Skip to main content

Full text of "A Handbook and Grammar of the Tagalog Language"

See other formats


This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 








First Lieut* W. K W. MacKINLAY, 

First Casualty, U» S, Army, 
Member American Oriental Society, 



1 one 

\y.\n I>Ki'AKTMKNT, 

I>(»(Mum'nt No. 2(10. 




Page 29, ninth line from bottom. For ''(Sp.)'' road *'(Sp.; 

Page 45, twenty-seventh line from bottom. For '"Lo?7gos 

Page 62, eleventh line from bottom. For ""paiiaing ■ ' read ^^pa\ 

t r '.tu»i i»i<j«.v»f»j ■M-' • 


War Department, 
Office of the Chief of Staff, 

Wnfthingtorif August SO, 1906. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith the manuscript of a work 
entitled ''A Handbook and Grammar of the Tagalog Language,'' consist- 
ing of 399 pages of typewriting, which I estimate will make about 200 pages 
in print I would suggest that the work be bound in a substantial water- 

Sroof cover, similar to that used for the latest edition of the "Soldier's 
[andbook," and that the size be 8 by SJ inches, or approximately so. 
I would also invite attention to the folders accompanying. ♦ ♦ * It 
would be best to have the left-hand edge of the folders begin at the outside 
margin of the printed page, so that when extended the student could read 
the corresponiiing text tW the svnopsis at the same time and not be obliged 
to turn the pages back and fortK. 

« « * « « * * 

Very respectfully, 

W1LLIA.M E. W. MacKinlav, 
FirAt Lieutenant^ First Cavalry. 
Maj. William D. Beach, 

Chief f Second {Military Information) Division^ 

Washington^ D. C. 





Shortly after the arrival of the author in tlio Philippines he, in common 
with many others, felt the need of a work unon the Tagalog language in 
English, and began to prepare this compendium, working upon it from 
time to time as other military duties permitted, and, upon being ordered to 
duty in Washington for the purpose of having better facilities for the com- 
pletion of the work, has been enabled to bring it to such completion, under 
the direction of Maj. W. D. Beach, Fifteenth Cavalry, chief of the Second 
Division, General Staff. 

As the Tagalog, belonging to a very different family of languages from 
those with which Americans are familiar, has extremely dissimilar char- 
acteristics from English or any Aryan tongue, the writer has devised a 
type scheme, presented in the folder herewith, by which the salient points 
of difference may be seen at a glance aii<l vividly retained in the memory, 
thus enabling the student to use correct and intelligible Tagalog. 

Supplemented by that constant practice necessary for the ear, it is believed 
that the copious index to this work, together with the type scheme, selected 
vocabularies, and plain nontechnical (as far as possible) explanations of 
the grammatical structure of Tagalog, will prove to be of value to those 
whose duty or inclination may lead them to consult this book. Such, at 
least, is the hope of the writer. 

The Tagalog language is easily pronounced, regular in its forms, and 
although its structure is complex, yet when once grasped it is so plain that 
it is not only clearly comprehended, but is a key to all the Malayan tongues, 
especially to those of the Philippines. It is an idiom which builds up its 
sentences and parts of speech from root.s by means of particles which 
are prefixed, intixed, or suttixed to the roots. Several oi these parti(!lea 
mav be combined with the same root, each having its share in the modifi- 
cation of the inherent idea of the root. 

Attention is also invited to the great use of the ''definite" in Tagalog, 
the so-called "passive" of the Spanish writers upon this subject. 

The index, which has been made very full and copious, should be con- 
sulted, as every probable combination of particles has been noted, as well 
as Tagalog roots and English words occurring in the work. For example, 
every word preceded by the compound particle ip'ninfj has l)een listed, thus 
enabling the root to be found at once, and so on in like manner. 

The writer desires to express his appreciation for assistance received 
from the military authorities both in the Philippine Islands and the United 
States, from many of his brother officers, and from Profs. Friedrich Ilirth, 
of Columbia; E. W. Hopkins, of Yale (secretary of the American Oriental 
S<^>ciety) ; Paul Haupt and F. W. Blake, of Johns Hopkins; Otis T. Mason, 
of the Smithsonian Institution, and the late John W. Huett, of Luther 
College, Illinois. Valuable suggestions were also received from Messrs. 
Pedro Serrano Laktaw, author of a Tagaloix-Spanish dictionary; Luis 
Torres, and Vicente Albert, ail of Manila. 




It is scarcely necessary to mention that authorities ui>on Tagalo^ have 
not been very plentiful, even with the great revival of interest m the 
Malayo-Polynesian languages which has taken place within the last few 
years. The number of works, old and new, large and small, upon this 
subject, or bearing upon it, is very close U) forty, and many of these are 
of little value or are obsolete. The number of reprints, however, brings 
the aggregate up to about one hundred, but this has no bearing upon the 
material available for study. 

The isolation of the Philippine Islands under the Spanish n^gime also 
contributed to- the neglect of the Philippine languages, and it seems almost 
as if Spanish and foreign workers in this field studiounly avoided consulting 
one another's researches, or else were ii^norant of them. In the review 
of books WTitten upon Tagalosr, or containing notices of it, works written 
to teach Spanish to the Tagalojre, novels — generally romances of the type 
current in the middle ages in Europe — lives of saints, and miscellaneous 
work.s, which make up what may be called the Tagalog literature, have 
been omitted. The total numl)er of works in Tagalog mav be estimated 
at from four to five hundred, and very few can be said to have a liteiiary 

The energy of those who are able to write Tagalog well has mainly been 
absorbed in newspaper work, and no great work has an yet appeared in the 

It can scarcely be doubted that if some of the great works of the world 
were translated into Tagalog and place<l where they would be accessible to 
the common j)eople, who do not speak or read Spanish, and are almost too 
old to learn English well, that the results would be of great and immediate 
importance in the mental development of the race. 

The honor of the first written treatise upon the Tagalog language prob- 
ably belongs to the Friar Agustfn de Albunjueniue, who arrived at Manila 
from Nueva Espafia (Mexico) in 1571, and after three years' residence in 
Taal, Balayan, and other parts of Batangas, became Prior of Tondoin 1575, 
holding the position until his death in 1580. This treatise has never been 
publishetl, and the as.«ertion is opjwsed by the Franciscan order, which 
claims the credit for the first work upon this subject. (See Vol. II, p. 
563, ** Estadismo de las Islas Filipinas, de Zuiliga," edited by W. E. Retana, 
Madrid, 1893; " La PoHticade Espafia en Filipinas,*' aflo VI, num. 134; and 
the "Catiilogo Bio-Bibliognifico de los Religiosos Agustinos," P^tcz, 
Manila, 1901.) 

To the Franciscan friar Juan de Plasencia, or Portocarrero, who came 
to the Philippines with the first mission of his order in 1577, is attributed 
an ** Arte y Diccionario " of Tagalog in 1581, which has remained in manu- 
script. (See ** Catalogo Biogrdfico de los Religiosos Franciscanos," Moya, 
Manila, 1880.) 


However, the most important point \b when the first printed work upon 
the languai;^ was published, ana this was undoubtecily in the year 1610, 
when an "Arte y ReglaA tie la Lenjfua Taj^ala," by Friar Francisco de San 
Jose of the Dominican order, and who arriveil in the Philippines in 1595, 
was printed in the **Partido de Batadn,'' probably by Tomds Pinpfn, a 
Tagaloj?. The book is a quarto of 327 pieces of nee paper. One copy 
exists in the Museo-Biblioteca de Ultramar at Madrid. Other editions of 
this book were printed at Manila in 1752 and 1832. (See Retana' sedition 
of Zilfliga, pp. 101-ia5. ) 

This work was followed in 1612 by the ** Vocabulario de la Lengua 
Tagala,'' by Friar Pedro de San Buenaventura of the Francii»can order, 
who was in chai^ of parishes in the present province of La I^ajruna, and 
whose work was printed in Pila by Tomjis Pinpfn and Domingo Loag, 
Tagalogs. The book is descritoi by Me<lina in his **La Imprenta en 
Manila, '^ Santiago de Chile, 1896, and'a fai^simile of the title-i)age is given. 

The Franciscan friar Juan de Oliver, who died in the Camarines in 
1597, is said to have written a treatise upon the Tagalog, but his work 
seems to have been limited to correcting and adding to the ** Arte y Dict'io- 
nario" of Plasencia. Another of the same order, Francisco de San Anto- 
nio, who was in charge of Baler from 1611 to 1616, and from that time 
until his death in lo24 resided in the present Ijel Laguna, wrote an 
•* Arte " and a Tagalog-Spanish vocabulary, which works existed in manu- 
script in 1745, the author being known also as "Orejita." (Set^ Cat. 
Biog. Rel. Fran., Manila, 1880; and the preface to the "Arte** of Totan^.) 

The Augustinian friar Juan de Quiflones, who dieil in Manila in 1587, 
also left a work upon the Tagalog, which is said by Beristafn to have been 

grinted in Manila in 1581. (See Beristafn, Biblioteca 1 1 ispano- Americana 
etentrional, Amecameca, Mexico, 1883-1887, 2d e<l.) The first edition 
was printed in Mexico City in 1816. (See Vol. II, p. 464.) The matter 
seems to be doubtful. 

The Franciscan friar Ger6nimo Monte y Escamilla, who died in 1614, 
is said to have left in manuscript an "Arte" and "Diccionario" in Taga- 
log, but the work, if extant, is in the archives of his order. (See Cat. 
Rel. Fran., Manila, 1880, p. 60. ) A similar manuiwript is said to have 
been written by Francisc^o de San Antonio, of the same order, who came 
to the Philippines in 1606 and died at Pila, La Laguna, in 1624. (See Id., 
p. 139. ) 

The third printed work upon Tagalog was the "Arte de Idioma Tagil- 
log," by the Franciscan Agustfn de la Magdalena, who arrived in the 
islands m 1665 and liveii in Tayabas and I^una for some years. Return- 
ing to Mexico he there gave his manu8<Tipts to the press in 1679, and in 
1684 returned to Manila, dying in Santa Cruz de La Laguna in 1689. (See 
La Imprenta en Mi^xico, Medina, Sevilla, 1893, No. 1784; and Cat. Rel. 
Fran., Manila, 1880, p. 292.) 

The Dominican friar Teoaoro (Quiros) de la Madre de Dfos, who came 
to the islands in 1627 and died in 1662, has been credited with an "Arte** 
of Tagalog by some bibliographers of Philippine literature, but Medina 
marks such a work as doubtful, as far as the printing is concerned. 

The eighteenth century witnesseil a revival of interest in the language, 
and in 1703 two works, both of which have been reprinted, were printed. 

The first was the ^'Compendio de la Arte de la lengua Tagala,** printed 
in Manila. This excellent treatise was reprinted at Sampaloc in 1787, and 
in Manila proper in 1879. Both the early editions are now rare. The 
author was the Augustinian friar Caspar de San Agustfn, who came to the 
Philippines in 1668, and died in Manila in 1724. He is better known as 
the author of the work "Conquistas de las Islap Filipinas,** Part I, Mad- 
rid, 1698; Part II, Valladolid, 1890. The third edition, however, retains 
many obsolete words. 

The second work was a "Vocabulario,** or dictionary of the Tagalog, 
written by the Franciscan friar Domingo de los Santos, who came to the 
Philippines in 1665, and after administering parishes mainly in La laguna. 


died in Maiavjay in 1695. His work was printed in the town of Tayabas 
in 1703, and out two copies seem to be known. One is from the Marsden 
collection, and is in the librarjr of Kine's College, London, and the other 
in the archives of the Franciscan order. Some leaves of a manuscript 
*^Arte" by the same author are also preserved in the archives. This dic- 
tionarv was reprinted in Sampdloc m 1794 and in Manila in 1835. It is 
now obsolete. (See Cat. Kel. Fran., Manila, 1880, p. 294; Biblioteca Fili- 
pina, Retana, Madrid, 1898 [referred to hereafter as R.]; Nos. 77 and 148; 
Id., Nos. 26 note, 66 note, 66 and 594; and Cat. Bio.-Bib. Rel. Agustinos, 
Manila, 1901, pp. 13^-134.) 

The next work upon this subject was the ''Arte y Reglas de la lengua 
Tagala,'' by the Augustinian friar Tom^ Ortfz, printed at the convento 
of Sampilloc in 1740. The author came to the Philippines in 1690, was a 
missionary in China until about 1712, and died in Manila in 1742. (See 
Medina, £a Imprenta en Manila and Cat. Rel. Agustinos, p. 169. ) 

In 1742 the Franciscan friar Melchor Oyanguren de Santa In^, who 
had lived in the Philippines, mainly at Los Baflos and Sariaya, from 1717 
to 1736, gave a work to the press in Mexico entitled "Tagalysmo." This 
interesting book, which has never been reprinted, compares with Tagalog 
the Mandarin dialect of Chinese, Hebrew, and Greek, the Tagalog being 
reduced as far as possible to a Latin basis. (R., 39. ) 

In 1745 the work of the Franciscan Sebastidn de Totan^s was printed 
at Sampdloc. This valuable treatise, entitled ''Arte de la lengua Tagala v 
Manual Tagalog," was reprinted at Sampdloc in 1796, at Manila in 1850, 
and in Binondo ( Manila) in 1865. (R., 42, 79, 202, and 329. ) The author 
came to the Philippines in 1717 and remained twenty-nine years in the 
islands. During his residence at Lilio and Pagsanhan, La Laguna, from 
1732 to 1738, he wrote the foregoing book. He died in Madrid in 1748, 
having left the Philippines in 1746. (Cat. Rel. Fran., Manila, 1880, pp. 

In 1754 the great " Vocabulario," or dictionary, of the Ta^og, explained 
in Spanish, was printed at Manila by the Jesuits. The mam authors were 
Juan de Noceda, 8. J., and Pedro de San Lucar, S. J. A second edition, 
with a Spanish-TagalcH^ appendix, was printed in Valladolid in 1832, which 
is now very rare, nearly all copies having been lost by shipwreck en route 
to the islands. There is a copy in the Library of Congress. Another 
edition, ^ith additions, was pnnted by the Augustinian order at Manila 
in 1860. This work, although many words are obsolete, is the standard 
on Tagalog as yet It is also becoming rare. (R., 48, 136, and 268. ) 

The next work containing a notice of Tagalog is in English. In Johann 
Reinhold Forster's "Observations made during a Voyage round the 
World'* (London, 1778; German translation by his son, Georg Forster, 
Berlin, 1783) a list of 47 English words is given, with their equivalents in 
Tagalog, Pampango, Malay, and several Polynesian dialects. From some 
rare words the Tagalog would appear to have been taken from Noceda 
and San Lucar. Forster was born in Germany in 1729, a descendant of 
the Forester family of Scotland, and accompanied Captain Cook in his 
second voyage to tHe South Sea (1772-1775). After his return he became 
professor at Halle, Grermany, where he died in 1798. His book is espe- 
cially valuable concerning the Polynesian races and islands. 

A few years later the German naturalist Peter Simon Pallas (born 1741, 
died 1811), who had become professor of natural history in the Imperial 
Academy of Sciences at St. Petersbui^ in 1768, published there in 1787- 
1789 the work known as the " Vocabularium Catharinse," from its patron- 
ess, Catharine II. Written in Russian, it gives the corresponding word 
for nearly 200 terms in 200 languages. In this list Pampango is No. 186 
and TagaW No. 187. The source is not given, but that for the Tagalog is 
evidently the same as that of Forster. The Latin equivalent for the Rus- 
sian words is given in the preface. The full title of the work is " Linguarum 
totius Orbis Vocabularia comparativa.'' It is in two quarto volumes. 


At the same time the Spanish author Lorenzo Her\'a8 y Panduro (bom 
1736, died 1809), of the Society of Jesus, published two works bearing 
upon Tagalog to a slight extent, out of im]>ortance as inspiring? other work 
upon the same line. The first was his "Aritm^tica," published in Cesena, 
Itoly, in 1785, and the second, his ** Vocabolario Poliglotto," publisheii at 
the same place in 1787, l)oth in Italian. In the latter he gives specimens 
of the language of 1593, of 1604, and his own time. The S{)anish edition, 
printed at Madrid in two volumes in 1801, has his observations upon 
Taffalog in the second volume. 

In 1803 Prof. Franz Carl Alter, librarian of the Imperial and Royal 
University of Vienna, published a work of 60 i)ages ui)on the Tacalog, 
with the title **Ueber die tagalische Sprache." This work seems T)a«ed 
upon a manuscript vocabulary from the library of Count Wrbna at Vienna, 
supplemented by wonls from Pallas and the Workw of the Abb^ Hervas. 
The latter seems to have corresponded with Alter, who H|)eaks of Hervas 
in the preface to his book, and also of Miss Knight, of England, probably 
a sister of Thomas Payne Knight, the numismatist, as l)eing intereste^l in 
his researches. 

A work which is yet of value to the student is that of Johann Christoph 
Adelung (bom in Germany in 1731, died in Dresden, Saxony, 1806), 
entitled "Mithridates, oder Allgemeine Sprachenkimde." In the first 
volume, which appeared at Berlin in 1806, on pages 127 and 128, two ver- 
sions of the Lonl s Prayer are given — one of 1593 and the other of current 
form — with an explanation of the granmiatic^l forms as deduced from the 
words. The author, who gives specimens from over 500 languages, is best 
rememl)ered for his great work in Geraian philology, and at the time of 
his death was principal librarian of the Elector of Saxony, at Dresden 

Adriano Balln (born in Venice in 1782, dieil there 1848) published an 
"Atlas Ethnographique du (llobe" at Paris in 1826. (See Table No. 364 
an<l pp. 246 to 249, for remarks upon Tagalog. ) 

The catalogue of William Marsden, the eminent orientalist (born in 
England in 1754, die<l there 1836), published at London in 1827, contains 
mention of some manuscript "Artes'* of Tagalog not known to have V)een 
printetl. One is an "Arte" bv a Dominican friar, dated 1736, and the 
other a ** Vocrabulario'* by the Dominican Miguel Kuiz, dated 1580. This, 
however, must be an error, as the Dominicans did not arrive in the Phil- 
ippines until 1587. Miguel Ruiz was one of their early friars, but little 
seems to have been recorded about him. In Marsden's Miscellaneous 
Works (London, 1834), page 94, are also some observations upon Tagalog. 

To the genius of the German author Wilhelm von Humboldt the world 
is indel)tecl for his magnificent work upon the Malayo- Polynesian languages, 
which was published by the Royal Acadeniv of Sciences at Berlin, in three 
volumes, in 1838, under the title "Ueber die Kawi-Sprache auf der Insel 
Java." His dissertation upon the Tagalog verbal system and formations 
in Volume II, pages 347 to 396, clearly establishes the fact that the Tagalog 
and allie<l tongues of the Philippines have preserved the verbal modifying 
particles to a greater extent than any other members of this great linguistic 
mmily,and on page 288 of the same volume he goes so far a« to say that at 
first view the student of Tagalog seems to have come into a wholly new 
system. This noted philolc^st, who was born in 1767 and died in 1835, 
has evidently taken the grea&r part of his material upon the Tagalog from 
the s€»cond (1796) edition of Totan^, and hence lacked the advantage of 
having been upon the ground. 

The Aupustinian friar Manuel Buzeta, better known as the author of the 
"Geographical Dictionary*' or Gazetteer of the Philippines (in cooj)eration 
with Bravo), pul>lished a Tagalog grammar at Madrid in 1850. (R., 199.) 
The author, whose name is spelled *'Buceta" in the (.'at. Rel. Agustinos, 
came to the Philippines in 1827, where he was in charge of the church at 
Guiguinto in 1832 and of Malate in 1848. He returned to Spain in 1849, 
and resided at Madrid until 1854, in which year he left the order and 
returned to secular life. 


The work of Sinibaldo <le Mas upon the iplands, published at Madrid in 
two volumes in 1843, contains a short comparative vocabulary of Tagalog, 
Visayan, Ilocano, Ibana^ (Cagayan), and Malay. (K., 180.) 

In 1854 the **Tagalog-8pani8h Dictionary" of Rosalio Serrano, a Tagalog 
of Bulacan Province, was printed at Manila, and f*ecoud and third editions 
have appeared, the third being printed in liinondo (Manila) in 18()9. A 
8panish-Tagalog dictionary by the same author was printed in Manila in 
1872. (R., 227,376,426.) 

In 1855 Carlos Cuarteron, a priest who had also l>een a pilot in the 
Southern Islands, published a work at Rome entitled " Sp^gazione e tra- 
duzione," at the end of which there is a vocabulary of Italian, Malay, 
Tagalog, and Joloano. ( R. , 229. ) 

fn 1872 the grammar of Joaquin de Coria ((lil y Montes de Santo 
Domingo) was published at Madrid, where the author had accepted tlie 
position of professor of Tagalog in the Central University. The work 
shows the careful study of the author, who came to the islands in 1831 
and resided in the Taj^alog regiim until his return to Spain in 1866. On 
account of his accepting the chair of Tagalog against the wish of the prel- 
ate of his order, he wa»> dropped from its rolls; but, unfortunately, the plan 
of Minister Moret did not succeed, and the position to which he was 
electe<l never became active. The author was b )rn in 1815 and entered 
the Franciscan Order in 1830. (R., 411; also Cat. Hiog. Rel. Fran., p. 656. ) 

The same year, 1872, appeared the popular Spanish-Tagalog "Lessons 
upon the Grammar" of Bishop Jose Hevia Camponianes, bishop of Niieva 
Segovia (Vigan). A second edition ap|)eared in 1877, the third in 1S83, 
the fourth in 1888, and the sixth in 1901. All the editions were printed 
at Manila and are alike, no corrections or additions having been made. 
(R., 1133.) 

Here should be mentioned the interesting work of V. M. de Abel la, the 
"Vade-mecum Filipino," a manual of Spanish-Tajralog dialogues. It con- 
tains a vo(!abularv of ^lanila local words and phrases. The first edition 
was published in*1868 (T. II. Pardo de Tavera, Bib. Fil., No. 9), and other 
editions were published in 1869 and 1871, and the ninth had l)een readied 
in 1873. (R., 2524.) All editions were printed in Manila. 

The most practiciil of all Tagalog-Spanish grammars ap])eared in ^lanila 
in 1878, the work of the Recoleto friar Toribio Minguella. Interlinear 
translations, simplicity of arrangement, and clearness of explanation make 
this little book of great value, an<l many of its sugu:estions and ideas have 
been very useful in the preparation of this present work. 

In 1880 Prof. II. Kern, a Javan-born Mnllander, made a valuable con- 
tribution to philology by his list of words in Tagalog which are derived 
from the Sanskrit. This article, which appeared in the "Bijdragen tot 
deTaal-, Land- en Volkenkunde van Nedcrland-lndif" at The Hague, volg. 
(series) 4, deel (volume) 4, pages 5.'15 to 564, shows the large numl)er of 
such words and their importance in expressing some most necessary ideas 
of civilization. This field was further explored by T. II. I*ardo de Tavera, 
who published a pamphlet of 55 pagts at Paris in 1SS7, in which the San- 
skrit words which have passed into Painpango are also not(?d. (R., 1066. ) 
Kern remarks in his article that the scarcity of Sanskrit words in the dia- 
lects of northern Celebes indicates tliat the Tagalcg received this element 
directly from Cambodia and Sumatra, and not })y way of Celebes. This is 
an interesting suggestion, which might lead to something if studied ufmn. 
Dr. F. R. Blake, teacher of Tagalog and Visayan at Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity, Baltimore, Md., also read an article on ''Sanskrit loan-words in 
Tagalog" at the April, 190.S, meeting of the American Oriental Society, at 
Baltimore, Md. Doctor Blake has al.<o written articles upon "Analogies 
between Semitic and Tagalog" and the "Differences between Tagalog and 

In 1882 appeared the second edition of a Spanish-Tairal«»g and Pampango 
vocabulary oy E. Fernandez, i)rinte<l at Manila. This was followed in 


1883 by his Tagaloff-Spanish vocabulary, both of which are very usefal 
books. (P. T., 1061, and R., 756. ) 

The valuable "rapport" of Dr. Joseph Montano, Paris, 1886, to the 
French minister of puolie instruction, contains several Philippine vocabu- 
laries, some of them of little known languages, and also quite an analysis 
of the Tagalog. (R. , 885. ) 

Under the pseudonym of Julius Miles, an unknown author published a 
small Tagalog-Spanish grammar and phrase book at Barcelona, Spain, in 
1887. (R., 1054J 

In 1889 Friar Toribio Minguella, Recoleto, published a work in Madrid 
upon the unity of the human race as proved oy philology. In this w^ork 
he makes some comparisons between Semitic and Tagalog. 

The same year Dr. Pardo de Tavera published his pamphlet upon the 
origin of the names of the Tagalog numerals, at Manila. W. G. Seiple, of 
Johns Hopkins University, also published an article upon the Tagalog 
numerals m the Johns Hopkins University Circular, No. 163, June, 19(^, 
Baltimore, Md. 

In 1889 also appeared the "Spanish-Tagalog Dictionary " of Pedro Serrano 
Laktaw, son of Kosalio Serrano, and in 1903 director of the Spanish paper, 
£1 Pueblo, of Manila. It is understood that the author is now working 
upon a Tagalog- English dictionary. (R., 1260. j 

In 18^0 a most valuable little work was published in Manila, under the 
title *'Colecci6n de Refranes, Frases y Modismos Ta^alos,'' translated and 
explained in Spanish by the Franciscan Friars Gregono Martfn and Mariano 
Martfnez Cuaarado, and edited by the Friar Miguel Lucio y Bustamente. 
The first came to the Philippines in 1874, the second in 1875, and the 
editor in 1860. All administered parishes mainly in i^ Laguna Province, 
Friar Martfnez also serving for many years at Binaiigonan de Lampon, on 
the Pacific. This collection comprises 879 proverbs, phrases, and idiomatic 
expressions as used in the vicinity of Tanay and Pililla, where the authors 
resided, and embraces but a part of the wealth of the language in this 
regard. Many of these expressions, marked '*T. P." (Tagalog proverbs) 
have been ouoted in the explanation of the language. (R., 1318. ) 

In 1893 Dr. Ferd. Blumentritt, of Leitmeritz, Bohemia, published a 
translation of a sketch of Tagalog orthography by Doctor Rizal, at The 
Hs^e, under the title **Die Transcription des Tagalog," von Dr. Jos^ Rizal. 

The advent of the United States forces at Manila and the occupation of 
the Tagalog region led to several small uamphlets being issued with the 
English, Spanish, and Tagalog in parallel columns. One of these was 
written by Capt. John Bordman, jr.. Twenty-sixth U. S. Volunteer 

In 1902 Constantino Lendoyro, a Spanish gentleman of more than 
twenty years' residence in the Philippines, published his work, entitled 
**The Tagalog Language," at Manila. It is a very good book, but is full 
of typographical errors, and in many places the English is not idiomatic. 
The author deserves much credit for his labor, and a corrected edition 
would be of great value. At any rate, he is entitled to commendation for 
having written, in a foreign language, a work upon the Tagalog which 
shows his thorough knowledge of the Philippine tongue. 

In 1902 R. Brandstetter issued a work upon the Tagalog and Malagasy 
languages at Lucerne, which is of interest as showing the resemblance 
between these two languages spoken at such distant points. 

In 1903 the "English-Tagalcjg Pocket Dictionary," of P. D. Neilson, was 
published at Manila, and, while merely giving the Tagalog equivalent for 
the English word, is of considerable value. The Tagalog- English part has 
also been published. 

Mention should also be made of ** Crawfurd's Grammar of the Malay Lan- 
guage," which has also a dictionary attached, London, 1852. Many valu- 
able comparisons are made between Tagalog and other Malayan languages. 

For a grammatical discussion of authority upon the Malayan languages 


the student is referred to the •*Grundris8 der Sprachwissenschaft," of F. 
Miiller, II. Band, II. Abtheilung, pages 87-1 eO (Vienna, 1887). 


The Tagalog is the most important of the many tongues and dialects of 
the Philippines, which seem to number well over threescore, ^ on account 
of its bemg the most widely understood, the most euphonious, and the 
most developed by contact with foreign idioms. It thus occupies a similar 
position to tnat held by Malay farther to the south, and to English in the 
world at \&Tf^. Spoken hy over a million and a half of the most energetic 
race in the islands, occupying the city of Manila, eight provinces surround- 
ing the metropolis, and a number of outlying islands and districts beyond 
these limits, it is also genendly understood by many far beyond its own 
territory, especially in seaport towns throughout the archipelago. 

The language seems to be divided into a northern and a southern dia- 
lect, the former being spoken in Bulacan, Bataan, Nueva Ecija, Rizal, and 
Tarlac, and the latter occupying La Laguna, Batangas, Cavite, Tayabas, 
Marinduque, the coast of Mmdoro, and part of Ambos Camarines. Each 
of these dialects is more or less split up, each town almost havins: local 
mannerisms by which the people of one neighborhood easily dintinffuish 
a stranger. Yet the region above described is clearly the territory of one 
and the same language, which is different and distmguishable from the 
Pampangan language on the north and the Bicol on the south by the test 
of intelligibility. 

Philologically, Tagalog belong to the Malayan branch of the great 
Malay o-Polynesian lingmstic family, which extends from Hawaii to Mada- 
rascar and from Formosa to Easter Island west of Chile, including New 
Zealand, Tonga, and Samoa, as well as Borneo, Celebes, Java, Sumatra, 
the Malay Peninsula, and the Philippines, from east to west, a distance of 
180°, or half the circumference of the earth. 

Considering the rudimentary state of culture existing up to compara- 
tively recent times of the majority of the peoples speakmg the languages 
of this family, its unity is remarkable, and a thorough knowledge of one 
tongue is found to be of great utility in the acquirement of any other of the 
great group, especially in the same branch. 

Tagalog, together with other civilized tongues of the Philippines, such 
as Visayan, Pampangan, Ilocano and Bicol, has preserved the verbal system 
better than any other, and the basis for the comparative study of the 
family must be taken from the Philippine tongues and not from the more 
cultivated Malay, Kawi, or modem Javanese, all three of which have been 
profoundly affected by Sanskrit and to a lesser degree by Arabic, some- 
thing as English has been affected by Latin and French elements. 

The number of roots or primitive-idea words in Tagalog seems to be 
about 17,000, there being 16,842 words in the Noceda and Sanlucar dic- 
tionary of 1832, according to Crawfurd, the distinguished Malay scholar. 
(** Malay Grammar," p. cxiv.) Of these some 284 are derived from the 
Sanskrit, and are evidently borrowed through the Malay. Many of these 
are names for things unknown to the primitive Malayan peoples, but 
others are abstracts and various words, some of which would seem to have 
supplanted a primitive Malayan word. Thus in many cases American and 
Tagalog use words in their own languages which are from the same remote 
source in India, and coming around the earth east and west meet again 
in the Philippines. Such a word is ood, **foot," from the Sanskrit jj^a^ 
which has descended into English * * foot * * and Spanish * * pie. ' ' The origin 
of these words is marked after each in the handbook. The names of me 
chief workers in this field have been given in the list of books consulted. 

dThc Philippine Bureau of EthDology, however, has Riven out an a re(>nlt of it« re- 
searches, that the number of distinct tonguas is not over 15 or 16, the larger number being 
made up by counting very similar dialects. 

The Japanese language seems to have furnished no words to the Taga- 
log, although many Japanese came to the islands during the seventeenth 
century, owing to the exjmlsion of Japanese converts to Catholicism, who 
found a refuge in Manila and the adjoining j)rovinces, njainly in Pani- 
panga, where it is said many of them settled around Macid)el^. It is 
thought that some Japanese expressions still exist in the Macabebe dialect 
of the Pami)angan language. 

Notwithstanding a comparatively close contact with the Chinese for 
several centuries, and certainly antedating tlje Spanish con(|uest by many 
hundred years, very few words seem to have come into Tagalog from any 
of the numerous dialects of that Empire. The Chinese element in Tagalog 
seems limited to a few commercial terms, some household im])iemcnts, 
and a few miscellaneous terms, some of which are confined in their use to 
Sangley or Chinese-Mestizo families. These words are noted wherever 
they occur in the handbook. Professor liirth, the Chinese scholar, thinks 
that the first notices of the IMiilippines are to be found in the work of 
Chao Ju-kua, collector of custcuns of Cinian-ch<»u. a city in Fo-Kien Prov- 
ince, between 1210 and 1240. in this work he speaks of the islands of 
Po-ni (Borneo), Ma-i (Mindoro? or Panay?), and of the Pi-Sho-y6 of 
Taiwan (Formosa). This latter name sounds something like " Bisaya," 
the native name for Visa\a. The book speaks also of the San-sii, or 
" Three Islands." Book ;S25 of the '* History of the Ming Dynasty (1368- 
1()43) of Cliina," asabstracted by(iroeneveldt, s[)eaksof the Kings (Sultans) 
of Sulu as attacking Puni ( l>orneo) in 18<iS. and of the King of Sulu, I^aduka 
(Javanese " Lord '') I'ahala as dying while on a visit to the Fmperorat Te 
Chou on tlu; (irand Canal (Shantung Province). The Kmi)eror then 
recognized his eldest sou, Tumohan, as Sultan of Sulu, in 1417. The 
brother of l*ahala, who was named Suli, made a visit to China in 1421, 
but a few years after this no more was heard from this Kingikjm. Fnun 
this and other extracts it would seem tliat tlu; Chinese knew of tlie Moham- 
mcilan settlements at Manila and Tondo j»rioi" to the arrival of the S]>an- 
iards, and must have carried on a lucrative trade with them, otherwise the 
pirate Li-Ma-hong would not have made such a desperate attempt to take 
the city s(> soon after its foundation in loTl. 

The Arabic words in Tagalog, which are hardly more than a dozen in 
number, evidently came in with the Mohamme<lan religion, an<l upon the 
extinction of that faith around the mouth of the 1 Vig, all but a few words 
fell into disuse. ^Mohammedanism could have hardly become established 
in tln^ Tagalog region before 14o() to 151)0, as it came very slowly from India 
or Arabia to Java, and thence bv wav of Borne(» and Sulu to the Bay of 
Manila and the Pasig Valley. It had ajtparently not extended to the 
inland jirovinces, its farthest northern jioint api»caring to have been Hago- 
noy. Arabic W(»rds which were adopted by the Spanish an<l thus brought 
into Tagalog are not inchuled in the above remarks. 

Spanish, as a matter of course, has contributed a great nund)er of words 
to Tagalog. many of which have In^en thoroughly naturalized. They are 
mainly religious, governmental, social, legal, and abstract terms, including 
also terms for foreign articles and luxuries. Some names for Mexican 
articles are not Spanish but Nahuatl or Aztec, owing to the intimate con- 
nection between Mexico and the Philippines for more than two centuries, 
and there are even some Arawak words from the tongue of Cuba, Haiti, 
an<l Puerto Kico among thoe. 

English has as yet given but few words to Tagalog. Of these the news- 
pai)ers use four, which seem to have no exact native or Spanish equiva- 
lents, viz: "Self-govermnent," "high life," "sport," and *M)eslH)l," or 
basel)all. The latter has been verbalized and taken into the language 
bodily, while the <»thers are still (piotcd. 

The construction of Tagalog does not seem to have l>een influenced by 
any of the foregoing, but to have retained its Malayan structure. 



The most succinct statement upon the above subject is that given by 
Rev. VV. A. Goodell, of the Methociist mission in the Philippines, as printed 
in 8tuntz*s **The Philippines and the Far East," page 483: 

** II. The pronunciation of Tagalog is very simple, and there are no sounds 
to which the American vocal organs are not accustomed. The letter (sound) 
most difficult to get is *rig,* which has exactly the sound which it has in 
the middle of the word 'ringing,' but which becomes difficult when at the 
beginning of a word, as in the word(s) 'n^uni't,' one of the words (terms) 
translating the conjunction * but,' and which often occurs at the beginning 
of a sentence. 

"But although so simple in word pronunciation, Tagalog is extremely 
difficult in utterance, for one reason because of the great number of long 
words (compounds) it contains, and for another and more important still, 
because of the rhythmic movement of the language, a quality that can not 
be described and a characteristic for which no rules whatever can be given, 
but which is entirely as much a part of the Tagalog language as are its 
words themselves." 

The "rhythmic movement" spoken of by the Rev. Mr. Goodell, who is 
an excellent speaker of Tagalog, is what may ]>e called the "national 
accent," and, like the tones of Chinese and other allied tongues, can only 
be acquired by long practice. 

The vowels are really but three in number, although a, e, i, o, and u, 
with their Sj^anish values, are printed (ah, a, e, o, oo). Of thehe "e" and 
"i" are habitually confused, and "e" can hardly be said to exist in pure 
Tagalog. "O" and "u" are also confUv«ed, the tt'ndency being t<) drop 
*' o " and substitute "u" in manv word.s, a process which hasalready taken 
effect in Pampangan. The diphthongj^ are ao (ow), au (aw), less nasal 
than ao, and ua (wa); but there are no triphthongs, as each vowel in such 
combinations preserves its own somid. 

The native consonants, pronounced (except lig) as in English, are B, C 
(K ), D, G (hard), H, L, M, N, N(i, P, R, S, and T. The sound of F does not 
exist in Tagalog, and is replaced by P. V is also a foreijzn sound merging 
with B to the Tagalog ear. Z is pronounced like 8, and is found only in 
Spanish words. The same is true of X, which is pronounced at the begin- 
ning of a word as H. W is beginning to be used in native papers as a semi- 
vowel in place of initial ua (wa) and in ao (aw). K is also used by many 
in place of hard C and Q. Y is used as a part of the diphthong ay (ai), 
ana also as an initial consonant. 

The pronunciation and construction of the language will be more clearly 
understood by carefully studying the two versions of the Dominical Oration, 
or Lord's Prayer, given below with interlinear pronunciation and trans- 

[From the Vulgate.] 

Tag. Amd namin sungmasalaiigit ka; sambahfn 

Pro. Ah-mdh tidhmeen soovg-mah-i^ah-UULng'eet kah ; sahrH-hah-hehi 
Eng. Father our(of us) art in heaven thou; adored (worshiped) 

Tag. ang ngalan mo; mapasaamin ang kaharian 

Pro. ahng f^6[h-lahn moh; mah-pali-mh-Ah-mevn (ihrig kah-hah-rel-ahn 

Eng. the name of thee; come to us the kingdom 

Tag. mo; Bundin ang loob mo; dito ea lupa para 
Pro. moh; Bodndeen ahng l6h-ohe moh; dee-toh mh lo6-pah pdh-rah 
Eng. of thee; (be) done the will of thee; here upon earth according 

Tag. naDg sa laiigit; bigyan mo kamf ligayon nang 
Pro. nahng tdh lAhng-eet; heeg-t/dhn moh kah-met ngeye-dhn nahrig 
Eng. to (that) in heaven; (be) given of thee we (us) now of the 


Tag. aming kanin sa arao-arao at patawiirin mo 

Pro. dh-mteng kah-neen mh dh-rov-dh-row nht pah-tou-dh-reen moh 
Eng. our food upon every day and (be) pardoned of thee 

Tag. kamf nang aming maiigii litang, para nang 

Pro. kah-mee nahng dh-meetuj mahiTg-dh od-tahng, pdh-rali nnhng 

Eng. we (uh) of the our (sign of plurality) debts, according as 

Tag. pagpatawad nainin sa niaiigagkakautang sa aniin; 

Pro. pahg-pa-tou'-dd ndh-meen mh mahioj-nhg-hih-kah-od-tahngsafi dh-meen; 
p]ng. (are) forgiven of us to those indebted to us; 

Tag. at houag mo kaming ipahinti'ilot sa tuks6, 

Pro. aid hoO'dhg moh kdh-mirug ee-imft-heeu-too-htlit suh took-soh^ 
Eng. and do not of thee (let) us (be) j>erniitted into temptation, 

Tag. at iadya mo kamf sa dilang ma.samd. 

Pro. nht ee-dydh moh kah-mee saJi dtHahng mah-sah-mdh. 

Eng. but (be) delivered of thee we (us) from all evil. 

The version from the translation of the American Bible Society, follow- 
ing the authorized, or King James, version, is as follows: 

Tag. Ama namin nanasalan^rit ka; sambahfn 

Pro. Ah-mdh itdh-metni nah-mdi-sdh-ldhiTij-eet kah; aohm-buh-heln 

Eng. Father our( of us) (art) in heaven thou; hallowed (worshiped) 

Tag. ang paiigalan mo: dumating ang kaharian 

Pro. nhiig pahiTg-dhl-ahn moh: doo-mdh-teeng ohiig kah-hnh-ret-ahn 

Eng. the name of thee: to arrive the kingdom 

Tag. mo. (iawfn ang iyong kalooban, kung paano sa 

Pro. moh. (iout'rn nhng (cydng ktdi-loh-6-hnhn, koong jxth-dh-no }<ah 

Eng. of thee. (Be) done the thy will if as in 

Tag. liin^git, ay gayon din naman sa lui>a. Ibigity mo 

Pro. hihi?f/-t'et, eye. guy-on dfot nnh-mdhn soh lod-p<ih. Eehig-hje woh 
Eng. heaven, l)e thus truly also in earth. (J^e) given of thee 

Tag. sa am in ligayon ang aming kanin sa arao-arao. 

Pro. s<di dh-meen wjrip'-oJm aJnig dft-meaig kdh-tieai suh dfi-rotr-dJi-rotv. 

Eng. to us now (this day) the our food on everyday. 

Tag. At ipatawad mo sa amin ang aming maiiga 

Pro. Aht ee-p<(h-ton'-dhd moh sah dh-meen (dmg dh-meeng utahiTg-dh 
Eng. And (be) pardoned of thee to us the our (sign of plur. ) 

Tag. I'ltang, gaya naman namin na nagpatauad sa 

Pro. od-tttftng, gngnh mtli-mdJot ndh-meen mdi nahg-imh-toir-dhd soh 
Eng. debt(s), as also by us now (are) forgiven (to) 

Tag. maiiga may I'ltang sa amin. At houag 

Pro. m(ihiT'/-dh mg ot't-t<tfing sah dfi-meen. Aht hoo-dhg 

Eng. (s. nf plur.) those-having debts against us. And do not 

Tag. mo kaming <lalhiri sa tukso, kungdi 

JVo. imdi k(i}t-mehig (hihl-hern s«ih took-i<dh, koong-dee 

Eng. of thee (let) us (l>e) brought into temptation, but 

Tag. iligtas mo kamf sa masama: Sapagka't 

Pro. ce-lig-tdss inoh kah-mee salt mdJi-mh-mdh: Sah-pdhg-kahH 

Eng. (be) delivered ))y thee us from evil: For (because) 

Tag. iyo ang kaharian at ang kapangyarihan at 

Pro. eegdii nhng knh-h(direr-ahn aht nhng kah-paJmg-yahre&hahn aht 
Eng. thine the kingdom and the power and 


Tag. ang kaloualhatian, magpakailan man. 

Pro. ahng kah-lofHihl-hah-teS-ahnf mcuig-pahcdh-eeUilm malm. 
Eng. the glory, ever (for ever) also 

Tag. SiyA nana. 
Pro. Seeyah ndw-ah. 
Eng. Amen. 

The same prayer may be taken to show the changes in the language 
since it wa^n first reduced to Roman letters by the missi(marie8. 

From the Doctrina Cristiana of 1593, reprinted bv Hervas in "Saggio 
Prattico," p. 12t). Also found in Adelung's '' Mithridates," Vol. I, p. 609. 

"vlmd namin iiusalafigH riij ipammixt mo ting iigula mo; moui (return) na 
amin (tug fMigiahan rtup, ipasonor (be obeyed) mo nng loob mo, dito sa hipa 
paran sa IdugH. liig-ian mo caml ligaion miug mm in cacanin jtara uang sa 
i'lrao; at pncaaalin mo ang amin rnsalnmni (sins), yagong (as) ninanalan 
fmhala (equally) namin sa l6oh ang rasa man (evils) nang macasasit (of exist- 
ence) sa amin; honag mo earning {anan nang (Ji cayni) matalo nang tocs6; 
datapouaU (but) yadia (be delivered) mo rami sa dilan masannl.^^ 

It may \ye said that this last version sliows a comparative want of familiar- 
ity with the language, except as niight be spoken by servants, etc., and it 
has doubtless suffered by reprinting, the proof having to be read by those 
ignorant of the language, and hence unable to detect errors except by copy. 

An example of the folklore stories is given in the "Tale of the Unlucky 
Rat" from the examples of Malayan languages, jmblished atBatavia, Java, 
in 1868, by J. (I. F. Riedel, the Dutch philologist. It is as follows: 

Tag. Ngay6n din isang dag:\ nagwika sa kaniyil 

Pro. Ngeye.'6n deen eesdhng dahgd itahgwetka salt kahncei^d 

Eng. Now indeed (one time) a (one) rat said to himself 

Tag. din, nasakit 
Pro. deenj nahsahkett 
Eng. (self), (being) pained 


Tag. matird dito, sa 

Pro. mahteha dettoh^ stdi 

Eng. (to) remain here, in town my; 1 willgo(an<l) ascend 

Tag. sa ano sa bundok, titiiigin nang ibang bayan, 

Pro. sah andh sah lioondokey ttetehTijeen nahng rehahng huyanj 

Eng. somewhere into (the) mountains, looking for another town, 

Tag. edan ako makakitA nang kaibigan ko, nang pagkain 
Pro. sdhahn ahkomahkakeeta nahug kah-cfheigan koh, nafmg pahgkdheen 
Eng. where I can see some of fri(*nd(s) my, sonic food 

Tag. masarap sa dagil, at nang ])akabuhay na maV)uti.'* 
Pro. mahsahrdhp sah dahgdhj aht naJntg pahl^ahhoohiglt mdi mahhootee.^^ 
Eng. agreeable for rat(s), and some living (of) good." 

Tag. Pumart)on ang daga, lunnikad arao-arao, hangang 

Pro. Poomahrdhon ahng dahgdh, loomdliknhfl dlnunt-dhrtnr^ hdhngahng 
Eng. Went there the rat, traveling daily, until 

Tag. dumdting sa bay bay, nakita isang tiiklo])o 

Pro. domndhteeng sah huyhnif, mihkctta cisdhng taltk/ohhoh 

Eng. arriving at (the) l)each, (it) saw a (one) giant clam 

Tag. nakaii^riga nang kaunti. Nagwika ang daga: ''.Ano 

Pro. nahkangdhnga nahng kounftr. Nahgnrrka ahng dahgdh: "Aitoh 

Eng. opening-the-mouth (of) a little. Said the rat: "What 

Tag. it6? Totoong walA pa akong nakikita na 

Pro. eetdhf Tohidh-ohng nahldk pah ahkohng nahhrkerta nah 

Eng. this? Truly not yet 1 am seeing (have seen) now 

6855—06 2 

ang atav niv:1: 
ahng ah tic neeydh: 
the liver his: 

'' .Ay do 
'' Eqeyoiv 
"Not wish 

na akcj'y 
nah ahkdy 
now 1 

bayan ko; ako'y 
// u y-a n koh ; / / // k6y 




Taj;, ganiyan." Ngayon pumd^ok ang ilaga sa bfbig nang 
Pro. gahnehfahn. iTi/uifdhn poomdhsoke alnuj dahgdh mh betbceq nohtg 
Eng. tlie like. Then entered the rat into mouth of the 

Tag. tftklolK), tinignan ang laman nit6, liguni't nasfpit 
Pro. tahklohboj teeneegnahn nhng kihmdhn neetdh, iTgodnee^t nahseepii 
Eng. giant clam, looking at the meat of thin, but was caught 

Tag. siyd hangang nasiril ang kaniyang ulu, at 

Pro. seegdh hdhn-gang uahHeha ahng kalineeydhng ooloOy old 

Eng. he until was destroyed the his head, and 

Tag. napiitol ang kaniyang liig. 
Pro. nuhpodiole ahng kahneegdhtg lereeg. 
Eng. was cut off the his nock. 


Once upon a time there was a rat who said to himself, because his liver 
was out of order: "I do not wish to remain here in this town of mine; I 
will go and ascend the mountains, looking for another town, where I can 
see some of my friends, some agreeable food for rats, and some good liv- 
ing." The rat went out, traveling daily, until arriving at the .seashore it 
saw a giant clam (Tridacna), with sligiitly o|>ened mouth. Quoth the 
rat: ** VVhat is this? Truly, 1 have not seen anything like this yet." Then 
the rat went into the mouth of the giant clam [taklofto) to look at the 
meat, but was caught (by it) until his head was cracked, and it was cut 
off at the neck. 


From the foregoing examples it will be seen that there are tliree accents 
used in Tasralog, the acute ('), the grave (\), and the circumflex ( ^). 

The acute accent may fall ujion any syllable, but in Tagalog is generally 
to be found upon the last (ultinja) or the next to the last syllable (j)enul- 
tima). The acute accent upon a word ending in a vowel indicates that 
tlie final vowel hiis an open, broad sound, an<l that the sutlixed particles 
"a»" and "<>/" i»refix an "/<" when joined to such words. Example: 
M(ig<mdd, "elegant;" higinidnltan^ "elegance;" bd\, "trade, barter;" 
nng hi/hui, "what bought." Words ending in a consonant take "a>/" or 
" /w" only, even it bearing the acute accent, which is only written in such 
words when occurring upon the j)enultima or antepenultima. Example: 
Cmutang, "to borrow;" inagntang^ "to lend;" magpaiUfnig, " to lend freely 
(or with goo<l will);" kaidatTgan, "debt;" jtanfang, "credit." In many 
cases the sultixing of "A^///" or *'hin^' draws the accent one syllable 
farther towanl tlie end of the word. This also a})i)lies to "<//«" or "iV?." 
Example: Pntdn, "idea of killing or death;" kfunatdgiin, "death" (ab- 
stract noun); nng bunntmidti, "the place of death." The acute accent is 
not written with words ending in a vowel, unless the accent is upon the 
tinal vowel. It may be taken as a rule that words unmarked with an 
accent, if ending with a consonant, tiike the accent ui>on the ultima, 
words ending with // and i< being exce}»te<l. Words ending with an unac- 
cented vowel or "//" or "x" generally taketheaccent upon the penultima. 
This is also the rule in Spanish. 

The grave accent in Tagalog merely marks those words ending in a 
vowel, which take "<o/" or "'z^" instead of "Ar/x" or "/<//i." Thestress 
is not laid U|M)n the syllable marked with tlie grave accent, but upon the 
one preceding. Kxaniple: Bntn, "child" (in <reneral), pronounced 
"bahta," the linal vowel having an obscure sound: knlmtnnn^ "childish- 
ness" (pro. k<th-h'if(-taJi-nn). The grave accent is not used with words 
ending in a consonant. 

The circumflex accent i« only used upon the linal vowel of those words 
ending with an abru|)t, obscure vowel sound, upon which the stress of the 
voice is placed. It a<lmits only " <o< " or " /// " as a sutfix. Example: 
Ihiuud'dd, "to suffer, to endure;" kddjdihnn), "suffering, endurance;" 


tumurS, ** to signal;" katuroan^ "signaling;" ang tinuroany " person or sta- 
tion signaled to." 

Practice is the essential requirement to become familiar with the accent, 
which is most important in Tagalog, as many words are only distinguished 
by the accent, although differing totally m meaning. Example: Aady 
**'8moke;" d$o, **dog; gdtaSy '*milk;" gaids^ "path, trail;" mmUang^ 
**to rise" (as the sun); sumilang (ultima), "to pass between;" humasa, 
"to read;" bumcUlhy "to moisten." 

As has been already mentioned there are some 17,000 "roota" in the 
Tagalog language, many of which are nouns, pronouns, adverbs, and prep- 
ositions, etc., in themselves. Verbs are generally formed l)y the use of 
certain particles, of which there are some 17, of which all except one 
(urn) have a definite and indefinite form. Together with the noun and 
adjective forming particles, of which there are several, the possible num- 
ber of intelligible Tagalog words can not be far from 50,000 to 60,000, quite 
sufficient to express any nontechnical ideas of any language whatsoever. 
Yet with all this there are some curious facte about the language and its 
vocabulary. Many general terms can not be expressed in one word, but the 
modifications of a general act have many words to express them, some- 
times far more than exist in English or Spanish. A similar parallel is 
offered by the lack of a verb in early English to express the idea of motion 
in general, although Anglo-Saxon had many words for different kinds of 
motion, which are used daily by all English-speaking people. Upon this 
point Brian H. Hodgson, the noted oriental scholar, says, in his work 
upon the aborigines of India, published at Calcutta in 1847, page iii: 
*t» ♦ ♦ Home-bred words are all very particular, and proportionably 
numerous; while general terms, if more conveniently few, are less charac- 
teristic and very apt to be of exotic (foreign) origin; take the English gen- 
eral term *to move;* it is Latin and one; but of the numerous sorfi of 
8pe<*ial motion (to hop, to skip, to jump, to tumble down, to get up, to 
walk, to fly, to creep, to run, to gallop, to trot), all are 'genuine Saxon, by 
the soul of Hengist.'" This idea will be more fully explaine<l under 
"The verb." In addition to such particularizing words, there are also 
many synonyms or words meaning the same thing in Tagalog, many of 
which are local or provincial and are not heard in the same locality. For 
this reason Crawfurd's remarks upon Tagalog and Visayan, as expressed 
in his "Malay Grammar," London, 1852, page cxix, are still pertinent. 
He says: 

"The languages of the Philippine Islands may l)e descril^ed, not as copi- 
ous, but wordy. In the state of society in which the natives of the Philip- 
pines were formed, ideas are considered more in concrete than in abstract, 
and by an importance being attached to trivial matters a profusion springs 
up which, in a more advanced state of society, are considered unworthy 
of retention, or which, if retained, would only he productive of perplexity 
and distraction. * * * In Tajplog there are 12 names for the cocoa- 
nut, including its different varieties and conditions as to maturity and 
preparation for use. * * * In the same language there are 11 words to 
exprefls the verb *to boil' (with variations), and 75 (reallv about 50) for 
theverb *togo.'" 

It may be aiided that the verb " to carry" with its variations has some 
eighty words to express all combinations in Tagalog, and there are many 
other verbs which nave been particularized in this manner, which will be 
more fully set forth in the appropriate place. 

The main object of this work is to facilitate the acquinilion of an ele- 
mentary knowledge of the Tagalog language. It should be borne in mind 
that Tagalog is not constructed on English or Spanish lines, either in gram- 
mar or syntax. The universal tendency upon using a new language is to 
translate one's own language word for word, or phrase for phrase, into the 
foreign one. The native may understand, but the result is not elegant. 
No language can be learned entirely from books, and to supplement the 
special needs of each person constant practice in speaking witn educated or 



intelligent Tagalog:8 is nece^san*. Even with a considerable vocabulary, 
the American will find difficulty in conveying ju^t what he wants to say 
in Tagalog, unless he masters the idioms and peculiarities of the language. 
This will not be a very easy task, but, once mastered, the key is held to 
all the Philippine languages, and it might )>e said to all the Malayan lan- 
guages of the East Indies. 

To those who have had to depend ujwn ignorant or untrustworthy inter- 
preters, a knowledge of the local tongue will In* felt to l>e indispensable, 
and this knowledge will also be a protection to the ]x^ople ignorant of 
Spanish or P^nglish who in many cases have l:)een so unmercifully fleeced 
by unscrupulous interpreters. 

This work has been divided into sections, and the use of technical terms 
has been avoidtni to as great an extent as iH>ssible. Where cases, etc., have 
been used, it has not been because such exist in the Tagalog lan^age, but 
as an aid t*) the memorv of those who are more or less familiar with 
Latin, French, Spanish, German, and other European tongues. 

The essential neculiarities of Tagalog are its **r<x)t8," which mav be 
made into nouns oy the use of the article, into adjectives by other prefixed 
particles, into adverlw in other cases, and finally into verbs by the use of 
a large number of particles; and the great use of the definite, whi<'h is 
grammatically a *' passive," and is so treate<l by all grammarians who 
have been consulted, although many times this " passive*' must be trans- 
late<l into English by an ''active** verb. For this reason the tenns 
*' definite" and "indefinite" have been used in the present work. This 
point is more fully explained under the verb. 

Examples have been given wherever jx>ssible, and the vocabulary given 
has largelv been founde<l on actual exj>erience. It is impossible to invent 
a series of phrases which will serve lor any two people. The questions 
may l>e given according to the book, but the annwer, coining from a speaker 
of the language, will lie constructed out of that vastly more extensive 
vocabulary existing in his brain, and the whole scheme be thrown out of 
joint. For this reason a careful study of the examples of the language and 
the manner of building up the sentenc^es will in the end prove of more 
solid benefit than the memorizing of a large numljer of set phrases, which 
may or may not l)e appropriate. 

Some phrases suitable to certain situations have been inserted, such as 
matters relating to the procuring of something to eat, directions to the 
house boys, distances to places, the weather, and other shnilar matters, 
the careful perusal of which will enal)le more complex sentences to be 
uttereil with success and a mastery of the idiom act|uiretl. 


What do you call that (this) in the Auu muj paiujnhm niydn (nit^) m 

Tagalog language? mhimj Tiujalfujf 

That (This) is calle<J in our lyan [ko) mj iinat&vag «i 

language. aminfj irib). 


How are vou? 

Well; and you, sir? 

Not as well as you seem to be. 

G(X)d morning, sir. 

Good morning, sir, to you. 

Good morning, everyone. 

Good afternoon (evening), sir (iLsed 

from noon to dark). 
Goo<l evening (night) (used either 

on mcH'ting or retiring after dark ) . 

Konmsta ( Cowo fsta) p6 kai/6f 

Mahiifi; at kayo jiOf 

Hindi Inhhajif/ mahitti na para fiinyd. 

Magaiuhmff arao, p6. 

Magandaiuj drao p6 uamdn. 

Bajnan jm fdlang lahat nang magan- 

drmg araa. 
Magaiulaiaj hapon p/j. {p/j used as 

word of resi>ect to l)oth sexes.) 
}f(tg(ntdan(j gain p6. 



How is your father? (mother?) 
Well, by the grace of God. 

Not verv well. 

Is that po? I regret to hear (lit., 

'•feel'') it 
How is the sick one? 

Getting better now. 

Is there anything I can do for you? 

(lit., Have you any orders forme?) 
No, thank vou. 
Sit down, sir. 
Thank you. 
I am in a hurrv. I wish onlv to 

speak to Pedro. 
I will regard it as a great favor if you 

will tell Pedro that I was Kere 

Don't worry about it, sir; I will tell 

Pedro just left this minute. 
Where dirl he go? 
1 think (It seems) he went to buy 

some cloth. 
I am going away now. 
Are you going? 
Until later. 
Until to-morrow. 
Until day after to-morrow. 
Until we meet again (lit., '* Until we 

see each other"). 
Well, I'm going (lit., "you there"). 
Where are you going? 
I am going home. 
When are you going back to Manila? 

On Sunday. 

When are you going (down) to 

When are you going up to La 

Come up! Come down! 
Come in! Get out of here! 
Move on! Clear out! 
Don't move! Come near. 
Move awav, all of you. 
Wait a little way back. 
Come htre! Accompany me. 
Wait a moment. Go back (return) 

Come back here. Go quickly. 

Alto ni)(/ Ingaij naufj nmd (ind) mof 

Mahnfi, na aud Dang Poong (Dion). 
( Bat-haia, used by some, is of San- 
skrit origin, derived from aiatdra^ 
''descent," throujih Malay 6aMrrty 
*'a god." There is no connection 
witii the Arabic word Allah, used 
by the Moros for "God," the lat- 
ter being derived from a/, "the," 
and Ildh, "God," allied to the He- 
brew Eloah; Kl6hh„.) 

Dt po Inhhang iiuugi. 

Paidf Kun ganiydn ay d madam dam 

Maand ang may sakilf or At(6 ang 
lagay nang may sakitf 

(tumlginhdna na. 

Mayroitn kayong anomang ipaguutos 
sa dkinf 

Jlindi ;>o, saldmat. 

Uiii Hpu p6 kayo. 


Ako'y )iagnif(mad(tlt. Ibig ko Idmang 
kausapiii si Pedro. 

Malaking xitang na looh kikilalanit) 
ko sa inyo ktni ma.'taln it hi yd kay 
P('<h'o )\a akd' y naparito iTijaydn. 

Magtra/d pokayo hahalaH sasablh'm ko 
sa hiniyd. 

Si Pt'dro^y kaaalin Idmang. 

Swtn pamaroonf 

Tila namili naug kaniyang babaroiti. 

Yaydo na ako. 

Yaydo kayo na.* 
Ilangang mamayd. 
Hfingang bukaa. 
J fan gang makalaird. 
J fan gang layo magkiUt. 

fhydn ka na. 

Saan ka paroroonf 

A koy jKipaMabdhay. 

Kailan kayo nuai (magbabalik) sa 

Mai/nild f 
Sa Li ft go (Domingo). 
Kailan kayo Inlnd.^ na Maynildf 

Kai/an kayo .<unnba sa fM Lag ana f 

f*unnn\hik ka ! Manaog ka! 

f*nmdyok kayo! LnmaUift ka dito! 

fADndkad! Sdlong. 

flonag kang gagalaof Lumdpit ka. 

f Alt nay o kayo. 

Umnnmg ko nang ka\n\ti mi likurdn. 

PumarHo ka f Sannihan mo akii. 

yfagantay ka sandal i. Muui ka na. 

Hnmalik ka din't. }fagmadait ka. 



Get out of there! Don't mn! Umalis ka diifdn ! Houag tumakbd! 

They do not wish to. NanAyao nla. 

I did not wish to. He wishes to. Ndyao akd. Siyd ibig, 

I don't know. I can not understand Auan ko. Di ak6 naoLaman ang 
what you said. sijiabi ninyd. 


Driver, take me to the Walled City. 

Go by Palacio street (Calle Palacio). 
Straight ahead. Look out! 
Go to the side. Stop! 
To the right. To the left. 
Slowly. Whoa! 

Let ufl fi[o by this road. 

Which IS the shorter of the two? 

This is shorter than that 

Are we far away yet? 

We are near now. 

What is the distance from here to 

the river? 
Three hours riding, seven walking. 

What are you doing there? 

I am getting water, sir. 

Is this good water? Yes, sir. 

What is your occupation? 

Housebuilder, sir. 

Where do ^-ou live? 

My house is here, sir. 

Wnere are you from? 

I live in the country. 

I am from the mountains, sir. 

Where is the town (pueblo)? 

I can not tell you. 

Show me the road leading to the 

I want you to go with us to show us 

the road (trail). 
Don't be afraid and don't try to run 

If vou guide us well, you will be paid 

for your trouble. 

Ask that person there where there is 
a spring or well. 

What are you looking toff 

I am looking for . , 

Go across the river as far as the 

I want a blacksmith (horseshoer). 

J want a saddler (leather worker). 

I need a banca (canoe) with outrig- 

One large enough to hold twenty- 
five people. 

Cochero, ihatid mo akd m loob nang 

Tumuloy ka ml daan nang Palacio. 
Maiuid'(derecho). Tabi! (Quedao/) 
Tumabi ka. Humintd ka (para). 
Sa kanan (mano). Sa kalUiii ($iUa), 
Hinayhinay (despacio). Luayluay. 

(This latter to horse, etc) 
Magtuloy tayo sa daang it6. 
Alin ang latong maikst sa dalawdf 
ltd ang Udong maikst sa ro6n. 
Malayo pa Itn tayof 
Malapit na tayo. 
And ang layo muld dito hangang sa 

Tadong oras kung cabayohinypitd hang 

And ang ginagawd mo diydnf 
Akd' y naigib^ p6. 
Mabuti ba itong tiibigf Opd. 
Alin kayd ang iyong kaiungkulanf 
Anloame^ j>6. 
Saan ia namamayanf 
Ang bdhay ito, pd^ dito, 
Taga saan kaf 
Akd'y mimamahay sn biikid, 
Taga bundok akd^ pd. 
Saan narodn ang bayant 
Hindi ko naalamang sabihin sa inyd. 
Iturd mo sa dkin ang daang pahingo 

sa bay an. 
Ibig kong sumama ka sa amin para 

iturd ang daan (gatds), 
Houag kang matAkot at houag hang 

Kung iturd mong maigi, ay magka- 

kamtam ka nang kaupah&n sa iyong 

Itanong mo dodn sa tduong (mamd.) 

iydn kun saan mayroon iaang bfikal 

d baldn. 
And ang hinahdnap mof 

Humahdnap akd nang . 

Tawirln mo ang Uog at lumdkad ka 

hangang sa sangd-daan, 
Ibig ko nang ieang panday {tagapag- 

lagay nang lAkal sa caoayo). 
Ibig ko nana isang mananctht nang 

baUit {tnlahartno) . 
Kailauijan ko isang bangkd na may 

Isang malaki na makakadald nang 

isang dalawang poud^t limang ka- 




Steer straight for the ship. 

Land there at that point. 

Do not land where it is ver>' muddy. 

Don't make a noise at the landing 

Port! Starboard! Stop! 
Go ahead! Astern! 
See that everything of mine is taken 

down to the l)oat. 
Put everything into the cart. 
Wrap something around that bundle 

so it will not get wet. 
Set that basket down here; I want 

to get something out of it. 
Unfasten this cord. 
From here to Manila, how many 

hours by road (walking)? 

Ituid mo ang sasakydn. 
Isatsat mo dooii sa ddkong iydn. 
Ifmiag kang tfumatsat sa kaputikan. 
Ilouag kang magiiigay sa jxtgmtsat. 

Sfi kaUwd! Sa kaimu! Ilintd ua! 

Sulong na! Vroiuj! 

liigatan mo na lahat ang dking kasan- 

kapan may padald sa sasakydn. 
Jlagay mo lahat sa carretdn. 
Sapindn mo iydng balutan at bakd 

Ilagay mo dito u/dng tampipi; may- 

rooii akd kukunin. 
TaMami mo itong luhid. 
Buhat dIto hangang sa MaynUd, Hang 

oras lakarin nang daanf 


How is the weather? 

The weather is fine. 

The weather is bad. 

We are in the dry season now. 

W^e are having the wet season now. 

The sun is becoming obscured. 

There is much fog. 

Is it going to rain? 

It looks like it. 

It has been raining fearfully all day. 

The rain is coming down now. 
Give him the umbrella. 
It is thundering and lightening. 
A bolt struck that tree. 

The wind is increasing. 

It is possible that this may turn into 

a typhoon ( hurricane ) . 
Come in under the shelter of this 

The moon is rising now. 
The stars are coming out. 
Look and see if it \s raining, liecause 

I must go now. 
Come back here at sunset (lit., At 

setting of the sun, return here). 
It is growing dark. 
It is growing light. 

Maano ang pamihonf 

Mahidi ang panahdn. 

Masantd a)uj panahdn, 

Na Ka tagdrao tayo rTgaymi. 

Na sa iaguldn tayo iTgaydn. 

Nagdid'dim ang drao. (Arao also 

means "day.") 
^f(ty inardm'mg uUip. 
VnUhi bagdf 
Tila pC). 
Katakottdkot navldn sa maghdpong 

Bnmahitgsu na ang iddn. 
Jhigay mo na kaiiiyd ang ])dyong. 
Kutnuknlog at kunnkidlat. 
Isang iudik ay nahulog sa iyang kdhoy 

Lnmafakds ang ha)T(jin. 
Mardhil it 6 ay manui sa bagyd. 

Pnmdsok kayo sa s'dong nitong bdhay. 

Sumis'dnng na ang buan. 
Snynisilang na ang maiTlid bitnrn. 
Tigndn tno knn lununlan, at aall^ na 

PagJnbog nang draOj ay magballk ka 

din I. 
Dumidilini na. 
Lumiliiidnaq na. 


I must say good-by to you now. 
Why must you go? Sit down first. 

I can not sit down, Ijecause I am in 

a hurry. 
And where are you going? 
I am ^oing to see a friend who is 

leaving for Manila to-morrow. 
I will come back later. 

PadUim na jto ako sa inyd. 

Bdkit ka nagpapadbunf Maupd ka 

Hindi akd niahtmipo sa pagka't akd^y 

At saan ka paroroonf 
Makikipagkitd akd sa isa kong kaibigan 

aalh ]fasaj<a Mayni/d bdkas. 
Magfxibalik akd mamayd. 


We will eee each other in the after- Magkikitd tayo sa hapon, 

Good-by. ^-it/io* (Sp. )• 


May God guard you. Dio» muj umingat m inuu. 

May God help you. l>io8 any tumuloug m iiufo. 

God be with you. Dios ung sumama mi inyo. 


Get me something to eat; I am hun- Bigyan mo akd nang haunting makn- 

gry. kitin; nngugutmn akd. 

Get me a drink; I am thirsty. Painumin mo aku; naunhao akd. 

What do you wish to eat? Ano ang ihlg niiiyong kaninf 

Whatever you have. Kun ano mayroon diydn. 

Would you like roant chicken? Ihig ninyo any inihao na sisiuf 

Yes, an(l a little wine. (Jo, ^ kauntiug dlak. 

W^hat else would you like? And jxi ang ihig ninydf 

Give me some eggs, if there are any. liigydn mo akd lumg itlogkun mayroon. 

Note.— See list for things to eat. pp. 28-29 and 39-4U. 

The meal is nice. Masarap ang pagkain. 

Wash (wipe) this plate. Ilugasan (kmtknsin) mo Uong mankok 

(pingdn) itd. 
I have eaten enough. Marami akong kinain. 

Eat some more, sir. Knmain pa kayd pd. 

Just a bit more. Kapiraso pa. 

Only a bite more. Isa na Idmang mhy. 

1 am satiated now. Busog na akd. 

Don*t give me anything more. llouagna pd ninyd akong bigydn nang 

Bring some water to wash the hands. Magdald ka nang tubig paghdgas nang 

kamtty. (Idiomatic ex pr. is: Imng 

taf/ong (cocoanut shell) tdbig.) 

FOR the toilet (sa pagbibihir). 

Shall I get the clean clothes now? Jbig ninyong ikuha ko kayd nangdatnit 

na malinisf 
No, bring me a towel and soap first, Ilouag^ dalhdn mo muna akd nang 

I am going to take a bath. uiaiig jKimdhid at sabdn at akd ay 

Get some water and put it in the Kumuha ka nang tubig at Uagay mo 

bath tub. sa jmlignan. 

The bath is ready, sir. Ang jtaliguan pd ay handd na. 

Benigno, put some water in the Benigno, lagydn mo nang tubig ang 

wash l>asin. , hilamo^an. 

Lay out a shirt, a pair of trousers, Ikuha mo akd nang imng 6ard, i»ang 

and a coat. salawal at v*ang americana. 

Khaki, sir? No, white clothes. Kaki pd.'' Ilonag, damit na mapuii. 

Bring me my shoes. Lkdhin mo sa dkin ang sapin. 

Hand me that cap. Idbui. mo sa dkin iyang gorra iydn. 

Get a handkerchief out of the trunk Maglabds ka nang isang panyo 9a 

(chest). kalKin. 

Open that door. Shut the window. Buksdn mo iyang pintd iydn. Pind&n 

(iS^lrf^dn) mo ang durungauan (bin- 
Take care of the house; I am going Inijatan mo ang bdhay; at akd ay 

for a walk. magUUakadldkad. 



If anyone calls, say that I will be 
back soon. 

What time is it? 

It is five o'clock, sir. 

Wake ine up later, at six; don't for- 
get what I tell you i^lit, *'my or- 


Please get up, sir; it is six now. 
Do you know of a good barber? 

There is one, sir, I know well. 
Then call on him and tell him to 
bring a good razor. 

Do you know how to shave well? 

Yes, sir. All right, shave me. 

Does it hurt you, sir? 

No, it is all right. 

Cut my hair. 

Do vou wish it verv short, sir? 

Xo, leave it a little long. 

How much do I owe vou? 

What you like, sir; what you wish. 

How much a month, shaving me 
every other day? 

Three |>esus, sir. Then come, begin- 
ning with to-morrow. 

There is a man downstairs who 
wishes to work for vou as a serv- 

Tell him to come up. 

Have you any recommendations? 

I have, sir. 

Where are you from? 

From Malolos, sir. 

How old are you? 

Are you married? Yes, sir. 

Have you father and mother yet? 

No, sir. I have not. 

Stay here and I (we) will pay you 
if you care for it five pesos a month, 
and if this does not suit you, look 
for another place. 

You are falling into bad habits. 

Look for a sul^titute right now. 

Don't be impertinent. 

Keep still! or Shut up! 

Where is your employer? 

He is not here, sir. 

Don't you know where he went to? 

No, sir. 

About what time will he l)e back? 

Later, after eight o'clock. 

Tell hira, when he comes, that I have 

been here. 
Are you the tailor? 
This suit does not fit well. 

Kun may sinomatig pumarito, sahthin 

mo}ig )ia ako ij madalhig bahalik. 
j\noinj oras imf 
A las rinco no }m. 
(JixiiTijin )no (tko inamayamj u lai< mux; 

fiuuay monfj kalilimutan aiKf bllhi 

G limiting p6 kayo; d las ,sfis no. 
May nahikilala kang niahuting mang- 

a ngah It ( ba rbero ) f 
May im ]>6akong tiakikilalaiig mabnti. 
Kun gay an ay tanagin lua at sabihin 

luong iitagdald nang mabuting labasa 

Manuiang kang iimaliit na mabulif 
Ojto. Kan gay (hi, nhitin mo ako. 
^axaffaktdn />/5 kayof 
Illndly ganiydn iTija ang mabuti 
(j'upidn nnt ang buhok ko. 
Ibig po ninyong sagad na sagadf 
Ilouag, pabayaan mong mahabd-habd. 
Magkauo (gaano) ang ibabayad ko sa 


Kayo pd ang bahala; ang loobin p6 

Magkanong ibig mo hiunnuiy sa tuing 

ikaburang drao ay aahitan naj akof 
Tatbtng j)iso, pd. Kan gaydn ay 

pmnarito ka midd bdkas. 
M(ty isa)ig tdno sa ibabd na ibig mag- 

paalila xa in yd. 

Sabihin mong jnimanJtik. 

May tnglay ka katanayanf 

Mayroon akd ])d. 

Taga saan kaf 

7aga Malobjs, pd. 

Mayroon ka nang Hang tadnf 

May asdna kaf (/jjd. 

May annVt ind paf 

Hindi })d. Wald pd. 

Tumird ka at nnpaltdn kitd kun ibig 

mo nang Umang piso isa)tg buan, 

at kun hiitdl hnmdnap ka nang ibang 

Masann'i ang pimtgkavatihan mo. 
Ilunn'tnap ka nang kahali/i jno dgaydn 

Ilouag kang tnagpayamot. 
Jlonag kang maiiTtjay! 
Na.'<aan ang panginotm mof 
Wald pi) I'ito. 

LH mo naabunan knn saaii naparoonf 
Hindi p6. 

Anong ora^ si yd btdudikf 
Manntyang niakd d las ocho. 
Sid/iliin mo knn dumdting na akiV y 

najKtrito dito. 
Ikdo ba ang matuinaht f 
Itong damd ua itd ay hindt maigi ang 




That is too <lear. 

I must have it this week. 

ToUtong uapakamahal iydn. 
KaUangan ko sa loob nang lingong 


Are you teaching English? 

What did you teach this morning? 

I taught arithmetic. 

When did they write any English? 

They have written some within a few 

I wisti to rent a house. 

I shall be here some time — several 

months at least. 
I wish to rent f n)m month to month. 
I will jMiy you in advance. 
A long time. A short time. 

I will go there. 

What do these men want? 

They winh to s()eak to you. 

What do you (thou) want? 

What is your name? 

Is tliat work tinisheii yet that I tol<i 

you to do? 
Not yet, nir. Then, when? 
To-morn)w, sir. 
How much is this (all)? 
How much for eggs? 
Then* is no answer. 
Wait, I am going to write a letter to 

your employer. 
I am un<ler great obligations to you. 

l>on*t mention it (lit., It is nothing). 

You are mintaken. 

It in the truth. 

It is a lie. 

This woman, sir, is asking that her 

huHlvand 1h' rt^leased. 
Tell her to state lier reason for ask- 

Who, among you, know this woman? 

Tell me what you <li<l to Petiro. 

Tell n\e the truth, for if you do not I 
shall wnd you to the guardhouse 

Why tlid you leave the l)arnu'ks 

without jH»rmissi»>n? 
Tell TiMlro that he is wanti^l bv the 

What you did was far frvmi the dutv 

(onlers) of a sohlier. 

Vngma&ral (nagtuturb) kay6 bagA 

nang ingUs {Ang wikang nang 

maiTgd americano) 
And k'nyaug inidral (Uinurd) ninyd 

9ti ayrif 
Ang inidral (Uinurd) ho'y arilmetica. 
Kaildn sungmulat aild'y nang ingle*, 
Sungmulat sild^y nang kamakailang 

Ibig ko iMing bdhay paupahdn. 

Ako^y matitird dint mardhil mangd 

Hang buan. 
Ppig ko umujid buang-buan. 
Maiigxiuna ang ftatfod. 
Mahabung panah&n. Maiksing pana- 

Paroroon akd do6n. 
Ano ang ibig nitong mangd iduof 
Ibig nil A makipagusap 9a inyd. 
Ano ang ibig mof 
And ang panl^an mof 
Yari na bagii ang gawang ipinagbiKn 

ko sa iydf 
Hindi pa, p6. At kaildnf 
Bukas }i6. 
Magkano itdf 
Magkakano ang itlog f 
Walang mgod, 
Maghintay ka, nudlat akd nang uang 

nUai Ha iyong paiiginoon. 
Akd p6 at/ malaki ang pagpapasaldmai 

sa inyo. 
Waht fni anoman. 
Kayd ]fd malt, 
ltd ang katotoohanan. 
Itd'tf kabitlaan. 
Itnng fpaftaye itd p6 ay namamanhik 

nofMuctilan ang kaniyang agdua. 
JpoMiw^ay mo m kaniyd ang katuirtm 

na hinihin^t niyd. 
Sino Ihi m myd ang nakakikilala m 

hiifniue itdf 
MagiKiymy ka »a dkin nang mangd 

giwmti mo kay Pedro. 
Sahihin mo ang katoioohanan, at kun 

hinds, ipapadald kUd 9a bilangoan. 

And't ikao iumabd9 9a cwtrtd nang 

iralang 9abi. 
Sahihin mo kay Pedro -o 9iyd'y ioK- 

laill/iin nang capiidn, 
lyaug ginaud mo ijfdn ay laban M 

maiJgd uios nang %9ttng wundah. 



You should always inspect the men's 

The rifles (carbines) must be cleaned 

I especially warn you not to be off 

guard (or relax vigilance) for a 

The obligation of a soldier on duty 

is to know the orders. 
Those who disobey orders will re- 
ceive severe punishment. 
Tell the people here that what we 

are going to do is for the benefit 

of ail. 

Dadalaoin ninyd tui'tuing ang manad 
kinalalagydn nang mangd sundcuo. 

Ddpat linmn dra(hdrao ang mangd 

P'nifighilAling ko sa iy6 mahigpU na 
houag ka malibang isang mandcdU 

Naudkol sa gundalo taga-pagtdnod 

usmiin ang mangd utoa. 
Ang lumaban sa utos ko ay kakamldn 

nanp viahigpit na parusa. 
Sabilun mo sa taga dito na ang dting 

gayawln ay kagalingan nang lahcU. 

Section One. 


Thomas. ToTnds. 
Mary. Maria. 
John. Juan, 
Joseph. Joai. 

Father. Amd. 

Mother. Ind. 

Brother. Kapatid na lalaki,<^ 

Sister. Kapatid na habaye,^ 


In Tagalog a definite article, Si, is generally prefixed to the names of 
persons related to or well known to the speaker or writer, as well as with 
names of relationship and terms of affection. It may also be used with the 
proper name of an animal belonging to the speaker. In some of the prov- 
inces diminutives are much useti, especially within the family. There are 
also some terms of this nature largely used in Sangley, or Chmese-Tagalog 
families, which are taken from Chinese and will be discussed later. 

Older brother (first bom). 

Elder brother. 
Elder sister. 
My father. 
My mother. 

Koya; si koya, my elder brother. The pro- 
noun is understood. 
Manung (Manila and southern dialect). 
Kakd; si kakd, my elder sister. 
<Vi amd. 
Si ind. 

This article is declined as follows: 


Si Juan. 

Ni Juan; kay Juan. 

'du Juan. 

Nom. John. 

Gen. John's; of John. 

Dat. To, for John. 

Ace. John. 

Abl. From, with, John 

When a name is to be used in the plural, the article of common nouns, 
ang, is used, as: The Johns, ang mangd Juan; or better, ang mangd Una- 
tduHig na Juan (those who are called John). 

The article of names has a special plural when coupled with certain 
words, as of the parents, relatives, companions, or the home. 

Nom. John and his . 

Gen. The field of John and his family. 

Dat. To, for, Pedro and his . 

Ace. The field of Pedro and his family. 
Abl. From, by, Pedro and his . 

Sind Juan. 

Ang bukid nind Juan. 

Ang kand Pedrong bukid. 

a These two words are derived from " patid" and " ka," meaning " tied with the same 
cord." " Lalald " is male and " babaye '^ is Jiemale. In Tagalog. however, separate worda 
are used to express "elder brother," " elder sister," " younger brother or sister," etc. 


Si is not used alone l)efore naim*8 of persons unrelate<l to the sneaker 
except in a jokinpwav; in other cases the ^Spanish word «sV/lor, Sir., in 
inserted as: »SV Seflor hhnco, Mr. Blanco, ^'////m/ is the Taj^lop e(|uiva- 
lent for *'8enor'* and Gat for **Don." Diujnntj is "Dofia." These terms 
are useti by purists. 


The article ang (the) is used with all couinioii nouns, and also those 
proper nouns not applyingto i>ers«)n8 — i. e., the Pasiyr, muj Pd^ig; the I*hili]»- 

Fines, (tntj FHipinna. Sometimes this article is [>rerixed to names of cities, 
t is deciinetl both in the singular and plural, the word maiTfjd (sign of 
plurality) being added in the latter case. 


Nom. sing. The. -1/*^^. 

Gen. sing. Of the. AVnif/; w. 

Dat. sing. To, for, the. Sa. 

A(T. sing. The. -V""//; sa. 

Ahl. sing. From, by, the. AVt/«//; sa. 

Nom. plur. The. Ang mawja. 

Gen. plur. Of the. Xang matTija; sti mniVjd. 

Dat. plur. To, for, the. tki mawjd. 

Ace. plur. The. Naug manga; nn mmTija. 

Abl. plur. From, with, the. Sa mam/d; nang maiTfjt'i. 

The forms ni and nind of the article of names and the form nang of the 
article of common nouns are useil when a word in the gt^iitive follows a 
nominative in the sentence. Examples: The mother of John, angina ni 
Juan; the house of Thomas and his family, ang hdhay nind Tonldit; the 
darkness of the night, ang kaililimdn nang gnh-l. 

The forms kay^ hand, and m are used with the genitive when inserted 
between the nominative article and its noun. Examples: The mother of 
John, ang kay Juan ind; the house of Thomas and his family, ang hand 
Tomds Mhay; the darkness of the night, ang sa gab-i na kaddimdn. Ancient 
Greek has almost this same construction. 


Nouns in the Tagalog language are of various classes; some are root 
words, whose <lerivationcan not be traced; others are built up from nx»t4«, 
and many are fon^gn words, mainly from Spanish, although some Arabic 
and Sanskrit wonis are to be found, as well as a few fnun Chinese and 
other sour(H*s. They are indeclinable, and the sign « »f plurality is generally 
indicated by the word manga placed l>efore the noun pluralized. 


Banana (in general). Sdging. 

Be<l. Pa f tag. 

Bedquilt. Kihnot. 

Beer. Serbesa (from Sp., cerreza). 

Blanket. Afanta (Sp.). 

Bread. Tindpay ( from tdmnf, idea of knead- 

ing, i. e., kneadetl). 

Bread f mi t tree. Anti/iolo; tipolo. Anti{X)lo is also a 

town in Rizal Province. 

Butter- lard piantira (Sp., mantem). 

' ' ySfantitjuiUa (Sp., mantetfuiUa). 

Caral)af> (buffalo). KdUifjao; damulag; anuang. First is 


Cat, domestic. # Pusa. J/«w«7is Malay for the palm- 

cat ( i'aradoxurus). ' 





Chicken; fowl. 



Coc'oaiiut oil. 



Com (maize). 




Drinking vessel. 

Fish, dried salt. 

Fish, fresh. 

Flour (in general). 




Gra{>e fruit. 

Hog; swine, domestic. 




I^imp; light. 

Man (person). 



Meat (pulp). 


Native spoon. 





Rice (cooked). 

Rice (hulled). 

Rice (unhulled). 





Sucking pig. 


Sweet j)otato; vam. 


Table knife. 





Wine; liquor. 


Quiso (8p., queno), 


BatiX, Also applied to house boy, 

servant (niuchacho). 
Sicidate (Mex. Sp., cliocohtit: from 

Nio(j. Also applied to cocoa palm. 

(V/;>t'(Sp., c<//<7 from Arabic, y'//i </;«). 
Tirdhtiaon (Sp., tirahuzon). 
Mais (Sp., inaiz). 
B'lra ( Sp., raca). 
Tarn (Sp.). 

Aso; nffdin (rare), Bicol word. 
Luniho: inumnn (from inum, idea of 






Pandnro (Sp., tenetJor). 




('ahaijo (Sj>., cfih(tllo). 


Ildiuhi (from ilaOy light). 



Hfiuifj (Sp., peinte,), 




Snha : /ukhari. 

L(tnf ; ^Huaintd. ( Possibly from Sp., 

pi lu if Ufa.) 



Pt'ihuf. Also applied to the grain. 


Tiipa (from ^i).,topnr, "to butt"). 

Sithon ( Sp. , jnhou ) . 

Cnrlinrn ( Sp. ). 

Biik{ Man ilii ) ; Kuini ( Laguna ) : Ihildo 

( Marinduipie). 
Asurnl (Sp., tizt'irar). Oh\ name 

tnho, now " snirar-caiu'." 
Oimute (Sp. ). Kargc yam, nhi. 

Kampit {^p.^rnrhillo). 
S*t (t'hincse, cha). 
V((s<> (Sp. ). 


Abtk (from Arabic, artiq). 


The definite and indefinite idea runs throughout the Tagalog language* 
and the words '* to have," *' not to have," ** there is," ''there is not," et<,'., 
bring this out plainly. 


Have (all persons; indef. ). 

Have (def. ). 

Have you (some, any)? 

Have vou (that, this)? 


Indeed; trulv. 





Perhai)s; some; any. 

There is not. 



Yes, sir. 

You (thou). 

Akin re<iuires the article and 


Maqroon (lit., "there is;" from dOo^rij 

iMuijroonf ^M(iyr6ou kit baga? ^Mayf 

/AV( Ha iff of (lit., Is with you?) 

Ako (form with nominative; indef. ). 


SdlapL Also means half peso. 

Akin; ko (latter postfixed to def- 


^Atio; tmo hngaf 

Ko (form with nominative; indef.). 
prefixed or else is preceded by a 


Ex.: 1. Have you any rice? {/)fayroon kong bir/o.'*/) Have you that rice? 
(/A« ^a ii/o iyang bigosf) 2. Yes, sir, 1 have some ( 0/>(!5, mdyrOon ako). 
Yes, sir, I have it ( 0/>(5, na ko dkin). 

Mayroon is used when askine: in a general way, as in the market or in a 
shoj) or store; na .^<i is used when a certain object is meant. Maghnio means 
"how much;" aydo is "I do not wish to," and aim is "which." With 
the foregoing vocabulary all ordinarv comforts and supplies, exce[)t cloth- 
ing, can be asked tor throughout the provinces where Tagalog is under- 
stood, and these words are generally understood throughout the island of 
Luzon on account of their general similarity to the correspon<ling words 
in other dialects. The most conspicuous exception is tnbiy (water), which 
is daniun in Pampango, Ilocano, and other northern dialects of Luzon. 




Custom; habit. 
l)ay; sun. 
Dress; clothes. 
Kvery day; daily 
(ianla (8 liters).' 

<ilass; crvstal. 

La r^'c jar. 


Amfricann (Sp. ); Taga America. 

Uhten (Sp., bott/bf),' 

\ Pnntgo. 


A rao. 



Snb>{> { Kuj^dish e(piivalent, 3 quarts 
i:^ j.ints— :;.1701 ). 


(fiotn (sai«l to Ive from dialectical 
Cliinese, kin, "^m)1<1," and tuhj 
"of," i. e.. "-olden;" Malay, 
o/inis; luitive gold, balitok). 

Ttntt I'd ( Sj». ). 


Snbiiiiin (Malay, rhdrniiii). 






Son or daughter (child). 


Pare (Sp., vadre). 

Singling (Malay, chinchin). 

Pt/aA*( Malay, perakj also place name ) . 


Esjxiflol (Sjp. ); Toga CaMila (from 

CaMiUa^ Castile). 
Bay an. 




Well (noun). 

Sex is distinguished by the addition of the words lalahij * * male, ' ' or babdye^ 
"female," with the appropriate *• tie*' (g, ng, or na). Ex. : My sister (Ang 
aking kapatid na babdye — lit., The my female brother); my son (ang aking 
anak na lalaki). 

A few words indicate sex in themselves, but they are very limited in 
number compared with those in Aryan languages. 




Girl, unmarried woman. 

Male; man. 

Female; woman. 

Miss; young lady. 



Young man; bachelor; youth. 
Young man, unmarried. 

Am a. 

Bal/t 'g f ^^^^ ^^^^ ^^ a<ljective8. 

Binibin i. 


Momii. Principally heard in Ma- 
B'nuUa (from batd^ boy, child). (lit., "new man"). 


The Tagalog ear dislikes the sequence of certain sounds, and for this 
reason three ties, **<;," ' «^," and **/m," are much used, more especially 
when an adjective is prefixed to a noun or a noun in the genitive modifies 
another in the nominative. 

The tie **^" is added to such an adjective or nominative if ending in 
**n,'* the genitive following the nominative modified. The adjective may 
precede the noun, as in I^nglish, or follow it, as is generally the case in 
Spanish. The tie is added to the noun in the latter ca^ie, if it ends 
in**n." Ex.: (1) Wisdom {karunuiujmi) \ great {dakUa); great wisdom 
(karunuiTgangdakild). (2) Silver (/)[/«/:); nnrror {so lam in); silver mirror 
liolaminp pUak ) . 

The tie **na** is adde<l to words ending in a vowel not prece<ied by 
another vowel, f/, as in Muo, is considered a.s a consonant, a.«< it sounds 
nearly like the English *'w," and is written with this letter by many natives. 
Ex.: A dutiful child (Batang vialjaU); a bottle of wine ( isdng boteng dlnk)\ 
a beautiful woman {babdyeng magaudd) , a Manila man (isang tduong 

The tie " na " is used when the first word ends in any con.'^onant (except 
**n") or in a diphthong. Ex.: A dutiful child {Mafxut nn batd), a large 
house (bdhay na malaki); clear water [tuhig na maUnao, or malmao na 


There is no special indefinite article (a or an) in Tagaloe, although the 
numeral tsd (one) may be used. 


THE VERB "to BE.'* 

The English verb **to be" may be eometimes represented in Tagalog by 
the particle «?/» changing to 'y for euphony after a preceding vowel. S)x.: 
Is your horse whitef UAng cahayo mo'y maputif) The bird is singing 
(Ang ibon «// hungmuhuni). Generally in Questions the verb *'to be*' is 
understood, as: ^Avd ang sabi mof (What did you sav? — lit., What the said 
your?). The verb is understood also when a predicate adjective is used; 
as, My father is good (Mahuti ang Aking ama ) . A // also connects two clauses 
of equal force; as, If John comes, go away (Kan damdting ffi Juan^ ay 
timalis ka). 


The particle ay is invariable as to tense, the idea of past or future being 
expressed by the answer or an adverb of time. Ex. : Beautiful then, she is 
is ugly now' {Magamid siyd iiodn, iTgaydn ay pdiTgii), You will be sick 
to-morrow {Biikasikdo ay mamkit). 

Some Tagalog writers use ai in place of ay, especially in newspaper work. 


Atj changing to '<, under the same circumstances in which ay changes 
to '?/, represents the conjunction '*an<l." It may also stand for "because" 
in compound sentences when a cause is expressed; as, I can not read, 
l)ecause I have no spectacles {Ilindt ak6 makahahasa tta pagka H waM akong 

When ay and at are followe<l by a monosyllable, as 8a, the vowel is not 

Section Two. 

The principal interrogative pronouns and a<lverl)s are as follows: 

W^hat? ^'An6f AVhen? ^KnUdvf 

Wlio? /Sinof How? ^Papa-anof 

Which? ^Aliuf How much (value)? ^Magkano.^ 

W^here? iSadn? How many? ilUmf 

Andy "what," is decline<l as follows: 


Xom. What? ^And? No change. 

Gen. Of what? ^Sa and/ ^Xnng andf No change. 

Dat. To, for what? iSa and? No change. 

Ace. AVhat? ^Sa andf /'Xnng and? No change. 

Abl. (Loc. ) In, at what? iSaandf No change. 

Abl. (Ins.) By, with what? ^Nang and? No change. 

This pronoun is used only in speaking of things, never of persons. The 
expression iAnd kaf means "What do you want?" 
iSinofj "who," is declined as follows: 


Nom. Who? jSinof /Shio-sinof 

Gen. Whose, of whom. ^Kaninof /Nhio?f^ ^Kanikaninof * 

Other cases. ^Sa kaninof ^Sa kamkaninof 

a Used only when the question is not heard or uiiderst«.)od. 

bNot kaiimo-knnino, as the first form Is a trisyllable, and in Tagalop repetitions stop at 
at the second syllable (or letter, as the case may be). Kaninontj maiTgn and «a kanimmg 
are also used. 


Example: ^Kaninong hiikid iydnf (\Vliot<e field is that?); Sa rapitan 
(Of the mayor or presidente) ; iSinof (Who.»?e?); Sa cnpiian »a hatjan (Of 
the mayor of the town) . 

From early times the title of the mayor of a town or "pueblo" was 
•*gobernadorcillo*' (little governor). This name was changed in 1893 to 
**capitiin municipal," and in 1898 to *' presidente," a name retained under 
American administration. Natives ignorant of Spanish generally speak of 
the *'c«pitan." 

While and is used for things and aino for persons, the pronoun alin, 
** which," is used for both. It is declined: 








Of which? 

/S(i olinf iNang almf 

^Sa alin-alinf 


To, for what? 

ilSa alinf 

^Sa alin-alinf 



iSd nUnf iNayig almf 

^'Sa alin-alinf 


In, at which? 

iSa alinf 

^Sa alin-alinf 


By, with, etc.. 


/Nang alinf 

^Nang alin-alinf 

Sti with the genitive is preferable in answering a question. f'AUng matu/af 
may also be use<l for the plural. The form ^Mangd alinf is rather inele- 
gant. Thus the Knglish "Which men?" maybe expressed by ''^Alin- 
aling tduof^' "/.l/m maiTgd tduof^^ or '^ ^ Manga aling tduof** 


These adverbs present no peculiarities and are used as in English. 
fllanf ( How many?) obviates the use of the pluralizing particle manijd\ as, 
jllang tduof (How many men?) In inquiring the price of an article in the 
market the restrictive form magkakano is generally used; as, '';Maqka- 
kano ang matigd itlogf" (How much for eggs?) But in speaking of purclias- 
ing the entire quantity magkano is right. 


These are four in Tagalog, two being translated by "this," another l)y 
"that," and the fourth by the poetic form "yon." 

The first is yan, and means "this." Strictly speaking, it should be used 
only to indicate an object nearer to the sj>eaker than to the i>erson 
addressed, but practically this pronoun is dropping out of use. For exam- 
ple, Yaring dking piUo (This heart of mine), while more exact, is little 
heard, the following word ito (this) being used: itong dking puso. Yeri is 
a dialectical form. 

YaH is declined as follows: 


Nom. This. Yari. These. Yaring mangd. 

Gen. Of this. Niri; dinisa. Of these. Siring ntamjd. 

Dat. To, for this. iHni m. T(^, for these. Ditti sa inatu/d. 

Ace. This. Niri; dinii<a. These. Xiring niaiHjd.eU'. 

Loc. At, in this. Ihni f^a. At, in these. Diiii aa mawjd. 

Ins. By, with this. Niri. By, with these. Siring maiTgd. 

The ordinary word meaning "this" is ito, and strictly denotes objects or 
persons equidistant from both speaker and the person spoken to. It is 
declined aa follows: 


Nom. This. ltd. These. ftong nutwjd. 

Gen. Of this. Nitd; ditd sa. Of these. yUong mawjd, etc, 

Dat, To, for this. LHto sa. To, for these. Dito sa manga. 

6855—06 3 



Arc. This. Dito m. 

Jjoc. At, in this. Dito m. 

Ine. By, with this. yUo. 

Thest*. Dito sn mangd. 

At, in these. Dito m maiTijA. 
By, with thejse. Nitong marTgA. 

**That** is expressed in Tagalog by the wonl iyim, esi>eoiaIly when 
applied to persons or (ibjects nearer to the i)eri»<)n npoken to than to the 
speaker. It is dei^lined as follows: 



Norn. That. 
Gen. Of that. 
Dat. To, for that. 
Ace. That. 
Loc. At, in that. 

Ins. By, with that. XiyAu. 


jfijfdn; diynn m. 
Diydn wi. 
Xiydn; diydnm. 
Niyan sa. 


Of tliose. 

To, for those. 


At, in thoH?. 

By, with those. 

lyong matTgd. 
Xiyaiig matijjd, etc. 
IHmn »it mntTgd, 
Xiyang maiTipi, etc. 
Xiydn m ynatTj/d. 
Xii/ttng maiTga. 

The fourth demonstnitive pronoun, ytu'm, means **yon," although at 
present generally translated "that." Yoon is a dialectical form. It is 



Nom. Yon (that). Yndn. 

Gen. Of yon. Xiifadii; dinm mi, 

Dat. To, for yon. I)(ton «?. 

Ace. Yon. Xiynon; ddon m. 

Ijoc. At, in yon. Doonsn. 

Ins. By, witn yon. Xiyaon. 

Yon (thomO 
Of yon. 
To, for von. 



At, in yon. 

Yanng, vintuja. 

Xiyaong mniTgd^ etc. 

D/ton Kfi jiKnTgd. 

Xiifao ttg in a tTgn . 

D6on sa inaiTqa. 
»• _ -J f 

By, with yon. Xhjnoug inmTgd. 

The particle «i follows the pronoun in eAch (^ase as jrivcn, ]»ut it, a«< well 
as the pluralizin^ ]>article mmfTgdy belonjr^ to the person or object iK)inte<l 
out, and not to the pronoun. 

These four demonstratives have a peculiar idiomatic use in that they are 
repeatCKl in the nominative after the iHjrsoii or object modiHe<l as well as 
preceding the same, in the latter case ajrreeing in number and cast*. 
Examples: This man {Itong tawmg it6), both nominative singular. That 
boy's clothes {Aiig damit niyang hntavg iynn); first, genitive singular; 
8i»cond, nominative singular. That man (has) nuich mon(»y {Maraming 
mlnjfl viyavg ( viynong) tduoug yntm ) ; ht. , '* much money of that man that." 
(<.ienerally with nominative.) Itomj fmOikial: na i1(Vy diydn m batmig iydn 
(This flower is for that child). In the second clause, the first pronoun is 
in dative and second in nominative. 


From the four demonstrative pronouns the following adverbs of pla(*e 
are derived : 

Here (close to the sjx'aker). Dinl. 

Here. Dito. 

There (near add ressee ) . Diyd u . 

Y^onder (there). Ddon. 

With the particle iia prefixed to this class of adverbs, the idea of '*am," 
**i8," **are is expressed. It will be note<l that the initial letter d is soft- 
ened to r where the jmrticle na is used alone. 

Am, is or are here (close). Xarini; nayrri; iittndini. 

Am, is or are here (more distant). Xarito; unito; nandito. 
Am, is or are there. Nariydn; naiydn; ncmdiydn. 

Am, is or are yonder. Naroi'm; nayadu; nandodn. 

The particle dt with the same class of adverbs ex]>re88es the past tense. 
For euphony the particle changes to do with dodu. 


Was or were here (close). Dirini. 

Wa« or were here (more distant). Dirito. 

Was or were there. />/ iff an. 

Wari or were yonder. Dorotm. 

The particle />« with the same adverbp expresses the future. 

Will be here (close). Pnrini. 

Will be here (more distant). Panto. 

Will be there. Pariyan. 

Will be vonder. Pardon. 

Ex. Is the man there? {Nariffdn hafja ang tduof) He is not here, he is 
yonder ( Widd r»7o, nordon). Where is Captain Tino (Faustino)? dSaAn 
iiardon [or naandodn'} Si Capitdn Tinof) In Manila {Xasn .Uaynild). 
When will he couie back? {^Kalian bahalikf) Possibly within a week 
( Mnnihil sa muty lingo). Who is his agent? {^'Sino ang kaniyang katiwala?) 
The Chinaman Ong i^icoon Callc Real (Ang insik Ong Laico sa Calle Real). 
Thank you {Suldmat). 


The jx^rsonal pronouns in Tajralog should receive careful study, as they 
exhibit several peculiarities of form and use not found in English. 

All personal pronouns have.two genitives, the first form being prefixed 
to the accompanying noun or verb, and the second form sufHxed. The 
two forms are not used in the same clause, the second form l)eing preferred 
with the definite form of the verb. However, if the sentence commences 
with an adverb or negative particle, or is a (juestion, the suffixed forms are 
placed Ijefore the verb. 

The first j)erson plural, like nearly all Malayan and Melancsian lan- 
guages, has two forms, the first corresponding to "we" in a general sense, 
and including those Hj)oken to, while the second form, like the editorial 
** we," ex<;lu<les the person or person^ addressed. There are also two 
dual forms, which may be translated "thou and I." These dual forms 
have the same meaning, the first form, ///<(, being more general and used 
in Manila, Riziil, I^iiguna, Hatangas, and Tayabas, wlnle the second form, 
katd, is found in Bulacan, Nueva E<'ija, and the Tagal(»g-s[)eaking parts of 
Pampanga ami Tarlac. Bataan ])robably follows Bulacan in style, while 
in Cavite the usage is like that of Manila, etc. 

In the use of the personal pronouns together, a very different order is 
ol)6erved from lOnglish. The fagalog order is "I (we), thou (you), and 
he, she (they)," ignoring the European custom of mentioning the listener 
first, the absent or third person next, and the si)eaker last. The Tagalog 
says **1 and you, "I and John," and with the further peculiarity that 
he literally pfuralizes the first pronoun and gives the pronoun or noun 
following its genitive form in the lorrect nund)er. The examples will 
explain the matter more clearly. 

The use of the word "it" is avoide<l by speakers of Tagalog. It is only 
used when objects are personified, as in stories, etc. See example. 

FIRST l'KR**nN HlN(ilLAK. 

Nom. I. Akn. 

Gen. Of me; my. /I /ri?* (prefix) ; A<* (suffix). 

Othercases. To, for, with, by me. *SV/ akin. 


Nom. We (and you). Tayo. 

Gen. Of us; our (and your). Adn (prefix); mttin (suffix). 

Othercases. To, for, etc., us (and Sa at in. 




Nom. We (not you). 

Gen. Of us; our. 

Other cases. To, for, etc., us. 


Amln (prefix); namin (suffix). 

Sa amin. 


Southern form. Northern form. 

Nom . We ( thou and I ) . KUd, Katd. 

Gen. Of us (we two ) ; our. Kariiid ( p. ) ; ^i (s. ) . Atd ( p. ) ; to (s. ). 

Other cases. To, for, etc., us ( we two). Sa kanita. Sa aid. 


Nom. Thou (you). 

Gen. Of thee, thy (your). 

Other cases. To, for, etc., thee. 

Ikdo (prefix); ka (suffix). 
Iy6 (prefix); mo (suffix). 
Sa iy6. 

The singular forms are still used in Tagalog, and when respect is intended, 
instead ofusing the plural, as in English, or the third person singular, as 
in Spanish, the particle p6 is suffixed. The plural, also with pd, is used 
in >lanila in many cases, but may be said to be an imitation of the Spanish 
vosotros (ye). 


Nom. You. 

Gen. Of you; your. 

Other cases. To, for, etc. , you. 


Inyo (prefix); ninyd (suffix). 

Sa inyd. 


Nom. He, she. Si yd. 

Gen. Of him; of her; his; her. Kaniyd (prefix); niyd (suffix). 

Other cases. To, for, etc., him, her. Sa kaniyd. 


Nom. They. 

Gen. Of them; their. 

Other cases. Them (to, for, etc.). 


Kan ild (prefix ) ; nild ( suffi x ) . 

Sa kanild. 


These are the same as the genitives of the personal pronouns and are 
generally preceded by the article ang. The following examples will show 
the variations: 

My child. 

Thy child. 

His (or her) child. 

Our (of we two) child. 

Our children ^ all of us). 

Our child (excluding person spoken 


Your child. 
Their child. 

{Ang dking anak. 
\Ang anak ko. 

{Ang iyong anak. 
Ang anak mo. 
Ang kaniyang anak. 
[A tig anak niyd. 

Ang kaniianganak. Ang atang anak. 
lAjig anak ta. Ang anak ta. 

[Ang ating mangd anak. 
Ang mangd anak natin. 
\Ang aming anak. 
Ang anak namin. 
Ang inyong anak. 
[Ang anak ninyd. 
\A ng kaniiang anak. 
^Ang anak nild. 



The genitive forms of the personal pronouns used without a following? 
noun are expressed with the article prefixed to the tirst genitive: 

Mine. Aug akin. 

Thine (yours). Amj iy6. 

His; hers. Avg kanh/d. 

Ours. Aug otin {'\nc\.)] ang ambi (exc\). 

Yours. Aug inyo. 

Theirs. Ang kanilA. 

The oblique cases with sa and the article also express this idea in Taga- 
log; as, Mine, Ang sa dhin. 

Examples of two pronouns, or a pronoun with a noun: 

He and I (lit. *'we of him"). Kami nh/d. 

He and his father (they and his ^ild nnyuj kaniyang amd. 

John and I (we of John). Kami ni Juan, 

You and they (you of them). Kayd nild. 

You and we (we of you). Kami ninyd. 

In Manila and large towns these forms are dying out of use, the Spanish 
style being used; as, John and 1 {Si Juan at ako). 

To avoid the use of »iyd^ "it," to indicate an inanimate object, the word ^ 
itself is repeated, or in answering a question a particle like iTlja (certainlv) 
is used. Ex.: ^Malmti bagd ang lakatdn [a species of banana]? (Is the 
lakatan goo<l?) Mabuti nga (Certainly [it is] good). 

The third person i;>lural is used to indicate great respect for a person, 
coupled with pd^ ana for still greater resju'ct the word kamahalan (ex- 
cellency) is used. Your excellency {Any inyong kamahalan), 


This name is applied to several adverbs, and also to some words which 
by themselves have no signification, which, added to pronouns, give them 
an intensive or indefinite meaning. The following are the ones most gen- 
erally used. None begin a sentence except kayd. 

Self; selves. Din. (A'm after preceding vowel.) 

Perhaps. Bagd. (Generally with in<lcf. verb.) 

Perhaps; for that. Kayd, (May begin sentence. ) 

Also. Man. 

Also. Man din, (Southern Tagalog only.) 

Now. Sa. (No meaning alone. ) 

Certainly. ^gu- 

Certainly. I^gani. (Southern Tagalog; Hicol, 

gnani, ) 

Yet. Pa. 

Actually! Is that so! Paid, i Idea of wonder inherent. ) 

At; in; to; for, etc. Sft. ((Jrtatly used word.) 

Own. Sarin. 

Enough now; plenty. Si yd ua. 

Ex.: Ak6 rin; akd man (I myself). .SV//rt 7JT/a( he, certainly). Ikdo man 
(you also). Ang sarili kong cabayo (my own horse). 06 fuj't (yes, cer- 
tainly), i/mrfrnj^a (no, indeed). 

The particle man attached to an interrogative pronoun convert.'^ the lat- 
ter into an indefinite pronoun. Ex.: Anoman (anything; somethin^r). 
Alinman (whichever; whatever). Sinoman (whoever). Sinomong (duo 
(anyone whomsoever). 

These particles follow the monosyllaV)ic pronouns, but precede the pro- 
nouns of more than one syllable, unless the latter begin the sentence, in 
which caae the particle follows, as with a monosyllabic pronoun. 



Besides anomanf cJinmaiiy and nnomariy there are several words which 
may l>e used at times as indefinite pronouns, and at other times with 
adverbial force. One of these is hdlang^ which can l)e used for **some, any, 
and each." Ex.: IWang drao (some day). Ang balang tduo (any man). 
Sa Mlang iM (for each one). 

The numeral iad (one), prefixed to wortis like Arao (day), and fduo 
(man) gives the idea of '*one dav; a certain man,'' etc. It is also used 
with demonstrative pronouns as follows: Jtong im (this one); diydn m isd 
(to that other); doon m isd (to that other yonder). Ind may be said to 
mean "other" among a few persons or objects, and the wonl IfHt to desig- 
nate "other" among many. Ihang tduo (another man completely) ; ihang 
6d^n^ (another thing entirely). 

Tanan, dilan, and jtaua mean everyone, "all" (i)er8onH). "All" (the 
adjective) is lahat. 


These pronouns, which in English are ex nresse«l by "which," "that," 
** who," etc. , are expressed very obsc'urely in Tagalog by means of the article 
angj and the ties g, ng, and va. The Tagalog al^«) has a negative relative 
pronoun dt^ translated by "who not," "which not," "that not." Ex.: 

He who is wein)ehave<l is t»steemed by all. Atig mabuting dual ny minnma' 

hid nang lahaf. 

The book which you are reading in mine. Ang lihroitg hhiahasa mo*g dkiu. 

I did not receive the letter that you sent Di h) tinmigap ang sulat na ipi- 

to me. vadald mo m dkiu. 

The man who does not disolwy the laws Ang tduong dl mmamUuimng 

will be protected in his rights. ifnigtatangol nnng katniran. 

The phrase "each other" is expressed by tlie j)article nagka or inagka^ 
together with the appropriate noun or pronoun. Ex.: Do they under- 
stand each other? ^Ntfgkaka^iam gild (from alam)f. 

The princi|>al difficultv the student of Tagalog will ex])erience here will 
be in tne use of the exclusive and inclusive forms of the first i>ersoii plu- 
ral. The dual forms are little use<l in the nominative, but are (juite fn»- 
quentlj heani in the oblique and accuj^ative ca-^H*.**. .Vs has l)een reinarke<l. 
tnese exclusive an<i inclusive forms are to be fomxl in nearly all the 
Malayan languages, while in some of the allied Mdaiiesian tongues, such 
as that of Fiji, the second and third ]>i'n4oiiH havi; not only a dual, but a 
triple form, in addition to the ordinary plural. The Fijian first jx^rson has 
also the dual and triple forms, each of which are divide<l into an inclusive 
and exclusive form. 

Section Three. 

Ah has l>een previously explained, Tagalog nx)t words may l)e use<l as 
nouns, verl)s, adjectives, and adverbs in many cases, either by'the context 
or particles affixe<l or suffixed. Naturally the noun is giMierally the sim- 
plest form, esiK?cially the concrete noun, but secondarv or derivative 
nouns may Ik» (|uite complicated in their construction. The noun is inva- 
riable in form, number l)eing expresse<l by the word maiujd, or such wonls 
as "all," ** many," eU;., for the plural. are expressed by the article 
or prepositions, and no gender is known. A great many common nouns 
in Tagalog are <lerived from the Spanish, a few from Chinese, and some 
from Arabic and Sanskrit sources. All Tagalog nouns may l>e used with 
the article. 

The words for meals an<l some articles of foo<l, cooking utensils, etc., 
vegetables, and fruits not previously mentioneil are: 


Middny meal. 
A(t«mboii lunch. 

Meat or fish. 


Salted luh esuce. 

Salty or sour sauce 

Aug aIniiiMl (Sp., almutrzi)). 

Aiigt'iiiijh'ilinii [litnghall, midday). 

Aug iiiiiiiii'lal (Sp., miTiriiih). 

Aug h'limniiii {hiiixiii, aflemoon). 

Aug ••/•i>„ (Sji., r.<m,l<i). 


A„g,.,lh. . ^ 

Picklee ibamboo Bprouti', etc.). 

Koaste'l or luiked meat ur IihIj (whiil 

l>aked or roaated). 
Fnw»' Ippf- 
Sucking i>ig. 
Wild pork. 

The jungle fowl. 

The duilc. 

The tre^ duck (Dftidmciiipm). 

The (tonpe. 

The peacock. 
The turkey. 
The pig(>on. 

The dove. 
The gizzard. 

The liver. 
The heart. 
Themudlish; walking li^li. 


Am, iniii 
roaul n 

Am, ,<<.<..; 

■"chovi-chow.'" «i often 

ii- ('HiiliinfiHi or Hongkong 

.11 Ki.Kli«h " f<.r f«i«l. 1 

nt (Sp., ,whm. from IJin- 

i, .»7,»r,i>ickl<«). 

™. [tmihiw means "to 


tji'i hiln nang piiUiki'i. 

■nuj u>/t. 

A,.., -.lik. 

iiig fuihiiy it'ii'i'i: lamiiii 

i n.,ng 


■i (Siinsk,, l,ar„ya. not 


Ami biUt 
t«u'.. /' 


,' old 

w.-il; .tl.i 

,»/«</l»l,/;,'(froitl h.lli 

■", a 

1 {tMfoi'hili 


The l^oca-dulce. 

The shell of a claw, etc. 

The lohrter. 
The crab. 
The Btnall crab. 
The shrimp. 

Alt; h'Irl... I M.,r(,l.,-U' i^ wiid I 
UR-aii -Whcr,, then- are claiiis, 
PHinparigan dialed.) 

\;-lhifOH. ( llihir-iuy-l.i,,mi. village, 
tiorllu'iist r>f .\lanila, "shrimp 



The gabe root 
The peanut. 

The lorn boy (fmit). 

The guayava. 

The lime. 

The apple. 

The watermelon. 

The t^ook. 

The kitchen (cooking place). 

Crumbe; scraps. 

The dining room. 

The fireplace. 

Earthen cooking pot (mediom size). 

Small earthen pot. 

Large earthen i)ot. 

The frying i>an. 

The gridiron (broiler). 

The pitcher. 

Earthen pitcher. 

The bowl. 

The jug. 

The naltcellar. 

The pot cover. 
The sieve. 
The Immboo tray. 
The basket. 
The fire. 
The smoke. 

The firewood. 

Ang gabi. 

Any mani, Arawak (West Indian) 

Ang duhai. 

Aug Iniyalms. 

Ang ddyiip. 

Ang manfonas (Sp., manzana), 

Ang pakudn. 

A Jig taga p<nTgosina. 

Ang pinaglulutoan (from /tUo, cook- 


An/f silid na kakandn, 

Ang kaldn; ang dapoj, 

Ang ptdoyok. 

A ng anglit, 

Ang kating-an. 

Ang kauHdi. 

Ang ihaoan (from umiltaOf to roast). 

Ang harTgd; ang galong. 

Ang fiUm. 

Ang mankok. 

Ang Haro (Sp., jarro). 

{Ang jKdaasinan (from asln, salt). 
Ang Hoxiik (without cover). 
Ang tuntong. 
Ang frit hay. 
Ang bUdo. 
Ang Mkof. 
Ang npny. 

Ang ajfo (accent distinguishes from 
a-f(o, dog). 

Ang kdhoy nang jKnTijatong. 

The names for parts of a house, household furniture an<l articles, and 
ordinary tools, are given in the following list. Many of these names are 
borrowed from the Spanish language: 

The house. 

The room. 
The bathroom. 
The water-closet 
The door. 
The doorway. 
The window. 

The ladder (stairway). 

The step (round of ladder). 

The balcony. 

The post or pillar. 

The kitchen platform. 

The roof. 

The gable. 

The gutter pipe. 

The corner. 

The window sill. 

The balustrade. 

Ang Uihay (ix)88ibly Sansk., valayay 
an inclosure, through Malay, Mleiy 
hall, court; but the Hawaiian is 
hnfe, and there are similar wonis 
in other Polynesian dialects). 

Ang sdid. 

Ang paii yuan ( lit, "Iwthing place"). 

Ang cumnii (8p. word). 


Ang jtiiitodn. 

Ang itnib; ang dtiruiujauan (from 
dutujftOj to appear at the window); 
any hintann (Sp.). 

Ang hnyddn. 

Ang bait any. 

Any taniiaan (lit., "watchtower"). 

Any ha/iyi. 

Any fmtnbhn. 

Any haUmy. 

Any bnHM/innn. 

Any (do/od. 

Any sulok. 

Any p(daftaftahdn. 

Ang gnyabndn. 



The prop (against wind^). 
The partition (wall). 
The hoQHehold furniture. 
The chair. 

The table. 

The clothes press (or cupboard). 

The l>ed. 

The quilt. 

The pillow. 

The head (of a bed). 

The mosquito net. 

The wash basin. 

The water. 

The soap. 

The towel. 

The tooth brush (foreign). 

The tooth brush (native). 

The clothes brush. 

The pail or bucket. 

The night vessel. 

The trunk. 

The valise. 

The key. 

The padlock. 

The lock. 


The needle. 

The pin. 

Silk thread. 

The scissors. 

The thimble. 

The eyeglasses or spectacleH. 

The picture; image. 

The household shrine. 

Wick for cocoanut-oil lamp. 

Cocoanut-oil lamp. 

The lamp (old name). 

Fire-making sticks. 

The flint 

The steel. 

The tinder. 

Rice mill (hand). 

The rice mortar. 

The rice pestle. 
The small mortar. 
The small pestle. 

The broom. 

The mop (cloths). 
The razor. 

The sadiron (fiatiron). 


Any snhay. 

Aug dingding. 

Aug kasuukapiin m hdhay. 

Any uupdn (from nmupdy to 

A ng lamena ( 8p. , ma<a ) . 
Aug slmpaium. 
Aug pdpag; ang cama (Sp. ). 
Aug komoi. 
Ang I'lnan. 

Ang ofohdn; ang olondn. 
Ang kuiiunhd. 
Ang liiianiiisdn. 
Ang tuhig. 

A ng sahdn ( Sp. , jabdn ) . 
Ang ballndang. 
Ang cepillo nang iTgipin {cepillOy Sp. 

fur "brush"). 
Ang si pan. 

Ang vepillo nang damit. 
Ang timbd. 

Ang ihidn; ang orinola (Sp. ). 
Ang rabdn. 

Ang titinpipi; ang taklxi. 
Ang fa({<i (Chinese, tajsi). 
Ang ran dado {i>\). word). 
Ang rtrrad lira (Sp. word). 
Sinulid (npun, from aulid, 8[>in). 
Ang kardgam. 
Ang aHjtiler { Sp. , al filer ) . 
Sindlid na sutld (Sansk., sCitra) . 
Ang gunting. 
Ang dedal (Sp. word). 
A)ig salannn sa niatd. 
Ang larauan. 
Ang altar sa bdhag. 
Ang (lnf<im (from (-hinese (ienUim). 
Ang iinghity (from Chinese). 
Ang sonibo; ang simbo [Iinodn now 

used ) . 
Apuga n ; posporofi { Sp. , j'tUforos) . 
Ang puj/osait (similar to those of 

North Amerioari Judians). 
Ang pingkian; ang pantiiTgan (local). 
Ang binalon. 
Ang Idhtg. 

Ang giliiuidn (from giling, to grind). 
Ang Insong (said to he origin of 

"Luzon," but improbable). 
Ang halo. 

A ng lusonglusomft m. 
An(f kamay (lit., "the hand" or 

A))a irid'is ( verl) //v///'.s' means "to re- 

move'" ) 

Ang patTifoskos. 

^[ng paiTgdltii (from dliit, to shave: 

also called (lug labasa, from Sp. 

narajd, razor). 
A)tg jtrinna (Sp., la prenm, the 

Tile balance. 

Tlie hook. 
The clothes-line. 

The Uiblecloth. 

The *fj^iii( (^^ied in cock fiirhting ). 

The l)ird vvhit^tle. 

The rope. 

The twine. 

('hinc^^e twine. 

The wire. 

The cliain (iron or iroM, etc.). 

Yard (of houj^e). 


Plant (any .<own ]»lant e.\ce])t rU'e). 

The hoe. 

The sickle. 

The shovel. 

Tlie H|)a<l(\ 

The i)incers (small ). 

The vise. 

Tlie wrench. 

Tfie saw. 
The hammer. 

The hatchet. 
The ax. 
Tlie plane. 
The chisel. 
The an^er. 
'J' lie ijimlet. 
The lilc. 

The wood turner. 
The anvil. 
The stake. 
The pulley. 
The lever. 
The a<lze. 
The rule. 

The pirk. 

The painter's or carpenter's scaffold. 

Tlie plow. 

The In am. 

The i»lo\\share. 
The uuidini: cord. 

Jii(j tiniitamjaii (from ihnhangy a 
weit^ht); also ang ialard (local 
word ). 

Aiujs(nnpfifia)) (from sampatfj to hang 

out clothes). 
Aug mantel (Sp. word). 
Aug tdri. 
Ang paiTgatl (used to lure or decoy 

Ang liibkl. 
Ang plsi. 

Ang Ldvad; ang kanar (rare). 
Ang tanlka/d (old word, talikald). 
liahagan (lit., " house place " ) . 
Hidamanan (lit., " i)lant place "). 
Ang axnrnl. 
Ang kdi'd. 

Ang panahdc (from iialok, to stir up). 
Ang pnla (S|». word). 
Ang liani (Chinese word). 
Attg gato (Sp. word ). 
J ng pani'ihd nang tomi/lo { lit., ' 'screw 

turner" ). 
Ang hignri. 
Aug panidk/Kjk (from pokpok, to 

strike) . 
Ang ptithao. 
Aug pnlidcoL 
Aug kaUun. 
Ang pad. 
Am/ pangfnitaa. 
Aug jiiisiid, 
Ang kikd. 
Ang hdlkdn. 
Aug p(dUuni. 
Ana hdos. 
Ana kald. 
Aug }>anf/fiiku(i(. 
Ang dards. 
Aug ]uiunk(d (from sdkat, to iiieas- 

nre ). 
Aug jdkit (S|)., jdro). 
Au<i /ud(ff»n/a. 
jAug ararn (Sp., arado). 

(.1/^7 SU(t>:Uf(. 

Aug uijif. 

Aug sugul (also means "tine 

coml) ) . 
Ang painitik{{roni pdik, to snap with 

a line). 
Ang pand. 
Aug pahufdn. 

Practically all names connected with horses ;ire Sjninish, as that animal 
was introduced l)y tin* >paiiiarils, and the Sjninisli terms are untlerstood 
throughout the Tagalo'j region. The following words, however, are useful 

The yoke. 
The rice tield 






^; grass, 
ind rit*e straw. 
»?e8 {&\9o honey), 

Sacate; damo (^yt., zacate). 


Pulot (much fed to native ponies). 



I with peaked roof. 

irly all names of edifices are also Spanish, but a few are native, or 
been invented from other words. Among them are: 



chool house. 

rice mill (water 

ugar mill, 





rail or path. 

(of animal). 



ted land. 


tamboo bridge. 

ugar-cane field. 

ieid; the country. 


ul or prison. 

uardhouse or sentry box. 



re (conflagration). 


onfire (signal iire). 

ocoanut grove. 

orral or inclosure. 



or steam 

Ang simbahan (from »*m?/rt, to bear 
mass; «am6a, to adore or worship). 
Ang tribunal (Sp. word). 
Ana encuela (Sp. wonl). 
Bdhaif nang araidn (from draly to 

teach; to Icam). 
Ang biindfig 
Angbigumn (from bigd^^ hulled rice). 

Ang aiilwm. 

Ang (tlakdn (from alak, wine). 
Ang avngan (from dpug, lime). 
Ang aampa; ang kubu; ang sauong 

(mountain term). 
Ang camfxj aanto (Sp. ); ang libingan 

(Tagalog wort! also means 

Angmbnngan (from sabung^ to fight 

with gamecocks.) 
A ng langsarujan. 
Ang ddan. 

Ang ladnds; agtds (narrow trail). 
Bolaos; onog; bagnos, 
A ng pUdpil. 

Ana bukirdn; ang hacienda (Sp. ). 
Tubigan (from tuhig^ water). 
Ang tulay. 

Ang talay na kauuyan. 
Ang tnUfhdn (from /u6<5, sugar cane). 
Ang bukid. 
Ang padaluyan, 
Ang hdangxian, ( /^i7i6uiistheManihi 

prison only.) 
Ang Itantayan (from bantay^ guard) . 
Ang tatagudn. 
Ang paiTgdo. 
Ang mnog. 
Ang alifHtto. 
Ang sigd. 
Ang nidgan, 
Ang karurukan. 
Ang laftaiTgdn. 
A ng mhig. 

rds pertaining to the office are generally Spanish, although a few 
ed of native origin. The most useful are: 



Opisina (Sp., q/fcina). 

Suhitdn; e»crUor\o (Sp. ). 

Libra (Sp. ). 

BiUioteca (Sp.). 

Sulai (from Arabic s^urat^ a chapter 

of the Koran). 
Panulat; pluma (Sp.). 



/.«,«>; M,H2(f=p.). 



lte.1 Ink. 



(PudnlnhanHTomdiilii, to carrv). 


AdminittT<i6&n ih eiirrtot (Sp. ). 

TVIeKraph uffiw. 

ElaeiAn dt iHfgmfo* { Sp. ) . 



iSilgo; Ordeniifia (Sp.). 
Mi<iai>ia df rxrihir [Sp.). 


Paper (in general). 

Papfl (Spanish lieavy \A\yeT, i-apd 
iT.,rff<iha (l^'p., eommon wnd U iu- 

Blotting sanrl (flne). 

li-ii^/iii. Tuft. ). 

BloUinit p«per. 

/•a,W--,^„», (Sp,). 

The rIoIw (world). 

The earth (ground). 


Aitff biiodot. 

M<iuiit&iii (M)untry. 

Amj kuh<mituk»n. 

Th« pre<.ipi«.. 
Tlie hill. 

Ang UiiTyla. 

Aug bitrol; g<ilo>(. 

The crack jcrevioe. 

Anij hilnk. 

The tave. 

AtigliingA; ang j/uHptb. 

Aug ilung. 

The hole. 

Ang biila». 

The iirairii'; pactiire, meadow. 

A»5 1-Arang. 

Thetoreet; thnlnir. 

All.) ./u/«J. 

ThehuHh: thebnish. 


The bamboo tliicket 

Ang tiiimiinndti. 

The reedy uriiund. 

The hK-ky niaif (ijuarry). 

The thorn fiush. 

All., bilmiknn. 

The niwlily country. 


The cpriiig. 

Am/ b'd-'il iKiiig liibig. 


Ann '"''"■ 

The river. 

Aug ilfig. 

Soun« of river. 


The twnk. 

Axg i^'ingpaiig. 

Bank of river or aeashoK. 

Aug iliiltiiiiii^mg. 

The poiil. 

Ang ihimo {itiiniim, water in Pam- 

l«njni, llocano, etc.). 

The l>oiid. 

Ami nil'ig {ndloq, nrer in Bicol). 

The swamp; elougti. 

Aiui Lit',: ii',in /iWn (MalaUn, 

fwampy place). 

The ravine or ipilch. 


Tidewater cn-ek. 

fiip., (Sp., frim.). 

IWp (unlonlable) river. 

Hog ii-t iiKiimm. 

The depth. 

Aug hil'Umuin. 

TheshHllownem (of river) 

AiigiiKil-iltwnaU'ig (also "ford"). 

The ferrv. 

Am, liiii-inin. 

The ferrvlwat or raft. 

.\ng UiIh'iii. 

The iH-ml (of river). 

An.,lik6{t.\'m "curve"). 

Hole (ill river). 

7,r.n^i (aim "cave"). 

The waterfall. " 

Ang t'lli'm naiig ti'ihig. 

The whirl|«ol. 

Angtiliiili; iiii'g'iiiiijiii; angalimpuyd. 

The lKittom(n( river). 

Ang iliilim Ufijii; itiig. 

Ang iliilim niirig Hog na putikan. 

» Tagnlog rvBloii » 



Gravelly or rocky bottom. 
Sandy lx)ttomed. 
Steep bank. 
lx)w bank. 
The landing place. 
The current. 
Strong current. 
Weak current. 
Very weak current. 
Place where there is a strong cur- 
The mouth (of a river). 

Aug Ualiiii luiiuj ilog nn batohdi). 

Ang ildlini luing Hog lui buhniTi/ina)}. 

J*angpang ikl luntdrik. 

J*angjntng lui iiuih<ihd. 

A)ig dahimpasigoii. 

Ang agon. 


Mdhiudug ngon. 

Matining ngoif. 





means *' mouth' 




,^1 it ».. 


Tagalog is rich in nautical terms, the j>rin(ipiil ones being as follows: 

The high sea; ocean. 
The sea (in general). 
Lake (large). 

Everything in the sea. 
The seas themselves. 

Warm water. 

Salt water. 

Fresh water. 

The coast (sea or lake). 

The reef. 

The sunken rock. 

The port; anchorage; landing place. 

The bar. 

The channel. 

The light-house. 

The rape; jKjint. 

The island. 
The gulf. 
The bay. 
The wave. 
The tide. 

High tide. 
Kbb tide. 
The strait. 

Ang Idot (Malay, laut). 

A ng (Id gat. 




Karagativn (singular in Tagalog). 

I), to K. 
Malaragal. D. to U. 
Tdbig na dial. 
Tubig )ta tabang. 
A ng baybay. 
Ang I tan kola. 
Ang bat 6 sa ddgat. 
Ang do6)7ijan (also dabnnpa^igan). 
Ang -nana (also "mouth of a river" ). 
Ang canal (Sp. word). 
Ang parol (from Sp., /(^iro). 
Ang LtnTj/os; xing Tanguay is Cavite 

Point only). 
Ang pulo. 
A ng y-ald. 
Ang btok. 
Ang alon. 
Ang alagonak {rsLre)\ angmarea (Sp. 

Ang laki. 
Ang kati. 
Ang kit id. 

The principal terms for the lieavenly lK»dies, divisions of time, j)oints <»f 
the compass, and meteorological phenomena are as follows: 

The sun; the day. 

The moon; the month. 

The year. 

One year. 

Every year. 

E^ch year. 


New moon. 

Full moon. 
Old moon. 

A tag drao. ( Hayan is a rare word for 
"day." Ex.: nntldiun ang bayan, 
midday or a great day.) 

Ang badn. 

Ang tadn. 



Manaon; mainanadn. 


Jiagintg bndn. 

{Kabilngan nang badn. 
Palabang bndn (rare). 
{Kamatayan rnmg budn, 
Bagtong ( rare ) . 




The star. 

Venus; the evening star. 

The Pleiailes; the seven stars. 

The niorninf? star. 

The Hh<x>tinf( star. 

Tlie I'oniet. 

The sky. 

The l>reak of day. 

The dawn. 

The morning. 


Afternorm (evening). 


The daylight; sunliglit. 




I>av l>efore yesterday. 

A few <layH ago. 

After a while. 

(Thn.»e) <lays ago. 

(Ten) days ago. 

One week. 

Every wei^k, weekly (adv.). 

Antj dr(io. 

Ami hituin. 

TwTijUw (ingAt (lit. "light of the 

Aug tala. 
Ang hulalakao, 
Ang hituin may biiulot. 
Ang UirTgit. 
Ang liimyway, 
Ang madaling 6rao. 
Ang umam; agn. 

Ang UnTijiiitli (Malay, tdnguh-^tri). 
Ang Kapon. 
Ang gnhi. 

Ang sinag nang drao, 
Ang Himig nang Intdn, 
Knmaknpouo. (Kamaka expresses 

"days ago." 
Imntf 'lingo (corruption of Sp., Do- 

wlngo, Sunday). 

The names of the <lay8 are Spanish, Sunday 1>eing called Lingo, comipte<l 
fnnn Doming^. Lingo is also used for "week." The word "minute" is 
al8f» taken from Spanish, and the word for hour is a corruption of the 
S[>aniHh word futra. The names of the iiu^nthn, days, and other divisions 
of time from Spanish are given below for convenience of the student. 














The month of January. 








The l>eginning. 

The middle. 

The end. 

The hour. 

Watch; clock. 

Half hour. 












Ang hnnng enero. 

Lingo (from Sp., domingo). 







Ang ntufd. 

Ang jHigitnn. 

Ang katn/mmn; ang haw^&n, 

Ang oras (from Sp., hora). 


Kalahniing oran. 

Minuto. (Sp. won!). 




The (iry season. 
The wet season. 
The dayHght. 

The darkness. 

The north. 
The eai*t. 

The south. 

The west.« 

The northeast wind. 

Wind or air. 

The weather. 


The heat. 
The cold. 

The earthquake. 

The dew. 

The earth smell. 

The mist or fog. 
The cloud. 

The rain. 
The drizzle. 

A hard shower. 

The inundation (floo^l). 

The rainbow. 

The lightning flash. 

The thunderbolt. 

The thunder. 

The storm. 

The hurricane; typhoon. 

The cyclone; tornado. 

The tempest. 

The M'hirlwind. 

The ice. 

The hail. 

Heavy rain cloud. 
The snow. 

(Smell of earth after 

Segumlo (8p. word). 

Ang tayarao (from drao^ sun). 

Aug tagtildn (from tUdu, rain). 

An^ kalivanagau (from liuanag, 
light; Ilocano, iMoag, capital of 
I locos Norte), noun. 
Ang kadUUndn (from difhu^ dark), 

Ang binlinidn. (D. to R. ) 

Ang h'duga (also "the north wind " ). 

Ang silaiTga nail (lit., '* rising place," 
sun, etc.). 

Anglt(d)dgat {aho "the south wind" ). 

Ang Lalunurun (from lunod, druwn). 

Ang (imihan. 

Ang hcnTghi. 

Ang jHinahdn. 

K<ipanah(nnin; also mus'tn. {Kajnt- 
n(dionnn also means "opportu- 
nity," in some cases.) 

Ang hiit. Heat (a))stract), Kainitan. 

Ang laniig. Cold (abstract), hdami- 

Aug hndol. 

Am; hainog. 

Ang idiniooni. 

Ang I'dap. 

Ang alapadp. 

f Ilare words are launngn, 
a little rain; btwa- 
M//a,adrizzle; anidn, 
moderate steady rain ; 
tikaiil:, gentle, contin- 
uous rain, and lonntk, 
a rain with great 

Imng fnigno muig uldn. 

Ang hdhd. 

Ang bafuigJiari (lit., "the king's 

Ang kidluL 

Ang linlik. 

Ang kn/og. 

A)ig on<h. 

Ang hnggd. 

Ang hohaui. 

Ang si gad. 

Ang ipoipo. 

Ang h'nio (Sp. word. Also tidtig 
na hafo nndamig or "cold-stone 
water." ) 

Ang g rani zo{^\K word; rare in Philip- 

Ang goot (rare). 

Ang niece (.S|>. word; known from 
books only). 

Ang uldn. 
A)ig andjdn. 

«A8 the TagalogB were originally sea rovers, tljc luavenly InKJies nunk in the kmi to 
them, so they say,* the "drowning place" for the west. 



Navigation was considerably developed by the Tagaloes prior to the 
arrival of the Spaniards, and a considerable maritime vocabulary developed. 
The words in ordinary use are: 


The vessel. 

The sail. 

The art of sailing; navigation. 

Anyone aboard. 

Sailor; mariner. 


The rud<ler. 

The compass. 

The mast. 

The vard. 
The outrigger. 
The bow. 
The stem. 
The boat pole. 
The i)addle. 
The paddler. 

The oar. 

The oarsman; mwer. 




The cover (of boat or canoe). 

The canoe. 

The prau. 

Political and natural subdivisions are as follows, in so far as they pertain 
to social relations: 

.4 11^ 9a9akt/dn, 

Ang layag. 

Ang piiglcddyag, 

Ang mkau (formerly 

Tagfiragat (lit., ** sea dweller"). 
Malim (Arabic) ; prdctico (Sp.) . 
Aug ugit, 

Ang hrujula (Sp. ). 
Ang palo ( Sp. word ) ; ang sundong 

Ang batangan (Batangas Province). 
Ang katig, 
Ang do/mg. 

Ang hull nang sntakydn. 
A7ig tikln. 
Ang ^agwdu. 
Ang inananagivdn (S. to N.); (Fil. 

Sp., banquero), 
Ang gdod. 
Ang maiTgagdod, 
Ang pagsagu'dn. 
Ang piuj-gaod. 

Aug paglinliu (Chinese word, liu), 
Ang bangkd, 
Ang par ao. 

The Philippine Islands. 
The Visayan Archipelago. 
The Tagalog country. 
The Visavan region. 
The province. 

The jurisdiction (of a municipality, 

The court 

The town. 

The town proper. 

The fellow-townsman. 

The house. 

The neigh lK)r. 

The settlement; hamlet. 

The barrio (wanl). 

The head man of a barrio. 

The mayor; alcalde. 
The secretary. 

The treasurer. 

Ang kapuluan FHIpirtas. 

Ang kapuluan Bisayd. 

Ang katagalngan. 

Ang kabimydan. 

Ang hlairigan (formerly this word 

meant " anchorage,'* **port'*). 
Ang sdkop. 

Ang hokoman (from hokoint a judge; 
Arabic hakhn^ doctor, philoiFO- 
pher, judjje). 

An<i baifan (including the rural bar- 

Ang kabayanan (excluding rural bar- 

An^ kababayan. 

Ang bdhay. 

Ang kapidbdhay. 

Ang nayon (Sp., sitio), 

Ang Uirangay (old word for vessel). 
Atig pulo nnng barangay. 
Ang cabeza nang barangay (Sp. 

Ang prendenie; ang cupitdn (Sp.). 

Ang nt'cretario sa bayan; ang kalihim. 
{Li him means "a f?ecret." ) 

Aug tettorero; ang taga iiigat yaman 
(lit, the "wealth guarder*'). 



The chid of the town. 

The Hp|>er jmrt (nf town, ri- 

i-er, AiiifHiiiii 

The tiTiiis for ruelalu, ininera 
foreign origin. They are; 

1., ar.. , 




Gold and copper (alloy). 

•i lfr<i[i 


A:o,i<'e (fi[i.). 

T"m'«iifi (from h.ig<i, iiHylliiliK ml- 
liot;Vonu' Siiv from Sancik, I'Iiiith). 
il'iriii'j IJJjilay, g'ld'ing: ong. 





The oniinary lerniH ii>'e<l by tishermei: 




■ If 

The tisliemian (rra-le). 




The fi«h line nr line. 


The hook. 


The l«it. 


The net (small). 


The wine; lanw ni'I. 

The (ihIi tru]>. 


Wieker Itasket for catching 1 

i»h. -Ii 

The arrow. 


The bow. 


The prindpal parlrt of tli. 

,.hui.l:llL I.O 

uin.alb.Klie», ure named u! 

1 follows: 

The head. 


The ly«iy, the person. 


The bone. 


The flesh. 

The blood. 


The pulse. 


The Bkin. 


The pore. 


The brain. 


The nen-e. 

The vein. 


The membrane. 


Tbehair (of thehead). 


6855—06 1 


Hair (pubk). 

BiUM. (Boiiv hair or featlien, 

i<ilahiljo). ' 

The rrown of the head. 

Ang bumbuuan. 

The temple. 
The foreliewl. 

Ang iiHivitan. 
Aug nod. 

The eyehrow. 

Ang kVa<i. 

The eyelid. 

Aug liubong iiang maiA (lit., the rouf 

of the eye). 

The eyelaah. 


The eye. 

Ang mnlA. 

The pupil of the eye. 

The white of the eye. 

Aug Mig nang malA. 

The tear ttuL-t. 
The nose. 
The lip. 

Any datttgan nang luka. 

Ang iltitiff. 

Anil ''"'" (probably from Sp., labia. 

The niuuth. 

Angbibig (Malay, bibir, lip). 

The <;hin. 

Aug Uilxi (Sp., barha, chin). 

The cheek. 

Ang uitiuji. 

Angbigiile (Sp.; old worii, muay). 

The lieard. 

Ang bnrban (Sp.; old wordB, garni. 

hiniiy. i/amjol). 

The tongue. 


The ear 

Aug liiiiiifn. 

The tooth. 

Ang ,7gipin. 

The iLolar. 

Ang Imgiing. 

The Eum. 

The hard palate. 

Aug -fitiigid. 

Ang iTgataiqjaiA. 

The soft {lalate. 

The throat. 

Aug lalamvnnn. 

The larynx. 

/(inj, awheel). 

The lower jaw. 

Aug giliimg. 

The Ptomach. 

Aug Kikmuni. 

Aug bilitta. 

The aiiuH. 

Aug (timlxing. 

The neck. 

A,.g liig. 

The nii)>e of the neck. 

Aug Mot. 

The thoiikler. 

Aug '"dibit. 

The shoulder hiade. 


The arm. 

Ang Uirato (from Sp., hrato). 

The hnn.l. 

Aug kuiiiaii (aim "arm"). 

The jialiii. 

Ann iu'dail nana tamav- 

The llnuer. 

A,.„ d'dir). 

The thumb. 

Aug bi.JalfiH. 

The index finder. 

Ang liintHturU (from tutur6, to point- 
Aug dull, (the chief, diitto: MalttJ'- 

rfnto/j smiiLltBllR-r). 

The middle Hiiger. 

The ring fiii)Eer. 

Ang fimu^iiiig Kingning (fmui nimiofr 

to put on). 
Aug kidingtiiTi/iin. 

The little (in(i«r. 

The wrirt. 

jeWelry). " 

The elbow. 


Tlie nail. 


The knuckle. 

Anil biitd nang datiri. 

The armpit. 

Ang kilUm. 

The breHHt 

Aiig diMib. 

The b<ieoiii. 


The rib. 

Ang ladiiing. 



Tlielwck. Aug lil^od. 

The Bpiiie. Atnj i/nliigoJ. 

The thorax. Arg'lkin. 

The lap. 

The liver. 

Thf- pill hlHdder. 

The kkliiey. 

The lilailder. 

The wonib (iitenia). 

The iilikeenta. 

The vulva. 

The I* nig. 

The ledticle. 

The trroin. 

The hip. 

The Imttock. 

The lbi(!h. 

The leK. 

The knee. 

The calf. 

The ^hin. 

Tln^ fwt. 

The heot. 


The I'hidbJine; Ihe til 

The sole of ihefii"!. 


Some of the onliiiiiiy clifwasen knoivn lo the Tajialiifw a 

The cholera. .I..y to;.™ {Sp. worii). 

Thehul>oniv platrii.-. Ami i,efir huh.hiicit (S].. 

The smallpox. Ami l.iditlimn. 

Sii-kiiens (illiies-s); jiaiii. Anfifiikil. 

Therelai^-. Ami LU-a. 

The (ever. Aug Uignnl (Sp., (•ilmlii 



The eouKh. 
The a!<thmB. 
The mump«. 
The noeebleed. 


TlieaiiKuloration; lividity. 


The cramp. 

Aug i-lit<it. 

The hiccough. 

The crn. 


The wart. 

Aixj t-Uigi. 


All'/ iiIifuiii/&. 

The wnunil or win-. 

A.;.j -<<!y<i. 

Tliu inflammation of tho lymphatir 

Aug t«lani. 


The iHrtl. 


The i»«-. 

Amj iiiml. 

The AI(!|ipo butl-m (»htri). 

A III/ iiijiliup. 

The i>ini]>l<'. 

Aug liiffiihilmit. 


Any ijali,. {H^.. ^,mn). 

Artiilex n! clotliinn Imve nativo u 

Bimti. m a tnit nianv liave also 

iH-rri taken (nmi other l;lngut^^. The leudiii); ttnnH an-. 

ThetlolhinK; ■inwi. 

All') ihmil. 

The style <t( <ire»<ing. 

The hat. 


The native hehiiet 

Aiiu iitntol. 

Thewwt; nhirt. 


The tr-juMen.. 

Aiiij mUiuAl (from ttlnnr (Arahii-), 

Aniimii'in (lit., "underfoiit"). 

The shoe. 

The .irswen.. 

AiHj mhuunlhii (S|i. wiml). 

The (KN'llB. 

AnijmU-riw,.> ,<3MM.r,t). 


An;i vieilian (Sp, won! ), 

The Klij.iH;r8. 

Angfiurlnr (S|i„ rbinfli'). 

The Hkirt 

Ani/M,\.,.\ S|.„*/r.7.i . 

Thi' umien-ltirt. 

Aiii/ niigiuiii (S|i,, fiingiiii). 

The petticoat Ptrinjt. 

Aug Jill iiiigli*. 

Theapnin; ovewkirt. 
The riiff; iiwkfrchief. 

Aug ti'i'i'. 
Aug uliiiiifinii. 

The han(lkerrhii-f. 

AiKji-myi (Mex, Span,, paffn, Imn- 

The rilibon. 


The iiiantillH. 

Aug liimhoug. 



The liup TOinb. 

Aug tihiixl (also "iilownliaif"). 

The t.Htton. 

Aug I'lionm (Iroiii Sp., Im,i,;„, a liul- 

The fan. 
The pxrasol. 
The cane; staff. 
Tlie staff of office. 

The pipi". 

The native pi|>e (of leavea). 

The coat of mail. 

The breech-doth; sash. 

Aug Kiitgiiiig (Malav, i-hinfhiii). 

Aug hihin. 

Aug rii'iilim (iroin Sp., eneiitn, a Imul 

<if ther.>sarv), 
Angnilmhiilrom Girmcn, ",\lt. C*r- 

Aug jiiiiiiiity. 


Till.- [■riiid[«il |iarlB o£ tretf, ji 


, ,-t.-., iire iiamo'l iii- Ik-Iow: 

The Iree. 


The triitilt. 


The rool. 

.hi;/ ugiil. 

The bull. 

Aii'jl.-do (also Ilu' yomiu .iK'oa 

The flower. 

An:/ '"''''*'"*■- 

Tlieph.M)l: fiprout. 

Atiij •'■■'Uou'j: iitig Mhiiiij. 

Th« l.raml.. 

Awi fi-Ti/ii. 

IjiiiiImt: wooil; timber. 


Thi> leaf. 


Th« Imrk. 


Till- pap. 

Am/ 'jiittix. {(Iiilim is i]iu> "milk 

The rruil. 

Awi IriiiTiia (also used for friiil 

The lerms for rigar, I'izarelle, 

an.l tobam. lire ol Spanis^h oriein, bul 

prm'ti.-u of chewinj; l^tfl iiul, rolle.) 

with the leaf of the U'lel iiu.i mi 

with (.laked lime, ha>^ giveci si.1. 

le native termr'. 

The areia nut. 

Afii ImiT'itt (fruit of Artro rulei-hu 

The iH-tei kaf. 

A-j ;/..,., (leaf of /V '-««')■ 

The lime (mineral). 

.■[»;/ V:/- 

The "bnyo" or iliew. 

A<,; l.:i»0. 

The nutcracker (lung). 

A.,-/ l«nh>r. 

The iime t<tiek. 

.[if'/ 'ij-iiii'iu. (Same wonifur "lii 

The foIlowinK list of clifmities, profei<sicuw. ami Iratlex, tt.'., «ive8 

priiiciiwl lerms use.! l.y the Tagalog ] 


The I'resiOenl. 

.1»7 IWy!da,lf «i Aui/rini. 

The novernor-secieral. 

The jinivincial governor. 

A:.fJ ■ ■ ' ' '..■..,;/„„. 

The judge. 

The Pope. 

a',,., /.„l.a y>^.. «<..,l'|." 

.l„V.-r/-,/v../.'- (S[., wrinl). 

The hiBhop. 

.li.,/o'.iV' (^1'. H'.rd), 

The iiriest. 

At,;/ /.iitr ( Sp., pwlre. a prie 




A-!/ nj,-<„„l [Hi..). 

The lieutenant-colonel. 

All'/ teiiiiiile roruiifl (Sp. ). 

The major. 




The lieutenant. 


.1,,;, <-//-,>,.-. 

TheEer^eant. ' 

A,.,, ^.•rt,.;.lu {i^^,-U 

The ior|M)ral. 

'a,.\, •■■■'-"'''•' K^\:). 


A,nj muflnh.. 

The king. 


The noble. 

Aii'lg"! |i-i|ual toSp., A.ti) . 

The noblewoman. 

A<i'j ihi;mwi liinial to .-ip., /(..""t 

Auij Vfi'i'i.-'-"! (i-i|iliil lo S|... SiT.;i 

The lacty. 

.^1-;/^;.,.;., (.-.lUiil toSp.,.S,»'<r.r|. 

The lawyer. 

Ak'I l':-ii'ii'i'iliiiiijiil (front (urijfli/, 

The Joctor. 

Ami ,„-mi,ul.,m-l {WoKi ;/..)»"(, ■>! 



The merchant. 

Tlie seller. 

The buyer. 

The teacher. 

The pupil. 
The preacher. 

The clerk. 

The interpreter; translator. 

The writer. 

The reader (professional). 

The reader (casual). 

The student. 

The printer. 

The chief; head; lx>8s. 

The partner. 

The companion. 

The carpenter (housebuilder). 

The woo<i pawyer. 

The tailor; dressmaker. 
The shoemaker. 

The butcher. 

The field hand. 
The sower. 

The reaper (crop gatherer). 

The day-laborer. 
The metal founder. 

The smith (any metal). 

The maker of . 

The potter. 

The inventor. 

The peddler. 

The washerman or washer- woman. 

The cook. 

The salt maker. 
The oil maker. 
The weaver. 
The dyer. 
The house servant 
The collector. 

Aug mniTlfaiTgalakal (fnjm kithikal, 

Ang tagapagbili (from maghiii^ sell- 
ing) . 

Aug tngapumiil (from jtanilinlli, 


Aug mamjadral (from (in//, teach- 
ing, etc.). 

Angardlan ( from draiy learning, etc. ). 

Aug mauijaug&riil (from ami, teach- 
ing, etc.).^ 

Ang maninmUit (from suUxt, letter). 

Aug dnlubasa (from 6<W(i, reading). 

Aug ffumiisuiat (from nulatf letter). 

Aug tagalxim (from htsa^ reading). 

Ang bumabaita (from basOf reading). 

Ang uagoAral (from Aralj learning, 

Aug manHUmlmg (from limlKig^ 

Aug pluakaimno ( from pimo^ trunk). 

Anghmuua ( from samUy a^jsoi^iation ). 

A ug kasauui ( from mivia, association ) . 

Ang uuloague 

Aug maulalagarX (from lagarlt a 

Aug 7uanaiiahi (from taht^ sewing). 

A nggumagav^ nangmqnu ( from gawd, 
to make). 

Aug viaummatay uang buca (from 
;><//(!//, to kill). 

Aug magmmka (from aaka^ to till). 

Aug viagtatan'nn (from tanim, t4) 
sow ) . 

Ang iuangogajHt» (from gapaa, to 
cut, reap). 

Aug magbububn (froi 

«, pav, 1 
11 onoo, 

to ca.«t 

Ang ujHihan (from «/>«, pay, salary). 

ug magbi 

Angpaudau ( Sansk., ;>amf((, science, 

skill). ' * 

Aug uiangagaivd uaug 
gated, to make). 

( from 

Aug magpajHilai/nk (from jKiIayok, & 

Ang majHighlang (from lalang, in- 

Ang injglahko ( from lakOf to peddle). 

Aug tagafmglaba (from 8p., lavar, to 

(Aug tagapagluto (from lutd to cook) . 

i Aug tagajKnigoinua ( from Sp. , cocina, 

[ kitchen). 

Ang uiagaanin (from asin, salt). 

Aug maglaJaiujis (from langis, oil). 

Ang mauhnhahi. ( from habi^ to weave. 

Aug uiauiuina (from tinaf to dye). 

Aug alila. 

Aug tngapduliTgil (from gingily to 
collect, dun). 



The cashier; paymaster. 

The hunter (professional). 
The creilitor. 

The debtor. 
The bearer. 
The predecessor. 

Tlie successor. 
The heir. 

The grass cutter. 

The nurse. 

The wet nurse. 
The n) id wife. 
The i)awnbroker. 

The beggar. 
The thief. 

The slave. 

Aufj htgnpag^juyad (from hayad^ to 

pay a debt ) . 
AiKj nuuTijaiujuHo (from (lao, a dog). 
Any pitmykaknataiTytDi (from uittny, 

a debt). 
Aug innyaiany ( from tUany, a debt ). 
Any inuydald (from daldj to carry). 
Any hlindlnhnn (from lialilij to fol- 


A)iy kahulili (from halili, to follow). 

Any nuiynmmana (from mamt^ heir- 

Any inaydad(tm6 (from damd, gras.s, 

Any t'fyapayidaya (from alaya, to 
care for). 

Any siidaa. 

Any h'tlol. 

Any indpaypcttnho (fnjm tuho, a 

Any puUihe. 

Any nnttpiandk'do (from nakdOf to 

Any td'ipin. 

Section Fouk. 


The adjective is a word used in a grammatical st^nse to qualify, limit, or 
detine a noun, or a wonl or phrase which ba.s the value of a noun, and it 
expresses quality or condition as belonging to something: Thus, "l)lack- 
nese" is the name of a cjuality and is a noun; "black" means possessing 
blackness an<l so is an adjective. The adjective is used ( 1) attributively, 
(2) appositively, and (3) predicatively. Kxamples, (1) "A good man," 
(2) '*A man cood and great, (3) "The man is good." 

Equally in Tagalog as in English, this i.s the meaning of the adjective, 
and owing to the greater flexibility of the former the construction of such 
words is much more clearly to V>e seen. Like Knglish, some root words 
are adjectives by intrinsic signification and may be called "simple adjec- 
tives." Amongthesimpleadjectivesare/>a^o( iiew), malud (dear, precious, 
noble), hdmak (vile), hnnyhnn (foolish), tahunik ((juiet, trantjuil), and 
totoo (true). But the greater number of adjectives in Tagalog, as in Eng- 
lish, are compounds formed from roots, which may be sometimes nouns, 
bv means of prefixes, infixes, and suffixes like the English sullixes "Iv," 
*Mike" "able," etc., as in "friendly," "childlike," " remarkable," etc. 
The ordinary particle in Tagalog use<l in the formation nf adjectives is the 
prefix mOf undoubtedly a contraction of mntf, to have or pos.^ess, as there 
are nouns with which nniy is still retained with the nonn to form an adjec- 
tive. Among such wm adjectives may be mentioned mnyundd (beautiful), 
from ganddj the root expressing the idea of beauty or good appearance, 
and maruTxony ( wis^e), from dunony, the root expres.^^inj; tfie idea of wis<lom. 
It will 1)8 observed that nut, like some other particles softens d to r when 
d commences a word. 

When prefixed to nouns denoting things which may be had or possessed, 
ma denotes an abundance of whatever may be signified by the noun. 
Examples: Si Juan ay niayintd (John has uukIi gold); nuiifilid any hdliay 
(the house has many rooms). 

The particle wia has at least nine other functions, whicli will be explained 
in the appropriate places. 


}fay is used really as the verb "to have" in the phrase Ako^y may saint 
(1 am sick [ill], literallv, "1 have sickness or pain" ). In asking if a person 
is ill or in pain the verb is sometimes reduplicated; e. j;., May may m kit kaf 
(Are you ill [or in pain]?). 

3/a adjectives may be conjugated with the definite infix in to express 
opinion; e. g., mlmimarummy ko Ho (1 think this is wise). Ma is redupli- 
cated to exi)ress the f)resent tense; minarunong ko ltd would mean "I 
thought this was wise." 

Conjugated with the indetinite particle ukuj {nay in j)re8ent tense), the 
adjective assumes a verbal form, with the imjdietl idea of boasting or pre- 
tending what may be signified l)y the nu)t; as, uaymntnannKmy si Felipe 
(Philip boasts of being wise); na()niam<ty(in<h't si Lolmiy (Dolores [Lola] 
pretends to be beautiful). The idea may also be conveyed by ** believes 
himself" (or "herself"), what may be <lenoted by the root; e. g., "Lola 
believes herself to be beautiful." 

The particle nn also forms some adjectives, in which the first syllable of 
the root is generally rejieated. These n<i adjectives also have an indefi- 
nite verbal meaning. Kx.: Xnnnfido (thirsty, to be thi?*sty), from ulido; 
ndjf'iydl (tired, to be tireil); payalin (a tired person): namalay (dead, to 
be dea<l, from pat'ty). J* is here chanjred to in for euphony. 

Some adjectives are also forme<i from roots by the ])relix mapag^ as 
iiiiifjaytniTijtiyno (almsive, insulting [words or acts imi)lied]). 

Others are formed by the ]>re(ix niapti; as, )iKipnin<nis(iy (boastful, vain- 
glori<^>us, ostentatious), from hansny, ostentation. />* is softened to in. 

The indetinite particles inoy and nny, when prefixed to some roots, gen- 
erally with reduj>lication of the lirst syllable of the same, form adjectives 
in some cases. Kx.: Maythrni/a (fraiidulent, cheating), from daydf the 
initial d being softened to r; and nnyiinA (sr^le unicpie, only), from w<», one. 

The particle /ndka, in its signification of cause, forms adjectives similar in 
meaning to those in Knglish ending in "able," "ing," etc., when prefixed 
to roots ca|)a))leof such significations. The first syllable of the root is gen- 
erally reduplicated, l»ut not always. Kx.: Makahttmut (jigreeable, pleasure 
causing), from tniia; mak'ttniann (laughable, comic), from /(i?(rt, and maka- 
mfia (disgusting), from mna^ etc. 

A few adjectives are formed by the prefixed ]iarticles ntafa and pah, ap 
m<tf<i}tiniiTi]n (lukewarm, apjdied to water), malukoh) (quite warm), and 
paldouay ((juarrelsome ), from andii (quarrel, emnity ). 

Some adjectivi's are formed by the reduplication of a root when the r(X)t 
has no more than two syllables. If there are more than two syllables the 
first two only are reduplicated. This rule is general in Tagalog. Ex.: 
Ila/oln'iln (mixed), from hn/n, root of theidi'a "to mix;" aunnditnnod (con- 
secutive), fnnii s'lhod, r«Mit expressing the idea of following, etc. The 
restrictive particle k<> is sometinn's prefixed to these redui>licated roots, 
inq)lying a leaser (h'lrree than with nvi or ukui: as, kannl:its(ikit (painful), 
froMj s'lhit, root expressinix the idea of illness or pain. An example of how 
far a polysyllable is leduplicated is furnishe<l by the wo?'d knyinhaginhdua 
(wholesome, sahilirious) , from yiidtnun, idea of relief, betterment, rest. 

There a?-e a very few a'ljectives formed by the union of two words of 
opposite meaniriL', of which mninj-sti/any (n<'Utral, indecisive), from nrony 
( to vro back ), and snlninj (lo go ahead), may be taken as the type. 

The particle in {hm alter an acutelv a<'cented v<»wel) suffixed to nianv 
adjectives give> the idea ol a jxmsmu or object having the quali'v denoted 
by the root. Iv\.: }ftisiu(nhin (a loviriir i»erson), from sinit'i, love; tanK)?n}t 
(a iiseliil [or available] article), from fanin, use, utility, and bahnsagin (a 
brok^'U or liail thiiiLr i, from /msnf/, idea of breaking, fracturing, etc., any- 
thing like L'iass. a plat(\ the hea<l. etc. The first syllable of the root is 
here rc'luplicateil. 

.1// i/inti), which is generally a i>lace suffix, is sometimes added to 
adjectives in whi<'h the idea of ]»lace or locati(ui is inherent, and occa- 
sionally with those which do not admit the suffix in for euphonic or other 
reasons. I'.x.: JH )nadii<nitin (im{)a*isal)le or impenetral)le), from di (not). 


and ddan Troad), and maliisan (patient j>erson), in denoting what may \)e 
suffered when suffixed to maiiitf; a«, matimu (what suffered or endured). 
This, however, l)elongs more proper! v under the particles, where the dif- 
ference in the use of in and an is set forth at length. 

In when inserted after the first consonant of some nouns gives the idea 
of like, and one at least is sometimes used as an adjective, it is bivaia 
(youth), from h^itd. (child), and is sometimes used to meiin "young," 
although bago (new) is sometimes used with the same idea, as in the words 
bagong tduo (unmarried man or bachelor, literally "new person"). 

The English nouns and phrases which are used as adjectives are ex- 
pressed in Tagalog by means of the ties g, I'g, or na^ the word which is 
niodifie<l prec!eding the niodilier, the oi)p(;site to what is done in English. 
The tie is attached to the modified word and answers somewhat to the 
English '*of." Ex.: Scilaming ftilak (a mirror of silver, a silver looking- 
glass) (g); tinterong bubog {an inkstand of glass, a glass inkstand) (ng); 
singsingna gintd (a ring of gold, a gold ring) ; bahoy na batd (a stone house, 
a house of stone), the last two examples showing the use of the tie na. 
Sometimes the tie is omitted if the mo<lilied word ends in a consonant 
other than n, but it is not considered elegant to do so. 

Adjectives like the English "golden," ".•silvery," "wooden," etc., are 
expresseil in different ways in Tagalog, generally by nieans of the ties 
or by different particles indicating "likeness," which will be explained 

Negative adjectives like those formed in English by the prefixes un 
( Anglo-Saxon ) , in ( before b and p softening to m for euphony ), im ( I-atin ), 
a, on (Greek), are formed in Tagalog by the particles dl (not), vatd 
(without), and sometimes hindi {no). Ex.: Di malajntan ( unaijproach- 
able), from lapit^ idea of approaching; dt nmbilang (innumerable), from 
bUang (to number); di inadaanan (impassable or imi>enetrable), from 
fl&an (road) ; walang bahaUi (apathetic, indifferent, careless) ; v^alnng hangdn 
(without end, lasting, eternal, infinite), and Hindi no mnm uruja (unfruitful), 
from bunga (fruit), with na and reduplicati'd first syllable of root (softened 
to in from b) to indicate present tense (literally, "not fniit-l>earing"). 
The use of di and wald is illustrated by <li makabaj/od and mdang niagbayad^ 
the first meaning "notable to pay" and the second "without means of 
payment," both being about equal to "insolvent." 

As in English, there is no variation in the adjective for gender and cane, but 
the adjective may l>e pluralized. For the i)lural ( the moditied word being 
understood in some cases) the word moiTija is uned with simple adjet'tives — 
as, ang mangd hunghang (the foolish [|)er8ons] ) — and the first syllable of the 
root is repeated if it consists of one or two letters for compound adjectives. 
If the first syllable of the root contains more than two letters, the first two 
letters only are reduplicated. Mawjd is also used by many with the plural 
comt>ouna adjective. Ex.: Ang marnnhtong, or ting inaiTija tnarnrnnong 
(the wise [people] ). 

The adjective may precede or follow the noun modified, and it would 
seem that the latter form is to be preferred, as it agrees with Malay (as 
with Spanish) construction. However, with tlu^ spread of English it is 
not unlikely that the custom of using the adjective before the noun may 
become the usual construction, as it is equally as correct as the other way. 
Ex. : Ang mangd balniyeng inagandd; ang niaiu/d mngnndang bahaye; ang baba- 
yeng magagandd; ang magagandang babayf; any nmiujd bahnycng inagagnndd, 
and ang maiTgd magagandang bidtaye. All six of the foregoing phrases mean 
eimply "the beautiful women," the first four being preferable. 

The follow^ing list of adjectives will give the principal ones in ordinary 
use. The plan has l>een followed of giving adjectives with certain mean- 
ings, followed by those of opposite si<;nirt(ations, or at least in well-detined 
groups. Words having suostantially the same meaning are called syno- 
nyms; those of opposite meaning, antonyms. Wonlswith the sa?nesonn<l 
but different meanings are called homonyms. Some Tagalog a<ljectives 
require several different words in English to express their varying mean- 



ing, just as occurs in translating English into Tagalo^ or any other lan- 
guage. Practice alone will fully instruct the student, owing to the localisms 

and provincialisms of the language, 
space justifies. 

Dear; noble; precioun; esteemed. 

Cheap, ignoble, etc. 
Useful, available (thing). 
Useless; without benent. 



Harmful; hurtful; slanderous. 



Large, big, grand. 


Bulky; massive. 

Much; plenty. 

Excessive; superfluous; remaining. 

Little; some. 

Spacious; ample; wide (as room, 

road, etc.). 
Broad; wide; level; flat. 

Disproportionately wide (or broad). 

Narrow (as street, door, opening). 

Tall; high; noteil (metaph.). 

Low; shallow; humble (metaph.). 
Long; also gigantic. 
Short; brief. 

As many examples will be given as 

Mahal. Aug minamahat, the es- 
teemed, dear, etc., person or thing. 


Tamoh'm. TamOy use, utility, benefit 

Walana kabolohdn. Ex.: Walang 
kabmohdn ang gated mo^ your work 
is without value; uselei^. 

Mabuti, Mahviing tauo, a gooil per- 

Miutamd. Kammcuinf evil. 

Makapaparujanydya. From anydya, 
payiy and maka^ with pa, A gooci 
example of the building up of 
wonls in Tagalog. Panganyaffnng 
tauOy a man who destroys the 
property of another. 

Malakdf. Mnlakds na t&uo, a strong 
person . MalakAs na h angin^ a h igh 

Mahind. Kahinaarij weakness. 

Malnkl. Kalak-hdn^ grandeur; size. 


Mnrami ( from dami. ) Karamihan, 

plentv; abundance. 
}f<idid. * 

Luhhd (also means **very" before 
another adjective. ) Lubhang saktt, 
serious illness. 

Kannti. ^Manmang kang Tagdlogi 
/Do you understand Tagalog? Op6, 
yes, sir. ^Inglht Kauntt^ p6, a 
little, sir. 

Afaluarig. Maluang 7ia silid^ a wide 
(or spacious) room. 

Maldfrtiff. ATo/aparan, breadth. Ma- 
Idpnd na ij^lp, broad minded. 

Maiuag. MaJnag na looby a magnan- 
imous heart (metaph.). 

' Mak'ipot. Makipot ang ddan, a nar- 
row road. Makipot na tgip, nar- 
row-minded. Kakipotanj narrow- 
MakUid. Makitirany narrowness. 

Matans. Kaiaamn^ tallness, height. 

Mal/tlim. Kalalhnany depth. ^faU\' 
Urn tia gdlity deep anger. 

Mahnhd. Kababaany low ground; 
also humility. Mababang looby a 
submissive (humble) disposition. 

Mahabd. Mahabang ttdayy a long 
bridge. Mahabang tauoy a gigan- 
tic man. 

Maikli variation {maikst). Maikling 
buhayy a short life. 



Close; short (aa hair, beard, etc.) 
Square; equal on all sides. 

Round; circular. 

Thick (as a board, book, etc.). 
Thick (as liquor, clothes, etc.). 

Coarse; rough. 

Rare; thin. 
Slender; fine. 


Light (not heavy); easy (nietaph.). 

Strong; intense; heavy. 


Presseil; compact; packed; solid. 
Hollow (as a tree, etc. ). 

Clean; neat. 

Pure; limpid; clear. 

Turbid; muddy (as water); bleared 
(as eyes); thick (a.M the speech). 

Pure (and without mi.vture). 

Light; fine (like chaff, paper, etc.). 
Dirty; filthy; disgusting; nai^ty. 

Dirty; disgusting, etc. (Southern), 
Filth v; indecent. 
Innumerable; numberless. 
Full; complete. 
Insufficient; not enough; less. 

Empty; sometimes wide. 


Parist'ikat (from snkat, to measure, 

and /)</n>, equal, as). 
Mnb'ilog. Kahiloinuiy or paffkahUo'j, 

Malit7(jin ( rare) . 


Mail mil. MaVnnit na ddmit, thick 

MagdspaiK}. M<i(jA»p<nnj mi kanin, 
coarse food. (Synonym, mai/dpdnf/ 
konin. ) 


M(Uiipiii. Kanlpisan, slenderness. 
Mnnij/is na kataufin, slender 

Mnbujat. MabUfut na looh, heavy 

Miujddn. Kufjaanaji, lightness. J/r/- 
gadn itoiif/ knhoif, this wood is light. 

MatUidi. Mdthul'nuj gamo^, strong 
medicine. Katitidi, a counter- 
weight or balance. Mntind'nuj looh, 
heavy hearted. 

Mniijt'nuj (this word is provincial and 
not generally used to-day). 


Miujutnig. ( luawjaii itong haligi lt<\ 
this harigue (house pillar) is hol- 

MdUnia. A<////i<>//j, cleanliness, ^fn- 
lin{f< U(i dnniit, clean clothes, ^fn' 
llnis no /oo/>, clean hearted. 

Molindo. Tnhig na imdindo, or tna- 
liudit wt ti'ihlgj i>ure or limpid 
water. Malindo na looh, j)ure 



lahfis. Ddias na gintd, pure gold. 
Kahn ( a local word is galhok or galho) . 
Mddtnui. Kannnhan (c()ntr. ), dirti- 
ness, iilthinesH, nastiness. Madn- 
niihon, dirty, etc., object. 
Madiri. Madirihin, dirty, et(;., per- 

S(dauohi. Kosidanolaan, tilth, in<le- 

J>i niah'dong. { from di, not, an<l 

h/hmg, idea ot cniintin;:, iiund>er. ) 
J^nnn. M<i(/pund ka ito, c<>nq)lete or 

till thi>. ^ 
Knhtng. KaknhnTj/in, waste, lack. 

Ku/ang na hnnta. a lacking idea. 

J'id:nhn7i/iit nto sn opni/, dnnimsh 

the lire. 
PoiKing. Also nnUing Iniiuht, with- 

^\^^f i>nl r» or »n«»5»f 



Ojntnu'tecl; cramped (as a room) 

Consecutive; in order. 

Entire; whole; unbroken, etc. 
Broken; fractured, etc. 

Cooked (as food) . 

Raw; crude (as food, fruit). 

Edible; esculent. 

Poisonous (as toadstools, arsenic, 

Venomous (as the bite of the daJiong 

jMilaijj or rice snake). 
Fresh (as meat or fish, etc.). 
Spoiled; putrid. 
Impure; adulterated. 


Sour; acid. 

Salty; saline. 

Peppery; pungent. 


Nauseating; unkempt. 


Old; stable; permanent. 

Stale; musty (as rice, tobacco, wine). 



Thin; watery; fluid. 

Thick; dense; curdy. 

Sticky; adhesive. 


Flesh v; pulpv; meaty. 

lint. * 

Burning; ardent. 



Hard; solid; stiff. 
Soft; flexible; bland. 


Ildlo-hdlo. KahalOf mixture. Mcuf 

kaluilo ilong dlakf this wine is 

Sunofl-sundd (from gundd, idea of 

following, obeying, etc.) 
Basag. Baba9agin, broken article, 

from basagy idea of fracturing, 

breaking, etc., as the head, a plate, 

gla><s, etc. 

H'dAo. Jfildo pa, green yet 
Gabon; viakamandag, 



Mabolok. Bolok wa, putrid already. 

Hindi jmlos (from nindij not, arid 
puioa^ alike; of one color. 

maiamU. Katamimn, sweetness. 
TinamUf, sap of the nipa when 
freshly drawn. Matamis na vikd, 
sweet Hpee(!h (synonym matamit 
na maiTguwp), 

Mnamim. Kaasiman, sourness; acid- 

Mapait. Kapaitan, bitterness. 

Madlat. Kaalalan, saltiness. Ala- 
talaUin mo ang kanin, salt the food 
a little more. 






Malag\. Palagian mo ilong gawd, 
make this work permanent. 









Mainit. Aami7an, heat. Mainitang 
drao, the hot sun (or day). 

Madlnb. Houag mong pacUabalabin 
ang ningaSy do not add fuel to the 

Malahiiiimja. (Malakoko expresses 
a slightly greater degree of heat.) 


Mag'mdo. Maginauin, a chilly per- 

Matigdn. KatigoMiny hardness. 




Spongy; porous; soft. 

Ductile; flexible. 


Sharj^ened; ground. 


Hacked; notched. 

RuMty (as iron, etc.). 

Slippery; slimy. 

Anything oily or smeared with oil. 

Rockv; stony. 


Rough; rugged. 


Swampy; boggy. 
(iradual; little bv little. 

Sudden; abrupt; hasty; eager. 

Impa.s<al>le; impenetrable. 
Diflicnilt; laboriou.*^. 

Diificult; intricate; slow. 
Inaccessible; not to l)e reache<l. 


Unfathomable; abysmal. 

Distant; far. 

Hare; scarce. 
Common; ordinary. 

KatiilinKUi, .sharpness. 
Kafn/isan, poiiitcdness. 
TiiHtfjia, what ground, etc. 

Bultofjhag. Jlhi'lt hahaghng, not 
porous; imjxjrous. 

MakiuKtl. .\ls(» a kind of taffy 


Mill I 'Hit. 


MatoiiHil. }f((t<))nti/ na stDidcmg^ a 
dull sword. This word is often 
api>lic<l to business, trade, etc. 

BitTijoo. Also noun with forward 
accent. Mnlal'i ung h'nTijmi itilomj 
HHiiiiniKj, this sw(>rd is very dull 
(lit., ^:reat is the dullness of this 
sworfl ). 

X'ikahi/(initiTtjn)i or Krnak<d<ui.aiig 
[ f roDi kdhfuaiuj, rust ) . \ I so name 
of town in I.a Laizuna Province 
with ('. (.'(ihnKuuj. 

Mddnh'is ; mnmlan. 

MithnTgi.mH or yahnlaiTj/isnt). 


Mftii /n'dik: malusttk. 

l*ns(tk(fl (rare). Mnloki ang f:ap}tit(i- 
halmi nniuj hinxlifk, the ruggedness 
of th(^ mountain! s) is very great. 

MuhnhfiiTijlii. Kdhfthnin/hi, sandy 
beach, or sandy ground. 

Mfddhan. Also name of town in 
Ri/al IVovim-e, Luzon. 

I^nti-diifl. I'lifi \» ]>rol)al»ly a varia- 
tion oinn'iiti; hfinntl^ means "lit- 
tle," "small." et<'. 

liiijhi. K<(hi(ji(U(u, eagerness, /V//- 
//A, syn. Ili'ihtii'i «/(tim : ju'iltik nn 
(jaini, (juiek work. 

1)1 )iHtfhniii<m (from dthui, road, and 
(lt\ not, with ]ilaee ending (///). 

}f(f/itnip. Mahirnjt fjdirin, a <iithcult 
or lalmrious task. Anfj mdiTiia 
iiinji'n-iip, the working classes. 

MalUKifj. Di uHi/'mnt/, easy. Walamj 
I'lddf], w ithont difficulty. 

I>i nmrat'ii7ii<t}i (from dntinf/, idea of 
arrival, and di not, Avith place 
(*nding an). 

Di iitnlnpffdii (forme(l liketheabove 
from the root /njfif, i«iea of near- 

1)1 nmtdrok (formed like the fore- 
going from (arnk, "to s<»imd the 
water" ). 


Mdldpit (also Ittfhdo). 
aid I f'dfdil ad dt'in* 
anywhere near us? 


Karduinnn. Kdrttiiitiamj ddintin, 
usual dress. Kdntuiddnfj trikd, an 

Is the 





Crooked; bent. 

Fra|j;rant; odorous. 
Fetid; Htinking. 
DeliciouH; pleasant. 

NoxiouH; inalifipiant. 

Powdere<i; pulveriied. 

Sonorous (as a liell). 






WholeK>nie; salubrious. 


Fearful; dreadful. 



Kight ( hand) . 

Left (hand). 

In the middle. 
To one wde. 

Maiiko. Likolikong ddan^ a road 

with many turns. Min^an paug 

lumiko, one turn (or bend) more. 

Mabaho. KalxUiodn, fetidity. 
Kalugod'lngod (from tugod^ idea of 

pleasure, eto. ). 
Makammmd (from tamdy idea of evil, 

the particle makti and tense redu- 
plication m for present). 
Dorog (means putrefiea in H(»iiie 

Matnntpg ^from tuuog, sound). 
Hindi jHiriif. 

A'oi/aa; koyap (both rare). 
M(lluknng. Malnkong na p'mgan, a 

deef) plate, like a soup plate. 
Kaghihaginfuhta (from ginhdua, idea 

of relief, rent). 
KakHakildf*ot ^from kildbot, idea of 

trembling with fear). 
Kdtakottdkfpf {(rom tdkot^ idea of fear. 

Knlakotmit fear, dread). 
Xabirdan (from ddaiiy idea of pase- 


Damting (from ddtiug, idea of ar- 

Kan an. Kanankanaii, a little to the 
right. Kaiiarikananin w*o, go a lit- 
tle to the right Aug nakakanan, 
what 1 ies to t he right. Pakanan ka^ 
go to what lies on the right. 

Kaihid (same compounds as the 

t^i gitmi. Gitriang gab-t, midnight. 

JSd tabi. 

A few of the foregoing are not strictly adjwtives, either in Tagalog or 
English, bnt are put here for convenience. 

All; €»ntirely; wholly. 


All (kinds or classes). 

Kach one. 

Paua (generally used with adjec- 
tives). Pnxuiug maga/htg, wholly 
gocnl. Pawing magagcUvig tti/d, 
they are all goo<.l. Pauang matitim 
itila, they are all black. Hmiag 
monq panaing tauagin^ do not call 
all. ' 

lAihat { gtmerally applied to persons ). 
Jjahathi mo ang paiTginTguttiu, 
s|)eak to all of them.; syn., tanau 
([)rovincial). Tandng ' tduo, all 

D'dan (provincial). Dilang ungingy 
all kind.s of bananas. 

Baking m'l. Bdlang firao, S(»nif day. 

BduaU ifa. 



The following w a list of what colore are generally used by Tagalogs, 
with some names also not now ordinarily heard. 




Maputt Kapuiian^ whiteness. Ang 
haputian nang itlog^ the white of 
an egg. 

Mnilim. KaUimariy blackness. 

Mapuld. Kaputahaiit redness, ^i- 
muldf blush; redness of the face. 

Madilao; marilao (from dUao^ a root 
dyeing yellow ) . Marilao na damit, 
yellow clothing. Also name of 
town in Bulacdn Province, named 
from same plant (curcuma delagen). 
Also name of barrio of Manila (San 
Fernando de Dilao). 

Bughao ( Bataan Province ) . Buk-hao 
(var. ). 

Ginuiay (from gulay, vegetables, 

Halongtiang (rare). 


(Mamutld. Kaputlaan, pallor; pale- 
Himutld, pale, discolored. 




Brown; brunette. 

Pale; discolored. 

Bright; clear; light 

Bright; shining (as the dawn, the Maningulng. Maningning parang li- 

stare, gold, etc. ). uHiyv?ay, bright as the dawn. 

Dark; obscure. Madilim. A'aSiVima?!, darkness, etc. 

Houag rmmg ipandilim itong cabayo, 

do not take this horse while it is 

All of one color; unicolorous. Pidxm. Mtiitim na pulusy black all 

over (as a horse). 

The following list comprises the majority of Tagalog adjectives pertain- 
ing to physical conditions of the body: 



Tall (in stature); high. 

Short (in stature). 

Dwarfish; short 


Elegant; beautiful. 


Ugly; deformed. 
Stuttering; stammering. 

Mute; dumb. 

Matandd. Katandaarif age. 

Bago. Binatdf youth, is sometimes 
used, as ang mnngd binatdy the 
youths (from bnthy child). 

Hagwiy; mahaguay. Haguay na 
tduoj a tall jierson. 

Lipoto (rare). 

Panda k. 

MaUibd. Katahaany fatness. 

Maqa nda . Kagandahan, beauty; 

Marikit (from diklty idea of pretti- 
ness). Korikiiany elegance, pret- 
tiness. Kariktang v^ikdy a graceful 


Magaril. Gariliny a stutterer; stam- 
merer. Utal'Utal is another word. 

JHpi. Kapipihnny dumbness. 

I^gaky variation Lapimk. Pisak ang 
isang maM, blind in one eye. 



Deaf. BiiTgl. Kabiugihanj deafnesB. Bing- 

itu/Hngif totally deaf, but bitigi- 
hirwi, somewhat or a little deaf. 
( The higher desree is formed with 
the "tie," the diminative without 
it. This is a general rule. ) 

Nasal; snuffling (as in the speech). Humal. 

Cross-eyed. Ihding. 

Blinking. Kikirapkirap (from kirap). 

Big-eared; long -eared; flap-eare<l; Malaki ang tahuja. 
large-eared; inegalotine. 

Thick-lipi)efl (person). J^gusoin (from ugwtOy lip). 

Wry-ui()uthe<l. I^i^itrt. 

Toothless. JSpo. Mnnipo^ lacking teeth. 

Pockniarke<l. Gatol-gatol. 

I-«ft-handiMl. Kaliu^te. 

Jjameinhand; one-handed; unable Kimao. 

to use hands, etc. 

Handy-leggwl; bow-legged. Saknng. 
Lame (on account of having legs of Hingkod. 

unequal length). 


Slow; deliberate 

Hairy; feathered. 


Grav-haired; gray-headed (person). 

Curled; crisp; curly (as hair). 

Curly or waving (hair). 

Bald (i^rson). 

Hairv (on body). 

Hairless (as some animals, etc.). 

Horned (animal). 

MadM; marali. 
(in work or Mahinny, Possibly a variation of 

mahina, weak. 

Mufxilahibd. IH pa makitd ang bala- 
hiho nang kamay, the hair of the 
hand can not yet be seen; an ex- 
pression used to express that it is 
not yet day. 


Adjective, mauban. 






Walang huhok. 

*Sui7Jf(iyin. StuTJ/ay, horn, also a 
twining plant resembling the con- 
volvulus or bindweed. 

^fay knllffkix. 

Mngntom'm. KagutomaUf hunger. 

Naunhdo. KanhavaHf thirst. 


Nnpdgal. Kapagnlan^ fatigue. 


May naht. Wahing sakit, without 
illness, i. e., healthy; well. 

Kamklt^aklt ( from .viX//, ideaof (min; 
sickness; illness). 

tSiigatin (irom mtgat^ wound). 

3/mM. Mntain^ sore-eyed person, etc. 


Pntny. Patayiu^ dead i)erson, ani- 
mal, etc. Samntay^ to be dead. 

The list of mental or moral attributes given l)elow does not, of course, 
en)brace all in the language, but the most usual are given: 


Hungry (person). 

Thirsty; to be thirsty. 

Rejjlete; satiated. 

Tire<l; to be tired. 

Numb or ** asleep," as the hands, 

feet, to l)ecome. 
Sick; ill; to l>e ill. 


\Vounde<l (person); having sores. 


Living; alive. 


Omnipotent; all powerful. 

Maknjmmfyarihon (from yaW, idea 
of finishing, etc., compounded 
with pan, maka, and sufiix haa). 



Brave; valiant. 

Timid (person). 
Abusive ([)erson or act). 

lia.«hful; timid; shame- faced. 

Bashful; modest (especially in char- 
acter ) . 

Modest in s]>eech; mofleratein j)lay. 
Modest; (piiet. 

Modest; slow. 

Modest (in carriage); slow; delib- 
Pi'Bceable; quiet. 
Tranquil; quiet. 

(ientle; tame; quiet (as animals). 

(.^uiet; pacific. 


Odious; rancorous. 

Fierce; savajre; wild. 
Quiet (in sleep, or in eating). 
Abstemious; moderate. 
Gluttonous; voracious. 
Bold; gallant; elegant. 
Bold; daring; insolent. 

Vain; proud; haughty; arrogant. 

Boastful; vainglorious. 

Neutral; indecisive; undecided. 


Famous; celebrated; noted; noto- 
Famous; celebrated; illustrious. 
Famed; honored. 

Matdpanfj (applied to wine, 
"strong," iiuUapang na alak^ 
strring wine. Knlapawjan^ brav- 
ery ) . 

Dni'iij. Ka(lt(Oi/an^ cowardice. 

}fnliiK'>tin (from 1'ikoi, kWn of fear). 

Mfij)afjtiuT(j(n,'<io (from tuiTijaydo^ in- 
sulting w<jrds). 

M(ii7(/ila. An (J ihtiTiiUA, the cause or 
reason of timidity, etc. Ainj 
jKunjitTfjilnhait, of whom or what 
afraid, etc. 



M((tiiu)i(j. Also means "high- 
jiitched," (as a voi<'e). 

yfdltinnhnii; )n<ib(ni(h/(i(i. 

Mitrdliitn (from dofmu, idea of delib- 

Mufmyd. Mn}>aii<ni(j l.'toh^ a tranquil 

Miuunn. Kaainoan, tameness; gen- 
tleness. Aiuj lutijkiimnoy the act of 
taming, breaking, etc. M<t<niiomj 
looh, a gentle disposition. 

T'lhhnik. Kntahiinikim, quietness. 
Itdh'nink nut diif/ hihi/j />/(>, keep 
youruiouth (piiet (shut upl). 

Palanmin. A''/(i«r/j/, an enemy. Antj 
maiTiia kaauau, the enem v. MaiT(ja 
kfiaunft, enemies. 

Maptif/tttiiini ( from tanun, idea of ran- 
cor, hate, etc., with infi/fOff pre- 

Miuhip. Kiiihi}n(u, lierceness. 






r(tldlo. KdjKildlodii, ])ride, vanity, 

Md/nnn(tiii<a<j (from hdni-dtj, osten- 

Viontj-sdhnxi (from drout/, to go 
back, etc.; ai'ilomj, togoaliea«l; to 
move on ). 


MdhdiitiKj. Kdhdiifdfjn)!, fame; n<>to- 

Md I'll III/ 1 ( rare I. 

MdrniT'idl I from ddinjdl, fame; 

))> k* W If \ 

KtipdiTijalidlidm n, in- 



Fame; noted; talked about 

M(«n; vile; worthlera; anfortunate. 
Mean; vile; worthieee. 

I>>vin>;; amorous (person). 

Affectionate; loving. 

Polite (i)ergon). 

Polite; courteous; respectful. 

("ourteous; respectful. 


Ironical; sarcastic. 

HoncM; riuht; straight. 

True; reline<i; perfect; pure (in 

Patient; firm; constant (person). 
Impatient (i)erson). 

Chanjreal)le; inconstant. 

Treasonable; treacherous; ungrate- 

Two-faced; double-fawnl; treacher- 
Giddy; thoughtless; careless. 
Blundering; wild. 

BalUd. Kahaliinnp (duo, a noted 
person. MaghabnlibalUang tduOy a 
newsmonger. Ano ang baliid, m 
biiifaut What news in touTi? 

Hamak. IMmak na iduo, a worth- 
less j>er9on. 

Tunand (originally meant '*freed- 
nianf' ** liberated slave." An- 
other word is btilisik, variation 
hulufiksik, literallv ** slave of a 
slave. * ' Kabuliftkah , slaver}- ; 

MaMntuhin (from tintdf love, origin- 
ally Sansk. rhinldj thought, care, 
through Malay chinta, care, anxi- 
etv, etc. ). 

Ma'ihiq. kathiglbigy amiable. A'ai- 
bigin, affection. Knihiaan^ friend; 
belove<l. ( Notice the difference in 
accent. ) 

MafHigiHtiauao (from jHilayao^ affec- 
tion, anfi majxig^ prefixed). Irog 
means ** great love." 

MaMigapin. Ang wgajxin^ person to 
wh<yn polite. 

Mapagpitagan (from pitagan^ honor, 
respect, and mapag). Ana pagpi- 
pilnganan, the person honored 
(from piiagariy prefixed by pag^ 
reduplicated first syllable pi for 
present tense and suffix an, here 
mdicating i)erson, but generally 
indicating place). 

Mania ngdlang. Ang kinaaaUtnga' 
lawjanarty the person to whom 
courteous (from alangalang, idea 
of courtesy, compounded with ka 
and in {kiiia) prefixed and an re- 
duplicated as a suffix). 

Magalang. Kagalangan, re»i>ect^ rev- 
erence. Magalangin^ courteoiiSy 
respectful person. 


Matuid. Katuiran, honesty. 



MugayawxLtin (from yamot, idea of 

annovance, etc.). 
S(^lanafuin. Saiauahang l&obf a 

changeable character. 
Malito. riuaolililohan niyd ang tna- 

arnpoHf he is ungrateful to his 


Matulig^ variation viatuling, 
Mahil6. Partial synonym dulingaB, 
which means "restless, unquiet'' 
more than **blundering" or 



Restless; turbulent; fidjjety. 
Restless; mischievous. 
Restless; uneasy; mischievous. 

Intolerable; insufferable. 
Unspeakable; unsayable; untellable. 

Joyful; contented (j:>erson). 


Happy; lucky. 

Lrfiughter-cau'sing; laughable; comic. 

Waggish; jesting; scoffing (person 


Just; fair; upright. 

Barbarous; tyrannical; despotic. 

Cruel; rigorous; severe. 

Agreeable; pleasing; joyous. 
Indulgent; generous; liberal. 


Merciful; charitable; lil^eral. 

Learned; wise; etc. 

Discreet; able. 

(1) Accomplished; (2) excellent. 

Magaslao. Magasl&o na tduo, a rest- 
less ]>erson. 

Gam. Aug gasohariy person dis- 

MiKjalao. Probably variation of urn- 
aashii). Magalao ang kaniag uhjdy 
his hand is restless(sai(l of a thief). 
Kdgnhntnn, mischief. Anggalaniriy 
the mischief. Attg galanatij person 

Di ma(l(dit(1,{iron\ dalitii, idea of suf- 
fering, and diy not). 

1)1 indsahi (from mhiy idea of telling, 
and (// not)., 

I)i ina.<iil(ing (from salang, idea of 
touching, with di, not). I^itin, 
noli iu(' f'uigeri', taken by Uizal as 
a title to one of his works. He 
signed many articles " Dimas 

Mdtddin, (from (ond, pleasure; con- 

Kddgddt/a ( from ayd, variation Hguya. 
K<i/igdi/ahdtf, contentment) . 

Mdpdidd. Wdldug pdlady unlucky. 

Makdfdtdud (from tavii^ laughter, 
with hiakd, and reduplicated first 
syllable ta to indicate j)re8ent 

Mrt/Ktgffiro: p<ddhir6. Tauong hir6, 
an inconsiderate person. 


Mdrd/f(d (from dapdt). Karapdldu, 

Mdhagi<ik. Also "power" in some 
cases. Kdhdgxikan, power; tyr- 
anny; etc. Aug pdgbdgsikaN, the 

MdhdiTijiii, KdhdiTf/is(nt, cruelty; 


MdfKigbigd]!. Also judpautigag. Both 

words are from higag, idea of giv- 
ing. The second is more properly 

the adjective. 
^fdd^^d. MttdHd'tn, a charital)le 

person. Kddtdian, charity, com- 

Mdp(tgliigd>/<( (from higdga, idea of 

mercy, cliarit y. Mdhlgdgdngtawi, 

a merciful or liberal person). 
Mdn'imntg (from dnu^mgy idea of 

wisdouK KdrunoiH/du, wisdom). 

Mdrt'iiKing katig Jiigltsf {C'dsd/d/). 

Do y<»u understand English? 

}fdsikdp. Kdsikdjta k , d iscret ion ; 

( I ) J'diidut lid tdiut, an accomf)lished 

innn- ( LM Mdualuni mi dhik. e\- 



Able; acrompliehed. 
Fine (in bearing). 

Prudent; judicious. 

Thoughtful; grave. 

Vigilant; awake; known. 

Incompn^liensible; inimitable. 
Simple; silly. 

Stupid; foolish; beast-like; cracked 
(as a plate). 

FooHhIi; stupid. 

Useless; stupid. 

Stupid; foolish; malicious. 

F(Kjlish; stupid; dull; gaping. 

Childish; foolish. 
Idiotic; simple. 

Crazy; in.«ane. 

Lal)ori()us: diligent; industrious, 
l^zv; blow. 

Slow; tanly; lasting. 

Pantds. PantAs na tduo, an able 
man. Kaitaniamny ability. 

BuHabiis. BiiMbiiMifiug mi waginoOy 
a very fine gentleman. Kahum- 
htiM}iy excellence, etc. 

Mnttnit. MaUilt ua UtuOf a prudent 
person. Daiagimg mabaitf a pru- 
dent girl. 

Timtim (provincial wonl). 

Mahigot. Keally *' heavy" (fn>m 

Mugmmj (fn»m gisiiuj^ idea of 
awaking). Definite is in imu^ not 
an. Sagi^nnn ko ang findol Lagaf*-!, 
I was awakened by the earthquake 
last night, (rinisnan ko va kafntg- 
H(Hf}ia aiig asai vn ynon^ I have 
alwavs known of that custom. 


Muang. Timdug, foolish; stupid. 
Miwgmangy fool, dunce; al^^o lack 
of memory, forget fulness. Mawjd^ 
variation maugaly silly, foolish. 
MamatTgaiy to act foolishly. Xag- 
in<miaiTgihuaiTgafia)if to feign stu- 
pidity. This meaning of vmilljd 
must' not l)e confused with the 
homonvm indicating plurality, 
w hich is made up of the |>articles 
mn and nijd. 

linngdo (rare). Pattgauiu, a stupi<l 
Tnksil. TaksU na tnuOy a stupid 

])erson. Katakfiiuii^ stupidity. 
Bnwlntf. Knbfmdajfoyij foolishness. 
Aug pagkafHindatf, the error. 
fiangakhtf one regarded as a fool 
ordimce. Jfovag mo txkoiiginwgu- 
kai\,i\o not try to fool me (make a 
fool of nje). Also kaharTgalan, 
foolishness, from haiigal, foolish. 

TntTfjak, variation tungag. 


TaiTijA. MagtangdUniujahatiy to feign 
stupiditv. A rare word for "fool- 
ish" is lankas. 

l.hTgd», variation oufjd. 

Btilift. KnM'nnw, idiocy. Baliuith 
a foolish or idiotic j^erson. (Vi/w/- 
yong Mtaliiimy a foolish or nma- 
way horse. 

Ulfil, variation olol. Kaulvkw, in- 

Maifipag. Kasipagan, industry, etc. 

Tamnd {Maftngtamad), Katamnrau, 

Mnhfiitt. }f(douat na kdhoy, durable 
wood. ( yfalonag is ' • slack, loose." 
and mahigpit is '* tight.'*) 





Fraudulent; cheating. 

Evil-lived; criminal. 



OV>e<lient (person). 

T^i{*olx?dient; contradictory. 
Hold; shanielesfi. 
Forjfetf ul ( person ) . 

Rich; prosperous. 

Poor; miserable. 
Miserable; stingy. rable. 

Talkative (as a child). 
Loquacious (as many persons). 

CJarrulous (as an old person). 
Silent; reserved; secretive. 

Economical; stingy. 
Economical; saving. 


Tofoo. Tiruttotoo ko any irikn, I am 
keeping my word. Tunan has 
more ttie sen.'^e of real, perfect, n - 

Bdl'Kin. Mdhubdhuinai) rtn himiii ."o- 
lltd mo, you are lying in your ac- 
count. SbiviTijalmy is a '"liar" or 
** prevaricate r." /'iti'KjiiinuiTyali- 
iTijitn ki), I told him you lie. 

Mdgddram (from dnyd, fraud de- 
ceit, with nmy and reduplicated 
first Hvllable of root). Nndnmion 
(tko iimuj h'lob ko, my heart de- 
ceived me. 

Masiuaf. ^f<lsiu(d i\a tduo, an evil 

iMftiny. Another word is derived 
from I(u7(j6. KnlatTjjohdn, drunk- 
enness. A rare word is as/ak. 
X<((iaslaka}i kd fi^ta, you act as if 
you were drunk. Drunkenness is 
a rare vice among Tagalogs. 

M(tj)infn<ii<(i (from nasa and nutpafi). 
Another word is derived from/nila, 
desire, longing. Ar((o na kajnta- 
)dtn, a longed-for day. Mar/pita 
kd'/o i^ii akin ndiHj ihig nihyo, ask 
mo wiiat vou desire. 

MtijnttjIinTiit (from hiwjt, 
litely, and nut pug). 

Mosnnnrin (from snnod. 

Mast nan/. Kasouatfan, <lisobedience. 


Midhaadn (from I'unot, idea of forget- 

Maildman. Kat/aNuinan, wealthi- 

Dfikhd. Kadnkltaan, poverty, 

Mara mot (from ddmot). Ikhnof ako 
natiij aalapl, I am short «>f money. 

Makiuf/kiag. Taaoiig makitnjking, a 
miseral)le j>erson. 

Mau-ikd (frrmi nikd, word). 

Matahd (from f(ddl, idea of talking 

Masai ltd (from s(ditdy a story, news). 

Matiaip. Matiiiip na looh, a secretive 

Matlpid. k'atitipdan, parsimony. 

Maarimtdianaii [ Irom arimohan) . . I ri- 
nutUaitin mo itong fdlak, save this 
money. Two rart» words fnr the 
same idea are maimpok and maagi- 

Makas'isird ( from sird, idea of destruc- 

tirm iiiiil nitthit with r<*rhirt1i«>at«->(1 

to ask po- 
See Con- 



Traveling; peregrine. 

Unbaptize^i; infidel; pagan. 

Belon^ng to; ]>ertaining to. 


Guilty; culpable; mnful. 

Fruitful; to bear fruit. 

Other; different; diverse; distinct. 
Sole; unique; onlv. 
La£(ting; eternal; infinite. 






Reserved; set aside. 

Secret; to l)e secret. 
Occupied; to l>e occupied. 

Idle; without work. 
Passionate; quick-tern pereil 

Hasty; of a bad <lis])oeition. 
Thankful; to be thankful. 




NahTtjifxing bdyan (from bdyan, town; 
town, iM, other, and the redupli- 
cated jiarticle innn^ in the present 
tense, hence changed to najTfj and 
irVj, Literally, **from another 

JH binyagan ,(from binyag, to bap- 
tize, and (//, not). Binyag is said 
to have been a Bomeee (Arabic?) 
word brought by Mohammedans 
to the Philippines. Its original 
meaning is said to have been ** to 
]K)nr water from above." 

Nnuukol (from tzibo/). Nauukol ta 
Dios at nauukol m Ot-mr, l)elonging 
to (iod and belonging to Caesar. 


NagkftkfuuiitX (from mid). Walang 
salt), innocent, not guilty. 

NamumiiiTija (from bunga^ iniit, with 
ina {na) and reduplicated first syl- 
lable of root, which is here soft- 
ene<l to m fn»m h). Hindi nnmu' 
mutrtjn^ unfruitful. Buugahan^ a 
fruitful tree or plant 

Ntigiim (from isn, one). 

]Val(wg h(ni(/dii{\it.f ** without end," 

Nuiatapun (from Ufputt^ end, finish. 

Topus mij finished now). 
Wabtug kmmiUiifnn (lit., '* without 


Waltnu/ ittm. 

Mnhayag. Kahayagan^ publicity. 

Naykaknbnkod (from bukody idea of 
reservation, setting aside, etc. 
Jiiihlmi nut ak6 mwq daUiu^Af put 
two aside for me. itabukorarij ree- 
er vat ion, etc.). 

Naiih im . Lihim na gawdj secret work 
or decnl. 

Nnnnhain (from ahala^ idea of occupa- 
tion; the particle ?m ( present tense 
of )iKi) and r;, re<iuplicated first 
syllable of root for present tense). 
Ahnliiliin or J/rta6<i//i/»m, a busy 

JVfifdiiff gawd. 

Mnguhtim (ironi gnlit^ idea of anger). 

Guham'i. Kagahaiutany hastiness. 
Siiuwdi'imat (from sai6matf thanks; 

derived from Arabic,* taldmai, 

|)eace; safety). 
Nfikniidugod (from Ingody gratitude, 

nakuy and the reduplicated firet 

syllabic of root). 
Wdlang iugod; also malUo, 



Lii-it; legal. 

Iramaterial; useless. 

Uhidinous; sensual. 
Asleep, to be; sleepy, to be. 

Aged; venerable; mature. 

Tired, to l)e. 

Alone; unai'GOinpanied. 

Companioned; chaperoned, 








Keadv, to be. 

Unread V, to be. 




Clean; neat. 

Dirty; unclean (as the clothes). 





Copied (thing, etc.). 

3lethodical (person). 




Profitable (thing). 



Plain; clear (as a room). 

Manufactured; made up. 

Raw; crude (as material, etc.). 


Spun (also thread). 

Plaited (as a mat). 

.Va/y//(/,als() ''right," ''straight, "etc. 

Himil nmtnld, illicit, illegal, etc. 
Wal<th<j gamit. 


MtituhKj. M'itutulo(f hn(/d kai/o.^ Are 
you t^leepy? SntutuhHj IxKjd siifdf 
Is he aslocp? Pfitnlotpuii mo aiya, 
let liiin nleep (or tell him, or her, 
to go to sleep). 

}f(n;u/<()i(j. A lit) ina/T(}d magulangy 
the aged; parents; ancestors. 


Nagilsd; imlcmg kaiiaDid. 

M(ig kdsttind. 

Ilnnit nutdlam. 

Mag (imud. 

Waldiig (isdiut. 

JhunahaytHl hang bouU. 

Hindi Iniiiiuhoui^. 


]V(ild rita. 

Malta n<ld. 

Iliiifl! harafd. 

Mag paghihili. 

Hindi ]Highihili. 

Mahalagd. Walang halagd, worth- 
less. Magkann ang halagd niiof 
What h tile value (price) of thi.«? 
Xagkasii<inghalatfd, of the same 
value, at tiie same jirice. 


Masano. Masauong damit, dirty 



}faj>d/<(d. Wahnaj pdlad, unlucky. 

Xanana (troiii nna, first; not S]). ). 

tSinahn (from sa/in, idea of transfer- 
ring, transplanting, etc.). 

Ma/taraanin. \V<dang }>araa)i, with- 
out method. 

Xaaa ii<)!^ [\T(m\ an(n*)\ nannkol (from 

Hindi (igi»i. Hindi dapat, nnlit. 

Miutgos. Walang gn/o, without con- 

Magn/it. Kagnlo/ian, <'onfusion, dis- 

M(ij>akinafta/n/in (from iHikindbang, 
idea oi making a profit, etc.). 

Wuhnnj jtakind/xing. 


Ali na/as. 

(iinanui (from gaud and in). 

Hindi gari. 

Hinidti (from hahi, idea of weaving). 

Sinf'did ( from aulidf idea of spinning). 



Cultivated; plowed. yaaararo (from 8p., arorfo, plow). 

IJimft naaararOf uiK^ultivated; un- 

Open. Bvbtfi. finkftdn mo itong pintOf open 

thiH door. 

Shut; closeil (tiling). P'mdan. Pm<fan mo cmg durunga- 

nan, shut the window. Some na- 
tives say mrhan moy undoubtedlv 
a corruption of the »^panish verb 
c<rrar, to close. 

Spread; extended. iMtag, Xakakdlnt, stretched; taut. 

Folded; doubled, etc. Tinikhp (from tiklop^ idea of dou- 



The Tagalog a<ljective, like arljectives of other languages, has the three 
degrees of quality to be indicatwl — the simple form (\\'nich is generally 
called the positive), the comparative, and the superlative. Of course, as 
in Knglish, some adjei'tives are excluded from comparison by their mean- 
ing, such as those for **dead,'* *'alive,'* "entire," and some others. 

The |X)sitivc adjective is that fonn discussc<l in the prece(iing pages, and 
the comparative will now be taken up. Of this there may be said to exist 
three varieties, the comparative of equality, that of suj)eriority, and that 
of inferiority. In English the first form is expressed by "as (adjective) as 
(noun)," the second by **er" or "more," and the third l)y "er" or "less." 

In Tagalog there are three ways by which the comparative of equality 
may be expressed. The first is by using theadverl) jmra ( variationiwW/tj, 
meaning "as," "so," etc. In some cases "like" ex pn^sses the Tagalog 
idea best. With adjectives or common nouns jxira ( paris) takes the tie tH/, 
but with names of persons, etc., and pronouns is followed by what is 
compared, which takes the genitive cane. Kx.: Parang mahvti (how 
good), majiiiti pnrang g<ftas (as white as milk), vtaitim jmrang tiling [jbls 
black as charcoal), paraug pnta>f (like a dead person), parang hdyop (like 
al)east); Akd'g jtara vntf (Am I like you?) ftig(Vtf par Is ko (he [she] is 
like me), waliit parix ko (as small as I am [small like me]), siga mahait 
para ni Juan (he is as prudent as Juan), avg ihg an Naga^y malonang 
para namj Pasig (the river at Naga [Nueva Ciiceres] is as wide as the 
Pasig). With the particle ka denoting likeness, />ara indicates equality, 
the particle being prefixed to the adjective in such cases. Ex.: Para 
nit/ong maiTija tatiOy kahvhuti (equally good as these peo]>le). This word 
para^ whi(!h as a root denotes "equality," "close resemblance," etc., 
should not be confused with the Spanish word jtara, meaning "to," "for," 
etc., as the resemblance is purely accidental. The Tagalog word is Ma- 
layan, the Javanese word pad' a having substantially the same signification. 

The second way of expressing eoualitv with an adjective is by means of 
the particle «/»7, which denotes this iHea precisely. Kx.: ltd y mnghafxi 
niijan (this is as long as that), mf^'y ninglaki ko (he is as large as I am), 
singlaki si Ptdro ui Jnan (Pe<lro is as large as Juan). It will be seen by 
the examples that the object or person compared takes the genitive case 
and the subject the nominative. 

The thin! wav of indicating equality with the adjective is by means of 
the consoli<late(l particles ka ancl sinrjj i. e., kasing, the syntax being the 
same as with sing only. Ex.: 7(<5'// kasinahaM niydn (this is as long as 
that), i<i Pedro' y kasingtaiUui Juan (Pedro is as tall as Juan). 

When e<]uality is to be indicated for more than two objects it niay l»e 
expressed in two ways. The first is by ]>refixing sing to the root, of wliich 
the first syllable is reduplicated. Ex. : SinghahnfMt (equally long [things] ), 
singhuhuii (equally good [persons or objects]), singtatam anq maginA ni 
Bangoy (Maria) (Maria and her motlier are the same in height). Th^ 


second is by prefixing kasing to the root, the particle mag being prefixed 
to knahiOt forming magkamng. Ex.: M(igkni<iiigduiwng (e(]ually wise 
[learned]), magkasingtjainnn (equally wealthy [rich]), (iiig vniqina ni 
Bangoy (Maria) ay magkatdngtads (Maria an<l her mother are the same in 
height [equally tall]), ang marnjd cahayont ang mawjd kalfilxio ay vmg- 
kaMjigdami sa hayan ltd (there are as many hon^es as there are carabao in 
thiri U)wn ), mayroon kang bagd bigd» na ka.'^iugdnnn iiang judayf ( Have you 
ad much hulleii rice aa vou have of the unhulled?). 

E<|uality in quantity mav al(-o I )e expressed by mngkapara^ mcu/kapanjt, 
or magkapantay, the two object** (compared taking the nominative, and the 
ro<»t denoting cjuantity having ka prefixed \o it. Ex. : Aug higds ko at ang 
higds iilyd maglapnris karaini {he and I have the name quantity of rice). 
Literally ''my rice and his rice is the f^ame in quantity." Those influ- 
ence<l by Spanish are liable to say "his rice and my rice," but the other 
order is that of the Malayan languages generally. 

The c()m|)arative by decrease is formed by the use of the adverb ki'ilang, 
(le««), preferably with the negative particles <// or him/l, as Aw/Af//'/ aUme 
has many times the force of "not," "without," "un-," etc., but, as in every 
language, the context serves as the best guide. Ex.: Jtung hiy'is na it&y 
kulang fta dkm binili (this rice is less than theamount I b »ugl)t), (Utg halugd 
Hong caftayo Uo*y kulang sa halagd tiang dn't (the value of this horse is less 
than the value of the other), ang maiTgd kfd<diao kulang nn)ig dnnti aa maiujd 
cabayo sa bayan ito (there are fewer carabao than horses in this town), ang 
inatTjfd Tagalog ay kulang na}ig tads na inatTi/d AmfrirajKt (Tagalo;rs are not 
as tall [literally, "less in stature"] than Anu'ricans), ang knknUtiTijan (the 
difference in price, the balance, the difference in amount, etc. ). 

Alawjan (lacking, insufficient, etc.) is sometimes used in place of kulang. 

Ex.: Ang kaytnnanan id Otpdan Tino^y alaiTijaa sa knyainanan ni ('apitan 

Luis (the wealth of Captian Faustino is less than the wealth of Captain 

'^uis), cdangan pa Hong bald itd (this child is not oM enr>ugh yet). 

There are three wavs in which the comparative bv increase mav be 

xpressed. The first is by the position of tlie wonls only, what exceeds 

iking the nominative and what is exceeded the ablative with kay or sa, 

»ese two particles expressing "than." The particle ay is sometimes used 

Ith the nominative word. 

The second method is by prefixing the adverb laid (more) to the 

jective, with the same construction as the fore^'oinj:. 

The third way, which is oidy used correctlv for comparing (jualities, is 

med by suffixing pa (yet, still to the adjective) either alone or in 

junction with laid. Ex. : ( 1 ) }fatadA akd sa iyd, or akd' </ mata/is sa iyd; 

ak6*y lalong matadssa iyd; (IH nmtadx pa akd sa iyd, or lahtng matans jn 

MX iyd. All the forejroing may be translated ])y "I am taller than y< u 

" (1) Payat ka aa dati (you are thinner than yrui were before), ni 

'o*y jnojttpag kay Juan (Pedro is more industrious than Juan), alin ang 

l-jji, kay Pedro ni Jnanf (Which is the more al^rt, re<lro or Juan?); si 

(Juan); si Juan ay nmhait sa kaniyd; (2) si Juan ay hdong mabait sa 

'd; (3) si Juan ay malnjit pa sa kaniyd (Juan is more prud(*nt than he 

le] is). (1) Ang hibanahC y nndial fta kiufainauftn; (2) hibmg nndnil 

ibanalan aa kayanianan (worth is more precious than wealth), ifd'y 

magaling »a diydn (this is Wtter than that), iydn ay lalong niapuU sti 

hat is whiter than this), labmg niarami any nntmjd cabayo sa maiTyd 

O sa bayan itd, lapinVt ang inatTj/d laga bukid mayrdon hdong kahdmit 

vuiiajd iaga bayan; (3) there are more horses than carabao in this 

but tlie fanners have more carabao than the town people, si Ciriaca 

\ pa sa akin^ iTgnnVt ang kaptdid k<ntg babttyr'y marikit ]ta sa kaniyd 

% is younger [literally, "more of a child yet"] than 1 am, but njy 

9 prettier than slie is), siyd'y Udo pang koytnnangi sa kaniyang 

Hit pa siyd sa dkin (she is still darker [more brunette] than her 

and is shorter yet than I am ) . 

•nic but correct form (»f com])arison is expressed by using /></ aftnr 
in, especially in asking a question. Ex. : Hindi »»" - 


( It was not reached by you ; shall I? ) . ll'mdt ko tiaaalaman ; xkao paf ( I do 
not know it; do you?). 

For the negative form of the comparative, as in such phnu^es expressed 
in English by *' without comparison," '*there is nothing like it," 
'Hhere is nothing ret^emblin^ it," etc., Taealog has several expressions 
almost alike in meaning, which are formed by prefixing ka to various 
roots; the negative wa/a, (there is no [t]) with the tie Jig preceding the 
root and its prefix. An is sometimes found as a sufiSx with these expres- 
sions. £x. : 

WaUing kdhalimbAua^ without comparison; 

Walang kahalintulad, without similarity ( generally in speaking of objects) ; 
Walaug katiUady without similarity; unlike; both the foregoing from ttUad; 
Walang kaJiamhing, without resemblance; synonym; 
Walang kauHtiujiSy without resemblance; 
Walang kaholilipy without likeness (this phrase is rare); 
Walang kmnukhd J without facial resemblance, from muk-hdy face; 
Walang kapaniag, without an equal; referring mainly to height, length, 

Walang katidamitan, without resemblance (a rare expression) ; 
Walang kawangki, without resemblance (also a rare phrase). 

To ask questions as to comparative e<iuality, inferiority, or superiority is 
done in Tagalog with ga (how) pretixe<l to alin (which), or and (what), 
in conjunction with ka prefixed to the root of the quality. With many 
adjectival roots ga and ka thus serve to show that the degree of the quality 
is the subject of inquiry. Ex.: Gaalin kalaijof (About how far is it?); 
Gcumong kalakif (Al>out how large is it?); (iaanong kahabat (About how 
long is it?) ; Gaalin kapxUif ( How white is it?) . The answer may be given 
with the same construction, prefixing ga to a demonstrative pronoun or 
a noun, as the case may be, but if an adjectival root be used, it shouhl be 
prefixed by ka, Ex.: Gaito; ganito (like this); ganiydn (like that); 
gagatas kaputi (as white as milk); ganUoug knlaki (about as large as this); 
ganoong kaliabd (about as long as that). Gaya is a variation. Ganga^ 
another form, is generally used to inciicate plurality. Ex.: Ganga nili 
kaldki (about as large as these); ganga niyan kahafxi (about as long as 
those). The noun, j>ronoun, or a<ijective compared sometimes takes the 
nominative and sometimes the genitive in these answers. Ga and its vari- 
ations may be said to express likeness, and is but an offshoot of ka. In 
many cases na is also inserted in the sentence. Ex.: Gaalinq na gaitd 
kaoniif (How small is it, like this?). The letter n instead of iTg is used in 
some phrases. Ex.: Ganan akin (that which belongs to or affects me); 
ganan inyo (that which affects you), etc. 


The superlative degree of the adjective may be divided into the simple 
and the absolute forms. The first, UHually expressed in English by the 
use of the adverbs "very," "extremely," "excessively," "exceedingly," 
"8urpass«ingly," etc., is expressed in Tagalog by the following adverbs: 

(1) Luhhd, very, very much, ex<'ee<lingly. 

(2) MdsdkH, extremely, exceedingly, hard (as in the phrase, **to rain 

hard"). Distinguished by difference in accent from masakUj (ill). 
This adverb is used more with verbs than with adjectives. In some 
places sadyd has the sense of "very;" ex., xadyana linis very clean. 

(3) Dt sapala, extremely, exceedingly, from <//, not, and sapala, humble, 

unworthy, the idea of the adverb being that of plenty or sufficiency. 

(4) T)i hdmak, extremelv, from di, not, and hdiuak, vile, worthless, mean, 

the whole idea being "not imltry," "not mean." 

(5) I)i palakj far, widely. 


(6) LiihiSf too, too much. This a<lverb lias soiiietiines a slight idea of 

craft, cunning, or slyness. 

(7) Totooy truly, exactly, precisely. 

The adverbs formed with di always follow the adjective in the sentence, 
but the simple adverbs may either follow or precede the adjective. 
Ex. : 

di lnhmik. 
}fa((indd shiii { Inhiit. 



»iy(i matandd: He (she) is very old (too, truly, etc.). 

Lnhhu ^ 


The folU)w ing phrases will illustrate the various idiomatic uses of the 
adverbs with the adjective: (1) Luhhd anfj jKn;l:npa«jni ko (I am very tired; 
lit., '* very great is my fatigue" ); (2) i7(/(nu, hdong uin.v'ikd aitij kn»j Pedro 
(That's so, but Pedro is still more tired; lit., '*bul niore excessive is [that] 
of Pedro" ) ; Imthiij kidmnj uuisdkil ( We like you very much ); Pinntjaitdsihini 
sdlang ntitucikit (They are re})enting deeply ) ; ( .S ) Mauiumni di mipnln ahid (He 
is exceedingly wealthy [very rich]); (5) ('ntjinnhhimoKj hdds (It rained 
too much); (verbalized) SajKiknhihis anfj kahndhdn mo ( Vou arc entirely 
t<K) good [honest]); LiiudnHiin antj utos ko {<(i infjo ( ^'ou exceedi-d your or- 
<lers; vou did more than 1 toM voutod«>); (<>) 'rinolnh'n) iiii/<'t onq iriko (He 
is c<)mplying with his word [vcrbalizetl form of (i>to<i] ). 

The absolute su|>erlative degree of the adjective ( in the singular numl)er) 
which is made in Knglish bv the suflix "est" and bv the adverb '*m<»st" 
is generally expressed in Tagalog by repeating the i-ntire adjective, whether 
it be simple or compound, by means of the jjroper tie, which is deter- 
mined by the ending of th(^ adjective. Kx.: Mohnt'ni'i nadndi (Ijest); ma- 
gmnautj inui^onid (worst); ImiKd no homd (most virtuous); utosijHiij no ntos'i- 
pag (most diligent); \no}iol uo mohal (dearest, most i>re(ious); niopothoj 
nuipnti (whitest, very white); i/ioifiiavo ntodlm (l)iackest, very i)la»k). 

The plural of such superlatives as the foregoin*: is formed by using the 
particle maio/d with those fonne(l from simple adjectives, and either w ith 
imiioja or the reduplication of the first syllal>le of the r^ot with those com- 
|X)unded with //«a, the superlatives thus formed, <'ither in the singular or 
plural, generally bi-ing ]»rinted as two words in order to avoid unnecessary 
length and also to distinguish more clearly from sonn' diniimitives. Kx.: 

The dearest [persons or objects understood] [oioj moio/o tnohol uo nndio/). 

The l>est [persons or o])jects underst<»od] {oto/ nnuojo mofmtintj inal/idi; 
anff inahvhutifif/ nudndmti). 

The worst ( persons or things understood ), oioj nnuTj/o inof^onioinj ino!<(und; 
ang iiin»an<inton<j niOi<(i,sanid. 

The bravest men [or)!/ moinjo molopon'j no nni(o)>o)nj mi loloki; on// niototo- 
poiifj }ia vuitot&po}Kj no hdoki). 

The ugliest animals (onrf mo/Tj/o poiojd no po,7!/it no hoyop). 

What uiay l>e called the relative superlative d«*n^ree, made in Ijiglish ])y 
adding the expression "(►f all" or a similar phrasr to the sujierlative, is 
formed in Tagalog by adding the w(»rds so lohoi (of all), s>i kondo, 
(among them), etc. Ex.: Siuo }<a kond'Yii o)>(j /o/oio; nnifoponf// (Which 

of those two is the braver?) ; Sino mi k<indiV ij omj nuitotopomi no nnitolojioini* 
(Which of them is the bravest?); Ang nodiit .<o hdmf, sii/o' if motopontj so 
lahnt (The smallest of all; he is the bravest of all ). 

Superlatives are also formed by ]>retixing ko and sullixin-j: on [hon) to 
reduplicated bisyllabic words, and in the .«ame manner with i^olysyllabic 
wonw, in the latter case only the first two syllables being redu]»licated. 

Ex.: Kfit(tmif(t<nni.san (sweetest), iroiii him is: LalMDialhnnnlan (most virtu- 
ous), Inmi htnifi/; huiinluujinlmnnimii (most wliulesoiiie), from (/inliona. 
The lirst two roots have two sylhibles and the last has three. This form 
jiiay al-o he applietl to abstracts forme<l with La and an {/tnu)^ an«l inten- 
sities them. K\. : K'ttain'tnan (sweetness i ; L'tUmtisfanilsan (sweetness itself); 
ialxiimhin (virtue); kfihunnlharuilan (virtue itseh); AY/^/?/iara/? (laziness); 
kudtnuirtivminuL (laziness, laziness itseh"). 

Wrhs have a <'ertain superlative form, which niav he mentioned here 
for the sake of assoiiation. It is made hy re{M'atin^' the verbal root united 
I >y u'infj. Kx. : UiiTiji nan^j ]iii'!''ii ( ask an< I ask over again ) ; labid utimj iikad 
(walk an<l walk); '*//<>'" /"o^y "//'■*<" tntj icihain mo (say yes over and 
over). This form is also found with nouns, ete. 

Sk<tion Fivk. 


The numerals form a small noun-group by themselves, having the three- 
fold K haratter of subsiaiitive, adjective, and adverl*. While the distinction 
between adjective and n^im is not so shaip :is with s<»me other words, yet 
it is clear that the cardinals in Tagaloir are nouns, as tlu'V show by always 
j»n-ceding tli<' imnii affected that "of" must be un<lersiood. Thus //ma/''/ 
hiilahao literallv means "live ( hea«l ) of cattle," and this holds good in all 

In Tagalojf theii' are four <lasses of numerals — canlinals, ordinals, 
adverbials, and distributives. 

The i-arditjals are: 

< )n«*. />■*'. St'viMi. I'ita. 

Two. fhilnir/i, Might. Wdh'i. 

riiree. Tnlh). .Nine. Sitffini. 

I'our. Jy"?/ (accent on lirsl sylla- Ten. Snmiiumn (contr. of Iaiiihj 
\Av '■. j>(nii'i, "one ten " ). 

Ki\i'. I.iin'i. 

six. Aiiiiii I accent <»n jir>t s\ lia- 

ble k 

.\s i:i l\ngli>li, decimal nminration, by u ns, i~ that used in Tagalog and 
throULditnii the Malayan famil\ «>i lan<_'uaL;es. lint TaLralog n.<es a |>eculiar 
form in the numerals from elrviMi to niiiete«'n, inclu-ive, Mhich differs from 
tlu' ni'-t hoil followed in <'\ «-t y otln-r hinvrua:ie of buzon. A'////, meaning 
"adding," and a vaiiatiofi of A/A/.s, is prelixed to the digits by means of 
the enphonie tie i~i\ jxniu, ten, beinLMmder^to(nl. 

l"-l«'\en. /, 'thill'/ i.-i'i. Sixtren. hihiiu/ anim. 

rWf'lvc. Jjiln II.; iliilmr,]. Si'Ventren. Lnhiinj pito. 

Thirteen. Lithm't l<iflo. iMglitren. L'lhi/i'/ nii/o, 

Foiirt«'cn. f.ifhiii'f i'ljiiit. Ninrteen. /.nhinff sii/ani. 

Fiit«M'n. Ldliiwj litm'i. 

The multiplrs of ten IhIow one liundred arc formrd by ])retixing the 
di'jit used as the multiplier- to tin* word jnm,',, united by the j>roper tie. 

TwentV. f)<il'iir,iiii/ jmnn. Sixty. Amin lul pniio. 

Thiitv. T'ifh'ii'/ jt'iiiu. S«'v«iity. I'ltniK} jumn. 

Fortv. A/i'if ml /)>'iif'>. Fii^hty. WnlmKj funiu. 

I'iftv. LiiiKiif/ jk'Ho. Ninrty. Sii/<im mi ji<mv. 

Thf intermediate <lii:its, when used with the f iregoing, are joine<l by 
iiu*an> of 't, a contract ior> of at (and ). 

T\\»nt\-one. Jhihitrmu/ fumuf'i. I'iftN -live. Linumg poutVt lima. 

Thirt v-three. T'lt/am; jinn,',' f (nt/n. Sixty-si.x. Anim nn junnVt amm. 


The word for "hundred" is rf/Ta«, wlilrli has a liomonyni meaninj^ 
"road." It is always preceded by the aj>i>ro{»riate imiltii>her, to whitli it 
is connected V>y the projwr tie, d softening t«> r before n(t. 

Ojie hundred. Isang daau; sang- Five hundred. L'nming duau. 

ihUin. Six liundred. .iahn na nhin. 

Two hundred. DaUiwang daan. Seven hundred. I'ilong dt'um. 

Three hundred. Tatlong di'tan. Eight liundred. Walong dihm. 

Four hundred. Apal na num. Nine hundreil. Siyam mi nian. 

NunilK»r8 y>elow twenty added to huixlreds are united with V, the n of 
ddan Iwing dropped. 

One hundred and one. Sinitjddn't iM. 

Two hundred and eighteen. Dulnming dt'ni^t hdnng iralo. 

The n is retained with multiples of ten. 

Two hundred and fifty-tbree. I)a/<nning dthm liuiang ponot hiilo. 

Six bundred an<l nixty-sfix. Anhn mt rnan (hum iki pomVt aiiim. 

Fjght hundre<i and eighty-eight. Wtthnig daan inthnxj pomVi vnlo. 

Nine liundred and ninety-nine. tSlijaia rui v(uui .^hjain na pom'/l.tiyuin. 

Tbe word for "tln)U}?and" is libo, wbifh is found as ///>"and rihn inotber 
Philippine languages. 

It IS governed, like daan^ by multipliers and snllixed numbers. The 
purely Malayan numerals end with Hho, tbose lor bigber mmd)ei's being of 
foreign origin. Some bigber nund)ers are said to bave Malayan names, but 
it is doubtful as to whetber their values are <leHnite (jr not. Tliey are noted, 

One thousand. Sang/iho. 

One thousand and eight. Song/ihoU irnlo. 

Nineteen hundreti an<l five. Stutgldm ttigniH na raaU lima. 

Two thousand. Dnhmang lif/o. 

Six thousand. Anim mi lihu. 

For **ten thousand" tbe term laksa is used. Tins is from tbe Sanskrit 
laMa (one hundred thousand), thnaigb tbe Malay (ten tbou- 
sand), the latter people mistaking its value. LaL/t, Avith tbe oritrinal value 
of ''one hundred tbousiuid," is used by Anglo-Indians, as in tbe jihrase 
"a lakh of rupees." 

For "one hundred thousand" anotber Sanskrit term is u.«ed, also with 
altered value. This is gfda, from tbe Sanskrit agnia (ten tbousan«l). 

"One million" is now ex])resseil by sttnginmong yntn, or "ten one bun- 
dred thousands." (ratos and afTj/^io-aiTifio are given in old dictionaries as 
ecjuivalent to "million," but tbe fornjer is the word used for "bundred" 
in most Philippine dialects, an«l tbe latter .<eems to have more llie idea <)f 
"uncountable," "infinite," etc. 

In expressing numbers Tai^alogs sometimes give a round nund)er, less 
tbe few taken off, as "three bundred ami sixty less tw(>" lor "three hun- 
dred and fifty-eight;" e. g., ka/ang ming dalatra sa tal/ong daan anim na 

Cardinals may l>e preceded by ang (the), when a concrete n«)un is modi- 
fied, as in tbe phrase Ang da/atntng pisnn na ihinigag mo m akin (the two 
dollars which you gave me). 

Maiuja ]>receding a numeral indicates tbe i<lea of "about," "sorne." 
etc., as in the phra*-e maiaja ])ihnaj tam) (about seven men). When the 
exact numlx*r is indicated ntaiTga isojnitrc<l as a sign of plurality. Mx.: 
Manga taao (men, people); pilnin/ 1 'nto (seven men, i»ersons). 

By reduplicating tbe iirst syllable oi the cardinal the idea of "only" is 
brought in. Ex.: lis'i (only one, alone, etc. i; dada/(nr,'i (two only, oidy 
two), etc. For greater emphasis u])on the idea of limitation the minduT 
may be repeated with tbe initial syllable reduplicatt'<l. Ex.: Ji.<aiKa (one 
only); dadaladnlaiod (only tw«)). Tbe adverb hhnang ('only) may aK<o be 

used for this same i<lea, the adverb foUowin;; the cardinal affected. Ex.: 
/.vf/ li'iinaiKj (only one); dalaoa himamj (ordy two), etc. Jt will be ob>erved 
that the tirst two svUahles onlv of ]»olvsvlla])ic numerals like dalaird are 
re[>eated, following' the p^neral rule in Ta^'aloi:. 

The <juestion "II(»w many?" in expressed in Ta}.Mlo<x by ihhif 

Tajralo^ has no abstracts like "a dozen,'' "a score," etc., these phrasscH 
requirinsz rountla))out means of expression. **A dozen" may be translated 
by iMfUHj Lnpisanfm vanrj Inhmf/ (idhmu't, whicli literally means "a join- 
in;,' of twelve." The same is trui' of Kurdish abstracts like "monad," 
"decade," etc. 

"More," with a cardinal followinjr, is expressed l>y hihisi or higity which 
precede the numeral and are united with it by .<(/, wliich expresses "than." 
Ex.: lAihi.<i«i Hnii'i, or hi'fit S'l Innu (ujoD' than (lv«^). Lohis is the more 
correct, as hlf/it has an idea «>f excess in weitrht rather than in number. 
Ki'ihtixf (less) is used in the same wav. 

The indeternnnate numeral "some," "a fi'w." is expressed in Tagaloj; 
by li'iu. With the tirst syllable reduplicated or with /nmniif/ the idea of 
"only" is expressed; as, H/an (»r i/''in Innnini louly a few). 

"Much," " many," an<l similar words are expressed by //n/r(fmj (from 
daml), and "a jL'ri'at many" may be translated by inm-aiuiug marami. 
Hy makin^j: an abstract of <hnni an<l prelixini: the detinite article of com- 
mon nouns is expressed "the most." "the majority," etc. Ex.: Aug 

For the meaninur of the numerals, see the work by T. II. Pardo de 
Tavera, enlitle<l "Cousiderariones so))re el ()ri»:en del Xombre de lo.s 
Numeros en Ta^alo;r," pidjlished at Manila in 1S8^>. 


The ordinals, which are tlie numerals desi'^natin^ the |dace or position 
of th(< object in sonie particular series, haw more of the character of adjec- 
tives than ha\e the cardinals. Thevanswvr the (piestion Jkolldn? (In 
what order?) and an' formed in a very simjilc manner in Tatrah)j; for all 
mind»ers excej»t "lirst," which is (piite irn-milar, iLd beini: pretixed to the 
cardinal. It should also be noted that tin* lirst s\ liable (»f ^/'.f/a^/v'/ (two) 
is omitted, as wi'll as the initial letter ni tnllo (three) and uintt (four) 
wluMi preci'ded by ika. "Twentieth," howexer, isfornied witlu7j(/ and the 
entire cardinal. 

The ordinals up to "tenth" are: 

The first. .\)i'i ii'inii'i. 

The Se«'<>nd. An'] ikdloua. 

The third. An<i ikntln. 

The fourth. Aiki {k''i/ittf. 

The lifth. All'/ ikdl'inn'f. 

Tln' sixth. All'/ ikhiiiti (initial letter dropped). 

The seventh. -1".'/ ikdj>'iln. 

The ei;^hth. Ami dcnirdln. 

The ninth. Ann d.-n.-'niiint. 

The tenth. An*! 'kitiKnio: nwi ikandiigpono. 

In the »>uthern province-^ (n)'} ikdfxiln is sometiujes heard, due to Bicol 
and \'is;iyan intlui-nce. I'xh'i and /n>/-/>> is al>o to l)e found in the dialects 
spnken to the north of tl»e Ta;:alo;r re;ri<»n, and this form may be found in 
the north, but should be re;:arded as extraneous to the lan<rua^e. 

The follow itii: synopsis of th«' ordinals above "tenth" will give an 


"he fiftieth. Aug ikalinumg pou6. 

'he sixtieth. Aug ikdnim na pouo. 

!*he seventieth. Ang ikupitong pou6. 

'he eightieth. A)ig Ihnralong poao. 

'he ninetieth. Aug ikoidi/ani na pond. 

'he one hundredth. Aug ikasuugdnan. 

'he one thousandth. Ang ikasanglibo. 

'he one ten -thousandth. Aug ikuMingluksit. 

Nouns following ordinals are tied to them according to the ending of 
he numeral. Ex. : Angikalimahg tano (the fifth person) ; ang Ikniiong arao 
the third day). 

In Tagalog, contrary to wliat obtains in Spanish, the ordinals are used 
ar all days of the njonth, and thus agreeing with Knglish. Kx.: Jkailan 
rao tTijagon nmig hnaiig itof ( What day of the month [is] this?) ; ang ikada- 
iirang pftuui pita ( the twenty-seventh ). .1 nong a mo kagd tu/agon t^a sang- 
mgof (What day of the week is to-day?); Sgago'g vie rues (to-day is Fri- 
tay). Anong taon f (What year?); sanglihoj .sigant na rda't Ihnit (nineteen 
lundred and live). Anong haan iTtjagon nang tadn f (What month is 
his?); ang bnan nang enero, p6 (the month of January, sir). And ang 
miujalnn vwf (What is your name?); (ilirt>ri<>, p6 (Gliccrio, sir). Angika- 
auang pangahni (The second name [surname]? ) ; Manalo, p6 ( Manalo, sir). 
faga ifudn kaf (Where are you from?); Batang<ts, p6 ( Batangas, sir). 
^U'ln ka nang iadnf (Mow old are you?); Magri^nn ak'nig dalanang pouo't 
Imd (I am twenty-five years old) . Sadn naroon ang prtni(fnitef (Where is 
he presidente [mayor]?) ; Nariydn sa ikalawang hdhag (There in the second 
louse) . 

Fractions are expressed by the use of ang (the) if the numerator is one, 
he denominatiir being the ordinal desired, and hahagl (a part) following 
he denominator either expressed or understood. Numerals may replace 
mg. Ex.: Ang ikalavang hahagi (the second ])art); aug ikdpat (the 
burtli), et<'. Also isang haliagi (one part); taflong hahagi (three ])arts). 
iVhere the numerator is greater than one it is i)laccd in the nominative 
md the denominator in the genitive, the two being connected by nang and 
he phrase followed by hahagi. Ex.: 7 alio nang dpat na hahagi (tliree- 
luarters); da/awd nang taflong hahagi (two-thirds). 

**Half" is expres.sed by kalahati, as kfUahating tindpag (half a loaf of 
>read). The noun '*a half" is expressed by kahah, meaning generally a 
I half-salaj)! or 25 centavos. 

It should be mentioned that unauna means "in the tirst ])lace," and 
*-hen made an abstract and preceded by the definite article of common 
louns, as in the phra-^e ang kannaunahan, nu-ans "the very first." In like 
Tianner, huli (last), when made an abstract in the same way, as ang kahnli- 
\ulihan means "the very last." 


Adverbial numerals, expressed in English by "once," "twice," etc., and 
inswering the question Xakaildn/ (past tense) and M<\kaddn (present 
ind future tenses), "How often?", "How many times?" are formed like 
the ordinals except ih^.tlnaka\^ prefixed instead of ika Xi) X\w cardinals. 
The word for "once" is wholly irregular. In some districts these adver- 
bial numerals also express the idea of "fold," as "twofold." "threelol<l." 
Kb with the caniinals the sense of "only" may be imparted by redupli- 
laiting either the first syllable of the prefixed particle or following the 
adverbial numeral with Idmang. 

Dnce. Minsan, var. ninsan Nine times. .Vaka.^igam. 

(rare). Ten times. Makamngpono. 

Twice. MakalauHH. Fourteen times. Makalabing dpat. 

Tlirice. MahUntlo. Twenty liine>. Makadalawnng 

F«iur times. }r*t/:fn'i/>fit, var. mO' pouo. 

kaifHit (rare). Twenty-ti\e times. M ahadolawaufj 

Five times. Mdhalnna. pnnot Ihna. 

Six times. }f(ik(v'niliii. One Inindml times. Mnkaxaiigdt'um. 

SeN en times. M'ihnj>ito. A thousand times. M nka »a n (jl'ihu; 

Kij^lit times. Makantilo. viahdibo. 

Xatnrailv, as in all lan';ua«:es, the restrictive form is not used for very 
\\\)l\\ nund)ers. 

Oidyonee. M'uni)i.sini. Only thiee times. MnmakidatJo. 

Only twiei'. Mitnntkalaira. 

In tliis conne<'tion it should he rememberccl that knili'mf means *' when'."' 
used interro;jrati\ely. 

DlSTKIHrriVK NCMKi: \i>. 

These mnnerals, expres.^ed in lOnjxlish with "hy" between tlu^nniieral.-. 
as "one l>y one," *"two l)y tW(»." etc., answer the<juestion Ihhi danf (How 
many at a time/) ami are formed in Tai:aloj„' by the sim]ile repetition «». 
the cardinal if hisyllabie, or the lir.-t two syllables thereof if lonfjer, no 
tie bcin<j: use<l. 

( )ne bv one. Isaim'i. 

Two by two. Du/tidahnn't. 

Three by three. Tdtlnlnflo. 

Four by four. A/tnt<'i/)it(. 

Five by live. JJni't/ima, 

Six 1>V six. Aiiinn'inini. 

Si'ven by seven. PiU'tfulu. 

Fiizht by ei»;ht. Wnlnuiilo. 

Nine by nine. S'ljidutsninDi. 

Ten by ten. SniniftoHinitfiHUio. 

Fh'Ven by eleven. I/flnhd/nKj is/i. 

Twelve bv twelve. Jjdi'ilnh'nni dninin't. 

Twt^'iitv bv tweiitv. pii/ifdd/iiti at)'/ p'ftu), 

OiH' hundred bv one hun<lrcd. Sni(/d<(siiii(/d('tan. 

One thonsind hy <iiu' thou>and. San<j1i^<i iKildni. 

Nouns repeated in this manner ac<|uin' the idi'a of "'every." 

F\eiv day. daily. .l/v/o-ri/v/o. 

W'lM'klv ( als») i'\ «'rv Simdavi. I.nnio-Hnqo. 

• > • • • ■ 

^' early; aimually. /'in'm-tanti. 

ilourly. ()'-nx-i, !•>(.'< (from Sp., hora). 

The raicalo*: word inr "ev<'ry" is ////'/, which may also bj* used. 

Dist rihuti\ cs, answt'rin*,' the •|uestioii Ti'i'iilnn.^ (iiowmany toeaehone?) 
are formed by prefix inLr the particle /"/ to the cardinals, tlic lirst sy]laV)le of 
the latter bcin;: reduplicated in tho'-e i:rcat<-r than "four". The first syl- 
l.ible is drt»pped fr'oin d-ihtirA and the initial / from (ullo. 

One to each on«'. 'r"/is'i. Six to eacli one. ligannim. 

Two to each one. Tk/'i/h irt't. S«'ven to each (tne. TKjpijtito. 

Thici" to each •»ne. T"/<if/n. Fi'jht to each on<». Thftrnindo. 

j'.Mir to j'U'h one. T'(/'ii>'i(. Nine to each one. l^it/sbdytnu. 

\'\\(' to »ach one. Ti'/h/inr'i . Ten to each one. Tigsdsangjtono. 

The.-e may be also translated l)y " one apiect-." etc. 

Ti'j prelixed to cardinals may also expres< the stamped, coined, or fixed 
value of money, stamps, etc. ill this ca>e the initial syllable of those 
numerals ahovt" four i< not reduplicated. \n is now more generally us*^d 


than tig for this purpose. Ex.: Sef/ong tigalnuang centaros (a two-cent 
stamp); sola ping tiglinwng plsos (a five-peso bill or gold piece); tUjdalnaang 
pouoitg pisoH (a twenty-[>ej»o bill or gold j)ie(e). It niiij^t lu* borne in 
mind that the Philippine peso is etpial to a half dollar I'liited Statin cur- 
rency, and that it is the legal currency in the islands. Hence the old de- 
bates over "gold" and "niex." should be relegated to the past. 

In the southern dialect tig is sometimes used to express the time at 
which something may V>e done or has b^en done, as in figaga (to do some- 
thing in the morning); tighnpon (to do something in the afternoon). 

The particle inariy prefixed to nouns denoting money, weights, and 
measures, imparts the idea of "each," "apiece," etc. This particle causes 
euphonic changes with some initial letters of roots, as follows: b and p 
change to in, the final n dropping from the particle; initial r (k ), an<l q drop 
out, mo<iifying n to iTg; s anci t drop out; '/ drops out in most cases; initial 
m, n, and iTij also drop out, and an initial vowel (r/, /, o, and u) modifies 
the final n of the particle to ?*7/. 

The former monetary system was founded upon the sdlapl, or half j)eso, 
nominally worth 2o cents at a gold basis, and now restored to that value. 
Sthtpi also means money in general. The />r.vo of one hundred ccntavos 
is worth two f<fil(jpi. Jn the old system the xa/ajn was divided into 80 
cuartos, and upon these the people reckone<l their market and other minor 
transactions. As these values and terms will linger for some time to come, 
especially in districts where Tagalog only is spoken, the following examples 
will prove of use: 

A peso each or apiece. 3/o;/i <>>.•». 

A half peso each or apiece. Mana/op!. 

A balf (salapi) each or apiece. }fatig<th(iCi (from AoAaf^, 25 ccntavos). 

A real f 12J centavos) each, etc. Mninb'iimt (from sih'iput, a contrac- 

tion of aa ihapnf, to the fourth of 
a salapi ). 

A half red {i^\ centavos) each, etr. jfuniknlo (from }<ikof<'>, a <'ontraction 

(•f ."'t ikdintio, to the eighth of a 

A cuartillo (5 cuartos or $().()3125, or yfaiTqulin (froui nlin). 
r().(H>2o) each, etc. 

A cuarto('*0.0062o, or ^0.0125) each, MaiTijtmJin ( from cmUtn, a corruption 
etc. of raartn). 

The only measure of weight incorporated into Tagalog appears to b' the 
t'llid {iTO\n the Chinese /(/'/, which was a very uiu-ertain standard). By 
treaty the liuikuan tml or cu-toms tml of China is now .**A ounces avoir- 
duj)oi8. As a monetary unit the hnikunn tnt/ varies from /So to 00 cents, 
but is only quoted in bankin;^ oj>erations an<l is n<>t used by Tajralogs. 

The Pliilippine tahU may be regarde<l as sliiriitly heavier than a troy 
ounce, weighing 509. 7"> grains, the troy and ajKithecaries' ounce weighing 
480 grains, and the avoirdupois ounc" 4:»7A grains. 

One tahil each. yfum'tJiil. 

One i)Ound .Spanish each. M<iii/d,ra (1.0144 United States 

]K)nnds) . 
One kilogram each. }f(tiTifif(,t/r(imo (2.204t> Tnited States 

pounds ). 
One arroba (dry) each. Mai77/aroha (25 lil>rasor 2.5.8(5 Tnited 

States p(»unds). 
One " fardo" each. Mnmnrdo (IJ.'J Sp. or :{.*{. 475 Tnited 

Statrs poumls; used in weiirhing 

tr)b;ic<-o ). 
One quintal each. M<ti7oi,it(il (4arn>i>as or 101.44 I'nited 


tates iMiunds ) 

6a55— Uo 


Rice and ^rainis sold by the cavdnand its fractions, which areas follows: 

One *'ai)atdu" each. MangapatAn (0.1981 of a pint, dry). 

One '^chupa'* each. Mangatang (4 apatdn or 0.7925 of a 


One ^'ganta*' each. Manalop (8 chnpas or 3.1701 United 

States quarts) (from mlop). 

One "(avdn*' each. Mangabdn (25 gantas or 19.81 gal- 


There are 8 jrallons to the United States bushel. United States dry 
measure iH slightly different from British imperial. To reduce United 
States to Hritinh divide same named measures by 1.031516, and to reduce 
British to United States multii)ly by same. For common purposes use 
1.032, which is close enough. TrnxUmue. 

A "caviin" of rice weighs 133 "libros." 

One "picul" each. 3/amtitu/(137.9UnitedStatespound8. 

Two piculs constitute a '*bale" of 
hemp, ubakA). 

The metric system is now official in the Philippines, and its use is gradu- 
ally spreading to all sections. 
Among the native measures of length use<i with man are the following: 

One inch each. Mananan (from sangdoR^ which in 

turn is contracteil from sang, 
"one," anddattn, *'inch"). 

The Spanish inch is 0.91 of an inch. Dalirl also means finger or digit, 
and the length of a Tagalog "inch" almost exactly corresponds to the 
"digit" of the early Hebrews, which was 0.912 of an inch. 

One "span" each. 3/f/mi/j/7C(i/(fromrfaiiyca/,a"palm"). 

The American "span" is 9 inches, while the Tagalog dangcal is one- 
fourth of a vara, hence 8.25 United States inches. 

One "vara" each. Mamnra (from vara^ a Spanish 

yard, equal to 33 United States 
inches, approximatelv, and actu- 
ally 0.914117 of a vard). 

One "braza" each. Mandqxi (from dipa^ a braza^ equal 

to 5 feet 5.8 inches Unite<l State", 
approximately 5 J feet). 

To express the idea of "at such a price apiece" the former monetary 
units were used with in {hin) suffixed to the unit, of which the initial evl- 
lable was reduplicated. The article or object of which the price was toTbe 
denoted preceaed the unit of value, the two words l)eing Imked with the 
appropriate tie, according to the ending of the first word. Ex.: Piyi- 
sohin (at a peso each), librfmg sasalapiin (books at a half peso each), tind- 
pay na fisicapalin (bread at a real a loaf), tahaamg aaliuhin (cigars at a 
"cuartillo" apiece). 

These terms will now only be found used with those people still unfa- 
miliar with the new currencv, but as tliese i)eople speak only Tagalog asa 
rule they will naturally retain the old terms the longest. 

The following dialogue fairly represents what may l^e said in making a 
purchase in the market: 

A. Magkmw bagd ang halaga nitdf (What is the price of this?) 

B. Isang pisos, p6 (a peso, sir). 

A. Malial na iotoo lydn (that is too dear). 

B. Hindi p6^t viura (no, sir; cheap). 

A. Anong muraf (How [is it] cheap?) 

B. Kay6 na'y tumauad (you set a price, sir). 


A. Tatlong pesetas ang ibihigay ko (I will give 8 pesetaa [60 centavos] ). 

B. Iliudl pong mangyayari; Apat na peseia:<^ p6 (I can not do it; 4 pe^ietas, 

A. Mabuti (very well [offers a peso]). 

B. Wald akong sukll^ p6 (I have no change, sir). 

A. I)a!d mo iTga sd amhuj buhay^ (lo6n bahayaran kitd (bring it [them] to 
our house, we will pay [you] there). 

B. Mahiyo yntdf ( Is it far?) 

A. Ilnidi, at doon Idmang sa may ciinrlei (no, it is there close to the liar- 
racks [quarters]). 

It shouhl l)e l)orne in mind that "magkakano" is used when pricing 
objects of which a part only is desired, such as eggs, bananas, etc. 
"Magkano" indicates that the entire quantity is priced. 

The verbalized forms of the numerals will be given under the respective 
particles, as too lengthy explanations would be required in this place. 

Section Six. 
the adverb. 

By the name of adverb is distinguished that class of words used to modify 
the sense of a verb, adjective, participle, or other adverb, and usually placed 
near what is nnxlitied, as he writes ueUj I rmdi/y admit, you speak correctly, 
very cold, )niturolly brave, very general/ y Ackno\\\t'i\ge(\j much more clearly. 
(All but one of the foregoing are from the Century Dictionary.) 

Adverbs may be classiHe<l, according to tlie san)e authority, as follows: 
(1 ) Adverbs of jilacti and motion, as here, there, up, out, etc. (2) Of time 
and succession, as nou; then, often, ever, etc. (3) Of manner and (luality, 
as fo, thus, veil, truly, faithfully, etc. (4) Of measure and degree, as much, 
more, very, enough, etc. ( 5) ( )f modality, as surely, not, jterhaps, therefore, etc. 

According to Earle, one of the most distinguished authorities on English, 
there are three kinds of adverbs, the flat, flexional, and phrasal. 

( 1) The flat adverb, which is a noun or adjective used in an adverbial 
position, is not considered as correct in books and papers, luit is to be 
heard daily in conversation, as in iralkfasf, walk slon\ apeak loud, speak low, 
etc. In (ierman, this form of the adverl) is also literary, as ein ganz schemes 
Jlaus(a wholly beautiful house); erschreibt gut (he writes well [lit., good] ). 
Adjei'tives of certain classes may be used this way in Tagalog, an<l espe- 
cially those of manner or degree, such as uiaga/iitg ( well); masarnd (badly); 
madall ((piickly, l)rietly), etc., which are also adjectives. There are also 
flat adjectives by signitication, whii'h are explained under the sei'tion to 
which they belong by meaning. 

(2) The flexional adverb, which is that distinguished ))y a termination 
in English and allied languages like vartl, ling, buig, tueal, an<l ///, as in 
hachcard, darkling, headlong, piecenienl, and the great number m ///, such 
as fpiickly, quietly, rapidly, etc. Tagalog has nf> particle which thus marks 
out an adverb from other i^arts of speech. 

(3) The j)hra8al adverb, which is also called an adverbial phrase, is 
(greatly used in English, and is to be found in abundance in Tagalog. 
Amf)ng English examples may be cited at be>t, ut length, by all uwans, for 
go*}d aikd all, on every side, etc. 

There are also both in English and Tagalog what may Ix^ styled the ad- 
verbial pronouns, such as yes and /<(>, together witli the negatives not, uor, 
and neither. 

Unlike English adverbs nearly every Ta<ralog ;d)verb may be made into 
a verb if the proper i)article is used, and the border between adverbs and 
prepositions is very mdefinite in some <'ases and must be determined by 
the aid of the context. 

As the form and composition of a won! is subordinate to its meaning, the 
Tagalog adverbs hereafter considered will be classified according to mean- 
ing, irrespective of form. 


I. Adverbs of place and motion which answer the question fdanf 
"where?" are usually expressed in Tagalo); by»tt followed by a root, Thip 
root sometimes has the expulsive particle i i)refixed. 

Where. Sdan, 

Where? Saanf 

Where indeed? Sdan iTga. 

Anywhere, wherever, somewhere. Saan man. 

Evervwhere. Sdatisaan man. SAan reduplicated. 

Nowfiere. Sdan ma*y wold. 

From all parts, may also mean to or Sa sitan man. 

in all parts. 

Where are you from? Taga A&an kaf Sv^a **he" an<i stiUi 

' ' they ' * may be used in placeof ka. 

Sc'ian may be verbalizeni with wm inserted, fonning numaan (to be some- 
where permanently), and also with ma (na)^ in the latter ease taking the 
idea of to Ikj somewhere either temporarily or permanently, as the oai» 
may be. Ex.: yasmm ann intthahao lui iloyf (Where is the ford of the 
river?); Mamman sij/d Itagaf (Where will he be?). 

Sum may be further verlmlizod by 7x1, in which case *'to ajo" is inherent 
in the meaning. Kx.: Sajyaman mycif (Where did he ffo^); Xapasaman 
Biydf (Where is he going?); Pnnasaan shjnf (Where will Tie go?). 

I>i(ian has been corrupted to haan in some districts, owing to Bicol and 
Visayan influence, the former using haen and the latter hain. 

Sdan has an entirely different meaning with pa following or even alone 
in some cases, expressing a negative idea similar to "not yet,** etc. In 
Ilocano ndan is also the negative jmrticiple "no." 

Sdan pa f also means " where then?" in rather a sarcastic manner. With 
d( added to n'tan pa an afl^irmative interrogative meaning is expressed, as 
Sdan p^i dt tot6of (How can it not Ix* true?). 

It must also be noted that in Manila and places where Spanish is largely 
spoken that some particles are used in a differtmt manner than is the 
custom in rural districts. Thus, '* Where are you going?" is expressed in 
the country by man ka jxtrorot'm^ but in Manila by man ka jmparo^u. 
Other ex |>«vssions of like nature v^vq Sdan aruj par<rr(X)nan mot in which 
the definite is u.«ed, and »ian ka nagmnldf (VVhere did you start from?). 
Another similar question is Sdan ka narTgagdling? (Where are you coming 
from?). The answer is generally given with »a in the sense of from: Sa 
Malabun (from Malabon); sa Imus (from Imus); sa bdhag ko (from my 
house), etc. 

There are four 8im])le arlverbs of place, which have heretofore been 
explained at length, and here only some idiomatic uses will be set forth. 
The^e adverbs are cimi, ditd, diydn] and dijon. 

Dini, meaning "here" (toward the 8i>eaker), is verbalized by um, in 
the sense of taking a pla<*e near the s|_>eaker, etc. Ex.: Dumini'ka (take 
your place here); dungmidini akd (I am taking my place here); dungmini 
akd (I took my place here); dirhii akd (I will take my place here). 

With mag {nag) it is verbalized in the transitive sense, requiring an 
object. Ex.: Magrini ka niyang tindjmy (put some bread here by me). 

With pa the idea of motion toward the speaker is expressed. Ex.: 
Parini ka (come here toward me). This last form may l>e further com- 
pounded with the particle pa, definite, corres|>onding to magpa, indefinite, 
to express the idea of commanding, re<]uesting, etc. Ex.: Paparinihin mo 
Ki Carlos (tell (^arlos to come over here). "Over there" is expresseil by 
m rini. 

Ditd, meaning "here" (equally close to both speaker and person ad- 
dressed), is verbalized in the same way as dhii. Ex.: Dumitd ka (take 
your place here ) ; paritd ka (come here ) ; pnparitahin mo n Carlos ( tell Carlos 
to come here) ; Pinauarild 7uo siydf (Did you t<^ll him to come here?). The 
four adverbs under ciiscussion admit thedefinites of i and an. That in 1 is 
compounded with ka, forming ika, ikina; and in may be used when united 


with pa, the definite of magpa, as may be seen in the last two examples. 
The future is Papariritohin vio sitfct? (Will you tell him to come here?) and 
the present Pinaparirito mo xi if a f {Are you telling him to come here?). 
R€»ason or cause is expressed by ika, ikinn j)refixed to the adverb as a rule, 
although "why?" can also l)e expressed by <o/o/ as in A(ni6 hi ritof (Why 
are you here?). The more idiomatic way, however, is with ikinn, as Ann 
atifj ikinttjHfritd inof (What was the reason you came here?). J fan is used 
if the ivlca of place is to be made emphatic, as *V/;/o lnKji'i anrj pinaritnJmn mof 
(Who did you come hereto see?). "Time" is generally exi)ressed by pa- 
nahon, which also means "weather," as A)i6't di hi ixijxiriW) ,sa kapannho- 
nanf ( Why didn't you come here in time?) . " What " is expressed by nn6, 
as Sdfjaano ka ditdf (What is your business here?); Miuianno sij/d dit6f 
( What is he going to do here?); An/un hfif/'i/ { What of that?) or ( What is 
there to do?) ; Jniiano htf ( What is being done to y«»u?) ; Innno kuf ( What 
was done to you?); lliiuilka mwiano (nothing can be done U> you). Dn- 
mito, with the j>article inaghidnvX its variations, signitii s "to come here for 
a particular reason or cause." Ex.: Aij at nai/kadamilu ka/' (For what i)ar- 
ticular rea.son did you come here?); An«j ipiiKujkakadnmito ko' ij n Cahemmg 
Tuin'is (the "cabeza" Tomas is j)articularly responsible for my being here). 

The first of these two sentences is indefinite, grannnatically sj)eaking, and 
the last definite. For their grammatical construction see the particle 
nutgka, which is used with this signification with all tV)ur of the simple 
adverbs of place under discussion. For a tabular conjugation of dHa see 
the tables of verbs. To express simply the time or reason for "coming 
here," i with7>'t may also be used, although ikina is more correct. Ex.: 
Ana aiuj ipinanto iiio^ (Why did you comt^ here?). The indefinite is more 
usual witfi kailan, "when." Ex.: Kaihhi ka naparitd/ [When did you 
come here?); Kahapon (yesterday). 

Diu'in, "there" (near at hand), has the same construction as the fore- 
going adverbs. P^x. : Maijdiijan ka nant/ iuhig ( put some water over there ). 

Doon, there, yonder, is [)erhaps more commonly nse<l in its various 
modifications than the other three simple adverbs of pla<"e. It may be 
verbalized with ?/m, />//, />fo/<a, and ina'jha as they an*, with the sanu* effect 
upon the root. Pa and unigka nuKliiy the d to /■. 

Ex.: />»moo/» Avf (station yourself there). J'aruan ka (go there). Papa- 
rrnaiin jno xi ( arhts (ieW Carlos to go there). Pinaparoon ni<> sit/a! (Did 
you tell him to go there?) Saauka p<tntro>jii/ (Where are you going?) 
8ome locidities, notably Manila, rei>eat tlp^ ]>article pa with the j)resent 
and future of the adverbs of place; but tliis is irngular and incorrect. It 
is unknown to the early writers. Al'mg innian an^i par<mKniannii>f ( What 
town are you going to? Jjt. "Which town will be your going place?") 
Ann ang ikina paroroon tno ya Maffnila.'' (Why are yon going to Manila? 
Lit. "What the cause of going there your to Manila?") .1// al magka- 
(fujHoon kaf (For what particuhir reason are you going there?) Ang iki- 
iifiparar6(ni ito'// dalaain ang a king kapafid na h(d»ai/c ( I am going theie to 
visit my sister). 

yfagkn prefixed to doon alone means "to have." 

Ex.: Kung magkaroon sana ako nang nntrani'mg pi/ak, ag hindl akn mag- 
knhignnit6 (If I had plenty of money, I would n(»t be in this fix). Ang 
pinngkakaroonan niga ang linlaran (IIi^ has c<»nsideral)le property in Hula- 
cdn). Ang ipinagkakaroan niga ang pawana ,^a kamga nnng ina niga. (He 
[she] has plenty on account of the inheritance to him [her] from his [iicr] 
inf»ther. ) 

The foregoing illustrates the indefinite idea of thethinl singular personal 
pronoun, which may mean either "he" <»r "slie." In iMiglish thisiscon- 
fine<l to the plural, "they" indicating either se.\, as Tagaiog sda, while 
Spanish distinguishes bvellos, "ellas." .l/'o/ gives the idea \\\t\\ (fonn, "to 
be there," **to have there," nnigka indicating really "tf» have {plenty. " 
Ex.: Biffyanmo »da nang niandoan (take one of those over tliei'e), isang 
manddon {sangdocm) (one (»ut of many things over there); fiandnong Inmi- 
tang sukd (a small bottle of vinegar); l.^ajtg madoruiai (a person who has 

plenty). The word maii jiretixod to <fouii forms the well-known and much- 
used indefinite HKiyrdnn, to liave. Ex.: Mdi/nkm kdiuj h<uj>i naiKj t'n>a- 
ixfijf (Have you any brearl?) Maiiroon h<tn</ parorooiutiL^ ( Do you have 
to <;o there?) ()6 iu/n, mnifroon akomj }>nvoritoii(in ( Yes, indeed, J have t»> 
to tro there?). Mniiit'nm ka nanf/ ilnntj tdon/ ( I low old are ycm? J. it. Have 
YOU uf how many vears?) Mai/rorm iikori</ <lnktirinnj imiio (1 am twenty; 
lit. Have I twenty.) With sonie s^ulilxed particles </oo)f i.s nio<iitied aj* 
follows: D'tan din (in the tJame place there); (h'Km .sn iha; doon duo (in an- 
otlier ]»lace 1; aa dooa (oyer there i; anduou mnii (anywhere oyer tln're). 

^lany phrasal adverljs are made ]>y the particle ^n which means ainon^ 
other tilings id and in when ]>la('e<l ]>elorea root. Among the most impor- 
tant ]»hrasal adverbs of jilncj' with m are: 

In front; facing. Sa fapnt: tujuft sa. Kx.: Jlony ftidmij 

([If idjud s'l si/(u7i/<in (this house 
faces the east) . Tajtaf has also the 
i<lea of setting out in rows, regular 
order, etc., such as trees, plants, 

In tlie j)resence of: l)efore; oi>posite; Sti Jn'irap. Sn hnrap ndiuj vajtit-'m 
to the front. (before tlie captain). 

Behind; back of. Sn liked. Kx.: Ai>f] mn/Tiji'i hdhni/ s<i 

Hind iiiiiK/ ruiirtti (the hou.^jes back 
of the barracks). Antj Hkod {{\\ii 

.b)ined to. Sn iidiiKj. 

At the edge or side of. Sn t'd-i; s\nionym i^'i i<i)dn'j. 

On the other side of; bevond. Sn knhUd. With /n'ln the idea of 

"lioth" is brought in. Ex.: Sa 
)im(jh<d,ild (oil both sides); and by 
the nMhiplication (tf the first two 
syllables of the root the idea <tf 
"air* is e\j>ressed. V.\.\ Si innij- 
k<il>i/.'d,,!<i ((in all sides). Xaim- 
rn>'>n sifii sn k<dtifd latyuj 'dtnj (thev 
\\ t nt » tVi'r there l»*'yon«i tlie river). 
Sii inti'jLdhi/if h»nnj hU'ififin (on 
both sides of theb(Mly). Kdhihi 
ha^ also the idea of "j>artly'' an<l 
is used idiomatically when speak- 
ih}^' of lice. Ex.: Iloht/ k>inin mi 
k'dfd'tn (this rice is but half 
cookc'l i. In speaking of anythiiiir 
else, with the same idea in mind, 
the n-M'jt' is quite dilferent. ICx.: 

/hni'J Sisiil (lilt/ LiihihV ij hifiVt <in<] 

hfl>i/'i' 1/ Jiiiidi (this chicken is 
]»artl\ <'ook and j»artly not). 

( )utsi«le. N/ I'llius. 

Inside: wit liin. >S' l'»>f>. This phrase is much used 

to expies.- the idea of t/i*' htnrt, 
speak iiiL' in a nxtral sense. Ex.: 
Sfi ((tihiii'j I'hih I whole-heartedly; 
with all tlie heart ). 

A]»"ve: up. S'l iti'i<(.< iii(»ni h'laM and expulsive 

particle / ). 

fielow; «l<iwn. S'.i dudxi i tVom Ixdxi, idea of low, 

humble, with r'X|»ulsive particle i). 
This word should not be eonfuseil 
with the following. 



Ujxjn; on; above. 

Under; beneath; at the bottom of. 
Halfway (between two points). 

In the middle. 

Aronnd; about; close to. 
As far ag; up to. 

To the right. 

To the left. 



At home; in, to, or from the house. 

In, to, or from town. 

In, to, or from the country. 

S<.i ihabao (from halxto and i). Ex.: 
S<i ilHthao lumg fmndok (upon the 
mountain [mountainn] ). Bnhdo, 
with accent upon the last syllable, 
meauH jKist^ a.s fxihi'io .sa hatim/ 
tj(ih-t, (past or after mi(lni«rht ). It 
alt>() meauH "near" inj^ome places. 
Kx.: Bdhi'io (tar/d <imj Imynn na 
atinf (Aro we j)i'rchance near the 
town? ) Ma hi pit is now the ordinary 
word u.^^ed lor ''near." 

Sa i/dliiii (from /dlim, root of idea of 
dtj)th and expulsive i)article i). 

S(i (/Una. Kx.: y(i.<!a(/tfHd tayo sa 
paijlakad ( we are halfway in the 
march [trij) or journey]). 

Sa pfK/ilan { from (jitnd ). Sa paf/itan 
naiKj /(tnnaiTljtin (in the middle of 
the .'-treet). Al^o means "term." 
Kx.: W'aloiaj bitan amj patfitan 
(a term [])eriod] of ei^ht months). 

Sa inaij. Ex.: »SV( ukuj raartcl (close 
to the barracks). 

Ildiigdn. Kx. : Sian aiuj tiuajo mof 
{ Where is your trip to? ) llanqdn 
Maffiiild. Ilanydn ditd (up to 
here). Also has the meaning' of 
"until." Kx.: llan(jd)t hdkas 
(until to-morrow). 

Sa ham I It. 

Sa kaliird. 



Sa l>d}(<u/. 

Sa hai/an. 

Sa hit kid. 

Sa lain dole. 

In, to, or from the mounUiins. 

These adverbial phrases can be indetinitelv increase"! bv the use of sn 
with the proper root. 

Toward. Ikikft. Kx.: J^ako man aiifj tufa/o hi 

.Jiianf (Toward where is John's 
tri})?) hakniKj Mufjndd (toward 
Manila), hakn.^nan amj tinTjjo mo.'' 
T(»ward when* is your tri[)?) Da- 
k<niii hftyau ka' If aia; tiuTijn ka (my 
trip is towanl ujy town). 7'a(ja 
sdau kaf (\Vh(»re are you from)? 
lUi.'^tlnisn^ fid ( Hosoliosn, sir ). J)a- 
kaiiij kaiian (toward the rJL'ht). 
Dakniiii kal'md (toward the left). 
Ddftil. \\\.. Ih'ijtd Mai/ii'dd (ap- 
})roachin</ Manila). I^'i/dt ihahd 
(approachini: the lower <'ountry ). 
I>-'i/)H sa ii/d ( appi'oa»l)in<j y()U). 
I>dit',i lia^ al>«» an i<lea of '*he- 
yon«l," "nn the other si<le of." 

II. Adverbs of time and succession, m hi«-h L'enerally answer the «|iies- 
tion kaiian f (when?), are quite mnnerons in Ta«_'al(»,L'. >-howiiii; that tlie 
conception oi time was well <leveloj>e<l for a primitive people, only the 
hour and its subdivisions bein^ unknown to the lan^niage, except as de- 


nines ). 
When ( used relatively ). (1) Kmi. C<»innionly used oiih 

present and future tenses, bn 
lie us«'d with past indetinite 
ti(»n is represented as ensto 
JOx.: Kiiii ihwiitiiKj (iinj cd 
(tlntnln inn dko (when the et 
comes, let me know [futi 
Kiln (iLnij itaroroiin i<a ^f^ 
)i(t/ins('l<t akontj m 
(when 1 was in Manila 1 
went to tlie Lmieta [i>asttinn 
eustomary action] ). Kun 
( whenever) . Kuik; in'ntsnn ( ; 
times). Ktni is also used 
prc|)osition, *'it ". See under 
(2) XaiHj. Use<l with l>oth dt 
an<l indetinite past tenses. 
^kinif/sih'i' i/tlt,n'ih((i nljfi't kat/alh 
riln siii'i^ { when he came to 
tlieni la>t ni<:ht, they wen 
herei. }\<iuii ilnmafhui ^iiji'i 
hiiii iKt (il:o (when he came 
tliroui:ii eatin«: ). 

( ."> i A"';//. )tilf(')H, inif(hui. 

woj'ils mean really ''in 
d;iys," "at that time," etc. 
.\(iit/i i.oiiiij <ir<ii) (Iff turiK/ifur 
j)<i(/fi(ih'ik'i .-oi Jtiin,< (<»n that 
tlu' tiirhi at Imus took, pi 
.\i>'iii. iKintii Jilt ,v'f Mn>inilu 
iiKnTiji'i CnsfiUi ( whilt* the > 
iards were yet lu-re in >hii 
r»'rliaps "then"' in some 
Would 1)«' I ho ln'>t translatioi 
Tlu'ii. ]>(»iii. \'.\.: I\iin kiiiunnt l»i, 

iiiii<i<i/i( Hill II iiiii, kill) (lH('i (liiff 

( when \ . Ill cat t hen v<>u will 
what voii are lo have) . Wil 
fnll<t\\ iiii^r il.'uni lias an idio: 
use. l'!x.: Ji'th) />"\v ijnnui 

idlii'l '/iiiiil'i, ilnmi JKI hllii Iki 

I A hoy vrt. and doing so, 
will he he then when grown 
Alwav:-: c<»n>1antlv snuieliuHS Tmi'i. V.\.: Tinrinn tinri itmn 
' " w hehevrr " i . (mri ) luai/i'nnii hiU'J <jmi a ( VoU 

-••mcthing t«> do always). T( 
snmalnf kd { whenever 





( )ften. 

-Ago; since. 

As Hoon as. 

write ). As adjective luiri 

means "every." Ex.: tmnnf/arao 
(every day). In some cases it 
means "as lonp:as." Kx.: Tkiy'nig 
(it innftonl niHf paykaidvo (as long 
as manhood is not extinct). 

Among other expre.*^sions may be 
menti(jned walavfj huinp(n/j with- 
out end ; vxtioDr; lihtf^ without fail ; 
oalniHj (((/tail, without stop, inces- 
santly; valitiK) tiKjofy without rest. 

There are two ex|)ressions used for 
"eternally," formed with tliejjre- 
ti-x inagpa to a root which is fol- 
lowed by 1IHIU sfhin. Ex.: }fa(j- 
palulotf nmn man; and iinujpnral'nig 
{(t('tfimj) man aaaii. Another 
j)hrase is niagpalcailan man, or 
viat/pasaknllan vtan, both of which 
signifv alwavs. 

Kaihhi man lundt. 

Kaiaj niinxan. }faini)tsannii)tsany 
{ from time totiine; nowandthen). 
Mi.'<an(luna {mrk'ly). Ex.: ^fi.sa7}- 
doua tainting ang pagparito mo 
(your coming here is rare). 

Bill I ra. Kx . : Bilt irang tnugmata tajis 
itonf/ hatang it'} (this child seldom 

Malhnit. Ex.: Malunit ahmg stmg- 
uKisi'ilat (I write often). 

Tauihaij. PvX.: 'lanibag kang 7K///V 
inngnia/is} (since you left). 

Mala. Kx.: Mala kahapon (since 
yesterday). The ])article jmgka 
soMK'timcs denotes "since," as in 
tlie phrase pagkahatd ko (since my 
childhood). "Krom" would l)e 
an eipially correct translation. 

K((imihi\ from ka and maka] . Kanta- 
kallang armt ( .^-ome days ago ). ik*- 
tore a cardinal followe*! i)v f'//<:(0, 
"day." kiimaka indicates the num- 
ber of ilays which have ela]>se<l. 
Kx. : Kamnkalain't (day I »ef(»re yes- 
terday ), lit. /'two days ago:" ktun((- 
kalunang f)/vfo ( live days ago). K<i 
prefixed witli }ni following a root 
also in<licates "since." Kx.: Ka- 
/la/xui jKi (>in<*e yesterday). Ka 
alone indi<ates past time, with 
some roots. \\\.: Kafatptrn (yes- 
terday ), from liapon (afternoon). 
Kagtih't (last night), from ka ami 
gain ( ni;:ht) . 

.S^ use(l adverbially, denotes imnie- 



l>i'lV»n': Nvitlial; as it inav ln' 

IW'forc; a wliilc airo. 

AiH it'ntiv 

(tliiH (lay). 

Xd. This ]»artiile is in constant use, 
an<l is ahvavs ])la(e<l last. Kx.: 
y<ij>fii<'ti>n iin siift'f ( JK' Jias <ioiie 
aln'a<l\ ). Theri* an* nuiny otluT 
uses <•!' iHi in Tairalojr, w hicli will 
be s« t lortli as they (KM-ur in the 

J'ti. Tliis |)arti<le, as an adverl), is, 
like //", always pia«'ed after the 
won] nio'lihe*!. I'A'.: Jx'i pn {ane 
yet I ; nnni rmn pn/ {\i^ there any- 
thiii«r thrre yet)? It is also nse<l 
spt'akiiiL' ironically. Kx.: Ako pa 
tuKj piir"ronii/ ( Will I have to <:o 
thereyet?). JikIi jki (not yet). 

J)'ii/ii. Ex.: Ii<ii;o LdiHj }pninn.-<n, 
iiti/is<ut mo mirl yl/i<f (l)el\»re A'Oll 
tea<l, swre)> (he rot>ni). — l- J><i(/o 
pn (a while a<:o). Bufjo, as an ad- 
\crl> of time, always precedes tlie 
vcrh it mo(lili('s. 

K<nn/itifi, xariation hni'nta. Knt7[j'\- 
liuiitj tiiiKih'in ( before noon ) ; kaiTiji- 
ii'tinf ii(ti<i(/<i I this morniiiL: a while 
a;,'o). IliildiKiiii iin) i/fiuiff] Sfi^ihi 
L'lin/liHi ( t:o hack to what yon were 
talkiiiu^altont before). [Ketnrnto 
(he thread of y on r story. J K^fuTiji- 
I.'iinjin'i p>i (a little while ago, a 
>liort time a-ro). Kx.: KmTi/i- 
LttiT'j'iini )Kiriln .s/7(i (they were here 
a short t iuM' a-jo i. 

S'l 'I lilt. S't mid jxiiKj !<<i unit ( verv 
aiK iciitly ). V.\.: Sa mmng nrao 
(in I he "lays (»f old ). Mmm, which 
.•I I ways foljdws its verb, means 
"fn-t" ciiher in time or j>lace. 
V.\.: M''i>>>h hd iinind ( v(Hi enter 
first [jHpJite expression]). Ihnjo 
Luinniii^ iiKinlniKin /."'/ imnid (be- 
loie \Mi] cat. wa>h first [i. e., your 
hands] i. — L. (imnii mo imoia (do 
it lir>t [def.]). Jlhitatf ka injitia 



Formerly; anciently. 
A ! terwards. 

Later; presently; by and by. 

-At once; immediately. 

-\t oni-e; immediately; Buddenly; 

Instantly; at once. 

Jnsrtantly; like a fla.«b. 

Suddenly; in a moment. 

Offhand; suddenly. (Used with 

ver>>s of doinj? and speaking. ) 
After beginning; upon starting', ot«'. 

(wait firfit [in<lef.]). Mvnay used 
with a ])r()n(um without a vt^rb, 
comen first, and governs the nomi- 
native. Kx.: Mnita knifo (you 
first); nmnd hi nn (von ahead). 

Sa (hit'i. 

JS'ika. Ex.: (rinmrd <in(j Pai7<jmt'nni 
DioA (n)(} IniTi/it, .sv//»7) an(/ bipti (the 
Lord (lod mjule the Heavens, 
afterwards the earth). Bib. Xn- 
taui't shfn (she laughed): <// sahaf 
(an<l afterwards?) i^. S(iknrrt}«ikd 
(long afterwards). }f(n)ahn}(ih) 
(after a lonp: delay). N(i(/snsah)- 
saLn (one who is dilatory in his 
work or dnli(^s). 

^idimiiin. Kx.: Snsnldt ak'o irunmn/d 
(I shall write bv and bv). — L. 
MniiKiyniKj htipou (later in the af- 
ternoon). Mtnn(n/*iiii(iffd (onetime 
or another, little by little). Ex.: 
//.'/// ininnnHiinninifid ho ( I did this 
little by little). Mdf/inttffd (to do 
anythinjr little by little). MtKjpa 
imparts tin' idea of waiting to this 
root and its (Mimbinations. Ex.: 
X(Hf/Hipnnititfiiiinif/('i (tko (1 am go- 
ing to wait a little while). 

TtuiihuHf. This Word is out of use in 
Manila. Ex.: k'nuiain l:a tdinhlntj 
[iridef.]; I'Dnh'nTijhi mo hnnoin 
[def. ] (eat at once). Tdmhlmjm 
iiunuj kiin'm ( take it at once ) ; Hain- 
hiiHj iiio)i(/ ifti(/in/ (give it at once). 

Aijod. Ex.: A'jorin ino}u} (jnw'in {(\o 
it at (»nce). Commonly used in 

Ail polo. Ex.: A/ipnhi vofjdid aiifd 
( he became an^rry at once). Also 
means ''one by one" in some 
}»laccs. Ex.: A/ifxtlaU dkiiu; hnnn 
(1 will take them one by one). 

Kay int. Ex.: Kntjlat no'/tiu/ihulng 
s'nfd an okiiKj nintn (like a tlash 
he disappeared from my view; he 
was out of sight instantly ). Tnyl- 
hn/ni/, idea (d disai)pearinfr or l)e- 
cominjjT invisible. 

Kn(/iiiK(n/insn (I'roiii (/ui}i<t, repetition 
<»f root and prefix kn). \'aria- 
tion knhiiisnhith^n. Knalnmnlnm 
sometimes nutans suddenly (from 
nlnm re<luplicated, and prelixAv/). 


Knpni/ . Ex.: J\'npn(/k(irn ko 

Late: tanlv 

VotenlMN . 
\a\s\ ni^'Iit. 
To-nmrmw . 
Mi(Mav; ikmhi. 

T' t-lll' 'ITdW. 


ill h 










T. I 
r( • w 



Morning now. 

Day now. 

The sun is rising now. 

Risen now. 

A little up now (the sun). 

About 9 a. m. 

About 10 a. m. 

Midday; noon. 
Alx)ut half past 12. 

About 1 p. m. 
About 5 p. in. 

About sunset. 

Sun is beginning to set. 
Set now. 

VtrKtfja na. 

Arao na. 

Sisilang na ang arao. 

Suugmilang na. 

Mattaastaafi iui. 

IpaiujitH/illog inann/: (lit., "egg laying 

of the lien" ). 
MaH(t^anJl iia ang arao [Mi. ^ "return 

now of the sun"). 
Bagong nakiimg ang arao (WX.y "the 

.**un indinpH again"). 
Lainpas na (lit., "past now"). 
IlamjKtfiin iikin ang arao (lit., "to Iri 

touched by the 'tiquin' or pole 

used hv casco men" ). 
Kanitiii pa/arol (lit., "to be caught 

by an ax"). 
Bagong suHnkintk ang arao. 
Lungmnhng na. Another expression 

is /nnginvnod na (lit., "drowned 

Between daylight and dark. 

Xight now. 



MasiliiH na. Also takip sUlm. 
(JalA na. 

Kahoong gal/i. The usual word at 
present is hating gala. 

The following adverbs of time are also used in Ta^alog: 

Hourly. Ora.y-orr/.'* (from 8p., /*ora, "hour"). 

Daily. Araa-artu). 

Weekly. Lingrt-llngo (from Hng't, "week." 

which also means "Sunday," and 
is derived Irom Sj>., Ihnninao, 

Monthly. Bnan-bnan {irnu\ Iman, "month ami 

moon" ). 

^'earlv. Taun-tann iiiam tann, "vear"). 

Continually. Pavati. Verbalized, this word has 

the idea of " perseverance," and 
in the ]>lirase magitaraling nnin 
i^aan means "eternally." A syn- 
onym tor parafi, in the sense of 
"continually," is p'l/agi. 
Some day. Balang arao. 

The particle maka, in addition to its meanings as a verbal particle, sig- 
nifying power, ability, cause, etc., indicates com]>leted verbid action with 
verbs of doing, saying, etc., tninslated by llie word "aftrr" with the verb. 
iCx.: MakayaH niUVg paroon ka (alter yon do this, «:•) there). 

III. Adverl)8 of manner and <juality, which generally answer the (]ues- 
tion maanof "how?" are munerous in Tairalog, many a<lverV>s of manner 
l)eing the corresponding adjectives used adverbially, es])ecially th()se 
compounded with ma. Not all nni adjectives can, howexer, be so nstd, 
and neither can adjectives which are roots by themselves be used as 
adverbs. Thus adje<'tives like ?»'o''//,o//7 ( wise), malmit (prudent, etc.), 
nlul (crazy) are not used as adverbs in Tagalog. 

How? Maaiin* Fa'.: Miudu') htifuf (How 

are yo»i?) Magaling (well). 
Mtatno ang mna ninijof (How is 
yonr father?) 

So; thus; in this way. Canito (from (fit'>). 

8u; thus; in that way. dduiin'in (from diijdn). Gmnamyan 

{ to act in that manner). 

So; thus; in that a\ ay. Go/ioon (irDWi doon). 

J^ikc ( ro(|Uires genitive); thus. (ia>/on (from y(inn). Gnmayon (to 

act in that way). Ex.: (rdtjon ui 
J'fdro si .huDi (Juan is iike Pe<Iro) . 

Like: as: so. (r<ii/a. 

How hirire; how much in extent? (innlinf Kx. : GaaUnbdayo^ (How 

far? [about]), hang horafi, ]»6 
(one hour, sir.) 

Ga lias ])een (juite fully explained under tlie comparative of adjectives, 
to which the leader is referred. Amoiij.,' some examples may be (iU(»te(i 
</a hiito (iiHj fi'ioh }iio (your heart is like stone), and t/nHohin mo (make it 
like this). • "Hoth alike" is ex]>ressed by kapmu'i, as may be seen by the 
examples: fm"<il,i nio k'ni>oui'i sihuKj duIanA (prohibit tliem both alike); 
<iiul Ldjtoth'i )no ti'mo (like you, a [>ersoii [ri;i., your "neighbor"]); ako 
vari /:tij»()nn mo, irolanfj bait.'' (Am 1 perha]»8, like you, without judg- 

Intentionally; i)ur|M»seIy. Pals^L Ex.: 7^'?>(f^.vv/ ?///('/ (they did 

it intentionally). Syn., Mtd'njn. 
Another wonl is tikia. Ex.: 
Tiit'ikisniln [ thev did it })urposely ). 

Voluntarilv; willingly. Kn.-^'t. Kx.: Klmi.^tf hd'/a tiii/anf 

(Did he [she] do it 'willingly?) 
Knnisii iili/o (He [she] <lid it wil- 
lingly). With verbs knfid follo\\y 
the same construction as to the 
parti<les as do the verbs. Ex.: 
Kii-«ihi iiiotKj tiUKKjin x'nfd (call 
him purposely, i. e., do not for 
get to rail him). Jkusd mohf/ ita- 
jiini iin (throw this out ]>urposely, 
i. e., you should have thrown 
this ou{ yourself). Pafjliiman 
iiioit'i }>t(jiiai) .-<> JiKin (give ittoJtthn 
v(»lnn(aiily ). A'?/.*''/ is intensified 
by reduplication. Ex.: ]Vnl<j kaug 
k'lsok'isdntj (/uiiiona iiomj ainnnan 
(y<»u <lo not do anything with the 
lea-t willingness). 

I )y force. *sW y,///7roM from /»/7/7). Ex.: PUif na 

<ihn II i>'ir>'>'ni ( I am going perforce). 

Especially; only. IlnLod. V.\.\ Ihikod .sit/niig nntunag 

(he wns [has been] 8umnion«.»d 
especi.illy I. Jhtkod k(i mi lahat 
( Non are the only oneamong all). 
Ma ft III I tti'ih (iiig ffiiio(>\if hukod 
ifini/aititm si i \i/til<ni. /jo.s' (there are 
many " princijudes," buttheonly 
riili one is ('a]»tain l>uis). 
T(ii7i;i is sometimes used in this 

.\s Well as, etc. Akl'iiii, var. (igha)/; <i(j<dniy; agapay. 

As well as: conjointly. Sahui/. \]\.: Amj /(d<iki kasahaynang 

b<tii(d>f (the man as well aa the 
woman, or the male as well a8 the 
female i. — L. 

Hurriedly or more (]nickly ( sai<l to SiniiaaiKjoj/ikn ( from .s7(?Wo/>?Av'/, idea 
be a]iplied only to whi}>i»ing). of punishing another). 



Quickly; hastily. 

Except; besides. 

Except; excuse me; by permission. 

llardlv; scarcely. 

^k*arcelv; ha nil v. 

^Nearly; almost. 


Inside out. 

Upside down; reverse<l. 

Slowly; smoothly; noiselessly. 

Bigld. Ex.: Xamatay siyang hiyld 
(he died quickly). — L. Verbal- 
ized. Ex . : Bi<jlabt mo any tiilol mo 
(hasten [abbreviate] your account 
[or story]). 

Liban. Ex.: Libdn sa iy6y icalnng 
ib(ni(j ma/id] Hir or oou (except you, 
there is no other person who can 
go there) . Libdn sa iyd ang mulia^ 
ay dill ko ibibigay (except that you 
are to be the one taking it, I should 
not give it). 

Tabi. Ex.: Tabi p6^ ako'y dardan 
(excuse nie [for going Jbefore you, 
for leaving first, etc.].) This is the 
shout '*cocheros" use, Tabif It 
literally means thus: "Aside." 
7abi is also used for a polite cor- 
rection or contradiction: Singtabi 
m iyd, lii lidi gaydn {y o\\ will pardon 
me, l)ut it is not just like that^. 
Tdbiha)!, refuse heap, rubbish 
heai>, etc. 

Bahayyd, var. bahagid. Ex.: Bo- 
lidgid ltd mdl:d.'<iyd (it is hardly 
sufficient). — L. A synonym is 

Bihit'd. 8yn. ara; ddt-ha. Ex.: 
Ddtha kung iuabutan (I scarcely 
reached it). Bihird also means 
"seMom." Ex., as "hardly:" 
Biiiibihird ko ud dtig udgai/idritd (I 
think scarcely anyone has come 
here yet). Bihirdng dl iiapdrdon 
(scarcely anyone was not there); 
i. c, nearly everyone was there). 
yfdltiitd ]ni filyd' y bi/iirang indkdld- 
kdd (she [he] is weak yet, an<l can 
hardly walk [is hardly able to 
walk] ). Bihird is verl)alized with 
mdg iiud uidghi. Ex.: Pdgbdnra'in 
mo dug kdnin (change the food). 
\dgkdkdbihird sild nang pagdd- 
vdiiiit (they differ in their manner 
of dressing). 

JJdbjK. Ex. : n<i/os namdtny siyd ( he 
[she] almost (lie<l). 
A yon. 

Alin.<d)i<td (from addod, to follow, 

Bdliktdd. Ex.: Itdlikidd kd uiydn 
(indef. ); b<d'iktari)\ mo iyan (turn 
that inside out). 

Toidtrik (from touad). Syn. toudndik. 
Ex.: Tonarik rid bantd (light- 
headed; injuilicious). 

Mdrdlidu (from daJion). Mdrdhdu 
ihdnnt or fltihtm d/ilitin viTV slow- 




Carofiillv; in an onlorlv inaiiiUM- 


llai'l: FMii-'lilv; \ iL'<>r«Mi<lv. 

r>r'u'Jly; •iiii<'kly. 


Moffpdhirahan kang Inmnkad (go 
very i^lowly [indef.]). Pnknrn- 
httuin nut nnij paghlla (throw it 
delilu'rately [def.]). Majxikara- 
lian, to ^o very smoothly; slowly, 
etc. Kx.: ynjmhirdfian nn (it 
has ^llowed up already; it ha." 
(|uietrd down already, etc.). 
There is also a definite with <ni. 
Ex.: D'dtmmn iim if/aiif/ f/nna )nn 
(do that work (juietly, etc. ). Met. 
a<lject. Kx,: Marnluin amj lt' 
t(ii/('( (lie ha.s a tnag:naniinou.*< 
heart). Iimf iitot, very hIowIv; 
"little by little" is not much in 
use. LoiifUf lovdij, little by little, 
i.s nhont e(|nal to irhoa, etc., and i.s 
usimI i^cnerally callin*^ to aninials. 

}fa',nfl. Miihutlnt/ iiKthuii, very well. 
Syn. }f<f'i(/i. 

Mtihi'isfiif. }fahus(tf/ 110 )u(ihuiifn/, 
\ery carefully; in a very orderly 
manner. Kx.: Itn fi »f<urin ithnininj 
iii'ihi'isdf/ (do this carefully). 
Jluliilin iiK>H(/ xuiJiusaif ( wraj> it up 
carefully). Jfunii'isat/, to put in 
order; to arranjre; to <li.'>'entanj;le. 
M'n//Kihil,Hs>ti/, to arrange well: to 
.•-•'ttU^ thiuirs with care. Adj.: 
"Will ke]tt,'' vie. Kx.: IliU'tfi im 
Inih',/: ( w«'ll kej)t hair). Ainj li'mu- 
•-"'/ (what dit<entan^led or set in 
orders /Insinf mi ufUfjt (a care- 
ful conversation ). 

M<'< nn'i. M<is'iifi<tn(/ uin.'<nin(U verv 
l)a<lly. ]''x.: Xntuh^fifiktuu] nuistunu 
l(i(;af>} (I ^lept hadly last ni^ht). 

M*i/(iLi'is. Kx.: Jif}iiti(/ ntn (ikofi'j Idk- 
k'lsdu ndiHj jHifTi/u/rffHsiip (do not 
talk to nie so much in such a 
rou«:h manner) , l\((hi/<tkan hnnj 
hiiiiahiid ( walk w ith vijror). It'i- 
iioliil: )n>tn itdHt/ iiHi/tik'is (itKj hatxfko 
( he pushed the hanca [canoe] 
vi^'ontusly ). 

Ma(/iifi\ var. iiKintli. Cornl)ined with 
l»oth uiii and iiutq, an anoma- 
lous veil) is formed, tmif/dmn'ili 
to make haste, and in turn this 
is nse<l with a noun to indicate 
time. l''x.: MntfihannrnHf t^rao (a 
short while, «jrtime). Kxamplen 
as an adverh«if ///'/'/'»// are: (itnnv 
iiKHKi ni'ula// ( do it <|ui<'kly ) ; sahi- 
hiii uuni'j HKulnft (tell it (piicklv). 

M<il'il>(ni. Kx.: Ta/i(in inotuj indfifmif 
(tie it stronyrly). Wnhtnrj vnnnufj 
tihmi pi}(ikns'tr<y y ha/ijihan (there 
is no re])airin<j: strf>n^er than to 
replace what is destroyed). — T. P., 




Frequently; often; closely. 



Judiciously ; prudently. 
Customarilv; commonlv. 

Openly; publicly. 

Do you understand ? 
6855—05 7 

822. Manibay, to prop up; to sup- 
port; to Hustain. Ex.: hjaiKj ba- 
lonij ang pinanhiiboi/fui naug bdhatf 
(that Htone is the prop of the 

M'tgdliiifj. Maijalnig na magulhig, 
very finely. Ex. : Knngiuahi akong 
magaling (I ate finely). Ang 
nagagaling^ person injj)r{)ving (aa 
from an illnen.^). Giuiud'iiig, to 
grow better (as a sick person). 
Maggalingy to prepare. GalhTgin^ 
what prepared. Mmigalhig, to 
improve greatly. Makagdling, to 
do good. Ex.: Ang mniiga gamot 
ay xiyang ikinagagdUng nang maiTgd 
may mkit (medicines are what 
cause the sick to recover) . Mag- 
pagaliiig, to prosper. Mngpakaga- 
llng, to improve; reform, or cor- 
rect one's self. Ex. : Magpakaga- 
ling kayo nang viaiTlja dsal niayo 
(improve yourselves in manners). 
KagaliiTganj goodness. Ang pina- 
gagaling, thing Ix'ttered (present 
tense) . 

MalhiiU. Ex. : MaVnnit akong naUligb 
(1 bathe often). Also name of a 
close- woven basket made around 
Bosoboso, Rizal l*rovince. 

Not expressed by a single word, but 
by phrases, the adjt^ctive maru- 
iiong, wise, being expressed with 
the subject in the nominative, and 
the verl) in the inlinitive. Ex.: 
Manitwng i^iyang inndral (he 
teaches wisely), not nngmadral si- 
yaiig tnarunong, which woul<l V>e a 
proper construction if maruuong 
were an adverb. 

Matnliii. Tumulin^ to do anything 
swiftly. Magtii/iti, to go swiftly. 
Ang ipagtulin, the cause of going 
swiftly. Ex.: Papagtalininmoanq 
bangkd (make the banea [canoe] 
go swiftly). Matuling tnmakbo to 
run swiftly). Katulivan [abst. )] 

*S''/ bait. 

Sa (tgaH, also with al)Stract, sa kan- 

Sa lidyag. 

Si lihim. Lihini na gnod, a secret 
dei'd. Ang ganitng Hhiin ay )taha- 
Jidyag din (secret deeds are the 
very ones found out). — T. 1*., .M5. 
Ang lihini ay si>i<tng finyag (the hid- 
den is wliat is discovered). — T. P., 

JIani/ var. ''lumid/-^ 


lintlv. S(nn/nin. Wlien followed hy tiaufj, 

info, lunnaii, eU*., the final n is 
<ln>j)peti. Syii., }Kiti. 

iiiHiiiiu'li. (iiKjiiuHti ( from '/////, idea of a little) . 

Ex. : MniitiiKi tnhi(j (a little water ). 
Kanuti, a little, as in speaking a 
langiiajre, etc. 

irthwith; instantly. Sa mndnli. Kx.: llomuj kang ma- 

halnm doon, souiunnUill innn Imuantj 
(do not delay there more than an 
instant). Sn i^aiuj kimp mala (in 
the twinkling; of an eye). 

hy not? S'Hui }Hi dif var. Snd'if Snan ]hi dl 

qatiuiif { Why not that wav?) 

hy? At<tnof Atfanof ( Who doubts it?) 

,1/ or (ui joined with eertain parti- 
cles means " whv?" Ex.: At dif 
(Why not?) 
would he better. M<ihoi7>/(i. SltudhatTj^a (hi^tier). A'a- 

IniiTi/nhmTi/'i (admirable) . 

it were not. Kuu daiTijtni, Pnknndnt7?;a)i {(or the 

sake of ). 

'rtainly. Tand). \'erbalize<l taido means to 

un(Wrlstand. I']x.: Xntatanto nutf 
(L)o you uuderstan<l it?) Ddikofxi 
Hudihfuli') { I don't understand it 

••ulv. Totnit inaudhi. Also (otou din : lijU'nt 

* _ 

i7<i(i ; intooiH/ fotoit ( very truly ) . To- 
to(/ ummlimj ((/too (very truly, in- 

•rtaiidy; indeecl. )nj<i, vnr. to/<tui(. ICx.: Sif/n to/a tmg 

noijnohao (he is eertiiinlv the 

ruly; really, ]>iii. ( ( 'han-jfcs to r'ui after some 

words. ) 

I\'. Nearly all the adverbs of mr-asure and deu'n'o have been fully 
c|)lain«*d under the <'oiiiparati\(' and superlative of the adjective. It may 
3 noted heir that the a<l\erb is made siiperlativ<' by the reduplication of 
u^ ad\(M-i», with the propei- tie. in the sauH' manner asi the adjective. 
any examples hav<' betMi ^iven on the forct^oimr pa<j:es. The only adverbs 
L.ed here will be l''nn<fn«j, *'<»nly;" >///./ no; and i^ukat na, "enough." 



Indeed; without doubt. 

Also; likewise; a« well. 

Would; should; could (idea of com- 

V. Adverbs of modality, such as "surely," not, ** perhaps," etc., have 
been treated under otlier adverbs or will be included with the adverbial 
pronouns and expressions of affirmation, negation, and doubt. 

Affirmative adverbs are fairly numerous in Tagalog. The principal are: 

Yes. Oo. Op6 (yes. sir [or madam]). 

Oo r7j/a and 60 iTf/anit (yes, in- 
deed). Paoo (to say yes). Ang 
ipaoo ( what said ) . Ang pinaoohan 
(person to whom yes has been, 
said ) . 

Pain. Siyd pala (it is lie, indee<l). 
This word is used in asserting 
when a thin^ is certain. Ex.: 
Indl pala si Pedro ang nagnakaof 
(Is Pedro the thief without 
doubt? ) Siya pala ( he is, indeed ) . 
Kapala pa (it is clear). Ex.: 
Kapala j>a' g paroroon ako (it is 
clear that I am going there). 
Kapala pa' g <li paroroon ak6 (it is 
clear [of course] that I am not 
going there). 

Narnan. Man (even). 

Din'ni. Ex.: Kun siga'y su»iilal di- 
sin, ay paroroon sana ak6 (if he 
should write, I would go there). 

Sana. Ex.: ihig ko mna'y snmidat, 
rijIuuVl vald akong kapanahonan 
(i would like to write, but I have 
no time). Ako ang pardon sana^ 
hago ika(>'y naparito (I had to go 
there, before you came here). 

The principal negative adverbs are as follows: 

No. Hindi. 

Not. Indl. rudi pa {not yet). Indl man; 

mr//rm (neither; not either). Indi 
na (not now). Indl Idmang (not 
only, solely ). Indi iyan (not that) . 

Aayaoako. A' [pronounced abrupt- 
ly] (I don't like it). Kaayanan 
[abst.] (dislike). Ang inaayanan 
(what disliked or refused). 

Dl. Ex.: I>1 isa u«tn; dl man nana 
(in no wav). Dl man; dl }>a (not 
yet), lifauhinf (What matter?) 
Dl aiduti dent na (for it is said 

that ). J>1 (nnann (it is said). 

Dlaun }Kif (How can it bo?) Dl 
iTga salamal (may it be thus). 
Ito'y dl ma'tgi (this is not goo<l). 
Dl sino ( to who else ). Kx. : Dlaino 
ang da i in] an mo, knndl ang capitanf 
(To who else should your com- 
plaint be made except the cap- 

Ddl, varia. dirl. Mapadirl, to say 

I don't want to. 




whom '*no'* has been said many 
times (past tense). Padili ka, 
say no. DUi rin, no indeed. At 
the end of a sentence dUi some- 
times means * * or not. ' ' Ex . : Ba- 
bdyad mla^ dilif (Will thev pav or 
No (forbidding). Honug. Ex.: Ilouag na (do not do 

it now [presuppojses previous com- 
mand]). //oMo^ ii/an (leave that I 
drop that ! ) Uouagan mo iyd n ( let 
that alone ) . Hm^ngan mong knuin 
(do not take it). Honagan mong 
itapon (do not throw it out). 
Honagan mono tingnan (do not 
look at it). Houag kang par6on 
(do not go there). Pahouagin mo 
iyang tnno niyAn (tell that man not 
to do that). Pahouagan mo iyan 
diift'tn m bntd (forbid that to that 

There are a few adverbs of doubt in Tagalog, as well as some phrases 
meaning the same. They are: 

Perhaps. Baga. 

Possibly. Kayn. Kay A nga (just because, just 

for that reason). Used with af- 
firmative sentences. Kayd nganit 
(as soon as) . Kayd nijgani ( since ) . 
Used with negative sentences. 
Makakayd, to be able (in a phyt*- 
ical sense). Kayd is also any 
hunting or fishing utensil or in- 

Why? For what reason? Wain. Ex.: At akd wari jtardonf 

(Why do I have to go there?) 
With neg., At di vxiri akd pardon f 
(Why don't 1 have to go there?) 

Perhaps. Vpan. It is never put last in a 


I don't know. Avdn. Do not confuse with adyao 

(I don't want to). 

If it could be thus. Naud. Siyd nnud (it may be this 

way). Use<l for **amen." 


The preposition, which serves to connect a noun to the sentence, in the 
same manner that the conjunction introduces or attaches sentences, is not 
as highlv developed in Tagalog a:^ in English, and for this reason thesame 
preposition means what it would take several different ones to express in 
English. The principal Tagalog prej>OHitions arc: 

In; to; from; against; at; by; on; Sa. Ex.: (in) Sa bayan (in town); 
per; iH'tween; with; ot: among; «' bnhny (in the house); (to) sa 
lor; acroiis. nh ko (to my aunt); sa amain ko 

(to my uncle); *«a amd ko (to my 
father); sa inn ko (to my mother), 
the^«c also mean **for" mv aunt, 
etc.; an hdhny (to the house); i*a 
iynn fn'thay (to that house); (from) 
sa bt'ihay (from the house); 

• • • • 


(against) laban sa kaanay (against 
the enemy); (at) aa bahay (at the 
house); (l)er) iatld sa sangdd (8 
per cent); (between) sa ma gating 
at niammd ( between good and bad ) ; 
(with) »arna sa kaniyAng anak 
(she is going with her child); (of, 
rare); (among, unusual); (for) 
pataiHjo ko sa America ( I am leav- 
ing for America); (across, rare). 
Sa is verbalized, the verbs thus 
formed being explained later. 

Without. Wald. Ex.: Wald akoiig salaj)t (I 

am without money). Magirald, to 
run away; to get rid of. Mana/d, 
to lose; to miss. Kx.: Nawai/in 
ako navy lakds ( I lost the strength ). 
Makairaldj to be able to run away. 
Ex.: Hindi makay'(dd iTi;ay6n (it is 
not possible to run away now). 
Maypdvttld, to pardon, forgive. 
Wald with in also means to remit 
or cancel. Ex.: Walin mo na any 
litany ka m iy6 (cancel the debt I 
o w e y o u ) . Ma ykaua Id , to go a pa rt , 
to break away. Ex.: Pajtayka- 
valhi ma kanrt (let us quit [as 
partners]) (excl.). Sinony iraldf 
(Who is absent?) Wald ka kaha- 
])on (you were absent yesterday). 
May ikinairainild ka nany balauy 
naf ( Is there anything you lack?) 
Wabnty vald (absolulely nothing). 
Aawabl sa kamay ko (it escaped 
from my hand). Mauald man 
i.sany anuany kalakian^ honay any 
isany salita^in ( better to lose a cara- 
bao bull than a moment of conver- 
sation. — T. P., H6iK Jbd any may 
ay-ay sa vald (it is better to have 
a scarecrow than to be without 
ont^ ) . — T. 1*. , 8G(i. NayntamaynW y 
vald (they pretend to have some- 
thing, but are destitute). — T. P., 
8()7. Majti/tilit any mardmot, any 
vabVy hindi (the miser may be 
forced [to give something], but he 
who has nothing, no).— T. P., 868, 
Wabiny masamany kaniya, vahtny 
ma'iyi sa. ibd (faultless what is his, 
good for nothing what is of 
an«»ther).— T. P., 870. Wald also 
means " the open sea, a gulf," etc. 
Maypanald (to put to sea). ICx.: 
Nay pa wald any Mora nany kain- 
yany samsatnin (the Moro put to 
sea with his bonty). 

Of (and family or associates). Kana. Any buknlkand ali ko (the 



Of (genitive of .s/). 

Of (geiilitive of nvf/). 
Tu (dative, etc. of id). 



iV/ . Ex . : A ng r? logan n i Luis ( Louis' 
eocoannt ]>alm ^rove). Anfjbahay 
ni Ihindn (Thonia^i' house). 

NiiiKj. lOx. : Ang hi'thmj natif/ amn ho 
(my fatlier's house). 

Knff. Ex.: Itong tmtf/kod at/ katj 
Jfum (this eane is John's [is to 

I/ihaii; Inhaii sn. Ex.: Jkao^i/h'thmi 
Sft ukiii (you against nie). Imng 
hokhoh'than ndiKun sa iha (one army 
a;:ainst another). Mafilnhan (to 
resist or strug^'le against). 

Bultitt. Ex.: Si'ian ha naghuhatf 
{ Where (lid you come from?) 

Mn/n. Ex. : }fii/a wjngon ( from now 
on). Sa unihi (from tlie begin- 
ning). Ex.: }fiiln mi tunes hangan 
s(i rierncs (from Monday until 
Friihiy). ^f(|^<i sa }fay))i/a hangan 
sa Santa ^fr.'<(f (from ^lanila as far 
as Santa Mesa). Magmula (to 
start; to commence). 


(ienuine conjunctions are iath«'r scarce in Tagaloj;, hut many otiier words 
may he used asa«'onjunction would he in JMiglish to join sentences together. 
The principal ones are: 


To(:«'th<'r with. 

Not nnly — l)Ut. 


I', veil ; us well as. 


< )r lint. 

Either — or. 

Al. This loses the vowel in many 
cases, being pronounced with the 
w<»rd preceding as a linal t, and in 
such cases is written '/. 

Kns^ifiit) (from f:a and sama). 

I! nidi /I'lni'iiig — knjaii tmgkns. 

Ilninnj ti'iiihuig. 

Sal Hi I/. 

J fill. \ Iso num. 
Mil '/in — indiiin. 
O (Sp. I 

The f<>re}ioiiig are calle<l binding conjunctions as to the llrst f(»ur and 
alter;iti\e conjunction^' as to the last four. The following are called adver- 
s;iti\'e <onjnn«*tions. They arc: 

J>ut. Xgiiiii; kiii'ili; dalajuniii; snhati; aliii- 

(fiii'i. Sgmii never begins a ])rin- 
cip:d <l;uHe. but always a subordi- 
iiatc one. and generally in an an- 
su<r. |]x.: f hig ki'SiiHinig ktnnainy 
injiiiiyi hinil! nii'i mnnOffagari (I 
Would like to eat, but I am not 
able to I. — L. V. from af, is almost 
inxariabiy joine<l 1(» injnitt. Knmli 
\< ii'^ed forsii)>ordinate clauses, gen- 
eially w hen the ])rincipal one has 
a iiegati\e meaning. Ex.: Ilimil 
/'i/iiU, kintfl! balxn/t' ang \tnni (tlu* 
bird is not a male, but a female). 
I)iihil,niia, which generally take'/, 
means "but" still stronjrer than 



But rather. 
Neither — nor. 

Although; though. 

Although ( more formal than above). 

Kver so much, although (givhig a 
reason or making an excuse). 


Since; whereas. 

No matter if; even if. 

What; because 
But; vet. 

Some conjunctions may be styled 
Tagalog are: 


htndl, denoting a sharper contrast, 
as b(»t\veen rich but miserable, etc. 
Snbtili means '*but for," etc., as 
conditional. J /////a)/'7, which takes 
V in beginning a clause, means 
'* but forall that," etc. Verbalized 
the two foregoing words mean "to 
except." linijo is sometimes used 
i n t h e sense of " bu t . " K x . : Tn n- 
ffhaH Hdfhnfjn^ 1/ ira/d pa sii/i'i (noon 
already, but he is absent yet). 

Ktivdf ffUfjkus. These words nmy l>e 
used alone in this sense, and may 
also be joined together. 

Man — man. Man — manJiindi nn. 
Ex.: ]yald ham'i h'njds man, Hltuj 
man (we have nothing, neither 
rice nor eggs. 

Baqamdn. Ex.: Ikujami'tn dnkhd ai 
Juan, i<a pun nama'y maifd}nan tdyd 
(though Juan is poor, he is rich in 
a good name). 

BlsttVl. BUtd^t napopoot sly a sa akin, 
ay hlhlyydn din akd (although he is 
angry at me, it will be given tome). 

Mafaynn'in. Ex.: Malaynnrnakoynaa 
ka'dng paritd, ay di ko vmhtyaiuui, 
(although I wished to come, I was 
not able to [I had no strength]). 

Kahi, var. kahinial, kah'niyd^ kahi- 
)iyd mrtn, kali'iU. Ex.: Ktdtirna^t 
di mdyay si/d, parordon din ako, 
(abhongli they do not consent, I 
shall ^o there). 

]*alih]iaHa (from Sanskrit, pariUid- 
AJid, sentence, reprimand, etc.) . It 
is followetl by '// in sentences. As 
an adverb it is equal to kayd iTija ; 
kayd pa/a, as well as to "since" 
and " whereas." As a noun it 
means ' ' irony. ' ' Mayp(dihhasa ( to 
speak ironically). 

Snkddn. Ex. : Maypapakahnsoy )nunn 
>'///'(, snkddn xiyd" y maykasakif ( lie 
will ^orge hini.^elf first, even if be 
makes himself sick ). 

M((yapd, var. mayapd'f, little heard. 

Bftyo. Ex.: SihVy tiny may s^dn, ffiiyn 
tikd any pinarnsalnni (they are tlie 
ones at fault, but I am theone who 
has l)een j»unished). 

"causative." The principal ones in 

Because (giving reason). 

Bakin' \Rr. />dkit. Bdkif dif (Why 
not?) lidkd also means "as," 
"how," etc., in scnti'uces. .As a 
noun ftf'iklt means an old monkey 
with develoi>c(l teeth. J ;<<>'/.'' also 
means " why?" 

Sa payka^t. 

A fifth trroup of conjunctions i.s generally that called ''conditional.** 
The significations of the memhers of this group are self-explanatory. 

If; rather. Krm. 

Unless. Kkii diri lamang; hm di Inmang; 

lilxni na. 

As if it were. Kuii i«tn<i sa. 

Were it not for. Knn tfatu/av; daiTtjan. 

Provided. Knn h'uudng; houag l/imang. 

J^est. Biik'd, var. maka. 

The sixth and last group of conjunctions is that of the class called "con- 
clusives" in s(>nie grammars and "illatives" in others. In Tagalog the 
principal ones of this class are: 

That (relative). N<ntg. Ex.: Mngpagamot ko, uatig 

iki'io Of/ gniiKiling (allow yourself 
to l)e treated, so that you mav be 
better). — !.. 

That. X'l. Kx.: \(igyahi slgii no uku \f 

hatuliig { he.<;aid that I wa.« a«K»ep). 

Consequently; that is to say. Dt tfatn. 

Therefore (conse^juently). Sn nmldtfiiidi lit. "in other words") 

Kx.: Xdkttd ko sild kagah-iy sa ma- 
L'ltoniil }iiii<fi si/('i sUYtginnkng (I 
saw lliem last night, therefore 
they did not embark). 

In order that. Vjxiu. It is never put last in a 


luaHinuch; in so far as. Yainnng, var. gagdinang; ijngang; 

/i(ii/'nii(tiH/; /i<nnffng. Ex.: Mang- 
}/fi;f'iring gair'ni nlgn i/((g<nnan i<iga^y 
gnhi rnntlnr-geucrdl (he is able to 
do it, inasmuch as he is governor- 
general) . 


The exclamation, or interjection, can hardly Ije regarded as a part of 
s|»(M'rh, roiiiparcd with verbs, iionns, ;i«ljectives. etc., but for want of a 
better rla>si(i<';ition ihev mav be treated here. Thev are generallv self- 
explainintr, and many seem to be ro(»ts used as iniperativcs of the verb. 
The mo>t charai-teristic Tairalog interjections are: 

Dear me! Alas! A},a! 

<)iK'h! Wow! Armi! Arat/f 

Oh how ! (.\lwavs follows.) Aiku'i! (mosllv used bv women). 

(^h how ! (^ .\1 ways follows. ) Jiiifn'ta. May be used together, 

Ixipi'in prece«ling. Bapda is more 

in use bv men. 
(lOod! Fine! B"fi tTi/<i! 

Poor thing! K<nnn'uni/i.' 

Would that it mav be so! C>h Kdhinifnnmri.' Xaua! Maano! 

that ! 

(^lick! /)<//;.' 

Be silent ( to one) ! llmnig kdng magiwjdp! 

No talk! SileiKM'! Ilomuf k(HfO)i(/ indgiilgayf 

Lightning! (Oh, hell!) Linfik: 

My mother! Xdknf y((ku/ (Contraction from 

ind ko. ) 

What a|>ity! Sdf/ditg/ 

Move on! (io ahead! Sulo)}g! 


Look out! Aside! Take care! Tabl! Hag! 

!?tand back! UronyJ 

Look I Behold! Here it is! Manad! 

Tagalog cursinj? is rather peculiar. It has evidently been derived from 
native sources and not from contact with the Spaniards. Among the most 
usual expressions are: 

May a crocodile eat you! Kanin ka nany bnaya! 

May the earthquake swallow you up! Lnmurdn ka nany f'mdol! 

May a snake bite you! Tlikain ka nany ahas! 

May the lightning strike him! Tinamadn siyd nanyimiik! 

Section Seven. 


L **The verb is distinguished from all other words by marked oharacterin- 
tics and a peculiar organization." — EarU'. The eminent phiiulogisit .speaks 
thus of the English tongue, but his remarks applv equally to Ta^alog. He 
further defines a verb as *' the instrument by which the mind exprei?Hes 
its judgments," a defmition which was fi^^^t enunciated by the Danish 
philologist Madvig, in his Latin grammar (Copenhagen, 1841, 8th ed., 
1889). Madvig calls a verb vdmynmrd, literally " out-say ing-word." 
Other characteristics of the verb have been noted and have given names 
to the class, such as the German Zntirurt (time-word), and Kwald's 
Thatnort (deed-word). But in Tagalog the line between nouns and 
L'erbs is much less than in English, where it is still less than in Latin, 
jlreek, and other languages of southern Europe. 

n. The simplest verbal form is the imperative, which consists of the 
"oot, followed by ka (thou) or kayd (you; ye). An adverb (jf time is some- 
innes added to the phrase for emphasis. Ex.: lAkad /ca na! (walk 
>n, nowl) hip ka! (Think!) Aral ka! (Teach I) Dald modoon (iiik^ it 
ihere).- I)al/i mo dito (bring it here). As in English, many of the roots 
.L-seil as imf)eratives may be used as nouns also. Aral, as a noun, means 
"d'K'trine" or "teaching." Ex.: Any and ni Monror' y any dral nany 
America w/aydn (the Monroe doctrine is now the doctrine of America). 

IIL By prefixing ka to the imperative, and reduplicating the first sylla- 
ble of the root at the same time (sign of the present tense) the idea of 
quickness, intensity, care, etc., is imparted to the command. Ex.: 
Kalaldkad ka! ((Toquickly ! [to r)ne]) . Kalaldkad kayo! ((ioijuickly I [ye] ). 
Kaimp ka! (Consider it well I) Kadadnla mo ddon (take it tliere ean»- 
fully). As a general thing the agent takes the indefinite form, as will 
be seen by the examples, but the definite is used when necessary. A'(/ 
with the reduplicated first syllable of the root has a very different mean- 
injf with any other person than the second. With the first and third per- 
sons it has the idea of "time just past," when followed by />a,as will beneen 
by the following examples. Sometimes pa may be omitted. Din may 
also take the place of pa, as may also Idmany. In English the time may he 
expressed by " has" or " had," according tothe contex. Karardtiny ko pa ( I 
have [had] just arrived). Karardtiny ni dat Innnh (Don Tonuis has just 
arrived), ibiy many makakain t<a dminf (Do you wish to eat with us?) 
Saldmat, aydoakdU kdkdkain ko pa ( thanks, I do n()t care t< >, I have just eaten ) . 
Kaga yd ling nany kajta lid na habaye ko !«i hayan (my sister has just come 
from town). Kahihiyd, ko din ( 1 had just lain down ). Kapafxinauy kn din 
at hapapanhik Idmajiy nild (I had just gone down and they ha<l just gone up 
[i.e., tne house ladder] ). Kapapdmk Idmany niyd mi hdlmy (he had just 
entered the house). Kapapdsok din iTijaydn ni Kstt'han so hn.^ahan ( Estel»an 
[Stephen] has just entered the reading place [i. e., the master's place]). 
Katmmlat ko (1 had just written it ). Katatapns ho ( 1 have just fini^hed it) . 
Kaiatagpi ko (1 had just men<led it). Kanuta» na ko (1 had already finished 


it ) . KaaallA lA mang niyd ( he has just gone away ) . KaaaHs pa nang Aking 
amd (my father has just gone away). KaaalU din nbaydnnang camtdn 
(the captain just now left). With roots Hke /ira/, which have several dis- 
tinct meanings according to the verbal particle prefixed, ka does not 
require the first syllable to be repeateil. hx.: KapangaiigAral din ngaydn 
nang pare (the priest has just finished preaching). In this case the prefix 
is reduplicateil, murTgaral meaning '* to preach." KapagalU din ni Benigno 
nnng damit (Benigno just took the clothes away). Magalis means *'to 

IV. Ka has many other functions, which will be taken up later. It is a 
most important particle and should be carefully studied. It should be 
noteil that the pronouns with the imperative are mostlv in the nomina- 
tive, while with the first and third persons they are in the genitive. 

V. All such sentences are in the definite or so-calleil ** passive," which 
is by far the most usual form in Tagalog, but which would look very 
strange manv times if translated by the English passive. 

VI. The foregoing form is also used to express oppoeites, the wonis 
being linked by ay. It may be expressed in English oy **now, again," 
or •* now, then." Ex.: 

Now he slee|)s, then he wakes. Katuidlog ay kagigising niifd. 

He comes in and goes out. Kapap&wk ay kakUabas ntyd. 

He is coming and going. Kararl&ing ay kaaalls niya. 

Sometimes he walks, then he rests a Kalal&kaday kahihintdhinid niyd, 


Now she laughs and then she cries. KakUaua ay kaiiyak. 

VII. When a prefix changes the meaning of a word, it is retained in the 
imperative. Ex.: Aral ka (teach); pagaral ka (study); pangdral ka 

VIII. With the exception of the forms already cited, the verb is always 
accompanied by particles, which sometimes modify the root itself for 
euphonic reasons. Nearly every word in the language can be made a verb 
of some kind or another by the use of these particles, which are the strik- 
injif peculiarity of the Malayo-Polvnesian languages, but have l)een re- 
tameil in the primitive tongues of tne Philippines much more than in the 
Malay, Javanese, or other cognate dialecte. There are some twenty of 
these verbalizing particles, oi which seventeen are used as prefixes to 
roots and three are the definite auxiliarv particles m, i, and an. Of these 
particles, which are tabled at the end ol the handbook, the most impor- 
tant are nt, i, an, um^ mag, and ma, the last three being indefinite particles. 
Pag^ corresponding as a definite to mag, is also imi)ortant. The mastery 
of these particles is the mastery not only of Tagalog, but of every other 
Philippine dialect, as well as a valuable aid in learning Malay or any simi- 
lar tongue of the family. 

IX. The root with any one of the indefinite particles prefixed may be 
transmuted as the infinitive, provided the particle is merely attached to 
give the meaning of the root so modified, but whenever a tense is expressed 
the particle or the root is modified, and sometimes both. Besides the 
imperative and infinitive,Tagalog has really but one other mode, the indic- 
ative, as the subjunctive, including those modifications? known in various 
European languages as the optative, conditional, dubitative, potential, etc., 
is expressed by certain words corresponding to the English ** could, 
should, would, may," etc. 

X. Strictly speaking, there are but three tenses in Tagalog, the past, 
present, and future; but it is possible to render the imperfect, pluperfect, 
and future perfect tenses by means of auxiliary particles. The first three, 
however, are those in common use. The participle is also in, i-orre- 
sponding literally to the English participle in some cases, and in others 
must Ihj rendered by a phrase. The same remark may be made of the 
gerund in English, which is variously rendered in Tagalog. One tense 
is sometimes used for another, when the context clearly indicates iheiimt 
of the event, as happens in English. 


XI. A? in English, Tagalog verbs may be transitive, requiring? an object 
to complete the meaning; or intranj?itive, in which the meaning is com- 
plete within the verb. These do not always correspond in the two lan- 
guages, and a Tasralog root may sometimes be intransitive with one prefix 
and transitive with another, which mav reverse or modifv the meaninjr. 

XII. Within the tense the verb does not change for the person or num- 
heTj and requires a noun or a pronoun to indicate the same. 

XIII. The eminent Indo-Tibetan philologist Hryan H. Hodgson (1800- 
1894), in his Monographs upon the Tribes of Northern Tibet, reprinted in 
Part II, pages 73-76, of '*The Languages, Literature, an<l Religion of Nepal 
and Tibet" ( London, 1874), gives it as his o])inion that the (ivarung dialect 
of Eastern Tibet has a very similar structure to that of Tagalog, quoting 
Leyden and W. von Humboldt (the latter at secondhand) in support of his 
views. Rockhill, the Tilietan scholar, now United States minister to 
China, who has a wide acquaintance with Tibetan, says that <Tyarung is 
merely a variation of onlinary Tibetan, and this being the case there can 
be no possible affinity between the two languages. As Hodgson's error 
hsL^ \)een given wide puV)licity by its incorporation as a footnote to the 
article by de Lacou|>erie U|»on Tibet in the Encyclopedia Britannica, it 
shoold be corrected as far as possible by any student of Tagalog. 

XIV. As quote<l and corrected by Hodgson, the remarks ot I^^yden, as 
taken from the Researches of the Bengal Asiatic Society, Vol. X, page 20V), 
upon Tagalog are as follows: '* Few languages |>resent a greater api)earance 
of originality than the Tagala. Though a multitude of its terms agree pre- 
cisely with those of the languages just enumerated (western Polynesian), 
yet tne simple terms are so metamorphosed by a variety of the most sim- 
ple contrivances that it becomes impossible (difficult — H. 11. H.) for a 
person who understands all the original words in a sentence to recognize 
them individually or to comprehend the meaning of the whole. The arti- 
fii^es which it employs are chiefly the prefixing or postlixing (or infixing — 
B. H. H.) to the simple vocables (roots) of certain particles (serviles), 
which are again (may be) combined with others, and thecom]>lete or par- 
tial repetition of terms in this reduplication may be again combined with 
other particles." 

XV. Hfxlgson notes upon the foregoing as follows: " I may add, with 
reference to the disputea primitiveness of Ta-<:ala, owing to its use of the 
'artifices* above cited, that throughout the Himalaya and Tibet it is pre- 
cisely the rudast or most primitive tongues that are distinguished by useless 
intricacies, such as the interminable ])ronouns, an<l all the perplexity caused 
by conjugation by means of them, with their duals and plurals, ami in- 
clusive and exclusive forms of the first person of })ot)i. * * * The 
more advanced tril)es, whether of the continent or of the islanrls, have, 
jrenerally speaking, long since east away all or most of tliese 'artifices.' " 
As has already been noted, the Tagalog pronouns do not modify the verlis, 
which have the same form within the tense for all ))ersons and numbers. 
As compareil to tongues like Fijian an<l other Melanesian dialects, Tagalog 
has maae long strides toward becoming a vehieU'of a much higher culture 
than it now enjoys. 

XVI. W. von Humboldt says in his Kawi Sprache, Vol. II, page :]47: 
**The construction of the Malayan verb (to sj>eak of the entire linguistic 
stock) can be fully recognized from the Tagalog verl) alone. The Malagasy 
and true Malay contain but fragments thereof, while the Polynesian lan- 
guages have a more primitive scheme of the verl) — fewer in forms. It 
therefore seems appropriate to ])resent: 

First, the Tagalog verb complete without any regard to the other 

Second, the Malagasy (verb), which has in itself very much of the same 
construction ; 

Third, to show what the Malay language in its discarding and grinding 
of grammatical forms has still retained; and 


Fourth, to make a research an to how the simple but uncultivated Poly- 
nesian verbal construction stands in relation to the partially cultivate 


I. As has been stated before, the definite form of the verb, which is really 
a verbal noun with tense-indicating particles, is more common than the 
indefinite form, which is more of a true verb in construction. One of the 
^reat difficulties to be overcome by speakers of non-Malayan tongues is the 
improper use of the definite and indefinite. It is as easy to begin right as 
wrong, and if attention is paid to the conditions existing, an idiomatic 
mastery of Tagalog may readily be require<l. 

II. The true definite particles, m (hin after the final vowel with acute 
accent, and nin in a few cases for euphony), i, and an (^n after a final 
vowel with acute accent), are used either alone or in combination when 
emphasis is to be placed upon the object or there is a special idea implied. 
These three particles are further combined with fmg^ the definite verbaliz- 
ing particle corre8pon<ling to the indefinite mug; i, m, and po^ many times 
commencing a definite verb with the combinations ipag and ijAnag. The 
root begins after these combinations, subject to tense reduphcations, as 
will be seen by the table at the end. The subject takes the genitive with 
the definite, the object taking the nominative case. Ex. : Root gami ( idea 
of making or doing) . Gtunawd ( to make or do ). And ana ^xod mof ( What 
is your work?; i. e.. What are you doing or making?). This is an indefinite 
question, with the verbal idea al most ab^nt, the verb "to be" beingunder- 
stood. With an wlverb of time, such as kahapon (yesterday), ngay&n 
(now), or bukas (to-morrow) the verb could be "was," "is," or "will 
be. ' ' But the more u^ual form is with the definite particle in an(l the proper 
tense. And ang ginau'd mof (What did you do? [or make?]). For the tense in is inserted with consonant roots between the initial con- 
sonant and the rest of the root. And ang ginagawd mo ditdf ( What are yoa 
doing here?) As will be seen, the prenent tense is formed by the redupli- 
cation of the tirnt syllable of the root, in which in is infixed. And an^ 
gagau'bi mo? (What are you going to do? [or make?]; what will you do?; 
what will you make?) The future of this verb is formed by reduplicating 
the first syllable of the root and sufiSxing in. And ang gagatiinnang amain. 
mo niyang kdhoy na iyanf (What is your uncle going to do with that lum- 
ber?) Amain^ from mndy father, with in as a sufiSx, also means "step- 
father," as well as "uncle." Kalioy also means "tree." hang h&hmf 
ang gagairin niyd ( He is going to put up a hoiLse ) . The imperative is formed. 
by suffixing m to the root. Ex.: Jtd^y gauin ninyong mahiimy (Do thi» 
carefully [^in an orderly manner]). 

III. in IS the principal definite particle in Tagalog, corresponding to the 
same j)article in Ilocano and to rm in Bicol and Visaya, the two last men- 
tioned also using in in combination with other particles. 


IV. While it is not so very hanl to lay down fairly clear rules as to when 
the definite and indefinite should be used (the former laying stress upon 
the object and the latter upon the subject or the action), it is extremely 
difficult in some cases to say which one of the several definite particles 
should be. As a general rule, in signifies motion toward the asrent, or some- 
thing by which the agent obtains control of something; i indicates motion 
away from agent, or an action by which the agent loses control of some- 
thing, and an generally has either the idea of place or of person connected 
with its use. /joined with A:o, resulting in ika, and further combined within 
t^) pr(xlu(!eU'«7Jrt, denotes cause, etc., with roots when joined to them, either 
alone or with verbalizing particles. For this reason the proper definite to 
be used in sentences having a definite object without other mollifying cir- 
cumstance is determined by the nature of the action, subject to some 
exceptions, mainly for euphonic reasijns. Such words, however, as require 


on, for example, in place of in are not numerous. / can not be replaced 
by in or an^ and an only replaces in as a tiuffix, never as a prefix or infix. 
The following examples will show the different use of the same verb: 
Root, panhik. Panhtk kaf (Go up! Come upl). Panhikin mo ak6 sa hag- 
dan (come up [to me] by the ladder). Jpanhik mo sa bahay Hong mangd 
9&ging (Put tnese bananas up into the house). Panhikan mo ako nitong 
mangd mging (Put these bananas up there for me). Pumanhik (to ascend) . 
Magpankik (to hoist, or put something upstairs [or up a ladder]). Ang 
panhikin (the person upstairs) . Ang ipagpanhik ( what hoisted or taken up). 
Ang panhikan (the ladder [stairs or place] ascended). 

^. With sentences containing but one direct object which is directly 
connected with the action, the prevalence of cause, instrument, or time 
requires i, and place an, Ex. : ih&nap ninyd ak6 isang cabayoug inabuti 
(look out for a good horse for me). Ang bayan ang hahanapan mo navg 
cabayo mo (You will have to look around town for your horse). With iii a 
proper use would be: Hanapinmo ang cabftyong nairald (Look for the horse 
which has disappeared). Ang pinaghanavan ko ang corral nang cahayo^ p6 
(Where 1 did look for the horse was at the corral, sir). Hindnapko ang 
aking cabayo sa bayan ay nahdnap ko (I looked for my horse in town and 
found him ) . Humdnapf ( 1, to look for) ( 2, to claim ) . Manlidnap ( to scout, 
to reconnoiter). v4w^ panAiwa/nn (what scouted for). Ang paghdnap {the 
act of seeking). Ang paghanapan ( the place of seeking) . Ang paniianapan 
(place scouted or reconnoitered over). Ang fnndnap (what sought for 
[past tense]). Ang hinahdnap (what is being sought for). Ang hanapin 
(what is to be sought or looked for). Ang hanapan (i)er8on from whom 
something is claimed or sought). Ang ihdnap ( the means for something to 
be looked for). An^ ihinanap (the means with which something was 
sought). The foregomg illustrate the ease with which verbal nouns can be 
formed from verbs and vice versa. 

VI. When a sentenc^e has more than one indirect object, and stress is to 
be laid upon one or the other object, the nature of the action determines 
the particle to be used. The following examples, taken from Lendoyro, 
show this exceller\tly: Sulatin mo Hong mlat i*a Inmesa nang kdmay mo 
(** Write this letter " yourself at the table [i. e., with your own hand]). 
liiikU mo nitong sulat ang iyong kdmay sa Hong lamesa (Write this letter 
** with your own hand * ' at this table ) . Sti lamesa ang mUatan mo nitong sulat 
nang iyong kdmay (write this letter with your own hand, using the table as 
a writing desk). It will be seen from the foregoing that many of the defi- 
nite verbs are verbal nouns with ang (the) left off. Bearing this in mind 
the use of the definite is made much easier. 

VII. Circumstantial members connected with the action should be care- 
fully distinguished when using the definite from adverbs or adverbial 
expressions. Some examples of the definite with adverbs or adverbial 
expressions are: Sadiyang ginnv>d niyd it6 (He did this willfully). Dina- 
lohong nild siyd nang boong bagsik (They assaulted him [her] with great 

VIII. Jpagt ipinag^ and ipina^ the two first being coml^inations with pag 
and the last of i with pa, the definite verbal particle corresponding to magpa^ 
confuse the student at first, but are simple when analyzed. Ipina, ipoy 
when foUowwi by a root commencing with g, should not be confused with 
ipag and ipinag, as the idea of pa is **to order to do" what is signified bv 
the TX)ot. Combinations with other parti(rle«, like mngka, are also foun<f, 
forming ipagkn (imp.), ipagkaka (fut.), ipinagka (past), and ipinagknka 
(present). It will be noticed that the last syllable of the particle is redu- 
plicated with pagka for the future and present tenses. Ex.: Ipagahutan 
ninyd iyang mangd lihro (Pass those books from hand to hand). Ang nhu- 
tow ( the person reached for or overtaken ). Sinn ang ipinaglulntb mof { Who 
are you cooking it for?) And kayd ang ipinagnlos mo sa kaniydf (What 
were your orders to him?) Ipaghuhugns sa}ut kltd nang itong damU la/unVt 
wdd akong sabdn (I w^ould wash your clothes, but I have no soap). A'/M 
is really **we two," but here means *'!.'* Ipaglagd mo nang sa itong oji- 


ci'd ltd (Make some tea for tliis oltioer). Aii(/ inUatji) (what boik'd or mudc 
[as tea, coffee, etc.] ). Atty ipaglajd (the person f(»r whom Ixiileil, made, 
etc.). Anfj hiffnan (the teapot, coffeepot, etc.). In the foregoing exam- 
ple.*^ })'iff is used beciiuse the sentence expresses tlie person for whom an 
act is f)criorme<l. J^uj is also u.sed with in and (tu coinhined in like ca.'^c^s. 
Kx.: Jtuntj hi'thdi/ na itij ii amj piinKjaiutiftin nib) (Tins house is where they 
quarreled). Root, awiij. 

IX. I\t(j nuist also be used with the definite whenever the sentence 
exi)resses plurality of acts (►r a^^ents, ur of feigning or reciprocal actions. 
The article being generally used, the i<lea of a verbal noun is most promi- 
nent. Kx.: AiKf i/>iim(jt<n/:iLsiiLi((nt uiinVtj <unj hiiull diutafiiri (He was 
malingering scj iis to escape punishment). Root, mkit (illness). (Diminu- 
tives made by repeating a bisyllabic root or the lirst two of a polysyllabic 
one, add mt to im])art a scornful or contemptuous meaning). Ang cuarlel 
o)t(j jiitKn/niuralnui niUi (They insulted each other in the barracks). 
l^iiu.Kj.iira inmtj mnwi^'i tnlii^nn iijaiuj inaiTijii hi'ihnjf (The ladrones have 
destrtjyed many of those houses). Mnnnninf; buhay ainj pinngsird. niU'i 
(Many houses have been destroyed by them). 

X. With verbal roots which have different meanings with um and mag, 
the delinite is ac<'ompanietl by jtag when the verb formed by mag is used. 
Kx.: Root, btii (idea of trade, l>arter, etc.) Bamill, (to buy). Magbili (to 
sell). Itong bi'thay aug ijiirifigbili ko, or Jpinogf fill ko itong biihay (I have 
sold this house). Itohg bahai/ aitg binill hi, or Binill ko Hong hahag (I 
have bought this house). J\ig { jnnng) jirelixed to /*//« with A'fu suffixed 
indicates the ])urcluuser; the |>lace or the? price (jnist tense). For the pres- 
ent tense the Hrst syllable of the root is reduplicated. Kx.: Aug pimuj- 
bilihnn (])ast); nng ])ngbibilih(in (pr. ). Ang a king kapatid na lalnki aug 
jiinaghili/nta ko nitnng bnhag (Isold [have .sold] this house to my brother 
[lit., "my brother was the pun!hascr from me of this house"]). Root, 
utang [di*\)t}. Vinntnng (to borrow). Magntang (to lend). Magfjautang 
(to lend willingly). Mngknntang (to owe). Kx.: Pinagutang ko igunn 
sabi}i'i »(i knniga (I lent him that money). 

XI. The of the j)ai'ticles gives a great freedom in Tagalog foi the 
variation c»f sentences, which, however, luive the same idea. Thus the 
Kugiish "Di<ln't I order (or tell) vou to do this?" mav be rendered bvthe 
following with e(jual accuracy: Hindi ko ijtinttgntoR sa igo itn gautn mo i7o? 
(def. ). Hindi nko n<ign((fs so iynng gnnfiifd ndn.^ (indef., Stress on action). 
Hindi (iku nagjuigan-d so ig.) nito.'' (indef., stress on action). Hindi ko 
jnnn/fiiitl ndn ( dcf . ). Hindi ko ipmngtn/d s<( igo ifo/ (dcf. ). iJi Ipinngau'il 
ko .V. f ///<* //'// (del". ). 

XII. ///and If' are coiid»ined with earh other als»». P^x. : Ano angiUnxdntti 
mi'.'' ( What ar«' \(»u cooking? I For cu|»hony the verb with this combina- 
tion is much varie<l, there l)eing also foun<l the forms innlulnto, inilulutb, 
and e\ en nilidntit. 

XIII. The v«t1>s itioijruon and innii (to h;>ve) and vabi (not to have) 
re<|nire. the <K'tiiiite form of a vi-rb following them in a sentence which 
expres>»'s u h[it is had or «lone. or vie(» versa. Roth subject and object, 
however, take the nominative in >uch ea-es. Fx.: }[ogroon knng gagtunnf 
( I la\e you iinythinL' to do?) ]\id<i /in, irold okong gng<iu(n {"So^tiir; I have 
nothing). Mo;/ sihmg ginomi'! (Have they done anything?) W'aid p6, 
ndb'i sibmg ginoir,! (No, sir; they hav«' not <lone anything). 

XI\'. Tlu' di'linite is also u>ed in si-ntenees having a person for the 
object, or in which tli<' oltject is mo<liii»'d by an attribute or attributive 
adjiUH't. Jvv.: 'roiingin mo si /',dr<> (Call Fedn*). DnUiin mo rito igainj 
lihnnig hiiiosd kong kog<d>-'' ( liiiuLT nie that book I was reading last night). 
I/ii'ioi/ iii'oig ii'ikoin iif'ni ( l>on't sav that i. l.ntoin nto itong manuk (Cook 
tlii.-i <-Iiicken I. P'dh'm iii>> tiiouo (>'i>,uf i r.riii'j that water). 

X\'. r'nrthei- dis<*iission of the <!eliiiite j-articles is reserved until the 

1 : - I 



I. The indefinite particles most in use are tun, mag {nag), and ma (na), 
which will be explained in detail hereafter. These are called active par- 
ticles by the Spanish grammarians, but indefinite seems to be more appro- 
priate and correct. 

II. Sentences in which the subject is emphasized have this in the nomi- 
native, the verb bein^ expressed with the proper indefinite particle which 
is sometimes preceded by the article of common nouns. The imperative 
indefinite does not require the article in any case. Ex.: Shfd'y hahasa 
nhnng lihro (He is going to read this book). Ihio iTijn nng^ahi nigan (You 
said that yourself). The object, it will be noted, takes the genitive. Sigd 
ang magpapasioL (He is going for a walk [lit., "He will be the walker]). 
II: 'to ang tumduag kag Juan (Call Juan [be you the caller to Juan]). Si 
Juan ag ang nagndkao (Juan was the thief). 

III. The indefinite is generally used in an intransitive sentence, where 
an object is not required to complete the meaning. Ex.: ASungmumlat akd 
(I am writing). Sungmxdai akd (I wrote). Samlat ako (I shall write). 
Xagtuiral kayd (You are learning). Magadral kago (You will learn). 
Kungmakain sigd (He is eating). Kutigmain kaini (We were eating [but 
not you] ). Kakain (ago ( We will go eat [all of us] ). 

An object may be called indefinite when the idea of ''a, an, some, anv" 
is inherent, or an undetermined part of the whole is indicated, provided 
that there are no modifying circumstances of time, cause, purpose, instru- 
ment, or place in conjunction with the action. Ex.: (1) Marnnoug ka 
nang wikang castilaf (Do you understand any of the Sj^auish language?) 
Marutiong akd Idmang nang wikang lagdlog, fiindt marnnoug ako mamjusap sa 
wikang caslila, p6 (I understand theTagalog language only; I do not know 
how to talk in Spanish). Magsalitd ka iTj/a sa vikang lagntog (Then speak 
in Tagalog). (2) Maglahas ka nang mawja Ma (Bring out Home chairs). 
Magdald ka dito nang fonforos (Bring some matches here). Mngdald ka dilo 
7uing tafxiros (Bring some cigars here). Magdald ka dilo nang tdhig (Bring 
aome water here). Magi aid ka nang isang mannk (Cook a chicken). 

IV. The indefinite is also used with sentences having a definite object if 
a part and not all of the object is meant. In some ca.<es the place- particle 
**an*' is used for this purpose, as it does not indicate an object. //< or i would 
l)e used if all the definite object were to l>e indicated. Ex. : Ako g kungmain 
ria iiitong lamangkati (I havealready eaten some of this meat ). rniiniim kayo 
nitong Mag na mnlindo (Drink some of this clear water) . (1) Maghiqag ka 
9a dkin niyang tnhig (iiidef.) (1, Give me pome of that %\'ater). (2) Biggdn 
mo akd iycing tuhig (def. ) (2, Give me that water). Ihig ningong niaghili 
ti'itong bigds? (Do you wish to sell some of tliis rice?) 

V. Actions expresse<l by intransitive verbs which do not re(]uire an 
object take the indefinite unless there are modifyincf circumstances of 
cause, purpose, means, instrument, or time in conjunction with tlie action. 
Ex. : Natisod ako (I stumbled). AmYt Idmli. ka lunginalnkad nang niaUdinf 
(Why don't you walk quicker?) Tiiuginnfand aigd (He is lau«;bing). 

VI. A sentence commencing with an interroixative pronoun takes tbe 
indefinite if the subject of the incpiiry is an ai^ent, and tbe definite it a 
cleternriinate object is a»<ktMl al)otit. Ex.: »/yo ting nagdaln nit<nig maiTj/d 
kdhoyf (Who brought [wasthebringerjoftliis lumber [timber]?) Akoang 
nagcUild, p6 (I brought it, sir [was the brin^'er] ). ,!//''>'/ di hi uaionnTgnsapf 
(Why don't you talk?) N<diihii/<1 ka h(fg>'i/ ( Are y«»u ashanie<l to?) Sino 
€ingnagmUtdnang sinahimomdktn? ( Who related to you what you have told 
me?) [indef.]. Anong ihig m(>f (What do you want?) Anong cahai/tt ang 
binilinildf (Which horse did they buy?) An<>ng \< a contraction ior ano 
ang (def.). 

VII. The indefinite is also used with comi)lox sentences in wliich the 
subject is amplified by an adjectival clause. I'.x.: Ang ('nm gnugnnigana 
nang kabanala^y magkakamil nang kapalaran [Tha person who does right 
will obtain happiness [be happy]). 


VIII. It must be noted that maka in the sense of cause, used with 
roots denoting conditions, wron^ (torts) and betterments, has a different 
construction from all other particles, even inaka with other meanings. In 
the definite, which only exists with i, combined with in in the past and 
present tenses, the a^^nt takes the nominative and the object the genitive, 
like indefinites of other parti<*les. In the indefinite the agent remains in 
the nominative, but the object takes the accusative, which is always pre- 
ceded by sa (not by nung). Some other verbs have this ut?e of sa also. 
Roots conjugated by mag and man retain the definite forms ;>a^ and p*in 
with maka. 

IX. The Tagalog verb demands that the subject of a sentence shall V)e 
expressed, the tense being indicated by the verb or verbal noun. The 
subjet^t may \>q omitted, however, when a number of verbs depend upon 
the same subject, except in the first clause, where the verb must have a 
subject. As will be seen bv the examples, the syntax of Tagalog is very 
simple, but care munt be taken to use the right particles and tenses. If 
not, some annoying errors are liable to be made in conversation. 

V. For any common verb see the vocabulary (English-Tagalo^). It 
must be borne in mind that Tagalog has manv words expressing variations 
and modifications of the general verb as well as other languages. These 
will be noted in the proper place. 


I. The plain root, if capable of being verbali • ed, is sometimes used with- 
out a definite particle if an adverb of time or the context makes the tense 
clear. The definite particle may also be used with an adverb of time, but 
as a rule, if the tense is to be emphasized or the context is not clc^r, tense 
particles, according to the rules of the language, are used in the verbal 
forms. And ang saJfi mo kaJiaponf (What did you say yesterday?) Aui> 
avg sabl mo iTgay6nf (What do vou say now?) An6 ang aaU ma bukatf 
(What will you say to-morrow? [with adverbs of time] ). An6 ang sinaJtt 
hiof (What did you say?) Ano ang sinasahi mot (What are vou saying?) 
An6 ang msnhihin mof (What will you say?) Ang sabihin (the person oi" 
thing mentioned). And hagd ang sasabihin ko kay Ignaciof (What shall E 
say to Igna<*io?) Sahihin mo sa kaniyA na thi6nag ko siyd (You say to hinm. 
that I have been calling him). Ang ftabihan (the conversation). 

II. In {hin after acute final vowel, and nin in some cases) is the tru€^ 
definite particle. In is prefixed, infixed, or suffixed, as the case may be^ 
hin and nin are suffixes only. In is prefixed to a vowel root and infixe<l. 
between the initial letter and the first vowel of a consonant root for the past:" 
(l>erfect) and present tenses. It is suffixed for the imperative and future 
tenses. The first syllable of the root is reduplicated in the present an& 
future tenses. The tenses calle<l the pluperfect and future perfect may b^ 
expressed in Tagalog in two ways. The first pluperfect is formed by adding 
na to the past tense, and the second pluperfe<*t by prefixing na to the root* 
The first future perfect is fornie<l by adding na to' the future tense, and th^ 
second future perfect by prefixing ma to the root. These tense<9 are littler 
used in conversation. Na and ma correspond to the indefinite verbalizing 
particles ii<ikn and maka respectively. 

III. The subject of a verb conjugated with a definite particle takes th«^ 
genitive, except in the cases already n<»te<l. If the subjet^t is a pronoun, i*!^ 
may either precede or follow the verb, the latter usage being much morfc?' 
common than the former. If the subject is a noun or phrase it always? 
follows the verb. 

IV. For the con j nidation of a root with m, whether a vowel verb, o*" 
a consonant one see the ty|>e-scheme folder at the end of this handbook* 

V. In i>refixed to or infixed with rootsof the following classes forms words 
denotinj? a showing of the pro|K»rties of the root or a resemblance thereto, 
as the word *' like " does as a suffix in Enjrlish. ( 1 ) Roots denoting flow- 
ers, fruits, or other objects imitated in gems or precious metals by jewelers. 


denote ornaments or jewels of the shape or pattern of the ol>ject named, 
when in is used as above explained. Ex. : Bnlinffbing, an octagonal berry; 
hinnlinglnng^ a jewel with eight sides like the berry. Samjmgay Arabian 
jasmine; sinainpaga, a jewel iniitatinj^ the eampaga flower. (2) With 
r<x)ts of colored objects in denotes the color. Ex.: Dumero (Sp. romero), 
ros^emary; dinumero^ rosemary -colored. (UUny^ verdure, vegetables; gi- 
TtuUitf, greenish. (3) With s<:»me objects m denotes rice which resembles 
the object in the shape, taste, or smell. Ex.: Kanda, a lily-like flower; 
kinandjy rice, with an odor like the kmuh't, Karayou^ needle; k'lnarayom^ 
needle-shape<i rice. Kamaligy warehouse; lAdauigan Knimdiqan, Ambos 
Camarines ( province) ; kinmnalig^ Camarinesrice. Kastu/i, musk (fromSan- 
skrit kastdriy through Malay); kinaMuIi, rice with nmsky odor. Aug kal6^ 
the carabao tick; kinal6, riceof a variegated ap}>eurance, resembling t he A«/^. 
Kaxtdn ( Sp. ), white person : kbuul'da, a white class of rice. AlaiTgllan, a tree 
with fragrant flowers {('awviga odorntn)^ tlie ilang-ilang; inahnnjilan, rice 
with this odor. Bamhang^ an herb; hinamhang, a class of rice which resem- 
bles the bambang M'hen growing. Angdnlong, a very small lish; dinid<mg, 
rice shaped like the dulong. Baiad, a kind of ])eu-like vegetable; b'niatady 
rice so shaped. Bulaklak, flower; binu/nkldk, rice which opens like a flower 
when heated, or like pop corn. Pornk, the flower of the jttnigdan or 
jttihutau: pinorak^ rice resend>Iing this flower. Sankf, the C-hinese anise; 
finangkiy rice resembling anise. Snmbilang, a species of sea flsh without 
scales; siiinmbUangf rice of this shape. Tuuki, body louse, grayback; 
tinnnia, riceshape<l like a tuina. Tumhdga, copper; tlnnmbngdj rice with a 
metallic luster. Tumhaga is copper alloyed with a small amount of gold; 
it is from Sanskrit tdmraka (copper), through Malay tnmfxtga; tembaga 
Taliihihy common reed grass; tinalahlh, rice which resembles talnhih when 
growing. There are many other names lor different classes of rice, but the 
foregoing are the principal ternis derived with in following the rule cite<l. 
(4) With names denoting relationship hi expresses the idea of persons 
occupving the place of such relative to some degree. As this condition is 
regarded as permanent, the flrst syllable of the root is reduplicated to ex- 
press present tense. Other nouns also follow this rule, with some excep- 
tions. Ex. : Ally aunt; rnaali, uncle's wile. Anu'i, father; inaamn, godfather. 
Amain, uncle; stepfather; inaauia'in, aunt's husband. Auak, child (son 
or daughter); inaanak, stepson or ste{>daugliter, also godson or goddaugh- 
ter. Amua, spouse (husband or wife): imiai<<hui, \o\vr or mistress (c(»n- 
cubine). Bnyat), brother-in-law; biimbdyao, husband of sister-in-law. 
BianAn, father-in-law or m(»ther-in-law; binlhlnnan, wife or husband of 
father-in-law or mother-in-law (not |)arent of wife or husband). Mnnu- 
gangf son-in-law or daughter-in-law; innminmingang^ one regarded as such. 
Kapatid, brother or sister; kiiiakn/tfUid, half brother or half sister, or f(»ster 
brother or foster sister, ll'ipng^ sister-in-law ; hiniJiffxig, wife of brother-in- 
law. Biliis isthee(iuivalent h^vb'nxihniitun^Tli'ntdupfuj. Snno, grandparent; 
ninununi), one regarded as a grandparent; hamimnmnn, jincestors. Atn\ 
grandchild; inaapo, descendant. -ly>o y<i ti'iJiod, great-gran<lchild; (t/to fta 
tcdampaknn, great-great-grandchild. PnniangkUi, nephew or niet-e; piiui- 
pamangkiii, one regarded assuch, J'itis'in, cousin; pinipiitsnn, one regarded 
as a cousin. JHnsihtg boa, flrst cousin; plnsditg imibdaui't, second cousin, 
etc. (5) With verbal roots denoting the preparing; of food, etc, in denotes 
the food so prepared, provided the root is conjugated in the inlinitive 
indefinite with m//», although there an^ some exceptions, l^x.: Mnglngt), 
to cook with a spit; such as camotes, etc.; Linngo, vegettbles so cooked. 
Maasigangy to cook meat or tish with a s])it; :<ini(iiuig^ meat or fish .«o 
cooKed. LumugaOy to stew, to boil meal; ang Unngan, tlie nuish or stew. 
Maglugao is more usual. Sumaing, to boil rice; ong sinning, the boiled 
rice. lfa^««ir*^7 is also more usual. Magfcunbong, to cook fish entire; nng 
Hjiamhong, the fish so cookerl. 7'umi'iinuf or u\agf>'i}i(iii, to knea<l; <ing tina- 
|)ay, what kneaded ; bread. (H) With verbal roots conjugated by tnn, the 
product of such action is denote<l by in, preflxed to a vowel root or infixed 

«855— 05 8 



with a consonant root. Ex.: Sumulid, to spin; sinulidy thread, anything 
spun. Some mag roots also have the product denoted by in. Ex. : ^fag- 
pipiQf to press, to crack rice, etc.; pinlpigf roasted and cracked rice. (7) 
Witn some roots in forms adjectival nouns, the first syllable of the root 
being reduplicatd. Ex.: A'uan, known; ang kinukuarif the person known. 
Mahal, dear; ang minajnahalf the esteemed (person). SirdA, love (from 
Sanskrit, chintdy thought, through Malay); ang ffinisintd, the beloved (who 
loves in return). Ang naginta indicates a person loved without being 
aware of the fact. 

VI. As in has the idea of attraction inherent within it, there are many 
classes of verbs, conjugated in the indefinite infinitive by tew, which take 
in to form the direct object. (1) According to this rule verbal roots of 
taking, asking, and appropriating something take in. There are some 
verbs conjugated with mag which also admit iu. Ex. : 

To buy (general term ). 

To take ( general term ), bring or take. 
To carry ; l)ear, etc. ( bring or send) . 

To scoop out, or take anything out 
of a hole, or insert the hand into a 

To use. 

To choose (between good and bad). 

To select (from among good thmgs). 

To pillage; to plunder; to loot; to 

despoil the enemy. 
To seize; to snatch. 

To pray for; to plead. 

To complain; to entreat; to implore, 
to pray (as to a judge). 

To request. 

To borrow. 

Bumili. Ang 6im7i, what was bought. 
Gumulangf to buy rice by the ga- 
tang or chupa, Umdmot, to buy 
one th ing out of many. Umangkat, 
to buy on cre<iit. Umaapln, to 
buy fruits of the country. 

Kumuha. Ang kin aha, what was 
taken or obtained. 

Magdald. ^n^c^uio/d, what brought 
Ang ipinadaldf what sent (lit, 
" what was ordered brought" ). 

Dumukot. Ang dinukot, what taken 
out, or what hand was inserted in. 

Gumdmit. Ang ^indmit, what used. 

Pumill. Ang pmilif what chosen. 
Ang pinilian yVt'h&t rejecte<l (singu- 
lar). Ang pinagpilian, what re- 
jected (plurality of objects). 

Humirang. Ang hinirang, what se- 
lected. Ang ninirangany what left 

Sumamsam. Angttinamsam, thespoil; 
loot; plunder. 

Umagcu). Ang inagao, what seized 
Agao nang tamls, inagao nang asiniy 
somewhat of sweetness, and some- 
what of sourness (said of any sub- 
stance which has this taste, like 
some fruits) (idiom). 

Dumal&ngin. Ang dinaldngin^ what 
prayed or asked for. Ang dalang- 
many the deity prayed to or person 
pleaded with. 

Dumaying. Ang dinaying, what re- 
lief asked. Ang idajfing, the com- 
plaint. Ang daybiaan, the person 
entreated, implored, or prayeii to. 

Humingi. Ang hiningi^ what re- 
quested. Ang hingdny person re- 

Utnutang, Ang inutang, what bor- 
rowed. Ex.: Inuiang ko iyang 
salapt ibinigay ho 8a kaniyd k€Jiap<m 
(I borrowed that monev whicn I 
gave him yesterday ) , Ang iHtangf 


the cause of borrowing. Ang 
vtiuT(iiiu^ the person born^wed from 
the lender. 

To borrow (any thingexcept money). Ilnmlram. Ang hrniratn, what bor- 
rowed. A)i(/ Jiihacin, tlie lender. 

To ciemand a treat (a.^ at a celebra- Tdinanilani. Ang tinarahcm, what 
tion). received as a treat. Ex.: Titut- 

iitnthdii itiimin itong kakanitt (we 
are pet ting these s weets as a t reat ) . 

To catch hold of; to catch on the Dtntudip. -!?/{/ (/maX*/;;, what seized 
winjr. thus. 

r<> absorb. Iliiinithit. Aug hlnithil, what was 


VII. Under this section may be considered /// prefixed to or infixed with 
he personal pronouns, with which it implies the idea lA possession. As a 
»ulHx with the^e pronouns, in (hin) ex|>resses the sense of repardin<r, hold- 
ng, reputing, etc., in bome cubeti. Ex.: 

bTour. Inyo. Ang in'nnyo, your property; 

your. In If oil in mo, consider it as 
your own; take it for your own. 

His; her. Kaniifn. A)ig kinakiuiiya^ his [her] 

|)ro|K'rty. Kahnxiynhin ho (I will 
liold it as his [her's]). 

Their. KanUn. Ang Linn kaniln, their prop- 

erty. Kanilnhin mo, regard it as 
helonging to them. 

Dnr (all of us). Atin. Ang unnUiny our property. 

Iliad n niyn, lie regarded it as ours. 

Hur (you and I). Kiinltn, Ang kinakanita, our prop- 

erty. KhmknniU'i ko, I regard it 
as yours and mine. 

Our (but not you). Aniin. Ang i nan ni in, our f)roperty, 

but not yours. Aniinin mnyo (you 
[plural] regard it as ours, but not 

My. Akin. Ang irnjakin, my property: 

mine. finikin ko (I held it as 
mine). Inankin ko (I am holding 
it as mine). Ankinin ko ( 1 shall 
iiold it as mine). 

VIII. Verbs of calling, whether by voice or signs, also follow this mode 
of c<mjugation. Ex.: 

To call. Tiunanng. Angtinnnag^who or whRi 

called. Ang ifnung, the call, in- 
strument, or cause. Ang (anagon, 
the person calie<l in order to be 
given something. Ex.: Sino ang 
tiiititi'inng ///o/ (Who are yt)U call- 
iu'j to?). Tinnnag ko ai lV<(ro, ]>o 
(I was ealiing to IVdro, sir). 
Dni'ujon ino sign ining iada (Call 
him to come and get some lish). 

To call; also to bring; to fetch. Kuinnon. Ang kinai'm, what called, 

or brought, etc. 

To make signs for; to motion to. Kninnmni. Aug kamniln, what mo- 

tlitru^M fiir \ tut tlut Hti II vfti'if n«i»- 



I X . Verbs of * * searching for ' ' also take in for the d irect object Ex. : 

To look for. 

To search about 

To look in every (!omer for. 

To go in search of another. 

To prope for (as in the dark or like 
a blind person). 

X. Verbs of moving, when not due to turning away of what is moved, 
also take in for the direct object. Ex. : 

Humdnap. Ang hindnapf thing 

sought for. 
Humalihao. Ang hinalihao, what 

searched for. 
SujncUiknk. Ana nnaliksik, what 

looked for in this manner. 
Sumunadd. Ang sinungd^y person 

sought by another. 
Umapdhap. Ang inapdhap^ what 

groped for. 

To move. 

To move restlessly. 

To shake (like objects badly packed) 

or to move (like loose teeth). 
To move anything. 

To Rhake (as something in a sieve) ; 

also to rock or dandle ( as a child ) . 
To sliake a liasket or measure so it 

will hold more. 
To shake the head in negation. 
To shake anything, as a tree to 

gather the fruit. 
To wave the hands while dancing. 

Kumibd. Ang kinibdy what moved. 
Synonym: Kumislot; umibo, 

Gumaldo. Ang ginal&o, the mis- 
chief done through restlessness. 
Ang galauan the person disturbed 
thereby. Magcddo ang kamay niydy 
his hand is restless; i. e., he is a 
pickpocket or thief ( idiom ) . Kag- 
alaiAan, mischief. 

Umugd. Ang inugd, what moved 

Tumugoy, Ang iinugoy^ what moved. 
Synonyms: Umugoy; umugd (some- 
times). Umugoy also means to 
stagger, to totter. 

Vmugug. Ang inugug^ what .shaken 
or rocked. 

Umulog. Ang inulog^ what shaken 

Umiling. Ang iniling, what denied. 

Lwnuglug. Ang linuglug^ what sha- 
ken, as a tree. 

Kh m u n day, A no kinnnday^ the wav- 
ing thus. Ex.: Kinunday niqa 
(she waved her hands while ebe 
was dancing) . 

XI. Jn is also used to express the result of the action of verbs which 
signify carrying, cutting, measuring, or weighing, when the result is con- 
sidere<l on the side of the agent or ended therein. I'm is generallv the 
indefinite, but mag and other verbalizing particles are to be found. When 
the result of a verb necessarily falls upon a person, in is used to signify 
the person. Ex.: 

MagdalA. See under verbs of bring- 
ing, taking, et(\ 

To drag along. Humild. Ang hinild, what dragged 

along. Means also **to arrest," 
AngninUdf the person arrested ; the 

To carry on the shoulder. Piimasdn. Ang pinasdn^ what car- 

ried on the shoulder. Ang pofti- 
naiif the person who carried any- 
thing on the shoulder. 

To carry a child on or suspended Maasahu Ang sinabi or anagabihWf 
from the shoulder. the child carried thus. The cloth 

by which the child was supported 
is denoted by ang itabL 

To carry (general idea) 



Xo carry on the head. 
To carrv in the arms. 

Xo carrv a child in the arms. 

Xo carrv under the arm. 

Xo carry anything? in the lap. 

Xo carrv hy the mouth (as a dojr, 
cat, bird, etc., carry food). 

Xo carry in or by the hands (as a 
l>ai^ket, jar, etc.). 

Xo carry hanging from the hand (ai? a 
pail, etc., by means of t lie handle). 

Xo carry anything along (by or in 
the hand). 

Xo carry on a pole ( palanca) . 

Xo cut ( general term ) . 

Xo cut clothes (as a tailor). 

To tear. 

To chop, to hew, to cut with an ax. 

To cut down; to fell (an a tree)- 

To cut into pieces (as sugar cane). 

To cut the tuba palm (to obtain the 

Mayanuouff. Ang minorTgin^ what 
carried thus; the burden. 

MugjHingko. Ang pmangko, what 
carried in the arms. Pangkohin 
ino ito (carry this in your arms). 

KuiiHihnig. Ang khiolong^ the child. 
Kdlomjiii ino nhja (carry him in 
your arms). Ang kahnTgan, the 
mother, nurse, or bearer. 

Mtigkrlik. Ang k'ni'ilik, what carried 
thus. (With accent on last sylla- 
ble), indgkiHk, to carry much 

Mdgcandong. Ang kiuandong, what 
carried in the lap. Kimtkandimg 
nigd (she is carrying it in her lap). 

MogUuTgay. Ang dnaiTf/ag, what Ciir- 
ricd thus. 

Magf<ttp(). Ang simifKj, what carried 
tiius. Sn/ohin mo igan (carry that 
in \(tur hands). 

Magf/ithif. Anij hinithit, what carried 
thus, i. e., the pail. 

Mngtaglng. Aug tindglag, what car- 
ried along. /.I//0 (ing lataghtgin 
mo- What will you carry along? 

Unuisong. }f<(gnsong, to carry on a 
palanca between two. Aug inn- 
}<ong, whnt carried thus, as a pig, 
bundle, etc. Synonym of mugu- 
.song; nmgiuting. A ng (inuang^whaii 
carried thus. Vaoiujin (tnnjnjin) 
iniigo ifo (carry this on a pole be- 
tween you). 

Miigin'itoL ,\fmnul(tl, to cut up (as 
cloth, etc.) Ang pinnt(A, what cut 
or cut up, as the cloth, etc. Kx.: 
I'dt/in tno Ho nongpaftabd (Cut this 


Tunnth 's. Magldhda, to cut much. 
Ang (innb'iH, what cut out, i. e., 
the cloth or suit, etc. Ang tinn- 
I'osnn, what left over, also place. 
Ang filnagtfilKisaii, the cuttings, 
clippings, remnants, (»r places of 
cutting nut. 

Omtiisi. Ang ginisi, what torn, i. e., 
the cloth or clothes. 

Tutn-igt. Aug t'mogd, whaf chopped, 
c. g. , the tree, etc. 

Suiimpol. }f'igsopol, io fell much. 
Ant/ Kiniipo/, what felled or <ul 
down. Ang un/Kjl, the mean^ of 
cuttinij: down, e. g.. the axe. Ang 
jt'inagxojKthin^ what remained, e. g., 
the stump. 

Vniirid. Ang inirid, the sugarcane 
thus cut up. Kffirid, a piece of the 
cut-up cane. 

Vnnn'dd. A ng (iraran^ the palm thus 



To cut into piece«. 

To cut into equal piecee. 
To cut u]) into et^ual leugthfl (as sugar 
cane, etc.). 

To cut poU»8 or bamlxK.) into piece?; 
also to cut at a distance. 

To cut into pieces (as a log) . 

To cut water grass in order to catch 
the tish. 

To cut, as with scissors; to snip off, 
applied generally to cutting nair, 
metals, etc. 

To split open (as bamboo); to cut 
against the grain; to peel off, as 
shavings; to go against the cur- 
rent; (tig.) to oppose. 

To cut or break a rope, cord, or sim- 
ilar object. 

To cut off the ears or nose. 

To nieaijure { eithergrains or liquids). 

To gauge; to measure liquids by 

means of a rod. 
To measure by jmlms (8.22 inches). 

Magpiilas. A no pbialaSy what cut up 
thus. Manga palaspalas na taluh, 
pieces of pure silk. Ang ipalas^ 
tool used loT cutting up. 

Umaias. Ang inalas^ what cut thus. 

Puminlid. Magpinlid, to cut much 
in this way. Angpininlid, what cut 
into equal lengt lis thus. Angpinag- 
pinlid, the large amount cut thu.s. 
Ang ipinlidy the utensil used. 
Ang ifHigpinlid^ the utensil us**<l 

Pmuidpid. Ang pinidpid (1) what 
cut up thus; (2) wno cut thus. 
Attg ipidpid^ the tool or weaiK)n 
U8e<i. Ang pidpirtm^ the plai^. 

Gwniling, Ang ginliing, the wood 
thus cut up. Ang igUing, the tool 
used. Ang mangigding^ the Wixni 

MagiidA». A ng tinalAs, what cut thus. 
Ang pinagtaliiSf the lai^ amount 
cut thus. Ang ilalns, the tool by 
which cutting was done. Ang 
ipa'JahU^ the tool by which much 
cutting was done. Ang pinngUda- 
i(an, the place where much cutting 
was done. 

Gvin ipit. Maggupiif to cut one's own 
hair. Ang ginupit^ w hat cut, i. e.. 
t!je hair or metal. Angghmpitauy 
the person whose hair has l>eeu 
cut; or object from which some- 
thing has been cut off. 

Sumnlutujat. Ang sinalungatj what 
split oi>en or peeled off thus. iSn- 
IntTijatin vio ifong kauayanj split 
this bam])oo. 

Mof/patid, Ang pinatid^ what cut 
thus. Patarin {Pat dun) wo iyang 
lubidf cut that rope. Mapai'id^ to 
part; to break in two; to cea.«e 
(tig.). Najmtid ang kaiiiijang hi- 
nirTjja, he exhaled his last breath; 
he ceased to breat he. Magkapatid- 
jKitid, to break up completely (as 
a cord or rope); or into several 

PumoiTgas, variation Puminffas. A ng 
pinow/oSf what cut off, as the sev- 
ered ear or nose. JHngan has the 
same idea, but is generally applieil 
to cutting inanimate objects. 

Tiunaka!. Ang tindkal, what meas- 
ured. Tnkalin mo itong hig(U^ 
measure this rice. Ang takaidn, 
the measure. 

TiLinaroL Angtindro!, what gauge<l. 
Ang itnrol, the gauge. 

Ihunangka}. Aug dinangkal, what 
measured thus. 



To (rompare measures. 

To weigh. 

To balance, to conpider (f). 
To verify a weight. 

Sumubok or magsiibok. A ng siniiboky 
( 1 ) one of the measures thus com- 
pared. (2) Also to observe closely; 
to ** shadow." Ex.: Svbukan mo 
siyd (watch him closely). Ang 
pinagmbok, the two measures thus 
compared. Kasiibokf equal to an- 
other thing. Ex.: Kasuf>ok Uiuo 
ang tubig (the water is the depth 
of a man). Mngkasubok, to have 
an understanding. Ex.: Nagka- 
kasubok sii/i ang bait (they have an 
understanding with each other). 

Tumimbang. Ang tinimbong^ what 
weighed thus. Ang thnbangan, 
the scales or (.'ounterweight. Ka- 
timbangy ecjual in weight Ak6''y 
katimbang mo (I am of the same 
weight as you are). 

Tvmalard, Ang tinalardj what bal- 
anced or considered. 

Tinnaifo. Ang tinaya^ what verified 

XII. Verbs which signify destruction, or change or transformation of 
the object as a result of the action, take *7i to express the result of such 
action, if no modifying circumstances, such as of cause, instrument, etc., 
are implied. 

To destroy. 

To tear down; to raze. 
To kill; extinguish. 

Sumird, Ang ^m/rd, what was de- 

Gumibd. Ang ginibd, what razed. 

Pumatay. Ang pinalny (1) f>erson 
or animal killed; (2) What ex- 
tinguishe<l. Ang ipatay or pinag- 
patayt the weapon or means of 
Killing. Ang pinagpatayan, the 
place where a murder was com- 
mitted. SiyA pinatny niya, he kill- 
ed him. Ang ipinatay niyd fa 
kaniy& ang bard, the gun was what 
he killed him with. Pinatay niya 
»iyd nang barily he killed him with 
a gun. Mamatayy to die. Ang 
knwatayay}^ death (abstr. ). Ang 
kinaintitaydn, the place of death 
(past time). Ang ikinamatay, the 
cause of death (past time). Ex.: 
Patay na siyd (he is dead now). 
Namainynn ak6 nang am A (I have 
l>een bereaved of my father by 
death). AUnq Inihay ang kinama- 
taydn niydf (in which house did 
he die? ) And ang ikinaniatay niyaf 
( What was the c^use of his death?) 
Nahirinan siyd nang tinik (he was 
choked by a linh bone). Ma^ta- 
lay, to sentence to death; to have 
another put to death. Mamdtay, 
U) kill habitually. Tlgapagpatay^ 
butcher or executioner. Man- 
h im atay, to fai n t away . Magpaka- 

To set fire to. 

To ri|); to unseam; to undo. 

To exchange; to]»arter. 

Tt) arrange; to disentangle. 

To blacken. 

maldii (1) Xo allow one's self to 
be killed; (2) to commit suicide. 

Suinuno(j. An g fnnunoyyWhfLi burne«l. 

Ttuitaitfas. A tnj fiticmtds, what ripped 
u|), undone, etc. 

Puinnlit. An(j pinalit, what ex- 
changed or bartered. 

Htnnnsmi. Aikj hinusay^ what dis- 
entangled or set in order. M<nj- 
jhikdhustjif, to arrange well, to set- 
tle things with care; also to Ih*- 
have well. 

M(t(!'itnn. AiHj initlni, what V)lack- 
ened. Aicj lltiin, the blackener. 
Kaitiman, blackness. Imitimj to 
become black. 

XIII. Verbs of receiving take in for the object of the action; some 
taking /// for the thiuir affected and ati for the person affected, as will be 
seen from ihc examples. 

T(» accept; tn r«'ccivc. 7'n.nntngap. Any (innngap^ what re- 

Ci'ived or accepted. A}ty((tnyapan, 
the person fnnn whom accepted 
or received; also the place. Any 
Unuyiip, the cause of receiving, etc. 

Togo out to meet anyone; to wel- Snimi/ulnmy. Any sdnnb'ibony^ the 
come by meeting:. person met or welcomed thus. 

Mdysindlnhnny, to be received by 
many, as a governor, etc. May- 
hts(i/uh(iny, to meet accidentally. 
Vj X . : A< lyLdsdln bony a ny da la imny 
nniyhapatul na hahaye sa Mayniln, 
(the two sisters met accidentally 
[by chance] in Manila). 

XIV. /// also denotes the object of verbs ot "inviting," etc. 

I'mnkit. Any iin'dit, who invited. 

intanyaya. Any anyayahatij the 
person invited. 

Pnuiiy'niy. Any jf'niyiny, the j)erson 

Mayjh'iniy. Any ]>innniy, the ])erson 

Mityf'huK Any t inn no, the person in- 
vited. Idnolihi )n() siyt'iy invite 
him. Tannlanttfiin mo any payko- 
hdui, divitle the food for each one 
«»f the guests li. e., put it on 
plates ). 

I'lnnlnJ:. Any inalok, the person Sf) 
iii\ ite«l. 

To invite. 

To invit(> a )><*rsoii to I'at. 

\\. //' gen«Tally denotes tlie ]»er>on affecti'd by tlu" action f>f a verb, 
with those verlis which ne< e>sarily ha\ e a p«'r>on for the obj(M't, on account 
of their natnre i\u<\ meaiiin'.:. 

To ))re\ail Ujton; to persuade with 

T«) wait for. 

Mayiroyd. Any liniroyd, the person 
so prevailed upon. 

Il'iuiintay. Any Ji'tnintay^ the per- 
son waitt'd for. IJiiuln mo fila, 
wait fortlu'ui. Mayhinfay (1) to 
wait an«l guard something for an- 



other; (2) to delay. Ex.: Ilouag 

mong ih'mUiy sd bukas ang pagpa- 

roou mo (do n(»t delay your poing 

until to-uiorrow). 

To cany in the arms, (as a child); Snmakluln. Ang sinakiuld (I) ch'M, 

(2) to aid, to succor, to protect etc., carried tluit*; (2) person aided, 

(rare in Manila). etc. 

To reprehend; to reprimand; to lind 

fault with. 


Suniatd. Aug ainald, the person rep- 
rimanded or found fault with. 
Kx.: Sdlahin mo sign nana kani- 
gang ginagmcd (reprimand him for 
what he is doing) [ginaivd, what 
he has done]. Magi<ald^ to lind 
nmch fault, or for many to find 
fault, etc. Magkasaidj to err, to 
commit a fault, to sin. Ex.: 
Jfonag inoiig ipagkasald ltd (do not 
commit thin error [sin], Ipinag- 
naya/d ko aug pakikipagauag »a ivgd^ 
( I am doinj^ wrong in quarrehng 
with you). Jplnagsald niyd ang 
pakikipaginiag sa inyd (he did 
wrong in quarreling with you). 
mi hi niyd ( they will err in quarrel- 
ing with him). Magkakamld^w'xih 
re<Iuplication of last syllable of 
particle, means "to forbid." 

Tiunanong. Aitg tinationg, what 
a<ked; the questir)n. Magtanong^ 
to ask about. .1 ng iiinanmig, what 
has been asked, or the n^ason for 
asking. Ang inajtagdrnong, per- 
son fond of questioning. Ang 
matanowjln^ the questioner. Ang 
tinanongan, the person questioned. 

XVT. In generally denotes the catch, result, or (juarry with verbs of 
hunting and fishing. A few other verbs also follow this rule. 

To aak; to inquire. 

To hunt (in general). 

To hunt with dogs or hounds. 

To hunt with a ** bating" or net 
(generally for deer). 

Vmdkad. A ng indkad, what hunted. 

MitiTgaso ( from *;>o, dog ) . A ng iinii*<t, 
the cbase, the game caught. Ang 
ipina/n/cu<Oy the dog used thus. 
Ang niaiTgaiTtjaiio, the hunter with 

Jhuutiting. Ang hinating, the deer 
or game thus cauirht. Ex.: Ang 
binating ko nng btmdok (1 was net 
hunting in the mountains). Ang 
blnaf'ung<niy the place of " net 
To hunt with a shotgun; to use a Mamarll (from barll, shotgun). Aug 

vunnaniaril, the hunter with a 
shotgun. Ang pinamaril, what 
sh<»t thus. 

Mai^lldlr, nnigpniTgntl (from kati. 
Ang jdiiaiTijaii, what has been 
canjrht thus. 

Maniinnit. Angblninvit, what caught. 
Ang ibinnif, the hook. Ang ina- 
tnijiiinititj the fisherman. Ang 


To cat<:h birds by means of a bird- 
call, or bv a snare, or w ith another 

To fish with a hook. 



To fifih with the seine or net, called 
*' Jam bat.'' 

To fieh uein^ a light (afl also to hunt 
with a flare). 

To fish (in general). 

To sweep. 

phifimiminnitany the canoe or place 
from which such fitihing is being 

Maidnmhal (from lamhat,) Amj li- 
nnmfHit, the v&tch; the haul. Ang 
ipdnlnmftntf the means for fishing 
thus, i. e., the seine or net. 

Maiftfjilao. Ang pinangilnnany the 
place where such fishing or hunt- 
ing was done. Ang pinangilao^ 
what caught thus. 

MarTgifida (from isdd fish). Ang 
pinatTgindil, the fish which have 
Deen caught. Ang maiTgingutdd^ 
the fisherman. 

Magividis. Ang inwaJU^ the 8weei>- 
ings; what was or has been swept 
up ( from waliSj broom) . 

XVII. In is also used to denote the object with verl>s of eating, drinking, 
swallowing, and analogous acta. 

To eat. Kama in. Ang kinain^ wliat was 

eaten. Ex.: Kinain ang kajmiid 
na lalaki mo ang tindixiy^ your 
brother ate the bread. Kanin^ 
food (cooked rice). Kakanin^ 
delicacies. Ang kaiidny the eating 
place. Ang kakandn^ the dining 
room; or platter. Magknin^ to eat 
much or by many. 

Uminum. Ang ininwn, what was or 
has been drunk. Inumin^ drink. 
Ang inumany the drinking place; 
trough; cup (drinking vessel). 
Maginumy to drink much or by 
many. Magiminum^ to give an- 
other sometliing to drink; (2) to 
water animals or fowl. £x. : ( 1 ) 
Paiinnmin ko »iyd nang tdhxgf 
(Shall I give him some wat^^r?) 
Houag, painvmin mo gigd nan(^ 
aiak (SOf give him some wine.) 
(2) Pinainum ninyo bagd an(/ 
manga cabayof (Did you water" 
[give drink to] the horses?) Op^, 
(Yes, sir). Papainum ka kaiy 
Tom(U (Ask Tom^s to give yoi» 
something to drink). [indef.J 

Lnmanion. Ang linamon^ what wa^ 
or has been swallowed thus. Var- 

Lumagok. A ng linagokf what gul{)ei1> 

Hum if/op. . 1 ng /ii><t^o;;, whatsipped - 

Pmnainjoit. Ang pinangdSy wha't 
sucked at. 

Kvmagat. A ng kinagat, what bitt<»n - 
Magkagaian^ to bite mutually (a^ 
two <logs. ) Magkagaikagata'n^ \cy 
pretend to bite mutually, yag- 
kakagalkagat ang daUiwang aso ( th^ 

To drink. 

To swallow (fo<Kl) greedily. 

To .'iwallow (gulp) liquids. 

To nip (as soup). 

To suck at (a.s fc?ugar-(»ne). 

To bite. 



two dogs are only pretending to 

bite each other). Manga^at^ to 

run around biting, as an annnal in 

a rage. 
Stntiinghd. Aug sinirighaly who or 

what snappt'd at. 
KxiimMnh. Ang kinabkaby who or 

what bitten by a pig thus. 
S^gumogd. Ang iTginoydf what 


XVIII. Acts of the senses, either general or nio<lilied, admit m to 
express the definite results of such actn, with two exceptions. These are 
tumir^in (to look at) and tumimtim (to tante liquor) which take an as a 
suffix for reasons of euphony. 

To snap at. 

To bite (as a pig at people). 

To chew. 

To see; to look at. 

To look at. 

To watch for; look out for; to sight. 

KnniiUX. Ang kinitdf what seen or 

looked at. 
Thiiniirgin. Ang thTgndn] ang t'ming- 

na/i, what looked at. 
Tnjnando. Ang tinandoy what sighted. 

Tanauan, watchtower; lookout- 


jfanannOj watchman; lookout. 
To look attentively, turning the eyes Lum'nTlfnn. Ang liningony what 

or head. 

To look much at things, noting and 

considering them ; to inspect. 
To look sideways. 

To behold; to view. 

To hear. 

To hear. 

To listen to; to pay attention to. 

To smell. 

To scent; to perceive a strong odor. 

To taste. 

To relish ; to like a taste. 

To sample; to try; etc. 

To taste without swallowing. 

To taste liquor without swallowing 

To feel; to touch (general). 

looked at thus. Kx. : J)l mo ako 
linifTfjon (you did not turn your 
head to l4:)ok at me). 

Utn(fnhiao. Ang xncminuoy what in- 

Sumuliyap. Ang sinuligapy what 
looked at sideways. 

Pandod. Ang mnandody what be- 

Dtimingig. Ang diningigy what 
heard. Ang diiigdriy person lis- 
tened to. 

Mngkinyig. Ang kinmyig^ what 

BunuUyag, Ang binatyogy what lis- 
tened to. Var., kinamatyag and 

Ununnoy. A ng Inanwy, what .«inelled, 
i. e., odor. Amoyin mo itn (smell 

Suninnghoii. Ang it'mnngliody what 

Lnrnfiaap. Anglhidsajt, what tasted 

Nunidmnam. .ing lunammiyn, what 

Tiimikin. Ang tikman^ what sam- 

Tnmijnng (r. ). Ang tijtiiTgan, Vk'hat 
taxted thus. 

Tnmimtim. Ang iimiimaiiy what 

Jlnmipo. Ang hinipo, what felt or 
touched. Ex.: WithniguKihihij^uaa' 
kan iyang hahay. [idiom ] ( t here is 
nothinji to touch in his house, i. e., 
he is very poor). 



To prei?8 down; also to clo^ or seal 

a letter. 
To touch lightly. 

To touch any part of the body lightly 

but suddenly. 
To touch suddenlv. 

To run into; to collide with. 

To touch carelessly and affectedly. 

To touch with the lips. 

To feel fur in the dark. 

To pinch; to soften. 

Tomb: to soften; to annoint. 

To pick (as a guitar) ; to pluck at (as 

a sleeve). 

To play any instrument or ring a bell 
(by strokes). 

XIX. In also expresses acts of the will or mind. 

To remember. 

Magdlit, ^na diitatif what pressed 
or closed . Pandlit ; seal ; w^ax ; gum . 

Tumangkd (r.). Ang tinangkdy yfhai 
tou(;ned Syn. Tuman^hL 

Humipik (rare). Ang hipikan^ per- 
son touched. Syn. taghid (also 

Ihtmantik (rare). Ana dantikan^ the 
person thus touched. 

MagjKtronrfjn, \&r.magparorong. Ang 
pitKigpfironron, what touched. 
Aug ipinagparonron^ the cause of 
having touched thus. 

Sumagi, var. Sumagoy (latter rare). 

Gumtimil (rare). Variations of this 
root are gamU^ gof/il, and gmnlil. 

MagdiifTgil (rare). This is not the 
verb *'to kiss," which is hiunalik. 

Hnmikap. Ang hinikapf what felt 
for thus. 

Pumisil. Ang pinisUf what rubbed, 
etc. Fisl'ni mo Ho nang kamay mo 
(rub this with your hand). 

Humilot. Ang hinllotf what rubbed, 
etc. Ang hilotan, the person 
rubbe<l, etc. fft/o^ (n.), midwife; 
matihihilotf massageur. 

MagkaUilnlf var. magkcUbit. Ang pi- 
nagkalahitt what plucked at or 
picked thus, i. e., the sleeve or the 
strings. Ang ipinagkalabxi, the in- 
strument or means, i. e., the fin- 
gers or plectrum (pick). Ang 
patigalihUf the instrument played 
upon thus. 


To calculate; to consider. 
To desire; to like. 

(To caress.) 
To love. 

To think. 

UmalaaUiy to remember (purposely). 
Makaahialfif to remember (cas- 
ually ) . Aug inaalaala, what is re- 
membered purposely. 

Magbulay. Ana pina^hubulay, what 
is being calculated, i. e., the result 

Umihig. Ang iniibi^y the person who 
is liked (and reciprocates the lik- 
ing); (2) what is liked; also ang 

Umirog. Ang inilrogf the person be- 
ing caressed. 

Suntinta. Ang »inisirUdf the person 
who is loved and who loves in re- 
turn. Aug nasisintdf the pers^^m 
who iH loved, but who is unaware 
of tlie fact or does not return it. 
Mng^udaUanj to love mutuallv. 

MaqUip. Ang iniisipf what is f)eing 
thought of. Ang inlrip, what was 
thought of. Ang iistptn^ what will 
))e thought of. magisipinpt to 



To esteem; to love. 

To think. 
To explain. 

To inquire; to assure one's self; to 

To verify, etc. 

think deeply; profoundly. Anp 
pagkawip, the opi nion ( act) . Ka im- 
pan (abst. ), opinion, thought. 

Lum iffug ( rare ) . A ng liniliyng, what 
or who enteenied or loverl. Sinid, 
is more common, but is a Sanskrit 
word derived through Malay. 

Pau'undnn. Aug p'nmp<niirndun , what 
is thought. 

Mag.vdai/Aug, var. magnagnny. Ang 
slnaMdaifsag, what is being ex- 
plaineil. Salaysayhi ino ito (ex- 
plain this). 

Vimdnsithd (r. ). Ang inmdusithd, 
whatisbeinginquired, etc., var. «/o- 
s'dhd, idea of verifying, etc., also. 

Uinushsd. Aug innusMy what is l)e- 
ing verified. Tauong walang imisd, 
a person without carefulness; a 
careless person. 

XX. The making of something from raw or crude material is expressed 
by using the finished pro<luct verbally or as a verbal noun with //?, thema- 
terial U8e<l taking the nominative, if there are no limitations of cause, time, 
place, etc., connected with the action. 

To put up a house. Maghahay ( from hahay, house). This 

word lias l)een given as derived 
from Malay b<dei, hall; court, from 
Sanskrit vnlayo, an inclosure, but 
it would seem rather to be a Ma- 
layan name, as in Ng<'la ( Florida 
or Anudha) Island of the Solomon 
(inMip the word is ndf and far 
away in Hawaii is hale. There 
may be said to exi^t intermediate 
words throughout. Kx.: Bahayin 
mn i(</ng kafiuy ( l*ut up a house 
with tills lumber). Mnghahdyha- 
Imytnt (dim. ), ( to play at building 
ho\ises [as chiMren do] ). Xaghd- 
hnyhahoyan dug manga batd (the 
chiUlren were ]>laying at building 

To roll one's self up in a eloak or Mnghaldhal B(d(dtaUn mo ilong kayo 



To put a shirt on; to wear a shirt 
(occasionally), from haro, a cloth 
U8edt(^) make shirts, and also mean- 
ing a shirt itself. 

To wear trousers. 

To wear shoes (occasionally ) ; to put 
a pair of shoes on. 

do { make a cloak out of this cloth; 
or wrap yourself in this cloth). 

Mngljdro, Itoitg hiyo)ig ittV y haharoin 
hiya (he [she] will make a shirt 
out of this cloth ). An indicates a 
person as the object of the action. 
Ex.: Btinmn mn iyang hatd iydn 
(]»uta shirt on that child). JA/- 
tntirn, to wear a shirt habitually. 

MagsidaiKd^ from x(dannl^ trousers 
(Arabic, Stfiurar). Jdmg kayong 
ito'y ko, I will make 
trousers out of this cloth. 

}fngs(ti>in { from tfof/ni, a shoe or san- 
dal), liong bnlat na iti'/ysasaj/inin 
iiil/i liht^y will innlrp tlnw loiithpr 


into whoes). Mnnapln, to wear 
ghoefl habitually. 

To put an apron (tapis) on; to wear Magtapis. Jynug hnjong iynn «// U\- 
a tapis oocaf<ionally. p'tHin nhjn (let her make an apron 

out of that cloth). 3/<in«/)M, to 
wear a tai>is halntually. 

To carry a cAne, or tunfjk'oil. MaglnnkoiL TUmg hthoy na itiVgliuU' 

Unigko<l ko (I am making a cane 
out of this wood). 

XXI. hi, used with the name of a destructive a^cnt, denotes the present 
or pa*«t result of the destructive action. It is prefixe<l to vowel nouns and 
infixe<l with thosi' l>eginning with a consonant («• is counted as a vowel i. 

White ant (termite). Anay. InAmiy ang manga Uhro (the 

books were destroye*! hv the white 
ant«< [were white-antedy). 

Locust. Bdlang. Bimif/aiang ang palay {iht" 

rice is being destroyed oy fhe lo- 

Itat. Daqi\. JHnadagd ang higtU (the rice 

fhulle<l] is being destroyed bv the 
rats [lit. is l^ing **ratte<f*'] ). 
Mandaragdy rat-catcher. 

Crow . Uak. Inuuak ang waging (the l>ananu.'' 

are being destroyed by the crows 
[being "crowed^*]). 

XXII. 7n, prefixed or infixed, used with words denoting parts of the 
bo<ly indicates past or present pain or suffering in the i)art name<i. The 
first syllable of the root is re<Iuplicated to indicate the present tense. 

Hea<1. Ulo. Inula akn (I had a headache). 

Inuuio nlyd (she [he] has a head- 
ache). Masakil ang ulo ko (my 
head aches). 

Chest. Dibdih. Dlnibdih niya ( he had a pai n 

in the chest). 

Stomach. tSikmura. SInisikmura kat (I>»es 

your stomai*h pain you? ) Op6^ sinl- 
Hiknnira ako (yes, sir; I have a pain 
in the stomach). 

.\lxlomen. T^ydn. Tiniydn ako (my abdomen 

pained me). Tinitiydn ako (my 
abdomen pains me) . 

XXIII. In like manner, in, prefixed to or inserted with roots signifying 
diseases may denote the past or present state of the disease. The first 
svllable of the root is re<luplicated to indicate the present tense. If a 
clironi(; state of the disease is to Ixi expressed, the patient is denoted by 
the suffixing of in (hin ) to the root. (The future tense, it must l>e remem- 
l)ered, reiiuplicates the first syllable of the root.) The suflfix in may also 
denote a physical defect or tlie result of a disease. 

Small[x>x. BuhUong. Ang hinufndutongf the y*er- 

son who is having smallpox. Ang 
hinuhUttng^ the i)er8on who has ha<i 
small i)ox. Ang bulutongin^ the 
marks of smal Ipox. }fagbulutong, 
to become marke<l by smalliK)x. 
^fagkabuW^mg^ to have an epi- 
demic of smail|)ox. 

Asthma. Hikd. Hikain^ asthmatic person. 

(lOut. Piyd- Piyohin, gouty person. 

AUlomon. Tiydn. l^yanin, (rorpulent person. 




XXIV. In {hin) suffixed to names of birds denotes jrarnecoeks of tiie 
general color of the bin I named. Some words cliaii^e 1'm^ accent of the 
root, while otliers retain the original accent. Kx. : 

Hawk (several species). Lairin. Lalaw'uiin^ game cock of a 

brown color, like a hawk. 

('n>w. l\ik. rW(/^/7i, black pime cock. It 

will be seen that the first syllable 
of the root is re<in|ili<'atf^d. 

XXV. In (hin) denotes the completed actiim or result of a verb which 
rci^uires an object if sullixed to a verbal root of this nature; provided the 
root admits In for the liirect object. Kx. : 

To drink. 
To eat. 

To sew (occasionally). 

UiniiiHin. Inumin, drink. 

Kiinutin. Kanin, food. Kakdnin; 
Lakdln, refreshments, sweet.s, nuts. 
These last words formed with ka 
mean "food-rcsend)liiig." 

Tunntln. Jaliiiu, anything sewe<l: 
tailor W(>rk. Matjtahi, to sew in 
company (numy) or to sew nnich. 
Maitahi, to .<cw for a living. Man- 
(innhi, tailor; tailore.'^s; seamstress, 
nec<licwon)an (<lressmakcr ). }fihf- 
]i(it<ih!, to order to sew. Ex.: Jtu 
au'i jKitahl iiit/d iiu akin (this is 
what slu' told nje t<j sew). 

Stnunlnt((h. . 1 n(i HnJjaahi n ,\\\\'c\i grazed, 
i. e., the grass. Atitj sdhsdhan, the 
grazing ])la<*e; pasture, etc. 

XXVI. Jn U8e<l with verbal roots capal)le of ex{)ressing tjualities which 
may l)e acquired or exten<h'd to persons, animals, etc., indicates the object 
of the action. Ex.: 

Ti* graze. 

To look out (as from a window). 

To swim. 

Ittninnnino. A nij d n /Tj/n n i )) ,\\ hat ijven 
by looking out. This and similar 
forms c<>ntain no ten-'^e idea. A)uj 
iliiiinTijtn,^ what was <ir has been 
looked at thus. ^\n'j fUntirntTj/aa, 
what is being looked at thus. Au(/ 
ihiiiii?,/an(tti, the window. Man- 
uin/do, to l<»«»k by many thus or 
sometimestoa{>i)earat the w in(h)W 
(also idea of habit thus). Ex.: 
lioiiatj l.tinn mninnT<i(U) sn dnnuTii- 
nuiin (<lonot l<jok out of [or appear 
at] the window). MarniTijttn^ tt)be 
at the window. Mnrurmufao '<iiii'i, 
he is at the window. MukarniTijiio^ 
to look (»ut of a window casually. 
Matfpaduin/'Kf, to orderto look out. 
Maki'hnTijdo, to jiMU anotherin thus 
looking (lUt. }fai/kn/f'ithn7i/(in, to 
look (lut su<ldenly, moving(iuickly 
in ord*^r to do so. 

LmiKiiTiiini. Mmjl iT(;<,if, toswim car- 
rying something. Aug l<itH/o)fin, 
what gained by swimming, or ob- 
ject swam for. Aw/ ildiTijf/if, what 
carried while swimndng, e. g. , the 
<'l"tlie<: uIn* I»v what means. 


L<ui[j(f;ia)t, a buoy. Lanf]oy<h}, a 
plare for >^\vi!nining; wliere swim- 
inin^niay bedone. Pin'i(//(iwjoi/a)i, 
\A-Arv wlieie switiniiin^' \va.« done 
while carrying Koniethine:. Ex.: 
MarunoiKj kti))ij lnmiuT[}Oiif Jlindi 
jto. ( I >o you know bn\v to Hwim? 
No, sir. ) .1 na ! Tuf/i'i/otj ha '/ / lutli 
inanhif/h;/ hiitf/ hi/mii7^^o>:/ ( What! 
You a Tap:alo«r ami dou't know 
bow to swimV) T(t(/ti sthin knf 
(Where aie you from?) Tacja 
Iminbik, ])o (\ live in the nioun- 
tainfj, sir). Pain (I did not know 

To fly. Linnijiod. Antj Hpnr'tit^ the object 

of the flight. Anij ilipfuh the 
wings, or instrument of fliglit. 
Any lijKird)!, pbn't'of Hight. -V//'/- 
/ipn*l, to 11 y nHuh,.or to and fro. 
M(n/j,tili)ui({, to cause or teach to 
My. Anr/ jti)fnHjHnl, what f^et or 
taujrlu t«> lly. 

To dive for; to dive (occasionally ). Am/ sislriti, what dove 

for. The reasr)n for diving or the 
body subiiu^rged, f///'/ isisid. Atitj 
.slslntii, the <li\ ing place. MntjH'tsitl. 
to dive nnii'h. Aihj })'in(H}^Ui-L 
what dove for much. Manisid, to 
dive prof<'.<sioiially (for a living). 
M'ltnii'fsl'f^ <li\('r. 

To run. TumaLhu. Ami inklinli'tn, what mav 

be run for. Tnhhohin, runaway. 
Maf/(n/:l)n, to ruu nuicb. A)ni 
ifalJ-n, the cause for running or 
what is carried while running. 
AiKj tnh}>n1niit ( n the ])lace «»f run- 
ning; ( *J ) the person run away 
from; (iJ) the person fr)r whom 
souH'thing may be <'arried. Tn- 
unll'ufttLI'n, to rove about; to run 
around; togadalxMit. Mahitnhho, 
to be abh' to run. 

XXN'll. /// used with )n'i adjectives which have an attributive ."^ense 
imparts the iih-a of holiiing, considering, reputing, etc., acjMnding to the 
meaning of the a<ljeeti\e. This has been fnlly explained under the adjec- 
ti\(' ( «|. v. I. 

\\ Vlll. /// snllixed also e.xpresses the act of can.*-ing i'lnotion or sensa- 
tion in others when used with roots wlmh >('<inife no object, and form the 
cla^-s of vejbs called neuters, which aie generally expressed in English by 
" to br " followed by an adjective. It may also be jtrelixed. 

To be hungry. Mit'ii'ilnin. Ex.: yiffjiujutnm ancj ra- 

hai/ft (the ho rse i s h u ngry ) . Houmj 
imnui f/iiltnnui mnj nihaifo (don't let 
the horse go hungry). Kar/uixi- 
iiuiii. hunger. 

'i'o be thii>ty. }f(nih(io. Uoikkj rnoinj hniuhao ang 

nso (<lon't let the dog rt^niain 
thirsty, or b<' suffering from 
1 1 1 i rst . ) . JO x . : XaijugiUum bagd 


hay of ( A re you h un jary? ) Hindi' t 
natiuhao lamamj nkn (Xo, I am 
only thirsty). 
To be afraid. Matdkot. Natatakot kaf (Are you 

afraid?) Ojto nrja^ nku'i/ nataU'tkvl 
( yes, sir, I am af raid ) . Mahatakot, 
to cause fear. Avg ikat/ikoty the 
cause of fright. Ang kntokntan^ tl»e 
person feared, also thing feared. 
Ex.: Ana ling k'm<itithih(dan mof 
(What are you afraid of?) Aug 
knmilakotfin ki/ y aitg tnaiTgd tulimn 
(I was afraid of the ladroues 
[bandits]). Tumakot, to frighten 
or scare another. Ang takotin^ the 
person frightened. Takotin mo 
f^iyo, frighten (scare) him. 

XXIX. It will be seen from the foregoing that in is not used with 
roots conjugated with ?/n/, except in certain senses, as shown by the above 

XaX. In suffixed to terms for money forms words denoting an object 
or material costing the amount represented by the money quoted. The 
first syllable of the root is duplicated, but the accent <loe8 not change. 

Half peso (25 cents U. S. currency). tS<il<ijfi. SisalapUn, a half- peso's 

Peso (50 cents U. S. currency). /*/.«?/*.«. Piitiiio.sih, a i>eso's worth. 

XXXI. In suffixed to some nouns when paying comi»liments, etc., 
indicates that the party addresse<l resembles or partakes of the (jualities 
exprc^-sed by the word used. 

The Candii ( which has a sweet odor ) . Kandn . Kandah in , a sweet piTson . 
Honev. Pidot. Pj</o////, honev (term of en- 

dearment ) . 

XXXII. 8ufiixe<i to roots capable of being expressed with tlie idea of 
plurality, in denotes something to have taken place many times. The 
accent of the root changes invariably. Ex. : 

Idea of whipping. Jlain/nU. Unmpaftin, whipped many 


To lose; to miss. Mnnnld. nVf/o<.<, to lose many times. 

To sue another; to litigate. Mag>)mp. rsnpin,i\ suit tried many 

times. PnhuiMip, barrator (one 
who is continually engaging in 
causeless litigation). 

XXXIII. A7n, when prefixed to class names of human l>eings signifies 
a resemblance to the class named. Ex. : 

Woman; female. Bnlxvn'. Bdhminin^ effeminate man. 

liinahayt'y has almost same mean- 

Man; male. Lolnki, />fA//.'/<//j, iiiasculine(>rman- 

nish woman or girl. 

XXXIV. Theobject toobtain possession of whicji an intransitive action 
ia performed sometimes takes m, if not otherwise exj)res<ed. Ex.: 

To go or come out; to take out. jAnnaJnU. . I )ni lahaiiin, who or what 

sought thus: object for which ai-- 
tion performe<l. Mng/ahaa, to take 
out. Ang lahmiij what may l>e 

6855—05 9 

taken (»iit. (as food from the 
\n^^ lM»t), or what may flow < 
tlie hody (as hlood, etc.). 
Ijihm'ni vio ako nang kanin 
i?ome ri(V out for mo). Muq 
Infu'ts, to jio out and come in, 

To jump. Liimokud. Ant; lokfiohinjwhutju 

for. Av(j loksolian^ the j)h 
jumping. Mtiglokso, to jump i 
or hy many. Magiok)n>h< 
jump l)y many in competiti( 

To leaj^ or jump down; (2)toalip:ht. Lumi'fsoiig. Aug ImtotTgin, • 

leaped down for or alighte< 
Aug/iisoiTi/dii, thephiee of hgl 
Lliom. L('i{<ong 7nt pdlacf, t 
(siroke) of hick, Muglusoi 
thn»w down or pusli down. 

To fro or come down (the stairs or a Pfiiiiiiuang. Angpamwgin, the< 
ladder, etc.). tor winch action may be 

formed. Ang jxuHtognu^ the 
or jxTson forwiiom action n 
jierformed. Kx.: Panaognm 
lidng ti'thig (brinjjr me some 
down here). Mdg/mudog, to 
somethin<; down tfius, or to 
come down much. 

XXX\'. Some transitive ( re(iuirinjr an object) verbs do r<o^ and 
intransitive verbs //->, admit in. 

IN — AN. 

XXXVI. /// ]»retixiMl to or infixed with a root to winch on is suflR: 
the same time is used to exprcsHtlie result of an action when the .«aid 
is a concri'te object. J^x: 

'J'o cml>rnidcr mats (j)etates). Mogsalmt. .sV//r//;f/A/;/,anembroi 

mat ( petate). 
To (jo line needlew<irk; to do lin<' Suinnhnii. SinKlnm/iu, fine n< 
SI 'wiuL^ work, as a lian<ikercliief or 

article of line sewing. 

XXXVir. The same construction is also used to express the folio 
(1 ) Tiling's piM'pared for foorl from the raw nialiTial. (2) .\ct.s done 
the objert expressed bytluMViot. ( ii ) Tb«' refuse caused l>v some ac 
riurality with the last is expressed by the use of the definite jiretix /: 
coufiectiou with in [pmag). Kx. : 

Ivji:. ItJog. 7r//7/o//rb/,anythinirmadt 

CL'gs, as cake or an omelet, e 

lloncv. Pul"(. Vninloti'tu, anvthintr 

w ith honey in it. I*nh>ti'ni, s 
made from honey. Pnli}t 
honey an<l cocoanut milk. 

To peel rattans (bejuco). Ktini'iifas. KtHngnsiiii^ the p< 

(sing.). Aug jiinagkagasar 
]»eelings fjjlur. ). 

To thresh. (iin/tilk. (ilnlihnt, straw. 

giiknif, much straw. Afagl 
thresh mui-h. 

To saw. Lniiiiignn. I*mnqjngar'\an^ sav 

A})>i iiKDihihigdr), the sawyer 

To sort cotton or silk; to cull; to Pinnili Attg plniltluni, the r 



MA— IN (HIN). 

XXXVIII. In {hin) sufficed and ma prefixed to roots signifying mental 
emotions, passions, and involuntary actions form adjectival nouns which 
generally require to be expressed in Englinh by an adjective and a noun. 

XXXIX. If the root admits of contraction, begins with /, or an intensive 
degree is to be expressed, the first syllable of the root may be reduplicated. 
These words have the accent on the last syllable as a rule. For examples 
see under ma. 

XL. It may be repeateti here that acquisition or assimilation isgenerally 
denoted by in; the instrument, if allowable, and the reason for the carry- 
ing out of the action by i; an<l the place, or the person from whom, by an. 
Additional examples: 

To reach; to overtoke; (2) to con- 
clude (as a meeting). 

To buv. 

Vmi'dnit. Ang nbutiii, what reached, 
etc. Anginabut^ what was reached, 
etc. Aug ahuUiu, the person over- 
taken or tiling reached for. Vina- 
hut, to reach for one's self. Magn- 
hul^ to reai'h for another. Ang 
pagnhuf, (heact of reaching. Mega- 
bnf(tiij to reach for each other mu- 
tually. Magabiitabiitfui, to reach 
manv things or pass things from 
hand to hand in nund)ers. Maka- 
dbtit, to tiike; to be able to reach. 
MtiL{<'(but, to ask an()ther to reach 
forsoiiKHhing. Ex.: Xalinbuf (d't 
k'uif .lunu Vfing fnbig { I askt d Juan 
to reach nie [get for me] some 
water) . 

Jhunil'i. A ng bilh'w or ang 7)rt^//<, what 


To sell. Mitfjlull. Aug ipaijlAl'i^ what gold. 

Aug ijiinngbH), what was or has 
bei'ii sold. Ang pinagbdhi'iu^ the 
l)ei>^oii to whom sold (past t<.*nse); 
the j>laee, or the price. Aug luii- 
jt(f(jffi/t, what has heen sold by error. 
Ang nojtaghillini), the money real- 
ized fn )ni what has been sold. A ng 
jKigblhU't, the act of selling. (The 
act ()f buying; is ang paghill. ) Mag- 
hihili, to sell by wliolesale. 

To snatch; to pull 11]) by the roots; tu Kniunmldm. Aug kinatnkauiy what 
take by lone. snatched, etc., thus (past tense). 

Aug hinihuuin, what snatched, 
pulli'd up, etc. (no tense idea). 
MaiTg<t)}ik(nn, to go about pulling 
u|) things (as a gardener ])ull8 up 

To take. Knnmhn. A)ig linuhuy what was or 

has been taken. Ang ikuh<i, the 
means for taking (no tense idea). 
Ang knnin, what taken (no tense 
idea) . AtKi ikinvhn, the means bv 
which soiiH'thing was or has been 
taken. Aug knn''in, the ]>lace or 
person from whom taken. 

Tore*|ne?^t; to ask for. UnmnTgL .I///; ////<///f//, what asked 

for. ,1//^ niiU'nTijl, what obtained 
by asking. . I ng luiTtftn, what asked 
for ( no tense idea). 

To close the hand. KnininiLnn. Mogkinikhn, to gra.<p; 

to il(»e the hand ujK)n. Ang kim- 
k'nniti, what gra>i)e<l. Ang kinhn- 
/•///>, M hat was or has been grasped. 
Aug ik'nnk'nn, the grasping instru- 
ment: e. g., the hand. 

TUE I'AIMK i.i: 1. 

I. The definite particle /, w hi«]i i«j ahnost invarial)ly a prefix and found 
as an infix with a very few words \i*r strictly euphonic leasons, is used 
with s«-nteiH'es or i>lira"^es by which the subject is represente<l as losing con- 
trol of something, expulsion, cause, means, instrument, time (not tense), 
and \('rl)sof adjusting, c«>pyini; into, transferring, translating, transplant- 
ing, etc., in the latter case indicating the object of the verb. 

II. Sentences or ]»hrases iiicludim: a verb with / liave the agent in the 
genitive, the «lirect ol)j<'ct in the accusative (if tlierc is a direct object), 
;md the word denoting the instrument, time, or cause in the nominative. 
The nominative word is eniphasized by being place<l at the beginning of 
the sentence or j»hrase. 

To ]>inion: to tie the hands. dnnn'i /><>.«. Ang ignpoR, the means — 

i. e., the rope. Kx. : Ignpos mo so 
hihiiigo'ni ilimg ]>(intalt ( Pinion the 
prisoner with this rope). Em- 
phatic: IfotHj )uiiit(iH igapo» mom 
}>ilangn'ni (with this rope pinion 


III. /, meaning cause, is generally combined with koy the definite form of 
makdy forming ika; and further with in for the past and present tenses, ikhia. 

To come here. Puinarito. Amj ipinnrito, the reason 

or time of coming here, Aug iki- 
naparitOy the reason or time thus 
(pai-t tense). Ex.: Anoangikina- 
parito mof (What diil you come 
nere for?) ^SV Jiuin ung ikuiaparito 
ko (Juan was the cause of my 
having come here) . Sino angjnmi- 
ritohiin mof ( Who did you come 
to see here?) Si J turn (Juan). 

IV. Some verbal roots have the idea of going away, leaving, etc., inherent 
in themselves, and therefore have the definite in either in or /. Ex.: 

To go away; to leave. Umnlts. Ang inalk, the leaving 

(pref. to n)fg ialU). Kahdpon, ang 
itKilli ko (yesterdav, I left). Aug 
jHigali.^, the act of leaving. Muga- 
liSj to take something away. Ayig 
jicn/cudiK, the action of taking some- 
thmg awav. KopagaalU ko nito 
iTijuin'm (I have just finished tak- 
ing this away). Makaalh, to be 
able to go away. 3fakapagalis, to 
be able to take away. 

V. An indirect object following a preposition takes the genitive with a 
wntence or phrase using /, but the construction of the rest of the sentence 
<»r phrase is unchanged. Ex.: 

To buy. Ihimi/i. IhiUino tnu/ hnO) nang kaka- 

iiiii (Buy some sweets for the 

To carry; to accompany. Hninotid. Ihatkl mo ako mi bahay 

lunig (und ino (Accompany me to 
your father's house [to the house 
(»f your father]). Maghalidy to 
S(Mul; to remit. .Vtighntidhafiran, 
to send to each other mutuallv. 

To look for. lliiiniuiap. Ih'indp moitkoiKingisang 

mdlmting tdfnii/o ( Look for a goo<i 
liorse for me). Ilnhinjt mo ako 
iKUig m(iiTgi'i itlog (Look for some 
*^^^i^ for me). 

VI. The person for whom some act is done and the indirect object of 
an action benefiting or performed for the benefit of another, take the 
nominative; the verb being used witii / and the proper tense forms. The 
foregoing sentences are also examj)les of this, as well as the following 

To cook; to make by cooking or like Muglnto. Ex. : Jpag/ntd mo (lugcopi- 
procea*-'. tan uong sicofatr (Make some choc- 

olate for the caf)taiii). Iinighiti) 
mo (iko iioiig kit tun (Cook mi* some 

To build a house. Mogfh'ilmii. fpoghnhm/ mnako (Build 

nu» :i IkuispV 



VII. 7 generally replacoH in with verlje which admit )x)th direct ami 
indirect objects, t heinj^ u»ed to express the direct object (accusative) 
and an expresMUg the indirect object (dative, etc.). Kx. : 

To recouimend. 

To make a gift; to present with. 

To advisee. 

To give l)a<'k; to rt^ntore. 

To tell; to narrate; to report. 

To talk; to apeak. 

Maghiliu. Ang ipagbilin^ the rec- 
ommendation. Ang ipinaghi/iiij 
what was or has bc^en rvcom- 
mendiHl. AngimgbUinanj the i>er- 
son ret»ommenaeii {no tense idea) . 
Ang pinnghillnan, the person who 
was or has l>een recommende«l. 

Maghii/aifo. Ang ipinnghiyaya^ wliat 
was or has been given, i. e., the 
gift. Ang pinagbiijayaan^ the i>er- 
son to whom something was or has 
l)een given. Mabiyarfang Uino, a 
lil)eral i)er>»on. 

Maghatol. This verb also means in 
some c&ses to procure women. 
Ang ihtiiol, the ativice. Ang ihi- 
natol, what was or has l)een ad- 
vised. Ang hnUiUm, the i>erpun 
a<i vised. Ang hinntolan, the f^er- 
son who was or has been a<l vised. 
Ang ijHighi'itol, the woman j)ro- 
curiMl. Man(ighnti>l na lalaki^ pro- 
curer; pan<lerer. Mapaghdtol na 
bubiiye, pnx'uress. 

Magmoli. This verb also means to 
go back, to return to the plat-e of 
starting. A ng mmntl'i, what was or 
has Ijeen restor(»< 1 . Ang xina<dinn, 
the person tr) whom something 
was or has been restore<i. Ang 
jHjgmolnn, the place retumeti to. 

MagmlM. Ang mlithi^ what told or 
reported (no tense idea). Ang 
sinalM; ang isiwiiitiif what was or 
has lK»en told, etc. Angshttmiilfd; 
ang ifdnasalltd, what is I wing told, 
etc. Ang mmlUin; ang uaMiliUi, 
what will l)e told or re|M>rte<l. 
Ang jxtgwiJitadny the j>erson told 
or reported to (no tense idea). 
Ang pinogholitadny the person tt)ld, 
eiv. I past tense ) . A ng pinagmm- 
litadn, the fwrson being told or 
reported to (present tense). Ang 
pngmmUtiu'tn, the person to he 
tohl or re|)orttHl to (future tense). 
Ang ininagHniiidy what was told 
and tlie reason for telling. Ang 
uagHoliMy the teller ( pa* t tense). 
Ang nagmtmUtdj the narrator 
( present tense* ) . Ang magsawiitd, 
the teller (future tense). Ana 
kamVdanny the companion in tell- 
ing; the coreporter. MamlMy 
garrulous, like an aged person. 

Snmahi. Ang Habifiin^ what said or 
the person or thing mentioned. 
Magsabij to converse; to say. 


A)hj isahi, the reason or causae of 
the conversation, ^luff isindbi, 
what was or has tx*en said. Aitg 
ijthiwjmbi, wliat was or Ijas been 
said and the rt-ason or cause. Aug 
ttahiJidti, the conversation orstorv. 
Ang ))in(tf/S(ihiU(ih, what said to a 
certain person or said at a certain 
To signal. Ttuuvro. }f<i(/ttird, to ])oint out; to 

show; (f. ) to teach. Aug ifiunroy 
what sijxnalcd, pointed out or 
tau}j:ht. Aug tirnirotnij person 
shown (taujy^ht) or signaled to. 

Other verbs which have two objects like the forej^oinji^are ?////r/rr//, "to 
teach;" nwghaliU'ij '"to reiK>rt;" rndghigng, "to give;" and magblit, "to 
^11, " which have been or will 1)8 explained in otlier ]>laces. 

VIII. In the majority of cases / expri'.s<es tlie in<'ans or instrument l)y 
which an action is brought about. It is y/?r//.'r'7 <hrectly to the root for 
thone conjugated with um in any manner, and to the verbalizing ])article 
in the other conjugations. Tliis apphes to all tenses. Tlie first syllable 
of the root or the last syllable of the ])article, a,s the case may be, redupli- 
cate in the j)resent and future tenses. In the second pluperfect and second 
future p<»rfect tenses the particle / is inserted between the particle ?jfr or 
ma and the root, whether the latter be simjde ar compound. ( See tables, ) 

IX. The root denoting an instrument, if capable of conjugation, may 
denote the indirect object, if there is no nominal direct object in the een- 
ten<*e. Ex.: Aaoang ipintttdgniffa !^ { What was he killed with?) Iftinuril 
iiiyt'i (lie was kille<l with a gun). With in the sentence would be: piuntny 
nh/d nctug hnril ( he was killed with a gun ). In the last example the nomi- 
nal subject fniril is exj)ressed. (See tables for the conjugation of an instru- 
ment with /, and with means for accon^plishment of an action.) 

X. /is also used, as has been stated, to express the means for the ac- 
complishment of an action. Kx.: Wal'l sigdng ihi/i nitong hdhag (hi- is 
"without the means to buy this house). Mdgrodn dlo Ihdhdydil sd Ujo ( I have 
the means to pay you). 

XI. / combined with h} may express the direct object (accusative) of 
actions performed lor the benefit of others, which may also be exjiressed 
bv in alone; an expresses |>lace in general with such verbs; and / com- 
l)ined with ;>f///and jtnidg according to the tensi', expresses the i)erson who 
is, was, has been, or will be the benefic'iary of the action. 

To roast (meat); to l)ake or fry (fish }higilid<K Aug iniiltdo, what is being 
or meat). frie«l or roasted. Aug ipuntgiUido, 

the })erson for whonj something is 
beini: roasted, i-tc. Aug ihdodtt, 
the fr\ing pan or roastei*. Aug 
]fiitdgi/idt,fiii, i\\v place of roasting. 
To scald or make, as tea; to boil (as M'tg/m/d. Aug inihu/d, what boile<l 
potatoes, etc. ) . or made tlin.^^. Aug iimgldgd, x\w 

]>erson lor whom to he made, .h/7 
Idgidht. the (M»oking pot, teapot, 
etc. l''x.: I/<u/fd(;d nut dkn Udug 
Sd ( make mr some tea ). 
To cook. Mdghifn. Aug /utoin, what cooked. 

Ang luih'tn, what cooked (see next 
paragraph ). Aug hifoi'nt, the cook- 
ing utensil. Aug pdghitodu, the 
cooking place. 

XII. When roots beginning with A. /, or a vowel (including tr) are con- 
jugate^! with iu and instrumental /', etc., the Tagalo«r revi'rses the |)article 


in to >// or clianges it to /m, in order to avoid the harsh .sounds of the double 
i, e^pel'iall\ witli roots ooininenoing with /. Kx.: 

To thnnv down. MiKjfu'i/of/. Ang ihnlog^ whatda:ihe<i 

to ground or thrown down (no 
ten.^e idea). Aixj I Inn ulog or a tnj 
inaltufiKj, what was or has het^n 
thrown down, etc. Antj ihinuhnlog 
or aii(j iudlmlinlog, what is being 
thrown down, etc. Aug IhuhuJog^ 
what will he thrown down, etc. 
( See tables for these. ) 

To place; to put. Magbigoif. .b<</?7</f/«v, what placed. 

Aiuf iilnagay; aiig i)iilngnij or aug 
inalagag, wliat was or lias been 

To get rid ol; to disappear. Mugnala. .I///7 mi^'v/W, what was or 

has been gotten rid of, etc. 

XJII. With certain classes of verbs such as (1 ) tho>e re<juiring two com- 
plements, e. g.. tHfign'i/lfd, "to tell;" indgntitng, "to lend;" maghigag^ "to 
give," etc., and {'1) wit h those expressing expulsive or dispersive action, 
e. g., inngtfipoii, " to throw away; " imigu'dtog, "to scatter see<i, etc.," t forms 
a true piussivo, which may be so expn^^sed in English. 

XI \'. With verbal roots not included in the foregoing classes i forms ai^ 
expression peculiar to Tagalog and allied languages by denoting either the 
instruini'iit, cause, or time oi the action. In these cases the cau.«e, rea>Jon, 
instrument, or time lu'comes the subject of the siMitence in the nonunative 
case, especially il the sentence should inchide jui imlirect complement ex- 
pri'ssiveof such instrument, cause, time, etc., in addition toadirect object. 

(1) To give. M'lghigdtf. Aug ihlnigag, what was 

or bas been given. Kx.: Ihinlgmi 
III Jiidfi if/fing sdhij/t (tliat money 
was the gilt of Juan). 

(*J) To ibrnw iiway. Maghtjum. Tdntdfton, to cast (as a 

iH't). K\. with iiidgtapdu: Itina- 
jxdi h> dug si'iJdf ( I threw the letter 
a\\ ay ) . A nu <(ng gdgdwin ko nilong 
isih'i' (What shall \ do with this 
lisb? ) Ihi/inn nut (throw it away). 
I^x. with fnhhijidn: ^f(n,snng itapon 
luiliiiD in iinitg isiU't [\ caught this 
(is!) with one throw [of the net]). 
Ahd (ajtinidii, the lish line; also, 
wbcrc anything may be thrown; 
tlie scrap hole or heap. 

T" i»lant: 1<> s<»w. M<i<;fd,,iiii. (2) Also to bear hate or 

rancor toward anotber. Alciug 

irnidhiiiiiii ihnig jn'l/dg {[ aiU plaut- 

iii'^ tills rice I. Aug (dnonhty the 
placrol planting. Aswill l)eF(H*n, 
boidcs l)cing contracte«l, there i.s 
a transposition with m and u with 
tbis word with suHixed an. 

( S<<' tabh's for conjugation «if sunidlmg. to sow, with /. ) 
X\'. It" tbe instrument i- expressed in full wit h a \erb using the expul- 
sive /, the instrument takes the proper )irepo>ition in the genitive. Ex.: 
/hiid/tuH /(ii/d and fnifidn'/id nund ixinhd bni I he threw the Sjiud awav with 

1 ' • ■' • • 

• I I I < to k 



XVI. (1) Roots which take mag for the primary idea in the indefinite 
generally have < for the corresponding definite, comhined with in for the 
past an(l present tenses. Um roots generally take hi only for the siinj>le 
definite (direct object). (2) Roots which vary in meaning according to the 
verbalizing prefix or infix um, mng, etc., generally retain the definite form 
of mif/, magkoy etc., with i, forming iput/, tf>i^f<'<j, '/>'N iphid, etc., as pre- 
fixes to the root. " (See tables for conjugation of knmulat, to spread, to 
propagate (of its own accord); magkalut, to spread widely (by outside 
a-jencv). Kx. : 

( 1 ) To sun ; U) put in the sunshine. 

To pour out. 

Tr> scatter. 

To add. 

To heap up; to lay in layers. 

(2) To spread; to i)ropai:ate (of its 
own accord I. 

To spread wi<lely (by outsi<le 
iigency) . 

To borrow (money only). 

Mag}tilnd. Ang ibhiilad, what was 
or has been put in the sunlight, 
as clothes to dry. A ug hikushi, the 
place. Aug bilnran, the mpe by 
which suspended, etc. .1/)/; ihtlad, 
what sunned, dried in the sun, etc. 

Maghnho-'i. . 1 ng ihuh(ti<, what poured 
out. Aug ih'nmhoi*^ what has been 
I)Oured out. MomulioSy to spill 
out; (2) fig. to spread out or run 
to, as a road. Kx. : *S''J an nmiuhos 
iUnig ddidt f ( Where does this road 
run to?) XnntihoA sa hat/an (it 
goes to town). .Vagkahuhoi^, to 
run together (as two roads). Xag- 
knkdbiihoH (iiKf dahurang damn, the 
two roads run together. Kidm- 
hos duga, of the same blood, as 
children of the same mother, 

Maghidog.<(ik, var. magfm/akstik. Ang 
ilnd'igsitk, what scattered. Ang 
ihinidngstd:, what was or has been 
scattere<l. Aitg ilnnnhnfagsnk,'w\n\t 
is being scattered, Ang ihnha- 
Ingsdk, what will be scattered. 

Magdagdag. Ang idngdug, what 
added. Ang idinagdag, what was 
added. Ang (higdagan, what has 
been a<lded to. Arnj niandaragdag, 
th(» adder. 

Mngpnlong. Ang ijjattnig, what 
heaped up or laid in layers. Also 
used for generations. Ex.: Jinn 
nng pntong nng nngnndn sn Lakitn- 
dnhi .'' (How many generations 
have there been since Lacandola? ) 

k'unndtiL Am/ iknbtt, what mav 
spread. Amj iknwbd, what lias 

Mnghddf. Aug ipngkfdnt^ what may 
be spread thus. Ang ipinagkabit, 
what was (»r has been so spread. 
V]s. (indef. ): y<igkah'd<d xi kmni 
nnng niknin] inikiitfnsnrnd sn knpmni 
innn (what's his name has l>een 
spreading bad rep<»rts all over 
al»out his neii:hl)or). Knbdhdnt 
ang dih) nii/a (he has a most tat- 
tling tongue). 

l'mi'iia)ig. Am; ^ifaiTj/in, the loan. 
A)ig ntam/an, the person from 
uliMin borrowed. Ang n'ltang, the 

.\) U'ihI (nionov only). Mnyi'ttdwj. (Also to Doriu», ... 

Amj ipiungtUnng^ tlie loan. 

To lend willingly. Magpnntang. A ng ijf<nU(ing, the lo&n 

niiult* thns. A)ig jKiudnTgii)^ the 
person lent to thus. Kx.: Pnu- 
tam/in mo <ikn ndiig ]thos (lend nie 
a |)<'S0). Isiing snfapt lancing 
(ing ijKiniUfiiig in m if/n (1 will only 
lend you a half jm's**). Ijnnai'iUmg 
/.o i*(i iifo aug Mil n pi ko { I have lent 
my in<uiey to you). Il'ikit hindl 
ni't ako p'tiiniii'itaiig ining sfilapi/ 
(Why won't you lend n»e .some 
money?) Su jmg/.d't na/a, (be- 
cause* I have none). Paatnng, 
eredit. Kniit*n7ij<i)i, ileht. 

XVII. Tills is also ?«ho\vn by hnnii/}, "to ])uy;" and indghilt, **tx3 sell/' 
already explained i. 

To ])uy by n-tnii (<>ii a <mMll scnlf i. Inniltiu. Aug innfdif^ what was 

Ix.U'^dit thus. 
To sell (»n a small s«ale. M'lgtihn/. Ang ij/uKigiiinii, what wa^? 

.-old thus. 

Will (1) //'" [li.nm I'oi- past an-l jMornt t«*ns('s) is generally used to 
ex pri's;^ cause oi' lea-ou, and also tiim- i lor the latter see under mti). 

To de-trov. Sidiiin). ^fll(fslrl), to destroy nuieh. 

M'lLftsln), to be abh^ to destroy. 
I'^x.: Aug ihi nasi en imng hniignug 
ai-i aiig ji'igsnsngal ( irandlliug was 
tin' cause by which he lost his 
property ). 

To ))e sa<l. Mafn'ipii<. .^fa La ha pis, to cause sad- 

ness, Ang iLahajtis, the cause of 
sadness (no tense idea). Kx.: 
ILiiia/ii'ipis I.n ang pagLanaitag 
nif/a ( 1 was >addened by his dying 
[death] i. IL'wihahapis Loaitg ptig- 
inniat'iii niga \ \ am saddened l)y 
his death i. J/:a/nfhapis mo ang 
paijLa inataii ni iial Jnan ( YoU will 
lu' .-a<liiened by the death of 
Don .fiiant. Kahapisan, sa<Ine«f» 

labstr. I. k'aln'ijtisfn'ipis. <in{ OTiHir- 

r. 'Willi (tl>jfct or s|)ectacle: also 
gicat soii'ow. 

I ■_' I //.'/ \iLiiia] abo expre-^«'s welbpcrt'ectefl acts resulting from a }>5lov\' 

j,f, ,«•(•>«> .If d<-\ rlt ipnirUt . 

Ti • bi'conu' bettei'. ( innniUng. Mftggafing, to adom. 

Aug gaJiiTgi,,, wiiat adomed. 
Maga/uig, to be better; als<> 
"L'ood/" "ilever.'' Mangaling^Xo 
l>ecomennich better. Makagaling, 
to do good. Ang i ha gal ing, the 
cause ot betterment. Kx.: Ang 
iiKiiTg.'t gainof ag sigang ikiinigngU' 
ling n'ing inmTga nnig sakii ( medi- 
cint's are what cause the recovery 
of those who are ill ). Ang jHum- 
f'-V 1/ ana iiinnaaliiui niuii fthe 


weather caused his improvement). 
An(j pdijiuuni tntomj i/aniot (ut(j 
ikinaijnliiKj niUi ( the taking of tliis 
medicine was what caused them to 
recover). MmjiinijaliiK), to pros- 
per. Aufj fnnaf/a(j<i/in(j, person or 
thinjJT j)rosperiiii;. Aiujnufjiujalbnj, 
person improvin<r. Magpakiuja- 
liny, to imj^rove one's self; to 
correct one's seh'. Kx.: Mfu/pnhi- 
(jnling k(it/6 vninj fnniTj/d a sal nmyo 
(Improve yourselves in your cus- 
toms [or manners]). K'a(/((/ii7i/an, 
gocuhic'ss; iujprovement. 

(3) Tka, as well as i alone, prefixed to intransitive verl)s indicate time 
Si* well as cause or reason. Kx. : 

To repent. Mufjuis!. Ant/ ipimif/slsi, the time, 

cau.<i', or rea.'jon of repentiince 
(j)ast tense). tSnuii.Hl, to quarrel 
with oj^enly. Aiu; islsi, the cause. 
Mtujjidhiaisl, to repent deeply. 

To he asleep or sleepy. M'ltiilit'i. Xfitntnhnj lnnfn kaffo/ ( Are 

you sleepy?) Oo; ih'nj kn stnm iTija 
mafi'i/off ( Ves; I would liketoiio to 
sleep). .\f'!k(ttnl(>(f, to fall asleep. 
A)if/ ikntuhni, the time or cause of 
fallin«; asleep. 

XIX. / is generally used alone to express i*ause or reason with verbs 
M'hich do not re«juire an object to complete the meaning ( intransitives): 

To obey; to ft)llow. SummKn/. yl//f/ />///^o(/, the cause of 

(jbedienceor tollowin«:. Kx.: Ano 
(in(j i!<lnii.-<iin<nl iian(/ ntni7(/i'i snndttlo 
mi k<n)'ilnn>j ;>"/mV ( Why do sol- 
diers obey [follow] their com- 
nuuidini; ollieer [chief]'.'). Antj 
jKinuiiiinipn 't pli<u/iin <n/ iiiiij isimi- 
simofl liih'i (Tlieir obedience is on 
aecount of their oath and also their 
respe<'t ). 

To weep (purposely). Tunitimiis. .V'^7/(f/r<//.s', to weep much 

or by many. Mutmnjis, to weep 
(iinol.). Ai)[! /7rn77//,«, the cause or 
reason of weeping;. M(ii/p(ttni7(/'n<, 
to weep exressively. Miikit'iinils. 
to jnin another in weepin«r. l^x.: 
H'tkil ii<nniiint7i(s i/nmn/ iKilminf 
(Wh\' is that woman weeping 
[crying]? ). .1/^'/ HifKiiihTi/is-nif/iy if 
tnui hnii'itdiimi nnnn utiuk [ Her (TV- 
ing is caused ])v the death «>f [her] 

To remain behind (letting others go Ttuniru. Mnf/tini, to allow soirje- 
ahead). thing to remain. J//y /7/////V/, what 

was nr has been left lu'hind; also 
the n-niaining l)ehind. I'^x.: Jk'io 
(tiHj it i III n't kn <liin ( I have re- 
mained here on ynur account). 
M'ttini, to hi' left behind. Wnbnuj 
ntifirn, not oni' remamed. 


XX. In like manner intransitive verbs alj^n express time (not tense). If 
the expression for tiie time is deliniti', it may either precede or follow the 
verl), but if the time is indetinite it should always precede. Verbs which 
reijuire Hci [il:ina) for cause or reason likewise have the same combination 
to exi>ress time: 

To arrive. l>nmntiug. Aug idating^ the time of 

arrival. Ex.: Ano ang onu* aiuf 
ifUnoting nii/of ( What time [hour] 
did he [she] come? ). A)ig nftinUing 
iiiiji'i ang laiig}ud\ (He [she] came 
at noon). Ann ang arao rta iifard- 
ting ifi/nf (What day will they 
comeV). Ang ikalimang arao nang 
hunan (The fifth [day] of the 
month ). 

TtM-mbark or travel (also to mount). Sninakag. Ang sakayan^ what em- 
barked on or mounted. A)tg isina- 
kaif, the reason or time ( past tense) 
of embarkinji, mounting, et<». Ex.: 
Aug taong i.sinakag ko sa FUlfnnai* 
(The >i'ar [in which] 1 enibarkeil 
for the Philippines). 

Tti cat. Kmnain. Atnj ikiu'tin, the reason or 

time of eating ( jjast tense) . Ex, : 
J>i (kinakain ang hwTijang hila<> 
kailan man (green fruit should 
nevrr bu eaten). 

To die. Maniatttg. Ang oraf< na ikinainatag 

niga, the hour at which he died. 

XXI. / is also used with vcrl^s of adjusting, conforming, copying into, 
traiisiVrring, trunslatin'j, transplanting, etc., to indicate what has been 
thus tran.-fcrred, translated, etc. 

To (Mmfniin; to make suitalile; to Maghagay. Ang ihinagay, what was 
L^ct ready. or has been made suitable. Ex.: 

Jlr'igng i(,'i ihnni (Make [do] this 
like that I. Maghagay ka nang 
iiiainj/i fmt<i inagsasayao (Ciet the 
children ready for the party). 
Mnhag-iy, to be proper or suitable; 
also to be pi'oportioned. Ex. (1) 
Saliahnginj Ixtga tta ixing dalaga 
ang h(ui<'ikail na na ntatnjd 
}ii,i.«nTg an / (Is it proj)er, then, for 
a young woman to go alone about 
the streets'.') Mahahagaya)i ininij 
III I'd }t fiiig laki nang kat^alanan (The 
punishment Avill be suitable for 
the gravitx of the offense). [The 
])unishnient will lit the crime.] 
(2) I>di nahahagay siya i<a kanilang 
k'lffnisnn { He [she] is not prorH>r- 
tioned to his [her] height). The 
act of making suitable, ang pay- 
kahagay. Ex.: Ann ang pagkabii- 
gag nlln dttonj^ (Wliat has tlus tO 
do with that?) As a nouUyhagoy 
means "thing, matter, subject, 
si/.e, proportion, appearance." 
K\. : A ni'i liaga ang h'lgay f ( What, 
then, is the matter?) Ay^vAn ako 



To compare. 

To €H:jualize. 

To (1) transfer; (2) translate; (3) 
transplant; (4) copy out, and (5) 
to change from one vessel to an- 
other; to empty. 

(I don't know.) A)w ang hiUjay 
liil/i't, Anterirano kiuHf ('(istilaf 
( What does Ik* look like, an Amer- 
ican or a Spaniard?) Americano 
p6 (an American, sir. ) B'ujoy »(i^ 
"a.s for, " " as to. ' ' Kx. : B'h/ay sa 
akin ( as for me ) . Baijay mi kan iyd 
(as for him [her]). J^ayay tfu 
ihuny lnhjay (as to other matters), 
etc. Haijayhaijaii, different things 
( in class ; sj>ecies, etc. ) . Maykabd- 
yaybdyay, to differ much. Ex.: 
Nnykakahdya yhdga y xHn S'l pagda- 
ramit (They differ much in their 
manner of dress) 

Maghaliinhand. A tig ipinaghaUni- 
hai((), what was or has l)een com- 
pared. JJu)fiali)nhaii(), to imitate 
another. Ang fudimhaaaan^ the 
person indtated. Kahafimhauri, 
like, alike (ohject). Kahaiiin- 
haaaan, resemblance. 

Magpind. Ang ipinaid, what was or 
has been equalize* 1. 

Mngsdlin. Ang isinalin^ what has 
l)een ur was transferred, trans- 
lated, etc. {2) laalin mo Ho sa 
ii'ikang Tagdlog (translate this into 
Tat^'alug). [ri) Imiliti nio ang la- 
nning nitong haMo (empty out the 
contents of this basket). 


I. An (han after acute final vowel), sometimes nan, is suflixed with all 
tenses of the verb. The particle /^i, either alone or in cond)ination with 
V^y {P^^^^o)i etc., is retaine<l in the j)ast and present tenses. Kor the con- 
jugation of roots with an and hon t^ee the tal>les at end of book. 

II. yln usually represents place, or expresses the case called /^>ca///r in 
many European languages, replacing an adverb of place or the i)rej)osi- 
tion which would be employed with another form of conjugation. Thus, 
if a sentence with a verb other than those which admit a per.^on or place 
as the direct object, or tho.«e requiring aii fur euphonic reasons, includes an 
in<nrect complement of place relating to the action, the use of on with the 
verb expresses the relation of case exi)ressed in English by a prej)osition. 

To gather; to pluck (as flowers); to J*ainittU. Ex.: Ann fDig pinijntda mo 

diydn.'' ( What are you gather- 
ing there?) AktVy pnngmipitds 
nang ImUiklak (T am gathering 
some fl(>wers). Ang halanntuo' y 
ang Ingar (^\k) na pinipita.^an ni 
Anthrnsia imng inaiTijd hnlaklak 
( Ainbro.^ia is gathering the (lowers 
in theganleni; lit., "tlie garden 
is the place where ari' being gath- 
ered by .\ml>ro.«ia tlii' llowcrs. )" 
Maniatay. Aug kaindt'iynn, the place 
of fieath. distin«jnished by the 
linal accent from Lamotdynn, death 
(abstract). Ex.: Jhnnj hahoy mi 
ifn muj kinaut'ilaifdn ni ama (father 

))reak off. 

To die. 

(HlmI in tliis house): lit., 'Miiis 
house \va.H tliedving ])laceof (rnv) 

III. If a verl>al action a<hnit8 of a j>hio(' l^r it< direct object, the latter is 
l^etieraliy expressed hy an. 

To (1) open; (2) uncover. MfujhiiL/is. Aug hvkasl n^\vhaio]yeued 

or uncovered. Aihj ijHighukfhy 
the means by whicli opened or 
uncovered. xituj hukoxan, the 
j)lace opened or uncovered; also 
the person or object uncovered. 
Contracted many tiine.s to fmks'ht, 
esj)ecially forthe imperative. Ex.: 
lUdson )iio a)t</ pinto (o|>en the 

To sprinkle from the mouth (as Mm/hni/a. .!/<<; //////A<77J, the j)lace of 
Chinamen do clothes): also to such sprinkling, or the ol)ject so 
bul)bk' up (as water frnm a foun- irealcd. Kx.: HhnU bny/nni mo 
tain or spring I. nw; tiKii7>/n ihnnif (don't sprinkle 

the clotlies from the inouth). 
There is also an idiom: Bnghan mo 
ixtlin dinnf b(nj() tmoKj dam it (treat 
us on account of your new clothes); 
'*uet down your new strijx^s." 

To 1111; to make u{>. M'i(/f>n/io. AtKj imn/nt, the place of 

lining, or making up. Ex.: ^f(lg- 
jHiitn La naiifj lahiinj dalaird (make 
up twelve [a tiozen] ). Pumin mo 
(iiKj tnam/a tasd (fill the cups). 
I'll /HI linn ko bona otx/ tnaiu/d ra.<of 
(Shall 1 till the glasses?) M\ujpono. 
with L'raxe accent, stress on next 
to last syllable means to begin; t<> 
govern; to head; to lead; to pre- 
side. Maouirut, to go ahead or in 

To line. Mo'/sfii/m. J//r/ .svfy;////;^, the place of 

lining, etc., also the imperative. 
Aii'f i.^aptii, the material. tSap'm, 
shoe or sandal. A'/f,s'a;>//^ a leaf 
(of a book) or sheet (of paper). 
S(ij/nis(ii)iii, many leaves, sheet«, 
or loMs of lining. 

To plant' to sow. M(i</taniiii (2) also to ])ear hate or 

ianc<>r toward another. Ann torn- 
mht, the place or manner of ])lant- 
ing. \]\. : TiiKtinnnn ni Tinndi^a^Kj 
LitiinidiKf hnhi'l nnmj ninkiini {im'i- 
(jiiiiut) ( Thomas ])lanted his liekl 
by machinery). As has been 
noted bef«ire, l>esides a contrac- 
tion, tliej-e is a transposition l>e- 
tween // an(l )n with this definite. 

To cover. Tiiiinikii>. Mnt/takif> (1) to cover 

up; ( J ) to lish from many canoes, 
getting the fish in between. Aug 
t<d,i>''ni, what covered or tlie place. 
'J'dkju'ii iini ling tnpagan (cover the 



IV. An is generally used to iuclicato the i>ers<)n affected by an action 
with verbs \%hich require a j>er8on as the direct nl»ject. 

To menace; to threaten. Ma<iln\}i). Amj jxtrfhaltKin, tlie per- 

son menaced or threatened. 
To frighten })y rujshing out from Jiunuihiga. Maghaluga^ to frigliten 

hiding and shouting. 

To diminish (of itf^elf ). 

To give. 

To trade or sell rice. 

much. Aug hnlaghnt or ang Intla- 
glutriy the i>erson thus frightened. 
Kahahalnglmiig gawa, a marvelous 
work. Kahnlnhalagu itojig gaining 
i(6 (this [is] a most wonderful 

BumniKju. Magha\inHj to diminish 
by out^si<le agency. Ang hnuimyi, 
what diminished. Aug bnuasan, 
the place (corresp. to 7tm). Attg 
])(igff«n(tisnn, |>la<'e (corresp. to 
mag), the ])erson to whom some- 
thing is given thus. MahdWhs^ to 
diminish (inan. action). Aug na- 
')imuns, what taken from. Moka- 
fnuHis, to cause trMliminish. Mag- 
pdhnuas, to order or request to 
diminish. Kx.: lUimiHan mo hjniig 
ifidiTj/d tufKiinia (take something 
out of thosL* jars). Mnghmms hi 
■nang hci/ngn, re'duce the price. 
Jliml'i iiuihitaHDi ko sd llimnig pi^os^ 
I ciin not let it fall Ik'Iow t*o. 
Xdfxnins nn cdhj Itiimjin (the wind 
has diminished now). 

Mdghigag. A iig if'igdi/y the gift. A ng 
Ihinigdi/, what was or has l)een 
given. Ang higgihi, tlie person re- 
ceiving a gilt. Ang hinigi/dn, the 
person to wh(»m sometliing wasor 
has been gi ven. Mdjtdglngdg, gen- 
erous; liberal; indulgent. Mdnii- 
gay, to give much; to lavish. Kx. 
Ano dng ihinigdg iiiof ( What di<i 
you give?) lUgj/dn nio dkn nang 
kddnting itidkdkdi)), ^\\v me a little 
refreshment [to eatj. Jtiggdu mo 
dko ndng i(/og knn indi/rnoii (jzive 
me some eggs if there ure any). 
Si JntDi dug hinlgf/<riig ko (I gave it 
to Juan ). -SV 'J)fnn'is dug hihiggdng 
ko ( 1 will give it to Tom:is). Ang 
ipduiigdg, what lavished. Ex.: 
Ilthidniigdfi nli/t'i itoug hiltnt (he has 
lavishe<l all this). I/iiinnnlnngd}/ 
ii'ild itiing Idlidt (theyari' lavishing 
all this), l/idiniiiiitfdi/ n'nuio iionq 
Jdhdtf (You will lavish all this?) 

Mftghigns. A ngp'igftign.sini^ the seller 
or dealer in rice. li/ong pi/dk 
dug pin'if;hlgdstin nii/d (he made 
that money selling: ( ti*a<ling ) rice). 
Mdki/>igds, t<» ask for a little rice 
(see j)article maki). 



To guard; watch; look out. 

To charge against (as a debtor). 

To dress one's self. 

To <ieceive. 

Magbantay. Also means to make a 
bird siiare from bainlxK). Ma- 
manifiy, to catch birds with a 
**bantay." Ang immaitiay, -^hsX 
caught. Ang binabantay or ang 
^nnapngbabaniay, the person stana- 
ing guard, watching or looking 
out. Ang bnrdayan^ the sentry 
box, post; watcii tower; look out 
p'ace. Also Ang pagltantnyan. 
Aug hintaydn ( 1 ), thing or person 
guarded or watched; also impera- 
tive without art. Ex.: Buntaynn 
mo itong Ipohay il6 (watch this 
house). BhianUiyAn ko ang cttar- 
iel (I was on guard at the bar- 
racks). Binnbantay6n niyd ang 
cnarid (he is on guard at the bar- 
racks). (2) arms or scales or 
correctness of the balance. (3) 
A banilxK) bed for sick persons 
under which a fire may be made. 
Magbantayan^ to make such a )>ed. 
Ang bantayaninf the material; ang 
}Hwtnya7iany theplaceof sucha be<i. 

Magbintang. (2) To bear false tes- 
timony against another. AngjHtg- 
bintawjnn (1 ), the person charged; 
(2) the person sworn against 
falsely. Ang ipagbintangy what so 
sworn, i. e., the testimony. Kx.: 
( 1 ) Phtagbintaiigan akd nang mm- 
ponong pUtos (I was charged up 
with ten pesos). (2) l^nagb'm- 
tniTgan niya ak6 (he bore false tes- 
timony against me). Ang pagbi- 
bhdangf the act of swearing falsely. 
mapagbintang, the person who ha- 
bitually swears falsely; perjurer. 

Duvinmit. Daramtin, clothes (pres. 
tense). Ang damtdn^ the person 
dressed or clothed. Magdarnitj to 
dress or clothe another. Ang pag- 
daramity the act of dressing (pres. 
tense). MaaparamU, to cause or 
order to be clothed. Ex.: Pti^niW' 
titn mo ang vsilang damit (clothe 
those who are without clothes). 
Bakil hindt mo pinadaramtan ang 
anak mof (Why don't you clothe 
your chi Id? ) Sapagka* t unild akong 
maibili nang damit { because I have 
nothing to Imy clothes with). 

Magdayh, Ang pagdayaariy the per- 
son deceived. Ang pagdaraydj the 
act of deceiving. Magparayd, to 
j)ermit deception. Magparayd ka, 
I)ermit the deception. Paraydj to 
i'onsent or allow one's self to 1)6 
decei ved. MaQdarayd,^ fraudulent ; 
cheating (adj.). 



To kiss. 

To l)C sorry 

To Hteal. 

To listen to. 

To teach. 

To be charitable. 

Humaiik. Aug haghhi, the j)orson 
ki88ed. M(tghaUk\ to kiss each 
other ((hial). Aug mawja piuag- 
A<77^77n (the two wlio have ki^^ed 
each other. ) J^ahalik, to request to 
ki?H. Ex.: rahalik p6 kayd sa 
knitidij (permit me to kisH your 
hamj). (Sp. Q. B. S. M.) 

Mnhbu'tyaiig (from snyangj idea of 
sorrow ). .1 ngkiiKthinayinH/an, the 
person for wliom sorry, or for what 
reason sorrow is felt. l^x. : Kina- 
hlhlimuaiTi/du ko niga (I feel sorrv 
for liim — lit., he is the person 1 
am sorry for.) M<ii>hiuiijfntig, to 
he very sorry. Aug jxtulthia- 
yaiujuti, the i>erson for whom felt, or 
the cause of much sorrow. Mogpa- 
h'nu'iyarig, to regret a loss of any 

MagtKtkao. ^[ng phiagnakao, what 
Avas or has l)een stolen, jing 
inngiiow'tkdn, the thief. Ai)g pag- 
nahnni)}, the person robbed. Ex. : 
AV//0 aitg jn(igrniri<'ik(io/ ( Who is 
the thief?) S'nu) ung pinugnakniion 
muf { Who did you steal from?) 

Pakinig. Aug jKtkingt'in, the person 
listening;. Ex.: J'(tkh(gnn v'myo 
(uig a rat (listen [ye] to what is 

Cini'iraL Ang nrdlaOj the person 
tau<rht. Ang ianil, what taught — 
i. e., the lesson, .ing iniarnl, what 
was or has been taught. Aug 
vitgmnantl, the teacher. .1 ngpiiga- 
raly the act of teaching. Magaraf, 
tostudy; to learn. Augpngdralan^ 
the Source of learning — i. e., the 
teacher nr the book, etc. Ang 
mngaral, what learned. Aug pa- 
gtn'iral, the act of studying. (Note 
that the "ait of teacldng" is ex- 
pressed without reduj»hcation of 
the initial s\ lable of the r«)ot.) 
^1/y// is said to be from Sansk. 
drhnni, eustom; habit; rule; V>y 
Kern, t>ut Pardo de Tavera thinks 
it d(»ubtful. AJ'w is Malay, "to 
teach or to learn" from Javanese, 
yl. «<'//, custom; habit; ismorelikely 
to be from Sansk. <h-liarn. For 
further mnditications of anil with 
particles, see under man. 

Mannn^ also compassionate; charit- 
able (adj. 1. Mdnntihi: inojuig- 
katinn^ a humane or charitalile per- 
son. Ang ainnin, the reci|»ient of 
comjiassion or charity. Ang />ng- 
ktnnn), the act of charity or com- 
passion. Kaauacm, (abst. ) charity, 

6855—05 10 


compassion. Ex.: Kaauanmosiyd 
(have charity [or com passion] /or 
him). ^ri^Hnoauaari, what given 
in charity or extended in compas- 
sion. Ang Unnauudt the cause of 
giving in charity or extending 
compassion. Makaaud., to move to 
compassion. MaffmcU:aniui, to he 
able to move to compassion. (Aud, 
is generally reduplicated. Ex.: 
NagmamnkaaudauA, akd itongdukhd 
(tliis poor [person] moves me to 
compassion). A rig ipinagmama- 
kcMudy the cause of being able to 
move to compassion. Paand, to 
ask for charitv; to plead or l)eg for 
mercy, etc. Ex. : A'njHiaud «iy<i m 
Akin (he begged me for mercy). 
To hear (casually). Marhujig. l>umingig^ to hear pur- 

posely. Ang niir'ingig, what heard 
casually. Ang dingin, what heard 
purposely, as conversation directed 
to person. Ang dingdn, the per- 
son listened to. An indicates per- 
son, in the thing, with this verb 
and the following one, also others 
which will be seen in other places. 
Makar'nTgig^ to be able to hear. 
MagkarirTgig, to be deceiveil by the 
hearing. Magpariiujigy to force 
another to listen. Ex.: WdUiakong 
dhJgifj (1 heard nothing); lit, **I 
(was) without hearing.** NaritTgig 
mo ang shiabi kof (Did you hear 
what I told you? ) Hindi ko nariiupg 
(Idid not hear); " I was not able to 
hear." Xakadiringig kabagaf (Did 
you hear?) Lit: **Are you hear- 
mg?" Nagkaringdn akd (my hear- 
ing deceived me). 

(1) To untie; to loosen; (fig.) to set Kumalag. Ang kalgiyi, what untied 
free; (2) to absolve. or looseneii. Ang X'a/^h), person 

set at liberty or absolved. Arkg 
kalagparTgaOj the jailor's fees in 
former times, when set free. 

V. In actions by which the subject tries to draw something to himself, 
an stands for the i>erpon from whom that something is drawn. 

To ask for; to request. JhunhTgt. MakaJnngU to obtain by 

re<iuesting. Maklhingij to thank 
for. Ang hitTginy what asked 
for. Anghinhlgt, what was or has 
been asked for. Ang hirTgdny the 
person from whom asketi. Ex.: 
Akd'y hmnitigt nang mangd bunga 
\i/ nakahingi akd (I asked for some 
fruit and got it for the asking). 
Mapnghiugi, an importunate per- 
son. See also tnngtnll, to sell; 
kumuha^ to take; dumainOf to en- 
treat; humdnapf to look for; and 



tumangap, to accept or receive 
which, among others, use these 
same forms. 

VI. Roots which express the ideas of coming or going, when verbal- 
ized, take an for the person affected by tlie action, and i or ika {ihhia) for 
the reason or time of such action. Ex. : 

To <'ome here. Pnmarito. ParxtOy come here. Avg 

ifniiaritOj the reason or time of 
coming here (past tense). Also 
(tng ikinaparifo. Atifj pimirltohai), 
the person (or the place) who was 
the object of the action. Kx.: 
Ann (iittj ik'iiiaparito mo k(i ]\i- 
si(/f ( Why did you come here to 
Pasig?) Alhuj tx'tluuf nng phuiri- 
tohan Dio/ (Which house did you 
come to? ) ( Pnmarito has been dis- 
cussed previously. Pamitroon fol- 
lows the same rule ^n pnmarito and 
has also been explained.) 

VI. An is rare as an ending to the direct ol)jt-ct of a verb. Some verbs, 
however, which would naturally take hi for the direct object substitute an 
therefor on account of euphony, as the words are contracted. 

To salt; (2) to make salt. 

To pay for. 

To noXk^'j to experience; to perceive. 

To pierce. 

To grasp; to hold. 

Magan'in. Aug asm'in, what salted; 
inat<nan, what was or has been 
salted. Aug pal<i<(}<i)(<iii, the .«alt 
pan; also the saltrellar. A tig 
v'ignaf<iii, the person who eats salt 
on rice or food. Makia^hi^ to ask 
for a little salt. 

Maghagaft. Aug hngaran, what 
I)aid for; the ol>ligation. This 
verb also has the idea of covering 
up, and originally meant "to buy 
or sell slaves." Kx.: Igong hagii- 
r<tn <ing lUang mo (your obligation 
is to j)ay your debt [pay what you 
owe] ). 

Magmnsid. Aug pagmaadan: avg 
nutudnn (def. ); ang mimai<i<l (in- 
def. ) what noted, etc. Magpa- 
mnnid, to order to note. Aug 
jKipagiiiasdan, the ])erson ordered 
to nnte. Aug /fapagmasdin, what 
ordered to be noted. }f(i/uigniniiid, 
one who notes, perceives or ex- 
perieiK'es a great deal. 

Tiiin(d((ft. Aug Inhlhi, what pierci'd. 
Tnnndahi^ also ''to be<*omedul]" 
(as a knife). Mdgtolali, (1) to 
pent't rate deeply; ("2) to dye with 
the t(d<ift ro(>t. -1".'/ pagtahdtau, 
what pierced deeply. Angtnhthin, 
what dyed. Aug daUtb, the instru- 

MfigtntH/nti. Aug taiTijnn or nng tawj- 
(iiinii. what grasped or held. Ang 

used to ^rasp or hold with. Syn.: 
Maffltntink, wliirh means generally 
to hold or grasp by two. Kx.: 
M<i}j hanak alo lujnyoii (1 am busy 
now [or to-day] ). 

(1) To try; (21 to sample; (3) to Tiunikbn. Aruj tihiuw^ what sain- 
understimd a j)erson well. pled. (Admits in combined with 

pa.) Ex.: PiUlkmin v\o iTtja akn 
DitoiK] (link (allow me to trv this 
wine). Tiknt(t7i mo (taste it; sam- 
ple it). 

To look at; to vi<^w. Tvni'nTlnu, (2) Ma(/tit7<jiu, to look at 

much or by many. M<igthT(jhuiUy 
to look at each other. ifaf/iiiTfjin- 
tiiTj/inini, to look at each otlier 
elosely . A nfj tinhi(jhi^ what was or 
has been looked at. A ugtinid/Tj/in, 
what is being lo<»ked at. A rnj fiinj- 
unii, what looked at; alone impera- 
tive. A injjiitijihujmhi, what looked 
at much or l)y many. Aug ifiiTgiu, 
the cause or with what, i. e., the 
eye. .1 ng ipog-{ i])inng)-tu7girt, the 
cause of much looking or by many; 
also the eyes of many, etc. 

To learn. Magt'iral. Aug pagarahtn^ what \^ 

learned. Aug pagorahin, the 
source of learning, i, e., the teacher 
or l>ook, etc. 

\MI. Some roots used witli in with lun, mag, etc., take <i)i when conju- 
gated with Dingp'i. 

To treat well; to pros])er. Mag/Kigafing. Ex.: <inVnTl)iin niosign, 

(treat him [her] well). 

\'1I1. An sometimes replaces the ])repositi<»n ya when the latter means 
"to," as an imj)licsthat the sul»ject ])arts with souicthing, in the followiuij 
exampU's. Ac<|uisition with thesameconstruciion ( "for" ) isexpressed bv /. 
l']x. : IViiiiggan iii/''inko)iltonghigas { they gave me this rice) . A l.*:o ex pressed: 
akn g (lug hinlggnn nlh'i uidmg higas. Jt will be clearly seen that the deti- 
nite is a verbal noun. Sino haga <mg pHuagftilluhi n'tga nang igfmg rahiitfo 
(to whoui hashesold [did hescll] your liorsc?) J^inaghilltan niga ang hiu'i- 
gaiig kaihigan (bis purchaser was a frien<l of his). Also expressed: ^ing 
kfiihig<in inga ang /)i/iaghi/Ji('fn )iigt'i. 

W. An with certain noun orverbal roots indi<'ates ])lace. The first syl- 
lable of the root is reduplicated fi>r roots aduiittiui; contraction or begin- 
uinL' with /. 

r»u\o-Ieal ( piper lu'tel I. Jtmn. limoltnn, buyo-leaf garden. 

J^»aiiibot> (])anil»usa I. Ka'Ktgan. Koiiagduai/y bamboo 

grove or thicket. Mag kanaganf 
( I lave [you, or is there] any bam- 
boo? 1 A''o//r;?/'f//a;/, tothrowliam- 
boo weaj>ons at anotlier. Attg 
k'lHagani/i, the object or person. 
MaiTt/nnagdH, to cut bambo<^. Aug 
]>ni7gauagan, the instrument, i. e., 
the bolo or hatchet, etc. 

Cocoaiuit palm. ying. X'nigan, cocoanut grove. 

K<tniijgaii, ]>lace of many cocoanut 
palms. KaiHUnmg niog^ a single 
tree. Kahoong niog, a cocoanut. 



Pasture; grazing place. 

Banana. (MuFa par. and others, 
l)oth the tree and fruit. ) 

2Sujj»r cane. 

Stone; rock. 


Xumioij, to throw a cocoanut at 
another. Aug niogin, tlie person 
or object thrown at. Ang iniog, 
the nut thrown. Magviogai), to 
throw cocoanuts at each other. 
Tliere are many names for cocoa- 
nut, according to its age and con- 

SabsdlKUi. Ang sabsahiny the grass 
eaten (no tense idea), or what 
eaten as animals eat (by the 
mouth). SuitKiIfsahj to graze, eat 
(a> animals). Magf<ab,Htiby to eat 
much. Magsimbsfib, to graze in 
herds, flocks, etc. Pusabsab, to 
allow to graze. Ex.: PaHibmb'm 
mo Uong rdbogo; rung i<absabin 
digan :<n ImrafHin (Let this horse 
graze; there is grass there in the 
yard). Sungmambna}) ang rabogo, 
p6 (The horse is grazing, sir). 
Pnnuig is a large j>asture. Sabm- 
b(ui is more a grazing or eating 
place for animals. 

Sagiiig. SagiiTgnn, banana grove. 
Kns<igirTg<niy large banana grove 
or pUice where there are many 
bananas. Magmging^ to eat l)a- 

Tubo. Tabohav, cane field. Tubo- 
Immtn, sugar-cane land. Mngtubuy 
to plant sugar cane. There is no 
Tagalog name for sugar, osiUn/, 
from Sp. nzncar, being used. The 
^hilay uses xhaknr and gula^ the 
latter from Sansk. guda. 

Bain. Bdtohdn, <\uiirry. Kabaiolmn., 
l^Iare of stones; rocky ground. 
MubaOntg bukid, a stony field. 
Halo also means rice which does 
not o|XMi when toa^^ted; and 
kidney. Magbato, (I) to cut 
stone; (2) to lay stone; (8) to 
build out oi stone. Kx.: (1^) 
Nagbtibnto .s/ ./(fan nung knnigdng 
balidii (Juan in building his hou.^e 
out <tl stone ). Miiginbatu, to turn 
into stone. Kx.: Afig <isdiia vi 
Lnth og ii'iginbdt'thg ( (Lot's 
wife bccanjc a pillar [rock] of 

Tub'ig. Tnbigan, irrigatiMl Ian<l. 
KfitK^'igan, place where water may 
be bad. Maglnbig^ (1) to put 
watt^r into auytbirig; (2) to water 
an animal, etc. Mdiu'dtig^ to go for 
water in a canoe or (tn an animal. 
(To go fnr water with a j>itcln'r is 
iiniigib \. A iig j'liiiiiblgan^ the J>la('e. 
J'tfftnbig, to make water. Makiln- 
big, to ask for water. .SV Juan ag 






Stern; last part. 

Bow; first part 

To make port (as a vessel). 

To l)athe; to take a bath. 

iiakikatubig m 6 kin (Juan asked 
me to help him j?et water). 
Patuhigin mo ak6 (Give me some 
water). Tubig na hihilamonn, 
wash water. 

Simbahan. *9iimimW, to worship. 

SaboiTgan. Samabong^ to fight (one 
gamecock against another ). Mag- 
sabongj to fight against each other; 
also to play one against the other. 
Aug ftittabongin, the game (cock- 
fighting). Ang i'(ipag)-iiabong, 
the gamecock (s). Palasabong, 
cockfighter bv occupation. 

Uln. UltMriy head of the bed; also 
a large-headed person. Ufun6n, 
the head place (pillow). Unan is 
the word for pillow itself. Ex.: 
Ihnulo ka rim (Put your head 
here). Uluhin mo yan (Put your 
head here towanl me). Uiuhdn 
mo ito (Put your head on this). 

Pad (from Sansk. 2>«rfa, foot). The 
Knglish is also from the same 
8ansk. word. The English paw 
does not seem to be from Sansk., 
but to be of Teutonic origin, but 
remotely may be the same. Paa- 
Muy the foot of a bed; place of the 
feet. Mag}WL&, to set the foot 
down; to step in or on. 

Ang hull. Ifumuli, (!) to steer; (2) 
to remain behind purposely. Ma- 
huUf to be left l>ehind. Ang hu- 
lihdny the last or hinder part Ka- 
hiUihdn, tardiness. Ang kahuHhu- 
lihAny the very last. numuH is to 
catch, etc. (note the difference in 

Un6, Umiindy to lead. Houag kang 
munA, do not go ahead. Ang nna- 
hdiiy the fore part or place. Kau- 
nafidn^ priority. Ujiaumif firstly. 
Ang kaundunaJidnf the very first 
Sa nnd, anciently. Sa und pang mi 
wild, very anciently. Sa unang 
draoy in the days of old. Mang- 
um\, to precede; to guide (in per- 
son ) ; to lead, as a guide. 

Dumdong. Ang idmng, the vessel 
put into port. Ang doongan^ the 
place. JAilauigan is another name 
for port. Mogkapaddong^ to make 
port suddenly. Maddong^ to be in 

Paligd. Ang paliguan, the bathing 
place. Ang ligoin; ang paligoin^ 
the water for bathing. Magligd; 
magpaligdf to bathe another. 
(See the phrases on p. 24 for use 
of these words). Pambo is a rare 



To make a niiulhole under the house. 
To wound. 

To scraU'h orpcrapo thejjround with 
the hands, claws, t'eet, etc. 

To enter a room. 

To he down; (2) to pro to he<l. 

X. Verbs in whicli tho idea of ex 
as an ending for the direct object, w 

To place. 

Mnijjm.^iiH. "The place,'* ang hi- 
}tHsi\J'mn. J*asali(ni, "mudhoie.'* 

Siunihftit. . 1 iif) ifUffatin, the wounded 
I)ersori or animal, etc. Ang ihasn- 
ffuJ, the cause. Aug sugatnn, the 
])lace or what part wounded. Ex. : 
Sinui<ng(ttan iiigt't so kamnij (he is 
wounded in the arm [hand]). 
There is no separate word for (inn 
andA<///'/inTagaln^. liaraso, from 
Sp. hnizo, is sometimes used. /Vf/f, 
foot, is also a foreign w<»rd. Kus- 
sian ha.s exactly the same peculiar- 
ity, rnka meaning both hand and 
arm, and naga both font and leg. 
Miujm'igut^ to wound muclj ; )niikasa- 
gnt, to cause to be woun«le<l. Sugtit 
(note the accent) is another root, 
with the i<lea of trailing at retail. 
Stumignt, to buy at retail, or go to a 
retail market. }f(ig>tiig(it, to sell at 
retail. Ang mgotnn, the place, i. 
e., the market. Tldiigi, aS]>anish- 
Aztec word, is the usual name for 
a market. 

Kiiniotk'ot. Magkothtt, to make a 
diU'h or trench. A))g kothodn, the 
earth .scratched up, or (2) thrown 
out of a <litch. Kx.: (2) k'inotkot 
iinngiiKiiT'ga Aintthilo <iug ln/m nnng 
knindff { thesoldiers threw the earth 
out with their hands). Aug ikffl- 
k'tt, the means, i. e., the hands, 
<'laws, etc. Kx.: Ang bming ang 
ikinntkot ndng inniTga smnhtlo nntig 
Inpn ( with their hancls the soldiers 
threw out the earth [or <lug the 
trench] ). Ang kotkolun, the place. 
K\.: Ifi'mng kini>tk<ttnn nang )nni7!gn 
i<ntn1nhi{ this wiis wherethesoldiera 
dug the trench). Pni7tfft(k(f(, the 
instrument used for digging, as a 
s]tad^", sh<>vel, etc. 

Sntnlfi'l, from .s///"'/, a room. Ang 
s'nlh'tn (c), the room entered (no 
t^Mise idea). Ang s'laidli'in, the 
room. MngaU'nh to put into a room 
or to enter nuich. }fnsi/i<f, to be 
in a room. Aug jxigxisid/nn, the 
room entered mucli. Syn., Unnoh, 
from /'>nh, within; inside. 

Ifnmign. Ang hihignn (e ), the place; 
the bed. }f(tliigi), t< ) be lying <u)wn, 
or in bed. lv\.: >V//o kagt't gnong 
naliiliif/n/ (who is that Iving down 

pulsion i^ iidierent do not admit of in 
Inch is replace(l by ft)t, Itdii, etc. 

Mnqlngng {/ root). Ang bihiggan, 
♦ I.,.' .'-) I .. . ■/.■.'.. \".u..* 

To sn\v {n^ rice, corn, etc. J 

T«» use or make H»ap. 

To tlirow awav. 

To erect; to e^et np. 

To j»ay a salary or wa^es. 

soiaiers are leaving ine lown;. 

Stnuahofj. A)i<f iinhoff^ what sown, 
i. e., the grain. Any xafnnjnn^ the 
place, the lield, rice paddy. Kx. 
as verbs: Js''iho(j mo it 6 (s^ow thi.«). 
lanhotj mo ito >a ^'forifj bukld (.*kjw 
this in your tield). SdhiKjan mo 
nito (uuj iffonfj huLid, or antj iffntn/ 
hi'iki'l, sdhiKjdu mo nUu, sanietran>- 
lation as with /, except in the first 
the emphasis; in on the act, and on 
the i)lace in the second. Mttym- 
l>o<j, to sow mnch. Anff ipaysa- 
l»>ff, what sown thns. (See table* 
for conjn<:ation of Hi'iitog. ) 

M(ttj}<nhoii , f n un Sf >. jahon, soap. Ex . : 
Ai>6 (Dig .siiKisdho)} mof (what are' 
you washing with soap?). S'llumdit 
mo (iioj dainit (use soap with thes- 
cl«)thcs). Wald akong sahon (L 
have no soap). MUi la wuuj hi- 
Ik'hi (buy some soa]>). It will be 
sei'M that assimilated foreign words* 
follow the sanie rules as native* 
f)nes in all respects. 

MfKjtfipoN. An(j It'i/ton, what thrown 
away. Kx.: //<^//)o;< ?//o ?//> (throw 
this away). Ifnpoi) mo it 6 sa tuhifj; 
tnponon mo au<j tuttitf nit{); or awj 
ti'ihiij (iitfj topojifui mo info (throw 
this into the water [in order to get 
rid of it]). 

Md(ffof/n. Anfj ii pfi(f)t(n/6, what s>et 
up thus. Aiif} jiwitoiiodUy the plaiv. 
lv\.: [i] Ilotjo nil) itoncf im'nu/d ha- 
//f//(sct these posts [pillars] up- 
ri<:hth ItoiHj (oohdiKj itoy siyn 
hnn) /KOftdtdi/ooH uatig akiny bdhay 
(I am iToing to put up my house in 
this yard ), T^imayo, to stand erect 
(animate being). Kx.: Any .vid- 
ilnlo fiinyiHdlifyo so harap nnny 
kdfii'/diiy jmno (the soldier is 
standi n;: [stands] erect in front of 
[before] hisc(»mmander) . MatayA, 
to be erect (inanimate object). 
Any iiidi7i/i'i Ii'tliyi )idny dk nyhdhay 
ndfaf((i/n (the posts (d HIV house 
stand [are] u{)right). Matovid 
also means nj>right, l)ut generally 
in a moral sense. 

Viini[fd. Any lnjKi, the wage or pay. 
Any itinilidii, person paid or what 
paid for, as a rente<^l house, etc. 


Aug pagupahan, the place. Ex.: 
M(tijkauo aug paginipahan s<i Ma- 
ffiiilnf (how much is being paid 
in Manila?). 

XI. With some nouns denoting ])arts of the body an expresseH personal 
adjectives with an idea of augmentation. 

Shoulder. Baltknt. IkiUkatan, broad-shoul- 

dered. Ex., verbalized: Balikafm 
mo itoiig kanngmi (carry this bam- 
boo on your shoulder), hftba/ikat 
mo (tnng pang6 (spread this hand- 
kercliief over your shoulders). 
Balikntfin nfo nii/i'i (catch him by 
the shoulders). 

Mouth. Bihig. Bihigan, large-mouthed, also 

gn-at or reckless talker. Ex.: Bi- 
naghlhignii nhja ako (he talked a lot 
about me). 

Nose. /long. Jlongan, large-no.«ed. 

For places expressed with pag — nn and kn — on, see wndtT pag and ka. 


XII. With a« the direct object takes the accusative and the agent the 
^nitive. Ex. : Hinahagknn nang aiiak (agt. ) ang kanigang ind (dir. object) 
(the child is kissing his [her] mother). Lit., *' Is being kissed by the child 
the his [her] mother." Ttikitran mo igang kdhog (prop up that tree). Lit., 
** I>et be proppe<l up by you that tree." 

XIII. If an indirect object expressing i>lace is included in a sentence, 
however, it takes the accusative case, and the direct object the genitive or 
other oblique case, the agent remaining in the genitive, as explained in the 
preceding paragraph. Ex.: Tuintamm'ui ni aind iKiiig sdrisnring knhog arig 
halamanan (Father is planting different kin<ls of trees in the orchanl [j;ar- 
den]) — lit., "The garden (ace.) is being planted with different kinds 
(ahl. ) of trees (gen. ) by father (ins.)." J*in<ighan(f/jaii »<o frngn tm rtthngo 
itOTtg daring itof (I)i<l vou look for the horse on this road?) — lit., " Was- 
looking-place your perhaps (gen.) for horse (<lat. ) this road? (nom. as 
trans., game form as ace. )." 

XIV. If an is used modifying a place or person in which t<t, for, from, 
hy^ on, in, etc., precedes the place or person when translated into English, 
the place or persr)n shouM be ex)«ressed. In these eases the agent, as usual, 
takes the genitive an<l tlie direct object tlie aciM>ative. The indirect object 
may either precede or f(»llow the verb, except interrogative pronouns or 
adverbs of place, which always i)re<ede. The person or i»lace is empha- 
sized by being placed before the verb in the sentence. Ex.: Jyinuhtt niga 
<ing dking sulat (He wrote my letter iar me) — lit., ''Was written by him 
(her) the my letter." Sinnsnhittjn ko Kong paprl (I am writing on this 
paper) — lit., "Is-the-writing-place my this ])aj)er. " I'of/susnldldu ko Hong 
papelito (I will write on this paper). Same construction as foregoinyr, 
^ith future tense; Sino nng jnnnglnllinn mo ni(<»ng rolmgo* (To whom 
have you sol<l this horse?) — lit., "Who (was) the i>urehaser your of this 
horse?" Ang anak naitg kapiiVx'thag ko (To the son ot" my neighbor) " The 
eon of the neighbor my." 


I. f/m is called the first verbalizing particle by the Spanish writers on 

Tagalog, and is generally used to verbalize roots wIhmi the action is j)rimary 

or expressed as the act of the subject without special reference to the object. 

Ifin also has the idea of action toward another j»erson. Some ro(»ts <liffer 

radically in their meaning with mn and mag, or rather in opposite ways 
from a neutral point. With other roots )nfi(/ expresses intensity of what is 
exi»ressed {)ritnarily with ym. Ijh, which is found in the so-called indefi- 
nite, chancres to tiiHjm in the i)ast and present tenses, and drops out in the 
future tense. There are also plu])erfect and future perfect tenses, but they 
are iK>t generally used. For the conjugation of a root witli uni see the 
tables. There are some irregularities with some roots which are noted in 
the ))roper ])lace. In the mechanical structures of the language um is jtre- 
fixed to roots beginning with a vowel and infixed between the lirst letter 
and the following v<»wel of a consonant root. 

II. The ])hilologist Keane gaveU. \V. Parker, author of the (irammar 
of the ^htlagasy Languages (London, iss:>), the following information as to 
the use and origin of infixes, which ap|»lies to Tagalog as well: 

"The inli.x syllable om {um, am, oni) is a feature which Malagasy has in 
common with Khmer (Cambojan), Javanese, ^bday, Tagala (sic) (^Philip- 
pine Archipelago), ami no <loubt other members of tlie Malayo-Polynesian 

"Khnu'r: >S'A/y/, dead; amnla)), to kill. Javanese: Ifuruh, flame; Jtnjini- 
ruf), to inflame. Malay: J*i/ih, to choose; jxunilihan, choice. Tagala: 
Basil ^ to read (idea of readiuir); humaxt, to make use of reading (to read). 

"Originally a prefix, as it still is in Samoan (Kx.: ^folo, unripe; momoto, 
to die young I, this j)arti<;le seems to have w<»rked its way into the bodv(»f 
the word by a j>r« "(M'ss ot metathesis analogous to the transposition connnon 
to most languages (compare Anglo-Snxnii thrit/thi witli third)." 

III. As has been stated, vni is generally used to exj>ress the simple un- 
ie(!iprocat«Ml act of the agent, either toward himself or others, provided the 
action is not modified l»y eoticiitions of time (not tense), n»anner, instru- 
ment, nund)er ( ]>lurality ), or otherwise carried away from its simplest 
sense. Manv roots admit both mn and luaf/ with little difference in mean- 
ing, and hence it is (tften diflicult to decide upon a choice l>etween them, 
but it is generally sale to use inn. Again, many root* differ widely with 
the \\\i> particli's. ('/// refers more to sul)ject and his action, nuifj to the 
object and the acti(ni of tlie verb uj)on it. 

Cl,A.s?lK..S OF "CM" ROOTS. 

F<tr convenience of reference the roots conjugated V)y nni have been ar- 
rage<l into numlu-red |»aragraphs, those following the regular conjugation 
beirjggivrn in Par, I-X\'II, and those having irregularities coming under 
Par. X\*I1I-X\'I. Diminutives are treated in Par. XXJI. 

I. Ko<its which denote (jualities cai>able r>f being slow ly assimilated by 
the agent form the first class. There are some a<l verbs which are verbal- 
ized by nrn in •■ertain cases. 

To grow dark. Diimilun. Magd'iUm, to grow very 

dark. Amj ilHiman, what is ob- 
srnred by darkness. ( Ang d'd'unan, 
the osier with which fish corraKs 
are tie<l. DUininn is also the name 
of a village near Manila). Ex. 
with nut: rhtngnivlilun ang gahi 
(The night is growing dark). Ang 
pagdiiiiliin nang arao, the eclipse 
of the sun. yfodi/u)), to ))e over- 
taken by darkness; al.'^oadj. dark, 
obscure, Kx.: yndiUnam kami 
(ex el.) s<i <Jaan (We were over- 
taken by darkness on the road). 
Mad, Tint ,1(1 lit is dark already). 
Madil'nn pa ( It is dark yet). }fan- 
(I Hint, to travel indarknesH. Ex.: 
JIoiKig ipandilim iynng cabayo (Do 



To grow up; to )>ecome large, etc. 

To jjrow cool or cold (as food or 

not travel in the dark with that 
horse). }fak(i(iilirn, to become 
dark ( not limited to a slow process, 
as with (U)i.) Tuydiltm, time or 
season of darkness. Twiliglit, 

JjUiiidki. Kx.: Lumjmdki akn mi 
}[u>in'ih\ (1 grew up in Manila). 
M'nj,'<ikij toincreiu^e; tomake some- 
thing larger. Anfj Irdhi'ni, what 
made larger. Aixj ungJalal't, the 
agent. Mukaldki, to cause or to be 
able to grow larger. Amj ihihtLi, 
tlie canst'. Anf/ jxik'thiLilun, what 
la to l)e made larger. Kalnkln'tn^ 
(al>s. ) size. Amj kalakHnkihitn, 
the very largest. Mapakaltili, to 
grow greatly; or too large. ^f^l'J- 
]Kil(ikiy to rear (as a cluld) ; to edu- 
cate. Kx.: Si no (HHj fHftjfHijKtkik't 
xa iffo/ ( Wlio reared yon?) A)i'j 
uk'inn mufo'y aif/ang n'l^jmldki ^a 
akin (My grandparent wa.s the one 
who reared me). Mahtkl (a<ij.), 
big; large. 

Lnnnnnif/. Kx.: LnloDilg <int/ sn 
(Tbe tea will becon)e cold). Aug 
iKtkdItunIt/ (indef. ), "mj ikalaniig 
(del.), tbe cause. Mfujhtinbj, to 
cool anything. Ang l(nnl(/nn, what 
cooled. AiHj pdkahiinigin, what 
put to Cool. Magpdldinigy to jnit 
out to cool. Malnntig (a<lj.), coM: 
(tig. ) Mo/nmlg nd ha)ita odhi looh, 

Puinnfi. Kx.: Pungnmjtnii <ntg hn- 
Inklnk (The flower is growing 
white). Angpnt'in, what bleached. 
Magputf, to whiten anything. Avg 
ipnti, the means or the whitening 
mateiial. Aitg pntmn, wliat whit- 
ened, as the wall, etc. Ang jMig- 
ka/ntfin, what whitt'iied greatly. 
Ang knpnt'nni nang it/ng, the white 
of the ii^^. KapntifiHj whiteness 

Lumuhhd, from lnf,hd, very (adverb). 
Kx.: Attn ang lagag nang aii\a mof 
(How is your father?) Lang' 
nmlnhfni ang kanigang Mikit (His 
illness is increasing). Xa/nlnbhd 
nn sign ( 1 le is near death's door) — 
lit. " Heis exceedinglv ill." Mat/- 
Inhhd. to increase nnich: (tig.) to 
be impndent. \(igh(/n/,}ni ka sa 
i'lkin (You are too forward with 
nu'i yon an^ impn<lent to me). 

II. f^ is used to indicate intentional ads of destruction, damage, etc., 
by the afjency of an animate being. If <au.sed by an inaniniatt; agency, 
such destruction or damage is expiessed by tnaka [naka). Kx.: Amj lin- 

Togrow white; to ))leach out. 

To, etc. 

<lol HI/ ntiLnsiri) sn hahaij (the earthquake destroyed the house). Examples 
ill this with am : 

To kill; (2) to extinguish; to put Puinatny. Kx.: Ako haga anff impa- 
oui (aHalij^ht). /'/// itmuj Uaof (.Shall 1 put this 

li^ht out? {Hindi, ako iTija arnj 
jKifxitoy (no, 1 will put it out my- 

To destroy. Sumirn. .l>ir/,si /•«??<, what destroyed. 

Kx. : J an an(f ."oniffmirfi mmg inaiTljd 
hahnndii/ (What has dejjtroyed 
the i»lants?) Aug itiaiTija bahtnrj 
aiitj s'nidhij Inufjiidjutl linnff bilutt 
(the locusts have wiped outevery- 
thiii«:). ( Ltuiiiftol, to devastate; 
extemiinaie; wipe out; lay wastn; 
destroN ). AiK/ isim, the eanse of 
destrncti(»n. Mmjaira, to destroy 
much. AiKj jxigslrdin, what tlius 
destroved. Kx.: Pinof/sird lunni 

(the j»i^'s have destroyed these 
jdants jjreatly). Mnr<niii}ig hila- 
innit dug pi)nig.sisird nih'i (many 
plants are heing de.«troyed [hy 
them]; or they are doing mueh 
damage to the plants). Masira, 
to l)e di'str(»yed; to spoil. Sira^ 
sp<»iled. Sird nn dug matdinis (the 
preserves are sjioiled already). 
Mdhd.sin), to cause U> <lestroy. 
MdL-dsisin), destructive. Arig ik<t- 
sirt), the cause of siM)i]ing (dug 
iLiidisisiid, j>rcsent tense). Md- 
nifd, to <lestroy irreparably; eoin- 
jdetel v; or ( 2 ) hv manv. (Idiom. ) 
Mddirdug }diri, to destroy the 
honor of another; to dishonor. 
MdgLd.^udsii'd, to be destroyed 
comph'tely. Kx.: Aug jfindgkdka- 
sirdsirduii lididj nidtTgd fntgd^f ajuj 
l>(igfnil,dhd (war destroys towns 
[fi^'. , countries] completely). 
To si't liri' to. Sii nn'inog. Sinn hdgd dug sdngituhiog 

ni/nng hdhin/ ud itnf ( Who burne<l 
this house?) Atiu'ddii dk'\ po (I 
don't know, sir). Ang ainduog 
{ what was or has been set fire to). 
Mdij-^'hing, to burn up (intention- 
jdly I. Aug pindgndnog, what 
burned uj) thus. Masihiog, to burn 
up; to be burned. Kx.: \dgsdiiog 
s'liji'i ang dining hdhdg (he burned 
oni* house). \d,*(i'niog ang dining 
hdhdg (our house burned down). 
yi<if:>isi'iii<i'i, \i\ cause to s<*t fire to; 
al>o to be burned, as from another 
hou-e, etc. Mngkdsnnng, to suffer 
( many ) from a conflagration. *S«- 
iio.j, con(hc._'ratiou (note aecent). 

111. .\s a L'cneral rule, mn verbs have a corre-^pouding definite with in. 
The rever.-e is not always triw. as the acts of causing emotion in others, 



expressed by in with definite gentence^, take the indefinite with ma {na). 
Certain other roots used with magim {niujpa) in the indefinite take the 
definite in an. These will be noticed in tlie proper places. 

IV. ('m, with roots denoting weapons, tools, and instruments, expresses 
the use of such objects. 

Dag5?er. Iwa. Umiu;(i, to sUib, Anrj uman, 

the person stabbed. Mnffltra, to 
wear a da^^er. MntTj/iira^ to use 
a da^jrer on one's self. Mar^/Ki- 
jKiiTljiua, to wound each other with 
dag^rers (as in a iiielce). 

Spear. SUmt (syn., tandos). tSinnibat, to 

spear or to throw a spear. Ang 
>'iUi(i)i, the object. An(j isihat, the 
spear thrown. Maf/aihaf, to carry 
a si)ear. .1 ngp(u/sih<Uan, the place. 

A<lze. Ihirns. I)inmints, to use an adze. 

Aii'j juindanU, theadzeit.self. Amj 
inandninmA, the user. Ex. : Dura- 
sin mo i(6 (plane this off). 
(fimlinfj. (itnnviding^ to cut with 
scissors; to shear. Amj (funtiiTjflnj 
what cut off. Aii(f(fH)iiiiT(/(tn, from 
what. Mdijnnlim/, to use the scis- 
sors nn one's hair, etc. Moffujjit 
is the better word for this la.«t. 

Plane. Kotnm. A'v////o^//>;, to plane. Mniuj- 

aiTfjaimn, planer. 

L)niin. (iiinhnl. (t'n)ninihn/,U} drum. Mnn- 

g'nj'nnhal, drnniuicr. 

V. Vin is us^eil with roots denoting postures to expre>^s such postures or 
jK^sitions when taken voluntarily. 

To stand up; to go to the of Tnin'mdlg. Angtindignn, the person 
another; (3) to go to get married. before whom standing; the place 


•i\ fi^. 

W/ .*«(.! tl 

♦ ., 


» > » O »* »• 1 rf^t 


T<» kriet'l. 



To lean upon; to recline. 

To lie down. 

To lie face downward. 

To prostrate one's self. 

Tu lie on the side (action); to place 
one's self on one's side. 

To lie on the back (action); to place 
one's self on the back. 

To crouch on hands and feet (not 

bending knees). 
To sit down; to take a seat. 

HiLin'dUj. Aug ih'dUj, what part of 
the body leaned upon. Ang hili- 
gan, the place; couch, etc. (//«- 
iniligis ' * to weave. ' ' Note accent. ) 

Humiga. (Previously explained in 
detail. ) 

T\im(iob. Magiiwl)^ to place another 
face downward. 

DuDinpd. Mariifxiy to fall j)rostrate 

Tumngi/id. Magtag'did, to be lying 
on t he side ( state ) . A ng jtatagUui, 
the ]X)sition of lying on the side. 
(ill id is side; also entrance to a 

Tuinilntya. M<tti}tayd.y to be lying on 
the V)ack (stiite). Ex.: Bahit ka 
ixitidhngd/ ( Why are you lying on 
your back?) }lap(ililmy(i^ to fall 
on the back. Aytg fxitlhayd, the 
position of being on the back. 

Tainnnd. M<igfKttuady to stand on 
all four feet (as an animal). 

Vintifnj (one). Mdgnpo (more). 
Manf,(\ to be seated (state). Aug 
jKiujfo, the sitting position. Ex.: 
ftiVy gaga II 'in imnig n(Uig panp6 
(This will have to be done bv vou 
while sitting down). 

Miiglilnin. Ang fikmoan, the resting 

VI. rm is used to expre.^^s voluntarily or involuntarily (but consciously) 
performed life-supporting actions and organic functions of the body, except 
SH)ine which are UJ^ed with niag, an<l a few with innn. Some actions of 
inanimate objects also follow this rule. 

To eat. KuiiKun. ( Partly explained l)efore; ) 

Magkmiiy to cat much ; or by many. 
Miigkanikit'ninn^ to nibble (dim. }. 
Ex.: y<igk'ik(iiiik<iiiiau tfiydj he is 
nil»bling (pretending to eat). 
MdiTj/nli), to eat continually; to de- 
vour. J/r///(//^ edible (adj. ). M'l- 
knk'tiii, able to be eaten. Magjut- 
kdiii, to give food to another i)erson 
or animal. Aug jkU.<ihIii, who or 
what led. ^ing ipakd'ui, the food 
given. Ang jmhin'unin, the ])la('e. 
Ex.: PnfKik'ii)i kit kny Jiutn (ask 
.1 ua n t o gi vi' y < )U s< »met 1 1 i ng t< > eat ) . 
TfKipnkdiu nil) sa ^^ rm-lmrn^^ itmig 
hall) (Ti'll the cook togive this boy 
(child) something to cat). />nklt 
hiiidi nui I'l'iKik'ikiiiii ilmig inaiTijn 
ti'in(tf{ W'liyarcn't \ (Mifccdingthcse 
jicoplc. ) Piikiniin ittn iTi/ii sih'i, feed 
them. .!//«'; ting ipunikdkiiiii inu sa 
kdiiih't.^ (What are you giving 
tliem [to eat J?) Phuikdiii ko Kiln 
)iinig kfniiii,fin. (I liavegiven them 

To sit down to rest (briefly). 

^ /' 4 • I k / • 

T(i swallow food. 

To swallow ]»lts or seeds of fruit. 

To drink. 

To swallow li»inids. 

To show tlu" tiMili: to ^rin. 

To smile bashfully. 

To lau«rh (voluntarily). 

To sol). 

To slu'd tears: to erv (inictlv 

w 1 • 

To weep. 
To snore. 

LmHdiiiou. (Already explained.) 
Lwimnok. AiKj fnnok'ln, what swal- 
Viithunn. Md'jimun, to drink much 
or ])V many. (Tartly explaine<i 
before.) Autj j)iiHiununy who or 
wliat^ivenadrink. A tiff ipniiiuin, 
the drink given. J\ilalnutn, ha- 
l>itual drinker. Univnun has an 
irre^rular form of conjugation like 

Lnmarjok. Kalagok, a swallow. Ka- 
kdh.KjttJ:, only one swallow. 

J\(j(iitn.ii. A\so mo giTt/Isi and wjlniji- 
siiTt/isi. AiKj iwjiM or an<j ijm- 
iT'i'tsl^ the cau.^e of nhowing the 
teeth, or the moutli and teeth. 
Ait[i iTtjiiiiiTi/i.'tihn}!^ the |>er9on or 
animal the teeth sliown to. Syn., 

y(/iiunsiTt/li<. The wild hog is called 

y<jisi when the tu.sks begin toshow. 

yijuiiuVi. AnglmjUt, thesniile or the 
mouth. .1/77/ )Ti/itian, the person 
or object smiled at thus. 

TiiiiKnid. Magtiuui^ to laugh much, 
or 1 )y a f e w . Mn iTfjnfjta ua, to laugh 
(by many), Tatana imng UUnud, 
to lauirh and laugh over again. 
MagldHdHdii, to laugh at each 
other. Aii(/t(Hi(ui(in, what laughed 
at by one or a few. Aug juigtau- 
tinaii, w hat laughed at by many. 
Aug ildU'i^ the cause (one or few). 
Aug ijmgfdiKt, the cause of many 
laughing. Mdldna^ to laugh inyof- 
nntarily; to giggle. JidLit hi Hd- 
tdtdudf [ W by are you giggling 80?) 
Mdkfitdiid (»r 7ndgp<itdtta, to cause 
laughter. Ai/g Idtaud, the com- 
panion in laughter. MatdUiunny 
laughing person. 

]liiniil"k. hihikhibik. Avg 

ihihik or dug ikd/iihik, tlie c-ause. 

A variation is /nunimbik or hitnhik- 

f.inniihd. Aug hdgluhihd, the eveS 

shedding tears. Aug i/uhd, the 

tears. ^\iig /innhfhdd)*, the }">er8on 

before whom tears are shed, etc. 

M'lgkn/nhd, to shed tears iincon- 

s«'i<»usly. J.nngnidldgoalos ang luhd^ 

the tears are trickling. 
'riiinniTgh. (Already explaine<l.) 
Iluii'ilik. Aug hilik, the snorer. 

Also I/inn'ikdh, var, lunnigab. 

These last wonls ab^^o mean "to 

yawn." Mdghi/ik, to snore much. 

Aug pdgliilik, the great snorer. 



To spit; to expectorate. 

To bite. 

To wratfh another. 

To blow the nose. 
To sneeze. 

To make water (vohintarily). 

To stool. 

To drip; to nin throujjh a pipe {aa 

water and other liquids). 
To trickle; to run in a small stream. 

AUo mac/hikab. Ex.: Naghihikah 
anfj mnkdkutulog (the 8leei>er is 
snorinj^ a proat deal ). Ifihikahhi- 
knhy to breathe with great diffi- 
culty, as a <lying man. 

Lninvrd. To perform the same ac-t 
an a sign of disgust at anyone, inan- 
huii. J.ithtnhtj s])ittoon; cu.spi- 

KiuiKiijat. (Already explained.) 

KmiinnnA. Magh'unotj to scratch 
one's self. A tig pcDu/amoty the 
scratcher (instrument). 


Ihimnhhi. Pahihahui or mapanbn- 
hui, a person who snt'czes much. 

Cmihi. Paiiuhig is a more ])olite 

Tinittw. Snan aiig kutnoii? (Where 
is the water-closet?) 


Ltiuiagtmlos. (Idiom) 

VII. Roots which express objects which may be j>roduced by slow seH- 
s?ustaining processes generally take vui to indicate the process, although 
•^ome important ones take 7/K/// ((|. v.), the latter usually commencing with 6. 

T'o come up, to grow up (as plants); 
to bear (to give birth to), as ani- 
mals. Manganak is *'to bear a 

1o put forth shoots. 

Tuinnhd. T'llntnti^ j)lant already 
sprouted (usually applied to cocoa 
]>alm). Mngtvhi\ to gain; to win. 
Kdtutubby of the same age; born 
at the same time (no relationship 
idea). }[agp(ihtbo, to invest; to 
l»ut out at interest. Ex.: fyttkit 
hinfJl mo stiija jniKini'itnng unhg 80- 
ln])lf (Why don't you lend him 
some mom-yV) S<t jmgld't iniM^ 
at ling ak'nig sahipl a-/ pinntuboan 
ko ( Uc<anse 1 have n^>ne [to lend], 
and my money has been invested). 
Sa limnng jiiso mi i uniting k<> kny 
.hum, fi'i ])innfiit!ihd ak/i nif/d ita 
isnng stihipl (for liv(^ ])esos which 
I have borrowed from Juan he is 
now asking u\v. a half peso as in- 
terest ) . J no/ ( W hat? ) Jsang sa- 
id /n (ing ipinah'tiiho nl Juan sa 
a king .v/ /inning pi.^tt na Inntang ko 
an hnnifd ( A half peso is the inter- 
cut asked me by Juan on live pes(»s 
which 1 borrowed from him). 
Kx.: "Tocomeup." Tnngnndnbo 
fintfi'i lUKi nniiT'id sifi/ (Are the 
jx-jipcs [chiles] coming up?) 

tSuniilxfl. Snngniisibtjl mi (unj maiTtjd 
fi'i/aman sa haja)nanany the plants 
in the ganh'u are already ])Uttin<j 
out shoots, el) Also applied to 
the growth of the beard and other 
actions of like nature. Ma)<ibol, to 

6855—05 1 1 

well out, as water from a well or 

sprinjr. Anq sUxjIan^ the months 

during which the rice sprouts, etc. 

To bud. Vmiuiboinj^irovi\uiiboug,\)\i<i. Matjus- 

bonw, to have buds. Syn. jUshi'ts and 
ufjhus. Uinuffln'iSj to bud, to sprout. 
Ex. with Uithijurj: L'n(jinmu<bowj na 
(lufj inntTlf'i kahof/ (the trees are 
l>iiddin^ uut now). 
To .«prout (esi><-cially of tul>ers, like Su)n>'(/o/, from sulolj a sprout. 

the (/(ibi and the niniott ). 
To sprout ( Jt< Slickers Irnm the trunk Snump/in'j. Anfj »upUwjany the tree. 
of or at tlie f<»<)t (jf a tree). 

VJII. I'm exjiresses (1) meteorological pheuomena, provided the root 
does n<»t commence witli b; and (2) astronomical transitions, if the change 
is represente<l hj^ occurriuir and the phenomena are not otherwise expressed. 
Kx. f 1 I : 

To rain; to In- raining. I'limi'm. Vniulanub'in^ to drizzle. 

Matfiibhi, to sow seed or to do anv- 
thing in the rainy season. Aug 
t<i'/iib'iu, the raiiiv season. Pana- 
fjub'iu, land wliich is planted in 
the rainy season. Ang t//«///, the 
rain. Maidtm, to have many rains; 
also to l>e caught in the rain. Ex.: 
Xdf/bib'iLdfl huni'y iiauUnmn (We 
were walking along and were 
caught in the rain ). 

To blow: to be blowing; to be windy. JfninaiTifin (from ItaiTj/iny wind). 

Mii(j}ia,T,j'(n, to blow continuously 
or much. M'Hfpfibai7(jin, to wait 
until the wind changes; also to 
put anything out in the wind. 
Md'liniJiuiTijhi, to i»lace one's self 
where the wind is blowing. (Note 
accent. ) 

To li^diteii: to ln' li-jhtcning. Km/ii'Ib'f (from hidbit, a flash of 

lightning). Maghidbif, to lighten 
much. () Id form, /■<>/<//. 8yn.,A<7a/ 
( rare) . 

To 1m' >irn<-k b\ liirhlnin^'. Lnininti/: ( Irom Until:. The "thun- 


To thunder. Kuumbuj. Magkuhg, to thunder a 


great deal. 

To<la\\n. I'liidiia (from (ir/(^ morning). (2) to 

rise early. Magdgd, to rise early 
(many ), as a regiment, etc. ; (3) to 
eat early. Amj ar/ann, what eaten 
thus, i. e., the breakfast. J\taod. 
to come early. Xaa(f<\ W///», he 
cauM' early. Aug ijxfoga, what is 
to \n' done early. 

To sliin<; t as the suiv : to i>e sunny ('iih'irno i from arno. (1) Sun; (2) 
\- i to grow light. day; (.J) weather.) J/ir/(/arao, to be 

\er\- sunnv. Maarao, t»> be over- 
heated l)y tlie sun. llouag kang 
inalis in;'i;/n g inaanrauihi kaU maii' 
iiitdn (l)on't go out now, because 
the sun will be out and you will 



Tu become late. 

To btHXiuie night; to do anything 
at night; to be overtaken by night. 

To grow dark. 

To grow cloudy; dark. 

To grow dark; to become twilight. 

To eclipse (lit. "to l>e dragoned" 

get overheated ) . Manqa raoy to use 
dailv. Aug pfnTijdraoiraOf what is 
used daily or something for daily 
use. MmjjMu'inu)^ to wait until the 
Hun shines; (2) to wait for day; 
(3) t() sun one's self; (4) to put an 
object in the sunshine. Ex.: (3) 
lhma(j hiiKj nuKjpaarao (Do not 
sun yourself). (4) Magpadrao ka 
nung dam it (Sun the clothes). 
Magpakndrao^ to continue at a 
thing until daylight. Ex.: Nag- 
pakadrao si gong mngdral (He 
studied until dayliglit). 

Huinnpon (from Itapon^ the time be- 
tween noon and dark; afternoon 
(Northern United .States); even- 
ing (Southern United States). 
(2) To go to roost, as chickens. 
Mtighnpoii, all day. Kahapim^ 
yesterday. A', nnnif umagiiy yes- 
terday morning. A. nang hnpoitj 
yesterday afternoon (evening). 
A'. s<i gain, last night. Mama gang 
hapoUy later in the afternoon 
(evening^l. Maltapon, to eat sup- 
j»er, Ang haponan^ the meal. 
Manighapon (from tighapon)^ to 
do something in the afternoon or 
evening (generally applied to 
l(M»king after plants, etc, ), 

(ii(mnhi (from gahl)^ night. Ex.: 
Magmadall ka't gagahihln sa gubat 
(Make haste or you will be over- 
taken by night in the timber). 
Nagahihan sigd sa ddan (Night 
overtook him on the road). Mag- 
])akagahi, to continue at a thing 
until night. Ex.: Xagpakagahl 
i<ilnng magdral (They studie<l until 

Dam Hi til. (Already explaineil.) 

Lnmimlim (from limlim). Midimliniy 
t(j be cloudy, etc. Lumitnlim also 
means to cluck, as a hen when 
she lays an egg. Ang Unilimliman, 
the egg laid. Magpaliminn, to set 

Sam'dim. Ex.: P<i.'<ilimiii (<i muna bago 
Inmdkad (Let us wait for dusk be- 
fore we march ). Lit. "Walk on". 
(2) To )>enetrate (as the cold). 
{'!) Siiiis't/im ak') nmig hiniig (I am 
chilled through by the cold). 

LiniKtfin. fjiimniiaii, "((►swallow," 


to eat the sun and mcx^n from 
time to time. 
To rise; to shine out. StnuUnng. Sung^nHhmg nn amj nrno 

(Tlie sun has already n.^^en ) . »SW/- 

hiiKj (tmj hoiiai}ij inadalt (The moi.n 

will rise quickly). Suntjitilxittut^j 

ffiKj maiTtjd hitnin (the stars are 

?hmin^). Ahtj sihuujnn, the Ea-^^t. 

Amj siniIniT(/ai}^ what was lit U|> 

by the of the sun or the 

moon, or the Bhining out of the 

stars. M(ui)m.^Uait<j, to wait until 

one of al>ove-mentioned Ijodien 

rise. Kx.: li'iLif hindi mo pinrnfin't- 

I'UHf liiniKt ovij I'rnof [ Why don't 

you wait until sunrisie? ) Pm^iJninjin 

t(i nnma antj itraa ( Li't us wait until 

the .<un rises). 

To eonie out; to rise; as tho sun. SmnU.nt. Kx.: (1) Sif<ikat nn uufj 

moon, or stars. (2) To till up <'nvf/> {/>o//(///) (tlie sun [moon] will 

with ])e(H»le; as a cliurrh. house. rise soon). (2) Summkat ina^iM- 

etc. k<(t<iii) (nuj hi'ihat/ nana (I'luo (The 

house is filling [lilled] with {.)eo- 

ple). Mitgpns'ihnt^ to wait until 

rising: of sun, moon, etc., takes 

]»laee. Ex.: PasihitiyDuo atu/nrao 

{ Wait until the sun rises). 

To set (as the sun); primary mean- Luimhimf. Jz/y //a////to/vr/^ the West; 

in;;, "to«lrow^n." Applieation a> lit. "the drowning place." Ex.: 

to sun from fact that su!i st-ts in /.'///^///////rK^ <n*</(;rr/<> (Thesun has 

the sea to Tagaloj^s. set). LiLinjnnib'tmxiiUKjti'iuo (The 

man is drownin«r himself). Mab't- 

no'l, to be drowned. With nm 

volition may be un<lerstood, and 

with iiKi accident. 

To dive; to j)luni:e into; to y:n to the Luiiu'ihtKj, Lnm/ihotj nnr; amo (The 

bottom. (L'l Toset. lit. *-t.)divc," sun basset). Eit.'"dived.'' Mmj- 

as tlu' sun. I 'il»ni^ to )>lun^e another «>r an ol)- 

ject under the water. 

1 .\. I'm is ns('<l u ith rn<>t> w lun attraction towai'ii thea.irent isexpresstnl, 
or when the aL'int Lrains cnijtiMl nf somethinir. 'J'he o|»posite idea of los- 
in-r ( "UtrMl. rtc, is sonietimrs »xpres>cd with the sanie root, and in other 
(•as»*s with (lil'fcrent r'x.ts. the i»arti('le nota bcin^ then the verbalizer. 


r ty 

To buy. Ihiiiiil't. Miuj})iJU to sell. (Both of 

these ha\(' already l)een ex- 
plained. ) 

To borrow. I'lnntdtK). M<niiU(ni(j, to lend. (Roth 

partly explained V>efore. ) Ex.: 
I fifiiinfiiH kn ai Dunns nnnrj Vwiaiuj 
l>)KO il will borrow 5 |>esos from 
TouKis). Knnlaiuian, (abs. ) debt. 
J'(iiif<ni(j, credit. 

To <-xcliaiii,M'; to barter. J'fnitnltt. Ann ]}innlit^ what ex- 

cbanired or l)artered. 

To take. k'niiiii/in. Antj patjknha^ the act of 

takin;;. (Forms with ?/j, ?, ika, 
<kii,n, and nn have been exj>lained 
iMTctofore. ) 

Jo redeem; to ransom. Sumnln}). Mmjsnk'op, to re^leem 

riiU'b. }f<isnkoj), to be dominated. 



To encounter; to strike. 

To purloin; to filrh; to steAl. 

To catch; to seize; etc. 

Aug mkop, the vassel or follower. 
Makasdkop, to be able to dominate. 
Nasasakojxjn vii/d any hai/dn (The 
village [town] is under his rule). 
Lit.: *'The town is ruled bv 


Ciiuwiit. Aug umitin, what pur- 
loined. Man m it in or mapngumil^ 

Huinuli. Ex.: Ihd nag pogoug hull 
na, aa hnhuUJiin pa (Better the 
quail caught already than that 
which ha.syet to be caught). — T. P. 
Manltnl'i, to live by robbery. 

Among other words coming imder this das.s may be mentioned tnman- 
gapf * * to accept or receive; ' ' dumdhip, ' ' to seize or catch hold of; ' ' vrndbut^ 
*'to overtake; to reach;" and sumaJdhong, ''to go out to meet anyone;" 
all of which have been explained before. 

X. Uin expresses voluntary acts of agents upon others when nuituality, 
duality, or pluralitv is not denoted. The latter are expressed by mng, an 
being generally su&xed for mutuality. Examples: 

To accompany. 

To leave another. 

To join with; to unite with. 

To talk to; (2) to sue another <»r 
bring suit. 

Suinaifia. Magndirid^ to accompany 
each other (two or more). Ang 
kotmnid, the companion (servant). 
A)ig kaaanKilKin, the person accom- 
panying another. Makisama, to 
thru.^t one's self into the company 
of another. Magknttaina, to gather, 
as a crowd. SunKnnd is "to go 
into partnership," and Scntumd is 
"to become bad or evil." These 
examples show the great impor- 
tance of accent in Tagalog. 

Iffuniivnldf/. .lug hiwalagan, the 
person left. Magliiwahnf, to sepa- 
rate mutually. MuhimtJay, to 
]>art accidentally or casually, etc. 
Svn. (iiralag, with the same com- 
binations and meanings as above. 
Jioth jirobably from indd, without; 
not to have, etc. Titrnlug in oft^n 
used in the sense of divide, Init 
iiaidk is better. Magk<uinUtk^ratak, 
to be divided into many parts. 

l*ii/ii(fi<ni. Magftlsan or nKi</k(t}ji^^(ni, 
to associate togetlier. Ex.: Aug 
pindgknkdjtisiiiKin umig innwjd. kd- 
nuiOfT(/dn, tlui uniting place of the 
sciences ( knowle<lge, diinong), 
i. e., scieniilic societv, university, 
etc. ]*isdu as an adjective means 
''merely; purely." There is a 
noun jnndu meaning " sudden 
death." Mahdjnmv, to kill 
another suddenly. 

Ctnnsd/i. 'Aug vsdplri, the ]>erson 
sued. Aug kdu.'<dp, the compan- 
ion in conversation. Magi'iimity to 
con verse ( two or more ) ; ( 2 ) to sue 


one another; to litigate. Marupii- 
mp, to talk much; to talk to an 
audience. Ex. : Jfoung mo akimg 
lakasan nang pangurXip'iBap (don't 
talk to me so much in 8uch a 
rouffh way). (As the variations 
of the idea ** to sue " are derived, 
they will be omitted ) . Makipngu- 
sapf to converse with another; (2) 
to thrust one's self into a conversa- 
tion. "Ex.: IbigmongmakijxiguMp 
m dkinf (do you wish to have a 
talk with me?). 0/>^ (yes, sir). 

Ngayffy himlt mangy ay ari, it is not 
possi ble j ust now ) . MakipakiHsapy 
to rush uninvited into a conversa- 
tion l)etween others. Palaiisnp, a 
barrator or perpetual bringer of 
ground lew suits. Maginpalausap^ 
to l)ecome a Iwirrator. Ex. : Aa- 
qinjHtlaimip siyAH naginmalalajigo- 
hin (he has become a barrator and 
common drunkard). The first 
vice, barratry, is very prevalent 
with Tagalogs; the 8eiX)nd is very 
rare. It would be unusual to fim'i 
the combination set forth above, 
but grammatically it is an excel- 
lent example with niagin. 
To reprove. Umiiuay, Mag Ana y^ to quarrel with. 

KaAuay, antagonist; enemy. 
Ang ijxigduayt the cause of quar- 
rel. Ex.: Ana ipinaganay nang 
viaiigd kanidbahay namiti ay ang 
aso ni Feliciano^ p6 (a dog of Fe- 
liciano was the cause for the quar- 
rel of our neighbors). Itong htihay 
na it 6 ang pinagauayan nUA (this 
house is where they have j>een 
quarrelling [or where they quar- 
reled]). MakipagAuay^ to pick a 
Quarrel or to interfere in a quarrel. 
MagkaAuayj to quarrel (two or 
more ) . NagkaAuay a ng data nxing 
magasana sa tiangi (the husband 
and wife quarrelled in the market 

XI. Um also expresses movement in itself; movement from an outsi<le 
agency being expressed by mag, except for the root harigo, which takes 
um. Ex.: 

To walk; to pjisn on; to march; to Lumakad. ^hi^/a/ran?}, what walked 
travel (on foot). for, i. e., the object of walking. 

Ex.: AwjU hindt ka lungmaUikad 
nana matulinf (why don't you 
walk more quickly?). MaglAkad, 
to walk niucn or quickly; to carry 
something while walking. Ang 
ilakadf the means of walking, as 
the foot, or the object carried 



along. Atifj lakaran, the person 
Avalked to, or the place walked to. 
A)i(j jxKjlnhmhiy the route, path, 
or roa<l, etc., walked over. Ang 
mnglnliikad^ the walker; traveler. 
Miigldkiullakad (dim.), to stroll. 
Ang paglnkadlakaran, the ground 
strolle<l over. Magpnlakad^ to or- 
der or cause to walk up or go 
ahead. MakaUtkadj to be able to 
walk . Ex . : l\dakarhi wo wja igang 
calm go ignn (make that horse walk 
up ) . Jlmdi muhdnkad sigiCtjnlag^ 
rto (he is not able to travel; he is 
lame, sir). Xnkalnh'tkodako (I am 
able to walk). NakaldhHnd siyd 
n(ina (he may be able to walk). 
Lnmakhag is " to go a long ways 
on foot;" **to make a hike." It 
has tlje same changes and varia- 
tions as Idkad. There are several 
other variations of the idea, all 

Tiimnkhn. Already explained. 

Lunioksn. Already explaine<l. 

Tuinah'm. Aug tnlonnn^ the ])la(e. 
Ex.: Tionnlon k(t .*<« tuhig (junjp 
into the water). 

Jjiniiustmg. Already explained. 

LuiiHuTljog. Already explained. 

Lumuhog. Already explained; syn., 

Tniindidii. i)fiigt(thaii, tostopanother; 
}fag((diajtfmj to stop each other 
(two). iVa^/<///(bi street in Manila 
means "stopping place," as it ends 
at the bank of the Piisig River. 

Jftununijxtif. Walang hHinpatij end- 


TnifKtkdS. Aug Tnngtatakni^y uiatakn- 
.sl)), or })al(i((ikaj<y the hider (person 

llnnuiiTijit. This form originally 
meant to redeem another from 
slaverv, and um has been retained 
while tbe meaning has changed. 
MagliniUjn (now out of use) meant 
to re<leem one's self from the same 

(liniini»ing. Aug halt) ai/ nakngngn- 
pang (the child is able to crawl ). 

XII. Um is u.^ed with voluntiiry actions upon or against another. Ac- 
tions affecting the subject are ex]>ressed with mng. Cm is not used with 
involuntary actions, as mat'txitd, " to stuml)le." \\\.\ 

To run. 

To jump. 

To leap down. 

To leap or jump down; to alight. 
To swim. 
To dive. 

To stop. 

To cease; to end, et<' 

To run away. 

To hide (from fear). 

To pull out; to take out; to draw out. 

To crawl; to walk on all f<Mirs. 

To wash the face of another. 

ITniniUiiiKi^, e\idently from drinios; 



To comb the hair of another. 

To shave another. 

To cut hair. 

To cure another. 

To scratch another. 
To whip another. 

Tulfia na hihilamonn^ wash water. 
MaghUamoSf to wash one's face 
(occasionally). Manhilamw, to 
wash one' s nee ( habitual] y ) . Ang 
ipanhilamaSjtheineaLDB, i. e., hands, 
sponge, wash rag, water useil, etc 
Ang panhilamoMTij the place, i. e., 
the wash basin, etc. 

Stimuklay, Magmiklay^ to comb one' s 
hair. Ana suklayinj what combed, 
i. e., the nair. Ang pagmkifiyin^ 
what combed much. Ang pagsu- 
Hayan, what combed upon. Ang 
iiuklayf the means, etc. Ang m- 
klay, the comb, ifagpaguklay^ to 
order to comb; alpo to allow one's 
hair to be combed. 

Umahii, Magdhitf to shave ones- 
self. Ang pagdhit, the act of 
shaving ( another ) . Ang pagaahit, 
the act of shaving ones-self. 
MaiTgdhitf to shave (as an occupa- 
tion). An^ manaAhitj the barber. 
Ang pandhitf the means, i. e., the 
razor. MagpaahU^ to order to 
shave; also to get shaved. Ex.: 
MagpaAhit ka kay Juan (Tell Juan 
to shave you). Magpadhit kay 
Juan al Pedro (Tell Juan to shave 
Pedro). Ang pinagaahifan, the 
place of being shaved, i. e., the 
oarber shop. Ang ahitan, the per- 
son shavea. (See phrases also. ) 

Gumupit. Maggupity to cut one'fi 
own hair. Ang ginupit, what has 
))een cut, or the person whoee hair 
has l)een cut. Gumupit also means 
to cut metal. The use of shears is 
implied in all cases. (See the 
phrases for examples. ) 

Gumamot. Maggamot^ to cure ones- 
self. Mangamoty to cure profes- 
sionally, i. e., to practice meoicine. 
Kagamolan (abs.), medicine. 
Ang mangagamotf the physician. 
Ang pangamotinf the person cured. 
Magamoty to have much me<li(!ine, 
or to have many kimlsof medicine. 
(Idiom:) Walang gnmot ang Umot, 
there is no cure for the forgetful. 
Ex.: Bago dumnting ang itakitf 
lagydn nang gamoi { Before illness 
comes, ai>ply the remedy). — T. P. 
362. This seems to be an adapta- 
tion from the Spanish. 

Kumdmol. ( Alre^y explained. ) 

HumampAs. .VaghampdSf to whip 
ones-self (as in penance). Ang 
hampasin^ the person whipped. 
Ang hampws sa kcdabad'y sa (xwayo 


an() l/ttay (the lash to the carabao 
and the welt to the horj«e). — T. P. 
To cane or chib another. PuuhjIo. Magpaloan, to cudgel each 

other. Ang pamalb^ the garrote. 

XIII. Vm is also iise<l to express voluntary acts of the senses, except 
with those roots which commence with h. Ex.: 

To look for; to see by so looking. KumUd. Ma(jk'Uay to look at each 

other (two or more). Magkitd^ to 
look at intently, or at many things. 
Makitdj to be seen. Makakitd, to 
see ( casual ly ) . Ex. : A hVy naka- 
kikitd (l am aV)le to see). Ak/i'y 
uakukUd rtang isatig tauo dit/dii (I 
saw a person there). Xakild mo 
har/d ait/df (Did you see him 
[her] ?) Hindi, lujmi'Ct mnkikiid 
ko Sana, (no but I may ]ye able to 
[see] ) . Mngkakitd, to be deceived 
by the sight. Ex.: Naf/kakakhd 
kitd aki't'? (Do I see visions?) 
NoijkdkakinikUoum ako (My sight 
deceives me). Nagknkimtaan ako 
(My sight deceived me). 

To hear (by listening). DumitTtjig. (Already explained.) 

To feel; to touch. Ilnmlpo. }faglnpo, to touch much. 

Aug hipohi, what touched. 

To smell of. Vmamoii. Ex.: Atnoifin mo ito 

(smell this). Mnatnog, to smell 
casually. Ex.: Xniiait\ini mo })agd 
(tug fffiiTijong isiinisainhi'ihit nnng 
mai7(jd hnldklakf (Do vou smell 
the fragrance shed by thetlowers?) 
Makadinoy, to be able to smell 
something. Xakaaaniag k<f f ( Can 
you smell anything? ) .l.yo, smoke. 

To taste; to relish (purposely). Luitmsap. yD?7/(/.'«fT;>/;j, what tainted. 

yfaknlamjt, to taste (casually ) ; also 
to cause a relish. 

XIV. Some roots denoting pai?sions an«l emotions of a certain kind are 
conjugated by um, when the idea of voluntary action is expressed. Other 
Toots of this nature are conjugate<i by mng. When casual, ideas of emo- 
tions, etc., are expressed with ma. Ex.: 

To love. Satninta. ( Already explained.) Of 

Sansk. origin, through Malay. Ln- 
iiiiffag is a synonym, now rare. 

To care for; to desire; to wish. I'ndldg. .l/ar/zA/V;, to long for. Magi- 


the fact. Maibigin^ an amorous 
man; a Hirt. Mnknibig, to care for 
naturally. Kaihignn (abt't.), love, 
dej^ire. Aug kaihigan (note ac- 
cent) , the friend. Aug kinaibigau, 
what loved. KaihigVng (adj.), 
amial)le; loving. Absolute, tbUj. 
Am) nug ibig utof (What do you 
\vi.**h? ) Ibig mong unimnma sa aklnf 
(Do you wish to po with me?) 
yfniTg'tbig, { 1 ) to like many; (2) to 
llirt habitually; {'^) to care lirst 
for one thing and then another. 
Kx. with ibig, T. P.: Aug liniag ikd 
p'igibig bangan sa hull inat'UnU 
(True love is sweet to the end). — 
44(>. Knng tapat oug i»ngibig, mn- 
pnlt mini ag mfitnm'is ( When love is 
real even bitter i.s sweet). — 447. 

To caress; to fDudle. I'mirog. Aug irngin, xUe pc»rson ca- 

ressed. Mnirtigiit, an affectionate 
]»erson. Aug bigAgat intg .^-igdng 
nnhabihimug (gift^ and carc-sses 
^'ain over what can not otherwise 
be gained).— T. P. 144. 

To like; (l^) to desire. J'lnnit't. .)A/y)/7a/a'?i, a desirous j>er- 

son. Ag <ntg pita luntg i'tob ko (It 
is the <)esire of my lieart). Mag- 
jtlta in s<i kaitiga naug aunmang ibig 
mo ( Ask liim for anything you 
wish). Pifhttga in a rather rare 
synonym. J^iimithaga, to like: to 

X\'. r'//Mised with .svr, "at," "in," denotes }»ermaneni:y in any place. 
I*'.x.: Aug niiiiTii,) Ai/n rirano i*'nig)iiii>'ii S'lngkaiHi/jian (The Americans are 
settling; jicrmanently in the archiiK'lajj:<») . 

X \'I. fill is ulso U"^cd in some phuu-s to «'xpi"css the idea that what may 
be sli:nifi('d by the root is taking place hcn\ there, and everywhere; the 
idea of (••tnfnsion being inlierefit. Kx.: Uiivhidg {or tnutgau) <io('ni (all is 
<liianelinir there). l'm<t.<>htn (nftnuin) dittt (everyone is getting marrieil 
here I. 

I'lK i< :il<o use(l for the imperative in Manila, the tensi's being distin- 
^Miisiied by adverhs of time, but tins in j)robably due to the fact that the 
speakeis f»f Ta^aloL' in >binila generally liave some knowledge of S|)anish, 
whi< li coll fuses their gnisp of the nice (Ji'^tinetion of tense in i>ure Tagalog. 

X\'I1. Cm, used with some roots indicatinu: certain actions means to be 
oecnj.ied in a matter, althouLdi ]>erhaps not actually performing the act 
indaated. Ex.: Stimnsi'ihit si .ln<tn (.Inan is busy with writing). 


XN'ITI. In Some ]>arts of the Ta'jalo'_r leiriou tlie pres(*nt tense of the in- 
deliniti' with the primary idea (besides the rcL'ular formation with ungm 
and the re(|nplicati<ins of the (irst syllable of the root), is sometimes ex- 
jtressed hy the i>article im prelixed to the root. Ex.: 

To read. Ihnnaaa, from Sansk. wdrbd " word," 

" di.-^course." There are three 
forms of the present indef. with 
primary idea. F.x.: Ahygnahoia 
(I am [or was] reading). Ako^y 


nalxinfC ij nakati'dog ako ( I was read- 
ing: and fell apU'cp). ymmtia ako 
(I am reading). Buuffmoha^aako 
(I am reading), (See tables for 
other tenses. ) Ah(j basahm, what 
read. Aug basaJtatiy the person 
read to. Basahan, professor, lee- 
turer. Maghcmaj to read nuieh, 
or by many. Angpagbamiy the aet 
of reading. Mnhdhasa, anything 
legible. Ex.: X<iba,'<a mo ita ang 
I'lbnmg ipinahmnn ko sa iiiaf (Had 
vou [ifiave vou already] read the 
book 1 lent you?) JHudi ko pana- 
basd ( I have not finished reading 
it yet). MugpobiiMiy to order to 
read. Kx.: Nagpopabasa avg 
muiTgaarul sa marTf/d batii (the 
teacher is ordering the children to 
read). Mabosahin; mamamasa or 
pnbibasa, reader. Tagabasa^ reader 
bv occupation. JUisa is also ap- 
plied to a gravestone. Bnniasd 
( from bam ) , is * 'to wet, to moisten. ' ' 
This last is evidently a Mala van 
word; Malay, basahknn, to wet or 
moisten. Jiaaa (from v'^ansk. 
7i:arli(1) means language, speech, in 
Malay, while bacha has Wen se- 
lected to represent the idea of read- 
To write. Snnn'ilat (from Arabic t^' uraty a chap- 



To eat. 

To buv. 

To obey; to follow. 

To resist; diwbey; contradict; con- 
tend with. 

To Hhow an^rer; (2) to turn aside 

To Htand up; t^) rise to the feet. 

Ti> pit down. 

To l(K)k at. 

Bnjang $u$tdatan niyd (this paper 
ifl for him to write upon [fat]). 
Magsulat, to write muchor by many . 
Maasulatstdatan (dim.), to write a 
little; to scribble. Ex.: Nagnmi' 
latmlaton ak6 (I am writing a little; 
I am scribbling). iTonuZal, to write 
as an occupation. Ang manunulatf 
the clerk; writer. Ang panuldt^ 
the pen, stylus, brush, etc. (See 
also under makaf magpa^ and maki). 
Afapagsulatf a person who writes 

Kninain. (Already explained.) Ex. 
with na: Nakain siyd (he is eat- 
ing) . Kungmakain siyd ( he is eat- 
ing [regular form] ). 

Bum ill. ( Already explained. ) Ex. : 
Nabili akd nang damit (I am buy- 
ing some clothes^. Also tungmi- 
bili ak6 nang damxL 

Sumnnod. ^afunod siydy he is obey- 
ing or obeys. A ng mindalong gang- 
muMinodf stuiarin gi^fd. kun oficial 
(the obedient soldier will be 
obeyini when an officer himself). 
Magsunttran, to follow each other. 
Magmnodftnnodj to follow in rapid 
suc<H»«iaion ( many ) . Magtumunod, 
to follow closely, also two children 
bom in Huccesnion. Magkasumu- 
noflf to follow wherever another 
may go, or to obey implicitly. 
Ex . : yagkakcummunod ang sundalo 
m pmumgniyA (the soldier follows 
his officer wnerever he goes). 
tSino ang pinagkamimunddn mot 
(Who are you obeying so implic- 
itly?) Ang punong ko (mv com- 
mander). Alio ana ipinagiakasu- 
muntpd mo [ninyo] sa kaniydf 
(Why do you [yej obey him so 
impliVitly?) Ab^y sundalOy p6 (I 
am a soldier, sir). 

Sumuay. Nasuay giyd^ he is disobey- 
ing. MagBuay^ to disobey, etc. 
(much). Mamay, disoliedient; 
contraclictory. J/o^auai/rtw, to con- 
tradict each other. Magttimay^ to 
disobey (many). Kcuuayanj dis- 

TumiVtog. Ex.: Xatdbog siyd (he 
shows anger; he is turning aside). 

Tumindiq. Satindig niyd (he is ris- 
ing to h is feet ) . V'^er b has al ready 
been explained. 

UmupO. A a up6 sUd ( they are sitting 
down). Verb has already been 

Tu m t ugin . XatbTgin akd ( I am look- 
ing). Verb has already been 


XIX. Bisyllabic (two-syllabled) root.^ coiniiH'ncing with h, k\ ;>, ^ or a 
vowel, j^nerally admit of a similar irregularity in the imperative, past, and 
present tenses; n being prefixed to vowel roots lV>r the j)ast an(l present 
tenses and m for the imperative, wliile tlie initial letter of />, k, j>, and t 
roots changes to n for the past and jiresent tenses, and to m for the 

To read. Bumaso. Ex.: (Irreg. ) Mam ka; 

(Reg.) Bnntnita /.t/ (read). (I.) 
Xasd nko\ (R. ) Bun(jm<M«i ak6 (I 
read [|>ast tense]). (I.) Xdnai^n 
(ikn; (It.) I>nyi(/inahfis(i ako (1 am 
reading) . The other tenses are 
regular. Kx.: Xakahafia nko (1 
had read). Hnhaaa ako (1 sliall 
read ) . MttkaOasa ako ( I shall have 
read). Aiif;/ pafjhasa^ the act of 

To capture. Buinih<i(j. Koblhagarif captivity. 

Same as foregoing. 

To take. A'^n/i/zAa (partly explained before). 

Imp., Muha hi; kmnnha kn; kuJia 
kn (take). Past, Xuha fik6; kung- 
inuhn (iko (I took). Pr., S'luuilm 
ako; kn)n;)nnkii]ia ako (I am tak- 
ing). Pip., Xakaknha ako (I had 
taken). F., Knknha ako (1 shall 
take). F. P., Mahikuha ako (1 
shall have taken). }faiojnha, to 
take habitually. Aug paiojiiniii^ 
what taken habitually. (Note that 
the u is all that remains of knha.) 
Makakulta, to ])e al)le to take. 
Ex.: Nakn]i(i nila igatig vuiiTija 
bu/Tija (thev were able to take that 
fruit [pi.])'. 

To go for; to bring; to call. Kumaon. ('onj. Wkiykamuha. (Al- 

ready explained.) 

To enter; to come in; to go in (vol- I\nnasok. Moi^ok ka; pantasok ka 
untarily). (come in). Aasok siga; jniagtua- 

sok sit/a (he went in), yanaaok 



To pluck; to gather, fus flowers. 
To tempt; to try. 

To peck (as a bird). 

To leave; to go away. 

mit (Juan told Pedro to get into 
his clothes) . NagpapAiok fi Pedro 
nana damit (Pedro put on the 
clothes). MakapagpapAwkj to be 
able to order another to go in. 

Pumt/(i«. (Already explained.) 
Ck)nj. \\)Le pum&8oh. 

Tamuksd, Imp., Muksd; tumuksS 
(tempt, try). Past, Nuhsd; lung- 
muk»6 (tried). Pr., Nunukso; 
tungmuiukso (trying). Pip., Naka- 
tuksu (had tned). F., TuluksS 
(shall, will try). F. P., Sfakatukud 
(shall, will have tried). Angpag- 
pagtnksdy the trying, tempting. 
MagtuksOf to tempt much or many. 
Ang tuksohin, the person temptefl. 
Angpagtukaohirif the person greatly 
or many times tempted. Ang 
Uuksdf the cause or means of temp- 
tation. Ang ipagtukadf the cause 
or means of great or repeated 
temptation. Ang tuksohan, the 
place of temptation. Ana pagttik- 
sohaiij the place of much or re- 
peated temptation. Mag tukso- 
iuksohan (dim. ), to tempt a little, 
or in mockery. ManuksOf to tempt 
habitually. Ang manunukndf the 
tempter; temptress. Magpanuks/i^ 
to tempt frequently and a great 
deal. Ang ipanukso, the cause or 
means of the foregoing. Ang pa- 
nuksohanf the pla^ corresping to 
foregoing. Magpakatuksd, to tempt 
strongly. £x. : And ang ipinaapa- 
katuksoiian ( ipinakapagtuktonan ) 
nilM ( Why were they so strongly 

Tamukd, Gon\. like tumukid, Ap- 

girently applied to bite of snake. 
X.: Siydy linukd nang ahas (he 
waa bitten by the snake). 
Umalis, Imp., (I.) Mails ka; fR.) 
umallf ka. Past, Nalis akd (L); 
Ungmalis akd (ik.) (I left, went 
away, etc.) Fres., Nanalls akd 
(I.); ungmaalls akd (R. ) (I am 
goingawav, leaving, etc.). Pip., 
Nakans ahd (I had left). Fut., 
Aalis akd (I shall leave). F. P., 
Makanllg akd (I shall have left). 
Ang pagaliSf the leaving. (This 
root nas already been partly ex- 
plained. ) 

The following roots are conjugated like alls: 

To ascend. 

Umakyat. Anginakyat^ what ascend- 
ed or the person ascending. Ang 
iahjatf the cause. Ang akyatdn^ 
the place. 



Not to wish. 

Vmaijao. Ex. : Paayao ha (say you 
do not wish to). Bah'd siya najxi- 
(lynof (Why did she say she did 
not wish to?) 

Urn Igib. 

Uminnm. Imp., Mi nam Aa, drink. 
Malay m'nnun means "to drink.'* 
(This verl) has already been ex- 
plained. ) 



Vinund. (Already explained.) 

XX. Some polysyllabic (of more than two syllablen) roots beginning 
with 6, k, p, /, or a vowel, are conjugated with the ])artiele mati ((j. v. ). 

XXI. Some sixty-six polysyllabic verbal roots coniniencing with pa 
replace the first syllable with na in the pa.«t and present and with ma in 
the imperative and future. In the present and future tenses the second 
syllable of the root is reduplicated and )i(}t tlu; first. This conjugation 
resembles but is not identical with man. There are also some euphonic 
vowel modifications. (See tables for synopsis of conjugation. ) 

The verbal roots, which are conjugated in tliis manner, are the following: 
To verbalize these roots, change initial p to n or m as required for tense 
of indefinite. 

To go for water with a pitcher. 
To drink. 

To turn back; to go back; to fall 

back; to retreat. 
To return; to come back. 
To lead; to go ahead. 

To rise early. 

To profit; to make (in business). 

Paaf/d, from af;<), "morning." 

Pakinahang. Probably from a lost 
root tnhanr/, wliieh still exists in 
Bi('r)land Visavan, with the mean- 
ing "to aid; hel[); succor;" and 
the prefix fniki, def. of viaki. 

Pakinlfj. To listen to much, magpa- 

I*akinynp, from //.sa/> and paki, def. 
of maki. 

Pallgd. Magi i go, to bathe another; 
also rnagpa/lgo. Syn. panibo ( rare) . 
Maliqbka ( take a batli) . PaJigoan 
mo ang cahago (wash the horse). 

Paniaga, from bagd^ "a tumor, ab- 
ce>s," and pan. 

Pamaltag, from ht'ihag, " house," and 

To swell up (as a sting); also to Pamangind, from panghld^ "to 

swell badly. 
To supplicate; (2) to aacend into a 

To listen to (with attention). 

To solicit or urge (for good or evil). 

To bathe one's self; to take a bath. 

To swell. 

To dwell; to live in a house. 

house for important reasons 
To wag the tail (as a dog] 

swell" (the nerves), and pan. 
J\inianhik, from j/aiihik and pan. 

1*o incite; to provoke. 

Paiiidgpog { rare ) . Seiple thinks may 
l)efrom loi^t root;)a///>o>/, variation 
oi pagjHUi, "fan." Mamagjtay, to 
fan one's self or aimtlier. I'snal 
Word "to wave" i^ jtainasjK'm. 
Paspaidii iiKt {tug handila ( wave the 

Pamofigkalu. Kx. : Pinamninongkaliian 

ttiim ii/iti/i }irt vi/tfiift' tint II n'l mi I mt 

:i variation of pongkd^ **to incite 
to a(jiiarrel," and jxtn. This root 
\< sai«l to V)e of Chinese origin. 

To offer; to <le<Hcat»». J*n)iinj«utn. Seij)le says from Vira. 

j»art. jxuunj and auo, "what." 

To envy. PdnxijhU). Seiple also jjives thin as 

from p<tnnfj and ////», **<-nvy." 
I',x.: IfoiuKj hnuj manaffhifl so 
l:nj)nn mo tauo (Do not envy your 
neii:hl>or). Syn. piuiyhnffoln 
( rare ). 

r<> si'jrh; (2) to whistle. Panaffltni/^ from tdfjhoj/, "to pant, t«> 

hreatlie hard," an«l p(tn. 

r<) dream. PainKjhiip, from <jhit}> and pana, a 

(Oi I d)i nation found by Seiple in 
))nt four words of polysyllabic 
structure, llx.: Xaimnarpnip kn 
fxfi/.'if ! Are you dreaming?) Syn. 
}tiifnj>i,itnl(t<}^ iromti'ihfff, "sleej)." 

To put one's sell under the control pifufit/lsin/o^ from t'ti/isnt/o and fi^in. 
of another. Tlie ultimate root is su»fd with the 

same geru'ral meaning. 

To ]>ray. Piniahnnj'nt, from (fn/^nTjjIn and jnin. 

To trust; to (•(iuri«le. J'<ini'iliif, from snlig. Kx.: »SVv»i tniij 

aiiitisn/if/an ko, kntft nh'o mnt-'tpntnj 
( 1 tru"^t in him, and am brave for 
tliat reason). J^innptuia/itjan inn 
{j)Hitfi/i'fn}ii)i itio) (i]i[i I)i(tH (let 
vour trust 1m' in (lod [trust in 

(Jod] ). 

To vau'juish: gain; <'oM<iuer; win. Pawiht, inww inlnawd pun. Sino muj 

lutmiJof (Who was the winner?) 
Tuiu'iJo, totlispute (one). Mafjtnlo, 
to argue ( two, etc. ). Manah)^ indef. 
of jxiii'ilo. Mtujpatnlit, to allow 
one's^elf tobecon«juered. ]*atnlo, 
to eonseiit to be van«juishe<l. J/(j- 
l:if>i/'i, to interfere in a dispute. 
Aii'j iN'tiKiudlo, the winner; con- 
<lui'ror. .!?<'/ tdlnnan, the van- 
• juIsIumI. 

T'» <iiijT iuiM*r;il SMinj-.. p(iii'nnf>it(!)t, from satnhit, "funeral 

song,'' nn sutlixed and pun. 

To desrend by >tairs oi- ladd«*r: ('J) P<iii'u,ij. SeipU* gives a Panay-Vi- 
t" spend; to use up. sayan root ihhkj, but the Samar- 

bi'sle dialect seems to lack this 
word. l''x.: (Tag.) J'umnru'uuj^ tn 
dei^vi']u\ a ladtler (also, to go or 
Come down stairs), .^[(njp^uujofj, 
to do tlu' above much. Mngpupit- 
n-'it>'/, to order the above to be 
done; to use up; to spend. Ex.: 
\ii,/ihi/nnt(h><f umifj (wi ung nnrn- 
r'lUni (The property iias l.)een u«e<l 
upou aeeountof j)overty). Xapa- 
p'in(n>'/(in (ikn nam/ tijnung pisos (I 
have spent live pi'sos). Also with 
iiiti. K\.: Ant; luipunnoi] fia akin 
(11/ liiiHuifjpisos ( The amount of my 
s|)eudi ng was iive pesos). Mag- 
pnt\i'in>j also means to bring some- 




To sit clown (with the feet crossed 
and knees apart). 

To promise; to resolve 

To j)er8evere; to persist; to last. 
To i)enetrate (as water). 

To })e able to do. 

T<^ kneel down; to kneel. 
To prop with the liand. 

thinj: down .stairs or oy means of a 
ladder. .1 ng ipanmnj^ what brou«j:ht 
down. MagpapngiHint'tng^ to order 
something to be bronght down 

Pa IK t silt), from sll'), with same mean- 
ing with iHOfj and pan. .Seiple 
tliinks7)r//«i a root, but it may also 
l)e from the in<lef. Aug pinana- 
'ndnilaan, the person sat down be- 
fore, or the place. 

PnnaUi. Angpnnntahii)j what prom- 
ised. A)ig jHtnatahaUy the person 
}>romised. Syns. PiuTgakd; Tu- 
mandang. The roots ta/agd and 
pa una n have somewhat similar 

PanalHi, from tifi, idea of propping 
up; and pan a. 

Pduhniim (from timtiinf and pan). 
Seiple gives liglm as the root, mean- 
ing "to ooze into; to leak." No- 
ce<la gives jxindginttlm as the word, 
l^x. M'i/)<uifn/imfi)n S(( looh ang ma- 
.HdhKDig asdl (The evil habit pene- 
tratts the heart). 

Pangtiari ( from garl and jKin). Ma- 
hiipnugijarilunij powerful; omni- 
pott'ut. K(tp(nigif(irih(ni, j)ower; 
taeulty; authority. Kx. Magrnoii 
siifaiigk(ip(i)ig>f(irdinn ( he has power 
[or antliority] ). ]\'(ild signng /;. 
(lie is without a). ]V(tld a Long k. 
(1 am without a). Mangijari., to 
l)e ]>ossi))li'. Ex. Jfindi mangga- 
yari (It can not l)c). Ulndunann- 
yaring d( tiio punnirnon (I can not 
possii»ly keep from going there). 
Manf/gnri fmgaiig dl nkn pumnroonf 
(Is it not j)ossible for me to keej* 
from going there?) Annt dl nnin- 
gi/dgarl/ ( Why should it not be.vo.'') 
Mag naitggari dona sa h'l/iag nigd 
(Snniething has hapi)encd in his 
house overt here). Snkaf manggari 
(Supi>o.<e it may happen?) ]>l 
snhat niangiiarl ( It should not h<\\^- 
]>en). Maitggagai i dm I It Will lU- 
<lee<l be posj^i))le). )'<in alone 
means done; linished; fomplete«l. 
I'.x.: Ydi) na ang fii'dat (The letter 
is alr(^a<ly finished U 

pdiiikhdind. (Alrea«ly ex}>laine<l ). 
Syn. Ldinnhnfl, 

Paio'ni. Ang ipinant'in, what|)rop])ed 
thus. Mdgtiin, to put out the 
hands in ordrr t«) rise; (2) also to 
stamp or jtriut. TiiiKin mo ang 
]fdj»/, <tanip or })rint it on the 





To think; also **to regret* 
To Hquat. 

To believe; to confide in; to trust 

To guide; to lead. 

To accomplish the will. 

To view (as a spectacle); to gaze at; 
to sight; to behold; to look at 
from far off; to view with astonish- 

To make water. 

To lodge. 

To wait upon the pleasure of another; 

to flatter; (2) to serve. 
To promise. 

To dare; to venture. 

paper. Root tiin and pan. Ttin 
means ** to prop oneself with hands 
and feet in order to rise." 

Panimdim (from dimdhn and pan). 
This root is domdom in Bicol. 

Paninakayad (from tinkayad and 
pan). Also tumingkayadj with 
same meaning. 

Paniwala (from tiwaia and pan). 
Jn^ibatinvtZa, the confidant; bosom 


Panofos (from a lost root, toloSy sug- 
gests 8eiple, who cites the Java- 
nese word *Uulns, sincere; faith- 
ful; loyal, etc." and adopted in 
Malay). Ex.: Htndt ak6 manolos 
kumainf at ang muasakit akd nang 
lagiiat (I can not force myself to 
eat, l)ecause I am sick with fever). 

Pan (tod (from n6od and pan). Ma- 
iwodf to look at what contents and 
gives pleasure-. Ang pinan6rpd, 
what beheld. 

Panubig (from tubig and pan). 

Pamiluyan (from tuloy ana pau). 
Ang panuluyananf the lodging 
place; also ang tuloyan. Ang ipn- 
nuluyan, the cause or person for 
whom lodging is looked for. Mag- 
papanuluyanf to give another lodg- 
ing. Ang papantduyanin, the per- 
pon given lodging. Titmuloy to 
lodge. Magtuloy, to lodee many 
or much. Ang tuluyan^ tne lodg- 
ing place. Ang pagtuluyan^ the 
lodging place of many or much. 
Ang itiUoy, the cause. Ang ipatj- 
tuloy, the cause of many or much. 
Magpatuhy, to give lodging. Ang 
patuluyiuy the person given lodg- 
ing. Ang paliduyan, the place 
where given lodging. Ang pajHig- 
tuluyin^ the person given much 
lodging. Angmaiigdpapagtnluyin^ 
the persons given lodging. Ang 
pmagpapatxduyan^ the lodging 
houses. Ex.: Sino ang nanunu- 
luyan sa bdhay mof (Who is Uie 
lodger at your house?) Imitg ma- 
h trap na pinaluloy ko 9a dking bdhati 
(a poor man whom I have ^loweci 
to lodge at my house). 

Panuyd (from stiyd andjMin). See 

PaiTgakd (def.); mangakd (indef.). 
Syn., panata. From ako, "secu- 
rity," and pan. 

PaugaMs; mangahas (probablv from 
dahcutf **idea of bravery," and- 
pan). Seiple points out that the= 



To become tired from niuoh standing 
or being in the same position a 
long time. 

To become thin; emaciated. 

To become numb {m* thv, arm or lej: 
from inaction); to "go to sleep." 
To fold the arms. 

To rest the face upon the hand; to 
bnrv face in hands. 

To apprehend; to dread. 

To Ix-ar a child; to lie in. 

To }^. with child for the first time 
To dread. 

To l«x)k in mirror or other reflecting 

T^ hurt; to damage; to malign; to 
rnake a.«hamed. 

To talk in nleej); to dream. 
To humble or abase oneself. 

To niake love; to woo. 

To Vje jealous. 

To tremble; to shudder. 

To warn; to guard oneself; to sneak 

regular formation should be pana- 
Juis. In Hicol, dahas means .vio- 
lence; force. 

J*aiT(j<ilay. Ex. : Nangangdlay ka naf 
(Are you tired already?) Hindi 
p6 (no, sir). The roots rujalay, 
hin/jalay, wjalo^ and iTyimi have 
about the same meaning. 

PaiTfjoliraiiy (greater than yayat). 
Sy n. , jKifTyatigany. Root, rujalirang 
and })nn. 

J\ti7j/(Uo (from iTfjah, '* idea of pain 
from fatigue"). Syn., nyiini 

Paiujd/oLijtkip (from Judokiplipy to 
cross the arms). Var., pnuhnlo- 
kilfk'ip. Ult. root, kipkijf. Ex.: 
Kiuitipkip, to lay the arm or leg 
upon anything. BokH bi ntuufajTij- 
(dttkijtkipf (Why are you folding 
your arms?) Seijde shows that 
lid/n often prefixes roots composed 
of two i<leiitical syllables. 

P(ii7(i<dmidnd>il (from iTijrd urn ha hd and 
pa u ) . Var. , mjaynmhahd . Tauong 
niapniT<j<dund}ahd, a melancholy 

PaiTj/amha (less than paiTf/dMb or 
lakol). From gitrnha, *'idea of 
dread," and }>an. 

l*(ii'i]}<n«ik (from anaky *'ehild," and 


Pamjnnih (from gdnib, ** idea of being 
in danger' ' ) . ( C i reater degree than 
pdiTljainha. ) 

Pawjaunit) (from an'ino, "image, 
shadow," and pa/*). 

]*ainjaiiyayii (from anyaya and pan). 
MakapaiTj/anyaya, to cause dam- 
age. J\ii7i/anyayaiig tana, a person 
who destroys property, maligns, 
etc. AnyayangtayOj a lazy person. 
MukapapaiTijanyaya (adj.), harrn- 
fni; hurtful; slanderous. 

raiTy'trap (from arap^ "i<lea of 
dreaming," and pan). 

Pai7(/<iy((]tapd (from lu/ayupapd and 
])an ). 

PaiTi/thly (from ihiy and ])an). See 

Pairyiyhoyhu (from hoffha, "idea of 
jealousy;" still found in jtanl- 
Imy/io, * * jealousy " ) . 

Painjih'i},(,t (from kilabof, "idea of 
tremblintr" ). 

P<tmidag («Ief. ); )nafTjjiltig (indef. ); 
l»oth from 'day. VmUay^ to flee. 
May'day, to draw aside; to avoid. 
PaiTydayan mo any maiUja ti'unnig 
iirdany pinayaralan (avoid men 
witljout education [l)reeding] ). 

To \)v scornful. Pai7l;ilap. Seiple thinks may be 

from sllavy "idea of a wordy (juar- 
rel," ana )>(in. 

To keep holiday t>. PniTii'din (from iTfjiling, "idea of (t\y- 

tiervinjjj lioHdays [tie^tas], etc.," 
and jftin). Seiple tjhserveH that 
tlie final (; of the root has l)een 
droi)ped, l>ut this may he acci- 

To become numb (jis t])e arm or leg J\uTijinii{ir(>mt7(jimi). 8yn. ;/a//7/«/'>. 
Iruni inactiom ; tn "l:o to >U't^p." 

Totrem))le (much witli cold <>r tear) . Pttmjinig (fnun k'nii(jy really kinyitj). 

Kiiminig, to tremble with cold or 
liar. M(n/Hni(j, to tremble much 
thus. MaHuitj, to !>e trembling? 
thus [state]. MaiTlfmig^ indef. of 
jnuTg'in'uj. MahipaiTghiig, to cause 
to trend)le with cold or fear. 

To feel a tin^linj; i»ain in the teeth. J'afTfpiTjfUo (from pangiloy itself from 

wi'ilt\ a tingling pain in the teeth. 

To sliake (as from till' agui^ ). I^uHjiki (from iTj/lki). Aki'>'g nan- 

g'nTgiki (1 am shaking). 

To precede (as in room or street); PotTguna (from ?(«(/, "first," and 
to <ommence; to stait or brjiin. pun). 

To lo.<e in trade, business, or barter. I\iwjnhigl (from iTgulugi^ a loss in 

business, and jKin). 

T< ) lul k. PaiTgAstip ( from tUap and pan). F^x. : 

Hindi kd )nukop<i}7[jnMi]).^ (Can't 
you talk?) (See usajt, already 
jiartly explained). 


Vni vrrlts jire made diminutive bv the repetition of the root if )>isvllabii', 
or tin* lirsl l\v<» syllables if longer. I'.x.: 

T(» nm. Tnmnkho. Ttnnakho-tnkho,ii)n\ui\Av', 

to run a little. 

To rain. VumU'tn. Pinnlnn-nlnii^ to <lrizzle. 

in ordinary composition the hv- 
l>hens are generally omitted. 

TUK VKKn.\M/.iN(i ivMiTicM: "ma(;." 

Tiic particle nnig is usecl t<> verbalize roots, as a general rule, either 
when a delinite o)>je(t is held in view or else when the ^■erb fl«>es not 
re.|iiiie an ••hjeci to expri^ss intensity (smnetimes j>lurality) with n.ots 
which .ne \ crhaU/ed in the simplest sense with nm. Mtni has also a reel p- 
r-Mal ,:i]Utiiali idea, on i/nrn) bi'ing Usually sullixed. 

.1/"-/. uhi(h i> al\\a\s a ]>rt^lix. changes \(^ nng \n the present and past 
len^r-. The ji r.'^f >\ liable nt the To/./ is reduplicated tor the jiresent and 
tuline t( MiiLn an<l imkn, which are used to indicate the second 
lulufc perfe( t and i>luperlect, respectively, retain /ur//, the definite of ntng^ 
with the i<>. .1, as tlie\- are also independent jiarticles when used alone. 
In this resjicct, anil also in the retention of the particle in front of the 
redni>licated initial s\llable of tlu' root in the future tense, all j)article8 
flitter from nm, (See t)ie table tor conjugation of mug ro(»tS. ) 

1. V'^'/, jirelixed to n'(»i> whicli admit "/// and which do not change the 
iiii'ini,,'/ witji imi'i, sigiiilics ])lurahiy either of ])ersons or acts, this being" 
t)ie general njeaning imparted hy this particle. Mog (nag) sometimes 
throw- the accent U])on the last syllable of a root. Ex.: 



To guard; watch for. 

To sit down. 

Ttimauod. Magianod^ to guard much 
or by many. Ang tanorafiy what 
guarded. Ang pagtanoran^ what 
guarded much or by many. Ang 
ttanodf the cause of guarding. 
Ang ipagtanody the cause of guard- 
ing much or by many; also the 
person for whom guarded, if there 
be a person concerned. 

Umup6. Magupdf to sit down ( many ) . 

Among other verbs may be mentioned maglnisd, to read much or bv 
many {bumam); magkainy to eat much, etc. (kumain); maggiiky to thresh 
(gumiik); maainuniy to drink much, etc. (umxnum)\ maglakad, to walk 
mach, etc. (Ium6.kad)\ magmlntj to write much or by many {sumulot); 
magUikbdy to run much or by many (tumakh't) ; magtangiSy to weep much 
or l)y many {tumangis)^ and magtuksdy to weep much {tumukad); all of 
which verb« have been heretofore explained. 

II. Those roots which do not admit um as a verbalizing particle are not 
pluralized by mag, but simply verbalized in the primary sense. Besides 
others, all roots beginning with in fall in this class on account of caco- 
phony (harshness) with um. 

To grind (as grain). 
To enhance. 

To think with care. 
To see well (purposely). 

To inherit. 

To note; to experience. 
1*0 start; to commence. 

Magbay6. Ang hay in y what ground. 
Ang bayohan, the grinding place. 

Magmahal. Ang ndnaviahcdy the es- 
teemed, etc., person. Ex.: Ang 
banal na tdito ay luiuamahal (the 
just person is esteemed). Mama- 
haly to rise in value. Ex. : Nama- 
mahal ang lakd (the merchandise is 
rising in value). Manpakamahal, 
to esteem highly. Ex.: Pinagpa- 
pakamahal ko sa kaniyd (I do es- 
teem him highly). Also with 
maira alone. Ex.: Pinakamamahal 
ko sa kaniyd. Makimahaly to act 
like a noble person. Mapakimahaly 
to arrive at a state of being es- 
teemed. Kamahalany dearness; 
nobility, etc. 


Magmalas. To see well, casually, 

Magmana. Ang pagmanahiny what 
inherited. Ang magkamanay to 
leave property. Aug ipamanny the 
estate. Ang pamanoy the inherit- 
ance ( verbal noun ) . Ex . : Iloang 
painana sa dkin nang amd ko (This 
was my inheritance from my 
father). Ang pagmanahany the 
heir. Makimanay to ask for an in- 

Magmamd. Ang mapagmasidy the 
person who notes or experiences. 

Magmuld. Muldn mo itOy commence 
this. Used only thus in impera- 
tive and past indicative. As ** pro- 
ceed *' it IS used in past and present. 


. 1 inj pifinrjinHnnihin, the point from 
which proceeding. JA(/a as prep, 
means "from; since." 

To recall to memory. Matfimil). Also nieanj^ to 0{>en the 

eyes widely; and to look at well. 

To cliea})en: insnlt; <lishonor. yftujinm-n. Mannint^ to lower in 

vnhie. A)ig hiurahin, vvhatchea]>- 
(MK'd, or who insulted, dishonored, 
etc. Miii;pri/:(Uitnr(iniiir(f, to despise 
intensely. Mognmrahatij to insult 
mutually. .1 nfjlinkomnnam/ jiltup}- 
)fiur(ih(tn nilnj they insulted each 
other in the court room. 

There are c()mparatively few vcrhal r<»)t,s heginning with //< in theTaga- 
ln;j:. The forcgoinjx are nearly all tliat arc in connnon use. A few otliers 
arc to be found, which will he notc«l later, u>ed with other particle.'^. 

III. Konts ^vhich chanizc the mcanihvj with <'/// and m<uj are pluralized 
in two wavs with VKto. \i the fiii'il svllahle of the root is iiranted nor- 
mally the^/r.s7 fiyjlahlc of the /v^oMs added rxtra in all tenses, hut if the 
accent is not normally upon the last syllable of the rout, plurality is 
expressed by chan«:injj: the accent to tlie linal syllable. It should also be 
noted that tlie meaning i/iau(/(s hack. 

To buy, ThiniU'i. Miui}»il'i^ to sell. Xncfhihil'i 

itko, I amsi'lling. yuf/hihibUl <iL''>. 
1 am buyinji much. This form is 
now rar«'. nnni ( <j. v. ) being gen- 
erally used. Ex.: yniniinH'i ak'> 
(1 am buying nuich ). 

I'o teach (as a doctrine 1. I'nn'irnl. Minjt'iritJ, to learn; to 

studv. Mdonrnl, to teach much: 
to j)reach. Now generally re- 
place<l by mail. Kx. : Mdiiynntf 
to preacii. 

The reduplication ot a bisyllabic root or the tirst two syllables of a pr»ly- 
syllabic mot inleiisilics plurality with imi'j roots. This same construction 
with inn roots indicates <liminutives. M<i(/ roots a<ld (in {han) to express 
<liminutives or i'e«'iproc:d verbal acti(»ns, which have to be distinguished 
by the context, meaning, etc. Ex.: 

To think. Mn<i'i/iji. yfat/isip'tsip, U) think 

dee}»ly; j)rof()und.Iy. 

To me«litate. Mmin'thni, M<if)nil(jyn'ilaii, to me<h- 

tate j)rof«»undly. Mnu'ilat/ )ta ti'ivo^ 
ji consi«lerate person. Mnn'ifat/. 
also means to lisli. J\ininilat/int, 
a fishing canoe. 

To fnllnw ; to obey, Sii nniiiOil. MiKjsiinods'iUHKl^ tO foUow 

in rapid siMjuence (many). 

1 \' \'i). boots which may admit the idea <»f more or less take an addi- 
tiunjil rcp.-tiiion <»f the tiist syllable to signify intent or ])lurality. If tlie 
entire ro(»t be repeatt-d the ]>lnrality is intensilied. Hootsof threeor more 
^\ llables repeat only th«^ two lir^t, according' to the general rule in Taga- 
l^-^r. V.\.\ y<n;siis>iiii/><i 'i/:n s'l Ic'ijtldlx'ihai/ L(f {\ have cursed my neigh lx)r 
many times). Xti'j.^iis)ii,tit<isninjn't <thn s<i InpidhaJuui ko (1 have cursed 
[slan<le)cdj my nei'jhbor times without munber). 

\>>) .l/'/y and the (jdublcd root in certain cases signify the perfonnanct* 
of an act and it<^ opp«'>iie. N'nbs e\]>i«'-sinLr an unsteady motion orcpiick 
change iA jm. sit ion are also fornnMl in a similar manner, (c) In the present 



tenj^e nag may be dropped, being 
syllable of the primitive root. Some 

To pase. 

To go or come out. 
To tarn over. 

To stagger; to reel. 

To shift about; to chanfje mntimi- 
allv; to turn over continuallv. 

To wander alniiit aimlessly, (inn). 
To stagger. 

To tiptoe about; to walk on tiptoe?j. 

To l>end over. 

To move (r). 

To walk with the head on one sidt 

replaced l»y the reduplicated initial 
xirn verbs^ have this lorin also. Ex. (6) : 

DuntfUDi. }f(u/diuni, to \)Sl<s many 
times or by many. Mrujdiiaudadn, 
to ))ai?s and repass many times. 
Dinniiht, a made road. />/ nuulan- 
71(1 If, irnpa.ssible. Mnkaraan^ to be 
able to j)a.«s. Maifparuan, t<> allow 
to pasH Ex.: Pnmanin mo ak6 
( 1 et m e pasH ) . Ilin di ho para rani) hi 
haui/an dl mo ako bibi(f'/dn namj 
kavnfinfj tuhi<f (I will not let you 
pass until you give me a little 
watiT). Ihian also means '*hun- 

LuDiahd.'i. Maglafms, to take out. 
Miujl(dtan/(fhas^ to go out or come 
in (many times) . 

Magbalif/fod. Ma(jhnid>ali(itad, to 
turnover. Ex. (c): Babalibaligtad 
antj ntaf/ sakit ,sa hiltignn (the sick 
man is turning over and over in 

Miujbalhmlx'd'nKj. Ba balingbd I in g 
ynnini tdno, that man yonder is 
reeling. Magpapa<jbaHng}H\l'mg, to 
be staggering from walking, etc. 
Ex. : Pi)i(ipagb(fba/in<fb('iH/Hj mo akd 
mtng pag}i(iii((p na igd (I am ready 
to fall from looking for you. Syn. 

Magbil{mfbHi)ig. Ex. : Blbi/ingbi/hTij 
inaitdin siga (he is shifting about). 
/iibi/ingbl/ing an;/ l6ob ko ( I have 
my d(Hibts). BlbUlngblUng ang 
mng sakil s<i fiihigdn (the sick man 
is twistiui: an<l turning in bed). 

Stim n/liigsnling. SKsnUngfii'dliig ,*tigd 
(he is wandering about Mindessly ). 

Magsfinii/st'i rag, Snsitragsu rag sigdf 
( Is he staggering'.') Opd, finglasing 
ag stfsnr(n/i<''irag knng Inmdkad (yeS 
sir, a drunken man staggers when 
he walks) . 

Tnni'md. Magt'tadtiad, totiptoe about 
nuicli. Tttiadttdd akd (I am walk- 
ing about on my tiptoes). 

Cntdkod. Magdkod, to l)en<l over 
much. Madkod, to be bent over. 
M'lgukaddkod, to walk bent over 
or wavi'rinjrly. Cnkoddkotf sig'f 
( lie walks bent over) . lukodnkod 
ginnig iiHif'indd (that o|«l pers<»M 
walks lialtinjzly) . 

K'linibn. Mdgklh'ikibd, to movi.' 

Magkilingkdmg. hjang hnld^g kiki- 

To wa]»ble (c). Kumtndntf. Magkindaykinday, to 

wabble much. Syn. Magkinding- 
k hiding. 

V. Mag is also used to V'Xpress pergonal actions which may Ik* dual ur 
plural in character, reciprocity or mutuality bein^ implied. If the plurality 
IS to be intensitied, the root is repeated, Ful)jeit lo thejjreneral rule for jxjly- 
gyllabic roots. Kx.: 

To quarrel; to light. Magbalmg. ^ing pa gba bag ^ the &ctoi 

(luarrelinji. Mdjmghahag, quarrel- 
some jierson. A)tg huhtigiu, the 
[»ers<>ri (juarreled with. 

To a.ssemble (purposely.) M(tgpn/oug. Ex.: Xagpupulong dug 

)(idiT^j('l iinigiutni Sd bayau (the 
"principales" of the town are 
a.^semblinj;). An'> *nig p'umgpn- 
loiTi/dn kuitilnf (Whv have tiiev 
met?) Aug ip'niagjtnlong idhVy 
itdng ])dgt(sdf>dii ang j/dgdating 
tidiig gobi'niddor-gtnerdl (The pur- 
pose <>f their meeting; wad to talk 
over the coming of the governor- 
^enrral ). 

To as.semV>lc; to meet (purposely). Mngt'ipon. Tnintpoit^ to join (one). 

}fdg/:dtlftoii, to meet or assemble l>y 
cluuwe (as a street crowd). Ex.: 
Xdgkdlip'ui a tig mniT-jd tduo sa bn- 
//(////;«> (S<»mei»eoi)le have happened 
to meet in my house). Aug kdti- 
pioutit, the a,'^st'nd)]y. Also tlu' 
poj)ular name of the well-known 
revolutionary society, the K. K. K. 
Ex.: Ang pindgkdkatipiman inmg 
iiidiTgd nHirio'dnong ( Tlie meeting- 
]>hni; (tf tlie learned people — i. e., 
of lcarne<l societies, etc). Ifint-jg 
kdiig suifidnuiU hlinli itdbabaguy >a 
Isdiig fbtldgdug }>ntndrooN m piriaf;- 
kokatipunan nang viai'dining lulaki 
(l>t) n<»t accomj>any [him, lier, or 
thiMii] because it is not proper for 
a ^'iil lo go where there is a meet- 
ing of many men). 

Other verbs <.f this nature, all of which have been mentioned before, are 
indgliiird/dg, to se[>arat«' mutually; nidg/ti.^dn, t<» associate; magkit/i, to see 
ea< h other; iiid-i.«iind, to ae«'<Mnpany each other; waghilo, to argue; and 
iiid[iiisii p, to <(i|i\ t'lst^; Im litiifate. 

\'l. The di>lin(tinu lutwren plurality, inti'nsity, etc., and mutuality, 
reci[>ro( ity, etc., i^ .^nmetimes made by a ihange ot" accent. Ex.: 

To approach (one i. Luim'tpit. Mdglapil, to draw near. 

M<igld/>i(y to ajiproach mutually. 
Md/dpH, near. M<ib'ipit siya sa akin 
{ lie is a relative of mine). 

Tol-.(»kat. Kinnild. Mdgkild, to look at each 

other. Mdgkitd, to look at many 
things; or to look at intently. 

VI I. M'lg verbalizes reciprocal action- <>f m nature admitting com[)etition 
r»r nvalrv, provided that ii«> special emphasis is }>laced upon the conten- 

4 I."".. 



To become reconciled (two). 

Tostir, mixingataametime; to shake. 

Maghatl (also to epeak in a friendly 
way ) . Magpabatif to become recon- 
ciled (many). 

Humaib. Ang haloing what shaken; 
stirred. Maghald^ to mix two (or 
more ) things together. Ang ihald, 
what mixed, ^n^/ia/oan, the mix- 
ing place, etc. Ang hinaldy what 
shaken (past). Ang ihinald, what 
mixeii (past). 

VIII. Voluntary reciprocal actions of certain classes are also conjugated 
with mag prefixecf to the root and an {han) {nan) suffixed. Ex.: 

To mock; jeer at. 

To suffer; to endure. 

To kick. 


1*0 help; to aid (another). 

Magbird, Maabiroan, to mock each 
other. Makipagbiroany to mock 
greatly'; to jeeratanothorviciously. 
nirobirbf mapagbir6y j>alabir6t all 
stand for degrees of being a jester, 
etc. Magjyalabirdy to jest with a 
good deal. Tduong hirdj an incon- 
siderate i>er8on. 

DumalM, Magdalitaany to suffer for 
each other, or mutually. Magpa- 
kadaiidalitdy to suffer intensely. 
Mawt^dalitd^ sufferer. Kadaliiaan, 
puftenng. I)i madaUtd, intoler- 
able; insufferable. 

Sumikad. Magnikady to kick much. 
Magsikarany to kick each other. 
Manikady to ki(;k habitually. Also 
inagsumikady to work with rapidity. 
Synonyms for kicking: Tuma- 
dyaky magUidyak, viagiadyakan, 
tumindaky magtindaky magtinda- 

Sttmumpd. Ang ^umpain, who or 
what cursed. Aug istimpdy the 
reason or cause of cursing. Mag- 
sumpdf to curse much; also many 
at same time. Ang pagsumpainy 
who or what cursed thus. Ang 
ipagsiimpdy the cause or reason for 
cursing thus. Magsvimpanny to 
curse each other. Manumpdy to 
curse habitually; also to take an 
oath. Ang paiasnmpd, the habit- 
ual curser; also the witness. Ang 
panunumpd, habitual cursing, or 
the oath taken. Ang panumpaany 
the person administenng the oath; 
also the place. Ang ipunumpdy 
the testimony given; also wnat 
sworn habitually. 

Tiimulong. Magtulong^ to help 
another much. Sfagtulongany to 
help each other. Mannlong, to 
help another often. Manulongan; 
magpanxdongauy to help each other 
much or often. Ang katulong, the 
aid; assistant; helper. 


Tonse in.'^iiltint; or iiulecent language; MatjtinTijayao. Magtuuijayauan^ to 
to sav f*ucli wonls. abu^^e eat'h otiier thu^. Manuiuj- 

(I'/do, to alnifie or insult thus con- 
tinually or habitually. Mapag- 
tiuTt/tii/'in, alniser; insulter. 

Ainon^ other verbs of this <lcf^cription may be cited nuigkngatdn, to bite 
t'ach otijer; ifiagihif/dn, to like eacli otlier; nmgjhihHtn^ to cudgel each 
other; inngsintdhni), to love each other; iitiigsmionin, to follow each other; 
and )N'(g(anan'tn, to lau<rh at ea<h other. All of these have l)een mentioned 

IX. In tlie use of mag to verl)alize actions admitting reciprocity, care is 
necessary in noting tlieir nature and tlie intent and j)urf>ose for which the 
actions may bi* executed, as there are local differences in this respect. 
Reciprocal verbs reipiire an object which returns tlie action. (A) Thus, 
mug prelixed and an sutiixed with a root which admits competition 
expresses rivalry. (B) If the action riM|uires an object and rivalry is to 
V>e expressetl, the sullix (in should be rei)eated. 

To jump. Lfnif'fls,]. Maglokuf't, to juni]) much 

or by many. Mng/okstthan, to junij) 
in com}>etition. (This verb has 
already been explained. ) 

To look. Tninii7i}iu. MagtiiTghi, to look at 

nuich (►r by many. Mdgt'uTij'nuin, 
to look at each other. (Hereto- 
fore explained.) 

To jjush; to shove off ( as a boat ) . Tnmnhik. Magtulahy to ])Ush hard 

<>r l>y many. Mnglulahhi^ to]>ush 
:i«:ainst each other. MagfaUihnxui, 
to i>ush in rivalry or competition. 

X. ,V'/f/ and tlie reduplicati'd root form intensive reci]»rocal verbs which 
can only be distinguished from «limiiuUives, verbs of feigning, mockery, 
imitation. <'tc., by the context. ,\s usual, polysyllabic roots re|)eat tlie 
lirst tw<» syllables onlw Ivx.: 

To (Mubrace. }'tiin('t/:(ij>. MaggaLap, to embrace 

each other; to tie up to a j)ost. 
MnggnLtipgnLtf/KDt, to tuid)race 
each other warndy; also means 
"to end)ra<H* a little, to pretend to 
end)race. to imitate embracing." 

Other verb^ aln*ady cited are ntdgdlxil'thfilan, to reach many things; to 
]»ass many things from hand to ban«l, etc.; iiingh(tti'Uio(irnii, to send to each 
otber. elr.. an<l inngtiiTiiint'nT'giiKfii, to look at each other closely; to pretend 
to j. »ok. et<". 

.\ 1. .\</'/ Uiay also be iiilixeil with nuig. forming //<'//M/rf</, the j>article thus 
made iinpartiuir \\\v idea ..f great }»lurality when prefixed to a root. PLx.: 

To (•< inverse. ^!it</i'i.<iij>. Mumjtigu.vtji^ to converse' 

I as a gr«'at crowd). 

XII. Ixoots uitli iiKi't may 1m- us«d liotb with and without an object, the 
UH^uiing \ai'\ing more <>r U's^ in >urb «a>e>. V.\.: 

T«) divide into 4'(|iial parts. Ii(ini<ili<igi. Maghiihagi haga! Dis- 

perse I Mitglmht'uji higo Tiiloiig sa- 
lii()i (divide this money). 

XIII. Movement caused l»y an outside ai^ency is expressed by mag. As 
uill be ri'n]end»ered, self-niovement is expressed by inn (l*ar. XI, vm). 
If'imam/n, to pull out, take out, etc., is an I'xcej'tion to the rule. Ex.: 


To fell tree?; to blow trees down (as Mmj^mnl. .l/i^/)?/^///), the tree felled, 
the wind). Aixj ilmnl, the person ft'lling, or 

wind. Anijhtt(i/a)i,i\\{^]Aiice. Antj 
P'lmudl, the instruiiient, i. e., ax. 

To part from another; to j^o to a dis- lAunm/o. Lmnaifd, to remain left far 
tance. away (l)y another). Ma<jJ(f}fo, to 

part (two) J also to remove any- 
tlnng to a distance. Mahnjo, dis- 
tant; far. 

To (voluntarily, as a bird). Tuiik'iuh. 3/a7/(J</.*?, to raise; toliftup. 

M<it''ms, high; tall; noted, KdUvi- 
san, height. KntaasOtdsai). ex- 
treme height. 

Among other verbs of like nature, which have alreaily been explained, 
are //ia^/a/^s, to take away; tnafjh'i/tif, to draw Fometldng near; viaij/Kint'nn/, 
to take f>r let anything downstairs or a ladder; ifunjp'ifflnk, to take any- 
thing upst aire or up a ladder, etc.; mafjsilld, to juit anything in or into; 
magtnyOf to si't up; and iiKK/finffitf, to stand anything U})right. 

XIV. Bodily voluntary actions affecting one's self only, or thi>se per- 
mitted to be done, are expressed with vnn;. Tlmse actions of like nature 
performed upon another take run (Par. XW, dm). Ex.: 

To whip one's self (as in penance). }f(i(/l(anip''i.'<. Jfunitnnjtas, to whip 

anotJHT. MfKfjuiJuiinpns^ to allow 
one's self to be whipj>ed, etc. Pn- 
hantj/is, to consent to be whipjK'd. 
Ex. : IIotuHj kiuiij itnltiimpiUsa shtO' 
in'in («lon't letanyone whip you). 

Other verbs following this rule are fully explained in T*ar. XIT under 

XV. As has been noted 7nfi;j expresses for the indetinite the idea of los- 
ingcontrol, as ?///< expresses the idea of a<(|uiring the same. What is lost 
control of is ex])res.sed in the deliuit(» with /', coml)ined with in for the 
pa.^t and other tenses where necessary. For the aid of the memory it 
inav be said that verbs of throwing away, tli rowing at, etc, sowing, scat- 
tering, pouring out, nnxing, })lacing, jutting, giving, and selling follow 
this rule. Ex.: 

To throw away. M'i(jf(i//(in. (-Vlrea<ly exj)laine«l.) 

To throw or dash down. MtujIu'tliKj. (Alrea<ly explained. ) 

To throw at (as with a rock). MtKipnkoL An[i piill'm^ what thrown 

at, or stoned. Aikj ijjnLu/l^ what 

To throw at; to pelt. }f<vi}t'i'iin. Ex.: y(n/h(n/i.'< nko naiuj 

haf'f (I threw a intone). 

To throw up (much). M(n/stiL<'t. ^Snmnha, to throw up. 

To scatter rice seed. Mat//iifi<i/:. .\f(ntli<isil:, to sow nuu'h 

rice thus or by many working to- 
gcth( r. 

To scatter in the air; to emit. Mdfjsn/nhi'ilat. Aikj l.tmnln'i/dl, what 

scatterecl, as grain, etc. Smntnn- 
hnhtf, to scatter. disj>erse, as a 
crowd of its own voliiinn. ,1/'/- 
iitiiiihi'ilnt. to scatter much, either 
by inside nr outside agency. 

To scatter seed. Majsahmj. (Already explained.) 

Svn., nioiiii aliif. Manlnlnf,:\\Tv'M\\ 
set forth: means to spread, prop- 

To transplant. Mni/pinihi. Mmitannn, to plant, to 

set out (already explained). 


To scatter. MagbulagBak. (Already explained.) 

To break up; scatter (as parts of a Maguxuak. 

house torn down). 
To pour out. MagboM. Ang boMn^ what poure<l 

into. Ang ibobd^ what poured 
out Syn., maghuhos (already ex- 
To pour out ; flhake out (not liquids). Maghohd. Ang ihohd, "what poured 

or shaken out, as grain, etc. 
To saturate with water. Maghmik, var. magbaygak. 

To mix. Maghaid. (Already explained.) 

Syns., magsahog; maglnhok. Lu- 
mahokj U) join. 
To stew; to boil meal, etc. Maglugao. AngUuaao^ the material. 

Ang limugaOj the mush; stew. 
Ang lu//auan, the stewpan, etc. 
To put wooil on the fire. Magg&tong^ also to stir up the fire. 

Magpiujdion^, to ask that the fire 
be stirred up. Makig&tong^ to ask 
for a few coals to start a fire. Ang 
igdlong, the poker, etc. Ang 
gaiongin, what burned. Ang ga- 
iongan^ the place. 
To place. Maglagay. (Already explained.) 

To put in the sun. Maglnlad, (Already explained.) 

To place in layers, etc. MagmUong. (Already explained.) 

To give. Maghigay. ( Already explained ) . ) 

To present with; to make a gift. Magbiyaya. (Already explained.) 

To grant; to give. Magkal6oh. Ang ijtagkaldobf the 

To give; primarily, to hand to an- Maagdtuid, Gtimditac/, to stretch out 
other by reaching out the arm. the arm in order to reach soine- 

thinj|. ^4?iflr^aMarm, what reached. 
Angigdnaa^ what given or handed 
over. Ang iginduadf what was or 
has been given, etc. 
To sell. Maghili. (Already explained.) 

To sell goods. Maglakd. Maglaki, to peddle from 

town to town. Ang ilako, what 
sold. Ang ilakd, w'hat peddled 
from place to place. 
To trade on a small scale; to sell at Magutay. (Alr^uly explained.) 

To sell at cost. Magdmot. Ang ipagdmot, what sold 

at cost. 

Verbs of *' permitting, sending, restoring," etc., also follow the ma</ an<l i 
conjugation. Ex.: 

To permit. Magiuht. .in^^i/ii/of, what permitted. 

To send; to remit. Ma/jhatid. (Already explained.) 

To restore. Magmoli. (Already explained.) 

XVI. Being of like nature, verbs of "speaking, relating, telling," etc., 
are conjugate<l bv mag in the indefinite and i in the definite. A few% how- 
ever, have um with i for the object. Ex. : 

To tell; narrate; report. MngmUtd. (Definites, already ex- 


To re|X)rt; to announce; to tell the Magbalitd. Ang ipinagbalUd^ the 
news. news announced or reported; also 

the cause or means (past tense). 



To converse (two). 

To converse (two or more). 

To speak; pronounce. 
To explain. 

To speak in a low tone; alt^o to mut- 
ter; grumble; talk about another 
in absence, etc. 

To ask; to inquire. 

^iug ]>i7Wf/halitam}^ the persc^n to 
whom told, etc. (past 
Mak'imaiUd, to ask for news. 

Magmbi. Totalk (one),/?yn//ff.'>i. To 
talk much, rnagsuh'i. (This verb 
has already l)een explained.) 

Magi'iMip. (Already explained.) 
MatTjjuftaf), to talk. Ex.: Mnkn- 
ftfiiTj/H,s(f]t knf (Can you talk?) 
Hindi fid makaiKnHjustap.^ (Can't 
you talk?) 

Magirikii. Hindi ktt nimrik'd (I can 
not pronounce it). 

}fa(fsalntff<tiif. ( A Iready explained. ) 
Another won! is riKUfmiiHag^ which 
with inn has also the meaiiinjj of 
to arrange, as the hair of another, 
and with vmg to arran^'e some- 
thing for one's self, as the hair, 
etc. Kx. with 7//'/..- Hindi lo ma- 
nmjuay (I can not explain it). 

Maghvlong. Kx. : May ihidndung ako 
sn iifo (1 have .«amething for your 
ear only). 

TtniKtnnitg. Magtamntg, toa»skaV)OUt, 
or concerning. A)tg (anowjiny the 
}>erson questioned. Kx.: Sinoung 
iiiHwong mo/ (Whom did you ask, 
or of whom did you incjuire?) 
A ng itanoiig, what asked. A no ang 
itiiKimnig mo (what did you in- 

Mngaiii'ix. Kx.: fnnuit mo (tell it 

Mn<f.«)imhon</. Mapogsnudjong, tat- 

Moghnld. Aug ih'dd, what said. 
Midmlo la (say something). Ba- 
fxdnditi uio II ug )n(u7gi'i ('h'o nilo 
(notify the ])eoj)le of this). It 
should be noted that the definite 
here takes an extra h<i. 

MnghAnnl. Aug iin'mnl, what forbid- 
den. Aug hdindon, the person to 
whnm something may be forbid- 
den. Aug pagffnhaiud, the act 
of f«)rl lidding (j)resent tense). 
Iiii,~/,iiig lnhiid, forl)idden fruit. 

XVII. 3fa^ prefixed to rof)ts sJLrnifyinir nations, races, conditions, etc. , 
means to behave to s»>me degree as the root si^'iiities, but if a complete 
assimilation is to l)e implied, the particle ///(//./ (po/d) is used. Kx.: 

To speak gently. 

To tattle. 

To say something; accuse, denounce, 

To forbid. 

To be somewhat Americanizefi. 

To be quite Hispanicized; to be like 
a Spaniard in some ways. 

Magnintricftuo. Kx. : Xngnitnwricdno 

aigi'i miiig dnmit (he [she] is <juite 

Americanize<l in dress). 
}fngrti:<td(i. Xngrnrnsfi/tf ^iln )ning 

as(d (they are <|nite Spanish in 


XVIII. (a) Mag, with natural objects, ^iL:niti(^•< to produce them: CO 
with artificial objects, to mak(^ them; ('•) with articles <>t barter, to trade 



or sell them; (d) with e<lible thines, etc., to eat them; (e) with property, 
to pofleessfl it; (/) with names of relatives, to know how to act toward them; 
ana (g) with the possessive pronouns, to have: 

Ex. (a): 
To put forth leaves (as a tree, etc. ). 

Ex. (/;)• 
To build a house. 
To maki* Km p. 

Ex. (r): 
To sell or trade rice. 
To sell or trade unhulled rice. 

Ex. {d): 
To sell c»r eat pickled fish. 
To eat fruit or to sell it. 

To eat or fi«ell fish. 

To eat or sell ejips. 

To eat bananas or to sell them. 
To drink chocolate. 

To U8e tobacco. 

Ex. (t): 
To have property. 

To have auvthing of one's own. 

Ex. (/):' 
To know how to treat a father. 

To know how to treat a child, i. e., 
how to be a jro4:»d parent. 

Ex. ig): 
To have as yours. 
To have as theirs. 
To have as mine. 

yfagfln/urti. Also means to put the 
food on leaves, as when out of 
doors. Ang tagapagdcUwn^ the 
cook. Ang dahonan, the eating 
place thus. 

Magbnhay. ( Already explaineil. ) 
Afagsabdn, (Already explained). 

Maglnpds. (Already explained. ) 
Magpalmj. Ex.: Magpdlay ka nang 
pulot (trade palay for some honey ). 


Miighunga. £x. : Naglmbunga fiyd 
(she is selling fruit). 

yfagisdd. Ex.: Nngiitdd sila (they 
are selling fish). Umisdd^ to have 
fish once more in a river or creek, 
etc. Ihigmi'tRdd ngay/in sa ilog 
(there are fish now in the river). 

Magiilog. Ex. : Nagiitlog ttiyd (she is 
selling eggs). 

Magfi^ging. f Already explained). 

MagnciilcUe (from >iex.-Sp., chitco- 
late; from Nahua( Aztec), cAooo/a(/, 
choco, cAcao; and Uitl^ water). 

Magtahaco (from Sp. and originally 
a West Indian word). 

Magart. Mcuxri, landowner. -Irta- 
rtan, small farm; also household 


Maganui. Ex.: Si Jvan ay maalam 
magamd (Juan knows how to treat 
a father [i. e., how to be a good 
son ] ) . Sfagamd also means father 
and child. 

Mngamik. Ex. : Si Juan ay mariinong 
maganak ^Juan knows liow to treat 
a child [i. e., how to be a good 
imrent] ). Also child and parent 




XIX. Words signifying articles of wearing apparel may be verbalized 
with mag to express the wearing of the same. Ex.: 

Mirror; (2) spectacles; glasses. Salamin. 3/d^«a/amln, to look in the 

mirror; (2) to wear glasses or spec- 
tacles. Ang mlaminan, what seen 
in the mirror. 

Trousers. Salaviol. Ma^Mlawal^ to wear tron- 



Hat. t'^ainUililo (from Span, sombrero). 

}fafjsainhalilo, to wear a hat (occa- 
sional 1 V ) . }fa na m halilo, to wear a 
hat habitually. 

Shoe, sandal. Supin. M(u/.'<ap'n}, to wear shoen; 

alyo to line. 

Apron. Tdftl^. ^f<^(/tap^)(, to put on or wear 

an apron. 

XX. 3fa</|renerally governs all Spanij?h, Englit»h, and other foreign words 
not incorporated into the language. Ex.: 

To play baseball. Mwjhfshol. Kx.: Xaghehesbol anq 

inaiTija hata (the boys [children^ 
an» playing l)a:sel)all.) 

To gamble. }f(njh(ir/al (iroui^pan.jufjar). Sugal 

in the u.sual term. lAtro is the na- 
tive word and means, like the 
Spanish, either to play or togamble. 

XXI. Roots denoting officials may take iiukj to expre.^ the discharge of 
duties jxTtaining to the office named. Kx. : 

To be governor. MiKjgoberixuUir. 

To be mayor (nresidente). Mn<jitreni(hnk. 

To l>e a councilman. Mdganm'jnJ. 

To be secretary. M<t(/semtnrio. 

To l>e treasurer. MagtcMtrero. 

To \ye prosecuting attornt^y. MdijiiacaL 

XXII. -Va//, prefixed to abstracts iK^ginning with ka and ending in lui, 
^signifies to do what is expressed by the al)stract. Such wonls are used 
c>nl\'in the infinitive, and should be j'learly distinguished from tliose roots 
prefixed bv the particle mofjkd, which lack the suffixed an witfi the in- 
definite mfinitive. Ex.: 

To do deeds of virtue or justice. Mayhdimlnn (from hthanalnn, virtue, 

To do right. Mugkatfinm (from katmrati^ right, 

justice ). Ex. : Ilnto/tni niosihi naitg 

httninin (Advise them what is 

To act chastely or in a cleanly man- Ma(/knli)timn ( from Aa///u,sa//,cleanli- 

ner. nessi. 

To l.>ehave obscenely. M<i<iknliahiiidii (from knlialaiiart, o\)- 

sccuity ). 

XXIII. With adjectives formed by prefixing um to the root, }n<t<i signi- 
Hes to assume or Ixiast of what is expressed l)y the adjective, if the mean- 
ing permits such assumption or boastiiiir. \n some cases utag means to 
r^egard as signified by the adjective. Ex. : 

To boast of good judgment. MagnKilmit. Ex.: yngnunmthdlt .v/ 

Juan (.luaii boasts of his good 
judgment [•)r |rudence]). Ma- 
hait, judiiioiis, prudent. 

Xo boast of knowledge. Magma n'nuaaj. Ex.: Xagmamara- 

))ong .V* .b/'//v.>< (Andrvs l)oasts of 
his kno\vlc<lgr). Marunong, wise, 
leariie<l (Irnm (fihimig). Karuno- 
iT>ja)i, wisdom, knowle<lge. 
To boast of beauty. Magmarikif. K.\.: \agniamarikit si 

Biaiajof/ (Maria boasts of lier 
l^eauty). Marikit, ])retty (fn)m 
(fikit). Dumikit, to grow pretty. 
Mitndikit to hi'Hiitifv. 

To l)(»a^^t (»f elegance, l)eauty. Ma-imaiiaml'i. K\.: Xa<jmamafjandd 

.<i Lolmnj, Dolores (Lola) ix>avSta 
of her elegance; beauty. Ma- 
'jcni'fi'i, elegant, l>eautiful. Ka^jnn- 
(l'(h<in, elegance, beauty. 

Ti) Ijoast of V>ravi'ry; t»» swagger. Mnijiniiii'iiifinij. Kx.: yafjmatafmng 

si FdHstiifo (FauHtino l)<)asted of 
bis bravery; or Fauntino swag- 
gerc'l). MntnjHinff, brave. KfiOi- 
jtniTi/nH, l)ravery. 

XX1\'. If an action docs not admit of boasting, 7/^/1^ used witb a »/'f 
adjective tlenotes l)econiirjg, growing, etc., wbat may be signified by the 
adjective. The definite ]»arti«'le in is generally suttixed to the roots in 
these cases, l^x. : 

To become forgetful. M'l'/indli/nolin. Jjtnihnnt, to try to 

forget. ,Ur//yf//mo/. to forget. Ma- 
/'nnot, forgetful. Aikj iKilintohui^ 
what forgotten. Maliliuintiji, a for- 
getful person. Knlhnotnu, forget- 

To grow intirm. Mfu/)iiasal:t'in. Ex.: Xaff/ttanuhvikthi 

.V////J (He isgrowing intinn). JAf// 
sfthif, to be ill. Mosanaktiny an in- 
tirm, sickly })erson. Smnuk-H, to 
feel pain anywliere. Antj finL'ttaii, 
thesentof jiain. (See Par. XXVI). 

XX\'. N'erbs with ma^/ are ma«Ie diminutives by repeating a bisyllabi*- 
root or the first two ot a longer one, and sulBxing an, /«//j, or nan, as 
refiiiired. ]]\.: 

To write a little; t<» s<'ribl>le. Ma'jsnfntsn/titini (from .<nlat.). (Al- 

rea<ly used). 

'J'o cry a little; t<» snivel. M'liiiiinliiiakdit (from itf(tk). Ex.: 

S'lff/iil/dhiifiih'du iijnnf] ln'itang It/niiy 
that chil<i is sniveling. 

To nibble. MfKfl.niithiithDL (Already used. ) 

XXVI. The >ame form as the above also signilies feigning, imitation, 

mockery, {►layin;^'- at, etc lloth these antl those mentioned in Par. XXV 

can <inly be .ii>iing(iishe<l by the context from intensive reci]irocal verbs 

fmnie'l in the >ame way. (See Par. X). 

To affect \ii(ne, i. e., to play the .\ffn;h<fii(}il)ntHiI(in iiromlKnntl). Ex.: 
hyj'ocritr. \(it/hft/i(tiKi/f/aii<(/an Kit/a (He is a 


To I'lay at liiiiMiiiir liouv^v^ (as chil- M<n/l,i{lifn/h<(fnn/nii (from bnhau). 
<ben ). ( Alrea'ly nse<L ) 

'J'o play at bitm.: (iisdogs). M'i<;L(iija(Ln//al(iu {inmi Lnijot). (Al- 

rca<iy used. ) 

To malinger; feign illness. Mai/s<tLit.«i/.ifait (from sahit). Kx,: 

.\it<is(is<t/:i(s(il:i(<in h(t (you are ma- 

To tem]>t a little or to pretend to .\[fiiffii/:s<>fii/:snh(iii (from fukso). 
tempt. ( I scd iM'fore. ) 

To sham insanity. Min/ii/nhi/nhn, (from nhil). Vmnlul, 

to <lri\ e another crazv. Mnnhd. to 
l»e« (»me insane. Anfi ikauhil, the 
cause of in.'^anitv. KauItiUni, in- 

To feign <leafncss. yj > i uh'n njil >i iTijilinn {{vorn hbujl). Ex.: 

llnuni/ hunrj nHyjhuTjiibirujihan 
{ I)on't try to sham deafness). 



To force, oblige, compel. 

To exert one's self; to work effi- 

XXVII. Some urn verbs admit prefixed mn<j, the combination denoting 
the action to be executed with earnet^tneHH, endeavor, enterprise, etc. 
{h) Some roots with maka also take the prefix dkk/, witli the same signifi- 
cation. The infinitive form of the root with utn or muka is always retained. 

Ex. (a): 

To make haste. Magdumali (from dumalt, to do 

quickly). J/df/r///, quickly. }fag' 
mmhili, to do something quickly. 
(Idiom,) yfagdumal'mg arao, a 
short while. 

M'lgp'dit. In Manila, />w//</7<7. Mag- 
pfuiiUit, to emieavor. 

jfdgsnk'd. tSnmahtf to oblige another 
to work; to use force toward an- 
other. Mngsumakit^ to exert 
greatly for the carrying out of an 
object. Kx.: Aug tavoug nagsuffu- 
vinkit matutii mnig jnnhuhuting 
kaasalan, og igagiUmtg imug Inhat 
(the man who exerts himself 
greatly to learn good manners will 
be respected by everyone). {Sn- 
mnkit regarded sa* a new root. ) 

}fa gsn 111 n 110(1. ( A 1 read y e x ]d a i n ed . ) 

Mngmnk(i<m{\. ( Alrea<ly used. ) See 

Magma kahigd (from makahigd, to 
make ashamed). Kx.: Bdkd mo 
ipinaginamakahigd ang maiTfjd ma- 
gi'dangf (What is the rea.*«on you 
cause so much shame to vour 
])arents?) Walang kind, without 
shame, shameless. (See Par. \'l, 
under ma.) 

Magmakaamoamo (from r/mo, idea of 
placating). Ex.: Xagmamakaa- 
moamd ang tanong iln fa ingo (This 
man is supj>licatingyou). yl///o is 
generally re<luplicated, and it will 
be Si^en tiiat makaannKuuo is re- 
garde* 1 as a new root, the nm of 
maka being reduphcated for the 
present tense. 

XXVIII. 3/a,7also forms nouns indicating ])lurality, totality, an*! agency, 
^hich have l>een u-sed many times heretofore. The article is usually pre- 
lixed to the compound word. Mag is the antithesis (or o])posite in mean- 
ing) of ita, which limits the idea to unity. 

XXIX. Mag prefixed to noun roots which are generally used with tlie 
dual sense denotes such duality without the use of maiTtja or other particles, 
Anhich rather indicate plurality. Kx.: 

To follow closely, etc. 

To l>e able to move to compassion. (6) 

To be able to shame greatly. (/>) 

To he able to placate another; to 
supplicate. (/> ) 

The married couple, the husband 

and wife. 
The brothers-in-law (two). 
The two enemies. 

The parents; ancestors. 

Aug magasaiLa. Maga^ana, to marry. 

(See also Par. XV, under man.) 
Ang niagbagao. 
Ang ntagan'dif. MngawagA*^ quarrel 

with each other. 
Ang nnigi'dang, from gi'dang. Kagn- 

laiTf/an, ancestry, descent, (iurna- 

lang, to grow old. 



XXXI. If i>Iiirality is to be indicated with words poinetimes uj*ed in the 
dual sense, ka is reihiphcated. Ex.: 

The frientls (several). Ang ifuigkaknihlga)!. 

The eompanions (several). Amj miUjkaknHnma. 

XXXII. Correlative novms are expre.ssed with hukj prefixed to the root 
of the prineii)al word. (See also Par. X VIII.) Ex.: 

Father and chiM. Mdyoma. 

Mother and ehil<l. Minjiiu'i. 

Father (or inotht-r) -in-law an<l son M'Kjh'Knnin. 

(or daiii:hter ) -in-law. 
Master and man. MitiipdiTiinimm. 

XXX III. If the .second correlative is cxpres.<ed, especially by a proper 
nonn, jointly with the lirst. the particle is prefixed to the priQcijjal, the 
snl)(»rdinate takinir the ijenitive case. Kx.: 

John and his father. Mttiifirnn nl Jmnt. 

Jose and his father-in-law. M<u/fii(tn''in ni Joav. 

Lola and h<'r inollur. .^fur/iii'i in Lolmn. 

XXXIW M'lff denotes totality with some roots of time. Ex.: 

The whole niirht; al- night. MfujdniiKui. Kx. : Mihjthimag ahmg 

ifitulo'j ( I slept all nijrht ). (iahi is 
the nsual word for ni^ht. 

TIu» wlmlf day; all day. Maghaimn. Jhi/K>)i alone means the 

tinje from n(K)n until dark. 

XXX \'. }f'!'/ prefixed to roots conjuj^ated with t(tn and mag forms verbal 
nouFis siirnifyin;: the assent. The first syllable of the root is reduplic^ited 
and tlie article irenerally used. Ex.: 

The thief. Anij nutguoni'dao. (Already used.) 

Tiie lalxirer. Aug niagsti.^tikd. Magmka, to work 

in the lields. 

XXW'l. }f<ig retains /></./ with the definite in certain ca.«e.s, I )ut with 
tliex- exee|»ii<»ii-, u liieh ha\(' been pointed out from time to time, the 
<leiiniteoi }ii'fg rni)[< follows the .^ame rule as the definite of 7<m. (See I*ar. 
1 1, under jxtg. ) 

T\\\: OlMlMTi: ]».\HTK1.F^ 'TAC." 

1. .\s true auxiliary vtMl)S are not found in Ta^'alojr, the participle as- 
sumes as many f<irnis as there are tenses, the im[>erative exce|>ted. By 
jtretixinu' the artieU' "f eoicuion nouiis, <///f/, "the," or a demonstrative 
)»n»uouu tn tlie pr. .juT tense of a verb a particle is formed which may be 
tran-latcd in seveial ways. e\eu by a clause in Kn^lish. 

J'<'g aud jKigk'i aie eomuiouly nst-d in Tairaloo: where the idea would be 
e.\j)res-ed in l-aiL'li-h by the indelinile particle, but the best way to obtain 
a cleai' undeistaudim: of the variations to whi«'h Tairalo^ verbal nouns may 
be snbjtM-ted is to make a close.' study of the examples following or referretl 
to. Kx.: 

To die. Miundtmi. Aug jKigkamatayj the SLci 


To fall. Mahulog. Ang pagkahidog^ the act 

of falling. 
To eat. Kumain. Ang pagkaiy}, the act of 


II. Pag (definite) corresponds to mag (definite) in certain cases. As a 
rule verbs with mag have the same definites as um, except as noted. When 
pag is prefixed, in is inserted for the present and past tenses, forming 
pinag. Pag only is prefixed for the imperative and future tenses, in being 
puffixed at the same time. The first syllable of the root is reduplicated 
for the present and future tenses. (See the tables. ) 

III. Pag sometimes expresses place in combination with suffixed an, 
where an alone is used to expre.^^s the i>ersnn who may bt^ the object of the 
action. {See hana pan und paghauapan, Par. V, the definite. ) 

(h) This rule also applies where the object takes tni instead of in. 

To collect; to dun. Sunii^JJ/ll. Aug .niTj/ilan, the unpaid 

debt. A iigjtagsiiT(/i/an, the place of 
asking for a debt. SlaniiTljll^ to 
collect or dun as an occuj>ation or 

IV. The particle pag is also used with the definite when place is directly 
expressed in the sentence, but not when iinplie<l or nieta])horically (fig- 
uratively). This use of pag, however, is only with those verbal roots which 
admit an tor the person or object of tlie action of the verb, and with other 
verbal roots pag is not used in this sense, even if place be expresse<l. Ex. : 

To bury; inter. Magha'm. Aug j/aghaonan, the buri- 

al place. Ex.: JtUmg /)inaghao)uin 
)tau<) saiuJalo (This was the burial 
I)lace of the soldier). 

To endure hardships. Maghlrap. Attgpag}drapai),i\^^^^^^^- 

shijts. Kx.: Aug baijang pinaghl- 
rapdti iiil'i (The town in which 
tliey endure<l the hardships). 

To place. MagUtgaij. Ex.: higyan mo nang 

ti'ihig lt())ig IxiiTgn (l*ut some water 
in tliis vase). Wald aknng pagla- 
lagifaii nltong t^idanuu (Tliere will 
be no place for me to \)\\{ this mir- 

To embark or travel. tStnnnLdi/. Aug sn kagan or .'tasahg an, 

boat or vessel <if any kind, Ex.: 
y^'/'// <ing buiiqlung jri nag, '<a.<a kg (in 
nang nniranii (This is tiie canoe in 
whieh many have embarked). 

(/>) See also magpulong, "toassemble," and magtaga, "to elect, set u]*." 
\. /''a^ is also combined with / detinite, forming >/>ag, ij/limg, as a ])re- 

fix, when the ]»crson for wliom an act i.s jK-rformed is mentioned. (See 

Par. VIII, the definite.) 

VI. ^\ henever the sentence expresses plurality of acts or a^^ents, or of 
feigning or reciprociil actions, pag (an<l ipag when re(|uired) nuL'^t be used 
with the definite. The article ang In'ing generally used, gives the com- 
pound the idea of a verbal noun in tlie majority of ca.'^es. For examj)les 
see Par. IX under the definite. 

VII. Pa^; is retained with the deliniie <>f the nnig form when njots 
which differ in meaning with nni and nnig are used. See Par. X, the defi- 
nite for examples. 

VIII. The participle is formed fn»m nnt verbs or root,'^ l)y prelixing j^ag 
to the root, the com])ound preceded by the article or its equivalent. The 

To teach. Umnral. A)hj jyagaral, the teach- 


To study. Mtujaral. Aug pngadral^ the study- 


To deHcend; to fttsten upon. HxnnCibig. Ang paghulog^ the de- 

scending; faj^tening upon. 

To throw or da^li down. Mngltnlog. Aug jxighuhulogy the 

dashing down or throwing down. 

IX. Pag soinetinief^ in<licates the present tense. Ex.: PagsalA kn »n 
kauiga (as soon ay 1 told liini). 

X. There is occasionally a tone of menace in its use. Ex.: Pnghiudi 
niya ptuiunito^y hiitdi ko .v///'/ Jxilnigaran (if he does not come here, I shall 
not pay him). "If" is generally understood, the i<lea being a future 

XI. P<ig^ with verl»al roots of some kinds, indicates action as transpiring. 
Ex. : 

J>ight; clearness. Liin'nKtg. Aug paglirn'magy ihe^row- 

ing light (of the day, etc.). Avg 
Ihranng iiang arao, the light of day 
or of the sun. 

XII. For V(?rl)al changes, see tables: 


I. The indefinite ver})alizing j>article imi is used with roots which do 
not recjuire an (»bject when verbalized, or with those verbs expressing 
involuntary a<'tion. }fn changes to na lor the past and present tenses. 
The Jir.4 syllable of the r(>(>t is retluplicated for the i)resent an<l future 
tenses. M(i gi-nerally exj>resses a state or condition of being, but there is 
also a possessive idea of "to have,'' and hence many roots are nia<le 
adjectiNes when pretixtMl l)y this j)artieU', as is already familiar to the 

II. Such a<ljectives in in<i must exj)ress intrinsic states or conditions, 
and states or conditions which mav or can be attained l)v the voluntarv 
effort of an agent can lutt be exj^ressed with ind. 

III. .\ctii»ii.s which re(|uire an object when conjugated with other parti- 
cle>- may be conjugated with )ini if they take j)lace unconsciously or by 
cliancM' on I lie part of the agent. 

IV. The conjugation of roots with ma {na) has naka and mnka of the 
jdnperlVct and future [)erfect resi)ectively replaced by na ami rnci. Xa is 
alsn re]>eatcd after the verb in both these tenses. Some roots beginning 
witli //soften it to /// after jna. (See tallies for examples.) 

V. Aga added tn ma forms the particles nawja and maiajd used to 
express plurality when })retixe<l to a verbal root. MaiTija, as ha^ been 
seen, is the usual indi<"ation of j)lurality when used as a separate word 
hefort; nouns, etc. V.\.'. 

To be hungry. Magatmn. Ex.: MciTami iuja ang 

iKuTi/agiUititi (many were hungry). 
Mara in i wja ang namjag^igutum 
(many an? Innigry). Marami iiija 
ang maiH/agugnhim (many will ne 
hungry). The root is gutuniy the 
idea of l)eing hungry. 

NT. }fa is used to exi)n»ss actions of an involuntary nature or beyond the 
contml (»f the subject. A fi'W anoiualous wonls also take ma. Ex.: 

To fall. Malti'ilog. Afig iiahuhgan, the per- 

son or object on whom anything 



To fall on the face. 
To stumble. 

Toslip; to slide (invol.); (adj.) slip- 
pery; slimy. 

To stick in the throat; to choke. 

To lose one's way. 
To go astray. 

To loose; to miss; to lack. 

To die. 

To be proi>er or appropriate. 

falls aciidentallv. Nahulog myOf 
he fell. Ang kahulogan, the place 
of falling. Ang kaJnUogilin, the 
meaning (range of expression). 
A7tg kinahnloaan, the place where 
something fell or has lallen. Ang 
kinnhuhulogan, the place where 
something is falling. Angkahuhu- 
logan, the place where something 
will fall. (See index for hulog with 
other particles. ) 

Madapd. (Already used.) 

Matiatod. Ex.: Natisod ^iga'tnadapd 
(he stumbled and fell on his face). 
Stian nalisod (ny<yf (Where did 
he stumble?) lyang haiong iydn 
ang kinatiimr(i7i niyd (that stone 
was where he stumbled, or over 
which he stumbled. 

MadulU; mandas. Ex.: Palakarin 
)no »iydng marahan makd marulds 
(tell him to go slowly lest he slip). 

Mahirbi. Ex.: Nahirinan mjA nang 
tinlky (she [he] wa-^ choked by a 
fish bone). 

Maligdo. Ang kaligaoan, the place 
of being lost. 

MaJiliis. Lumihisj to be away pur- 
posely. Pall ft is daany to go out of 
the road for any rea^son. 

Manidd. Naindthi ako nang lakds ( I 
lost [or lacked] the strength). 
Nau'iddii siyd nang loob (he lost 
h e^i r t [ o r t h e s p i ri t ] ) . Magwald , 
to get rid of; to flee; to put out of 
siglit; to conceal anything. 

Mamatay. Ang pngkainntayj the act 
of dying. Ang mamataynnj the 
mourner; the bereaved. (See Par. 
XII, i/t.) 

M(d)ngay, ( See index for examples. ) 
This verb is rather anomalous. 

VII. (rt) I 'ncontrollable states are generally conjugated with ma. These 
forms are also adjectives in tlie majority of cases. (//) Acts which are 
more or leas controllable take the particle most suital)le to express the 
degree. If uncontrollable, ma is used. Ex.: 

To be anjjry. Magdld. (See index.) 

To be cold; chilly. MaghiAo. Also adj. Maginauin^ a 

chilly, cold j)ers()n. 
To be terrified. Mag(da)tgtaug. Ang ikagaUmgtangy 

the cause of being terrified. 
To be afraid. Matdkat. Ex.: Natatdkot kaf (Are 

vou afraid?) MataUikofm, a faint- 

liearted i>erson. (See index.) 
To be astonishec'. Magdhd. Ex.: Sagdlntsiydf (Was 

he astonished?) 
To be hungry. Magdtum. }f(i<pigutumin^ a very 

hungry or starved j>erson. (See 



To be ashamed. 
To be pleased. 
To be sad. 
To be f^lad; amused. 
To \)e asleep. 

Mahbju. Mahihiyitij a bashful per- 
son. (See Par. XV, ma.) For 
hiyd with other particles, see index. 

Malngod. Lumugod, to please; to 
recreate. ATi/u^oranjfnend; com- 
panion in recreation. 

Malumbay, Ex.: Tila nalxdumhay 
^'^.v<>t you seem to be sad. (See 

Malud,, Ang katuaarij the person or 
object over whom or which one is 
pleased or amused. (See index.) 

Matulog. Angtuhgan, sleeping place. 
MatulogiUf a ffreat sleeper; also 
mapaginlog. Tumulogy to go to 
sleep; to sleep (little used), ^fag' 
iulog, to sleep a great deal. (See 
index. ) 

Mauhao. (Already used.) 

Malangis; manangis. (Already used. ) 

Mataua. Tnmatia, to laugh. 3/ia^ 
tauaj to laugh (two or three). 
MaiTgagtana, to laugh (many). 
Magtandf to laugh much. Maka- 
taxui or luagpataua, to cause to 
laugh. McUauanitif a laughing, 
smiling {person. 

VIII. Unconscious or uncontrollable states of the mind are expressed 
with ma. Conscious or controllable states are expressed with um or mag, 

To be thirstv. 

To cry; to weep (uncontrollably). 

To giggle; to laugh uncontrollably. 

To forget. 

To forget to do. 

Malimot. (Already used.) 
Malisan. Lumimtif to omit to do (on 

IX. (a) Mn {na) is used to express accidental or internal acts of a de- 
structive nature, or when reference is made to an actual state of destruc- 
tion. l)elil)erate acts of destruction take um or ynag. 

To break up; to split up. Mafhili. Ex. : NabaU ang tungkod 

(the cane broke). Na&ilimi itiyd 
nang pad (he dislocated his foot). 
MagfHjllf to break up, to split, as 
wood, cane, etc. Ex. : Batiin mo 
iyang tnhb't akff y baliannang murUt 
(break up that piece of sugar cane 
and break me off a little). 

To break up (from internal causes Mahamg. Ex.: Nab&9ag ang vom 

or accidentally). 

To spoil; to become putrid. 

To break (int. or ace). 

To part; to break in two. 

(the glass was broken). MaghA- 
sagj to shatter; break up, as glass, 
crockery, etc. NagbdJiag siyd tiang 
maramiiig vaso (he broke many 
glasses [purposely]). 

Miihnlik. Ex.: Bnlok na ang iitdd 
(the fish is spoiled now). (See 
magpa. ) 

Malagot. Ex.: Malalagoiitong sinu- 
//(/(this thread will break). Sola- 
got angsinulid (the thread broke). 
Mn gin got, to break, as thread; to 
tear up, as vegetables, etc. 

yfnjxftU. ( A Iready used. ) 


To spoil; to be destroyed. Mafira. (Already Uf^ed.) 

To burn up. Mammofj. (Already explained.) 

To dry out. Matuyo. (See index.) 

{h) Sa following the root with verKs of dej^truetion gives the adjectival 
idea with "already" or "now." Other actual states are also exj>ressed 
with the root and iui\l the contex clearly indicates an actual state ot being. 
(See under bawg^ bulok, sira, jHitay^ injnia, tuifo, and i/(iri for examples.) 

X. With verbs expressing situation of posture ma (no) indic^ites the 
actual state of Ix'ing in such posture or j)()sition, or else the involuntary or 
unconscious taking of such ]>osition. Ex. : 

To be lying down; to be in Ijed. Mdh'^jd. (Already used; see index.) 

To l>e on the knees; to kneel in- Malnfiod. (Already used; see in- 
voluntarily, dex.) 
To l>e lying on the back. }fat'i}i<itid. (Already used; see in- 
dex, ) 
To Ih* on one's feet. Matiml'nj. (Already used; see in- 
T» > be seate<l . Maupo. ( A 1 read y use< I ; see i n d i- x . ) 

XI. Conditions or states reached bv slow transition in most cases or a 
return thereto are exj^ressed by rn<i (na). 

To l)e deaf. MdhiiTi/i. Kx. : Xnlnbimi'i aina he is 

deaf). (See under 7/ia<///i. ) 

To l)e stuttering. Miujunl. Kx.: y<tfj(ttj(iril sii/a (he is 

l>eginningto stutteragain). Mng- 
<j(n-il, to stutter; to stannner. (th- 
rilin^ stuttering; stammering. 

To l>e insane; crazy. M<(nh(l. Ex.: N<iuht/ .vifa {\\ii went 

crazy ). Xfi milnl sii/n ( lie is crazy ). 
Mnimhd sii/d (he will go crazy). 
Xntjiiluhdidiui Hnjd (he was sham- 
ming insanity). 
To lose the mind (lit., to become Ma/aho. Also adj. turbid; muddy; 
turbid). blearetl (eyes); thick (speech). 

Ex.: Nn/nlxxui sii/d nmvj jnujiisip 
(his mind became clouded). 

XII. The use of ma is sometimes governed by reiUJon of the rationality 
or irrationality of the agent. Ex.: 

Xo be upright. Mataiiu. (Already used; see index.) 

XIII. Maka {naka) is sometimes u.^d in place of ma (nn), these parti- 
cles having many analogies. (See maka, Par. XIX.) 

XIV. Other uses of ma have been explained under the adjective, q. v. 

XV. Ma prefixed and ia {Inn, inn) sntlixed to n>< ts signifying mental 
amotions, passions, an<l involuntary actions form adjectival nouns, which 
l^enerally require to be expressed in l-jiglir^h l)y an adjective and a noun. 

A humane person. Maaiiahi {innu and), (See in<lex.) 

An irascible person. Mai/a/itln (from f/d/ll, wrath; ire). 

A loving person. Madtiqin (from il>i[i). (See index.) 

An affectionate person. Mamxi'm (from iro'j, affection; ca- 

A loving person. M<i.^inla}iin (from amid, love). 

An obedient person. Maannarin (Irom ffufiod). 

A weeper; a weeping i^erson. MafaiTi/l.'^ln (from tatTj/is). 

A smiling pers<.)n. Miilintnuin (from t<nai). 

A sleepy person. Mfihi/ot/in (from (dlnrf). 

An affectionate person. MatrUihin (from vdi, affection). 

XVJ. It" the root admits of contraction, l>eginsi with /, or an inteneive 
decree is expressed, the first syllable of the root may be reduplicated. 

A V)ashfnl j)erson. Maliihiui (from hv/d). (Root con- 

tracts. ) 

A feverish person. Mobihtgnatin (from lagnfit^ fever). 

(L. root.) 

A fortretful ])erson. MnUlimotm (from Ihnot^ forgetful- 

ness). (L. root.) 

A joyful person. }fa/uln(jdin (from lugod, joy; pleafi- 

nre). (L. root.) 

An intirni, sick person. M(i,s((sahthi (from snkit). (Con- 

tracted root.) 

A faint-hearted j»erson. Mahitakotifi {(romtakol). (Intensive 



I. From the fact that mn verbs do n(»t generally require an object, there 
is little use for some forms of the definite. Everv action, however, mav 
have a reason, time, or place, and thus / definite and an definite are to l)e 
found, ma being replaced by kn as a rule, and always with i definite. 

Ka (tn, as has been seen, forms abstracts and |)laces, as well as Ftan<iing 

for persons and objects of the action. Ex.: 

To be glad; amused. Mdtm). Amj hatuaan, the person or 

object over which one is glad, etc. 
Any iLdtna, the (^u.^e of gla<lness 
or amusement. Ex.: Katnaan mo 
(tug ni(t,7f/(i hata (amuse yourself 
with tlie children). Kin(Uitaan 
ni'ji'i ang nidiTj/a btita (she amused 
herself with the chihlren). Kina- 
tfifnddn iii/a <wg mcoTlga hntd (they 
are atmising themselves with the 
cliiMren). Kahihiaan ko ang 
nidiTgn f/dta (I will amuse myself 
with the children). 

To die. Mdnintmi. (See index.) 

To be afraid. Mnh'iknt. (See index.) 

To j-tiiinble. Mnt'tsod. (See index.) 

To be deaf. Mtthiiug'i. Aug ik'ihitTigi, the cause of 

deafness. KahitTi/ihan^ deafness. 

Tn be l)lind. Mdhnhtg. Ex.: Xahdlagarnnigdnnug 

gain (he was l)linded by wrath). 
Kiiffiilagfiff, blindness. 

To be p'.nr. Mdflnkfia. Aug ikdfhtkhd^ the cause 

of po\erty. Kd(fdkhda}i, poverty. 
I>>nniikhd, to become poor. Ang 
flukhdin, the person becoming 
]M»or tlius. (See index.) 

To 1)<* niin<'<l (a- in luisinc^s). .\fdhigl, Aug ikalngi^ the cause of 

Itfiiig ruined. Ijtnntyi, to decline 
(as fi(»m a^e or natural causes). 

Tn l)e lame. M(ti»ildi/. Ang ikapilay, the cause of 

lauM'ness. Kapilagan, lameness. 

T(j taint away; tn swnnii. Mahi/o. K\.: .V/r/i//() .^/i/'' ('''he fainted 

a wa y ) . Xfih ih ilo siyd ( she is faint- 
in;r away ). Ang kahiloan^ the place. 

Tn drop off; tn drop sometliinir ac- Md/ag/dg. Ang kaldglngaUj the pl&ce 
cidentally. of drop]>ing. Ang ikalaglag^ the 



To Ixj drowned. 

To \)e tired out. 

cause. Mnglaglag^ to drop some- 
thinjr ])urposel y. A ng ikigJng, what 
drop|>ed. Aug laglagan, the place 
or the person to whom dropped. 
Lirnuiglag, to drop down pur- 
posely. Aug laglagin^ the j^rson 
thus droi>pinj; down. 

Mahhiful. Anq knlmiorctii, the drown- 
hip^ place; lience the west, '*the 
drowning place of the sun." 

M(ip<'igo(f. Ang ikapagody the cause. 
Ex.: Aon ang ikinnjtajx'igod mof 
(Why are you tired out? [Lit., 
*' What is the cause of your being 
tired out?"]). Syn. pa'kmig. The 
word ogod means great weakness, 
and looks as if it were a variation. 

Masalfno. Aug kaHaklauan^ the i)lace 
w h e re con ta i n eil . Ex.: A ng ?« a ngd 
ut(}» udvg }iokho\if khiasasnklnuan 
iiitong ilhroitg ito (the orders [reg- 
ulations] of the army are con- 
tained in this book). 

^f aulas. Var. hi tan. MagluUUy to 
finish or conclude anything. Mag- 
kalutaiihitas^ to finish completely. 
Ang k(duta.san, the place. 

II. A'rt is fimitted with an when the ]»ers<»n affected is meant, and not 
the pla(!e or deliberate act. See mahirin, mama tag, and matmld for 

III. Pagka is generally used to form verbal nouns for root.s conjugated 
1)V ma, although }tag may be used with some root'^ and pagka ka is ru'casion- 
afly found. Ex.: Ang pagkatalog or ang jtagtalog, the act of sleeping. 
(See talog.) 

To he included; to l)e contained. 

To be finished; also conclude*! and 


I. This particle, known a.s the third to Spanish writers on Tagalog, has 
jKin for the definite and is one of tlie mf>st imp<^rt4iiit of the modifying 
verbal particles. It admits in, i, and aii with the definite. 

II. The great attention paid l)y Tagalng tc) euphony or smoothness in 
Bounds is well illustrated by the changes demandi'd of the initial letter of 
a root when vian (pati) is i»retixed. This granimatical peculiarity is found 
most fully developed in western languages, in Irish an<l Scottish (yaelic, in 
which it is known as "ellipsis." English has this tendency to a slight 
degree, as shown V)y a, an, according to a following vowel or consonant 

III. When preceded by man the following changes take ])lace in initial 
latters of roots, the tinal n of the particle l)eing either droi>pe<l or modified. 

B and P to 3/. 

K (and hard Cor Q) to S\/. 

S, T, and /) (generally) to" .V. 

My Ny and Ng cause final n to drop out. 

A, /, O, L^ modify n to )7g. 

IV. Man has nan for the present and past tenses, the first syllable of the 
root being reduplicated for the present and future tenser^. There is a I and 
a II pluperfect tense, the former adding ))a to the past tense and the 
latter prefixing rm^vf to the root. The future perfect has also two forms. 
the first formed by adding na to the future tens<% and the second by i)refix- 
ing maka to the root. The present participle (verbal infinitive) is formed 




by prefixine pan to the root, the first syllable of which is reduplicated. 
The use of the definite particles tn, t, and. an follows the general rule. 

To ridicule; mock; scoff; hoax; abuse, Manlibak. Ana libakin^ what or 

whom ridiculed, abused, etc. Ang 
libakan; also ang mapaglibakf the 
scoffer, hoaxer, mocker, etc. For 
indef. with man see tables. Ex. : 
Bdkit ka nanlilibak ta kaihigan mof 
(Why are you ridiculing your 
friend?) Syns. Uroy; uyam^ uyao, 
and tiyno. 

Mamiaaif (from bigay). For definite 
with i see index, also the tables. 

Mamili ( from hili). For definite with 
in see tables. 

Mandiri. For definite with han see 

To give much ; to lavish. 

To l)uv much. 

To be nauseated or disgusted. 

V. Man is uf»ed to express plurality of acts rather than of persons with 
those root« which denote the simple action with um or ma^. With some 
roots of colors man denotes intensity, and with some other roots indicates 
continuousness. It is essential for these ideas that the meaning shall not 
be changed by man from what it is with um or mag, 

Ex. (B roots): 

To divide up among others. 

To habituate; to accustom. 

To pull up continually or continu- 

Ex. (D root): 
To pray constantly. 

Ex. (G roots): 
To imitate much or habitually. 

To mix habitually (as a druggist). 

To clear off (as land). 

Mamahaffi (from bahagi). Ex. : Ano 
kaya ang ipinamamaliagi mot 
( VVhat are you dividing up?) Ang 
xpinamamahagi ko^y naaalaman 
nana mangd pinamama haginan ko 
(What I am dividing up is known 
to those for whom I am dividing). 

Mamihasa (from bihasa). Ex.: 
Hoxiag kang mamiMtang mnminta9 
sa maiTgd kapidMhay mo ( Do not 
accustom yourself to complaining 
about your neighbors). 

Mamnnol (from bunot), Bumunot, to 
pull up. Magbunotj to pull up 

Manaldngin (from daidngin). See in- 

Mangagad. Qumagad^ to imitate. 
Maggagady to imitate (many). 

Manyamao. Ang pangamauin, what 
so mixed. Ang ipangamAo^ what 
used to mix with thus. Ana pan- 
gamavAn, the place of habitual 
mixing. GumamdOy to mix. Ang 
gamauin^ what mixeil. Ang ig- 
amdOf what adde<l or the instru- 
ment used to mix with. Ang 
gamaudn^ the place; the mortar; 
aish, etc. Maggam&o, to mix 
much. Ang paggamauin^ what 
mixed much. Ang ipaggamdo^ the 
instrument thus. Ang paqga- 
maudny the place of much mixing. 

Gumamas, Ang gamasiUf what 
cleared off. Ang gamoBont the 



To reap; to cut rice. 

To quarrel with; to reprimand 

To cut <lo\vn underbrush; to clear 
off land; also to .si)eak freely. 

*ro thresh (by many). 

Ex. (II roots): 

To scout. 

To sow nuich rice; or by many. 
To wa.«h one's face (habitually). 
To predict habitually. 

Ex. (I root*^): 

To like (many); also to tlirt. 
To avoid entirely. 

Ex. (K roots): 

To devour; to eat continually. 
To take habitual 1 v. 
To cling to with hands and feet (a? 
a monkev does). 

To nibble much; to bite with the 

front teeth. 
To tremble much or frequently witli 

cold or fear. 
To break off (as flowers or fruit) as 

an occupation. 

Ex. (P roots): 

To pluck or break off much; or by 

land cleared off. Maggamus^ to 
clear off (by manv). MangamaHj 
to clear off nmch. Ang panga- 
vuts(ni, the land thus cleared. 

Giunapas. Aug gnpaaiv ., what reaped. 
Ang gapamHj the. field. Ang gin- 
apasati, the stubble left. Magga- 
pas^ to cut or reap much. Shw- 
gaptfs, to cut or reap (many). 
Ang jfatigopax^ the sickle. Aug 
numgagapas^ the reaper, harvester 

(Inmrisa. Ang gasnni}, the person so 
quarreled with or reprimanded. 
Maggasd, to quarrel with much, or 
to reprimand much or many. 
Mangtixii, to c|uarrel with or to 
rejirimand habitually. 

nviiuu^ak. Aug gasnkiti, what clear- 
ed, i. e.. the underbrush. Ang 
gdsnkxm, the place. Ang gasaklrt 
is also tile person spoken to freely. 
Mnngnsdk^ same actions as fore- 
goin»r by manv. 

Mang'iik. (See index: g'tlk.) 

Manhannp. (See index: hanap.) 
}f(nihti}fik. (See index: hasik.) 
MnnhiUnnos. (See index: fiilmnos.) 
Manlmia . A n g vi <i n h n hnh) , the 
])rophet; soothsayer. Hxunvln^ to 
predict; foretell. Ang fmlaln, 
what foretold. Ang hulaan, the 
person to whom told. 

Mdioi'iltig. (See thlg.) 
MdtTf/'/lag. (See tlag.) 

yfniTijniu. (See hi'm.) 

Mawjulid. (See kuhn.) 

yhtiTgiiyapil (from kni/t'tpit). Aug 
p(t)7(/ni/(tpita)), what clung to, i. e., 
tree, etc. Kinnnnaptt, to grasj) 
thus. Ang ikngnpit, what with, 
i. e., the hands, feet, etc. No old- 
wc>rld monkeys have a tail which 
can be used fnr graspinir, the I*hil- 
ippine Islands spin'ies included. 

M<iiTi/ihil (from kihit). Kmnihif. to 

^f< itTj/ing ig ( fro n\ king Ig ) . See index. 

MaiTgltH (fn)m kitil). Kntnifil, the 
sinqile acti(»n. Mag/ritil, to break 

off thus iinich. 
see als<» jtntnl. 

•vn.: put I; and 

MtDiiiln.t (inun j>i(''is). Sec index. 



To break off (by many); toother Mamuti (from piUi). Pumvii, to 
habitually (as flowers or fruit). break off. Magputi, to break off 

much. Mangagputi, to break off 
(by many). 8yn.: KitU; and see 
putol. Ang putihin, what broken 
off. An^ pagputihanf the branch 
from which much is broken off. 

Mamuti (from put(). See index. 

MamuUd (from puUd). See adjec- 
tive. PumuUdf to grow pale. 
PuUain, a person who is always 
pale; pallia. Maputldf a person 
who may become pale or pallid. 
Kaputlaarif pallor. MakapuUd, to 
cause pallor. 

MamiUof ( already used. ) See index. 

To whiten intensely. 
To grow very pale. 

To cut up (as cloth). 

Ex. (S roots): 

To disperse; also to scatter much in 

the air. 
To bite much (as a mosquito). 

To destroy completely. 
To curse habitually. 

Ex. (T roots) : 

To peck much (as a bird). 
To tempt habitually. 

Manamhulat (from wmMJLat), See 

Manigid, Ang glgdirif the person, 
etc., bitten. Ang paggigdan^ the 
place. Sumigidt to bite (as one 
mosquito). Magigidf to be bitten. 
Ex.: Naninigid ang mangd lamoh 
(the mosquitoes are biting hard [in 

Manird (from sird). See index. 

3fanu mpd ( from sumpd ) . See index. 

Manukd (from tukd). See index. 
Manuksd (from tuksd). See index. 

VI. With roots which admit of the idea of making a living by exercis- 
ing the acts denoted bv the roots, man expresses the idea of an occupation, 
trade, or profession, fcx. : 

To preach. Mangdral (from dral). Ang mang- 

ang&raly the preacher, but ang 
maiigadraly the master or teacher 
(of a doctrine, etc. ). Ang ipangd- 
ralf what preached. Ang ipi- 
nangaural^ wnat is being preached; 
the subject of the sermon. Ang 
jdnangarTgarcddn, the persons being 
preached to (the congregation) or 
the pulpit. (See index for dra/.) 

Mamahald ( from bahalA) . This word 
is from Sansk. bhara, the root of 
the English **to bear," Lat. /prrf. 
Kay 6 bahald, p6 (you take care, 
sir [i. e., pay what you like]). 
Sino ang namamaJicUd sa bahayf 
(Who is taking care of the house?) 
Si Juan (Juan). 

Mangamot ( from gamot). See index. 

Ma ngatas ( from gatas) . Ang nanga- 
galas, the milkman (or maid). 
Gnmatan, to milk (occasionally). 

To care for. 

To practice me<licine. 
To milk (as occupation). 


To cook or do anything habitually. Magaird. (8ee index; r/awd.) 
To live bv robbery. Mnnhnli (from halt). See index. 

To sew nipa (for a living). Maiiaiiid {irom pi'tnid). Kx,: And 

ang (jlnagawd n'uujo (Hyi'inf (What 

are you doin<^ there?) Kivn't' ij na- 

mamdnid (we are stitching nij)a 

To collect bills (as an occupation). M'tnhTliil (from nwjil). See in<lex. 
To dive (as an occupation). Man'isid (from shid). See index. 

To write (as an occupation). Manulat (from .si'dttt). See index. 

To spin (as an occupation). Manulid (from si'did). Ang )n<tnn' 

nulid, thespinner. >Sinulid, thread ; 

anything sj>un. Sunintidy to spin 

(simj)le act). 
To sew (as a tailor). Mmmln' (from Udii). See index. 

To go tirst; to guide. ^fa^?g^(n(t {(roiu una). See index. 

VII. Some roots with man have the idea of running around doing the act 
expressed bv the verbalized root; going about in a certain manner, etc. 

To advance, clinging to something. MniTiiapil {irom h'l nit). This verb 

would be used if baml)oorail, etc., 
wa.s chmg to crossing a bridge, etc. 
Kntnapit, to cHng to; to support; 
to hold u)> from falling. 

To run around biting (an a vicious MatTgagat (from kagat). See index, 

To go about sadly and mournfully. Ma/Tj/ullhi (from nlila, an orphan). 

VIII. }fan^ with roots denoting animals or birds, expresses their chase; 
with roots meaning fish, etc., their seeking, and with other animal or 
vegetable names, the gathering of what is dcn<»tcd l)y the root. The idea 
is generally that of an occupation or haV)itual engagement in such hunting, 
lishing, gathering, etc. Ex.: 

To gather the rattan called **ba- Mamaging. This is a species of ivy. 


To hunt or catch birds. MatTj/if/on (from ifum). Ehon is 

"egg" in l*amj)angan. 
To catch fish; to fish for a living. MafTiji^iid. (S«e index isdd.) 

To cut or gather wood. Maw/ahog (from ki'dmg). Kahdio- 

gan, woodland, di'ihat is "forest; 

timl>er, etc." 
To gather tortoise shell. Mninjcdn {irom kahi). }fawj<uHf«da, 

t(»rtoise-shell hunter. Maghaia, to 

sell tortoise shell. 
To gather na»'re or "kapis" (the Mmuiajtia (from /:n/,i.<<). MagkajuK, 
shells used in windows). to si^ll nacre. Ang kufnttin, the 

na<re. Aug knpisan, the place 

used, i. e.. the window. 
Toother rattans (.)ejuco). MniTgnng (from n-ng). 

To hunt tortoises. Mnmngnng (from })ng<nig). 

To gather " pajos" (a kind of Manntho. .l/'/7/>a//o, to deal in "pa- 

» > 

mango). jos. 

To hunt frogs. Mantnlnkd (fn»m judakd, frog: syn: 

To gather the rattan called **pala- Manndm^nx. Kajtfilnannan, place 

san." where the paliisan is found. 

To gather palm leaves. }f(ini'd'isj,t'is (fr(.ni p(i/<i.<*j)i'is, "palm 

i.>.,i " \ \r... /.......;.. ♦.. ...i-.i... 

To titrh for eels. Matfiafos (frum palos^ eel). 

To hunt sea turtles. Mammrikan (from pawikan, sea tur- 


To gather or hunt for honey. Mauudot (from ]n(lof, honey). J/o«- 

jnifof, to buy honey. Sfagynlot 
(1) to make honey; (2) to deal in 
honey. Ang puloiin, the honey 
made. Phtiilotdn, what has been 
made from honey (fn^ni pulittdriy 
j^weets made of honey). Pulofin 
iti also a term of endearment. Ex. 
with <tn: J/niKt'/ mo ahoiif/ pulofan 
( 1 )on' t Hatter (honey ) me ) . Pulot- 
(j'ltd, honey and eoeoanut milk. 

To gather oysters. MniKi/'ilni (from (ulabd). Katalal^i- 

h(i)fy oyster bed. 

To hunt <leer. MaiTtjuKu (from i(f<fi, deer). 

IX. Similarly any instrument, weapon, utensil, or animal which can be 
so used is verl»alize<l with the idea of huntin*^', fishing for, or eatehing by 
)niin. Kx.: 

To hunt with do^s or hounds. Mamjtiso (from ciso, dog). See 


To hunt with nr to use a gun. Mtuiuiril (from hariJ^ a shotgun). 

Malay, IxuVil. Aufj VKiinamari/, 
the hunter. 

To lish with a hook. Maniiunit (from hiituit). See index. 

T<» lish with a small li«>ok. J/fO/z/z/v/.s- (from hina.H). Thi.s means 

to Use a rod and line. Jhtmiiva.t, 
to lift the hook by the line. Mfn/- 
huids, to do this much. Ako\tf 
nKDiiiiiiiddfi (1 am going tishing 
with a rod and line). 

T<» lish or hunt with a light. M<iiT</l/<i<) (from l/ao, a light). Kx.: 

M>iin/iin/i/(i<} ht Uun'i f (.Are you 
^^oin«r lishing with a light?) (><) 
(Yes). Altutj hi'iL'nl ang pinaiT^j- 
i)7iiihin<\u uuif (Jn which tield 
aie you going to lish with a light?) 
lii'iU'j In'thi'l igung nmlago Sd iiuuoji'i 
lfi'i/i<tg (In that field over there far 
auay from the hou.'^es). VniiUt(>, 
to light up. MttgUao^ to carry a 
hght. Ang, the lamp or 
place of light. 

To use or hunt with a spear called M'n?f/<i/ihrit. 
" Ualiiwit." 

To lish with the li<<ok. M<ni/<iml>niig (from hnnhang, a 

hoi>k ). 

To li<h with a >«inr. M<iii/<intl>nt. Si'e index: InnifKU. 

To lish with anytlini;: that may In* M'tinf/nLiign (from p(dnkay<i). J\i- 
ii'-ed to <atih lish. i/tdhihig'i, to lish occasionally. 

f P 

To <*-ine with the lai^<' net calleil MniH'tngd 
" pantrt i. " 

r<»s»'ine v\ ith lh<' n<-t called "" |>rikot." Mnnn'iini. 

lo lish with rod, lint', and hook. Maii'tif (from .s'lit, a thorn or hook). 

Mags'ni, to make anything out of 
thorns or hooks; to make abbatis. 
Svn., I'lnik. Tinik also means fish 




X. With roots denoting arms, tools, or instruments nuni indicates the 
habitual use or wearing of the arms and the constant use of tools or instru- 
ments. Ex.: 

To use a dagger. 
To use a sickle. 
To use an axe. 

To use arms. 

To use a syringe. 
To use a knife. 

To use a *'war bolo*' (tabak), 

Mitfu/lira (from iwn). See index. 
MarUUik (from lilik^ sickle). 
Mamaldkol (from palakoly axe). 

Ma<jpalah)l, to have an axe. 
Miinaiulntu (from mutdata^ arm, 

\vea|>on). Mdysandnta, to bear 

arms. Aug sdinhitdhan, armed 

forces; levy en masse. 
MiiUHinjnt (from atunpit), 
Manainlitiui (from HunddiKj^ knife). 

M(uji<(indtni(iy to carry a knife. 
Miundxih. MiKjiahdh, to Wear a war 

l)olo. T(U/taba/:, to cut off with a 

war bolo. 

XI. With roots denoting certain places num indicates the living in such 
places, earning the living from the products thereof, or traveling in such 
localitv. Ex.: 

To live (general idea). 

To dwell in a house. 

To live in town. 

To live in the mountains; to wander 
there; to gain a living from the 
pro<lucts thereof. 

To live in the open country. 
To lead a seafaring life; to be a 
deei)-sea fisher. 

To live in the timber; to lay the 
timber waste; to wander in the 
woods; to live by wood cho])pin<;, 

To travel or live on the bank of a 
river or the seacoast. 

Mami'ilniy (from hnh<ui). Idea is to 
reside, etc. M(i<jl>u}t<ni, to live. 
Buinuhdif, to give life to. Bulutij^ 
alive; living. 

M(unalni}f (from ht'duty). See in- 
dex. iCx.: S<i<in hnjo ittunantminnf 
( Where do you live?) Amj ln'ilmy 
/.<;, y>o, diln .sf{ hafiinuj i(n ( My house, 
sir, is here in this town). 

fellow-townsman, also country- 
man. Mn<)l,ni!<in, ( i ) to look for 
a town site; (1?) t<» lound or build a 
town; (i>) t(» app«»rlion i>y towns 
an<l not i)y inhabitants lUnian 
also nuaiis s|>aee ))et\\('eri earth 
and sky, day (rare), and weather 

Mitiiniiiddk (from Innidok). This 
Word may also mean jotravel in the 
mountains. Jnt/^i hnnditL, moun- 
tainei'r; sometimes nse<l insnlt- 
inglv, as "havsred," in l!nglisli. 

yrainnkul {ivamh/ikid, "lield"). 

Miiii<h/<tt (irnin dayttl, "sea"). Man- 
tiinhjiii, sailor or deep-si'a fislier. 
Also l<iy>i r(i(jiit: t*iiiiniii (idtninjat. 
M(tyd<'i</(if, to travel by sea. Dn- 
mi'i'/iif, to tlood the land. 

yhuKjidint {ivoin (jidfdf, "tnnber; for- 
est"). Any ij>ftiiyid'"t, what car- 
ried in the timber; or tiie cause of 
wand<'rin;_'. I'tc. Any /irmynhdlan, 
the i>lace nf workiiii:, devastating, 
wan<lering, etr., in th<» torest. 
( iii,iii'il>n( , to hecoiiic a fi rest. 
(iidnttrin, timlxT land or forested 


Miinliunlxiy (trom Inndmy). Mny- 
Uuidniy, to carry anything to coast 


or bank. Lumanibay^ to ^ to or 
along the bank or coast (eingle 

XIJ . With roots denoting certain articles of wearing apparel man indi- 
cates their habitual use or wearing. Ex. : 

To wear a shirt habitually. Mamaro (from bare). See index. 

See also mmbcUilOf hat; Mrpin, 
shoe; and tapig, apron. 

XIII. With roots denoting vehicles, boats^ or other means of artificial 
locomotion, man signifies to travel by what is denoted by the root. Ex. : 

To travel by canoe. Mamangkd. Ex. ; Ilang Arao hana- 

kain mula diio hangan MaynUaf 
( How many davs bv banka [canoe] 
from here to Manila?) Maghapon 
kayang bangkain (Perhaps all of 
one day by banka). 

To travel on horseback. Mangahayo (from cabayo, ** horse"). 

To travel by **quilez." MangHts\iToin itt^, a vehicle named 

from Guillermo Quilez, of Vi|?an, 
Ilocos Sur, who suggested it to his 
carriage maker, a native of Vigan). 

XI V"^. Man also denotes self-supporting and slowly developing actions 
from within such as the growth oi flowers, fruit, etc. Many roots com- 
mencing with 6, which would otherwise be conjugated with urn, take man 
for euphonic reasons. (See urn, Par. VII.) Ex.: 

To sprout; to put forth shoots (as Manlabong (from labong). Also 
the bamboo). lumahong. Maglabong^ to have 


To open (as a flower). Mamukadkcui (from hukadkad). Vis- 

ay an, bukad. 

To bloom; to blossom (as a flower). Mamidaklak (from bukMak, flower). 

Visayan, burak; also applied to 
the ilangilang. Ex. : Namumulak' 
lak ang manga halaman (the plants 
are blooming). 

To bear fruit. Mamunga (from bunga; fruit). Ex.: 

Namumunga na ang mangd kdhoy 
(the trees are already bearing 

To bear fruit; to be full of fruit. Mamtufakmk (Irom bu^aksak). Ex.: 

Namumusai:sak Uong punonglukban 
(this lukban tree is full of fruit). 

XV. Some roots have differing meaning with um^ mag' and man. In 
some cases the variation is great, but in others little or none. Man^ how- 
ever, looks to the effect or result more than to the simple action, which is 
expressed by urn or mag. The examples will best show these ditferences 
and resemblances. Ex.: 

Wonis differing in each case: 

To teach. Umdral. ifa^dra/, to study. Mangd- 

raly to preach. (See index: Aral; 
also talo and aalamin.) 

Words agreeing with urn (if used) and man; but differing with mag: 

To intrude or steal in. Dumikit; manikit, Magdikit, to fas- 

ten; to paste together. 

To throw a lasso or rope. Sumild, Afanildy to lasso; to rope; 

to ensnare. MagtUdt to make a 
lasso or snare. 



To tima along; to arrest. 

To nhake (uh a tree to get the fruit). 

Words agreeing with um and maw, jtiar^ being httle used: 

To admire; to wonder at. Guiu'dalas; iwinyUalan. Ex.: Akiiuj 

pinuiKjigilalunan antj karihitnn iiaruj 
matTi/ii bituin sa la in/it (1 admire 
[my admiration is] the beauty of 
the stars in the sky). 
II n m tin ; ukui h ila . ( See i ndex : h ild . ) 
Li(in(t(/l(K/; uidtiloylog. (See also in- 
dex for llh(ik\ idea of ridieuUng, 
etc. ) 

NVord.s <liffering with tim and man, mag being httle used: 

To attiiet. Ihtmahj (from daig). Manaig, to 

overeome; tosur])ass; t<»\an<|uish. 

To kill. l^unataij. Mamataij, to die. (See 

index: patatf.) 

XVI. Some few wonls which <lo not admit <>f fretiueney have the simple 
idea with man. Others are generally used with tlie particle in a seemingly 
ar}>itrarv manner. Kx.: 

To l)ear a child. 
To die. 

The following are arbitrary: 

To allow light to pa.*is (a.s glass or 

anything transparent). 
To feel nauseatech 
To ha\H'; to pos.sess. 
To originate from; t<> 4'ome from; to 

descend from : to arise. 

To lot)k at wrath full V 

To find fault with; to complain of. 


yiaiTijau'inag. Maaiiirmg, transpar- 
ent (from anhiag). 

Man'in'i (from diri). 

Mainlooft (from doon). (See index ). 

yfangaling. Aug j>i)iau(/alii7gaji, the 
j>lace or source of rising; origin; 
ct<'. Ant; gating na aran^ the sun- 
rise, (taling is the idea of doing 
good. (Sei* in<lex. ) 

MauVixik. Kx.: Xaidd/yik ang mata 
nang /mat n<irdat (fixing the eyes 
\vi<le with anger). 

Manii)ita.'<{iri)\u jtlntaf). Kx.: Hindi 
ma haga alam na nadialag ang pam- 
imiutai< .sa djaf (Don't you know 
the disbonesty of complaining 
about others?) Ang jjintoifin; ang 
jdntasau; ang majHimintaA^ the 
critic; the fault-finder; complainer. 
Aug ptimintasan. whnorwhat found 
fault with. Aug pagpinta.^an, wlio 
nr what found much fault with. 
(S«t' also index: t'dana, to confide 

XVIT. Although ;^a?), the definite corresponding to man, generally has 
a verbal meaning, there are several instanns in which pan, prefixed to a 
root, signifies an instrument, utensil, <'r article. These roots then admit, 
although they <lo not always rcipiire, the euj)honic changes, as have 
already been explained in Par. III. Kx.: 

The razor. 
The auger. 
The mop. 

Ang paiTgahif{iroui maiTgaltd). (See 

in<lex: aliH. ) 
Ang jmrnula.-* (from hufas). Maghi'i- 

(as, to bore: to make a ln.le in. 
Aug p(u7t/ns/, IIS ( \ri)]n knsLti.^). Ku- 

i/m.^kus, to nn»j) uji. 



The .sickle. Ainj panfjapajt (iro\n gapas). (See 

index: (ffpffs.) 
The .<j>iule. Aug jxnihuhn/ (irom hukng). (See 

The brush, ruler, ete. Ang jningnliit (from guhit). Gumi'i- 

hit, to line, mark, or paint. 
The ]>ocket l»and kerchief, napkin, .I/j.v ;>(///////<iV/ (from />«)«('//*/</, to rub; 

towel, etc. to clean). 

The hammer. Aug jmmnkjmk (from pnmukpnf: «>r 

iivigptikpiil:^ to strike) . 
The pen, i)encil, etc. Ang paiu'tl<it{lvo\n //^(/?<///a/, to write, 

[fora living;] ). (See index: mhii. ) 
The string, cord, r<»pe, etc. Aug prmdl'i (from t<il'i), Magtali, to 

tie, fasten, bind. 

XVIII. With names of the days and nouns like "aruo" (day) jmn 
denotes somethiui; usimI dailv or on the dav named. Ex.: 

Somethinj.;^ for daily u.«^e. Aug pangaraonrao. (Noun re<lupli- 

cated. ) 
Something' for use on Mondays. Aug /KinluncK. 

XIX. In like maimer, imm, with the reduplicated initial syllable of the 
root. indicaU's the hal>itual agent with those roots cai)able of denotinjj 
occupation, trade, or ]»rofe.<sion. It may also be used with some other 
roots, in some cases the ])articli\s are repeated with occasional euphonic 
chan^'es. Kx.: 

Th(^ following' havi? a simj)le reduplicati(»n: 

Barln-r. Manaah'it (from (W/>7), usually MoiTy- 

(nn/tUiit in Manila. 

Hunter (with gun). M<iin<n)ulrU (from hnn'l). 

Sailor. Monmii'ignl (from dngnf). 

Physician. M<tiH}<tgnnin( (from gatuof). 

Keaix-r. Mdugngapns (from go/xrs). 

Wea\er. Mnnhfihifhi (from Imhi). Ilnmnbl, to 


Tinsmith, phmd)er, etc. Matilnhimmg iirouiliindug). Ilunu- 

Hdihf, to solder. 

Sawyer. Mmihilngan {innuhigari). (See in- 

dex. ) 

Writer-; clerk. MitnnunliU (from stU<tt). 

Spinner'. M<iiiniii'i/i<l (from siUid). 

Tailor; s«-amsirer^s. M<uinu<i}ii {imin tahi). 

Winner; eojKinernr. Mnuatinlo (from tnlo). 

lieseiier: ndei'iiier*. MnmnnthnH (from fnhAa). 7 T<7« «///«.<, 

to rescue, to redeem (simple act). 

Tempt«-r. MifnintnsLsn (from tuksn). 

In tlie lollowin'j exami'les the I'oot as e. )njnj:at«Ml with nidn has the ini- 
tial syllai>lr of iJic iirw word in.^erted l»etwet*n tiie imt and the iTg of the 
])arlicle. \\\.: 

M'tin/diTi/t'iral (from inaiujartil, to 
rreaclnr. ju'eacli). 

Ilnntei' with do'_r> dP lionnds. MmTiimHid.^o (from inamjamj to hunt 

with dogs). 
l-'islnMinan. ytniTgimiisda {iroui niaiig'mMy to lish 

for a liviuir). 

XX. With weights, measures, and similar nouns, man prefixed signifies 
"to ea<'h,'' <ir "apiece," amounts as may be denoted l>y the noun. (See 
under the numerals. ) 

XXI. With many roots mdn siumilies a n'send)lance to what may l)e 


Hurricane; typhoon. Bagi/6. Ex.: Maiifxiyt/ohagifo itong 

haiTijln (This wind seems Hke a 
typhoon ) . NnglaUiyag niltVy biiia- 
gyo sild sa d/igat (They were coast- 
ing and were caught at sea by a 

Anger. (id I it. Ex.: MangdlUgdUl yaong 

paiTfjuiujusap (Tliat way of talk- 
ing resembles anger). 


I. This particle {uaka in the past and ])revsent) has two distinct mean- 
ings, the first y)€ing that of cause and the second that of power, ability, etc. 
For this reaiJon there are two definites, that corresi>unding to the idea of 
cau.«e Ix'ing ka, and that to the idea of j»nwer being ma {im). 

In lx)th cases the true pluperfect and future perfect tenses are formed by 
na following the verbas existing in the past and future tenses, respectively. 

The idea of cause is indicated l)y ntahi with roots denoting conditions, 
torts (wrongs), and betterments, which have (»nly one delinite; that with 
», which has in with the past and j>resent tenses, forming ilv/, iki)in. Ika 
and ikina also indicate time (not tense) in certain cases. (8ee index.) 

II. The difference in syntax Ixit ween these >//'//.a verbs in the sense of 
cause and all others must be noted. In the definite tlicse verbs have the 
agent in the nominative and the recii>icnt or o)>jcct of the action in the 
genitive. In the indefinite the agent is in the usual nominative also, but the 
reci[)ientor object takes the accusative, wliich is invariably preceded hy sa 
(never by nung). This use of sd is also found with some other verbs. 

III. yi<ig and man roots retain the delinite forms iKig and j)an when con- 
jusrated with maka, as will be seen from examples. 

Tol>e able to learn or study. Makapngural. Ex.: Xakapagaralako 

(I was able to study), Nakapa- 
yninil siya (He [siie] is able to 
study). }f<ikapag'ii'tral .Hi/d (They 
will be able to slu<ly). Jlindl ako 
indka/fnt/ddnt/ (I shall not be able 
to study). Ndpagdral ko atig idral 
(1 was able to learn the lesson). 
Aapa/jiv'iral niyd aitg idral (He 
[she] is al)le to learn the lesson). 
Mnpnt/ddral ni/d any idrnl (They 
will be able to learn tlie lesson). 

To l>e able to teach. }fak<idral. Ex.: Sakadral ako (I 

was able to teach). The other 
tenses, both of the indefinite an<l 
the delinite are formed in the 
same way. 

To Ix^ able to preach. MakajfaiTijArnl. XakapaiTj/dnii ako 

(1 was able to preach). Xaka- 
patTl/din/dnil siyd (He is able to 
prea(."h). yfaknpaiTlinmidrttl. siyd 
(He will be able to i>reach). The 
delinite is formed in the same way 
as with paydraL 

IV. Roots verbalized by maka reduplicate the first syllable of the root in 
the present and future tenses. In some«listricts the secon<l syllable of the 
particle is reduplicated, but this is a ])n>vincia]isni. I'x.: 

To cause damage. MukopdiTiyatiyayd (from <(nyayd and 

jxiit). See index. 
To cause anguish. MukalntHsa. 



To cau^e tiatiety. 
To beautify or adorn. 
To cause disguHt 

To do good. 

To hinder. 

To adorn; to embellish. 

To cause relief. 

To cause sadness. 

To hinder. 

To cause another to tremble with 

To cause to tremble with cold or 

To cause ()r do evil. 

To cause disj^t; weariness; annoy- 

To dazzle (as the sun or lightning). 

To cause anxiety. 

To cause nausea. 

To wound (lit., to cause to be 

To cause to Ikj set afire. 

To cause loathing (as food). 

To cause fear. 

To cause laughter. 

To cause pleasure. 

Makahusog. BUsog is a bow 

MakabiUi, BumtUif to erow hand- 
some. (See btUi in index.) 

Makadimarim or makarimdrim. 
Mandimdrim, to disgust. Ex.: 
Nnndimdrim ak6 9a pagkain niy& 
(His manner of eatmg disgusted 

Makagcding, (See index: gcUing.) 


Makagandd, Ex.: Ang kahinhina^y 
nakaaagandd 9a manga dcUaga 
(Modesty is a beauty in girls). 
(Def.): Ang kaJiinhitian ay giyaug 
ikinagagandd nang maiigd daiaga. 

Makaginhdua. Ex. : MakagirOi&ua 9a 
inud ang gnmot ( Let the medicine 
relieve you ) . Nakaginhdua 9a akin 
ang pamoi (I was relieved by the 
medicine). Nakagiginhdna 9a ka- 
niyd ang gamot (He is being re- 
lieved by the medicine). Mahagi- 
ginhniui 9a inyd ang gamot (You 
will be relieved by the medicine). 
Ang pagkaginhdua, the relief (act). 

Makahdpi9. (See index: Adi)i>.) 

Makalihang, (See index: /toan^.) 

MakapangUdbat (from kildbot and 
pan), Kakilakildbotf horrible. 

Maknpanginyxg. ( See index : kinyig), 

Makasamd. Maka9a9amdy noxious; 
malignant. Also future tense. 
Ex.: Iloua^ mong kanin itong 
hungdH mako9cu^amd 9a iyd (Don't 
eat this fruit, because it will in- 
jure you [be noxious to you, in- 
def.]). Ang \kina9a9amd nang 
dking loob ay ang kaniyang pay- 
mumurang walang tigil ( What puts 
me in bad humor is his everlasting 
slanderinsr [^lit., The cause of my 
l>ad humor is his slandering with- 
out cessation, def. ] ) . Sumamd, to 
become bad or evil. (See index 1 


Makasilao. ( Sy n : pulag. ) 



MakoAiigai. (See index: stigat.) 

Makoifunog. (See index: 9unog.) 
M(ika9uyd. (Syn. 9nnok.) 
Makatdkot. {iiee index: tdkot.) 
Makata t/a. ( See taua: i ndex . ) 
Makatud. (See index: tud,) 



V. The indefinite forms will be dearly seen by the conjugation of 
viakaginhdua in the preceding paragraph, there being no irregularities 
and there is but one definite with ka, forming ika as a prefix to the root 
for the infinitive and future and ik'nui for the past and present tenses, in 
being incorporated in the latter cases. For the conjugation of this definite 
see hap'iH in index. 

VI. Prefixed to roots denoting actions maka signifies power or ability to 
perform what may be denoted by the root. Roots which are conjugated 
in the simple idea by mag or man retain pag or pan before the root in all 

VII. Ma is the corresponding definite to maka potential, and when used 
with the idea of attraction toward, etc., suppresses in completely. Ma 
becomes na for the past, pluperfect, and present tenses. Pag and pan are 
retained with those roots re<iuiring it to preserve the meaning, a^ explained 
in the prece<ling paragraph. The definites with i and an also exist. The 
particle % is inserted l)etween the particle uia {ua) and the root, contrary to 
Its use with ka^ where it is prefixed to the latter particle. Ex.: 

To l>e able to go away. 
To I>e able to teach. 

To be able to do or make. 
To be able to tiike. 

To be able to go c>r come out. 
To V»e able to walk; march; et^'. 

To l)e able to write. 

Makaafis. MakapagaVa^y to be able 
to take away. 

Makaaral. Makapagdral, to be able 
to learn or study. Ex.: Napagd- 
ral ko aug idral ( 1 was al)le to learn 
the lesson). Xapagdral na ko ang 
idral ( 1 had l)een al)le to learn the 
lesson). Napagadral ko ang idral 
(I am able to learn the lesson). 
Mapagadral ko artg idral (1 shall 
be able to learn the lesson). (See 
dral in irnlex.) To be able to 
preach, makapaiTgdral. 

Makagavd. (See index: gawd.) 

Makakuha. With idea of attraction 
toward, in is su])prt\ssed. Ex.: 
Nakiiha ko iuang hutuja (1 was able 
to take that Iruit). Nakukuha nigd 
igang huiTija (He [she] is able to 
take that fruit). Makufatha ko 
igang huiTija ( I shall be able to take 
thatfruitj. (SiH'alsoindex: knha.) 

Makalahds. Makapaglabd^, to beable 
to take out. (See index: lahds. ) 

Maka/dkad. (Sec index: /'Uv/(/. ) Ex. 
with//<^/A</ (indef. ): Nakaldkadakd 
( I was al>le to wal k ). Nakalaldkad 
mid (He is able to walk). Maka- 
lalakad slid (They will l)e able to 

Mak<[»ulat. With ? inserted between 
lua {na) and root with definite. 
Ex.: Xaitd'dat ko itong patnUat (I 
was able to write with this pen). 
NaiMi.vilat ko itong pandlnt (lam 
able to write [can w rite] witli this 
pen). Mai^UHi'dat ko Hong pan dial 
(I will be able to write with this 
pen). Bakas ma'txiiHi'ilat ang salal 
na i}tadadnld mo sa igong antd sa 
Magndn (To-morrow 1 will beable 
to write the letter which you will 


have to send to your father in 
Manila). Aalis ako nang maMlat 
na niya ana iniutos ko sa kanivA 
( I will go when he writes down the 
orders 1 have given him). (See 
index : sulat. ) 
To be able to ran away. Makatakbd. (See inden: takbo). 

VIII. With negative particles the imperative is largely used instead of 
the present tense, although the meaning is the same as that of the latter, 
i. e., hindt ahmg makasulaty I can not write; I am not able to write; instead 
of hindi ukong nakasumlaL The definite is sometimes used in the same 
way with the negative, and even with the affirmative. Examples: Hindi 
akong inakapagdral ( I can not [am not able to] study [or learn] ). Hindi mo 
mad^mpotf ( Can' t you pick it up [grasp it] ?) Hinat ko maipahdyag ( from 
hdyag, ma, t, and^) (I can not reveal it [make it public]). Hindi ak6 
makaliias m Mavnild*t akd'y may sakit (I can not go down to Manila, because 
I am ill). With um this may be expressed hinat akd mangyaring lumtuUm 
MayniUVt ak6 may sakit, Hindi kayS makapangusapf (Can't you talk?) 
Hindi ko mawikd, (I can not pronounce it). Hindi ko mamygay (I can not 
explain it). Hindi ko mambx (J can not tell it). 

IX. Maka (naka) with the indefinite and ma (na) with the definite sig- 
nify to do what is denoted by the root mechanically, casually, involun- 
tarily, or suddenly (occasionally), especially acts of the mind and physical 
senses, Ex. : 

To smell. Makaamoy, Nakaaamoy kayof (Do 

you smell anything?) Naaamoy 
ninyd bagd ang bangong isinaftatnbu- 
lat nang manga bulaklakf (Do yoiE 
smell the fragrance shed by the 

To feel. Makaramdanit from damdam, Na— 

ramdamAn mot (Did you feel it?^ 
0(5, nadaramdaman ko pa (Yes, I_ 
feel it yet). 

To hear. Makariiujig (from dingig). See in — 

dex: dingig. 

To taste. Makalasap. (See index: ^osap.) 

To see. Makakitci. Ex.: Akd^ynakaJatdnan^ 

isang tauong diydn ( I saw a person, 
there). AaA*iYd bagd sildf (Di(B> 
you see them? ) Hindi naunV t ma — 
kikiid ko sana (No, but I may her- 
able to see [them]). 

Acts of the mind: 

To know (something). MakaMam. Walang neUxutdlam (Nc^ 

one knows). Hindi ko naacdamarm^ 
(1 do not know it. ) 

To think. Makaisip. Hindi maitiip^ incompre — 

hensible. Ex.: And ang isip mc^ 
or NaiUip mo or Naiisipan mo^ 
(What do you think about it?^ 
AVi/^tpan, opinion. Ang pagkaisip-^ 
the act of tninking. 

To comprehend somewhat; to feel; Makamalay. 
to understand. 

To understand (naturally). Makatalaslds. Ex.: Natatalastd. '^ 

niny6 bagdf (Do you understan^il 
it? ) Walang nakatataiaMds ( No oik^ 
understands). Tum^UaMs^ to ora- 
derstand (by an act of volition). 



To remember (ca^^ually, etc.). 
To forget. 


To like (naturally). 

To ascend or go u]> (cas. ). 

Muknalaahi. (8ee index: alaala.) 
MnkaUmot. (See index: Ihiiot.) 

To enter (casually). 
To fall asleep. 

Makfuhiij. (See index: '(Im[J.) 
Mftkmmnluk. V.\.\ Nnpdnhikd)) ko 
omj ln'(}t<ni i)(iti(j kuihitjan luithi (I 
went n)» by chance into thi' house 
of our frientl). 
Mfika/n'mok. (See index: piUok.) 
Mohiti'iUxj. \\\.'. Ihiinjmasd uk(7y 
iiokntt'ilo*/ nko ( I wuH reading 
and fell asleej»)- -1''.'/ ikahUog^ 
the cauye or tinie of sleeping. 
Atit; i}>ni/ti'(I()ij, the cause or time 
of sh-eping a great deal. 

X. Ma (no) is used in connection with mi (snnictiniea in) to express 
being overtaken by win<l, weather, night, etc., and als(> to express the 
casual a<lvent of a season, date, etc. 

Some phra.^es of this nature arc use<l witli /// only. 

The definite onlv is found. 

Maih'do. (See index: arao and init 

for exs. ) 
Mtufuh'i. Ex.: (ra(/(thilnn kasa daiin 

(Vou will be overtaken by night 

on the road). 
Mnn/ihi. (See index: ulan.) 
Mtihuht'j. (See index: huUi(f.) 
Mai nit. Kx.: yaiiiiitan ak>'t (1 am 

warm). Vminit, to become hot. 

M(i(/i)Hf, to heat. Mat/pa init, to 

allow to become hot. 
Maliitio. (."^ee index: labd.) 
Mnjiilio. \\\.\ Kami' II najidiohan m 

Tdtlnr (July found us in Tarlac)- 

(Any month may be used in this 

Mnp'isnta; mapanko. Ex.: Xajtas- 

knhan (iko sa MaifnHa (Easter 

found nu' in Manila). 

XI. Makd also signifies the ])ossible accom))lishment of a purpose with 
the indefinite; //j/f being used with the delinite. {Xaka; 7)d.) Theaccom- 
plishment of the en<l sought is always expre-se<l in the j)ast tense. 

To V>e caught out in the sun. 
To be overtaken by night. 

To be caught in the rain. 
To be blinded. 
To be hot (warm). 

To be clouded; turbid. 
To >)e overtaken bv July. 

To Ihj found at Easter. 

To \ye able to lift. 

To \ye able to overtake by running. 

To ])e able to find. 

To get by asking. 

To l)e able to catch fish. 

To be able to i)ass an I'xamination. 

Mdkdfii'didt. M<fk(ifjnhn}idf, liftable. 
Ex.: Ih(htihdtin ko itomj hoffonff 
krnxi nnthn/dif (I will lift this sack 
if it ))e liftable). 
MifkdJn'ihol. IlnmdhoJ^ to run after 
another in order to overtake him 
(her), V.\.: lUndlntl ko i^iifd'if 
liindi nalidltnl ( 1 ran after him [lier] 
but could not overtake him [her]). 
Mdkdhihid/f. [i^vv hdndp: index.) 
MdkdhitH/l. {Sqv hiiTi/i: index.) 
MukdpdtHjisild. lv\.: Ako If niinTJ/- 
itd/isdd kfiHij nidk(tj>awiisdd { 1 am 
going to lish if it is possible to 
catch anv tish ). 
Mdkd.^nlit. V.\.\ Sini'ilit sijfd nditfj 
sujnrinte)identr ay [hindi] nakaSfUlt 

lo give an juooiiiu or. 
To 1)0 able to hit with arrows. Mnlutpdnit. 7^im«7id, to shoot at with 

bow and arrow. Ex.: Pumjmatio 
siifd fta mtnTj/a ihoHy iTr/nni^t hindl 
n<tha/)(in() .sij/'i ( I le nhot at the birds 
with bow and arrow, but wa.s n<»t 
al)le to hit them). 

XII. yfahn, correctly used, expre.«ses i)hy.«ical power or ability qj» a 
general rule, i*)'il:<it and manfjt/ari being used to express moral power or 
ability. By tlie uneducated, these words are used almost indi.«crirainately. 
(See sHkd and ntdtif/i/arl: index.) 

XIII. Main is also used to verbalize kmia; "perhaps, may be," etc., 
which is conjugated as in the following examples: 

/>/// kit mfiL'u/dnnnf/ daUun (1 do not know it 1 will be able to carry it). 
Dili (f/:o iit<ikt(h(tya ihiifdtj i(6 .v(/ kunif/d (1 do not know if 1 will Ik? able to 
give this to him), Wa/d ahnnj ikahnfd (I have no way to do it). Maka- 
kdjjd ka hnt/d btnni/lnifd.'' (Will you be able then to buy this?) J}i ko 
iiifik'n/dnniKj l<rlHtii»ni kdt/d (I am not able to tight against you [plural]). 
Jinnnnn ko, knti mnkdutnuin ko (I will rlrink it, it I can). 

J^'".!"', "l>erhaps, by chance," etc., has a stronger meaning than Jcayd. 

XIV. Mdkn {inn) is sometimes used in reluctantly admitting a fact or in 
avoiding too dire<t an injury to the feelings of another. Ex.: (Indef.) 
ydkdpaf/tHikno n'nid (he may have stolen); (Def. ) najyacjnakno niyd itd (he 
may have stolen this). 

XV. yfdkd is also used colhxiuially in conversation as follows: Makatn- 
110))'/ kdfjd/ (Is there anything more to be asked about it?) Makakitd, 
hd(fdf (Is there anything more to be seen?) 

A more usual form is made with hiht, **more," and the root with ///. 
viz: LniDdlo na ((nmidjuif ( Is tliere anything more to ask about it?) Lvmalo 
sd kifdin/ (is there anything more tr) hv seen?) 

X VL M'lkd forms certain adjectives in Tagalog, which have the inher- 
ent iileaof }>otentiality. These adjectives, which in English are generally 
formed by the suffixes nhle and ihft' or l>y/'//, have three distinct forms in 

XVII. (a) Hoots ex])re.«sing (jualities which maybe felt by the mind 
are made adjcM-tives l)y ))re(ixing /.a, the casual <letinite of tnaka^ to the 
root, which is reduplicated to the second syllable. Ex.: A'doynat/a (di/d) 
*'<!elightt"ul "; kd<jinhd(/iii/idiid {(finJidnn), *' whf»lesome; salubrious;" kaihi- 
(/Ihiy (if>i:/), "amiable;" kdkildkildhdf (kUdhnf), "horril)le;" katakottdkot 
\tdknt) ''"fearful; drea<llul." 

(A) Adjectives of sinular meaning are also formed by maka with the 
fntnn^ indefinite. Ex. : 

M'fkdliihii/d {hi;ni), "bashful;" indkrundnidtdj/ ()nd{dt/), "mortal" (death- 
cansinL'); mttkd.'iistni (slri't), "destructive:" mnkdldtnud (tdud), "laugha- 
ble;" iif'ikdhifiif) {Inn), " pleasant, agreeable." 

('•) Wlien the re tots may express aptitude or inaptitude or facility or dif- 
liciilty in <loing anythinL'; if allirinative the adjective is f()rmed with the 
future <lrfinite of the potential particU' ///</, and if negative with the impera- 
tive inn (without re<lnpliration of the first syllable of the root), which is 
generally j^reccdrd by the negative ])article ^//, "not." Ex.: 
Mnkdktni}, "edil'lr;" fli m>ikni)\, " une<lible, uneatal)le;" wagagaxiii^ 
"practicable;" '// mnijnnd, "impracticable;" ///(o'r/<»///j, "potable, drinka- 
ble;" <li innnmiii, "uridrinkable;" makikitn, "visible;" di luakitd, "invisi- 
1»lr;" iiiiisnsfihi^ "t<'ll:ible;" di )n<ts,ihi, "untellable, unspeakable;" man- 
<ji/nyni'l, "possible;" '// }nniifji/nri, "impossible;" <f/ }iidhdtdy "intolerable;" 
d'l )nnknld<], " indiss«»lul)lc;" '// iDd'jdinit, d! ri)(dn}>l(at)^ "inaccessible;" dt 
vidfils, "insufferable;" (// mntbnjknln, "incomprehensible;" dt mamlang, 

< I i. I. _ 1. I .. M 


(rf) Adjectives of the classes above described take the "tie" iig when 
united to a following noun or verb if ending in a vowel, but remain 
unchanged if ending^ m a consonant. The following verbs take the defi- 
nite imperative, which is best translated into £nglish by the infinitive 
with **to.** Ex.: Kagalanggulang anid "respected father;*' kadumaldu' 
mal tigndn, "disgusting to see;" kaayaayang pakingdn, " delightful to listen 
to;" madaling gawin, "easy to do or make;" maUwag sabihint "difiScult to 
sav;" mahirap kamtdn, "hard to accomplish." 

iCVIII. Maka may be compounded with mag, resulting in magmaka. 
denoting the idea of a great or excessive degree of what may be inaicated 
by the root, which is generally reduplicated. (See par. 27, mag, ) 

Ex. : Magmakaauaaud {aud) " to be able to move to compassion; " magma- 
iagaliigdlit (gdlit), "to be able to move to anger;" magmamakaaalitgdlit 
akd iyang tauo, "that man will be able to anger me;" makagulitf "to 
cause anger;" magmakahiyd^ "to be able to shame greatly" (see par. 27, 
VMM)\magmakalumbaylumbay (lumbay)^ "to be able to move to grief ; " nag- 
mcLkalumbaylumbay akd ang oalildj "the notice was enough to move me to 
^ef;" makalumhayf "to cause sadness; to make melancholy;" bdkitmo 
ikincUtdumbay ang mamsamang balitdf or AncVt nakalulumbay sa iyd ang 
mascuamang oalitdf " Why does the bad news sadden you?" 

XIX. Maka (naXra) is sometimes used in the place of ma (na) indefinite, 
the two particles having many analogies. Ex.: Nakabukda ang pinto^ 
"the door is open;" nakallmot sU/dy "he forgot;" nakatayd siydj "he is, 
standing up; " nakaupd siydf "he is sitting down." 

XX. Makd and its synonym bakd express fear or apprehension of pos- 
sible danger, hurt, or injury. They are written as separate words and not 
as prefixes. BaJcd is more common. These two words may be best 
rendered into English by "lest," "for fear that," etc. Ex.: Akd'y 
vuigdalang t&kot, bakd maringig (I was afraid lest I should be heard.) 
Souag mong gawln iydn^ makd mapahdmak ka (do not do that, because you 
ixiay lose). Uouag kang magdaan sa btmdokj makd hararVfin ka narig matTgd 
tulisdn (do not travel in the mountains, because you might be stopped by 
tJie "ladrones"). Humarang^ to stop another on the highway. Mahi 
^»\ay tduo diydn (lest there be people there). 

(6) Makd also denotes partial resemblance, as in comparing speech, 
£ruit, flowers, etc. Ex.: Makd Tagdlog ang capitdn nang paixgungusap 
(the captain is like a Tagalog in his speech). Makd bulaklak sa America 
itona bulaklak nanq amoy (this flower is like an American flower in odor). 

XXI. In addition to the meanings of maka as a verl)al particle, it 
indicates completed verbal action, best translated by the adverb "after" 
^.nd a verb. Ex.: Makamisa nang pare (after he had said mass the 

'priest ). Makayari nU6*y paroon ka sa (after vou do this go there 

tio ). 

It is also used idiomatically. Ex.: Makasakdling matj dungmaiing^ 
ttumUi ka nang kakanin (in case anyone should arrive, go buy something 
[for him] to eat). 


I. This particle, signifying the ordering to do or make or permitting to be 

cione what is denoted by the root, reduplicates the last syllable of the 

f^article for the present and future indefinite tenses. The definite, pa, 

VDeing a monosyllable, causes the first syllable of the root to l^e reduplicated 

£or the same tenses. The definite has all three forms of in, i, and an. 

Mag and man roots retain this between magpa and the root. Pag 
Sometimes precedes magpa in the definite form {pagpa). 

Sa is generally used before the person commanded. Ex. : 

To order to teach. Magpadral. Magpadral ka kay Pe- 

dro, order Pedro to teach. Mag- 
papagdral, to order to study. 
Magpapagdral ka kay Juan, order 
Juan to study. Papagaralin mo 



To order to read. 

To order to do or make. 

To order to come or go out; (2) to 
order to take or bring out. 

To order to ascend. 

To order to go or come down; to 
order to descend. 

To order to g<»t into or enter. 
To order to write. 

ang iyong anak (onler your child 
to study)- Pinapagdral pa ok6 
nang a king ind (my motner or- 
dereil me to keep on studying). 

MagpniHvTgaral (1) to order to 
preach; (2) to request to preach 
(if not comj)etent to order). 

M(ig])abasa. NagiHJjxtftn»a ang maen- 
tro »a manga batd (the teacher is 
ordering the children to read). 

MagjHigaud. Na^pngavd akd (I or- 
dered [something] done or made). 
NagjHijmgawd siya ( he [she] is or- 
dering [something] to be done or 
ma<le). NakapagjHigawd aid (I 
was able to order [something] to 
be done or made). Maapapagav-d 
ak6 ( I will order [something] to be 
done or made). Makapaapag^wd 
akd (I shall have ordere<i [some- 
thing] to be done or made). The 
definite with eis: Ipagavnl mo itd sa 
kanlifd (order him to do [make] 
this). Jpinagau^ ko «a igd it 6 (I 
ordered you to do [make] this). 
Ipinagagawd niyd sa iyd it 6 (he or- 
ders you to do this). Jpagagawd 
ko na iy6 itd (I shall order you to 
do [make] this). (See index: 
gawd. ) 

Magjyalabdi. Magpalalxis ka kay Juan 
(order Juan to get out). MagjHtl- 
abas ka kay Jxian nang damit (order 
Juan to get the clothes out ) . Pal- 
abantin mo itong aso ( have this dog 
put out). 

Magpapanhik. Papanhikin mo ang 
matTgd batd (tell the muchachos to 
come up). Makapagpapanhik, to 
be able to order to ascend. Naka- 
pagpapanhik akd (I was able to 
order to ascend). Nakapagpapa- 
panhik akd (I am able to order to 
ascend ) . Makapa{fj»apapanh ik akd 
( I will be able to order to ascend). 
Magpapagpanliiky to order some- 
thing Drought upstairs, hoisted, 
etc. Papagpanhikin mo ang manga 
baid nang tuhig (tell [order] the 
muchachos to bring up some 
water). (See index: pan/iii:.) 

Magpapandog. A Iso means to spend ; 
to use up. Magpapaqpandog^ to 
order something to Ke brought 
down. (See index: pandog.) 

Magjyapdsok. ( For examples see in- 
dex: pdsok.) 

MagjHisnlat, Ang mangddral ay nag- 
jmsufdt sa iyd ( indef. ) ; pinasdlat ka 
nang mangddral (def. ) (the teacher 
ordered you to write). The definite 



witli /» is: PasuhitimriO siifd nitonfj 
snlnt (order him to write this let- 
tei). The dual (two) is used in 
tlie folio winj< examples, but they 
aretranslated as usual into Mn<rlish. 
PiiHfsnlnfLita iiitou(ji*uliit ( I ordered 
you to writer this letter). Pinami- 
{ti'ihit L'lla it'ihnifj Hi'ihtt (1 am order- 
in*; you to write this letter). Pa- 
yusiilntin httd niton'j xnhit (I will 
order you to write this letter). 
(See index: siUaf,) 

To order ti> lock. M<i<j/nisiis). To lock; in'Kjsusi. Sn- 

sidii mo ltd (lock this). JhnKtg wo 
S'i.<i<in ltd (don't lock this). ltd 
hl)un iitiL'isits) (this is not locked). 
Alif<in mo oiifj nitd (un- 
lock this [lit., "release this condi- 
tion of l)einj4 locked"]). Snslfin 
inomi'i pintd (lock the door). Aikj 
/s'//.s/, the key. Aikj sds'nin., what 
locked. Au</ pa«fi<ns), what locked 
nuich, or the act of lockin;;. Atu; 
ipdf/iiKsl; what used to lock much 
with. Sfis), d(»riv»'(l from Chinese, 
is distinct from sn.s), meanini; clear, 
j)ure, (►r neat, which comes from 
the Sanskrit, cnr/ii. 

To order to sew. Mof/jiolohi lid (inij pittnlil nhid na 

dk'ni (this is wiiat she tol<l me to 
sew). (See index: Ichi.) 

II. Magpa reverses the meaning in sentences where an inferior addresses 
a suj)erior, or in which the subject has no power to command, the particle 
then meaning "to retjuest, ask," etc. Kx.: Mnf/jKn/ond ho it'it't so huioiKj 
Qmd "ask vour father to do this," not "order your father to do this." 
jffagjHUiral k(ujd po f-o iit{/on(j unak .v( f.^nnJalmit (in<lef. ) or J'o/ior/oro/iii 
^iimfd jxi ang onak nint/d >•(( esffo/ohan (def. ) (let your child study for a 
W'hile yet at school). 

III. The indefinite form will \)v seen by the conjugation of uuK/pogood 
** to order to do or make;" there bein*; but one irregularity of note, viz: 
In the pluperfect and future perfect tenses noko and moko, with }>ogpa pre- 
fixed to the root and hh following, express these tenses, respectively. (See 
tal>le8 for conjugation.) 

IV. Pf7, the corresponding definite v«Tbal participle to ihogpo, and 
formed by dropping the first syllable of the latter, forms the three deti- 
Tiites regularly. Tlu; examples gi\ en in tlu^ tables are rmnfjHisnlot {sdhit)^ 
'* to order to write " (in)', nio</f>og(fnd {{lond)^ " to order to do or make " 
(j); and magpolounn {ton'nn), "to order to sow " ('^"O- 

\. Magpa may be })receded by inoko, forming mokopor/po, the com- 
pound giving the idea " to be able to order to." (See under ina</popon- 
hik in Par. I, niogjm.) 

VI. Magpa also denotes what is suffen'd willingly or what is done with- 
out restraint by others upon the subject; to allow or j)ermit, with those 
roots which admit such idetis. The context serves generally as a guide to 
distinguish the idea of " to order to" from " to permit to." lOx. : 

To allow deception; cheating. }fa(/poroi/d ({nMu (hit/d). (See index: 

doijd. ) 
To allow oneself to be crucilied. Mogporipd (from 'Iij>d). (See index: 

<l{pd. ) 
To allow oneself to be whii>j)ed. Mo>ij)o}iampdii. (See index :/tr/;/j;>')N. ) 



Tn allow oneself to "Ik* flatly con- 
To allow one's hair to V>e conil)ed. 

To allow one}?elf to be jilapi>ed. 

VII. }f(i(/p(i, with a root denoting 
gradual intrin.sic action, iinlii-ate^itlie 
erate or allow the transition. 

To allow to become putrid. 

To (;rder tu throw down; raze; (2) 
to allow to fall into ruin. 

To allow to l>econie hot. 

To allow to become cool ; to cool any 


M(uip<i}(ukl(ty. Also *'to order to 
(!ond)." (See index: suklay.) 

Ma(/pii((nnpnl. TniHompal^ to slap, 
M(U!tainpnl^ to slap much. 

a state or condition resulting from 
I>ur]K)se (A the subject either to accel- 

Mu'lpdhi'ih!:. Ilouag monrj kabulokin 
ait(j nntiTiM shfiiiff (don't let the 
l)ananas rot). 

MiKjjxnjihn. damibd, to do away 
with; to level; to throw one's self 
down. Aiif/f/inihn, ( 1 )what thrown 
down or leveled; (2) what done 
away with. M<f(j(jih(i, to throw 
down many things. 

M(i(j}minit (from 'mil). MagpamKjinit, 
to order something to i)e neated. 
(Si-e index: ////7. ) 

MagjKihnn'nj. J^nhimUjin )tatin aiuj 
f'mu) (K t us wait until the dav is 
cooler). Mtt(/j>alamig ka uangtuhifj 
(let some watxTcool [i. e., put some 
water out to cool]). Jpd/ainig mo 
tuH) ti'ibig (](ut the water some- 
where to cool). BAkit hiiKii ku 
migpupnlinnig uaiuj tub'ujf (Why 
don't you C(»ol .«ome water?) Saan 
(tko iiingpipuhumg nang tnbigf 
(Where shall I j)ut the water to 
• nol?) Jijftng baUtlang ii/nn oiig 
j>agjKtpnbiiitlgi'tn mo nang tnbig (let 
tiie water cool out there on that 
porcl 1 ) . k'nhapou ag nng ibang silid 
(UUf phtfigftahtinigan ko navg tubig 
(vesterdav I let the water cool in 
the ot her room ). M'lfjjnipaglanngy 
to order something to l^e cooled). 

Mngjuffuiio. Jlonag mong patuyoin 
<i)ig iiHUn/t'i h'lbimnii (don't let the 
plant.s dry uj^). Tt(g6 na pu (they 
are dried up already, sir). Hindi 
ko in/'i pinatfitiiifo (indeed, I am not 
lettiu'j: them <lry up). Patuyoin mo 
njnn, dry that or let it dry. 

Vril. .\f(igpn is also used tn express a<'ts of the Creator; of nature, and 
of p«'rs(»ns Ix'Vnnd llie control of the speaker, mainly with the idea of 
cause. K\. : 

To allow to dry up <»r out; to put out 
t<» <irv. 

To <'aust' waves. 

To caus(» the flowers to bloom. 

To cause it t«> tliun<ler. 

To rear; bring up (as a child). 

M(i(/p(i('i/<jii . A Ho ang nagpnpadlon sa 
(bi'/a// (Wliat causes the waves 
at sea?) Aug haiTgin (the wind). 



Magpahiki. (See index: lakl.) 



IX. Maqpay used with reference to the effect of such actions as the fore- 
j^ing, which are beyond tiie power of a human agent, signifies '' to ex- 
pose to;'* '* to put in," etc. Ex.: 

To ex|)08e to the sun; to sun one- Magjyaamo (accent on the hist syl la- 
self, hie). (tSce index: arao.) 
To ex|)08e to the wind or air. MagpaliaiTiim. (See index: haiujin,) 
To expose to the rain. Mdtjjmvlan. (8ee index: vh'tn.) 

X. Magpn coupled with nieteorological i)lionnnicna and astronomical 
occurrences, connected with a human agency, denotes a waiting on the 
l>art of such agent until the condition has changed or the event taken 
place. The context generally serves to give the correct idea. Kx.: 

To wait until the tyj)hoon ceases. 

To wait for a change of wind. 

To wait for the tlay to become cooler. 

To wait until the sun (or moon) 

To wait for a change (its in bad 



Miujpalmnvi iHimj arao. (See Par. 

M(uj}m>iiJnii<i. (See index: sllang.) 


Maypalild. Patlldin mo rnuva nng 
uU'in (wait until the rain ceases). 
The root is tU(l^ which alone means 
** to seem." TiJil V'tno or auaki 
tt'iun (it looks [seems] like a ])er- 
son ) . Tih) Hfiptiroon sih't ( it seems 
they went there). 7'/*/^/ iiapapnrilo 
.s/A( (it seems they are coming 


Mtif/pfnimnf/if (from mndtjo, *' to 
dawn;" rrn »t, ^f/rr). 

XI. With roots exj)ressing the indefinite idea of what ma\ be given 
magpd expresses acts which benelit anotlier than the agerit. Tliese roots 
are generally those conjugated primarily with nm. Kx.: 

To wait until the rain ceases. 
To wait until davbreak. 

To give fo(xl; to feed. 
To send; to forward. 

To clothe; to lurnisli clothing. 

To give somethinjr to drink; to wa- 
ter (as aniujal or luwl). 
To put at interest; to invest. 
To give hxlging. 
To lend willingly. 

M(ujp(il(iin. (See index: hiin.) 

M(i(jpathili'i. Itn <nni p(idu!('t tili/a .stt 
('ikn> (this is what he ordered me 
to bring [carry] ). Ho if pathiln sa 
nkiti ni im'i (this is what mv mother 
sent [hrought] me). Aug ipifta- 
ddh'i (what was ordered hrought 
[i. e., what was si-nt] ). Mandnln^ 
to carry, bear, bring or take (over). 
A)iij (JiiHila, what so brought, etc. 
(See index: ddU't.) 

M(n/p'(rainif (from dntnil). (See in- 
dex : do in it. ) 

MtKlpubnnn, (See index: intim.) 




(See index: tnhn.) 
(See index: ti'dni/.) 
(See in<lex: utduij.) 

There may be mentioned m<if/pnl:itt), t) restore tlie siijht. 

XII. AVith roots expressinLr detiniti*s with mufj in tlie ]>rimar\ vcr})al 
B^nse, infvjpd ex]>resses the idea of compulsion, exaction, or reipiest, as 
Jihown by the intrinsic meaning or the context. Delinites exist with in, /, 
and an. Kx. : 

To collect taxes; to demand (or col- Md{ipdhn\s (from hnl^, "poll tax," 
lect) tribute. etc. ). IkdtnU ko ^/ Pedro lumg pim 


{ I asked Pedro to pay one peeo in 
taxes) . Imng piso ang ipinalmis ko 
kay Pedro (one pe»o waa what I 
asked Pedro to pay in taxes). 
Itong bayan ay ang pbiagpabuisan 
ko (this town was where I col- 
lected taxes). MaghuUf to pay 

To beg; to ask for alms. Ma^palimos (from Span., Itmosna). 

To ask for a ple<ige or pawn. Maapamnld. Sangpijios ang sanladn 

ko nitong slugging {1 want to pledge 
this ring for one j)eso). 

XIII. Actions in which the agent has a pa.«sive part are also explained 
by magjHi. Kx. : 

To hear confession. Ma^pacumpisal (from Sp. confemr), 

Saan naroon ang par^t ( Where ia 
the ** padre?") NagpapacampigaZ 
giya (He is hearing confessions). 
Mogcumpisalf to confess. 
To pardon. Magpatauad. (See index: ^aua</.) 

To get shaved. Magpanhit. (See index: <i/ii^) 

To have the hair cut. MagpagxipiL (See index: gupit.) 

To have cleaned (as shoes). Magpolinis. (See index: /ini>.) 

XIV. Magpa also expresses the idea of repeating something man^" 
times, or reciting the same much, and sometimes by many. Pagpa 19 

(I tilled him a devil many times). Ano ang ipinagpapadiablo niny6f 
(Why do you say devil so much?) ITouag ninyong pagpapadiablohan ang 
kapoua tano (Don't say devil so much to those around you). 

XV. In some cases magpa signifies to do voluntarily what is denoted by 
the root. Ex.: 

To adorn one's self. Magpamuli (from buti). Nagpapa- 

buti ynong dalaga (That girl is 
adorning herself). 

To praise one's self. Magixiinurl (from puri). At yaong 

isa^y nagpapa muri (and that one 
is [doing the same] for the praise). 
Ang mahinhing dalaga^y pinumirl 
nang lahat (A sensible girl is 
praised by every one). Kapurihan, 
praise; honor; fame. Syn. ibunyi 

XVI. Magpa with some datives and all adverbs of place signifies "to go 
or come intentionally," where denoted by the root, etc. Ex.: 

To come to me. Magpasa akin. 

To go to you. Mag}Msa iny6. 

To go (come) to the person. Magjxisa tauo. 

To go to Pedro. Magpakny Pedro. 

To coin(» here (near by). Magpodiui. 

To go there. Magjxidoon. 
To go up the river, or up country. Magpa ilaya. 

XVII. Mapa, formed by dropping the g of magpa, signifies ** to go in some 
direction naturally or accidentally, and without intention on tne part of 
the subject." /generally precedes the r(X)t. Kx. : 

To run off or lower (as water). Mapailtabd. Napapaibabd ang tubij^ 

(The water is D€KX>minff low [or is 
running off]). (Seeinaex: oabd.) 


To a*-cend (as smoke). ^f<lpa^taas. Napapaiki(isanfjas6 (The 

Hinoke i.s riKiii^). J)i vuni hiakitd 
(intj 7itiTI/as^ asd amj iihkj papal layag 
(Although the flame may not be 
f^eeii, the tJiiioke will reveal it. — 
T. P., oD). 

To fly up in the air (as a bird). Mupailand'in<j. Ang hanoi/ ay napai- 

landang sn impapauld (Tlie eagle 
ascended into the ctlouds). 

XVIII. It will be observed that the greater j»art of the rootH verbalized 
by magpa require i in the deflnite to express *' what is ordered done, given," 
eU'., and in or an in the same form to express *' the person commanded,'* 
etc. Ex.: 

To give food to another. Magpakain. (See index: hi in.) 

To allow to be punished; or to cause Magj^a rum (from dusa). Jlonagmong 
or order to Ix? punished. pai-UHahan an<^ waiang kasalanan 

(Do not permit tiie innocent [not 
guilty] to be j)nnished). 
To permit to pass. Magpadnan (from doan^ "road"). 

See index. 
To give another something to drink; Mngpaimnn. (See index: \mui>.) 

to water animals or fowls. 
To cause to walk up. MagjudAhuL (See index: Itibid.) 

To cause or order another to stand Mag})at'nidig. (See index: tindig.) 

XIX. A sense of ordering may be given to roots not having such an 
idea by inserting a second p(t, although it is clearer to ust* mag with a fol- 
lowing inflnitive. This second ;><r (which remains in all tenses) with roots 
liaving the idea of ordering signifies to order a i)erson to order another, 
although simpler forms are generally use<l. Kx.: Aug capdan ag nngpu- 
painnm .va mamjd cahago (Tin; <"aptain orders the horses to be watered); or, 
Ang capiUhi ag ua^jmUoH mninum sa ma)7f/d rabago [same meaning]. (2) 
Mag])apa8iilat ka kag Juan kag J\'dro; or, M(tgiU(n< ka kng Jnan na magpa- 
^ulat sign kag Pedro (Order Juan to order Tcjlro to write). 

XX. The tendency of Tagalog, like all languages, to simplify itself, is 
shown by the use of the root with //<i ])rcfixed, w ith the signiticance of a 
verbal noun. The agent takes the genitive and the object nv person acte<l 
upon the dative. Ex.: J'ahaiTffo, ''perfume;" pamutl (hnti), " lioliday 
or parade ajjpearance; " pndala, "burden or what carried;" pahigaii 
"jewel;" pamana, "inheritance;" jKttnga, " what hid<len." 

lid ang patago nign na akin (This is what be ordered me to hide). Pan- 
tang^ " credit." 

TH E P A KTICL K " P A . " 

I. This particle has many atlinities with inag/xt, as will be seen by the 
examples. It re<luplicates the first syllal)le of the root for the })resent and 
future tenses, except when sa if^ attached t<»and incorporated with it. With 
roota of place, w hi<-h require pasa, the flrst syllable of the particle is redu- 
plicated for these tenses. Xa is ]>relixcd to j)a in the indetinite |)ast and 
present tenses with both j^a and jfasa. This latter particle should not be 
confounded with roots })eginning with s(t conjugate<l withyy^^/. (See tal>les: 
U'dong. ) 

II. One of the ]»rincipal signiflcati(ms nf pa is to ask or beg for in refer- 
ence to the subje<"t, while jnagpa is generally ap})lied under like circum- 
stances to the ol>ject. Ex. : 

To ask for protection. Paani})<'>n. 

To a**k for mercy or comj)assion. Piuitn). (See index: ana.) 

To ask for shelter or support. Pakujdcup. Kinnnpktij), to press to 


To ask for aid, succor, or a favor. Pamngalang. MagsangdUxng^ to aid, 

favor, or succor. 
To B»k for defense. Patangol. Tumanaoly to defend. 

To a^k for help. Patulong. (See tables: tiilong.) 

III. At times pa signifies ** to permit" the action indicated by the root 
" upon one's selt," and sometimes ** to ask,'* as al)ove explained. It de- 
notes greater willingness by the person affected than magpa does. £x. : 

To consent to be deceived. Pnrayd, (from daydi). (See index: 

dayd. ) 
To ask to be kissed. Pahalik. (See index: ha/ik.) 

To consent to be whipped. Pahampat. (See index: hamp64t.) 

To consent to be vanquished. Patah. (See index: to/o.) 

To consent to be slapjied. Patmnpal. (See index: tampal.) 

IV. (a) With the adverbs of place, and roota expressing place, pa sig- 
nifies movement to or from what is denoted by the root, (i) Witn roots 
of place m is added to the particle, forming jxi/fa, which bisy liable parti- 
cle reduplicates the last syllable of the j>article for the present and future 
tenses. The initial d of the adverbs changes to r after ;?«. Ex. (a): Pa- 
riniy "come here;" jtarilOy **come here;" poriyAn^ **jgo there;" paroOn, 
**go there." (See index: rfmi, dito^ rfiyan, do6n,) These four adverljs 
admit the definites t and an. That m i is com^unded with ka^ forming 
tA*o, ikimt. In may he used if compounde<l with magpa^ signifying **to 
order to come or go." (See tables and index: diio. ) 

Some localities are to be found where the last syllable of the particle is 
reduplicated with these adverbs of place for the present and future tenses, 
but this is irregular and incorrect. The practice is unknown to the earlier 

The four adverbs which have been considered are also further conjugated 
with wm, making infinitives, etc. Ex.: Pumarinx^ pumarito, **to come 
here;" pumariydn^ pumaroim^ **to go there." 

(h) PasafpdfMy, ** to go to the house." (See tables: bdhay.) Pasabukid, 
**to go to the country*' (fields); pa9addaat, **to go to sea;" pasaUog, **to 
go to the river;" pasahundok^ **togo to the mountains;" pasa America, **to 
go to America;" pa fa KoMiUi, *'togo to Spain." Xapa»€uin siyaf {Saan 
ang tniTgo niyaf) (Where did he go?) Napatungo 8a J/ayni/d (He went 
to Manila). 

V. P(i also indicates to say what may be denoted by the root, but with- 
out the plurality indicated by magpa. Ex.: 

To say * * yes. ' ' Pado. Pado kaf ( Say * Wee ! " ) Xa- 

paoo ka m kaniydf (Did you tell 
him "yes?") 

To say * * no. ' ' Pad ill Padlh ka! (Say * * no " ) 

Dill lin (No, indeed); var. din. 
Ang piitadiri ian; person to whom 
**no" is being said. Magpadiri; 
to say **no" repeatedly. Avg 
mringdirian; person to whom * * no " 
nas been said often. 

Tosav'^no." Pahindi. Pahindt ka (kayo) (Say 


To say not to wish. Panyno. (See index: ayao.) 

To say "devil." Padiablo. (See index: dia6/o.) 

To call "chicky-chicky." Pakorukid. 

VI. /'a, prefixed to roots denoting Ixxlily positions, forms words ex- 
pressing the ixjsition taken. Ex.: 

Lengthwise; lengthways. Pahafni. Putlin mo ii6 nang pahabd 

(cut this lengthwise). Mahabd, 


Crosswise; crossways. PahdUinfj. 

Lying down; prone (position). Pahigu. (See index: hl(j<^.) 

Lying on the side (|X)sition). Patug'dlfL 

Lying on the face (position). Pataoh. 

Lying on the back (position). Patihfu/<\. (See index: tihayd.) 

On foot; afoot. Pat'nnli<i. (See index: timhg.) 

Seated (position). Paup6. (See index: iipo.) 

Vn. Pa J prefixed to roots denoting articles which may ))e bought, sent, 
carried, sewn, left, lent, etc., forms nouns in<licating what affected by the 
action. In c()mi>osition these nouns take the nominative, the agent the 
genitive and the recipient the dative. Kx.: 

What brought. Padnla. (See index: <l(tla.) 

AVhat borrowed or lent (not money). Pahinun. Jfo >/ jmhinun m akin namj 

I'liihif/an ninyn (this is what your 
friend lent me). 
What left as an inheritance. Pamann. (See index: inaiKt.) 

What sewn. Patalil. (See index: UtJii.) 

VIII. Some roots, such as kairiy eating; and /;h///j, drinking, are not clear 
when used with pa alone in this sense, and arc conjugated witli both the 
particle 7>a and the <lefinite of mmjpa (/></) forming papa. Ex.: Papakaln 
ka kaif Juan (ask Juan to give you something to eat). Papa'niuin ka kay 
Totuas (ask Tomas to give you sotnethiiig to drink). 

IX. Formerly inapa^ with roots indicating relatives, signified to call 
others bv such names. This custom exists to sonje <le;rree vet. Ex.: 
Mnpaaliy to call "aunt." Mapamnio, to call "grandfather"' (or "grand- 


I. This particle, which may be analyzed into paka with may prefixed, 
generally signifies to do, suffer or voluntarily allow what may l>e denoted 
by the root, and has two fonns for the detinite, jtay/Kika an<i )}aka. Mag- 
paka and pagpaka form the present and future tenses in a i>eciiliar maimer. 
The la.**t syllable, A«, a<lheres to the root in all tenses, ami pa is re<lupli- 
cated for the present and future. The mag of magpaka changes to nag 
for the i)ast and present tenses, Wlien paka is used with a root it is not 
divided, the /7?-«^ sylla))leof the r(K)t being redui)licated for the ju'esent and 
future tenses. Paka also retains pag with vc^rbs conjugated j>rimarily with 
m«7, forming the j)retix pakapag. J'aka admits ht as well as / and an. 

Roots conjugated with magpaka niay have either a reflexive or transi- 
tive meaning, or both, according to the context. 

II. Ff»r the conjugation of roots with magpaka, see the tables: matay, ladi, 
J^Ui, and dral. 

III. Some verbal r(»ots conjugated in tlie foregoing sense by magpaka are: 

To allow one's self to be insulted; Magpakaaj/i. 

To humble; humiliate or lower one's Magpakahahd. (See index: baftd.) 

To satiate one's self. }fagpahibii.Hog. 

T^o adorn (me' 8 self. Magpakahnli. Any kaJihihinan ay 

nagpapakafnih .xm dalaga (mo<lesty 
befits a girl). Aug ijtinagpapaka- 
Imtl. liniig fla/ngang iydn ay iumg 
siyi'ry luapnrl (the reason why that 
girl is adorning herself is to be 

To im|)overish one's self voluntarily. Magpnkadaklid. Maj>akadukhd, to 

couK* to ]»overty. 

To improve or reform one's self. Magf>akagarnig. (See index: g'll'nig.) 



To diminish (voluntarilvj. 
To esteem one*s self highly. 
To allow one's self to be killed; 
(2) to commit suicide. 

To despise one's self. 

To repent (deeply). 

To exert one's self; to make efforts. 

To enrich one's nelf. 

Magpakaliit. McdiUf small; little. 
MagpakamahcU. ( See index : mahal. ) 
Magpakamatay. Nagpakamatay aun 
iaao kuM niyd (the man allowed 
himnelf to be killed). Xagpaka- 
maiay ang toga llapnn ml kaniyang 
Barili (the Japanese voluntarily 
killed himself [committed sui- 
cide] ). 
McLgpakammd, (See index: samd.) 
Magpakasm. (See index: «/«.) 
MagpukaiApang. TapatTgan {jjakcUa- 
paugirC\ mo ang looh mo (exert 
yourself; ** brace up"). (See in- 
dex: iApang.) 
Magpukaynman, (See index: ya- 
man. ) 

IV. Ah uhuuI, 1 stands for cause, reason, or instrument of the action with 
maifjHiht, ami an for the place or the object, according? as the verb for the 
direct ol)je<*t admits it or not for the direct object. Ex. : 

To take exact notice. Ma^pakaiandd. Pakatandaan mo ang 

Kinasabi ko sa iyd (pay exact atten- 
tion to what I am telline you). 
(This word should not oe con- 
founded with its homonym Uinddy 
idea of age. ) 

V. The foregoing sense of magpaka generally applies to actions which do 
not go beyond the subject or to verbs which do not require an object to 
complete the meaning; but when used with verbs admitting a direct com- 
plement other than the subject or capable of voluntariness, magpaka gives 
greater force or intention to the root. In this signification the particle 
admits in^ t, and an^ the reduplication being generall^r from the first 
syllable of the root, as paka is the usual fonn of the definite in such cases. 
Roots conjugated thus must be capable of expressing the idea of more or 
less. Pag is retained in this sense with mag roots, forming pakapag or 
pagjKikay as the (use may be, and in certain cases pagpakapag may be 
lormed. Ex. : 

To teach earnestly. 

To have great prudence. 
To go very slowly. 

MagpakaA ral. Pakaaralan ninyd ang 
maitgd batd (try to teach the chil- 
dren earnest! y ). MagpakapagdraJ^ 
to study earnestly. Pagpakapa- 
garalan ninyd ang wikang Tagdlag 
(try earnestly to study the Tagalog 
language). Magpakapangdralf to 
preach earnestly. 


Magpaknrdhan (from dahan), Mag- 
pakarahan kang lumdkad (walk 
very slowly). Pakarahanin mo 
ang' paghila (throw it very delib- 
eraU^ly). Dahanan mo iyanggawd 
mo (do that work of yours slowly 
[carefully]). Afapakarahan, to 
slow down; to become quiet 
Nnpakarahan na (it has b«x)me 
quiet already; it has slowed down 
now). Dumahan, to go away 
plowlv. Magdahan, to go slowly. 
(See index: dahan,) 



To love greatly. 

To guard one's self well. 
To think earnestly, deeply 

To arrange well. 
To rectify well. 
To tempt greatly. 

Magpakagilio, Pinakagigilio hong 
kapaiid na babaye (my dearly be- 
loved sister). 

Mafmakaisip, Magpakaisipi»ipf to 
tnmk very deeply. (See mdex: 
Magpakdhumy. (See index: /iiwia!/.) 
Magpakatuid. (See index: /utd.) 
Magpakatuks6. (See index: iuksd.) 

VI. By reduplicating the root, roots capable of expressing the idea of 
more or less acquire stfll greater force or intensity with mappaka. The^ 
are generally used in the definite with this construction, and the redupli- 
cation does not extend beyond the first two syllables of the root, acconling 
to the general rule. PIx.: MagpakadalididM^ "to suffer intensely or to 
endure creatly . ' ' Paka ittiprnpin mo, * * think intensely. ' ' Pakasipagsipagiriy 
"take the greatest of care; care for it sedulously.*' 

VII. Dropping the ka from paka^ there remains pa, which pronounced 
long and almost as paa, has the same meaning as jxika, but should not be 
confounded with pa (the definite of magpa), jxt (the particle), nor with 
pa, **yet." It is generally used in the imperative. Ex.: Pabuksdn mo 
(oi)en wider [or quicker]). Pap(dd mo (strike harder). Palaponan mo 
(throw it with more force [or quicker]). (See index: Bukds; paid; and 
tapon. ) 

VIII. A further use of magpaka with nouns or verbs expressing time is 
to signify to persevere or remain until such time, doinjs^ what mavbe 
denoted by the root used. This signification admits of in, i, and an. Ex. . 


until morning, 
until evening, 
all night awake. 

MagpakaArao. (See index: draoA 
Ma^pakahapon. (See index: ftopon.) 
Magpakapuyat. Ang ipinagpapaka^ 
puyat k6*y itong gawd (This work is 
the cause of my having to remain 
awake all night). Jtong silid it6*y 
ang p'umgpakajmyalan ko (This 
room is the place where I remained 
awake [or watched] all night). 

IX. When an accidental or fortuitous action is to be expressed with 
'niagpaka the g is droppe<l, making mapaka, an analogous particle to ma. 
^naka, formed from paka and in, should not be confounded with pinakA, 
Used in a very different sense. (See index: pinakd.) Ex.: 

To multiply. 

To come to jwverty. 

To grow greatly. 

To be delayed more than usual. 

Majmkarami (from dami). Applied 
toanimals,et4\ (Seeindex: dami.^ 
Mapakadukhd. (Seeindex: dukhd.) 
Mapakalaki. (See index: /a it?.) 
Mapaka Idwig. 


I. This particle, known as the sixth to Spanish grammarians, has 
jMzHforthe definite, and reduplicates the second syllable (ki) of the par- 
ticle for the present and future tenses. The pluperfect and future perfect 
tenses are wanting, ^faki changes to naki for the past and present tenses, 
and paki takes tn lor the same, forming pinaki. 

II. The princijMil signification of inaki with roots capable of expressing 
companionship, etc., is joining with, accompanying another, interference 
or intermcKidling in what may be denoted by the root 

III. 3faki may be combined with um, mar, man, magpapa., and iki, as well 
as with itself {paki). There are some verbs which resemble maid in form. 


claBsed as urn verbal forms, 

such as pakin&bang. pakinig^ etc.^ which are 
and should be carefully distinfl^uished. Ex.: 

To join with or interfere in writing. Makisdlat (from sumiUcU), Ipinaki- 

kisulai ho iid do6n (I am putting 
this in 80 it may be w^ritten there). 
lyang maiTgd tulat ay pakisulatan 
mo nitd (Put this in to be written 
with those letters). Makipagjni' 
8(dat; to join (or interfere with) in 
ordering to write (from magpasn- 

To join with in play or gaming. Makipaglard{tTX)Tnmaglar6; to play or 

MLmme; see tables: lard). Also: 
Fakipaglaroan mo si Pedro (Play 
with Pedro). ( With oa) Papaki- 
laroin mo si Pedro sa Kanitfd (Tell 
[make] Pedro play with him ). 

To join in fishing with a casting net Makipanaala (from mandala; to fish 
called * ' dala. ** for a living thus) . Dumala; to fish 

(occasionally) with a **dala." 
Magdala, to use a "dala." Maka- 
dala; to be able to catch anything 
with a "dala.*' 

To join with in saying "yer." Makipado {frompado; tosay "yes.") 

To join in a conversation uninvited. Makipakiusap (from makiusap). 

IV. See tables: uinArnl\ magdraL and sumakay. 

V. Maki by itself admits only oi i and an in the definite, /represents 
the reason, cause, or object of the action, and an the person interfered or 
meddled with, or joined, accompanied, etc. For the conjugation with i 
see the tables: sulat and humutid. For the definite with an see maglarh. 

VI. Jn is only useti with maki in combination with magpa (pa). Ex.: 
Papakigawin mo ang alila mo sa mangd tduo hfdn (Tell your servant to join 
those men in their task). See also makipaglaro in Paragraph III, preced- 
ing, and tables. 

VII. Some roots conjugated with the principal signification of maki are: 

To join or meddle with teachingj MakidraL (See tables.) Makipagd- 

ralf to join or meddle with study- 
ing. (See tables.) Makipangdral, 
to join or meddle with preaching. 
To pick a quarrel. Makipagduay. (See index: duay.) 

To. claim a part in; to participate. Mahrdmay (from ddmay). 
To carry along with; to join; to in- Makihatid. (See tables.) 

To embark with. Makisakay. (See tables.) 

To thrust oneself into the com- Makisamd. 

pany of another. 
To thrust oneself into a dispute or Makitalo. (See index: tcUo.) 

To join with in weeping. Makiiangis. (See index: tangis.) 

To join (or meddle) in pleasure. Makitud. (See index: tud.) 

VIII. An is sometimes suffixed to roots conjugated with maki to express 
intensity of the idea denotes! by the root. Pag is generally retained in 
expressions of this class. Ex. : 

To mock greatly; to make fun of , Makipaghiroan. (See index: hirv.) 


To join eagerly fn play or gambling. Makipaglaroan, (See index: lard.) 

To thrust oneself into an alterca- Makipagsagutan. An6H nakikipagsa- 

tion; to answer with vehemence. gvian sa kapidbdhay mot (Why 



are you getting; into an altercation 
with your neighbor?) SiimagiU; 
to answer; to reply. 

To thriL«t oneself into a con versa- MahipagmUtaan. ( 8ee index : «oZi/«.) 
tion; to interrupt a report. 

To hate intensely; to detest. Malijmylaniman {{voiwtamm). Not 

to l)e confounded with its homo- 
nym, tanimj "to sow." Kakikiia- 
nlinan .si Jmni kay Pedro (Juan de- 
tests [hates] Pedro intensely). 
IIoiKKj kdttfj mafcipaf/taniinan ya ka- 
pidUihay vio (Do not detest [hate] 
your neighbor so). 

IX. The asking for such articles of food, etc., as are generally exchanged 
among neighbors for cooking and hou.<ehold work is expressed by mnklf 
with the root denoting what may be a.sked for. A small quantity is always 
understofKl. The cause is expresse<l with / and the person asked by an^ 
should the definite be used. Jn is used only in combination with ttukjihi 
ip'i). Ex.: 

To ask for a little wine. 

To a.'^k for a few coals (fire). 
To ask for a little salt. 
To ask for a little rice. 

Miik'n'ddk (from ahil). This word is 
from the AraV)ic aruq^ from araqa^ 
*' to sweat; perspire." It is found 
in Knglish as arrack. 


Makia.vii. (See index: as'ni.) 

Makihi(/af<. Xaklkihigds ako sana sa 
inyoj ]>o (I would ask you for a 
1 i tt 1 e r i ce, si r ) . S'nio a ng ijnna kiki- 
hitjas mo/ ( \V ho are you asking it 
for?) A king ipinakiklhlgas ang ina 
ki'iig )nag xakif ( I am asking for the 
rice for my mother, who is ill). 
J'<i/a.' (Is'thatso:) 

X. With roob* verbalized into actions, makl denotes asking that the 
action expressed by the root be done for the subject. Kx.: 

To ask another to reacli S(»mething. Makialmt. (S».'t' index: ahut. 
To thank for. Makiftiinjl {intui hmniiTj/!; tore(|UeHt; 

see index: hiiTi/l). 

XI. With nouns denoting partition inaki signifies to a.^k for what may 
be denoted ])y the root; and with ordinal numbers, in using which the 
initial letter i is <lroj>j)ed, maki signifies to ask for tlie part designated by 
the ordinal use<i. Kx. : 

To ask for an inheritance. 
To ask for a ])art or piece of any- 
thing (as bread). 

Makhmina (see index: inana). 
Maki pi sang. }fa</f>isang; to break 

Up and di\ idr a cracker or bread. 

Mag}H.-<aiig ki/a (Irt us ])reak it up 

and <livi<ie it). 
To a*<k for a fifth, tenth, vie. Makikalinia; makikapno. 

XIT. Witli roots <lenoting work which may be joine<l in by more than 
one, maki sometimes expres.'^es the idra of asking to join in such work. 
Ex.: N« Juan ag nakikafahig sa akin (Juan asked me t(>lielp him in getting 
some water). The particle ka, expressing comjianionship. is prefixed to 
the rof>t. 

XI 11. Some roots commencing with /', /*, s, and / ciiangi' witli maki in a 
similar manner as with man, when used in the signilivation of "to ask, re- 
quest," etc. Ex.: 

To ank for news. Mah'unaJUa (from balltd\ see iinlex: 

I Kill 1(1). 

To ask for a passage (an on a vessel). .Vokiiiahuf (from snkai/). 

XIV. With ro(»ts sijinifying nationality, race, state, condition, occupa- 
tion, profession, etc., nuiLi is sometimes nse«l to si*;nify that one acts like, 
bears liimself like, or resembles what is <lenotefl by the root. This idea, 
however, is generally otherwise expressed, as s(nne roots used thus are not 
clear unless fiillv explained bv the context. 

XV. With i/ni, )iiaki has a neuter meaning similar to that borne by ma 
alone. Ex.: 

To aj>j)ear like a nol>le (casually). \*ijHi/ynn(t}uil. XajKikihinnthnl dug 

(ttijtin (Tiie slave looks like a noble 
[has beconie so casually]). 

To act like or resend)le an American. Mukiainer'K'ano. 

To act liUe or resend)le a Spaniard. }ffiLica.sti/(i. 

To act like or resend)le a Tagalnir. Mahitdijt'iJog. Xakikitngalog ilong 

tan It s(t jHifH/in7gHS(ij) (This man 
resend)les a Tagalog in his man- 
ner of sj)eaking). 

To act like or reseml)le a ])er>on. }fakif(hto. y<ikikit<'ino ang ainu {im- 

gi>>/) (The monkey acts like a per- 

To act lik«' a w<»man. Mnkihnlnujr. yakibiih<nn' si Jium 

(.Jnan acted like a woman)- This 
also means l»j run after wonien. 

To a<"t like a man; to run after men. Mtikihihtki. yoki/dUikl Hong Imhu- 

ytitg iti'f (This woman acted like a 

To act like a Ix'a.-^t. Makihi'ii/o)). \<tkiJi<'ii/<>/i Ifong t'UKt lf,'t 

(This man acted like a bea.'^t). 

'J'o conform to in custom*^. Mdkingal;. 

rni-: iNOKKiNnK caim mu; *' m vcka." 

I. Mugl'i, tile ninth i>article<»f the Spanish writtTs u]M)n Tagalog, may 
be anal\z«'d into ///'.'V :nid /'/, <»nc of (he <lelinites of }ui\. This particle 
gencrallv expresses the ideaof ha\iiiLr (or heiiiir) what was nnt had or ]>os- 
sess d ( <'i" c\i>tei| a> a state) lu'fore. Asa iiile, tiinghtt n-fers to condition 
nr st;j!<\ u!iile//M//^ refers iintre tn tlu' aetinii by whii'h a state or cf^ndi- 
tion is hroii-jlit about. 

The stM'.Mid syllabli' of the })articK^ is reduplicated f<»r the v>resent iind 
futurr t»n>es, while m clian'je^ to // foi* the past and j>resent, fnllowing the 
u>ual inle. Tln'iv aie a few r\r<)>tioTis, the lirst syllable of the root being 
reduplicated in snnie words. (S<c taMes: nt nig.) 

I dcliiiite e\p?es>es the call^e or rcasnii of the acti<»n, while '//< stands for 
eithei* place oi- pt-rsou, according to the nature of the action. (Sei' tiiblen: 
iifiiii'i. ) 

Some Very correct and w idely ns<'d ex]»ressions are ma<le l)y using an 
with in'if/hi. Vx. : 

To lo<,lv much al tliinu-; i" inspect I Hi'iiiindn. Wain nhnng ^n'lkat pagka- 
closely. k'Kiii'iiiititaii (There will be noj>lace 

where I will be able to look at it 
[insi>ect it; study it <»ut]). 

T' . amuse one's self. M 'gLalihang. W'ald yilnng /tiitagka- 

/i'xiiigtni ( riiere was no place where 
they could ajnuse themselves). 
Ma/ilif>aii(f, to b(> amused; diverted. 



Some roots conjugated in the foregoing Hignitieation witli iiuKjka are: 

To have children. 

To possess j)riidence. 

T«» have crocodiles again (as a river). 

To Ik? laden with fruit. 

To have (tliere). 
To have reii^on. 

To 1h* lucky; to have luck. 

To have rice again (also to havenuich 

To err; to sin. 
To forbid. 

To have nionev again. 
To be ill. 


Magk'dhnai/n. Xdghikahuaifn tm Uinnj 
flog (This river is infested with 
croco<liles again). 

MaghibuiTijit. Xagkaf/tiiTf/a mi itong 
h-nhoj/ ltd itof ( Has this tree borne 
frnit already?) llludt y>a imgka- 
hniujii (As vet it has not borne 

}I(t(]larooti. (St'e index: doon,) 

Maf/hitxijt. X<(gl:ahal'<ip nn itong 
hatiing ifo/ (Has this (;hil<l reason 
yet? [i. e., has it yet arrived at the 
agi* of reason]). 




Mdghdsdlii. Aug ipdgk'asdkit, the 
canse of illness. Ano dug i/tindg- 

T<> have enough. 

To have gray hair. 
To owe a deV)t. 

kdsdkif mo/ (What niadeyou ill?) 
Pd.^dkfdii, to be pained. Aug 
]nti>dgk'dxdkt'n}, one ill from his own 
fault, also a sick person. 
Mdgkns'n/d. Wah'} jtn^ liind't udgkdJca- 
fiiili'i sd kdtili/diig ]>dgkdln'i}nni (No, 
sir; he does not get enough to live 


Mdgkdi'ttdiig. (St'c tables: utdvg.) 

n. The casual, accidental, or chance a-^>«MMblage of !nany pi'ople or 
things, even though iinmaterial, i^ soinetimes expressed l»y indgkd. The 
])article denotes a |>Uirality of snbji'cts in such «:isrs, as o|>posed to a plural- 
ity of acts, as e.\j)ressed bv some other i)aiticles. J'x.: 


To (juarrel (as two or more). 
Tobee(pial; to coincide; to accord. 
To meet casually; to <jatlier (as a 

To assemble casually (as a cro\v«l}. 
To meet casually (as a ci-owd ). 

III. Mdgkd also indicates universality «tr j>luraliiy i>i' >nbjc«t> suffering 
from or affected in som«' way l>y what is deuot«'«| liy the ro(»t. I!.\.: 

}fdgkd(iudi(. (Sreiudex: duoy.) 


Mdgk'isdlnfuni'j. (See index: sd/i'i- 

fmtig. ) 
.H'lgkdsmiid. (Scr index: snind.) 
MngknfifKiii. (Sec index: tij»>i(.) 

To suffer from a typhoon. 

To suffer from an epidemic of small- 

To suffer from a famine (:;l-o for 
many to be hnngry ). 

To suffer fnnn a conila*:ration. 

To enjoy a holidjiy. 

To have a ri<»t or tumuli. 

To Ik* squeezed or pressed in a crow- 1. 



Md'/l ii.^n in iij. 

^Jii ■ ij iiiliiij, III 


IV. Another use of magka is to express an unintentional or casual error 
in what may he noted by the root The imperative is made with maid 
or bakd (q. v.). Kx.: 

To say one thing accidentally for MagkaibA, Naakaibd tiyd (He acci- 
another. dentally said one thing for an- 


To err in counting. Magkaiimang, 

To ecjuivocate accidentally. Magkamalt Nagkavicdi akd (I 

eouivocated accidentally). 
Houag mong akalaing ako*y liat;- 
kahnnaH ( Don't you think 1 made 
any mistake). 

V. Maqka is also used to express self-deception by the sifirht, hearing, etc., 
the definite fwist tense with an sufKxed heme taken an the root. For the 
present tense the first syllable of the root is reduplicated and not the second 
syllable of the particle. £x. : 

To be deceived by the hearing. Magkaringan. Nagkariringan akd 

(My hearing deceives me). (See 
index: dingig.) 

To l)e deceived by the sight MagkakiU\. (See index: hitd,.) 

VI. A further use of magka is with the urn infinitive of some verbal 
root8 and some adverbs of place, with which infinitives magka expresses 
the 'idea, of making the said movement or going to or from the place indi- 
cated by the adverb for some particular reason or cause. Ex. : 

To follow (or obey) for a particular Magkammunod (from sunod). Also 
cause or reason. to follow wherever another may 

go. (See index: stwod.) 

To l>e here for a particular cause or Magkadumlto. (See index: dito.) 

VII. Doubling the root intensifies the meaning with ma^ka in some 
cases. Ex.: 

To be very late or tanly. MagkabdlambAlam. Nagkakabalam' 

bdlwii ka (You are very late 
To r>e broken into very small pieces. Magkalausaglan»ng (from lansag). 

Lumanmg^ to break anything into 
small pieces. 
To be finished or conclude<l com- MagkalutAsltUds (from lutds). 

To be completely broken up (as a Magkapatldpalid (from paiid; see 

rope or cord ) . index ) . 

To he completely destroyed. Magkasir^mrii (from Mrd; see index). 

To he torn into tatters (as clothes, Magkauindangwindang (from wind- 
etc.). aiig). 

VIII. Sometimes ka, the definite of ma, combines with pag to denote 
the source of something. (See index: nirn. ) 


I. Magin, which Minguella thinks a **diFjruised passive'* in conception 
reduplicatcH the gi of tlie last syllable of the particle for the present and 
future tenses. It also changes m to n for the past and present indefinite. 
It expresses the conversion or transformation, either gradual or sudden, of 
one thing into another, as a general rule, the root beinfl: that into which 
the other thing is converted or transformed. Magin is also used to express 



such ideas as **to beget," etc. Being a neuter particle generally there is 
no imperative in such cases, as there can be no volition in the action ex- 
cept with personal pronouns. 

II. For slow, self-converting processes um is generally used, but in some 
cases the use of magin is correct. Besides the indefinite the definites with 
i and an exist. (See tables: dlak. ) 

As magin generally denotes a state or condition, it admits ika with some 
roots, and in combination with ;>n, the definite of rnagpaj it also admits in 
with others. (See tables: ddpat. ) 

III. As will Ik; noted, magin is commonly used to express such acts as 
the turning of wine into water by miraculous agency, etc., as well as natural 
processes. Some of the roots usually conjugated w ith magin are: 

To be converted into wine. 

To be converted into gall or bile. 

Maginalak. (See tables: ahk.) 
MacfinapdiK Nagiginapdo ang dking 
bibig (my mouth tastes like gall). 
To be turned into stone; to become Maginbatd. Ang asnna in Loth ay 


To l>e converted into vinegar. 
To be Vx^gotten. 

To Ije ma<le man. 

nnginbutong asin (the wife of Lot 
became a rock of salt). 

MaginmM. (See tables: »nk(i.) 

Maginanak (from anakf ** child"). 
JS'aginannk ni Abraham H Isaac; at 
iiaginanak ni Isaac «i Jacob; at na- 
ginauak ni Jacob si Juda at kajii- 
yang rnaiTgd kapatid (Abraham be- 
gat Isaac; and Isaac begat Jacob; 
and Jacob begat Judas and his 
l>n;thren) — Matth. II, 2. 

Maffintihio. Aug anak nang LHos ay 
hagintt'mo (the son of God was 
made man). (Rut if volition is in- 
cluded other particles or expres- 
sions nnist l>e used.) Aug anak 
naiig Dios ay nagkatanang taiio (the 
son of < iod assumed the form of 

Magifitagalog. Nagigintagalog ang 
canih'in sd pa)7ga}Tijusap (the cap- 
tain resembles (or seems to be) a 
Tagalog by his speech). 

IV. It should be noted that )iagin in the j)ast tenses is the only sense 
'^vliioh can really he siii<l to denote complete conversion, ete. , the [)resent 
^nd future tenses conveying the idea (»f "seems to he," "may be," and 
** might be," respeclively. 

V. Magin is also used in a neuter sense to express the assumption of 
Office, states, con<liti(»ns of mind, morals, or l)ody, etc., if intention is not 
^iieant, in which case other particles are use<l. 

1*0 become a Tagalog. 

^o become " j>resi<lente. 

• > 

T'o l>ecome just or virtuous. 
T*o l>ecome a miser. 

*X*o l)ecome worth v. 

Mnginpresidcntc. Xagivpresidrnte si 
(i(i( Sijueon a( sakn nagingobernador 
(Don Simeon became presidente 
an<l afterwards governor). 


Magiiuntinhnof (I'roni luaraniot, mi- 
ser; see dt'nnol). 

Magiiidnpat (from dnpat; see tables: 
dapnt). Mnrnpot, fair; just; de- 
serving. Knntptan, merit; deserts. 
Aug ikfipagindnpat, the reason or 
cause of V)eing worthy. 


To be converteii into an aniraal. Magiuhuyop. Maghdyop, to eell, deal 

in, or raine animals. Hayopan, cor- 
ral for aniraaln; {K'n. Kahayoparij 
bnitiiihnefis. Ang jKigkahayopf 

To become an habitual litigant (bar- Mfufni}HjlaAMp. Naginpalausap siifi'i 
rator). (he has become an habitual liti- 


To l^ecome <leaf. Maginbingi. 

To become blind. Maginhulag, 

To l>ec()n>e dumb. Maginpipi. 

VI. With some roots magin may express the idea of **to be.*' Ex.: 

To l)e the motive or cause. MamndahiUm. lio ang nngindahi- 

Ian (this was the reason). Jto ang 

nagig'mdah'dihn (this is the cause). 
To l)efall. Maginj^lad. A n > kayd ang magitjin- 

jMad kof (What will my luck l>e? 

[What will l>efallme?]) 
To turn out to be true. MaginOttoo. Nagintot/K) ang ninafn mo 

m Akin (what you told me tume<l 

out to be true). 
To l)e a servant. MaglnaVdfi. Itong tauoU6*y wagigin- 

aldfl uinyo (this man will be your 


VII. The idea of volition is sometime admissible with magin when used 
with {>ersonal pronouns. P^x.: 

To \wi thine. Maginiud, 

To be mine. Maginakin. AWfy magiginiytVt ikao 

ay magigin&kln (I will be yours 
and you will be mine). 

VIII. (a) Magin is also used in combination with the interrogative 
adverbs ildnf (how many?) and magkamtf (how much?) and with the 
answers thereto. ('0 With manin pretixcd to a numl)er and na following 
it the completion of the period named is denotcH^l. Magin expre^^ses the 
idea of ** about" in these cases. Ex.: {a) Magigini/dn sildf (about how 
manv will there be?) Magiginildn aiig paroroonf (alK)ut how many will 
go there?) Maatgindaiawang puo (about twenty). Magi gin magkano itot 
(How much will this l)e worth?) (6) Knng maginisang Imdn na (After 
about a month ). Nang magin Hang drao (after a few days). Kung magin- 
9angta(jn na (after about a year). 

IX. Magin may be used sometimes in the sense of *'beit" or 

"either" **or." Ex.: Maginito; maginiydn (be it this or be it 

that). Maginlalaki siyd; 7/jm/m6a6aye (l>e it man or be it woman). Ma- 

S'nngaydn; maginbukas ay jHiroroon ako (either to-day or to-morrow I will 
Eive to go there). 


I. This particle, which changes initial m to n for the indefinite past and 
present, reduplicates the last syllable of the particle for the present and 
future tenses. It has all three definitcs, and may be combined with all 
other particles, which are plactni between it and the root, except niaka and 
ma definite in the sense of jKJwer, which precede it. (See tables: alts; 
gawd; tapon, and kuha. ) It has no other signification than to denote a 
plurality or universality of subjects in connection with the verbal action. 
Naturally there is no singular numl)er. Xi/d may be inserted after the 
first two letters of the particle to indicate an extreme degree of plurality. 

See tables: ;>//f/^ira/. Ex.: 

To U»ach (many). Maggidral. Magnpagdral, to study 

(many). Ang mangd bijUd dUo 9a 



^'> oc>nft*is (many). 
■*0|jr<, (>ut (many). 

*o look; behold, etc. (many). 

To writer; come in (many). 

'^^^ Isiiigh (many). 

Ixtynn My maggisipagdral na lahai 
(ail the children herein this town 
are studying). Ang marlgd bald, 
nitong esi^elahan naiTgagsmpagdral 
(all the children in this 8ch(X)l 
are learning [or studying] ). Mag- 
siparTgdraly to preach (many). 
MaugdggipaiTg&ral, to preach ( by a 
great numt)er). 

Ma^si}Mgrnmpi»al. To hear confes- 
sions (many prie8ts(; vutgMjHtgpa- 
cumpiml. (See index: cumpiml.) 

MagaiUibds. Magsilahas kagong hihal 
na naririto sa looh (all oif you who 
are inside go out). 

MagsipoiuMxi. Bdkit ipinagnisipanood 
nila wig dAgai igtwg inaiTgd Ithio 
ii/dnf (Why are those men look- 
ing at the sea for?) 

Magsipdsok. Magmpdsok kagong lahai 
ua iiaririyang vHilang gawd : ( Come 
in all of you who are out there 
doing nothing [or without work] ). 




- I- This particle is little used, and besides the usual change of m to n for 
tti^ |>ast and present indefinite reduplicates the second syllable (/w) of the 
P^^^icle for the present and future tenses. It is used with roots express- 
^^^ t,lie idea of motion or iKJsitions of the body, and signifies to perform 
*^oli motions or take sucn positions voluntarily, and with briskness or 
®^<icienly. If such sudden motion occur or position be assumed involun- 
^•^ly, the p is dropi)ed, forming vxapati, equal in meaning to majxi. The 
y^finites with i (ika) in the sense of cause, and an (han) for place exist. 

CS^e tables: luhod.) Ex.: 

^*^ prostrate one's self quickly. ^fagpatirapd (from dapd). 

^^'^ lie down quickly; to throw one- Magjyaiihigd. Magpatihigd ka (lie 

-. Self down. 

^^ fall on one's knees. 

^ "torn the back abruptly. 



spring to the feet. 

t down 8ud<lenly. 

down quickly). 
Mngpatiluhod. Ang ikapagpatiluhod: 

the cause or reason for falhng on 

the knees. Atig pagpatxiuhordn: 

the place where or person knelt 

to. (See tables.) 
MagjtatUalihtd. To do the same 

without intention, mapatitalikod. 
Mngpatitindig. XagpajKititbidig xigd 

(he is springing to his feet). Na- 

papatltindig ako (I sprang to my 

feet unconsciously). 
Magpatiupo. To sit down suddenly 

without meaning to: viapatiupo. 


• -^ - This particle beside the change from /» to ?i for tht* past and present 
^J*^*^ finite, reduplicates t\w. second syllable (/</) of the particle for the present 
r/^.^* future tenses. This jmrticle is used to express verlw of searching for 
^**^Vitely, for those expressing the idea of removing dirt, etc., from the 
tK^ orbo(ly, and for misi^ellaneous ideas which will be better seen from 
^ ffxampfes. Certain letters beginning roots are modified l>y wanhij the 
^e as they are by man. The definites with i and panhiy in the sense of 

matay; maiaii; tiinju. ) 

II. A reciprocal form of many of the verbs conjuj^ated with mnnhi may 
be formed with un sutfixed or witli magJd in place of manhiy retaining a?) as 
a sufKx, however. ¥.x.: 

To search for ciirefully; to ^lean. Mauhimalaij (from pdlay^ " un- 

husked rice" ). Pannimalai/in {hi- 
malnj/in) mo ana iyong kaknnni 
(look for [glean J what you have 
to eat). Amj ^iitutn ay any ipi- 
imnliihiimUny niyd {hunger is the 
cause of his gleaning). Aug bukld 
mJnan ay any plnanhimalayan niyd 
(he was gleaning [he gleaned] in 
the field of Juan). 

To peck licro and thcrr (as a bird in Manhbmkd (from tukd), 
search (»1 ^rain). 

To search fnr j^Muiiis of luteals nr Manhinu'ilos {irom pnlos^ "all of one 
minerals. color"). JYUos also means the 

jirains themselves. 

To wash ones lace: lo rLMuovc stains, Manhl/ntnoi* (from IdmoSy **8tain, 
snuidL'es, etc. smudge"). The root hildinos is 

from this combination. 

T(» comi) the mnstache. Mnulinn'tsmi (from itiijiay, ** nms- 


To i)ick ibe teeth. Munli'nunya (from IhTya^ "what a<l- 

heres to the teeth". See tiible**). 

To clean the vi\y^. Mfuthumit (from tutul'i, "earwax"). 

To clean tlie eyes. Mnnhi tnntd (from inutd, "secretion 

of the eye"). 

To treat swelled eyelids nr wash Mmth'tnntkto (from poktoj "swelling 
them. or intlammation of the eyelids"). 

Vduioktohin, a person frecjuently 
aCilicted thus. 

To clean llie nails. MdtiJntn/oko (from kokd^ " nail, 


To cleanse from head lice. Afnnhiinfntn (from kutu^ "head 

louse"). MunliiiTyutuhan or wm/- 
hii7ynfnh(i)i, to cleanse ea<.*h other 
thus. Manfiinotnay to cleanse of 
body lice. Toinahin, i)erson af- 
flicted thus. 

To fnllow by tiailiiiL'; to hol<l in .1/'/ //A ////a/.v'/.s' (from />aAv//?, "footprint, 
miMuory (inet.j. sign, trail, etc."). Bakas^in mo at 

Haiti) (iny y<'i/Hik (follow it, here is 
the footi»rint). Afayhimakasariy to 
follow each other on the trail, etc. 

Torel»cl; re\olt. Manhi)n(iysik (from baysikj "cruel, 


Tn aveii;/e or take re\t'n;_'e. Mdnliiynnii (from gant'iy "reward, 

premium"). Pinanhif/antl niid 
siyd (they avenged hnn [her]). 
*S'/7/f any panhiltiyantihan iiiyd (he 
will take revenge on them). 

To i»e«idle: to s«'ll bad iroo<ls. Mdnhil'iki) (from tako). 

To act like a child. M<uiftiinu:<ino!< (from momtdf, 

"child"). Moi^mds mo iidf (Is 
this your child?) 

To tell the fortune by the jialm. Mnnliimdhtd {Ivoxw pdlad^ "palm"). 



To pretend to work, or to work 
without purpose. 

To Ije unea«y on account of solitude. 

To meddle; intrude. 

To faint; t^woon. 
To suspect evil. 

To l>eat alxjut the bush. 

To change color or the expression of 

the face. 
To feel badly fur lost work. 
To embark in the V)oat of another. 

To exert one's self. 

Manhimnnthu/ (from panday^ 
"smith"). PfDuiaii wlka, great 
talker, "wordsmith." 

ManlinnaiTijIao (from pangldo.^ sad- 
ness, fear, or uneasiness caused by 
being alone) . }fapangldo im bdhay 
(a lonely [solitary] house). 

ManhiimUok (from pdsok), Houng 
moiuj paiihiniaxuhni niig bithay 
lumy ihanrj manlid tduo (don't med- 
dle with what passes in the life of 
other people). 

Manliiindkty (from matay, "idea of 
dying." See tables: mnlay.) 

Mutiliimula (from pula^ "idea of not 
believing and blaniing another"). 
Pf(/d is the idea of redness. 

MtinJinttU'iny (from pi/iny, "bank, 
shore"). If<tnay mo ahony pami- 
/inyyintlltujan (Don't beat about 
the bush with me; <lon't try any 
red tape on me). 

\f<inhim>iti{iron\])nti, "idea of white- 

}f(nffiindyany (from sdyang). 

Mai)h 1)1(1 ht >/ (iroin snlcay, "boat, ves- 

}UnLlnrinp(t)iy (from tdpany). 



I. As usual, this particle has the past and present indetinite take n in 
p)lace of 111, while the .^erond syllable {>(<() of the ])ar(ir/e is rc«hiplicated for 
the present and future tenses. All tliree <lctinites exist. See tables: Ivulk. 
The signific^ition of this particle is imitation, adoption or following the 
customs, drei^s, or language of another people. It is little used, inakl being 
more customary. Kx. : 

To follow American customs. 
To follow Bicol customs. 
To follow V'isayan customs. 
To follow Spanish customs. 
To follow llocano customs. 
To follow Moro custr)ms. 
To follow Tagalog customs. 

}f« lysaa ni erinuif) . 





Maynn ka morosa n . 

Maymtaynloy. Any sinnsalaydlor;, 
what followed or imitate<l, etc.; 
Any ipaystttnynloy^ the reason or 
cause of such adoi)tion. Pay is 
droj>ped witli in. 

II. Magm; uo; as in the ex|>ressions inaynddrm) k<i nany danid; put the 
clothes in the sun: mihawjin mo itony bnro: hang this sliirt in the wind, etc., 
are not from this particle but from f^a, the j)reposition "in," conjugate<l 
with mag and i respectively. 

III. The signification of nmysa may be exi)ressed by other particles 
than ma/i, among them being utnyht i\n<\ ma wilh ^n/ sutlixed. Ex.: .SV 
Jnanay nagkakastdadn (Juan is very Spanish in his ways [speech, etc.]). 
Naiatagalogan nyd ( He is very Tagalog in his ways). By doubling the root, 
if a bisyllabic one, or the first two syllables thereof if longer, a diminu- 
tive meaning is imparted. Kx.: yatatayataya/oyan >///fi ( He is somewhat 
Tagalog in his ways). 




This particle changes initial m to n for the past and present indefinite, 
and reduplicates the icui syllable {/>a) of the particle for the present and 
future tenses. The sole use of the particle is to express, prefixed to roots 
denoting positions of the body or motions of the parts thereof, the invol- 
untary remaining in such position, etc., as the result of fright, surprise, or 
other violent emotion. The definites with t, toexprees the cause, and with 
an, to express plat»e, exist. (See tables: miilat.) Ex.: 

To remain with staring eyes. MagkapadUai. Dumilat, to open the 

eyes. Madilat, to be open (as the 
eyes) . Syn. , magkapamidat, to re- 
main with the eyes open. Aug 
tj[Mff7il'a;>amr2/c{/,thecauseof remain- 
ing with staring eyes. Angpagka- 
pamiildtanf the place of remaining 
thus. ^ 

To be left with the mouth open; to Magkapangangd, from nganhd. ^gii- 
stand with open mouth. mangA, to o|)en the mouth. 

To stand showing the teeth (as an Magkapaiigm (from iTijUi), 
animal, etc. 


I. This particle takes n in the past and present indefinite in place of m, 
and has the peculiarity of reduplicating the initial syllable of all rooU con- 
jugated by it. For the present and future tenses the second syllable {kfi) 
of the particle is reduplicated in a similar manner to the reduplication of 
the gi oi magin. (See tables: luhd.) Magkan signifies primarily the in- 
voluntary flowing out of the secretions of the body, and nas the definites 
of I for the cause and an for the place. In a metaphorical sense magkan is 
also used to express involuntary emotions, actions, etc., as will be seen by 
the examples: 

To bleed. 

To sweat from fear or illness. 

To slaver; to drool. 

To weep or shed tears unconsciously 

(as from a wood fire). 
To blush. 

To undress or lose the clothes (in- 

To overflow; to exceed. 

To drop off. 

To burst into laughter. 

To be stunned by a blow. 

Magkandudug6{fromdtig6/ *h\ood** ). 
MagkanpapAwis (irompduis). 
MagkanUu&way (from Idway, "sa- 
MagkafUiduhd (from ItJid^ "tear"). 

Magkanhihiyd (from hiyd). Kahi- 
ydhiifd, a shameful thing. 

Magkanhohobd. Nagkakanhohobd ii 
Juan nang pagtaua (Juan is shak- 
ing his clothes off with laughter). 

Magkanlalabis, Linabisan mo ang 
uto8 ko sa iyd (You exceed^ my 
orders to you). 





The combining of various particles is called ** transcendency *' by the 
writers upon Tagalog, and may be said to have the following characteris- 
tics: With two exceptions, double or triple combinations of particles 
prefixed to a root demand that the one immediately before the root take 
the definite form. (See tables, dual; dlak.) 

First exception. Some roots conjugated by mag and magka admit urn, 
(See tables, pUit; dali; sunod.) 



No def. 






Ma. . . 









Ka. . . 





Second exception. The particle maka precedes other particles, a prop- 
erty also possesi^ed by magsiy except when in combination with niaka^ 
which goes before rnagsi in such cases. (See tables, lard; gawd; halag; 
dito; alts. It must further be Ix^rne in mind that roots which are primarily 
conjugated by mag retain pag as a prefix invariably, as do also those roots 
differing in meaning with um and mag. 


For convenience of reference to the Spanish works and also to the work 
of Humboldt, the numbers given by the early writers to the various 
particles modifying roots are of use. They are: 

10th. Magin. Pagin. 

11th. MagM. Pagsi 

12th. Magm. Pagm. 

Ka. IHth. Manhi. Pan hi. 

14th. Magpaka. Pagpaka. 

15th. Mtigpali. Pagpati. 

IHth. Magkapa. Pagkapa. 

Ma. 17th. Magkan. Pagkan. 

In, i and «« are the three particles always accompanying the definite. 


These particles are much used in Tagalog to express the ideas given in 
the following exami)les. The agent takes the genitive (or possessive) case 
and the object or effect of the action the accusative. Kx. : 

When my father left, I left also. K<fp(tgalifi iiang aking annV g ak6*y 

ungma/is din. 
After he finishe<l his work, he came Kapagkala pus niga nang kanigang 
to where 1 was. gainVy j)inaritohan nigdako. 


The same expressions as the above may also be rendered l)y pag and 
pagka. Ex.: 

When mv father had gone away, they Paga/'nf dito nnug Aking anuV y si gang 

arrived. pagddtmg nild. 

When it strikes twelve, we will rest. Paglngtng nang a Ins doce ag magpa- 

])(diiiTg(i fa go. 

After you pay your respect.s to him, J'aghafi mo m kaniyA'' g parini ka. 

come here. 

After I eat, I shall go for a walk. Pagkakain h/g ako'g magpapanal. 


This particle, prefixed to root^, signilies to be held or reputed in what 
raav l>e expressed bv the roots, it mav also mean " number of times 
made" in some cases. Kx.: 

Rice is consi<lered to be the bread of Ang kanin ag ^ign)ig pittakadndpay 

the Tagalogs. iinng mainid tagdlog. 

We regard you as a parent. Kagd jhV g ftinakomagdlang nainin. 

He is regarded as their leader. K>igd ang jtinakapuno nild. 

Nouns are formed in various manners in Ta«ral<>g from roots. 

I. Some nountj are formed by prefixing inajnuj to the root. Ex.: 

Mocker; scoffer. Mapaghin). Kespectful person. Mapagpitafian. 

( ienerous [)erj?oii. Mapufjlnyoija. Destructive person. Mapagsird.. 

Scoffer; lioaxer. Mapnylihuk. | 

Proud; arrogant Mnpagpaiald. I 
jiernon. I 

II. Pnla prefixed to roots forms otlier nouns. Ex.: 

(.Quarrelsome person. JViIannai/. Blaspliemer. Pala^imjxi. 

l>runkard. PtiUtlntun, I Barrator (litigant to Paltu'tsajf. 

(rlutton. ]*<dak(\in, excess). ,, 

Loving (ann)rous) I'alasintn. J^oaster; greaftalker. PnUurika. 

S(»me of the above may ln' vi-rbalized by cliantring the initial » to n or///. 
Ex.: yahilnin f<ii/a (he l)ecan)e a glutton). Xolalaiuuni ffltfu (he is Ik*- 
coming a drunkard), Mdldhnrlka siua (he will become a boaster). This 
is now provincial. 

III. Some nouns of the classes undi-r consideration are formed bv pre- 
fixing ni(t either to the imperative or future of the root, as combineil with 
///. Ex.: 

Eriendly person. Ma'ih'ujni. 

Amorous jK'rson. Mairognt; Uiasiutalun. 

l)iso))edient j)erson. Mimiuun (from sutui). 

Obedient person. Mat^unorm (from sunod). 

A jolly pei'son. M<itaininin (from tana). 

\n affectionate person. }fav'Ui}irK. 

A tiudd, basliful person. MidiUiiyhi (froni hiyd)' 

A forgetful |)ersoii. M(ddhinit'ni (from I'nuoi). 

A j)leasant pers«>n. M(dnlug<Vin (from hnjod). 

A sorrowful j)ers<)n. Mtdulnnihin/hi (from lumhdy). 

A delicate, sickly ]>erson. Mdsnsalt'm (from mkd). 

A timid j>erson (cowardly). Mntatokut'm (from tdkot). 

I\'. Other nnnns indicating occupations, professions, trades, etc., are 
formed by iinni with tlie future ten.^e of the indetiuite. See list of such at 
end of section three. 

V. Nouns indicating a j)ersou suffering from a clironic disease or fault 
an' to be found formed by sullixing in to the root denoting such <lisea.«e 
«»r fault. (See Tar. XX III, in.) Tliese mums may be verbalized V)y 
/'/'. I^x.: Sit/a 1/ III ulfi ltd (he suffe?*s from asthma). SiUVy tinatamad{they 
are lazy). 

\I. Some nouns with an idea of ]»lace inherent are formed with the 
future tense of some roots with (di. Ex.: PayhnhnoiKut ^ vvnwtery; burying 
]dace (from b(h'>ii). Payltihi h ynyn n, ] >i\\>\^\ry {iroiu hinyag). Pagpipat^yariy 
abbatoir. IMace of execution, rdyhihitdi/nn (from hitny). 

\'II. Some nouns indicating occu])ation are formed by ^/f/a combined 
with y/^// ('"f/"/"'.'/) before a nn>t. Ex.: 'Jayo/KKfhdntnft, .'ientinel, watch- 
man. Syn.: Taydpntitdnod, 7)i'/apiit/.<i('iiiiq, cook (from suing, "cooked 
rice"). Sometimes //^/^a alone indicates this. lOx.: 7af/a/*/;ao, wanderer, 


The following words arran^red alphabetically by roots in Tagalog will 

show the u.<r' of many idionmtic j>hrases, etc.: 

< )ccuj)ation; iMnploymeiit. Ahnin (syn.: gaud). 

To try; t<» inteuil. Mngnlnda (from akahi). 




To look after and follow a person. 

To heed; to note. 


To reap or cut rice. 

Unaccounted for; without reason; 
at random. 

Rancid (uj4ual word). 
To growl. 

To sing. 


To arise; to get up. 

Widower or widow. 

To change the clothes. 

To launch or put a vesj^cl into the 

water; also to place a ladder. 
To travel on horseback or bv means 

of horses. 

To palpitate. 

To weigh anchor. 

A kind of rice. 

To clear off timl^er in order to culti- 
vate the land. 

Aid (rare). Aug p'maala, what is 
rancid. Aivj jKujahiy the rancid- 
ity. Umahty to Ijecome rancid. 
Makaala, to make rancid. Meg- 
papaa/aj to let everything become 

Magaliighaif (from alagbay). [Hare]. 

ViiHUnin, from (imin. 

Aug. Sometimes used as ''be- 
cause. ' ' Hindi (iko viakupogbaiTgtm^ 
ang aktVg may sakit (1 am not able 
to get up, because I am ill). 
Plural ang mawjd. 

Magani (from (/»/, "harvest"). 

A }t of A no hagd f ( W hat th en? ) . 1 « o 
;;(/.'' (What else?) An6f Pagkak- 
aftfilaan k'ltaf (What? Must we 
speak in Spanish?) 

Anoan6. Walang anonno ang salajd 
ito (this money is unaccounted 
for). Tinapal sign nigd tvalang 
anoano (he slappeil him without 

Antd (same changes aa a fa). 

UmatTgil, var. umifn/il (from aiTtjil; 

Maganit (from aiHl). SHang lahat 
ai/ naganit (they all sang). 

Bago, liaginigdino; bachelor. Ba- 
gong (lomit, new clothes. Kaha- 
gongtauohan, youth fulness; l)ache- 
lorhood. Bagotig jKuTi/hioon, ha- 
gong vgali, new lord, new cus- 
toms. Maghago, to renovate. 
yUunagity to wear for the first time; 
also to renew. (See Ipngo^ ad- 
verb. ) 

Magha)7gon (from haiTgon, a Java- 
nese word; see tindig). Mag- 
hairgon ka (get uj)). Also means 
to lift. IJunli (iko ntnknbatlj/on 
nang tdpngan {\ am unable to lift 
the jar). 

B'liio, var. Balo. 


Mnhnngsnd. Bnngsoron mo oko nang 
hagih'in (place the la(ld<-r tor me). 

MaiTi/dhaifo (from cahago, "horse"). 
Derived from Sp. caballo, which in 
turn is from L. Lat. caballus, "nag; 
pack horse." 

Kiunnhag ( f r< un kdhag), Xogkakdhag 
ang dih'/ift ko (my heart [lit. chest] 
is palpitating). Kakabagkdhag, to 
palpitate greatly. 

Knjnnhag (from kahag). Note the 
difference in accent. 


MogkaiiTgin (from kaitTl/in). 



To pick (as a guitar) ; to twang; to 

pluck at. 
To snatch; to take by force; to pull 

up by the roota. 
Iron or other chain or wire. 

What's his name. What do you 
call it. 

To catch on the wing. 

Bad or stagnant water along a shore. 

To seal or close a letter. 
To belong to. 

To be restless. 

To order to elect. 

To recline; to lean against. 
To dig a hole. 

To cease; to end. 

To wash the hands or feet. 

To speak nasallv. 

To unite or bind together. 

To look blankly (as a blind person). 

To sparkle (as the eyes in excite- 

To roll up (as sleeves or trouser legs) ; 
to lift the skirt. 

To give alms. 

To look first at one thing and then 

To avert the eyes. 
To look here and there on account 

of noise. 

To look here and there hurriedly. 
To glare in a wild manner. 
To act foclishlv. 

To relish. 
To wish; to desire. 
Wmg(of bird). 
To pardon; forgive. 

Without respect ; limit or considera- 

Magkidahit (from kalabUj var, kalbil). 
Kumamkam (from kamkam), 

Kauad. Magkauadj to use a chain 

or wire. 
Si kiuin. Ang kudn. This word can 

be verbalized by tiw, magj magpa^ 

maki, etc. 
Dumdkii (from ddkit), 
Dikyd. yfadikyd Hong dcdampasiy itd 

(there is stagnant water along this 

Magdiit. Pandiitt seal, wax, gum. 
Gumnndn (from gandn). Gandn sa 

dkin ito (This belongs to me). 
Gu maw ( from gaso^ rare) . Ga^ian, 

Serson disturbed. Manptiso, to 
, isturb another. Gagiuohan, rest- 
lessness. Gagamgam^ very rest- 

Magpiihalal (from halal), 

IligpU. yfahigpit J tieht. Maghignil, 
to tighten ; to cinch up (as a girale, 
strap, etc.). WcUang higpUkigpitf 

Humilig (from hilig). 

Ilumiikay (from hiikay). Ang pan- 
hukayy the s|)ade. 

Humumpay (from humpny). 

Maghugas ( from hugat ) . ( See lamos. 

Mahuhumalhumal (from humal). 

Maglanykap (from langkap). 

Maglilnng (from lilang), 

Lumilap {irom. lilap) [rare]. 

MaglUis. Bdk'd ka naglililis nang m- 

lawalf (Why are you rolling up 

your trousers?) 
Maglimon (from Si». limosna). Mag- 

palimd^j to ask for alms. 
Lumingap (from IhJgapf var. Hnga- 

Lumingat (from lingai). 
Lumingingig (from Unqingig^ rare). 

Probably a combination of dingig, 

idea of hearing. 
lAirnvTijos (from lingos), 
Lumiyap (from liyap). 
MamaiTgal. Magmamangdmangahan^ 

to feiv:n stupidity. 
Nnmamnam (from namnam). 
Magnasa (see pita). 
Pakpak. Lumipad^ to fly. 
Maopatduad (irom patauad, syn., 

tavad). Magpalaua^^nf to forgive 

each other. 
WaJang paJLomangd, 



To choose; to select. 

To pick up. 

To become dull (aa a knife or i izor). 

To boil rice. 

Peat; epidemic; to suffer from. 
To proiess; to vow; to believe in. 

To pass between rocks, hills, etc. 
To peep. 

To care for most diligently. 
To grasp; take hold of; pmch. 

To put vinegar on anything. 

Can be. 

To run away from or hide froi i. 
To betray. 

To cut grass; to mow. 

To patch. 

To be gaping stupidly. 

To look upward. 

To stare at. 


To do anything swiftly. 
To look down. 

To assign to; to turn over to. 

To sprinkle. 

I^imilt Ang pining what chosen or 
selected out. Ang pinilian {sing,) 
or Ang pinagpilian (plur.), what 
selected or choeen from. 


Ihimorol ( from purol), Ang purolin^ 
Vi'hat dullea. Ttimomal (from 
tomal)f to be dull (as business). 
Katumalant dullness. Ang itomcU, 
the cause of such dullness. 

Sumding ( from sding ) . Sindingj boi 1- 
ed rice. 


Sumampalataya. A-ng gumasampala" 
iaya^ the creed, faith or believer. 

Sumilang (from silang). 

Sumilip (from sUip). 

Magpakampaggipag (from tdpag), 

Sumipit ( from tipity ' ' tongs " ) . Sinl- 
pit, an anchor. 

Magnikd. Ang sukaan, what dipped 
in or flavor^ with vinegar. 

Sukat. I)i sukai, can not be. Siikai 
bagd siyang pagkcUiivalannf (Can 
he be trusted?) Siikat [dt gukat] 
myana panivalaan (He can [can 
not] be trusted ). 

Ttimakan (from takds). 

Tumnksil (from taksil), Taksil na 
Mt/o, a traitorous or treacherous 
man. Kataksilan, treason, treach- 

Tumagpaa (from tagpas), 


TcUaiTgdtaiTgd. MagtangatangAhanf to 
fei^n stupidity. 

Tumingald (from tiiTpald). Ang 
tingaUim, what seen thus. 

Ttnmtig (from titig). 

Katolo. Kaiotohin mo siyd (befriend 

Tud. Ang pagddiing nmt/<5'y naka- 
tutnd sa akin (Your arrival causes 
me pleasure). JkindtuUid ko ang 
pagddting ninyo (Your arrival is a 
source of pleasure to me). 

Thimulin (from tulin). Magtuiin, to 
go swiftly. Anq ipagtuliny the 
cause of going swiftly. 

Tumunj/o (from tungd). Also to bow 
or incline the head. Angtunghdn, 
what looked at thus or the person 
bowed to. 

Magakol. Si Pedro nagukol nang 
kaniyang gagawin kay Juan (Pedro 
turned over the work to be done 
by him to Juan). 

JSfngvnsik. Ang panimnk, the 


To })i('k (an a guitar); to twang; to 

pluck at. 
To snatch; to take by force; to pull 

up by the roots. 
Iron or other cliain or wire. 

What's bis name. What <lo you 
call it. 

To catch on the wing. 

Bad or stagnant water along a shore. 

To seal (»r a letter. 
To l)elong Uk 

To be restle.'^s. 

To order to elect, 

To recline; to k*an against. 
To dig a bole. 

To cease; to end. 

To wash the; hands or feet. 

To speak nasally. 

To unite or bind together. 

To look blankly (as a blinil person). 

To sparkle (as the eyes in e.xcite- 

To roll up (asslccvcsor trouser legs) ; 

to lift the skirt. 
T(» jxive ahns. 

To look iirst at rme thing and then 

To avert the eyes. 
To look here and there on account 

of noise. 

To look here and there liurriedlv. 
To glare in a wil<l manner. 
To act foclishly. 

To relish. 
To wish; to <l(>sire. 
Wing (of binlj. 
To pardon; forgive. 

Witliout res[»ect; limit or considera- 

Mnfjhilahit (from kalahit, var hilhit), 
K'fi ma ui ka tn ( from hi mkn m ) . 

Kaudfl. Maf/kaiuul, to use a chain 
or wire. 

Si kfhhi. Any kudu. This wonl can 
be verV>alized by ion, ninfj, magim^ 
luaki, etc. 

Ihiindk'd (from ddkit). 

Dikifd. Mndihjn lUnuj dxilampiuiij U6 
(there is stagnant water along this 

Mat/ffiit. PamJiitj seal, wax, gum. 

(himandn (from (jaiaiit). (iaifdn an 
akin iti'f (This Ixdongs to me). 

Ganiasn ( from ^rwo, rare). (t'a-Kohatiy 
person disturbed. Maiaja»o^ to 
» disturb another, (iarjasolian^ rest- 
lessness. (fViyo-vof/a.xo, very rest- 

Mai/jtahalal (from halaJ). 

Jlif/pit. JAf///v/><7, tight, Maghi(itnt, 
to tighten; to cinch up (asagirale, 
strap, etc.). WaUiag h'utpithujpit^ 

IfnmU'ui (""rom Jiilig). 

llamakay (from hakay). Aug pan- 
It a kaij^ the spade. 

IhnnmnjKuj (fiom hympaij). 

Mag/i ugiis ( f n >m hugas ) . ( See lamos^ 

M(thahnma/ht(nial (from hutnal). 

Maglinigkaft (from hrngkap). 

Maglihtag (from li/ang). 

Lmni/ajt (from II lap) [rare]. 

Maglilis. lidkit ka iiagllliliit nang sa- 

lairaf/ (Why are you rolling up 

your trousers?) 
Magliin'is (from Sp. llmoftiia). Mag- 

jxtllnios. to ask for alms. 
Lahi'riTijap (from liiTgap, var. liiTga- 

f.uhiii7(/at (from limjat). 
LvinhTfiuTgig (from IhTg'nTgig^ rare). 

l*rol»ably a coiidjination of diiTgig^ 

idea of hearing. 
LuHiiiTi/ifs (from i'nTifax). 
Laiiiuiafi (from ligap). 
MaiuaiTgal. MaginanuingdimuTgahan^ 

to feign stupidity. 
Xmiianmaiii (from iKunnam). 
Magaasii (see pita). 
PakjKtk. Liniiipad, to flv. 
Magpafdnad (from patauadj syn., 

tdnarl). .yfagpaOtuayati, to forgive 

each other. 
]\'a/<n)g patoiaangd. 



To choose; to select. 

To pick up. 

To t)econie dull (as a knife or i izor) 

To boil rice. 

Pest; epidemic; to suffer from. 
To profess; to vow; to believe in. 

To pass )x?tween rocks, hills, etc. 
To peep. 

To care for most diligently. 
To grasp; take hold of; pinch. 

To put vinegar on anything. 

Can be. 

To nm away from or hide froi i. 
To betrav. 

To cut grass; ti^ mow. 

To patch. 

To be gaping stupidly 

To Iwjk upward. 

To stare at. 


To do anything swiftly 

To look down. 

To assign to; to turn over to. 

To sprinkle. 

Pnmill. Ang pilihiy what chosen or 
selected out. Ang pi nil Ian (sing. ) 
or Aug pinagpUian (plur. ), what 
selected or chosen from. 


Puinorol ( from purol). Aug purolin, 
what ilulled. Tnmomal (from 
toniul), to be dull (as business). 
Kaiutudlartj dullness. Angitomal, 
the cause of such dullness. 

SunnMng (from ming). ASInding, boil- 
ed rice. 


Sumampalataya. Aug sximaminpala- 
tagn, the creed, faith or believer. 

Sumilang (from silang). 

tSumlllj) (from sillp). 

M(igp(ikn.<tipagi*l/Hig (from iflpag). 
• Sumlpit ( from sipiiy ' ' tongs " ) . *SVn<- 
plt, an anchor. 

Magmth). Aug sukaan, what dipped 
in or flavored with vinegar. 

Sukai. I>L ftnkat, can not be. Sukal 
hagd ^liianq piKjhitlvHikmnf (Can 
he be trusted?) Sukal {di sukal] 
slgtuig panhralaan (He can [can 
not] be trusted). 

Tnniak(ii< (from lakas). 

Tumnksil (from lak.vl). Taksil ua 
I'uio, a traitorous or treacherous 
man. Katak»Uan, trea.*^on, treach- 

Tniuagpas (from tagpas). 


TalaiTgdlaiTtfd. MaglaiTgataiTgdhari, to 
feign stupidity. 

TuNthTijnhi (from tliTfjald). Aug 
llngalain, what seen thus. 

Tmnitlg (from llUg). 

Kalolo. Kalotohhi mo i^lyd (befriend 

Tad. Aug pagddliug nlugo'y uaka- 
Intud sa dklii (Your arrival causes 
me i)U'asure). Itiudlultid ko aug 
jHigddliug uiuyo (Your arrival is a 
source of i)leasure to me). 

Tvuin/in (from luHn). Magtulln, to 
go swiftly. Aug ipaglullu, the 
cause of ^oing swiftly, 

Tu itiui7j/n {irtnn In iTIjo ) . A 1 so to V)o w 
or incline the head. Aug luiTi/hdu, 
wliat looked at thus or the person 
bowed to. 

Magnk<d. »SV Vrdra uagukoJ naug 
kmiiyaug gagau'n) k*ig juau (Pedro 
turned over the work \o he done 
by him to Juan). 

Mugu'islk. Aug jmuuisikj the 


iiv V vti.rit viid c:- vv ictt < 

/. Singapore^ ika 12 {(htlam't) i7g {nung) Ahr'd {1905). Aug ])araan ni 
Rodjeslvenaky ag mabirdthig sigd sa caho {/otTf/os) Padaran na nana hagbagm 
i7g Tiido'ChUid, at 150 milla ung agwai r<i Snigon. Doon iTjja magpipisan nng 
nagkah'nralrnj jia lu'iLhong-dognf iTg jtTgd (marTgd) ruso^ kun aakdling sild^ g 
hhidt mnhdraitg knpuwd iTjj rngd japon. 

Aug v<nng pangkdt iuj ln'iLhong-ddgat na p'nian<pu7guluhan nl RodjeAiveiiskg 
ag iKisa Imghngin fTg Mtintok ngagdn na iUang indla ung agwat sa Sumatra. 

Ang ilxfvg liTgd sa-sfikgdn ng nana pagitan pa i7g lUinka. Aug liigd sattak- 
gang lt<y g aai^a raang thranag .vi pagitan ng Malaca. 

Hindi sl/ii nahdrang, sapagkaH any rTigd japan mardhd ag nasa malapit sa 
Formosa na doon nda ihig inakilahan. 

Mardhd an g Bataria nng snaunod na daraungan iig mgd rnsOj sapagka't 
doo'g mag cahleng dhnt hdngang Rima. 


Singapore, 12th of April. The plan of Kodjestvensky is to try to (arrive 
at) make Cape Vadaran, on the coast of ludo-C'liina, and 150 miles distant 
from 8iii«:on. There the separated fleets (sea armies) of the Russians will 
unite, if the two are not encountered by tlie Ja]>anese. 

One division of the fleet commanded by Kodjestvensky is now off the 
coast of iMuntok a few miles from Sumatra. 

Tlie otlier vessels are yet in the rejrion of Banka. The other vessels of 
this (Hct't) are remaininir in the route (<>r neighborhood) of Malacca. 

They weie not molested, because the Japanese continued to remain near 
Formosa, where they wish to commence the struggle. 

Russian vessels contimie to follow each other into Batavia, because there 
is a cable conneetinjr with Russia there. 

//. Xcirrhnaifg, ika 7 )Tj/ Ahril. Ang 500/jOO kataong humnhxio iTg hdkUt 
ni Ogania ag .'<nin'is(dakag na inaigi .sa hnkho ni Lint'ritch na nakapagtihay sa 

Maifnti nng pnrnan iTj/ pngkohddsnh inj nT/<i jnpnn at ang haltd tig kanilang 
lupnjig uali'ihanagan ng nnig dpat na jfuo n limttng pnong milla. Inaakala 
ni ()gnnin nn iinhng iintittnti ain/ )i77;d rnsi^ lidngang sa kanilang madaig na 

Ang hi'ikhong pimunamnhalnau )ii g* nend Lincritch ng hindi hihigit sa bUang 
na J0(t,000y snpagkn't Imkod .sa nainntagnn aigd iTg marami sa labanaUy ag 
niaranii pn nng wd/ding iTg mgn jnpon. 


_ X<\vchwang, 7th of Ay)ril. The 500,000 men composing the army of 
Oyamji an^ advancing in good order upon the army of Linevitch now in- 
trenched at Kirin. 

The plan of advance «il the Japanese is g(»od (excellent) and the length 
of their front (Lrround) is 40 (»r ">0 miles. Oyama is trying to push the 
Unssians L'radually until lie caw vanquish them all (unitedly). 

The army imder thi' ehaiL'eof (General Linevitch does not numlxr more 
than 200,01)0, esjuM-ially bi'cause besides the many who have been killed in 
battle there are many also who ha\e been captured l)y the Jaj)anese. 

III. Snn J*rt( rshorgn, iln G wj ^ihril. Aug nTgd jnpon ag 7iakasusulong na 
nnd-finti .v/ dnk(ntg kmnhdnggdn ni gi'nrrnl Linfitrh at iTij kaniyang hukho. 
l.sang drn<> pnU nng llnrhin ag hindi nn. irnirnhd mntntahanan lUj vigd. ruso, 
xajingknU pinngii.sipnng gibain iTij kadnrig. ILntdi na piiHtwjaiTgatawanan ng 


liiyd ruso ang pagpapakat'Oxuf sa JlarbiHy sapagka't may riatikinikinlia gilang 
malaklug panganib na sitaapilin lioon. Ang dakoug tun-uiTgaii luj ingd rum ay 
ang Vladivos^tok na kanilang inasahang tnapagtiUba gang maigi hdngang sa 
magkaroon iTg kapayapaan. Masamd ang tat/6 iTj/ riigd hukbong riwo, data- 
puva^t hindi namdn nuipahusay^ U6 dahil sa gnloug nangyayari sa Ruitia. 
Maraml aa Rusia ang yianhiiwald na madadaig ang hukbo ni general Llnevitch^ 
at hung magkagayOn ay magkakaroon iTg kapayapaan. 


St. Petersburg, 6th of April. The Japanese are advancing little by little 
upon the position of General Linevitch and his anny. One day more, and 
Harbin may possibly not be remaining to the Kiissians, l^ecanse they think 
it may be destroyed by the enemy. The Russians are making no efforts 
to strengthen themselves in Harbin, because they believe themselves to 
b(» in great danger of capture there. The place of retreat for the Russians 
is Vladivostok, \vhi<'h they ho[>e to fortify so well as to hold it until peace. 
The situation of tlie Russian armies is bad, but it can not Ix; bettered on 
account of tlie riots taking place in Russia. Many in Russia believe that 
the armv of (ieneral Linevitch will be defeated, and that in that event 
there will be f)eace. 

/r. Manila ika I4 ng Abnl. Ibhiabafitil ?77/ Gobemador Dancd (Lalamigang 
Rizfd) J na noong uniagd iTg ika o ng binrang lumaldkad ay may nadakip aa 
Bagbngin na tat long tdunng labds at si yam na kalabao na niiuinakao na ^ova- 
liches, dalaivang bard at dalawang revolver. Noong ika 11 ay may nadakip 
na isaiig tduong lahds na may dalangf uang kalabao, at isatig riflmg inauacr, 
dakuvang puong cartuchd't (ialanang puong ritivng vtnnington. Noong ika l(f 
ay may na^ainpuiTgan ang jtrenidvnte sa Taytay na ii<ang rvmifigton na may 
sampuong cartnrJio. Any nTj/d hdabao ay dinald fta tot«>reria municipal. 
Noong ika J I ay nakadakip din namdn f<i (iobvrn<idor Dannd ng u^ang nag- 
jTgaiTijalang Prdro Pio^ na dl tuna no' y yiyang nanybagabttg na maigi .sa 
Baranka at Marikina noong viernes. Iby y ihinigay kay mayor Ha.<kell iTij 
consiabulario. May inidakip pa ring dalawang tduong labds na may isang 
rewlver colt at sampuong cartucfto. 


It is announced by Governor Dancel ( Rizal Province) that on the morn- 
ing of the 5tii of the current month there were captured at Bagbagin three 
outlaws an(l nine of the carabao stolen from Novaliches, two sliotguns, and 
two revolvers. On the 11th there were captured one armed outlaw, one 
carabao, and one Mauser rifle, twenty cartridges, and twenty Remington 
rifles. On tlie lOth the ])residente (mayor) of 'i'aytay ^e('ured a Reming- 
ton and ten cartridges. The cara))ao were sent to the numicipal treasury. 
On the 11th (Governor Dancel was also able to capture one called I'cflro 
Pio, said to be the person who made trouble at Baranka and Maricpiina 
last Friday. This person was turned over to Major Haskell, of the con- 
stabulary. There were also two outlaws captured who had a Colt revolver 
and ten cartridges. 

T'. Hindi malalaunan at magtatayo rito so Maynili) loy haginig honpittd. 
ltd' y isangaifdtagannahiningi iuj Rt. Rev. Opiiipo Brvnt iTj/siyd'y nasa I'Jstados 

Ang salaping gugugulin ay kaloob iuj lintang nniversldad sa I larva rd, ]'<th\ 
PrincetoUy I*enn»ylvania at Colnmbia. 

Ang maiujangas'nra nito ay ang Iglesia Kpii^<'opal, datafinud't tantangapin 
ang sinomang naiikol (<a ihang religion. 


It will not be long until there will be erected here in Manila a new ho.*;- 
pital. This will be from a subscription solicited by the Right Reverend 
feishop Brent when he was in the United States. 

The money to be offered is from tlie funds (interior) cf five universities: 
Ilarvanl, Yale, Prin<'eton, Pennsylvania, and Colunil>ia. 

The direction of this (hospital) will be under the Episcopal Church, but 
anyone will be received belonging to another faith. 

IT. AiKj (jobeniddor m BaUvm si G. Tomas del Rnmrio atj nag alny sa Bn- 
lawja w) is(uuj lujfong vini/ h'> licctnrea at t*'4,000y ang hnlagn, upang innpag- 
taiiuoii iTg ixmaj *^ smmdarif ftrhonf.'^ Atig ynong Inpang yaon ag magitgainU 
m pagnand iTlj n grin din rii 6 wj mgi'i dt'niong tnngkol an parnnniukid^ at 7))agui' 
gandmt dm tKunan iTg iiTija pagsasaiKig luj payigpalnki'is iTij kafnnnn. 

tSa nhdd rin nantdn iTg (iohenntdorny midjiitiiig ntagkaroon i7g i^iang mmstrortg 
ainericann .sa Ixiyan bayou upang madanyag ang iitgd paraan at ugafing aineri- 
cano Ha iiTgdfitipino. 


The jrovernor of Bataan, Hon. Tonias del Rosario, has given a piece of 
land coniprisinjr bi hectares a n<l worth P4,00(), in Balaii^a, in order that 
there may be a site for the erection of a "secondary school." That land 
may be used for teaching agriculture or for sciences or occupations jn^r- 
taining to the land, and for instruction in the means of strengthening the 
body (manual training school). 

The endeavor of the governor will be to have one American teacher in 
ea<h town in order to show the customs and habits <tf the Americans to 
the Kilij)ini)s. 

VII. 1)1 uinaui)' y hdiditTj/in i7j/ Comjian'ta iTij travna (i/drlco na inhUan )ki 
ang sanakyang do y inara/tdting panttiiTj/in haiigan sa J'alanyag. 

Iplnaghddgay alant din lanndn w/ayou S(t gohernador general iTg natTijaiajti' 
sifva sa tranv'ia elicfriro )ui sa buic.^ ay pnnisinndang jtatakbulian ang daan sa 
Santa ^{na. 


It is said that the electric street-car (;ompany will ask that the line Ik» 
permitted to be extende<l to reach as far as Parana<jue. 

Notice has al.«o been given to-day to the governor-general by the man- 
agement of the electric railway that on ^b»nday it will commence the 
<»peration of the road ti» Santa Ana. 

VIJI. ]*annaira. — Ipijiatn'ndtik sa sinomang nakapulot iaj isang Asong 
la/aki na nuiy bahdtihdug knbiy cufr at nnty pnti sa dibdib at sa duh) ng paang 
knn'in sa tntnlnhi, nmy iiuilny )ni ,-t,U<irsn liig (disa)tg rha/ta na may nainerong 
(bfhiitg) J*m;'>^ (ly iiKntgyaring ihn/ik o isan/i sa d^ntng Arratn/ne b'dang {big.) 
l.'iS (it don't/ kokitndan. ang i>-ang jtabnya at dakibntg pasasaldtnat. 


NoTicK. — It is re(iuest«'d that anyone who may ])ick up a male dog with 
coffee-colored hair and with w hite on the })reast and the end of the right 
front foot, bearing a collar on the neck and a tag with the numl)er 19t>o, 
will ln' alile to return or lestore him to No. loS Arran<}ue street, where a 
reward will be given, tog«^'ther with many thanks. 

/A'. Xairobi. Sa bahai/ no h'lJnng 7 'f sa daang Ktnla, TondOy ay naicaM 
ang Ismig maunk ua sasohniTI/lng bol<dul)ong lasoky ntaitint ang tahid^ inaputi 
ong poo't holdoib) o)ig dofii so konait. Sinonnin ang makapagdaUi 6 maka- 
pogfnro inj kmobdtigi/on iTij /lafurang mannk ay bdtigydn tojpabuyaiig halagang 
nolo o so inpito/K/ jiiso. 


Lost. — Fnmi the hou-e No. 74 Rada stret^t, Ton<lo, there has been lost 
a giimecock witli wliite and red (lasak) plumage, black spurs, and white 
feet, with the middle claw of the right foot crippled. Anyone who may l^e 
al)le to brinu: or point out the whereabouts of the said fowl will be given a 


II. For names of animals, birds, fishes, and invertebrates not given in 
this work the student is referred to Jordana's Bonquejo Geogrdjict) S His- 
i&rico Natural del Archipiilago Filipino, Madrid, 1885; to the work of Friar 
Casto de Elera, Domimcan, entitled Catdhgo SiMemdtico de Toda la Fnuna 
de MlipinaSf Manila, 1895; and to the book of Montero y Vidal, El Archi- 
piPlaqo Filipino y las isUu Marianas, Carolinas y Palaos, Madrid, 1886. For 
the fauna the great work of Friar Blanco, Aug^ustine, will be of great aid, 
as well as the reports of the forestry and agricultural bureaus at Manila. 
The work of Father Delgado, S. J., Manila, 1892, deserves attention as 
revised and annotated. 

In conclusion, it is hoped that a careful study of the language under dis- 
cussion will lead the student to explore for himself, and note the localisms 
and changes in each province. Any suggestions, corrections, or criticisms 
will be welcomed hy the author. 

Tj. ,. , 13 * Contraction, variation, 

Kngnjsn. ' Koot. ', ' 

To bite Kdfjat Knfji'in. 

To deny ; cloak k'aild Kaildn. 

To eat Kain Kanin. 

To untie ; loosen Kahnj Knh/hf; kalgdn. 

Left KnHint Ktilin-'m; kalitrdn. 

To ol>tain K(un it Kiuntdn. 

To gn >pe for K'ijh'i K(iphr, kajuhi. 

To gruHp; enil)ra(v Kdjtit Kajtthi; hiptdn. 

To nibble KUtit Kihl'm; kibtdn. 

To cut off KUd Kitlhr, kitldn. 

To knt)w; be actjuaintid witli . Kihiln Ki/aulin. 

To exceed Lahis lAihhdn. 

To place La(/ai/ Ijvfiidn. 

Strength L'ikds Laksdit. 

To grow J.<iki ].akhh); Inkhdn. 

Contents; ]>nli) ' Lmmht Lamndn. 

To soften Lnld L(t('m; hitdn. 

Far; distant La no 

Five lAmd LunJidn. 

To err; to make a niistakt^ MuH Mtdtn: indldn. 

To observe; ex pcricnce Mnshl , Mitmldn. 

To bej^in; commence Muld Muldn. 

To settle; appease J'nlnt/ttf/ PalfKjijd)}. From Ingny. 

To contain; in<lude, etc I'aUttndn rdhnnndn. Vvoxnlamdii. 

To listen PffLinitj J\ikin(idit. 

To dream Pmntijin'ip I\untifhnpdn. 

Name Paiu/nhtu J*(nTi/ftnldn. 

To break (as a rope, etc. ) Piifi(/ Pafddn. 

T( ) 81 j iiee/e Pi'Jf f*iy'ni; jt'ujdn. 

T< > w ri nji /'('.v/7 J'lsf'm. 

To (lit J*i'if,,/ J'u(/iii: jnitJdn, 

To embark; to mount Suktn/ Sakad,!. 

To be i 1 1 Sdkit Suki'n, .• aakidn. 

To err; sin Sn/n San/dh. 

To tell; rej)ort S<(lild SafiCm. 

Va'U Stn/id Sinn'fii; snmdn. 

To come ))aek; to give l»a(k . . Sao/i -sV/r;//'/,; snoldn. 

To burn rid))>ish Si</<} Sit/dn. 

To <k'\ oui" eat Slid Si/ni; sildn. 

To nut into Si/i'l Sidldn. 

To follow ; obey Smiod Snnd'tn. 

To w ( •!!< ler Mt Takd Takhdn. 

To CONtT 'J a kip Idkpdtt. 

To turn till" ba<'k Pa/iknd Tidikddn. 

To sow 'I 'I mm '/anindn. 

To grasp; to bold to * T'dTi/fni TmTipidii. 

J'o stand T'tijd Toffd)i. 

To taste; t ry Tiki in Tikmdv. 

J'o lo< tk TiiT'i'tii TnTijiidn. 

To redt'cm T>dtds Puhsin; tnhmn. 

fo <1 ry riii/t'j TiUfin; (iiydn. 

'J'o move I'/d I ifii^' 

To return; repeat C/i 11/1): Vldn, 

To sit down I'pd I'pdn. 

To lack W'ald Wolin: tvaldn. 





II. For names of animals, birds, fislies, and invertebrates not given in 
this work the student is referre<l to Jordana's Bo.^/uejo Geo*/rajico i- Jlis- 
torico Natural del Arrhipielago Filipino^ Madri<i, 1885; to the work of Friar 
Casto de Elera, Dominican, entitled CataUnjo Sisteinatico de Toda la Ftnma 
de FilipinaSj Manila, 1895; and to the book of Montero y Vidal, Kl Arrhi- 
pit'laf/o Fdipino y las idas MarlanaSy Caroiinaa y FahwH^ Madrid, 1886. For 
the fauna the great work of Friar Blanco, Augustine, will be of great aid, 
as well as the reports of the forestry and agricultural bureaus at Manila. 
The work of Father Delgado, S. J., Manila, 1892, deserves attention as 
revised and annotated. 

In conclusion, it is hoped that a careful }?tudy of the language under dis- 
cussion will lead the stu<lent to explore for himself, and note the localisms 
and changes in ea«h province. Any suggestions, corrections, or criticisms 
Avill be welcomed b>' the author. 

- ^ ® 5 

< T > 




















• — 








— * 









* ■»«. 








• — 

I and II 

|o na pi Maria. **1 ■ 
10 na si Maria. ** Yi 
h yd nn si Maria. * * 1 

itin nn si Maria. * * ' 

iin inna si M aria. * * 

Hnvo fui si Maria. ^ 

ila nasi Maria. "1 

:o si Maria. 

10 si Maria. 
|iiyd si Maria. 

latin Hi Maria. > S 

laiiiia si Maria, 
hinvo Hi Maria, 
nila si Maria. 

p/HiilatiN mo na? " 
hnamlsii mo'} **Wl 

ihay ang f/agawiN n^ 
ihay ang m agaw A n i) 

UasabiiiiN nio na? 
wasabi mo? *'Whj 

JhikuNix mny6 fu 
will you have takei 

/V»sulat mo na nil 
It will you have writ 

ko na itong piilaj 
ill (will) have sown ^ 

Ulat niU WYi it^? or J 
nrea<l this?" 







A si TomiU? nang limang 
^ liiuang piso. "I will 


r J/f/AYiaral siya. *' He 

ior J/fiAY/Hi'ilat ako. "1 

»r MakahWisko. "I wi 
r»ia or MaktiPAohiM &k( 





I ami II future perf« 

:• ..LvA aku. ''I shall ha^ 


* '*• 'L— I 

niN. "Glean ou 

iii^ /panhinhv^a mo 
teeth with thin.' 
///niriJjitAa/i ino 
'* Clean yonr ted 

e.' J/'fff/^f/insik ka. 
like a Ohinamar 


Accent, change of, 18. 

Chanjj;ea meaning, 19. 

(Tt^noral nilen of, 18. 
Accents, 18, 19. 

Acute, 18. 

Grave, 18. 

Circumflex, 18, 19. 
Active (voice), 20. 
Adjectives, *20, 38, (full analysis of) 55, 5<), 57. 

Prefixed to noun, 81. 
Adjectives, comparison of, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76. 

Eijuality, 72, 73. 

Jnferioritv, 73. 

Superiority, 73, 74. 

Superlative, dej^ree of, 74, 75, *6. 
Adjectives (regarded as to meaning): 

Colors, 63. 

Of condition, 61, ()2. 

Of jilivsical conditions of IkxIv, 63, 64. 

Of (lualitv, 58, 59, 60. 

Of (luantity, 62. 

Mental, moral, or j>ersonal attributes, 64-71. 

Miscellaneous, 71, 72. 
Adjectives, negative, 57. 
Adjectives, plural of, 57. 
Adjectives, position of, 57. 
A<lji'ctive, predicate, 32. 
A«lvt'rhial mnnerals, 79, 80. 
Adverbs, 20, 38, (with adjective) 74, 75, (fully «lis<'ussed) s3-.s(;, (detinition 

oi) .S3, (verbalizing) 83, 84. 

Allirmative, 99. 

Negative, 99, 100. 

Of «legree, 72, 75, 98. 

Of measure, 72, 75, 98. 

•'Flat," 83. 

•'Flexional," i<:]. 

"Phrasal," 83. 

Interrogative, 32, 33. 

Of (loulit, 100. 

Of manner, 93, 98. 

Of (luality, 93, 9S. 

Of motion, 84. 

Of place, 34, 84, (list of many) 86, 87. 

l)iale<"tH. .">'>. 

Diinimitives, 110. IX. { mif) ISO, {nin<j) mi 

Dim-t ol.j.'ct. lOi), V, VI. 

OlH^ l(i!>, V. 
iMr^t ril»iiti\(' iiiinu'rals, SO. 
])(. iinak.-) to, lOS, I, II, 110, XI. XIII. 

I).. IK. I, 100. 

hiial iiuiiiImt, ."15, ;;>;, :;s. 
IjkHiil:^, •>\. 

( 'nn-onaiit, .'U. 

In <liplitli(»ii<j, ."U. 

In ''n." :;i. 

In V'tWrl, ,')l. 

I jiplmnic chan^^'s, '.V2, 'M, 81, (with )iffni a; 

lOxiIaniatioris, 104. 1M">. 

"' I''.\rlu>ive f e<litnrial ) wr," ;)-">, .'50, ;JS. 

l-'ntnrc prriVct t('n>o, 100, X. 

I'^iturc tt-n-c, 10(), X. 

(j't ( interroLralive purtich''!, 74. 

«r<«'l 1 iT^ 7 J 


Gender, lack of, 08. 

(leneral ttrnis, lack of, 19. 

(ienitivc!^, douhlc, of i)erf<oiial pronouns, 35, 36. 

hau (suttix), IS, oG, 141, I, 11, (full discussion) 142-153. 

hin (sutfix), 18, 5H, (with weights, measures, etc. ) 82. 

H<jni«jnyin, detinition ot, 57. 

i [i)articlc]. 108, IV, (cause, instrument or time) 109, V, (combined with 
in) 110, XII, (fully discussed) 132-141. 

Idioms, 20. 

i/oi [compound i)article] (with adverbs) 84, H'S, (meaninjj: cause) 108, 
IV, 13S, XVllI, 211, 1. 

ikin'i [compound particle] (with adverbs), 84, 55, (meanim^ cause) 108, 
IV, 138, XVI II. 211, I. 

ikiun}>'i [compoun<l particle] (with adverbs), 85. 

Imperative, H)5, II. 

Intensity, (piicknesss, with, 105, III. 

Imperfect tense, 10(), X. 

i)i (sutlix) 18, 5(), (inserted) 57, (with weights, measures etc.) 82, (with 
]>ti) 84, 85, (motion toward or control of) 108, IV, (combined with i) 
no, XII, (discussion) 112, I, to 114, VI (idea of attraction toward) 
114-115, (possession) 115, (verbs of calling, 115, (of reaching for) 116, 
(verbs of carrying, cutting, measuring or weighing) llG-119, (ver])sof 
destruction) 119, (verbs of receiving) 120, (of inviting) 120, (of eating, 
drinking, etc.) 122, (acts of senses) 123, 124, (acts of will or mind) 124, 
125, (verbs of making) 125, (of wearing) 125, (various) 126, (suffixed) 

Ill <tn, 130. 

Inclusive '*we," 35, .38. 

Indetinite, 20, 30, (discussed) 111, I, to 112, V 
Principal particles of. 111, I. 

Indicative, bHi, IX. 

ln<lirect ol)ject, 109, VI. 

Inlinitive, 10(), IX. 

inl [compound i>article], 110, VIII. 

Intransitive verbs, 107, XI. 

(pfi [compound particle] (exi)lained), 109, VIII. 

ipntj [(H)mpound jiarticle], 109, IV (explained), 109, VIII. 

ipiKjkd [comi)ound ])article], 109, VIII. 

ipnfjkabi [comjujund particle], 109, VIII. 

ipiiKi [compound particle] (with adverbs), 85 (explained), 109, VIII. 

ijfliKt'j [compound ])article] (explaine<l), 109, VIII (examj^le), 110, IX. 

(p'nifKjlit [com[)oun<l particle], 109, VIII. 

ipiumjkdhi [compound particle] (with adverb), 85 (explained), lOt), VIII. 

bt (particle expressing likeness), 72. 

I:nfiin[l (com])ound particle), 72. 

kn (im[>arting idea of intensity, etc. ), 105, III. 
(linking o|>[>osite ideas), 106, VI. 

ka [juirticlrj, 211. 

ka nn [comiK^und particle], 200, 201. 

hipii'i [particle], 239. 

kapni/ka [particle], 239. 

kulang (adverb meaning "less"), 73. 

ma (adjective forming particle), 00, (use) 111, I, (fullv discussed), 196- 
201, (def. of mnka) 21 J. 

)itn in {hin), 131, 132. 

VKi'f (naq), 56, ( verbalizing adverb) 84, 85, (use) 110, X, 111, I, (fullv dis- 
cussed") 180-194. 

moffin []>article], 232-234. 

mdrjhi [])article], .38. 85, (combinations) 109, VIII, (use) 110 X, (fullv 
disen«^f'di '>:i0-'>:i-> 

magkapa [particle], 1^38. 
iiuigkapantaij (coiiipound particle), 73. 
ffiagkapara (compound particle), 73. 
magkaparis (compound particle), 73. 
niagkimng (compound particle), 73. 
magma (compound particle), 56. 

mugpa [particle], 109, VIII, (use) 110, X, (fully discussed) 217-223 
mngpaka [particle], 225-227. 
magpati [particle], 235. 
magm [particle], 237. 
magxl [parti(!le], 235, 23H. 

maka [particle], 201, IV, (fully discussed) 211-217, (when nn 
"cause") 5<), (peculiar construction with) 112, VIII, (indicatiuiJ 
plete<l action) 93. 
makl [particle], 227-230. 
mala (forming adjective:^), 56. 
maji [|)article], 37, (with weights, measures, monevs) HI, (with ad 

85, (fullv discussed) 201-211. 
maald [particle], 235-237. 
ntapa (as adjective forming jmrticle), 56. 
majtag (as adjective forming particle), 56. 
mag (use) 110, XIII. 
magrdon (use), 110, XIII. 

mimt (mhiama) [particle expressing opinion], 56. 
na (as adjective forming particle), 56, (use) 111, I, (fully discussed 

201, (def. of maka) 211, (with irregular form of verb) 171-175. 
nag [particle] (with adverl)), 85, (use) 111, I, (fully discussed) ISO- 
nagai [particle], 233. 
iiagka [])artic]e] (with adverb), 85. 
nagkan [particle], 238. 
nagkapa. [])article], 238. 
nagpaka [particle], 225, 1. 
nagpati [particle], 235. 
tKtgsa [particle], 2'M. 
nagsl [particle], 235. 

,>aka [i)article], 201, IV, (fully discussed), 211-217. 
iKiki [particle], 227, 1. 
tain [particle], 201, IV. 

iia/>a [compound i)article], 223, 1 (with adverbs), 85. 
napas-a [particle], 223, 1. 
Xt'^'ativt' adjectives, 57. 
Nciialive adverbs, 99, 100. 
N\v'ative verbs, 30. 
Nniuinative <'Mse: 

I'rereded by article an<l followed l)y genitive, 28. 

With genitive inserted between nominative and arti<'le, 28. 
N*»nri : 

In genitive modifying nominative, 31. 
Ndiins, 20. (eommon) 28, {exp. ),38. 

Source, 2s, (from roots) 240. 
Numerals, 7<i-S0. 

Adverbials, 79. SO. 

Cardinals, 7«), 77, 78. 

nistribntives, 80. 

Ordinals, 78, 79. 
nccn]»ations (with man j^retixed), 205, 210. 
<)r«linal numerals, 78. 79. 
jia, tlie <)6 roots beginniuir with, 175-180. 
y/'/ (with a< herbs ), 84. 

jxi/Hi (do. ), 84. 
pa (vet. still), 73. 
pa [i\o\iu\te ni magpa], 100, VIII, 217. 1, (! fully discussed) 223-225. 


jKKj [particle], 110, VIII. IX, (retention) 110, X, 194. 

payka [particle], 194, 201, III, 230. 

pagpakn [particle], 225, I. 

paka [particle], 225, I. 

paki [particle], 227, I. 

pala ( torn iing adjectives), 56. 

pan [particle], 201, 209, XVII. 

panhi [particle], 2:i5, 236. 

para (particle of comparison), 72. 

Participle, 106, X. 

Particles, combinations of, 238, 239. 

Designation of, 239. 
Particles, verbal, 19, 20, (most important) 106, VIII. 
Particularizing verbs, 19. 
Passive, 20. 
Past tense, 10(), X. 
Phrases, ordinary, some, 20-27. 
pliKtfj [compound particle], 110, IX, 195, II. 

pinntj an [compound particle and suffix], 110, VIII. 

piudf/hi [comixjund particle] (with adverbs), 85, (discu88e<l) 230. 

pina'ht, 227, IX. 

pinah'i [particle], 239. 

pinaki []>article], 227, 1. 

pinajfa [compound particle] (with a<l verbs), 84, 85. 

Place (how expressed), 141, II. 

Pluj>ertect tense, 106, X. 

Plural (of a<ljectives), 57. 

Plural (of nouns), 28, 38. 

SjK'cial plural of */, 27. 
Prefix, retention of, 106, VII. 
Prepositions (fully <liscussed), 100-102. 
Present tense, 106, X. 

Pronouns, demonstrative, 33,34, (i«lioniatic use) 34. 
Pronouns, indefinite, 37, (exp. ) 3s. 
Pronouns, interrogative, 32. 
Pronouns, personal, 35, 36. 

dialects, 35. 

idioms, 35. 
Pronouns, i)Ossessive, 36, 37. 

With (dii/ and anf/ 8a, 37. 

Syntax and order, 37. 
Pronouns, relative, 38. 
Proper nouns (article of), 27. 
pnnui [compound particle] (with adverbs), 85. 
Keduplication of roots, 56. 

\Vith ka an (ban), 75,76. 

Of first syllable of numerals, 77. 

To form diminutives, 110, IX. 
Kespert, great, how indicated, 37. 
Root words in Tagalog, number, 13. 
Roots, reduplication of, 56. 
Roots, differing with vm and mar/, 154. 
Roots, the (My beginning with pa, 175-lSO. 
Sanskrit words in Tagalog, 13, 38. 
Sex, how indicateil, 31. 
iSlng (particle meaning "as"), 72. 
Spanish element in Tagalog, 14^ 38. 


Syiiunyiii, delinitioii of, 57. 

SyiionyiiiH, IJ). 

Tagaloj^ laujzna^'e, importance of, 18. 

Dialects of, Jo, 35. 

Relationshii> of, 13. 

Prepervatiuii ^A verbal j^ystein oi, 13. 

Niiniber «if root words in, 13. 

Sanskrit element in, 38. 

Chinese element in, 14, 3S. 

Arabii* element in, 14, 38. 

Spanish element in, 14, 38. 

I'ji^lish element in, 14. 

Lack of Japanese element in, 14. 

Pronunciation of, 15. 

Structure of, compared, 107, XIV, XV. * 

Veri>. comj>ared, 107, XVI. 
Tenses, U)(), X. 

Lack of chaniie within, 107, XII. 
•*Ties,'' euphonic, 31. 
Transitive ver])S, 107, XI. 
(\ when consi<lered Jis consonant, 31. 
Cm (particle), ( with a<lverb), 84, (Use shown i, 110, X. Ill, 1, (Fu 

cuss(mI), 153-170, (Diminutives), 180. 
Verb (understood), 32. 
Vcr))s, L>(>, 3.S, (discussion) 105-108. 

("ompleteness of Tajialog verb, 107, XVI. 

Dchnite, 1(»8, I. H, HI. 

I >etiiiitinn of, 105, I. 

Intransitive, 107, X I. 

Modes, 100, IX. 

Particularizing^, 10. 

Superlative form, 7(\. 

Tenses, 1()(>, X. 

Transitive. 107, XI. 
ITo/c/ (with adjective), 74, (use) 110, Xlll. 
Words, nund)er of in Tatralo<:, p.». 

KN(;i.i>n iNDKx: 

Able to , tobe, LMl, 1II,1M3, VII. 

Al)le to do, (o, 177. 
Accept, to, IL'O. 
.\cc«iinpan\'. to, 133, bi'). 

Act like a ' , to, ZXK 

Acts of the s.-nses, 123, 124, 21-1. 

Acts of will or ndnd, 124, 125. 

Add, t<). i:;7. 

Advise, to. 1!54. 

Afraid, to be, 120. 

Aid, to, 185. 

Animals, domestic, 28, 21». 

Approach, t<>, 18-1. 

Arran^'e, to, 120. 

Arrive, to, 140. 

.\scend, to, 174. 

.VshamtMl. to be, b>8. 

Ask, to, 121. 

Aslee]", to be, 108, 

As-end>le, to, ls4. 

Attraction toward, idea of, 114. 

Be.1; l>o.Ulinn, L'M, 29. 

HimI, to I.U ill, l!Kt. 

Rt^l, loir., to, 

lilt,-, to. la-J. 123. 

Blow, to, 162. 

Bt«lv, part!^of,^S^,. 10,51. 

Bori^w, to, 114, 115. 137, Ift*. 

Breaking, verbs of, 108. 

bridge*, 43. 

Brinit to, 4, IM. 

Build a Koiise, to, i:i3. 

Buililiiigf, kinds ui, -13. 

rtiirv, to; inter, to, lSt5. 

Buv, to, 114, 131, Ki:t, 164, 172, 182, (at retail) l:JW. 

Cafculate, to, 124. 

Call, to, 11.1, 173. 

Callintt, vtrbsof, 11.".. 

t'aiitun-, to, 173. 

Can- for, tii. Itiii. 2(U. 

Carrv, to, im, 133, (.lifferent wavi') llli. IIT, 

Caiifi , to. 211, IV. 212. 

Cliaritalilc to bi-, 145. 
I'hoos,-. to, 114. 
Civic .lijrniti^. .13. 
Clothiny, artii'lt« of, 52, 

C(im]«iss, imintH of, 47. 
CoiiijH'l, to. IIKI. 
Coiii1>lain, to. 114. 
Confonii, to, 140 

(\.M.J111T, to, 17«. 

Con.-i.lfr, *o, 124. 
t'.irilin. Mil)., to, 172. 
(.■..ji Jii.ljit. t.., 172. 
Cook, 1-., i:«. 
CookitifiriteiiMN, .-ti-., 40. 
Cooking, Vfrlm of, 135. 
Coiintrv, .-haractcr of, 44. 

nirshiK, Tin,'aloj;, nil., 


Dark, to U; 


Dinvn, to. H 

Heifivi', to, 


r).'«,fii<i, to. 


Dwireto, H^ 

ill, 171). 

DcMire, to, 1 


Destroy, to, 









Di.',to. Il't, 



Dignitk«, civil ami military, 53. 

Directions (of ii>mpa8«), 47. 

DiKappear, to, ]Sii, 

DimaivK, uamtM oi, 51. 

Di!«iit&iiiile, to 1:.*0, 

Disobev, to, 112. 

Div.', to, 12». 

Dniini to, ITU. 

Drink, 1r., 122, 127, 159, 175, 

Drinkiiin, 24, (driiikubles) L'8, 2«. 

DroMiifd, to l>e, 2(il. 

Dwfll, t... 175. 

Eartliriuakf, 47. 

Eutiu)!, 24, (iiiHterials) 28, 29, 3!>, {verl«of) 12: 


Kmlmrk, to, 140. IDS. 

Emiitvoui, to, 141. 

Endure, to. I«). 

Eiittr, to, 173. 

Envy, to, 17-5. 

l-xiiializf, to, 141. 

Erert, !■., 152. 

Evil, to do or c-aiiw, 212. 

Esdianat-, t... 120, im. 

Es|>laiii. to, 125. 

Extintrnish. to. IH<, I5ii. 

Faint auav, !■!. IM". 

Fall, to. 190. 

Fall Iwck. to, 17.1. 

F.t'1. to, 12:!. 

Ftrrv, for.1, 44, 

Ijoiiiir or I'Oiuing, 21, 22. 

Good, lo-l... 212. 

Oraap, to, 147. 

(irai^)<; forage, 4:]. 

Graze, to. 127. 

GrM^tiiiKs: t>itlutatLuiii, 20. 

Grin, to. liiO, 

Guawl, to, 144. 181, 

GuitW, In, 208. 

Have, (o, W, 85. m, {not to liave) :« 

Hear, to, 12:1. 

HearinK, verba of, 145. 140. 

Heap u)>, to. i:)7. 

Heat, 47. 

Ileaveiilv bodies, 4i>, 

Help. h,'. IH5, 

Hor!H-R anil horse equipments, 42, 

House. 40 (parts of) 40. 41. 

Hou»>e)iolil lumiture, 28, 29. 41, 42. 

Hiiii^-rv, tol>e, 128, 196, H'T. 

Hiiiil, to, 121, 2CKi, 

Jnm)\, to, 182. 
Invitiiift, verlwot, 120. 
Join witb, to, 165- 

Join Hiili in , to, 228. 

.luii.p, to. 18(1, 

Liv.L.wn. to 1.51, |vi 

l.o.,kiit. t.i, I2r!, 148. 172, 
U«.k t»T. to, 1*1. ItW, 
l/)okiri)!frjr, verli^ of. 11f>. 
l»ok ..III of, to, 127. 
biHc, to, 12!'. 
l^.vf, t.i, 124, 125. 
Make<<lol, to, 108, 1, 11. 
Make htwxe, to, l!':i, 
Makiii).'. verlts of, 12,"i. 
Jtlaiintf^r, to; play airli. t<>, U> 
Marcii, to, fi6. 
Maritime leniiB, 45, 48. 
Meal!<; fo<.cl, 39. 
Measiir.', to, 118. 
MensiireH, monevii. weijtiil", 8 
Meet. tn. 184. 
M('t;il>. minerals, 4!'. 

i>«i, ;in. 

Sot, 99. 

Xuineral?', how exjue^^seil, 76-sO. 
Obey, to, 139, 172. 
Ocvupation.s, etc., o-4, •>'>. 
Open, to, 142. 

Order, to , to, LM7-219. 

Overtake, to, i:n. 

Pass, to, 1H2. 

fay for, to, 147. 

Perf-evere, to, 177. 

Personal po.«^-ession, 115. 

Plivsieal acts, 160, IMl. 

IMerce, to, 147. 

Place, how in(licate<l, HS-lol. 

Place, to, l;i(). 

Plant, to, \:M). 

Political divisions, 4S, 4v>. 

I'oor, to he, 200. 

Positions, to l)e in certain. 199. 

Pour out, to, i:J7. 

Practice nieilicine, to, 204. 

Preach, to, 204. 

Pr<»fessions, o.S, r)4. 

Promise, to, 177. 

Pronounce, to, 1S9. 

Proi>er, to ])e, 1.S4, 197. 

Provoke, to, 17r). 

I'nsh, to, LSfi. 

Put, tn, 13fi. 

< Quarrel, to, 1S4. 

liain, to, 1()2. 

Kcacli. to, i:n. 

l:ead, to, 179, 171. 17:1. 

U'eap, t(», 203. 

Ke.i'ivr, to, 120. 

Ke<«'ivin^% verhs of. 120. 

luMdinniend, to, 134. 

Relatives, kin, 31, 1 i:;. \'. 

Kenuiin hehind, t«>, 1:19. 

Me men I her, to, 124. 

Kcmit. to, 13:}. 

Kep(>rt, to, 134. 

Itoails. Iraili^, I'li-., -i:i. 
Rub, to. I:!4. 
RUH, to, las. 
t^ail, tu he. V3», \m. 
Salutations, gtvotiags, 20. 
Scatt*T. to, l.'J?- 
Scatlpriii);, verlw o(, 1S7. 
Sen, -)■<), (plieuomeiia) 45. 
SMirphiriK, verba of, llii. 
See, to, 123. 
fM'i/.e, to, ll-J. 
SHI. lo. W2. (ftt retail) KW 
Send, Icj, 114, V£t. 
Servant, liiriag, iTi. 
Sew, to, 127. 
Sliukiti);, verbs of, 11(1. 
Sliave. tr>, 1()8. 
SliellHsh, kiiKi^, :i^. 

S(irrv. tr. Ih'. 14:.. 
S.HV, |i>, i:!t>. 
S|.eiik. t.i, 134. 
S|«'akiin', verl*, 
S|H>nci, 111, 17tl. 
Sjiin, i„, L1).i. 
Split, t... lis. 

Slacker, t", ln;(. 
StiHid up, til. 157, 
StPiil. Ii., 14,1, !«.■> 
Stir. III. l.S.'>. 

StumLiie, t", 1117. 
Suffer, t... i(v5. 
S(ii,-kie. t. 

(tint; and r 

Tuhlewarc, 28, 2!l 
Talk, til, l.'H. 
Talk to, lo, 1(15. 
Takf. ti., 114, Ki-J 
Takfuiit, lo, Ul). 
Tji.-.k-, to, 1L*'{. 

TeiU'Ii, to, 

, 145- 

Tear, lo. 




Tell, to, 1. 


Tempt. 10 

1 174, 



Tl.irslv. t 



to, 14:i. 

Til row aw 

■ay, t 

0, i:ki. 

Tlirow tlo 

wn, 1 

•A>, VM. 



Toilet, the; (dressing) 2 
Tools, li8t of, 42. 
Touch, to, 123, 124. 
Trails, roads, et<'., 4.*). 
Traiij^late, to, 141. 
Translations, 244-24(). 
Transfer, to, 141 , 
Travel to, 140, 195, 208. 
Traveling, 22. 
Trees, plants, etc., 5:^. 
Trench, to make a, 151. 
Turn back, to, 175. 
Uncover, to, 142. 
Untie, to, 146. 
Use, to, 114. 
Utensils, cooking, 40. 
Utensils, list of, 42. 
Vegetables, kinds, 39, 4 
Verifv, to, 125. 
Wait'for, to, 120. 
Walk, to, im. 
Watch, to, 144. 
Water, 29. 

Water courses, 44, 45. 
Wearing, verbs of, 125. 
Weatlicr, conditions oli, 
Wcci>, to, 139. 
Weigh, to, 119. 
Weight^<, measures, mo 
Win, to, 176. 
Wish, to, 169, (not to m 
AVords, miscellaneous, : 
Wound, to, 151. 
Write, to, 171, 172. 
Writing materials, 43, -J 
Yes, 99. 

Ahn/, i:;i. 

Ah if, 16S. 

Aln,,h, ILM. 

Atn/(ii/a^ 120. 

Ani','^ 1()2. 

Asi'ii, 147. 

A '!('(, 145. 

AiKllJ, \{\{\. 

A;iaif, 175. 

Jidfu'i ( indl'fthii ), 5s. 

Baro, 125. 

Biuiiit, 121. 

Bin'i, 1S5. 

B"/nrj, 200. 

JiUti [mdhiid), 5S. 

V (onlv retidncd in \v<r 

fhtan, 1.S3. 

Dnfini) ( iiurral(<ni), 95. 

Jhihl 114, 116. 

D'fini {indnim'' ), 5S. 

Dum'd, 144. 

Iht'ia [magdaraiid), 69. 

D'lwjiih 123, 146.