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*' Die Sprmchlehre lehrt nicht eigentlioh, wie man jpree&^fi mCL, soiulem nmv 

wie man iprieht Die Spracblehre ist nur eine Phymologie der Sprache; aie 

kann nar in so fern lehren, "wie man sprechen §oU, als ine in nns die innem 
Bildnngigeeeize der Spracke mm Bewaasteein bringt> nnd nna dadnrch in 
Stand Betzt, zu beurtheilen, ob die SpreohweiBe im Einzelnen dieeen Qesetzen 
gem&sB Bei» oder nicht." — Bsckbb*s Organum der Spracke, page 9. 





* « 


• • • 











wi w 5¥ tW JUL 








'* Study things profoundly, and investigate the precise meaning of what you 
learn, and then you will acquire the means of forming a comprehensive system 
of principles." — Free tnMdaUon of the extras from the workt of Mano-tbz, 
which is printed on the titU-pttge. 



It has been deemed advisable to publish^ in their present form. 
Parts I and II of the Handbook of the Chinese LangtAoge, in order 
to meet the demand which now exists for the work. They are 
complete in themselves, but when Parts III and IV — the Exer- 
cises and Dictionary — are finished, (which, it is hoped, may be 
done in a few months,) the whole will form a perfect apparatus 
for the student of Chinese to commence with in this country. 




± HE intention of the author in preparing this work for the press was to 
make a text-book for students of the Chinese language who attend his 
lectures at King's College, London, and to assist others who might commence 
the study of the language in this country, as well as to aid those who enter 
for the first time upon this study in China itself. 

In order to show the need of some such book, it will be necessary &irly to 
pass in review the various works which are within reach of, or which may be 
supposed to exist for the student, — to point out candidly what appear to be 
their defects, and also to note their real value as aids to the study of Chinese. 

The investigation of Chinese in this country, and even in Europe generally, 
is but of recent date. The vague expressions collected from the works of the 
Jesuits on the subject, though correct for the most part in themselves, needed 
a Jesuit to explain them and to guard the wayward fancy firom misinterpret- 
ing them. The best rules and the deepest truths are often misunderstood 
because there is no teacher at hand to purge the idola from the mind and 
clear it of its earlier prejudices. The colouring of every thing that concerns 
the Chinese has been heightened by the romantic accounts of this nation 
given by the early historians of the East, and the imagination has supplied 
much that was not found in the reality. 

The first work of a systematic character on the Chinese language was 
written by a Dominican, Fdre Varo, and printed from wooden blocks in 
Canton in 1703*. 

Theoph. Sigefr. Bayer wrote a work in Latin, which was published in 
St Petersburg in 1730 1. He was however not in a position to render much 
service to the subject which he attempted to explain. The work is made up 

* The title ran thus : — ''Arte de la lengna mandarma, oompuesto por el M. R<>. P*. 
FiBDcisoo Varo, de la sagrada orden de N. P. S. Domingo, acrecentado y reducido a 
mejor forma, por N". H<>. Fr. Pedro de la Pinuela, p."' y oommiasario prov. de la Miasion 
serafica de China; Anadio se un Confesionario may ntil y provechoso para alivio de los 
nnevoe ministros. Impreso en Canton, ano de 1703." It conBisted of 64 double leavee, 
So., printed in the Chinese manner. The work is veiy rare, but a copy is to be found 
among the Sloane MSS. of the British Museum. 

t Museum Sinicum, in quo Sinicse linguae et litteratune ratio explicatur. Petropol. 
1 730. 2 vols, in 80. 


of various matter collected from the works of the Jesuits, which are com- 
meuted on in a very vague and unsatisfactory manner. M. Abel-jRemuscU 
writing, in the prefisu^e to his Grammaire, on this book says : ** The greater 
part of this Qranmiar is taken up with details on the writing, the dictionaries, 
and the poetry; about fifty pages present nothing but the most ordinary 
notions on the mechanism of the language, and almost without any examples. 
The original characters are printed upon copper plates, to which the reader 
is referred. They are moreover so badly executed, that only those experienced 
in the subject can recognise them.'* 

The next writer of note on Chinese was Fourmont *, who was quite incom- 
petent for the task which he tmdertook ; but in those times he was able to 
palm upon his countrymen many incorrect and absurd views of his own, 
while the little good and true information, which his books contain, was 
the production of other minds. The student may spare himself the trouble 
of examining them, as they are only calculated to mislead him. Several 
other works, unworthy of consideration, were published in various parts 
of Europe; but no book on the subject of Chinese was produced which 
can be recommended as worth perusal before the lean^ed and able treatise 
of Dr. Marshman. His knowledge of the Sanskrit and the classical lan- 
guages of antiquity, coupled with a practical acquaintance with Chinese, 
through his private studies with native teachers, enabled him to arrive at 
correct views on the genius and composition of the Chinese language. The 
Clams Sinicaf of Dr. Marshman is still worthy of a careful perusal by the 
earnest student, although, as a whole, it falls short of the requirements of 
the present day. 

Dr. Morrison's Chinese Grammar issued the next year (1815) from the 
same press at Serampore. This work contains some valuable matter, but 
from the haste with which it appears to have been prepared for publication, 
and from the fact of its having been published at so early a period after 
Dr. Morrison's entrance upon the study, the student must not expect to 
derive much positively practical advantage from its perusal. 

The first work that appeared in some measure to correspond to the wants 
of the student was the very clear and scientific grammar of M. Abel-B^musat $, 
the first Professor of the Language and Literature of China in the Boyal 

* Meditationes Sinicie, 1737, in foL, and Linguae Sinamm ^landarinicee hieroglyphicn 
Grammatica duplex, 1 742, in fol. 

i* The Glavis Sinica was published at Serampore in India in 1 814. Dr. Marshman had 
had the opportunity of reading with several native Chinese scholars while in Lidia, he 
availed himself of the aid of M. Bodrigues, a Jesuit from Peking, and he was assisted by 
Mr. Thomas Manning, who had also resided in China. 

X tl6meua de la grammaire chinoise, ou principes g^n^raux du Kou-wen ou style 
antique, et du Kouan-hoa, c'est-k-dire, de la langue commune g^n^ralement usit^e dans 
TEmpire chinois. Par M. Abel-R^musat, de TAcad^mie royale des Inscriptions et Belles- 
Lettres, Professeur de Langue et de Litt^rature chinoises et tartares au College royal de 
France. Paris, 1822, in 80. A new edition was recently printed in Paris, edited by 
M. L^on de Rosny, with a supplement. 


College of France. The author had read the valuable examples given in the 
MS. of Pr^mare's NotUia Linguce Sinicm, and had carefully consulted the 
original works referred to by that writer. M. R^musat analysed these exam- 
pleSy and produced a work drawn out upon scientific principles, which keep in 
view the genius and peculiarities of the Chinese language. 

The work of Pr^mare, mentioned above, remained for many years in 
manuscript in the Imperial Library of Paris. The author resided in China 
firom 1698 until his death, about the year 1735. His plan was to teach 
by examples, and instead of giving rules, he gave the material from which 
rules might be formed. He recommended imitation and the practice of 
committing passages to memory. It will be seen therefore that although 
his work is an immense storehouse, it leaves the learner very much to 
himself in arriving at conclusions respecting the nature and genius of the 
language. It is not to be expected that every young man, who takes up 
such a work as this of Pr^mare's, can form a judgment of much grammatical 
significance from the examples before him. It is the duty of the grammarian 
to form the rules and to prove his propositions by examples. The value 
therefore of the work of Pr^mare is limited to afibrding a number of examples 
from which the advanced student may acquire a good deal of information on 
the style of the novels, and of a few other books from which they were drawn. 
The versions given of some of the examples are incorrect, but as a general 
rule they are sufiiciently true to the original to be of service in acquiring the 
idiom of the language *. 

In the year in which Dr. Morrison's Grammar was printed at Serampore, 
the first portion of his Dictionary was published at Macao, having been printed 
at the sole expense of the East India Company. This great work in six 
quarto volumes, the last of which was not published until 1821, contains so 
much that is interesting and profitable to the student of Chinese that it is 
indispensably necessary to all who wish to collect information that may 
be depended upon. But with all praise of Dr. Morrison*s ability and indefiei- 
tigable labour, we cannot conceal the fact that his Dictionary is very imperfect, 
and often fails to render that assistance to the student which he requires. 
The enormous labour, almost without any help, which it involved, renders it a 
matter of surprise that so much was done and so well ; and it behoves the 
author of the present small work to speak with diffidence on the subject of its 
demerits. Another work was written about the same time by Dr. Morrison, 
entitled : Dialogues cmd detached sentences in the Chinese Icmgtiage, with a free 
and verbal translcUion in English. This was a great help at the time it was 
published ; but since China has been more largely opened to Europeans, and 
the faciHties for learning the language are become greater, some parts of this 
work are found to savour of the Canton provincial phraseology. It is however 

* NotUia Lingua Sinica, auctore P. Premare, Malaocae cura academisB Anglo-Sinensia. 
H.XKXXJ.XXXI. It was printed in 40., at the expense of a BiitiBh nobleman. A version 
of the Latin was made by the Rev. J. G. Bridgman, and was printed in 8®. at Canton in 
1847. Copies of this work are now very scarce. 

viii PREFACE. 

likely to prove verj UBefiil to those who can obtain it^ but it is now difficult 
to be procured, as copies of it are scarce. 

A useful little book appeared in 1823, compiled by Sir J(^ F. Davis, 
Bart, F. R S., &c., entitled Hien town akoo. — Chinese moreU maxims, with a 
free tmd verbal translation, affording examples of the fframmaUcal structure 
o/the language. These marims are likely to be useful to those students who 
will commit them to memory ; and, as the literal rendering of each word is 
given, as well as the free translation, it will be found useful to beginners. 

The next writer who made an inmiense addition to the aids for learning 
Chinese was Pdre J. A. Gon^alves, a missionary at Macao. His Arte China, 
which was published in 1829, is the most complete work on the Chinese lan- 
guage which we possess. He spent great labour on an analysis of the characters, 
the result of which was what he called an "Alphabeto China;""* but from its 
being explained in the Portuguese lang^uage, comparatively few study it. 
Every student of Chinese ought, however, to possess this work, on account of 
the valuable store of good phrases which it contains. After the alphabet he 
has ranged a collection of phrases and sentences, both in the colloquial idiom 
{kwaai-hwd), and in the style of the books (ibe^Ho^), graduated in difficulty to 
suit the beginner; then follows a graaamafir, in which he occasionally tortures 
the Chinese to adapt it to some peculiarity in the grammar of his own lan- 
guage. There is also a very good collection of sentences in the form of 
dialogues. The allusions made to facts in history, the great names, the 
epistolary style, extracts from prose and poetry, and the principles of elegant 
composition iyy^n-ehAng), all enter into this fund for the Chinese student. 
Unfortunately very meagre explanations are given; while the sotmds of the 
characters, except in the o^^Ao^e^, are omitted, and the translations appear 
in some cases to be not the most happy. For study with a native instructor 
the book is invaluable; but without such assistance it must fiftil to aid the 
beginner. P^ Qon^alves also prepared several other great works, dictionaries, 
in Portuguese and Latin, all of which are worthy of consideration. 

Two works by Mr. Bobert Thom, H. B. Majesty's Consul at Ningpo, also 
deserve mention here, as calculated to assist the student in his initiatory 
studies; Mso^s Fables in Chinese, with interlinear translation in the Canton 
and Mandarin dialects ; and the Chinese Speaker, or exiracts/rom works written 
in the Mandarin cUalect as spoken at Peking. The author however had not 
much opportunity of hearing the Peking dialect spoken, and being under the 
necessity of following the work from which he translated, which was a book 
used to teach the Mandarin dialect in the provinces, he fell into some errors 
of pronunciation; and what is to be regretted still more, he entirely db- 
regarded the ^' tones," and neglected to insert any mark by which to guide 
the student in learning them. 

The works of Dr. Medhurst call for some notice at this point. We can only 
speak of them in a general manner, as it would occupy too large a space to 
criticise them with any degree of minuteness. The most useful and import- 
ant work of Dr. Medhurst's on the Chinese language is his Chinese-English 


Dictionary, published in Batavia in 1843, 2 vols. S®. The whole was litho- 
graphed, and therefore is so far inferior to Dr. Morrison's Dictionary, but in 
other respects it is far superior and more complete than Dr. Morrison^s first 
part, to which it corresponds in arrangement. Dr. Medhurst next edited 
''Notices of Chinese Qranmiar" by Philosinensis (Dr. Giitzlaff). This work 
was prepared in haste, and consequently neither the author nor the editor did 
justice to his abilities and acquirements. Dr. Medhurst afterwards published 
a book of Dialogues, which are good, and an English-Chinese Dictionary, as 
weU as a Dictionary of Chinese in the Hok-kien dialect. All his works are 
useful He was a Chinese scholar of very extensive reading and indefiatigable 
in labour. 

M. Gallery's Dictionary, entitled, SysUma Phtyneiicum Scriptwrce Sinicce, 
published in 1842, was on a new plan, which is worthy of the student's atten- 
tion (c£ Arts. 50 and 51 of this Grammar) ; but the meanings given of each 
character are few, and the absence of words which are formed with the cha- 
racters diminishes the usefulness of the book. We have found however that 
the meanings are very correct, and we should recommend the student to pro- 
cure a copy, if possible. Mr. Williams, the editor of the Chinese Repository, 
now connected with the United States Mission to China, has produced several 
very practical works for the beginner, from among which the Vocahulary 
(English-Chinese) in the Mandarin dialect, and his recently published Dic- 
Honary in the Canton dialect, may be recommended. His Ecisy Lessons in 
Chinese are universally spoken of with praise; they are however in the 
Canton dialect; but much that is common to the Mandarin dialect is also 
to be found in the book. 

The sinologues of France and Germany claim some notice at this period. 
Professor Julien of Paris, whose learning in Chinese is unquestioned, his accu- 
rate knowledge of the language having been proved by his excellent translation 
of Mencius in 1824, stands first among them. But unfortunately he has not 
published any grammar or dictionary of the language, tasks for which he 
must be eminently qualified. His writings consist chiefly of translations and 
critiques, and we consider his views of such weight that we recommend the 
student of Chinese to procure any of his works which he can meet with, 
especially his critical translation of the works of Mencius into Latin. Pro- 
fessor Bazin also deserves well of all students of Chinese for his various 
papers on Chinese literature, and for his Grammaire Mcmdcmne, which is a 
good work on the subject, and may be read with profit, notwithstanding some 
blemishes, owing probably to the author's not having studied the language 
in China. 

Among the Germans, Dr. Stephen Endlicher of Vienna has written a very 
perspicuous work on Chinese Grammar, as far as the language of the books 
is concerned. 

Dr. Julius Klaproth was engaged upon Chinese many years, and his criti'^ 
cisms are generally marked by shrewd discernment and accurate distinction, 
but he did not write either a grammar or a dictionary, although he added a 



Supplement of great value to the Dictionary of De Quignes. This latter, which 
we omitted to mention above, may well be noticed here. It was published 
by order of the Emperor Napoleon I. in huge folio. The basis of it was the 
Manuscript Dictionary of P^re Bazil de Glemone. The editor added very little 
to the original MS. excepting probably the French renderings, which are 
given as well as the Latin. The meanings are singularly correct ; they had 
been made from the native Chinese Dictionary of K*ang-hi, The deficiency 
however among the words which occur as compounds under each character, 
and the unwieldy size of the book, render it, even with the Supplement of 
Elaproth, inferior to the Dictionaries of Morrison, Medhurst, and Williams* 

In 1857 A Chineaische Sprachlehre by Dr. Schott was published in Berlin. 
This work is in our opinion superior to all others in its simple system of 
grammatical analysis for the Chinese language, and although it does not 
extend to the spoken language — the Mandarin dialect — at all, what is said 
therein respecting the book-style or learned language of C^ina, and the 
analysis of the same^ is well worthy of the most careful study. Dr. Schott*s 
Sketch of the Literature of China is another great acquisition to the aids 
in the study of Chinese. We recommend both of these to the student's 

In the same year in which Dr. Schott's Qrammar appeared in Germany, the 
Eev. Joseph Edkins, 6. A., of Shanghai, published a Grammar of the Mandarin 
Dialect. He had previously given to the public a Grammar of the Dialect of 
Shanghai, in which much accurate knowledge of the language was displayed ; 
and in his next work on the Mandarin he eclipsed all his predecessors in 
exhibiting not the mere language of the novels, which had sufficed for Pr6mare, 
Giitzlaff, and others, but the language which he had obtained vivd voce from 
the natives, and by a comparison with many native scholars. We cannot 
agree with him in every thing he says respecting the tones or with his mode 
of spelling Chinese syllables in every instance, but we are bound to give un- 
qualified praise to a work which shows so much laborious research, and which 
has made such an advance in the mode of treating the subject. Every stu- 
dent should possess himself of a copy as soon as he arrives in China. 

Another work which it behoves us to mention is by the present Chinese 
Secretary, Thomas Francis Wade, Esq., C. B. It is entitled. The Hwn-tnng-luy 
or Book of EoaperimefnJts^ being thefirU of a series qf Contributions to the Stvdy 
of Chinese. It was published at Hongkong in 1859. It is devoted to the 
dialect of Peking, the species of Mandarin which is affected by the court and 
the officials of the empire; but not employed throughout the provinces as 
Mandaiin, excepting by the high officials who come direct from the northern 
capital. This work of Mr. Wade's is very limited in its scope, for the 362 
sentences given in the first part are confined to the single subject of " hieaven" 
and the phenomena of the skies. The second part contains a passage from 
the Paraphrase of the Sacred Edict; and the third, some good sentences 
explanatory of the tones of the Peking dialect. The notes which the work 
contains are calculated to prove useful, and there is no question about its 


being dihond-fiA work on Pekinese. It is to be regretted that greater care 
was not bestowed on revision, and that the subject of the first part was not 
made more extensive in its range, so as to have answered more immediately 
to the wants of the stadent-interpreters, for whose benefit the work was 
composed. With the enormous labour which has devolved upon Mr. Wade 
•8 Chief Interpreter and Secretary, coupled with his own close habits of study, 
we may well wonder that he found time to bring any work of this kind to a 
completion; and we hail the '^ Contributions" as being likely to serve a very 
good purpose, and as the earnest of much more as soon as leisure afibrds the 
opportunity for its preparation. 

The last work which we must notice is by Dr. James Legge, of the London 
Missionary Society. This bids fidr to supersede all its predecessors in the 
field of Chinese classics. The work is entitled, The Chinese Classics: with 
a trandatUm, crUieal cmd exegeHccU notes, prolegomenaj cmd copious indexes : 
roy. 8vo. Hongkong, i86z. The whole work will consist of seven volumes, 
one of which has recently appeared; and the remaining six volumes are 
expected to be ready for publication during the course of the next five years. 
The enormous labour which must be expended upon a critical translation and 
explanation of the classical books of the Chinese, executed in the style which 
this first volume indicates, could hardly have been undertaken by a scholar 
more likely to succeed in the task than Dr. Legge. The Prolegomena con- 
tains digested information, on the lives and opinions of Confucius and his dis- 
ciples, never before presented to European readers. Dr. Legge has drawn 
largely upon native sources, and the facts which he has collected, and his own 
remarks upon them, cannot fiiil to be interesting and instructive to students 
of Chinese in common with many others. The native text is in bold clear 
type, and is accompanied by a translation 'and critical notes on each page. 
The indexes will be found most valuable to the student ; they form at once a 
eonoordance and dictionary to the volume; and the book as a whole will 
render a great service to Chinese scholai*s generally. We earnestly hope that 
Dr. Legge's health may not sufier from his close application in the climate of 

After reading this list of the principal works on the subject of Chinese, the 
reader may ask what need there was of another. Our answer to this is, that 
no one of these books meets the wants of the beginner ; they do undoubtedly 
en masse give almost all that is needed, certainly more than the author of the 
present work could on his sole responsibility lay before the student, but each 
individually cannot answer all the common questions which suggest themselves 
to the mind of the student on entering upon the study of Chinese. Among 
the questions which we may suppose to arise are, ''As the Chinese have no 
letters, how shall I write down the sounds of their words 1 How do they re- 
present words in writing] How do they pronounce 1 How do they distinguiRh 
one syllable from another of the same sound? What is their mode of writing? 
How are their words constructed? Where shall I obtain copies for writing? 
— *text to read, — explanation to this text?" The reply mip;ht be: "You 

b 2 


must purchase the works of Morrison or Schott or Williams for one thing, you 
must buy those of Edkins and Wade for another, you must send to China for 
text, and buy a Dictionary which will cost you from four to ten guineas for 
explanations, and then you will find you want a native teacher or a European 
proficient in the language to help you." 

In the work which the author now ventures to present to the public, he 
thinks a sufficient answer to the above questions will be found, as well as all 
the aids which a heginiier needs in this most difficult study. He has availed 
himself of all the help which he felt he needed from the above authors, and he 
freely acknowledges the great assistance which the works of Drs. Morrison 
and Williams have affi>rded him for lexicography, and the works of Pr6mare, 
Gon^alves, Giitzlaff, Schott, Edkins, and Wade, for grammar and examples 
to grammatical rules. 

For translations of some of the passages in the Chrestomathy he is under 
obligation for help derived from the works of Dr. Medhurst, 8ir John Davis, 
Bart., F. R. S., P^re Gonial ves, and Professor Bazin. 

Having noticed the various works on the subject of Chinese grammar and 
lexicography, and having pointed out the need which exists for a book adapted 
to the wants of the beginner, it remains for the author of the present work to 
explain the plan of it, and to show wherein it is likely to fulfil the purpose 
for which it was prepared. In a work which professes to initiate the student 
in the rudiments of a language, three things are generally looked for; 
I. Some account of the letters employed to represent its sounds, with the 
character and quality of those sounds; 2. An explanation of its forms of 
words, and, if possible, a complete classification of these words as parts of 
speech ; 3. An exposition of its arrangement of words in sentences, showing 
how words and clauses are dependent upon each other, either on account of 
their relative positions, or the peculiar inflexions of the words themselves. 

These considerations naturally lead to the formation of three divisions in 
the grammar of the Cliinese tongue. And in order to adapt it to this arrange- 
ment, we have to consider, in the first place, the best mode of representing 
its sounds and syllables. But as the Chinese language possesses no alphabet, 
we are compelled to employ that with which we are best acquainted, viz. the 
Roman. And then we have to consider what value each Roman letter shall 
possess in a system for spelling Chinese words. Shall the uncertain value of 
English letters be taken f or shall we assume for each letter, which we employ, 
a value which shall remain constant and uniform, as is the case in some of the 
languages on the continent of Europe ? We have preferred the latter course, 
and have followed in the footsteps of Sir William Jones, Dr. Lepsius, and 
many other Orientalists. As we have to invent an alphabet to represent 
Chinese sounds, we deem it best to avoid the eccentricities of the English 
mode of spelling, and we have chosen the regular orthography of the German 
and the Italian in preference. It may be observed that the system of ortho- 
graphy adopted presents scarcely any deviation from that now acknowledged 
to be the best suited for writing down the sounds of strange tongues. 


beii^ most in accordance with the fundamental laws of speech. A glance at 
the tables given on pages 3 and 5 will suffice to show the extreme simplicity 
of Chinese syllables, as regards their formation, and the ease with which the 
mere syllable may be read. The value of each letter has been explained very 
fiilly by examples in English, French, and German, so that no mistake need 
arise on that score. 

A more difficult subject, however, presented itself in the elucidation of the 
Chinese '' tonea." The explanation which the author has given of them will, 
he thinks, assist the student. They were the subject of his careful study 
while in China, and he has more than once proved his views respecting them 
to be correct. That th^re are slight variations in these Chinese tones there 
is no denying. But the mode of illustrating them by the accentuation or 
emphasis given to English words under certain circumstances will enable the 
foreign student to acquire the first elementary power to enunciate them; and 
with such an attainment, although rude and in a measure unpolished, he will 
have made progress in the right direction. His object should be to pro- 
nounce the tones with the full forpe and modulation at first, and to rely on 
future practice with the natives for making the unevenness and crudeness of 
his pronunciation to disappear. It must be remembered that a large majority 
of those who study to speak foreign languages never speak them exactly as 
the natives do; that refinement in the pronunciation which a native would 
admire is rarely attained by a foreigner, and even when it is mastered, it is 
only after a considerable degree of practice. 

In the next place, the formation of words, or, as it is frequently called, 
" Word-building," claims our attention. If there exists in Chinese any pro- 
cess for the formation of words, by which a classification of them may take 
place, it must be for the interest of the student to know what it is. And this 
process, which does exist, we have endeavoured to indicate, and we leave it to 
the student himself to develope the principles which have been laid down on 
the formation of nouns and verbs. This part of Chinese grammar is vast in 
extent, and many years of discriminating study will be required to exhaust it. 
We are now but upon the threshold of the subject. Some earnest workers in 
this mine of the East will enter into it very much further, and will, we hope, 
complete the work. 

And thirdly, the Sentence in Chinese has been analysed with a view to a 
comparison of its parts, and to show the effect which certain forms of the sen- 
tence have upon the meaning and grammatical value of the words in it. 

But without native text the student would find the abstract rules of gram- 
mar excessively dry and uninteresting. This want has been supplied, in some 
measure, by about forty pages of extracts from Chinese authors, explained at 
length, with translations and notes. To these we have added a third part, 
consisting of exercises, by which the student may acquire a practical acquaint- 
ance with Chinese prose composition, and an ability to speak the language 
with correctness. The fourth part of the Handbook consists of a dictionary 
of all the characters in general use, and it is hoped that this portion may prove 


very useful to the beginner, and that the whole maj answer the purpose for 
which it was intended. 

One of the great difficulties which beset a beginner in a language like the 
Chinese is the enormous number of words and phrases which present them- 
selves, without his being able to distinguish those best suited for th^ early 
stages of his course from the less common expressions which are used in 
books only. And no simple tales and stories exist in Chinese, as in European 
languages, to supply him with a stock of useful words. The examples taken 
firom books are seldom the expressions employed in common parlance; and 
unless the student is in a position to avail himself of native help and proper 
advice, he may labour for a long time without much profit. The object, 
therefore, in this work has been to bring together chiefly such expressions as 
are of firequent occurrence in every day life. Some terms which will be met 
with in the Dictionary will readily be distinguished by the significations given, 
as belonging to the higher classes of literature. It would be useless and 
absurd in a writer of an English grammar for foreigners to collect words firom 
Chaucer and Spenser, or even firom Shakespeare, in order to teach them the 
English language of the nineteenth century. To avoid such a mistake with 
respect to Chinese, we have selected the most common words, and have 
endeavoured to clear the path of the beginner, and to give a more simple 
exposition of the Chinese language than has hitherto appeared. 

In the absence of a teacher, a few hints on the use of this work and on the 
method of study which it will be advisable to adopt will perhaps be acceptable 
to the beginner. His first object should be to master the system of orthography 
which is given in this work, and exercise himself in it, by reading aloud the 
list of syllables on page 5, or a page of the native text in Roman letter. 
Then the instructions relating to intonation should be thoroughly tmderstood 
and applied practically by reading again a page of the Chrestomathy. He 
should then commit to memory the words given to exemplify the tones 
(pp. 9 — II, without the characters); and commence learning to read and 
write the elementary characters (pp. 19 — 28). And in learning Chinese cha- 
racters, the student should on no account attempt too many at once. The 
first fifty radicals may be speedily acquired, but afterwards he will find that 
ten characters a day, thoroughly learnt, will test his powers ; and at this rate, 
if it can be sustained, he will know three thousand characters at the end of a 
year; and if these include two thousand of those in common use, he will have 
made most satisfactory progress. In his choice of characters the Grammar 
will supply him first, and then the Chrestomathy. It is, moreover, desirable 
that couples and triples of characters, which form phrases, should be sought 
for and committed to memory, so as to store the mind with good expressions, 
either for positive use, or that they may be readily recognised when uttered 
by native Chinese. But while pursuing this mere plodding study by memory, 
he must not neglect to read passages in the Chrestomathy (Part II), and make 
sentences upon the model of those given in the Exercises (Part III). And 
in the Chrestomathy some passages will be found better adapts than others 


for this purpose: we should recommend him to begin by learning to read 
the syllables which stand for the characters in pages 8 — t2 of the native 
text (ffaHrkHH chuen) ; and pages 27 — 30 {Ma/ndarin Phraaea). The sylla- 
bles will be found in the Chrestomathy. The Mandarin Phrases should be 
committed to memory as soon as they are understood, and daily practice in 
copying the characters with the Chinese pencil should be persevered in. 

Four hours a day ought to be the rriinimv/m, of time given to the study 
during the first year ; but this is only general advice, the time allotted to 
the subject and the method of study must depend on the ability and power of 
application in each individual ; — 

Sumite materia/in vestris, qui discitis, ceqivam 
Virifms, et verscUe diu, quidferre recusent^ 
Quid valecmt humeri. 

Some apology is necessary for the occasional defectiveness of the Chinese 
type used in this work ; although as a whole, and when the characters are in 
a perfect state, they are in very good proportion, and in some cases beautiful, 
a few are deficient in regularity of form. But thirty-four pages of the Chres- 
tomathy^ which were printed in Hongkong with the new type, will supply to 
the diligent student any deficiency which may be noticed in the Grammar. 

In conclusion, the author, in common with all the iriends of Anglo-Chinese 
literature, has to thank the Delegates of the Oxford University Press for their 
hberality in undertaking so expensive a work upon the ground of its utility 
alone ; and the author has only to regret the errors which may have crept in 
to mar the work, and render it a less worthy object of such distinguished 
patronage. Unlike many works of this kind, it has had but one fostering 
hand; and the author has none to thank for friendly counsel or assistance. 
It will therefore, he trusts, be accepted with a generous criticism as the first 
work on the subject ever published in this country, and as having been pre- 
pared under very many disadvantages. 

Kino's. College, London, Jan. lU(i3. 


J. HE language which we call Chinese is to the languages of eastern Asia 
what Sanskrit is to the Indian and to the Indo-^ermanic stock of languages, 
or what Arahic is to some of the other eastern tongues; that is to say, 
Chinese is the parent, in some sense or degree, of Japanese, Corean, Cochin- 
Chinese, and Annamese, as well as of all the numerous dialects of China 
Proper. It is a sort of universal medium of communication throughout the vast 
territories of the emperor of China, which include Manchuria, Mongolia, Tibet, 
and other countries, which are together equal in extent to the whole of Europe. 
The use of Chinese in some of these countries 4s indeed confined to official com- 
munications, but by about 300,000,000 of the Chinese race it is spoken, and 
among these it forms the only colloquial medium of intercourse. In Japan, 
Annam, and some other regions, the written characters of China, and fre- 
quently the original words, have been so much changed by the literati, that 
they cannot be readily distinguished from the native characters and words *. 
In Japan, for example, the Chinese word t'ien, ^ heaven,* is changed to ten; the 
nasal Tig, at the end of some Chinese words, being always omitted, the syllable 
^ang would become Item or lau. Sometimes the Chinese character will repre- 
sent a mere syllable, at other times it is allowed to represent an idea, and to 
go under a Japanese name of perhaps two or three syllables, e. g. the Chinese 
character kia or ka tfU, changed to z^ , is the common letter for the syllable ka, 
and scarcely ever carries with it the signification which the Chinese character 

bears (i.a 'to add'); but the character cfCdng -^, Mong,' is allowed to stand 

for the same idea in Japanese, its name however being changed to na^ga. In 
Annamese the Chinese characters are more frequently taken for syllables 
alone, and they have undergone a variety of changes to adapt them for use 
in that language. 

But notwithstanding these peculiar changes and modes of usage with 
respect to the Chinese language among the neighbouring nations, it stands 

* Numeroua exunples of similar changes both in the characters and the words em- 
ployed in European languages might be given. Let the following suffice. The Slavonic 
*^ f If (^ English) from the Hebrew ihifi XO ; the letter D altered from the daleih *7 
and ddta A. The F from the digamma f, ftc. ko. Swedish iomnar, 'to sleep/ from 
the Lat. §ominire, i. e. a Teutonic termination is appended to a Latin root. The verbs 
sUtrc, ttand, steKen, from 0t6m. 



pre-eminent as a classical language to them, and it occupies the same position 
as Latin and Greek do among Europeans. The philosophers, historians, and 
poets of China are read and studied diligently by the Japanese ; their works 
are annotated and explained by writers of that country, and every child of 
respectable parentage begins the study of Chinese as soon as he goes to 
school, and carries it on simultaneously with the study of his native tongue. 
The works of Confucius and Mencius have exerted a mighty influence over 
the minds of all these eastern tribes. Confucius was to China and her tri- 
butaries what Aristotle has been to Europe. Would that his doctrines had been 
more energising and more fructifying ! But we may attribute the comparative 
failure of Confucianism not to its author, but to the recipients of his instruc- 
tion. Probably Confucius would have been an Aristotle had he lived in the 
west, and Aristotle a Confucius in the east. The iroXirun; and rfBucq of the one 
find their counterpart in the other, and while the Greek republics with their 
social and moral science have passed away, the Chinese empire still remains, 
a monument of political coherency and wisdom, in some respects at least, with 
the quality of marvellous endurance and steadfastness. 

The antiquity of the Chinese language and written character invests them with 
peculiar interest, for in them may be discovered facts connected with the social 
and political history of a nation* which flourished two thousand years before 
our era. It is remarkable too, that Chinese has suffered little change through 
this great period of time, compared with the mutations which have taken 
place in other languages. While the pronunciation of its written symbols has 
varied, and ever will vary in consequence of its want of an alphabetic system 
to represent the syllables which are uttered, the written characters have been 
altered scarcely at all during a period of two thousand years. Commencing 
with the rude pictures of objects within the sphere of life in those early 
times, as the Chinese mind developed, and the forms of government and 
society became fixed, the symbols to express authority and the various rela- 
tionships of life were invented to correspond to the wants of public and pri- 
vate intercourse *. 

*■ Writing, which may be defined to be a representation of hwguage and an exhibition 
of it to the eye, Ib divided into two kinds: — i. Notum-toriting, which is independent of 
any given language, and conveys its meaning to the understanding immediately through 
the eye ;— a. Sovmd-vyntvng^ which exhibits the sounds of a particular language, the 
imderstanding of which depends upon a knowledge of that language. 

Notion-writing t again, is divided into two kinds, viz. Picture-writing and Figure-^wriHng. 
The former, which is the most natural and probably the most ancient, consists in this, that 
the figure which is pictured to the eye represents the thing delineated, and by this figure 
are also symbolized the other notions, which admit of no immediate representation, such as 
the tropical and symbolical meanings of the object. The mere representation of the visible 
thing is called Curiological writing (from g^piot, propriut), and to this belong most of the 
hieroglyphics (v. CJiampollion, Gram. Egyptienne. Paris, 1836. Fol. I. p. 3). Such a kind 
of writing the Chinese had originally (v. Kopp, Bilder und Sohriften II. 66. Ahel-Eimutat, 
Gram. Chin. §§. 2. 4, 5), as had also the Mexicans. The same kind of writing however 
has another element, — the symbolic meaning, which rests upon a comparison of the real 
and possible representations with the intellectual and the abstract ; and the thousandfold 


These aymbols are partly hieroglyphic and partly ideographic, that is, 
representatioDS of objects or marks of notions. The hieroglyphs from which 
the forty thousand characters have been derived were originally signs of con- 
crete notions; symbols for abstract terms and general notions were subse- 
quently formed, as the Chinese mind developed and literature increased. The 
combinations, which can be effected by means of the four or five hundred 
elementary forms, give the Chinese language, as far as its written character 
is concerned, a power of expression unknown in other languages. And the 
simple and logical character of its formation renders it a far more efficient 
medium for the communication of ideas, and as an instrument of thought, 
than the languages of Europe. 

The Chinese has a double advantage ; it presents to the eye of the initiated 
the pictures of things, the general term derived from them, or the common 
notion deduced from a combination of elementary figures. It addresses to 
the ear, by the simple form of its constructions, the most complex notions 
and the most general expressions, without disturbing the necessary unity, 
which should always exist in the sentence ; while it conveys in a few words, 
compactly arranged, the full idea with emphasis and logical precision. There 
is the language of the books and the language of conversation. These differ .^ 
from each other, for, in writing, a few monosyllabic characters are made to « 
express much, while, in speaking, many syllables are required; but they are 
the same in their principles of construction, — the same simplicity and logical 
order run through both. 

oombinatioiis which are possible in this kind of writing approach the ridiculous. Accord- 
ing to Diodor. (ill. 4), the hawk among the Egyptians signified 'swiftness;' the crocodile, 
'evil;' ^iei, 'impudence;' the eye, 'a watchman;' an otUttretehed hand, 'liberality;' a 
doted hand, 'greediness and avarice ;' but most of the other tropical meanings of hiero- 
glyphics rest upon more remote comparisons : e. g. the bee for ' the king ;' sparroto-hatek 
for 'sublimity;' eifc o/the iparrow-hawk for 'vision' and 'contemplation;' the vulture, on 
aocGont of its maternal love, for 'mother.' Indeed in many of those which are called senig- 
matical hieroglyphs, the reason for the combination is sometimes doubtful and sometimes 
wholly unknown ; as when the OffmA feather stands for 'justice/ because all the feathers 
of the wing of the ostrich are of equal size; or the palm branch for 'the year/ because 
the palm tree brings forth every year regularly twelve branches. Among the Chinese, two 
men, onefcilomng the other, stands for the verb 'to follow;* the sun and moon for 'light ;' 
a man on a mouniain for a 'hermit ;* a tooman, a hand, and a broom, for a 'matron.' 

The other kind of Notion-writing, — Figure-writing, — expresses the notion by means 
of figures taken arbitrarily, which have no similarity to the thing intended. A rode 
example of this kind were the gay-coloured threads (quipot) of the Peruvians, who under- 
stood how to knot them and to twist them in so many ways (v. QMting. Hist. Magaz. III. 
p. 439. Lehrgeb.derDiplom. 11.305). The Chinese have a very complete system of this kind; 
they have from 29 to 30 thousand characters, which may be reduced to 214 radicals (called 
heyd). To the same category belong also the technical marks used by medical men, and 
perhaps also the astronomical signs for the planets and the signs of the zodiac ; while tiieh 
figurtM often item to be only arbitrary m^rks, they really have proceeded from hieroglyphics, 
in which the figures have been so very much contracted and mutilated that they have lost 
all resemblance to the original object intended to be represented (v. Ersch and Griibor*s 
Encydopcedie, art. Paleographie by Gescnius, of which the above is a translation). 

c 2 


An eminent writer on logic observes, that " the chief impediments to the 
correct performance of the process of reasoning lie in the defects of expres- 
sion *," but we think that such defects will not be found in Chinese, while no 
difficulty will be experienced in forming a complete apparatus for this or for 
any other science as soon as the native mind becomes alive to the importance 
of more vigorous and systematic thinking. The subtle distinctions and e:pict 
meanings, which may be referred to a vast number of Chinese 'viprdB, prove the 
analytic character of the language, as does also the complexity of the syntax 
and the arrangement of words and sentences, — a remedy, as it were, for the 
want of inflexions. If inflexions have arisen by the agglutination of separate 
and distinct words, — by pronouns, prepositions, &c., being placed after and 
joined to the words to which they refer ; if they were produced, not merely by 
a scientific process, but by a vulgar and careless pronunciation of the words, 
and so were agglutinated, the reason why Chinese has never undergone this pro- 
cess, and obtained inflexions, appears to be, because the original terms, which 
were employed as the names of objects and relations of things, were so definite 
and distinct from each other, and the characters, which at a very early period 
represented them, so unique and separate, that union of two of the latter 
being impossible, two of the former could not well be agglutinated. Be this 
as it may, the Chinese, without any sort of inflexion in its words, affords a 
remarkable specimen of the power of syntactical arrangement to express the 
multitudinous variations of human thought. Instead of being composed, as 
is frequently supposed, of a vast number of arbitrary and complicated symbols, 
the characters of the Chinese language are compounded of very simple ele- 
ments, which carry along with them into their derivatives something of their 
own meaning, while each generally preserves its figure unchanged. These 
elementary characters supply the place of an alphabet, — but it is an alphabet 
of ideas, not of sounds. With it may be produced thousands of different 
radical words, and with these words hundreds of thousands of compounded 
words have been and may be formed It is not even necessary to become 
acquainted with more than four or five thousand of these radical words and 
characters to enable the literary man to understand, with etymological accuracy, 
the meaning of myriads of expressions which are, or may be, formed by them. 
The task to the foreign student is trifling, when he considers that these four 
thousand characters are systematically derived from two hundred and fourteen 
simple figures, and that when these are mastered, all other difficulties vanish 
entirely, or diminish to such a degree that the rest of his labour is easy and 
pleasant. The process however of derivation and composition is not without 
some arbitrary and, at first sight, absurd deviations from rules, but such 
exceptions are found in every language, and we do not see that the Chinese 
exhibits many more of them than our own tongue. ^ 

Dr. Morrison's view of Chinese etymology to be derived from the hieroglyphic 

♦ See "Outline of the Lawn of Thofight" by Dr. Thomion, Provost of Qtieen^s College, 
Oxford. 12". London, 1849, p. 41. 


fonns of characters is worth noting * : " The ancients formed characters from 
things ; these gradually came to he used metaphorically to denote the opera- 
tions of the mind,*and to serve as auxiliaries in speech. As the numher of such 
characters increased, it Was necessary to modify them again in order to dis- 

tinguish them. Thus chi J^ was originally €hl't*8a^ '^ |S] (i. e. ' the 
cAt grass,* now a particle of relation, demonstration, &c.), hu yV- "^^ 
p-p ^^ h^'lci (i. e. ' the hreath issuing forth in exclamation,' now a particle 
of interrogation), and yen p^ was yvhk ^S (^- ®* ' ^ ^^ ^"^ fish-hawk,* now 
used as a final particle of assertion, interrogation, &c). When the etymology 
of a word or the various metaphorical changes of a hieroglyphic can he traced, 
it is amusing ; but the present usage alone can fix what the meaning of a word 
is at the present time. 

" Assuming the truth of the above critic's remark, it may be inferred, that 
many characters are so mutilated or increased that to trace the gradual 
changes up to their original form is hopeless." While these remarks indicate 
the scope which Chinese affords for the sound discrimination of the ingenious 
mind, the student who follows such an authority as Dr. Morrison will not be 
discouraged on finding his efforts frequently unavailing to fathom the sense of 
a Chinese character, and to trace its origin and history. 

The extent of Chinese literature and its praises cannot be expressed more 
fully than in the enthusiastic description of Prof. Abel-B4musat, a translation 
of which we will subjoin : *' There are few Europeans," he says, " who would not 
smile at hearing one speak of the geometry of the Chinese, of their astronomy, 
or of their natural history ; although it is true that the progress, which these 
sciences have made amongst us during the last two centuries, causes us to dis- 
pense with having recourse to the knowledge of those distant nations, ought 
we therefore to be ignorant of their present state, and especially of what their 
former state was amongst a nation which has never ceased to cultivate and 
honour themi The proportion of the right-angled triangle was known in 
China B. C. 2200 ; and the works of Yu the Great, to restrain two streams 
equal in impetuosity and almost in breadth to the great rivers of America; 
to direct the waters of 100 rivers, and to guide their flowing over a space of 
ground of more than 100,000 square leagues, are more than sufficient proof 
of this. If the astronomical and physical theories of these people are defec- 
tive, their catalogue of eclipses, of occultations, of comets, and of aerolites are 
not the less interesting; and if people maintain that the Chinese make mis- 
takes in their calculations, at least we must confess that they have, like us, 
observant eyes. 

^ Besides this, rural and domestic economy is sufficiently perfected amongst 
them for them to teach us many useful things ; of this, at least, we are assured 
by those who have made a study of this science. As to their descriptions of 

* Cf. Chinete ZHctionariff Part I. vol. I. p. 54, where Dr. Morrison translated the abo^e 
passage from a native author. 


natural beings, since nothing can supply their place whilst Europeans hare 
not free access to their country, they are not to be despised from a people 
so exact and circumstantial : and I hope to prove by several extracts from 
their books on botany and zoology that the writers in this department are as 
much above the Latin naturalists, or those of the Middle Ages, as they are 
inferior to linnsBus, Jussieu, or Des Fontaines. But if we pass to polite 
literature, philosophy, and history, some Chinese, in these subjects, may even 
set us an example. 

'^ An immense fund of literature, the frtut of 4000 years of assiduous efforts 
and labours ; eloquence and poetry enriched by the beauties of the picturesque 
language, which preserve to the imagination all its colours, metaphors, alle- 
gory, and allusion, all combining to Sorm the most smiling, energetic, or 
imposing pictures; on the other side, the most vast and authentic annals 
which ever came from the hands of men, unfolding to our view actions almost 
unknown, not only of the Chinese, but of the Japanese, Coreans, Tartars, 
Tibetans, and of the inhabitants on the peninsula beyond the Ganges ; unfolding 
the mysterious dogmas of Buddha, or those of the sect of the Tauists, or con- 
secrating, in short, the eternal principles and the philosophic politics of the 
school of Confucius : — these are the objects which Chinese books present to 
the student, who, without leaving Europe, may wish to travel in imagination 
to these distant countries. More than 5000 volumes have been collected, at 
great expense, in the Koyal Library ; their titles have scarcely been read by 
Fourmont; a few historical works have been opened by De Guignes and 
by Des Hauterayes ; all the rest still await readers and translators *." 

These are the words of one who in his day stood high among the Oriental- 
ists of Europe, and whose opinions will always be regarded with respect by 
the student of Chinese. M. B4musat had actual experience on the subject, 
and had read much of the literature on which he dilated. His evidence is 
worthy of our full credit, and, while so much has been written and said which 
is adverse to China and the Chinese, his testimony calls for our honest accept- 
ance, for he views China through the writings of its great minds, aud not, as 
too many do, by the exhibitions of some of its vulgar rulers or the acts of some 
low unruly mob. Even from those who should understand the subject well, 
we too often hear statements which, although they have some appearance of 
truth, are yet unfair, because they are based on insufficient grounds, but they 
tell nevertheless to the prejudice of this people and their language. For 
instance, it has been stated that " this language does not afford much scope 
for oratorical display," a view which we consider very erroneous, for Chinese 
is just that kind of language which leaves the speaker free from the techni- 
calities of grammar and of artificial forms of expression, and allows him to rise 
in sublimity by the power of allusion and the various figures of the rhetor's 
art, and through the various styles of composition to affect his hearers ; or to 
descend into the vulgar colloquial, and raise a smile at his antagonist's expense, 
or ridicule the cavils of a supposed objector. 

* V. Melanges Asiatiques par Abel-R^musat, vol. II. p. 14. 


It cannot be asserted that the speeches of the Chinese ministers of state 
exhibit much oratorical power, but there can be no reason why the Chinese 
should not display as much power in this way as did Demosthenes himself, if 
they once fell into the circumstances which would call it forth, and were gifted 
with the same argumentative powers as he was. The fault is in the mind of 
China, and not in the language. When the Chinese mind is elevated, the 
language wiU be found to be not only sufficient for the requirements of this 
development, but also a valuable agent in the work of its advancement. 

But it will be necessary to notice the dialects of which Chinese is composed. 
The mother-tongue, which is every where expressed by the antique characters, 
finds a different utterance in every province of the empire. So various are the 
dialectal changes that the inhabitants of adjacent provinces cannot imderstand 
each other. If a native of Canton meet with a native of Shanghai he can com- 
municate with him only by some language common to them both, or by the 
learned characters, which are used in books. The dialects (for thete are 
several) between Canton and Shanghai differ very much from each other. 
They have, it is true, a common basis and groundwork ; but the pronunciation 
of syllables in them, especially of diphthongal sounds, varies considerably, 
though these changes are in accordance with the general laws of such variations 
in other tongues. Their idioms, moreover, are peculiar, and these therefore 
present a further obstacle to the communication of ideas. The comparative 
tables of dialects will explain our meaning in some degree. 

It must not be supposed that these dialects are so different as to present 
to a native a formidable task in the acquisition of several of them. Native 
merchants and traders frequently have a smattering of three or four ; but we 
think that foreigners are in a position to acquire a more exact knowledge of 
them than natives themselves. As they are all derived from the same written 
language, so when this is acquired, or at least when the mandarin or court dia- 
lect is learnt, the others may be mastered with comparative ease, after a few 
months' practice. The foreigner in representing by Roman letters the precise 
sounds of the language, has an advantage over the native, who cannot do so, 
unless he learn the system of European orthography. The European soon per- 
ceives that certain letters of his Roman alphabet undergo regular changes in the 
different dialects, and this affords him an immense assistance. For example, he 
may observe that the primary vowel sounds, a, i, u (ah, ee, oo), generally remain 
in the language of each province, — thus pa in Shanghai remains pa in Canton ; 
ki in Nanking remains ki in Peking, with a little stronger aspiration; ku in 
Ningpo is ku every where else : but, on the contrary, kai in Mandarin becomes 
koi in Canton and ke in Shanghai ; yoM in Mandarin becomes yiu in Canton 
<^<i y9 {y^"^) ^ Shanghai. Thus he finds that only the diphthongs (that is, 
those sounds formed by the combination of two primary vowels) are affected 
by dialectal changes. The same fact m articulate sounds is shown in our own 
words cUvusBf pause, dec, where the diphthong cm, which is formed of the two 
primary vowels a and u, and is generally represented by the secondary vowel 
Oy has been changed in course of time to the sound of o in order. These 


regular changes suggest the importance of having but one system of ortho- 
graphy for writing Chinese in Roman letter, so that various dialects may 
be acquired with greater facility. With how much greater ease, than undei* 
the present systems, would French, German, and the other European tongues 
be learnt, if only one system of writing existed, and but one uniform value 
were given to the letters employed ! 

It is no longer necessary to advise the public of the importance of a know- 
ledge of Chinese to those who are connected with China; now that the whole 
empire is, by the late treaty, declared open to travellers with passports, the 
language is indispensable to those who would penetrate into the interior. The 
advantages to the merchant, the missionary, the traveller, and the scientific 
explorer, of an acquaintance with the Chinese language, cannot well be over- 
rated. And when the vast territories under Chinese rule, and their relations 
to Qreat Britain are considered, the perfect medium of communication, which 
this language would afford, renders the attainment of it an object of primary 
importance. With this object in view, the cultivation of it should be com- 
menced before leaving this country, that no time may be lost in entering upon 
a work which will require so much time and arduous effort to accomplish. Very 
much may be done by the young student before he leaves England, especially 
in the acquisition of the style of the books, and also in some degree the lan- 
guage of conversation. The written characters of the Chinese may be acquired 
any where by means of books alone, and, as the pronunciation of these written 
symbols is exceedingly simple, considerable progress may be made, with a 
little assistance, in learning such simple sentences as have the stamp of bding 
native, but he should avoid those which are made up to suit foreign expressions. 
Where native teachers, good grammars, and perfect dictionaries of Chinese 
are wanting, this language can only be studied to perfection in its native land. 
Some knowledge however may and ought to be acquired under a European 
tutor, who can generally explain &r better than a native Chinese the diffi- 
culties which will beset a beginner. The plan which we would suggest for 
cementing our new relations with China, and removing the numerous miscon- 
ceptions which exist on both sides, is the establishment of a College in this 
country for the education of young Chinese in English, and for affording to 
young Englishmen the means of acquiring the rudiments of Chinese; and 
also the foundation of a College in Peking, or in some other city of China, for 
the preparation of such Chinese youths in the rudiments of English, and for the 
instruction of English youths in the Chinese language. Each College should 
have two departments, and these should be directed by English and Chinese 
tutors. The Chinese youths would cultivate the languages and sciences of 
Europe to the best advanti^e in England, while the English youths in China 
would learn perfectly, as natives do, the Chinese language, and would make 
themselves acquainted with the products and the resources of China, and 
gain a knowledge too of the home and foreign policy of the Chinese. 
Such an arrangement would be productive of most beneficial results. The 
plan of an Anglo -Chhiese College was carried out at Malacca about thirty- 


five years ago, and much good was done thereby, but from its position out of 
China and from a deficiency in means, less was accomplished than might have 
been under more favourable circumstances. For an institution of this kind to 
succeed, it should receive the countenance and support of the governments 
of both countries ; but the education should not be gratuitous, as it would 
be desirable to obtain the better class of boys for instruction; and the rela- 
tives of such youths would be in a position to defray the expenses of their 
education, and thus lessen the amount of expenditure on the part of the pro- 
moters of the plan. But while the civil war in China is raging, and the govern- 
ment of that country is so insecure, no extensive plans of amelioration can be 
carried out As commerce and Christianity advance, civilization and peace 
will follow in the steps of the missionary and the merchant. In the mean- 
time it is not from the partial knowledge of European languages in the case 
of a few natives that much good may be anticipated, but the full and frequent 
dissemination of religious and political truth, by means of translations into 
Chinese, will afiect the national mind, which is now very fully alive to the 
influence of Europe on the well-being of the " Middle kingdom.** 

Many such translations have already been made within the last few years. 
Improved versions of the Holy Scriptures, and of standard religious publica- 
tions, have been issued in China. Valuable treatises on astronomy, algebra, 
arithmetic, and geometry, natural philosophy and political economy have 
been turned into Chinese recently *. Many more are however needed, espe- 
cially on the subjects of European history, the science of mind and the laws 
of tBbugbt. 

* Such are ffer»ckel*» Agtr<mom^ and De Morgan,* » Algebra, and works on Arithmetic 
and other Babjects translated by A. Wylie, Esq. ; works on (Geography, the History of 
England, by the Bev. William Muirhead ; several works on Anatomy, Physiology, and 
Medicine by Dr. Benjamin Hobson ; treatises on Electricity, the Laws of Storms, and 
other sabjects by Dr. Macgowan ; and various educational works by the Rev. W. Lobscheid. 





Sect. L ArtieuicUe sounds and their symbols. 
§. I. Elementaiy Bounds and their orthography 



2. Syllables and their intonation 4 

3. Words and their composition generally 12 

4. The characters, and how to write them 14 

5. Arrangement of characters in books, pimctuation, &c 34 

6. On writing the characters 36 

Sect. II. The forma 0/ eocpreasion. 
§. I. Preliminary remarks 40 




a. On noons and their formation 41 

3. On adjectiyes and thdr formation 55 

4. The numerals 60 

5. The prononns 63 

6. The verb 69 

7. The substantiye verbs « 77 

8. Mood and tense 79 

9. Theadverbs 84 

10. The prepositions 91 

11. The conjunctions 93 

12. The interjections and other particles 95 

Chap. II. SYNTAX. 
Sect. I. On simple conaPrudiona. 

§. I. Preliminary remarks 97 

§. 2. General rules relating to the position of words 97 

§.3. The construction of simple terms 99 

d 2 

xxviii CONTENTS. 


§. 4. The principles involved in the grouping of words 102 

§. 5. The uncommon use of certain words in phraseology 103 

§. 6. The modifications and relations of the parts of speech 105 

§. 7. The syntax of the particles 142 

I. Attributive particles 142 

II. Connective particles 147 

III. Affirmative particles 152 

IV. Negative particles 158 

y. Adversative particles 162 

VI. Causative particles 165 

VII. Conditional particles 167 

VIII. Illative particles 169 

IX. Interrogative particles 169 

X. Dubitative particles 173 

XI. Intensitive particles 174 

XIL Exclamatory particles 175 

XIII. Euphonic particles 176 

Sect. II. On sentences, 

§. I. Preliminary remarks 180 

§. 2. The forms of the simple sentence 183 

§. 3. The noun sentence 184 

§. 4. The adjective sentence 184 

§. 5. The adverbial sentence 185 

§, 6. On complex sentences 187 

§. 7. On compound sentences 188 

§. 8. On figures of speech 188 

§. 9. On varieties of style 189 


I. Examples of antithesis, repetition, &c., and select phraseology 191 

II. A list of the Chinese fieimily names {Pi-kia sing) 201 

m. A list of the d3rnasties, and the emperors, with dates 205 

IV. A list of the characters in the nienrha^j with a table of the niin-haii ... 2 1 2 

V. A comparison of some of the Cliinese dialects .< •. 225 

VI. Tables of weights, monies, measures, and times 230 



A short wUroduetion to Cfhinese Kteratwre. 

Preliminary notices on the character, extent, and wants of Chinese literature. 
— ^Diviraon of Chinese literature into (i) classical, (2) historical, (3) pro- 
fessional, (4) miscellaneous. — Another classification into ancient and modem 
literature.— The Wi^Xnng or " Five clasmcs."— The Ti-khig, the Shirking, 
the Shl'kmg, the ZV^, and the CKanrtriH^—Tht Si-Ml or '' Four books." 
—The Td-hid of Tlidn^-fo^.— The Chunff-yUng of JPHng-ts^— The Lin-yd 
ofE^ung-ts^. — ^The M^ng-t^ (first and second). — The conmientator CM^fH- 
tei— The C7iea4l.—Hia/(irkifig.—T^^ 

—TadrUi'king.— The ShU8z.—{i) Zaii-te^.— (a) CAtoan^-te^.- (3) Stun- 
te^— (4) LU8k—{s) J^w^^t8z.—{6) Eamrfv4^—{l) fftoai^ndnrtakr— 
(8) 7dng-t8^—{g) TT^n-cAwi^-te^.— (10) H6-hwdmrt^ Pages 3-8. 

List of Chinese works arranged in classes: (i) Ethics, politics, and mental 
science, (a) Mathematics and astronomy. (3) Language and the meanings 
of words. (4) Jurisprudence. (5) Medicine and materia medica. (6) His- 
tory and statistics. (7) Biographical notices. (8) Geography, topography, 
&c (9) Mythology. (10) Poetry. (11) Painting, engraving, kc (12) 
The drama. (13) Works of fiction. (14) Agriculture and weaving. (15) 
Encyclopsedias and compilations Pages 9-18. 

The various styles of composition, — the Kitrto^nf the W4nr€hdng, — Metrical 
composition in Chinese. — ^The different kinds of poetry Pages 19, 20. 

List of the passages in the native character Page 21. 

Extracts from native authors, in Roman letter, with English translations: — 

The /Sfe^Wlw^ (text, pp. I, 2) Pages 22-27. 

Epitaph of JTi-te^ (text, p. 2) Pages 26-29. 

Si-aMl (text, pp. 3, 4, 5), L4nrf^f Shdng-nufng, Hid-m4'ng,.. Pages 28-35. 

5Aiw^-3^ (text, pp. 6, 7) Pages 36-41. 

^a*^-A?*tii c^«^ (text, pp. 8-12) Pages 40-51. 

iSWtSi-Ai^ cA«^ (text, pp. 13-16) Pages 50-57. 

Sdn-kwd chi (text, pp. 17-20) Pages 58-66. 

iEsop*s Fables, translated (text, pp. 21, 22) Pages 66-70. 

Lin's letter to Queen Victoria, translated (text, pp. 23, 24) ... Pages 70-76. 


Supplementary treaty, translated (text, p. 25) Pages 76-7^- 

A notice and a petition, translated (text, p. 26) Pages 7B-80. 

Mandarin dialogues, translated (text, pp. 27-30) Pages 80-86. 

Extract from the Ching'^nrUui-yc^, translated (text, P' 31)... Pages 86-88. 

Epistolary style, translations (text, p. 32) Pages88-90. 

Poetical extracts, translated (text, p. 33) Pages 90-94. 

Proverbs, translated (text, p. 34) Pages 94-96. 

Extracts from the Ching-yin-taiii-yad, translated (text, litho. pp. 9, 10) 

Pages 96-98. 
Extract from the Sdtirkwd chi, translated (text, litho. pp.i 1-13) Pages 98-103. 
iSlsop's Fables, translated (text, litho. p. 14) Pages 104, 105. 





Sect. I. Artioulatb sounds and their symbols. 

§. I. Elementa/ry sounds cmd their orthography. 

1. The Chinese language does not possess, like the European languages, a 
series of letters with which to express elementary sounds; nor are figures 
employed to represent syllables merely, as in the syllabaries of the Japanese 
and Manchu languages. It is therefore necessary in the outset to lay before 
the student a clear system of orthography, in order that he may acquire as 
speedily as possible a correct pronunciation of the Chinese characters; and 
we propose making use of the Roman alphabet for this purpose. 

2. The articulate sounds of the human voice are produced by the united 
action of the breath and the organs of speech, the lips, the tongue, and the 
larynx. As these organs are the same every where, the articulations of every 
language must partake of many sounds in common ; and though they may be 
modified by the shape of the organs and other circumstances, they are funda- 
mentally the same. It follows, therefore, that in learning a foreign tongue 
a consideration of the elementary sounds of the human voice, and the exhi- 
bition of them in that tongue, will facilitate the progress by placing the 
subject from the first upon a reasonable basis. 

3. There are tbree primary vowel sounds, a, % u, and from these the other 
vowels and the diphthongs spring *. This fact has been proved by the ab- 
sence of the i and 6 in the Sanskrit, and by the vowels of the Hebrew in its 
ancient form being only fe^ cUephy ^ yod, and 1 vav. These primary or funda- 
mental vowels, with the vowel-sounds derived from them, are thus exhibited : 


aif iiy ^j a / \ aUy 6, g 

a) By the union of a and i the diphthong at is produced, as ai in aisle; 
then by gradually closing and contracting the organs we form the German a, 
the flattened a in shame, and the open French e in /orH, meme; to these 
may be added a with a dot beneath to represent the obscure sound like ir, er, 
and o, in Sir, her, son, respectively. 

0) By the union of a and u the diphthong a/u is formed, as ou in plough 
or au in Ba/wm (German); then by contraction we have o long in 710, nos 
(French); to which may be added q with a dot beneath to represent the 

* It should be nnderatood from the first that the pronunciAtion of these vowels is the 
German or Italian ; aA, (€, 00 in English. 



sound of o in order or cm in ckmse. In the ancient Arabic, ai and cm were 
used instead of e and o. So in the Greek and Latin, Kalaap became CoBsar, 
Bavfia in the Ionic dialect was Bafia, a case exactly similar to that which takes 
place in Chinese, and which will be found noticed under the Comparative 
Table of Dialects. The modem pronunciation of the French words laity mats, 
atusai, illustrates the same facts, as does also the vulgar German och for auch, 
y) By uniting i and u we produce ew in yew, hew, new, &c. ; and in like 
manner any variety of simple vowel sound or diphthongal compound may be 
formed with the three vowels a, t, u *. 

4. We shall employ the letters of the Roman alphabet to express Chinese 
sounds; and the student should make himself thoroughly acquainted with 
the system of orthography given below. An absolutely true pronunciation 
can only be attained by long and regular practice, by imitating a teacher, and 
by a residence among the Chinese; yet, by careful attention to the advice 
here given, considerable advance may be made with the aid of books alone. 

T. T. Meadows, Esq., one of H. B. Majesty's Consuls in China, proposed a 
new orthography several years ago, and made some very just remarks on the 
obscure vowd sounds, with especial reference to their delicate modifications in 
the Pekin dialect. (See DesvUory Notes on China, London: Allen, 1847.) 

The variations however in the pronimciation of native scholars speaking 
the same dialect are many, whilst all are sufficiently correct Just as dis- 
tinctions may be drawn between the pronunciation of individual scholars in 
this country and considerable difference be found to exist in their pronuncia- 
tion of single words ; but to alter the spelling of English words because the 
letter a is sounded somewhat broader or made a little longer by one than 
by another, would lead to endless changes. To illustrate this point — ^the 
German U is not the same as the English a in sha/me or a/y in play, nor is 
the German eu accurately expressed by oy in joy, toy; yet these examples 
may stand in a Grammar for Englishmen, because each answers so nearly to 
the foreign sound as to be a sufficient guide to the pronunciation, though the 
French ^ in rnJeme and the eui in fefaiUe correspond more nearly to the 
German a and eu, 

5. The quantity of each of the vowels in the following table is long in all 
positions which allow of it ; that is to say, in some rare positions they will be 
short; as, for instance, when affected by ihejl-shlng (902, 2291) or 'entering 
tone,' which is always designated by the ordinary mark w for a short vowel. 

The pronunciation of the short vowels is exemplified by the words enclosed 
in brackets. 

The short 6, which should correctly be written with the dot beneath, will 
be without the dot, as the corresponding short of o long rarely, if ever, occurs. 

The equivalent of each vowel is also given according to Dr. Morrison's 
system of spelling, as the student will have to refer to his Dictionary. 

* For further information on this subject the student may refer to Karl F. Becker*8 
Organism der Sprache; Jacob Grimm's GeKhickie der Deutschen Sprache; and Wilhehn 
von Humboldt's work, Ueber die Ka%ci Sprache^ vol. I. Einleitung. 



The system of orthography adopted. 

I. The vowels, simple and combined. 



The value of each illustrated by examples. 

i I 
e i 
a d 

« 4 
o 6 


u a 

a i 

e elh 
ay ih 
a dh 

d vh 


00 ah 

eu ud 

i m police; i in vnr (Germ.); i in av^ssi (Fr.); (bit,) 
a in lame; a iufahig (Germ); 1 in mJhne (Fr.); {hit) 
am/aiher; a in do/rf (Germ.) ; a in pas {¥r,); {bdt.) 
a in organ;, e in hahen (Germ.); ue in que (Fr.); (biU,) 
in no; o in oder (Germ.); 6 in cdte (Fr.); (ndt.) 
(Canton D. and Shanghai D.) o in order; aw in law. 
(Shanghai D.) o in Lowe (Germ.) ; nearly asu in soefwr (Fr.) 
u in rule; umdu (Germ.) ; ou in wais (Fr.); {fyOXl^ 
u in hme (Fr.); u in MiiKe (Germ); (eu in peut-itre,) 

ie is 
ia id 
io id 

iu in 







•• • 

ea ed 
ew eOh 

ie in pied (Fr.); yea (Eng.); (yi in yesterday.) 

ia in lia, plia (Fr.); ja (Germ.) ; (yd in ya/nkee.) 

io in milUon (Fr.); (Shanghai D.); (j/d in yacht.) 

ew in hew, yew; (jd in juMsf (Qena.)) 

ei in sein (Germ.); ie in pie (Eng.) 

c + «, peculiar. French MSS. would have eou. 

ai in aisle; so tat=ea6 in Morr. 

ow in cow; au in Frau (G«rm.); Bo,iau=eaou in Morr. 

^Canton D.^ ot in voice. 

(Canton D.) u-^i; ui in ruin, 

em in/emlle (Fr.); eu in BetUe (Germ.) 

II. The consonants, single and combined. 



The value of each illustrated by examples. 



as in Fnglishy not in Mand. D. (in Shang. D. and Hok. D.) 



ch in hoick; chw in haJtchway; ckh in ca4xh him. 



(Shang. D. Ningpo D. kc.) as in English; ^'=Eng.y. 



Jf in fit. The tone in some dialects changes it to v. 



g in good always, never g in gin. 



h in ?iea/rt; before i and iif it is a strong aspiration, nearly sh. 





j vnjeune (Fr.); z in aaunre (Eng.); ju or jw. 



k in king; Jew ^ quin queen. 



I in line; Iw as in bulwa/rk. 



m in mine; mw as in homeward. 



n in nine; nw as in inwan'd; ng in anger. 



p m pine. 



r in run; rather more rolling than the English r. 



s in see; ^u; as in swam. 



sh in shine; shw as in a rash wish. 



t in tiny; tw as in twist; to as in wits; tsw as in Cotstoold. 



V in vins (Shang. and Ning. D.) 



w m u)ay, or v in vi7ie. 



y in you. 



z in squeeze^ ««=«-!-«, i. e. the hissing sound of «, then the 

buzzing sound of;:;, and in to2;=to + ^- 

E 2 


6. Exercise for reading. 

Tsvng tadu 1c\ lai, kidu hai-ts^-nUpn, sail-sail ti, kiaU-kiaU hwd, gaU 
shwhi si Hen, paU wd^n Itail cfCd Jcl-Ui; mU-yiil si ti shl-heH, Han-Uan shU 
si^-sQ tsi; samrlid,ng-k6 si'w4n pdng-i/iU, ts6 k6 shi, hid k6 tcet-kt, hidi-kidi 
m4n-4T. tsid Jco-l kwd-tiji-ts^ liail. 

§. 2. Syllables and their intonoHan, 

7. After having thus considered elementary sounds and the symbols suited 
to express them, we naturally proceed to view them as they are united to form 
syllables. The characters of the Chinese do not represent elementary sounds 
or articulations, but each character stands for an entire syllable. The syllable 
then in Chinese is simply the na^me given to a symbol ; that is, each character 
is expressed by a syllable, the sound of which cannot be discovered from the 
composition or formation of the character. In fact, the same characters . 
have different names in the different provinces in which they are read, just as 
the Arabic numerals are called by different names in the various states of 
Europe and Asia. 

8. Every syllable in the Court dialect ends with a vowel or nasal, but 
commonly with a vowel. The dialectic peculiarities may be seen in the 
Comparative Table. 

9. The Chinese divide the syllable into two parts, the initial and the final ; 
and they define the pronunciation of characters by a process called fhn-tsl 

J^ "^n ' to cut off in opposite directions ;' thus the initial of the syllable 

ke may be taken and the final of the syllable mung, and they together constitute 
the syllable kun>g. In K'anghi's Dictionary the pronunciation of characters 

is always explained in this way; e. g. the sound of the character |p is 

explained thus: chi siting tsS, chi and shing being cut in the above way 
into ch'ing, which is the pronunciation of the character ching. 

10. The number of different Chinese syllables is between four and five 

hundred. In the Mandarin or Court dialect — the Kwdn-hwd ^± ~3[ 

— there are four hundred and ten syllables, besides those with aspirates, as 
thien or Cien, They are here arranged in alphabetic order, and the student 
will do well to read them as an exercise in orthoepy. 

Table of the syllables in the Kwdn-hvod, 

1 a 


2 cm 

'4 chen 

3 ^ 

^S cheu 

4 ai6 


5 cha 

n chi 


*8 chin 

7 chai 

'9 cinng 

^ cha/n 


9 chqn 

** cJiu 

10 chamg 


" chau 



H chuen 

»5 chili 
26 chung 
*7 cJiwa 
^^ cliwai 
29 chvmng 
V^ fan 



V) fuivj 
40 gai 
4* gan 
42 gqn 

45 gau 

46 geu 

48 go 

^9 gd 
50 hai 
5» han 
5^ hqn 
5i hang 
54 hang 
^S hau 

57 heu 

58 hi 

59 hi 
^ hia 

<^i hid 
^^ hiai 
^3 hiang 
^ hiau 
^6 hien 
^7 hin 
^8 hing 
^9 hid 

70 hiu 

71 hiu 
7i hi%i£n 

73 hivjn 

74 hiung 

75 Ao 

76 A^ 

77 hu 

78 M 

79 Aw 

80 hung 

81 hioa 

82 hiod 

83 hwai 

84 hwan 



















^9 ha 


^7 king 





H3 kboai 





^SS Ian 
»5« Iqn 
^57 long 
^59 km 

i6z li 



^70 Wi 

^71 Uu 

^74 lo 
^76 lu 
^77 lU 





'83 ma 
'85 mai 
^^7 mqn 
91 me 
9^ mi 

95 mi 

96 ml 

97 miau 

98 mis 

99 mien 
^^ ming 
^7 mung 
210 nd 
zu fiai 






^^7 neu 


"* niom 

*^5 ni/ng 

236 nid 
"7 niu 
^29 nd 
230 nw 
*3i wtX 

*33 niii 



238 jMJ 

H^ pan 
^5 pan 




^5^ piau 




^55 ping 





2^ pa 

^^^ py/ng 

^5 son 
^^ 8qn 
^7 8ang 

268 gqf^g 


^70 8i 

^71 8m 


^74 8hai 

*75 shorn 

^76 shan 

*77 sharing 

^7^ shorn 

^79 she 




^83 shi 

»84 shi 

^85 shin 

^^ shing 

288 gjiu 

^9 sha 

*92 shwai 
*94 8hw6 

^95 shumi 
^96 ai 

^7 si 
^9^ sicmg 
^99 siau 
^<^^ sii 
303 «7l 
305 «d 


^ siuen 



^ su 


7 sung 

^ sUi 

319 moon 

320 «g 

321 to 

322 ed 

323 tot 

324 tow 

1^7 tang 

328 tow 

329 «f 



333 tiau 




337 ting 

338 tiu 
119 to 



342 tsai 

343 tsom 
W tsau 
348 te^ 

353 tsiom 

354 tsie 

357 tsin 

358 tsing 
3^« tsiusn 


365 teu 

366 tod 

367 tea 




371 tsioan 




179 wa 

381 uxd 




387 too 

388 «;^ 

1^9 vm 

390 «n2 

391 ya 

392 ydJ 

393 yai 

394 yqn 
396 yau 

398 y^ 

399 y«» 
^^ yin 



404 y^ 

405 yw 

406 y?Z 

407 yiJ 

^ yuen 
^r>9 yiin 

II. The syllable 4r (No. 3. of the preceding list) is variously spelt by 
Monison and others urh, eul, 'U, irr, rL It represents a peculiar sound, 
probably of modem origin, as it is not found in the Imperial Dictionary of 
K'anghi J^ ^. The characters it expresses are called i in the Canton and 
some other dialects, and it rhymes with i in theShirking g^ "jj^ or Classic Odes. 


12. The articulate sounds in every language must have preceded the 
written character. There is no positive proof that the syllabic sounds in 
present use in China are of very great antiquity, though this may be 
inferred from one or two &cts. a. The two hundred and fourteen ele- 
mentary characters called Bctdicala, contain one hundred and fifty of the 
above-mentioned four hundred syllables j and this is a large proportion unless 
we suppose that they had those sounds attached to them in a very early 
stage of the language, when, as yet, but few other characters had been 

b. The FrimUives, one thousand seven hundred in number, another set of 
elementary characters, which, with the Eadicab, make up the body of material 
out of which the thirty or forty thousand characters have been constructed, 
contain nearly every syllable foimd in the language. 

c. Ancient poetry also goes to prove the antiquity of the present oral 
system, by the rhymes in the Shi-king. Some of these odes are very ancient. 

One of them, on the maniage of Win-todng ^/ ^p, a celebrated emperor, 

&ther of the CheH ^\ family, and which was without doubt written at 

that period, leads us back three thousand years, or about two hundred years 
before the reputed date of Homer *. 

13. Every syllable in Chinese is uttered with a certain intonation or 
modulation of the voice, which is commonly called its ' tone' by Europeans; 

by natives the tone is called Shlng-yin j^ *» , i. e. ionssownd (v. 2291). 

14. The tones are of essential service in adding distinctness to the expres- 
sion; in many cases a phrase would be quite unintelligible without its proper 
tones, and often convey an entirely different idea from the one intended. 

15. The difficulty of learning these tones has been much exaggerated, and 
the published opinions of some who had a right to be heard on subjects 
connected with the Chinese language, have tended to confirm misconceptions. 
We shall here endeavour to state clearly their nature, and give directions for 
their acquirement. 

16. In the first place, the tones are not mere acoenU or the elevated 
utterance of syllables in words, nor ctccevU, as when we speak of the French 
accent, Scotch accent, a point in which every language differs, nor the way- 
ward and uncertain intonation of words and phrases as we hear frequently in 
animated dialogue and oratory; but they are certain fixed intonations, pecu- 
liar to each character when uttered, and they change only when euphony 
would be disturbed by their accustomed sound being retained. 

17. The Chinese Shtng-ym are from fowr to eight of these latter in- 
tonations proper to the lang^ge of the orator, and they add as much force 
and vigour to the Chinese tongue as they do to our own. Only one of them 
is peculiar and uncommon, and this is a sort of whine or drawl ; but in union 
with others in the same word it assimOates in some degree to the general or 
predominating tone, and so loses its unpleasant sound. 

* V. Manhinan*a Clavis Sinioa, pp. 83, 84, etc. 


1 8. The number of the tones appears to have been four in the first 
instance, but in the various dialects of China they rise to seven and eight. 
They are as follows : 

I. The p*tng-shlng ^-p- (2291) 'even, level tone.' 
a. The shdng-ahing p (2291) 'rising tone.* 

3. The k'ilshtng -^ (2291) ' departing tone.' 

4. The fishing 7\^ (2291) * entering tone.' 

Bj uttering these four at a low pitch of the voice and then at a higher, eight 
different intonations are produced; those pitched high being denominated 

Mingj^ ' upper/ and those pitched low being called hid "p ' lower.' 

19. The Mandarin dialect, or Kwan-hwd, acknowledges five of these 
tones, the whole of the upper series and the first of the lower. In common 
parlance they are called, i. P'trig, 2, shdng, 3. k% 4. j^,.and 5. hidrptng. 

20. The Shd,ng^*ing-shmg is the ' upper even tone,' and may be illustrated 
by the sound of calling to a person at some distance, thus: ' John, /etch my 
horae,* the syllables in Italics expressing the tone. 

21. The Sh^ng-shdng-^tng or 'upper rising tone' agrees nearly with our 
tone of the final syllable in an interrogation with surprise, ' Will he say that 
nowV 'Can he come, ehf^ The voice is first depressed and then suddenly 

22. The Shdmg-JcU-shtng or 'upper descending tone' is well illustrated by 
a phrase of exclamation with scorn or reproach. 

23. The Shdmg-fi-aifwng or ' upper entering tone' is equivalent to the short 
abrupt utterance in such a phrase as ' tit for tat,' without pronouncing the 
final letters. In the Peking dialect this tone is changed into the k'^d-Mng. 

24. The Hid'p'ing-shtng or ' lower even tone* is similar to the correspond- 
ing upper one, but is pitched lower, as in the tone of a direct reply to a 
question, ' Yes,' 'No,' 'Who fetched iti' 'John.' 

25. The HiA-Mmg-ahlng or 'lower rising tone' is very much like the 
Scotch accent, the voice is depressed and quickly raised again. This tone 
and the remaining three are not recognised in the Mandarin dialect, and will 
therefore not be explained here. The student is referred for further informa- 
tion on the subject of the tones to the works of Dyer, Medhurst, Bridgman, 
and Edkins, all of whom have taken great pains to elucidate them. 

26. The diacritical marks used by the early Jesuits to distinguish the 
tones we shall employ in this work. They are as follows : ~ "^ ' ^ " i. F'tng, 
2. shdng, 3. k*4, 4. fi, 5. hid-p*ing; placed above the vowel of the syllable to 
be intonated thus, id, tcL, id, td, td. 

27. The following passages are intended to illustrate the character of 
tones. The numbers attached to the words, and the diacritical marks also, 
refer to the tones employed in the pronunciation of them. 

I. " Th€re I saw Rhadam&nthus (5), one of the judges of the dead, seated 


at his tribunal (5). He interrogated each separately. ^ Madam' (i), says 
he, to the first of them, ' you have been upon the earth above fifty ySars ; 
what have you been doing there all this while?' * Doing!' (2), says she, 
* really I don't know what I've been doing!' " GtuM'dian, No. 158. 

II. Lear. But goes this with thy hdlrti (2) 

CoEDELiA. Ay, good my lord. 

Leab. So young, and so unt^nder? 

Cob. So yoilng, my lord, and true (5). 

Leab. Let it b6 sd. — ^Thy trttth then be thy d6werj 

For, by the sacred r&diance of the s(in ; 

The mysteries of H6cate, and the night; 

By all the operiitions of the 6rbs (3), 

From whom we do exist and c6ase to be; 

H^re I discUum all my paternal care, 

Propinquity and pr6perty of bl6od, 

And as a stranger to my heart and m6 

Hold thee, from this, for ^ver. 
Kent. Good my li6ge — 

Leab. Pe&ce, K^ntl 

Come not betwixt the dr&gon and his wrath : 

I lov'd her most, and thought to set my rest 

On her kind niirsery. — H6nce, and avoid my sight. 

Shakespeare, King Lear, Act I. Sc. 2. 

28. The Chinese sometimes distinguish the tone of a syllable by a mark 
placed at the comer of the character, but not generally. As each character 
is inscribed in a square, the four comers serve as positions for tone-marks in 

the order shown here : 


29. The tone of a character is sometimes changed to show that it has an 

imcommon meaning or that its relation to the sentence is altered; thus 
TWWM become verba, and adjectives become nouns, but not by any constant 

rule: chil 'it *a lord' becomes chii *to rule:' 6 or g6 S5. 'bad' be- 

comes wH or hH 'to hate;' aikb/ng r^ 'upper' becomes shdng 'to go up, 

ascend;' cliiing S 'heavy' becomes chUng 'to repeat.' Li such cases a 

small circle called kivJen (1282) is placed at one comer of the character to 
intimate the change. 

30. The Chinese aspirate many of their syllables very strongly, and the 
absence of the aspiration nearly always renders the phrase unintelligible. 

For example, kal g^ ' ought,' but k'ai HM * to open.' We shall express 

the aspiration by the Greek spvritua asper ('). When the letter /* is used it 

will be understood to be a very strong aspiration; thus hal )f^ 'the sea' is 

pronounced as if written with the German guttural c/i, chat 

' tones' in succession. 9 

31. The Chinese are accustomed to arrange the characters in Dictionaries 
according to tiiejinal sounds of the syllables which they represent; thus, 
eienj Uen, mien, kien, &c., come together as they rhyme with each other, and 
then they follow according to the tones, ping, shdmg, k*u, ji. In the Canton 
dialect there is a Dictionary of this kind^ in which the syllables are arranged 
in thirty-three classes according to their terminations. The first of the series 
is sien; and the syllables which rhyme with this are taken through the four 
tones of both upper and lower series. The practice of reading these syllables 
after a native instructor, in the order of the tones, will be adrantageous to 
the student: thus, sien, sUn, sihi, tfii; and then, as a second exercise, he 
should select dissyllabic and trisyllabic combinations whose sequences as 
r^ards tone are similar. 

3a. The following table will show what we mean by sequence in tone, and 
the accompanying exercises will serve to accustom the student to practical 

P*tng Shdng K*u Ji Hid-ping 





> w 


- A 






^ A 




f \ 




' A 



W m 

w \ 

w f 


** S0 

»♦ A 



A - 


A N 

A / 

A w 


A A 

From this it appears that twenty-five combinations of tones may be formed, 
though some occur more frequently than others. We shall now give several 
combinations intoned according to the numbers in the table : 

1. kinr4*ien ' to-day ;'»^ kang-fH 'work/cd sidng-kung *Mr., Sir.'«^ 

2. tO'Shcnlt 'how manyl'sl^ fief^^il *Qod*;'*>» gq/n4tin 'favour.'J^ 

3. sdng-i 'trade, business ;'^°^ dtv-taH 'to know;'no trkiii 'as before.'pq 

4. i^'dothesj'** «^«tt^l' to collect together j'*'* sang-ji ^hhthdaj,'^^ 



* The word used by the Bomaniste. 





'i '® "^ '& "m > 

E "A '3K -M 'JR "Jft 'S 



o > 



5. shA-fdng 'a libraiy;'^^ ^lo^n 'poliahedy refinedj'^d kan4s4nff 

'to follow.'*^ 

6. (d-Mtf 'to sweep;'Kl» tii-4!tng 'to listen;'iri tihMamg 'to kindle 


7. 2t»&-tol 'the old one, father ;'l"^ yUfi-isii)^ 'to drink winej'^^^^ (ilirchdn 

'land produce.' P 4 

8. hd^ 'an assistant;*'" taa^fdn 'morning rice^ breakfiEU(t;*^u tibmg- 

he^ 'to wait for.' v^ 

9. vxHrkitl 'hardship ;'X7 tdrJH 'to send;'Ki yhirmit' the eyes.'^'b' 

10. taiJHiKd 'to pour out teaj'^'d' fi^n^^-nlan 'last year ;'«''' ^ftd»-<*6«3 


11. toairpien ' outside ;'^'i' cMng-hwd 'to plant flowers;']'^ pad-Al 

'to inform.' !'"»' 

la. chB4l 'here;'»'o' ^Usidng 'to think of carefully j'p'q' shdng-n^ 'to 

mount a horse.'''"' 
^3./t^ng 'expenses;'*'"' yHfii 'to prepare beforehand;'''^ ka^irsd 

14. lUng-Ml 'to kill;'*'*" A<rti-«4i 'Uberal;'b''c^ Jfe'C-ft 'strengtL'd'^e^ 

15. |>C-«i4n 'shut the door;''''^" hid-kH 'to play at chess;'**"*^ 9£-tdng 


16. tii-ska 'to study;'^''^ ySt-c&i 'to be inad;'>m'' cMMIng 'domestic 

animals.' ""o" 

17. t86-<M 'to act as master ;'P^q'' M-hiDd 'to bear frmt ;''"•" j^t^ 'a 


18. td^ng 'to answer;''!"'^ Ow^-hwd 'talk;'w^«" M^ 'to blame.'y"'^ 

"« 'X IB '« 'JT 

-l- .«= Igj -^ .^ .:y. .J^ .^g 

± 'S '?|: "it '¥ "IS '« 'f 

'Bl -^ "Ig "i "-ffl "S "tt 

'■^ •■n '>!• '* 'm "« '« -> 

■ji "m 'm "m ''± 'Ji 's °'ffl 

'?i "fli 's '%n '# "'^ii "^ 

'^ ';f, -^ "-pi -J ^|g r^ ^ 

"4 ''# ''i 'la 's 

'H ""^ "")!?■ ""ifr ""IS ' 

I— I •-&• u^ p^ nn 

r x^ m' 


19. l9d^ ' yesterday /*'> M-k'^ ' forthwith ;'cd y^.j^ <go much the 


20. cKi^ai 'going in and out;*S^ hH^fdaig 'a 8choohx>om;'>J yi-t'Omg 

* together.' ki 

21. nAng-hm 'power;'™" jfdirJ&n 'nowj'^P nyh^hamg 'age'^f (of a 


22. io^i»4l 'el^ance of composition;*"* jfOirit^ 'thus;*^^ ya'Cniheii 'to 

wave the hand.'^^ 

23. vnAng-Ui 'name and title ;'<y yUMg-maik 'countenance;'*^' lci-hx)a% 

* marvellous.' *>'«' 

24. ndnrjAu^ 'difficult to 8ay;'d'«' fdrng-^ 'a house;'i'' ming-ji *to- 


25. A«oui-2al 'to retum;'i^'i' c^'^Atl 'tearpot;'i'>^' nil-t8a% 'a dave.'l'"*' 

33. The following may serve as an exercise for reading the different tones 
with the same syllable aspirated ss well as unaspirated : 

Chnmg »' ' chapter ;* didng ^ ' long ;' ch^ng P' ' palm of the hand ;' chdng «' 
*a cjrtain;' ehdng^ 'constant;' eh*dng^' 'to reward;' cAi*' 'to know;' 
c&l"* 'to point out;' ch%^ 'to begin;' ehi^ 'to come;' eht^' 'slow;' 
^lungy 'middle;' cKUng*' 'insect;' iMm/g^" 'to plant;' fan^ 'to divide;* 
fya^ 'flour;' fioi^" 'all;' /dw*^ 'to reverse;' fl^" 'not;' /i»^ 'to spend;' 
/Ih^'fet;' Adi^'fire;' WJ^'whatl' Wwn^k- ^ an elder brother;' Att^i" 
'a bear;' Awfim" 'a flower;' Ataln" « to change;' Am^o" 'flowery;' ilP^'a 
foundation;' jfelq" 'self;' iKr^ 'to remember, record;' A*i ■" 'he, that;' Ul^" 
*to insult;' ««" 'to begin.' 

"B* 'B °PP "^J '^ '^ 'ttl 

'* ** '5 '- 'lal "^ •# °*i 

'4- '^ '« '% 'ii "life 11 'f- 

•g '* -^ "IK 'ii^ "ti '%% % 

"^ 'sj "EI ■■* 'J^ '^g 'iX -t 

'■# 'tl '•«• 'ft '^ "JS 

'te ^M 'S ^f 'S •■« ''^ ^*5 

';i 'i^ '■# '« IE 'k '\^ "x 

'g^ "':ffi "'It "'S ''K '■£. 'a ''% 

C 2 


These will afford practice for the student in the regular sequences of ]ftngj 
ahdng, Kd, and some others : 

taien^-king •+• m §§ * thousand-mile-mirror — a telescope.' 
ch(»il-8heU kicud jtn jH -^ piL A^ 'beckon with hand-— call man.' 
gq/n-Hin tsfiii id ra^ n^. -^ y^ his ' favour very great' 
fan-tsiU kw6 15 'W yS -tM ^V ' ^^'^ ^^^ passover much — he is 

too fond of wine.' 

It remains for the student to collect phrases with the same consecutive 
tones, and to practise reading them aloud. Such short sentences may be 
found already marked with the proper tones in the body of this work. 

§. 3. Words wnd their compodUon generaUf/. 

34. Up to this point we have considered only the 9<nmda and ayUaMea of 
the Chinese, independent of any meaning that might be attached to them. 
We next turn to loorda as the expression of ideas. By a word is here meant 
one or more syllables, which, on being pronounced, convey but one significa- 
tion; e.g.jtn yi 'man,' t*ii-tmdng pw j^ ' a blacksmith.' 

35. A word in Chinese may consist of one syllable, but from the want of 
granunatical inflexions, and from the limited number oi syllables in use, a 
monosyllable is rarely intelligible when alone; it generally requires some 

adjunct to limit or strengthen its meaning. To illustrate this; ti -fin signi- 
fies 'earth;' H wp 'ruler;' ti m 'younger brother:' the syllables and 

tones .of all these being alike, there is nothing to distinguish them when 
uttered, and it is only by some syllable or syllables being attached to them, 
that any notion is to be acquired from them. Thus in the phrase t'ten-ti 

nF I ' heaven and earth/ the meaning of the syllable ^ becomes known by 

its juxta-poffltion with the syllable t*iefk In ti'/cLng | "l^ ' a place,' the 

syllable H 'earth' is limited hj /ang 'a square,' making the compound to 
signify 'locality, region' merely. Again, ti 'ruler,' as a general term, is 

limited in the spoken language to ' emperor' by prefixing hwdng ^^ ' em- 

peror,' and is made to signify 'God' by prefixing shcmgjh 'upper.' Then 

again, ti 'younger brother' is made intelligible at once to a Chinese by the 

addition of hiung ^? 'elder brother;' hmng-ti meaning 'brethren.' 

36. When two or more syllables come together in the above way to form 
one word or phrase, though each syllable may have a distinct meaning of its 
own, the compound becomes in many cases a perfect word with a new mean- 
ing, varying according to the nature of the relation existing between the 
syllables of which it is composed. These syllables either represent (o) syno- 


wyms^ as yhi-mH ^K M '^^ ^7®/ c^'^'ng^''^ W j\^ 'middle-heart — ^ihe 

centre', mUf^ y^ j^ ' end-tail — the end,' where each is as much a dissyllable 

as «M>rMou#0,fixui/^«to9U^&c., in English; or they form (/3) a i^Aro^e, as in ^'i09»- 

H 'heaven and earth/ K^ing mSmg ^T ^^ 'Confucius and Mencius/ which 

amounts to enumeration of objects; or (y) words of opp<mte meaning are 
united to form the general or abstract term implied by each, e. g. hiimg'ti 

' elder brother, younger brother — ^brethren *,' to-ahait ^^ ^ 'many, few — 

quantity, or how many 1' or (d) one of the syllables stands as cm attribute of 

the other, a g. tiking^n ^? y^' holy-man — a sage, a philosopher,' tdrhiodng 

yC W 'great-yellow — ^rhubarb,' k'u^iin -^ fl£ 'gone year — last year;' 

or (<) the two are in apposition, e. g. shirts^ /^ *^^ ' ski, the character — ^the 

character AV {sUme^jif^kiaK^ ^^ ' man-f^unily — a person,' Jci-jtu i^ /^ 

'guest-man — a guest' Similar unities may be formed by joining verbs 
which are synonymous or antithetical in meaning; and innumerable phrases 
of two and three syllables are constituted, by conventional usage, perfect 
words, their elements being inseparable. This subject will be found farther 
expbdned in the section on the formation of nouns and verbs. The following 
English words and phrases will lead the student to anticipate what he may 
find in Chinese compounds : (a) wire-worker, sUver^smith, tinrman, phi/m-tree, 
cratofah, load-^Ume, the three kingdoms (for the whole country), church- 
warden, feather-bed, sechport, fox-honnd; (b) to inju/re a mom, to ktU a man, 
to obey an order. 

37. From the above, however, it must not be inferred that Chinese words, 
thus formed, always remain in their original form when brought into con- 
struction in the sentence. The rhythm often causes the exclusion of one 
syllable from a word when the sense is unaffected by its absence. Thus 
mi^*-toin^ is 'mother-relation — ^mother;' ^r^-to^d is 'son-child — son;' * to die' 
is «l^, and s^^-Hait^ means ' die-finish— died :' but in the expression 'The 
mother and son died together,' tm^ and 4^ and liai^ would be omitted for 
the reasons just given, and the expression would be mik* ts^^ lid^ngS-kd^ yl>- 
t*4ng2 s^^, or ^t^^ might be also attached. 

38. The same principle of rhythm, which leads to the elision of one of 
two syllables in a word, under certun circumstances, also leads to the addi- 
tion of a meaningless particle when the sound of the whole would be 
improved thereby. This fact is shown most clearly in the local dialects, 
each of which has euphonic particles peculiar to it. 

* Cf. ttie pfarase * The long and the short— all.* 
b Ai-f c i*-i d -5^ e -r-r- f 

't 'M. ^a =f '^ T 'm 
"m '- 'm ■ 


39. Although Chinese words are not built np from roots by the addition 
of terminations, nor modified by changes of the vowels in them, there are 
certain syllables which take the place of terminations, and these give nominal 
and verbal forms to the words they thus affect We have called such sylla- 
bles fomuMiwes, Among them are, ^r^ * child,' USt^ ' son,* t^eA^ ' head :* 
thus, i'M^r^ * sparrow-child — a sparrow, or any small bird;' aiang^-t^^ 
'box-son — a chest;' ji^-i'eA^ 'sun-head — ^the sun.' The subject wiU be found 
further explained in the next chapter. 

§. 4. The characters, and how to write them. 

40. We now come to the consideration of the symbols employed to express 
the sounds and syllables of this language. They are not merely arbitrary 
figures, but ideographic characters; they express notions rather than sounds. 
They are very ancient, and are unique in every point of view. 

41. The inventor or orig^inator of the characters is said to have been 

Fa-hi, or, with his proper titie, Tai-hau Fit-hi y^ =^. iTr «jr *the most 

illustrious FH-hV He was bom in Shen-si nW u5 Frov., cira B. C. 2200, 

and was the first of five ancient emperors (v. Table of Dynasties and Em- 
perors, Appendix A.), and successor of the three mythical soverdgns. He 

built his capital, F*ai^/ung-Ju HfJ ir Jjj^ in ffttrwm^Mn^S Prov., on }ij )4) 

the Hu>ang'?M w* ypn or 'yellow river *.' FtL-hi taught his rude subjects the 

arts of domestic life; and he invented the eight diagrams, pd^kwd y\^ ±|\ 

or combinations of whole and broken stndght lines, as a substitute for the 
knotted cords used for recording events by one of his predecessors, Siii-jm t 

j^i A- Ftt-H al8o subsequently invented the Z*^ ^ f, or six 
classes of characters given below (44). 

42. Another account is, that Rwang-ti ^ ^f, the 3rd Emperor frx>m 

Fii-hi, ordered Tiamg-hH ^^ Qp , a man of extensive genius, and president 

of the Board of Historians, to work at the composition of the characters, and 
to follow the six rules of FiirhL One day, while walking by the river-side, 
he perceived some traces of birds' claws on the sand, and sat down to ponder 
on the Emperor's command. Some of the marks he copied on slips of 
bamboo with a pencil dipped in varnisL On his return home he multiplied 
the forms, always keeping in view the foot-prints of the birds, and thus pro- 
duced five hundred and forty characters, which were called niaMei-wf^ 

B, *=rt ^5* or 'bird-mark characters.' 

AlV —f* -'^. 

* A colony of Jews settled in thia dty in later times. 

i" SUi^ is said, by the Chinese, to have first discovereil the use of fire. 

*a '=f 'W. # '^ H 



43. But the father of letters in CIpna was Fa^aM ^[^ ^q ' a scholar in 
the reign of Chimg-wAng J^ ^ of the Chea Sj dynasty, circ. B. C. 1 100. 
In his work it is stated that the greater part of the characters were originally 
hieroglyphic; bnt that for the sake of appearance and convenience they were 
gradually changed* See Morrison's Dictionary, vol. I. Irvtroduction; Marsh- 

man^s Clavis Sinica, pp. 15, 16; and Kcmg-hien ^m ^^, or the translation 
of this work by F^re Mailla — Histoire Ginerale de la Chme^ tonL L pp. 1 9, 20. 

44. The LUrsku^ mentioned above (41), deserve some notice. The names 
of them, with explanations, are here given in a tabular form. 



Meaning of name. 

Technical name. 

No. in each. 


\^ Jf ^ Sidn^-king 










■^ ^ ffwiUA 










# l&^^-«^ 





^ j^^Shlng-Mng 




45. The following are illustrations of the above-mentioned six classes of 
characters. The modem forms are given as well as the ancient, that the 
student may be learning a few characters in every day use, while he sees the 
change which has taken place in the ancient hieroglyphic. 

Class I. HnsBOOLYPHia 

Meaning, 'san* 'moon' 'monntun' <eye* 'child* 'hone' 'fiah' 'tree' 'teeth' 

Mode™. Q n \U B^^ilTk® 
Sound. jt yil shdn mU t^ mH y^ mU chi 

*J^n^ represents 'a nail;' R itwi^ 'abow;* Jp tol«^ 'a well;' y^ 

and ]j| ch'Hen 'a stream;' jZ| k*eU 'a mouth;' im hd 'fire;' and ^ ahwul 

46. The second class includes those which indicate the meaning by their 
very form or compodtion. 


















Class II. Siokificatiye. 

* above' 



}r chS represents a plant springing from the ground, 'to come out,' — 

the common character for this is ch'H tH 'to go out;' "^ p^n *a root — 
beginning;' \—-\ yu, something in the mouth, 'to say.' 

47. The next class includes those which are formed by the union of two 
figures belonging to class I; and which together give rise to an idea, some* 
times of an abstraction, sometimes the name of a real thing. 




Class III. Idsoqraphic. 

' obstruction * ' forest' ' to see' 
hiin Itn kiin 

1^ /f/r 

'to ait' 'to follow' 


tad ta^ng 

^£ pai (two hands) ' to salute' — the Chinese clasp their hands together 
in salutations — also ' to visit ;' jM dH (heart and blood) 'pity;' J^ yi (roof, 
man, dark) ' night' 

48. The following are specimens of the fourth class; they show by the 
inversion of the figures the antithetic significations which are attached to 
them. These inversions are, however, not so apparent in the modem cha- 
racters as in the ancient hieroglyphic ; and whenever the original elements 
of a compound are sought for, the ancient forms must be consulted *. 

T. The sun above the horizon. 
a. The moon b^inning to appear. 

3. The common character is >f^ M *io unite.' 

4. The sun and moon together, suggesting the idea of hrigJUness, 

5. A tree in a doorway, — obttruetion. 

6. A man with a lai^ eye, — teemg, 

7. Two men on the ground, — tiUing, 

8. Two men following, — foUowing. 

* An idea of the number of ancient forms for the same character may be obtained by 
reference to M. Gallery's "Systema Phoneticum." Introduction, pp. 31 — 34. He there 
gives finom twenty to forty different forms in the ancient character. 


Class IV. Antithetic. 


Meaning. 'righi-liADd' 'left-hand' <tooatoff' 'tooontinae' 'body' 'body turned' 

Modem. :^' -^^ K* II 

f ^ m m. '^ ^ 

Sound* yiH tsd ttodn ki shm ytn 

49. The fifth class is more nnmerous than the preceding, as well as more 
important. All particles and proper names are included under this class. 
The usages with respect to these and the figurative meanings of words will 
be explained in the syntax and in the dictionary. 


Class y. Metaphobioal. 
Ancient (|^ f^ O 1^ 4^ ^ 

Meaning, 'mind' 'ohiaaeier' 'to imprison' 'peace' 'the world' 'ancient' 

Modem. ,(^>4 ^S |a« ^' iti.« :^9 

Sound. nn tai ta'iH gan dii h^ 

So ^T^ Vdng 'a hall' is used for 'mother j' ^^ shl * a house/ for 'wife;' 
\^t slwng 'the sun ascending/ for 'tranquillity;' ^M hmg 'to nose,' for 

Class VI. Phonetic. 

50. The sixth classi imder which the great mass of characters are found, 
has b«en called Phonetic; because, in the characters classed under it, one 
part gives its own soimd to the whole figure, and thus acts as a symbol of 
sound merely. This part does sometimes convey also its symbolic meaning 
as well as its sound. The number of really useful phonetic characters amounts 
.to about one thousand and forty. These, when united to the two hundred 

I. Hie \\ and I were not represented in the andent form, but the figures for hand 

wero rereteed. 

a. The modem chanuster for this idea is twdUf with on axe by the side of the silk 
ikiread» divided. 

3. The modem character Id has tHk added to strengthen the meaning. 

4. Svn is the common word for heaH in nearly all the senses in which this word is used 
in English ; — mind, disposition. 

5. This is a child under a ioo( it means properly, to produce, but commonly, o character, 

6. A man in an enclosure, — in prison, to imprison. 

7. A woman under a roof,—- sitting quiet at home, peace, tranquillity, 

S. Three figures for ten, — thirty years, a generation, this generation, the loorld. 
9. Ten and mouth, — through ten generations, ancient. 



and fourteen elementary figures (the RadicalB), produce from fifteen to twenty 
thousand derivatives (cf. 12 and 53). 

pC ^^ ]§/ I2i* are aU called iH, after ^ ' the common part. 
S/7 ^ Sa tJj^ ^ '^ *^ ^ called /an^, after "Jht' the common part 
jgj" :g'3 |^'^§]5'5 are all caDedifcii, after -j^'" the common part 

51. The Chinese division of the characters into classes has now been 
given and illustrated The figures in the margin of the table (44) show the 
number of characters under each class. It will be seen that the ordinary 
process of forming new symbols is the sixth j — ^by adding to a character a 
figure, to convey a sound merely, a new S3rmbol is formed, which has a name 

corresponding to its phonetic element. Thus the figure J tmg being added 
to the character >^ kin 'metal/ a new symbol^ %Y ting 'a nail* is pro- 
duced; so, also, being added to M At^ 'a head' the symbol Jp Hng '& peak,* 

or ' top of any thing,' is formed. By this ingenious plan any number of new 
characters might be created ; one part of which would designate the generic 
notion of the new name, and the other would indicate the 80v/nd by which 
to call it. As an illustration of this: — A newly discovered insect or fish 
might be called ling by certain rude tribes who had never expressed the 
sound in writing, some character having this sound ling would be taken by a 
Chinese scholar and united to the generic word ck&ng ^ insect,' or yit *' fish,' 
as the case might be, and the new character, thus formed, would ever after be 
used as the proper name for that particular insect or fish *. 

52. The hieroglyphic element in the Chinese characters is not of frequent 
occurrence, that is to say, we find but a very limited number of characters 
whose meaning can be gathered from their formation out of simple signifi- 
cant rudiments; and though the hieroglyphic element may have prevailed in 
many characters under their primitive forms, it is now seldom to be traced 
through the changes which the characters have undergone. An enquiry into 
this branch of the Chinese would be very interesting, and would perhaps 
throw some light upon the acceptations of words at the present day, but as it 
is not of a directly practical nature it would be out of place here. The 

following is an example; the character ^^ kicL 'a family' is composed of 

tmen 'a roof placed above, and ^> ski 'a pig* beneath; and these con- 


1 H 'Bel^' 3 with wor«2f=for0mcmA0r, 8 with va£b=tortM«p, 4 with Aborts 
to fear, 6 with mlk^to record; 6 fang * a square,* 7 with «orf2«= to enquire, 8 with 
a blow =^ to eet free, 9 with earth = a dtDeUing, or a atreet, 10 yniti dwdUng = a room ; 
n kH 'ancient' (c£ 49, note 9), 12 in an endoiwre =^firm, eontta/ni, id with gnue » 
hitter herbi, meton. for trouble, hardship, 14 with wood— a rotten tree, withered, 1^ with 
woman = a matron, a lady. 

* The phonetic system of arrangement for lexicographical parposeB has been adopted 
by M. Gallery in his work entitled "Systema Phoneticum Scripture Sinice.** 8to. 
Macao, 1841. 


Btituent parts would lead to the erroneoiis impression that pigs under a roof 
was the original notion to be conveyed; but a Chinese authority, noticed by 

Dr. Schott, makes the figure below to consist of the character j%n /^ 'man* 

placed in three different positions, and this would at once suggest the idea of 
a famUy\. 

53. The elementary figures or characters are technically termed radicals 
and primitives. The radicals, which were formerly about five hundred in 
number, are now reduced to two hundred and fourteen; the primitives 
amount to about one thousand seven hundred in common use. These, with 
the radicals and the characters compounded with both classes, include nearly 
all the characters existing in Chinese. 

54. The radicals have been sometimes denominated keys; but the term 
radicals is veiy suitable when we consider their meaning and use. They 
include the names of simple objects, natural and artificial, and serve as 
generic heads for classes of characters; and, in the absence of an alphabet, 
they are employed as an index to the whole language, just as an alphabet is 
used in European tongues. 

55. The Chinese term for the radicals is ts^-pd ^x^ ^R < character-class 

or classifier.' They are arranged according to the number of strokes required 
to form them. We have given them below under this arrangement, and 
recommend the student to use his best efforts to acquire them so as to write 
them correctly. 

Table of the Badicals. 

Note. — Of the two numbers given after each radical, the former represents 
the number of characters extant under that radical, and the latter the num- 
ber of those in conmion use. The words in brackets show the position of the 
radical in its derivatives. {Com.) means that the radical is in use as a com- 
mon word. The asterisk marks those radicals which are frequently found in 

Formed toiih one stroke. 

1. — - yi* 'one, the same* (various). 44. 16. 

2. I ktoqn * perpendicular' (through). 22. 2. 

This radical is used as a sign of the repetition of a character. 

3. ^ chik * a point,' also called tihi Wfy when used as a stop or dot. 1 1. 2. 

4. / pi^A curve, a sweep to the left' (various). 24. 8. 

5. C L U^ ** crooked line, one;' a horary character. 42. 8. 

6. J ^tl 'a hooked stroke' (various). 20. 3. 

t See Dr.SchotVs <' Chinesiache Sprachlehre." 4to. Berlin, 1857, p. 33. 

D 2 


Formed with two strokes. 

7. _ 4^ 'two* (com.) (enoloses, above, below). 31. 9. 

8. "^ teH, no signification is given of this radical (above). 39. 10. 

9. yi jtn * ' a man' (coul) (above). Its contr. form ^ on the left always. 

800. 141. 

o. I L i^w *a man walking' (obs.) (below). 52. 14. 
r. /\jl 'to enter' (com.) (above). 29. 5. 

2. /^jP* 'eight' (cont) (below). 45. 12. 

3. PI A^un^ 'a desert, an empty space' (obs.) (encloses). 51. $. 

4. ^^^ ml *to cover' (obs.) (above). 31. a. 

5. ^ ping * 'an icicle' (obs.) (left). 51. 16. 

6. FT ki 'a table, a bench ^ (encloses, right, below). 40. 4. 

7. LJ ^** '* receptacle' (obs.) (encloses). 24. 3. 

8. *MtoiZ*'aknife; a8word'(conL)(below,orrightinthiBform|J). 378.33. 
The hook should be written first. 

9. y1 ^* 'strength* (cont) (below or right). 163. 19. 
The hook should be written first. 

20. ./l pau 'to wrap up, to envelop' (obs.) (encloses). 66, 4. 
The dash should be written first 

21. r\p^ *ft spoon' (right). 20. 2. 

22. lI /«^ 'a chest' (obs.) (encloses). 65. 4. 

23. r^ hi * to hide' (obs.) (encloses). 18. 3. 

24. J- aAl 'ten' (coul) (various — ^below). 56. 11. 

25. p ^ 'to divine' (above, right). 46. 4. 

26. ^ toi 'a seal' (obs.) (right, or below in this form P). 39. 7. 

27. J hdn 'a shelter' (obs.) (hangs over). 128. 8. This is often inter- 
changed with radical 53. 

28. ^ meu 'crooked, perverse' (obs.) (above). 41. 2. 
^9' ^(^ yi^ *the hand; again' (com.) (right, below). 92. 12. 


Formed with three strokes, 

30. n k*ek* *a mouth' (com.) (left, below). 1047. 128. 

31. rj huoia* 'an endosore' (obe.) (encloses). 119. 16. 

32. "f" ^*t^* 'earth, soil' (com.) (left, under). 579. 56. Sometimes radicals 

170 and 150 are used instead of this. 

33. 'j-^ s£ 'a scholar; a statesman' (coul) (above, right). 25. 4. 

34. A^ efd 'to follow' (obs.) (above). 12. i. 

35. 2&1 g^ul 'to walk slowly* (obs.) (below). 24. 2. 

36. ^ H 'evening; darkness' (com.) (various). 36. 6. 

37. yr id* 'great' (com.) (above or below)^ 133. 23. 

38. TT n^* 'a woman' (com.) (left or below). 690. 61. 

39. "J-* tel* 'a son' (com.) (below, left). 87. 17. 

40. i-s-« nUen* 'a roof (obs.) (above). 249. 52. 

41. "w" ts^ 'the tenth of a chl 7? or Chinese foot' (com.) (right or 

below). 41. II. 

42. i/n nat^ 'small' (com.) (above, combined). 32. 4. 

43. yf w yr j^ wdmg or yi4 'crooked-leg' (obs.); yiu 'still more' 

(com.) (left). 67. 2. 
44- J^ «Ai* 'a corpse' (above). 149. 20. 

45. y* Mi 'a sprout' (obs.) (above). 39. i. 

46. Ml aAdn 'a mountain' (com) (left, above). 637. 17. 
47- m ^^ ill c^***^ *a stream' (com.) (combined). 27. 4. 

48. jQ kOng 'work* (com) (various). 18. 5. 

49. p^*i 'self (com.) (below). 21.3. Distinguish this from p f tod P «^.' 

50. lyl kin* 'a napkin' (com.) (left, below). 29^. 19. 

51. ^r kdn 'a shield' (com.) (combined). 18. 6. 

52. ^ yau 'young' (left, doubled). 21. 4. K Q. 5g Ai 'several.' 

53. j$fen* 'a covering' (obs.) (covers). 287. 29. 

■ I I r - ■ - ~- ~ ■■■-.- ■— — 

1 f signifies 'already;' «£ is a horary oharacter, '9-1 1 o'clock a<m.' 


54* ikying 'a long journey* (obs.) (left). lo. 5. Used for radical 162. 

55. ^ kung * folded hands* (below). 51. 2. 

56. "^y«*a dart' (right). 16.2. 

57. ^^ kung * *a bow' (coul) (left, below). 166. 15. ^ 

58. ^ ki, ^r or £f , 'a pig's head' (obs.) (above). 26. 2. 

59. ^ shan 'long hair' (right). 53. 7. 

60. ^M*'io walk' (obs.) (left). 227. 26. 

Farmed irith four «^ria^M. 

61. ^{v^ Hn *, contr. js 'the heart' (com.). (The contr. form on the left ; the 

fiiU form, below or elsewhere). 1077. 142. 

62. p^ to * ' a spear' (com.) (right). 1 1 1. 15. 

63. 6 &t2 'a one-leaved door; a family' (com.) (above). 45. 5. 

64. -^ eheh*9 contr. 7, 'the hand' (coul). (The contr. form on the left; the 

full form, below). 1092. 46. 

65. '^* ehl ' a branch' (cont) (right). 27. 2. 

66. j7 pA *, contr. j/, ' to touch' (right). 296. 21. 

67. ^^ w^/i, contr. Y/to paint letters' (com.). Contr. form seldom used. 

(below). 23. 2. 

68. ^ teU 'a dry measure, the North Star' (com.) (right). 33. 5. 

69. Ft" kin 'an ax; a Chinese pound' (com.) (right). 56. 8. 

0. Jj fi'ng *a square, a place' (com.) (left). 83. 9. 

1. yV^ wOl^ in comp. ^, 'wanting, not.' 13. 2. 

2. R i** 'the sun; a day' (com.) (left, and elsewhere). 455. 51. 

3. I— "I yti* 'to speak' (com.) (below, and elsewhere). 38. 13. 
4* ^ yS'*' 'the moon; a month' (com.) (left). 70. 11. 

5. y^ •»t3t* 'wood' (com.) (left, below). 1358. 17. 

6. ^* Vien* 'to owe, to want' (right). 236. 18. 

7. It ch\ * to stop at a point' (com.) (various). 91.9. 


78. ^ tal* * a rotten bone; ba4, putrid' (com.) (left). 232. 12. 
'J9. ^shu «to kUr (right). 84. 8. 

80. ffl^ 14^2 'not, without' (com.) (below). 17.5. 

81. rp pi 'to compare' (cool) (yarioua), 22. i. 

82. zt^ mail 'hair (not human), fiir, feathers' (cont) (lefL) 2T2. 4. 

83. flh M 'a fiEunily' (coul). 15. 3. ^^ min 'the people' is under M. 

84. /^ k'i 'vapour' (obs.) (right, above). 18. i. The character in use is sS^. 

85. ^Af^ shwul *, contr. J'' , 'water' (com.) (contr., on the left ; full form^ below). 

1586. 148. 

86. y^ hd*, contr. il\\, 'fire' (coul) (contr., below; fiill form, left). 639. 43. 

87. ni cAa^, contr. -^^, 'claws' (com.) (above). 37. 7. See radical 97. 

88. "^J^ 'a father' (com.) (above). 11. 2. 

89. ^ hddu 'to imitate' (left). 17. 3. 

90. H ekwAng ' a couch' (obs.) (left). 50. 2. 

91. Jt^ piin 'a splinter' (left). 78. 4. 

92. ^ yd 'molar teeth' (com.) (left). 9. 2. C£ radical 211. 

93. flu nid *, contr. B^ , 'an ox' (com.) (contr., on the left ; ftdl form, below). 

232. 12. 

94. -^ k'iuhij contr. i, 'a dog' (com.) (contr., on the left). 445. 28. Inter- 

changed with radical 153. 

Farmed wUh five strokes, 

95. ^ hi&m 'colour of the sky ; dark' (com.) (combined). 7.2. E. G. ^V 

96. ^ yik* 'a jewel* (com.) (left). 473* 25. 

97. nt hod ' fruit of the melon kind* (com.) (right or left). 56. 2. 

98. ^ loct 'tiles, bricks' (com) (right, below). i73- «• Interchanged with 

radicals 32, 108, and 112. 

99. "tf' han 'sweet' (com.). 23. 2. 

100. ^^ sang 'to be bom, to live' (com.). 23. 2. 


oi. J^ y^ 'to use' (com.) (combined), xi. 2. E. G. '^f^ 'great.' 

02. p^ «*i^* «a field' (com.) (left, below). 193. 26. 

03. 7^ P^ 'a pio<» of clotb; a foot' (com.) (below). 16. 5. 

04. Jp*nl* 'disease' (left). 527. 25. The common character is ^ ^ng. 

05. 7^/nl 'to stride' (above). 16. 3. 

06. Q jp^ 'white; clear' (com.) (left, above). 109. 8. 
07* R^ |>*l 'skin; bark' (com.) (right, left, below). 95. i. 

08. |[[( m\ng* 'dishes' (com.) (below). 129. 16, 

09. B mil'*' 'the eye' (com.) (left, or contr. form |xa above). 646. 29. 
xo. ^ 9n6t2 'a barbed spear* (left). 66. 3. 

XX. y^ ah^ 'an arrow' (left). 65. 8. 

X2. .>A «Ai* 'a stone, a rock' (coul) (left, below). 489. 23. 

X3. Tn* shi *, contr. K , ' an omen from heaven' (com.) (left, below). 
2x4. 25. The contr. form is similar to the contr. form of 145. 

14. WX je^ ' the print of an animal's foot; a trace' (below). 13. 2. 

IS- ^^* 'grain' (com.) (left). 433. 3X. 

16. it hiil 'a cave, a hole' (cont) (above). 300. 18. 

X7. ) f ft 'to stand, to establish' (com.) (left). X02. 7. 

Formed wUh six 8t/r6ke8, 

x8. ^A' chf&*y contr. /j^, 'bamboo' (coul) (above). 954. 45. 

X9. yl^ w»i* 'rice (uncooked)' (com.) (left). 32X. x6. 

20. ^^ mi *, also wiitten ^ and -J^ , ' silk, (threads) ' (comu) (left, below). 
82 X. 7 1. This radical has also been called 9z; prob. for az S^ . 

2x. Yfcf'^ ^^^ earthenware vase' (left). 78. 2. 

22. [xxj noding^ contr. |]J], pxi, and )X], 'a net' (above). 164. X5. K Q. 

r^ hd,n 'rare.' 

23. ^S y4«^ 'a sheep' (com.) (left, above). X57. 9. 

24. ^^ yu 'wings' (com.) (various: — above, below, right). 2x0.9, 


ia5« ^ &tt^ 'old' (com.) (above); contr. into ^* in :^*and :^*. 23.5. 
ia6. jj'p 4*" ' wbiflfcere; and, yet' (com.). 23. 3. 

127. ^^ toi * a plough handle' (left). 85.3. 

128. '^ ^* <the car' (com.) (left, below). 172. i6. 

129. ^ yd ' a pencil' (left and below). 20. 2. 

130. ^ /!{*» oontr. Qy 'fleah' (com.) (left, below). The contr. form is 

printed like tftl 'the moon.' 675. 56. 

131. S dim 'a subject; a statesman' (com.) (left). 17. 4. 

132. 1^ U£ 'self; firom' (com.) (various). Sometimes used for n pi 'white.' 

35- a- 

133. ^^ M 'to come to' (com.) (below, and elsewhere). 25. 3. 

134' tlj **** 'a mortar* (various). 72. 7. 

135. Y^ Ai 'the tongue' (com.) (left). 35. 6. 

136. ^^ eKvihh 'to turn the back on; to oppose' (obs.). 1 1. 3. 

137. 4^ d^ 'a boat' (com.) (left). 198. 3. 

138. ^^^^ 'disobedient; limits' (right). 6. 2. 

139. '^ «i 'colour; appearance' (com.) (right). 22. 2. 

140. ]^)M tooi^*, contr. +4-, 'grass; plants' (com.) (above, in the contr. 

form). 1902. 95. 

141. )[p h^ 'a tiger' (obs.) (above). 115. 9. 

142. ^[ €hiimg* 'an insect; a reptile ' (com.) (left, below). 1067. 22. 

143. J^ Mil 'blood' (com.) (left). 61. 3. 

144. ^Thing 'to walk; to do' (com.) (encloses). 54. 8. 

145. ^ { *, contr. If, 'clotMng; covering' (com.) (contr. form on the left; 

fall form below; sometimes half above and half below). 611.36. 

146. ml f/dy also written || > 'to cover over' (obs.) (above). 30. 3. 

1 VmA 'aged/ com. 'to examine.' 2 cU ' this, he who, &c.* 3 « * the west.' 



Formed with seyen strokei, 

47. ^^kUn* *to see' (com.) (right, below). i6a. 14. 

48. J^ ki6 'a horn; a corner' (com.) (left, below). 159. S- 

49. ^ yhh* < words; to speak' (cont) (left, below). 861. 105. 

50. ^A»» 'a valley* (left). 55.2. 

51. ^ fe& 'a wooden sacrificial vessel; beans' (below, left). 69. 5. 

52. ^^ «^i * a pig' (left or below). 50.3. 

53. ^ cAi * reptiles' (left). 141. 5. 

54- ^3 l'^* *a pearl shell' (cont) (left, below). 278. 46. 

55. Jji cA« * flesh colour' (com.) (left). 32.2. 

56. ^^ taeU* 'to walk, to ran' (coul) (left). 236. 11. 

57. £ totf *, contr. ff, 'the foot, enough' (com.) (left, below). 581. 30. 

58. ^ thin 'the body; trunk' (com.) (left). 98. 4. 

59. ^^ ibS* 'a carriage' (com.) (left). 362. 22. Sometimes called cA^. 
60' ^& «» 'bitter,' H. C. (coul) (doubled, right). 37. 7. 

61. ^^ »Mn 'time; an hour,' H. C. (com.) (various). 16. 3. Cf. radical 168. 

62. 5^ (sW*, contr. i^, 'motion* (obs.) (left). 382. 59. 

^3- E» ^*' ^^*'^* P' **^ ^*y' (coul) (right c. contr. form). 351. 27. 
Cfl radical 170. 

^4- ffi^ y*^* 'new wine,' H. C. (com.) (left). 291. 20. 

65. -^j^i^' to distinguish' (left). 14.2. 

66. S^ A 'a Chinese mile; a village' (com.) (below). 14. 5. 

Farmed wUh eight strohea. 

67. ^g ^t»* 'gold; metal' (coul) (left). 803. 46. 

68. -^ dCdrng, contr. E, ' long, old' (com.). 56. 2. 

6g, Pfl iTt^'*' 'a door' (com.) (encloses). 249. 27. 

70. mfi^*9 contr. R, 'an artificial mound of earth' (left^. contr. fonn). 
347. 38. Cf. radical 163. 


171. ^ tai 'to reach to' (right). 13. i. 

172. ^^ chad* "shoiirtaaed birds' (right). 234. 17. 

173- Hm y^* 'n^' (com.) (contr. form a^ above). 298. 18. 
^74« "m' tHng 'azure, sky-blue' (com.) (left). 18. 3. 
I7S- ^^ /f 'not so, &lse' (com.). a6. 3. 

Farmed with nine strokes, 
^7^- ^ «»t^ ' the &ce' (com) (left). 67.1. 

177- 1^^'nntanned hide, without hair' (left). 307.5. 
178. ^^ wei 'tanned hide' (left). loi. 2. 
179- ^ Ui^ 'leeks' (various). 21. i. 

180. ^^ ^n 'sound, tone' (com.). 43. 3. 

181. H y^* 'the head' (com.) (right). 373. 30. 

182. ^>iln^ 'wind' (com.) (left). 183.3. 

183. ^ yt 'to fly' (com.). 13. 1. 

184. '^t M*, contr. f , <to eat' (com.) (contr. form on the left). 395. 38. 

185. « theU 'the head; the chief (com.). 20. i. 

186. "36: hidng 'fragrance' (coul). 38. i. \^ct>i *« 

Farmed with ten etrokee, 
1^7' rafi •^* * a horse' (com.) (left, below). 473. 28. 

188. ^^ M* *A bone' (com.) (left). 186. 4. Interchanged with radicals 

130 and 181. 

189. JpC kau 'high' (coul). 35. i. 

190. E^ piaH ' long hair' (above). 245. 7. 

191. rn <e«2 'to fight' (obs.) (encloses). 24. i. 

192. 1^ chAng 'fragrant plants' (below). 9. i. 

193. S ft 'a tripod with crooked feet' (left, below). 74* 7* 

194. ^ kwA ' a departed spirit, a ghost' (com.) (left). 142. 4- 

E 2 


Formed wUh eleven strokee, 

195. ^ yi2 'a fish' (com.) (left). 572. 10. Interchanged wiili radicala no 

and 205. 

196. ^^ nuii^ 'a bird'(com.) (right). 761.21. Interchanged with radical x 80. 
197- ^/i^'8alf(left). 45.1. 

198. ^S ^i2 'a stag' (coul) (above). 106. 9. Interchanged with radical 120. 
^99- ^f^ ""^ 'wheat* (com.) (left). 132. i. 

200. mj^ md ' hemp* (com.) (above). 35. 3. 

Formed wUh twelve strokes, 

201. ^^ hwdng 'yellow, colour of earth* (com.) (left). 43. i. 

202. ^^ «^d < millet* (coul) (left). 47.2. 

203. ^B hi 'black* (com.) (left, below). 173. 4. 

204. *^ ch\ 'to sew, to embroider' (left). 9. none in common use. 

Formed voMk thirteen strokea. 

205. HB mi^n^ 'a frog' (com.) (below). 41. 2. Interchanged with radicals 

140, 195, and 212. 

206. l^ ting 'a tripod' (com.). 15. i. 

207. ^^ kU *a dram' (com.) (above). 47. i. 

208. Wl sh/^ 'a rat' (com.) (left). 103. 2. Interchanged with radical iii. 

Formed with fourteen strokes. 
^09- ^L P^ 'the nose' (com.) (left). 50. i. 

210. ^C te*C 'to adjust, to adorn' (com.) (above). 19. 3. 

Formed with fifteen strokes, 

211. ^* chl 'front teeth' (coul) (left). 163. 3. 

Formed wUh sixteen strokes. 
312. ll lArhg 'a dragon* (com.). 25. 2. 

213. ^E Ati;^ 'a tortoise' (com.). 25. i. Interchanged with radical 205. 

Formed with seventeen strokes. 

214. my^^9k flute with three holes' (left). 20. 1. 


56. The meanings attached to the above elementary characters have been 
thus classified ; we give them here because they may be useful both to the 
general reader, to show the kind of words denoted by the elementary figures, 
and to the student to test his knowledge of the radicals themselyes. 

Parts of bodies. — ^Body, corpse, head, hair, down, whiskers, face, eye, car, 
nose, mouth, teeth, tusk, tongue, hand, heart, foot, hide, leather, skin, wings, 
feathers, blood, flesh, talons^ horn, bones. 

Zoological, — Man, woman, child ; horse, sheep, tiger, dog, ox, hog, hog*s 
head, deer ; tortoise, dragon, reptile, mouse, toad ; bird, fowls ; fish ; insect. 

Botanical, — Herb, grain, rice, wheat, millet, hemp, leeks, melon, pulse, 
bamboo, sacrificial herbs; wood, branch, sprout, petal. 

Mineral, — ^Metal, stone, gems, salt, earth. 

MeteorologioaL — Rain, wind, fire, water, icicle, vapour, sound ; sun, moon, 
evening, time. 

Utensils, — A chest, a measure, a mortar, spoon, knife, bench, couch, clothes, 
crockery, tiles, dishes, napkin, net, plough, vase, tripod, boat, carriage, pencil ; 
bow, halberd, arrow, dart, axe, musical reed, drum, seal. 

Qualities, — Colour, black, white, yellow, azure, carnation, sombre-colour; 
high, long, sweet, square, large, small, slender, old, fragrant, acrid, perverse, 
base, opposed. 

Actions, — ^To enter, to follow, to walk slowly, to arrive at, to stride, to 
walk, to reach to, to touch, to stop, to fly, to overspread, to envelope, to 
encircle, to establish, to overshadow, to adjust, to distinguish, to divine, to 
see, to eat, to speak, to kill, to fight, to expose, to stop, to embroider, to owe, 
to compare, to imitate, to bring forth, to use, to promulge. 

Parts of the world and dwellings; Jlgu/res; misceUa/neous, — A desert, cave, 
field, den, mound, hill, valley, rivulet, clifi', retreat. A city, roof, gate, door, 
portico. One, two, eight, ten, eleven. An inch, a mile. Without, not, false. 
A scholar, a statesman, letters ; art, wealth, motion ; self, myself, father ; a 
point ; wine ; silk ; joined hands ; a long journey ; print of a bear's foot ; 
a surname, a piece of cloth. 

57. Some radical appears in every symbol, and the Chinese classify the 
characters under that radical, which is easily distinguishable from the rest of 
the figure. In some cases, however, the selection appears to have been arbi- 
trary, for occasionally we find characters classified under a radical which is so 
intermingled with the remaining part of the figure that it is only by practical 
experience that it can be recognised. The student will find a list, taken 
from K'ang-hi's Dictionary, of all the characters whose radical is difficult to 
discover, in Dr. Morrison's Dictionary, part II. vol. II. 

58. When the radical is found, we proceed to count the number of strokes 
in the remaining part, often called the primitive. The primitive is composed 
of strokes, from one to twenty and upwards ; these strokes are made in one 
consecutive order, which depends upon the figure itself, and this order can 
only be learnt by practice. (The rules in Art. 76. may be consulted.) As 



examples: — the character ~K Md 'below' is under rad. — yX, with two 
strokes in its complement; f^* ahl 'an age* is also under rad. — " yiy 
with four strokes; /j nal 'it may be, it is, but,' is imder r^A. J pi^ with one 
stroke; .ffl. si is under J hiuy with seven; -ft wU 'five,' under ^ 

'two,' with two; Jl'. te^n^ 'a well,' under the same rad., with two; 
^ n h/u)d,ng 'more,' under the same rad., with five strokes; cp ^ or ^ 
'second,' under the same rad., with six strokes; l/J i 'to use' is under the 
rad. /^ jin ' a man,' with two strokes. If, while learning the radicals, the 

student will write them with the rules in Art. 76. before him, he will have 
little difficulty in counting the number of strokes in them, or in any character 
compounded with them. As the number of the radical is rarely known, even 
by advanced students of Chinese, the following table of the Tsi-pH is ar- 
ranged alphabetically to assist the beginner in referring to his Chinese -English 

An alphabetic a/rra/ngemerU of the Hadicala. 

y ^r 128 
chdng ig2 
^ che 159 
!h ch'i 45 
•^- cheu 137 
^ c^i34 

^y' chi 65 

chi 133 

^ ch^ 153 
*% chi 204 

chi 211 

^ chi 60 
^^ chi 155 
chin 131 

^Schd 162 
"% chil 3 

Ayj- chU 118 

yfl ch'tten 47 
'Bg cktil 172 

^ chwdng 90 
I /ari^ 22 
"jj fam^lo 
y^ fiu 121 
yett 170 


/J 183 

I^^MTi^ 182 

r^ Aaw 27 

A^ 203 
1^ Ai 23 

^ h\Au 89 
:^^htng 144 

jj[ Ai^ 143 
• y^ hiHenf 95 
^ A«^ 63 
)IP M 141 



hwdng 201 
1 I Auniii 31 

|:£j Jet^ 114 


)\^jtn 10 

--p ^aw 51 
"tj* kam 99 
I I kdn 17 
A;^n 138 

1^1 kau 189 
n A;'eit 30 

H ^ 49 


^ **l 84 
J^ A;'i^ 76 
^^ A^ten 147 
rfl A»n5o 

Fp ^w 69 

>^ ^n 167 
-^kid 148 
t;jj[ A;'iiii34 
i^ kill 179 
-^ A;'iu^n 94 
pj A^tWTi^ 13 
H?" A» 62 
^ Afi 159 

AIbo called yu. 

t AI0O called yiUn* 



J k&6 

i-^ ml 14 

/fc «dw^ 100 

-4^ az 120 

ffl; «m2 80 


i-A-» mi^ 40 

1 1 1 8han 46 




rtl trnwi 176 

^ «Aan 59 

"^ tal^jS 

|U| ya 146 


|n| mlng 108 

•^ «Ad^64 

^ tol 171 

l!p ydfi^f 1 23 

"P kang 48 


1^ aheh 185 

// tow 18 

^ yaiZ 52 


LJ mi2 109 

F* «Ai 44 


P y^ 181 

l-j leOttg $1 



^ fe?^68 

) y^S3 


^ "nl 104 

;|l «^^"3 

^ <«^ 151 

a y^ M9 

1 twan 3 

|P> nuit^ 196 

^ ahl 152 

1 ted 191 

— • yi I 


^il mit 93 

J- «A)J 24 

H-j ^i^ 102 



J(' w6 38 

.^ «^{ 112 

m| ^l?i^ 206 


TJ^la^ 12$ 

/[^pd 12 

5 *^^ ^35 

J ta4n 41 


fp. U166 

/t pau 20 

"^ 8hi 184 

^y* teaii 140 

f— [ ^71 180 

Jj « 19 

Q j»^ 106 

^iP *AJ 1 1 1 

^p fe«^ 156 


g ft 193 


^ ahln 158 

^ fo'l 210 


if ft 117 


Jto «AC?i 161 

^ tei26 

J[; y»^ 43 

^ ^* 197 


-^ «Att 79 

-^- teCn^ 174 



]^pt 101 

/^^ ahtl 202 


^§ yiil 164 


8 ^ 209 

^ «A^ 208 


§ y« 214 

Si ^l293^ 212 

/ Pi4 

2ft: *Awl 35 

g te^i32 

^3^ 124 

^«»a 187 

7e !>'« 103 

JJ^ tfAim^l 85 

-f- t'H 32 

l^l^j 3^ 173 


B4 ptau 190 




Pn m4n 169 

J=i^ pihh 91 


^ w4n 67 

H y^ 73 

^ «7M»t^ 82 


yp ^i^ 42 

;;t ^^'^^a 


^& fnS 199 

^ i»n^ 15 

ji^ ain 61 

it '^^i^ 96 

^ ytX 129 

^ www 28 

l^ptf 25 

-V^ aUn 160 



^^ met2 no 

jz^ jwSt 66 


^. 1l76t 178 

J^ yUrtg loi 


/^iw? 105 




^ Also called min< 



59. Various forms of character have been used at different periods^ and 
some of them are still employed for certain purposes. The sheet facing this 
page will show six of these form& Beginning on the right hand and reading 
downwards we have in the first column — «AtZ» yiit^ lH^ t'i^; yU^y chuen^; 
f/u% lis; yti^ kial^; yu^, hing'^; yu^, tsaiti; yu^j &ung^; i e. 'There 
are six forms of writing, yiz. the seal character, the so-called offidal^ the 
paUem, the cu/rsive, the grass (or abbreviated cursive), and the Sv/ng dynasty 

60. i) Of the Ghucn-shu^^ (col. i.) there are several varieties, from the 
stiff straight lines used on seals and stiff spike-like strokes cut on brazen 
vessels, to the rounded angles as seen here and upon porcelain, cakes of 
ink, kc. 

2) The Li'shiii^*' (coL 2.) was invented by officiab under the Tsin 
dynasty ; it is often employed for inscriptions, titles and prefaces to books, 
and was formerly used for official papers. 

3) The KiatrshU^^ (col. 3.) is the model for good writing; works are 
sometimes printed in this form, but not conmionly. 

4) The Hing^hu^^ (col. 4.) or rwnniTig hand is frequently used in pre- 
faces, and for business purposes. Many varieties of it may be seen in Morri- 
son's Dictionary, part II. voL II. 

5) The Tsail-shu\^ (col. 5.) or grass character is an abbreviated form of 
the Hing-shu, These abbreviations are so various, according to the whim 
of the writer, that sometimes they can scarcely be read even by educated 
natives. This form is employed in pre&ces, manuscripts, and shop-ledgers, kc, 

6) The Sung-shu^*' (col. 6.) or as it is also called the Sung-pdn^^ was 
first used, under the Sung dynasty, for printing from wooden blocks ; an art 
which was invented about that time (A. D. 900). This form has continued in 
use for letter-press ever since. 

61. In addition to these six forms, the Chinese indulge their taste and 
fisuicy in ornamental writing. They have, for example, the toheal-ear, the 
dragon-headj the tadpole, the hamboo-sprouty and other forms of character. 
The Emperor K^iSn-litng's^^ Poem on Shing-kingy^v the city of Moukden, 
the metropolis of Manchuria, has been printed, both in Chinese and Mandchu, 
with every variety of fanciful character. A very beautiful copy of this work 
may be seen in the Library of the British Museum. 

62. Many characters have undergone a series of changes at different 
periods, and some are frequently used for others. The various descriptions 

a ^r. b --JE-. c f^ d ji(^ e • — 1 f /Ui g 

-iEr ^J- ^Wffl ®t~l 'i^s 

w xN si y ^ 

rH 'jT 1^. ykr i*/X ^^ means 'a board, plank or 

block.' The common word for a boat of small dimensions is Sdn-pdn ' three planks/ 


























. / 


»» » » 


.... I 


• I 

. ' f • 

« I 

'*% I 




V ' 




- / 


»■ • 
r. V 

^ f 


<^ .. 




I r 



r - > 


I . 

^ J 

^ I 





- i 


►•• i 


" I 

f . 

^ • -^ ' 


■• « 

• • . y 

i i 

« *^ 

Sf ■^■' "i 

: ."i 

4<r te 

I • 

t ' 


i - > 

X-- . »— 



hKve been classified tinder the following designations : i. The CMng-Ui,^^ or 
'connect character,* without yariations; 3. T*ilng48&^^^ those having 'cor- 
responding forms,* duplicates and triplicates; 3. iTung-Ui,^^ those conyeying 
a corrresponding signification though differing in form; 4. Filn-i8£^^ and 
KHrtsi,^^ the 'original' and 'ancient forms;* and 5. Siit't8£,l^^ 'yulgar forms* 
of characters. Abbreyiated forms are called Sdng-tsi^^^ and spurious ones 

ITei-te^; ib e. g. ^^ for «» H, * to think' 

63. The standard works in Chinese literature are generally printed with 
the full form (C7dng-t8£) of the characters, but some works contain a few 
abbreyiations (iTt^-to^ or Sit-ts^) ; and books in the lower style of composi- 
tion — such as noyels, ballads, &c. — contain numerous contracted forms. The 
list here giyen should be learnt by the student, as the forms in it are likely 
to occur frequently. Many more will be found in the Dictionaries o^E^dng-hl 
(in Chinese), of Drs. Morrison and Medhurst (in English), and in that of P^re 
Ck>n^yes (in Portuguese). 

List ofaJbbreffdaiedfiyirfM in common %»m* 
(N. B. "Diey an arranged according to the number of Btrokes in the abbreviations.) 

*/l It 

8/f «» 
la -t, 

5 >^afi33 


ai %^ % 

*3 ;f U ii 

»63i \ 


3oy^ ffi 



33 "pu ^L 

34 [i] H 

35i2] m 


37 ^ I 

38 ^^ msy 



41 ]i) 

44 ^;C ^S 


46 •t 


^p m m 



5> .^, ii 




57 IH 

58 a* 

S9 W 



c |;::7 



* '* MS 

* These numbers refer to the sheet of characters. 


64. Besides the use of tkese abbreviations and vulgar forms of diaractera 
in the lower class of compositions, when expressing purely local idioms, collo^ 
quial or provincial phrases, characters well known, but of an entirelj diffierent 
meaning from that which is to be conveyed, are sometimes employed ; siid 
the reader is supposed to understand that the character used, is so used 
merely on account of its sound, that is both syllable and tone. At other 

times characters are made by the addition of the radical i jtn * man,' — as in 

the phrase m^ ^yC kiS-hd 'utensils, implements, furniture,' or the radical 

P k'eil 'mouth,' — to some common character. All the local dialects, the 

Canton, the Amoy, the Fiicheu, and the Shanghid especially, contdn such 
characters, which are often not to be found in the Dictionaries. 

65. It will be desirable here to point out some characters which, though 
similar in form, or with a very slight variation, differ in sound and meaning. 

p^iH *self;' pi *to stop, finished, now, already;' P «^ *9 o'clock to 

II A. M. :' ka and I are often written and printed interchangeably for each 

other. -?^» yH *to give* and -I— ts^ *8on' are confounded by beginners, 

the former requires four strokes, the latter only three, ""f" kdn 'a shield,* 

"J^ yH * in, at, with respect to,' and -^ ts*ien * a thousand,' are similar. 

Compare also y^ tci 'not yet' and ^^ ^^ '^® end;' J^^ioik 'finished' and 

\ya or ch& 'forked;' id ^ 'great,' t*ai -j^ 'very great, very,' and y^Uiiiihi 

*a dog;' j^t*ien 'heaven' and y^/^ '^ man, a person.' 

66. The Dictionary edited by the Emperor K*d7ig-ht contains about forty- 
four thousand characters ; but of these, six thousand five hundred are obsolete 
forms, four thousand two hundred are without name or meaning, and, of the 
remainder, about twenty thousand are very rarely met with, being either 
duplicate forms, names of unimportant places and persons, or found only in 
rare and ancient works. From ten to twelve thousand is understood to be 
the number employed in Chinese literature, but a much smaller number suf- 
fices for ordinary purposes. The manual native Dictionary, — ^the Fqn-yUn 


m9 ' divided rhymes,* — in use in the province of Canton contains seven 

thousand three hundred and twenty-seven characters. Even this xiqmber 
includes many characters not in common use. Four, five, and six thousand 
have been mentioned as an approximation to the number of characters in 
general use. The manual Dictionary appended to this work contains nearly 
three thousand five hundred, and these will be found sufficient for all ordinary 

§. 5« AtTdn^eTMnt of chtnxictfTB in boohs, pwndtutiwn, arc. 

67. The characters are arranged in native works in columns, and are read 
from the top of the page downwards, always beginning on the right baud 
side and proceeding column by column towards the left This arrangement 



rendeni it neoesaarj to begin at^ what appears to us to be, the eud of the 
Tolume, as is the case in the Hebrew^ Arabic^ and some other languages. 
Two pages only are printed at a time, and these upon the same side of the 
paper. The leaf is folded with its blank sides placed together, and on the 
folded edge, which remains uncut, the general title, the running title, the 
chapter, section, page, and often the designation of the edition, are printed 
parallel to the other columns. When the characters are arranged in horizontal 
lines they are read from right to left. 

68. The sizes of books vary from folio and quarto, which are uncommon, 
to imperial octavo for the classics and history; duodecimo, designated 'sleeve' 
editions, alluding to their portability, are taken for novels ; and various smaller 
sizes are in use for popular poetry, ballads, and works on arithmetic : but, 
although these sizes predominate in, they cannot be said to be confined to, the 
above classes of literature. Various qualities of paper are used ; works being 
sometimes printed on white paper ; large paper copies are also found. Poems 
and other works are occasionally printed in white letters on a black ground. 
YermiUion coloured characters are a mark of Imperial design or patronage. 
The yellow title-page with the dragon depicted on the margin indicates the 
Imperial editions. 

69. The divisions of a work are commonly p^n ]2K or kiu^ * 9K * vo- 

kuAes,* kuriU* |p| 'chapters,* the latter especially in iM>vels j twdn G^ ^section,* 

fhiSmg w; * chapter,' Uyt "gtV 'section,' used for Werse,' are also found. In 

extensive works the characters used in the cycle and for the time of day 
are employed for divisions of the ^iu^ The first four characters of the 

Yirkmg 3 1^ are sometimes used for works in four parts (v. Nwmerals). 

Works in three volumes or parts are distinguished by the characters 

p thhr^ * upper,' !+• chung * middle,' "T^* hid * lower.' 

70. To the text of the classics, ancient history and poetry, there is gene- 
rally attached some note, comment, annotation, or paraphrase. These are 
always distinguished by the size of the character, and often by the characters 

gX dm * comment' or f^ kia\ 'explanation.' The comments are mixed 

up with the text, or they are placed above it, after it, or at the foot of the 
page. Interlinear translations of the old classics are also common ; the phrase 
^^ y^ pdng-hd is then used in the title-page, and ^)|| ^S hiiin-kidng is 
the expression applied to general explanations of the text. 

71. It is not usual to punctuate the sentence in any way. The paragraph 
is marked by a large circle, or the first character of it is placed at the top of 
the column. When the period is shown, it is by a small circle, in the place 

of our full-stop; a dot, called chit or ti^ ¥.^, takes the place of our comma 

* Kiuin and hwiii both nignify 'something rolled up,* — 'a aeroU/ 

F 2 


or semiooloiL The sentence or clause is called kd /^ ; a smaller divisioit 

is stopped by a point, called ted* qM' equivalent to our comma. Small 

circles are placed on the right of the characters when the passage is deemed 
important or worthy of notice, and black dots are used when the passage 
is less important; the characters so pointed take the place of UaUcs in 
English. The names of books quoted are enclosed by a line. Names of 
places, when marked at all, have two parallel lines on the right; names of 
nations are sometimes surrounded by a line ; names of persons have one line 
only on the right. The names of emperors and others deemed worthy of 
honour are always made to begin a new line, and to project above the tops 
of the other colunms, to the extent of one, two, or three characters. 

§. 6. On wrUing the characters, 

72. The Chinese write the characters with great care, and make it their 
study to give them an elegant form. The importance to the student of 
writing them correctly is self-evident ; the practice of writing them will give' 
accuracy, and will help the memory; while, as an eminent writer on the 
subject has said, '' no man can properly be considered to leam the language 
who does not devot-e a portion of his time to this important branch of the 
subject t.** 

73. The materials for writing were in early times of the rudest kind; but 
the va/mieh, the atyUy and the ham^boo dips have given place to the va^nrfOmg- 

s£*paii '^/ ^ jJ^ ^S *the four precious implements of the study,' viz. 

pencil^ inky paper, and ink-stone. The pencil, ^^ pi, is made of the hair of 

the sable, the fox, the deer, the cat, the wolf, or the rabbit; a small bundle 
of it, properly adjusted, is secured in a piece of bamboo, about the leng^ and 
thickness of an ordinary lead pencil. The hair of which the best pencils are 

made is that of the hwdng-shtl-ldng ^ W^ ;^M, a kind of squirrel : it 

is sent from the Northern provinces to HH-^heu VPW m in Chi-kiang 

Prov., where the pencils are manu&ctured. A noted shop for this article 

bears the name of sdr^pm-tsat <-^ ^t ^K. The pencil generally has 

some inscription, the name of maker, &q. The ink, ^g m^, which is a 

compound of fine soot and some glutinous liquid, is cast in oblong cakes, with 
inscriptions, stanzas of poetry, and the maker's name impressed thereon. The 
use of ink became general about the seventh century. About A D. 400. ink 
was made from soot obtained by burning millet or fir. In the T*ang 
dynasty, A. D. 650, ink was an article of annual tribute from Corea; this 

* Commonly pronounced tU ' to read.' 

t See Eugraphia Siiiensit, Art. XIX. in Transactions of the Boyal Asiatic Society^ 
Tol. I. part II. p. 306, by Sir John F. Davis, F. R. S., &c. &c. The lithographed copies, 
which are the same as those on the sheet given in this work, are well worthy of the 
student's attention* 


made firom the pine soot In the Stmg dynasty, A. D. 1085, GKcmg-yu 
jm^ niade ink fironx soot produced by burning oil, he scented it with 
musk, and called it 'dragon-composition*.* The best ink comes firom 
Hwui-ched^ •b in the Prov. of Gcm-kunii, the native place of Chu-Ju-taZy the 
philosopher ; hence the impress on the ink — Chu-ts^'kiA-hiiin ^^ -3-* ^^L 
gl|| 'the family teachings of Cku-ts^;^ an extract from which appears upon 
the reverse side of the cake. Chinese pa/per, ^H- chiy is made of bamboo 

fibre; it is soft, absorbent, and smooth, conmionly of a yellowish tint, and 
well suited to the Chinese pencil and ink. There are various qualities of it; 
a large proportion of the best for writing purposes is manufactured in 
K*il'cheuy ^^ in the Frov. of ChS-kiang. Paper was first made in China in 

the first century of our era. Ink-Atones, ^P ^hh, are small oblong slabs of 

stone, or hard brick; they should be hard and smooth, and should not absorb 
water quickly. Various forms of inkHErt;one are in use; some of these stones 
are very ancient, and are elaborately carved in fantastic shapes, with orna- 
mental cells for water. The price varies from a hundred Chinese cash (four- 
pence) to several hundred dollars; these latter are valuable as relics of the 
past, and are seldom found in the shops. 

74. The two characters ^^ j/ilng 'eternal* and ^Z^ i 'clothing' contain 
every stroke used in forming characters. The character yiing is thus formed : — » 

The common designations and forms of these strokes are here given. They 
should be copied frequently, and their names should be learnt by the student, 
as his Chinese tutor will frequently employ them in explaining the formation 
of characters. 

* ilS >H1 ^ IK * ^^ Morrwon^B Dictionary, vol. I. p. 546. 


The strokes used m forming Ghmese charctcters. 

— I J 

5 A tien -^ htod |g[ cii ^Zl ^^ 

a poiuty a horizontal line, a perpendicular line, a hook. 

^JtiaU -^p'U ^^pA ^k& 

a apike, a sweep, a dash, an angle. 

75. It is of the first importance that the student should regard the order 
of makmg the strokes when forming a character, as correctness in this will 
fiicilitate his reading the cwrsive hand. A few rules will be given below; 
a&d by comparing the various examples of cursive forms, ^ven in Dr. Morri- 
son's Dictionary (vol. II. part II.), he will see which stroke to make first 

76. The following rules may be observed: — i. Begin either at the top or 
on the left-hand side. 2. When a perpendicular or dash cuts a horizontal 
line or one leg of an angle, the latter are to be written first, (cf. radicals 19, 
24, 29, 32, 33, 41, 43, d^.) 3. An angle at the top on the right side is mado 
with one stroke, and unless pi (rad. 4.) or kwqfrk (rad. 2.) is affixed to the left 
of it, the angle is made first. In radicals 18, 19, 26, 29, 39, 44, 49, 105, 124, 
129, 178, 183, it is made first. In radicals 13, 20, 34, 35^ 36, 76, 122, 130, 
the angle is made second. 4. An angle at the bottom on the left is also 
made with one stroke, if it be alone, or be joined to a perpendicular on the 
right, leaving the top or right side open, (cf radicals 17, 22, 23, 28, 38, 45, 46, 

49, 90, 206.) The characters in which '^r (five strokes) occurs are exceptions 

to this rule ; the angle on the left is made first ; then the angle on the right ; 

the points, next; and the horizontal, last. 5. The angles *7 ^^'^ L* in 

pn 7n4n ^a door* are made first on each side respeotively. 6. Horizontal 

lines precede perpendiculars, when these cross each other; but should the 
perpendicular terminate with the base line, then the base line is final 7. In 
such characters as the radicals 42, 85, 77, 141, 197, 204, 211, the perpendi- 
culars above, or in the middle of the symbol, are made first. 8. In such 
characters as k*eU IZ| ' nynth* (rad. 30.) the perpendicular on the left is to 
be written first; and the interior of such charaQters as ^^ kwH 'a kingdom,' 
{^ yvhi ' a garden,* is filled up before the base line is written. 

77. The style of writing usually taught in schools is the Kia^^U (c£ 60. 

3.), the copies for which are after the writing ofShaH-ying S[i Jii. > a noted 

caligraphist The characters on the fly-leaf &cing this page are Shail-ifing*s 
copies. It wiU be observed that they are arranged by fours, beginning with 
the first colunm on the right-hand side. To these the author has appended 
observations, some of which we shall now give as briefly as possible. 

















78. Observe: — i. The upper part covers the lower* 2. The lower sup- 
ports the upper. 3. The left exceeds the right in dze and elevation. 4. The 
right exceeds the left. 5. The horizontal through the middle is extended 
6. The perpendicular is perfectly straight. 7. The hook should not be too 
erooked or too short 8. The hook should not be too straight or too long. 
9. The horizcAtal, idiort; the sweep, long. 10. The horizontal, long; the 
8we^, short 11. The horizontal, short; the peipendicular, long; the sweep 
and dash extended. 12. The horizontal, long; the perpendicular, short; the 
sweep and dash diminished. 13. The horizontal, long; the perpendicular, 
short 14. The reverse of rule 13. 15. The horizontal above, short; at the 
base, long. x6. The perpendicular on the left shorter than on the right 

17. The sweep on the left is shorter than the perpendicular on the right 

18. The perpendicular on the left is shorter than the sweep on the right 

19. The points of the dots converge towards the centre of the character. 

20. Several horizontal lines should not be made of equal length. 21. When 
both sides contain nearly the same number of strokes they are written of 
equal size. 25. If the left portion be small, it should be level with the top 
of the right 26* If the right be small, it should be level with the bottom of 
the left t. 

79. The preceding information on the sounds uid characters, with their 
proper pronunciation and formation, should be accurately learnt by the 
student before he proceeds with the next section on the forms of words, as 
far as they can be distinguished. Dialectic peculiarities would be out of 
place here, though it may be observed with regard to the pronunciation of 
words in the Peking dialect, that various modifications are necessary. In the 
northern parts of China aspirated Efyllables are pronounced very strongly, and 
letters which partake of the nature of aspiration have increased aspiration, 
which changes their orthography in a slight degree : e. g. kia, Mcmg, k'ii and 
kiun change into dUa, ckUmg, chu and chvwn; tsicmg, &c., in the same way. 
The rule may be given thus : — ^All syllables having for their initial k or ts 
followed by i or u change k and ts into ch; and it may also be observed that 
after ch or sh the {, if final, is not sounded at alL This latter rule may be 
said to be common also in southern Mandarin. It ought also to be observed, 
that the u after ch and sh is pronounced more like the u in French, that is U; 
so that the syllables kii and chu in this work ought to be pronounced as if 
written chii in both cases. After all that can be said upon the subject of 
orthography, correctness in speaking lies more in the tones than in the utter- 
ance of the syllables. Various other modifications take place in the Peking 
dialect; but attention to the above rules and explanations will enable the 
persevering student to pronounce with sufficient correctness to be intelligible, 
though he may fail in acquiring the exact accent of the capital. 

* Each of these ruleR refers to ibttr characters in the sheet. 

"f The remainder of these rales, some only of which are important, will be fbnnd in 
Dr. Bridgman's Chinese Ohrestomathy, in the Canton dialect. 

40 chinesb notions op gbammar. 

Sect. IL Fobms of expbbssiok. 
§. !• PrelMnincury remcurks. 

80. The Cliinese do not analyse tlie sentence, or classify their words and 
expressions in any way at all approaching to the exact method pnrsaed in 
European tongues ; their language is therefore wanting in those grammatical 
terms, which are necessary for this purpose. They do indeed distinguish 

between nouns and verbs: the noun they call si-Mi M^ *^ 'dead word;* 

and the verb, hwd't8£ ^^ ^^ * living word.' Again, they divide words into 

two classes; ^j* ^^ shi-ts^ *real words,' and ^^ ^j^ Ail-te^* empty words;' 

the former class includes nouns and verbs, the latter particles, in which they 
include all except nouns and verbs. A native author has however recently 
treated the subject with considerable care ; and has made other distinctions, 
not heretofore noted by the Chinese *, 

81. As a compensation for the want of grammatical rules on ordinary 

construction, Chinese scholars study w^n-fd A/^ ^^ ' the laws of style/ 

and strive to bring their compositions into accordance with w^ih^ ^^ ^S 

'the rules of style.' We shall do well also to follow their example; and, 
after commencing with an exact knowledge of the shlng-yln^ * the tones and 
syllables,' and the characters and words, we may proceed to the syntax of 
the language, in which lies the whole of its grammatical significance and 

82. It is however necessary to acquire words before we can, as a native 
would, examine the structure of the sentence; and, therefore, though all 
Chinese words cannot be classified under European denominations, yet many 
may be placed in grammatical categories and be distinguished by the re- 
spective terms for the parts of speecL This method will be more convenient 
for our purpose of analysis ; but it will be necessary to forewarn the for^gn 
student of the fact that Chinese words have really no classification or in- 
flexion, and that the distinctions of ctue, number^ person, tense, mood, &c., are 
unknown to natives of China. 

83. The meaning of a character or word and its position in the sentence 
will generally determine to what category it belongs. Auxiliary Byllablee 
and particles do however frequently distinguish the parts of speecL The 
sentence may often be broken up into groups of syllables, and each group 
will then form one expression. It will be the object of this portion of the 
grammar to show upon what principles these groups are formed, to enable 
the student to realise the various classes of expressions which will come under 
his observation. 

84. The syllables, which are appended to strengthen the original notion 
conveyed by the prime syllable, are such as denote the (igent, an.o6;ec</— the 

* See Grammar of the Shanghai Dialect by J. Edkins, B. A ., Lond. i amo. Shanghai, TS53. 


or the easpannon of the idea conveyed hj the word to which they 
arc joined;— or they are "pwrelj /ormaUve in character, and produce nouns or 
Terhfly adyerbs or adjectives, as conventional usage has determined. 

§. 3. On funms, 

85. Chinese words which may be placed in this class may be considered, 
other with reference to general usage or to their derivation, as, 

I. Nouns primitive; L e. such as are monosyllables bearing their primi- 
tive signification, and being most commonly used in their monosyllabic or 
crude fonn« 

a. Nouns chrivaUve; L e. such as are formed by the addition of some 
formative syllable, and in this connection, as dissyllables or trisyllables, are 
always used as nouns. 

3. Nouns composite; i. e. such as, are formed by the union of two sylla- 
bles bearing one of the following relations to each other: — 

a) The oppositional relation, when synonymes or words conveying accessory 

notions are joined together. 
0) The gemtival relation, when the former of the two may be construed as 

if in the genitive case. 
y) The datinxd relation, when the former may be construed as if in the 

dative case with the words to or for, 
d) The cmtiithetioal relation, when words of an opposite signification are 

united to form a general or abstract term. 

86. No fixed rules can be laid down with respect to any of the above 
distinctions; and it must be borne in mind that in the colloquial generally, 
and in some dialects more particularly, combinations of two, three, and four 
syllables, to form nouns, are very common, while the same notions would in 
the books frequently be conveyed by one syllable only. 

87. Prvmitwoe nouns, or those which are monosyllabic, and are generally 
understood to be nouns, are such as the following : — 

/^ jin 'man/ |^ fdn 'rice,' J^ cKd * tea,' 

)^ fang 'wind,* J^ hi 'blood,' ^ wA 'horse.' 

This class is not a large one, and the monosyllable is not intelligible to a 
Chinese when pronounced by itself, it must have some syllable or syllables 
with it : e. g. ' a man' must be called yi-kd (one) jin; fdn, ' rice,' must enter 
into some phrase, as k'i-{iMy/4n 'to eat rice,' — ' to dine,' or tsai^fdn 'early 
rice,' — f breakfetst,' or wdn-fdn ' late rice,' — * dinner ;' ch*d ' tea,' — ' the infu- 
sion,' must be distinguished from the lea^ by such phrases as yin-ch*d ' to 
drink tea,' or Mdryi ' tea-leaf.' Nouns which designate objects that may 
be numbered take with them a word in apposition with the number prefixed ; 
e. g. tnS^ 'horse,' takes yi-p'i (1988), 'one,' before it, yi-p^i-m^ 'a horse,' 
8an^*i-mit ' three horses.' 


88. Derwaiive nouns, or such words as have aequired the form of sabstan- 
tives by the addition of a /crmaiive syllable, are much more umnerons than 
primitive nomis, or monosyUablea These always remain noons, while some 
primitiye nomis may be used as verbs. This class of words belongs chiefly to 
the colloquial and the lower style of composition. 

89. FormaUve syllables, or those used as such, being similar to termina- 
tions in European languages, may be clasnfied thus : — 

a) Those which generally indicate an agent : e. g. jtn /^ ' man ;' nk 'tT 
'woman ;' the^ -^ ' hand ;* fu -^ * man, person ;' t^ ^ * child*' 

ff) Those which refer to a class, and fcnm appellatives relating to poMon 
or gender: e. g. ii ^f * a ruler;' nil "JT 'a woman.' 

y) Those which imply a round shape : e. g. i'e^ gH 'head.' 

d) Those which relate to objects of various forms and combinations : e g. 
kwei j;jj| 'a lump;' to^ ^ 'child.' 

90. Many characters are used as formative syllables, like the words man^ 
hoy, in herdamcmf hcmdiorctfi^amcm, focimaay stable-boyy post-bay, errand-boy. 

The characters of this class, which generally indicate an agent, are «&^ ^- 

'hand; jtn \'mBn: teidng g 'workman,' or kungj^ 'artisan,' ^ /u 

' feUow,' S ha ' householder,' te^ ^ ' son/ 4r ^ ' child.' This latter— 

4r — ^is used especially in the north of China : — ^n t*eA 'head,' ^b eang 'bom, 

— produced, — a performer.' 

91. Of those formatives which generally indicate a person or agent, the 
following examples illustrate the use of eheit ' hand :' 

ekund-sheii ^^ , ' water-hand,' — ' a sailor.' 

yiHsheh ^f , from yiH ' to wander,' — ' a vagrant.' 

p*a4-sheh kw , from p'a/d ' a cannon,' — ' a gunner.' 

k'iaU-eheU ]Pj, from i*iait 'skilful,' — 'an adept.' 

Examples of the use of jtn ' man.' 

kUng-jtn ^J^ 'a workman.' 
cKavjtn y^ 'a messenger.' 
pcriirjtn s3 'areporter'(of news&c.). 

fdirjtn ^fr* 'a woman, a matron.' 
Ki-jin ^ 'a guest.' 
fUrj^n ^ 'a lady.' 

92. Nouns formed with iiti&ng ' workman,' hkng ' artisan — labourer,' and 
fd ' a man — a fellow,' are such as these : 

voBMATioN OP Noima. 



mil-4iidng 7^ , from mH ' wood/ — ' a carpenter.* 
fftn-tsidng ^B, from ytn 'BUver,' — < a silyersmith.* 
Cii-igidMg ^w, from t*ii *iron/ — *a blacksmitL^ 

Kv)dMmg ^^ , from Kwd *■ to sketch/ — ' a painter.* 

fMB&ng +^, from i*U ' earth/— -' a husbandman, a gardener.^ 

md'/i fg& , from md ' a horse,' — ' a groom.' 

tiaiii^fiL 7^, from tia/& * to carry on the shoulders,' — ^ a porter.' 

kib-Ju H , from ibid ' a foot,'—' a courier or messenger' (1246). 
nOng-fa ^S , frx>m iMin^ 'to cultivate the ground,' — ' a husbandman.' 

93. Ta^ ' child' and 4** ' in&nt' are very conmion formatives for designa- 
tions of persons and agents, though they frequently help to form names of 
things, and often form diminutives. 

Examples of the 

fMngA^ h 'a mother' (1823). 

fkHng-U^ -^ 'the eldest son.' 

i'lenrt^ tF 'the son of heaven,' 

L e. 'the emperor.' 

Mti-ld ] ^ ' ^ grandchild.' 

UHng-t^ ^ ' a fop,— a rake' ( 1 498, 

' wave'). 

cft«^ J^ 'a cook.' 

use of U^ ' child.' 

kwan-tak jk 'a cudgel' (1434). 
kw&4si 'a fruit' (1468). 

yin-is^ j^ 'money.' 
shin-tsi M^ ' the human body.' 

cAt^-fol ixr 'the master.' 

Examples of the use of fr ' infant.' 

fntng-4r ^ 'a name' (of any thing). 

hwd-^r ^^ ' a word.' 

hwit-4r um'^ thing' (esp. antique <fec.). 

hat'4r J^ 'a child.' 
ni^ £r 'a girl' 
jin-4r yl 'a man.' 

94. T^eA 'head' and kid (chid) ^^ '&mily' also designate persons and 

agents, but t'e<2 often means things of a round shape, or all in a piece, and 
places; and kid frequently denotes a whole cUiss, — -/acultyy sect, &c. 

Q 2 



Examples of the use of t*e<i * head.' 

yd-t'ed J 'aBervAntrgirl*.' 
tUi-4*ed 4? J" 'an enemy*.' 
lai^'ed ^ 'a gaoler.' 
/dn-t'eH 1^ 'a cook' 

shWea -^ 'the tongue.' 
ji4*ea Q 'the sun.' 

pii't'eH Mt^ 'a nose,' met. 'a seiraat* 

•i_ i 

Examples of the use of kid ' family. 

t-kiS ^> 'the medical &eulty.* 
tad-kid ^ 'the Tauists.' 
eh*uhi-kid &Q ' ship-ownero.^ 
/airkid ^j^ 'the rich.' 
kweir-kid *^ ' the noble/ 

jin-kid /^ 'people.' 

lai^tn-kid ^pr /I 'an old man, — gentleman.' 

p^n-kid 2pl * a clansman.' 

tung-kid ^» ' a master.' 

HhkMd &' ' a shopkeeper/ 

95. Some other words, as A^ p 'a house-door/ — for 'householder/ ti ^j 

'a ruler/ — 'a prince/ nd 3& 'a woman/ and sdng til 'bom,' form nouns 

in a similar way to the preceding, though some of these may perhaps be con- 
sidered to be in apposition to their prime syllables : e. g. — 

KairMi 5^ 'beggars.' 

Udng-hd j^m 'a tax-collector.' 

pirirhd, '^^ 'the poor.' 

»gn-<dnf7-^ 'a teacher.' 

cKHsdng ^^ ' domestic animals.' 

hed-gdng A^ 'a young man.' 

h%6-8daig &^ 'a student' 

i-gS/ng ' a medical man' (848, as aboye^ 

^ line 7). 

hwdmg-l^ S^ ' an emperor.' 

sh^ng-H [-'God.' 

yil-4i ^^ 'God/ ace. to Budd.^ religion. 

cAi-nd ^^ *& niece.' 

Mng-nil § ' a virgin.' 

'a young lady not yet intro- 
duced to society.' 

Here also we may notice those nouns formed with s£ Sm 'a teacher/ 
chil ^r ' a lord,' and sheil "^ ' a head, a chief:' e. g. — 

ch*u^n-^ieii jl^ ' a captain* (of a ship). 
kuniUeheh W* 'the principal '(of a society). 

eh*d-g£ ^L 'a tea-inspector.' 
iihi-€hili> Id '^ shopkeeper.' 

* The more common worda are yUng-jin \^ /\ 'BervMit, male or female/ and 
€h*eA'jin \j\^ /\ 'enemy.' 



96. The designations of agents are very commonly formed b j the periphrasis 

of an actiye yerb and its object with the addition of the genitiye particle tH fM> 

which throws the whole into the form of a participial expression similar to the 
Ghneek form 6 vpanmvy 6 irpdyfiara irpArrwfj &c 

<a-y^fX|g,Ut'Btrike-fi8h(«ib.|,»»(m),one who takes fiBh,'=:aMierinan. 
fho-ydrHj fir. tm ^a 'to take/ has the same meaning. 
U^-^ang-^nH 4i6 Jfb i^ ^make trade (jper8on)f=z(i tradesman. 
k'an-^^trH j^^ IJK 'cut fiiel {per8on)f=^A woodcutter. 
t84ng-fntng'§t4M ^^ 'dear-bright (person),' = an intelligent person. 
nAnff4Af^ ^ gt'able to transact aflair8,'=an able man. 
pdnsi^ Jn jm 'manage business (p0r8an),^=iSk manager. 

Nouns formed in this way are yery numerous, but they are not often used in 
tiie presence of the indiyidual whose calling or character they signify. 

_'^' ' one who reads books, a scholar, a learned man.' 
kUvil-^hSril ^V ^^ 'one who teaches book-lore, a teacher.' . 

ta-thSra gl 

97. In addition to the aboye names of persons, others will be found under 
the articles treating of oompasUe nouns. We wiU now consider those deriya- 
tiye nouns which designate objects and localUies. Besides the use of fo^ and 
4r 'child,' and t'eA 'head,' for general objects, we haye t*eA 'head,' k'eH^ 'mouth,' 
and m4n 'door,' as formatiyes for designations of places. 


tau'tsi y] ' a knife.' 
ffin4^ ^H 'silyer, — money.' 

tU4^ tpi^ 'an inyitation card.' 


ji-^ 'a day.* 

f%ng-4^ JT '^ '^^^ 
m^n^ p^ * a door.' 

ming-^ ^^ * a name.' 
hwd^r gi *a word.' 
ahi^fefd '^E% ' the tongue.' 
m&rt*eA ^ 'a piece of wood.' 
M-t^efd ^^ ' a finger.' 
thdnfk4*e(l [M 'a mountain-top.' 
cKfjtJh^*eil I 'aroadstead'(324,'ship'). 
mH^feA ^ 'a jetty, — ^a landing-place.' 


Miodng-k'eh ^S ^a window.' j^-nUpn 43T ' magigtrate's office.' 

tihcmrKeh \\\ ' a mountain-pass.^ 
klrk*ek ffiS* ' a thoronghfiure.' 

laH-m^ />-/ ' a gaol.' 
loiHn^ cjp < the ante-rooms.' 

98. Composite noons are such as are formed by the union of two or three 
syllables, each preserving its indiyidual signification when in composition. 
They have been divided into four classes according to the relations whidi 
these syllables bear to each other. We now proceed to consida: the first of 
these classes, namely, that in which the appodUonal rdatum predominates. 

Observe. — ^We understand by the term opponHon, words, identical or 
cognate in meaning, placed together and explanatory of each other; e. g. 
Victoria Queen 0/ England, Cicero oraJtor, Urha Roma, ko, 

99. One division of this class consists of words formed by the union of 
two syllables identical in signification or synonymous, one syllable standing as 
the exponent of the other. And, in the first place, those which are identical 
are simply r^^etMona of the same word : thus — 

t*ai-4;*ai "yC '^fed lady,' used in addressing or speaking of a mandarin's lady. 

nal^nalt vn ' married lady of rank,' with similar usage. 

ho'ho S[ * elder brother, — 3ir,' in speaking to one of inferior rank. 

100. In the n«ct place, synonf^mee are united to form common nouns: 
thus — 

JUng-^ ^ ^^ * a house.' 
yinrtstng Q|^ |^ ' the eye.' 

sinrchdng J^ Hfi 'the heart, the feeHngs.' 
^/tng-^r ^ Tr ' <u^ in£ftnt.' 
VirU ^# ^^ < statute-law.' 

1 01. Two verbs are sometimes united to form nouns: e. g. — 
h%ng-we^ Anr jj^ ' actions,' both verbs meaning to do (synonymes). 
/t-yUng ^^ Hj * expenses,' lit. to ea^^fend — to tue (cognate). 
shwS-hiwd g'^ qQ * conversation,' lit. to talk — to «ay (synonymes). 
/dn4iodn ^7 ^i * revolution,' lit to reverse — to rebd (synonymes). 

Nouns expressing the abstract notion of verbs are generally formed in this 
way, just as the infinitive is used in German and Greek; das Leben, das 
Hahen, t6 rvx^ivy &c. 

102. Two adjectives are united to foim nouns : e. g. — 

chUn-pa^ ^M ^ prectous-precious — a jewel' (216). 


103. Tvo 1UN11I8 of a series are used to fenn tlie name of the class which 
the series expresses : e. g. — 

kung-he^ ^ ^& 'a nobleman/ lit. duke — marquia; the series being kung- 

hedrpi-talt-^ndn * the five degrees of nobility.* 

ki&4^ ^ -^ 'the cycle;' these two characters being the signs of the ist 

year of the cycle. Cf. Alphabet. A. B. C. 

104. Many nouns are formed by placing generic terms, the equivalents for 
U^ ^kme^ftaw&r^fiahy Ac, after the special object : & g. — 

ft-yi2||| ^<thecarp.' 
sung-^ f S ^^ 'the fir-tree.' 

ituwCnAicd ki ifv 'the flower of the cassia.' 
ytng-M ^^ /A 'limestone.' 

105. Under the appositional relation we must also consider the very large 
class of nouns formed by the use of what have been called numeroHves or 
ela89^er$. These correspond to our words gust of wind, flock of dieep, cup 
of wine. The words guH, floek, cup, are not in the genitive or possessive 
case, but in apposition to the words wind, sheep, wme *, The Chinese, in 
conversation, extend the use of such words to every object; th^ say, for exam- 
ple, ' one handle fan' for a /an, ' one length road' for a road They are here 
called appoeitives, a term more appropriate than numeratives or classifiers. 
We shall now give a list of these appoeitives, and point out those which daim 
our first attention, and the classes of words to which they are prefixed in order 
to form nouns. 

106. LiH 0/ appoeitives, vyiih the nouns and ckuses qf nouns to uMeh 

they are united in eomposiUon. 

I. k6 aQ, m or .^, is the most common app.; it is used with almost 

all objects : thus, yi k6jtn ' a man.' 

a. ehi ^p 'an individual thing, single;' with names of ammals, ships, and 

things thaifnove, 

3. kiSn i 4^ ' a division ;' with things, affairs, dothes, 

4. k^w&i j;^ 'a dod, a lump;* with dollar, land, stone, and things of an 

irregular shape. 

5. t*ia4 ^& ^a twig, a division;' with long things, roads, fish, snakes, Ac, 

loMS, kc 

6. ts6 ^K 'a seat;' with house, hXU, dock, of things^/Sooed in a place. 

7. />^n ^ 'root, origin;' with hock. This is a borrowed character. 

* Compare Lftt. Urb* JZoma, Qer. em CfliU Wtm, 



8. pd ^^ 'a handle;* with hU/e, chair, things that may be held. 

9. kan jjl^ ^a root;* with tr«e,pole, ohib, &c. 
;o. Ming uM 'a sheet;' with jNi^Mr, table, bow, Ae., things spread out 

1. dn X^ 'a branch;' yntii pencil, branch, kc 

2, p*i f/[i 'a piece or a pair;' with horse, asa, kc 
[3. Uj^ ^r ' a pair;' with ehoee, or any thing in pairs. 

4. dwodng 1|p ^a couple;' used as the above (13). 

5. hyen ^fl 'an interval^ a space;' with house, and buildings generally. 

6. fikng ±Y 'to seal;' with leUere, &c. 

107. The above are the appositives in most general use. A list of those 
characters which are less frequently used in this way is now given. The 
student may by reference to Mr. Edkins' Ghraanmar of ike Mandarin Dialect 
find a more particular notice of each. 

I. ch4n |I» * a gust of wind.' 
a. ch*ing or shing S^ 'a carriaga' 

3. chU pro ' an axle.' 

4. chu J^ ' a place.' 
5.>aijlg*a fold, a piece.' 

6. kdn i-jp 'a pole.' 

7. kid ^1^ ' a frame, a stand.' 

8. k*e^ n ' a mouth.' 

9. kiuSn ^ ' t, roll' 

10. JS;'d^|<agrain.' 

11. ko ^sL 'rank, examination.' 
»^ ' a pipe. 

13. Ung ^H 'a collar.' 

14. m4n P^ * a door.' 

16. mien ||| 'the face.' 

12. kwdn -^ ' 

17. ping xra 'a handle.' 

18. p*ii ^m 'to spread out' 

19. pii -ffe 'a pace.' 

20. ed fyV 'a place.' 
ai. ^'dt^gf'ahead.' 

22. <ifi^ T p 'a top.' 

23. td S 'abuncL' 

24. tu j;^ ' a low walk.' 

25. tean ' a meal' (2786). 

26. te'dng ^^ ' a layer, a story.' 

27. tsl "^ 'a joint' 

28. hodn nfjfg ' a piece of doth, kc* 

29. teun J^ 'honourable.' 

30. toon Aj^ 'the tenth of a copper cash.' 

31. wet ' 'a tail' (3121). 

32. twi i^ 'a person.' 


Beddes the above, many words are used as appogUivea, especially such words 
as express qtunUUt^ of any kind, a collection or a dcus of objects *. 

1 08. The second class of composite noons includes all those whose first 
port may be said to stand in the genitive case, and which expresses the origin 
or cause of the second part, or that person or thing to which the second part 
belongs or has rtference. Under this dass also ¥dll come such compounds as 
bare an attributive attached to them, whether an adjective or a verb in its 
participial form. 

109. Examples of noons of two syllables, the former of which is in the 
genitive case:-— 

i'tl-^dn -+* 1^ lit. 'soil's produce,' = produce. 
i'ief^ki ^F ^f lit 'heaven's breath,' = the weather. 
ehdng-hAng mSf /i-r <a merchant's house and premises.' 
nUln-Jce^ p^ PJ lit. 'door's mouth,' = door. 
iOn-^Mi 1^ '^ lit 'shop's lord,' = innkeeper or shopkeeper. 
na^jA ii^ 1^ lit 'cow's flesh,' s=bee£ 

no. Examples of noons of two syllables, the former of which is an adjec- 
tive or a participle : — 

ld-«iUf -^ 3S^ lit ' great-corn,' = wheat tdrktodng yj * (yellow) rhubarb.' 

ted-ji Q"^ Q 'yesterday' M-y^ 7^ 'last night' 

M^n-yd ^/ #^ 'a written agreconent' 

ehSbng-wn tb j^ lit ' middle-heart,' = centre. 

lA^ng ^P rd: lit 'recording-&culty,'= memory. 

kia\rfii ffl^ ^^ lit 'explaining-method,'=explanation. 

M-y^ ]Eu '^ lit 'sporting-words,' = a joke. 

ming-Vien H^ ^F lit 'bright-heaven, or when the heaven becomes bright,' = 


hitnrAwd f^ g^ 'idle-talk' tia^i^ <|^ $1 '^ "^^^ ^^ ^^^' 
iihafd^'ai ^j^ ||^ lit 'calling-^boardj'sa agn-board. 
Jt-Viaia ^ |g Kt' flying-bridge,' = drawbridge. 

III. Sometimes designations of place and time, which are commonly used 
as prepositions or adverbs, enter into the composition of nouns : e. g. — 

• See Chnmmar </ (he Mandarin JHaleet hy Rev. /. Edkimt, pp. 1^9, 130. 



^jtnrfWnjg yr\ j^ lit 'forward-point, van,' = the van of an army, 
ifcin-ji y^ Q lit. ' now-day,* =to-da7. Cf. uses of rvy and iraXat. 
Uail-fdn ^- f^ lit. ' early-rice,' = breakfast. Ct Oer. Fruhrituck, 
iodnr/dn \W^ \ lit. ' late-rice,' = the evening-meaL CL Qer, Abend^brod. 

» * 

112. The third class of nouns is much smaller than the preceding, but it 
includes many idiomatic expressions. The first syllable of the two stands to 
the other in what we shall call the daHval relation to its associate. The 
examples will show what is meant by this expression : — 

hid-flkig Jy> € lit. 'learning-room,' L e. a room for that purpose, = a school- 

tnHt-Udng vK ^M lit. 'wine-measure,' — 'the capacity for drinking.* 
ch'd-hH >j^ ^^ ' a tea-pot, a pot for tea.' 
ping-H Joe. >f# lit. ' soldiers'-law,' — 'discipline.' 
fftn-JcH ^y ja( lit. 'silver-store,' — 'treasury.' 

1 13. In addition to the names of agents mentioned already, the expression 
ta-fi B[fj ^9 'a teacher,' and the verb M ^jp 'to make,' are used to form 
nouns: e. g. — 

nt'kii r^/ii Jj^ ^fy lit 'pure-lady,' = nun. 

tH-t'eH-az-fA ^ij g| lit. ' shave-head,' = a barber. 

Cc^ ^2\ ahi'tsd ^^ lit. ' stone-make,' = a stone-mason. 

akuml^tsd yj^ lit. ' water-make,' = a confectioner or baker. 

1 1 4. A verb and its object are sometimes used as a noun with and sometimes 
without the particle Q'^ : e. g. — 

h'U'ed ^ g| Ht'begin-head,'— 'beginning.' 
huout-nn [m i g lit. ' return-letter,' — ^ a reply,' to a letter. 

115. The verb sometimes stands in the second place with a noun before it, 
without any apparent construction existing between them : e. g. — 

8Mrfn6 /Q n^. lit ' stone-grind,' = a grindstone, fnd-ahi too is used. 
skd-limg Xg ^a| lit ' tree-grind,' = a wooden mill for grinding grain. 



eh'tiin-chi |§ ^ 'ships.* 

1 1 6. Many of the appositives are placed after words, and they then help to 
form general terms : e. g. — 

P^'P^ iTJ 17L 'piece-goods.' 
thirhw^ ^t -fW 'stones.* 

X17. Nouns fonned by uniting words antithetical in meaning are very 
common, and ihey generally signify the abstract notion implied by these 
extremes: e.g. — 

Iclng-ehUng |^ ^ lit * light-heavy/ = weight 

to-^hail ^^ ^ lit. < many-few/ = quantity, which is the common phrase 

for 'how many)* or 'how much?* 

dCdmg-iiwdn^^ ^U lit. 'long-short,* = length. 
hii&^ ^ f£ ^*- ' high-low,* =height. 

1x8. Hie union of syllables of an opposite signification gives rise to a 
generalierm: e.g. — 

hiung^ ^f ffi lit. 'elder brother and younger,* = brethren. 

cAi-mei uw bjt lit. 'elder sister and younger,' = sisters. 

119. The student should notice the class of abstract nouns which are formed 
by the addition of such words as k'i ^^ ' breath,* Jilng )S ' wind,' nn y[\> 
' heart,* Hng ytt ' nature,— disposition, — ^fiumlty :' — 

vo^'nrfang '^j^ ' literary taste.' 
siaU-nn ni 'attention.' 
chung-ain Hr^ * the centre.' 
Udng-nn M 'conscience.' 

i-k'i ^ 'int^ty.' 
fiMsi ^^K 'anger.' 
k*i-k'i i^ ' etiquette.' 
fUkH ]J^ 'climate.' 
m4n-k'i ^^ 'sadness.' 
vmrfumg j^ 'dignity.* 
m/tn-fung^^ 'nationality.* 

hSi^nn 'j'|i ' fear.' 
h^i^vng j3P 'memory.' 
wnrf^ng ^n> disposition.' 

120. Other (JbtifracA noims are formed upon the same principle as those 
noticed in the foregoing articles; yiz., (i) by uniting synonymes, (2) by 
placing one noun in the genitive case before another, (3) by joining two 
verbs or (4) an adjective and its noun : — 

H 2 


(i) jtn^ngai >^ ^^ 'beDeYoIenoe, philanthro^.' 
gw^4ihi ^^ J^. * fiftvour, grace.* Ger. Cfun$L 
ekOng-kien t^ ^^ 'the midflt' 

(2) chit'i IJT ^ <the will,* lit. 'the idea of the master.' 

ming'Bktng ^ JB>^ 'reputation,* lit 'soand of the name.* 


toil-A ^ ]^^ ' doctrine,* lit ' the role of reason.* 

(3) maUnai ^ ^ 'trade,' lit 'to bay, to sell' 
daiUnwd ^ 1^ 'joking,' lit 'to laugh, to talk.' 
fo^7»-M ^H "^ 'dialogue,' Ut 'to ask, to answer.' 
finrpi ^j" ^j 'difference,' lit 'to diride, to distingaidL* 
hOmqAaia J^J ^ ' merit,' lit ' to merit, to labour.' 

(4) 9iai)HHn J^ j\^ 'attention,' lit 'small heart' 
p^n-/4n ^ ^ 'dufy,' lit 'own part' 
iMa-mtng ]^ ^ 'celebrity,' lit 'high name.' 

1 21. Proper names may be mentioned appropriately here. Chinese names 
proper are always significant Foreign names are put into Chinese f<»m by 
simply representing the syllables of whidi they are composed by Chinese 
charactera There are about five hundred duuracters used as the names <^ 

fiunilies. (See Appendix.) In addition to this Hng ncL, 'sonlame,' each 
individual has several designations, the principal one^ which follows the sing 
immediately, is the nUng ^ or conmion ' name,* and sometimes a taS "a-^ 
'title.* In addressing a person the t^ng is used with some polite expression 
suffixed, such as nen-tdng ' elder-bom,' gidng-kOng ' Mr.' A few of the most 
common geographical and other proper names will be found in the Appendix. 

122. Diminutives are formed by means of certain words, flignifying UtUe, 
smaUf prefixed; aiaiH-ydng 'small sheep,*=a lamb, daitrm^ ' small-horse,' = a 
colt; or by the word tei 'child,' 4r 'infant,' suffixed, Aal-^ ' a little boy.' 

123. The distinctions of gender and number are made in a similar way 
by prefixes or suffixes : — 

ndn Hj ' male* and nA ^ ' female* are prefixed to jIn, 'num,' to express 
the gender; so also are kung ^ 'male* and mi^ M: 'mother,* to names 
of animals, to distinguish the gender. 

n^jtn ^ *a uroman.* 
pi:fti ^g < uncle.* 



>tt ^/ ^fiither' and mft 'mother/ ted 'scm' and «»d 'daugbter/ ax« em-* 
ployed with the names of relations; as, unde, awni, nephew, nieoe. They 

however suflized. 


k€i!ig-<M ^^ '« boar *.* 

ffid-Aet^ ^^ 'a bitch.* 

ek/irwu q^ ^a niece.* 

p^Mni^ I 'amit* A^^^srt^ acmrntl 7% 'a granddaughter.' 

The Chinese ascribe certain genders to various objects of nature, according 

as they belong to the male and female principles, the ydng RS and the 

yin |)^, the dual powers of the universe. The *mm^* jX is masculine, the 

' moon/ yuy is feminine. But this does not affect the form of the words or 
their construction. Frequently the gender is shown by a distinct appellation; ^ 
as, te^ ' son,* nd ' daughter.* 

1^4. A proper name may be used as a common noun either by itself or 

with the addition of tdng ^-4-v 'sort, class;* instead of saying " He was a 

perfect Confucius,** the Chinese would say '^ He is of the Confucius sort" 
But this form of expression is scarcely ever used ; the notion would be con- 
veyed in some other way, especially in the colloquial style. 

.135. When the plural is expressed .in Chinese it is done in several ways, 
each having reference to the extent of the notion of plurality. The simplest 
form of the plural is the reduplication of the syllable, a method common to 
Japanese as well as to Chinese t. It expresses aU ma general sense, in some 
expressions indefinite, but in others limited by locality or the nature of the 

siibject ; e. g. jin-jin A^ signifies either ' every body* (but not without ex- 

eeption) or ' all men,* if the nature of the case or sense of the passage require 

it; just as we say, most men. The same may be said of ji^ M 'daily,! 

which is an adverb. 

126. The following are the syllables commonly prefixed to express plu« 
nJity : those common to the conversational form are marked thus— {c); the 
others are only used in the books : — 

; chUng (c) 'all;* either 'every,* or merely 'all' the party in a certain 
place, generally of persons, followers, attendants. 

g^ eM (c.) ' all,' in a more general sense applied to smaller classes. 
j||: eh4 'all/ chiefly in the books. 

— I ■ ■ ■ ■ ' — r 

* C£ ffvs ndwpos of Homer. 

t In Ji^uMw jko k *m»a^*JU(Mio 'mw.' 


•^^ to (c) 'mimy^ or much, or often,' of men or things. g4^ JiU4d or oHp haii^ 
are stronger colloquial forms. 

r{/dn (c.) ' all/ of number or quantity ; also td-fdn. JrC chau * all, gene* 
rally' (seldom). 

>^ ^ '^' <^oi^pl^tely,' often as an adverb. 

71^ ping is used both before and after the noun, but only in books. 

127. These below are placed after the noun, and are emphatic, and com- 
monly imply universality as well as mere plurality : — 

^i (c.) 'all,* in company, — in univemim, it comprehends the whole 

t*ii (e.) ' all, entirely, altogether.' This is also used as an adverb, to in> 
tensify ; and then gives the sense o^ eU aU, quite, 

^B JeU 'all/ chiefly in books and the higher colloquial 

hien ' all,' also unconcunon in speaking. 

its ' all,' lit. ' to raise up/ confined to the bodks. 
J^ Min * all, equally.' '^ tsien ' all,' in books especially. 
■jJ. ibng (c.) ' a class, sort.' This is common in books too. 

1 P^ (^)> ^ ^ chd/ng-pei -^ ' elders, superior&' 

/^ Uf'tthi (c.) ' complete,' also used in the books. 

iri m4n (c), the common mandarin particle for 'all;' it may be looked 
Uj^n as B/armcUvoe particle. 

^128. The most common method is to employ some number or expression 
which sufficiently defines the plurality of the noun to which it is attached; 
just as the vulgar expression 'three foot' for 'three feet/ and in German 
drei himdert mann, 6dc The numeral determines the plurality; and fine- 
quently in Chinese a special number prefixed serves to form a general or 
universal notion : e. g. — 

«^-Aoi 1^ ^^ 'the four seas/ L e. the world. 

la^/dng ^^ @ ' the six rooms, departments,' i. e. the six boards of govern- 

fodn-^n itC S: 'the ten thousand people,' L e. all the people. M 3p5 

and b4 gr^, 'several,' and some other syllables deter- 
mine the plural *Cf the use of ftvptog in Greek. 


. Up. Those relations of words to each other, which are shown in the cka- 
sical languages of Qreece and Bome hj the cases of nonns and hy the persons 
and tenses of verbs, are exhibited in Chinese hj the arrangement and sequence 
of the words themselves. The consideration therefore of the cases of nouns 
must be referred to the syntax of the language; 

130. The only case which can be distinguished by the form of the expres- 
sion b the genitive. The parUcles which show this are ti Qcj and ^^ <M; 

the former in speaking, the latter in the books. They have the nature of 
demonstratives, and stand for the s with an apostrophe — *« or s\ 

§. 3. On adjectives, 

13 X. Adjectives in Chinese may be divided, as the nouns have been, into 
three classes. Some syllables are used exclusively as adjectives, and are but 
sddom employed in the other grammatical relations; they niay therefore be 
looked upon as primitive : e. g. haily ' good,* is most oonmionly used as an 
adjective, although sometimes, with a change of tone — had, it means 'to love.' 
Others seem to require the genitive particle to form them into attributives, 
and may be considered as derivatives. Others again are formed by the union 
of two or more syllables, and may be called compotmds. Examples of this 
daamfication are to be found in the following articles. 

13 a. The oonmion formative particles, which strengthen the attributive 

force of the adjective, are ^ h^ in the mandarin and <M ^ in the books. 

When these must be used depends in a great measure upon the rhythm of 

the expression: e. g. we may EAjfU-kw^tn *w -^* ^^ or fd-kwei-^Ujtn 

' a rich man,* but U-hai^tn yn\ *^^ would not pass, because it might signify 

' to injure a man,* hai being a verb 'to hurt,' but U-haUH'jtn is 'a hurtful 
man,' — 'a fierce, bad person.' The H is required generally when a verb 
enters into the composition of the adjective, therefore especially after verbal 
adjectives and participles. 

133. Adjectives of cognate signification come together and strengthen 
«ach other : e. g. — 

t*8Un-p6 7% fin 'shallow — ^thin,'=poor, weak. 

KiaiiHniaid iPj J^h ' clever — ^marvellous,'= ingenious. 
kHenrkU ^K Kj 'firm— strong,' = firm. 

134. A substantive sometimes stands before an adjective, as one noun 
stands before another in the genitive case, and thus intensifies the adjective : 

pimg-UA/ng ^ ^^ 'ice's cold,* = icy-cold. 

surpd ^' 1^ 'snow's white,' = snowy-white. 


i35« A noon and an adjeetiye combined Bometames fbrm an epithet, wUch 
is used as an adjectrre: e. g.— 

tdr4d,nr1^ y^ H|^ lit * great-liver/ = brave. 

hkhg-ioA-H /^ ^M lit. *jnst-doctrine,'=jiist. 
Such compound adjectives always require ^^ f{. 

136. An adjective or a noun is prefixed to an adjective with an adverbial 
force, and it is sometimes doubled to intensify the meaning : e. g. —'9i^% i^ j^m ' fine-small/ = fine. 

Unng-Unng-tii'tl ' very elegant' 

ftfi^firycM ^ /)i 'ie<^torB-elegant/=<^ literary elegance. 

w/i^riryhryMi ' of a very fine style of composition.* 

137. The addition of Vd frf 'can,' or hail ij^ 'good, much,' to a verb 
forms adjectives which terminate in -ahh in English; they must always be 
followed by H : e. g. — 

Kd4iJhy4l f^ lit. 'can-pity,' = pitiable, miserable. 

Jcd-yHng-H H'J lit. ' can-use,' = that may be used. 
Aai^-^n^-li, lit. ' good-use,' = useful 
haiHrBUJ^ti =^ lit. ' good-laugh,' = laughable. 

138. The quality of a verb may be attributed to a noun by a participle 
formed by suffixing U to the verb itself: e. g. — 

Jyioaak-h^tl ^j^ ^ lit 'to be pleased with,' — 'pleasant* 

hwMUng'tl V'S ray lit. 'to live and move,'—-' lively, active.' 

139. The quality or possession of the quality of a noun may be attributed 
to another noun by prefixing yiix '^' ' to have,' and suffixing (i to the noun 
whose quality is concerned : e. g. — 

yiiirtilng-taUnrti j^lm ^ig lit 'has -money,' =monied, rich. 

yiit^h'k*i'ti "m ^a lit *ha8-strength,'= strong. 

ywl4iidng^t^n^ r \r\ 'conscientious.' 

yul-hail^ai-H ^^ H9 'with a good meaning or intention.' 


140. Many adjectives are formed from nouns, especially when they are 
descriptive of the shape or material of which any thing is made : c. g. — 


si-Jang-^i j/y ~fc" lit. 'four-square/ = square. 

chX-Vi ^ff- *of paper.' kin-tl ^g 'of gold/=goldeiL 

These latter Bometiines take the verb t86 ixji or fed q'P/to make/ between 
the noun and the particle tl : 

mii49i^ii Tk^ a t ' made of wood, — ^wooden.' 

Such are however to be regarded as the participles from compound verbs, 
corresponding to the German compound verb homdhabm^ 

141. Some adjectives with an intransitive or passive signification are formed 
bj prefixing jin^ ' man/ to the verb : e. g. — 

jin-h^n-tl ^j^ lit. ' men-hate/ =hated. 

jtn-ngai'ti ^S* lit. 'men-love/ = esteemed. 

Such adjectives as wolfish, ?uUe/ul, &c., are sometimes expressed by con- 
ventional terms, sometimes by circumlocutions : e. g. — 

yiHt-ehal-ldng'ti sing-tstrig, lit. 'has-wolf's-disposition,'= wolfish; or, 

tidrig-chai'ldng'ti, lit. 'like- wolf,' = wolfish. 

jin-k'd'h^n-tij lit. ' men-can-hate,' = hateful. 

142. Adjectives formed in European languages by means of a privative 
syllable are made by prefixing pU "^ , ' not,' to the simple word, and adding 
U, the genitive particle : e. g. — 

pu-M7ig'kdiv4i A El -F' 'unimportant.' 
pH'Skwdng-kufairtl 3« tfr 'imwell' or 'unwholesome.' 
p^hd-mii'ti lf[i ^^ 'inimical.' 

143. In this way many adjectives are formed in Chinese as equivalents 
for adjectives not produced by means of a privative syllable, but of a more 
emphatic power : e. g. for bad, ugly, hMoiy, the Chinese would frequently say 
p&rhail'ti, 'not good,'— ' bad,' instead of 6 ^. All such require «, the 
genitive particle. 

144. There is no form of the adjective which expresses the degree of 
intensity or comparison. Words which may be mentioned in this connection 
as affording a means of expressmg the comparative and superlative are, 
hang ^ ' more,' <M 35 ' to come to (the extreme point) :' e. g. — 

kdng-haHntt, lit. ' more good,' — ' better.' 
kang-yHtng-Uti *^^ fi lit. ' more easy,' — ' easier.* 


chi-kau-H J0l lit < extremely liigh/ — * highest' 

chirjtnrngai-i^ A^ ^3* Kt. 'extremely benevolent,* — 'very benevolent.' 

145. The verb kia jjH 'to add' \a sometimes joined to kqng: e. g. — 
kqng'kid-4cUkufai-4i -^|t- TfJ 'more wonderful.' 
kang-kidrpaa-pet-H ^S | 'more precious.' 

146. Several words are used to express the superlative or the intensity of 
the attribute, such as ting JH 'the top,' ^ f ^ 'the extreme point,' h^n ^Id 
'to hate,' tow |g 'to cut off,' haU Ijp^ 'good,' t*ai -j^ 'great,— very,— too/ 
shin - ^ 'very,' tsiii -^ 'very.' 

ting-nail'tl jh ' very small,' — ' the smallest' 

tlng-haU-^ ^ 'the best' 

^-£d-^i yr 'very great,' — 'the greatest.' 

h4nrtd^ ^J 'very m^y,' — 'the most.' 

ts'tlrmiaii'ti v^h 'most wonderful.' 

haU-to-H ^^ 'very many*.' 

Va%'ts*ihi'€i YS 'very shallow.' 

ahynrJcfl'tl ^^ 'very bitter.' 

tetfi-yotf-ifcin-« 35 ^ '^^ important' 

1 47. The relations expressed by the forms of comparison, and by what is com- 
monly called the superlative, are often produced by syntactical arrangements; 
the consequence is that the simple adjective must often be construed into 
European tongues by the forms of comparative and superlative : e. g. — In 
choosing long articles a person might say, ' This is longer by a foot ;' the 
Chinese would say, ' This is long by a foot,' i. e. longer than some others, or ' this 
is a good one' for ' this is a better one.' This is syntactical ; the duration and 
the extent being expressed after the word to which they respectively refer. 

148. There are certain words with which it may be well to make the 
student acquainted here, because they are employed to state the comparison 

of the adjective in circumlocutions : e. g. — pi [t* ' to compare,' thus ' you 

compared with him are tall' for 'you are taller than him.' 

* Cf. the English phrase, a good fMmy. 


yia 7 'again, still,' taaH S. 'again, more.* C£ the use of encore in 
French and noeh in German : — encore miettx, no<A mehr. 

hwdn J^ 'still, agun, beside;' pron. hat in coll. 

yu ffiK 'to pass over,' and ytl'/A ^^&.* which is more colloquial, in such 
phrases as ' the more, the better.' 

yd ^^^ ' to exceed, more,' used as yd. 

149. Sometimes verbs are used to express the idea of adding to or lessening 
the force of the adjective : e. g. — 

kid 7|P 'to add,' e. g. kid-td 'add-man7,'= greater. 

kien ^ai 'to subtract,* e. g. kien-eiatl 'reduce-Bmall,'= smaller. 

150. The particle yU ~^^ 'in, at,' which is used chiefly in the book-style, 

is also employed in conversation in the sense of 'in comparison with,' — 'than.' 
Likewise several other words and expressions which signify ' a little.' These 
are placed after the adjective, as adverbs, and induce the notion of com- 
parison: e. g. — 

chS'kd shi id yi-tihir4r ' This is great a little,' 

2g /^ -^ -^ — ' SA ^? for, * This is a little greater.' 

151. Another very common way of forming the superlative is by prefixing 

the ordinal number tv^i Sf> — • ' first,' or the expression M-fdm -1^ y^ 

' ten parts,' to the adjective in its simple form. Both these expressions give 
the notion of enUrety, eompUtenees. The Chinese employ the decimal system, 

and therefore ten parts means the u>Ju>le, The word mdn "^m ' ten-thousand, 

all,' is also used as an intensifier. 

152. When the verb ti iU: 'to obtain' is employed after the adjective, 
and is itself followed by some word which signifies limit, extremity, urgency, 
severity, Ac., as ;^H A^ ]j& H, ^^ Jdn, 7^!] *^ li-hai, the superlative 
is formed by the whole expression, which denotes a very high degree of the 
quality signified by the adjective : e. g. — 

hwairUi'ti-hitn f )j ^ 'very gkd indeed.' 

nn-sien-tt-hi Sjf fiM ' very fresh indeed.' 

UilMkdmra4dn ^ ||| ' very hardld-ljear.' 

hiung^4irhai VaA ' very fierce indeed.' \ 

153. The following expressions are often suffixed ♦ ^w the degree of 


I 2 


the attributiTe: pA-kwo ]^ ^^{ 'not pass-over/ pQrshing ^3^ H^ 'not 
over-come,' 33k yr-pil-toclw' not finish;' also j^ ^5>^ ^S: Ziaii-^wl-tt 'finish 
not obtain/ i.e. extremely. The characters y^ «&u ' to kill,' foCn ^ o^ j ^ 
'to complete,' Jci ^ 'strict,' iGal aj^ 'excellent,' fo*^7i^ l|P '^ follow,' 
shd ^2 ' to kill,' 8an -f^ ' abundant,' are also used in this connexion. 

154. Certain other words, which signify greai^ upper ^ goody are used for 
the same purpose : e. g.^-^ 

tdrfdfnrpi y^ ft By 'very different' 
ahdng-hirtl p* '-^ Hw ' most ancient.' 
U^Mg-hiil-tl H /a ^g ' of a very long time ago.' 

§. 4. Th$ nvmenda, 

155. The cardinal numbers are, 

yiy 4^9 9^9 ^9 ^1 ^^1 to% P^9 ^^9 '^^ 
one> two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, nine, ten. 

156. The remaining numbers are formed thus : 

shl-yiy 11; M-^Ty 13 ; ahinsdny 13; Mrsiy 14: 
4fr^lj 30 ; ^fsg^i-^, 31 ; ^isg^i-^, .33 : 

MilrMnkiUy 99; yi(-^ y , 100 : 

yiriaien -+•, 1000; yl-tiKfn ^ , 10,000. 

157. The ordinal numbers are formed by prefixing ti ^^, ' order,' to the 

cardinal numbers; and up to the tenths cfCu -nTT, ' to b^rin,' may be prefixed 

instead of ti. In expressing the days of the month, the cardinal numbers 
may be used alone for the ordinals. 

158. Fractional parts are expressed by the character /on 'to divide, — a 
part;' the half hj pdn j^j?., and the quarter by ki j^lj. 

pdnrfi ^. Q 'half a day.' 

ji-pdn Q 'a day and a half 

sanrfanrchv^ ^ .^ ^^ — • 'one of three parts,* =4^. 

kiU-fanrchl^ ^f /^ ^ j^ 'four of nine parts,' =4. 


159. Many / ^<m not properly numerals are used as numerals in 



Chinese as in Hebrew and Greek. The characters in passages from noted 
aathors are employed as numerals. Such are the first four characters of the 

Ti'ktng; viz. ytihh yjTf ^^ng ^ , U 5;IJ, ching S, which serve for the 

numbers <mey two, three, /our, for volumes of books &c. The characters 

Mtng p * upper,' chung W ' middle/ and Auf'T^ * lower,' are used for works 

in three parts or volumes. The three months of each season are designated 

by mdng ^, chung ittl, and ki ^ . 

1 60. The characters commonly used for the purposes of higher calculation 
and chronology &c are two series, one consisting of ten, the other of twelve 
characters; viz. — 

(.) ¥, ^. h T, A, a.. ^. ^S i, %. and 
kid, yi, j^ng, ting, toil, ki, kwng, »in, jtn, kwei, 

(« ^. a, ft pp, M, E. ^, *, *, ® ft, % 

tsi, cKeh, ytn, maU, cKhh, 9&, wU, ted, ahin, yiit, 8u, hal. 

The principal use of these is for the production of the names of the sixty 

years of the Chinese cycle, which is called Hwd-JdH-ta^ ,au IS -f^ • The 

number of the cycle must be determined by the Sc^ ^^ nihtrhau ' year's de- 

agnation,' by the title of the reign, or by the name of the emperor, and then 
the two characters from the two series given above will show the number of 
the year in the cycle. A list of the nihirhau and of the emperors will be 
found in the Appendix. The date is frequently noted both by means of the 
emperor's title and the year of his reign, and by the characters of the cycle 
for that particular year: thus, K*ienMimg 8£^i-4^-nien, siii'ts^ trng-yvd 
ahl-^r^yu shi-kiit^i; that is, ^ The forty- second year of K*ien-hmg, the year 
tmg-yu (A D. 1778), in the twelfth month, on the nineteenth day.' 

161. The following diagram and dates of the first year of each cycle since 
the birth of Christ will be of use to the student. 

A. D. 4. was the first year of the 45th cycle. 

A.D. 64. 


A.D. 664. 


A.D. 1264. 





























6 1 St. 






































































































1 62. The distribtUive form of the numeral is expressed by a circumlocu- 
tion j thus ' one a-piece' might be translated k6^-k6 f/iH yi-k6y lit ' each one 
has one.' The phrases ' by ones, twos, threes/ are turned into yi-k^y yi-h6; 
lidng-M, lidng-kd; sdn-k6, awnrk6, Bepetitions of the words or expressions 

have a distributive force; thus, yi-4s'dng, yUtadng ^ ' in layers' or *by layers,' 

ttad-iiad y§^ \ ' each article.' 

163. ProportionaU which answer to the question 'How many times as 
much or as great)' are expressed by adding the word pei "]§ to the cardinal 
number, and placing both after the adjective; thus, to-ahl-peii ^^ -I- "I ^ 
' ten times as great :' and if a fractional part, by adding the word fan; — 
td-wh-fqn ^^ J^ y^ 'five-tenths greater.' 



§. 5. The pronouns. 
164. The personal pronouns commonly used in the Mandarin dialect are, 


ngd or wd ^f ' I,' 
n\ jf^ 'you,' 


ngd-mdn ^W 'we,' 
nlrm4n 'you or ye,' 

t'a-nUjn ' they.' 

In the dialects these syllables change or are replaced by others : e. g. — In 

Peking^ tsdi P|^ ' I.' In Shan-tung, ngd,n 'f^ ' I.' In Shanghai, niing "f S 

'you,' and nd ^p 'ye or you,' and l 'f^ 'he.' While the plural 

is formed by adding nl to the ist person, making ngd-ni 'we;' and kd to 
the 3rd, making l-k4 'they.' In Fii-kien, Idn and gtoa 'I,' h 'you.' In 

Canton, k"4 ^ or -fj^ 'he.' 

165. There are beddes many characters used as pronouns in the books, 
which are seldom found in the conversational style ; e. g. — 

foik El, yH y^j yH 3^, for ist pcrsou, 'I.' 

j4 yJv, ^ ^ra, jii ttr, (also ^r Tm and nal Jj sometimes,) for 2nd 

t 4-I- K tsct person, 'you.' 

k't 'H . and kiu jm^ are used for the 3rd person, ' he.' 

The plural is formed by tdng idby 'series;' cKat ^^& and ts*a^ B. 

166. The Chinese have no possessive pronoun, but its place is supplied by 
the genitiye case of the personal pronoun : e. g. ngd-ti ' my or mine,' nl-ti 
'thy or thine,' t'd-H 'his,' ngd-^n^n-U 'our or ours,' nl-m4n-tl 'your or 
yours,' t'd-nUl^n'ti 'their or theirs.' No difference is made between the pos- 
sessiye pronoun when used as an attribute to a noim and when used as the 
predicate to a sentence : e. g. — 

' This is our house,' =c&^ sM ngd-m^f^i/dng-ts^; 
'This house is ovaB,^=che-kien/dng-ts^ shi ngd-m^n-ti. 

Sometimes the particle fi H^ is omitted when the euphony of the expression 
would be injured by its presence. 

167. For the reflexive pronouns sdf, owm, Ac, ts£ H 'self,' Id H^ 'self,' 
and their compounds tsi-ki and tsi-kid -^^ are used after the personal 
pronouns: e. g. — 

ng^hUirlc\ ' I myself,' or tti-lcl alone ; 
nl-to^^i ' you yourself.' 

When the subject of the proposition is well known, to^B may stand for any 

person, but it usually is employed for the first person only, ivin *P ' dear. 


related/ is used for ' seUf as well as ahln 0j^ * body* and 35 kung ' body :' 
also the compounds Unn-taii, kung-Uin *. 

1 68. The most common pronoun is the clemonstraHve, and of this class 
the Chinese possesses a large number ; some of these are peculiar to the 
books, others to the colloquial style. They may almost all be used as pro- 
nouns of the third person (see Art. 165). Such are, (a) ta^ m^ 'this, = Aic/ 
and (/3) k^t "VT 'that, = itte.' Under (a) may also come t^ Jg, ^ g^, 
M •^, and c^ ^, (coll.) Under (/3) are also |^ |?i, ^ A ^ ^y 
1^ kiu, ^ R ^ and ^I^*| k6, (colL) The Chinese have no demonstrative 
for the second person, like iate in Latin. The student should remember that 
the appoaUivea (Arts. 106 and 107) will be required after these pronouns: 
e. g.— 

ts^Jung-sin ' this letter.* 
nd-k6'jtn ' that man.' 

iM-chS-Tnd, * this horse.* 

Jct-pd-Um 'that knife* or 'his knife.* 

169. Our English word such^ for th<U or this sort, considered as a demon- 
strative pronoun, would be rendered into Chinese by any of the above pro- 
nouns followed by ydng T)^ ' sort, fiashion :* e. g. — 

che-ydng ti nnrtatng jf^ '|'m * such a disposition.* 
nH-ydng tl taicmg-hiun f^ Wj. ' such a general.' 

170. The plural of these demonstrative pronouns, when not shown by the 
context^ is expressed by the addition of sie (15 , * a few,* to them : e. g, — 

chS-»ie-kwo-ts^ 'these (few) firuits.* 

171. The want of relcUive pronouns in Chinese is supplied partly by the 
demonstratives and partly by the interrogatives, to which they are correlative : 
e. g. ndk'kd, 'that,* is also 'which?' interrogative, and 'which,* the relative; 

shut gfj^* 'whol* interrogative, is also 'who,' the correlative of it; sd m' 

' that which,' — ' what,* which seems to be a relative, is in its nature, first, 
indicative of place, and, secondly, an adjunct to a demonstrative expression, 

and is frequently a substitute for ch^ ^^*, i. e. the defimte article. The 

method of expressing relative clauses must be referred to the syntax, where 
examples will be found. 

172. The ifUerrogcUive pronouns most common in Mandarin are the fol- 
lowing: shut ^^ ' whol* ndk-k6 ^|J ^^ 'which?' shinmd "^ J^ , pron. 
Bhvmmo, 'what?' also written ahl-md '["r | . 'Who?' may also be 
expressed by shlmmdjin, lit. 'what man?* shut-H 'whose?' or ahimmd-jtn-tl ? 

* So the old English adjective sib, for 'self/ meant 'related.' Ct Kefn Lat Gr. p. 49. 

THB PBQ1V0UN8. 66 

The book word M "fm ^what' is BometimM used in the ooUoquial style: e.g. 

kd-jtn 'what manr for Mhu^n ^whoV E\ ^g 'several' is used as an inter- 

rogative in sach phrases as ^^ ^^ H-M 'what timeT for i/Amif Some 

oAor eharaoten and phrases having refiarenee to this snbject will be found 
under the adverbe. 

173. The interrogatiye pronouns used in the books may here be mentioned. 
Such are, «4a ^ < who?' ekea ^ < whof hd ^, Jg\ ^% and yki ^ 
sometiflMs take the place of M j^ in the books. See the articles 
on the interrogative particles^ 

174. The imd^ifMte pronouns are sometimes merely the intenogatives used 
as correlatives: s&ui 'whol' used for amy body; Mrnmd 'whatf used for 

amy; iMk £ 'a certain/ for jome. None is expressed by 'not any,' there- 

fore by tM-Mmmd j^, i. e. 'not what' So also H ^g 'several,' for some, 

is an indefinite pronoun, aa weU as an interrogative. Ling ^ and j4 %|] 

express 'other' and ' another :' kd g^'each,' nm ^- 'every;' i^^C 'many,. 

much;' dS \I& 'a few, a little,' and 0i my 'several' 

175. Whoever, tohaievery whicheverf and wherever are formed by prefixing 
suUpien R|§ iP lit 'follow convenience,' /nX-ft^n ^^ ^j^ lit 'not talk of,' 

otrpA-kwdn J^ #^ lit ' not control,' or pA-k'U '^ Jgt lit ' not prevent^' 
to Mmmd~jtn ' whoV Mrnmd tung-^ ^ ^^ 'what thing', or Mrnmd si-tHng 
^ ^ 'what affair;' or to ^1^ iS nd4l ' where :' e.g.— 

[i) sui-^pt^sAlffimd=:' whatever' or 'wbidiever.' 
[3) iut-pUn Mmm&jtn =* whoever J* 

[3) eut-pUn «4ififtmd4tln^-«i =' whichever thing.' 

[4) pil^Bwdn s&diMiid-a^fofn^ =s' whichever affid^ 

[5) 1>^*A 9i^-A=' wherever' (properly an adverb). 

176. When these expressions take a general sense and mean 'all,* one of the 

following words is employed: /kh H , Uhfiln -/^ J? , ehU gS, ekning :Sfc, 

id-kai y^ ip» , and several others. The whole ia very often expressed by 

the numeral ' one' with a word ngnifying to complete, to cut qffl and the like : 

eg. yi4eitng ^^9 yi -idling ||W, yi4s*i ^. The words meaning 'all' are 

too numerous to mention here; reference may be had to Articles 126, 127, 
and to the Dictionary for the rest. 

177. Boih is expressed by Udng-kd ^^ ^||, 'two,' after the personal 
pronouns ; and neiiher hj hd & or W: mei, ' each,' followed by a negative : 
«.g. — 



ngd-nUjn lidng-kd =^ho^ of us' or 'we two;' 
kd'jtn or melrjin mit = ' neither of them.' 

Only or aiUme is expressed by fA-yirko ^M — * /4^ 'one alone.' 

178. Before leaving the present section, upon the pronouns, we must 
notice some of the nouns which the Chinese employ when in European 
tongues the pronouns would be used These expressions arise out of the 
desire to excel in politeness and courtesy, and .some of them are of veiy 
ancient origin j they correspond to our terms SirSj Sir, your warMp, your 
honour, and other titles of respect. Thdr terms of humility are not used 
among us, except in the dose of a letter, your humble servant, &c. 

179. The substitutes for the personal pronoun / and 911^ are, 

eiai^ jh m lit ^ small younger brother,' for /. 
eia^'h'iuin \ y^ lit. ' small dog,' for 911^ dog, 

ytl 2^^ lit 'stupid,' for /, espedaUy in letters, chin J|^ 'I, the ^nperor.' 

A merchant calls himself 'trader,' — ehang ^' or pitn-ehdng /j^ ; and this 

word pi)tn ' own' is frequently prefixed to the names of offices and proHos^ 
sions, in edicts especially, in which the personal pronoun is never used ; e. g. 

pUnrhiin lE^ 'I, the district magistrate,' and piUn-ehvng ^^ 'I, the assistant 

magistrate.' In addressing the emperor various titles are used; a tributary 

prince says kwd^n ^^ /^ or kU-jin Jiff, yH-yl^n ^^ or yiheiaiit^iei 

Jjh ^', a minister of state calls himself chin E^^ 'your subject;' if a 

Manchu, n4 ^J^ 'your slave.' The people in writing to superiors call 

themselves teUijtn ^& /s^ 'sinners,' and I {^ 'ants.' 

180. The characters which most commonly enter into such phrases are 
eiail J^ 'small;' teifin |^ 'mean, poor;' hdn ^^ 'cold, chiUy;' pi fld^ 
'bad, vulgar;' t8*aU "^ 'grass, coarse.' The characters M ^ 'cottage' 
and kid ^b 'fiEunily' are often used for my. 

Examples of the above. 
pi-^ng yful ' vulgar surname,' for my ncbme. 

hdnshe ^ 'chilly cottage,' for my house. 

hdnrmin P^ ' cold door,' for my home. 

siai^'il j^ 'Kttle scholar,' for /. 

tsa/^'t8& ^ ' coarse title,' for my HUe. 

kiaja ^ ' fiimUy fother,' for m^ father. 

THB PBOHomra: 67 


9he4i ^ ' cottage younger brother,' for my yc/wnger broihar, 
iiihnrfSrj/iftk y^ y^ 'mean lady,' for tny ur^e. 

i8i. Sabetitutes for the second personal pronoun are commonly the names 
or titles of honour of the individuals addressed; and the possessiye pronouns 
corresponding to Ay, yowr, &c^ are such expressions as the following, made 

with the words huMi -^ 'noble,' totm ^ < honourable,' ka/a 0j 'high,' 

ling ^ 'good,' ^ laU 'old,' td ^ 'great,' Ac 

Examples with kw^ -€' 'noble, generous, honourable.' 
kuMiMng mt 'your noble surname.' 
kuftffrhwd ffl 'your noble country.' 
kwei^Dong H^ 'your noble age.' 
hwelSrfU Jj^ 'your noble palace,' for your house. 
kw^i4*l |§ 'your noble body.' 

i8a. Examples with ttOn S 'honourable,' kad ^ 'high,' ling ^ 
'good,' and td ^ 'great' 

ttun^^ndng ^^ 'your honourable name.' 

uenrkii ^S 'your honourable carriage,' for you, Sir. 

ifiin-jpi ^S. 'your pencil/ for your handwrMng or your eomposition. 

koOr^ed ^p 'your high age.' 

kaOrkiSn ^S * your high opinion.' 

ling^dng ^ 'your good son' • (Wn^spavilion). 

Hng^'dng ^ 'your good mother' (^*^=hall). 

ttng-^ngai w* 'your good daughter' (^a( = loye). She is also called 
tsUn-Mn <+* ^^ (lit. ' looo gold pieces') 'your treasure.' 

id-had ^^ 'your great title,'=your literary designation. 

id-mtng ^ 'your great name.' 

The same words are applied to form other designations and forms of address, 
but chiefly in letters, in novels, and in the language of etiquette. 

* Cf. Momiiewr voire JiU in French and IMe Mutter in Geiman. 

K 3 


183. Exam]^ nitii fai^ ^ 'pld.* 

fat^ 1^ ' old &ther/ for 5ir8 or /Sir. 
laMiihig ^If 'old elder brother/ for ytm. 

fio also i4Man§ -^ CgrMt'X ^'o^^UOn^ "^ ('enunent'). finrhiumg ^ 
'* (beneToleiit^), AiSn-AHftv ^r C ^^')» ^ addressing ai^erion^ for yoM. 

I^1n» kd^4djtnf and laiirid-Ju y^ are used in addresring people of rank 

and position in society. And instead of the personal pronouns, the name of 
the individual, or of his office or his title, is substituted in flpeaking at 
writing: e.g. — 

^''^f^ jim ^(^ ' spiritual fother/ for /, ffcu or Ae. 
id4a^^ y^ ^p^ S& *your Excellency' or 'your Highness.' 
t'ai-^ y^ gtp '£7^t general,' to militaiy mandarins, for you, 
^"^^^'^^'^^^ jyC ]ffi s^ *8ire of 10,000 years^' ^or to the -emperor. 
t*aUhMdnff-4i y^ ^^ m^ 'great emperor,' qf or to the emperor. 
jArhld P^ *T^ 'your Majesty' (|7f=steps to a throne). 
1^ £ T .yo< ..pecMy in lett«, and docuoH^t. 

184. Hie characters y!^ ^m 'a pattern, a rde/ ^ ^p 'the oovmte- 
nance/ in conjunction with t'al "^ 'exalted' or itt l*ai 'a high tower or 
terrace,' are used in el^;ant writing for you: e. g. — 

kwang-fdn y^ 'bright pattern,' for yow. 

k*il-/dn p^ ' earnest rule,' for yotL 

i-y^ ^^ ' Po^to figure,' or t'aH^h^ ' exalted &ce.' 

t*air/ii "m 'your honoured name,' when asking a person's name. 

***^ /Ci * ^^' '"^^^ ^^' Confacius. 

t'al'&ng WA 'lofty tripod,' when addresring hij^ officers of state. 

h^wei M ^ 'distinguished persons/ =Gkntiemenl 

185. A few other expressions of this kind are formed with paii^ ^§ 'pre- 
cious, valuable,' Adng J^ 'upper,' and MA ^ 'lower:' e. g. — 

pah-h4ng Yt* ' valuable line of buildings/ for your shop. 

THB YSU« 69 

/i^-ji^ If^ ' iq;> in Toor polaoe^' for yott^ 
MMd ^ '/dawn in mjr cottage^* &r n^ Aoicm. 
i^Mtf [^ 'under your paTilioDy' for yott^ 
Aim> i'aSrtkdng w i'alrkid to(r you, 

§.6. JfttffMrfr. 

i86. Borne eyllablcg in Chineee are the icpi ee e i rt ativ^irfciharfteterByiritfflh 
are eommonly naed as Terba; iheae are siwpb and primUipB: many otbera 
however are formed into verba by their connexion with certain anziliariea 
and adjoncta; these m^ be derfgnated 4»mpaund or dmvtiiim, 

187. Although monoeyllablea are aometimeB found to ezpreas a verbal 
notion, they are ahnoat always assisted by some word of cognate signification^ 
or by some syllable which completes the crude notion expressed in the primi- 
tive. This is most general in the spoken language of China^ and makes it a 
polysijflaibie rather than a monosyllabic tongue^ as it is commonly supposed 
to be. The stems in all languages are monocfyllables in the same way. 

188. Mooda and ienBety as such, are quite unknown to the Chinese. No 
distinction is made between acfm and peisdve verbs j nor are the pemans or 
numlben notioed at dl by them. The context and tbe circumstances under 
whidi any thing is said are the chief guides to the exact sense of any passage. 
Time and mode are very clearly shown by the meaning of the whole sentence^ 
or by the conditions under which it has been uttered. 

189. The composition of verbs may be considered under nearly the same 
heads as the oompootion of nouns. We have compound verbs foimed (a) by 
repetition, or by the union of synonymes or words bearing a cognate mean- 
ings O) 1>7 joining to the primitive an auxiliary verb, without which the 
former would convey only a general notion ; (y) by prefixing to one verb 
another, denoting powor^ originy JUneee, dedre, wUenUon^ ohUgaHonf kc ; 
(d) by pladng certain verbs h^ore or c^ter others, to give the idea of inten- 
tion or completion to the action; (f) by uniting two verbs, similarly to those 
mentioned above (/3), but which when united give rise to a notion different 
from the meanings conveyed by the parts separately, or one of them is equiva- 
lent to a preposition ; and (0 by adding the proper object to the verb, like the 
cognate accusative in Greek, and thus forming a new verb, (cf. Axt. ^.) These 
are general heads merely; it will be necessary to notice other formations below. 

190. Verbs of the first class are very common, and are such as the fol- 

<o) k'Un-iUn ^T pi lit 'looknBee,' L e. eeef or eeemg. 

* Hie ChSnaee yerb, when ftiinding alone, most be construed into the impentiTe mood, 
or ths iafinittve mood m % fabstantire. 



hi&n-kiali g 

k'dnrVdn 7^' ^ Ki 'look-look,' I e. look! 
huodn4i*l wj^ ^ lit. 'r^oioe-joj/ Le. h&ing phased mih^ 
Kirhdng HT p£b lit. ' dieat-deceiye,' L e. cheat. 

lit. 'instnxct-teach,' i e. Uach. 

Z91. One verb follows another as an aoziliaiy to limit or perfect the 
nttion of the primitive : e. g. — 

03) Umg-ahd ^ ^^ Ui ' do-kili; L e. iU27. 

Um^hiioa^ p^ -f ^ lit < do-injure,' L a spoiL 

kwelirpai S]^ S^ lit. ' kneel-worship/ i. e. proairtUe. 

tUi-s^ 8^ 5^ ^*- *M-dic,' Le./aC dawn dead 

^i^^^hing )|^ j^ lit < nnite-oomplete,' le. kiMi and beeome^ or cloL 

193. The following verbs, denoting power j origin, JUneaa, &c, require 
another verb as a complement : — 

(y) ndng ^ ' able, can' {phsfeieaUy). 
A;)^ < arise, begin.' 
ytl ^' 'long for, wish.' 
t H 'it is right.' 

A;'d pr 'can, may' (f9iofYi%). 
^*4 -^ 'go;' d Hebrew idiom. 
ya4 ^ 'will, intend.' 
kai g^ 'it is proper.' 
tdng '^ ' onght.' 

193. Examples of the above with their complements are, 
nSng-ft 3K 'can fly.' 

ffing't%ng S^ 'should listen.' 

k*d'iitl ^ 'may go.' 

h*d-i86 j^ 'may do (it).' 

k%ta6 I 'b^ to do.' 

yil-^ ^P 'wish to die.' 

ka/irtdng '^ 'ought to bear,' =: oti^Al. 

ndng-aii ^^ 'can write.' 

ndng-tsS 4M 'able to do.' 

k'd-isS I 'go to do.' 

f/ad-M gS 'will read,' fdt. 'read!' 
or 'wish to read.' 

194. The common auxiliary verbs which stand btfore or c^ter the principal 
verb and determine the tense into which it must be construed are, (i) for the 

perfect tense, Ua^ j 'to finish/ hw6 .^M 'to pass over,' yiiJk "^ 'to have,' 


arwdn ^<to finish,' placed o/lSar the other verb; and I p *ahready/ AS 
'finished,' and tadng "& 'ahready done/ placed htfore it (2) For iiieJiUure 
tense, yad ^ 'wiU/ yuen ||[| 'desire/ h'^ ^ 'shaU' or 'will/ tsidng ^ 
'to approach,' or pi jJA 'certainly, must/ placed be/orB the verb. 

ipS* Compoonds of two of these are also formed in the colloquial style, 
and thereby the particular tense is more clearly defined : e. g. — 

(9) s^-UaU ^P 'is or was dead.' k*44iaU ^ 'is or was gone.' 

tA-kwS g@ or ^Aio64uK^ 'has read or studied.' 

M-kw6 J^ or M'kw64iaU 'has written.' 
VUoAn P^ or k'UcdnrUail 'has eaten.' 
tn^^-M ^ %i or yiiin8ha4iaU 'has kiUed.' 
I'M ^^ or l-Mng jj^ M4ia/il 'has arrived.' 
ttdnff-M "^ or tadng-khiff MrliaiU 'has eaten.' 

Mnff @* is more commonly found with a n^;ative prefixed : e. g. — 
j^ ^ 'not,' or i0( -^ 'not yet' asi^tadng-lat 'not yet come.' 

A'dng 'q^ 'to taste, to try/ is also prefixed occasionally to the verb to fonn 
the past tense; thus, eKdmg-tad 4^ 'already done.' 

196. Examples of the fonns by which theyWurs tense is expressed : 
8(«<WdU jHt:'wiBh-go;=««Sor«fta8^. ««a«y ^ =uiy be prefixed 

ttiang'U6 9& ^lO lit ' approach-do/ =s&a0 doy or aiou< to do. 

The distinction of tense is often shown in the context by some adverb of 
time: e.g. 'to-morrow I shall go' would be expressed in Chinese by 'to- 
morrow I go/ 'yesterday I came' would be expressed by 'yesterday I come.' 
These peculiarities do not belong to this part of the gnunmar, but will be 
found treated of in the syntax, under the section on tenses. 

197. The next class of verbs is formed by the union of two verbs, the 
latter of which is supplementaiy to the former; and from the union of their 
separate notions a third verbal notion is formed. The adjuncts which serve 
for this purpose are very numerous. The most conmion are mentioned here :-— 

(<) ^^ <l 'to obtain.' 

|jj e&'t;( ' to go out' (c£ ofw-). 

P^ ifc'ai ' to open.' 
p ahdng ' up' (c£ ow-). 



g k'4 'to go away' (e£ Ac-, im^). 
^^ son 'to scatter' (cf. dia-, m^). 
kUn 'to see.' 

cM ' to take eflfeet' 

tHn 'to enter in' (cf. Mnein). 

j'^iA4 'iA> reBtln, to bu^ 
"J^ hid 'down' (c£ jcara-). 
5^* fal 'to come' (c£ tls-). 

ill ''^ ' ^ collect' (cf. «IIMflU}M9»-). 

^^ 'toarise, tobegm'(v. Art.193). 

^ Xti>6 'to pass over or by,' ^ todn, ^ j4, ^ teCn, 'to finish,' and 
some others are used as the above, and occupy the place of inseparable pre- 
positions in the compound verbs of some languages. 

198. As examples of the uses of tJie above we may give the following : — 
(•) ki-H ^ lit 'recordK)btain,' 'to remember.' 
i'tng-H ^ lit 'Usten-obtain,' 'to hear.' 

nd-cfc*iX ^ lit 'take^ ont»' 'to bring out' 
«*aa-o4*a ^ lit ' runrgo out,' ' to escapa' 
/mrk*at ^ lit ' divideH>pen,' 'to separate.' 
tseh'Val ^ lit 'walk-K>pen,' 'to walk away:' 
tmit-Mmg | lit 'walk-^^bove,' 'to walk up.' 
ti^k'4 :^ lit 'throw-go away,' 'to throw away.' 
Jft-tdn ^ lit 'shoot out-scatter,' ' to expend (money Ac.).' 
w^kUn ^ Ut 'hear-see,' 'to hear or 
y44fUn jg lit 'meet-see,' 'to maet with.' 
tad-pd ^16 lit ' make-cease,' 'to finish making.' 
shfid^M ^H lit 'sleep obtain,' 'to go to sleep.' 
pa(k'4tfn g^ Ut ' walk-euter,' 'to walk in.' 
k'aH-ehd ^i lit ' rely on-rest in,' ' to depend upon.' 
dn-Mf 1^ Ut 'lay-down,' 'to deposit' 
la4iing ^^ lit ' drag-collect,' ' haul up.' 
ehfyirlcl nf|^ Ut ' stand-arise,* ' stand up.* 


akwd-Hng g'^ lit ' say-fix,' ' decide.' 
yad^kwd i^ lit. 'row — ^pass over,' 'row past.' 
yiing-wdn Hj lit. 'use-finish,' 'use up.' 


t^dfirpi ^ra lit. ' harp-finish,' ' finish playing.' 

hing-tHn >fT lit. ' walk-complete,' ' go through entirely.' 

lot ^Jq 'come,' k'ii .^ 'go,' or ^i^T 'finish,' are added to these compounds 
to express that the action of the verb has taken effect. 

199. Other syllables of like meaning are sometimes used instead of the 
above; e. g. ta/d ^|J, 'to arrive at,' is used for lat /J^^, 'to come,' in some 
expresaions : and many other words, which signify to complete, end, die, kill, 
conquer or qooU, help to strengthen the verb; such are, ch'tng J^, yi g^> 

200. Another class of verbs is formed by the addition of the cognate object, 
or that on which the action of the verb naturally falls. This object is not 
often added in English, but it is in Chinese, and it increases the perspicuity 
of the expression. The following are examples : — 

(0 tit-Ml gg ^^ lit. 'read-book,' for read, (for study.) 

aii'tsi ^& *=Tr\ lit. ' write-diaracter,' for torite, (for practice.) ' 

lA or (M-fdn pr* §^ lit 'eat-rice,' for eat, (any meal.) 

ehS-tsUi Sjv Ht lit ' forgive-sin,' for pa/rdon, 

t^vng-mtng S^ ^£> lit. 'listen to — order,' for obey, {cf.obedioj h.oihaudio.) 

isiuin-jtn ffifj y^ lit. ' advise-man,' for exkort, 

30 1. Adjectives sometimes enter into the composition of verbs to intensify 
or limit the meaning of the primitive : e. g. — 

Unrkin &6 -Vj lit * come-near,' — 'approach.' 
chd,ng-td -^ y^ lit ' increase-great,' — ' enlarge.' 
pa^nMng i]^^ j]^ lit 'place-correct,' — 'arrange.' 

todrJcung J^ /C^ lit. ' scoop-hollow,' — ' excavate.' 

202. There are a few idiomatic verbal comx)ounds made by the union of a 
verb and an adjective or a noun : e. g. — 

«-towi ^^ 5H lit ' obtain-feult,'— ' offend.' 

dmng-i rft ^ lit 'hit the centre — ^idea,' — 'please, suit' 

74 THB coMPOsrrioK of verbs. 

203. In addition to the above, the following idiomatic fonns of expr cMion 
may come mider the head of compound verbs : 

I. Those formed with ti jT <to strike;' e. g. — 

t^stvdn W. lit. 'strike-calculate/ — 'plan, reckon.' 
td-ki 1^ Ut. * strike-knot,'— * tie.' 
t/dL-shui ^m lit. 'strike-sleep,' — 'go to sleep.' 
tdri%ng ^S lit * strike-listen,' — * listen.' 
tdr9aii j^ lit. * strike-sweep,' — * sweep.' 
tid'8h'wu\ "^f lit. ' strike-water,' — * draw water.' 

3. Impersonals and phrases in which the subject follows : e. g. — 
hidr^ ~K KS lit 'falls-rain,' — 'it rains,' (or &J-y^ j^-) 
hid-su I ^^ lit ' &lls-snow,' — * it snows.' 
fan-Jung |^ jSL lit ' change-wind,' — ' the wind is changeable.* 

204. Many nouns are used as verbs, though they do not differ from them 
in form; such being always monosyllables, the context only can determine 
the part of speech to which they belong : e. g. — 

t^^ Ip ' ^ point, a dot;' also means ' to punctuate, to blot out, to light, to nod.' 

tan ^^ 'a road, reason;* also means 'to say,' (cf. \6yo9'=iToi^ and orvrfto.) 

skwd-htod g& ^3h ' conversation ;' abo means ' to talk.' 

205. FreqiientcUivea, or verbs which express the repetition or continuation 
of an action, are formed in Chinese by repeating the primitive syllable : e. g. — 

m6-fn6 ^^. ' to go on rubbing.' 

t'iaii't'iaii RSk ' to jump about' 

h6-hd pl^ ' to keep on drinking.' 

cfCU-eKa Jci }Ar\ ^^l * giving off steam constantly.' 

t*dnr-t*dn nad-^iaii g^ ^^. ' keep talking and laughing.' 

The repetition of the verb does not always give it the frequentative force, but 
only intensifies the meaning of the simple primitive. 

206. ItercUiveSy that is, verbs which express the reiteration of the action, 
as in English when the phrases backwards and farfjooMrds^ again and agoMij 



up and down are used^ are formed in the following manner with lat ^k^ 
' come/ k'U -^ 'go,' shdnff p * above,' and kid "T^ 'below :' e. g. — 

t9eii4at'Ueil-lsu ^p ' walk backwards and forwards.' 
/i-skdng-Jv-hid 4]S *fly up and down.' 
sidng-latsidng-k'U ^g[ 'think again and again.' 

207. InoepUvea, or verbs which indicate the beginning of an action, are 
formed by adding k*\4at j^ ^fc*, ' begin-come,' to the primitive : e. g. — 

hwdrthwi^k'Uat ^^ g^ 'begin to talk.' 
VHrKUai ^ 'begin to cry.' 
tii'k*\4a% gS 'begin to read.* 

M<KiirKUa% Y^ }M 'begin to flow out' 

Ul4ai has not always this force; sometimes it stands as the complement to 
another verb : e. g. — 

Uricvlat )f ' stand up !' or ' stood up,' as the context may require. 

ao8. DenderaUveSy or verbs which express the desire or wish to do any 
thing, are formed by prefixing yail 9? 'to want/ yH ^^ 'to wish,' ytien Jpl 
' to derire,' followed by fo6 ^ift 'to make,' or tod ^^ ' to become,' to the pri- 
mitiye, if it be a noun, but without tad or w6i if it be a verb : e. g. — 

yaO-kl P^ 'wish to eat.' 

yit4a6 ^S 'wish to sit.' 

yuhi-htng .^"T 'wish to do.' (B.) 

ya^tad^odng ^p 'wish to be a king.' 

iffihk-VHi<hU ztl 'wish to be master.' 

209. DinwMUiveBy or verbs which indicate the diminution of the action ex- 
pressed by the primitive, are formed by adding f/l-tien-4r — • Jp 5? '* 
little/ or by the repetition of the verb with yi — ' 'one' placed between : e. g. — 

k'a^^ylrtien^ hM 'open a little.' 

ihai^-yirUenr4^ ^V 'lessen a little.' 

tiitng-yi4d^ ^^ 'wait a little, — delay.' 

f#0^-^foet^ ^p 'walk a little, — promenade.' 

L 2 


aio. Verbs which express being provided with are formed by prefixing 
yiU xfct 'to have' to some noun. These verbs are mostly employed as 
participles (cf. Art. 139) : e. g. — 

yiH-kd^i "^ Hg * having horns.' 
yiH^h^tatng-tl ^L ^p| 'having eyes.' 

211. Ca/u8€Uiv6 verbs are formed by prefixing kiau pU- 'call/ kiaii ^V 
'teach/ shi JW 'cause/ ling ^^^ 'command.' kicm ^^ is used for ^V incor- 
rectly ; and fi tS 'provoke' is also used in the colloquial style : e. g. — 

kiaU'lat ^V Al^ 'cause to come.' 

The object of the verb always comes between the two parts of it. 
hiau-ngo-tat-hwdn ^}* qiji Hg ' cause me to be a magistrate.' 

kta^-^d-pit-nAfig-kibng X\ Wvi Ha * prevented my speaking.' 

8hi-4''d-8heiSrk*ii 4m ^^ '^^ ' caused him to be miserable.' 

212. The p<k88%ve form of the verb is produced by prefixing one of the fol- 
lowing verbs to the active form, which may be then considered as a dependent 
noun ; thus with 

kien ^P ' to see/ kienrsiaH ^S. ' to be laughed at.' 
' sheii ^ 'to receive/ sheil-fBi ^j^ 'to be insulted.' 
k'l or ch*i P^ ' to bear/ Jci-kwei |^ * to be reduced.' 
Ung ^g * to receive/ Ung^naH ^(f 'to be instructed.' 
tsau ^ 'to meet with/ ta'aw-k'ln J^ 'to be seiaed.' 
*^ >^ '*o become/ w^tn-sd-km J^ J^ |fi 'to be hated.' 

213. Several auxiliary verbs are also used with some primitive verb and a 
noun to express the poMwey by which form they must generally be translated : 
such auxiliary verbs are, 

p«^ or pi i^ 'to suffer, to reach to/ usually translated 'by.' 
nA ^@^ 'to take, to use/ ako ^ng pjA 'to use.' 
yal ^^^ ' to rest upon, depend on,' (seldom.) 
tsl&ng SSp 'to take, to seize/ with \ l^ 'to use.' (B.) 

Also yfi "jA or -J^ ' in, by,' and mUng SJ 'fiavoured by' (in books). 


214. The following are examples of the uses of these auxiliary verbs, 
showing how they help to form the passive : — 

pi-hiil-M^iaU ^K^ Bg ^^ j 'was eaten by a tiger.' j^ 

pt-t'd-hwd-ngd I "f di g^ 3^ ' I was told by him." ^ 

ndrM^i'e^iridrti^t ^ '^ §1 ^X ^ ^4f '^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^ ^^^®'* 
td&fi^AaiSnt^rBhd^i ^ 77 ^ ^^ ^^ '^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ * 
yiing-pHen-t^t/Mi p^ fiw -^ ij | * was beaten with a whip.' 
lei-yii^nrM gjf iJJr^ A ^ 'one hated by men.' (B.) (Cf. Art. 21a.) 
mdn^-k't-pau^M ^^ 1^ ^^Sj ^ 'protected by him.' (B.) 

215. Two other modifications of the verb, the reflexive and the reciprocal^ 
which in Greek are effected by the middle voice, ar^ produced in Chinese by 

the syllables te« g 'self' and «««j,- f| 'mutual' beiug placed before the 

verb: e.g. — 

tei^iid-tei-kia 1^ ^$ @ ^ 'to kill one's self.' 
8iS/ng4wn jEpI ^5* 'to discourse together.' 
tiSmg-yd \ j^ ' to meet with any one.' 
eidng-haii, \ fl7 ' to be on good terms with.' 

§. 7. The substantive verbs, 

216. Of these there are several, which vary according to the nature of 
the case in wfaidi tbey are used, and the connexion of the subject with the 
predicate in a sentence. The loffioal copula, 'is,' is expressed by the verb 

ski -^ . It dmotes either that the predicate is^ or, that it is generally sup- 
posed to be, an attribute of the salject by nature^ it oomsponda to the 
original use of ^u«, ntifwica in Qreek, firom which come JkU^ Jusrim dEC in 

Latin, used as tenses of esse ' to be.' Shi in the kiirw4n Av ^Z ' ancient 

style,' L e. the language of the classics, is used as a demonstrative. 

With shi, tsia^ 'then,' y^ ^ 'also/ and tH ^^ 'all,' are united; 

thus tsiH^iy Bt. 'there-is,* 'that isj' in Peking dialect sometimes Icd-tsiA or 

Kd-ckiA (^): y»-dU^ Ut 'abo*is,' 'besides it is:' tOi-M (gfi), lit 'aU-is,' 

'cc«i]^etdj is/ 'is quite.' These are re co g ni s e d phrases in the colloquial 
mandarin dialect 

217. Tlie verb w(^ ^^ 'to do, to exist, to become,' is also used as a sub- 
stantive verb, but only when the notion of heoonwng something by some 


conventional arrangement is implied, not as is the case with M ^, when 

the relation between the subject and predicate is a natural consequence. In 
" Fire is hot" use shi. In " The Yellow River is the boundary" use toel. Also 
especially before designations* in the predicate : *' He is (kmC) a slave." This 
distinction may be said to apply more particularly to the style of the books 
than to that of conversation. The adjuncts used with w&i will also serve to 
indicate its meaning in some passages : e. g. — 

ndng-wei gg J^ * able to be' or * to become.^ 

i-f«ei J^ ^ ' consider to be, take to be.' 

1^ P|| -^ ^ !^ ^^ «Ai-^u?an^c^i-n^ w6i pt 
' Servant women are called pi,^ i. e. slaves. 

^ i^ 1>[ 13 )'§ y^ ^ «'i«i-te^ I 8£-h'al wei kid 

' The son of heaven considers (all within) the four seas to be (his) family.* 

2 1 8. When the substantive verb implies location, the verb tsai ^p 'to 
exist or consist in' is used; and when the possesaton of some attribute, the 
verb yiit 7^ Ho have;' e. g. in "he is here" use taai, in <Hhis is polite" use 
yiilk: thus — 

t"a tsai chS4i ^J^ ^ 5q ^|| 'he is here.' 

che-^ydng yii^ h ^f H ^ H Ut. 'this has politeness,' i.e. <A«i.;w/ae. 
t*d'tM,i-kidL am ^Qp -^^ lit 'he is in &mily,' Le. heis ai home, 
ts^-yii^ tjl^ 7^ TS lit. ' this has reason,' i. e. this ia reasoncMe. 

219. The verb taai ^n^ refers to place or poaUion, and means to be in or 

to consist in; the verb yOl 7& means ' to have some gwdUyy as an acquired 

possession, or as an accident, so ' to happen to be;' and consequently in the 
beginning of the sentence it always means 'there is' or 'there was,! like the 
use of oooir in French (ctUy a^Uy awxU). 

tsai sin mtn fC ^P ^^ * ' consists in renovating the people.' 

yiUjtn shuo6 '^ ^^ g& ' there are men (who) say,' on dU. 

220. The word nal Tj (rar. ^^)i whidi was originally demonstrative, and 

* Thia is from the Tdhi6 y^ ^ ' The Great Scienoe,' the first of the " Four 
books,** a work belonging to the Chinese classics. It b^;ins with the sentence, ''The 
principle of the great science consists in renovating the people, in perfecting the original 
virtue (in' self)^ and in resting only in the summit of excellency." 


agnified ^ there* as a designation of locality, and afterwards as a mark of time 
^then^ seems to take the place of the substantive verb occasionally, especially in 
the book-style. It is found with all the preceding substantiye verbs, and may be 
said to partake of the meaning of eacL It denotes also ' to wit, it may be.' In 

the following example Jj and -^ are in parallel clauses of the same nature : 
1]§ 7J X S. 6 S A ^^ncHt'ii^^MdAjin^ 


'Virtue is heaven's order, vice is man's lust.' (v. Diet 331 1. for^.) 

The word hi 4^ ' belong to, is, am,' which is used in the books and in the 
Canton dialect, corresponds in force to ahi ^^ and nal Vj. 

221. The words t86 'jM *to do,' M -j^ 'to make,' and Uiffkg '^ 'to 

bear, to meet with^' are also used in the senses of the substantive verb. The 
two former are used as toeS 'to be called, to become;' the latter conveys the 
notion of a definite article, or of a demonstrative pronoun, like UU in Latin ; 

e. g. UJbng-cfCu \ ^KTI ' that early time,' i. e. ' in the beginning :' tAng^HCav-H 
I y^ pa 'that sent one,' L e. ' he who is (or was) sent.' And when tang 
is used in this way, it serves to point out the subject or predicate, and so 
renders the use of a positive copula unnecessary j (c£ the use of «^C jp in the 
ikd-io^ V. Art 216.) 

222. Yery frequently the verb substantive is understood in consequence of 
the form of the sentence, or when an adverb or conjunction follows : e. g. — 

simg n\ tH henl^ ^ -j^ Rp $f **^ present it to you will be good.' 
mal-maipii fung @[ ^/ ^^ Im^ 'commerce cannot be carried on.' 

§. 8. Mood and tense, 

223. A Chinese verb when uttered by itself expresses (i) the notion of the 
verb in the vmperative mood; e.g. tseH-Ical ^ ^^ 'walk away!' lal ^ 
'come!' or (2) the abstract notion of the verb as given in the infimtive 
mood; it then stands as a substantive : e. g. tseU-k'ai 'to vralk away, — ^walk- 
ing away,' lat 'to come, — coming,' are virtually nouns; so t'a/A-ch'H ^gfc [f} 

'to run away,' i. e. 'the act of running away,' is either a noun or simply the 
imperative 'run away!' When however we construe t'aiircKii 'running 
away,' something more is expected, — ^it is then only the subject to a sentence. 
It might for example be said, t^aiL-cKH pGrhail 'running away (is) not good.i 
So that in truth a Chinese verb can only be construed properly into the 
imperative when it stands aUyne. 

224. The indicaHve mood has no special sign. When the subject, — a noun 
or pronoun, — ^precedes a verb, that verb is generally in the indicative mood, 
but not always, for it may be a verb which is a mark of some other mood, or 


it may be in the imperatwe; e. g. ni latj lit. '70a come,' may be (i) y<m 
come (ind.), (2) eamef (imp.)j or (3) loAen you eome; in the first and third 
cases being entirely dependent upon the context : thus ' you come here twice 
a-^ay' would be nl lat ehS4i yi t'ien UAng-tsi; and 'when you come^ I shall 
go/ ni lat wd tiiH k"4. 

225. We have seen that the suibftinciwe mood is only distinguished from 
the indicatiye by the context; and the discussion of some peculiarities of this 
mood may be reserved for the syntax, by which alone they are to be, distin- 
guished. Certain particles however require that the verb following them 

should be in the subjunctive : such are, j6 and jd-M ii ]^ ' ^' (^ ' ^"^ 
andAtotf-c^^ :^- 'perhaps' («/(>rfe);«*d«^|j§* if' and <*d«^;;%»'(^ ^. 

226. The poUnticd mood is designated by the verbs mayy can, toouldy 
should, must being prefixed, and by the addition of certiun particles and 
auxiliary words to the primitive : e. g. — 

k'd-ta pT ~§ 'you may read' (permissive). 
ndng-ld g^ 1 ^ ^^ ^^^^ P^ ^^' (potential, physically). 
hu)up-t86 w aM 'I can do it' (potential, intellectually). 
yail-k'dn ^6 ^^ *I would look' (optative). 

yaii^k*dn M ^^ 'you should look' (hortative). 
pi-^ jI/\ gP 'you must remember' (obligatory). 
pi's£ aJ% SF 'he must die' (necessarily.) 

227. The following particles and auxiliary words affixed to the verb also 
show that some tense of the potential mood will be required : — 

A ^S: 'obtain' is suffixed, and followed by hX 'come,' K\ 'arise,' or ck6 

' take effect,' or some other auxiliary to mark the direction or completion of 
the action (see adjuncts. Art. 197). Examples will be found in the syntax. 

Icd^ pj^ Y\ j lit 'can-use,' is prefixed commonly to indicate the potential, 
either of permission or capability. 

hait n7 ' good' is used before verbs for the potential : e. g. hail-k*ti 'it is 

well to go,' i. e. go ! (hortative), or 'it is well (for you) to go,' i. e. you may go 
(permissive). The word pd ' to cease, — it is enough,' is put after the verb in 
this latter sense : e. g. k'U-pd, lit. 'go, and that is sufficient,' for you may go *. 

228. The infmUive mood, that is, the verb without an adjunct, which is 
construed into English with ' to,' is always appended to some word, which 
expresses capaoUy,JUne8S, readiness, goodness, /acUity, difficulty, and the like, 

* Cf. Naaman's reply to Gehazi, ''Be content, take two talents," 1 Kings v. 13. 


and by this it is governed It also follows such words as require the infini- 
tire of pwrpoae or resuU, just as in English. The position alone shows the 
infinitiye mood : thus — 

(i) nffd ndn^ttd M ^ ^ ^^ j]:[^ ' I am able to do this.' 
«'a*'«toei^j^ p^ y) ji^ 'he is able to walk' 
niyft^i*'fl j^ ^\ 1^ ^ 'you ought to cry.' 
;) yH^Mng-^^^^ ^H ^ ^jt « prepared to travel.' 

ha^k*ein i-ping i^+ ^T ^g JS'- *it is good to look at the volunteers.' 
yUng-t 8i^'t8£ Sfe! & J^ t^ ' it is easy to write characters.* 
na^ng ndn-U6 ^ H jj^M mji 4^ 'in that manner it is difficult to do.' 

(2) t'orlat kiSn^ngd 4h[ OT^ ^^ ^fr 'he came (or is come) to see me.' 
ngd-mqn lat k*i;fdn ^> ^W ^fc P^ i^ * we are come to dine.' 

229. The participles are generally shown by the genitive particle H ^ij 
or dd J^ being suffixed to the verb in one or other of its tenses; by a 
preposition being prefixed; or by the positioif of the verb after certain words 
denoting Uke or dislike: e. g.—- 

(a) pien-H ^f: 'discussing' (pres. part.). 

hwiii-H Ipj ' returning.' pai-U ^p ' pa3ring respects.' 

piSifi-Uaii'H ^p j ' discussed' (past part.). ^ 

hwUt4iail'ti Ipj T* 'returned.' ;pX-^iat^ ^ 'escaped, fled.' -S- 

(j8) twMcaU "jfc '^' 'in examining' or 'in being examined' (gerund). 
Srai-ful^ I @i 'in or whilst dreaming.' 

(y) AcM^-yfl^ D4- J*S 'fond of rowing.' Aati-Ztiw pjy- 'fond of arguing* 

'l'/^!^ A4»3S^^ gS * hates reading.' 
Aaik-yai^ might be, 'good to row;' and with tl, 'well-rowed.' 
hwdn-hl piihirUffh ^r ^. ^p ^^ 'fond of arguing.' 

230. The participles thus formed by the verb and some appended particle 
hold a very important place in Chinese construction^ the S3mtax and the 
context however determine- the precise meaning in each case: e. g. The above 
(a) pihirH, in ngd pven-tt, makes, ' what I am discussing,' or pihh-tl 'he who 

discusses.' The preposition isai ^PP , ' in,' must be prefixed, if the sense of 


A- / 



the present participle is to be given; thus, taai-pih^^i 'discusfflng,' or 'in the 
discussion oV (See the constructions with H Hw in the syntax.) 

231. The tenses of the verb can be distinguished only by the various 
adverbs of time or by the context; and all that can be done here is to give 
the auxiliaries, which may be said to form the principal tenses, the preserUf 
the past, and the Jutv/re. The numerous modifications of the time of an 
action are produced by the arrangement of the words and the form of the 
sentence, for which the student may refer to the syntax. It will be necessary 
even here to follow the synthetical rather than the analytical method, and to 
show the student how the exact meanings of the tenses found in European 
languages are conveyed in Chinese. 

232. Pronouns and adverbs of time must be used in order to show the 
true state of the verb. If the verb ^^ gfi ^^^^^^ ^ taken, the forms of 
the present tense are, — 

'I read (habitually or constantly)' ngd chdng-sht tH C^ Q^ 'always'). 

* I am reading (now or periodically)' ngd inrtsai ftl ( J^ fl[- *now'). 
' 1 do read {tTu\ jY ngd shl'tsaita(^' ij: 'truly'). 

233. The past tense with Uatl J^, kwd . {im , &c 

a read (last year)' k'd^'Un ngd ta4iait> (^ ^ 'last year'). 

'I have read (at some former time) '«tg7i-«^fn^dji2-^u^iat^(^ 03p 'before 

'I Have read (what you wrote)' nl «t^-«, ngd td-UaiL 

The past tense is sometimes formed by the auxiliary verbs yUl ^& ' have,' 
and wdn ^, i g^, ki ^, tsdng ^, Ac. (v. Art 194) : thus— 

' I have written (the thing in hand)' ngd yiil^sQ4iaib ^^ 
' I have passed over (this river before)' ngd tu-kwMiaU JBfc 

* (We) have known (the contents Ac.)' chl-taii'liail ^ ^^ j * 

'He once said (so and so)' tfi^sht t'd ki^ng-Uai^ 7^ {j^ ^J^ gS J 

Without Hail it would be ' sometimes he says or speaks.' 

234. The rule about the past tense appears to be, that when the perfect with 
' have' is required, and refers to an action recently performed, it is sufficient 
to add UaHy kto64iait, wdn, or v>dn4iail to the simple verb; but when the 
past indefinite is meant, either the context must show it, or some word such as 

* This is the phrase written by the emperor in vermilion on the documents which are 
presented to and perused by him. 

• Theee examples are fipom the Hdng-UA-m&ng 7^±^ i^^ §;• 'Dreams of the Red- 
chamber,' a modem work in the Peking dialect. 

H 2 



men -^ 'before,' sienrM \ pi| 'formerly/ ts'Ung-ts'iSn ^j^ g^ m^t be 
used as well as the above auxiliaries, and if the action refer to a definite 
time, and that time be mentioned, the auxiliaries may be dispensed with, if 
the rhythm permit : e. g. — 

*I loTed her most* (past indef) aien ngai t*d fmg-to ^* W* 'fm JH ^^ 

'He wandered ever* (past indef.) t'd te^ng-ta'tin yi'drhtng ^r /fnr 

'We leamt too late' (past indef) ngd-m4n t'ai-chi hid Hah y^ j^ !» 

'Last night I heard it' (past def.)foe^^n^d^'i9)^-;tai^te^ B"^ "^ ^ T lljj. t^ 

«To-day I forgot' (past def.)fe7»-«'i«iw^dtafri^-*Wtati A. ^ ^ gp T 

335. The perfect tense of impersonal verbs is formed by adding liaii j : 

hO-UaU-y^ "T^ j HjS 'it rained,' (occ. in replies.) 

Fkobably the following expression may be referred to this form : 

Ue^ Uait ahuyUl UaH^ ^p T ;;4^ T 'it has been run with water,' L e. vxUer 
hcu been /etched: (v. Mr. Wade's ffein-teing-luh, Cat. of t'ien.) 

236. Tedng or te'dng "@r (i) 'to add,' (2) 'already past,' prefixed to the 

prindpal verb, denotes the past tenses, often the phtper/ect, but this depends 
upon the sense of the passage and the sequence of clauses :— • 

*m«i» «•« to'dnjy-yd . . . . il«^ "h ^ tt #" || . . . . fiS oS 
' In former years he had formed acquaintance with .... * 

teil-Mng t8*dng-t86-ku}6 f fi Jl '^^ "f jj i^ . , . ,* 
' Among his ancestors there had been . . . . ' 

237. The expression of Jutfwre time is effected by the words yait |^, 
teidng tM-, or pi jxA being prefixed to the verb : — 

yaii gives the. force of wiUy shaUy ahouldy or muet^ and is frequently used in 
compounds; e. g. with k*U ^^ 'to go,' 

' I shall go (to-morrow)' ngd yaH k*^ 

' Tou shall go* or 'you must go (to-morrow)' ni yad JcU. 

' Go !' or ' Do you go (now) !' n\ yaii k'4. 

' He nuist go (any time)' t^d yaii k'A 


Uidng is used with ya4y and gives the force of about to; e. g. with lai "^P 
'to come/ 

' I am about to come,' ngd tsiSng lai. 
' He is about to come/ t*d tdang-ya^ lai. 

pi is also joined to ya^ and then the force of the compound is tnuH, 
certainty shaU or muH; e. g. with tW j|^ 'to run away/ 

' I must run/ ngd pi t*ail. 

' You must certainly run/ nl jTi-yoil t*ail. 

The addition of an adverb of future time always compensates for the absence 
of these special words : e. g. — 

' To-morrow I shall go/ ming-t^ien ngd Jed ( B^ tF miTig-fien 'to-morrow *). 
' In the afternoon you will go/ hid-unl n\ leU ( ~K 4^ hid^w^ 'this afternoon'). 
'By and by he will come,' mdmr^mdn t*a lai (^@ | mAnrvndn 'by and by'). 

§. 9. The adverbe. 

338. Monosyllables conunonly used in an adverbial sense are priinUive'(a); 
those of two or more syllables formed by the addition of a distinctive or 
formative particle are deriwUive (/3) ; and those formed by a locution, and 
which may be resolved into their separate parts, are compauaid (y) : e. g. — 

(a) PrimUivee are not very common in the colloquial dialect, but are 
frequently met with in the books. 

i [^ 'already/ kin ^ 'now/ heU ^^ 'after/ eien ^ 'before.' 

O) DerivaHvee are such as the following, formed by adding j4 a(P 'as/ 
I j^ 'to use/ or jhh j^ 'yes/ to the primitive: thus— 

hwd^hi S I 'certainly.' 
chd-jin AHT I ' immediately.' 

hwHrjin ^^ I 'suddenly.' 

tfodtnrjin ^)f | 'decidedly.' 

(y) Campounde are such as are made up of two primitives, or of two or 
more syllables which constitute a phrase : e. g. — 

i'king p 1^ lit. 'already-now,' =91010. 

cfCorpHrtd ^g T^ ^^ lit. 'error not much/ =a2mo«^. 

te^ng-taUn ^"^ 1^ lit. 'from-before/ ^/ormer^. 

t*tin-4'ien 'TF^ ^jfr lit 'day-day/ =«&»%. 

taiang4ai JJ|^ ^^ lit 'about to comey' ^a/tertoarde or hereafter. 


*'*^^'^'*'^^^'^^ >p@ I n^ ^^ 'fllow-fllow/=<^bto?y. 
ftf-^ yr ^^ lit 'great-fEunSy/so^^a^vtAer. 
yl-fo*i — • ^* Ut 'one-Berie8,'=cmo6. 

339. It "will be teen that notiuSy adjectires, and yerbs enter into the 
oompontion of adverbe^ and that the same principle of formation is fol- 
lowed as was observed with respect to the other parts of speech. Syno- 
njmes are united or syllables are repeated to intensify the meaning; or the 
repetition implies the continuation 'of the prime notion ; or the words are in 
construction, viz. as subject and verb, as adjective and substantive, or as 
attributive genitive and the word which it qualifies; or the compound is an 
idiomatic locution. 

340. Before giving lists of the adverbs, it will be well to classify them 
with regard to their meanings and uses in Chinese. 

I. Adverbs of time; in reply to the questions 'when?' and 'how long)' 
a. Adverbs of phce; relying to ' where 1' 'whence)' and ' whither )' 

3. Adverbs of mcmner; in answer to ' how?' 

4. Adverbs of intemUy cmdjrequenc^; in answer to 'how often ? ' ' how much ? ' 

5. Adverbs of quaniiUi/; in reply to 'how great?' or 'how much?' 

6. Adverbs of qualUy; in reply to ' of what sort?' 

7. Adverbs of affirmation, of douht, and of negaiMn, 

8. The imUrrogaiUme adverbs are the correlatives of the above. 

341. The common adverbs of tifme, simple and compound, which answer to 
the question 'when?' are the following : — 

I. The simple or primitive adverbs. 

**« /^ 'now' {rwmc^ vvv), hUn J^T '^ow' (Jam, fpitf, <k present). 

fang Jj ' now, just now* (nimc or tunc), kdng HHIJ ' recently, just now.' 

lM0n j|S 'then' ((fine). tm^ ^i^ 'then' (^um). 

men ^ 'before' {antea). hed ^^ 'aft;er' {po8lea). 

Ma ^ ' at first' (<V>;rii'). «{ ^ ' formerly' {oUm, pridm). 

ibj^ -^ 'of old' {t6 nakaiov). Udng f^ 'hitherto' {adhnic). 

ehdng ^* 'always' (aemper). uji ^ 'not yet' {nandum). 

a. The compound adverbs of time. 
kvnrt'ien ^ ' to-day.' hiSn-kln J^ 

tsd-t'ien J^jp 'yesterday.' tdng-ktn g 

nAm-i'ien Q^ ' to-morrow.' jH-kin yjfl 

'now' or 'at present' 

*now' or 'at 


iaUnrt'ien g|[ ' day before yesterday.' hihirUai J^ ^ 

fang-ts'at ^ |^ * then, just now.* i-*ln^ p^ |^ 

jp^JtnrM -^ 'then.' iM^^i ^^ ^ 'then-' tMll |p ^jj 'immediatdy.' 

Uai-min "j^ ^ ' formerly.' fH-M g^ ' in ancient times.' 

ckOmg-M, Q^ 'always,' or MrM \ 'at most times.' wCirM, j^ 'nerer.' 

\^^itrM "yS 'sometimes.' to^t ^ 'often.' tsait SL 'early.* 

t(>f-te*4n^ ^ ^ ' not yet* i&ai^^ai ^ 'afterwards.' cAi ^ 'late.' 

haU-kiU y^ /X 'a long time ago.' m/A-hid H ~K 'at present' 

^dng-k^ Jl l4r *"^ ^8^ antiquity.' todnshdng flW j* 'in the evening.' 

ta'iinnsanrji ttfr ^- Q 'three days ago.' £u»inX»(»i hj^ 'soon.' 

kwds^'fim j^ jM ^F 'four days hence.* 

ia^Hng-tsi^ ^j^ )^ 'formerly, from of old.' 

tsil^ng^i^ ipl^ /S lit ' generally haye,'=a2u7ay». 
Duration of time is shown by the position of the adverb after the verb. 

342. The common adverbs of place, which answer to 'where)' are the 
following: — 

M-U ^g vm lit ' this interior,' for taai ehi-ti ' in this interior,' =Aafe. 
nd-H ^ R I •lit 'that interior,' for teai nd4l ' in that interior/ = Mens. 

The syUables H 'fj^, kuf^ J^, Ved njj, dfH J^./ang '^, mihh ^, 
and pien ^^, which all denote plaoef are used with the demonstrative (c£ 
Art 168), often preceded by the preposition iaai 'Vp 'in:' thus — 

teaUtei-H, lit 'in this place,' =Aer0. 
teai-chS-pien, lit ' on this 8ide,'=Ae9i0. 
tsairnd-t'ed, lit 'on that head (for place)f^=thef^ 
teai-pMi^*iif lit ' in that place,' =<Aere. 

yfi-te^ -j^ ^and teai-ts^ j^ lit 'in thiB,'=Aer«. 

teairpl ^^ Ut 'in that,' and nd-sd-teai ^^ J^ lit 'that place,' =tAere. 

243. It will be seen that almost all the adverbs are produced by the con- 
struction of words with one another. Many of the prepositions are used as 
adverbs in construction with verbs, as we say 'he is gone before,' t*Ma'iinrk'4, 

Examples of adverbs of place (' where?'). 
chS'R ' here' (Ate). nd-h ' there' (ibi). 


f^-j9i2n^e&e-Ay lit * yonr mde here,* ' here by you* {idMc). 
t'd-fnen-ndrhj lit 'lus ade there,* 'there by him' (ilUc). 
tmA'^fir^ydfng'^'-fafngy lit 'in the same place* {ibidevn), 
idc^4idng'pieny lit 'in two (for the two) places,' 'in both places' (uirobiqua). 
€Kii<Kii * or kd-ch*ii ' every where' or ' in each place' {tibique). 
pA4da4-iirt9airnd4if lit 'not know in which place,' 'in some place' {ctUcubt), 
89d-pien-t9ai-fid4i ' anywhere you please' (ubivis and usqwm). 
iaaHrpi^'tir/dngf lit 'in other's place,' 'elsewhere' {alibi). 
pil'kU-^himm6--Hrf&ng 'wherever' (ubicunqitey 
pA-Ua^^nd-^ 'no where' {nuaquom). 

344. The adverbs of place, which express direcHonJram a place, are formed 
by prefixing taUng S ' to follow' to the simple adverb of position : e. g.^=— 

taiinff^hS-h 'hence' (Mnc); 
tB^^ng-nd-^ ' thence' {inde) ; 
U'4nff-7il^pi€n<hi^ ' from your place' (idhine) : 
and so of all the others. 

245. The adverbs of place, which express to or tatoards a place, are formed 

by prefixing tad ^|J 'to reach to' or hidng |p|| 'towards' to the simple 

adverb of position : e. g. — 

taHn^hi^ 'hither' (hue). 
tail^nd4i 'thither' {eo). 
ttxH^nl-pien^ndm 'to your place' (isthue), 
tad-kd-pien^nd-ii ' to that place-' (ilkic), 
hidng'Chi4i 'towards this place.' 

346. Adverbs of manner are generally derivatives formed by the addition 

of ji^ im ^ ^^'^ adjective or verb. Such are, hwiirj^ 'suddenly,' hodnrjin 

'decidedly,' in Art 338. 

Other examples of adverbs of mamier are,— ^ 
chS-ydng ^ |^ 'thus' (colL). jd-ts^ jlP i^^ 'thus' (B.). 
Like is expressed by the form 

j^ 3ttl yir^ydmg — ' I or yirpwcln — • ^^^ 

pirifdng t\\ I lit 'other &shion,' =otA6ni?M6, (or Udmg-ydng,) 

247. The repetition of the adverb or adjective forms an adverb of manner 
frequently: e.g. — 

jAng-jAng-anrdn ^* \ ^1^ \ ' peacefully, comfortably.' 
hMa/if^hwcmrh\-M ^f | £/. | 'gaily.' m&n-mdn-tl >fi@ 'slowly.' 

* The notion conveyed by repetition is tMtt, a gw)d deal, and never seems to mean 
absolutely aU or every. 


^48. Adyerbs of irUenaUy and fiequeney are such as the following; th^ 
are sometimes called adverbs of comparison : — 

hang S^ 'to change,' adv. *more^ again.* 

tsai S. 'again,' also yiH ^. 

^ng J p 'the top,' adv. Weiy.' 

kl i;^ 'the extreme point,' adv. 'very.' 

hiodn j^ 'moreover.' fA Am 'agun.' 

Some other syllables, used to form the comparative and superlative of adjec- 
tives, are adverbs (v. Arts. 146, 148). Words denoting ' to pass over, exceed,' 
and the like, are used adverbially; e. g. kw6 ^^, y& mJ, &a 

<*aC ^ and t% Jjj^ denote 'too.' 

to ^^ 'many or much' is used adverbially. 

pH-hob ^^ ^^ lit 'not pass over,'=on/y. 

Mrfm -I- -4^ lit. 'ten parts,'=o0f^. 

Uirfdoi y^ y? lit 'great, general,' =m<M%, gmeraUf/." 

yi-^ — • 'It Ht'onefew,'=aKttfe. 

shah ^ 'few' and Ud >9^ 'an outline' are also used for ZiM&. 

p*d Wk 'rather' is less frequent in conversation. 

tMrng-hid J- "K ^almost' i4ry6 ^ 36^ 'nearly, about' 

^49. The adverbs which express frequency, and answer to the question 
' how often)' are sudi as, — 

jtji Q I or t'ietk4*ien ^ | 'daily.' 

nUnr^iSn ^ | or auUsui ]^ | 'yearly.' 

td-M ^ P^ 'often.' yUl-shi ^ | 'sometimes.' 

250. Several adverbs of qtumtUy have already been given, and others are 
formed by the following constructions : e. g. — 

M-ydng-td £ lit. 'this manner mudli,'=«o much (tarUum), 
i*ai4o or t'i-io y^ ^^ ' too many,' or ' too mudi' (nindum), 
tad 91 'to arrive at,'=«o much as, or vp to. 

Especially after pit '^ ' not :' e. g. — 


eh^k6 ydng-tiihh pHrfaU 9dn pi kwt^ 'these doUftni do not reach to 
three hundred pieces.' 

251. The adverbs of qualUf/ are generally formed by. uniting an adverb 
of manner to an adjective; e. g. — 

eke-ydmg'hah'jin *no good a num.* 
yi-ydng-ha^in 'an equally good man.' 

pi-pwdn ^ &^ 'all kinds of/ lit 'a hundred classes.' 

952. The adverbs of ajffvrm/aiiony of doubt^ and of negatAon are the fol- 

Ajfvrm(Uive adverbs. 

M ^ *it i8,'=y«; e. g. in '^s there?'— 'Yes.' hi ^^ for 'yes/ is pecu- 

liar to the Canton dialect; e. g. hai4d 'yes.' 
jhh *^ denotes aequieaeenee; it is especially used in the books. 

yiU 7^ 'there is,' after appropriate questions; e. g. ' Have youT — ' Yes.' 

ifcwd^ ^ I 'certainly.' M-Uai ^ :3^ 'truly.' 

iMi-^ g I 'certwnly.' ehtng^hh g]^* | 'surely.' 

tin 4^9 ha ^j, Ght7hg*j kd ffly shin 1 ^ are all used in the books, 
but not in the colloquial style, except in compounds. 

The affirmative is also expressed by pH-tao 7)\ i^ lit. 'not mistake,' or 
fffA4s'd ^^ 'without mistake.' ch'd ^^ often standJs for tad. 

953. Adverbs of doubt are such as the following : — 
hwM^ ^ ^ 'perhaps.' chB-pd y{ j»Q 'perhaps.' 
shOrki ^ ^ 'perhaps' (B.), and toi-pl ^ jj^ (R). 
Vilnff^'d ^ fj^ 'lest perhaps' (coll.). 

354. The negaUoe adverbs are these : — 
ma ^^ 'to be withoat,'=:no or not; opp. to y*i^ ^ ' to have,'=y«», there ie. 

pA J^, ' not/ is the most commonly used negative, and it has no other use. 

/I ^^ 'not to be,— fclse,'=i* ie not; opp. to «^C -^ *to be,'=yw, U ie. 

«7<2 ^ 'not to have,'=fi7itikm<,=ii»iS-y»t^ ^^ ^', which is also common. 
The n^;ative of possession is expressed in Canton dialect by md /H*. 

md j^ ' not, do not»' is a synonym of pH ^^ ' not.' 

m pS (in the Canton dialect) =91^ and pU of the books. 


are used in the books, and some of them in local dialects, but seldom in 
the Mandarin, except in compound& 

355. The interrogaHve adyerbs correlatiye to the aboye classes are: — 
kinM ^ Q^ 'at what time r=:«7A6n^ 

klriMng-yuin \ -M ^t *how long? h<^ fiir?' 

:^how long? 

kH-td't'ien | ^^ ^F ^ how many daysl* 

ki-to-niSn \ \ ^. 'how many years)* 

aien-X^rniin ^|j [ ffi. *how many years ago?' 

ahimmd aht'hed '^jl' ^ 0^ ^^ 'at what time r=wAen? 

t9d^fn6'ydng* Jg | t^ 'how? in what way?' 

to»i-nd-ft ^ ^|J ^g 'where?' 

t8 4ng-ndra ^ | | 'whence?"' 

toi^-nd-a ^Ij I I 'whither?' 

£i-fo'i ^^* ^^ 'how many times? how often?' 

ifcl^ I 'j^ 'how many fold?' 

Bto I ^ 'how much?' iB-td | ;;^ 'how great?' 

hd-ydng "^VX i|| 'of what sort?' 

eidng-Mmmd "(& \ \ 'like what?' 

a^l-/n2-A&l -^ ^^ "S 'is it so or not?' 

y»i^-fi»i{-y»t^ ^hT y^ /g 'have you or not?' 

356. y^ jS, Ad 'jnT, M ^V, and several other words are used in the 
books as interrogative adverbs or particles. They are prefixed generally. 

«Mi.M ^ 'JPJ 'why?' (coll.) orwi-*AM»»i6/ 

an or ^f^ ^^ is interrogative, chiefly in books; arhtaai >& =toA0fv/ 

^'^ S ^^ ^^ beginning of a sentence is interrogative, (quomodo.) 

The interrogative particles will be found further on (Art 273), and the forms 
of the interrogative sentence in the syntax. 


* T$d 18 also pronounced tsin, Uing or Ming, and formerly it waa called ttim : v. Edkmi 
Grammar of the Mandarin JHahct, p. 153. 


§. lo. The prepoHtwna, 

357. The relations expressed by the prepositioDS are shown in Chinese 
partly by prepositions properly so called, and partly by the union of these in 
eonstmction with postpositions. The former are generally verbs; the latter, 
commonly nomis. 

The following are words used as prepositions : — 
tad JIJ « to reach to,' — to (ad), and vp to {usque ad). 

^9ai "jgl ' to be in a place,' — in (locatiye) (m) or on. 

te^ng ^jL ' to follow,'— ^/rom {de or per) or throu^fh, 

h^dng |pf| 'to go towards,' — towards {versus), 

i J^^ ' to use, to take,' — mth (instrumental) {de or ex) (B.). 

^ ^v **^ «wrrive at,' — wUh {cum), 

itin ^g « to connect^' — wUh, tmited with {cum), 

tai 'j-^ 'to act as a deputy,' — mstead 0/ {pro), 

ytl ffl^ < to ^ytj^—for or to {pro or ad) (B.). 

^ $n '*^ give/— :/^ or to {pro or ad). 

^ ^ J ' to strike,'— ^om, but only in colloquial, and especially in the Shanghai 
dialect, in which it is pronounced td,ng, 

tang B *to meet with,' — in, at (cl Art. 221); it occupies the place of tsai 
*' in,' mentioned above. 

toei J^ 'to do, to become,'— ;/5>r, on accoumt 0/ {propter), 

tui ^r *to be opposite to,' — toioa/rds, opposite to, emd/or. 

fUng Im ' the same, together with, in company with' {cum), 

hd yffi ' concord,' — along with, 

ts£ ^ ^Be]£f—Jrom (B.), used with ts'Ung 'from.' 

t'i S ' for, instead of;' also to or for {ad), 

fftn ffi[ 'because of {propter), 

yiH Jopi ' origin,' — -frbm, hy {ex and per). 

yU "tK and yli ^^ are equivalents of tsai 'in,' and several other prepositions, 
but they are used only in the books. 

258. The words used to express the relations of place in construction with 

K 2 

92 THB PRBPosmoys. 

the preposition Uai '^ are treated as notmSy and may 1>e caUed poiipotiUont, 
The most common are these :— ^ 

nUi |a| (pron. nei occ) ' interior/ tei(;/9ngFta^ ni{( ' within the honse.* 

wai ^ j^ * exterior/ Uai-fdng-ts^ loaC ' outside the house.' 

A kS ' interior/ is used dmilarly with t$ai for ti^tn. 

Mng p 'aboye,* taai-ahdMhdmg 'upon the mountain.* . 

AuS "!> 'below/ taairmm-hid 'under the horse.' 

thilng t+l 'middle/ taai^-chG/ng ' in the middle of the house.* 

iaihk MIT '^^^* {<^f^^'^'^i Uai-m4''^i^ 'before the door/ 
held ^^ 'after/ tot»C-9i^d-A0<2 'behind me.' 

359. The same words may stand after nouns without Uai bemg prefixed : 

iXtng^m \^ ^ ' within the city.' 
hw^^-vHjd 1^ ^y 'outside the kingdom/ =o6rocui. 
MhSfnrhid Ml H^ 'at the foot of the mountain.* 
tnit'dhdng ^ (^ 'upon a horse/ =: on horseback. 

heU i^, 'after/ is also used as uprepaeitum; — heii-ngd 'after me.* 

a6o. Some explanatory locutions and phrases, such as the following, supply 
the place of prepositions: e. g. — 

miX-yit^ ^^ y^ lit. 'not to hAxe^' =imth(nU {eine). 

p&ryii/ng ^^ Iti lit 'not use/=fOi£&ou< {$vne). 

pii-Uai yj^ U* lit 'not present,' :=t9iCAot^ (postpoation). 

waUt^ed ^h ^B lit 'outside hesdf^hef^ond {extra or tiftra). 

kuMcU ^]^ -^ lit 'pass over m^f^^heyond (extra). 

Examples of the aboye in construction. 
md-yiHtt'ei \ ?^ ^ ^ ' without strengtL* 
piling ffn-hidng ^ j^J ^f) ^ 'without incense.* 
r'Am^n /^O-^mC ^{[1 ^P^ ^ ^ ' without them' (they being absent). 


mia^irfn4n waU'ea ^ p^ ^j> ^|j < outside the temple-gate/ 
Mating kw6-k'4 ^ ^^ ^ 'beyond the Mei Ung' (Mt.). 

§. IX. The cof^unetums. 

361. Cbpii2a^v6 conjunctions are of rare occurrence in Chinese^ but dit- 
junetwe and iuhersative conjunctions and those with the hppatheHoal and 
force are frequently found. 

The ordinary copulative conjunctions are:— 

*•« ^ 'with;' hd ^n 'with;' ping -^ or ping ff- 'together with;' 
.qI^ yi, the final particle of the books, is used in colloquial style for and, 
espedaUy in the phrases y^-yiU 'also have' and y^^i ' also is;' kwdn ^^ 
(occ. hat in coll.) 'still, moreover/ is used in the same sense, yi IjK 'also/ 
yiH ^ 'again,' <«'»^_fl 'moreover,' and jj^ ^ 4^'ts*Q are found in books; 
so also is I'Un j^ <to connect,'=tc^ through, kien •^•, 'together with,' 
is seldom used in coll. The copulative conjunction is frequently omitted. 

262. The dtsjundives are such as the following: — 

hufH-ch^ ^& ^- . . . hwd^h^, lit. ' perhap . . . perhaps,' :=et£^ ... or. 

yi im ... yi are used in the same way for either .,, or, 

p^-ahi y^ ^ . . . shi, lit. ' not is . . . is,'=«t<Acr . . . or. 

pO^i pa4ou)6 3^* I J([ ^ 'not only' {non eolum^^fl-til ^^ ^ (B.). 

UinrM ^Q I or hwdn-ehi j^ | 'but is' or 'also is' {eed etiam),=itdil'8hi. 

yi-mAen — * ^H ...^{-mi^'on the one sidc.on the other side' (^um...fum}. 

^firdii — • P^ . . . yt-tiht ' now . , . then' {modo . . . nmic). 

263. The e<ynce89%ve conjunctions are these:— 
eutrjhh S^ j^ 'although* {etei). 

jin^r I Ifft 'although, yet' (not often in colloquial style). 

264. The advereaiives are principally, — 

tdn-M jg Jl 'but' or tait-tl fgj J^ 'yet, but.' 

pOrtdn /p I 'not only,' 4r-t8id ]j^ ^ 'l>«t also.' (B.) 

(an ii, tdn ^, k^ or u^i f ^ or |^, and wai ^jf are used in 
books, both ringly and in composition with 4r ^ and jhh j^, for but, 
only, &c ehl Ji% and ti "^ are used for hvJt, only, in edicts. 


365. The eondMoaal or hypotheUeai oonjnnctions in conunoB uae are^ — 
j6-^,jll.^h!l I j^jandja-aW | g 'if;' Aictf-cW ^jj^ ^ 'it'(n/otie)i 

ehi-p'd^ \^ 'suppose, if;' t'iing j^ 'if,' and t'dng-jh* \ \ ; 

P'^ ^ j(P 'suppose, if,' or pi:jil j^ -jffl (coU.) or kiA^ jg jlP (R); 

8h4-ki J^ ^p 'if perhaps;* hed j^ 'if;* and many other words are used 
in the book-styl^. 

266, The commI oonjunctions are, — 

yin hg and y%n-w«i ^g j^ 'because* (coll.). 

^S 1^ and Jd'jhh 'since' (B.). 

I J^l and i-«wC |^ [^ ' on account of (B.). 

yu^ tIC' ^^'^^ ]^' ^ mX ^^^ ^^ J>I ^ A' ^^^ ^^ ^^ '^^ common 
to the literary style. 

367. The eonduavoe or iUoHve conjunctions are, — 
8d4 j^ yj and kd-id-l ^^ J5^* J^ Hherefore,' and tnH gfj| 'then.* 

^i2-^ A V iJk and ^n^te^ m iH^ are less conmion. 

268. The Jinal conjunctions are these : — 
I Yj ' in order that, so as to* (t^). 
Jcilng^^d J^ ^6 <lest, so that not* {ne). 

369. The temporal conjunctions are expressed by the adyerbs and the 
form of the sentence : e. g. — 

Btfare he came {priua qua/m), t*d toi-iadng lat, lit ' he not yet come.* 
After he was gone (post quam), I &c,, t'd JcU-liait, ngd tsiii, lit ' he being 

gone, I then.' 
As soon as he came, I &c., t*d laiy ngd tsiii, lit 'he comes, I then.* 
So long as he reads, I &c., t'd-tHnU^t-heii, ngd &c., lit 'while he reads, I &c* 
As often as he eats, he sleeps, t*d-k% tsiii chdng-sht shut, lit 'he eats, then 

always sleeps.* 
Whilst I am here, ngd ehe-U, i. e. ' I, being here.' 

The position of words and clauses affects the nature of their connection very 
considerably. In the syntax this will be further elucidated. 


§. 12. The intarfecUtma and other particles. 

370. The mterjeeUonSf which are the involuntary expressions of feelings are 
rather numerous in Chinese. The following are among the most common : — 

at-ya P^^ \iy\ 'ah !* is an expression of joy or surprise (cf. eja in Latin). 

iedng^'ienl tadng-t'ien -ig ~^ 'heavens!' 

k'd-Uhh pf f^ or k'd^ pj ^^ 'alas! mercy!' 

k'4^ ^ J^ 'away! be off!' 

ki4rjtn JPv /^ 'help! help!' lit 'save man.' 

nodn-ha^ ty Ot^ *v®^ good! beautiful!' 

K-mMMi ^- ^ 'wonderful!' 

37 1. Besides the ordinary interjections of surprise, admiration, &c., there 
are in the Chinese colloquial style a great number of expressions in imitation 
of the various sounds heard in nature {(momalopcBicC), as the faUing ofwaJUft^ 
Jingling of crockery, bursts qfla/ughter, &c, dec. Such are, — 

a)-al ^ ^ 'Oh! oh!' (to indicate pain.) 

hl'hl S &, 'Hi! hi!' (to resemble laughter.) 

fanrfan jdng-jdng i^ 1^ pS pfi, to express the noise of business 
in a market-place. 

373. The euphonic and interrogative particles remain to be mentioned. 
They vaiy in the different dialects. In the Mandarin the following are the 
most common: — 

U pS, ma pj^, l& ^^, ya P^, and 16 P^ are final euphonic particles. 

vnd f^ is a final interrogative particle. (Mandarin.) Contr. /. 

nt png is a final interrogative particle. (Canton D.) 

^ Kffl and al P^*. In replies for ' Oh,' — 'very well,' Ac. 

373. The following particles should also find a place here as they are used 
in the ordinary colloquial style : — 

ytiin-lai j^ X^ lit 'originally come,'=fo/ just then/ This is used at 
the banning of clauses as an exclamation. 

uh TT and Hh-tl is a sign of the vocative case, especially in the Plays of 
the Yuen dynasty. 


p3rpii-ti P^ ^ ^M: ^would ihatr {fMnam,)=^I hope, I detire; and 

with a change of tone it applies alternately to the speaker and the person 
addressed, e.g. ^wotdd that I were ^al' or 'would that you were ^af 

fi^taii i^ ^i lit 'you BpeBk,^=:9peakl teUmef introduces a question. 

ndn-ta^ mi ^^ lit. ' difficult to say/ also introduces a question, gene- 
rally followed by whether, that is, a dependent questioa 

P'i UM " nS' P«««l" °«^ »* «»« begiiming of a sentence, are exprea- 
siye of contempt or irony. 

nai-/dn jmj j^ lit 'bear trouble/ and nairhd ^ 'jpj' lit 'happ^ 

what,' may be regarded as particles. They occur in many phrases, sometimes 
as an exclamation; e. g. — 

wMiJbl nairhd ^ ^ \ \ 'what shall we do!' 

The remaining particles, more common to the books than to the colloquial 
idiom, will be found treated of at the end of the syntax. 

374. We hare now reached the end of the first division of the grammar, 
in which has been noticed, ist, the sounds and syllables, the characters which 
represent the syllables, and the manner of writing the characters; sndly, 
the formation and grouping of the words and syllables, which enables the 
student to analjrse the sentence with greater ease than he can when each cha- 
racter and each syllable is concddered as a separate word. The fact that the 
Chinese generally put two and three syllables together to form a simple 
notion is enough to show that the term monosyllabic is not applicable to 
this language. 

275. The first object of the student should be to group the words or sylla* 
bles in the sentence so as to be able to say as nearly as possible to what cate- 
gory ea(^ .group belongs; the more complete and certain classsification of the 
words cannot be made until their relations to each other in the sentence are 
viewed in accordance with the rules ^ven in the syntax. 

Chap. II. SYNTAX. 


§. I. Prdvmmary reiMvrks, 

376. Bt etjnnology we intended to describe the forms of Chinese words, 
with their trae meaning and classification under those forms, in so &r as they 
are distinguishable by the prefixes and suffixes attached to them ; by syntax 
we mean to denote that a/rrcmgement of the words which expresses the rela- 
tions existing between them, and the yarious forms of the sentence by which 
simple and complex ideas are exhibited. 

277. Hie words of the Chinese language being without inflexion, the 
external form of the word cannot be introduced as an element to be con- 
sidered in the construction of sentences. The citee of the Chinese is similar 
to that of the English language in this particular, that the position of a word 
shows to a great extent its grammatical relation to the other words of the 
sentence. We have to consider then as we proceed to analyse the Chinese 
sentence; (i) the relatiye position of the words, (2) the relative position of 
clauses, and (3) the presence of certain particles, or words used as such. 

278. It is assumed that the student is able to recognise in the sentence 
the particles and other words which help to form nouns, yerbs, adverbs, dec 
In order to do this he must have an accurate acquaintance with the earlier 
Bections of this work, especially with Arts. 89, 90, 106, 107, 126, 127, and 
130, for nouns; and Arts. 192, 194, 197, 211, 212, and 213, for verbs; also 
the Arts, on the adverbs and prepositions. The student will also do well to 
refer again to Arts. 35 and 36, on the composition of words, for the same 
general principles, there noticed, hold good with respect to the syntax of 
words and sentences. 

§. 2. General rtdes rel(Uing to the position qf words. 

279. The expression of the time when of an action generally stands first 
in a sentence; e. g. — 

Mn kwd-tsi to -A. i^ RH ^ ^C 'this year there is much fruit' 
kin4'ien ^^^ ^ ^ ^ 'to-day it is fine.' 

i'im4'iSn wdn-shdng \ \ \\^ J^ ' every daj ui eyen^de.' [122.] • 
kihirtm^ k»^ehi6r4r Ac. J^ ^^ ^ j^ ^ 'now in every place Ac.' [125.] 

• The ntimben in brackets refer to Mr. Wade's Hsin-tsmg-Uk, (Peking diftleot.) 



280. The designation of place follows the expression of time; e. g. — 
t8d-t*ien tsai Fi-king ^<^- H"^ X. ife jfc ^ 'yesterday in Peking Ac.' 

281. The subject of a sentence, when it is expressed, is placed before its 
verb, though not always immediately before it, for sometimes adverbial ex- 
pressions come between it and the verb ; e. g. — 

ji wi cKU M TJ^ HJ * the sun not yet being out.' Chrest. p. 8. a. 13. 

t'a tsal Kwd^'tang pa hail ^1^ fe J^* ^ ^ §? * he was not 
well in Canton.* 

ji-yu t9air-t''iin cheu-htng M ^ ^ ^F 3^ Y-r Hhe son and moon 

revolve in the sky.' [90.] 

282. The subject is often understood from the previous dause, and then it 
is generally a pronoun of the first person ; e. g. — 

kia nlBngdM ehe^ ^ f ^ | A -^^^ j^ jj j^ ./ beg yon 

to do this for me :' cf. Dialogues in Mandarin. Chrest. p. 27. a. 17. 

283. The adjective precedes its noun always; when it appeara to follow it^ 
it should be looked upon rather as the predicate of a sentence, in which the 
noun that it qualifies is the subject, as in the example above, the literal ren- 
dering would be, ' this year the fruit is much :' e. g. — 

hai^jin »+ /\^ 'a good man.' | cA^-A^ ^'fn Aai^ 'this man is good.' 

284. Words and phrases, which qualify other words and phrases, regularly 
precede them ; thus the attributive genitive is shown by its position before 
the noun : e. g. — 

ktvaiv-Ju ti che-tsz 'g J^ g^ ^^ ^ 'the mandarin's sedan.' 

t8iu-t*ien H king'4r ^j^ "J^ | -&• ^? 'the aspect of autumn/ 

t*ien lidng ti ahi'heii \ ^^ | Q^ y& 'the time of sunrise.' 

385. In accordance with this rule the relative elause, being a qualifying 
expression, is thrown into the form of an attribute to the noun, which would 
otherwise be its antecedent : e. g. — 

nl chU n ti'fmg j4j 'f ^ ^^ Jjjl '^ ' the place, in which you lire,' 
lit 'you dwell's place.' 

kicm m pi a nihkd-jin H^ '^ f^ I f\\l j^ A **^* ™*°» ^^^ 

was struck with lightning.' 
l&t, lit. ' thunder,' p'i ' to rend by lightning.' kiaH hete =^pf^ r. Art 8x3. 

286. Adverbs generally precede the words they qualify, but they sometimea 
follow them; e. g. — 


yi-nwLttad — • j^ ^ |ft * without the least mistake.' 

ehi-^ yfirU ^ ^^ — • ^ *only one.' 

tiwnrei* p6 g€M ^ 1^ ^P ^ ' I am pretty well.' 

UhirUlen t^-Jdrng .j^ ^g jT jft ' repeatedly bowing.' 

387. The expression of length, height, or duration is placed after the 
phrase to which it belongs; e. g. — 

kaulUch'i jgfj -^ 73 < six cubits high.' 
Mi4iisi^^ ^ |7C| Ij^ «the road is four miles Zon^.' 
hid-yil adn-t'ien T^ Sra "IZ ^P < it has rained three days.' 

§. 3. The eanstruction ofmmpU terms. 

288. When two noims come together, the former of them is in the genitive 
case, or they are one of the following constructions; viz. (i) an enumeration 
of two objects, and being understood between them; (2) in apposition to 
each other ; (3) the former is the subject, the latter, the predicate of a sen- 
tence; (5) the latter of them is an adverbial expression of time, place, or 
manner : e. g. — 

chun t*ien ^5 ^f lit. 'spring's sky,' — 'the sky in spring;' cf. Art. 109. 
kwdn-fH thlng-ming ^g tj^ ^S- ;^ ' the mandarin's reputation.' 
(i) yd, sA |35 ^^ 'rain and snow.' 

J% yfl, stng-9ii M ^^ /|&* *8un, moon, and stars.' 

(2) ch^tsal ^t :^ 'lord or master;' cf. Art. 100, <fec. 

(3)^^ Aol, shed «4an 9g ^M ^p Mj *his happiness be U Sk sea, his 
age, a moimtain.' 

jinshdrifjin ha% /^ (Jj A^ ^ Q; 'men cts many as mountains and 

(4) kiuhh ye shei:^ kid -^ ^ ^it ^ ' the dog by night keeps the house.' 

yS, ' night,' is here an adverb of time. 

289. A noun before an adjective is either (1) the subject of a sentence of 
which the adjective is the predicate, or it is (2) construed as an adverb ; e. g. — 

(i) stn chd Jf^ >t ' his heart is narrow.' 

* a^n-Vi 'body/ cf. the use of corpmt f^ the penonal pronoun in Latin. I 



ch*i-ta4n pU-tui Jv^ "^ ^^ ^r * the measurement is not the same.' 
yi-UdnghaU ^ j^^ U? ' the moonlight is beautifuL' 
(2) ping liAng {jV ^w 'cold as ice;' v. the first example in Art 297. 
fang hjoa%^ pi chi ]3 ^j^^ ^^* [g[ ^sharp as a needle, straight as a walL' 

290. A noon after an adjective is qualified by that adjectiye, or it forms 
an adverbial expression in composition with the adjective; e. g. — 

(i) ahing-jin ®? /^ *a holy man, — a sage.* 

weirjung &, mien Kung J^ ]3 ^^ m| ^^ 'a dignified countenance.' 
(2) mtng-niin TO fl£ lit. 'bright year,'=:nea^ year. 

gdn-Mi gj^ \^ i£ lit 'dark place within/ =:s«cre%. 

291. A noun before a verb is either (i) the subject of that verb, or (2) an 
adverbial expression of time, place, or manner, formed by the two words; 
e. g.— 

{i) K"i)tng't^ ahtod-taH ^ ^ g^ ^ ' Confucius said,' 

pdng-yiii humt-lai HB ]^' jpj ^ ' my friend is returned.' 

{2) htaii-Mngfii-mi^ ^t SV ^^C TT 'reverenced his parents with obe- 
dience;' pron. also fd^meit. 

md p'ail H hoai ^ ^m pcf 4^fr < as quick as a galloping horse.' 

292. A noun after a verb is either (i) the object of tiiat verb, or (2) an 
adverbial expression of time, place, or manner, formed by the two words; 

(i) 16'UailL thln/an t^ j J^ ^ *lost his position.' 

td^/i liaU jin-^shat ij ^5 J^ yl ^^ 'sent a messenger.' 
{2)fd7ig'8m8huo6'pd! jb^ J^ g"^ lig 'freely speak!' 

Uhi^edk'il ^^ i^^ 'all night she cried.' 

flmg-nn is literally, ' release heart ;' c£ Chrest. p. 27. a. 13. 
fi^-yl is literally, 'connect night,'='all night,' sometimes^ 'day and night;' 
cC Scmrhw^-iMy Chrest p. 17. a. 24, 25. 

293. When two adjectives come together they follow the same rule in 
several particulars as that in Art 288 with respect to two nouns; vis. (i) 
th« first is an attributive to the second, and qualifies or intensifies it; or (2) 

< • • 


they express umply an enumeration of two qualities; or (3) they are in 
apposition, and form a compound adjective; or (4) they form an adverbial 
expression of time, place, manner, or d^;ree : e. g. — 

(i) Mdng-yuin -^ ^[ Mong-distant,*== distant. 

ts%nff-i8*it ^ ^^ ^ clear-distinct,' = distinct. 
{2) fang, yuJhh Jj jgj 'square and round. [' 

kaH^ fi |g| ']ff' *high and low.' 

(3) hdn-Bau ^ f^^i 'dry.' (X. Art. 136. 
tsiing^tng ^l^ 'j^ 'intelligent.' 

(4) y»w-y»« yA-wfl'*^ ^^ I TjIb *^ 'most aflSible and courteous.' 

yin means ' full, complete.' 

tH tsU siaH ^ ^ ^ 'respectfully and heartily laughing.' 

294. An adjective before a verb either (i) qualifies it as an adverb; (2) 
it is used as an abstract noun, and is then the subject to the verb ; or (3) 
they form an adverbial expression : dL^.-^ * 

(i) t'a kufai tamJb-UaH >[(fj f )j ^ ^ 'fie yalked fast.' 
tdy^ngsinsz 1^ m jf^ ^^ ' he thinks miuch.' 

(2) 0jpd ^ gan ^- ^ /jS: ^? 'the wicked cannot obtain peace.' 
•ken yi^ ah&n pa4 ^^^ 7^ ^. ^^ ' virtue has a good reward.* 

(3) U'%6^ shaH-H ha^t'lng ^ ^ H^ ^^: ^ 'the birds sing 

sweetly,' lit. ' good to hear.' 

295. An adjective after a verb follows a similar rule; either (i) it is used 
adverbially, or (2) as an abstract noun, and ifi then the object of the verb; 

(i) t'a kidng haU ^J^ g^ ^^ ' he speaks weU.' 

8hu)d ming g^ 1^ <to speak plainly.' 

palehing i^t^ J^ ' to arrange properly.' 
(2)t8^ptyi^ij^ ^ :^* ^ 'there is a difference between this and that' 

hid haU tM$ 9hin J^ ^ ^ ^ 'to leam goodness is a good thing.' 

296. When two verbs come together they are in composition or in con- 
truction either (i) as a compound word, or (2) the second is the natural 


complement of the first, or (3) they are used as an adyerbial or Bttributive 
expression; e.g. — 

Examples for (i) and (2) will be found in Arts. 190 — 198. 
(2) ngd pU-ndng taeU ^f ^^ Hg ^^ ' I am not able to walk.' 

U^ jtn k'd-i ta j^ \ pj" ^ g^ * this man can read it' 

inii ya/d ahi U Cnr 9 nlH 1^ 'then he was about to go through 
the rites,' or ' to make the proper greetings.' 
(3)te$fo*f^nail^^^ ^ ^. D^ | 'respectfully-heartily laughing.' 

Uen-Uen td kung kjing ^m \ tj ^ut 7|fc'i^P^^ly lowing reverently.* 

§. 4. The prineiplea involved in the grouping qfworde, 

397. Besides the ordinary formation of the parts of speech by the union 
of two, and sometimes of three syllables, the Chinese are fond of grouping 
together syllables, which form a rhythmical expression, and which are attached 
to each other upon principles often different firom the primary rules, but which 
accord with the less common rules of composition and construction : e. g. — 

uaU'iSn nn-k'il Pj^ ^^ j\^ ^ ' on the lip sweet, in the heart bitter.' 

td't*ilng siail-i ^^ |^ jh .4^^ 'in a great degree the same, in a small 
degree different,' =nearfy alike: et Arts. 289 (2) and 393 (4). 

298. The first important principle of grouping is the appropriate selection 
of words having an opposite meaning, or which are generally connected in dis- 
syllabic phrases : e.g. t*ien-H ^^ J^ 'heaven and earth;' w4n4mi ^ ^^ 

' civil and military.' These are separated, and compounded with two other 
words to form a set phrase or group : e. g. — 

t^dn-t'ien shtod-ti g3S ^" g& ^ih *to talk about every thing, to gosnp.' 

t&ng tah st tooi Q^ inl pq -^fp 'to fidl in all directions,' lit ' eastward 

and westward.' ffau-k*iurchfuen, p. 12. h. 16. 

399. Another leading feature in the grouping of words is repetition This 
is extremely common, and has the effect of intenofying the meaning of the 
single syllable, and gives the notion of a good many, often aU, every, to the 
single noun. It is true, however, that it gives occasionally a meaning some- 
what at variance with the original notion conveyed by the word : e. g. — 

k^k^ kufdn M ^^^ | ^^ ^ * to detain as a guest with importunity.' 

H uaUhiOn-hiim ^^ |?^ ||| | < intoxicated completely.' 

had'haii $4fig ngd i^ \ ^^ ^ 'conduct me properly.' Chrest. p. 12.1.23. 


jtn^tn ta thwd /s^ | ^[J gd * every body gays.' 

^i<lUl sdng-ping ^g | g^ mi *each (animal) is sick :' (cf. Arts. io6. a.) 

M-shl k*d4iin ^ I Pf t^ * truly to be pitied.' 

300. These repetitions must be construed according to the sense of the 
passage^ sometimes as nouns, sometimes as adverbs, and sometimes as expres- 
sions of plurality, and very often as the imitation of natural sounds : e. g. — 

yiu wdn^wdn ^ff^ JjC \ ' to roam for pleasure.' 

mwdnr€*f€ntuMsing-nngj[^ '^ HP j^ M: \ 'the whole sky is starry.' 

siai hOrha a ^ n^ | ^6^ 'laughing with a Ha! ha!' 

^oi. Words expressing cognate notions or commonly associated ideas are 
placed together, and become phrases in groups of two, three, and four cha- 
racters each. These are virtually nouns or verbs, general terms, or special 
designations of objects : e. g. — 

^*oi-<*«n|?*i-<i BH "^ ^{]| lit'openheaven,splitearth,'=crea^um.(i997.) 
yhiy Mng, tUngy taing, § ^ fflj 1^ 'words, ways, and deeds,' =:0tmcftco^. 
witrhUg^hatJi ^j^ jTCj ^^ lit. 'the five lakes and the four seas,' =:eA6i0or2fl2L 
kia4'<:hdn wdn-cM^n gS §|^ ^ft ^^ lit. Hhe food and cups,'=:^yecw^. 
wdnff-JieU todng-hed ^^ i|£ ^P | lit 'tolookandwait,'=tovm^./We9u29. 

§. 5. Uncommon use ofcertam words in phraseology, 

303. The employment of single words in Chinese is very various, and fire- 
quently is quite exceptional, and to be explained only by reference to con- 
ventional usage; ei g. in 

hd-pdi >V JE' ' * *<>^/ ^® ^^^ ^® noxmfire and the verb to hold united 
to form a conventional term for torch, 

k'eiHxfi pi P^ 'taste,' from moUfth and to tatte, 

VeMcwng P] ^til 'evidence,' from movih and to decUvre. 

Jvmg-pi ^J" J^ 'the government confiscation paper posted on the front- 
door,' fnmi/wng 'to seal,' and p% 'skin, bark.' 
AVahe^ y^ '^ ' a corpse,' from eorpse and head, 

pafinf^K^J^ g ^ ^ 'cannot bring himself to speak of going,' 


lit 'not miSer to say to go/ where k*d * to go' stands as the object to 
the yerb yhi * to speak, talk of.' 

9heii-i ^^ "^A^ lit. ^long-life's garments/ or 'the apparel of old Bge/=AroucL 

303. Phrases are often affected bj ellipsis^ and would according to the 
ordinary rules of composition appear to be absurd, but, when the customs of 
the people of China are considered, these phrases become intelligible, and 
firequeutly display elegance and vigour of expression : e. g. — 

pa$-^^ ^h ^* ^^^ '^ ^^ ^' ^^ worship age, — ^long Me,^^topctyeon^ 
pUment8 on a birthday. 

paUnUnl^ :n& lit 'to worship year,' =<o/iayeomp^»mento^ 

304. So also many technical and legal terms are formed by an extra- 
ordinary use of words, for which the student should be prepared : e. g. — 

hS-p^ ^ 2I> 'goods for a beginning,' ==oaptta^^9K&. 
Hmg-n Ml ^ lit. 'east-west,' =:£A»n^, any cAt/i^. 
yuin-kad ^S £ lit. ' origin-accuse,' =:j>2(Mn^ 
pi4xi4 1c^ 1 lit. ' one being Bccwedy^:=defendani. 

305. The student of Chinese must also expect to meet with rery many 
designations formed by the metaphorical use of words. Such are, — 

M'taai -jsj "jt lit 'sprouting talent,'=B.A., the first d^pree in sdiolarship. 
ytLn^ngl z=z. ^1 ^t. ' cloud-forehead,' = a headbcmd. 

306. In like manner the names for many officers of government are formed 
by metonomy, using the name of the place, or of the employment : e. g. — 

lAngnhiJlmg ml) t+l lit 'pavilion centre,' =^en<20man uth&r. 

t'^ing-eht |^~ y^ lit. ' with-know,' but chl is here put for 

Ai-hihh 4^ Wii lit 'knows the Men (town)* or 

Mr/a ^ J^' lit 'knows theyU (city)/ therefore <'l%-c&{ means 'an assist- 
ant of the ehtrhUn or ehv-ffL' And these are equivalents for 'prefect* 
or ' mayor.' 

307. Many expressions are purely foreign, and, although represented by 
Chinese characters, those characters are not to be taken in thdr ordinaiy 
sense, but simply as the equivalents for certain forrign sounds : e. g. — 

****** 511 )l '^P»™^' 

pd-U J^ J^ 'glass/ aoc to Mr. EdUns, from the Sanskrit spMOy^. 


The words referred to in this section are to be employed as compounds, 
excepting in such a case as chv-hien, when the c^ii may stand in another 
compound for eh^hien. This habit of eliding a syllable is common in 

$. 6. The modifications and relations of the parts of speech, 

308. The meanings of words are modified by their connexion with other 
words. A noun may be the expression for a general notion, or an 
abstract term; or it may be used to designate an indiyidual only. In the 
expressions 'man is mortal/ 'what will a man give for his life?* ^the man 
came again/ the word man stands in different relations; in the first case it 
means mankind; in the second, any man or every man; and in the third, 
soms particuiUvr man. In Europe, grammarians call the words prefixed to 
the noun, by which the definite and indefinite or general notions are indi- 
cated, — artidee. These articles are in their nature demonstrative pronouns; 
and accordingly the Chinese use such pronouns when they desire to circum- 
scribe the notion of the noun : e. g. — 

jfn=man, mankind; JUhjin 'that man,*=rtAe man; yi-kd-jin 'a man.* 

md-p^ 'horses;* cKuhi-chS 'ships,* (cf. Art. 116.) 

kd-chi-md ' the horse;* nd chi ctCvJhh ' the ship.* 

nurjtn 'woman;* kd-nil^tn 'the woman;' yi-k6-nu-jtn *a woman.' 
These are in the colloquial idiom; in the books various words (cf. Arts. 168 
and 174) are employed to limit or to render indefinite the substantival 
notion. For the general term the simple monosyllable is often sufficient in 
classical composition. 

309. It must however be borne in mind that these distinctions in the 
meaning and use of words are not confined to the noun. Chinese verbs are 
used in a general sense or with a special application according to the form of 
the sentence or to the circumstances of their position and the addition of 
certain particles or adjuncts. If the student will refer to Arts. 189 Sic. on 
the verb, and will compare them with the examples here given^ he will obtain 
a clearer idea of these remarks than by the following examples alone. In 
Art 301. y^-hing-tdng-tiingf 'words, ways, and deeds,* for the whole con- 
duct, illustrates this remark. The words mean literally ' to speak, to act, to 
move, to rest' TUng-tsing especially is an expression for a general term, 
the scope of which is indicated by the two opposite terms of moving and 
restifig implied by its component parts. In epistolary correspondence, and 
in the style of the classics, such forms of expression are common : e. g. in the 
prefoce to the Shing-yii or ' Sacred Edict* we have 

I - chi - yU kang-eang tsd - tH c&i Men 

' Even to that which concerns the culture of the laud and the mulberry 
and labour in general.* 

* Ae the examples, which will be given in what follows, will be made up generally of 
words preriouslj used in this work, the charaoters belonging to them will not be printed, 
excepting those not likely to be known by the ordinary student. 



310. Verbs formed in the manner described in Art 200, belong to those used 
in a general sense, or as abstract terms, and they may stand as the subjects of 
simple sentences, or as the restiU or purpose in a compomid sentence : e. g. 
in the expressions tH-shU shi yaH-Jcin-tl 'to read is important/ n\ k'd-l tH-skil 
md? 'Can you read?' the word rectd is used in a general sense independent 
of any special act of reading. Again, in t'd lot tHrshUy * he comes (or came) 
to read,* the word tit-shU expresses a purpose; and in y^ng nn tnH k*d-l tH 
shU, 'take pains and then you will be able to read,* it expresses a result. 
When such expressions as tUshU ' to read/ M-tsi ' to write,' ki-fdn ' to eat 
rice,* k*ai cKtitn ' to sail,* hai-jtn ' to injure,* shS-taiii ' to forgive,' are used in 
construction in the sentence, except in cases such as the above, the nouns 
compounded with them are dropped or separated from the verbal element. 
Thus: t*d tiJL-liatl sdn-p^nr^shu) 'he has read three volumes.' But tit is also 
a special word for studying books : nl til-kw6 Si-shU m6 f ' Have you read 
the Four books)* that is, 'Have you studied them thoroughly)* To read 
simply is, k'dn 'to look at' The uses of such words will be found exemplified 
in the exercises, which follow the grammar. 

311. The union of opposite terms has already been referred to in 
Arts. 117, 118, and there it was shown that two nouns of opposite significa- 
tion form a genercU term; and that two adjectives in a similar way form an 
(abstract noun. The same may be said of two verbs which represent two 
opposite notions ; e. g. to labowr, — to rest, gives the general or indefinite 
potion of lahouHng, — voorking. 

312. The position marks the nomvnatwe case of the noun. Any word 
which stands before the verb may be the subject of that verb, unless it be 
inconsistent with the sense of the passage %o construe it as such. In any 
other case it would be an adverbial expression, or as it were the accusative 
case placed absolutely, denoting the thing or part affected by the verb : e. g. 
(c£ Arts. 91, 92, 93, and 198, for the characters; and Hom. Od. a, 274, for 
ace abs.) — 

Jci-jin tseHt-k'aif pA chwng-i JcircfCd 

' The guest walked away, he was not pleased to drink tea.' 

hufdrkimg w^n-kien cJCal-jin tl shu>d-hted, tsvd pA hwdn-h% 

' The painter heard the me8senger*B words, and (then) was displeased.' 

»:/& y^ tdng-ivd^i-liatl ' clothes, even they were pawned.' 

313. The genitive case is also shown in most cases by the position of the 
word before the noun to which it belongs, and very frequently by the pre- 
sence of the particle ^ ^ W between them, or ehl ^^ if it be in the literary 
style: e. g. — 

t*U'tsidng ti nii'4r ' the blacksmith's daughter.* 

kid-Ju ti kwan-tsk ' the courier's cudgel.' 

mdrfa tl sidng-tsk ' the groom's box.' 

md^kid or md chl kid ' the horse's foot' 

sien-sdng chl hiung 'the teacher's brother,' or 'the geutleman*s brother.' 


314. The doHve case is shown by the use of certain verbs which signify to 

givey to offer. Such are ki ^^ and stliig ^^ and yti JmT , the two first 

being used in the colloquial idiom, the other in the book style '^ : e. g. — 

ki nl/dn k'i * give rice to you to eat.* 

kl ngd tad che-kd ' do this for me.* 

^^^ yu t*d yi-kwei ydng-taitn ' to present a dollar to him/ 

kidng yiijinrjtn 'to speak to every body.' 

315. Other words, which are commonly used as prepositions, supply the 
want of case in the noun. Article 257 contains almost all the words which 
are employed for this purpose. But as they are to be regarded as preposi- 
tions or postpositions, we must refer the student to the syntax of that part 
of speech. 

316. The accuaaiive case is shown merely by the position of the word 
after its verb, or between the parts of a separable verb : e. g. — 

ngd kiaimaU k6 jtn lai * I have called the man here.* 

k'i-ahdng pd ya/u mai cKd ' the merchant does not wish to buy tea.' 

aienracmg cKlfdn Uail 'the teacher has eaten the rice,' — {has dined.) 

317. The vocative case is distinguished by being cut off from the rest of 
the sentence, either by the addition of a particle of exclamation, by the 
repetition of the word or the appropriate pronoun, or by the sense of the 
passage and the context : e. g. — 

LaU-y^-yal k*d4iin ngd, * O Sir ! pity me !' 

aiat^r 1 n\ pHryail k'U, ' Boy ! weep not ! ' 

Chdng^ngd I Chdng^ngd 1 nl, ' O Luna ! Luna ! you Ac' f 

Cf. Mr. Wade's ffein-teing-lit, Category of T'ien, [5.] 

318. The (Mcttive and the locaHve and inatrumerUal cases will be found 
fully exemplified under the Articles on the syntax of the prepositions. Two 
or three examples may here be given : — 

From (a place) is expressed by tailng, ' to follow,' or tai; e. g. — 
t*d ahi ta'Ung JShdng-hal lai £1^ he is from Shanghai.' 

Wilh (instrumental) is translated by ydng, ' to use,' or i; e. g. — 

ngd yUng niail^ta'idng, td, t*d, 'I struck him with a gun,' i. e. / ahot him. 

By or through (causal) is expressed by yin-twi or io^-tai *on account of;' — 
t*d tau-lcUy yin-wei yiilpd,*he fled through fear,' lit. 'because he had fear.' 

319. The modifications of the noun with regard to gender and nv/mher are 
seldom made. When this is done, special words are employed to mark the 
gender of the noun, and certain adjuncts are used to show the plurality. 
Some of these words will be found in Arts. 123 — 128. The following are 
examples of the use of such words : — 

* tl 1^ and toS I \^ are used to translate for, (instead of.) 
+ Vide J. G. Bridgman's translation of Premare's Notitia Lingiug Sinica, p. ^9. 

P 2 


f/iil ndn-jtn, yiil nu-jin ahdng-hid s&n^-kd, 'there were men and there 

were women, about three hundred.' 
nl ti chi-^U lat m6 ? ' Is your niece come?* 

klnrt'ien td-liS, l^shd yl-dU kung-chU, * to-day in hunting, (we) killed a boar.' 
K^Hng-taz t^ng mH-yiiX lidLng-kd, or mH-yiil lidng-ko K'iing-tsz, Hhere are 

not two of the Confucius sort.' 

320. Examples of the use of the plural particles and adjuncts, given in 
Arts. 126 and 127, now follow: — 

dmng-jtn hwdn toi-ki td-ying ^before the men had replied ;' y. Chrest. Hail- 

JcvAy p. II. b. 10. 
chU-w^ sien-sdngf ' Oentlemen !' 
shU-mtn (B.) = pd-Hng-m^n (coll.) 'the people.' 
chU-aien-sdng ikial urd ping 'none of the teachers are ill.' 
hU-tojinpU k'o-l tdrhd-U^iang 'many men cannot shoot.' 
M'tUhiimg'm^n 'your brothers' (often); v. Hsiii-t8i7ig4ity Shing-yii, [19.] 
nl-fn4n ping-mtnr^nUjn ' you, soldiers and people.' [39.] 
chUng-ahtn kd yitl sd kwctn H s^-^stng ' each of the gods has his own affiiirs 

to manage.' [358.] 
pd'8tng-m4n ad pal ti kd'cItU-^r, pU t*ilng^ 'the places where the people 

worship are various,' lit. ' each place not the same.' 
ping-mtn-jtn t^ng ' soldiers and people all.' 

321. Further examples to illustrate the plural particles in Arts. 126,127: — 
jtnrkial chl foi ' all men know this.' 

kitm-chm kiai kU 'the prince and the minister both wept;' v. San-kwd, 

p. 18. d. 12. 
k'U-kd t'Ung-k'il 'all and each wept bitterly;' y, Samr-ktvd, p. 18. k. 25. 
j4-hi€n tS'Ang chl 'the scholars all followed him.' 
shvrhMdfircfCd/nrshwd 'all obstinate detractors;' v. Shu-king^ p. i. i. 23. 
nung-fH kung-tsidng td,ng ' husbandmen and artisans.' 
aht yiH hwdn-kwdn TsaH-tsi tdng ' at that time there were the eunuchs of 

Tsau-tsX's party;' v. San^kw6, Litho. p. 11. g. 13. 
TtLng^y pel\ lui^, tH d, tsa4^, and cheu^ are all used after nominal notions 
to express plurality, — a dasa or pcvrty: e. g. — 
6-pei 'the wicked;' ts*ien-pei 'predecessors;' hed-pei 'successors.' 
wd7tg%A chl pel 'those who forget right principle.' 
VHng-pei chljin ' men of the same class,' i. e. eqwda, 
kwdn-UaH, ' officers, mandarins,' (not commonly used.) 
fi^-hii or/t-«'t2i 'vagabonds;' im^-to€, 'we,' belongs to the literary style. 
cMrfdn wH-kihi ' the universe of things/ — aU things, 

yiH-sd'tai-wU k*U pA sheH ^ f^ ^^ ^ i^ ^ ^ Ut 'the 

tilings that were given, all he did not receive,' i. e. he received none 
of the things that were given. 

a /,-yV b -diw c jsK; 

i '-fS 'W '« "S 'P '« 


T5 ^^ , * many/ sometimes follows the noun to which it belongs : e. g. — 
Chung-kiod jtn to cKH wairfdng ' many Chinese go abroad.' 

322. A few of the ordinary phrases denoting plnralitj, or the whole group 
or collection of objects, may here be given. The Chinese in naming certain 
classes of things have attached a number to the generic term, according as 
they conceived the genus to be divided into more or fewer species; and these 
expressions have come to mean the whole class accordingly : e. g. they say — 

9&n-kwang^ ' the three lights,* i. e. sun, moon, a/nd sta/rs. 

BSv^48at ^ ' the three powers,' i. e. hea/ven, earthy and mem. 

sdn-kiaii ^ ' the three religions,' Le. j4^, shi «, tat^ *, * Confucius, Buddhist, 

and Tauist' 
s£-kls 'the four seasons^' i. e. cAtin, hidy is id, tung, 'fi|>ring, summer, autumn, 

and winter.' 
wHtMng 'the five elements,* i. e. Inn, mH, ^wul, hd, t'd, 'metal, wood, water, 

fire, and earth.' 
wMiin * the five relations of life,' i. e. between kiun and chin, fu and tA, 

Ju and fdy hiung and ti, pdng and yul, ' i. Prince and subject, 2. 

&ther and son, 3. husband and wife, 4. elder and younger brothers, 

and 5. friends.' 
wh'k'il ' the five kinds of grain ;' wH-tsid ' the five degrees of nobility.' 
t0t^-4ci ' the five tastes,' i. e. soyr, sweet, bitter, a>crid, and salt. 
wh-cMng * the five virtues,' — jtn, i, h, chl, ein, i. e. benevolence, juetice, pro- 
priety, pmdenee, a/nd truth, 
lH't 'the six arts,' — h, yd, she, yH, shu, ed, Le. etiqiteUe, mtuic, archery, 

driving a carriage, writing, and arithmetic, 
tH'tstng 'the seven passions or emotions,' — hi, nd, gal. Id, ngai, wH, yH, i. e. 

joy (external), anger, grief, delight (internal), love, hatred, desire, 
pd-kwd ' the eight diagrams,' the theme of the Yi-king, 
kiil't'ien ' the nine heavens ;* and kiti-cheu ' the nine islands,' for the world, 
wdn-ti ' all the virtues,' and vkin-shi ' all ages.' 
They also sometimes express multitude by using adverbially such terms as 
moarme of insects, vast/orests, oceans, seas, mountains, &c. : v. Art. 288. (3.) 

323. The modifications of adjectives, in respect of degree, are very various, 
and are effected by the addition of certain words and particles to the adjective. 
No alteration however can be made in the adjective to show the distinctions 
of gender, number, and person. It stands generally before its noun, either 

immediately, or it is connected with it by the particle tiU^ (c.) or chl y\ 

(B.) being placed between them. Some adjectives seem to require these 
particles, either to avoid ambiguity in the expression, or for the sake of the 
rhythm; e. g. shinjln 'a virtuous man,' not shSn-chl-jin, but kung-taii tljin 

'?t 't 'n 'ffl •* 



^a just man.* The role given in Art. 132 should be observed, that when a 
verb enters into the composition of the adjective, the ti or chl is required 

324. Examples of the construction of adjectives *. 
M-H, tai^nsh/uml, ' here it is shallow water.' 

t'd-ti kienshi \ laQthy * his knowledge is superficial.' 
Ung-li-tl jtn or taung-m^ing-iljin 'a clever man.' 
1ciaiirmiaii-tl tsidng-kung ' a dexterous artisan.' 
sU-pd-tl chl * snow-white paper.' 
pmg-lidng-ti shwul ' icy-cold water.' 
td'tdn-ti ha4-ki ^ ' a brave hero.' 
kung-taiinti hwdng-ti * a righteous emperor.' 
v)dn-yd^ tl aien-Mng ^ a scholar of great attainments and polish.' 
€he-k6-t8£ Uing-ii-tl si^ * these characters are written with elegance.' 
k*d4iSn4i jtfi-kid 'a miserable individual.' 
k*d-^dng-tl/d'tsi^ ' a method which may be used.' 
haitryilng-ti nia^taiang ^ ' a usefid fowling-piece.' 
Juxk-siad'ti si-tstng ^ * a laughable affair.' 
chi-H hwdn-hi-ti tU/dng ^ this is a pleasant place.' 
che-k6 siai^r hwd-tHng-ti ' this boy is active.' 
t*d yih yiii^t'ilng'ts*Un ti pdng-yiU ' he has rich friends.' 
taijin yiU ti-k^i-ti ' this man is strong.' 
mH-yiU lidng-stn-H ^a man without a conscience.' 
shi t^ilr-hail-i^'ti 'Ad is a well-intentioned person.' 
ch^-k6 tung-H shi chl ti Hhis thing is mcuile q/* paper.' 
pA shi, shi mH-tsd-ti, ' no, it is made of wood.' 
shi jtn-h^n-ti kwcunrfd 'he is a hated man<farin.' 
ts^ s£ shi jtn^cd-h^fnrii ' this affair is hateful.' 
pA-sicmg-kdnrti 4t is of no consequence/ — * Vkimporte,^ 
ki7irt*%en t*a pit shuodng-hwai-ti ^ to-day he is unwell.' 
Chung-kwd, Ying-kwd, pA-hd-mH-tiy ' China and England are inimical to each 

325. The comparison of the adjective can best be shown by means of 
examples. For the auxiliary adjuncts the student may refer to Arts. 144, 
145, and 148 — 150. 

che-k6 hah-tiy nd-k6 kang-hail-tiy 'this is good, but that is better;' and 

nd-k6 kang-kid-hail ' and that is better still.' 

ngd tsd-t^ien mai kang-hid-paH-p^ti tung-si 'I bought a still more precious 

thing yesterday.' 
n\ pi t'd kau 'you are taller than he is.' 
t'd pdj4-nl kau ' he is not so tall as you,' or 
t'd mUryitl nl-kau ' he has not your height.' 

* For the words the student may refer to Arts. 133 — 149, p. 55. 

•> air: yf» « i+ ml ^<^ &^ « if? 

mm liM 'mm •« + 


nd-J^ Aat^ nl Hbis is better!' lit. 'this is good!' We must suppose some 
one making a selection, and taking up one article, which he con- 
ceives to be superior to the rest. 

jn2 hah ti to, haU H shaU, lit. ' the not good are many, the good, few,' which 
is equivalent to ' there are more bad ones than good ones.' 

326. The expression of the comparative degree is further effected bj 
means of the words yiii ' again, more,' and tsai * again,' kwdn ' still, besides,' 
yu ' to pass over,' yu ' to exceed,' and some others of a similar meaning : 
cf. Art 148. 

yu-Uaii-yurhah 'the earlier the better;' yu is used in the same way, but 

not often in speaking. 
hd k*al4iait Jeek-tshj hid-yiL yiH td, 'when the river had overflowed its 

banks, the rain fell still more.' 
fnA^h tsai ii'H ' there is no finer.' 
pA ndngpi che-k6 H-tt '70U cannot get finer than this.' 
yaH-eh'u&n hwdn yaH Jew at ' row faster.' 
ngd Jean t*a pi pH-jtn tu cJvdng ' I look upon him as certainly more honest 

than other men;' c^t^=' heavy,' — * well-principled.' 
fa td lidng td ' the grater his fortune, the greater his bounty.' 

ngi fjoai Jeid niZ ^p ^|> jhp ^.' 'give a higher salary,' lit. 'allowance 

beyond add recompense.' Hsir^tnng-lit, Fart III. 22. 

Icang Jci cJhhng4iaU S^ ^^ Hffl J^ 'the more inflamed it swells.' Hsirir 

t8inff4il, P. III. 29. The (AUtng-Uait in this place is like the imper- 
sonal in Latin. 

Most of these sentences might be otherwise translated in respect of form, but 

no difference in meaning would arise therefrom. 

327. The form for the limitation of the quality of the adjective is the 
following. Various words may be used for rcUJier. 

mal Jeum yi sie ' bought it rather dear.' 

t^-liAng ti^n ^r ' a little more generous.' 

nd yi-Jc6 ftodn yi cKl ' that one is shorter by a foot.' 

328. The word in Chinese forms of comparison which seems to take the 
place of than in English is yU jtK : e. g. — 

tsiiH Aat^ yU aJtuml ' wine is better than water,' or 

tsiU pi aJwml Jcang Jioh would express the same, although it is not so exact 
as the former, for in it the goodness of both is implied, which might 
not be true of some other articles under comparison. 

shin yU JmI ' deeper than the sea' (B.). 

jin/ed yd s£ 'men more than workybr tJiem* (B.); feU 'to float,' — 'to exceed.' 

/j< ^ ^ ^^^ sense of ' with respect to,' and so ' in comparison with ;' v. 
Arts, on the particles, and the examples in the exercises. 


329. la Arts. 146 and 151 — 154 the student will find the forma of the 
miperlative degree, and it remains only to give here a few examples of their 
usage. The various degrees of the superlative are shown hy the same words, 
which must be translated bj tnoit, very, too, according to the sense required 
by the context : e. g. — 

t'd ti htng-wH ^ng-p^-haia ' his actions are very bad.* 

haU Jci'kwai t^ ({J]^) 'very wonderftd' (B.). 

haU pH k'ia yh 'very much afflicted ;* this expression, in which pA 3?^ , 

'not/ intensifies, is equivalent to ahl-fan k*it ti; and mU 7^, 'to be without,* 

is sometimes substituted for pU in such phrases. The adjective with the 
negative before it must be looked up6n as one word, and the negative particle 
then stands as a privative particle ; e. g. hail m'Urlidng-ein is ' very wanting 
in conscience,* not 'well may he have no conscience,' as translated after 
Premare by Bridgman *. The other examples given by Premare prove ibis 

view to be correct, — for wH ^T, 'without,* is used occasionally in the same 
sense: thus — 

ni hah mUrtaii'li ' you are very unreasonable.* 
hail wHirpd^-pi^ 'entirely without method,' or 'very unmethodical.' 
Jet tsung-mtng shin pH ahing ^ ' his intelligence is quite unsurpassable.' 
ti-mfH t'ai MH ydng-i ' the theme turns out to be a very easy one.' The 
ch'H here belongs to the yitng-i; ti-mH is the subject, the remainder the pre- 
dicate of the sentence. 

330. It may be observed that the particles which form the superlative 
are very frequently suffixed instead of being prefixed, — and this is especially 
the case in the books, and in the higher colloquial style ; e. g. — 

mei shl ahln M ' a very beautifid countenance.' (1700, 107 1.) 
Icd'-gai shin I (.ife) 'very amiable.* 

331. Examples of the superlative with t'ai y^y t*i j^V, and kw6 Jm 
are the following:— 

pU yaH t*a% Jcven ^ ' do not be too modest.* 

che ki t*ai hi^n^ 'this plan is too dangerous.* 

hid sh&d t'^ h^n-liaiil ' it is struck too much,' this is the impersonal form, 

but it is equivalent to ' you struck me too hard.' 
t'i tstng-si Uail ' it is too delicate.' 
nl y^ t*i to sin ' you are a person of too much heart.' 
tsiit iV k'i ki Mail 'the wine — it was drunk too quickly.' (1068, 1074.) 
io4f^ pH shin t^ung-t'eH ^ ' in learning not very profound.' 
4iing'tsing ktod ngaii 'he is too proud;' «i72^-fo*{n^=' temper, mind.' 

* Vide BridgmaQ*8 translation of Preraare's NotiHa Lingwx SiniccB, p. 83. 

■JE * 'P if 'p^ - a 


332. The following expresmona iUustrate the use ofki i^, tail ^^^ UUi -^, 
and h^n i^ : — 

che-k6 M k^d-siail-kt'ltait 'this is most laughable.* 

ki-4d yi-4s6-nUaii 'a very large temple.' 

ki-k'iail'ti hwd-kung ' a most cleyer painter.' 

ki-inil-k*iaii*'ti htod 'most unintelligible language.' Iciail (i 129). 

U& ton ki'humt^y lit. 'entirely without opportunity.' Mr. Bridgman has 

rendered it ' exceedingly unfortimate.' 
Mii'kau ahetirtwan ^ ' very skilful.' kau ' high.' 
fMod pH-Jcd-yh^ ' wonderful, unspeakably.' 
h^n^ln4i UUng ' a very deep well.' 
uSHmiaa^ tsu-fniad, ' Yerj good ! yerj good ! ' 
shi k6 tsSr-miaH^i/d-isi 'it is a most admirable plan;' v. Shing-f/ii,^. J .h, 24,^0. 

333. The phrases 8hi-/an and ti-^,pii'8hing,pii-kwd, and liatirfil-U (v. Arts. 
151 and 153) should be remembered as adjuncts to form the superlative notion : 
e.g. — 

wng-ii ahX-fan taing-siii ^ ' bom very well-favoured.' 

pA td-M'/an-hah * not very very good.' 

iUyi miau ' very wonderful :' of. Americanism ^«<-ra^ ' 

* shU^r-fan jtn ts'at^ 'very beautiful in countenance;' so 

fffh'/an Aat^ means ' five parts good,' — ' pretty good,' and 

Id'fan hail ' several parts good,' — ' in some degree good.' 

pA-shing hl-hiodn, lit. 'not conquer joy,' — 'extremely glad;' or 

hi pU'tsi'Shing, lit. 'joyful not conquer himself,' like €Kijratn£, 

h^-hvodn liail-pil-fi * most joyful,' lit. ' cannot end his joy.' 

hwdf^hl ufU'Sd-pil-klfy lit. 'joy — interminable.' 

tsui k*ii pil-ku)6 ' most miserable beyond compare.' 

kung-taii pH-kwd-H ' surpassing just.' 

kw'aUsH fS md^ kw6 yU Ui ' insurpassably swift.' (B.) 

eheH-d shvnrpSirahing ' desperately wicked.' 

tsdn-nidwdyUyUts^^^ J^ ^ 8^{ "f" jj:[^ 'incomparably cruel' (B.) 

334. There are other phrases and words used for the purpose of intensify- 
ing the attribute, but these will be found under the section on the particles 
and in other parts of this work. The following however must come in here 
(c£ Arts. 152 and 153 for the characters used) : — 

hiung t% lUhai 'most cruel;' {ti ' to obtain,' or tl the gen. pa.) 

nl y^ ahd laU-ahi UaU ' you are too honest;' {ye ' also,' the fin. pa.) 

t*dn taiU kw6-td ' he is too fond of wine.' 

* M'/an meaning 'ten parts,' which is like saying the whole of any thing, ihi-dr-fdn 
would mean 'twelve parts,* and be a stronger intenmfier than ahl-fan. 

■"& 'nt -^s '«?> 'W 



ch'au-kiun ^^ S lit. ' to surpass the common herd.' 
chd'h M, )J lit. * to establish as pre-eminent.' 
ch6-t8u I ^p lit. ' to surpass exceedingly.' 
ch6-yu I f^ lit. ^ surpassing excellent.' 
chU-lui )A\ qM lit. ' to stand out from his class.' 

j^ lit. * to excel and oyerpass.' 
sai-shing | H^ lit. * to excel and conquer.' 
t8ui-kwn HH ^ij. lit. * sin's chief,' — * chief of sinners.' 
d-kwei S5- I lit. ' wicked head,' — * the most wicked.' 

kai-shi ^? W* lit. * cover age,* — * the most eminent of his age.' 

These expressions do not occur in common conversation, but are used with 
elegaDce in literary composition. 

335. The measure of a thing, as regards mmiher, is denoted by the numeral 
being placed before the noun, with the proper appositive between them, or by 
placing the numeral and the appositive after the noun, thus sdn^-m^ or md 
8dn-pi is * three horses,' si-cJiS-cfC'uht or cKuhirsi-cM 'four ships,' ifir4cim kH^- 
kwai tl si'tstng 'a strange affair ;' and when it refers to qttomtUy it is expressed 
by the numeral and some special word denoting the measure of quantity, and 
these are placed after the noun to which they apply (c£ 287) : e. g. — 

8dn-8£-k6-jtn yin-UaU adn-^tm^-pei-taiil * three or four men drank from three 

to five cups of wine.' 
ngo yau mal l-chdng sdn-t^aii ' I wish to buy three suits of clothes.' 
tiH-pl^ 8dn-nie7i, yi-tdn t^Hng-U^, 'separated for three years, on a sudden 

we are united.' (Prov. and Epistolary.) 

336. The following examples will show how numbers are constituted and 
modified : — 

8dnr8i'k6 ' three or four ;' 8kl si-wk k6 ' fourteen or fifteen ;' 
toU-lii'8hi k6 * fifty or sixty ;' la UH U'ien ' six or seven thousand ;' 
t8i pd mdn ' seventy or eighty thousand.' 

337. It should be noted that a point of time is placed first generally, but not 
before the subject of the sentence, and especially if this be a pronoun ; and that 
dwrcUion of time is placed after the expression to which it belongs : e. g. — 

ngd t8d-t'ien tH-shU liail * I read yesterday.' 
t'd tu-8hU 8dn-t'ien * he has read for three days,' 

• «o " i m n 


ni taih^lp&lat ' jou did not come the day before yesterday.* 
ts^vh^-sdn-t^ien t*d ptt-shi cke-ydng ^ three days ago he was not so.* 
ts^ih^sdn-t'ien t*d pit k%/dn * three days ago he would not eat.' 
t'd pA k%/dn yiii 8i-t*ien * he has not eaten any thing for four days.* 
ts'ien-sdiv-t'ien t*d ai-liah ^ he died three days ago.* 
I*d s£4iail iiiv4*i€n ' he has been dead three days.* 

338. The measures of length or breadth^ toeight or quantity of any kind are 
put after the verb : — 

k6-49i paiHrcfCa thl H liaU 'the robber ran ten li*.* (2826, 19 19.) 
ehe yt-Hail-hd k*u>dn-tl yl-U-ld ' this river is one li wide.' 
n\ la%-€i-<iKt yH-tih^-chung *you came late by cm hour.' 
clie-yi'4^t*d kaH^l shl ehdng 'this pagoda is ten ehdng* high.* (2529.) 

339. Many measures of time, 8pace, weight, kc, are used as appositives^ 
and then stand in the place of the appositive^ between the numeral and the 
noun: e. g. — 

Ul tH meU t*ihi 'a six or seven acre field.' (17 10.) 
yl tan mt ' a pecul of rice.' (2559.) 
tw^ t*ien aht'hed *a period of five days.' (584.) 
t*d k*l-Uait 8dn-iodnrfdn * he has eaten three bowls of rice.' (ufD-) 
See Appendix for the tables of times, weights, and measures. 

340. The syntax of proper names and their relative positions may here be 
noticedy and the student may refer to Art. 121 for the same subject. 

The name of an individual consists of his sing, the name of his family (gens), 
which is commonly but one syllable, and is placed ^«^; and then follows his 
mtng (cognomen), which is generally dissyllabic : e. g. in 
T*cmg Hii^Mtm, T*cmg is the name for the whole gens, and ffid-hitm, the 
name (cognomen) for the individual of that gens. 

Sometimes in books the word shi Ph, 'family/ is added after the sing, but 

only when the mtfig is omitted. In asking a person's name we should always 
enquire what his sifig is, and then address him by that name with the appro- 
priate addition of sien-sd/ng or sidng-kung, &c, : e. g. — 
Sien-sdng, kau sing d f ' Sir, your eminent name 1* 
siaii afmg Li 'my insignificant name is Lee.' 
lA sien-wng k*d hail md f ' How do you do Mr. Lee?' 
No distinction is made by the Chinese between the name of the clan (gens) 
and the name of the fEuoiily (/amilia), but the name of the whole gens is attri- 
buted to each individual. It will be seen that the Chinese and the Boman 
order of announcing the names is similar ; first the nom^n, then the cognom^en; 
first the sing, then the mtng. In his writings the author uses his mtng by 
way of humility, but in addressing any one worthy of respect the sing is 

invariably used. The ts£ ^y or 'title' is taken by every youth of education 

* AU = 1897^ feet English, or 27I li = 10 miles English ; and a cKdng = 10 ch% or 141 
inches English. 

Q 2 


on attaining his majority. In writing this follows the other two names. 
In addition to these there is a name given to honour the dead, this is called 
the kiffui g s {' to respect') ; and if it be in honour of a great man, or of an 
emperor, the expression is ndail-haii jSj XFp ' temple designation,' because 
the memorials of such persons are preserved in the temple of ancestors, like 
the images of the Roman ancestors in the <Urium *. 

341. All the tUUs of hfyiwwr and of office precede the iing, which is used 
alone in such cases : e. g. Kln-cKaly Tdrchln, Flng-pii Shdngshuy lA^ng-HH 
TsUng-tH, Lin, i. e. lit. ' Imperial Commissioner, Minister of State, a President 
of the Board of War, and Gk)vemor of the Two-Hu (*lake') Provinces, — Lin:^ 
(cf the notes upon the Chinese text in page 23 of the Chrestomathj.) This 
rule does not however hold good with respect to the terms aiensdng 'teacher,* 
ndng-kUng ' Sir,' and such expressions of civility ; these invariably follow the 

342. The names of places in China are all significant, although, as with 
European local names, the meaning is seldom thought of: e. g. Kidng-si Hhe 
river's west,' HH-n&n * the lake's south,' are names of provinces. But the 
names of foreign places and persons are given in a changed form, according 
as the Chinese are able to pronounce them t : e. g. Ying-kdrli for ' England ;' 
Fd-Uvn-si for 'France;' Ngo4osz for 'Russia;' Lqn-tqn for 'London.' 
'Alexander' would be A4d'8hcm'ta-q,r in Chinese; 'Elgin,' E-qr-kin. But 
foreigners in China generally choose a Chinese fisimily name (jAng), which is 
like the first open syllable of their own surname, and they adopt this for 
their surname : e. g. ' Mr. Hobson' might use Ho; ' Mr. Cave,' Ka or Kai; 
* Mr. Brown,' Lau or Lo, 

343. The names of cities and towns are simply the names of the provinces 
or districts of which they are the chief places : e. g. Skdn'i'ienrfil, i. e. ' chief 
place of the department of Shdn-Cien is Peking.' The word P^-JAng means 
the 'northern capital,' just as Ndn-king means the 'southern capital' Ktodng- 
cheu'/ii, i. e. ' chief place of the department of Kwdng-cheu is Canton,' a word 
which is a corruption of Kwdng-tung, written by the Portuguese in former 
times Can-ton. 

344. The names of countries, idands, rivers, mountains, are followed by 
the words kw6^^ 'kingdom;' Caii^ or cheu^ or «** 'island;' kidng^ ot h6^ 
'river;' shan% or ling^ 'mountain or peak:' e. g. Ji-p^ kwd 'Japan;' 
Ying'kdrli-ku>6 or Ying-ktod or Td-ying-kwd 'England,' put for 'Great 

* M. Bazin says, in hia Qrammairt Mandarine, p. 1, that there are two thomand three 
hundred difierent fiunily names given in the ** UniYenal Biography.** This is a laige 
Chinese work called the ShUlng-pik, i. e. * Records of fiunilies,' a copy of which is pre- 
served in the Royal Asiatic Society's Library. 

t This is similar to the French pronunciation of foreign words : e. g. Ormvuk for 

*H "% 'm '*» '^i 'n '\h 'Si 


Britain;* Xiauri-eheu commonly called ^Oreen Island' (near Hongkong); 
Ti^ng-ldng-i^ktUf i.e. 'Kellet*8 Island;' ChfU-su 'Bamboo Island;' ffS-ahdn 
* Black mountain ;' Mei4lng ' Flum-peak or ridge' (to the north of Canton). 

345. The construction of pronowns now claims our attention. In their 
isolated state, without the addition of any grammatical particle, their position 
alobe will show the case to which they belong : e. g. in t*d t*47ig-nl yaH k'4, 
' he wants to go with you,' the pronoun t'd must be in the nominative case, 
and the pronoim nl in the accusative after t'Ung : 

t'dpU hwdn^hl nl 'he does not like you :' t*d is nom.; n), ace 

346. The personal pronoun is frequently omitted in Chinese : when it is 
expressed its position shows the case in which it must be construed; if before 
the verb, it will almost always be in the nominative case; if after the verb, in 
the accusative. The words used for the pronoun of the first person vary 
according to the style of the composition in which they occur. Some of these 
distinctions will be seen by referring to Arts. 164, 165, and 179, where the 
characters will be found. 

ngd yaH ni t*4ng-ngd k'4 ' I want you to go with me.' 
pA yait t*4ng-n\ Ic'd ' 1 will not go with you.' 

ni id ngd, pH-hail ' you strike me and do wrong,' or ' in striking me, you do 

In the books the student may expect to find the pronoun occasionally placed 
before the verb as the object of the verb, not the subject; e. g. in the Lun-yu 
of Confucius — 

pa ngi^ chl Jk S* -^ lit. ' not me know,' ' when I am unrecognised.' 

ngd thai Kl ^ji" gw Mr lit ' I whom insult,' ' whomsoever I insult' 

347. The nature of the expression enables the Chinese sometimes to dis- 
pense with the pronoun; e. g. — 

kau 8ing d f ' Your great name Sir f ' 
kiiJt u)4n tat-hiung '/ have long heard of you Sir.' 

kl s£ yirhwui '/ have ardently desired a meeting wUh youf v. Hait-kHH- 
ckuM (i), p. 8. h. 20 and 28. 

348. The designation of the person is frequently used for the personal 
pronoun ; — 

Li denrsdng Jed hail mdf 'Are you well, Mr. Leel' (v. Art 340.) 
chu-kung tM sUpi chl* My lord you should avoid him ;' v. Sdn-kwd-chi (4), 

p. 20. d. 13. 
k'^n-k^iii td-y^ eke k6 gqn-tihi 'I beg of your excellency to grant me this 

fitvour;' V. Dialogues Ac. (i), p. 27. b. i. 

uxii'Shdng fd t*ai -Jin tat taiin, fd - ki chui-kd pi^n-ehdng 

^I' » S: * A « U 'I* W S ii * Bi' 

'/, the foreign merchant, hasten to your excellency's tribunal, and humbly 
beg you to bestow a glance on me, a merchant' 


dail-H M^i Uin-yi *'I (lit. 'younger brother*) yesterday proceeded to wait 
upon yot*/ V. Haii-UiiJirchaen (i), p. 8. d. 13. 

349. Ab the Chinese have no possessive pronoun in form, they use con- 
stantly the personal pronouns with the particle ti R^ attached to them, and 

this is equivalent to the genitive case, which answers the purpose for which 
the possessive pronoun is commonly used : e. g. n\-tl fd-mil ' your parents ;* 
t*dr-tl hiung-ti *his brother;' ngd-tl/dng^ *my house.' 

350. In questions and commands or invitations the pronouns are frequently 
omitted : e. g. — 

tsing-ts6 'pray be seated;' yaH shimmd? 'what do you wantl' 

yaH chi/dn '/ want my dinner ^ pApi to-U 'do not be extreme in etiquette.' 

yaH ngd ts6 shimmd ? ' what do you wish me to do?' 

351. The reflexive pronoun ts£-ki regularly follows the personal pronouns, 
but it is often used alone when the other pronoun is understood: e. g. — 

ngd ts£-Ja pH^Jcdng k'U ' I for my part will not go.' 
nl tsi-ki skwd-iad'liail chS-kd ' you said that yoursel£' 
t*d ts£-ki pH hwdn-hi ' he himself is not pleased.' 

But other words are used for the reflexive pronoun, such as shin 'body,' &c 

352. The demonstrative pronouns follow the same rules as the personal 
pronouns, but the syntax of the reUuive pronoun, or rather of the demonstra- 
tive used for the relative, will require further elucidation : e. g. — 

nd id ngd ti ' the man who struck me.' 
Tigd sd shwd ti ' what I said.' « 

ni sd ta ti shU ' the book, which you are reading.' 

yitl pit tsiLng chi^, chdn-chl, ' if there are any who will not follow, cut them 
down;' v. Sdn-hjod-chi (3), p. 19. b. 15. 

sh4n^d ch^y sang; yi ngd ch^y «i, ' those who obey me, shall live ; those who 
oppose me, shall die;' v. Sdn-hvd-chi (3), p. 19. i. 11. 

gai'/d-mil-M ' those who love their parents ;' v. the Arts, on the particles 

M ^ and sd JS^'. 

353. Sometimes there is no sign for the relative, but the context shows 
that the words must be construed with a relative pronoun in English : e. g. — 

ts6shAng yi-jtn Cui-gdn 'one man, of those who were sitting, pushed the 
table;' v. Samrkw6-<hi (3), p. 19. g. 7. 

354. The use of the shaty ' who,' and shimmdy ' what,' for amy body and aaiy 
ihimg may here be exemplified : thus, a master speaking to his servant might 
say, la% ti shi shut? 'who is that come?' the servant might reply, mU yitl 
shut lai ' there is not any one come.' I^l yaH shimmdy ngd tsiii ts6 shimmdy 
'If you want any thing, then I will do it (any thing) ;' v. Mandarin Phrases, 
p. 27. d. 6. 


355. The characters in Art 174 are further illustrated by the following 
examples : — 

fneU-jtn kaH-su-Uaii ngd *• a certain man told me.* Chrest. p. 28. a. 20. 

n\ yih hi-4d yin-tsiSn f ' how much money have jonV 

ngd mU yiit ahintmS ^ I have not any.* 

chi-ki-t*ien hid-yu4iail * it has rained for some days.* 

Ungji Uai t 'another day again consult;* y. Savrkwd^i (4), p. 20. b. 18. 

pa yad hai pKrjtn ' do not injure others.* 

nl k'd-l pi-ydng tsd * you may do it another way.* 

pi-ydng mH yiil ' there is no other kind.' 

sHrpijtn md, 'several hundred men and horses ;* v. Sdn-kwd-chl (2), p. 1 8. d. 4. 

mepfi k*d tH * you may read every day.* 

mtl-yti^ yisie ' I have not even a little (or a few).* 

kd-jtn yiil yin-tsien to ' each man has much money.* 

356. The forms for w?iO€ver, &c., given in Art. 175, need further exempli- 
fication. A few examples of their uses may be given here^ and an exercise 
upon them will be found in the third part of this work. 

nl mii-fihh shwd ' say whatever you like.* 

pH-kiodtn ahimmd jin hidmg * whoever speaks.* 

pH-k'U hdjtn ahfod ts^ 'no matter who says this.* 

pHrJcik tO'shait yin-taiSn ' whatever quantity of money,* or ' no matter iiow 

much money.' 
jin pH'k'U taH nd-U ' wherever a man goes/ 
m yaH kidmg H-^ng ' he ought to speak common sense.* 

Some of the forms used in the books are occasionally employed in the higher 
colloquial style. 

pa44nh6 8ht !^ |^ ^5[ P^ 'whenever.* 

mei yi nien ^; — * Jgjl ' whenever I think.* 

ngd mei-iai tad t*d nd-^ Jcilj H ngd sung-U ' every time I go to his place, he 
gives me presents.' 

aut yu^ ehd cKau R^ ^|m wnT 74> ' whenever I met with any, I at once 

copied t^em.* 

Sui^ lit. ' to follow,' conveys the signification of ' as oflen as, according to, in 
consequence of:' c£ sequence fix)m sequor. Germ. Folge, /olgend fi'om /olgen, 
yu ' to meet with.' The other words which mean to /oUow, to lue, to takey 
to meet toith, correspond with the usages of Qreek words: d axoKovSas 'in 
accordance with,' 6 rvx»v = Lat. qmvisy and the use of x/>^M<voff9 ^X'^^y <t>€p<avf 
Xi^ir. Seei|^,yt^«i^j^J,yiti:^, na#,jt)a Jg. CI also te't27i^ ^;^ 
and gii ^p ' to accord with, to cause to follow, to lead,* in the phrase td-aH 
* generally, on an average.' 


357. The expressions id-/6n and /dn alone, td-ka^y yi-tsitng for the foAofe, 
often conyej the sense of whoetfer, whtUever, &&, especiallj when followed by 
id (c£ Art 176) : e. g. — 

td-fdn ad ahwd H ' whatever is said.* 

/dn yiU t'ien-hid ch% kwd ' every country of the world,' or* if in a dependent 
sentence, ' whatever country of the world.* 

yi-tshng ti tsUi tu kwei yd hau-gaii * all sin is reducible to pride,* L e. 'what- 
ever sin, or every sin which is committed :* c£ irar, for any ons, 

358. It has already been remarked that the designation of the person is 
put for the personal pronoun (v. Art. 348). The use of the title and the 
various substitutes for the pronouns may now be exemplified. The characters 
are given in Arts. 179 — 185. 

siail-ti Ud-ji Uin yi ' I yesterday proceeded to wait upon you;* v. ffa^k*i^ 

ckvJhi (i), p. 8. d. 13. 
tiailirf^ yi piirjin yin-k*4 *1 cannot bring myself to speak of going;* y. ffa^ 

k'iH-ckuen (i), p. 9. a. 26. 
chS ahi mtng-lci siaU ti 'this is plainly to insult me;* v. n(»&4ciiJL<hfuhh (i), 

p. 10. O. II. 
ytirii fntSr^meurtii tqn 'your humble servant so-and-so bows;* v. Epistolary 

style, p. 32. o. 19. 
p^n tdng ling kiaii '.I ought to receive your commands;* v. HavrKiOrchuen 

(i), p. 8. k. 6. 
chxn si^n-chau ta-iHi. '/ (lit. ' your subject*) am the Minister of Instruction 

of the late dynasty*s ;* v. Sdn-kwd-iM (i)> p- 37. 1. 18. 

iing-ahln ming-ahut, lit. 'surname what^ name whol* 
ahdng-aing kau tntng, lit. ' superior surname, exalted name)' 
kau-mtng yd-haH, lit. 'exalted name, elegant designation)' 
These expressions are all equivalent to, ' Will you &vour me with your namel* * 

tc^ ffi* kwffirpilL^ lit. ' not yet acquainted with ytmr honourable position.* 
This is used by classmen when unknown to each other. FU, lit 'a place for 
planting trees' (2084), is elegantly used for place or poaUion in the list of 
prizemen, for which /tic, ' eminent,' is used; e. g. — 

t*atrfit hd mtng^' Fray what is your name Sirl* 

The following is employed by ordinaiy scholars or passmen : 
toi to4n taan-haHy lit. ' not yet heard of yatir honourable designation.' 

And this by merchants and others for ' I have not the pleasure of knowing 
you :* 
wt-chi taU-hid, lit ' not yet know you Sir.' 

* See Bridgman*8 traDsUtion of Prexnare's NoiUia LimgutE Siniece, p. i43- 

• s " i ° « 


t^ihk miAng-j^ linpi-^ jAl ' when on a fonner ooetaion yoa condescended to 

come to my poor place;' t. Had-k'i4-chuin (i), p. 8. i. 2. 
kwei4no6 9ut taai ekHng-ydnng ifr todn U toed 'although your honourable 

kingdom is in the great ocean above two myriads of miles away;' 

V. Official papers, Lin's letter, p. 23. d. 11. 
yik H w&i Hng4dng 'there are how many of your sons)' y. Dialogues &c. 

(2), p. 28. j. 10. 


359. Many other decdgnations of persons are nsed for the personal pro- 
noona. The aignifioation and use of each will be indicated in the Dictionary. 
(IWt lY.) Some are more commonly used than others ; each proyince and 
place has its own peculiar words of this kind ; and the language of etiquette, 
the rank of the persons speaking, and various other conditions determine the 
particular epithet to be employed. The following dialogue may exemplify 

Q. Ling-Mn hai^^mdf *Tb your respected &ther welH' 

A. KiOirfd Ao^ lit 'theiMrfM^^MncKotf is well ;' v. Dialogues, Chrest p. 30. 1. 5. 

Q. Yi^ kirioei kum^ni f * How many young ladies (for doMghtera) have you ) ' 
A. Jft^ 9Smri6 kH-nidng '1 have three girls' (for dcvughiers) ', v. Dialogues, 
Chrest. p. 28. j. 15. 

me following may be noticed here as they were omitted above : 

hdn-king p|^ 3^1 ; lit. ' cold-thorn,' is used for my m/e : (cl Chr. 9. j. 19.) 

maii^kMn jh y^, lit 'little dog,' for my $on. 

MU'H ;J^ if J, Ufc « snudl scholar; for lytmrpupU. 

ia'od^iai 'b^ *4»% 1^^ 'grass title/ for miy nam^ 

jin-hiung A^_ ^, lit 'benevolent elder brother,' for yow, Sir, 

la^tlian ^j^ ^^ lit ' old body/ for /, used by old women in the novels. 

360. In treating of the modifications which the verb undergoes, we may 
begin by considering those simple verbs which stand between the subject and 
predicate of a sentence to express that the subject 19, Ao^, becomes^ makes, 
eadgU in or happens to be something. They are commonly called subsUmtive 
▼erbsy because they express the reality or the assumed reality of the predica- 
tion. But this reality may exist under various conditions or modes of existence, 
for example : ' Victoria is (by nature) a woman, she has a crown, she bec<mies 
a queen, she makes a good queen, she exists in her palace, and she t^ (but not 
by nature) an accomplished lady.' Some languages express more definitely 
than others these distinctions. In Chinese they are each marked by a sepa- 
rate word, and the spAax. of these may be here noticed in addition to the 
remarks given in Arts. 216 — 222. 



361. The Babstantiye verbs may be arranged thus: 

1. shi ^g * to be, is, was,' that is a being by nature, or at least a^pparefnUy 90 

being. The verb hi 4^, 'is,' is used in the Canton dialect for shi, 
and in the books in this sense, and in a manner similar to the use of 
nal Jjj which is also employed occasionally where we might expect 
to find ahi. 

2. yiii 7Gt ' to have/ which implies the poseeadon of some object or quality 

by the subject Instead of saying, ' he is rich,' the Chinese would say, 
^ he has wealth.' 

3. toet ^^ ' to become,' which indicates that the subject was not naturally 

such as the predicate asserts, but that it uxu made or became such. 
* He was king,' would be, ' he became king.' 

4. t$ai ^ ' to exist in.' This refers especially to the locaUon of the subject 

Instead of saying, * the master is at home/ the Chinese would say, 
' the master is in the house.' 

5. ts^ ^jijji ^to do' or ted "i^ 'to make,' which both stand as the verb to be 

in the sense of makes, acts ae, or means. When we say^ ' that man is a 
good magistrate,' the Chinese idiom would require, 'that man nuikes (or 

acts as) a good magistrate.' The character tang l^'/to bear/ is used 

in a similar way: cf. ffain-tsing-lU [I. i and 2]. Eiau 'to call/ 
stodn ' to reckon/ sang ' to be bom,' all stand in the same cat^;ory 
with this ; see the examples below. 

6. nal Jj ' to wit, it may be,' which often takes the place of shi (i), but it 

seems to difier in this, that it \b most correctly used in sentences where 
the predicate is not so positive an assertion as in those in which shi is 
used. It occurs also for yiU (2) in the A^-to^ when that character 
would signify ' there is, there happens to be.' 

It must be obsen-cd that all these verbs partake more or less of the nature of 
the demonstrative pronouns, especially shi, tang, and nal, which are commonly 
used as such in the literary style of composition *. Shi and Tial, toei and tsS 
(tad, tang, &c,) form pairs ; wei and nal are more common in books than in 
the colloquial style. 

362. These substantive verbs come invariably between the subject and 

• This oarioiu fitct, that the demonstrative pronoun and the substantive verb are of 
cognate origin is clearly shown in Chinese, but it seems to exist in afanost all languagee. 
Cf. the pron. is and the verb esse in Latin ; and see Becker's OrganUm der SproAs, P' ^^3^ 
where he says: ** Wenn man die Lautverhaltnisse dee Aussagewortes und die ganze Art 
seines syntaktischen Verhaltens in den bekannten Sprachen naher betrachtet ; so kann 
man kaum mehr bezweifeln, dass das Aussagewort, wie du Pronom, ein wtprim^fiidiin 
Formwort, und mit dem Pronom uiBpriinglich sehr nahe verwandt ist." 


predicate in a sentence, and not at the end of the clause or at the beginning 
nnless the subject or the predicate be omitted : e. g. — 

eh^-kd M laiJ^tn-kia ' this is an old man.* 

yiU yi ehdng-kau ' it is one foot high.* 

is^tn yiii td-tdn ' this man is brave.' 

i^-H yii)k hSrid y^-^heH ' there are many wild beasts about here.' 

foeH chang ad tfin ' he was believed of all/ lit. ' whom all believed.' (B.) 

fa tadn*' ngd wet then-jin 'he praised me, as being a virtuous man.' (B.) 

ai taai mU tsihh ' the business is before your eyes.' 

Md h/odn-hiedy yad t86 kwdiv-J^ * learn the mandarin dialect, in order to act 

as a mandarin.' 
nffd tad Chl-hien^ nl tang-ping, ' I am the Chi-hien, and you are a soldier.' 
I'd fial hid-che ' he then was dismounting from the carriage/ i e. 4t so 

happened that dsc' 
vni na\ toAng tl, Ch^n4i4 Wdng ^^, ' I am the prince's brother, Chin-liu, the 

prince.' (17. 1. 3.) 
hwdnpA chl'taH ghlmmd kiau^ yOU-fH-ki tljin ' I do not yet know what is 

a happy man.* 
ehS-k6pA modn^ chqn-t'ien Hhis is not spring weather.' (29. n. 7.) 
aheH hi Hng Ll ' the chief is sumamed Li.' 

363. The negation and intensification of these verbs is effected by placing 
the negative and intensive particles before each respectively. But it will be 
necessary to show which particles accompany the different verbs by giving a 
few examples of the usage in each case. 

The verb ski ^, *to be,' takes pH X^ , 'not,' before it to form the negative, 
and also the antithetical word/t ^E, 'not to be,' occasionally in the same 
sense; e. g. pU At chi-ydng ' it is not so.' 

k6 taiang-Jdun pU-ahi td-tdn ti ' that general is not brave.' 

/i before ahiy to negative it, is an idiom which belongs to the book-style. 
Jt-Ai Bp -^ or ahU/i is a phrase which means ' true and fiilse.' 

364. The modification of this verb, as far as regards the intensification of 

its meaning, is efiected by means of such words as yiH ^^ ' again,' y^ ffl^ 

'also,' pirn 'jj^ 'then,' taiH gf^ 'then,' tai ^^ 'then,' M ^ 'only,' and 

other particles of similar meaning : e. g. — 

l*d yiH ahi p& hail ' he is still bad.' 

M ahi Unn-hiung ' he is forsooth my own brother.' 

yi-ahi nl ad ahwd ^i^ ' it is just what you said.' 

pUnraM Ti ChUng-yU 'I am indeed TI Chung-yu :' cf. Chrest ii. e. 16. 


B 2 

^ U " p4 


tddshi td^ Bwdng-kdng A 'it is the reary same who broke into the Impe- 
rial palace:* c£ Chrest lo. d 14. 
jU^eH tsiiirshi CaUydng ' jl-t'eii Ib the aame as t'ai-y&ng (the son).* [I. 57.] 
tdn chif'-M tstng-ahin dsc ' but it is just this, that in early morning &c. :* c£ 
Chrest 9. c. 11. 

365. The verb yiU ^*/to have/ takes the place of the substantive verb, 

when the notion of the attribution is aeddenital or acquired^ or at least to be 
considered as such : e. g. t*d yiH pmg ' he is sick/ which is an abnormal state; 

the r^^ular phrase is t*a $Sng^nff4iaii 4}h til mi *T^^ lit 'ho has pro- 
duced disease.' IFd yid ts*iSn < he is rich/ lit ' he has mcmey/ which is an 
attribute acquired. Instead of saying, ' what is jonr plan/ the Chinese WDsld 
say, 'you have what phin,* nl yik Mmmd fiirt^K This verb ywn, is the 
common word for * there is* at the beginning of a sentence : e. g. yiil yi chi- 
^y&ng-^KvJhh <a<$-Kai^ <a foreign vessel is arrived,' or 'there k a foreign vessel 
arrived / but before numerals it means ago, as the Yr.Uy €l 

Further examples to illustrate the use of yi^ 

kd-chii kd-i^ yiit ching-king jin ^efvery where there are upright men.* 
taihirji yii)L Jci-^in lat pai ' the day before yesterday there was a gentleman 

(lit ' guest') who came to make a call' 
chi^ yiit Mnym/bjavrpi^ 'what difference is there in thisl' 
yiil ahing^tn, yiit hvei^in, ' there are saints, and there are spirits.' [L 2.] 

This verb is used also as an auxiliary to form the past tense with haoe: e.g. — 
yiU M-kwd-Uak ' I have read it' yiU iii'ki€64iatl ' I have written it' 

366. There is a special negative for yiU, the opposite of it, mdi f^ ' to 
be without,' just as /tj ' not to be,' is used as the negative of «AC ' to be :' 
eg — 

k*dnrpilrch*il-4at, mH^it kwdng4idng ^, ' I cannot see, there is no light' 

chi-k6 ch*d mUryiU y&nrei ' ' this tea has no oolour,' or ' there is no ooloor 
in this tea.' 

nl sktod t9o Uailj miiryitt ahUnmd kwdn-hi ', ' if you make a mistake, it will 
not be of any consequence.* 

lail-4*ienry^ mH-yiU ptt-pcuHt-yid^ H ' heaven will not be wanting in protect- 
ing ^tm.' [I. 31.] 

/% ^ p: also occurs as the negative of yUl : e. g. — 

ft yiil sd Iciil yh 'there is nothing else to ask / v. ffaH-k'iHrcku^ Chrest 8. 


•J4^ "n '^M 'it 


1^ will be aeea in ^9 Axis, oa the forma of interrogation that mA-yiit at the 
dose of a sentence often means, 'or not)' And this compound verb miiryiil 

* there is not, not to have/ also helps to form the perfect tense : e. g. — 

km-ji mUr^il/dn shi ' there is no rioe to eat to-day.* 
firCed miL^'k diHshdn ' the sun has not arisen.' 

367. The modifications of the yerb yUH y^t\ 'to have,' are effected by 
meana of the following partideB among others: yd |f1 , which means, ' also,' 
hiodn ^ 'moreoyer,* ita€ ^. 'again,' yiH ^ 'again,' ^^|! 'all,' chi ^ 

* only,' pl-iing aJ^ ^^ 'must, certitinly.' And in the style of the clasmcs 
wo^ of idmikr m««ung «e««Kl:eg.yl^forj^(l2..K«l^for 
tH ^p. Exampka of these latter will be found under each partide re- 

Ta pH s£y ngd tsiH^it t-kau, ' if he had not died, I should haye been sup- 
IsoC ^ yfi^ i*4ng'ts*iin ' I haye more money;' c£ Fr. fai 0ncar$ de Vargeni. 
y^ yiU/u-kwei ti md f ' are there any more rich ones)' 
kwdn^'U shirnmd kidng-H f ' what more haye you to say f ' 
Udnff-min ptriing-yik Kdng-nn ' good people always haye a good conscience.' 

These particles may also precede mH-yiti : e. g. — 

UairmH-^H M-md^wai^'U 'there neyer was such a dwarf' 
yd-mi{-yii^ che-k6 ndnff-H ' I haye not indeed such strength.' 

368. The yerb wH '^ 'to do or make,' as a substantiye yerb, is used to 

signify that the subject holds the ojlee ofy or beeamea what the predicate 
expresses: e.g. — 

Chdng y^ pd imC l\ * but Chang was not polite,* or ' did not perform the 

salutations;' y. ffad-kHit-chiueny Chrest 1 1. £ 6. 
k*i wHjtn yi to^Uai td-nAng ' this is a man of great talent and ability.' 
shtn^ wet kH-kwai^ ' truly it is wonderful ;' shin is lit. ' deep.* 
wH jtn y{-iAC^ pil-ie6 a^f^tn^ A-^i ^ 8£ ' should a man all his life do no 

injury to others for his own advantage, &c, ;' v. 366. for the apodosis. 

This yerb is most frequently used in the style of the books. It corresponds 
to idng g, ted 4jmi, kcj in the style of conyersation. 

369. The substantiye yerb teai "Qp, 'to be in,* comes next. There are a 

few idiomatic uses of it, but generally the notion of the locality of the subject 
in the sentence will indicate the case in which it must be used. 

pd chi teai y^ pH teai ' I do not know whether he is there or not' 
lad-yS ti moA-t^ teai chi-H ' your cap. Sir, is here.' 

•» "m "ft 't 'i\ 


n\ Vifiirm^i, tid taaimdf 'are your parents alive)* v. Dialogues &c., Chrest. 

p. 28. i. 13. 
fi, ytL, sing-ail tu t$ai nh-Uy ' the sun, moon^ and stars are there' (in heaven); 

of. ffsinrUing-liL [I. 10.] 

370. The oomm<m negative which is used with t$ai is pit ^j^ * not :' e.g. — 

VdpU taai 'he is not in' {=not <U home), 

rmirtnn pit tsai shi ' my mother is not in the world,^ for, is dececued. 

371. The verbs fe6 ^i^ 'to make/ tsd ^^ < to do or make,* tdng '^ 

'to bear the office or act the part oi^' \in- kiaU 'to call or be called,' "^ sfcdn 

' to reckon, to count,* sang Ap * to be bom,' are used as substantive verbs, the 

various accessory notions implied in them being understood. Kiaii is foU 
lowed by ts6 or tsd sometimes, and the two may be translated ' is said to be' 
or ' is called :' e. g. — 

nl kiaU'tsd sMmmd mtngf 'what is your name)' c£ Hsin-tsmg^iL [75.] 
M'ht tsd t^ t*a/d^inf 'what reason is there for these formal expressions!' 

c£ Hail4ciil<hvJhy, Chrest. p. 9. f. 24. 
nd sdnrkd tstang-hiiln tdng wOrtsai ' took three generals and made them 

slaves:' c£ abo sdng-pmg 'to be sick,' and sdng-Jci 'to be angiy.' 

These are negatived by the usual word pa ^3^ ' not.' 

372. The verb nal "Jj 'to wit, is,' remains to be noticed. It is more 

common to the books than to the conversation; it sometimes corresponds 
with shi, and sometimes with yiit. 

haii shhh 4^ vrSrd nal fin ch% ckdm^^tng ' to love the good and hate the 
evil is man's common disposition.* 

373. Two of these substantive verbs are often united to strengthen the 
expression: e. g. — 

yi-haif^ kidrtsii^ Ai mit^it €i 'there is not a particle of fiction in it* 
(Pr^UL Brid. p. 51.) 

374. Shi -^ is often redundant, and u^eC ^^ is used at the be^nning of a 

sentence sometimes, where it is hardly wanted, and where some expression for 
' if* would seem to be needed. Thus when we say, ' if such a thing were to 
happen,' the Chinese might say, ' it being so and so :' and the modifying par- 
ticles are used with the verb; e. g. — 

hwdn-shi laitrtd-jin shwd-^ t'ilng-kw'ai ' of a truth, the old gentleman speaks 
very shrewdly.* Chrest. 9. m. i. 

shi t'd pit shi hail fin 'he is not a good man.* 

375. In simple sentences, in which the predicate is the natural attribute of 
the subject, the substantive verb is generally understood : e. g. — 

_ 1^ 


nd-£6 yun^aal^ kau ' tiioae clouds are bigh.' [157.] 
t'iin ffin-liaii Hhe sky is cloudy.* [147.] 

376. Wheu a description of the subject forms the matter of the predicate 
then M seems invariably to be used : e. g. — 

lu $hi hS^id H ch'aH-k'i, hwareh*iir4at-4l ahuml, ' dew is the damp vapour 
of night changed into water.' [247.] 

377. For the expresaon of tense and mood as regards these substantive 
verbs very few rules can be given. The ordinary auxiliary particles, which 
distinguish tense and mood, are not employed with these verbs, but the 
circumstances of time and mam/Mr^ either expressed or understood, define the 
relations of tense and mood : a g. — 

todng-nUn ngd M fd-kwei-t\ ' last year I was rich,* or 
wdng-niihk ngd yiU ts^iSn ' last year I had money.* 
lai-niSn ngd tso Jiijirkwei'H ' this year I shall he ricL' 
U6-t'ien t*a pMsai ' yesterday he was not at home.* 

yiil-sMrheii ngd sM, yvti, iHng-ts'ihirH 'I have been rich,* lit. 'there was a 
time (when) I was a person who had money.* 

378. The phtper/ect zxAfvJtwre perfect tenses will be dependent upon some 
circumstance: thus — 

t*a wi-4sdng lat chS^, ngd sdng-ping, ' before he came here, I had been sick.* 
is*ien-sd7irnien ngd ts6 sdng^ tsai Chimg-4cw6 < three years ago, I was doing 

buoness in China.* 
n\ mtng^'ien lai ^ VeCir^ t*d ts6 wdng, ' before you shall have arrived to> 

morrow^ he will ham been made king.' 

379. The tenses of the subjunctive mood are expressed by k'd^ Pj VJ^ 
and Jcd^ and certain particles, such baj6 '^^ * if/ hw6-cM ^v ^C 'perhaps' 
{ct Arts. 263, dca), followed by the substantive verbs just given : e. g. — 

k*d'l tsd chi-ydng ' it may be so.' 

Hiffdng-ti s£4iaitf hwd-chi shi che-ydng, ' when the Emperor died, it might 

perhaps have been so.* 
nl yl4\ m4n^wai Aiii^ k'd^ sang-pingy ' if you sleep out of doors at night, 

you ma^ be ill.' 
pU yaH k'i che-kd, K%iig^*d n\ 8wd,n M-s&ng, ' do not eat this, lest you 

should be taken for a Buddhist priest' 

380. So much information has already been ^ven upon the formation of 
the kinds of verbs, in Arts. 189 — 215, that it remains to notice here only the 
same in construction, and to point out the form of the sentence^ which affects 
the tense or mood of the verb; and the remarks will have reference to the 
words and forms given on pp. 70—76. 

The various modifications of the verbal notion are produced in four ways : 
I. By a change of the tone or the syllable; 2. By the position of the word in 

3? 4^ 



the sentence; 3. By the jnxta-position of some paitiele or auiiliarf word, or 
4. By the circumstances under which the expression occurs. 

The changes of Toiee, mood, tense, and person in construing a Chinese Terfo 
frequently leave the word unchanged ; the conditions under which it is uttered 
being a sufficient guide to the limitation of its meaning. Adverbial expres- 
sions of time, and indeed a whole clause in which a certain time is indicated, 
force the construing of the simple verb into particular moods and tenses; 
while the subject of the verb (often understood) shows the person which must 
be construed with the verb unchanged. 

- 381. By a change in tcme, the voice or kind of the verb may be altered, — 
an acUve verb may become passive, a traneUive verb may become nmtier or 
eaueoHve: e. g. — 

^^ loel 'to make, to do* (trans, v.), changes into wei 'to be made, to be 
considered as' (pass. v.). 

Q Mn 'to seize upon' (trans, v.) becomes ^en 'to divine* (neat v.)« 
^-f hdng 'to baste, to beat' (trans, v.), hecomeahing 'to walk, to act' (neut v.). 
t*tng 'to hear' (trans, v.) becomes i'ing 'to hearken, to obey' (intrans. v.). 

38a. The position of th« verb in the sentence may determine its relation 
to the other parts of the same, according to the following general rules : 

1. A verb standing alone or as the first word in a chmse is commonly in 
the imperative mood; e.g. lat €hi4l 'come herel' telf9^^<> 'please to sit:' 
or it is intended to express the general notion of the verb, which is about to 
be spoken oi^ and is consequently the subject of the sentence; e. g. — 

ta^hU M shi'fan ycm^fnnrti 'to study is a very important thing,' 
tHng-ming ehi nl ti pqn-f&n, ' to obey is your duty :* 

or the verb belongs to an absolute clause, — the expression of some circum- 
stance connected with the principal clause ; e. g. — 

ta'A tsirfi 'having arrived at the next day,' = toA^n <^ nead day had come; 
cf. Hcv(irliii3irchfuJ^ Chrest. p. 8. a. 10. 

2. A verb between two nouns belongs to the former as its subject, and to 
the latter as its object (cf. Arts. 291, 292, and 296); or the first noun being 
put for aa adverbial expression of time or place, the verb stands with the 
subject understood in the present or past tense, according as the other condi- 
tions of the clause will allow ; e. g. — 

yl, pHu ycuH hinffdHy ' in the night do not travel;' the fuller colloquial form is 
yf-li ' in the night.' 
: Pi-kmg, tH^pA ha^, ' in Peking it is bad walking.' 
ji^ M^dn Udng^ei ' every day he eats twice.' 

3. .One verb following another directly or indirectly, without a particle being 
between, must be considered as expressing a purpose or a resuU : e. g.— < 


t*d lat, k'dii, ' he is come to look.* 

Tigd King M id, sdng-fiing, ' I walked much and fell sick.* 

In these rules we cannot take cogni^nce of the auxiliary verbs as such, because 
thej are often attached to the simple verb, and become part of a compound 
with it. 

383. The auxiliary verbs and particles which are used to modify the verbal 
notion haVe been ^ven in Arts. 192, 19*4, 197, and 199. And here it may 
be remarked, that the verbal faction may be viewed under two aspects : ist, 
as expressing the entire and general notion of the verb as an abstract idea, 
and independent of any positive act; 2ndly, as entering into relation with 
some real transaction. Two expressions therefore commonly occur, whidi 
eorrespend to this distinction; one, general, the other parUcukvr. 

384. Verbs which express a general notion are such as those given in 
Arts. 200 and 203 : e. g. — 

(Qen.) tHrshU, ahi nl-ti p^nr/wn, *to study is your duty.' 

(Par.) i"d p0rk"^ng ta Si-ahU ' he will not learn the Si-sha: 

(Qen.) kirfdn, thi jtn-jin pi-ting ted t% 'to eat, is what all men must do.' 

(Par.) taH-H ngd mtt-ytt^ shinvmdfdn let ' but I have no rice to eat.' 

(Oen.) nl isd-l tAsukin md? 'can you calculate 1' 

(Par.) inH atodn chi-k^ 9(jHnv& ' then reckon up these numbers.' 

(Oen.) Idau siaii hai-4r, tdrsaH, * call the little boy to sweep.' 

{Par.) t*d aaH-lia/k ch^kd Mr-fdng ' he has swept this place.' 

(Qen.) td>^d yl-kb^in, idrt*tng^ 'send a man to listen!' 

(Par.) ngd t*tiig-Min4iai!t t*d^ kwd '1 have heard what he said.' 

Those oompounds with ^^ ' to strike,' do however firequently keep the id when 
particular acts are mentioned : e. g. — 

hH^fdng tdnga-Miail ' the schoolroom is swept' 

But with such compounds as tdrt^tmil, ' to draw water,' akwUl, ' water/ would 
be dropped in construction : e. g. — 

ngd yaH ni ki^ngd icl^ahwiil ' I want you to draw water for me.' 
shvyiil tdrliafJk ' the water is drawn,' or tMiail ' it is drawn.' 

385. It will be well to show, by a few examples, how each of the auxiliary 
words affects the principal verb when it is joined with it. 

The character Uah j , 'to finish,' is very commohly used after verbs, to 

indicate that the acttoA of the v^ is acconiplished, frind the expression may 
therefore be constroed in one of the perfect tenses or by tlie perfect participle. 
The following examples will ^ow its tne : 

cki'U t'ed-UaHi mtng-H 'he ojdj presented his card.' (8. f 23.) 

h-ki tsiit-yaii hing-liaU 'at once I should be on my journey.' (8. k. 18.) 

M-ki^ Skwii^'pniny hwH tseHhUail, ttiin-lai, ' who should they see but Shui- 

yun, having suddenly tocUked up, enter.' (9. g. 4.) 
Vdn^iaik yid Vdn 'hcnnng looked, he looks again.' (11. f. 13.) 



yaii yi-chdng dr chl, shl Jcl- siaiJhti 'UaU, lit ' wishing to take one cup and 

then stop, is to ha/oe inmdted me.' (ii. 1. 13) 
pH hat lat tsi-hir-liaiiy lit ' ought not to come, to home taken notice of me.' 

(8. n. 28.) Cf. 10. n. 4. also. 

In oblique narration liail must sometimes be construed into the pluperfect 
tense: e. g. — 

* The attendants announced, that the second son of academician Li {la%4iaU) 
had arrived' (or *to have arrived'). (10. h. 15.) 

This character often means ' has become ;' e. g. h4ng4iaU * has become red ;' 
pi-liail 'has become white;' mtng-pi-liah 'has become clear,' =Aa« voider- 
stood Thus an adjective is changed into a verb when followed by liaik 

When liaU is repeated, the first liaU must be taken as the verb ' to finish,* 
and the second as the auxiliary particle to express the perfect tense or the 
participle. It is however seldom found thus, though Fr^mare gives one or 
two examples of it 

eheurwdoirliailt t8*iin lljj yr* T^ ^S * having received the money.' 

chdng kw64iail *^ ^ "J" ' having tasted,' 

LiaU is very commonly used in the court dialect, and in the mandarin 
generally; also in the ordinary novels, but seldom in the Sdnrktod-M and 
the better class of books. 

Sometimes the object of the verb is placed between the verb and the 

auxiliary liailj : e. g. k'l- 8iai!t-4i -liail * you have insulted me.' 

386. The addition of kwd j|m, ' to pass over,' as an auxiliary verb, is very 

common ; it regularly forms the perfect tense when used in tins way : e. g. — 

nl fUng-ti t*d ehtod-kwd-ti 'you understood what he said' (28. d. 24.) 
hihirkw6 t*d Id-tsi ? ' you have seen him, how many times)' (28. g. 10.) 

Liait is frequently superadded to kw6 in the same sense of compleHng the 
action of the verb. Kico sometimes enters into the composition of a word, and 

then it cannot be looked upon as an auxiliary verb, but the verb J seems 

to be used to form the perfect tenses in that case : e. g. — 

nd-kwd-lat ' bring over;' nd kwd-lat liail ' it is brought over.' 

387. The verb yii^ '^gf, 'to have,' also occurs as an auxiliary verb, like 

have in English, but this use of it is not common in Chinese. When used in 
this sense, it must stand immediaidy he/ore the verb to which it belongs: 

yiit Id-fdn * I ha/oe eaten rice (L a. dined).' 

tsitng mU-^it'k'dnrkien che-ydng^i yi-kd-tei ' I never yet have seen such a 

character as this.' (30. i. 16.) 
hwdn mil-^il-4dt edn-hid < it htu not yet etruck three o'clock.' (39. k. 19.) 


388. The verb wdn yf^, ^ to finish/ is also set after the verb to form the 

perfect tenses with the other auxiliary verbs and particles : e. g. — 

t'd sii-ivdn chi^yirsheil-ahl ' he has written this ode.* 

Si-ehan pU t^ng i*d akwd-wdn ' Sl-chiin did not wait until he had done 

ngd wi49Sng U6-ioAn chS-k6 s£4sing ' I have not yet finished this business.* 

Ki g7^ 'to stop speaking,' pi m 'to finish/ and some other words have a 
similar force and usage in the books, where they will present no difficulty. 

389. The particle ^ H / abready/ is used as an adjunct to form the perfect 
and pluperfect tenses : e. g. — 

\rfii Mdrjtn taai hidrchU <he had hidden a menial in the lower room.' (8. b. 25.) 
nh L% kwng-48^ l-U^ tail st-ts'^iin < this Mr. Li had walked up to the festive 
board.' (10. h. 29.) sl-ta'Un is 'before the mat/ by met. 'feast.' 

htng sut te^n 4r nn Isz W^ S| l?^- W •'l^* & ^ '*^® ^^^ 
indeed may remain, but the soul is departed.' 

This word is however more frequently used as a book-particle than in the 
colloquial idiouL It is used with adjectives like Uaily but pr^tased, and then 
it signifies had become: e. g.— 
t'ien^ *• \r4o^n t*ui-pmg ^ ' when the day had become late he withdrew his 

And in phrases it often loses its grammatical force, or, to say the least, the 
value of ihe word is hidden by the figure eUipeis : cf. 9. f. 1 2. 

390. Ki fflp 'finished, to exhaust/ is employed in a similar way, and is 
placed before the verb to form the perfect and the pluperfect tenses, or the 
p(ut participle of the verb, according as the circumstances require each form 
of translation respectively : e. g. — 

a fn4ng tsi^h^ ' having yat^cmrec? me with this regard.' (8. o. 4.) 

H Wdng LI (jr-hiimg k'U-liin sdn-shdng ^having taken with our two friends, 

Mr. Wang and Mr. Li, three cups in succession.' (11. k. 30.) 
ki ya6rhing, hd pH teail-Uu ? ' if you unshed to go, why did you not go earlier 1 ' 

(10. n. 21.) 
id sit *at'hiilngi pU I pdng-yiU wei tsHng, ' it being thus, Sir, that you make 

no account of friendship as a motive.' (9. b. 18.) 

391. Tsdng "n^f 'already done/ stands before the principal verb as an 
auxiliary to form the perfect tenses and participles : e. g. — 

tsil'shdng tsdng-ts6^io6 yi-kd-siail-sia^ Klng-kwdn ' one of their ancestors 

had been an insignificant official at the Capital.' {Himg4ed-'miing,) 
tsang^cing Icl-cKing ^ ' he ha^ already set out on his journey.' 

xe s« °m% 

S 2 


392. It must be observed too, that particles such as trid uw> jM^ iW* 

kid ^p, UaU ^y yin ^1, each of which means 'then,* commonly thrown 

the succeeding verb into the past tense, the pcu^ participle or ^efiUur^ tense. 
They occur naturally in the apodosis of a sentence where the perfect or future 
tcuse is often required : e. g. — 

ji-ijoi-ch'it, taiii Isl^at, 'before the sun came out, (then) he orosa.* (8. a. 13.) 
Kw6 tsia 8iing ta6 ' Kwo then having invited his guests to sit' (9. n. 15.) 
tsailfi paHryil Kiv6 kung-i^ ' then he ha^ened to inform Mr. Kwo.* (8. c x i .) 
f/tn Uhirlihi ^ kung-kUng ' then he continuously 6otiw^ profoundly.' (8. e. 4.) 
yin kihi thlnrt^ing hell-^nad ' lohen he eaw the deep feeling and generpus 

manner displayed.* (19. e. 15.) 
teiiiryaii htngAiail ' I am abovi to. proceed on my journey.* (8. k. 2a) 
todn^-uxii tsiiL'tseil * he went out, being abovi to depart.* 

But in parallel clauses, or those joined with and understood, the verb which 
follows these particles must b^ construed like the verb in the coiresponding 
clause preceding. And when the protasis is a hypothetical proposition, the 
verb in the apodosis will be in ihtjubwre tense : e. g.— 

393. Several verbs which are placed before the principal verb may be con- 
sidered as belonging to the class of auxiliaries, since they serve to define the 
notion of time more clearly. For the fiUv/re tenses and Jutwe participles, 

yaH T& , teidng-yali ^& \ , and tsiH^aii Wf \ are used. The following 

examples will show how they are employed : 

ngd mtng^^ien yaH KU 'to-mprrow I ahaU ga* 

lat nihh n\ teidng^aH lat ' next year you will corned 

]ci-fdn4iaily tdil'^ail IcU, ' having eaten his rice, he was about to go.* 

But after nl, *you,' yaH would signify ehould or must: e. g. — 
nl ming-t'ien yaH lat * to-morrow you m/uat come.' 

394. Many words are used to modify the notion expressed by yad, as well 
as other words employed to msj-k the future time, and to change the expression 

so as to mean muaiy shoiUd, wovJd^ kc, ; as, for example, pi i\/\ ' must> cer- 
tainly ;* and adverbs of intensity, with certain verbs of like signification : e.g. — 

t*d pi-ya4 tHrshU * he must study.* 

htvdng-ti y^ yaH si ' the emperor must also die.* 

kiaitrfu sh1^4sa% yaMat ' the chair-bearer wiU really come.* 

nl kwd-jin yaH-Jci-fdn ' you certainly will <Mne.* 

sienrsang p^U^ng lat tU ' the teacher will not come to read,* (won*t.) 

395. The verbs given in Art. 197 will need some further exemplification, 
as they play an important part in the modification of the verbal notion. We 

will take each in order, ist, tl ^M: , ' to obtain,* /ollaws verbs whose significa- 
tion requires some such supplementary notion to complete their sense : e. g. — 
ngd thng-ti n}rt\ shwd'hwd ' I can understand your langusge.* 


«^ A'iH^i i*d^ 'yw fnay go,* where VM i» redmidAii^ but idioBiatia 

Hie negfttive pA yS^ comes betweoi the verb H and its aaeodate, and denotes 

that the action of the principal verb does not or cannot take effect; and this 
ia common with all these auxiliary verbs : e. g. — 

eA^-yi-<*ia4-^t2 kufdnrpHrH ' this road carmat be widened.* 
^ y^ng^n JcvrfHr^i ' the servant may not go/ 

T% also forms, with certain verbs, an expression equivalent to tUmam in Latin, 

in wishes, 'would that!* e. g. h^n pHr^ y^ 'annoyed at not getting,* = 

' would that/* but the more common phrase in conversation is porpitrti or |>d- 
pa^y which signify respectively, 'would that I* and 'would that you,* i. e. 
with one tone it refers to the subject who speaks, with the other, to tfte object 
spoken of, or to the person addressed. JNlrH entoti into a rariety of phrase^ 
as liaiirpiirH, ' finish not obtain,* for an intensitive, senary/ and sometimes for 
'it wiU not suffice:* rf. Chrest 3a e. ai. 

396. The verbs ifc'ti ^ ' to go,* c^'tf [f } ' to go out,* i'oi ^^ * to open,* 
and sdn ^ V ' to scatter,* have a good deal in common. They express the 

prasetU or the perfect tenses of the indiccUive mood; — the imperaiive mood; 

or the potential mood, with can as the sign in English : e. g. — 
k'dn pH cKiirlaty mitryiU ku)dng4idng, ' I cannot see, there is no light.* 
<*a ndrch'U yirhvm ydng^'ihi 'he took out a dollar.* 
tikuriil tiUmg «Aanr/l li'dinXii, lai ' w^terjlowa out from the mountams.' 
radHXfKpShya4 t^ ehUl, 'Fleel do set tairy here.* 
ngd pir4ccA yikw^mOrVea 'ItpUt a log of wood' (India.> 
lO^plrKa^ yi hoa mUrCea ' aplU 9k log of wood!* (Imper.) 
j6 t*a chhinn^ ni^ ItrUal Va yuin, ' if he flatters you, keep at a distance.* 
nMdSn ml-ei*^ IdrcKik^ laUliai^ 'that secret hae come out.* 
nffd pien^aH nl kfrliaMcU ' I am determined you shall drink it :* {now, so 
pres.) (12. a. 2.) 

397. The verb*|xl £H, 'to cease,' corresponds in force to liaHi J , 'to 
finish,* as an auxiliary verb. But it very commonly has the effect of turning 
the sentence either into an ianperalive sentence, or it gives to it a hortative 
foroe. The following examples will show both these uses otpd: 

Ti kwng-tek cKd /xf ' Mr. TI hewing done tea.' (8. j. 20.) 
ehwd-pdy yiH wai taeilf* having spoken, he again made for the door.* (8. m. 1 9.) 
siaiirti king-tsiH tad-pd ' I am ijready seated* (10. i. 15.) 
fdng-wn shwdpd! 'speak freely!' (27. a. 12.) 

tBOrm^ tu yir-kwel-4r tseiirpdl ' £0^ us all walk together!* (30. b. 17.) 
ngd^m^ shdng-^htng pd ! 'fee us go up into the city!* (28. L 19.) 
Ho4^, n\ tai ngd kw6 hS pd! ' Friend ! carry us over the river !' (28. n. 10.) 
C£ also 28. 1. 5. and 27. 1. 28. 

§ * S tti 


After a conditional clause^ referring to the second person^ or after an absolute 
clause, it will generally give the sense of mixyy or some tense in the pcienJUdl 
moody or be construed into the imperoitime: e. g. — 

nl pSL yaH tdLng, k*M JgU pd (or tsiii Icd-pd), * if you will not wait, then 

you may go.' 
Kir/dn hcdy tdd VUpd! 'after dinner, then you may go!' (or 'then go.') 
t/Umg-yfrtdng ngd chS-ydng tsd pd/ 'wait a little, I will do it so!' which 

would be also, 'let me do it so.' (37. k. 5.) 

398. The verb chd ^Jl ' to rest in, to stay,* partakes of the same nature 

and grammatical force as the preceding yerb. It may be said to attach itself 
to the ¥erb in almost every mood and tense, to show that the action of its 
associate, which always precedes it, has taken effect : a g. — 

Kw6 ldn<hU tail ' Kwo opposed him and said.' (8. 1. 8.) 

Kw6 yi'Shei!t chlrchu tad ' Kwo with one hand stopped him and said.' (8. nL 25.) 

chl-Ui ch4rhid ' he stayed there.' (9. c. 26.) 

\riseh taH st-ts^iSn chlrchU ta/d 'he had walked in to the banquet and stopped 

them, saying.' (10. h. 29.) 
pien U-cku td-ying taH 'then he cvrose and answering, said.' (11. e. 8.) Cf. 

also (12. c. i) and (12. £ i). 

In its own proper sense we have chd in (10. b. 15) yiil ckQrskeh ch^% 'he had 
the idea of desisting (from drinking).' 

399. The verbs lai ^^ 'to come/ tsin ,^ 'to enter,' and Idng 7|| 'to 

collect,' may be classed together as auxiliaries, being allied in meaning and 
use, and being oft;en united in the same phrase. All three convey the notion 
of direction towards the subject, just as k^u ' to go,' ch'H ' to go out,' and k'at 
' to open,' express the direction from the subject of the sentence. Zat pre- 
cedes Uait when it helps to form the perfect tenses of neuter verbs, but when 
an object comes in between, liai^ goes with the chief verb, and lat is suffixed 
after the object mentioned : thus — 

nd4ia^ &r4s^ lat 'he took his card.' (8. b. 10.) 

rufd hwdn mUryiit k*l lat ' I have not yet arisen,^ (30. o. 18.) 

Tsin and Idng precede liait in the sentence, and come immediately before it ; 

tsin-lat 'to come in' (cf. hineinkommen), or 'come in!' 

Idng4ai ' to collect together' (cf. zusornimenkoMfen), 

t*d t*ir1c\ pilat^)xe takes up his pencil.' 

Cd Cirlcl pi lat4iail ' he took up his pencil.' 

hMdng nd-kd tung-si lat ' collect those things.' 

hd-ldng-Uait ' they are collected,' 

The student must learn to distinguish between words which stand as gram- 
matical adjuncts from the same when used as principal verbs : cf. ng^-fd ^r lat, 
ngd'fd ^ Ku, 'to come fasting,' 'to go fasting.' (9. c. 16.) 


Many of these auxiliary verbs form the various tenses, or stand for the pre- 
positions found with the verb in some European languages. The Chinese may 
be said to correspond with the idiom of the English in this respect We may 
say either, 'he offwtd v/p tea, or he presented tea.' In colloquial Chinese, 
' offered vp* is the form of more correct phrase : c£ Chrestomathy. 

^•VMkn h^hirehdmg dCd lat * while they offered up tea.' (8. L lo.) 

400. The verbs ahdng J* 'to go up' and k*l ^£ 'to arise* are similar in 
their grammatical use, for they both signify the heginnvng or raieiTig of the 
action of the chief verb ; but they do not seem to have any effect in forming 
the tenses of the verb, although they cteaist in producing the perfect tense 
sometimes: e.g. — 

iaiil tirk'l ahm lai ' then he arose,* (8. j. 25.) 

yUmUn Min-ahdng cKd lai 'while they were offering up tea.' (8. h. 10.) 

pH to-ehi p^'ShAng foii^ lai 'not long after thej prepared and brought up 

wine.' (9. n. 8.) 
yiii ifiil Ewiii-t^ t8d4wdn-k*l-lai4iail ' there were also the Turcomans who 

had rebelled^ Gk)n9. Arte China, 
yin nQirTiX riibrp^rUiii, lai ' then he took that cup of wine.' (12. a. 9.) 
kiau ta^-yiH chMy-Jcl Udng-chdng ' he called the attendants to pour out two 

goblets.' (11. j. 24.) 

K*\ is used sometimes to form the inceptive verb, even with a verb of an 
opposite signification, e. g. with hid 'T^ ' down, to descend,' while h'i means 
' to arise :' thus — 

AmS-^'I td^ 'it began to rain heavily.' 

This is exceptional usage, for the auxiliary is commonly suited to the action 
of the verb to which it is joined ; hid ~K is generally used for a downward 
movement and shdng p for an upward movement : e. g. — 

hid hd-ioe^rH 'to play the game of siege (a kind of chess).' Chrest. litho. p. 9. c. 4. 
nl tilrshdng to-^taH 'how much will you wager 1' (lit ' bet-up,' =Eng. lay,) 

(27- g- 9) 
pa sid/ng-shdng yi siding, lit ' touching enter upon thinking ! ' 

(6. m. 22.) = ' with regard to take a thought !' 

401. Many other verbs are used in senses similar to the preceding, and 
assist in forming the tenses or in conveying the notion of direction implied in 
the verbs to which they are attached. From the preceding articles the 
principle involved will be seen ; but many additions to the examples may be 
given by the student as he proceeds in his reading. The following expres- 
sions must suffice to exemplify these remarks : 

yenrhid Pra "K 'to swallow down,' ^ coll. t*&nrhid ^S | • 

'to enter' is used for tsin .]|g 'to enter,' and both are occasionally 


UMd togetiier; e. g. Mfk-fi^ehterV Mti-lat 'come int' tAnrk*4 'go 
in!* and M/nff-4i^k% lit. ' aseend-in-go/ for 'go in!* 
hdinshdng-k*4 ' to puraae after.' 

Each of these adjuncts is affixed to some verbs^ just as prepodtions are to assist 
in forming compounds in European languages. The student of the Greek w&l 
at once perceire the analogy between Ohinese and that language on this point, 
as he will too in many other Chinese forms of construction and usages of words. 
(Compare vp6s with lat; Sno with k*ti; t!( with MH; ttp with toln, &c.) 

Thus — ndrlat 'bring!* nd-^*ti 'take awayl* 

t^iL-hio6 Jjf ' to bring over :' e. g.— 

havrjin t8*^rkw6 pi lat ' tell a man to bring a pencil over here ;* so 
fo'4«^'i2 ' to take out,' ts'iir^'d ' to take away.' 

40a. When verbs oompoonded witii these auxiliary adjonots are negitlinid, 
the negative particle is placed either between the prindpal and the amciliary, 
— and they then generally signify cannot do what the Verb expresses, — or 
before the two vwbs as a compowid, when they meikn do^ nci^ ha$ iMi, or 
wiUTtot: e. g. — 

* nd'pA4af ' cannot biing it' ndrpii'k*4 ' cannot take it flWay.* 

ii^pA shdng lat 'cannot go on writing.' tcfdpHA'it lot 'cannot spdaL' 

b k'irparH ' cannot eat it' ^ t*aiirp&refCiL ' cannot esoape.' 

pA nd4ai ' does not bring it^ has not brought it^' or ' will not bring it^* 

according as the circumstances of the case require. 
t^d pa taiinrlat 'he will not enter.' nl pH t»in4at 'you, do not enter !' (Imp.) 
hd-pU'l'dng'^at ' cannot be brought together.' 
nl ttHn-pil-lat 'you cannot ^tef.' f^ tH-pil^i ' I Cattnotreidii' 
ngd pU k*i-4i ' I do not eat it,* = I wiU not eat U. 
^ kid^ng-pHrHng ^ ' cannot be settled by discussion.* 
ngd t'lng-pH-kihh ' I cannot hear.' ngd pit t'lng-kien ' I do not hear.' 
^mal-pOriat ' I cannot buy it' ts inavpit'k*4 ' I cannot sell it' 

403. After these remarks upon the value of the above-mentioned auxiliary 
verbs, tiie explanation of such phrases as the following will present no dif- 

tteMai t8eMs*U ' to walk backwards and forwards.* 

shwd-lat 8hMO-K4 ' to say again and again.' 

eiitng-lat ddng^'4 'to think of this and that,* = to keep on thinking, in 
which form all such expressions nmy be construed. They cannot however be 
affected by the auxiliaries for the paet and Jvimre tenses as the simple verb 
can; they signify merely the general notion in the infinite mood. 

404. The ianperaime mood in Chinese is marked by certain verbs, which 
signify to trmfo or heg, to yvddy to ootMe, to co^ to eosftor^, and the like, 
being prefixed to the principal verb; but very frequently the command is 





convejred simply by the verb alone; e.g. lat 'come!* k'U 'go!* k'un 'see!' 
or with the Bubjeet only placed before it ; e. g. — 

nl piiryaHrJci ' do not go ! * (Lat. noU ire.) 

I*d pik^ywSrJiU would be ' he will not go' or ' he may not go.* 

The verba just referred to are, ttiiig ^ra 'to invite/ KiH Mk* * to heg^jdng ^B 
' to yield/ M 1m 'to cause' or ling >A. 'to cause,* kiaU pu 'to call,' 
kiuin Is 7/ ' to exhort,* of which the following examples will show the use in 
this connection : 

U*lng id M fiMit«-te^ ' take off your cap,' lit. ' invite yon to remove the cap.' 
Ma ^jr laprMhiUive; e. g. hvHskwd 'do not sayl* 

405. In pursuing the method of European grammar, and seeking equi* 
valents for the voices, moods, and tenses, we may wander from the proper 
sphere of the grammar of Chinese: in the analysis of tiiis language we 
ought rather to confine ourselves to the physiology of it, and leave the consi- 
deration of the method of expressiBg moods and tenses until we come to the 
third part (the Exerdses), which may be looked upon as the synthetical portion 
of the grammar. 

It remains however to mention the verbs which act as auxiliaries in forming 
the pauwe voice. They have been already given, but a few more examples 

may be of service to the student. The verbs referred to are, kUn ^^ ' to see,' 

Jkea ^ 'to receive,' Vi P^ 'to eat,' ling ^^ ' to receive,' ts'aa ^ 'to 

meet with,* pel jeKy 'to suffer/ d^. : (c£ Arts, aia and 213.) 

pi Ti ehi yi'tm tad : 'by Tt he was pushed away, with these words :' (i a. £ 29.) 
aHMl/|hl^a<2ibt^nr«uit^^ij ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^' 'OentlemenI Do not 
be inclined to smile,' a phrase made use of when a sdiolar reads his 
own essays before the learned: (v. IV^m. under ^I, p. 61.) 

Kihii 'to see, to seem, to be affected by/ forms the passive here just as in 
other cases, although we do not so express the sentence in English, for we 
may say, 'do not smile!' It is literally, 'do not be seen to smilel' 

1*5 pA kiihy^MSmrkl ' he was not pleased.' 

mOrjhk ngd k*Uihi.kio*^ ^f ^ ^ p£ f^ fgj 'although I shaU be 

pi M^ iU^'4 ^ g)^ \ ^i ^'"^^ <»™^ off ^7 robbers.' 

406. The student may refer to Arts, an — ai3 for several auxiliary or 
formative verbs and examples, and seek for further examples under the follow- 
ing section OB the meaning and use of the particles. 

Few precise rules can be given for construing verbs into certain moods and 
tensesi beyond those already noticed, bdoause the mood and tense often 
depend upon the circumstances of the aetion, or upon the previous sentence:. 



Examples of both will be seen in the passages given in the Chrestbmathy. 
We must now proceed to the consideration of the syntax of the Terbs and 
nouns, which serre to supply the place of the prepositions. 

407. The yerbfl which are used as substitutes in some sense for the preposi- 
tions are given in Art. 257, p. 91. Examples of their use is all that is needed 

I. tail pij, ' to arrive at/ implies motion tovxvrds and arrival ai: e. g.— ^ 

t'd tail-^^-ii lai4iaU ' he has arrived here/ — ' ai this place.* 

ngd yaik ia'drFl'lemg JcU ' I wish to go to Peking.' 

n\ kX-shi taH-Kfodng-iimg lai ? ' When did you come to Canton?* 

Va-m^n shd tail t*%en mtng 'they went on killing tmiil break of day.* 

yd Id tail ptodn yi ' the rain fell until midnight.' 

Phrases: lat-ta^ M^ 'come, arrived.' tsUtaii ?£ 'received.* 

taH-chii J^ 'every where.' toMi m- 'but, still, after all.' 
a. tsai 'iC ,' to be in a place,* implies position^ rest in a place : e. g. — 


tsairKtodng-tung ted edng-i hail ' trade is good in Canton.* 
teaUkid'H pU-haUt ' it is not pleasant in the house.* 

Phrases : teai-kid ^^ ' at home.* tsi-teai j^ ' to be without absence of mind.' 
teairhd SpL 'to consist in.* (B.) 

3. te*4ng a)), 'to follow,' implies motion /ronij through, or ou4 of: a g.— 

t'd teilLng Fe-kmg lai Uait 'he is comeyrom Peking.' 

I'd teeil te'Ung chtng4i kwd-k'U ' he walked all through the city.* 

teUng hwdflng-ehd/ng tad hid-min 'from the emperor down to the lowest 

of the people.' 
te^Ung /dng-te^ ch'H 'he Went out o/'the room :' (c£ 27. 1. i.) 
te^Ung puSn ^r-ZaC ' comeyrom a distance.* 
With a negative preceding, it implies means/rom or by which ; cf. ta^ ( 1 5) below. 

4. hi4ng jpj, 'to go towards,* implies moHon towards, but it is not so corn'* 

monly used as tail (1). 
hidng-ngd lai ' come towarcls me ! * 
p^ ya/d tail-ngd lai 'do not come to me.* 
kd-chi-niaib /% hidngH'ien JcU ' that bird flies towards heaven.* 

Phrases : hidng-nAn m^ ' southward.* hidng-tsUn ]||[ ' forward* 
hidng-ehdng p* 'upward.* 

Bidng |p] and ydng 'j D] are sometimes used for yd "j^ ' to, at :* e. g.—r 

hidng pdng-yiit ehwd ' to speak to a friend.* 

weirte^-^i ydng kd^hwd eh*uinrch^ 'by this notification we address our- 
selves to the ships of all nations.* 


Wdng 1^ and ydTtg iU], ' to look towards/ are also used like hidng, 

5. I y] * to use, to take,' implies the meana by which, and it precedes the 

instrument by which any thing is done, or the ccmae or motive for an 

Tung J^f^ to use,' is more conmionly employed in this sense in the colloquial 
style; and as i is looked upon generally as a book particle, the student 
is referred to the section on particles for examples of its grammatical use. 

ngd yUng-tcnt^ie^ ehd-t'd ^ I killed him toith a knife.' 

ffin yiing^ehe^ chi<h6 Ti, tad, ' then with his hand he pointed to Tf, and said' 

Nd ^^, 'to take,' is also used in the same sense as ydng, for by or with, 

6. kl Aj^, ' to arriye at or reach to,' is used for vrith, cmd, until, and with 

rtferenee to; but this word is more conmion in the books than in the 
colloquial style. 

k%<hd mHJdijU wS fey j^ ^ y'^ 'the examination has no refers 

ence to you.' 
ki4^yA 2^ . f\ '^Witil the second month.' 

It also has the sense of aJlnrnt in some phrases : e. g. Ufn-Jei ^^ T9 * to talk 
about;' — a book is 'about' {I4nrkl) a certain subject. In this sense it agrees 
with that ofpd iP* 'to take,' which often means taking, touching, concerning. 

7. Uhh .^g, ' to connect,' is used in the sense of cmd, with (like cum or cri^) ; 

and at the beginning of a clause it often means in addition to, 

UM h&M mad ^ ^ ^ ^~[ ^ ^ '^® braved death with his com- 

The verbal ngnification of liin admits of its being construed by several words, 
audi as both, and, &c., and it ofiien appears to be redundant at the head of a 
sentence: e.g. — 

lUn trfd aheit^hi*' td pd kien-UaU 'she found neither her clothes nor her 

Wn ni y^^md ehlng^ng ^ ^4; {J|. J"^ jE |^ 'jo^ too are with- 
out right principle.' 

Phrase: Uhkry^ ^g 7^ 'day and night' 

8. ta% \\\ ' to act as a deputy,' is eqiuvalent to the prep, instead of: 

tai-4i t'dng-hidng-jin^ ehed-Jeil 'he suffered trouble in the place of his 

T 2 


t*d iaXrjin tiMirtmMia^ ' he^ instead of men^ made atcmement ibr on.* 

9. yd mj 'to give/ involyes the notion of the dative case with the prep, io 

or for. But more examples will be ^ven of its use under the sectioa 
on the particles. 

190^ fi pa^yu Kw64ewng'4^ * tiien he hastened to give information to 
Kwo-kung-tsz.* (8. c. 11.) 

yijtn-hiilngM^jil-Mf ' allow me to go for you. Sir, and n^;otiate 
the marriage, will youf 

10. ki i^f ^to give,' is more oonunonlj used in the ocmversational s^e for 

yu, as the mark of the doHve case. 

kin n) ki ngd tad chi-k6 *I beg of you to do thisybr me :* (c£ 27. a. 25.) 

•a^ ehi4!6 ki t'd k*44iai^ 'presented this to him.* 

t9ai * ki-ngd yi-pH-kSn ^ ' give (to) me another copy to look at* 

11. fosl y^ 'to do, to become,' b used ioit the prep, on aocowd o/,/ory and 

it enters into several phrases in this sense : e. g. — 

ffin-w^ 'because,* tff^Mmmd 'for what,*=ioAy. 

wd nl la^'Yu ngd kaU eh^-kd ' on your account^ Mr.Tu, I will diange this.* 

wet aMnwhd lai liaitf 'why are you come 9' 

tAdwrt «a<^^ ^P) ^ ^ 'taking the rivery&r the boundMj.' 

toH t^ien^hid Hait ' to be a laughingHStock ybr the world.* 

ta. tUi ^r, 'to be opposite to,* makes the prep. Unearde, cppaeUe to {ad- 
vereue), At, : 

nl Uii t*d thu)6 'speak to him !* 

tili t*%en Jwod-shi 'he swore by hearen.* 

Phrase : i/ilirfnihh Q|Q 'on the opposite side.' 

^3. fiiflng (^, 'the same,' stands as the prep, together wUk (cum): 

ngd pA^aH t^Hng-nl Vu ' I do not wish to go wUk you.' 
ahi t*4mg nd'kd yi-ydng ' it is the same as (with) that' 

14. M ^P, 'concord,' is commonly employed as the prep. wUk, in company 

unthys^ tuning (q. v. 13. above) : 

ngd yad hd ni htng-ld ' I wish to walk with you.' 

Uinrjin hd md * both men and horses.* 

hd hiUng^i yirki hidng-iUmUn teec^ ' with my brother I went in.' 

15. tel Is, commonly 'self,* has the same force and usage as t8*4ng (q. r. 3. 


above) 'to follow/ and therefore signifies 'from.* This is more fre- 
quently the case in the book style than in the colloquial idiom; and 
will be exemplified under the particles. 

1 6. 1*1 W 'for, instead of^' is a more firequent colloquial expression than tai, 

mentioned above (8). T*i also corresponds with ytl ' for, to/ as a mark 
of the dative (9). 

nffdki»t'inlda^^\) ^ j^ ^ 'weU,Iamashamedof you!* {Hnnr 
Mng-tu m. 76.) 

I'i^'in c4*t»^ I \ [jj ^ 'to exert one's self for people.' 

yang^ndea^r-t^tsd-fd -^ \ \ Hi ^ ^ jj^ i% 'he 
solicited a person to negotiate a marriage for his son.' 

17. ffin vjd 'because of and yi4 m < origin' are both used for on accau/rU 

of, by or through, although the manner of using them varies : e. g. — 

ym tmi-ts^ si^iaU, 'he died by the sword.' 

fftn nljnl-nl ^ 'j^ \^ ^^ 'because of your obstinacy.' 

yifi umI p*dj pA k't/dn, ' he could not eat through fear.' 

y»d iei nUjn Urin 'enter by this door!' 

yUi yuinji fi ' by the garden enter the housel' 

yid urtl-kwdn ehing-pdn*^ ' transacted by the military officers.' 

408. The forms of construction, which stand as equivalents for the relatiions 
ofiMn/e and place, commonly expressed by prepositions in European tongues, 
need some elucidation : (cf. Art 258.) 

Any general term for a relation of place or time may be used in construc- 

tiott, as a noun, with the preposition teai '^uC 'in' or UfUng 4jL 'firom,' 

(according as the notion of rest in or motion is implied,) placed before the 
noun to which such relation of place or time refers; the expression then 
becomes equivalent to a preposition with its case in Latin or English : e. g. — 

ngd hU t8ai'ching4l ' I reside in the dty,' lit ' in the city's interior.' 

I'd i8'4ng-<htng4l JcU ' he went through the city.' 

9^ ifet^ teaUchtng-wai ' walk outside the city,' lit ' in the city's exterior.' 

409. It is of great importance for the student to be able to divest his mind 
of the idea of a Chinese word being a noun or a verb, and to be able to treat 
any word as a noun or a verb, according as the case may require. * The value 
of this is especially observable in the construction of words to express the rela- 
tions of time and space, where we use adverbs and prepositions. Instead of 
saying ' upon the table,' the Chinese would say ' in the table's upper part,' teai 
chd-isi shdng. Several examples of this form of expression have already been 



given in Arte. 258 — 260, and to these the student may refer. When the 
phrase thus formed, as an adverbial expression, stands as the nominative case, 
or the subject of a sentence, taai need not be used : e. g. cfitTtg-^ui yiii nu 
mat ' in the city there is rice to sell,' lit. * the city's interior has rice to selL* 
But the method of expressing these relations will find its appropriate place in 
Part m, where the exercises will necessitate a number of rules for turning 
English into Chinese. One caution should be always remembered, that the paair- 
tion of the words alone can determine how the expression must be construed. 
A noun may become a verb, simply from its position, and a noun may so 
stand with another noun, as to form a preposition in signification, although it 
is not prefixed {proBpontum). Thus hid-shdn * descend a mountain,' but hidr 
fang ' lower room,' and ^tdnrhid ' at the foot of the mountain.' Wai-kw6 
'foreign countries,' kwli-^uoai 'out of the country,' =a6road Shd,ng-m/^ 'to 
mount a horse,' mdrshdrng ' on horseback' 

410. The adverbs do not admit of any modification of a grammatical nature, 
excepting their int-ensification, either by being r^pecUed, or by an intensifying 
particle being prefixed to them. (Cf. Arts. 238 — 256, p. 84.) 

It will be necessary to notice, in the next place, the particles which affect 
words and sentences, and thus modify them, but in a manner so peculiar as to 
call for a separate section, and a distinct analysis of their uses as (MrUnUive, eoiv- 
nedivej (jffirmative, negative^ achersaUve, eausativey eandUional, tUoHve, inter- 
rogoHve, dfubUalivey iniermHve, exdam<Uory, and euphonic particle& 

§.7. Ttie syntCLx of the particles. 
I. At^ribuUve partides, ^^ tl, ^ chl, ^ chi, and J^' sd. 

411. The very first principle of Chinese construction is, that the qualifying 
words and clauses precede those which they qualify, and though there is fre- 
quently nothing to show the point at which the attribute ends and where the 
object of that attribute begins, several particles do exist, which, under certain 
circumstances, show this. They have been refeited to above in Arts. 130, 
132, and 313. 

As the effect of these particles is to throw that which precedes them into 
the form of a qualifying or attributive expression, that is, either the genitive 
case of a noun, the adjective, or the relative clause, we shall call them aUri- 
huUve particles; and here it will be well to illustrate their use by several 
examples. They were all originally demonstratives, excepting sd, and the two 
first may be looked upon as equivalent to our s with an apostrophe, which 
appears to be only a contraction of Atf, iU, or here * ; the last — ed — contains 
the notion of ' place.' 

* l^oe the above whs written we have met with the following extract from a native 
author on the ■abject: ^Fdn yin eki M 'Whenever chi is expressed/ ^wU yiu »d ehi 
'there is a thing pointed out/ ^$3^ yti» f d ihU 'there is an affair connected with it/ 

%^Z^ '■'^iiBim '^^BfW, 


Q ^ <{ is used only in mandarin and in the novels. . After a noun it pro- 
duces the genitive case, after a verb it makes the participle, and after a sen- 
tence it must be construed into the form of the relative clause : e. g. — 

hwdng-ti'H ^of the emperor/ hwdng-ti tl md 'the emperor's horse.* 

kwdng-shdng ' imperial/ hwdng-shdng-H ^ that which is imperial.' 

ehe-ko ski ngd tsd H ' this is what I made.' 

yiil tseii^flf yiU firti, ^ there are those which walk and those which fly/ or 

' some walk, otliers fly.' 
nd-kd ski t8dji lat tijtn Hhat is the man who came here yesterday.' 
kqnff^ng-H 'just waiting,' or 'who was just waiting.' 

412. With respect to the particle ehl ^>^, Dr. Morrison says, that in the 
ancient books it occurs in the sense of yU "t^, ski -^, ts^ tjv, i M^j 
cAt ^^, and fien ^^'. (See these words in the dictionary.) Its original 
meaning was the same as cAf ^ ' to proceed, to go to,' or as a demonstrative 

M * ■* 

particle, ' that' or ' thi&' The meanings of all these words run into each other. 

Compare the notion in ck% ^- as a particle to form the superlative ; it signifies 

' to proceed to the extreme,' or ' that / e. g. ckir^ijk ' that good thing or person,' 

/MM* eaoodlffnct^ therefore ' the best' Although the characters ^7^, jH^, ^^ , 

^ . are difierent, the ideas first attached to them were probably the same, 

and perhaps the sound too, for cAi, tszy ski^ chi are all cognate in sound. As 
the Chinese language became more analytic, the characters were invented and 
diversified, and words (by which syllables merely are intended), which had at 
first but one primitive meaning, came to receive special significations in cer- 
tain connections, and, as a matter of course, distinct characters to represent 
them. Examples of the uses of cAi * : 

jin chl let 9d Um-gai /^ ^ V^ f^ ^ w" men, as to those things 
whidi they love.' (T&-hi5.) Here chl^yH £^ 'with respect to.' 
Cf Classics^ vol. I. p. 233. 

chltsi yU kwei ^ ^- ~jp |^.* ' this girl is on the return to her hfuthcmd^s 
house.' (Shl-kmg.) Here chi=8hi ■^. Cf. Clcueice, vol. I. p. 236. 

' a yfi» «d wdng * there is a place which is Yimted ;' ^liin AU chl fit yi, — it is an expres- 
sion of connection and relation. See Dr. Morrison's Dictionary, vol. I. p. 34. See also 
the extiact given in the Introduction, p. zzi. 

* The references are to vol. I. of Dr. Legge's recently published work : The Chinen 
CUutiet, wiih a tramdaiion, eritical a/nd txegetieal notes, dtc. Boy. 8vo. H<mghmg, 1861. 
The author here wishes to acknowledge his indebtedness to this first volume, and to 
recommend it to the student of classical Chinese. The student may compare also the 
daasic usage of c&l " these,* com. » ' only,' and Ms ' to go to,' com. » < then.' 


Mting-i^ chl Ptng4ii ^ -J-* ^ ^ p^ 'Mendus went to Ping-UL* 
(ChiUig-jrftiig.) Here c4{=cAl 'to proceed to.' 

wi chl yiH y^ y^ ^?V -ra* Ijl ' there never was such a thing/ where cAi 

is merely euphonic, though in such a position it sometimes appears 
to represent the object of tiie verb yiil, 

413. C%l ^^ firequentlj stands after a verb, as a pronoun, the antecedent 

for which is either expressed or understood; e. g. S^ [j^ Q£ y^ 7^ 

hi6 ^/r shi tfi ehl^to learn and constantly to practice it»' vis. 'what you leani,* 

{LtMi^yii, nd inU,) Here th% is obfeeHv^, and occupies the same place as ted -4-- , 

in the Shanghai dialect^ after verbs. There Ui is looked upon as a euphonic 
particle, and chi in the books, when in this position, is probably nothing more, 
or merely like it in some English phrases (c£ *' Thu* e8 hmiey^ in the Prologue 
to Goethe's Faud). The following is an example of two uses of ehl; ist, as 

a verb ; 2nd, as a euphonic partide, as that just referred to : c£ kU^-iM /A \ 

'a long time past* 

yvd M 4^ chl^h^^i wH tad o:| ^^ 7m | J^ | gS ^S 'from 

this place proceeding is called tad* (' road'). The y^ is put in to 
separate the former <M from the latter more dearly, and to make 
the expression more rhythmical 

Ch^ used as the object, has also the effect of making tti j^ , which precedes 

the verb, the subject^ and prevents it from being the reflexive pronoun and 
object, which is conunonly the case : e. g. — 

eh'dng t9£ M chi '^ g ]^j- | ' he always shot them,' but 

ylntaHtsiking}^^ JJ jg ^ij 'with a sword he killed himsdf:' v. ^SbAoM. 
Chin, Sphr,, p. 80. 

414. Cfhi y^ is also mibjecUve, and used as such in the ki^-wqn for 

M ^^ ; e. g. £t^-c4i "^ \ ' the andents;' and it has the same effect as M 

(i. e. as a formative), and then it corresponds with tsi ^ in the colloquial 

idiom. In this way it occuis very fr^uently, and it must be considered dther 
as a formative or as a rhythmical or euphonic particle. 

415. Chi ^ is also an attributive partide, for it unites the whole sen- 
tence which precedes it, and makes the noun or verb to which it is afiized aa 
attributive: thxa^ thw6<hi ^"^ \ 'he who speaks, — ^the speaker or speakers;' 
kil-i^ 1^ I 'those of andent times, — the andents.' But although the 

attributive force may generally be referred to this partide, it will be needful 
to notice the other more conunon explanations of it 


Ch^ ^^ IB fireqaently to be regarded as a demorutrcUive pronoun^ and stands 

after words, as the article 6y 7, r6^ in Greek, stands before words^ to individualize 
or make special, particular persons, things, or expressions ; and most commonly 
where an explanation is about to be (^ven of the object thus specified. This 
explanation which succeeds, determines not only the meaning of that which 

precedes, but also the grammatical yalue of the word itself; e. g,jtn-€h^ ^^ \ 

would be either ^benevolence* or 'the benevolent/ according to the definition 
which followed : thus, 

jtn-M jtn yi A^, 3 ^A Hi * humanity is man,' (i. e. 'to fulfil all the 

demands involved in the human relations is to act as a man/) but 
jtn-M Id ahan A^_ \ ^^ {Jj 'the benevolent delight in the mountains.* 

So also the addition of the particle y^ jft or chl ^^ , between the verb and 

chlij separates the verbal notion, and causes the whole to form an abstract 
noun: thus, 

acmg'^hi AfT | * those which are bom or which grow, — the living.' 
sang^i M ' that in which growth is or consists, — life.' 

416. When in an explanatory sentence the subject is marked by chi being 
attached, and the explanation consists of several words, or includes a relative 

clause, another M often precedes the final particle yi 4f1 . It would be so 

in a sentence like this : ** Qod is the all-wise and beneficent creator and pre- 
server of all things." 

5(P lit I i^ S ^ # idl 

* He who does so will bring evil upon himself.' 

F^mare says that Ngau^dmjg ^f R3 used ch^-yt \ Bp for cM-y^y and 
also ahiny^ ^^ {f1 for the same, in conmion with writers of the first class ; and 
he gives one example which goes to prove that che ^^ and shi jp alike mean 
this or w, as we choose to render the sentence *. 
kH chl jtn yiU htng chl ch^, Wu-todng shi y^, 

'Among the andents there were those who did it, Wu-wang was one o/themJ' 

417. When chi is placed after a complete sentence the whole will form an 
abstract notion, or it will represent some particular action in an abstract point 
of idew : e. g. after the sentence ' the soldier braves death,' ch^ would make 
the whole to signify * the soldier's braving death/ which might form either the 

* Cf. note OD page lai. 


subject or the predicate of a new sentence. 'Alexander went to India^' fol- 
lowed by M, would become, ' Alexander's going to India.' Sometimes M 
follows two clauses, as in this example : 

t'iaU'chi ltod^n-p*6 chi, hdf Siunrtsk 

a in ^ n # n 

< The cracking of the reed, and the breaking of the egg, how {»UV 
(The nest was well formed and strong, but the support was infirm : c£ The 
house built on the sand.) 

TaH'Shan eing chi, Fang Wd /dn chi, 

^ ^ t4 ^ m Si ^ -^ 

' The principles of Yau and Shun were perverted by T'ang and Wu.' 
c&i - <Ai - chi, pA j& haa -chi- chi, 

P Z S T^ :^ ^ i 

' Knowing it is not like loying it,' or ' those who love it are better than those 
who know it' 

418. Chi frequently serves only to mark the subject of the sentence, and 
to separate it from the predicate : e. g. — 

kiun-tak Utd ekd, son. C£ Chrest 3. e. 13 — 23. 

' The piindples of the superior man are three.' 
k'd-ehi, yil chi; k't pa k'd-chi,k'tl dO, 

^ I ^ i K T^ hT I *M i 

* With those who are worthy, treat; those who are unworthy, reject' 

419. Chi appears to stand like chi ^ , for the object of the verb, and after 
the predicate, in the following examples (cf. Art 413) : 

Ju hd-toei chif ^ -j^ ^ I 'but how are you to do itl' 
Chung-m pU - wet i »htn chi 

' Chung-ni never went to excess.' 

420. The use of chi ^ does not date so early as that of chi ^^. It ia 

rarely, if at all, to be found in the ShU-king and the most ancient classics, but 
it is very common in the S£^U and all later classical writings. It is some- 
times di£ScuIt to give any definite signification to chi, but if the student will 
bear in mind that it unites the whole clause and makes it participial, as when 
the is prefixed to a clause in English, or ^ 17, n$ in Greek, he cannot be very 
far from apprehending the notion which the passage conveys. 

421. The remabing particle ad Jm, which originally signified 'place,' 


perhaps ' that place/ has been classified with attributive particles, because it 
often has the force of the relative pronoun, and the relative clause is undoubt- 
edly an attributive clause. The common rendering of ad is ' that which, what / 

nl 9d yiU '[yj Jm "^ ^tohat you have.' This character, like c^, appears 

to have been seldom, if ever, used in the ancient books, though common 
enough in the later classics of Confucius and his disciples : e. g. in the SisMi 
(4. c. 23), ad toef kilirhwd M * the kingdoms which are called ancient,' or, as 
is said in English, ' tohat is called an ancient kingdom is &c.' Again (4. 1. 15), 
. ,/%jtn ad ndTig y^' not wh(U men are able to do,' and (4. d. 17) at-chi ad 
iHn, kinji p& chi k'i tvdng y^, ' the former ministers whom you advanced, 
to-day you are not cognizant of their loss.' 

sd-ioei hd aif fi)f ^ ^D[ ^ lit 'that which he is doing is what busi- 

neaaV=::wh(U ia he doing f (B.) 
sd-kien pH ahu jyi' ^I J|^ y ^ ' our opinions {the viewa which toe take) 

are not diverse.' 
p'% k"t ad-pHrwei \i^ ^ J^' ^' ^ * to slander is what he will not do.' 

422. There are several phrases into which this particle enters; e. g. ad-l 

Jpfr Yjy * the means by which,' is commonly translated * therefore :' ^^ Jph' 

kirad 'several which, a good many, some.' The following formula should be 
remembered, and the classical scholar may observe that it accords with he 
Greek expression for the same form with two negatives : 

wH ad-pHrndng ^ ^' ^^ Qg lit. 'there is nothing which he could 
. not do,* =onmipotent. 

w4 ad-pHraiing ^ | | }^ 'there is nothing which they would not 

have given,' or ' which they would not give ;' and this corresponds 
exactly with the Greek of Demosthenes, ovK-<<rO* S-ri ovk cdtdoa'av: 
V. Dem. de Coroni, Reiske 261. 

II. Connective parttdea, 'JjK yi, Tm 4^, ^Q^ yi4, T4* ping, «fec. 

423. Characters which may be called connectivea in Chinese are rather 
numerous, but they cannot be designated as simply copidoUive, for they gene- 
rally convey some accessory notion. The above however are the common 
equivalents for ' and, also ;' and they imply an addition of something to the 
previous clause. We must consider each separately. 

424. Yi IJK, 'also,' generally comes se<x)nd in the clause, and then, like 
mil in Greek, it means ' even' or ' indeed :' e. g. — 

p&yiy&hitf'j^ "^i ^^ .^ ' is it not indeed pleasant r(«^U7d is here used 
for 1^ yti) Chrest. 3. d. 17. 

pUyildhil? I ^fe ^S ^. 'is it not indeed enUveningl' Chrest. 3. d. 25. 

u 2 


jhi, Chlng wdng, Taz yi yiH pU II yh^ 

^ iP d ^ * 'ft- ? 5fi] 15 

' Yea» if Ching were lost, Tsz indeed would not have any advantage.' 

And in many expressions it is simply intensitive : e. g. — 
pi p& hoilf ts^ yi pa ha^f 

' That is not good, this too is not good.* 
Phrases yi-k'd ^ p^ and yi-haik \ ^7 are terms of assent^ = Weill Good! 

425. [j^ 4^* 'and, and yet, and then, but, and consequently,* is commonly 

used as a connective particle, but sometimes it has an illative force, and some- 
times it is merely euphonic. It should be observed, however, that it never 
connects substantives : e. g. — 

hd \ ahl Jci pa taai 4r M chi 

' Whereby shall I know his want of talent and reject him?' Chrest 4. e. i, 
also 3. e. 26. and Art. 439. 

kiTig Hng ^r hi chi ^^ Kp m ^B ^ < he awoke in a fiight, and then 

played with him.* (Ohrest. 21. g. 19.) 
pU Id ahhh'ta'dt 4^ wdng k*t kwd, 

T: I # ^ iM C ^: H 

^ He delighted not in virtuous principles, and so he lost his kingdom.* 
It is joined with tai^ in the following example : 
^r-isi^ jl pin [j^ El M '^k ' and moreover he daily grew poorer.' 

And it is euphonic in the following apodo8ia : 

..^r-hwctngyUjinhH/Tfit ^Jf j^ /^ J^. '..much more as r^;ards man!' 

426. The difference between yid 7^ and yi >Tr^, each of which means 

'also,' seems to be that the former has a more purely connective foree, and 
often stands at the beg^ning of a clause, though it does sometimes take the 
second or third place with the signification ' again :' e. g. — 

yi4 fffi fiwi pU led "t7 yj^ ^& ^^ pT ' and it is not yet considered 

Jcilmg-pd yiil shi chi - Hmg-hwd - n 

' I fear that he will again say one thing and mean another,' lit ' point to the 
east and talk about the west.' . 


yia ehi - shi tiaU, ping jril ahwd - cA*t2 eh'dng-twdn, 

* Again he only smiled, and uttered nothing for or against/ (lit 4ong or short*) 

In the following example, which is purely idiomatic, yid is repeated, and may 
be rendered ^then' or 'and then:' 

^ T I *T JT T I E 

' Having scolded, then he beat; having beaten, then he scolded.' 
This form of expression is admired by the Chinese. Cf. Chrest litho. Sdry-kwd, 
II. c. 7, fan-kiin, pi hd, hd kiU pi /an. 

An intensifying form is Icdn-UaU yiH Udffk ^^ j^ | ^^ 'having looked 
he looked again :' v. HaiirlcvCL chmJh^ 1 1. £ 13. 

427. Tin ^C is also used where yiil 'PS or shi ^^ might be looked for, 
as in the two following examples : 

fu'chUbng yiH ki; Hn - hid yid k\ 

8t t \ m A^ T I M 

* In his belly he had hunger ; in his heart he had wratL' 
te*i, yid iii 'pd ' tS; tdd, yid tdd-pd - tSy 

* As for refusing, he could not refuse ; as for accepting, he could not accept' 
Tid must here be left untranslated, but it corresponds precisely with the col- 
loquial usage of «AC ' to be,' which means ' it was thia^ in such expressions. 

kwdnyid had, hid yid fuy 

' His office was high, his fiunily was wealthy.' 

428. When yid ^^ is repeated thus in two parallel clauses, it may occa- 
sionally be construed by * neither' and 'nor :' e. g. — 

t66 yid pd gdn, U yid pd ning, 

' He could neither sit nor stand with comfort' 

For several examples of the use of this particle the student may refer to the 
Chrestomathy : 9. i. 8; 9. k. 2; 10. j. 2; 10. L 6; and elsewhere. 

429. Ping ++ (also very commonly iTJp, and formerly J^)> which 

properly signifies 'two standing together,'— ' together with, in union with,' 
is used as a simple copulative conjunction in the style immediately above the 
ordinary colloquial In the Sdn-kwd ehiy for example, ping and yid are used 
together : (see also the first example on this page, where pd follows ping.) 


yiii ping fi yU Hdn ^ \ /\^ "+ y|| 'and together united in Han :' 
v. Sdn-kwd chi, Chrest. litho. ii. d. 9. 
And on the same page at a 21. ping is used alone in a similar sense. 

Fing-w used as an intensifying particle before a negative; it then signifies 
'even, indeed, forsooth' (cf. the use of xai in Oreek): ping-pUrM 'no, 
forsooth 1' 

ping wH-iodng TJp ffll. k^ 'utterly hopeless.' 

430. Fifig sometimes means ' both/ as in these two examples : 

tsie^mi pifig mei 0^ hit TTp ^^ 'the (elder and younger) sisters were 

both alike beautiful* 
lait - yiii plng-kiai nd - hid 

' The old and the young were both alike seized.' 

Like many other words in the same category, ptng enters into several phrases 
to signify the whole; e. g. yi-plng 'one and all.* 

Phrase : ping-kien 7(u ^ ' together with.* 

431. Kien f^ is commonly used in official papers for ' and, together with :* 

Ptng 'pd, Shdng-ahU; kien Tu-ehd-yuSn, yid Tu - yd' shl, 

:ft ^Pta # I SP * P« :* SM* ^ 

'Of the Board of War, President; and of the Metropolitan College of Cen- 
sors, an Imperial officer.* 

The following belong to a higher style of composition : 

kien ^ yiit <^^ w jm ^JeT ^^ * altogether to have them.* 

ktente^if"^ I jQ^ . ^g ' both these meanings.* 

432. K*i l^, 'together with,' is used like kien in the official style of 
composition for ' and,' and generally as a copulative conjunction : e. g.— - 

ffiSnrUng k'i EiS-tat ^$ .<^ | [^^ i^I 'the Worshipful the Mayor, 
and His Excellency the Commandant.' 

433* ^d^ F| ' moreover, and,* is used as a conjunction, and also means 
sometimes 'now' or 'anon,' and 'still, then,' kc. It also enters into several 
adverbial phrases. But it is not frequently found in the colloquial style. 

nl chi sid hwd tM mdn shwd 

i^ ^ !!S iS I ii %k 

* If you say this, then speak deliberately.' 


id^ *•« t8U tseit ^ ^g Jl^ ^ 'anon visiting and running.' 

yA, tM lai^, mat Hen ^ | ^ ^ ^ *I, being then an old man^ 
bought a field.' 

434. Tsid al£M> seems to be a common prefix to the imperative sentence : 
e.g. — 

SiSng-kungf tM pA yaH VH! 

ffl ^ I I g ^ 

'I^ib! do not weep!' 

tsiit, tM/Hng-hid ^p | j^^ "|^ < as for the wine, do desist' 

'Just look at the following chapter for explanation.' 

435. Tsi^ is firequently redundant at the beginning of a clause : e. g. — 
tM JcSn t'd taqng-tl ^ ^ ^^ ^ ^4/ '^^^H tow he is.' 
UiimdOMdt'al I ^ g^ ^{{1 'now, do not speak to him!' 
taa chi^'d I ^ j"]^ 'I only fear indeed.' 

Phrases: hwdng-tM ^jf | 'so much the more:' 4^-iM mt | 'but yet, 
and besides:' ckS^td^ Gr^ | , at the end of sentences, ' only' or 'alone' 
(B.) : td^-Juod is the regular phrase at the beginning of a new chapter 
in novels for, ' the story goes on to say' (c£ Chrest. 17. a. 6) ; and ^p | 
JM-dwody ' to return to the story' (cf. Chrest. 17. m. 22) : jfK \ kShtM, 
hn I kmSfirtM, both mean ' then, the case being so :' kdt^tM '^^ \ 
'carelessly;' tsi^-Ju \ ^ 'now, farther;' taai-tM S, \ 'again.' 

436. Ki 7^ and Kin ,^, which have been spoken of in Art 407. 6, 7, 

as verbs acting the part of prepositions, also stand frequently as conjunctions. 
This might indeed be expected, inasmudi as with frequently stands for and 
in our own language : a g. — 

lUnjtnmd^n A^ ^ 'men and horses.' 

Tiffd Uin nl ^> jy q^J * I and you' or ' I with you.' 

ngdkijH J ^ J^^ ' I and you.' (B.) 

ki/ung Chau-sien., ^ ii ^J| ffi^ 'and being appointed governor of 

Corea,' . . 
Other examples may be seen in page 139, Art. 407. 


jrt% it , . togeOier with,' is alflo n«Mi in the «me Bense and mumer. 

437. The paitide y^ Hi , whidi will be more folly discussed in another 

place as a final particle of assertion, is used very frequently in the style of 
conversation for and, aUo, and stands at the beginning of the clause; or for 
^ven, indeed, as an intensifying particle, and then it stands immediately before 
the word whidi it afiects : e. g. — 

ngd yi t'ilng nik"4^ {{j^ |gj 'f ^ ^ * I also will go with you.' 

tnH yi-ki y^-ffO-ndng KHf ^^ — ' ^'j {& i ^ ^ 'then you could 
not even stay ten minutes!' Chrest. ib. o. 4. Comp. Art 364. 

438. The particle yu ^ is used at the beginning of the sentence for now, 
as a particle of transition, like then (c£ ifbfi in Oreek) : e. g. — 

yuTszchtk'til-€htyi..f^ ^ ^ ^ | ^ 'now the Master's seeking,'.. 

JujtTirch^yU&yi I /^ ^^ X4 I 'now benevolence is just kindness.' 
fa hMiiSrM, t*%en chl king, ti <M i, mtn cht htng y^, 

* Now filial piety is (what accords with) the order of heaven, the sentiment 

of earth, and the conduct of the people.' 

fa jin yiH 4t hid cht,ckwdng4r yU htngchi,., 

* Now when a man has leamt any thing in his youth and being grown wishes 

to practise it,'. . (Cf. Clnrest. 4. L 25.) 

439. At the end of a sentence Ju is merely expletive, or a mark of ex- 
clamation : e. g. — 

md ngd chl y^Ju/ ^ H ^ ilL ^ '»^ o^« ^^™ »»©•' 
ndngkaH Vi mH 4r hid Kt 4r M, fl t'ien yl-fa! 

gg it? K a I T 8 ¥ S ^f=- X i * 

' He who can exalt his eye and depress his ear is no other than heaven ! ' 

IIL Ajfflrmaiive pcvfiides, 

440. The common form of aflSrmation in Chinese is the repetition of the 
principal verb used in the question : e. g. — 

Q. ni 2af m6 ^ 'are you coming?' A. ^1 ' I am coming.' 
Q. t*%ng ngd ti ahwd-hwd m6? 'do you hear what I sayl' A. t*%ng-kiin' 
liai^ ' I have heard.' 

The simple assertion or affirmation of any &ct is generally expressed hjshi^ 
'it is so, it is the truth.' 


441. Bnt in the book style the particle of acquiescence or affirmation is 
j^ im' ^^^^ '^^y stand at the beginning of a sentence or alone. At the 
b^inning of a sentence j^^ may mean ' it was thus :* e. g. — 

jen SUng-jtn yii^ m\n ^i^ ^ /^ V^ j|9 ' it was thus that a man in 

the Sung dynasty was grieved.' 

When J^ follows an adjective or a verb it is a formative particle, and helps to 
make an adverb. (Cf. Art. 238. /9.) 

Phrases: i^nn^dtl | ^^ 'afterwards,— then.' (Chrest. 4. £ 30.) 

**^^ ^ I '^^ ^* ^ *^^-' (C^'^est. 9. b. 18.) 
tsi^Sn ^ I 'certainly.' 

em-jin ffi|[ | 'although it is so.* 

idirplr^ ^^ J/\ I *not necessarily so.' 

te^'^ ^hh I n^ I * of itself,'—' sud aponte: 

44a. Z^ )n is a very common particle of affirmation, and stands at the 
€SDd of sentences with the sense of 'forsooth, it is true,' attached to it : e. g. — 
I - wei ndng shing k*t jin y^ 

vi^mm % a la 

' Because you would consider it sufficient for the purpose.' (Chrest. 4. L 2.) 

ft jin ad ndng y^ ^p /^ 0r wg | 'it is not indeed what man can 

do.' (Chrest. 4. 1. 5.) 
Meilt U ujiin-ck'U'chl, UA tax y^I 

' M. with force dragged it out, and behold it was his ^nfe!' 
fodng-ydng pd - la4lf v^ we^ cki y^, 

' Though the sheep is lost) it is never too late to mend the fold.' 

Jd seems to be used in sentences conveying an assertion, whether affirmative 
or negative, and it helps to affirm the truth of each respectively. 

443. Sometimes y^ merely creates a pause in the sense of the passage, 
or makes a division of the members of the sentence itself: e. g. — 

k*i yhi y^ ahen nl g rfl ^. * his words are good.' 
hiaH 'H' y^ ' M Vi w^ jtn chi p^n y& ! 

' Filial piety and fraternal love, — ^these are the sources of benevolence!' 


Phrases : wi ckl yvU y^ yj^ ^ >fct ijl ' there never was such a thing/ 

t^ chl toei y^ jH' ^^ ^B Ht * this is the meaning.' 

444. Y^ is sometimes used after proper names, especially when the name 
consists of a monosyllable, and when it seems to require some expletive to 
support it It also stands as an expletive at the end of an answer to a 
question: e.g. — 

Yi4 y^ ^ {{|^, K*va y^^ {[J,/ Yiu, K'iu (names of philosophers).' 
Kd-Ml piirJc^^I p^ S^^ 3^ p^ JJI^, *Mayhe1 He may not!' 
yiiHrhH? uA^iHry^ I 7^ ^. y^ 7^ | ,' Is there any) There is notl' 

Y^ is found as an adjunct with M .-^, cA^-yd and y^-ch^ (c£ Arts. 415 and 
416); also with fH ^^, y^-Ju (cf. Art 439); and vrith toai §1/, y^-tsal; 
with yu J^i, y^-yu; with i p^, yW; and with yi j^JJ, y^i. 

445. Yen j^ is found either at the beginning, in the middle, or at the 

end of sentences. At the beginning it is an interrogative particle; in the 
middle it marks a pause in the sentence ; and at the end it has an affirmative 
or assertive force^ and has sometimes the value of a mark of admiration. 

Juyinyiiisdl? ^ J^ T^t J^ ^^ 'now what was there to rest upon 1' 

shd ki yhh yUngniH tad? ^^ ^P ^ ^J d^ ^ *in killing a fowl 
why use an ox knife)' 

pa ndng k'dng shin, yin ndng k*dng tsung ? 

^^ ^11 Aj ^ M ^ fC "M 

' Not being able to screen myself, how can I screen my kinsmen)' 

kiun tai ch% kw6 jH ji * yU chl .^Ai yhi! 

< The good man's errors are like the eclipses of the sun and moon ! ' (i. e. they 
are but partial obscurations.) 

446. The particle i ^^ is commonly ^/Sna^, either at the end of a clause or 
of a sentence. 

Mngpijin ^^% jj/^ ^^ I 'I think it must be so.' 

jtn i 4f^p'^ /Jl\ ^g jjjj p I 'humanity and justice, and nothing else' 

wd wi chl-chl ^ ^ tJc ^P ^ J *I do not yet know it.' 


tad - cht pU - htfig y^ vrA chl - chl I 

* That principles are not followed I know it,' (i. e. the reason) = 
' I know why right principles are not acted npon.* 

447. The particle \ closes the predicate of an affirmative or of a negative 
sentence, but it most commonly ends an affirmative clause or sentence. 

T^ Ig seems to be preferred for closing a negative sentence, though it is often 

found at the end of an affirmation. The following two examples will illustrate 
this : (i) E*t toei-jtn y^ hiaH-ti (pr ha/d-fdmrshdng^Mf ateriA, * those who, with 
respect to men, show themselves dutiful, both as sons and as younger brothers, 
and yet like to resist their superiors, are few.* (2) PH hiil-fdmrkhd/ng (pr ha/d 
is64wdn ch^, toi-ehl-yiH y^, * men who dislike resisting superiors, and yet like 
creating rebellion, are not to be found:' (v. Chrest. Si-ahUj Z^w-yi2, 3. d. 13. 
ei seq.) This particle % stands in the following affirmative sentences vrith the 
force of the Greek particle ircp, implying the reality of what is asserted : 

wA pi toei ehl hid I El ^j^ gS ^^ JS^ | ' I must call him learned.' 
(Chrest. 3. j. 24.) 

/H si ^r-\ ^J JW ]Hr I * not merely to be aimed at.' (Chrest. 5. h. 13.) 

. . ^ kw6 toei \ rtff ^ ^M* I ' . . and the country will be in danger.' 
yUng^chl wH iH 4^ taat U kioei I 

m Z % J^- M it 4 E I 

' Use them without measure and your means will soon be exhausted.' 
yi yiU jtn ' i 4^-1-1! 

* ^' -t'. ^ M £ I 

* Surely there are benevolence and justice, and they are sufficient!' 
wd u^ chl hd y^ ' I -- I 

* I have nothing more that I can do.' 

448. The combinations of the particle I S^ with other particles are many, 

and the signification and force of each particular combination must be sought 
for in the passages where they occur. They will generally assist in strength- 
ening the assertion, or in intensifying the expression if it be an exclamation. 
Such are the following : 

Combinations: l-hUI \ 1^.. jen-l ^^ \ . 

dr-l^ I . h6-ij\ij 

X 2 


449. The two last examples in Art. 447 will serve to Olostrate the use of 

) p-l as a particle of affirmation^ or rather of assertion. It properlj signifies 

'ahreadj done' (c£ Art 194); and, as a particle, it adds to the force of the 
statement to which it is appended : e. g. — 

tai yi 4^ fill — ' Iffj I 'just one and no more.' 
«oi chl f/^-l I J^ Ijl I * do not go there at all.' 

pH tsU kwdn y^-i ^J^ J^ ^0 I I ' ^^^ ^^ ^ worthy of notice.* 

450. But in the following example ) conveys its own proper meaning 
simply: e.g. — 

l-M/ \-MI I ^ I $ 'Have done! hayedonel' or 

\'4r! \r^l I n'J I ]jj| 'Enoagh! enonghl' or 'No more! no more!' 

Combinations: 14 | £. Also ^^4 kJ |. 

\-M I ^, and 

l-\r-M I I ^, or 

H:/S I I ^. 

451. Particles are accumulated with \ in the two sentences following: 
wil ktS chl hd yh " \ " \ 

' I have not indeed any thing left that I may do.' 
ji ' ytl cki yhi 4^ I I 

' They continue for a day or a month, and no more.' 

4r'\ produces the equivalent for the English expression ' nothing else to do 
but,' in some sentences : e. g. — 

wd fang-sin 4t^ tft '%% ;[V Im p, ^^^^ ^^Y ^^'^ courage' (lit. *let 
go heart'), which might signify, 'you have nothing else to do but to 
banish sorrow from your heart,' drc 

CkOrKi yirjtn 4rA! ^ % — 'All *Chtt-hi, a man, and 
that's all!' (See Schott's Chin, Sprach, p. 132.) 

452. The double negative forms of expression md-/% k^i ^E':, m6-p^, 

and trt^/t flff | , each give the force of an affirmative particle, and therefore 

the examples to illustrate them may come fitly in this place. They usually 
bear the signification of 'surely.' Compare the following examples : 


m»-fl tsidrahi tdrjl ydnghien-t'dng H Ti t'tng-s&ng m6/ 'Why, surely, it 
is the very Tl who forcibly entered the summer palace!' HaH-JciH 
chuhi, Chrest lo. d. 12. 

ngd md ' ft shwd^hwdng pH-cKingf 

* I surely do not lie at alll' 
fnd'/l M t'd kUn-liaiH hweit 

8 # « -fi a T ^ 

' Surely he has seen a ghost 1' 

* In the empire there was not one unconscious of his beftuty T 
wA'/l hiaU'ehi t'ien-hid (M I 

'filial piety alone he considered to be the means of ruling the empire.' 
Chrest SMng^, 6. b. 17. 

453. The expression ndn4a4 || ft ^a, lit. * hard to say/ has a force similar 

to the preceding. Ndn-ta^ is however common only to the lower style, 
while md-fty md-pU, and v^/l belong especially to the higher class of com- 
positions. In the Ha/dnJciil chu^ and the ShMill-hil chuJhi we find ndn-tot^ 
fireqnently, and it is generally followed by a negative. The n^^tive in nd/n-kvd^ 
with this negative particle, combine to form a strong affirmative : e. g. TiSn- 
tad pitrj4 kiirjln/ ' Surely they are as good as the ancients I* Chrest 9. 1. 8. — 
ndn-iad iai-hiwng hicdft^-piirk^^ng fiiir-tailng ! 'Surely, Sir, you are not still 
unwilling to comply with my request!* Chrest. 9. e. i. 

fiAnriaiiigiilpdrUaii! ||p ^' ^(^ §S J ' Surely this is not all though ! ' 

454. PHrcKing "i^* j^ is added as a particle at the close of sentences 

which begin with any of the above combinations — md^fly md-pH, wH-fl, and 
ndn-taii. If ptt-ch'ing were added to the last example, it would mean, 'Surely 
this will not be the end of it !' (See an example with piinXing in Art 452.) 

ndn^iad M ^ki^-H p&rcKtngt ' Surely it cannot be all fidsel' 
ndnrta&shingd fing^b-Ua^^ piircKing I 'Surely I did not hear incorrectly!* 
fnd-pA ki4iai3k^ ngd p&rcKivig! ' Surely he will not exactly eat me!' 

Nl'Shwd 4^ g^ and n\ri(»d 4^ ^ may be r^^arded as initial particles 
of the same kind, and may be construed in a similar way. 

mS "m "^ 


IV. Negative pcvrddeSj T?\ pi^y ^1/ f^y y/] ««2^> -S* fe^^ Ac. 

455* Negative particles in Chinese are namerous and of distinct classes ; — ; 
there are direct or absolute negatives, such as pH andyt2, kc, ' not;' and there 
are prohibitive and conditional negatives, such as wA, md, &c., ' do not ;' and 
others, which wnpl^ a negation, such as wH and mUy &c., ' without.' 

456. The particle pA X\ stands before the word which it negatives. It may 

be placed before a verb, an adjective, or a noun. Before a verb it is a direct 
negative, but occasionally prohibitive, and often means ' cannot ;' before an 
adjective it has the same effect as tm-, t7»-, in tmkindf insincere; before a noun 
it denies the existence of the object, or the amount of duration, if it be a noun 
of time. It also enters into several adverbial phrases. The force of two such 
negatives should also be noticed. 


pU I pdng^il wei Uftng 'you do not take friendship as a motive.' Chrest. 9. b. 2 2. 
siaHt-ti yipHj^n yhh leU ' I cannot bring myself to speak of going.' Chrest. 
9. a. 26. 

pA Kd pA hwiii "^^ PJ y^ '@' 'you could not dispense with meeting 

him,'= ought not to miss meeting him, Chrest. 10. d. 6. 
So also pA4i-pA signifies ' cannot be avoided,' = miM^ : e. g. — 

pA-4%-pA led ^3>^ A^f ^3>^ ^^ ' I cannot avoid going.' 

pA-f/iUng-pA jUrts^ | ^^ [ yjfl iH^ ' it cannot be otherwise.' 

This force of two negatives exists only when an auxiliary verb accompanies 
the principal verb. When two different verbs are each affected by pA, the 
expression means ' neither — ,^ * nor — :' e. g. — 

pA-fnpA'hdn Jj^ hJT Jk ^) ' neither fiekmished nor starved.' M4>ng-4sz, 

But pA tv^ pArid I I '^ I ^^ I signifies ' cannot be considered few,' 
pA4dy ' not many,' forming an adjective, in one word, — few. 

457. The position oi pAm many colloquial expressions, in which it nega- 
tives the verbal notion, is between the principal verb and its auxiliary or the 
word which conveys the notion of its action having taken effect : e. g. t^ing- 
pA'Jdhh 'I do not hear' (i. e. so as to understand); mienrpA4iaA (28. k. 27) 
' cannot avoid,' lit. 'avoid not finish ;' pHrtiii (29. L 24) is a complete sentence, 
' it does not agree,' = it is not n^A^,— said of a time-piece. 

458. After some words it enters into adverbial phrases, and may be occa- 
sionally construed by ' vrithout :' e. g. — 

sidng/dng pAryin • . ^0 ^^ ^ §^ 'for good friends to meet without 
drinking . .' Chrest. 8. 1. 12. 

siail-ti Slit pA-tsat • • > h ftj ^1 | yf' ' although I am without talent . .' 
Chrest. 4. e. 5. 



pH'kid ^^ ^i 'unexpectedly.* 

(8. n. I.) 

pHr^jDet I j^ * not only/ in op- 
position to yl-tai^ 
Jrfi ^/ but also.' 

pU-pien I aW * inconvenient.' 

(8. g. 20.) 

piSrhwS I ^1^ 'only.' 

pdr-yaH I ^ 'do not' (noK). 

shaU-pU'ti ^h I ^^ 'soon.' 
(9. o. 18.) 

l^hrases: pH-naU ^^ J'q 'needless.' 

(10. i. II.) 

pSraiaii \ ^ 'degenerate.* 

pilrchung \ W^ < insincere.' 
(3. g. 20; 6. j. 19.) 

pHrshi I 0^ 'soon.' 

pH-kH I ti[U 'no great time' 
(before or after). (8. b. 20.) 

pA^ I M 'not a day,' or 
'not many days/ — soon. 

pO-ja I ^^ 'lawless.* 

459. Fa & is a synonym of pU ^, and^ like that particle, precedes the 

word which it affects, bat its use is less general than that of the latter. It 
occurs, however, frequently in classical writings. The following are two exam- 
ples from the Phimg-yilng : 

f&wAeklM^'^ >^ -^ 'I wiU not do it!' 
ski chl 4^ fA kien; fing chl ^r fA ii^n, 

'To look at them and see them not; to listen to them and hear them not.* 
I fA muxlim lei eki ahi yiH 

' Because he had not fulfilled his duty he was grieved.' 

460. WA ^7 is a prohibitive negative, and stands generally at the head 
of the sentence. It is found less frequently in the colloquial style than in 
that of the books : e. g. — 

wA wei yhh chl pA tsaU yhl 

<^i fii * ^ T^ ¥ lb 

'Do not say that I did not speak early about UI* 
fx Vi; wA - «Af, wA't^ing, wA^hi, wA4ungl Z4n-yu, 

# ii :^J if. ^ ii 1 S I 11/ 

' If improper, do not look at, or listen to, or speak of, or do it!* 
wAiodngtuA taA chd/ngy^! Chrest. 4. m. 18. 

* t ^ it ft & 

' Do not forget ! do not help things to grow!' 


wHMkiyunjin \ ^ p^ ^* /^ * don't neglect yourself and ^weed 
out other men's ^au^.' Canton Proverb. C£ also Chrest 2a. n. 23. 

461. FeU §y whidi is also read j>*6l and />*) with the significations ' wicked^ 
bad,' and 'to obstruct' (c£ the meanings of /i ^p)' ^ ^ negative particle, 
equivalent to 'no!' 'it is not so,' and is sometimes used interrogatively as a 
final particle. It is undoubtedly allied to /i in the ancient language. The 

examples of its use and its occasional meanings prove this. Thus Mrfl -^ | , 
lit. 'is^ not is/ =' truth — falsehood,' or 'good — bad;' an expression whidi 
might also signify ' is it so or not)' But we find shiifeh ]^ § ^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ 
this latter sense, ' is it true or fidse)' Other examples of its use as a negative 
particle are the following : 

ad yhh «oi thl ahi fi^ 

' What I say, I know not whether it be true or not' 
hiy Uli chmg ckl^ yilng chl;/eU, UH vm chl, ShU-king, 

*§ j8 * ^ * i I M j« e 

'If they repent^ recommend them and employ them; if not, overawe them.' 
Chrest. i. k. i. 

462. The word/i ^^ ' it is not' (opp. to flA$ jp ' it is') is a strong n^^tive 

particle, and often stands, just eapil^, like inseparable prepositions in com* 

pound words, in which a negative is implied: e.g. ftrH^ 'unreasonable;' 
/triirH 'irrational;' Jv-chdng-H 'uncommoni' 

ft t*ilng yHfiff^ \ |gj ^ ^ ' not alike easy.' 

/v-filmdtad I y^ S ^t 'do not unlawful things.' 

(Cf Art. 442 ; the second example. Compare also Chrest. 6. j. 5. et acq, ; and 
9. L 22.) 

463. F% goes with ^ in the same sentence, and unites with wA and m6 
to form strong affirmatives* (C£ Art 452 ; three examples.) 

f% Ca pit led I i A I ^{ * cannot do without him.' 

464. WH |m, which commonly means ' without,' is firequently used as a 
negative particle, and sometimes as a prohibitive — * do not' 

t*%enrahdng yii^, tirshdng wA ^F V\ y^ jfn V\ \ 'in heaven there 
is, on earth there is not' 

wdj4 Simg-jtnl \ ^^ y^ /^ ' do not like the man of Sungl' 
wAliy^ I y] ^p I ' there is no diiSerence.' 


Phrases: urtlji ^ Q 'not for a day at a time.* M^-tak = {pA-ji.) 
ioHrif I ^L 'wonder not! think it not strange I* 

465. Md w g^ ' do not ! ' when it stands alone, is prohibitive, and when 
joined with adjectives and yU tK it enters into several expressions for the 
soperlative degree : a g. — 

fnd-8ia4l Mo not laugh!' md-ehiwd/ < do not speakT 

md wlkng tnMaif ^ 4i ^ ^" *have no intercourse with!' 

md flAin yH tz \ ^^ '^ J^ 'nothing could exceed this.' 

m&idyil t*ien \ y^ "^ ^^ * nothing greater than heaven.* 

m&tdchl hOmg \ -^ ^ J 71 ' excellent merit' 

466. Wi ^^^ ' not yet, never yet/ supplies the place of the negative parti- 
cle in many expresrions: v. examples in Arts. 412 {voi ckl yiin, yi), 426 (ytil 
U3i wei pii-k*d), and 451 (wd vAehlhd yd44). And sometimes wi at the close 
of a sentence produces an interrogation : e. g. — 

$hw6 liaii y^ vii? g& j ill y^ 'have you spoken, or not yetl' 

467. Hia i4^, 'to cease,' and hiii^ail \ M are prohibit! ves, as are also 
fi ^IJ, ' to separate,' and pi-^aiL And ml W^^ a synonyme of ti^ ^ , 
and ft gg, a synonyme of/i 3B, are direct or absolute negatives : e. g. — 

m^ ml ehdng^chdng -^ JSs '^ ^W^ ' destiny is not constant.' 

i&Ufn% dtdng nB^ ^g R '^ 'his virtue is not constant.' 

ngdsvn/tM^^ J^ | ^ ' my heart is not stone.' 

"With mdy/l^nMy unhaa^ btU: e.g. — 
md iMfl k& ^^ ^j^ ^1 ^RT 'nothing is a purple red, if not wolvea' 

mJ6 hifx wQ I SS I J^ * nothing is black, if not crows.' 

468. WH ^^ very commonly has the force of the preposition 'without' 
(sine): e.g. urA-Uf't wr £ {sine t4aM>r6)=' a widower;' fc^te^ K -4— (sine 
pro/tf) =' childless ;' t^tt;/%l | ^/ (An6pa^)='fiitherle8s.' These expres- 
sions are all classical, and are to be found in the " Four books." So also 
w^irjin V ^l , which = 'nobody.' 

469. Seyend other words are found which serve the purpose of the negative 



particle. Such is ted yT\ the negative of existence, which is a synonyme of 

let yi wAfoLng '^T J^ | "^ * the increase of it has no bounds.* Yoking. 

470. Wdng T~, * to lose/ is also occasionally used in opposition to yi^ /jb|\ 
as the negative of existence, but this use of wdng is by no means common : 

M yiii, hd wdng? 'jBT 7^ ^n[ T*^ 'what had I, and what had I notr 

471. Wdng N is more conmion as a negative, and it is frequently found 
as such in the Shu-king: e. g. — 

heii ft min, wdng ehl; min f% hed^ wdng s£, ShU-king, 

^- ^^^ 1^ t S # ^ H $■ 

' If the prince be without people, he has no service; if the people be without 
a prince, they have no duty to perform.* 

wdng yiU taisim 7^ iH^ S. 'there is no such thing.' 

chij4 wdng w^nl !S ^^ | ^ ' act as if you did not hear!* 

472. In the following example it is followed by a negative, and then a 
strong affirmative is produced : e. g. — 

fdn-mtn wdng pH tiii R^ B^ & ^ gw 'among all the people there 
is no one who hates him not,*=dO0ry body hates htm. 

V. AdversoHve paHides, ^j'jj 4r, ^0 tdn, ^^ cA^, ^rS thdng^ Ac. 

473. The adversative particles include all words which, being used as con- 
junctions, imply opposition^ or the addition of something to the previous 

clause. Thp most conmion particle of this kind in the books is ^ ]jj] , which, 

however, has several other uses: (v. Art. 425.) Examples of its use as an 
adversative particle are very numerous. Thus in the Chrestomathy : ft Cd wH- 
y^i 4^^^ hai chl (5. a. 11), 'not only is it profitless, bui indeed it injures it.* 
Again, hiaiirti (pr hail-fdnrshdng-cki^ svhnri (3. e. 17), ' those who are dutiful 
and kind, and yet are fond of rebelling against superiors, are few.' And 
pt^n U, 4r tad sang (3. £13), 'let the first principles be established, amd then 
practical principles will arise.' In the Epitaph of Kirts^, — hwqn 4/r wdrsii^ 
Viii (pr pHrsi (2. k. 20), ' in obscurity, yet he was not depraved; in ruin, yet 
he sighed not in despair.' 

The particle ^, as such, does not appear to have been used in the ancient 
books, but only in those in and after Confucius' time. 

sha 4r pHtsd ^ jj^ ^ 4jp^ 'to compile, but not to compose.' 


tdn 4rpii yin )f^ ^ ^* 19^ ^tasteless, but not loathflome.' 
piSis£(pr H "^ j9 ]j|| ^^i *he does not think, and yet he obtains it.' 
pH - shdng ^ mtn JAuhhy pH nH 4^ mtn u>&i, 

^ 1: M M il; :^ S riff ^ iS 

* He gives no reward, and yet the people praise him ; he shows no anger, and 

yet the people fear him.* 

474. Tdn aQ 'but yet, but especially,' is a conmion adyersatiye particle 
both in the books and in the higher style of conversation. In the latter it is 
often joined with aAI ^^, and it frequently stands at the beginning of an 
independent clause, like but in English, as an expletive. In this sense it is 
joined with ekH Q ' only,' and it means 'simply.' It appears to be equivalent 
to dock, 'yet,' in Oerman, in such phrases as, — Setzen ne dock/ e. g. — 

tdn t86 friifiing! \ ^p ^3^ uj^ 'but sit down! don't fear!' and 

tdn shwd fHfimgl 'but speak! there's no objection!' 

In the Chrest. (9. b. 3), Uim chtodng \r8il ' hut (or only) every thing is packed.' 
And again (9. c 1 1), tdn-chi-Ai . . stands for 'but' or ' but only :' 
tdn ehi wd pdng-yiil Kd taking ^hU he had no friends whom he could invite.' 

Tdn h[ ' only, single,' and tan 1^ are frequently used for the above tdn 
* but> only : ' e. g. — 

tdn ehi kwdn hiJ^9hw6 S9 y\ {^ T^H g& ' but he only talks nonsense.' 

475. Cha M, 'only,' comes also into the category of adversative particles. 
It is often followed by ehi -^ in the lower classes of composition, in which 
it is more conmionly found than in the classics. 

Tl ^^, p*d j^j^, kwdn ;^\, and hail ij^ also follow chi and intensify it 
or add something of their own meaning to it. 

i^iw6'la% ehi » p*d ni pA sin 

sft * F> ta iii^in 

* 1 would speak, but I fear that you would not believe.' 
4ir - jin mH - /d ehiH - ^ kan t'd 

'The two men had no alternative biU to follow him.' 

chS Bdnrji teid lai \ ^ Q Sjfe ^ ' ^ ^" ^^^^ ^^® ^® ^^' ^"^•* 

T 2 


yhi-k^aH yen^Km^ eh6 ta6 p& ehly 

lg BB as 1 I 1« :^, ^ 

' His eyes were open to it, but he feigned not to know.* Cf. Chrest. 8. k. lo ; 

9. C. II. 

47 6. ChS-pd is the common phrase for ' I suppose, perhaps/ in certain 
clauses, and it is often used in ironical passages : e. g. — 

XT WB'^^^tf 

* I suppose there never was a man of genius in the world!' 
cJi^^d n\ kiin4iaiH kweH-liaibf ' perhaps you have seen a ghost I' 

477. Chi JH , 'to come to a point and stop,' is often used like cM, or per- 
haps for it, though sometimes chl is the more appropriate particle : e. g. — 

gai Al jH Aln, pH chl jH t8^ 

g* i ^ # :?C It: ^P ^ 

' He loves him as himself, and not merely as a son.' 

478. Wet \'^ (variously written pft and |ft) 'only, but/ and nol T^f 
' then, but,' and shdng ml 'yet,' are also used as adversative particles. 

w^kiw^ hang! f^ ^ f^ J^ '^ be exact and firm!' (i. e. 7.) 
In 2. n. 2. and 6. twi seems to be used in its original sense, — 'to consider.' 
nalcfCiiidrfiiTj y_j y^ ^^ 'tAen he issued his great law.' (2. 1. 20.) And 

na\ pi k*^JcU yU shirsH ... (9. L 15) 'but if one must needs scrupulously 
comply with the world's custom . . .' 

5A<fn^ yit^ ^ti^Tip^V toaC fo^ (i o. L 23) * 6t£^ we have a guest here from a distance.' 
nUn 8il%' la4l - mai, ahdng ndng chH - md, 

' Though aged and infirm, yet he can ride on horseback.' 

479. In addition to the above, many words are used as adversative particles 
in the various classes of composition, and each class often has its own peculiar 
words for this purpose. Examples of the uses of the following will be found 
in the Chrestomathy : ytn JJl for 'then' (8. e. 4 j 10. e. 25): taaH WL 'then' 
(8.C.11; 8.C.29); i^ttfn j^'then'(9.m.i8; io.a.21); tottf ^fc- 'then'(8.a.i6); 
««l^ 'forthwith, then'(i7.g.27; i7.n.2o); «rf^lj 'then'(2i.d.8; 2i.d.i4): 
also (3. k. 23; 4. a. 29); kid ^|3 'then, in the next place, but' (8. b. 1; 
17. m. 22; 14. b. 3). Cf. also 4r'tH jj^" ^p 'and then' (9. c. 18). 


480. Fang Jj y te*ai ^^, and nufn h^ (in offidal papers especiallj), 
with nl ^1^, king W, and tad ^fi], are all found in the sense of Hhen/ or 
' bnt then/ and may be looked upon as adyersatiye particles. The exact mean- 
ings of these words may be found in the Dictionary (Fart lY) ; and reference 
be made to the following passages in the Chrestomathy : (8. h. 2. — 6. e. 9. — 

II. k. 15. — 12. o. 18.) Compare also the uses of jtng "ill and jhi ^^, as 
adyersatiye particles. 

VL C(»u8(xHve particles, yX ^ hX **^» 13 ^' ^ ^^' *^' 

481. The causatiye particles take different positions, — ^being either first or 
last in the sentence, according as they are in construction or not with the 
other words of the sentence ; for sometimes the original signification of the 
word is considered, and then it is held in construction, though the rendering 
in English must be by a causatiye conjunction: e. g. in the Chrest. 9. b. 22. 
pd I pdnff^ii wei tHng ' for that firiendship is not your feeling,' or ^ since you 
haye no friendly feeling;' ) commonly means 'to take, to use,' as it does in 
this passage. 

482. The word I l^ 'to use, to take, — by,' is less commonly employed 

alone as a causatiye particle than as a yerb to stand for the preposition ' by, 
with.' As a causatiye particle it is often joined with some other word. 

It also shows ihe purpose or irUention, the iiistrumerU, the mea/ne or ccmse by 
u^Uchy and the reason why: e. g. in the Chrest lUyU shi (2. h. 15) 'in order 
to establish them in the world.' Again, tsin si i ping-ming (2. i. 23) 'to 
proceed to death by being regardless of life.' And mi-shin I tsan s£ (2. j. 10) 
' to bow down in order to presenre the ancestral rites,' and sang-jtn % eking 
(2. L 16) 'that the liying might become upright' In the folloMring example 
from the L4n-y^i, I may be translated 'the reason why' or 'the cause where- 
fore;' e. g. 'our master's affiibility, good-nature, courtesy, moderation, and defer- 
ence are the cause of his obtaining it' (i ti-chi) : (y. 3. m. 7 — 14.) 

HM shl h*i pO-tsaU (4. e. i) 'by what means shall I knowthat they are 

without talent r HM ^Sf \^ (4. j. 21) means 'for what cause or reason?' 

=:'in how far?' 

Coupled with shi ^ (y. 4. k. 28) it signifies ' for this reason.' 
Followed by W€fi ^^ (y. 4. o. 20) it means 'because.' 

In yu Ifx'U (19. b. 11) 'declared his intention of deposing and setting on 
the throne,* In 6. a 7. and 8. j. 14. i signifies 'in order to;' in 6. c. 2. and 
17. £ 4. it means 'witL' And numerous examples will be found of its use 
with the aboye meanings in different parts of the Chrestomathy. 

483. Yvd m ' origin, source,' when it forms the equiyalent for a causatiye 
particle, is found at the end of the clause : e. g. chiil let ching-ltodn chi yvA 


'if we examine into the causes of this disordered state of the goyemment:' 

(v. Chrest. litho. ii. e. 19.) But at the beginning of a clause it often means 

simply ' from.' 


pit ehl Jet yi4 35\ ^P Si OT * I know not the reason.' 

yi<^ Jiin \rki yuh^ pp| -jj^ Jpy^ 1^ j ^ * from the near even to the remote.' 

yia YaU Sh4n chinyQ ITOmg \ ^' ^: ^ ^ J"^ 'from Yau and 
Shun down to T'ang.' 

\4A and chiryU are the regular phrases for ' up to, even to' {u9qu6 ctd). 
Phrases: yiiln-yi4 ^M^ ^ or tiing-yitil, ^m \ ' the causes by which/ 

yiiirnl m ^JR * I permit you.' 

484. Yin ^n 'a cause, a reason,' is yariously used for ^because, therefore, 

when, and then :' e. g. yin jirshdn U*a\r^6 (litho. 1 2. b. 7) ' in consequence 
of that he went to the hills to collect medicinal herbs.' Yin p^nrchU M 
hail, t ahi Itng^tn (litho. 13. b. ao), 'as, in his native place, there was an 
influential military man, who, trusting in his great power, had ill-used people.' 
Yin kiSn sht-chdnff-tai mai ktvdn (17. L 30) 'when (or because) he saw that 
the ten Constant Attendants were selling the offices of state.' Chi fftn lot H 
taail (10. m. 16) 'only as I came early.' 

485. When yln n^, 'because,' stands at the beginning of the proicLns, sM 
f/\ VX ^^ ^ fix' '^^^^^^^ ^ ^^® corresponding word to b^;in the apa- 
doiis: e. g. ytnno^ t*d lai tl ch% sd-l md l*d, ' because he came late, therefore 
he scolded him.' Yin t*d pU lat, kM^ ngd pH-htcdn-hl, ' as he did not come, 
on account of this I was displeased' 

Phrases: yln hd t/tihir^ilf Q "iV^l ^^ ^ 'for what reason and cause?' 
ylnts^chlka \ iH^ J^ A v ' for this reason.' 
yln^o^ I ^'because.' yifirfftihi \ jp J? ' cause or reason.' 
yiUtr^n yii^yfiin 7^ Q ^& iS *it is providentiaL' 

It is joined with m^ ^|| 'to reyolye, to go in a circle,' and jing ^ n 'as 

before,' in the sense of 'to continue;' thus, — yvnraiiJifl^ and yln-jing mean 'to 
act as before, to be remiss, to follow routine merely ;' and are found in the 
Peking Gazette with these significations. 

486. It will be seen by the articles just preceding that yvihi ^fb also 
performs the part of a causative particle. It is similar in use to yvhh 
and the other causative particles, to which it is fi^uently united : e. g. — 

yttinp^n tsiii 6 \ ^ &H ^^ 'on account of our sin and wickedness.' 


ytihirU^ pH ytSrsin \ jjjj^ ^' ^^ ^^ * on this account he was unhappy.' 

yuin4ai jd-ts^ |^ ^ iftP ll[i ' "^^ *^ ^" ^^ original state.' 
ytn pa kd inn - M chl yvJen 

H T^ P. » j« e I 

* Because no regard was given to relativea' 
Phrase: yyhir4ed I A V ' reason, cause/ used as a noun. 

487. Kai ^r or 'j^g^ 'for, because,' must also be placed in this category. 

It always begins the clause to which it belongs. It introduces something to 
confirm or explain a declaration, like nam in Latin. 

hai Mmg-M ehdng-yiik pU Udng let inn M 

I ± f m t T^ # K iL # 

' For in ancient times they never buried their relatives.' 
kai pdn Idng-sdng chi pU todng 

I 2^ is 4 ife ^ s 

' For their origin, being bom of a wolf, they never forgot.' 
Xai-l I y)^ is found as a phrase, ' for this reason.' 

488. Ki 1^, which is an auxiliary verb for the past tenses (cf. Arts. 194, 

195), frequently marks the notion of causation, though the proper construing 
would be with being or having; and this may be turned into a clause beginning 
-m^ since (quo7damfOTHqmdem){d.C\^ e.g. — 

H mtng tM chi ^' i^ ^^ ^ ' since he is enlightened and become 

wise.' Shl-kmg. 

The absolute form of the sentence often necessitates this mode of construing : 
ihuft— cA^-(dn^ ' this rank,' chi^dng ' this sort,' when put absolutely, or as the 
proUuia of a sentence, convey either the hypothetical or the causal notion, 
and must be construed by ' if this is the state of things/ or * since this is the 
case.' (C£ ai. L i — 12.) 

VIL Conditional parHdes, ^ j^, j(Bi^> 'f^ ^P **^> &c- 

489. Conditional or hypothetical particles are such as introduce a condi- 
tional or hypothetical clause; as, jd ^^ 'if, as/ jH ^(p 'as,' kid^ \ 'ijff 
'supposing:' e.g. — 

jdshi k6 chi-iXtng U»il^-Mi H jtn . . (14. a 7 — 15) 'if he were an upright 
and honest man . .' 

jdt8ait86wa'^ 1^ 1^ ^^ 'if he again err.' 

jd Va pH lai, ngd itiH pU k*4, ' if he does not come, then I shall not go.' 


490. Shi -^ or Jin j^ is added tojd to strengihen it: e. g. — 

jtn jd-^hi k'dn^kUn tsii'tn/ng f%-kw6y kdMrckb jpd Jc'Clr^a/urtai tdrcKtng ki-Js6 
8^ ko-td, tsid k*d-i kia\r-ch*il pOrsiAngy ^ if when a man sees a shooting 
star (lit. ' a rebel star') flying over^ he quickly^ with his girdle, ties 
several sore (lit. 'dead') knots, he will destroy the evil omen:* 
(v. Wade's Cat of Vien, No. 130.) 

491. Ki ^P often has the same force as the conditional particle j6y and 

they are sometimes joined in one expression : e. g. — 

Id f/a4 hinffy M pit tsail k*4 (10. n. ai)/ if he wanted to go, why didn't he go 

before? ' 
jd-fn ' it being so, if it is so/ implying that it really is so. 

In the books J^^-c^ | ^^ is employed for ' i^' when the conditional partide 
is placed prominently forward. 

49a. Kidrj4 1^ 3(n ^ found most commonly in scientific works, on 

mathematics, &c Fi-jH ^p | and pi-/ang \ Jj or |>i-yfi [ pS^ 

more commonly occur in the language of conversation. Kid-j4 generaUy 
introduces a case for comparison : e. g. — 

kidrj4 yiil jin, pii-Hn ling-huo^n pHrml, ' suppose a man does not believe 
that the soul is indestructible.' 

493. ffwd m/, which is used for eUher and or, and implies doubt, may 

also fill the place of a conditional particle, and be construed by ' if ' or ' whe- 
ther;' it corresponds in some respects to the particle & of the Greek : e. g. — 

htod f/i - aht Jtlng - M hiimg . . 

^ - B* ^ t IS! 

' If once perchance you should meet with evil . .' 

494. Ke^ *^, 8k\ 'f ^, t*^g ^p, t'^JM^-jH I ^P, and several other con- 
ditional particles are employed in literary composition (c£ Art 265, p. 94) : e.g. — 

keil pH hid, hd weA jtnf Saa^-tsi king. 

^ -^.m m n K 

'If he do not learn, how can he become a man?' 

8h\ mH f% ahi wA yU kUn, SiunrUk 

-f* B # « m If a 

' If the eye be evil, it is useless to try to see with it,^ 

495. But the conditional notion is very often implied without any condi- 
tional particle being expressed The absolute nature of the protasit of a sen- 
tence often implies a condition, the result of the carrying out of which ia 
expressed in the apodosis: (c£ Wade's Cat of ^'t^ 68, ^g^ 183; but in 130, 
jd-M, 'iS,' is inserted) 


Yin. lUaHve pariieleBy ^^ *tf, ^^ tn4, Tjf ««^ J^ ^^ ^• 

496. The illatiye particles correspond to the causative particles j the latter 
mark the eonue or the recuany the former the eoTiaeqtience or the in/ereTice 
(c£ Arts. 484, 485) : e. g. — 

ym Vashi pd tsung-mtng, kd pH hicnl-tS, 'because he is wanting in intelli- 
gence, therefore he does not understand.' 

f/tn^w^ ngd sdng^ng^ tsid pH lat^ ' because I was taken ill, therefore I did 
not come.' (C£ also toi 2. j. 5. and 2. j. 20; 3. k. 6, 10, 23.) 

Some caoaatiye particles indeed are used for both purposes ; as, yim 1^, i JkJ. 
(C£ yin for 'then, therefore,* in Art& 479 and 484.) 

Yery frequently the illative particle is not expressed in the apodons, but it 
must be supplied in translation : e. g. — 
t*dpilt86 ffwdng-H, Ttgd pU t86 Sheit-mdng, 'if he does not become Emperor, 
then I shall not become Prime Minister.' 

497. It will be seen that the illatiye particles keep their illative force most 
clearly in those sentences in which the protasis may be construed as a ca/use. 
If the protasii begin with an equivalent for when or if, the iUative particle is 
then, and simply marks the sequence or the result of the condition. 


A^ tiUng hiin taH ahing J^ Ajt gw Q|j ^^ 'when the prince follows 
g^ood counsels, then he will become wise and good.' 

tsel aUngjtn tsichlki j*# ^ /^ H|J ^ ^» 'but being a sacred 

sage, then he will know how to time thing&' 
hihirchi teS ndng chi ^^ ^' S|J n^ ^ 'when a man is wise, then 

he can do it' 

ki^t&,piyiils£^ ^ ^ ii ^' $'a«tiierei8apagoda,tiiere 
must be a monasteiy.' 

keHp&hid, Hng nal U*%en "^ ^^ ^ ^i ^ ^ 'if one does not 
learn, then nature changes ybr (Kb worse,* 

IX. Interrogaim particles, Sf. hH, 1^[) y^, ^ hd, ^ shU, &c. 

498. The interrogative particles are very numerous. Some are tnttto^ as 
regards position, as hd ^m, shill ^^, shU ^il, etc.: others arejlnal, as 
hd i^-y V^ W> ^^^ tWj ®^- ^^ former correspond to what and who; the 
latter to mere marks of interrogation which have a pronunciation (cf. Arts. 
255, 256) : e. g.— 

1c% k*d U tsc^f ^, T^ \ I ' how will this dol' 


^ chl-iaH hdf ^ -^ ^ ^ < do you know itl' (4; contr. for ^.) 
yiiljtn hH tsalf m A^ Vt/^ | ' does this come from men?" 

499. H6 ^nj ' what, why/ is most common in phrases and expressions for 

why ? or how? e. g. — 

tsijUrchi lid ? (4. b. 5; 4. c. 5) ' then how will you act?' (B.) 

Ui hdli yd , .? {4. y 20) ' how is that different from . . V (B.) 

hd-hi tsd t8^ l*atl (9. f. 24) 'why do you make this formal expression 1* 

k'dn ahijU-hd? (11. h. 13) 'what do you think of it?' 

nljUlrM pit Ul (11. m. 13) 'why don't you take (eat or drink) it?' 

$r hwdm, hd ping yif ^ ^^ "f^ ^^ ]^ 'with what disease are you 

jH chingjin hd f yff J^ /^ | 'how can he correct others?' 

500. Some of these interrogative particles are indeed the same as interro- 
gative pronouns (cl Arts. 172 — 174)^ and, as such, are capable of standing for 
the correlative notions, which correspond to the several forms of interroga- 
tion; e. g. M 'what?' may stand for 'any' or 'some/ so may shut 'who?' or 
ehU 'who?' e.g. — 

shut yaH ahili lat? g^ ^ g^ 72^ 'who wishes any one to come?' 
ahU yuen ahU chi? ^^fi lp|l | S^ 'who wishes any one to come?' 

In reply to the question i*%&nrUk hd-iaai (17. n. 3) 'where is the £mperor?' 
we have p&chlhd wdng (17. n. 15) 'I know not where he is gone.' And in 
the phrase wA-nal-hb ' without any other resource/ hd is used as the correla- 
tive oihd 'what?' (Cf. 11. j. 2. and often.) 

Phrases : hd-M ? \ ifjjl ' for what reason?' 

h6^? I ^ 'wherefore?' 

hS-to^ f I ^ ' on what account?' 

hd-jin? I /^ 'who?' (18. h. 23.) 

50X. The interrogative particles shiii gM and ^U ^Q^, like hd, partake of 

the nature of pronouns rather than of particles, because they generally require 
pronouns for their equivalents in the translation ; but they belong also to the 
class of particles, for they are often merely marks of interrogation^ which is 
sometimes effected without them. 

shi ahiii chl ^^y^f ^^^^ ^ §1 'whose fault is it?' 

tsd etng M ahui? -f |^ ^ :^ | 'who made the pavilion?' 

w^i-hdf^ I 'why?' 
2^9»n4d;j^ I 'for what?' 
j^hdf-^H I 'how?' 
hdtaai? I "A^ 'where?' 


ska im( had hidf \ ^ ^5^ ^ 'which of you love to studyl' 
Mhf&yulhitikaehiyif \ ^|j | ^ S|I 'what does he desire which he 

does not obtain)* 

502. The interrogative particle tsal qB is used as a final particle^ and often 

one of the other interrogative particles^ or a word used as such, is placed at the 
banning of the same clause. 


h6 yiU ya ts^ tsalf \ "^ ^ ^ \ 'what is this to me r. 

KXyHUUayUt^tsaV ^ *^ j[jO '^^ 1^ \ * how can any thing be 
added to this]' 

hi led tgalf ^ tip I ' is it possible!' or < how can it be)' 

wu foti tad tsalf J^ j^ ^^ | * how can we speak of it enough)' 

503. The particle A«2 ^ is joined with taai at the end of clauses : e. g — 
ioei jin yiH Jei 4^ yiH jtn hH-taal? 

^ ^ A 2* W A A #• I 

' As for virtue^ is it a matter for myself or for others)' 
jtn yuhi hiirtsalf /tT, ^S \ | * is virtue so fiur away)' 

504. The particle M ^ itself, when final, is interrogative, or a mark of 
exclamation or commiseration j but in other positions it generally stands for 
^"yS^ * ^ ^^ respect to/ and * than ;' and sometimes it is a mere expletive. 


chiydhdMMM?^^^^ ^1^^ \ 'shall I drive the chariot 
or wield the spear ) ' 

t hd/et^kdf 1=1 I '^ I 'is it right or is it not)' 

he4 - M ehl Mng chiy m6 ahimg M ffdn yU T^dng, 

II ffl i s # a ^ imn 

* The glory of later times does not eclipse the glory of the Han and the T*ang 

ydng-ydng M ! ]^l \^l \ * how vast ! ' (lit ' ocean-like.') 

505. Yi BR (sometimes written y^ ^n) is another interrogative final par- 
tide, and, Uke taal and Ai2, often has an auxiliary particle at the beginning of 

the clause: e. g. — 

z 2 


k*l tai yU^ ping ^ hefSi t'ah yi9 

s n ^ 0i m nmw 

'Why wait until you are sick and then pray?' 

to^ ^'i Mn yU jin taking yif Chwdng-ts^. 

jIt a- a ^f A m ^P 

'How does this accord with human feelings)' 
hd I chi k't jhk yif 

I ja ^ K m f 

'How can I know that it is thus?' 

506. Some of the interrogative particles imply a negation. Such are, 

hd ^" 'why notr {qtiore non); md-ft . . H ^p 'surely, not otherwise 

than . . 9 (cerU); and feii ^ 'or notl* {norme ita ed), — like a particle of 

doubt ffd and md-fl are placed at the beginning, but feii at the end of 

hdkdyin^chif ^^ ^ g rR "i" ' why do not you all speak your 

ffd m (usu. pron. hai 'to injure') appears to be used for the aboye hd : e. g. — 

hdpUfveif .^ ^^ j ^ 'why do you not resist)' 

fed yA mtodn niSnf ^ |^ j^S^ :^ ' is he indeed of fiill agel* 
tsii ' hid chi vnl m,n yu /eU yhf 

I T fP M- 4^ II 4 

'Do you, Sir, indeed know my intention)' 
Several examples of rnd-fl will be found in Art 452, and of ^et^ in Art 461. 

507. K*l H* 'how)' is also an inteirogative particle in common use in 
books and in some colloquial phrases: e. g. ^%^dn | MV 'how dare If 
which is an equivalent for 'I thank you!' 'I do not deserve the honour!' 

^^ ^^» ^^' ^ ^fl' ^* ^e* y^ ^> "^^ ^*^ ^'» •• ^^^ as ife% «re 
interrogative particles when placed at the beginning of clauses. 

Icl toei Veh -fa yiil hi - hi chi haif (Cf. ex. in Art 501.) 

tft P Si * «l ?S <: * 

'Do only the mouth and the stomach suffer from hunger and thirst)' 

smtoyiht Irwet? ^| ^ ^ ^^ VX "^ 'though many, yet what 

use are they?' 


mah4litdt^ I pf* < what can be doner 

wa ndng tikng <Mf ^^ ^ ^ ^ '^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^^'^ ^^^* 
tad hd Ming mtngf \ | JW ^ '^ow will he perfect his repntation?' 
hd <M yiifngf ^ ^ J^j 'what use is it?' Tt-lnng. 
wdrit^hapaUMf ^' -f^ "^^^ ij^ I 'why not establish yonnelfr 

yhi « ti4ng ehlf ^ ^ ^^^ ^ 'should he follow himl' (See also 
the first example in Art 445.) 

y^ ^1 jtn yil if ^^ £p /^* J5m ^g 'why forsake benevolence and 

On ti taH nn hdf ^ ^M: W^ jj^ \ ' how can you be content!' 

Hn ndng tu f^f ^ ^ Q^ ^ 'how can we escape?' 

508. There are yarious particles, or interrogatiye adverbs, used in the col- 
loqtdal style for the question as hi ^^ 'how many?' n^ ^ 1) 'which?' Udng ^^ 
'how?' (C£ Arts. 255 and 256, and read pp. 27 — 30 in the Chrestomathy.) 

509. The affirmative expresnons ndn^otf and piircKing (see Arts. 453 and 
454), the former at the beginning, the latter at the end of the clause, also 
indicate a kind of question, which always expects the answer ye« in reply to 
it. Ndn-taHy lit ' hard to say,' is in some respects similar to the Oerman 
expression vid-ldchi^ vieUeicht for aehr leUshi 'probably, perhaps, doubtless;' 
and pOrcKing, lit 'not perfect,' like nuM wahrf (See Schott's Chin. Sprach, 
p. 134. note.) 

510. To the above ytl Jm. or yU Sir must be added as an interrogative 
particle: e.g. — 

jhtMSlufnpakinydf j^ ^] ^: 1\ ^' I ' if bo, then why did not 
Shun resist?' (C£ Chrest 3. L 29.) 

X. I>ubUaHve particles, ^ huod, |^f. yA, &c 

511. By dubitative particles are meant such words as give a character of 
doubt to the clause or sentence in which they occur; and according to this 
definition several of the conditional and interrogative particles might come 
under the same category. Several adverbs of doubt have already been given 
in Art 253. It remains to give a few examples of their use here. 


hu}6 pa oln kiaurKctd ^ jf\ ^ U^ ^ ' probably they knew not the 
cries out o/doors.^ 


hw6 yiU kianff^4 m/ .^& ^X yffl ' perhaps you haVe riYeiB and lakes;* 

htod yiU tadng hed \ \ ^P 4^ 'perhaps jou have kings and 
nobles;' which may be construed eUher &c or kc 

hwd j^ kwd pHrjSn p^ ^^ m/ TK^ ^^ 'perhaps it is so, perhaps not' 
(C£ Art 493.) 

kH4chly4f/ii^ehtydf'^ ;^ ^ ^^ \ ^ I ' does he ask for 
it or do they giye it him (without asking))' (C£ Chrest 3. L 27.) 

The following sentence from Chwdnff'48k is worth inserting here to iUustrate 
the uses of dubitatative and interrogative particles : 

Kin yA Ti ska shi 4r «At2 /% hUf 

¥ J® ^ ft 1 M I IM 

' Does Kia or Y\ speak the truth)' 

XI. InteTidUve pa/rtides, y^^ t*ai, Jj^ H, ^p tsU, Ac 

51a. The intensitive particles are words which are used to strengthen the 
assertion or n^;ation in respect of some particular quality. They are gene- 
rally verbs according to their primary signification, but as intensifiers they 
retain only so much of the verbal notion as will serve the purpose of empha- 
sising the word or sentence in which they occur. We shall take each sepa- 
rately, with one or two examples. 

513. T*ai -~^ and ^ 1^ are very conmionly used for too, too much. 

ehS M t*a\ hi^ ig g-r y^ B^ 'this project is too dangerous.' 

t'aildngtsdngaieyr y^ ^l- (i^ 'a little too cold' (of a person or a place). 

hid sheii tii h^firliait ^ -^ | ^S 'T' 'you struck me with too much 

kid tS tmk Uatl sie ^\l I ^ J I ' but too early rather.' 
nly^tito mi ^4j ijj | ^ ;[V» 'to take it too much to heart' 

514. Shin I^ ' very,' tsU |fi ' decidedly,' U x|| ' extremely,' are all used 

as intensitive particles. 


u,4^ipiirAvn e^^'ea $ J| :^^ g 31 3^ 'J^ BcholKahip iB 

not very profound.' 

skm M Kt-kwai I^ -^ ^' ^^ 'it is strange indeed.* 


Uu wd ki'hwui 1^ ^ ;|i^ ^ ' decidedly unfortunate.' 
tstlwdjinrkU I ^^ ^ ' utterly without inhabitants.' 

tremely ridiculous.' 
ki mH kiaii H hwd %£[ ^^ g^ pc| g^ < language quite unintelligible.' 

*« ife'iati « Atwf-Ajilfi^ I -'^ 64f S JQ 'a most clever artist' (Cf. Arts. 
331 and 334.) 

Various other words are used as intensitive particles, such as had 'good/ M- 
Jan * the whole,' &c 

515. In literary compositions several words of intensi^ng power occur, 
which correspond to the expressions nmch more, much less, &c. Such are 


is^yUkSn pi yU yu^ jj|^ ^^ ll^ 1$ >^ iS '*^® **®*^' *^ *I^ 
preaches, the £Euiher that recedes.' 

KuMfngyiyuhi4rylp6 ^ B^ ^ | jj^J^ & ^ 'the fertherwe 
depart from the sacred wisdom, the meaner we become.' 

y^mg chi 4^ ml ming, «t2 - cAi 4^ ml chwdng^ 

ffl ^ m m m ^ z vin \ ^ 

' Use it and the bri^ter it becomes, confine it and the greater it will grow.' 
Mn ti pU tai yd 8£f hwang yU ySn hA! 

M fi T^ # » « ^Sl *^ f I 

' True virtue does not expect great deeds, much less does it wait on great words !' 

516. Shm 4^^I is used in a similar way to hwdng, but it is far less com- 
mon: e. g. — 

ehl chtng kdn ahtn, ehln U£ yiii liiadj 

m An n m t m 

' The highest int^^rity influences the gods, much more the Miau people.' 
(C£ Fr6mare, Not, Ling, Sin* p. 215.) 

XII. Exclamatary parUcUs, P^ ya, ^ M, Q^ tsal, Ac. 

517. The particles of exclamation are very numerous in Chinese, and they 
vary according to the style of composition, — ^its antiquity and its peculiarities 
of literary and colloquial usage. In the books the exclamatory particles have 


an important value. They serve to express in the lang^uage, with the written 
characters, those niceties of construction and expressions of feeling for which 
aownda and gesliadcEtions are employed in oral communications. 

518. 74 P^ and a |Im are very common. They denote looiMJflr or <utonM- 
ment: e. g. — 

yd cihJ^-^heh sht^ ping pUnshi ngd-tad-Hf ^ Ah I this ode was not of my 

They are sometimes joined as one exclamation : e. g. — 
d-yd Jdnr^h kid mUrliaii^ tang / ' Ah ! to-night we are again without a lamp ! ' 

519. Hi >& is a particle of exclamation, used most commonly in poetry, 
in the Shorkmgy and in all ancient poem& 

pim^jtnhtf ^^ ^ /^ ^ Hhat beautiful person!' 

520. P*% \\jlf and p*i \l^ are used to express contempt or d^laneey and are 

often equivalent to 'begone!' e. g. — 

p*l/ tw-M ni p^i^-heJbL Mng-hwei/ 'Ah! all this confusion behind one's back 

was all through you !' 
p*tfnl8hitdtdHkwdnr4rI'Ah\ you are indeed a very distinguished officer!' 

521. In the plays of the Tu^ dynasty, H yi^ is used as an exclamation or 
caO to an inferior : e. g. — 

Urnd/H-^tnpii^cvd tt-JsHf *0 woman! do not cry and weepf 
wUrtl pA-Bhi ngd hiimg^i f ' Ah ! is it not my brother?' 

wOr^kirMl^/'J^ ^|J ^ ^ ^^ 'HaUoa! Postman!' 

Xni. JEuphonie partidea. 
52a. Partideff wliidi may be called euphonic are Modi as servo merely to 
make a clause sound welL It has been the practice however to denominate 
eopAonic many of the particles which we have placed under difierent daases. 
It is seldom that a particle is purely euphonic, it generally denotes someyiseUn^ 
or deeire in the mind of the speaker. Many of the words which we call inter- 
jections come under this class. In every dialect there are sounds of this kind 
peculiar to the locality, and when these sounds are expressed in writing, it 
must be done by some well-known diaracter, which for the time is divested 
of its ordinary signification, and by the addition of keilf ' mouth,' it becomes an 
interjection or a euphonic particle. This usage has given rise to the euphonic 
particles of the books, for they were the inteijections of andent times, and 
indeed some of them remain in use, as such, unto the present hour. 

523. Thus ) ^, yi J^, and Al '^ are said to be euphonic, while they 
also denote an affirmation (c£ Arts. 447, 448) : e. g. — 


siikngpi-jSn It '^^ jjiK -1^ .!& *I imagine it must be so!' 

k^d ehlehlltp!^ ^ ;^ ^ 'it may be known!' 

hS-htf hiuen-hit ^C '^ Ph '^ ' how splendid ! how glorious!' 

an tde king hit ^r B^ ^^ | ' happj and fortunate ! ' 

^n yi^ yi ch^, pH - h*d tttl y^t (Cf. Arts. 415, 416, and 442.) 

in ^ -fl. # T^ ^ Ig tfl 

' Faithful friendship may not be dispensed with 1' 
t'ten^hid Jcd-^kiun y^; tsid lit k*d-t8£ yh; 

X T pt i4i fr m It ^ m a 

* One may tranquillize the empire ; one may refuse titles and office ;' 
p9 jin Kd'iaA y^; ehung-^ng pH -led ndfng y^t 

^One may tread on a naked sword; and not be able to keep the *' golden 

534. Tgal §j) and hA Sf^^ are used as euphonic or exclamatory particles^ 
besides being used as interrogatiye particles : e. g — 

Jkitgalyiny^t ^& \ ^ ffl^ 'how rich the language!' 

kien t8<H EwUt y^ t ^ \ |p| {^ 'how ^brthy is Hwiii!' 

kiun-tsi id h4 taalt y& ^^ ^^ S(l \ 'has the great man so many 

535. The final particle y^ HI also frequently occurs in the classics of the 
Chinese as a euphonic particle, and it then serves the purpose of a comma, by 
separating the characters, which precede it, from the rest of the sentence, as 
the following examples will show : 

kin ya M todng ^ J^ 0|J T*^ 'the present is, — then gone for ever.' 
wh BSng yi yii^ yai ^t chl yi wA yat 

& & di ^ m M ^ a * m 

'My life has bounds but knowledge, forsooth, is boundless.* 
sdng H y^; — ai kweH yd 

4 ^ &' ^ ^ Ife 

' Life is a trust; — at death we resign it.' 



Fu also sometimes goes with yl, when ^ is simply eaphonic : 

tnd ngd chl yifUl S ^i* y^ m y^ 'i^o one miderstands me!' 

526. Ll |lS b used in novels and in the colloquial style as a euphonic 
particle or as a particle of exclamation; e. g. — 
md sfwo6 mdy hw&n yofd Ui ft/ 

S ift ^ it f ff Bl 

' Not to speak of scolding, I shall beat him as well !' 

537. Pk^mare gives these other particles of exclamation: nl P|p, pd YKy, 
nd Hjpl; and the student will find others in the course of his reading, but 
they are seldom used, therefore they need not be given here. 

ch^-kbnU ^ ^ I Msitthisr 

k'd piirshi p5 f Pf ]^ -^ J^ 'is it not thus r 

r'ien-tid/ ^ I '0 Heaven!' 

528. It pjg 'Ah!' toie t)£ '0!' in calling the attention of persons, but 
sometimes to indte or encourage ; and in the Shi-Mng, with other partides, as 
an exclamation arising from pain : hu-huf 'oh! alas!' shin^^^ ^^ 'indeed!' 
piling "^ I 'unfortunately!' gd ^ 'wretch!' or 'hold!' (Lat ne/aaf) 
ffU 'th ' ah !' are all found in the classics at the beginning of sentences^ but 
they are rarely to be met irith elsewhere. 

529. Words formed by the imitation of natural sounds are very numerous 
in Chinese ; e. g. kunL-kimi ' the crowing of a cock,' daHsitMl ' the noise of 
wind and rain.' (See Dr. Morrison's Dictionary, vol. I., under the radical 

i'tft^ tZl ' mouth,' for many expressions of a similar kind.) 

530. Among the particles which the Chinese denominate hiirtak are induded 
all words which do not come under the category of nouns, or under that of 
verbs, — ^but simply denote the relations which the nouns and the verbs of the 
sentence bear to each other, — or the feelings which exist in the mind of the 
speaker at the time the sentence is uttered. Some of these occur always at 
the beginning, some always at the end of the sentence; others are found in 
both positions in different sentences. Some particles affect nouns and single 
words, some affect the whole clause, others bind together the whole sentence. 
These &cts have been noted under each particle, but there still remains much 
to be learnt, from careful observation, by the student himsel£ The following 
rUumB of the particles may, however, be of service. 

I. AUribtaive particles are ^^ (411), ^ (412), i^ (415), f^ (421), 
because they make the words which they affect aUrtbutive, 


3. Conneetim^ 5^ (434), fffj (435), X <'*^*'>' ff ^'^'9), ^ (430), 
(431), ^ (43»), ^ (433). ^ (436), ^ (436), ifi, (437). 
^ (438). 

3. Affirmative, g (440), ^ (441), {Jl. (443), Jg (445), ^ (44«), 

E (449), n # -d i. # (45»). 11^ 5i (453), :^ J^ 

4. IFegative, Jf^ (456), ^ (459), /^ (460), ^gi (461), ^^ (463), g^ 

(464), ^ (465), 7^ (466), ^^, 55IJ, ^ (467), ^ (469), t 
(470), p:j (471). 

5. ^(fo«-«Ki«s jj^ (473), jg (474), ^ (475), jf. (477), ^|, JJ 

6. C«u,ative, {J[ (483), ^ (483). (484), j^^. J^ H (485), ||^, 

7. Conditional, ^, ;ftp (489), |f (491), # j(P (49a). ^ (493), 

^' ^' 19 (494). 

8. lUativ,, SJ, gJH (496). 7}, Jl] (497). 

9. Interrogative, Q^, ^ (498 and 503—4), ^^ (499), gf » ^ (500), 

f . 5IP (505), S, ^,1, ^f: (506), g, g. |, ^g, 

I' ^ (S07), ^, ^(J. % (508), H, |[jS; (510). 

10. DtAitalioe, ^, |i[|. (511). 

11. Inien^tive. •^, ^ (513), g, |g, |i (5M), ^, g, ^J, >)l 

(S15), J?| (516). 

12. Bxdamatory, \i^, \^ (518), ^ (519), Pj|, pg (530), J[ (531). 

13. JP«p&ome, %^,^ (533), ft6, ^ (534), n| {5'5), Pjg, J'lJ. 

jP(5a6),p|. g(637). 

A a a 


Sect. II. On sentences. 

§. I. PrdmMuvry rmna/rka, 

531. The first section of this chapter relates to the various forms and 
modifications of words and phrases, which enter into the composition of sen- 
tences, and these simple formations have been there designated svmiple con- 
structions; but, beyond the occasional use of the terms sentence^ subject, pre- 
diocUe, cUtrilfuie, and object, nothing has been said of the form of Chinese 
sentences. And, before examples are given, it will be well to expUun the 
meaning intended by the different terms which will be employed. 

532. A sentence expresses by the words which it contains not merely a 
number of separate notions, but a thought, or an cusertion, which is ascertained 
by the relations which those separate notions bear to each other ; e. g. 'the wind 
blows cold to-day* indicates a belief on the part of the speaker ; but the words of 
which this sentence is composed are only the materials with which the thought 
is expressed; and the same words in a different construction would mean 
a very different thing, e. g. (i) 'the son loves the fitther' is one thing, (2) ' the 
&ther loves the son' is another. Tdfung is a 'great wind,* but Jung td 
means ' the wind is high.* It is important to bear this in mind, for in the 
structure of sentences we have no more to do with the words themselves, 
whether simple or compound, but with the relations which exist between them. 
Relations which, in some languages indeed, are regulated by the inflections of 
the words themselves, but in Chinese, and in some other languages, they are 
shown by the relative position of the words and clauses. 

533. Every sentence consists of two members only; (i) the subject, or that 
thing about which something is said or predicated, and (2) the predicate, or 
that action or attribute which is asserted of the subject. These are indeed 
sometimes united by a small word, called the copula, which is one of the sub- 
stantive verbs ; but more frequently this is wanting : the principal verb, which 
contains the predicate, being sufficient of itself to show its relation to the sub- 
ject. And in Chinese very often the copula ia omitted ; e. g. t*ien Ihng ' the 
weather is cold;* ngd pU-haii 'I am unwell.* 

534. There are, moreover, three relations which may exist in the sentence. 
First, the predicative relation, — or the relation of subject and precUcate 
simply; secondly, the aUribuUve relation, — or the relation of some qua- 
lifying expression to the subject or object of the predicate; and thirdly, the 
objective relation, — or the relation of the object (or supplemental expres- 
sion) to the predicate. These terms are used to distinguish clauses in sen- 
tences. Thus a clause which contains subject and predicate simply, is a 
predicative clause, and in this the verb is the principal word. An attribute 
appended to a subject forms an attributive clause, and in this the adjective or 
attribute is the chief word. A clause added as an object to the predicate is 
an otjective clause, and in this the object is the principal word, and if it relate 
directly to the predicate, it is the chief word in the whole sentence. The 
predicative clause conveys a definite and independent thought, and so may 


stand alone; e. g. 'the rose is red' The oUribitHve clause cannot stand 
alone, because it does not express a complete thought, but only one of the 
elements of the sentence ; e. g. ' the red rose/ * the benighted traveller.' And 
the obfedive clause too is incomplete when standing alone, — ^when the object is 
united to the predicate of a sentence ;— e. g. ' black with smoke/ ' withered this 
morning.' But these three elements of the sentence may be united to form 
a complete sentence; e. g. 'the red rose withered this morning.' 

535. The (UtribtUe may be, (i) an (ufjectivey (2) the genitive case of a noun, 
(3) a noun in apposition, or (4) a noun with a preposition; e. g. (i) 'a cM 
day;' (2) *the king^s horse;' (3) 'William, the Conqueror/ (4) 'a man ioithr- 
out bnvoeryj* and (5) a relative clause, which is explanatory, may be regarded 
as an attribute of its antecedent *. 

536. The object may be (i) the thing, or person, which the principal verb 
of the sentence affects, or (2) it may be the circumsta^ices of time, place^ 
manner or causality, which serye to modify the action of the verb. 

537. The simple sentence consists of only one clause, in which there is a 
subject and a predicate, but these may be enlarged and modified to a great 
extent. The subject in Chinese may consist of one word or of many ; e. g. 
Tf yu (i. a. 11) 'the Emperor said:* /dn td-jin chl ta4 yiU son 'the prin- 
ciples of great men generally are three :' (cf. Art 541.) 

538. But sentences in Chinese are seldom simple, they are most frequently 
complex or compound. A complex sentence is one in which there is a prin- 
eipal clause and one or more suhordincUe. The subordinate clause stands to 
the principal clause in one of the following relations, either (1) as its subject, 
(2) as an attribute of its subject or its object, or (3) as a modification of the 
whole principal clause. In each case respectively it is a noun sentence, an 
adjective sentence, or an adverbial sentenca 

539. A noun sentence in English begins with such words as that, what, 
«oAo, when or where; and in Chinese it is recognisable by certain marks and 

the presence of certain particles, as sd )yi and chi ^' and <^ H ^ • (^• 

Arta 411 — 422.) 

540. An adjective sentence, which is also an attributive clause, or a relative 
sentence, is introduced in English by who, which, and words of that class, as 
that, how, wJierein, whither, why, wherefore; and in Chinese it is distinguished 
by €i, but very often no particle is present. 

541. Adverbial sentences are such as specify the conditions of time, place, 
manner or causality. Adverbial sentences of time show (i) the point of time, 
(2) the duration of time, or (3) the repetition of the circumstance, and are 
introduced respectively by (i) when, (2) whilst, (3) as often as, &e. Adverbial 
sentences of place relate to (i) rest in, (2) motion to, or (3) motion from a 

* Since writing the above the author has seen an admirable little work on the " Ana- 
lyma of Sentences" by Dr. Morell, one of Her Majesty *8 Inspectors of Schools, in which 
the subject is explained and applied to the English language with a clearness sought for 
in vain in grammatical treatises generally. 


placey and in English they are introduced by (i) whert or wkerwer^ (a) vihere 
or vohUher, and (3) whence, AdTerbial sentences of mcmm/er show (i) evmUat- 
Uyy (2) propordony or (3) eoneequance^ and are introduced by (i) a#, (2) the 
oomparatiye degree of the adjective, or cw after a negative in the principal 
dause, or by (3) AcUj or eo that Adverbial sentences of cause show (i) a 
recteony (2) a condition, (3) a eonceeeioni or (4) a purpoee, and in English they 
are dependent upon the words (i) because^ (2) if or exc^, unlese (which=(/' 
noi)y (3) although or however, and (4) thait or m order that. The infinitive mood 
alone is in English frequently used to express a purpose, and it then consti- 
tutes a distinct clause. 

542. Compownd eenienoes differ from complex sentences in that the clauses 
of which they consist are not mutually dependent, but are eo-ordinate, and 
simply connected^ with each other. This co-ordination may be considered as 
being under three relations. Thus when one clause is eupplemenial to the 
other, e. g. * the ladder fell and the monkey ran away,* it may be called the 
copulative relation ; when one clause is oppoeed to another, e. g. ^ John is clever, 
btU he is not profound,' it may be called the advereative relation; and when 
one clause contains the reason for the other, e.g. 'his army was disorganised, 
hence his despair,' it may be denominated the caueaHve relation. 

543. The copulative relation may exist in three degrees: (i) when equal 
stress is laid on both clauses, — each clause being distinct from the other; (2) 
when more stress lies on the second than on the first, as in clauses in English 
with not only, — but; (3) where the stress increases frx>m clause to dause, as 
in the figure dimax, each clause being introduced by some particle of sequence^ 
JirH, then, next, finally, d^c. 

544. The adversaHve relation may exist in two forms : (i) where the second 
clause negatives the first (in English by not, — Imt), or (2) whrai the second 
clause limits the first ; as, ' you may read it, only read it without stammering.' 

545. The third, or eaueaUve relation in co-ordination, may have two divi- 
sions : (i) where the latter of two clauses expresses an effect, the former being 
the moral or physical cause, or (2) where the latter expresses a reason or 
motive, the former representing the result. This appears to be a simple inver- 
sion, which may be effected by the use of different particles of connection. 

546. Compound sentences often suffer contraction by referring the same 
subject, the same predicate, and the same object to different co-ordinate clauses. 
Two or more subjects may go to one predicate; two or more predicates to 
one subject; two or more objects to one predicate; and several circumstances 
or limitations may be joined together in the same compound sentence, and 
may belong to the same word in that sentence. 

547. Thus much has been said on the analysis of sentences, because with- 
out analysis of language in general, we can never arrive at the true analysis 
of the Chinese, and it is by a ready appreciation of the elementary forms and 
the scientific terms of grammar that clear, definite, and constant rules can be 
evolved from the study of Chinese. It is not the knowledge of a vast number 
of words which constitutes a real knowledge of any language, but it is the 


right apprehension of its genius and idiomatic differences, (which is to he 
attained only hy a careful analysis of its forms and constructions,) that 
will enable the student, — with a Uir knowledge of words, — ^to read, speak, 
and translate correctly. 

§. 2. The/arma of the simple seTUettce. 

548. A simple sentence may convey (i) a commandy (2) a vnshy (3) Ajudg* 
m/erU, L e. an {usertioTiy (4) a qnestionf or (5) an exclamuxtion. We have there- 
fore to enquire what are the forms in Chinese for imperative^ optative^ cueertive, 
inierrogalive^ and exchmatory sentences. The imperatiye sentence will be 
dealt with first, because the simple force of the verb, without adjuncts, conyeys 
this sense, and there is a close connexion between the imperative and the 
optative, at least in meaning. In the same way the root or crude form of the 
Latin verb expresses a eonvma/nd, (CL ea ' be thou,' ama ^ love thou,' and c£> 
Arts. 223 and 404.) Then after the assertion comes the question natoraUy, 
and these are often rimilar in form. The exclamation is often only to be dis- 
tinguished from the question by the manner of its enunciation. 

549. The form of the imperative eentenee is simple and natural The simple 
Terb expresses the command, and the subject is generally understood; but 
when expressed, it stands before the verb and never, as a rule, after it, as it 
may in the English, ' come thou here ;' e..g. lat chS-H, 'come here,' or nl lot M* 
n, but not lat n^ c^-ft. t/t^ yi chdng y&n (i. a. 16) Mo you also throw light 
on the subject;' kufai hjodi^-m^^^ pU yad teeMiaU (12. d. 20), 'quickly shut 
the doors, and let none go forth :' (cf. 12. L 22.) 

550. When the subject of an imperative sentence is a proper name, or the 
deffignation of a person, and not a mere pronoun, it sometimes stands after the 

verb; e.g.W,Fti/(i. a. 13) 'come, Fie/' but the verbs fo'iTi^ ~li and^d?!^ g! 

are used commonly before the subject, when that is expressed; e. g. ts'tng^ 
lat ehS^ ' please to come here;* jdng t*d JcU pd ' let him go away.* 

551. The form of the optaHve sentence differs but little from that of the 
imperative. It is introduced by a verb which signifies to deaire or to wiah; 
e. g. yuhi nlptng-^ln ' may you be happy !' The expressions pd-pH-ti and h^ 
p&-ti (c£ Arts. 273 and 395) should be remembered in this connexion. In the 
following passage in the Sdn-kwd (litho. p. 13. c 21 — 24) we have a noun 
governed by h^n as a verb; thus, h^ HpU n4ng/ 'would that my strength 
were adequate ! ' or ' would that I were able ! * (lit ' regret strength not able.') 

552. Every cueerfive sentence in Chinese consists of a subject which stands 
firsts and a predicate which follows it. Circumstances of time and place may 
stand before the subject, and circumstances of manner, of cause, and of effect 
generally stand before the predicate. The subject must be a noun or a word 
used as such, or it may consist of a sentence used as a noun : (cf 7. a. 10, 
11; 7. f. 15 — 18; 2. g. 12 — 16; 8. d. 13 — 18, which all form subjects.) 
The subject may be explained, parenthetically as it were, by a word or words 
in apposition, or by a participial phrase: (cf. 8. o. 16 — 19; 9. b. 22 — 27; 


2. h. 22 — 24.) The subject may consist of two nouns, the former being in 
the genitive case, to express the origin, cause, or reUuionship of the latter : 
(cf. 2. 9. 12 — 16; 7. b. 29 — c i; 2. h. 20—26.) The same remarks refer 
to the predicate when that is a noun. 

553. The predicate generally requires one object, and sometimes two, to 
complete it; the first is called the direct object, the other the indirect object; 
e. g. chS yt-Jcan-ehU l64iaU f/i^taz ' this tree has shed its leaves;* k'M yUng Vd 
taairkicL ch'H-ji (14. a. 16) ' I can employ him in the family to go in and out.' 

554. IfUerrogcUive sentences have various forms in Chinese. Sometimes 
they are to be distinguished by the particles which are present in them, at 
other times the position of the clause, and of the words in it, shows the inter- 

(i) When the particles are present, if they are final particles, the subject and 
predicate remain in the same position as they would in an assertive sentence; 
e. g. ni j/iil tUng-^sih^ ' you have some cash;* ni yiilt tsien md ? ' have you any 
cash V chS yirchi-m^ ski kchp4s*ail * that horse eats hay ;' ch% yi-chii-md shi 
shimmdf 'what does that horse eat?' (cf. Arts. 498 — 509.) ' 

(2) When no interrogative particle is present, the form of the sentence may 
show that the sentence is interrogative. Two expressions are enunciated, one 
positive, the other negative, this leaves the mind in doubt, and shows that an 
enquiry is being made, just as to-shait, lit. ' many-few,* give rise to the abstract 
notion of qucmtity, and also to a question how mcmy t e. g. t*d tsaSrkid pA tsai- 
kid, lit. 'he is at home, — not at home?'='is he at home)' By a reference 
to the articles on the interrogative particles the student will obtain many 
examples of interrogative sentences. 

555. The forms of the exclumatory sentence scarcely differ at all from those 
of the interrogative. They are generally introduced by an interrogative par- 
ticle or some word clearly of the nature of an exclamation. (See the Arts, on 
the exclamatory particle; and cf i. 1. 14 — 17; 11. 1. 9 — 17.) 

§. 3. The nown sentence, 

556. The noun sentence is one which occupies the place of a noun, and in 
Chinese may consist of a verb and its object ; e. g. haijtn pU hail 'to injure 
people is bad.' The particles che, ti, and sd generally mark the noun sen- 

557. The verb alone, or with adjuncts of time, may constitute a noun sen- 
tence, and be the subject of a sentence ; e. g. k*ilng ytn f% U% sk% yl (9. o. 5), 
lit. ' I fear, to drink is not this time ;* Ti sienrsang 1c U shi yaik 1c U kiiHrliaii 
(10. o. 25), lit. 'Mr. TVs going is this, he wished to go long since.' Again, 
hid 4^ sht «{ cAt (3. d. 10) is a noun sentence, and the subject to the verb yu, 
which follows. Also yiU pdng ts£ yu^n-Jung lat (3. d. 19) and j£n pA cAi 4^ 
pHrVHfn (3. d. 29) are noun sentences: (cf. 9. b. 18 — 27.) 

§. 4. The adjective sentence. 

558. The adjective sentence is any set of words which explains or qualifies 


a nonn. A relative clause in English (and in Chinese often a clause in apposi- 
tion) does this ; but genendlj some particle, as H H w^ 9d Pfr, or M ^ , throws 

the whole into the form of an adjectiye clause, the subject of which is repre* 
sented hj the particle ; this makes the adjective sentence often to assume the 
character of a noun (cf. 3. e. 13. etc); e. g. kqiig-t^ng'tl Ti kung-ta^ tail- 
tn4n (8. c. 18) is an adjective sentence or relative clause, as it were in apposi- 
tion to Kto6 kunff'is^ its antecedent : it means literallj, ' the one just waiting 
for Mr. Ti to arrive at the gate.^ 

§. 5. The adverhiod aerUenee, 

559. Adverbial sentences are such as express the circumstances of timef 
plaoey mmwMr, and ecmst. They are sometimes introduced by particles in 
Chinese, but frequently they are without any distinctive mark of this kind ; e. g. 
wodLfy-H tinff^tail (8. a. 6 — 9), tail ts^i (8. a. 10 — 12), ji toi-ch*il (8. a. 13) are 
three adverbial sentences of time to the principal sentence k*l4at ' he arose f 
ttiil, * then,* is really not wanted, but in Chinese it is idiomatic to insert it ; 
it sums up, as it were, the three clauses just mentioned. 

560. But adverbial sentences of time are often shown by some particle or 
phrase being present in the sentence; e. g. yi-kien Ti kung-ts^ laUpai (8. c. 4), 
'as soon as d^c.,' is marked by yt-kiSn; and clauses beginning with yi and a 
Terb will always mark an adverbial sentence of time. Again, htiyH-kien 
(8. e. 28), * on suddenly seeing,' introduces a similar expression. Phrases 
beginning with yi, ' as soon as,' would sometimes, when followed by then, mark 
the repetUum which is impUed in expressions beginning with whenever in 
English ; e.g. yi ehi hd ch*d, teiH kiitng TlngJ^jod, lit. ' one time drink tea, 
then speak English,' i. e. ' whenever he drinks tea he talks English :' (c£ 8. L 2 ; 
16. d. 2.) 

561. Du/ration of time is expressed by an adverbial sentence, — ^by putting 
M, ' time,' or aht-kien, * time-interval,' in construction with the sentence; e. g. 
ni t^ng teai che^ tl sht-heU, ngd pHryaii tit, ' while you are staying here, I 
will not read;' Kaii4ciil Jea/n-ahi (16. a. 1 1) ' while Kau-Jciil was looking on :' 
(cf. Art 337.) 

562. Adverbial sentences of place may refer to poeitum in or motion to or 
from a place ; e. g. sUt-^pi^ tan nd-Zl, ngd-t'Ung nl 1c U, ' whenever you like to 

proceed, I will go with you ;' ngd pit k*^ng taH n\ ti ti-fdng lat * I will not 
go to your place;' ts'Ulng che-Vi tail ndk-kd ti-fang, ngd pit kd 1c U, 'I cannot 
go from hence to that place;' ngd k'tl4i ti-fdng, nl pit 1cd-l lat, 'where I 
go you cannot come.' The student will observe that such adverbial clauses 
require certain words, as taxiing ' from,' t(»d ' to,' and the word ti-fdng, 'place,' 
in construction, just as aht and aht-heii are generally necessary in adverbial 
sentences of time. 

563. Adverbial sentences of ma/rmer, which relate to likeneaa, proportion or 

effect, are introduced by prepositions or appropriate particles, as j4 yjp, 

^*^^ ^.' ^ "fi/' ^^ IX' ^^^ m\' ^^^^^ mean 'as, like as, similar to, 



according to/ &c, ; or by yerbs and particles combined, as pi jy* ' to com- 
pare/ yU h^ 'than/ <kc. ; or causative verbs, as ling yA. 'to cause/ /n IS 

'to give/ &c. : (cf. the adverbs of manner, Arte. 246 — 251; also Arte. 21 1, 
213, and 1 44 — 150.) 

564. Adverbial sentences which refer to likeness are such as the following : 
t*dy sidngfUrUnn^ ts6 sdng-i^ 'he carries on trade, as his foOher dtd;^ na\ pi 
k*U-k*U yU shUsit jH-ts^, shln/trt yi (9. 1. 15), 'but, thus strictly to corvine 
ourselves to the world* s customs, would certainly not be right:' (cf 4. m. 25; 
8. k. 12; 9. b. 22 j 21. e. 24.) 

565. Adverbial sentences which relate to proportion, intensity, equaliiy are 
such as yUnien shAng^sheh, pien tsin-tsin yiU utI (10. a. 1 7), lit. 'one take raise 
hand, then relish it more and more/ which would seem to make the first clause 
an adverbial sentence of time (cf. Art. 560), but the sense of the passage would 
lean rather to the version ' as they drank (or ' the longer they drank') they 
relished it the more / t*d, pU jH n\y tH^shOrti, ' he is not so learned, as you,* or 
' he is not such a scholar, as you,* 

566. Adverbial sentences which relate to ^ect are such as are introduced 

by p^ ^p ' to take/ i yy 'to use/ ling ^^ ' to cause/ Ac ; e. g. che-kSjtn 

sie^ts£, ph ni pH led tH, ' this man writes, so that you cannot read it/ t^d 
kidtng chS^dng to, ling ngd pit ndng hida^, ' he spoke so much, that I could 
not speak at all:* (cf i. j. i — 8.) 

567. Adverbial sentences of cause, which relate to the ground or reason^ 
condition, concession, pv/rp<^ or cor^sequefnoe, require separate treatment, 
because they are generally dependent upon particles, or words used as such, as 

yln g 'because/ \ ^ 'by/ ^% ^ 'although/ j6 ^ 'i^' tsi4 ^ 

' then,' &c. 

568. Adverbial sentences which express the grotmd or reason are some- 
times without, and are sometimes accompanied by, distinctive particles ; e. g. 
yln kien Kw6 shvn tsing . . (9. e. 15) 'as he saw Mr. Kv^*s deep feeling . . / 
chS^o jtn pH'hait, yln-wei t*d md ngd, ' that is a bad man, because he abused 
me/ nl tsd^pH-lai, ngd tsiH pit tH-shU, 'I did not read yesterday, because 
you did not come' (cf. 4. h. 2. and 18). There should be a causative partidc 
present in the protasis, or an illative particle in the apodosis. 

569. Adverbial sentences which express a condition are sometimes, but not 
always, introduced by a conditional particle (cf. Art. 265); e,g. pit sQng ngd 
yi hwei ydng'ts*iin, ngd pit pdL nl cKOrUU, ' if you do not give me a dollar, 
I will not let you go;' jd-ski t*d pU-tseil, piling td t*d, 'if he does not go 
away, I must beat him / pit tsd haii shU, tsiH pOrk^d-l kiaU t'd, tH-shOrH, ' if 
he had not made a good book, we could not call him a scholar :' (cf. 4. g. 24 
— 28. and 4. L 9 — 14.) 

570. Adverbial sentences which express concession are nearly always intro- 
duced by a particle such as sUi ' although / e. g. sul-jin jiirkvn pii4sit, hHt- 


lot t*a Va tS to, ' although now he does not cry, afterwards he will weep much ;' 
kwn-kwd »iit tsai chUtng-^dng iffr-wdnrll . . (23. d. 1 1) ' although jour honour- 
able nation is in the vast ocean twenty thousand miles away;' nl shwd-hU siiU 
piBn tOj 7^g^ HnrpiMf nl, * however much you promise, I cannot believe you.' 

57 1. Adverbial sentences which express a pwrpoee are sometimes introduced 
by a particle; e. g. Ujn hiaii ti I ehUngjtnrl^^ (6. a. 4) < give practical weight 
to filial piety and fraternal love, in order to strengthen the relative duties.' 
But when the purpose is contained in two or three syllables, it may be adjoined 
without a particle, like the English infinitive when it expresses a purpose. 

572. Adverbial sentences which relate to consequence would seem to be 
similar to those under Art 560, but these express rather the consequence 
which follows the principal sentence as a cause; e. g. ' he talks, so that he is 
unMUMgibU^ contains an adverbial sentence of mtmner; ^ he runs so £Bist, thai 
he will be sure to get there in time^ contains an adverbial sentence of effect. 
In this latter case, one clause contains the cause, the other the effect; but in 
the former case, the second clause simply qualifies the verb ' talks.' Examples 
of these distinctions in Chinese can hardly be given. So much is done by infer- 
ence from the sense of a passage, that too subtle a distinction would only mis- 
lead. But a careful study of the causative and illative particles will be bene- 
ficial, and reference shoidd be made to the exercises in Part III. 

§. 6. The complex sentence, 

573. The complex sentence differs from the compound sentence in this, 
that the clauses of which it is composed are mutually dependent. There is 
in a complex sentence one principal and one or more subordinate clauses, 
which come under one of the above-mentioned classes, viz. (i) the noun sen- 
tence, (2) the adjective sentence, or (3) the adverbial sentence. 

hi6 qr sht si chl ^ U) learn and constantly to dwell on the subject,' (noun s.) 
pHyiytl hUf * is it not a pleasurel* (principal s.) (3. d. 10, — 19, — 29.) 
I Kl-ts^ kwei ts6 hUng-fdn ' by Kl-tsz restoring the great plan,' (noun s.) 
fa shed shmg yi ' he gave an example to the sacred sages,' (principal s.) 
(2. m. 13 : cf. also 8. 1. 12. and 9. 1. 15 — 27.) 

574. The adjective sentence is an accessory sentence, in apposition frequently 
to the word which it qualifies ; and with the person or thing, for which that 
word is understood to stand, the adjective sentence may be said to be precisely 
similar to the noun sentence. 

yfrkien Ti kung-tsk lat-pat ' as soon as he saw Mr. Ti coming to call,' (an 

adverbial s. of time.) 
tsaii f% paH, yk Kw6 hung-isk * he hastened to inform Mr. Kwo,^ (prin- 
cipal s.) 
kang-t^ng-ti Ti kung-tsk tavrm4n * who was just then waiting for Mr. Ti to 
arrive at the gate,' (ai^ective s. qualifying Ktoo,) 

B b 2 


§. 7. Thi compound sentence. 

575. Compound sentences contain two or more co-ordinate clauses, each 
being independent of the other, though they are connected either actually by 
particles or virtually by the sense of the passage. 


t*ien toei chl tilng pA ndng kiai, ahing-jtn ch% yhh wdsd-yiing. (2. L 9.) 

nal ch'H tdrfd, yH/ng to«i shin^-^. (2. 1. 20.) 

nl yir-pet ngd f/i-chdn, pien p&fA t/iit-tei, (10. a. 26.) 

idnjtn chi-U t'tng-pei tsi-ki^f Kto6 teiH gdn ted tad. (10. c 4.) 


576. The three states or relations which may subsist in the compound 
sentence are, (i) the copulative, (2) the cidverecUivey (3) the canLecUive. 


(i) ti-8in yi yiil pH^dn, kin yi pit kdn kii^ lid. (9. c. 26.) 
k'vl lid-t*tng ni-ehty shail tdng yi ts'dn. (9. d. 9.) 
Mn king yiil yu^n, yiH U sidng pel, (9. i. 4.) 

(2) Jetjl-ye chl so tH &c. (5. n. 29^-0. 30.) 

aiail'4i yl pUjin yin JeUf tdn chwdng l-eii he. (9. a. 26.) 

Again in 9. c. 1 1, where an adversatiye clause comes in parenthetically^ 

but may be said to be co-ordinate with the previous sentence, 

which is complex. 

(3) ^^ hiaii'tl, I ch4ng jin-l4n. (6. a. 4.) 

adng-jtn pit iidng yi-ji 4r wd yUng^ Ufi pHrJcd yirjl wr vyd teat. (7. a. 10.) 
ehi kU tez taiij lUyU shi, (2. h. 1 1.) 
wd yi wil s£, kd pit wet. (2. j. i.) 

577. Under the copulative relation a subdivision may be said to exist, 
which relates to clauses presenting an alternative, as in English clauses begin- 
ning with the particles either and or. Hw6 pb or hwd-chi ^v ^^ and 
hwdn :^y, repeated at the beginning of each clause, mark such sentenoea. 

hwdn shi tdng chin, hwdn shi tdng shwdl 

' Are you in earnest, or are you joking?' 

hwd-che t*drlat, hwd-M t*d entail, ' either he will come, or perhaps he is 
dead.' (Cf. 3. 1. 27, where yi is used for or, as a connective.) 

§. 8. Figwree of speech. 

578. Under this comprehensive expression much is included, but we pur- 
pose noticing only a few of those peculiar forms which in language take this 
denomination: such as eUipsie, — the leaving out of words; pleonaaniy — 


the redundant use of words; antiihesia, — the appropriate use of words of 
opposite significations ; and the r^i)eUHon of a word or phrase to give emphasis 
to the expression. 

579. 67 the figure ellipsis manj expressions in Chinese become intelligible, 
which appear, at first sight, to be in accordance with no particular rule. Such 
are the terms cMri (9. fl 12) 'old firiends;' paUskeii 'to make a visit on a 
person's birthday:' pai-nUn 'to pay compliments at the new yearj' kail-lait 
' to plead age,' kofdrping ' to plead sickness' (as a reason for retirement firom 

580. It is a very common thing to leave out the personal pronouns when 
they are the subjects of sentences, and when no difficulty would arise in sup- 
plying them from the context or from the conversation. PH-ya^ alone might 
be either ' do not!' i. e. noZt, or 'I do not want;' but pU-yad ehe-kd tung^ 
H must be, 'I do not want this thing,' and pi^ai^ tUng-'theilk must be, 
'do not move!'='be quiet!' So also nS-tie 'thanks!' for 'I thank you;' 
but this expression is similar in the English, ' thank you.' 

581. The obscuiify which might sometimes veil the meaning of a sentence 
in Chinese is removed by the redundancy of repeating the same idea by nega- 
tiving its opposite term : thus, ngd yau led, pU y<s(L td/ng, ' I wish to go, and 
do not wish to stay;' nl yaH shwd chin, pA ya4 shwd hwdng, ' do you speak 
truly, and do not speak falsely ;' tsinryin JcdmrkUn ' I saw it with my own 

582. The Chinese delight in forming antitheses, for which their language 
affords great fiicility, every important attribute and object having its appro- 
priate opposite term. A list of the most common of these will be found in 
Appendix I. Antithesis occurs frequently in proverbs and old sayings; 
e g. yiU t*eA wet, md tot ehUn, 'in front there is dignity, but behind no 
troops;' and shdng yiil t*%en't*dng, hid yiil Su Hdng, ' above there is heaven, 
and below S%irichni) and H<mg-{chev^ :' (c£ 19. i. 1 1.) 

583. Repetition has already been referred to as being a common method 
of forming words and phrases and for intensifying adjectives and adverbs (cf. 
Arts. 99 and 136), but it is often merely for the sake of the rhythm that 
words and syllables are repeated. A few select expressions of this kind may 
be seen in Appendix I. 

584. Almost all the other figures of speech which are used in European 
tongues are to be found in Chinese. Climax is especially common in this 
language. But it is needless to multiply examples of these figures, for they 
will easily be recognised by the advanced student 

§. 9. The varieUea o/Hyle. 

585. The differences of style in Chinese authors, and the marks of the period 
in literary works, are very great and distinct. The language of the most 
ancient authors is very brief and sententious, while the meaning is pregnant 
and expressive. There is a majesty and dignity of style, which have never 
been surpassed by later writers. The style of the King (cf. Part II. pp. 5, 6) 

190 THB 8T2n*AX OF 81DITBN0B8. 

stands foremost in aatiquify and sublimify. The Si-Mi^ the L\4^, the Ta^ 
U-kang^ the Tiiliriii^ and the ShoLi^^haMcvng come next in order (c£ Part II. 
pp. 6, 7), and to these maj be added the great commentators and writers of 
elegant compositions, such as Chwdng-Uk and the Shirtsi, or 'Ten scholars,' 
mentioned in Part IL pp. 7, 8. To these must be added Mifng-tak, who, though 
nearly equal to K'ung-tai in Chinese estimation as a philosopher, has a diffuse 
stjrle of composition. Ta&^ij the author of the Ta&'chfuJin and the Ktod^yd^ 
S»'nui^49ien and the Tsai-takf or ' men of talent,' come next, with the later 
authors, H6n-yU (who lived in the T*dng dynasty), Gau-ydng Sid, S4 Tung^ 
pOf ChU-hi, and many others, fragments of whose works are preserved in the 
Xfirwdn yuh^ kien (cf. Part II. pp. 14, 36). 

586. The distinctions drawn by the eminent writer Tdng-iti Z^ -^ (c£ 

Part n. p. 8) between the different varieties of style are as follows : $£ Mng ie*£ 
tsik*dng; tfiMnga^Mfii; $£ t8*£ ehing M king. When the subject is greater 

than the power of expression, it is denominated k'dng in ' unevenly matched ; 

when the expression exceeds the subject, it is called y%S psr 'poetical style;' 

and when the subject and the expression are equally matched, it is called 

king ^^ ' classic style.' 

587. GaUrydngSidBAjB: Th^l Uai ai^/jr w^\ ahi yhh; $i tfinyhhw^, 
M 1c d Mng pU-yu/h^ 'let the words contain the theme or subject, and let 
el^iant style adorn the words; let there be the subject truthfully, and the 
words elegantly set down, and the style will not be fiir from that which is 
called Inng.* In which passage the four characters X, ^s ^ ^(^ 
8£ Hn yhi, to^n contain the marks of the highest style of literary composition. 

588. No positive rules can be given for composition, but the length of the 
ku, or clauses, should be somewhat diversified. Though clauses of four cha- 
racters, which form phrases, are fi^uent in the best authors, the style will 
be stiff and bald, unless occasionally a clause of five, six, or seven charac- 
ters be introduced. It is usual to accumulate ideas in an opening sentence, 
and then to display them separately in the sequence. The admired style of 
Chinese compositions may be compared to the elegant style of Cicero rather 
than to the nervous argumentative style of Demosthenes. (C£ Pr6mare's 
NotUia Lifngua Svnicos, where examples of style will be found.) 


List of cmitiihetical wards. 

wi Aang * a wholesale merchant* ^M kk ' a retail trader.* 
t Ming ' to reward.* 

5re. shen ' good, virtuous.' 

||^ «A«u 'to collect together.' 

"& ^hei)t 'the head.' 

j^ aheti * to give.' 
J[ 4A6«{ ' a wild animal.' 
^^ cAi ' the b^inning.* 
«&l 'it is so, — ^tme.' 

"^ M 'yes.' 

j^ «^in 'deep (of water).' 

qffl shin 'to extend the body.' 

^ shin 'the body.' 

gya' to punish.' 
S2. ^ 'bad, vicious.' 
^v «^ ' to scatter abroad.' 
)^^P ;K^ 'the foot' 
^* «Aet2 ' to receive.' 
^^ chit ' a tamed animal.' 
i^ chiJmg ' the end.' 
^E y» * it is not so, — false.' 
•^ /«tk ' no.' 
^^ fot^ ' shallow.' 
j^} iUi 'to bend the body.' 
1^ «^fn ' the spirit' 
R^ ^idn^ ' to descend.' 

^Y d^Mhg 'to ascend.' 

^ «ftin^ 'to rise,' ^^/etl 'to float.' J'J^ c4Cn 'to sink.' 

dwoal ' to decay.' 

^^ thing 'to flourisL' 

; shwdng ' a pair.' 
]fc^/<% * to let go.' 

fimg 'abundant' 

^P c^ ' an individuaL' 

nl ' to diHobey.' 
U^ Am 'to take up.' 
^ Ad 'misery.' 
^ pin 'poor.' 




gai * to love.' 
'j^fr ^a<^ 'proud' 
jpP gdng ' hard.* 

hd/n < cold.' 
»+ hat^ 5 good.' 

A«t2 ' thick, — generouB.' 

Al ' to be glad.' 

hUn ' a wise man.' 

hU ' empty, — ^yaln.' 
V^ htng 'the form, — substance.' 
J'g A«o« ' alive.' 
'g* Atoiil ' to meet together.' 

yi ' the &ther.' 
x^ yhi, ' the banquet' 
]^yit^ 'a friend.' 
Ry yin * good words and actions.' 

^^wi* 'to hate.* 
g» ^t^n ' humble.' 
SJI^yti^ 'soft* 
M ahi^ ' heat' 
^ 'thin, — mean.' 

^^ teiti 'to be sorrowful.' 
j^^ yu * a foolish man.* 

" $hi ' solid, — true.* 

[y ying ' the shadow.' 
^ ^ ' dead.' 
jhij pi ' to separate from.' 
^ meX^ij^ ' the mother.' 
j^ si ' a common feast' 
^ft ched ' an enemy.' 
^ ^d ' the reward of them* (Budd.). 

R^ ytn 'the female principle in nature, p JB ydng 'the male principle in nature. 

— darkness,— obscure. 


ki 'fortunate.' 
1^ kau 'higL' 

^ kai ' to cover.' 
'H* Ai^ ' sweet' 

— flight, — dear.' 
}^ Idng ' cold.' 

^r hiung ' unfortunate.' 


Bfl A;*at ' to open.* 

8Wdn ' sour.' 

^^ kid 'to marry (of the woman).' ]^ fouC 'to marry (of the man).* 

kiofd ' to teach.' 
p^ to ' ancient times. ' 
^M» 'birds.' 

A«d 'to leam.' 
meb kial 'to loosen.' 
A^ kin 'the present time.' 
j^sAtftS 'beasts.' 



jl^ hiung ' the male (of birds).' 

;;^'«» 'to forbid.' 

^1 k'iA 'crooked.' {toon 

king ' classic text' 
>^ kwng ' public' 
yit hkng * merit.' 
X^ Vung ' empty.' 

/p 9afng ' raw^ green.' 

yuhh 'distant' 
.^ 1c U 'to go away.' 


^^ Jdiwn 'the prince.' 

it *«^ 'brigJ^tnesB.' 

fD A 'the spiritoal essence, — the 
principle which arranges.' 

^Ij H 'profit or interest' 

UA 'to detain, to keep.' 
^j^ M 'to flow, to roam.' 
^B Ui ' to manifest pleasure.' 

a ^"/^^ 'fierce.' 

P^ fii^n 'the enter door.' 

^^ niS ' anger.' 

^ jTtri 'the gaest' 

4^ jpti 'a man-servant' 

;^l>^n 'the beginning.' 

1^ kufei ' to lose.' 

^R ^10^ 'ghost inferior, 
principle of ym.^ 

— the active 

fflr|[ t8z * the female (of birds).' 
g4 At^ ' to allow.' 

chi ' straight' 
^m|. cAt^ 'the commentary.* 
1 / «2 ' private.' 

SS jM»<{ ' reward.* ku)6 ^^ ' &ult* 
^^ mtodn ' foU.' 
1^1)01^ 'satisfied.' 

«&il ' cooked, ripe.' 
Ij^ A?C» 'near.* 
TJq ZaC ' to come near.* 
B e4€n 'the vassal' 
Bh ^^ ' darkness.' 

lei 'the material essence, — the 
matter which is arranged.' 

JP^ p^ ' the original capital.' 

chi ' to throw away.* 

|p ehl ' to stop, to rest in.' 

^^ pei 'to express sorrow.' 

^^ Udng ' gentle, good' 

^ h4 'the inner door;' fii^Ail= 
* &mily.' 

^^ fin ' patience.* 

^ c^S 'the host' 

^S f>*i 'a maidnservant' 

7^ 97h1( ' the end.' 

^yi 'to gain.' 

Im jAIn 'spirit superior, — the active 
principle of ydng,* 



kw6i ' noble.' 

;P kwdn ' to look at from below, or 
from a distance.* 

^g sang 'religious.' 
^ na«2 < to laugh.' 
^p aien ' before.' 


nn ' new.' 

qg Hn *to beUere.' 

Wt ting ' the name of the dan.' 

rqT f^ng * natural disposition.' 

•_^ » 

tft^Ti^ ' to give. 

siing * to bid adieu.' 
I^tp «^ ' a tutor.' 
69 ^n ' single.' 

t*cm * covetous.' 
y^ tdn 'simple, moderate.' 
yj tad ' a sword with one edge.' 
\^p\ 1^ 'to ask.' 
^^ wi 'not yet* 
HM cAoTi^ 'to stretch the bow.' 

cAon^ ' the ^ of counting.' 

^M cKang 'a female musician.' 

cKdng * long.' 
'^ cVdn^ * constant' 
pB iXdmg ' the leader in the song.' 
€ H chaik ' morning.' 


pj^ Zin 'to look at from above, or 
while approaching.' 

j^ «Ai 'damp, humid.' 

• JTri 

Ajb 9iik ' secular.' 
5g it'll ' to cry.' 
J § A«^ ' behind or after.' 
Uik ' old.' 

i 'to doubt' 
Hk jAi 'the name of the fiunily.' 
^t^ «l 'practice.' 
^^ s&etl ' to receive.' 
j]j 5^71^ 'to welcome.' 
^if <^ ' a pupil, — a disciple.' 
\ dwOfng ' double.' 

Vih^ ' liberal, — not avaridous.' 
YM nCimg ' strong.' 
ffi|] i*i^ 'a two-edged sword.' 
;^e(l 'to reply.' 
p i'abready.' 

5[tt '^^ ' to r^xx. the bow.' 

^? cAIti^ 'the art of weighing and 

|9 y^'^ ' A '^^ performer.' 

4[g ^M?an 'short' 

\ pihi ' changeable.' 

Tp h6 'the singer who replies.' 

fnti 'evening.' 



|S^ ehi 'to ascend.' 

^cW* prudent* 

cAin ' trae.' 
j^ eking 'to perfect* 
gHf cAin^ 'sincere.' 
IP Mng ' straight* 
Ip cAin^ * upright' 
j^ cAtin^ '&ithful and trd 
SL foot^ 'earlj.' 
^ fo'i < wife.' 
^ fotou'sad.' 
"jSriri^ 'to borrow.' 

M ' hastily.* 
f^M 'to collect.' 
I^JI UXb 'elder sister.* 

toCn ' to advance.' 
^ to*iti(r'dear.' 
PS foiti^ 'serene weather.' 
j^ M ' the left hand.' 
^1^ <ari% 'to foUow after.' 
ij|[toti 'coarse.* 
1^ tet^ 'ancestor.' 

J? Uam ' honourable.' 
^X ^•^ *to preserve.* 
^1^ pi ' that' 

n^ ifcidTip ' to descend.' 

f ^ W6f 'quick,'= ^ •«. 
jgifcia 'false.' 
S^ pai ' to ruin.* 
^]^ tM$ ' deceitfiiL' 
^5 toeC ' crooked, awry.' 
5|P«^* depraved.' 
"1^ nin^ ' a flatterer.' 
/\^ji *to enter in.' 
Q^ todn ' late.' 
M ' concubine.' 

20 'joyful* 

A«Min ' to pay again.' 
^ cK% ' slow; -\^^' leisurely.' 
^r^ ««ln ' to scatter.* 
hir mei ' younger sister.' 

^i/l 'to retreat' 
I'^cAit 'muddy.* (A«0^ ^^.) 
j^ yU 'rainy weather.* 
y^ yiH 'the right hand.' 
ly ft 'to stand.* (*'i^.) • 

iO0f 'to oppose.' 
Iffl ^ ' fine.' 
f % ^ ' descendant' 
S. pi 'mean.' 
7~ wdng ' to lose' 
jijj t^ ' this.' 

C C 2 


Examples o/antithms in sentences, 
yiii teat vfi - pi yiU mail, yiU mail tei ' pi. yiU ts'at, 

=t t * 4i ^' f« * I * *4 * .1 

^ There may be talent without beauty, and there may be beauty without 

maii cKxng Jci - is at, tsai fd let maHj 

* His beauty equals his ability, and bis talents enhance bis beauty.' 

% pa eke shin, shi pa (Kwng k*eilk, 

-^ Tn i * # Tn 3t P 

' Not clothing to cover his body, nor food to fill his mouth.' 
hd - chU pa - mi, ahtn - ch4 pH - stnf 

^^ m T^ ^'WM^^ 

'Where have I not looked, where have I not sought)' 
yckii - k'i toiA Uiiy yaH - yen wA - yUj 

i ?4 * \% ^ m I aS 

' He wished to weep, but he had no tears, — to speak, but he had no words.' 
t*a toH ngd s^, ngd pi toH - t*d wdng, 

iU 1^ ^ ft' I iK: ® 1fi d 

' As he died for me, I must sacrifice myself for Imn.' 
shdng-t^ien wd - M, ji - H tod nUfn, 

±% m ^ A iiL I n 

' If he would rise to heaven there is no way, or enter earth there is no door,' 
='he cannot escape.' 

n\ yi - yhi ngd yi - ku, nl yi - chung ngd yi - ckbn. 

i^ - m a \ ^ ^* -^ li I I S 

' They are well matched at gossipping.' ' They are well matched at drinking.* 
yl pwdn ' ^r ts&, yi pwdn-^ k*^ng, 

- ^ % if - I ^ t 

* He half refuses, and is half willing.' 

Examples ofrepetiHon ofcharacUrs. 
yu^hiryuin tsiaH kUn ]| ^ | K^ ^^ 'to look at from a long distance.' 
gal-gal t^Hng-k^U ^^ \ ym ^^ ' to weep bitterly.' 


yirhd-kU tu t'ing-U liai^ — • /^ | ^|J ^ ^^ J *I heard every word' 

yUp^irpa md shdng-shi^ M — • •^' | J^ J^, |JL| ^ * step by step, 

feeling his way, he ascended the mountain.* 
king-^^ H shwd ff^ | ^^ g^ ' to speak very softly.' 

iHng'i*ing tSng-USng ^1^ \ ^ | ' in a fixed and proper manner.' 

ch*^^*^ yi-y^ ^ j^ I ^^ I *to carry off by force.' 

mtng-^tng pi-pi H^ I fi I * ^^ clearly understood.' 

tuMn4wdn ehing-ching jj}g | J]^ | * elegant and correct.' 

tatrUfiMng-chlng^^ \ ^^ | ' precisely arranged.' 

hwan-hwan m^-mii B | ^^ | 'dull and bewildered.' 

tu-su t*a/ur4*ati ^ Ij | pTj I 'to reiterate vociferously.' 

Phrcuea formed upon a simUa/r principle, 
pO-^i pa-kid Jf^ ^ I ^ * he knows not nor perceives.' 

pO-ming pHrpi ^ 5^ I Q ' <i^^ unintelligible.' 

yuenreang yuinrs^ ^| ^ \ ^ 'ready to live or die.' 

k'iracmg ^'^ ^^ M /^ I ^ ' desperately angry.' 

k'd-Ju^nk'd-naHpf ^^ \ ^^ ' extremely annoying.' 

«l kH 8^ k'iai^ "iB ^ ^ ^ 'apparently very clever.' 

pwdn If at puodn yin ^^ BM | \%^ * ludf revealed and half concealed.' 

pwdnjtnpwdnkwe^^. \ \ ^ ' half man and half ghost' 

kmg^tn Ung hwei ^ |^ I %^'^ V^^l *^® «^®^' 
I6mg4ai Ung ife'4 ^ ^ | ^ 'to be eager at business.' 
A<i-y^M^^3 ^ I =§*to talk very foolishly.' 
mdridmd-eia^^'^ \ vj^ ' to abuse all alike.' 

td-ieiil tdrja ;^ ?0 I ^ '• ff^* ^*^*'' 

Ki43vA-mil k'ia4^dng ^ |^ I ||| '"* * haughty manner.' 

kd'm4n kdhH ^ f^ | 6 'each in his own way.' 


AHhw* A«'d P^ ^. I ^'greatly afflicted' 
yiH^'ing yiiirkd ':^ *^ | ^^ * th«re is fiiU proof of if 
miir^/uin m^kd ^^ ]^ | ^^ 'there is no ground at all for if 
mUrtsiing mUrying \%^^ \ ^^ 'without trace or shadow/ 

Esoamphi o/sjfnonymes U80d in phrases. 
ha(irU gaUs*lng ^ ^% ^ ?ft '*® ^^^^ cleanlinesa' 
t'4Mg kan kUng k*ul^ -^ ih ^ <alike happy and troubled.' 
tsanpin king Ja ^ ^ ^ ^ *to honour and respect guests.' 
hu}clfnrt*i^ hl4i ^ji[ ^ ^ i{& '*<> T^ioiee exceedingly.' 
shU*i€n mtng-4i ^ ^ J^ i{^ 'to swear by heaven and earth.' 
aMpdng tsU^ii g^ J^j| ^g '^ *friends of the Muse and the wine.' 
pa4 Mt(A s& yuSn ^ ^^^ g ^ 'to revenge an insult' 
lUig yd U eh'l j^ ^ j^\j ^ ^dever at speaking,' 
has£kodnsidngf^ ^ g[ j^, ' to think confwedly.' 
jUkisih'd'^^i U ^U J'g 'like hunger and thiret' 

£M«et tdiomoHo phrases. 
Udngt'eAUwA^ g|| ^ j^ 'to hide the head and eqraw the taiL' 
niH fnai U shwca ^ ^ ^ M 'je*" ""weased, strength decayed.' 
dOn cMn hoU k6 ^ J^ J^j^ ||p 'sumptuous &w.' 
to'tf «*'<l <■«»/<<» g^ i^ J^ f^ 'Vuteless tea and rice,— poor &r&' 
mOrUA yhtrk'4 ^ ^ BS -^ 'glancing now and again.' 
vMi-hoa yinnwA }^ ^ gg ^ 'iffched ejfebrows and laughing ejea.' 
A«w«-to'atiwan««|>|| ^ ^ If 'devoted to learning.' 
Ufns^'iinpi^ ^ft ^ fi 'in openly.' 
»*<A*V «9'd-K<tov 'f^jj "^ 1^ ^ ' let n# muta*Uy advise.' 
nJ-«fev »Vd-rt H^^ I ^ 'we are mutuaUy opposed.' 


pi^ Al y^ U M Mr /M^ ' from noon to midnight, — day and night* 
M-a^p^^-hwd ^ ^ Ai. J'^ 'more dead than aliYd.' 
Mrp^ pMi 4^ ;^ /[^ ^ij * the profit just saves the capital.* 
p94ing pi4i '^ 4^ 5 4i\\ ' very shrewd and clever.' 

EkffCMi phrases, idiomatio and poeiie. 
iSAl^ng^ ^ 'the^lHt^says^'oriSM^n^* | ' the /SAd^n^ says.' 

r«^ yd ^* Q 'for K"^mg4A (Oonfiiciiis) says.' 

j6fn^ ^9 ^^9 lit. ' to moisten the pencil, — to commit to writing.' 

Jhng-fii ^£ HM ' to laugh immoderately,' like '^ Se tenir les c6t^ de rire," 
or ^* Laughter holding both his sidea" Milton. 

keiQrfning p£f ^^ lit ' to fish for a name, — to hunt for a reputation.' 

fnil'SiQing B 1^, lit. ' with the eye to accompany, — to watch until out 
of sight.' 

yUi4A ijr ^ A], lit. * to drink tears, — to weep bitterly.' 

Mryhh "^ B , lit. 'to eat words, — to break a promise.' 

Confucius denied himself in respect of four things, which are referred to in 
the following ezptMdons : 

wA4 ffi; ^ 'he did not bind himself t6 htot>wn opinion.' 
wHfJi I ;rA * be did not hold any thing to be of necessity absolute.' 
touted I ^^ 'he was not perverse and obstinate in his views.' 
u^d^nffd I $K ' he held no feelings of private interest' 
T'iUF^fuin ^S yTj lit 'tiie exalted origin of things, — heaven.' 
Tunff^niiin ^ y&f lit 'the prince of tiie east, — the sun.' 

P^'a g |^> lit 'the white colt»— the morning.'— ilfiroro. 

I'M H ^ «the charioteer of the sun.'— PAoeCAon. 

Tien^h^n ^ ^^ 'a star of evil omen.' 

SienM ral ^^ ' ^^ charioteer of the moon,' also called Chdng-^d. 


Tirkwng ^ '\^ 'the itunbow,' ako caHedn^Ong $ft {^. 

N'dri 'tr Ha * the Spirit presiding over flowers.* 

Wdrng-huod J ^^ *the royal flower/— the J/ot^^n ^ j^ -B-. 

Tsang-yiU ^fi ^' * the water-lily,* Ztfn^-yrf || ^ 'the ^J-cAi ^ |^.' 

LUktma I I ^3^, Ht. ' fllaye of the l}irchV=^ the Mfi$F-yd (' fruit'). 

chmrfSmg^jgL WL * pursuer of the wind,' or c&tfl-<f^ 3S ^? 'a pursuer of 
the lightning/ — a name for a fine horse. 

9h&n4ciQn Ml ^^ lit ' prince of the mountains, — the tiger.' 

The 'sheep' is called JeA-maA ^\ ^^; the 'goat/ ji^»4d9i^ ^^ ra^; the 
'swallow/ ^*«m-nd ^^ H^T; the ' parrot/ yhir^nia/U w & ; the 'tortoise/ 
^[ ^ Hiiavy-fH; the 'ant/ MuenrVU; the 'vine,' Hung-yi^ ^J ^^, 
ffwanrpi ||j|[ ^1^, SUmg^dng ^ | or Ldn-Mlng m ^. r«64n«^ 
^£ ^§ is 'the wine for a journey.' CfttSn^F-foii^ (|^ | 'half drunk.' 0^n- 

Mu^ {I^ ^ 'ink.' Ftmg-ufi ^ P;|: or /tZii^^ii^ || ^'aninkstone.' 

XIh47C'SS I 'the pencil' FtX-pdn ^ U^ ' paper.' 5&tW% ^J^ 5£. 

'palace of the immortals.' SMrkia fg* ^^ 'a man of rank.' TtirM ^^ ^ 
'choice food.' NUn-sheU 9^ w a term for 'men.' F«l-^*i ^ SB 'a very 

fidr person.' ICau-tsi J0» J^ 'passing ricL' KavrBomg Wt Ql or tam^ 

8ang^& \ 'an old man.' Tdrisidffhg yr V^ or chlJriM ml S^ 'a worker 
in wood.' T8*iang-kw€i ^ '^' 'to fly after honours.' T8*fuinr4ai ^ ^ 
'a sepulchral mound, — a tomb.' SMn^*dng fjm ^? 'a bier.' WUrkdi 
f ^ ^^ ' ^^^' ^^^-y^ f^ i^. ' free from disease.' Teien^i k*U 

^ M. 1^ is 'a fine young horse.' ShUchUng-h^ g^ ^ j^ is 'a 
poet.' JinriAiang4ilng /^ W || is 'an illustrious man.' KtaiF^ydrhwd 

ffl£ ^S ling and htod-kiin-mu 'jcV ^^ ^y and ydng^-Udrnht TS 

;^P ;^j^ mean 'a beautiful woman.' i8%-foi-fo6 ^j|j ^ ]^ 'the seat of 

Buddha.' KiUng-fd ^ ^ is ' a barren soil.' Kwetr^tng-^ ^ 'some- 
thing very precious.' WtHr^ng-M ^ ffA ^ 'the five kinds of flesh.' 


A li$t of C^Uute family names {Pi^Ud 9(ng) arranged according to 

the Radical characters, 

(Bad. I — 44.) 

I "T Tvng 
2^ Wdn 
3 y Sh6fng 


9 iJl Ki4 
o ^' Ling 

^m ChUng 


7 ^^ Hi 
8^ Fit 



34 j^ Chd 
a6 ^ Ch'ang 

99 /^ ^dn^ 
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Note— 64 ifl also oalled «Aa». 305 shotild have 'gnss' ftbove it. 314 ahoold hftve ' door* 

with ' giMB* above it. 389 should have < a door' over it. 

^ The following are family names of two syllables. 

CKdng-san (384, 79). 
CMn^ (64, 6). 
ChO-kd (331, 298). 
Chamg4i (383, 400). 
ChiSmg''9mh (12, 79). 
GofOrydfng (186, 395). 
JTiuf-Atf^ (69, 19). 
Ei4i^ (343, 354). 
Htenr^fuJh^ (348, 349). 
Ewda^fil (214, 228). 
KOnff^i (29, 32). 
Kun^l^n (29, 79). 
ZOnff-^^d/ng (29, 269). 
Xi9i$hM (34^ 222). 
ifi^^l% (133, 91). 

The numbers refer to 

Pilrydng (214, 395). 
jS%fn^'l2 (231, 102). 
Shdmg4Bwan (3, 85). 
^n^ (204, 6). 
Sz-k'Ung (53, 251). 
^«-tnd (53, 416). 
^SS-<*<1 (S3, 128). 
Td-M (70, so.) 
T'dnri'ai (213, 281). 
TsOng-^hing (84, 145). 
TUng-fang (167, 148). 
7^40^ (80, 147), 
W4nr^n (275, 8). 
Yr<fnp«£ (2, 21). 
Wi^rchH (96, 3S6). 

the previous list. 


A list of the dj/ncatieSy the enj^erora, and the nied'hau, 

I. Sdnrhwdng —-^ §J * the Three emperors.' 

Under this title are included the names of six persons, whose history is 
pure myth^ but whose names ought to be known to the Chinese student. 

I. Ftodn-ki^ ^ -^* (v. Part II. p. 104). a. Tienrhwdng ^ | ♦. 
3. Ti-hu)^ Jljl I . 4. Jinrhwdffhg ^ \ . 5. TiU-cKa/A /j& m. 6. 

These rulers are sud to have reigned myriads of years, and to have invented 
all the ordinary arts of life. 

XL Wiirti Jl ^ ' the Kve emperors.' [B. C. 2852 — 2204.] 

I. F^hl ^X ffi (115). 2- ShtfirnUng j|j^ jS (140). 3. Hwdng^ 
fe t^ ^* (100). 4. Shailhhm ^^ ^ (84). 5. ChuenrhiU ^| J^ 
(78). 6. TW?a ^ M or j§ (78). l.Td^^iTau^ \ ^ (loa). 1 

Of this early period tradition alone renders an account. Eight sovereigns 
ruled, and instituted many useful methods of providing for the wants and 
comforts of their subjects. Ploughing, fishing, writing, keeping records of 
events, and the best modes of governing mankind formed the subjects of their 
invention. During these times K'airfimg y&, on the ffwdng-hd in Hd-^n, 
was the metropolis. The first cycle began in the 6zBt year of Hwdmg^ 

ni. Eid-ehaH ^ ^j^ 'the Hia dynasty.' [B. C. 2205—1767.] 
I. TdTilL-^ ^ (2205—8). 2. Ti n I jg^ (3197—9). 3. raf 

* The ohArftcten Kwdng^, wtfn^S ««, t*<A\ tiA*, ttUng^ and some othen will not be 
repeated frequently in this list. The numbers in braokets give the date of the oommenoe* 
ment and the length of each reign. 

I -m '± •*! ' 



Eang ^ J^ (ai88. 29). 4. Chung Eqng jjlj^ \ (2159. 13). 5. « 
^^ I f § (3i4<$- 38). 6. iS%ai^ Kqng ^p | (aiz8. 61). 7. 1% 

Chu I |jp (2057. 17). 8. n Hwat \ ;fj^ (2040. 26). 9. Ti Mdng 
I j^ (2014. 18). 10. TiS^ \ ^^ (1996. 16). II. n P^rkidng | 

^ P^ (1980. 59). la. T^-ftungr | ^j (1921. 21). 13. Ti Kin \ 

JS (1900. 21). 14. TiEHng-kid \ ^ ^ (1879. 31). 15. Ti Kaa 

I ^ (1848. 11). 16. Ti Fd \ ^ (1837. 19)-« JTwei ^ 
(1818. 52). (C£ Part II. p. 22, note for a notice of TH.) 

lY. Shdng-dMu ISt 

I. Cfh'tng-t^ang J^ y]^ (1766. 13). 2. ral-«(» -;J^ ^ (1753, 33). 
3. TTtWIw^ j[^ "J" (1720. 29). 4. T'ai'kqng \ ^ (1691. 25). 5. 
Siai^Md jji I (1666. 17). 6. Ftln^-*! ^ g^ (^^49- ")• 7- ^<^ 
•"•^ I f^ (1^37. 75)- 8. CfhOng-Ong ^tjl "]" (1562. 13). 9. Wai-jtn 
^[' i (^549. IS). 10. H64dn-hid J'Wj g | (1534. 9). ix. TW^H^ 
ifl 2^ (^525. 19). ". Tsi^n I ^ (1506. i6), 13. Wil^eid ]^ 
^ (1490. «S). 14. ^^t^ws' I "I* (H<55. 14). 15. Ji^dnriang ^ | 
(1433. 35). i^. Tdng4dd |Jj^ | (1408. 7). 17. Pwdnrkqng ^ | 

(1401. 28). 18. SiailHtm J^ \ (1373). 19. Siflw^ | ^ (1352. 28). 
20. ITt^-Hn^ ^ 'J' (1324. 59). 21. Ts^hang \ ^ (1265. 7). 22. 

TsiMd I ^ (1258. 33). 23. Xln-^n J^ | (1225. 6). 24. Karig- 
Ung I "J" (1219. 21). 25. WH-yi ^ | (1198. 4). 26. Fairfkig -j^ 
J (1194. 3). 37. Ti^^ I (1191.37). 28. C%ei^-9in 1^ | (1154. 3a)- 

y. CheO^haH ^j ^j^ <the Cheu djmasCy.' [B. C. 1122—249.] 

I. WU'Wdng-^ ^ (1122. 7). 2. Ch*ing-wdng^ \ (iii5'37)- 3. 

Kang-iodng J^ | (1078. 26). 4, C%ai^fi9>d9i^ (JH | (1052. 51). 5. 

MUr'fDdng Hf^ I (looi. 55). 6. KOng-wdng ^ | (946. 12). 7. Lwdng 
1^ 1 (934- 7)- 8. Eiad-wdng ^ \ (909. 15). 9. I^iodng ^ | 

(894. 16). 10. £f-iM% j^ I (878. 51). II. Siuen-wdng q^ | 


(827. 46). la. Ti4-iodng^ \ (781. 11). 13. I^ing-wdng 2^- | 
(770. 51). 14. ffwdn^wdng i^g | (719. 23). 15. Chiocmg-wding ti \ 
(696. 15). 16. LUodng ^ \ (681. 5). 17. HwaUodng j^, I (676. 
25). 18. Siang-wdng ^. | (651. 33). 19. K\ng-u>d/ng [-§ | (618. 6). 
ao. KvOnQ-wdflng ^ | (6ia. 6). 21. ^^-to^ ^ | (606. 21). 
22. Zf0fipfodn^ ^1 I (585.14). 23. Zlfl^FHodn^ ^ I (57 1- 27)- «4* 
Kifig^wdfng -^ \ (544. 25). 25. Xing^wdng ^ | (519. 44). 26. 
TuhHiodng y^ \ (475. 7). 27. CWw^ti^Haifi^ ^ ^ | (468. 28). 
28. Ka^a^iDdmg :^- | (440. 15). 29. PTei-ft-Mk^ J^ ^j | (4^5. 24)^ 
30. &af»Hotf9i^ ^ ) (401. 26). 31. LUodmg f<^^ \ (375. 7). 32, 
HihiHwdmg ^^| \ (368. 48). 33. ShinrMng-wdng |^ ^| | (320. 6). 

34. Nd/fir^wdng ^g I (314. 59)- 35- Tung-eheO-kiOn ^ ^ ^^ 

(ass. ^)- 

During tbiB period aeveral great men flonrished, whose names and works 
have come down to the present time. Such was W4f^'wdngf ' the prince of 
letters,' who at the end of the Shomg dynasty had been imprisoned for his 
upright conduct In confinement he wrote the Ti-Jcing or ' Book of changes,' 
and was afterwards liberated through the intercession of a lady whom his son 
(afterwards YTi^^todn^, the first monarch of the Cheu, dynasty) had sent to the 
emperor. WiHf^U)6fng and his brother CheQrhwng were both eminent men of let- 
ters. Lailrt^y the founder of the Tauist sect, K*ilng-48z (Confucius) (B. C. 5 1 9), 
and M4ng~Uz (Mencius) were all bom during the CTteu dynasty. The doc- 
trines taught by these worthies of antiquity were called wdng-taiif ' the royal 
doctrines,' a term which is equivalent to the term "philosophy" in Europe. 
The country was divided into many petty states in these times. At one time 
there were 125, at another they were reduced to 41. The terms Cher^ 
kwd mu ^ and Li-kwd y\\ ffl were the designations of these ' contending' 
or 'confederate^ states. 

VL THfirehau 0^ ^^ 'the Tsin dynasty.' [B. C. 249—246.] 
1. dwOng-aiSng todng uj. m + (249. 3). 

VII. Eea THn ehaa "^^ \ \ 'the Latter Tsm dynasty.' [B.C. 246— 202.] 
I. Chi Hwdmg'4% j(^ \ | (246. 37). 2. Ar^i ffwdng-ii (209. 7). 


CKl ffwdng'H was the moBt celebrated ruler China ever had. He built the 
great wall, and destroyed all existing records, as far as he could do so, and put 
many of the learned to death, because he feared their influence to incite the 
people to rebellion. He was undoubtedly a great monarch, his power ex- 
tended throughout China, and he called himself the ' First emperor.' 

VIII. ffdfk^hau I'll ^J^ ' the Han dynasty.' [B. C. ao2— A. D. 25.] 

I. KaOrisi^ j^ I (20a. 8). 2. ITwUfrii ]g | (194. 7). 3. Liinhea 
g ^'(187.8). 4'W4firti^ I (179.33). S'Klng-Hf^ \ (156. 
16). 6. rtWC ^ I (140. 54). 7- Cha4rH 0^ | (B.C. 86. 13). 8. 

Smen^i 'g* | (B. C. 73. 25). 9. Yu^n-ti JQ | (B, C. 48. 16). 10. 

Ch'tng-ti J5g I (B.C. 32. 26). 11. GaUi '^ | (B. C. 6. 6). 12. 

rtnff^ 2p. I (A. D. I. s). 13. J44a^ ying J|| ^. ^ (A D. 6. 17). 
14. Ewat'-ydnff'-iiDdng V^ ^^ | (A D. 23. 2). 

IX. TUngEdn "^ ^|| 'the Eastern Han dynasty.' [A. D. 25—221.] 

I. KtoSng-tpii "7^ ^ (25. 33). 2. Minff-H Q^ \ (58. 18), 3. 
Chang-ti^ \ {^6, 13). 4- ffUi ^U \ (89,17). ^, Shang-fil^'^ \ 
(106. i). 6. Gamrti ^ \ (107. 19). 7. Sh4nra |I|| | (126. 19). 8. 
CAtSn^i^rjl I (145. i). g.Ch&'ti^ I (14^. x). 10. Hwd/nr4i |g | 
(147. 21). II. Ltng^ ^ I (168. 22). 12. Hihy4i ^ \ (190. 31). 

At the end of this dynasty the empire was diyided into ' Three kingdoms,' 
iSAO, W^ and WH. 

X. Hed ffdn ^^ J'|| ' the Latter Han.' [A D. 221—265.] 
I. Chail4i ti 0g ^0 I (221. 2). 2. ffedr^ ^^ | (223. 42). 

XL TaifiHshaa g ^]^ *the Tsin dynasty.' [A. D. 265—317.] 

I. W^i jj^ I (265. 26). 2. HwUUi J^ I (290, 17). 3. Hwa%-4i 
ti I (307.6). 4^Mm-t%^k I (313.4). 


XIL rtlngr 2«n ^ ^ 'the Eastern Tsm.' [A D. 317—420.] 

I. Yuhy4i^ I (317. 6). 2. Jfin^C H^ I (323. 3). 3. CKtng-ii 
Jg{ I (3^6. X7). 4. iS:4«i^-<i JH* I (343.2). S'M^^ii |(34S.»7). 


6. Ocfirti ^ ^ (363. 4). 7. TU^ ^ ^ (366. 6). 8. KQnrv4n ^ ^1 
(371. 2). 9. Hkna^wOL ^ ^ (373. 24). 10. (?an-<« ^' | (397. 22). 
ii.A^i^.^i^ I (419. i). 

The literaiy degree of Siii-ts'at was introduced A. D. 286. 

XIII. n Sung Ji' y^ 'the Northern Song.* [A. D. 420^479.] 

I. Eau-tsU ^ I (420. 3). 2. ShaH-ti ^^ | (423. i). 3. W4n-ti 
^ I (424.30). ^WH-ti^ I (454.10). 5.^i-«^ I (464.1). 

6. Afing-H ^ | (465. 8). 7. 7Mn^-<(n^-4odn^ ^ ^ BE ^*?3- ^)- 
S.Sh^fn4i]^ I (477.2). 

XIV. Ts'trchaia ^ ^3 'the Tsi dynasty.* [A. D. 479—502.] 
1. KaOrti jg I (479. 4). 2. PTii-rt ^ I (483. II). 3. Mtng^ti 
5^ I (494. 5). 4. ^wwj^AMWw-Aetf ^ ^ j^ (499- 2). 5. Hd-ti 
JP I (501. i). 

XV. Li6ifng<haa Wl ^Q 'the Liang dynasty.* [A- D. 502—557.] 

I. WiJirHi ^ I (502. 48). 2. KihiHu^n 1^' ^ (550. 2). 3. YvJht^ 

^ 7C I (55*- 3). 4. ^in^ ^ I (555. «)• 

About ihiB time the people began to use chairs for seats. Wii-H became a 
Buddhist monk, and observed the rules of the order. 

XVL CMnrcka/a (5^ ^)^ 'the Chin dynasty.' [A. D. 557—589.] 

i.AToO^at^jg I (557.3). 2.W^nrl/i^ \ (560.7). 3-^^^^ I 
(567. 2). 4. Smen-H 'g* | (569. 14). 5. Hedrchh ^^ ^ (583. 6). 

XVn. SUtHAofa pg ^ J ' the Suy dynasty.' [A- D. 589—620.] 

I. KafOrisU ^f I (589. 16). a. Tdng-H ^^ \ (605. 13). 3. KimgiU 
yi^^ f ^^(618.1). 4. J^iiw^i-«'i% I I ^^(619.1). 

XVin. rdng-chaH ^ ^Q 'the Tftng dynasty.' [A. D. 620—907]. 

1. Ka/Msh 0^ I (620. 7). 2. Tai-tailng ^ \ (627. 23). 3. ZaO- 

s e 


tiling ^ I (650. 34). 4. Chvmg-Uwng f^ | (684. 26). 5. Ju{ 
J0 I (710.3). 6. Hiu^-taung '^ \ (713- 43)- I'SH-^tung^ \ 
(756. 7). 8. TaUsung j-^ | (763. 8). 9. Ti^UOng ^g | (780. 25). 
10. iSA^n^toun^ |{|P | (805.1). 11. ffihi'4nmg^' \ (806.15). la. 
MUrisOng ^^ | (821. 4). 13. King-Ming ^ | (825. 2). 14. Win- 
iaung ^ | (827. 14). 15. WihtaOng ^ \ (841. 6). 16. SiuenrUung 
^ I (847- 13)- 17- J^'Mlng^ I (860. 14). 18. HUiung j^ | 

(874.15). ig. Gha^irUOng ^^ \ (889.15). 20. Cfha4-^iuinrH ^^ ^ | 
(904. 3)- 

XIX. ffea Lidng A^ y^l '**^« I^^©'' I-i^g dyn^ty* [A. D. 907—933.] 
I. Tat-UtiH ^ I (907. 6). 2. Lidng-<Aiir4ihi ^ ^ jfi(9'3- ^**)- 

XX. Med rdng ^^ ^ '^^ ^^"^"^ '^^ dynaaty.' [A D. 923-HJ36.] 

I. Chwang-imlng ul" | (923- 3)- »• Jfln^htown^ H^ | (926. 8). 3. 
Mtnrti m I (934). 4. ^^^ J^ I (934. 2). 

XXI. EeH T$Mk ^^ § 'the Latter Taiii dynastj.' [A D. 936—947.} 
I. iTatW^^ I (936.8). 2. CffO-^iyy j (944.3)- 

XXII. Hea ffdn ^^ ^^ 'the Latter Han dToaaty.' [AD. 947—951.] 
I. KoMbU ^ I (947. i). 2. r«n-« |5^ I (948. 3). 

XXIIL ffed Cheu ^^ ^ 'the Latter Chen dynasty.' [A. D. 951—960.] 
I. raUtsil ^ I (951. 3). 2. JBMrUOng ^ \ (954- 6). 3. *i^-<C 


> Sung dynasty.' [A. D. 960 — 1 127.] 
raUsung -4- I (976. 22). 3. Chl\ 

*^^*^ J^ I (998- 35). 4- Jt'n^iwng ^\ \ (1023. 41). 5. Ying-UOng 
^ I (1064. 4). 6. Shinrtsung |^ | (1068. 18). 7. ChS-Uung ^ | 

(1086. 15). 8. Hwul'tefWng ^% \ (iioi. 25). 9. KtnrtaUng ^j[ | 
(1126. x). 


XXV. Ndn Sung j^ ^ '*® Southern Sung.' [A. D. 1 127— 1280.] 
I. Kau-t8ung M \ (1127. 36). a. ffiaMsUng ^ | (1163. 27). 3. 

iLWdng-Uang y^ \ (1190.5). 4. Mnff-teimg \ (1195.30). 5. 

Ll49ang jffl | (1225. 40). 6. T4't8wng Bfc | (1265. 10). 7. KUng- 

tsOfng ^ I (1275. 0- ^- TwdmrUfung J^ | (1276. 2). 9. Ti-fiing 

flf B^ (1278. 2). 

XXVI. Tuinrchau 7^* ^H 'the Yu6n dynasty.' [A. D. 1280—1368.] 
I. SMritU j^ I (1280. 15). 2. CKtng-Mmg j^^ | (1295. 13). 3. 

WiHrimJi/ng ^ | (1308. 4). 4. Jlnpteiin^ >^^ | (131 2. 9). 5. Ylng- 

t9img^ I (1321.3)- 6,raUing^^^ \ (1324.5)- 7- ^««^- 
isikng H^ | (1329. i). 8. W^rirlsimg ^ | (1330. 3). 9. Sh4n49ung 

lili I (1333.35). 

XXVn. Mtng-ehaH ^ ^| 'the Ming dynasty.' [A. D. 1368— 1644.] 
X. TaUsil -^ I (1368. 30). 2. KiSn-w4/nrti ^ '^ \ (1398. 5). 
3. T^ai-tmng "h | (1403.22). 4, Jin-iaung yj2 I (1425. i). 5. Stum- 

teufi^ H I (1426. 10). 6. Rfi^Hfoun^ ."ffi.' I (1436. 21). 7. K\ng^ 
;w' I (1457. 8). 8. Hih^Uy/ng -mr \ (1465. 23). 9. Htcrit-taung 

^ I (1488. 18). 10. Wil-tsung ^ | (1506. 16). 11. Shi-tmng 

"(ti; I (1522. 45). 12. MH'taiing 5f^ | (1567. 6). 13. Shin48ilng 

i^ I (1573- 47). 14. ^fodng-taUng y^ \ (1620. i). 15. Hi-Ming 

@ I (1621. 7). 16. JTuxil-teun^ f^ I (1628. 16). 

XXVllL Td-itlng-ehaH ^ J^^ ^J^ 'the Ti-tslng dynasty.' 

[A.D. 1644 — 1862.] 

I. SM^tsU^hOng j^ \ j^ (1644, 18). 2. Shing-tei^tn ^ | /f^ 
(1662. 61). 3. SUrMng-hihh | | w* (1723. 13). 4. Ka'artming-sh4n 
^ I llj (1736.60). ^. Jiprtewng-jUi ^ \ ^(1796.25). 6. TatJ- 
Ati^n^ 5J§ y^ (1821. 30). 7. HUnrJtmg ra/ ® (1851. 9). 8. Tung-chl 
S |§ (i860). 

E e 2 



(i.) LUt of the characters occurring in the niSn-hau, arranged 


chang * Inminous.' 
chS/ng 'splendid.* 
cHf* cKdng * constant.' 
cKdng 'extensive.' 

0gcft«a' bright- 

M * large, wide.* 
J^ ch% 'beginning.' 

chi ' extreme.* 
J^^cfei 'ruling.* 

ehi 'the utmost' 
^{ chi ' carnation.' 

IM. ^*** ' true. 
>|Tf chtng 'conquering.' 
jS e&fn^ ' virtuous.' 
-^ cAin^' aiding.' 
JTO cAI«^ ' perfect.' 
IP cAIn^ ' upright' 
TpV cfti9i^ ' regulating.' 
in cftln^ 'pure.' 
e&i«£ ' extending.' 

^^ c^n ' pleasant' 

^ e&wi^'middle'or 'second.' 

e&4n^ 'renewed.' 
::^ya 'charm.' 
f-m -^ ' assistance.* 
Ig/tX 'happiness.' 

fung ' affluent* 

fdng 'omen of good.' 
i J* yK«^ 'affluent* 
^ ^dn * peace.' 
)fm hdn * milky-way.' 
^S hang 'adjusting.' 
^ hq/ng ' success.' 
^^ hed 'second.' 
^t^ hea ' hunting.' 

|. hi ' pervading.' 
^a Ai 'rejoicing.' 
t£ ^ ' prosperity.' 
I^Ai 'bliss.' 
^^ hiaH 'pious.' 

hiSn 'complete.' 
M§ hUn ' illustrious.* 
g n\ hidn 'instruction.' 
•^k' hd 'peace.* 
7(1 Ad 'harmony.* 
^^ Ad 'the river.* 
^1^ Atotf ' reforming.' 
hwAng 'yellow.' 
Acodn^ 'emperor.' 
^M hufia ' excellent.' 
^ Acffiil 'united.' 

( 'justice.' 
'fS C 'correct' 
/Tl i^w ' humane.' 
^l ^'In ' man.' 
M|| A'ai ' opening.' 



u* k&n 'sweet' 

hang 'more/ 
1^*1 'arranging.' 
Qv Jd^ ' instructing.' 
kl^ ki ' extreme.' 

kid ' increasing.' 
^ ibis 'stag.' 


^ kUn 'controlling.' 
^ifci^ 'establishing.' 
-^^ king illmnined.' 
9 Mng ' investigating.' 
k'ing 'good.' 
r kiun ' princes.' 

^ M 'residing.' 
^^ ^ti^ ' honouring.' 
^tt ^n^ 'uniting.' 
Up kwdn ' to see.' 
yh kwang 'brightness.' 
kwdng ' vast' 

kwei ' tortoise.' 
W kwd 'kingdom.' 
Is A ' ceremony.* 

a 'heavenly signs.' 
Un 'stag.' 

16 'joy.' 

t^ /il 'manifest' 
%W. ^^ 'happiness.' 

2^^ ' dragon.' 
Rs /49i^ 'glorious.' 
^mCn 'people.' 
S^ mlti^ 'bright' 

ni^ 'inheritance.' 
:& nt^'year.' 
jtt wingr 'peace.' 
/j^ p^ ' origin.' 

pah ' precious.' 
q S |w& * protecting.' 
2p. j>'l9i^ * peace.' 
^ i>'i^ ' general.' 
/[||«A<^ 'obedient' 
^S «^t^ 'continuing.' 
r ahdng ' superior.' 
^^ «A^ ' directing.' 
m^ shea ' tBikmg: 
J^ «Aet{ 'receiving.' 

shea 'aged.' 
|^«4I 'behold.' 
^ shtn ' divine.' 
^[ , shmg 'ascending.' 
yY 9h%ng 'ascending.' 

Mng 'sacred.' 


}^«Aiin«l 'good omen.' 
^ H ' royal seal* 

m/kig 'elephant' 
^^ sien 'first' 
» Mu^ ' extending.' 
^^ 86 'restoration.' 
1^ ^ ' tranquil.' 


s& 'succession.' 
y^ ftl 'great* 
jr «'aC ' extreme.' 
^^ ton^ ' ascending.' 
^ "^^ ta^ ' reason. 

^^ «Ai7)^ 'abundant' 

^]^« 'virtue.' 
i^d^rt 'earth.' 
^ <f ' ruler.* 
g^ l^fota ' regulating.' 
j^ t*%en 'heaven.' 
WA t\ng ' security.' 
^ <l«^ ' fixed.' 

tia% ' containing.' 
V iadn ' praising.* 
^ M ' dwelling.' 
g^ taidftg 'felicitous.' 
g» fo»^ 'partition.' 



aid < noble.' 
^* tsing 'aEure.' 

Uiing 'pure.' 
ifS Mng 'quiet' 
^kH t8u ' beginning.* 
qgMn^' general' 


tot^ < general.' 
pg ta 'all' 

H^ tf i < bestowing.' 
M| <*iiiij7 'ihoroQgb.' 
1^ t*iing 'eame.' 
^^ t'iing ' eomplete.' 
^Hg «iMn ' upright.' 

- to^tn^ 'revered.' 

j^ ii 'a crow.' 
"^ wdn 'myriad.' 
^ti^ 'literary.' 
jU €91^ ' five.' 

tifU ' military.* 
\i^ ffdng 'vast' 

jirai^ 'glory.' 
yhh 'spread.' 
yJ^ y^ ' luminous.' 
J^yin^ 'replying.' 

J||>{h y^^ 'asostanoe.' 
yd 'pr^ared.' 
^n ' clouds.' 

^B yun 'revolving.' 

tT yu^' beginning.' 
: yung 'harmony.' 


Note. — ^All these characters are significant when they are present in the 
designation of a year or a reig^^ and the meanings here attached to them are 
intended to guide the student in rendering such designations into English. 
In some cases the translation of the character will not suit the English expres- 
sion, and some words are used figuratively, or they refer to a well-known 
story. The expression generally runs in the usual grandiloquent phraseology 
of the Chinese, and intimates that " Peace and prosperity have arisen ;" that 
"Blessings are going to be universally difiused;" or that "All things are 
beginning again to prosper." 

The following list of the niSiv-ha4, in which they are arranged according to 
the English alphabet, will be of immense service to the student of Chinese 
history. The absence of the native characters will be of little consequenoey 
as the names of the emperors, the dynasties, and the years of the eyde are 
given, and one of these is generally mentioned by native authors who use 
the niin-hati. 



(2.) lAtt ofUte nUn-Kau amcmged alpiabetiealfy. 






Year of 
the cyole. 













































ChaO-H . 













































































































































1 102 
























1 196 





































































Year of 
the cycle. 
































a ^ 







































































































































































































































































I Hiodmr4ii 










Year of 
the cycle. 






















































































































































































































































































































6 Hi'tsung 




































































































Kihkrchilng U^ng-hw6 


































































































Year of 
the cycle. 


A. P. 
















1 165 






















76 1 




































1 1 27 




































Year of 
the cycle. 

















































































































































































































































































































p f 2 
















4 . 



































Td-chung tsidng-fA 
















T aUchdng 

Tapping hlng-kwd 












Ghtng-t'ten t'ai-hed 













































Year of 
the cycle. 
















































































































1 107 








ping-ta^ . 










1 140 



































Year of 
the cycle. 




































































































































T^airptng chlng-kiun 





















































































































































































Year of 
the cycle. 


































































































































Kin , 



































































































































































Wdn-sui t*ung-t*ien 


















Year of 
the cyde. 


































































Hdn . 
























































































































































































































Tung- Wai 




































Year of 
the cycle. 


















































































































































































































































































A comparison of some CAinese dialects with reference to their 


The Ghinese diyide their syllables into two parts, — the initial and the^no^. 
They do not understand how to analyse the syllable into its component letters, 
and therefore it often happens that they are unable to distinguish slight 
changes in the pronunciation of certain words. Hence arises a difficulty to 
the student, who is firequently unable to catch the articulations of his Chinese 
tutor. And if the Chinese tutor is unable to discern the difference between 
certain letters, much less is he able to say how -or why changes in yarious 
dialects have taken place, and he is also less expert at speaking yarious dialects 
of his own country than a well practised foreigner. 

The want of an alphabetic system, by which articulations may be accurately 
expressed, is the cause of this. And the foreigner has this advantage over 
the untutored Chinese, who has nothing to guide his pronunciation but the 
ear, while the European has the sound written down for his eye, and the letters 
are the symbols of an analytic process. We have only to call to mind the 
vulgar provindaUsms of our own country, and the transformation of words, 
produced by the unlettered rustic, to understand the value of our alphabet, 
in aiding us to escape the most chaotic differences of pronunciation, which 
would make English a Babel of dialects, were they allowed to pass from one 
to another by the ear alone without being written down. 

Now although we cannot start a theory as to which dialect represents the 
original and true pronunciation of Chinese with much chance of proving it, 
we may for the sake of convenience assume that that which presents us with 
the clearest and most definite pronunciation is the nearest to that original, 
and to what Chinese pronunciation should be. It is an undoubted fact that 
changes have taken place in some syllables, but the great mass of Chinese 
sounds is most ancient and simple. If then we could ascertain exactly what 
this ancient pronunciation was, we should be in a better position to show how 
or why the subsequent changes have occurred. 

The Chinese, as was said, do not write down the sounds of their syllables; 
but we do so to assist our memory, and to define clearly what those sounds 
are. What we value in our own language, among other things, is the ortho- 
graphy which shows the etymology in many words; and we obstinately refuse 
to entertain the new principles of the '*Fonetik Nv/z;'*^ and we persist in 
keeping our ancient spelling of words, because we delight to see the remains 
which exist of their parentage and origin. 


China has numerous dialects with a common origin; these ought all to be 
represented by the Roman alphabet, and they ought to follow in a certain 
degree the primary and the purest pronunciation. Slight changes should be 
explained with the old spelling, instead of a new orthography being invented 
for each dialect. 

Dialectic changes affect either the consonantal sounds, or the Yowel sounds, 
or both, there is the elision of a letter, the addition of a letter to the pliable, 
or a change of tone. The regular changes which we find in European lan- 
guages occur in Chinese. (Cf. Art. 3. Part I.) The Mandarin dialect(i. e. the 
Ktodn-hwd), spoken in the central provinces, preserves the primary vowel 
sounds (a, i, u) and the simple combinations of these {at, au, iu, ia, «tt, tea), 
while the provincial dialects modify these latter considerably, and produce 
such sounds as those which are represented in this work by e (d), o (o), 9 (otr), 
(German), u (French), and the primary vowels a, i, u are pure, and with 
the Italian sounds. 

It is well known that the vowel sounds affect the consonantal sounds with 
which they are united. la Spanish, ia Italian, in Swedish, and in Polish what 
are called the hard vowels (a, o, u) and the soft vowels (t, e, d, it) affect the 
pronunciation of the preceding gutturals g^ k, c, e^. 

Thus in Polish c is generally pronounced to, but before the vowel i, which 
is occasionally written above the letter (c), it is like the Germ, tsch, but some- 
what softer, as in the Italian d or the Spanish ch in chvpa. In this language 
consonants are said to have a hard or a soft pronunciation, according as they 
are followed by ^ or t respectively. The vowel i is the regular indication of 
a soft pronunciation for the preceding consonant Thus in imierc {shmUrch) 
' death,' and siano (shiuno) ' hay,* s is pronounced like sh nearly, only softer. 
The hs of Mr. Wade's orthography is evidently this sound. 

In Swedish k before t, e, y, d, and o, is softened in the same way; thus, 
kdrlek (chdrlek) * love,' kif {chif) 'strife:' so also sk before a,o,u is hard, 
but before i,j\ e, soft ; thus, skjtUa (shiuta) 'to shoot:' t is hard excepting 
when followed by j; thus, tjena {(J^ena) 'to serve,' like the G^erm. dienen; 
but the spelling is not changed, or this relationship would be weU-nigh lost 
sight of. 

Thus much has been sMd in anticipation of the time when the Chinese 
dialects or languages will be written by mqans of the Roman alphabet alone. 
It will then be easy to observe the connexion between the dialects, to see the 
radical syllable in each word, and to learn to read, if but one system of 
spelling be used for all the vernacular dialects. 

Dialectic differences of pronunciation relate to the changes and modifica- 
tions of single letters. In Chinese the initial letter in Roman type is modified 
or entirely changed, — the final letter is changed (as w to «> or ng\ — or a 
letter is added either before the initial or after the final (as n before y or j 
in the dialects about Shanghai, and before g in some Canton varieties); k, 
p, or t is added after the syllables affected by the "entering tone" in the 
Canton and the Hakka dialects, and n is not unfrequently transformed into 


ng. The regular compounds (aij au, iu) of the Mandarin are modified in the 
provincia] dialects; — at becoming e (i. e. & or a), au becoming 6 or g (i. e. aw 
in iaw), iu becoming um or ig. The Mandarin keeps the pure and sharp 
sounds of the consonants — k, p, t — the flat and heavy sounds of these letters 
(^1 6, d) are not found in its pure pronunciation, but in the Peking and in 
some local paitoia they creep out 

The letters k^ p, t are howeyer aspirated, and hence arise Je^ p^ and ^. 
When k is very strongly aspirated it approximates to ch, and ch is often con- 
founded with t9f especially in syllables in which an i follows the initial sound 
of ch or to. The liquids l, m, n are very often interchanged in Chinese, 
but in southern Mandarin they are kept comparatively without alteration. 
In the south of China the initial 8 is used for ah in some vulgar dialects. 

In treating of dialectic changes, the open syllables — those ending with a 
vowel — must be chiefly considered, for the short vowels which are produced 
by the closing of a syllable are very undefined, and are really very unimportant, 
being hardly distinguishable by a native. They may be compared to the 
Hebrew theva and its compounds. 

General changes in vowel and consonantal sounds, 

I. The primary vowels — a, t, u — ^remain in open syllables in almost all the 
dialects of China. The Hokkien or Amoy dialect presents a few exceptions 
to this rule, and in some dialects the syllables made up with a consonant and 
one of these vowels admit another vowel between the two letters ; e. g. ka 
changes to Ka, ku to kiu, and ta to tga; but as a rule these letters are constant. 
And even in many closed syllables they remain in the diflerent dialects. This 
is especially the case with the vowels i and u, king in one dialect never 
changes to ku/ng or hang in another, but being in a closed syllable it is 
shortened* and from the imperfect articulation it is difficult to determine its 
exact quality, — in the Hokkien dialect it would seem to be like a short e. 
So also in the Peking dialect, ching of southern Mandarin becomes cheng; 
the difference however is hardly perceptible to a native. If the phrase and 
tone be idiomatic the slight variation in the quantity of a vowel is over- 

a. But although these vowels (a, i, u) in their simple state are unchanged 
in the various dialects, they are generally altered when in Mandarin they are 
found together in the same syllable, thus kiang of the Mandarin becomes 
keung, and kitmg becomes kung in the Canton dialect. Their regular com- 
pounds — ai, au, and iu — in open syllables are almost always changed into 
their proper modifications — «, o {q or o), and ii — ^in the dialects. The closed 
syllables in <vng in Mandarin change it into eung in Canton, and those in ien 
change into in. Sometimes a nasal ng is added where only n existed, e. g. 
jtfhy ' man,* in Mandarin is yqn in Canton and nyqng in Shanghai. The y is 
dropped and the n changed to Z in Fucheu, and it then makes la/ng. The jhi 
is changed to nyin in Ningpo, and in Japanese the y b dropped and nin 
becomes the word for ' man.' 

og 2 



These principal changes serve to show the unifonnity which exists in 
Chinese dialects ; the diyersitj being always in accordance with some well 
established law of euphonic change. 

The following simple system of finals in Chinese may serye as the standard 
of comparison. They are nearly all found in Mandarin. The vowels i and u 
may precede any of these finals and coalesce with them, forming often the 
initials y and to. 

(i) a, (a) i, (3) u, (4) ai, ei, e, and », (5) au, eu, (6) iu, 

din i 4 OBndg,d ii 

cm in tm{o<m) en qn d on H 

<mg ing wng tng trng ong un 

Hence by prefixing i and u {y and w) — ioj id, icm, iang, ua, ud, uan, wmg^ 
iai, ieUf ien^ to, id, &c. kc are produced. Some dialects employ these vowels 
between the proper initial and the final, others omit them. Sien in Mand. 
becomes nn in Canton. The presence of such additional vowels in Mandarin 
may lead the student to expect considerable variation in the provincial dialects 
in those particular syllables. 

Comparative table of changes in eome finals. 


Cant. D. 

Shang. D. 

Amoy D. 



9a, i 


at, ap 



am, an, gn, un 

a», ©a 

fa^, am 


eung, ong, ang 

(mg, ong 

on, ieng, ong, vP, ieng 



i and yi 

qe, e,ui,oa,i 


op, ik 







9 *- 9 


ang, ing 


teng,^, %a^ 



in, 6 




ok, ut 





i^y eng, long, ong 


oi, ai 


ai, oe 


• • 








in, im, tin 

^, on, ^ 











iiA, 0, u 


6, 0, a 
























3. The modifications of the consonants are similar in character. Mutes 
change into their corresponding letters, — a t may change to (sf, a ^ to 5, a A; 
to g4 or ^, a e^ to fo, and occasionally to «^^ a chcmg may become a tdang or 
a shaThg in different dialects. 

Comparative table qfckafujies in some initials. 

Muid. D. 

Cant. D. 

Sh«ng. D. 





h, k, or dropped 






S OT sh 

s or z 



sh or s 

s, Zy or I 





shnsid is 


ch or k 




ti or 8 



















yor dropped 


hy gy or dropped 



h, py or h 






n or ^ 

lor g 



p or 6 



v^m, or ng 







mA (eye) 




yX (one) 




chU (bamboo) 




kwang (light) 



mien (face) 







shan (hill) 




shin (spirit, body) 

sqn, shqn 

zqng, sqn 

Mil, steng 

^umg (upper) 


long or zong 


nan (south) 




These attempts to compare the dialects of Chinese may serve to lead the 
waf for an extensiye comparison of them, which the author hopes some one in 
China may undertake and carry out more completely than he has done here. 


On tie weights f monies^ measures, and times. 

The Chinese weigh eyery thing that can be weighed, — money, wood, and 
liquidfl. Their chief circulating medium is Spanish dollars, which go bj 
weight The Ferdinand dollar is at a premium of i — i^ per cent The 
Ccvrolus dollar at a premium of 7 — 8 per cent. Those bearing the stamp G 
are only received at a discount. Mexican and U. 8. A. dollars are taken (U 
pcvr by foreigners. 

The highest weight in money is a tad (J^iUng)) then come the mace {ts*iSn), the 
eandareen {/an), and the cash (U). 3 taels=4.i6 doL, but the equivalents 
vary; about 720 taels make 1000 dollars. 







ffr. troy. 













6s, Sd 



.138- .139 

The common coin — ^the caah^-of China is composed of 6 parts of copper and 
4 of lead. Bullion is rated by its fineness, by dividing it into zoo parts 
called "touches." Sycee is cast into ingots, by the Chinese called "shoes,** 
and these are stamped with the mark of the office that issues them, and the 
date of their issue. They are of different sizes, from | a tael to 100 taels. 
Gold ingots of zo taels=cir. 22 — 23. 

In measures for dry and liquid goods, the pecul (ton), the catty (kin), and 
the t€tel {lidng) are used. 




Jbs. ov. 


lbs, tray. 








z ton=z6 pec. and 80 catt. z cwt. = 84 catt z lb. av. = f catt. In long 
measure the covid (chd), the ptmt (tsqn) are used. The covid varies in the 
measurement of clothes, distances, and vessels; by the Mathematical Board in 
Peking it was Z3.Z25 Eng. inches; in the Canton trade, Z4.625 Eug. in.; by 
ezigineers of public works, Z2.7 Eng. in.; and for distances, Z2.z Eng. in. nearly. 
TheZtor Chinese mile=:3z6ifathoms=z897|Eng. feet: ig2^H=i deg. of 
lat or long., according to the Chinese, but the Jesuits made 250 U^t dtg., 
each li being = z 826 ft. or -rV of a French league. 


In land measure 1 200 coyid8= i acre or meu, which contains 6600 sq. feet. 

The Chinese measure time by dividing the 24 hours of the day and night 
into twelve watches, and they begin to reckon from midnight. The twelve 
horary characters taz, chetty yin, men, &o. (see Parti, p. 61) are employed 
for the purpose of indicating their watches. Tze being used for the two hours 
from II p. m. to I a. m.; cheu from i — 3. 

The character ching J^ prefixed to any horary character makes it signify 
the even number between the two hours ; e. g. cking-iaz would be i a o'clock at 
midnight, and kiau ^ being prefixed would make it mean 1 1 p. m. 

But foreigners speak generally of yUUin-chUng ' one stroke on the bell/ 
for ' one o'clock/ ^r^Hn-ehUng ^ two o'clock/ and the Chinese understand 

these expressions. JT^ ^|J means ' a quarter of an hour/ and pwdn 4^ 
tUn-ehUng ' half an hour.' 

PART 11. 


'* PART II. B 




The literary works of the Chinese are very extensive, and relate to very 
many of the subjects on which the mind of man has been engaged at all 
periods of his history; the higher subjects, however, of mental science, logic 
and philology, have met with but little attention among them. The writers of 
China have drawn less from the works of foreigners than the writers of almost 
any nation ; and this has arisen horn the very nature of their i)osition, cut off 
as they were at an early period from the great nations of the west of Asia, 
surrounded by wild tribes, who were unacquainted with letters, and proud of 
their superior cultivation, they rejected improvements of every kind from 
abroad. But if the mania for foreign notions and theories was unknown 
among them, the imitation of ancient models of their own became so morbid 
as to prevent the proper development of their mental strength and the 
improvement of the natural growth of their minds. The power of mental 
production consequently became limited to their own narrow sphere of expe- 
rience; and although the rules of their ancient sages inculcated no such 
contracted maxims, their minds narrowed by continual imitation of old models 
(well enough suited to the periods in which they had their origin) began to 
look upon these models as simple embodiments of truth. Facts, however, 
compel the admission that great diversities of style in the prose, and of metre 
in the poetry of the Chinese have characterised different periods of their 
history. Their works have been remarkable rather for their extent than for 
the originality of thought or the acuteness of judgment displayed in them. 

The Chinese themselves divide their literature under four general heads ; 
viz. I. King |j^, II. Sz ^, III. Ts^ ^, IV. Tsl Jg. 

I. The works placed under the first head we may call dasaic. They come 
under the following divisions : a) All sacred writings and the commentaries 
on them; b) All ritualistic writings and music; c) All works of a philological 
nature, as dictionaries and tone-books. 

II. The historiccU writings of all kinds come under the head of Sz, and 
also narrative and deacriptive works, but not works on natural history. 

m. Under the head Tai come, a) The writings of the ten sages of anti- 
quity; h) All religious and moral works of the Tauists or Buddhists; c) All 
scientific works, and those upon the fine arts and trades ; d) All encyclopaedic 

B 2 


These are th^ five classics. The style in which they are written is broken 
and rude, unlike the compositions of later times, and this is internal evidence 
of their antiquity. 

Next in estimation are the following : 

I. The SzshU VQ ^-, or Four Books, a collection of writings, by various 
persons, on moral and political subjects. The names of the separate works 
comprised under this title are, i. The TdM6 y^ ly?, or the Study for 
the AduU, — the Great Study , is a short work on political science by 
Tscmg-ts^ '©• •+- *. 2. The Chung-yUng fff jfe, or the Due Medium^ is 

a work on avoiding extremes in life by means of philosophy and virtue, like 
the doctrines of the great Greek philosopher of old, — Aristotle. This 
portion was written by Ts^-ei -^- W^, a grandson of Confucius t. 3. The 
L4nryu ^& gS- or Dialoguea and Discov/raes of Kung-furi^ ^7 y^ "J^ 
(Confucius), written down by two of his disciples after the philosopher's 
death j:. 4. Shdng-nufng ^ ^ and Hid-mdng "J^ | . The first and 
second portions of the works of the philosopher Mdng (Mencius), who lived 
B. C. 350. The subject of this work is of a moral and political nature, and 
in the form of dialogue and exhortation §. Passages from the Four Books 
are given in the Chrestomathy, pp. 3, 4, 5 ||. 

All the above works are largely annotated and commented on by native 
writers, and by some of them with excellent style and ability. Among the 

chief commentators was Chu-furtsh 4^ ^ T-, who lived in the thirteenth 

century. His writings are held in great estimation. 

In the next rank comes the Chevrll jpij ij^ or Ceremonies of the Cheu 

Dynasty; theu the Hiad-ktng zf^ ^^ or Book of Filial Piety; TsiHrisz 

^ 24 a Collection of Poems; and the Shanrhal-Jdng |Jj ^^ |^ or 

Book of Poetical Fictions, a sort of mythology, from which the poets of China 
draw some of their allusions. 

* An English translation of the T^-hi5 was appended, with the native text, to 
Dr. Marshman's ClavU Siniect, Serampore, 1814. 40. A Latin and French translation 
exists by Panthier, with the native text, Paris, 1837 ; and an English transUtion by 
G. B. Hillier, Hongkong, 1850. 

t The ChQng-yfbig was translated into Latin and -French, accompanied by the native 
text, by Abel-IMmnwt, in the Notices et ExtraiU: (vol. X) Paris, 181 7. 4**- 

I The Ltln-yil was translated by Dr. Marshman into English, and published with the 
native text, under the title of, Works of Confudms at Seiampore, 1809. 40. 

$ The writings of Mencius were translated literally into Latin by M. Stanislaus Jutien, 
and published with the native text at Paris, in 3 vols. 1814. 

II The Sz-shU have been frequently translated;— into Latin by Int&rctUa; Paria, 
1687: and by Noel also into Latin; Prague, 1711;— into English by CoUk; Malacca, 
1828. 80. ;— into German by Schott; 7 vols. Halle, 1828;— into French by PatOkitr; 
Paris, 1 84 1. 


In addition to these there are three ancient commentarieB upon the Chti/nr 
tsia, which belong to the style of the KxHrwan; and the works of S^-«nd- 
tsiSn p[ ^ j^, the celebrated historian (B. C. loo), and those of several 
other noted writers in a similar style. 

Contemporary with Gonfiicius was LaU-ts^ ^pr -4-» or LaMDidn 

^* J&, B. C. 604, * He was the founder of a school of philosophy, 

and took tofd i[^* 'reason/ ^\6yos,* as the foundation of his system; he 

discoursed about II TS, the ' principle of order' in the uniyerse, and was the 

originator of the Tanist sect He composed a work called Tad-U-king 

5^ ^^^ I ' Book of Reason and Virtue/ which has been translated into 

French, under the title of, " Le livre de la voie et de la vertu," by Professor 
Julien. Paris, 1842. B^. For an account of his miraculous birth, <&c, see 
Morrison's Dictionary, part I. vol. I. p. 707. 

There were ten eminent writers of antiquity, who are associated together 

by the title Shi-i^ -X^ -f^ . Lail-is^ was the first of these. The second 

was Mj" -4- Chwdng-t8^, also a Tauist, and the most celebrated disciple of 

LaiJirtsk He flourished about B. C. 368, in the reign of the Emperor Hien- 
waug. He was the author of the work Ndn4vu)a4cingy and two satirical 
pieces against the Confucianists. His orig^inality and independence of cha- 
racter are shown in his works and in the following anecdote: A powerful 
Chinese prince wished him to take office in his government, and offered him 
rich gifts, but ChfioSng-ts^ replied : '^ I would rather be a solitary pig and 
wallow in my own sty, than be a decorated sacrifice and be led by the 

guiding strings of the great." According to the S£'ki ^ ^^ of Sz-md- 
iriSn there was nothing that he had not looked into, tmi gd p& hufei 
^^ Jyf ^ 4M> though his maxim seems to have been : '' Our life has 
limits, but knowledge is without limits." 

The third philosopher was Simrtsk ^i ^, who belonged to the 
J4r/M ^M ^^ , ' the Confucian school.' He lived about B. C. 230, and was 
counted worthy of having his name associated with that of Af4ng-t8k X ^j-^ 
for a long period His style is perspicuous and his knowledge correct, but 
he differed from Mifng-Uk (Mencius) in his ethics. Mfng-tsk held that the 
natural diiposition of man is towards virhis; SiOmrts^ that it is towards wee. 
His writings were of a politico-moral nature. 

The fourth philosopher was Zl-te^ ^|J ^, a Tauist, who was contem- 
porary with LaU'kiim (B. C. 585). His style is lucid and sublime, but he 

* The proper name of this philoaopher was Liphjang ^^ 101 


prefers the lofty to the true. Chtodng-tsz is said to have written out a com- 
plete copy of his works. 

The fifth philosopher was Kw^n-i^ i^p -4-*, .who belonged to the 
Ftng-kia ET- ^^, ' the military school.' He flourished in the third century 
B. C. His works are on the subjects of war and government. 

The sixth philosopher was Hdn^fl-Ui WM 3p "t"> called ffan-tsz, who 

lived about B. C. 200. He belonged to the Fd^kid Y^ ^^, 'the law 

school.' Jurisprudence was the subject which he chiefly considered. His 
works commence with the aphorism : /nl e^t 4^ yhi^ pU chi; chl 4** pA y^ 

pa chimg, ^>^ -^P M W ^^» ^ W ^ W ^ &^ 
' not to know and yet to speak is imprudent ; to know and yet not to speak 
is unfaithful.' 

The seventh philosopher was ffwai-ndn-ls^ |tt T^ ^-, who belonged 
to the Tsd-kid ^ft :^, ' writers on various subjects.' He was the grandson 
of 1^ wp KaU'ti of the Han dynasty, B. C. 189. He wrote upon the 
ongin of things. 

The eighth philosopher was Ydng-ts^ !& ^, a Confucianist, who lived 
in the reign of Chlng-ti w^ ^f, B. C. i. He is said to have spoken little, 

for he had an impediment in his speech, but he was a great thinker and 
reader. He did not write much, but his works have received the commenda- 
tion of a great authority, for Afd-ttodn-ltn, when comparing him with Siun-4sz, 
says : *^ Siun-king had great talents, but many failings ; Y&ng-hiling was a 
man of limited abilities, but made few mistakes." The names of his two prin- 
cipal works are ; Fd-yin J'^ 3 '^° laws,' and T'oi-hiuen-kinff y^ y/^ ^^, 
which is devoted to an explanation of the Yl-king. 

The ninth philosopher was W4n-chung-t8i ^/ rfj -+•, one of the best 
ancient writers of the Confucian school. His proper name appears to have 
been Wdng-t'Ung ^ ^k. 

The tenth philosopher, Hd-kwdnrt^ ^B j^ +, M'as a Tauist. He 

obtained this name, the H&-capped philosopher, from the &ct of his wandering 
about the mountains with the feathers of this bird in his cap or in his hair. 
His writings were first brought to light during the T'ang dynasty. 

The works of these ten scholars, who are commonly called the Shl-tsz, are 
collected in a work called Shi tsi tsung-mH ^ 7 ^1^ u ' General Index 
of the Ten Philosophers.' Cf. Dr. Morrison's Dictionary, part I. Tol. I. 
PP- 7o7> 10^' 


In addition to these general remarks on the higher class of Chinese lite- 
rature we may content ourselves with a list of some of the principal works in 
the seyeral departments which are likely to be more especially interesting to 
Europeans. The Chinese language is very rich in Buddhistic literature, as 
well as in works on jurisprudence, topography, history, and statistics. It 
possesses large encyclopsBdias and anthologies ; researches in natural history, 
the healing art, and the fine arts; treatises on language and the meanings of 
words; on mathematics and the various applications of numbers, with works 
on the art of war. Poetry and the drama occupy a large place too, as do also 
works of fiction in the various grades of the romance and novel style. The 
industrial arts and trades, and the processes of manufacture extant among 
the Chinese are explained in detail in separate works *. 

I. Ethics, polUice, and merUal science t. 

1. — ^ ^^ ^S Sdn-tsi-king, * The three-character classic,' by Wang Pl-heu, 

a Confudanist of the Sung dynasty (x3th cent.). Annotated by Wang 
Tsin-shing: ^'The language is simple, the principles important, the style 
perspicuous, the reasoning clear." 

2. -^ •^ "^ Ts*ie7irts£^u>4n, *The book of looo characters,' by Cheu Hing- 

tsz, A. D. 550. This is a common school-book. The 1000 characters 
were collected by Wang he-che, by command of an emperor of the Liang 
dynasty. The emperor gave them to Cheu Hing-tsz, and asked him 
to form them into an ode. He did so in a single night, and his hair 
turned gray in consequence. Various translations of this work exist in 
European languages; also in Japanese, Manchu, and Corean. 

3. AM ly? g^ Yiii^hid-^% ' Odes for the young.' A translation of this 

by Dr. Bridgman appeared in the Chinese Repository for Oct. 1835. 

4- i^ iy? SiaiiMd, ' The learning for children,' was composed by H^ -+- 

Churt^ who is held in estimation second only to Confucius himself. 
The opening sentence of the work shows its subject and tendency : '' In 
ancient times the Sia^-hiO taught children every thing which concerned 
their daily life and conduct to parents, elders, superiors, teachers, and 
firiends ; in order to a due consideration of the fundamental laws which 
govern the person, the fisunily, the state, and the universe." 

5. ^^ ^S ^ ^& Kiob^paU-tsu^M, ' A complete collection of family 
jewela* Miscellaneous moralities, instructions, and advice, in 32 vols., by 

* Laige collectioiis of Chinese books are deposited in the Libraries of the British 
Mnseain,'ihe Boyal Asiatic Society, the University College, London, the Bodleian Library, 
Oxford, the East India House, and King's College, London. The magnitude of these col- 
lections is in the order here given ; from the British Museum, which contains upwards of 
30,000 vols., to King's College, which possesses about xaoo vols. Almost all good works 
in ordinajry Chinese literature will be found in one or another of these institutions. 

t To these may be added several works already mentioned among the classics. 


T'ten-ktshi ^ ^^ ^, published in the time of K'ang-hL An 

extract from this work was given by Thom in his Chinese Speaker^ with 
a translation. 

^' ^h. Um Wi p''i '^^^^~y^ kwdng-hiun, 'Amplification of the sacred 
edict.* Sixteen maxims by the emperor K'ang-hi, amplified by his son, 
the emperor Y^g-ching, and paraphrased by a mandarin. The Eer. 
Dr. Milne made a translation of this work. 

7* .^ J^ p9 auf •^^~^'^^''^^^'^^' 'Disoomses for the family haH' 
These are in good mandarin style, and are Ycry suitable for practice in 
reading. (King's Coll.) * 

8. ^' J^ Mc PH |J^ ^oC-**<%/fal»*^n^-ic>tent/The book of rewards 

and punishments.* This is a very celebrated Tauist tract. T^airshdng, 
'the sublime,' is an epithet of Lailhkiun; see p. 7. of this Introduction. 
The work consists of a number of sayings on the duties of man, with a 
list of the rewards and the pimishments connected therewith. 

^^ Kln-hang-kingf ' The diamond classic* A Buddhist work 
in I voL 

'^' ^ ^B i^ Zz7i^7i-ftl, * The book of the revered fcith.* A collection 

of sayings and exhortations of the chiefe of the Tauist and Buddhist 

religions. The praises of Kwdn^n Wa "a, the merciful goddess, 

are given in rhyme to be song by the £uthfuL Its precepts are said to 
act on the human mind like a clock at midnight, they awaken the devout 
soul, and its doctrines enlighten the darkened eye of the mind. 

11. «^ ^[\> ^^ I if in^nn-jxn^^ten, ' The predous mirror for enlighten- 

ing the heart.' This work consists of elegant extracts from the moral 
writings of the Chinese. A translation appeared in Spanish by P. Nata- 
rette ; Madrid, 1676. A notice of the Work may be seen in the Chinese 

1 2. ^^ m^ j&m Hw6ryh^1nng. A noted Buddhist work on the holy books 

or 8Utras. A copy is preserved in St Petersburg in 81 books, which is 
said to have been printed in 1419. The translator was a monk from 
Turkistan^ according to Dr. Schott : see " Entwurf, &c.," p. 333. jffl ";^ .^ Sing-H td-tsvJhh, *A complete exposition of the 

principles of nature.' A metaphysical work^ in ao vols. The subject 
of it is the Chinese philosophy respecting the dual powers, whidi enters 

into all works of this nature. 

—^ — ■ 

* When the name of a Libraiy ia noted, it is not to be inferred that the w<erk k to 
be found in that collection alone. 

t A translation of this work was made by Prof. Jolien, and publithed under the title 
of, ''Le livre des Rdcompenses et des Peines" par Julien, 1841. 


11. Mathema4ic8 and astronomy, 

14. 3S ^ffl ]^ jftL K^'hA yuinrp^f *The first principles of quantity/ 

is a translation of Euclid's SlemevUs of Geometry, by Paul Seu, a 
high mandarin, and P. Ricci, the Jesuit missionary, in 4 or 6 vols. 
The original work is very scarce, but copies exist in manuscript, and a 
new edition has recently been printed by the Protestant missionaries at 
Shanghai (Bodleian.) (King's Coll.) 

15- ]^' Ml ^^ WL '^''^^^ KaiJL-cKtng^ ' Mathematical tables for astro- 
nomical purposes.' (Bodleian.) 

16. S^ ][ffi is ^mL ^^'^ Umg-yAn. A treatise on mathematios, con- 
taming the science of Europe in the i8th centuiy. (Bodleian.) 

17* f£ nw }^ra /M -^^^ ytiben^yyJh^ * The original sources of music and 

number,' in 100 vols. This is a work by the first Jesuits who resided 
in China. In it are explained the theory of music and the European 
system of notation ; mathematics, including trigonometry, and the method 
of calculating eclipses, with all the necessary tables of logarithms, &c. 
A list of ninety-two stars is given in vol 31, with their right ascension 
and declination, which are measured upon the equator. (Bodleian.) 

III. Language and the meanings o/ioorde. 

18. ^& 3v ^'^^^'^^^- -^ dictionary of the ancient characters, arranged 

under 540 elementary characters, which was published during the 
ffdn ^H dynasty, B.C. 150. The author's name was ffU-shtn ^'4^ ^^, 
' official goremment' (Brit Mus.) 

19. ^ ^f THrpien. A dictionary of the characters, arranged according 

to 542 radicals, in 30 books, by Eu ye-wang. It was published in the 
liang dynasty, A D. 530. It is the basis of the Chinese- Japanese Dic- 
tionary used in Japan. The pronunciation of characters is according to 
^efdn-tH system. 

^®" TT -ffi. wA iif9 ^^"^ yiin-sui, * The tonic dictionary, called the 
Wik^kU,* in 32 vols., by Chin SiSn-sang. This is one of the best diction- 
aries on the " tones" which exist in Chinese. Dr. Morrison made it the 
basis of his Syllabic Dictionary, and gives some particulars respecting it 
in the preface to Part II. of his dictionary, q. v. 

a I. Tp *=y* Jg Ching-tei-t^ilng, 'Explanation of the correct characters.' 
A dictionary according to the radicals. (King's Coll.) 

^^* ifii ^C. HP uj Pef-ti>4^^-yww^ti,' Thesaurus of literary phrases,' com- 
piled by order of the emperor K'ang-hi. Seventy-six of the literati were 
engaged in preparing it, and it took them seven years to complete it. 
It was published in 17 11, in 131 vols. This Thesaurus is perhaps the 

c 2 


most exteDsiye collection which exists of the words and phrases of any 
language. M. Calleiy commenced working this mine in 1842, and pub* 
lished the first part of sn encyclopaedia of the Chinese language in 1846. 
The work was to consist of about ten large volumes, and it was expected 
that sixteen years would be occupied in the execution of his project, 
which he was unfortunately obliged to relinquish. (Brit. Mus.) 

23. j^ ^ "^ Ml. K'dng-hl'tsUi^ ' The dictionazy of K'ang-hi,' the 

first emperor of the present dynasty. It is generally in 32 yols» The 
meanings are very good The work is unirersally used in China, and 
constitutes the great national work of reference for the languaga Dr. 
Morrison commenced his dictionary by translating K*aiig-hi*s lexicon. 

^'^' uT 3>1 §^r Ts*tnp-w4ir^-kie7i,' MirroT of the Manchu-Tartar language.' 
in 26 Tols. (Several works of this kind are in the Brit. Mus.) 

^5' Ml §^X ^{i gS i7ti^t-^t2-9i2-yd/ Mahommedan Proverbs (in Ara- 
bic and Chinese).* 

26, J'T yffl J? Ug ^ §;:i| Kiang^'A cAi-<dyon-yt^w^ * The rivers and 

lakes, papers and rhymes *.* This is the title of a popular work on 
letter writing dec. for travellers; and it is a sort of dictionary of phrases 
proper to be used in epistolary correspondence. It is in 6 vols. I2<'. 

^7" W/ ^^ JRx ^^ CKo-Ui Jd^milng, * Explanations for b^^inners,' in 20 

vols. It contains definitions of the terms employed by the student of 
W^nrchdng ('elegant essays*). 

IV. Jy/n9prudence. 
^^* ^ i^^ ^^ 1^ ^4-to'tti^ lUrli, 'The laws of the T£-ts1ng dynasty,* 
i. e. the penal code of the present or Tartar dynasty of China, in 40 vols. 
A translation of this work was made by Sir Qeorge T. Staunton, Bait., 
F. R S. 40. London, 18 10. 

29. jE^ \Si V3^ Am Kd-€hdng-'t'iail4i, < The laws and regulations of the 

Examination Hall,* in 18 vols. It is published every ten years, and its 
contents will supply the best phrases which are employed with reference 
to the lUeraH. 

30. ^ ^^ ^ ^ Td'talng humUtUn, ' Offidal details relating to the 

civil code and the statistics of the THrts^ng dynasty,* in 260 vols. An 
interesting account of this work is given in Sir John Davis* work on the 
Chinese. See Knight*s edition of 1836, vol II. pp. 180, 181. 

y. Medicine tmd materia medica. 

31. ZfL ^ ^m ^ P^firisail kang-mtl, 'General outline of natural his- 

* Hie tenn 'riyera and lakes* means the 'provinces* of Kiang-ri, Kiang-nan, Hn-pl, 
and Hu-nan, which are noted for beantiiul scenery and commerce. 


tory* with a view to medical practice. The author of this work was 

Lj-shi-chva "^T Q$ T^* It was published under the supervision of 

his son, and for the benefit of his family, in 1596. It contains very con- 
cise accounts of various animals, plants, and minerals ; in a word, the mate- 
ria medica derived from the animal, vegetable, and mineral kingdoms. 

There are many other works on medicine, but their contents are uninter- 
esting to Europeans, because they are wanting in science. 

VI. History and staHHics, 

The afiairs of each dynasty have been recorded by the imperial historio- 
graphers, and these state papers are the sources whence the various histories 
of China have been derived. 

32. ^[ SL T*4ng-tih^ ' A complete directory to history and politics,' in 

aoo chapters, by T6^4 'hAr ^^ of the T*dng ^ dynasty. It was 

this work that Ma Twan-lin proposed to complete in his W4n4Uen4*'dng' 
kiady which may be looked upon as a continuation of the T*iinff-ti^ 

33- ^ffl §B I a ^^W"^*^^^"****** ' The comprehensive mirror with 
a complete index,' in 1 20 vols. The history of China, edited by Chu-hi, 
the philosopher and annotator of the Canonical Books, who lived about 
the middle of the 13th century. This work is not so much an independ- 
ent production as a convenient form of the T'ung^ki^n, which appeared 
above a century before, by the renowned Sz-ma-kwang. The emperor 

Ting-tsOng .h^ ^u (A. D. 1064-67) had commanded the royal historio- 
grapher Sz-ma-kwang to compose a succinct history of China with correct 
chronology, making use of the historical works extant, and especially the 
annals. Sz-markwang finished his work in 1084, and laid it at the feet 

of Ting-tsung's successor, Shin-tailng Sffl ^., who gave it the title of 

T*ung-kien, 'comprehensive mirror' (of events). It begins with the earliest 
historical period, and comes down to the beginning of the 2nd Sung dynasty, 
including a period of 1 362 years. Facts only are related, the reader is left 
to form his own judgment upon them. Impressed with the worth of the 
T*ung-kien, and wishing to increase its usefulness, Chu-hi pre&ced the 
accounts g^ven in detail with a summary, but without altering the sense. 
These summaries^ which are printed in large characters, are followed by the 
detailed account and a oommentaiy ; thus the work is, as it were, enclosed 
in a network, and on this account it obtains the name of Eang-mtt (v. 31). 

34. ^ -f- — - ypAr'Shi-yirahiy^Thetweniy'OneiuBtonaxm.^ A complete 

history of China, in 282 vols., from the highest antiquity down to the 

end of the TtiSn yr^ dynasty. This is the work of twenty-one imperial 

historiographers, whose duty it was to note down the events of each reign 
as they occurred, preparatory to publication in the succeeding reign. 


35. ^ Bt\ ShIrJtij ' Reoords of history,* in 130 diapten, bj Ss-niA-tBieiky who 

flourished B. C. 104. This book eontaiiis the history of about 3000 
years. It begins with Hwdng-H m mf , ' The yellow emperor,' and 
ends in the year 6. C. 122, in the Han dynasty. 

36. "dtr ^/ X k ^^ K^w^n «i4, * The meanings of ancient literature dis- 

criminated,* in 16 vols. 8<*. This work consists of historical fragments 
in an elegant and much admired style, with explanatory notes. 

31' |P9 I ^ ^^ Kdn^-kien-hwui-tstodtn, ' Mirror of history,* by 
Fung-cheu sief^^ng MI ^W (sumamed Wdng)f in 34 yol& (v. 2994). 

3^* I i M aP Kdnff-kien tHsht, 'History made easy,' is an abridg- 
ment of the T^itng'kUn^xMg-nyA (33). It was the work of three 
scholars of the present dynasty, and was finished in 17 1 1, in 36 vols. 

39* i^p jX I ^^ Luted kUn-Mj'i/ljrror of history through suooessiTe 

'^^' ^^ 1^ 9^ Tilng-hwSriii, ' Chronicles of the flower of the east' Tlie 
offidal history of the Imperial house at present reigning in China. The 
last edition was published in 1820, in 16 vols. 

VII. Bioffrapkioal noUoea. 

'^'' 1^ liu ^^ pd ^^ ^m -^^^"^^ mtng-chtn twd-iy 'Memorials of 
the celebrated statesmen of successive dynasties,* in 350 chapters. 

42. 'i: ^1] ^ ^^ Kil £(-n^ chuimj ' An account of distiqgoished women 
of ancient times,* in 7 chapters, by lin-hiang of the Han dynasfy. 

43* W' T "j"^ |S^ ^^^ UaUiat <Xv^, * An account of the men of genius 
of the T'ang dynasty,' by Sin Wan-fiing, in 8 vols. M. Prof. Bazin says 
of this author, that he has a very good style of composition; that he 
adds to each biographical notice proper observations and critidsms ; and 
that when he examines the qualities and the &ults of the poets, he is 
always in the right *. 

44- Jp iff(^ EiM'Ungf ^ A general view of learning,' in 1 2 vols. It contains 

mamoirs of the leading members of the sect of Con&ichis and extracts 
from their worka^ with a view to oombating the errora of the Tauists 
and Buddhists. 

45-^ ^ ^^ tP^^4;id-«(fi9/ All the fionily names.' 1068 characters are 

■■ III! ,■ II. ., . ■.■■■ li t «M-II 

* y. SiMe de» Touin, p. 58. 

f AHhough the word pif, ' 100/ is used, it stands for 'all/ jiut as f94BwSn means 'all 
the offioiab.' This work contains 454 surnames. 


contained in it, of which 510 are different. This work contains the 
ancient surnames of the Chinese^ many of which are still in use. In 
some editions the origin of these names is given in notes. It is a school- 
book, and uunteresting to foreigners. 

YIIL Geography, topography^ arkd ttatisiiice, 

46. yr JS — » $^1 ^» Td48*ing yi-t'^mg-chi, * A complete account of 

the T^-tsing (the present) empire.' A geographical work of great import- 
ance and value. It consists of 500 chapters in 240 vols. It contains 
various matters connected with topography and statistics. Each pro- 
vince has its own descriptive work of this kind. (Brit. Mus.) 

47. ^0 ^ ^ gg ffaH-kwd VHhM, ' Qeographj of the world,* in 24 vols., 

by the late Commissioner Lin, who caused the " Opium War" by burning 
all that drug then in port at Canton. 

"^^'Jl^ /S *^ •&' Jtn^-Awfin chi4id, *A compendious description of 
the world,' in 6 vols. imp. S% by tiie Lieutenant-Gk)V€mor of the province 
of Fii-kien. It contains very good maps of the various countries of the 
world, and the descriptions are tolerably correct His Excellency was 
assisted by a European In making the compilation. (King's ColL) 

'^^' Ji^ ]^- Wl ^ Kiffdng^ytU*ilMy'Qeogni^cal descriptions with maps,' 
by Li£l^ng^ydng B^ m: RJRy in 24 kiu^n or books. It was composed 
during the 0^ Ming dynasty, when China was divided into 15 pro- 
vinces, not into 18 as at present. The 25th book contains some account 
of the ' outside barbarians,' fffairi ^h b^, and these include Japan, 

Korea, liu-kiu, Si-&n or Tangutia, Mongolia, Tonquin, Cochin-China, 
and Siam. 

5^ 'f^ Wi ^ ^^^^^ ^ ^ An account of Buddhist countries,' by ^^ M|| 
Fd^hi^ ft Bud^Oiist of the earlier Sang dynasty (A. D. 422). He set 
out from C^^dng-On -^ ^ in tihe year 405, during the T^ikh » 
dynasty, and tmversed thirty coontzies on his way io India : (v. Imperial 
Cbtelogue, large ^opy, kiueo 7 1. p. 4.) 

IX. Mythology. 

S^' i$ 'fill im! Shtnr9ter^4den, 'Mirror of the divine immortals.' It 
contains the myths relating to the Tauist deities and deified saints. The 
story of Shakyamuni is told in the 5th chapter, and the work eontains 
oiiher matter which is interesting on account of flie bold independence 
with which the stories are related. 


X. Poetry. 

52. -^ ^ g^ T9vh^ Tdng ahl, 'The poetry of the T'ang dynasty,' in 

900 chapters. (Brit. Mus.) 

53. ^ d^ A 4te -^^ T*ai-pi ua, * li-t'af-pfB collection of poetry,' by 

li-t'ai-pl of the T*ang dynasty * 

^^' 7^ >5C T ^^ Tung'f)d t8vJhir4»i, * A complete collection of Tung-po's 
odes,' in 15 diapters, by Su-shl of the Sung dynasty *. 

XL PainUng, engramng, <£re. 

55- f S 1^ |m ^^ Pd'kU-t*ii4ii, ' Inyestigation of antiques with plates,' 

in 16 vols. This work affords valuable assistance in deciphering the 
inscriptions upon metal and earthenware vases, some of which date 
from very high antiquity. The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society 
contains specimens and translations taken from this work. 

XII. Ths drama. 

5^* Til /^ S T® TtiM-jtn pi-chuTig, 'The hundred plays of the Yuen 
dynasty.' A celebrated collection of dramas. The style is antiquated 
colloquial, but clear. Several of these have been translated by Pro! Badn, 
Fro£ Julien, and Sir John Davis. See The(Ure Chinaia by Prof. Basin. 

^^'^^ S ^^ C%ut-j9¥-^'»^,' A collection of dramas,' in 43 vols. (BritMus. 
and R A. S.) (For k*iil, v. sheet, 1263.) 

XIII. Work8 qffiaUm. 
The following names of novels are worth inserting. It is by reading such 
works that the student will form a more lively conception of the genius of 
the Chinese people, their customs, manners, and principles of action. The 
romances are classified by the Chinese according to the quality of the com- 
position and the nature of the story. They distinguish especially between 

eiaib-^hwd jh g^, lit 'small talk,*=nooe28 of the lower order, pure fic- 
tions; and hien-ahU m\ ^^» lit 'leisure hookf' s^ romances founded on 
stories from real life and history^ These they classify under the ten grades 
of talent (teat ^) exhibited in their composition. The first or Tiryi^4§ai 
ahU is the 

5»- H 9 £ Sa,^*«>^i. ' History of the three kingdoms,' a work in ao 
small volumes. The style, which is terse, is very much admired for its 
classic elegance. The story is founded upon the history of the three 

* £i T'aH'fX and SH TOng-pd are the two great and poptdar poets of China. Their 
■umameB are JA and Sit; T'ai-pl and T&ng-pe are their namei. 


kingdoniB and the civil wars in China^ which lasted nearly a century, from 
A. D. 1 68 — 265. The author's name was Lo Kwan-chung, who founded 
it upon a real history by Chin-sheu of the Tsin dynasty. See pp. 17 — 20^ 
of the native text, for a specimen of this work. A translation of a 
portion of it has been made into French by M. Theod. Pavie, from the 
Tartar verraon. 

^^' /JC J^P T 'w ^^^^^^"^^ chuhh^ * History of the shores* or * History of 
the robbers,' by Shi Nu-gan, in 20 vols. 1 2^, This appeared originally 
in the time of the Mongol emperors, and was reprinted in 1650. It is 
a romance of the comic kind, and a good specimen of the style of 
language used two or three centuries ago; it is therefore somewhat 
antiquated, and the style b very prolix, a proof probably of its being 
in the colloquial idiom. A specimen is to be found in the native 
text of the Chrestomathy, pp. 13 — 16. 

60. ^ J- ^W^ ^ ffaiinkH4 chvJh^ ' The story of the fortunate union,' 

in 4 vols. 1 2<>. The style and contents of this work are admirable. 
A translation of it was published in England, edited by Bishop Percy 
in 1761, under the title of " The Pleasing History.*' But in the 
elegant translation of it by Sir John F. Davis in 1829, the English 
reader may find a really pleasing and instructive story, and on the 
accuracy of the translation he may rely: pp. 8 — 12, of the native text, 
afford a specimen of its style, which abounds in good colloquial expres- 
sions, though some of them are perhaps antiquated. 

^'- ^I i® S^ Hung4eu mUng, * Dreams of the red chamber,' in 20 vols. 
120. This is a popular work in the Peking dialect. A portion of it 
was published in Thom's Chinese Speaker in 1846. 

^^' I 7^ ^E ^*'^^*^w^^/ The two cousins,' in 4 vols. 120. This was 
translated by M. Abel-R6musat in 1826. Like the HaHrfcvd chuen, it is 
very good reading for the beginner and the general student of Chinese. 

63. yl] ^ "^ Ll'kwd^i. A history of the kingdoms into which China was 
divided in the Cheu ^ dynasty, worked up into the form of a romance. 
It begins in the year B. C. 1 148, under the last emperor of the Shdng ^t 
dynasty, and ends B. C. 258, about the beginning of the Ts*tn ^& dynasty. 
It consists of 8 books. (B. M., R A. S., Bod.) 

XIV. AffrumUnre and weaving, 

^^' ^^ lF5[ "^ S" ^^^'^^^^ taxien-sM, * A complete work on 
agriculture,' in 60 chapters, by Shii Kwang-hi of the Ming "^ 
dynasty. (Brit. Mus.) 



^5* ^.W ^^ Mt p^* Kqng-chl t*4,-9h%, 'Plates and odes on agricnltiire 
and wearing/ by Leu-cbau of the Sung !^^. dynasty. 

XY. EncydopcBduw and compikUtatu, 
66, — ^ yr {^ w iSdT^-toai <4 kwili, * Plates and explanations on the three 
powers* (i. e. heaven, earth, and man), in 6o vols. An encydopiedia illustrated 
with woodcuts. It was composed under the Mtng tyj dynasty, after the 
arriral of Europeans in China. The author's name ¥ras Wdng-ki JP j Jr. 
He finished the work in 1607. (Brit. Mus.) 

^?' 3^ 1^ iffi ^ TT^n-Ai^ <*lin^-A;*ati, 'Thorough examination into anti- 
quity,' by Md Twdn-lin ^ ^jjg Ejfi, who lired A. D. 1275. It con- 
sists of 348 chapters; about no vols.; and includes articles upon ancient 
government and tenures, ancient literature and writing, and many sub- 
jects not even noticed in other works. A large amount of diBcrimination 
is displayed in the book, and it will well repay the patient student's toil *. 
(Brit. Mus.) 

^^' /^ ^S ^P> ® YuinrkihirlUi-hdny in 139 vols., compiled by order 
of the emperor K'ang-hi. This is an encyclopaedia, and contains a r&j 
full account of subjects which come within the sphere of Chinese experi- 
ence. It would afford a very large number of phrases for a good dic- 
tionary of the Chinese language. (K I. Comp.) 

69. ^^ ^^ ^^ ^- Tsih^kiMili-Ml. This is an encyclopedia, like 

the preceding. It contains a full account of various matters connected 
with the antiquities of China. (E. I. Comp.) 

70. ^ ^ -^ ^. YUng-ld tdrtihh, 'The great classic of Y{big-l5; the 

3rd emperor of the Mtng dynasty, whose reign commenced A. D. 1403. 
He was the reviver of literature. It consists of 22,877 chapters, and 
contains many entire works, the original editions of which are lost 

^'* ^S\ ^\ \^ ^^ SMng-kh-pien-U^ny 'A convenient index for mer- 
chants/ in 6 vols. This small work is calculated to prove of use to the 
merchant and the traveller. 

7^* 13 Mt ^ tt' 1'^ S Si'ku ts'tiin-aM Uung-miA, *A general 
catalogue of all the books in the four departments,* published by impe- 
rial authority, in 1 1 2 vols. 1 2^. There is an abridgment of this in 8 
vols., which was published in 1774. (Both in Brit Mus.) 

* M. Rdmusat calls this work, in the Appendix to his Grammairef " Le plus beau 
monument de la litt^rature chinoise, vaste collection de m^moires sur tontes sortes de 
Bujets, tr^sor d'^nidition et de critique, oil tout ce que Tantiquit^ chinoise nous a laiss^ 
de mat^riaux sur les religions, la legislation, r^oonomie morale et politique, le oom- 
merce, ftc. ftc. ftc, vaut H lui seul toutc une biblioth^que." 


The above list will guide the student in his purchase of books and in his 
study of Chinese literature. It remains for us to notice the different styles 
of composition which will be met with^ and to say a few words on the metres 
of Chinese verse. 

The style of the kUt^to/^n requires a separate study; there is a massive 
grandeur about it, which is wanting in the lower orders of prose composition. 
The term itself, — * ancient literature/ — ^is peculiarly appropriate, for the cha- 
racter of this style bears the stamp of antiquity. 

The modem style of elegant essay writing, — w^n-chdngj — by expertness in 
which the government officials attain their position and their literary rank, 
may be characterised as the antithesis of the kil-w^n; the latter being terse 
and expressive, pregnant in meaning and swelling with the thought, while the 
former is diffuse and expansive, rhythmical and smooth, but barren of fresh 
ideas, and elaborate only in the mode of expression. The kitrw^n labours to 
exhibit the idea succinctly in a few words; the to^n-chdTig repeats the idea, 
and shows it under many forms of expression; the former is the sterling 
gold, the latter is the same changed into the cumbrous equivalents of copper 
and brass; and the genuine pearl is often hidden among the spurious imita- 
tions which accompany it. Specimens of the w^n-chdng, as well as of the 
other styles, are given in Gk>n^lves' Arte China. Of the kh-^n, the extracts 
given in the Chrestomathy, from the Shu-king and the Si-ahU, will afford 

The style of ordinary books on history, topography, <fec., is a medium 
between the kiir^w^ and the w^n-chdng. Less desire for elegant composition 
prevails in this style; and it approaches what has been called the business 
style, which Iei the idiom of the government papers, edicts, and official docu- 
ments. There is a simplicity, but at the same time a stiffness and precision 
about it. The Letter of the Commissioner Lin to the Queen of England and 
several other papers will be found in the text of the Chrestomathy to exem- 
plify this style. 

The literary composition in novels varies very much ; some novels, such as 
the Sdn-kwd chi, are classical The style of this work, however, is less terse 
than the kiirio4nf and dispenses in a great measure with the particles employed 
in that style, while it approaches the kilrio^n in vigour of expression, although 
the subjects treated of are very different. The romance style thus varies from 
the high classical novel, down to the conmion story expressed in every day 
colloquial. The extracts from the Sdn-kwd chi, the HaH-k'iil chuin, and the 
Shwiil-hii ckulhi will exemplify these remarka But the language of conversa- 
tion will form the first object of attention, for it is by this that the student will 
oonmiunicate with his learned sttnrsdmg. This style it is which it has been 
our object to elucidate. The pages of mandarin dialogues and phrases display 
a great number of specimens of the mandarin or kwdrk-JtMd, in which, with all 
its variations, (and it has many distinct phases,) great simplicity of style and 
construction will be found to prevail. 

The style and metre of modern verse among the Cliinese differ materially 

D 2 


horn those of ancient poetry. The common metre of the Shirking, ' Book of 
Odes/ is /our syllables, and the style is cognate with that of the itt^HO^ 
Chinese verse consists sometimes of /<mr, sometimes offive, and sometimes of 
seotn or eight syllables; they are regulated by the UmeSy which, when in this 
connection, are divided into wen and deflecUd. If we suppose a to represent 
the even tone, h the detected tone, and c the one or the other (common), the 
verse of four lines and seven or eight syllables would run thus : 

'' There are six different sorts of poetry : ist, Fung |^, which contains the 
principles of ancient sages for the promotion of social order. 2nd, F^ par, 
which contains a plain statement of virtues and vices. 3rd, PI rH, which 
satirizes by allusions, when the poet is afraid to speak plainly. 4th, Htng j ^, 
figurative allusion to encourage those who dislike flattery. 5th, Yd tJI^ whidi 
contains correct rules and sentiments for posterity. 6th, Sung ^p, which con- 
tains direct praise of virtuous deeds *." 

On the subject of the various styles of prose and metrical compositions, the 
student may refer to Mr. Consul Meadows* *' Desultory Notes on China;" 
Allen, London, 1847 y ^^^ '' '^^^ Poetry of the Chinese** by Sir John Davis, 
Bart., ifec dec, which appeared in the Transactions of the Royal Asiatic 

The passages printed in native character may now be read by the help of 
the dictionary, notes, and translations. 

The sounds of the characters and all the other uds have been given sepa- 
rate from the text, because we think that, while sll needful help should be given, 
the textus nudue should be distinct, to enable the student to test his acquire- 
ments ; and, as a College text-book, it is necessary that the text) without 
notes, should be read in class. 

• See Dr. Morrison's Diet., Part III. p. 334. 


The following is a list of the passages in native character in the 
Chrestamathy, which are also given in Roman type, with trans^ 
lotions and notes. 

Index to the native text. 

1. Extract from the Shu-king (i) and (2) . . . 

2. Epitaph of K*Ui^ 

3. Extract firom the Si-skd (i), (2), and (3) . 

4. Extract from the Shing-yri (i) and (2) . 

5. Extract from the JTicM^'tt^ ch/uJcn {i), {2), (3), (4), and (5) 

6. Extract from the Shwu\-hil ckuin (i), (2), (3), and (4) 

7. Extract from the Sdn-kwd chi (i), (2), (3), and (4) 

8. Selections frx>m .^Bop'a Fables^ translated (i) and (2) . 

9. Official Papers (Lin's Letter to Queen Victoria) 

10. Official Papers (a Notice and a Petition) . 

11. Official Papers (Supplementary Treaty, 1844) .. 

12. Dialogues and Phrases in Mandarin (i), (2), (3), and (4) 

13. Extract from the Ching^n t8uirya4 

14. Epistolary Style 

15. Poetical Extracts (Ancient and Modem) . 

16. Proverbs 

17. Six pages lithographed come under the above heads thus : — 

pp. 9 and 10 under 13 ; pp. 1 1, 12, and 13 under 7 ; p. 14 under 8. 

Pages I and 2 


6 and 7 

8 12 


17 — 20 

21 and 22 

23 and 24 



27 — 30 





Kote — The tnnslatioiis of the pBiwngee «re in aome parts free, because it wm impoeriUe 
to nuike them literal ; in other parts the English may haye snfiered from a literal render- 
ing. In eyeiy case the wants of the yoong students haye been kept in yiew; and the 
anthor hopes that, with the aid here giyen and the assistance which may be deriyed from 
the dictionary, all the passages in Chinese text will be rendered dear to his inteUigeDce. 

22 KU-WAN. — SHU-KING. [1 . a. — ^h. 4.] 

1. Extract from the Shu-king (i), v. native text, page i. 

a. a. ShOrkvng. TH-shii. Ti TH, Tiyu: ''LatYil! jUyi dCang yen:' 

a. 19. Yh pai, yu: "TU I%f yHhb yenf yH si fi toc-fes.** Kau^yau yu : 

b. 5. ''ffUl j4'hd r YUyu : '' HUng-ahmll faiCL i^wn haHrhaU, huxtU^Mn 

b. 18. aiang-Ung, hi/Hnin hwan-Hen, yH shtng e^-tsaij mtishdn hhn^md; H 
c 3. Yi taeu ahU aitn shi, yH kiu kiil-ch'iien, k'li si-hai, aiiin Kiuen kwe\ Uik 

c. 19. cKuen; H Tifi p6 taeii ahu kienshi sien Mj man taien yid tin2, hwd 

d. 4. kU; efwng mtn na\ U, wdn pdng tad C.** Kau-yau yu: "Yuf k ju 
d.19. ch'dngyhi.'' YU y4 : '' Tu Ti f ahln nal taa% wH^ Ti yil : '' Yu T YU 
6* 3- y^ •' " Grdn jtL <M, toef ki wet h&ng, let pi chi; wet tUng pei ying t cki, 

e. 2a I chaH ahed Shdng-ti, t'iin k't ahm nUng ydng hiu.'* Ti yu: "fful 
£4. Chlnrtaal! Ltn4aa%l Ltn4aail ChinrUair YUyU: ''Yu!" Tiyu: 
£ 17. *' Chin tad chin k^iirkwamg ^r-mii*: yH yiL tad^H yih min, /t^ yi; y4 
g. 3« yH aiuenrU a^-fdng, jit toel; yH yH kwdn khrjtn chi aidngfjl, yu, aing^ 
g. 30. ahtn, ahdn, kbig, hwd, ch'Ung tad hwui taung^, taaMtd /^nrnd fii-^ 

The Shu-king ib the most ancient record posseased by the Chinese, and is oonseqnently 
verjr firagmentaiy. It is said to have consisted originally of 100 %%,, forty-two of which 
are lost; and some of those which remain are considered to be spurious. All the copies 
which could be found were burnt by the Emperor Chi of the Tan dynasty (B. C. s^o), 
because this work kept aliye the desire to return to the ancient rigime. But on the 
reriyal of literature under Wftn-ti of the Hkn dynasty (B.C. 178), the text was reco- 
vered from an old blind man who could repeat it from memoiy and understood its 
meaning. This imperfect restoration was afterwards improyed on Kung-wang finding 
in the ruins of the house of K\iDg-tsz (Confucius) a copy of the original, written in the 
ancient (tadpole) character. These are the sources of the present editions. The style 
Is very quaint, and the meaning compressed into few words. This renders the sense 
obscure in many passages ; the conmientatorB are at a loss to explain it sonietimeSy and 
few of the Chinese care to understand its meaning, though the book itself is held in 
great yeneration by them. — The first book is called "the Book of Yu/' because it con- 
tuns some account of the affidrs of the Emperor Shun, who took the designation Yu on 
coming to the throne. 

This section is called Fl-TVl, because Yu mentions the names of these two men as 
haying helped him in his great works. 

T( (a. 1 1 ) ' the Emperor,* i. e. 54imi * (B.C. iioo t). The commentary firom which these notes 
are deriyed was written during the Sung dynasty (A. D. laoo). This passage is evidently 
a continuation of the last section. Kau-yau had been counselling the Emperor on the 
knowledge of mankind and on giving peace to the peo|de, and then the Emperor asked 
Yu to speak. Yu replies: "What can I say more? I always strive to do my duty to 
the utmost." Kau-yau asks how he does that. H<lLfig'8kwil% (b. 10) ' the flood.' This 
has led some to think the Flood of Noah was intended, but there is no evidence to proye 
it; great inundations have at diffj^rent times deyastated China. 8sf-Uai (b. 97) 'the 
four yehicles,' by which is meant hoaUj carriagei, tUdgtt, and apiked-thoet. SU^-^iX (c. 6) 
* fi^h food* or 'fish and flesh to eat.* Tliis includes fish and fowl, and the flesh of the 
tortoise and of other animals. The term kiit-eh*uin (c. 10), 'the nine streams,' means 'all 
the rivers.' 

Yu exemplified the meaning of daily exertion by Bhowing how he bad persevered to 


TranskUion of the Extract from the Shu-ldng {i\v, native text, page i. 

The Shn-hmg or Claeaic of Higtory *. The book of YU. The eecUon called 
Yi and Tei. The Emperor said : *' Come Tu ! You also throw light on the 
subject !*' Yu bowed and said : '' Good, my liege ! what can I say m cuidUion f 
btU I aha daily to do the utmost" Kau-yau exclaimed : '* Well, how is that?'* 
Yu replied : *' When the mighty waters rose to the skies with a swelling inun- 
dation, encompassing the mountains and overtopping the hills, and the poor 
people were sinking in despair, I adapted for the occasion the four methods of 
conyeyance, and all along the mountains I cut down wood, and, with YI, I 
introduced the various kinds of fish and flesh to eat; I formed the nioe 
streams, and led away the waters to the four seas; I deepened the ditches and 
brooks, and led away their waters to the streams. With Tsl I sowed seed, and 
brought all this into notice; as it was difficult to get food, fresh food qfaaUr 
maia was given to eat I exerted myself to promote the exchange of goods 
and to convert things into money. All the people then had food to eat, and 
all the nations were well governed.** Kau-yau said : '* Very good ! Instructive 
are your excellent words!" Yu proceeded: ''Yes! my liege! Cautious should 
those on the throne be!** The Emperor replied: ''Right!** Yu continued: 
" Rest in the judgment your mind comes to ; only be exact, tranquil, and firm ; 
the ministers should be upright, then whenever any action of state arises, the 
result will fiilly answer to your expectations and schemes, and so it will be 
clearly shown that you are receiving God*s command, and Heaven, in making 
known its wUl, will employ great blessings.** The Emperor said: "Right! 
Ah ! ministers and attendants ! How importa/ni they are t ** Yu remarked again : 
"Quite right!** The Emperor proceeded: "You ministers are my legs and 
arms, my ears and eyes : when I desire to assist my people, you help me ; 
when I wish to extend my power every where, you act for me ; when I wish 
to behold the models descended from the ancients, — ^the sun, the moon, the 
stars, the mountains, the dragon, the variegated insects, which were painted, 
the sacred vases (unth the mcTikey depicted upon them), the water-plant, the 
fire, the white rice, the hatchet, the double-hook, which were all embroidered 
with the five colours upon the five kinds of silk to make the clothing, — ^you 

cany off the waters of the deluge, and bo he oommunicated the admonition to oare and 
industry, as pre-requintee to sucoess in goyernment. Odnjit cAi (i. e. 4) 'rest where you 
arrive/ i. e. 'be satisfied with the judgment your mind naturally comes to, and let it not 
be affected by sinister motiyee afterwards.' /I, ptT, 4se. (i. g« 17)1 'sun, moon, fto.' 
These figures were worked in oolours upon the court dresses, as symbols of the deities, 
and of the qualities of filial piety, cleanliness, decision, and discrimination. The first six 
were painted on the robe, the second six embroidered on the skirts of the dress ; the moun- 
tains were the representations of the gods of the oountiy, the dragon was employed as an 
emblem of change, and the 'yariegated insect' or animal, which was a beautiful bird, was 
an example of variety in colour. The five colours were all used on each kind of silk. 
For pictures of these objects, the reader may refer to the Shu-king by Dr. Medhurst, p. 71. 

* The wordfl in ItaUcs are not translations from the text. 

94 Ku-wAN.-HSHcr-QNO. [1. h. 5. — ^2. c 10.] 

h. 5. chtrsid, I wh t8*a^ chdng sht yU wh tH t96filyjh mlng; yd yH win Ul^ 
L 33. Kily w^Jtrthmg^pdHfin, t9ai chi hwd, I cKH nd, toh ySuyjik i%ng; yH w^ 
i. la fiipi; jil wd fniSnU*4ng,t*ui yiil hetSry^^^ si4lnl akukufdnt^n 
i. 36. shwdjjdpauaiahtyhedlmtngchl; tdlkieln. ShUyiingMUai! ya 
j. 14. ping 99mg ttail kOng I nd yh^, shi 4r ydng chl; kA M chtng eh^ y4ng 
j. 30. cAi; feily ua we^ chlT Yil yi: " T4rUalf T^rhioang t*ien cM> kid, 
k. 14. MyU Hal yd taang^tang; wdn pang ti h4Sn, kung wH Ti eh^n; wei 
k. 39. Ti M kii,fS^nd \^in, mtng^kd l4Dung, kUrfU l-yung; shut kSn pO- 
L 17. jdng^ ki^ pHrking^ngf Ti p& M,Ju t'^ngji Ue& hang4eSmg; tod 
m,2, jd Tdn-cha gtxd, Ufei mdn yid ski haH, gailnid shl-M, hang eked yi 
m. 18. gi-gi; hang shwu^ king ckeu^ pdng ytn yU hidy ydng t*Qn hiu shi; yd 
n. 3. ekiodngjd-M, tsui yd T*d^Adn kingjtn hwax kid; Ki kurku ^rhi^yd 
n. so. fdt^ wet kwdng td t'it kung; pi cktng wdf&y chiyUwh ts*ien; ckeu 
a 6. M yid ^r sz, wai p6 s^-JmI; kdn kien tod ck^ng, k6 tl yid hung; 
a 23. Miau kwdn/H tH hdng^ Ti Ki niin taalL** 

8. Extract firom the Skd-ktng (a), v. native text, page 2. 

a. I. Ti yd : " Ti dOn tH, ski nai kung wei sd; Kauryad Jang kH 

a. 15. kd ad, fimjg ski ddng king wet mingP Kioe^ yd : '^kidki mtng^ 

a. 28. k*idy tw'dnrfd k*in^ \ ydng; tsd k*ad lai kd, yd pin Uai wd, 

b. 13. kidn hed iijdng; kid kwdn t*ad-kd, k6 ck\ chd-yu^ sang ydng \ kien; 
b. 29. niad-eked taiomg^iang; eiad eka/d kid cking^ Jdng^-kwdng lai 1** 

.... C%'fi^& (i. i. 2y 3) 'odes and bftUads.' Ch'U 'odes' firom saperiors; n& 'songs' from 
inferiors. Their respectiye characters were displayed in their oompositions. HeA 
(i. j. i) 'the tai^t.* This reUtee to a custom mentioned in the' CheQrU^ 'the cere- 
monies of the Chen dynasty.' This and the other modes of trial were probably similar in 
spirit to the ancient ordeal practised in other oonntries. The T*d-dkan 'the mountain 
Ta ' was situated in Lat. 32°. 34' N. Long. 0°. 16' E. of Peking. The scene of these erents 
was in the oountiy now known by the name of Shd/n4iikng^, a province in the north of 

The fiye tenures here mentioned are the divisions of land made in those early times ; 
their names were Tien^, Heu*, SuV, Yaiif, H\Damg\ The people here called Miau are 
the Mian-tUf a distinct tribe, supposed to be the aborigines of China. They still exist as 
a clan in the west-central provinces, and lead a wild life in the mountains. An account 
of forty-one tribes of these people is given in the Chinese Bepository, vol. XIV. p. 105. 

Mimg-Vm (2. a. 37, 28), ' the sounding stone/ means the .sonorous gem which was 
fbnned of a piece of jade stone, which, being suspended in a frame, emitted a pleasant 
sound when struck* T'aC-kii (2. b. 19), ' the tambour,' was like a drum, but smaller; it 
was famished with a handle, and, on being shook, the balls which were attached struck the 
instrument. Chik^ (2. b. 23, 24), ' the rattle,' was a tub, two cubits and four inches in 
diameter, and two cubits and eight inches deep. A hammer was fitted to it, by which it 
was struck. 'The stopper' was in form like a crouching tiger, on the back of whidi were 
twenty-seven indentations. When the music was to begin they shook the rattle, and 
when it yna to stop they drew a style made of wood along the tiger's back. 

'^i "Olt '^ •« 'i'k 'S 'I 


dearlj set them before me. When I wish to hear the six notes, the five sounds 
and the eight tones of music, in what consists right government or the contrary, 
as concerns the odes of the higher dasaee and the ballads of the lower dosses, 
eadi of five syllables, you listen /br me. When I depart from the right way, 
you help me to return. Tou do not in my presence be complaisant, and on 
retiring have a different expression. Thoughtful should the four attendants 
be ! All those who rudely misrepresent things, if they do not alter in time, 
test them by archery, in order to enlighten them ; punish them with whips, so 
as to remind them of their duty. The Record, how useful to know it * ! We 
wish, too, tP preserve their lives ! The chief musician will receive the words 
appointedy and constantly inspire these men with them. If they repent, 
recommend them and employ them ; if not, overawe them." Yu said : '* Is 
that right? Your majesty's glory should be spread through all the empire, 
even to the comers of the ocean, and the blue cKstcmce that arises, the 
myriads of nations, and the virtuous of your own people, would then become 
your subjects. But let your majesty ever raise these men; when they report, 
receive their words, and declare each according to his merits, by giving 
chariots and robes to render them constant. Who then would presume not 
to yield, and reverently to comply? If your majesty do not so, they will all be 
corrupt alike, and there will be daily reports of unworthy proceedings. Do 
not, 88 Tan-<hu, be proud, who, while only rambling about, delighted to insult 
and oppress, doing evil day and night continually. Where no water was, 
he wished to sail, and he corrupted those at home; and so he caused his 
succession to be cut off. I was admonished by this, and having married at 
Tu-shcm, only four days I remained there. When my chUd Ki fretted and 
wept, I did not caress him, but I considered the important duty of levelling 
the land. I assisted in completing the five la/ws of tenure, to the distance 
of five thousand IL In every district I appointed twelve officers. Beyond 
these districts, even to the four seas, I established the five elders, each of 
whom has some merit; but the Mixm people are stubborn and will not go 
to work. May your majesty bear this in mind !" 

Translation of the Extract from the Shil-king (2), ruUive teost, page 2. 

The Emperor said : *' As respects walking after my virtuous rules, it is ever 
to your merit alone that the arrangement of it is due. Kauryau then took 
with respect that arrangement of yours, and thereupon added the forms of 
punishment, being very discerning.'* Kw*^ said : " When they struck the 
sonorous stone, and swept across the harp and lyre to make their chord with 
the chant, then the mamss of our ancestors and progenitors came near; the 
g^est of Yu was presiding, and the multitude of nobles bravely gave homage. 
Below were pipes and tambours, which accompanied or ceased in accordance 
with the rattle and the stopper ; the organ and the bell were used for the 
interludes. The birds and beasts were set in motion, and when they played 
the nine airs of Shun music, the ^1^91^ birds came and acted the rites.*' 

* A book was kept in which the conduct of officials was noted down. 

26 Kt-WAN. — KI-TSZ PI. [8. C. 1 1 . — Z. 0. 1 1 .] 

c. 1 1. Kwei-^u : " Yu yH M-shi fitr-shi, pOrshaH sit wU, shU ywn yvn hiaV* 

c. 27. Ti yUng tad ko, yU: " (M t*ien chl ming, weA M, w^ kif' nal X» 

d. 12. i/il: ^^Ktl-hmng h\ Ual I ytienrsheH Icl tsal I p^-kung In Uall" 

d. 25. Kaur-yau pai-sheii Icl-aheh ydng-yen yu : " Nihi taall silrisd htng s£y 

e. I o. shin nal hien I Kln-tsai I lU sang nal chtng; Jdn-tsair^ Nc^ hang tsai 

e. 24. ko yu: " Yuen-sheil mtng tsalf kil-kwdng lidng tsal! shU s£ hang 

f. 7. tsair Yin ho yU: " YuJh^she^ IsiLngAsb tsat; ki^-kwdng to tsa^f 
f. 20. fodnrsi t6 tsaiT Tipai yu: " Yul wding kiTt-taall 

.T l»» 

2. Epitaph of KirtsZy v. native text, pages 2 and 3. 

g. 2. Kintsz pL Lint Tsung-yvM, — Fdn td-jtn chl taH yiit sdn: yi yu, 

g. 21. ching miXng ndn; ^r yuy/d sheu shing; sdn ytl, huxt hi mtn. Yin yiU 

h. 6. jtnjin, yu : Kl-tsi. Shi hu tsz tau, lUyUshi. KH E'ung-tsz shU lUrking 

h. 25. chl chlj yvd yvnrJdn yin. Tang Chsd chl sht, td tail pei4tJodn, t*%enriM$ 

i. II. chl tung pH-ndng hial, shing jin cJil yhi ioil-sd-yilng ; tsin-sz I ping~ 

i. 27. mingy ching jin i. W4-yi wil-s£y hilpH-^od; tjo^rshln I tsan-si, ching 

j. 14. jin i. Yu-^wd^ wQr^hjody hH pHrjln; tsii shi dr taily yiU hing-chlrM^^, 

k. 2. Shi yUng pail h*i ming-ch^y yit chl fH-ydn^; hwiii shi m^A-fdnyjH yU 

k. 18. tsm n4; hwqn 4r wH «a, t"ui 4rpaH: hu tsai Yi yu: " Kl-tsz chl 

1. 5. ming C," — ching mUtng ndn y^. Ki t*%hirming hirhaly sdng-jtn I cMng, 

1. 20. nal cKa tdrfdy yUng wei shing sz. Cheujtn tilsU l-ldn 4r ^ td-tieny hH 

m. 10. tsai Shu yu: "I Kv-ts^ hum ts6 hUng-fdnyfd shea shing y^;" hi Jung 
m. 26. Chau-sieny t*ut taH hiunrsU; wet ti urd leHy tvet jin vrd yuen; yUng 

n. 1 1, hwdng yin s&^pii um hwd; — hwd hi min y^, SH shi td-taibi, tsu yU 

n. 28. hu hung; t'ienrt^i pien-hwdy ngd ti h'i cJiing, h*i tdrjin ytl f 

Kl-Ui was a relative of the tyrant Che6rnn,^ (B. C. 11 12), and was obliged to save his life 
from the £mperor*B anger, on being reproved, by feigning madness. The greatest enormities 
were perpetrated by this monarch and his queen Tdn-H ®^ who had been taken captive by 
him after a victory. To please her he invented the most extravagant methods of torture, 
immoral songs and dances, with the worst abominations of heathen lands. F\-kdn (2. o. 24) 
was the first martyr for reproving the king. Witrwdng (3. a. 11), 'the martial king,' at 
last rid the world of this monster. He made a solemn appeal to heaven, imposed an oath 
on his nobles, and proceeded to battle. Che6. sent 700,000 men against him» but they had 
no will to fight; and CheCt^B army being routed, he himself retired to the stage, which 
he had erected for other purposes, and burnt himself in sumptuous robes and jewels. 
Tdn-H was slain by W^-iedng, the victorious general. 

The style of this passage is very classical and elegant ; for the arrangement of the words^ 
and the antithesis to be observed in some sentences, the original text must be studied. 
See Medhumt's Shoo-hing, p. ^63, and MorrUon's View of China for PhUolcgical Purposes, 
Chronology, p. 53. 

Shlng^ (2. g. 28), which means the highest qualities of goodness and wisdcmy may often 
be translated ' saint' or ' sacred,* and is fiiequently translated ' sage.' As it can apply only 
to those who stand apart from the rest of mankind, either on account of their virtues or 
their wisdom, and generally for both reasons, the rendering 'saored sages' seems impro- 
priate in this epitaph. 

"Hi "It $ la a ' 


Kfif^ went on to saj : '^ While I was striking and jingling the sonorous stones, 
all the beasts came forth to plaj, and all the officials were sincerely cordial.** 
The Emperor composed an original ode, to wit : '* that men should be carefiil 
about heaven^s commands, be constant, and be exact." Then he sang, saying : 
'' When statesmen (arms and legs) are glad to serve, the head of the state 
arises to action, and all public undertakings flourish.*' Kau-ycm bowed with 
his hands and bent his head, and murmured out, saying : " Bear in mind this ! 
Tht sovereign begins the affair, let him be carefiil about his regulations ! Be 
careful, and often search into the end of affairs ! Be careful !" Then he joined 
and completed the ode, sajring : '' When the head of the state is intelligent, 
the statesmen will be virtuous, and all affairs will be prosperous." Again 
he sang, saying : " If the head of the state be very stringent in his demands, 
the ministers will be careless, and every thing will fall into ruin." The 
Emperor bowed and said : " Very right ! Qo ! and be careful !*' 

TranslaJtion of the Epitaph o/KH-ts^, v, native teoct, pages 2 and 3. 

Ki-tss^s epitaph, by lAu Tsung-yuen, — Oreat men generally have three prin- 
ciples of action; first, they act correctly in adversity ; secondly, they give an 
example to the sacred sages ; thirdly, they reform the people. In Yin there 
was a pious man named Ki-tsz; he was fully furnished with these principles 
for an example to the world. For this reason K*ung-tsZj in compiling the six 
classics, took care diligently to notice these points. In the time of Cheu, these 
great principles were so utterly perverted, that the power and majesty of heaven 
was not sufficient to restore them to order. The words of the sacred sages 
were without good effect ; to rush into death and to be regardless of life was 
then true piety. There being no profit in keeping the sacred rites, they kept 
them not; btU to bow and reverently to preserve those rites was true piety. 
To g^ve himself up to die for his country, he had not the courage; but he had 
two virtues; — by the preservation of his intelligence he bestowed it upon all 
ranks, through concealing his counsels and plans he was disgraced to imprison- 
ment and bondage; — in obscurity he was without depravity, and when ruined 
he did not sigh in despair. Therefore in the Ticking) it is said : Ki-ts£s illus- 
trious quality was contentment, — ^he acted correctly in. adversity. The decree 
of heaven being changed, that the living might turn to righteousness, he issued 
his great law, as a model to the sacred sages. The men of Cheiu succeeded, 
by arranging in order the invariable law of the human relations, in establishing 
the great civil code. Therefore in the SkUr-iJeing) it is said : Ki-tsz restored 
the great plan, and thus he gave an example to the sacred sages. And being 
appointed to Chaursien (Corea), he promoted virtue and taught good manners. 
He considered virtuous principles without reference to rank, and he regarded 
men without reference to distance of abode. By using widely and diligently 
sacrificial rites, he made the barbarians to become civilized Chinese; — ^thus he 
proceeded to reform the people. He followed these great laws, and united 
them in himself. Amid the changes and transmutations of the universe, if one 
succeed in upholding the right, that will be to act the great man indeed ! 

E 2 

28 KU-WAN. — SZ-8Hn. — LAK-TU. [2. 0. 12. — 8. j. 29-] 

o. 13. Yii ha! Tdng k*t Cheu-M nA chi, Tin 8£ tri l*t^ P\rkan \ s^ 

o. a8. fFei-tes I leu, Mdng ski Ched 6 vA fin 4r tsi pi; WH hang niSn hodn 

a. 23. ) 1*4 tsany kwd noH kH jtn shiit yu htng-H, ski kd jtn si chl hw^in- 

b. lo. ch^ y^y jhi tsi sih^adng ytnrfin fr toei tak, K*i yiH chi yU k h/A! 
b. 26. jTdng meu ni^ meu yU, meuji M miad ki kiiin mii M chi sz, 

3. Extract from the S^-ehU (i), L4n-y^, y. native text, page 3. 

d. 3. SishU, L4nryrL Ts^ yi: " Hid 4t M A chl, pd yi yu hUf YiH 

d. 30. pdng ts£ yu^nr/ang lot, pd yi Id hd! Jtn pd chi 4^ P^ vkfn, pd yi 

e. 7. Mun-tsz hd ! " Y\^-t^ yu : " KH wC jtn y^ Mad ti 4r hadrfdnrshdng- 

e. 33. ch^, sQn I, Pdrhad fdnrskdrkg 4^ hadrtsMwdnrch^, tri-cAi-yiti ye, 

f. 9. Kiunrts^ wd p4n, p4n Vi 4r tad sdng. Hiadrtiryh-M, — U% toei jtn <M 
I 36. p4n ykr Tsz yil: " Kiait yen ling si, 9ien i fin,"" Tadng-t^ yu:, *^v>dfi 8dn 8dng, wd-shln wet-jin med 4^ pdrckung hdf yu pdng-yiU 

g. 36. kiau 4r pd-nn hd ? <A*uhh pds^l hd f " Tsi yu : " Tad tsien ahing <M 
h. II. kwd, Jdng 8£ 4^ sin, tsi ydng ^r ngai jtn, ahl^ndn I ahV^ Tsz yu: 
i. 37. "Tits^ ji, tsi hiad; ch'd, tsi ti; kin 4r sin,/dn ngai chung, 4*" tsin jtn : 
1 14. htng yiU yA H, tsUl hid^n,'' Ts^-hid yH : '* Eihh hi^n yi M; si 
i. 30. fdHintl, ndng H Jet U; si kiun, ndng chi Jet shin; yu pdng-yiU Jdau^ 
j. 16. yhi 4^ yi^ An/ sul yu: 'wi hid,* tod pi ttwC chl hid i" 

The character ^'in* (3. h. 6), which is commonly translated 'benevolence, hnmanity/ kc, 
might be rendered 'piety* or 'virtue.* It signifies the practice of those virtues which 
constitute a good citizen, a kind father, a dutiful son, an affectionate husband, a lovinf^ 
brother and a fidthful friend ; — characters which are involved in the five human relations 
{iffd-l6n), according to the Chinese. In the first case here jtn. (3. i. 39) would stand for 
'patriotism,' in the second (3. j. 14) for 'filial piety.' 

The following notices o£Pi-kan, Wei-Uz, and Tan-ki, which are given in Gon9alves' jir<0 
China, translated by Sir John Bowring, may interest the reader : v. Chinae Bepotilory, 
vol. XX. p. 96. I. Pl-hdn^, ' the living one without a heart* (B. C. 11 40), was the elder 
brother of Che&-Hn, by a concubine. He was a saint, and esteemed so by his brother, but 
being hated by his sister-in-law Tdn-H, on account of his admonitions, she said to Chek it 
. would be easy to ascertain whether he was a saint or not, for if so he would have seven 
holes in his heart. Moved by curiosity, CheCb ordered his heart to be extracted, and seven 
holes were foimd in it ; but as the saint had secured himself against death, he went to 
another country. Here meeting a man who was selling onions, he asked him what 
vegetable it was, and the man answering that it was a vegetable without a heart, he 
remembered that he himself had none, and died in a swoon. 3. Wd-tsi'^, ' the astronomy' 
(B. C. 1150), brother of Pl-kdn, seeing the tyrannical acts of Ched, fled in alarm, and 
oanying with him the astronomical books in which he was well versed, went to the wes^ 
to whose inhabitants he communicated his knowledge ; hence it is that Europeans obtained 
treasures of science which China lost. 3. Tdn-H^, 'the lovely sporter' (B. C. 11 30), one of 
the four beautiful wives of tyrant CfheA «. She was fond of lighting the alarm watch-houses, to 
see the soldiers in movement, but when the enemy really came, and the watch-houae was 
lighted, the soldiers did not appear; so the tyrant lost his head, and she being burned, 
transformed, — some say into a guitar, which she had been before, others say into a fox. 

^ ""jt^ 'm^f iia "It 


Alas! The time of the Cheu (dynasty) not jet being come, the sacrificial 
rites of Tin not yet being done away, Pi-kom being dead, Wei-tsz having 
departed; all tended towards the fall of Ched (the tyrant) in death before his 
wickedness reached its height. While Wu was thinking on revolution as a 
means for the kingdom's preservation, had this man been absent, who would 
have assisted in restoring order 1 It was assuredly this man's work doubtless! 
Yea ! this scholar, concealing himself patiently, worked thus ; he had intended 
this very thing ! 

In the T^cmg (dynasty) in a certain year, in a certain month, on a certain 
day this temple was raised to lead the city annually to perform the sacrifice. 

Tr<jmsl(jAion ofths Eostractfrom the Si-ehU (i), L4nrytl, v. native texty page 3. 

The Master * said : '' To learn, and constantly to dwell on the subject, is it 
not a pleasure ! To have firieuds, come from a distance, is it not enlivening ! 
The man who ia misunderstood, and who is yet free from indignation, is he 
not a superior man!" Tiiirtei said: '* Those who, as men, show themselves 
dutiful, both as sons and as younger brothers, and yet like to resist their 
superiors, are few; men who dislike resisting superiors and yet like creating 
rebellion are not to be found ! The superior man busies himself with funda- 
mentals; the foundation being laid, then, as a consequence, good principles of 
action are produced. The duties of sons and younger brothers ! these surely 
form the foundation of all reciprocal virtues." The Master said: '' Crafty 
words and a specious exterior are seldom foimd with virtue !" Tsamg-tsz said: 
'* I daily on three points examine ; viz. Have I, in acting for others, devised 
any thing unfEuthfully? Have I, in my intercourse with friends, been insincere? 
Have I delivered instruction which I have not practised?" The Master said: 
^ In ruling a country of a thousand chariots, let there he respect for industry 
and honesty; let frugality be coupled with benevolence; and, in engaging the 
people, let the seasons be considered." The Master said : '' As for young 
men, while they remain at home, let them be obedient to their parents; when 
they go out, let them act in submission to their elders. Let them be diligent 
and sincere, show love to all, and make friends of the virtuous. If, after busi« 
ness is done, there is any surplus strength, then let them use it in the cultiva- 
tion of learning." Ts^hid said : " By giving the virtuous their due, and so 
obtaining an equivalent for vicious desires ; in serving parents, to be able to 
use the whole strength; in serving the prince, to be able to devote the life; 
in communicating with friends, to be sincere in word ; although a person who 
does this may be deemed unlearned, I must call him learned indeed." 

* The tenn ' master/ which is here adopted from Dr. Legge's translation, seems very 
appropriate as the translation of ti£ % which in this passage, and often, means 'the great 
teacher/ — Gonfucins himself. It accords with the use of the word in our translations 
of the Gospels for ^iMffKokoi, excepting that this term Uz^ is used by itself to mean ' ike 
nuwter/ par excellence, and is never so used for any other of the philosophers. 

a ^^ 

so KU-WAN. — SZ-SHU. — SHAN€hMAN6. [8.J.3O. — 4.g.3.] 

j.aa TxtyU: ^^KiUn-ts^pUchUngftA pHw^; hi6,UAp&kd; ekilehung 

k. 15. tin, wCt ynlpUjH I M; hod, UH wH tdn kaV* Ts^ng-tsi yu: **Shinr 

L I. chung chiil-i/uen, mtn ti kwei hed \y T^-Jctn txXfn yU Tsi-kiing yu: 

L 16. ^' Fu-t8^ chi yU shi pang y^, pi todn k*i eking; Icvd ck% yU, yl yk cAi 

n^ 3« yfi ^ " T8^'4eiing yS : " Fu-t^ wan, lidng, kung, kUn,jdng, Itichl; /urisi 

m. 19. <M kHU chl yh, let chU-i Mjtn chi JciH chl yUT T^ yu: *' FH tsai^ 

n. 6. kwdn let chl; fii mH, kwdn let king : ad/n n'Un urd kai yU/H <M tad, 

n. 23. k'd wei hiaa V^ TiiJtrta^ yu : " Ll-chl yUng hd to^ kweH; sien todng 

o. 7. chl tail, 8z wet met : nait td yvA chl, yiit ad pU htng. Chl-hd ^ hd pA I 

o. 26. II ua chl, yi pHr-Jeo king ^d." 

4. Extract from the Si-Mi {2), Shdng^vn^ng, t. native text, page 4. 

a. 2. Mdng-i^ wei Tst Siuen-wdng yU: *' Wdng chl chin ytii, f6 k*t talr- 

a. 16. ts^yU k'i yiU, 4r chl Ts'H yiH che; pi Utfbm, y^, UA tUng-nui k*t t8%4^, 

b. 5. tsijH chl hdr Wdng ytl: "Z*! chV Yu: ''S£-^pandng chl si,tH 
b. 21. jil chlhdV Wdngyu: " i chV Yu: "Si-king chl nuipH chi, tHjH 
c 7. chl hdr Wdng kd tad-yiu 4r ySn Cd, — Mdng-t^ yu: '' Sd wei ku- 
c 26. kwd chi,/i wei yiil k'iailrmil chl u?ei y^, yiit shi-chtn chl w^ yi. Wdng 
d. 13. wd tslnrchin \; ti chi 8d tHn, ktn-ji pd chl let wdng yi" Wdng yu: 

d. 30. " Wilhd i ahi k'i pd tsat <Jr ahi chlf" Ytl: " Kwd kiun tsin hiSn jd 

e. 16. pd'tS-l, tsidng-shi pi y4 tsan, td yu Ui, led pd shin yu ! Tad-yiU kial 

f. 4. ytl: ^hien,^ tdrk^d yi; chU td-Ju kial yu: ^hiSn,' tot-Jed yi; ktod-jtn 
t 2a kial yi: ' hiin,* jSn-hed ch'd chl kitn: hOn yen,jSn-hed ydng chV 

L^ »» 

S/shU (3. d. 2), 'the Four Books/ may be looked upon (like the Penteteuch with the 
Jews), as containing the moral and political principles of the Chinese. This passage is 
taken from the JAtn-yii, *the Dialogues' or discourses of Confucius and his disciples. 
TU*^ (3. d. 17) is here represented by the character shwOK It expresses the internal 
feeling of pleasure induced by thinking over something in which the mind delights. In 
opposition to ^< (3. d. 2 7), which means the external manifestation of pleasure, — ckeerfulnea, 
gladnen. Chi^ might have been looked for after ckl (e. i) or hmUfU (e. 4) ; but the form 
of the sentence agrees with that of the two previous clauses, in which ehi is omitted. 
Observe the change of tone in haH (e. 20), which here means ' to like, — ^to love.' SUn-\jUi* 
(3- £»• 4)^ '^<B^ pious/ is an unusual construction. Jin is in appotiUon here, as firequently, 
and this will explain the form of expression. SiifiA is the predicate of the sentence, and^'ln 
is added, as it were by apposition, and makes a relative clause like an attributive, 'who 
are pious.' For a critical history of the text the student may refer to Dr. Legge*s ChUuMC 
CUusieSf voL I. ProUgomoia, p. 1 2. Dr. Legge translates LCm-^ by ' Confucian Analects.' 

The subjects of the work are very various ; filial piely is held to be the prime duty and 
the foundation of all virtue. The fragmentary nature of the work precludes any analysiB 
of its contents. The Chinese have made two great divisions of it into Shdng-Htn, 'upper 
or first 26n,' and fftd-lim, 'lower or second lUn.* From the terseness of the style and the 
necessity, in translations of this kind, of giving the meaning as literally as possible, the 
entire sense cannot well be conveyed, it would indeed need a paraphrase to make the full 
idea clear to the English reader. The first passage here given, for example, would be repre- 
sented in a paraphrase in some such phrase as this : ' What agreeable sensations arise in our 
minds when we think again on that which, by constant reiteration and practioe, we have 

'tft "m 'm '§ if^+-: 


The Master said : " If the superior man * be not grave, then he will not 
command respect ; let him study and then he will not be vulgar, let him esti- 
mate in the highest degree fidelity and truths let him be without friends except- 
ing those like himself; when in error then let him not be afraid to change." 
Tacmg-tsz said : '* If care be taken about the last rites ^br parents, and they be 
repeated for the departed satUs, the virtuous principle of the people will return 
to its origincd goodness." Tsz-Icln asked Tsz-kung, sajring : " When our 
Master comes to this or thai country, he needs must get information about its 
government; — does he ask for it, or is it given to himi" Tsz-kung replied : 
" Our Master, by affability and goodheartedness, by courtesy and moderation, 
coupled with a polite jdelding to others, obtains it Our Master's mode of ask- 
ing it is all different from other men's modes," The Master said : '^ While the 
father is alive, look at the son^s intentions; when the father is dead, look at 
his actions. If in three years he be without change as respects his father's 
principles, he may be called * filial.' " Tiurtsz said : " In acting with propriety t, 
to use cordiality is of importance. In the principles of the kings of days gone 
by, this was considered excellent. As respects following them in little things 
and in great, there are some which cannot be done. If any one know cordiality 
and do not moderate that cordiality with propriety, it should not be done." 

Translation o/theExtract/rom theS£^shU{2),Shdng-^mdng,v, native fea^,page 4. 

Mqng-tsZj talking with Siuen, the king of Tsi, said: " Should one of your 
majesty's ministers, who had conmiitted his wife and children in trust to a 
friend, while he make an excursion into T>n^<tn his return find tiu.t he had 
Starved them both outwardly and inwardly, then what should be done?" The 
king replied : ^* Cast him off." Mqng^tsz said : '' Should the chief of the 
officers of justice not be able to govern his subordinates, then what should be 
doneV The king said: '^Deprive him of office,''^ Mqng-tsz said: '* Should 
the interior of the four boundaries (i. e. the kingdom) not be governed aright^ 
what should be done then?" The king looked left and right and spoke of 
another matter. — Mqng-tsz, at an interview with king Sitien of Tsi, said : " The 
reason why a country is said to be ancient, is not because it is said to have 
tall trees, but because it is said to have patriotic ministers. Your majesty 
is without the affection of your ministers. Those who formerly entered 
your service, to-day you know nothing of their loss." The king replied: 
''How shall I know of those without talent, and reject them?" Mqng-tsz 
answered : " When the ruler of a kingdom advances the prudent, he cannot 
be too cautious in employing mean men more than the honourable, or strangers 
more than relatives. When the. attendants all say, ' he is prudent,' that is not 
sufficient; when the chief officers all say, ' he is prudent,' that is not sufficient; 
when the people of your kingdom all say, ' he is prudent,' then examine into 
the opinion of his prudence, if correct then employ him." 

* Here KvQoi-ta^ meuis rather he toJu) studies to be a superior man, 
*)* The chi after U ahowB that the word H is used as a verb, i. e. to act according to /I, — 
fitness, propriety, ceremony, etiquette. 

82 KU-WAN. — a2-SHU. — 8HANO-HAN0. [4. g. 6. — 5. d. 2 1 .] 

g. 7. Ming-U^ kiSn TH Siuen-wdng y%i: '' W^ kU 8hi,tglpiM hwng-m 

g. 33. KvA td mit; kUng^ t4 tdrfnU, M wdng Al, l^wei ndng thing Ictjin yd. 
h. 10. TsvSfng^in ch6 4^ siaib cht, foS wAng n4f l-^wei pa Mng Utjin i. Fu^in 
h. aS. yiil 4^ hid chi ehwdng 4^ yit king chi. Wdng yH: * Ku Mjilsd kid 4r 
i. 14. ta'iing ngd,* UfihdV* J'A kin yiil pd-yA yU ts^, mil wdMryif pi shi yUrjtn 
j. 3. tiaH-chd chu CMryU <M kw64eid UHyu: ^ku Mjit ed hid ^r ts'ttng ngd* 
j. so. UfihdliyU kiaH yUrjtn tiau-chd yH tsail — Ld^ehing-isi Iden M^ng-Ui 
k. la yil: " K*i-kail yU kiun, ioH lat kiSn yd; pUjtn yiti Tsdng-ts'dng M tsU 
k. 36. hiHn; kiun shi-l pH kwd lat y^.*' Yu : " htngy hiod shi-chl; cAi, hwd ni- 
1. 1 3. chi : — hing^chly/tjtn 9d ndng yd. W4 (M pH yuLit^ied, t*ien yd. Tsdng- 
1. 39. ahich^taz, yen ndng MyHpHyd foal/" — Fi yiU s£ yen ^r wH ching 
m. 1 7. 8in u>it wdng, wU UfU chd,ng yd, tod jd SHrng jtn. Jdn Sung jin yiil min 
n. 3. let mia/d-chl pd ckdng fr ydrchi ehd; mdng^ndng-j^ ktoei toeC k'ijin, 
yu : '^Ein-ji ping l^ydtsit miad chd,ng V E*t tsi tsU 4^ wdng M c^ 
miadtsikaitl. T^ien-hid cht pd tail miad chitng chd kwd^-l, ^r^wei wd yi 
4r M chi ckdy pd yun miad chd yd, tsU cht chdng chd, yd miad cbd yd; 
fi t'd wd yi ^r yid hai chi. 

Extract from the S^hU (3), ffid^mdng, v. native text, page 5. 

M4ng-t9^ yd : " Fl-i shing chi Uiing chd yd. I-yUn Mng c4i jin 
ckd-yh. Lid Hid-hwiii ehing chi hd chd yd. K*ung't8^ ahtng chi M 
chd^. ITdng'U^ chi toei tH td ching, Uli td chtng yd-chd. Kin ahing 
4t yd chin chi yd Inn yd-chd, ch*% fiad-H yd; Yd chin chi yd M^ 
chung t'iadrl^ yd. CKVi'iadrl^lrchid, dhi chi si yd. Chdng't'ia4rh<hd, 

onoe thorougiily learnt ! — the present thought aasociateB itself with the post^ and prodaoes 
pleasure in the mind ; but only the scholar can experience this. Again, what cheerful joy 
arises when a friend. comes from a distance to visit us again!' The former joy is sub- 
jective, it is enkindled by our mental assooiations ; the latter is objective, it dwells with 
pleasure on the external object which comes from a&r. 

Shin-chiing chili-ytt^ (3. k. 39). This sentence refers to the practice of reverencing 
the manea of ancestors and attending to the funeral rites of parents. Tl (3. 1. 5), com- 
monly translated 'virtue/ is rather the 'natural conscience.' The Chinese teachers say 
it is the good principle implanted in the heart of man by heaven, ffed (1. 7), ' thick,' is 
here put for 'original goodness,* and it is often used for 'generous/ in opposition to j>d*, 
'thin/ which is used for 'meanness.' Shi (3. 1. ao) is here put for 'the, this, any' 
(3. m. 7 — 16). Observe the character of Gonfudus hare given; by doing his duty to 
others, he obtains frt>m them what he wants. Grentleness, goodness (or sincerity), meek- 
ness, moderation, and courtesy were his characteristics. Chi (3. n. 8), the ' intention' or 
'inclination' not yet brought into action, but only sufficiently to show a tendency: — after 
his parents' death, then he will act {htng, n. 13). 

Mdng-tn (4. a. a). This celebrated philosopher was bom in the kingdom of Ti^^ 
(now the province of Sk&ii^iQmg% where he lived about B. C. 350. He was left fibtherlees 
at an early age, but his mother took great car^ of his education and the choice of his 
youthful companions. He first studied under T«t-9£\ one of Confucius* descendants, and 
finally obtained a post under the king of Td, — Siu^n-wdng. But as the king did not con- 
form to Mdng-tsz'a doctrines, he entered the service of the king otJAdng^, — MtBiU^vdmg. 

IL 19. 

0. 6. 

0. 34. 

a. II. 


b. 3. 

b. 17. 

c 3. 

c. 18. 

d. 6. 


Mqnff'4sz, at an interview with king Siuen of Tsiy said : " To make a great 
]>alace, jou must employ a master-builder to seek out great trees. If he 
find large trees, then your majesty will rejoice, because you will consider 
them quite fit for the purpose. But if the workman in hewing them down 
make them small, then your majesty will be angry, because you will consider 
them unfit for the purpose. Now, if a man in his youth leam manly priu- 
eiples, and wish in manhood to practice them, and your majesty say, 'Just 
abandon what you have learnt and follow me,' — how is that? Suppose now your 
majesty had an unpolished gem here ? Although it is only twenty taels in weight, 
you must employ a lapidary to cut and polish it. And when, with reference to 
the government of a country, you say, ' Just abandon what you have learnt 
and follow me,' — ^then how does this differ from instructing a lapidary how 
to cut and polish precious stones?" — Ld'Cking-tsZj at an interview with 
Mqng-tsz^ said : " I have represented it to our prince, who was about to call 
up<»i you, Imt his &vourit6 Tsang-tsa/ng prevented him, on this account our 
prince is not come." Mqng-tsz said : *' When one is promoted to office, it is 
some one who causes it; when one is not promoted, it is some one who pre- 
vents it. Promotion and non-promotion are not in the power of man. If I 
do not meet the prince of Lu, heaven prevents it; how could a son of the 
Tsang family prevent my meeting him*!" — You must labour at your busi 
ness and not forget to regulate the heart, and do not assist growing things. 
Be not like the man of the Simg dynasty ! There was a man of Sung who 
when he grieved at his grain not growing, pulled it up a little to assist its 
growth, and hurrying home fatigued, he said to his people : '* I am unwell to- 
day, I have helped the com to grow." His sons hastened to go and look 
at the com, and behold it was withered away ! There are few in this world 
who do not assist the com to gi*ow. Because there is little profit arising, 
those who abandon it, and do not weed their com, but help it to grow by 
pulling it up a little, do not only no good, but positive harm. 

Tremglaiion of the JSactrtict/ram the Si-^il (3), Hidrvn4'ig, v. native teoct, page 5. 

Mqng-tez said: ^^ Fi-i toaa the pure one among the sages; I-yiin was the 
trusty statesman among the sages; Liu Hia-hwui was the peaceful one among 
the sages; <md K*ung-t8z was the seasonable one among the sages. K^ung^ 
tsz is called completely perfect. This being completely perfe<;t, is like the 
sound of gold and the jingling of precious stones. The sound of gold is the 
commencement of harmony, the jingling of precious stones is the termination 
thereof To begin harmonious arrangement is the work of wisdom, — the 
completion of the same is the work of sanctity. Wisdom may be likened 

Afterwards he performed various services at the courts of the petty princes of those times. 
He attained the age of 94. Divine honours are paid to his memory, and twice every year 
sacrifices are offered at his tomb. 

* This Ping, prince of Lut had been prejudiced against Mdng-ttz by his &vourite, who 
said that he was a bad man because he had attended more carefully to the funeral cere- 
monies of his mother than to those of his father. Though the fact was, he was in affluence 
when he buried his mother, but at an earlier period when his father died he was in poverty. 


84 KU- WAN. — 8Z-SHU. — HIA-MANO. [5. d. 22. — 5. 0. 30.] 

d. 23. shing chi a£ ye. Chi pi UH Uiail y^; ahing jAMUyh YiH M yU 

e. 9. pd pa chl wai yh, k*i chi hr li yd, lei chungft ^ ll yd." 

f. a. Ta^iryin chl atfiy jtn-kiai yHjt-chi; siu-H chl ««, jtn-kial y»4-c^/ 

f. 18. kung-king chl nn, jtn Mai yirirchl; ah/i-fl cAt nn, jin-kial yUl-chi. 

g. 4. Ts'i-yln chl sin, jtn yi; siu-u chl «», i-yd/ kung-king chi sin, U y^; 
g. 22. shi-fl chl «», chi yd. Jin^ C, U, chi, fl yi4 wai Id ngd yd. Ngd ku 
h. la yiu cJil yi/H ai ^r i. KU yu: ' k'iH, tsi ti chi; *Ad, Ul shi cAi.' ffwii 
h. 28. giung pti sz fyr wA giodn ch^y pU n4ng Uin Jet tsat ch^ yh. Shi yu: 
i. 14. " T*ien sang chlng min, — Yiit wA yiit tal, — Mtnrchl I, — ffaii shi irti,^ 
L 30. K'Ung-ts^ yU: W^ t^-shl eke, k't chi taH hUf kH yiH wit pi yiU tsU 
j. 17. mtn chl ping t y^, KU haH shi i-U, 

k. 2. M4ng-tsz yu: "NiH shdn chl mH chdng mei I; I k't kiau yU td kw6 

k. 18. yi, /U'kln /d chl, k*d-l wei mei hH f Shi k't jUye chl sd si, yiUa chi 

L 8. sd jUn^fvAxydL mtng-^l chl sang yhhf Niit-ydng yiH ts^lmg ^r mA cAl, 

1. 24. shir-l jd pi ch&<h6 yi. Jtn kihi k*t chd-chd y^, i-u»i vfirchdng yiit 

m. 12. ts'aiyenf Ts^ k"i shdn chl sing yi tsalf Sul tsqn hd jtn chi, k"l tod 

m. 28. jtnri chi sin tsal f K'i sd-i /dng k'i lidng-sln (hi, yi yid fin-kin chi 

n. 16. yU ma yi : tdn-tdn ^r fd chl, Ud-l wei mei hH ? K*i jirye chl sd H, 

o. 5. ptng tdn chl k\ k*i haH-wd yu jtn sidng-kin yi-chi, hi hi tA Jet tdf^ 

o. 23. cheii chl sd wei yiil kU-wdng chV 

't >» 

Shi-chtn (4. d. 7). The commentator ChiL-hi explains this expreasion by lUl-dU hiUM- 
hm chi ehtn^ * statesmen who are loyal and patriotic when affiura are in a oonfnsed state.' 
Ts'in-^in (4. d. 14) 'ministers who are attached to, — ^have an affection for, their prinoe." 
Mdng-t$z was arguing, that if a country was to be considered ancient (that is^ worthy of 
respect on account of its venerable and well-tried institutions) by reason of the loyalty 
and patriotism of its statesmen, then, where affection for the prince was wanting, such 
ministers could not exist long, but would depart, and consequently the kingdom would 
lose this mark of honour. The commentator adds : " Being without attached ministers 
(i. e. ts'if^chtn), much more would the state be without those patriotic men who are equal 
to troublous times'* (i. e. shi-cktn). The king's idea is, that such ministers go away becaaae 
they have not ability equal to the work. His majesty assumes, that he cannot tell their 
capacities before he engages them, and so he may make a mistake ; he therefore asks how 
he may guard against error in this point, and so reject them. The excellent reply of 
Mdng-Uz needs perhaps a little explanation. He cautions the king against promoting 
relations and honourable men who are without prudence, and neglecting the mean man and 
the foreigner who may have this quality. He then proceeds to supply the case in which the 
man of reputed prudence may be tested in order to employment. He warns the prince 
against the peculiar bias of particular classes, and points to the vox popuU as worthy of 
his regard, on account of its comparative freedom from party feeling and prejudice. 

(4. g. 7 — i. 1 7). In this passage AfSng-tsz insinuates that the learning of the sages is 
great, and that the king seeks to reduce their principles to his own practice. Fdn-ihl, an 
eminent scholar and commentator, says on this passage : "The ancient sages ever grieved 
that princes could not follow their doctrines, and the princes lamented that the sages 
could not conform to their desires, wherefore the agreement of prince and minister was 
ever a matter of difficulty. K'ung-tsz and M&ng-Uz seldom agreed with the princes of their 
times." In (4. 1. 5) Milng-tsz recognises a Supreme Ruler, whom he calls Heaven, as the 
governor of human affiiirs. Mdng-mdng (4. n. 1 2) is explained to mean ' the appearance 
of stupidity ;' Mdny-mdng signifies ' much fiitigued,^ according to Dr. Williams* Dictionary. 

" iTi -m- ffifi tfe :► 
^-} IE. ^«.y w <- 


unto ingenuity in Ua practice, and sanctity may be compared to strength. 
Thus, the archer, who shoots at upwards of a hundred paces, reaches ^ target 
merely by his strength, — should he strike the centre it will not be merely 
by his strength." 

All men possess compassionate hearts ; all men have hearts open to shame ; 
all men have hearts inclined to reverence ; all men have hearts to distinguish 
between truth and falsehood. A compassionate heart leads to benevolence ; 
a heart ashamed of vice acts with justice; a reverent heart produces pro- 
priety of manners ; a heart which knows truth from fiEtlsehood gives wisdom. 
I^ifWy we are not imbued with benevolence, justice, propriety, and wisdom 
by things extemid ; we assuredly possess them innaldy; they are not to be 
aimed at only. Therefore it is said: ''Seek them and you obtain them, 
forsake them and you lose them." Some lose manifold, times without number, 
and are unable to perfect the capacity they possess. The Sh%'{king) sajrs : 
" Heaven produced all people, — they have things to do and ways to do them, 
— the people are ever constant in loving this beautiful virtue." K*ung-t8i 
has said that he who made this ode knew right principles ! For if there is 
business to do, there must be a method of doing it, and that which the people 
constantly maintain is esteem for this beautiful virtue *. 

M4ng-t^ said : '' The forest of the Niu mountain t was once beautiful; but 
since its borders verge on a great state, the axe has felled it : — can it be called 
beautiful stiU f Yet with the silent growth by day and night, and the genial in* 
iluence of rain and dew, surely the tender sprouts will shoot again ! Nay ! but 
the oxen and the sheep have been there, and have eaten them up; so that now 
it is a wilderness! When people see its naked barrenness, they will think it 
never supported a forest. But was this the natural state of the mountain 1 
Supposing the preservation of it in man, is there not a heart of kindness and 
justice there? But the means by which man loses his uprightness is like the 
operation of the axe on the forest. If you fell wood every morning, can it 
appear beautiful? By the daily and -nightly growth o/virtvsj the spirit which 
each dawn revives, makes all men similar in their love and hate; but the 
deeds which each day brings to pass, wither and destroy it.*' 

Pl-i (5. b. 5); J-yUn (5. b. 13); Li^ ffidhwiii (5. b. 19). The virtues of these three 
worthiefl of antiquity are mentioned in order that the chief, K'itng-tiz, might be mentioned 
as combining the whole united in his character. • Shing (5. b. 7) is expUined by the com- 
mentator as being H eki id tM yi * that which proceeds from the virtuous principle,* it 
eorresponds therefore with sanctity among us. 

(5. g. 16. 17) k't^nff'hlng. The commentator has explained this, which is a colloquial 
expression, and means 'to reverence,' by saying that k'tang is the external expresaon of 
Hug, and Jdng is the principle in the heart from which k*v/ng arises. Here we have an 
example of the scientific form of some Chinese words ; the objective and the subjective being 
united to form a general term. 

• This < beautiful virtue' (M Ui, 5. j. 25) is called in the Td-hUi, mtng-tH, < bright 
virtue,* and explained in the commentary to be the virtuous principle implanted in the 
heart by heaven, by which man may direct both his spirit and his conduct, 

f The Niu mountain was on the south-east frontier of the kingdom of TH, the domain 
of the king to whom Mdng-ttz was speaking. 

F 2 

36 SHI- WA N. — KWAN-HWA. — SHIHG-YU. [6. a. I - — 6. L 29.] 

6. Extract from the Shing-yU (i), v. native text, page 6. 

a. I. Shlng~^L (i.) Tdn hiaH'ti \ chdng jin44n. 

a. II. Ngd Shing-tsiit Jtn Ilwdng^i Itn-t/U lUrM-^ ni^fdrtsilL UqnrUin 

a. 27. hiaii sit pH kwei, kin ting ff tad-king f/hiri yi^U; yennsht king- 

b. 12. wdn, i-lt ts'idng-kwdn ; vrd-fl hiau chi i'ten-hid chl I. Kii Shing-^yu 

b. 28. fhl Id t'iaH sheh I hiad'-ti leal Jet twan, 

c. 8. Chin pel chiTig hdng nii chiil wet wdaig hiHn cKul kwdng U kiau 

c. 21. chi si sien shin hiad-ti chl i, yung shi yU hr jnng'mtnrjtn t^ng, siuen 

d. 8. shi chl. Fa hiad ch^; t*ien chl king, ti chl I, mtn chl htng yi. Jtn 

d. 24. pd chl hiad /d-meh, tH pd s£ /d^-meU gai-ts^ chl sin hH! Fang Jet wi 

e. 12. It hwat']xiil; Jd pH n4ng tsi-pu; Jidn pH ndng tsi-t. Wetfil^meil chit 

e. 29. sJim yin'sJilng, cJid hing-st siah, tsl wet cJn hi; ti, tsi wet ch^ j/i^/ 

f. 15. htng-tung, tsi Jcwe\-pd pu It; ts^-t*ungy tsi tsln-shl JeU-fi \ yhng % kiau 

g. 3. chl yd ch'tng jtn fd toei sJuid Jcid-shl meu sdng-h pd ki Jang ytng sin 
g. 20. It JcU tsiil. Fd'ineu chl ti shi V'dng Jiad-t'ien-Jcang'Jci ; jinrtsi yu 
h. 6. pak-tsln gan yU wdn yl, tang niii tsin Jet srin wai Jni Jet U kin sJnn 
h. 24. tsi-ydng % Junfd lail I Idng hiau; toil pd pien yln tsiU; wH Jukii 
i. II. yhng ted h^n; wH had Ji6-tsat s£ tsl-tsz tsdng shi t w4n wi pi 4^ 
i. 28. cht7ig kid yiu yd cJiul ^r Jewdng cJil, Jd Ts^ng-ts^ sd loeC JeH-chu 
j. 13. pd-cJiwdng fl Jtiad s£; Jciun p& chung fl hiau; It Jcwan pU king /t 
j. 28. hiad; pdng-yiU pd sin fl Jdad; chen chin wd yung f I hiaii: kiai 
k. 12. Jiiad tszjan nui cJil si yk. 

k. 20. CJie ti sdn tujdn shi tdn sJiwd hiad tl tad-Hj nl-nUpn t^ing-chdf 
1. 5. Iliad'sJuin tie-nidng, che yi Jcien s& shi t'ien-4i Jcien cJidng-tsqn ti taiin 
1. 21. li, pd-sing-m4n tsui-td tl tl-htng. 

The Shing-ifUf 'Sacred Edict/ was issued by the emperor K'ang-hi^ the first great 
emperor after the Tartar invasion and conquest of China in A. D. 1644. It consisted of 
sixteen maxims, bearing upon social and political duties. They include admonitions to 
filial and fraternal duties (i) ; to regard for kindred and neighbours (2, 3) ; to husbandry 
and economy (4, 5) ; to honour learning and preserve orthodoxy (6, 7) ; to understand the 
laws and cultivate politeness (8, 9) ; to form a habit of determination in your calling (10) ; 
to instruct youth (11); to refrain from &lse accusations and from hiding deserters (11, 13) ; 
to pay up taxes (14) ; to form corporate bodies in order to suppress theft (15) ; and to settle 
animosities in order to avoid bloodshed (16). These maxims, each of seven characters^ 
were written on slips of wood, and are still exposed in the public offices. They were ampli- 
fied by Yung-chinfft K'ang-hVs son and successor. This he ordered to be read in pubUc od 
the ist and 15th of each month, a custom which is still continued. The style is Hawriral, 
and difficult for the lower classes to understand. But Wang Yn-po, an officer of govern* 
ment, paraphrased the whole in colloquial style of composition. 

Laws in China were first explained to the people in the Cheu^ dynasty (cir. B.C. 1000), 
on the 1st day of the month. At the present readings, the civil and military officers in 
uniform meet in a public hall. The Ll-sdng exclaims: "Stand forth in file!" which 
they do according to rank: then he says; "Kneel thrice and bow nine times!*' They 
all kneel and bow towards a platform, where a board stands with the emperor's name on 
it. Tlien he exclaims : * ' Rise and retire ! ** They then proceed to a hall where the law 



TrcmsloHon of the Extract from the Shing-yu (i), v. ruUive texty page 6. 

The Sacred Edict, (i.) Give practical weight to filial pietj and fraternal 
love in order to strengthen the relative duties. 

Our canonized ancestor, the emperor Jvn, reigned sixty-one years, and 
followed the ways of his fathers in honouring his parents and in aiming unre- 
mittingly to observe the duty of filial piety. His majesty himself revised and 
amplified the meaning of the Hiaiirking (' Book of filial piety*). He amplified 
and explained the text of the work, arranging consecutively the arguments 
which it contained ; considering filial piety alone, and nothing else, to be the 
means of governing the empire. For this reason the sixteen articles of the 
Sacred Edict start with filial and fraternal duties as their leading principles. 

We, having succeeded to this vast inheritance, have investigated thoroughly 
his former instructions; and, having studied the object he had in view in 
establishing the doctrine every where, we have, in the first place, reiterated 
the meaning of filial piety and fraternal affection, in order that you soldiers and 
people all may know it. Now filial piety exists in the law of heaven, in the sen- 
timent of the earth, and in the conduct of the people. If a man does not know 
how to obey his parents, he does not bear in mind their heart of affection! 
For before he was separated from their parental arms : when hungry, he could 
not feed himself; when cold, he could not clothe himself To act as parents do, 
is to judge by the sound of the voice, to notice the appearance of the face ; if 
the child laugh, then to be pleased ; if he cry, then to be grieved ; when he 
moves about to support his footsteps and not leave him ; when he is in pain, 
through sickness, then to be regardless of sleep and food, in order to rear 
him and to teach him until he arrive at man's estate *. 

And then they give him a home, they plan about his livelihood by a hun- 
dred schemes, they deliberate for him until their whole heart and strength are 
both expended. The good principles of parents are like the vastness of high 
heaven ! The son who would fain requite his parents' kindness only in a ten- 
thousandth degree, must, whether at home or abroad, exercise to the utmost 
his whole heart and strength ; — be carefril about himself, b^ frugal, serve them 
with diligence, and dutifrilly provide for them. Let him not gamble nor 
drink, — ^neither be fond of feats of daring and trials of strength, — nor hanker 
after riches to expend secretly on his wife and children. Although to perform 
outward ceremonies he may not be pcepared with means to accomplish all 
that he might intend, sincerity of purpose should abound, and increase it. As 
Tsqng-tsz has said : Unseemly conduct is not filial ; in serving the prince to 
be traitorous is not filial ; in the office of magistrate to act in an undignified 
manner is not filial ; with friends to be insincere is not filial ; in battle to be 
cowardly is not filial. All these belong to the duty of an obedient son. — 
(Paraphrase.) — These three sections treat on the doctrine of filial piety alone. 
Do you listen ! This one article of obedience to parents is the principle which 
is constantly preserved in the universe, and is the greatest act of virtuous 
practice amongst mankind. 

* Of. Xenophon*8 Memorabilia of Socrates, Bk. II. i, 5, 6. 

88 SHI-WAN. — KWAN-HWA. — 8HINO-YU. [6. 1. 30. — 7. k. 1 6.] 

1. 30. I^l-^th^n tailng-fUH^l hiaiirth4n tie-nidng, ted-mS, p&rp^ nd tie 
m, 15. nidng gai-^r-tsi ti stn-chdng, sidrtg shdng yl sid^f Tang ni-m^n 
m. 39. t9d hai-isz ti sht-heii, tie-nidng hwa%-paiirch6 ; IdLng-liaily pH hvmi tef- 
n. 15. hi cKuen-%; ki4iail, pU-hwUi tai-ki Hl-fdm,; Jcdnrchd nlnn^n yenrsi, 
n. a4. nl siait-liaii, t*d pien hi: nl tl-liaU, t*dpien tsHil; nl htng^ung-liahy 
o. 10. t*d tdd kdn-ting^iaU nl pd pd It N\ j6 yvd-Uad iai-ping, t'd pien 
o. a;, ahdi pd ndng an. 

7. Extract from the Shing-yu (2), t. native text, page 7. 

(5.) Shdng tsir-kien I H tsai-^ng. 

Sdng-jtn pd-ndng yi fi ^r tod f/dng, tat pd-Jcd yl jl 4^ wd tsaL 
Jh^ pi lid yiit yd chi foal fr hed Jed kung pd sht chl ydng, Ed tH- 
kien shdng yinf Fu tsai yvA ahwul ye; Ud-Jden yid shwul cht cKU 
y^. Shuml chi lid pd ch*d, M yUd wd yu ^r shwUl U kd I. Taai 
chl lid pd foS, tH ydng^i wd td fr tsai ti kwtd I. Ngd Shing-tsd^ 
Jin Htodng4iy kung htng Ud-hieny wei t'ienrhid sieUy hid ydngsdng H 
halrmii. Tin /d yid king king I H taatj ydng shi hidn kai, Tsi kh 
mtn fung kiai kwei hd kin kien, JSn kin 4^ pd kihi, Ud ahl fd eh% 
U pd-tsd kung yi fd chl ydng, Tsd sui sd tidng pd-tad kung yi jt 
chi 8d. K'i hai nal kqng thin y^. — Chi t'ed yi twdn shi ^iw9. 
Shing-t8i)t, Jtn ffwdng^iy yinryin chUUhidn tl yti^n-yid. Td/dnjtn 
sang shi-shdng pd n4ng yi-ji md-yiil/t, tsid pd led yi-ji mdryid yh^ 
taien, Jin pi ting tsi-ch'd-hid aii yinrts'iin, tad nd htod-jen shi t*d 
&, sht-hed, tsai tl tst-kH; sd-l shw6 tsU-kien yi-chd» Shi-kd tsu-^miad- 
H fSirts^l TsU chi yin-ts'Uny tsid jd shunii yi-pdn; jtn tai-kien t'&y 
tsid aidng tsurshunil-tl yi-pdn. Lid ti ahusul pd taU-chd aie yiii to- 
ahait lid td-^ahady tsid yad kdn-hd-liail, Ydng taatjd lid ahvniljd pd 
taal-aUchi^-aief jin ta'dng to-ahad yin-taihi chuin yin yi-taid Icing- 
Had. — Fu ping'ting ta*ien-lidng yid yi ting chi ad, nal pd<hl ta^n 

ia usually read. Here the people are assembled to listen. The Li-tdng then calls out : 
" Respectfully begin!" The Sz-hidng-sdng, or orator, kneels before an altar of ino«iBe, 
takes a board with a maxim, and ascends a pulpit or platform. An old man then pre- 
sents the board to the people, calls for silence with a rattle, and, kneeling, reads the 
maxim. The JA-sdng next demands the explanation from tiie Sz-bidng-sdng, who stands 
up and gives the meaning. See Dr. Milne's Preface to his Trandation of the Sacred 

The original prefiioe by Ywng-chitig is in elegant classical style, and worthy of careful 
perusal. We will give a version of a portion, which may be of assistance to the young 
student. ** The Shu'{king) says : ' Every year, in the xst month of spring, a herald with 
a bell went round on the roads.* The Li'(In) says : ' The Sz-tu prepared the six ceremo- 
nies to chasten the dispositions of the people; and illustrated the seven doctrines in 
order to exalt their virtue ! ' All these, by giving proper weight to first principles, and 
reverence for realities, became the means of enlightening the people and awakening 
the age. A plan the very best ! An idea the most noble ! Our canonized £ftther, the 
emperor Jin, for a long time taught the doctrine of complete renovation. His virtae 
was wide as the ocean, and his favour extended every where. His benevolence 
nourished every thing, and his justice regulated all people. For sixty years, morning 

a. a. 

a. 10. 

a. a;. 

b. 14. 

b. a8. 

c. 15. 

d. a. 

dL 17, 

e. 3. 

e. 19. 


£ 31. 


fir- »4. 

h. 10. 

k. 38. 

1. 14. 

1. 30- 

j. 16. 

k. I. 


If jou do not at all understand obedience to your parents, how can jou, 
unless jou consider your parents* heart of affection towards their child, give 
it a thought? At that time when you were a little fellow, and in your parents' 
embrace, — ^being cold, you knew not how to clothe yourself; being hungry, 
you could not feed yourself*. They beheld the colour of your countenance. 
When you smiled, they were pleased; when you wept, they were sorrowful. 
When you moved about, they, at your heels, supported your steps and remained 
with you. If you were sickly, they could not sleep in peace. 

Translation of the Extras from the Shing-yu (2), v, native teaet, page 7. 

(5.) Attend carefully to frugality so as to spare the waste of your means. 

Mortals cannot exist for a day without expending something, and con- 
sequently they may not exist for a day without the means of doing so. 
Well then, they must lay up their superfluous money, so that bye and bye 
they may apply it to future necessities. For this reason let frugality be exer<- 
dsed ! Now money is like water, and frugality is like the accumulation of 
water. If the flowing away of water be not stopped, then the water will leak 
out and be completely exhausted. And if the flowing forth of money be not 
limited, then the expenditure of it will be lavish and your means will fail 
Our canonized ancestor, the emperor Jin, himself practised a frugal economy, 
for a leading example to the empire; while he aimed at making provision for 
the people and giving prosperity to the state t. In times of abundance he 
was so careful to spare the wealth of the country, that he used to issue pro- 
clamations to instruct the people to lay up store. From olden time all the 
feelings of the people were in fi&vour of industry and frugality. But if we 
euppoee industry without frugality, then ten men*s labour would not suffice to 
supply one man's wants. The store which comes of a year's hoarding is 
insufficient for one day's need. The harm which arises is greater still them 
the loss. — (Paraphrase.) — ^This first section tells the reason why our canonized 
ancestor, the emperor Jin, gave us such careful instructions. All men in 
general bom into the world are unable to live for a day without expense. 
Therefore they cannot exist for a day without money, so they must determine 
to store up and accumulate a little money, to meet sudden emergencies. Then 
they will be able to relieve the embarrassed ; on this account he speaks of fru- 
gality. It is an uncommonly good plan of his ! Now as for money, it is just 
like water; and if people take care of their money, it is just as if one collected 
a quantity of water together. Now, if flowing wat^ be not confined and 
stopped, a good deal will escape, and then all will be dried up. Using money 
is like letting water flow, if you do not employ a little care as to the quantity, 
then your money will by little and little be exhausted. — Now the amount of 
the soldier's pay is fixed, but he does not know how to be frugal. As to his 

* It will be observed that several characters, which are wanting in the native text, 
have been snpplied in the Roman character. 

f This passage is rather obscure, but the translation given above appears to convey 
the meaning intended. The expressions 'within the seas* and 'below the skies' are 
tramjlated by 'the state' and 'the empire.' 

40 BHI-WAK. — ^KWAN-HWA. — HAU-K*IU CHUBN. [7. k. I7. — 8. k.9.] 

k. 17. M; i had sih^i, shl k*%4 kdn-mei, Ti yu /%, sii yu cln Udng shin^ 

1. 4. ehi chlng t*aly i siii Jet yH. T^nnil sUhtg kiuin; jl fH yi ji, chai 

L aa 8hin liiX-ckAng^ kH hdn pa fnihi, — Che ti-ipr-twdn shi shwd ping pdrthx 

m. 7. tsfr-kienrti ; ni-m4n ptng-ting ti ts*ihirlidng, yuhi yiit yi^ing cht sil- 

m. 33. mHjjdshi pU chl-taH tsdn-tsi; v^fu yaH htod-lif /dnrshi yaH tm^lceUy 

XL II. hod yi'kS yu ji'48z, tail hwdfi hnrkd ytl t8*i&nrlidngj che tsihirli&ng 

n. 38. tsdng-tl keu fi, Shtn-tsi^ yiu pU gdnsdng-tl, Uwdn ya4 kiS sie 

o. 13. chaijln i hv^in-shd, chi ku ytshi ktoal-hwd. 

8. Extract from the HaH-Jcid chvJen (i), v. native text^ page 8. 

a. 3. ffau-k'iH chuen. SvodLU-M ting-ltahy tad tsi-fi, ji wl-ch^Hy tsid k*l 

a. 18. laty kiau Siai^tdn sheushi htng4l, ti^i^ k'ishln; tsi-Jdd chuJhtrydng 

b. 4. tihi^shdng yi-k6-nail-8z, nd4iah H-Uk lat, hwiit-pal Kw6 kung-ts^ 

b. 30. FU-kH Kw6 kung-tsz \-fa hid-jtn tsai hid-chu td^tHrig; yirkien Ti 

c. 7. kung-tsi lat-pal, taatl fl pad-yU Ktod kung-ts^ kdng^ng-ti Tl kung^ 

c. 33. tsi tad fn4n, Kw6 kimg'i^ tsah i-kvodn tst-tsii siail-hd-hd tl ytng- 

d. 9. tsidng^'U'lat tad : ** Siah-4i tsd^l tsin-yiy pd-kwb liad-pia^-yhng^ 

d. 34. fad chl cfdng; Tl kdn lad tat-hiung tsi-kd;" yln liinrUSn td-kung^ 

e. 9. kilng ta'lng tain-JcU, Ti kung-tsi yuen ta-chdng, chi tad m4n Ced yi'- 

e. 34. fntng-ti, pien taeiH, Htod-kien Kii}6 kung-4s^ chl cKd-nndn ytng-ist, 

f. 8. thl'fan yvnrktrhy yi-4w'dn'h64:*iy pienrfdng pdr-hid ULng4ien latj chi~iS 

f. 35. ^'et2 liah mtng-tiy tad t'lng. Tl kung-ts^ tsid yau 

g. 10. sJd-li. Kio6 kung-ts^ ch^lrchu tad : '' Ts^-kien pd-picn tsvng kiaiL" 
g. 34. Siii tsiang Tl chl-yau tad hed-t'tng; Jang-iaat shi-h sU-tsd, Yi-niien 
L 10. hienrshdng-cfCdrlaty Kw6 kung4sk yin ahwd-tad: ^'Kih fo^n tat-hiuTigy 
L 34. ying^idng chl mingy ki-8i yl-hvriii; ts'ihh fndng-jH Itn pt-yl M, tH 
i. 10. med tainryi ^r yid tsung-Ufung fSrhidy pah-h^n chi4eln; kin-hlng 
i. 35. taairliny yid chvng chui-kdy chtng yid kw'al-s^/ Kdn pdn-tsd ping" 
j. 9. yu^ shl-jl chi ytriy I wei kt-kii cla hwatV^ Tl-kung-taz ch'd pd, tsid 
j. 36. llrJct-ahwrlaiy tad: ^^Clilng ckdng-hiung h&d-gai, pdn tdng ting^kiad; 

and evening, even while eating and dressing, his only concern was to excite all, both 
within and without the empire, to exalt humanity ; to speak with deference to each other; 
to put away meanness and keep &ith with one another perfectly ; that hy cultivating 
the spirit of kindness and humility, they might for ever enjoy a reign of universal peace. 
Therefore with this intention he gave these superior instructions, consisting of sixteen 
articles, to acquaint the Bannermen (i. e. the Tartars), together with all descripUons of 
men and soldiers throughout the provinces, of the bounds of their common and uncom- 
mon duties, of the culture of the ground and of the mulberry tree, of working and 
resting, principles and results, of fine and coarse, public and private, great and small^ 
and whatsoever else the circumstances of the people called on them to pmctioe, — these 
are the things which his sublime intelligence aimed at. He affectionately treated you, 
his subjects just as his own children ; be issued his sacred instructions, clearly Mining at 
your certam protection, every age should observe them, they cannot be changed.'* 

Sking (6. a. 13) here means 'canonized' or 'sacred.' It is the custom in China to 
place the names of great men in the temple of ancestors, they thus become canonized 
and receive the prefix shing. The temple of Confuciua is called the Sking-miaiL (C£ 
note on page 36, Part 11.) 


clothes^ he likes to have them fine; as to his food, he seeks for what is nice 
and good. One month*s expenditure amounts to several months* pay, until 
he borrows to follow out his wishes. The child and the mother become of 
equal size. Every day adds to the burden of debt, and hunger and starvation 
become inevitable. — (Paraphrase.) — This second section speaks about the 
soldier's ignorance of frugal economy. The pay of you soldiers is a regularly 
fixed amount If you don't know how to be economical, but as far as your 
clothes are concerned you wish for finery, and as respects your food you have 
a dainty mouth; when a month is passed, you find that you have spent 
several months' wages; how can your pay be sufficient? Moreover you cannot 
live happily, but you must run into debt, in order to carry out your habits of 
dissipation, and you regard only the pleasures of the moment. 

TrcmsloHon of the JSoBtract/rom the Hail^id chvJen (i), v. native text, page 8. 

The Story of the Fortunate Union. 
His plans being determined on; the next day, before the sun was up, 
he arose and called Siau4an to collect the luggage, and to prepare him- 
aeU/or departure: while he himself, on the other hand, having solicited the 
eervioes of a boy from the inn, took his card to return the visit of Mr. Ktoo. 
Without intimation Mr. Kwo had set a menial to play the spy in the lower 
room. Directly this man saw Mr. Ti going to visit, he hastened to give 
information to Mr. Kvx)^ who teas just waiting for Mr. Ti to arrive at the 
gate. Mr. Kwo, ready dressed, came out to receive Atm, smiling, and with a 
respectful but cordial 'Ha! ha!' he said: ''/, your humble servant, in wait- 
ing upon you yesterday, intended merely to show a slight mark of the sin- 
cerity of my respect. Tou Mr. Ti, I fear, have troubled yourself. Sir, to take 
notice of it." Then repeatedly he bowed respectfully and invited him to enter 
in. Mr. Ti at first intended only to go to the door and present a card, and 
then to walk away. BtU on seeing all at once Mr. Kwo straightway coming 
out to receive him, very urgent and frill of cordiality, (then) he did not lay 
aside his reserve, but merely presented his card, and the two gentletnen kept 
bowing to each other until they reached the reception room. Mr. Ti was 
then about to perform the salutations, but Mr. Kwo stopped him, saying : 
''This place is inconvenient to invite your commands;" and forthwith he 
invited Ti into the inner hall, where they saluted each other, and sat down 
in due form. Tea having been served up, Mr. Ktoo then said : "I have 
long heard of you. Sir, you have a hero's name, ardently have I looked for- 
ward to an interview. When, on a former occasion, you condescended to 
come to our poor place, I then planned to wait upon you, and in a hurried 
manner to pay my compliments; btU you were absent, and I have felt the 
annoyance up to the present time. Now that happily you are again come, 
and have once more condescended to regard us, it is assuredly a significant 
circumstance ; may I presume to engage you in a ten days' entertainment to 
make even my original plan, and to gratify our feelings of hunger and thirst?" 
Mr. Ti, however, having finished his tea, then arose and said : " In return. Sir, 


42 sm-wAir. — siau-bhwo. — huu-k*iu chuen. [8. k. lo. — ^9. i-i 7-3 

k. lo. chg'Shi *• kwei-sinrs^s-taiin,^ kvnrji U-ki tsvdryaH htng-liai^, p^ pi cAi 

k. 27. htodn, UH-iai i-ji, A^o-y^/" Wdng-wal tsiii taeil. Kw6 l&n-chU ta'd : 

1. 1 2. " Sidng-fAng piir^n, chin ling *Jung-yu dail-jtn.* Jin ski htng4A, y^ 

1. 27. yaH kurliil sdn-jt'* Ti tad: " SiaU-ti shishi yaH-htng, pHrthi kdrta^ 

m. 14. M chctng-hiung etdng-lidng.** Skwd-pd, yiH rjo^ng wai tseh, Kfv6 yi 

m. 27. sheU chi-chU, tail : "Siaihti siii pH-taat, y^ t*ihi, toei hwdnrkid U^i; 

n. 13. i'al-hiimg pHryaii Jedn-U shl-fan k^lng^ia^ j6 kd JcdmrJclng^ tsUi pUn 

n. 29. kal lat ts^-kd-Uail ; ki-m4ng tsi-kd, pien yaH swd/n tsd pvnrcku; mac^ 

o. 15. ti JcilirJcilL siang-im, pU-kwd yH shail tain pUn-chu ch% t $r, Jt 

9. Extract from the HaHrJevH chuJen (2), v. native text, page (^ 

a. I. yi^ sd Jci'Q, y^; pHrshl tatrhiung hd Men Jcvrchi shin y^.*' Ti Jcung- 

a. 17. taz tail: ^^ Mdng chitng-hiung ytn^in ydrngai^ sia^irti yl pit fin yhi 

b. 2. UU; tdn chwdngAsU ; hing^ kiing-4sung, shi pH yUng htodn dr.*' 

b. 16. Ku>6 tau: ^^Ki-shi, t*al-hiung, pu I pdng^H wei tiingy hjoai-i yaiir' 

c. I. htng; siait-ti k^idng-liilf yi t8£-kid hwdng-kwei; tdn ch^-ehi tslng^ 

c. 15. 8hin ngd-fH 4^ lat, yi-d ling ngd^ 4^ 1c U, tir^n shi yiil pUrgdn: 

d. 2. Mn yl pd kdn kiU Ivdy chS k'id lid-tHng-nt shi, shail tdng ffirlsdn, 4^ 

d. 19. Ud t*ing k'Hrche tsid tad, sh'UrIci jinrts'ing lidng tsin. Ndn4au i*c^ 

e. 4. hiung hu>dn pHrlcdng f^-tsHngT Ti p^n pd-yd Ud, yin kien Kio6 

e. 18. shwrtsing hedrmad, k'^nrk^^n kivdnrlid, chlrt^^^rhid ta/d: *^ Ttpd- 

f. 2. ts^at tsinrpai ts^ng-pien had siang-jadr Ktoo tad: **Chir^ mang-fdng^ 

f. 16. iang fjodng pdrngd; t*airhiung kwairsi, hMcd ts6 ts^ t*ad-yin?** Ching 

g. I. shtod pdrliad, ch^-^eien Shunil-^n hwd tsed-diad tsinrlat. K*dnrkien 
g. 15. Ti, mdng-shtrkwo-H, fjvwdnrlien t^ul siad, tad : " Tsd-ji sh^^innU 
g. 30. kdn Ti sten-sang yu^n lat kadrt, ti td ngd-hid-sdng kurkihiy/dng-ku 
h. 1 7. shad-piad wt shin, pd shi Ti sien-sdng hd-hd kien wai k*i3hk'd ts*^^4iad, 
i. 4. Kin hing yid yuin, yid ti sidng-peL^^ Ti tad: ^ ygd-hid-sdng lat 

The ffiait-ldng (6. b. 3) ' the Classic of Filial Piety/ is a collection, in mxteen chapten, 
of sentences by Confucius and his disciple Tsang-tsz^, upon duty to parents and superiors. 
The author's name is unknown. A translation by Dr. Bridgman appeared in the Chinese 
Hepontory, vol.V. 

WH-fi { (6. b. 17 — 25). Here are two negatives to intensify an assertion. The 

whole may be construed : ' By nothing else but filial piety he considered that the empire 
could be governed.' (See Art. 450 of Part I.) Chi t'iin-hid c^i i » ' the idea (or thought^ 
or purpose) for governing the empire/ i. e. 'he considered that the empire could be 
governed/ wii-fi hiaH, 'only by filial piety being inculccUed.* 

FH hia^-chi yi (6, d. xo — 22) is an elegant passage, which cannot be literally 

translated; it contains an allusion to the three great powers of the universe, «d«-te'at* aa 
the Chinese call heaven, earth, and man. It is intended to convey the idea that filial 
piety is that duty which contains the germ of all good principles and virtuous conduct, 
and the fulfilment of which produces harmony in the universe. 

ChS ti-sdn-tw''dn (6. k. 20). This annotation might have referred to an earlier portion, 
but here begins the subject of filial piety, and the author having but a limited space, he 
deemed it right to omit the first two sections of notes. 


for your generositj and kindneBS, I ought to receive your commands, but 
the fact is this, — * My heart returns like arrow fleet,' — to-day, and at once, 
I am about to proceed on my journey ; as regards the enjoyment of your hos- 
pitality I will remain to receive it another day, that will do." Going towards 
the outer door he was about to depart, when Mr. Kwo stopped him, saying : 
" For good friends to meet without drinking, would truly cause the wind and 
the moon to smile (at men) 1 Admitting that you are in haste to travel, still 
you ought to yield, and remain three days." Ti said: " I am really about to 
travel, it is not a mere refusal, I beg of you, Sir, to excuse me." Having 
spoken, he again turned to the door; but Ktoo with one hand took hold of 
him and said : '' /, although I, your humble servant, am without talent, yet 
you should consider that I am the son of an official family, you. Sir, should not 
look upon me very lightly, if indeed you do despise me, then you ought not 
to have come to take notice of me. Having obliged me with your kind 
regard, then you should look upon me as your host ; and I, in thus urging 
you to remain, only wish in a slight degree to fulfil a host's friendliness and 
nothing more. 

TroinslcUion of ike EocH/ract from ike Hau-JeiH ckvJkn (2), v, native text, page 9. 

I have nothing else to ask. I do not know what you can see to oppose so 
much." Mr. Ti said : " Being under obligation, Sir, for your extreme kindness, 
I, for my part, can hardly allow myself to speak of going ; but as every thing 
is packed, and my face is set (homewards) like a running stream in haste, the 
circumstances will not permit me to delay at all." Kwo said : " It being so, 
Sir, that you take not friendly feeling as your disposition, btU are in a hurry 
to depart ; if I were to urge your stuy, I should be ashamed of myself. But 
the fact is just this, early in the morning you come fasting, and if I were to 
allow you to depart without breakfast, my mind would be truly ill at ease. 
As it is I would not presume to detain you for long, only a very little time, 
to take a slight meal, and then we may hear of your departure, and it may be 
said that all those himian feelings of ours are mutually satisfied. You cannot, 
Sir, still be unwilling to remain." Ti, who as far as he was concerned did not 
wish to stay, when he saw the deep feeling and generous behaviour (of his 
host) entreating him to wait, abode where he was, and said, '' In a mere visit 
why should I trouble you so much?" Kux) said: "When good friends meet, 
then they forget personal feelings; you. Sir, are a shrewd man of learning, 
why do you make use of this formal expression?" Just as he was speaking and 
before he had finished, who should they see but Skumiryiin walking up and 
coming in. On seeing Ti, he rapidly went through the salutations, and with 
his face all smiling he adressed him and said : " Yesterday my little niece 
being moved by your coming so far Mr. Ti to honour us with your compli- 
ments, deputed me to present a card, and to offer an invitation, as a slight 
indication of our cordial feelings. We could not understand what reason you 
had Mr. Ti for objecting and so decidedly refusing. Now happily we have 
had the good fortime to meet again to-day." Ti said : " I came in great haste, 

G 2 




















. 21 









44} 8HI-WAK. — ^BiAU-SHWo. — ^hau-k'iu chuen. [9. i. 1 8. — 10. h. 16.3 

shu tsail'tmii, Uufa taung-ta'ung; yH l\ yvhirwd ch*eur4sd, hd Idng i» 
sM-M ts'^si^; Uti kifirji chi M, yi pOrkwb yuhi yi M-Jcing, yi ^r 
mUng Kivd-hiungy tsi chanrchan t*efQrhi&; yUrlidj Icilngfl U; yH k'ti^ 
yia UUngfi ts'tng ; ching tsairts^/t ch*edH!h*4j Mfng laiJirWfig yiU I kiaH- 
chV* Skwul-yUn tan : '' Ki^-tMha/Updng^i^y Icing kaijUkU; Tlnen- 
8dng yU Kwb sh^-U'in, ndnrtaH tsiH pHrj^ kit fin! na\ pi k'Urk'U yU 
sidstt j448^, ahlnfv-t y^T Kw6 siaH tail: " Hwdnrski la^Hridrjiti 
shtvd-ti t*iing-hjoair Ti kiin 4r jtn hSrdang knvd^nrUH, Bng p& ^ 
is ten tsing, chi jinrtsd hai^iy pUn Haiiryi'dau U6-hidy pit/U yen k*%L 
FH'to-sht peishdng t9iii> lat, Kw6 tda sUng U6, Ti tad : " TuSn 
mUng lien chau-ki ^r sheu ts^dLn, toeirhd yiH laH tei'^ilf Jcilmg yin/% 
k't sht y^r Kfv6 siaii tail: ^' Mdrirmdn yin k*U, BhaiHrpHrU y&r€h6 
yinshV Sdn-jin kUrkd idrdaH tda tsd 4r ^n. 

10. Extract from the HwSrIcvA chvSn (3), y. natiye text, page 10. 

a. 5. Ytienrlai sdn-jin yil kiHrpfr'Sdng, k'U ski hail-yiH; yinnien ahdng 

a. 20. shehj pien tnn-tsin yiil id ; — * nl yl-peij ngd yUahdny pun pdju tup-ts^. 

b. 7. Tinrliah pu^nrsMng, Ti ching-yiil k6 chu-sheil <M i, himl-jin ta&yi^ 

b. 22. pail Wdng, Ptng-pii tij sdn kung-ts^ lat-liaU. Sdnjtn chi-d t*ing'pei 

c. 8. ^ UH-hien, Kw6 tsvd gdnr-tsd taH: "Wdng-Mung lat H shin-TniofHf** 

c. 21. Yin yUng sheU chl-chd Ti tail: " Tsz we^ Ti-hiung^ haH-kl 8£ yi/ 

d. 6. FUr-k'd pO-humi/*' Wdng taH : ''Md-/i tdH-aJii tdrji Tdrgdn-hed ydng- 

d. 22. hienrtdn^ ti Tl T^lng-sdng m6V' Shwiil-yiin mdng tdrtaH: "Ching- 

e. 5. shi/ chtTig-ahi!" Wdng yin dvdng-fd kit sheU-tsU khng-4ad: '' KUt- 

e. 18. ydngf kiil-ydngf Shl-kingl Bhl-JdngT^ Yin mwdn Chin yi-kd-shdngy 

f. I. 8ilng-yu Ti taH: '^ Tai^ Kwd-hiung chi tsiit, Ua/A-piail aiaiJirti ydng- 
f. 15. mH chi «^.'* Ti t»i-liait y^ cliln yi-shdng hunit-klng taH: "Siail4i 

f. 30. ts'u hailj hd-tsU tail tat-hiung, jH Inn, j4 jUJ* Fdng-ti w^n-ffln ch% 

g. 16. ching, pi-tsi kiau-tadn, Yi-lien tsiH-ahi sdn-kH-shdng ; Ti ching 
g. 30. ya'd kaa chi, hwU tsd-yiH yiH pail LI, ffdn-ltn ti (pr kung-ts^ lat4iail. 

The maxim on page 7 is the 5th of the sixteen original maxims. 

The pages 8 — 12 of the Ghrestomathj contain a passage from the B'a4'h'i4 ehuHi, » 
notice of which will be found on page 17 of Part II. In this work, a pemsal of the 
whole of which we would recommend to the student of Chinese, we see, as & John 
Davis aptly says, "portrayed by a native hand this most singular people in almost eveiy 
variety and condition of human life. 

" Quicquid agunt homines — votum, timer, ira, voluptas, 
Gaudia, discursus — nostri est fiurago libelli." 
See the Pre&ce to his admirable translation, " The Fortunate Union." 

The student will observe that the absolute clause, which may be translated by a clause 
beginning with having or beinfff is of very frequent occurrence in Chinese composition. 
The first thing to do is to unite the characters and syllables which form phrases or gram- 
matical words, — nouns, verbs, or attributive expressions. Such are awdn-H (8. a. 6, 7), 
which, though verbs generally, are here united to form a noun, — ' plans.* Hien Hn^-juid 
is a yerb, ' being fixed ;' tK-jl (a. i f , 1 2) is a phrase, ' the next day,' just as in English, ' he 
came next day' for ' he came on the next day,' the word on being omitted in Chinese, ae in 


and I am going again without delay; — with respect to greetings, for my own 
part, I have no politeness, therefore respectfully relying upon you Sir, the 
messenger, I must decline with thanks; for my coming to-day was only to 
acknowledge a visit and to render my obligations to Mr. Kwo, who most 
assiduously invited me to stay. Should I wish to stay, I fear it would be 
improper; should I wish to go, I also fear lest it might not be kind : just at 
this troublesome juncture of my embarrassment, fortunately you, respected 
Sir, are come to direct me.'* Shwilir^n said : " Good firiends of the olden time 
were inclined to conceal such reasons ; you Mr. T\ and my relation Mr. Kv)0 
are forsooth as good as the ancients ! — ^but to confine yourselves strictly to the 
world's customs in this manner, would certainly not be right." Kvx> laughed 
and said : '' Of a surety my old friend speaks with an acute shrewdness." Tl 
seeing that they both were alike wishing to detain him as a guest, now forgot 
his earlier dispodtions, and feeling well disposed in mind, (then) he smiled, 
sat down^ and spoke no more of going. Soon after this, wine was served up ; 
Mr. Kwo then showed him a seat. But Mr. Tl said : '' I am much obliged 
indeed for your consideration of my morning &st, and for giving me refresh- 
ment, ha why do you also trouble yourself to bestow wine on me; I suspect 
this is not a time to drink." JTtoo, laughing, said : '^ Qo on drinking a little, 
and presently we shall find it is drinking time." All three laughed outright, 
and sat down to their cups. 

Tra/ndation of the Extract from the HaiirJeiA chuJhh (3), v, ncUive'text, page 10. 

Now the three happened to be good friends with the wine, and directly 
they raised their hands to drink, (then) they felt an increasing relish 
for it; and when they had once pledged each other, (then) they did not 
again decline drinking. After drinking three horns, and just as Mr. Ti 
thought of stopping, all at once the attendants announced that the third 
son of Wcmg, of the Board of War, had arrived. The three gentlemen 
had merely put down their glasses to receive him, when Ktoo proceeded 
to seat him comfortably, saying: '^Mr. Wang it is a good thing that you 
are come." Then with his hand he pointed to Tl, saying : ^' This gentle- 
man^ Mr. Ti, is a hero and a scholar, you ought to make his acquaint- 
ance." Wang replied : " Surely it is no other than that Ti t'lng^eang, who 
forcibly entered the Pleasure palace of Tdrgdn-heii?" Shwulr^n, hastily 
replying, said : '^ Quite so ! quite so ! " TTon^ then renewing his salutations 
with respect said : '' I have looked forward to this pleasure ! I was ignorant 
of the honour!" Then, filling a large wine-cup, he presented it to Ti, saying: 
" I borrow Mr. Ktoo's wine to show in a small degree my private feelings of 
respect" Ti received it, and having poured out a cup in return, politely said : 
" I am a common person, what have I worthy of mention; but your qualities. 
Sir, may be compared to gold and jewels." Then after reciprocal praises on 
degree of scholarship and rank had been passed between them, and three cups 
had been drunk in succession, just as Ti was about to say he must stop, on a 
sudden the attendants again made an announcement that the second son of 

46 SHI-WA5. — ^siAu^sHwo. — hau-k"iu chuen. [10. h. 1 7 . — 1 1 . j . a8 .] 

h. 17. Si-jin ching yaH Jcl shin siSmg-ytng; ?id Li kung-Uk l-Uek taH tH- 

L 3. tsihi eh\<hU ta'd : " StdngshU h%ung-t%, pU aiau tiing-shtn, siaiirii 

i. 17. king tsiH tsdpdT Kwo taH: '' Shdng yiit yuin-k'i^ tsaUis^:' Ti t'ing 

j. X. 8hu)6y yia ti li H yad tad A. Nh Li tM pU tad yi^ den IcdmnihA Ti 

j. 19. fjo4n taH: " ffail ytng tsiHn jinrwHf** TM UHng-kiaii chdtng-hiung~ii 

k. 2. sing iat-haH f Ti taH: " StaiJirti nai tdr-ming, Ti Ghung-yHr Li tau 

k. 17. che-t^ng ekwd shi, Ti Tu-hien ti chhng Jdim't^; liSn-lUn tad-yi taH: 

1. 3. '^ Kiil-w^n td-mtng, kinrjl yiit yuen-hingkwui/*^ Kwb-taiH yauji-tao. 

1. 18. Ti ta^-aht taiU-l-puHinr-hdn, yiH aicing yctd-Mng; ytn tai ahicd-taii: 

m. 4. '' Li hvung ta*at lat, aiait-ti p^n-pH-kal taiil yaH JcU^ chi yin lat ti taait, 
m. 31. t*au yin kw6 to, huodng king A kung-taung, pH fUpng kiU-dni; clUf-4i 

n. 6. yaii aien pirliailJ** Li yin ta6-ai tad: ^ TirhiUng y^ Vai-Jcljinl iti- 

n. 23. yadrhtng, hd pH taait k'uf W^-h6 Mot^-^l kqng tail, tain yl-Jci y^ pti 

o. 9. ndng liHf ch^ahi mtng k*% aia/k-ti! PU taH yti yin-Ucnir* ShuriiiryUn 

o. 24. tad : " Ti avtn-Mng JcU, aki yad k'd-kiit^'^iah r 

11. Extract from the Had-Jci'A chuSn (4), y. natiye text, page 1 1. 

a j. Ti wHlrnai chS-H yiH fd tad-hidy yU Li tiii yinrHaii adn-ku-ahang. 

a. 32. Yinrtaatrwdnriy Jwod tad-yid yiH pail-iad Ch&ng kang-Jcid ti td kung-ts^ 

b. 8. lai-tiaU, Ckdng-jtn htodn wi hi td^ying, ch^-kien nd Chang kdng-tsz 

b. 33. iDap4ai-ch8 yi-ting fang-kin yi ai^-chd luing-chi ai-yhi, taaurpau-chd 

c. 10. yi'kd m^'lien, taaii k%ti taiii hiun-hiun, yi-ld kiad taidng-ttHn-lat tad : 

c. 37. ^'Nd yi-ivei ahi Ti hiung, ki yad tad ngd U cKtng-hien lat, tad hadrkif 

d. 14. taang pdrhtoUt ngd yt-hwiiiV^ Ti ching U-Jci ahin lat tdrchdng yU t*a 

d. 3a ahl h, kien t^d yen-yu pd-a^n^ pien Urchd tdrying tad: *^Siail-ti pim- 

e. 17. ahi Ti t'tng-aang, pd-cht chdng^hiung yad htoiii aiaii-ti, yiH hd ta£- 

f. 3. ktad?^^ Chang y^ pdr^ivet li, ch'tng-chd y^n k*dn Ti, k'dnrliaU yid^'dny 

f. 17. hwd td-aiad ahtod-4aii: ** Ngd chi-tad Ti-hiung ahi tai-kd t*ed pd4c6 

g. 3. tdn ti hail ffdnrta^I — K*id yu^nrUd t8*lng^*ing m^i-mil, pihpi mien" 
g. x8. Jcilmgl—wiiri yU ntl-ta^f — aictng-^hi Tain-Jied I hed tad-liaU ai yd, tai^ 
L 4. md/n-kihng; tai^ aien kiad-yi^kiad tavd-lidng, Jean ahi jiirhdf" Chdng^ 
h. x8. jin t*ing4iail, kU tadn-me^ tad : " Chdng-hiung miadrldn td4i ytng- 
i. 3. hidrig p^n-ai /*' 7W taing yi-ahdng yi-yln ^r kdn tai kdn4iail, aiii 
i. 1 7. kU Jcimg-ahdng yad chadnkdn, Ti kiin t*d kdnrti ahwdng-kwai, wd- 
j. I. wMid y^ chi-ti mienrk'idng k'i-kdnrUail, Chdng-tad : " Taat aidng 
j. 15. kd pdng-yiil yl-ndhi!^^ Yid kiau tad-yid chlnrlci lidng-ahdng. Ti 

Englbh. Observe ihAt words expressing 'then' as a mark of sequence are often used in 
Chinese, where in English we should omit them : e. g. tHa (8. a. 16), tsaH (8. c. 14), foMg-Uat 
(8. h. I, 2), and often. Several expressions occur in this extract, which are set phrases for 
particular occasions, and partake of the nature of proverbs or coxmnon sayings, and, as 
such, cannot be explained by the ordinary rules of grammar : e. g. — 

hwH-ifiti, az-ttUn (8. k. 12) 'returning heart as arrow (fleet).' 
fii^ng-yU aiaHtrjin (8. 1. 18) 'the winds and moon would smile at man.' 
htng-til kUng-ts'ilng (9. b. 7) 'my £»ce is set like running stream to go.' 



JAf Fellow of the Imperial Acadamj, had come. Just as the four gentlemen 
were rising to receive him, this Mr. Li had walked into the festive scene, and 
stopping, said : '* Old Mends like us will not take up time in moving, I am 
ahreadj seated." Ktoo said: ^'But there is a guest here from a distance!" 
When Ti heard this said, he left the table, and sought to make the salutations. 
The aforesaid Mr. Li did not make any bow, but he first looked at Ti and 
said : '' A fine superior sort of man ! Be so good. Sir, to tell me your surname 
and name (eminent designation)." Ti replied: ''My proper name is Ti 
ChUng-yHy Li said as follows : " It is Ti, the Censor's eldest son." Repeat- 
edly bowing, he went on to say : '' I have long ago heard of your great name, 
to-day by some good providence we have happily met." Kwo then invited 
him to be seated. Ti at this time being half-overcome with wine, and besides 
that thinking of taking his departure, (then) declined with these words: 
^ Since Mr. Li is just come, I properly ought not to go, but I came early, 
and I feel ashamed of having drunk so much, and much more for this reason 
that I am in great haste to travel, and cannot remain long, indeed I wished 
before to go." Li then changed countenance and said : " Mr. Ti is very insult- 
ing, if he wished to go, why did he not go sooner? Why just when I came, 
then all on a sudden he could not stay? this is clearly an insult to me; I am 
not good enough to drink with I" Shumv^n said : '' Mr. Ti wished to leave 
a good while ago." 

TranslaJtum of the Extrcustfrom the HaH-lciH ckvien (4), t;. TyaJtivt text, page 1 1. 

Ti had no other alternative but to sit down again, and with Li to drink 
three large cups. When they had finished drinking, suddenly the attendants 
announced that the eldest son of Ohcmg, a person of distinction, had arrived. 
Before any one had time to reply, they see Mr. Chcmg, with his dress all awry, 
with his eyes askant, and with a rakish air, having made himself drunk 
betimes^ come rolling in, crying: "Which is Mr. Ti, who is come to our 
ancient city and place to play the hero? how is it he did not &vour me with 
a visit?" Ti was just then standing up, preparing to salute him, biU when he 
saw that his expressions were uncivil, he drew himself up and replied : " Your 
humble servant's name is Ti t'ing-^a/ng, I was ignorant that you. Sir, wished 
to meet me; pray what are your conmiands?" Chcmg still made no bow, btU, 
looking straight at Ti, he stared and stared again ; then, bursting into a loud 
laugh, he said : " Why I expected to find Mr. Ti a seven-headed and eight- 
hearted Chinaman, and behold he has fine blue eyes and a pale countenance, 
just like a girl. I believe he is a mere effeminate, and bye and bye we will 
say more about it, but first let us try his capacity for wine and see what it is." 
They all heard and praised the plan highly, saying : " Mr. Chcmg speaks well, 
with the real spirit of a great hero!" Then they proposed a bumper to be 
drained, and when it was drained they raised the empty cup to show that it 
was dry. Ti, seeing that they drained theirs without being the worse for it, 
had no alternative but, perforce, to drink off his own. Chcmg said : " Come 
now, that's firiendly!" and called the attendants to refill the cups. But Ti 

m. 35 
























48 sm-WAK. — 8IAU-SHW0. — ^HAU-K'to OHUBN. [1 1 . j . 2g. — 1 2. L 9.] 

j. 39. tad: ^'Stail-ti ts&4nii H yid p*^ Wdng-hiwng Bafk-shdng^ LirMung 
k. 13. sdnr^idng,Jang tsat yiH k'Up^^ ehdng-hiung ytrshSng, TsiSn-Udng 
k. 3(1. ytU hien.'* Chdng-taH: ^ Ki Wdng^ Li, 4'^^'dng Vu Uin sanshdng, 
L 9. hd tH da^Jirii yad yi sh&ng ^r cMf — 9ki k*i siai^i liail/ tsdng^p/A 
L 35.* shed jtn eh% Jell" Chang pien tmoiinrlien t*qn-nd tad: '* Kidng- 
m. 7. mtng tuiryin ngd k*i4iaijt, nl jd-hd pd-k*l? mi^/l nl \ Jci^ng 1c% ngd 
m6f" Tl yi'Sht ttui-a skm tu yuhkrliain, kad-chd Us^, chS yad^'ed 
tad: '* K*i-4l'pieny Jcl; IcUpd-ti-pieny pd-k'i; yiii Mn-m6 fci&ngf^ 
ChOnff^d: " Che pmrtdi^, ni kdn pd k"i md?" Ti tad: ''Fd-k'ir 
Chang td^nd tad: "iVi taang kin tad ngd Sh&nriung lal ckujdng- 
k*idng. i\ri pd-k'i ngd cMrpeirtsii^ ngd pien yad nl lei Uak k'dl" 

Extract from the HadrKid chvhi (5), y. native text, page 12. 

Tin nOrVl nii pel teiil M chad ch6 Ti kid4"ed kidrHeji, chS yUkiau. 
Ti, eiipjhi teui-liail, einrshdng kid-^odn mtng-pd. YirJA hlr€i hd^ng 
Iwdn-plng; yin fotan^-tot^ tu X^^-nng-liaii ; fcdng-t*iad k%8hin lai, 
tsidng Chang yi pdL chad chu jaU liatt lld/ng jail tad : " Teqng kdn tad 
hiirt'ed shdng lat, sing 8^ r Chang td kiau tad : "" Nl kdn tti Tigd m6 V* 
Ti pien yi-ching tad: " Td nl pien tsang-m^V Kw6 t8*at hwd4ad: 
"ffai^l lid yin, nal kdn t-tsiii sd yil kwai kwdn m4n puryad tet^ 

d. 26. liail! tM td t'd k6 tsiil-sing f*^ Tsail liing sidng t8ei)ir<Kd ts'i-pd-kd 

e. II. td'hdn, Ti siad-yi-siad tad: " Yt4GidnfSmg keiif taang -kd/n lot Jet 
e. 36. jinT Tin yi-aheil chdrchu Chdng pd-fdngf yisheil teidng tat-48^ yi- 
£11. hien nd sie hiad-ch&n iod^n-chdn, tdt-fan yirii, Shwiil-yUn kang teeit^tad 
£ 37. ^inrpieny pi Ti chi yi-t'iii tad : '^ K^dm Shwiil 8iail-4aie /qn-^hdng, 
g. II. jad nl; ^ tsail t*ulr€iricuy yiH chdng yuh^kin &rtau ti ahdng; pd 
g. 38. pd'k*lF-lat Ti ttiang Chdng t*i tsidng Jcl-lat chi yi-sheil sadrii chdng- 
h. 15. jin tung-tad^-uxil, Chdng yuJhtrshi k6 sfirU, nUi hod tsiil hidng hU 
L I. a mwdn-k*eil kiau-tad: "Td-kid pdryad tdng^he^! yiii hwd Aai^- 
L 15. kuingr Ti tad: *^ Md shin hwd kidng; chi hail-hail sung ngd ch*d 
L 38. k*ti, pitn wdn s£ tsinJhi hid, J6 yad kiuenrlid^ kiad nljif^tn tu s&T 
j. 14. Chdng USnrlien ying-chtng tad : "Ngd sdng nl ! Ngd sdng ni /*' Fdng 
j. 37. Ti tsidng Chdng /dng^ng, chdn U)^n4iail yi-^eil fir-M tsi-pdrUail 
k. 12. cfCdrlaiy chdng-jtn y^ tsqng-tsang Jed/n, chMci ttrpS^'lng, yid pd kdn 
k. 38. shdng-tsthh, chi-hail tsairp'dng shwd-ngdng-hwd, tad : " Kdn tsang 

KiH-pi-adng (10. a. 10) is a cake used in the fennentation of wine. Pi-tSng refers pro- 
bably to the sprouting of the grain from which the liquor is made ; and this whole expres- 
sion seems to be used here, by foetonamy, for the wine itself, just as John Barleycorn is 
employed in our own language for ale or beer. 

N\ yi-pei, ngd yl-chdn (10. a. 26) is a graphic form of expression, perhaps the proper 
form for inviting another to take wine, in pledging one another. Pwdn-thAng (10. b. 9), 
lit. 'half the forenoon,* consequently 'three hours.' Observe that ehlng, when used for 
'just as,' takes the second place when the subject of the sentence is mentioned (cf. 10. b. 1 2). 
The polite expression in 10. e. 17 — 24. is hard to translate into Blnglish, but the version 
we have given conveys very nearly the signification intended in the original. 


exclaimed : ^' Your humble seirant has been sitting a long time, and has just 
now taken three cups with Mr, Wang, three cups with Mr. Li, and now one 
cup with you, Sir ; my shallow capacity has a limit.** Chang replied : " Having 
taken three cups with each of our brethren, Wcmg and Li, why with me, only 
one cup and then stop) This is to insult me ! I have never yet been insulted 
by any body ! ** He then swelled with suppressed rage, and said : " Apologise 
by drinking in reply to me! Why don*t you drink? Surely you intend to 
insult me excessively, don't you?" Ti now being nearly overcome with what 
he had drunk, leaned back in his chair and, shaking his head, exclaimed: 
'' When it is convenient to drink, then I drink ; when it is not convenient t-o 
drink, I won*t drink; where is the excessive insult?" Chang said: ^'This cup 
of wine will you dare not to drink it?*' Ti said : " I won*t drink it!** Cha/ng, 
in a great rage, cried : " Why do you dare to come to our Shamrtwng to show 
these airs; if you will not drink this cup of wine of mine, I will make you 
drink it." 

Tnxnalaiion o/the Ex^a^stfrom the HaHrJciH chvJhi (5), v, native text, page i a. 

He then took up the cup of wine and dashed it completely over the head 
and face of Ti, who, although in a state of intoxication, yet had his wits about 
hinL Suddenly his ardent temper was roused, and all confusion of mind was 
dissipated; and, as £&r as the wine went, he was sobered. He jumped up in 
an instant and, having seized Cha/ng with a firm grasp, he swung him round 
twice, saying: " How dare you venture to come, seeking death, with a tiger?** 
Chomg, with a loud voice, cried: "Do you dare to strike me?" Ti, then 
giving him a slap, replied: " If I strike you, what then?** Kwo then put in a 
word : " A fine idea to stay drinking, and then, relying on the wine, to make 
a disturbance ! — quickly shut the door and let no one go out ! Then beat him 
until he is sober!" At once from two adjacent rooms came forth seven or 
eight strong fellows. But Ti, with a smile, said : " You pack of mad dogs, 
how dare you come to insult a man!*' Then with one hand he gripped tightly 
hold of Chomg and with the other he lifted the whole table of refreshments 
and scattered them on the ground. Shiix-yiin just then having approached 
him, was pushed by Ti with the words : " Having a regard for your niece I 
spare you a little :" as he hurled him several feet away, where he fell sprawling 
on the ground unable to rise. Ti then took Chomg, and with one hand sweep- 
ing him round, he scattered them all in every direction. Now CKcvng, who was 
a man of vicious habits and was enervated with wine and debauchery, cried out 
with all his might : " Every one be still ! — we will hold a parley ! *' Ti replied : 
" There is no need of that ; only show me out, and then a host of troubles 
will be avoided; but if you should force me to remain, I will be the death of 
every one of you!'* Cha/ng then repeatedly answered : " 1*11 show you out! — 
I'll show you out!" Then Ti took Chomg and set him up, and having placed 
him firmly upon his legs, with one hand he held him and marched out, while 
the rest fiercely looked on and angrily stood forward, but not daring to 
advance, they merely uttered aside their boasts, saying : " How dare he thus 


50 8HI-WAN. — SIAU-SHWO. — SHWTJI-HU CHUEN. [12. 1. 1 0. 13. j. 20.] 

1. lo. jil-tsz hH wetf tsie ja'd t'd Jcu, thaiL-pU'ti yau kihi k6 kau hlAT^ T\ 
1. 27. cA^ tsd-^nt-t^ing-kienj t^t-chd Chang chi t'ttng tseil-ch'ii tdrfn4n cAi toaiy 
m. 13. Jang tsidng-sheU fang Jcai tail: ^^ Fdn Chdng-hiung ch'u^ yu ckU- 
lu. 25. hiu7ig; ngo, Tl Chung-yU, j6 yiU Uan ti tsai sheil, Uien-kiun %Ddn-nUL 
n. 10. chung, y^ ptl-k'd ch'U-jin, h6 hwdng sdiv-wh ko tsiHsl chl t*il, shi s^ 
n. 27. ko Hdn chl-^wdng'-yau liH mdng hil chl pin! H6 k'i yu y^H Tsidng- 
0.12. slieU yi'ktl tad : '* Tstng-liaUr King tdrtd pdrhtoiit hidrdiu lat 

13. Extract from the Shunil-hil chu^n (i), v. native text, page 13. 

a. I. Shwiil-hU cfiuen Uwd-ahwd kh Sung Che-tsung Hwdng-tt tsai- 

a. 14- sht. ITi-sht Sung Jin-t^ung T*ien'4s^ l yuin, Tung-king, K^avjung 

a. 28. Jh Pthh-lidngy siv^n-vnl-kiun pien yiil yl-k6 fed-ldng p*&ld-ku ts^-ii, 

b. 15. sing, Kau; p^at-hdng, ti-4r; ts^-siait pd-cfCtng kioHnl; chi hail is^ 

b. 30. iiidng shi-pdng, tsui-shi t'i-ti-had kid-k't-k'td. King-szjin k'ei^sh^f^ 

c. 16, pdr-kiau Kadr-^r, kid td kiau t'd tso, Kad-lcid. Jleu-lat /d-tsi pien 

d. 2, tsidng Jci-lcid nd-tsi Jcu-liaU mad pdng Cven tsd-ll jtn pihirkai-Ud 

d. 18. sing, Kau; mtng, K*id. Che jtn cKul, t*dn, ko, wh, ts£-tsidng, shir- 
es I. pdng, sidng-pd, wdn-shwd; yi hd-lwdn hid shtrshU tsz-fd; j6 l^njti^ 

e. 17. i-ll'^hisin-htng-chiing-lidng, ki&^% pd hwiii; chi tsai Tung^ng/ 

f. 2. chHng-li ctCing-wai pdng-hien. Tin pdng-liail yi-kd sdng, Ti-wdng 
£ 16. yuen-%Dai ^r-toi;, shi-ts'ien, MeHrjl sdn^wd lidng-she, fdng-hwA-su- 

g. 1. yu; pi Cafdritdn K*al-fung fU-H kad-liail yirchi w^n^hwdng /d-yun 
g. 18. pd Kau-k'id twdn-Uail 4''^sh% kiuen chdng shl pei ch^d-kial Jdrfdng 
h. 3. Tung^king, dCtng^ jin^mtn pd hu-ydng t*d tsai kid sdrshl. Kau-UitL 
h. 19. vrd-Vail nai-hd, chi-ti lat Hvxn-si Linrhwai c/teu t'sfd-p^n yi-ko Jcat 
i. 6. tit-/dng tl hien Hdn Lid Td-ldng, mtng-hwdn Lid Shi-kiuen T'd 
i. 2a ping-sdng chuen hail sd Hi ydng hien-jin chad nd si-fang yd kd lau 
j. 6. Hdnrtsz. Kad-k'id t*ed td-ti Lid Tdrldng kid yirchti sdn-nien. 

Liad-piad (10. t 10) and ydng-md (10. f. 14), 'a slight mark of respeot,' seem to be the 
foimal expressions for these notions. They are united in one expression in 8. d. 21 — 26, 
and are in both places thrown into the position of an attribute ; and, though the form of 
the sentence cannot be preserved, the force of it will be easily seen in each case. 

Had ylng tniin jtn-wtL/ (xo. j. 21) is a combination of irony and contempt. Ch9 in the 
description of Mr. Chang (i i. b. 25 ; c. 2 ; and c. 9) is the proper auxiliary yerb (cf. Art. 
197 of Part I) to form the past tense or past participle; it is, howeyer, frequently used 
where, in some languages, no past tense would be employed, but only the ' historical' pre- 
sent. The above passages may be translated by having, or being so and so, as in an 
absolute clause. 

Shwiii-hd chuin (13. a. x — 3). The student may refer to page 17 of the Introduction to 
the Chrestomathy for a few notes on this work. The title of it does not clearly indicate 
the nature of its contents, which are of a very varied character ; but it oouveys an aUusion 
to a story in the Shi-king, where a certain ancient prince is said to have escaped with some 
of his loyal followers from a horde of Tartars. The events narrated in this novel are so &r 
similar to his adventures in, that they treat of the troubles which arose out of the wan which 
happened in China at the end of the Swig dynasty (A. D. 1281). (Gf. Bajtin, Le SiMt det 
Touin, p. III.) The style of this work is peculiar, and cannot be deemed a good specimeii 
fur imitation. The construction of the sentences however, and the use of appropriate par^ 


to act yiolently 1 but let him go, we shall soon see his loftiness brought down ! " 
Ti only made as though he heard them not, but keeping fast hold of Chang 
he walked with him out at the front door ; then, having loosed his grasp of 
him, he said : " I will trouble you, Mr. Change to return and tell your friends, 
that, with an inch of steel in my hand, I, Ti Chumg-yH, even though amidst 
troofM of cavalry, would not permit any one to stop my exit, — how much less 
likely is it that three or four drunken and profligate rascals, with the help of 
a dozen fellows, should beard the tiger in his fiiry ! What a piece of folly ! " 
So saying, he raised his hands, ceremoniously bowed, and then strode home- 

TrcmakUion of the Extract from the Shwul-htl clm^n (i), v. native text, page 13. 

History of the River's banks, or Stories of Banditti. 

It said that in the time of the Emperor Ch^-tsv/tig of the ancient Sung 
dynasty, at a period remote from the days of his celestial majesty Jin-tsung, 
there lived in the eastern capital, Kair/ung /u in the Pien-liang garrison, a 
dissipated youth belonging to a decayed family, of the name of Kau. He was 
the second son, and consequently he had not for himself any of the family fortune, 
but he was clever in the use of the spear and the cudgel, and very expert at 
kicking the foot-ball. The men of 'the metropolis did not call him Kau-^r 
{his proper name), but, with freedom of speech, they all called him Kau-k'iu 
('foot-ball'), hence we see the cause of this character kiu (*bair) being 
attached to this man's name ; so that it was changed thus : surname Kau, 
name K'iu, This man could play on wind instruments and stringed instru- 
ments ; he could sing and dance, fence and cudgel, and was fond of trifling 
amusements; he had* also studied in a desultory manner the Shi-king, 
the Shtir-king, and both prose and poetry; but as for deeds of kindness, 
justice, propriety, prudence, and fidelity, he knew just nothing ahout them. 
He merely spent his time within and without the city, aiding idlers in 
their pursuits; and he formed a connection in this way with the son of an 
officer of superior rank, named Wo/ng, and helped him to spend his money. 
Every day brought with it a round of dissipation. But Wangle father wrote an 
accusation against him to the chief magistrate of the capital, and Kau-k'iu was 
sentenced to twenty strokes on the back, and, besides that, to go into exile. 
All the inhabitants of the metropolis were forbidden to receive him into their 
houses to board or to lodge. Kau-k'iu having no other resource, just proceeded 
to Iffvai'si; and having come to Lin-hwai cheu, he repaired at once to a certain 
vagabond Chinaman, Liu TorUmg, who had opened a gambling-house, and went 
liy the name of Liu Shi-kiv^en. He took pleasure in receiving and feeding all 
idle loungers; and had also invited, from all sides, the Chinamen engaged in 
the dykes and drains. KoMrlciu found a home in Liu Ta^lang'a family, where 
he remained three years. 

♦ Cf. Pr^mare*! Notitia Lingua: 5t««?<p, p. 140. 

H 2 

52 8HI-WAN. — SIAU-SHWO. — 8HWUI-HU CHUBN. [13.J.2I. 14.k.I4.] 

j. ai. Hetiriai Chg-taUng T'ienrtsi, yin pai Ndn-kiau k^nrUjung t*ia4 

k. 5. yu 8h4n fdng Icwan yin td she t*ihirhid; nd Kau-JcvA tsai Lin^nwn 

k. 20. Cheu, yin ti-Uail ahe-yiH tsiiv-fhu, 8£-lidng yaH ktout Tung-king. Che 

1. 5. LiH Shi-kmhi kid hd Tung-king cKing-il Ktn-lidng JciaHirhiA IcaJr 

1. 20. yd-pti-ttj Tttng Tsidng-a^ shi tsinrsl M'4iait yinfungshU-did sheH-Mr 

m. 7. si^ jtnrsi pw*dn-cKen tsi fd Kau-ki4 humt Tung-king t*eil-p4n T'&ng 

m. 22. Tsidng-si kid kw6-hw6, Tdng-sht Kau-JciH t8&4iail LiH Tdrldng pH 

n. 7. ahdng pau li, lt4iait Linrhvc^i cheu i-/t hunit-tau Tung-king klng^t 

n. 23. Ktnrlidng JciaH-hid Tiing-adng yd-kid, hidnliml cM-fung-^U, TUng 

o. 7. Taidng-si yl-kven Kau-kiH k*dn-liatl LiH SMrkiuhi laUskU, U^'Hrll 

o. 23. sin^ taH: " Chi Kau-kiH ngd kidj^hd gd/n-chd^ t'df 

14. Extract firom the Shunil-htl chuhi (2), v. native text, page 14. 

a. 7. Jdshi k6 chirch'tng lail-shi ti jtn, k*M yUng t*d tsai kid cKH-ji, y^ 

a. 25. kiail Jukt-^r-vn^n hid aie hail; Cd kid-shi k6 pdng-hien ti p'6-ld-h4, mH 

b. 13. sin^hing €i jtn; yi-tde tdng-tsU yiU kw6-/hn-lat, pt-Hodnrp'^ ti jtn, 

b. 30. kiH-sing pH-pU-k'^ng kai, J6 liH chU tsai kidrckung, tad-y^-ti hai-^r- 

c. 17. m4n pa-hid haii-liaitf tat pHrsheu Hit t'd yiH p'i-pd-kwo LiHt Td-ldng 

d. 4. mien-pty Tdng-sht chS-4$ Jciuen tsid hwdn-dtn-hl-ti ndng-liU tsai kid 

d. 20. sit-hl; mei-ji tsiil-ahly kuodn tai chu-liml ahi silji, T^Ung Taidng^ s£- 

e. 7. Udng-dCH yl-JcMd sH-tddng ch'il yt-t^aH t-fH, 8i^4iail yi-fung shil- 

e. 24. kihif till KaH-k'iH ahwd-taH: ^'SiaH-jtn kid-hid, 'ytng-hd chi kwdng, 

f. 8. chaHjin pH lidng,* k'itng hed tvH-liail tsU-hid ngd chuen tsitn tsurhid 

f. 23. yti Siaitsu Hi6-8£, chu; kiU-hed yi t^-k6 dCH-shin. TsU-kid i-niii 

g. ro. jH-hdV^ Kaurk*i'd td-hl, sie-liait Tung Tsidng-si. TUmg TtHdng-si 
g. 24. shi kd-jin tsidng-chd shU-ki^n yin-Ung Kaurlci'd king-tad HidssS f^ 
h. 10. niii. M^n-li chuen pail Siah-su ffid-8£, Ch'it-la4 kihtrliail Kau-k'iH 
h. 25. k'dnrliatt shU, chl^iail Kau-JciH yuhirlat shi pdng-hOn/ed-ldng tijin^ 
i. 1 1, ^n-hid sidng-tad : ^^Ngd che-U jH-hS gdn cJid-t^ t'd f — pOrjH tsd ko jtnr 
i. 29. tsing, — tsi^ t'd ku/itr^md Wdng Tsin-liit /tl4l, ts6 kb-tsin sUi-jtn; 
j. 15. td hwdn t'd ts6 Siail-wdng Tu T^ai-^wel t'd pien hl-hwdn ck^-ydng-H 
k. 1. Jin'* Tdng-sht hwiii-liail TUng Tsidng-si ahiJHihd lid Kad-Jci'A tsai 

tioles, as marks of the sequence of clauses, are good and worthy of the students obsenratiofl : 
(cf. p. 14. a. and b.) He should also notice the frequent union of two syUables, of like 
signification, to make one word, even among the particles: (cf. 13. c. 27; 14. b. 17; 
14. 1. 17; and often.) 

PUn-Udng (13. a. 29) was the ancient name of Kal-fAng fi^. 

Jin-i-U'chl-^iln (13. e. 16 — 20), 'kindness, justice, propriety, prudence, and fidelity,' are 
the cardinal virtues among the Chinese. 

Yuin-wai (13. f. x6) is the title of an officer of the fifth rank. 

The advanced student will observe that many phrases in the SkwUl-hii di£Eer from those 
in use at present: (cf. ski-ts'iSn 13. f. 20.) The use of pet or pi (13. g. 2) to make a paasive 
form of the verb is not unfrequent: (cf. 14. b. 25.) 

The expression sdn-wd lid,ng-8hi (13. f. 24) cannot be literally translated so as to convey 
the sense, which is a sort of euphemism for a dissolute way of life. The following phrase 
fHiiff-hwd'Siih-yUh (13. f. 28) has also a similar signification, for the words 'wind, flowers. 


After a time his celestial majestj, Chi-tsung, whea he worshipped in i^an- 
kiau, being moved with gratitude for the propitious winds and the genial rain, 
then extended his favour, and sent a general pardon throughout the empire. 
Our Kau-Hiv^ in Linrhtoai cheu, took advantage of the amnesty, and contem- 
plated retumiug to the capital Now this Liu Shirkiuen had, in the metro- 
politan city of Tung-king^ at the foot of the Kin4icmg (* Golden-beam*) bridge, 
keeping an apothecary's shop, a relative named Tung Tsicmg-sz. So, having 
written a letter of introduction, he collected a few things, with some money 
for the journey, and presented them to Kau-Ieiu, bidding him on his return 
to Tung-king to seek a home in the family of Tung Tdomgsz, Then Kwun 
k*iu, having taken leave of Liu Ta4ang and shouldered his bundle, departed 
firom Lin-huxd cheu, and by easy stages returned to Tu/ng-king, He drew 
near to the foot of the Ki/n-liang bridge, and when he had arriyed at the 
apothecary's shop belonging to Tv/ng, he presented his letter of introduction 
to Titng Tsiang-sz, Directly Tung saw Kcm-kHu and had glanced over Liu 
Shirkiu^s letter, he thought within himself, saying : " How can I receive this 
Kau-kiu into my family ? 

Translaiion of the Extract from the Shwu\-hil chvjen (2), v, native text, page 14. 

If indeed he were an honest man and sincere in purpose, he might be 
useful in going in and out of the house, and also in teaching the children some 
good things ; but the fact is, he has been an associate of idlers, he is of a bankrupt 
house, and a man of no principle ; — ^and besides, those who have been offenders, 
and have been cut off from society, certainly will not change their former dis- 
positions. If he remain in my family, he will subvert the good principles 
of my children, and teach them nothing good; and if I do not treat him 
civilly and keep him, it will be about equal to brushing the skin off my 
friend Liu Ta-lcmg's face." Then he just considered within himself, and, by 
way of pleasing both parties, he received KavrJciu into his family to take up 
his abode, daily gave him wine and food, and treated him well for a fortnight. 
At last Tung Tsia/ng-az meditated a way out of this awkward business; 
he took out a new suit of clothes ; and, having written a letter, he addressed 
himself to Kau-Kiu^ saying : " My poor family, like the light of the glow- 
worm's fire, cannot make any body illustrious; and I am afraid that bye 
and bye it will be injurious to you. Sir. But I will recommend you, Sir, to 
Dr. Siau-su, and after a time you will obtain promotion. What do you think 
of this, Sir?" Kau^Jciu was much pleased, and thanked Tung Tsia/ng-sz. The 
latter then sent a messenger to take the letter and to direct Kau-Jciu to the 
Doctor's mansion. The porter announced his arrival to Dr. Siau-su, who 
came forth to see him. Bu^ when he had read the letter, and knew that 
Kavr-Jeiu was originally an idle vagabond, he communed with himself, thus : 
''How shall I manage in treating this man? — but it will be best to appear 
friendly, and I can recommend him to go to the palace of the Emperor's son-in- 
law Wcmg Tsinrliu^ to be a private attendant on the Governor SiauHuxmg; — he 
is fond of such men." He then replied to Tung Tsiang-az^a letter, and kept 

64 8HI-WAN. 8IAU-SHW0. — SHWUI-HU CHUBN. [14. k. I5. 16. m. 24.] 

k. 15. /it-ll chu'liatl yi-ye. Taz-ji si^-Uah yi^fimg akU ch^tng, ahi kien kdn 

1. 3. jiThj siing Kau-lciH leu nd, SiaU-wdng Tu T'ai-wei ckd. Che T'ai-wei 

1. 17. nal'shi, ChS-tsung Hwdng-ti Tal-fu, Shtn-tsung HtDdng-ti i\ fh-mh. 

m. 2. T^a hl-gai fung-im jinrvyA, ching yung ch^-ydrtg tljtn; yi-kienSiaU- 

m. 18. su Hid-si chai-jin cJCt shU, sdng che Kau-JciH lat, pat kien-liail, pieif- 

n. 4. hly 8ut tsU M hunitshU, sheu-lvA Kau^'iH tsai fil-niii ts6 k6 tnn-sUt, 

n. 21. Ts&'t^ KaU'livCL tmH-tH tsai Wdng Tu-w^ fit-chung cJiU-ji jH t'Ulng 

o. 7. Morjin yi-pdn; Tsi-kii tail ji yv^n ji su jl tsln jl Jdn, HwH y^-j^ 

0. 25. SiaU-todng^ Tu T*ai-w^, k'ing- 

15. Extract from the Skvnil-hil chvJen (3), v. native text, page 15. 

a. I. tdn sdn^htn fan-Ju filiriihilng dn-pai yhtry^n chaen tsing siah-kiU 

a. 16. Twdn-wdng. Che Twdrirwdng nai-shi Shin-tsung T*ien-ts^ ti ski-yl 

a. 30. ts^, Ch^'tsung Hwdng^ti yd ti, kiSn cJidng tung kid, pat haH kiil Ui- 

b. 15. wdng ; shi ko tsung-mtng tsiiln-siatl jin-wU, JeH-^Idng tsz-ti m^nfung- 

b. 30. pdng-hihi chi s^, rod yt-pdn pH-hiaU, toil y%-pdn pHr-hwHij hang wH yt- 

c. 17. pan pU-^aij jH kin-kin shil-hwd wH'sd-pH-Cilng ; tl-lcvA, tdrtdn, pin- 

d. 4. chU t'iaH'^; ch'iu, tdn, ko mily ts£ piirpi-skwd. Tdng-jl Wdng Tu-ioei 

d. 21. /il-chiing, hwat pi ySn-yen, shuml lH kOrpi tsing TwdTirwdng ku-chung 

e. 6. tsd-ting, T*ai'Wei lui-si siang-p'ei; tsitt tsin sH-pei, sM-kung lidng 

e. 21. t'aii, nd Ttodn-wdng k'l'shtn UHng-sheh, gad-lat shu-yvhi4\; shau-ki 

f. 6. mdng-kien shU-kid-shdng yi tiii 4^^^^ ^^ yd ni^n cKtng. Chin-chX 

f. 22. sa-t^ ki-shi ts&-tl hah si-Jciail Itng-ldng, Twdn-wdng ndrJc\ K-tsz 

g. 9. pH-ld sheil, k'ail-liail yl-hwut, taH hatl. Wdng Turw^l, Men TwdTkr 
g. 23. wdng sinrgai, pien shwd-tau : " Tsai yiit yi-k6 yU-Mng pi-kid, yh-shi 
h. 9. che-k6 tsidng-jtn ylsheit ts6-tl, kid pH tsai shebr-t^ed; mtng-ji ts'u hat 
h. 26. yl-ping sidng-siing" Twdn-^dng tdnhl tail sin sie hed-i sidng, «^ pl- 
i. 12. kd pi'shi kang-miad, Wdng Titrto^ taH : '^ Mtng-jl tsvrdCHrlat, 
i. 26. sUng chi kdng-chUng, pien kien Twdnrwdng yiH sie-liaU lidng-ko, t- 
j. 10. km ji si yin-yen chi md tsin tsui fang son. — Twan-wdng sidng-pi, 
j. 26. htmit kung kvrliaii,, Tsi-jl Siail wdng, Tu T'ai-^wei ts^ti-dCu yH-lUng 
k. II. pi-kid hd lidng-ko chin-ch\ yU sz-ish, ch6 yi-k6 siait-kin hd-tsz ching- 
k. 29. liait, ydng htodng-l6 pau-fd paurliail, si^-liait yirfdng shU cKtng, kid 

1. 14. shl Kau-Jcid sdng-k'U, Kau-Jcid ^ng-liait Wdng Tu-w^ kiunnM 
1. 28. tsidng-chd lidng-pdn yd wdn lei hwai-chmvg, cfCu\-ch6 shiJir-cKing, king- 
m. 12. t*&d Ttodn-u)dng kdng-chung, lat; pd m^nr-hwdn-li chuin-pailt y^ 

snow, moon,' frequently imply ' an unrefitrained and gay career of pleasure :' (cf. 14. m. 5. 
and fe&'ldng 13. b. 8.) 

The word Hdn * is frequently used to designate ' natives of China/ especially such as 
are brave and manly, like the word Briton in English: (v. 13. j. 6; also 12. e. 12.) 

Fu-md (14- j- 3)f * son-in-law of the Emperor/ appears to be used as a title (cf. 15. n. 24), 
and tni'fu (t6. g. 28), ' brother-in-law,' is used in speaking of another in the third person, 
formi-fa (14. 1. 23). 


Kavrlciu in his mansion for the night. The next day he wrote a letter of 
recommendation, and sent it by a business-like man, who was to guide Kau- 
Iciu to the mansion of the Governor Siavrwang, Now this Governor was a 
brother-in-law of the Emperor Chi-tswrvgy and a son-in-law of the Emperor 
SMn-tgung, He was very fond of elegant and rare men and things, and espe- 
cially of such men as our hero. As soon as he saw Dr. Siau-su^s messenger 
bearing a letter and introducing Kww-Jciv^ he bowed and was pleased; and, 
having at once written a reply, he received Kcm-lciu into his house as a private 
attendant. From this time forward Kav^Jciu was treated in Governor Wa/ng'a 
mansion just as one of the family, and thus on all occasions. Now it hap- 
pened one day that the Governor, 

TramslcUion of the Eocinractfrom the Shunil-hil chuJhh (3), v. native text, page 1 5. 

Siau-wa/ngy on the occasion of the celebration of his birthday, ordered a ban- 
quet to be held in his palace, to which he invited his brother-in-law Prince Twan, 
Now this Prince Twan was the eleventh son of the Emperor Shin-tsung, and 
the younger brother of the Emperor Ch^tsung, He had the supervision of the 
chariots and the standards of war, and he had the title of viceroy. He was a 
man of intelligence and beauty, and was acquainted with all the gay and 
frivolous people of the age ; for gallantry and knowledge of the world there 
was not his equal. Music, literature, and painting he had thoroughly investi- 
gated, and it would be superfluous to speak of his powers in kicking foot-ball, 
playing on the guitar, carving, netting, and the other accomplishments of 
singing and dancing. On the appointed day, the Prince came to the Governor's 
numsion, where the feast was prepared. Having invited Prince Ttvan to be 
seated at the head of the table, the Governor took the opposite end. After 
the wine had gone round several times, and ten courses had been despatched. 
Prince Ttocm, on rising to wash his hands, accidently entered the library, 
where, on a book-shelf, suddenly his eye fell on a pair of beautifully wrought 
ornaments representing two lions in jade-stone. They were ornamental paper- 
weights, very finely carved and curiously figured with dragons. Prince Twan 
took up the lions and held them in his hands, while he kept admiring them, 
and saying that they were beautiful. Siatir^uxmgy seeing that Prince TuTon 
liked them, (then) said : " I have besides these a pencil-stand in jade wrought 
with dragons, made by the same artist, but just now it is not -at hand ; to- 
morrow I will find it and send it to the palace.** Then Prince Tunm having 
thanked him again and again, they returned to the saloon, where, after further 
carousal, they separated. — Twan-wa/ng having departed, returned to his palace, 
and on the following day Siavr^ang, the Governor, took out the ornamented 
pencil-stand of jade and, with the two paper-weights, — the lions of the same 
material, — he placed it in a little silver casket; and, having wrapped the 
whole in a handkerchief of yellow gauze, he wrote a letter, which he sent Kavr 
Jciu to deliver. KavrJciu, having received Governor Wang^s orders, took the 
two precious articles, and with the letter in his pocket, he proceeded to Prince 
TwanfCa palace. The keeper of the gate announced him to the steward, who 

56 SHI-WAN. — SIAU-8HW0. — 8HWUI-HU CHUBN. [15. Dl.JO. — 16. O. 23.] 

m. 30. yuenrkUng, MH to^i yuen-kung dCH lat, to4n •' " Nv-shl ndirkd fit- 
n. 10. II laUijinV Kau-k'td, shUl-pd, UirtaH: ''SiaH-jtn ski Wdng/H-md, 
n. 37. /H-chung^ ii-ailng ytir^u}dn-4ci lai-tain td-iodTig," YtUn^kung tau: 
o. 1 1. '' Tien-hid taat t'lng-^n4i hd siai^ hwdng-m^n tl-kH-k'tH, nl tsit kwo- 

0. 27. Icu,^^ Kau-k'iH tail: 

16. Extract from the Shwul-hii chuen (4), y. native text, page 16. 

a. I. *^ Sidngifdn yin-tsin,^ Yv^en-kung yin-taH Vtng-m^n. KaH-JcitL 

a. 13. Icdn-sht Men Twdn^wdng i'eH tai juen-shd T*dng-kin, shin ch'uen 

a. a6. ta^siii-lttng p*ail-yau hi v^n-^oO, chwdng aiii CiaH pd aiHrlttng p'att 

b. II. taien Jcln i ch& k'l ch'ut tsai tiaur^r pien, tsU ch'ti^n yUckwdng ^dn- 

b. 26. kiTirsien fv^fdng hiu, sdn^wil ko siait htodng-m^n sidng-pwdn chd- 

c. 10. ts*il Jci'Ici'd. Kau-JciH pit-kdn kw6 k*4 cKung-chwdng, H tsai 

c. 24. taHng-jin p^-hed 8£-hed yh Si Kcnirlciil hd-tdng fd-Usi shi ydn tad 

d. 1 1. laA nd-kd Ici-Jcid t*dng t*i k'i-lat, TwdnrM)dng tsirkb pUrM hidng^in 

d. 38. ta'&ng l\ chi kwdn tau KavrJcid ahln-pien, Nd KaurkHd kien Jcir 

e. 12. 1c id laty y^shi yUshi tt tdn lidng shfrkd yuenrydng kwa\ tl kwdn 

e. 28. Twdn^wdng. Ttodnnvdng kienrliaiH td-hl, pien w4n tad: **Nl shi 

f. If. shin jtn?^ KcMrUid hidng-ts'iSn kwei-hid tad: "Sia^-4l ehi Wdng 

f. 24. TtirwH tsvnr-autf shed tung^tn shi ling Ud sdng lidng pan ydrwdn-Jci 

g. 10. lat tsinrhien Tdr^wdng, yiil shUrch'tng tsairts^ pairshdngJ** Ttcdnr 
g. 23. wdng t*ing-pd, siad tad: *' Tsi^-/u chin jdrtsi kwdrsin.^* Kau^cid 
h. 7. ts*U ch'd shiircKtng tsinrshdng. Twdnrwdng Jcat hd-tsk ledn4iad 
h. 20. wdn-Ki td ti yii t*dng hed kwdn sheurliail k'U. Nd TtDdnrwdng tsii 
i. 5. pd'll yd-k'i hid4d; kid sin-w4n Kau-4cid tad: ^^ N\ chS-lai hwut-U 
i. 22. k%k*id, nl hwdn ts6 shin^^mdf" Kau-k*id yid shed ku>^-/ed tad: 
j. 6. " Siail-ti kiadrtsb Kau^cid, hd Iwdn titi Id paV^ Twdnrwdng tad: 
j. 21. " Had I n\ pien hid cKdng lai ti yirhidng shwd^ Kau-Jcid pal tad: 
k. 5. "Siad-ti shi hd tdng-ydng jin, kdn ytl gqn Wdng hid kid I" Twdnr 
k. 19. tudng tad : '' Che^i tst-yun shi mtng wei t^ienrhid ytiSn, tdn t*i hd 

1. 4. shdng ? " Kau-k"id tsai pal tad : *' Tsang kdn I '* Sdnrhwut wdrts*£ kaH^ 
1. 17. tsi, Tuodnrwdng ting-yad t*d t\ Ka/d-leid chi-ti Jcedri*ed sie-tsiii, 
m. 2. kial-si-hid, ts*ai t% IMcid, Ttodnrwdng hd ts^al; Kau-lcid chi^ pd 
m. 19. ptng-sdng pdm^s£ tu shi ch*d-lat J^ng-Jung, Twdn-todng nd shAn-Jan 
n. 4. md~ydng, chi Jci-leid yUs^ piad-kiau nien tsai shvnrshdng tl Twdnr 
n. 19. wdng td-hl nd-li k*^ng/dng Kadrk'id hwiii/d k'u, tsid lid tsai kung- 
o. 5. chung kw6 yi-yi. Tsi-ji pai k6 yenrhumi ckuen ts'lng Wdng Turwtd 
o. 20. kungnihwngfd ySn. 

The me o£tang\ for ' that/ is frequent, especially in the phrases t&ng^ ' on that day' 
and tdng-thi 'at that time:' (of. 13. m. 27; 14. k. 2 ; 15. d. 16.) 

The accumulation of attributes and epithets for nouns is a characteristic of the style of 
the Shwiil-ki^; e. g. fed-ldng p'6-Ui-kii tsz-ti (13. b. 8—14) : (c£ 13. i. 23 — 27 ; 13. 1. 14 — 21 ; 
and chi-chtng lad-thi ttjin 14. a. 10 — 15.) 



soon came out and askedi ''From whose mansion do you come?" Kau-k*iu, 
having paid his respects, replied : '' I am from Son-in-law Wang^s house, and 
am come to present some precious articles of vertu to His Highness." The 
steward said : '' He is down in the court of the palace, kicking foot-hall with 
other members of the imperial &milj; — go over there." Kau-JciH said: 

Translation of the Extract from the ShwtMdb chmJhi (4), v. native text, page 1 6. 

'' I will -trouble jou. Sir, to show me the way." Then the steward showed 
him to the door of the court. While Kavrlciu was looking on, he sav PHnce 
Twan, haying a turban of the T*ang dynasty, made of soft gauze, upon his head; 
he wore a nankeen vest embroidered with dragons, and adorned with streamers 
of fine muslin, with embroidered lappets turned down in front, but loosely 
adjusted on the side of his dress. On his feet were boots elegantly adorned 
with gold thread and the flying phoenix. Three or four members of the 
imperial fiunily were assisting him to play at foot-ball, and therefore Ka/urJciu 
dared not to cross over to him, but he stood waiting behind the attendants. 
Now it happened that Kau-Jciu had some experience at foot-ball, and 
when the ball arose from the ground and Prince Twan fiedled to receive it 
well, it fell towards the crowd at the side of Ka/urUiu, As he saw the ball 
coming, in a moment he boldly gave it a magnificent kick and sent it back 
again to IVince Ttoon. When I^ince Twan saw it, he was greatly pleased, 
and at once asked, saying: ''Who are youl" KanifKiu came forward and, 
kneeling, said : " Tour humble servant is Qovemor Wang's private attendant, 
I have received some precious articles to present to Your Highness, and I have 
a letter also with reference to these things." When Prince Twan heard this, 
he smiled and said : " My brother-in-law has truly great consideration for me !" 
KoMrliw, then took out the letter and presented it^ and Prince Twam, having 
opened the casket and looked at the precious articles it contained, committed 
them unto an attendant; but before they were gone from his hand, he asked 
Kaiur^iuy saying: "You know how to kick foot-baU, what is your name?" 
Kau-Jciu again made obeisance and said : " Your humble servant is called 
KaiurKiu, and has had some inconsiderable experience in kicking foot-ball." 
Prince Twan replied : " Veiy good ! Come down to the ground and have a 
game." Kau^ciu bowed and said : " Your humble servant is a person of no 
rank, how can he presume to engage with Your Serene Highness ? " Prince Ttoan 
replied : " That is, by classifying the clouds and associating great names, to 
make the world harmonise, but what objection is there to your kicking?" 
Eau4ciu again bowed and said : " How can I presume?" and after declining 
several times. Prince Twan insisted on his playing. So KoMrKva just bowed 
his head and asked pardon, and then, rising from his knees, he went down to 
the playing ground and took a few kicks. Prince Twan called to the people to 
stand back. KanjtrKva only used his ordinary skill, but he displayed a refined 
and elegant deportment. Prince Twan was pleased with his manner, and 
requested him to stay at hi^ palace. The next day he prepared a great feast, 
to which he invited Gk>vemor Siaiurwang, 


68 SHI-WAN. — HIBN-SHU. — SAN-KWO CHI. [17. a. 2. — 17. DO. 24-3 

17. Extract from the S6n4ew6 c4i (i), ▼. native text, page 17. 

a. 2. Sanrkwd chi. Td^-skwd CT^Ong-jdng Ttodnrkwei kU-yitng •hau-il, 

a. 16. ki Chinrl%4 Wdng, fnaH^yen-t'H'hd, lUfi-yi p^nrtaei^ Fi^mdng shan, 

b. I. Yd 9dn kang ahl'/qn, heiir^mUn hdn thing id kh jivrmH^ kUn chi tang- 

b. 17. U*ihi ffd-ndn Chung^ eh*uhh4i Mln-kung, id hu: " Fi-M Fda 

c. I. t9eiir Chang-jdng kih^ 9£ kl, aUit^ed hd 4r sk Ti yil ChinrU^ 

c. 16. Wdng, wi €hl kU^ki, pH ^dn kaardhtng,/ii yU hd pien, Ivodn^fcA cAi 

d. 1. niii, Ki€/n^m^ si adn JcU ibdn, pOrchl Ti cAi «d-^l. Ti yd Wdng 

d. 18. fUrchi 8&'hang, UirAwUl yiH hid, fa chung k% nul, d&ng-pail 4r KH, yvi 
^ 5- P*^ j^^ cht'kid, t'qn-shlng t^a^-md^ng c&i ekwng; Chin-UH Wdng yu: 

e. 19. " Ts^ kirn pOrk'dldiirlwdn, sU^ stn hu^ YU^i 4r jin 1 1 sidng- 

f. 7. ki, p'd thdng gdn pien, mwdn-ti Jcmg-kiy hi-gdn cht ehung, pH-hien 
t 32. htng4ii; eking wH^nai-hd, hwit yiit HUrying tsienrpif chHng-kHUn, 

g. 6. kwdng mdng chad y(»d, chi taai Tirtsihh fl-ehuhi Chin-M Wdng 
g. 19. ytl: ''Ta^ t'ten tsii ngd hiung-H yi, sUi sUi ying-hd 4r htng tnin-tsUn 
h. 5. kih^4d, htng chi wHt kang, taH Cikng pH^nAng htng, shm kdng piBn 
h. 19. kiSn yirtiil. Ti yft Wdng ngd yd taaU-tiR cht chung. Tiak-tM 
L 4. t8*ihirmien shi yi-ad chwdng-^yu^ chwdng-ch^ M> yi mdng lidng 
i. 17. hdng ji, ehiii yd chwang hed. K^lng-kid p%4 cKHrhd, hi hid kwan 
j. a. wdng-kih^ chwdng-hsd t8*ail-tut^hdng hdng-hwang chOng t'ien, 
j. 13. Hwdfng-mAng wdng thi, kid-ahi ^-jtn ngd yU tsaikrtiHrpwdn, Chwdng- 
j. 37. chiL v?4n ytl: "Ar ahaiimi^ ahUt^nd cht i^V Ti pHrkdn ying; 
k. II. Chin4id Wdng ch\ Ti yd: " Ta^ shi tdng-kin fftodng-ti; Uad iSAi- 
k. 35. chdng-M ehl hodn, t'adrndn tad Uk; Wd na^ Wdng H, ChinrUd Wdng 
1. la y^r Chwdng-ehd td King Uai pal yd : '' Chin sUnrchad S»4*d, Tata- 
L34. H ehl H, Ta'dSrd yi. Yin kihi Shl^<hdng^i mcMncdn taii^uen, ku t^^ 
m. II. yd-tak'' Sdi fd Ti ji chwdng, kweH Udn taid-ahL—Kid-^iwd Mln- 

The appodtional fbim of ooDBtnictioa is more frequent in the SkwUi-kA than in the 
ffa'6-k'i4. By the appoeitional foim we mean to denote the aggregation of claoaei, begin- 
ning with verbs which have no apparent subject, but they proceed (without any oonnectiv« 
particle being used) to explain something in the preceding clause, and on this account we 
have designated them appoaiiional. 

The Sdn-he9 dU, or ' History of the Three Kingdoms,* has been referred to in p. 16. of 
Part n. Sir John Davis speaks of the same work, in his book on the Chinese, as bein^ 
" the only readable Chinese Chronicle ;" and he considers that it contains matter as likely 
to be genuine as the stories detailed in livy. The style of this work is remarkable for its 
classic terseness, but it is without the adornment of particles to any great extent. A few- 
are used ; but the sequence of clauses, which are generally of four or five characters^ 
suffice to show the connection and the mutual dependence of ideas. Absolute clauses are 
of frequent occuzrence, and there is a general absence of pronouns and particles. Nouns 
and verbs form the staple material, by the different position of which the grammatiesl 
relations are expressed. 

Tiii-thtDd (17. a. 6) is the regular phrase for the beginning of a new chapter, and hiS- 
thtod (17. m. 33) for the resumption of a subject which was previously mentioned. Skeatk 
(17. a. 14), 'few,* here means 'young,' the word «iilf», 'year,' being understood, or rather 
the ekoA being put for the full phrase that^-ndin (17. k. i) ; a part being used for the whole, 
which is a common rule in Chinese phraseology. This hct should be bom in mind. 


TranJaHan of the ETAradfnjm the Sdnrkwd chi (i), v. native text, page 17. 

The History of the Three Kingdoms. 

The story g^oes on to say, that Chang^ang and Twanrkwei, having with 
Tiolence laid hands upon the young Emperor and the Prince Chinrlm, rushed 
blindly through the smoke and fire; and, under cover of the night, fled to 
the Pi-ma/ng mountain. About the third watch, voices were heard behind 
them, and a g^reat multitude of horsemen pursued them. In the fore-front was 
Mii^-kwngy an official of the second class, from Ho-wva; with a loud voice he 
cried : '' Ye obstinate rebels cease to run ! " Chcmg-jcmg, seeing that the crisis 
had arrived, immediately plunged into the river and died. The Emperor 
with the Prince ChirirUu, unconscious of the real state of things, and not 
daring to speak aloud, hid themselves among the tangled grass on the river's 
bank. The cavalry dbpersed in all directions in the pursuit, without becom- 
ing aoquunted with the Emperor's whereabouts. BvJt the Emperor and the 
Prince concealed themselves until the fourth watch, when, as the dew was 
falling, and they felt the cravings of hunger, they embraced each other and 
cried; but fearing lest any one should find them out, they stifled their voices 
in the jungle ; then Prince ChvnrUu said : " In this place we cannot long beguile 
the time, we must seek for a means of saving our lives." Thereupon, having 
girded up their clothes, they crawled up the side of the bank. The ground was 
all thick with prickly brambles, and, in the darkness, they could not see to walk 
on the road. Just when they had no other resource, all at once there appeared 
an innumerable swarm of fireflies streaming past ; the light shone splendidly, 
and they wheeled in their flight only before the Emperor. Prince Chinrliu 
exclaimed: " This is indeed Heaven assisting us^ my brother!" and forthwith 
they followed the fireflies' light and proceeded until shortly after they saw the 
road, and travelled upon it until the fifth watch. Then being footsore and 
not able to proceed, and seeing on a mountain side a heap of grass, the 
Emperor and the Prince lay down in the midst of it Now in the front of 
the heap was a fiftrm, and the fiirmer was dreaming in the night that two red 
suns had &llen at the back of his farm. Awaking in a fright he threw on 
his clothes, and, issuing from the house and scanning every side of it, he saw 
at the back of the fisurm, on the heap of grass, a red light shoot upwards to 
the sky. In a state of trepidation he went to look, and behold, there were the 
two little fellows on the side of the grass heap. The &rmer asked, saying : 
*'Tou two youngsters, whose sons are youl" The Emperor not daring to 
reply. Prince Chin4iu, pointing to the Emperor, s^d : " This is the present 
Emperor, who, when the revolution of the ten Chang-ehi broke out, fled, and 
with difficulty reached this place. I am the Prince junior, Prince Chin4iu.** 
The farmer, in alarm, bowed twice and said : " I am Taiiiri, the yoimger bro- 
ther of TsUirtly the Minister of Instruction during the late reign. Because I 
saw the ten Ghang-ihi selling office and envying good men, therefore I withdrew 
in private to this place." He then supported the Emperor to enter the farm, and 
on his knees presented wine and food. — ^But to return to the story : — Minrkung 

I 2 

60 8HI-WAN. — Hnnr-SHU. — bam-kwo chi. [17. m. 25. — 18. L 10.] 

m. 35. kdng khnrshdng Twdnrhoei, ndrckU u4n: *' T'ienrtsi h&^saif*' KmH 
n. 8. yhi \ tsai pwdndu sidng^i, pH^i hd wdng, kdng tu% tihd Twdn^ 
n. 33. kwet, hien t'eH yU mii hidng-hidy/qn ping s£ sdn Hnnni, T9& hi IM 
o. 9. td thing yi-md sui Id ehiorstn. NgeU chl TaiEiri ehwang; kiSn shedn 
o. 25. kiy w^n chl. Kitng akwd tsidng-H. 

18. Extract from the Sdn4ew6 ehi (2), v. native text, page 18. 

a. a. TBuiri yin KUng kihi Ti. Kiunrchtn t'Ung-k'H. KUng yu : 

a. 14. '' Kua pil4c*d yi^'i toil kiun, tslng PirhU^ Taui^ chwdng- 

a. 39. 8hdng chX^il sedrmd yi-pi; piykTi ahing, KUng yu Chin4i4 Wdng, 

b. 15. kdng-sktng y^-m^, li chtodng ^ king, PHrtaii adn-H, Sz-t*il Wdng^ 

b. 30. yUn, T'aC-tiwC Ydrtg-piu, Tsd-kiun Kiaurw^ — Sh4n 7U-k'i4ng: 

c. 12. Yid'kiun KiaH-toeii^ — ChaHr^mtng; ffed-kiun Kiaii^w^ — PaSF-tiin; 

c. 24. Chung-kiun Kiad-wei, — Yvh^^haHi; yirhtngjtnchiing,9ii-pgjinrmli; 

d. 8. UH^chd kU'kid, kiun-chtn Jdal-k^H. Sien shi fin tsidng Twdnrkwei shek- 

d. 23. ki, todfig Xnng-^ haii4ing ling-hwdn hail-md yu Ti ki Chin-lid Wdng 

e. 9. k*i-U6. Tsd-ti htodn king, aien M Ld-ydng nat^-^r yau, yu: *^Ti 

e. 24. /I Ti, Wdng /i Wdng; Taien thing wdnrUt tseU FS-mdng,'' chi-tsi 

f. 8. kd yifig Jci tiin. KU-kid king pd tad gd-U, hwd-kihh tsing^H pi-fi 
£ 25. dCin-tiJk che-Vien, yi-chl finnnlt tad4ai. Fi-kwdn thl^ Ti yi td- 

g. 12. king. TuSn-shad taed-md ch'd w4n: '' Hd^inV Sid-k't-ying-nj yin 
g. 26. taidng /t-€h*d, Hrshlng w4n : " T'ienrisz h&tsai f " Ti chen-ti pO-ndng 
h. II. yhh. Chinrlid Wdng U-ind, hidngtaiin ch'i yu: ''Latrchi hd-finf'' 
h. 25. Chd yU: '' Si-lidng Ta£'4i, Tdng-chd yi," Chin-lid Wdng yU: *'Jii 
i. 8. lai pail'kid yS f Jh lat kii-kid yi r Ch6 ying y& : " Ti4ai pa^4eid:' 
i. 24. Chin-lid yu: <' Ki4a% paii^kid, rien-ta^ iaai-Ui, hd-pd hid^ndr Chd 
j. 10. td king hwdng^mdng hid^md, pal yd tad-tad. Chin-lid Wdng I yhi 
j. 25. fH^ff^ Tdng-chd. Ta£-ta*urehi-chung, ptng-wd ahi-yu; Ch6 gdn ki- 
k. 10. chl, l-hioai /t-H chl i. Shi fl hwdn kdng, kien h6 t'airhed, kUrkd 
k. 27. t*dng-4cd kiin-tihi kdng ehung pd kihh liait ch^uinrkwd-yd^ai. Tdng-ahid 

because by this rale only can many expressions be understood which defy a literal 

LiSn-yi (17. a. 24), lit. 'connecting night,' i. e. 'joining night to day/ becomes equiva- 
lent to our adverbial expression, day and night. The translations of titles of officers men- 
tioned in this work cannot, in all cases, be considered satisfactory. The changes which 
have taken place in the Chinese political world at different periods, and the whimsical 
alterations in the names of offices, present great difficulties to an English translator. 

The use of ytt» (17. c. 26; 17. m. 11) or yU^ (17. e. 30. and h. 27) for <«rf«, *in,' and 
ehi^ (17. d. I. and e. 13) for l{> the genitive particle, with dr^ as the mark of result, are 
peculiarities of this style, and in which it approaches that of the ancient classics. 

fftng-ia (17. f. 22), 'to walk on the road,' is an expression which would mean literally 
'to walk the road,' but it must be explained either as we have translated it, 'to walk on 
the road,' or be understood to make a phrase, or, as it were, one word, meaning ' to travel, 
to proceed on their toay.* 

"M '^ "ft "Z '64 'W 


overtook Twan-kweiy seized him, and demanded where the Emperor was; 
Kwei sud that he had missed him when half-waj on the road, and that he did 
not know where he was gone. JKwng forthwith killed Ttoan-kwei, and hung 
his head from his horse's neck. Having divided his soldiers to scour the 
country in every direction ; he himself mounted a horse, and, following the 
road, went alone in quest of the JugUivea. By chance he arrived at TsUi-Vs 
farm. /, seeing the head, asked about it. Kwng having explained minutely, 

Trandation of the Extract Jrom the Sd^n-kwd chi (2), v, native text, page 18. 

TsiU^ led Ktmg to see the Emperor. The Sovereign and his minister both 
wept bitterly, and Kimg said : '' The state cannot exist for a day without a 
prince, I beseech Your Majesty to return to the Capital." Now at Tsuiri*8 
farm there happened to be a lean steed, which they prepared for the Emperor 
to mount, while Ktmg and Prince Chin-liu rode together upon one horse, and so 
left the &rm and proceeded on their way. Before they had gone three short 
miles, the Minister of Instruction — Wang-yiin, the Governor Yang-piau, the 
Governor of the Army of the left — Chun Tu-kiung, the Governor of the Army 
of the right — Chaurmang, the Governor of the Army of the rear — Faurnn, 
and the Governor of the Army of the centre — Ynenrshau, with a crowd of 
people and several hundreds of horsemen, met them. The Prince and ministers 
all wept aloud; and, as a first measure, they sent a man with Twan-ku)ei*8 
head to the city, with the command to expose it, and to bring back some 
suitable horses for the Emperor and the Prince to ride. These being obtained, 
they proceeded towards the city; and thus was fulfilled the former saying of 
the children in Ld-^amg : '* The Emperor is not an emperor, the Prince is not 
a prince; a thousand chariots and a myriad of riders come in from Pirmang.*^ 
Before the cavalcade had moved many furlongs, what should they see but a 
host of people coming to meet them, with banners and flags darkening the sky 
and marching amid clouds of dust The officers changed colour, and the 
Emperor also was exceedingly afraid; but Yuen^ehau, putting spurs to his 
horse, rode forward and demanded who they were. From behind an em- 
broidered flag, a general burst forth and, with a stem voice, asked : ** Where 
is the Emperor r* The Emperor himself, in a state of fear, dared not to 
speak; but Chi/nrliu urged his horse forward and shouted: ''Who is this 
coming?" Chd replied : " The overseer of Sirlicmg, — Ttmg-chd" Chvn4iu 
8iud : '* Do you come to protect His Majesty, or do you come to seize His 
Majesty?** (Jhd replied: "I am come on purpose to protect him." Chinr' 
liu then said : " As you are come for that purpose, why do you not 
descend from your horse?" Chd, in a state of fear and confusion, at once dis- 
mounted, and made the salute on the left side of the road. Prince ChinrUu 
then spoke to him and calmed his troubled mind. Tung-chd from first to 
last carefully observed his expressions, and secretly cherished the desire of 
making him Emperor. On the same day they returned to the palace and saw 
the dowager Empress, and they all wept together; but on searching in the 
palace they were unable to find the imperial seal. Ttmg^chd had stationed 

62 sm-WAW. — msK-sHU. — san-kwo chi. [1 8. 1. i i . — 1 9. j . 1 2.] 

L II. tUn-ping cKing^wai; meirfi tai &rkiA m^-kiun, ji-^tng hw^ng htng 

L a6. kuMrsh^; pi-4ing hwd/ng^hwdmg pA^dn. Chd efCHrfi kwng-ttng Hd w4 

m. II. kirtdn; Heiirkiun Kiail-^cHf Pau-rin, latldin TvJh^-thad yht: "T^ng^ 

m. 25. chd pi-^ii i-nn ail cKH cAi" Sha^ yu : '' Chail4*tng nnrting, wi-k'S 

n. II. king-tilng:' Fau-iin hJen Wdng-ythk, yi ySn IcUai. Tiin yu: " Tme 

n. 25. yHimg Bha/ng-V* Sinrtai yin p^n-pu hunrping t*eA Tai shan k*44icnlt, 

o. I a T4ng-ch6 efCaHryiil Hd-UHn hiung-ii pd-hid chl pmg, tHn kwei chdng- 

o. 25. it; 8z wei L%-j4 yU : 

19. Extract from the Sdnrkw6 ehi (3), ▼. native text, page 19. 

a. I. " W4 yUji Ti, U ChinrlUl Wdng hd-jH f " L\rj4 yu : '' K%nrchaiir4*ing 

a. 1 7. wH chii, pA-Ufia taz-sht htngsi, chi tsi yiil pih^ I. Latrji yU W4n-fning 

b. 5. yuhirchilng, chaurtsi pi^kwdrhj yu Ifi-U; yiU pit tiULng ckij chdn-dn; 

b. 21. tsi wei-kHHen chi htng, chfng tsai ktnrfL*^ Chd hi; tsi-ji id pat yhin 
c 7. hwUi p'iSn, tsing kung-hidng. KUng-hidng kia% kU T4ng'chd, shut 

c. 19. kdn pOrtad. Chd tai pi-kwdn tad-liaii^jin-hed su-su tad yuhir^m^n. hid- 

d. 6. md, tai'kHnji si; tsiit htng sd sidn, Chd kiad t*tng tsih chi yd; na\ 

d. 22. Mrshlngytl: *'Wd yih yi yen, chdng kwdn tsing-t'ing.^^ Chdng-Jewan 

e. 5. tsi ^. Chd yu: " rien-ts^ we^ wdn-mtn chi chtL, wA wei-l, pd k'd-l 

e. 22. Jtlng tsdng-miad shl-tsi; kin Shdng n6-yd, pd-jd Chin4id Wdng, 

f. 6. tsung-mtng had-hid, Jed chlng tdr^uod, V3d yd ft TiU Chin4id Wdng; 
t 22. ehU tdrchin l-Uf^ hd^f^ ChU kwdn Cing pd, pd kdn cKd thing. 

g. 7. Tsd-^hdng yi jtn t"ul gdn, chi ch*d H yU yin-tsiSn, td hu : " Pd k*d ! 
g. 21. pd Kd! Jiirshi hd^tnf kdn fd tdry^if T'tin-ts^ nal sien-Ti ti ts^ 
b. 10.^ ts'u wd kwd^i; hd td wdng-tfl-li; jd yd toei tshodn^ni y^V^ Chd shi 
b. 28. chi, nal Eing-cheu Ts*£4i, Ting-yuM y^, Chd nd ch'i-yu: ^Sh4nr 
i. 12. ngd-chi, sdngf ni^ngd-chi, s^I'* Sui chi pei-kUn yd chhn Tlng-yvJh^ 
L 27. Shi Llrjd kUn Tlng-yv^ pd^hed yi-jtn sdng^ k'i-yu hienrgdng, 

Very few oonneotiTe particles are employed in the S€m4ew9 chi for 'and* or 'with:' yU* 
18 found (17. h. 24) ; but hiih^-chin (i8. a. 8. and d. ii), ' prince and ministers^' is without 
any connective: (cf. Part I. Art. 288. i.) 

PH^-k'd yi-fl «^ (18. a. 15), 'cannot be a day without^' seems to be a usual form for the 
expression ' cannot dispense with.' Compare Chrest. 7. a. 10. ef acq. and pi^k'd pi^kviU 
'you could not dispense with meeting him.' (10. d. 6.) 

Observe that c&i ^ (18. a. 30) is used for, and is similar in meaning to, ehi < ' only.' FA ' 
(18. b. 7) is used appropriately for the datival sign ' for,' as it means ' to give ;* but a little 
&rther on it is used for the conjunction 'and' («to ewn 'with'), and it is followed by 
kiing* (18. b. 15). 

JH' (18. e. 5) is here used for 'and,* because perhaps yU had been just employed for 
the mark of the dative; and its original meaning suits better the idea of union than does 
that ofyttC to give'). 

LH-ydng (18. e. 17) was an andent city in J£o-nan, the capital of the ancient monarch 

"^i "it 'H 'n -i*;- 'R 


hiB troops outside the citj, and every day he marched them, heavily armed, 
through the streets and nuirkets, causing terror and uneasiness to the- people. 
Moreover, he went in and out of the palace without the least concern. This 
being the state of things, Qovemor Fwursmy of the Army of the rear, paid a 
▼isit to Yuen-thauy and said : " Twng-^hd certainly has some sinister intention 
which he will carry out if he is not removed." Shorn replied : '' The govern- 
ment is but recently become settled, we must not lightly make any move." 
Faur^n went to see TTon^-ytm, and repeated his thoughts on the state of 
afiairs. TUn replied : " It will be well to hold a consultation about it^ Sin 
himself thereupon led away the troops under his command to the Tai moim- 
tain, where they encamped. Twag-chd induced also the soldiers under the 
command of Ho'tgin and his brother to give him their support, and he then 
privately consulted Lirju and said : 

TranakUion of the Extrttcifram the Sdnrkwd ehi (3), v. naUve text, page 19. 

" I wish to depose the Emperor and to set up Chin-liUj the Prince. What think 
you ) " Lirju said : " The present government is without a head, surely this is the 
time to execute the business, if you delay there will be some change of course. 
To-morrow, in the Wdnrmtng garden, summon all the high officials, and pro- 
claim your intention of causing an abdication; those who do not follow you, 
kill; for the present is just the time to impress them with your power." 
Chd was gratified, and the next day he had a great feast, and an assembly, 
and invited the nobles and gentry. Now the nobles and gentry all feared 
Tvng-ehd; who then might dare to stay away? Chd waited for all the officials 
to arrive, and afterwards leisurely riding up to the gate, he dismounted, and 
came in to dinner, wearing his sword. When the wine had gone round several 
limes, Chd bade them to cease drinking, and to stop the music, and then in a 
stem tone he said : *' I have a word to say, let all the officers present quietly 
listen." Then they all inclined the ear, while Chd said: "The Emperor 
is the lord of all people, if he has not a dignified appearance he cannot per- 
form the rites in the temple of ancestors and to the gods of the land. I^aw 
bis present majesty is timid and weakly, not like the Prince Chinrliu, who is 
intelligent and fond of learning, and may well succeed to the great throne. I 
wish therefore to depose the Emperor and to set up Chin4vUj the Prince, what 
do you think of it, my lordsl" All the ministers, when they had heard it, were 
afiraid to utter a word. But among those who were seated was a man who 
arose, pushed away the table, and standing erect before the assembly, with a 
loud voice said: "It cannot be! It cannot be! Who are you that you should 
dare to utter such great words? The Emperor is the son of the late Empe- 
ror's lawful queen. From the first he has been without &ult or error, why 
take traitorous measures to dethrone him f Do you wish to become a usurper 
and a rebel?" Chd beheld him, and eaw that it was the Tiz4x of Eirig-cheUf 
— Tvng-yuen by ncmhe. Chd in a rage shouted out : " Those that obey me, 
live i those that are adverse, die !" Forthwith grasping the sword at his girdle 
he wanted to destroy Ting-t/uen, when Lirju, on seeing behind Tiftg-yuen^s 

64 SHl-WAN. — HIEN-SHU. — SAN-KWO CHI. [19.J.I3. — 20.g.3O.] 

j. 13. weirfdng pifk-pin, aheU chi/ang-t^ien htvd ki, nil mit 4^ ski. LlrjH ki 
j. 30. Uin yU: " Kin j% yin yen chl c?iu, p& led t*6m kwd-ching, latrji hidng 
k. 16. Til4*dng kung^nJ*^ Wi chl chung-jtn kial Muin Tvng-yuhi shdng- 
k. 29. md ^r k^4. Chd V)4n pi-kwdn yu: " WiL ao-yeh h6 kung-tail /ehf** 
1. 14. LH-chi yu: "Ming kung chd I; si T*ai-kid pU mtngf I-yun f&ng 
1. 39. c^i yO, T*ilng-kwdn; CKang-yi wdng tang u)el,/dng ^r shi tsiji, tsaii 
m. 14. d sdn shi yu t'iaH; kd Hd-kwdng had T'ai-miaii ^r/t chl, Kin-shdng 
m. 30. siu yiti, tsung^mtng^ jtn-chiy ping-wd/an hail kw6shi; kung na\ wai 
n. 15. kiiin Ts'£-lt, sd toS ts*dn yil hw6 ching yid tod I-Hd <M id tsai. H6 
o. 3. Jed kidng chtL fl'4^ chl sit Shing-jtn yun yid I-yiin chl chiy tsi Jed 
o. 19. wd I-yun chl chi tsi tsiodn yi" Ch8 tdndpd* 

20. Extract from the SdnrJewd chi (4), y. native text, page 20. 

a. I. Jnhh h{dng-ts*iin yd shd chi; I-ldng, F*dng-pi Jcien yu: "Ld 

a. 14. SJuing^U Jial hiil jtn wdng^ Jdn sien Jhai chl Jedng t*ienrhid chin-pd.*^ 

a. 39. Chd nal <M; Sz-t'd Wdng-yun ytl: "Ti-ft chl si pd k*d tsid-hed 

b. 16. sidng^Jid/ngy llng-ji tsai-l,** Yilrshi pi-Jewdn Jeial sdn. CJi6 gdn^den 
CI. H yU yuhirm4n. Hwd4eihh yi jin yd md cJCt kL, yU yuhiHtrUfn wai 

c. 17. wdng4at Chd ukfn Li^d : " Tsz hd jtn yi?"* Jd yu: " Ts^ Ting- 

d. I. yvM i-4fr, iing, Lii; mtng^ pUy tsi, Tung^sien cJb^ y^. Chd4ey/ng tsii- 

d. 16. sUpi chV^ Chd nalji yuSn tsihi-pi. Tsiji ji pad Ting-yuen yin- 

e. 2. Jeidn chtng-wai ni-cJien. Chd nd yinrJdun Vdng L\-jd cJC drying; 

e. 16. lidng-chin tui yuin, cJhi Jciht Lu-pu, ting sdrfd Jem-Jewd/n, pi p^-Juod 

f. 3. cJihirp*ad hwdn t*dng-ma/d k*al-Jeid, Jd sz4wdn padrtai, tsdng md ti kiy 
1 18. sUt Ting Kienrydng^ cJCd tad chin tsihi. KUnrydng chl ChJd md yu : 

g. 3. " Kwd-Jeid pd hlng, yen-hwdn Idng-Jnuhi, In^hi wdnnnin fdnt'dn, 
g. 16. ji,r wd chi-tsqn chi Jcung; yhi Jcdn wdng-yh^ flrU, yd kodn choMn 

PaiL-hid (18. i. 33) 'to protect His Majesty.' Here hid, 'an imperial carriage,' is 
employed, by metonomy, for royalty itself: (of. Part I. Art. 183.) 

Hing kial-M (t8. 1. 35), 'to walk the streets and markets,' is a use of the verb king, 
already referred to in the case of htng-lC 'to proceed on the way, — to travel :' (cf. 18. il 33.) 
KUn (18. m. 3o) ' to see,* in the sense of ' have an interview with,' is very classical : (cC 
Chrest. 4. g. 8. and often in the &'8hU.) Yin (18. m. 33) with the signification 'to speak, 
to deliberate,' is a mark of classic style, and is different from wd (18. o. 37), which means 
simply ' to tell :' i-ti» (18. m. 38), lit. ' another heart,' or a 'difierent mind' from that which 
he manifSBsted, here means, 'sinister design.' Wi-Jc'd (18. n. 9), 'cannot as yet,' is a veiy 
elegant expression : indeed the whole reply of Shau is worthy of carefol notice. 

The rapid transition from the narratiye of Paii-8in*8 interviews with Tven-tkau and 
Wang-yUn to his placing himself at the head of his troops is a characteristic of the s^le 
of the Sdn4ew8, 

Ttia (19. a. 30) is used here in an uncommon sense, with the negative p& before it; it 
assimilates in meaning to/6 'as.' The whole expression in this passage means, 'There is 
no time like the present for action.' 

* Ch6 id nd pd^ ' CM in a great rage drew his sword.' These characters were inad- 
vertently omitted in the native text. 

* S « 


back a man of great abilitjv of a bold and upright figure and a dignified 
deportment, holding in his hand a long ornamented spear, and looking round 
with earnest eyes, came forward and said: *' To-day this is the place of 
feasting, we cannot parley about the affairs of state; to-morrow in the 
Imperial Hall we may publicly discuss." Soon afterwards all present exhorted 
Ting-yuen to mount his horse and go. Bv;t Chd asked the officers, saying : 
''Is that which I have said in accordance with justice or notl" Lvrchi 
replied: "Your Excellency is in error; in ancient times the Emperor T'ai- 
kid was of weak mind, and I-yiin dismissed him to Tomg-kung; and when 
the Prince Chamg-yi ascended the throne, and in twenty-seven days did 
more than thirty acts of wickedness, Hd-kwang accused him in the Qreat 
Temple and deposed him. BtU although the present Emperor is young, he is 
intelligent, humane, and prudent, and he is without the least &ult of any 
kind; and you, my lord, are the Tsz-li of a foreign state, and have hitherto 
had no concern in this government, moreover you have not the great talents 
of /and H6; how then can you take on yourself the business of deposing and 
raising to the throne f A sacred sage once said : ' Those who have the mind 
of I-n/iin may act as ke did; those who have not his mind will act like 
rebels.' " 

Trandation of the Ex^act from the Samrhwd chi (4), v. native text, page 20. 

Clhd was enraged, and, grasping his sword, he sprang forward wishing to 
kill Chi; but the councillor F'a/ng-pl restrained him, and said : " President 
Lii is looked up to by all the people, and if you should begin by injuring 
bim, it is to be feared that there will be a commotion in the empire." Chd 
then stopped, and the Minister of Instruction, Wang-yiin, said : " It is not con- 
venient to discuss public affairs after wine, another day we will talk about it." 
Upon this all the ministers departed. Now as Ch6 was leaning on his sword, 
standing at the entrance to the garden, he chanced to see a mounted horseman 
prancing up and down in front of the place and floiirishing his lance. Ch6 
asked Li^ who the man was. Ju replied : " He is Ting-yuens illegitimate 
son, his surname is Lii, his name is Pu, and his title is Fung-aien, your lord- 
ship should avoid him." Ch6 then re-entered the garden, and so got out of 
the way. The next day it was reported that Tvng-yuen was at the head of 
troops outside the city and challen^ng to battle. Ch6 in a rage went forth, 
accompanied by Lirju, leading troops to meet him. The two lines in semi- 
circles stood opposite to each other, and there was Litrpu, having a golden 
band round his hair, and having on a military cloak beautifully embroidered, 
armour also of the T*ang period, and a girdle wrought with lions and gems. 
He spurred his horse, raised his lance, and following Ting Kien-yamg, came 
out to the front of the line. Kien-ya/ng pointed to Ch6, and upbraided him, 
saying: "The government is in misfortune, and the eunuchs are managing 
affiurs to the ruin and desolation of the people and the country. While you, 
who have not an atom of merit, are desirous of creating rebellion. How dare 
you traitorously attempt to cause an abdication?" Ch6 had not time to reply 


66 SHI-WAN. — I-SHl TU-YBN. [20. h. I . — 21 . g. 1 9.] 

h. I. iHng.'' TUng-chd ibirM hwiit-yen, Lurp^/l-rndt Mlrkw64at T4ng- 

h. 16. ckd hwdng-tsek. Eihirydng aU hiun y^n ahd. Ch6 ping td-paiy Uii 

h. 30. adn-ahl yu U hidrchai, TsU chung shdng-i. Chd yU: " WU kwdn Lit- 

i. 15. pu /I cfC&ng^tn y^. Wily j6 Ui ts^tn, hd id t*ienrhid Ufatf^ CKdng 

j. I. Utihi yl-jin cK'A ytl: " Chu-kung toU yiu, men yu Lu-pu t*iing hidng^ 

j. 16. chl Ici-yhng 4^ wUrfneu^ Jdenrll wdng-i; meu p*tng sdnrtsan pHrld/nr 

k. 2. chl-shl ahwdy Ltirpu ktrngsTieil lat kidng: k*d h&V^ Ch6 td-hly kwan 

k. 1 7. k*t jtn nai Hi)i-f^n Chimg4&ng taidng, Li^-sH yi. Gh6 yu : " JU tsidng 

1.3. ?idA shicd chtf^ SHyi: ^^ Meu io^''^ Ghil4cu/n^ yiil mtng-f^ 

1. 18. yu : " ChU"il,''jl'htng taien U; sU ti tah-m^y Uai yUng JdnriMy )-^ U kH 

m. 7. sin; fneu kang Uin ahwd-taiy Ltirpu pi fdn Ting-yuhij lai t*eA Chur 

m. aa. kung i." Chd ukfn L\rjil yu: " Ts^hik'd MV M yU: ''ChttrkOng 

11.7. yii-t8*U t'ihirhidy hd-H yirmdLf" Chd hienrjhi y^r<Mf kang yU hwdng- 

n. 33. kin yi-ts'ienr-lidng, mtng-chU »d shirkd, yUrtai yi-i^ia4, Ll-sH tat-Uait 

o. 10. li-^wH, i'eH Ltirpu chai lai fH-liiy kiunrjtn toei'^hU. SU yH: *' K*d «i2- 

o. 37. paii Lii Taidng^kiun.** 

2 1 . Selections Arom iEsop's Fables, translated ( i ), v. native text, page 2 1 . 

a. 2. Siir^mH Xnng-yA, 

a. 7. Si yiit toeij^-ch^, ng6-ping iaai cKtod/ng taidng4aii, chUng-ta^ hwAn 

a. 21. t'ing/an'/uy k*t-/u yu : " Wil yiit yi-wH, jibing ahi chl; aiii cAl f»ti{- 

b. 8. t*iail yi-aH, ling k't-ta^ chi chl, ahi ndftg-twdn/eit /" Chiing-ta^jiiHn^ng 

b. 24. chi-chl, pa ndng-twdn. Fit hunii chl yU : *^ JH tai^ chiirt*iad ch'eu-dC^ 

c. 9. ta*£-4iJqn-Hh^y ahi n^ng-ttod/n feil f " TU-^i m6-pH aUt-ahei^ 4^ twdn, 

c. 25. FH yU: " Ngo a^ chi hed, jil-t^ng pQrifanrlt; hd, tat pH aheii jin-k'l, 

d. 13. /an, tali yd chi-twdn, Ta^mH tan ^r^wei ching i.'* SOr^ yun : ^' Sh^n 

d. 30. ch'l aidngA; — Hen, UH todn toU yH-ahi; j6 fqn-chly ah4n todng, tH chi 

e. 16. hdn, toUr^i^ pU-ahl y^" Shin chl I Jill yt-ktod 4"' ^n/ kd-kU yi/ang' 

f. 4. che, aien yiii pHrpaiy/dn pOrjH hd-li aidng-lUn cht toet m^ yi. 

g. 2. Pau gqn ahU, 

g. 6. Sz-taz ahU-ahumi yU kiatMvaiy aiait-^hU taai-pdng tDdnrt*iaiji, king- 

Kiaik (19. d. 16), commonly ' to teach/ iB here used, like HoA* 'to call,' for 'to command, 
to bid ;' and the next words, tHng-ttiH cAi-y0, which are the object of this hia&y are exactly 
in accordance with the use of the figure metonomy in the construction of phrases ; e. g. 
tna, * wine,* is here put for ' drinking the wine/ The whole phrase must be taken as the 
object of kia&f in one expression. (Gf. Part I. Art 211.) 

Observe the use of the qualifying expression li-9hing (19. d. 22), 'stem voice,' before the 
verb ffU'io say,' meaning ' in a stem tone he said,' or 'he said sternly.' A language like 
the Chinese, which is wanting in marks for the difierent cases, admits of great variety in 
translation without inaccuracy, but good judgment is requisite to an idiomatic version 
from or into this language. The words of Ttrng-chO (19. d. 25) exemplify the remarkable 
terseness of the style of the San-lnoH; here we have literally, 'I have one word, all officers 
quietly listen,' — 'all officers incline ear/ (See the translation on page 65.) 



before LU-pu, at a flying speed, darted across. Chd at once withdrew in a 
state of trepidation, but Kierirycmg followed him with his troops also in pur^ 
suit, and Ch6^8 soldiers were completely routed. After retreating for about 
thirty furlongs, they threw up a stockade, and a council of war was held. Ch6 
said : " I perceive that Liirpu is no ordinary man ; if I could obtain him, what 
need should I have to be anxious about the empire 1" A man then came out 
and said : " My lord, be not concerned, I am a fellow-townsman of Liirpu, — 
I know that he is brave, hiU without much sense, he looks at gain and forgets 
right principles ; I can, with a very small amount of fine talking, cause LU-pu to 
come and pay his respects to you. Will you allow it 1" Ch5 was much pleased^ 
and observed that the man was the veteran adjutant-general Lirseu. Chd 
said: "But how will you speak to himl" Seu replied: "I have heard that 
your lordship has a celebrated horse, named the * Purple-hare/ which can go 
a thousand furlongs a day, I must have this horse, and with gold and pearls 
obtain possession of his heart; and I will so manage to address him that he 
shall turn against Ting-yuen and come over to your lordship.*' Ch6 asked 
Lirjuj saying: "Will this do?" Ju replied: "Your lordship wishes to take 
the empire, why should you have any concern for a horse?" Ch6 then gladly 
gave it up, together with gold, a thousand ounces, several tens of bright pearls, 
and a jewelled girdle. Li-seu took the presents to give to Lii-pu in the 
entrenched camp. While hiding himself in the road, the soldiers surrounded 
him, but Seu said : " I have a message to general Lii-pu" 

TnmdcUion of the Selections from ^sop's Fables (i), v. natii>e text, page 21. 

The comparison of the bundle of wood. 
Once upon a time there was a father laid in sickness upon a bed, and, being 
about to die, all his sons stood around to hear his dying commands. The 
father said : " I have something which I vdsh you to attempt," and forthwith 
he threw down a bundle of sticks, bidding his sons to break them, and to try 
whether they could snap them in two or not ? All his sons did as they were 
bidden, but they were unable to break them in two. The father tlicn instructed 
them, and said : " Do you now pull out each stick ! and snapping them one 
after the other^ try if you can break each in two or notT* Upon doing this, 
there was not one which remained unbroken. The fiftther said : " After my death 
you should not separate ! If you are united, you will not be insulted by others ; 
if you divide, then it will be easy to break and disperse you, just as this bun- 
dle of sticks shows. The proverb sa3rs : ' When the lips and teeth are alike 
united, not one in ten thousand will be lost ; but separate them, and then the 
lips are dead and the teeth grow cold, and every thing is lost.' Fay attention 
to this! Like as in a kingdom where each man considers his own house alone ;' 
there are few who are not destroyed; but there is nothing so desirable as 

united strength !" 

The rat tliat returned a kindness. 

While a lion was soundly sleeping in a wild region, a little rat came 

playing near him. The lion having awoke in a fright began to play with him. 

K a 

68 sm-WAN. — ^i-8Hi Yu-YBN. [21 . g. 20. — ^22. e. 27.] 

g. 20. ffvng ^r hirct^, 8z siii I chaujeu-chl, shU pH^ndng tu, gat-^mmg cha4t' 

h. 7. hid. Sz niSn »{ait shU kU-kU chl t% shit chl wd-yi, piirj4 sh^-dn. SM 

h. 35. tS-mi^n, hed yd sz-ts^ wil4*ed U-M chl whng, ahi pUnndng tu, Sk& 

i. 12. niSn chau-htd chl gqn, sUi taidng todng yaitrpdj sz-taz chi U-tursMn. 

i. 28. M shi 8d-wei: '' Shl-4/r fiaH lidng, pHrchi hd t*ia4 U^tT TiU yun: 

j. 14. " Til Jdng-sheU'shi, aU/dng-eheh; tg jaA-jlnriM^ tsid jad-jtn; M wA 

j. 30. Xnng^hi jtn aiail, CKtng Icijmg Jsm-ji chl aiait^tn, shl tsiang-lal chi 

k. 15. garirjiny yi winked ting y^ f " 

1. ». Che-Ju Kin FH. 

1- 7- y^-ji ch&/u taiang chc4dn hiin yU siati-Kmig, pHrndng kX Che-Ju 

1. 23. Kin kin yU A-mirto Fa. Fit kd kidng-lin v>4n yu: " Nl yv^ hd^ 

m. 10. mdng-Kinr Fu yu: '' Ngd eke l64eqng Kin FUM pdrkin:' Fn yu: 

m. 25. " Jit tang kien kdng Kt che, dr pien Kt mh; tai-jen tdng-cKn tsz Kang, 

n. 1 1. jd-jH chiit sheil 4r tat, ngd yi fjonmdng wH V M shi-jin, kU-M Kin 

n. 29. Fn, yi tdngsien tain Kt-U, nal Kd. Jin ^r snng Fn wdn-Mng, pOrjn 

o. 16. t8£-htng nU^r^. 

22. Selections from ^sop's Fables, translated (2), y. native text^ page 22. 

^ 2. Ldng twdn ydng-gdn. 

«. 7. £it yin hiung-kitthi, kU-^n yU ldng, wd ydngfSrl, kHAidng anM, 

a. 23. tsung pn-K^ng hwdn, Kin ldng tad-chii Ldng UH cKn-cKal, tsiang 

b. 6. ydng nd-hwd, sin yu: *'Ar Kien meU-kiuhi kn4idng; ji-kiil pn- 

b. 20. hwdn, shi hd tan4if'^ Ydng yu: 'Ttng-wd taz-s^, nal kw*dng-kiu^ 

c. 4. wn-kau y^." Ldng u>4n kiuhi yu: " Tdng pUnK^ng chau, ^r yin 
C.17. ptng-ku/eUr Kiuenyu: '* Ying, kin, kiai Kd tsd^ing.'* Ldng tH 

c. 30. cliuenrlat ying, kin, mienrmien sidng-chi. Ylng, kin, cKlng chvnrs&l 

d. 13. ydng Kien kiu^n lidng, ngd-tdng mn-kt; ping'/i wd^can, ki gqn tsiang 

d. 28. ydng, gdn4in chi taut." Ldng tui ydng yu: "Hien yiH ti-ching, dr 

e. 12. shdng lai hd?'' »ui shdrchl. YUnshi kadrchi-kiuin, yu shln-s£'chl 

Shl-tH (19. e. 25) should be ahi-M 'the gods of the land and the grain/ which are 
worshipped by the Emperor and his suite, in person, on particular occasions. Ts^ng-miaii 
(19. e. 23) is the 'Temple of Ancestors/ which also receives a periodical visit from the 

Shdng (19. e. 28) ' upper' for 'superior/ and is here put for the Emperor, as the highest 
individual of all the superior classes. 

Tsung-ming (19. f. 6), ' mtelligent-bright/ is here put as an attribute to Chiikdin, but 
after instead of htfort it, and where we should use a relative clause. It may be looked 
upon as an apposition to the previous word, and its position is worthy of attention. 

nng-pd (19. g. i) ' having heard,' in which pa, * to cease,' gives the force of the perfect 
tense in European tongues: (cf. Part I. Art. 197.) Ttd-aMng (19. g. 7) 'among those 
sitting ;' tihdng 'upon, upper,' stands for several ideas in different constructions. Compare 
tUn-ahdng (8. b. 4) 'at the inn,' as we say, "on * Change*' for "at the Exchange.** 

TH-ta (19. h. 8) means the legitimate son of the Emperor, the son of the principal wife, — 
the Queen, who is called Ching-thl *. 


The lion with his paw covered him, so that the rat, being unable to escape, 
cried piteouslj from beneath the claws. The lion bethought himself that the 
rat had a very small body, and that if he killed him no profit would accrue, 
so he deemed it best to let him go. The rat was therefore let off, but on 
another occasion he met with the lion caught by mistake in the hunter's net, 
and with all his strength he could not get out. The rat remembered the 
&your while under the claws, and at once set about gnawing the net through 
with his teeth, and at last he gave the lion his liberty. Just as in the world 
we say: ''Of twelve beams of wood, we know not which is the strongest." 
And again they say : " When you can deliver any one, you should do so ; when 
you can spare any one, you should spare, and on no account look upon others 
as insignificant Lest indeed the mean man of to-day should be our bene&ctor 
to-morrow, — ^who knows?" 

The coachman praying to Fa (Buddha for Hercules). 
One day a coachman got his carriage wheel sunk into a little pit and was 
unable to raise it out, so he begged for assistance Arom Amida Buddha y who 
really descended and enquired, saying : " What do you want T* The man said : 
" My carriage has fallen into this pit, and I pray for the power of Buddha to 
pull it out." Buddha replied : '' You ought with your shoulder to raise the 
vehicle, and lash your horses, then assuredly it will arise from this pit; hut if 
you let your hands hang down and wait, even I shall be powerless to help 
you." Thus it is in the world ; when affairs are urgent, men pray to FU; but 
they ought first to exhaust all their energy, and then they would be able to 
manage them. For if you call on FU ten thousand times, it will not be so 
good as using your own exertions. 

TramUuion of the Sehctions from JEeo^e Fables (2), v, naUve text, page 22. 

The sentence of the wolf in the suit about the sheep. 
In former times there was a savage dog, who petitioned a wolf, saying that 
a sheep owed him several measures of com, and that he would on no account 
pay, and he begged the wolf to act as arbiter. The wolf sent out a bailiff to 
seize the sheep, and having caught him, he examined him, saying: ''You have 
owed a certain dog some com for a good while, and have not paid, what sort 
of principle is that?" The sheep replied: " It is no such thing, but that mad 
dog has accused falsely." The wolf asked the dog, saying: "The sheep is 
unwilling to confess, have you any proof against him?" The dog replied: 
" The eagle and the kite can both bear witness." The wolf then summoned 
the eagle and the kite to appear before his face and to testify. They de- 
clared that it was all true ; that the sheep owed the dog the provision, " We 
have seen it," said they, " and he is not flEklsely accused, we beg you graciously 
to take the sheep and deal with him as the law directs to cure him of this 
crime." The wolf then took the sheep and said : " Now we have strong proof, 
do you still persist?" and forthwith killed him. Thereupon the dog which 
had at first accused him, with the wolf which had adjudged the affair, together 

70 sm-WAN. — KUNG-WAN. [22. e. 28. — 9S, d, i .] 

e. a8. Idng-kwdn, ping kdn-ching-chl yvng-kiH, {ahi-hUS yi-wo,) hdng fan let 
£ 13. ydmg, JH 8hirjin,j6 yid tsz^'at, mei chau hw^ng-hdf yiu; yd t'an 

f. a8. Id/ng ckl kwdn, yu^-kaH jH kUi^ kdn-ching jH ylng-kiil; tsi pHrpi 

g. 13. wdmg let ping-hung twdn-s£ II Ten yun: *'Sidng yiH ch\/4n lei 
g. a;, shin:' ITlpiihii? 

h. a. TtirM yah t8*6. 

L 7. Si yiil tHrsM, yu^nrfi ti-p'ii; yd wit, tsi yail; ahi yiU U^tsb taai-48*ien; 

h. a5. shS tsi cfChh 4f yai^-^l. K*eit chit tsb cA% h^i fcd-Jden, i-wei yait 

L la. shdng tsk-ts6,fA tsai yatt-c^i. Tso yu: '^Jit sin kiuin-€it, pHrmdng 

L a;, hai jtn,/dn hai ts£-M:* J4 shi yiit Idng-sinrch^, chdng tsai gdn4l, I 

j. 14. yhi-yu hwiil-jin, 4^ p&rchl shi tsz hioiil. Shin chif 

k. a. Fit-4'ed k'iH ping, 

k. 7. Si yiit fit-t'ed, silt jut 4^ wH-y^ng, ts£-s£ pi-ti yi-ping, fang Ud 

k. 34. hihy-yiingytl'Shi; na\ Jei Ui shU yu: "Sienrsdng, ts£ ngd yi-mH, pit- 

L 10. hu>6 kin-w6i yirping tsitl; t'drji tsi-tdng t^H-paH.** K*t shU tsi-kd chl4oo 

L- 39. fdnrshing; " ff&-si yi-ping f " K*ai-jh^ ytl-chL Fit ti lei ping; sd-yiit 

m. f j. shurltn, tsin p\ fMc'dl H6 Jci shU-chl yd tsai I Jit shi-jin sd toei; 

n. a. « Tsit hit t'ien yl" TiH ydn : " Tt-tau, kirming;'' M yi ! Fdnrjin 

XL 16. pL-sil kd sheit kH fan tsi, toit chirts^n yu jin, Mtng-k'itng {yiitjUfit 

o. 3. p^if^^ ^ hwai chl wdn \, 

23. Official Papers (Lin's Letter to Qaeen Victoria (i))i v. native tezt^ 

page 23. 

a. b. I. KlnrcKal, Td-chtn, Plng-pd Shdng-shU, Lidng-JI^ TsUng-tit, Lin, 

a. 17. Pmg-pd Shd/ng-shU, Lidng-Kwdng Tsung-tit, Ta/ng, 

b. 17. Plng-pd Shi-4dng Kwdng-tHmg Siitnfit, I, 

c. I. hu)ui-4*'&ng chaH-hwiii Ylng4ci4\ hw6 wdng, wet ling-kin d-pien 
c. 15. yenrs£; chaH-U t'ien-tad wd-sz pH-yAng hairjin, \ U J^; jtnrtsing 

Kw6-thi (19. h. 11) is a union of two verbs^ ' to pua over' and 'to fiul,' put for * trana- 
greesion' or 'fiiult.* (Cf. Part. I. Art. foi.) 

ffidng (19. k. 15), 'towards/ is used here for 'at:' (cf. PartL Art. 407. 4.) Eumg 
(19. k. 18) here means 'public/ as often; e. g. hung^wOn (14. d. 15) 'public despatch,' but 
in kUng-hidng (19. c. 10) it means 'nobles/ and kung-tad (19. 1. 11) means 'just/ because 
justice is founded on the common rights of mankind. Again, hung (19. n. la) is 'you, 
my lord :' (cf. ao. d. 13, 14.) THit-heA (ao. b. 14) ' after wine.' Here tdit, ' wine/ is put for 
'drinking wine.' 

Observe the ellipsiB of the substantive verb in tsz h6 jin yi (ao. c. 33 — a6). 

The description given of the dress of great men and heroes in Chinese romances is 
generally elaborate, as is that of Lil-pu (ao. e. 24 — 1 13), who played an important part 
in this stoxy of the 8an-kw8. 

Fi'md (ao. h. 10), lit. 'flying-horse/ is an example of the use of the verb to qualify the 
noun ; but in such cases the qualifying verb or participle has often to be translated by an 
adverbial expression ; and here we must construe, 'his horse going at full speed,' Shd 
(ao. h. I a), 'to kill,* is here used to intensify the expression, to imply that he darted acroes 
the intermediate space. The use of hid (ao. i. 4) 'down/ or 'lower,* for 'throwing up' a 
stockade, or 'entrenching themselves,' is very idiomatic. In &ct skdng and Kid, as will 


^th the &lse witnesses, — ^the eagle and the kite (a nest of birds of the same 
feather), — divided the sheep among themselves. Thus it is in the world, if a 
man possess wealth, it will daily bring crosses and woes upon him, and should 
he cross the path of a magistrate who is greedy like the wolf, and an accuser 
like the dog, and &l8e witnesses like the eagle and the kite, then he must not 
expect to have it decided according to any justice in the case. So the proverb 
says : " The elephant has tusks of ivory, and we bum his body /or them, is it 
not sol" 

The venomous snake bites the file. 

Once upon a time a venomous snake wound itself into a blacksmith's shop, 
and every thing which fell in its way it gnawed. Now it happened that a 
sharp file came in its way, so the snake coiled itself round it and began to 
gnaw it, but his mouth suddenly coining in contact with the sharp teeth of the 
file, drops of blood were to be seen; he thereupon thought that these were 
from the wounds inflicted on the file, so he went on gnawing it. But the file 
said : '' Tour heart is veiy venomous, you are not able to hurt others, but, on 
the contrary, you may injure yourself." 

Just so in this world, those who have the hearts of wolves are constantly 
in secret slandering others, but they unwittingly defame themselves. Beware 
of such! 

The axe-head begs for a handle. 

There was once an axe-head, which, although sharp, was useless, so he 
thought within himself that he must obtain a handle, and be useful in the 
world. Then he besought a tree, saying : '' Sir, give me a piece of wood, only 
sufficient to make a handle, and some other day I will, as in duty bound, 
reward you." The tree on seeing his branches so abundant, thought, ' Why 
should I grudge a handle)' And so generously gave him one. The axe now 
having obtained a handle, cut dovni completely all the trees which were in the 
forest. What stupidity it was in this tree ! So the men of the world have the 
saying: ^' Help the tiger by adding wings." Also they say : '' Present a knife 
and beg your life ;" and so it is. Let every one keep his ovni share and on 
no account give to othent, lest truly (as in the case of the axe handle) he may 
repent of it too late ! 

Trtmdation of Official Papers {LivkS Letter to Queen Victoria (i)), v, native 

text, page 23. 

Imperial Commissioner Lin, a Minister of State^ a President of the Board 
of War, Governor-General of the Two Hu {Hu-nan and Httrpi provinces), 

President Tang, of the Board of War, Govemor^General of the Two Ewang 
{Kwang-tung and KvKmg-tn provinces), and 

Vice-President /, of the Board of War, and Lieutenant-Gk>vemor oiKwang- 

unite in making a communication to the Ruler of the English nation, in 
order to cause the prohibition of the opium traffic; showing that Providence 
does not allow any private arrangements soever to be injurious, so that they 

72 SHI-WAN. — KVNQ-wAN. [23. d. 2. — 23. o. 30.] 

d. s. pHryti^ Shaft wA-shd 4r hadrddng 9 Kwe^-kw6, wUt t9ai chAng-ydng 

d. 17. 4'''''V)dn ll toai; 4^ t*47ig ts^ t'ten-tatHy t'Ung U^ jirirtstngy vA-yiii pA- 
6. 5. ming^ yU sdng^ U-hai M y^, Ngd t*ien<hau 8&-ha\ 10^ kid; td 

e. 19. ffwdng-tiJH t'ien chljifh^wH-^d-pHr/edy^^ hidrhwdng isuryi, yi tsai ping- 
t 7. sang^ping-yii chl ckung, Kwdng^ung, t8& k*cn Aai-^n )-2al, liH-t'ung 

f. 2 3. meiiryi; fdn Niiiril min-jtn, yu wai-latJan-cKuhi ndng^n, yU Id-H M, 

g. la yiit 9ti-M nihi yil4^ I. TM yU td-hiodng, ch'd-yiy hil-tz, t^ng^ui^ 
g. 27. kiai CTiung-ktod pau-kw^ chl ch*dn; waUkwdjd pHrU ts^y M wA inoef 
h. 14. ming; ^ t'ienrchau yishi t^ikigjiri, hu k't/dnr^nai cUHrydng, tsu pU 
h. 3a kin-8iy wClrfl t'iil-si wai fH I t^tenrti cAl tnn toei sin yi, Hal yiU yi 
L 19. chimg kan i chi toH d^pien kid-tat /dn-mai, yiil-hio6 yurmtfif i hai lei 
j. 7. «Am, 4^ med kH llj tsih^ hinshi M. Shdng ahait kin tsi hu-sidng 
j. 32. cKiihi jhi Udrid jirshln tsai chung yuh^ fd shd fdn cKdngy siw, tsai- 
k. 7. ts^'t^ng yurmtn Cdnrlct^fdy 4r tsidng lei sang, yi shd ni yid-tsi tsu 
k. 34. hd'pi wei gai-si yi jhh I. Td-tslng yt-fUng chl t^ien-hid, wd tsai 
1. 1 1, twan fdng-sH I ching jin'Stn, k'l'k^^'^Hf ^^ haircut sdng-ling kdn-sln 
1. 37. chtnrtd, shlA hUn tsidng Nui-ti /dn-mai d^pieny ptng hUshi chljtn, yi^ 
HL 15- i^l yin-hing chi tsUi ydng kin lid cKuen; wds£ t^-t^ng tdrfod hi 
n. I. kw^rkwd sd^d, kd-pd hidrnui kwei-^ kdnrjtn sz-htng tsad-tsd; isirfl 
n. 19. kw€i-kw6 fodngy ling lei chi-tsad tsz-wd ping-fl chUrkwd kial jhtryid 
o. 5. w4n kweirkwd yl-pd ch^n mtnrjin hirM /dnrMy pi cKing : tsi hi chl 
o. 23. ^'1 hai^iny kd ti^wei chi li-kin, 

have been seen, enter into many pure Chinese idioms, WH (20. j. 8) 'not, do not,' being 
employed for pHryaH \ is one of the characteristics of the terse style of this work. Tdng- 
hiang (20. j. 14), 'of the same village/ is another example of the predicate being of 
pregnant meaning, and like the attribute only being placed after the noun which it quali- 
fies. This form is common in the San-hoO. We have eKd td-hi (20. k. 13). 

Mark h&^ (20. L 2) 'by what means?' and compare this use of i with i-t0€i 'Mjdt 
(19. £ 25) 'how do you consider this!* ox 'what do you think of it I' (cf. 4. j. 2a and 
4. e. I.) i often has the force of the final particle 'that, to the end that,* or 'for the pur- 
pose of:* (cf. 19. e. 21 ; 23. L 14; and Parti. Art. 482.) 

FH'ia (20. o. 17) 'to hide on the road.' In this expression the noun Id follows the 
▼erb 'to hide' directly, without any particle to show the relation; but the sense of the 
passage compels the above rendering, just as in hing-l<i above (17. f. 22). This fonn is 
fi^uent. We have a case in the next page; ng^-^ng (21. a. 12) 'lying in sickness.' 

Pages 2 1 and 22 of the native text contain extracts from a work entitled : " Esop's Fables 
written in Chinese by the learned Mwn Mooy Seen-thang, and compiled in their present form 
(with a free and literal translation) by his pupil, Sloth," an allusion to which will be found 
in the Pre&oe to this work, page viii. The style is quaint, easy, and well adapted for the 
expression of fiible. It cannot be considered, however, as a vezy good model for compo- 
sition, though it may serve as a stepping-stone to something better, and to familiariHe the 
student with the expression of native modes of thought. But these fobles abound in good 
colloquial phrases, to which the student will be directed by the hyphen in many cases. 
And here it may be observed, that the hyphen in this work is often placed between sylla- 
bles which are merely grammatically united, and not absolutely, as is the case in com- 
pound words; e. g. the negatives pd 'not,' wA 'without;' some verbs, as «fit <to foUow/ 



may serve the iuterests of individuals; and that the feelings of all men 
are similar^ {for who is there that does not hate death and love life?) And 
although yoiur honourable nation is two myriads of li across the vast ocean, 
yet you acknowledge the same Providence and the same human feelings, and 
there is not one of you ignorant respecting life and death, — profit and loss. 
Now the Celestial djmasty looks upon all within the four seas * as one &mily, 
and the benevolence of our great Emperor (like that of heaven) comprehends all ; 
even desert places and disconnected regions alike receive their life and nurture 
from thence. There has existed at Canton, from the time of the removal of the 
restrictions on maritime communication up to the present, regular conunercial 
dealing, and the people of China, generally, have held a peaceful and profitable 
intercourse with those who came from abroad in foreign ships during a period 
of several tens of years until now. Moreover, with reference to rhubarb, teas, 
and the silks of the Lake ^ovincM and such other commodities, which are 
the valuable and rich productions of China; were foreign nations unable to 
procure them, they would be without the means of enjoying their lives; but 
the Celestial court, looking with benevolence towards all alike, has permitted 
trade to be carried on with foreigners, without the least stint or grudge, and 
has in this course undoubtedly had no other aim in view than to imitate 
the beneficent principles which unite heaven and earth. But there b a 
class of unprincipled Barbarians, who manufacture opium, and bring it here 
for sale. And thus, in order to contrive profit for themselves, they tempt the 
common people of our land to the injury of their bodies. Formerly the con- 
sumers were only a few, hiU latterly the habit has spread its contagion, while 
it extends more deeply every day towards the centre of the land, — with its 
rich, fruitful, and flourishing population. But although, among the common 
people, there are many who gratify their appetites at the expense of their 
lives, and as this is the origin of the evils resulting from the liabit, their 
ease does not call for pity. Yet, when we consider the empire as a whole, 
under the rule of the Td^tsing (' Great Pure*) dynasty, it is a matter of import- 
ance that the minds of men should be directed in the formation of correct 
customs. How then can we be willing to cause the inhabitants of the world 
to take with pleasure this deadly poison) Therefore from henceforth both those 
in the Inner land (China) who deal in opium, and also those who eat it, shall 
alike be liable to the severest punishment; and a perpetual prohibition against 
it shall be enacted and be made known every where. We have considered 
that this poisonous article is the secret production of artful and designing 
people within the boundaries of your honourable nation's tributary kingdoms, 
and that neither the sovereign of your honourable nation has caused it to be 
made, nor that even all these kingdoms manufieusture. it ; — ^yea, we have heard 
that your honourable nation does not allow your own people to consimie 
it, and that offenders will surely be reproved. It is certainly from knowing 
its evil effects that these severe prohibitions have been made. 

* The expression 'four seas' sometimes means 'China/ at other times ' the world.' 

74 8HI-WAN. — KUNQ-WAN. [24. a. I . — 24. m. 1 1 .] 

24. Official Papers (Lin*8 Letter to Qaeen Victoria (a)), v. native text, 

page 24. 

a. I . Jen kin Jci ki-ahl^ — hd-j^d kin Jei fdn-nfMiiy ping Hn Jit ckirlsaH ? — 

nai wel tslng-yuen ckl tail. J6 tsipOnshly 4r^*£n^ kdin cfd-tsaUfdn^mai 
yin-yiil Niii-ti yu-min; tsUshi yUrki chl sang, 4^ hien-jtn ch% 8z; yUrki 
cht II, ^r t-jln \ hat T8^'kiaijin-t8*tng cht ed t*ilng-h4n, Cwnrtau chl td 
pH-i/Hng. II T*ien-chau Urchin Hwd-It; hd-nAn U'-chl let mingf ^^ydng- 
^l shing-mtng kwdn-td, ts£ I kad-kiai yU gien; tni^ tsUng-tsihk, wi yiing- 
kung-w^i^y t-hwui kwei-kiod Wdng; yi-tdn kin-yen, UH yid te-yiiSt toei 
pHrchl. Km yil ktoei-kwd Wdng yd tsidng tsz hai-jin chl drpten, 
yiing-yit^n tvodn-tsu; ngd Nui-ti kin-jtn kl-shl, yi thUrkwd Mn-jtn 
chi-tsad; lei ta Unguis ihh \-king tsad-Ud-chi^, kwei-kwd U-UH pan-Ung 
htng seil Uin-t*ed chl hal-tl; twdn pHrhvL t*ien-ti kien kdng-yiii^ tU-wii, 
Fl'ta Niii'ti mtrtrjtn pd-ahed lei hai, tat kwei-kwd min-jtn (Js^ryiii 
tsadrtad, an chl lei pd klshi) kwd ping taad-tad shdng kin chl, tsi kal- 
kw6 yi pushed lei hat, K*l pd-kd hidng t'ai-ptng (Mfdl Yi-chad 
kwei-kwd kung'8h4n chl chin,jdri8z tsi ming yU t^ien-ll, 4^ Shdng-Vien 
pd'Chi kidng teal. Hi hd jin-t8ing ^r ahlng-jin, Yt-pt chl hu, hwdng 
Niii'ti ki-king yhirkin, wdrshi ki-shi, tsi-M kal-kwd chi-tsau, taung- 
yl wdrchu k^d-mai, wd-ll k'a-t'd. Yu lei kwel-p^n t'd4ad, hd-pd kal 
t'd pirwi? Hwhng Nui-ti aek-cfCH drpien Uin-hing /u-hd yid shau- 
uoel, tsai yidlt-ch*u^ kidrtai d-pien, taien-lai pd-ndng-pd yi-i^l shau- 
weL K*ilng (ch'tien nui ad taai t'd h6) ndn miin ydrahl, ledf^n, Shi A- 
pd-t<f ^r hai \-hing, yd hai-jin ^r aien hai-ki y^. I^ienrchaii clu ad-l 

i ' to use/ which are employed as prepositions (then meaning ' with* or * by*) ; and auxiliary 
verbs, as ndng * to be able/ h*b * can, may ;' and demonstratiTes, as taz ' this* and k't * his ;* 
and the reflexive particlen tu 'sel^* sidng 'mutual/ are generally united by the hyphen 
to the words which they affect. Very much might be done in this way to make Chinese, 
even the terse, dassical style, intelligible in Roman letter; and it is devoutly to be wished 
that the various dialects may, before long, be represented by the Latin alphabet, and be 
freed from the cumbrous characters, which, for the masses, clog the path to knowledge. 

SUt'l (tx. g. 25), lit. 'follow, — ^use,' forms a redundant expression for 'with.' We have 
ailt alone in gUUsheil (sx. c. 31) 'with the hand.' 

There is a great mixture of classical and colloquial terms in the style of these &ble8 ; 
e. g. (in 21. a. xo) we hB,ref&-ch^ instead of fCrtHn, which is the colloquial tenn. Again, 
"the lion was sleeping in {yU — 21. g. 10) a wild region;" "the mouse was playing in 
(tsai — 21. g. 15) (or €U) his side." Here different words are employed for 'in,' perhaps to 
avoid tautology, but yU is not often used in coUoquial style. Fdn-fd {it. a. 23) 'com- 
mand, bidding,' is the common expression for commanding an inferior. 

The expression pH^ (ai. h. ao) has occurred several times. It signifies literally, 'not 
as' or 'not like,' and must be explained to mean ' there is nothing like' or ' the best thing 
to do is :' (cf. 14. i. 34. and ix. o. 14.) 

Tsidng^ (ax. i. 18) in the sense of 'to take' is not very common ; it corresponds in use 
to |)a^ 'to take,' meaning 'referring to, touching, concerning,* it refers ta the object 
mentioned, and helps to form an expression, like the " accusative of closer specificmtioii" 























g. 24. 





















m '*E 


TrandaUon of Official Papers {LxrCs Letter to Queen Victoria (2)), v, native 

text, page 24. 

But though 70U forbid the eating of it, — ^what is that compared with the pro- 
hibition of its sale and the restriction on its manu&cture? — ^this latter would be 
the rational means of cleansing the source. If you do not eat it yourselves, 
yet by continuing presumptuously the manufacture and the sale of it, you tempt 
the lower orders of the Inner land (China), — ^you truly desire to live yourselves 
and to overwhelm others in death, — ^you seek your ovni profit, and bring loss 
upon other men. All these things are what the common feelings of humanity 
hold in abhorrence, and what Divine Providence will not tolerate. And since 
the power of the Celestial dynasty moves both Chinese and Barbarians, what 
difficulty would there be in establishing regulations respecting their fate? 
But having regard to propriety, sacred honour, and magnanimity, it is cer- 
tainly proper, in the first place, to issue commands; and, as heretofore no 
public despatch has been sent to the Sovereign of your honourable kingdom, 
if the matter be the subject of rigid prohibition on a sudden, then some may 
be tempted to plead ignorance as an excuse. BtU as the case stands, we 
would with the Sovereign of your honourable nation, covenant to abolish for 
ever this hurtful opium drug, we should forbid the consumption of it in the 
Inner land (China), and the tributary kingdoms also should forbid the manu- 
fikcture of it. As for that whidi has already been made, your honourable 
government should issue commands for its collection froih every quarter, and 
for its complete destruction in the bottom of the sea, nor let any more of the 
poisonous article exist any longer in the world. Then not only will the people 
of the Inner land (China) not be injured by it, but also the said people of your 
honourable nation (who being the makers of it certainly know how to eat it), 
when the manufiicture is forbidden, will of necessity be also uninjured by it. 
Will not each party then enjoy the happiness of peace 1 And in addition to this, 
by your honourable nation's respectful and sincere obedience, you will show a 
dear apprehension of divine principles, and Heaven will not bring down 
calamities tipon ue. This will be in harmony with the feelings of humanity 
and with those of the sacred sages. Also let it be remembered besides, that 
the people of the Inner land (China), being under severe prohibitions against 
the eating of it, if the aforesaid nations still manu&cture it, there will 
assuredly be no market for it, and no device will cause profit to arise there- 
from. Thus, with the prospect of losing the capital and labouring in vain, 
will it not be better to change your plans for another employment? 

Furthermore, all the opium which can be found in the Inner land (China) 
has been delivered over to be consumed by fire, and if in future there happen 
to be any Barbarian ships conveying opium hither, the whole must be 
destroyed by fire. But we fear (as there will be other goods in the same ships) 
it will be difficult to distinguish the jewel from the stone, and all must be burnt 
alike. Thus, not obtaining any profit, and injury taking a substantial form, in 
wishing to hurt others, you will hurt yourselves first. The Celestial dynasty's 

L 2 

76 SHI-WAN. — KUNO-WAK. — MIN<J-YOH*. [24. Dl. 12. — 26. 1.23.] 

m. 12. chin fa. fvdnrkwd M, ching yiit piJ^t6*i chl ahtn, wei wA toei, yh^ cAl 

m. a8. pHrtaaH y^, Ku)6i-kwd Wdng UH-iaH t^-w^n, foi tdSng Jc6 hal-k*eU 

n. 13. twdfirtsAy ytien-yid sH-Mng t fa& King, WH-hitadng shi chl tHng 

n. a;, ch'u tH, 

o. 3. TaH'kwdng shi-kiH niSn ^r y& ji, i-hwiii Tlng4eu36 cM 

o. 21. chaa. 

25. Official Papers (From the * SupplemeDtary Treaty of 1844'), y. native 

text, page 25. 

a. I. I. F{ sd^it KwrcKai^ Kungshi, Tdrckin hwd-yd k'Un-yin, Mn 

a. 15. dCiirlceU hd-wH shwili-hidngy UMtfdr^ien chl fo^, si-hei^ Kwdrng-chm, 

b. I. FUrcheu, Hid-m^fh J^ing-po, Shdng-hal, wU kULng-k'eUf kiun fimg i- 
b. 15. imC fihSi, 

b. 18. II. Ti sd-yiib KwrctCaly Kung-ehi, Tdrchin hwd^d k'tSnri/in «n- 

c. 2. tiTig med-yi chdng-i^ing fd-nien chl ki^ s&rhed w^ kidiig-k'eit, kiufir 
c. 17. /dng i-toeC shi. 

c. 22. III. Ti fUn-ting med-yi chdmg-Ming ti-^dn t*iady h6-<Kvh^ Uin 

d. 5. JeeU pad ktodn yirktvdn, niii ad yhi/H yinjd kdn yvJhhj M hd-wd efCd 

d. 22. cA'atZ ji kwdn t^ng yt2, U^ yin liSn h6 ying-kwei Chung-hwd kwd ndy 

e. 8. I MUmg Jcung-hidTig, 

e. 13. IV. Yi Kwdng-cheUy FUrcked, ffidr^nUfn, Ning-po^ Shdng-haiy tot^ 

e. 25. kidng^edy Kal kwdn chl hed, Jci Ylngshdng medryi chiirsd^ chi6 ck^n 

f. 10. wd kidng-k'ed, Fd-ch^njid t*d-chU kidng-k^edj yi pd-hiL ffwd-min tsai 

f. 26. t'chchd kidng^*ed, ch'uin t'dng «s iidng medryi, tsiang-iat Ying-kwd 

g. 10. Kung-ahi yid yushi ming, pdrhv, t'd-icdng, 4^ Ylng-shdngjd hw6 pei 
g. 26. yd, pHrfd Hn4ing, ^ tsiaaig Kung^i kad-ahi chi j6 wdng wan, then 
h. 1 2. fiodng t'd-chd kidng-k'ed, yid pien/dn^^maijin ping Chung-kwd yuin- 
h. 26. pien, lien-ch'idn lihirhd yf^ping ch*au tsU ji kwdn, Ylng-kwdn pdrU 
i. II. t84ng44n, t*dfng HwdH/nin taai t^d-^hU ki^^ng^'ed, yii Ylng-'shdng js 
i. 25. cKvJen med^, M Xwd/d kd tsai, ying-chad li pdn-ll. 

j. II. Y. Yi tsihh tsai Kidng-ndn nVNwng irting, l-hed shdng Jcihi, twdn 

j. 25. pd-k*d kwdn wei paalt kiau, yid sin Hng med-yi changHsKing tUsi Ciad, 

k. II. Ylng-dwmg yu Hwd-shdng kktdryi yirkwdn, niii-fd tsidng pd-ndng 

k. 25. chi ydng-hdng tai p'^-chi kid li, cfCing chU chd p'et Tsi shi sh^ng 

1. 10. ming tsai gdn, Si-hed pd-k*U Hwdrshdng k*ien Ylng-shdng, ki Ytng- 

in Greek : (cf. Part I. Art. 407. 6.) There is another example of thiB use of triang in 
21. 1. II. 

A-mi-to FU (21. 1. 26). This is the common name of Buddha in China. The name 
which serves for all the yariooB forms of calling upon the deitj, whether in oaths or 
in prayers. 

Observe the use of nan^^ in ndng-JsHd (2r. m. 10), in which expression it corresponds 
to the use of the middle voice in Greek. It implies two parties : (c£ Part I. Art. 215.) 

Jiff 7p^ 'a treaty* (between two nations). ^Q 


means of holding the myriads of nations in subjection is unfathomable and 
divine, and produces reverence beyond the power of words to tell ! Let it not 
be said that early warning was not given ! When Your Majesty receives this 
despatch, then take measures for seizing all the opium at every sea-port, and 
send us a speedy reply. Do not, by fabe embellishments, evade or delay ! 
Earnestly reflect on these things, and earnestly observe them ! 

In the nineteenth year of Tcvurhjocmg, in the second month, on the 

day. A communication addressed to England. 

Trandailion of Official Papers {From the ^Supplementary Treaty of 1844'), 

V. native teaetj page 25. * 

Art 1. 1 The tariff of export and import duties which is hereunto attached, 
under the seate and signatures of the respective plenipotentiary and conunis- 
sioners, shall henceforward be enforced at the five ports of Canton, Fu-ehau fii, 
Amoy, Ningpo, and Shanghai. 

Art IL The general regulations of trade which are hereunto attached under 
the seals and signatures of the respective plenipotentiary and commissioners 
shall henceforward be in force at the five afore-named ports. 

Art III. All penalties enforced, or confiscations made, under the third clause 
of the said general regulations of trade, shall belong, and be appropriated to, 
the public service of the government of China. 

Art. lY. After the five ports of Canton, Fu-chau, Amoy, Ningpo, and 
Shanghai shall be thrown open, English merchants shall be allowed to trade 
only at those five ports. Neither shall they repair to any other ports or 
places, nor will the Chinese people, at any other ports or places, be permitted 
to trade with them. If English merchant vessels shall, in contravention of this 
agreement, and of a proclamation to the same purport, to be issued by the 
British plenipotentiary, repair to any other ports or places, the Chinese 
government officers shall be at liberty to seize and confiscate both vessels and 
cargoes ; and should Chinese people be discovered clandestinely dealing with 
English merchants at any other ports or places, they shall be punished by the 
Chinese government in such a manner as the law may direct. 

Art y. Formerly in Kiang^nan it was agreed that the government could 
not be responsible for the debts of merchants, and according to the 4th clause 
of the newly established regulations concerning ' conmiercial dealings between 
English and Chinese merchants,* it is no longer allowable to ask for the repay- 
ment of debts by appealing to the old laws, which required the Hong mer- 
chants to pay the debts of each. This is truly and clearly declared in the 
records. Henceforth, whether a Chinese merchant owe any thing to an 
English merchant, or an English merchant owe to a Chinese merchant, if the 

* Page 15 of the native text was eironeoufdy headed 'a noUoe and a petition/ which 
should have been the heading for page 16. 

f The version here given is that published as the English treaty, which was in fact the 
original, and of which the Chinese text in the Chrestomathy is the translation. 

78 sm-WAN. — KUNo-wAN. — KAU-PEH^ [26. 1. 24. — 96. h. 2.] 

1. 24. shang k*ien HtDA-shdng chl chai,jd kd chdng-kU k*id-M,jin tsai eh'an 

m. 9. ts*4nf kiun ying yiH Hwd Ytng kal kwd^nrsi-kwan, jfirt;*^ ts^Ung k&ng- 

m. 23. chU kly IrchaH ftng-ytin, Jing-chaH ytbSn-yd pirtai tai-to^ ehd-ekul, 

n. 9.. kiun pH tair^oei paitrch^dng. 

n. 16. VI. Ti Kiodng-i^uH ti^ng wilk kidng-k'eU, Ying^ehang, hfuj6 chAng 

n. a;. dCuhi kUrchU^ hwd p&rM ujhng4aty kiun pdr^d wdng tad hidng-kieny 

o. 12. jin4 f^4'htng, yiH kqng pA-Jed yuinrji nui-4i meur^. 

26. Official Papers (a notice and a petition), v. native text, page 26. 

a. 2. Kin yi'htng yd. 

a 7. Li kin yd jtn meu-meU tdng, wei ySn Hn ye-htng, I tstng ti-J^ng 

a. 23. 8£. Kwd-kid ckHng-m^n kt^, ytirtai hH pa4rkS, kidng-mtn t H-ltng hatA- 

b. 10. pdng, kwi/dng k*t tau-taS, Kial yitt ming Hn. Shut kdn w^fh^n. Kin 

b. 25. hiJkn ti'fdng fqn-lwdnf tad-tsi ch^dng-^cw'dng, tsung yid ye-htng pU-kln. 

c. 10. Hi pien k'i-chd f Shi I shtng-ki gdn tail, skin chi mtng-ho ki*dng-4nS, 

c. 26. t8*ln pH-gdn ch\n^ kid pHrHad sang, Hai mdtail! Ho ahU id yin I ITei- 

d. 13. ts^ ski isiil hvmi chung^ yhi ski kinryd. Yi yd kwdng hwan, tsi kin 

d. 28. jtn king, chl chi ^JdU-kang 8div4i^n,/ang k*d-jin k't lai-'wdng. Mel-ji 

e. 14. l^mrlid aiiln 16, j4 yiil /dn-kin^hij mtng46 t06C had, k6-k6 ahetirchl 

f. I. tatcmg^ tau, nil, cKUng, shd-sk wil'l4n, t*dng mtng-ld sht, cKA Hhi yl 

f. t6. ming pit-tad, lat-ji tsing-ahin, hwiii-chdng kfdng-fd, kiU pd Icing tai. 

g. I. Ti sie U sd chl, ahd chU chdng-kwd, ahU />'i nng tai yu chl jtn, chl sd 
g. 19. kiai: 4^ ki-mtng ketl-4ad chl jtn tS cKlng I. Kln-y6. 

The pronoun kt ^ 'he, his/ in the eKpressions h't-chi (2 1. m. 29), k*i-md (2 x. n. 3), ia used 
like our definite article 'the/ for the second person jH (21. in. 25) has just been used, 
therefore ht could not be construed as 'his' in this phtce. 

Yu <: frequently means ' with reference to ;' so in to 6es^ Bomething of somebody, it signifies 
*oV or *fiwm/ as in 22. a. 13. 

Tb6-^U (22. a. 29), lit. 'to be the master/ is 'to act as judge:* (cf. Parti. Arts. 221, 
361. 5, and 371.) Tad is again used for the verb to he ia 22. c. 26. Ta&-li (22. b. 23) 
' law of reason, rule of right,* is the general term for ' good principles* of justice, taste, 
feeling, or judgment. It is to a Chinese that indefinable standard of right and wrong, 
which suits his own peculiar habits, tastes, or feelings : (cf. Mr. Commissioner Yeh*8 dia- 
logues with his interpreter, Mr. C. Alabaster, given in the Timee during the war of 1856.) 
ifft-JtX (22. d. 19), Ut. ' eyes struck at,' must here mean ' happened to see.* 
Tl-ching (22. e. 9), lit. ' iron evidence,' means ' strong testimony.' 
Lin, the author of the paper addressed to the Queen of England, which is to be found 
on pages 23 and 24, was, like Yeh of recent notoriety, a good representative of the exclu- 
sive policy of the Chinese. He was an able writer, and a sincere upholder of the gorern- 
ment which he served. He was the tool of the then dominant party in Peking, whose 
plan was to suppress the opium trade and to humble foreigners. His great literary work, 
the Hal-kw6 t'4-Mf has been noticed on page 15 of Part II. Many errors exist in those 
parts of it which rehite to foreign nations, but a good deal of information is to be found 
in it upon other subjects, which relate to China and the neighbouring countries. 


accounts and vouchers be well authenticated, the persons present and the 
property still existing shall be dealt with by the Chinese and English authori- 
ties, according to the principles of justice, so as to manifest impartiality. 
And, according to the original stipulations, both these authorities shall prose- 
cute in behalf of creditors, but in no case shall they be made responsible for 

Art YI. It is agreed that English merchants and others, residing at or 
resorting to the five ports to be opened, shall not go into the surrounding 
country beyond certain short distances, to be named by the local authorities 
in concert with the British consul, and on no pretence for purposes of traffic. 

TranskUion of Official Papers {a notice amd a petition), v. native text, page 26. 

A prohibition against walking out after nightfall 

It has been agreed upon to forbid strictly any person walking out after 
ttightfiidl, in order that the state of the neighbourhood may be peaceful. 

When the city gates of the kingdom have been shut, the night watches 
shall be rung with. the bell, to warn off persons of bad character; the country 
people shall soimd little bells and strike the watchman's bamboo, diligently to 
keep in check thieves and robbers. These all are definite prohibitions. Who 
wiU dare to oppose and transgress? Of late the land has been in much confu- 
sion, thieves and robbers have been ungovernable, generally going out by 
night without restraint. Stu^ being the case, how can they conveniently be 
taken up for examination? Thus, availing themselves of the darkness, they 
contrive to go on plundering until the morning dawns, while the people 
cannot sleep at peace on their pillows, and the lives of the household are in 
danger. Evils, how immeasurable ! calamities, how great 1 This is the reason 
why, having called a meeting of the whole body, it has been determined to 
issue this strict prohibition. As soon as the dusk of evening comes on, it is 
forbidden for persons to walk abroad, until three quarters after the fifth 
watch, when they may go to and fro as they list. Every day, by turns, per- 
sons shall go the rounds, and, if they find any one transgressing this prohibi- 
tion, they shall strike the gong as a signal, and whoever is found with a spear, 
a sword, a cross-bow, or a musket, shall certainly be punished, whoever he be. 
I^ at the striking of the gong, any person does not come to seek out the 
matter, on the next day, in the morning, he shall be punished before all, and 
he shall not lightly be pardoned. Let, then, several copies of this notice be 
written out and posted up every where, that all passers by may know of 
this prohibition, and that those thieves, who crow like cocks (to get the gates 
opened) and who steal like dogs, may not presume too much on their powers. 
Respect this agreement. 

* The 5th clause is not given in full in the English copy, we have therefore consulted the 
studenVs benefit by taking another version, which follows the Chinese text more closely. 
(Cf. a version of this treaty given in the Chinese Repository, vol. XIII. p. 143.) 

60 KUNO-WAN. — PIN-T8Z. KWAN-HWA T8Z-YU. [26. h.^. — 27. 1. 19.] 

h. 5. Tftlng chi'-ch'u pin, 

h. II. ShlvrJcln Meu-mea Jcin^n, 

i. I. Pin fv6i ahl-tau lienrp'Ung, k^ tslng chi-diu, I shin hd-^tsat-^. 

I 16. ChaH-tg hd^ang yisi, sul yu: " Tien-ming,"' Je'l-fl jtnr8£/ Tang- 

j. I. cha pU-ahin, Uiirjin hd-k'l aiaH-taidng ; lH-tsaH su yd, sui dr ydng ki 

j. 18. cKt yil, Jd pH-f/u tvei fdng yU, let hai tsidng yiil pHrk'o shing yifi. 

k. 4. F^i ghl-tad-ahdng, li^ng pdng liinrp*ilng hairmi, t'dng yiH hd-chU, 

k. 18. t8ui yi y^-chd, tM jf^Ung hi yinrhd chl wH, htng-taH-chl jtn, yenrhd 

1. 5. wil ki, ua htng f^n liaU. Hwhng kin lilng-4ung chl tsi, wdn-ml 

L 19. tsiau-kdn, ml ahan-tsail yi wei chl chd-hd, ^ sihhi pUng chl sui to&i 

m. 6. ti hUf T^dng pU ch*i JcU, shin wei pHrpiin, ll-hd pin tslng. Ii-4cuu, 

m. 23. Chl-cKal chd ling hwiii ch\ mUn tcei hd tsat, Tsz 1c\ tH meurt^ng shed 

n, 9. ^'1 yly shd pi ts^ JeU-U sicmg an $r. W^rts^ pin UaH-fik wei chut 

n. 36. kihi, chen gqn tsifd laiJb-^^ tat ts*iSn she htng, 

27. Dialogues and Phraaes in the Mandarin Dialect (i), v. native text» 

page 27. 

a. I. ^go yiil yi'ktin-s£-ts*ing JciH ni, Shimmd s£-4s'tng f Fdng-sin shwd 

a. 16. pdf K*iijir^\ hi-^d ytrpdrtaunts^, Ki-^d ts6 ch^k6, K^nrkiH Tdr 

b. 4. y^ chS-k6 gan-4idn, H^n tstng^yuen To-sie. HaiJirshuod I Sheil4iaiJ^ 

b. 18. n\-4i gan wdng^qyQrliait, N\ hqn chlrU, Ngd kien^wei ni. Yucriri 

c. 4. shimmd f Piirpi to-H. Ngd kwdr^i n\, PH kal'4dng, Llrt&ng, 
Nl n^ng-ked t-kaii ngd, Kiau ngd ts6 shirrhmd f Ni yUskuod, ngd tsid 
U6, Nl yaH shimmd, ngd tsvd ts6 shimmd, PHrkd^n, Kiil^l tl-^d 
w4n Chdng sienrsdng had *, Shi ngd tl hai)b pdng^ii. LvMdd che^ 
md-sie-kd Urmaii, KiaU ngd shi-H mdf PiiryaH, Ch&yd/ng ha^. 
Ngd yaH shwd yirkSrhuod, KiH/ng^d tl-4sui nl, Suirpi&n shwd, Nl 
tsing-fan id, — Shi pQrshi f Shi-tsai shi, Ngd shwd laiSb^l hwd^ 
Kv>d-jhi shi (M^ydng, Shut t^^iwd f Ngd sidng shi, Ngd shwd p&rshi, 
Tdr4d pa, Nl tiirshdng to-shail ? Yi lidng ylnrtsi, Shwd-ekin, 
S?nod^kwdng. Kidrhwd. Shwdh^rhwd, Ngd/d-^i, Yirting ti hwd. 
Yink&-jtn shwd^iait yi-ts£ hwdng, hedrlat sUlrjen shwd M-hwd, mi^ 
yiit jtn iin, Fdn-jtn sdrhwdng, tsiH tivrUail li6n, — Pitryad 8utrk*eii 
tdr^ng, Che-kd hwd/nryih jt'n-sin md f ChS^kd shi wdng-hwdng yin. 

THbng-ta (23. a. b. 13), lit. 'general-leader' or 'guide of all/ is the title given to the 
supreme governor of one or two provinces, and is nearly equivalent to our term viceroy. 

SiHn-fil (23. b. 23) is the title of the deputy governor of a province; the word itself 
would seem to imply that his duty was to see that peace was preserved, — M» means 'to 
go round* and fi^ * to tranquillize.' 

The Two ffu provinces are Hurpg (north) and Hu-ndn (south), and the Two Kwang pro- 
vinces are Ktoamg-timg (east) and Kwang-n (west). 

H%oM-t*i^ng (23. c. i), 'to unite together,' is also expressed by KwH^-KliK 

Cha'&'hioili (23. e. 3) 'communicate.' In the treaty which was negotiated by Lord 
Elgin, an article ib inserted to render the use of this term obligatory when communications 

* This character should be hHk 'j ^^ : (cf. p. 32. native text.) ^ 

























A petition asking for the removal [of old houses]. 

M. M , Gentleman, respectfully petitions. 

He makes a representation respecting the mat-sheds in the market-place, 
And earnestly begs that they may be removed, in order to guard against the 
<^amity of a conflagration. Although the misfortune of fire is indeed said 
to be ''a judgment from heaven,*' still it is assuredly the work of man. If lamps 
and candles be not taken care of, on a sudden misery arises among the 
wretched screens; and if the cooking stoves be not looked after, presently 
misfortune comes, even the fish in the ponds (will not escape). If we do not 
prepare and guard against (fire), the evils arising therefrom will be beyond 
the power of words to tell. 

The mat-sheds on both sides of the market-place are covered thickly together, 
and if they should take fire, there would be disastrous consequences. The 
matting is, moreover, a material easy of combustion, and passers by who were 
smoking would endanger it, and might set the whole on fire. Besides, now 
on the approadi of the winter quarter, every thing is in a dry state, and the 
mountain grass, with which the sheds are thatched, might take fire, to which 
the latter have always been liable. And if they are not taken away, it will be 
very inconvenient indeed. This is the reason why I petition, and beg of your 
worship to order the officers to pull them down, in order to avoid the calamity 
of fire. This will assuredly not only benefit individuals, but it will truly avail 
in preserving the peace. Therefore this petition has been presented; and 
should you deign to consider it, a great &vour will be conferred. We hasten 
to present this to your worship for approval and execution* 

Trandation qfJHdlagues and Phrases vn tJts Mamda/rin Dialect (i), 

V. native text, page 27. 

I have something to ask of you. What is it 1 Speak fireely ! I want you to 
give me a knife. Do this for me. I beseech you. Sir, to do me this &vour. 
Gladly! Many thanks! Very well! If I receive your &vour I shall never 
forget it. You are very polite ! I am troubling you. What do you want? Do 
not use so much formality. I like yon ! Nonsense ! It is not ! Ton may 
depend upon ma What do you want me to do 1 Directly you speak I will act. 
Whatever you want I will do it I could not think of it. I beg of you to give 
my compliments to Mr. Chang, He is a good friend of mine. Lay aside so 
much of this etiquette. Do you wish me to forget my manners? No, indeed ! 
This is a good way. I want to speak a word, btU I fear that it may offend 
you. Say what you like 1 You are very kind. — Is it so or not? It is indeed so ! 
I speak honestly. Certainly it is so. Who doubts it ? I think so. I say it is 
not so. Let u»bet. How much will you bet? A doUar (lit. ' an ounce'). To speak 
the trutL To speak falsely. Untruth. To speak nonsense. I swear. It is 
positively asserted. If a man speak once falsely, afterwards, although he speak 
the truth, nobody will believe him Every man who tells a lie, throws away 
his reputation. Do not answer without thinking. Are there any who still 


82 KWAN-HWA T8Z-TU. [87. 1. 20. — ^28. IL 1 3.] 

i. 20. Ngd wdn-4^, Ngd pHrkwb 8kw6 sv^-hwd. ShirH. KaSriang ia6 

j. 4. shimmryb ? Yih ahimmd k'd tad tif JH-kin ngd-nU^n tsd sMmmd hail f 

j. 20. N\ kt-^d shinwid churif Che-k6 tahng-md^ng pdnrf^r. T^ng^ 

k. 6. yl't4ng, ngd cki-^dng tad pd. I^l aiding ch^^i/frhierkrairt^ng ia^ng^ 

k. 21. md-ydngf Tu-ahi yi-k6-ydng. — Nl taikig ntb-ti latf Wdng ndrU K%L 

1. 10. Ngd k'U Pi'king. TaUng chaurU lai. Taking tainrlai. Kin ngd lat 

1.24. Li-k'all TaeU-pdf E'u-pdf Wdng-hed t'iii yi4ienr4r. Lat che4L 

m. 9. T&ng yl'?iwuU4r, T^ng ngd lat T'dr^n i/i'4at k^tUiaU. PHryaid 
m. 24. che-md Jcwai taeh, Nl toetWI t*a%''Jc%DaL PHryaii tdng-^akaiL Taai 

n. 8. die^i ta6, M4>n kwdnrliah. K^al-m^n. TaUng ckc^ kw6. Kwd- 

n. 21. pH-k'U, N\ tiu4iait ahimmd t Ngd mU tiu ahimmd, W^-^mmdt 

o. 6. YiTir^vei ngd ahl-Uail yir-kienrtung^, — KaHrahlng ahiw6. T%rahAng 

0. 21. ahwd, N\ ahw6^ t*airJc%Daij pH-^ndng tUng^i, 

28. Dialogues and Phrases in the Mandarin Dialect (2), y. native text, 

page 28. 

a. I. Nl hwUi-ahwd Chung-kwd hwd m6f Nl ahwMiaU md f Taung mil^ 

a. 15. yiH tHng^kien (M-k6, Med-jtn kaiirau4iaiU ngd, HeMai ngd ka^ 

a. 30. au t*d, Nl ahw64iaii chJe-M miiryiU ? MUryiU, Ta*lng'fo4n che4B6 

b. 15. M ahimmd f Chi-tad chS^ md ? Shwd^, ShwH^pHrU, W^ 

b. 29. Mmmd nl pH tdr^ng ? — Nl t*ing~kUn ngd ahwd md f Ngd tHng-pA- 

c. 15. kUn, Shwd talng-taH f/Uei^iv-4r. Lai che4l Cvng, Ngd It ndrk&jtn 

d. I. yt^n, tHng-pHrkien t*dr4i'4iwd, Chinrliimg-Uah ngd-ti ^r^, — Nl i^ng^ 

d. 18. U talng t'd-ti-hwd mdf Nl t^-ti, t*d diwd-kwd-a? Ngd ahwd-O, 

e. 4. nl tu t4ng^ md? Nl ahwd-H, ngd tai/u^n tdng-U, Tu i4ng4i, Tu 

e. 20. pHrtAng-U, Mtrhg-p^iail mUryitl f ChS-k6 ahinnmd irai; Ta^ng-md^ 

f. 6. ydng Mal^hwd, Ngd taairnl^*eMl cht-iaiL Pl-fdng pH chtrtad, yiU 

f. 22. ahiinmd ktodn-hlf Che-kd ngd pU-kwd aidng ahi che-ydng, — Jin4i t*d 

g. 9. m^l Kievrkwd t*a Id-tai nl? Pd ki-ti ta&rad, Wdng4uiil ngd mdf 
g, 25. Ngd Mpa ta*tng-ts*ii, Ki-U h4nrta'lng. Sidng-pHrJcl^at: Sidng-k*ln 
h. lo. lai'-liail. Nl kl aiii? Sien-adTig kweH-kq/ng f Td^ niSnrkif Tiit ^r- 
h. 25. ahi aiii, Nl pl-^d td, Nl td-kai lUrahl to aUi. Ta^rliaiHrtnn mH 
1, 12. yiUi Nlfd-mih tu taai mdf Svemrfd a£-liaijt yid lidng-nUn* Mil-4atn 
i, 28. taai-4ndrliatt yiit adnrkd-yU. Yiit hi-kd 4^r-i^f YiH JtHr^we^ ling-ldngf 
j. 15. Yiit Jd-wei kw&i-nuf Sdn-kd huHfiidng, fftung-ti kirkdf Taairti tan 
k. I. ngd yi-kd, pl^l tu ai^iaU, Nl ahwd che y^kUrhwd^ ngd Jel4iaU yirkd" 
k. 2a nienrt^eA, Sidng-kl-UaU ahimmd f Mihirpiirliait a£, — T'ien-k'i hdn- 
1.4. hail; ngd^-^n^n ch^iirkii, kwdfig-yi^hDdng pd, Ngd^m^nkulidng^cwai 

1. 17. liang-hvai, Ngd-m4n ahdng-cfCing pd/ Lit pHrpien; — pH fdng^ 
\, 29. p^^; — pikpiJhnri. Yad tad^chS m^ f Ngd ahvnrahdng juhirjd, mOr^ilt lir 
m. 15. Udmg taeil. Ngd taeitrpOrt^ng. Yad hing kanrldf yad htng ahwiM/d 
ID. 29. nlf Yad ahdng-ch'uSn mdf Yad Jelrtai6lmg4l ch'uinf Hd4d! nl tai 

are held between superior officers of each nation. ChadrUi (23. e. 17) means *wliereaay 
according as,' and is a common phrase in official papers. T'iin-U»& (23. c. 29), lit. 'the 
way of heaven/ means 'Divine Providence.' T*4ng (23. d. 22), 'together with,' appears 
here to signify 'with reference to' or 'as for.' 


believe in this) This is a (alsehoocL I -was playing. I was only joking. Truly! 
What ought I to do? What can I do? If we should do this well, what opinion 
ahonld you have of us? How shall we manage this? Wait a while, let us do it 
in this way. How do you think this thing is? It is quite the same. — ^Where 
do you come from? Where are you going ? I am going to Peking. I am 
come firom Court Please to come in. Come near to me. Stand further off. 
You may go. Go away! Go behind; &11 back a little. Come here! Wait 
A little while. Wait until I come. They went all together. Do not walk 
8o fast. You walk too fast. Be quiet 1 Sit down here. The door is fastened. 
Open the door. Come over here. I cannot come over. What have you 
thrown away? I have not thrown any thing away. Why? Because I have 
picked up something. — Speak loud! Speak low! You speak too quickly, I 
cannot understand. 

Translation of Dialogues and Phrases in the MancUmn Dialed (2), 

V, native text, page 28. 

Do you know how to speak the Chinese language? Have you spoken? I 
have not indeed heard that. A certain man told me. Afterwards I told him. 
Did you say this or not? If you please, what is this? or, Allow me to ask 
what this is. Do you know this? I can say; I cannot say. What! do not 
you reply? — Do you hear what I say? I cannot hear. Speak a little more 
distinctly. Come here and listen. At a distance from that man, I cannot 
hear what he says. It has deafened my ears. — Do you understand clearly 
what he says? Do you understand what he said? What I said, did you quite 
understand? What you said I perfectly understood. I quite understood. I 
did not understand at all. Were you clear about it or not? What is the 
meaning of this? How do you explain it? I knew before you. Suppose I do 
not understand, what would be the consequence? I only think this is so. — Do 
you know him? How many times have you seen him? I do not remember 
the number of times. Have you forgotten me? I cannot recollect distinctly. 
I remember very well. I cannot think or recollect. I have just remembered. 
How old are you? What is your honourable age, Sir? How great is your age? 
or, How many are your years? I am twenty years (old). You are older than 
I am. You are (I should say) above sixty years (old). Are you married or 
not? Are your parents alive? My late father died two years ago. My 
mother married again three months ago. How many children have you? 
How many young gentlemen? How many young ladies? Three daughters 
(lit. 'misses'). Brothers, how many? I am by myself alone, the others are dead. 
When you uttered that expression, a thought arose in my mind. What did 
you think of? One cannot avoid death. — ^The weather is very fine, let us go 
out to take a walk. Let us go to take the air. Let us go into the city. 
The road is bad, (lit. ' not convenient,*) — ^not in a good state, — not good for 
walking. Do you wish to ride ? I am weak, I have not strength to walk. 
I cannot walk. Do you wish to go by land or by water? Will you go in 
a boat? What sized boat would you like? (lit. 'how many oared-boat?') 

M 2 

84 ](WAM-HWA TBZ-TU. [28. XL I4. — SO. C. 4*'] 

n. 14. ngdkw6hdpdf E&nrHn/ Chi^'chi^'uSn miiryiitw^fndf Ta4r- 

n. 39. tsiAng-tse^, yiilt nl-Jung^ yiU tlng-t'eHr/ilng. YaH taai nd4l Mng^ 

o. 13. gdn f Tdai tdrmdrt'eH ndrll Linrkin4iait hd-pien, kkMnoA. Ch&U 

0. 39. hail yd I 

29. Dialogues and Phrases in the Mandarin Dialect (3), ▼. native text, 

page 29. 

a. I. Al-yd! <Ae4:6-ti'/dng h^n-hai^k'dn; — w4f^hd-tiy Udng-'ShnDdng-tif 

a. 16. K'dn 8hU tu k'aUiaU htvd-4r. Che^-kan ld4iafl yi-tat MS-is^ ^O- 

b. 4. liail. m/^iailinSf ShUtaaiJ^nMuhh^iaiL Taa^-cheM tsing- 

b. 18. tsaU-ahdTig t%<ihi6, haU, THn n^-kd 8h44in. Taai che-aie ahtUirhid 

c. 4. h^f^hait-H yin4idng. Ktn^niSn kwd4^ to, ShU to UMiah kwd-tsL 

c. 30. Kir^^ien, nvhnrfdng. KiH-niSn shi kwdng-niin. ChS4i yiit h^n- 

d. 3. haU-ti pHn-kwd, ahd-lt, A-te^ tfing-t^ad. Ngd ntng-yaH hi-t*aily hwd- 

d. 19. shi h-ts^. Ngd h^n sid^ng-Jel t^a/d-^r^ kU-tsi, kdn-tai, tadng-ts^ Che- 

e. 7. sie mei-4a^ kang haH. YiH pH-fail mat md ? Chi toshail tsi^ yi-kin f 
e. 33. Mal4i ai-9hirk6 td-tsiSn yi kin. Mai sht-ki itf n pd I — rUn U)dn4ia^ 
£ I a Jt4*ed yaH l&shdn. T^ng-yi-hwUi t*%en tnH hi Kail, Kufai fod^ pd; 
C 35. nl-fiUiail. K*i wdnfdn, rUnrkH ts^ng-md^dng-hail f Tih^-k^i 
g. 9. Ukng. T*ien ym-liail, ChS-kd u}dn-shdng hait t*ien4si. YiH ch'a^ 
g. 33. k*i. Tin yiln'tsal, k^dn-pH-kien aing'-eiL Lwdn-WJung M-/&ad. 
h. 6. Shi yi'hb pail-Jung, rienrk'i ch'dng-piin. Hail hidrytl. Hid 
h. 19. pd-ta^, Hid^avL Sti-kwd k'al liaU. Td4iit, LilUiidng. Ti^-ahen. 
i. 3. LUi td-a£-liail yinkd-jtn. Fung-chui, FUng-td. Fad-Jung kw6-k*4- 
i. 18. liaU, k'dn-ti-kien t'ienrhdng. Shi k6 haH fienrk*i a pifig-k'U, TUl- 
j. 3. urti, Ji ch'U mdn^mdnrti, taid adn-Uail. Hid-ld, Hid-ahwang, — 
j. 17. Shimmd ahi-hedf Kl-hidrchdng ? Fd-todn, Hwut-kid k'u pdf 
j. 3a Hwdn yiil-ahi-hedf taai ahdng'-wiL ChdrpH-to yiMd-ckung, Tdr- 
k. 14. liail yi'hid adn-k^ Hwdn md-yiil td adn-hid 4^kf, Ni ta^ng-md 
k, $0. chl'tadf T*%ng-kihi chdng td4iail, Ngd aid/ng piL-ahi che-ydng ch*i. 
L 14. K*dn n\r-ti piail, Ngd-ti piail taeil^Hrk*uxMi pd-tiu, Fiail mdn JH- 

1. 39. Jan, Shdng-Kdn ji-kwei, Shd-tai-piaH taai nd4i f — Nl hwdn4d 
m. 14. nd-k6 ahi-hed f Chan^t'ten ahi tauirhail-H. ChSkd t'ien^'i w4nr 
m. 39. h6-tif yi pHrfi^ yi pOrldng. Che pil-awdn chan-t'icn, atodn ahi tung- 
n. 15. t*ien, ShU tu nyd-yiiljd'yd, Chk hid^t*ien jl-td-h^ Ngd ch'd4iail 
o. I. hdn, yad jirai, Taung md-kid-Uf chi-ydng ji, Katrtdng hurto U 
o, 17. md-aii^aaii. Tad aheu chwdng-kid; kd-wdn-Uad c/wodng-kid, Taid' 
o, 30. t*ie7i. 

30. Dialogues and Phrases in the Mandarin Dialect (4), v. native text, 

page 30. 

a. 3. Shdng-hid, — Nl ch^-ydng kufai wdng ndrii pait, Ngd ahdng-hid, 

a* 15* Ngd yi wdmg nd-U Jc\L T^ng yi-chin-yin. Fd-yaid mal^tai. Taai 

a. 30. ngd-m4n t'ed4l taeilrii ndryl-kd ahi ahUt ? Shi ngd^min fdng-hid-a. 

b. 17. Tad-nUfn td yt-ktvei'4r taeU pd! — N\ weUahimmd lai^ ch^-fnd eA*l. 


Friend! Take us over the river! Oladly! Has this boat no majstsi We 
must row ; there is a contrary wind, — ^the wind is right a-head. Where do you 
want to go ashore ? At that great jetty there ! When you have approached 
the shore let go the anchor. Here is a good place ! 

Tran^atian o/Diahgtiea cmd Phrases in the Mcmdarin Dialect (3), 

V, ncUive text, page 29. 

Ah ! this country is very pretty ! pleasant and cool ! See the trees have all 
blossomed. This one has shed its leaves. The com is ripe. Are you spent! 
I am indeed tired. To fling ourselves down on this green grass will be 
pleasant. Enter that forest. Under the trees it is very shady. This year 
there is plenty of fruit Many trees have borne fruit. This year was an 
abundant year. Last year was a year of scarcity. Here there are very good 
apples, pears, plums, and cherries. I prefer walnuts or chestnuts. I am very 
fond of eating peaches, small oranges, or large thin-skinned oranges or coolie 
oranges. Those plums are better. Have you any grapes to sell) They cost 
how much a pound? I can seU them at forty large cash a pound. Buy a few 
pounds! — ^The day is very fine. The sun is going to set Wait a while, it 
will soon be dark. If you walk fast, you will be wearied. Eat your evening 
meal. How is the weather? The weather is cold. The sky is overcast. 
This evening it is fine weather. It is damp. It is cloudy; I cannot see the 
stars. The wind has risen in gusts. It is a gale. The weather is ever 
changing. It rains hard. It hails. It snows. It is snowing in flakes. It 
thunders. The thunder roars. It lightens. The thunder (bolt) has killed a 
man. The wind blows. The wind is high. The storm is past, we can see 
the rainbow. It is a sign of fiEiir weather. It is misty. The sun will come 
out by-and-by, then it will be dispersed. The dew is falling. The hoarfrost 
is filing. — ^What time is it? What o'clock is it? Not late. Let us go home! 
There is time (enough) yet, it is still forenoon. It is nearly one o'clock. It has 
struck one and three quarters, It has not yet struck three and two quarters. 
How do you know? I heard the clock strike. I do not think it is so late. 
Look at your watch. My watch goes &Bt, it will not agree. Tour watch is 
slow, how many minutes? Go and look at the sun-dial. Where is the sand- 
glass? Do you like this season? Spring is the best This weather is pleasant; 
it is neither hot nor cold. This is not like spring; it is like winter. The 
trees have not yet budded. This summer it is very hot I am perspiring, I 
shall die of heat. I never experienced such heat. We ought to have a large 
crop of millet. Tou should reap. I have reaped. Autumn. 

Tnmriaiion o/Diahffuea amd Phrases in the Mamda/rin Dialect (4), 

V, native text, page 30. 

On going to school. — ^Where are you running so fast? I am going to school. 
I am going there too. Wait a minute. Don't loiter. Who is that walking 
in front of us? It is our school-fellow. Let us all walk together! — Why do 
you come so late? I was up late last night, and could not rise early. At what 

86 K WAN-HWA TM-TU. [80. C. 5. — 81 . g. 1 8.] 

c. 5. Ngd M^i ngaHrUail y^, pHrndng tsaii k*i4at, Nl ahi IMwdnMng 

c. 21. 1C\rUi%'i\ f m hail4dMrt6. Wei^immd ts^nrji pUlatf iVa yi-fi-s^ 

d. 9. taing h^nnndngy pH-U k^itng-^r lat. Ltail'll sMrsH t\ t&^^ing 
<L 24. 9hdng^*efCL yi^-^ ioe€~At^ fffirshaii. J 6 p(rjtn mkig-^l pd4iailf Uxiif 

e. 10. ti nl-ti 9Z'fa miifig-n\, pdrt^ing^ chi-k6 lia^ pi^^; kwdng-tsie nl tdn- 
e. 28. k6-lia^ n\-(^ si-tsing yii)^ id kwamrhL Siit-piin t*d ^, pil-wii you 
£ 15. liail nl-ti p^n-Jqn. ChSsdn-t^ien ni pA nien-ahU, pHrhaiL Tsai pA- 
g. I. yaii che-ydng, Ts'iin yUtsi nl la% c^-Zl, ngb fm-fMiaiU m thimm6 f 
g. 18. JTU nlrti/dng M, TaA nVH ma^-tsz. JCdnm^i shU. Yurpi ni 
K 5. yau p^ti-shiL T^ing-mingl NiSn^wdn4iail mUryiiif Unodn mA- 
b. 18. yiin,, Nl pl-fni^in tu yiMiai^ mdf C7i^-k6 mat t9& tMmmJb shMng^ 
i. 4. yinf Tin mal. Ts^ng-^nd kialshwdf Ftt^ tsdng U ir8&. Tsung 
i. 17. mUryial k*dnrkiin ch^dngHi yUk&48£, Cht-yUp^n-skU ndn^Ong. 
j< 3. Ngd mUr^ii hU-to ti kung-^/u, Ylnr^w^ ngd kal4dng kd,nrlcu mol 
j. 19. tung-si; ling^ioal htodn yiil pi-4i s£-i8ing katrtcmg pdn. Nl Ha^rsin 
k. 5. meH-ji nUn-tishU; hng-^oai yt-ko-yu kwdn yaHrtst) Ui^ng-pien to^^^ 
k. 21. ckang. — Nl hail yd^ H^nrhaiL Ni yiing-Uail /dn md ? ITUUaiL 
1.5. Ling-tmn hahf Kid'/uhail, Nl tt k*iii^^iil ta^ng^md^ng f Fdjiir 
1. 20. ]cinpit*€A''lXhaiirU''td. Mtng-ji tsai-kien I Ngd kai-tdng adng-hing, — 
m. 7. T*ien taidng-hi, TaH-liail shiii-kid ti shi-heiL Hd-ki, nl t'HI/ng ngd lat. 
m. 23. P'd'kwei mo ? Fiirpd, Fdng-hid w^n-Mdng. LiHrhid tang. Mi- 
ll, 6. tang. Ming-t^ien tsaiUnsie k*i4atf kiau-ngd. Ngd kairtdng tstng-tsait 
a 20. k%lal Yi'ting kUif md? Yi-ting M-ii. Tdrhd. Tt^n-tdng. Jfd- 
o. 6. yiU hd-shl. ffd-m^r.—Shui tdnn^n f Shi shut f Ngd hwdn mH- 
o. 21. yiU k*lrlat. Tsail alng-liailt. T*ien td-lidng-UaU. 

31. Extract from the Ching^n taui-yaHy v. native text, page 31. 

a. 1. Y%rk6-jin hid Kwdn-hwd lat, tad ahimmd ti ni? T*ed-^l4nen yurpe 

a. 18. ta£4pl taidng-lat cKH-^ln tad-kwdn, ai-hed ahdng-azj ltn4% ahU^yuin, 

b. 4. yau tad yl-kO yiil-p^n-air4i Kiodn yd ! JCtrtaiy tavd ted td-lci-thdng^ 

b. 21. hu)6 Jcal hdng-tien, hwd todng waUadng taed ahwUl, yail-tad yl-kd m^- 

c. 6. ^i Ici-ahdng. Taai Ici-ta&j tnH-ahi ku-kid pd-taiy — nl ahi ko yiik- 
c 23. l-^hi-ti jtn, yiil-t*l'mien4i jtn, taai hidng-taHrchung, nienrch'dng yU- 

d. 9. eKdngy hidng-taHng tsUrai, ahail-pil-Uail ; y^ yiU kUnpd a^-^^y yaii t*i 

d. 25. jtn-kid liail4l Uad-U; y^ ti kiSnrkien ti-/ang, pd s£-4^ ahw6 ko <wi 

e. 14. taHng-taHy yl-tai toei-kd hidng-taH, ^9*-fo^|x»t^-M m^^-mely yuinrM toei 
£ I. che adnr^m4n k%kUn, ping pH ahi ahwd kl-kU, Ktodn-hu>d, taai td-kial 
£ 17. ahdng, nad-todn ir^r, aiad-hwd jin-hid, hS-hdng jin-kw^ hv)4fnrhvdn 
g. 2. jtn-kidy taid atodnrliail ai46. Sd-l nl-m4n taung-yad pd td-fdng Vi 

Jin (23. e. 24) 'benevolence, kindness;' see note on p. 28 of PartU. 

W'A ad-pii-fe& (23. e. 26) 'it overshadows every thing:' cf. Art. 422 of Port I. 

The repetition oifing (23. f 6. and 8) means ' both* — 'and/ or ' at once'— 'and/ Id 
classical compositions, the Chinese are fond of using ckvoig 'centre' (^3. f. 11) and f{« 
' heart' (23. i. 12) for the origin or the moving principle of that with which it is joined. 

Ta l-lat (23. f. 14), 'from to the present time/ is a good example of this form 

of construction. 


o*clock did you risel You are very lazy. Why did you not come the day 
before ? On that day I had to do some very urgent business and I could not 
find time. To managing affairs in the world there are obstacles not a few. 
If any one else command you, you are content ; but if your tutor bid you do 
any thing, you do not obey. This will not do. Besides, if you shirk your 
work, great consequences will result. No matter whether he beats you or 
not, you do not hasten to your duty. You have not learnt any thing for these 
three days; — this is bad. Don*t do it again. Once, on a former occasion, 
when you came here, what did I order you to do? Gk> to your room and sit 
down! Take your cap! Look at your book! Prepare your lesson to repeat. 
Obey! Have you learnt your lesson or not) Not yet. Have you your pencil, 
ink, and inkstone? What is the sound and tone of this (mat) character) The 
sound is mai. What is its meaning) It has the meaning of hwrying. I have 
never seen such a character as this. This book is difficult to understand. I 
have not much time, because I have to fetch many things; and besides, I have 
other things to do. You take care and learn your book every day ; besides 
every month write two chapters of elegant composition. — Are you well) 
Very well I Have you dined) I have. Is your good &ther weU) My fieither is 
welL How is your uncle) He is much better than he was formerly. I shall 
see you again to-morrow. I will see you out ! It is getting dark. Bed- 
time has arrived. Friend! Come with me! Are you afraid of ghosts) No! 
Put down the mosquito curtains. Set down the lamp. Put out the lamp. 
Get up rather early in the morning and call me. I must get up early. Will 
you be sure to remember) I will certainly remember. Strike a light. Light 
the lamp. I have no flint. Coal. — ^Who is knocking at the door) Who is it) 
I am not up yet. Awake quickly, it is broad day-light. 

Trcmdaiion of the ETdtrrwAfrofm, the Chtng^n tsiiiryaii, v. vuxitive text, page 31. 

When a man learns the Mandarin dialect, what is it for) In the first place, 
it is to prepare himself for future advancement as a Mandarin, so as to be 
able to attend on his superiors and to superintend his subordinates, and to be an 
officer of ability. In the next place, if he would be a mercantile man of the 
fii-st dassy whether he open an establishment (at home), or travel abroad in 
the provinces by land and water, he ought to be a shrewd and clever merchant. 
And again, even if a man must stay at home and do nothing much, being a 
man of independence and respectability, still among his country relatives, in 
the course of mouths and years, their affairs will not be a few, and each of 
these he will have to consider for them. And, if he see clearly his ground, 
he may take each matter and speak of it in detail and with much acnteness, 
then he will at once have a regard for his kinsmen's interests, and, at the same 
time, protect his own door. Now it is for these reasons, and lest also you be not 
able to speak a few sentences of Mandarin on the great thoroughfares, of a noisy, 
joking character, to make fun of people, or to deceive and make fools of them, 
that you must make it your business to learn Mamda/rin, Therefore you should 
take language of a liberal character, language suitable for receiving and waiting 

88 8HU-SIN kw'an-shih. [81 . g. 1 9. — 32. g.5.] 

g. 19. hwd-4r, M-tai ehd/ngshdng tl hwdr^r, f/ing-cheH pdng-yiH H hwdr^Tj 

h. 5. kiaiiriaii wdn-pe^ t\ hwd-4r, shl hiodn tirhidrjin ti hwd-^r, ta4i4icnl 

L 2a. foairVedy yiU kiaH-kwdn U^fu ^ hwd^r^ tiii chd ma\rinai jin H hwdr 

i. 9. 4^, ydng^dng ta-yiU k6 kwhTirthi. YaH tsai chS shdng-t^eH liH-nf^ 

i. 24. ts'at-ahi ching-king ti yd! STsat pHrw^ng-iutU hid Kwdn-hwd ti (Ai 

j. 9. yi'/an kung-fa yd I 

k. 2. N\ Ud hid-adng ti jiUf shdng ahU-fdng nienshU, ahvmmMiuryad 

k. 17. yii)t k6 kum-kd; t8lng-Uai)t KlAaiy tMiaii lUn, Ii64iaii cUCdy pin-h(»d 

1. 3. tie-He md-md, hai-^r todng sMirfdng JcvrUaiJty shtod-kwd ehi hed, pan 

1. 19. Jc\ ahSrp^ny ch'it td-m4n^k*eilf twdnntwdn ching-ching^ chlnrchln ckdng- 

m. 3. chdng ti 1c Uy lidng-chi-kid pH yad hw^n-tVady lidng chi yhi-ts*tng pA- 

m. 18. yad hw^nrtaiad tung^ yirchi tue^ tail akOr-fdng U-t^ed, pd sM p^ 

n. 4. /dng-hid, wdng Shlng-jtn 9hdng-t*edy t86 k6 yi, yid t*i sienrSdng tad 

n. 19. k6 yij jhi-hed tad-chd ni^nrahU^ pd shU p^4i akd-ahd ^r tiy teal sdng 

o. 7. tad niTk^dng chd^shdng; pei-ahU ahi-^edj yid yad yi'-kil-kU hng-yd Vir 

o. 24. cKljpd-yad hdn kd t864ed/ 

32. The Epistolary Style, v. native text, page 32. 

a. 2. W4n-heiL 

a. 5. Kiii tai chen Hdn^ %ci hu jd yuhi; Mn to^n t taing Kidng yid, ti 

a. 21. hwdji ainy yirkraien chl az, kang akin wdrmei. H4n pd-ndng ch*d-ch*t 

b. 6. 4^ fl-ta'idng tad-yid, kwdn thing htod 4r ling ti yhh yh I Kin yuin 

b. 21. hdng-pihh, ti taiS yi-hdng, I ahln tai-kufdn. Kien taXng hin gdn; Jd 

c. 6. to0{ kUn men, 

d. 2. Td, 

d 4. Shing mtng kwdn ^, /I yirji I. Hwai % jtn 4r pdrkien, <Mng 

d. 1 9. ta*tng tai yU kien-kid, nal hwd hdn hid pan, ytiinrjd ti nUhk T4n kia^ 
a 5. adng-ptng ehA ki-ki. H6 hingjd chl / Wet ahi aien ahl ehA yd, chuen ahA 

e. 22. jin jtn, wi mvin pl-yi tian-fd, ta£-iaang niMewf^ ^r. T*dng yiik 
£ 7. lidng-yuMy ti yad hunli kd, tai ta*an taid I4n to^n. K*d pdrling kd-jtn 

f. 23. Mn mei yd taiSn i, Shiwdng! Shi Cad! King taz ta*atJiL 

The English are yariously oharaoterized in this oompositfon either as fdn (23. g. 2) 
'foreign/ (a word used originally for the inhabitants of the southern frontier of China, — 
the southern barbarians,) or as ( (24. c. 20. and 24. k. 23) ' the western barbarians,' a tribe 
on the westem frontier of China. Foreign nations are generally called tPoH-hwd (23. h. 4) 
'ontside kingdoms/ and ti-ydng-htpS 'western ooean kingdoms.' 

The Supplementary Treaty, a part of which is given on p. 25 of the Chrestomathy, was 
published at Hongkong, in July 1844, by Sir John F. Davis, who was then Governor of 
Hongkong. It contains the veiy important provisions that the five ports of Canton, Amoy, 
Fn-oheu, Ningpo, and Shanghai should be opened to British trade, and for the xeeort and 
residence of British merchants ; by it the close system of the Hong merchants at Canton was 
broken up, and free-trade allowed with any native merchants. This treaty was supple- 
mentary to the treaty of Nanking, which is indeed referred to in it : (cf. hidng-itdn fte. 

Hdn (32. a. 8) or Hdn King-eheA was an eminent statesman, whose friendship reflected 
his own bright &me on those who enjoyed it. Intercourse with him ennobled the reoipieni 


upon seniors and superiors, phrases for polite intercourse with friends, the 
expressions appropriate for instructing young people, and language for calling 
upon inferiors. And when you go out of doors you will require expressions to 
use to mandarins, and others to address to merchants. There are models for all 
these (kinds of expression). You should pay attention to what has been said 
above : then it will be all right ! Then you will not have wasted your time in 
studying the Mandarin dialect. 

If you are a young student, you go up to school to study; now every thing 
has a rule. Rise early; and having washed your face and drunk your tea, 
announce to your parents that their son is going to school. Having said that, 
wrap up your book, go out at the front door, and proceed (to school) in 
a becoming manner. Your feet should not be skipping disorderly, nor your 
eyes be listlessly gazing at every thing. But proceed straight into the school- 
house, take your book and lay it down, reverently look up to the sage above 
and make a bow, then make a bow to the tutor, and afterwards sit down to 
study. Having learnt off your lesson perfectly, then present it to your tutor 
and lay it on his desk. When you say your lesson, yon should repeat every 
sentence distinctly and fluently, you should not mumble or leave out any 

Tra/naUuian of the Passages in the Epistolary Style^ v, natite text, page 32. 

A letter of greeting. 
For a long time 1 have looked reverently to ffan, hut have as yet not 
attained my desire. Recently I heard that you had removed your banner to 
the River's right, and that your virtue increases, and is renewed daily; my 
private feelings of joy become deeper, whether awake or asleep. Would that 
I were able to put on wings and fly to hover on your right and left ! To 
behold your abounding progress, and to listen with delight to your gracious 
words ! At present I am fortunately able to despatch a letter, aud I just em- 
ploy one line, in order to manifest my accumulated feelings of respect, and to 
wish you wealth and happiness. Humbly I bow, considering that you know 

my thoughts. 


Your flourishing reputation is ever sounding in mine ears, and that daily. 
I cherish kind regards for him whom I do not see. My feelings are just like 
those towards a distant relative, and in the &vours conferred by his flowery 
pencil, I seem to see him face to feice. I respectfolly salute you with gratifi- 
cation on the fulfilment of my longings for peace. What fortune like this ! But 
the praises which you have lavished upon me are simply such as belong to a 
really good man, and not to an insignificant and rude countryman ; and they 
only increase my confusion. If a convenient opportunity should arise, pray 
accept my invitation, and favour me with your regard, that we may decant 
our wine and chat about literature. Let not our past differences stand in the 
way of our former esteem. This is my hope! This is my prayer! Respect- 
fully I offer this in reply. 


90 SHU-81N kw'an-shih. — Ku-SHi. [M. h.3. — 83. e.4.] 

i. I. Lidng-pAng kii^-kwH, yJn maH fo*tii^n-49^ kiSifUfM, dn ttHtjin i'a^ 

i. 15. shin, jri U yun yuhi taai yi-fimg hUf W^Misi^n ufdng h$ng, 

i. 30. tang pilt/iit8 4n8ii^wUtv^taii chit tde.M hum Hwdnff- 

j. 15. hed hunii yiH k\ pHrisai yd M, yuhi tsai yfi i*%en; lei Vi JO^si «A 

k. 2. ti Kd hr. Tsz yuhi Mng-pien, J^hdng ahekrkin yirfang, dadriau 

k. 17. lidtng-pdL; sie wt Atti-«ra, j4n pHrtgH tang mil II eln t*eA, ^r tsien H 

1. 4. ngd-ma^. Wil-htng taing ekdng, lidmg pi <tW«l 4r yi4Un yu4ii chM, 

1. 20. Iti^tn i. Chii am chi-chi, mS t*ail niU, wd Ui pihi Ki UCrMn. 

m. 7. Kin tsz ytOnrtd, aJufn-tslng fOrgany fAng hed kin ehl, fling he6 

in. 20. kdng ntng, Shdng 

Mea-m&a EiiSng-t'at Td-jtn w4nM, 

74rti Meurmeu tai tin. 

33. Poetical Extracts (Ancient and Modern), v. native text, page 33. 

a. 2.. Kil'Siil, I. Td-fimg kd, 

a. 5. Td'fang k*l ht/—Ttin/l ydngl 

a. 16. Wei kid haUHniii MI — Kwel kHi kidng/ 

a. 24. Gdn ti m^ng 9& ht! — SheU $i fing! 

b. 5. 2. Chan-kdng kiH. 

b. 9. Tad^e Jung-k'ai Id taingfad, WUf&ng ta'ihi tUnyui4n kaO, 

b. 23. Ptng-ydng kd-wU nn ehmg cKimg^ Liinr^oai chqn-hdn ta£ ndhirpaiA, 


c. 9. WHy^ 3. TiOrku. 

c. 15. EweMaien aUl i-t^ng, CKd m^n kial yiii ytng; 

c. 25. T^ wd toai-^urit ktm, Siii tai yiu-ku tatng! 

d. 5. Wiy%l ye lai-kw6, Pd-chi chan taait aOngl 
d. 15. Ta'ing-ahdn hwd l-Ad, Niaitrtaid jail ahi mtng. 
d. 25, Shi yti tadrjtn ngai^ Hw6 aiii taiad-M king. 

of his &voiir8. ancl hk approbation was held to be a groat rocomnijendation for honourable 
employment; (of. Gon9alve8' ilree Ckma, Historical Extracts, No. 130.) lliis name is 
used thereforo, by way of pmise, and in honour of the person's roputation, to whom the 
letter is addressed. Such allnmnns in letters sometimes make the epistolaiy style difficoH 
to be understood, and they always defy a literal rendering. 

li-Umg (32. a. 15), 'remoye^banner/ here means to ' change your residence.' 
Kidng-yiHb (32. a. x 7), ' the Riyer's right,' is put for the city of Nan-king, which is situ* 
ated on the right bank of the Great River, the Ydng-ttz {* son of the ocean'). 

The student will observe the peculiar terseness and fonnality of the phraseology in the 
epistolary style, which abounds also in allusions of various kinds. This does not imply, 
however, any great degree of learning in the writer, for the phrases suitable for &shion- 
able letter-writing aro set down in a book, which is known to all educated persons: (c£, 
Part II. p. 12. 26. Kiang-hd ckl-tU fdn-y&n.) 

Tiv-nSn or hln-tUn (32. a. 23) 'joyful expectations.' 

Ch*d-ch'i (31. b. 4), 'to insert wings/ is a phrase peculiar to this style. 


A letter aent with a present 
My g^ood firiend, yon baye been long absent, not the slightest sound of you 
has reached us. The navigation of the river has been much interrupted. 
How can it be said that we are living in the same country ? But I think 
myself that we should forget the present aspect of our affairs, and not be again 
careful about stemming the torrent with vain regrets about those who have 
forgotten us. How much more when we know that a meeting time will arrive, 
not indeed in this world, but, we hope, in heaven. Let us each console ourselves 
thus, and use our best endeavours to this end, and it will be well. By this oppor- 
tunity I beg to send you, by the bearer, a pocket-handkerchief and two small 
knives, things valueless in themselves: they are not worthy to be sent as pre-> 
sents, but they are foreign curiodties, and though insignificant things, they 
show my good feelings. I can well suppose that in viewing them you will pity 
the poor stupid little travellers. After due reverence to your lord, I hope 
yon will remember me, and in your prayers bear me for a moment in mind. 
Bespectfully at this distance I communicate, wishing you tranquillity and 
happiness, as well as present good fortune and perfect peace. 

To be placed upon the desk of my honourable and worthy elder 
brother M. M,, 

With the salutations of his humble servant M. M. 

TrandaHon of the PoeHeai Hxtraete {Ancient and Modem), v, native text, 

Ancient poetry, i. The song about the high wind. 
A high wind arises! — The clouds come flying along! 
Majestic h^ves the ocean ! — ^We return to the old abode I 
Peace we possess, and heroes ! — ^to keep us on every side ! 

2. The ballad about the Spring^palace, by Wang Ghang4mg. 
Last night the peach tree by the well bloomed forth 
Li the temple before Wiryang, when the moon was at her full, 
Pvng^ofng danced and sang with ever^increasing grace, 
Or without the porch-screen in cool of spring she wore a quilted robci 

Yersee of five syllables. 3. The hermit, by Wei Ting-wiL 
The noble and the mean, although they differ in rank. 
Alike proceed firom home, and have their plans for gain. 
Here by myself no outward things disturb me. 
Freely am I come to dwell in this retirement. 
The small rain by night falls all around. 
The grass buds forth in spring I know not how. 
The blue mountain, anon, gleams with the rising sun. 
The little birds keep singing as they fly about my cot, 
Oft-times I join the traveller on his way. 
Oh follow, perhaps, the woodman in hiff rounds, 

N 2 


g- '4- 

g- H- 

h. 4. 

h. 14. 

i. 2. 

i. 13. 

1. 33- 

J- 3. 

J- 13. 

9* 8H1-TI KW*AN-BHiH. [83. e.5. — 88. n.30.] 

e. 5. 7'«^ ^n^ an kUn-UHy Shiii wei p6 M-ydng f 

ۥ 1 7' 4. Kv>6 tsiH kid. 

e. 21. Tszji dUing hwqn ffin. Ft kwdn yhng sing Itngf 

1 1. Yin k^dnjtn tHn tauiy Ed fin tH wei sing? 

Liiirshl. — WU-yhi liiL 5. YiuHsheu ye yiw. 

Lidng-Jung cKiil yi-ytt, SiavrsS timg hdn4tn, 

Ching yiil katl-idng yhi, Ndng todng cKt mil siny 

Kiun-chung t kiSn wU, Si-sh&ng tkimg kid-yin: 

PiJirts6 pien chHng^tsidng, Shut cAt gqn yU shin. 

6. SUng Hdn4in Chamg Sz-nU^ Ndn-hal H-pi. 

ICwdnr^miin t'ung ndn-kl, W^n-chang Id shdng^*aty 

Chan tsikig sdn tiin k*U, Pi tad pi mdn Jcai, 

Yh'hwhn nUng hwon/dy Chqnrfdn Si ytt lat, 

PH-^hl tsdng hal-shdTigy Tien-Jcihi ki'Sht hwUt, 

k. 5. Tsl yhh lia, 7. YiH-cheu stnrsiii tsd. 

k. 15. K^U'Siii Klng-Tidn msi sz sU, Kinnnien Ki-pi sujH mei. 

k. 29. Kung chljtnrsi hd ch*dng-ting, Tsie hi rdinrhicd k''dfA4at, 

1. 13. Pihi-chtn-shU ko lienrfi tUngy King-ch'ing UaH-hd cKi mtng Kat 

1. 27. YaH-yaii si hidng Chdng^nfi, YuSn shdng ndfOrshdn shed yi peL 

m. 1 2. Wil yen pal liH. 8. PS-ti hwat kil. 

n. I. Ji'ld ts'dng-kidng wdn^ T^tng-jad io4n t*itrfung. 

n. 1 1. Ch'tng Itn Pdrts^ kwd, T^at mH Hdnrwdng kung. 

u. 21. Hwdngfdfing Cheu ticn. Shin shdn shdng Yu kdng. 

Tsd-ytH (32. b. 9) must here mean literally 'on the right and left/ not 'attendants' or 
' officers ' as the phrase commonly signifies. 

HUng-piin (32. b. 21) is the regular phrase, in letters, for 'sending a letter.* H^ng 
means literally 'a swan or wild goose/ and is applied figuratively to a 'letter-carrier.' 
PUn commonly signifies ' conyenienoe, opportunity.* 

Fa. irel Iciin-niin (32. c. 5) 'I bow and consider that you know my thoughts.' KU* 
* to mirror back, to reflect.* 

Ki'lc^i (32. e. 8), lit. 'hunger and thirst,* expresses 'intense longing,* and here stands as 
a noun. It is qualified by adng-ping (32. e. 5) 'the growth of peace;' then the whole 
expression forms the object of the verb hiai 'to dissipate, to dissolve.* 

Ta'dn-tsiH Idn-wdn (32. f. 14), lit. 'bottle-wine discourse-letters,' which has been trans- 
lated, ' decant our wine and chat about literature,* might have been, ' take a glass of 
wine together and discuss the sulject of letters.' 

Tt*ien-ll ngd-maH (32. 1. 2), lit. * thousand miles goose feathers,* appear to be put for 
' foreign curiosities.' 

The specimens of ancient and modem poetry, which are given on page 33, present in 
some parts even greater difficulties than the epistolary phraseology. The ancient poetry 
of the Chinese was irregular; each verse consisted of an equal number of syllables, and 
assimilated in rhyme and ending. But this was not always according to strict rule^ or at 
equal distances. The metre of modem verse consists commonly of five (tn^Jf^ <^~-33* 


I am happy in my fortuneless and humble lot, 
Tet who can say that I mock at the world's glory I 

4. The man too fond of wine, by Wcmg Tsi. 
This day till evening let us drink, 
Nor care for our reasoning souls ! 
Our eyes see that all love wine, 
Why then should we alone abstain? 

Stanzas of eight verses. — ^Verses of five syllables. 
5. The nocturnal banquet at Yiu-cheu^ by ChS/ng Shwd, 
The cold blast blows, the night rain comes down, 
A desolate moaning shakes the wintry woods, 
But here in the high hall there is feasting. 
It makes me forget that my evening of life draws on. 
Among those soldiers it is meet to flourish the spear. 
In that gay crowd they repeat the flageolet's note : 
He who has not been the governor of a state 
Can never know the depth of favour given. 

6. To the Academician Chang Si-mdL going to Naffh-ha\ to erect an epitaph. 
Cniiaplets and wreaths extend to the southern pole, 
Fair words are scattered on the elevated cross, 
Commands by three high officers are sent. 
An epitaph for the southern barbarians is revealed. 
On the hostleries of the wild thick flowers shoot forth. 
On the white sails in spring-tide the small rain fiEdls. 
We know not when, from the vast ocean, 
The messengers of the throne may return. By Tu Fu, 

Verses of seven syllables. 7. Made in Yiurcheu at the new year. 
Last year the plum-tree bloBsoms in King of the south were like snow. 
This year the snow in Ki of the north was like the plum blossom. 
Thus may we perceive the inconstancy of human affairs. 
And we rejoice though the varying year goes and returns. 
The officers in the garrisons sing the live-long day. 
In the capital there are illuminations until the morning dawns. 
The distant west longs for the sun of Chang-an, 
Let us drink to the long life of the southern mountain. 

Verses of five syllables. 8. The antiquity of Fi-ti, by Chin Tsz-gcmg. 
The sun sinks into the vast river; — ^it is night; 
The oars rest; and the dialogue turns on the customs of the land. 
The city (Fi-ti) looks down upon the kingdom of Fchisz, 
Its high towers eclipse the palaces of the ffcm kings, 
Its barren wastes were brought under culture by Cheu» 
Its great mountains do honour to the merits of Ytt, 

94 SUH-TU. — SUH-TBN. [38. 0. 1 . — 34. j. 2 1 .] 

o. I. Gdf^iiA^ ta'tiig-pi twdfij Ti hienpl liH t*ung, 

o. II. Kil mil 8dng yun tst, KuHnrfAncKilw6rckSng, 

o. ai. Chu^ t"il IcA tod hien, ITS ei t86 h&4s%4ng, 

34. Siirytl, Proyerbs, v. native text, page 34. 

a. 4. X. Yi'ku Wing^, 2. Sdng-t'iail taiimg daitrjeil. 3. Sh4nr/ung pH- 

a. 16. k^l Idng, 4. Tsai-kid king J^iir^mU, hd-pi yuen shaurhiangf 5. Siit- 

a. 29. Jung taH t*dy sluf'n-shwul t*m ch^vJhh. 6. Hd-Meng t*ienryi%l, 7. K6- 

b. IX. jin tsisad m4'n-48*ihi su; mi^kw^n t*cirjtn wh-shdng shwang. 8. Ti 

b. 35. mittdr^jo^'''^ wiirahl. 9. JtnpUn: jOrt^l jH-ta^f T*ienli: m-jhif m- 

c. 13. j^/ 10. Shu kad taten chdngy yi 16 ktoei kan, 11. Kiun-ts^ y^hiy 
c 25. kw*air^mit yi'pien. 12. Ktvang-ytn sk taien, ji-ytt jH so. 13. Kting- 

d. la Hng piirj'A taHng-ming, 14. Ftl4dng shdn, pA-chi t*ien chi kau; ptl- 

d. 25. lin k% pHrchl ti ehl hed; jrii-v>^n aven^wdng chl we^ yen, p&rch^ 

e. II. hi6'w4'n chl td. 15. King ming, ts^ ch*inrga% pH^hiy ehi-mtng, tsi 

e. 25. sie-d pA-sdng, x6. Shunil t% y^ t*ien pven yvng-hau Jed; M, ti k*d^ 
1 12. Had; tvet yiiljtn-nn piirk*d liad. T*ien k*d^ ti k*d4idng, toei yiU 

f. 38. jinrtfin pd-lcd fdng. Htod-hU hwdrp% ndn hwd4dit; <M jtn nden 

g. 14. pd^l sm, tiii mUn yti yu, nn kd tsven ahan, 17. Kwd-yen tsS^ 
g. 28. kiaU, k'd-\ wd kumi-lln^ k*d-l vyd ym-jH, 18. Td kwd, twng-ahtn 
h. 13. ahwdng; 8& to, htl-k't shioau 19. Tsidrchl mdng akk, Kd-chl mdng 
b. 26. tsidng, 20. Tsiii pd tsUi jtn, jin ta^rtaiii, 21. Hdmg-ySn p6 ming. 
i. 8. 22. Yi k*ipdrf6ai ^r chu, 23. 7V6 yi-ji h&-shdmg, chwdng yirji chdng. 
i. 23. 24. Yd mi tHy 4r tsed su chung. 25. Shd tad wd ytn. 26. Kiun-4s^ 
j. 7. pdnnien kid 6, 27. Tdn^ pdrch*tng aihi, 28. Yad chi nnrfit 9£, tdn 

o. 9) or seven syUablea (<H-y4n th%, — 33. k. 5), but there are verBes of three, Ibar, six, and 
nine syllables. These syllables are regulated by the tones of the words, which are formed 
into two classes, viz. the pUig^ * even' and the ttH^ 'deflected.' The ptf^ tones are the 
upper and lower even, tones (tkAng-pUig and hid-p^) ; the UA tones are the ridi^, the 
depmrHng, and the enUrimg tones (tihdng, h'U, and /I). In verses of five syllablesy the first 
and the third are snbjeot to no rule, the second and fourth must vaiy between the pUig 
and the ttX tones ; and in the second and third verses these two (2nd and 4th syllables) must 
be the convene of the first, and the fourth verae must be like the first in this respect. 
In verses of seven syllables, the first, third, and fifth are subject to no rule, the tones of 
the second and the fourth must vary, and that of the sixth must be like that of the second. 
In verses of five or seven syllables, three of the four final syllables must have the same 
class of termination and accent. As a general rule the final syll&ble of the third verse 
does not rhyme, and in the other verses rhyme is often dispensed with. The student can 
make out for himself a table of the metres by using an open onole (Q) to represent the 
ptng tones, and a black circle (J^) for the tU tones. In some verses the third syllable in 
five-syllable verses and the fifth in seven-syllable verses are called the eye of the verse, 
which corresponds to the cceaura or the ictm in the poetry of European languages, an^ this 
'eye' must always be a n<Hm or a verb, — ^1. e. a word of full meaning (lAi-te*), not a parti- 
cle, — and it must either rhyme or alternate with the following verse. Above forty different 

•^ "IK •^■^ 


Bat the ancient green walls are cut down. 

The dangerous places are made accessible. 

The ancient trees grow to the limits of the clouds. 

The returning sail shoots out from the midst of the mist 

The trace of that stream goes on without a limit 

The traveller sits gasing on the scene without being wearied. 

TrandaUon o/Froverhs (SHryd), v. native text, page 34. 

I. At one lift to obtain two. '^ To kill two birds with one stone.** 2. The 
mulberry branch follows the (direction of the) small bend. " As the twig is 
bent the tree's inclined.*' 3. A &ir wind liaises no waves. 4. If at home you 
respect your parents^ there will be no need of humbling yomself abroad (lit 
' going to a distance to bum incense*). 5. To sail with wind and tide. 6. To 
pour oil in the fire. ** To add fuel to the flame.** 7. Let every man sweep 
the snow from his own door-way, and not concern himself with the frost on 
other men's roofii. ''Let every man mind his own business.** 8. Virtue 
requires no colouring. 9. Man's convenience (says) : thus and thus! Heaven's 
order (replies): not yet! not yet! ''Man plans; but heaven disposes." 10. 
Thougb a tree be a thousand ehang high, its leaves &11 and return to the root 
1 1. One word to the superior man and one lash to the good horse (are enough). 
''A word to the wise is sufficient." 12. Time flies like an arrow: days and 
m<mths like a weaver's shuttle. 13. To feel reverence is not so good as to 
give obedience. " Obedience is better than sacrifice." 14. If you do not 
ascend the mountain, you cannot know the height of heaven; if you descend 
not to the stream of the valley, you cannot know the depth of the earth. K 
yon do not listen to the toiee words bequeathed by the ancient kings, you 
cannot know the greatness of true learning. 15. If the mirror be bright, then 
the dust will not defile it; if the intelligence be clean, then licentiousness will 
not grow up. 16. The fishes at the bottom of the stream, and the birds in 
the sides of heaven, may both be reached with the arrow and the hook ; but 
man's heart is beyond conjecture. Heaven may be measured, and earth may 
be surveyed, but man's heart is without bounds. In drawing the tiger, you 
may paint his skin, but it is hard to depict his bones. In acquaintance with 
a man, you may know his &ce, but you cannot know hb heart Though you 
converse tSte-di-^^te, his heart is separated from you as by a thousand moun- 
tains. 17. If your words be few and your acquaintance select, there will be 
no need for repentance, sorrow, and shame. 18. If desires be few, good spirits 
will abound; if aims be many, cheerfulness will languish. 19. The prisoner 
dreams of pardon; the thirsty of a cordial. 20. The wine does not intoxicate 
the man; the man makes himself drunk. 21. A fiur countenance is a poor 
inheritance. 22. A single guest does not require two lodgings. 23. To be 
one day a priest and the next a bell-ringer. 24. He wishes to hide his track, 
and yet he walks on the snow. 25. When the tree falls there is no shadow. 
26. The superior man thinks not on old evil deeds. 27. A single thread is 
not enough to make a rope. 28. If you wish to know the thoughts which 


96 chutq-tin tbui-tau. [84. j. 22. — Lith. 9. 1, a.] 

j. 22. t'ing k^eHtrchung yh^ 2g. Jd yaii twdn tdiir^j nng^i^ k'dn tM j^ 

k. 6. 30. Tai yil: "Jin wA yuhi lUj jA yi^ Hn yiu" 31. Ftt eki lei Xnuny 

k. 2a nenshi kt chin; yU M Jct-jtnj nmrshi Jci-yiil; yH ehA Jci-fdy sien 

L 7. <AI Jci-4^ 32. I^ing-fwng mEi p'6, kwHrki yi4 ts^n; kiUn-Ui sui ptn^ 

L 22. l\ri chdng isai. 33. Pi-yU i yU um^niy pU-ndng chin-M Ktr8i; Jdunr 

m. 9. t^ ek& yU ekitrti, pHrndng finrhodn Ut-sin; sung-pi KM nai su- 

m. 26. ehwdng, mtng^i k'd-l she kien^toei. 34. Ji-yit 8i£i mtngy pSrchau/H- 

n. 12. pw&n ckl hid: iaH-hihh 9ui kw*ai, jn2"cAdn wd-tmi cAl jtn; f\ teai 

n. 27. M/ng hdypUji shinrkia chl nUjn, 35. Jhirsang, chi t€i sang; ehi-mng, 

o. 14. jtn i lah; Hn chi yi-^si sang, pH-kid vrdnehdng tad. 

9. Extracts from the Ching^n tsUi-yati, v. native text (lithographed), 

page 9. 

a. 2. Ti-yt twdn, Jl-<hd7hg, 

a. 8. Tslng'tsak IcV-lai^ kiau hai-i^-^m^nj saunsaii ti, kiau-kiau hwd, gad 

a. 23. ahwal si lUn, pad todn ha^ cKd Jcl-Jci, MH-yiil si t% shi-hed, k'dn- 

b. 14. k'dn shU, si^-sii tsi, sdnrlidng-kd sz-w^n pdng-yiU tsd-kd shl, hid k6 

c. 6. wet'k'ly kiatr-kiai rn^n^, tsid Jed-^ kw&4l jirtsk liaU. Tau-Uaii hid- 

c. 23. UfU, Id ki pdng4ningy shi H i*iad tsihh, pd che-shln kmrkwd, hwd-tdng 

d. 14. hwd-idng, Jtn yid yiU tstng-shtn, yiii chdng^ng; che-tu shi hail 

e. 3. si, PUnyad wdng wairt'ed Cdn^wdny pHiryad ted-kH, pH-yad tdrkid 

e. 18. pien4si^y pdr^ad td^, pd-yad naurtsiiiy pdryad kwd-kid. Wil shwd 

f. 9. ta hwd yi-tiJhh 4^ ts&4i tu mdryiii d 1 N\ yad t^ing-chd, pd-yad wdng- 

g. 2. H Uail d! — Titn k6 tang^ lat a; hS-kH ying-t^, tsqng-md ts*ia4 ti 
g. 2a kiSn nt f 

h. 2. Ti-4r twdn. Tsi-kiau, 

h. 8. Ti-k6^tn ch'drlat, sidng^yii pdmg^ii, tsimg-yad tai shwdng yhi- 

L 22. tsingy kUn4iaU ndirsie ching-Hng jtn, kidng li4-ti, kien-hd-ti, lai^-shi" 

L 14. ti, tidng^l kweirkSrti yiit Udng^Tirtly kienrkwd shp^nUrirti, yiii tsai- 

j. 6. ts'tng-ti, yiU p^n-s£-4i, k'M ka/d4i-chU4i, nl is at hail t*l-Cd sidng- 

j. 24. ytl, kannshd t*d tseit, ki^ng-king t*dy pHrhad t*a\HmAn i*d; yHb-shen 

L 14. siSmg-kivh^ yiiltr^ sidng-pang; pihi tdrkid yii^ yi liail. J6 tsiad- 

kindfl of poema are enumerated, but many of these are inoonaiderable in extent and im- 
portance. The beat specimens are full of metaphorical and allegorical expressions, ancient 
and obsolete words, allusions to history and &ble, with references to customs and opinions, 
known only to the learned. This renders Chinese poetry very difficult for foreigners to 

The specimens given on page 33 are, with the exception of the first, to be found in the 
K^ T*dnff-Bhi hd-kial, 'the poetiy of the ancient T'ang (dynasty) explained,* a work in 
5 vols. I2». 

Wi-yd^ (33. b. x6) was the name of a royal palace in Ch'dng-dn; during the Hdn 
dynasty, which ended A. D. 260. 



oocopy a man's hearty just listen to the words of his mouth. 29. If you want 
to break through drunken habits, look at a drunken man when you are sober. 
30. Confucius said : '^ If a man will not care for the future, he certainly will 
have present sorrow." 31. If you wish to know the character of a prince, 
first look at his miliisters ; if you would understand a man, first look at his 
friends; if you would know a fftther, first look at his son. 3a. Though the 
screen be broken, its frame is still preserved; though the superior man be 
poor, propriety and rectitude still remain. 33. Though the white gem be 
cast into the dirt, its purity cannot be sullied : though the good man live in a 
vile place, it cannot tunt and disorder his heart. The fir and the cypress can 
endure snow and frost; and bright wisdom can walk through difficulty and 
<^^g6r. 34. Though the sun and moon are bright, they cannot shine beneath 
an up-turned bowl : though the sword (of justice) be swift, it cannot decapi- 
tate the innocent, nor can unlooked-for calamity, with its evil genius, enter 
the dwelling of the prudent 35. Man is bom, but knowledge is not bom (with 
him) ; when knowledge is acquired, man soon grows old; when his mind has 
obtained a fulness of knowledge, before he is aware, the great change comes 
over him. 

TranskUion o/the Extracts from the Ching^n tsui-yaH, v. native text 

(lithographed), page 9. 

First section. On every-day affairs. 

Rise early and call the servant-boys to sweep the floor, to water the flowers, 
to warm water for washing the face, and to make a cup of good tea to drink. 
When you have nothing to do, look at a book, or write some characters, or with 
two or three literary friends make a verse (or two), or play a game at chess 
(lit. ' conquest* or ' siege'), to dissipate sadness, thus you will be able to pass 
the day. When noon is come, pull a few twangs of the bow, and shoot a few 
arrows ; as for that body of muscle and bone of yours, exercise it well. Thus 
a man will get good spirits, and will grow strong : all these are good things 
to do. But don't go abroad hankering after amusement, don't create disturb- 
ances, don't fight and brawl, don't be a busy-body, don't be noisy over your 
wine, don't wander from house to house. What I have said is perfectly cor- 
rect, there is no mistake in it Do you listen and don't forget it. 

Light the lamp and bring it here, it is as dark as midnight, how can I see f 

The second section. On selecting acquaintances. 
When a man goes out to hold intercourse with friends, he should carry a pair 
of eyes in his head; and when you see those who are men of rectitude, or those 
who speak with propriety and justice, the cordial and honest men, and those 
who understand customs, those who have a conscience, and those who have seen 
the world, those who have natural talent and good sense, on whom you may 
rely, — do you then seek their acquaintance, and walk in their footsteps, respect 
them and do not slight them ; if you have any good project in hand, consult 
with them, and in matters of business mutually assist one another, thus both 


98 BAN-KWOH CHI. [lith. 9. 1.3. — 1 1 . f. I .] 

L 3. kUfirliail ndnie pHrhaU jin, yi tUn-^r p^n-ti, ta mO-^y yl pd 

10. Extracts from the Ching-yin tsUi-^a'dj v. native text (lithograplied), 

page 10. 

a. 2. yiii pH-hait pirk'i, tsiuSnrkdn sie hwmrchdng ^ 9£, yiH pOr- 

a. 16. tUng yhhy yih pU-kd liSn, yiH t*ait jtn hiin. Jtnrkid md t'd, t'd y^ 

b. 7. pHrhai sau; che^dng Hjtn, ngd iaia/MeicnrliailL, UiH naUb-liaU t'dy nl 

b. 23. t8*ten^wdn pA-yad t*i't*d taek-Umg^ t*d tdH kwal-pihh ni-ti y%nrt^ 

c. 21. tsihi : hwdn pH tdrJdn^ t*a hiwdn yad toU fi^M &£, s&ng-cKH hU4d a£ 

d. 13. Idt TiU shimmd pih^ nlf TaHng^nr^-heH nl yaH td chi6r% UcA 

e. 5. haik yd! 

f. a. Tir9Sn twdn, Tsd^nod. 

f . 8. Jtn taiii ya/drJcin ahi ahwd-hiwd. Nl t8*ia4 nd^ yiil mtng^ H jin^ 

f. 24. Ja/nruxii pitrt*4ngf t'd shwd-cKH H kwd, tmrng-shi cliiirfnng jiriOny yiU 

g. 15. w^firyd, Ui pit-yUng 8hw6 Id, T'd tsiii 8iiUk*eh ahtvd kU pd tsin-dCdmg 
h. 7. ti hwdr^r, y^ JM-ti tdrfaihg^ yiU <'M»t2, — pU-Xnau^ngaH, pH^id-US. 
h. 24. Jtnrkid t^ing-Ua^y tsi-jin kwd-t^d hvmUehwd kwd Uai^, Jen ^ 
L 13. ching-Inng kwd, hSrjhh yaiJirt*ingy inOrM shi-lnng-^ahdngy ndnsie hUn- 
j. 3. tsdjtn-t^ng tl kwd, yh yadfomg cKdng-^r-to t*ing-i*ing, SUt-jhi piin 
j. 19. pi hid t*dy yi ywl ckl-taily kd-chU Junff-sU; tsang-md M tsan-htody 
k. 10. t8*u-htvdy yd^hwd, ni6-p6 htody/dng-chlng jtn ti hwdy siaH md jtn H 
I. I. htvd; jtn-kid ahwd-ch^iSrlaty nl pH-tUng tiy tnd cKtng-liaii k6 taSr 
1. 16. t^ia^'tsi liaiL 

11. Extract from the Sdn-hwd chi, chap. I, y. native text (lithographed), 

page IX. 

a. 2. Ti^ hwUt, 

a. 7. Yen t*a/OHyuen haHrki adn hi i 

b. 7. Chd,n Hwdng-Jein ytng-hiUng «^^ H kung. 

c. I. Uwdriihwd t'ienrhid tdrshi; ^fqmrkih pi-My hd-hiU pi-fan,^ Ched 

c. 16. vmd tsi-kwd Jan-tmng, ping jl yU Ts*tn; kl Tstn ml chi hed Tsd Hdn 

d. 7. fqn-tmngy yid ping ji yU Hdn. Hd/n chaUy t8£ Kavrtsk chdn pi-ske 

d. 22. (jr Jet iy yi'VUng t^ien-hid. Hed lat Kvxmg-wd chung-hing, cKuen 

e. II. chi ffUnrHy sui/an'toet Sdn-kwd. CKm Jci chi hodn ehi yidy t*alr€Kl 

Kvod-UUn (33. o. 15), 'the noble and the mean/ both have their pLaiis of aggnuidise- 
ment ; the former at court, the latter in the market. The poet wiBhes to show that the 
noble man and the mean man are alike different from the ascetic, who alone can retire 
from the world and its projects for getting gain. He alone can enjoy the outward things, — 
the soft rain, the bright grass, the blue mountain, and the singing birds, — which arise 
without his arrangement and yield him pleasure. 


parties will be profited. But you will see those bad mea, who have not the 
slightest particle of good sense, a set of sharpers, who deceive people, 

Trcmelatian of the Bxtrctctsjrom the Ching^n tsuiryaHy v, ruUwe text 

{lithographed), page lo. 

who are of a quarrelsome disposition, entirely taken up with questionable 
affidrs, — men who will not take hints, and who have no regard for appearances, 
who draw down upon themselves the displeasure of others ; and when they are 
scolded, they do not feel ashamed. When I see such men, I directly give them 
a scolding. You should on no account whatever have any thing to do with 
theuL If you associate with them, they will swindle you out of your money : 
but that would be of little consequence, if they did not prejudice your affairs 
and produce a great deal of trouble. Then what benefit will there be in 
that? From the very first do you be decided, and then all will be well ! 

The third section. On miscellaneous phrases. 
The most important thing for a man is to speak well. Now when you see men 
of note, different from the common herd, you will find that their language has 
a classic elegance about it, and an air of refinement, of which it is needless to 
speak. Even when they utter the first expression which comes to their lips in 
ordinary parlance, you may perceive a liberality of sentiment and a regularity 
about it, — it is neither haughty nor mean. When people hear them, they, of 
course^ pnuse them highly, as being able to speak properly and classically. 
Assuredly you should listen to them. Then there is the language of the mar- 
ket-place and the well, and the talk of loungers and of various classes of men ; 
you must stretch your ears to catch these ; for although you need not learn 
ihem, you should know them, as well as the customs of every place ; what is 
village talk, coarse language, elegant language, cruel, insulting language, the 
language of flattery, ridicule, a1)use, <kc., for when men utter such, and you do 
not understand, you will seem exactly like a country clown. 

TnmalatiUm of the Extra4stfrom the Sdn-kwd chi, chap, I, v. native text 

{lithographed), page ii. 

Chapter the first. 
At the banquet in the peach-garden three brave men form a righteous league. 
By exterminating the YeUow-turbans the heroes raise their reputation. 
It is a common saying with respect to the state of nations, that ' the long- 
divided must unite, the long-united must divide.' At the end of the Cheu 
dynasty the empire was divided into seven kingdoms ; these contended together 
and were finally united in the Tsin dynasty; and after the extinction of the 
Tnn family, the houses of Ta'u and Han strove together and were at last 
merged in the ffan dynasty. The universal dominion of the ffam commenced 
with the Emperor Kaurteu, who destroyed the white serpent and raised a 
body of patriot soldiers. Afterwards Kwang-wu arose as his successor, and 
he in turn transmitted the throne to Hien-ti, The power of the state was 
then divided, and became Three Kingdoms. If we proceed to investigate 

o 2 


100 SAN-KWOH CHI. [Llth. 11. f. 2. 12. i.3.] 

£ 2. yU HtodnrLtng, dr H, fftodnrii It^mrkd Mn4Ui, isilng^n hufdnrkwan, 

f. 17. ktHtodnriipdvg, Ltng-tiiHtoei; Td-tsidng^un, Teil^unl; Tav-fO^ 

g. 7. Chin-Jauy kdng-siang fiirtgd, Sht yiil hwdnrkwdn TsaH-Ui thng lung- 
g. ai. JcivLhh; Ted-wit Chin-fdn med chU ch%; ki-s£jnir^rni,/dtn wtt 9d hai; 
h. 12. Chung-kiuen tait^yU hdng. Kienrntng ^r-T^tm, «^-^Uy wdng^, Ti 
i. 2. yU Wq/nrti tien^fang ahlng ta6; tiSnrkd kw*dng^img t8ed-k% chi-kien 
i. 17. i/i-4*iad ts^tng-M, te'dng lidngshdng/t t8idng^id4at,Jan yU trshdng, 
j. 8. Ti kmg taU^ tsd-yid ki kiu jUkung, p^-kwdn JcU p^n pi, adrseijt M pd- 
k. I. ktetirliait. HwHrjhi tdrlut td ytl, kid I ping-pd, Id tad pwdn^e,/ang- 
k. 18. chi; hwai Jci6 fdng^ wiirsH, Kiennning s£-niSn ^^-^Hh Ld^ng ^ 
1. 8. cfduj yid hai-nkwiil fdn-yiy ytihtrhal kUrmtn, t^n p*\ id Idng kiu^nji 
1. 24. hal chung. 

12. Extract from the Sdn4ew6 chi, y. native text (lithographed), page 12. 

a. I. Shi Ku-td kidn yiit hiung~ti sdnrjin; yl ming, Chdng-kid; yi ming^ 

a. 17. Chang-pan ; yi ming, Chdng-lidng. Nd Chdng-kid p^n-shi k6 pdr^ 

b. 5. Sidrtsaiy ytn ji-ahdn ts'al-yd; yd yi laiirjin, pi-^hi tdng^&ny sheii 

b. 22. clit li-chdng, hwdn Kid chi yi tdng chv/ngy \ t^ien-sfvU son kiuen shed 

c. II. chly yu: " Tsi fntng, *T*airping yad-shd,* jU ti chi, tdng tai T'ien 
c 25. sitien htod pU kid ihf-jin, jd mtng i-nn, pi hd gd pau" Kid pal^ 

d. 16. to^n $ing mtng. Lailrjtn yu: " Wit nal N6fnrhu>d laiHrsven y^." Yhir 

e. 5. ki hwd (Mn^^lng-Jung 4r IcU. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

e. 13. Taing yu: " Tsi-ping chung, ngd-pHT^g kwd, mtng-Jcang i tsd 9d 

f. 1. cfiau-kiun ying^i." Lid-yhij^ k*t shfvd, siii tsi cfCd pdng, chaur^nvd 

f. 16. t-ping, Pdng-^n htng tad Chd^ien yin ch'tl Chd-hien chung yt-k6 

g. 6. ylng-hidng. Ndjtn pd shin had tdrshU, sing kwdnrhd, kwd yht yu, 
g. 21. h^iHfvd pd htng yU si, sd yiit td chi, chmn had ki-kiau Vien-hid hadrki, 
h. 14. sdngAi shlnrchdng pd-chS, lidng^r chili-kien, shwdng-sheh kwo yU si. 

Ki-pi (33. k. 24) here means TiHi-eKeu iteelf, which was the name of Shing-hing\ 
(Moukden, the capital of Manchuria,) under the ffdn dynasty. 

The city of PH-U (33. m. 17) was in Kwd-ehed/d. 

The lithographed pages (9 — 14) which follow here, were printed in London from the 
author's handwriting, but they are not so satisfihctoiy as the 34 pages of letter-press which 
were done in Hongkong. This accounts for the absence of pages i — 8, page 9 having 
been printed first to suit the convenience of pupils who did hot need the earlier pages, 
which were extracts from the Ancient Classics kc, and which were subsequently 
printed in Hongkong. The extracts from the Cking-yin tsUi-yaii are likely to prove 
very serviceable to the student, they present him with a good many expressions in the 
Peking dialect, though not of the extreme kind, and they would easily pass current 
in the southern provinces. Among the general characteristics of the Peking dialect is 
the frequent use of the perfect particle liail^ and the formative particle dr'. There is a 
redundancy of expression, and, in pronunciation, an uncommon sharpness of utterance in 
the case of all letters which admit it (hi, Ui, chi, H, At). 

'' THB TH&BB KlKGDOMg." 101 

the cause of this revolution, we shall find that it began with the two Emperors 
Hwcm and Ling, When the Emperor Hwcm, died, Ling came to the throne. 
The marshal TefUr-vsu and the guardian Chin-fan became coadjutors in the 
government. Now it happened that when the eunuch Ta^cm-UH and his party 
were intriguing for power, Teur^um and Chin-fom formed a counter-plot to 
exterminate them ;^ but the scheme was discovered, and turned out injurious 
to themselves ; and the eunuchs firom this time increased in audacity. 

On the 15th day of the 4th month of the 2nd year, Kien-ning (' tranquillity 
established') the Emperor proceeded to the Hall of Audience, and just as he 
was ascending the throne, a violent wind suddenly rushed firom a comer of 
the Hall, and what should they see but a great green snake, seeming to fly 
down fi-om the beam above, which coiled itself up upon the imperial seat. 
The Emperor fell down in terror, but the attendants quickly rescued him and 
carried him into the palace. The mandarins, one and all, hastened awayj 
and, iit a moment, the serpent itself vanished. On a sudden it began to 
thunder loud and to rain heavily, accompanied with hail stones. This con- 
tinued until midnight, and laid in ruins an immense number of dwellings. 

In the 2nd month of the 4th year of this same Emperor, an earthquake 
was felt in L6^cmq, the sea inundated the lands, and the inhabitants of the 
coasts were washed away. 

Trcmdation oftUve Eoetra^from the Sdn-kwd chi, v. native text (Uthogro/phed), 

page 12. 

At this time there lived in the district of KvM three brothers, named 
Chcmg^kid, Ghang-pau^ and Ghomg-licmg. Now this Chcmg-kid did not take the 
degree of Sivrisai (B. A.), btU proceeded to the hills to gather medicinal herbs. 
There he met one day an aged man with a fair and youthfiil countenance, 
who held in his hand a staff of cane. He called Ki6 into a cave, and gave 
him three sacred volumes, saying : '' These are called, ' The Arts necessary for 
producing Peace.' Take them, and in the name of Heaven proclaim the doc- 
trine of reform, that the world may be saved. And should contrary thoughts 
arise in your mind, you will suffer the reward of the wicked." Kid bowed and 
enquired his name and surname. The old man said : '^ I am the aged genius 
of Namrhwar and having uttered these words he vanished into thin air and 
was gone. ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ 

Twnjg said: "The rebel soldiers are .many, our soldiers are few; your 
Excellency should at once raise an army to oppose the enemy." Livryen 
acquiesced in this advice, and immediately issued a placard, calling upon 
patriots to enlist This document reached the town of Ch&y and a brave man 
of the place responded to the call. He was not much of a scholar, but his dis- 
position was magnanimous and kind, and his words were few; the feelings of 
anger and pleasure were rarely visible in his countenance, and he was a man 
of a strong will. He loved to form friendships with the brave men of the 
empire. His height was eight cki (near seven feet); his two ears hung 
down on his shoulders; his hands reached down to his knees; he was able to 

102 SAK-KWOH CHI, [Litb. 12. i. 4. — 18. 1. 25.] 

i. 4. ma TiAng tai kd let ^r; mUn jUl kwdn-yH, $h^ jH 1*4 chl; Chun^ 

L 19. shan Tsing todng LiA sihing chl hed, Hdn E\ng-ti Kid^id hiuen eon; 

j. 8. sifig Li4, mtng PH, tsi Hiuinrti, 

j. 1 7. Tdng-ji JdhirUail pd^ng^w^n, Jcairjen €KdngH*d7hy iuUheH yirjtn Ur- 

k. 7. ahxng ySn yti: " Td-chdng-Ju pUryii kw»-kid dCaM, hb-kd cKdng- 

k.22. ednV* mu^nrti hwut shi k't jtn, shin pdnhS, shtng j4 k^ 

1. 13. p^nrfni^. Hiu^nrti Mhk t*& htng^mad i^ekdng, vxfn Jet ting-^ntng. 

1 3. Extract from the Sdnrktod chi continued, v. native text (lithographed), 

page 13. 

a. I. K'i^tn ytl: " Afeu Sing Chang, mtng Ft, tsi Yltl. Shi kd Chd- 

a. 15. kiiin, p'd yiU chiodng^t^i^n, mai-tsiU t'HrchUy chuen had ki-kiau t'ienr 

b. 5. hid haHrkL; kidrtaat kihh kung Jedn pdng ^r t'dn, kd-tsi ndng-w^nJ* 

b. 2a Hiuhi^ yu: " Ngd p4n Hdn^ahl taung-^nn, sing Lid, mtrig Pe^; 
c 8. Idn w4n Uwdmg^lan ch*dng4todn, yiU chi yd p&isi gdr^rmtn. H4n U 

c. 23. pdrmdngf Kd ch*dng^*dn ^" Ft yi: "Ifgd pd yiU t^rtsat, tang 
d.12. chaurmd hidng-^ng, ytl kung t*dng kil tdr8&. JdrhdV^ Hiuen-U 
e. I. tihln^ly sdi yil i*{l/ng j% tsdn^ten chwng yinrtsiiL Ohing yin kien, 

e. 15. kien yi id ffdn, tiHrchd yi lidng cke-t^ tad tien m^n-sheh hu^iaiL 

f. 6. Ji tien tab-hid pihi hwdn taiil-pail : " Kw'at chin-^siitrlat k\ ngd tai- 

f. 21. kd,n jlrcfCing-JeU t'edrkiun,*^ 

g. 2. Hvu^n-U k'dn k't jtn, sidng^mad t'dng^*dng, wei'-Jung pinrptfij 
g. 15. tsid yau t*d t'dng tsd, t^au k*t ilng mtng. K*t jtn yu: "WU sing 
h. 4. Kwdn, ming Til, ts£ Shed-ch*dng, hed kal Tunrch*dng, H6-tung Kia\ 
h. 17. lidng jtn yi, Yin phn-ehu shirhad, l-^i Itng jtn, pet toil 8hd4iaik, 
i. 8. t*ad ndn Kidng-Hd wil'ld ni^n I. Kin u^n ta^ chd, chau-kiun p*6^ 
i. 23. tail, ti-lat ying-md.'' HivJhirU aUi I kl chi kad-chl, Tunnh'dng tdrhl^ 
j. 15. t^dng tad Chdng-fl chtodng ahdng, kdng-l td^. Ft ytl: ^^ Ngd 
k. 4. chiodmg hed yiU t'adryti^, htod-k'ai ching ahing, mtng-ji tang yU 
k. 16. yu^ chung tae kad t'ien^; ngd acmrjtn AHf-toei hUmg^, hH U t^d/ng^ 
1. 7. ain, jinrhed k'd t*d td-ai.^ Hvuhirti, yun<Kdnfig titling ying yu: 
1.22. '^Jdrta^ ahin haiir 

The passages given on pages 11 — 13 are from tiie Sdn-hwH, with which the stndeni is 
already acquainted (v. Ghrest. pp. 17—20). The 'Tellow-tarbans' {ffwdng-Mn, it. b. 8) 
were rebels under the leadership of Chdng-hiS (12. a. 13), who, besides being a general, 
pretended to perform cures by charms and exorcism. He raised an immense army, which 
he oi^faniced and allotted to subordinate generals. At the dose of the ffdn dynasty 
(A. D. 226), after the reign of the last Emperor fftm-H (ti. e. 12), the division of the 
country into three kingdoms took place. The two Emperors ffwdn and JAng (t 1. f. 3, 4) 
were weak and lax in their government, and this brought on a rebellion, which assumed 
larger proportions under Tihig-chO, a man of great strength and militaiy ability. His 
career of cruelty, during which he slaughtered vast numbers of his enemies, was brought to 
an early close, for LU-pu (v. 20. d. 5, 7) destroyed him and all his &mily. The Imperialist 
oause was upheld by the generals LU-pi (13. c. 5, 7) a mat-seller, Kwm-yA (13* h. 4, 6) * 
seller of sour-curds, and Chdng-ft (13. j. 17) a pork-butcher. These were the three brave 



see his own ears; his face was like the jewel on a crown; and his lips were 
ruddy like rubies. He was a descendant of the ninth generation from King- 
ti of the Hem dynasty; his clan name was Liv^ his surname Pet, and his title 
was HiuefnrU, 

When he saw the aboTe-mentioned placard, he heaved a deep sigh, and 
immediately behind him a man exclaimed with a loud Toice : '' When a fine 
fellow does not exert his strength for his country, why does he sigh so deeply?" 
Hwen-titwrnedi round and beheld a man about seven feet high, having a voice 
like thunder, and a physique like that of a vigorous charger. When ffittenrt^ 
saw this extraordinary figure, he enquired his name and surname. 

TranslcOion of the Extract from the Sdnrkwd chi ooTUinufid, v, natim text 

(lithographed), page 13. 

The man replied : '* My name is Chang, my surname Fl, and my title Yl-ti, 
For generations we have dwelt in this district of Cfhd, and we have a small 
landed property here. I deal in wine and slaughter pigs. I am fond of forming 
the acquaintance of the brave men of the empire. When I saw you just now 
looking at the placard and sighing, I could not help speaking to you.*' HiueTir 
ii said : '' I am descended from the house of Ham,, my name is Lva and my 
surname PeL When I lately heard that the Yellow-turbans were in rebellion, 
the wish arose in my mind to break their power and to give peace to the 
people. Would that my strength were adequate to it ! It was for this reason 
that I sighed." Fl replied : " I have some small means, let us call out our 
brave countr3rmen, and with you, Sir, begin to put the great afi&ir into execu- 
tion, what do you think of that?" HiuefnrU was much pleased, and they 
forthwith entered the village inn to take some wine. Just as they were 
drinking, they saw a fine son of Ham, (a Chinaman), pushing along a hand- 
cart, who, coming up, stopped at the door of the inn. Having entered the 
inn, he sat down and called to the waiter : " Pour out quickly some wine for 
me to drink, I am in haste to reach the city to join the army." Hiu&nr 
tiy seeing that the man had a noble aspect and a dignified bearing, invited 
him to join them, and then enquired his name and surname. The man 
replied: ''My name is Kwam,, my surname Yu, and my title Sh&urch*amg, 
which has been altered to YiirtrcKamg, I am a native of Kiai-liang in Ho~ 
tung. When a man of influence in my native place, relying on his power, had 
insulted and oppressed the people, I killed him ; and, having escaped with 
difficulty, for five or six years I have been in the River and Lake provinces. 
Having recently heard in this place that an army is being raised to subdue 
the rebels, I am going (to the city) on purpose to enlist." Hiuen-ti at once 
told him of his own project. YvmHUiam^ was much pleased, and they went 
together to Chang-fts farm to consult about the matter. Fl said : " At the 
back of my &rm there is a peach garden, the flowers are just in full bloom. 
Let us to-morrow in that garden sacrifice to Heaven and Earth, and we three 
men will unite as brethren, with all our hearts, and then we may plan about 
this great matter." Hitien-ti and Yun-ch'ang with one voice exclaimed: 
"That is very good." 

1 04 i-SHiH TU-TBN. [Lith. 14. a. 2. — 14. 1. 25.] 

14. From iEsop^s Fables, by Robert Thorn, Esq., y. natiTe text (lithographed), 

page 14. 

a. 2. Ch*at p*dng ydng, 

a. 6. Pvfdnrkit fo*t^, niaiJu-died kiai ndng yin, Yi-ji ch*at yu ydng^ t'^ng 

a. 20. Jden yiinrshwul; ch'at yH pang Jci ydng; ts£^^ien tod I tsi^ ta'£, nal 

b. 10. kidng ts^ chl yu: "J4 kio4n-^ii tsz ahwiily ski laiirfd pH-ndng ytn, 
b. 25. kal shd, Ydng tiii yu: " Tdr^wdng tsai ahdng liHy ydng taai hid Ud; 
c 14. siil chU wH gaV^ CKatfA M ytl: '^JH IcvHMJhi meurfi dCHry^ iS- 
d. 5. tsiii yU ngd, yi kal ahd.'* Ydng yu: '' Td wdng wd \; k'U nien meu- 

d. 2a ji ydng wi cKHrahiy gdn^ndng tS-4siii tdrwd/ng f" CKai Uii piensiu toeC 

e. II. nii, ua chlyu: ^^J'd chlfd-mil U-isiii yd ngd, yij'd ch% tsui yi.** Siii 
pang chl. Yhi yun: " YH kid chl touC, hd hwdn 4jfrd U*i f" TH tsz 
chl toei yh, 

Ar shtL 


T8an46 chung yiit ^r shu, phTirshti Ufinrty yi tsai king-sz kwd-huDd, 
HwU yi-ji lai taqn t^dn-kid, taqn-ahu liH 4^ kwdn chl. Sd cKH, chl 
ahi tsvrch&a pH-k'cm. Klng-ahU yU: "JU kU wd htod, u-shi urtl met" 
uji, hd-pU siii ngd taH king, yi-4nen shir^mienf** Ts'qnrshu hln-jhty 
t'Ung wdng kl tau king, kwd-j^n shi-ying kial i yi-ji ^r shu t*4ng 
chd mi! Lai yi'hi'Ang kiu^n, kl tsidng tsan^hu hwd Jcut Tswn^u 
td hiat, w4n yu: '' Tsk chU ch'dng yiH Uh hai hUf" Yu: "Jen.** 
Tsqn-shU ts^y ytl : " Fl ngd chl/H yi, yU Jc% pdng-htodng ^r kdr^-chl; 
shu jd gdn-^sing ^r tsavrJcdng V* SH yun: "Ning shl Jeal mti-ehiiy 
md-shi tsiH md-fdn !** Tsl tsk chl u)&i yi I 

men who are mentioned in the opening stanza (Ha'CM t&n, 1 1. a. 10). They united with 
a solemn oath to retrieve the fortunes of the Hdn fiunily. They associated with them- 
selves LH-p^t KHmgmtng, and yii^«Aail, and finally established the kingdom of ShA *. 
Another famous general, Ttau-Uau, succeeded in forming the kingdom of TFel^, and Sim- 
kiuin raised for himself the kingdom of WH^^: these were the San'hcd, ' the Three King- 
doms,' which form the subject of this, the best historical romance of the Chinese. 

Pto'dn-hl (14. a. 6) is a mythical personage, who is described in Chinese books as the 
first man, who, though not the creator of the world, had the Herculean task allotted to 
him of bringing the chaos into a cosmos, of making order and beauty out of oonfuaion. 
The Bationalists of China, commonly called Tauitta, have proceeded to particularise the 
acts of this individual ; they describe his work of splitting the heavens and chiselling the 
rocks. His efibrts, they say, were continued eighteen thousand years. On his death his 
head became a mountain, his breath the winds, and his voice thunder, with other ridiculous 
stories, similar however to the Scandinavian myths on this subject. For a long account 
of this myth see Dr. Williams' Middle Kingdom, vol. VI. p. 196, where a curious picture 
is given of Pw'dn-hH at work. 



























I "ft 


Translation o/JSsop's Fables, by Robert Thoni, Esq., v. native text (Utko- 

graphed\ page 1 4. 

The wolf devours the sheep. 
In the primitive times of Ftoan-ku, when all the birds and beasts could 
speak, one day a wolf and a sheep were drinking at the same stream. The 
wolf wished to devour the sheep, but, thinking within himself that he had no 
excuse, he reproached him sternly and said: ''You are making this water 
muddy, so that I, your superior, cannot drink, I must kill you." The sheep 
replied : " Tour Honour is at the upper part of the stream, and I am at the 
lower; though the water is muddy it is no obstacle to yowr drinking,*^ The 
wolf again reproached him and said : '' Last year on a particular day you said 
something offensive against me ; I ought to kill you." The sheep said : 
'' Your Honour is under a mistake, ybr last year on that particular day I was 
not bom. How could I offend against Your Honour?" The wolf then, instead 
of being ashamed, became angry, and, reproving him, said : " Your parents 
offended against me, and it is your fault too," and forthwith devoured him. 
The proverb sa3rs : " If you want to impute a crime to any one, why distress 
yourself at the want of an excuse 1" This is what is meant. 

The two mice. 
In a retired village were two mice, who were both relatives and friends. 
One of them went to live in the city, and one day unexpectedly she came to 
the village to visit her old friend. The country mouse begged to be allowed to 
entertain her. But the provisions which she brought out were coarse and foul, 
and were not good enough for the city mouse, who said : " Your abode is not very 
beautiful, and your household food is neither fine nor savoury, why not come 
with me to the city and take a look at the world?" The village mouse gladly 
went with her, and on arriving at the city she fovmd certainly that the food 
was very different. But one day, as the two mice were together drinking, a 
fierce dog suddenly made his appearance, and was nearly seizing upon the 
country mouse and carrying her off. The country mouse, in great alarm, 
enquired, saying : " Are these evils always here 1" ZTeryrienc? replied : "Yes." 
Then the country mouse begged to be excused, and said : " This is no happi- 
ness to me, with all this terror and good victuals. There is nothing like peace 
and coarse husks." The common saying is : " It is better to drink rice-water 
with pleasant feelings, than to eat the rice that produces sorrow*." This 
is just what it means. 

♦ Lit. 'opening eye-brow rice-water* than 'sorrowing eye-brow rice.* 


Eatracts thorn/ th£/ ChJby ybv tsm-yau. 

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