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First Lieut. W. EL W. MacKINLAY, 

First CA'OMby, U* 5. Army, 
Member Ameriam Oriental Society* 




Document No. 260. 


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Pafife 29, ninth line from l>ottom. For ''(Sp.)" read "(Sp.; from 

Pa^e 45, twenty-seventh line from bottom. For ^^ Loiigoa'*'^ read 

Page 62, eleventh line from bottom. For ^'pauaing " read ^'patuing,^^ 

JL -4 urn JL^tVtJMrVr.Mr**. Jl'trO» C/<At/\*«>( 

Maj. William D. Beach, 

Chief f Second {Military Information) Divisiouy 

Waahingtonj D. C. 


foT^"^ I 


Shortly after the arrival of the author in the Philippines he, in common 
with many others, felt the need of a work upon the Ta^alog language in 
English, and began to prepare this compenciium, working upon it from 
time to time as other military duties permitted, and, upon being ordered to 
duty in Washington for the purpose of having better facilities for the com- 
pletion of the work) has been enabled to bring it to such completion, under 
the direction of Maj. W. D. Beach, Fifteenth Cavalry, chief of the Second 
Division, General Staff. 

As the Tagaloff, belonging to a ver]^ different family of languages from 
those with which Americans are ^miliar, has extremely dissimilar char- 
acteristics from English or any Aryan tongue, the writer has devised a 
type scheme, presented in the folder herewith, by which the salient points 
of difference may be seen at a glance and vividly retained in the memory, 
thus enabling the student to use correct and intelligible Tagalog. 

Supplemented by that constant practice necessary for the ear, it is believed 
that the copious index to this work, together with the type scheme, selected 
vocabularies, and plain nontechnical (as far as possible) explanations of 
the grammatical structure of Tagalog, will prove to be of value to those 
whose duty or inclination may lead them to consult this book. Such, at 
least, is the hope of the writer. 

The Ta^log language is easily pronounced, regular in its forms, and 
although its structure is complex, vet when once grasped it is so plain that 
it is not only clearly comprehended, but is a key to all the Malayan tongues, 
especially to those of the Philippines. It is an idiom which builds up its 
sentences and parts of speech from roots by means of particles which 
are prefixed, infixed, or suffixed to the roots. Several of these particles 
may be combined with the same root, each having its share in the modifi- 
cation of the inherent idea of the root. 

Attention is also invited to the great use of the 'definite'' in Tagalog, 
the so-called '* passive'' of the Spanish writers upon this subject. 

The index, which has been made very full and copious, should be con- 
sulted, as every probable combination oi particles has been noted, as well 
as Tagalog roots and English words occurring in the work. For example, 
every word preceded by the compound particle ipina^ has been listed, thus 
enabling the root to be found at once, and so on in like manner. 

The writer desires to express his appreciation for assistance received 
from the military authorities both in the Philippine Islands and the United 
States, from many of his brother offit^ers, and from Profs. Friedrich Hirth, 
of Columbia; E. W. Hopkins, of Yale (secretary of the American Oriental 
Society) ; Paul Haupt and F. W. Blake, of Johns Hopkins; Otis T. Mason, 
of the Smithsonian Institution, and the late John W. Huett, of Luther 
College, Illinois. Valuable suggestions were also received from Messrs. 
Pedro Serrano Laktaw, author of a Tagalog-Spanish dictionary; Luis 
Torres, and Vicente Albert, all of Manila. 




It is scarcely necessary to mention that authorities upon Tagalo^ have 
not been very plentiful, even with the great revival of interest in the 
Malayo-Polynesian languages which has taken place within the last few 
years. The number oi works, old and new, large and small, upon this 
subject, or bearing upon it, is verv close to forty, and many of these are 
of little value or are obsolete. Tne number of reprints, however, brings 
the aggregate up to about one hundred, but this has no bearing upon the 
material available for study. 

The isolation of the Philippine Islands under the Spanish regime also 
contributed to the neglect of the Philippine languages, and it seems almost 
as if Spanish and foreign workers in this field studiously avoided consulting 
one another's researches, or else were ignorant of them. In the review 
of books written upon Tagalog, or containing notices of it, works written 
to teach Spanish to the Ta^logs, novels — generally romances of the type 
current in the middle ages in Europe — lives of saints, and miscellaneous 
works, which make up what may l>e called the Tagalog literature, have 
been omitted. The total number of works in Tagalog may be estimated 
at from four to five hundred, and very few can be said to have a literary 

The energy of those who are able to write Tagalog well has mainly been 
absorbed in newspaper work, and no great work has as yet appeared in the 

It can scarcely be doubted that if some of the great works of the world 
were translated into Tagalog and placed where they would be accessible to 
the common people, who do not speak or read Spanish, and are almost too 
old to learn English well, that the results would be of great and immediate 
importance in the mental development of the race. 

The honor of the first written treatise upon the Tagalog language prob- 
ably belongs to the Friar Agustfn de Alburquerque, who arrived at Manila 
from Nueva Espafla (Mexico) in 1571, and after three years* residence in 
Taal, Balayan, and other parts of Batangas, became Prior of Tondoin 1575, 
holding the position until his death in 1580. This treatise has never been 
published, and the assertion is opposed by the Franciscan order, which 
claims the credit for the first work upon this subject. (See V^ol. II, p. 
563, ''Estadismode laslslas Filipinas, de Ziifiiga,'' edited by W. E. Retana, 
Madrid, 1893; **La Polfticade Espafiaen Filipinas," aflo VI, ndm. 134; and 
the ^'Catdlogo Bio-Bibliognlfico de los Keligiosos Agustinos,'' P6rez, 
Manila, 1901. ) 

To the Franciscan friar Juan de Plasencia, or Portocarrero, who came 
to the Philippines with the first mission of his order in 1577, is attributed 
an ** Arte y Diccionario " of Tagalog in 1581, which has remained in manu- 
script, (^ee '*Oatdlogo Biogrdfico de los Religiosos Franciscanos,'* Moya, 
Manila, 1880.) 


However, the most important point is when the first printed work Qf 
the language was published, and this was undoubtedly in the year 1 J 
when an ** Arte y Keglas de la Lengua Tag^la/* by Friar Francisco de I 
Jos^ of the Dominican order, and who arriveii in the Philippines in 11 
was printed in the **Partido de Batadn,'* probably by Tomds Pinpd 
Ti^lo^. The book is a quarto of 327 pages of rice paper. One a 
exists in the Museo-Biblioteca de Ultramar at Madrid. Other editioni 
this book were printed at Manila in 1752 and 1832. (See Retana'sedit 
of Zufiiga, pp. 101-105. ) 

This work was followed in 1612 by the ** Vocabulario de la Leoj 
Tagala," by Friar Pedro de San Buenaventura of the Franciscan ore 
who was in charge of parishes in the present province of La Lagtma, i 
whose work was printed in Pila by Tomds Pinpfn and Domingo Lc 
Tagalogs. The book is described by Medina in his *'La Imprenta 
Manila," Santiago de Chile, 1896, and a facsimile of the title-page is giv 

The Franciscan friar Juan de Oliver, who died in the Camarinee 
1597, is said to have written a treatise upon the Tagalog, but his w 
seems to have been limited to correcting and adding to the '* Arte y Dio 
nario'' of Plaaencia. Another of the same order, Francisco de San Ai 
nio, who was in charge of Baler from 1611 to 1616, and from that ti 
until his death in 1624 resided in the present La Lagima, wrote 
*' Arte " and a Tagalog-Spanish vocabulary, which works existed in ma 
script in 1745, the author being known also as '*Orejita." (See ( 
Biog. Rel. Fran., Manila, 1880; and the preface to the "Arte" of Totam 

The Augustinian friar Juan de Quifiones, who died in Manila in II 
also left a work upon the Tagalog, which is said by Beriatafn to have b 
printed in Manila in 1581. (See Beristafn, Biblioteca Hispano-Americ 
Setentrional, Amecameca, Mexico, 1883-1887, 2d ed.) The first edit 
was printed in Mexico City in 1816. (See Vol. II, p. 464.) The ma 
seems to be doubtful. 

The Franciscan friar Grer6nimo Monte y Escamilla, who died in 1< 
is said to have left in manuscript an "Arte" and "Diccionario" in Tt 
log, but the work, if extant, is in the archives of his order. (See < 
Rel. Fran., Manila, 1880, p. 60. ) A similar manuscript is i^aid to h 
been written by Francisco de San Antonio, of tlie same order, who ci 
to the Philippines in 1606 and died at Pila, La Laguna, in 1624. (See '. 
p. 139.) 

The third printed work upon Tagalog was the "Arte de Idioma Ti 
log," by the Franciscan Agustfn de la Magdalena, who arrived in 
islands m 1665 and lived in Tayabas and Laguna for some years. Rett 
ing to Mexico he there gave his manuscripts to the press in 1679, ant 
1684 returned to Manila, dying in Santa Cruz de La Laguna in 1689. ( 
La Imprenta en Mexico, Medina, Sevilla, 1893, No. 1784; and Cat ] 
Fran., Manila, 1880, p. 292.] 

The Dominican friar Teoaoro (Quiros) de la Madre de Dfos, who cf 
to the islands in 1627 and died in 1662, has been credited with an "Ar 
of Tagalog by some bibliographers of Philippine literature, but Mec 
marks sucn a work as doubtful, as far as the printing is concerned. 

The eighteenth century witnessed a revival of interest in the lan^ui 
and in 1703 two works, both of which have been reprinted, were pnn 

The first was the "Compendio de la Arte de la lengua Tagala," prit 
in Manila. Tl\is excellent treatise was reprinted at Sampaloc in 1787, 
in Manila proper in 1879. Both the early editions are now rare. ' 
author was the Augustinian friar Caspar de San Agustfn, who c^nie to 
Philippines in 1668, and died in Manila in 1724. He is better knowi 
the author of the work "Conquistas de las Islas Filipinas," Part I, "AA 
rid, 1698; Part II, Valladolid, 1890. The third edition, however, reti 
many obsolete words. 

The second work was a "Vocabulario," or dictionary of the Taga 
written by the Franciscan friar Domingo de los iSantos, who came to 
Philippines in 1665, and after administering parishes mainly in La Lagt 


War Department, 
Office of the Chief of Staff, 

Washingiorif Augtist SO, 1906. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of a work 
entitled '*A Handbook and Grammar of the Tagalog Language," consist- 
ing of 399 pages of typewriting, which I estimate will make about 200 pages 
in print I would suggest that the work be bound in a substantial water- 
proof cover, similar to that used for the latest edition of the ** Soldier's 
Ilandbook,'* and that the size be 8 by SJ inches, or approximately so. 

I would also invite attention to the folders accompanying. * * * It 
would be best to have the left-hand edge of the folders begin at the outside 
maiigin of the j)rinted piige, so that when extended the student could read 
the corresponding text to the synopsis at the same time and not be obliged 
to turn the pages back and forth. 

« « « * « « « 

Very respectfully, 

William E. W. MacK inlay. 
First Lieuteiianty First Cavalry. 
Maj. William D. Beach, 

Chief, Second {Military Information) Diviiiion, 

Washington, D. C. 



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died in Maiayjay in 1695. His work was printed in the town of Tayabas 
in 1703, and out two copies seem to be known. One is from the Marsden 
collection, and is in the librarjr of King's College, London, and the other 
in the archives of the Franciscan oroer. Some leaves of a manuscript 
*'Arte'' by the same author are also preserved in the archives. This dic- 
tionary was reprinted in Sampdloc in 1794 and in Manila in 1835. It is 
now obsolete. (See Cat. Kel. Fran., Manila, 1880, p. 294; Biblioteca Fili- 
piua, Retana, Madrid, 1898 [referred to hereafter as R.]; Nos. 77 and 148; 
id., Nos. 26 note, 66 note, 6o and 594; and Cat Bio. -Bib. Rel. Agustinos, 
ManiU, 1901, pp. 133-134.) 

The next work upon this subject was the ^'Arte y Reglas de la lengua 
Tagala,'' by the Augustinian friar Tomds Ortfz, printed at the convento 
of Sampaloc in 1740. The author came to the Philippines in 1690, was a 
missionary in China until about 1712, and died in Manila in 1742. (See 
Medina, Ha Imprenta en Manila and Cat. Rel. Agustinos, p. 169. ) 

In 1742 the Franciscan friar Melchor Oyanguren de Santa In^s, who 
had lived in the Philippines, mainly at Los Bafios and Sariaya, from 1717 
to 1736, gave a work to the press in Mexico entitled "Tagalysmo." This 
interesting book, which has never been reprinted, compares with Tagalog 
the Mandarin dialect of Chinese, Hebrew, and Greek, the Tagalog being 
reduced as far as possible to a Latin basis. (R., 39. ) 

In 1745 the work of the Franciscan Sebastian de Totan^ was printed 
at Sampaloc. This valuable treatise, entitled ''Arte de la lengua Tagala v 
Manual Tagalog,'' was reprinted at Sampdloc in 1796, at Manila in 1850, 
and in Binondo ( Manila) in 1865. (R., 42, 79, 202, and 329. ) The author 
came to the Philippines in 1717 and remained twenty-nine years in the 
islands. During his residence at Lilio and Pagsanhan, La Laguna, from 
1732 to 1738, he wrote the foregoing book. He died in Madrid in 1748, 
having left the Philippines in 1746. (Cat. Rel. Fran., Manila, 1880, pp. 

In 1754 the great " Vocabulario,'' or dictionary, of the Ta^og, explained 
in Spanish, was printed at Manila by the Jesuits. The mam authors were 
Juan de Noceda, S. J., and Pedro de San Lucar, S. J. A second edition, 
with a Spanish-Tagalog appendix, was printed in Valladolid in 1832, which 
is now very rare, nearly all copies having been lost by shipwreck en route 
to the islands. There is a copy in the Library of Congress. Another 
edition, with additions, was pnnted by the Augustinian order at Manila 
in 1860. This work, although many words are obsolete, is the standard 
on Tagalog as yet It is also becoming rare. (R., 48, 136, and 268. ) 

The next work containing a notice of Tagalog is in English. In Johann 
Reinhold Forster's ''Observations made during a Voyage round the 
World" (London, 1778; German translation by his son, Geoi^ Forster, 
Berlin, 1783) a list of 47 English words is given, with their equivalents in 
Tagalog, Pampango, Malay, and several Polynesian dialects. From some 
rare words the Ta^og would appear to have been taken from Noceda 
and San Lucar. Forster was bom in Germany in 1729, a descendant of 
the Forester family of Scotland, and accompanied Captain Cook in his 
second voyage to tHe South Sea (1772-1775). After his return he became 
professor at Halle, Germany, where he died in 1 798. His book is espe- 
cially valuable concerning the Polynesian races and islands. 

A few years later the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas (born 1741, 
died 1811), who had become professor of natural history in the Imperial 
Academy of Sciences at St. Petersbure in 1768, published there in 1787- 
1789 the work known as the " Vocabumrium Catharinse," from its patron- 
ess, Catharine II. Written in Russian, it gives the corresponding word 
for nearly 200 terms in 200 language. In this list Pampango is No. 186 
and Tagalog No. 187. The source is not given, but that for the Tagalog is 
evidently the same as that of Forster. The Latin equivalent for the Rus- 
sian words is given in the preface. The full title of the work is ' * Linguarum 
totius Orbis Vocabularia comparativa.'' It is in two quarto volumes. 


At the same time the Spanish author Lorenzo Hervas y Panduro (bom 
1735, died 1809), of the Society of Jesus, published two works bearing 
upon Tagalog to a slight extent, out of importance as inspirinn: other work 
upon the same line. The first was his "Aritm^tica,'' published in Ceeena, 
Italy, in 1785, and the second, his *' Vocabolario Poliglotto," published at 
the same place in 1787, both in Italian. In the latter he gives specimens 
of the language of 1593, of 1604, and his own time. The Spanish edition, 

Printed at Madrid in two volumes in 1801, has his observations upon 
agalog in the second volume. 

In 1803 Prof. Franz Carl Alter, librarian of the Imperial and Royal 
University of Vienna, published a work of 60 pages upon the Taoalog, 
with the title "Ueber die tagalische Sprache." This work seems based 
upon a manuscript vocabulary from the library of Count Wrbna at Vienna, 
supplemented by words from Pallas and the works of the Abb^ Hervas. 
The latter seems to have corresponded with Alter, who speaks of Hervas 
in the preface to his book, and also of Miss Knight, of England, probably 
a sister of Thomas Payne Knight, the numismatist, as being interested in 
his researches. 

A work which is yet of value to the student is that of Johann Christoph 
Adelung (bom in Germany in 1731, died in Dresden, Saxony, 1806), 
entitled '*Mithridates, oder Allgemeine Sprachenkunde.*' In the first 
volume, which appeared at Berlin in 1806, on pages 127 and 128, tw^o ver- 
sions of the Lord s Prayer are given — one of 1593 and the other of current 
form — with an explanation of the grammatical forms as deduced from the 
words. The author, who gives specimens from over 500 languages, is best 
remembered for his great work m German philology, and at the time of 
his death was principal librarian of the Elector of Saxony, at Dresden. 

Adriano Bafbi (bom in Venice in 1782, dieil there 184iB) published an 
"Atlas Ethnographique du Globe" at Paris in 1826. (See Table No. 364 
and pp. 246 to 249, for remarks upon Tagalog.) 

The catalogue of William Marsden, the eminent orientalist (born in 
England in 1754, died there 1886), -published at London in 1827, contains 
mention of some manuscript **Arte8" of Tagalog not known to have been 
printed. One is an "Arte" bv a Dominican friar, dated 1736, and the 
other a " Vocabulario" by the f)ominican Miguel Ruiz, dated 1580. This, 
however, must be an error, as the Dominicans did not arrive in the Phil- 
ippines until 1587. Miguel Ruiz was one of their early friars, but little 
seems to have been recorded about him. In Marsden's Miscellaneous 
Works (London, 1834), page 94, are also some observations upon Tagalog. 

To the genius of the German author Wilhelm von Humboldt the world 
is indebted for his magnificent work upon the Malayo- Polynesian languages, 
which was published by the Roval Academv of Sciences at Berlin, in three 
volumes, in 1838, under the title **Ueber die Kawi-Sprache auf der luBel 
Java." His dissertation upon the Tagalog verbal system and formations 
in Volume II, pages 347 to 396, clearly establishes the fact that the Tagalog 
and allied tongues of the Philippines have preserved the verbal modifying 
particles to a greater extent than any other members of this great linguistic 
family, and on page 288 of the same volume he goes po far as to say that at 
first view the student of Tagalog seems to have come into a wholly new 
system. This noted philologist, who was born in 1767 and died in 1835, 
has evidently taken the greater part of his material upon the Tagalog from 
the second (1796) edition of Totan^, and hence lacked the advantage of 
having been upon the ground. 

The Augustinian friar Manuel Buzeta, better know^n as the author of the 
"Geographical Dictionary'* or Gazetteer of the Philippines (in cooperation 
with Bravo), published a Tagalog grammar at Madnd in 1850. (K, 199.) 
The author, whose name is spelled **Buceta" in the Cat. Rel. Agustinos, 
came to the Philippines in 1827, where he was in charge of the church at 
Guiguinto in 1832 and of Malate in 1848. He returned to Spain in 1849, 
and resided at Madrid until 1854, in which year he left the order and 
returned to secular life. 


The work of Sinibaldo de Mas upon the islands, published at Madrid in 
two volumes in 1843, contains a short comparative vocabulary of Tagalog, 
Visayan, Ilocano, Ibanaf? (Cagayan), and Malay. (R., 180. ) 

In'l854the "Tagalog-Spanish'Dictionarv" of Rosalio Serrano, a TajB^log 
of Bulacan Province, was printed at Manila, and second and third editions 
have appeared, the third being printed in Binondo (Manila) in 1869. A 
8pani8h-Tagalog dictionary by the same author was printed in Manila in 
1872. (R., 227, 376, 426.) 

In 1855 Carlos Cuarteron, a priest who had also been a pilot in the 
Southern Islands, published a work at Rome entitled **Sp«gazione e tra- 
duzione,'' at the end of which there is a vocabulary of Italian, Malay, 
Tasalog, and Joloano. ( R. , 229. ) 

In 1872 the grammar of Joaqufn de 0)ria (Gil y Montes de Santo 
Domingo) was published at Madrid, where the author had accepted the 
position of professor of Tagalog in the Central University. Tne work 
shows the careful study of the author, who came to the islands in 1831 
and resided in the Tagalog region until his return to Spain in 1866. On 
account of his accepting the chair of Tagalog against the wish of the prel- 
ate of his order, he was dropped from its rolls; but, unfortunately, the plan 
of Minister Moret did not succeed, and the position to which he was 
elected never became active. The author was born in 1815 and entered 
the Franciscan Order in 1830. (R., 411; also Cat. Biog. Rel. Fran., p. 656. ) 


Segoi _ 

the fourth in 1888, and the sixth in 1901. All the editions were printed 

at Manila and are alike, no corrections or additions having been made. 

(R., 1133.) 

Here should be mentioned the interesting work of V. M. de Abel la, the 
** Vade-mecum Filipino,'* a manual of Spanish-Tagalog dialogues. It con- 
tains a vocabulary of Manila local words and phrases. The first edition 
was published in 1868 (T. H. Pardo de Tavera, Bib. Fil, No. 9), and other 
editions were publishea in 1869 and 1871, and the ninth had been reached 
in 1873. (R., 2524. ) All editions were printed in Manila. 

The most practical of all Tagalog-Spanish grammars appeared in Manila 
in 1878, the work of the Recoleto friar Toribio Minguella. Interlinear 
translations, simplicity of arrangement, and clearness of explanation make 
this little book of great value, and many of its suggestions and ideas have 
been very useful in the preparation of this present work. 

In 1880 Prof. H. Kern, a Javan-bom Hollander, made a valuable con- 
tribution to philology by his list of words in Tagalog which are derived 
from the Sanskrit. This article, which appeared in the **Bijdragen tot 
de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nederland-Indie" at The Ilague, volg. 
(series) 4, deel (volume) 4, pages 535 to 564, shows the large number of 
such words and their importance in expressing some most necessary ideas 
of civilization. This field was further explored by T. H. Pardo de Tavera, 
who published a pamphlet of 55 pages at Paris in 1887, in which the San- 
skrit words which have passed into rampango are also noted. {R. , 1066. ) 
Kern remarks in his article that the scarcity of Sanskrit words in the dia- 
lects of northern Celebes indicates that the'Tagalog received this element 
directly from Cunbodia and Sumatra, and not oy wav of Celebes. This is 
an interesting suggestion, which might lead to sometning if studied upon. 
Br. F. R. Blake, teacher of Tagalog and Yisayan at Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, Baltimore, Md., also r^ui an article on *' Sanskrit loan-words in 
Ttealog" at the April, 1903, meeting of the American Oriental Society, at 
Bammore, Md. Doctor Blake has also written articles upon ''Analogies 
between Semitic and Tagalog'' and the ''Differences between Tagalog and 

In 1882 appeared the second edition of a Spanish-Tagalog and Pampan^o 
vocabulary by E. Femdndez, printed at Manila. This was followed m 


1883 by his Tagalog-Spanish vocabulary, both of which are very oflefal 
books. (P. T., 1061, and R., 766. ) 

The valuable " rapport*' of Dr. Joseph Montano, Paris, 1885, to the 
French minister of puolic instruction, contains several Philippine vocabu- 
laries, some of them of little known languages, and also qmte an anal}^ 
of the Tagalog. (R., 885. ) 

Under the pseudonym of Julius Miles, an unknown author published a 
small Tagalog-Spanish grammar and phrase book at Barcelona, Spain, in 
1887. (R., 1054.) 

In 1889 Friar Toribio Minguella, Recoleto, published a work in Madrid 
upon the unity of the human race as proved oy philology. In this work 
he makes some comparisons between Semitic and Tajgalog. 

The same year Dr. Pardo de Tavera published his pamphlet upon the 
origin of the names of the Tagalog numerals, at Manila. W. G. S<§ple, of 
Johns Hopkins University, also published an article upon the Tagalog 
numerals in the Johns Hopkins University Circular, No. 163, June, 1903, 
Baltimore, Md. 

In 1889 also appeared the **Spanish-Tagalog Dictionary'' of Pedro Serrano 
Laktaw, son of Kosalio Serrano, and in 1903 director of the Spanish paper, 
£1 Pueblo, of Manila. It is understood that the author is now w^orlong 
upon a Tagalog-English dictionary. (R., 1260.^ 

In 1890 a most valuable little work was published in Manila, under the 
title **Coleccl6n de Refranes, Frases y Modismos Ta^os," translated and 
explained in Spanish by the Franciscan Friars Gregono Martfn and Mariano 
Martfnez Cuaarado, and edited by the Friar Miguel Lucio y Bustamente. 
The first came to the Philippines in 1874, the second in 1875, and the 
editor in 1860. All administered parishes mainly in La I^guna Province, 
Friar Martfnez also serving for many years at Binaiigonan de Lampon, on 
the Pacific. This collection comprises 879 proverbs, phrases, and idiomatic 
expressions as used in the vicinity of Tanay and Pililla, where the authors 
resided, and embraces but a. part of the wealth of the language in this 
regard. Many of these expressions, marked **T. P." (Tagalog proverbs) 
have been quoted in the explanation of the language. (R., 1318. ) 

In 1893 Dr. Ferd. Blumentritt, of Leitmentz, Bohemia, published a 
translation of a sketch of Tagalog orthography by Doctor Rizal, at The 
Hague, under the title ** Die Transcription des Tagjalog," von Dr. J(w6 Rizal. 

The advent of the United States forces at Manila and the occupation of 
the Tagalog rej^ion led to several small pamphlets bein^ issued with the 
EngliHn, Spanish, and Tagalog in parallel columns. One of these was 
written by Capt. John Eordman, jr.. Twenty -sixth U. S. Volunteer 

In 1902 Constantino Lendoyro, a Spanish gentleman of more than 
twenty years' residence in the Philippines, published his work, entitled 
*'The l^alo^ Language," at Manila. It is a very good book, but is full 
of typographical errors, and in many places the Lnglish is not idiomatic. 
The aumor deserves much credit for his labor, and a corrected edition 
would be of great value. At any rate, he is entitled to commendation for 
having written, in a foreign language, a work upon the Tagalog which 
shows his thorough knowledge of the Philippine tongue. 

In 1902 R. Brandstetter issued a work upon the Tagalog and Malagasy 
languages at Lucerne, which is of int<?re8t as showing the resemblance 
between these two languages spoken at such distant points. 

In 1903 the " English-Tagalog Pocket Dictionary," of P. D. Neilson, was 
published at Manila, and, while merelv giving the Tagalog equivalent for 
the English word, is of considerable value. The Tagalog-English part has 
also been published. 

Mention should also be made of ** Crawford's Grammar of the Malay Lan- 
guage," which has also a dictionary attached, London, 1852. Many valu- 
able comparisons are made between Tagalog and other Malayan languages. 

For a grammatical discussion of authority upon the Malayan languages 


the student is referred to the ''Grundriss der Sprachwiasenschalt," of F. 
Muller, U. Band, II. Abtheilang, pages 87-160 (Vienna, 1887). 


The Tagalog is the most important of the many tongues and dialects of 
the Philippines, which seem to number well over threescore, <> on account 
of its beii^^ the most widely understood, the most euphonious, and the 
most developed by contact with foreign idioms. It thus occupies a similar 
position to that held by Miday farther to the south, and to English in the 
world at laiy^. Spoken b^ over a million and a half of the mc«t energetic 
race in the islands, occupymg the city of Manila, eight provinces surround- 
ing the metropolis, and a number of outlying islands and districts beyond 
these limits, it is also generally understood by many far beyond its own 
territory, especially in seaport towns throughout the archipelago. 

The hmguage seems to be divided into a northern and a southern dia- 
lect, the former being s{K>ken in Bulacan, Bataan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, and 
Tarlac, and the latter occupying La Laguna, Batangas, Cavite, Tayabas, 
Marjnduque, the coast of Mindoro, and part of Ambos Camarines. £ach 
of these dialects is more or less split up, each town almost having local 
mannerisms by which the people of one nei|i;hborhood easily dintinguish 
a stranger. Yet the region above described is clearly the territory ot one 
and the same language, which is different and distmguishable from the 
Pampanji^an language on the north and the Bicol on the south by the test 
of intelligibility. 

Philologically, Ta^^o^ belong^s to the Malayan branch of the great 
Malayo-Polynesian linguistic family, which extends from Hawaii to Mada- 
sascar and from Formosa to Easter Island w^est of Chile, including New 
Zealand, Tonga, and Samoa, as well as Borneo, Celebes, Java, Sumatra, 
the Malay Peninsula, and the Philippines, from east to west, a distance of 
180®, or half the circumference of the earth. 

Considering ^e rudimentary state of culture existing up to compara- 
tively recent times of the majority of the peoples speakmg the languages 
of this family, its unity is remarkable, and a thorough knowledge of one 
tongue is found to be o! great utility in the acquirement of any other of the 
great group, especially in the same branch. 

Tagalog, together with other civilized tongues of the Philippines, such 
as Visayan, Pampangan, Ilocano and Bicol, has preserved the verbal system 
better than any other, and the basis for the comparative study of the 
family must be taken nrom the Philippine tongues and not from the more 
cultivated Malay, Kawi, or modem Javanese, all three of which have been 
profoundly affected by Sanskrit and to a lesser degree by Arabic, some- 
thing as English has been affected by Latin and French elements. 

The numoer of roots or primitive-idea words in Tagalog seems to be 
about 17,000, there being 16,842 words in the Noceda and Sanlucar dic- 
tionary of 1832, according to Crawfurd, the distinguished Malay scholar. 
("Malay Grammar," p. cxiv.) Of these some 284 are derived from the 
Sanskrit, and are evidently borrowed through the Malay. Many of these 
are names for things unknown to the primitive Malayan peoples, but 
others are abstracts and various words, some of which would seem to have 
supplanted a primitive Malayan word. Thus in many cases American and 
T^i^log use words in their own languages which are from the same remote 
sooroe in India, and coming around the earth east and west meet again 
in the Philippines. Such a word is pad, ''foot," from the Sanskrit jMda, 
which has descended into English * ' foot ' ' and Spanish ' ' pie. * ' The origin 
of these words is marked after each in the handbook. The names of the 
chief workers in this field have been given in the list of books consulted. 

a The PtillipptaU) Bureau of Ethnology, however, has fdven oat on a result of its re- 
•earohes, thai the nnmber of distinct tongues is not over 15 or 16, the larger number being 
made up hy ooonting yery similar dialects. 


The Japanese lansuaf^ eeems to have furnished no words to the Taga- 
log, although many Japanese came to the islands during the seventeenth 
century, owing to the expulsion of Japanese converts to Catholicism, who 
found a refuge in Manila and the adjoining provinces, mainly in Pam- 
panga. where it is said many of them settled around Macabebe. It is 
thougnt that some Japanese expressions still exist in the Macabebe dialect 
of the Pampansan language. 

Notwithstanding a comp>aratively close contact with the Chinese for 
several centuries, and certainly antedating the Spanish conquest by many 
hundre<l years, very few words seem to have come into Tagalog from any 
of the numerous dialects of that Empire. The Chinese element in Tagalog 
seems limited to a few commercial terms, some household implements, 
and a few miscellaneous terms, some of which are confined in their use to 
Sangley or Chinese-Mestizo families. These words are noted wherever 
they occur in the handbook. Professor Hirth, the Chinese scholar, thinks 
that the first notices of the Philippines are to be found in the work of 
Chao Ju-kua, collector of customs of Chuan-chou, a city in Fo-Kien Prov- 
ince, between 1210 and 1240. In this work he speaks of the islands of 
Po-ni (Borneo), Ma-i (Mindoro? or Panay?), and of the Pi-Sho-y^ of 
Taiwan (Formosa). This latter name sounds something like ''Bisajra,'' 
the native name for Visava. The book S])eak8 also of the San-su, or 
** Three Islands." Book 355 of the ** History of the Ming Dynasty (136^- 
1643) of China," as abstracted by Groeneveldt,speaksof the Kmgs (Sultans) 
of Sulu as attacking Puni (Borneo) in 1368, and of the Kins: of Sulu, Paduka 
(Javanese ** Lord " ) Pahala as dying while on a visit to the Emperor at T4 
Chou on the Grand Canal (Shantung Province). The Emperor then 
recognized his eldest son, Tumohan, as Sultan of Sulu, in 1417. The 
brother of Pahala, who was named Suli, made a visit to China in 1421, 
but a few years after this no more was heard from this Kingdom. From 
this and other extracts it would seem that the Chinese knew of the Moham- 
medan settlements at Manila and Tondo prior to the arrival of the S|)an- 
iards, and must have carried on a lucrative trade with them, otherwise the 
pirate Li-Ma-hong would not have made such a desperate attempt tu take 
the city so poon alter its foundation in 1571. 

The Arabic words^ in Tagalc^, which are hardly more than a dozen in 
number, evidently came in with the Mohammedan religion, and upon the 
extinction of that faith around the mouth of the Pa«ig, all but a few words 
fell into disuse. Mohamme<laniHm could have hanily become established 
in the Tapalog region before 1450 to 1500, as it came very slowly from India 
or Arabia to Java, and thence by way of Borneo and Sulu to the Bay of 
Manila and the Pasig Valley. It had apparently not extended to the 
inland provinces, its farthest northern point appearing to have been Hago- 
noy. Arabic words which were adopted by the Spanish and thus brought 
into Tagalog are not included in the above remarks. 

Spanish, as a matter of course, has contributed a great number of words 
to Tajraloj?, many of which have been thoroughly naturalized. They are 
mainly religious, governmental, social, legal, and abstract terms, including 
also terms for foreigii articles and luxuries. Some names for Mexican 
articles are not Spanish but Nahuatl or Aztec, owing to the intimate con- 
nection between Mexico and the Philippines for more than two centuries, 
and there are even some Arawak words from the tongue of Cuba, Haiti, 
and Puerto Rico among these. 

English has as yet given but few words to Tagalog. Of these the news- 
papers use four, which seem to have no exact native or Spanish equiva- 
lents, viz: "Self-government," "high life," "sport," and "besbol," or 
baseball. The latter has been ver&lized and taken into the language 
bodily, while the others are still quoted. 

The construction of Tagalog does not seem to have been influenced by 
any of the foregoing, but to have retained its Malayan structure. 



The moet saccinct statement upon the above subject is that given by 
Rev. W. A. Goodell, of the Methoaist mission in the Philippines, as printed 
in SUinU's "The Philippines and the Far East,'' page 483: 

' ' II. The pronunciation of Tagalog is very simple, and there are no sounds 
to which the American vocal orrams are not accustomed. The letter ( sound ) 
most difficult to get is 'li^/ wnich has exactly the sound which it has in 
the middle of the word 'nnging/ but which becomes difficult when at the 
beginning of a word, as in the word(s) 'n^uni't,' one of the words (terms) 
translating the conjunction ' but,' and which often occurs at the beginning 
of a sentence. 

''But although so simple in word pronunciation, Tagalog is extremely 
difficult in utterance, for one reason because of the great number of lone 
words (compounds) it contains, and for another and more important still, 
because of tne rhythmic movement of the language, a quality that can not 
be described and a characteristic for which no rules whatever can be given, 
but which is entirely as much a part of the Tagalog language as are its 
words themselves." 

The "rhythmic movement" spoken of by the Rev. Mr. Goodell, who is 
an excellent speaker of Tagaloff, is what may be called the "national 
accent," and, like the tones of Chinese and other allied tongues, can only 
be acquiml by long practice. 

The vowels are r^ly but three in number, although a, e, i, o, and u, 
with their Spanish values, are printed (ah, a, e, o, oo). Of these " e " and 
**i " are habitually confused, and "e" can hardly be said to exist in pure 
Tagalog. "0" and "u" are also confused, the tendency being to drop 
** o " and substitute "u" in manv words, a process which has already taken 
effect m Pampangan. The diphthongs are ao (ow), au (aw), less nasal 
than ao, and ua (wa); but there are no triphthongs, as each vowel in such 
combinations preserves its own sound. 

The native consonants, pronounced (except ng) as in English, are B, C 
( K ), D, G (hard), H, L, M, N, NG, P, R, 8, and T. The sound of F does not 
exist in Tagalov, and is replaced by P. V is also a foreign sound merging 
with B to Uie Tfu»log ear. Z is pronounced like 8, and is found only in 
Spanish words. The same is true of X, which is pronounced at the begin- 
ning of a word as H. W is beginning to be used in native papers as a semi- 
vowel in place of initial ua ( wa) ana in ao (aw). K is also ui^ed by many 
in place of hard C and Q. Y is used as a part of the diphthong ay (ai), 
ana also as an initial consonant. 

The pronunciation and construction of the language will be more clearly 
understood by carefully studying the two versions of the Dominical Oration, 
or Lord's Prayer, given below with interlinear pronunciation and trans- 

[From the Vulgate.] 

Tag. Amd namin sungmasalail^t ka; sambahfn 

Pro. Ah^^mdh n&hmeen Boong-mah-mh-ldh^'eet kah ; sahm-bah-hdn 
Eng. Father our (of us) art in heaven thou; adored (worshiped) 

Tag. ang r^^an mo; mapasaamin ang kaharian 

Pro. ahng rijdMahn moh; mah-pah-sah-dh-meen ahng kah-hah-reS-ahn 

Eng. the name of thee; come to us the kingdom 

Tag. mo; sundin ang 16ob mo; dito sa lupa para 
Pro. moh; 90&ndeen ahng Idh-obe moh; deS-tohsah loo-pah pdh-rah 
'Eng. of tliee; (be) done the will of thee; here upon earth according 

Tag. nang sa laiigit; bigydn mo kamf iigay6n nang 
Pro. nahng mh l&hng-tei; beeg-ydhn moh kah-me^ ngeye-6hn nahng 
Elng. to (that) in heaven; (be) given of thee we (us) now of the 


Tag. aming kanin sa arao-drao at patawarin mo 

Pro. dh-meeng k&h-neen sah dh-row-dk-row aht pah-tow-dh-reen moh 
Eng. our food upon every day and (be) pardoned of thee 

Tag. kamf nang aming mai^d dtans, para nang 

Pro. kah-mei nahng dh-meeng mahng-dh od-tahng^ pdh-rah nahng 

Eng. we (us) of the our (sign of plurality) debts, according as 

Tag. paffpatawad namin sa mangagkaiuLutang sa amin; 

Pro. pcJig-pa-tow-dd ndh'tneen mK mahng-ahg-kah-kan'Od^ahng $ah dh-meen; 
Eng. (are) forgiven of us to those indebted to us; 

Tag. at houag mo kaming ipahintiilot sa tukB6, 

Pro. aht hoo-ahg moh kah-meeng ee-pah-heen-toMoht 9ah took-96hy 
Eng. and do not of thee (let) us (be) permitted into temptation, 

Tag. at iadv^ mo kamf sa dilang masamA. 

Pro. aht ee-aydh moh kah-meS sah detlahng mahsah'-mdh. 

Eng. but (be) delivered of thee we (us) from all evil. 

The version from the translation of the American Bible Society, follow- 
ing the authorized, or King James, version, is as follows: 

Tag. Amd namin nanasalaiigit ka; sambahfn 

Pro. Ah-mdh ndh-meen nah-nah'Sah-ldhr^-eet kah; 9ahm-bah-hehi 

Eng. Father our(of us) (art) in heaven thou; hallowed (worshiped) 

Tag. ang pangalan mo: dumdting ang kaharian 

Pro. ahng pahng-dhl-alin moh: doo-mdh-teeng ahng kah-hah-ree-ahn 

Eng. the name of thee: to arrive the kingdom 

Tag. mo. Gawfn ang iyong kalooban, kung paano sa 

Pro. moh, Gowem ahng eeydng kah-loh-d-bahny koong pah-dh-no sah 

Eng. of thee. (Be) done the thy will if as in 

Tag. Uiigit, ay gayon din namdn sa lupa. Ibigdy mo 
Pro. IdhtTg-eetf eye guy-on deeti nah-mdhn sah loo-pah. Ee-big^e moh 
Eng. heaven, be thus truly also in earth. (Be) given of thee 

Tag. sa amin ligayon ang aming kanin sa drao-drao. 

Pro. sah Ah-meen iTgeye-6hn ahng dh-meeng kdh-neen sah dh-raw-dh-rou\ 
Eng. to us now (this day) the our food on everyday. 

Tag. At ipatawad mo sa amin ang aming maiigd 

Pro. AlU ee-pah-tow'dhd moh mh dh-meen ahng dh-meeng mahng-dh 
Eng. And (be) pardoned of thee to us the our (signof plur.) 

Tag. iitang, gaya namdn namin na nagpatauad sa 

Pro. o6-t(umg, guy ah nah-mdhn ndh-meen nah natig-jmh-tou^dhd sah 
Eng. debt(8), as also by us now (are) forgiven (to) 

Tag. maiigu may utang sa amin. At houag 

Pro. mahng-dh my o6-tahng sah dh-meen, Aht hoo-ang 

Eng. (a. of plur. ) those-having debts against us. And do not 

Tag. mo kaming dalhfn sa tuks6, kungdi 

J*ro. rruth kah-meeitg dahl-hehi sah t(Xjk-s6hy koong-dee 

Eng. of thee (let) us (l^e) brought into temptation, but 

Tag. iligtiis mo kamf sa masam:!: Sapagka't 

Pro. ee-Ug-tiUs moh kah-mee sah mah-sah-mdh: Sah-pdhg-kahU 

Eng. (be) delivered by thee us from evil: For (b^»use) 

Tag. iyo ang kaharian at ang kapangyarihan at 

Pro. eeydh ahng kah-hahree-ahn aht ahng kah-pahng-yahrei-hahn aht 
Eng. thine the kingdom and the power and 


Tag. ang kaloualhatian, maffpakailjln man. 

Pro. almg kah-loo^ihl'hah-tei^hnt mahff-pahcah-eeldhn mahn, 
Eng. the glory, ever (for ever) also 

Tag. Siyft naaA. 
Pro. Seeyah n6uMxh, 
Eng. Amen. 

The same prayer may be taken to show the changes in the language 
since it was first redaced to Roman letters by the missionaries. 

From the Doctrina Cristiana of 1593, reprinted bv Hervas in "Saegio 
Prattico," p. 129. Also found in Adelung's ** Mith delates/' Vol. I, p. 609. 

**A7nd namin natcUdngit ca, ipasamba mo ang r^ala mo; moui (return) m 
amin ang pagiaharl mo, ipagonor (be obeyed) mo ang l6ob t/jo. dito sa lupa 
paran aa Idf^it, Big-idn mo caml r^aidn nang camin cacanin para nang aa 
drao; atpacaualin mo ang amin camhnan (sinsh yagang (as) uinaualan 
bahala (equally) namin sa l6oh ang cmaman (evils) nana macasasa (of exist- 
ence) sa amin; houa^ mo caming {auan nang dt caim) maialo nang tocsd; 
datapouaU (but^ yadm (be delivered) mo caml sa dilan masamd^ 

It may be said that this last version shows a comparative want of familiar- 
ity witli the language, except as might be spoken by servants, etc., and it 
has doubtless suffered by reprinting, the proof having to be read by those 
ignorant of the language, ana hence unable to detect errors except by copy. 

An example of the folklore stories is given in the '*TaIe of the Unlucky 
Rat" from the examples of Mala van languages, published at Batavia, Java, 
in 1868, by J. G. F. Kiedel, the butch philologist. It is as follows: 

Tag. f!^y6n din isang dagft nagwika sa kaniyd 

Pro. Ngeye-dn deen eea&kng dahgd nahaweika sah kahneeud 

Eng. Now indeed (one time) a (one) rat said to himself 

Tag. din, nasakit ang atay niy^: '* Ay^ na ak6'y 

Pro. deen. nahaahkeit ahng nhlie neeydh: '^ Eyeydw \nah ahk&y 

Eng. (self), (being) pained the liver his: ''Not wish now I 

Tag. inatirA dito, sa bay an ko; ak6'y papar6on aakvat 

Pro. mahteha dettohy aah bdy-an koh; ahkdy papard^n ahankydht 
Eng. (to) remain here, in town my; I willgo(and)ascena 

Tag. sa an6 sa bundok, titingin nang ibang bayan, 

Pro. 9ah andh sah hoonddke, teeteengeen nahng eebdhng buy an, 

Eng. somewhere into (the) mountains, looking for another town, 

Tag. s^Um ak6 makakitil nang kaibigan ko, nang pagkain 
Pro. »&hahn ahkdmahkakeita nahng kah-eebeegan koh, nahng vahokdheen 
Eng. where I can see some of friend (s) my, some lood 

Tag. masarap sa dagft, at nang pakabilhav na mabuti.'' 
Pro. mahsahrdhp sah dahgdh, aht nahng pahkahbodhigh nah mahhodtee,** 
Eng. agreeable for rat(s), and some living (of) good.'' 

Tag. Pumar6on ang dagd, lumdkad urao-arao, hangang 
Pro. Poomahrdhon ahng dahgdh, loomdhkahd dhrou^dhrow, hdhngahng 
£ng. Went there the rat, traveling daily, until 

Tag. dumdting sa bay bay, nakit^ isang taklobo 

Pro. dootn&hteeng sah buyhuy, nahkeita eesdhng taJikldhboh 

Eng. arriving at (the) beach, (it) saw a (one) giant clam 

Tag. nakan^a^^ nang kauntt. Nagwika ang dagft: *'An6 

Pro. nahkangdhnga nahng kountee, Nafigweeka ahng dahgdh: **An6h 

Eng. opening-the-mouth (of) a little. Said the rat: ''What 

Tag. it6? Tot6ong walA pa akong nakikittl na 

Pro. eeldhf Tohtdh-ohng wahldh pah ahkdhng nahkeekeHa nah 

£ng. thic^ Truly not yet I am seeing (have seen) now 

6865—06 2 


Ta^;. ganiyan.'* }?gayun poniisok ang daigjSL sa bfbig mmg 
Pn^. *^iAn/rynAn. wjuj/vhu poomdhmke ahng dahffdh 9ah beeUep nahug 
Kng. tlie like. Then entered the rat into mouth of the 

Taj;. Uklobo, tinignan ang lamiUi nit6, ligoni't nasfpit 
Fro. lahklnh^M>, Uenrfgnahn ahng lahmdhn neetdhj ngo&ne^t nahtefpk 
Eng. giant clam, looking at the meat of this, bat was caught 

Tag. i*iyd hangang nasiri ang kaniyang olo, it 

Pn>. ffruAh hdhit-gtmg tmhu^fra ahng kahneey&ng 06I00, aht 

Eng. he until was destroyed the his head, and 

Tag. napiitol ang kaniyang Hig. 
Pnt. nahpi.M'4oir ahng tahneeydhng le^teg, 
Eiig. was cut off the hi? neck. 


Once u]>on a time there was a rat who said to himself, because his liver 
wan out iif onler: ** I do not wish to remain here in this town of mine; I 
will go ami asivmi the mountainp, looking for another town, where I can 
see txuiio of my friends, ^mie agreeable food for rats, and some good liv- 
ing." The rot went out, traveling daily, until arriving at the seashore it 
saw a giant clam iTridacna), with slightly opened mouth. Quoth the 
rat: "What is this? Tnily, I have not seen any thing like this yet.'' Then 
the rot wt-nt into the moiith of the priant clam (iaklobo) to look at the 
nu>at, Imt was caught (hy it) until his head was cracked, and it was cat 
off at the mvk. 


From the fori*gi^ing examples it will be seen that there are three accents 
usimI in Taizalog, the acute iM, the grave (^), and the circumflex ("^ ). 

The ai-utc aiccnt may fall u|>on any syllable, but in Tagalog is generally 
to l>e foinul iip«»n the la.<t (ultima) of the next to the last syllable (penui- 
tinun. The aiute acciMit u}>on a word ending in a vowel indicates that 
the linal v«»wcl has an ojH*n, broad H^)und, and that the suffixed particles 
"'f/*'' and '*/«" prefix an *'/*" when joined to such words. Example: 
yfittjtnuh'i, "I'U'irani;" bifjntnlahan, "elegance;" 6i7f, ** trade, barter;" 
aitf} hilh'in, "naIkii ln.u^'ht." Wonls ending in a amsonant take **««" or 
" ill " i»nly, even it U-arini: the acute accent, which is only written in such 
wonls wlieii oeciirring ujM.»n the i>enultima or antepenultima. Example: 
I'mi'it'in'jy "to l»orn>w:" magdtmuj^ "to lend;" viagjHnitang, ** to lend freely 
(orwitli izood will);" katitairijnn, "debt:" fxiutamj, "credit." In many 
cases the suirixinjr of "Aa//" or "/f//<" draws tlie accent one syllable 
farther towanl the end of the word. Thi.s also applies to **fin" or **tn." 
Kxnmple: Pntan, "idea of killing or death;" btmutayan, "death" (al>- 
straet noun): ninj hunntaiMn, "theplaie of death." The acute accent is 
not written with w«>nis ending in a v(»wel, unless the accent is upon the 
Inial vowel. It may In* taken as a rule that wonls unmarked with an 
accent, if ending' with a consonant, take the accent upon the ultima, 
words endinjr with /* an<l m being exi'Oi)ted. Words en<ling with an unac- 
cented vtiwel or "/<" or "n" generally take the aci*ent uixm the penultima. 
This is also the rule in Spanisli. 

The jrravi* accent in Tagalog mert^ly marks those words ending in a 
vowel, whicli take "«//r' or "///," instea<l of ''luni'' or *'/»»." Thestress 
is not lai<l upon the .syllabh* marked with the grave accent, but upon the 
one j>recetling. Example: Bntn, "child" [\n general), pnmounced 
"bahta," the linal vowel having an obscure sound; k-idMiinau^ **childi8h- 
nes-s" (T)ro. kaJi-hnh-idh-nn). The grave accent is not used with words 
ending in a consonant. 

Tlie circumflex accent is only u.sed upon the linal vowel of those words 
endiuL' with an abrupt, ol>scure vowel sound, ujm)!! which the stress of the 
voice is placed. It adniib* only "an" or "/»r* as a suffix. Example: 
htimnllU'i, **to suffer, to endun*;" huhtHtaan, "suffering, endurance;" 


tumurdf "to signal;** kattiroany ** signaling;** ang tinuroariy ''person or sta- 
tion signaled to.** 

Practice is the essential requirement to become familiar with the accent, 
which is most important in Tagalog, as man^ words are only distinguishea 
by the accent, although differing totally m meaning. Example: As6j 
"smoke;** 4«>, "dog;" gdJUu, "milk;** gai&Sy "path, trail;** mmilang, 
"to rise** (as the sun); mmilang (ultima), "to pass between;** bumcua, 
"to read;** 6uma^, "to moisten.** 

As has been already mentioned there are some 17,0(X) "roots** in the 
Tagalog language, many of which are nouns, pronouns, adverbs, and prep- 
ositions, etc., in themselves. Verbs are generally formed by the use of 
certain particles, of which there are some 17, of which all except one 
(urn) have a definite and indefinite form. Together with the noun and 
adjective forming particles, of which there are several, the possible num- 
ber of intelligible Tagalog words can not be far from 50,000 to 60,000, quite 
sufficient to express any nontechnical ideas of any language whatsoever. 
Yet with all this there are some curious facts about the language and its 
vocabulary. Many general terms can not be expressed in one wonl, but the 
modifications of a general act have many words to express them, some- 
times far more than exist in English or Spanish. A similar parallel is 
offered by the lack of a verb in early English to express the idea of motion 
in general, although Anglo-Saxon had many words for different kinds of 
motion, which are used daily by all English-speaking people. Upon this 
point Brian H. Hodgson, the noted oriental scholar, says, in his work 
upon the aborigines of India, published at Calcutta in 1847, page iii: 
**♦ « « Home-bred words are all very particular, and proportionably 
numerous; while general terms, if more conveniently few, are less charac- 
teristic and very apt to be of exotic (foreign) origin; take the English gen- 
eral term *to move;* it is Latin and one; but of the numerous sorte of 
special motion (to hop, to skip, to jump, to tumble down, to get up, to 
walk, to fly, to creep, to nin, to gallop^ to trot), all are 'genuine Saxon, by 
the soul of Hengist.*** This idea will be more fully explained under 
"The verb.** In addition to such particularizing words, there are also 
many synonyms or words meaning the same thing in Tagalog, many of 
which are local or provincial and are not heard in the same locality. For 
this reason Crawfurd*s remarks upon Tagalog and Visayan, as expressed 
in his "Malay Grammar,** London, 1852, page cxix, are still pertinent. 
He says: 

"The languages of the Philippine Islands may be described, not as copi- 
ous, but wordy. In the state of society in which the natives of the Phihp- 
pines were formed, ideas are considered more in concrete than in abstract, 
and by an importance being attached to trivial matters a profusion springs 
up which, in a lyore advanced state of society, are considered unworthy 
of retention, or which, if retained, would only be productive of perplexity 
and distraction. * * * In Ta^log there are 12 names for the cocoa- 
nat, including its different varieties and conditions as to maturity and 
preparation for use. ♦ ♦ ♦ In the same language there are 11 words to 
express the verb *to boil* (with variations), and 75 (really about 50) for 
the verb *togo.**' 

It may be added that the verb " to carry" with its variations has some 
eighty words to express all combinations m Tagalog, and there are many 
ot^er verbfl which nave been particularized in this manner, which will be 
more fully set forth in the appropriate place. 

The main obiect of this work is to facilitate the acouisition of an ele- 
mentary knowledge of the Tagalog language. It shoulu be borne in mind 
that Tagalog is not constructed on English or Spanish lines, either in gram- 
mar or synUix. The universal tendency upon using a new language is to 
tiaiulate one*s own language word for word, or phrase for phrase, into the 
foreign one. The native may understand, but the result is not elegant. 
Xo language can be learned entirely from books, and to supplement the 
special ne^s of each person constant practice in speaking witn educated or 



intelligent Tagalogs ie necessary. Even with a considerable Tocabalary, 
the American will find difficulty in conveying just what he wants to mj 
in Tagalog, unless he masters the idioms and peculiarities of the language. 
This will not be a very easy task, but, once mastered, the key is held to 
all the Philippine languages, and it might be said to all the Malayan lan- 
guages of the East Indies. 

To those who have had to depend upon ii^norant or untrustworthy inte^ 
preters, a knowledge of the local tongue will be felt to be indispensable, 
and this knowledge will also be a protection to the people ignorant of 
Spanish or English who in many cases have been so unmercifully fleeced 
by unscrupulous interpreters. 

This work has been divided into sections, and the use of technical temu 
has been avoided to as great an extent as possible. Where cases, etc, have 
been u^ed, it has not be^n because such exist in the Tagalog lan^^oage, but 
as an aid to the memory of those who are more or leas familif^r with 
Latin, French, Spanish, Grerman, and other European tongoea. 

The essential peculiarities of Tagalog are its ''roots," which may be 
made into nouns oy the U(<e of the article, into adjectives by other prefixed 
particles, into adverbs in other cases, and finally into verbs by the use of 
a large number of particles; and the great use of the definite, which is 
grammatically a ''passive," and is so treated by all grammarians wbo 
have been consulteu, although many times this " passive" must be trans- 
lated into English by an '^' active" verb. For this reason the terms 
" definite " and "indefinite " have been used in the present work. This 
point is more fully explained under the verb. 

Examples have been given wherever possible, and the vocabulary given 
has lar^rolv lx>en founded on actual experience. It is impossible to invent 
a series oi phrases which will serve lor any two people. The qnestions 
may be given acx^ording to the ])ook, but thean^<wer, coming from a speaker 
of the language, will l>e constructed out of that vastly more extenmve 
vocabulary existing in his brain, and the whole scheme be thrown out of 
joint. For this rea-^on a careful study of the examples of the language and 
the manner of buiMing up the sentences will in the end prove of more 
solid l)enetit than the memorizing of a large number of set phrases, which 
may or may not be appropriate. 

Some phrases suitable to certain situations have been inserted, such as 
matters relating to the pro<!uring of something to eat, directions to the 
house ])oyH, distances to places, the weather, and other similar matters, 
the careful ])erusal of which will enable more complex sentences to be 
uttered with success and a mastery of the idiom acquired. 


What <io you call that (this) in the A)i6 nug paugnlan' niy&n {nitd) 

Tagalog language? irihuuj Tagalog f 

That (This) is calle<l in our ///(in {'itd) ay tinatdwag 

language. amhig irikd. 




How are von? 

Well; and you, sir? 

Not as well as you seem to bt\ 

Good inorning, sir. 

Good morning, sir, to yon. 

Good morning, everyone. 

(iood afternoon (evening), sir (used 

from noon to <lark). 
Good evening (night) (used either 

on meeting or retiring after dark). 

Komnsin ( Como estA) p6 kaydf 

Mahuti; at kai/6 p6f 

Hindi hthhnng inabutt na para ninyd, 

Magaruhntg drao^ p6. 

Magandang drao p6 iiamAn. 

Bigi/dn no silang lahat nang magan- 
dang arao. 

Magandang ha])on })6. {P6 used as 
word of respei»t to both sexes.) 

Magandang g<dn p6. 



How is your lather? (mother?) 
Well» by the grace of God. 

Not very well. 

la that 80? I regret to hear (lit., 

'•feel") it 
How IB the sick one? 

Getting better now. 

Is there anything I can do for you? 

(lit., Have you any orders for me?) 
No, thank yoxx. 
Sit down, sir. 
Thank you. 
I am in a hurry. I wish only to 

speak to Pedro. 
I will regard it as a great favor if you 

will tell Pedro that I was here 

Don't worry about it, sir; I will tell 

Pedro just left this minute. 
Where did he go? 
1 think (It seems) he went to buy 

some cloth. 
I am going away now. 
Are you going? 
Until later. 
Until to-morrow. 
Until day after to-morrow. 
Until we meet again (lit., ** Until we 

see each other''). 
Well, Pm going (lit., **you there"). 
Where are you going? 
I am going nome. 
When are you going back to Manila? 

On Sunday. 

When are you going (down) to 

When are you going up to La 

Come up! Come down! 
Gome in! Get out of here! 
Move on! Clear out! 
Don't move! Come near. 
Move away, all of you. 
Wait a little way tiack. 
Come here! Accompany me. 
Wait a moment Go back (return) 

Gome back here. Go quickly. 

And ang lagay nang amd (ind) mof 

Mabutif sa and nang Poonq (Dio»), 
(Bat'halaj used by some, is of San- 
skrit origin, derived from aixUdra, 
** descent," throuj?h Malay batdra, 
•*a god." There is no connection 
with the Arabic word Alldhy used 
by the Moros for "God," the lat- 
ter being derived from al^ '*the," 
and Ildh, **God," allied to the He- 
brew Eldah; Eldhtm,) 

Dt p6 lubhang maigi, 

PcUdf Kun ganiyan ay dinadamdam 

Maand ang may sahitf or And ang 
lagay nang may saJtUf 

Gumiginhdua na. 

Mayrodn kayong anotnang ipagudtos 
9a dkinf 

Hindi pd, saldmat. 

UmupopO kayd. 


Akd'y nagmamadalt. Ibig ko Idmung 
knumpin si Pedro, 

Malaking dtang na loob kikilalanin 
ko sa inyd kun masabi ninyd kay 
Pedro na akd^y naixirito ngay&n, 

Magirald p6 kayd bahaiaU sasabihin ko 
sa kaniyd. 

Si Pedro* y kaafUls Idmang, 

Saan pumaroonf 

Tila namili nang kaniyang babaroin, 

Yaydo na akd. 
Yaydo kayd naf 
Hangang mamayd. 
Hangang bukas. 
Hangang makalawd. 
Hangang tayo ynagkitd, 

Diydn ka na. 

Saan ka parorodnf 

Akd*y pajxisabdhay. 

Kailan kayd uuxit (magbabalik) sa 

Maynild. f 
Sa Lingo (Domingo). 
Kailan kayd luluas sa Maynild, f 

Kailan kayd susuba sa La Laguna t 

Pumanhik kaf Manaog kaf 

Pumdsok kayd ! Lumabds ka dito ! 

Lumdkad! Sulong. 

Honag kang gagalao! LumdpU ka. 

Lumayd kayo. 

Utnurong ka nang kaunti sa likurdn. 

Pumarito kaf Samahan mo akd. 

Magantay ka sandalt Muut ka na. 

Bumalik ka dini. Magmadali ka. 



Get out of there! Don't ran! Umails ka divdn ! Houag tumalM! 

They do not wish to. Nandyao gild. 

I did not wiflh to. He wishes to. Ndyao akd. Siyd Ung, 

1 don't know. I can not understand Auan ko. Di akd naaiaman ang 
what you said. *i?Mi6i ninyd. 


Driver, take me to the Walled City. 

Go by Palacio street (Calle Palacio). 
Htraight ahead. Look out! 
Go to the side. Stop! 
To the rirfit. To the left. 
Slowly. Whoa! 

I^et US fco by this road. 
Which is tlie shorter of the two? " 
This is shorter than that. 
< Are we far away yet? 
We are near now. 
What is the distance from 

the river? 
Three hours riding, seven walking. 

What are you doing there? 

I am gettinff water, sir. 

Is this good water? Yes, sir. 

What is your occupation? 

Housebuilder, sir. 

Where do yon live? 

My house is here, sir. 

Wnere are you from? 

I live in the country. 

I am from the mountains, sir. 

Where is the town (pueblo)? 

I can not tell you. 

Show me the road leading to the 

I want you to go with us to show us 

the road (trail). 
Don't be afraid and don't try to run 

If von guide us well, you will be paid 

for your trouble. 

Ask that person there where there is 
a spring or well. 

What are you looking for? 

I am looking for . 

Go across the river as far as the 

I want a blacksmith (horseshoer). 

I want a saddler (leather worker). 

I need a banca (canoe) with outrig- 

One large enough to hold twenty- 
live people. 

Cochero, ihcUid mo akd 8a loob nang 

Tumuloy ka sa daan nang Palacio. 
Main id ( derecho ) . Tabi ! ( Qiitdao ! ) 
Tumabl ka. Humintd ka {para). 
Sa kanan (mano). Sa kaliivd (fliUa). 
Uinayhinay (d^pacio). Luayltiay. 

(This latter to horse, etc.) 
Magtuloy tayo sa daang U6. 
Alin ang kUong maikst m dalatcdf 
lalong maikst sa ro6n. 
opa ba tayof 
^%/9fia tayo. 
ng layo tmUd dito hangang sa 

Tatlong ora^ kung cabayohin^pitd kung 

And ang ginagawd mo diydnf 
Akd^y naigibf p6. 
Mabiiti ba itong tiibigf Opd. 
Alin kayd ang iyong kaiunghdanf 
Anloaaiie^ j}6. 
Saon ka namamayanf 
Ang bdhay ko^ p6f dito. 
Toga man kaf 
AkS^y namamahay sn bukid. 
Tagn htm d ok akd^ p6. 
Saan narodn ang bayan? 
Hindi ko naahimang sabihin sa inyd. 
Iturbmosa dkin ang daang patungo 

sa hay an. 
Ihig kong sumama ka sa amin para 

itarb ang daan {gatds). 
Ilouag kang mat&kot at houag kang 

Kung iturb mong maigi^ ay magka- 

kamtam ka nang kaujxihdn sa iyong 

Itanong mo donn sa tduong (mamd) 

iydn kun saun mayroon isang bukal 

6 haU'm. 
And ang hinahdnap mo/ 

Ilumahdnap ak6 nang . 

Tawirin mo ang Hog at lumdkad ka 

hangang m saiTf/d-daan. 
Ihig ko nang imng panday (taga pag- 

la gay nang hdkal sa cabayo). 
Ihig ko nang isang mananaht nang 

Mat (talabartero). 
KailaiT[ian ko isang bangkd na may 

Imng malakl na viakakadald nang 

isang dalawang poud't limang ka- 



Steer straight for the ship. Ituid mo ana fomky&n. 

Land there at that point. ImtscU mo dodn sa ddkong iydn. 

Do not land where it is very muddy. Hotiag hang mmatscU m kaputikan. 

Don't make a noise at the landing Houag hang magingay sapagsaUaL 


Port! Starboard I Stop! *Sia kaliwd! Sa kanan! Hintd fia/ 

Go ahead! Astern! Sulongna! IJrong! 

See that everything of mine is taken Inbatan mo na lahai ang dking kasan- 

down to the boat. kapan may padald sa sasahydn. 

Pat everything into the cart. Ilagay mo lahat aa carretdn. 

Wrap something around that bundle SapirUin mo iydng balutan at bakd 

so it will not get wet hasd. 

Set that basket down here; I want Ilagay mo dito iydng tampipi; may- 

to get something out of it. roon akd kukunin. 

Unfasten this cord. TastaHn mo iUmg luhid. 

From here to Manila, how many Buhat dito hangang sa Maynild, ilang 

hours by road (walking)? _ . oras lakarin nang daanf 

How is the weather? ^^^^^^^^^^^^V^ panahdnt 

The weather is fine. ^^^^K^^^S^fl^ng panahdn. 

The weather is bad. ^^^^^^^ Masamd ang panahdn. 

We are in the dry season now. Na sa tagdrao tayo iigaydn. 

We are having the wet season now. Na sa taguldn tayo rTgaydn, , 

The sun is bea>ming obscured. Nagdidilim ang drao, (Arao also 

means **day.") 
There is much fog. May mardming idap. 

Is it going to rain? Vnldn bagdf 

It looks like it. Tila p6. 

It has been raining fearfully all dav. Katakottdkot nauldn sa maghdpong 

The rain is coming down now. Bumuhugsd na ang uldn. 

Give him the umbrella. Ihigay mo sa kaniyd ang pdyong. 

It is thundering and lightening. Kumuhilog at humikidlat. 

A bolt struck that tree. Isang lijitik ay nahulog sa iyang kdhoy 

The wind is increasing. Lumalakds ang hangin. 

It is possible that this may turn into Mardhil itd ay mauut sa bagyd. 

a typhoon (hurricane). 
Come in under the shelter of this Pumdsok kayd sa silong nitong bdhay, 

The moon is rising now. SnmisUang na ang buan. 

The stars are coming out. Sumisilang na ang maiwd bifuin. 

Look and see if it is raining, because Ti^ndn mo kun umuulanj at aalU na 

I must go now. akd. 

Come back here at sunset (lit., At Pagluhog nang drao^ ay magbalik ka 

setting of the sun, return here). dint. 

It is growing dark. Dumidilim na. 

It is growing light. Lumilhvdnag na, 


I must say good-by to you now. PaAlam nap6 akd sa inyd. 

Why must you go? Sit down first. Bdkit ka nagpapadlamf Maupd ka 


I can not sit down, because I am in Ilindt akd makauupd sapagkaH akd^y 

a hurry. nagmamadalt 

Ajid where are you going? At saan ka paroroonf 

I am ^ing to see a friend who is Makikipagkitd akd sa isa kong kaibigan 

leaving for Manila to-morrow. aalls pasasa Maynild hdkas. 

I will come back later. Magbabalik akd mamayd. 



We will see each other in the after- Magkikitd. tayo aa hapan. 

Good-by. Actios {Sp,). 


May God euard you. 
Mav God help yon. 
God be with yon. 

Dios ang umingal m in yd. 
Dios ang tumulong «a inyd, 
Dios ang sumama sa inyd. 


Get me something to eat; I am hun- Bigydn mo akd nang haunting maka" 

gry. lain; nagugutum ak6. 

Get me a drink; I am thirsty. Painumin mo akd; nauuhao ak6. 

What do yon wish to eat? And ang ibig ninyon^ kaninf 

Whatever you have. Kun and mayroon diydn. 

Would you like roiujt chicken? Ibig ninyd ang inihao na sisiuf 

Yes, and a little wine. Oo, at kauniing dlak. 

What else would you like? And pa ang ihig ninydt 

Give me some eggs, if there are any. Bigydn mo akd nang iUog kun mayroorw 

Note.— See list for things to eat, pp. 2S-29 and 39-40. 

The meal is nice. 
Wash (wipe) this plate. 

I have eaten enough. 

Eat some more, sir. 

Just a bit more. 

Only a bite more. 

I am satiateil now. 

Don*t give me anything more. 

Bring some water to wash the hands. 

Masarap ang pagkain. 

Uugasan {kuskusin) mo itongmanlo 

(pingdn) itd. 
Marami akong kinain, 
Kumain pa kuyd p6, 
Kapiraso pa. 
Isa na Idmang subo. 
Busog lui akd. 
Hooiig na p6 ninyd akong bigydn nang 

Magdald ka nang tUbig paghdgas nmig 

kamay. ( Idiomatic expr. is: Isang 

tabong (cocoanut shell) iubig.) 


Shall I get the clean clothes now? 

No, bring me a towel and soap first, 
I am going to take a bath. 

Get some water and put it in the 

bath tub. 
The bath is ready, sir. 
Benigno, put some water in the 

wa^li basin. 
Lay out a shirt, a pair of trousers, 

and a coat. 
Khaki, sir? No, white clothes. 
Bring me my shoes. 
Hand me that cap. 
Get a handkerchief out of the trunk 

Open that door. Shut the window. 

Take care of the house; I am going 
for a walk. 

Ibig ninyong ikuha ko kayd nang dam it 

na malinisf 
Houag^ dalhdn mo muna akd nang 

i»ang pamdhid at mbdn at akd ay 

Kumuha ka nang tubig at Hagay mo 

sa paliguan. 
Ang paliguan p6 ay handd na. 
Benigno J lagydn mo nang tubig ang 
, hilamomn. 
Ikiiha mo akd nang isang bard, isang 

saldiral at i.*<ang americana. 
Kaki p6t Ilouag^ damit na maputt. 
Dalhin nto sa akin ang sapUi. 
IdhtU mo sa dhin iyang gorra iydn. 
Maglabd^ ka nang isang panyo sa 

Buksdn mo iyang pinid iydn. Finddn 

(>kirhdn) mo ang darungauan (bin- 
IngaXan mo ang bdhay; at akd ay 




•ne calls, say that I will be 


me is it? 

Q o'clock, sir. 

le up later, at six; don't for- 

hat 1 tell you (lit, **my or- 


^t up, sir; it is six now. 

know o! a good barbei^ 

3 one, sir, I know well. 

all on him and tell him to 

a good razor. 

know how to shave well? 
. All right, shave me. 
hurt you, sir? 
} all right, 

wish it very short, sir? 
re it a little long, 
uch do I owe you? 

ou like, sir; what you wish. 

luch a month, shaving me 
other day? 

esos, sir. Then come, begin- 
^ith to-morrow. 
IS a man downstairs who 
8 to work for you as a serv- 

a to come up. 

ju any recommendations? 


ire you from? 

[alolos, sir. 

i are you? 

I married? Yes, sir. 

>u father and mother yet? 

I have not. 
re and I (we) will pay you 
care for it five pesos a month, 
: this does not suit you, look 
other place. 

! falling into bad habits, 
r a su&titute right now. 

e impertinent. 

ill! or Shut up! 

is your employer? 

)t nere, sir. 

ou know where he went to? 

^hat time will he be back? 

fter eight o'clock. 

I, when he comes, that I have 


. the tailor? 

t does not fit well. 

Kurt may ginomang pumaritOf sahihin 

mong na ak6*y nuidaling babalik. 
^noiig oras nat 
A las cinco na p6, 
Gmiigin mo ak6 mamayang dlas seis; 

hovjog mong kalUimutan ang bilin 

Qumi&ingp6 kayd; d las sets na. 
May naHkilcUa kang mabuting mang- 

angdhit (barbero)f 
May isd p6 akmig nakikUalang mabiiti. 
Kun gaydn ay tauagin mo at sahihin 

mong magdald nang mcdmting labasa 

Marunong kang umdhit na mabutif 
Ov6, Kun gayOn^ ahiiin mo ak6. 
Nasasaktdn p6 kaydt 
Hindtj ganiydn nga ana mabiUi. 
Gupiiin mo ang huhok ko. 
Ib\g po ninyong sagad na sagadt 
Houag^ pabayaan mong mahabd-habd, 
Magkano (gaano) ang ihahayad ko sa 

Kayd p6 ang hahala; ang loobinpd 

Magkanong ibig mo bnanan, sa iuing 

ikalawang drao ay aafiitan mo akot 
Tatlong piso^ p6. Kun gaydn ay 

pumardo ka muld bdkas. 
May isang tduo sa ibabd na ibig mag- 

paalUa sa inyd. 

Sabihin mong pumanhiL 

May taglay ka kalunayanf 

Mayroon akd p6. 

Toga saan ka? 

Taga Malolos^ p6. 

Mayroon ka nang Hang tadnf 

May asdua kat Op6. 

May amd^t ind par 

Hindi p6. Wald p6, 

Tujnird ka at uupahdn kitd kun ibig 

mo nan^ limang plso isang buan, 

at kun hxndt humdnap ka nang ibang 

Masarnd ang pinagkaratihan mo. 
Humdnap ka nang kahalili mo ngaydn 

Houag kang magpaya^mot. 
Houag kang maingay/ 
Nasaan ang panginoon mot 
Wold p6 rito. 

Di mo naalaman kun saan naparoonf 
Hindi p6. 

Anong oras siyd babalikf 
Mamayang makd d las ocho. 
Sabihin mo kun dumdling na akd'y 

naparito dito. 
Ikdo ba ang mananahif 
Jtong damit na iid ay hindt maigi ang 



I taam, 

Art Toa teachiDjr Ecjdi^b? 

What dkl yoa teati-h tht$ nv>niiii)^ 

I tao^t aritiuDetJc. 

When 4u\ they write any Engti^h? 

They have written some within a few 

I wwh to rent a house. 

I shall (je here some time — several 

montlu} at lea^st. 
I wuh to rent from month to month. 
I will paj yoa in a<;lvance. 
A long time, A short time. 

I will go there. 

What do thej»e men want? 

They winh to speak to yoa. 

What do you ( thou ) want? 

What is your name? 

Is that work finished yet that I told 

you to do? 
Not yet, nir. Then, when? 
To-morrow, nir. 
How imich irt this (all)? 
How for €»ggfi? 
Thj'R* Ih no answer. 
Wait, I am goin^ to write a letter to 

your employer. 
I am under gre^t obligations to you. 

Don't mention it (lit., It is nothing). 

You an* mintaken. 

It iH th<* truth. 

It iH a lie. 

ThiH woman, nir, is asking that her 
hunhand l>e released. 

Trll her to state her rea"on for ask- 

Who, among you, know this woman? 

Tell me what vou did to Pedro. 


Tell uie the truth, for if you do not I 

shall s<'nd you to the guanlhouse 

Whv did you leave the l)arraok8 

without permission? 
Fell Pedro that he is wanted by the 

What you did was far from the duty 

(orders) of a soldier. 


>) bnfd bagd 

Alio htfomff midral (iiimird) nimfo 

A^ imiara! irtatrd) kdy arittmgtka. 
Kmiask fHrngmikld Af(i*jr wwng inglh. 
SHtkgmHUu tUd'y womq kamuiJtaUang 

PAg to Uaug hakay pmtpak&n^ 

Akuy matiiird dmt w%ardhii mangd 

Um^ buat: 
Ihig ko umupa hnang-biuat, 
Maiojuuna ang hayad. 
Mahahang ptjnahun, Maikmngpana- 

Ptirorotm oiro doon. 
And ang ibig nitong mangd tduof 
Jbig ntld makij)tigumip ta iny6. 
And ang ihig mof 
An6 ang patlgaJan mof 
Yari na ttaaa ang gawang ipinagbUii» 

ko M iy6r 
Hindi j)n, ]}6. At kaildnf 
Bukos p6. 
Mntjknno itof 
Maghakano ang illog f 
Walnng mgod. 
yiaghiiiUnj kci, susidai ak6 nang isang 

mlat sn iijong paiTginoon, 
Akopo ay nutlaki ang pagpapasaldrnat 

sa inyo. 
WaM p6 anoman. 
Kayd p6 malt, 
ltd ang katotoohanan. 
lU'/y kahnlaan. 
Itong hahaye itu p6 ay namamanhik 

wtpnwahhx ang kaniyang asdua. 
Ipasaysay mo »a kaniyd ang katuiran 

na hlnihinytniyd. 
Sinn ha sa inyo ang nakakikilaJa m 

hahaye itof 
Mayaaysay ka sa akin nang nmiTgd 

ynuiird mo kay Pedro. 
Sahihin mo any katotoohanan, at kun 

hind'i, ipapadaid kitd sa hilangoan. 

Ano't ikao lumahd^ sa cuartel nang 

v'idany sahi. 
Sahihin mo kay Pedro "^a siyd^y kai- 

laiTyan nany rnpitdn. 
^ll^^i^U gimiuxi mo iydn ay laban sa 

mawjd utos nang isang sundaio. 


You should always inspect the men's Dadaiaoin ninyd tui-tuing ang manbd 

quarters. kinakdagydn nang mangd sundcuo. 

The rifles (carbines) must be cleaned DdpcU linisin drao-drao ang mangd 

daily. oaril. 

I especially warn you not to be off PInagbihUing ko sa iyd mahigpit na 

guard (or relax vigilance) for a houag ka mallbang isang mandalL 


The obligation of a soldier on duty Naudkol sa sundah taga-pagtdnod 

is to know the orders. umain ang maiigd ilUos. 

Those who disobey orders will re- Ang lutnabau sa tUos ko ay kakanUdn 

ceive severe punishment. nanp mahigpit na parum. 

Tell the people here that what we Sabihin mo sa toga dito na ang dting 

are sroing to do is for the benefit gagawin ay kagalingan nang lahat. 

of all. 

Section One. 


Thomas. Tomds, Father. Amd. 

Mary. }faria. Mother. Ind, 

John. Juan. Brother. Kapatid na lalaki.^ 

Joseph. Josi. Sister. Kapatid na babaye,<^ 


In Tagalog a definite article, /SV, is generally prefixed to the names of 
persons related to or well known to the speaker or writer, as well as with 
names of relationship and terms of affection. It may also be used with the 
proper name of an animal belonging to the speaker. In some of the prov- 
mces diminutives are much used, especially within the family. There are 
also some terms of this nature largely used in Sangley, or Chmese-Tagalog 
families, which are taken from Chinese and will be discussed later. 

Older brother (firstborn). Koya; si koya, my elder brother. The pro- 
noun is understood. 
Elder brother. Mannng (Manila and southern dialect). 

Elder sister. Kakd; si kakd^ my elder sister. 

My father. Si amd. 

My mother. Si iud. 

This article is declined as follows: 

Nom. John. Si Juan. 

Gen. John's; of John. Ni Juan; kay Juan. 

Dat. To, for John. ) 

Ace. John. > Kay Juan. 

Abl. From, with, John. J 

When a name is to be used in the plural, the article of common nouns, 
ang^ is used, as: The Johns, ang manqd Juan; or better, ang mangd Una- 
tdwag na Juan (those who are called John). 

The article of names has a special plural when coupled with certain 
words, as of the parents, relatives, companions, or the home. 

Nom. John and his . Sind Juan. 

Gen. The field of John and his family. Ang bukid nind Juan. 
Dat. To, for, Pedro and his 

Ace, The field of Pedro and his family. \ Ang kand Pedrong bukid, 
Abl. From, by, Pedro and his . 


a These two words are derived from " patid " and " ka," meaning " tied with the same 
coid." '* Lalakl " is nude and " batiaye '^ in/emaU. In Tagalog. however, separate words 
are used to express "elder brother," " elder slater," " younger brother or sister." etc. 


Si is not used alone before names of persons unrelated to the speaker 
except in a joking way; in other cases the Spanish word Seflor, Mr., is 
inserted as: 8i Sefior Blanco^ Mr. Blanco. Gm6o is the Tagalog equiva- 
lent for * * Sefior ' ' and Gat for * ' Don. ' ' Dayang is * * Dofla. * ' These terms 
are used by purists. 


The article ang (the) is used with all common nouns, and also those 
proper nouns not applying to persons — i. e., the Pasig, ang Pdsig; thePhilip- 

f lines, a7ig Filipinos. Sometimes this article is prefixed to names of cities, 
t is declined both in the singular and plural, the word mangd (sign of 
plurality) being added in the latter case. 


Nom. sing. The. Ang. 

Gen. sing. Of the. Nang; m. 

Dat. sing. To, for, the. Sa. 

Ace. sing. The. Nang; sa, 

Abl. sing. From, by, the. Nang; sa. 

Nom. plur. The. Ang mangd,. 

Gen. plur. Of the. A any mangd; sa maiigd. 

Dat. plur. To, for, the. Sa mangd. 

Ace. plur. The. Nang mangd; sa marigd. 

Abl. plur. From, with, the. Sa mangd; nang mangd. 

The forms ni and nind of the article of names and the form nang of the 
article of common nouns are used when a word in the genitive follows a 
nominative in the sentence. Examples: The mother of John, ang ind ni 
Juan; the house of Thomas and his family, ang hdhay nind Tbmds; the 
darkness of the night, aiig kadilimdn nang gab-l. 

The forms kay^ hand, and sa are used with the genitive when inserted 
between the nominat|\^e article and its noun. Examples: The mother of 
John, ang kay Juan \nd; the house of Thomas and his family, ang kand 
Tomds bdhay; the darkness of the night, ang sa gab-i na kadilimdn. Ancient 
Greek has almost this same construction. 


Nouns in the Tagalog language are of various classes; some are root 
words, whose derivation can not be traced; others are built up from roots, 
and many are foreign words, mainly from Spanish, although some Arabic 
and Sanskrit words are to be found, as well as a few from Chinese and 
other sources. They are indeclinable, and the sign of plurality is generally 
indicated by the word marTgd placed before the noun pluralized. 


Banana (in general). Sdging. 

Bed. Papag. 

Bedquilt. Kumot. 

Beer. Serbesa (from Sp., cerreza). 

Blanket. Mania (Sp. ). 

Bread. Tindpay (from tdpay, idea of knead- 

ing, i. e., kneadeci). 

Breadfruit tree. Antipolo; tipolo. A nti polo is also a 

town in Rizal Province. 

ButtPr- lard pfantira (Sp., mantera). 

uuiier, lara. \Mantigml(a (Sp., mantequiUa). 

Carabao (buffalo). K&Utbao; damdlag; anuang. First is 


Cat, domestic. Pusa. Musang is Malay for the palm- 

cat ( Paradox urus). 



:en; fowL 


mat oil. 


ing vessel. 

dried salt. 


(in general). 

! fruit, 

swine, domestic. 


; light 




e spoon. 








Qg pig- 

potato; yam. 





; liquor. 


Quiso (8p., queso). 


Baid, Also applied to house boy, 

servant (muchacho). 
Siculate (Mex. Sp., chocolate; from 

Niog. Also applied to cocoa palm. 

Cape (Sp., c(^S; from Arabic, qahioa). 
Tirabusdn (Sp., tirabuzdn), 
Mais (Sp., malz). 
Baca (Sp., vaca), 
Tam (Sp.). 

Asa; ay am (rare), Bicol word. 
Lumbo; inuman (from inum, idea of 



Panduro (Sp., tenedor), 

Cabayo (Sp., caballo), 

IlnoAn (from itoo, light). 

Bamg ( Sp. , petate, ) . 
Suha; lukban. 
Lara; paminta. (Possibly from Sp., 


Palay, Also applied to the grain. 

Tuna (from Sp., topar^ **to butt"). 
Sabdn (Sp.f jabdn). 
Cuchara (Sp. ). 
BuA: (Manila ) ; Kulig ( Laguna ) ; Buldo 

An'ical (Sp., nziicar). Old name 

tubd, no w . V ^ugar-cane. ' ' 
Cnmote (S{)!)! l^rge yam, u6t. 
Ihilan^; lamesa. 
Kampit (Sp,tCtw.hillo). 
Sa (Chinese, cha), 
Vaso (Sp.). 

Alak (from Arabic, araq). 



The definite and indefinite idea nuw throoghoat the Tigalog hmgnaffe, 
and the worda " to have," " not to have," "there is," "there is not/'ete., 
bring this oat plainly. 


Have (all pereons: indef.). 


Have yon (some, any)? 

Have you (that, this)? 

Indeed; truly. 





Perhaps; eome; any. 

There is not 



Yea, sir. 

You (thou). 

Jfayrdon (lit., -'there is;** from ddon, 
•* there.") 

iMa^roonf ^yfayrvon ka bagaf /Mayf 
4X0 m iyof I lit-. Is with you?) 
Ako (form with nominative; indef.). 

Saiapi. Also means hall peso. 
Akin; ko flatter poetfijced to def- 

4 And; ano haffdf 


Art (form with nominative; indef.). 

Akin requires the article and is prefixed or else is preceded bv a 

Ex. : 1. Have you anv rice? (^Mayrdon kang biga»f) Have you that rice? 
UNa m iyo iydng bigasf) 2. Yes, sir, I have some (Op6, mayrdtm akd). 
Yes, sir, I have it ( Op6, na 9a Akin) . 

Mayrdon is used when asking in a general way, as in the market or in a 
shop or store; na m is U8e<i when a certain objwt i-s meant. Magkano means 
"how much;" aydo is "I do not wish to," and alin is "which." With 
the foregoing vocabulary all ordinarv comforts and supplies, except cloth- 
ing, can Ik? at^ked for throughout the provinces where Tagalog is under- 
stood!, and these words are generally understood throughout the island of 
I^uzon on account of their general similarity to the corresponding words 
in other dialects. The most conspicuous exception is tuhig (water) , which 
is danum in Pampango, Ilocano, and otlier northern dialects of Luzon. 




Custom; habit. 
Day; sun. 
Dress; clothes. 
Kverv day; daily 
(Jantli (:riitcrrt). 

(flatus; crystal. 

\jwr\i,v jar. 


Americano (,Sp. ); Taga America. 

{Bofen (Sp., botella). 
A mo. 
Dam it. 

Sidf>p ( Enjjjlii^h e(|uivalent, 3 quarts 
I5 pints— ;^.1701). 


Gihto (said to Ije from dialectical 
Chinese, kin, "jiold," and tith, 
"of," i. e., "golden;" Malay, 
aman; native gold, baiitok). 

Tintero (Sp. ). 


Snbimin (Malay, chdrmin). 








Son or danghter (child). 


Well (noun). 

Sex is distinguished by the addition of the words lalakiy * ' male, ' ' or habAye^ 

Part (Sp., vadre). 

Singging (Malay, chinchin), 

Pi/aJE: ( Malay , peroik, also place name ) . 


Espaflol (Sp.); Taga Castila (from 

Castillaf Castile). 

eex IS aistmeuisnea oy tne adaition of the words lalakx, * ' male, ' ' or babaye, 
* * female, * ' witn the appropriate * * tie " ( ^, no, orna ) . Ex. : My sibter ( Ang 
(iking kapatid na babdye — lit, The my female brother); my son {ang aking 
anak na lalaki). 

A few words indicate sex in themselves, but they are very limited in 
number compared with those in Aryan languages. 




Girl, unmarried woman. 

Male; man. 

Female; woman. 

Miss; young lady. 



Young man; bachelor; vouth. 
Young man, unmarried.* 




BMye}^"^ '^ '^ adjectives. 




Mamct. Principally heard in Ma- 
Binaici (from batiX, boy, child). 
Bagongtduo (lit, '*new man"). 

THE **TIKS.'* 

The Tagalog ear dislikes the sequence of certain sounds, and for this 
reason three ties, *'/7," *'ng,** and **?ia/' are much used, more especially 
when an adjective is prefixed to a noun or a noun in the genitive modifies 
another in the nominative. 

The tie **gr" is added to guch an adjective or nominative if ending in 
**n," the genitive following the nominative modified. The adjective may 
precede the noun, as in English, or follow it, an is generally the case in 
Spanish. The tie is added to the noun in the latter case, if it ends 
in **n.*' Ex.: (1) Wisdom {karunungan); great (dakild); great wisdom 
{karunungangdakild), (2) Silver (pUak); uunor {salamln) ; silver mirror 
(salaminp pilak). 

The Ue **wo** is added to words ending in a vowel not precede<i by 
another vowel, f/, as in tduOf is considered as a consonant, as it sounds 
nearly like the English ** w," and is written with this letter by many natives. 
Ex.: A dutiful child (Batang mdba\i)\ a bottle of wine (isting boteng &lak)\ 
a beautiful woman (bab&yeng magandd); a Manila man {isang tduong 

The tie ** na " is used when the first word ends in any consonant (except 
"n") or in a diphthong. Ex.: A dutiful child {MahaU na batd), a large 
house (bdhay na malc&); clear water (lubtg na malmao, or malinao ua 


There is no special indefinite article (a or an) in Tagalog, although the 
numeral isd (one) may be used. 



The English verb "to be" mmy be eometimee represented in Tkoalog by 
the particle ay, changins to 'y for euphony after a preceding vowel. Ex.: 
Is your horse white? TiAng cabai/o mo'y maputir) The bird la singing 
(Ang ibon ag hungmuhuni). Generally in ooestions the verb "to be*' is 
understood/as: iAv6 augmbi mof (What dia yon say? — lit.. What the said 
your?). The verb is understood also when a predicate adjective is used; 
as, M y father is good ( Malniti ang dking amd ). Aft also connects t wo clauses 
of equal force; as. If John comes, go away {Kun damdting si Juan, ay 
umali* ka). 


The particle ay is invariable as to tense, the idea of past or future being 
expressed by the answer or an adverb of time. Ex. : Beautiful then, she is 
is ugly now {^fagam^d shfd no6nj ngay&n ay pAngit). You will be sick 
to-morrow (Bukns ikAo aymcunkit). 

Some Tagalog writers use ai in place of ay^ especially in newspaper work. 


Aty changing to ^/, under the same circumstances in which ay changes 
to \v, represents the conjunction "and." It may also stand for "because" 
in compound sentences when a cause is expressed; as, I can not read, 
because I have no spectacles {Hindi akd makahabaMi 9apagka '< unM akong 

When ay and at are followed by a monosyllable, as m, the vowel is not 

Section Two. 

The pnncii)al interrogative pn)nouns ami a<lverl>s are as follows: 

What? /.!»('>/ When? jK'aildnf 

Who? /Shwf How? iPapa-andf 

Which? /AUtif How much (value)? ^Magkanof 

Where? ^Siidn.^ How many? sllanf 

Ano, " what," ii* declined as follows: 


Norn. What? jAnof No change. 

Gen. Of what? /.Sa ano? /Xang an6f No change. 

Dat. To, for what? /.S^i an6f No change. 

Ace. What? ^S(i andf ^'Xang andf No change. 

Abl. (Loc. ) In, at what? /Sa anof No change. 

Abl. (Ins.) By, with what? /Xang andf No change. 

This pronoun is used only in speaking of things, never of persons. The 
expression /Ano kaf means " What do you want?" 
}Sinof, "who," is declined as follows: 


Nom. Who? /Sinof iSino-sinof 

Gen. Whose, of whom. /Knniiwf /Xhwf<i /Kanikaninof ^ 

Other cases. /Sa haninof /Sa kanikaninof 

rtl'sed only when the question is not heanl or understood. 

f* Not kaiiino-knnino, as the first form Is a irisyllable. and in Tagalog repetitions stop at 
at the second nylluble (or letter, as the case may be). Kaninong mangd and sa kaninon*;/ 
are also u.sed. 


Example: ^Kaninong bukid iydnf (Whose field is that?); Sa capUdn 
(Of the mayor or presidente) ; 4 Nino f (Whose?); Sa capUdn m hayan (Of 
the mayor of the town) . 

From early times the title of the mayor of a town or "pueblo" was 
**gobemadorcillo'* (little jrovernor). This name was changed in 1893 to 
**capit^n municipal," and m 1898 to ''presidente," a name retained under 
American administration. Natives ignorant of Spanish generally speak of 
the **capitan." 

While and is used for things and sino for persons, the pronoun alin, 
" which," is used for both. It is declined: 








Of which? 

iSa alinf jNang alinf 

iSa alin-alinf 


To, for what? 

^Sa alinf 

jSa alin-alinf 



^Sa alinf ^Nang alinf 

/Sa alin-alinf 


In, at which? 

iSa alinf 

/Sa alin-alinf 


By, with, etc., 


iNang alinf 

/Nang alin-alinf 

Sa with the genitive is preferable in answering a question. /Aling mangdf 
may also be used for the plural. Tlie form /MangA alinf is rather inele- 
gant. Thus the English ** Which men?" may be expressed by ^'/Alin- 
cding tduof*^ ^'/Alin mangd tduof*^ or ''/Mangd'aling tduof^^ 


These adverbs present no peculiarities and are used as in Enelish. 
fllanf (How many?) obviates the use of the pluralizing particle manga; as, 
/Jiang tduof (How many men?) In inquiring the price of an article in the 
market the restrictive form magkakano is generally used; as, *'/Maaka- 
kano ang mangd ithgf*^ ( How much for eggs?) But in speaking of purchas- 
ing the entire quantity magkano is right. 


These are four in Tagalog, two being translated by "this," another by 
"that," and the fourth by the poetic fonn '*yon." 

The first is yari, and means *'this." Strictly speaking, it should be used 
only to indicate an object nearer to the speaker than to the {)er8on 
addressed, but practically this pronoun is dropping out of use. For exam- 
ple, Yaring dking puso (This heart of mine), while more exact, is little 
hesLrd, the following word U6 (this) being used: itong dking puso. Yeri is 
a dialectical form. 

YaH is declined as follows: 








Yaring mangd. 


Of this. 

Niri; dinisa. 

Of these. 

Niring mangd. 


To, for this. 

Dini sa. 

To, for these. 

Dini sa mangd. 



Niri; dini sa. 


Niring maiujdy etc. 


At, in this. 

Dim sa. 

At, in these. 

Dini sa mangd. 


By, with this. 


By, with these. 

Niring inawjd. 

The ordinary word meaning '^this" is iM, and strictly denotes objects or 
persons equidistant from both speaker and the person spoken to. It is 
declined as follows: 


Nom. This. lid. These. Itong matTgd. 

Gen. Of this. Nitd; ditd sa. Of thene. Nitong mangd, etc. 

Dat. To, for this. Dito sa. To, for these. Dito sa mangd. 

0856—06 ^3 



Ace. This. Dito m. 

Loc. At, in this. Dito «a. 
Ins. By, with this. Nit6. 

These. Dito sa mangd. 

At, in these. Dito ta mat^. 
By, with these. Nilong man^. 

"That*' is expressed in Tagalog by the word tydn, especially when 
applied to persons or objects nearer to the person spoken to than to the 
speaker, it is declined as follows: 



Norn. That. 
Gen. Of that. 
Dat. To, for that. 
Ace. That. 
Loc. At, in that. 

Ins. Bv, with that. Niydn. 


]^iydn; diydn sa, 
Diydn sa. 
Niydn; diydn sa. 
Niydn sa. 


Of those. 

To, for those. 


At, in those. 

By, with those. 

lyang mai^. 
Niyang mangd^ etc. 
Diydn $a man^. 
Niyang manga y etc. 
Niydn 8a man^. 
Niyang manga. 

The fourth demonstrative pronoun, yadn, means **yon,** although at 
present generally translated **that." Yodn is a dialectical form. It is 

81 NO r LA R. 


Nom. Yon (that). Ya6n. 

Gen. Of yon. Niyadn; ddon tta. 

Dat. To, for yon. D6on sa. 

Ace. Yon. Niyadn; ddon sa. 

Loc. At, in yon. Ddonsa. 

Ins. By, withyon. A%a(5w. 

Yon (those) 

Of yon. 

To, for yon. 


At, in yon. 

YadnOf mai^fd, 

Niyaong mangd, etc. 

Ddon sa mangd, 

'Niyaong mangd. 

Ddon sa manga. 

By, with yon. Niyaong mari^. 

The particle sa follows the pronoun in each case as given, but it, as well 
as the pluralizing particle maiiijdy belongs to the person or object pointed 
out, and not to tne pronoun. 

These four demon.«trative8 have a peculiar idiomatic use in that they are 
repeated in the nominative after the |)er8on or object modified as well as 
prece<ling the same, in the latter e>ase aj^reeing in number and case. 
Examples: This man { Itoiig tauvuy it6) , both nominative singular. That 
boy's clothes {Aug damit niynuy batnng iydu)\ first, genitive singular; 
second, nominative singular. That man (haw) much money {Maraming 
salapt niyang {niyaong) t(\uougya6n); lit., "much money of that man that" 
((lenerally with nominative.) Jtong hulaklak na itd^y diydn sa batang iydn 
(This flower is for that chihl). In the second clause, the first pronoun is 
in dative and second in nominative. 


From the four demonstrative pronouns the following adverbs of place 
are derived : 

Here (close to the speaker). Dini. 

Here. Dito. 

There (near addressee). Diydn. 

Yonder (there). Ddon. 

With the particle /m prefixed to this class of adverbs, the idea of **ani,'* 
"is," "are" is expressed. It will be noted that the initial letter d is soft- 
ened to r where the particle na is used alone. 

Am, is or are here (close). Narlni; luiyeri; nandini. 

Am, is or are here (more distant). Narito; naito; imndito. 
Am, is or are there. Nariydn; naiynn; nandiydn. 

Am, is or are yonder. Naroon; nayadn; nandodn. 

The particle dt with the same class of adverbs expresses the past tense* 
For euphony the particle changes to do with do6n. 


Was or were here (close). Dirini, 

Was or were here (more diBtant). Dirito. 

Was or were there. Di.iyan. 

Was or were yonder. Dordon. 

The particle pa with the same adverbs expresses the future. 

Will be here (close). Parini. 

Will be here (more distant). Parito. 

Will be there. n Pariyan. 

Will be yonder. Pardon. 

Ex. Is the man there? (Nariydn bagd ang tduof) He is not here, he is 
yonder ( Wald rito, nardon). Where is Captain Tino (Faustino)? {/Sadn 
nardon [or naandodn] Si CapitAn Tinot) In Manila (Na»a ifaynild). 
When will he come back? (/Kailan babalikf) Possibly within a week 
( Marahil »a isaito lingd) . Who is his agent? (^Sino ang kaniyang kathvalat) 
The Chinaman Ong Laico on Calle Real (Ang ingik Ong Laico sa Calle Real). 
Thank you (Saldmat). 


The personal pronouns in Tasalog should receive careful studv, as they 
exhibit several peculiarities of form and use not fouml in English. 

All peruonal pronouns have two genitives, the first form being prefixed 
to the accompanying noun or verb, and the second form suffixed. The 
two forms are not used in the same clause, the second form being preferre<l 
with the definite form of the verb. However, if the sentence commences 
with an adverb or negative particle, or is a question, the suffixed forms are 
placed before the verb. 

The first person plural, like nearly all Malayan and Melanesian lan- 
guages, has two forms, the first corresponding to '* we*' in a general sense, 
and including those spoken to, while tlie second form, like the editorial 
** we," excludes the person or persons addressed. There are also two 
dual forms, which may be translated *'thou and I.'* These dual forms 
have the same meaning, the first form, kitd^ being more general and used 
in Manila, Rizal, Laguna, Batangas, and Tayabas, while the second form, 
kcUAf is found in Bulacan, Nueva £c*ija, and the Tagalog-speaking parts of 
Pampanga and Tarlac. Bataan probably follows Bulacan in style, while 
in Cavite the usage is like that of Manila, etc. 

In the use of the personal pronouns together, a very different order is 
observed from English. The Tagalog order is *^I (we), thou (you), and 
he, she (they)," ignoring the European custom of mentioning the listener 
fiirst, the absent or third person next, and the speaker last The Tagalog 
says **I and vou, **I and John," and with the further peculiarity that 
he literally pluralizes the first pronoun and gives the pronoun or noun 
following its genitive form in the correct number. The examples will 
explain the matter more clearly. 

The use of the word *'it" is avoided by spneakers of Tagalog. It is only 
used when objects are personified, as in stories, etc. See example. 


Nom. I. Akd. 

Gen. Of me; my. iiifcin (prefix); A:o (suffix). 

Othercases. To, for, with, by me. *Sa dkin. 


Nom. We (and you). Tayo, 

Gen. Of us; our (and your). Attn (prefix); natin (suffix). 

Othercases. To, for, etc., us (and Sa atin. 





Norn. We (not yoa). 

lien. Of iw; our. 

Other cases. To, for. etc., us. 


Amln (prefix); namin (suffix). 

Sa iiM in. 


Southern form. 

Norn. We (thou and I h KitA. 

i ien. i >f us \ we two » : our. Kanila ( p. ) ; la ( 8. ). 

Other cases. To, for. etc., us { we two ). Sn kanila. 

Northern fonn. 


--lid (p.); to (bl). 
Sa aid. 


Xom. Thou (voiiK 

Cfen. Of thee", thy (vour). 

Other cases. To. for, etc., thee. 

JkAo (prefix); ka (suffix). 
Jtf6 (prefix); mo (suffix). 
•Si i'vS. 

The singular forms are still used in Tagalog, and when respect is intended, 
instead ofuiiin); the plural, as in English, or the third person singular, as 
in Spanish, thr particle ;m is suffixi'il. The plural, also with p/i, is used 
in >lanila in many cases, but may be said to be an imitation of the Spanish 


Norn. You. 

lien. Of you: your. 

Other cases. To." for. etc., you. 


/ii.VM (prefix); uinffd (suffix). 
•Si in yd. 

THlftn PEMl^N SIMirLAl. 

Xom. He, she. Ni»/<t. 

lien. l»fhiin: other: his: her. A"'i»»»\u i prefix); uiyd (suflix). 

Other t-ases. To. for. eti'..hiin. her. Ni hnin/n. 

THlRli rKRS«»N PI.I KAI.. 

Xi-m. They. 

lien. Of them: tlwir. 

< Klier cases. Them ti>. for. etc. >. 

KtjiiUii ipn'tix»; rii/d ^suffix). 
Si h.iniUi. 


Tliese are the same a.** the l^»nitives i»i the wrs^^nal pnmouns and ar^ 
L^neral-y |ireit.ile'l hy the article 'iwj. The ft.»l lowing examples will sho^' 

the variation!*: 
Mv ehiia. 

Thy rhilil. 

His or her ehiKl. 

< hir «ii \v»' t\\«» rhild. 

* >iir rhil'iren all of «i*? ■. 

< hir i-hiM ' t'Xolii«iin>: i>«-rH)n sjioken 

t'l , 

Y«»nr ihil»l. 
Tht-ir rhild. 

\Airi •II." I: ht. 

\.1n;/ 'th'tk II f. 

i Ati'j A';. ••.•;ii'/ (inak'. 

\.l/i_'; 'I • '.K •iiji't. 

j-li<;/ /:'/" /;/.•;'/ JKii\ Anff tiiang nnak. 

\Aii'j 'f'l'V f ;. Antj nnak ta. 

{Aii'j 'I/- /I ; f'PW.i ttmtk. 
.1/1'/ '■'/ :>i oitnk ifit'n. 
I An*j 'tin in-/ ft link. 

' • » ^ 

\ An-f in *."!•'] 'tifik. 

' • » ■ 

Kl;i'7 'titiik N«i,»;i», 
\Aii'j kani.'-tiri 'inak. 
\Anif nimk nild. 


nitive forms of the personal pronouns used without a following 
expressed with the article prefixed to the first genitive: 

Aug dkin, 
3ur8). Any %y6. 

\. Ang kaniyd, 

Aug atin (incl. ) ; ang amin (excl). 

Ang inyd. 

Afig kanild, 

lique cases with sa and the article also express this idea in Taga- 
line, Ang sa dkin. 

Aea of two pronouns, or a pronoun with a noun: 

(lit. " we of him " ). Kami niyd. 

his father (they and his Sild nang kaniyang amd. 

• « 

II (we of John). Kami ni Juan. 

they (you of them). Kay 6 nild. 

we (we of you). Kami ninyd. 

lila and large towns these forms are dying out of use, the Spanish 

ig used; as, John and I {Si Juan at ako), 

id the use of siydy ** it," to indicate an inanimate object, the word 

jpeated, or in answering a question a particle like nga (certainly) 
Ex.: ^Mabutl bagd ang lakatdn [a species of banana]? (Is the 

;ood?) Mabutl nga (Certainly [it is] good). 

linl person plural is used to indicate great respect for a person, 

with p6f and for still greater respect the word kamahalan (ex- 
is used. Your excellency (Ang inyong kamahalan). 


ame is applied to several adverbs, and also to some words which 
»elves have no signification, which, added to pronouns, give them 
ive or indefinite meaning. The following are the ones most gen- 
3d. None begin a sentence except kayd. 

es. Din. (i?m after preceding vowel.) 

* Bagd. (Generally with indef. verb.) 
for that Kayd. (May begin sentence.) 


Man din. (Southern Tagalog only.) 
Na. (No meaning alone. ) 
ifgani. (Southern Tagalog; Bicol, 

griani. ) 
I Is that so! Paid. (Idea of wonder inherent.) 

o; for, etc. Sa. (Greatly used word.) 

now; plenty. Siydna. 

\k6rin; akdman (IraysieM). Siydnga{\ie^ ^^exiaAn\y). Ikdo man 

)). Ang sarin kong cabayo (my own horse). 06 nga (yes, cer- 
Hindt tiga (no, indeed). 

irticle man attached to an interrogative pronoun converts the lat- 

an indefinite pronoun. Ex.: Anoman (anything; something), 
(whichever; whatever). Sinoman (whoever). Sinomong tduo 


particles follow the monosyllabic pronouns, but precede the pro- 
more than one syllable, unless the latter begin the sentence, in 

Be the particle follows, as with a monosyllabic pronoun. 




Besides anoman^ alinman^ and ginoman^ there are several words which 
may be used at times as indefinite pronouns, and at other times with 
adverbial force. One of these is b&lang, which can be used for "some, any, 
and each." Ex.: Bdiang drao (someday). Ang bdlang tduo (any man). 
Sa hdlang isd (for each one). 

The numeral M (one), prefixed to words like drao (day), and tduo 
(man) gives the idea of **one day; a certain man,** etc. It is also used 
with demonstrative pronouns as follows: Jtong M (this one); diydn m ud 
(to that other); do6n sa isd (to that other yonder). Isd may be said to 
mean "other" among a few persons or objects, and the word ihd to desig- 
nate "other" among many. Ibang tduo (another man completely) ; itfong 
bdgay (another thing entirely). 

Taiian, dilariy and jKiwa mean everyone, "all" (persons). "All" (the 
adjective) is lahat. 


These pronouns, which in English are expressed by "which," "that,," 
" who," etc., are expressed very obscurely in Tagalogby means of the article 
angj and the ties ^, ng, and no. The Tagalog al.««o has a negative relative 
pronoun r/f, translated by "who not," "which not," "that not." Ex.: 

He who is well behaved is esteemed by all. Ang mabuting dsal ay minama- 

hal nang lahat. 

The book which you are reading is mine. Ang Ubrong binabasa mo'y dkin. 

I did not receive the letter that you sent Dt ko tinangap ang sukU na ipi- 

to me. nadald mo m dkiu. 

The man who does not di8ol>ey the lawn Ang tduong di f^ima»alan«ang 

will V)e protected in his rights?. i}>agtnUmgol nang hatuiran. 

The phrase "each other" is expresseil by the particle nagka or magkoj 
t^)gether with the appropriate noun or pronoun. Ex.: Do they under- 
stand each other? ^Nngknkaalam »ild (from ahivi)f. 

The principal difficulty the student of Tagalog will experience here will 
he in the use of the exclusive and inclusive forms of the first person plu- 
ral. The dual forms are little use<l in the nominative, but are quite fre- 
(luently heard in the obliijue and accusative cases. As has been reinarke<l. 
tnese exclusive and inclusive forms are to l)e fiuind in nearly all the 
Malayan languaj^es, while in some of the allied Melanesian tongues, such 
as that of Fiji, the second and third persons have not only a dual, but a 
triple form, in addition to the ordinary plural. The Fijian first |>er8on has 
also the dual and triple forms, each of which are divided into an inclusive 
and exclusive form. 

Section Three. 

As has been previously explained, Tagalog root words may be iised as 
nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in many cases, either by'the context 
or particles affixed or suffixed. Naturally the noun is generally the sim- 
plest form, es|)et'ially the concrete noun, hut seeondarv or derivative 
nouns may be (juite coinjilicated in their construction. Tlie noun is inva- 
riable in form, numl>er being expn»ssed by the word mcuTijd, or such words 
as "all," "many," etc., for the j)lural. ('a«es are ex i)rea«ed by the article 
or prepositions, and no gender is known. A great many common nouns 
in Tagalog are derived from the Spanish, a few from Cliinese, and some 
from Arai)ie and Sanskrit sources. All Tagalog nouns may be used with 
the article. 

The words for meals and some articles of food, cooking utensils, etc., 
vegetables, and fruit^^ not previously mentioned are: 




Midday meal. 

Afternoon lunch. 


Meat or iish. 


Salted fish sauce. 

Salty or sour sauce. 

Ang almusal (Sp., almueno^. 

Angtanghalian(tanghalif midday). 

Ang minindal (Sp., merienda). 

Ang fmpunan (hapon, afternoon). 

Ang vlam (Sp., inanda). 

Ang scUfdo. 

Ang patls, 

Ang savsnuan. {Sumansnn iiiean;^ to 
dip any viand into liquid. The 
word "chowchow," po often 
heard, is Cantonese or Hongkong 
** pigeon English " for food.) 

Ang achara {Sp.f achia, from Hin- 
dustani, achar^ pickles). 

A7ig inihao. ( Umihao means ** to 
roast or bake".) 

Ang manga hita nang palakA, 

Lamdn nang biik. 

Lamdn nang iwd. 

Lam&n nang habuy dam 6; lamdn nang 

Ang iabuyo. 

Ang ilik. 


Ang gansd (Sansk., hammy not from 
Sp. gansa, a goose). 

Ang para real (Sp. ). 

Ang pavo (Sp. ). 

Ang kalufHtti (Sansk. pardpdtl; old 
Tag., palapali). 

Ang hatobato munti. 

Ang balombalonan (from balon^ a 

well; dim.). 

Ang atay. 

Ang puso. 

A nq dalag (commonest fish in Luzon ; 
^ph iocephalus ) . 

The following fish are much eaten in Luzon, and, having no English 
names, the Spanish names are given instead: 

The paropano (Scatophagtis). Ang kitang (best fish in Luzon). 

The sdhaio (Caranx). Aug bangds (large fish, common). 

The corvina ( Osteochilus ) . Ang apdhap. 

The liza. A ng bdnak. 

The boca-dulce. Ang mamaJi. 

The sea products eaten are: 

The oyster. 

The shell of a clam, etc. 

Pickles (bamboo sprouts, etc.). 

Roasted or baked meat or fish (what 

baked or roasted). 
Frogs* legs. 
Sucking pig. 
Wild pork. 

The jungle fowl. 

The duck. 

The tree duck {Dendrocygna), 

The goose. 

The peacock. 
The turkey. 
The pigeon. 

The dove. 
The gizzard. 

The liver. 

The heart. 

The mudfish; walking fish. 

The lobster. 
The crab. 
The small crab. 
The shrimp. 

The mongo. 
The radish. 
The eggplant 

Ang talabd, 

Ang kabibi. {Macabebe is said to 
mean "Where there are clams," 
Pampangan dialect.) 

Ang ulang. 

Ang alimaiTgo. 

Ang alimasag. 

Ang h ipon. ( Bilarajig-hipon^ village, 
northeast of Manila, "shrimp- 
drying place.") 

Ang gulay. 

Ang baldtong. 

Ang labands (Sp., rabano), 

Ang talong. 



The gabe root 
The peanut. 

The lomboy (fruit). 

The suayava. 

The lime. 

The apple. 

The watermelon. 

The cook. 

The kitchen (cooking place). 

Crumbe; scrape. 

The dining room. 

The ti replace. 

Earthen cooking pot (medium size). 

Small earthen pot. 

Large earthen pot 

The frying pan. 

The gridiron (broiler). 

The pittther. 

Earthen pitcher. 

The bowl. 

The jug. 

The t«ltct»llar. 

The pot cover. 
The sieve. 
The bamboo tray. 
The basket 
The fire. 
Tlie pmoke. 

The tirewtxMl. 

Ang gabi. 

Ang mani, Arawak (West Indian) 

Ang duhat. 

Ang bayafxis. 

A ng dAyap. 

Ang mansanas (Sp., mamana). 

Ang pakudn, 

Ang taga patTgonna. 

Ang pinaglultUoan (from luid, cook- 


Ang silid na kaJcandn. 

Ang kalAn; ang dapoj. 

Ang pidnyok. 

Ang anglit, 

Ang kating-an. 

Ang kauxili. 

Ang ihaoan (from umihaOf to roast). 

Ang bfiiTgd; ang galong. 

Ang tdfm. 

Ang mankok. 

Ang mro (Sp., jarro). 

{Ang jHjOiasinan (from asUiy salt). 
Ang xfAtik (without cover). 
Ang tuntong. 
Ang hithtuj. 
Ang bih\o. 
Ang bdhtl. 
Ang (ipny. 

An(j (1.^6 {aiTcnt distinguishes from 
aAo, do^), 

The house. 

Ang k'dhoff unug pawjatong. 

The names for parts of a house, hous<*h(»ld furniture and articles, and 
onlinary tools, are given in the following list. Many of these names are 
iKjrrowed from the Si^anish language: 

Aug fHihai/ (iM>ssibly Sansk., tYi/aya, 
an inclosure, througli Malay, M/W, 
hall, court; but the Hawaiian is 
li(th\ and there are similar words 
in other Polynesian dialects). 

A}HJ nilul. 

Aug fxiligudu ( lit, '* bathing plac»e" ). 

Aug nnunii (Sp. word). 


Ang jfin((Kiu. 

Aug huih; aug durntTjjauau (from 
duiTtjno, to appear at the winciow); 
a\tg hhifaud (Sp. ) . 

Aug hitgdau. 

Aug hdifdiig. 

Aug t<nutn<in (lit., " watch tower* ' ). 

Aug hnligi. 

Aug iKititlt'iu. 

AlHf htihoug. 

Aug hd'ishisnu. 
Aug d/o/ntt. 
Aug Ki'ilnh. 
Aug lynlnlmlpahdn. 
Auq (/ni/(ihmhl. 

The room. 
The bathroom. 
The water-closet 
The door. 
The doorwav. 
The window. 

The ladder (stairway). 

Tin; step (round of ladder). 

The balcony. 

T1h» po-1 or pillar. 

The kitchen platform. 

The roof. 

The gable. 

Th(» gutter piin-. 

The corner. 

The window sill. 

The balustrade. 


The prop (against winds). 
The partition (wall). 
The hoosehold furniture. 
The chair. 

The table. 

The clothes prees (or cupboard). 

The bed. 

The quilt. 

The pillow. 

The head (ofabed). 

The mosquito net. 

The wash basin. 

The water. 

The soap. 

The towel. 

Tlie tooth brush (foreign). 

The tooth brush (native). 

The clothes bnish. 

The pail or bucket 

The night vessel. 

The trunk. 

The valise. 

The key. 

The pai'llock. 

The lock. 


The needle. 

The pin. 

Silk thread. 

The scissors. 

The thimble. 

The eyeglasses or spectacles. 

The picture; image. 

The household shrine. 

Wick for couoanut-oil lamp. 

Coooanut-oil lamp. 

The lamp (old name). 

Ang nihay. 

Aiig dingding. 

Ang ktaankapan m bdhay. 

Ana uupdn (from umup6, i 




A)ig liimesa (Sp., maa). 

Aug tiaipanaji. 

Ang p&pag; ang cama (Sp.). 

Ang k^mot. 

Ang inan. 

Ang otohAu; ang olondn, 

Ang kiUaaib6, 

Ang hitamii»iiit, 

Ang tubig. 

Ang tubon (Sp,, jabdn). 

Aug balindiuig. 

Ang crpillo nang tigipin (cepiilo, Sp. 

for "brush"). 
Ang »ipan. 

Ang cepiUo nang damU. 
Ang timbd. 

Ang ihi&n; ang orinoln (Sp. ). 
Ang cab&n. 

Ang candado (Sp. 

Angterradara (Sp. woni). 

SinAiid (spun, from tulid, spin). 

Ang kardgvm. 

Ang atpiUr (Sp., alfiler). 

SiuMid tia tuUii (Sansk., i&lra). 

Ang gunling. 

Ang dedal (Sp. word). 

Ang Kilaiidn ta inatd. 

Ang laraiiaii. 

Ang allar la bihay. 

Ang lirurim (from Chinese iienliim).' 

Angtinghmj (from Chinese), 

Ang tombo; ang timho (I/aodn now 

The flint 
The steel. 
The tinder. 
Kice mill (hand). 
The rice mortar. 

The rice pestle. 
The small mortar. 
The small pestle. 

The sadiron (flatiron). 

North American Indians). 
Ang pingkian; ang panlingan (local). 
Ang birudon. 
Ang l&Uig. 

Ang gitiiigdn (from giling, to grind). 
Ang tutong (said to he origin of 

"Luzon," but improbable). 
Ang halo. 

Ang liuonglutoMfaii. 
Ang kainay (lit, "the hand" or 

Ang ivnliJi (verb wil!x means "to re- 

Ang pan^mko*. 

Ang paiTgnhil (from Ahit, to shave: 

also called ang labaia, from Sp. 

nawya, razor). 
Ang prinra (Sp., la prenia, the 




Th»r ci'>thoHne. 

Tr.»- ta'rii«»-i'ith. 

T:.»- ir-ifi 'i-^l in «-«>k tijfhtinz . 

• hin-- ^ tw in*-. 

J: IK A'.ri'. 

Tht- • fiaiii :p.»ii **r ip.iM. etr. ■. 

Yan! •■! hi*'!""** . 


I'hiiit any -iiwii pUnt extvpt rice . 
Th»' inw. 
TJi*' -ir-kle. 

TliH -ita'!!'. 

Th*.* j>iii«vi> small ■. 

T\i*' \\-^. 

Th*- siw. 
Tin* li.iriiifit'r. 

Th«* h;iT<h<-t. 
'[ h«' SIX. 
Till- ii!;i'i'v 
Tin: ili;-*''. 

'I lj»- U'i'JfT. 

Tfi*' u':'i»i«'t. 
'Mm- li!.-. 

'I'h»* 'A-p'iii turrnrr. 
Th«' anvil. 

'I'Im- i.rill«*y. 

'1 In* liMT. 

Th«.* nilf. 

Thi- |»i<k. 

TIm' j»aint«T's «»rrariH.Mit(*r'? H'liffuM. 

Tin- i»lovv. 

Tlic iicaiii. 
TIm- j»lo\\.-lian*. 

TIh' LMii«linu' «'>r«i. 

TIh' \i«kr. 
Tin- nri' fu'hl. 

Ar^ ttmhan^j^n (from iimba$ig, t 
vrahti: alff> on^ loloro (locil 
«or«t I. 

A H*j AiiM/^iwii V from $ampay, to hang 

<:*ac dothet i. 
Ang wvtnUi i Sp. word ;. 
An'j ItSri. 
.Inj^ /uriyoli I need to lure or deiw 

Aug iubid. 

Aug pigL 


Aug t'lmad: ang kauar \ rmre). 

Ana tanikald ^old word, talihihi). 

i;»ihny<m (lit., "hoiwe place*')- 

IfUamarwH (lit.. "pUmtpUce'M. 


A ug fb«r7»i/. 

Aug hirit. 

Aug jMtnnh^ ^from mlok, V* rtir op). 

Aug }¥tla 1 Sp. word ). 

.4 II;; lit mi (Ctiiues^ word). 

Aug g»ito I Sp. wonl K 

vlfi<;/«ii/iiiAi7 nuny tomillo { lit., •'screw 

--lu// Ingtiri, 
Aug ftamokpok (from jtokpok, to 


J 11'/ ftiithno. 

Aug f.Hilal:*fl. 

Ang hUmn. 

Aug paii. 

Au'j paughuiuA, 

Aug wij^hI. 


Aug lalikan. 

Aug palifian. 

Aw; tnfof. 

Ang kalo. 

Aug )ninghikuat. 

Aug ifunu. 

Aug pauiU'iit (from ^ukat^ to meas- 

Aug ftik'o (Sp., y>ico). 

-I I/'/ pnhtfHihi. 

\.\ng nrnru (Sp., nrtido), 

\Aiig sinhud. 

Auu in jit. 

Aug ,'tiigiid (also means "tine 

Aug fMuititik'{(Tom pitik, to wiap with 
a liiuM. 

Aug pand. 

Aug pnUigmi. 

IVai'tically all names ronnecte<i with Inirst'H are Spanish, as that animal 
ua.M iriti«Miii«<-«l hy th»* S|»aniar«ls. Hn<l tlit* Spanish terniH an.* un^lerjstood 
tiironjrliout the Tajraloj: rt»gioii. The following words, however, are uaeful 
in connection with ftfeiling animalt?: 



rice straw. 
(a]s<^ honey), 
ith ]^)eake<l roof. 

Sdcate; cUtmd (Sp., zacate). 


Puld (much fed to native ponies). 



all names of edifices are also Spanish, but a few are native, or 
n invented from other words. Among them are: 





Pi mill (water 


or steam 

Ang simbahan (from si mf^Oy to hear 
mass; »a/«6a, to a<lore or worship). 
Ang tribunal (Sp. word). 
Ang eaatela (Sp. wonl). 
' BAhay riang araldn ( from (ira/, to 

teach; to learn). 
Ang k(im6iig 
Angbigamn (from bigdSf hulled rice). 

r mill. 

Ang aliliHan. 


Ang alakdn (from alnk^ wine). 


Ang apugan ( from dpug, lime) . 

Ang dampa; ang hibu; ang sauong 

(mountain term). 


Ang campo santo ( Sp. ) ; ang libingan 

(Tagalog word also means 



Angsabniigan (from sabung^ to fight 

with gamecocks. ) 


Aiig langsaiTgan. 

• . 

Ang ddan. 

or path. 

Ang ladnd^; agttU (narrow trail). 


Holaos; onog; bagnos. 


Ang jAldpU. 


Ang bukirdn; ana hacienda (Sp.). 
Tubigan (from tubig^ water). 


boo bridge. 

Ang tulay. 

Ang tulay na kawayan. 

r-cane field. 

Ang tnbohdn (from tubd^ sugar cane). 

; the country. 

Ang hnkid. 


Ang jtndalnyan. 

)r prison. 

A ng bilanijuan, ( Bilibid is the Mani la 

prison only. ) 

dhouse or sentry box. 

Ang bantayan (from bantay^ guard) . 


Ang tatagudn. 


Ang pangdo. 


Ang sdnog. 


Ang alipaio. 

ire (signal fire). 

Ang sigd. 

anut grove. 

Ang nidgan. 

i\ or inclosure. 

Ang karurukan. 


Ang labangdn. 


Ang sahig. 

pertaining to the office are generally Spanish, although a few 
of native origin. The most useful are: 


Ojnsina (Sp., q/?anrt). 

Sulatdn; 6'/*cn(on o (Sp. ). 

Ldfro (Sp. ). 

Bibhoteca (Sp.). 

Sdlat (from Arabic 8*urat, a chapter 

of the Koran). 
Pandlat; pluma (Sp. ). 



Lapis; Mp«{8p.). 




Tintmis jiuld. 


AdmmijUrat:iSn de eorreot (Sp.). 


Letter i-arrier. 

Tele([rai)ll office. 

E*bici6n dt lAigr^fm (Sp). 


TtUarama (Hy,.). 

Messenirer ( orderly ) . 

MAifaiiM df rtcrihir | Sp. ) . 


Paper (in general). 

riiiiei (Spanish heavy i^per, papd 

dr barhii ). 
Marydnt iSp.. common sand ia iu- 

Bloltinf; mmt (Rne). 

Ih<i"10<. Tap.). 

Blottinu paper. 

Pa,x-t SfCtnih- (Sp.)- 

The globe (world). 

Tlie earth (ground). 

Ang lupa. 

The mountain. 

Ang ba,„ht. 

The Wll. 

Aug bnngbl. 

Angburol; gulcd. 


Ang hlal. 

The tave. 

Aiiglungd; ang yu^ib. 

Aug Hang. 

The hole. 


The prairiei pasture, meadow. 
The forest; tniil)er. 

Ang pArattg. 

Aii'j jpUml. 

Thelmsh; the brush. 

The bamlHM thicket. 

Ang kaiiwiiiiinin. 

The reedy Kr""i'd. 

Ang hiKilaMiAn. 

The rcK'kv iilaci- (t|uarrv). 

Ami fiii'ihtiii. 

Tlie thorn Imah. 

Ang biliivknn. 

The MiLirlilvciiuntrv. 

Aug kiiiiiilikfm{{Tampiitik, mud). 

The si.rijij^. 

Any liiitiil niing tiibig. 


The river. 

Aii'i il'K}. 

Sourre of river. 


The Imrik. 

Aug jmiiffpang. 

Aug iMi'iniiAing. 

The |H»il- 

Aug ihiiiiit [dnnum, water in Pam- 

]Kinpi, IJoeano, etc.). 

The |.onil. 

A.i'i»il<x;{'&log, river in Bicol). 


A,i., I;li; ang hl,6n (J/o/nWi, 

K«a.[ipy place). 

The riivinc or gukh. 


Ti.lewaler creek. 

Sii/,<i (Sp., fsler-i). 

Deep (nntonlalile) rivtfr. 

Iluii im imitiilim. 

The de|.lh. 

.\..\i h,l.,l„u,m. 

The shiillowne!"' ("( river) 

The ferrv. 

Thei.Tivhimt ornift. 

TI»-U-i,d((,f river). 

.ini/WoiaJw) "cnrve"). 

/"'•iili: mill i/iuipii; ang alimpugd. 

I ilAhiii tKing iliiy. 

! il'ilim miiig iloi} nn pulikaii. 



y or rocky bottom. 




ding place. 




eak current. 

fhere there is a strong cur- 

uth (of a river). 

Arig ildlim nang Hog im batohdn. 

Ang \16lim nang Hog na buhaiTginan. 

Pangpojig na matarik. 

Pangpang na mababd, 

Ang dalampagigan, 

Ang agos. 


Mahinang agos. 

Matining agos. 


Ang VHtva (also **bar.*' Sahang 
means "mouth" also; Bicol '**a- 

og is rich in nautical terms, the principal ones being as follows: 

:h sea; ocean. 

Ang laot (Malay, laut). 

(in general). 

Ang ddgat. 





ling in the sea. 


8 themselves. 

KaragaUm (singular in Tagalog). 
D. toR. 


Malaragat. T>. to R. 


Tubig na dlat. 


Tiibig 7ia tabang. 

ist (sea or lake). 

Ang bay bay. 



iken rock. 

Ang bat 6 sa ddgat. 

t; anchorage; landing 



Ang dodiigan (also dalampasiqan). 
Ang wawa (also ** mouth of a river'* ). 


Ang canal (Sp. word). 


A ng fHirol ( from Sp. ,faro). 
AngifjOjTgos; ang Tanguay is Cavite 

>e; point. 

Point only). 




A ng vmld. 


A ng look. 


A ng alon. 


Ang alagouak (rare) ; ang marea (Sp. 
word) . 


Ang laki. 


Ang kati. 


Ang kitid. 

irincipal terms for the heavenly bodies, divisions of time, points of 
ipass, and meteorological phenomena are as follows: 

i; the day. 

on; the month. 








Ang drao. ( Bayan is a rare word for 
"day." Ex.: maldlim ang bayan^ 
midday or a great day.) 

Ang budn. 

Ang tadn. 



Manadn; mamanadn. 


Bagong budn. 

{Kabilugan nang budn. 
Palabang budn (rare). 
{Kamatayan nang buan. 
Bugtong (rare). 




The rfar. 

Wdi25: ihe evening star. 

The Pleuile?: the seven stars. 

The inomiDe ^tar. 

The sh«.H>tiii); star. 

The itiniet. 

The sky. 

The hreak of dav. 

The ilawn. 

The niominjr. 


AfteniiMm evening*. 


The dayliirht: sunlight. 

MiM>n light. 



I>av Ik? lore vesterdav. 

.V few ilays agt». 

After a while. 

1 Three! days agi>. 

I Ten ) days ago. 

Ang drao. 

Ang bUnin. 

T>u::jiiio dag&t (lit., "light of the 

Attg tola. 

Ang InUalakao. 

Ang hituin mwiy butdot. 

Ang iangit. 

Ang iiwagway, 

Ang madaling drao. 

Ang umaga; aga. 

Ang iatTghali (Malay, tttngith-4tri). 

Ang Kapott. 

Aug gnbi. 

Ang $'nmg nang drao. 

Ang fiuag nang Imdn. 






(Kamaia expresefi 


•* days ago." 
Iftiwf iiugo (corruption of Sp., Do^ 

miwjo, Sunday). 

i )ne wei»k. 

Kvery week, wt»ekly ^adv. \ 

The names of the days are Spanish, Sunday lK»ing called Lhigo, corniptejtl 
om Ihnniufjn. Limio is also used for *'week." The word "minute" 1=* 
So taktMi from Spani^^h, and the word for hour is a corruption of the 
Spani>h wonl hnm. The names of tht' m<»nths, <lays, and other clivigioniS 
of time fn»m Spanish are given Ih'Iow for convenienc*e of the student 














Decern In^r. 

The month of January. 








The l>eginninj:. 

The mid<llc. 

The vni\. 

The hour. 

Watch; clock. 

Half hour. 


Ft brent. 

3ft/ J/O. 








A n(j bunng enero. 

Lingo (from Sp., ilomingo). 





I leruett. 


Aug )nnbi. 

Aug pogitan. 

Ang hitajnL»(in; ang hanf^n. 

A tig orat< (from Sp., hora). 


Kalnhntinq oras. 

MimUo. (Sp. word). 





t wind. 



yn (flood). 

: flash. 

e; typhoon, 



Segundo (Sp. word). 

Ang tagdrao (from AraOy sun). 

Ang (aauldn (from ulAn, rain). 

Atiff kalivHinagan (from liwanag, 
hght; Ilocano, Laoag^ capital of 
Ilocos Norte), noun. 
Ang kadUimdn (from (f//tm, dark), 

Ang kariiimdn. (D. to R.) 

yln^^t/(i^a (also** the north wind'*). 

Ang silanganan (lit., ** rising place," 
sun, etc.). 

Ang habdgat (also **the south wind*M. 

Ang knlunuran (from lunod^ drown). 

Ang amihan. 

Ang hang'm, 

Ang jMnahdn, 

Kapanahonan; also musin. (Kapa- 
nahonan also means ** opportu- 
nity," in some cases.) 

Ang in it. Heat ( abstract ) , Kainitan . 

Ang lamig. Cold (abstract), kcdami- 

Ang iindol, 

Ang hamog. 

Ang alimodm. (Smell of earth after 

Ang ulap. 

Ang alapadp. 

f Rare words are lauanga^ 
a little rain; lawa- 
/^i^xi, a drizzle; anuta^ 
moderate steady rain ; 
tikcUikj gentle, contin- 
uous ram, and lanrok, 
a rain with great 
, drops. 

Isang fnigso nang uldn, 

Ang biihd. 

Ang bahagfiari (lit., **the king's 

Ang kidlat, 

Ang lintik. 

Ang kulog. 

Ang onds. 

Ang baqyd, 

Ang bohauu 

Ang sigwd. 

Ang ipoipo. 

Ang hielo (Sp. word. Also tubig 
na bald malamig or ** cold-stone 

Anggranizo{Sp. word; rare in Philip- 

Ang goot (rare). 

Ang nieve (Sp. word; known from 
books only). 

Ang uldn. 
Ang ambdn. 

logs were originally sea roverH, the heavenly bodies sunk in the sea to 
ly, the "drowning place" for the west. 



Navigation was considerably developed by the Tagalogs prior to the 
arrival of the Spaniards, and a considerable maritime vocabaiary developed 
The words in ordinary use are: 

*' oarsman," 

The vessel. 

The sail. 

The art of sailing; navigation. 

Anyone aboard. 

Sailor; mariner. 


The rudder. 

The compass. 

The mast. 

The yard. 
The outrigger. 
The bow. 
The stem. 
The boat pole. 
The paddle. 
The paddler. 

The oar. 

The oarsman; rower. 




The cover (of boat or canoe). 

The canoe. 

The prau. 

Political and natural subdivisions are as follows, in so far as they pertain 
to social relations: 

Ang sagakydn, 

Ang ldy<ig. 

Ang paglaldyag. 

Ang Mkay ( formerly 

Tagaragat (lit, ** sea dweller"). 
Malim ( Arabic );/)r(ic<ico (Sp.). 
Ang ugit, 

Ang hrujula (Sp. ). 
Ang palo (Sp. word); ang mndong 

Anghatangan (Batangas Province). 
Ang katig. 
Ang do6ng. 

Ang huli nang saaakydn, 
Ang tikin. 
Ang sagwdn. 
Ang Vionanagwdn (S. to N.); (Fil. 

Sp., banquero). 
Ang gdod, 
Ang maiTgagdod, 
Ang pagsagudn. 
Ang pag-gAod, 

Ang pagUvliu (Chinese word, liu). 
Ang hangkd. 
Ang parao. 

Tlie Philippine Islands. 
The Visayan Archipelago. 
The Tagalojr country. 
The Visayan region. 
The province. 

The jurisdiction (of a municipality, 

The court. 

The town. 

The town proper. 

The fellow-townsman. 

The house. 

The neiy:hlK>r. 

The settlement; hamlet. 

The barrio (ward). 

The head man of a barrio. 

The mayor; alcalde. 
The secretary. 

The treasurer. 

Ang kapuluan Filipinos. 

Ang kapuluan Bisayd,. 

Ang katngalugan. 

Aiuj kabisaydan, 

Ang lalawigan (formerly this wortl 

meant ''anchorage," ''port"). 
Aji'j sAkop. 

Ang hokomnn (from hokom, a judp''. 
Arabic hakim, doctor, philoso- 
pher, jud^e). 
Ang haijan (including the rural bar- 
rios) . 
Ang kabayanan (excluding rural bar- 
Anj kabahayan. 
Ana bahaii. 
Ang kitpidbahay. 
Ang intyon (Sp., Ritio). 
\ng barawjay (old word for vessel)- 
Ang ])hIo nang baraiiqay. 
\ng cabeza nang haramjay (Sp- 


ing jfiemlenfe; ang capitdn (Sp.)-_ 
Ang sirretario i«i bayan; ang koidw»- 

{Lililni means "a secret." ) 
Anq tfxorero; ang iaga ingat yaW'*'* 
(lit., the "wealth guarder"). 



• of the town. Aug mugunian bayan (old name for 

the civic head of a town). 
»r part (of town, river, ^/)a )7( (lower piart of same is any 
r'). ibabd). 

nis for metals, mineral^, are mainly native, one or two having a 
rigin. They are: 


Pllak (from. perakf Malayan). 



Patalim (from to/im, an edge). 

Ang baMalani. 

Tingd (from Sanskrit, <^Ta, tin). 

Tingdputi (lit, '* white lead"). 

Azogtie (Sp. ). 

7\imhaga (from Imgaj anything red- 
hot; some say from Sansk. tdmra). 


Grdring (Malay, gadding; orig. 

Balong tagisan. 




tSanyaua (rare); azufre (8p.). 

<tone (magnet). 

copper (alloy). 



iinarv terms used bv fishermen are: 

Arig inaj7gi8d4j (from *>(W, a fish). 
Ang mamiminuii (from hinuit^ a 

Ang mangingisdd. 
Ang baliwdsan. 
Ang pm. 

Ang Ingd (large); ang binuil (small). 
Ang pain. 
Aug dala. 
Ang pukot. 
Ang hobo. 

Ang jxilasd; ang pand (Sansk, ndna.) 
Ang busog. 

'incipal parts of the human body, together with some terms for 
odies, are named as follows: 

rman (trade). 


line or line. 


?; large net. 


>asket for catching fish. 



r, the person. 





(of the head). 

55—06 i 

Ang nlo. 

Ang katauan (from tauOf human be- 
ing, person). 
Ang hntd. 
Ang imndn. 
Ang dugd. 
Ang Hnnhi. 
Ang balat. 

Ang kildbot nang balat, 
Ang bungd. 
Ang utak. 
Ang litid, 
Ang vgnt. 
Ang lamad. 
Ang buhok. 


Hair (pabic). 

B>,l';'i. (lW«iy hair or fMtl 

The crown ot the head. 

Ang trnmbujiaii. 

The temple. 
The forehead. 

Atig pilipitan. 


The eyebrow. 

Ang bUay. 

The eyelid. 

Ang Imbong nang matd (lit., the 

ot Ihe eye). 

The eyelash. 

The eye. 

Ang mat&. 

The pupil of the eye. 

Ang haliutalio. 

The white of the tye. 

Ang hilig Jiang matd. 

The tear duct 

Ang daloi/an naiig Itiha, 

The no«e. 

Ang ilona. 

The lip. 

Ang hbi (probably from 8p., i 
Anghibig (MaUy, bibir, lip). 

The month. 

The chin. 

Ang baha (Sp., iarfco, chin). 

The cheek. 

Ang pinTgl. 

Angbigole (Sp.jold word, m>M 

The niuMache. 

The beanj. 

Aug barban (Sp.; Old words, j 

b<miig, nan-gol). 

The tongue. 

The ear. 

Ang lainga. 

The tooth. 

Ang ngipin. 

The moUr. 

Ang bagang. 
Ang gilagii. 
Ang iTgalingm. 

The enm. 

The hard palate. 

The eoft palate. 

Ang !f ail. 

The throat. 

The larynx. 

Aug gi>l'ii<g-<)utuii<jan (dim. ot 

lu„g. a wheel). 

The lower jaw. 

Aug sibling. 

The Htomarh. 

Aug fiLmiini. 


The amis. 

Aug t'liiibnng. 

The neok. 


The najie of Ihe neck. 


Tiie shouWer. 

A-ig hM-ol. 

The shoulder blade. 

Any UilA'jtit, 

The arm. 

Aug !-oriito (from Sp., //mio). 

Tht' hand. 

Aug tiinmi/ (nleo "arm"). 

The imliii. 

Aug pf'ilii) iiaiig kamag. 

The tinjier. 


The thumb. 

Ang hinlalitti. 

The imlex finger. 

Ang hinlutorfi {from lu(ur6, to 


The middle fiiigei'. 

A,,., ■h,lo (till' r\uA. ihittu: M 

The rini^ finger. 

The little linijer. 

Aug ktit'iiigkiiTfini:. 

The wrirt. 


An-i Mho. 

The nail. 

Awi k»h;. 


Ami Imk/i uang ilalirl. 

Tiie armpit. 

Ann kildil:. 


Ang dih-lih. 

The lvw<,i„. 

The rib. 

Aiig Uuliiing. 

The thorax. 
The abaomen. 
The wniet. 
The lap. 
The 1 i ver. 
TheKa.ll Wadder. 
The kidney. 

The vx-omb (uterus). 

The l»lacenta. 


The p-c^nig. 

The t«s3ticle. 

The E*-«3in. 

The J» i p. 

The l>»aitock. 

The t»^ 5,1,. 

The I»« 

The c«.l (, 
The foot 


Aug lagiliran. 

Ang bagd. 
Ang litud. 
Ang gvlugod. 

The a 


Theni-tinbone; thetihia. 
The sole of the foot. 

*^n»e of the ordinary t 

The cholera. 
The buboniu plague. 
The smallpox. 
S5""ea8 (illiM 

illnen]; pain. 

The fever. 
The chills. 
The headache. 



Aug }iu»6n. 

Aug baifwang. 

Ang piitod. 

Ajig taniluiignu. 


Ang <ipd6. 

Aug Vatd. 


AHghAluiylKitH (lit, "child lioiise"). 



Ang litL 

Any biifiiig. 


Aug bafnkang. 

Aug pigt 

Ang liiiit. 

Atig bintt. 

Ang tiihod. 

Ang iitak-iilak&ii. 

Ang Moil. 

Aug iHid {Sa,nA., pa<la) . 

Ang fAkong. 

Ang bukoiigl'i'ib-ii'i. 

Angl.,„r r.uiijI.'uU. 

Ang I'l/umjmkufi. 

i known to the Ta^logs are naroed aa 

Aug dUera (Sp. word). 

Ang utile bvbinica (Sp. word). 



Ang tagnat (Sp., calfniura). 

Ang pangiki. 

Ang mht Hung alo. 

Ang kabutagdn (from hildg, a blind 

Ang kahirTgilidn (from bitiij!, a <leaf 

Ang knpita<j6n (from pihij, a lanie 

■|ierwjn) . 
Ang kaiAiAdn (fnm 

Aug hilo. 
Ang ubi. 
Aug hikH. 

A ug hnlinQ&yi^)6g. 
Ang iHilitaoi&o. 
Ang tdbag. 

olU, I 



Ang jmmamagd. 
Aug li'ttay. 
Ang pulikat. 
Ang sinok. 
Ang lljtak. 
Aug knlugS, 
Ang alijntiTgd. 
A ng sugat. 

The swelling; inflammation. 

Tlie discoloration; lividity. , 

The cramp. 

The hiccough. 

The corn. 

The wart 

The foot-sore (similar to chilblains). 

The wound or pore. 

The inflammation of the lymphatic Ang knlani. 


The boil. Aug pigsd. 

The pus. Ang nand. 

The Aleppo button (uU»er). Ang agihap. 

The pimple. A)ig tagvlahnj. 

The "dhol)e itch.'* Ang gaits (Sp., sama). 

Articles of clothing have native names, as a whole, but many have also 
been taken from other languages. The leading terms are: 

The clothing; dress. 
The style of dressing. 

The hat. 

The native helmet. 
The coat; shirt. 
The trousers. 

The shoe. 
The drawers. 
The socks. 
The stockings. 
The slii»iK'r.s. 
The skirt 
The underskirt. 
The petticoat string. 
The apron; ovcrskirt. 
The rnff; neckerchief. 
The hanjlkerchief. 

The ril)l)on. 
The mantilla. 
The comb. 
The line comb. 
The I Hit ton. 

The ring. 

The rjirring. 

The rosary (beads). 

The scai)iilar. 

The fan. 
The ])arasol. 
The cane; staff. 
The staff of ofhce. 

The ]>ipe. 

The native pipi* (of leaves). 

The coat of mail. 

Tlie breech-cloth; sash. 

Ann damil. 

Auff pnnannmit (from damit). (n. 

Ang sombaiih (hom. Sp., iiombrfrOj& 

A ng salakoi. 
Ang haro. 
Ang fialaudi (from gehiar (.Arabic), 

Ang snpiri (lit., ** underfoot"). 
Ang cnlzoncUhs (Sp. word). 
Angcalcetines (Sp. word). 
A ng mfffids (Sp. word ). 
Aiig simlds (Sp., rhincln). 
Ang saj/a (Sp., fi<iya). 
^\ng nngnaii (Sp., I'lntgun). 
A)tg pinnigk'is. 
Aug tapin. 
,\iig ((funipfitf. 
Ang pfiinjo (jNIex. Span., pailo, l«iii* 

Aug liMon (Sp. word). 
A)in bimhoiu}. 
Ang iinhhni. 

. I ng Rnytx) (also * ' i)lowshare " ) . 
A)ig hitonPH (Irom Sp., hotODyH l>^^^' 

Ang singsittg (Malay, rhinchin). 
Ang hikao. 
Ang cnmlnR (fromSp., ruevta, a l>ei^" 

of the rosary). 
An<} rnhnt'n ( Irom Cnrmoi, "Mt. C^^ 

Aug pniipag. 
Ang /h'if/<nn;. 

Ang Inira.s (from Sp., r<7ra, 

-I//'/ kiinlo. 
Ang /Kitnpnt. 
A)ig hn/ntl. 
A ng baling. 





principal parts 

of trees, 


8, etc., are named as below: 


.1 ng kdhoy ( also ' * wood " ) . 


Aug puno. 


Ang ugat. 


Ang Imko (also the youni; cocoanut 


Ang hulaklak. 

loot; sprout. 

Ang usbmig; ang Utbong. 


Ang sangd. 

er; woo<l; timber. 



Ang dahon. 




Ang galas. ( Gatas is also **milk*\) 


Ang bnitga (also used for fniit of 
areca palm). 

terms for ci^r, cigarette, and tobacco are of Spanish origin, but the 
L*e of chewing betel nut, rolled with the leaf of the betel and spiced 
laked lime, has given some native terms. 

Ang hunga (fruit of Areca catechu). 
Ang ilmi (leaf of Piper betel). 
Ang 6pog. 
Ang hiisd. 
Ang kalikui. 

Ang apugan. ( Same word for * * lime- 

following list of dignities, professions, and trades, etc., gives the 
pal teniis used by the Tagalog race: 

reca nut. 

etel leaf. 

me (mineral). 

buyo" or chew. 

utcracker (long). 

me stick. 


) vernor-general . 

rovincial governor. 



•ch bishop. 









cond lieutenant. 



um peter (bugler). 




)ble woman. 





Ang Presidente sa America. 

Ang gobemador-general. 

A ng aobemador sa lalauiqan. 

Ang hokom (Arabic word). 

Ang papa (Sp. word). 

Ang arzobispo (Sp. word). 

Ang obispo (Sp. word). 

Ang pari (from Sp., pa</r«, a priest). 

A ng general ( Sp. ) . « 

Ang coronel (Sp. ). 

Ang tenienle coronel (Sp. ). 

Ang comandante (Sp. ) (also com- 
manding officer) . 

Ang capitan (Sp.). 

A Jig tenienle (Sp.). 

Ang alftrez. 

Ang sargenlo (Sp. ). 

Ang cabo. 

Ang cornela (Sp. ). 

Ang sundalo. 

Ang hari. 

Ang gal (equal to Sp., Don). 

Ang dayang (equal to Sp., Dofla). 

Ang maginoo (eoual to Sp., Seflor). 

Aug ginoo (equal to Sp., Seflora). 

Ang tagapagtangol (from tangoly to 

Ang mangagamol (from gamot^ med- 


nilitary temiH are tiiken from Spaninh, except a few like ftoklto, army. 
>f naval terms. 

The same 



The merchant 

The seller. 

The buyer. 

The teacher. 

The pupil. 
The preacher. 

The clerk. 

The interpreter; translator. 

The writer. 

The reader (professional). 

The readier (casual). 

The student. 

The printer. 

The chief; head; boss. 

The partner. 

The companion. 

The carpenter (hou»ebuilder). 

The wood sawyer. 

The tailor; dressmaker. 
The shoenmker. 

The butcher. 

The field hand. 
Tht^ sower. 

The reaper (crop pitherer). 

The day-lal)orer. 
The metal founder. 

The smith (any met^d). 

The maker of . 

The potter. 

The inventor. 

The pe<ldler. 

The washerman or waHher- woman. 

The cook. 

The salt maker. 
The oil maker. 
The weaver. 
The dyer. 
The house servant. 
The collector. 

Aiig mangangaldkal (from knlnhil, 

Ang tagapagbill (from maghili^ sell- 
ing) . 

Ang tagapamUi (from pamiwili, 


Aug mangadral (from &ral, teach- 
ing, etc.). 

Aiigar&lan(ironi draJ^ learning, etc.). 

Aug mangangdral (from dm/, teach- 
ing, etc.). 

Ang manuntilat (from sulatj letter). 

Avg dalubasa (from hasa, reading). 

Ang sumvsulat (from mlat, letter). 

Ang tagabiisa (from basay reading). 

Ang bumabasa (from 6fua, reading). 

Ang nagadrcU (from dralj learning, 

Aug manlilimbag (from limbag, 

Ang pinnkapuno (from puno, trunk). 

Angkasama ( from «ar/ia, association). 

A ng kasama ( from »ama, afisociation ). 

Ang anioagfie 

Ang manlalagarl (from lagariy a 

Ang mananaht (from taJit^ sewing). 

to make). 

Ang inamnmatai/ nang baca (from 
pttUvj, to kill). 

Ang ntagaasaka (from saka, to till). 

Aug UKigtataniw (from (aniin^ tr» 

Ang mango gtijHtf' (from gapti^t^ to 
cut, reap). 

ring u}mhnn (from w/xi, pav, salary), 

i>m 6m/>o, 

to cast 

Aug }U(tghuhub6 (fro 

Ang )>aufhiy (Sanak., ininddy sc.iencv, 

skill). ^ * * 


A}ig UKingagautt naug 

gawa, to make). 

Aug luagpapahvfok (from jHilagok, a 

Aug mapaglabtng (from lalang^ in- 

. 1 ug nt tglalako { from UikOy to peddle ) . 

Aug Ingnpnglaha (from Sp., lnvai\, to 

wash ). 
Aug ((u/dpaglulo ( from lufo to c«>ok) . 
Aug ingapaiTgtmint ( from Sp. , car/'/m, 

A}ui (from asiuy salt). 

Aug )unglalmiT(fis (from laiTgis^ oW) . 

A)if/ lU'iulifihahi (from hahiy to weave. 

Aug uuiuiniud (from ///*a, to dye). 

Aug (I I I/a. 

Aug tagapaulin/il (from ^hlgil^ to 
collect, dun). 


ishier; paymaster. Ang tagapagbayad (from bayad^ to 

pay a debt). 

anter (professiomil). Ang mangaiTgaso (from oso, a dog). 

'editor. Ang phiagkahautaiTgan (from utang, 

a debt). 

Bbtor. A ng mayutanp ( from utang^ a debt ) . 

earer. Ang maydala (from daid^ to carry). 

redecessor. Ang hinalinhayi (from haliliy to fol- 


iccessor. Ang kahtdili (from halUi^ to follow). 

eir. Ang magmamana (from mana^ heir- 


raas cutter. Ang magdadamd (from damdf grass, 


urse. Ang tagapagalaga (from alagaj to 

care for). 

et nurse. Ang simwa. 

I id wife. Ang hllot, 

awnbroke^' Ang mapagpatubd (from lubd, a 


e^^gar. A ng pulube. 

lief. Ang magnan&kao (from nakdOy to 


ave. Ang alipin. 

Section Four. 

the adjective. 

adjective is a word used in a grammatical sense to qualify, limit, or 
a noun, or a word or phrase which has the value of a noun, and it 
sees quality or condition as belonging to something: Thus, "black- 
is the name of a quality and is a noun; "black'' means i)OS8e88ing 
less and so is an adjective. The adjective is used (1) attributively, 
•positively, and (3) predicatively. Examples, (1) "A good man,** 
k man good and great, (3) '* The man is good.** 
ally in Tagalog as in English, this is the meaning of the adjective, 
wing to the greater flexibility of the former the construction of such 
is much more clearly to be seen. Like English, some root words 
Ijectives by intrinsic signification and may be called "simple adjec- 
^ Among the simple adjectives are bago (new ) , mahal (dear, precious, 
I, hdmak (vile), hunghan (foolish), tanimik (quiet, tranquil), and 
true). But the greater number of adjectives in Tagalog, as in £ng- 
re compounds formed from roots, which may be sometimes nouns, 
ansof prefixes, infixes, and suflSxes like the English suffixes "ly,** 
* "able," etc., as in "friendly," "childlike,** "remarkable,** etc. 
rdinary particle in Tagalog usea in the formation of adjectives is the 
ma^ undoubtedly a contraction of may, to have or possess, as there 
uns with which may is still retained with the noun to form an adjec- 
Among such ma adjectives may be mentioned magandd (beautiful), 
ganddf the root expressing the idea of beauty or good appearance, 
arunong ( wi^e), from dunongy the root-expressing the idea of wisdom, 
be observed that ma^ like some other particles softens d to r when 
mences a word. 

en prefixed to nouns denoting things which may be had or possessed, 
quotes an abundance of whatever may be signified by the noun, 
pies: Si Juan ay magintd (John has much gold); masilid ang bdhay 
lOuse has many rooms). 

particle ma has at least nine other functions, which will be explained 
appropriate places. 


May is used really as the verb ''to have'' in the phrase Ako'y may sakU 
(I am sick [ill], literallv, "I have sickness or pain"). In asking if a person 
is ill or in pain the verb is sometimes reduplicated; e. g., May maymkit hat 
(Are you ill [or in pain]?). 

Ma adjectives may be conjugated with the definite infix in to express 
opinion; e. g., minamarunong ko itd (I think this is wise). Ma is redupli- 
cated to express the present tense; minarunong ko U6 would mean ''I 
thought this was wise.'* 

Conjugated with the indefinite particle mag (nag in present tense), the 
adjective assumes a verbal form, with the implied idea of boasting or pre- 
tending what may be signified by the root; a^, nagmantarunong si Felipe 
(Philip boasts of being wise); naamamagandd si Ixdeng (Dolores [Lola] 

Eretends to be beautiful). The ioea may also be conveyed by ''believes 
imself" (or "herself"), what may be denoted by the root; e. g., "Lola 
believes hereelf to be beautiful." 

The particle mi also forms some adjectives, in which the first syllable of 
the root is generally repeated. These na adjectives also have an indefi- 
nite verbal meaning. Ex.: Nauuhdo (thirsty, to be thirsty), from uhAo; 
napagal (tired, to he tired); pagalin (a tired person): namatay (dead, to 
be dead, from patay). P is here changed to m for euphony. 

Some adjectives are also formed from roots by the prefix mapag, as 
maDagtuiTfjayao (abusive, insulting [words or acts impliedj). 

Others are fonned by the prefix mapa; as, mapamansag (boastful, vain- 
glorious, ostentatious), from bansag^ ostentation. B is softened to m. 

The indefinite particles mag and nag, when prefixed to some roots, gen- 
erally with reduplication of the first syllable of the same, form adjectives 
in some cases. Ex.: Magdaraifd (fraudulent, cheating), from dayd^ the 
initial d being softened to r; and napiisd{Bo\e unique, only), from ud, one. 

The particle viaka, in its signification of cause, forms adjectives similar in 
meaning to those in English ending in "able," "ing," etc., when prefixed 
to roots capable of such significations. The first syllable of the root is gen- 
erally reduplicated, but not always. Ex.: Makaiotdxui (agreeable, pleasure 
causing), from Uma; vxalcntat&ua (laughable, comic), from tdua, and maka- 
sdxia (disgusting), from sdua, etc. 

A few adjectives are formed by the prefixed particles mala and pala^ as 
malahimnga (lukewarm, applied to water), malakoko (quite warm), and 
palaaudy (quarrelsome), from andy (quarrel, enmity). 

Some adjectives are formed by the reduplication of a root when the root 
has no more than two syllables. If there are more than two syllables the 
first two only are reduplicated. This rule is general in Tagalog. Ex.: 
Hdlohdlo (mixed), from hdlo, root of the idea "to mix;" sunodsunod (con- 
secutive), from sunod, root expressing the idea of following, etc. The 
restrictive particle ka is sometimes prefixed to these reduplicated roots, 
implying a lesser degree than with ma or may; as, kasakitHakit (painful), 
from sakitf root expressing the idea of illneHsor pain. An example of how 
far a polysyllable is reduplicated is furnished by the word kaginhaginhdua 
(wholesome, salubrious), from giuhdua, idea of relief, betterment, rest. 

There are a very few adjectives formed by the union of two words of 
opposite meaning, of which nmnn-sxdong (neutral, indecisive), from urong 
(to go hack), and snlojig (to go ahead), may be taken as the type. 

Th(» i^article in {kin alter an acutely accented vowel) suffixed to many 
adjectives gives the idea of a person or object having the quali'y denoted 
by the root. Kx. : }fa8inl(thin (a loving person), from siutd, love; tawohin 
(a useful [or available] article), from tamo, use, utility, and babasagin (a 
broken or trail thing), from hnsng, idea of breaking, fracturing, ete., any- 
thini: like ^^lass, a plate, the head, etc. The first syllable of the root is 
here reduplicated. 

An (hnn), which is generally a ])lace suffix, is sometimes added to 
adjectives in which the idea of ])lace or location is inherent, and occa- 
si(mally with those which do not admit the suffix in for euphonic or other 
reasons. Ex.: />/ madaanayi (impas.sable or impenetrable), from di (not)> 


and ddan Troad), and maUuan (patient pereon), in denoting what may be 
suffered when suffixed to matiii; as, matiitdn (what suffered or endured). 
This, however, belongs more properly under the particles, where the dif- 
ference in the use of in and an is set forth at lenj^h. 

In when inserted after the first consonant of some nouns gives the idea 
of like, and one at least is sometimes used as an adjective. It is binatd, 
(vouth), from hntA (child), and is sometimes uwd to mean ^^younpr,*' 
although logo (new) is sometimes used with the same idea, as in the words 
bcLffong tauo (unmarried man or bachelor, literally ** new person"). 

The English nouns and phrases which are ut^ed as adjectives are ex- 
pressed in Tagalog by means of the ties </, vg, or wa, the won! which is 
modified x)reeeding the moiiifier, the op(Kjsite to what is done in English. 
The tie is attached to the modified word and answers somewhat to the 
English **of." Ex.: Salami ng pUak (a mirror of silver, a silver looking- 
glass) (g); tinterong hubog (an mkstand of glass, a glaes inkstand) (ng); 
nngsingna ginio (a ring of gold, a gold ring) ; b(ih4iy na bald (a stone house, 
a house of stone), the last two examples showing the use of the tie na. 
Sometimes the tie is omitted if the modified word ends in a consonant 
other than n, but it is not considered eleftant to do so. 

Adjectives like the English **golden,'* *'8ilvery,*' "wooden," etc., are 
expressed in different ways in Tagalo^, generally bv means of the ties 
or by different particles indicating '* likeness," which will be explained 

Negative adjec^tives like those formed in English by the prefixes u/> 
( Anglo-Saxon), in (before 6 and p softening to m for euphony), %m (I^atin), 
a, an (Greek), are formed in Tagalog by the particles dt (not), vahl 
(without), and sometimes hindi (no). Ex.: Dt malapfilan (unapproach- 
able), from lapit, idea of approaching; dt mabilavg (innumerable), from 
bilang (to number); dt madaar»an (impassable or impenetrable), from 
ddan (road) ; toalang bafiala (apathetic, indifferent, careless) ; vxUang hangdn 
(without end, lasting, eternal, infinite), and hindtnamumunga (unfruitful), 
iroro hunga (fruit)j with na and reduplicate<1 first syllable of root (softened 
to m from o) to mdicate present tense (literally, **not fruit-bearing"). 
The use of dt and wold is illustrated by dt makabayad and imlang maybayad, 
the first meaning ''not able to pay" and the second '* without means of 
pajonent," both oein^ about equal to ''insolvent." 

As in English, there is no variation in the adjective for gender and case, but 
the adjective may be pluralized. For the plural ( the modified word being 
understood in some cases) the word manga is used with simple adjectives — 
as, arvg martgd hunghang (the foolish [persons] ) — and the first syllable of the 
root is repeated it it consists of one or two letters for compound adjectives. 
If the fiirst syllable of the root contains more than two letters, the first two 
letters only are reduplicated. Mangd is also used by many with the plural 
compound adjective. Ex.: Ang marurunangy or ang mangd jnarurunang 
(the wise [people]). 

The adjective may precede or follow the noun modified, and it would 
seem that the latter form is to be preferred, as it agrees with Malay (as 
with Spanish) construction. However, with the spread of English it is 
not unlikely that the custom of a«ing the adjeittive before the noun may 
become the usual construction, as it is equally as correct as the other way. 
Ex. : Ang mangd babayengmagandd; ang marlgd magandang babaye; ang baba- 
yenamagagandd; ang magagandang babaye; ang mangd babayengmagagandAy 
and ang mangd magaganaang babaye. All six of the foregoing phrases mean 
simply "the beautiful women," the first four being preferable. 

The following list of adjectives will give the principal ones in ortlinary 
use. The plan has been followed of giving adjectives with certain mean- 
ings, followed by those of op[)Osite signifi(;ations, or at least in well-defined 
groups. Words having suostantially the same meaning are called syno- 
nyms; those of opposite meaninjr, antonyms. Words with the same sound 
but different meanings are called homonyms. Some Tagalog adje<'tives 
require several different wonls in English to express their varying mean- 



ing, just as occurs in translating English into Tagalo^ or any other lan- 
guage. Practice alone will fully instruct the student, owing to the localisms 

and provincialisms of the language, 
space justifies. 

Dear; noble; precious; esteemed. 

Cheap, ignoble, etc. 
Useful, available (thing). 
Useless; without benefit. 



Harmful; hurtful; slanderous. 



Large, big, grand. 


Bulky; massive. 

Much; plenty. 

Exceewive; superfluou??; remaining. 

Litth'; some. 

Spacious; ample; wide (a« room. 

road, etc. ). 
Broad; wide; level; flat. 

Disproportionately wide (or broad). 

Narrow (aa street, door, o|)ening). 

Tall; high; noted (metapli.). 

Low; shallow; humble (inetaph. ). 
Long; ai.H) ^iyantic. 
Short; brief. 

As many examples will be given as 

Mahal. Ang minamahal, the es- 
teemed, dear, etc., person or thing. 


Tamohin. Tbmo, use, utility, benefit 

Walang habolohdn. Ex.: Wcdang 
kabfHoMn ang gawd mo, your work 
is without value; useless. 

MabiUi, Mahuiing tauo, a good per- 

Ma»amd. KasamaaHf evil. 

MakapapanganyAya, From anydya^ 
pan, and mda, with pa. A gcxxl 
example of the building up of 
words in Tagalog. Panganyayang 
tauOy a man who destroys the 
property of another. 

Malakds. Malakds na tduo, a strong 
person. Malakds na hangin, a high 

Mahind. KaJiinaan, weakness. 

Malaki. Kalak-hdn, grandeur; size. 



{Marami ( from damu ) Karam ihav , 
plentv; abundance. 
Mndld. ' 

Luhhd (also means "very** before 
another adjective. ) Lubhang sak't, 
serious illness. 
Katniti. ^Marunong kang Tagalofjf 
/Do you understand Tagalog? Oj){), 
ves, sir. ^Jngitsf Kaunti, p6, a 
little, sir. 
Malnang. Maiming na ailid, a wide 

(orsjmcious) room. 
Mala pad. Kcdapnrayi, hre&dth. Ma- 

lapnd na w//>, broad rainde<l. 
Mnlnag. Maluag na looby a magnan- 
imous heart (metaph.). 
' Mnkip'jt. Mak'ipot ang ddan, a nar- 
row road. Makipot na isip, nar- 
row-minded. Kakipotan, narrow- 

MfikUid. Makitiranj narrowness. 
Mataas. KataasaHy tallness, height. 
Mn/alim. Kalalimany depth. Mala- 

fim iia gality deep anger. 
Mahahd. Kabalniony low ground: 
also humility. Mababang loolt, a 
submissive (humble) di8|)Osition. 
Maltidn'i. Mahabang iulayy a long 
l)ri<lge. Mahabang (auo, a gigan- 
tic man. 
Malk/i variation (maiksi), Maiklhig 
bi'ihay, a short life. 



Close; short (as hair, beard, etc.) 
Square; equal on all sides. 

Round; circular. 

Thick (as a board, book, etc.). 
Thick (as liquor, clothes, etc.). 

Coarse; rough. 

Rare; thin. 
Slender; fine. 


Light (not heavy); easy (metaph.). 

Strong; intense; heavy. 


Pressed; compact; packed; solid. 
Hollow (as a tree, etc.). 

Clean; neat. 

Pure; limpid; clear. 

Turbid; muddjr (as water); bleare<l 
(as eyes); thick (as the speech). 

Pure (and without mixture). 

Light; fine (like chaff, paper, etc.). 
Dirty; filthy; disgusting; nasty. 

Dirty; disgusting, etc. (Southern). 
Filthy; indecent. 
Innumerable; numberless. 
Full; complete. 
Insufllcient; not enough; less. 

Empty; sometimes wide. 


Parimkat (from siikatf to measure, 
and parts y equal, as). 
MabUog. Kabilogajiy or pagkahUog, 

Malirigin (rare). 


Malimit. Maltmit na damil, thick 

Magdspang. Magdspcing rui kanin, 
coarse food. {Synonym^ viaffdpang 
hinin, ) 


Manipls. Kanlpisan^ slendemess. 
Manipht na katauan^ slender 

Mabigat, MablgcU na looby heavy 

Magnan. Kagaanan, lightness. Ma- 
goAn Hong kdhoy^ this wood is light. 

Matindi. Maiinding gamoty strong 
medicine. Katindiy a counter- 
weigh t or balance. Matindwg looby 
heavy hearted. 

Maigtiug (this word is provincial and 
not generally used to-day). 


Maauang. (iuaiTganitong haligi itOy 
this harigue (house pillar) is hol- 

Malinis. Ralinisayiy cleanliness. }fa' 
linis na damily clean clothes. Ma- 
Vmis na looby clean hearted. 

Maliudo. Tubig na malin&Oy or ma" 
Undo na tubigy pure or limpid 
water. Malindo na looby pure 


Tahas. Tahas na gintdy pure gold. 

Kabd ( a local word is galbok or galbo) . 

Madumi. Kanimhan (contr. ), dirti- 
ness, filthiness, nastiness. Madu- 
mihany dirty, etc., objetrt. 

Madiri. Maairihiny dirty, etc., i)er- 

Salauold. KasalaiiolaaUy filth, inde- 

Di mabiiang. (from f//, not, and 
bilang, ideii of ctnmting, number. ) 

Piino. Magjmnd ka itdy complete or 
fill thk 

Kulang. Kahdanginy waste, lack. 
Kulang na banta, a lacking idea. 
Pnkulangin mo sa apuyy diminish 
the fire. 

Pouang. AIho walang tamdny with- 
out pulp or meat. 



Contracted; cramped (as a room) 

Consecutive; in orxler. 

Entire; whole; unbroken, etc. 
Broken; fractured, etc. 

Cooked (a« food) . 

Raw; crude (as food, fruit). 

Edible; esculent. 

Poisonous (as toadstools, arsenic, 

Venomous (as the bite of the dahong 

pnlay^ or rice snake). 
Fresh (as meat or fish, etc. ). 
Spoile<l; putrid. 
Impure; adulterated. 


Sour; acid. 

Salty; Ruline. 

Pej)pery; puntjent. 


Nauseating:; unkempt. • 


Old; stable; periiianent. 

Stale; nuistv (a-srice, tobacco, wine), 



Thin; waterv; fluid. 

Thick; dense; curdy. 

Sticky; adhesive. 


Flesliv; pnlpv; meat v. 

Hot. ' 

Hurniiig; ardent. 



Hard; solid; stiff. 
Soft; flexible; bland. 


Ildlo'hdlo. Kahalo^ mixture. Jtfay 

kahalo itong dlak, this wine is 

Sundd'Sundd (from sundd^ idea of 

following, obeying, etc.) 
Bcisag. Babasagiiiy broken article, 

from basag, idea of fracturing, 

breaking, etc., aa the head, a plate, 

glass, etc. 

Ilildo. Hildo pa^ green yet. 
Gabon; makamandag, 



Maitolok. Bolok na, putrid already. 

Hindi pulos (from hindif not, and 

pulosj alike; of one color. 
McUamh. JCalamwanf sweetness. 

TinamiHy sap of the nipa when 

freshly drawn. Matamis na mkd, 

sweet speech (synonym malamit 

na maiTgusap), 
Madsim, Kaasiman^ sourness; acid- 
Mapait. Kapaitan^ bitterness. 
Madlat. Kaalatany saltiness. Alo- 

talatnn mo ang kanin^ salt the food 

a little more. 
Malagl. Palagian mo iiong gaf^^^^ 

make this work permanent. 
Mala man. 
Ma'ttut. KaiiiUan, heat. }fainita 

drao. the hot sun (or day). 
Mdi'ildh. Ilouag mong paalabalnfi 

ang }in7(ja}<, do not add fuel to t 

Malalnniwjd. {}falakoko expresj^' 

a 8li)ihtly lyrreater degree ot heat 
Magmao. Maginauin, a chilly pe 

}fn(i(/ds. Kfttigat^an^ hardness. 
Ma Id ni hot. 




/; porous; soft. 
;; flexible. 

tned; ground. 

d; notciied. 

(aa iron, etc.). 

ry; slimy. 

ing oily or smeared with oil. 

; stony. 

; rugged. 

py; ^>oggy- 

al; little by little. 

n; abrupt; hasty; eager. 

sable; impenetrable, 
lit; laborious. 

lit; intricate; slow, 
•ssible; not to be reached. 


lomable; abysmal. 

t; far. 

Katalhiuuiy sharpness. 
KntuJiwv^ pointedness. 
Tinayis^ what ground, etc. 


lon; ordinary. 

Buhaghag. Hindt buhaghag^ not 

porous; im porous. 
Makunat. Also a kind of taffy 


MatomaL Maiomtil iia stindaiiOy a 
dull sword. This won! is often 
applied to business, trade, etc. 

BirTgdo. Also noun with forwanl 
accent. Mttlaki nvg biiTgao nilouq 
sundnng^ this sword is very dull 
(lit, great is the dullness of this 

NakakfilnnnrTgan or Kluakalauang 
( from kcdauang^ rust ) . A Iso name 
of town in La Laguna Province 
with C, Calnnang, 

}faduld8; marulds. 

Midaniiisiin or Nabalnngisan. 


Mayputik; malusak, 

Pusahd (rare). Malaki ang kamma- 
kalan nang bundok ^ the rugged ness 
of the mountain(s) is very great. 

MabuhaiVjin. Kabnhanmn^ sandy 
beach, or sandy ground. 

Malabdn. Also name of town in 
Kizal Province, Luzon. 

Utiti-unti. IMti is probably a varia- 
tion oimunti; knuntiy means '* lit- 
tle," **8mall." etc. 

BigM. Kabiglaariy eagerness. Pdl- 
(ik, syn. Biglang gawd; j)dUik nn 
gmiHl, quick work. 

Dt madaanan (from ddan^ road, and 
dif not, with place ending an). 

Mahirap. Mahirnpaawm, a difficult 
or lalK»rious task. Aug mniTffA 
mahlrapy the working classes. 

Maliuag. Di ynaliuag^ easy. Waiting 
liuag^ without difficulty. 

Di marniingan (from ddting, idea of 
arrival, and dt, not, with place 
ending an). 

Dt malapUan (formed like theal)ove 
from the nyoi Idpii^ idea of near- 

Di matdrok (formed like the fore- 
going from t/iroky "to noiind the 
water*' ). 


Maldpit (al8*> fxdtao). Bahao hagA 
ang Pnnig na lUlnf Ih the Pasig 
anywhere near us? 


Karaniiian. Kttraninang damtiii, 
usual dress. Knraniuang irikd, iin 
on! i nary word. 



Crooked; bent. 

Frajp-ant; odoroui*. 
Fetid; stinking. 
Delicious; pleasant. 

Noxious; malignant. 

Powdered; pulverized. 

Sonorous (as a bell). 






Wholesome; salubrious. 


Fearful; dreadful. 



Right ( hand) . 

Left (hand). 

In the middle. 
To one side. 



Maliko. Likolikong ddan, a road 
with many turns. Hinsan pang 
lumiko, one turn (or bend) more. 


Mabaho. Kabahoatif fetidity. 

Kalugod'lugod (from lugod, idea of 
pleasure, etc.). 

Makamsaind (from aamd, idea of evil, 
the particle inaka and tense redu- 
plication tkt for present). 

Dorog (means putrefied in Home 

Matunog (from tunogy sound). 


Hindi jmrig. 


Koijaa; koyap (both rare). 

Malnkojig. Malukong na pingan^ a 
deep plate, like a soap plate. 

Kaginhuginli&ua (from ginhdua, idea 
of relief, rest). 

KakilakiWtot ^from kildhot, idea of 
trembling with fear). 

KalahMtdkot (from i&kot^ idea of fear. 
Kalakotan, fear, dread). 

Kakardan (from ddauj idea of pass- 


Dardting (from diitingy ideA of ar- 
riving) . 

Kan(in. Kanankanan, a little to the 
right. Knnanknrunim mo, go a lit- 
tle to the right. Ang iiakakanati, 
w hat 1 ies to tli e righ t. Pakanan hi, 
go to what lies on the right. 

Kaliud (same compounds as the 
above ) . 

tSa gitnd. Gitnang gab-i^ midnight. 

<S« t(tf/f. 

A few of the foregoing are not strictly adjectives, either in Tagalog or 
English, bnt are put here for convenience. 

All; entirely; wholly. 


All (kinds or classes). 

Each one. 

Paua (generally used with adjec- 
tives). Pauaiig vkagaliug^ whollv 
good. Piinnng magagcding tdli^ 
they are all good. Pauang matitim 
itild, they are all black. Hmtag 
mong jt^iuaigig tauagin^ do not call 

I/ihnt (generally applied to persons). 
Jjiihatin mo ang paiTguiTgu»ftp^ 
si»eak to all of them.; syn., tandn 
(provincial). Tan&ng tduo, all 

Dilht (provincial). Dilang edging, 
all kinds of bananas. 

Bdlatig im. Bdlang drao^ some day. 

BdiuCt isd. 




; brunette, 
; clear; light 

following ifl a list of what colors are senerally used by Tagalogs, 
»me names also not now ordinarily heard. 

Mapult. KaputiaUy whiteness. Ang 
kaputian nang iUog^ the white of 
an egg. 
Maiiim, Kaiiiman, blackness. 
Mapuld. KapuiahaUy redness. Hi- 

mtUdf blush; redness of the face. 
Madilao; marilao (from dilaOf a root 
dyeing yellow ) . Marilao na damit^ 
yellow clothing. Also name of 
town in Bulacdn Province, named 
from same plant (curcuma delageti). 
Also name of barrio of Manila (San 
Fernando de Dilao). 
Bughao ( Bataan Province ) . Buk-hao 

GimUay (from gulay, vegetables, 

Halongtiang (rare). 
MamuUd. KapuUaan, pallor; pale- 
Himutld, pale, discolored. 
; shining (as the dawn, the Maningmng. Maningning parang li- 
, gold, etc. ). watfwat/, bright as the dawn, 

obscure. Madtlim. Kadilimarij darkness, etc. 

Houag mong ipandilim itong caoayo, 
do not take this horse while it is 
me color; unicolorous. Pulus. Maitim na pulus, black all 

over (as a horse). 

following list comprises the majority of Tagalog adjectives pertain- 
^hysical conditions of the body: 

Matandd, Kalandaan, age. 

Bago. Binatd, youth, is sometimes 
used, as ang mangd 6inatd, the 
youths (from fMitfi, child). 

Haguay; mahfigxiay, Haguay na 
iauOf a tall person. 

lApoio (rare). 


MaUibd. Katabfianf fatness. 

Magandd, Kagantlahanf beauty; 

Marixii (from dikit^ idea of pr€*tti- 
ness). KarikiUin^ elegan<M*, pr«t- 
tiness. KarikUing wika^ a gra(!<fful 


Magaril. (7<iri/tn, a stutt«*rer; stam- 
merer. VuU'^jUfil is anoth(*r word, 

Pipi. Kapipihnn, dijmbnef*s. 

I*i9nkj variation hiinmik. Pimk ang 
i$ang matA^ bliml in one eye. 

1 stature); high. 

in stature). 
§h; short. 

t; beautiful. 


ing; stammering. 




Deaf. Bingl, Kabingihan, deahkem. Bing- 

inghingif totally deaf, but bingi- 
fniwlf somewhat or a little deaf. 
(The higher degree is formed with 
the "tie," the diminutive without 
it. This is a general rule. ) 

Nasal; snuffling (as in the speech). Humal. 

Cro88-eyed. Ihding. 

Blinking. KikiraplArap (from kirap). 

Big-eared ; long - eared ; flap - eared ; Malaki aug tainga. 
large-eared; inegalotine. 

Thick-lipi>ed (person). J^gugoin (from iTgiutOy lip). 

Wry-niouthe<l. J^giwL 

Toothless. 7V//0. Manipoj lacking teeth. 

Pock markeil . Gatoi-gatoi. 

Left-handed. Kallueie. 

I^ine in hand; one-handed; unable Kimdo. 

to use hands, etc. 

Bandy-legged; l)ow-legge<l. Sakayig. 
Lame (on account of having legs of Jlingkod. 

unequal length). 


Slow; delil)erate 

Hairy; feathered. 

(in work or 

Madali; maraK. 

Mahhiay. Possibly a variation of 
wahinaj weak. 

Mabalahibd. Dt pa makitd ang bala- 
hibo nang kamayy the hair of the 
hand can not yet be seen; an ex- 
pression used to express that it if 
not yet day. 


l'lnni'm. Adjective, mauban, 




Wnldiuf buhnk. 

tSuiTj/duin. SutHjay, horn, also a 
twining plant roseinbling the con- 
volvulus or bindweed. 

May kaliskis. 

Mngufoniirt. KagutoiiKni, hunger. 

A\tunhd(). Kauhanan, thirst. 


Napagtil. Knpnyalan^ fatigue. 


May sdkit. Wit/any snkit, without 
illness, i. e., healthy; well. 

Kasakititakit ( from sakit^ i<Iea of pain; 
sickness; illness). 

Stiyatin (from snyat, wound). 

Mnti^i. Miitnin, sore-eyed person, etc. 


Pdtny. PiiUiyht, dead person, ani- 
mal, etc. yamntiiy, to 1x3 dead. 

The list of mental or moral attributes given helow does not, of course, 
embrace all in the language, but the most usual are given: 

0mnij)0tent; all powerful. Mahipanyyarihan (from ynri^ idea 

of finishing, etc., com|)ounded 
with pan^ maka, and suffix ban). 


(J ray-haired; gray-headed (person), 

Curled; crisp; curly (as hair). 

Curly or waving (hair). 

Bald (person ). 

llairv (on bo<lv). 

Hairless (as some animals, etc.). 

Horned (animal). 

Seal v. 

Hungry (person). 

Thirsty; to be thirsty. 

Replete; satiated. 

Tired; to be tired. 

Numb or "asleep," as the hands, 

feet, to become. 
Sick; ill; to be ill. 


Wounde<l (person); having sores. 


Living; alive. 




t; valiant. 


I (person). 

ve (person or act). 

al; timid; shaine-f acted. 

ul; modest (especially in char- 



8t in speech; moderate in play. 

at; quiet. 

at; slow. 

8t (in carriage); slow; delib- 


able; quiet. 

[uil; quiet. 

e; tame; quiet (as animals). 

; pacific. 


is; rancorous. 

3; savage; wild, 
(in sleep, or in eating), 
mious; moderate. 
Doous; voracious. 

gallant; elegant, 
aring; insolent. 

proud; haughty; arrogant. 

ful; vainglorious. 

■al; indecisive; undecided. 


»U8; celebrated; noted; noto- 


•us; celehrate<l; illustrious, 
d; honored. 

•rated; noted. 

d; honored (person). 

ty; honor; fame. 

6855-00 5 

Mai&pang (applied to wine, 
** strong,*' mai&pang na dlakj 
strong wine, katapangan^ brav- 

DuAy, Kaduogan^ cowardice. 

yfatahdin (from takot^ idea of fear). 

Mapaglungayao (from tungayao, in- 
sulting words). 

MnngilA. Ang ikarTgiht^ the cause or 
reason of timiditv, etc. Ang 
panqingiUihany of whom or what 
afraid, etc. 




Matining. Also means "high- 
pitched,'' (as a voice). 

Mdhinahan; mabandyad. 

Marahan (from dahan, idea of delib- 


Mabaya. Mabayang looby a tranquil 

Maamb. Kaamoany tameness; gen- 
tleness, ^w^ /Ki^itaamd, the act of 
taming, breaking, etc. Maamong 
Idobf a gentle disposition. 

Tahbnik. KatahimikaUf quietness. 
Itahimik nw ang bibig mo^ keep 
your mouth quiet (shut up!). 

Paladuay. Kaduay^ an enemy. Ang 
maiTgd kaduay^ the enemy. Mangd 
kaduay^ enemies. 

Mapagtanim (from tanimy idea of ran- 
cor, hate, etc., with mapag pre- 

Maxlap. Kaitapan^ fierceness. 





Mapangahas. Kapangahahasanf in- 

Pahdd. KapcUaloany pride, vanity, 

Mapaviansag (from iHrnrng^ osten- 

Urong-mlong (from urong, to go 
back, etc. ; mlongy to go ahead ; to 
move on). 


Mabantog, Kabantogan^ fame; noto- 

Mabunyi (rare). 

ManuTgal (from daiigalj fame; 


Jhirihin, KapurihaUj fame; honor. 



Fttne; noted; talked abont. 

Meaa; vQe; wortUoN; mtfoitniMrte. 
Hetn; vUe; woHhlf. 

Lovir^; amotovft (penon). 

JUtectioiiate; loring. 

Polite (peniKi). 

FoUte; coarteooa; RepectfnL 

Courteous; reepectful. 

Ironical; mrcastic. 

Honest; right; straiKht 

True; refined; perfect; pure (ii 

Patient; firm; conslunt (person). 
Impatient (person). 

Changeable; inconstant. 

Treasonable; treacherous; uiwrate- 

Two-taced; double-faced; treacher- 

bayaiif WhttDamin towiiiF 
H&maL UAmak na Mho, a worth- 

Ttmaud (orinnttlly meant "ftced- 
man;" "liberated alave." An- 
other word is bvluik, vuiatin 
huluiktik, literati^ "stat-e of > 
slave," Kabulimian, slavei;; 

Ma»iiilahin (from «jntd, love, origin- 
ally Saosll. rhiatd, thought, ok, 
through Malay chtnla, care, an^ 


MaUiig. AaU/i(ribig, ajnisble. 
M^M, oSection. KaU/igatt, trtmm 
beloved. (NcrticetbeAflciranoebi 

Mapagpaunfoo (from pobqno, aBae- 
tion, and mofog, prodzed). htf 
meaofl "great love." ' 

Ma»agapia. Aug toftpan, pwBOD to 
wbom polite. 

MapaypHagm (from pHagan, hono^ 
respect, and uu^Mtg), Am fagpt- 
mtofanan, Um pmm rnxuind 
(fnia pilnyitnL pmdxed \fj pag, 
reduplicatM fint syllable pf tor 
present tense and suffix on, here 
indicating person, but generally 
indicating place). 

Maalangilans. Ang kinaaalango- 
lariyanan, the person to whom 
courte>>us (from uUtngalang. idea 
of courtesy, compounded with ta 
and fn (Hna) pre6zed and on re- 
duplicated as a suffix). 

Magiiang. Kagalai^an, raspect, ler- 
eience. Magaiai^n, cooitBOOi 
respectful person. 


Mataid. Katuiraa, honeety. 


Mayayamulin (from yamot, idea O* 

annoyance, etc.). 
Salouahan. Snlauahtmg lAoh, ■ 

changeable character. 
Malilo, JHiiaglitUohan niyd ang ir**! 

ampin, he ia ungrateful to t*' 


MatuHp, variation moluZin^. 

MakUS. Partial synonym dulrS^^:^ 
which means "restless, unqoie^^ 
more than "blundering'' ^ 



:urbalent; fidgety, 
ineaey; mischievoos. 

e; insufferable. 

ble; unsayable; un tellable. 


ntented (person). 


causing; laughable; comic. 

jesting; scoffing (person). 

i; tyrannical; despotic. 

orous; severe. 

t; pleasing; joyous. 
; generous; liberal. 


charitable; liberal. 

wise; etc. 


nplished; (2) excellent. 

Magasldo. Magasldo na tduo^ a rest- 
less person. 

Oaso. Ang gcaohan, person dis- 

Magaldo, Probably variation of ma- 
aaslao. Magcddo ang kamay niydf 
his hand is restless (said of a thief ). 
Kagalauan^ mischief. AnggaUiuint 
the mischief. Ang gcUa^ianf person 

IH madalitd A from dalUd, idea of suf- 
fering, ana dt^ not). 

Dimasahi (from sahi, idea of telling, 
and di not)., 

Dt mamlang (from saiang, idea of 
touching, with dty not). Latin, 
noli me tangere, taken by Rizal as 
a title to one of his works. He 
signed many articles ''Dimas 

Matiuiinj (from toud^ pleasure; con- 

Kaayaaya ( from aya^ variation Ugaya. 
Kaligayahan^ contentment) . 

Mapdlad. Walang pdlad^ unlucky. 

Makatataud (from taud, laughter, 
with maka, and reduplicated first 
syllable ta to indicate present 

MapaghirO; palahird. Tauong hirO, 
an inconsiaerate person. 


Mardpat (from ddpat). Karapatan^ 

Mabagsik. Also "power" in some 
cases. Kabaggikaiij power; tyr- 
anny; etc. Ang pagbagsikaUy the 

MaoarTfjis. Kahangitan, cruelty; 


Mapughigay. Also mapamigay. Both 
words are from biqay^ idea, of giv- 
ing. The second is more properly 
the adjective. 

Maaud. Maauain, a charitable 
person. Kaauaan, charity, com- 

Mapagbiyaya (from biyaya^ idea of 
mercy, charity. Mabiyayang tduOy 
a merciful or liberal person). 

Marunong (from dunong, idea of 
wisdom. Karunongan^ wisdom). 
Marunong kang Inglisf {Castiiaf). 
Do you understand English? 

Masikap. Kasikapan^ discretion; 

( 1 ) Pa nam na tduo^ an accomplished 
man. (2) Mapahan 7ia dlaky ex- 
cellent wine. 



Able; accomplished. 
Fine (in bearing). 

Prudent; judicious. 

Thoughtful; grave. 

Vigilant; awake; known. 

Incomprehensible; inimitable. 
Simple; silly. 

Stupid; foolish; beast-like; cracked 
(a« a plate). 

Foolinlr, stupid. 

UHelesy; stupid. 

Stupid;; malicious. 

Foolish; stupid; dull; gaping. 

Childish; foolish. 
Idiotic; Himi)le. 

Crazy; int^ane. 

l.ab(»ri(»iis; <liligent; industrious, 
l^zy; slow. 

Slow; tardy; lai<ting. 

Pantda. ParUds na iAuo^ an able 
man. KapmiUuany ability. 

Busabus. Bti9ahumhu8 na maffirwo, 
a very fine gentleman. Kabum- 
Ifusan^ excellence, etc. 

Mnbait. Mahait na tdnOf a pmdent 
person. Dcdagang niahaity a pru- 
dent girl. 

Timtim (provincial word). 

Mabigat. Really ** heavy" (from 
hi gat). 

Magisinp (from gising^ idea of 
awaking). Definite is in nan, not 
an . Nagitman ko ang lindol kogafn, 
I was awakened by the earthquake 
last night. Ginisnan ko na kojttig- 
satma ang aaal na yafiv^ I have 
alwavs known of that custom. 


Maang. Timang, foolish; stupid. 
Maugmang, fool, dunce; alFo lack 
of memory, foi^etfulneas. Manffd, 
variation mangal,, silly, foolish. 
Mamangal, to act foolishly. Sag- 
mamang&mangahan, to feign stu- 
pidity. This meaning of mangd 
must not be confused with the 
homonvm indicating plurality, 
w hich 18 made up of the particles 
ma and ng6. 

Bdugao (rare). Banganw, a stupid 
Tnkj^U. TakMl na tauo, a situpi(i 

person. Katnkifiianj stupidity. 
Bfni<faff. Kabandai/an, foolishness. 
Ang pagkufmnfln}/, the ern^''- 
Bitngakirij one regarded a-* a fo<^'^ 
or dunce. Ifotiag mo akcngffdUO'^' 
kan,do not try to fool me (make a 
fool of me). Also kaha)7l}ahi^^ 
foolishness, from hangal, fooU^^' 

TuiTijak, variation tuiTgag. 


Tai7(]6. MagtaiTgAtarTliahan, to fei?f^^ 
stupidity. A rare word for "fo^^*^' 
ish" is lankas. 

Uwjds, variation oiujd. 

Bal'ni. Kafmlinan, idiocy. Balii^'^ ^ 
a fooli.wh or idiotic person. (\i^** 
yojifj hdhaliuin, a foolish or nt^ 
way liorse. 

U/nl, variation olol. Kanhihnt. ^ 

Masij)ag. Kasipagaity indu>try, t" 

Tainad [Mapagtamad), Katnmnr^^ 

Mdloiiitt. .\fii/onat t)a kdhoijy dura^ 
w<^od. ( Malonag is "slack, bx^st:'^ 
and mahigpil is "tight.") 





Fraudulent; cheating. 

Evil-lived; criminal. 



Obedient (person). 

Disobedient; contradictory. 
Bold; shameless. 
Forgetful (person). 

Rich; prosperous. 

Poor; miserable. 
Miserable; stingy. 


Talkative (as a child). 
Loquacious (as many persons). 

Garrulous (as an old person). 
Silent; reserved; secretive. 

Economical; stingy. 
Economical; saving. 


Tot do. Tinotoido ko ang nnkd, I am 
keeping my word. Tunay has 
more the sense of real, perfect, rp- 

Bulann. Mahubulaanan na iynmj w/- 
litd mo, you are lying in your ac- 
count. Sinungdling is a '"liar" or 
* * prevaricator. ' * Pinag^hmiujali- 
ngan ko, I told him you lie. 

Magdarapd (from dayd, fraud de- 
ceit, with niag and reduplicated 
first syllable of root). Nndayaan 
ako nang l6ob ko, my heart de- 
ceived me. 

Masiual, Masiual nu tduo, an evil 

Losing. Another word is derived 
from laiigd. Kalangokan, drunk- 
enness. A rare word is asljak. 
Naaaslakan ka yata, you act as if 
you were drunk. Drunkenness is 
a rare vice among Tagalogs. 

Mapagmisa (from nasa and mapag). 
Another word is derived from pita, 
desire, longing. Arao na kapita- 
pita, a longed-for day. Magpita 
kayd sa dkin nanp Ibig ninyd, ask 
me what you desire. 

MapiK/hingi (from hingi, to ask po- 
litely, and mapag). 

Mattunorin (from aiinod. See Con- 

Masouay. Kasouayan, disobedience. 


Malimotin (from limot, idea of forget- 

Maydman. Kayamanan, wealthi- 

, ness. 

Dukhd. Kadukhaan, poverty. 

Mardmot (from ddmot), Ddmot akd 
nang salapi, I am short of money. 

Makingkina. Tauong makingking, a 
miserable person. 

Mawikd (from tinkd, word). 

Matabil (from tahU, idea of talking 

Mamiitd (from salitd, a story, news). 

Matinip. Matinip na Idob, a secretive 

Matipid. Katitipdan, parsimony. 

Maarimohanan ( trom arimohan) . A n- 
mohanin mo Hong pUak, save this 
money. Two rare words for the 
same idea are maimpok and maagi- 

MakaMsird (from sird, idea of destruc- 
tion, and maka, with reduplicated 
first syllable of root). 



Tnvelini; psnf^bw. 

Unbivtiied; fnlldel; ptignii. 

Belongiogto; pertmining b 

Fniitfal; to bear fralt 

Otber; dUfennt; divene; dbtincL Ibi. 

XaiiTgibang biyan (front Mjnm, tows; 
town, i'6ii, other, and the redupli- 
cated jiarticle mint, in the prpspnl 
tt^iise, hence ch&nf;ed to nang snil 
iiTg. Uteially, " [ram uiotlm 

IV imvajim (from bim/off. lo bsp- 
tize, sad dl, uot). BtnyaR i» raid 
to have been a Boraeae (Arabic?) 
word lirouKlit hy MohHRtmeddni 
to tho PbllippiiieA. Ite ori^nil 
meaning ie tiaid to hare been 'Mo 
pour water from above." 

Nimikol (from liirrf). A'owUtit m 
Dioi at naviitol ta Cfmr, beloiigiDf: 
to <iod Riid belonging lo Comr, 

NagkatiMtli (frora tali). Unto;; 
told, innocent, not guiltv. 

Xamamun^i [Iroin biinffa, miit. with 
ma (nnl and i«diip1icated tirRH^I- 
iable of root, which is bure eoh- 
au«d to 111 from ')). /HtuII nnmv- 
muHb-i. niifniilful. BuiTguhdri. s 




Beserved; set aside. 

Secret; to be secret. 
Occupied; to be occupied. 


J^agiisA (bom it&, one). 
W<Jai>giuuuii»(at, "wltboat<nd," 

Nalalaput (m>in tapiu, end, finish. 

Tap\ui na, finished now). 
Walung kamatayan (lit., "witboot 

Watang ata. 

Makayag. Kakayagan, publidtj. 
Nagl:aka}iukod (from bukod, idn ol 

reservation, Betting aside, etc 

Bukdan mo ak6 nano daiawd, put 

two aside forme. AabwboraR, r»- ' 

ervation, etc.)- 
Maliliini. LiAim no pouid, secret work 

Nanabala (from abala, idea of occopa- 
tion; the particle «a(preeenttenee 
o( mni and a, reduplicated fiist 
syllable of root for present tense). 
Abalahin or Maidtalahht, a binj 

W'nlinig gawd. 

Miigalitan ( from galil, idea of anger). 

Gahaad, Kapabaaaan, bastineea. 
Siiiiiiuildmat (from taldmat, thanks; 

derived from Arabic, taldmiU, 

peace; safety). 
Nakalttlugod {from lugodj gmtitnde* 

naka, and the reduplicated first 

syllable of root). 
Wtuang lugod; also malUo. 



Licit; legal. 

Immaterial; useless. , 

Libidinous; sensual. 
Asleep, to be; sleepy, to be. 

Aged; venerable; mature. 

Tired, to be. 

Alone; unaccompanied. 

Companioned; chaperoned. 








Ready, to be. 

Unready, to be. 




Clean; neat. 

Dirty; unclean (as the clothes). 





Copied (thing, etc.). 

Methodical (person). 




Profitable (thing). 



Plain; clear (as a room). 

Manufactured; made up. 

Raw; crude (as material, etc.). 


Spun (also thread). 

Plaitea (as a mat). 

ifo<wu/;al8o "right," "straight," etc. 
Hmdl maluidy illicit, illegal, etc. 

Walang gamit. 



Matulog. Malutulog bagd kaydf Are 
you sleepy? Naiutulog bagd siyAf 
Is he asleep? Patulognin mo siydj 
let him sleep (or tell him, or her, 
to go to sleep). 

Maaulang. Ang maiTgd magdUangy 
the aged; parents; ancestors. 


Nagiisd; tvalang kasamd. 

May kammd. 

Hindi viadlam. 

May asdua. 

Walang ajidxua. 

Bumabdyad nang bonis, 

Hindi bumubouis. 


W(M rito. 


Hindi handd. 

May pagbihilL 

Hindi pagbibifi. 

Mahalagd. Walang halagd^ worth- 
less. Magkano ang halagd nitot 
What is the value (price) of this? 
Nagkaftisinghalagdy of the same 
value, at the same price. 


Masano. Masauong damit, dirty 



Mapdlad. Walang pdladj unlucky. 

Nauuna (from tma, first; not Sp. j. 

Sinalin (from salin^ idea of trans/er- 
ring, transplanting, etc.). 

Maparaanin. Walang paraan^ with- 
out method. 

Naaayoa ((rom ayos); nauukol (from 

Hindi ayoa. Hindi ddpat, unfit. 

Manyos. Walang guloy without con- 

Magulo. Kagulohan^ confusion, dis- 

Mnpakinahangin (from pakin&bang, 
idea of making a profit, etc.). 

Walang pakindbang. 



Ginawd (from gawd and in), 

Hindi yari. 

Hinabi (from habiy idea of weaving). 

Sinulid (from^tUid, idea of spinning). 



Cultivated; plowed. Naaararo (from Sp.. aro^o, plow). 

Hindt naaararo, uncaltivated; an- 

Open. BukAB. Buks&n mo itong pirUd, open 

this door. 

8hut; close<l (thing). Piudan. Pindan mo ctng dumnga- 

nan, shut the window. Some na- 
tives pay garhan mo, undoubted!? 
a corruption of the Spanish verb 
cnrary to close. 

Spread; extended. Ixitag. XakakdUU, stretched; taat 

Folded; doubled, etc. Tiniklop (from Hklop, idea of dou- 



The Tagalog adjective, like adjectives of other languages, has the three 
degrees of quality to be indicated — the simple form (viTiich is generally 
calle<l the positive), the comp)arative, and the superlative. Of course, as 
in English, some adjectives are excluded from comparison by their mean- 
ing, Huch Bs^ those for "dead,'* *'alive,'* "entire," and some others. 

The positive adjective is that form discussed in the preceding pages, and 
the comparative will now l)e taken up. Of this there may be said to exist 
three varieties, the comparative of equality, that of superiority, and that 
of inferiority. In English the first form is express«ed by "as (adjective) as 
(noun)/' the second by "er*'or "more," and thethircfby "er** or"Ie8P." 

In Tagalog there are three ways by which the comparative of equality 
may he exprefssed. The first is by using the adverb para (variation pari*)j 
meaning "as," "so," etc. In some cases "like" expresses the Tagalog 
idea l>cst. With adjcctivoR or connnon noniis para (jHiris) takes the tie ?k, 
})nt with iianic^e of personp, etc., and i)rononns is followed bv what is 
conipiircd, which taken the genitive case. Ex.: Parang inahud (h(»w 
good), Didputl {KtrniKj gi^tas (as white as milk ), ?//a»h";/i paranf/ uliug (bs 
black as charcoal), jtaranf/ }nita>i (like a dead ])ersoii), parantj hayop (like 
a beast); Ako ij jtnrn iiutf (Am I like you!) aiifiV ft jxiria ko (he [she] i.'^ 
like nie) , mali'it jtarh kn (as small as I am [small like me]), fiya maUilt 
jmra ni .Juan (he is as prudent ns Juan), aixj ilor/ m Naga^y inahmovij 
para nang Pasig (the river at Na<ra [Nueva Caceres] is as wide as the 
Pasig). With the particle ka denoting likeness, /^ara indicates e<iuality, 
the particle being prefixed to the adjective in such cases. Ex.: Para 
nifjong inniTija t'nio, kahulmti (equally good as these people). This word 
para, whicli as a root denotes "equality," "cl<^se resemblance," etc., 
should not be confused with the Spanish word jtara, meaning "to," "for," 
etc., as the resemblance is jmrely accidental. The Tagalog word is Ma- 
layan, the Javane.«e word pad' a having substantially the same signification. 

The second way of expressing equalitv with an adjective is by means of 
the particle «///.7, which denotes this idea precisely. Ex.: It6*y fdnghaftH 
liiyniL (this is as long as that), xiya'y yinglaki ko (he is as large as I am), 
slvglaki xi J'tckro iii Jvan (IVdro is as large as Juan). It will be seen by 
the exatiij)les that the obje<'t or i)erson conquired takes the genitive ca.*>e 
and the subject the nominative. 

The third way of indicating Ciiuality with the adjective is by means of 
the consolidated particles ka and m'mg, i. e., kaxhig, the syntax l>eing the 
same as with sing i)n\y. Ex.: Ito g hhs'inahaha n'njaii (this is as long as 
that), xi Ptdro'y kaslngtaasiii Jaan (Pedro is as tall as Juan). 

When e<juality is to be indicated fdr mnre than two objects it may l)e 
expressed in two ways. The first is by prefixing sing to the root, of which 
the first syllable is re<lu plicated. Ex. : SinghahafA (equally long [things] ), 
singhtihiiii (ecjually good [persons or objects]), singtataas ang inagint'i ni 
Bangoy (Maria) (Maria and her mother are the same in height). The* 


second ia by prefixing kasing to the root, the particle mag being prefixed 
to kosingf forming magka*mg, Ex.: Magkasingdunang (equally wise 
rieamedj), magkanngyaman (equally wealthy [rich]), ang maginA ni 
Bangoy (Maria) ay magkasingtads (Maria and her mother are the same in 
height [equally tall]), ang manga cabayoat ang mangd kalabao ay map- 
kasingdami sa bayan il6 (there are afi many horses as there are carabao in 
this town ) , mayrdon kang bagd bigds na kanngdam i nang palay f ( Have you 
as much hulled rice as you have of the unhiilled?). 

Equality in quantity mav al80 be expressed by magkapara, magkaparix^ 
or magkapantay^ the two objects comparetl taking the nominative, and the 
root denoting quantity having ka prefixed to it. Ex. : Ang bigds ko at ang 
bipds niyd magkaparis karami (he and I have the same quantitv of rice). 
Literally "my rice and his rice is the same in quantity." Those influ- 
enced by Spanish are liable to say "his rice and my rice,'* but the other 
order is that of the Malayan languages generally. 

The comparative by decrease is formed by the use of the adverb kulang^ 
(less), preferably with the negative pjarticles di or hindly as kulang alone 
has many times the force of "not," "without," "un-," etc., but, as in every 
language, the context serves as the best guide. Ex.: Jtong bigds na iid*y 
kulang sa dkin binili (this rice is less than the amount I bought), ang halagd 
itong cabayo it6*y kulang 9a halagd nang ibd (the value of this horse is less 
than the value of the other), ang majTga kalabao kulang nang dami sa mangd 
cabayo 9a bayan ito (there are fewer carabao than horses in this town) , ang 
mar^d Tagalog ay kdlang nang tad9 »a mangd Americano (Tagalo^ are not 
as tall [literally, 'Mess in stature"] than Americans), ang kakulaiujan (the 
difference in price, the balance, the difference in amount, etc. ). 

Alangan ( lacking, insufficient, etc.) is sometimes used in place of kiilang. 
Ex.: Ang hayamanan ni Capitan Tino'y alangan sa kayamanan ni Capitan 
Lui9 (the wealth of Captian Faustino is less than the wealth of Captain 
Luis), alangan pa itong bold it6 (this child is not old enough yet). 

There are three ways in which the comparative by increase may be 
expressed. The first is by the position of tne words only, what excee^is 
taking the nominative and what is exceeded the ablative with kay or 9a, 
these two particles expressing "than." The particle ay is sometimes used 
with the nominative word. 

The second method is by prefixing the adverb laid (more) to the 
adjective, with the same construction as the foregoing. 

The third way, which is only used correctly for comparing qualities, is 
formed by suffixing pa (yet, still to the adjective) either alone or in 
conjunction with laid. Ex. : (1 ) Matad9 ak6 sa iydy or ak6*y matad9 »a v/6; 
(2) ak6*y kUong mnta&^sa iyd; (3) tnntads pa akd 9a iydy or lalong matads pn 
akd 9a iyd. All the foregoing may be translated by **I am taller than you 
are." (1) Payat ka 9a daii (you are thinner than you were before), si 
Pedro* y masipag kay Juan (Pedro is more industrious than Juan), alin ang 
malikti, kay Pedro ni Juanf (Which is the more alert, Pedro or Juan?); «i 
Juan (Juan); « Juan ay mabait sa kaniyd; (2) si Juan ay lalong mabait sa 
kaniyd; (3) si Juan ay mabait pa 9a kaniyd (Juan is more prudent than he 
[or she] is). (1) Ang kabanala^y mahal «a kayamanan; (2) lalong mahal 
ang kabanalan »a kayamanan (worth is more precious than wealth), itd'y 
taJUmg magaling sa diydn (this is better than that), iydn ay lalong mapull 9a 
dito (that is whiter than this), lalong marami ang manga cabayo 9a m^tngd 
kalabao 9a bayan itd^ ngunVi ang mangd ia^a bdkid mayrdon lalong kalabao 
9a ang mangd taga bayan; (3) there are more horses than carabao in this 
town, but the farmers have more carabao than the town people, at Ciriaca 
ay bald jya 9a akin, ngunVt ang kapaiid kong babaye^y marikii pa 9a kaniyd 
(Ciriaca is younger [literally, **more of a child yet"] than I am, but my 
sister is prettier than she is), siyd^y Udo pang kayumangi 9a kaniyang 
ind^t malxU pa 9iyd «a dkin (she is still darker [more brunette] than her 
mother and is shorter yet than I am ) . 

A laconic but correct form of comparison is expressed by using pa after 
a pronoun, especially in asking a question. Ex. : Hindt mo nadbut^ akd paf 


( It was not reached by you ; shall I? ) . Hindt ko naaalaman ; ikao paf ( I do 
not know it; do you?). 

For the negative form of the comparative, as in such phrases expressed 
in English bv '^without companson," "there is nothing like it," 
''there is nothing resembling it/' etc, Tasalog has several expreasiong 
almost alike in meaning, which are formed by prefixing ka to various 
roots; the negative waldf (there is no [t]) with the tie ng preceding the 
root and its prefix. An is sometimes found as a suffix with these expres- 
sions. £x. : 

Walang, without comparison; 

Wcdangkahalintulad, without similarity (generally in speaking of objects); 
Walang kaiulad, without similarity; unlike; both the foregoing from tulad\ 
Walang kahambing, without resemblance; synonym; 
Walang kawangifi, without resemblance; 
Walang kaholilip, without likeness (this phrase is rare); 
Walang kamukhd, without facial resemblance, from muk-M, face; 
Walang kapantay, without an equal; referring mainly to height, length, 

Walang kaialnmilan, without resemblance (a rare expression) ; 
Walang kawangki, without resemblance (also a rare phrase). 

To ask questions as to comparative equality, inferiority, or superiority is 
done in Tagalog with ga (how) prefixed to alin (which), or and (what), 
in conjunction with ka prefixed to the root of the quality. With many 
adjectival roots ga and la thus serve to show that the degree of the (quality 
is the subject of inquiry. Ex.: Gaalin kalayot (About how far is it?); 
Gaanong kalaklf (About how large is it?); Gaanong kahahdt (About how 
long is it?) ; Oaalln kapuiif ( How white is it?) . The answer may be given 
with the same construction, prefixing ga to a demonstrative pronoun or 
a noun, as the case may be, but if an adjectival root be used, it should be 
prefixed by ka. Ex.: Oailo; g(nnl6 (like this); ganiydn (like that); 
gagatas kaputi (a.s white a.s milk); ganitong kulaki (about as large as this); 
gmiooug kahalnl (alK)Ut as long as tliat). (raya is a variation. Ganga, 
another form, is generally used to indicate plurality. Ex.: Ganga nitd 
kaldki (about as large as these); (/anga niifan kahuUl (about as long as 
those). The noun, pronoun, or a<ijective compared sometimes takes the 
nominative and sometimes the genitive in these answers. Ga and its vari- 
ations may be said to express likeness, an<l is but an offshoot of ka. In 
many cases na is also inserted in the sentence. Ex.: Gaaling na gait6 
kaonll/ (How small is it, like this?). The letter n instead of rTjf is used in 
some phrases. Ex.: Ganan dkin (that which belongs to or affects me); 
ganan inyo (that which affects you), etc. 


The superlative degree of the adjective may be divided into the simple 
and the absohite forms. The first, usually expressed in English by the 
use of the adverbs "very," "extremely," "excessively," "exceedingly," 
"8uri)assingly," etc., is expressed in Tagalog by the following adverbs: 

(1) Luhhd, very, very much, excee<lingly. 

(2) Mumkit, extremely, excee<lingly, hard (as in the phrase, '*to rain 

hard"). Distinguished by difference in accent from ma«oih7, (ill). 
This adverb isuse<i more with verbs than with adjectives. In some 
places mdyd has the sense of "very;" ex., nadyano lints very clean. 

(3) Dtmpala, extremely, excee<lingly, from di, not, and mpala^ humble, 

unworthy, the idea of the adverb Ix^ing that of plenty or sufficiency. 

(4) Dt hdmakj extremelv, from d!, not, and hdmnk, vile, worthless, mean, 

the whole idea being "not i)altry," "not mean." 

(5) I)i palak, far, widely. 


(6) Labis, too, too much. This adverb has sometimes a slight idea of 

craft, cunning, or slyness. 

(7) TotdOf truly, exactly, precisely. 

The adverbs formed with di always follow the adjective in the sentence, 
but the simple adverbs may either follow or precede the adjective. 

IMaiandd siyd 
Matandd siyd 

di sapala. 
di hamak, 
di palak, 


Luhhd \ 

Labis \8iy6. matandd: He (she) is very old (too, truly, etc.). 

Toto6 J 

The following phrases will illustrate the various idiomatic uses of the 
afl verbs with the adjective: (1) Luhhd ang pagkapagal ko (I am very tired; 
lit., ** very great is my fatigue"); (2) fTganiy lalong masdkit ang kay Pedro 
(That's so, out Pwiro is still more tired; lit, **but more excessive is [that] 
of Pedro'* ) ; Jniibig katang masdkit ( \Ve like you very much ) ; Piiiagsisisihan 
silang masdkit (They are repenting deeply ) ; ( 3 ) Mayaman di sapala siyd ( He 
is exceedingly wealthy [very rich]); (5) Uiigmuldn nana lahis (It rained 
too much); (verbalized) Napakalahis ang kahutihan mo (You are entirely 
tix) good [honest] ); Linahisan ang utos ko sa inyo (You exceeded your or- 
derfi; you did more than I told you to do) ; (6) TinoUAoo niyd ang wikd (He 
is complying with his word [verbalized iform of /o/oo] ). 

The absolute superlative degree of the adjective ( in the singular number) 
which is maile in English by the suftix "est" and by the adverb "most" 
i.«j generally expressed in Tagalog by repeating the entire adjective, whether 
it be simple or compound, bv means of the proper tie, which is deter- 
mined by the ending of the adjective. Ex.: Mdhuling ritahuti (\ye)^i)\ ma- 
sainang masamd (worst); bimal na banal (most virtuous); masipag na masl- 
pag (most diligent); mahil na ma hat (dearest, most precious); maputing 
mapuli (whitest, very white); maitlinna maitim (blacket»t, very bla(!k). 

The plural of such superlatives as the foregoing is formed by using the 
particle maiTgd with those formed from simple adjectives, and either with 
utartgd or the reduplication of the first syllable of the root with those com- 
pounded with ma, the superlatives thus formed, either in the singular or 
i>lural, generally being printed as two words in order to avoid unnecessary 
ength and also to distinguish more clearly from some diminutives. Ex.: 
The dearest [persons or objects understoo<l] {ang maiTgd mahnl na mahal). 
The best [persons or objects understood] [ang maiTgd mahuting mahuti; 
^ang mabubuting mabubuti). 

The worst (persons or things understood ), ang maiTgd masamang masamd; 
4CSfM maaamtmang musasamd. 

The bravest men {ang manpd matdpang na maUipang na lalaki; ang matatd- 
:M^<ing na maiatdpang na lalakt). 

The ugliest animals {ang maiujd pangit na paiufd na hdyop). 
What may be called the relative 8nj>erlative degree, made in English by 
«Miding the expression *'of all" or a similar phrase to the ^superlative, is 
^orna^ in Tagalog by adding the words sa lahat (of all), sa kanildj 
(Among them), etc. Ex.: Sino sa kanihVy ang hlona matdpang f (Which 
^f those two is the braver?) ; S'mo sa kaniid'y ang m<Uatapang na matatdpang/ 
J^hich of them is the bravest?); Ang maliit sa lahat ^ siyd* y matdpang sa 
lahat (The smallest of all; he is the bravest of all ). 

Superlatives are also formed by prefixing ka and suffixing an {han) to 
'duplicated bisyllabic words, and in the same manner with polysyllabic 
Morels, in the latter case only the first two syllables being reduplicated. 


Ex.: Katamittamidan (sweetest), from Utm'is; kabanalbanalan (most virta- 
0U8), from banal.; kaginlvagin^iauahan (most wholesome), from ginhaita. 
The first two roots have two syllables and the last has three. This form 
may also be applied to abstracts formed with ka and an (/lan), and inten- 
sifies them. Ex. : Katamisan (sweetness) ; katamistamisan (sweetness itself); 
kabanalan (virtue); kabanalbanalan (virtue itself); kalamaran (laziness); 
katximartamaran (laziness, laziness itself). 

V^erbs have a certain superlative form, which may be mentioned here 
for the sake of association. It is made bv repeating the verbal root united 
by nang. Ex. : Hiiigi nang hinijl ( ask an([ ask over again ) ; IdJcad nang Uikad 
(walk and walk); ^^yes** nang *'yes** ang vukain mo (say yes over and 
over). This form is also found with nouns, etc. 

Sbction Five, 
the numerals. 

The numerals form a small noun-group by themselves, having the three- 
fold character of substantive, adjective, and adverb. While the distinction 
between adjective and noun is not so sharp as with some other words, yet 
it is clear that the (^ardinals in Tagalog are nouns, as they show by always 
precedinj^ the noun affected that **of " must be understood. Thus limang 
kalabao literally means "five (head) of cattle," and this holds good in all 

In Tacalog there are four classes of numerals— cardinals, ordinals, 
adverbials, and distributives. 

The canlinals are: 

One. Isd. Seven. PU6, 

Two. Daiawd. ' Eight. Walo. 

Three. Tatio. Nine. Si yam. 

Four. AjHit (accent on first syllu- Ten. Sangpoud (contr. of isaiKj 
ble). /;ofa>, "one ten'* ). 

Five. Jjini'i. 

Six. Aiiim (accent (m iijyX sylla- 

As in English, decimal numeration, by tens, is tliat used in Tagalog and 
throughout the Malayan family of languages. But Tagalog uj^es a peculiar 
form in the numerals from eleven to nineteen, inclusive, which differs from 
the method followed in every other language of Luzon. iMhiy meaning 
"adding," an<l a variation of labtH, is prefixed to the digits by means of 
the euphonic tie m/; pouo, ten, being understood. 

Eleven. hihing /VJ. Sixteen. Ixibbig 6nim. 

Twelve. Ldhiny dalaini. St^venteen. lAibing pitd. 

Thirteen. LahiiKj taUo. Eighteen. Labing wal6. 

Fourteen. fxil'ln'/ dpal. Nineteen. Ixibhtg Hiyam. 

Fifteen. lAihing lima. 

The multiples of ten ])elow one hundred are formed by prefixing the 
<ligit use<l as the multiplier to the word jhjuo, united by the proper tie. 

Twenty. Dulniraug puao. Sixty. Anim na pouo. 

Thirty. Tallotifj jxfinj. Seventy. Pitoiuj pond. 

Forty. Afxit im poiio. Kighty. Walong pond. 

Fifty. LiniiDi'j p(ni6. Ninety. Siyam na pou6. 

The intermediate digits, when used with the foregoing, are joined b^ 
means of '/, a contraction of at (and). " 

Twenty-one. DnJawaiuj jm^n'i't im. Fifty-five. Limang jxm6* t lima. 

Thirty-tliree. Tatlong jkOiuVt tatlo. Sixty-six. A)iim na jmudU dnim 

Forty-four. Apat na])ou<yi dpal. 



The word for ** hundred" is ddaw, wtiich has a homonym meaning 
"road." It is always preceded by the appropriate multiplier, to which it 
is connected by the proper tie, d softening to r before na. 

One hundred. 

Two hundred. 
Three hundred. 
Four hundred. 

Isang ddan; mng- 

Dalatuang ddan. 
Tatlong ddan. 
Apat Tia rdan. 

Five hundred. 
Six hundred. 
Seven hundred. 
Eight hundred. 
Nine hundred. 

Limartg ddan. 
Anirn na rdan. 
Pilong ddan. 
Waiong ddan. 
Siyam na rdan. 

Numbers below twenty adde<l to hundreds are united with '<, the n of 
ddan l>eing dropped. 

One hundred and one. SangdiiaU isd. 

Two hundred and eighteen. DnUtwang ddaU labing wal6. 

The n is retained with multiples of ten. 

Two hundred and fifty-three. Dalawang ddan Umang pou6H tatld. 

Six hundred and sixty-six. Anim na rdan dnim na poudU dnim. 

Eight hundred and eighty-eight. Waiong ddan vndong pond*! uald. 

Nine hundred and ninety-nine. Siyam na rdan myam mi pond't siyam. 

The word for '* thousand*' is liho^ which is found as rilio and ribu in other 
Philippine languages. 

It 18 governed, like ddan, by multipliers and sufiixeil numbers. The 
purely Malayan numerals end with /i6o, those for higher numl)ers being of 
foreign origin. Some higher numbers are said to have Malavan names, nut 
it is doubtful as to whether their values are definite or not. they are noted, 

One thousand. 

One thousand and eight. 

Nineteen hundred and five. 

Two thousand. 

Six thousand. 


Sangliho'i wold. 

t>anglibo siyam na rdaU limd. 

Daiatvang libo. 

Anim na libo. 

For **ten thousand" the term laksd is U8e<l. This is from the Sanskrit 
laksha (one hundred thousand), through the Malay sa-laksa (ten thou- 
sand), the latter people mistaking its value. Ihkht with the original value 
of •*one hundrea thousand," is used by Anglo-Indians, as in the phrase 
**a lakh of rupees." 

For **one hundred thousand" another Sanskrit term is used, also with 
altered value. This is yutaf from the Sanskrit ayvta (ten thousand). 

**One million" is now expressed by sangpmwng yuta, or '*ten one hun- 
dred thousands." Qatos and angao-angao are given in old dictionaries as 
equivalent to ** million," but the former is the word used for "hundred" 
in most Philippine dialects, and the latter seems to have more the idea of 
"uncountable," "infinite," etc. 

In expressing numbers Tagalogs sometimes give a round number, less 
the few taken off, as "three hundred and sixty less two" for "three hun- 
dred and fifty-eight;" e. g., kulang nang dalawd m tallong ddan dnim na 

Cardinals may be preceded by ang (the), when a concrete noun is motii- 
fied, as in the phrase Ang daiatvang pisos na ibinigay mo sa dkin (the two 
dollars which you gave me). 

Manga preceding a numeral indicates the idea of "about," "some," 
etc., as in the phrase manga pilong tduo (about seven men). When the 
exact number is indicated mangd is omitted as a sign of plurality. Ex.: 
Mangd Idno (men, people); pilong tdvo (seven men, persons). 

By reduplicating the first syllable of the cardinal the idea of "only" is 
brought in. Ex.: Jisd (only one, alone, etc.); dadalawd (two only, only 
two), etc. For greater emphasis upon the idea of limitation the number 
may be repeated with the initial syllable reduplicated. Ex.: Jisdisd (one 
only); dadaladcUawd (only two). The adverb Idmang (only) may also be 



vmiA far thJB Bame idw, the adverb [ollowiii){ tlie L-ardinal aHected. Ex.: 
^Iteonn (only one); dalauiA binuing (only two], etc. It will be observed 
that the nrst two gyllablee only At poU'syllftbk numerals like dalauA are 
npeated, fallowinu the general rule in Tagalo^. 
Theqneeition "How many?" is expreawil-in Tagal'ighy ildnf 
Xwtwog has DO abatracte like "a dozen," "a §i.-ore, etc., these phntsN 
leqnuing roundabout means it eipreasion. "A dnien*' maybe trandalai 
by itang kapiMtian naiig iabing didam'i. which literally meanx "a joiri' 
iag of twelve." The name i.i true of Kngliah nbatnicta like "monad," 
"deaid«/' pt<- 

" More, " wit^ a cardinal fallowing, is expiened bv Ubit at MgiL iMA 

- '"- -—' Mtdanimitedwithit DTM, wbwb«p '»-•— n 

_._ , _r Uott M ttmd (more than flv«). jCa .._.._ 

correct, aa hioU has an idea of «xcew in weight mh«r than In namlMr. 

mecede the nameral and are united with it bj M, whteh « "ttan." 
Ex. : Labi* m UmA, or Uott M ttmd (num than five). £mM> ta tiie 

Kitang {lewil is n;^ in the wroe way. 

The indeteniiinate uuinrnil "mue," "a few," is expressed in Ts«aloe 
by iMn. M'itli the first eyllable rcidunlip»t«i or with Umanij the idea of 
"only" it expressed: os, iiMh or Wrt/i i^innpiff (only a few). 

"Mnch," '' many," and similar words are expre^ed by ninrflmi (from 
dsmi), and "h fcreat many" may be translated hv tnammmg mammi. 
By nmlring an abntniL-t of 'ilumi and prefixing the definite article of com- 
mnn iinnnB ig expressed "the mcwf.^' "the majority," etc. Ex.: -Inj 

For the meanins of the numerals, see the work by T. H. Pardo de 

Tkvera, entitled "Consideraiuonea eohre l'I [!>ri|^ii del Nombre de \i« 
NdmerM en Tugalog," published at Manila in 166S, 

The ordinals, which are the nomerals dengnatiiw tb» fimot or poritttn 
of the object in some particular seriee, have more ofthe character of adjec- 
tives than have the cardinals. They answer the question TtailAn? (In 
what order?) and are formed In a very simple manner in TaAlog for all 
numbers except "first," which is quite irregular, iil'a being preSxed to the 
cardinal. It should also be noted that the Qrst syllable oi dtdaw& (two) 
ia omitted, aa well as the initial letter of taU6 (three) and dpol (lour) 
when preceded by ivba. "Twentieth," however, is formed with tea and the 
entire cardinal. 

The ordinals up to "tenth " are: 
The first. Ang naina. 

The second, Ang ikalavA. 

The third. Ang ikatli. 

The fourth. Ang ik&pat. 

The fifth. Ang HtUimi. 

The sixth. Ang ifainim (Initial letter dropped). 

The seventh. Ang ikapilS. 

The eiRhth. Ang ikawal6. 

The ninth. Ang ikasiyam. 

The tenth. Ang itapou6; ang iktuangponi. 

In the southern provinces an? ikapold ia sonietiroea heard, dne to Bicol 
and Visayan influence. Pol6 and pol-lo is also to be found in the dialects 
spoken to the north of the Tatjalog r^ion, and this form may be found in 
the north, but should be r^arde<t as extraneous to the language. 

The following sji'nopeiH of the ordinals above "tenth will give *d 
accurate idea of their formation: 
The eleventh. Ang ikaUibing isA. 

The twenty-fifth. Ang ikadalav.'ang pouS't timd. 

The thirtieth. Ang ikallong pouo. 

The fortieth. Ang ikApal no pou6. 

The forty-fifth. Ang ikdpat no poa6't tinui. 


iftieth. Ang ikalimang pou6, 

ixtieth. Ang ikdnim na pou6. 

eventieth. Ang ikapitong pou6. 

eightieth. Ang ikatocUong pou6, 

linetieth. Ang ikasiyam na pou6. 

me hundredth. Ang ikamngctdan, 

me thousandth. Ang ikasanglibo, 

me ten-thousandth. Ang ikasanglak^d, 

iins following ordinals are tied to them according to the ending of 
omeral. Ex. : Ang ikalimang t&uo ( the fifth person ) ; ang ikaUong arao 
third day). 

Tagalog, contrary to what obtains in Spanish, the ordinals are used 
1 days of the month, and thus agreeing with English. Ex.: Ikailan 
"igay&n nang buang itdf ( What day of the month [is] this?) ; angikada- 
\g jxtuitH p'dd (the twenty-seventh ). Anohg Arao kayd nbaydn sa sang- 
f (What day of the week is to-day?); Ngayo'y viemes (to-day is Fri- 
Anongtainf (What year?); sangliooj sxyam na rdxiH limd (nineteen 
red and five). Anong buan ngaydn nana tadnt (What month is 
I; ang buan nang tnerOf p6 (the month of January, sir). And ang 
Uan mof (What is your name?); Glicerio^ p6 (Glicerio, sir). Angika- 
\gpangalan (The second name [surname]?) ; Manalo, p6 ( Manalo, sir). 
9adn kaf (Where are you from?); JBaiangaSj p6 (Batangas, sir). 
ka nang ta/ynt (How old are you?) ; Mayroon akong dalawang poudH 
(I am twenty-five years old) . Sa&n naroon ang preaidentef (where is 
residente [mayor]?) ; Nariyan «a ikalawang bdhay (There in the second 


ictions are expressed by the use of ang (the) if the numerator is one, 
enominator b«ing the ordinal desired, and bahagi (a part) following 
enominator either expressed or nnderetood. Numerals may replace 
Ex.: Ang ikalaivang bahagi (the second part); ang ikdpat (the 
h), etc. Also imnp bahagi (one part) ; tatlong bahagi (three parts), 
re the numerator is greater than one it is placed in the nominative 
he denominator in the genitive, the two being connected by nang and 
phrase followed by bahagi. Ex.: Taild nang Apat na bahagi (three- 
ters); dalawd nana tatlong bahapi (two-thirds). 

ialf" is expressed by kalahali, as kalahaiina tindpay (half a loaf of 
1). The noun "a half** is expressed by kahati, meaning generally a 
f-salapi or 25 centavos. 

should be mentioned that unauna means ^*in the first place,'' and 
1 made an abstract and preceded by the definite article of common 
^, as in the phrase ang kaunaunahan^ means *' the very first." In like 
ler, hull (last), when made an abstract in the same way, as ang kahuli- 
en means **the very last" 


Terbial numerals, expressed in English by **once," "twice," etc., and 
ering the question Nakaildnt (past tense) and Makaildn (present 
future tenses), "How often?", "How many times?" are formed like 
Tdinals except that maka is prefixed instead of ika to the cardinals, 
word for "once" is wholly irregular. In some districts these adver- 
iiamerals also express the idea of "fold," as "twofold." "threefold." 
ith the cardinals the sense of "only" may be imparted by reduph- 
g either the first syllable of the prefixed particle or following the 
tibial numeral with Idmang, 

Minsan^ var. ninsan Nine times. Makasiyam, 

(rare). Ten times. Makasangpoud. 

e. Makalaxvd, Fourteen times. Makalabing dpat. 



Thrice. MakataU6. 

Four times. Miikaapul^ var. ma- 

kaijml (rare). 

Five times. MakcUimd. 

8ix times. Makaanim. 

Seven times. Maknpitd. 

Fight times. Makawalo. 

Twenty timer*. }fakadalawang 

Twenty-five times. Makadalawang 

pouo't limd. 
One hundred times. Maka»angddan. 
A thousand times. Makasangliho: 


Naturally, 2^ in all languages, the restrictive form is not used for ver>' 
liigh numbers. 

Onlv once. Mimin»an. 
Only twice. Mamakalawd. 

Onlv \\m\^ times. MnmakataUo. 

In this connection it should be rememb(*rtMl that lailauf means '* when?'' 
used interrogatively. 


These numerals, expressed in Fnglish with **by '* between the numerals, 
as **one by one," **two by two/* et**., answer the question Jldnitdnf (How 
many at a time?) and are formed in Ta^^log by the simple repetition 0/ 
the carriinal if bisyllabic, or the fir.-'t two syllables thereof if longer, no 
tie being used. 

One bv one. 
Two bv two. 


Three by three. 

Four by four. 

Five by five. 

Six by six. 

8ev(»n by seven. 

Eij^ht by ei^lit. 

Nine by nine. 

Ten by ten. 

Kleven liy eleven. 

Twelve by twelve. 

Twentv bv t went v. 

One hundre<i by one hun<lre<l. 

One thousand bv one thousand. 

Sit 11 fjfH}.vi iigpoud. 
L/ihilabinff isn. 
Ijahiifihiiifj (inlnim. 
DalnddhiirniKj pou6. 

Nouns rei>eated in this manner accjuire the idea of ** every." 

Every day; daily. Arno-drno. 

Weekly (also every Sunday). JAitgo-lirnjo. 

Yearly; annually. TaoU'tnoti. 

Hourly. Onw-orns (from Sp., hora). 

The Ta^alog word for ''every" is tun-i, which may also be used. 

Distributives, answering the question TigiiUwf ( How many to each one?) 
are formed by prefixing the particle ti(j to the cardinals, the first syllable of 
the latter beinj^ reduplicated in those greater than "four". The first syl- 
lable is dropiHhl from (hlawd and the initial / from tatlo. 

One to each one. 
Two to each one. 
Three to each one. 
Four to each one. 
Five to each one. 

J tgixd. 





Six to each one. 
Seven to each one. 
Eight to each one. 
Nine to each one. 
Ten to each one. 






These may be also translated by "one a|>iece," etc. 

7V7 j)reli\ed to canlinals may also exi)ress the stamped, coined, or fixed 
value of money, stamps, etc. In this case the initial syllable of those 
numerals above four is not reduj)licated. Aa is now more generally us*»d 



than tig for this purpose. Kx.: Seyong iiaalawang centavos (a two-cent 
stamp); nalaping tiglimang piMon (a iive-pero bill or gold piece); tigdaUucang 
jitnunig }h»)9 (a twenty-pet*o bill or gold piece). It must be borne in 
mind that the Philippine pet*o is eiiual to a naif dollar United States cur- 
rency, and that it is the legal currency in the islands. Hence the old de- 
bates over **gold" and **niex.*' shoufd be relegateti to the past. 

In the southern dialect tig is sometimes uned to express the time at 
vi-hi(*h something may be done or has been done, as in tigaga (to do some- 
thing in the morning); tighajnm (to do something in the afternoon). 

The particle fnon, prefixed to nouns denoting money, weights, and 
measures, imparts the idea of ''each,'' *'apiece." etc. This particle causes 
euphonic changes with some initial letters of roots, as follows: 6 and p 
change to m, the final n dropping from the particle; initial c (k ), and q drop 
out, modifying n to jTg; s and ( drop out; a drops out in most cases; mitial 
171, n, and iTg al^ drop oat, and an initial yowel (a, t, o, and u) modifies 
the final n of the particle to iuj. 

The former monetary system was founded u\K)n the $(dapi^ or half peso, 
iiominally worth 25 cents at a gold basis, and now restored to that value. 
Sft/ttpt also means money in general. The peso of one hundred centavos 
10 worth two snlapt. In the old system the mlapi wat? divided into 80 
cuartos, ami upon these the people rec^koned their marluft and other minor 
transactions. As these values and terms will linger for some time to come, 
especially in districts where Tagalog only is spoken, the following examples 
\«rill prove of use: 

A peso each or apiece. 
.V half peso each or apiece. 

half (aalapt) each or apiece. 

real ( 12} centavos) each, etc. 


.\ half red (6) centavos) each, etc. 


MangahaiX (from kahaiX^ 25 centavos). 
Mnnikapat (from tikApttt, a contrac- 
tion of m ikdpatf to the fourth of 
MtwikM (from sikM^ a contraction 
of m ikamU6, to the eighth of a 
A cnartillo (5 cuartos or $0.03125, or Mangalin (from aliu). 

T'0.0«25) each, etc. 
A cnarto ( *0.00625, or ^0.0125 ) each, MatTgunlin ( from ciuiUa, a corruption 
otc. otcuarto). 

^ The only measure of weight incorporated into Tagalof^ appears to be the 
''*/t*i(from the Chinese iael, which was a very unccrtam standard). By 
^'^^aty the Jutiktifan tael or castoms tnei of China in now ',\i ounces avoir- 
<1U|x)i8. As a monetary unit the halkivtm ind yaries from 55 to 60 centR, 

grrains, and the avoirdu]X)is ounce 437} grains. 

J>ne tihil each. 

^'He pound Spanish each. 

^^^ kilfjgram each. 

^"^e arroba (dry) each. 


^^ qaintal each. 



Munlibm (1.0144 IJnited States 
pounds) . 

Maugiloaramo (2.2046 I'nited States 

Mangarolta (251ibra8or 25.36 Unite<l 

States x)ound8). 
Mamnrdo (;« Sp. <.r 33.475 United 

States pounds; UHe<l in weighing 

MniTg'wUtl (4arroljas or 101.44 rnitc<l 

States )>ounds:). 


Ric« and ^rain iR tmlil hytbcmvilnMvl its (nwtioiw, which areas foUn«s- 
One "arrtildn" cacli. 
One "fhiipa" eiicli. MirifN''""!/ (4 aptMn 

One "ganta" each. lUniiat'ift (8 rhupa* or 3.I70I Unild 

$Uit»i quarts] (from Mtfoi>). 
One "i.'avdn" each. Mangaban (25 pnnta* or lfl.81 p*" 

There are 8 gallons to the Cnit«d Stales bushel. United States Ar\ 
memure \e elighlly iliffereiit from BritUh imperial. To reduce I'nit^ 
State* to BritiHb divide «ame named nieasuref' by l.OSlStti, and t<i redii'-'^ 
British tu llnit«d SCateti multiplv l>v eanie. For ciiinmou [lurjioeeE 11=^ 
1.032, which i8t:lo8e enough. Vratiltcinf. 

A '"cavin" of rice weighs K13 "libro*." 
One "plcal" wch. Jr<MiaitI(IS7.9UalM8tatnpm>RiI^ 

Two picoli r iw wUt ii t w k "bale" (=^ 
hmp, ateU). 

The nwtrie tyatom ii noir (rfflcU in the Phili^liM^ uid to ON Ja pad^v^* 

tX\\ apreading toi^ 

AnKMig the imMb meuoret o( loogth DBad with mm m« tba fdknriB^^ 
One inch Mch. Mmemah ^rea tUmJA lAUt t«^ 

turn Is OMttnctad mm mw t^ • 
"one," and dofiri, "iadt"). 
The Bpaniah inch is 0.91 of xn indi. AiKrt atao sdmiw Bngnr (* (H(^ 
and ttie leiuth of a ngalog'Mnch" altaoat vme&j cot f enw d ite ut» 
"digit" ofthJeeailyHfibrewB, which waa 0.912 of an mch. 
One "span" each. .Vanan7M(I(from(IaR;aii,a"p«lm'*). 

The A I 
fourth of 

One "vara" each. Mamara (from vara, a Spuiish 

j-ard, equal to 33 United Statee 
inches, appraximately, and actu- 
ally 0.814117 of a yard). 
One "braza" each. MandipA (from (fipd, a frrozo, equal 

to 5 feet 5.S iochee United Statea, 
appTOximatety 5} feet). 
To express the idea of "at such a price apiece" the former monetary 
unite were used with in ('tin] eulfixed to the unit, of which the initial syl- 
lable waa reduplicated. The article or object of which the price waa to be 
denoted preceded the unit of value, the two words being linked with the 
appropriale tie, according to the ending of the firat word. Ex.; FSjn- 
tohin (at a peso each), librong ta»alapim (books at a half pew) each), Itnd- 
pay na sxticapalin thread at a real a loaf), tabantmg aatinkin (cigars i^ a 
"■'cuartillo" apiece). 

These terms will now only be found used with those people still unfa- 
miliar with the new currency, but as the»e people speak only Tagalogasa 
rule they will naturally retain the old tenns the longest. 

The following dialogue fairly represents what may be said in making a 
purchase in the market: 

A. Magknno Iragd ang halaga nil&t (What is the price of thie7) 

B. Itangpieot, p6 (a peso, sir). 

A. Mahal na loioo tydn (that is too dear). 

B. Hindi jtfft mtira (no, sir; cheap). 

A. Anongmvrat (How [is it} cheap?) 

B. Kay6 na'y tumauad (you set a pnce, sir). 


A. Tatlong pesetM ang ibibigay ko (I will give 3 pesetas [60 centavos] ). 

B. Hindi fimg mangyayari; 6pat na pesetas, p6{l can not do it; 4 pesetas, 

A. MabuH (very well [offers a peso]). 

B. Wald akong sukU, p6 (I have no change, sir). 
A. Dald mo nga sa aming bAhay, do6n Itabayaran hid (bring it [them] to 

our house, we will i>ay [^oii] there). 
B. Afaiayo yatdf (Is it fai^) 

A. Hindu (it do&n lAmang sa may cuartel (no, it is there close to the bar- 
racks [quarters]). 

It should be borne in mind that '^magkakano" is used when pricing 
objects of which a part only is desired, such as eggs, bananas, etc. 
'* Magkano" indicates that the entire quantity is priced. 

The verbalized forms of the numerals will be given under the respective 
{^articles, as too lengthy explanations would be required in this place. 

Section Six. 
the adverb. 

By the name of adverb is distinguished that class of words used to modify 
t IiL« sense of a verb, adjective, participle, or other adverb, and usually placed 
n «^ar what is modified, as he writes n^Uf I readily admit, you speak correctly, 
^^t^il cold, uaturaUy brave, very generally acknowledged, much more clearly. 
( A. 11 but one of the foregoing are from the Century Dictionary.) 

Adverbs mav be classified, according to the same authority, as follows: 
( 1- ) Adverbs oi place and motion, as here, there, up, out, etc. (2) Of time 
ancl succession, as now, then, often, ever, etc. (3) Of manner and quality, 
a** «o, thus, icell, truly, faithfully, etc. (4) Of measure and degree, as much, 
i^ore, very, enough, etc. (5 ) Of modality, as surely, not, perhaps, therefore, etc. 
According to Earle, one of the most distinguished authorities on English, 
tH^re are three kinds of adverbs, the flat, flexional, and phrasal. 

(1) The flat adverb, which is a noun or adjective used in an adverbial 
position, is not considered as correct in books and papers, but is to be 
"C!^&rd daily in conversation, as in walkfast^ walk slow, speak loud, speak low, 
etc. In German, this form of the adverb is also literary, as ehi ganz schones 
if*-irts{9k wholly l)eaatifui house) ; er schreibt gut (he writes well [lit, good] ). 
Adjectives of certain classes may be used this way in Tagalog, and espe- 
ci«.Ily thoeeof manner or degree, such as magaling (well); masamd (badly); 
^"^^^didt (quickly, briefly), etc., which are ali^o adjectives. There are also 
fl^t^ adjectives by signification, which are explained under the section to 
^Hich they belong by meaning. 

(2) The flexional adverb, which is that distinguished by a termination 
'^^ Knglish and allied languages like uxird, ling, long, meal, and ly, as in 
bfidwnrd^ darkling^ headlong, piecemeal, and the great number in ly, such 
«• Quiddy, quietly, rapidly, etc. Tagalog has no particle which thus marks 
o^t an adverb from other parts of speech. 

(3) The phrasal adverb, which is also called an adverbial phrase, is 
(^f^c^tly orcd in English, and is to be found in abundance in Tagalog. 
Among English examples may be <'ited at Iteft, at length, by all means, for 
poorf and all, on every tide, etc. 

There are also both in English and Tagalog what may be styled the ad- 
verbial pronouns, such as yes and no, together with the negatives not, nor, 
wi^l ndther, 

Unlike English adverbs nearly every Tagalog abverb may be made into 
a verb if the proper particle is used, and the border between adverbs and 
prepositions is very indefinite in some cases and must be determined bv 
the aid of the context. 

As the form and composition of a word is subordinate to its meaning, the 
T'S&log adverbs hereafter considered will be classified according to mean- 
^> ^nespective of form. 


I. Adverbs of place and motion which answer the question tAanf 
* * where? ' * are usoally expressed in Ta^^Io^ by «a followed by a root This 
root sometimes has the expulsive particle t prefixed. 

Where. Sdan, 

Where? S&ant 

Where indeed? S&an nga. 

Anywhere, wherever, somewhere. Saan man, 

Everv where. SdarisAan man, S&an reduplicated. 

Nowhere. tSdan ma*y wold. 

From all parts, may also mean to or Sa a&an man, 

in all parts. 

Where are you from? Taga sdan kaf Siyd "he** and fUA 

* * they ' * may be uaed in piaoeof fci. 

Sdan may be verbalized with um inserted, forming gumdan (to be some- 
where permanently), and also with ma (no), in the latter case taking the 
idea of to be somewhere either temporarily or permanently, as the case 
may be. Ex. : Naman ana vuibahao na ilogf (Where is the ford of the 
river?); Maaasaan siyd Itagaf (Where will he be?), 

Saan may be further verbalized by ;>rt, in which case **to go*' is inherent 
in the meaning. Ex.: Napasdan tsiydf (Where did he KO?); NapoMt&ai^ 
siydf (Where is he going?); Pasasdan siydf (Where will ne go?). 

Sdan has been corrupteii to Man in some districts, owing to Bicol an*^ 
Visayan influence, the former using haen and the latter hain. 

Sdan has an entirely different meaning with pa following or even alon^^ 
in pome ca.se8, expressing a negative idea similar to **not yet,** etc. Ir^ 
Ilocano sdan is also the negative participle **no.*' 

Sdan pa f also means * * where then? * ' in rather a sarcastic manner. Wit!*- 
di added to s^an pa an affirmative interrogative meaning is expressed, as^ 
Sdan pa <U totoof (How can it not be true?). 

It must also V)e noted tliat in Manila and places where Spanish is largely 
gpoken that some particilfs are used in a different manner than is the 
custom in rural diHtricts. Thus, " When' are you going?" is expressed in 
the country l)y man hi jtnntroon, but in Manila })y sdan ka ftaparoon. 
Other ex[)ressions of like nature iwo S'mn nng jtnroroonan mot in which 
the definite is used, and n'tun ka mnjinnlnf (Where did you start fn)ni?». 
Another similar question is Saan ka itniTijagdl'mfi? (Where are you coming 
from?). The answer is jjenerally given with sn in the nense of from: Si 
Mnlnhon (from Malalnm); sa Jmus (from Imus); sa hahay ho (from my 
house), etc. 

There are four simj)le adverbs of place, which have heretofore Ihxmi 
ex|)lained at length, and here only s(»me idiomatic uses will l>e set forth. 
These adverbs are d'mi, dilo, dltfnn, and doon. 

Dini, meaning **here" (toward the speaker), is verbalized by um, in 
the sense of taking a j)lace near the sj>eaker, etc. Ex.: Dnnnni ka (take 
your place here); dunf/ntldini ak^ (I am taking my place here^; dnngmini 
(iko ( I took luy j)lace here); dirini ako ( I will take my place here). 

With mny {nag) it is verbalize<i in the tran.**itive sense, requiring an 
object. Ex.: Mngrini ka n'njang (innpny (})ut some bread here by nie). 

With jta the i«lea of motion toward the s]>eaker is expressed. Ex.: 
Pnrini ka (come here toward me). This liLst f<>rm may be further coni- 
])ounded with the ]>article />a, definite, corres|H)nding to >i*(ff;7>a, indefinite, 
to ex|)ress the idea of comman<ling, requestintr, etc. Ex.: j\i)xirinihi}t mo 
si Carlos (tell Carlos to come over here). "Over there" is expressed by 
sn rini. 

J)(t6, meaning; "here" ((Mjually close to l>oth speaker and ]>er8<:)n ad- 
dressed), is verbalized in the same way as dini, Ex.: Jhimito ka (take 
your |)lace here ) ; pnrito kn (come here) ; ]>n/Kn'itoh}n nn^si Carlos { tell Carlos 
to come here); Pinnnnritonto snn'if (I)i<l you tell him to come here?). The 
four adverbs under (li.scussion admit theclefinites of / and an. That in / is 
compounded with ka, forming ika, Ikinn: and i}i may be use<i when nnitiMi 


with pa, the definite of magpa^ as may be seen in the laet two examples. 
The future is Fapariritohin mo »wd? (Will you tell him to c»ome here?) and 
the present Pinapariritd mo ^iyaf {Are you tt'lling him to come here?). 
Rt^ason or cause is expressed by iAra, ikina prefixed to the adverb as a rule, 
although *• why?" can also be expressed by anof as in Aand ka ril6/ ( Why 
are you here?). The more idiomatic way, however, is with ikina ^ an Ano 
am/ikimtpuritd mot (What was the reason you came here?). Ilan is used 
if the idea of place is to be made emphatic, as Sino Uignang pinaritohan mot 
(Who did you come hereto see?). "Time*' isfj^enerally expressed by pa- 
nahdn, which also means "weather,** as And* I dt kn nnparito sa kapanaho- 
nanf ( VVhy didn't you come here in time?) . ** What ** is expressed by andf 
as Nagaand ka diUt (What is your busmen's here?); Magaand siyA ditdt 
(What is he going to do here?); Anhin biu/it (What of that?) or (What is 
there to do?); Inaan6 ta/ T What is Injing done to you?); Jnano kat (What 
was done to you?); Hindi lea vuiaand (nothing can Ihj done to you). Du- 
mito, with the particle magka And its variations, signifies "to come here for 
a particular reason or cause.'* Ex.*: Ay at nagkadumitd kat (For what par- 
ticular reason did you come here?) ; Aug ipinagkakadumitd ko*y ai Cabemng 
Tomds (the "cabeza" Tomasisparticularly responsible for my bein^ here). 
The first of these two sentences is indefinite, grammatically speakmg, and 
the last definite. For their grammatic^il constni(>tion see the particle 
tnagka, which is used with this signification with all four of the simple 
adverbs of place under discussion. For a tabular conjugation of dild see 
tbe tables of verbs. To exi>reas simply the time or reason for "coming 
"i€*re,** t with pa may also \ye ase<l, although ikina is more correct. Ex. : 
■i »»/5 ang ipinaritd mot ( Why did you come here?). The indefinite is more 
t»m]al witn kailAn, "when.'' Ex.: Kaildn ka naparitdt (When did you 
OKTie here?); A'aAapon (yesterday). 

J>igdn, "there" (near at hand), has the same construction as the fore- 
'oi ng adverbs. Ex. : Ma^diyan ka naug tubig ( put some water over there ) . 
JDoon, there, yonder, is perhaps more commonly used in its various 
^modifications tKan the other three simple adverbs of place. It may l)e 
^v~balized with ur/i, jm^ puma, and magka as they are, with the same effect 
fMDn the root. Fa an<l magka nio<lify the <£ to r. 

Ex. : Dumdon ka (station yourself there). Pardon ka (go there). Papa- 
'>*>»im mo *i ( ar/(w ( tell Carlos to go there). Pinajmrdon mo siyd? (Did 
[•^ma tell him to go there?) Sdanka parorAont (VVhere are you going?) 
'^^cvie localities, notably Manila, rep^t the particle jhi with the present 
*^cl future of the adverbs of place; but this is irregular and incorrect. It 
* x^nknown to the early writers. Alhig bayanangjxiroroonanmot (What 
^^^n are you going to? Lit. "Which town will l>e your going place?") 
^y^46 ang ikinaparordon mo tta Maynildt (Why are yon going to Manila? 
Lit. **\Vhat the cause of going there your to Manila?") Ay at magka- 
^**»*j<5on kat (For what particular reason are you going there?) Ang iki- 
^fHtrordon ko'y dalauin ang dking kapatid na baltaye (I am going there to 
visit my sister). 

J#ai7l:a prefixed to vf Am alone means "to have." 

Ex.: Kung magkardon mna akd naug mnraming piiakf ay hindt akd mag- 
t**Jk'€tgamtd (If I had plenty of money, 1 would ncit tie in this fix). Ang 
P^nrwgkakaroonan niyd. ang Hnlacnn (He has considerable projjerty in Bu'a- 
<^^^i) . Ang ipinagkakardon niyA ang pamana m kaniyd nnng inn nlyd. ( He 
[sHe] has plentvon account of the inheritance to him [her] from his [her] 

'Fbeforegoingillustrates the indefinite idea of the third ningular personal 
pronoun, which may mean either " he" or "she." In English this is con- 
fined to the plural,' "they" indicating either sex, as Tagahjg »i7/i, while 
Spanish distinguishes bv ellos, "ellas." Man gives the idea with ddfm, "to 
be there," "to have there," magka indicating really "to have plenty." 
Ex.: Bigydn mo did nang manddon (take one of those over there), i^an^ 
monddon (aangddon) (one out of many things over there); sanddong laim- 
iong tukU (a small bottle of vinegar); imng madoroon (a person wlio has 



pkntir ). The word may prefixed to dAon forms the weU-known and much- 
need Ifidi^nite maifrdonf to have. Ex.: IfayrSon bang boffd nang twA- 
posjff (Have yoa a^ bread^ Maiffrdcn bang paroroonat^ (Do you have 
10 go tkeref?) 06 ^Sga, moymn obmg paroroMon (Yes, indeed^ I have to 
togothere?). Magrdtmkawmgikmgiainf (How old are yoa? Lit Have 

rol hem many yean|?) Mayrdon akong aalawang pou6 (I am twenty; 
Have I twenty.) with eome soffixed partidee ddon le modified m 
Ic^ws: D6on dm (in the aeme plaoe there); d^on ta ibd; ddon dao (in an* 
c^er place); m dwm (over there); $a ddon man (anywh^e over there). 

Many phriaal adverise are made by the particle ta which means among 
Other tfaingi at and in when placed belorea root Among the most impor- 
tant phxaaal advetbe of place witb«a are: 

la front; iBdng. 

Jn the presence of; brforei opposite; 

to the front 
Behind; back of. 

Joined to. 

At the Gdf» or Mib of. 

Ontheotnersideof; beyond. 

Inside; within. 

Above; up. 
Below; down. 

Satc^; Ui^ia, Bx.: JSkm^ftd^of 
ay tapai m ftlosStoi (this hoose 
wes the east). JuMifiias also the 
. idea of settingont m rows, regular 
order, etc., such as keea, piant8» 

Sa h&n^, 8a Mrap nang cc^^iidn 
(before the obtain). 

Salikod. Ex.: Ang ma^ bdhaif » 
Kiod nang cuorCei (the nooses back 
of the banacto). Ang Hkod (the 


8a taH; 8yn<mym $a f/^ping. 

8a kabUd, mth mag the idea of 
<'both" is broi^t in. Ex.: Sa 
magkabUd (on both sldee) ; and by 
the reduplication of the first two 
syllables of the root the idea of 
' ' air ' is expressed. £x. : Sa mag- 
kabikabild (on all sides). Napa- 
ro6n gild $a kabild nana Uog (tney 
went over there beyond the river). 
Sa magkabUd nang kaiauan (on 
both sides of the body). KabUd 
has also the idea of ''partly" and 
is used idiomatically when speak- 
inff of rice. Ex.: itimg kamn ay 
kabildn (this rice is but half 
cooked ) . In speakine of anything: 
else, with the same idea in mind, 
the U9i^ is quite different. Ex. : 
Bong sisiu ang kabiUVy lutdU ang 
kabiid^y hindi . (this chicken is 
partly cook and partly not). 

Sa Inbds. 

Sa l6ob. This phrase is much used 
to express the idea of the heart, 
speakmg in a moral sense. Ex.: 
Sa tanang l6ob (whole-heartedly; 
with all the heart). 

Sa itdas (from Idas and expulsive 
particle i). 

Sa ibafA (from babdj idea of low, 
humble, with expulsive particle t). 
This word should not be confused 
with the following. 



Upon; on; above. 

Under; beneath; at the bottom of. 
Halfway (between two points). 

In the middle. 

Around; about; close to. 
As far as; up to. 

To the right. 

To the left 



At home; in, to, or from the house. 

In, to, or from town. 

in, to, or from the country. 

In, to, or from the mountains. 

Sa ibabao (from baboo and t) . Ex. : 
Sa ibabao nang bundok (upon the 
mountain [mountains] ). Babdo, 
with accent upon the last syllable, 
means past, as babdo sa hating 
gab-l ( past or after midnight). It 
also means **near'' in some places. 
Ex.: Babno bagd ang bayan sa 
atint (Are we perchance near the 
town?) il/aMjt>/M8 now the ordinary 
word used for *'near." 

Sa ildlim (from Idlinif root of idea of 
depth and expulsive particle i). 

Sa githd. Ex.: Nasagibid tayo sa 
paglakad (we are halfway in the 
march [trip or journey] ). 

Sa pagitan ( from gitnd ) . Sa paqitan 
nang lansarTgan (in the middle of 
the street). Also means **term.*' 
Ex.: Walonq buan ang pagitan 
(a term [period] of eight months). 

Sa may. Ex.: Sa may ruartel (close 
to the barracks). 

Hangdn, Ex. : Sidan ang tuiTgo mot 
(Where is your trip to?) Hangdn 
Maynild. Hangdn ditd (up to 
here). Also has the meaning of 
"until." Ex.: Hangdn bukas 
(until to-morrow). 

Sa kannn. 

Sa knliivd. 



Sa bdhay. 

Sa bayan. 

Sa bukid. 

Sa bundok. 

These adverbial phrases can be indefinitely increased by the use of sa 
writh the proper root. 

Toward. Dako. Ex. : Dako sdan ang tuiTijo tii 

Juanf (Toward where is John's 
trip?) JJukong Maynild (toward 
Manila ) . Dako sdan a ng t u ngo m of 
Toward where is your trip?) Da- 
kong bayan ko^y ang tmujo ko (my 
trip ia toward my town). Toga 
s(um kaf (Where are you from)? 
BosobttsOj p6 (Bosoboso, sir). iMi- 
kong kannn (toward the right). 
Dakong kalivd (toward the left). 
Ddpit. Ex.: Da pit Maynild (ap- 
proaching Manila). Ddpit ibafjd 
(approacning the lower country). 
Dapit sa iyo (ai)proaching you). 
Ddpit ha.s also an idea of "be- 
yond," "on the other side of." 

I. Adverbs of time and succession, which generally answer the ques- 

1 kaildnt (when?), are quite numerous in Tagalog, showing that the 

ception of time was well developed for a primitive {Kjople, only the 

'^rand its subdivisions being unknown to the language, except as de- 



__,._... f quilf minutely sal 
r absence of the eun, and nhile now ^ 
out of Ilea them tenne are ako given. 

Kail<i«r Ex.: KniUin tilA r 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^H urnever). KailAn wnn ny^} 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^L tini^iintiiR nang rape (he 

^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ [ehejiieverdrinkeeofiee). Ka<^« 

fV^H^^^^^^^^^^B pii miin [no more), also baitnilm 

When (useii n-klivi-'l.v). (Ij A'un. Com m only used only with 


(When did they > 

KailAnman {alwaya). Withneg- 
fttive. translated "by «*trr. Ex.: 
A'orWn man hmdi (alwKve 

tiuii IH repreMiflted as cimtonia: . 
Kx.: A'un daratmg aiig cafiil/inr 
alaminino at6 (when the eaptaie*- 
cooies. let me koon' [future]l_ 
A'un atS'y narordon an ifagnil^^ 
iiajmtamiluiieta akiyng iital'uui^- 
(when 1 was in Mitaila I oflew- 
went Vt the Luneta [pattt time with, 
custonmry aelion] ). A'un ftfin- 
(whenever). Auh; ">*'"'>'> (eomc- 
tiines]. Kwi ia aIbq used as a 
prepoiition, "it". See under "if". 
(21 .V«»fl. Used with both delinite 
ftiid iinlefinile yml tenfie?. Kx,: 
tH& sii&, (when he came to vist 
them last night, they were not 
here) , Nang dumnting tiyd naka- 
kain na aH (when he came I was 
through eating). 
■ (3) Nixm, nis6n, niydon. These 
words mean really "In those 
davB," "at that time," etc Ei,: 
XSon imng Arao ay nangi/arl ang 
pagbahakd, »a lima (on that day 
the fight at Imua took place). 
N6an, narild pa w Mai/nUA ang 
mangd OMila (while the Span- 
iards were vet here in Manila). 
Perhaps "then" in some cases 
would be the best translation. 
D6<in. Ex.; A'hii kumain ka, tfjoii 
inaaniaman mo, tun an6 ang kaniii 
(when you eat then yua will know 
what 3|bu are to have). With pa 
following doim haa an idiomatic 
use. F.X.: Bal<t pa'y guniagawd 
nang ganit6, ddon pa itun himati7 
(A Iwy yet, and doing so, what 
will he be then when grown ap7) 
(sometimes l\iwl. Ex.: Tliurjni} (utH {tinri iiang 
tuuA) mayrdon tono^awd (you have 
Homething to do always). Jktmng 
tumulat ka (whenever you 





*; since. 


write ). As adjective tutvl 

means * * every. " Ex. : tuwing drao 
(every day). In some cases it 
means * * as long as. ' ' Ex. : Tuwing 
dt viapoul ang pagkcUctuo (as long 
as manhood is not extinct). 

Among other expressions may he 
mentioned waiting humpoyy with- 
out end ; walang iikatf without fail ; 
icalang tahan, without stop, inces- 
santly; v^ang tf>gotf without rest. 

There are two expressions used for 
** eternally," formed with the pre- 
fix magpa to a root which is fol- 
loweti by wan man. Ex.: Mag- 
patuloy man sdan; and magpardling 
{ddling) man $aan. Another 
phrase is magpakaildn iwan, or 
magpatakaiian man, both of which 
signify always. 

Kaui&n man hindi, 

Knng minaan. Maminsanminsan^ 
(from time to time; now and then). 
Mimndoud (rarely). Ex.: Mi»an- 
doua Idmang ang pagparitd mo 
(your coming here is rare). 

Bihira. Ex.: Jiihirang tungmataiTgIs 
Hong haiang itd (this child seldom 

Malimit, Ex.: Mallmit akong sung- 
tnusulat (I write often). 

Tambay, Ex.: Tambay kang nalis 
(ungmalif) (since you left). 

if tf//i. Ex.: ^fuld kahapon (since 
yestenlay). The particle pngka 
sometimes denotes ** since," as in 
the phrase pagkabatd ko (since my 
childhood). **From" would be 
an equally correct translation. 

Ka maka ( from ka and w aX'a) . Kama- 
kailang drao ( some days ago ) . Be- 
fore a cardinal followed by (irao, 
**day," X-amaA*a indicates the num- 
ber of days which have elapsed. 
Ex. : Kainakalawd (day before yes- 
terday ) , lit. , * 'two days ago ;' ' kama- 
kalhnana d rao ( five days ago ) . AVi 
prefixed with pa following a root 
also indicates "since." Ex.: A'a- 
hapon ^>a (nince yesteniay). Ka 
alone indicates past time, with 
some roots. Ex.: Kahapon (yes- 
terday), from hapon (afternocm). 
Kagabi (la.«t night), from ka and 
gabi (night). 

Soj used adverbially, denotes imme- 
diate action, usually beginning a 
8ul)ordinate clause, which refers to 
a principal clause. Ex.: »Sfi pag- 
kamdlay niyd nang lindol myd*y 
tungmakbd m labds (as soon as he 


Before; withal ; bb it may be. 

Before; a while ago. 

lie ft'It the earthquake he nnctl- 
aide. Sajiaymbl nit/d nilonf ma^ 
Tfitii <!>/ naimiUii/ |Bs HK>ii Ha that 
words were ^i\ bv him, he died). 
Fag,the 6eiiniteot mag.aomtiiaet 
in<lifBte« this idea. Ex.: PogmU 
komkfAHimaeaoon mluMtban}. 
Ptigta may also hm-e the bhm 
iniiiMng,t»pa(}kap<ii/niinil to, mnf 
pnjHuiuU k'l (as Hiuiu &m I h>H 
etudiwl I «]llj:ir»rii Hjik 
ifgayAn \ 
This I- il 

kanga i \ i 

udn(forll,i luiiiir, , /uu j 
Na ThiB pBTlicie i« in fioetant iie^ 
and IB ama\a placed last L^- 
Napar6oti tiu wyil (he lia* (W**^ 
slreaij\ ) There are man> oll»^. 
IWP8 o[ na ill Tawiloe, which w*»* 
he set forth as they occur in 1^* 

Pa. Thi-" purlifle, ns !m iA^VfTb, i ^ 
like na, aiwsrs placed after tl^ 
woixl modified. Ex.: Itip»{vst^'^ 
yet); mayTian pat (la there an^^ 
thine there yet)T It ie also uae^ 
epeaking ironically. Ex.: Ak6p^^ 
ang parordnnf (WiH 1 have to gC^ 
thereyet?). Jndlpa {not yet), 

Bago. £x . : Bago kang bumaia,,.^ 
w<itwin tito nng litid (before you^ 
read, sweep the room). — L. Bogo"^ 
pa (awhile ago). Bago, as an ad- 
verb of time, always precedes Ihe 
verb it modiflea. 

Kang'ma, variation kanina. Kangi- 
nang tanghalHYieioTKaooTi); jtoiwi- 
ntaigumnga (thie morning a while 
ago). Balanain mo yaatig ginabi 
kanjpiui (go back to what you were 
talkingafout before), f Return to 
the thread of vour story.] Kangi- 

kaiiifina narU6 eili (they were here 
a short time ago). 
Sn •inn. Sa uiii pang aa una (very 
andentlv). Ex.: Sa utiang irao 
(in the days of old). ,Wuna, which 
always follows its verb, means 
"tirsl" either in time or place. 
Ex.: ifiiiuk in niutia (you enter 
first [polite expression]). Bago 
tumoiii til, manliintio ka muna (be- 
fiire you eat, wash first [i.e., your 
hands]). — L. Gauin mo mvna {do 
it first [def.]). .ffin/oy ta muna 



erly; anciently, 

sr; presently; by and by. 

once; immediately. 

once; immediately; suddenly; 

tantly; at once. 

tantly; like a flash. 

denly; in a moment. 

land; suddenly. (Used with 
Brbe of doing and speaking. ) 
sr beginning; upon starting, etc. 

(wait firet [indef.]). Muna^ used 
with a pronoun without a verb, 
comes first, and governs the nomi- 
native. Ex.: Muna kayd (you 
first); muna ka na (you ahead). 

S(.i dati. 

Sak(i. Ex.; Ginavxi ang Pangindon 
Dios ang laiTgitj mikii ang lupa ( the 
Lord God made the Heavens, 
afterwards the earth). Bib. Na- 
taud siyd (she laughed); at sakdf 
(and afterwards?) L. ^karVtsakci 
(long afterwards), ^fanakanak(^ 
(after a long delay). Nagsa^akd- 
sakd (one who is dilatory in his 
work or duties). 

Mamayd. Ex. : Snmlat akd mamayd 
(I shall write by and by). — ^L. 
Mamayang hapon ( later in the af- 
ternoon). Mainayamayd (onetime 
or another, little by little). Ex.: 
lio'y minamayamayd ko(\ did this 
little by little). Magmayd (to do 
anything little by little). Magpa 
imparts the idea of waiting to tnis 
root and its combinations. Ex.: 
Nagpajmmayamayd akd (I am go- 
ing to wait a little while). 

Tambing. This word is out of use in 
Manila. Ex. : Kumain ka tambing 

[indef.]; tambingin mo kumain 
def.] (eat at om^). Tambingin 
mong kunin ( take it at once) ; Ham- 
bing mong ibigay (give it at once). 

A gad. Ex. : Agarin mong gawin (do 
it at once). Commonly used in 

Alipala. Ex.: Alipala nagdlit siyd 
(he became angry at once). Also 
means **one by one" in some 
places. Ex.: AlipalaHdking kunin 
(I will take them one by one). 

Kagiat. Ex.: Kagiat nagtagibulag 
siyd sa aking matd (like a fiash 
he disappeared from my view; he 
was out of sight instantly ). Tagi- 
bula^j idea of disappearing or be- 
commg invisible. 

Kaginsaginsa ( from ginsa, repetition 
of root and prefix ka). Varia- 
tion kahinsahinsa. Kaalamalam 
sometimes means suddenly ( from 
alam reduplicated, and prefix A:a). 



Ex.: Kapagkain ko 

(after I commenced to eat). Ka- 
jHjgvagdral ko (after I began to 
stuay ). — L. Kapagdaka (from the 
beginning), syn. kapagkoudn. 


V fiainishing; upon Giiishiug. 

Kijingto . Kapaqkapag&rat b» 

(nftpr 1 had flniBhed studying).— 
1,. Kai>ngknraka (from the Mi- 
ning; Biin« lime eternal 1. 

Uiutgim. Ex,: Hangan tnUcaa (uDti\ 
to-nioTTow) . Ilang&n nnhabuhay 
ini/A (while he [ahe] is h'viae), 
BnfftiU also raeaae "until". 

Sa tnniilu/n. 

LMt night 



The ancient TeigaloK diviai 
Cry (crow) of the chickea. 
Commencing to be light 
Breaking of day. 
Becoming morning now. 

ting aag &rao, hinAag tang ti^runia- 
paiiiflipa (get ready early, bo when 
day brenkfl you will not tie grop- 
in)^ amund looking Eor anything)- 
jfgiij»n, root of '■ to look a.ronn4% 
haEtetorwimethlng".— T. I*..S- 


\»k'in tivd (he I 
;; li.,li,„j linio (the Im«^ 

ZlnvAaa (evidMitlr tnm Ibiaj, 
lonya art, with tbe Mats mMninx) • 

Ex.: Awma honu mp (dtnAtv^ 
liiyAf ( What time [hoar] did he 
[sTie] come [arrive)?} A„g idi^ 
nnting nii/a ang tanglialt (he came 
[arrived] at midday [noon]). 
itagpakaUinghali (to wait until 
noon], jfng ijnnaaxikalanghali 
(the cauBCol having Deen delayed 
until noon). Mananghail (to work 
or eat at noon). Ang panmighaliaa 
(what done or eaten at noon). 
But infiniinghali, with acDte accent, 
means to travel at midday. 

Bukn». Aug kohutiuan (the follow- 
ing day). Walnng babukaiin 
(without care lor the morrow). 
Ex.: Huktu kvng makalipaa, Malingo 
tui(jfin«ivitoinpn«( to-morrow when 
e<l, on Sunday when gone).— 
..liiO. Really meanB''to-mor- 
V anil to-morrow and to-mor- 
row," Shak.. when there in no 
reason to believe that it isintended 
todoanything. BukAt is the root 
of the verb '■loopen," and is only 
distinguished by the accent. 

Hilling gabi. 
le of the day were: 

TuiigmiUm ang mantbt. 

Mugmamaroling Arao, 

Buiang liieayvxig. 

ilagumaga na. 




Morning now. 
Day now. 

The sun is rising now. 
Klsen now. 

A little up now (the sun). 

About 9 a. m. 

About 10 a. m. 

Midday; noon. 
About half past 12. 

About 1 p. m. 
About 5 p. m. 

About sunset. 

Sun 18 heginning to set 
Set now. 

^^tween daylight and dark. 



Vmaga no, 

Arao na, 

^isiianq na ang Arao. 

Sungmilang na, 

MattdaMdns u(u 

IpaiigingilhHj mannk (lit, **egg laying 

of the hen"). 
Ma^aHiolina any Arao (lit, *' return 

now of the sun**). 
Bagomj nabUing ang arao (lit, "the 

sun inclines again'*). 
Lampds na (lit, **pa8t now*'). 
Uampasni ti/cin ang 6rao (lit, **to ho 

touched by the *tiquin* or pole 

used by casco men*' ). 
Kauitin palacol (lit, **to be caught 

by an ax"). 
Bagong siwd'fiuk ang Arao. 
Liingmubtig na. A nother ex pression 

is lungmunod na (lit, *' drowned 

Mafilim na. Also takip mlim. 
Gabi na. 
Kahoong gabi The usual wonl at 

present is hating gabt. 

'Xhe following adverbs of time are also used in Tagalog: 

f ' ourly. OraB-oran ( f ron i Sp. , hora, ' * h our " ) . 

l^^«l ily . A rao^'i rao. 

^V^elLly. Lingo-lingo (from Ungo^ **week," 

which also means ** Sunday," and 
is derived irom Sp., llomim/o, 

^^ ontbly. Buan-buan ( from buan^ * * month ami 

Tadn-iaon (from taAn^ **^'ear"). 
Parati. Verbalized, this word has 
the idea of ** perse verana*," ami 
in the phrase maginirating man 
mm n means "eternally." A nyn- 
onym for parati ^ in the sentH* of 
"continually," Mpafagi. 

^^^Kiie day. Balang Arao. 

. "Xhe particle maAra, in addition to its meanings as a verlml partirle, hi^- 
^•-Cyfaig power, ability, cause, etc., indicat*»s completed verl>al action with 
^^rtaofaoing, saying, %;tc., translated by the word "after" with the Vfrl». 
*-^c.: Makayari nWy paroon ka (alter you do this, go there). 

m. Adverbs of manner and quality, which generally answer tin* (jiich- 

^^onwofliidf "how?" are numerou.** in Tagalog, many atlverlw of manner 

^>*^iiig the corresponding adjwtives used adverbially, esfx^'ially tluw 

cc>iiipomi^g(| ^th ma. Not all ma a<1jectives can, however, \h* ho nwd, 

s.Tkii neither can adjectives which are nx>ta by themw'lvtrs U; uwd as 

•*i verbs. Thus adjectives like wmr»//io»*// (wise), maf/ait fpnidmt, rt<*. ), 

^vl (crazy) are not used as adverljH in Tagalog. 

How? Maano? Kx.: }faan6 kat/6f rilow 

are you ? ) Magaling i w« • 1 1 ) . 
Maano ang am A uivgAf (How is 
your father?) 
So; thog; in this way. Ganito (from dit't). 

ii- '* 


TMtiMm Uiimvikam* 

Bo; thiiB; in that way. 

80; thos; in that way. 

like (requires genitive); thus. 

Gott^dn (from 
(to act in that manner). 

Oandwt (from dSam). 

Oaif&n (rrom ffo^n). Ouma^ (to 
act in tibittwfty)* ^Bz.: Cray^m 
Pedro «i Juan (Joan ia tike Fw^. 

OwOM Er.: Ooalbiibiilf^ (How 
fart rabootl). Immg haroM^ p^ 
(one nonr, ar.) 

Oa has been quite folly explained under the oomparatiive of adJectiveBi 
to which the reader is referxed. Among some examples may be qoote^ 
aa bold ana l6ob mo (voar heart ia Bke atone), and ffaiUohm mo (make ^ 

by iboootid. aa may be aeen by iH^ 

like; as; so. 

How large; how much in eoctent? 


amg kapoud mo fduo (like ^00, a person [fig., your ^'n^ghbor"]): o^ 
wan kapoud mo, waUmg ha^f (Am I perhaps^ like yoo, wifhont jud^ 

itttentionaliy; purposely. 

Voluntarily; willingly. 

By force. 
Especially; only. 

As well as, etc. 

As well as; conjointly. 

Hurriedlv or more quickly (said 
be applied only to whipping). 


PoJM, Ex.: JPmaliMliitId(tlieydi^ 
it intentionally). Syn., «eu%€^. 
Another wora ia ItHc iSc^ ' 
TMI^nOd (^ didftprnpoa^^^ 

JTusd. Ex. : KwumA haad ni^ia ^ 
(Did he [shej do it wilBai^^ 
JTmiMd fdua (He [ahe] did it wU^ 
lingly). With yerba liifd folk>w^^ 
the same oonatrnctton aa to Hi^^ 
articles aa do the yerfas. Sx.^^ 
AiiMin mang iauagin myd (call^ 
him purposely, i. e., do not for^ 
get to call him), /ittud mong ita- 
pon ii6 (throw this out purposely, 
1. e., you should have thrown 
this out yourself). Paghuaan 
mong bigydn si Juan (give it to John 
voluntanly). Kiad is intensified 
by reduplication. Ex.: Waldhmg 
humkitaang gumawd nang anoman 
(you do not do anything with the 
least willingness). 

Sa pilitan ( from pUit), Ex. : PilU na 
akd^y pardon ( 1 am going perforce). 

Bnkod. "Ex.: Bukoatiyang natduag 
(he was [has been] summoned 
especially). Bukod ka «a lahat 
( you are the only one amons all ). 
Aarami man ang ginMy bukod 
mayaman si Oapitan £ui« (mere are 
many "princi pales,*' but the only 
rich one is Captain Luis). 
TarTgi is sometimes used in this 

Akhay^ var. agbay; agabay; agapay. 

Sabay. Ex. : Ang lalaki kasabay nang 
bayabe (the man as well as the 
woman, or the male as well as the 
female). — L. 

Sinamndopikd (from sandopikdj idea 
of punishing another). 



; hastily. 


excuse me; by permission. 


; hardly. 





lown; reversed. 

smoothly; noiselessly. 

Bigld, Ex.: Namatay siyang bigld 
(he died quickly). — L. Verbal- 
ized. Ex.: Bigiainmoangtutolmo 
(hasten [abbreviate] your account 
[or story]). 

lAodn, Ex.: Libdn 8a iyd, wctlang 
ibang* makaparordon (except you, 
there is no other person who can 
go there) . Libdn 8a iyd ana muhaj 
ay dill ko ibibigay (except that you 
are to be the one taking it, I should 
not give it). 

Tabi. Ex.: Tabl p6, ako'y dardan 
(excuse me [for going before you, 
for leaving first, etc. ] . ) This is the 
shout "cocheros" use, Tabi/ It 
literally means thus: "Aside." 
Tabi is also used for a polite cor- 
rection or contradiction: Singtabi 
8a iydf hindipaydn (you will pardon 
me, but it is not just like that). 
Tabihany refuse heap, rubbish 
heap, etc. 

Bahagyd, var. bahagid, Ex.: Ba- 
kagid na makasiya (it is hardly 
sufficient). — L. A synonym is 

BUtird. Syn. ara; dat-fia. Ex.: 
Datha kong inabiUan (I scarcely 
reached it). Bihird also means 
**8eldom." Ex., as "hardly:" 
Binibihird ko na ang nagsipariii ( I 
think scarcely anyone has come 
here yet). Bihirang dt napardon 
(scarcely anyone was not there); 
i. e., nearly everyone was there). 
Mahina jxi siyd^y bihirang makald- 
kad (she [he] is weak yet, and can 
hardly walk [is hardly able to 
walk J ) . Bihird is verbalized with 
mag &nd magka. Ex.: Pagbihiraln 
mo ang kanin (change the food). 
Nagkakabihird sild nang pagda- 
ramit (they differ in their manner 
of dressing). 

Hdlos. Ex . : JIdlos namatay siy d ( he 
[she] almost died) . 
A yon. 

Alinaunod (from sunod^ to follow, 

Baliktad. Ex.: Baliktad ka niydn 
(indef. ); bcdiktarin mo xyan (turn 
that innide out). 

Touarik (iTomtouad), Syn. touandik. 
Ex.: Touarik na fmntd (light- 
headed; injudicious). 

Marahan (from dahan). Marahan 
dahan or dahan dahan^ very slow- 
ly. Dximahany to go away slowly. 
Magdahan^ to go slowly. Marma- 
karahan, to go very slowly. Ex.: 



Oirotully; inanonlerly 


Hard; roughly; vigorously. 

Maypat'irahan bang Itimikad (gB 
very »lowly [ii»)el.])- Pabin- 
hanin mo ang pag/iua {ihrow It 
deliberately [def.]). JfapntoM- 

Alrto B defltiito willi «. 
Ex.: ftiAimnn mo ii/nuij gninl w 
[()oThi>tworkqat^Uy,i>tc), Mtt 
adject. Ex.: Marahan im^ IM 
niyii (he hM a OtagnaumoK 
heart). InM trioL very elowlj; 
■■little by little" is not mtidi w 

I1W. I-mieiii loua;/, litT.lo by HUlb 
is n1)0ut «>iiial to irhaa, eti\'. »nii 1* 
iiwhI genenll^ calling to iiniiiti^ 
'-'-■' .Val/uting mulmli, very**"' 


Kvn. Ma\(fi. 

Mahaiaff. Makiitay no noUMf' 
very carefully; in a veryofdenJ | 
manner. Ex.: Ili'i'fis^aiiinnJnii^ 
niiihiitny (do thin «re(uily'' 
UiiMin mong iiiah&fa>i (wrai'lt <^ 
carefally). //«m<i«,v, m put i" 
order; to amuige; to di*eiitang«*' 
MagmhihAtaji, to smuige well; , 
wtllfl tbinn wiUi cane. AaJ' 
"well kepi/' etc Ex.: fftUaj *f 
fcuAwt (well kept hair). Angkin* 
i"t-i (what tlisenliingled or i^t ' 
oriler). //uaay na iaap (a CU"* 
(ul eonvermtion ). 

Jtfawunii. .U<i«a)nan7 ina*cnn4, ver^ 
faodlv. Ex.: NaMMoiongmntan^ 
tagdbS (I slept badly last nlRht? 

MiilttkAt. Ex.: Houag mo niotig la^ 
kamn nang pangungiitop (do no' 
talk to me so much in such 
rough tnanner). KalalakA* kang 

(he pushed the bancs [canoe] 

Madalt, var. mamlU Combined with 
l)oth um aiid mag, an anoma- 
lous verb is formed, magdumnB. 
to make baste, and in turn this 
ia used with a noun to indicate 
lime. T.X.: Magdumaling tirao (a 
short while, ortirae). Exaiiiplex 
as an adverb ut mndnlt are: dmrin 
mong madalt (do it ouiikly ); ibihi- 
hin mong madalt (tell it quickly). 

Malibay. Ex.; Talian mong malihay 
(tie It stronttly). Waian^ vunang 
tibay pagtatirA'i/ WinAon (there 
is no repairiUK stronger than to 
replace what ia destroyed). — T. P., 



tently; often; cloeely. 


ioQslv; prudently. 
>marily; commonly. 

ly; publicly, 

6865—05 7 

822. Manibay, to prop up; to sup- 
port; to sustain. Ex.: Itfang 6a- 
Umg ang pinaninibayan nang b6hay 
(that stone is the prop of the 

MagiUing. Mngaling na magalingj 
very finely. Ex. : Kungmain akong 
magaling (I ate finely). Ang 
nagagaling, person improving (as 
from an illness). Gnmalingf to 
grow better (as a sick person). 
Maggaliny^ to prepare. GaHngin^ 
what prepared. Mangaling^ to 
improve greatly. Makfigaling, to 
do good. Ex.: Ang inarTgd gamot 
ay siyang ikinagagnhng nang mangd. 
may sakit (medicines are what 
cause the sick to recover) . Mag- 
pagalingy to prosper. Magpakaga- 
lingf to improve; reform, or cor- 
rect one* 8 self. Ex. : Magpakaga- 
ling kayd nang mangd dsal ninyd 
(improve yourselves in manners) . 
Aa^o/tn^an, goodness. Ang pina- 
gagalingf thing bettered (present 

Mallm it. Ex . : Malimit akong naiUigb 
(I bathe often). Also name of a 
close-woven basket made around 
Bosoboso, Rizal Province. 

Not expressed by a single word, but 
by pn rases, the adjective mani- 
nmxg^ wise, being expressed with 
the subject in the nominative, and 
the verb in the infinitive. Ex.: 
Mariinong siyang umdral (he 
teaches wisely), not ungmadral si- 
yang marunongf which would be a 
proper construction if marunong 
were an adverb. 

Maiulin. Tamulin^ to do anything 
swiftly. Magtulinf to go swiftly. 
Ang ipagtuliny the cause of going 
swiftly. Ex. : PapaottUintJi mo ang 
bangka (make the banca [canoe] 
go swiftly) . Matuling tumakbd to 
run swiftly). Katulinan [abst.)] 

Sa bait. 

Sa vgaliy also with abstract, sa kaur 

Stt hnyag, 

Sa Uh'tm. Lihim na gawdy a secret 
deed. Ang gawang lihim ay naha- 
hnyag din (secret deeds are the 
very ones found out). — T. ]*., 515. 
Anglihim ay siyang h/iyaa (the hid- 
den is what is discovereu). — ^T. P., 

Hanlf var. ''hanidr' 


Frirtliwitli; inMantly. 

It would be bettor. 

Truly; really. 

Jljii. This word hIho means "other." 
" il i Keren t," etc Insomephiaaai 
it haa the idea ol "l>etl«r.'' Ex.: 
Ibn angpogong Au/1 no, tu nii^nyv 
caught tbHn A homed Kniinil rrt 
to be Mught).— T. P., 443; i.V, 
"a bird in the band ie worth two 
iu the bush." — Cenantw. Tho 
earlieetforui in English Myii. "bel- 
ter one byrde in hand than \ea in 
tbe wood," Heywood, abL IWi.— 
T. I'., 442, wihaangfutgnnylKiH':'!. 
«a htihutibm pa (better the quiii 
already I'auglit than the one eiill 
to be cauebt). This ia fouml in 
Gn-ek: "He is a fool In lelpliji* 
bird in the hand for a bird in ib« 

^»t;>uii. AVhen followed by nfl";. 

nit6. namaii, etc, the final n » 

dropped. Byii., pali. 
(Tnoflunft (from miff, ides of allttkl' 

Ex.: Sfuntingtiibig(ik\iU\eiiticn 

A'aanlt, a little, as in Bp«akiD|I * 

laiigiiOi^, etc 
Sa mndaU. Ei.: Uouag hang «^ 

balnin dion, wttmandalt man Inmii"! 

(do not delay Utere more than af 

instant). •Saitang kitnp PintA (i"* 

IhctwinklinBOf in eye). 
Snail jin lUf var. SfiiH.' .SWran wi '*' 

gaydnf (Why not that wayTj _. 
At andf Aj/anSf { Who donbta it-'J 

At or ay joined with certain P*i^?'f 

clea meana "why?" Ex.: Ali^ 

Mahanga. Si mohaiyaf better), h*^ 

hangahan^ (admirable). 
Kim aanpan. Pakuwlan^ 

TfanUi. Verbalised latM means t^ 

undertatand. Ex.: Nalotanldmo ■' 

<E>o you understand it?) IHlitoji^ 

nataianlA (I don't understand i"* 

Toldomandin. Also totdodin; taldG^ 

two; lotoonj7toWo(very trulyl. T<f-^ 

too manding totdo (very truly, in^" 

nga, var. nganiL Ex.; SiyA nfW anjj — 
naffnnkao (he is certainly the 

Din. (Changes to rui after some 

Uttnxto^an ( for tl^^ 

IV. Nearly all the adverbs of measure and decree have been fully 
explained under the comparative and superlative of the adjective. It may 
be noted here that the aoverb is made superlative by the reduplication of 
the adverb, with the proper tie, in the same manner as the adjective. 
Many examples have been given on the fore)coingpBffea. The only adverbs 
ncted here will be Umang, "only;" n^ na; and tukat no, "enough." 


.d verbs of modality, such as "surely," not, ** perhape," etc., have 
seated under other adverbs or will be included with the adverbial 
ns and expressions of affirmation, negation, and doubt, 
mative adverbs are fairly numerous in Tagalog. The principal are: 

Oo. Opd (yes, sir [or madam]). 
Oo nga and 60 nganit (yes, m- 
deed). Pa6o (to say yes). Ang 
ipado ( what said ) . Ang pinaoohan 
(person to whom yes has been 

I; without doubt. PcUa. Siyd pala (it is he, indeed). 

This wora is used in asserting 
when a thing is certain. Ex.: 
Indi pala si Pedro ang nagnakaof 
(Is redro the thief without 
doubt? ) Siyd, pala ( he is, indeed ) . 
Kapala |>a (it is clear). Ex.: 
Kapala pa^y parardon ak6 (it is 
clear that I am going there). 
Kapala pa^y dt parordon akd (it is 
clear [of course] that I am not 
going there). 

likewise; as well. NamAn. Man (even). 

1. Disin. Ex.: Kun siyd^y suMat di- 

nn, ay parordon sana akd (if he 
should write, I would go there). 

1; should; could (idea of com- Sana. Ex.: Ibig koaana^yaumulaty 

ion). ngunVt wald akong kapanahonan 

(I would like to write, but I have 
no time). Akd ang pardon sana^ 
hago ikao*y naparitd (I had to go 
there, before you came here). 

principal negative adverbs are as follows: 


Indi. Indi pa {not yet), Indi man; 
tW£ n'n (neither; not either). Indi 
na (not now). Indi Idmang (not 
only, solely). Indiiydn (not that) . 
't want to. Aaydo akd. A* [pronounced abrupt- 

ly! (I don't like it). Kaayauan 
[abst] ^dislike). Ang incuiyauan 
(what disliked or refused). 

Di. Ex. : Di isa man; di man naud 
(in no way). DI man; di pa (not 
yet). Di anhinf (What mattertV 
Di anhin duo na (for it is said 

that ). />£ nman<$ (it is said). 

Di and pat (How can it be?) Di 
nga saUtmai (may it be thus). 
Il6*y di malgi (this is not good). 
Di sino ( to who else ) . Ex.iDi sino 
ang daingan moj kundi ang capitanf 
(To who else should your com- 
plaint be made except the cap- 

Dillf varia. diri. Mapadirt^ to eay 
no. Ang pinadirirmny person to 
whom no is said (present tense). 
Afagpadiri, to a&y "no" repeatedly. 
Ang pinagdirian, the person to 

"s., : - ' -t .t*!.fc. H..- '-" -J'^ <«* 


!C4OAM0 ttKwmMm 

Ko (forbidding). 

wbom '*iio** hMB been 0Bid muf 
timw (iMMi taise). /Milt Ai^ 
myna JXK rtn, no indeed. At 
tiie «Dd of a «enteieo dUi eome- 
timee mettvi ** or not'' £z. : ite* 
Myadiild, diitf (WUl they payor 
JBouag, Ex.: Htmag wi (do not do 
it now [prarappoeespievioiuooiD* 
mandl). iKnici^tyan(leftvethall 
drop thit!) Mmutgan mo tyidii (M 
that alone). Bimagan wtmgham 
(do not take it). Hn/wagtm mmi 
iieqHm (do not throw it out). 
Hcuagan monff fM^non (do not 
look at it), ttdmag kemg paring 
(do not go there). Fakonaffm m 
^on^ idiio iiiydA (tell that man not 

to do that). Pakouagan mo w^ 
diydn M ^Hd (forbid that to thai 


There are a few adverbs of docd^t in T^log, as well as some phnseB 
meaning the same. They are: 


Why? For what reason? 


I don't know. 

If it could be thus. 


Kayd, JToyd i^a ( Jnst becaoBe, JQ^ 
fxa that roason). Used with »: 
firmatiTe sentences. Ka^ i^'**?^ 

(assoonas). KogAi/^gamimof!^'' 
Used with negative sentence*' 
Makakay&y to be able (in a phy^ 
ical sense). Kayd is also »p-^ 
hunting or fishing utensil or ^^* 
strument. ^ 

Wari. Ex.: At ak6 wari par^o'^^ 
(Why do I have to go ther^ y 
With neg., Atdt vxiri akd Pf^^^^^!\ 
(Why don't I have to go there ' ' 

Upan. It is never put last ii» 
sentence. ^ 

Audn. Do not confuse with ad^ 
(I don't want to). 

Naud. Siyd naitd (it may be t 
way) . Used for * * amen . * * 




The preposition, which serves to connect a noun to the sentence, in t 
same manner that the conjunction introduces or attaches sentences, is n 
as highly developed in Tagalo^ as in Enp^lish, and for this reason thesa 
preposition means what it W(>uld take several different ones to express 
English. The principal Tagalog prepositions are: 

In; to; from; against; at; by; on; 
per; h)etween; with; oi; among; 
for; across. 


Sa. Ex.: (in) iSa bayan (in towiL 
sr bcihay (in the house); (to) 
uh ko (to my aunt); sa amain 
(to my uncle); sa am A ko (to 
father); sa ind ko (to my mother 
these also mean **for" mv ani»^ 


etc.; sa bdhay (to the house); _ 
iyan bdhay (to that house); (froir^^ 
sa bdhay (from the houi* ^ 


(against) laban m kaauaf/ (agminet 
the enemy); (at) ta bdhatf (at the 
house); (per) tatid m mngdd (8 
per cent); (between) sa maaalmg 
at matamd ( between good andbad ) ; 
(with) Mima m kaniyAna dnak 
(she is going with her child); (of, 
rare); (among, unusual); (for) 
paiungo to ta America (I am leav- 
ing for America); (across, rare). 
Sa is verbalized, the verbs thus 
formed beins explained later. 

Kmt. Waid. Ex.: Wald akong nalapi [I 

am without money ) . MagtraM^ to 
run away; to fset rid of. i/ciiiWcf, 
to lose; to miss. Ex.: XawalAn 
akd nang lakas ( I lost the strength ) . 
Makawaidj to be able to run away. 
Ex. : Hindi makaicald wHitf^n (it is 
not possible to run away now). 
Magpawald, to pardon, forgive. 
Wald with in also means to remit 
or cancel. Ex. : fla/tn mo na ano 
litang ko fa iv6 (cancel the debt I 
owe you ) . itagkawaid, to go apart, 
to break awav. Ex.: Pafxigka- 
rtalin mo kami (let us quit [as 
partners]) (excl. ). Sinongvxtldf 
( Who is absent?) Waid ka kaha- 
pon (you were absent yestenlay). 
May ikinau'owald ka nang batang 
nat (Is there any th ing you lack? ) 
Walang wald (absolutely nothing) . 
Natoald fa kamay ko (it escaped 
from my hand). Mawald man 
ifang annang kalakian^ houag ang 
isang fnliiaan ( better to lose a cara- 
bao bull than a moment of conver- 
sation. — T. P., 869. IM ang may 
ay-ay fa wnld (it is better to have 
a scarecrow than to be without 
one ) . — T. P. , 866. Nagmamayr6o*y 
wald (they pretend to have some- 
thing, but are destitute). — T. P., 
867. Mapipilit ang mardmot^ ang 
ivald^v hmdi (the miser may be 
forcea [to give something], but he 
who has nothing, no).— T. P., 868. 
Walang matamang kaniy^^ vxtlang 
maigi fa ibd (faultless what is his, 
good for nothing what is of 
another).— T. P., 870. Wald also 
means ** the open sea, a gulf,*' etc. 
Magpawald (to put to sea). Ex.: 
Nagpawald ang Mora nang kani' 
yang famtamin (the Moro put to 
sea with his booty). 

— • (and family or associates). Kand. Ang bukid kand all ko (the 

field of my aunt and her family). 
Paka nd fa Juan kand (go to Juan 
and his family). 


Of ( geni ti ve of « ) . Ni. Ex . : Ana niogan ni Luis ( Louis' 

cocoanut psLim grove). Angbahay 
ni Tomas (Thomas' house). 

Of ( gen ti live of ang), Nang. Ex. : Ang b&hay nang amd ho 

(my father's house). 

To (dative, etc of «)• Kay. 'Ex.: Itong tungkdd ay kay 

Juan (this cane is John's [is to 

Against. lAban; Idban sa. Ex. : Ikao'y Idban 

«a dkin (you against me). Imng 
hokbo Idban namdn sa ibd (one army 
against another). Magldban (to 
resist or struggle against). 

From. Buhal. Ex.: tSdan lin nagbdhaif 

(Where did you come from?) 

From. MuM. Ex. : Muld ngaydn (from now 

on). Sa muld (m>m the begin- 
ning). Ex. : ^fuld sa l&nes har^n 
sa memes (from Monday antfl 
Friday ) . Muld sa Ma:ynUa hangdn 
sa Santa Mesa ( from Manila as far 
as Santa Mesa). Magmuld (to 
start; to commence). 


Genuine conjunctions are rather scarce in Tagalog, but many other words 
may be used as a conjunction would be in English to join sentences together. 
The principal ones are: 

And. At. This loses the vowel in manv 


cai<es, l)eing pronounced with the 
word prectniing as a final /, and in 
such cases is written '<. 

Together with. Knt^anu) (from kn and samd). 

Not only — but. Jlindi Inmang — kundi bagkus. 

Unless. liming Idniang. 

Even; as well as. S*ibai/. 

Or. Kaf/fi. 

Or not. Dili. Also man. 

Either — or. Mngin — uuigin. 

Or. (Sp. ) 

The foregoing are called binding conjunctions as to the first four and 

alterative conjunctions as to the last four. The following are called adver- 
sative conjunctions. They are: 

But. y^guni; kundi; datapoua; subali; alifi- 

tann. Xguni never l)egins a prin- 
cipal clausi% but ahvavs a sulx)rdi- 
nate one, and generally in an an- 
swer. Ex . : 7 big kosanmig kumain, 
iTijuniU hindi ako maitgyayari (I 
would like to eat, but I am not 
able to). — L. '/, from at, is alnu^t 
invariably joined to iTguni. Knvdi 
is used forsubordinate clauses, gen- 
erally when the principal one has 
a negative meaning. Ex.: Hindi 
Inldki, kiDidi Imbnye ang ibon (the 
bird i.s not a male, but a female). 
Pntapotid^ which generally take'/, 
means "but" still stronger than 



her — nor. 

oagh; though. 

ongh ( more formal than above ) . 

- so much, although (giving a 
ison or making an excuse). 


e; whereas. 

natter if; even if. 

It; because 

»me conjunctions may be styled 
Uog are: 


kundif denoting a sharper contrast, 
as between rich but miserable, etc. 
Subali means "but for," etc., as 
conditional. J /t>i/a}ia, which takes 
U in beginning a clause, means 
**butforall that,*' etc. Verbalized 
the two foregoing words mean **to 
except." Bago is sometimes used 
in the sense of * • but. " Ex . : Tan- 
ghaJlna^hago'ywald pa 8iy6 (noon 
already, but he is absent yet). 

Kundi biigkus. These words may be 
used alone in this sense, and may 
also be joined together. 

Man — man. Man — manhindt Hw. 
Ex.: Wald kami bigds many itlog 
man (we have nothing, neither 
rice nor eggs. 

Bagamdn. Ex.: Baaamdn dukhd si 
Juanj sa puri namay maydman siyd 
(though Juan is poor, he is rich in 
a good name). 

BistdH. Bistd* t napopoot siyd m akin^ 
ay Inbigydn din aibo (although he is 
angry at me, it will be given to me). 

Mataymdn. Ex.: Mataymdnakdynaa 
kaibig paritd, ay dt ko makayanan^ 
(although I wished to come, 1 was 
not able to [I had no strength]). 

KahU var. kahimatf kahinyd^ kahi- 
nyd many kahVt. Ex.: KahimaH 
dt mdyaq sildy parordon din akdy 
(al( hough they do not consent, I 
shall go there). 

Palibhasa (from Sanskrit, paribhd- 
8/id, sentence, reprimand, etc. ) . It 
is followed by 'y in sentences. As 
an adverb it is eoual to kayd iiga ; 
kaydpalay as well as to "since" 
and *' whereas." As a noun it 
means "irony." Magpalibhasa (to 
speak ironically). 

Suiddn. Ex.: Mngpapakabumg mnna 
siydy sukddn siya^y magkasakit (he 
will gorge himself iirst, even if he 
makes himself sick). 

Mayapdy var. mayapdUy little heard. 

Bago. Ex . : JSild *yang may sain , bago 
akd nng pinani»ahan (they are the 
ones at lault, but I am the one who 
has l>een punished). 

"causative." The principal ones in 

ause (giving reason). 

Bakinf vnT. bdHt. Bdkit dtt (Why 
not?) Bdkit also means "as," 
"how," etc., in sentences. As a 
noun bitkit means an old monkey 
with developed teeth. AndUf also 
means "why?" 

Sa pagkaH. 


If: rattier. 



h'lin diri Uimatig; tun dt lAinnn} 

As if it ware. 

Kun lam la. 

Were it not tor. 

A'ttn ilan^n; rfaiijiaii. 


Kun Idmattg; houag lAmang. 


Baku, v&r. makd. 

The Biiih and lairt (froiip o( c. 


nrtkmfi h tlmt of the clase eslled "nrn- 

cliisives" in some 


illativeH" in others. In TagaloE Ihe 

prindptil ones of this claee &re: 

That (relative). 

Na»g, Es.: }faffpagamot to. «..(; 

ihto ay gHmaling (all on- ^aUReli 

to be (n-Hiod, to thNt ynn nuty Ix^ 

better).— L. 
^''1. Ex.: NagfcAi tiwj no eiA'}! 

nal&Utg (lie etud that fwuul«^)' 
8a inatrt(0Hirf(llt "in other worda") 

Es, : Nakila ko *ild ka^/ab-i, ta ">"' 

tnlouid hindt tilA mnffmatay ^^ 

BHw them last niirht, Ihereft^'* 

they did not eiutiarlc). 
Upan. It ie never put last in 

Tnmattg, vw. yoymnang; (wyn^"*! 

haifamans; hamanff. Ex.: ^■"'^^ 


much ae hi* is govemc::^ 

The exclamation, or interjection, can hardly be regarded as a part^^ 
speech, compared with verbe, nouns, adjectivea, etc., but tor want of 
better c.lasgifi cation they may be treated here. They are generally ael^' 
explaining, and many eeem to be roots used as imperatives of ttae vert:^ 
The most characieriatic TagKlog interjections are: 
Dear me! Alas! 

Ouch! Wow! 
Oh how - 
Oh how -- 

Would that 


Be silent (to one)! 
No talk! Silence! 
Lightning! |0h, hell!) 
My mother! 

What a pity! 

Aroy.' Aray! 
s.) AyaA! (mostly used by women). 
s.) Bap&a. May be used togetheTer" 
bnpAa preceding. Bap6a is moi^ 
in use oy men. 
Bvti nga! 
Oh Kahimarniari! NauA! ifaand.' 


Houag tang md^'njoy.' 

Hotiag kayong magingay.' 


NakS! Kakdf (Contraction from 



»ok oat! Aside! Take care! Tabif llagf 

)tand back! Vrongf 

Look! Behold! Here it is! ManaA! 

Tagalog cursing is rather peculiar. It has evidently been derived from 
native sources and not from contact with the Spaniards. Among the most 
isual expressions are: 

May a crocodile eat you! Kanin ka nang buaya! 

May the earthquake swallow you up! Lamunin ka tiang lindoll 

May a snake bite you! Tukain ka nang ahas! 

May the lightning strike him! Tinamadn 8iyd nang lintik! 

Section Seven. 


I . ' ' The verb is distinguished from al I other words by marked characteris- 
;ic8 and a peculiar organization. '' — Earle. The eminent philulogi8t speaks 
;hu8 of the £nglish tongue, but his remarks applv equally to Tagalog. He 
urther defines a verb as *' the instrument by which the mind expresses 
ts judgments," a definition which was fir»t enunciated by the Danish 
philologist Madvig, in his Latin grammar (Copenhagen, 1841, 8th ed., 
1889). Madvig calls a verb udmgnsord^ literally ** out-saying-word." 
Dther characteristics of the verb have been noted and have given names 
JO the class, such as the German Zeilwort (time- word), and Ewald's 
Thalivort (deed-word). But in Tagalog the line between nouns and 
^erbs is much less than in English, where it is still less than in Latin, 
jireek, and other languages of southern Europe. 

II. The simplest verbal form is the imperative, which consists of the 
XK)t, followed oy ka (thou) or kayd ( you; ye). An adverb of time is some- 
incies added to the phrase for emphasis. £x. : Ldkad ka na! (walk 
m, now!) Jgip ka! (Think!) Aral kaf (Teach!) Dalii nio d6on (iSike it 
here). Dald mo dU6 (bring it here). As in English, many of the roots 
ised as imperatives may be used a.s nouns also. Aral^ as a noun, means 
* doctrine" or "teaching." Ex.: Avq dral ni Monroe' y ang dral nang 
imfrica ngaydn (the Monroe doctrine is now the doctrine of America). 

III. By prefixing ka to the imperative, and reduplicating the first sylla- 
>le of the root at the same time (sign of the present tense) the idea of 
luickness, intensity, care, etc., is imparted to the command. Ex.: 
Kalaldkad ka! (Goquickly ! [to one]) . Kalaldkad kayd! (Goquickly ! [ye] ). 
K^aiisip ka! (Consiaer it well!) Kadadald mo ddon (take it there care- 
ully). As a general thing the agent takes the indefinite form, as will 
»e seen by the examples, but the definite is used when necessary. Ka 
^ith the reduplicatea first syllable of the root has a very different mean- 
njof with any other person than the second. With the first and third per- 
ohs it has the idea of *'timejust past^" when followed by pa, as will be seen 
►y the following examples. Sometimes pa may be omitted. Din may 
(so take the place of p<r, as may also Idmang. In English the time may be 
X pressed by * * has " or ' * had, ' * according to the contex. Karardting kopa(l 
lave [had] just arrived). Karardting ni Gat Tomds (Don Tomds has just 
rrived). Ibig mono makakain sa dminf (Do you wish to eat with us?) 
laldmat, aydoakd* tkakdkain kopa (thanks, I do not cii re to, 1 have just eaten) . 
Cagagdling nana kapatid na hahaye ko sa bayan (my sister has just come 
rom town). Kahinigd ko din (I had just lain down). Kapapanaog ko din 
t hapapanhik Idmang nild (I had just gone down and they had iust gone up 
i.e., tne house ladder]). Kapapdwk Idmang niyd sa bahay (ne had just 
ntered the house) . Aapapdsok din ngaydn ni Esleban sa basahan ( Esteban 
Stephen] has just entered the reading place [i. e., the master's place]). 
'CoJnisulat ko (I had just written it) . Katatapus ko ( I have just finished it) . 
^cUatagpi ko (I had just mended it). KauiUas nako(l had already finished 




it). KaaalUldmangmyd {he YmBjatft gone umtky), KaaaJUBpawimgiBMi 
amd (my father has just gone awmy). Kaaaaa din ^Sbam&n mm§ camlh .^^ 

(the captain joat now left). With roota like droit whicn have aemil dii- I ^ 
tinct meanings according to the verbal particle prefixed, fo doei not I ^i 
require the first syllable to be repeated. Ex. : KapaiSjaXbdrai dm 4ay^ ■ ^ 
nang pari (the pnest has just finished preaching). In this case the prefix ™ 
is reduplicated, mang&ral meaning '' to preach.'*^ KapagatiM dm nd Bwp^ 
nang damU (Benigno just took the clothes away). MagalU means ^ 

IV. Ka has many other fnnctiona, which will be taken np later. It ^^ ^ d 
most important particle and should be carefully studied. It afaould ^ 
noted tnat the pronouns with the imperative are mostlv in the nooi^ 
tive, while with the first and third persons they are in the genitive. . ^. 

V. All such sentences are in the definite or tOK^led " paasive," ^^^ 
is by far the most usual form in Tagalog, bat which would look v^^ 
strange manv times if translated by the E^lish passive. 

VI. The foregoing form is also used to express opposites« tbe 
being linked by ay. It may be expressed in Kngliah oy "no«; 
or * * now, then. ' ' Ex. : 

Now be sleeps, then he wakes. Kt k d diog aiy kagimtma n^. 

He comes in and goes out Kapapdaok ixg kakdakiM wfd. 

He is coming and going. Kamtkdmg ay kaaedU ntfo. 

Sometimes he walks, then he rsats a KakMkad ay kakikbdMM ni^L 


Now she laughs and then she cries. Kataiaua ixy hcdniynt, 

VII. When a prefix changes the meanins of a word, it la letained in t^^'^ 
imperative. Ex.: Aral ka (teach); pagSfai ka (study); p ojISJfdr ai 
(preach). .^« 

VIII. With the exception of the forms already cited, tbe verb is alwa ^Brti 
accompanied by particles, which sometimes modify the root itaelf S^ "^^ib 
euphonic reasons. Nearly every word in the language can be made a ve^ ^)^. 
of some kind or another by the use of these parncles, which are the stril^' .^^ 
inp peculiarity of the Malayo-Polyneeian languages, but have lieen w^" ^^ 
tained in the primitive tongues of the Philippines much more than in th^ q\ 
Malay, Javanese, or other cognate dialects. There are some twenty C-^^, ^^ 
these verl)alizing particles, of which seventeen are used as prefixes U-^L.^ 
root**, and three are the definite auxiliarv particles itif t, and an. Of thee»^^^ 
particles, which aretabU^d at the end of tne handbook, the moet impor^* 
tant are /)^ i, an, um, rnag^ and ma, the last three being indefinite particles 
Pagt corresponding as a definite to mag, is also important. The mastery 
of these particles is the mastery not only of Tagalog, but of every othei^ 
Philippine dialect, as well as a valuable aid in learning Malay or any simi- 
lar U^ngue of the family. 

IX. The root with any one of the indefinite particles prefixed may 
translated as the infinitive, provide<I the particle is merely attached to 
give the meaning of the root so modi fieii, but whenever a tense is expressed 
the particle or the root is modified, and sometimes both. Besides the 
imperative and infinitive,Tagalo^ has really but one other mode, the indic- 
ative, as the subjunctive, includmg those modifications known in various 
European languages as the optative, conditional, dubitative, potential, etc., 
is expressed by certain words corresponding to the English ** could, 
should, would, mav,'* etc. 

X. Strictly speaking, there are but three tenw^s in Tagalog, the past, 
present, and future; but it is possible to render the imperfect, pluperfect, 
and future perfect tenses by means of auxiliary particles. The first three, 
however, are those in common use. The participle is also in use, corre- 
sponding literally to the English participle in some cases, and in others 
must Ije rendered by a phrase. The same remark may l)e made of the 
gerund in English, which is variously rendered in Tagalog. One tense 
IS sometimes ustnl for another, when the context clearly indicates the time 
of the event, as happens in English. 


XI. As in English, Tagalog verbs may be transitive, requiring an object 
to complete the meaning; or intransitive, in which the ineanmg is com- 
plete within the verb. These do not always correspond in the two lan- 
goages, and a Tagalog root may sometimes be intransitive with one prefix 
and transitive with another, which may reverse or modify the meaning. 

XII. Within the tense the verb does not change for the person or num- 
ber, and requires a noun or a pronoun to indicate the same. 

XIII. The eminent Indo-Tioetan philologist Bryan H. Hodgson (1800- 
1894), in his Monographs upon the Tribes of Northern Tibet, reprinted in 
Part II, pages 7^76, of ** The Languages, Literature, and Religion of Nepal 
and Tibet" ( Ix)ndon, 1874), gives it as his opinion that the Gyarung dialect 
of Eastern Tibet has a very similar structure to that of Tagalog, quoting 
Leyden and W. von Humboldt (the latter at secondhand) in support of his 
views. Rockhill, the Tibetan scholar, now United States minister to 
China, who has a wide acquaintance with Tibetan, says that Gyarung is 
merely a variation of ordinary Tibetan, and this being the case there can 
be no possible affinity between the two languages. As Hodgson's error 
has been given wide publicity bv its incorporation as a footnote to the 
article by de Lacouperie upon Tibet in the Encyclopedia Britannica, it 
should be corrected as far as possible by any student of Tagalog. 

XIV. As quoted and corrected by Hodgson, the remarks ot Leyden, as 
taken from toe Researches of the Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. X, page 209, 
upon Tagalog are as follows: " Few languages present a greater appearance 
of originality than the Tagala. Though a multitude of its terms agree pre- 
ciaelv with those of the languages just enumerated (western Polynesian), 
yet tne simple terms are so metamorphosed by a variety of the most sim- 
ple contrivances that it becomes impossible (difficult — B. H. H.) for a 
person who understands all the original words in a sentence to recognize 
them individually or to comprehendthe meaning of the whole. The arti- 
fices which it employs are chiefly the preflxing or postflxing (or infixing — 
B. H. H.) to the simple vocables (roots) of certain particles (serviles), 
which are again (may be) combined with others, and the complete or par- 
tial repetition of terms in this reduplication may be again combined with 
other particles." 

XV. Hodgson notes upon the foregoinc: as follows: " I may add, with 
reference to the disputea primitiveness of Ta-gala, owing to its use of the 
'artifices' above cited, that throughout the Himalaya and Tibet it is pre- 
cisely the rudest or most primitive tongues that are distinguished by useless 
intricacies, such as the interminable pronouns, and all the perplexity caused 
by conjugation by means of them, with their duals an(f plurals, and in- 
clusive and exclusive forms of the first person of both. ♦ ♦ ♦ The 
more advanced tribes, whether of the continent or of the islands, have, 
generally speaking, long since cast away all or most of these * artifices.' '' 
-As has already been noted, the Tagalog pronouns do not modify the verbs, 
^hich have the same form within the tense for all persons anH numl)ers. 
^8 compared to tongues like Fijian and other Melanesian dialects, Tagalog 
has made long strides toward becoming a vehicle of a much higher culture 
than it now enjoys. 

XVI. W. von Humboldt says in his Kawi Sprache, Vol. II, page 347: 
' *The construction of the Malayan verb (to speak of the entire linguistic 
stock) can be fully recognize<l from the Tagalog verb alone. The Malagasy 
^nd true Malay contain but fragments thereof, while the Polynesian lan- 
guages have a more primitive scheme of the verb— fewer in forms. It 
- herefore seems appropriate to present: 

First, the Tagalog verb complete without any regard to the other 

Second, the Malagasy (verb), which has in itself very much of the same 

Third, to show what the Malay language in its discarding and grinding 

grammatical forms has still retained; and 


Fourth, to mtike a research a*" lo hijw the simpie but uncultivated Poly- 
nwiui verbal couatnmtion «taiida in relation to the partially cnltivBted 

I. A^' III.- i-icii -:,iii I I viore, the de&iiite (arm o( the verb, which ie n«llf 
a vi^rlMl I' ' -rii-liiatinK partidee, ib more commoa tluin (he 
imieliuid' ■ ■ '■ iii.rreof a tnie verb in ainistruction. ODeofIhe 

ercHt 'I I till III i<-~ I " 1 1 :-i\iiiae by epeaktrra of non-Tklalayan tongues in the 

improper <„-k "\ fix- ofijiriiu and indefinite. It iitae eafiy to begin ri)!htB« 
wrong, and il atU'iUiuu xa paid to the conditiona exiBting, an idionialiu 
moatery of TagaloK tuay readilv be required. 

II. The true definite particles, in (Ain afl*r the final vowel with acute 
accent, and iim in a few cuBea for euphony), '. and on (Ann after a linal 
vowel with actite accent), are need either alone or in combinatLon when 
emiiha^is is to be placed uimn the object nr them ia a special idea implieJ. 
Theea three particles are [urllnTi:iiniiiiin-d with ]m'j. the definite verbolii- 
ing particle correepondirig to the iii<leliiiite I'liig: i, in, and pagmaay tiuiea 
eoiauiencing a denuile verb with tl>e coinbiiiationa ipag and ipinoff. Thf 
root Im^qs alter these com binat ions, riibjeot to tenae reduplications, m 
will be eeen by the table at the end. The subject labes the geuitive with 
thedefinite, the object taking the noiniimtivecaBe. Ex.: Kont ^trd (idea 
of making or doing) . (Jiimavd (lon^keurdo). Anfiaiig^wd mot (What 
ia your work?; i.e., What areyouduiugor making?). Thiiisaniadefiniie 
question, with the verlMlidesalmoetab^nt, tlie verb "to be" beii^under' 
stood. With an adverb of time, such an kafiu/ion (}>eeterday), n^v^ 
(now), or bukag (to-morrow) the verb could he "was," "i«." nr "will 
lie." But the more usual form ia with thedeflmt«af"~'~ '~ 
tenee. .liiii itug sfinnifd mo? (What did you dOT 

jiMHt tenBe m is inscrteil with coummant root»S 

sonant and the restof the root. And ang ginagawd mo dilit (Whatueyoil- 
doing here?) As will be eeen, the present tense is formed bjr the redniJi- 
cation of the first Hyllable of the root, in which in is infixed. And antr 
ga^uin mot ( What are you going to do? [or make?] ; what will you do?; 
what will you make?) The future of this verb ia formed by rednplicating 
the first syllable of the root and suffixing in, An6 ang gagavAniumg amain 
moniyang kdhoyna ij/dnt (What is your uncle going to do with that lum- 
ber?) Amain, from amd, father, with in aa a aufiii, also meana "step- 
^ther," as well aa "uncle." K&lioy aleo means "tree." Itana h&hoy 
<in^i7aaau'fnniy(i(HelBgoingtoput upahouHe). The imperative ia formed 
by sumiing in to the root. Ex.: /fd'y gmiAn ninyong mah'UMiy (Do this 
carefullv [in an orderly manner]). 

fll. hi IK the principal definite particle in Tagalog, corresponding to the 
same particle In Ilocano and to on in BIcol and Visava, the two last men- 
tioned also ueing in in combination with other particlee. 

IV. While it isnot so very hard to lay down fairly clear miesaa to when 
the definite and indefinite should be useil (the former laying stress upon 
the object and the latter upon the subject or the action), it la extremely 
difficult in some cases to say which one of the wverai definite particles 
should be. Asafl;eneralrule,inagnifies motion toward the ajwnt, orsome- 
thing by which the agent obtains control of something; i indicates motion 
away from agent, or an action by which the agent loses control of some- 
thing, and an generally has either the idea of place or of pereon connected 
with ils UKe, /joined with ka, resultln^in ika. and further combined with in 
to prwldcei'jtina, denotes cauee,etc.,with roots when joined to them, either 
alone or with verbalizing particles. For this reason the proper definite to 
he used in sentences having a definite object without other modifying cir- 
cumstance is determined by the nature of the action, subject to some 
exceptions, mainly for euphonic reasons. Such words, however, as require 


on, for example, in place of in are not numerous. F can not be replaced 
by in or an, and an only replaces in as a Huffix, never sa a prefix or infix. 
The following examples will show the different use of the same verb: 
Root, panhik. Panhtk ka! (Go up! Come up!). Panhikin mo ak6 sa hag- 
dan (come up [to me] by the ladder). Ipanhik mo sa hAhay itong matTgd 
9&ging (Put tnese bananas up into the house). Panhikan mo ak6 nitong 
mangd sAqing (Put these bananas up there for me). Piimanhik (to ascend) . 
Magpanhtk (to hoist, or p\it something upstairs [or up a ladder]). Ang 
panhikin ( the person unstairs ) . Ang ipagpanhik ( wliat hoisted or taken up ) . 
Ang panhikan (the laader [stairs or place] ascended). 

V. With sentences containing but one direct object which is directly 
connected with the action, the prevalence of cause, instrument, or time 
requires t, and place an, Ex. : Ihdnap nint/6 ako isang cahtyong mnbuti 
(look out for a good horse for me). Ang bayan ang hahanapayi mo nnng 
cabayo mo (You will have to look around town for your horse). With in a 
proper use would be: Hanapinmo ang cabayong nawald (Look for the horse 
which has disappeared). Ang pinaghananan ko ang cr/rral nang cabayo^ j)d 
(Where 1 did look for the horse was attne corral, sir). Hindnapko ang 
aking cabayo sa Itayan ay nahdnap ko (I looked for my horse in town and 
found him). Humdnap, ( 1, to look for) (2, to claim). Mnnhdnap ( to st»out, 
to reconnoiter). Ang panhanapin (what scouted for). Ang paghdnop (the 
act of seeking). Ang paghanapan ( the place of seeking) . Ang panhmaixtn 
(pla(» scouted or reconnoitered over). Ang hindnap (what sought for 
[paat tense]). Ang hinahdnap (what is being sought for). Ang hanapin 
(what is to be sought or looked for). Ang hanapan (person from whom 
something is claimed or sought). Ang ihdnap ( the means for something to 
be looked for). An^ ihinanap (the means with which something was 
sought). The foregomg illustrate the ease with which verbal nouns can l)e 
formed from verbs and vice versa. 

VI. When a sentence has more than one indirect object, and stress is to 
be laid upon one or the other object, the nature of the action determines 
the particle to be use<l. The following examples, taken from I^»ndoyro, 
«how this excellently: Sulatin mo itong mlut sn lamem nang kdmay mo 

(**W'rite this letter" yourself at the table [i. e., with your own hand]). 
JtukU mo nitong tulat ang iyong kdmay wr itong lamesa ( Write this letter 
*• with your own hand " at this table ) . Sn lamem ang mlatan mo nitong m'llai 
■Tuang iyong kdmay (write this letter with your own hand, using the table as 
m writing desk). It will be seen from the foregoing that many of the defi- 
:i]ite verbs are verbal nouns with ang (the) left off. l^earing this in mind 
%he use of the definite is made much easier. 

VII. Circumstantial members connected with the action should l)e care- 
MnUy distinguished when u^ing the detinite from adverl^ or adverbial 
expressions. Some examples of the definite with a<i verbs or a<lverbial 
expressions are: Sadiyang ginavsX niyd itn (He did thin willfully). Dina- 
€ohong nild siyd nang boong bag^k (They assaulted him [her] with great 

VIII. Ipag, ipinag, and ipinn, the two first l¥»ing conihinatioiiH with pay 
Bind the last of i with pa, the definite verl^al particle correH|H>nding to magj/a, 
cjonfuse the student at first, but are simple when analyzcjl, Iftlnti, ipa^ 
^vhen followed by a ro<^)t commencing witn g, shonirl not Iw (•onfiiH<'d with 
^pag and ipinag, as the idea of ;xi is *'to order to <Io" what is signified bv 
fihe root. Combinations with other parti<'lev, like wngho, an* alno foiin<f, 
forming t)Ki^l"a (imp.), ifxigknkn ^fut. ), ipinngkn (pa'^t), arnl inintn/hika 
^present). It will be noticed that the last Hvliahh* of the particu; is rcdu- 
iDiicated with pagka for the future arul pres<'nt tcufM*.'-. Kx.: /pagnhnfdn 
^^inyd iyang matTgd libra (Pass those Ih^k^Uh from hand to hand). Any nlm- 
- <m (the person reaches! for or overtaken }. Sino nng iimunjlnlnto rudf ' Who 
^.re you cooking it for?) And knyd nng i/tinagnfoM mo an knuiydf ^Wliat 
^vere your orders to him?) IjKigfiiihngiin Hmm kiln nnng itong finjnit ntjiniVt 
^mld akong sabdn (I would wash your clotheM, hut I liav*- no nrnp). Kiln 

really "we two," but here mean.« "I." Ip^'gfngn mo nnng tta itong oji- 


cinl ilo (Mubeeome te* for ihia officer). Ang ir. 
[us t*a, ctiKet^i CU:.]). .4113 ipoglaj/i (the person lor whom boiletl, made, 
L'U'.|. Ang UiijaAii (the totfuit, co£(«'].iol, eli-.). In the fore^iiiB; exam- 
ples pile/ in u«eil ]>ecause the aeiitenee exprvsnea the pemiii for wbum lui 
aot m pi'rfornied. Fug is alvo ummI wllli rrt ujiil 'in combined iu like cxi*». 
Ex.: Jloug fai/wiy no ito'y ang pinagaiuiija-n niia (Tliia hoaee ie where they 
quarreled). Bout, duti.i/. 

IX. Atjr muDt also be uweil wilh Ihe deDaitti whenever the wstence 
exproaeeB plurality o( acta or aeents, or of teipiing or reciprocal »».1ionf. 
The article beinit generally tit«ii, the idea of a verlMl noun is miMt promi- 
neut. Ex.; .1113 ipiitagmkilmkiUin, tiigd'y aiig biiidl diuaiiin (Ho wks 
maliiigerini; HO fta to etKape piintBhment). Root, «iJti((illn<!a9). (Diuiinu- 
tivee made by repeftting a bieyllabic root or the first two of a polysyllalilr 
one, odd nii to impart a Bcomlul or contemptuous meaning). Ang ctiuHH 
ang pinagmarahan tiUd (They uiBUlted <wcli other in the barraclu). 
t^nagiirA nang maiigi. Iviit&n iyang maiTgA b&lutv (The lulrones have 
destroyed many of those houses), ifaraming bihay tng pittagtirH nilA 
(Many houses have been destroyed by tbeai}- 

X. With verbal roo(« which have diHerent meanings with um and moa, 
the dellnile is accompanieil by pag wlien the verb formed by maif is u«eii. 
Ex.: Boot. Wn idea of trade, barler, etc.) ituiiii/l, (to buy). Ma^tHv 
Bell). Itinig biituiy atig ipinaghili ba. or Ipinaghill kv ilang bikay (I haw 
sold tills houHe). Itang hAliag aii^ blnili ko, or Binill ko iltmg hiiluii; (! 
have bought this house). Pag (/nnoa) prefixed to 6«i with ftfin euflixeil 
indioalM the purchaser; the place or the priiK (past tenae). For the pres- 
ent teniie the lint Hytlable of the root is reduplicated. Ex.: Ang ntnog- 
bilihnn (past); ang papbUiililuln (pr.). Ang dicing tapoM lul lalnki otuj 

EbiiUiati io mtong o^koy (I sold [have sold] this boose to my bnither 
"mv brother was the purchaser from me o( this bouse"]). Hoot, 
(debt). Ihnitang (to borrow). Maguttmg (to lend). Magpaut/mg 
(Ui "lend wilhnglv). Mogtaiilniig {tti owe). Kx.: FhuiijiUatit/ to iiiami 
M/(y>f«i t'ini>ii(Ilent himthatmoney). " ' ' 

X I. Tiie ui»u (>[ flu.' jjiirtioli^ gives a great Ireedoni in Tagaloj; fvi llic 
variation of sentences, which, however, have the same idea. Thm the 
EntfliBb " Didn't I order (or tel) ) ^ou to do this?" may be rendered by the 
following with equal acconkcy : Hmdt to ipinogiilai ta iyd rut jrawbi mo iMT 
(det.), Hindtakd naoitoi aa ii/ong guiiiauxl nil6f (indef., stress on action). 
Hindi at6 nagpagawd ta igA nitof (iiidef., strefls on action). Hiiutt to 

S'nagaud nitd (def.). Hindi ko iptnagawd eai-joil6f (def.). Dtipmagaad 
i,ixy6ii6r (def.). 

XII. /nand tare combined with each other also. Ex.; An6angmnultitd 
mot { What are you cookins?) For euphony the verb with this combioa- 
tion is much varied, there being also found the forms inalubab, inilulvid, 
and even nilrduld. 

XIII. The verbs mayrdon and mau (to have) and wnid (not to have) 
require tlie definite form of a verb following them in a sentence which 
expreeeea what is had or done, or vice versa. Both subject and object, 
however, take the noininattve in tuch cases. Ex. : Mdyrdon kang gagajtiaf 
(Have you anything to do?) WaldoO, rvold akong gagauin (Ho, idr; I have 
nothing). Mag tiUing ginawdt (Have thev done anything?) \fald p6, 
walk fSang ginimd (tio, sir; they have not iloiie anything). 

XIV. llie definite is also used in eentencea having a person for the 
object, or in which the object is nioilified by an attribute or attributive 
adjunct Ei.: Tauagin ino ti Ptdro (Call Pedro). Dalhin mo rU6 iyang 
li&rong binata konq tagab-i (Bring me that book I was reading last night). 
Hoivig miing wikatn iyin (Don't sa^ that). Lutoin mo Hong manuk (Cook 
this chicken). IXiUiin mo iijitng liibig (Bring that water). 

XV. Further discut«ion of the deSnlle particles is reserved until the 
indefinite has been explained. 



I. The indefinite particles most in use are um, mag (nag), and ma {na), 
aich will be explained in detail hereafter. These are called active par- 
ries by the Spanish grammarians, but indefinite seems to be more appro- 
iate and correct 

II. Sentences in which the subject is emphasized have this in the nomi- 
itive, the verb being expressed with the proper indefinite particle which 

sometimes preced^ by the article of common nouns. The imperative 
^definite does not require the article in any case. Ex.: Siyd*y bahata 
Uong libro (He is going to read this book). Jkao nga iiagmbi niydn (You 
lid that yourself). The object, it will be noted, takes the genitive. Siyd 
ng mcufpapasial (He is going for a walk [lit, '*He will be the walker j). 
kdo ang tumduag hay Juan (Call Juan [be you the caller to Juan]). Si 
uan oyj^^^ nagn&kao (Juan was the thief). 

III. The indefinite is generally used in an intransitive sentence, where 
Q object is not required to complete the meaning. Ex. : Sungmusdlat akd 
I am writing). SungmiUat akd (I wrote). Susulatako (I shall write). 
Tagadral kayd (You are learning). Magadral kay6 (You will learn). 
ZtuiffmaJtain giya (He is eating). Kungmain kaml (We were eating [but 
ot you] ). Kakain tayo (We will go eat [all of us] ). 

An object may be called indefinite when the idea of '^a, an, some, anv'' 
I inherent, or an undetermined part of the whole is indicated, provided 
bat there are no modifying circumstances of time, cause, purpose, instru- 
lent, or place in conjunction with the action. Ex.: (1) ifarunong ka 
ang wikang eagtUaf {Do you understand any of the Spanish language?) 
fttrtinong akd Idmang nang wikana tagdlog, hindt marunoug akd mangump 9a 
nkang coiiila, p6 (I understand theTagalog language only; I do not know 
ow to talk in Spanish). Magscdiid ka nga sa wikang tagdlog (Then speak 
a Tagalog). (2) MagiahoM ka nang manga giUa (Bnng out some chairs). 
fagdald £i dito nangfosforoa (Bring some matches here). Magdald ka dito 
ang tahacos (Bring some cigars here). Magdald ka dito nanq tabig (Bring 
3me water here). MaghUd ka nanq isang manuk (C>K>k a chicken). 

IV. The indefinite is also used with sentences having a definite object if 
part and not all of the object is meant In some cases the place-particle 

' an " is used for this {>urpose, as it does not indicate an object. In or % would 
« used if all the definite object were to be indicated. Ex. : Ak6*y kungmain 
o niiong lamangkaii (I have already eaten some of this meat ) . Uminum kayd 
iUmg tibig na malindo (Drink some of this clear water) . (1) Magbiqay ka 
s dkin niyang iubig (indef.) (1, Give me some of that water). (2) Bigydn 
to akd iyang tUbig (def. ) (2, Give me that water). Ibig ninyong magbill 
ftang bigdsf (Do you wish to sell some of this rice?) 

V. Actions expressed by intransitive verbs which do not require an 
bject take the indefinite unless there are modifying cin^umstances of 
muse, purpose, means, instrument, or time in conjunction with the action. 
:3c.: Naliiod akd (I stumbled). An6H Hindi ka lungmaldkad nang matulinf 
MThy don't you walk quicker?) Tungmotaud siyd (He is laughing). 

VI. A sentence commencing with an interrogative pronoun takes the 
L<iefinite if the subject; of the inquiry is an agent, ana the definite if a 
^terminate object is asked about. Ex. : Sino any naydaUi nitong mniTgd 
m,hoyf (Who brought [was the bringer] of thin lumber [timber]?) Akd ang 
:mgdaldy pd (I brought it, sir [was the bringer] ). AwVl di ka nanyunijumpf 
Why don't you talk?) Nahihiyd ka bagaf (Are you ashamed t<^)?) Sim) 
^^nagsalitd nang sinabimosa dkinf ( Who relate*! to you what you have told 
L^?) [indef.]. Anongibigmof (What do you want?) Awmg nilMiyo a)ig 
^^Uinildf (Which horse did they buy?) Anong in a contraction for «n<> 

VII. The indefinite is also used with complex sentencen in which the 
^tiject is amplified by an adjectival clause. Ex.: Any t'tim ynugmagnna 
^^g kabanam'y magkakamii nang kapalaran (The i>er»on who does right 
^ Ml obtain happiness [be happy^). 


VTII. It most be nriteil that inaka in the sense olMtue, nwo trlu 
toots deiiotiiiR ci>mliticine, wrones (torta) and betteriDcntH, ho^ a differvnt 
OOnMniction from all otiier partidw, even mntn with olher meaDina^. In 
the delinite, whifh only exiBla with i, combined with in in the post and 
pnaeiit tenses, the aeent takes the nominative and the object the genitive, 
like indolinites of other [wrlicleA. lu the iiideflnile the asent remains in 
tbe roininntive, but the nbjeet takes the accnaatjve, whi^ is always prv- 
cedeii by m (not by nang). Some olher verbs have this uw of ta aW 
Boolx (-onjtigated by mag and man retain the definite forma imff and pm 

IX. The Tagalog verb demande that the subject of a sentence shall be 
flzpresseil, the tenN being indieated by the verb or verbal noun. The 
BaDjei.-l iii»y tie omitted, however, when a number of verbs depend uixtn 
tiie Him« pubject, est'ejit in the firet clause, where the verb must have a 
■Dbjei'l. As n ill be seen bv the examples, the syntax of Taming is verv 
dmpK', btit care muxt lie taken to use the riicht particles anil tenses. U 
not, some annoying errois are liable to be made in conversation. 

V. Tor any common verb see the vocabulary (En^tlish-Tagftlo^l. It 
moM be Imrae in luiml that Tagalog has ruan v wrirrt* expressing vanatiniw 
and modilieations of the general verb as well as other langu^es. These 
will be noted in the projier place. 

I. The plain root, if capable of being verbal! ed, is sometimes used willi- 
oot B deflnito panicle if an ailverb of time or the context iimkee the tense 
clear. The definite parlicle may atra be uMed with an adverb of time, hat 
W a Tv\f. if the tense u to be emphaaxed or the rontext is not clear, tmw 

Krticki', apconiing to the rules of the Un^ua^e, are uaed In Itie verbtl 
■mp. .Irifl (jwj «'iM mo Mui}i-i-f (What did you sav yesterdav?) Aii" 
ang^ai.l ,„o j~j,iijA<,f (What do vou Hiiy tiowV) .jnd -m^ mM m: hiU-n'f 
(what will you say to-morrow? [with adverbs of time]). An6 anff »inaii 
mof (What did you say?) Ano ang niuaaHmof (What are you saying?) 
And ang mmtriliin mof '(What will you say?) Ang mfnhw (the peiaon or 
thing mentioned). An6 bagd ang lagi^ihin ko kay IgnacioT (What shall I 
say to Ignacio?) Sabikin mo §a kaniyi rut tijiivag ko my& ( You say to him 
that I have been calling him). Ang mblkan {the conversation). 

II. In (hin after arote final vowel, and nin in some cases) is the true 
definite particle. In is prefixed, infixed, or suffixed, as the case may be; 
hin and nm are suflijea only. In is prefixed to a vowel root and infixed 
between the initial letter and the first vowel of a consonant root for the past 
(perfect) and present tenses. It is suffixed for the im^rative and future 
tenses. The first syllable of the root is redupHcated in the present and 
future tenses. The tenses called the pluperfect and future perfect may be 
expresi^ in Tagalog in two ways. The first pluperfect is formed by adding 
Til to the past tense, and the second pluperfect ay prefixing no to the root 
Thetiret (iiture perfect is formed by admngna to 'the future tense, and the 
second future |>erfect by prefixint; mn to the rooL These tenses are little 
used in conversation. Sa and mn correspond to the indefinite verbalizing 
particles mikn and tnolii rcK[>er-tively. 

III. Tlie subjei-t of a verb coujngaleii with a definite particle takes the 
genitive, except in the crises already noted. If the subject is a pronoun, it 
may either prei'ede or follow the verb, the latter usage being much more 
common thiin the former. If the subject is a noun or phra?e it always 
follows the v.Tb. 

IV. For the coiijuaalion of a root with in, whether a vowel verb, or 
a consonant one see the tyjie-ivheme folder at the end of this handbook. 

V. In prefixed to or infixed with roots rif the folliiwiiig classes forms words 
denoting a showing of the proiierlies of the root or a resemblance thereto, 
aslhe woril "like'Vloes as awiffix in Knglish. (I) Boots denoting flow- 
ers, fruits, or other objects imitated in gems or precious metals by jewelers. 


denote ornaments or jewels of the shape or pattern of the object nanie<l, 

roots of colore*! objects i« denotes the color. Ex.: Dnmero (Sp. ronien)), 
rof>etnary; dinumerOf ronemary-coloreil. Oiilfitf, venlnre, vt'^tablefl; ai- 
niitintt greenish. (3) With some objects in denotes rice which reseinbleH 
theobjeirt in the shape, taste, or smell. Ex.: Kanda, a lily-like flower; 
k'numd'i^ rice, with an odor like the kanda. KaHiyort, nee<ire; kinarmiom^ 
needle-shaped rice. Kamali^^ warehouse; lAilauujan KnuuUinnn^ AmlM^H 
Camarines ( province ) ; kina tnnlig, Gama rines rice. A*tM nii^ m iisk ( from San- 
skrit kofiikri, through Malay); kinaatHli, rice with mu«iky oflor. Anfj kalA, 
the carabao tick; kinaldf rice of a variegated appearance, rescMiiblingthe/vi//;. 
Kantiln (8p. ), white person : kinastUoj a whiteclaiwof rice. AlaiTf/iian, a trcH.' 
with fragrant flowers {f\inangn odorntn), the ilang-ilang; inahiTj/llan^ ru;v 
with this odor. Bamhang^ an herb; hituunhang, a clans of ri<re which rcHcm- 
ble^ the b*imhang when growing. Angdulong^ a very small iinh; dlmifong, 
Ticii shaped like the dulmg. Bntad, a kind of i)ea-liku vt^getable; hhintnd, 
rice so snaped. Bulnklak, flower; binahikbtk, ri<re which oiienH like a flower 
when heated, or like pop cr»m. Porak, the flower or tli«? pangdnn or 
wihutan; pinorak, rice resembling this flower. Sankt, the Chinese aniMs 
finangki, rice resembling anif>e. SnmhUang, a Rpe<*ie8 of Hea fl^h without 
Hcalen; sinumWang^ rice of this f<hape. Tunia, Ixxly lonnis gray)>}U'k; 
tinuma^ rii*e8hapea like a Uuufi. Tnm/xjgaf copijer; tlnumfj*igfi, rice with a 
metallic luster. Tum^Mgfi is copper a I love* 1 with a Hinall amount of gold; 
it is from l^uiskrit tdmnika (copper), through Malay tftmhagri; temtmga 
Taldhihf common reed gratis; iinalnhih^ rice which rc^'cmblcs tnh'thih when 
growing. There are many other nanurs for different claw«*H of rice, but the 
Foregoing are the principal terms derive<l with m followinir the rule cjteii. 
(4) With names denoting relation jiliip i» ex presses the I'lea of |:Mfn<oiiH 
occupying the place of such relative to some degree. Ah this condition in 
regaraeil aa permanent, the first syllable of the r<Mit is re^hiplicattfd to ex- 
press present tense. Other nouns al^Kj follow this rule, witn hihk; cxcfp- 
tions. Ex. : .l/t, aunt; inaali, uncle* h wife. A ma, father; iunnma, go^lfather. 
Amaiiij uncle; stepfoitber; iimnma'm, aunt's hunl^and. Annk, child i^m 
or daughter ); inaanak, stepson or t-tep^laui^hter, also gr^ly^m r^r ^'oddaii^dt- 
ter. ^f^fiu^r, spouse (hui»l>and or wife*: i/iTaj»'/»/'f, lovirr or mif*tnr?«.'* 'cnu- 
cubine). Bnytio^ brother-in-law; hinnfffohm^ hui^liand of .-is-ter-iri-law. 
Siaivin, father-in-law or mother-in-law; h'nMnunu, wife or husband of 
father-in-law or mother-in-law inot |»arent of wife or huHljand i. Mnu,)- 
ff<ing, son-in-law or daughter-in-law; tnhinmauugfino, ^me r(rinirdi-<l a*^ ^-iich. 
.^iipaiid, brother or sister; k'tnakn/Mitid. half brother or half hifti-r. or fo.-tcr 
h>TX)ther or foster sister, //'/"'f/. M?^ter-in-law : himluiKig, wife of brother-in- 
]a.w. Bila» is the equivalent f ^r hiu'ii^umtt'T A mihlji'ig. X'lni,. tfrandjiarcnt : 
v«*7feu»un/i, one rcganiefi a^ a irrand (parent: knininnuutin^ ancf-Htorn. Ajtn^ 
S^^'^iuidchild; inaap6t dfe>cendant. Ai'O fi tnho'L gnrat-::randchild: 'tpt, ^a 
t^fiampakntt, great-great-grandchild. Pananffkin. n»-|ih«'W or liiec**: //m't- 
fjKMmangkiu, one reganJt^l a.-? such. /''Wo<. riin!-i!i: jHoi/tini' )«, mnr n-zarh-d 
a*i a cousin. Pintnng h^,, fir«t r-'iu-'iri: pinfinij uinh^l'in \ <^«H-i^nd cmjHni. 
^t.<:. {h\ With verbal n.»ots denoting' th»f pnrf taring: of fiK^I. i-t*-.. in d<rfjoN« 
tlic food so prepare^l, pTo\-id«'d tLc p>-.t i« ci^njninitwl in th*r infinitiv*; 
in<5efinite with u ii>, althoii'^h th^-n* anr i?'i:ii»' ♦•x« •»'| it !• •!]•■. Kx.: M'njlaijn^ 
to cook with a spit: such a* r-a?not«-. *t'-. ; Ijnntj-i, \f,r»-t:ibl»-" .-o cn-.kwi. 
^^^'ongang, to cook meat or fl--h with a i-pir: ^ioioonff. ffj»-;it or fi-h *o 
<^>okcd. Luamgao, to stew, to i "W imml: nr,.j i:„,„j,„,, tIjm rnn-h or -t*'-.^, 
yf^Mglugao is more uifual. Sinfuinj, to Uiil ric#-: «■/.'/ ^n.ning. the lx^il»-«l 
^c«. J/a^^my is also more UMial. .V-i'/^'ii/iVi^.;/. to «r, .ir fi-h *-ntin;: 'o*// 

f"«<lV|/ir#n^. the fi>*h so CiOke*!. T'nn'tt^il *,r Utn'f'jfitm.'f , ilufrH'i. ni,gt>n'r- 

l^-*.v, what kneaded; brea«]. '»^i. With v*-rl»al rfr^t-? r«iri;ii:.'ar'-d hy " ».. th** 
pToduct of such action Is denoK.-*! by */«. pretixe^i to a voia«-1 r-v/t or i;iiix«-«i 

685S— 06— 8 



with a consonant root Ex. : SamMid^ to spin ; iinxUid^ thread, anything 
spun. Borne mag roots also have the product denoted by in. £z. : Mag- 
pivi(ff to press, to crack rice, etc.; pinlpigt roasted and cracked rice. (7) 
With some roots in forms adjectival nouns, the first syllable of the root 
being reduplicatd. Ex.: A'uan, known; an^ ArtnuAruan, the person known. 
Mahal, dear; ang minamahal^ the esteemed (person). SirdAy love (from 
Sanskrit, c/im^d, thought, through Malay); an^ m'nmVUd, the beloved ( who 
loves in return). Ang nasinta indicates a person loved without being 
aware of the fact. 

VI. As in has the idea of attraction inherent within it, there are many 
classes of verVw, conjugated in the iudetinite infinitive by um, which take 
in to form the direct object. (1) According to this rule verbal roots of 
taking, asking, and appropriating something take in. There are some 
verbs conjugated with mag which also admit in. Ex. : 

To buy (general term ). 

To take ( general term ) , bring or take. 
To carry; bear, etc. (bring or send). 

" what was ordered brought' 
To scoop out, or take anything out DumvikoL Ang diniikot, what taken 

Bum ill. A ng binilif what was bought 
Gumuiangf to buy rice by the ga- 
iang or chupa. Umdmoi, to bny 
one thing out of many. Umangkat, 
to buy on credit. Umaapiny to 
buy fruits of the country. 

Kurniiha. Ang kinuhOf what was 
taken or obtained. 

Magdald . A ng dinalA^ w hat brought 
Ang ipinadalA. what sent (lit., 

of a hole, or insert the hand into a 

To use. 
To choose (between good and bad). 

To select (from among gtKxl thmgs). 

To pillage; to i»lunder; to loot; to 

despoil the enemy. 
To seize; to snatch. 

To i>ray for; to plead. 

To complain; to entreat; to implore, 
to pray (an to a judge). 

To nnpiest. 

To b<jrrow. 

out, or what hand was inserted in. 

Gumdmit. Ang gindmitf what used. 

I^mifl. Ang ptnUi^ what chosen. 
Ainj pinilian fWh&t rejected (singu- 
lar). Ang pinagpilian, what re- 
jected (plurality of objects). 

lifunirany. Ana hinirang^ what se- 
lected. Aug niniratigan, what left 

Sumantsam. Atigsinamsam, thespoil; 
loot; plunder. 

Uinagao. Ang inagao, what seized 
Agao iiuug tamis, inagao nang asim, 
somewhat of sweetness, and some- 
what of sourness (said of any sub- 
stance whicli has this taste, like 
some fruits) (idiom). 

Dumaliiwj'nt. Ang dinalAngin, what 
prayed or aske<l for. Ang dalaug- 
inan, the deity prayed to or person 
pleaded with. 

Diimayiug. Ang dinaping^ what re- 
lief asked. Ang idaying, the com- 
plaint. Ang daiibTqan, the person 
entreated, imploreci, or prayed to. 

Humiiu/i. Ang hiniiTgly what re- 
quested. Ang hiiTgdjij person re- 
cj nested. 

UiniUaug. Ang imLLtang^ what bor- 
rowed. Ex.: Inutang ko iyang 
saldpt ibinigay ko sa kaniyd kahapon 
(I borrowed that money whicn 1 
ga ve h i m yesterday ) . Ang iutang, 


the cause of borrowing. Ang 
utaiTgarif the person borrowed from 
the fender. 

row (anythingexcept money). Humiram. yl r)^/ Atniram, what bor- 
rowed. Ang hUmdriy the lender. 

nand a treat (as at a celebra- Tumarahan. Ang tinarahanf what 

). received as a treat. Ex.: Tina- 

tarahan nainin itong kakanin (we 
are setting these sweets as a treat). 

ch hold of; to catch on the Dumakip. Ang dinakipy what seized 

^ thus. 

orb. Humithit. Aug hinithUj what was 


Under this section may be considered in prefixed to or infixed with 
rsonal pronouns, with which it implies the idea of possession. As a 
with these pronouns, in (hin) expresses the sense of regarding, hold- 
puting, etc., in some caucb. Ex. : 

Inyo. Ana iniinydf your property; 
your, inyohin mo, consider it as 
your own; take it for your own. 
ler. Kaniyd. Ang kinakaniyd^ his fher] 

Eroperty. Kakaniyahin ko {I will 
old it as his [her's]). 
Kanild. Ang An'naikant/a, their prop- 
erty. Kanilahin mo, regard it as 
belonging to them. 
lU of us). Atin. Ang maalin, our property. 

Inatin niyd, he regarded it as ours, 
^ou and I). Kaniid. Ang kinakanUdy our prop- 

erty. KinakanilA ko, I regard it 
as yours and mine. 
}vX not you). Amin. Ang inaamin, our property, 

but riot yours. Aminin ninvo (you 
[plural] regard it as ours, but not 
Akin. Ang inadkin, my property; 
mine. Indkin ko (I held it as 
mine). Inadkin ko (I am holding 
it as mine). Adkinin ko (I shall 
hold it as mine). 

I. Verba of calling, whether by voice or signs, also follow this mode 
jugation. Ex. : 

1. Tumduag. Angtinduag, who or what 

called. Ang itdtuig, the call, in- 
strument, or cause. Ang tauagau, 
the person called in order to bo 
given something. Ex.: Shio (vuf 
tinnUiwtg mof (VVho are you call- 
ing to?). Tni/iuag ko ni I'edro, pA 
(I was calling to Pedro, sir). 
Tnnngan mo ttiyd nang indd (('all 
him to come and get miwn fiHh) . 

11; also to bring; to fetch. Kumn6n. Ang kma/'m, what (•all<»<l, 

or brought, et<!. 

&ke signs for; to motion to. Kumnwiy. Ang kaiutyin, what mo- 

tione<l for. Angikawiy, what mo- 
tioned with, or the rmim^. Ang 
kawtydn the jKirson motioned to. 




IX. Vorheot "ueiircliuig for" also take in for the direct uhject. Ei.t 
To look f.jr. 
To eearoh ftlmiit. 
To look in ovory Romer for. 
To go In Be&rcb of anotheri 

J/ui»(inii^. Ang hinAnnp, thinif 

Bouifht for. 
Uttmalihao. Ang hinalUuw, wliil 

BBftrched for. 
^malikMik. Ana nnaliiail, wlmt 

looked for in this tnannrr. 
Switangdi. Ang tinviigM, jwiwi" 
Hooglit b^ anothvr. 
To irmpe f<ir (sa in the dark or tike VmapAhop, Ang inapAhap, "l»' 
a blind pe»on). groped for. 

X. Verlis of moving, whrn nol dur to turning away o( what in iiiov'd 
al»n take i" for the dirert object. Ex. : 
To uiu\i\ A'umtU. Ang UniM, what inov**- 

: reatluBaly. 

To ehake Hike ob}ect« badly packed) 

or to move (like loose liwth). 
To move anything. 

To nhnke (ax eomethlng In it sieve) ; 

aiKo ro rock or dnniili' ( us a child )- 
To simke a lia^ket or iiifasurf po it 

will hold more. 
To shake the head in negation. 
To shake anything, as a tree to 

gather the fruit. 
To wave the hands while dancing. 

Bynonym: KamMA; t 

Gumoldo. Ang jrmoMa, the i^ 
chief done through resllenD'^^ 
^iij; oqfauoii the person diBtof"*^ 
thereby. Magal&o ang tanutyf*^' 
hia liand is reMlese; i. e., he »? 
pickpocket or thief (idiom), fi^ ' 
ahnian, iniacliief. i 

f'wujftj. Ang inujrf, what mw'^'" 

IhUH). I 

Tumugm/. jJnoWnu^ojr, whatmor'^V 
Synonyms: Vmugoy; tuimgA (»ot*^r! 
UmM), Vmtgog iiln) meuu 
etagger, to totter. ^ 

Vmugtig. Anginugug, what ithakr^^ 

I'liivlog. AiMj invlog, what chflk^'^'^ 

no imling, what deniei^^!. 
Ang lirmglug, what ahi^'^ 

Vmiiing. A 


Kumunday. Ang kinunday, the wav-v^ 

(Bhe waved her hands while bd^^^ 
was dancing) , 
XE. /ii is alBO used to express the result of the action of verbs whicl"^^^ 
eifmify carrying, cutting, measuring, or weighing, when the result is con--^^ 
sidered on the side of the agent or ended therein. Vm is generally th*"*"''^ 
indefinite, but mojand other verbalizing particles are to be found. Whew^^ 
the result of a verb neceaaarily falls upon a person, in IB used to signify 
the person. Ex.: 
To carrv ( general idea) . MagdalA. See under verbs of brint;- 

ing, taking, etc. 
To dra|{ aUinu. HiimilA. Ang hinilA, what dragged 

along. Means also "to arreet." 
^ni^hinifii, thepereonarrested; the 
To carry on the shoulder. Pumnt^n. Ang pinatAn, what car- 

ried on the shoulder. Ang pa»i- 
nan, the person who carried any- 
thing on the shoulder. 
To rsrrv n child on or suspended Mngtabi, AngtmabioTangtainhiv, 
the child carried thus. The cloth 
by which the child was enpported 
is denoted by ang iaoM. 

from the shoulder. 



To carry on the head. 
To carry in the arms. 

To carrv a child in the arms. 

To carry under the arm. 

To carry anything in the lap. 

To carry by the mouth (as a dog, 
cat, bird, etc., carry food). 

To carry in or by the hands (as a 
basket, jar, etc.). 

To carry hanging from the hand fas a 
pail, etc, by means of the hanale). 

To carry anything along ( by or in 
the hand). 

To carry on a pole (palanca) . 

1^0 cut (general term). 

^(> cut clothes (as a tailor). 



*^ <iliop, to hew, to cut with an ax. 
To cmt down; to fell (as a tree). 


^^^t into pieces (as sugar cane). 


^^t the tuba palm (to obtain the 

Magtunong. Ang gunpngin, what 
carried thus; the burden. 

Magpangko, Ang pinangkoj what 
carried in the arms. Pangkohin 
mo il6 (carry this in your arms) . 

Kumaiong. Ang kxnalong, the child. 
Kalongin mo teiyd. (carry him in 
your arms). Ang kcdongan^ the 
mother, nurse, or bearer. 

MaakUik, Ang kinUikf what carried 
thus. ( With accent on last sylla- 
ble), magkilikf to carry inuvh 

Magcandong. Ang kinandong, what 
carried in the lap. Kinakandong 
niyd (she is carrying it in her lap). 

Maglangay. Ang tinangay^ what car- 
ried thus. 

Maanapo. Ang ginapo, what carried 
thus. Saponin moiydn (carry that 
in your hands). 

Maghitbii. Ang binilbit, what carried 
thus, i. e., the pail. 

Ma^aglay. Ang tinaglay^ what car- 
ried aiong. 4 And ang tataglayin 
mof What will you carry along? 

Umusong. Maguwng^ to carry on a 
palanca between two. Ang inu- 
song^ what carried thus, as a pig, 
bundle, etc. Synonym of magu- 
gong; magtuang. Angtinuang^vrndX 
carried thus. Ugongin (tuangin) 
ninyd itd (carry this on a pole be- 
tween you). 

MaapnfoL Mamiitol, to cut up (as 
cloth, etc. ) Ang piniitolf what cut 
or cut up, as the cloth, etc. Ex. : 
Putlin mo ild nangpahabd (Cut this 
lengthwise) . 

TumabcB. MagiahdSf to cut much. 
Ang tinabdSf what cut out, i. e., 
the cloth or suit, etc. Ang Una- 
basan^ what left over, also place. 
Ang pinagtaba*an^ the cuttings, 
clippings, remnants, or places of 
cutting out. 

Oumvti. Ang ginigi^ what torn, i. c, 
the cloth or clothes. 

Tum'tgn. iin^tt^topd, what chopped, 
e. g., the tree, etc. 

Sumapol. Mngsapol, to fell much. 
Ang ginapolj what felled or cut 
down. Ang isapol, the means of 
cutting down, e. p., the axe. Ang 
pinagsapolan^ what remained, e.g., 
the stump. 

Umirid. Ang iniridy the sugar c»ne 
thus cut up. Kairidj a piece of the 
cut-up cane. 

Umarad. Ang ararany the palm thus 


Magpalat. Ana pinaku.^bmtmA 

thite. JfttriT-' -' '- ■ ' 

piei-ea of p 

To cut into equal pieces. 
Tocutupintoeniial lengths (aeeujnr 
caije. etc.). 

thite. Mtcti'gli patamalat wi lat\ 
piei-ea of pure ailk. Ang ' 
tocil oBed for c-uttiug tip. 

Vmaia*. Ana inala*, what eiit tli 
Pumailid. Magpinlut, lu cut mi 
inthiaway. Angpininlid.vhBX 
intovqunlieiigthslhus. Atiifpin 
jiittlid, the lar^ amonnt ctit tb 
Ang ijrinlid, tlie utenirit \u 
Ang ipagpinlid, the utensil a 

1„3 ynwipid (1) w 


To cut into pieces (ne 

To cnt water jsrna! in 
the fish. 

To cot, Be with Bcinon; to edIp o: 

applied penerally lo cutting I lai 
metal a, etc. 

To split ODen (ae bamboo); to cut 
asainet tne grtuD; to peel off, as 
B&avings; to go against the car- 
rent; (fig.) to oppose. 

To cut or break a njpe, cord, or sim- 
ilar object. 


'.■«".'/" /, the wi 

linis>.ul 1,1,. .l-v-:;v;<.;y, the t 
UBod. Any manyigiiiiig, the wi 

MagUil^ Angiinrdin, whatcnt tb 
Atig ninogtoiA*, the \txm axaa 
cut lliue. Ang iuUii*, the toiol 
which cattiiin wan duu(>, ^ 
il^;Ml''". tli« tool by which im 
ciiUiiii; uMn doiit). Atig /naagti 
Man, the place where tnncb cutl 
was done. 

Ovmipil, Mag^pU. to cnt oix'eo 
hiiir. Ang ginupit, what cot, i. 
ihf hair ormetal, ,Iii;/.)ihujh/ 
the person wbOK hair has b 
cut; or object from which soi 
thing has been cut off. 

SumnlungiU, Ang littalutigat, w 
ai'lit open or peeled off thus. 
luiujalin mo tlong tauayan, s 
this bamboo. 

Mapptilid. Ang pinalhl, what 
thua. ralarin (Patdan) n,o t> 
Ivbid, cot that rope. Mnpiitid 
part; lo break in two; tii c« 
(fiK.). Napalid nng taiiijiaug 
ningd, he exhaled hie \uai bree 
he ceased to breathe. Magkana 
paiid, to break up completely 
a cord or rope); or into sev« 

PvmfiiTijoe, variation FunittTgat. ,■ 
piiiinu/iKi, what cut off, as the s 
t're<l ear or nose, l^ng^x has 
snnie idea, butiBgenerallyappI 

Tiim6l:al. Ang Imikal, what nit 
urt-d. TataHii mo iloug hi,. 
measure thin rice. Ang hita't 

To pauee; to measure liquids by 
To measure by palms {6.22 inches). 

TiiHidrol. AnglinAriJ, what gang 

villi; It'irol, the gaujie. 
Ihiimmiikiil. Aug ditiangkal, wj 

measured thus. 



compare measures. 


^>alaDcey to consider (f). 
"Verify a weight. 


Sumiibok or mag9f&bok. A ng sinOhoky 
(1 ) one of the measures thus com- 
pared. (2) Also to observe closely; 
to "shadow." Ex.: ISulmkanvio 
siyd (watch him closely). Ang 
pinagsHbokf the two measures thus 
compared. Kamboky equal to an- 
other thing. Ex.: Kasubok t&uo 
ang Uibig (the water is the depth 
of a man). Magkasubokj to have 
an understanding. Ex.: Nagka- 
kasiibok sild ang hail (they have an 
understanding with each other). 

Tamimbang, Ang tinimbangy what 
weighed thus. Ang timbangan^ 
the scales or counterweight. Ka- 
limbangf equal in weight Ak6*y 
katimbang mo (1 am c3 the same 
weight as you are). 

Tvmcuard, Ang tinalarby what bal- 
anced or considered. 

Tumaya. Ang iinayay what verified 

^XI. Verbs which signify destruction, or change or transformation of 
object as a result of the action , take in to express the result of such 
on, if no modifying circumstances, such as of cause, instrument, etc., 

Sumird. Ang iriwird, what was de- 

Gnmibd. Ang ginibdy what razed. 

Pumatay. Ang pinatay (1) person 
or animal killed; (2) What ex- 
tinguished. Ang ipatay or pinag- 
vatayj the weapon or means of 
Killing. Ang pinagpatayany the 
place where a murder was com- 
mitted. Siyd pinatay niydy he kill- 
ed him. Ang ipinatay niyd sa 
kaniyd ang barify the gun was what 
he killed him with. Pinatay niyd 
/fiyd nang barily he killed him with 
a gun. Mainatayy to die. Ang 
ka mat ay any death (abstr. ). Ang 
kinamataydny the place of death 
(past time). Ang ikinamatayy the 
cause of death ^past time) . Ex. : 
Patay ua nyd (he is dead now). 
Namataydn ak6 nang amd (1 have 
been bereaved of my father by 
death). Aling bdhay ang kiitawa- 
taydn niydf ( In which house did 
he die? ) And ang ikinamatny niyaf 
( What was the cause of his death?) 
Nahirinan si yd nang tinik (he was« 
choked by a finh bone). Magj)a' 
tayy to sentence to death; to have 
another put to death. Mamdtayy 
to kill ha))itually. Tigapagpatayy 
butcher or executioner. ^fan' 
himatayy to faint away. Magpaka- 

down; to raze, 
kill; extinguish. 



To uxcbiuiiie; tobarbr. 
To sriu^^; to disentHiitjtk-. 

:Ute(l: (21 to commit aaiciii c — ; _f . 
Huminop. AnffBniinogtVtiatliVTatsrs^sl, 

0[), undone, elc. 

Pumalit. A nit pmalU, what ^=--3' 
chsugmi or bartered. 

Uiiniueaj/. Ang hintiaay, irhsl i> fir 
enUngled or set in order. .***?■ 
piliabutay, lo arrange well, lo ^^'' 
lie thines with uare; aleo lo t"^ 
have well. . 

.Uiitfifrni. -Itijf initim, what bl**^"' 
<.ned. Ai>g Mm. the hiacltetti^ 
Kaifiman, hlacknam. tmitiiM. 
become blacrk. 

XIII. Verte of n-(t*iviiig lake in 
takinr in for the thing uRectod and a 
Been &oiu the exauiplee. 
To accept; ta receive. 

1 ^ 

l)tmaagap. Ang tinanj/ap, nliaC ■!' 
oeivedorncceplitl, Anytattj/af:'^'^ 
the pereou from whom '"XffJwK 
or rwelved: aim the pluv. -'*»f. 
itaagap, the csuMt of nnwiving, ^ j^ 
Togft out to meet anyone; lo wel- Sumaltihong. Ang tinaliibmg, *-«. 
come by riieetiiii;. pereon met or velcomed tl» j^j 

MasiitaHbonti, to be '**'*i**'l,^^_^^ 
many, aa & governor, etc, i^^gZ. 
hwui'ihimg. lo meet amdental tS 
Ex. ; Xugtasatubang ang rfa/nHi*" JjJ, 
mar/kapiiliil na babaye ki Mnynr^m ^ 
(the two Bistere niet aecidenta.^ 
[by L'haniTe] in Manila). 
XIV. In also denotes the object of verbs of " invitiDg," etc 
Fo invite. , Vm&iai. Ang indttf, who invited. ^ 

VmanyayA. Ang anyayahim, tl" "^^ 

peraon invited. ^ 

Fumioing. Ang piniging, the perst*^ 

Jfoppdnw. Jnj; piivtmff, the perso -^^ 

Jfa^fduo. ..4n<7 imdvo, the person ii^^^L 
vited. Taiiohin mo tiyA, invito" . 
him, Tauolauohin mo ang pojjtt^^^^ 
tain, divide the food for each ow^^^ 

o[ the guests (i. e., put it or^"^^ 

plates). ^__^ 

Vmalolc. Ang inaloh, the perBon ec:^^-^^^ 

To invite a person to eat 

1 vited. 

=v»il upon; to persuade with MagarogA. Jnp maroyd, the persorr^ 

idiKhments. so prevailed upon. 

it for. Huminiay. Ang hinirdau, the l>er — "^ 
son waited for. Hirtnn mo tilA^^^ 
wait for them. Maghinlay (1) tc=^^^ 
wait And guard eomething for »n— 


other; (2) to delay. Ex.: Houag 

mong ihiniay aa bukcu ang pagpa- 

roon mo (do not delay your fi^oing 

until to-morrow). 

in the arms, (as a child); Sumaklulu. Ang ginaklulu (I) child, 

aid, to succor, to protect etc.,carriedthu8; (2) person aided, 

Manila). etc. 

tend; to reprimand; to find Sumald. Ang sinaldf the person rep- 
ith. rimanded or found fault witn. 

Ex.: Salahin nio siyd nana kanU 
yang ginagawd ^reprimand him for 
what he is domg) [ginawd, what 
he has done]. Magsald, to find 
much fault, or for many to find 
fault, etc. Magkasald, to err, to 
commit a fault, to sin. Ex.: 
Houag mong ipagkasald itd (do not 
commit this error [sin], Ipinag- 
sofald ko ang pakikipagauay sa inyd, 
(I am doing wrong in quarreling 
with you). Ipinaggald niyd ang 
pakikipagauay sa inyd (he did 
wrong in quarreling with you). 
Ipagkamsam nildana pakikipagauay 
sa kaniyd ( they will err in quarrel- 
ing with him). Magkakasaid,\fith 
reduplication of last syllable of 
particle, means **to forbid." 
3 inquire. Tumanong, Ang tinanong, what 

asked; the question. Magtanong, 
to ask about. Ang itinanong, what 
has been asked, or the reason for 
asking. Ang mapagtanong, per- 
son fond of questioning. Ang 
matanongin, the questioner. Ang 
tinanongaUf the person questioned. 

In generally denotes the catch, result, or quarry with verbs of 
md fishing. A few other verbs also follow this rule. 

(in general ) . Umdkad. Ang indkad, what hunted, 

with dogs or hounds. Mangaso ( from aso, dog ) . Ang inaso, 

the chase, the game caught. Ang 

ipiuaiigaso, the dog used thup. 

Ang mangangaso, the hunter with 

with a "bating** or net Bumaling. Ang binating, the deer 
dly for deer). or game thus caught. Ex.: Ang 

binating ko ang bundok ( 1 was net 

hunting in the mountains). Ang 

binatingan, the place of " net 

with a shotgun; to use a Mamaril (from baril, shotgun). Ang 
1. mamamaril, the hunter with a 

shotgun. Ang pinamarUy what 

shot thus, 
birds by means of a bird- Maiujait; magpangatt (from kaJt 
by a snare, or with another Ang pinaiTgatt, what has been 

caught thus, 
ith a hook. Maminuil. Angbininuit^whsitc&ught. 

Ang ibijiuity the hook. Ang ma- 

miminuity the fisherman. Ang 


pinamiminuiinnt the canoe or place 
from which such fishing is being 

To fish with the seine or net, called Manlnmbat (from lamhat.) Ang U- 
** lam bat." rwwW, the catch; the haul. Ang 

ipanlamhatf the means for fishing 
thus, i. e., the seine or net. 

To fish using a light (as also to hunt Manijilao, Ang nhianjiilauanj the 
with a fiare). place where sucn fishing or hunt- 

ing was done. Ang pinangHao^ 
what caught thus. 

To fish (in general). MarTgUdii (from iadd fish). Ang 

vinangMd, the fish which have 
been caught. Ang mantpngUddf 
the fisherman. 

To sweep. Magualts. Ang inwqjlU^ the sweep- 

ings; what was or has been swept 
up (from walis, broom). 

XVII. In is also used to denote the object with verbs of eating, drinking, 
swallowing, and analogous acts. 

To eat. Kummn. Ang kinain^ what was 

eaten. Ex.: Kinain ang kapntid 
na lataki mo ang tindpatf^ your 
brother ate the breaa. A'aniw, 
food (cooked rice). Kakanin^ 
delicacies, yin^ iboTuin, the eating 
place. Ang kakandn^ the dining 
room; or platter. Magkain^ to eat 
much or by many. 

To drink. Umhunn. .I//7 i/mmm, what was or 

has been drunk. Innmin, drink. 
Aug imunan, the drinking place; 
trough; cup (drinking vessel). 
Mdtjimnii, to drink much or by 
many. }fagpninnm, to give an- 
other something to drink; (2) to 
water animals or fowl. Ex.: (1) 
Painnim'tn ko sli/d nang tnbigf 
(Shall I give him some water?) 
Ilounfj, paijonnm mo nigA nmnj 
alah (No, give him some wine.) 
(2) J*i)i'n)nnti niuyo hnfja nug 
vuiiTgd cabnyaf (Did you water 
[give drink to] the horses?) Opo, 
(Yef*, nir). Pnpnhmm ha hvj 
To HI OH (Ask Tom as to give you 
something to drink). [indef.] 

To swallow (foo<l) greedily. Lnimfimm. Ang lljuiuio)), what was 

or has hren swallowed thus. Var. 

To .«j wallow (jriilp) licjuids. Lumayok. Aiuj II nagok, what guli^eil 


To sip (asFoiip). llundtjop. J//7//////yo/;,whatsij)pe<L 

To surk at (as sugar-cane). Pniuamios. Aug jtitunigos, what 

sucked at. 

To bite. Kuinngat. Attg kinat/ot, what bitten. 

Mnohannttn), to bite mutuallv (as 
two dogs.) Mmjhinntkaijdtnu^ to 
pretend to bite mutually. Nng- 
bxkagnlkagat ang dalmiang aso { the 



a pig at people). 

look at. 

9r; look out fur; to sight. 

two dogs are only pretending to 

bite each other). Manga^atf to 

run around biting, as an animal in 

a rage. 
Suminghal. Ang sininghalf who or 

what snapped at. 
Kumahkab, Ang kinabkab, who or 

what bitten by a pig thus. 
Ngumoyd, Ang nginoyd, what 


Acts of the senses, either general or modified, admit in to 
3 definite results of such act^», with two exceptions. These are 
o look at) and iumimtim (to taste liquor) which take an as a 
masons of euphony. 

KtnnUd. Ang kinitdf what seen or 

looked at. 
Tauiingin. Ang tingnAn\ ang tining- 

ndiiy what looked at. 
Ttimando. Ang tinandoy what sighted. 

Tanauanf watchtower; lookout- 

fananaOf watchman; lookout, 
entively, turning the eyes Lum'nTgim. Ang lln'mgon^ what 

looked at thus. Ex.: I)t mo ako 
liniiujdii (you did not turn your 
head to look at me). 

Umaninao, Ang innninaOf what in- 

SumuHyap. Ang ginuliyap, what 
looked at sideways. 

Pandod. Ang pinandod^ what be- 

Dumingig. Ang diningig^ what 
heard. Ang dingAn, person lis- 
tened to. 

Mogkinyig. Ang kininyig^ what 

Bnmitlyag. Ang binatyag^ what lis- 
tened to. Var., khiamatyag and 

Umamoij. Ang miimoy, what sinelled, 
i. e., odor. Amoyin mo Ito (smell 

Suntanghod. Ang »inanghody what 

Lumanap. Anglinnsap, what tasted 

Numaiunam. Any nhiatunum, what 

Tumi kin. Ang tikmun, what sam- 

7>/ m iping ( r. ) . A ng tipiiTgan^ w hat 
ta^'ted thus. 

Tumimtim. Ang (imtirnfinj what 

Jfumipd. Aug hinipo, what felt or 
touched. Ex.; Wn/fiugiiKihihiposa 
kaniyang hahay. [idi«)ni] (there is 
nothing to touch in his house, i. e., 
he is very i)oor). 

ach at things, noting and 
ng them; to inspect, 

to view. 

); to pay attention to. 

o i)erceive a strong odor. 

to like a taste, 
to try; etc. 
thout swallowing, 
juor without swallowing 
touch (general). 


Til pm« down; also ti 

n letter. 

To Itioch HI . 

but suddenly 
To toufh smidenly. 

To run LI 
To l<.(uh 

To Uinch with the lipe. 

To feel (or in the dark. 

To pinch; to soften. 

To mil ; til soflen; to annoint. 

ir ring a bell 

(Dy BtroKM). 

XIX. In also expresses acts of the 

Mngdiil, .dno diitan, what preaH 
orcloeed. ^ndirr:8eal: wax;)!Uia 

IltmrtfwW (r. ). Ang linannU, wha 
touched Syn. TvmanptU. 

llamipik (rare). Ang liipiian, pa 
Bon touched. Syn. taghid (ato 

Ihimanlik (rare). Ana dandkan, Ih 

person til us touch ra. 
Magparoarfi7i,\»r,magpaToitiug. A% 

piiuigparonnm, what touched 

Aug xpinagpnnmroH, the cauwi 

having timc'hwl thuri. 
Swii'i'i'. \-Ae ■■.<.....,,■. 7 1 1 Litter ram) 

G-< ■ ■■■.:. -Llj^jDHoftU . ■ , :iiid r/omlAL 

Ma.j,l, .,.-.■, ..,,.-. I J|]H LS not th 
vuili "111 kiw, h.!hl1i iii Aiitffdfil 

Hnmikup. Ang hiiiikup, what M 
for thiui. 

Paminii. Ang pinisil, what nibbed 
etc. /Win MO iUi nan^ iamay ■ 
(rub tbis with your hand). 

Humilut. Ang ki'iUot, what rubbcid 
etc. Ang kilolnn, ttie nenoi 
rubbed, ew. /7«o( {n.),[nidirifc 
inanhUiUol, moMagnir. 

MagMabU, vor. magkaUnt, Ang pi 
nagk<^aM, what plucked at o 
picked thus, i.e., the sleeve or th 
Btriiipf, Ang iph-ntjk'iUihil, llie in 
struMjent or means, i. ^.. the fin 
gere or plectrum (pick). An_ 
pangalilAt, the ioBtniment playei 
upon thus. 


will or mind. 

To calculate; to consider. 
To desire; to like. 

Umalaala, to remember(purpoeely) 
Makaatatda, to remember (cu 
ually). Ang inaaUuUa, what is n 
membered purposely. 

Magbiilay. Ana pina^bttbulag, whi 
ia being calculated, i.e., the reeuli 

UmUiig. j4nfn'm'f 6^, the person wh 
is liked (and reciprocates the lili 
ing); (2) what is liked; also an 

Lailrog. Ang iniirog, the penion Ix 

Sainmlii. Ang liniglnld, the pereo 
who is loved and who loves in n 
turn. A'lg naiiiintd, the persn 
who i.s loved, but who is una war 
of the fai't or does not return li 
Mii'iiiiiiUihan, to love mutuallv. 

MngUip. Angini'itip, what is ()ein 
thoiiKhC of. Ang inigip, what wa 



> esteem; to love. 


think deeply; profoundly. Aug 
pagkaigipftne opinion ( act) . Kavd- 
pan (abst.), opinion, thought. 

Lumiyag ( rare ) . Ang liniliyagj what 
or who esteemed or loved. Sintd 
is more common, but is a Sanskrit 
word derived through Malay. 

Panimdim, Ang piuapanimdim^ what 
is thought. 

Ma^mlaymyy var. magnaysay, Afig 
sinascUayaaVy what is being ex- 
plained. &UayHayin mo it6 (ex- 
plain this). 

Umulitttithd (r. ). Ana inutdusitMf 
what is being inquired, etc., var. ah- 
Mid J idea of verifying, etc., also. 

IJmumd,, Ang inuusisdj what is be- 
ing verified. Tauang wcUang lUfisd, 
a person without carefulness; a 
careless person. 

ex. The making of something from raw or crude material is expressed 
losing the finish^ product verbally or as a verbal noun with iti, thema- 
i<&U used taking the nominative, if there are no limitations of cause, time, 
c^e, etc., connected with the action. 



to assure one's self; to 

verify, eta 

^ut up a house. 

roll one's self up in a cloak or 
• baWbal." 

put a shirt on; to wear a shirt 
occasionally), from hard, a cloth 
^c«d to make shirts, and also mean- 
tig a shirt itself. 

^ear trousers. 

^ear shoes (occasionally); to put 
L pair of shoes on. 

Magb&haif ( from bdhay^ house ) . This 
word has been given as derived 
from Malay balei, hall; (tourt, from 
Sanskrit valaya, an inclosure, but 
it would seem rather to be a Ma- 
layan name, as in I?gela ( Florida 
or Anudha) Island of the Solomon 
Group the word is vale and far 
away in Hawaii is hale. There 
may be said to exist intermediate 
words throughout. Ex. : Bahayin 
mo Hong kdhuy (Put up a house 
with this lumber). Magbdhavbd- 
hayan (dim. ), (to play at buil(^ing 
houses [as children do] ) . Nagbd' 
haybdhayan ang mangd bcUd (the 
children were playing at building 

Magbaldftal Balabalin mo itong kayo 
lid (make a cloak out of this cloth; 
or wrap yourself in this cloth). 

Maglmrby Itong kayongitd* y babaroin 
niyd (he [she] will make a shirt 
out of this cloth ). An indicates a 
person as the object of the action. 
Ex.: Baronn mo iyong bald iydn 
(put a shirt on that child). Ma- 
maro, to wear a shirt habitually. 

Magsalamtly from salaual^ trousers 
(Arabic, Seluwar). Itong kayong 
it6*y sasalaualin ko, I will make 
trousers out of this cloth. 

Magsapin (from sapln, a shoe or san- 
dal). Itong balat na itd^ysasapinin 
nUd (they will make this leather 


into ehoee). Manaphi^ to wtur 
shoes habitually. 

To put an apron (tapis) on; to near Mngtnpl^. lymig kayong itfdn ay tn- 
a tapis occasiimally. piitiu ttiy<i (let her make an apron 

out of that cloth). MajwpiSy to 
wear a tapis habitually. 

To carry a (rane, or innghtML Mtujlnnkod. Itong kdhoy iia ito'ytmu- 

ttiugkod ko (I am making a cane 
out of this wood). 

XXI. In, u«h1 with the name of a destnirtive a^nt, denotes the present 
or pa**t result of the dentructive action. It is prefixe<l to vowel nouns and 
infixed with thcKH.* )>egrinning with a iHjnsonant (w is counted as a vowel i. 

White ant (tennite). Anay. Inanoy ang uiangd liftro (the 

books were destroyetl bv the white 
ants [were white-anted]]). 

Locust. lialang. BhmMlang ang pdlay (the 

rice is being destroyea dv the lo- 

Ilat Dagii. IHnad/igd ang bigd$ (the rice 

[hulle<l] is being destroyed bvthe 
rats [lit. is l^ing **'rattecf"] ). 
yfandaragdf rat-catcher. 

Crow. Uak. InuHakatig8aging{thehantLnH< 

are l)eing destroved by the crows 
[being "crowed*^*]). 

XXII. iHt prefixed or infixed, used with words denoting parts of the 
iKxly indicates piist or present pain or sufferinj? in the part named. The 
first syllable of the root is nMluplicatcMl to indicate the present tense. 

Hea<l. llo. Inufo nko (I ha<l a headaclie:. 

liuLulo iilt/ii (slie [he] has a hen'l- 
ailu*!. .\fa8akU ang uio ko uny 
head aches). 

Ciiej*t. Dihtfih. D'inihdih niya ( he had a |)aiii 

in tho chest ). 

Stomach. Sikumra. Sinisikinura kaf ( rH»i*n 

your stomach pain you? ) (>po, sini- 
sikimint nko ( ves, sir; I haveai»ain 
in the stomach). 

Alxlomen. Tii/i'tn. Tiinin'm ako (my alxionicn 

l»aine<l me). Tmithian ako i niy 
alxl<»mcn pains me). 

XXIII. In like manner, in, prefixod to or inscrte<l with ro<>t^ sij^nifying 
diseases may denote the or i)rcs«'nt state oi tfie disease. The tirst 
syllable of the root is reduplicate<l to indicate the present tense. If a 
chronic state of the disease is to be expresse<l, the patient is denoted l>y 
the sufiixing of in (hin) to the root. (The future ten.*<e, it must l)e remem- 
bered, reduplicates the Hrst syllable of the root. ) The suffix m may also 
denote a physical defect or the result of a disease. 

Smallpox. JiiihifniHj. Aii'fl>innl'uluto)tg, thei»er- 

son who is havinj; smallpox. Aii'j 
hinii/uhnHj, the person who has had 
smallpox. Ang hdntuiTlfin, the 
marks of small|>ox. Maglntlntotig, 
to become marke«l by small jxjx. 
Maijktihuluttnnj, to have an epi- 
demic of small|K)X. 

Astlima. Ilika. IJiL'iin, a^tlunatic person. 

(iout. /*'//•>. yV//oA///, gouty person. 

Abdomen. T'ninn. Tiynnin, corpulent i>ers<>n. 



In {hin) suffixed to names of birds denotes gamecocks of the 
)rof the bird named. Some words change the accent of the 
others retain the original accent. £x. : 

eral species). Laudn, Lalamnin^ game cock of a 

brown color, like a hawk. 
Uak. Uuakirif black game cock. It 
will be seen that the first syllable 
of the root is reduplicated. 

I {hhi) denotes the completed action or result of a verb which 
object if suffixed to a verbal root of this nature; provided the 
in for the direct object. Ex. : 

Uminum. Inumin^ drink. 

Kumain, Kanin^ food. Kakanin; 

kakain^ refreshments, sweet^^ nuts. 

These last words formed with kn 

mean *' food-resembling.** 

»sionally). Tumaht Tahiiuy anything sewed; 

tailor work. Magtahty to sew in 
company (many) or to sew much. 
Mamihiy to sew for a living, ^fan' 
anahiy tailor; tailoress; seamstress, 
needlewoman (dressmaker). Mag- 
patahty to order to sew. Kx. : Jl6 
ang patahi niyd sa dkin (this is 
what she told me to sew). 

Sumahsa b. AngmbMLfnn, w hat grazed , 
i. e., the grass. Aiig sabmbanf the 
grazing place; fMisture, etc. 

Vi used with verbal roots capable of expressing qualities which 
uired or extended to persons, animals, etc., indicates the object 
n. Ex.: 

(as from a window). DtimmTgao. ^nycfur^awm, what seen 

by looking out. This and similar 
forms contain no tense i<lea. Ang 
d'mniTgaoy what was or has been 
looke<l at thus. Ang dinururVjaOf 
what is l)eing lrK>ke<i at thus. Ang 
durungauanf the window. Man- 
urTgao, to look by many thus or 
sometimesto appear at the window 
(also idea of habit thus). Ex.: 
Honag kang manungao $a durung- 
awni (do not look out of [or appear 
at] the window ) . MarurVjftOj to l>e 
at the window. Maruraitgno ilydy 
he is at the window. MaknmiTgtujy 
to \oi))L out of a window casually. 
MagftadurTgaOy to r^rder to KK>k out. 
MakiduiTijaOyXxi'ynw another in thun 
looking out. SfngkafHidynijaoy U} 
look out suddenly, niovingqnickly 
in onier to do wj. 
Lumni7fjo]i. Mnnl iTgoffy to swiui car- 
rying K^methmg. Aug langoginy 
what gaine^^l by swimming, or ot>- 
ject swam for. Ang Unngtfy^ what 
r-arrie^l while swimming, e. g., the 
rlothf**; alno bv whit means. 

Ti) ilivi' lor; tudi^t- lix-caaionally}. 


Laiiijomn, a buoy. LangoydUj * 

plaoe for BBimming; w here bwie^^-^' 
DiinKinay bedon^. P'm'njlanf/om-^^^ 
place where BwioiDiin^ wm lior^^^^^ 
while carrying eoDiething. Ei -^ 
MaTu-nang Kuag lumaHgogt i/rnc^^ 
pd. ( Do vou Itnow how to miw^^ 
Ho,Bir.) Anor T-mlru/hi'l l.iiiJ^] 
mariiuonghiiiglumoti'i.niif (\Vli»i ^^ 
You a ^itaioc and don't kno«^^ 
how to ewiniT) Toga fian jfaf""^ 
(Where are you from?) Tng-r- 
bvitdok, ji6 1 1 live in tlie raoon- 
taine, sir). PaiA ( I did not Icoow 

lAimijiad. Atui liparin, th« otiJM;! 
of the fliffhl. Aiig Uipad. tJie 
wings, or inBtruint^nt of fli^L 
Anglipama, pincfolfl'rglit. Mng- 
llpiiit, to tlv mui-li, or to and fro. 
Mngpalipail. lo cauae or teKrb 10 
Hy. Aug pituiUjiad, what eel or 
taiifcht to fly. 

S'liii'uiid. Ang gUiriu, what dare 
for. The rea-ioa tor diving or the 
holly HUbmerged, ang ifUid. Aug 
WMimn, the divin;; plac«. Maptitiil, 
to dive much. Ang pinagnitiil, 
what dove for murh. Manliiil, lo 
dive pro fesfflonally ((or a living). 
M-r,mifitl, di\er. 

To niD. I\imakh6. Aug lotbohtTi, wfiat may 

be run for. Tdtbohm, runaway. 
Maglakb6, to run much. Ang 
ilakli/i, the cause for mnnin^ or 
what ia carried while running. 
Ang lakbohan (1) the place of nin- 
ning; (2) the peiooD nin away 
from; (3) the person tor whom 
something may be carried. Tu- 
makhSlatbd, to rove about; to run 
around ; to gail about. MaJaitaibi, 
lo be able to run. 

XXVII. Jn used with ma adjectives which have an attributive sense 
imparts the idea of holdinfi, considering, reputing, etc., according to the 
meaning of the adjective. This has been fully explained under the adjec- 
tive (q. V. ). 

XXVIII. Ill suffixed also expresses the act of causine emotion orsenn- 
tion in others when used with roots which require no object, and form the 
class of verba calleil neuterc, which are generally expressed in English by 
" to be" followetl by an adjective. It may also be prefixed. 

To l)e hungrv. Magiit 

■ '(theiio . „ ,,. , 

tnani/cdtauo (don't let^ 
the horse go hungry). Kaguhf 
mau, hunger. 
Mavhao. Hauag mong inuuhao anj^ 
mo (don't let the dojg remain, 
thiraty, or be suffering from. 
ttiirst). Ex.: Nag^igvium bagti- 


kaydf ( Are yon huncry? ) Hindi* t 
nauukao lamang ako (No, I ain 
only thirsty). 
T6 be afraid. Matdkot. NatatAkot kaf (Are you 

afraid?) Op6 nga, akS^y nalaUikot 
( yes, sir, I am afraid ) . MakaUikotj 
to cauHe fear. Ang ikaiakot^ the 
cause of fright. A ng katakotan, the 
person feared, also thing feared. 
Ex.: Ano ang kinatatakotan mot 
(What are you afraid of?) Ang 
kinaUik-otan ko*v ang mangd tulisdn 
(I was afraid of the ladrenes 
[bandits]). Tumdkot, to frighten 
or scare another. Ang iakotiny the 
person frightened. Takoiin mo 
siydj frighten (scare) him. 

^3QX. It will be seen from the foregoing that in is not used with 
roota conjugated with ma, except in certain senses, as shown by the above 

X.XX. In suffixed to terms for mon^y forms wonls denoting an object 
or material costing the amount represented by the money quoted. The 
first syllable of the root is duplicated, but the ai*cent does not change. 

Half peso (25 cents U. S. currency). SalapL Sumlapiin, a half- peso's 

Peso (50 cents U. S. currency). Piios, Pipwmn, a peso's worth. 

X^^XL In suffixed to some nouns when paying compliments, etc., 
indicates that the party addressed resembles or partakes of the qualities 
exprefaed by the word ueed. 

Th e Guddd (which has a sweet odor ) . Kandd, Kandahin , a sweet person. 
Hooey. Pulot. Pulotiuy honey (term of en- 


XXXII. Suffixed to roots capable of being expressed with the idea of 
plurality, in denotes something to have taken place many times. The 
accent of the root changes inyariably . Ex. : 

Idea of whipping. Hampds. Ifampa^in, whipped many 


To lose; to miss. Mawald. IVaZam, to lose many times. 

To 806 another; to litigate. Magnmp. Usapiny a suit tried many 

times. Palaitsapf barrator (one 
who is continually engaging in 
causeless litigation). 

XXXIII. iVin, when prefixed to class names of human beings signifies 
a i^semblance to the class named. Ex. : 

WomgQ. female. Bahaye, BalHiynin^ effeminate man. 

Binabayff has almost frame mean- 

^'**n; male. Lalaki, La/rtlmm, masculine or man- 

nish woman or girl. 

. XXXIV. The object to obtain possession of which an intransitive action 
^ P^ormed sometimes takes m, if not otherwise expressed. Ex. : 

To go or come out; to take out. Lumabds. A ng labasin^ who or what 

sought thus; object for which ac- 
tion performed . Maglabdn^ to take 
out. Ang labedny what may be 

6855—05 ^9 


Toleftporjwmp down; (2) tonlight. 

e down (the bUutb or i 

taken out, (a» fond from the cook- ' 
iiiR I'll), or what mav flow out (J 
the iNHly (as blood, et<\). Ei:.: 
Z4(Mt) nw ni'd najuf tatim (take 
some rioe out tor me). MaglaMf 
hibii, to pi out and coiue in. 

iMmoktA. Am loktohin.wliaiiaaif^ 
for. Ang htknahan, the place of 
jumping. Maglottd, to jumpoiDch, 
or liy many. Mafflokmhan, lo 
jiiiiip by many in coinpelition. 

lAinK'fimg. Ana latongin, object ' 
leaped down for or auiihteil fnr. 
^ ny itumi^n, the plaoe of lijchting. - 
Idiom. Lwotif/ m palad, s. lenC^ 
(slroke) of luck. MagHaong, t*^* 
throw down or posh down. 

I'lUnanaog. Angpanaogin, tlieobjcc "^^ 
lor whic'h action may be per- — ^ 
formed. Ang paiiaognn, theplac^^ 
or tierson for whom action mayb^^ 
[lerformed. Ex.; Paiiaogonoioai^^ 
nang lilhig (bring me 80me water"'^ 
down liere). Muffixmaag, to bring "• 
somethinif down Ihue, or to go Ot 
come down much. 
1 object) verbs ilo rmt, and Bome 

XXXVI. In prefixed to or inflned with aroot towhich an i^mifflxedat 
tbeeame time iHused to ezpreaathe result of an action when the said result 
is a concrete objecL Ex: 

To embroider mats (petates). Wagsihal. $ina6alan,anembroiden-d 

mat (petate). 
To do fine needlework; to do fine Sumulam, Sinalaman, fine needle- 
Bowing. work, as a handkerchief or other 

article of fine sewing. 

XXXVII. The same construction is also used to express the followin|(: 
(1) Thintta prepared for food from the raw material. (2) Acta done with 
the object expressed bj; the root. (3). The refuse caused by some actions 
Plurality with the last is expressed by the use of the definite prefix pog in 
connection with tn {pinag). Ex.: 

E^. Itiog, Jntt/,aDythiD|rn)adefroni 

egge, as cake or an omelet, etc. 

Honey. Palol. PinultMn, anything made 

with honey in it Puloi^n, sween 
made from honey. Pulol-gali, 
honey and cocoanut milk. 

To peel rattans (bejuco). Kumay&i. Kinayatan, the peeling 

(sin^.). Ang pinagtat/atan, the 
peelmgs (ptur.). 

To thresh. Gumiit. Giiiiikan, straw. Pina- 

giiian, much straw. Magtii, ta 
thresh much. 

To saw. Liiinagnrl. PinaglagaTian, aawduct- 

Aiifj manlalagari, the sawyer. 

To sort cotton or ulk; to cull; to P"m>H. Ang piniiihan, the retiis*^ - 



MA— IN (HIN). 

CXXVIII. In {kin) suffixed and ma prefixed to roots signifying mental 
otions, passions, and involuntary actions form adjectival nouns which 
lerally req(uire to be expressed in English bv an adjective and a noun. 
S.XXIX. If the root acfmits of contraction, begins with /, or an intensive 
^ree is to be expressed, the first syllable of the root may be reduplicated, 
lese words have the accent on the last syllable as a rule. For examples 
e under ma, 

XL. It may be repeated here that acquisition or assimilation is generally 
.'noted by in; the mstrument, if allowable, and the reason for tbe carry- 
a out of the action by t; and the place, or the person from whom, by an, 
iditional examples: 

> reach; to overtake; (2) to con- Umdbut. ^n^ a^u^in, what reached, 
:lade (as a meeting). etc. ^n^tmi^tx/, what was reached, 

etc. Ang abutan^ the person over- 
taken or thin^ reacheu for. Uma- 
tnUf to reach for one's self. Magd- 
6u/, to reach for another. Ang 
pagAliut^ the act of reaching. Maga- 
huian^ to reach for each other mu- 
tually. MagahntabxUan, to reach 
manv things or pass things from 
hand to hand in numbers. Maka- 
Ahuiy to take; to be able to reach. 
Makii'ibiitf to ask another to reach 
for Bometh i ng. Ex . : A'akid hutako 
kay Juan naug tubig ( I askf d Juan 
to reach me [get for me] Kome 
water) . 
bay. Buw 'd\. Ang bilhin or ang na/>i7t, what 

bought. Ang ifriVi, the purchasing 
agent ( money or article). Ang bil- 
hdn or ang nafnlkdn^ the person 
from whom bought, i. e., the seller. 
Ang biniihdiif the person from 
whom something was or has been 
bought. ^n^i6i7n7i, (1) the money 
with which something was or has 
been bought; (2) the person for 
whom something was or has been 
bought. Ang pagbiiif the buying; 
purchasing (act). Mamili^ to buy 
much. Ang pamimiliy the buying 
of many things (act). Ang nami- 
wit/f, the buyer by wholesale, or 
liberal buyer. Ex.: PinamUi ko 
iyang mangd knldkal (I bought 
those goods at w holesale ) . Maka- 
biliy to be able to buy. Ang naka- 
biliy the j>erson able to buy (past) . 
Ang ipinabillj the time, reason, or 
price in or for which something is 
or has been bought. Ang mangd 
pinabilhdn, the Fellers thus (many). 
Ang kabUiy the person with whom 
a purchase has been agreed upon. 
Ang nagkabilihan^ the buyer and 
seller thus agreed (past tense). 
Ang pagkahilhdnj the cost (past 
tense), ^x.: Pagkabilhdnkoman 


itang MJuiy, porordon atd (ere 
if it should axt lue my life, I wS 

Ana W .- -. - - 

been sold. Ang jnnagbUhiin, I 

pereon to vhom sold (pa»t ti'nael 

tlie place, or the price. Ang naa 

^^^ po^Wi.wliathaabceiisoM by error 

^^V Ana napaglnlhdn, tlie money rotL 

^^^k ixeatrom what has been Bold. Am 

^^m pagbibill, the act of mlliiif;. (Thi 

^^^ actof h\iyitaiaang pagblll) Mag' 

biliill, to Bell by wnoieHtle. 

KtiMOJiitam. Ang kinamtam, whal 

ruatched, etc., thue (po^ tenwj. 

Ang tamhuiiin, what Bnatcheil, 

SHlled np, etc. (no ttnse iiiea), 
taugamtam, to go about pulling 
up IJiings (as agaitleDer pulls up 
Tateke. Kamuha. Ann kinuha, vbal vat oi 

^^_ has lieeo taken. Ang ihiha. the 

^^L. mcAae fur taking (no tenw idea). 

^^^E Ang tunin, what taken (no teoH 

^^^ y idea). Angitinuhii, thenieanttb> 

^^^ which soniettalnx was or has hnei 

taken. Ang kutiAn, the plam oi 
peraon (rum whom taken. 
To request; to ask for. Tliimingt. Atig hinint/i, what askm 

fur. .I113 riiiliii~'ji. what oblainn. 
byiickiiii". A'-ijhiiTgiii, whal askti 
for (no tense idea}. 
To dope the hand. Kumimkim. ifagkimkim, to grasp 

to close the band npon. Ang kim 
kimin, what grasptn). Aug tinim 
tim, what was or has been grasped 
Ang itimkim, the grasping iustru 
ment; e. g., the hand. 

I, The definite particle t, whi<:h ia almost invariably a prefix and found 
as an infix with a very few words for strictly euphonic reasons, is used 
with sentences or phrases by which the subject is represented as losing con- 
trol of eometliinf;. expulsion, cause, means, instrument, time (not tense), 
and verbs of adjusting, copying into, transferring, translating, transplant 
ing, etc., in the latter case indicating the object of the verb, 

II. Sentences or phrases includini^ a verb with i have the agent in the 
genitive, the direct ohjert in the afcusative (if there is a direct ot>ject), 
atid the word denoting the instrument, time, or cause in the nominative. 
The nominative word is emphasized liy 1>eing placed at the tteginningol 
the sentence or phrase. 

To pinion; to tie the liands. 

Ehatic: Iti/ng pantaJl igapoa 1110 » 
ilangotit (with this rope pinio 
the prisoner). 


III. /, meaning cause, is senerally combined with ka^ the definite form of 
maka^ forming ika; and furmer with in for the past and present tenses, ikina. 

To come here. PumarUo. Ang ipinaritOj the reason 

or time of commg here. Ang iki- 
naparitOf the reason or time thus 
( past tense ) . Ex . : And ang ikina- 
varitomof (What did you come 
nere for?) Si Juan ang ikinaparito 
ko (Juan was the cause of my 
having come here ) . Sino ang pina- 
ritohan mof ( Who did you come 
to see here?) Si Juan (Juan). 

X V. Some verbal roots have the idea of going away, leaving, etc. , in herent 
in 'themselves, and therefore have the definite in either in or t. Ex. : 

To go away; to leave. Umalls, Ang inalis^ the leaving 

(pref. to an{f ialls). Kahapcm^ ang 
innlU ko (yesterday, 1 left). Ang 
pagalis, the act of leaving. Maga- 
lis, to take something away. Ang 
pagaalls, the action oi taking some- 
thmg away. Kapagaalis ko nitd 
nguyon (I have just finished tak- 
ing this away). Makaalls, to be 
able to go away. Makapagalin^ to 
be able to take away. 

^^. An indirect object following a preposition takes the genitive with a 
^^•^tence or phrase using t, but the construction of the rest of the sentence 
^*"" X>hrase is unchanged. Ex. : 

^^^ buy. Burnili. Ihili mo ang hatd nang kaka- 

nln (Buy some sweets for the 

^^^ carry; to accompany. Humatid, That id mo ak6 sa bcihay 

nang amd mo (Accompany me to 
your father's house [to the house 
of vour father]). Maghaiidj to 
send; to remit Maghatidhalirany 
to send to each other mutually. 

^^ look for. Humdnap. Jhdnap mo ak6 nang isang 

mabiUing cabatfo (Look for a good 
horse for meV Ihdnap vio ako 
nang mangd iUog (Look for some 
eggs for me). 

V^L The person for whom some act is done and the indirect object of 
^ action benefiting or performed for the benefit of another, take the 
?^*>iinative; the verb being used with i and the proper tense forms. The 
^^^^going sentences are also examples of this, as well a3 the following 

^^ cook; to make by cooking or like Maglutd, Ex. : Ipaqluid mo ang capi- 
l^rocese. tan nang sicolate (Make some choc- 

olate for the captain). Ijxiglutb 
mo ak6 nang kanin (Cook me some 

^ l)mld a house. Magbdhay. Jpagbdhay mo ak6 (Build 

me a house). 



Vn. J frenemUv replaces in will) verbs whii-h admit both dirocl an- 
iniiirei't objecw, i lieinit u**! '» e«l>rM8 the direct object {actiwalive 
and on expreaeing the indirtict object (dative, etc.)- Kx.: 

Maghilin. An^ ipagbUin, the rM 
oromendation. Ang_ ipinagltUiti 

To luHke H itift; I<> prtiseiil with. 

To givp liavk; to rwtore. 

o narrate; to report. 


Ang pa'ibilinan, tilt; pti 
iDiended ( no t«m*e idea) 
Ang pinagbilinan, the person wh 
woe or has been recommended. 

MaJjIiiifaya. Anff ipimiffbti/aua, whs 
was or haH been ^ven, i. e., th 
ililU Ang pinagbiga^ain, tlie pei 
son to whomsometfaing waetirha 
lieei) Kivon. .tf(i6i)/"yo"j; t-^rui. . 
libentr penmn. 

MagliAlal. This verli hIw> mtam ii 
Bomo (wes to prr>cur« woiiiirn 
Ang ihAU/l. the advSre. Any tk 
ndioi, what n'w or has been ad 
vi(wd. .(«i7 hHdrifin, th* penw. 
ailviNHl, Ang hinatuian, the pm 
son who was or hae been advineti 
Ang ipagluilol, the wotnitn pn 
cureil. MniKigh&lol na latati, pre 
curer; panaerer. MapagKAtol n 
babayt, pnwurew. 

Jfu^Kio/L This verb also raeaoB t 
go back, to return to the place t 


-1 '>:, 

wliat >v 

the person to whom ^oniethiD 
was or has been restored. An 
1, the plai« retumf^ to. 
Ang fatil 
reported (no tenie idea). 
nnalUd; <m-j igmalHd, what was c 
haa been told, ett.-. A ng ginataliK 
imff itinamjild, what is being tolc 
etc. Ang twnUiliu; ang hiofJiliU 
what will l)c toid or reporte< 
Ang pagxilUaan, the perBon tol 
or reported to (no tense idea 
Ang pintiijfaliladn, the person tol< 
etc. (past tense). Ang piitagtafi 
libiAjt, the person being told c 
reported to (present tense). An 
pogmxtdiUiiin, the pereon to I 
told or reportetl to (^future tense 
Ang iniiKtgfnlitil, what was tol 
and the reason for tellinp. .In 
nngwliM, the teller (past tense 
Ang nagimmilitd, the narrate 
(present tense). ^113 mngfamliu 
the teller (futnre tense). An 
kntalilttiin, the I'oiiipanion in tel 
ing; the co reporter. Mnimlili 
fiarruluiiH. like an aged |>er>>on. 
Siim'thi. Aug laliihin, what «aid f 
the person or thing r 
MagtalH, ' 


Ang isabiy the reason or cause of 
the conversation. Ang innabif 
what was or has been said. Ang 
ipinagmbiy what was or has been 
said and the reason or cause. Ang 
mbihaiiy the conversation or story. 
Ang pinagsabUianj what said to a 
certain person or said at a certain 
To signal. Tumurd. Magturdy to point out; to 

show; (f.) to teach. Ang iVmurd, 
what signaled, pointed out or 
taught. Ang ttnuroan^ person 
shown (taught) or signaled to. 

Other verbs which have two objects like the foregoing are umdrcd^ "to 
teach;" maabaiUd, "to report;" maghigay^ ** to give;" and maghUi^ **to 
^11, " which have been or will be explained in other places. 

VIII. In the majority of cases i expresses the means or instrument by 
vbich an action is brought about. It is prefixed directly to the root for 
fhose conjugated with um in any manner, and to the verbalizing particle 
in the other conjogations. This applies to all tenses. The first syllable 
of the root or the last syllable of the particle, as the case may be, redupli- 
cate in the present and future tenses. In the second pluperfect and second 
^Qt^re perfect tenses the particle % is inserted between the particle na or 
'wi and the root, whether the latter be simple or compound. (See tables. ) 
XX. The root denoting an instrument, if capable of conjugation, may 
denote the indirect object, if there is no nominal direct object in the sen- 
^*>ce. 'Ex.: An6angipinatayniyAf (What was he killed with?) Ibin&ril 
wi3/<S (he was killed with a gun). With in the sentence would be: pimUay 
^U^ nang bdril (he was killed with a gun). In the last example the nomi- 
'^l subject bdril is expressed. (See tables for the conjugation of an instru- 
'^^^nt with I, and with means for accomplishment of an action. ) 

^^C /is also used, as has been stated, to express the means for the ac- 
^xripUshment of an action. Ex. : Waid siyang ibill nitona bdhay (he is 
w i tlioat the means to buy this house ) . Mayrodn akd ibabayaa m iyo ( I have 
"^» means to pay you). 

Xl. I combinea with in may express the direct object (accusative) of 
J^tiona performed for the benefit of others, which may also be expressed 
^y in alone; an expresses place in general with such verbs; and i com- 
h>»ied with po^ and pinag according to the tense, expresses the person who 
!*»» M'as, has b^n, or will be the beneficiary of the action. 

To roast (meat); to bake or fry (fish Magihao. ^ngrinnTia/^, what is being 
o !• meat ) . fried or roasted. A ng ipinaqiihao^ 

the person for whom something is 
being roasted, etc. Ang ihawni, 
the frying pan or roaster. Ang 

_, pinagihanany the place of roasting. 

^*^ «cald or make, as tea; to boil (as Maglagd. Ang inilagi)^ what boiled 
I>otatoe8, etc.). or made thus. A)ig ipaglngdy the 

person for whom to be made. Ang 
tagaan, the cooking pot, teapot, 
etc. Ex.: Ipaglagd. mo akd nang 

rp 9a (make me some tea). 

^-^ ^^ook. Magluto. Ang Intoin^ what cooked. 

Ang inihtt(\ what cooked (see next 
paragraph). Ang lutodn^ thecook- 
mg utensil. Ang paglutodn^ the 
cooking place. 

"^CII. When roots beginning with /t, /, or a vowel (including w) are con- 
^^^^ted with in and instnimental i, etc., the Tagalog reverses the particle 


in Ut ni ur chmngee il 
i, repiM^mlty willi roc 
To throw ilown. 

Til place; tii put. 

Ti)|iet rid r)I; to dieai>iiOi 


[o avoiil lhf> hareh eoundeoi the d( 

with i. F.X. : 
Xogh&log. Ang Uinlog, what da 
\a ground or thrawn down 
ten«eidea). Ang ihiniUag at 
iiialiulog, what was or has 
thrown down, etc. Ang I'Ainn^ 
or ang innhuhulog, what ia I 
thrown down, etc. Aug iliuh 
what will be thrown down, 
(See tables for these. ) 
liagUigaii. Ang U/igaii, whatpli 
Ang iiiiuigav; ajig itiilagoij ot 
inaiiiijiiji, what WUB or has 1 

Miiganlil. Aug iniiraU, whatwi 
baa been gotten rid of, etc 
« (1) thowreuuirinetwol 

"" "to lend; mnnhinmi. 

Xin. With walnin claaeeti of verbs bi 
plemeoU, 6, g., iniffmitM, "to tell;'" iH'.„ ,, . , , 

Kive," etc., and (2) with tboae expreseioti; pxpnlsive or dbperaive 
e. g., tHagiajiOH, 'Mo throw away; niarfni^^, "to8catterHeea,etc.," 
a true passive, which may be £o expret^eil in English. 

Xl\ . With verbal mota not included in theforeffomeclaaaes i fom 
expression peculiar to Tagalog and allied lauguagesliy denoting eitbei 
itistniRient, cause, or linte of the action. Id ttiet>e ca»es the caiuie, rei 
Instrument^ or time becomcB the subject of the sentence intlienoniini 
caae, especially if the sentence should include an indirect complenien' 
ircseive of tiiicn instrument, cauw, time, etc., in addition to a direct oti 

Maghigay, Ang ibinigay, what 
or li'aa been given. Ex. : Ibii 
ni Juan iiinng lalapt (that in< 
wa8 the gift of Juan). 

Magliipon. T^imapon, to caat | 
net). Ex. with magtapon: J 
pimko migKi'iUxt{l threw the 1 
Bwav). Andanggagatrlnkon 
isdd'f {What shall I do with 
fleh?| /(ii;>»n mo (throw itan 
Ex. with liimapon: Minmng it 
nahuH Lo ilong kdA (I caught 
fish with one throw [of tlie n 
Ang taponan, the Ush line; 

(1) To give. 

(2) To throw away. 

(2) Also to bear ha 
rancor toward another. A 

!llm,l"ium iUmg p<\lmi (lamp 
iiig tliia riit). Ang lamtuSn, 

placeof planting. As will )«! 
besides Iteing contracted, the 
a transposition with m and n 
this word with Buf)ixe<I an. 
{ See tables for conjugation of mmahiig, tr> mw, with i. ) 
XV. If the inetrunient is expretise<i in full with a verb using the ei 
sive I, the instrument takes the i>rr)i)er nrcjiosition in the genitive. 
hinapitn niyii ang titiliangin niiiig paiihi'thiy i be threw the sanii away 



XVI. (1) Rootfl which take mag for the primary idea in the indefinite 
generally have i for the corresponding definite, combined with in for the 
put an(f present tenses. Um roots generally take in only for the simple 
definite (direct object). (2) Roots which vary in meaning according to the 
verbalizing prefix or infix um, map^ etc., generally retain the definite form 
oimag, magka, etc., with t, forming ipag^ iptnag^ ipay ipina^ etc., as pre- 
fixes to the root. (See tables for conjugation of kumdlat, to spread, to 
propagate (of its own accord); magkdku^ to spread widely (by outside 
agency). Ex.: 

(1) To son; to put in the sunshine. 

To pour out. 

"^^o scatter. 

*^o add. 

1*0 heap up; to lay in layers. 

(2) To spread; to propagate (of its 

To spread widely (by outside 
agency) . 

*^o borrow ( money only ) . 

Magbilad. Ang ibinilad^ what was 
or has been put in the sunlight, 
as clothes to ary. Ang bilardny the 
place. Ang bdarany the rope bv 
which suspended, etc. Ang xbilad, 
what sunned, dried in the sun, etc. 

Magbuhos. Angibuhos^whsitpotired 
out. Ang ibinuhos^ what has been 
poured out. Mamuhos, to spill 
out; (2) fig. to spread out or run 
to, as a road. Ex. : ^a an nunuhos 
itong daan f (Where does this road 
run to?) }sunuho8 sa baifan (it 
goes to town). MagkabnhoSf to 
run together (as two roads). Nag- 
kakabiihos ang dahwang daan^ the 
two roads run together. Kabu- 
hos dugd, of the same blood, as 
children of the same mother, 

Maabulagsak, var. maghdakmk. Ang 
ibxdagmky what scattered. Ang 
ibintdagsak, what was or has been 
scattered . Ang ibinubulagsaky what 
is being scattered. Ang ibubu- 
lagsakf what will be scattered. 

Magdagdag. Ang idagdag^ what 
added. Ang idinagdag, what was 
added. Ang dagdagan, what has 
been added to. A ng mandaragdag^ 
the adder. 

Magpdtong. Ang ipdtongy what 
heaped up or laid in layers. Also 
used for generations. Ex.: Ildn 
ang pdtong ang nagmuln »a Lakan- 
dola? (How many generations 
have there been since Lacandola?) 

Kumdlat Ang ikdlatj what may 
spread. Ang ikindlaty what has 

Magkdlat. Ang ipagkdlat^ what may 
be spread thus. Ang ipinagkdUit^ 
what was or has been so spread. 
Ex. (indef. ): Nagkakdlat si hian 
nang wikang nnkasasamd sa kopoua 
tauo (what's his name has teen 
spreading bad reports all over 
about his neighbor). Kdlatkdlat 
ang dild niiid (he has a most tat- 
tling tongue). 

Umutang. Ang utaiiginy the loan. 
Ang utaiTgnny the person from 
whom borrowed. Ang iutnngj the 


Ta lend fmnaay only). Mamitaju 

Aug ijiiiioffiilniig, the !(wo. 
,To lend willidgly. MayjHtidaiig. ^ngi^Mulunj/.tbeloan 

mwle ttiiis. Ang jtautaugin, the 
pereon lent to ihua. Ei.: Paor 
jtii^'n MO uitif nitng pitat (lend me 
* piHM). Jfting aalapi lAmaug 
ang ipauiitangka M lyd (I will only 
lendyoua half j>eeof. Jpinaulang 
kv M iii6 ur^ HUifpl jtc (I nave lent 
my money to you). li&iiihini! 
vm oki piwntulaHo naiig KilapU 
(Why won't you leud me some 
iDoney?) i9i pagka't ttvld, (be- 
cause I have nonp), Pmdiang, 
orudit, Kauluugan, debt. 
XVll. This i- nil... i.hown1>yfc»im7i, "lo Iniy;" and maffWi, "toBeil," 

already I'xplainud). 

Til buy by retail (nti ii small Btale). I'mula^, Any inulay. what was 
l)(>iit;tit thus. 

To sell on a Htnall acale. M'i'i»ia'h Ang ipivagttUty. what was 

BiilU thus. 
XVni (1) /in (,HnH for pani s 

expresemoae or reaaon, aiid al«u tii 

To destroy. SumirA. MagtirA, to deelroy much. 

UaititM, to be abl« lo 'de«lroy. 
Ex. : Ang xkinaMrA nnng Jtonvvan; 
art ling puginunufal (gambling was 
the (UQs^e by which he hi? 

To l>e xad. Mahdpit. Makahdpu, to (Suse sad- 

nes8. Ang ikfihapit, the cauee of 
eadneea (no tense idea). Ex.: 
Itiiiahlipit ko ang pngtamatny 
nii/i'i ( I was saddened by his dying 
[death ] ) . Ikinahahapig ko angpag- 
kamatay niyd (1 am saddened by 
his death). Ikahahdpin mo ang 
pngkiimatay m Gal Juan (You will 
t>e sadden wl by the death of 
Don Joan). Knhnpiaan, sadness 
(abetr, ). KahdpuMpit, eadorsor- 
rowfui object or Bpectacle; also 

(2) Ika (ijtina) also expreaeea well-tierfected acta resulting from a slow 
process or development. 
To hei-ome better. 

MngaliuQ, to be better; 
"gooit,'' "clever." Mangaling, to 
become much better. Makagatiug, 
to do Rootl. Ang ikagaling, tlie 
cause of betterment. Ex.: Aug 
mniii/i'r gnmot ay n;iang ikmagaga- 
ling luing iiiiiii^ may takil (medi- 
cines are what cause the recovery 
of thorn who are ill). Aug /mnn- 
k/i'g ang ikinagaiing tiiyd (the 


weather caused his improvement) . 
Ang paginuvi nitong gamot ang 
ikmagaling nild (the taking of this 
medicine was what caused them to 
recover). Ma^pagalingy to pros- 
per. Ang piriagagalingt person or 
thing prospering. A ng nctgagalingj 
person improving. Magpakaga- 
ling, to improve one*s self; to 
correct one's self. Ex.: Magpaka- 
galing hay 6 nang maiTgd dsalninyS 
(Improve yourselves m your cus- 
toms [or manners] ) . Kagalingan, 
goodness; improvement. 

\) Ikay as well as i alone, prefixed to intransitive verbs indicate time 
^ell as cause or reason. Ex. : 

repent. yfagsim. Ang ipinag»isif the time, 

cause, or reason of repentance 
(past tense). Sumisij to quarrel 
with openly. Ang isitti, the cause. 
Maapakagisi^ to repent deeply. 

le asleep or sleepy. Matuiog. Natutijlog bagd kaydf ( Are 

you sleepy?) 06; iblg ko mna ngd 
matuiog (Yes; I would like to go to 
sleep) . Makatulog, to fall asleep. 
Ang ikcUulog, the time or cause of 
falling asleep. 

iX. / is generally used alone to express cause or reason with verbs 
ch do not require an object to complete the meaning (intransitives): 

)bey; to follow. Sumunod. Ang isunod, the cause ot 

obedience or following. Ex.: And 
ang mniigiinod nang mangd gundalo 
sa kanUang punbf ( Why do sol- 
diers obey t follow] their com- 
manding officer [chief]?). Ang 
panunumpa U pUagan ay ang iffinu- 
sunod nild (Their obedience is on 
account of their oath and also their 

pi'eep (purposely). Tumangis. MagtaiTgiSfto weep much 

or by many. Matangis, to weep 
( in vol. ) . Ang itangiSj the cause or 
reason of weeping. Magpatangis, 
to weep excessively. Makitangis, 
to join another in weeping. Ex. : 
Bdk'd nananangis yoong babayet 
(Why is that woman weeping 
[crying]?). Ang UinatniTgis niyd' y 
ang kamntaynn nang anak ( Her cry- 
ing is caused by the death of [her] 
child) . 

*emain behind (letting others go Tumirt^i. Magtirdj to allow some- 

lesd ) . thing to remain. Ang itinird, what 

waa or haj* been left behind; also 
the remaining behind. Ex. : Ikao 
ang itinird ko dito (I have re- 
mained here on your account). 
Matirdf to be left l^ehind. Walang 
naiirdy not one remained. 


XX. In likoinannerintrniimlive verbs alio expretw time (not tsnae]. '. 

Ihe espreeiHOQ for tlii* lime is definite, it uiay either precede or follow tb 

verb, but II the time ih indeHnite it should always preuude. V'erbti whio 

retjuire ihi (>khia) for cause or reason Ukewise have the some combinatio 

to expreHs time: 

To arrive. Dumiiting. Jng idiiing, the time ( 

arrival. Ex.: An6 atiy ora» m 
iditiMing niy&t (^Vbat time [haor 
didhe[ehe]uome7). Ang idtnAlui 
ni'i/d ana lanshafl {Un [ehe] cam 
at noon). An6 ang arao n-i idaH 
ting iniif (What day wili Uie; 
comcT). Ang ihUimang arao nan 
bonan (The fifth [d»y] of tb 
month ). 

TocmlMrknr travd inl^itoninimt). Si"nakas. Ang mkayAa, what em 
barked on or mounted. Aug intia 
kay, therMsonorfinielpartienee 
of embarking, mounting, etc. Ex. 
Auii lamig itinaiay to m F^iifAna 
(The y<»r [in which] 1 embarkai 
for the Philippines). 

Tci lilt. A'liniiiiri. Antfikinfiin, tbere«sona 

tiiui! ii[ e&ti'nt{ (pa«t tense). Ex> 
l>t iitiiKituiii ling buiigaiig hila 
iailnn mun (green fruit Bhooh 
never be eaten). 

XXI. J is alxo ueetl with verbs of adjusting, conforming, copying into 
trans Ferrinfr, translatinu:, I ran r planting, elc. , to indicate what has beei 
thus transferred, tmnsJaied, etc. 

ilagbdgay, Ang UnnAgay, what wa 
or has been made suitable. Ex. 
Jliiigag M doon {Make [do] thi 
like that) . Magbdgny ta noni 
maiigA bala magaofiagdo (Uet tfa< 
children ready for the party] 
MaMgau, to be proper or suitable 
also to be proportioned. Kx. (1 
NabaMgay bag& tn Uang dalagi 
ang tvmAtad na no^ird tn inam{ 
laiaaiiyanf (Is it proper, then, fo 
a young woman to go alone abon 
the streets?) MnbabagAyan nan< 
hirapanglakinangkiaaUman (Tfai 
punishment will Iw suitable fo 
the gravity of the offense). [Thi 
punishment will St the crime. 
(2) Dili iiiilxibdgay Kiya ta kanilani 
kaUiafin (He [she] ia not propor 
tioned to his [herj height). Th. 
act of making suitable, ang pag 
hiMgiiy. Ex.: An6 ang pagkaoa 
gag m'fd ifoont (What haw this ti 
do with that?) As a noun. b6go\ 
means "thing, matter, subjecl 
si^e, proportion, apiiearanee.' 
Ex.: Alio liagA ang Mgaijt (What 
then, is the matter?) Ay<Mn aki 



To compare. 

To equalize. 

To (1) transfer; (2) translate; (3) 
transplant; (4) copy out, and (5) 
to change from one vessel to an- 
other; to empty. 

(I don't know.) And ang bdgay 
niydy Americano kung Castilaf 
(What does he look like, an Amer- 
ican or a Spaniard?) Americano 
p6 (an American, sir. ) Bdgay «a, 
**as for,*' **asto." Ex.: Bdgay m 
dkin ( as for me ) . Bagay sa kaniyd 
(as for him [her]). Bagay m 
xbang bdpay (as to other matters), 
etc. Bagaybdgay, different things 
( in class ; species, etc. ) . Magkaba- 
gaybdgayj to differ much. Ex.: 
Nagkakabdgaybdaay fdld sa paacUi- 
ramit ( They \l iff er much in their 
manner of clress) 

Maghnlimbaad. Ana ipinaghalini' 
baud J what was or has been com- 
pared, llumaliinbaud, to imitate 
another. Ang fuUimbnuaan, the 
person imitated. Kahalimbaud, 
like, alike (object). KahaHm- 
bauaany resemblance. 

Magpard. Ang imnard^ what was or 
has been equalized. 

Magmlin. Ang vtifialinj what has 
been or was transferred, trans- 
lated, etc. (2) laalin mo ito sa 
wikang Tagdlog (translate this into 
Tagalog). (5) Isalin mo ang la- 
mang nitong busld (empty out the 
contents of this basket). 


I. An {han after acute final vowel), sometimes nany is suffixed with all 
tenses of the verb. The particle m, either alone or in combination with 
^g {pinag)f etc., is retained in the past and present tenses. For the con- 
jugation of roots with an and han see the tables at end of book. 

II. An usually represents place, or expresses the case called locative in 
many European languages, replacing an adverl^ of place or the preposi- 
tion which would be emploved with another form of conjugation. Thus, 
if a sentence with a verb other than those which admit a person or place 
as the direct object, or those requiring an for euphonic reasons, includes an 
indirect complement of place relating to the action, the use of an with the 
verb expresses the relation of case expressed in English by a preposition. 

To gather; to pluck (as flowers); to Pumitds. Ex.: AndangpinipUdsmo 
break oS. diydnf (What are you gather- 

ing there?) Akd^y , pungmipiids 
nang bulaklak (1 am gathering 
some flowers). Ang halatnana^y 
ang Ingar (Sp. ) na pinipUasan ni 
Amltrosia nang mangd bulaklak 
( Ambrosia is gathering the flowers 
in the garden); lit., '*the ganien 
is the place where are l)eing gath- 
ered by Ambrosia the flowers. )" 

To die. Mamatay, ^7iaA:amfl(/ii/^«, the place 

of death, distinguished by the 
final accent from kamaldynny death 
(alwtract). Ex.: Itong bahay na 
ltd ang kinamataydn ni amd (father 


Bilinite (if a place for tte ili[«ct object, the latter it 

III. If fl verhal ftctioi 

genemlly exprcsaed by 

To (1) open; (2) imccver. MaglmM*. Aiigliutatin.yfhatODOifd 

or uncovered. Ana ipagmiiAi, 
tlm mtsoue by which opened or 
oncovered. Ang liukntaa, the 
pine)? opened or unco^'ered: alM 
the person or object uncovered. 
Contracted many times to bnttiUt, 
especiallytortlie imperative. Ei.i 
Bakain ino ang pinlo (open th^ 

To sprinkle from the inoulh (m MagbugA. Ana higliAn, the ylartrnf- 

r-L .!_ _!_.! — .. „i_„ ... g^J|.^^ gprinkling. or the object bt^ 

tn»tea. Kx.; Hindi bugh&n m^^ 
ang nuii^Ki Jamit (don't sprinkle^* 
tlie flothua from tlie mouth). 
There iaalso an idiom: Bu^Mamo"^ 
il'ifin itong bago mong damil (treat-^ 
us on ariuunt of your new clotLei ) ; = 
"wet down yonr new atripee." 

Chinamen do clothes); 
bubble up (oh w 

Til fill: to muke up. 

Jliwvund. Aiutftunin, the plkceof 
filliug. or making up. Es.: Mag- 
puiid ca nang labing tfaUoml (make 
up twelve r* daiatl). Ainitn mo 
ang mnnga lata {nil the cup^). 
P-:i.-uiA,i jI-o Ixifiii KU.I moiTg^ m«..' 
(Shull 1 l!llthc;;la«i.-'f=?) M(ujp:.„\ 
with grave accent, stresB on nest 
to la)<t syllable means to begin; to 
govern; to head; to lead; to pre- 
side. Mamund, to go «b^d or in 

llap»apin. Ang topnAn, the place of 
lining, etc., also the imperative. 
Ang uapin, the material, ffapln, 
shoe or sandal. Ka»apln, a leaf 

(of a book) or sheet (of paper). 
Sapinmpln, many leaves, sheets, 
or folds of lining. 

ifosrldnim (2) also to bear hate or 
rancor toward another. A ng tam- 
n4n, the place or manner of plant- 
ing. Ex.: Tmamnan,niTam&tanp 
tanigang biitid nang mdtitut [tnn- 
guiiiii) I Thomas planted his field 
by machinery). As has been 
noted before, besides a contrac- 
tion, tliere is a transposition be- 
tween nand m with this definite. 

Tvmiihip. Magtakip (1) to cover 
up; 1^) to fish from many canoe?, 
(retting the fish in between. Ang 
takpiin, what covered or the place. 
Takp/iii 1110 ang tapagan (cover the 



IV. An is generally used to indicate the |)er8on affected by an action 
ith verbs which reqoire a person as the direct object. 

3 menace; to threaten. 

o frighten by rushing 
hiding and snouting. 

To diminish (of itself). 


"trade or sell rice* 

MagbaUi. Ana paghalaarij the per- 
son menaced or threatened, 
out from Bumalagd, Maobalagdf to frighten 
much. Ang hilagnin or ang bala- 
gMn, the person thus frightened. 
Kababalaghang gawd, a marvelous 
work. Kabalabalagd itong gatnang 
iid (this [is] a most wonderful 

Bumauas. Magbauas, to diminish 
by outside ajgencv. Ang bauasinj 
what diminishea. Ang bauasan, 
the place (corresp. to um), Ang 
pagbauamn, place (corresp. to 
\ mag) , the person to whom some- 
thing is given thus. MabauaSf to 
diminish (inan. action). Angna- 
mauaSf what taken from. Maka- 
baxMSy to cause to diminish. Mag- 
pabaua^if to order or request to 
diminish. "Ex.: Bauasanynoipnng 
mangd tapayan (take something 
out of those jars). Magltaua* ka 
nang halaga^ reduce the price. 
Hindi mabuafan ko sa Umang pusoHf 
I can not let it fall below ^5. 
Nabauas na ang fuingin (the wind 
has diminished now). 

Magbigay. A ng ibigay, the gift. A ng 
ibinigayf what was or nas been 
given. An^ bigydn, the person re- 
ceiving a gift. Ang binigydn^ the 
person to whom something was or 
nas been gi ven. Mapagblgay, gen- 
erous; liberal; indulgent. Mami- 
gay, to give much; to lavish. Ex. 
And ang ibinigay mo? ( What did 
you give?) liigydn mo akd nang 
kauniing makakain, give me a little 
refreshment [to eat]. Bigydnmo 
akd nang itlog kun mayrdon (give 
me some eggs if there are any). 
Si Juan angbinigyang ko (1 gave it 
to Juan ). Si Tomds ang bibigyang 
ko (I will give it to Tomils). Ang 
ipamigay, what lavished. Ex.: 
tpinainUjay niyd itong lahat (he has 
lavished all this). Ipinamimigay 
nild itong lahat (they are lavishing 
all this). Ipamiinigay niny6 itong 
lahatf (You will lavish all this?) 

Magbigds. A ngpagbigasan, the seller 
or dealer in rice. lyang pilak 
ang pinagbigajtan niyd (he made 
that money selling (trading) rice). 
MahibigdSf to ask for a little rice 
(see particle maki). 


TiigiWTil; wiitch; Inok o 

To charge awinet () 


.Vaghantay. Also means to nuk*- 
liirtl snare from bamboo. JM* 
ni'inlaii, to calcli birds with 
"Imntay." Ang namanla;/, vh^ 
cauKht. Atig binabuntoy or am 
vinapnghabanUsy, the pereon etaiM 
ing guani, wali;hing or lookin 
(lilt, Aruf hantaynti, the aentK 
box, puBt; watchlower; look oc 
p'ai'p. Also Ang pagbaniaym' 
A,.:jl^mln;'\n (1 ), thioK or perBo- 
Kiiardfl ot tvaU'hed; alaoii 
livif wiihuui art. 
mo Ucmg Mh/iy il6 (watch th) 
houac]. BHiantuyAn ko ang ruof 
td 1 1 WHS on goard at tlie bu 
racks). BimibantaiiAa niud a» 
cunrlrl (be IB OD guani at the baf 
racka). (2) aruiB or ecalea o 
correctiiMe ot the balanoe. (S 
A bamboo bed for pick persOT 
under which a fire may be madt 
MagbantnyAn, to timkettiich a bed 
Ang b'intaiianin, the lualerial; im 
htntnyntiati, theplaceofstirhaberi 

Mfighiiitang. (2) To l«ar false ta 
timonyBgainst another, .fngpeu 
bintonqna [ 1 ) , the person char^ 
(2) the •peTarm sworn aitiiDI 
fiiWIv. Ang iprn)hiulanii , what* 
eworii, i. I-., Ilie tw-tiinoViv. Ex. 
( 1 1 I'mii'jb.nktMjna nk6 iCng Mia 
}uiwiig pitm ( I was chaiveil u 
with tea pesos). (2) I'inaghit 
lotion niya ak6 (he bore false te« 
timony wainat me). Ang pagb 
Hi^ong, theactof swearing false!) 
Angbintoiigan,aagmobm C(in^>)i , nn 
mnpaqbinliing, the person who hi 
bitiiaily awears falnely; perjurer. 

Damnmit. Daramlin, clothes (prei 
tenw). Ang damtdn, the peiso 
dressed or clothed. Magdamit, t 
drees or clotheanother. Ang pai, 
daramil, the ai't of dressing (pre 
tense). Magparamit, to muse c 
order to be clothed. Ex.; Pitnat 
tdn mo ang vxdang damit (cloth 
thoae who are without clothes' 
BAkii hiiidi mo pinadaramtan an 
unakmoi (Why don't you ploth 
yonr child?) Sapagka'tv-nldai-on 
mniblll mmg damit (becaiii>e I hav 
nothing to buy clothes with ). 

MagdiiiiA- Ang pagdayaan, the pe] 
son deceived. AngpagdaragA, th 
act of deceiving, MagparayA, t 
permit deception, Mngpnr'iyH k< 
permit the decepUon. ParayH, t 
<'on8e"t or allow one's self lo h 
deceived. MagdarayA, fraudulenl 
cheating (adj.). 




To be sorry. 

To steal. 

To listen to. 

To teach. 

^ be charitable. 

Humalik. Ang hagMn^ the pereon 
kissed. Maghalik, to kiss each 
other (dual). Ang mangd pinag- 
/ta^il'dn(the two who have kissed 
each other. ) Pahalik^ to request to 
kiss. Ex.: Pahcdik p6 kay6 8a 
kamay (permit me to kiss your 
hand). (Sp. Q. B. S. M.) 

Mahinayang (from 9&yang, idea of 
sorrow ) . A ng kiuahnayaiigan, the 
person for whom sorry, or for what 
reason sorrow is felt. Ex. : Kiua- 
hihinaifangan ko siyA ( I feel sorry 
for him — lit., he is the person I 
am sorry for.) Mauhinaynna, to 
be very sorry. Ang panhina- 
yangan , the person for whom felt, or 
the cause of much sorrow. Magpa- 
Mn&yang, to regret a loss of any 

Magndkao. Ang pinagnAkao^ what 
was or has been stolen. Ang 
magnanAkaOy the thief. Ang pag- 
nakauan^ the person robbed. Ex. : 
Sino ang mngnandkaof (Who is 
the thief?) Sino ang pinagnakavan 
mof ( Who did you steal from?) 

Pakinig. Angpakingdnt the person 
listening. Ex.: Pakingdn ninyo 
ang dral (listen [ye] to what is 

Umdral. Ang aralan^ the person 
taught. Ang idral, what taught — 
i. e., the lesson. Ang inidral, what 
was or has been taught. Ana 
ungmad ral, fhe teacher. A ngpagd- 
rcu, the act of teaching. Ma^draly 
to study ; to learn. Ang pagaraldn, 
the source of learning — i. e., the 
teacher or the book, etc. Ang 
magdraly what learned. Ana jpa- 
^(im*a/, the act of studving. (>iote 
that the *'at^t of teacfiing" is ex- 
pressed without reduplii^tion of 
the initial sylable of the root.) 
Aral is said to be from Sansk. 
dchdra^ custom; habit; rule; by 
Kern, but Pardo de Tavera thinks 
it doubtful. Ajar is Malay, **to 
teach or to learn '* from Javanese. 
Asol, cuHtom; habit; is more likely 
to be from Sansk. dchdra. For 
further modifications of dral with 
Ijarticles, see under luan. 

Maaudy also compassionate; charit- 
able (adj.). Maauain; mapag- 
kaaiidf a humane or charitable per- 
son. Ang anaaiiy the recipient of 
compassion or charity. Ang png- 
kaaiuif the act of charity or com- 
passion. Kaauaan, (abet. ) charity , 

6855—06 ^10 


To hear (nteiiall3r}. 

compaMioD. Ex.: Kaauanmotivii 
(have charity [ar oompoaeioDj (or 
bin). Anff kinaauaan, whAt pym 
in charily or exteinded in cooipaf' 
non. .Jn<f ikinaauH, the raneeol 
gi^inJ( in cborily or extciutiiiF 
L'oiiipBSHiMD. MaiaauA, lo move n 
coiupaffiitin. MagmtikaauA. to be 
nbletomovetocompaeeton. {Awi. 
IB ^nerally rediipliraled. £>:' 

(thia poor [person] mores me !»' 
TORlpawion). .inc7 ipinagrHam"' 
tan lid, Ihe cauee of beinf: able I" 
move to FdinpasHion. Poaiid, *" 
tt«k forcharitv; to plaid or I)**!*'' 
mercy, etc. l-'i.: AcfMU'id >ijfi^ *" 
lijtin (be begj^ed me tor mercy) - 
Maringig. Itumin^a, to hear V*^, 

jjuRTiy, Ang naringig, what he^-'j 
coKually. Ang diri^n, what hs^^^S 
piirpoeely, as con venation direi'C^^ 
to person. Ang t^iri^n, the p^^^ 
ion lineued to. An indicHtee P^^j 
son, in Ibe thiop, with thiave-^J 
and the following one, also otbt g" ^ 
which will beseeninotberplac^^ 
MatariiTgig, to be able to lie^;;^ 
Magkaringig, tn be dev«ived bv tT^^ 
hearing. Mrnipaririipg, to lore::^ 
another to listen. Ks'.:' H'.i/'i at-i-i'^ 

di'Tgig (I heard nothing); lit., "^ . 

(was) without henring. NariiTgr^- 
mo aiig finnbi kof (Did you he*--' 
whatltoliiyouT) Hiridttanari'nifi^^ 
{Idid not hear); "1 was not ablets' 
hear." Makaiiinripigkabagdt {Dic:^ 
you hear?) Lit: ''Are you hear- — 
ing?" Nagkaringdn ak6 {my hvAt--^ 
in(! deceived me). 
Kumntag. Ang kalgin, what untied--- 
or looeened. Ang kalgdn, pervon 
set at liberty or abeolved. Ang 
latagpangao, the jailor's fees in 
former times, when set free. 
V. In actions by which the subject triee to draw something to himself, 

an etanda for the person from whom that something is drawn. 

To ask for; to renueal. lIumiiTgt ilakahmgi. to obtain hv 

requci'tiiig:. AtatihiiTyi, to thniib 
for. Aug bingln, what H^keil 
for. .Ill'/ 7iiii)ii^f, what whs or has 
been asiced for. Ang hiirg&n, the 
perwn from whom askm. Ex,: 
Ak/iij kiwiiiTjil nang nmm/d buiiija 
'j/nitiiAi'iiyf at(}{I asked forenme 
fruit and tiot it for the asking). 
Mtijiaghhlgi, an importunate per- 
Bon. f-ee also mngiiUi, to sell; 
tuniiilia, to take; dumaing, to en- 
treat; /ii'iiiiinap, to look for; and 



tumangapf to accept or receive 
which, among others, use these 
same forms. 

I. Roots which express the ideas of coming or going, when verbal- 
, take an for the person affected by the action, and i or ika {ikina) for 
reason or time of such action. £x. : 

x)me here. PumarUo, Pariio, come here. Ang 

ipinaritOj the reason or time of 
coming here (past tense). Also 
ang ihinaparUo. Ana pinaritohan^ 
the person (or the place) who was 
the object of the action. Ex.: 
And ang ikinapariio mo m Pa- 
sigf (Why did you come here to 
Pasig?) Aling bahay ang pinari- 
tohan mof (Which house did you 
come to? ) ( PumarUo has been dis- 
cussed previously. Pumar6on fol- 
lows the same rule as pumariio and 
has also been explained.) 

n. An is rare as an ending to the direct object of a verb. Some verbs, 
wever, which would naturally take ?7i for the direct object substitute an 
jrefor on account of euphony, as the words are contracted. 

salt; (2) to make salt. 

pay for. 

note; to experience; to perceive. 


9^i8p; to hold. 

Magasin. Ang asn&n^ what salted; 
tna^Tidn, what was or has been 
salted. Ang paladfrinauy the salt 
pan; also the saltcellar. Ang 
nagaasin^ the person who eats salt 
on rice or food. JfaJh'o^fn, to ask 
for a little salt. 

Maghayad. Ang bayaran, what 
paid for; the obligation. This 
verb also has the idea of covering 
up, and originally meant ''to buy 
or sell slaves.*' Ex. : lyong haya- 
ran ang ulang mo (your obligation 
is to pay your debt [pay what you 

Magmasid, Ang pagmasd&n; ang 
masddn (def. ); ang namasid (in- 
def.) what noted, etc. Magpa- 
mandy to order to note. Ang 
papagmasddnf the person orderea 
to note. Ang papagmasdin^ what 
ordere<l to be noted. Mapagmatidy 
one who notes, perceives or ex- 
periences a great deal. 

Tumalnb. Ang tabU'iny what pierced. 
Tumalabi^ also "to become dull*' 
(as a knife). Magtalab, (1) to 
penetrate deeply; (2) to dye with 
the talab root. Ang pagtalaban^ 
what pierced deeply. A ng talabiny 
what dyed. A ng italab^ the instru- 

MagtaiTgan. Ang tarTgdn or ang tang- 
anan, what grasped or held. Ang 
/xx^/an^rwin, what held much. Ang 
itajigan^ the hand or instrument 


used U> graep or hold with. Syn. ; 
ifaghatiak, which mexog generallf 
to hold or eraep by two. Ki.; 
May hauak ati nguySn ( I am bney 
now tor lo-dav]). 

(]) To try; (2) to aample; (S) to Titmikim. Ang (tJbiHin, «rhftt nm- 
undentAud a person wt^ll. pled. [Admits in combined uiih 

pa.) Ex.: i^iluhniR mo lu/a aU 
nitoiig Alai (allow roe to try this 
wine). TUirMinnio (taste it; tm- 
ple it). 

T" lijok at; lo vIhw. T»ini,tmn, (2) MagtingU,, to look a» 

muca or by man v. Magliii^Bayi. 
to look at each other. MagtiiTain- 
lijujiiuin, to look at each otW' 
cloe«ly. jln^tinirijrin, what WH? ^ 
haa been looked at. AngtinilhVr**^' 
what ia being looked at. Atiy lir*- T 
null, what Inobedat: alone iinpe^*^ 
live. .ilni7p(f^in^n^, whatluok ^' 
at much or by many. Arig HiUli^^l 
the cau^e or with what, i. e., t^^E 
eya Ang ij'og-( ipiiiag)-tingiit. t^^* 
catiae of much looking or hy man 
aim the eyee of many, etc. 

T'J Irnrn. Vagdral. Arig pagartuaa, wliat , 

learned. Aug pagaraJAn, tt::^ 
Bourre of learning, i. e., thi- teaohiS^ 

n with UR>, foog, etc., take an when ronjiC^ 

To treat well; to proeper. 

VIII. An Bometimes replaces the preposition ra when the latter meanfS^ 
"to," aenn implies that the mbject parts with eomethitig, in thefollowin)^^ 
examples. Acquisitionwiththe88niecon8tmction("for")iaexpresBedbyf. - 
Ex.: Binigr/6nnildakAniiongbi</A»(thevpi\einethiarice). Alsoexpreeseil: "^ 
ahV ij ang limigndn nili nilongh'g6t. It will be clearly seen that the deli' 
nite is a verwil noun. Sino bnijd ang pinagbiihiin nij/d nang iyong cntmiio 
(to whomhashesold [did hesell] your nonte?) Pinagbilhinniyd ang l-'ini- 

tpressed: Ang 

yang kalbigan (his purchaser was i 
taioigan myd ang jnnagbilhin niyi. 

friend of his). Also expre 

IX. An with certain noun orverbal roots indicates place. The first syl- 
lable of the root is reduplicated for roots admitting contraction or begin- 
ning with I. 

IimS. Ilmohtn, buyo-leaf garden. 

Kauayan. K/iuaynntin, l)amlx>o 
grove or thicket. .\[ay iauaynnl 
(Have [von, or iw there] any bam- 
Ik>o? ) A'limntKi!/'"!, t«>throwbam' 
bno weapons at another. Aug 
taiiaynttiii, the object or person. 
Miingauayiin, to cut liamboo. Ang 
paiTgn'inynn. the instrument, i. e., 
the bolo or hatchet, et«. 

Ning, Nivgan, cocoanut grove. 
Kaniugan, place of many cocoanut 
pahns. Kapunon^ niog, a single 
tree. Kaboong ntog, a cocoanut. 



ire; gnLzing place. 

ina. (Musa par. and others, 
th the tree ana fruit. ) 

.r cane. 

e; rock. 


Numiogy to throw a cocoanut at 
another. Aug niogin, the person 
or object thrown at. Ang tntopr, 
the nut thrown. MagniogaUf to 
throw cocoanuts at each other. 
There are many names for cocoa- 
nut, according to its age and con- 

Sabmban. Ang aabsabiUf the grass 
eaten (no tense idea), or what 
eaten as animals eat (by the 
mouth). Sumabsabj to graze, eat 
(as animals). MagmhsS}, to eat 
much. Magsisabsaby to graze in 
herds, flocks, etc. Pasabsab, to 
allow to graze. Ex.: Pambsabin 
mo itong cabayo; may sabsabin 
diydn sa harapan (Let this horse 
graze; there is grass there in the 
yard) . Sungmasabsab ana cabayOy 
p6 (The horse is grazmg, sir). 
Parang is a large pasture. Sabsa- 
ban is more a grazing or eating 
place for animals. 

Saging. Sagingany banana grove. 
Kasagingan. large banana grove 
or place where there are many 
bananas. MagsAging^ to eat ba- 

Tub6, Tubohdny cane field. Tubo- 
hanan, sugar-cane land. MagivJb6y 
to plant sugar cane. There is no 
Tagalog name for sugar, aMukaly 
from Sp. azucavy being us^. The 
Malay uses shakar and gula, the 
latter from Sansk. guda. 

Bat6. Batohany quarry. Kabalohanf 
place of stones; rocky ground. 
Mabatong bukidy a ston^ field. 
Bald aliK) means rice which does 
not open when toasted; and 
kidney. MagbatOy (1) to cut 
stone; (2) to lay stone; (3) to 
build out of stone. Ex.: (3) 
Nagbabato si Juan nung kaniyang 
bdhatf (Juan is building his house 
out of stone). Maginbaidy to turn 
into stone. Ex.: Afig andua ni 
Loth ay nagUiftatong asin (loot's 
wife became a pillar [rock] of 
salt) . 

Tubig. Tubtgany irrigated land. 
Katubi gaily place where water may 
be had. Magti'ibigy (1) to put 
water into anything; (2) to water 
an animal, etc. Manubigy to go for 
water in a canoe or on an animal. 
(To go for water with a pitcher is 
umigib). Angpanubigdny the place. 
Panubigy to make water. Makitu- 
bigy to ask for water. Si Juan ay 



i>>ibig ta dfa'n (Juan anked 

me to help him gel water). 

ftriuWyw mo aki (Give meeoiue 

walpr). riiiiff no kihUamo-^», 

wash water. 

■ Ghnrch. 

■ Cookpit. 

*i6otIjnn. *tmafti»J!f. to fiahl (nne 
^mecockagaiDstaiiotber). Jfnir 


tal-onn. to flght Bgainet eai-h otheii 


also to play ono a^inst the oihe'; 

^117 KtHihanlpn, the gsiue (coc-* ' 

lig(itinK). Any i-{ipa'j)-»iiba-r't' 

the munPcOO-k (e). J-nloMbrf^' 

116. imhiin, hoiul of the bed; •- y' 


a large-headed person. niun-^^^\ 

the head place (pillow). fAwr-^**. 
Uie word tor pillow iteelf. K -^ 
UmiU6 ka ri«. (Put your ht-^^- 
here). Vluhbi mn y<iA (Put y«==^ 

hcaii h«re toward niP). (Ih.fc---*' 

mo i/^ (Put yonr hvwX on this). ._^ 
Pa4(lrom8an8k.paAi, (oot). TST ^ 


EnRlish is also from Oie 8ai*="J^ 

Sansk. word. The Engliah P«^2* 
doea DDtaeem to be from Sansk^^^ 

but to be of Teutonic origiD, b^ 

remotely mav be Ihe Bsme. Pa<^'^ 
hAu. the foot of a bed; plare of tl*"^ 

feet. Jfnyjioo, to oc-t ll.e focr^ 

Stem; laet part. 

To make port (as" a vt^ssel). 

To Imthc; to take a bath. 

, . -lei. i 

AngkulL i/umuif. (1) to eteer; (2"^; 
to remain behind purposely, litr^^^ 
hitU, to be left behind. Ang ft<i " ^^ 
lihAn, the last or hinder part Ka- ^^ 
h'llihAn, tardineee. Ang iaftuKAu— "• 
lihAn, the very last. Humull is tct^T 
rateh, etc. (note the difference in*^ 

Vnd. Cmuiui, to lead. Houag tang "^ 
muiiA, do not go ahead. Aagarui' '^ 
Mn, the fore part or place. Kav- -^ 
nahin, priority. IJnaund, firstly. 
Ang tauniiunoAiin, the very first. 
Satimi, anciently. SaunApangea 
vnd, \-ery anciently. Sa unang 
Aral), in the days of old. Mang- 
vn&, to precede; to guide (iu per- 
son); to lead, as a guide. 

DumAniig. Ang iiiAntig. the ve«tel 
put into port. Ang rfoongnn, the 
place. Latntiigan is another naint> 
for port, ifngkapad^ong, to make 
port BUddenly. Mod6ong, to bein 

Paligi). Ang paligiian, the bathing 
place. Ang ligoin; ang pniigoin, 
the water for bathing. M<iglig/i: 
mngpiiligd, to hathe another. 
(Bee the phrases on p. 24 for tue 
of these words). Pambo ia a rare 



i^e a mudhole under the house. 

sratch or scrape the ground with 
e hands, claws, feet, etc. 

MagpumlL "The place," ang ka^ 
puwlian, Pu9alian , * ' mud hole. ' ' 

Sutmigat. Ang gugatirif the wounded 
person or animal, etc. Ang ikasu- 
gat, the cause. Ang guaaian, the 
place or what part wounaed. Ex. : 
Sinmtugalan niyd sa kamay (he is 
wounded in the arm [nand]). 
There is no separate word for arm 
and hand in Tagalog. Bara^Oy from 
Sp. brazo, is sometimes used. Pad, 
foot, is also a foreign word. Rus- 
sian has exactly the same peculiar- 
ity, ruka meaning both hand and 
arm, and 710^ both foot and lee. 
Magsugaif to wound much ; malboau- 
galy to cause to be wounded . Sugat 
(note the accent) is another root, 
with the idea of trading at retail. 
Sumugat, to buy at retail, or go to a 
retail market. Magsugat, to sell at 
retail. Ang sugoidn^ the place, i. 
e. , the market. Tiangi, a Spanish- 
Aztec word, is the usual name for 
a market. 

Kumotkol. Magkotkotf to make a 
ditch or trench. Ang kotkotin, the 
earth scratched up, or (2) thrown 
out of a ditch. Ex.: (2) Kinotkot 
nangmangd sundalo ang lupa nanq 
kamay ( the soldiers threw the earth 
out with their hands) . Ang ikot- 
kotj the means, i. e., the hands, 
claws, etc. Ex.: Ang kamay ang 
ikinotkot nang mangd tundalo nang 
lupa (with their hands the soldiers 
threw out the earth [or dug the 
trench] ). Ang kotkotany the place. 
Ex. : ltd ang kinotkotan nang mai^gd 
sundalo (this was w here the soldiers 
dug the trench), PatTgotkot, the 
instrument used for digging, as a 
spade, shovel, etc. 

Sumilidf from «7trf, a room. Ang 
fddldn (c), the room entered (no 
tense idea). Ang sindldn^ the 
room. Magsilidf to put into a room 
or to enter much. Masilid, to be 
in a room. Ang pagsmdldn, the 
room entered much. Svn., lindob, 
from lihbj within; inside. 

Humigd. Ang hihigdn ( c ) , the place; 
theWl. ira/ii5'd,tobelyingaowli, 
or in bed. Ex.: Sino kaya yaong 
nahihigdf {vfho is that lying down 

Verbs in which the idea of expulsion is inherent do not admit of in 
> ending for the direct object, which is replaced by an, han, etc. 

lace. Maglagdy (I root). Ang lalagydn, 

the place. Ang Uagdy, what 
placed. Ang ilinagay; ang inila- 

iter a room. 

B down; (2) to go to bed. 




gay; ang inalagnv: wli^t «» 

plai-ed. or h»B bMD plar^r M 

<jj^!/, to bo placwi. Ah9 h»il«- 


to a«*rt. W abaniion. (EiHitiiM. t- 

rwltip.) Ex.: Pim,M»say'«Jt^ ■" 

ana mafSiA maidaln ang tflj/mi (U"' ■-« 
Boldioraare leaving tlie toHti). 1 

^^B To Hfiw {aa ri<^'. ii-ni, 

elc.l- SumAlxig. AitQ ifdhim. vih^fov^- 1 

i.ejhegrin. ^S"''"?'"'.'\' I 

pU-c le field rice p«.ld f* | 


u l« / «ff " *" ^ 1 




-Off to BOW m h np V^'^^X^ 

fcp w a Bfw huB Hecwr -="" 

f nuim n (».(«? .-— i 

^^^^^nS Br tiittke Bi«p. 

ifonm (i r< m Sp a m sMip E^V,.'. 

clolhei). Wm atmio w-Wn '^ 

bftve no »«p). ^.Vi I« nono ^SL 
hUn (1II1.V »Dine «wpl. It will^^ 

To erect; tosetnp. 

?vn ll.a 


follow the ntne rales as natia 
ones in all respects. 

Magtapun. Ang tiapon, what throw 
Bway. Ex.; lU^xm mo <ld {thro< 
this away). Ihipon mo il6 la fubig 
tapoium mo ang liibig nit6; or on 
tiMg ang Uiptfuin mo nUS (thnii 
thia into the water [Id older to gt 

Magtaiid. Ang i{pag)lay6, what ^-. 
up thus. Jni7 H^Ia^oan, the p1ac«~^ 
Ex.: (i) Ilayd mo itong mAngd ha^^ 
lipi (set these poeta fpillara] up — ' 
tight). Rang loobang ilA'y tij/i 
kwg pogtatayoan nang Akmg bihay 
(I ani icoing to put up my hooee in 
this yard). Tkiniayd, to stand erect 
(animate being). Ex.: Ang lun- 
dalo liiiigmalayS ui hamp nang 
kaniiiong pxinfi (the soldier ii 
standing [stands] erect in front of 
[twforejhiacommander). Makiyd, 
to be erect (inanimate object). 
Ang manga haliginang Ak ngMhay 
iinliil/iijO (the posts of my houf* 
stand [are] iipriitht). Malouid 
also means upright, but generally 

Uinupii. Ang(vpa,titevaic^ ofp*}'' 
An/j tipahan, person paid or what 
paid for, as a rented hooee, etc. 


Ang pagupahanf the place. Ex. : 
Magkano ang paguupahan 9a Ma- 
ynildf ^how much is being paid 
in Manila?). 

XI. With some nouns denoting parts of the body an expresses personal 
adjectives with an idea of augmentation. 

Shoulder. Balikat. Balikatdn, broad-shoul- 

dered. Ex., verbalized: Balikatin 
mo itong kauayan (carry this bam- 
boo on your sfioulaer ) . habalVcat 
moxUmgpanyO (spread this hand- 
kerchief over your shoulders). 
Balikatan mo giyd (catch him by 
the shoulders). 

^^doath. Bibig, Bibigdn, large-mouthed, also 

great or reckless Silker. Ex. : Pi- 
nagfnhigdn niyd akd ( he talked a lot 
about me). 

^^o«e. Ihng. Ilangan, large-nosed. 

For places expressed with pag — an and ka — d?i, see under jmg and kn. 


XII. With an the direct object takes the accusative and the agent the 
^renitive. Ex. : Hinahagkdn nang anak (aet. ) ang kaniyang ind (dir. object) 

( the child is kissing his [her] mother). Lit., ** is being kissed by the ehild 
"the his [her] mother.'' Tuhiran mo iyang kdhoy (prop up that tree ) . Lit. , 
••Let be propped up by you that tree!" 

XIII. If an indirect object expressing place is included in a sentence, 

liowever. it takes the accusative case, and the direct object the genitive or 

other oblique case, the agent remaining in the genitive, as explamed in the 

prfHseding parasraph. Ex. : Tinatamndn ni amd nang sarixaring kdhoy ang 

natatnanan (Father is planting different kinds of trees in the orchard [gar-, 

denl) — lit, **The garden (ace.) is being planted with different kinds 

(abl.) of trees (gen. ) by father (ins.)." Pinaghanajxin mo bagd m cabayo 

itong daang Udf (J)id you look for the horse on this road?) — lit, ** VVas- 

looking-place your perhaps (gen.) for horse (dat.) this road? (nom. as 

trans., same form as ace. )." 

XIV. If an is used modifying a place or person in which to^ for, from, 
iv, on, tn, etc., precedes the place or person when translated into English, 
the place or person should be exfire^sed. In these cases the agent, as usual, 
takes the genitive and the direct object the accut?ati ve. The indirect objeirt 
may either precede or follow the verb, except interrogative pronouns or 
adverbs of place, which alwavs precede. The person or plat^ is empha- 
■ized by being placed before the verb in the sentence. Ex. : Imiulat niyd 
angdting giSUai (He wrote my letter for me) — lit., *' Wag written by him 
(her) the my letter." SinnsuhUan ko itong jmirel (I am writing on this 
paper) — ^lit., "Is-the-writing-place my this paper." Pagsuatulatau ko itong 
papelUd (I will write on this paper). Same construction as foregoing, 
with future tense; Sino ang pinagbilhdn mo nitong cabayo f (To whom 
have you sold this horse?) — lit, *'Who (was) the purchaser your of this 
horse?" Ang anak nang kapidbdhay ko (To the son of my neighbor) *' The 
8on of the neighbor my." 


I. Um is called the first verbalizing particle by the Spanish writers on 
Tigalog, and is generally used to verbalize roots when the action is primary 
or expressed as the act of the subject without special reference to the object. 
Vm auo has the idea of action toward another person. Some roots differ 




radically in their meaning with wni and may, or rather in opposite mvs 
Irani a. neulrftl p<Mnt. Wjth otb«r root* tiioj espresBee intewnt.v of *hil if 
espr<iMed primarily with iim. f^i, whii^h ib found in the soH»11ed imlrti- 
nite, L'hanij-ef to iiiujtn in tlie ]>Mt flnd )ire(<erit lansee, vul drops oul in ihe 
tiiturt.' WtiBe. There are also pltijwrfect and future- pe rtet-t Ipiibw, but they 
arc not geiiersliy useil. For the conjugation of a root with urn see the 
tabltB. There u'rv some irr^oiarities with some roots which are noted i'' 
tlie proper place. In the tneohanical ulructure of the lani;iu^ tim \e V"^ 
flxod to roota beKinning witli a voweJ aiid iniixeii between the first let'^* 
and the following vowel of a con«inant r«ot 

11. The philolosist Ke*ne ptve G. W. Parker, aathor of the UtaoiiO*' 
of the Malagasy LunKiiage (LcMidun, 1883), the following information aB ^*^ 
the UM and origin ofinfijcm, which applies to TaRalos ae well: . 

"The infix HvUable om (uin, am, om] ie% feature which Malagaoy ha^ * 
eommnn with KhmCr (Cainbojan), Javanese. Malay. Tacaia (sic) [PhiJ"*^ 
idne ArcbipeUgo), and no doubt other inemberaof the Mnlayo-Polj'De^^^^ 
uimilv, ^ 

"Kbm^r; Slap, dead; Ktmlati, to kill. Javanese: Hurub, flame; Aiif^* ^. 
rah, to inflame. Malay; Pilili, to chooee; j/amiHhan, choicie. Tag*^^ 
Bam U rea<l (idea of rt^ i g) lm«ai:a to i ake se of reading (to rw*T^- 

Onginally a prellx as it ^ U IB m Snmoan {t x Moln, unripe; ihoric? 
to die \ G tl ipirt le 1 ■cm" to 1 n w rtwl ts way inio the body 

[Imposition a 
wilt thmj)." 


express tlie simple u - 
I T ilhern, provided 1^ 


ment uu lur i i ra Lv or oil rwise tarned awxy irom ita stinple^ 
BenM! Mnny roots wlmlt both vm and mag with littl« diBerene* in meae 
ing an! htnm t b (ipn d IB ult to doiile p n 8 rhoiee between then 

I t 1 aj. enl v,( «e \e» n rrota differ widely h it 

f r f r« r f Ije t m d 1 s ai'tiou. ma'j to tit 
object and the action of the erb upon it 

For convenience of reference the roots eonjnKBted by tun have been ar — 
Ta^ed into numbered paragraphs, thoee following the tegular ronjufcatior^ 
being given In Par. I-XVII, and those having irregularities coming under'' 
Par. XVllI-XXl. Diminutives are treated in Par. XXII. 

I, Roots which denote qualitiee capable of being slowly aarimilated bv " 
the agent form the first class. There are some adverbs wnich are verbal- 
ized by uni in certain cases. 

To grow dark. Dumilim. MagdUim, to ktow very 

dark. Ana diliman, what is oli- 
ecured by darknem. (Angdilimdn, 
the oeier with which fish corrals 
are (ied . DUimitt is also t he name 
of a village near Manila). Ex. 
with am: Jhinffmidilim ang gnU 
(The n JKht is growing dark ) . Aug 
pagdidiliin itang 6rao, tlie eclipse 
of the sun. Madilim, to lie over- 
taken br darkness; alsoadj. dart, 
obscure. Ex.: Nadiliman tinni 
(excl.) ra doAn (We were over- 
taken by darknem on the road). 
Madiliin na (It is dark already). 
Maditim p<i (It is dark yet), ilan- 
dilim, to travel indarkness. Ex.: 
Jiouiig ipandilim iyang eabayo (Do 



ip; to become large, etc. 

cool or cold (as food or 

not travel in the dark with that 
horse). Makadilim, to become 
dark ( not limited to a slow process, 
88 with um,) TagdUim^ time or 
season of darkness. Twilight, 

Lvinakl. Ex.: Lungmaki ak6 m 
^fa^n^ild (I grew up in Manila). 
>/fi^.'aibl, to increase; to make some- 
thing larger. Ang lakMn, what 
made larger. Ang naglalaki^ the 
agent. Makalakiy to cause or to be 
able to grow larger. Ang ikalakly 
the cause. Ang pakalakihhiy what 
is to be made larger. KulakhAn, 
(abs.) size. Ang kalakilakihant 
the very largest. Mapakalaki^ to 
grow greatly; or too large. Mag- 
jjalaklf to rear (as a child) ; to edu- 
cate. Ex.: Si no ang nagpapalakl 
sa ii/df (Who reared you?) Ang 
dking nuno'y sUjang nagpalaki m 
(ikin (My grandparent was the one 
who reared me). Malaki (adj.), 
big; large. 

Lumaniig. Ex.: Lalamiq ang sa 
(The tea will become cold). Ang 
nakalamig (indef. ), ang ikalamig 
•(def.), the cause. Maglamig, to 
cool anything. Ang lamigan, what 
cooled. Ang nakcUamiginf what 
put to cool. Magpalamig^ to put 
out to cool. Malamig (adj. ), cold; 
(fig.) Malamig na banta or na Idob^ 

Pumxiii. Ex.: Pungmuputt ang bu- 
laklak (The flower is growing 
white). ^In^pu^fn, what bleached. 
Magpuli, to whiten anything. Ang 
iputt, the means or tHe whitening 
mate rial , A ng putia n, w hat w hi t- 
ened, as the wall, etc. Ang pag- 
kapiUin^ what whitened greatly. 
Ang kapuiian nang itlogy the white 
of the egg. Kapudan, whiteness 

Jjumubhdy from lubhdy very (adverb). 
Ex. : And ang lagay nang amd mof 
(How is your father?) Lun^ 
inulubhd ang kaniyang sakit (His 
illness is increasing). Nalulubhd 
ua siyA ( He is near death's door) — 
lit, *' He is exceedingly ill." Mag- 
lubhd, to increase much; (fig.) to 
be impudent. Nagluhibha ka sa 
<Uin (You are too forward with 
me; you are impudent to me). 

I is used to indicate intentional actH of destruction, damage, etc., 
gency of an animate being. If caused by an inanimate agency, 
traction or damage i.s expressed by maka (naka). Ex.: Ang /in- 

white; to bleach out 

lae, etc. 


estingtiUh; to put Puniato}). 

Ihem]; or they are iloing mC^^);^ 
lianiHge to the plants) . Mait jfv 
to be dertroyedi to epoU. 8E^^ 
spoiled. Afnl n<i onff motoMb t ^^j y 
preservefl are epaut^ nlrpad^^',.' 

plelely; i 

,!/ iC^;'^ 

honor of another; to diehono ^^ 
UfagtanrdtirA, to be destroy e^^^^ 
completely. Ex. : Ana niniii/toic^^^ 
niriUiraan nang maiu/& (laya'ii ""^^^ 
paffbaUtkA {war destroy g towi^C^-^^ 
[fie., countries] completely). ^^^ 
■""^'jijunoff. iSino (iaod ana •unnrniinO''^*^ 
(Whotun. ^ 

....„,,gft(ihiivtiai(*l/ (U 

this housed) Aywaanatd, p6 ( ^p^ 
don't know, air). .Jn^ n'mino^^^ 
( what was or has been Kt Are to) ^4- 
Magninog, t« bum up (intention' ^^i 

nlly). Ana pinagtiinog, 
burned up thus. Maminog, I 

up; to be Dumed. Ex.: An ani "f^^~j 
«t_W<'( Kill/ (immj? bdftai/ (he bumedt' -^ " 
our house). i\'a*iinog ang oniiHjfc^S^ 
Imhaii (our house burned down).^ — ^^ 
,W(iit<()"'(noy, to cause to eet fire tos ^j 
also to be burned, as troiii anolhei"^^ ^j 
houiie, etc. Magkatunog, to puffer"^*^ ^_ 

(many) fromavonHagration. Sii 

Hwj, L-onflagrstion (note accent). 

HI. As a coneral rule, urn verba have a corresponding definite with in, — - ^ 
Die reverse is not alwavM tnit;, as the ai-U of causiuK emo^on in olhera.^e^'' 


ised by in with definite sentences, take the indefinite with 971a (na), 
n other roots used with magpa (nagpa) in the indefinite take the 
:e in an. These will be noticed in the proper places. 
C/m, with roots denoting weapons, tools, and instruments, expresses 
e of such objects. 

r. Iwd, Umiwd, to stab. Ang iwaan, 

the person stabbed. Magiwdi, to 
wear a dagger. Mangiwdj to use 
a dagger on one's self. Magpa- 
paiTgiiudf to wound each other with 
daggers (as in a m6\6e). 
Sibat (syn., tandos). Jsumibal, to 
spear or to throw a spear. Ang 
nbaliny the object. Ang isibaty the 
spear thrown. Maggibat^ to carry 
a spear. A ng paggioalan, the place. 
Dams. DumardSf to use an adze. 
Ang pandardSf the adze itself. Ang 
rwflfjdarard*, the user. Ex.: Dara- 
sin mo itd (plane this off). 

rs, Gunling. Gumunlingt to cut with 

scissors; to shear. Ang guniingin^ 
what cut off. Anggnniiugan^ from 
what. Magunlinqy to use the scis- 
sors on one's hair, etc. Magupit 
is the better word for this last. 
KaUim. Kumalam f to p]tine. Mang- 

anpatam, planer. 
Ghnbal. Oumimbalf to drum. Man- 
gigimhaU drummer. 

Urn is used with roots denoting postures to express such postures or 

ms when taken voluntarily. 

nd up; to go to the defense of Tumindig, Angiindiaan, the person 
;her; (3) to go to get married. before whom standing; the place 

or (3) the woman to be married. 
Magtindipf to stand up much. 
A ng tindtganf ( 2 ) is the person gone 
against in the defense of another, 
and ang itindig the cause. Mag- 
iindigan (dual) two on foot facing 
each other, as warriors, etc. Aa- 
tindigaUf one of two opponents 
thus. Ang ipagtindigan^ the cause 
of thus facing each other. Ang 
pa0indiganan^ the place. Ang 
tinindigauy the scene of war; field 
of battle. Maiindig^ to be on one's 
feet; (2) to be risen. Akd'ynati- 
tindig, I am on my feet. AktVy 
nalindigy I had risen. Magpatin- 
digy to stand another on his feet, 
or to stand something upright. 
Ang patindig, the position of being 
on one's feet or being upright. 
Ex.: Patindigin mo itong tAuo (tell 
this man to stand up). Ipatindig 
mo iUmg tduo (stand this man on 
his feet). Patindigan mo sa Hong 
lamesa niyang laranan (stand that 
image [statuette; picture] upright 


o miee, as the hair. 
Til plm* one's hoU in Iront; to iwe T<imnpal. (2) jJnj (dpolin, thewurrf 
X\\c rmnt; (2) to keep ime's woril. kept. (I) ono Capulnn, the penon 
ititifronted; also lapalaii, a cutaS, 
yarti, etc. JfojdijxK, to trival. 
iaik, or do in a direct couiw or 
maimer. 12) Atig ipngtapat.nii^^ 
JUHt in. .imf pagUipalan, before 
whom. ( 1 ) Pafflapatin. two things 
placed Isciiig esen other. Mag'''' 
paCnawika.Binuaiittiilk. Malap^' 
to be facing; (2f tobelongtow"'* 
one. Notatapat ttya »n owil'lf? 
willing bnil, he (sHe) has a V'^ 
(buslHuid) without jodjon*'' , 
MaHapat, a just nieaaure. ^^,' 
JToTuv"'' Tio gtivd (a jurt deei^J; 
Mugimliimap'a, to fei|^ to be i^^,! 
Ang naokatalapot, the couple £^" 
ioK each other (dual). Ana n^'*^, 
iolnmiHono/, the perBons itaeS ^ 
eai-h oih.!r (p!ur»/). Ex., w* * 
ma-iUijml, in the sense of pljmti ^, 

on act i>- ., 

the trees in roWa, too ) . " ^^ 

whom or wbmt place. iuAora^^^. 
cushion. Maghihod, to kne^^^ 
mucli; or by many; to caoae af^^" 
other to kneel; to kne«l wit^^^^^ 
something. Ang iluhod, the ob^^ — J 

jectkneltwith. Maluhod,\ft'kneis: ' 

involuntarily or unconeciouBly; tc^- 
bekneelinft; alsoadi. kneeling; ic:^^ 
be on the knee«. Nahiluhod tUa,,,^^ 
they are on their knees. Mapala^"^^ 
hod, to remain kneeling. Magpa — "^ 
tiluhud, to kneel suddenly. Ani^ 
paluli'il, the position of kneeline. 
Ang tithnd, the knee. TlimiUoa, 
to touch with the knee purposely. 
Miitiihod, to touch with the knee 
accidenlallv or cbbusIIv. [Mitii- 
bp'l, to be fiumble. ) Tumitli^od, 
to kneel (down). Magtikluhod, to 
kneel down nmch. Ang litluho- 
ron, the place or the person knelt 
to. Ang itapalikluhixl, the cause 
ot many kneelin);. Also vianitlii- 
hod, to kneel down. An;/ pnniHii- 
liortiii, the place or peraon knelt 
to. .111? tpiiiiikliikoii, the cauK. 
Magpiiititliihod, to kneel much. 
Ang jiagjiapamlJuhoron, the kneel- 
inK people (many). See conjugS' 
tion of manikluhod. 





9 one's self. 

le side (action); to place 
on one's side. 

le back (action); to place 
on thQ back. 

on hands and feet (not 


i; to take a seat. 

I to rest (briefly). 

>n; to recline. Humilig. Ang ihUig, what part of 

the body leaned upon. Ang hili- 
gan, the place; couch, etc. {Hu- 
milig is ' * to weave. ' * Note accent. ) 

Humigd. (Previously explain^ in 
detail. ) 

Tumaob. Magtaobf to place another 
face downward. 

Dumapd. Marapd, to fall prostrate 

TumagUid. MagtagUid, to be lying 
on the side ( state ) . Ang paiagilidf 
the position of lying on the side. 
Gilid is side; also entrance to a 

Tumihayd.. Matihayd.^ to be lying on 
the back (state). Ex.: Bdkit ka 
ruititihaydf ( Why are vou lying on 
your back?) Mapatihaydy to fall 
on the back. Ang patihayd, the 
position of being on the back. 

Tumuad. Magpatuadf to stand on 
all four feet (as an animal). 

Umupd (one). Magupd (more). 
Maupdf to he seated (state). Ang 
paupdf the sitting position. Ex. : 
Il6*y gagauin mong nang paup6 
(This will have to bJe done by you 
while sitting down). 

Maglikmd. Ang likmoany the resting 

s used to express voluntarily or involuntarily (but consciously) 
life-supportinjB: actions and organic functions of the body, except 
li are used with vtagy and a few with man. Some actions of 
objects also follow tHis rule. 

Kumain. ( Partly explained before. ) 
Magkain^ to eat much ; or by many. 
Magkainkainan^ to nibble (dim.]. 
Ex.: Naghikainkainan siyd^ he is 
nibbling (pretending to eat). 
MarTgain^ to eat continually ; to de- 
vour, j/a Aram, edible (adj.). Ma- 
kakain, able to be eaten. Magpa- 
kain, to give food to another person 
or animal. Ang pakanin^ who or 
what led. Ang ipakain, the food 

fiven. Ang pakaninan^ the place. 
)x.: Papakain ka kay Juan (ask 
Juan to give you something to eat ) . 
Ijmpakain mo sa ^^cocinero^^ ilong 
bald (Tell the cook to give this boy 
(child) something to eat). Bakil 
hindt mo pinakakain Hong manyd 
<dwo.''(\Vhyaren't you feeding these 
peoi)le.) rakaninmo iTga mldy feed 
them. An6 ang iplnakakain mo sa 
kauilaf (What are vou giving 
them [to eat]?) PinaX-ain ko siia 
nang kanin,p6. ( I have given them 
some rice, sir. ) 

TAfiALOe X.AHaiIA(l& 

To nrallow Uqnida. 

To abow tbe taeth; to grin. 

TolM«h (TolnntMilj). 

To shed tears; to cry quietly. 

CMmm. MafOmm, to drink mndi 

bofora.) JtHt pimakmrn, wbo or 

the cMnk oIvml tklAtmrn, 1» 
Utaal driiiliM. " * 
irreKplar form of 

AjfU7iiMi. AIxo jmyiijrMi Will fijrairirt- 
nti^ui. Anff ini/in or nnj ijm- 
irgtui, thr cftiu* of showint; iha 
ttutli, or the iiiuutli and l««lh. 
.Ijy/ j'llnhTipirihnn tile pewou or 
Bnimnl Ihe I«elii pJiowti t.i. Ryn., 
A/uMuriijriJi. The Willi lidteUiWlMl 
AV''i"'li"^"'l'i''ii-ikBbtigin toehon. 

SlJI'if.': \l. ; I ."■.',", tln'HIuilp orlhfl 

■■■ ■■'. llie pt^tKin 

'rdii, i.p laugh liiDch, 
Mmti/ii'jUina, to iBU^h 
Ttii'iua tiang tnlaua, 

tby ■ 
to la. , 

olInT, Aifjt'ui'iiiiiii, w hat laughed 
at by one or a few. Angpaglau- 
<mdn, what laughed Bt by ituuiT. 
Ang ilauii, tbe cause (one ortew). 
Aug ipaglava, the cauae of quuit 
laughin);. MaJaua, to laugh iuvol- 
untarilyi to giggle. BAtit ka na- 
UUaunf ( WhyareyoagigglJDgMi?) 
Makalaua or maapalava, to caose 
laughter. Atig iiilaii&, the com- 
panion Id laughter. Malauaaia, 
laughing peraon. 

UvLmibik. AIbo hibiihUnk. Anj 
ihibik or anp itahibit, the caise. 
A variation lu liumiuibtk or AimM- 

Lumttlii. Ang nagluivhi, the eyw 
sheddiuK teare. Ang I'/uAd, the 
team, Ang lijiuiuhaan, the peraon 
before whom teare are shed, etc 
MngknluTid, to shed tears UDCon- 
Bciously. LuTigmalagok6»aixgtiM, 
the tears are trickling. 

TumarTmt. (Already explained.) 

Huii'UiK. Aug hiiik, the Bnorer. 
Alao Iltimikah, var. humigah. 
These last words also mean "to 
yawn." Maghilik, to snore much. 
Ang paghilik, the great 8noier> 



x> expectorate. 

h another. 

the noee. 

water (voluntarily). 

to run through a pipe (as 

ind other liquids). 

s; to run in a small stream. 

Also maghikab. Ex.: Naghihikab 
ang makakatHlog (the sleeper is 
Fnoring a great deal ) . Hihtkabhi- 
kahf to breathe with great diffi- 
culty, as a dying man. 

Lumurd. To perform the same act 
as a sign of disgust at anyone, man- 
lurd. Lulurdrif spittoon; cuspi- 

Kumagat. (Already explained.) 

Kumdmot. Magkdmotf to scratch 
one's self. Ang parTgdmot, the 
scratcher (instrument). 


Bumahin. Palahahin or mapaqbd- 
hiuj a person who sneezes much. 

Vmihi. Pandbig is a more polite 

Tumae. Sadn ang kumdnf (Where 
is the water-closet?) 


Lumagoslds, (Idiom) 

(to give birth to), as ani- 
Manganak is "to bear a 

loots which express objects whi(;h ma^ he produced by slow self- 
^ processes generally take um to indicate the process, although 
ortant ones take maji (q. v. ), the latter usually commencing with 6. 
up, to grow up (as plants); Tumubd. Tuboan^ plant already 

sprouted f usually applied to cocoa 
palm). AfaqtubOj to gain; to win. 
Katulubdf of the same age; bom 
at the same time (no relationship 
idea). Magpatul^, to invest; to 
put out at interest. Ex.: Bdkii 
hindi mo triyd pinauutang nang »a- 
laptf (Why don*t you lend him 
some money?) Sa pagkaH wold, 
at ang dking salapt ajf pincUuboan 
ko f Because I have none* [to lend], 
ana my money has been invested ). 
Sa limang piso na inutang ko kay 
JuaUy ay pinatutubd ak6 niyd «a 
iaang Bolapi (for five p>ej»oe which 
I have borrowed from Juan he is 
now asking me a half peso as in- 
terest). An6f (What?) Isang sa- 
lapt ang ipinatutubd ni Juan sa 
dking sa limang piw na inutang ko 
m kan iyd ( A half peso is the inter- 
est asked me by Juan on five pesos 
which I Ix^rrowed from him). 
Ex.: "To come up." Tungmutubb 
hagd ang marTgd silif (Are the 
peppers [chiles] coming up?) 
Sumihol. Sunamisibol na ang matTgd 
hdlaman m halamanany the plants 
in the garden are already putting 
out shoots. (2) Also applied to 
the growth of the beard and other 
actions of like nature. Masibol, to 

55—05 11 

»rth shoots. 



w<:ll out, ae water from ■ irell ^ or 
Bpring. Ana libulAn, the mtinlK" -lii 
i^ing which the rice fiproaW, et^^*^ 
Vmatbtmg, from tabotig, bud. JUiiy i — ^ 
6cn>^, to bave buds. Syn-riutiW*^^^" 
npmi. OnUj^Ml, Id bud, to (iptol — ;^'- 
Ex. with lubung: L'tiginuuiboag "^"° 


ith luOung; Cujniiu' 
iiir<rd M/u>;i (the 


u iiitol, a irprout. 
.inj; mirliiu^an, the tl 

" be raining. 

To blow: lolxiblDwiiin;; lolw windy. 

To eproDt (eepeoally of tnbera, like SiirniiUit, Iroi 

the gatii and tiie comutr). 
ToBiirimt (hh BUfkpm from th« trunk So"i"p/i'iff. 
of^or ut llie fijot o( a true). 
Vlli. (.'in Bipresses (I) nietuorulof^ml pbenouienn, provided tht *"*--**; 
doeenot nimmeniv with '',- and (2) aatronomii^l traiiKitionii, if the chaJ^^ 
iarepre«;nt«lasoccumnn8tid the phenomena are not otherwiaeeKpre^a^'^' 
Ex. (li: 

VmulAn. VmutanuUm, to driw*^**' 
limjnldii, to BOW seed or to do »*^ ^' 
tbine in tho rainy eesieoa. ~-^ ''^ 
lagtUAn, the nuny «e«eon. iV»»"?' 
f;QAn, laud which is planled- J*° 
the rainy eeaaon. Any rttnn. «*'^ 
rain. MaulAn, tu have many r*i^**'; 
also lo be caaght in [be rain, l^^-'g 
AVijindUud Minru vattlaiuin ( *^J 

were walking along and w"^""^ 

ciuight in tlie rain). . 

Iluvumgitt (from hanyiti, wiia*J^ 

MaghnnipH, to blow contiuuou*^'.^ 

until the wind chuiges; bIm V^ i 

Sit anrtbing out in the wi*^; 
agpahaiTrfin. to plBce ont-'s ^^' 
where the wind la blowing. ( S '-'" 
lUxt^aL ) ( 

Kumidhu (from kidkit. n Hwli j! 
lightninR). Magti'llaf, to light^^ 
much. 01dfonn,i-irf.(L 8yn.,t»---*' 

J.u^^^tii- (from /iiiti't. The "tbi^*"' 
derl:-olL"] _ , 

Kumaiog. Maghilog, to thunder 
great deal. 

(.Tnajd (from dj^d morning). (2) __ ^.^k 

(many), aBaretriment,etc.i (3)V 
eat early, .linj; agaan, what eal«' 
time, i. e., tbe brealuaet. I'aa ' 
to come early. NaagA tiyi, 
came early. Ang ipaagA, what i^ 
tri be done early. ^-' ^\ 

I'm.irao (from Arao. (1) Sun; (?*=^ 
day; (:!) wfathcr.l J/iiyiirao, tob^^J; 
very "unny. MaArao, to be oveL^^^^ 
heateil by tbe eun. Hovag tun, ^_ 
mal'iM iTiiaijiV y laaaarau&n ia t "«"**!^ 
nlian (bon't go out now, becaaa^^Sj 
tbe Bun will be out and you wi^^*^ 

Toli«bt.-n; K. Ix 


To beMruet by 


To thunder. 

Ex. (2): 

To dawn. 



become late. 

becfiine night; to do anything 
t night; to be overtaken by night. 

grow dark. 

grow cloudy; dark. 

grow dark; to become twilight. 

eclipse (lit. "to be dragoned"), 

get overheated ) . ManadraOf to use 
dailv. Ang pangdraoarao, what is 
used daily or eomethinp^ for daily 
use. Magpadrao, to wait until the 
sun shines; (2) to wait for day; 
(3) to sun one's self; (4) to put an 
object in the sunshine. £x.: (3) 
Ilouag kang magpadrao (Do not 
sun yourself). (4) Mdgpadrao ha 
nang damil (Sun the clothes). 
Magpakadrao, to continue at a 
thing until aaylight. Ex.: Nag- 
pakwdrao siydng magdral (He 
studied until daylight). 

Humapon ( from hapon^ the time be- 
tween noon and dark; afternoon 
(Northern United States); even- 
ing (Southern United States). 
(2) To go to roost, as chickens. 
Maghaporif all day. Kahapon, 
yesteraay. K. nana umagdj yes- 
terday morning. A. nang hapon^ 
yesterday afternoon (evening). 
K, sa gahif last night. Mamayang 
hapony later in the afternoon 
(evening). Mahapon^ to eat sup- 
per. Ang haponan^ the meal. 
Manighapon (from tighapan), to 
do something in the afternoon or 
evening (generally applied to 
looking after plants, etc. j. 

(iiimabl (from gabi), night. Ex.: 
MagmacUilt kat gagabifnn 8a gdbat 
( Make haste or you will be over- 
taken by ni^ht in the timber). 
Nagabihan siyd sa ddan (Night 
overtook him on the road). Ifoy- 
pakagabi, to continue at a thing 
until night. Ex.: Nagpakagam 
sUang magdral (They studied until 

DumUim. (Already explained.) 

Lumimlim (from limlim). Malimlimf 
to be cloudy, etc. Lumimlim also 
means to cluck, as a hen when 
she lays an egg. Ang linilimlimany 
the egg laid. MagpaUmlimy to set 

Sumilim, Ex. : Pofilimin la muna bago 
lumdkad (Ijet us wait for dusk be- 
fore we march ) . Lit. * * Walk on " . 
(2) To penetrate (as the cold). 
(2) Slnisilim akd nang lamig (I am 
chilled through by the cold). 

Lurnahd. Lumamon^ "to swallow,** 
and kumainj "to eat," are also 
used. Ex. : Linamon (kinaiti) nfing 
lahd ang b(man (The moon has been 
swallowed [eaten] by the eclipse 
[dragon]). Rahu is the dragon 
of Hindu mythology which tries 


t the eim aoii i 



Sungmilnng iia aiig if"", 

■■' iae quickly). SmigmitmJi^';^ 
langh, hiUan (the stare ^*j 
ehfnin^l. .4n^ •iloii^n, the Ey^ ..^, 
Anfi wnitaffgan, what wse l'"^*,!;;. 
by the rim ot the eon or v. 

moon, or the ahitiio); out of m^ 

etars. Ma^panlang, to wait i=^^^-^^i» 
one ot above-me 111 i fined bo- ^ . 
rise, Ex.: Bfkil Hindi mo jnii'r^^'^",^ 
lang mtaia ong oraot ( Wliy d^*" ■-.}. 
you wait unti faun rise?) PatUai "" "^.^^ 
■" aangArao ( Liet Qi wait a - ^*^ 

!. {2\ To fill up 
» & cbiiirli. lioiMe, 


(1) Si^hat ^M ^ 

Aiao (houan) (the min [uioon] w 
nee soon). (2) Suv-iMttt (na*- 
iatan) ang b&hay nana Idiui (H 

(as the enn); primary n- 
'to Jrown. Applicatic 
n from fact that eun «■ 

To dive; to pluniK into; to 
bottom. (2) Toset,hL " 
aa th« sun. 


kalan) ana bahay nana tdiio (I 
house ie filling [fllled] with p 
pie), Magjiimlfil, to wwt "t-j^ - .„ 
rising of sun, moon, etc, 1*^ .^S™« 
place. Ex.; Pnntalinmoa/ig6i^ ^^ 
(Wail until the son rises). -^. 

lMmii7utd. Ang taimutran, the We*^^^?* | 
lit. "the drowning place," ^'■^'Zr^'h^ 

set}. LniigmviumxIanglAuo ITL"^^",^ 
man ia drowning himself) . UaB^ '*^i_ 
laxi, to be drowned. With f'^JZ 
volition nu»y be undefslood, ar*--^""' 
nilh JHU ao(:i<ient, 
LttmiilKig. Lumubog ang am 
sunhasBet), Lit "dived," jui^^ '-i(L 
Uibwi, to plunge another or an o' ■^^-^''' 
ject under the water. 

IX. I'm is used with nxitu when attraction toward theagentisexprease<^|^[^3i 

or when the agent gains control ot eomethinR. The opposite idea of loi^=^^-*^ 

ing control, etc., is Bonietimes fspreseed with the same root, and in oth^*- *" 

cases with different roots, the particle mag being then the verbaliier. 

To buy. Bumili. .\fngUli, to sell, (Both c^ f 

these have already been e^*^' 

plained. ) . 

To borrow. Umutang. JUa^iitano, to lend. ( BoC — ^ . 

partly explained before. ) Ei.^ -^" 

i-utiiiTfian to gi Tom&i nang Hman^ ^^ J. 

pito (i will borrow 5 pesos froii' 

Toni^), Koutangan, (aba, ) debl^ 

Paiitang, credit. 

To cxebanj^'; t<j liarter, I'uiiialil. Ang pinaiil, what 

changed or liartered. 
To take. A'rcini(/((i. Ang pagkvha, the ac 

taking, (Forms with in, i, 
ikinii, and nn have been explai 
In-retofore. ) 
To ri'dei'ni; lo ransom, Sumi'ditp. Magtdkop, to redeeiM 

iiiui'li, .Vatatop, to b 




icounter; to strike, 
irloin; to filch; to steal. 

itc»h; to seize; etc. 


Ang sdkopf the vassel or follower. 
Makasdkopf to be able to dominate. 
Ncisamkopan niyd ana hayan (The 
village [town] is under liis rule). 
Lit.: *'The town is ruled by 

Umumit. Ang umtttn, what pur- 
loined. Maumitin or mapagumit, 

Humuli. Ex.: Ihd ang pogong huli 
naj sa huhulihin pa (Better the 
quail caught alr^idy than that 
which has yet tobe caueht). — T. P. 
ManhaU^ to live by robbery. 

long other words coming under this class may be mentioned tuman- 
* * to accept or receive; * ' auimiibip, * * to seize or catch hold of ; " umdbuif 
overtake; to reach;*' and sumaluf)ongf "to go out to meet anyone;'* 
f which have been explained before. 

Urn expresses voluntary acts of agents upon others when mutuality, 
ity, or plurality is not denoted. The latter are expressed by m«^, an 
I generally suffixed for mutuality. Examples: 

Sumama. Magaama, to accompany 
each other (two or more). Ang 
kasamUf the companion (servant). 
Ang kasajnahaiij the person accom- 
panying another. Makisamaj to 
thnist one's self into the company 
of another. Magka^ama^ to gather, 
as a crowd. Sumamd is to go 
into partnership," and Sumamd is 
"to become bad or evil." These 
examples show the great impor- 
tance of accent in Tagalog. 

Hnmiwalay. Ang kiwcUayanf the 
person left. Maghiwalay^ to sepa- 
rate mutually. Mahiwafay, to 
part accidentally or casually, etc. 
kyn. tiwalagy with the same com- 
bmations and meanings as above. 
Both probably from waUt, without; 
not to have, etc. Thvalag is often 
used in the sense of divide, but 
waiak is better. Magkawaiahvatak, 
to be divided into many parts. 

Pumisan. Magpisan or jnagkapisanf 
to associate together. Ex.: Ang 
pinagkakapimvan nnng manga ka- 
runongan^ the uniting place of the 
sciences (knowledge, diinong), 
i. e., scientific society, university, 
otc. Pimn as an adjective means 
"merely; purely." There is a 
noun visan meaning " sudden 
death.* Mnkapisav, to kill 

another suddenly. 

Vmump, Ang vmpin^ the person 
sued. Ang kausap, the compan- 
ion in conversation. Magiiaap^ to 
converse (two or more); (2) to sue 

ave another. 

►in with; to unite with. 

alk to; 
ng suit. 

(2) to sue another or 



one another; to litigate. JVan^ii- 
Mp. to talk mnch; to talk to aa 
audience. Rx.: Ilouag «io ntong 
laka»(ai nang paiujuiii/'ifaji (don t 
Ulk to me M> mni^h in ^uch a 
rough way). (As the variations 
of the idea "to Hue" arc derived, 
theywill beouiitt«d). Makipn^'i- 
top, t» convereB with another; (3) 
to thrust one's self into a c-onveraa- 
tion. Ex. : Jbig viimpmakipagugap 
wa 6tinf (do yon wish to liave a 
talk with me?]. Op6 {yes. sir). 
Jygaii/i'ij hindt tnaiigyiiyari, it 18 not 
poeaible just now ). XakipatiiiMp. 
to nwh uninvited into a conveiaa.- 
tion between others. Falaiitnp, a 
barrator or ficrpetual bringer of 
gronndlp-HS suiW. Ungtnpalnumi, 
to beponiB a barrator. Ex.: Aa- 

e'n/Hil/iiimiii tif/d't naffimiialnlango- 
n(he has beooinea barnitcrand 
catninaa drunkard). The firet 
vii'e, l>arralTy, is vety prevalent 
wilh Tagalogs; the aeoond is very 
rare. It would be unusual to Snil 
the combination eet forth above, 
bat KrammatiL-ally it ia an exi.-t;l- 
lent example with magin. 
finiiriiiiA Maipio'ii^ lo i^iiarri'l willi. 
KaAuay, antaKODist; pneiny. 
Ang ipag&wiy, the cause of qaai- 
rel. £x.: Ang ipinagiiuay mnig 
vwutifA kapidbahag namin ay antf 
aio Hi Feliaano, p6 (a dog of Fe- 
liciano wna the cansQ for the quar- 
rel of our neiKtibore). Itonq bahai^ 
nn il6 ang pinagauayan ni/d (thi^ 
house is where they have l>eeii 
qnarrellinK [or where they ijuar- — 
reled]). itatipagdvay, to pick v^ 



quairell^ in the market 

; to march; to I.uiiiiiiad. .Infj/ailyTrtii, what walkfil 
for, i. e., the object of walking". 
Kx.: ,lii(!'I hindi ka lungmaUihut 
r malutinf (why don't voii 
e quickly?). Magldiad, 
to walk muchorquickly; to carry 
BOmethioK while walking. An;/ 
itiikad, the means of walkinp, as 
the foot, or the object carried 

nana i 
walk II 



^o run. 

leap down. 

To l^p 


along. Aug lakararif the person 
walked to, or the place walked to. 
Aug paglakardrif the route, path, 
or road, etc., walked over. Ang 
maglaldkad, the walker; traveler. 
Maglakadidkad (dim.), to stroll. 
Ang paglakadlakarAn, the ground 
strolled over. MagpalAkad^ to or- 
der or cause to walk up or go 
ahead. Makalakadf to be able to 
walk. Ex.: Palakarinmo ngaiyang 
cabayo iti&n (make that horse walk 
up ) . itindt ma kalAkad siyd* tpilat/f 
2>^ (he is not able to travel; he is 
lame, sir). Nakalaldkad ak6 (I am 
able to walk). NakaUd&kad giyd 
mna (he may be able to walk). 
Lumakbay is ** to go a long ways 
on foot;" "to make a hike.** It 
has the same changes and varia- 
tions as Idkad. There are several 
other variations of the idea, all 

Tumakbo, Already explained. 

Lumoks6, Already explained. 

Tumal^n. Ang talonan^ the place. 
Ex.: Tumalmi ka sa tiibig (jump 
into the water). 

Lumtisong. Already explained. 

Lumangoy, Already explained. 

Lumhbog. Already explained; syn., 

Til mahdn, MagUxhaUy to stop another; 
Magtahanan^ to stop each other 
( two ) . Nagtahdn street in Manila 
means "stoppins place,'' as it ends 
at the bank of the Pdsig River. 

Humumpay. Walang humpay^ end- 


Tumakfis. Ang maatatahis, mataka- 
sin. or palatakcuj the hider (person 

Ilumango. This form originally 
meant to redeem another from 
slavery, and um has been retaine<l 
while the meaning has changed. 
MaghaiTgo (now out of use) meant 
to reileem one's self from the same 

Gnnuipnng. Ang hatd ay nakagagd- 
jxing (the child is able to crawl). 

XII. Um 13 used with voluntary actions upon or against another. Ac- 
ions affecting the subject are expressed with ynag. Um is not used with 
nvoluntary actions, as matisody '* to stumble." Ex. : 

^^ leap or jump down; to alight. 
To «9wim. 
To aive. 


T*^ cease; to end, ett». 

^^ run away. 

^ o hide (from fear). 

pull out; to take out; to draw out. 

b crawl; to walk on all fours. 

o wash the face of another. 

Humilamos, evidently from damos; 
amoSf idea of dirtiness of the face. 
Ex.: Amosamosaii ana mukhd mo 
(your face is very dirty). Ang 
hilamosany the person washed. 



To oouib the hair of another. 

To ahave ani)t]ier, 

To cure another. 

(occasionally ). 
wash one-8 (kce ( 

I wash one's EuT 
Mankilamoi, V 
« (habitually I. ^n) 
^ . ii,theme«iis,i.e.,huk^ 

Bponge, wash rag, water usnl, e^' 
Ang pnnhilamomn, the place, i-'" 
the wash basin, elc. ,, 

Sumuir'ai/, JMay»ui'toy,tocoinb<>P'j 
hair. Angtt'tlamn, whalcom-"*^ 
i. e.. the hair. Aug pu3•"W-r^i*; 
what combetl much. Ang p ' 
tiavon, what combed upon. 
itutlag, the means, etc. 
Hay, the comb. Mn^pai 
(•raer t« comb; alM> to allow c 
hair to be combed. 
VmAhit. MagAhU, to shave 
eeU. -In;; pnfTtiAil, Uie i 
ahaTinu (another), .iln^pni/o 
llie act ot Hhavin^ ones __^ 
Mangtihit, to shave las an •"^'-^^jLt 
lion). Anf manaahU, the barr ^^ 

AngpanAhtt, Ihe means, i. e., ^ („ 

MKor. JfoypaiiWi, to Older ^^-^ . 
Bha\-e; alw to get ehaved. £^^5j„ji| 
MiijfpaaJiil hi kayJuan (Tell J^~ i^ 
to shave you). M~igpa'<hil ^ .^•vb 
Juon »1 ftrfro (Tell Juan to ah»- fnr 
Pedro). Ang pinagnahilim " 

C» of being shaved, i. c 
bervhap. .Injr i Allan, ihe ] 
BOH ehaved. (See pttimea alt 
Gumupxi. Xagjupil, to cut ( . ,,,, 

own hair, .lui/jinn/iif, what '* "^^aij 
If.vii (.■Til, or thi; |ier-(iri » hi.ii^ lie:*" .j,,, 

to cut metal. The use of shears ^^hf 
implied in all cases. (Bee tt» " 
phraaes for examples.) __E^e- 

Giiiiiamut. Maggamot, to cure one^^^^^ 
self. Mangamot, to cure P'^'e**'^^^ 
fionally, i.e., to practice medicin^^ ^^ 
A'lfTamofan (aba.), medicin^ ^'^ „ 
Ang mnnganamoi, the p h y sjciaig^ ^ j 
jlnjf pnnjromofin, the person curei^^^^^^ 
Magaiiiol, to have much medic ine"*^^ p 
or to have many tindsof medicine^^^ 
(Idiom:) iValnng gamol ong limol * .j 
there ie do cure tor the forgetful *- -^, 

inpyiin nnng gamol I Before iilneta^^^ 
comea,apply the Ten.edv). — T. P- ^ 
362. This seems to be an ailapta ^ 

tioit from the Spanish. 

A'tim.lmwf. (.Mready explained.) ^,^ 

IluiiKiiiijH^t, .l/n(jflnm;)o», to whif-- J^ 

iinc8-self (as in penance). Aii( 0' -* 

h'lmiinsin, the [wrson whipiietf---^ 

^ Ihe 




ang Idtay (the lash to the carabao 
and the welt to the horse). — T. P. 
e or club another. Pumald. Magpaloan, to cudj^l each 

other. Ang pamaldf the garrote. 

[. Um is also used to express voluntary acts of the senses, except 
hose roots which commence with 6. Ex. : 

k for; to see by so looking. 

ir (by listening). 
1; to touch. 

ell of. 

te; to relish (purposely). 

Kumitd, Magkiidt to look at each 
other (two or more). MagkUd, to 
look at intently, or at many things. 
Makild, to be seen. Makakitd, to 
see (casually). Ex.: Akd^y naka- 
kikitd (I am able to see). Akd^y 
nakakUd nang isang tduo diydn (I 
saw a person there^). Nakitd mo 
hagd siydf (Did you see him 
[her]?) Hindi f ngunVt makikUd 
ko Sana, (no but I may be able to 
[see] ) . Magkakitdf to be deceived 
by the sight. Ex.: NagkakcLkini 
kitd ak67 (Do I see visions?) 
NagkakakinikUaan akd (My sight 
deceives me). Nagkakinitaan akd 
(My sight deceived me). 

Damingig, (Already explained.) 

Humipd. Maghipdf to touch much. 
Ang hipoin, what touched. 

Vmamoy. Ex.: Amoyin mo it6 
(smell this). Maamoy, to smell 
casually. Ex.: Naaamoy mo bagd 
ang bangong isinasambulat nang 
manad bulaklakf (Do you smell 
the fragrance shed by the flowers?) 
Makaamoy, to be able to smell 
something. Nakaaamoykat (Can 
you smell anything?) Asd^ smoke. 

Lumasap. Ang lasapin, what tasted. 
Makalasapf to taste ( casually ) ; also 
to cause a relish. 

'. Some roots denoting passions and emotions of a certain kind are 
:ated by ww, when the iaea of voluntary action is expressed. Other 
>f this nature are conjugated by mag. When casual, ideas of emo- 
5tc., are expressed with ma. Ex. : 

e. Sumintd. (Already explained. ) Of 

Sansk. origin, through Malay. Lu- 
miyag is a synonym, now rare. 

e for; to desire; to wish. Umlbig. ^faq^hig^ to long for. Magi- 

bigauy to like each other (two). 
Ang inibig, what liked. Ana ini- 
ibig, the person who is likea and 
reciprocates the liking. Angpagi- 
big^ the wish, desire, liking. Ang 
pagkaihiij the act of liking, desire, 
etc. Ang pinagibigan, what mutu- 
ally longea for. Maibig {&(!]. ), lov- 
ing, (2) capricious, (3) to have 
a liking for. Ayig nalbig, the per- 
son liked, but who is unaware of 


To like; (2) ti. dwiin-. 

Anji kinailiigm, 

Abaolntf, %. 

tht> (ai^, JMM^to, an •monoi 
amn; k llUt. MaMbiff, totwdir 
nntunlly. Aai'&ienfN (mliM. I. low. 
ilwirp. .tiy toiotfoii (note ■ 
iwut) , the (rleod, Anj/ iinaiUoRi 
wluit lovwl. Kc'" '" 
liiniahle; loTJiig. 
An6 img fbiij mof \ n dh ho jnis 
wiiib?) /Ujj moRjrn'ni'iniaai) uin/ 

iDo you wmh to jro with met) 
r.inifi/»7,(l)trt)ikviiiuiyi [21 To 
flirt baUlujilly; (3) to mre fir* 
for one thing and thpn anothrr, 
V.x.inMiilASi, T.I*,; ,lnf/f'i»u,i;Fiu> 
P'lyih-g hanif&n m Axil mnfumii 
(TniP lovE u Bweet to the end !.- 
iVi. Kiiiuj Inpat aaj/pajiUHg, mn- 
ptiU in'iniiff jnalamiiiV/heaMiea 
n»\ L-v-uu bitter ia swpet).— M7. 

I'niirog. Atm imffin, the permn rf 
Kt»teA. ifairoain, aa HDec-tionsre 
person. Ang Siyuya't irvi/ livan] 
mitrilatalitiia (gifts aoil oareatf 
Kttin over what can not oth? nrifr 
begained).— T. P. 1«. 

Pumil/i. .Vapilahat, a (leeiroiw per~ 
(■on. ^y (iiij; pila nang liab tn | It 
is the deeire of 107 heart). Uof- 
pilKt taiahttttSidnaiig»H6ma»igUn} 
■• ( Aek him for anvthing you 

ll). /''V/.'FVI iH S 

i.r.v.1.. I'^nnilhav' 

t'. llkr. 


settliiip permanently in the archipelsflo) . 

XVI. I'm ia aim used in some places to expreas the idea that what raiv 
be signified bf the root is taking place here, there, and everywhere; the 
idea of contumon being inherent. Ej. ; Umiuay (or nuo^n) dodn (all a 
quarreling there). Umcudva (aaauin) diio (everyone is getting mamed 

fin ia also used for the imperative in Manila, the tenees being di^n- 
guished by adverbs of time, but thie is probably due to the fact that tbe 
ipeakers of Tagalo^ in Manila ^Knerally nave noine knowledge of Spauieb, 
which confuses their grasp of the nice distinction of tense in pure lagalog. 

XVII. Um, used with some roola indicating certain actions means lo te 
occupied in a matter, although perhapa not actually performing the art 
indicated. Ex.: Sumati'dal n Juan (Juan la busy with writing}. 

XVIII. In some parta of the Tagalog region the present tense of the in- 
definite with the [>rimarv idea (brides the regular formation with un^ 
and the reduplications ot the first syllable of the root), is aometimes ei- 
presse<) by the particle na prefixed to the root. Ex.: 
To read. Bumaxa, from Sanak. mfcAd "woni," 

"discourse." There are three 
forms of the present indef. with 
primary idea. Ex.: Akd'ynabata 
(I am [or was] reading). Aki'f 


nabasa^ nakatulog ak6 ( I waa read- 
ing and fell asleep). Nanam akd 
( I am reading) . Bungmabasa akd 
(I am reading). (See tables for 
other tenses. ] Aug boMhin, what 
read. Ang hamharij the person 
read to. Bamhdn, professor, lec- 
turer. Magbcudf to read much, 
or by many. Anapagbam, the act 
of reading. Mababasa, anything 
legible. Ex.: Nabasa mo na ang 
librona ipinakiram ko 9a iydt ( H ad 
you [have you already] read the 
Dook I lent you?) Hinat ko pa na- 
bata ( I have not finished reading 
it yet). Magpabasa^ to order to 
read. Ex.: Nagpapabasa ang 
maiTbadral ta manaa batd (the 
teacher is ordering tne children to 
read). Mabasakin; mamamasa or 
paUibasa^ reader. Tagabasa^ reader 
bv occupation. Ba»a is also ap- 
plied to a gravestone. Buma»d 
( from 6a«! ) , is * *to wetjtomoisten. " 
This last is evidently a Malayan 
word; Malay, basahktin^ to wet or 
moisten. Baaa (from Sansk. 
tudchd) means language, speech, in 
Malay, while bacha has oeen se- 
lected to represent the idea of read- 
5. Sumnlat ( from Arabic B^urai^ a chap- 

ter of the Koran, through Malay). 
This root has been softened to Bulai 
in Visayan and Tagalog, but in 
Bicol and Ilocano it is still »urat. 
Ibanag uses the root turak. There 
is also a root tUik in Tagalog, mean- 
ing "to write," "to record.** There 
is also a word meaning * * to print. ' * 
It is magpalamdn, with a primary 
meaning of being implanted in tlie 
heart. Ex.: Namlat siyd (he is 
writing) . Sungmusulat givA (he is 
writing). Ang sulaliny what writ- 
ten. Ex. : Ano ang stisulatin nang 
amA mo sa iyong kanaiid na lalakif 
(What will your lather write to 
your brother?) Imlat niyd ilong 
panulat (let him write with this 
pen) (means of writing). hiniUnt 
na n'lyA sa kaniyd na pnrito siyn 
pagdaka (he has written him al- 
ready to come here at once ) . Ang 
siilatany the paper written upon, 
or the writing desk, place, etc. 
Ex.: Sulalan mo i ( on g panel (write 
on this paper). Anobaga angainu- 
lalan mo nang mamja pamjalanf 
(Which paper did you write the 
names upon ? ) Jtong jmpel na ild*y 


Tbobey; tu /ollow. 

]g for hin . , , 

Mageuia I, to vmte muchor by many. 
ifagmlaUulalan (dim.). to writfi 
little; to scribble. Ex.: .Vagmm- 
lotmilatau ak6 (I am writing a littln 
I am BcribblinK]. Ma7uHat,\a^a>t 
Afl anoccupklion. Ang mnrnmibi, 
the clerk; writer. Ang poK&M, ' 
Ihe pen, Biylue, brash, etc. |S« 
also under maka,m<igpa. widnnii). 
Mapaga'ihit, a petson wlin wriM 

Kuiaain. {Alre»dyeiplam«il.l Ei 
with na: Nakain sii/i (h« ie eat- 
ing). Kimgmahiin iiii6 (hpiaeil- 
in^ rregiilar form] ). 

Bumili. (Already explained. ) Ex.'f 
Xaliiti ai6 naiig damil (I niQ tm}]- 
ing some rlothee^. Aim tan^ 
tin oitd non^ damtt. I 

ing or obeys. Jnj mmialong ««?■ 
inufiinod, (uiiorin «'ud jtun of!™ 
(the obedient soldier will be ^ 
obeyed when an officer hiiMell). 
Mofftunoran, to follow each cptber 
Magtunodeuttod, to follow in n(i» 
BUcconioD (many). ifajwHtunoA 
to follow closely, also two children 
Iwrn ill i-uccfK-ion, Mast"""""- 
noil, to follow wherei.-er another 
may ao, or to obey impUdllj'- 
Kx.: liaglaka*utnunodangtv.'Bi«^ 
m jmnong iii'i/il (the Boldier follows 
hie- officer wherever he g<*f'' 
Sino nng jnnagtamimund&B »» 
(Who are you obeying so impli^ 

(Why do you [ye] obey him » 
imphcitlv?) Ati'y mnddo, p^ i' 
am a soldier, sir). 
Stimihr;/. yiwiay tii/d, he iadisobev- 
ing. Maggiiay, to disobey. *•■'■ 
(ciiuch). MatUmi, disobedient; 
(■onlra<lielory. 3tagtuaiiaa,io'^' 

Iniiiict each other. Mamiuia^il" 
(many). Anwuijwn, 'li*" 

- - - i (he 

^ibey (m 

Titiifiluig. Ex.: XalAliog ». 

shows anger; he is turning afW*'- 
Titmiiulig. Xitliit'lig mui (he is f* 

iiig to liiB feet). Verb has Hire*""?' 

Iieen explained. 
CmtipG. Xa'ipOnhi (they are ^iMii* 

down). Verb has alfewly 1*''° 

T-imii7jin. .Vo/iflsrin ai<i ( 1 am lo""" 

ing). Verb has already be*" 



L Bisyllabic (two-syllabled) roots commencing with 6, I*, p, <, or a 
generally admit of a similar irregularity in the imperative, past, and 
t tenses; n bein^ prefixed to vowel roots for the past and present 
and m for the imperative, while the initial letter of 6, k^ p, and t 
changes to n for the past and present tenses, and to m for the 

d. Bumasa. Ex.: (Irreg.) Masa ka; 

(Reg.) Bumasa kaXre^d), (I.) 
Nam ak6\ (R.) Bungmasa akd (I 
read [past tense]). (I.) Xanam 
ak6; ( U. ) Bungmabasa ak6 (I am 
reading). The other tenses are 
regular. Ex.: Nakabasa akd (I 
had read). Babasa akd (I shall 
read ) . Makabasa akd (I shall have 
read). Ang pagbasa, the act of 
ture. Bumihag. Kabihagan, captivity. 

Same as foregoing. 

e. Kumuha ( parti v explained before). 

Imp., Muha ka; kumuha ka; kuha 
ka (take) . Past, Nuha akd; hung- 
muha akd (I took). Pr., Nununa 
akd; kungmukuha akd (I am tak- 
ing), pip., Nakakuha akd (I had 
taken). F., Kukuha akd (I shall 
take). F. P., Makakuha akd (I 
shall have taken). Manguha, to 
take habitually. Aug paiuj/unirif 
what taken habitually. (Note that 
the u is all that remains of kuha.) 
Makakuha^ to be able to take. 
Ex.: Nakuha nild iyang maiTgd 
bunga (they were able to take that 
fruit [pi.]). 
for; to bring; to call. Kumadn. Conj. likeJfcwmu/ia. (Al- 

ready explained.) 
er; to come in; to go in (vol- Pumdsok. Mdsok ka; pujndsok ka 
rily) . (come in) . Ndsok siyd; pungmd- 

8ok siyd (he went in). Nandsok 
sUd; ptingmapdsok slid (they are 
going in) . Nakapdsok akd (I had 
^one in) . Papdsok akd (I will go 
m) . Ang vagpdsoky the act of en- 
tering. Magpasokt to enter much. 
Magpdsokf to put something in- 
side. Ajig jmsukhif the object of 
entrance. Ang ipdsok^ what put 
inside. Ang pasukan^ the door 
entered or the house, etc. Nasok 
»ilang walaitg batibotl (they came 
in without any ceremony) . Ma- 
kapdsoky to enter ergo in casually; 
to be able to enter. Ex.: (1) 
Akd^y nagpapamal ay makapdsok 
akd sa looban ni Gat Litis (I was 
out for a stroll, and without think- 
ing went into Don Luis'syard). 
Magpapdsokj to order to enter; to 
get into, as clothes. Ex. : Si Junn 
ay nagpapdsok kay Pedro nang da- 


To pluck; t 
To teiDpti t 

• gtther, HM fluwcn. 


mU (Juaa told Pedro to get 
his i;loIhe«/ . Na'ipapAiik$i Pnfrv 
naniy ditmil (I'eani put on tbt 
^lothee) . MaiapaypapAmt, to be 
able to onit.T another to y;o in. 

Pamilit. (Already expfsiDcdO 
Conj. like pumdiioJt. 

1\unukt6. Imp., Xvk»6; lumuM 
(leuipt, Iry). Paul, JVuJaJ; tiuf 
viiit»7, (trii-d). I-r., ynnHtm: 
hii.,j,„„u.W, (LfyiiiK). Pip., .Voito. 
lya»-. (liH<l tned). P.. TvtM 
(sball, will try). V.V.,UakatM 
(Hhiill, H-ill hiivetried). Angjiof 
mijltd»6, the trying, tviui'tins. 
MaglatM&, to l«mpt much or uuny. 
Aug tukmtJiin, the penoti teni|itv<L 
AngjMii/tatxola'i, the peraoa grntlj 
or luiuiy tliii(« tiuptwl. Aif [ 
I'fuitait, thennitBcormeniuof temp' 
tation. Aug iim/flutiii'i, the niM 
or uiMtUH o( grwU or reptalrf 
temptation. .Inp tubiohan, Uw 
place of t«inptaUoD. .!«« /Mjmt- 
Khan, the place o( ii)ui*ii or nt* 
peated temptation. ifagiut'O- 
luktohan (diin. ], to l«inpt a HtlK 
or In mockery. JVonuMi, to lampl 
habitoally. A/ig mamuaiiii, tM 
tempter; templrt-w. JCnmionuW 
^) (ei!i|it frf<4iieiitl)- Miiil a gnal 
di-4il. -In^ ipdnujlxi, thi> inuisi'or 
iiK^aiiH o£ the foreiioiug, Aug pi- 
imtwiAon, the place cornsping to 
foregoing. 3tagpakatuU6,tcJiemtt 

To jicfk (ae a bird). 



e they so slronglr 
like tumutad. M' 

Mrently applied to bite of Biutt- 
Ex.: Slyiy linulil ttang ahii {b* 
was bitten by the sDake). 
matiii. Imp., (I.) MalU ta; (Rl 
nmalU ia. Paet, Nalu akA (1-); 
Ungmalii atd (E.) (I lelt, went 
away, etc.) Pres., JVanoii» ot" 
(I.): unj^oo/b dtd (R.) {I tfi 

Th.- fuih.v 
To 11.-^11.1, 

Ailis nW (I ehall leave). F. !'■ 
^/.ii<M/f» otii (I Bhall have U«]. 
vIh'j iwiwiljt, the leaving. (Tl"' 
root naa already been partly W' 
mjiigatt'd like alU: 

Vmnkyal. Ang iuakyat, whatasre"^' 
e".l tir the pereon ascending. -'".'' 
iahial, the cauae. Ang atyalm^' 
the place. 



iter with a pitcher. 

Umayao, Ex. : Paayao ka (say yoa 
do not wish to). Bdkit siyd napor 
ayaof ( Why did she say she did 
not wish to?) 


Uminum. Imp., Minum ka, drink. 
Malay minum means "to drink.'' 
(This verb has already been ex- 
plained. ) 



Umund. (Already explained.) 

e polysyllabic (of more than two syllables) roots beginning 
tf or a vowel, are conju^ted with the jiarticle man (q. v.). 
ne sixty-six iKjlysyllabic verbal roots commencing with pa 
Srst syllable with na in the past and present and with ma in 
ive and future. In the present and future tenses the second 
the root is reduplicated and not the first. This conjugation 
it is not identical with man. There are also some euphonic 
ications. (See tables for synopsis of conjugation. ) 
1 roots, which are con justed in this manner, are the following: 
ze these roots, change mitial p to n or m as required for tense 

:k; to go back; to fall 


o come back. 

go ahead. 

> make (in business). 

(with attention). 

urge (for good or evil). 

e's self; to take a bath. 

> live in a house. 

3 (as a sting); also to 


e; (2) to ascend into a 
important reasons. 
:ail (as a dog] 


Paaqd,^ from agd.y "morning.** 

PakinAbang. Probably from a lost 
root tdttanq^ which still exists in 
Bicol and Visa van, with the mean- 
ing *'to aid; help; succor;** and 
the prefix pnkij del. of maki. 

Pakinig. To listen to much, magpa- 

Pakiusapf from ump and paki^ def. 
of mcud, 

Paligd. Magligbj to bathe another; 
also magpaligd. Syn. pambo ( rare) . 
Maligd ka ( take a batn ) . Paligoan 
mo ang cabayo (wash the horse). 

Pamagdy from bagd, **a tumor, ab- 
cess," and pan. 

Pamdhay^frombdhayf "house,** and 

Pamanghid^ from panghidf "to 
swell** (the nerves), and pan. 

Pamanhikf from panhlk and pan. 

Pamdifpoy ( rare ) . Seiple thinks may 
be from lost root paypoyy variation 
of paijpay J "fan. Mamayjmy, to 
fan one* 8 self or another. Usual 
word "to wave" is pumaspds. 
Paspasin mo ang bandlla ( wave the 

Pamongkahl. Ex. : Pinamomongkahion 
iayo nang presidente municipal sa 
maaamang gau^ (The municipal 
president [mayor] is inciting us 
to do wrong). (Present tense, 
re<iuplication of modified syllable 
mo and suffix an. From pongkahl. 

To offer; to iledicate. 

rQHigli: (2) to wliiBtle. 
To tlruaiu. 

nqtiixh; \ia.\n; i^oiiqiu 

To gin); funeral » 


a variation of pongbA, ' 

ti) a i]uarre1," mmX jmii. Thiiroi 

19 rail] to be of CliiDese origiA. 

Panatjaaii. Seiplc ea^e from Ti 
{larL fianag sad uniS, "wlut." 

PamtghiR. S^ple also K>rea thii< 
troni mxnag and AJ/i, "fxiv;, 
Y.X.: Jlovag tntiff meatagliitl < 
kajtua mo mud ( Do not envj^ ja 
neiithbor). 83^1, pauyiiMc 

Panai/kny, from taghnv. "to pant, 
hreatbe hard," anil jmn. 

Pitniiginip. Irimi g'mip and /-nHO, 
touibination (ouna by Sriple 
bnt four words ot polysyllil 
Btrut^re. Ex.: Nananngbiiji 1 
bagnf | Are you dreainingT) fi? 
firii;Tjii,i/;iJo!7,from[il/o3, "rieepi 

l\ii,iii/iyji.,t, from big'miiiio anil JM 
TbI- ultiinale root is«urid withfl 
same gi'iii^ral ineaiiin^. 

Paniil-ii!yia, from rfo/'iiiffin and jM 

l-ii'uilifi. from m«^, Ex.: Siyi a> 
linaiuH'tnn to, itijw "^^ malApai 
( I truet in him, and am bnvel 
tliHt reason), l^uipitnali^ ■ 
ipttnaliganin mo) ang DtM (I 
'our tniet be in God [tiwl i 

iji'iA., from Wo and /j'.Tji. Sms"' 
nawhf (Who was the winnei' 
7\i,n'(to,to<li8pnte(one). .VojMi 
to!trpie{two,etc.), Manalo,iait 
lit iiannto. Magjiatalo, to alio 
ono'aselftobeconqnered. Pi^ 
to voiisent U> be vanquisbed. -v 
kitaln, to interfere in a diepn' 
Ang inanatudo, the winner; C 
queror. Ang talonan, the ** 

PimambUim, from mrnbit, "fon* 
Bong,"onButBxed and j^nn. 
r laildtir; (2) /\>niiu^. Seiple gives a Paniiy' 
t<ayan root naog, but the SiU* 
Leyl« dialect aeeius to l»ck 
word. Ex.: {1t>%.\ IHtnumaoi 
desfend s lailder (also, to gt- 
come down staira). ,Uaopni»- 
to do tlieabove much. Mngp' 
}i'i't'j. to order (he above iiy 
done; to use up; to spend. % 
Sitijiiifi-inAiig nang an ang n^ 
rnkhii (The property haa been l: 
upon account of poverty). Ne. 
luiiiiioi/iii otfi iiiiiig limung piuf 
lisve spent five pesos). Also w 
imi. Ex.; Ang napan&og ta A 
'iiiHmongpi»oi [Theamountof 
spending was five pe«oe). J' 
pimiioj/ also meauB to bring foc 




thing down stairs or oy means of a 
ladder. A ng ipanAog^ what brought 
down. Magpapagpandog, to order 
something to be brought down 
down ( with the feet crossed PanagiUl, from 9ilcLf with same mean- 

knees apart). 

>mi8e; to resolve. 

isevere; to persist; to last, 
letrate (as water). 

able to do. 

eel down; to kneel. 
)p with the hand. 

in^ with mag and pan, Seiple 
thmks pana a root, but it may also 
be from the indef. Ang pinana- 
nasUaaiif the person sat down be- 
fore, or the place. 

Panata, Ang panatahxrif what prom- 
ised. Ang panatahan, the person 
promised. Syns. Pangakd; Tu- 
mandang. The roc^ts talagd and 
pandan have somewhat similar 

PanatUiy from tiliy idea of propping 
up; and pana. 

Panimiim (from timtimf and pan), 
Seiple gives tiyim as the root, mean- 
ing **to ooze into; to leak." No- 
ceda gives panayimlim as the word. 
Ex. Mapanayimtim sa l6ob ang ma- 
samang asal (The evil habit pene- 
trates the heart). 

Pangyari ( from yari and pan). Ma- 
Icapangyarihan, powerful; omni- 
potent. Kapangyarihanj power; 
faculty; authority. Ex. Mayrdon 
siyangkapangijarihan ( he has power 
"or authority]). Wald giyang k. 
He is without a). Wald akong k. 
I am without a). Mangyari^ to 
be possible. Ex. Hindi mangy a- 
yan ( It can not be ) . Hindi mang- 
yarina dt akdpumaroon (I can not 
possibly keep from going there). 
Mangyari bagang di (3c6 pumaroonf 
(Is it not possible for me to keep 
from going there?) An6H diman- 
gyayarif ( Whyshould itnotbe«o/) 
May nangyari doon sa bdhay niyd 
(Somethmg has happened m his 
house over there ) . Suka t mangyari 
(Suppose it may happen?) Dt 
sukat mangyari ( It should not hap- 
pen ). Maiigyayari din {It will in- 
deed be possible), larl alone 
means done; finished; completed. 
Ex. : y'arl va avg Mai (The letter 
is already finished). 

Panikluhod. (Already explained). 
Syn. Lumuhod. 

Paniin, AngipinaniiUf what propped 
thus. Magtiin^ to put out the 
hands in order to rise; (2) also to 
stamp or print. Tihmn mo ang 
papdy stamp or print it on the 





jiaper. Root lim and pan. Ta» 

and feet in order to rise." 

Tutbiiik; also "to regiV't. ' 

Panittutim (from dimd'-m and ji-ml. 

This root ia domdom in Bicol. 

To «niat. 

jxrnl. Aleo tumnigtayad, >itli 

To believe; lo coufiae iu; U. triist 

/^nfwa'a (from rtum^ and pan), 

.4n^infiim^,thecanfidant; braum 

Panolot (from a lost ruol, tulm, Mf 

To guide: to lead, 

gmls Seiplp, who citw the J»M- 

ne»e word "tuUit, iincerc; twib- 

fill; lo3-al, etc" and adopWd ia 

MaUy). Ex. : ifiiujr atu m-mim 

Iti^iat ( 1 can not (oive nij-«H lo 

t'sl. beaum I am tuck with U\er]. 

to Bight; lo T«hol.l; to lodk ut 

l\inM (from t>(W and pan). Ua- 
iiiiorf, to look at what conlente saii 

from (arofi; to view with niitnniah- 

gives pleasure. Ang pu«ra.W, 


what behdd. 


I'amhiff (Iroin tUbis and pan). 

T^iuuliii/an (from liloy and jw'D- 

To lodge. 


place; aleo«nir"<i»*<«- J-W f ' J 
nuhiiian, the miiee or peiwn (Df 1 
wh..t„lcHlKi.ij,.ielook.'.lW Jfc?- ■ 

upon thi- iileasure of another; 

(iiilHiiiuliii/un, to give another Iwif- 
ing. Aug papauuluif'ijiin, the [f t- 
t>on given lodi^ng. TVmiiioy l^ 
lodge. liagtMoy, to lodge nwn.' 
or much. Attg laluyan, toe lole- 
ing j)law. Ang pagtvlvyax, ti" 
lodging place of many or mnili- 
Ang ilUloy, the cause. Ang ipp 
(li/oy, the cause of many or fflocti- 
Magpatiiloy, to give lodging. .1"? 
paluluyin, Uie person given Id?' 
ing. Aug patuJuyiiti, the pl^^ 
where given lodging. Angp(ip°? 
lulutfin, the person given moo' 
lodging. .^Jnj; maii^papaglalvsi'h 
the pcrsone pven lodgins. -■1''? 
pinagpapatiduyan, the loditilE 
houses. Ex.: Sino ana n<niwi»- 
;n,V<in gn iii/iaj mo? (Who is the 
liMlgiT at your house?) Itni'S""' 
It imp H« pinali'iloi/ kit rii iting W*"" 
(a merman whom I haveallon*" 
to lodge at my house). 

I'liniii/d (from iti;/fl and i>on). See 

J'l-.^wW (def.); mawjatd (indeU. 
Syn., /iiinaffl. From I'lio, "ftt^' 
rity," and pan. 

/■ariJafti'K,' mat~yalia» { probably ("''" 
daktU, "idea of braverv, a"" 
fMiii). Seiple pointa out ihai Ih^ 


regular formation shoald be pana- 
has. In Bicol, dahds means vio- 
lence; force. 

ne tired from much standing Pangdlay. Ex. : Nangang&lay ka naf 

ng in the same position a (Are you tired already?) Hindi 

Lme. n6 (no, sir). The roots ngdlay^ 

ningdJUwy ngalo, and n^mt have 
about the same meaning. 

oiethin; emaciated. Pangaliranq^ (greater than yayai), 

8y n. , pangaUgang, Root, ngalirang 
and pan, 

tne numb (as the arm or leg Pangato (from ngalo, "idea of pain 

inaction); to **go to sleep.'* from fatigue*'). Syn., ngimi. 

the arms. PangalokipKxp (from halohipkip, to 

cross the arms). Var., panhalo- 
kipkip. Ult. root, kiphip. Ex.: 
Kumipkipf to lay the arm or leg 
upon anything. Bdkit ka nannang- 
aiokipkipf (Why are you folding 
vour arms?) Seiple shows that 
)ialo often prefixes roots composed 
of two identical syllables. 

the face upon the hand; to Pangalumbabd. {irom ngalumbabd and 

ace in hanus. pan). \8Lr.,rigayumbabd.. Tattong 

mapangalumbabd, a melancholy 

3hend; to dread. Pangamba (less than pangdnib or 

tdkot). From gamba^ "idea of 
dread," and/Kzn. 

a child; to lie in. Panganak (from anaky "child,** and 


ith child for the first time. Paixganay. 

\. PaiigAnib ( from gdniby * * idea of being 

in danger* ' ) . (Greater degree than 

in mirror or other reflecting PaiTganind (from aninOf "image, 

e. shadow,** &nd pan). 

; to damage; to malign; to Pailganyaya {froin anyaya smd pan) . 

ashamed. }iakapanganyayay to cause dam- 

age. Paixganyayang tduOf a person 
who destroys property, maligna, 
etc. Anyayang tduOy a lazy person. 
Makapapanganyaya (adj.), harm- 
ful; hurtful; slanderous. 

in sleep; to dream. Pangarap (from drop, "idea of 

dreammg,'* andjoan). 

ble or al>ase oneHclf. Pangayvpapd. (from ngayupapd and 


3 love; to woo. Pangibig (from ibig and pan). See 


alous. Pangigboghd (from boghd^ "idea of 

jealousy;*' still foimd in pani- 
bughdy *"jealousy"). 

ble; to shudder. Pangildbot (from ktldbot^ "idea of 


; to guard oneself ; to sneak PaiTgUag (def. ); mangilag (indef.); 

both from ilag. Linilagy to flee. 
MagUagy to draw aside; to avoid. 
Pnngilagan mo ang maiTgd tduong 
walang pinagaralan (avoid men 
without education [breeding]). 




Panyilap. Seij>le thinlu IM 
from iitap, "idea of a word)' 


J\ntbiUn ttram ngditig, "ideai 

eerring bolidavH [fieet«»], i 

•ud jHifi). Seiple o)«en(i 
the Unal a of the rout b«a 
dnippwl, hut thia msv be 


To bMtnnp noinh (u the wm Or les 

fniiii iuai'liniH; u. '->!o toclwp."' 

FangimHtrtim njimi], Byn-fM 

To Uvmbb ( inucti wiUi colli or fear) . 

/^•I^iniff (from H»if. really H 
&'H»>'ni0, to tremble wilfa 6 

tliue. JfoKmA to be tnea 
tt,i^ [Matej. Aari5.-T.ii,. lal 

to t^i^le with 'cJ^^tetf. 

To fpel ■ tingHng {Ntin in the tc«th. 

/\i^u.>M (fmia pajIatlO, itaetl 

rijriM, a tingling pam in tli« 

To shake (as from thpajjopt. 

Pa^ffiti IhoaTmpti). Akff) 


To pn-cwie (as in room or street ); 

I^ggnna (from iina. ■■flret," 

to if.nimenra?; to start or bi^id. 


T") \cm in tradf , liu»u«w, or barter. 

buMiueaa. aiidjxm). 


yon ulkl) (Sie «»p, ll 

[«rt1y cxplttineil ). 

It if bl:^yl 

Tumakbd. Tumakbo-t'deb6,U>m 

to run a little. 
Uiiiuidn. Uiiitilan-uJiH, to di 
In ordinary comooaition thi 
phens are generally omitted. 

The particlfi mag is DHed to verbalize roots, aa a ^neial rule, i 
when a definite object is held in view or else when the verb doe 
require ro object to espress intensity (someliinea plurality) with 
whit^h are 1-ermlixed in the eimpleM sense with urn. Mag has alMa 
ro«il (iniitual) idea, un {ban) bein^ usually eufflxed. 

M"g, whirh is always a prefix, changes to nog in the pre»»ent and 
tent's. The /ifn' sv liable of the to"( is rwlupliiated for the preser 
futuri- Iciisec Mitkn and imta, which are used to imlicale the a 
future perfect and pluperlect, reepeclively, retain j«ip. the definite ol 
with tile rix>t, as tliey are also independent particles when used I 
In this respect, and also in the retention of the particle in front ( 
rednpliealed initial ayilable of the root in the future tense, all pa: 
differ from um. (See the table for conjugation of ma^ roota.) 

I. itntj, preSiced to rool!< which admit hiii and which do nnl cAcmj 
mennmn with ning, signifies plnralily either of i>er!>onB or acts, thia 
the peneral meaning imparted bv this imrticle. Mag {nag) aome 
thrown the ai'cent npon the la^t syllable of a root. Ex.: 



ktch for. Tumanod. Magtanod, to guard much 

or by many. Ang tonoran, what 
guarded. Ang pagtanoran^ what 
guarded much or by many. Ang 
itanodf the cause of guarding. 
Ang ipagtanodf the cause of guard- 
ing much or by many; also the 
person for whom guarded, if there 
be a person concerned. 
Umupd. Magupdf to sit down ( many ) . 

ler verbs may be mentioned maghas&y to read much or bv 
ta); magkain, to eat much, etc. (kumain); maggiikf to thresh 
ginunif to drink much, etc. (uminum); maglakadf to walk 
luindkad); maamlntj to write much or by many {sumliiat); 
run much or by many (tumakbd) ; magtangis. to weep much 
(tumangis)^ and magtuksd, to weep much {tumuk86)\ all of 
have been heretofore explained. 

*oots which do not admit um as a verbalizing particle are not 
^ magj but simply verbalized in the primary sense. Besides 
ots beginning with in fall in this class on account of caco- 
mess) with um. 


1 care, 


Magbayd. Ang hayin, what ground. 
Ang bayohan^ the grinding place. 

Magmahal. Ang minamahcU, the es- 
teemed, etc., person. Ex.: Ang 
banal va tduo ay rninamahal (the 
just person is esteemed). Mama- 
half to rise in value. Ex. : Nama- 
mahal ang lakd ^the merchandise is 
rising in valueV Macpakamahaly 
to esteem highly. Ex. : Pinagpa- 
pakamahal ko 8a kaniyd (I do es- 
teem him highly). Also with 
maika alone. "Ex.: PinakamamcJial 
ko 9a kaniyd. Makimahal, to act 
like a noble person. Mapakimahal, 
to arrive at a state of being es- 
teemed. Kamahalany deamess; 
nobility, etc. 


Magmalas. To see well, casually, 

Magmana. Ang pagmanahin, what 
inherited. Ang magkamana^ to 
leave property. Ang ipamanay the 
estate. Ang pamana, the inherit- 
ance (verbal noun). YiH.: Itoang 
pamana sa dkin nang amd ko ( This 
was my inheritance from my 
father). Ang pagmanahan, the 
heir. Makimana^ to ask for an in- 

Magmmei. Ang mapagmasidy the 
person who notes or experiences. 

Magmuld. Muldn mo itdj commence 
this. Used only thus in impera- 
tive and past indicative. As * * pro- 
ceed " it IS used in past and present. 




Ta rbeapr-n; iwnlt; tlinhMiur. 

Jn^ pinngmjl muMn, the fcAnl f MU 
which prormlinx- ifulit at\-P!f. 
mettiM "from; eiiicp." 

JVdTniu/]. Aleo tnean# to open ihe I 
eyeD widely; and lo look al ii>eU. 

Ma^murti. Mnmunt, to lower in 
value. Ang innraAin, what chap- 
cned, or who insDlled, dtshoDore^, 
«lc. 3laffpakaimitiunun>,U)A^» 
inleasely- Magmurahait, to irunlt 
mntualty. A nghohmian anj/yir^ 
niura^n rtiU, they liuiultco noi 



There uv «Hnpumti\-«1; fow vprfaal roots beginning with m in tlie Tip- 

Ill, limits whii!h rhuijn- the iiimnlnK with uni and ma^ bus plnnliid 
in two wave with hhij. U \\u-fiuiU gvllablc of the root is <Ky™^^I/TW^ 
nielly tliejfrrf ayllalili? of llie nw( i» ailded f.HFa in all l^iisea. Iiut if Iho 
atKeut is not norniAlly u)ioa the la» Bvllable of the root, pluraliijit 
expressed l>v clutnginit llir ai-wiit to the final syllable. It eliould alui if 
noted that tiie uietuiio); chonya tori. 

To buy. Bumiil. Jltapbili, to sell. XaMiii 

otA, I »(U selling. A'aabilnliiii ati. 
1 am buyine much. Thi» fumi « 
now rare, man (i]. v.) b»inK|«c- 
erally used. Ex.: AamiiiiiJl iM 
(I am buying much). 
To t.iu-h lusu<ioctrine). I'mdrul. NagAral. fo learn: 1" iIngar.U, to tearh iiiuili. 
to preach. Mow (tenerally "'• 
piat^ by man. Ex. : Mangamf. 
to preach'. 

with urn roots indii'atea diminutives 

diininutivex or reciprocal verbal acliona, wbicb have to be distin^ietiM 

by the coiiiext, meaning;, etc. Ex. : 

To think. Mag'iiAp. Magitipittp, to think 

deeply; profoundly. 
To nieclitate. Magnday. MamUayitUay, to medi- 

tate profoundly. Maniiay iialaaa, 
a considerate person. Mim'^^' 
also means to nsh. Paniuila^ 
a fiehiDg canoe. 
To follow; to obey. fiumunod. Magmnodmmod, tofollo* 

in ragiid sequence (many). 
IV (it), lioois which may admit the idea ot more or lees take an aiUi- 
tioiiiil rcpetilion of the firiit syllable to sij;iii(y intent or plurality. If I'l^ 
entire rcxit be repeated the plurality is intensified. Root^of three or m"'* 
cyllabltrs re|ient only the two first, accorditiK to the (teneral rule in T^- 
lojt. Ex.: Xagtatunijid nkuKa kapidhAkaii ko (I have cureed my neigh^ 
many times). NaggnntimpotiiiajM ako sta kapidhaha<j ko (I have I'Oiw' 
[slaiidcri-d] my nei(rhlxtr times without number). 

(/') -l/.i;/ and the double"! root in certain ca.*? Bijniify the perlornian'* 
<)f an act and its opposite. Verlw expri'S'ing an unsleady motion (iri]uif» 
elian^ce of ]>08ition are also formed in a similar manner, (c) In the pm<^''' 



or come out. 

n over. 

5ger; to reel. 

nag may be dropped, being replaced by the reduplicated initial 
e of the primitive root. Some um verbs have this form also. Ex. ( 6) : 

8. Dumaan, Magdnan^ to pass many 

times or by many. Magdaandaan, 
to pass and repass many times. 
Daandn^ a made road. Di fnadaa- 
narif impassible. Makaraan, to be 
able to pass, \fagparaan, to allow 
to pass Ex.: Paraanin mo ak6 
( let me pass ) . Hindi ko pararaanin 
hangan di mo ak6 bibigydn nang 
kaunting tubig (I will not let ^ou 
pass until you eive me a little 
water). Daan also means ** hun- 

Lumabds. MaglaMs, to take out. 
MaglabcLslabds, to go out or come 
in (many times) . 

Magbaligtad. Maghcdihaligtad, to 
turn over. Ex. (c) : Babalibaligtad 
ang may sakU sa hihigdn (the sick 
man is turning over and over in 

Magbalingbdling, BahalinghAling 
yaorig tduoj that man yonder is 
reeling. Magpapagbalinqbdlingy to 
be sti^^ring from walking, etc. 
Ex. : Pinapaghahalmghdling mo akd 
nang paglidnap m iyd (I am ready 
to fall from looking for you. Syn. 

MagbilingbUmg. Ex.: Bibilinabiling 
mandin siyd (he is shifting about). 
BibilingbUing ang l6ob ko (I have 
my doubts). BibilingbUing ang 
may sakit sa hihigdn ( the sick man 
is twisting and turning in bed). 

SumiUingsuling. Susuling^uling siyd 
(he is wandering about aimlessly^. 

Magsuraysuray^ Susuraysiiray myaf 
( Is he staggering?) Oi)^, ang lading 
aif stisurnysuray kung lumdkad (yes 
sir, a drunken man staggers wnen 
he walks) . 

Tfuniad. Magtiadtiad, to tiptoe about 
much . TUiadtiad akd ( 1 am walk- 
ing about on my tiptoes). 

Umiikod. Magukod^ to bend over 
much. Maukodf to be bent over. 
Magukodukodj to walk bent over 
or waveringly. Uukodukod siyn 
( he walks bent over) . Uukodukod 
yaong matandd (that old person 
walks haltingly) . 

Kumiho. Magkihokiboy to move 

MagkUhxgkiling. lyang hatH'y kiki- 
UngkUing kung lumdkad (That child 
holds the head on one side when 

ft alx)ut; to change continu- 
, to turn over continually. 

nder about aimlessly, (um). 


toe about; to walk on tiptoes. 

id over. 

ve (r). 

Ik with the head on one side 


V. Mag iaitaaimiA torn 

To qnmtnl; to 4|ht. 

4iiiirrfliii;;. M'ip<i;i'/ittiag. i|uam4- 
Kimt (wPBon. An^ babnpn, Um 
l>t>r(«tn iiiiarrclpri with. 
Ma'jp"(-m;i. Ex.: KiMgpnjaiUm) ntf- 
inaiiijA miifpntut M Cayan (Cht 
"pnndpBlfs" nf Uin town uf 

(orrpon ionitar (Why li»ve Ui» 
mfiT) jfii; ipinagpiilong oQif^. 
Tuiiijr pnyuwDMii Afij; iHtfjdiUiaf. 
mmj/ giA/fmnaor-ijmrral (The po^- 
poBc of their mi«Cingr waa to talk 
(iver the roniinK of the govenior>. 

hoy ho { SoraepMplaBAVslHfpaMl 
to meet in injr booM). A*§ h»ti- 
ptmoN, tba MMnhl). Abo tbe 

popular Djune of the well-known 
revolutionary flodety, the K. K.. K. 
Ex. : Ang pmaghtka^/vnon nang 
mang& marvrunimg (The meelii^ 
plare of the learned people— i. e., 
of l«imed Bocieties, etc). Ilotiag 
taiiff tumama't kindt nababagay «i 
itang dalagang pnmiiroim <a pinag- 
taiatijiunan nang vtaramitig lalati 
(Do not accompany [him, her, or 
them] because it is not proper for 
a Kirl to f^ where there is a meet- 
ing of many men). 

Other verba of this tiAtare, all of which have been mentioned before, ai 

lity, etc., and mutuality, 
reciprocity, etc., is sometimes made by a change of accent Ex.: 
To approach (one). Lunidpit. ilaglapU, to draw rear. 

Maglapit, to approach mutually. 
Mal&pit, near. MalApil tiuA m diltn 
( He IS a relative of mine). 
To look at. KumilA. MagHIA, to look at each 

other. Maghld, to look at many 
things; or to look at intently. 
VII. Mag verbaliieB reciprocal actions of a nature admitting competiUon 
or rivalry, provided tliat no special emphasis is placed upon the conten- 
tion. Ex.: 



le reconciled (two). MaghatX (also to speak in a friendly 

way). ifa^a6a(i, to become recon- 
cilwi (many). 

Lxingatsametime; toshake. HumcUd. /I n^ lia/oin, what shaken; 

stirred. Maghalb^ to mix two (or 
more ) tbines together. Ang ihald, 
what mixed. Ang kaloan^ the mix- 
ing place, etc. Ang hinaldf what 
shaken (past). .4n^ t7itna/d, what 
mixed (past). 

Voluntary reciprocal actions of certain classes are also conjugated 
' prefixed to the root and an (han) (nan) suffixed. Ex.: 

; jeer at 

to endure. 

to aid (another). 

Maghird, Maabiroan, to mock each 
other. Makipaghiroan, to mock 
greatly; to jeer atanother viciously. 
Birohirdf mapagbirdt palabir6, all 
stand for degrees of being a jester, 
etc. Maajmlabirdf to jest with a 
good deal. Tduong bird, an incon- 
siderate person. 

Dumalitd. Magdalitaan, to suffer for 
each other, or mutually. Magpa- 
kadalidalUdf to suffer intensely. 
Mapa^dalitdy sufferer. Kadcditaan^ 
suffering. Di madalitdj intoler- 
able; insufferable. 

Sumikad. Magsikad, to kick much. 
Magsikaran, to kick each other. 
Manlkady to kick habitually. Also 
magsumlkadt to work with rapidity. 
Synonyms for kicking: Tuma- 
dyakf magiadyak^ magtadyakan, 
tumindak, magtindakf magtinda' 

Sumumpd, Ang sumpain, who or 
what cursed. Ang igumpd, the 
reason or cause of cursing. Mag- 
gumpdf to curse much ; also many 
at same time. Ang pagsumpain^ 
who or what cursed thus. Ang 
ipagmmpdy the cause or reason for 
cursing thus. Magsumpaan, to 
curse each other. Manumpd^ to 
curse habitually; also to take an 
oath. Ang palasnm])dy the habit- 
ual curser; also the witness. Ang 
panunumpdj habitual cursing, or 
the oath taken. Ang panumpaany 
the person administering the oath ; 
also the place. Ang ipunumixiy 
the testimony given; also wnat 
sworn habitually. 

Ttnnnlong. Afngtvdongy to help 
another much. Magtulongany to 
help each other. Mantilong, to 
help another often. Manuloiigan; 
magpanulorujany to help each other 
much or often. Ang katidong, the 
aid; assistant; helper. 

189 T&GAUH} LA!fOt'AOB. 

If} My racfa Tonlt- bIhibc each <it>i^r that. Jfau^- 

dwui. tu Abuwi' or itisult thU Ott' 

tmoslty or hatntOBllv. Jkr^ 

tnnifayao, abuwr; iiwulwr. 

Among other verba ol thu ikerTi|>itian mar tiR dt«d ma^itn^alfln, to MM 

"■■ " '" ' "' 'nut, lo ciwiBtl t«b 

_ . o follow e«i* nlberj 

■fill III'lj^'tToltUlU, to kt^ 


IX. In the iwe of na^ lu verballM actioiin wlmltting m-iprodty, vm'w 
nvi-vftLTy in noting Ibeir nMaiv mi<1 tbi' inifnit bdiI purpose (or wtiii'h tht 
actiorw may be exwate"!, as ihnrn arc Ifval diflntvnivs ia tfab re|P«'' 
RtvijiniCMl xvtVb tH|uirciui ubject wbii'b tvtums the wtiun. (A) TbK 
Huijr prvfixi-H and an BiAxcd with ■ root whidl Bilmils romtwtltlM J 
viprtMMM Hvalrv. (B) )l the action mc|iunt* an objeci and HTalrriitt ] 
bo i.-sprF«a.i1, ibe biUSk an ohutdd tie rei^estiHl, 
To Jnmp. Lamukti. 

I ratniii'tition. (This verb lu 
ulivadv burn explaim.-<I.) 
T»mti^i,t. MagHiSj-H, to lixik ol 
iiiuch ur by many. Mnglinamm', 
lokiuk ut eadi other. iHwl* 
cxpluiird. ) 

To puab: tu sbuvi- olT ^ ax a IxntI i . Tumiibik. M-ujtiJuk, Us Diuh W 

- ' waoy. Magtukikan, loriWi 
■tfwrb other. J/ajdi/iW'". 

F and the reduplk-atcl root fonn intensive reciprooal verbs whkli 
:>e tlii<li neighed from diminutives, verba of feigning, mockery. 
I't*'., bv the context. As ii^iial, jiolyayllabic roots repeat thf 
first two wyllabies only. Ex. : 

To embrace. Yum&kap. Maffydkap, to embTa<< 

each other; to tie np to ■ pt^- 
Magytitajii/akapan, to embrKf 
each other warmly; al?o mi*"' 
" to embrace a little, to pretend i^ 
embrace, to imitate emhrwini;. 

Other verlB" already cited are magabtiinbtttun, to reach many things; to 
pass many thingn from hand to hand, etc.; magliaiidiialiran, toeend tof>cD 
other, etc. and miiglii~rpniin'gi7ia>i, to look at each other cloeely; to piflf"'' 

XI. .V'<7<i may also 1)6 infixed with mug, foniiing inaimop, the particle tbo^ 
made imjwrtini; the idea of great plurality when prefixed to a root E>- 
To tiiiniT!'!'. MiiiiiiMijt. Mtiii-j«gii*<ip, lo ciinv'-i^' 

li^^'a t-'ri'at iTowd]. 

XII. I{.,.,i,.»itli m(»jnuiyl.,. iisrd both withand without an ohje.-!. i'"' 

Todivid.. iiK.. final j.;irts, Tlu.m-h.ig:. MoglMiliugi i^a;/.!-' I"*--" 

ix'rw.'! Maijlxihiigi kayo tiil'X'O''' 
/.'/if (divide this money). 
)ut*idf ii>,i'ncv is expressed by nnm- ■■* 
■nt is exi.ressci by um (Par. XI. <•"'■ 
:., is an exception to the nile. Ex- 



rotn another; to go to a dis- 

'oluntarily, as a bird). 

sea; to blow trees down (as Magbual. yln^6tMi/tn, the tree felled. 

id). Ang ibual, the person felling, or 

wind. An gbualan^ the place. Ang 
pamual, the instrument, i. e., ax'. 
Lumayd. Lumayd, to remain left far 
away (by another). Maglayb^ to 
part' (two); also to remove any- 
thing to a distance. Malayd^ dis- 
tant; far. 
Tumdas, MagtdaSy to raise ; to lift up. 
Matdatiy high; tall; noted. Kaiaa- 
mn, heijfht. Kataastaamnj ex- 
treme height. 

other verbs of like nature, which have already been explained, 
£«, to take away; magldjyity to draw something near; magpandog^ 
' let anything down stairs or a ladder; magpanhiky to take any- 
tairs or up a ladder, etc. ; magsUid^ to put anything in or into; 
to si^t up; and magthulig^ to stand anythuig upright. 
3odily voluntary actions affecting one's self only, or those per- 

be done, are expressed with mag. Those actions of like nature 
i upon another take um (Par. XII, wm). Ex.: 

one's self (as in penance). Maghampdg. Humampdsy to whip 

another. MagpahnmpaSf to allow 
one's self to be whipped, etc. Fa- 
hampdsy to consent to be whipped. 
Ex. : Houag kang pahampds $a sino- 
man (don't let anyone whip you). 

'erbs following this rule are fully explained in Par. XII under 

B has been noted mag expresses for the indefinite the idea of los- 
)1, as um expresses the idea of acquiring the same. What is lost 
: is expressed in the definite with V, combined with in for the 
other tenses where necessary. For the aid of the memory it 
lid that verbs of throwing away, throwing at, etc., sowing, scat- 
mring out, mixing, placing, ])Utting, giving, and selling follow 


or dash down. 

at (as with a rock). 

at; to pelt. 

up (much). 
• rice seed. 

• in the air; to emit 



Magtapoti. (Already explained.) 

Maghidog. (Already explained. ) 

Magpukol. Angp^iki'my what thrown 
at, or stoned. Ang ipukol, what 

Maghagis. Ex.: Naghagu ak6 nang 
halo (I threw a stone). 

Magxtikd. SumukOy to throw up. 

Maghnsik. Manhofdky to sow much 
rice thus or by many working to- 

Magna mbulat. Aug isambulaty what 
scattered, as grain, etc. Sumam- 
hiilat, to Hcattcr, disperse, as a 
crowd of its own volition. Ma- 
nambulat, to scatter much, either 
by inside or outside ageucv. 

Afagsd bog. ( A 1 read y ex plained . ) 
Syn.y via gvalat. Magkdlaf, already 
set forth ; means to spread, prop- 

Magpunld. Maqtanwiy to plant, to 
set out (alrea(\y explainea). 




ir<yb>6«. J^ AuMm. whu ponml 

mUk Amg iMiL what poare.1 
«C^ ^W a»M. .bat poun^i 

^H Itopoaruol: ^teMKM IkmUa). 

or siMkca onl, H gnuD. eta 

^^B VanunW with <ai«*. 

^^■■-Ita aiix 

Mafhnia. (AIkw)5- exptaint.!.) 

erne.. maamKoj; magtnhot. L<i- 

MsAot. to jotn- 

^^H Tb Btrw; (o UmI tofmi. vie. 

Jfi««(«sn*. ^njild*!*. Ihcmaleml. 
.{■7 fia^iiao. the muati: rtea. 

.liiy /upuiMm, tin; fitrirpMi. etc. 

^^BTo {Hit w<Mx1 •« thtt (tre. 

be uinvd up. Jfabj^!/I»l0, to tet 

(»r ■ few cnils to Etail ft fire, ^n; 

yihmtf. lilt poker, eU-- Jbj 
jnlon^'n. wbat liumed. Anggn- 


To put in Ihe cob. 

M<v^9- (^l^'ty etpUitKd.) 

To pl«* in Uvfre, Kfc 
^^ To give. 

^■ToptoMtwiUi: touk»a«UL 
^^^Vo gianl: to givp. 

To trade on 
To sell at cot 

Verba of " 
To permit. 

thin^. ^no^auarin,whatreat.'h«d. 

Angjgdvad, what given or handed 

over. Ang igindaad, what was or 

has been given, etc 
MagliUL (Alrtwdy explained.) 
M«glatd. Maglakd, to peddle from 

town to town. Ang ilato, whit 

sold, Ang tiatd, what peddled 

from ]riace to place. 
Magviag. (Already expUiDed.) 

MagAmol. Ang ipagdiKOt, what aotd 

., also follow the mn^ audi 

ifaflliilof. .In^ifuM.whatpermitt^. 
.Viighaliil. (.Already explained.) 
Mugsaol'i. (Already explained.) 

Ii-ll; narrate; 

Miigmlild. (DeGnilefl, already ex- 
!; to tell the MngUiUla. Ang ipinagbaliiA, the 
iiewfl snnoiint"ed or reported; also 



To converse (two). 

To converse (two or more). 

To speak; pronounce. 
To explain. 

To speak in a low tone; also to mut- 
ter; grumble; talk about another 
in absence, etc. 

To ask; to inquire. 

Ang pinagbalitaan, the person to 
whom told, etc. (past tense). 
MakimcLliiA, to ask for news. 

Maggabi. To tal k ( one ) , tumabi. To 
talk much, magmhi. ^This verb 
has already been explained. ) 

Maguttap. (Already explained.) 
ManguBapy to talk. Ex.: Maka- 
pangump kaf ((^an you talk?) 
Hindi ka makapangumpf (Can*t 
you talk?) 

Magwikd,, Hindi ko mawikd (I can 
not pronounce it). 

Mag9al(iysay. ^Already explained.) 
Another word is mngfaywy^ which 
with um has also the meaning of 
to arranee, as the hair of another, 
and with mag to arrange some- 
thing for one 8 self, as the hair, 
etc. Ex. with mn.: Hindi ko ma- 
my say (I can not explain it). 

Magbuiimg. Ex.: May ibubulong ak6 
fa iyi) ( 1 have samething for your 
ear only). 

Tumanrmg. Magianong^ to ask about, 
or concerning;. Ang tanangin, the 
person questioned. Ex.: SInoang 
tinanong mof (Whom did you ask, 
or of whom did you inquire?) 
Ang itanong^ what asked. And ang 
itinanong mo (what did you in- 

Magamitt. Ex.: lands mo (tell it 

Mfigmmbong. Mapagsumbongt tat- 

Magltald. Ang ifrnld, what said. 
ifabala ka (say something). Ba- 
haballn mo ang marujd Uino nit 6 
(notify the people of this). It 
should 1x3 noted that the definite 
here takes an extra ba. 

Afagbdval. Ang ibdualj what forbid- 
den. Ang baualan^ the |)er8on to 
whom something may oe forbid- 
den. Ang pagbabdualf the act 
of forbidding (present tense). 
Buwjmuj b^iualf forbidden fruit. 

XVII. 3fa^ prefixed to roots signifying nations, races, conditions, etc., 
means to benave to some degree as the root signifies, but if a complete 
asnimilation is to be implied, the particle inaki (paki) is used. Ex.: 

To be somewhat Americanized. Magamericano. F,x.: Nagaamericano 

<rn/a nang damit (he [she] is quite 
Americanized in dress). 
MagoaHiila. Nagcacastila silti nang 
dsal (they are quite Spanish in 

To speak gently. 

To tattle. 

To say something; accuse, denounce, 

To forbid. 

To be quite Hispanicized; to ))e like 
a Spaniard in some ways. 

XVIII. (rt) Mag, with natural objects, signifies to produce them; {h) 
with artificial objects, to make them; (c) wnth articles of barter, to trade 


PAt wU them ; (d) with oliMe thing*, 
' "10 pueaeew il : (/) withnaniesof relati 
intl (7) with the puweeaive prvnvuna, 

> eat tliem; (') with property, 
itives, to know how to iicl towun! them; 

II'. Ako mettfM to put Ilie 

111 leaves, as when out of 

.4nj Utijnpagdahon. thr 

.Inf/ dahiinan, the pstin; 

To have anvthing of 01 
To know )iow to treat 

Ell. (ff): 
To liave as vours. 
To liavf an theirn. 
To have us mine. 

piilol (trade pa1a> 


Maij/mnga, Ex.: Naglnibvrili'i niyi 
(ahe ie Belling &uit>. 

Miyiidd. Ex-: Xagiudd gUi {they 
are ielling flati). VmunlA, to have 
fish oiii-fl more in a, river or crpek. 
etc, l\i(jmxi»d6 rTmy^ ta ilog 
(there aw fish iiow"in the river), 

Magidiig. Ex.; Na^iOog siyA {ebe'm 
eellin^ eggs). 

Mugtiignig. f Alreadr ex^ained). 

Ua^rtitate (tram H«x.-8p., duieo- 
l;U: [nmi Nahoa(.^iteel,r/ior.A((;, 
rli>^-'^, oiii-tto; atnl /.k;, ivaterj. 

Magiahtico (from Sp. and oriKioally 
a West Indian word). 

Magari. Maori, landowner. .4riii- 
Tinn, small farm; also household 


^tagamd. Ei. ; 5i' Juan ay mnatam 
magnniA (Juan knows how to treat 
a futher [i. e., how to be a good 
Bon] ). MagamA also meansfather 
and child. 

Miiganak. Ex. ; f^ Juan ay moriinonj 
iiiaiTuiiait ( JuHn knows bow to tre*t 
a child [1. e., how to be a good 
parent] ). Also child and parent 

XIX. Words eignifvine artlcleB of wearing apparel may be v 

ixpres.-) tlie wearing of the i 
■; (2) ppec'lHcles; glasses. Saliiin'in, 

in the 
■rs. -So/nica/. 

Magxalam'm, to look in the 
(2)to wear glares, orspec- 
Aiig »alami7tan, what seen 

Mag»aiawat, to wear tron- 


Hat. SambalUo (from Span, sombrero). 

MagmmfmlilOf to wear a hat (occa- 

sionallv). ManambalUOf to wear a 

hat habitually. 
Shoe, sandal. Sapln. Magsapin^ to wear shoes; 

also to line. 
Apron. Tapis, MagiapiSj to put on or wear 

an apron. 

XX. Mag generally ^vems all Spanish, English, and other foreign words 
not incorporated into tne language. Ex. : 

To play baseball. Magheshol. Ex. : Nagbebesbol ang 

mai^d batiX (the boys [children] 
are playing ba^ball.) 

To gamble. Magh ugat ( from Span, jugar ) . Sugal 

is the usual term. Lard is the na- 
tive word and means, like the 
Spanish , either to play or to gam ble. 

XXI. Roots denoting officials may take mag to express the discharge of 
duties pertaining to the office named. Ex. : 

To be governor. Maggobernador. 

To be mayor ^presidente). Magpresidente. 

To be a councilman. Magconsejal, 

To be secretary. Magsecretario. 

To be treasurer. Magtesorero. 

To be prosecuting attorney. Magfiscal. 

XXII. J/otf, prefixed to abstracts beginning with ka and ending in a/^, 
signifies to do what is expressed by the abstract. Such words are use<l 
only in the infinitive, and should l^e clearly distinguished from those roots 
prefixed by the particle ma^ka^ which lack the suffixed an with the in- 
definite innnitive. Ex. : 


To do deeds of virtue or justice. Magbanalan (from kabanalan^ virtue, 

To do right. Magkatuiran (from kalmran^ right, 

justice ) . Ex . : Ilatolan mo sild nang 

katuiran (Advise them what is 

To act chastely or in a cleanly man- Magkalinisan (from kalintsanf cleanli- 

ner. ness). 

To behave obscenely. Magkahalayan (from kahcUayarif oh- 

• scenity). 

XXIII. With adjectives formed by prefixing ma to the root, mag signi- 
fies to assume or bcmst of what is expressed by the adjective, if the mean- 
ing permits such assumption or boasting. In some cases viag means to 
regard as signified by the adjective. Ex. : 

To boast of good judgment. Magmabait. Ex.: Nagmamabait si 

Juan (Juan boasts of his good 
judgment [or prudence]). Ma- 
baitf judicious, prudent. 

To boast of knowledge. Magmarunong. Ex.: Nngmamaru- 

nong si Andres (Andrt^s boasts of 
his knowledge). Marunong, wise, 
learned (from danong). KaniJio- 
ngatif wisdom, knowledge. 

To boast of beauty. Magmarikit. Kx. : Nagmamarikit si 

Biangojf (Maria boasts of her 
beauty). Mariktt, pretty (from 
dikit). Jhimikity to grow pretty. 
Magdikit, to beautify. 

198 TAOALW 1 


Til iHffl^t III elefaaif, ]>vauty. 

Bi LoUiig. Dolores ( boMte 

of her eli^nco; beauty. Ma- 

rlahiin, el«^nce, beauty. 
Uaomiit&pang. Ex.: NoffnuOilpang 

To IxuiBi. of liravcry; in pwinjtger. 

2 fbiuriino (FaueUno l>oasied of 

bia bravery; or Faiisthio iKwa»- 
^red). JUafi!i;»nrfr, brave. A'nfn- 

pangan, bravery. 

XXIV. If an Hction dooa not tvltnit o( l>na«tin(>, mag used witli a mu 

•djective denotes becomiii)!, growintt, elp., what iiiBy l)e nKnifled by the 

adjiit'tive. The delinite particle in 

i:« generally suffixed to the roots in 

theee i-asve. Ex.: 

To lKvoin« (orRi-Ual. 

Magmaiimotin. LvminuM. lo try to 

foiget. A/ai-u/lmoi, to forget MU' 

lUiiot, forgetful. Am/ JuUiirtolan, 

what forgotten. Mal'Um'Ain, nhr- 

^ful penon. Kaliimiliin. torget- 

To grow infirm. 

MagmwKiktln. Ei,: NiigmamaniUm 

«.vJ(HeiaKrowingmarm). .Voy 

flrni. sickly pereon. Sumaiii. to 

feel pain aoywhere. Ang »atil<tn. 

theseatofpftin. (SeePM-.XXVI). 

XXV. VMbs with mag ure made diminulives by repe««iig a bteylUWo 

root or the first two of a 1oii)E«r o 

ne, and suffixing an. han, or non, m 

To nibble. 

XXVI. The s 

forine<l ii 
To altei^t virt 

To play at building houses (i 
To play at biting (as dogs). 
To malinger; (eiirn illnef*. 

To feign deafneea. 

lie. MagtuliiUiikUan (from liiiat.). (Al- 

ready used). 
Magiynkiyakan (from igak). Ex.: 
Nagtiynlayatan tying b&lang tydn, 
that child ia sniveling. 
Magkaiakainan. (Alr^dy used.) 
I as the above al)^ signifies feigning, imitation. 
Both these and those mentioned in Par. XX\' 
I by the context from intensive reciprocal verbs 

(See Par. X). 
7 play the Magbaniitbanalan(,tTOTa banal). Ex.: 
Sagbabannlban^an tiya (He is a 
Miigbahaybahayan (from buhay). 

(Already used.) 
.lf<tFfjtyt>^rl'ai7(i(a(i(from kagat). (Al- 

rea<iv used.) 
MngKikiUakiltin (troiii mkit). Ex.: 
S'lujMiiakllmkilan kii (you are ma- 
Magluk-nlxkMlian (from Itikei'). 

(I'pfd liefore. ) 
M'jgnlul.iM.,,, ((rom libd). f wiiW, 
to drive another craiy. .Mud/ 
hei'omi^ inKane. Anq ikai'ihd, the 
cause iif insanity. KmUvlnn. tii- 

MoghingibiiTiiihan {irom bingi). Ex.: 
Hmiag "ktmg mngbingibiiigihiin 
(Don't try to shanl deafness). 



To force, oblige, compel. 

To exert one's self; to work effi- 

To follow closely, etc. 

To be able to move to compassion. ( 6 ) 

To be able to shame greatly. (^) 

XXYII. Some um verbs admit prefixed mag^ the combination denoting 
the action to be executed with earnestness, endeavor, enterprise, etc. 
(6) Some roots with maka also take the prefix magy with the same signifi- 
cation. The infinitive form of the root with um or maka is always retained. 

Ex. (a): 

To make baste. Magdumali (from dumalt, to do 

quickly). J/ado/i, quickly. Mag- 
madaliy to do something quickly. 
(Idiom.) Magdumaling araOf a 
short while. 

MagpUit, In Manila, pumUit. Mag- 
pumUUj to endeavor. 

Magsdkii. Sum&kit^ to oblige another 
to work; to use force toward an- 
other. Maasumdkii, to exert 
greatly for the carrying out of an 
obiect. Ex. : Ang tauong nagfutu- 
makil mattUu nang mahmuting 
kaamlarif ay xgagAlang nang lahat 
(the man who exerts himself 
greatly to learn good manners will 
be respected by everyone). {Su- 
mdkit regarded as a new root. ) 

Magtumunod. ( Al read y ex plained . ) 

Magjnakaaud.. ( A Iread y used . ) See 

Magmakahiyd (from mokahiyd, to 
make ashamed). Ex.: Bikit mo 
ipinagmamakahiyd ang mangdma- 
gulangt ( What is the reason you 
(!ause so much shame to your 
parents?) Walang hiyd, without 
shame, shameless. (See Par. VI, 
under ma. ) 

Magmakaamoamd (from amd, idea of 
placating). Ex. : Nagmamakaa- 
moamd ang tauong itd sa imjd (This 
man is supplicating you). Amd is 
generally reduplicated, and it will 
be seen that makaamoamb is re- 
garded as a new root, the ma of 
maka being reduplicated for the 
present tense. 

XXVIII. Mag also forms nouns indicating plurality, totality, and agency, 
which have been used many times heretofore. The article is usually pre- 
fixed to the compound word. Ma^ is the antithesis (or opposite in mean- 
ing) of ka, which limits the idea to unity. 

XXIX. Mag prefixed to noun roots which are generally used with the 
dual sense denotes such duality without the use of mangd or other particles, 
which rather indicate plurality. Ex. : 

The married couple, the husband Ang magasdu^. Magagdua, to marry, 
and wife. (See also Par. XV, under man.) 

The brothers-in-law (two). Ang magbaydo. 

The two enemies. Ang magdway. J/a^dway, to quarrel 

with each other. 

The parents; ancestors. Ang mngulang, from gulnng. Kagu- 

langan, ancestry, descent. Gumu- 
langt to grow old. 

To be able to placate another; to 
supplicate. (6) 

6855 -OS- 



Tbe two nift^ni-m-law. Aug magklpag. 

The betralbed coaple; the Hweet' A7\g magihtgan. Jfagibigtm, to like 
hearts. each other. (Se« next paragraph.) 

XXX. A root capable of expreseing plurahty \e strictly limited to the 

dual seiune by the insertion of ka between vuig and the root Ex. : 

Tbe two frieuils. Aufj tnagkaibigan. 

The two companions. Aug uiagkcuiaaa. 

.ic&ted. I£x.: 

The hiende (several). Ang magkainibignn. 

The t'ompaiiiona (Heveral). Avg magtakruama. 

XXXII. Correlative nouns &re espreeaed with mag prefised to the rool 
o( tlie principal word. (SeealsoPar, XVIII.) Ex.: 

Father and child. Magamd. 

Mother and child. Magini.. 

Father (or mother) -in-law and «on .Vn^6u»idn. 

(or daughter) -in-law. 

Uaster and man. Maffpaitijiiuion. 

XXXIII. If the second correlative ie expressed, efpecially by a proper 
- - -. .-pig ig p 


John and his father. UngnmA ni Jumi. 

ioni and hJB father- in-law. MaglHanin rri jW. 

Lola and her mother. Magini ni LaUng. 

XXXIV. Jfuff denotes totality with BOme iwM ol tune. Ex.: 

The "hole niEht; al' night. Magihimitg. Ex,; Ma^damag akrmg 

H'ili:li,ii { 1 slept all niif ht ). fl.Al ic 
theufual wonl fi>r niirln. 

The whole day; all day. Maghapon. Hipon alone means the 

time from noon until dark. 

XXXV. Mog prefixed to roots conjugated with umand mnj forma verbal 
nouns signifying the aijent The first syllable of the root is reduplicated 
and the article generally used. £x. ; 

The thief. Ang magnandkao. (Alreadyused.) 

The laborer, Aug maggataka. itag»ata, to wiirk 

in the fields. 

XXXVI. Mitg retains paff with the definite in certain cases, but with 
them exceptions, which have been pointed out from time to time, the 
definite of mtig roots follows the same rule as the definite of vm. (See I'ar. 
II, under ^jiip.) 

I. As true auxiliary verbs are not found in Tagalog, the participle a^ 
BumcM ;ui many forms as tlicre are tenses, the imperative exi-epled. By 
prelixiiiK the article of common nouns, ang, "the," or a demonstrative 
pronoun to the priiper tense of a verb a particle is formed which may be 
trauHlated in Heverul ways, even by a clause in Knglish. 

Pag a.nii jHigkii are commonly used in Tt^log where the idea would be 
expresH.N.1 in English by the Indefinite particle, but the best way to obtain 
H clear uudi^rstan<lin;f of the variations to which Tagalog verbal nounH may 
be subjected Is to uiake a close study of the examples following or refcrreii 
to. Ex.: 
To die. 


To fall. MaMiog. Ang pagkahiilogf the act 

of falling. 
To eat. Kumain. Ang pagkairif the act of 


II. Pag (definite) correflponds to ma^ (definite) in certain cases. As a 
rule verba with mag have the same definites as Mm, except as noted. When 
pag is prefixed, in is inserted for the present and past tenses, forming 
pinag. Pag only is prefixed for the imperative and future tenses, in being 
suffixed at the same time. The first syllable of the root is reduplicated 
for the present and future tenses. (See the tables. ) 

III. Pag sometimes expresses place in combination with suffixed an^ 
where an alone is used to express the person who may be the object of the 
action. ^See haiiapan and pagharuxpanj Par. V, the definite.) 

(6) This rule also applies where the object takes an instead of in. 

To collect; to dun. Sumingil. Ang mTmlanf the unpaid 

debt. Angpagsingilany the place of 
asking for a debt. Maninqilj to 
collect or dun as an occupation or 

IV. The particle pag is also used with the definite when place is directly 
expressed in the sentence, but not when implied or metaphorically (fig- 
uratively). This use of pag^ however, is only with those verbal roots which 
admit an for the person or object of the action of the verb, and with other 
verbal roots pag is not used in this sense, even if place be expressed. Ex. : 

To bury; inter. Magbaon. Ang paghaonan, the buri- 

al place. Ex.: It6 ang pinagbaonan 
nang gundaio (This was the burial 
place of the soldier). 

To endure hardships. Maohlrap. AngpaghirapanfihQhajrd- 

snips. Ex. : Ang bayang pinaghi' 
rapan nild (The town in which 
they endured the hardships). 

To place. Maglagay, Ex. : Lagy&ri mo nang 

tubia itong bangd (Put some water 
in this vase). Wold akongpagla- 
lagydn nitona salamin (There will 
be no place for me to put this mir- 

To embark ortraveL Sumakay. Ang sakaydn or aasakydnf 

boat or vessel of any kind. Ex. : 
Itd^y ang bangkang pinagiKisakydn 
nang marami (This is the canoe in 
which many have embarked). 

(6) See also magp^dong^ "to assemble,'* sxidmagtayd^ **toeiect, set up." 

V. Pag is also combined with i definite, forming ipag^ ipinag^ as a pre- 
fix, when the person for whom an act is performeS is mentioned. (See 
P*ir. VIII, the definite.) 

VI. W henever the sentence expresses plurality of acts or agents, or of 
feigning or reciprocal actions, pag (and ipag when required) must be used 
with the definite. The article ang l>eing generally used, gives the com- 
pound the idea of a verbal noun in the majority of cases. For examples 
see Par. IX under the definite. 

VII. Pag is retained with the definite of the mxig form when roots 
which di^er in meaning with um and mag are used. See Par. X, the defi- 
nite for examples. 

Vm. The participle is formed from um verbs or roots by preBxing pa^ 
to the root, the compound preceded by the article or its equivalent The 


tir^t syllable of the root in n^upHcated for mag verba or roots. Be« 

imiler inn, pa, and ^n for other forme of the participle. 

To teaoh. Um6raL Ang pag6ra.l, the li 

To etudy. Magaral. Atig pagaAnU, thi- si 

To ile«oend; to fasten npon. Humilo^. Ang paghiUog, thi 

scendti^l fastening upon. 

To throw or dash down. MaghiUog. Aug poghuhtilm, 


IX. Pay Mimetimca indicates the pi«»ent tense. Ex.: Pagiabi 
knnij/d (as soon as 1 told him ). 

X. There is ocicaeionally a tnne of menace in its use. Ex.: Pag 
Dirfii pumarito'y hitidt ko lii/A babai/a''on (if he does not rome here, T 
not {lay hiniV "If" U generally uudcrKlood, the idea being a C' 

XI. Pag, with verbal roota of aonie kinde, inditatea atrtion as traiupt 

Light; cleHmesd, Li'i'tinap, Ang pagliiiiinaff,tiie( 

ing light (of the da,y, etc.). 
livaniig nimg irao, the light u 
or of the eon. 

Xn. For verbal changes, see tables: 

IB* imsmtTTK PAKTicu "ma." 

I. The indefinite Terballiing particle nut is need with roots irhif 

Hilt require an object when vertulizeii, or with 1110."? v.tIis exprt 
involuntary ailion. Ma chanties to na for the pa>>t and present U 
The Jfrrf syllable of the roof ia reiluplicated tor the present and f 
tensea. .Wo gi'nerally eipressea a state or condition of Dcing, but tli 
also a poaseBsive idea of "to have," and hence many roots are 
adjectives when prefixed by this particle, as is already familiar t< 

II. Such adjectives in nia must express intrineic Htates or condi 
aiid states or conditions which may or can be attained by the volu 
effort of an agent can not be expressed with ma. 

III. Actions which require an object when conjugated with other 
cles may be conjugated with ma it they take place unconsciously 1 
chance on the part of the agent. 

IV. The conjugation of roots with ma (nu) has nata and maka c 
pluperfect and future perfect respectively replaced by na and ma. 
also repeated after the verb in both these tensea. Some roots begi; 
with J) soften it to m after ma. (See tables for examples.) 

V. ^ga added to ma forms the particles nan^ and mang6 ii» 
exprcHS pluralitv when prefixed to a verlal r ' ■■ ~ • 
seen, is the usuki indication oE plurality when 
liefore nouns, etc. Ex.: 
To Ik: hungry. Magi'ilum. Ex.: Marami tiga 

jMiTT/agutum (njany were bur 
Mnriimi iiija ang riatigiigu' 
(many are hungry). Sinrai'i 
niig iii'tiii/agaijvtum (many w 
hungry). The root is guliiii 
[ilea of lieing hungry. 

VI. ila isiised to express acliou!' 
c^ontnil of the subject. A few ami 
To fall. Mahi'ilog. Ang nahulogati, thi 

son or object on whom any 


falls accidentallv. NahMog tiyd, 
he fell. Ang kahulogarif the place 
of falling. Ang kahtUogdn^ the 
meaning (range of expression). 
Ang kinahulooarif the place where 
something fell or has fallen. Ang 
kinahuhtUoqanj the place where 
something is falling. Ang kahuhu- 
lo^an, the place where something 
will fall. (Bee index for hulog witn 
other particles. ) 

To fall on the face. Madapd, ( Already used. ) 

To stumble. McUiaod, Ex,: Naiisod siydHnadapd 

(he stumbled and fell on his face). 
Saan nalisod siy&^t (Where did 
he stumble?) lyang batong iy&n 
ang hinatituran nxya (that stone 
was where he stumbled, or over 
^ which he stumbled. 

To slip; to slide (invol.); (adj.) slip- Madulds; manUds, Ex.: Pal/ikarin 

Pery; slimy. mo ttiydng marahan mahi marulda 

^ ( tell him to go slowly lest he slip) . 

^^ stick in the throat; to choke. Mahirin, Ex. : Nahinnan giyd nang 

tinikf (she [he] Was choked by a 

_ fish bone). 

^^ lose one's way. Maligdo. Ang kaligaoany the place 

_ of being lost. 

^^ go astray. MeUihis. LumihiSf to be away pur- 

posely. Palihis daan, to go out of 

-, the road for any reason. 

^^ loose; to miss; to lack. Mawald. Naunilan akd nang lakds(l 

lost [or lacked] the strength). 
Nawal&n siyd nang hob (he lost 
heart [or the spirit]). Magwald^ 
to get rid of; to flee; to put out of 

.j^ sight; to conceal anything. 

^ die. Mamatay, Ang pagkamaiay^ the act 

of dying. Ang mamataydnj the 
mourner; the bereaved. (See Par. 

^ XII. in.) 

'^ o be proper or appropriate. Mabdpay. ( See index for examples. ) 

This verb is rather anomalous. 

VII. (a) Uncontrollable states are generally conjugated with ma. These 
^^ims are also adjectives in the majority of cases. (6) Acts which are 
^ore or less controllable take the particle most suitable to express the 
^^^ree. If uncontrollable, ma is used. Ex. : 

t'o be angry. Magdlit. (See index.) 

^o be cold; chilly. Maainao. Also adj. Maginauin^ a 

chilly, cold person. 

To be terrified. Magalangtang. Ang ika^alangtang^ 

the cause of being terrified. 

To be afraid. Matdkot. Ex.: Naiaidkot kat (Are 

you afraid?) Matalakotin, a faint- 
hearted person. (See index. ) 

To be astonished.. Magulat. Ex.: Nagdlatgiydf (Was 

he astonished?) 

To be hungry. Magdtum, Magtigutumint a very 

hungry or starved person. (See 




To tKBahtinieii, 
To be pivaned. 
To be saJ. 

JftAi./.!. JfaAa*!*!. . ImOiM p^ 
sm. (See I^r. XV, mn.) For 
ftijfd with other p*rtide8,»eeindei. 

MaiiigoJ. Lumugwl. to pleaee; to 

panion in retTefttion. 
Maltimbay. Ex.; TUa noluluwhay 
kngn, you seem to be sad. (See 

J/olua. Ang tatuaan, the pen>on or 
object over whom or wbicb one is 
pli^sed orarauBBd. (Bee indes.) 

MiUulog. J nfflufo^n, sleeping plare^ 
Maluhgin, a sreat sleeper; also 

sleep; tn sleep (little used). Mag- 
(u%, to steep s great deal. {See 

Mauha/i. ( .\lreadv used. ) 
italangit.- nmaa-irgii. (Already need.) 
M-itnua. T»mirua, to laugh^ Mag- 
laua, to laugh (two or three). 

Magla,.<i, to laugh much. Maia- 
simling iwreon. 

To be gla-l; amused. 
To bB luleei]. 

To be thirsty. 

To ury! to weep (iinL-ontnillHhlv). 

To giggle; to laugh 

Vnr. UnwnscioiM. 
Willi ma. ConsdouB c 

ir uncontrollable stalt^ of the mind are expreaeed 
.r controllable states ure expreeeed with um or m-ig. 

To fof^t. 

To for^ to do. 

Mallmot. (Already used.) 
SfiUUan. jMmuan, to omit to do (on 

IX. (..) m (», 

atructive nature, 
tion. IJelibenite 
To break up; to split up. 

Malhi/i. Ei.: KiibaH ang Inngtod 
(the cane broke). NaOnlUiii giyd 
iiaiigpiid (he dislocated bis Coot). 

. Magbali, to break up, to split, ts 
wood, cane, el«. Ex.: Balim iM 
inang lubd'l atd'g baliannang muiill 

M'lMKag. Ei.; Nabdtag ang rata 
(the glass was broken), ifagbd- 
taij, to Bhatl«r; break up, as glass, 
erockery, etc. Nagbdaag tiya ruing 
miiTaming ra»o (be broke many 
glas>se9 [purposely]). 

M-<h;l ,k. Ei. : Bidok na ang mid 
(llic IIkIi is spoiled now). (See 

'ilri'jftt. Kx.; Mfdaiagot itimg g'mi'i' 
/(if (this thread will break). Snta- 
<ii.l 'F».;fi;nF'(?iiy (the thread broke). 
M'iijl'ifjv(, to bri-nk, as thread; tc* 
tear up, as vegetables, etc 
■'f;..i(i,/. (Already useil.) 


To spoil; to be destroyed. Maaird. (Already used.) 

To bum up. MoBunog, (Already explained.) 

To dry out. Matuyd, (See index. ) 

{b) Na following the root with verbs of destruction gives the adjectival 
idea with ** already" or "now.** Other actual states are also expreased 
with the root and na if the contex clearly indicates an actual state of being. 
(See under tdsag, bulok, gird^ pata^y UipuSf tuydy and yari for examples. ) 

X. With verbs expressing situation of posture 771a {na) indicates the 
actual state of being in such posture or position, or else the involuntary or 
unconscious taking of such position. Ex. : 

To be lying down; to be in bed. Mahigd. (Already used; see index.) 

To be on the knees; to kneel in- Maluhod. (Already used; see in- 
voluntarily, dex. ) 
To be lying on the back. Matihavd, (Already used; see in- 
To be on one's feet. Matindig. (Already used; see in- 
To be seated. Maupd. (Already used; see index. ) 

XI. Conditions or states reached by slow transition in most cases or a 
return thereto are expressed by ma (na). 

To be deaf. Mabinbi, Ex. : Nabibingi si yd he is 

deal ) . (See under magin. ) 

To be stuttering. Magaril. Ex. : Nagaganl siyd (he is 

l^eginning to stutter again ) . Mag- 
garily to stutter; to stammer. Oa- 
rilinj stuttering; stammering. 

To be insane; crazy. Maulul. Ex.: Naulul siyd (he went 

crazy ) . Nauulul siyd ( he is crazy ) . 
Mawdxd siyd (he will go crazy). 
NaguMululan siyd (he was sham- 
ming insanity). 

To lose the mind (lit., to become Malabd. Also adj. turbid; muddy; 
turbid). bleared (eyes); thick (speech). 

Ex.: Nalaboan siyd nang pagiisip 
(his mind became clouded). 

XII. The use of ma is sometimes governed by reason of the rationality 
or irrationality of the agent. Ex. : 

To be upright Matayd. ( Already used ; see index. ) 

XIII. Maka (naka) is sometimes used in place of ma {na), these parti- 
cles having many analogies. (See maka. Par. XIX.) 

XIV. Other uses of ma have been explained under the adjective, q. v. 

XV. Ma prefixed and in (Am, nin) suflSxed to roots signifying mental 
emotions, passions, and involuntary actions form adjectival nouns, which 

fenerally require to be expressed m English by an adjective and a noun. 

A humane person. Maauain (from aud). (See index.) 

An irascible person. Magalitin (from gdlity wrath; ire). 

A loving person. Maibigin {from ibig). (See index.) 

An affectionate person. Mairogin (from irog, affection; ca- 

A lovinff person. Masintahin (from siiUd, love). 

An obeaient person. Masunorin (from sunod), 

A weeper; a weeping person. MataiTgisin (from tangis), 

A smiling person. Malauanin (from taua). 

A sleepy person. MntiUogin ( from iulog). 

An a^ctionate person. Mawilihin (from wiliy affection). 



XVI. It the KM. admib 

of roil 

traoUon. l)tvi"« with I. or »n ioWM 

devivt.- is exprnved, Ihe flrel sylUhle of the mot mnv tie rednpluitl 

A bashlul |«raon. 

MahMl^ (from hiyd). [Ruol t 

(L. root.) 
MtdUimolin (from Umol, forget 

new). (1.. root.) 

A Joyful pe»on. 

ure). (!„ m<it.) 
trset(Hl ruol.) 

An infirm, siirk perann. 

A (ainl-huarteii jierwn. 


TKR t>E»Nn 


TLBS ■■«*■' A»n "BA." 

I. From Uie tart that ma 

verbs do not nenerally require an object, t 

is Utile use lor Bome fonua of the ilelinii«. Every abtioii. however. 

have ft reaaon, time, or jilacr, and thus > dcfinile and on definite are 1 

found, ma U-ing replaced 

by ka 

as H rule, and alwava with i defi 

Ka an, BB Hhe been »en 

aUrtnirW and places, as well as ^tan 

for {wreuiia and obiecis of the actio 

n. V.n.. 

To be glad; amused. 

Mitu-i. Ang hituaan, the [«rK 
object over which one is glad, 
Ai.giiab>a, the cause of gU 

oramuaement. Ex.: JITti^M 

anp irinn>i halA (amuHe you 


with the children). K'iiiah 
TUffi ong nioii'pi (nidi (she am 
herielfwilhtliechildren). J 
tuluaan uila nng manga bali ( 

mntiffii («(d (1 will arnune m 

with the children). 

To die. 

.MaldltJ. (See index.) 

To be afraiil. 

To etumlile. 

M-Ui»od. (Sceindei.) 

To b« deaf. 

Mii'/i-Vgi. A»g ihibingl, the can 

itabulag. Ex.: AW.u(<wan«,4, 
giUil (he was blinded by wn 
Kiifmiagan, blind neae. 

To In? blind. 

To be poor. 

Jftirf-Wid. .^f.3 a-o-fuiM. the e 
of poverty. Kndakhnan, poYi 
/'iimiii/nf, to liecome poor. 
rfiiU.Fj'n. the person bee-oi 
l-inirlliiis. (See index.) 

ToLrnum-Ki^ii. husim... 

Mi'h-.p. .l..y ital-gi, the caul 
l.i'iii>: riiiii...l /.umusri. to de- 
(11- fr<im ftfc!e or natural mufief 

To W Uiiie. 

.U.>;i''"!/- -Iriff ikapUaii, the cau 
.1/../-,^-,. Ex.: SahUbriyAifhefal 

Tofiiinr a«aj-; t,, s«win. 

nu'xy )- .V.iAfAi/d #tjra (ehe is E 

inaaway). Aug kaliiloan.lhep 

To ilrop iiH; I.i ilrop some 

liiii^ac- Miilw/htg. Jiij talaglagan, the'i 




'^^ be drowned. 

To be tired out 

cause. MagHaglag^ to drop some- 
thing purposely. AngilaglagtyiYisX 
dropped. Ang laglagan, the place 
or the person to whom dropped. 
Lumaglag, to drop down pur- 
posely. Ang laglagiriy tlie person 
thus dropping down. 

Mdlunod. Ana kalunnran, the drown- 
ing place; hence the west, **the 
drowning place of the sun.'* 

Mapdgod, Ang ikap&god^ the cause. 
Ex.: And ang ikinapapdgod mot 
(Why are you tired out? [Lit, 
*' What is the cause of your being 
tired out?*']), ^yn. palcang. The 
word 6god means great weakness, 
and looks as if it were a variation. 

MoMildAo, A nf kcaoMauan^ the place 
where con tamed. Ex. : Ang mangd. 
uto8 nang hokWy kinascaaklauan 
nitong lilmmg U6 (the orders [reg- 
ulations] oi the army are con- 
rp tained in this book). 

^^ Yye finished; also concluded and Mautds. Var. lutds, Mctglutds, to 
^^tinguished. finish or conclude anything. Mag- 

kaluUulutdSf to finish completely. 
Ang kalutasanf the place. 

^, ^X, Ka is omitted with an when the person affected is meant, and not 
^*^^ place or deliberate act. See mahirin, mamatayf and mavnild for 

% XX I. Paqka is generally used to form verlwil nouns for roots conjugated 
^y Y»ia, although pag may be used with some roots and pagkaka is occasion- 
^Jjy found. Ex.: Ang pagkatulog or ang pagtulog^ the act of sleeping. 

^^ t>e included; to be contained. 


X. This i)article, known as the third to Spanish writers on Tagalo^, has 
^**^ for the definite and is one of the most Important of the modifying 
^^^balparticles. It admits in^ i, and an with the definite. 

II. The great attention paid by Tagaiog to euphony or smoothness in 
^^Uiids is well illustrated by the changes demanded of the initial letter of 
'^xtx)t when man (pan) is prefixed. This grammatical peculiarity is found 
*^oet fuUjr developied in western languages, in Irish and Scottish Gaelic, in 
^hich it is known as "ellipsis.*' English has this tendency to a slight 
degree, as shown by a, an^ according to a following vowel or consonant 

^ III. When preceded by man the following changes take place in initial 
Xatters of roots, the final n of the particle being either dropped or modified. 
K (and hard Cor Q) to ^g, 
8, T, and D (generally) to A". 

Jf, Nf and ifg cause final n to drop out. 

Ay /, 0, C7 modify ntong. 

IV. Man has nan for the present and pa^t tenses, the first syllable of the 
:iioot being reduplicated for the present and future tenses. There is a I and 
a II pluperfect tense, the former adding na to the past tense and the 
latter prefixing naka to the root. The future perfect has also two forms, 
the first form^ by adding na to the future tense, and the second by prefix- 
ing maka to the root. The present participle (verbal infinitive) is formed 


bv {nvflKinir pan Uj 1l>« nxa, lh« Bm ^vllahle •>( which is i«>lu(ilinU''> 
iW uw of tb« definite [aitidM m, i, sou o" follows ttw gencnl nilv. 

lb ridkolr; mock ; Koll; bnax; I 

To )[iv« much; b> lavieh. 
To buT much. 

To be nsuieitWd or ilicpwt*^- 

itaniifiai. Ana libaJeia, whit 
wbomri^raled, aboevil.i^ii'- ■ 
libahai; «Im> ang mapajiIiAol, ita^ 
NoSer, honier, mocknr, etc F"T 
ind«>f. with pum aev Ub\». lU.' 
B&tU ta naniUibat m Jniti^m w.' 
(Why mre you ridirnling j*"" 
iriena?) Syns. (Voy; ujtwi.tijm'i 
and riyiiA. 

Jfmniany (Etom ^^gr). For drfnile 
with • t«e iniJex. ateo lli<> Ubta 

Jfon^UtroDiMO- FordefinlM'iAt 
n KC tal>l««. 

ManilirL For defiiiilci with hm n* 


V. ,Viin ie iiwd to PxpnM plimliiy of btU mtbrr Ihui of pemiiu litl^ 
Ihow rwt» which <J«nol« Uie rimple action with ihh ormoy. With some 
roots of culore nttn ilvnotra iitl^Dtatv, and willi Gome otfaer rooU inJictU^ 
ronlinaoiimrw. It b nwntiAl for t^we iilnbf thkt the tneuiuig shall ""* 
be eliauireil by hmh fmm what it ia vith tun or mag. 

Kx. (II roots]: 
To divide lip Kiuong iitlicre. Xamahagi (froio bo&i^'). Ex.: X" , 

tava nny ipinaDKlMui/HioJ »"* 
(What are voudiviilingiipT) -f"? 

Kx. (Dr< 

Kx. ((.1 r< 
To imitate I 

lfamiha»a (from biham ). E* ; ^ 
Houag tnng vwmihdtang tjinniiii/' , 
M mniV ic^iiJNIAa!/ mo (l)o n^ 
accustom yourself tocomplainit** 
about your nei^hbora). 

.Vdiniinof (from biinot'). Bamuiuit, r^ 
pull up. Magbanot, to pull u^^ 

Mangagad. Oamapad, to imitate. 
Maggagad, to imitate (many). 

.Vani;niRdo. ^In^ panpomauin, what 
so mixed. Ang ipangam&o. wh«l 
UM^ to mix with thus. Aiwi jmn- 
gniiitiuan, tlie place of habitual 



what mij 
annio, whftt ailded or the inptni- 
ment used to mix with. .In<j 
gamauin, the place; the niortar; 
dish, etc. Maggamiio, to mix 
much. Ang paggamauin, what 
mixed much. Angipaggumiw, (be 
instrument thus. .1110 pa 9SM- 
maiinii, the place of much mixintr- 
Giimnmat, Ang gamatln, what 
cleared off, Ang gamatan, the 



cut rice. 

with; to reprimand 

rn underbrush; to clear 
also to speak freely. 

by many). 

;h rice; or by many. 
e*8 face (habitually), 


my); also to flirt, 


to eat continually. 


with hands and feet (as 

r does). 

land cleared off. hagaamds, to 
clear off (bv many). MangamaSf 
to clear on much. Ang panga- 
masariy the land thus cleared. 

Gumapas. Ang gapasin^ what reaped. 
Ang gapamnj the field. Ang gin- 
apamnj the stubble left. Magga- 
pdSf to cut or reap much. Man- 
gapas, to cut or reap (many). 
Ang pangapaSf the sickle. Ang 
mangagapaSf the reaper, harvester 

Gumcud. Ang gasaan^ the person so 
quarreled with or reprimanded. 
ilaggatd^ to quarrel with much, or 
to reprimand much or many. 
Mangaad^ to quarrel with or to 
reprimand habitually. 

Gumasak. Ang gamkint what clear- 
ed, i. e., the underbrush. Ang 
^aaakan^ the place. Ang gasakin 
18 also the person spoken to freely. 
Mangasnky same actions as fore- 
going by many. 

Mangiik, (See index: ^h'^.) 

Manhdnap. ( See index : hdnap, ) 
Manhasik. (See index: hasik.) 
Manhilamos. (See index: hilamos.) 
Manhvld. Aug manhuhuldf the 
prophet; soothsayer. Humuldj to 
predict; foretell. Ang hulainy 
what foretold. Ana kulaan, the 
person to whom tola. 

much; to bite with the 


much or frequently with 


ff (as flowers or fruit) as 



r break off much; or by 

Mangibig. {See ibig.) 
Mangilag, ( See Hag, ) 

Mangain, (See kain,) 

Manguha. (See itw/ia.) 

Manguy&pit (from kuydpit). Ang 
panguyapitany what clung to, i. e. , 
tree, etc. Kumdydpit, to grasp 
thus. Ang ikuydpit, what with, 
i. e. , the hands, feet, etc. No old- 
world monkeys have a tail which 
can be used for grasping, the Phil- 
ippine Islands species included. 

MaiTffib'tt (from kibit). Kumibit, to 

Manginyig ( from kinyig ) . See i ndex . 

Maiujilil (from kitil). Kumilil^ the 
simple action. Magkitily to break 
off thus much. Syn. : Puti; and 
see also putoL 

Mamilds {{toiw plUU). See index. 




^^^W^^^^^ TioALOO 


To break off (by many); 

to eathe 

r Mamuti (from putt). 

1 hftbit4i»lly (u flowMB or 


break off. Magputl, i 
much. MangafffnUi, 1 
(by many). Syr.; A^ 

from whicD murh ie b 

MaimUHtrompull). Sf 

To grow very pale. 

MaTnuitd (from piUUt). 
tive. Pumutld, to 
Fullnin, a person wh 
pale: pallid. Mapuile 

who may become pal 

Anp..fM«», pallor. M 

caum pallor. 
JlfawiiM (already used.) 


Ex. (S roots): 

To diipeise; aW to iK-altiT 

rniK'ti h 

Uie air. 


To bit« much (ah a nioei|iiii 


Manigid. Aug fft/itln, t 
etc., bittun. Ang poi 
place. SimipiVf, to b 

Ex.: Nanmigid ang m 
(the moequitwe are bit 
Minirmirom lira). Se. 



Ex. (T roots) : 
To peck much (as a binl). 
To tempt habitually. 

VI, AVitb roots which adm 
ing the acts deiioteil by the re 
trade, or profesKJon. Kx.: 
To preach. 

Matliidral (from iral). 
ang&rol, the preache 
tnaiTijanral, the master 
(of a doctrine, etc.). . 
ra}, what preached. 
nanijn'irai, what \s beln 
the subject of the set 
jiinaiiiiniti/iiraldn, the p( 
preached to (the consi 
the pulpit. (See inde 

is fr.Fiii Sanfk. fcAiiru, 
iIlc Kiiiilii-h "to bear,' 
K.':i.: Uihidd, p(. (you 
pir [i, e., pav what 

(Wh.. is Inking care of 

,SVJ»a,, (Juanl 
Mitiijiimid ( (mill gnmot). 
M'U'finUif (from gxtnt). 

ii'\lnf, the milkmen 

',U<>, loinilk(occfl 



To cook or do an3rthmg habitaally. 

To live by robbery. 

To sew nipa (for a living) . 

To collect bills (as an occupation ). 
To dive (as an occupation). 
To write (as an occupation). 
To spin (as an occupation). 

Magawd. ( See index ; aauod. ) 
Manhull (from htUi). See index. 
Manduid (trom pduid). Ex.: And 

ang ginagawd ninyd diydnf ( What 

are you doing there?) KamVy na- 

mamduid (we are stitching nipa 

Maningil (from singU). See index. 
Manisid (trom slsid). See index. 
Manulat (from »ulat). See index. 
Manulid (from sulid). Aiig vianu- 

niilidf the spinner. Sinulidy th read ; 

anything spun. Sumulidj to spin 

(simple act). 
Manaht (from tahi). See index. 
Manguna (from una). See index. 

To sew (as a tailor). 
To go first; to guide. 

YII. Some roots with man have the idea of running around doing the act 
expressed by the verbalized root; going about in a certain manner, etc. 

To advance, clinging to something. MangdpU (from kdpit). This verb 

would be used if bamboo rail, etc., 
was clung to crossing a bridge, etc. 
Kumdpilf to cling to; to support; 
to hold up from falling. 

To run around biting (as a vicious Mangagat (from kagat). See index, 

To go about sadly and mournfully. Mangulila (from ti/i/a, an orphan). 

VIII. Man^ with roots denoting animals or birds, expresses their chase; 
with roots meaning fish, etc., their seeking, and with other animal or 
vegetable names, the gathering of what is denoted by the root. The idea 
is generally that of an occupation or habitual engagement in such hunting, 
fishing, gathering, etc. Ex. : 

To gather the rattan called *'bd- Mamdging. This is a species of ivy. 

To hunt or catch birds. 

To catch fish ; to fish for a living. 
To cut or gather wood. 

To gather tortoise shell. 

Mangibon (from iban). Ebon is 

**egg" in Pampangan. 
Mangiadd. (See index i»dd.) 
Mangdhoy (from kdhoy). Kdkaho- 
j/an, woodland. G'lioo/ is *' forest; 
timber, etc." 
Mangala (from kola). Manganaaln^ 
tortoise-shell hunter. Magkakij to 
sell tortoise shell. 
To gather nacre or **kapis*' (the Mangapis (from kapia). Magkapis^ 
shells used in windows). to sell nacre. Ang kapisin, the 

nacre. Ang kapisan^ the place 
used, i. e., the window. 
To gather rattans (oejuco). Mangway (from way). 

To hunt tortoises. Mamagong (from 'pagong). 

To gather *'pajo8" (a kind of Mamahb. 3fai/pand, to aeal in '* pa- 
mango), jos." 
To hunt frogs. Mamalakd (from paUxkd, frog; syn: 

To gather the rattan called "pal a- Mamalamn. Kapalxxmnan, place 

san." where the palasan is found. 

To gather palm leaves. Mamalaspds (from palaapda^ **palm 

leaf"). MagjyalaspdSy to adorn 
with palm leaves. 



To iCKlbrr or hunt for lianey. 

raaiitr. AnuZottin, what hu litm 
iiiaiU- from honer (Iroin pulabn. 
HWtwtH uude ul iMiwy). hAi^ 
M klieo » term uf endtatniienl. Kl. 
with mi.* ffnaay mo ojhmjf puIoUs 

wiM, bimi-y kimI cu-dtuiut milk, 
Mi'wilaM (front laloM). Kalalaia- 

l.-n.. uysUT bod. 
MaiTywui (from luo, deer), 

, , , ii«iH|)(in, uk-nKit, or nniiiuLl whii^ i«t] to 

o iiacd \h vmIhIIkWI uiili the IdMi uf hunting, diiliiuit fur, or mtcbing bj 

To bunt with ilug* or bounds. 
To hunt wilb or to usw u giiH, 


(from a»e, (log). Rn 



Miimatil (from harit, ft iihol|l[uU )■ 
Mnlay. baifii. Ang mamamiinl, 
th«> litiiilor. 
J/umii'iirf (froui btniD'O- Se« loivx, 
Mamiuvi (Iruin tiiau). This moUV 
tn uw B rod ftnd ltn«. Aunrwn*, 
to lift tile hook by the Une. Jf'w- 

To ti»h or hunt with u li)$bt. 

To use or hunt with & spear called 

To fish with the hook. 

To fish with a t^ine. 

To fmh with anything tliat may be 

U!<e<l to eati'h nnh. 
To mine with the lar^e [iet calte<l 

" pangtf." 
Toseine with the net called "piikol." 
To ti!>h with rod, line, and hook. 

. ^ to fish with a light?) 

lyang In " 

'rfftoy ( 

wa^ from the bousea). I'milm, 
lO light up. Magilao, to oory i 
lieht. Ang Unuan, the lamp or 
place of light. 

Jfaitlainliang (from lantbang, > 

.\fiiiiliimbal. See index: lambat. 
Mmaalakaya (from palakaya). i^' 
malakai/a, to fish occaMonaily. 



Maiiiil (from liit, a thorn or hook)- 
M'lgiiii, to make anything out of 
tliorne or iiookx; to make sbliitiB- 
8yn., (I'litit. Tinik also means fl^h 



n axe. 


ith roots denoting arms, tools, or instruments man indicates the 
use or wearing ofthe arms and the constant use of tools or instni- 

Mangiiva (from iioa). See index. 
MamUik (from lUiky sickle). 
Mamalakol (from palakolj axe). 

Magpalakolf to have an axe. 
Manandata (from sandataf arm, 

weapon). MagsandcUay to bear 

arms. A7tg sandatahan^ armed 

forces; levy en masse. 
Manumpit (from sutnpil). 
Manundang (from sundanOy knife). 

Magfrnndanoy to carry a knife. 
Mannbak. MogUibak, to wear a war 

bolo. Tumabakj to cut off with a 

war bolo. 

iTith roots denoting certain places man indicates the living in such 
aming the living from the products thereof, or traveling in such 


"war bolo*' (tabak). 

[general idea). 

I in a house. 

n town. 

n the mountains; to wander 
to gain a living from the 
cts thereof. 

n the open country. 

a seafaring life; to be a 
lea fisher. 

in the timber; to lay the 
p waste; to wander in the 
; to live by wood chopping, 

\ or live on the bank of a 
)r the seacoast. 

Mamuhay (from huhay). Idea is to 
reside, etc. Magbuhay, to live. 
Bumdhayj to give life to. Buhay, 
alive; living. 

Mamdhay (from bdhay). See in- 
dex. Ex. : Saan kayd namamayanf 
( Where do you live?) Ang bdhay 
kOj p6f dito sa bayang ito ( My house, 
sir, is here in this town). 

Mamayan ( from bay an ) . Kababayan^ 
fellow-townsman, also country- 
man. Magbayaiif (1) to look for 
a town site; (2) to found or build a 
town; (3) to apportion by towns 
and not by innabitants. Bayan 
also means space between earth 
and sky, day (rare), and weather 

Mamuitdok (from bundok). This 
word may also mean to travel in the 
mountains. Taga bundok^ moun- 
taineer; sometimes used insult- 
ingly, as *' hayseed," in English. 

Mamukid (from bdkid, *' field"). 

Man&gat ( from ddgat^ * ' sea " ) . Man- 
andgatf sailor or deep-sea fisher. 
Also taga ragat; tauong dumdgai, 
Magddgaty to travel by sea. Du- 
rndgat^ to flood the land. 

Mangnbat {Iroin gnbat^ **tmil>er; for- 
est"). Ang ipangubat, Yfhsii csLT- 
ried in the timber; or the cause of 
wandering, etc. Aug pangubatan^ 
the place of workinjr, devastating, 
wandering, etc., in the forest. 
(fumubat, to become a forest. 
fjubatovy timber land or forested 

ManUimlmy (from lambay). Mag- 
lambay^ to carry anything to coast 





XI). With roota denoting certain artkl«e of wearing app 

cues their nftbiluftl lue or wearing. Kx. : 

To wear a shiit babitueilly. Afatitant (from baTo). 

See olso lambalUo 

shoe; and lapit, apn 

XIII. With r(HJt« denoting vebii^lee, boata, or other mea 

..! — ;fl~. ., . — ^j ]jy what i£ denote<l by t 

locomotion, ( 

To tr»v«l hy CHOOe. 

MamangkA. Ex.; lU 

tarn mula dUo hm 

( How many dave by 

from here to AlauLli 

kayang Imiigkain (1 

one day l>y banka). 

Mangahain (irom eiAa 

MangHaXirom tiU*,H 

from Giiillermo Qui 

Ilocos gur, who sug 


XIV. Manaltio denotes eclf-«upt)orting and ulowlydeva 

from within Hai:h aa the growth of Howere, fruit, etc Ma 

mencing with 6, wliich would otherwise tx; coDJugat«d with 

(or euphonic ICTsona. (See uin. Par.. VII.) Ex.: 

Toiprout: to put fortli ahoota {as Manlabang (from k 

the bamboo). ' '- - ■• ■ ■ 


I (.L- a (i.,v 

lumahong. itaglat 


Mm,„-L.idt„il iirom In. 
ajau, b„hi.l. 

ilainultill'tt- (from bul 
Visa van, Inirak; al 
the ilangilang. Ex 
I'lkaiigmanz/a halarr: 
are blooming). 

Maminlga (from ftuiijc 


fiwja t 

To bear Iruit; to be full of tniit. 


XV. Some roota liavu diKerlng met 

»ine caaes the variation is great, but i 

', looks to the effect or residt i 

expressed bv ii.,- 

an.i reHemblani-e 


(the t; 


imiiwitwi (from 6u 

XainiimiiMd-tnk itong 

(thia lukhan tree ie 

SI with iini, mag, 
era little urnont 
than to the ainiple at 

r mag. The examplee will beat show th< 

tt'urd" agreeing with ■' 
To intrude or steal in. 
To throw a lasEO or rope. 

' 'mdral. Magtiral, to B 

ral, to preach. (Sei 

rI-k) Inlo and tnlamU 

II (if iised) and man; bul differing 

Dumikil; manikil. 3f( 

ten; to paste togethi 

S'-milii. kmiild, to 1( 


Words agreeing with um and marij mag being little used: 

To admire; to wonder at. Gumildl&s; mangilalds. Ex. : Aking 

pinangigiUUaaan ang karikilan nang 
manga oituin sa IdrTgit (I admire 
[my admiration is] the beauty of 
the stars in the skv). 
To draff along; to arrest. HumilA; manhxlA. (See index: /liZd.) 

To shake (as a tree to get the fruit). Lumoglog; manloglog. (See also in- 
dex for libak, idea of ridiculing, 

Words differing with um and man^ mag being little used: 

To afflict. Dumaig (from daig), Manaigy to 

overcome; to surpass; to vanquish. 

To kill. Pumatay. Mamatay^ to die. (See 

index: putay.) 

XVI. Some few words which do not admit of frequency have the simple 
idea with man. Others are generally used with the particle in a seemingly 
irbitrary manner. Ex. : 

To bear a child. Manganak 

To die. Mamatay, 

The following are arbitrary: 

To allow light to pass (as glass or Manganinag. Maaninagy transpar- 
anything transparent). ent (from anino^). 

To feel nauseated. Mandiri (from diri). 

To have; to possess. Mandoon{iroTCidoon), (See index). 

To originate from; to come from; to Mangdimg. Ang pinan^alingaUy the 
descend from; to arise. place or source of rising; origin; 

etc. Ang gating na drao^ the sun- 
rise. Galing is the idea of doing 
good. (See index.) 

To look at wrathfully. Manllgik. Ex. : NanlilUik ang matd 

nang poot narUat (fixing the eyes 
wide with anger). 

To find fault with; to complain of. Mamintds (from pintds). Ex. : Hindi 

mo hagd alam na mahdlay ang pam- 
imintns aa iMf (Don't you know 
the dishonesty of complaining 
about others?) Ang pinUmn; ang 
piTitasdn; ang mapamint&Sy the 
critic; the fault-finder; com plainer. 
Anfj paminta»An . who or what found 
fault with. Ang pagpintasdny who 
or what found much fault with. 
(See also index: tilaway to confide 

XVII. Although pany the definite correspondiuff to many generallv has 
4 verbal meaning, there are several instances in which jmny prefixed to a 
root, signifies an instrument, utensil, or article. These roots then admit, 
Uthough they do not always require, the euphonic changes, as have 
already been explained in Par. III. Ex. : 

Che razor. AngpaiigdhU ( from mangdhit) . ( See 

index: dhit.) 
The auger. Ang pamutas (from btUas). Magbu- 

tasy to bore; to make a hole in. 
The mop. Ang pangiMhis (from kusktis). Ku' 

muskuBy to mop up. 

6855—05 14 


Tttn sickle. 
The KpaAe. 


The hnwh, ruler, rtr- 
rhe [KM 

Ang pant/apiu (fr 

index: yiOKu.) 
Ang panhiiiati (from kuhny). { ^^"* 

Angpanir&hit {from yiifcilj. Ouw*^' 

Aa, to line, m&rb, or jiainl. j 

The puckc't Ii&ikI kerchief, napkin, AngpauicMditromp'attdhiil.loroXM 

Arii; pntiittltpat (froin vum'ikimt ** 

iiiiof. t 


pMB livfnit] ). (Soe Index: «!(■»'-' 

'riiiiMinit/i rfmm In/n. Jlfiiabi/( *" 

Tilt! hamuicr. 

Th« [wn, pencil, vtc 

Thi- atring, oonl, miw, eUi. An^ fn.mi/i (from ioH)- Maglali, 

XVIII. With DAtnee <if the days and nouiut like ■'iwo" (day) p^ 
dunol(!» iomcthing iieod daily or un the ilay nAmeJ, Ex.: 
SomettiinK (or dailj- um. Ang pana&Taodmo. {Soon r«dii|>^ 

Sonirthiti); lor \x»f on Mondays. .liii^ ponJuno. 

XIX. In likeiuauDer^ man, with the reduplicated initial syllable of tlr 
rwil, indicatwt the habitual agent wiih those rw<jt« capable of donotit: 
occapatioii, trade, or pmfenion. It uiay also be used with tionie <>th« 
routM. In 0ome c»aM the particles are repeated with occasional euphona 
cbaDgeii. Kx, ; 

The follawing have a airople reduplication: 


UmiaihU (from &hit), uMuOly Mik 

.Vnmnmaril (from haril). 
»'„mm',ynt (fr'.m d.-j.,!). 

ngagapof ((r 
iJiahabi (fro 

Tineniilh, plumber, 

Jtf(inAiAftuin^{fromAinan^). Ifiimi'^ 
nang, to solder. 

Sau'ver. Maidalagari (from iagari). (See in-'' 

dex. ) 
Writer; clerk. Jfnn»nii/n( (from sutai). 

Spinner. Manun'Uid (from cii/irf). 

Tailor; eeainsIreNi. Mdiiaitahl (iromlahf). 

WiiiniT; I'oiiquerur. ifanaiiali) (from talo). 

Reseller; ri'deeiner. Maiiiitmb6t (from I'ibM). 7\imttb/n, 

to reecue, to redeem (simple act). 
Tenjplt-r. .Vaiiantutad (from luM). 

In the fiillou-inj; examplex the root as conjugated with man has the ini- 
tial svllablf of till' iii'w woni inserted Iwtweeii the ma and the rig o[ the 

M<i<:^in<Tgiirai (from mai77;,in</ to 

Maii'iniiijato (from tnangato, to hinit 

with dogs). 
M'nTyiiTgi^ii (from nuin^'M/<f, to fieh 
for a livii^). 
id i-imilar nouns, man prefixed ei^ilies 
u" may l>e denoted by the noun. (See 

XX. With weights. 

uiiii'-r tlie nutnerals.) 

XXI. With many r. 
denoted by the root, wl 


I resemblance t 



!; typhoon. Bcigyd. Ex.: Manbagy6bagy6 Uong 

hanain (This wind seems like a 
typhoon) . Naglalayag 9Ud*y bina- 
fyd tUd sa ddgat (They were coast- 
ing and were caught at sea by a 
Odiit. Ex.: MangdlUgdlii ya4mg 
pangungHsap (That way of talk- 
ing resembles anger). 


particle (riaka in the past and present) has two distinct mean- 
irst being that of caose and the second that of power, ability, etc. 
eason there are two definites, that corresponding to the iaea of 
ig kGf and that to the idea of power being ma {na). 
cases the true pluperfect and future per^t tenses are formed by 
ng the verb as existing in the past and future tenses, respectively, 
a of cause is indicated by maka with roots denoting conditions, 
>ng8), and betterments, which have only one defimte; that with 
las in with the past and present tenses, forming t^a, ikina. Ika 
also indicate time (not tense) in certain cases. (See index.) 
I difference in syntax between these maka verbs in the sense of 
all others must be noted. In the definite these verbs have the 
the nominative and the recipient or object of the action in the 
In the indefinite the agent is in the usual nominative also, but the 
)r object takes the accusative, which is invariably preceded by m 
' nang). This use of sa is also found with some other verbs. 
ip and man roots retain the definite forms pag and pan when con- 
ith makoj as will be seen from examples. 

3 to learn or study. Makapagdral. Ex. : Nakapagdralakd 

(I was able to study). Nakapa- 
gadral siyd (He [she] is able to 
study). Makapagadral sild (They 
will oe able to study). Hindi aid 
makapagadral (I shall not be able 
to study). Napagdral ko ang idral 
(I was able to learn the lesson). 
Napagadral niyd ang idral (He 
[she] is able to learn the lesson). 
Mavagadrdl nild ang idral (They 
will be able to learn the lesson). 

e to teach. Makadral. Ex.: Nakadral akd (I 

was able to teach). The other 
tenses, both of the indefinite and 
the definite are formed in the 
same wav. 

e to preach. MakapangaraL Nakapangdral ak6 

(I was able to preach). Nahor 
parTgangdral giyd (He is able to 
>reach). Makapangangdrai tiyd 
He will be able to preach ). The 
lefinite is formed in the same way 
as with pagdrcU. 

ots verbalized by maka reduplicate the first syllable of the root in 
nt and future tenses. In some districts the second syllable of the 
i reduplicated, but this is a provincialism. Ex.: 

damage. Makapanganyayd (from anyayd and 

pan). See index, 
anguish. MakaJbali»a, 


To raoM* i«tiMy, 
To beautify or lulnm. 

To do gool. 
To hinder. 
To kdom; ti 

Tu cause ivliici. 

To cMiee auliiifM. 


Td omisc Hnotbur tu tremUti with 

iliitatniMog. BiitOff IB ■ bot 

MnMinli. Bvmvii, to grow huul- 
MiDf. (S«« bu(> in inaexO 

JVaiadiniiinm or miubaruninn. 
J/diufinMnin, to dit^fl. Ei: 
A'nti/VDufrinl ait6 Ma paglcain W|n1 
(liis manner nf entinn diogualtJ 

Mnt'ig'iliBff. (Stw index: jo/iii?.) 


llnkayandA, Ex.: Jiijr hiAoihina''' 
nntanagnniM «a murv'i '^''^ 
(Moil««ity fa n beanty in girli)' 
(Del.): Aug ttihmhinAn ayiiifiii) 
itiua^gan/Ui ruitiji manjfi lAwV"' 

MtkogHihiun. Ex.: MaioffinhiaMi" 
inv6 ong gamot (Let th« msdiciii* 
relieve yon). yakngitihAuaMOi^ 
ony pamot (I waa relieved by t*" 
m»lidue). y<thigiginUiut ta Jto* 
nifA ang gamot (lie la being «T 
licv«dbytfaemediuDe). ifnVf^ 
yinAiiua (a inyS ang gamot (V*- . 
will l>e relieved by Uie niediclnf^ V 
jR«p<iifta^'iiAdMi,theKlirf lai--^ '' 

J/AbA^u. (Seaiadex: Mpu.) 

MtUtaltbatig. (8ae index; MofurO ^.i 

Mokapnf^Ui^ (from kUAbU tr=^ 
}".•). Kii-it/il-iMM. liorrihli-. 

M<ib<)>fi<T[n!i<iiij. (Si'c index: Xiiiyij 



iiialignaDt Also futore lenifc -^^ l, 
Ex.: Hcniag mong kanm ilm^^^l 
butiijiVt makommmd ra ii/A {Doii*'^^^,^, 
cat this fruit, because it will in«^^. 
jure you [be noxious to you, ir*:''^ 
def.]). Ang itina»a*aind nun^ "^T 
dtinff loob ag ang haniimng P"^^^^ 
mumiiraiig u-aiang lii/il ( What ?"'-~^^^ 
ine in bad humor is his everja? tin^ ^"5 
slanderincr [lit.. The cause of mS^!^_ 
bad humor is his Plandering with ■*\^' 
out cessation, def. j). SuniapuS,ti^^^. 
beiflme bad or evil. (See indes j:^^^' 

M.d„M,o. (,..,%.) 

To wound (lit., 

wouniicd ). 
To CMu^c to In- «'1 ! 
To i-auM hiHtliiiiK I 



'lino;;. {Sit'iiidfs; nunog.) 
nurd. (Svn. tiinok.) 
■li'ktA. (f»^inde.\: tAtol.) 
null. (Seofoiia.' index.) 
I"). [See index: tud.) 



indefinite forms will be clearly seen by the conjugation of 
ua in the preceding paragraph, there being no irregularities 
is but one definite with ka^ forming ika as a prefix to the root 
nitive and future and ikina for the past and present tenses, in 
rporated in the latter cases. For the conjugation of this definite 
I ind6x. 

ixed to roots denoting actions maka signifies power or ability to 
hat may be denoted by the root Roots which are con justed 
}\e idea by mag or man retain pag or pan before the root in all 

is the corresponding definite to maka potential, and when used 
dea of attraction toward, etc., suppresses in completely. Ma 
I for the past, pluperfect, and present tenses. Pag and pan are 
ith those roots requiring it to preserve the meaning, as explained 
ceding paragraph. The definites with i and an also exist. The 
i inserted between the particle ma (na) and the root, contrary to 
1 ifca, where it is prefixed to the latter particle. Ex. : 

to go away, 
to teach. 

to do or make, 
to takti« 

to go or come out. 
to walk; march; eU;. 

to write. 

Makaalis. MakapagaHs, to be able 
to take awav. 

Makadral. Makapagdralf to be able 
to learn or study. Ex. : Napagd- 
ral ko ang idral (I was able to learn 
the lesson), hapag&ral na ko ang 
idral (I had been able to learn the 
lesson). NapagadrcU ko ang idral 
(I am able to learn the lesson). 
Mapagadral ko ang idral (I shall 
be able to learn the lesson). (See 
dral in index.) To be able to 
preach, makapangdral. 

MakagatJd. (See index: ^at«f.) 

Makakuha. With idea of attraction 
toward, in is suppressed. Ex.: 
Nakuha ko iyang burwa (I was able 
to take that iruit) . Nahukuha niyd 
iyang buTuja (lie [she] is able to 
take that fruit). Makukuha ko 
iyang bunga ( I shall be able to take 
thatfruit). ( See also index : ibu^a.) 

Makalabds, MaJcapaglabdSj toheable 
to take out. (See index: labds. ) 

Makaldkad. (See index: Wikad.) Ex. 
with maka ( indef . ) : Nakaldkad akd 
( I was able to walk ) . Nakalaldkad 
siyd (He is able to walk). Maka- 
lalakad gild (They will be able to 

Makamlat. With i inserted between 
ma {na) and root with definite. 
Ex.: Naisulat ko itong paniilat (I 
was able to write with this pen). 
Naisusidat ko itong panulai ( I am 
able to write [can write] with this 
pen). Maimisulaiko itong panulat 
(I will be able to write with this 
pen). Bukas maisimdat ang sdlat 
na ipadadald md sa iyong amd sa 
Maynild (To-morrow I will be able 
to write the letter which you will 



orders 1 have given him), 
index: tiiiaL ) 
To be able to ran awRj*. XataUitM. (Bee index: loM'). 

VlJl. With negative psrticlm the imper&tive is largely used iuetead •" 
the present tenae, alihough the meaning is the snine as that of the latte<i 
i e.| Aiiirfl ai(inj;Tniijta«ii(of, I winiiot wnte; I am not able lo write; ingle** 
ot htndt atimff tiakanimlal. The definite ie sometimeu useil in Ibe ^aJi^' 
way with the negative, and even with the afhmiative. Eiampke: Hii*^ 
akvng makapagdral ( I can not [am not able to] slud^ [or learn] ) . Hindi »"" 
tnadampolf (Can't you pit-k it up [pTaen it]?) Hittdt to mamn/uiyuj (frc J', 
Aiii/dj, ma, t, HDd^Hi) (I can not reveal it [make it public]). iHt'di **" 
truitiilu&> aa Mamild'tati'i/mfiiigatil (lean not eo down to Manila, bet^ai*^^ 
I am ill). Witn tim this may be expressed kinaC ak6 manmjirrmg lumuAtr ^' 
MayniUi't ak6 mag taHt. Hindi hii/6 makapat^itapf (Clan't yoa talk: 'I 
Hindi to inaieikA (I can not prfinount-e it). Hrndtho mano^Mj/ (1 can n- ■^ 
vxplsln it). Hifidt ka moiwjn ( I can not tell it). 

IX. Main {natn) with the indefltiite and i»'i (nn) witli the definite b£.S 
nify to do what is denoted hv the nmt mechanically, iTacnatly, involu:^ 
tanly, or suddenly (miiiHionally), especially acts ol the mind andphy»(=s^ 


To smell. 

I'lmmj. Xakaaamov tny6/ (E^^^ 
II wnpll anything*^) -Vaaomc;^^-^ 
lyii bagA ang bmTgong itinaaambirr:^^' 
-~ ' Imtiitlatf (Doyo— *" 

jiianjiii Irut 

euieli the fragrance shed by 

Makarammun, from damdam. At 

ramdatnin tuof {I%i you feel iti 

OH, widaTomdam&n h>pa (Tet, 

feel it -■ ■' 

Alls of the mind: 
To know (foiiiethiiig). 

To underfitaliil (iiatllrully). 

there). NatitA bagA til&f (Di(' ;^_" 

J'ou seethem?) Hindii^m'tma- ^^X 
■ikilA ko enna (No, bnt I may b^^-^* 

MakiMam. Walang naiaa^iam (Xo«=^ 
one Itnows). Hindt to rtaaaiamta*^'* 
(1 do not know it. ) ^^^ 

MatiiUip. Hindi maitip, incompre "^ 

heneible. Ex.: Aa6 artQ imp tii o^-^^ ^ 
or Xaiixip mo or A'aitmpon mor 'Jr ^ 
(What do j;ou think about it?) <-^ 
A'd'nipnii. opinion. Ang pagkaifij; ■^ ' 
the ai't of thinking. 


Makalalael&e. Ex.: NatatalattA^ -* 
iiPHi/il hng&f (Do you underslaoiK--*' ' 
i(?) Waiting »akatatala»la*{^{>oa^^ 
imderetands). TvmalatUit.iann- -^"^' 
deretand (by an act of volition). 



iber (casually, etc.). 

Makaalaala. (See index: alaala.) 
Makalimol, (See index: /I'mo^.) 



I or go lip (cas.)* 


Mdkaibig, (See index: {big.) 
Makapanhik. Ex.: Napanhikan ko 
ang Mhay nang kaibigan ncUin (I 
went up by chance into the house 
of our friend). 
Makajtdsok. (See index: ;wi»oil:.) 
Makatuloa. Ex.: Bungmasa ak6*y 
nakntmog akd (I was reading 
and fell asleep). Ang ikatulog, 
the cause or time of sleeping. 
Ang ipagtidogy the cause or time 
of sleeping a great deal. 

(na) is used in connection with an (sometimes in) to express 

^rtaken by wind, weather, night, etc., and also to express the 

^rent of a season, date, etc. 

hrases of this nature are used with in only. 

Suite onlv is found. 

Maarao. (See index: drcu) and init 

for exs. ) 
Mngahi, Ex. : Qagabihin ka 8a daan 

(You will be overtaken by night 

on the road). 
MaulAn. (See index: uMn.) 
Mabulag, (See index: hulag.) 
Mainit, Ex.: Naiinitan akd (I am 

warm). Uminit, to become hot. 

MaginU^ to heat. Magpainity to 

allow to become hot. 
Malahb. (See index: ta6d.) 
Majulio. Ex. : KamVy najuliohan sa 

Tar lac (July found us in Tarlac). 

(Any month may be used in this 

Mapascua; mapaskd, Ex.: Napas- 

kuhan akd sa Maynild (Ee^ster 

found me in Manila). 

tka also signifies the possible accomplishment of a purpose with 
nite; rno being used with the definite. {Naka; na.) Tiieaccom- 
b of the end sought is always expressed in the past tense. 

ght out in the sun. 
(rtaken by night. 

ght in the rain. 


/ (warm). 

iided; turbid, 
(rtaken by July. 

nd at Easter. 

B to lift. 

e to overtake by running. 

B to find, 
e to catch fish. 

3 to pass an examination. 

Makabuhal, Makabubiihntj lif table. 
Ex.: Bubuhaiin ko itong bayong 
hwg mabuhat (I will lift this sack 
if it be liftable). 
Makahahol. Jlumdbolf to run after 
another in order to overtake him 
(her). Ex.: Hinabol ko siy6^ q 
Hindi nahhbol ( I ran after him [her] 
but could not overtake him fher]). 
Makahdnap. (See/t<inap.- index.) 
MakahirVjt (Seehingt: index.) 
MakapojTgisdd. Ex.: Akd^y mang- 
iiTgisdd kung makapangisdd (I am 
going to fish if it is possible to 
catch any fish). 
}fahfmlit. Ex.: Sinulit aiyd nang 
SHperintendente ay (hindi) nakamHt 


T.J Wnbleto lilt with arrows. l£al 11 al l-uuuiiuLU BhoulWwil 

bow ami arrow. Ex.: i^injmnni 

nahijtiaul lij/n (II«slio(«Itiol«nlr 

with bow and arrow, but ««« nrt 

able ti> bit them). 

XIl. Mata, vorrectiv used, expreaBea phvEU'iil jiowcr or ability us 

Ri'iit-ru! rule, niitni and manyyari beinn uhkI to PX|>r««i< iiiur&l power nf 

uliilitv. Itv tbo iinoi)i)i.«le<l, them wordu are uti^l almoHt indiecriininitel]'. 

(S»..:.(:jl«i.lid •••■•••■/'Mri; Index,} 

\11I. Miihi in lilwi iuhI to verb<di»i taifii; "|wrhaiw. may b«," eU., 
n-liic'h ia iNiiiiiiK«U'd aw in the (ollowlriK exauiplet" 
Ihli lo "."i.iviiN.i.i5f JuWin (I do iioi know iT 1 

" '*!i';'? 

£'ve this lo him). WM 
i;/rti.i («,v.i tiiinirt niWr (Hill you lj^ able tlivn to buy this?) Wh 
in'il-niiaii'iny latiatian ka^ (1 oni uut uHl- k> fight agaiiiat you [)i1ural]]i. 
/iniini'ii it-o, hin makatjajuin to (I will drink it, it I c«n). 

R",7''. "I'crbaiw, by cliance," *Ic., hau a ptmnper meaning than kayi. 

XIV. .Vuitii (ma) Ih wimetiiDes used in rehu-Untly admitting a brtortft 
nvdiding too din.Tt an injury to the leellniiB of another. Ex. : (ludel,) 
tfnkauas/nuhm tigii (he may nave aloleu}; (Def.) napagnaiao niyn M (lii 
may have atolen thic]. ' 

XV. JVnl'aiaalKiuiedcolhtqnianyinconvenatioii a« follnwR: MnhO^' 
'.' (Is Ihcro anything more to \«- a^kM ai^ml if.'l Miitntitlt 

^ will be able lo carry il)i 

mahikayi ibig<iu ili »a hmiyiHl dii nol ktifiw il I will Iw ablsU 
'.> him). WM akoiio itahivA (I have no way U> do it). 
' ' ■•■ ;./;* jw'iii I... .,1.1.. .■ ■ • ... — 

.' (U1 

tiLlJIg II 


? usual (onn is made wilh lalo, '"more," and the root within, 
viz: /.'i"i'r/'iiiii/niioiiyiH^(l8lhereanything moretoaak about it?) Lumnia 
m kitiiinf ( Ih there anythinic more to be seen?) 

XVI. Miikii lorniB certain adjeotives in Tairalc^, which have the inher- 
ent ideaol jKitentialily. The^ adieclives, which in English are generally 
tornieil bv the 8ufflxe8 nW< and iblt or by /ui, have three distinct forms in 

XVII. (ii) Hoots expressing qualities which may be felt by the mind 
are iiiaiie udiei-li\es by prefixing ka, the casual definite of maka, to the 
rout, which in reduplicatnl to the second syllable. Kx. : Kaayaaya (iiyn) 
"deliglitful"; kiiiiinhaginhAua {ginbAva), "'wholesome; satubri'oiia;" kaibi- 
ilibig (ibiij), "unliable;" kiikiiakiliibol {tilAbol), "horrible;" kataioUdkol 
Xl,ikf<t) "ieurtul; dreadful." 

CO Adjectives of similar meaning are also formed by maka with the 
future indefinite. Ex.: 

Mnknhihi'iiUhiiiii), "bashful;" mnkamamaiaii{matai/),"motiai" (death- 
cauMnp): iiHiknfinini (fi'nl), "destructive;" vinknlntnuii (linui), "laugha- 
lil.'l" iwik-itiilii-) ('"')), "jileasiant, atrreeHble." 

('■) Wlu'n till' riHits miiy express aptitude or inaptitude or facility ordlf- 
lii-ulty in anything: if allirnintive the adjective is fiirmeif with the 
futiiri' di'fiiiiii' of lhi> jMilenlial particle tii'i,aiid if negative with the impera- 
tive i-i (willKiiit reduplii-ation of the firs^t svUable of the root), which is 
Ui'nerallv |ir.M'.'cUil by the negative i>urticle i/i', "not." Ex.: 
.\fiit'il:iiiii. "eilibli';" 'I! m-ikiihi, " une<lilile, imeatable;" magaffauil, 
"pr.u-ticiiblc;" 'U magiiu-A, "impiactii-nble;" iiiai'nium, "potable, drinka- 
ble;" -ii iiminiim, " undrinkable, makikifH, "visible;" dimakitA, "invisi- 
bli-;" i.i.r»(w7/i, "ti'lhible;" rftiiinni'if, "nntellable, unspeakable;" mon- 
ffii'iiinri, ''imssible;" lU vuingiiari. "iinpowible; " 'limubnUt, "intolerable:" 
'd! iivhiliiii. "iniiiswilnble;" lii mngninit. ■!! malnf-iinn, "inai-cessilile;" rff 
■■iiuiuKerable;" df matingkala, "incomprehensible;" dl matatang. 


(d) Adjectives of the classes above described take the '*tie'' ng when 
^initod to a following noun or verb if ending in a vowel, but remain 
^mchanged if ending in a consonant. The followinfi: verbs take the defi- 
nite imperative, which is best translated into English by the infinitire 
with "to." Ex.: Kagalanggalang arnd "respected father;" kadumaldu- 
mal tigndn, "disgusting to see;" kaayaayang pakingdn, " delightful to listen 
to;" madaling gawin^ "easy to do or make;" maliwag sahihiny "diflScult to 
aar;" mahirap kamtin^ "hard to accomplish." 

jCVIII. Maka may be compounded with magj resulting in maqmaka. 
denoting the idea of a great or excessive degree of what may be indicatea 
by the root, which is generally reduplicated. (See par. 27, mag, ) 

Ex. : Magmakaauaaud (aud) " to be able to move to compassion ; " magma- 
kagalitg&lU (g&lit), "to be able to move to anger;" magmajnakaocUUgdlil 
akd iycmg tado, "that man will be able to anger me;" makagalxt^ "to 
cause anger;" magmakahiydy "to be able to shame greatly" (see par. 27, 
maa); mcLgmcLkcUurnbavlumoay (lumbay)^ " to be able to move to grief; " nag- 
makalumoaylumbay akd ang ocUitd, "the notice was enough to move me to 

imang balUdf "Why 

XIX. Maka (naka) is sometimes used in the place of ma {na) indefinite, 
the two particles having many analogies. Ex. : Nakabukds ang pinto, 
"the door is open;" nakalimot siyd, "he forgot;" nakatayd siyd, "he is 
standing up; " ndkaupd siyd, "he is sitting down." 

XX. Mahi and its synonym bakd express fear or apprehension of pos- 
sible danger, hurt, or injury. They are written as separate words and not 
as prefixes. Bakd is more common. These two words may be best 
rendered into English b>; "lest," "for fear that," etc. Ex.: Akd'y 
nagdaiang tdkotf bakd maringig (I was afraid lest I should be heard.) 
Houag mong gawin iydn, makd mapahdviak ka (do not do that, because you 
may lose). Houag kang magdaan sa bundok, makd harangin ka nang mangd 
tulidn (do not travel in the mountains, because you might be stopped by 
the "ladrones"). Humarang, to stop another on the highway. Makd 
may tduo diydn (lest there be people there). 

(6) Maka Also denotes partial resemblance, as in comparing speech, 
fruit, flowers, etc. Ex.: Makd Tagdlog ang capitdn nang paiTgungusap 
(the captain is like a Tagalog in his speech). Makd bulaklak 9a America 
iiona bulaklak nan^ amoy (this flower is like an American flower in odor). 

XXI. In addition to the meanings of 7naka as a verbal particle, it 
indicates completed verbal action, best translated by the adverb "after" 
and a verb. Ex.: Makamisa nang jxzrS (after he had said mass the 

priest ). Makayari nitffy paroon ka m (after you do this go there 

to ). 

It is also used idiomatically. Ex.: Makaaakdling may dungmating, 
bumUi ka nang kakanin (in case anyone should arrive, go buy something 
[for him] to eat). 


I. This particle, signifying the ordering to do or make or permitting to be 
done what is denoted by the root, reduplicates the last syllable of the 
particle for the present and future indefinite tenses. The definite, pa, 
being a monosyllable, causes the firH syllable of the root to be reduplicated 
for the same tenses. The definite has all three forms of in, i, and an. 

Mag and man roots retain this between magpa and the root. Pag 
Sometimes precedes magpa in the definite form (pagpa). 

Sa is generally used before the person commanded. Ex. : 

Xo order to teach. Magpadral. Magpadral La kay Pe- 

dro, order Pedro to teach. Mag- 
papagdral, to order to study. 
Magpapagdral ka kay Juan, order 
Juan to study. Papagaralin mo 


To onior I 
To onler I 


ang iifonff ana* (fmlerjimf chiW 
to siudv). Pinapay&nl pa t*^ 
■tiung AHng inA (ray mfiuifr or- 
dered tno to k«p|> on ntudjing)- 
MatnnpoiTydml (1) to otjirr K> 
tMWU'h; (2) to rc^tieat to pptn-b 
(i( not mmi«(#nt lo onlcr), 

MayjHlbaia. XngpiijialMta ang imuv- 
(ro m manijA liiA (the twchtr i* 
ordering the ctiiMrvii to k*A\ 

Magpagntrd. NagpngavA ati (I or- 
oentl [Houielbingl dnncvimitlc)' 
Nat^imgaitd tia/i (h« Mie] '»«*- 
dirriiiK [sometbrnK] to be ifoM''' 
nudt-X M'itiipiiffpn<f<""i oi''' '' 
wua utilti to onier [something] tn 
be donr or mad«), .V«oj«(p"i}i"«' 
sill ( I will unltfr [HoinL'tBing] ml* 
doiiB or iiiaiip). Makapaapayi^^ 
at6 (I BhHil h«ve ordcKd (sow 
tbin)!)tob«doneormac)<r). Th" 
definite with < is: IjmgaivA moiti*^ 
kaiuvA (nrdcr him to do [tiitk*! 
this), JpmagaittI to «a ijtA iii v 
ordered yoa to do [nuike] thi^)' 
JpinnyagavA niyA ta ij/A ili (ho *^ 
dcra vwi to do tiiio). Jbum-h*'*^ 
to «i !v6 M (t sliall unlcrr voa ^ 
do [iDak«] thid). (Sra ind^'' 

(^lUlf . ) 

(ordur JuftD lo gel out). J/iipT^^"*" 
atidi ka kag JtAon nang aamU (onV , 
JiuintofNttthdclotheeuat). rte^" 

-i/-i:.J,i „,„ ir„m/ am (have this il '*^''' 

Miiijj/iifniiilnk. J'li/Mi.i/iilii, ,au "-^^'. 
inuf^ tiifd (tell the muchachoa "^" 
come up). Makapagpapanhik, "^^ 
be able to order to ascend. jVni*^^' 

pankik akd (I sin able to order C^^ij 
aflcend ). Miikapagjiapapatihik at^^^ 
( I will W able to order to ascend l^i; 
Miigpautigpanhil, to order Bom^^S' 
thing brought upetajrs, hoisted^^^ 
et«. Papagpanhikin mo ang manp^^' 
balA nang ttibig (tell [order] tb*^ * 
machachos to bring un som^^ ' 
water). (See index: panhik.) ^g 

MagpapanAog. Aleo means to spend -^V, 
to Hse up. Magpapaijpan&og, ''^'^'^ 
i.nler something to be brotigh*' *^ 
iloiin. (.See index: p«>ni<ij. ) 

.1/(ii;;KTi(.wi.)t. ( For examples see in— ^^ 
d.'x: ;..1m1'.) 

.iriv/-..«il/.i/. .iHgmang&Aralaatfvi^-^r^ 
^Kij>.l/.F(j«ii><i(indef.); pittntiilut h* -'' 
nai\<)m(uT-}AAri\l{i\e\,) (theteaoher^ ^ 
onlcredjou to write). Thedefinilffi^ ^ 


with in is: Pagulatin mo B^iyd nUong 
sulat (order him to write this let- 
tei). The dual (two) is used in 
the following examples, but they 
are translateaas usual into English. 
PinasulatkUdnitongsulat{l ordered 
you to write this letter). Pinam- 
sulat katd nitong siilat (I am order- 
ing you to write this letter). Pa- 
sumlat'm katd nitong siiht (I will 
order you to write this letter). 
(iSee index: sulat.) 

jr to lock. Ma^pattugl. To lock ; magsust Su- 

nan mo it6 ( lock this). Houag mo 
susian it6 (don't lock this). ltd 
Hindi nakasusl (this is not locked). 
Alhin mo ang pakattusl nitd (un- 
lock this [lit., ''release this condi- 
tion of being locked**]). Susian 
mo ang pintd ( lock the aoor ) . A ng 
isuslj the key. Ang susian, what 
locked. Ang pa^susl, what locked 
much, or the act of locking. Ang 
ipaqsusi; what used to lock much 
with. SusX, derived from Chinese, 
is distinct from susX, meaning clear, 
pure, or neat, which comes from 
the Sanskrit, cuchi. 

jr to sew. Magpaiahi. ltd ang pataht niyd sa 

dkin (this is what she told me to 
sew). (See index: <a/if.) 

fagpa reverses the meanmg in sentences where an inferior addresses 
ior, or in which the subject has no power to command, the particle 
eaning **to request, ask,** etc. Ex.: Magpagawd ka nitd sainyong 
sk your father to do this,** not "order your father to do this.** 
iraZ kayd pa sa inyong anak sa escuelahan (indef.) or PapagaraHn 
a ang anak ninyd sa escuelahan (def. ) (let your child study for a 
et at school). 

The indefinite form will be seen by the conjugation of magpagauni 
ler to do or make;'* there being but one irregularity of note, viz: 
pluperfect and future perfect tenses naka and maka, with pagpa pre- 
> the root and na following, express these tenses, respectively. (See 
or conjugation.) 

Pa, the corresponding definite verbal participle to magpa^ and 
by dropping the first syllable of the latter, forms the three defi- 
gularly. The examples given in the tables are magpasnlnt (sulat), 
ler to write** (in); vwgpagavd (gawd), " to order to do or make** 
i magpatanim (tauini), " to order to sow " (an). 
'^agpa may be preceded by maka, forming makapaqpa, the com- 
nvmg the idea **to be able to order to.'* (See under magpapan- 
ar. I, mag pa.) 

\fappa also denotes what is suffered willingly or what is done with- 
ramt by others upon the subject; to allow or permit, with those 
hich admit such ideas. The context serves generally as a guide to 
lish the idea of "to order to '* from " to permit to." Ex. : 

.v deception ; chea ti ng. Magimrayd ( from dayd ) . ( See index : 

dayd. ) 
ff oneself to be crucified. Maqparipd (from dipd). (See index: 

Jipd. ) 
N oneself to l>e whipi>ed. Magpahampds. (See index :/iampd^. ) 


To allow aneself to be Hnlly c. 

Tu allow one's lisir to be i-uiii1>t!d 

To allow oneself Ui be slappoil. 

VII, ifarrpa, with a root iloiioting ii 

gradual intrinsic ttcliijn,iniiii;ii'--*'-- - 
vnU- ut allow the traneiUnn. 
To allow to become piitri'l. 

Magpiigi'kUiy. Also "to orii't " 
wjihIj," (Ben indt-x: lutlay.) 

ifmnnitampai. Tumampal, to rf*' 
Maytnvipal, Xf\ §ltip uiuch. 


Tii allow l« beiMiup hoi. 

dry u]Kjr out; to put out 

Maiipaliiiliik. llouag mong toiuioi^^ 
aiig mai~y/i »Aging (don't let t.*^^ 
bananas rot). ^^ 

MagpfiffibA, G'umiM, to do awt*^ j 
wilh; to level; to throw one's s^^ 
down. -lotfffimM.Cljwhailhrow" - 
down or leveled; (i) what doi^^ 
away with. MaggitA, to throi^^ 
down luany thinEB. _ 

Magpai»it{traOi inS). Mamaptigin^^^ 
til order Kiraethini; to t>e rieat«d ^ 
(flee index; mil.) 

M't^xdcmig. I'aUimigiu nith'n an^? 
■'••"" ""' -iHWail until the dayue^ 
'•"■""''■•"•^ ka nang IfiUg 
. . Ipalamig »ki^ 

ting t&Ug (put the water some- - 
where to cool}. B&kil hindt ia • 
niiffpapnlamiij tiang li'ibigt (Why 

I'k-'/ iirig/xiii'iloinig niiitg liihiiif 
(Where shall 1 put the water to 
cool?) Igang batalang iyAit ang 
]MgjHi]iaUimigAn mo nattg tubig {\el 
the wat^r rool out there on that 
porch). Kahaponaynngibangiili't 
ang pinaypalamigdn ko nang tiibig 
(yesterday I let the water cool in 
the otherroom). Magpapaglamig, 
to order something to be cooled^. 
ifagpaluijC. Hintag mong patugoin 
nng mangA habiman (don t let the 
plants dry up). J\jgdttap6 (they 
are dried up already, air). Jlindt 
tuiiga pinaliiluyd {indeed, I am not 
letting them dry up). Patayoinmo 
iijiin, dry that or let it dry. 

To talis* the fl^nver-' to hlwini. 

Toimisfitti) lliimder. 

To rear; bring up (bh a child). 

Mii'ipuuliin. Am') ang nagpnpalilon an 
,U\fj„i! (What causes the waves 
at Bea?) Aug hangiii (the wind). 

i["gp<i liulakliil, 


Magpalaki. (Seeindex: lak\.) 



IX. Ma^pa^ used with reference to the effect of such actions as the fore- 
going, which are heyond the power of a human agent, signifies " to ex- 
to;" "to put m,'' etc. Ex.: 

To expose to the sun; to sun one- Magpaar&o (accent on the last sylla- 

self. me). (See index: drao.) 

To expose to the wind or air. Magpahangin. (See index: hangin.) 

To expose to the rain. Magpauldn. (See index: tUdn.) 

X. Magpa coupled with meteorological phenomena and astronomical 
occurrences, connected with a human agency, denotes a waiting on the 
part of puch agent until the condition nas changed or the event taken 
palace. The context generally serves to give the correct idea. £x. : 

To wait until the typhoon ceases. 

To wait for a change of wind. 

To wait for the day to become cooler. 



Magpalamig nang drao. (See Par. 

MagpasUang. (See index: «i^n^.) 

To wait until the sun (or moon) 

To wait for a change (as in bad Magpatild. Patilnin mo muna ang 
weather). umn (wait until the rain ceases). 

The root is tildf which alone means 
*'to seem.'* Tild iduo or anaki 
tduo (it looks [seems] like a per- 
son ) . Tild naparoon sUd ( it seems 
they went there ) . Tild iiajmpariio 
gild, (it seems they are coming 

Magpaumaga (from vmaga^ '*to 
dawn;*' root, aga). 

XI. With roots expressing the indefinite idea of what mav be given 
Ttiagpa expresses acts which benefit another than the agent. iThese roots 
are generally those conjugated primarily with urn. Ex.: 

To wait until the rain ceases. 
To wait until davbreak. 

To give food; to feed. 
To send; to forward. 

To clothe; to furnish clothing. 

To give something to drink; to wa- 
ter (as animal or fowl). 
To put at interest; to invest. 
To give lodging. 
To lend willingly. 

Magpakmn. (See index: kain.) 

Magpadald. ltd ang padald niyd m 
dkin (this is what he ordered me 
to bri n^ [carry] ) . Itd^ y padald m 
dkin ni imi ( this is what my mother 
sent [brought] me). Ang ipina- 
dald (what was ordered brought 
[i. e. , what was sent] ). Magdald, 
to carry, bear, bring or take (over). 
Ang dinaldj what so brought, etc. 
(See index: dald.) 

Magparamit (from damit), (See in- 
dex: damit.) 

Magpainum . ( See index : inum . ) 




(See index: tubd.) 
(See index: tuloy.) 
(See index: dtang.) 

There may be mentioned mngpakud^ to restore the sight. 

XII. With roots expressing definites with utag iu the primary verbal 
sense, magpa expresses tlie idea of compulsion, exaction, or rec^uest, as 
shown by the intrinsic meaning or the context. Definites exist with t», i, 
and an. Ex. : 

To collect taxes; to demand (or col- Magpabuix (from butsj "poll tax," 
lect ) tribute. etc. ) . Pabu is ko si Pedro nang piso 


ia» fedro {< 


tap i . , . ,_ _ 
Bsked Pedro to pay in t*i^^|_ 
lluiig bayan ay ang pinagpabu 
ko (this town wag where I t 
lected taxee). MaghuU, U) { 

Uatfpalimit (from S^n., lim 
MaapasonlA. Sangpifot ang miwi—- 
tonitonjirmi/rinjtl wtiut tuplud. 
thie rin^ for one peso). 

XIII. ActioDs ill 
by maffpii. Ex. : 
To I]««r cuiifewioD. 

.'hich the Dgtint hus u pw^vr port are ulao explain^ 

Mafrpacumpitai ((roni Sp. etmfenar^ 
Allan narotm ang pari t (Wliere ^ 
tha "padi*?") Na^papacumpii^ 
tiyfi (ilu ia heMring contewioiu^ 
Magemnpiml, to coueas. 
Magpatauad. (t^iniles: lautid.) 
Magpaahit. (See index: dAi't.) 


To jianlon. 
To LWt Hhavwl. 
To ham the Imir cu 
To liKve ('loaned {at 

Xl\', M'igpn also expreasee ttie idea of repeatinK eomethini 
times, or ivcilin^ the ionie much, and sometimes by many. } 
trwitwi Kraiiiinalicalijr in many <»k» like ni'imn— i. e., the laet syllaiili 
the i>artide ia rvduplii-Ated for the present uniltutare ti^nsiM. " 
"wt!"ito!/<HAllo( youBay ■'we"umDy timi's). .VnjjpnrfinWi 

liini a devil many times), .Inii ang ifnan-jpapadiablo ninj/d^ 
(Why doyoii say devil m much?) tTouna ninymg {tagpapadiablohan ang- 
\a (duo (Don't eay devil bo much to tlmee aroiintt yor 

one's eolf. 

To go to you. 

To go (come) to the person. 

To go to Pedro. 

To «»me here (near by). 

langpa aignifleB to do voluntArily what li denote*! by 

Magpamuli (from buli). Nag^apa- 
buti ynong dalaga (That girl ui 
adorning herself). 

Magpanivri (from purl). At yaong 
iiti'y itagpiipamuri (and that one 
ia [doing the name] for the praise). 
Ang maJiinhing dalaga'i/ pinupari 
nang lahat (A sensible girl is 
praised byeveryone). A'opurtAntt, 
praifle; honor; lame. Syn. : hunyi. 
ime datives and all adverbs of place signiflee "to go 
' where denoted by the root, etc. Ex, ; 

Mngpata 6}a,n. 

MayfHim iny5. 

MngiiiMi Uiuo. 

Migixitnii Pedro. 


lip oountry. Mngjm ilnya. 

XVI I. .Vn/m, fortiieil by dropping the g of magpa. signifies ' 
Hrei'tirm iiHliimlly or a<-eidentally. and without intention c 
lie *'nliip<'t." /(tencrally precedes the root. Kx.; 

MajMiihiiM. yavQpaibahd ang iiibig 
(The water ia betximing low [or is 
runningoff]). (Seeindex: baM.) 


^o ascend (as smoke). AfapaUaas, NapapaiUMsangcud (The 

smoke is rising;). Dt man makUd 
ang ningaSf as6 ang magpapcMyag 
(Although the flame may not be 
seen, the smoke will reveal it — 
T. P., 60). 

^o fly up in the air (as a bird). Mapailandang. Ang bdnoy ay napaU 

landang sa impapauid (The eagle 
ascended into the clouds). 

XVIII. It will be observed that the greater part of the roots verbalized 
^y magpa require i in the definite to express "what is ordered done, given," 
®to., and in or an in the same form to express ** the person commanded,'' 
^to. Ex. : 

^o give food to another. Magpakain, (See index: kain.) 

To allow to be punished; or to cause Magparusa (from dusa), Houagnumg 
or order to be punished. parusahan an^ toalang kasnlanan 

( Do not permit the innocent [not 
gnilty] to be punished), 
^o permit to pass. Magpadaan (from daan, "road"). 

See index. 
^o give another something to drink; Magpainum. (See index: inum.) 

to water animals or foww. 
To cause to walk up. Magpaldkad, (See index: Idkad.) 

T^ cause or order another to stand Magpatindig. (See index: tindig.) 

. XIX. A sense of ordering mav be given to roots not having such an 
l^ea by inserting a second pa, although it is clearer to use mag with a fol- 
lowing infinitive. This second pa ( which remains in all tenses) with roots 
Having the idea of ordering signifies to order a person to order another, 
although simpler forms are generally used. Ex. : Ang capUdn ay nagpa- 
tHrinum sa mangd cabayo (The captain orders the horses to be watered); or, 
•^ng capitdn ay naawtdoB uminum sa mangd cabayo [same meaning]. (2) 
^agpapaMoJt ka iay Juan kay Pedro; or, MagiUos ka kay Juan na magpa" 
^dlat ttyd kay Pedro (Order Juan to order Pedro to write). 

XX. The tendency of Tagalog, like all langua^, to simplify itself, is 
Bhown by the use of the root with pa prefixed, with the significance of a 
Verbal noun. The agent takes the genitive and the object or person acted 
Vipon the dative. Ex.: Pahaiigdy "perfume;" pamuti (6ti<i), "holiday 
or parade appearance; " padaid^ " burden or what carried; " pahiyds, 
•'jewel; " pamana^ " inhentance; " patago, " what hidden." 

ltd ang patago niyd sa Akin (This is what he ordered me to hide). Paw- 
Uing, ''credit^' 


I. This particle has many affinities with magpa^ as will be seen by the 
examples. It reduplicates the first syllable of tne root for the present and 
future tenses, except when sa \% attached to and incorporated with it. With 
]root8 of place, which require pa«a, the first syllable of the particle is redu- 
plicated for these tenses. Na is prefixed to "pa in the indefinite past and 
present tenses with both pa and /xwa. This latter particle shoula not be 
confounded with roots beginning with sa conjugated with jaa. (See tables: 

II. One of the principal significations of pa is to ask or beg for in refer- 
ence to the subject, while magpa is generally applied under like circum- 
stances to the object. Ex. : 

To ask for protection. Paampdn. 

To ask for merry or compassion. Paaua, (See index: aud.) 

To ask for shelter or support. Pakupkup. Kumupkup^ to press to 

the breast or shelter under the 



To !i^k for aid, Hiiocor, or a favor. l*aitangiilang. Magsangalang^iovA, 

favor, or miocor. 
To iu*k for <U*fi»nHe. Paiafiffttl. TumanQol, to defend. 

To a^k f<ir help. PnWilung. (See tables: /fWof if;.) 

HI. At tiiiM 8 im Hi^mii)iv '* to |ieriiiit** the ai'tion indicated by the nvK 
'* ii|)oii ont'V HfU/* and HoiitetiiiH^ ** to a«k,'* a» a))ove explained. It dt^ 
iiot«>H ^rt*at4T willin(;n(*f« )iy the ]K*n«on affected than magjm does. Ex.: 

To coiiK'nt to Ik* de<reiviHl. Puniyii (from dayfk). (See index: 

daifti. ) 
To a-^ik to Ik.* kiHM*<l. Pnhalik, (See index: halil.) 

To cofiHeiit to Ik' whi|>))e<l. PahamptiK (See indf^x: hampii».) 

To (*oii?H'nt to Ik* varn|nishe<l. Pntalo. (See index: talo.) 

To ('oiiM^iit to Ih' nlupiKKl. PntampiiL (See in<iex: iamftiL) 

IV. ('() Witli the adver)>H of pla(*e, and roots expressing place, mi sig- 
nifu'." inovi'iinMit to or from what Ih «lcnote«l by the root, (o) With roi»ti« 
of platH* itn in add(Ml to the ]»article, forming j^mi, which bieyllahicparti- 
clr r(Nhii)liciiti*H the? liu*t Hvllable of the ]»articie for the present and future 
tenws. Th«* initial '/ of the a<lverlw chan>n»H to r after /wi. Ex. (<i): P«* 
W/*/, "(Mniie hen';'' juirifo^ **conie here;** jxiriifiin^ "^o there;" pfwm^ 
*'iro th»*n*." (Sfo index: tl'mi^ dito, dhfan^ do6».) Thera four adverlM 
admit the dt'tinite:* ! and an. Tliat in i is (compounded with ka, foraiini! 
ihi, ik'nio. In may Ik* umnI if comix»undi*<i with inagpa, signifying **to 
order to j-omr or p».'* (Se<» tables and index: dito.) 

Some ItK'alitieH are ti» Ik* found where the la^t »y liable of the particle is 
n*<lnplirat«Ml with tlurt*e adverbs of place for the present and future tensJW, 
but this is irn%nilar and inc<>rre<*t. The practice is unknown to theearlier 

The four advcrln* which have Invn (»onsidere<l are also further conjugated 
with II III, niiikin-j intinitive?*, ctr. Kx.: Pmnnr'ntij pumnriio^ '"to «'«»nio 
li«T»*;" fi'iin'ii'ii/i'iii, ftuniiint'ii, '* t«» «;o thrH'." 

( '. ) /'./.•<"/..;///?,/, "t<» iff > tu the hniisr." (StM' tables: hiihdf/.) Pamhi\knl 
''t'»'j> t<» tht* (■<»iinir\ ' (liclds): imsmhuint^ ''tojro toswi:'' jt^iitntloo, "i*^ 
u"» to thi' ri\<T:'' jt'i.sii/nnnlof:. "top) to the mountains;" y>//^fi vlyz/rnV-a. "to 
•jn t<) A nitrii-a; " / h'lif-fi/n, "toirti t«» Spain." ynpnMtnn n'ninf (.S»«» 
(ini t"i~;.> iii,/:i') ( Whi'n' ditl Ik* L'oV) yupntniTijtt sn MuyuHi) (IK' went 
to M.iiiihi ). 

\'. /''/ :il«> imlirjitcs t«» >av what njav 1m' ilrnotrd by the nK>t. but with- 
out thr jihirality iinlicatJ'*! l)y ni(i'j/"i. lOx.: 

T..sav *'\v>." rn.',.,. Pnnohi! (Sav *S'es:") .Wi- 

jKh'm hi Mr hmiuif/ (J)itl voii tell 
him "v^?^?") 

T.. sav "no." 7'./'///}. 'j'^lil) kn/ (Sav "no") 

/>//"/ /•/// (No, ]n<le(il); var. (Hn. 
.ill 'J imnidiri itm; iM'r>on U) whcin 
"Ui)" is iKMnjr .^aid. Mn'jjhtdiri; 
tt) siiy "no" rcix'attMily. J''/ 
nlii'ii/i/lrimi; |K?rson to whom "ii"" 
ivA-i \n'vn said often. 

Tm -av •"no." J'nliiinli. PdJihuli kn (I:<tijn) (Niv 

<* ., » • 

Ti^sa\ni>i i-iwish. PnaiiiHt. (Sec index: nunit.) 

'i'o say "'i<\il." J'litlinl'li,. (See index: dinhlt,.^ 

']'<» rail "••hicky-iliirky." P'lhnnihin. 

\\. /''/. |ircii.\»«l to r"«its 'IciiotliiL' iMMJily ]io>^itions, fornij? words »*x- 
]«r.-siMi: till' po-iti<iii taken. J"\.: 

Len^thw ix"; l<'n^th\\ays. • /'ii/mlni. Pntlin 7no l(o ittini; pahn^'O 

{vni this lengthwise). MahaM, 



rosswise; croesways. 
yingdown; prone (poeition). 
ying on the side (position), 
ying on the lace (position), 
ying on the back (position), 
n foot; afoot. 
»ted (position). 


Pahigd. (See index: /»i^.) 



PcUihayd. (See index: <//iayd.) 

Patindig. (See index: tindig.) 

Paup6. (See index: wp^.) 

VII. Pa, prefixed to roots denoting articles which may be bought, sent, 
irried, sewn, left, lent, etc., forms nouns indicating what affected by the 
;tion. In composition these nouns take the nominative, the agent the 
*nitive and the recipient the dative. Ex. : 

''hat brought. 

'hat borrowed or lent ( not money) . 

^at left as an inheritance. 
^hat sewn. 

Padald. (See index: dald.) 
Pahiram. Itd^ y pahiram sa akin nang 

kaibigan ninyo (this is what your 

friend lent me). 
Painaruu (See index: mana.) 
Pataht (See index: to/i^.) 

VIII. Some roots, such as kain, eating; and mum, drinking, are not clear 
hen used wnth pa alone in this sense, and are conjugated with both the 
urticlepa and the definite of magj)a (jxi) forming papa. Ex.: Pnpakain 
I karj Juan (ask Juan to give you something to eat). Papainum ka kay 
bmAs (ask Tomiis to give you something to drink). 

IX. Formerly mapa, with roots indicating relatives, signified to call 
;her8 by such names. This custom exists to some degree yet. Ex.: 
^apaali, to call *'aunt." Mapanuno, to call '* grandfather " (or "grand- 



I. This particle, which may be analyzed into paka with mag prefixed, 
snerally signifies to do, suffer or voluntarily allow what may be denoted 
Y the root, and has two forms for the definite, pagpaka and mika, Mag- 
%ka and pagpaka form the present and future tenses in a peculiar manner. 
he last syllable, ka, adheres to the root in all tenses, and pa is redupli- 
ited for the present and future. The mag of maapaka changes to nag 
►r the past and present tenses. When paka is usea with a root it is not 
Ivided, thefirfi syllable of the root being reduplicated for the present and 
iture tenses. Paka also retains pag with verba conjugated primarily with 
\(ig, fonning the prefix pakapag. Paka a<lmits in as well as i and an. 

Roots conjugated with maqpaka may have either a reflexive or transi- 
ve meaning, or both, accordmg to the context. 

II. For the conjugation of roots with magpaka, see the tables: matay, hutiy 
n, and dral. 

III. Some verbal roots conjugated in the foregoing sense by magpaka are: 

o allow one's self to be insulted; Magpakaapi, 

o humble; humiliate or lower one's Magpakahahd. 


o satiate one's self. 
'o adorn one's self. 

(See index: babd.) 

'o impoverish one's self voluntarily 

?o improve or reform one's self. 
6855—05 15 


Magpukabuti. Aug kaJiinhinan ay 
nagjtapakabuti sa dalaga (modesty 
befi ts a gi r 1 ) . Ang ip inagpnpa ka- 
buti nang (hilagang iydn ay nang 
siy(Vy mapnri ( the reason why that 
girl is adorning herself is to be 

Magpakadukhd. Mapakadukhd, to 
come to poverty. 

Magpakagating. ( See i ndex : gating. ) 


To diminiiih {vt)lunt«rilvj. 
To fmtma onc'B itrif hieliiy. 
To allow oav-n w-ll to b« I 
(2) Ui winniit Hulckle. 

To dwplM< one'H aelL 

M'UjpakaliU. XattU, a 

Xfivipalamaluil. (Sceimlex: moM.) 

Muni-atntnala^i. Sngjiotmnalau o"! 

I^Ho tiaa niyA (the inim alfciirM 

hiuuwlf Ui be killtUj. Nagpalca- 

matay atig laga Iftipim ta htmyatf 

turilt (tlie Jaiwnme voluntarlW 

killiHl liinuKtlf [oaEanuttod ml- 


Maj/fHihiMimd. (R«u Index: tnmi.) 

Ma'u>nl.iu!iiL (K«e iniles: fin.) 

Mag/tninl'iptin'j. Tatia^fan {pahtla- 

]Hii!^jiii) iitd ang ItHih mo (ez«n 

younwlf; "brw* up"). <8w In- 

cU'x: tdpang.) 

Itagpnkay&man. (8m index: yd- 

dirvd uhject admits it o 
To taku exHct noliM. 

not for th« direct oh}e<'l. t£x. : 

iv6 ({wyexact atten- 

tiou to what I am tellioK you). 

iTbis wiird aliould not oe ron- 
nuniled wilh its bomonyin tanM, 
idc« ol a^. ) 
V. Tfaa foregoing aeon ol magpaia guncnillv appliea to actioaa whitrfa do 
not go beyond the rabject or to verb* which do not re<]tiirB an ohject to 
complete llie infAiiinK; l>iit when uw.-.! with vt-rbi iidmllting a direct com- 
plement olhur tliiin Itii- Piilijirt ut iiipahli- «i vi.ihiiit:iriin-fp, ma/ipnkn givi^s 

admits in, t, and an, the reduplication being |cenerally from the first 
syllable of the root, eis paka le the usual form of the definite in such caeee. 
Boota conjugated thus must be capable of eipreaaiiig the idea of more or 
less. Pa^ is retained in thiH senae with mag roots, forming paiapag or 
pagpaka, as the caae may be, and in certain cases pagpakapag may be 
formed. Ex. : 

To teach earnestly. HagpakaAml. Fnkaandanran^ang 

mmTgA bot& f try to teach the chil- 
dren earnestly). Magpatapag&Tai, 
to study earnestly. Pagpakapa- 
garalan mny6 ang wikang Tagihf 
(try eHrnesuy to study the Ta^oti 
language). MagpaJeapangAroL, to 
preach earnestly. 

itagpakarahan (from dakaa). }iag- 
pakarahan tang lumAkad (wilk 
very slowly). Pakarahanin mo 
ang' jmghUa (throw it very delib- 
erately). Dahanan mo iynnj^j^mnl 
mo (clo that work of yours ilowl.v 

S carefully] ). Mapaiarahan, to 
low down; to become qoie'> 
A'apakirnhnn tirt (it has become 
quiet already; it has slowed down 
now). Dumalian, to go aw*.' 
pIowI^. Magdahan, to go sidy- 
(Seeindex; dahan.) 


To love greatly. Magpakagilio. Pinakagigilio hong 

hapaiid na babaye (my dearly be- 
loved sister). 
To guard one's self well. Magpakaingat. 

To think earnestly, deeply. Mamakaisip, McMpakaisipisipf to 

think very deeply. (See index: 
To arrange well. Magpakahusay. (See index: hu»ay,) 

To rectify well. Magpakaiuid. (See index: /uid.) 

To tempt greatly. Magpakatuksd. (See index: <uifc»3.) 

VI. By reduplicating the root, roots capable of expressing the idea of 
more or less acquire stfll greater force or intensity with magpaka. They 
are generally used in the definite with this construction, ana the redupli- 
cation does not extend beyond the first two syllables of the root, according 
to the general rule. Ex.: MagpakadcUidcUitd^ "to suffer intensely or to 
endure greatly. ' ' Pakaisipisipin mOf * * think intensely. ' ' Pakasipagsipaginf 
** take tne greatest of care; care for it sedulously.'* 

VII. Dropping the ka from pakOf there remains pOy which pronounced 
long and almost as paa^ has the same meaning as paka^ but should not be 
confounded with pa (the definite of magpa)^ pa (the particle), nor with 
pa, **yet." It is generally used in the imperative. Ex.: Pabuksdn mo 
(open wider [or quicker]). Pap<db mo (strike harder). Pataponan mo 
(throw it with more force [or quicker]). (See index: Bukds; paid; and 
tapon. ) 

VIII. A further use of magpaka with nouns or verbs expressing time is 
to signify to persevere or remain until such time, doin^ what may be 
denoted by the root used. This signification admits of m, i, and an. Ex. . 

To until morning. Magpakadrao. (See ind^x: drao.) 

To until evening. Magpakahapon. (See index: hapon.) 

To all night awake. Magvakapuyat. Ang ipinagpapaka- 

pnyai ko*y Uong gaivd (This work is 
the cause of my having to remain 
awake all night). Itong silidWy 
ang pinagpakapuyalan ko (This 
room is the place where I remained 
awake [or watched] all night). 

IX. When an accidental or fortuitous action is to be expressed with 
magpaka the g is dropped, making mapaka^ an analogous particle to ma. 
Pinakay formed from paka and tn, should not be confounded with pinakd, 
used in a very different sense. (See index: pinakd.) Ex.: 

To multiply. Mapakarami (from dami). Applied 

to animals, etc. (Seeindex: dami.^ 
To come to poverty. Mapakadukhd. (Seeindex: dukhd.) 

To grow greatly. Mapakalaki. {See index: lakl.) 

To be delayed more than usual. Mapakaldmg. 


I. This particle, known as the sixth to Spanish grammarians, has 
paH for the definite, and reduplicates the second syllable (ki) of the par- 
ticle for the present and future tenses. The pluperfect and future perfect 
tenses are wanting, yfnki changes to naki for the past and present tenses, 
and paki takes in for the same, forming ^inaki. 

II. The principal signification of viakt with roots capable of expressing 
companionship, etc., is joining with, accompanying another, interference 
or intermeddling in what mav be denoted by the root. 

III. Maki may \ye combined with uth, maf , man^ magpapa, and i>a, as well 
as with itself {jmki). There are some verbs which resemble main in form, 


sucrli m pakindbang. iMkiniy^ etc.^ which are classed aa um verbal fonns, 
and Hhould be carefully (iiMtin(|ruished. Ex.: 

To join with or interfere in writing. MakitHlat (from tumiUal). Ipinaki- 

kigdlat ko iid dodn (I am pntdng 
this in so it may be written there). 
lyang maiTtjd ttSdat ay pakwdatan 
mo nit6 ( Put this in to be written 
with those letters). Mahitogjxi- 
idUit; to join (or interfere with) in 
ordering to write (from tnaffita^n- 

To join with in play or gaming. Makijxiglar6({roinmaglar6; to play or 

^mible; see tables: lar6). Also: 
Fakip(iglaraan mo n Pedro (Play 
with Pedro) . ( With pa ) Pajtati- 
laroin vio 8i Pedro aa jrant//^ (Tell 
[make] Pedro play with him). 

To join ill fiHhing witli a (*ai<ting net Makipandala (from mandala; to fiirh 
called ' ' dala. " for a living thus) . DunuUa; to tieh 

r occasionally) with a ''dala." 
Magdala^ to use a ''dala.'' Maka- 
daUt; to be able to catch anything 
with a "dala.»' 

To j«)in with in paying "yt»s." Makipa^H) {irom jhi6o; tosay "yes.") 

To join in a (conversation uninvited. Makipakiusap (from mdkvii»ip). 

IV. 8ee t«ibU»8: nmar'il\ inngdnd. and snmakay, 

V. Maki by itself admits only of i and an in the definite, /represents 
the reason, cause, or object of the action, and an the person interfered or 

imnMlcd with, or jnine<l, a<'C(>n»panit'<l, etc. For the conjugation with i 
stMj th«' tal)i«'s: .^ti'i/af iiml ImuKit'i'L For the definite with an see miujlun'i. 

VI. Ill is only n.-iMl with nmhl in coniljination with iiintjim {}>a). Ex.: 
l'<i})nLii/<iir'tif lint an'/ (i/l/d mo n<i iiuunjA taiio ii/an (Tell your servant to juin 
thos«» nu'n in thoir liisk). Sih? also innhljKKjl'iru in Piiragraph III, prect**!- 
inir, anil tables. 

\'II. S(»nu' roots conju^'jitccl with tin* principal signification of i/mll iinK 

'I'm jMin or mcdillo with t»'achin*r. Mdhu'iniJ. (See tables.) 3/ah'/XJ.'/<i- 

ra/, to join or meildle with stinly- 
in*:. (See tables.) Maki^Hingaml, 
to join or meddle with pn*achins. 
To ])i<k a qnarrcl. yiikijnujanny. (See index: duay.) 

Tn claim a j)art in; to jiarticipato. }fnk')r(iinay (from damay). 
To rarry alon*: witli; t<> j^in; to in- Mukifidt'ol. (See tables.) 

To ciiihark wiih. Makii«ihiy. ( Se<? tables. ) 

To thru>t oneself into ilir com- Mnklsama. 

])any of anotlu-r. 
To thrust oneself into ii«lispute or MakitaUt. (See index: talo.) 

To join with in \\('ri>in;.'. M'lklhiiTi/is. (See index: M/J7/t.«f.) 

To join (ormed.lN'} in j.leasnre. M<ikUna. (^ See index: tuA.) 

\\ 1 1. An is sometimes suHixe<l to roots eonjn;:ate(l with maki toexpri^^?^ 
intensity of the i«le;i «lenot<'(l hy the root. Pay is generally retaintMlin 
expressioFis of this class. Kx.: 

To mock ;jrnatly: to make fun of, MaklpayhinxnL (See index: hiro.) 


To join ea;_'erly in j)lay or gamhling. Mtikljfdyldman. (See index: luru-) 

Vi) thrust oFie-^eh' into an alterea- M((kipnyi<(iynt<in. AinVt nakiki/KVif"- 

tion; to answer with vehemence. yutan sa kapidhdhay mot (^^lly 



To thnifit oneself into a conversa- 
tion; to interrupt a report. 
To hate intensely; to detest. 

are you getting into an altercation 
witfi your neighbor?) SumagiU; 
to answer; to reply. 
Maldpaf/salitaan. ( See index : salild. ) 

Makipagtaniman (from tanim). Not 
to oe confounded with its homo- 
nym, tanimf * * to so w. ' * Nakikiia" 
niman si Juan kay Pedro (Juan de- 
tests [hates] Pedro intensely). 
Houaa kang makipagtaniman sa ia- 
pidbdhay mo (Do not detest [hate] 
your neighbor so). 

IX. The asking for such articles of food, etc., as are generally exchanged 
among neighbors for cooking and household work is expressed by maki, 
with the root denoting what may be asked for. A small quantity is always 
understood. The cause is expressed with i and the person asked by an^ 
should the definite be used. In is used only in combination with magpa 
(pa). Ex.: 

To ask for a little wine. 

To ask for a few coals (fire). 
To ask for a little salt. 
To ask for a little rice. 

Makidlak (from dkd). This word is 
from the Arabic araq^ from araqa, 
"to sweat; perspire.^' It is found 
in English as arrack. 


Makiasin. (See index: a«m.) 

Makibigds. Nakikibipds ak6 sana sa 
iny6f p6 (I would ask you for a 
little rice, sir). ISino ang'ipinakiki- 
bigds mof ( W ho are you asking it 
for?) Aking ipinakikibigds ang \na 
kong may sakit ( I am asking for the 
rice for my mother, who is ill). 
Paid! (Is that so!) 

X. With roots verbalized into actions, maki denotes asking that the 
action expressed by the root be done for the subject. Ex. : 

Toank another to reach something. Makidbut. (See index: dbut. 
To thank for. MakihiiTijt (from hvmiiTgi; to request; 

see index: hirigi). 

XL With nouns denoting j>artition maki signifies to a:-5k for what may 
be denoted by the root; and with ordinal numbern, in using which the 
initial letter i in dropped, maki signifies to ask for the part designated by 
the ordinal used. Ex. : 

To ask for an inheritance. 
To ask for a j)art or piece of any- 
thing (as bread). 

Makimana (nee index: mana), 
MakijHsang. Magpimng; to break 

up and divide a cracker or bread. 

Maapisang kild (let us break it up 

and divide it). 
To ask for a fifth, tenth, etc. Makikalima; makikapuo. 

XII. With roots denoting work which may be joine<l in by more than 
one, maki sometimes expresHcs the idea of asking to join in piich work. 
Ex.: Si Juan ay iiakikatubig »a akin (Juan a.ske(l me to help him in getting 
some water). The particle hi, exJ^res^Jing companionship, is prefixed to 
the root. 

XIII. Some roots commencing with />, ;>, s, and / cliange with maki in a 
similar manner as with ma?i, when used in the signification of ** to ask, re- 
quest," etc. Ex.: 


Ti.tt8kfnrnewa. MakimalM (from tettif; mioA^' ' 

Tif HMk lorn patJBBge(B;i<)D h vesael), ifainnakni/ (lix>m aahtj/). 

X'lV. Witli roolfl aiunifjiriR nationality, race, Bt«te, oondition, o«>*r[^ 
lion, pnrfeflBion, etc., mnti is »>metiiues used to signify that ooeai1»l*^ 
btittni liiiUKlI like, or reBciiiblea vhat is lienoted by the root. This U^ 
howuvf-r, is fcfnerally otherwise expreesed, ae aome roota used thus are 
clear unleHS fully explainoJ by the cronteiL 

XV. With ma, maki has a neuter meaning similar to that borne by 

To n]>|ieHr liki- a noiilf (rotsuuily). 

n^tpin { The Elave looks like a nu^V 
[has b<H»iue so casually] ). 

itakilagdlog. Nakii'itag&Uig 'In- ^""^^ 
Iduo ta itaiT^iT^iiMip (This ""^^V^n- 
reeemblea a Ta^og in his ni»t--^^ 
uerof Bpeakinn). 

Hakihiuo. yakScitAuo aiiff nffi^ (ii^ ^I'r- 
jTOtf J (The monkey »cU likoa |* ^--' 

Makilx'Unyt. Nakibabayr. ti J-"*^^^^ 
(Juan acted like a wonian) . Tlifc *^*"" 
also means to run after wunitm. ^^^^ 

Matilalaki. AaWioioK itow '■at"^"'^! 

JUamialaln. AatiuUatt lUmg babi 
ymg t'M (This woinnn acted like 

Maklh&yop. HatihAyop itmig t-iuu iW 

(This junn atrbsl hke a Ixwit). 


I. .V'i'jkii, tlif iiiJitli jNirlirle of the Spanish writers upon Ta^lo^, iQaj---^^]'p 
bo analyzuil iiiln imi'j imil in, tint' of the definit^^ of ma. This' particle^^T^s. 
tteiii'rallyexpn'JWMlhe jilennf having (or being) what waa not had ori«is — ^^^1 
Htwi'ci {»r I'xiwliil aa a stale) l>efore. As a rule, magta refers to condition -*^ai- 
or Ktate, whiln miir) refers more to the action by which a state or condi- "^ 
tion is bniught aUnit. 

The m'cimd syllable of the particle is reduplicated for the pre__ 

tiitun- tenses, while in chani^s to ii for the ]>ast and present, following the 
usual rule. There iir<> a few exci'ptions, the lirst syllable of the root being 
nihiiilinited in winie wcmls. (Si^e tables: lil-my.) 

/di'tinite i'Npri-»ies the cause or n';(son of the action, while on stands for 
cither place or jhtsou, according to the nature of the action. (See tables: 

fiuniu very correct and widely used eipreaeions are made by using an 


where I will lie ahle to look' at it 
[inspect it; atudv it out]). 
M •■jkaUhang. HViJd mV'ii.*/ jnimgta- 
/I'.iinjdn (Then- wasiiopW* where 
tliev c'luld amuse themselves). 
ira/i;itu»y, to l)eamuseit: diverted. 


le roots conjugated in the foregoing signification with magka are: 

ve children. Maghaanak, 

ssess prudence. Magkabait. 

ve crocodiles again (as a river) . Mapkabuaya. Nagkakabuaya na ilong 

Hog (This river is infested with 
crocodiles again). 

laden with fruit. Magkahunga, Naakabunga na itong 

kdhoy na U6f ( Has this tree borne 
fruit already?) Hindi pa nagka- 
bunga (As yet it has not borne 

ve (there). Magkarodn. (See index: do<5n.) 

ve reason. Magkaitip. Nagkakalsip na itong 

batang ildf (Has this child reason 
yet? fi. e., has it yet arrived at the 
age 01 reason] ). 

lucky; to have luck. Magkapalad. 

ve rice again (also to have much Magkapdlay, 

*; to sin. Magkasala, 

'bid. MagkakascUa. 

ve money again. Magkasalapt 

ill. Magkasaht. Ang ipagkamkitf the 

cause of illness. And ang ipinag- 
kamkit mof ( What made you ill?) 
Pawikt&n^ to be pained. Ang 
papagkasaktln^ one ill from his own 
laulty also a sick person. 

ve enough. Ma^kasiyd. Wald p6, hindi nagkaka- 

myd sa kaniyang pagkabuhay (No, 
sir; he does not get enough to live 

ve gray hair. Magkauban. 

e a debt. Magkaulang. (See tables: tz/an^.) 

The casual, accidental, or chance assemblage of many people or 
«, even though immaterial, is sometimes expressed by luagka. The 
le denotes a plurality of subjects in such cases, as opposed to a plural- 
acts, as expres8e<l by some other particles. Ex. : 

arrel (as two or more). Magkaduay, (See index: <m«y.) 

equal; to coincide; to accord. Magkaayon, 

eet casually; to gather (as a Magkasalubong. (See index: mln- 
vd). bong.) 

lemble casually (as a crowd). Magkasama. (See index: «a//*tt.) 

jet casually (iis a (TO wtl). Magkatipon. (See index: Upon.) 

Magka also indicate.*? universality or plurality of subjects suffering 
)r afifected in some way bv what is denoteii bv the root. Ex.: 

!fer from a typhoon. Magkabngyo. 

ffer from an epidemic; of Piiiall- MaghibuhHong. 


ffer from a famine (also fur Magkagntum. 

IV to be hungry), 

fer from a cuntiagration. Ma>jkasuiiog. 

joy a holiday. Mmjhttnt). 

ve a riot or tumult. Magkaguln. 

squeezed or pres-scd i n ii cro wi 1 . Maijhadagon. 



IV. Another ase of mngta is I 
lu wliut (i)»y U- noted tiy tlie n 
OThaM (i|. v.). Kx.; 

AnotdtAd n'yii (He ME 
Hud one thing bif U 



Magk'imnK. Kai/tiiuiali aU J 
mjiiivrmitt^ aocidenlsUf 
llir"i'/ puiii'j atataini; ato'v "fl 
tat<,iiml!(l1na'l you think I tw 
any misUiko). 

V. Jfa^tainalsouBmi tncipreasf^lWi'i-ejitiimby tht^ciKht, bewrhia,** 
thn dntlnitc t>at<l teniw itilh mi t>iiffix<^ Ijeine tnken ai< the mit. Pnrt 
prtwwit t«iiw IheliwlsvHableof IhenKitisrv<)liplicitted aiiiI not thewoO 
B.vll»ble of llu' pulitle. Kk.: 

Tn W decrivcd by tlir hiiiring. .Vaotnn'ri^n. A'rt^Annrii5«n i 

{My hearing dweivetr dip). {< 
index: HiiT^y.) 

Tti Iw decpiviid by the Hif^ltt Mai/hairaA. (See ind«x: kiUL) 

VI. A lurthrr \t» of mnsrita iii with ibe 
roots and Mimn hiIvi'J'Im of placl^, witii whir 
ttiv Idea o( iiiftkliit: Ihc Haid movuiiMnt or gniag tt 
uitul by tbti ndvcTb tut eaum patUculv mamai or caiiee. jr.x. : 

To follow (or obey) for a ituticiikr Maghuuimuiod (from turunl). i 
t-auw »r raaaun. to follow wherever uiuIuit b 

go. (See index: tusod.) 

To Iw li*n) fur a pitrticnlar miun or Magkadumilo. (See indnxi rf'to,. 

VII. nmihlin,: lb.. intcii«ifi<f> th.^ iiu-anine wilh mii.ftn in «■ 
,;m-^. !■:.■;,; 

To b« very l.iti' .t tiirrly. .l/iiyii-iiiUiimW/um. NiujtakahaJi 

lialam ka (You are i-ery I 
To 1* broken iiil'> very Miiall jiieifa. M'l'jkalriiuiugtiiTa'ig (from larue 
LiiinaiiKig, to brcHk anythingi 
small pieces. 
To be finighe.1 or .■r.ncliide-l com- ^f^lg^^lhtUi»lulA^ {irvin l«l6t). 

To 1* completely broken up (as a Magkapaiidjxtliii (from poHil; 

rot>eor conl). index). 

To lie t-omplelely destroy*^], .VantnairAsfMifrom tirA; mrciniie 

To he torn into tatters (as clothes, Mai/kaii-indanffwindanff (from in 
etc.). auy). 

VIII. Sometimes ta, the definite ot mn. combinee with pnj to der 
the source of something. i$*it index: nrri. ) 

I. Magiii, which Mincuellu thinks a "diwni^d jiassive" in concept 
rBdiipiicali-^ the ;/( ot thtt /'iirf syllatile of (he ji-irlirlt for the present i 
future lenses, it alfWJ dmnpw m to ti for tlie [liift and present iodefin 
It. vtnreneo* Ihe cuincrsion orlranefuriiiHlioii, either jiradnal orendilen 
iiiiL- I fling into unolher, Bsapeners! rule, iln- n-iit heine that into wh 
the (idler Ihmg is converludor translormeil. Maiiiti is also used loespt 



s *^to beset/' etc. Being a neuter particle generally there is 

ve in sucn cases, as there can be no volition in the action ex- 

^rnonal pronouns. 

ow, self-converting processes um is generally used, but in some 

e of magin is correct. Besides the indefinite the definites with 

st. (See tables: dlak.) 

generally denotes a state or condition, it admits ika with some 

1 combination with pa^ the definite of magpa^ it also admits t;i 

(See tables: ddpat.) 
ill be noted, moffin is commonly used to express such acts as 
of wine into water by miraculous agency, etc., as well as natural 
Some of the roots usually conjugated with magin are: 

rted into wine, 
rted into gall or bile. 

rted into vinegar, 


MaginAlak. (See tables: dtoib.) 
Maginapdd. Nagiginapdd ang dking 
mbig (my mouth tastes like gall), 
i into stone; to become Magitwatd. Ang asdua ni Loth ay 

naginbatong asin (the wife of Lot 
became a rock of salt). 
Maginsukd. (See tables: »uii:d.) 
Maginanak (from anak^ ** child"). 
Naginanak ni Abraham si Isaac; at 
naginanak ni Isaac si Jacob; at na- 
ginanak ni Jacob si Judd at kani- 
yang mangd kapatid (Abraham be- 
gat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; 
and Jacob begat Judas and his 
brethren)— Matth. II, 2. 
Maginiduo, Ang anak nang Dios ay 
nagintduo (the son of God was 
made man). (But if volition is in- 
cluded other particles or expres- 
sions must be used.) Ang anak 
nang Dios ay nagkaiauang tdxko (the 
son of God assumed the form of 
Magintagdlog. Nagigintdgalog ang 
capitdn sa vangangiisap (the cap- 
tain resembles (or seems to be) a 
Tagalog by his speech). 

■)uld lx» noti'd that vagin in the past tenses is the only sense 
eally be sai<l to denote complete conversion, etc., the present 
enses conveying the idea of "seems to be," "may be," and 
' respectively. 

is also used in a neuter sense to express the assumption of 
, conditinns of mind, morals, or body, etc., if intention is not 
iiicli case other particles are used. 

I Tagalog. 


ust or virtuous. 
[ miser. 


Mnginpresidente. Naginpresidmte si 
(iat Simeon at sakd nagingobemador 
(Don Simeon became presidente 
and afterwards governor). 


MaginiiHframot (from mardmotj mi- 
ser; see d(imo(). 

Magindajtat (from ddpat; see tables: 
(Mpat). Mnrapaty fair; just; de- 
serving. Karaptajif merit; deserts. 
Ang ikapagindnpaly the reason or 
cause of being worthy. 






To 1k! conviTtwI iiit 

in.urraiwuiiaial!'. ihvooan.ivf m 
ral for animale: ]k?ii. A'oAfiy«>n. m 

mtcr). {he has become an liabltwil liii- 


To become deaf. 
To becuine blinil. 
To heroine dumb. 


VI. With some r 

Kits wnjivi may oxpn'gs the iileft of "to W Ei.: 

To Iw Oie motive or 

To turu out in Iw tn 


To be a eervant. 

VII. The idea of voIiUon Ib sometimes aHmiBsible mth magin wbcu b»<I 
wiUi personsl pronouns. Ex.; 


VIII. (a) .l/uc,i 
adverbs iVd"/ (b 
HnKwera thereto, 
it the coDinleliiTi 

I is aleo veai i 
IW many?) and 
(>,) Willi maoin 


riV ».(iyi>ii<ii-(n (1 rtill U voiit! 

ami you will be mitie). 
1 combination with the inlerrniUio 
maglamf (how much?) and wilh tl» 
prefixed to a number and no Iollo«i"! 
mifii ix denoted, .l/o^'n ezpresHea W 
l\ 1 (-1 ^hvMlnil&n mlAt (sbont ho* 

I .' (Hbont how many*'^ 

i!'".' i'.i'iii\l. -Vipiyinmaytniw ''" 

■ /\ I,;./ ii,'uri"< buAn na {!^ 
iiilcr H few- days), .ffunp iMIP' 

i.ri..'- in the mnr 
(iti5 (either ttnlay o 

I of 

be it" 

it woman). !*t 
to-morrow I «• 

ve to go there}. 


I. This parft'di', nhfi'h changes initial m ton for the indeflniie past a*'^\ 

Sreeent, reduplieatea tlie lu»t syllable of the piirtide lor the i>re«'nt at ^\\ 
iture teiisei?. It hnM all thn« deliniti-^, and may he combined with s^^LA 
other Iarli^;le^', which are placeil between it and the root, except maku ai^^^; 
ni'i detiiiite in the wnwi of |«iwer, which preecde it. (See table?: o/i'- % 
•jinrd; t'l/inn, iiiid jtiiAii. ) It hu9 no other r-iitiiification than to denote ^,.-^. 
]>hiralitv or uuiverwality nt :'nbjecta in ci>nn^ection with the verbal actioiS^3ie 
Niiturally there in no sinvular nuinlMT. Xi/d may be ini>erled after th ^^Ji. 
iin^t two li-tters of the particle to indicate an extreme degree of phirality^--""*^ 
;^ee tables; ff'/iral. Ey 

To teai 




bayan My magsisipagAral na lahat 
(all the children herein this town 
are studying). Ang mangd bcUd 
nitong escuelahan nangagsiitipagdral 
(all the children in this school 
are learning [or studying] ) . Afaa- 
»ipangdralj to preach (many). 
Mangdgsipangdraij to preach (by a 
great number). 

any). Ma^sipagcumpisal, To hear confes- 

sions (many pries t8(; magsipngpa- 
cumiti8oU, (See index: cumpimL) 

ny). Magsilabds. Magsilabds kauong lahat 

na naririto sa iooh (all of you who 
are inside go out). 

id, etc. (many). Magsipandod, Bdkitipinagsisipandod 

nUa ang ddgat iyang mangd tdito 
iydnf (Why are those men look- 
ing at the sea for?) 

ein (many). Magsipd*ok. Magsipdsok kayong lahat 

iia naririyang watang gawd: (Come 
in all of you who are out there 
doing nothing [or without work] ). 

ny ). Magtfitaua. 


tide is little used, and besides the usual change of m to n for 
present indefinite reduplicates the second syllable (pa) of the 
e present and future tenses. It is used with roots express- 
f motion or positions of the body, and signifies to perform 
or take such positions voluntarily, and with briskness or 
such sudden motion occur or position be assumed involun- 
i dropi)ed. forming mapati^ equal in meaning to mapa. The 
t (ika) in the sense of cause, and an (han) for place exist. 
ihod.) Ex.: 

ne*s self quickly. Magpaiirapd (from dapd). 

juickly; to throw one- Magpatihigd. Magpaiihigd ka (lie 

down quickly). 

's knees. Maopaiiluhod. Ang ikapagpatiluhod: 

the cause or reason lor falling on 
the knees. Ang pagpatiluhordn: 
the place where or person knelt 
to. (See tables.) 

ick abruptly. Magpatitalikod. To do the same 

without intention, mapulilalikod. 

he feet. Magpatiiindig. Nagpajyatitindig siyd 

(he is springing to his feet). S^a- 
papatHlndig nko (I sprang to my 
feet unconsciously). 

iddenly. Magpatiupd. To sit down suddenly 

without meaning to: mapatiupd. 


icle beside tlie change from m to 7i for the past and present 
uplicate.i the second sylla!)le {hi) of the particle for the present 
ises. This particle is used to express verbs of searching for 
those expressing the idea of removing dirt, etc., from the 
and for miscellaneous ideas which will be better seen from 
Certain letters beginning roots are modified by manhiy the 
are by man. The definites with i and panhiy in the sense of 


caiiKv, with an utit i^ither panjii or hi lu die wsiueot pkm, IddwiAa 
and ^itbxToaiJii or ki U<t onlituiy dr&toXe ufnltncm cxiot (Sm laMcf.- 

II. A rrdpnKKl furm ol uuuy ol the v«rfaB coajontad wifb manJu mtr 
)« foniied with an aatfiscil or with mojrhi ioplMoeulinanfci, n!UiiiLDtE<u« 


ri'ii fnr ciuitfuUy; tugltwa. 

MHin-ti oticnili 
To ««r.-li hT n 
mine rain. 

Tuhbi>1ii>iiv'b(ikv: top« 
Hiiudgm, i-U.'. 

T» cuniti UiH miwUtrlic, 

Tn )Hrk tlio uwth. 

itankimAlou ((ram pU"!!. "■ti- 
Itiwkvd noe" ). i^BUi'miiili»ni(t» 
mJayin) mo duo iwnv utno* 
(look (or (kImb] wti»t ynu htn 
to mt). Xny (ru'K'" ay ^ 'f- 
narUiihimdlay niyil (bnngK M M 
cauteol hiH Kinuiint;). ^xf 6i)M 
(ho WW ^ouung [be ^aucdj a 

<>( meta)* or Manhiaiillo* {ttma pilot, "kUdIom 
color"), /^itoll ftlso mMM tbe 
liraiuK theniwlvui. 
rmnovprtainti, ManhUimot (from linMU "Min. 
wnnilee"). tho root AtMnw 1» 
(rum ihia uutnbltt&lion. 

JfunAimuny (hum muajr, " urn*' 

JfanJiuuttjKi (Ironi Nf^M> "«b»l iil- 
lierca to the ttwtb". 8m loblai). 

Uaahiuuli (from hifu/l, "««rwix"). 


<wvll<-l I'vnliilx < 




iniiM. ■'swrwioii 

To clrtin the iiailn. 

To cltunw from head lice. 

To fiillow by trailine; to hold i 

To tell the fortune liy the pslm. 

(troin piikl6, "flwellion 
or iiiHiinimntion of the ey^da'']. 
l'niHukl-/hin. a {tereon (r«i|ueall]' 
ulUictod thu*. 

Manhingokd (from koU, "uil, 

ManhiiTgutn (from tirtu, "he^d 
louse"). Mankingalulum oraraf 
hingiUvhan, to cleanae each OtbO' 
thus. JfanAinonKi, to deMiM ol 
body lice. TbmoAin, peraoD iJ- 
flicled thus. 

sign, trail, etc"). Bakatm mo at 
naitS aiig yipak (follow it, here a 
the footprint). Maghimakatm, tfl 
follow each otheroD the tnul.etc- 

Man/iiinaqiit (from bagiii, "croel, 

Mnnhigantl (from ganli, "renKl. 
premium"). Pinanlaganti "iW 
tiifd, (they avenged him [herl). 
fiilA ang pajikihigantUum ingA (M 
will (Ake revenge on them). 

Maiih'tl'iti) (from lako'i. 

Manhiinimiii/iii (from mow'*' 
"child"). .Votmdt mo itot (!< 
this your child7) 

Mankimdiad {bompAlad, "palm")* 



jnd to work, or to work 
it purpose. 

easy on account of solitude. 

lie; intrude. 

ct evil. 

ibout the bush. 

^ trolor or the expression of 


•adly for lost work. 

rk in the boat of another. 

one's self. 

Manhimanday (from panday^ 
** smith"). Panday wikd,^ gi'eat 
talker, **wordsmith.*' 

Manhimangldo (from pangldo.f sad- 
ness, fear, or uneasiness caused by 
being alone ) . MapanglAo twl bdhay 
(a lonely [solitary] house). 

Manhimdsok (from pdsok), Houag 
mong panhimMukan ang buhay 
nang ibang mangd tduo ( don' t med- 
dle with what passes in the life of 
other people). 

ManhhncUay (from matayy **idea of 
dying." See tables: ma/aj/.) 

ManhimtUa (from puto, **idea of not 
belie vine and blaming another " ). 
Paid is the idea of redness. 

Manhimiling (from piiingj "bank, 
shore"). Houag mo akong pami- 
Unggmilingan (Don't beat about 
the bush with me; don't try any 
red tape on me). 

ManhimuU(lrompiU(f ** idea of white- 

Manh indyang ( from tdyang ) . 

Manhinakay {irom sakay^ **ix)at, ves- 

Manhindpang (from tdpang). 


isnal, this particle has the past and present indefinite take n in 
nt, while the xecond syllable (x'O of the particle is reduplicated for 
mt and future tenses. All three definites exist. See tables; insik, 
lification of this particle is imitation, adoption or following the 
dress, or language of another people. It is little used, maki being 
itomary. Kx. : 

V American customs. 

V Bicol cui<toni8. 

f Viaayan customs. 

V Spanish customs. 

V ifocano customs. 

V Moro customs. 

f Tagalog customs. 







Magsatagdlog. Ang sinasatagdiogy 

what followed or imitated, etc.; 

Ang ipagsatagdlogy the reason or 

cause of such adoption. Pag is 

dropped with in. 

igm; isa; as in the expressions magmdrao ka nang damit; put the 
1 the sun : isahaiTgin mo Hong bard; hang this shirt in the wind, etc. , 
from this particle but from «a, the preposition **in," conjugated 
7 and i respt^ctively. 

he signification of magsa may be expressed by other particles 
n, among them l)eing magkn and ma with an suffixed. Ex. : Si 
nagkakoMiladn (Juan is very Spanish in his ways [speech, etc.]). 
logon giyd ( He is very Tagalog in his wavs). Bv doubling the root, 
liable one, or the first two nyllahles thereof ff longer, a diminu- 
.nin^ is imparted. Ex.: Natatagatagalogan «i/4 (He is somewhat 
in his ways). 


THB isnKFiNme i>ABT:ri.a " 

This parlii-le change* iuUial m to n for the pa*t and preepnt indslinile, 

aii<l reilu|illiittM' the latl fyllnhli.' (/la) ii( the partide for the pniwcl ud 

future Umi«». The »ole um of ih« ]i«rlicle » to expreM, prefitoi to rorti 

denoting {xwitions ol the bixly or niotJoni of the parle t)i«t¥of, the invol- 

unt«ry rumaining in Hicfa position, eW., aa the result of fright. Earprw,iir 

othi^rVLolMitnnr<IJ(>n. The ilellnitcs with t. tn<>xiirtei> the came, and v'itlL 

on, t'j cxpreeei piiuv, vxiet. (See tables: mt'ilal,) Ex.: 

T" ivniuin with eliiriiig ey<«. MaffkapadUal. DumUot, to open UiS 

' cyrn. Madtiai, to be open (w the 

eypfi). ^yn.t iimgtapamulia.b'J't- 

main witn the eyea open, Aij 

ipagkapam lUat, Ilie caiwcof lemiia- 

ingwith staringeyM. Jngj-oftt- 

p<imulAian, th« place of renuimnf 

thua , 

To I* left with thr month open; to Maykupan^an'ffd, from i^i&a. .^!l"■ 

vtand with oijeii niorilh. in'iNsii, to open the moiKii. 

Toxlanil iliowiug the twth (as an Miti/kiiftiitSjiti (from njnn). 
(inimal, etc. 

I. This particle takM n in the past and iireeent indefinite in ^V* "f 
and hM the pectiliarity of reduplicatiug tho initial avllwblc ol all ntnti " 
jugated by it For thr present and future tetiM* the iteoiut Bjllalile {^) 
cif the purttcfe ia reduplicated in a aiiailar mEinner to tb« redi^dicatioD <i 
the ffi of tnajnn. (Sm tables: luAd.) Magkan algtiiQea prlinanly Itw.ii' 
volnntarv flowing out of tJie eecretione of the body, and ruw the dcdnit** 
'■" ' ■ ' ir the plai-e. In a metaphorical seiiev- "in;?!™'* 

al»> hhhI to express involuntary 

the examples: 

To bleeii. 

To pweal from fear or illness. 

To alaver; to drool. 

To weep or sheii tear* unconseionsly MagkaiJuliihA (from luAd, " 

(as from a wood lire). 
To blu,.h. 

actions, etc., as will be aeea ^y 

(^^(fromdujK!, "blood"). 
ilagtanpnp&iin$ { f rota pdirit). 
MagtitmniAvxiy (from liieay. 

Magkaahihiyd (from Ai^), A'"**" 
jfdhii/d, a ahameful thing. 

Magtanholiobd. Xagkatanhoh0 * 
Juiii nang iiagtaua (Juan ia bIib'' 
ing his clotnee off with laugbt^r). 

Maijkanlalabit. Linabisan mo «"? 
01 m Y u exceeded my 


exception. The particle maka precedes other particles, a prop- 
possessed by magsij except when in combination with makaf 
)es before magti in sach cases. (See tables, lard; gawd; hMoa; 
It must further be borne in mind that roots which are primarily 
id by mag retain pag as a prefix invariably, as do also those roots 
in meaning with um and mag, 


ivenience of reference to the Spanish works and also to the work 
x)ldt, the numbers given bv the early writers to the various 
modifying roots are of use. They are: 

10th. Magin. Pagin. 

11th. Magsi. Pagsi, 

12th. Magsa. Pagsa, 

13th. Manhi. Panhi. 

14th. Magpaka, Pagpaka, 

16th. Magpaii. Pagpaii. 

16th. Magkapa. Pagkapa. 

17th. Magkan, Pagkan, 

No def. 


a. .Ma. . . . Ka, 
pa, Pagpa. 
i, Paki. 


Ka. . . . Ma, 
ka, Pa^ka, 

id an are the three particles always accompanying the definite. 


>articles are much used in Tagalog to express the ideas ^iven in 
^ing examples. The agent takes the genitive (or possessive) case 
•bject or enect of the action the accusative. Ex. : 

iT father left, I left also. Kapagalis nang dking amd^y ak6*y 

ungmalis din, 
inished his work, he came Kapagkatdpus niyd nana kaniyang 
•e I was. gauiVy pinaritohan niydakd. 


ne expressions as the above may also be rendered by pag and 

father had gone away, they Pagalis dito nang dking amd*y giyang 

pagddiing nild, 
strikes twelve, we will rest. Pagtugtug nang d las doce ay magpa- 

pahinga tayo. 
pay your respects to him, Pagbati mo sa kaniyd^y parini ka, 
.t, I shall go for a walk. Pagkakain ko'y akd'y magpapasial. 


rticle, prefixed to roots, signifies to be held or reputed in what 
jxpressed by the roots. It may also mean "number of times 
I some caj-es. Kx.: 

nsidered to be tlie bread of Aug kanin ay siyang pinakatinApay 

alogs. nang mangd tagdlog. 

1 you as a parent. Kayo pff y pinakamagnlang namin. 

irded as their leader. iSiyd ang pinakapunb nild. 


ru iiit'k (aKauuilar); H> Iwiuitf. to MnffMaMiinna talabit, var tnlhil). 

plllek Ut 
Tn eiinir li; to take h}* (orro; to ptlll Kumanitam {from l-amhiii,). 


Knuad. Maghaaad, to use ■ chda 

m htAn. Atiff ttiAH. This woricu 
he VDrbaliHNj by um, mttg, mngpn, 

i)ijh/'i. Madikyil itang daiamfnuig ilS 
(then- is sUgnont water Bloti); ihia 

MuifUil. fandiil, ami. was, gum. 

GumnnAa (from gniuin). fianAnia 
iHa M (Thi* bplontn to rn^). 

GM»)(uo(fr<jiiijraMt,nrv). (iaivhan, 

Ice^DesH. GayoM/gam, very i 

etrap, etc.). tFit&m^ hippithijipii. 

Tosjirak iia.»Jillv. 

To unite or bind tt^ther. 

To look blankly (an a blind person). 

To Bparkie (aa the vyva in exdt«- 

i/umilwy ((rum hikag). Ani/pim- 

hiitay, lh« pipula. 
Humampoy (from huaipay). 

.V'n/li'ig'ia ((ruin hiigtit), (.<ee/(jm"«i 

M.,l,>il<;m„llw,m,l {horn !, 
Miigliinghip (from hngtap). 
Maglilang (from JiVani;). 
Lumiiap (fromtftop) [rare]. 

To look Ural at one thing and then 

To avert the eyes. 
To look here and there on account 

To look here and there hurriedly. 
To glare in a wild manner. 
To act focliahly. 

To relish. 
To wish; to desire. 
WmK(ot blRl). 
To pardon; forgive. 

Without respet't; limit or considera- 

Lumingat (fnim KH^ai). 
LvmirT/fingig (from lin^i!^, rare). 

Prolwbly a combination of (fin^ 

i<lea of hearing. 
Lumiiiijug (irom lingof). 
LMiiiiyap (from Hyop). 
MiiiiiaiTgal. .Vnjrmainan^nuin^aAx'', 

to fei>:n stupidity. 
JXiiuinmuitiit (from namnam). 
Mamiiua (see 711(11). 
I'ahjmk. I.umipad, to fly. 
Magpal&wiii (from pntauad, sni-. 

titwid). Magpatnufi'an, to forgive 

each other. 
^Valang paloniimg&. 



«; to select. 


ne dull (as a knife or i izor). 


idemic; to suffer from. 
38; to vow; to believe in. 

between rocks, hills, etc. 

or most diligently. 
; take hold of; pmch. 

inegar on anything. 

way from or hide fpoi i. 

rass; to mow. 


ping stupidly. 


lythin^ swiftly, 

n to; to turn over to. 


l^miU. Ang jw'/un, what chosen or 
selected out. Ang pinilian (sing. ) 
or Ang pinagpilian (plur.), what 
selected or choeen from. 


Fum oral ( from purol) . Ang purolin, 
what dullea. Ttimomal (from 
tomal)y to be dull (as business). 
Katumalanj dullness. Ang itomalf 
the cause of such dullness. 

Sujnding ( from sding ) . Sindingy boi 1- 
ed rice. 


Sumampalataya. Ang tumaBampala- 
(ayUf the creed, faith or believer. 

Sumilang (from gilang). 

Sumilip (from sUip), 

Magpakasipagsipag (from sipag), 

Sumipit ( from slpU, ' * tongs ** ) . Sinl- 
pitf an anchor. 

Magsukd. Ang tukaany what dipped 
in or flavor^ with vinegar. 

Sukal. Di sAkal, can not be. SAkat 
bagd fiyang pagkaliwalaanf (Can 
he be trusted?) Sakat [dt sdkai] 
giyana panivHilaan (He can [can 
not] oe trusted). 

Thimakaa (from takas). 

Tumakitil (from iaksil), Taknl na 
Mmo, a traitorous or treacherous 
man. KatakgUanj treason, treach- 

Tumagpas (from tagpas), 


Tatangdtangd. Magtangatangdhan, to 
fei^n stupidity. 

Tumingald (from tingcdd). Ang 
iin^alainf what seen thus. 

Tumitig (from titig). 

Katoto. Kalotohin mo siyd (befriend 

Ttid, Ang pagddting niny6*y naka- 
iuind sa akin (Your arrival causes 
me pleasure). Ikindlulud ko ang 
pagddting ninyd (Your arrival is a 
source of pleasure to me). 

TumuUn (from tulin). Mnijtulin^ to 
go swiftly. Ang ipagtxUm^ the 
cause of going swiftly. 

Tummujn (from inngd). Also to bow 
or incline the head. Ang tunghdn^ 
what looked at thus or the person 
boweii to. 

Magukol. Si Pedro nagukol nang 
kaniyang gagawin kay .hi an ( Pedro 
turne<l over the work to be done 
by him to Juan). 

Magivisik. Ang panwrnk^ the 



Tk order. Jf.iyiKo*. SundSn mo ang tiAM ioia 

iyA (follow my orders to youl. 

The followinic examploi, taken (mm tlic Ta^loi; edition of the Rman- 
mienio. a pajier ol Manila, will give an idwi o( opdinary TBgalojf couipod- 
tion as applied to luodem couditions, and Uie use of (nTcign words in con- 
nection therewith: 

I. Sinffa[>orf, ittt tS {tlaiiu*il ng (nana) Alfrii [I90e). Ang panan ni 
Eo^alvmtkj/ ay vuitnrAting tiyA mi ai'm (/•"'ff'") Padaran na tuiM hai/ftnyin 
rij Indii-China, o( J.'iO mUla ang aawat i " ' " ~ 

xuiftkakifmlfiy na hHkhong-dagat nj -^ 
AtncH mnMron^ hajnofA iTg n^japo 

Ang itiuig panghtt np hiiibonf^tigut na pinai!punifviuhan ni Ao^fcMiwruity 
oy "Ota ifigfjayin ng Muaiok ^yAn tta iihmg miBa ang agma ta Sumalm, 

Anil '^"l7 "^J^ Mtnkpin ag now poffilim pa j~j Santa, Ang iltgd immL- 
yangtiA'y nam raatig tiu-atag ta pagilan iTg Malara. 

Hindi tilA tidAdruna, lapayka't ang nigd japon marAhil ny nata malaplt na 
fyrmota na doon nilaibig tnakUatian, 

ilaritiil anp Balaria ang sii»V7iod na tiaraungan t^ ^il nita, ttsji^gtn't 
do&g may eablmg Abut Mngang Jixaia. 

Singapore, 12tli of Alifil- The plan of Rodjestvenaky 19 to try tn (arrive 
at) make Cape Padaren. on the ooast of Indo-China, and 150 miles di;!tant 
lironi Saigon. Theiv the separated Aetata (»ca armiet^) of the Russians will 
unite, it the two are not enL-ountarwl bv the Japanese. 

One division of the fleet commanded by Kodjeatvenaky is now off the 
coast of Muotok a tew miles from Sumatra. 

The other vesMls are yet in tb« ragion of Banka. The other veeseli of 
this (fleet) are remaitiinit in the route (or neigh bor hood ) of Malacca. 

Tiiey were not nmliwlpd, lH-,-aufte tliii Japam-we conlinut-l to remnin ni^ar 
Foriijo^u, M li'-ri' lhr.'_v ivi(-h to oi'iiimil-ihv the Hlrii^lt*. 

Russian vesaeln continue to follow each other into Batavia, because there 
la a cable connei'tine with Russia there. 

nt Oiiama nn Hahoy unfiunft ang lii^A ruio k&ngang m kanilang madaig ni 

Aug hiXkbong p'mamamnhalaan ni general Linevitch ay hindt hikigil »a biUtng 
na tOO,000, tapagka't butod eit tiamiitayan tiyd ni/ marami ta labanaji, ay 
taarami pa ang nabihag ng tiigd japon. 


_ Newchwanft, 7th of April. The 500,000 men composing the army of 
Oyama are aiivancing in good order upon the army of Linevitch now in- 
trenched at Kirin. 

The plan of advance of the Japanc»« is good (excellent ) and the length 
of their fr>int (tirouml) is 40 or 50 uiiles. Oyama is tryintt to push the 
Riisxians irradually niitil he can vani|ni^ii them all (iinite<lly). 

The army under tliei'harue of (ieneral l.inevilih does not number more 
than ZOO.Oi'K), e!>tie<'ially l>ecause l>esidea the many who have been kille<l in 
battle there an* many also who have been cajitured by the Japanese. 

III. Sun I'tteritbaTifu, ikn 6 ng Aliril. Ann liipti jiipon ay nakatutulong na 
unli-unti 'II d'ikong knmhtlagyan ni gfrural J.iiienlfli u( tig kaniyaiig AuWii. 
]»ang drai) ii'i'l <iug llarhin a<l hindi na marahil mul'ilalinnan iig ntt/d tumb. 


^*^^ ru80 ang pagrpapakatibay 9a Harbin, mpagkaU may jiakikinikinUa nlang 
^^l^^^daking pangdnih na sasapitin doon. Ang dakong uurangan ng rngA rum ay 
Uf VladivoMok na kanilang inasahang mapagtitibayang nutigi hdngang m 

^^'^agkaroon ng kapayapaan, Maaamd an^ tayd ng mgd k&kbong rum, daJta^ 
^^^^meaU hindt namdn ma^ahuaay, 06 dahxl m, gulong nanpyayari sa Rugia. 
forami sa Ru9ia ang naniniufcUd na madadaig ang hukbo ni general Linevitck^ 
hmg magkagaydn ay magkakaroan ng kapayapaan. 


8t. Petereburgr, 6th of April. The Japanese are advancing little by little 
^^pon the position of General Linevitch and his army. One day more, and 
^^arbin may possibly not be remaining to the Russians, because they think 
^ % may be flestroyed by the enemy. The Russians are making no efforts 
'^uo strengthen themselves in Harbm, because they believe themselves to 
Jb^e in great danger of capture there. The place of retreat for the Russians 
y^ Vladivostok, which tfiey hope to fortify so well as to hold it until peace. 
■"Jhe situation of the Russian armies is biad, but it can not be bettemi on 
^^ccount of the riots taking place in Russia. Many in Russia believe that 
"^ he army of General Linevitch will be defeated, and that in that event 
there will be peace. 

IV. Manila ika 14 ng AbrU, Ibinabalitd ng Gobemador Dancel {Lalavnpang 
^^Xizal) f na noong umagd ng ika 6 ng buwang lumaidkad ay may nadaktp sa 
-^dRagbagin na UUhng tduong labds at siyam na kalnbao na ninanakao sa Nova- 
^^iches, datawang baril at daUiwang revolver, Noong ika 11 ay may nadakip 
"a^-aa isang tduong labds na may dalang, isang kcUabao^ at imng rijieng mauser, 
'^:zialau:ang puong cartuchoU datawang puong rijieng remington. Noong ika 10 
-^^ay may nasumpungan ang pvfsidente sa Tayiay na isang remington na may 
-^a^ampuong cartucho. Ang mud katabao ay dinald sa tosoreria municipal, 

~^^oong ika 11 ay nakadakip ain namdn si Gobermidor Dancel ng isang nag- 
'^^^ngangalang Pedro Pio^ na di umano'y siyang nangfxigabag na maigi sa 

-^Xaranka at Marikina noong viemes. It6*y ibinigay kay mayor Haskell ng 
'^rr^onstabulario. May nadakip pa ring dalauxing tduong labds na may isang 
'^^^evclver colt at sampuong cartucho. 


^_^ It is announced by Grovemor Dancel ( Rizal Province) that on the mom- 
^^^ ng of the 6th of the current month there were captured at Bagbagin three 
^CDutlaws and nine of the carabao stolen from Novaiiches, two shotguns, and 
"^wo revolvers. On the 11th there were captured one armed outlaw, one 
"^^arabao, and one Mauser rifle, twenty cartridges, and twenty Remington 
^^fles. On the 10th the presidente (mayor) of Taytay secured a Reming- 
'^on and ten cartridges. The carabao were sent to the municipal treasury, 
^n the 11th Governor Dancel was also able to capture one called Pedro 
^iPio, said to be the person who made trouble at Baranka and Mariquina 
^ast Friday. This person was turned over to Major Haskell, of the con- 
stabulary. There were also two outlaws captured who had a Colt revolver 
«ind ten cartridges. 

V. Hindt malalaunan at magtalayd ritd sa Maynild mj bagong hospital. 
Jtd^y isang ambagannahiningi ng Rt. Rev. Opispo Brent ng siyd^y nana Entados 


Ang salaping gugugulin ay kaloob ng limang universidad sa ITnrvard, Yale, 
Princeton, Pennsylvania at Columbia. 

Ang marTgangasiiva n U6 ay ang Iglesia Episcop<il, datapuwaH iantangapin 
ang sinomang naukol sa ibang religidn. 


It will not be long until there will be erected here in Manila a new hos- 
pital. This will be from a subscription solicited by the Right Reverend 
Bishop Brent when he was in the United States. 


Tho monej' to he otttn-U ia from tire (utula (interior) tf five iinivMnill''' 
IIiirVHrit, Yiiv, Prinnjtnn, Penney 1 van i«, nnd Calumliia, 

The direilioii of tliix (ho«i]>iiai) will he iiniivr th« K|>iMM>iMl Churrh, but 
■nyouu will be nweiveii beloniciiiK tn auutlier fultli. 

VI. Aafi gohfrnaihr »a Bataan in G. Torndtdel Hniario ay nag itta)/ a B-i- 
la^a ny ttanff btpanff may IS h^inrea at Tf,000, ang h'lia^i, upang nujiaf 
tayuan riff uang ''uoandarjitrhool." Aug yatmfflupangya&na^fmasi'S'"'''! 
m paga&TaHO] a^tciitmii 6^^^Si/A d&tioiig timijk<Aiapaniu.m&hd, at wa^ 
glxralan din Tui»idit fi^ rtSpA rngfuawifi (!jr pniujpnhtkAt iTg tUUnwau. 

Ha atalarinnaindn rip Gobtnuidoray maoiitingnaataTt>i»ni^i*uiffviiuilm'f 
imahaijanhai/an upang mailanyag ang lA^paraanaiMgairn^imrre 
'iJfi jUipirui. 


KoanHo. baa inv«n a 11.. 

_..., ^ ..— , „_._ crllul 

there may be aeito (or theerwtiou of a "secondary ei'hool," Thatlinil 
may bo used forteachiDK 

lAiniiili; to the land, and Ki „ .. 

body {lunuual Iraining buIiooI), 

The endeavor of the governot will be to have one Ameritsn tearhfrin 
each town in ortier to eliow the cmitouiB anil habits nf the AmericMs W 
the Filipinos. 

r/r. JH umanv'g hUnHnhin ng (lampania ng tranria tUctnfo nn tulubia im 

Kikyang M' u martipaiing puratinam hangiiniM 

alam din Humdn ngai/m tit pviemador gtturat rij TWrSoTijn- 
u /htmv ay pamtimuiang palatbtiiM aitg Joan w 


It is »iid that the electric street-car comrainy will aak that the line t>e 
permitted to lie extended to reach as far aa Paraflaque. 

Notii'e has also been given to-day to the governor-general by the man- 
agement of the elet'tric railway that on Monday it will commence the 
operation uf the road to Santa Ana. 

VIII. Paunawa.—Ipiiinmiinliil! in nuomang nataiyAlol ng uang dmn^ 
Inlaid nn t/uii/ bnlaliibrmg hiln;/ cnfe at may piilt m dibaib at ra duUi ng paang 
itaiKtn *a unahdn, nmy Uigtnii nn rollor in liig at xiang ehapa na mag nunurona 
(_bilaiig) JS6'.-;, ai) maiiggaring ibalik 6 itauli »n daang Arranqtu bUajig (big.) 
JOS III dou'y kakamtan ang imng pabuga at datdang patateUdmat. 


Notice. — It ia requested that anyone who may pick tip a male dog with 
coffee-colored hair and with white on the breaat and the end of the right 
front foot, hearing a collar on the neck and a tag with the number 191^, 
will be able to rclnm or reatore him to No. 159 Arranque atreet, where a 
reward will be given, together with many thanks. 

IX. Xnaiilii, Sa baling nn hilang 74 au dnang Rada, Timdo, ag nauitlA 
ang imng vianiik na m«altuiii/mg hnlah'ibniip Umik, maitim ang tahid, vtapall 
ang piiiVl baldado ong diilii lit kanan. iSiiimiuin ang maknitagdald 6 maka- 
pagtnri'i lig kinalalagiian iTg naiiirang manuk ag Inbiggdn ngpabugang halagang 
iiid-i II fiiminmng piiK). 


I/iMT. — Frnin the hoMse Xo. 74 Rada etreet, Tiindo, there has been lost 
a (;iit:it>i'or k with whilo and red (la-iik) plumage, black spure, and whilf 
feet, with On; middle claw of the rij;ht foot crippled. Anyone who mav l>e 
iible to briiii: or p.jint out the whcrealwuts of the said fowl will be given a 
reward to the amonnt of eight or len pesos. 



A careful study of the foregoing examples will enable one to clearly 
understand the general run of the modem language. Reading the native 
press, both for practice and keeping track of what is of interest in native 
diclesy is recommended to all who may be stationed in the Tagalog region. 

Section Eight. 

The following table of the contractions and variations of the roots of 
Tagalog words will be found of use in quickly finding the form: 


To salute; hail 

To remember 

To be lazy 


Spouse; to marry 

Salt; to salt 

Roof; cover; to roof 

To carry on the shoulders 


To moisten .* 

To suffer; endure 

To pound rice 

To give 

To accustom 

To buy 

To change the clothes 

To open 

To separate 

To spill 

To pass 

To bring; carry 

To seize; arrest; detain 

To arrive 

To stick 

To stretch out the arms 

To hear 


To do one's duty 

To work 

To pull down; destroy thus. . . 

To awake 


To kiss 

To substitute 

Ribbon; band 

To sow; scatter seed 

To conduct; escort 

To lie down 

To blow 

To complain 

To wait for 

To ask for 

To borrow (except money) . . . 

To change 

To go for water 

The other side 



AliMtgd .. 










Bigay .... 
Bihasa ... 









Dating ... 



Dingig .. 


Gaiiap ... 


Oibd .... 


Ilabilin . . 
llcdili . . . 



llaiid ... 
Uigd. .... 
Jlihip ... 
I li til ay . . 


Hi ram 



Kabild .. 

Contraction, variation, 










Basin; basdn, 





Bilhin; biUidn, 

Bisin; bUdn, 




Dandn; danin. 

Dalhin; dalhdn. 


Datiiln; datndn, 

Diktin; dxktdn, 

Dip-hin; dip-hdn, 

^^'9in; ding-gdn. 

Dugin; ditgdn. 


Gawln; gawdn. 

Gibin; gibdn, 








Iligdn; hihigdn. 




JliiigUi; hiiTgdn, 

Jlirmin; fiirtndn. 

Ibhin; ibhau. 

Igbin; igWiu. 

Kabilin; kabildn. 













Kalgin: httffin. 

Kaphi; iapdn. 
Kaptin; Jopftfai. 




lAlId . 



Mall . . . 



-Palagy&n. From Mtl<?' 

TocgnUia; Include, etc 

To limik (Jsa ropu. i-lu.) .... 

lyw; liigdti. 


Toeinbark; to mount ■. 


To err; Bin 




Siiiti,,: mHait. 

To tell; report 



Tfi praiiy l>aok; to give back .. 
To l.tirn nibliifli 










f^itilh: Mo/iiti. 


ToRfil-'ii; lolioia to _ 

To>iun.| _ 

Tn (.i-l..; \r) 


Tanhi; luyAn. 

I'lin; tWn, 

jklli,; tniMn. 

T..r,.d.,.,M ..._ 

T v>. _ 

T..rvliin,, :..f„.;ir_ 

Tokuk _.._ 



II. For names of animals, birds, fishes, and invertebrates not given in 
is work the student is referred to Jordana's BoMuejo Geoffrdfico S His- 
rico Natural del Archipielago Filipino^ Madrid, 1885; to the work of Friar 
isto de Elera, Dominican, entitled Catdlogo Sistemdtico de Toda la JFliuna 
niipinasj Manila, 1895; and to the book of Montero v Vidal, El Archi- 
Hago F^ipino y las islas Marianas, Carolinas y Palaos, Madrid, 1886. For 
e rauna the great work of Friar Blanco, Aagnstine, will be of great aid, 
well as the reports of the forestry and agricultural bureaus at Manila, 
le work of Father Delgado, 8. J., Manila, 1892, deserves attention as 
• ised and annotated. 

in conclusion, it is hoped that a careful study of the language under dis- 
Kion will lea<l the student to explore for himself, and note the localisms 
1 changes in each province. Any suggestions, corrections, or criticisms 
I be welcomed by the author. 

-' ■ S I Mi- 1 













, n 


,. « 

1. "I an 

: r 

Comptmnil prefls iptnaff. An6 kayd 
aiiK r/iiNMfruliM mo ra kaniydT 
"What w«re your orcli'ra to liiiii? 

ITanlnoni;, "wise" (from diinong, idea 

of wisdom). 
AfiHofliarunon^ ko it6. "I consider 

.VMpanhikaA ko an^ Mhay nang; kni- 
l>it^natin. " [thaupenedthatlwent 
up inU) the house of our friend." 

Man^ini, "to preach." 

Ang munffoinl, "the maater; pro- 

At^ tHangaSi/Atai, "the preacher." 
Ang ipivangaini, "what is beinf( 
preached," i. e., the subject of a ser- 

ig pinaiSganiaii, 
»udience,^' i. e., p 











Pa — an. 





It) t4 





3f aibukuha ko iyang bunga. * ' I shall be able to take that 

3fa/ni8iilat niU itong pan<\\sX, '*They will be able 
to write with this pen.* 



w& ak6. **I will order that something be 





d sa 

3,'* 01 

nu t€' 

It to 




l^OMisulatiN ko niton g siilat. *'I shall ask you to write 
this letter.** 

I'atotamn^ ko iyang luptl. '*I shall order that ground 
to be planted.** 

I'cUutiilong ak6. ''I will ask for help.** 

I'cUutulongiN ko siy^ bdkas. ''I will ask him to help to- 
Bdkit ^»«Uutdlong niydak67 ''Why will he ask me to 

d he 

-Paririto sil^ * * They will come here. ' ' 

An6 ang /itaparirito niU? ** Whv will they come here?" 

8ino bagd ang pariritoAa/i niyd? ^' Who will he come here 

to see?*' 
Pa/>«nritoHiN mo Biyd? "Will you tell him to come 


T^n^f^ahdhay ak6. **I will go to a house.** 

MdgpapakamBX&y siyu. ** He will kill himself.** 

An^ ip€igpapaknh\ii\ nang dalagang iyun, etc. *'That 
girl will adorn herself,** etc. 

led in teacl 
joined in 



J — 




r tiibij 













Accent, change of, 18. 

Changes meanmg, 19. 

General rules of, 18. 
Accents, 18, 19. 

Acute, 18. 

Grave, 18. 

Circumflex, 18, 19. 
Active (voice), 20. 
Adjectives, 20, 38, (full analysis of) 55, 56, 57. 

Prefixed to noun, 31. 
Adjectives, comparison of, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76. 

Equality, 72, 73. 

Inferiority, 73. 

Superiority, 73, 74. 

Superlative, degree of, 74, 75, 1 6. . 

Adjectives (regarded as to meaning) : 

Colors, 63. 

Of condition, 61, 62. 

Of physical conditions of body, 63, 64. , 

Of quality, 58, 59, 60. 

Of quantity, 62. 

Mental, moral, or personal attributes, 64-71. 

Miscellaneous, 71, 72. 
Adjectives, negative. 57. 
Adjectives, plural of, 57. 
Adjectives, position of, 57. 
Adjective, predicate, 32. 
Adverbial numerals, 79, 80. 
Adverbs, 20, 38, (with adjective) 74, 75, (fully discussed) 83-86, (definition 

of) 83, (verbahzing) 83, 84. 

Affirmative, 99. 

Negative, 99, 100. 

Of degree, 72, 75, 98. 

Of measure, 72, 75, 98. 

** Flat," 83. 

"Flexional," 83. 

** Phrasal," 83. 

Interrogative, 32, 33. 

Of doubt, 100. 

Of manner, 93, 98. 

Of quality, 93, 98. 

Of motion, 84. 

Of place, 34, 84, (list of many) 86, 87. 

Of time, 87-92. 

Of succession, 87-92. 
Affirmative adverbs, 99. 


, Com] 

ataiTffa-n, (b* 

im (eufflx), 18, M.' 108, IV, HI, 1, II (full HiBcus«i.>ii ). 141 
AjiUinvni, 'leflnitioa of, 57. 
Atnbie elemeut in TagaluK, U. 3M, 
ArliL'le, indefinite; 
Sulisiitulefor, 31. 
Anictei (of comnioQ noune, plauee, I'otiutriea, etc. ), 28. 

AVith poasesflive pronoims, 37. 
Artii^le I of proper uouQS. uouna of rclatioQabip, etc. ), 27, 
■ Declined, 27. 
I Plural, 27. 
I Speciitl plural, 27. 
Syntax, 2S. 
Articlee, instniments, etc., with jian prefixe<3, 209, XVII. 
Off (particle), 32, (with antonj-mB), ItM, VI. 
Be to, (vwb) 32. 

To be therf , 8S. 
Canlinal numerals, 76, 77, 78. 
Cast-B, 20, 38. 

Chinese wonia in TfcgaloR. H. :!8. 
CJauewi of o^ual ton.*, two, 32. 
Oompsirativf : 

Of iidjeotivea. 72, 73, 74. 
Of ojualitj;, 72, 73. 
Of inferiority, 73. 
Ofeuperiority. 73, 74. 
iunctiona, 102-104. 

And" 88. 
Adversative, 102, 1 
AhtTiiliv.', in-2. 
Bindina. 1IV,>. 
Causative, 103, ICH. 
Conditional, 104. 
tLtntractions, 247, 24«. 
DeBnite. the, 20. 30, (di , , , , 

Width definite, 108, IV to XV. 
Dialect a, 'Aa. 

Diminutives, 110, IX, (tun) IBO, (mug) 192. 
Direct obiei't, 109, V, VI. 

One, 109, V. 
Distriitutive numerals, 80. 
Do (make) to, 108, I, II, 110, XI. XIII, 


, 100. 

Dual nuniber, 35, 3t), 3 
Endings, 31. 

Consonant, 31. 
Iiidijiiithoiit;, 31, 

In " 


iwel, 31. 
Kuphonit changes, 32, 34, 81, 
E\i'lanialions, 104, 105. 
"Exrlujjve (editorial) vvc." .' 
Future perfect tense, 106, X. 
Future ten!-e, 106, X. 
yi ( interroRBtive iiarticle), 74 

fiaiino, 74. 




Gender, lack of, 38. 

General term?, lack of, 19. 

Genitives, double, of personal pronouns, 35, 36. 

han (suffix), 18, 56, 141, I, II, (full discussion) 142-153. 

hin (suffix), 18, 56, (with weights, measures, etc.) 82. 

Homonym, definition of, 57. 

i [particle], 108, IV, (cause, instrument or time) 109, V, (combined with 
in) 110, XII, (fully discussed) 132-141. 

Idioms, 20. 

ika [compound particle] (with adverbs) 84, 85, (meaning (?aase) 108, 
IV, 138, XVIll, 211, 1. 

ikina [compound particle] (with adverbs), 84, 55, (meaning cause) 108, 
IV, 138, XVIII, 211, I. 

ikinapa [compound particle] (with adverbs), 85. 

Imperative, 105, II. 

Intensity, quicknesss, with, 105, III. 

Imperfect tense, 106, X. 

in (suffix) 18, 56, (inserted) 57, (with weights, measures etc.) 82, (with 
pa) 84, 85, (motion toward or control of) 108, IV, (combined with i) 
110, XII, (discussion) 112, I, to 114, VI (idea of attraction toward) 
114-115, (possession) 115, (verbs of calling, 115, (of reaching for) 116, 
(verbs of carrying, cutting, measuring or weighing) lld-119, (verbs of 
destruction) 119, (verbs of receiving) 120, (of inviting] 120, (of eating, 
drinking, etc.) 122, (acts of senses) 123, 124, (acts of will or mind) 124, 
125, (verbs of making) 125, (of wearing) 125, (various) 126, (suffixed) 

In an, 130. 

Inclusive **we,*' 35, 38. 

Indefinite, 20, 30, (discussed) 111, I, to 112, V 
Principal particles of. 111, I. 

Indicative, 106, IX. 

Indirect object, 109, VI. 

Infinitive, 106, IX. 

ini [compound particle], 110, VIII. 

Intransitive veros, 107, XI. 

ipa [compound particle] (explained), 109, VIII. 

ipag [compound particle], 109, IV^ (explained), 109, VIII. 

ipagka [compound particle], 109, VIII. 

xpagkaka [compound particle], 109, VIII. 

ipina [compound particle] (with adverbs), 85 (explained), 109, VIII. 

tpinag [compound particle] (explained), 109, VIII (example), 110, IX. 

ipinagka [compound particle], 109, VIII, 

(pinagkaka [compound particle] (with adverb), 85 (explained), 109, VIII. 

ka (particle expressing likeness), 72. 

kasing (compound particle), 72. 

ka (imparting idea of intensity, etc.), 105, III. 
(linking opposite ideas), 106, VI. 

ka [particle], 211. 

ka an [compound particle], 200, 201. 

krtpag [particle], 239. 

kapagka [particle], 239. 

knlang (aaverb meaning "less'*), 73. 

ma (adjective forming particle), 55, (use) 111, I, (fullv discussed), 196- 
201, (def. oimaka) 211. 

ma in {hin), 131, 132. 

mag {nag), 56, (verbalizing adverb) 84, 85, (use) 110, X, 111, I, (fully dis- 
cusse(l) 180-194. 

magin [particle] , 232-234. 

magka [particle], 38, 85, (combinations) 109, VIII, (use) 110 X, (fully 
discuased) 2;i0-232. 

magkan [particle], 238. 

1254 INDEX 

magkapa [particle], 238. 

mofftapaHliiy (iK>rnpoiiDd partid«<), 7S. 

magtapara (coinpotrnd particle), 73. 

maffknpant (mmponnd pBrttcle), 73. 

tnagkimnij (con)p<iUDd partic^le), 73. 

mapna ((impound parti rle), Alt. 

magpa [piwlicle], lOB, VIII. (use) 110, X, (fnlly diwMiBsi'd) '.ilT-K;!. 

nvigpaka [parlide], 225-227, 

magpati [particle], 235. 

tnnjwn [particle], 237. 

.niwn [piirticle]^, 235, 236. 

tnntn [partide], 201, IV, (fully diecoBsed) 211-217, (wheu lutttuiog 
"eaUBe") 56, (peculiar eonatroction with) 112, VIII, (indiuiUng com- 
pleted action) 93. 

laaki [particle], 227-230. 

nuWu (lorminKailjectivee), 56. 

man [iwrticlej, 37, (with weighls, ineasiirec. mooevB) 81. (wiih mlvertM) 
85, (fully duciMed) 201-211. 

vwHhi [particle], 235-237. 

mapa (ii» adjectJve (onning particle). 56. 

mapap {aa adjective forming particle), 5A. 

rnoi/ (»w) 110, XIII. 

MOyroun (use), 110, XIll. 

mina {minama) [particle expressing opinion], 56. 

tut (aa adjective lorming particle), 56, (use) 111, I, (fullv dismissed) 196- 
201, (del. olniifaj) 211. ( with irr^dar form of verb ) 171-175, 

nag [particle] (with adverb), 85, (use) 111, 1, (fully diecuseed) 180-lM. 

tu^n rparticteL £33 1 

tvifihi [Mtrticlej (With adv b) 85 M 

n/ii/l n [parti 1 ^-R ^ 

] 2-8 


] 23 I 

(ful Isi 8Bed), 211-217 
\, adverbs), ( 

Neya e a e bf 99 00 
Nega e e >■ 30 
Vom na e case 

Preceded j art e a 1 f o wed b, genitive, 28. 

With genitive inserted between nominative and article, 2i 

In genitive modifying noniinative, 31. 
Soiin:', 20, (cnmmonl 28, (exp.),38. 
— ■- * 1 -liO. 


■, 2H, (from roots) 'liO. 
?.>, SO. 

pn, the iHj roots lieginnlnp witli, 175-180. 
pa (with adverbs), 84, 

pap'i (do.), 84. 
p<i (vet, fitill), 7:i. 
pi [delimteof iii'iflpn], 10(1, VIII, 217, I, (fully dipciis!=ecl) 2 


pag [particle], 110, VIII, IX, (retention) 110, X, 194. 

pagka [particle], 194, 201, III, 230. 

pagpaka [particle], 225, I. 

paia [particle], 225, I. 

paki [particle], 227, I. 

pala (forming adjectives), 56. 

pan [particle], 201, 209, XVII. 

panhi [particle], 235, 236. 

para (particle of comparison), 72. 

Participle, 106, X. 

Particles, combinations of, 238, 239. 

Designation of, 239. 
Particles, verbal, 19, 20, (most important) 106, VIII. 
Particularizing verbs, 19. 
Passive, 20. 
Past tense, 106, X. 
Phrases, ordinary, some, 20-27. 
pinag [compound particle], 110, IX, 195, II. 

pinag an [compound particle and suffix], 110, VIII. 

pinagka [compound particle] (with adverbs), 85, (discussed) 230. 

piiuiktij 227 f I A. 

/>m«M [particle], 239. 

pinaki [particle], 227, I. 

pinapa [compound particle] (with adverbs), 84, 85. 

Place (how expressed), 141, II. 

Pluperfect tense, 106, X. 

Plural (of adjectives), 57. 

Plural (of nouns), 28, 38. 

Special plural of «i, 27. 
Prefix, retention of, 106, VII. 
Prepositions (fully discussed), 100-102. 
Present tense, lOo, X. 

Pronouns, demonstrative, 33,34, (idiomatic use) 34. 
Pronouns, indefinite, 37, (exp.) 38. 
Pronouns, interrogative, 32. 
Pronouns, personal, 35, 36. 

dialects, 35. 

idioms, 35. 
Pronouns, possessive, 36, 37. 

With ang and ang «a, 37. 

Syntax and order, 37. 
Pronouns, relative, 38. 
Proper nouns (article of), 27. 
puma [compound particle] (with adverbs), 85. 
Reduplication of roots, 56. 

With ka an (ban), 75, 76. 

Of first syllable of numerals, 77. 

To form diminutives, 110, IX. 
Respect, great, how indicated, 37. 
Root words in Tagalog, number, 13. 
Root«, reduplication of, 56. 
Roots, differing? with um and inag^ 154. 
Roots, the 66 beginning with pa, 175-180. 
Sanskrit words in Tagalog, 13, 38. 
Sex, how indicated, 31. 
Sing (particle meaning **as"), 72. 
Spanish element in Tagalog, 14, 38. 

Of adjective, 74, 75, 76. 

Absolute, 75. , 

Relative, 75. 

Simple, 74, 75. 

SvuonyiD, deGnition of, 57. 

i^ynonyina, 19. 

Tagnlcic lariguagie, importADce uf, 13, 

DiHlwta of, 13, 3S. 

Relntionelup of, 13. 

PT«wrvation of verbal nyetoiu of, 13. 

Number of root worde Ja, 13, 

KattHkrit element iu, 38. 

Chinese element in, H, 38. 
I Arabiy eleinent in, 14, 38. 

■ Spanish element ia, 14, H«. 
W luiglii^h elenieut in, 14, 
P LAck of Japanese elemtmt in, H. 

Pronunciation of. In. 

Structure of. coinpareU. 107, XIV, XV, 

Verb, compared, 107, XVI. 
Tense?, IW, X. 

Lark of ehange within, 107, XII. 
"Tiw." eupbonk:, 31. 
Trunsitivc verbf, 107, XI. 
('. when considered as coDsooant. 31. 
I'm (particle), (with adverb), 84. (UBeebown), 

cuaseil), 153-170, (Diminutives), 180. 
Verb (onderatoodt, 32. 
Verbs, 30. 38. (digfiusion) 106-108. 

Completeness of TasaW verb, 107, XVI. 
Definite, 108, 1, Iirui. 
Deflation of, 106, I. 

Intransitivp, 107, XI, 
Mi«leH, 10«, IX. 
Pa rtii-n I arizing, 19, 
Superlative form, 7fl, 
Tensen, 106, X. 
Transilive, 107, XI. 
Wold (with adjective), 74, (use) 110, Xlll. 

Able to , tol>e, :;ii, II 

AbletOilo, to, 177. 
Accept, to, 120. 
Accompanv. to, 133, IB.'i. 

Act like a , to, 230. 

Acts of the senses, 123, 124, 
Acts of Hill or mind, 124, 1 
.\dd, to, 137. 
Advi,-e, to, m. 
Afrai.l, to 1«-, iiii). 

AniinalH, iliimeiilie, 2S, '2\t. 
ApproaHi, t-.. 184, 
Arrange, to, 120. 

Ai«hitini-<l, to ^>^^ 101 
Ask, ro, 121. 
.Vslcep, to 1k', lOS. 


Bathe, to, 150. 

Bed; bedding, 28, 29. 

Bed, to be in, 199. 

Bed, to go to, 161. 

Bite, to, 122, 123. 

Blow, to, 162. 

Body, parts of, 49, 50, 51. 

Borrow, to, 114, 115, 137, 164. 

Breaking, verbs of, 198. 

Bridges, 43. 

Brinff, to, 114, 115. 

Buila a house, to, 133. 

Buildings, kinds of, 43. 

Bury, to; inter, to, 195. 

Buv, to, 114, 131, 133, 164, 172, 182, (at retail) 138. 

Calculate, to, 124. 

Call, to, 115, 173. 

Calling, verbs of, 115. 

Capture, to, 173. 

Care for, to, 169, 204. 

Carry, to, 116, 133, (different ways) 116, 117. 

Cause , to, 211, IV, 212. 

Charitable, to be, 145. 

Choose, to, 114. 

Civic dignities, 53. 

Clothing, articles of, 52. 

Cold, 47. 

Come down, to, 130. 

Come here, to, 147. 

Come in, to, 173. 

Come out, to, 129. 

Coming or going, 20. 

Comnmnication, means of, 43, 44. 

Comimre, to, 141. 

Compass, points of, 47. 

Compel, to, 193. 

Complain, to, 114. 

Conform, to, 140 

Conquer, to, 176. 

Consider, to, 124. 

Contend with, to, 172. 

Contradict, to, 172. 

Cook, to, 133. 

Cooking utensils, etc*., 40. 

Cooking, verbs of, 135. 

Country, character of, 44. 

Cover, to, 142. 

Curse, to, 185. 

Cursing, Tagalog, 105. 

Cut, to, 117, (different wayn) 117, 118. 

Cut hair, to, 168. 

Dark, to l)ecome, 163. 

Dawn, to, 162. 

Deceive, to, 144. 

Descend, to, 176. 

Desire to, 169, 170. 

Desire, t^), 124. 

Destroy, to, 119, 138, 156. 

Destmction, verl)8 of, 119, 120. 

Die, to, 119, 141. 

6855—06 17 

Dignities, civil «nd miliUry, 53. 
Directioni (of coiiipMt>), 47. 
Disappear, tn. 136. 

DieentuiKle, Uy V. 
Diwbey. to, 172. 
Dive, to, 128. 
Drasm t«, ] 

Drink tn, 122, 127. 169, 17S. 
Drinkini;, S4, (drinkabiei) 28, 29. 

Drowned, to be, S 
Dwell, to. 175. 
Earthquake, 47. 
Eating, 24, (matarisla) 28 
EdiBcefl (li^tof),43. 
Embark, to, 140, 195. 
Euiuty out, to, 141. 
Endure, to, IHS. 
Enter, to, 173. 
Envy, to, 176. 
Pkgualize, to, 141, 
Erect, to, 152. 
Evil, to do or muse, 212. 
Exc^hangP, to, 120, Id*. 
Explain, lu, 125. 
Gxtiuguieh. to, IIH, 156. 
Faint aw&y, Ui, 119. 
Fall, to, IM. 
FftU bftck, to, 17S. 
Feel. to. 123. 

Ml, 39, (verbs of) laa, 127, 159. 172. 


Fijfli' , . 
Finished, to l>e, 201. 
Fire, 40, (i^onflagnitioi 
Firewiwjd, 40, 
Fish, edible kinds, 3!l, 
Fish, to, 121. 122, 20«. 
Fishing, ternis used in 

■■' - ; 12S 

) 4H, (j^ijinal fire) 4H. 


Follow; to, 139, 172. 
F<K«lstuHs, 28, 2H, (cooKeo) ii. 
Foraxe, gi'aes, 43, 
Forbid, to. lHi». 
Force, to, 193. 
Fonl, ferrv, 44. 
Forget, ti>i 198. 
Frai'tioii!", how expreesed, 79. 
Fruit ( kinds), 29. 
Game. n.imen for, ;i9. 
Gathi-r, to, 141. 
Get, to. 149. 
■ ri.i .if. to, - - ■ 

1, 143. 

t-lmrk, to, i:t4. 


Going or coming, 21, 22. 

€rood, to do, 212. 

Grasp, to, 147. 

Grass; forage, 43. 

Graze, to, 127. 

Greetings; salutations, 20. 

Grin, to, 160. 

Guard, to, 144, 181. 

Guide, to, 208. 

Have, to, 30, 85, 86, (not to have) 30. 

Hear, to, 123. 

Hearing, verbs of, 145, 146. 

Heap up, to, 137. 

Heat, 47. 

Heavenly bodies, 45. 

Help, to, 185. 

Horses and horse equipments, 42. 

House, 40 (parts of) 40, 41. 

Household furniture, 28, 29, 41, 42. 

Hungrj', to be, 128, 196, 197. 

Hunt, to, 121, 206. 

Inquire, to, 121. 

Insult, to, 182. 

Inviting, verbs of, 120. 

Join with, to, 165. 

Join with in , to, 228. 

Jump, to, 186. 

Jump down, to, 130. 

Kick, to, 185. 

Kill, to, 119, 156. 

Kiss, to, 145. 

Kneel, to, 158. 

Knees, to he on, 199. 

Land (features of), 44, 47. 

Lauffh, to, 160. 

Lead, to, 175. 

Leave, to, 133, 174. 

Leavetaking, 23. 

Lend, to (money only), l.*W. 

Lend willingly, to, 138. 

Lie down, to 151, (various iMietures of) 159. 

Like, to, 124, 170. 

Listen, to, 123. 

Look, to, 186. 

Look at, to, 123, 148, 172. 

Look for, to, 133, 169. 

Looking for, verbs of, 116. 

Look out of, to, 127. 

Lose, to, 129. 

Love, to, 124, 125. 

Make (do), to, 108, I, II. 

Make haste, to, 193. 

Making, verbs of, 125. 

Malinger, to; play sick, to, 192. 

March, to, 166. 

Maritime terms, 45, 48. 

Meals; foo<l, 39. 

Measure, to, 118. 

Measures, moneys, weights, 81, S2. 

Meet, to, 184. 

Metals, minerals, 49. 

Mock, K>, IM). 

Moneys, w«^liU, ineuur««, i^l. 02. 

Uoothii, namw ot, 46: dayx of. 78. 

Moon, M. 

Motion to, !<>, lis. 

Movinic, verba ot, 110. 

Mutter, to. 1S9. 

Nautili I l«niiii, 45, 4H. 

Nn, W. 


Nuiucinlii, how expreKed, "A~60. 

Obey, to, 139, 172. 

OccnpHtioDH, etc., M, 5S. 

Open, to, 142. 

Order, to . to, 217-aiB. 

Overtakif. to, 131. 

Pant, to, 1S3. 

Pay for. to, 147. 

Persevere, to. 177. 

PeraoDAl pcoacMion, llfi. 

PhyricAl acta. IIW, 161. 

Pleroe. to, 147. 

Place, how indieattKl, U»-]&1. 

Place, to, ise, 

Plant, to. 138. 

Political divirione, 48, 40. 

Poor, to he, 200. 

Pofitimip, t>, he ill it-rtftin, VM 

Pour out, to. 137. 

Practice medicine, to, 204. 

Preai-h, to, 204. 

Professions, 53, 54. 

Promiee, to, 177. 

Pronounce, to, 189. 

Proper, to be, 184, 197. 

Provoke, to, 175. 

Puch, to, 186. 

Put, to, 136. 

Quarrel, to, 184. 

Rain. to. 162. 

Reach, to, 131. 

Read, to, 170,171,173. 

Reap, to, 203. 

Ret-eive, to, 120. 

Receiving, verl>s of, 120. 

Recommend, to, 134. 

Relative?, kin, 31, 113, V. 

Remain behind, to, 13)1. 

Remember, to, 124. 

Remit, to, 133. 

Rejiort, to, 134. 

Reprimand, to, 121. 

Re<iue8t, to, 114,1-32,146. 

Resist, to, 172. 

Resolve, to, 177. 

Retreat, to, 175. 

Rioe, kinds of, 113, V. 

Rice, to trade or Hell, 143. 

Rivera, etreuuB, 44. 
Roftde, trailB, etc., 43. 
Rub, to, 124. 

Ran, to, 128. 
Sad, to be, IM, 19H. 
Salutations, greetiugB, 2a 
Scatter, to, J 37. 
Scattering, verbs of, 187. 
Rea, 4.S, (pbeaomena) 4fi. 
Searching, verba of, 116, 
See, to, 123. 
SeUe, to. 114. 

SpII. to. 132, I at retail) 138. 
Send, to, 114, 133. 
Servant, hiring, 25. 
8ew. to. 127. 
.SlmkiiiK. verbdot, 116. 
t-havf, t', HiH. 
Shfllfiali, kldii^, 39. 
SiKoal, to, 136. 
Sit down, to, 159, 172, 181. 
Sleepj-, to be, 139. 
Smell, to, 123. 
. Snatcb, to, 132. 
Sorrv, to be, 145. 
Sow,' to, 136. 
Speak, to, 134. 
Speaking, verba, of, 188, 189. 
Spend, to, 176. 
Spin, to, 206. 
Split, to, 118. 
Spreading, verbs of, 137. 
8ta»fger, to, 183. 
Stand up, to, 157, 172. 
Steal, to, 145, 165. 
Slir t.., IK.5. 
Streams, rivers, 44, 4S. 
Stumble, to. 197. 
Suffer, to, 185. 
Suicide, to cocumit, 120. 
Sun, 45, (seltiug and rising of) 164. 
Sweep, to, 122. 
Swim, to, 127. 
Tableware. 28, 39. 
Talk, to, 134. 
Talk to, to, 165. 
Take, to, 114, 132, 173. 
Take out, to, 129. 
Taste, to. 123. 
Teach, to, 145. 
Tear, to, 117. 
Tear down, to, ll'J. 
Tell, to, 134. 
Tempt, to 174. 
Think, to, 124, 125. 
Thlraty, to be, 128. 
Threateu, to, 143. 
Throw away, to, 136. 
Throw down, to, 136. 
Throwing, verba of, 187. 
Time, divisions of, 45, 46, 92, 93. 


Toilet, the; (dMeeiii!;) 24. 

Toolii, list of, 42. 

Tbach, to, 123, 124. 

TrailB, roads, etc., 4:i. 

Translate, to, 141. 

TranBlations, 244-246. 

TraiiBfer, to, UI, 

Tra\-el to, 140, 19fi, 208. 

Traveling, 22. 

TiwH, plants, etc., 63. 

Treni^h, to make a, 151. 

Turn back, to, 175. 

Uncover, t<i, 142, 

Untie, to, 146. 

Uae, to, 114. 

UtensilB, I'ooking, 40. 

UtcQsilH. list of, 42, 

Vcfietabiee, kinds, 39, 40. 

Verify, to. 125. 

Wait for, to, 120. 

Walt, to, IIW. 

Watch, to, IM. 

Water, 2«. 

Wal*r courses, 44 45. 

WenriiiK, verhe of, 125. 

Wertthtr, conditions ot, 23, 47. 

Weep, to, 13fl. 

Weigh, to, 119. 

Weiibts, tneieureB, moneys, Bl, 62. 

Win, to, 176. 

Wi^li, to. Hi!), (imt lo wipl]), IT.i, 

Word«, inisctUaneouii, 240-243, 

Wound, to, 161. 

Wriie, to, 171, 172. 

Writing materials, 43, 44. 

Yes, e«. 

Ahui. v.n. 

Ahil. 168. 
,l/<iri/o, 124. 
Aii-k'-kI, 120. 
Af'io, 162. 
Asfn, 147. 
.lti-1, 145. 
Aimy, 166. 
Awo, 175. 
BaM (mabaM), 68. 
Bard, 125. 



B!rr>. 185. 

B'llag, 200. 

Iluti {mtibiili), :m. 

C (onlv retahit'ii in »i 

Jfiinn, 'im. 

114, 116. 

D.n..i (.., 

; 5«. 

liiiiiiil, 144. 

Da'itl {iiuigiJara'Ki), (19. 

DiiTyiff. 123, 146. 


IXpd, 82. 

DUo, 34, 133, 147. 

Dooriy 34. 

Dukhd, 200. 

£ (begins Spanish words only). 

Galing, 138, 148, VII. 

Gaipd, 108, I, II, 110, XI, XIII. 

Giik, 130. 

GupiU 118, 168. 

Halik, 146. 

Ilampds, 129, 168, 187. 

Ildnap, 109, V, 116, 133. 

Hangxn, 162. 

H&pi$, 138. 

Hapon, 163. 

/TcwiJb, 187. 

Hwd, 151. 

HUamos, 167. 

l/irIM, 114, 132, 146. 

Huil 165. 

//u«ay, 120. 

/W^r, 124, 169. 
Init (mamt/), 60. 
Inum, 122, 160. 
/«c/d, 122. 
Isip, 124, 182. 
/i/.v), 157. 
Juan, 27, 37. 

kay J., 27, 28. 

ni J., 27, 28, 37. 

ninilJ., 27. 

si J., 27. 

sind J., 27. 
Kagat, 122. 
Koin, 122, 140, 159. 
Kinyig, 123. 
Kitdy 123, 169, 184. 
Labd, 199. 
Ldkad, 166. 
Lakl, 155. 
Lambaly 122. 
I,mo<, 192. 
Linis (mo/ints), 59. 
Luhodj 158. 
MariGf 181. 

n^a, 25, 30, (exp.) 37. 
Panaogy 176. 
Pan/tiA:, 21. 
P(!wo/:, 173. 
Potoy, 119, 140, 141. 
PUds, 141. 
PuiU 155. 
Pu<o/, 117. 

Q (retained only in Spanish words or foreign names). 
R (only begins a word in Tagalog by reason of euphonic change from " d " ) . 
rin, 37. 
rito, 25, 35. 
SalUd, 134. 
Salubong, 120. 
Samay 165. 
Samd (m(uamd)f 58. 

»t,nl,^il, IS7. 
Silang, 164. 
i«ni. Its, 1S8, 166. 
Sid, IS9. 
SAaai. 161. 
SuJUaa. 168. 
.S^K 171. 

.9umpd, lae. 

,Surwrf, 130, 172. 182. 
Sinog. 1S6. 
T^iftl, 127. 
TakM, 12H. 

7\id, wo. 

Tab6, 101, 

r»W (nioluW), 62. 

r«M, 174. 

r^d-ji,;, 17-t, 

T,Uov. 17S, 

T^iuiJ (mu/uyd), 60. 

Utin, 162. 


f^, 1S9. 

'■(.,»./, n-t, 138, 164. 

V, Onlv retained in si 

i'dnmn [maydman), B 

'<,, 32, 38. 

iunli?; generally changeil li