTERIOR OF THE CHOIR. 

On emerging again to the nave, the visitor must torn to the 
elegant and spacious choir, where many interesting considerations 
will arise. Its proportions, I apprehend, are defined by Archbishop 
Roger's plan ; but, of his main saperstructure, three bays on the 
north side and a pillar on the south alone remain, though the outer 
wall of the south aisle proves the prolongation of the work east- 
ward, within a few feet of its present extremity. It may, however, 
be assumed, as well from its imusual length as from a fashion of 
the style — exemplified in the kindred Abbey of Byland — ^that the 
original clerestory was shorter by one bay than ike present, and 
that an aisle circulated round its eastern extremity. The three 
bays opposite Roger's work were built after the ruin of the 



Digitized 



by Google 



46 BIPON. 

oontigaons angle of the centre tower, about 1459 ; the rest of the 
ohoir, on both ddes, having been renewed, in the Decorated style, 
in the former half of the fourteenth century. This work— elegant 
in spirit though simple in detail — comprehends the Presbytery; 
though its special character is now only indicated by a double 
suite of tracery in the clerestory windows, an arcade round the 
basement of the walls, and the elevation of the floor. Its most 
powerftd effect, however, was probably contributed by its stained 
glass, if we may judge from those fragments of the East Window 
which escaped destruction in the Grand Rebellion ; and having 
been collected in 1724, into twelve circular compartments in the 
tracery, remained there until the present window was erected in 
1854.* The date of this decoration, and consequentiy of the 
completion of the Presbytery, is fixed after the year 1340 by two 
shields, that, until this recent period, occupied their- original 
position in the spandrils of the sub-arches — ^the one being that of 
England within a bordure of France, and surmounted by a label 
of three points, azure: the other that of France, azure aemi de 
lisy oTf as assumed by King Edward III. 

The glass which now occupies the east window was executed 
by Mr. Wailes, of Newcastie-on-Tyne, at a cost of 1000/., defrayed 
by a public subscription throughout the Diocese. The subject is 
that of our Saviour giving his commission to. the twelve Aposties; 
and in compartments below are represented, the Descent of the 
Holy Ghost ;. Philip baptizing the Eunuch ; Peter preaching to 
the Jews ; Peter baptizing Cornelius and his household ; Paul 
preaching to the Gentiles ; and the first preaching of the Gospel 
to the ancient Britons. On a fillet at the foot is inscribed : This 

WINDOW WAS ERECTED IN COMMEMORATION OF THE CREATION 
OF THE S^ OF RlPON. AnNO DoMINI 1836. C. T. LONGLEY, 
D.D., FIRST ELECTED BiSHOF. 

Besides a remarkable assimilation of the Early English, Deco- 
rated, and Perpendicular styles, all of which meet in the third bay 
from the east end on the south side, the Choir presents also another 
remarkable spectacle in the arrang^nent of the windows in two 
tiers. This, however, formed no part of an original design ; but 
v^as gained by glazing the traceried apertures of the triforium, 

* This glus is now placed in a window of the nave, near the Font Among the 
fignret that can be identified, will be observed those of St. Peter with his golden 
key ; St. Paul with his sword; 8t. Andrew with bis cross ; and St. Cornelius with 
the same symbol foliated at the extremities. 



Digitized 



by Google 



THE CATHEDRAL. 47 

the roof of wMch was then settled to the vanltiiig of the aisles. 
Uninformed of this fSa^t, the stadent has often gazed in astonish- 
ment on the two pointed lights of the ronnd-headed arch, divided 
by a slender colnnm, and ornamented with those sharp cusps, 
which are, in reality, shown from the more modem mnllion behind. 
The partial fisdl of the central to^er, about 1459, occasioned 
ultimately the uniform re-decoration of the choir throughout ; and 
nobly did the Canons accomplish their design. Elaborate lattioe 
work of exceeding beauty screened it from its aisles, and thirty- 
two canopied stalls occupied the western extremity and the space 
of two intercojumniations on each side. When the roof ^as burst 
in by the shattered spire in 1660, the storied tabernacles of the 
damaged stalls on each side were repaired by an incongruous work ; 
and subsequently, from time to time, the lattices have been care- 
lessly and ignorantly mangled, to form the gallery fronts, and 
portions of the pews below. One portion in the north aisle, with 
a singular and contemporary iron scutcheon, contains a fragment 
of the inscription recorded by Dodsworth, that was " cut in wood 
about St Wilfrid's Quire," and the date mcccC<>JxiII®[b]i J®* At the 
eastern extremity of the south range was the ancient throne of the 
Archbishop of York, still identified by a carved mitre behind. 
The space of two stalls was comprehended for this purpose in 1684 ; 
but the unseemly canopy was supplanted in 1812 by the present 
throne, which was executed by Archer of Oxford, at an expense 
of 200/., defrayed by Archbishop Markham. The shield on its 
ancient finial, bears three estoiles, the insignia of St. Wilfrid, sup- 
ported by angels, and surmounted with a mitre ; the date below, 
Anno D'nt 1494 — ^the latest on the woodwork of the stalls — vindi- 
cating the time of their completion. The poppie above, fashioned 
as an elephant bearing a military tower, with its defenders, is one 
of the most singular of its class of ornament j and the fidelity with 
which the animal is detailed is very remarkable. The stall oppo- 
site to the Bishop's throne is occupied by the Mayor, as it probably 
was by the Wakeman, since it is larger and more adorned than 
the rest of the adjoining range. A shield charged with two keys 
in saltire, one of the armorial bearings of the See of York, adorns 
the finial on which the Mace has been supported since 1646. Of 
the western range, the Dean occupies the first stall on the south ; 
the Canon in residence that of the late Sub-Dean on the north ; 
and the rest are assigned to the Canons by labels over each. The 
Archdeacons of Eichmond and Craven occupy lateral stalls, and 



Digitized 



by Google 



4$ 



EIPON. 



the rest on the north are used by the members of the Mnnidpal 
Corporation. The appurtenant subsellia display a number of 
curious and satirical conceits, in the majority of which more is 
meant than meets the eye, or I can now attempt to explain. 

The Altab-scbeen was erected in 1832, after a design by Mr. 
Blore ; a large painting by Streator, serjeant-painter to Charles 
n., representing an Ionic colonnade, having previously occupied 
its place. On removing it, a panelled screen of wood, rudely 
painted, was discovered, and. behind it the original Decorated 
reredos of Melton's work, which should have been allowed to 
remain, though it was merely a continuation of the arcade, which 
may still be seen in the aisles. The altar-stone, with its five 
crosses, was found below the present table. 

The original Piscina of the high altar was displaced by the 
erection of the present screen ; but that of a chantry at the ad- 
joining end of the south aisle remains, in the shape of a basin 
resting on a cylindrical shaft In this aisle, too, a remarkable 
Lavatoky, near the vestry door must be noticed. 

Three Sedilia, with a curtailed Piscina, occupy the whole of 
the second intercolumniation from the east, and have richly 
crocketed ogee heads, resting on square pillars, the surfaces of 
which are adorned with the Tudor rose. The grotesque capitals 
and quaintly devised cusps, are interesting specimens of our pro- 
ficiency in sculpture at the close of the fifteenth century ; though 
the general design betrays the decline of sound architectural prin- 
ciples. It will be needless to warn a practised eye that the upper 
portion is an unauthorised " restoration.** 

From indications ia the wall, it is evident that there was a 
chapel in each aisle of the Presbytery ; that on the north side 
having contained, I apprehend, the Shrine of St. Wilfrid.* 

The elegant wooden bosses of the Perpendicular Yaultino of 
THE Choib, which was broken in by the fall of St. Wilfrid's spire 
in 1660, are replaced in the modem groining ; and viewing them 
from the west, thus appear : a King seated ; a Bishop seated ; the 
Annunciation of the Virgin ; the Good Samaritan ; a King and a 
Bishop seated ; the angel expelling Adam and Eve from Paradise 
— a group where motion is wonderfrilly expressed ; a King seated ; 
a Bishop, in exquisitely cast robes, giving the benediction ; and 
an aged man conducting a female to the door of a church. 



* On the Northe Syde of the Quiere, S. Wilfridi reliquis sub arcu pn^ mag. 
altare sepalte, nuper sublata.— Lei. Itin, v. 8» p. 22, 



Digitized 



by Google 



THE GATHEDBAL. 49 



CHAPTEB-HOUSE AND YESTBT. 



There is attached to the south aisle of the Choir a building, or 
rather a part of a building, which, being evidently of unusual 
antiquity, and unconnected either in style or plan -with Roger's 
Church, has loilg been confidently supposed to be the original Church 
of Wilfrid, or, at least, the structure erected by Odo about the year 
950. I should contentedly concur in this latter proposition, if each 
characteristic part of the building had not satisfied me tha^ its age 
is subsequent to .the Norman Conquest ; and historical evidence 
concurred to warrant the supposition. I suggest, therefore, that it 
is the south aisle of a Collegiate Church which the devastation that 
ensued in these parts after the year 1069, demanded from Thomas 
Archbishop of York, who was Lord of Ripon at the time when the 
Domesday Survey was made, and died here on the 18th of 
November, 1 100. The rest of that structure was doubtless destroyed 
by Archbishop Koger, when he commenced his " Basilica," this 
portion being retained, as convenient lor the Chapter-House and 
Sacristy ; — ^the arcade by which it joined its original structure 
having been closed and flanked by the wall of the Choir. This 
arcade, which has no capitals to the square piers, and but a cham- 
fered margin, is hid from a casual observer in the Chapter-House, 
and encimibered in the Vestry by two buttresses, formed in the 
Decorated period, to balance the intended vaulting of the Choir. 
The south and east sides of the building only are detached from 
Roger's Church, and present a peculiar appearance; since the Crypt, 
which runs its whole length, has, in consequence of the favourable 
declivity of the ground, a tier of lights, which appear prominently 
in the elevation. During or very soon after Roger's time, the 
Chapter-House, and probably the Vestry, was vaulted with plain 
chamfered ribs, to cylindrical pillars, and ihe freestone buttresses 
applied to the southern wall ; but in the Vestry ail traces of this 
work have disappeared, except some brackets, perhaps in con- 
sequence of the intrusion of the Decorated buttresses. The Vestiy, 
however, presents a more interesting appearance in its apsidal 
termination ; where, on account of the contiguity of the Choir, the 
central window is accompanied only by a light on the south, below 
which is a square recess and a small round-headed piscina, with a 
projecting basin. The altar does not appear to have been of stone, 



Digitized 



by(5oogle 



50 BIPON. 

but its platform, a concrete mass bounded by wrought stones, 
remains attached to the wall. 

On the south side of the Vestry is a closet or small apartment, 
formed in the lateral apse, which has been, originally, a kind of 
Sacristy, and, subsequently, a receptacle for the valuables of the 
Church. On its west side is a recess, communicating with the 
churchyard, which has contained a sink or lavatory, and, from 
the trace of an arch in the exterior of the Norman wall, appears 
to have been formed for that purpose. 

Above the Vestry and Chapter-House, a chapel, yet called the 
Lady Loft, was erected about 1482. It is reached by a flight of 
stairs from the south transept, which also served,,a Chantry chapel 
over the west end of the choir aisle. There were, formerly, two 
divisions of the Lady Loft, of which, the eastern was used as the 
Collegiate Library ; but the partition was removed in 1840, and 
the whole apartment is, at present, appropriated to that purpose. 

The foundation of the Libraky dates only from 1624, when 
Bean H^gins bequeathed his collection of books to the Chapter, 
and laid the foundation of a design that has not received the at- 
tention it deserves. Such books as the Canons possessed before 
the Reformation were probably deposited in the Vestry, where 
Leland, a little while before, was shown the Life of St Wilfrid, 
by Peter Blesensis, of which he has preserved some passages in 
his Collectanea. None of these books can be identified in the 
present Collection ; nor, indeed, can any be certainly ascertained 
to have belonged to the Chapter before the bequest of Higgins. 

From the Chapter-House, there is a descent to that portion of 
the Crypt now used as a sepulchral vault ; but our survey of this 
interesting portion of the Church must be obtained from its con- 
tinuation in the celebrated " Bone-House," to which, siace its 
division, an entrance has been formed from the churchyard; 
whither the visitor must now proceed to complete his inspection 
of the exterior of the Church. 

The head of the Saxon Cross, now placed over the Bone-House 
door, was found in 1832, in taking down a wall of the time of 
Henry VIII., at the east end of the Choir. It has been supposed 
to be the head of one of those seen by Leland, in the garth of the 
Abbey ; but the Minster-yard might, with equal probability, have 
furnished such an object. 

From the vaulting of the Crypt, stiU unshrouded by the bones 
that have been amassed around, the age of the structure is 



Digitized 



by Google 



THE CATHEDRAL. 



51 



definitely ascertained. It is supported by square pillars, each with 
a plain, concave capital, on which rest the semicircular arches, of 
nearly equal width. These rise from pillar to pillar and pier in a 
rectangular form, and have been strengthened in the Perpendicular 
period, when additional substance has been added to the pillars 
themselves. The windows, 3ft. 7 in. high« and 9 in. wide, retain 
the double splay which has been supposed to characterise the 
Saxon style, and flange inward considerably; but all further exami- 
nation of the Crypt is prevented by the piles of bones, that extend 
nearly half its width on the north side, and for three feet beneath 
our feet. 

There are collected' under • 

the great eastern window of 
the choir seven sepulchral 
slabs as early perhaps as the 
thirteenth century. They 
were discovered in 1832, t<>- 
gether with the cross head 
above alluded to, on the re- 
moval of a high wall that 
had screened the space be- 
tween the adjacent massy 
buttresses from the church 
yard; and had been erected, 
with what precise intent it is 
impossible to imagine, about the time of the Reformation. Two 
of them bear the plain foliated cross ; another the addition of a 
book ; another of a chalice and a book; the fifth of a chalice and 
a wafer ; the last of the blade of a sword and some other object, 
indistinct even on their discovery, I apprehend they have been 
taken from the floor of the Old Nave by the Tudor builderis, and 
that there are more concealed in the steps leading to the Lady 
Loft. The two small stones, represented in the engraving, were 
discovered on pulling down a wall near the west end of the church. 




Before the Reformation, Leland observed "that thePrebendaries' 
Houses," the sites of which may still be defined, " be buildid in 
Places nere to the Minstre, and emong them the Archebishop hath 
a fair palace. And the Vicars* houses be by it in a fair quadrant 
of square stone buildid by Henry Bowet, Archebishop of York." 



Digitized 



bpGoogle 



52 RIPON. 

These six members of the church having been formed into a body 
corporate by King Henry V., had ordinances made for their 
government by the Archbishop, when he allotted them a part of 
his Manor Garth for the site of their honse, in 1450. In the time 
of Queen Elizabeth, when a college was projected at Kipon, this 
house was to have formed part of the fabric, and was repaired for 
that purpose ; but before 1625, it was almost entirely destroyed, 
and a new house erected, which became the Deanery. 

The Palace or Manor Hall, where the Archbishop of York had a 
residence — ^most probably from the Saxon, but, certainly,' from the 
Norman times — stood on the north side of the nave of the Cathe- 
dral, in a site which retains its Saxon appellation of " The HaU- 
yard." It was **& Mr Palace " at the time of the Beformation, but 
went so fSax to decay after that period, that at the request of the 
CSorporation in 1629, Archbishop Harsnet offered "to bestowe his 
great howse, or some part thereof," as a workhouse for the poor. 
It probably was not long used for this purpose ; but became so 
dilapidated that, within recollection, little more than a portion 
sufficient for holding the Quarter Sessions and Manor Court was 
left, and this was ruthlessly and wantonly destroyed in 1830 — 
when the present Court House was erected on the site. 

The Park appurtenant to the Palace, and in Leland's time 
" vj miles in cumpace," is on the north side of the city, beyond 
the High Common ; but having long been divided into £arms, re- 
tains little trace of its original condition, except the remains of 
two Lodges — in the perpendicular style — incorporated with 
ferm-houses. . 



TRINITY CHURCH. 

There are eleven chapels of ease appurtenant to the cathedral and 
parish church, but this only within the city. It was built and 
endowed, under the provisions of a local act of parliament, 7 Geo. 
IV, c. 50, by the late Rev. Edward Kilyington, M.A., at an expense 
of 13,000/., bequeathed for Christian purposes, by his relative, 
Thomas Kilvington, Esq., M.B., a noted medical practitioner in this 
city. The first stone was laid on the 28th of July, 1826, and 
such expedition was used that it was consecrated by the Archbishop 
of York on the 31st of October, 1827. It is of cruciform arrange- 
ment, and designed by the late Mr. Thomas Taylor, whose 



digitized 



by Google 



THE EPISCOPAL PALACE. 



53 



successfiil practice in the delineation of our ancient and genuine 
architecture should have suggested something better than this 
absurd and incongruous compilation. The spire is the most toler- 
able portion, and forms a conspicuous object at a considerable 
distance. The edifice contains 1000 sittings, and a powerful organ, 
built by Eenn and Boston, of Manchester. On the north side of the 
chancel is a fedthM bust of the late Kev. E. Kilvington, by Mr. 
Angus Fletcher, which, " in grateful remembrance of his name and 
work, his Mends and hearers caused to be erected." He died 
January 28th, 1835, aged 68 years. 

A house was erected, by subscription, for the Incumbent of this 
church, on the opposite side of the road, in 1849 ; and may, at 
least, suggest the existence of a mode of building different to that 
which has hitherto disfigured the many beautiful sites around tl^e 
city. 




THE EPISCOPAL PALACE, 

A SPACIOUS stone building, designed in the Tudor style by Mr. 
Itailton, occupies a slight eminence about a mile north-west of 
the city, commanding agreeable prospects down the Talleys of 
the Laver and the Ure, as well as of the cathedral and the city. 
The foundation stone was laid by the Bishop of Kipon, on Monday, 
the 1st of October, 1838, and the structure was prepared for his 
reception in the autumn of 1841. 



Digitized 



by Google 



54 



Ripoir. 



The appurtenant demesne, wluck adjoins the ancient manorial 
park of the Archbishop of York, contains one hundred and nine 
acres, and was gratuitously ceded by Mrs. Lawrence, the lessee of 
that prelate, who also provided the building stone. 

A small chapel had been originally included among the apart- 
ments of the Palace, but a disposition haying been manifested by 
the inhabitants of a neighbouring hamlet to attend the services that 
were more particularly intended for the Bishop's household, the 
late Archbishop of York, who had witnessed the inconvenience of 
their number, and their inability regularly to visit the parish 
church, munificently placed the sum of 3000/. at the disposal of the 
Bishop of Ripon, wherewith to erect a more suitable structure. A 
site having been accordingly chosen on the east side of the Palace, 
the foundation of a chapel, designed by Mr. Kailton, in the 
Perpendicular style, was laid on the 24th of June, 1846. 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS. 

The Hospital of St. Mart Magdalene, founded by an 
Archbishop of York, who was forgotten so early as 1341, stands 
at the northern extremity of Stammergate, not far from the river 
Ure. The Alms-houses were rebuilt in 1674 : but the Chapel, on 
the opposite side of the way, remains as it was left at the Keform- 
ation. The original structure of the twelfth century, containing 
a rudely-ornamented Norman doorway, has been repaired during 
the Perpendicular era, when the screen and its appurtenant 
blanched stalls were constructed. A low-side-window of this date 
in the middle of the south wall has been partially waUed up. 
Besides these relics, there is a stone high altar remaining in its 
proper position, and on its south side a smaller slab in the floor 
that appears, from the incised crosses, to have served a similar 
purpose, probably before the elongation of the chapel. The jJave- 
ment before the altar, 11 feet long and 3 feet 8 J inches wide, is 
worthy of attentive consideration ; for if it is not actually Eoman, 
as is generally supposed, it has certainly been copied from a work 
of that period, in the twelfth century. 

The Hospital of St. John the Baptist, nigh Bondgate 
Bridge, owes its origin to Thomas, the second Archbishop of York, 



Digitized 



by Google 



PUBLIC BXTELDIKOS AND INSnTUTIONS. 66 

who was translated to that See in 1109. The Chapel, which seems 
to have been built about the time of Edward II. , and is in nowise 
remarkable, was much enlarged in 1812, and converted into a 
National School, which was very properly removed elsewhere iq 
1853, when the building was again dedicated to its sacred purpose. 
Two poor women, recipients of the charity, reside in an adjacent 
cottage. 

The Hospital of St. Anne, in High St Agnesgate, of the 
foundation and structure of an uncertain benefactor about the time 
of Edward lY., acconunodates eight poor women with apartments 
and a small pension. Its little Chapel, in a state of picturesque 
decay, retains the piscina and altar-stone, on which tradition 
asserts that the ransom of a Scottish king was paid. A stone 
bearing the arms of Sir Solomon Swale, of South Stainley, with 
the date 1664, has been walled into the window towards the 
street The burial-ground is now used as a garden. 

Jepson's Hospital, in Water Skellgate, was founded in 1672, 
by Zacharias Jepson, of York, apothecary, and a native of this 
place, who bequeathed 3000/. to feoffees to purchase lands for the 
maintenance and education of twenty orphan boys, or poor free- 
men's sons, of the town of Kipon, who were to be admitted at the 
age of seven years. This laudable institution has subsequently 
received benefactions, but the injudidoos investment of the original 
funds, and a claim made upon the estate by the testator's widow, 
had caused the number of boys to be reduced to ten. 

The Free Gkammar School, in St Agnesgate, and on the 
south side of the church-yard, was first founded in 1546, by King 
Edward VI., but incorporated by Philip and Mary, 27th June, 
1555, and endowed chiefly from the revenues of certain chantries 
in this church and parish. Matthew Hutton, Archbishop of 
Canterbury; Bishop Porteus; and Archdeacon Thomas Balguy, 
were among the eminent men who have been instructed here. 

The Town Hall, on the south side of the Market-place, was 
built from a design by Wyatt, in 1801, at the expense of Mrs. 
Allanson, of Studley. In the Assembly Room, which occupies the 
upper front story, is a Ml-length portrait of Mrs. Allanson; and 
a characteristic bust in marble, of Mrs. Lawrence, her niece, by 
Mr. Angus Fletcher. A lower aplbrtment is used as a News 
Koom. The eastern part of the building is occupied by the Town- 
clerk. 

The Wesleyan Methodist Chapel, on Coltsgate Hill, was 



Digitized 



by Google 



56 



BIPON. 



built in 1777 ; that of the New Connexion of Methodists, in Low 
Skellgate, in 1795; the Temple, or Calvinist Chapel, in 1818; 
and a Chapel for Primitive Methodists, in Priest Lane, in 1821, 
which was enlarged in 1841. 

A great local accommodation was acquired in 1833, by the 
institution of the Public Rooms in Low Skellgate. A commodious 
mansion, with a garden extending to the river behind, was first 
purchased by shareholders, and appropriated chiefly to the estab- 
lishment of a Circulating Library and a News Boom; but the 
project having been encouraged, another building, containing an 
apartment 52 feet by 26 feet, and suitable for general public 
assemblies, was erected in addition in 1834. 

The Mechanics' Institution was established 26th February, 
1831, and associated with a literary society in 1844. Its advan- 
tages having been long misunderstood and neglected, it was held 
in an insufficient and hired apartment until 1849 ; when, on the 
manifestation of a more enlightened perception, an independent 
building was erected by subscription at the east end of the Public 
Booms. Besides apartments for the resident secretary, it contains 
a Class and Lecture Boom, 40 ft. by 20 ft. ; a Beading Boom 
24 ft. by 20 ft. ; and another Class 'Boom 20ft. 6in. by 15 ft. 9in. 
There are, at present, nearly two hundred members, of whom 
a few of the most active and zealous have succeeded, within 
the last nine years, in establishing kindred institutions in the 
neighbourhood. 

A National School for boys, conducted on Dr. Bell's plan, 
was held, from its commencement in 1812, in St. John's Chapel, 
Bondgate, until 1853; when a more spacious and convenient 
building was erected, at a cost of 900/., on a site granted by the 
Dean and Chapter, in a field adjoining Priest-lane. The school is 
now conducted on the National Society's system. Another for 
girls, established originally in 1803 as a Sunday School, is kept in 
a building in High St. Agnesgate, erected by the late Mrs. 
Lawrence of Studley. There are also National Schools in connec- 
tion with Trinity Church, and the Wesleyan Methodist ChapeL 

A Dispensary was commenced in Bipon as early as 1790, and 
has recently been conducted with a most beneficial result ; but, 
lacking sufiicient endowment, it was held in a dwelling-house, 
until the bequest of 1000/. by the late Mrs. Lawrence was judici- 
ously expended, in 1850, in the erection of a suitable building in 
Ferraby Lane. 



Digitized 



by Google 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS AND INSTITUTIONS. 



57 



A jointHstock company established Gas Works here in 1830, 
and so p|*ovided a public convenience, which — ^with reference to 
the interests of the inhabitants — should have been anticipated and 
conducted by the Municipal Ck)rporation. The capital of the com- 
pany is divided into one hundred and eighty shares of 25L each. 
The Gas-house is in Stammergate. 

It was left, also, to the enterprise of an individual to construct 
the Water-Works, by which a daily supply from the river Skell 
— ^raised ia the mill at Duck-hill bank — ^is forced to taps in the 
main-streets, and such houses as may require it. 

A public Bathing House was erected on Skell-bank by sub- 
scription, in 1812, and is supplied from St. Wilfrid's Well, 
which rises in a field a little to the west of it, and not &r from the 
close where " the Gospel tree" stood. Its stream, however, as well 
as that of a spring on B'orrage Green, had been protected and 
collected in stone basins, for public use, by Dr. Richardson, of 
Eipon, in 1758 and 1762, being both of exceedingly pure quality, 
and much frequented. There is, also, another valuable spring 
called St. Helen's Well, about a mile from the city, by the 
side of the Leeds road ; and a Sulphuretted Spa, at the 
north end of Stammergate, which, though slightly impregnated, 
is not useless. 

As early as 1736, the disadvantages of the inland position of 
Eipon, induced an enterprising party to attempt to render a por- 
tion of the Biver Ure navigable, and to form a canal from thence 
hither, at a period when such projects were but little regarded. 
After much discouragement, they succeeded in this undertaking 
by the aid of the celebrated Smeaton, and under the provisions of 
an act of Parliament obtained in 1767. The management was 
originally vested in Commissioners, but this system being unsatis- 
factory, another act Vas obtained in 1820, whereby the proprietors 
became a body corporate by the name and style of "The Company 
of Proprietors of the Biver Ure Navigation to Ripon." Under 
the provisions of an act of Parliament, which received the royal 
assent July 2oth, 1845, the interests and property of this Corpo- 
ration were transferred to the Leeds and Thirsk Railway Company. 

According to the enumeration made on the dlst of March, 1851, 
there were in Ripon and the appurtenant township of Bondgate, 
1513 houses, and 6160 inhabitants, being an increase of 2453 
inhabitants since the census of 1801. 



Digitized 



by Google 




-^S^^^-^;5^^ 



STUDLEY KOYAL. 



In ihodier bdwfl' 
More laorcd and ««queiter'dp thou:?h but feigned. 
Pan 4T SylvanQfl never ebpC, laor N^riuph, 
Nor F Alio us hauDted. 

1 1^ agreeable stroll tJirough out western subntb, and 
tile wooded copses that ri^ in gentle undnlation 
from the banks of tlie Laver beyond, preparet^ our 
transition to the far-fiimpd Becnes of Studley Koyal* 
A volume would be insufficient to discuss the divert 
sified beauties with which it abounds ; and the 
utmost that can be attempted here is to state facts that may be 
useful to the enquiring eye, and become a memorial for the retro* 
spective mind. 

For five centuries, the famiiiea of Aleman, I^ Gras, Tempest, 
and Mallory, each of which produced men eminent and useful in 
their generation^ enjoyed, aueeessively, a domain which the pitency 
of their neighbtmrs forbade them to enlarge ; and found in their 
deep meads and waving woods, a quiet and simple enjoymentp 




Digitized 



by Google 



BTUDLET PABE. 59 

which until the jawn (k the eighteenth century was not deemed 
capable of being transmuted to that source of intellectnal gratifi- 
<»tion, in which countless thousands have since participated. John 
Aislabie, who from the rank of a country gentleman raised himself, 
by the vigour of his intellect, to the office of Chancellor of the 
Exchequer, was then possessed of Studley Royal in right of his 
mother, Mary, the eldest daughter and co-heiress of Sir John 
Mallory, an heroic and loyal knight. He saw the rare beauties 
that nature offered in profusion around his ancestral home, and^ 
after he had exchanged the tumult of the political arena, for the 
more sincere pleasures and occupations of a country life, nobly and 
energetically devoted himself to their development The little 
copses that surrounded the antique manor house were changed 
into an extensive park ; diverging avenues supplanted intersecting 
hedge rows, the beck was expanded in a lake, the mansion was 
fjEishioned into correspondence with its noble accompaniments ; and 
lastly, but chiefest of all, a portion of the little valley of the Skell, 
that intersected his park, was transformed into a most delectable 
pleasure ground. William Aislabie, his only son, enjoyed the 
leisure of a long life in maintaining and extending what his father 
had done. His eldest co-heir, Mrs. Allanson, was precluded, by 
the delicacy of her health, from residing at Studley ; and on her 
decease, in 1808, it devolved, with the rest of her extensive pos- 
sessions', on her niece and heir, Mrs. Lawrence, the late most 
benevolent proprietress ; than whom none could have tended them 
with a more liberal and faithful hand. On the decease of MrS. 
Lawrence, in July, 1845, the whole of the estate at Studley became 
vested^ by the provisions of her will, in the Kight Hon. the Earl 
de Grey, one of whose ancestors married a sister of the Chancellor 
Aislabie. * 

After passing through the village of Studley, and arriving at 
the Park Lodge, the eye is restrained from excursion into the 
woodlands by a noble Avenue of Limes, above a mile in length, 
that guides our path and directs the eye to An Obelisk, whence 
the towers of Kipon and Fountains may be seen in conjunction, 
with many other interesting and more distant objects. The 
Mansion House, which retains a fragment as early as the fifteenth 
century, may be seen whilst rising the hill, at some distance on 
the right ; but it is not shown to visitors. Comfort and convenience 
have been sought in its several alterations, rather than grandemr 
and effect ; but the home where so much talent and worth for 



Digitized 



by Google 



60 8TUDLEY* 

centuries reposed, has not yet needed sucli a distinction, nor -will 
cease to be invested with a deep interest, so long as the purest 
henevolence and philanthropy shall command the homage of 
mankind. ' 

Midway the Park, we diverge to the left, down a Beechen 
Avenue to the little valley of the Skell, where the* stream, con- 
ducted by a formal cascade with all due accompaniment of balcony 
and turret, expands into a Lake covering twelve acres. A number 
of domestic fowls enliven its expanse with their gambols and 
evolutions, while anon 

*' The Swan, with arched neck 
Between her white wings, mantling, proudly rows 
Her state with oary feet." 

The banks rise swiftly from the water's edge, clothed with dense 
woods, through whose commingled beech and chesnut shade we 
reach the gates ; where guides are in attendance irom the hour of 
seven in the morning until that of five in the evening. 

The disposition of the grounds may be easily perceived. The 
original design of the Chancellor Aislabie, who commenced opera- 
tions about 1720, aided by his skilful gardener, Mr. William 
Fisher, was to contract the devious beck into a level parallelogramic 
canal, adorned with statues on its terraced banks, and bounded by 
dense hedges of evergreen which sheltered an ample alley, whence, 
through openings artfully contrived, a diversity of prospects could 
be obtained. A prudent and judicious respect for the old arrange- ^ 
ment is still preserved, but modified so as not to offend modem 
hypercriticism by its antiquated state. The extreme contraction 
of the valley, and the proportionate inclination of its declivity, 
favoured the design, and ajlowed the extension of walks through 
the luxuriant thickets above, whence a new and more extensive 
series of prospects could be obtained, and more natural beauties 
developed. An interchange of scenery from a few hundred yards 
on each side of the river (crossed then, as now, at the rustic bridge) 
was thus, with the upper walks on the right, all that the adjacent 
demesne of Fountains allowed the projector to obtain ; but when 
his son, who, wisely relying on his own ability, often declined the 
officious offers of Kent and Brown, purchased the Abbey, he con- 
tinued the walk from below Anne of Boleyn's seat, up the southern 
bank of the circling stream, and after circumventing that 

'* Noble wreck in ruinous perfection," 

Digitized by CjOOQiC 



THE GROUNDS. 61 

brought it down the opposite side of the valley, and so joined the 
old decorated grounds at Tent Hill, where he erected a temple, 
long since fortunately destroyed. 

With this rough outline we will proceed. After leaving the gates, 
shrouded in lofty and luxuriant trees and evergreens of stately 
growth, that remind us, especially when looking towards the bal- 
cony of the lake, of the incomparable Versailles, and many a delec- 
table but ever-banished scene of our own << fair good lande,'* a bank 
of closely-shaven laurel first meets the eye, that would wander 
more willingly up a long and solemn glade that diverges from the 
valley called Kendall's Walk. 

By the side of one of those gigantic beeches, whose altitude is for- 
gotten while passing under their grateful shade, we have a glance of 
tiie Octagon Tower rising abruptly on the other side of the valley; 
and, by the water below, a cast in lead of two Contending 
Gladiators. 

Still passing behind the dense wall of yew, with iti? lofty canopy, 
we are surprised by a prospect, set in a verdant frame, of the valley 
in its widest part ; the Temple of Piety in the opposite encircling 
wood; thetMooN and Crescent Ponds, and their accompanying 
statues of Neptune, Bacchus, and Galen. 

The uninformed lover of nature, as well as the scientific observer, 
will alike gladly halt on the declining lawn to view the noble trees 
that tower aloft before them in wonderftd procerity and beauty. 
A Norway Spruce Fir, near the walk, and straight to the top, 
displays luxuriance seldom equalled but in its native land. It is 
132 feet high, 12 J feet in circumference above its roots, and would 
form sn impervious shade to an assembly of at least fifty persons. 
Another fir nearer the canal, which canopies the statue of the Dying 
Gladiator, is 11 feet 2 inches in circumference, and equally symme- 
trical as its companion, which being more disengaged claims readier 
attention. A third, near ike last, is but 8 feet in circumference. 
None of these, however, should disengage the eye from a Hemlock 
Spruce, of most graceful form and foliage, the stem of which has 
attained the height of 60, and the circumference-of 7 feet. These 
trees having been planted by the Chancellor Aislabie, about 1720, 
may be a useful criterion in estimating the growth of their species. 

The antique arrangement is now for awhile unperceived, and the 
murmur of fiedling waters attracts the eye from the parterres, and 
evergreens, and groves that adorn the declivity, across which we 
now proceed towards the unrufiBied stream that flows from a cavern 
o'er-canopied with dense and luxuriant beech. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



62 BTUDLET. 

Thb old " peeps ** are soon resumed, and the first is a snTprise, 
across a declining bank of lanred and yew overhung with more 
gracefdl foliage, down the long canal, and so to the great lake in 
the park — the Moon and Crescent Ponds, with their several terraces 
and stataes fiUing the bosom of the valley on the right, and the 
Octagon Tower rising in the mid distance from a clump of firs. 
Soon after, we have another diversion through the laurels towards 
the statues of Hercules and Ant^us in contention, in the most 
contracted pass of the dell ; and a pillared Dome in the hanging 
woods beyond. 

Diverging, reluctantly, from the path rising through the woods 
towards the Abbey, but still canopied by 

'* A covert of old tree*, with trunks all hoar. 
But light leaves young as Joy," 

we cross, to the opposite side of the valley, over a Rustic Bridge, 
where the stream is seen, gliding tranquilly through a verdant space 
adorned with terraces, and begirt with ancient trees. But, before 
we reach the other side of the valley, we stray into a wooded 
amphitheatre, filled with a translucent Lake, whose* refreshing 
expanse, crisped by the circling breeze, mirrors but the embrowned 
shades of accliving woods, and the airy forms of an inconstant sky. 

Anon, and the eye that will be gladdened by nothing but Nature 
naked and unadorned, will peer joyfrdly through the thicket on an 
irregular pool, where circumambient boughs image their glistening 
spray, and lave in waters that seem black and bottomless as oblivion. 
It is called " Quebec,'* and on its little island is a Pillar to the 
memory of the gallant Wolfe, now hid in the tangled foliage. 

A few steps more and the expanse of the valley,inall itsformality, 
yet, perhaps, in all its peculiar beauty, opens upon us near the 
Temple tlmt rises in the grove by our side. The chief apartment 
being adorned with a mural basso-relievo of a female nourishing 
her captive father from her breast, the building is named the 
"Temple of Piety." The bronze busts in the niches below 
contrast the characteristic heads of Titus and Nero. 

Awhile, and the scene which has been so airy and vivid is sud- 
denly changed. Striking aside from the lawn into the wood, we 
wind up a toilsome path — by the sides of which, yews of no recent 
growth are rooted in the fissures of the shelving crag — and enter, 
at length, a subterranean Passage, hewn, partially, in the rock. 
It seems neither long enough nor dark enough for tiie majority of 



Digitized 



by Google 



THE OBOUNDS. 63 

its yoathful Tisitants, bat a local difficulty was thus pleasantly 
oyercome. 

From the " Octagon Tower," which during^ our ramble we 
have often seen, and now reached at last, we have a bird's-eye 
view of many of the objects we have visited. Studley Hall, too, 
is seen on the right ; and, from the opposite window, How Hill,* 
with its mimic tower, rears its majestic head, begirt with verdu- 
rous shade. 

Though now passing a long and artless avenue of beech, unfor- 
tunately mingled with the grisly fir, we seem to tread the wood- 
land slopes of the park, and are gladdened, through the slanting 
boughs, by its lowing herds and- coursing groups of agile deer; 
we turn again, ere long, down a lofty aisle 

** Of beechen green, and thadowt numberlees/* 

where the fitful murmur of tlie rushing stream reminds us of our 
elevated position. An opening towards the Park presents a view 
of MoRKEBSHAW LoDGE ; and another, of the Roman Monument, 
impending high above the Skell. At length, we turn on the 
opposite side to a circular pillared dome, jutting into the valley, 
dedicated to Fame, and on all other sides similarly difficult of access. 

Pursuing hence the ample path, which noble oaks " high over 
arch'd embower," snatching, nevertheless, through the airy spray, 
occasional glimpses of the coming " Fountain dale," the guide, 
with innocent triumph, will, at last throw open the doors of 
** Anne Boleyn's Seat," and unveil to the amazed and enrap- 
tured eye a scene where pen and pencil must fail. 

Now, all attention is, naturally, centred in the Abbey, and, 
fortunately, there is nothing intervening to distract the eye. We 
begin, immediately, to hasten down a precipice, arched, deeply 
and picturesquely, in the woods ; and, on arriving at the path by 
the side of the stream, will perhaps scarcely glance at the diversity 

* Thit hill, which rite* in a eonical form tnlBeientlx high to form a remarkable 
object at the distance of more than twenty miles, is ivorthj of a visit from those 
whose time is not limited, and would consider themselves repaid by an almost 
boundless view of the great plain of York. It was anciently <ialled Herleshow, as 
probably from being the place where the Saxon Earl of the county held his Court, 
as from the early possession 'of one who bore the name of Herle. The monks of 
Fountains had on the top of this hill a Chapel dedicated to St Michael, which from 
an inscription walled into the present little tower, erected by Mr. Aislabie in 1718, 
appears to have been rebuilt or repaired by Abbot Huby, between 1494 and 1586. 

iboli Beo lonor et gloria. ^. K. 



Digitized 



by Google 



64 



BTUDLEY. 



of scenes which the union of the dense woods with their liquid 
mirror presents. 




rOCHTAJMS JLBBET, FROM LKK* OF BOLETH'S SBAT. 

Yet awhile may fancy beguile us with merry visions of the past. 

On this glade — doubt who can — the " Curtal Friar" of Fountains 

encountered Robin Hood, whom, as the old ballad goes, he at 

length threw into the Skell, and so grievously belaboured, that 

Hobin, for once, turned coward, and called in the aid of his fifty 

stalwart yeo>men ; also that then the Friar whistled out as many 

of his good ban-dogs, but that Little John let his arrows fly so 

fast among them that the Friar, who 

** Had kept Fountain-dale, 
Seven long years and more," 



Digitized 



by Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 65 

was brought to his senses and a truce. Before we reach the Abbeys 
we shall be seduced to halt on a shady knoU ; and while reclining 
by the crystal Well that stiU bears the Outlaw's name, may 
chant the " Bime of Robin Hod" in one of the sweetest spots 
associated with his name. 

Tradition points to a large bow and arrow and hound graven on 
the north-east angle of the Lady Chapel, as a record of this dire 
afiray. They bear no affinity to the symbols used by the masons, 
but have, I &ncy, induced the report, mentioned by Bitson, that 
Bobln's bow and arrow were preserved at Fountains Abbey. 




FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



I LTHOUGH we have, some time ago, entered within 
the Close, we now pass into the immediate pre- 
cinct of the Abbey, and feel at once disclosed " a 
captivatmg scene of landscape and architectural 
beauty, a highly-interesting subject of contempla- 
tion, and a source of that pensive and pleasing 
melancholy in which the mind sometimes loves to indulge." 
Before, however, we proceed to a particular survey of the structure, 
it will be necessary to premise a few facts illustrative of its origin 
and history. 

The site of the Monastery was granted, in 1132, by Thurstan, 
Archbishop of York, out of his Liberty of Bipon, " to certain 
monks who had separated themselves from what they deemed the 
lax discipline of the Benediotine Abbey of St. Mary, in York, and 
resolved to adopt the Cistercian rule, which wias then becoming 
fieunous from the reputed sanctity and daring enthusiasm of St. 
Bernard. Bichard the Prior, with the sub-Prior, ten monks of 
St. Mary's, and Robert a monk of Whitby, retired, in the depth 
of winter, to this secluded and, at that period, wild and imculti- 
vated dell, where their territory was defined by the Archbishop, 
who had previously maintained them in his house. At first, their 
qnly shelter was under the impending rocks ; but, after a while, 
they thatched an enclosure under an umbrageous elm, in the 
middle of the valley, which was even flourishing at the dissolution 



Digitized 



by Google 



66 



8TUDLET. 



of the Abbey. Some yew-trees, also, near the min, are tradi- 
tionally said to have sheltered these enthusiastic men. Having 
endnred for two years sach hardship as at length to subsist on 
boiled leaves and herbs, they prevailed on St. Bernard to remove 
them to one of the granges of his Abbey of Clairvaux, in Cham- 
pagne ; but the sudden accession of great wealth not only diverted 
them from their purpose, but laid the foundation of that magmfl- 
cence of which such ample testimonies remain." 

The history of the Abbey is minutely related in the " Monas- 
ticon," from the narrative of Hugh, a monk of Kirkstall ; written 
between the years 1225 and 1247, at the request of. John, Abbot 
of Foimtains, from the dictation of the venerable monk, Serlo, 
who was present at the departure of the brotherhood from St. 
Mary's, at York, and had witnessed most of the chequered scenes 
he has so pathetically and graphically recorded. Yet, as he was 
more anxious to recount the spiritual trials and triumphs of his 
brethren than the secular history of their house, we find few 
allusions to the progress of the structure, or to the scientific 
acquirements of those by whom it was promoted. 'We learn, 
however, that after the election of the Abbot, Henry Murdac, to 
the See of York, about 1146, some partisans of his deposed prede- 
cessor, disappointed in their expectation of finding Murdac here, 
set fire to the monastery, which, with half of " the Oratory ,** was 
consumed. The convent, aided by the neighbouring gentry, 
immediately repaired an injury which, however extensive, hsid 
doubtless been confined to the inflammable portions of the build- 
ing ; but, since every part of it had been erected within fourteen 
years, existing remains cannot aid us in the investigation. During 
the remainder of the twelfth century, the work of building never 
can have ceased, though it is probable, from our knowledge of the 
characters of the Abbots Fastolph, and his successor, Robert, that 
in their time it progressed with unnsual vigour. On the decease 
of Ralph, the seventh Abbot, in 1203— a period when there was 
such an unusual nimiber of monks in the house, that there was 
no fitting place for the performance of their devotions — ^John, his 
successor, a stout-hearted Yorkshireman, who maintained in the 
retirement of the cloister the politic temper of the world, projected 
the erection of a choir, to the astonishment-^nay, the indignation 
-—of his contemporaries. He lived only to lay the foundation 
and raise some pillars, but he left a kindred spirit in John Fherd, 
who succeeded him in 121 1, and after a diligent superintendence of 



Digitized 



by Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBET^ 67 

eight years was elected Bishop of Ely. The Canyent then availed 
themselves of the ability of another John, a Kentish man, who, with 
a vigoiur of mind like that of the original projector, brought the 
. design to a conclusion. He not on]j instituted the nine altars, and 
added a " painted pavement," but, in prosecution of an original 
project, constructed the southern part of the great cloister, and built 
the Infirmary, with the Hospitium, or houfie of entertainment for 
strangers, on the south side of the first court. He died in 1247, 
having probably seen the buildings of the Abbey nearly completed. 
" A period of subsequent poverty and distress was followed by 
great prosperity in the next century. Many persons of power and 
opulence purchased, by large donations, a sepulture within the walls 
of the Abbey. Favoured by popes, kings, and prelates, with various 
immunities and privileges, and enriched by a succession of princely 
gifts. Fountains Abbey became one of the wealthiest monasteries in 
the kingdom. The church ranked amongst the fairest structures 
of the land, and the possessions attached to it comprehended a vast 
extent, embracing the country from the foot of Pennigent to the 
boundaries of St. Wilfrid, of Ripon, an uninterrupted space of more 
than thirty miles. Besides many other wide domains, the lands in 
Craven, contained, in a ring fence, a hundred square miles, or sixty 
thousand acres, on a moderate computation." 

After obtaining a high reputation for sanctity, and the possession 
of great power and immense wealth, the Monastery was surrendered 
by deed, enrolled 26th November, 1539, by Marmaduke Bradley, 
the thirty-third Abbot, and Suffiragan Bishop of Hull ; a man who, 
by the character of " the wysyste monke within Inglonde of that 
cote, well lemede, and a welthie felowe," was recommended to 
Cromwell by the visitors, Layton and Legh, to fill the office which 
Abbot Thirsk, whom they thought " a varra fole, and a miserable * 
ideote," had privately resigned into their hands. Bradley had then 
an annuity of 100/., Thomas Kydde, the Prior, another of 8/., and 
the thirty monks who were priests, allowances of a similar nature, 
varying in value from 6/. ISs, 4 J. to 5/. each; the whole amounting 
to 277/. 6«. 8rf.; an acknowledgment, certainly liberal, of their 
interest in the estates of the Abbey, which in 1535 had been 
certified to the Commissioners to be worth 998/. 6«. 7|c/. annually, 
including the tenths. These terms, however, from the changed 
value of money, the nature of tenures, and many other causes, hacte 
now become difficult of interpretation ; and a juster idea of the 
nature and extent of the establishment Df the Convent may be 



Digitized 



by Google 



68 . BTITDLET. 

formed from the faxit, that> at the time of the dissolution, they 
possessed 1976 head of cattle, 1106 sheep, 86 horses, and 79 swine. 
They had also stored in their granges at Sutton, Morker, Haddock- 
stanes, Swanley, and Brimham, 117 quarters of wheat, 13 of rye, 
134 of oats, and 192 loads of hay, hesides the temporary provision 
of 160 loads of hay, and 128 quarters of com, which tliey had in 
the park and granaries of the Abhey. 

Whilst the King found it politic to promise tiie application of the 
revenues of some of the Abbeys to their legitimate purpose of 
religion and education, the revenues of " Fontayne " and of the 
•* Archdeconry off Rychemond " were assigned for the endowment 
of a Bishopric of Lancaster ; but his evU genius prevailed, and, on 
the 1st of October, 1540, he sold the site of the Abbey, with its 
franchises, and the greater part of its estates, to Sir Bichard 
Gresham, &ther of the munificent founder of the Royal Exchange. 
• From Gresham's representatives, who had previously alienated 
the extensive estates in Craven, the site of the Abbey, vrith its 
privileges, some of its adjacent granges, and a considerable tract of 
land in Nidderdale, were sold, in 1597, to Sir Stephen Procter of 
Warsell, an ambitious and speculative character, who pulled down 
the Abbot's house and the minor offices of the Abbey, to obtain 
materials for the noble house which he built near the west gate. 
His &mily having been burthened, after his decease, by his pecu- 
niary embarrassment, the property was sold by his widow, in 1623, 
to Sir Timothy Whitingham, from whom it passed, two years after- 
veards, to Humphrey Wharton, Esq., of Gillingwood. From him it 
was purchased, in 1627, by Bichard Ewens of South Cowrton, Esq., 
whose daughter and heiress carried it into the family of Messenger 
of Newsham, who resided at Fountains Hall until John Michael 
Messenger, Esq., in 1768, sold the Abbey, with its franchises and a 
small estate, for 18,000/., to WiQiam Aislabie, Esq., of Studley, 
maternal grandfather to Mrs. Lawrence, the late possessor, and 
nephew to the ancestress of the present owner, the Eight Hon. 
the Earl de Grey. 

Before the excavation of the Abbot's House — ^undertaken by Lord 
de Grey — a visitor approaching the Abbey from the garden, was 
unable to see the greater part of the outside, before he was conducted 
through the interior of the building. Tins inconvenience has 
ifecently been very judiciously obviated by the direction of the path, 
along the kitchen bank on the south side, where, from its elevated 
position, hitherto buried in brushwood and rubbiidi, by &r the most 
picturesque views of the building are not only obtained, but also a 

Digitized by CjOOQlC 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 69 


bird's-eye view or synoptical idea of the plan and relative position 


of the apartments, before 


proceeding to a particular survey.* 


* The following i> the saccession of the Abbots of Fountains. For facility of 


reference to inscriptions and records, the enameration used by the monks themselves 


is adopted ; but it must be observed that it excludes Mauride and Thorald, who, 


I presume, were only deputies 


to Archbishop Murdae, and also Alyngs, Otley, { 




rhomton,and Frank. 








NO. 


ABBOTS' NAMB8. 


PBRIOD OF 
ABBACY. 


WHBRB BUBXID. 


HOW VACAKT 




1 


Richard, ex-Prior of St? 
Mary's, York. .J 


1132-1139 


At Rome . 


Death. 




2 


Richard . . . 


1139-1143 


Clarevall. . . 


Death. 






3 


Henry Murdae, elected ) 
Archbishop of York 5 
Maurice of Rivaux . . 
Thorold of Rivaux 


1143-1153? 

About 3 mths 
About 2 yrs. 


York Cathedral . 


Death? 
Resignation 






4 


Richard Fastolph, Prior > 
of Clarevall. . i 


1153-1170 




Death. 






5 


Robert, Abbot of Pipewell 


1170-1179 


Chapter House, F. 


Death. 






6 


WiUiam,AbbotofNew-> 
minster . • > 


1179—1190 


Chapter House, F. 


Death. 






7 


Ralph Hagret . 


1190-1203 


Chapter House, F. 


Death. 






8 


John de Ebor . . 


1203-1211 


Chapter House, F. 


Death. 






9 


John Pherd, afterwards } 
Bishop of Ely . > 
John de Cancia . 


1211—1219 


Ely Cathedral 


Promotion. 






10 


1220—1247 


Chapter House, F. 


Death. 






11 


Stephen de Eston . . 


1247—1252 


Chapter H. Vaudy 


Death. 






12 


William de Allerton 


1252—1258 


Chapter House, F. 


Death. 






13 


Adam. . 


1258—1259 


Chapter House, F. 


Death. 






14 


^ Alexander . 


1259—1265 


Chapter House, F. 


Death. 






15 


Reginald . . . 


1265-1274 


Chapter House, F. . 


Death. 








Peter Alyngs 


1275—1279 


Chapter House, K. 


Res.orDep. 






16 


Nicholas . . . 


6 months 


Chapter House, F. 


Death. 






17 


Adam Ravensworth 


1280—1284 


Chapter House, F. 


Death. 








Henry Otley . . . 


1284-1289 


Chapter House, F. 


Resignation? 








Robert Thornton . 


1289 


Chapter House, F. 


Resignation? 






18 


Richard Bishopton . . 


1289—1310 


Chapter House, F. 


Death. 






19 


William Rigton . 


1311-1316 


Chapter House. F. 


Death. 






20 


Walter Coxwold . . 


1316—1336 


Chapter House, F. 








21 


Robert Copgrove . 


1336-1345-6 


Chapter House, F. 


Death. 






22 


Robert Monkton . . 


1346—1369 


The Church, F. 


Death. 






23 


William Gower, B.D 


1369-1383 


Lady Chapel, F. 


Resignation 






24 


Robert Burley . . . 
Roger Frank, intruder . 


1383—1410 
1410—1414 


Choir, Fountains . 


Death. 
Expulsion. 






23 


JohnRipon . . . 


1414—1434-5 


• Nave of Church, F. 


Death, 






26 


Thomas Passelew. 


1434-5-1442 


Nave of Church. F. 


Resignation 






27 


John Martin . . . 


Seven weeks 


Nave of Church, F. 


Death. 






28 


John Qreenwell, D.D. , 


1442—1471 










29 


Thomas Swinton . . 


1471—1479 


. . . . 


Resignation 






80 


John Damton 


1479-149J 










31 


Marmaduke Huby . , 


1494—1526 


« . . . . 


Death. 






32 


WilUam Thirsk, B.D. . 


1526-1536-7 


. 


Resignation 






83 


Marmaduke Bradley . . 


1536-7—1539 





Resignation 













digitized by 



Google 



70 



BTUDLEY. 



On leaving, therefore, Robin Hood's Well, and rising immediately 
above the recently discovered foundations of the Abbot's House and 
the domestic offices of the Abbey, we see the several parts of the con- 
ventaal church. Lady chapel, choir, transept, tower, and nave, 
successively developed ; nearer us — and parallel with the south end 
of the transept — ^the chapter house, distinguished by the double 
tier of round-headed windows ; next, but placed in a contrary 
direction towards the river, comes the Frater-house. After that the 
kitchen, with its taU chimney, and the court-house above. Then 
the refectory, with its graceM lancet lights ; then, receding to the 
cloister-court, the buttery and its little garth ; and, lastly, in con- 
nection with the main structure, the vast range of the dormitory 
above the cloisters, stretching nearly jfrom our feet to the nave of 
the church. Turning in a contrary direction, we may observe, on 
the slope of the hill above, a part of the wall which bounded the 
site* of the Monastery ; the intermediate broken ground having 
been chiefly occupied by the Common Stable, Guests' Stable, 
Barns, Kilns, Tan-House, Bare-Mill, Dove-Cotes, Forge, 
and other similar offices. Of these, the Mill — to which large 
granaries were formerly annexed — ^is alone left entire, and will be 
observed immediately before us, shrouded in tall trees, and running 
on, merrily, as in days of yore. 

On a little knoll, above the mill, stands the remnant of the Yew 
Trees, that are said, by tradition, to have sheltered the monks 
before the erection of the Abbey ; which, in some measure, they 
may be said to have survived. Their original number is forgot. 
From the appellation of "the Seven Sisters," by which the trees are 
always known, they may not have lately exceeded that number ; 
though one of coeval antiquity stands at the south end of the Abbey 
bridge near the mill. Dr. Burton, writing in 1757, remembered 
seven trees, but remarked that one of them had been blown down 
a few years before. One, and the greater part of another, fell in 
the great gale of the 7th of January, 1839. Another rears but a 
withered sapless trunk. The rest vegetate with astonishing vigour, 

• The walled close of the Abbey, which was a parish of itself, contained abor^ 
thirty acres. Of these the site of the building, with its orchard, gardens, and several 
adjacent garths, occupied, at the dissolation, twelve acres on the north side of the 
Skell ; the rest, which lay on the south side, was divided into the east Applegarth, , 
in which was a fish-pond ; three West Applegarths of twelve acres ; and the Kitchen 
bank of three acres, covered with brushwood. But besides the close, there was on 
its south-west side a pleasant park of above two hundred acres, of which the batter 
half was covered by woods and fish-ponds. It still retains its name, and, though 
divided into farms, much of its ancient and picturesque character. 



digitized 



by Google 



Digitized 



by Google 




oogie 



FOXJNXAINS ABBEY. 71 

aod last year bore their accustomed supply of berries ; though their 
giant stcans are but mouldering skeletons. 

Candolle, deriTing his information from Pennant, who stated, 
that in 1770 one of ihem was 1214 lignes in diameter, supposes that 
they were then upwards of twelve centuries old ; but, as we cannot 
ascertain when they ceased to expand, and the process of decompo- 
sition commenced, this computation probably falls far short of their 
actual age. The tortuosity of their rifted boles forbids an accurate 
measurement, but one of them is at least 25 feet in circumference. 

Immediately on crossing the Skell by a picturesque bridge, built 
in the thirteenth century, we come to the Gate-House,* now reduced 
indeed to a mere fragment, but bearing, in the traces of the apart- 
ments on each side, abundant testimony of its former magnitude 
a^d importance. 

The two gabled ruins, passed soon after entering what was 
formerly called the first court, appear to have been the Hospitium, 
which in the records of the Abbey, is said to have been built by the 
Abbot, John de Cancia ; though, either from the rule of the order 
enjoining a severe character of architecture, or the inferior conse- 
quence of the building, displays none of the scientific progress that 
was rapidly developed in his time. In the basement story of the 
eastern house, 73 feet long and 23 feet wide, and vaulted from a row 
of five pillars, is an apartment which may have been the dining- 
hftll of the guests ; and in the upper apartments of each, a domestic 

* At this point, however brief the time at the viaitor's disposal may be, he should 
turn aside a few paces to Fountains Hall, which is not generally included in the 
guide's route, unless requested. It stands at a very short distance from the Abbey 
gate, on the side of a densely wooded and precipitous declivity, and was built by Sir 
Stephen Procter of Warsell, in the time of King James 1., at an expense of 90002., 
though he ruthlessly quarried his stone from the walls of the Abbey. Its yenerable 
aspect, however, accords so well with the scenery, that it mitigates ** the regret with 
which the antiquary would otherwise contemplate so wide a scale of spoliation." 
The chief front sleeping in a summer's sun, with its picturesque gables and balcony 
and statues, and glistening 

' ** Bay windows, goodly as may be thought," 

ia peculiarly imposing and beautiful. The arrangement of the principal apartments 
is still undisturbed ; but they contain nothing remarkable, except the dining-room, 
which is hung with tapestry, representing the Kape of Proserpine, Jupiter an4 
Ganymede, and Vulcan receiving directions from Thetis about the making of armour 
for Achilles. In the Hall al80--<iow called the Chapel— is a sculpture over the fire- 
place, of the Judgment of Solomon, and in its great embayed window, the armorial 
bearings of the Procters and their connexions, displayed in confused and fast-fading 
glass. Over the chief entrance to the house, are the family crests of Sir Stephen and 
Honor his wife, and between them a motto, difficult of application, at least, to his 
secular condition. 

KIBN TBOVANT, OAINBRAY TOTT. 



,'igitized 



by Google 



72 



STUDLET. 



eharacter is indicated by fire-places, with flues curiotisly constructed 
in the gables. 

To the east of these buildings stands a wall containing the chief 
doorway, and three upper windows of a structure built above the 
Skell, which may have been the Infirmary, erected also by John de 
Cancia. The other walls are destroyed ; but on a recent excavation 
of such parts of the floor as had not fallen into the river, it was 
found to have had three aisles, divided by four arches on each side. 




. The main fabric of the Abbey now engages attention, and the 
West Cloister, being the nearest part of it, will perhaps, be first 
entered. It is not less than 300 feet in length, but was built at two 
difierent periods ; the upper portion, extending from the nave of 
the church to the porter's lodge, being of the same transition 
Norman character, very curiously shown in the buttresses ; the 
rest forms the ambulatory, or ^^ Novum Claustrum,** built by 
John de Cancia. Along the outside of the upper pa^^t, which was 
once divided into store-houses, has been a pent-house, communi- 
cating, like the cloister, by a large and handsome doorway with the 
• church. The large octagonal stone basin, in the east aisle, has origi- 
nally been a lavatory, but converted into a cider miU. 

Above the cloister, and extending its whole length, was the 
Monks' Dormitoey, divided into forty cells by wooden partitions, 
which left a passage down the middle, lighted by a large window 
at the south end, and, by night, by a great cresset or lamp. At 



Digitized 



by Google 




THE ABBOTS BOVSE. 

l.RMaaie ttom the Clointer Ci>uLl. 

a.The Great HaJI. 

3. RefWctopy. 

♦ Buttery? 

5- Store HoiiaeK ■ 

6. The Chapel. 

7.TlieSatcb«»i]. 

S.Aah Iftrd. 

9. Coid andAiili Ymvd . 

10. The Sitrhvxx li auk ■ 



Fowu 



'j^^;^ 



^itli offP.Bfk 



%po a^o 



WTCcm'k'houae.Latli Tork 



)igitized 



byGOOOl 



gle 



Digitized by 



Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 73 

the south-wiest comer are the walls of two spacious gard-robes, 
communicating with the dormitory, and placed conveniently aboTC 
the river. The dormitory is still approached by spacious and 
original stairs winding over the porter's lodge ; and by another 
staircase at the northern extremity, by which tiie monks descended 
to their nocturnal offices in the church. 



THE CONVENTUAL CHUBCH. 

Before we proceed to examine the church, it will be proper to 
state that the whole of its floor was excavated, or cleared of rub- 
bish, during the winter of 1854. The general result is, that, 
though as regards the mere discovery of relics, or speculative 
objects of curiosity, the work has not entirely ftdfilled tiie antici- 
pations of those who had eagerly entertained them ; yet many im- 
portant facts, general and local, have been, both directiy andinfer- 
entially elicited, and the architectural and picturesque appearance 
of the building has been amplified and improved to such a high 
degree, that, to any one who has not since visited it, any description 
would seem exaggerated. The accumulation of rubbish varied in 
depth from little more than twelve inches, in the middle of the 
choir, to that of three feet in the nave. The whole mass appeared 
to have been disturbed, probably during Mr. Aislabie's " improve- 
ments,'* in the last centmy; so that, unfortunately, whatever frag- 
mentary objects were found among it, could not be generally 
assigned to their original positions. There needed not, indeed, 
such an intrusion to disturb the last vestiges of evidence *that 
might have been left; for the work had not proceeded &r, before 
it became evident that, on the dissolution of the house, its spolia- 
tion had been conducted with no ordinary wantonness or avarice. 
The stalls, screens, and other wooden fittings had, apparentiy, 
been used, as we know was the case at Hoche Abbey, to make fires 
for melting the lead of the roofs ; for, here and there we found, 
within the walls, heaps of ashes — ^nay, in the nave, part of the 
furnace where the operation had been conducted. All the glass had 
been removed from the windows, so that not more than a handful 
has been found. The large slabs had been torn from the graves 
and removed; nearly the whole of the tiled floor had been taken 
up ; even the very graves had been ransacked in search of valu- 
ables, if we may judge from the condition of those that were 



Digitized 



by Google 



74 



STXJDLET. 



accidentally observed, and the indiscriminate mingling of bcmes 
•with the rubbish. 

It will astonish those who have viewed the familiar face of the 
west end of the nave in a picturesque rather than in an architec- 
tural point of view, to find that throughout its whole &9ade, and 
at a period not very long after its erection, a porch or " Galilee," 
with a double open arcade in front and of the width of fifteen feet, 
has been added, and also repaired in the succeeding century. It 
seems, like similar porches elsewhere, to have been preferred as a 
place of burial ; since there were found within it, six graves 
covered by large ornamented slabs. Of the four to be seen, at the 
south end, nothing is to be particularly observed, except the mode 
in wl^ch the graves are united : but, in the opposite extremity, 
is a remarkably fine and perfect slab— still fixed by heavy leaden 
clamps to the coffin — ^which bears the device of a processional 
cross of the early part of the thirteenth century. 

There was foimd, also, within this unexpected appendage to the 
church, a large image of the Blessed Virgin, 

** With har Almighty Infant in her anus,*' 

that had been thrown down from the niche that it occupied above 
the great western window. Both figui'es are headless, and there 
is little in the composition to attract admiration ; yet, there might 
be even now, not inaptiy restored to a position whence for 
three centuries it has been ignominiously deposed, that emblem of 
the great patroness of the house, to which generations of faith 
tiave directed their eyes with feelings of piety and veneration. 

THE NAVE. 



The nave — a good plain example of the Transition Norman period 
— exhibits only, on each side, both of the clerestory and the aisles, 
a succession of eleven bays, divided by broad and shallow pilas- 
ters, and occupied by as many round-headed lights without shaft 
or moulding. On entering at the great western door, the effect is 
exceedingly solemn and impressive : the point0d arcade, resting on 
massy columns 23 feet high and 16 feet in circumference, without 
the reKef of a triforium intervening between them and the plain 
splayed windows above. The great west window was introduced 
by Abbot Darnton, in the place of two or three plain Norman 
lights, surmounted probably by a round one in the gable, and has 



Digitized 



by Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



75 



a gallery in the base, whence processions might be viewed. Above 
the outside of this window is a niche supported by the figure of a 
bird, holding a crosier, and perched on a tun, from which issues a 
label inscribed " \>txn 1494." If the bird represents an eagle, it 
may, as the symbol of St. John, perhaps signify the Christian 
name of Damton ; but if the sculptor thus took leave to represent 
a thrash, a rebus on the name of the founder, Thurstan, was also 
intended. 

Each bay of the aisles has been covered by a pointed but tram-' 
verse vault, divided by semi-circular arches, of which the imposts 
are plaoed considerably lower than those of the pillars to which 
they are attached. Nearly the whole of the eastern half of these 
aisles has been divided by lattices into chapels, of which there are 
some indications in the painted devices and matrices of their 
fdrnitore, traceable on the piers. There has been, also, a wooden 
screen across the nave at the seventh pillar eastward. 

Shortity after its very fragmentary foundation was cleared, an 
arrangement was discovered, on the transept side of it, not more 
unusual than inexplicable ; for, on each side of its processional 
passage are to be seen two walled spaces of the form of the Koman 
capital letter L, and of the size represented on the plan (Nos. 1 
and 2) depressed about two feet below the level of the floor. In 



> 



N?2 


u. 
o 


K«i i 






u 


















^ 










« 






— '• 




< 

u 




m» 



Q 



that on the south side nothing was then discovered, but, in the 
other, a mass of charcoal ashes ; and thoroughly imbedded in its 
west and north sides nine large vases of rude earthenware, each 
capable of containing nearly two fluid gallons, and also partially 
filled with charcoal. These ashes have, no doubt, been cast 
here from the adjacent furnace, where the lead stripped from the 
church had been evidently melted into a marketable shape at the 
time of the dissolution; but, why the vases shoiild,have been 



digitized 



by Google 



76 



STUDLEY. 



introduced, is, so £eu: as I can learn from anything that has been 
observed in English architecture, unaccountable. The most pro- 
bable supposition. seems to be that they were acmtstic instruments, 
intended to increase the sound of an organ placed on the |screen 
above ; inasmuch as Vitruvius, when speaking of " The vases of 
the theatres," in the fifth chapter of his fifth book on architecture, 
observes, that it was the practice in constructing some of the 
provincial theatres of Italy, where brass vases could not be afforded, 
to insert earthen vessels within the seats, for the express purpose 
of augmenting sound. 

Besides these vases, and the bases of three altars attached to 
the pillars, no particular objects of interest were observed in the 
nave ; except that, towards the west end, two blocks of limestone, 
each two feet three inches square, with a circle incised on the 
surface, were found inserted in the floor ,* which led to a more 
particular examination — ending in the discovery oi fifty of similar 
character, occupying the space, and arranged in the form expressed 
on the plan. They marked the-positions observed by members of 
the Convent, before they moved in procession, on high days, to 
meet their patrons or benefiEUitors — the cross-bearer standing 
first ; and the abbot, in front of the entrance, last. The faces of 
the greater number of the stones were, however, so much crumbled 
and decayed that, with the exception of those which occasioned 
the disclosure of the rest, it was thought expedient to allow the 
turf to remain above them. 



THE TRANSEPT. 

The transept was built in the same transition period of archi- 
tecture as the nave, but manifests so little progressive or pointed 
character, that it might have been considered, particularly outside, 
as pure Norman. At its intersection with the nave, was originally 
a tower, though elevated probably not more than one of its squares 
above the roof. All trace of it, however, is now lost, except frag- 
ments of its arches, which have been pointed and moulded, at the 
south-east and north-west angles. It was probably the insecure con- 
dition of this tower — ^incapable of such considerable improvement 
as, unfortunately, was effected at Kirksta}l — ^which led to the erec- 
tion of the present magnificent substitute ; since Abbot Huby was 
obliged to disfigure the transept by the erection of a massy buttress 



Digitized 



by Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



11 



against its south-east pier, and also to constmct an arch under that 
of the adjacent aisle of the Choir. The corhels of its hood mould- 
ings display, on shields, Three Horse Shoes, the arms of the 
Abhej ; and his initials, ^ ^.^ surmounted by a mitre enfiled by 
a crosier. 

Two melancholy chapels, divided by a thick wall and covered 
with a barrel, but pointed, vault, abut on the east side of each wing 
- of the transept, and occupy a space, which, if we may judge from 
the like arrangement at Kirkstall, would not have been transformed 
into the less monastic form of aisles, even at a more advanced 
architectural period. Their gloomy character has also been in- 
creased, at the north end, by walUng up the arches of the transept 
in order to give increased stability to the new tower. In the chapel 
that adjoins it— dedicated, it appears from a mouldering inscrip- 
tion, to St. Peter — ^there has been placed, within recollection, under 
a broken monumental arch in the north wall, the effigy of a cross- 
legged warrior in chain-mail, bearing a shield, charged with a lion 
rampant, and said, by tradition, torepresent the great Baron Roger 
de Mowbray, who died at Ghent in 1298, and was buried in this 
church. 

The dedication of the next Chapel is shown to have been to 
St. Michael the Archangel, by a weather-beaten inscription over 
its entrance : Altare %'d mic{^aett$( &xct\ In its south wall— 
part of the original or first Choir — ^is a large round-headed piscina, 
with a recess or locker in the side ; and, at the east end, some frag- 
ments of the stone altar and of a geometrical pavement may be 
observed. 

The South Chapels have been partitioned, by lattices, from the 
transept, and that adjoining the Choir has gained an entrance also 
from its aisle, in the Perpendicular period, when it was also briefly 
elongated and improved by the insertion of a large east window. 
The piscina has been of wood. 

The next and last Chapel has been but recentiy cleared of the 
rubbish of its vault, which was re-set with most rigid attention to 
the original work. Sufficient remains of the tesselated pavement 
were found, during the excavation, to show that it had been of 
John de Canda's time, as indeed may be inferred from the frag- 
ments of the border still attached to tiie wall. 

Near the entrance of this Chapel is, also, placed part of the 
monumental slab of one the Abbots. In its present inconvenient 
position, it is difficult to decipher the worn and mutilated oircnm- 



Digitized 



by Google 



78 



STUDLEY. 



scription J but from the occurrence of the word ¥Oiiertttj$» and the 
character of the design, I presume, it has conmiemorated Robert 
Burley, the twenty-fourth Abbot, who died 13th of May 1410. 




A MS chronicle of the Abbots of the house induced me, when the 
floor was cleared, to hope for some curious memorials of them in the 
transept With the exception, however, of two slabs, the floor pre- 
sented only a hopeless blank. One of these slabs will be found 
at the angle of the transept joining the north aisle'of the nave, 
but it is uninscribed. Its position, receding so humbly from the 
east, is somewhat singular, and if it really can be diown that 
Abbot Thirsk was interred at Fountains, after his execution at 
Tyburn, fancy may suggest to some, that he rests below. The 
other slab is in the south wing, but the broken circumscription 
tells us nothing more than that it thus records " Brother John 
de Ripon." 

®ra[te pro a]'('a fr'i^ 3)o!)*tJS Kgpon ftui' CIO 

quonDa' t)lc tacct • cut' al'am lie a: [poJ^^iOcat 

ame* • oiijtil.. .m'cij — 4. 



Digitized 



by Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



•79 






From the character of the letter, he seems, however, to have 
heen an inmate of the hoose long after the time of Abbot Eipon. 

His grave had been ran- ___,. 

sacked, the bones being I ^ f 

found in a disturbed posi- — ^ ^ 

tion, as they were also in 
another grave on the north- 
east side of it. 

At the south end of the 
transept, and below the 
Sacristy, has been originally 
a passage from the Qoister 
Court to the Burial Garth, 
south of the Choir ; the ex- 
tremities of which had been 
closed not long before the 
dissolution. In clearing it 
out, a mass of human bones, 
representing not less than 
four hundred skeletons, was 
found in comparatively mo- 
dem rubbish. They were in 
a rapid state of decomposi- 
tion; and were committed, 
for the last time, to their 
kindred dust, on the day 
when they were found, to 
a grave prepared for " this 
little city of the forgotten," 
at the west end of the church, opposite to the entrance of the 
dormitory. 

Abutting on the west side of the south wing of the transept 
is to be seen the foundation of a staircase leading to the Sacristy, 
which occupies the space above this passage. In it is a fine round- 
head Lavatory of the transition Norman period. Near the foot 
of the staircase — ^but in the nave — ^is the base of an Early English 
stoup, whose very elegant basin now serves, I believe, for the font 
in the adjacent chapel of Aldfield. 







i 



THE TOWER. 

This majestic and scientific specimen of the Perpendicular style 



Digitized 



by Google 



80 STUDLEY. 

is placed at the end of the north transept, since its introduction 
could not have been conveniently effected on the site of the old 
tower, and, at the west end of the nave, it would not have grouped 
so effectiyely with the chief buildings of the Monastery. It is 
composed in a grand and bold outline, unMttered by minute detail, 
or elaborate decoration. The height is 168 feet 6 inches, and the 
internal area of the base about 25 feet With the exception of the 
floors of the several chambers, pinnacles, glass, and the tracery of 
a single window, which fell out many years ago, the goodly struc- 
ture remains as perfect, sound, and stable, as when .the builders 
left it ; and, for anything that appears to the contrary, will rear 
its noble head above the dell, and defy the storm, when many proud 
structures of to-day shall be crumbled to their base. On fillets 
above and below the bel&y windows are inscriptions in the Tudor 
black letter, boldly relieved, and also round the top of the tower ; 
but this latter series is so weather-beaten as to have become 
illegible. 

ON THE EAST SIDE. 

JdeneUccio et catitajs et jsapienda [1] et [2] graciantni atcto ionot. 
&oU Uo I'Jtt x*fo [3] Jonor [4] et g'lia in jS'cIa %*tlou 

NOKTH SIDE. 

iSt btttttis et f ortitttl^o l^eo nosttto [5]in [6] jserula stecttlorum amen* 
SboU l^eo i'j^tt x'po j^onor et gl'ia (n st'cia st'clor ame'. 

WEST SIDE. 

Iftegl autem steculorum [7 8] immortali inbtoitt 

iboli l^eo V^u x'fo l^onor et [9] gria [10] in %'chi 0*clot* 

SOUTH SIDE. 

SboU l^eo l^ont et gloria [11] in [12] iserula iseculorum amen* 

The numerals introduced into this copy indicate the correspond- 
ing position of armorial shields in the inscriptions, thus charged: — 
1, Three Horse-shoes, two and one, the arms of the Abbey ; 2, a 
Maunch, surmounted by a bend, Norton of Norton Conyers, and 
Sawley ; 3, a Gross flory, between a Mitre and Key erecl^ in fMet, 
and a Key erect and Mitre, in base ; 4, the arms of the Abbey, as 
the first ; 5 and 6, Norton, as before ; 7 and 8, the Abbey and 
Norton ; 9, as the third ; 10 and 11, the Abbey ; 12, Norton, and 



Digitized 



by Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 81 

individually, perhaps, Sir John Norton, grandfather to old Eichard, 
the memorable promoter of the " Rising in the North." 

Above the lowest window is an angel standing on the canopy 
of a vacant Niche, holding a shield, on which is carved a mitre 
enfiled with a crosier, and the letters 01* ?^., the initials of Mar- 
maduke Huby. In a niche on the north side is a crowned female 
figure holding a palm branch in her right, and a book in her left 
hand ; in another above is a mitred figure, probably Archbishop 
Savage, holding a crosier; and in one above the ridge of the 
transept roof a gowned effigy, no doubt of his friend Huby, 
holding a crosier in his right, and a book in his left hand. 

During the excavation of 1854-5, when the whole of the exte- 
rior of the north side of the church was cleared, it was discovered, 
from a wall a little in advance of the east side of the tower, that 
an addition had been made, in the Decorated period, to the end 
of the north transept. The building has been at least 19 feet 
wide, with a doorway to the east ; and has had a vaulted roof, 
of which two of the springers remain a few inches only above 
the level of the floor. 



THE CHom* 

The outer walls of the Aisles are of elegant and powerful design. 
Each bay contains, indeed, only one plain lancet light, but as it is 
placed in the interior, under an arcade of one pointed, between 
two round-headed, members, a remarkable effect is produced by 
the archivolt of its adjuncts ; which, resting one extremity on the 
single columns flanking the light, descend on the opposite side, with 
the curve of the groining, to a shaft, capped at an inferior eleva- 
tion, and clustered with that which has carried tbe ribs of the vault. 
A very appropriate and picturesque effect is contributed also by 
the deeply recessed and trifoliated arcade which supports this 
arrangement, though it is now much diminished by the absence 
of the grey marble shafts. 

The excavation of the choir developed little or nothing that 
had not previously been ascertained. Its floor, raised two steps 
above its aisles, had been totally removed, together with all its 
sepulchral slabs. The pillars supporting the clerestory had been, 
with the exception of two fragmentary bases, not only torn down 
to the ground, but to the very foundations ; and in Mr, Aislabie'^i 



Digitized 



by Google 



82 



CTTTDLEY. 



" improyements," in the last century, the mbbifiih had been so 
much disturbed that little of the detail of the superstructure could 
be satisfactorily inferred. It must be observed, however, that 
the foimdation of the original aisleless choir, like that of Kirkstall, 
was discovered immediately below the level of the floor, as it was 
left upwards of six hundred and fifty years ago by John de Ebor, 
the builder of the present structure, together with those of the two 
side chapels which he included in his work. The inner and outer 
surfaces of the wall are now indicated on the turf by correspond- 
ing lines of thin flag-stones, and also shown on the annexed 
general plan. 

When the work reached the west end of the choir, it was found 
that the screen had been torn down to the ground. It had been 
of limestone, and probably the work of Abbot Huby, when he 
fortified the eastern side of the old central tower ; but as to its 
general outline no idea can be formed, as very few fragments were 
foimd that could reasonably be supposed to have formed a portion 
of it. Within its porch was rediscovered that magnificent sepul- 
chral slab of blue marble — ^9 feet 6 inches long, 4 feet 8 inches 
wide, and 7 inches thick — ^the disturbance of which in 1841 caused 
the cessation of the excavation commenced by Mrs. Lawrence. 
The design represented in graven brass, as will readily be observed, 
the figure of a mitred Abbot, under a canopy, holding his pastoral 
staff in his right hand ; and, no doubt covered the Abbot, John de 
Bipon, who died at the Abbey Grange at Thorpe Underwood, on 
the 12th of March, 1435, and is said, in the records of the monas- 
tery, to have been buried before the entrance to the choir. The label 
around, of which the circular comer pieces had, perhaps, symbolical 
figures of the Evangelists, contained the inscription. Iliere is, of 
course, no trace of the brass, but the rivets by which the plates 
were fixed to the grooved stone still remain, with the incised pas- 
sages to them by which the solder was introduced. 

The tesselated pavement of the high altar is doubtless part of 
the **pictum pavimentum ** that was bestowed on the church by 
Abbot John de Cancia between the years 1219 and 1247 ; and* 
therefore, an early and valuable example of this elegant mode of 
decoration. The simple patterns, divided in the upper and chief 
platform into three chief compartments, are formed of many-shaped 
tesseree of red, black, and yellow, which have been relaid, I am 
informed, with proper attention to the original design. 

The reredos behind the high altar presented, both to the choir 



Digitized 



bVGoogle 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 83 

and Lady Chapel, but a contiimation — prolonged also for one 
bay or more on each side — of that beautiM arcade which circum- 
scribes the Lady Chapel and the choir. Part.of its materials are 
now in a modem and obtnisiye gaUery mider the east window, and 
more of it will be found in other parts of the abbey. 

Not far from the north-west comer of the altar is a stone coffin, 
6 feet 3 inches long, which is usually said to have contained the 
remains of Henry, Lord Percy, of Alnwick, who died in 1316. 
As, however, the herald Tong, who learned on his visit to the 
Abbey, in 1530, that he was buried "before the high auter," 
observed that " also in the quere lyeth buried the Lord Mowbray,*' 
it is as probable that the coffin was covered by the effigy of 
Mowbray, now in the North Chapel; more particularly since it is 
remembered to have stood against the wall opposite to it 



THE LADY CHAPEL. 

This most beautiful portion of the Abbey Church was completed 
by Abbot John de Cancia, who had superintended, probably, the 
greater part, if not the whole, of its erection. " This addition to 
ecclesiastical structures, though not common, is productive of great 
magnificence, for the eastern £a9ade thus formed here extends 150 
feet in length, and presents a specimen of Early English architec- 
ture—plain and somewhat massive in its general appearance, but 
witii many well-proportioned details. Some additions which have 
been made to this portion of the Abbey are, however, as late as the 
end of the fifteenth century. The great east window and appur- 
tenant buttresses display ^e magnificence of the latest style of 
Gothic architecture, which, guided by judgment and taste, are 
combined with the earlier style of the adjoining portions of the 
building. It had nine lights and a transom, but exhibits now a 
void space of 60 feet in height, and 23 feet 4 inches in width. The 
other and original windows of this front are adorned, outside and 
in the lower range, with banded shafts, and divided by semi- 
octangular and imusually massive buttresses. 

Besides the east window, one of large dimensions, but plain 
detail, has been inserted, at the same period, in each gable of the 
Lady ChapeL Below that in the southern elevation, tilie keystone 
of one of the three Early English lights has received a Sculptube 



Digitized 



^^^ogte~ 



84 



STUDLEY. 



which shows these innoyations to have been made in the time of 
Abbot Damton, who presided over the house from 1478 to 1494. 
It is indeed a rebus on his name, displaying the bust of an angel 
holding a tun, with the word Ocm inscribed on its breast. Above 
this is a large bird, apparently an eagle — as seen before above the 
nave — and a scroll, which bears the same allusive character in its 
legend, Wxi't} ionM l^'no {Benedicite fontea domino). In the 
inside of the Chapel, the same keystone bears an angel holding a 
blank shield, a mitred head, and the figure of a pilgrim, or perhaps 
St. James of ComposteUa, standing on two encircled fishes. The 
keystone of another lancet light, at the north-east angle, displays 
a human head entwined with foliage ; and in the interior, the 
figure of an angel, holding a scroll, inscribed awiO Bomint 1483. 
On receding to either end of the Lady Chapel, the amplitude of 
its dimensions, the graceful, aspiring, heavenward tendency of its 

component parts 
must captivate and 
astonish even a vul- 
gar and careless 
mind. Not a little 
of its peculiar effect 
results from those 
lofty arches which 
span it in prolonga- 
tion of the clerestory 
of the choir, sustain- 
ed on each side only 
by an octagonal pil- 
lar, 2 feet 5 inches in 
diameter; but much 
of the original effect 
is lost by the destruc- 
tion of the marble 
shafts that enriched 
the angles, and were banded midway in the elevation. 

In this transept or Chapel, nine altars were instituted by John 
de Cancia, but none of their dedications have, as yet, been ascer- 
tained. During the excavation, portions of six of these altars 
were discovered ; but with the exception of two, much broken 
down, and all without their covering slabs. The piscinas of two 
that were inserted in the floor, will be found in the museum 




Digitized 



by Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 85 

above the abbey kitchen ; and, on the walls, several indications of 
such as have been of wood ; and one, nearly perfect, and a curious 
example, in stone. The pavement of the Chapel had been entirely 
removed, with the exception of some plain inserted Tudor work 
near the outer doors. K an opinion can be based on the very 
trifling scraps of stained glass that were found here, some or all 
of the windows had retained a portion of their original decoration 
to the last. Of the immense quantity that filled the great east 
window, it is strange to say that not one particle was observed; 
as however, at the time of the Keformation, even plain glass was 
so costly, that it was generally placed in wooden frames, and 
removed from the windows of domestic buildings when the apart- 
ments were not in use or occupation, and this winddw had not 
then been erected fifty years, it is very probable that this, and the 
rest of the glass that was marketable, was at once removed and 
sold. 



THE CLOISTEE COURT. 

From a door at the south-east angle of the nave, a few steps 
descend to a quadrangular court, formerly environed with a 
penthouse or cloister, of which a portion of the round-headed 
arcade remained in the last century. Part of the foundation waU 
has recently been discovered, and also a base of masonry in the 
centre of ike quadrangle, which most likely has supported the 
lavatory now placed in the Cloister. The north and west aisles 
were occupied, I believe, by the carrels where the monks studied, 
and the place where the novices were taught; the other must 
necessarily have been used as passages. 

The area of the court — about 128 feet square — ^is still surrounded 
by the buildings of the Monastery. The north side is formed by 
the lofty walls of the Church. On the west, the Cloisters, sur- 
mounted by the Dormitory, stretch in one unbroken line. The 
Buttery, Kefectory, and Kitchen flank the southern range ; and 
on the east, the portals of the Chapter-house join the south Tran- 
sept, which stiU, by its massy strength, retains its original elevation. 

In front of the Chapter-house several graves were discovered in 
the winter of 1856. The bottom of a wooden Coffin was also 
found, and a few sepulchral slabs much broken ; but none were 
inscribed except the shattered fragments of one which has borne 



Digitized 



by Google 



86 8TUDLEY. 

a circumflcription in raised letteis, wbidi date about the middle 
of the fifteenth century. 

THE CHAPTEB-HOUSE. 

The Chapter-house, divided by the Sacristy from the north 
Transept, is of a date between it and the Early English Choir, bnt 
bears no local assimilation of style to any cont^nporary building 
of the Abbey. It is, indeed, I apprehend, judging from certain 
peculiarities of style and the magnificence of its dimensions, the 
work of Bichard, the fourth Abbot, who had been preyiously Prior 
of Qarevall, in France, and may haye brought or procured ihe 
design from that great head of the Cistercian houses. In si^e it 
is little inferior to any rectangular Chapter-house in the kingdom, 
being 84 feet 7 inches long, by 41 feet wide ; though a yestibule 
of inferior height, formed by the intervention of a wooden screen, 
has occupied 24 feet of the western extremity. The ten round 
marble columns that divided tlie area into three aisles, have been 
ruined to their bases ; but the triple tier of benches, used by the 
Convent in their deliberations, still remain. 

From the decease of Abbot Eichard, in 1 170, to that of Copgrove, 
in 1345, the Chapter-house was the invariable burial place of the 
Abbots, except of Pherd and Eston, who died elsewhere ; and 
during that period nineteen of them were interred here* These 
&ctB, partially communicated by Dr. Burton, in his "Monasticon,'* 
from a chartulary of the Abbey, led, in 1790, to the excavation of 
the apartment, when the following evidence of their particular 
graves was obtained. 

Within the last bay eastward are four coffins, laid side by side, 
that most probably have contained the remains of Abbot Bichard 
Fastolph and his three immediate successors. Two of them have 
lost their proper slabs; the cover of another is uninscribed; and 
that of the last indicates, only, in the sacred emblem i{i incised on 
its head, that it covers one who preferred the expression of his 
dying faith to the remembrance or gratitude of posterity. 

At their feet, and immediately below the seat where he so long 
and worthily presided, is this memorial of the great Abbot, John 
de Cancia, who died November 25th, 1247, inscribed in Longobar- 
dic characters, on a ridged slab of grey marble : — 

ff- REQIESCIT : DOMPNVS . JOH's . X : AbSAS. DE FONTIBV.' 
QVJ • OBIJT • VII KL • DECEMBRIS. 



Digitized 



by Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



87 



Close by its south side is a slab of similar character, but some- 
what humbler dimension, on which the following inscription is said 
to have appeared on its discovery; 
though, in consequence of the heedless 
steps of visitors, such parts of it only 
as are inclosed by brackets can now be 
deciphered : — 

[>J< m]. REQI[E8CIT dompnvs] joh's 
X[II ABBAS DE FONTIB* QI : OBIJT] . . . 

This reading was, however, certainly 
erroneous ; since, according to the enu- 
meration used on the adjacent stone, 
supported by the records of the Abbey, 
William AUerton was the twelfth 
Abbot — and imperfect also, by the sup- 
plementary words, "qui obiit," still 
visible. It commemorates, perhaps, 
John de Ebor, the eighth Abbot, who 
died June 14th, 1211. 

A plain ridged gravestone on the 
south of the last, covers, I apprehend, 
the said Abbot AUerton, who died 
December 11th, 1258. 

On four detached fragments, which 
have formed part of the tomb of the 
thirteenth Abbot, who died April 30th, 
1259, are the words 

ADAM . Xm . ABBAS. . . 

Near the middle of the room is a flat 
stone, from which, though now much 
shattered, has been rescued the follow- 
ing fragment — 




Digitized 



by Google 



88 



STUDLET. 



retains the matrix of a figure that has held a crosier, and of a 
circumscription with comer pieces. 

On the opposite side of the aisle is a stone that has had a similar 
design ; hut so worn that the head of the crosier can only he dis- 
tinctly traced. Here is also a fragment of another memorial of 
the same date, and part of a plain-ridged stone of the thirteenth 
century. 




The slah near the entrance may he placed over Ahhot Otley, 
who died 24th Dec, 1290 ; though he is said, more particularly, 
to have heen huried " in hostio Cefi de Fontihus." 

Ahove the Chapter-house, was the Lihrary and Scriptorium, 
with other apartments, the extent of which is indicated on the 
outside of the south transept, which they joined, and from which 
they were approached. 



Digitized 



by Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



89 



The notes of Leland, who saw the Library just before the 
Dissolutioii, do not suggest the idea that it was of that importance 
that was demanded, at least by the wealth and high position of 




the house.* Several of its members in the first century after its 
foundation were learned men, and authors of considerable reputa- 
tion jf but in after days, though several of the abbots were 

* Collectanea, vol. iii, pp. 44, 45. 
f See Leland de Script., vol. i, pp. 232, 235, 245. Pitseus de Bebus Angl. vol. i, pp. 
216-217 Bale, Script lUast c. U. p. 198. 



Digitized 



by Google 



90 



8T0DLEY. 



possessed of high inteUectual attainments, the general literary 
character of the house was insufficiently maintained. The sketches 
on page eighty-eight, selected at random from a hook written in 
this Scriptorium, may show, howeyer, that it was occasionally 
tenanted hy men not wholly deficient in sarcastic and graphic 
power of expression. The middle figure is that of a knight who 
had a law-suit with the Convent. 

South of the Chapter-house is a groined-passage, of the same 
date, leading to the Base Court, and the alley or cloister communi- 
cating with the Abbot's House. 

Next and last, in the Eastern range of the ClcHster, and entered 
by a doorway which still bears traces of painted enrichments of 
its Early English mouldings, is the Fbateb-house, a fine vaulted 
apartment of transition Norman work, 104 ft long, and 29 fb. 
wide. From the upper end, which extends to the river, is a 
communication on the east side with the Cellar, of the ample 
dimensions of 59 ft. by 18 ft., beyond which was the Beew-house, 
30 ft. by 18 ft. Before the walls of these buildings were pulled 
down to the present level, about eighty years ago. Dr. Burton's 
plan indicates what, apparently, was the site of the great boiler 
in the massy partition wall; and on its recent excavation, the 
ruined sur£Eu;e bore marks of subjection to intense heat. For the 
advantages of drainage and refrigeration, one side of these places 
was built on arches above the river, which, ultimately, seems to 
have endangered the stability of the eastern end.* 

From the south-east angle of the Cloister Court a spacious 
staircase, recently cleared out and repaired, leads to the Court- 
House, or, as it is called in the records of the Abbey, " The Hall 
CF Pleas," — an interesting apartment 42 J by 22 J ft., groined to 
a central pillar without base or capital. The Court of the Liberty 
of Fountains — a large and privileged district — ^was held here until 
a period within recollection, when, in compliance with modem 
habits and associations, it was transferred to Fountains Hall. 
The compartment at the upper end, where the seneschal and his 



• Under the arch, at the eastern extremity of this water-course, wai fonnd daring 
the recent excavation, a hoard of silver money, consisting of 354 pieces, generally ia 
excellent preservation, ranging in date from the reign of Philip and Mary to that of 
Charles the First ; a few clipped pieces being Spanish coin. They were laid, at the 
depth only of a foot, on a piece of slate, and were doubtless committed to this par- 
ticular place by an inhabitant of the acyacent country who had been slain suddenly 
during the Great Rebellion ; for it was easy to be identified by any one who shared 
the secret. 



Digitized 



by Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



91 



officers sat, is shown by i3ie grooves of the canoeDi or bars by 
which they were enclosed, in the central pillar. 

The accnnmlation of relics that has been discovered during the 
progress of the excavation since 1848, having become so numerous 
that they could not be conveniently viewed by visitors, this 
apartment was fitted up for their reception in 1855. They have 
not, as yet, been arranged in classified order, but the objects men- 
tioned in the subjoined note will be easily identified.* 



• A list of the mora interttting relies disoorered during the recent excavations 
at Fountains, pieces of sculpture, and casts of sculpture, now deposited in the 
ancient Court-Boom of the Abbey.— Afay, 1856. 



Initials of Marmaduke Huby (original 
and plaster cast) formed of winged ser- 
pents and a stately-looking raven, re- 
oeatly retrieved from an ati^aoent cot- 
tage. 

Plaster casts of the Coronation of the 
Blessed Virgin, and of the Nativity ; 
from alabaster tablets, found in the iU>- 
bey, but now preserved at Studley Hall. 

Figures of two Evangelists in panels — 
one of them St. Luke. (Originals and 
casts.) Taken from a wall adjoining 
the Kitchen Gardens, Studley Park. 

Cast of a "Perpendicular** niche and 
canopy, frt>m the east side of the tower. 
On the canopy stands the figure of an 
angel holding the armorial insignia of 
the abbey. 

Oast of an Early-EngUsh groining- 
springer, from the gate-house of the 
abbey. 

Broken figure (original and cast) of the 
Virgin and Child, found in front of the 
west door of the nave. (See p. 74 ante.) 

Cast of a crowned female Martyr-saint 
from the north side of the tower. 

Oast of the marble-basin now used as the 
font in Aldfield Chapel ; formerly the 
holf water stoup that stood near the 
door leading from the Cloister Court 
to the south aisle of the nave. (See p. ' 
79 ante.) 

Figure of a chained dragon found in the 
chapel of the Abbot's House. 

A beautifnl sitting figure ; (headless) eut 
in limestone, found in the choir. 

A large sculptured and rude representa* 
tion of the AHNUNOianoN of thh 
Virgin. The inscription, in black 



letter, is the SaluUtion of Gabriel, 
AUB M'aiA PLBNA d'm's tbcv*. This 
stone was retrieved from a neighbour- 
ing building, higher up the valley, 
erected by the late Mr. Aislabie to re- 
present a dismantled ruin. 

A rude upright figure of a monk— 5 feet 8 
inches high— holding a book in the left 
hand ; formerly placed, along with two 
or three fragments of other lesser 
figures of the Perpendicular period, 
at the north end of the Frater-house. 

Part of a Tudor cornice representing a 
monkey, fiowers, &c., from the abbot*s 
house. 

Broken scraps of Elisabethan figures, 
similar to those on the balcony at 
Fountains Hall. One inscribed lib * . 

Fragments of stained glass. 

Perforated devices in lead: formerly 
inserted in the windows for the pur- 
pose of ventilation. 

Portions of a wooden coffin, found in the 
Court in front of the Chapter-house. 

Two floor piscinas, from the Nine Altars. 

Half of a blue-marble fluted basin, frt>m 
the same place. 

Part of a blue-marble gravestone found 
near or in the Gallilee, inscribed in 
Lombardic letters . . . mai ob a . . . b. 

'Perpendicular*' panelling cut in lime- 
stone and found in the Lady-Chapel. 

A collection of broken pottery, keys, 
picks, masons' tools, knives, pincers, 
a trowel, stizmps, six prick and row- 
elled spurs, bridle-bits, horse-shoes, 
buckles, &c. 

A brass ladle, and other fragments of 
nU 



Digitized 



by Google 



92 



STUDLEY. 



The apartment over the Court-house^ now nearly mined, may 
have been the place where the records and muniments of the 
Abbey were deposited, if the room above the Gate-house was not 
appropriated to that purpose. 

On descending to the Cloister Court, we enter the Kitchen, a 
valuable example of the domestic architecture of the twelfth 
century ; vaulted like the Court House above, to a single pillar. 
A more interesting instance, however, of the skill and confidence of 
the architect, may be observed in the heads of the two fire-places — 
each not less than 16| ft long and 6| ft. deep— the heads of which 
are straight and formed of huge stones, dovetailed together on 
the principle of an arch. Hence, too, another requisite must have 
been contributed ; for the kitchen is entirely destitute of windows 
on three sides, and the triangular apertures to the south seem 
intended rather for the admission of air than of light The two 
openings in the west wall have been, no doubt, the hatchways by 
which provisions were served to the Refectory, but enlarged in 
modem times, to obtain a prospect. 

The Refectory, which forms the central apartment on the 
south side of the Cloister Court, is a very beautiful structure, of 
the Early English period, of the dimensions of 109 by 46| feet. 
As it could not, therefore, be conveniently covered by one 
ridged roof, it was divided by a row of four marble columns, of 
which, however, all renmants but the foundations of one have 
been destroyed, within the last century. During the excavation 
of 1856, it was found that the tables had not ranged down the 
length of the apartment, but had been placed, along with their 
seats or stalls, on a dais of the width of 5| feet ; raised 13 inches 



Litt Cff relies in the Courtroom continued: 



A larg^e collection of pilaster capitals, 
bands of columns, mask oraaments, 
and other fragments of that beautiful 
Nidderdale-marble work so lavishly 
used by the builders of the choir, refec- 
tory, and other parts, between 1204 and 
1260. Some of these were found in the 
abbot's house ; but most of them in the 
choir and Liady-chapel. Two of the 
most delicately-carved caps were turned 
up during the excavation of the Frater- 
house in 1856. 

A few medieval bricks and roofing tiles. 

Scraps of John de Gancia's " painted 
pavement*' The floor of the Court- 



room was laid in 18S5, with the old 
tiles that formerly strewed the floor of 
the passage under the vestry; along 
with others of the Early-English and 
Tudor period found during the ezoa- 
vations, 

A quantity of lead piping. 

A brass buckle, and chain, and book- 
clasp ; and a piece of metal, having im- 
pressed on one side a regal crown, and 
on the other the initials & P. in black 
letter. And, finally 

A portion of *' The last supply of coal 
that the Abbot needed." 



Digitized 



by Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



93 



above the floor j and occupying the upper end, aud 89 feet each of 
the east and west sides. From the recess on the west side, a 




I portion of scripture was read during the repast. The parapet of the 

I staircase has been broken down and unskilfully repaired, but the 

I bracket of the pulpit remains, in the form of an expanded flower. 

1 A door at the south-west comer of the Cloister Court leads to 



lyillzKiJ by 



Geogk- 



94 STUDLET. 

The Butteby, a curioiuly contrived rooxn, wMch has, also, an 
outlet towards the river, and an opening to the Refectory, which 
was the Hatchway. On excavating this place a quantity of ashes, 
fish and animal bones, broken pottery, oyster shells, flooring tiles, 
the remains of a boiler, some lead piping, and a stone drain lead- 
ing from where the sink stood, were discovered. 

The west cloister having been, no doubt, already examined, we 
now pass to the Base Coubt, on the south side of the Chapter-house. 

The whole area of this Court, as well as that of the buildings 
which enclose it, on the south and east sides, have been discovered 
only in a recent excavation from the kitchen to the Chapter-house ; 
which, by restoring the old level, has both added considerably to 
the ground-plan, and increased the picturesque appearance of the 
Abbey. On the west side, it will be observed to luive had a pent- 
house attached to the Frater-house ; on the south, the cellar and 
brew-house, before mentioned; and, on the east, three apartments 
which will attract attention chiefly from the fsM^t, that they were 
the prisons of the Abbey. These fa^vourite localities of the novelists 
were used for the punishment of such monks as had been found 
guilty of felony or other heinous crimes ; but, in this instance, the 
larger cell, on the south, may have been required by the secular 
authority which the convent enjoyed within "The Liberty of 
Foimtains." In each, however, it is evident, solitary confinement 
and the most strict isolation was inflicted, from the consequent 
presence of a convenience, which added only to the offensive 
character of the place. The apartments on the east side of them, 
as well as those in the upper story, may have been used only for 
subordinate purposes, since the former were approached through 
the Abbot's coal-yard ; indeed, an ash-heap was found in front of 
the round-headed door- way, at the time of its discovery. The 
stair-case at the north-west comer, may have served some apart- 
ments of the Abbof s-house over the passage. 

The whole of the apartments of the Abbey have now been 
visited, and an idea probably formed of the nature, wants, and 
arrangement of the most definite and perfect exponent of the 
monastic system remaining in the kingdom. The recent excava- 
tion has, however, disclosed, in the ruin of the Abbot's house, now 
before us, an equally interesting example of our early domestic 
architecture, which fiimishes, also, additional evidence of the 
dignity, hospitality, and general social condition of the rulers of 
these influential establishments. 



Digitized 



byGuUgk 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



95 



Previously to the month of Noyember, 1848, the site of this house 
remained in the oondition in which it was left when Sir Stephen 
Proctor pulled it down to obtain building materials for Fomitains 
Hall — a shapeless mass of rubbish, overgrown with weeds and 
brushwood, which rendered it inaccessible, and entirely concealed 
any trace of foundations that might have been sought From a 
practice, however, which prevailed in the Cistercian houses, sup- 
ported, locally, by inferences derived from the records of the Abbey, 
I had been induced, for some years past, to point out this as the site 
of the Abbot's house, in opposition to the received idea that the 
Hospitium, on the west side of the great cloister, had been appro- 
jxriated to that purpose ; but beyond this suggestion, nothing, until 
the period in question, was ascertainedi At that time, the arched 
space above the river requiring repair, and, consequently, a removal 
of the soil, a pavement was discovered, which indicated the im- 
portant character of the ruined building ; and ultimately led — ^by 
the noble owner's direction — to the extensive and interesting 
excavation which has ensued. 

Before proceeding to a survey of the ruin, it should be observed 
by how great a sacrifice of labour the site of the house has been 
obtained in this particular and favourite locality ; for, as the vaUey 
is extremely contracted, and the Skell incapable of pennanent 
diversion, the only expedient of the monks was to build above the 
river; and four parallel tunnels, each nearly 300 feet long, still 
attest their perseverance and skilL 

As far as remains enable us to judge, the building of the house 
was undertaken by Abbot John de Canda, after he had completed 
the Choir and Lady Chapel of the Conventual church. The wealth 
and reputation of the monastery was, in his time, nearly at its 
height; and the sweeping donations it had received from the 
Percys, and Mowbrays, andBomillies, and their sub-infeudatories, 
had enabled them to realise their architectural designs on the 
grandest scale. Until this time, the residence of the Abbot was 
probably of the humble, but not unusual, materials of wood and 
plaster ; as, indeed, the lodgings of the Prior of Bolton seem to 
have been at the time oi the Dissolution. 

The character of the structure, like that of the Abbey, has been 
plain and substantial, depending more on the grand proportion and 
combination of the main outlines than on the elaborate decoration 
of particular features or parts. The arrangement must, however, 
either have been very commodious, or the domestic economy inva- 



Digitized 



byUoogle 



96 STUDLEY. 

liable ; for it seems to have remained unaltered mitil that era of 
social change which heralded the sixteenth century, when one of 
those great architectural reformers — Damton or Huby — ^built a 
separate Refectory, and formed several apartments, by dividing 
the Great Hall, which decreased simplicity of manners had ren- 
dered of unnecessary dimensions. 

The chief or state approach to the house was by a spacious Alley, 
from the east side of the Cloister Court, richly, hut not continu- 
ously, decorated by a trefoil-headed arcade, supported by a double 
row of shafts, and so deeply recessed, as, subsequently, to have 
required the insertion of solid masonry behind the foremost shaft. 
The Hall, to which this passage led, has been, unquestionably, 
one of the most spacious and magnificent apartments ever erected 
in the kingdom, and admirably adapted for the entertainment of 
those distinguished persons and their hosts of gentilitial retainers 
by wh(»u the Abbot was continually visited. Its internal length 
is not less than 171 feet, and its width 70 feet; the bases, or foun- 
dations, of eighteen cylindrical columns, shafted and banded with 
marble, — vindicating its division into a nave and two aisles, the 
latter having circulated round the extremities of the former. The 
number and position of its windows cannot be ascertained; but the 
jambs and bases dug up within the area, show that they were 
plain lancet Kghts similar to those of the Lady-chapeL Of the 
existence of clerestory windows there is no trace. 

The chief entrance to the Hall has been torn down to the ground; 
but from the bases of the shafts by which it was flanked, it ap- 
pears to have been of similar design to those of the Lady Chapel. 

On each side of the Hall, which stands directly across the river, 
occupying the whole width of the house jfrom north to south, the 
other apartments have been grouped. Immediately opposite the 
entrance is the principal staircase. On the left, in the north wall, 
one of the great fire-places, now ruined to the heartb. To the right 
of the staircase, has been a room not yet fully cleared out. The 
next apartment, southward, was the Chapel, where the founda- 
tions of two buttresses on the south side suggest the idea of three 
windows ; and a base still attached to the north-east angle, the 
only other feature left, that three lancet lights occupied the eastern 
extremity. The stone altar is still tolerably perfect, but has lost 
its slab. On its north side has been a narrow staircase, leading 
either to the Vestry, or the apartments of the Chaplain ; and, be- 
yond, the long but narrow base of a work erected in the Perpen- 
dicular period, of which the use is uncertain. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



97 



On the north side of the CSiapel is a pictoreaque apartment 
partially yaulted, which, being below the general level of the other 
rooms, and, from the declivity of the gronnd, always accessible, 
has often been delineated as '^a crypt," bnt stontly asserted by the 
country people to have been "the place where the Abbot's six 
white chariot horses were kept ! '' " Sex equi ad higam^ the Abbot 
certainly had in his stable at the time of the Dissolution ; but, 
from the position and character of the place, it appears to have 
been the Cellab and Stobe-hoube of his establishment 

To the south of the Chapel, but detached from it by the inter- 
vention of the scullery-yard, has been the Kitchen — ^an apartment 
corroborating, in its dimension and appliances, the most romantic 
ideas of monasticiiospitality. At the south side are the foundations 
of two great fire-places and a boiler, in a wall which has divided a 
narrow "back-kitchen" from the chief apartment; and, in the 
north-east angle, a stone grate in the floor, which was covered by 
wooden doors, and communicates with the river below. This very 
singular object, of which I do not remember another example, has, 
most probably, been used as a ventilator, to mitigate a temperature 
which must always have been sufficiently oppressive, but which, on 
festive occasions, would not only be increased by a subsidiary fire 
and boiler, but also by two huge ovens, the one at the west, and 
the other, and larger, at the east end of the apartment 

These buildings, with some indefinite appurtenances of the 
kitchen, have flanked the east side of the Great HalL The ar- 
rangement on the west side has been nearly obliterated by the 
lapse of the arches above the river. There may be traced, how- 
ever, towards the north, the foundation of a room, which, from 
the amplitude of its dimensions and the elevation of a dais at the 
west end, may be considered to have been the Refectory, erected, 
it seems, either by Damton or Huby, and perhaps the apartment 
which, in a homage done to the latter Abbot, in 1501, is styled 
" Nova camera versus ecclesiam." 

On the north side of this room was another, where stood a re- 
servoir of water fed by a lead-pipe (still partly visible) from a 
spring above the kitchen bank. To the west of it, was the coal- 
yard, in which the last supply that the Abbot needed, remained 
undisturbed until the recent excavation. There was found here, 
also, a large heap of ashes and cinders, just as they had been cast 
from the window above— the sill having been worn down by the 
frequent attrition of the shovel. 



Digitized 



bfGoogle 



98 STUDLET. 

The removal of the mass disclosed what every honsekeeper's 
experience vrould have suggested. First, of course, there was a 
silver spoon, weighing about an ounce, with a capacious bowl, slen- 
der octagonal stem, and a head like a plain inverted Tudor bracket; 
then, broken pottery of different kinds and sizes — from the painted 
ware that had disappeared from the Abbot's table, to the large 
coarse jugs that, after many " a mere crack/' had, at last, been 
broken in the kitchen ; a small silver ornament resembling a lion's 
head, and, apparently, detached from an article of table plate ; a 
silver ring ; a brass ring ; several Nuremburg tokens ; part of a 
perforated leaden ventilator, designed like Tudor window tracery ; 
vnth a number of venison and beef bones, and bushels of oyster- 
shells, mussel-shells, and cockle-shells, as fresh and pearly as when 
they left Abbot Bradley's table. Yet, trifling and worthless, in 
every respect, as most of these objects might be, they seemed, as 
they came from the hiding-place where forgotten hands had cast 
them, to connect the spectator with those whom three centuries 
have divided from personal sympathy and association, more inti- 
mately than the disclosure of that ruined scene in which they had 
so long been consigned to oblivion. 

The Encaustic Tiles, found in excavating the several apart- 
ments — and it is singular that two additional patterns only have 
been subsequently discovered in the Conventual church — are nu- 
merous and singular ; and the evidence obtained on the subject of 
medieeval brickwork, important and interesting. The floors of the 
principal apartments have been paved either with encaustic or 
plain tiles ; but the greater part of them had been torn up and 
removed before the house was pulled down, when the specimens 
that remain were so much disturbed that it is difficult to determine 
to what particular apartment they belonged. The presence of a 
few geometrical tiles, similar to tliose vdth which John de Cancia 
decorated the church, seems to indicate that he bestowed also a 
pavement on the hall and other chief apartments of the house; 
but none were found fixed, unless the small square tiles east of the 
refectory may be referred to that early period. The rest of the 
tiles, that have been found in different parts among the rubbish, 
are generally of the Tudor period ; of which character, also, is a 
tolerably perfect pavement, upwards of 30 feet square, at the south 
end of the Great Hall. Although no general device has been 
attempted in its arrangement, beyond a few plain borders or 
bounding courses, respective of the bases of pillars, yet several 



.'igirrzed 



by Google 




edbyCOQgla> 



COFF'in SLABS. D1SC0VT,UKD IN TllK CKMKTERY. FOUNTAINS MiBEY, 

IN MAW>'n AND APRIL, lflb3 



Digitized by 



Google 



FOUNTAINS ABBEY. 



99 



patterns^ which are yery intecestmg, are introduced withmit refe- 
rence to equi-^Ustance or principle. 

One pattern, of four tiles, displays the arms of the Abbey 
(avurejf three horse-shoes C<>^Jj and the yery appropriate drcum- 
Bcription, nsed by Damton in the Lady Chapel, idntel)(cite fotttest 
Domino* Another, and nearly similar pattern, of four tiles, exhibits 
the same arms, but circumscribed by Sb^U 19eo JbOltOt tt gloria* 
— a motto always used by Huby, and identified more particularly 
with him in two fragmentary tHes, where the shield has displayed 
his initials, with the mitre and crozier. There is also a pattern, 
bearing the initials, J. D. J. D., but without legend, and similar 
to a much better impression, stolen, soon after its discoyery, by 
some prowling " collector," from the centre of the dais in the 
Refectory. It was, no doubt, the deyice of Abbot Damton. 

On clearing the ground on the north side of the alley leading 
from the Cloister-court to the Abbot's house, in 1852, it was found 
that a passage of similar date and character had led from it to 
the opposite door of the Lady chapel. Except the great effect 
gained by the remoyal of yery deep rubbish from the walls of the 
Chapter-house and the choir, little of particular interest was 
acquired, except the basement story of a large apartment that had 
been erected in the Tudor period ; and, it may be, of that ^' nova 
camera *' just alluded to, «f I am mistaken in its identity with the 
Abbot's Refectory. On tiie other and east side of this supplement 
tary passage, had been another small apartment that had been 
added at this great period of change, but whose foundations were 
discoyered all but leyel with the ground ; a wide door-way leading 
to the burial ground on the east side of the Lady-chapel ; and 
attached to its outer wall, in the position indicated by the plan, 
considerable remains of an oyen with its ashes — since unfortunately 
remoyed — ^that, I apprehend, had been used for the preparation of 
the eucharistic wafer. 

From the south-east angle of the Lady-chapel, a wall whose 
position can now only be traced below the sward, was continued 
— as is shewn also on the plan — to the opposite angle of the 
Abbot's house. Beyond this, and in front of the east end of the 
church, were found the early sepulchral slabs represented on the 
annexed plate. It may be that the armorial design of a *' bend " 
displayed on one of them, has commemorated a member either of 
the Yorkshire houses of Mauley, or Stopham, or Pannal j for, of 
course, the colours are unrepresented. 



Digitized 



by Google 



100 BTITDLET. 

The Abbof s garden and orchard were at the east end of the 
church, enclosed by a high wall, pnlled down, with another which 
crossed the yalley a little i^irther eastward, soon after Mr. Aislabie 
pnrchased the place. Bnt, beyond these limits, a range of buildings 
extended even to the site of the present east lodge — about 500 
yards — the foundations still remaining under the terraced walk. 
In a particular position under the rocks — easy to be found by the 
beaten pathway — ^an echo can be heard, remarkable for its powerfdl 
reflection from the Abbey; though often more amusing to a 
bystander by its discovery of the mental capacity and social 
position of those who, by some characteristic war-cry, endeavour 
to provoke its powers. 

On leaving the Abbey Close,* we enter a portion of the Studley 
grounds, not already visited ; and* after the enjoyment of much 
sylvan beauty, enhanced in a remarkable degree by our elevation 
above the contracted and deeply-wooded dell, emerge on a delicious 
lawn, befDre a beautiM casino or Banqueting-house. In the 
chief apartment, adorned with a superb ceiling and other elaborate 
decorations of the last century, is a bronze statue of the Venus de 
Medids, and, over the mantle-piece, a painting of the Governor 
of Surat going a-hawking. 

As we recede from this seductive spot, we continue to recognise 
many pleasing objects, which, being old acquaintance, need no 
introduction, l^ough invested with new interest by the reversal of 
our former position and approach ; until, descending the well-walk, 
we speedily arrive at the lodge, and so bid adieu to scenes that, 
for many a year, may make 

Thy mind a muiBion for all lovely forms. 

Thy memory a dwelling place 

For all sweet sounds and harmonies. 

• It may be useftil to observe, that a foot-path, by the river side, leads lirom 
fonntains Bridge to Aldfield Spa ; a most valuable sulphuretted spring, in one of the 
most picturesque passes of Bkeldale. It was discovered accidentally, about the year 
1698, but has hitherto been unproductive of its capability, chiefly from the want of 
accommodation for visitors. I am not able to state minutely its component parts, but 
the following analysis, prepared by Mr. Brunton, a skilful chemist of Ripon, about 
56 years ago, will at least give an idea of its importance. A gallon exhibited : 
Solid Conienti, On. Oaseoui CotOents, C.In. 



Carbonate of Lime 
Carbonate of Magnesia 
Sulphate of Magnesia . 
Muriate of Soda . 
Muriate of Magnesia . 

Total . 



18.5 Carbonic Acid ... 8. 

ZA Azote 4. 

5. Sulphuretted Hydrogen . . 21. 
208. 

96. ' 

385. Total . . ! SI. 



Very pure azotic gas, in a free state, emitted at intervals, was collected at the rate of 
a gaUon in 56 minutes, though several bubbles escaped. 

" " ' bigi^^byCjOOQlC 




MAEKENFIELD HALL. 




HE antiquary who is gifted with tolerable pe- 
destrian powers, and has " the bump of locality" 
well developed, will find the profit he has 
received at Fountains, enhanced by a visit to 
Markenfield Hall. . It may be seen from the 
east side of How Hill, rising among the saplings 
of its ancient park, about two miles from the 
Abbey 5 but the road will not be easily found, without more par- 
ticular direction. 

From time immemorial, Markenfield was the residence of a 
powerful and well-allied family of that name, until the prominent 
part which was taken by Thomas Markenfield in the Bising in the 
North in 1569, occasioned his attainder, and, consequently, the 
forfeiture of his estates to the Grown. 

In its general aspect, it remains much as he left it, a most 
valuable and picturesque example of that style of domestic archi- 
tecture — ^<< hesitating between hospitable confidence and armed 
precaution" — ^which illustrates a deeply interesting era of our 
social progress ; having been built by John de Markenfield, Chan- 
cellor of the Exchequer, who obtained license to castellate it in 
1309. 

In the fifteenth century, some alterations were made, chiefly in 
the doorways and lights on the east side of the quadrangle, and, 
in the great change of society which ensued in the Elizabethan 



Digitized 



by Google 



102 MABKENPIELD HALL. 

period, a general Bub-division of the several apartments became 
necessary. Since tliat time, however — ^though for awhile it was 
inhabited by the Egertons — it has been occnpied as a farm-house, 
and so lost more and more of a character, which has been recently 
restored under the direction of the author. 

Though the original ground-plan is probably undisturbed, the 
entire shell of the present structure is not, wholly, of the founder's 
work. Indeed, the Gate-house is only of the Elizabethan period, 
and the range of stables, on the west side of the court, though 
highly curious, have then been partially renewed. 

The principal apartments were in the north-east angle, elevated, 
as usual, above the basement story, in which were the kitdien, 
cellars, and other offices, still evident and partly vaulted. The 
north wing is entirely occupied by the Hall, a noble apartment 
about 40 ft. long, and the whole width of the building. On its 
east, is the equally spacious Chapel, which has a fine altar window, 
with geometrical tracery ; and a richly decorated piscina, with the 
arms of the fiamily. To the south of the Chapel is the Solar, 
communicating wilh a suite of apartments worthy of close examina- 
tion ; and on the north several apartments, occupied perhaps by 
the Chaplain, one of which has been partially paved with tiles of 
the rose and fret pattern, obtained, no doubt, from the kiln at 
Fountains, where they are found in abundance. 

Within the recollection of aged persons, several large buildings 
and offices are remembered to have stood outside the moat ; but all 
trace of them, and of a ponderous drawbridge before the gate-house, 
have long since disappeared. 

No furniture, pictures, nor any memorial of the fiunily remains 
in the housei except a piece of oak bearing their arms, carved in 
the sixteenth century : Quarterly, 1st and 4th (Argent) on a bend 
(sable), three bezants ; 2nd« a fess between six escallops; 3rd, three 
tilting helmets, for Miniot Supporters, two stags regardant. 
Crest, a hind's head affi*ontee. 

Shortly after Markenfield's forfeiture, this estate was granted to 
the Lord Chancellor Egerton, by whose descendant, the celebrated 
Buke of Bridgewater, it was sold to Sir Fletcher Norton, ancestor 
to Lord Orantley, the present worthy owner. 



Digitized 



by Google 




BEIMHAM ROCKS. 




" Nature here. 
Wantoned as in her prime, and played at will 

her virgin fancies. 
Wild above rule or art." 

Fabadisb Lost. 

HIS interesting, and, probably, unique place of 
resort is generally visited, either by following the 
road that leads jfrom Eipon to Studley ; or, by 
a direct drive from Harrogate — a road formerly 
all but impassable. 
The mighty hand of nature has seldom left a more magnificent 
impression, than on this stupendous scene. Afar off, the precipi- 
tous site seems crowned by the inextricable wreck of a long deso- 
lated city. On a nearer view, the grim and uncouth forms defy all 
discrimination and definition ; and, when standing at length 
among them, our uncontrollable impression continues to be of 
perplexity and astonishment. 

An attentive examination, however, soon satisfies us as to their 
origin, and leaves us in the enjoyment of the rude similitudes they 
present, and contemplation of the volcanic power that has rent 
their vast blocks asunder, and projected them, in all forms, to 



Digitized 



by Google 



104 BBDCHAM B0GK8. 

vast distanoes. Impending higli on the ridge of Niddeirdale, tiM 
storms and floods of nnnnmbered ages have washed away the soil 
that had been accumulated around their forms, and exposed their 
bare bleak sides, in piles, the Titans might credibly have heaped 
np. The Mable nature of their composition, wasted by the corro- 
ding blasts sweeping both from the Atlantic and Northern Seas, 
across miles of unsheltered moors, has aided the distorted formation, 
and. created grotesque and singular shapes, analogous to those 
presumed to have been used by Druidical superstition. When the 
learning and imagination of Borkse had awakened the minds of 
scholars to the existence of extensive monuments of this ancient 
priesthood in England, it was natural, therefore, that such a 
mysterious assemblage of erratic forms should not remain unappro- 
priated, or unpeopled with visions of the past. Major Kooke 
dissertated at length on them, before the Society of ^tiquaries, 
in 1786. Minor tourists, of course, caught the infection; and, 
since then, they have generally been considered, and almost daily 
described, as the great veritable abode of Droidism in the northern 
parts. 

That the Druids may not have availed themselves of &cilities 
thus appropriately furnished, imperfect investigation does not sufiier 
me to deny. From the BocMng Stones, whidi are considered the 
best evidence, I think nothing has been satisfEustorily inferred ; 
and, of the fiEibrication of the rugose tubes, penetrating rocks some- 
times of 30 feet in length, and deemed to be passages for the im- 
pressive conveyance of mysterious sounds and words-^correlative 
proof, difficult to be obtained, can only certainly decide. One stone, 
however, presents an appearance for which many think it has 
been indebted a little to the hand of man. It stands on the brink 
of the northern precipice, and consists of an irregular columnar 
mass, 19ft. high, and 47 in circumference, resting on a truncated 
cone, whose apex is but one foot, and base 2ft. 7in. in diameter. A 
glance at ihe very Mable consistency of the general stratification 
of the groups, at this level, may probably solve the mystery. 

In the midst of the rocks, the late Lord Giantley erected a 
house, with suitable out-offices, for the aoconmiodation of those who 
were attracted to a place which— as Bums said of his &nn at 
EUisland—seems to be << the riddlings of creation.'' 



Digitized 



by Google 



HACKFALL. 



105 



HACKFALL. 




^O THOSE who are gladdened by the works of 
Nature) and a ramble in an nmbrageous retreat, 
there cannot be afforded a richer treat than a trip 
to Hackfall. It is a sufficient recommendation 
to know that its beauty was commemorated by 
Gilpin ; and that Pennant, who had seen much, and generally 
saw that much well, styled it ''one of the most picturesque scenes 
in the north of England." 

This peculiar diaracter is occasioned by the expanding em- 
bouchure of a precipitous glen, that guides a leaping stream, 
opposite a grand sweep of the river Ure, where it ploughs its way 
at the bottom of a deep and densely wooded ravine. Naked and 
rifted scars create, apart from their intrinsic majesty, a charming 
contrast by their protrusion from the long sylvan steeps ; while 
simple erections, artfrilly contrived and judiciously distributed, 
blend, as four as fiction may, the associations that gather around 
the ruined arch and broken tower. 

The entrance to the woods is by a simple wicket, found imme- 
diately after leaving the village of Grewelthoipe, on the road side 
to Masham. The little rivulet, gurg^g over its stony bed, accom- 
panies our dedining jpath, until joined by the Alum-spring 
gliding noiselessly through the woods on the brae side, though 
blemished by the artificial character of its mossy channel. The 
path is contjnned to the river ; but we cross the bum, and, for- 
getting the steep ascent of the glen, in the diversity of prospect 
which every footstep acquires, surmount the wooded vale at 
"Mowbray Castle;" where the view extends uninterruptedly 
from our feet, to the long range of acdiving land that shelters the 
town of Bichmond. 

We sink by slow gradations to the high bank of the river, passing 
reluctantly each recurring prospect of its waters and peering down 
gullies that headlong torrents have ploughed in the steep brae side. 



Digitized 



by Google 



106 



HACKFALL. 



Haying thus attained the extreme southern point, screened only 
by slender boughs from the perilous stream, we may enjoy the 
seclusion of the dell, by winding down the long terraces that have 
been laboriously hewn athwart the impending scar. High, over- 
arching, boughs have entwined their grisly roots among the bare 
bleak rocks, and often may be observed, protruding themselves, at 
considerable distances, from t^e parent stem. 

After a short stroll by the river — ^interrupted offensively by the 
scroggy plantation that has superseded t^e ancient woods on the 
further bank — ^we cross the bum that accompanied our early walk, 
and embrace t^e opportunity of rest, and restorative appliances, at 
" Fisher's HaU." From this little grot— formed chiefly of petri- 
factions collected in the grounds — ^the river rolling on under the 
sombre hill, attracts, from its proximity, at least, imdivided atten- 
tion, until a glance-— perhaps casually and at departur&— discloses, 
in the contrary direction, two rills stealing down the mossy rocks, 
embosomed in verdant shade. ** Mowbray Point'' and " Castle" 
€rown, at a considerable elevation, the sylvan canopy; but much of 
their beauty is lost in the assimilation of the objects. 

Having crossed the dell of the " Town-beck," and turned away 
from the river, we halt in the solitude of the woods, to view, from 
a rustic bower, a rill skipping ami^ tail gracefol stems ; and — in 
another direction — down a lofty avenue, the ruin on " Mowbray 
Point," relieved only by the clouds. 

As you seek the brow of the impending hill, various distant 
prospects of the coimtry beyond Masham object themselves, even 
to a careless eye ; until, having gained the jutting brow, you ob- 
tain a foretaste of the coming prospect of the far-&med vale of 
York. Yet, another glimpse, and a few hurried paces more, and 
the long expected gratification bursts on you, in all its grandeur 
and beauty, at " Mowbray Point." 

From tiie abyss at your feet — where black waters sleep in 
cavernous gloom — ^the eye rises, joyously, to the bold massy fore- 
ground of deep woods and sweeping toxrents, to meads and corn- 
fields, and forests, and an interminable succession of flood and fell 
— ^bewildered amid the myriad shapes and shades inextricably 
woven into their web ; nor dreams of the immensity of that 
gorgeous expanse until the &int blue lines mingle with the 
Hambleton hills, and it finds the amplitude that converges to its 
.vision comprehends the sixty miles that intervene between the 
tpwers of York and the estoary of the Tees. 



Digitized 



by Google 



BACKFALL. 107 

To detail, then, to strangers, the nnmherless ohjects that may- 
be observed, would be both unnecessary and unavailing. Yet, it 
may detain many a lingerer to know that, where the twin towers 
of Tanfield rise by the gleaming stream, the last home of the great 
Marmions is canopied by the one ; and that the chivalry of the 
north have approached the halls of Fitzhugh through the other : 
That in the gabled pile to the right, ** Old Norton " mused on the 
treason that has inmiortalised his name ; and that at Topcliffe— 
receding further jfrom the view— the regal hearted Percys enjoyed 
a retirement from the world, until the avenging hand of Elizabeth 
entailed misery and ruin on the representative of their race : 
That — still beyond — ^towers Craike, the embattled patrimony of 
the sainted Cuthbert ; and — ^turning quickly aside — ^that North- 
allerton, forgetful of the stately palace of the bishops of Durham, 
and looking upon the plain of the Battle of the Standard, nestles 
at the left of the mountain ridge ; and that, glancing over the 
Priory of Mountgrace, and Harlsey the stronghold of the Strang- 
wayes, and Whorlton of the Meinells and the Darcies, and 
Stokesley of the Baliols and the Eures, Roseberry rears its volcanic 
peak among ^e clouds ; while, still beyond, the high lands of 
Eston die into a line of gleaming light, that may, reasonably, be 
deemed to be the ocean. 

Few having looked on so much beauty, would now desire further 
entertainment. The path favours our return, and by a circuitous 
route, that agreeably mitigates our transltlony we presently regain 
the lanes and fields. 



Digitized 



by Google 



108 



HAEBOGATS. 



HARROGATE. 




Bee resolnta sennm eonflrmat membrm trementamt 
Et refovet nervos lotrix hec lympha gelatos. 
Hue infirma re^nt baeulis vestigia elandi, 
Ingrati refenint baeulis vestigia spretis. 

HOBBBS, DB HUABILIBUS PlOOI. 

ARROGATE, like most watering places of renown, 
had but an humble and obscure origin. In the 
earUest periods to which our written history extends 
it lay an undistinguished and probably imtenanted 
spot in the forest of Knaresbrough ; and it was not 
until the emparkment of a portion of that great 
sylvan range at Haywra, that— from the road which led thither 
from the fortress on the Nidd — ^it became known as Haywragate. 
As the time of the emparkment of Haywra is uncertain, so must 
be the designation of the road that led thither. In a charter granted 
by Richard Earl of Cornwall, about 1257, to the house of St Ro- 
bert at Knaresbrough, there is mention of the road which turns 
from that town towards " Heywra," and the application of sainted 
appellations to some of the springs at Harrogate, indicates that 
they — ^if not their present efficacy — were obseryed during the medi- 
aeval period. Yet the. huts that were scattered by the way-side 
might not, even in this century, have lost much of their humble 
character, if the occurrence of an accidental circumstance had not 
suddenly changed their fortune. 

It was this : Captain William Slingsby, a younger brother of the 
family that for several centuries has resided at Scriven, about three 
miles from this place, visited, during the latter half of the six- 
teenth century, the waters of Sauveniere in Germany, and received 
benefit. On his return he observed, as too many have done, that 
he had left a remedy of equal efficacy at home; — ^was wise enough 
to avail himself of the benefit;— gratefully built a protection over 



Digitized 



by Google 



HABBOOATE. 109 

the spring ; — and spread the glad tidings of its utility among the 
maryelling population around. « 

While a series of cures were in performance, some of which, says 
Dr. Short, '< are perhaps the greatest and most remarkable filed 
up in the authentic records of ph3rsic, down from Hippocrates to 
this day," Dr. Stanhope, an ingenious physician of York, disco- 
vered in 1631, at High Harrogate, anotlier Chalybeate spring, to 
which, in distinction to the Sulphur Waters, he gave the name of 
the ** Sweet Spa." In the year after, when he wrote his disser- 
tation on the Mineral Waters near Enaresbrough — for, by that 
general designation, be it remembered, these springs at Harrogate 
were then, and long after, comprehended — ^the Sulphur Waters 
were rising in reputation, though they were chiefly frequented by 
the common people ; and our author confessed *' what axe its in- 
ward uses we know not yet" It was fortunate, however, that in 
this absence of information, the merits of ihe sulphuretted springs 
forced themselves on attention ; for a controversy soon after arose, 
touching the relative merits of the Scarborough and Harrogate 
Chalybeate Waters ; and, with the fiEite that has attended many 
once fiuthionable watering places, our Spa might have become 
unfrequented and unregarded, had not the Sulphur Water main- 
tained its popularity. 

With the social progress of the eighteenth century, Harrogate 
rose and prospered. Its accommodations increased with the 
domestic economy and civilization of the times, and the number of 
visitors with that accumulation of wealth, which commercial skill 
and enterprise had dealt to the hands of so many — until, at the 
present day, by the centralisation of many species of medicinal 
waters — the superiority of the most important class-— the beauty 
of the surrounding country — and the diversity of amusements, 
Harrogate has become, and by its many undeveloped attractions 
and the permanent character of its excellencies, bids fetir to remain^ 
one of the most interesting, eligible, and beneficial watering places 
in the Empire. 

High and Low Harrogate form, as &r as parochial matters and 
other greater local interests are concerned, two distinct villages, 
whose line of division, two brooks, is not obvious to the eye. The 
former is in the parish of Knaresbrough, ihe other in that of 
Fannal ; but, until the formation of t^e Bishopric of Eipon, a more 
singular distinction prevailed ; for the former was in the jurisdic- 
tion of the See of Chester — ^the latter in that of York. 



Digitized 



byUoogle 



110 HABBOGATE. 

The Parisbioners of High Harrogate attended divine service, by 
an inconvenient journey of three miles, until the year 1749, when, 
by the subscription of the interested parties, and a donation of SOL 
from Lady Elizabeth Hastings, a chapel was erected. In 1831 it 
needed so mnch extension that its removal was deemed preferable, 
and the materials were alienated for the formation of '' The 
Independent Chapel,^ near Prospect-place. The stnictnre which 
succeeded it was built in the same year, and affords an accommo- 
dation of 1200 sittings, of which 800, designated by labels, are 
"free." Under the providons of the Act, 58 Geo. III., c. 45, a 
district parish has very properly been assigned to this Church. 

Low Harrogate, which is three miles from its parish church, 
first obtained the benefit of a separate place of worship in 1824, 
when St. Mary's Church was erected, after much exertion, aided 
by the Commissioners of the Million Act. 

The inhabitants and visitors attached to the Romish faith, 
perform their devotions in the spacious chapel lately erected at 
Knaresbrough. 

The Dissenters have exhibited their wonted alacrity, in provi- 
ding spiritual instruction for the strangers of their several per- 
suasions. The Wesleyan Chapel, erected in 1824 — the old one 
that had arisen so early as 1797 having been abandoned to the 
purposes of a " Lounge " — ^will be foimd in Central Harrogate, 
and of capacity sufficient to accommodate 800 souls. The Inde- 
pendents erected a commodious structure in 1831 near Prospect- 
place ; and the Quakers built a Meeting House in Chapel-street, 
in 1854. 

And now of the Watebs themselves. In a publication nke the 
present, intended for general circulation, it is of course unavailing 
to dissertate on the component parts and application of waters, of 
which it is sufficient for the majority that they drink " in faith, 
nothing doubting." The Chemist has had, already, the advantage 
of several careful and judicious observations and analyses ; and to 
those who are driven hither more by necessity than pleasure, I 
would recommend, in the words of Dr. French, that they apply 
themselves to some experienced Physician, who shall be able to 
understand their constitution, distemper, and the nature and use 
of the waters themselves ; that accordingly, as cause shall require, 
the more successful preparations may be administered, and the 
tnore effectual directions given. 



Digitized 



by Google 



HARBOGATE. 



Ill 



THE TBWIT WELL 



on the Common, to the east side of the Brunswick Hotel and near 
the Leeds and Harrogate road, has not only precedency of its com- 
panions, but of all similar waters in the county. Its history, 
which has been much garbled, is best conveyed in the original 
words of Dr. Dean's Spddacrene Anglica, published in 1626. *'It 
was discovered first," says he, "about fifty years ago, by one 
Mr. William Slingsby, who had travelled in Germany in his 
younger years, seen and been acquainted with theirs j and as he 
was of an ancient family near t^e place, so he had fine parts, and 
was a capable judge. He lived sometime at a Grange house near 
it ; then removed to Bilton Park, where he spent the rest of his 
days. He, using this water yearly, found it exactly like the 
German spaw. He made several tiyals of it, then walled it about 
and paved it in the bottom with two large stone flags, with a hole 
in their sides for the free access of the water, which springs up 
only at the bottom through a chink or cranny left on purpose. Its 
current is always nearly the same, and is about the quantity of the 
Sauvenir, to which Mr. Slingsby thought it preferable, being more 
brisk and lively, fuller of mineral spirits, of speedier operation : he 
found much benefit by it. Dr. Tim. Bright, about thirty years ago 
(1596), first gave it the name of * The English SpawJ Having 
spent some time at those in Germany, he was a juc^e of both, and 
had so good an opinion of ours that he sent many patients hither 
yearly, and every summer drank the waters upon the place himself. 
And Dr. Anthony Hunter, late Physician of Newark-upon-Trent, 
often chided us Physicians in York for not writing upon it, and 
deservedly setting it upon the wings of fame." 

Though it has of late been indulged with the old cast-off dome 
from ihe Sulphur well, the memorable "English Spaw" still 
remains, after all the benefits it has conferred and all the praise it 
has received, in something like its pristine humility, and deserted, 
until lately, for those that have better advocates and a more com- 
modious position. For a trifling gratuity .to the inmates of an 
adjacent cottage, the visitor may still enjoy the imduninished 
benefit that it offers, and test, in his own person, the truth of 
Dr French's recommendation : that ^*it occasions the retention of 
nothing that should be evacuated, and, by relaxation, evacuates 



Digitized 



byGoogk 



112 HARBOGATB. 

nothing that should be retained ; that it dries nothing bnt what 's 
too moist and flaccid, and heats nothing but what 's too cold, and 
e contra ; and that, ' tho' no doubt there are some accidents and 
objections to the contrary/ it makes the lean f&t, the f&t lean, 
cures the cholick, and melancholy, and the vapours ; " and that — 
£Etir reader — ^**it cures aU aches speedily, and cheareth the heartJ^ 



THE SWEET SPA. 

In 1631, only five years after Dr. Bean had set the Tewit well 
" on the wings of Fame," Dr. Stanhope discovered another Chaly- 
beate well, about a quarter of a mile from it, not &r from the 
Flumpton and Wetherby road, and took << leave to advertise '' the 
public of the same, in that now rare tract, styled " Cure9 without 
Care^ or a summons to all such as find little or no help hy the use 
of Physkk to repair to the Northern 8paw,*^ It has the advantage 
of a more elevated and commanding situation than the Tewit well. 
It seems to have acquired distinction soon after its discovery; 
for, in 1656, great pains were taken to form a square terrace, 
sixty yards on each side, no vestiges of which remain* In 
1786, Alexander, Lord Loughbrough, who owned some property 
in the township, and was interested in the prosperity of Harrogate, 
generously erected a stone canopy over the spring, which was 
removed in 1842, when the present neat building, called ^ The 
Boyal Chalybeate,'' was substituted. 



THE OLD SULPHUB WELLS. 

Though the Sulphur waters engaged attention in the early part 
of the seventeenth century, and were then used, both internally 
and externally, it seems doubtM whether the well, now so justiy 
celebrated, was much resorted to until the concluding period of the 
Commonwealth, when Dr. George Neale, of Leeds, a benevolent 
and enlightened man, applied himself to the promotion of their 
use, and the advancement of their condition, with a spirit that 
deserves a lasting memorial at the hands even of this distant 
generation. In a posthumous paper that has been published by 
Dr. Short, he thus records the preservation of the means by 
which thousands have been blessed : — " There are (ctVc. 1676), and 



Digitized 



by Google 



HABBOGATE, 



113 



were about twenty years ago, three springs close together, very 
hw and scarce of water, that all of them did not afford mffkient 
water for drinking and bathing. Wherefore, for the convenience 
of the drinkers, I thought it convenient to take up the uppermost 
spring, which is weakest and slowest of them, and made a large 
basin to contain several hogsheads of water, and covered it with 
a large stone to preserve it from the sun and rain water ; and for 
a week together we rammed its , sides with clay to prevent other 
springs from getting in. The event answered expectation: for we 
had afresh spring of much better and stronger water, which afforded 




MfW rUHr WDOX, •VUPHUA WBtU 



as much in one hour now as it did in twenty-four before, more loaded 
with the minerals than ever, and so of greater efficacy for either 
bathing or drinking." It is a remarkable fact, in the impregna- 
tion of these waters, that the second spring, which has been 
generally covered up, is not half the strength of the first or chief 
well, though it is but a yard distant from it. The third, which is 
about 16ft. removed, though very potent, contains, like the weak 
well, a trace <^ sulphate of soda, which the old well does not. 
Being open to the public like the rest, it has been chiefly reserved 
for baths, and transmission to distant parts of the kingdom. To 
these three wells, an a4dition, very unwelcome at the time but very 



Digitized 



by(£oogle 



114 HAKEOGATE. 

useful since, was made about a ceatiuy ago, when a man, who, 
under the protection of a lease from the Earl of Burlington, had 
acquired a right of searching for minerals in the Forest of 
Knaresbrough, pretended to dig for coal, where the three sulphur 
wells are situate. From this attempt, the Innkeepers and others 
at Harrogate, who were interested in the preservation of the wells, 
persuaded him to desist by the payment of 100/. "Sulphur water, 
however," says the late Bishop of Llandaff, who records the story, 
" had risen up where he had begun to dig : they enclosed the 
place with a little stone edifice, and, putting down a basin, made 
a fourth well." 

In 1804 the principal well was distinguished by a large dome 
supported by pillars; and thus it remained, with some minor 
improvements, until 1842 ; when, in justice to the importance of 
the Spa, and the proper and prudent conservation of its waters, the 
Commissioners, under the Harrogate Improvement Act, resolved to 
enclose the springs in a reasonable and efficient manner. An 
octagonal Pump Room, of ample dimension and appropriate deco- 
ration, was erected from the design of Mr. Shutt, a native of Har- 
rogate, and opened on the 23rd of July in that year ; but that this 
laudable arrangement might not interfere with the means or 
inclination of those who could not or would not afford a trifling 
gratuity to the attendant, a pump — available under restrictions 
consequent only on the preservation of the water — is placed with- 
out the walls. 

Analysis of the Contents of one gallon of the Sulphur Water : 

SoUd Contents. On. Gaseous Contents, G. In. 

If nriate of Soda . . . 903*4 Solphuretted Hydrogen . . 16*8 

Mariateof Lime . . . 78-9 Carbonic Acid ... 5-1 

Muriate of Magnesia . 35. Azote . . . ; . 9*6 

Bi-Carbonate of Soda . . 15*4 Carbnretted Hydrogen . . 4*98 

Total . . . 1031*7 Total . . 36*48 



THE MONTPELLIEB OB CROWN SULPHUR WELL, 

about 200 yards east of the old wells, is private property. It 
was found in 1822, and is enclosed together with tiie Saline 
Chalybeate pump, connected with a spring at a small distance, in 
an octagonal apartment, in <* the Chinese style." The public have 
the benefit of these powerful springs by a trifling subscription ; 



Digitized 



by Google 



SoUd Contenti. Gn. 
Mariate of Soda - . - 88S* 
Muriate of Lime- - - 858 
Mariate of MagnesU - - 51*6 
Bi-Carbonateof Soda- - 17-7 






Total - - 


- 1037-1 



HABB06ATE. 115 

obtaining also thereby the gratification of walking in the adjoin- 
ing pleasure-ground. 

One gallon of this Sulphur Water has been found to contain : 

Oeueout Contents, G. In. 

Sulphuretted Hydro^n - 19*68 

Carbonic Acid ... 6*3 

Aiote 7*8 

Carburetted Hydrogen - . 5*58 

Total ... 3936 

In the antmnn of 1835 the proprietor of the Crown Hotel sunk 
a well on his premises, 82 ft distant from the old sulphur well, 
which was supposed to be thereby seriously injured. He was, 
consequently, indicted under the provisions of l^e Knaresbrough 
Forest Enclosure Act : but before the arguments were concluded, 
consented to surrender the room which enclosed it to the use of 
the public, for whose use he was required also to put down a pump. 
The order of the Court, which was also made a rule of the Court 
of King's Bench, enjoined that "the room be opened to the 
public from six in the morning until six in the evening, of each 
day, and that the defendant shall only use the pump and water in 
common with the rest of the public ; " though he was allowed to 
possess a key, apart from that used by the commissioners. He 
engaged also not to deepen any of the other wells on his premises. 



THE KNASESBBOUGH, OB STARBECK SPA 

is situate midway between Harrogate and Knaresbrough, and 
about 200 yards from the Starbeck Station, on the North-Eastem 
line of railway. It obtained notice at an early period, and was 
one of the the three sulphur springs which Dr. Dean, in 1626, 
considered '* worthy of the Physician's observation." The subse- 
quent improvement of the wells at Low Harrogate superseded its 
benefits, which — elsewhere— would have been invaluable j and, in 
1822, neglect and some degree of jealousy had so far combined, 
that its site was almost unknown. In that year the inhabitants of 
Knaresbrough did justice to the valuable gift committed to their 
charge, by erecting an appropriate building over it, with a suite 
of baths, and a residence for the attendant Its quality seems 
particularly adapted to delicate constitutions, and it has afforded 
relief when stronger waters have fedled. 



Digitized 



byiioogle 



116 HABBOOATE. 



Analysis of one gallon : 

SoUd ConterUi. Gra. Oaseotu Content*. G. In. 

128* Sulphnretted Hydrogen . . 5' 

2-5 Carbonic Acid .... 8*3 

10* Azote 11*7 



Chloride of Sodium 
Solphate of Soda . 
Chloride of Calcium 
Chloride of Magnesium 
Bi-Carbonate of Soda 



Total. 



8*85 
8' 

146'T5 Total . 



SALINE CHALYBEATE, OB BOTAL CHELTENHAM PUMP BGOM. 

The discovery of a water, whicli united the properties of a tonic, 
an aperient, and an alterative, was one of tlie greatest benefits 
that had occurred to Harrogate since the establishment of the old 
Sulphur well. It was found, together with the adjacent but dis- 
used Chalybeate, by Mr. Oddy, in 1819, while searching for sulphur 
water to supply the baths; and at the lower end of the little valley 
that has disclosed the chief wells of Low Harrogate. When the 
reputation of Harrogate became fixed on something more than the 
ephemeral attractions of a place of fashionable resort, the original 
pump-room was superseded by a spacious building, erected by the 
proprietor Mr. Williams, in 1835, in which the Doric style is 
applied to the exigencies of the case with taste and judgment. 
Not only the conservation of the water, but the amusement of its 
visitors is secured in this saloon, which is 100 feet long, 33 feet 
wide, and 27 feet high ; for, it affords, besides a most comfortable 
and luxurious promenade, an agreeable resort for the perusal of 
the newspapers, and such current literature of the day as can be 
selected £rom a library of several hundred volumes. The enter- 
prise, also, of the present manager affords the frequent enjoyment 
of the first musical talent in the kingdom ; and other similar 
sources of refined pleasure. The appurtenant grounds are laid out 
with considerable effect, and afford — within limits more diversified 
than the site would induce many to suppose — a promenade of more 
than a mile in extent ; and, of comfort, to be estimated best by 
those who have been, elsewhere, driven to the highways for tiieir 
imperative ambulation. A sheet of water — albeit neither delec- 
tably clear nor dangerously deep — completes, as yet, the result of 
a meritorious undertaking, which few, interested in the prosperity 
of Harrogate, will be disinclined to patronise. 



Digitized 



by Google 




HABBOGATE. 117 

The constituent parts of a gal. of the Saline Chalybeate Water are 

Solid Contents, Qn. Gaseous Contents. G. In. 

Oxide of Iron ... 5*8 Carbonie Acid .... 5*75 

CUoride of Sodinm - - 5765 Azote 7.75 

Chloride of Calcium 
Chloride of Magneeiiun- 

Total - - 634-95 Total - - 13-5 



THE MONTPELLIEB CHELTENHAM SFBING 

was discoyered, some years ago, in the Gardens of the Crown 
Hotel. It was not, generally, nsed, for some time after; bnt is 
now supplied from a pump, adjoining that of the sulphuretted 
spring previously noticed. A gallon exhibits 



said Contents. 


Grs. 


Gaseous Contents. 


C.In. 


Sulphate of Soda - - 


- 199 


Carbonic Acid ... 


- 18-5 


Muriate of Magnesia - 


- 84*3 


Carburetted Hydrogen - 


- 3-5 


MoriateofLime - - 


. 174-7 


Aiote .... 


- 8- 


Muriate of Soda - 


. 645-6 






Carbonate of Soda - 


- 6-4 






Oxide of Iron - 


- 3-1 







Total - - 884- Total- • - 30* 

WALEEB's STBONG SALINE SFBING 

was added to this unique assemblage of waters in 1783 ; when it 
was obseryed in the cellar of tiie Crescent Hotel, in the garden of 
which, a spring, called tiie ** Crescent old well,'' partaking of tiie 
nature of both chalybeate and sulphuretted waters, was found 
about the same period. It is enclosed in a plain pump-room ; and 
considered of importance in all cases when the Leamington waters 
are applicable. 

The solid contents of a gallcm are found to be 

Grs. 
Chloride of Sodinm ----- 610* 
Chloride of Calcium ..... 44*5 
Chloride of Magnesia ..... 14*5 
Carbonate of Soda ...... 53* 

Total - - 772- 

The gases are Oxygen, Azote, and Carbonic Acid, but we haye 
not been able to ascertain their volume or proportions. 

There are several other springs, both sulphuretted and chalybeate 
at Low Harrogate ; but none require particular observation here. 



Digitized 



by Google 



118 



HABBOGATE. 



HABLOW CABB SPBINGS. 



The recent introduction of these wells to public notice has not 
only afforded a valuable remedy by which the sufferings of a large 
class of the Visitors to Harrogate may be more effectually miti- 
gated, than by the use of any of the numerous collection already 
to be found tiiere ; but at the same time, an agreeable place of 
resort will be gained when seclusion is also necessary, or exercise 
can be induced or enhanced by scenes of rural beauty. 

Their situation is in Harlow Carr, one of those small but pic- 
turesque valleys that intersect this part of the country ; upwards 
of a mile from the Brunswick Hotel, and beyond the tower, on the 
road from Harrogate to Otiey. A small rivulet runs not far frx)m 
the wells, and afterwards contributes, in a series of pools and 
bubbling falls, in its rocky passage throtgh the woods, to produce 
a pleasing and effective variety in this secluded sylvan retreat. 

There are several springs, both of Sulphur and Chalybeate water, 
in the grounds ; but three only of the former, and one of the latter 
quality, are used at present. The Analysis of of a gallon of each, 
made by Mr. West of Leeds, in May 1844, is as follows : — 









SoUdContemt. 


Ors. 


Gcueout Oontentt. 


C.In. 


Mariate of Lime . . 


. 4-73 


Sulphuretted Hydrogen . 


. 315 


Sulphate of Magnesia . 


. 115 


Carbonic Acid 


. 605 


Carbonate of Magnesia • 


. 6-93 


Nitrogen . . . 


. 8-34 


Carbonate of lime . 


. 5i« 








• 1411 






Total . . 


. 38-8 


Total . . 


. 1754 




SULPHUR SPEIMO MO. 2. 




Solid CofUenti, 


On. 


Ocueous Contents, 


C. In. 


Muriate of Lime • . 


. 8-85 


Sulphuretted Hydrogen. 


2-8 


Sulphate of Magnesia . 


. 291 


Carbonic Acid 


5-75 


Carbonate of Magnesia . 


8-48 


Nitrogen . . . 


. 7-97 


Carbonate of Lime . 


•18 






Carbonate of Soda . 


. 17-64 






Total . . 


. 38. 


Total . . 


- 16-52 


. 


8ULPBUE SPRINa NO. 3. 




SoUdOoiUerUi. 


Grs. 


Oateotu Contents, 


C.In. 


Muriate of Lime . 


4-77 


Sulphuretted Hydrogen 


. 2-92 


Sulphate of Magnesia .- 


. 1-56 


Carbonic Acid 


. 61 


Carbonate of Magnesia . 


. 8-23 


Nitrogen . . . 


. 7-98 




5-84 






Carbonate of Soda . 


. 129 






Total . . 


. 33-3 


Total ; . 


. 17- 



Digitized 



by Google 



HABBOGATE. 



119 



OHALTBBATB IPRIIIO. 

Solid CofUenti, 
Protoxide of Iron 
Muriate of Lime 
Salphate of Ma^rnesiA 
Salphate of Soda 
Carbonate of Lime 
Carbonate of 8oda 

Total 



Org. 
2*16 
1-83 
•77 
1.65 
8-93 
1-27 

ioT" 



Mr. West observes: ** The Sulphur waters are extremely similar, 
and might for medidnal pmrposes be considered as the same. The 
similarity is much greater than is represented by the fignres, the 
total of the lime and magnesia being nearly tiie same in each, 
though in somewhat different combinations. I suggest for them 
the name of the Harlow Sulphuretted Alkaline Springs." 

It will be at once perceived that the peculiar value of these 
sulphuretted springs consists in the total absence of Muriate of 
Soda, or common salt; which — as it exists in the old sulphur water 
to the extent of 902 grains, and, in the Montpellier water, to 882 
grains in a gallon — ^neutralises, by its irritating quality — ^particu- 
larly in cutaneous cases — ^the beneficial effect that might otherwise 
ensue from their application. 

The Chalybeate water, of which the analysis is given above, is 
the strongest of that character at present discovered in the Carr. 
It rises from the hiU side, a short distance from the sulphur 
springs, and is considered by Mr. West ''to be of very desirable 
strength." 

The proprietor of this fortunate place, the late Mr. Wright, of 
Pannal, erected a substantial and comfortable Inn, designed in 
good Elizabethan character, which commands an agreeable pros- 
pect, and forms a pleasing object from several points in the grounds. 
A suite of ten Baths, either for hot or cold water, with two shower 
baths, have also been provided in a detached building near the 
wells, each side having a waiting-room and every other requisite 
convenience. 



THE BATHS. 

The benefit of an external application of the waters was per- 
ceived, and the absence of the means lamented, by Dr. Dean, in 
his tract of 1626. Dr. Neale — the great patron of Harrogate— 



Digitized 



by Google 



120 HABKOOATE. 

introduced warm sulplraretted bathfl, "and procured one such 
vessel for a pattern as are used, beyond sea, for that purpose. To 
this primeeyal provision — the purgatory of which Smollett amus- 
ingly records in "Humphrey CUnker" — the inhabitants were 
content to subject their patrons, until the late Mr. Williams had 
the spirit to construct the Victoria Public Baths, which now 
belong to the Victoria Company. 

Two years afterwards, Mr. Thackwray fitted up the Mont- 
PELLIBK PtTBLlC Baths ; and by their luxurious and varied 
aooommodation and peculiar adaption for invalids, completed all 
that this "useful branch of medical hygiene requires.'' 

The peculiarly mild quality of the Staebeck water has also 
been made available to those who ate deterred from the Baths at 
Low Harrogate, by the erection there, in 1828, of suitable apart- 
ments, and the provision of respectable attendants. 

A spring of the purest water, known by the name of St. Mimoo's 
Well, but confounded, I apprehend, with the &mous spring of 
old, supplies agreeable refrediment by shower and other baths, at 
"The Cold Wells," by the road leading to Harlow Tower. It is 
supposed to be equivalent to the famed Bkley well, and has been 
so much frequented that the proprietor found occasion, in 1847, to 
enlarge and improve the accommodation. 

And lastly, it may not be irrelevant to remind those who have 
experienced the remedial effects of these waters, that their grati- 
tude may not find a more appropriate or beneficial course than by 
alleviating, through the medium of the Harbooate Bath 
Hospital, the sufferings of those unfortunate fellow-creatures, for 
whom Providence has provided a remedy, which their dream- 
stances has not enabled them to apply. 



HOTELS. 

The accommodation afforded by the several Hotels — ^too well 
known to need enumeration here — ^is such as will cause no class of 
society to regret the appliances and comforts of their own homes. 
" The Queen " was erected first, and as early as 1687. For those 
whose constitution or disposition forbids public association, there 
are several highly respectable boarding-houses, and above two 
hundred and fifty lodging-houses — offering every grade and class 
of comfort and conv^ence. 



Digitized 



by Google 



HAREOOATE. 121 



BECREATION. 

An abundance of recreatiinL is afforded to those who -visit 
Harrogate as a periodioal itelaacation from sedentary pursuits and 
engrossing avocatioiis. The Bage Course, laid out in 1793, fa- 
vours equestrian exercise, and, occasianally, the amusement for 
which it was intended. There are Billiard Tables in all the 
principal Hotels, and two Public Rooms at Low Harrogate. I 
need remind none who remember Harrogate, and retain a soft 
side of the heart, of the attractiye Balls that are enjoyed at the 
Dragon, Granby, and Crown Hotels ; nor, of those excursions, by 
which many acquaintances that have been acquired there, are, and 
we hope long will be, renewed and improved. 

In unfiEtYourable weather — and as a lounge while taking the 
adjaoent sulphur water, or perusing the news and periodical litera- 
ture of the day — " The Victona," better known as the " Promenade 
Booms," a spacious apartment, 75 feet by 30 feet, offers an agree- 
able retirement It was opened in 1805, and deserves patronage, 
especially from i^e elder visitors, if only from its pleasing associa- 
tions of by-gone days, and the gratification it afforded when most 
of the existing agremem of Harrogate were not. 

And, lastly, there is an infinity of amusement at the Tower on 
Harlow Hill, which, though of the altitude of 596 feet above 
the level of the sea, is easy of 4iscent The elevation of the tower 
to the height of 100 feet gained a bewildering and most imposing 
panoramic prospect, which can be viewed by the aid of seven 
mounted telescopes. I have tmderstood from those, whose optical 
capacities are more fortunate than my own, that the Peak in 
Derbyshire, and the tower of a «hurch in Hull, may be seen in a 
clear atmosphere — though the latter is distant sixty miles ! 



Digitized 



by Google 



s¥^''^ 




BOLTON PKIORY. 



Now is then tUnneM in the vale. 
And lonf ontpeakinf torxow, 
Wbarfe shall be to pitying hearts 
A name more sad than Tanow. 

WouMwoBTH's Force of Pkatsk. 

URING a visitor's sojofom at Harrogate, one 
day, at least, must be spent at Bolton. I have 
appended, therefore, though beyond the limits 
assigned to my pages, the following brief no- 
notices, which may, consequently, be considered 
as suggestive, rather than descriptive, of the objects to be seen or 
anticipated. 

In the year 1120, William de Meschines and Cecily his wife, the 
heiress of Bobert de Bomilld, to whom William tlie Conqueror 




Digitized 



by Google 



BOLTON PBIOSY. 123 

granted vast possessions in Crayen, founded at Embsay — ^two miles 
east of Skipton — ^a Priory for Austin Canons, to the honour of the 
Virgin Mary and St Cuthbert. 

After the death of the founders, and in the year 1151, Alice, 
their elder daughter and coheiress, who retained her mother's 
name of RomilU, and had married William Fitz-Duncan, nephew 
to David king of Scotland, is said, in a record which formerly 
belonged to the Priory, to have translated the foundation to Bolton. 

There is generally some wild legend connected with the origin 
of our monastic foundations ; and a tradition, that had not passed 
away in the middle of the seventeenth century, affirmed that this 
circumstance took place in consequence of "the Boy of Egremond," 
the only surviving son of the second foundress, having been 
drowned in attempting to cross the Strid, an unusually narrow 
part of the river Wharfe ; and that Bolton was selected as the 
nearest eligible site to where the misfortune happened. 

This legend cannot, however, be implicitly received ; for, when 
Alice gave the Canons her manor of Bolton, in exchange for their 
manors of Skibdun and Stretton, her son William — ^and in a pedi- 
gree, exhibited to Parliament in 1315, he is set down as her only 
son — appears in the charter as a consenting party to the transac- 
tion. Dr. Whitaker conjectured, therefore, that it might refer to 
one of the sons of the first foundress, both of whom died young ; 
but, I think it may be better reconciled with this stubborn piece 
of evidence, by supposing that the manor of Bolton had been 
exchanged, for the convenience of Alice, before the accident, and 
that, subsequently, the Canons were glad to find a pretext, in her 
disconsolate lamentation, for descending, from the cheerless heights 
of Embsay, to the warm and sheltered seclusion of their newly- 
acquired possession. 

But, whatever may have been the truth of this dim and faded 
story, we should rejoice that it lingered long enough to be 
revivified — phoenix-like— from its ashes, in the memorable lays of 
Kogers and of Wordsworth. 

After having existed upwards of four hundred years, the founda- 
tion was surrendered by Richard Moon, the prior, and fourteen of 
his brethren, on the 26th of January, 1540. On the 3rd of April, 
1542, the site, with many of the possessions of the house, was 
granted to Henry CUfford, first Earl of Cumberland, but nineteen 
days before his death, for the sum of 2490/. From him they have 
descended to the present worthy owner, the Duke of Devonshire. 



Digitized 



by Google 



124 BOLTON PBIORY. 

** The niiitB of this oelefarated Priory stand upon a beautiM 
carvature of the Wharf, suffioieiitly elevated to protect it from 
inundation, and low enough for every purpose of picturesque 
effect : " in which respect the competent judgment of Whitaker 
has pronounced that <<it has no equal among the northern houses 
— perhaps not in the kingdom." Its site is so shut in by rising 
ground and embosomed in trees, that the visitor, who has come 
from Harrogate across ** Knaxesbrough forest,'' may not be aware 
that he is approaching it until he is almost on the spot. 

The Bbidoe retains no vestige of that structure which was 
erected or rebuilt in 1314, nor of the Chapel that was attached to 
it for the benefit of passengers ; but the following inscription may 
yet be seen graven on an oaken beam in a cottage at the south- 
west angle, that most likely occupies its site : — 

SjftoiD s^ jpa^fitf i& fito (Das ^^^ ^^ n^^ 1^^^ 5^ ^S* 

There is a pleasant footpath from the bridge, across <<the Town- 
field," to the abbey ; but strangers, generally, proceed a few 
hundred yards frirther down the road, and enter the Abbey-dose 
by an opening in the boundary-wall, which remains there in good 
preservation. 



BOLTON HALL. 

The gateway of the Priory is nearly opposite the west front of 
the church, and is a substantial work of the Perpendicular era, 
constructed with an idea of defence. As it had not been erected 
long before the dissolution, the arches were closed, and it was, 
soon after, fitted up as an occasional place of retirement for the 
Cliffords, or as a residence for one of their stewards. The house 
has recently been enlarged by the Duke of Devonshire, who occa- 
sionally retires here in the shooting season. It contains nothing 
of general interest except some curious jNlctttres, chiefly £unily 
portraits, which visitors are allowed to im^ct. 

Outside the hall window aze placed sevend rtmrions Early- 
£^glish bosses, which, I apprehend, have becai removed from the 
passage leading from the Court to the Chapter-hoofleof the. Priory. 



Digitized 



by Google 



SOLTON FBIO&T. 125 



HISTOBICAL NOTICE OF THE PEIOEY. 

The shell of the Priory Church remains entire, and the nave is 
still used as a parochial chapel. It exhihits all the styles of archi- 
tecture that prevailed from the period of its foundation to that of 
its dissolution; and some of them in a degree of excellence that 
has not often been surpassed. The choir was eyidently the first 
work of the Canons, after, or, more probably, a Kttle prior to, their 
translation from Embsay ; and from thence the work proceeded 
westward — a considerable time having apparently elapsed before 
they brought it to a conclusion. 

The domestic buildings were, probably, built in the intermediate 
period between the erection of the choir and the nave ; and after, 
or nearly contemporary with, the completion of the church may 
have been the erection of the Chapter-house, and the introduction 
of the Sedilia in the choir. 

But the Canons were not long content with the structure of their 
church. We are not, directly, informed at what period they 
resumed operations ; but, as the Compotus of the Priory from 1290 
to 1325 contains no payments on that account, we have this con- 
firmation of existing architectural evidence, that it was soon after 
the latter period that the old choir was deemed incompatible with 
the condition of their house, and that a structure, exhibiting the 
more elegant forms of the decorated style, was substituted on its 
foundation. Except a portion of the inner wall, as high as the 
base of the windows, and fragments at the junction with the tower, 
the whole of this part of the church was rebuilt at this period. 
The south transept was also then, apparently, renewed from the 
foundation, and ramified windows introduced into the opposite 
member of the cross aisle. So great, indeed, was their disposition 
for improvement that they rebuilt the aisle of the nave, and added 
a parapet and battlements to the clerestory above. 

After the lapse of nearly two centuries, the spirit of renovation 
again moved the house, and while Eichard Moon — a native of the 
adjacent village of Hazlewood — ^was Prior. In 1520 he began to 
erect a tower at the west end of the church, after a florid and 
ambitious design; but the days of monachism were numbered, and 
the rude hands of Henry were laid up<Hi him, ere the work had 
risen above the nave. 



)igitized 



by Google 



126 BOLTON PBIO&T. 



8XJBVEY OP THE PSIOBY. 



The first part of the Priory that attracts the notice of a stranger 
is this Tower. The exterior exhibits great originality of design; 
but, internally, the sectional outline of the arch by which it should 
have communicated with the nave is of very insufficient projection. 
The arms of Clifford and those of the Priory — derived from the 
bearing of the Earls of Albemarle — are introduced in the spandrils 
of the doorway. The mouldings of the niches above, after making 
the heads, expand into the resemblance of embattled turrets — ^thus 
betraying a tendency, in the decoration of the work, at least, to 
ihe cinque-cento vitiation. A frieze above presents the inscription 
by whidi alone Moon has retained the credit of the work : 

In tjfte get of oior lorl^ mUxx. H. w fctsaun tjftnt fobnlmd^oii 
on qiDJfto fiofol gol^ Iftaiu matte* amen* 

On the first stage of the south-west buttress stands a figure in a 
cap and gown reaching to his knees, holding a short staff in his 
right hand and a round shield under his left arm, a cross-flory 
being embossed on his breast. Whitaker considered that it repre- 
sented a pilgrim with his staff and slouched hat ; but it may be 
doubted whether one of those champions by whom wager of battle 
was conducted was not intended. 

The West Front of the nave exhibits a deeply-recessed door- 
way, surmounted by three lancet-lights, and enriched with a series 
of arcades, true to the still lingering spirit of the old Lombard 
works, but detailed^ of course, in the Early-English style. 

The South Side of the nave is earlier than the north. At its 
western end, we see indications of the roof and wall of the Dormi- 
tory ; and of the Store-houses, or whatever might have been the 
buildings below. From the point of junction of these buildings 
with the nave, its south side is decorated with a pointed arcade on 
cylindiical shafts — exhibiting a good example of the transition 
from the Norman to the Early-English style. Above this arcade 
may be observed the corbels and groove by which the penthouse 
roof of the Cloister has been supported. At the east-end of it has 
been a doorway communicating with the church, and a stoup, 
exquisitely foUated in undulating lines, like the boss over the 
western door. 



digitized 



by Google 



BOLTON PBIORY. 



127 



On viewing the Interior, it will be found that the six fine 
lancet lights of the south side of the nave occupy the space of three 
opposite arches, and are made, by two shallow pilasters, into three 
corresponding compartments. These coupled lights — the first 
approach to a ramified window — ^are divided in height by a plain 
and original transom. Some fragments of the coeval Stained 
Glass remain in them, the principal pattern being a red quatre- 
foil — enclosing a mascle — placed between two vertical borders. 
The triforium, or gallery from the Dormitory of the Canons to 
the church, crossed the base of these windows ; the passage still 
remaining by which they entered and left the nave. 

The opposite side of tiie nave is divided from its aisle by one 
cylindrical column placed between two of octagonal form. Above 
these are four single and plain lancet lights, based on a ponderous 
string course. On the outside, they are not divided by buttresses, 
but connected by a dog-toothed string-course passing over the 
heads, with an elegant and characteristic foliated boss at the point 
of springing. 

The North and only Aisle of the Nave has been renewed 
from the ground in the Decorated period, and is, economically 
rather than unskilfdlly, plain. It has three windows, with tracery 
of elegant design, and a deeply-moulded doorway towards the west 
end, surmounted by a trefoil-headed niche. 

Of the Stained Glass, with which these windows appear to 
have been finished, there was left, only, before the recent introduc- 
tion of the present glass, fragments of a ruby border in the tracery, 
enriched with cinquefoils and fleurs-de-lis ; some red roses ; and the 
heads of two kings, which, though evidentiy coeval with the stone- 
work, and characteristic of the period, were inadvertently sup- 
posed by Dr. Whitaker to have been " a compliment to the 
unhappy monarch for whom two of the Clifibrds successively 
fought and died." 

The space of one arch at the east end of this aisle is enclosed by 
a wooden lattice, in the Perpendicular style, except that part which 
abuts on the pier of the tower, where there is a low wall. This 
was a Chantry Chapel, founded, no doubt, soon after the trans- 
lation of the house by one of its chief benefactors, the Mauleverers 
of Beamsley ; and retains that character by an altar stone, now 
prostrate on the floor, and the piscina — a plain semicircular-headed 
recess— of which the basin has been partially destroyed. At the 
east end are eight large rough stones, above 7 feet long, laid side 
by side, and risen above the floor about 20 inches. These cover 



Digitized 



by Google 



128 BOLTON PRIOBY. 

the Yaulx of the Ct.afhaimw, of Beamsley, -who, aooordiiig^ to 
tradition, were interred there upright f bnt though we may "look 
down" throogh the ''chink in the fractured floor," we ghall miss 
" the griesly sight/' which, if it ever existed^ materially, I am sorry 
to say has long since disappeared. 

" Fa88» pass who will, yon chantry door, 
And, through the chink in the fractured floor 
Look down and see a griesley sij^ht ; 
A Vault where the bodies are buried upright ; 
There face by face, and hand by hand. 
The Claphams and the Mauleveren stand ; 
And in hit plaee among son and sire. 
Is John de Clapham, that fierce Esqoire, 
A valiant man, and a man of dread 
In the ruthless wars of the White and Bed ; 
Who dragged Earl Pembroke from Banbury Church, 
And smote off his head on the stones of the porch." 

At the opposite side of the nave was another altar; the Piscina 
— a plain round arch and sqnare basin — ^remaining. 

The wooden Scbeen, which divided the nave from the transept, 
has been removed, since the dissolution, the space of one arch 
from the western pier of the central tower. It is a plain specimen 
of Tudor open-work, surmounted by a heavy cornice of quatrefoils; 
of which, nevertheless. Prior Moon need not lose the credit. 

He may be thanked also for the Roof, a good specimen of 
carpentry, painted, like many coeval works, with broad lines of 
Vermillion. The beams rest on figures of angels, one of which 
holds a staff like that exhibited by the statue in the tower, and 
stands on a crescent or moon ; evidently an allusion to the Prior. 
The cornice is painted in panels, with flowers and heads much 
faded ; and three sculptured bosses of similar design adorn the 
centre beam. One of these is sagely conjectured, by the country 
people, to represent the devil ; and, certainly, the great enemy of 
mankind can have little cause to rejoice at the comparison. 

When the nave was retained, after the dissolution, as a place of 
worship, a wall was raised under the arch by which it communi- 
cated with the central tower, and two windows were inserted in it 
The upper part, which was merely of lath and plaster, was com- 
pleted, in masonry, by Mr. Carr, the late amiable and respected 
incumbent of Bolton ; who, after a faithful discharge of his duty 
for fifty-four years, died in 1843, and rests immediately below, 
among scenes and objects he had loved in life, and tended and 
appreciated so well. 



Digitized 



by Google 



BOLTON P&IO&Y. 129 

We must now leave the nave, and, in the usual routine, pass to 
the Central Tower. This structure might, originally, have been 
raised the height of its square above the roofs ; but the arches 
alone now remain. They are of unequal width : that of the choir 
being 28 feet and very obtuse ; that of the transept but 18 feet, 
and, consequently, elegant and acute. 

It is probable, from the progressive character exhibited in the 
tower, that the South Transept was, originally, erected before 
the other. It was afterwards rebuilt, but is now totally rased, 
except the west wall, which retains two very beautifully decorated 
windows, and a doorway, of like character, leading to the Cloister- 
court "When this transept was cleared of rubbish, several years 
ago, a floor of plain tiles was found, nearly perfect, but depressed 
by the lapse of graves; and, towards the north-west comer, a 
curious, but worn sepulchral memorial of grit stone. It bears a 
rudely-incised figure of an Austin Monk, with his hands joined in 
the attitude of prayer, and this brief record : 

l^ic jacft Vn*ii Xjpofet Wiot^ qmVm ]P'ot« 

by which the tenant of this lonely tomb is identified as Christopher 
Wood the eighteenth Prior of the house, who resigned his office 
on the lOth of July, 1483. 

The North Transept is perfect, except the eastern wall of the 
aisle, which is entirely demolished. It is divided from this part 
by two chamfered arches, rising from an octagonal pillar, with a 
boldly moulded capital. Except this work, and perhaps the inner 
half of the other walls, the whole transept may have been rebuilt 
in the Decorated period. At all events, a large ramified window 
was then inserted in the north wall ; two in the west ; and twO| 
with ungraceM triangular heads, but very good tracery, over the 
arches on the east side. 

The side aisle, which was divided from the transept by a wooden 
lattice as high as the capital of the column, communicates with the 
choir by its original semicircular arch ; and near its side remains 
an equally uninteresting piscina — a mere round-headed recess, like 
those in ike nave. 

The Choir. — Except a portion of the interior of the lateral 
walls, and fragments attached to the piers of the tower, this inte- 
resting part of the structure displays that scientific beauty which 
has vindicated the Decorated style as the perfection of Gothic 
architecture. It has neither aisles nor triforium, but each side is 



Digitized 



by Google 



130 BOLTON PKIOKY, 

occupied by five tall lights, all now, but one, diyested of their 
exquisite tracery. In the east window a few fine flowing frag- 
ments still cling to the arch. 

The internal effect of the choir is considerably improved, if not 
in classical, certainly in picturesque effect, by an arcade of semi- 
circular but intersecting arches, which are continued from its 
junction with the aisles of the transept to the steps of the altar. 
They are in two tiers — the western series of nine arches on each 
side being elevated a little above the other. To amend the irregu- 
larity as well as to harmonise this decoration — which the rebuilders 
in the fourteenth century took some pains to retain — ^with the 
general effect of the choir, these skilftd and ingenious men inserted 
a bold and flowing trefoil cornice above the lower range, which 
brought it level with the base moulding of their windows and the 
crown of the upper arcade. The mouldings of the archivolt, as 
well as the capitals of the shafts, are of good character, and the 
latter are ingeniously diversified. 

Beyond this arcade, in the north wall, is an arched Kecess, about 
9 inches deep, 9 feet 6 inches in height and width, and flanked by 
two paneled shafts. It is difficult to say whether this work, which 
was respected by the rebuilders of the choir, though rude and un- 
geometrical in the curvature of the arch, has been originally in- 
tended for a tomb for the Paschal play of the Kesurrection, or for 
a real interment. It may, indeed, ultimately, have served both 
purposes ; for the plinth, which is continued round the back from 
the bases of the shafts, retains traces of grout-work, which has 
been superinduced on it, to the height of 2 feet 6 inches, if not 
half-way up the recess. Whitaker says a skeleton was once found 
beneath the arch, and part of a filleting of brass, with the Longo- 
bardic letters nevi j from which he presumed it might pertain to 
Lady Margaret Neville, whose fimeral is mentioned in the Bursar's 
account of 1318. 

Not fer from hence is laid the comer of a blue marble Slab, 
which is said to have been found in the rubbish, near the arch ; 
but which maybe considered to be a fragment of the tomb of John 
Lord Clifford, K.G., who was slain at Meux, 10 Henry V., and, 
according to the Chronicle of KirkstaU, was brought home and 
interred at Bolton. A corresponding fragment, now laid on the 
opposite side of the choir, is, I believe, the stone which Whitaker 
observed in the wall of an out-hoase at Bolton. 

A little westward is a large sepulchral slab, much shattered. 



Digitized 



by Google 



BOLTON PKIORY. 



131 



which has borne an elaborate memorial or effigy in brass, with a 
circiimscription. It probably covers one of the later Priors, for 
the outline of a pastoral staff may, apparently, be traced on it. 

In their usual position on the south side of the choir are the 
remains of four Sedilia and a Piscina of Early-English character, 
much mutilated ; though, when Johnston saw them in 1670, they 
remained in tolerable perfection. Little more, however, is now 
left than the bases of the stalls, enriched with a trefoil panel, 
enclosed in a triangle, alternately reversed in the design. A small 
portion of three of the niches alone is left; though sufficient to 
show that the work has been covered with armorial shields, placed 
in a perpendicular series, double on the back, but single on the 
sides ; the intermediate space being adorned with the rose, which 
was introduced m the stalls of the Chapter-house, and many Early- 
English works. As the relief is very slight, the charges of the few 
remaining shields are totally obliterated. The description of what 
Johnston observed is recorded in the History of Craven ; but it 
seems to afford no decisive evidence as to the period of their erec- 
tion, unless the appearance of the shield of Castile and Leon can be 
required to carry back the style beyond the close of the thirteenth 
century. 

On the south side of the choir were two Chapels, which ex- 
tended half its length, and were coeval with its original construc- 
tion. As the roofs rested on corbels placed in the wall of the 
church, the portion of it below was suffered to remain when the 
choir was rebuilt ; though, from the appearance at the angle of the 
acyoining transept, the outer wall of the chapel was then renewed. 
The dedication of the western chapel, which has been entered from 
the transept, is forgotten. The other has, unquestionably, been 
" the last resting-place of the Lords of Skipton, and patrons of 
Bolton." It communicates with the choir by a doorway, rebuilt 
together with it, and a contiguous arch, which, having been left in 
a rude state at its original erection, was then also decorated in the 
inner surface with blank tracery ; and assimilated further with the 
character of the choir, by the addition of a triangular canopy, of 
which the outline and finial remain. Under the arch, I doubt not, 
was laid the effigy of the ^< Lady Komille," which Johnston saw in 
1670, but which is now entirely lost ; and, in the recess in the wall 
below, I feel equally confident, were deposited the remains of that 
great patroness of the house, when called to her everlasting reward. 

We shall now complete our survey of the ruins most effectually 



Digitized 



by(?d(3gle 



132 BOLTON PEIOBT. 

by turning to the Quadranottlar Court, of which the honndary 
ou the north side is marked hj the wall of the nave. On the west 
was a range of lofty buildings, the lower apartment being, I pre- 
sume, the Store-house; the upper, the Dormitory of the 
Canons. Of the Kefectort on Uie south, sufficient remains only 
to show that it has been a spacious apartment ; and, from its shal* 
low buttresses, coeval with the translation of the house. At its 
eastern end has been a wide passage, leading to a much larger 
Court behind ; around which, and about the site of the present 
minister's house, were ranged the Kitchens to the west, some 
unappropriated offices to the south, and a long chamber, not im- 
probably the Guest's Hall, to the east Still beyond this court 
is a small detached building, now used as a School-house, and 
proved by the flat and shallow buttresses to have been of an age 
little inferior to the refoundation. 

The east side of the Cloister-Court is formed by the transept of 
the church, and at its southern extremity is the passage leading to 
the Chapter-house. The entrance from the Cloister was rebuilt in 
the decorated period, but the arch alone remains — a bold and 
conspicuous object, mantled with ivy, and emulating nature in the 
foliated capitals of its colunms. There is an exquisite glimpse, to 
be had through it, of the waterfall above the rivei* in one direction, 
and of Bolton hall in the other. 

The passage has been worthy of the building to which it led, and 
was of the same age and style. From some fragments of shafts, 
which adhere to the wall, the sides appear to have been enriched 
by an arcade, and — ^if I am right in my assignation of the bosses 
that remain before the windows of the hall — ^to have had also a 
handsome and groined roof. 

The site of the Chapter-house has been discovered only within 
recollection, but — Shaving been torn down nearly to the foundation 
-—is even yet sought in vain, by many an unpractised eye. It was 
an octagonal building, in the Early-English style, of about 30 feet 
in diameter, the west side having been entirely voided by the 
passage. There have been, apparently, five stalls on each side, 
resting on a base of quatrefoils, and ornamented at each angle 
with three roses of exactly similar character to those exhibited in 
the sedilia of the choir. 

On the south side of the Chapteivhouse passage, are foundations 
supposed to have been those of the Prior's Lodge. Another 
demolished structure at the south-east angle is considered to have 



Digitized 



by Google 



BOLTON PMORT. 133 

been his chapel. Still eastward of the Chapter-house are swel- 
ling mounds, indicative of an enclosure ; and of two buildings, 
which Whitaker thought might have been the Pbioey Mill. If 
the site had been more propitious, I could have believed them to 
have been, the lodgings of Ihe Prior. 

But we may not linger here ; for the banks and braes of Wharfe 
now begin to develope their attractions, and the summer's sun 
will set ere one half of them can be enjoyed. 

Yet, hard and unenviable is the heart that turns away &om 
Bolton Church-yard, without a sigh ior Eimly N<Mrton — 

«« Exalted EmUy, 
Maid of the blasted family "— 

or glances not at the track, up the woods and o'er the fell, by 
which the memorable White Doe of Rylstone, after the death of 
her mistress, sought this hallowed sanctuary, each Sabbath morn- 
ing, and returned again, on the dispersion of the congregation. 

After some charming views of the Priory, particularly one 
including the curvature of the Wharfe, made familiar by pictorial 
illustrations, the path sinks to the bed of the valley, and enters 
the woods. 

Although visitors are permitted to ramble, at pleasure, through 
the woods, except on Sunday, when ingress is strictly prohibited, 
the great diversity of paths renders it advisable to avail themselves 
of a guide, without whose direction many interesting points of 
view must pass unobserved. 

" About half a mile above Bolton the valley closes, and on each 
side the Wharf is overhung by deep and solemn woods, from which 
huge perpendicular masses of grit-stone jut out at intervals." For 
awhile, the river sweeps on in majestic undtdations, exasperated 
by rocks and swelled by a tributary stream bursting from a woody 
glen, exhibiting "its native character — lively, impetuous, and 
irregular." 

Then for a few moments it reposes by a delicious and verdant 
holm ; lingering noiselessly in the shade of luxuriant trees, whose 
slanting boughs stoop to kiss its bosom. 

At length its subdued and solemn roar, " like the voice of the 
angry spirit of the waters," disturbs the deep solitude of the woods, 
and announces the tremendous St rid, which suddenly greets the 
eye, struggling and foaming in a narrow trench in the rock, through 
which the whole of the impetuous torrent is poured "Avith a 
rapidity proportioned to its confinement." 



Digitized 



by Google" 



134 BOLTON PBIOBT. 

Hither, says the shadowy tradition that, for seven oentnries, 
has invested this awfiil spot with a mysterious interest, came "the 
Boy of Egremond," only son of Alice de Romilld, Lady of Skipton, 
ranging the woods of Bolton with his greyhounds and huntsman ; 
and attempted to cross the gulph. 

'* He sprang in ^lee»— for what cared he 
That the river was strong, and the rocks were steep ? 
But the greyhound in the leash hung back. 
And checked him in his leap. 

The Boy is in the arms of Wharf, 
And strangled by a merciless force ; 
For never more was young Romilly seen 
Till he rose a lifeless corse.'* 

The Forester hastened to Lady Alice, and, with despair in his 
countenance, intimated misfortune hy the significant enquiry, 
" What is good for a hootless heane ? " by which we may undeK- 
stand, What remains when prayer is unavailing ? Yet it was 
enough: for the presentiment of the anxious mother instantly 
rejoined, ^^Endless sorrow "; and, on being assured that such was 
her lot, she vowed that many a poor man's son should be her heir, 
and so became the second foundress of Bolton. 

The language of this question — ^now become all but unintelligible 
— ^proves the antiquity of the story, which is the next thing to 
establishing its truth ; but — alas — on how many a bright and beau- 
tiM dream, has its meaning since intruded! 

After all, " no one can stand long by it, without feeling a sense 
of its power and savage grandeur grow upon him ; " and many, 
inspirited by its majestic tone, may feel that it is a place " how 
tempting to bestride." But its real contraction, which I am told 
is 4 feet 5 inches, deceives the eye ; and there is the greater danger 
that — ^in the confusion of insecurity — the attrition of the rocks may 
betray the bounding step, which — ^like many another erring and 
needless act — can never more be recalled. 

The contraction of the rock extends about sixty yards j and, 
"being incapable of receiving the winter floods, has formed on 
either side, a broad strand of naked gritstone, fall of rock basins 
or pots of the lin, which bear witness to the impetuosity of so many 
northern torrents." 

By following the main path — sometimes skirting, sometimes 
rising high above the river bank — ^you wind up the curvature of 
the valley, and at a sheltered bower called Pembroke Seat, instinc- 



Digitized 



by Google 



BOLTON PBIOBY. 



135 



tiyely halt, to contemplate the glorious prospect of the torrent 
sweeping, in an << homed flood," far down before you, from the 
old tower of Barden, shrouded in « ancient woods and backed by 
the purple distance of Thorpe-felL 

Beyond this point, the excursion of those whose time is limited 
is seldom protracted ; but no true lover of nature, or of those asso- 
ciations of by-gone days by which it is enhanced, should refrain, 
undismayed by the apparent distance, from passing on through 
Barden Park, to the Tower. It is indeed but a plain Tudor house, 
enlarged or rebuilt by Henry Clifford, " the Shepherd Lord," from 
one of the Lodges by which the ancient Chace of Barden was pro- 
tected ; but the scenery around is so exquisitely beautifrd — the air 
of primaDval simplicity so pure and refreshing — and the profound 
seclusion and tranquillity so congenial to the sympathies of the 
imagination and of the heart, that it needed neither the associa- 
tion of the virtues, or of the fisime of its founder, nor the lays 
of him by whom they have been sung so worthily and well, to 
invest its crumbling walls with another and an indistructible 
enchantment. 

The tower was repaired in 1658, by Lady Pembroke, after it had 
been in ruins about seventy years, but it is abandoned once q^ore 
to desolation. The chapel — a small and coeval building — attached 
to the adjoining £Euin-house, is still preserved, and served by the 
minister of Bolton. 

After you have passed the tower and reached the high road, turn 
aside down the footpath to Gill-beck fidl — a mountain stream 
dashing down a precipice of forty feet to meet the Wharfe — 
but return to the picturesque old bridge, to be greeted by the 
broad sylvan-bounded stream, and Greenhow hiU rising in the 
distance. 

At the foot of the bridge it will be well to pass to the opposite 
side of the river by which you came, and then along the holm ; not 
forgetting often to turn and catch the varying glimpses of Barden, 
nestling in its dense sylvan repose. 

For the gratification which follows, every lover of beauty must 
be grateful to Mr. Carr, who, " working," as Wordsworth has said, 
^* with an invisible hand of art in the very spirit of nature," guided 
the path along the hill-side, and " laid open the more interesting 
points, by judicious thinnings in the woods." From one of these 
stations, there is a lovely view of the river, towards Barden, and 
little further on, another, in the opposite direction towards the 



)igitized 



by Google 



136 BOLTON PRIOET. 

Strid, where the extreme oontractian of the yalley, at that inteiv 
esting point, may be, yery definitely, obflerved* At length, we ore 
brought, immedktely above the raging torrent, and, while the eye 
rises from the depth and luxuriance of the valley, to the green 
knolls and dreary fells sweeping beyond, the ear is charmed by 
that hoarse roar of " the angry spirit of the waters,'' that for un- 
numbered ages, has never been subdued nor stilled. 

Before the Laund House, on the site of one of the Lodges of 
Barden, it is worth while to turn aside to an " unwedgable and 
gnarled oak " that may have, successively, sheltered Eomilld and 
Albemarle, Clifford, and Boyle. It is 25 feet 4 inches in girth, at 
4 feet 6 inches from the ground, for the tortuosity of the trunk 
prevents its measurement lower. 

It needs no persuasion to allure the most careless step towards 
Posforth-gill — a woody glen that now branches from the vale of 
Wharfe, implying in its antiquated name the character of its lively 
stream. Far down below our path, we are accompanied by the 
rich, deep umber-coloured but sparkling and translucent beck; 
sometimes eddying in deep shady pools, then — ^with renewed force 
— ^bursting forth and tossing down its rocky bed, fringed and 
canopied by the mountain ashes that sometimes fill the bosom of 
the gill with their elegant and graceful luxuriance. After an en- 
chanting prospect down the glen, to which it will be hard to say 
farewell, the path declines towards " the Valley of Besolation," 
and crosses Fosforth-beck in front x)f its finest fall, where it is 
poured, in two main streams, from the height of 54 feet, with a 
force that dashes up the spray more than 15 yards. It then as- 
cends the upper or high park, and continues outside l^e pale : — 
a judicious arrangement, by which the repetition of Fosf(»rth-gill, 
however intrinsically interesting, is avoided, and you gain from 
the superior elevation, views of the fells on the opposite side of 
Wharfdale. After crossing an angle of " the lower park," you 
regain the woody banks of the Wharfe, where you can have the 
last and not least interesting view of Barden ; and, on descending 
to " the holm," pass over the wooden bridge to the path by which 
you set out. 

If you did not approach the Friory by the path tlmmgh the 
fields, you may return by that way, to see the Priory Barn, which 
is still occupied ; and as a singular specimen of ancient carpentry, 
deserves attentive examination. But, if that should be no attrac- 
tion, then, at least, cUmb " the Holm Terrace " to enjoy the last 



digitized 



by Google 



BOLTON PRIORY. 



137 



and most delicious prospect of the lovely scene from which you 
are now quickly departing ; and to stand — 



• not only with the sense 



Of present pleasure, but with pleasing thoughts 
That, in that moment, there is life and food 
For future years. 



And now, patient companion, — young or old, lettered or un- 
lettered, fair or unfavoured, — ^with whom — alike unseen and un- 
heard — I have traversed these beauteous and diversified scenes, 
and mused on the legends of the past, I quit my pleasing occupa- 
tion ; sufficiently happy, if I have, for one hour, induced their 
juster appreciation, or awakened, more sensibly, in thy breast, the 
patriotic sentiment of the chronicler of old : 

^ngrlonDc i^ a foel goD lonDe, I foene of ecj^e lonDe it^t. 




RiFON : Printed by A. Johnson and Company, Market-place. 



y Google 



Digitized by 



Google 



MR. WALBRAN'S RIP ON GUIDE. 



^\J3VERTISEMENTS. 



BRUNSWICK HOTEL 

AND FAMILY. BOAKDING HOUSE, 

EICID. DUCKITT, PEO PEIETOE. 

TERMS: £. «. d. 

Board and Lodging in Public, per Week 2 2 

Bo. do. in Private, per Week 2 9 

Servants Board and Lodging, per week 1 4 

Private Sitting Boonifl cliaxged Extra. 

Attendance, including Waiter and Chambermaid, One Shilling 

per day, each person. Boots and Hostler Extra. 

The Botel is contiguous to the North Eastern Railway 
Station, 

Good Stables and lock-up Coach-houses, Cabs, Post Horses, ^c. 

H. SHAEPIN, MAMGEK. 

BRIMHAM ROCKIS. 

THE Sixth Edition, Demy 12mo., of A DESCRIPTIVE AC- 
COUNT OF BRIMHAM ROCKS; with numerous pen and 
ink lithographic Sketches, Woodcuts, and a lithographic view of 
the Idol Rock, Yoke of Oxen, &c., price Is. 

Published and sold by A. Johnson and Co., Printers, Mipon ; 
and may also be had of Richard Wetherhead of Brimham House. 

Demy 12mo., neatly bound in cloth, price 2s. 6d. 

THE HAKEOGATE MEDICAL GUIDE: 

A popular and practical Treatise on the Mineral Waters of Har- 
rogate and the Diseases in which they are useful ; with supple- 
mentary Remarks on Diet and Exercise; and some select cases. 

By ALFRED SMITH, M.R. C.S. 
May he had of A. Johnson and Co., Printers, etc., Ripon. 



Digitized 



by Google 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



THE FOLLOWING 



s 



OF 



AND OTHER PLACES, ARE 

SOLD BY A. JOHNSON & Co., BOOKSELLERS, EIPON:- 

MetcalJ^e and CarmichaeVs Eight Views of Fountains Abbey, 
with descriptive letterless by T. Sqptvith* I>emy folio, in neat 
cover, price 5s. — Single views Is. each. 

Mr. WestalTs Eight Views of Fountains Abbey, Studley Lake, 
the Giant Firs, ^e,, ^c, 4to., in cover, price 8s. — Single views 
Is. each. 

Mr, Bowels different Lithographic Views of Fountains Abbey, 
Small paper Is. each. Large paper Is. 6d. 

Just published a carefully executed Lithographic 

viE^w OF foxjnt.aj:ns hlall 

From an original drawing by J. C. Buckler. Price 6d. 

Five Views of Hipon Cathedral, by B, Winkles, 2s. the set, 
with a plan. — Single views 6d. each. 

Views of Ewon, Ripon Cathedral, Studley Park and Plea- 
sure Grounds, Fountains Abbey, Hackfall, 8^c,, ^c, on Cards and 
Note Paper, Id. each. 

Three Views of Baby Castle; and one view of Gainford from 
the Yorkshire Bank of the Tees. Price 6d, each 

Imperial Svo., (with a correct lithographed facsimile of the 
original record) price 6s. 

ON AN OATH TAKEN BY MEMBEES OP THE PARLIAMENTS 
OP SCOTLAND, EBOM THE lOth OP AUGUST 1641 to 1649. 

This work contains a AiU, minute, and historical account of this curious Record, 
which was supposed to have been lost when the late Commissioners of the Public 
Records published the Acts of the Parliaments of Scotland. • It was discovered by 
Mr. Walbran, while examining the contents of the Charter Chest of Mi^or Duudas, 
of Blair Castle, in Scotland. Onl^ one hundred copia printed, 

Bipon : Published by A. Johnson and Co. 



digitized 



by Google 



Digitized 



by Google 



Digitized by 



Google 




digitized 



by Google 




■) i 



-1 



lUHnlujai 



h^ 








Sgle