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Full text of "A handbook of field botany, comprising the flowering plants and ferns indigenous to the British Isles, arranged according to the natural system. The orders, genera, and species carefully analyzed, so as to facilitate their discrimination; with a synoptical table of the genera according to the Linnæan classification; and a glossary of terms"

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-ZAu■AAin,/^A7^.f/fAt7. /y\' .Ttf/nrx ?>i'' filoshtin . IV-PT 



HANDBOOK OF FIELD BOTANY, 



THE FLOWERING PLANTS AND FERNS 



THE BRITISH ISLES, 

[OED ACCOBDIHa TO THE NATURAL STBTEK. 

THE ORDERS, GENERA, AND SPECIES 

IBDIBOBIUIIIATIOIII 



A SraOPTICAL TABLE OF THE GENERA /^CU?/;^ 



A GLOSSABY OF THOSE TEBMS MOST COMMONLT 




WILLIAM E. STEELE, A.B.M.B. 



DUBLIN 
JAMES M'GLASHAN, 21 D'OLIEB-STREET. 

WILLIAM a. OBR AHD CO. U7 STBAMD LONDON. 



Dublin : Trinted bj Edward Bull, 6, B«ch«lorVw»lk. 



INTRODUCTION. 



In preparing the following pages for publication, I have been desirous 
to supply the student in botany with a guide to the floral productions 
of the British Isles, which, arranged according to the principles of the 
natural system, should embrace all that might be found necessary to 
enable him to identify species with ease and certainty. 

The present advanced and advancing state of botanical science 
in these countries renders it unnecessary for me to defend the 
adoption of the system of natural orders, as the basis of a work like 
the present, in preference to that of Linnasus ; the public voice has 
now decided this question; so that the advocate for the Linnsean 
system, in place of being an effective assailant, is now compelled to 
act on the defence. 

The very simple and superficial nature of the inquiries necessary to 
be instituted in assigning to any plant its class and order in the sys- 
tem of the great Swede, is the chief, if not the only, reason that can be 
urged to justify the continued use of that arrangement. It must be 
borne in mind, however, that the investigation does not end with this ; 
for in order to determine the genus of which the plant is a species in 
the heterogenous assemblage thus brought together, other and fre- 
quently most minute points of structure must be inquired into, sur- 
rounding this phase of the investigation with considerable difficulties. 
In the natural system these difficulties are merely transferred to the 
determination of the natural order ; but this once accomplished, that 
of the genus is comparatively simple. So far, then, it is apparent that 



IV tKTRODtrCTION* 

the difficulties in the application of either system, to the determina- 
tion of genera, are nearly balanced. If, however, we can simplify the 
investigation by which we can assign a plant to its natural order, then 
the only plea against the condemnation of that of Linnseus is removed, 
and we are justified in venerating it, merely as the beautiful struc- 
ture of a past age, but which is altogether unsuited to the require- 
ments of a more enlightened generation. 

It is, however, by junior students that the difficulties which oppose 
the application of a Flora, to the practical pursuit of botany, con- 
structed on a system so diffuse as that of Natural Orders are chiefly 
felt ; and hence, in the endeavour to render that system available to 
young botanists, it is necessary not only to arrange the orders in a 
clear and judicious method, but to make that arrangement dependent 
not on those strictly essential characters which are frequently so mi- 
nute, as to require the aid of the dissecting-knife and microscope to 
investigate, but on others more easily determined, yet of a less ordinal 
value. In the present work I have attempted to carry out these 
views, and have therefore given analytical tables of the orders, genera, 
and species, constructed on characters so practical, as, I have reason 
to believe, may lead even the most inexperienced to the identification 
of any plant. Many botanists, from early associations and long 
habit, prefer employing the Linnsean arrangement ; for these an ana- 
lysis of the genera according to that system is also prepared. 

The method of using this book is, therefore, as follows : an un- 
known plant is submitted to examination; it is first tested by the 
characters given in the analytical table of the natural orders, in 
order to discover to which of them it belongs. That found, the stu- 
dent is to turn to the page indicated by the number affixed to the 
ordinal name; he there finds the order, with its description, — ^the 
essential or diagnostic characters, taken in connexion with the head- 
ing of the page, being printed in italics — and with which he finds the 
plant under examination to agree. That natural order embraces an 
assemblage of genera, arranged in a table similar to that of the 
natural orders ; and by a like process, the genus to which the plant 
is referable, is determined, the accuracy of which may be verified by 
comparing it with the generic description immediately preceding the 
arrangement of the species. In a similar manner, the specific deno- 
mination is discovered, observing, however, that respecting the species 
their analyses and descriptions are incorporated. If in the course of 



INTBODCrcnON. 



the examination, the meaning of a word is reqaired, the student is 
referred to the glossary ; and should the case need it, he may find 
the form illustrated by a figure in the frontispiece. 

Haying now obtained the specific and generic name of the plant, 
to which order, division, sub-class, and class the plant belongs, on 
looking at the symbols under the name of the species, he learns its du- 
ration, time of flowering, colour, in which of the three kingdoms alone 
the plant has been discovered, if it have not been found in all, or if it 
be exclusively a native of the Isles of Jersey, Guernsey, &c., as indi- 
cated by the letter C. ; and finally, by the last ^gare on the right 
hand, whether it be a plant of rare or frequent occurrence. As this 
last^mentioned enumeration has been adopted, with slight modifica- 
tion, from the list of British plants of the Botanical Society of Lon- 
don, it is therefore better to give the following extract from their 
*' Explanations" appended to the list : — 

** Some ready rule for de(;iding upon the rarity or frequency of 
species has been long wanted. • • . The best test as yet given, 
is found in the number of local Floras, in which the several species 
are mentioned. Accordingly, a careful comparison has been made 
of the plants enumerated in twenty of the most complete local Floras, 
and the number of these Floras in which each species respectively 
occurs, will be found in the figures" which are placed farther to the 
right of the symbols under each specific name. '* It will be easy to 
bear in mind, that the higher the number, the more common the 
plant, which the reverse obtains, respecting those species indicated by 
a lower figure. As a general rule, a variety is of less frequency than 
the typical form of the species." 

A little consideration will serve to convince all of the utility of 
this indication, notwithstanding that such can only approximate the 
truth ; and it must be remembered, that Ireland not having been in- 
cluded by the Society, in the preparation of these numbers, the 
enumeration respecting the rarity or frequency of species found 
therein, may, in some instances, be even less exact. 

With reference to the arrangement of the orders adopted, it may 
not be unnecessary to ofier a few remarks, as it differs from those 
Natural Systems more generally known as such ; however, it must 
be i^pparent, that the present would not be a fit place or oppor- 
tunity either to enter upon the discussion of the relative merits 
of any systematic arrangement of plants, or to state all the rea* 

a 2 



Tl INTRODUCTION. 

sons by which I have been influenced in preferring that now bronght 
forward. 

The idea has long occupied my mind, that the principles of y^eta- 
ble transformation or morphology, might be made available in the 
formation of the higher divisions of flowering plants, in the same 
manner that the morphology of the simple cell may be used in the 
arrangement of the lower Cryptogamiae. Botanists are now so familiar 
with the doctrine, hinted at by Linnaeus, but more distinctly enun- 
ciated by Groethe, of all parts of a flower being, in truth, nothing but 
modified leaves, — of the bracts, calycine divisions, petals, stamens, 
and pistils, being leaves altered in texture and form, — ^Uiat it is not 
necessary here to enter more fully into this matter. To effect these 
metamorphoses, it is apparent that some special vital forces are 
called into action ; and we are justified in the inference that those 
flowers which exhibit the most extensive departures from the original 
type, as the result of a more intense action of these forces, ought to be 
regarded as possessing a higher structural nature than those wherein 
the primitive model may be more evidently traced. It is manifest 
then, that the most simple metamorphosis the leaves undergo is in the 
production of flowers, all the parts of which most nearly resemble the 
former, in being distinct from one another ; and that when these sepa- 
rate parts appear in a new condition, by their cohering more or less 
intimately with each other, a more complete alteration is effected. 
Therefore it is, I conceive, that flowers whose parts thus cohere, 
are to be considered as possessing a more exalted structure than 
those in which the several floral whorls and the members of each are 
distinct. 

In the construction of a system for the arrangement of flowering 
plants according to these views, the following principle may be 
enunciated : — Thai plants whose /lowers exhibit their several parts in 
a state of separation^ are to he placed in a lower position than those in 
which their several parts are in a state of cohesion ; and on this prin- 
ciple, the table of natural orders immediately preceding the descrip- 
tions is constructed. 

In this the acknowledged division of plants into those with stamens 
and pistils, FHANsaooAMiiE, and those without, Cbtptooakl£, is pre- 
served, as well as the classes of Exooens or Dicottlebons, and 
Endogens or Monocotyledons. The former of these classes has 
been separated into three sub-classes, the lowest in which either 



INTRODUCTION. Vn 

the stamens or pistils are absent by abortion, — yiz,, the Diclinous 
sub-class, of which abortions of the different parts of the flower are 
the most obyions character; and the higher sub-classes, including 
those plants whose flowers are perfect, wherein the Calyx is free 
from the ovary or Htpootnous, and those in which these organs are 
in a state of union — the Ccdyx being Febiotnous. With this sub-class 
the series commences. 

But among Ferigynous Exogens, we find some plants with flowers, 
having their corollas composed of separate petals, — Afopetalous or 
Folypetalous ; or of these united to one another, Stnpetalous, — or 
Monopetalous. Of the latter, in conformity with the principle 
still kept in view, none appear entitled to hold so high a rank as 
those possessing composite flowers, the tendency to contract adhesions 
among the several parts of these being so strong, that not only are 
their flowers singularly modified thereby, but the peduncles of the 
separate florets being consolidated, imite to form that fleshy organ, 
which botanists have named the receptacle. The Apopetalous divi- 
sion embraces not only all those with flowers, in which the petals are 
disunited, but. those in which they are altogether absent. The latter 
condition of the flower being so manifestly a degeneration of the former, 
that I conceive botanists are justified in combining them (the Folypeta- 
lous and Apetalous divisions of Jussieu) into one division, here named 
Apopetalous. Independently of other reasons for this, it will be seen 
that by thus grouping the orders in these divisions, a considerable 
advantage is ^ected ; as for example, in that section of the Apopeta- 
lous Hypogynous Exogens, characterised by the presence of a large 
albumen in the seed, (from thirty-one to forty-one inclusive) orders 
are placed near to one another, having many characters in common, 
not the least remarkable of which is, the possession of an amphitropal 
embryo. The linear sequence of the orders will also be found ex- 
ceedingly easy. 

The Hypogynous sub-class is in like manner separated into the 
Synpetalous and Apopetalous Divisions. 

Each of these sections of Exogens, Diclinous, Hypogynous, and Fe- 
rigynous, I have submitted to a further sub-division, characterised 
by certain peculiarities in the structure of the ovary, depending on 
the comparative completeness of union, or distinctness of the carpels. 
In applying the principle of cohesion, with reference to the ovary, I 
found much difficulty; and it is feared, that a more perfect division 



Till INTRODUCTION. 

cannot in our present state of knowledge be attempted, than that 
given in the table ; yiz., one section in which the ovary consists of a 
single carpel^ of several distinct ones^ or these consolidated^ but bear- 
ing the placentse in their axis; and the other^ having compound, 
1-celled ovaries^ in which the placentaB are parietaL It requires but 
a little consideration to perceive, that in this arrangement, the oc- 
casional occurrence of plants having consolidated ovaries with axile, 
but very rarely parietal placentae, in orders whose tendency it is to 
produce them in a separate condition, or vice versa, justifies the idea, 
of a natural grouping of such being attempted ; those plants being re- 
moved, whose ovaries are 1-celled with parietal placentae, and which 
have no tendency to exhibit their carpels in a state of separation. 
The importance of the character on which the next assemblage rests, the 
presence or absence of albumen in the seed, is so generally admitted 
by botanists of the present day, but advocated with peculiar force by 
Professor Lindley, that I feel it unnecessary to do more than refer 
to the various works of that author for an exposition of clear views 
on this subject. 

With respect to Endogens, the only separation of this class which 
I conceive may, with propriety, be admitted, is into the Perigy- 
nous and Hypogynous sub-classes. The occurrence of diclinous 
flowers among these, is of too frequent occurrence in orders typi- 
cally perfect to sanction the formation of a distinct division for their 
reception. 

As to the class of Dictyogens proposed by Professor Lindley, 

plants characterised by branching ribbed leaves, and a structure of 
the stem almost similar to that of an Endogen, — ^however valuable it 
may be in a general view of the vegetable kingdom, yet, there being 
but two examples of this class in our indigenous flora, and one of 
these, indeed, imperfect, I have considered it better to avoid the 
introduction of it here ; and have, therefore, placed the respective 
orders in which these examples are found near to each other in the 
Perigynous and Hypogynous sub-classes of Endogens. 

It may be mentioned in support of the claims of the proposed 
arrangement, to be considered natural, that examples occurring 
among the orders, exceptional to the characters of the class, sub- 
class, or division, wherein the order of which they are members is 
found, tend to the structure, characteristic of classes below them in 
the proposed series ; whereas the cases are very few which exhibit 



INTRODUCTION. IX 

any tendencj to develop a structure which, according to the pro- 
posed arrangement characterizes those of a higher rank. Thus, in the 
Diclinous sub-class, we have no example of flowers perfect and ocmi- 
plete in all their parts, while the occurrence of diclinous plants in 
the Perigynous and Hypogynous sub-classes, is by no means un- 
common. Again, among the Apopetalous, Hypogynous orders, 
cases are extremely rare of plants, rising into the Ferigynous sub- 
class, or Synpetalous divisions ; whereas, in these latter, examples of 
the Apopetalous corolla, or the superior ovary are comparatively 
firequent. 

These considerations, thus briefly stated, induce me to believe, 
that the present arrangement is a near approach to the formation of a 
really natural classification, which, whatever be its imperfections, one 
obvious advantage, at least, it possesses, that of being formed upon a 
single, simple principle, intelligible and easy of application, equally 
by the youngest student, as well as the more advanced botanist. 

In the names given to the natural orders, the terminations of 
some will be seen to difier from those most commonly in use. Agreeing 
with Dr. Lindley in the advantages of employing a systematic nomen- 
clature, I have thought it better to preserve, in as many instances as 
possible, the older ordinal designation, and form the few which difier 
from them upon the same model. I have, therefore, employed -&£, as 
the termination of the orders, whence will be found, I conceive, to 
result a more harmonious assemblage of names, than by adopting 
-ACEJE, proposed by Dr. Lindley. I have used -injb, as the termina- 
tion of the Sub-orders, and -idje, that of the Tribes. 

It now remains for me to express the deep sense of obligation I 
feel towards those friends whose valuable assistance has enabled me 
not only to complete, but to enrich this work. 

And first, my best thanks are due to John Barker, Esq., M. D. 
for his admirable analysis and arrangement of the Ferns, which 
will be found greatly to simplify the study of this interesting order 
of plants. 

For the able description and arrangement of the Salices, I am in- 
debted to the Rev. J. £. Leefe, of Bishop-Wearmouth, Sunderland, 
the well-known author of the Salictum Britannicum. A principal 
feature in this arrangement, is the considerable reduction which has 
been effected iu the number of species, whereby the study of this much 



INTRODUCTION. 



n^lected genus is rendered far less embarrassing to the young botanist, 
and more likely to lead him to its successful prosecution. 

The name (^ Edwin Lees, Esq. 9 of Henwick, Worcester, has been 
long known as an ardent investigator of the perplexing genus Rubus. 
From this botanist I hare received the valuable contribution on the 
British Rubi, which appears in the following pages. Therein wiU be 
found described some recently-discovered species, thus rendering 
the present a most complete enumeration of the indigenous species of 
this genus. 

For the rest of the work — ^with all its imperfections and errors — ^the 
responsibility rests on me alone. These I have endeavoured to render 
as few as possible, having diligently examined all the works of merit 
on this subject, that are known to botanists as such. In the nomen- 
clature I have, with few exceptions, followed the Catalogue of the 
Botanical Society of London ; omitting some fifty or more species 
which, for many reasons, ought no longer be permitted |to encumber 
our lists of indigenous plants. In deviating in some few instances 
from that list, I have done so for reasons unnecessary to state here, but 
which appeared to me sufficient to warrant the course adopted. One 
material departure from established custom, however, requires notice ; 
that is, in removing the stipulous sections of the genera Arenaria and 
Spergula, from the Caryophylleae, to the Ulecebrese. The only con- 
stant difference existing between these orders, being in the presence 
or absence of stipules, justifies me in this separation. But I should 
have hesitated in making this change, were it not that I have had the 
decided opinion of Dr. Lindley expressed in its favour. It seems to 
me, however, that a better course would be to incorporate these orders, 
than to continue their separation on so trifting a character as the pre- 
sence or absence of stipules. In the descriptions, the British Flora 
of Sir William J. Hooker has been taken as the text. I have also 
largely consulted Smith's English Flora, Lindley's Synopsis, and Mr. 
Babington's British Botany, to which work I am chiefly indebted 
for the initial letters, by which the country alone wherein the plant 
has been discovered, is indicated. Sowerby's British Botany has 
been much used, and also Reichenbach's Icones Plantarum. De 
Candolles Prodromus, and his Botanicon Gallicum have been exten- 
sively consulted, as well as the admirable Flora of Shropshire, by 
the Rev. Mr. Leighton, and the excellent Flora Hibemica of Mr. 



INTRODUCTION* XI 

Mackay. To ihe works of Dr. Pamell on the Graminesy I am much 
indebted for the asdutanee which has enabled me to complete the 
description and arrangement of that difficult order. In the prepara- 
tion of the characters of the natural orders, Lindley's noble work, 
'' The Vegetable Kingdom," has been mainly used. 

Notwithstanding the assistance derived from such eminent sources* 
I feel it would be presumptuous in me to suppose, that errors may 
not be discovered throughout the work. But it shall be my most 
anxious endeavour, should the work reach a future edition, to render 
it as perfect and as safe a guide as it is capable of being made. 

Lastly, the author wishes it to be understood that the present work, 
being prepared merely to facilitate the labours of the young exploring 
botanist, is not to be considered as an attempt to satisfy or remove 
the doubts of the more experienced. For this purpose, other and 
more extended works must be consulted ; but which, either on account 
of their inconvenient size are unsuitable as field companions, or from 
their method of arrangement, cannot but be regarded as sealed books 
to the great majority of junior students. 

W. E. S. 

» 

DVBLiv, Jul/ Itt, 1S47. 



CORRIGENDA. 



Page xz, line 29, insert " or obeolete." 
„ XX, „ 80, for ♦* 4,'' re«i *» 5.** 

„ 19, Senecio aquatieu*, paludotui^ Sarraetnicut ought to be num- 
bered 7, A, 9, instesd of 6, 7, 8. 
„ 4I« Une 5 from bottom, insert ** or. l-ceUed." 
„ 41, „ 2 from bottom, insert*' or. 2-celled." 
„ 46, „ 26,for"p(5/»/a,"resd**^ofi£a.** 

„ 63, the last four lines of the analytical table ought to stand thus : — 
Pod falcate or spiral. ..18. MsDlCAeo. 

Pod straight. 

Fl's minute, reddish. 17. Trigojiblla. 

Fl's large, yellow. .. ..19. Lotus. 

., 96, Une 28, for •' pantSthix, read, " pantotkix." 
„ 99, „ after ** Olaucidm," insert the generic character : — 

'* Stigmas 2 sessile, caps, elongated, 2-Talyed , plaoentsB 
connected by a spongy dissepiment.** 
„ 102, „ 7, for'*Alwich,**read'' Alnwich.** 
„ 102, „ 13, for *' n/i^iMV," read '' n/t^Ko." 
„ 112, „ 22, for »• Pet. 6," read " Pet. 5. Stam. 6.'» 
„ 135, „ 2 ftom bottom, for" oerrtcrftor," read" oer«cotor." 
„ 155, „ 19 from bottom, for " Kock," read " Koch." 
„ 161, „ 4, for "*em/ier»u>«M," read *»*em|»errtren*." 
„ 179, „ 9, for " on" read " or." 
„ 179, „ 22 from bottom, for " and nearly so," read " and sessile or 

nerrly so." 
„ 208, last line, for " serratum," read " serratiu.*' 
„ 212, line 4, for " hyporhoria,"' read " hyperbdrea." 



GLOSSARY. 



The numben nfn to the flgnrea in the Frontlspieoe. 



Acerose, itifT, ilender, sharp-pointed. 
jieieular, needle-ihaped. 
AeuUaUt ftunished with prickles. 
Ab-^ in combination, signifies out of. 
Aerogen^ a plant growing at its end onlj, not 

increasing in diameter. — v, page 2Q9L* 
AcummaUt taper-pointed, bnt flat ( 1 ). 
Adnate^ adhering to the face of anytliing ; as 
when the anther is attached to the fllunent 
hj its whole length. 
Adpretstd ^ Appressed. 
Akenium^ a hard, indehisoent, simple fruit, con- 
taining a loose seed. 
Albumen^ a substance found in certain seeds, 
generally suzronnding the embryo (2, 34, 
35,36). 
AtoeoUUe^ resembling a honey-comb. 
Amemtum or Catkin^ a spike of flowers destitute 
of calyx or corolla, and the whole fiJling oS 
in a single piece. 
AmpkUropal^ cunred round the body to which it 

belongs (41). 
Amptexieault clasping tiae stem i when tlie base 

of the leaf surrounds the stem (3). 
Angular f finrnislied with angles (4). 
^miiMilr, plants which grow, perfect their seed, 

and die in one year. 
Apetaloutf without petals. 
Apieulate^ terminating abruptly in a little point 

»). 
Apoearptmtt an ovary in which the carpels are 

distinct from each other. 
^/N>p0lalMa, a corolla formed of distinct petals. 
Appressed^ lyinc dose against the body to which 

it is attached. 
ApterotUt without winga. 
Arachnoid, oorered with loose, white, entangled, 

thin hairs, resembling a spider's web, or un- 

tpun eotton. 
Arboreoutt as a tree. 

Areoiatt, dirided into a number of little spaces. 
AriUu; a process of the placenta, adhering to, 

and often sarronnding the seed. 
Aristattt Atmiahed with an awn. 
AmeutaHon^ the place where one body is jointed 

to another. 



Ascending f baring a direction upwards, with an 

oblique Iwse (6). 
Attenuate^ gradually narrowing in breadth. 
Auricledt eared; haying two small, rounded 

lobes at base (7). 
Atent the mid-rib elongated into a bristle, which 

quits the lamina a little below the apex (8). 
AxilUtt the angle formed by the union of the 

leaf and stem. 
Axile^ placed in the axis of anything. 
Axist ibe line that passes through the centre of 

anything. 

Baccate^ like a berry. 

Bearded, famished with a long tuft of hidrs. 

Berry, a 1-or more-eelled, inferior, pulpy com- 
pound fruit, the seeda scattered throng tbie 
pulp. 

Bicuepidate, flimished with 2 points. 

Biennial, a plant requiring two seasons to ma- 
ture its seeds, and then dying. 

Bifariout, placed in two rows. 

Bifid, diyided into two segments. 

Bilabiate, a calyx or coroUa, separated into two 
unequal divisions, an upper and lower (9). 

Binate, two leaflets growing from tlie same 
point. 

Bi-pinnnte, pinnate leares with pinnate leaflets. 

Bi-pinnatifid, pinnatifid leares with pinnatifld 
segments. 

Bi-temeUe, each division of a temate leaf being 
binate. 

Bracts, small bodies which are placed on tlia 
peduncles, nearest to tlie calyx. 

Bristles, rigid liairs. 

Bulbs, underground Irads, consisting of nume- 
rous imbricated, ilesliy scales. 

Caducous, fdling off soon. 

Cofsious, grey. 

CcespUose, growing in little tufts. 

CtUcarate, spurred. 

CampanulatCt bell-sliaped, a calyx, corolla, or 
other organ in which the tube is inflated 
and enlarged into the limb ilh>m a rounded 
base (10). 

b 



XIV 



OL088ART. 



Canaliculate., channelled or ftmowed. 

Catiescent^ hoary. 

Capillary, very slender. 

Capitate, growing in ahead ; when a terate body 
ends abruptly in an enlarged, globose sum- 
mit ell, 12). 

Capsule, a 1 or more-celled, many-seeded, su- 
perior, dry, compound ftuit, dehiscing by 
valves or pores. 

Carinate, keeled, with a sharp, projecting ridge, 
arising from a more or less prominent rib 
(13). 

Cariopsis, a l-celled, 1-seeded, dry and in- 
dehiscent fruit, formed of 2 or more car- 
pels, with the pericarp and seed inseparably 
united. 

Carpels, the elementary portioni of which the 
ovary is formed. 

Catkin =z Amentum, 

Caudate, tailed. 

Cauline, of the stem. 

Cemuous = drooping. 

Chaluza, that part in a seed where the vessels of 
the raphe pass from the exterior integument, 
and expand into the inner one. 

Ciliated, edged with hairs like an eye-lash. 

Cinereous, ashy-gray. 

Circinate, rolled inwards like the head of a 
crozier (14). 

CirrAi, tendrils (18). 

Clavate, club-shaped, gradually thickening up- 
wards fh>m a very tapering base. 

Claw, the narrow, tapering base of petals (15). 

Coarctate, contracted, drawn cloae together. 

Cobvjebbed ■=. Arachnoid. 

Cochleatet like the shell of a snail. 

Concrete, hardened, or fbrmed into one mass. 

Conduplicate, when a body is doubled so that 
the two sides are parallel. 

Cone or Strobilus, a collective fruit, formed firom 
an amentum, the carpels of which are open, 
in which lie the seeds exposed. 

Cof^'ugate, joined in pairs. 

Connate, when the bases of two opposite leaves 
are united (16). 

Connivent, converging, approaching together. 

Convolute, rolled together upwards. 

Cordate, shaped like a. heart on cards, that is, 
with 2 rounded lobes at base (33). 

Cormtu, a solid, roundish, underground stem. 

Coriaceous, leathery. 

Cornute, terminating in a process resembling a 
horn. 

Coryliform, cordate and bulging beyond its cen- 
tre or middle, like a hazel-leaf, somewhat 
suddenly cuspidate. 

Corymbt a raceme or panicle, the lower pedicels 
long, bearing the flowers on a level with 
the interior shorter ones. 

Crenate, the margin notched with rounded 
teeth (19). 

Crescent-shaped or lunate, like the figure of the 
new moon. 

Crispedf curled ; when the margin is excessively 
irregular, divided, and twisted. 

Cruciate, shaped like a Maltese cross. 

CucuUatet shaped like a hood or cowL 



Culm, theitalkofj^ 

Cuneate, wedge-shaped^ Inversely triangular 
(21). 

Cupule, a cup- shaped involucnim, in which the 
truit of the oak and other amentiferous treee 
is seated. 

Cuspidate, tapering gradually into a rigid point 
(22). 

Cuticle, the outer skin or epidermis. 

Cut, regularly divided by deep incisions (23). 

CyUndrictd, terate, of the same diameter through- 
out. 

Cyme, a mode of inflorescence, in which the 
branches of a divided panicle are short and 
level-topped, the central flowers opening 
before those of the circumference. 

Decandrous, having ten stamens. 

Deciduous, falling off. 

Declinate, curving downwards. 

Decompound, as when a leaf is doubly pinnate, 
or a panicle, the branches of which are also 
panicled. 

Decumbent, lying upon the earth, but rising at 
the apex. 

Decurrent, prolonged downwards beyond the 
point of insertion 1.26). 

D^futxed, bent downwards. 

Dehiscent, opening. 

Deliquescent, branching, eo that the principal 
axis or branch cannot be traced in the sub- 
divisions. 

Deltoid, shaped like the Greek ^. 

Demersed ^ Submersed. 

Dentate, the margin divided into sharp teeth, 
with concave edges (20). 

Denticulate, finely toothed. 

Dependant, hanging straight down. 

Depressed, flattened firom above. 

Descending, having a direction gradually down- 
wards. 

Diadelphous, when the filaments are united into 
2 sets. 

Diandrous, a flower with 2 stamens. 

Dichotomous, forked, branching in pun. 

Didynamous, a flower with 2 long and 2 short 
stamens. 

Didymous, twin, divided into 2 equal paita. 

Diffuse, spreading widely. 

Digitate, fingered, divided nearly to the baee 
into 6 narrow lobes (26). 

Dioecious, fi's which bear stamens only on one 
plant, and pistils only on another. 

Discoid, when in compound flowers all the flo- 
rets are tubular. 

Disk, the fleshy, annular process which ■nr<* 
rounds the ovary; also, the centre part of 
compound flowers, which consists of tniralac 
florets. 

Dissepiments, the partitions by which a seed 
vessel is divided internally, fbrmed of the 
walls of two contiguous carpels. 

Distichous, arranged in two opposite rows. 

Divaricate, growing in a straggling manner* 

Diverging, parting at an acute angle. 

Dodecandrous, having 12 itameni. 

Delabrifimn, azendiaped. 



OLOSSABr. 



XV 



Ditrsalt fixed on the back of anything. 
Doumy, pubescent^ oovaved with very short, 

weak, dense hairs. 
Drooping^ cemuousy inclining to one side, so 

tiiat the apex is directed to the horixon. 
Duplicate f doubled, in twins. 
Dnipe, a superior, simple fhiit, the pericarp 

fleshy, and the endocarp hard and stony. 

Eared = Auricled. 

EUijOiey oval, having the mathematical figure 

of an ellipse, but with acute ends (27). 
Emargmate^ haying a notch at the end as if a 

piece were cut out (29). 
Endogenous^ see page 164. 
flpiig'ynottf, placed upon the ovary ; aathestam. 

in fig. 28. 
Epidermisy the outer skin of the bark. 
Epiphytes^ plants growing upon other plants, 

from which, however, they obtain no suste- 



Equitanty when, in »stivation, the sides of the 

separate parts overli^p each other completely, 

and in a parallel manner (30). 
Erase or Eroded^ when the margin is irregularly 

denticulated, as if gnawed. 
Even^ the reverse of inequality of surface. 
Exogenous — ^v. page 5. 
Exserted, when one organ projects out of and 

beyond another body. 
Extrorse^ tvrned away £rom the axis to which it 

belongs. 

Falcate^ plane and curved like a reaper's sickle. 
Fascicled, arranged in parcels or bundles. 
Fastigiate, when all the parts are nearly parallel, 

each pointing upwards to the sky, and fi)rm- 

ing a pyramid. 
Fibrous, composed of fibres. 
Fiddle-shaped, panduriform, obovate, with a 

deep sinus at each side (31 ). 
Filtform, slender, like a thread, not thicker in 

one part than in another. 
Fimbriate, fringed, with long, thickish, filiform 

processes. 
Fingered =s Digitate, 
Fistular, hollow like a tube. 
Flexuose, bent in an undulating manner. 
Forked::^ Dichotomous. 
Floseulous, compound flowers consisting of all 

tubular florets. 
FoHttceous^ of the form of leaves. 
FoUicle, a 1 -celled, 1 or more-seeded, simple 

tndt, opening by the ventral suture, and 

bearing the seeds on the margins of the su- 
ture. 
Frutescent or Fruticose, shrubby. 
Fkgaeeous, foiling off or perishing very soon. 
Fimiele, the stalk by which the seed is attached 

to the placenta. 
Fusi/brm, spindle-shaped, thick, tapering at 

each end. 

Galeate, helmet-shaped, like the upper lip of a 

ringent or labiate corolla. 
Gemutue, leaf-buds. 
O^mcuUttuSt kneed, bend abruptly as a knee. 



Gibbous, convex or protuberant. 

Glabrous, smooth. 

Glaucous, sea-green, or having a hoary, bluish 
appearance. 

Globose, spherical, or nearly so. 

Glume, the outer of the floral envelopes of 
grasses. 

Grooved, furrowed, channelled. 

Gynandrous, with the stamens and pistils com- 
bined into a column. 

Gyrate =:■ Circinate. 

Habit, general appearance of a plant. 

Hair-pointed, piliferous, terminating abruptly 
in a little point. 

Hairy, pilose, covered with short, weak, thin 
hairs. 

Hastate, halbert-shaped, abruptly enlarged at 
the base into two acute, diverging lobes 
(32). 

Heart-shaped = Cordate. 

Herbaceous, of a thin, green, and cellular tex- 
ture. 

Hermaphrodite, having both stamens and pistils 
in the same flower. 

Heterotropal, when the embryo lies across the 
hilum, 

Hexandrous, having 6 stamens. 

Hilum, or scar by which the seed is attached 
either to the funicle or placenta. 

Hirsute, shaggy, covered with long, weak hairs. 

Hispid, covered with long, rigid hairs. 

Hoary, incanus, covered with very short, dense 
hairs, so as to give a white appearance to 
the surface. 

Homotropal, an embryo, having the same direc- 
tion as the seed, but not straight (34). 

Honey-combed, alveolate. 

Homed ■= Comute. 

Hypocratertform, salver-shaped, a corolla with 
a slender tube, and a flat limb (36). 

Hypogynous, inserted beneath the ovary (.45% 

Icosandrous, 12 to 20 perigynous stamens. 
Imbricate, lying over each other like the tiles of 

a house. 
Incanus = Hoary. 
Incised = Cut. 
Included, as when the stamens are enclosed in 

the tube of the corolla. 
Indehiscent, not opening. 
Inferior, (Calyx) inserted below the ovary. 
lT\flated, bladdery, thin, swelling equally as if 

inflated with air. 
Injtexed, suddenly bent inwards. 
Inflorescence, the mode in which flowers are 

arranged upon the stalk. 
Infkndibidiform, funnel-shaped; tubeobconical, 

with an enlarged limb c38). 
Innate, adhering to the apex of anything. 
Internodcs, the space between the joint of a 

stem. 
Introrse, turned towards the axis. 
Involute, rolled up with. 
Irregular, in which the parts of an organ are 

unsymmetrical (9). 



XVI 



GLOSSARY. 



Jointtd-=^ Articulated, 

KeiUd = CariMote. 
Kneed ^ Geniculate, 

LobeUum^ lip ; the larfe mostly defonned petal 

of grchidaceoM flowen. 
Labiate ■=i Bilabia te , 
Laciniatey dirided bj de^, taper-poiiited in- 

daioDB (39). 
Laneeotatet nsrrowl/ elliptical, t^ieriiig to each 

end (40). 
LeqfUtty the leaf-like meaben of a cei upoii i rf 

leaf. 
J>ft£idiitor, leiM-ehaped. 
lAber^ the inner bark« 
Ligulatet Btrap-ahHwd. 
Linear^ narrow, witii the two oppotite nwifint 

panUel. 
Lipped^ Bilabiate. 
Lip=LabeUwn. 
Lobed^ partly di^ded into a determinate number 

of Kgmenta. 
Loeulieidal^ ddiiaeence, when the ralTca bear 

the diaaeplments in their axil f 43). 
Lomentumt a legnme which is jointed trans- 

Tenely, and falls to pieces when ripe. 
Lunate, creseent-iiiaped. 
Lucid, with a bright and shining snrfkoe. 
LyreUe, with one large, terminal lobe, and se- 

Teral smaller ones, diminishing in siae to 

the base (44). 

Medulla, the pith. 

Medullary rays, the lines in an exogcnoos stem, 

wliich are seen radiating from tlie pith to 

the bark. 
Monadetphous, baring the ^laments cohering 

inatobe. 
Monandroue, with one stamen. 
MonecarpuM, an oraiy which is con^KMed of bat 

onecarpeL 
Moniltform, contracted at regular intervals like 

a string of beads. 
Monopetalout= Synpetaloue. 
Mono$epalotu-=i SynsepcUoue. 
Mucronate, abruptly terminated by a hard, short 

point (42). 
Mwricated, corenA with nmnerous short, hard 

points. 

Naked, glabrous. 

Napiform, turnip-shaped. 

Navicular, boat-shaped. 

Ifeckku:e'»kaped=:z Moniliform. 

Needle-skaped^ Acerose, 

Neuter, neither fumiahed with stamens nor pis- 
tils. 

Nodding, inclining fkxmi the perpendicular, so 
that the apex is directed downwards. 

Nodes, Joints or knots. 

Nodose, lisTing many nodes. 

Nucleus, the kernel. 

06., In composition, indicstei that the thing sig- 



niled is inrerlad, ■■ ebeewtate, inTcndy 
eordate; obovate, insctsely orate, Sx. 
Oblique, in outline, whea there ia a sUght ine- 
qoality in the two sides of avytting (S4). 
, in direction, when the margin points 



▼ertieally, the I 
OUeng, rather longer than elliptical, obtoae at 

each end (49X 
Obtuse, terminating gradnally in a roonded 

end (49). 
Oettmdrous, with 8 stamens. 
Opaque, dull, the opposite of shining. 
Opercular, eovcred with a lid (90). 
Orbicular, a plane surlhce eireamserfbed by a 

drde. 
OrtiboAnopol, stimight, and baring the same direc- 
tion as the body to whidi it belongs (34). 
Ocory, that part of the flower ia wliieh the seeds 

aie contained. 
Oval= EUipticaL 
Ooate, egg-sliaped, oblong, or dliptteal, bfoadest 

at the lowest end (51). 
Ovules, the nnimpregnated seeds whidi are 

tained in the orary. 



Palmate, dirided into 5 lobes, aboot half way 
down (52). 

Pandurifitrm= Piddle-skaped. 

Panicle, a raceme, the branches of whidi bear 
dusters of flowers instead of dnjjle ones. 

Papilionaceous, butterfly-shiqied ; an irregular 
^lopetalons corolla, of which the uppermost 
petal is called the vexiOum or standard, the 
two lateral ones the aUe or wings, and the 
two inferior ones, whidi are often oomlrfned, 
the carina or keel (56). 

Parenckyma, those parts offdaats which con- 
sist of lax, cellular tissue only. 

Parietal, arising from tiie inner lining of an or- 
gan. 

Parted, di^ded neariy to the base in a deter- 
minate nnmlier of segments. 

Patent, spreading. 

Pectinate, the same as pinnatifld, witii Tery nu- 
merous close and narrow segments, like the 
teeth of a comb (58). 

Pedate, a palmate leaf, with tiie 3 lateral lobes 
themselves divided into smaller segments 
(68). 

Pedicels, small footstalks of flowers. 

Peduncle, the common footstalk of flowers. 

Peltate, when the petiole is attached to the disk, 
instead of the margin (54). 

Pendulous, hanging downwards from weakness 
of the stalk. 

Perennial, lasting for several years. 

Perfoliate, when the two basal lobes of an am- 
plexicaul leaf are united together, so that 
the stem appears to pass through the sub- 
stance of the leaf (55). 

Periantk, in Endogens ; the envdope surround- 
ing the flower, in which the calyx cannot be 
distinguished from the corolla. 

Pericarp, the seed vesseL 

Perigynous, as the stamens or corolla, ^irtien 
ttey are inserted on the calyx, the latter 



€n:iOS8ABT. 



XVll 



btinc frte, or partUUjr AdharaBt to th* 

OTar7(48). 
Perigynoua, the oalyz if perigTnons, when it 

Muiomda, and is adbeient to Um orary (2S). 
Pertiittnt^ DOt taUiag oC 
Personate^ a labiate eonrila, with the Up* ckMed 

(61). 
Petals f the ■econd wkori of floral enTdopw. 
PetaMd, like a petal in texture. 
Petiole, the footatalk of learet. 
PhoHerogamout — t. page 6. 
Pktmog€amoue, haring the rtamtmt tad piatila 

ohfiooa. 
PkvUoid, leaf-like. 
Pilate^ eorered with short, weak, thin haira, or 

hair-lika ia coptnidiitiaetion to feathery. 
Pmmate, when timj/iit leafleta an airaafed along 

the fidea of a oommoa petii^ C&7). 
Pimnatifld, dirided into lateral wgnMotf almoet 

to the mid-rib. 
PitcAer-ekaped, caapaanlate, with a eontracted 

oriflee(S9). 
Plmited, foUadkngthwiae, like a Ika when half 



Planet when the rar&ee is lerel or flat. 

PUeaU=z Plaited. 

Plumose = Peathery. 

PbamuUt the young kares in the embryo. 

Pofygamotu, plants in which some flowers are 

ptstilUferons, some staminiferons, and some 

pcrlbet or hermaphrodite. 



iaddJaBent, flesby fridt ; fbt edis dry, with 

a cartflaginoaa or bony lining. 
Pr emore e, tnmeatc, but witfi a jagged termina- 
tion (70). 
Pneklet, shvp, rigid pr o c ess e s of the epidermia, 

fslling off whoi old. 
Proewedteml, qitcading orcr the sorfaee of the 

groond. 
ProltfereMtt bearing anmeroos branehea flrom 

some particolar point. 
pToetraU, lying flat. 
Pntmote, frosted, or eorered with a flne Moom 

like a plum. 
^M6eseei«<; downy. 
PjpriAyrat, pear-shived. 

P^ndimm, a 1-cdlad eapeale, dehiscing by a 
incision (50). 



Q mint st t , fly growing Ihnn fee 



porafc 



r, a meUm with stalked flowers (SO). 
r, the mid-rib of the frond of Ferns, 
r, the central stalk in some kinds of inflo- 
, 091 whidk tibe flowers are arranged, 
in ahead of flowers the onter ones 
i like any. 
.,.n>ecadiaglh»i the root. 
Jlmdiele, tiw portion of the embryo opposite to 

the pisasnle. 
Bmpki, the Tasealar dbaanel of communication 
ia inrtrtcd seeds, between the ehalasa and 
hflnm. 
Btetptmeie^ that part in fnm ponii d flowers on 
wUeh the flotets an ' 



Recurved, bent back. 

Regular, in which all the parts of a ealyz or 
corolla, Ac, an synunetrieaL, 

Reni/orm, kidneff-ehaped, crascent -i h a p edi with 
ronaded ends (68). 

Repand, with a sli^Uly nnerea, and TmilTilating 
margin. 

ResupifuUe, inverted by a twining of the stalk. 

Reticulated, ruHUd. 

Retrorse, tamed backwards. 

Retuee, obtnse, depressed in the oentn (69.) 

Revolute, rolled back. 

Rhomboid, oral, somewhat angular in ttia mid- 
dle (62). 

Ringent, gaping. 

Rotate, wheel-shaped, a syivetaloos eorolla, with 
a flat limb, and a Tcry diort tube (63). 

Rugose, reogh, or coarsely wrinkled. 

Runcinate, a leaf in which the sagmeato point 
backwards (64). 

Saccate, with a bag or pooch. 

SagittaU, shaped like the head of an anow (66). 

8€Uver' ^ lU ^ed si Hypoeraterififrm. 

Samara, a 2 or mor»<elled, s^arlor frait, the 
cells few-seeded, expanded into wings. 

Scabrous, roo^ with little aqtcrities. 

Scape, a stem arising from the root, bearing no- 
thing bat flowers. 

Scarious, membranons and dry. 

Seeund= UnHateraL 

Septieidal, dehiseing throngh the sspto (46). 

Sepii^agal, dddsefaig by the s^antion of the 
ralres from the dissepiments (47). 

Sepals, the sqiarate parte of the calyx. 

Serrated, cot like the teeth of a mw (74). 

Sessile, seated npon anything without a foot- 
stalk. 

Sete, bristles. 

ShaggY=. HtrstOe. 

Silicula, n nhort, dry, fSnr-seeded fhiit, formed 
by the onion of two carpels, and s p uri o us ly 
2-ceIIed by an expansion of the placenta. 

StUqua, dUEers iiram the last only in being long. 

Sinuate, baring the margin altematdiy with 
dc9 eoncarities and conTCxities (66). 

Spadix, when the flowers are dosdy arranged, 
withoot bracte, around a fleshy ra^is. 

Spatkulate, oUong, with the lower end rery 
madi atteaaated (67). 

Spike, towtn sessile, on along radiia. 

Spines or thorns, sbmrp, woody procsssss pro- 
ceeding from the stem. 

Spur, a hmg process, proceeding Ihan the flower. 

SteUate, formed like a star. 

Sapes, the petiole of the frond of Feras. 

StipitaU=i Stalked, 

Stipules, appsndsgis at the baae of tiie petiole of 
eertaia learea ( 18). 

Stoloniferems, haiiag cnepiag seioas. 

iSAvMlM, a coae. 

St^fnUieose, shrabby ia a slight degree. 

Superior (Calyx^, when the limb of the calyx 
sanwNiatethe orary. 



Tendrils, the twiaiag organs by which 
plantelay hold of others (IS). 

* *2 



XVlll 



GLOSSARY. 



Tapering, gradually narrowing. 

7«ra/e, taper, round and long. 

Testa, the covering of the wed. 

Tetradj/namout, 4 long, and 2 short stamens. 

Tomentose, covered with very short, rigid hairs. 

Toothed=z Dentate, 

Torulote, knotted, a cylindrical body, with ir- 
regular enlargements at intervals. 

Trichotomotu, branching in threes. 

Truncate, terminating very abruptly as if cut 
oflf (70). 

Tubers, fleshy bodies attached to underground 
stems. 

Turbinate, inversely conical, shaped like a top 
(71). 

Turgid, swollen. 

Umbel, when the pedicels all proceed ft-om a 
single point. When each pedicel bears a single 
flower it is simple ; when each pedicel bears 
a second umbel, it is compound. 

Uncinate, hooked. 

Unguiculate, furnished with a short claw. 

Unitateral, arranged on one side of anything. 

Urceolate = Pitcher-shaped (69). 



Utricle, dk 1 -celled, 1 or few-seeded, simple, mem- 
branous A'uit. 

Valves, the pieces into which the Aruit separates. 
Valvate, applied to each other by the margins 

only (72). 
Versatile, swinging lightly on a stalk, to which 

it is attached by the middle. 
VerticiUate= Whorled. 
VexiUum, see Papilionaceous. 
ViUous, shaggy. 
Viscid, adhesive, clammy. 
Viviparous, bearing young plants in place of 

seeds or flowers. 

Wavy, having the surface towards the margin 
alternately depressed and elevated. 

Waxy, of the texture and colour of wax. 

Wedge-shaped^=. Cuneate. 

Wheels haped= Rotate. 

Whorled, when several bodies are in opposition 
round a common axis (73). 

Winged, having a thin, broad margin. 

Woolly,'coyeTed with long, dense, matted, curled 
liairs. 



ARTIFICIAL ANALYSIS 



OP THE 



NATURAL ORDERS WHICH COMPRISE BRITISH SPECIES. 



FLOWERING PLANTS. 



Tree* or shrubs with distinct hark^ wood, and pith ; 
or herbs. Leaves branch-ribbed. FVs seldom 
3 or 6-nary, never arranged on a spadix, nor en- 
veloped by a spathe, 
f FVs with both stam. and pistil. 
X Ov, inferior. 

Cor. of one piece (Synpetalous), 
Cor. of 2 or more distinct pet., or 
(^ApopetaJous'). 
J Ov. superior. 

Cor. apopetalous. 
Cor. synpetalous. 
t FTs some with stam. alone, some unth pistils alone. 
Never trees, rarely shrubs, but not having distinct bark, 
wood, or pith. Leaves straight-ribbed. FVs 8 
or S-nary, sometimes arranged on a spadix, 
naked or enveloped in a spathe. 
Ov, inferior. ..... 

Ov. superior, ..... 



Division I. 

Division II. 

Division III. 
Division IV. 
Division V. 



Division VI. 
Division VII. 



FLO WE RLE SS PLANTS. 



Furnished with leaves. 



Division VIII. 



XX 



ANALYSIS OF THE NATUBAL ORDERS. 



Division I. 



* Leares whorled. . . • . • 

* LeaTC* not whorled. 

t Stam. 1-3. .... 

t Stom. 4-10. 

X Or. 1 -celled. 

§ Fl*B in denw heads, Borroonded by a many-leared 
invol. Seed 1. 
Anth. distinct. .... 
Anth. united. . . . . 

§ F1*B if in lieads, not snnonnded by an invol. 
Seeds 4. Leaves compound. . • 

Seeds numerous. Leaves simple. . 
X Ov. 3-5-oelled. 
Stam. 5, 

inserted on cor. 
not inserted on cor. 
Stam. 8-IOl .... 



DmsiON II. 



• Cor. 0. 

Stam. 1. . 
Stam. 4. . 
Stam. 5. . 
Stam. 6-12. 

* Pet. present. 

t Cal. 2-4-cleft. 

Stam. 2 or 8. 

Stam. 4. 
t CaL 5-cleft. 

X Stam. 4. 



Seeds numerous. 



Fl*s in umbels. 
Seeds 2. 
Seeds more than 2. 
§ FI's solitary, or in racemes. 
Stam. more than 6. 
xrees. . « 

Herbs. . 



Division III. 

* Pet. larger than sep. 

t Stam. definite, not more than 12. 

X Carpels distinct, at least in their upper portion ; or 
single, 1 -celled, <*. e. the placenta not being central, 
the style and stigma undivided. 
$ Cor. regular. 

U Sep., pet., and stam. opposite, 
jj Sep>, pet., and stam. alternate. 
Y Carpels A%e to the base. 

Plants succulent ; leaves siraple. 
Plants not juicy ; leaves compound. 
IT Ckrpels combined below. 
§ Cor. irr^pilar. 

Pet. 5, papilionaceous. FiL 10, con»bined. . 
Pet. 4, cruciate. FiL 6, in 2 parcels. 
X Carpels combined into a single ov. 
§ Pet« unequal. FFs irregular. 
II Sep. 2 or 3. 

Fl's with a spur. Stam 5. 
Fl's not spurred. Stam. 2 or 3. 
Q Sep. 5, 

Leaves stipuled. Stam. 5, often synge- ) 

nesious. . . . f 

Leaves ezstipuled. Stam. 8, monadelphous. 



Galiba, 27. 
YalbriahbJK, 23. 



DIP8ACBA, 22. 
ASTBRiB, 6. 

Araliba, 39. 
Primdlka, 122. 



LO!fICBRBA, 26. 

campa.vulbjb, 24. 
Ericbs, 117. 



Haloraobx, 43. 

O.NAQRBJE, 41. 
SAIITALIlfBiE, 40. 
ARISTOLOCHIKiB, 41. 



O.VAORBA, 41. 
COBHBJt, 40. 



AlfGBLICBA. 29. 

Aralib£, 39. 
ORoa8irLARi.s, 29. 



R08B.S, 48. 

Saxifraobjb, 



46. 



BBRBERIDB.S, 93. 



CaASSULBiE, 43. 
BosBA, 48. 
Saxifraobje, 46. 

CiGBRBJS, 63. 
FUMARIBiB, 100. 



BALSAMIIfBf , 32. 
PORTULBA, 86. 

ViOLARlBA, 112. 

Polyoalbjs, 26. 



ANALYSIS OF THE If ATURAJL ORDERS. 



XXI 



CBLAtTSIirSJB, 70. 
AOBBIllSil, 72. 
TAMABItCUrBX* 113. 



} Pet. tqwkL FI'b regular. 
I Trees or Imrge ■hntbe. 

5 LieftTce larfe, expended, 
sum. 4-6. 
Stem, about 8. . 
Y Leevee miante. Kale-like. . 
I Herlw or Tory low Bhrnbe. 

IT Stam. not tetrad jnamoiu. 

** Leave* lobed, or compound, 

stipnlate. . 

exetipolate, S-nate. 
** Leares simple, 
ft with etip. 
Pet. 3 or 4. 

Pet* 6* . . 

ft gtip. 0. 

tt Stigma eimplet or entire. 
Stem. 8 or 10. 
Stem. 6 or 12. 
tt Stigmaa 2 or mote, dia- 
tiact. 
H Cells ofoT.l -seeded. 
Or. 1-oelled. 



GSBAVIBiB, 76. 
OZAUOBiB, 7S. 



Elatimmm, 74. 
illbcmrex, 96, 



Sbicmjb, 117. 

LTTBABimA, 46. 



stem, more then 13. 
t Stjks distinct. 

f Stem, inserted on caL 
t Stem. hTpogynotts. 



ThVUmAUlMEJEf 120. 
If Cdls of or. 2 or mote 

1 ^"tS"*" "^JFBA*"""*. 112. 

stem. 6. . DBOtKKBJE, 101. 

Stem. 6. . FKAUKSiriEX, 112. 
I FlaeentsB exile. 

Lea^inawhorlJ^,^^^,^ 170. 



Learcs stipnled. 



RoaKJE, 4S. 



I Cal. with aninToi.of3to91iractsat b«aeflw^««.. t« 
«L monaddphons. . .f "^^^»«* 76. 



I CaL without external bracts. 

Y Carpels distinct. . 

Y Canwls united. 

UertM with doited, exstipuled Icares. 
Trees with stipulcd learcs. 
I SiigBMuaited. 

CaLcfiwep, . . . . 

CaL of more than 2 sep. 

Pet. 6* . . . . 

Pet. more than 6. 
• Pet. 0, or not larger than sep. 
t Trees or fthmlM. 

Scjle single. Or, 1-oelled. 
Stigmas 2, seasfle. Or. 2-«eIled. . 
St/lc* 3 or 4. Or. 3 or 4-«eUed. . 
t BcrtM. 

t Stan. 12ormore. 

Or. of 1 or more distinct earpds. 
Or. l-«feIled,of 3 united carpels i plaeest* parietal 
t Stem, less than 12. 
I Leareswithstip. 
I Stip. odifcate. 



RAMV9CVLMMt 93. 

IlTPBBICIVEJt, 73. 
TiUBJB, 74. 

Papatbskjb, 9S. 

CltTIVBJS, 101. 
NTMPHjBEJE, 9Si. 



TBTMELS.e, 70. 

Ulmbjs, 71. 

BBAMVKiR, 71, 



RAVVircULEiB, 93. 

Rbsedba, 111. 



POLTOOVKA, 87. 



xxu 



ANALYSIS OF THE NATUBAJL OBDEBS. 



n Stip. distinct. 

CaL with 2 or 4 external bracti. 
CaL without external bracts. 
Stigma 1. 
Stigmas 2-4. 
} Lsares withont stip. 
H Leaves alternate. 
D Leaves opposite. 

f Seeds more than 1. 

CaL synsepalons, coloured. 
Sep. distinct, herbaceous. . 



BOSBA, 48. 

Ukticba, 157. 
illbobbkba, 85. 

CBEN0P0DIB£, 90. 

sclbbanthbjs, 93. 

Pbimulbjs, 122. 
Cabtophtllejs, 79. 



DlVTSIOW IV. 



* Fl's regular. 

t ^ Ov. of 6 wholly distinct carpels, 
t * Ov. of 2-4 lobes, the styles combined. 

Stigma simple, or bifld, erect or tufted plants. 



Cbassulb^, 42. 
BOBAeiiiB£, 127. 



Stigma entire, with a ring at its base j long, *'»^n8 1 j^pocTNBiE 116. 
plants. * * 



PBIMULEf, 122. 
FORTULE£. 86. 

Plumb AGiHBiB, 120. 
Bhamnba, 71. 



t ' Ot. not distinctly lobed. 

X Stom. equal in number, and opposite to lobes of cor. 
§ Herbs. 

Style 1. . . . . 

Styles 3. . 

Styles 5. .... 

§ Trees. .... 

X Stam. alternate with lobes of cor. if equal to them 
in number ; or in a different number. 
5 R'b in dense, imbricate spikes, with 4 long, pro- !«,.»-.«,--„ iai 
trudingstams. . . jrLANTAOiifBfi, 121. 

i Infl. various. Stam. short, or not so remarkably 
long. 
Ij Anth with appendages. 
II Anth. simple. 

% Trees or shrubs. 
Stam. 2. 

Stam. more than 2. 
Y Herbs. 

Seeds few. 

Stigmas 2. Stem twining. 
Stigmas 3. Stem erect. 
Seeds indefinite. 

Stam. inserted on cor. 

Stig. 2-4-lobed ; or simple, "l 

and with compound >6bhtiaiibjb, 114. 
leaves. . . ) 

Stig. simple; leaves simple. Solahea, 124. 
Stam. inserted on caL . Cahpamulba, 24. 



Ebigbs, 117. 



OLBIREiB, 124. 
iLlCINBiB, 116. 



COHVOLVITLBiB, 125. 
POLBMOIflBiB, 126. 



* Fl's irr^ular. 

t ^ Ov. 4-lobed, 4-seeded. 
t * Ov. entire, 4-Beeded. 
t 8 Ov. entire, not 4-seeded. 
X Stam. 5. Sep. 2 or 3. 
X Stam. 2, or didynacequs. 
Ov. 1 -Killed. 

Placenta free, oentraL 
PlacentsB parietal. 
Ov. 2-eelled. 



Mbmthejs, 130. 

YBBBBNBiB, 137. 
PORTULBA, 86. 



LBIfTIBULABIB.>B, 143. 
OBOBARCHBiB, 113. 
SCBOFULABINEjB, 137. 



AXALYBIB OF THB NATURAL OBBXB8. 



XXUl 



Drvjaom V. 



With petals, especially in the barren fi'i. 

J 1 Trees* . . • • 

t* * Parasitic ahmbs. .... 

t s Herbs, 

% with tirining stems, bearing tendrils. 
t Stem not twining. 

§ Carpels distinct. .... 
§ Oarpels united. 

I Fl*s 2, fertile, enclosed in a prickly inyoL 
I El's not in a prickly inToL 
f Stigma single. 
Cor. ft-lobed. 
Cor. 4-lobed. 
Style 0. 
Style long. 

Water plants. 

Land plants. . 

Y Stigmas 3-5. 
Without pet. 

t Trees or shrubs. 

X Leares stipuled if present at the time of flowering, or 
absent at that time. 
§ Ov. inferior, seated in a cup-shaped invol. 
S Ov. superior, not in an iuToL 

StCCCIb ^9 • • • • 

Seeds many. .... 
X Stip. 0, the leaves generally absent at the time of 
flowering. 
§ Styles apparent ; fruit fleshy. 
Stigma 1. . 

Stigmas 2. . 
Stigmas 6-9-cleft. 
{ Styles absent. Leaves rigid, 
t Herbs. 

X Leaves stipuled. 

S Stigma pencil-formed. 
{ Stigmas simple. 

I Ovary 2-3-celled. 
I Ovary 1-eeUed. 

Stigmas 1-2. . . 

Stigmas 3. . . 

X Leaves ezstipuled. 
f Land plants. 

CaL2-parted. .... 
CaL more than 2-parted. . 
X Water plants. 

CaL many-parted. 

CaL 0. . . . . 



ACBAIVKJB, 72. 
LORAVTHKf, 40. 

cuoubbitkjb, 161. 
CramvjmMi 43. 

ASTIBBJI, 6. 

Vaubbiavsjb, 23. 

lobahtaxjb, 40. 

Plahtaoivbjb, 121. 
Hjilobjiobjb, 43. 
Cjibtophyllba, 79. 



COBTLIBBJt, 144. 

Bbtulibea, 146. 
Salicxhejb, 146. 



Elbagxb^, 157. 
Mtbicb^, 157. 
Empbtbeje, 161. 

PiBBiB, 162. 



B08B.S, 48. 
EUPHOBBIBJB, 159. 

Ubticba, 157. 

FOLTOOHEJE, 87. 



Chbhopodiba, 90. 
Amababthbje, 89. 

cbbatophti.lbje, 158. 
Caixitbicbibba, 159. 





Division Vi. 


* Fl's irregular. 


• • 


■ Fl*s regular. 




t CaL herbaceous. 


• • 


t CaLpetaloid. 




X Fl*s monoeiovs. 


• • 


X Fl*s perfect. 




Style single. 


« • 


Style tripl*.. 


• • 



OBCHIDBiB, 163. 

HTDBOCHABIDBIE, 163. 

DiOtCOBBA, 170. 

AXABTLLIOBJB, 169. 
iBIDBJt, 168. 



ZZIY 



ANALYSIS OF THE NATURAL ORDERS. 



Division VII. 



* 1 Pet., aad MMnetlmM the lep. .brightly oolonred. 

t Stylei or cftrpeli distinct 
X Sep. herbaoeons. 

Stun. 1-6. Leayei straight-ribbed. 
Stun. 8. Leaves much-ribbed. 
X Sep. petaloid. 
FiL bearded. 

FiL not bearded. . . 

t Styles nnited. .... 

* « Perianal herbaoeons or 0. 

X Fl*s arranged on a spadix. . 
t Fl's not on a spadix, 

Leaves lenticular. 

Leave* linear. .... 

* s Perianth of membranous or chafiy scales, ' 

t and composed of 6 pieces in a whorL . 
t Scales 3 in a whorl, or in alternate pain. 
t Seeds single. 

Leaves with flit sheaths. Stem round. . 
Leave* with entire sheaths. Stem triangular. 

^ oCOdB o« • • • • 



. Alibuba, 206. 

. Tbillibjs, 170. 

. JUROBA, 171. 

. Mblanthbje, 174. 

. LiLIBA, 171. 

. Aboidbjb, 304. 

. Lbmhbjb, 205. 

. JUNOAeiHBJB, 207. 

. JUHCBJt, 175. 



Obamiitba, 178. 
Ctpbbbjs, 194. 
Ebiocaulba, 203. 



Division VIII. 



Fructification on the backs or edges of leaves. . 
Fructification, capsules in the axils or swollen bases of leaves. 
Fructification in spikes, or on the upright branches. 



FlLIOBA, 210. 
M AKtlLIBA, 216. 

Ltoopooibjc, 217. 



ANALYSIS 



OV THB 



LINNiEAN ORDERS. 



Class I ^MONANDRIA. — 1. Stamen. 

Ordbb L— MONOaTNIA.—! Styk. 

* Cor. raperlor. .. .. Gentraathni, 23. 

* Cor. 0. 

t CaL 8-cleft. Alchemills, 49. 
t CftL-limb olMolete. 

X Sttgma 1. .. Hlppnri*, 43. 

i Stigma 2-3-fld. .. .. SalieomU, 91. 

Obdeb L— DiOTSiA 2 Stylet. .. Callitbicbiste, 159. 

Class II.- DIANDBIA.— 2 Stamens. 

Obdbb L— MONOGYNIA.— 1 Style. 

* Cor. ^ynpetalra*, laferior, 

t regular, Ugtutmniy 124. 

t irr^ular. t Or. 4-Iobed. .. Hbjithbs, 130. 

i Or. entire. {Cor. rotate. .. Yeroniea, 138. 

fCor. ringent .. I<BiiTiBin;ABiEiE, 143. 

* Cor. 0. t 1 Tree* or fhrulM. Oleirkjs, 124. 

t I Floating plant*. Natl 4. . . Bnppia, 209. 

t HertM with chidiy fl*i. Natl. .. Cladinm, 195. 

Obdbb IL^DIOIKIA.— 2 Styles. Inll. ipiked. .. .. Anthoxanthnm, 185. 

IniL panicled. . . Hierochloe, 187. 

Class III TBIAin)BIi 3 Stamens. 

Obdbb I..MONOaYNIA.~l Style. 

* Fl'f n^erior, petaloid. f Learet brandi-ribbed. .. VALXRiAifBA, 23. 

t Learea itraight-ribljed. Ibidbje, 168. 

* Fl't iafbrior, glnmaeeoaa. f Stem triangular. . . .. CTPXBSiB, 194. 

T Stemronnd. 

tFl'tqiked. Narduf,182. 

I Fl'fdnrtered. .. Jmieiu, 176. 



XXYl 



ANALYSIS OF THE LINNJEAN ORDERS. 



Order IL—DIGYNIA.— 2 Stylet. 
Order m.— TBIGYNIA.— 3 Styles. 

wT» Oa •• •• •• •• 

* Or. 1. t Sep. 2. Fet. cohering. 

t Sep. b. t Fet. 6, emarginate. 

t Fet. 5, Jagged at end. 



Gramimbjb, 178. 

Tilbea, 44. 
FOBTULEiB, 86. 
Folycarpon, 86. 
Holosteum. 83. 



Class IV.— TETRANDRIA. — 4 Stamens. 



Order L—MONOGYNIA.— 1 Style. 
* 1 Cor. ■ynpetaloni. 
t Or. inferior. 



t Ov. raperlor. 



* s Cor. of 4 pet. 



^ oOWl A* • • • • • 

t Seeds 2. . . 
t Frs in brownish spikes. 
t Fl*s brightly coloured. • 

§ Stam. opposite pet. 
§ Stam. alternate with pet. 
Plants leafy. 
Plants leafless, 
t Or. niperior. 

t Herbs. ) Leares simple. 

I Leaves compound. 

Fruit a siliqua. . 

Fruit a silicula. 
} Shrubs. .. .. . 

t Ov. inferior. 

* s Perianth single, j Ov. inferior. 

t Ov. superior. 

X ^ Fl's 4-fld, $ in cymes, 
$ in racemes 
t a Fl*s 3-cleft. 

X * Fl's 4-clef t, with 4 outer bracts. 
Order IL— DIGYNIA.~2 Styles. 

* Cor. synsepaloDS. t Ov. 2-celled, leafy. 

t Ov. 3-celled. Leaves 0. 

Order in. TETRAGYNIA.— 4 Styles. 

* Cor. synpetaloqs. 

* Fet. separate or 0. 

t Water plants. 

t Land plants. X Carpels distinct. 

} Carpels united. 



DIP84CEJB. 22. 

Galiejb, 27. 
Plaktagikea, 120. 

Centunculos, 122. 

Oentiakea, 114. 
Cuscuta, 126. 

Epimedinm, 03. 

Cardamine, 106. 
Coronopus, 109. 
Enonymus, 71. 
CORNB«, 40. 
Isnardia, 42. 

Farietaria, 158. 
Maianthemum, 174. 
Alchemilla, 49. 
Sanguisorbft, 49. 

Gentiauba, 114. 
Cuscuta, 126. 
Alchemilla, 49. 

iLICIHBiB, 116. 



. . Potamogeton. 

.. Tillsea, 44. 

§ Ov. Swelled. Badiola, 79. 

I Ov. l-c»lled. Caryopbyllejs, 79. 



Class V PENTANDRIA 6 Stamens. 



Order L—HONOGTVIA.— 1 Style. 
* 1 Cor. synpetalouB. 
t Ov. superior. 

t Ov. of 2-4 distinct carpels. 



$ Seed 1 in each. .. Boraoikejs, 127. 
5 FoUicles 2. fieedsj^^^^^,^ ^g 
many. .. | 



X Carpels consolidated. 

) Seeds few. II Stem climbing i stigmas 2. 

[j Stem erect i stigmas 3. 
i Seeds numerous. 

II Stam. opposite lobes of cor. 
II Stam. alternate with lobes of eor. 
T Shrub; ov. 5-celled. 
f Herbs t ov. 2-4-ceUed. 
Fl's slightly irregular. .. 
Fl's regular. 

Stig. 2r4-lobed| or simple, andlg „. 

with compound leaves. . . J »■"*» ^WM, 1 1 4. 

Stigma limpAe; leaves simple. Solahba, 124. 



CONTOLV1JI.EJB, 126. 
POLBMOHIBiB, 126. 

Primulejb, 122. 
Azalea, 119. 
Yerbaicum, 141. 



AMMLYtaS OW THX UXEMAM OBDXBS. 



sCor. 
t Or. 



mpcnof'. 
t Treca. 



t Ov. 



sCor.O. 
t Or. inferior, 
t Or. •upuior. 



f Stam. oppcwite pet. 

f Stun. alUniatc with pel. 

) Sep. 2. .. ., 

f Bep« o. • • • I 

t Creeping ahmlM: seeds S-5. 
t Eraetihmbe; seeds many. 



I Stam. alternate with sep. 

X Stam. opposite to sep. 

Okdbk IL— DIOTNIA.— 3 Styles. 



1 Cer. sy npet akma. 

* * Car. poiypctaloiia. 

* » Cor. 0. 



t 

t Hertia. 



t Leafy erect plants. 

t Leafless climbing paraaitea. 

f Or. inferior. 

f Ov. superior. 



X Stip. ochreate. 
X Stip. simple, i 
X Stip. 0. } Omle 1. 
I OTnles2. 
Obdsb m.— trig YNL/L— 3 Styles. 

*Ot. si^erior. f Trees. { Or. 2-3-ceIlcd. 

X Or. 1-cdled. 



t Sfambs. X Pet. 5. 

OsDKm IV.— TETRAGTNLA. — 4 Styles. 
Obdkb ▼.— F£2rrAGYNIA~5 Styles. 
« 1 Or. l-ecUed, t many-seeded. 

• s Or. 5 or lO-eeUad. 

** Or. of 5 distinct carpds. .. 
ORDKm ▼I.~H EX AG Yy lA , 
OBOB& TII^— P0LT6YVIA. 



i Seedl. 

} Seeds many. 



1,71. 
Enonymns,7S. 
BALaAJixjiKjB, 77. 
TlOLAKIBJB, 112. 
Heders, 39. 
GuotnrLAUJMMt 39. 

Sahtalivba, 40 
01aiiz,122. 
Bkedvnm, 85. 

Gb^tiavsjb, 11^ 
Coaenta, 136. 
AUGKLICBJB, 29. 
StaphylM, 70. 
UUfSjB, 71. 
Polygonnm, 47. 
IlXKCKBRSf, 85. 
CUEXOPODIK^ 90. 
SCIXBASTHE^ 93. 

Staphylisa, 29. 
Taxariscisba, 112. 
Corrigiola, 86. 
Stellaria, 88. 
Pamaasia, 74. 

Cabtophtllbjs, 79. 
Statice, 120. 

lAMMMt 78. 

Sibbaldia, 61. 
Drosbrea, 101. 
BAinJuccuBiB, 93. 



Class YI. — HEXAXDBU 6 Stamens. 



Ordkb L— MOHOGYNIA.— I style. 
* Leaves btaach-ribbed. 

t Stam. pet. and sep. opposite, 
t scan, alternate with pet. 



Stigmas 3. 
Stigmaa 1. 



I'Fl'sona spadiz, 
X Fl's not on a spadiz. 



Lecres straight-ribbed, 
t Or. inlSerior. 
t Or supeiior. 

$ petaloid. . 

) scale-like. 

Okdbb IL— DIGYKIA.— 2 Styles. 
Okdbb nL— TRIGYNIA.— 3 Styles. 

* Learea branch-ribbed. 

• Learea stnighft-ribbed. t Cor. large, petahrid. 

t Cor. smidl . herbaceous. 
Obdbbs it. AMD y,-*HXXA- ABD FOLYGYl^IA. 



Berberis,93. 
Fraxkbxiba, 118. 
Lttbbarib£, 45. 

IRJDEJE, 168. 

Acorus, 205. 
LiLIRiE, 171. 
JDIICBJB, 175. 

OxyriJh89. 

Rnmex. 

Melabthba, 174. 
JCJfCAOlUBJB, 207. 
ALISMEiB, 206. 



Class TH.— HEPTANDRIA.— 7 Stamens. 



Obdbb I.— MOVOGYHIA. 



Trientalif, 122. 



XZTUl 



ANALYSIS OF THB UHlTiKAN OBDEB8. 



Class VIIL— OCTANDRLV.— 8 Stamens. 



Order L— MONOOYNIA.— 1 Style. 

* Cor. synpeUloos. t Caps. 1 -celled. 

t Cape manj-eelled. 
» Cor. polypctal<m». t Fruit 2-celled, winged. 

t Fruit 4-celled, not winged. 
<^ Cor. 0. t SbTu\ 1. 

y Herbs. 
Obdbb IL— DIOYNIA.— 2 Styles. 

* Seeds many. 

* Seed tingle. t Stip* ochreous. 

t Stip. 0. 

ordbb hl— tetraoynia. 

* Leaves 4 in a whorL 

* Leares not whorled, t compound, . . 

t simple, X stipnled, 

X notstipuled. 



Chlora,115. 
Ericka, U7. 
ACKRIKB^ 72. 
Oragrsa, 41. 

THTMKLBf. 

Monotropa, 120. 

Chryaopleninm, 46. 
Polygmnm, 87. 

SCUIRAHTRKA, 93. 

TRILLIKf, 170. 
Adoxa,39. 
EI.ATI1IRJS, 74. 

Sagina, 84. 



Class IX.— ENNEANDRLA 9 Stamois. 



Order L— HEXOGYNIA. 



Butomus. 206. 



Class X— DECAXDRIA 10 Stamens. 



Ordkr L— MONOGYNLA.— 1 style. 
Order IL— DIGYNL^— 2 Styles. 

* Cor. 0. t Leaves simple. 

t Leaves compotmd. 

* Cor. present. t Fet. clawed: ov. 1 -celled. 

X Pet. not clawed ; ov. 2-celled. 
Order IIL— TRIGYNIA.— 3 Styles 

Stip. ochreous. . . . • • . 

Stip. simple. 

Stip. 0. •• •• •• •• 

Order rv.— PENTAGYNLA.— 5 Styles. 

* Carpels distinct. 



* Carpels united. 

t Leaves compound. 

t Leaves simple, 



X Fl's solitary. 

X Fl's clustered, 
X stipuled. 
X Stip. 0. 



Ericba, 117. 

SCLBRANTHB.«, 93. 
Chrysoplenium, 46. 
Dianthus, 79. 
Saxipraoa, 46. 

Polygonum, 87. 
Spergularia, 86. 
Cartophtllbje, 79. 

Cras8Ulb£, 43. 

OXALIDEf, 78. 

Adoxa, 39. 
Spergula, 86. 
Caryophtllbje, 79. 



Class XII DODECANDRIA 12-19 Stamens. 



Order L— MONOGYNLA.— 1 Style. 

Caps. 6-celled. • . 

Caps. 2-celled. 
Order IL— DIGYNIA.— 2 Styles. 
Order III.— TRIGYNL^.— 3 Stylet. 
Order IV.— TETRAGYNIA.— 4 Styles. 
Order v.— DODECAGYNLA.— 12 Styles. 



Asarum, 41. 
Lythrum, 45. 
Agrimonia, 53. 
Reseda, 111. 
Potentilia, 61. 
Sempervivum, 45. 



Class XII — ICOSANDRIA Stamens 20 or more, Perigynons. 

Fl't regular I leaves ttipnled. .. Rosejs, 48. 



ANALYSIS OF THB LINMJBAN OBOEBS. XZIX 



Glass XIII.— POLTANDBIi 20 or more Hypogynons Stamens. 

Obdbb I.— MONOGYNIA.— 1 style. 

* 1 Pet. 4. t Sep. 2, caducoiu. . . PapftTerea, 9S. 

t Sep. 4, caducouf . . . . . Actaea, 98. 

**Pet.ff. t Sep. 3, equal, or 5, and aneqnal. .. Cistiubjb, 101. 

t Sep. 5-parted. .. Tilibjb, 74. 

* 4Pet. nmnerom. .. NtmphjbxjBi 98. 
OBDBB IL— DI-F£NTA~OB POL YGYNLA.— Stylet 2 or more. 

* Or. apoearpouf, or 3-eelled. 

Leaves compoand, or branch-ribbed. . . . . Rahuh oniBJE, 93. 

Learet simple, and itraight-ribbed. .. .. .. Stratiotea, 163. 

* Or. tyncarpoiu, 1 -celled. .. .. Bbsbdbjb, 111. 

Class XIV.— .DIDTNAMU 2 long and 2 short Stamens. 

* Or. deeply 4-lobed. .. .. .. MBHxnBiB, 130. 

* Or. entire. t inferior, . . . . . . Linnsea, 27. 

t fuperior, t l-ceU^t •• Orobanchbjb, 119. 

t 2-oelled, .. SoROPULABiHBJB, 187. 

t 4-oelled, .. Ybbbbmbje, 137. 

Class XV.— TETRADYKAMIA.— 4 long and 2 short Stamens. 
H'i cnieUbnn. .. .. Bbamioba, 103. 

Classes XVI to XVm.— MON-DI-POLYADELPHYA— RL cohering into 

1, 2, or more sets. 

* n*s regular. 

t Stem. 5-10. % Learet more or less divided, or compound. 

) Leaves 3-n&te ; leafl. entire. 

I Leaves not 3-n&te i leafl. divided, 
t LMves simple, entire, 
t Stam. indeflnitef t monodelphons, 

} polyadelphous. 

* n'iimgnlar. t Stam. 6. 

t Stam. 8. 
t Stam. 10. 



OXALfbBA, 78; 
Gkbavibjb, 76. 

Ll!(BA, 78. 

Malvbjb, 75. 
Hypkricihb^ 73. 
Fdmaribjb, 100. 

POLTOALBiB, 72. 
CiCBBBiB, 63. 



Class XIX.— SYNGENESIA.— -Anth cohering. 
n*i la dnue heada. .. Aitbbba, 6. 

Class XX.— GYKANDBIA. — Stam. inserted on the pistil 

Staoulorl. .. Obobidba, 163. 

8tam.6w •• .. Aristdochla. 

CLA88I8 XXL, XXIL, and XXIIL— MON(£CIA, DKECIA^ and POLYGA- 
GAMIA. — Some fl^s pistilUferooSi and some staminiferoui. 

See Drnfiov YI. of the preceding Analysif, 

Class XXTV.— CBYPTOGAMIA.— Stam. and pistils 0. 
See DiTiiiOB ym. of the preoedlng Analyrii. 

d 



HAND-BOOK OF FIELD-BOTANY. 



TABLE OF THE NATURAL ORDERS 

WHICH G0MFBI8E INDIGENOUS PLANTS. 



^anetosamiar* 



PERIGYN^. 

Synpetaljb. Apopbtaljb. 



BXOOBNJD. 

DICLINiE. HYPOGYN^. 

AnGIOSPERILS. AfOPETAUB. STNPETALiE. 



A. Ovary simple^ apocarpous, or synearpou* with axile or Inxsal placenta, 
a. Seedi without albumen, or this but small in quatUity, 



1. AitarMi. 

9. DiptftOMB. 

S. VftltrUnMii 



4. OtmpuinleM. 

5* liOniOdTMB. 

6. Qftliea. 



15. HftloKges. 
14. OnagTMS. 



71. Coryllxi«M. 

72. BctulinMB. 

73. SalicineM. 

74. Myricea. 
76. Eleagnea. 

76. Urticea. 

77. Genttophyllea. 



16. CraMulea. 

17. Lythnriea. 

18. Saxiflragea. 

19. RoM«. 

20. Cioerea. 

21. ThymelMB. 

22. CelastrinMB. 

23. RhamneM. 

24. TJlmea. 

25. Aoerinea. 

26. Polygalao. 

27. HTperidne*. 

28. Elatinea. 

29. Tiliea. 
80. Malvea. 
31. OeranlMB. 
82. BaliamineiB. 
33. OzalidMB. 
84. Linea. 



70. Lentibnlarie*. 
69. Scroftdarinea. 
68. Yerbenea. 
67. Menthea. 
66. B<H:agliiea. 
65. Folemoniea. 
64. ConrolTiilea. 
63. Solanea. 
62. Oleinea. 



b. Seeds conttxining a large quantity of albumen. 



18. Arlitoloehtea 

19. Loranthea. 
11. Santalinea. 
10. Cornea. 

9. Araliea. 
8. Angelicea. 



78. CalUtrichtnea. 

79. Euphorbtea. 

80. Empetrea. 

Oymnospbrmjb. 
82. Pinea. 



35. Caryophyllea. 

36. niecebrea. 

37. Portnlea. 

38. Polygonea. 
89. Amaranthea. 

40. Chenopodtea. 

41. Sderanihea. 

42. Berb^dea. 

43. Ranoncnlea. 

44. Nymphaea. 

B. Ovary compound, 1-celled, with parietal placentip, 
a. Seeds containing a large quantity of albumen. 



61. Prtmnlea. 
60. Plantaginea. 
59. Flumbaginea. 
58. Erloea. 
57. nictnea. 
56. Apocynea. 



7. Grofitilariea. 



45. Papaverea. 

46. Famariee. 

47. Droaerea. 



55. Gentianea. 
64. Orobanchea. 



b. Seeds without albumen. 



AHOIOSPBRMiB. 

81. Cucnrbitea. 



48. Clstinea. 

49. Brawioea. 

50. ReMdea. 

51. Tamariacinea. 

62. Frankeniea. 

63. Tiolariea. 



Tailk or TBM Natvbal Obobbs. 



mDOOBC. 



PERIGYN^. HTPOGYN^. 

A. Seeds wUkaut mlbmmtm. 



•3. H ydnwhffc ka. 
t4. Ottkidoi. 



II 



97. 



B. Seedt eomtaimng a large qmantUf ofaSbmmem. 



•6. 
t7. 



90. 

99. 

94. 

93. 

92. 

91. Ji 

90. 

89. LOim. 

•8, TrfflkK. 



CtSPtosamiar* 



ACROOBMJD. 



99. FOkcc 



100. 



101. Lyeopodics. 



ABBREVIATIONS. 



Alb. 


albumen. 


Anthr 


anther. 


Cal. 


calyx. 


Capt. 


captule. 


Cot. 


cotyledons. 


Embr. 


embryo. 


TiL 


filament. 


Fl. 


flower. 


Flor. 


floret. 


Infl. 


inflorescence. 


InvoL 


involucre. 


Leafl. 


leaflet. 


Ot. 


ovary. 


Ped. 


peduncle. 


Pet. 


petal. 


Bad. 


radicle. 


Sep. 


sepal. 


Stam. 


stamen. 


Stip. 


stipule. 


'et in tckich alone the pi 


been discovered : — 


E. 


England. 


I. 


Ireland. 


S. 


Scotland. 


c. 


Channel Islands 




Duration. 


A. 


Annual. 


B. 


BienniaL 


P. 


Perennial. 


S, 


Shrub. 


T, 


Tree. 



Colours, 

(B.) Blue. 

(Br.) Brown. 

(Q.) Oreen. 

CP.) Purple. 

(R.) Red. 

(Y.) Yellow. 

(W.) White. 

When a small letter precedes the large, it 
signifies that the colour indicated by the latter 
has a shade of that indicated by the former} 



(g.W.) Greenish white. 
(b.P.) Bluish purple. 

The signs 4* *^^ — indicate the shade of co- 
lour, as — 

(4* B.) Deep red. 

( — P.) Pale purple or purplish. 

&c. 
(W. V. P.) White or purple. 

The sign || Striped. 

.'. Speckled. 

♦ Spotted. 

Used thus— (W || R.) White striped with red. 
(Y.-.Br.) Yellow speckled with 

brown. 
(Y*Br.) Yellow, with a browm 

spot. 



This mark, * following the name of the 
species, indicates, that though naturalized^ 
the plant is a doubtM native. 



Time qf flowerings by the foUoteing numbers 
placed immediately qfter the letters indicat- 
ing the duration elf the plant : — 

1. January. 

2. February. 

3. March. 
&c., &c. 

12. December. 



HAND-BOOK OF FIELD-BOTANY. 



pLAvn, mostly famished with caljz and oorolU ; always, however, having con- 
spicooos stamens and pistils. 

CLASS L-BXOOBNS OB DIOOTTLBDONS. 

stem often woody, and formed of bark, wood and pith ; wlien cut transversely, 
lines of oondeosed oellnlar tissue are visible, radiating from the centre to the drcum- 
fereooe, and concentric circles of wood, corresponding in number to the years of the 
stem's growth; one circle or layer of new wood being annually formed immediately 
beneath the baric. Leaves having their ribs branching and arranged m a net-worlc 
Flowers with then* parts disposed in a 5-nary or 4-nary, rarely m a 3-naiy man- 
ner. Embryo with 2 or more opposite cotyledons; these rarely absent; the 
radicle, in gemdnation, lengthening without having to brealc through the coat of the 
embryo. 

Subclass I.— PERIGYNOUS EXOGENS. 

Ezooon, havingperfiKt flowers, with the tube of the calyx adherent to the ovary, 
its limb superior ; the stamens being, therefore, epigynous. 

Division L — Synpetaloub Perigtnous Exogens. 

PsBiOTVOua EzooBva ; the petals more or less combined with each other, so as to 
form a corolla, which is removable in a single piece : — monopetalous. 

B 



6 Aflterese.] Stnpetalous Perigtnous Exogens. [ 



Order I ^ASTEREiE or COMPOSITE. 

Herbs, or rarely shrubs, with exstipnlate leaves. Fl*s. (florets), collected in dense 
headSf upon a common receptacle, surrounded hy an invol. of several bracts. Re- 
ceptacle either covered with scales (paleaceous), or bristles, or naked ; sometimes 
pitted with pentagonal holes (areolate), or these with their edges somewhat elevated 
(alveolate). Limb of cal. superior, often 0, or variously divided into bristles, hairs 
(pilose), or a feathery down, called pappus, which may be in 1 or more rows, and 
sessile or stipitate. Cor. ligiilate, funnel-shaped, or tubular. Stam. 4-6 ; anth. 
cohering, (free in Xanthium) ; fil. free, (cohering in Xanthium). Ov. 1 -celled *, style 
simple ; stigmas 2. Fruit small, indehiscent, dry, crowned with the pappus. Seed 1 ; 
embr. erect ; alb. 0. 

Sub-Order I CICHORINiE. Plants with a bitter, narcotic, milky juice. 

Flor. all ligulate, perfect. Style not tumid below its bifurcation. 

* 1 Fappnf 0. nor. 8-12 1. Lapsana. 

* a Fitppiu a membruioiu margin or scaly. Flor. numerous. 

Heads terminal. 2. Arhosbris 

Heads lateral 3. CicaORiUM. 

' 3 Fappna pilose or feathery. 

t Receptacle scaly. Pappns feathery 4. Htpocbceris. 

t Beceptacle naked, rarely pilose. 

t Fi^pns rigid, brittle, pilose, turning brownish. 5. Hieracium. 

t Pappus, soft, silvery. 

$ pilose, and not dilated at base. 

Invol. small cylindrical with few flor. . 6. Lactcca. 

Invol. with many flor. 

Scape simple naked. ... 7. Taraxacum. 

Stalks branching, leafy or l)racteate. 

Invol. tumid at base. Pappus \ - a^..^^*, 

sessile. . . . • I *• S0HCHU8. 

Invol. not tumid at base. 

Pappns stipitate. . II. Barkhausia. 

Pappus sessile. 

Fl's. yellow. . . 10. Crbpis. 
Fl's, blue. ... 9. MVLOBDIUM. 

$ Pappus feathery, especially in central flor. 

Scape naked. Pappus sessile. . 12. Lbontodoh. 

Stalks leafy or bracteate. 

Pappus sessile in fruit and flor. 

InvoL of many rows of lessening) ,, rk»/v»,— 

bracts ; f ^*' Oporihia. 

InvoL of 1 row, with lax linear ) , ^ „. 

ones at base f 14. PiCRis. 

Pappus stipitate in fruit, in many rows. 

Stalks simple, ... 15. Traoopogoit. 

Stalks branching. ... 16. Hblmintbia. 

Sub-Order II.— -CYNARINiE or CYNAROCEPHAL^ Possessing bitter and 
tonic properties, and a limpid juice. Mor. all tubular, with an inflated throaty gene- 
rally spreading into a hemispherical head. Invol. conical and rigid. Style thickened 

articulated — ^below its bifurcation. 

* Leaves spiny or fringed with minute prickles. 

t Receptacle scaly or bristly. 

Inner bracto of invol. not spiny, coloured. ... 17. Carlin a. 
All the bActs spiny hert)aceous. 

FiL united. 20. Siltbum. 

Fil. free 21. CARDUU8. 

t Receptacle honey-oombedtCalreolate.) • . . . 22. Oxopordum. 



] Stnpetalous Perigtnoub Exogens. [Astereae. 7 

* Lmtm not gptnj or prieklj. 

t Pappus fhorter tlum teeA, pilMe* or 0. 

Inrdiieiml bracto denw, vith hooked poiaU. 23. AKCTirir. 

InTolnaral bmete aearioiM or q^inoot, wUh •tiaightl |0 cbhtavrba 

t PappiM longer than wed. IdtoI. not ^inoot. 

Heads with perfect flor. Anth. eiliated at haae. • IS. SAvaavKBA. 

Heada dioBcioaa. Anth. iimple at baae. ... 24. Sbbbatvla. 

Sub-Obdeb IIL— ASTEBIX^ or COBTMBIFER^ Plants with aromatic, 
bitter, and stimulating properties. Flor. tubular, the outer often Hgnlate and 
radiant; nerer inflated in the throat ; the tubular flor. erect, parallel, not spreading. 
InroL hemispherical or cylindrical, not spiny. Style cyhndrical, not articulated. 

* Heads with a raj of lignlate flor, of a different colonr from 

those of disk I or of the same oolonr, and then without pappos. 
t Pappus Of or membranous. 

t InroL of more than 1 rowof braetawithmembraaona 
edfea. 
Beeeptacle naked, plane or eonrex. 41. CHRTSAVTBBifirM. 

Beoeptade paleaoeons, conrez or oonieal. 42. Axthbh la. 

t InToL of 1 row of bracts witbont membrmaons edfcs. 

Scape single-headed. 25. BsLua. 

Stalks many-lacaded, branching. .... 43. Matbicaria. 
t Pappns pilose. 

Flor. of raj in 1 or 2 rows. Ped. with a few bracts. . 26. Aster. 
Flor. of ray in many rows. Fed. naked. ... 27. Ebiobbov. 

* Heads not radiant ( or if with a ray, tills either insignificant 

or of ttiesame eotonr as disk, and thefmits without pivpns. 

1 1 Pappus of 2-6 persistent rou^ awns 36. BiDBirs. 

f 'Pappus pilose or feathery. 

t ^ InroL of 1 row of equal bracts. 
) Stalks simple, scaly, or bracteate. 

Heads numerous, in a thyrsus 33. Pbtakites. 

Head solitary. 34. Tussilaoo. 

) Stalks branched, leafy. 

Heads radiant 36. Civbrabia. 

Heads not radiant 28. Chrysocoma. 

t 'InroL of 1 row of bracts, and short lax ones with 

searious tips at base. 37. Sbxbcio. 

t 'InroL of 2-3 rows of equal bracts. . 38. Dobovicvm. 

t * InroL of 2 or mote rows of unequal bracta. 
} Heads with a ray, 

of 5-15 flor. Anth. simple. • . . . 29. Solid a oo. 
of many flor. Anth. with 2 setss at base. 

Pappus in 1 row. Fruit beaked. . 30. Ikula. 

Pappus in 2 rows. Fruit not beaked. . 31. Pulicaria. 
$ Heads not radimnt. 

Bracts of inroL herbaceous 32. Edpatoricm. 

Bracts of inroL searious, dry. 

Outer flor. 3-toothed, intermixed with in- 1 ^^ v.. .^^ 
ner bracts of inroL . . . .f 39*^^*00. 
Outer flor. 5-toothed, not as last. 40. Gxapbalivm. 

t 'Pappus or a membranous margin. 

Heads moooBcfous. Anth. distant 48. Xahthivm. 

Heads with perfect liar. Anth. united. 

Headswitharay of 5-10 short flor. ... 44. Achillea. 
Heads without a ray. 

Beoeptacle eorered with fringed scales. . 45. DiOTia. 

Beeeptable naked or hairy. 

PiVpns a m/embruious margin. 46. Tabacbtum. 

Pappns 0. 47. Artbmisia. 



8 Asterese.] Stnpetalous Periotnous Ezooens. [Hypochoeris. 

N.B. — The sped** fbllowing are arranged according to the plan obaerred in De CandoUe'f Fkodro- 
moMf altering the nomenclatore in accordance with that obaerred throngliout the present work. 

Section I LIGULIFLOR^ 

All the florets slit or ligitlate. . 

Sub-Obdbb I CICHOBINiE Style cylindrical above, and with its long ob- 
tuse branches equally pubescent Stigmatic lines prominent, narrow, terminating 
below the middle of tiie branches. Lactescent plants, with altomate leaves. 

Tr. I. LAPSANIDJE. Receptacle naked. Pappus 0. 

1. Lapsa'na. L, Nipple -wort. 

InvoL of 1 row of erect bracts, and 4-5 short ones at base. Fruit striated, compressed. 

1. L. communis, InvoL glabrous, angular in fruit; stem panided; leaves 

A, 6, 7. (T.) 20. ovate, toothed or lobed, the lower lyrate. — Waste ground. 

Tr. II. HVOSEBIDjE. Receptacle necked. Pappus coroniform, 

2. Arno'sebis. G<ertn, Swine's-Buccory. 

Invol. of 1 row of about 12 narrow keeled bracts, at length converging, and a 
few small ones at base. Fruit angular, crowned with an elevated entire margin. 

A. pusilla. Scape branched, very thick and fistulose upwards ; leaves 

A» 6, 8. (T.) E. S.-3. obovate-oblong, toothed. — Gravelly places. 

8. Cicho'biitm. L, Succory. 

Invol. of an inner row of 8-10 bracts at length reflezed, and an outer of 5 lax 
shorter ones. Fruit turbinate, crowned with 2 rows of short scales. 

1. 0. I'ntyhus. Heads sessile in pairs; leaves rundnate, hispid on the 

P, 7, 8. (B.) 18. keel, the upper oblong. — Gravelly banks. 

Tr. III. HYPOCHCERIDJS, Receptacle scaly. Pappus feathery, espe- 
cially on the inner fruits, 

4. Hypoch^'ris. L, Cat's-ear. 

Invol. oblong, imbricated. Fruit striated, often beaked. 

* Pappus stipitate in flor., and fruit in 1 row. 

1. H. macul&ta. Stem nearly solitary, almost leafless ; leaves radical, obo- 
P, 7, 8. (+Y.) K S.-1. vate-oblong, toothed, spotted. — Ormeshead, Wales. 

Forfar. 

* Pappns sessfle in the flor. in 2 rows, the outer short and setaceous, the inner 

long and feathery. 

2. H. radicata. Leaves rundnate, obtuse, scalHX>us ; stalk single, branched, 
P. 7, 8. (T.) 20. leafless, scaly; pappus of all the fruits stalked. — ^Waste 

ground. 

3. H. glabra. Leaves oblong, sinuate-dentate smooth; stalks numerous, 
A. 7, 8. (T.) £. S.-8. branched, slightly leafy and scaly ; pappus of the outer 

fruit sessile. — Sandy places. 
/2. BaXbUii, pappus all stipitate. — Kent Salop. 



HieraciuiiL] SrvrETALous P£BiGTSiocrf ExooEict. [Astereae. 9 

Tr. jy. HIERACID^, Reeeptade geturattp wUJumt ieaU$, Papptu JUi- 
form, rigid, bristly, never feathery, nor dilated at tke base ; homing brawn, or yel- 
lowish. 

5. HiERA'ciuif. L, Hswkweed. 

ImroL imbricated with many oblong bracts. Beoepiade ahreolate, or neadjr naked. 
Fnnt angnlar, fiuTowed, witli an entire or toothed margin. 

* JStalks 1-2 lieaded. (See also 5. H. mur of um fi,) 

t Scions cnepiDg. 

1. H. PiloteHa. Stem leafless; leares entire elliptic-lanceolate haiiy, downjr 
P. 5^. (T.) 20. beneath ; bracts linear-lanceolate haiiy. — Jyrj banks. 

fi, Pdeterianum, leases lanceolate, and with the invoL dotfaed with long, 

silkj, stragii^ing hairs, 
t Sdoos ; invoL leaves and stem oorered with long, slkj hairs. 

2. H. alpinum. Lower leaves oboyate-spathnlate, of stem, 1 or more, linear- 
P. 7, 8. (T.) E. a-1. hmoeohite ; bracts Bnear-attcnnate. —Dry rodca. 

fi, HaUeri. radical leaves toothed. 

3. H. viUosum, Lower leaves oUong-lanoeolate ; those of stem ovate dasp- 
P. 7. (T.) S-1. ing; bracts attenoate from anoyate base. — ^Bodcsnear 

Clova. Lodi-na-gar. 

* Stalks many headed. 

t Heads sesnle, in a terminal corymb. 

4. H. amrantiaeum* Scape nearly leafless, sim|4e, hairy; leares oborate-kQ- 
P. 6-9. (+ T.) S. E.-3. ceoUte, entire, roo^ with k»guh hairs.— Woods. 

t Heads stalked. 

^ Stem 1-2-leaved. 

5. H. mttrantm. Badical leaves ovate or cordate, with retioflezed teeth at 
P. 6-8. (T.) 15. base; petioles hairy ; invoL pubescent. — Bocks. 

fi. pubnon^trium. leaves ovate-lanceolate, toothed forwards ; heads few. 
y.Lawsoni, leaves nearly entire, and with the petioles yery silky. 

X Stem many leaved. 

§ Lower leaves sessile, 

6. H. prenanthmdes. InvoL of few bracts, nearly simple; ped. glandiilar«hairy; 
P. 8. (T.) S-5. leaves an clasping, dentiadate;friitt smooth. — ^BivCTsides. 

7. H. inuloides. InvoL of many rows of imbricated, mieqoal scales ; ped. not 
P. 8. (T.) S-L glandnlar; leares not clasping; froit rough. — High- 
land woods. 

§ Lower leaves narrowing downwards into distinct petioles. 
I Upper leaves (dasfing, 

\ ovate and ti^er-pointed; plants hairy; petioles shaggy, 
winged. 

8. H. LapeyrotuH. Badical leaves oblong-ovate, denticulate ; stem very hairy, 
P. 8. (T.) E.L-1. gtondnlarupwards. — Teesdale. Garra Head, Antrim. 

9. H. eerinthoHdes. Badical leaves oblong-lanceolate, nearly entire, stem 
P. 8. (T.) S-1. slightly haiiy, ^an£i]ar upwards. — Highlands^ 

^ Upper leaves cordate, petioles of lower winged, or di- 
lated, hairy. 

10. H. amplexiea&le, lower leaves obloog-obovate toothed ; plant glandular- 
P. 8. (T.) £. a-1. hairy throughout— Ckva Mountams. Ckish Castle. 

11. H. saba&duM, homer leaves ovate-lanceolate toothed, and with the stem 
P. 8, 9. (Y.) E.-1. hany not ^anduhff ; inyoL downy at base only. — 

Thidbets and banks. 



10 Astereae.] Synpetalous Perigtnous Exooens. [Taraxacum. 

II Upper leaves not clasping. 

i" InvoL haiiy, or pubescent. 

12. H. sylvdticum. Radical leaves few or 0, stem leaves several, all with small, 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 12. sharp teeth pointing forwards, somewhat haiiy. — Woods, 

banks, walls. 
fi. maculatum. leaves ovate-lanceolate, with large teeth, and purple 

spots. 
y. pseudo'pxctum, leaves lanceolate, spotted and clouded with purple. 

13. H. rigidtim. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, coarsely toothed in middle, haiiy 
P. 6-8. (Y.) £. S.-1. beneath ; stem scabrous ; base of invoL pubescent — Walls 

and banks. 
/}. angusHfolium, stem slender; leaves lanceolate, with 2 or 3 teeth on 

each side. 
y, pictum, upper leaves linear-lanceolate, remotely toothed, or entire, 

spotted and clouded with purple. 

14. H. deniiculdtum. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, finely toothed, nearly glabrous ; 
P, 7, 8. (Y.) S-1. ped. and invoL glandular-hairy. — Woods. 

^ LivoL smooth. Heads corymbose. 

15. H. bore&le, Invol. of 3 rows of adpressed bracts ; leaves ovate-lanceo- 
P. 8, 9. (Y.)E.S.-17. late, sinuate-dentate, or nearly entire. — ^Thickets. 

16. H. umbellatum, InvoL of several rows of bracts, with recurved points ; 
P. 8, 9. (Y.) 15. leaves linear-lanceolate, toothed or entire. — ^Thickets. 

fi, Tdylori, leaves lanceolate, upper part of stem, ped., and invoL 

with a steUate pubescence. 



Tr, v. LACTUCID^, Receptacle generally naked. Pappus filiform^ never 
featherg or dilated at b<ue, generally unequal, silvery y very soft, fugaceoue, 

6. Lactu'ca. L, Lettuce. 

Invol. qiindrical with few flor., imbricated in 2-4 rows of bracts with membra- 
nous edges, the outer shorter. Fruit produced into a long or short beak bearing 
the pappus. 

* Florets 5 ; midrib of leaves smooth below ; fimit with a short beak. 

1. L. murdlU, Leaves lyrate-pinnatffid, toothed, terminal lobe angled. 
P. 7. (Y.) E.L-10. heads panicled.— Old walls. 

* Florets more than 5 ; midrib of leaves prickly below ; fruit long-beaked. 

2. L. saKgna. Upper leaves linear, entire, with sagittate bases, the lower 
B. 7, 8. (Y.) K-1. pinnatifid ; beak twice the length of fruit ; heads almost 

spiked. — Chalky places near t£e sea. 
8. L. virosa. Leaves horizontal, obbng, aurided, mucronate-dentate, or 

B. 8, 9. (Y.) £. S.-10. shiuate; beak equallkig fruit; heads panided. — Dry 

places. 
4. L. acartola. Leaves upright, lanceolate, sagittate, sinuate, dliate-dentate ; 

B, 8. (Y.) K-1. beak equalling fruit ; hei^ in leafy panicles. — ^Waste 

places. 

7. Tara'xacxtm. Ju88, Dandelion. 

InvoL of an inner row of erect bracts, and an outer of short lax ones. Fruit muri- 
cated, abnq)tly contracted into a long filiform beak bearing the pappus. 



Crepifl.] Stnpbtalovs Psbigthous Exogens. [Astere®. 11 

1. T. ofieimale. Leaves mndnafey glabroiis, tooihed ; oatar Ivacts finear, de- 

P. 3-10. (Y.) 20. flexed ; fruit ivith scaly points at its siiminit-^Pa«»i«. 
/3. httigatwm. outer bracts erecto-patent; kayes nmciiiate-^iiimatifid, 

with unequal teeth. 
y, erythrospermum, outer bracts adpressed or patent ; leaves same as last, 

ivith intermediate teeth, the lowest cues sometimes en> 
tire. — Dry places. 
}. paJustre. outer bracts adpressed, ovate, acuminate ; leaves oblong, 

entire, or as last — ^Bogs. 

8. So'NGHua X. Sow-thistle. 

InvoL tumid at base, imbricated in 2 rows of unequal, at length connivent bracts. 
Fruit compressed, truncate. Pappus sessile. 

* InvoL glabrous ; leaves undivided, pinnatifid, or rundnate^ toothed, clasping. 

Stem branched. Heads snbumbellate. 

1. S. oUrdceus. Leaves with spreading, sagittate amides, the lower stalked ; 
A, 6-8. (Y.) 20. fruit longitudinally ribbed, smooth.<--J'a<njn. 

2. S. atper. Leaves with rounded amides, the lower sessile ; fruit Ion- 
A, 6-8. (Y.) 20. gitudinally ribbed, rugose transversdy. — Passim. 

* InvoL and ped. glandular-hispid ; leaves lanceolate, rundnate, uppermost en- 

tire and simple. 

3. S. palustrit. Leaves all sagittate at base, spinosdy dliated, the lower 
P. 7, 8. ( — ^T.) £. S.-6. rundnate-pinnatifid ^Marshy places. 

4. S. arveruu. Leaves cordate at base, oblong-lanoeolate, denticulate; 
P. 8, 9. (T.) 20. lower sinuate-mndnate^ — Com fidds. 

9. Mulge'dium. Ctus, 

InvoL double, inner of 1 row of bracts, outer short, lax, imbricated. Fruit com- 
pressed, constricted above and terminating in a ciliated disk. 

1. M. atf^nttm^ Fed. and invoL glandular-hispid, racemose; leaves gla- 

P. 8. (B.) S.-1. brous, lyrate-sagittate, with a large terminal lob^ — 

Clova mountains. 

10. Cre'pis. X. Hawk's-beard. 

Invd. of an inner row of bracts, and an outer of short lax ones. Fruit terate, 
striate, narrowing upwards, but hardly beaked. 

* Leaves of stem sagittate or cordate at base, and dasping. 

1. C. pulchra. Lower leaves obovate-oblong, downy, toothed ; outer bracts 
A, 6-9. (Y.) S.-1. ovate, short, adpressed ; fridt equalling pappus. — ^Turin, 

Forfarshire. 

2. C. tnrens. Lower leaves rundnate or pinnatifid, toothed, glabrous, 
A, 6-9. (Y.) 19. upper linear with flat margins ; outer scales of hispid 

invoL linear, adpressed ; fruit shorter than pappus. — 
Dry places. 
3« pabtdosa. Lower leaves ovate-oblong, toothed, glabrous, upper lan- 

P. 7-9. (Y.) 10. ceolate, acuminate ; outer bracts of the glandular pilose 

invoL oblong- ovate; fruit truncate, equalling pappus. — 
Moist places. 

* Leaves of stem not sagittate or cordate at base. 

4. C. suecUaf6lia. Lower leaves oblong, obtuse, entire, nearly glabrous ; fruit 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) E. S.-2. narrowing upwaids, as long as pappus, which is shorter 

than invoL — ^Woods. 



12 AsteresB.] Stnpbtalous Perigtnous Exogens. [Tragopogon. 

6. G. biennis. Lower leayes runcinate-pinnatifid, rongh, "with toothed 

B, 7-9. (Y.) E.-2. lobes; fruit beaked, longer than pappus, which is longer 

than invol Chalky places. 

11. Babkhau'sia. Mcench, 

InxoL oval, of an inner row of bracts, with an outer of short lax ones. Fmit terate, 
narrowing into a subulate beak, bearing the pappus. 

1. B. taraxacifolia. Heads erect ; stem angular, furrowed ; invol. bristly and 
B, 6, 7. (Y.) K — 7 downy, covering half the pappus, its outer bracts with a 

membranous margin ; fruits all equally beaked ; leaves 
rough, runcinate-pinnatifid Limestone districts. 

2. B. fo^tida. Unopened heads nodding ; stem round ; invoL hairy and 
B. 6, 7. (Y.) 2. downy, as long as pappus, outer bracts herbaceous; 

central fruits long-beaked; leaves as last — Chalky 
places. 

Tr. VI. SCORZONERIDJE, Receptacle voithout scales. Pappus feathery j 
often dilated at base, on the external fruits often scaly. 

12. Leo'ntodon. L. 

InvoL with 1-3 rows of short external bracts. Fruit scarcely beaked. Pappus in 
2 rows, outer short, setaceous, inner featheiy. 

1. L. hirtum. Throat of cor. hairy on the outade; leaves lanceolate, 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 16. sinuate-dentate, somewhat hispid ^ with forked haurs; 

scape 1 -headed, and with invoL, glabrous. — GraveUy 
commons. 
/S. dubium. leaves nearly entire ; invol. hairy. 

2. L. hispidum. Throat of cor. not hairy ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, nmci- 
P. 6-9. (Y.) S. E.-20. nate, hispid as last ; scape 1-fl'd, and with invoL hairy. 

Pastures. 

13. OpoRfNiA. Bon. Hawkbit 

InvoL imbricated in many adpressed rows of lessening bracts. Fruit transversely 
rugose. Pappus in 1 row, dilated at base. 

1. 0. autumnale. Leaves lanceolate, toothed or pinnatifid, smoothish ; scape 

P. 8. (Y.) 20. branched; ped. swollen beneath the somewhat downy' 

invoL — Pastures. 
/3. tar&xaei. leaves glabrous ; stalk often simple ; invoL shaggy, "^th 

blackish hairs. 

14. Pi'cRis. L. 

InvoL of 1 row of equal brads and lax linear ones at base. Fruit transversely 
striated, not beaked. Pappus in 2 rows, the outer sub-pilose. 

1. P. hieracioides. Stem branching, rough, with hooked bristles ; leaves lan- 
B, 7, 8. (Y.) E. I.- 12. ceolate, rough, dentate ; ped. corymbose, with many 

bracts. — Dry banks. 

16. Traqopo'gon. L. Goat's-beard. 

InvoL of 1 row of 8-10 bracts connected at base. Fmit longitudinally striated, 
with a long beak bearing the copious pappus. 



Centaurea.] Stnpetalous Pebigtnous Exogens. [Astereae. 13 

1. T. pratensis. Fed. nearly cylindrical ; invoL equal to, or shorter than 
B. 6, 7. (Y.) 10 ? flor. ; leaves entire, glabrous, acuminate, channelled. — 

Meadows. 
/3. minor. invol. longer than flor. 

2. T. porrifolius.* Ped. much thickened upwards ; invoL longer than flor. ; 
B, 6. (P.) E. S.-3. leaves as last — ^Moist places. 

16. Helm^nthia. Ox-tongue. 

Invol. of 2 rows the inner of 8 dose, equal bracts, the outer of 5 large, lax, leafy 
ones. Fruit transversely striated, with a slender beak bearing the copious pappus. 

1. H. eckioides. Outer bracts of invoL 5, cordate, somewhat spiny ; plants 

A. 7-9. (Y.) E. I.-15. hispid, 3-headed, with rigid and hooked hairs arising 

from tubercular bases. — Dry banks. 

Section II.— TUBULIFLOR^. 
Perfect florets tubular, equally 5-rarely 4-toothed. 

Sub-Order II. — CYNARIN^ Style of the perfect flor. thickened beneath 
its branches, and often fringed at the tumour. Throat of cor. swollen. 

Tr. VIL CARLINIDJE. Heads many flowered, never dicecious. Fil. dis- 
tinct, smooth. Fruit villose. Pappus rarely in more than 1 row, not surrounded 
by a prominent margin. 

17. Carli'na. L, Carline-thistle. 

InvoL with the outer bracts herbaceous, spiny, lax; the inner scaly, coloured, 
spreading like a ray. Beceptade chaffy. Pappus feathery. Anth. appendaged at 
base. 

1. C. wilg&ris. Stem l-or many-headed, covered with a cottony web; 

B, 7-10. ( — R.) 16. leaves lanceolate, unequally spiny, sinuated, downy be- 

neath. InvoL with radiating, wMte scales. — Dry heaths. 

2. C. racemosa. Stem many-headed corymbose, nearly glabrous; leaves 
P. 8. ( — B.) I.-1. lanceolate, spiny, sinuated glabrous; invoL radiating, 

with yellow scales. — Gt. Arran Isle. 

18. Saussu'rea. De C, 

Invol. oblong, unarmed. Receptacle bristly or chafi^. Anth. dilated at base. 
Pappus double, not surrounded by a margin ; outer of short rough bristles ; inner, 
feathery. 

1. S. alpina. Leaves toothed, cottony beneath, lanceolate, the lowest 

P. 8. (P.) 1. ovate-lanceolate; heads few in a dense corymb. — ^Alpine 

rocks. 

Tr. Vni. CENT A URJDJE. Flor. numerous ; the outer ones usually neuter, 
enlarged, and irregular. Pappus sessile in many rows, of different lengths ; second 
row longest, pHose-setaceous, placed within the margin which surrounds the epigynous 
tUsk, rarely wanting. 

19. Cezttau'rea. L. Knapweed, Bluebottle, Startwort 

InvoL imbricated. Outer flor. spreading, neuter; longer than the inner, perfect 
ones. Beceptade bristly. Pappus pilose or 0. 

c 



14 Astereae.] Synfetalous Periotnous Exogens. [Carduos. 

* Invol. spinous, 

1. C. Isnardi, the spines palmate; lower leayes somewhat iTiate, sca- 
P. 7, 8. (P.) C. brous, toothed and slightly decurrent, npper linear; 

heads terminal solitary. — Pastures, Quemsey. 

2. E. Calcitrapa. Bracts of invd. spinulcee at base, with a long tenninal 
A. 7, 8. (P.) E.-6. broad spine ; leaves deeply pinnatifid, spinosdy toothed, 

not decurrent ; heads lateral sessile. — Sandy places. 

3. C. sohtitidlia* Bracts spinulose at base with a long, terminal, slender 

A. 7, 8. (Y.) E. L-1. spine ; leaves lyrate-pinnatifid, the npper lanceolate de- 

cnirent ; heads terminal solitary. — fields. 

* Invol. not spinous, 

f the outer bracts with a scarious, not decurrent appendage, 

4. C. JSicea, which is pinnatifid, and entire or torn in the inner bracts ; 
P. 8, 9 . (P.) 2. pappus ; lower leaves lanceolate toothed. — Groves. 

6. C. nigra. Appendage to the bracts finely pectinated in all but the in- 

P. 8, 9. (P. V. W.) 20. nermost ; pappus very short, tufted ; lower leaves subly- 

rate. — Pastures. 
/3. nigreacena, outer flor. radiant, 

t Bracts of invol. with a scarious deeply toothed or fringed decurrent margin, 

6. C. C^anus. their margin serrated; leaves linear entire, the lowest 
P. 7, 8. (P.) 19. toothed, cottony below, slightly so above — Com fields. 

7. C. scahiosa. Margin of bracts ciliated, downy ; leaves pinnatifid rough- 
P. 7-9. (P.) 17. ish,~ the segments lanceolate acute. — Ck>m fields. Hedges. 

Tr. IX. SIL YBIDJE, Fil. united. Pappus in many rows, 

20. Si'ltbum. Gfartn, Milk-thistle. 

InvoL imbricated; bracts leafy, terminating in a long, spreading, spinous point. 
Beceptacle scaly. Pappus pilose, cdiering into a ring at base, deciduous. 

5. Maridnum. Leaves dasping, waved, spinous, with whitish veins, the 

B. 6, 7. (P.) 15. radical ones pinnatifid; invol. with recurved, spinous 

bracts Waste places. 

Tr. X. CARDUIDjE. Flor, all tubular, Invol. in many rows of distinct^ 
spinous bracts, Fil. distinct papillose. Pappus in many rows^ not surrounded by a 
margin. 

21. Ca'rduus. L, Thistle. 

Spines of invoL straight. Beceptacle with fimbriated scales. Fruit compressed. 
Pappus pilose or feathery, united into a ring at base, deciduous. 

* Stem winged by the decurrent bases of the leaves, 

f and hairy ; leaves pinnatifid, hairy above, 

1. C. lanceolatus. white and cottony beneath ; heads 1 or 2, stalked ; invol. 
P. 7, 8. (P.) 20. shaggy, the bracts lanceolate, spreading, spinous. — Waste 

ground. 

2. C. palustris. Leaves not white or cottony beneath ; heads in terminal 
A, 7, 8. (P. V. W.) 20. clusters, nearly sessile ; invol. almost glabrous with 

ovate-lanceolate, adpressed, mucronate bracts. — Wet 
meadows, 
t Stem not hairy, generally cottony; leaves sinuate or pinnatifid, 

3. C. nutans. hairy beneath ; heads stalked, solitary, drooping ; bracts 
^.7,8. (P.) 17. lanoeolate,cottony,oater ones spreading.— Waste ground. 



Aretiam.] STvrrrALOUs Pebigtxocs Exogvvs. [Astereae. 15 

4. C. aeamihouies. Lesres nearir gUbrons (or iroolljr) benath ; hads Aortly 

B, 6, 7. (P.) 19. sulked. moaUr doaCetcd ; bnctB liBear-sabiilate. erect ct 

Mmrt u W n g . — ^Waateplaoea^ 
5. C temmJKrms. Leares c Ui u ny IimimUi : boidB aeanle, dmtered, crlin- 

A. €,7. (B.) lo. drical; bneti^ orate-lanoeolatie^ idemuted. — Sandy 

gfound. 
* Stem not wiaged, its leares aeasQe, scaredy if at iD dec uf i taiL 
"f Leares pinnatifid, spinousii 

{ In^iid, cc inoce or ]e« piloae above, white and oottooy beneath Sten 
brandied. 
€. C aiopkonu. Heads solitanr, tenmial : imxl. globoae, shaggy : bracts 

B. 9. (K) 14. fauxeolate. with a qmoos point ; leaves all seade. die 

segmenu pointing alternately up and dowiL — ^Limestoiie 
sofl. 

7. C. hAer&tms. Heads 1>3; invoL ovate, sBgfatly cottony, the bracts Ian- 
P. S. (P.) £. 1. ceolate, mncnioate: lower leaves on long stalks, wavy. 

none decnrrent. — Great Kidge, \IHt8hire Downs. 

8. P. FortierL Heads 2-3, terminal ; invoL ovate, slightly cottony . bsacts 
P. 7, & (P.) E. L-2. as last ; lower leaves stalked, upper shortly decnnent — 

Boggy places. — Soney. Sossex. Garvagfa, Detry. 
i Leaves giabrons above, not white or cottony bmpath, 

9. C arr*iuU. Leaves oUong-lanoeolate ; stem branching ; invd. glabfoos- 
P, 7. (P. r. W.) 20. bracts oval-lanceohtte, adpreased, with a spreading ma- 



iS. latifilims. leaves obloi^ broad, lobes decanent, spinooa, nK^^i 

10. C. ataulit. Leaves lanceolate; stem 0; invc^ glabrooa, outer bracts 
P. 7-9. (P.) ovate, inner narrow, blant. — Dry pastures. 

^ Gttiomi. having a single shovt leafy stem. 

t Leaves mdivided or lobed, qanosely cifiated sobi^abroDa, or cottony be- 
neath. 

11. C kaercpkynms. Stem cottony, branching; leaves da^»ng, lanceolate, ser- 
P, 7, 8. (P.; £^ S.-& rated, glabroos above, the lower staD^ed; bracts of invoL 

not mocronate. — ^Moi^t pastores. 

12. C. pratitngU. Stem cottony, not branching; leaves sessila, lanceolate. 
P. 6-^. ( — P.) 10. wavy, piloae above, the lowest stalked ; bracts of invoL 

mncronate. — ^Wet meadows. 
^ pseudo-FortterL stem with 2 or 3 sing^headed brmches. 

1 3. C seiosMs. Stem glabroos ; leaves obkmg, lanceolate, obtusely sinuate. 

glabrous above ; bracts of invoL not mucronate. — Dum- 
iiermline, FiSeAire. 

22. Okxopo'rdcii. L. Cotton-thistle. 

Spines of invoL stndgfat. Beoeptade alveolate. Fruit 4-ribbed. Pappus pilose. 
nm^ cohering into a ling at base. 

I. O. Ae&mtkium, Leaves ovate-oblong, Mnnat4^, spinous, decmrent, wooUy 

B. 7-8. (P.) E.S.-14. on both sides; bracts ofinvoL fwibnlate, ^treading. — 

Boadsdes. 

23. A'Bcnrif. L, Burdock. 

InvoL globose, the spinous bracts terminating in hooked points. Beeeptacle with 
ri^d, fti^lstt scales. Fruit 4-sided. Pappus short, pilose, distiiict b^ow. 



16 Asterese.] Synpetalous Pebigtnous Exogens. [Erigeron. 

1. A. Lappa, Heads sab-coiymbose ; leaves cordate, stalked; invol. 

B, 7, 8. (P.) 18. nearly glabrous; inner bracts with hooked points. — 

Waste places. 
fi. Bardana. invol. with a cottony web ; bracts often not hooked, and 

coloured purple. 

•Tr. XL SERRATULTDJE. Flor. numerous in the heads^ perfect, or 
dioecious ; the external row sometimes having pistils only, FU, distinct. Pappus 
in many rows, the inner longest, surrounded by a margin, 

24. Serra'tula. L. Saw-wort. 

Heads dioecious. InvoL imbricated with sharp, unarmed bracts. Receptacle bristly. 
Fruit obovate. Pappus in 3-4 rows, the inner longest. 

1. S. tinctSria, Leaves pinnatifid, somewhat lyrate, finely serrated ; heads 

P. 8. (P.) 15. oblong, corymbose ; outer bracts of invol. ovate, ad- 

pressed, the inner linear, coloured. — Thickets. 

Sub -Order II ASTERIN^. Style cylindrical , its branches linear, flat on the 

outside, equally and finely downy on the inside. Stigmatic lines narrow, promi- 
nent. 

Tr. XII. ASTERIDuE. Heads never diascious, mostly radiant. Receptacle 
naked or alveolate. Anthers not appendaged. Leaves alternate or radical, 

25. Be'ijjs. L, Daisy. 

Invol. hemispherical in 2 rows of equal obtuse bracts. Receptacle conical Fruit 
compressed. Pappus 0. 

1. B. perennis. Leaves spathulate-obovate, single-ribbed crenate-dentate ; 
P. 3-10, (W. Y.) 20. scape single-headed Meadows. 

26. A'sTER. L, Starwort Michaelmas daisy. 

Invol. imbricated with a few bracts on ped. Flor. of ray ligulate, pistilliferous, 
in 1 row ; of the disk perfect Pappus pilose in many rows. 

1. A. Tripolium. Stem glabrous, corymbose ; leaves linear-lanceolate, fleshy ; 
P. 8, 9. (B. y.) 11. invoL of lanceolate, obtuse, imbricated bracts. — Salt 

marshes. 

27. Erigeron. L, Flea-bane. 

Invol. imbricated ; ped. naked. Flor. of ray very narrow, pistilliferous, ui many 
rows ; of the disk mostly perfect. Pappus pilose in many rows. 

2. E. acre. Stem branching, hispid, branches alternate, 1 -headed ; 
B. 7, 8. (P. Y.) 12. leaves lanceolate obtuse ; ray erect as long as disk. 

Gravelly places. 
I.E. Canadense,* Stem branching hairy; heads many, panicled ; lower 

A, 8, 9. ( — ^Y.) E.-1. leaves linear-lanceolate. — ^Waste ground. 

3. E. alpinum. Stem not branching, 1-3-headed ; leaves lanceolate, ray 
P. 7, 8. (P. Y.) E. S.-1. spreading, twice as long as disk. — Mountainous places, 
/3. uniflorum, stem 1 -headed ; ray erect ; invol. woolly. 



EupatoriniD.] Synpetalous Perigykoub Exogbks. [Astereae. 17 

28. Chbtsoco'ica. L, Goldilockf. 

Flor. an tabular, perfect, 5-fid. Invol. in 1 row of leafy bractSb Beceptade alveo- 
late. Fmit compressed, silky. Pappus pHose, in 2 rows. 

1. C. Linos^ru, Herbaceous; leaves linear, glabrons; beads corymbose; 

P. 8, 9. ( Y.) 3. bracts of invoL loosely spreading. — limestone cMs. 

29. Solida'oo. L, Golden-rod. 

Bay of 5-15 pistilliferons flor. Invol. closely imbricated, oblong, scabrous. Recep- 
tacle naked. Fmit terate. Pappos pilose, rough, in 1 row. 

1. S. Virgaurea, Leaves lanceolate, the lower elliptical; heads in erect 

P. 7-9. (Y.) 20. downy crowded panicles. — ^Woods. 
^. cdmbriccu small ; leaves ovate-lanceolate. 

Tr. XIII. INULID^. Heads never dicecious ; generally with a ray of pit- 
tilUferou8 flor , Anth, with appendages. Receptacle naked, 

30. I'nula. L. Elecampane. 

InvoL imbricated in many rows. Flor. of ray mostly lignlate, pistniiferous only. 
Pappus pilose, in 1 row. 

1. I. Conyza, Bracts of in voL linear; leaves pubescent, ovate-lanceolate, 
P. 7-9. (Y.) E.-12. sfirraU-d, lower stalked, upper entire. — Chalky soil. 

2. I. crithmoides. Bracts linear ; leaves glabrous, fleshy, linear, obtuse 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 2. 3-toothed at end.— Sea cUffs. 

3. I. Helenium, Bracts ovate or obovate, reflexed, downy; leaves not dasp- 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 12. ing, downy beneath, unequally toothed. — Moist pastures. 

31. Pulica'ria. Garin, Flea-bane. 

InvoL loosely imbricated in a few rows. Flor. of ray mostly ligulate, pistilliferous 
only. Pappus double ; outer short, cup-like, membranous, toothed ; inner pilose, 
roujE^ 

1, P. dytenterica. Leaves obbng, even, with a cordate, clai^iing base, downy 
P. 8, 9. (Y.) 15. beneath; flor. of ray much longer than those of disk. — 

Moist places. 

2. P. vulgaris. Leaves lanceolate, wavy, with a narrow, clasping base, 
A, 8, 9. ( Y.) £.-5. downy beneath ; flor. of ray about as long as those of 

disk. — Sandy places. 

Sub-Order III — EUPATORIN^. Style cylindrical, with long, sh'ghtlycla- 
vate branches, which are papillose on the outer surface near the end. 

Tr. XrV. E UP A TO RID JR. Heads with the flor, all perfect. Pajopns pihge, 
rough, 

32. Eupato'ricsi. L, Hemp-agrimony. 

Heads mostly few-fl'd. InvoL imbricated, obbng. Receptacle naked. Styles much 
exserted. Pappus in 1 row, pilose rough. 

1. E. cannabinum. Leaves opposite, in 8-5 deep, lanceolate, serrated BegmenU, 

P. 7, 8. (P.) 20. the middle one bngest; flor. 5-6. — River banks. 

c2 



16 Asterese.] Stnpetalous Perigynous Exoobns. [Senecio. 

Tr. XV. TUSSILAGIDuE. Heads almost diascious, (33) ; or outer flor. pis- 
tilliferous only, inner perfect , (34). 

33. Pbtasi'tes. Desf. Bntter-bur. 

Heads nmneroiiB, nearly dioedons, without a ligulate ray. Invol* imbricated in 2 
rows of lanceolate bracts. Pappos pilose. 

1 . P. vulffdris. Leaves cordate-roundish, unequally toothed, 3 -ribbed at base ; 

P. 4. ( — P.) 20. heads in a dense, oblong thyrsus. — Wet places. 

34. Tussila'go. L. Colt's-foot. 

Heads solitary, with a ray of numerous, ligulate, pistilUferous flor. Invol. of 1 row of 
equal bracts. Pappus pilose. 

T. Farfara. Scape imbricated with scales ; leaves appearing after the 
P. 3, 4. (T.) 20. fl., cordate-angular, toothed Moist soU. 

Sub-Ordhb v.— SENECIONIN^. Style cylindrical ; its branches long, Imear, 
terminating in a bunch or fringe of hairs, beyond which sometimes extends an ap- 
pendage. 

Tr. XVI. HELIANTHIDJE, Heads usually radiant^ and with perfect flor. : 
or discoid and with diclinous flor, Anth, not appendaged. Receptacle paleaceous, 
at least near the maryin. 

35. Bi'dexs. L, Bur-marigold. 

InvoL of many bracts ; the outer ones often leafy. Receptacle flat, paleaceous. Fruit 
compressed, with rough angles, and bearing 2-5 retrosely hispid bristles. 

1. B. cemua. Heads drooping ; leaves undivided, sessile, lanceolate, ser^ 
A, 8, 9. ( — G.) 20. rated. — ^Watery places. 

/}. coreopsis, heads with radiant, marginal flor. 

2. B. tripartita. Heads slightly drooping ; leaves 3-parted, stalked, seg- 
A. 7. ( Y.) 16. ments lanceolate, deeply serrated. — ^Marshy places. 

y. radidta. marginal flor. radiant, 3-toothed. 

Tr. XVII. SENECIONIDuE. Heads with perfect or separate flor., radiant or 
discoid, Anth, not appendaged. Pappus pilose or setaceous, rarely 0. 

36. Cixera'bia. L. Flea-wort 

Heads radiant Invol. cylindrical, of 1 row of equal, erect bracts, with scarious margins. 
Receptacle naked. Pappus pilose. 

1. C. campestrts. "Woolly ; stem simple; leaves of root oval, nearly entire, 
P. ? 5, 6. (Y.) E.-3. of stem lanceolate ; heads 1 -6, umbellate. — Chalk downs. 

/3. marttima. heads numerous ; lower leaves toothed Holyhead. 

2. C. paKistris. Shaggy ; stems much branched ; leaves broadly lanceolate 
P. 6, 7. (Y.) E.-2. sinuate-dentate, clasping; heads corymbose. — Wet places. 

37. Sene'cio. L, Groundsel Ragweed. 

Heads often not radiant. Invol. of 1 row of equal bracts with small unequal ones 
at base, becoming reflexed and black at their tips. Receptacle naked. Pappus 
plose* 



Filago.] Stvpbtalous Psbigtnocs Exogens. [Astereae. 19 

* ' Heads wHlurat A ray. 

1. S. mdgarit. Leaves clasping, pinnatifid, toothed ; the lower narrowing 
A,Z'\0. (T.) 20. into a stalk ; heads corymbose. — Waste places. 

* ' Heads with a revolate ray. Leaves deeply {nnnatifid, segments oblong, aneqaally 

toothed. 

2. S. viscostti. Stem diffuse ; leaves viscid ; invoL viscid, outer bracts 
A, 7-9. (Y.) 10. half as long as inner ; fruit glabrous. — ^Waste places. 

3. S. tylvaticuM, Stem erect, straight ; leaves downy, not viscid ; invoL 
A. 7-9. (Y.) 20. downy, outer bracts very short ; fruit silky. — I>ry hills. 

* ' VLay q)reading« not revolute. 

t Lower leaves divided. Fruit hairy or silky. 
X Leaves all sesdle, 

4. S. squalidus, plnnatifid, glabrous, with distant, oblong, toothed segments ; 
A, 6-10. (Y.) E.-1. invoL glabrous, bracts few, smalL— -Walls. Oxford. 

Devon. 
X Lower leaves stalked, 

5. S. tettuifiliuM. all pinnaUfid, downy, especially beneath, margins revolute, 
P. 7, 8. TY.) lo. segments close, linear ; stem cottony. — Cbsdky soiL 

ft. S. JoMjhaea. Leaves lyrate, b^iinnatifid, glabrous, flat, segments spread- 

P. 7-9. (Y.) 20. ing, deeply toothed ; stem smooth. — Waste places, 
t Lower leaves undivided, 

X stalked, obovate, crenate or toothed. 

6. S. aqwaticut. Upper leaves lyrate, serrated, glabrous ; fruits all glabrous ; 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 15. invoL lienuq;>berical ; stem corymbose. — Kiver skies. 

X Leaves all sessile. Bracts subulate or setaceous. 

7. S. paludotus. Leaves obkmg-laiieeolate, clasping, sharply serrate, woolly 
P. 5-7. (Y.) E.-1. beneath ; stem straight, hollow, woolly. 

8. S. Saraeenicui, leaves lanoedate, acute, sessile, minutely serrated, glabrous ; 
P. 8. (P.) 7. stem erect, sc^id, glabrous. — Watery places. 

38. Dobo'kicum. L, LeopardVbane. 

Headit radiant, . InvoL in a double row of neariy equal bracts. Receptacle alm<>»t 
naked. Pappus pilose, in the ray. 

1. D. Pardalianchet* Leaves cordate, toothed, lowest on long stalks, inter- 
P. 5«7. (Y.) 6. mediate with clasping, auricled petioles, upper sessile, 

dasping. — Pastures. 

2. D. ptantofftneum. heaves toothed, radical ones ovate, on kmg-stalks, those of 
P. 6, 7. (Y.) £. S.-1. stem sessile, clasping, the lower with a wingvd and 

auricled stalk, upper ovate-acuminate. — Damp places. 

Tr. XVIIL GSAPHALIDjE. Heads with teparate or perfect flor.^ without 
a ratf, Anth. with appendoffeM. Styleg truncate, PappuM pihite or $etaceouM. 

39. FiLA'GO. L. 

fnvoL imbricated, conical, of a few lanceolate, scarious bracts. Outer flor. fili- 
form intermixed with inner bracts of invf^ Pappus pilose, caducous. 

1. F. GalHca. Downy; stem «rerrt, dichot^miously lirancbed; leaves re- 
A. 7, 8. ( — Y.) £.- 1. volute, linear-«cuminat«, ]tmp;er than tlie deiu«, axillary 

clusters of sobuhtUi heads, — (iravelly \Aaixa, 

2. F. minima. Cottony ; stem as last ; leaves flat, linear-lanoeolat^, acute, 
A. 6-9. ( — Y.) 19. shorter than the axUlaiy or termuial clusters of conical 

beads ; bracts Mimfisli. -Sandy ground. 



20 Asterese.] Synpetalous Perioynocts Exogens. [Chrysanthemum. 

3. F. Germdnica. Cottony ; stem erect, proliferous at summit ; leaves lanceo- 

A. 7-9. (Y.) 20. late, wavy; heads in axillary and terminal, globose 

clusters ; bracts cuspidate. — Sandy fields. 

40. Gnapha'uum. L. Cudweed. 

Sometimes dioecious. Invol. bemisplierical, scarious, often coloured. Flor. tubular, 
not intermixed with bracts of invol. Pappus pilose or clavate. 

« Heads dioecious (Antennaria) ; bracts of invoL white or rose-coloured. 

1. G, dioicum. Shoots procumbent; flowering stems simple; root-leaves 
P. 6, 7. (Y.) 13. cottony beneath Mountain heaths. 

(i. hyperhoreum. leaves cottony on both sides. 

2. G. margaritaeeum.* Stem erect, branching above ; leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, 
P. 8. ( — ^Y.) 1. cottony beneath. — Moist meadows. 

* Heads with perfect flor. (Gnaphalium) ; bracts coloured at edges. 

f * Stem branching oidy at base ; flor. conspicuous ; heads in dense, leafless 
tufts. 

3. G. lateo-album. Leaves linear-oblong, waved, clasping, woolly on both 
A. 7, 8. (Y.) E.-2. sides. — Cambridgeshire. Norfolk. 

f • Stem diffusely branched, cottony ; flor. inconspicuous ; heads in dense, ter- 
minal clusters, 

4. G. uUginosum. shorterthan the surrounding, linear- lanceolate leaves, which 
A. 7, 8. (Y.) 20. are cottony on both sides. — Sandy places. 

t ' Stem generally simple ; flor. inconspicuous ; heads spiked or solitary. 

5. G. sylvaticum. Spike leaiy, interrupted, formed of axillary clusters, slightly 
P. 7-9. (W.) 16. branched ; leaves linear-lanceolate, wooDy on both 

sides. — Thickets. 
iS. rectum. leaves glabrous above. 

6. G. suptnum. Spike terminal, capitate, of few heads ; leaves linear-oblong, 
P. 7. (W.) S.-1. downy on both sides Mountains. 

/3. pustllum, stem caespitose ; heads 1-5, scattered. 

Tr. XIX. ANTHEMIDuE, Heads usually with a ray of ligulate, pistillife- 
rous or neuter flor, Anth, not appendaged. Branches of style usually truncate. 
Pappus often wanting, mostly membranous, rarely scaly or pilose. 

41. Chrtsa'nthemum. L, Ox-eye. Moon-daisy. 

Invol. hemispherical or nearly flat ; the scales imbricated, with membranous edges. 
Receptacle naked, convex or flat. Pappus 0, or crown-like. 

* Fruit not crowned by pappus. (CHRTSAirrHEMUM.) ■ 

1. C. Leucanthemum. Lower leaves stalked, obovate, those of stem clasping, ob- 
P. 6, 7. (W. Y.) 20. long, obtuse, cut, pinnatifid at base, green. — Fields and 

banks. 

2. C scgetum. Leaves all sessile, upper clasping, inciso-serrate above, 

A. 6-8. (Y.) 20. toothed at base, glaucous. — Com fields. 

* Fruit crowned by a membranous border. (Pyrethmum.) 

3. C. Parthenium. Heads corymbose ; leaves stalked, pinnate, with ovate or 

B. 6, 7. (W. Y.) 18. oblong pmnatifid leafl. — ^Waste ground. 

4. C. inodSrum. Heads solitary ; leaves sessile, pinnatifid, in numerous ca- 
A, 7, 8. (W. Y.) 20. pillary pointed segments. — ^Waste ground. 

/3. maritimum. leaves bipinnate, le^. pointless. — Sea-shore. 



Diotifl.] Stnpetaloos Perioynous Exooens. [Astereae. 21 

42. A'NTHEMis. L. Chamomile. 

lavoL liemispherical or nearly flat, imbricated in a few rows of bracts with membra- 
nous edges. Receptacle chafiy, convex. Pappus or membranous. 

* Receptacle flat (1), or hemispherical (2). 

1. A. A'ngUca, Stem prostrate ; leaves pinnatifid, somewhat hairy and 

A. 7. (W. Y.) E. I.-1. fleshy, lobes indso-serrate, acute^ bristle-pointed. — Sea- 
shore, Sunderland. Bearhaven. 
3. A. tinctSria. Stem erect; leaves bi-pinnatifid, cottony beneath, not 

P. 7, 8. (Y.) E. S.-1. fleshy, segments decurrent, serrated. — Banks of moan- 
tain streams. 

* Receptacle conical, (3, 5.) or elongated (4.) 

3. A, arvensis. Leaves bi-pinnatifid hairy, segments linear-lanceolate ; 
A, 6, 7. (W. Y.) 13. scales of receptacle lanceolate or oblong, with a rigid 

acute point — Waysides. 

4. A. Cotula, Leaves bi-pinnatifid, nearly glabrous, segments subulate ; 
A, 7-9. (W. Y.) 16. scales of receptacle Ihiear-setaceous, acute. — ^Waste 

places. 

5. A. nobUis. Leaves bi-pinnate, slightly downy, leafl. Unear-subulate ; 
P. 7, 8. (W. Y.) E. L-10. scales of receptacle membranous, obtuse. — Dry places. 

43. Matbica'bia. L. Wild* chamomile. 

InvoL nearly flat, the bracts imbricated, without membranous edges. Receptacle 
very corneal, naked. Pappus 0. 

1. M. Chamomilla, Leaves (dnnatey smooth ; leafl. capillary, simple or divided ; 
A, 6, 7 (W. Y.) 16. invoL with obtuse bracts Com fields. 

44. AcHiLLiE'A. X. Yarrow. MillefoiL 

InvoL ovate, imbricated. Ray of 5-10 roundish ligulate flor. ; the tube of the inner 
ones 2-winged. Receptacle flat, chaffy. Pappus 0. 

* Leaves deeply divided, woolly, 

1. A millefolium. bi-pinnatifid, outline lanceolate, segments linear, toothed, 
P. 6-8. ( — ^W.) 20. acute ; bracts nearly glabrous — ^Waste ground. 

2. A tomentosa.* Leaves pinnatifid, outline linear-lanceolate, segments 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) S. L-1. crowd^ linear, acate, 2-3-fid. ; bracts woolly. — Hills. 

* L^ves lin^-lanceolate, not pinnatifid, 

3. A Pt&rmiea, acute, shining^ g^abrona, uniformly and finely serrated, at- 
P. 7, 8. ^W.) 20. tenuated at bofle. — ^Moist pastures. 

4. A Merraia. Leaves blmitish, downy, punctured, coarsely and doubly 
P, 9. ( — Y.) E.-1. serrated, spreading, laciniate at base. — Somersetshire. 

Mailo<^ 

45. Dio'xis. Desf, Cotton-weed. 

InvoL hemispherical, imbricated. Flor. all tubular, perfect, havmg 2 ears at base, 
which border the ov., and remain upon the fruit. Receptacle with fringed scales. 
Pi^>pus 0. 

D. marUima, Whole plant white, cottony ; leaves sessile, oblong, obtuse, 

P. 8, 9. (Y.) E.-9. flat, crenate, persistent. — Sea shore. 



22 Dipsacese.] Synpetalous Pebigynous Exogens. [Dipsacus. 

46. Tanace'tum. L, Tansy. 

Invol. hemispherical, imbricated. Ray sometimes 0. Receptacle naked. Fruit 
angular, with a lai^ epigynous disk, and membranous margin. 

1. T. vulgar e. Leaves bi-pinnatifid, deeply serrated ; heads in a terminal 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 19. corymb ^Borders of fields. 

47. Abtehi'sia. L. Wormwood. Southernwood. 

Invol. roundish, imbricated, few-fl'd. Flor. of the ray, if any, slender subulate. Re- 
ceptacle naked or hairy. Fruit obovate with a sm^dl epigynous disk. Pappus 0. 

* Leaves with linear segments, bi-pinnatifid, 

1. A. campestris. silky beneath; heads drooping; invoL glabrous; stem 
P. 8, 9. (Y.) E.-1. twiggy, procumbent before flowering ; receptacle naked 

Sandy heaths. 

2. A. maritima. Leaves clothed with a whitish down ; heads drooping ; 
P. 8, 9. ( — R.) 9. invoL woolly ; stem ascending ; receptacle naked. — 

Salt marshes. 
/3. gallica, heads erect 

* Leaves with lanceolate, entire (3), or cut and serrated (4) segments, 

3. A. Absinthium. bi-pinnatifid, silky ; receptacle hairy ; heads hemispherical, 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 19. drooping.— Waste ground. 

4. A. vulgaris. Leaves pinnatifid, woolly, and white beneath ; receptacle 
P. 8, 9. ( — R.) 20. naked ; heads ovate, dmost erect — ^Waste ground. 

Tr. XX. AMBROSIDjE. Heads generally monoecious. Anth. distinct. Fil. 
united. Cor. of the pistilliferous Jlor, often absent, of the stameniferous ones 
tubular, 5 cleft. Pappus 0. 

48. XA'inrHiuM. L. Bur-weed. 

Invol. of barren heads of 1 row of free bracts, containing numerous flor. ; Receptacle 
scaly. Invol. of fertile heads of 1 prickly bract containing 2 flor. Cor. 0. Fruit 
enclosed in hardened invoL 

1. X. sirumdrium.* Stem unarmed; leaves cordate, 3-lobed, coarsely toothed; 
A. 8, 9. (G.) 1, fruit with 2 straight beaks. — Waste land. 

Order II — DIPSACEiE. 

Herbs with opposite leaves, destitute of any important properties. Fl. in heoiis, 
placed on a common receptacle, and surrounded by an invol. Cal. with a superior 
membranous or pappus-like limb, surrounded by a scarious involucel which closely 
invests the fruit Cor. oblique. Stam. 4 ; anth. free. Fruit 1 -celled, 1 -seeded ; 
Embr. inverted, straight, in axis of a fleshy alb. 

Receptacle with spinous scales. CaL -limb entire 1. Dipsacus. 

Receptacle hairy. CaL-limb with more than 5 cilie. . . . 2. Knautia. 
Receptacle scaly. Cal. -limb long, narrow, ending in 5 bristles. . 3. So a bios a. 

1. Di'psAous. L. TeaseL 

True cal. with a cup-shaped, entire limb. Involucel forming a thickened margin to 
ov. Receptacle spinous. Fruit 4-8ided, with 8 depressions. 



Valeriana.] Stnpetalous Perioynous Exogenb. [Valerianeae. 23 

* Heads elongated ; leaves sessile, undivided, upper connate ; stem prickly. 

1. D. Fidlonum.* Scales of receptacle hooked at the end ; invoL spreading, as 
B. 8, 9. ( — P.) E.-1. long as head. — Road sides and hedges. 

2. D. sylvegtris. Scales of receptacle straight at end ; invoL carved up- 
B. 7-9. (P.) 16. wards, longer than the heads — ^Hedges and roadsides. 

* Heads globose ; leaves petioled vritii lateral leafl. ; stem rough. 

3. D. pilosuM. Scales of receptacle straight at end ; invoL deflexed, 
B. 8, 9. (W.) K-9. shorter than the heads. — ^Moist woods. 

2. Ena'dtia. L. 

True caL cupHshaped, with radiating dlis. Involucel with 4 small teeth. Beoeptacle 
hairy. Fruit on a short stalk, compressed, with 4 sides and 4 depressions. 

1. K. arvenns. Stem bristly ; involucel with very small teeth ; caL with 

. P. 7. ( — P.) 19. 8-16 somewhat awned cilise ; lower leaves simple, upper 

pinnatifid. — Pastures. 

3. ScABio'sA. L, Scabious. 

True caL with the limb narrowed, elongated, and bearing 5 bristles. Involucel mem- 
branous, plaited. Receptacle scaly. Fruit nearly cylindrical, with 8 depressions. 

1. S. tuccUa, Cor. 4-cleft; involucel hairy, 4-fid. herbaceous ; caL with 
P. 7-10. (+B.) 13. 5-bristle8 ; stem-leaves toothed, upper mostly entire. — 

Pastures. 

2. S, eolumlfdria. Cor. 5-eleft; involucel plaited, notched, membranous; 
P. 7, 8. ( — P.) E. S.-19. caL of 5 bristles ; upper leaves pinnatifid. — Chalky soils. 

Obdeb IIL— VALERLVNE.E. 

Annual or perennial herbs, with opposite ezstipulate leaves, and possessing tonic, 
aromatic properties. CaL, the limb membranous, toothed, or an irregular, feathery 
popfNia, <rften obsolete. Cor, tubular, irr^ular, 3-5-lobed, often gibhous, or spurred 
at base, Stam. 1-5 free, Ov, with 1 perfect, and sometimes 2 other abortive cells. 
Fndt dry, indehescent Seed 1, pendulous ; embr. strai^t ; alb. ; cad. superior. 

Cor. q^nrred. Frnlt erowned wf th featherj pftppni. • 1. Cevtbavtbus. 

Cor. not qrarred. Fmit crowned with feftthery pappiu. . 2. Valxbiasa. 

Cor. not qrarred. Fkuit crowned with teetk. .... 3. Valxbiaseixa. 

1. Centba'mthus. De C, 

Cor. 5-lobed, sparred at base. StaoL 1. Froit 1-ceIled, crowned with a feathery 
pappus. 

1. C. ruber* Leaves ovate-lanceolate ; spur shorter than tube of cor., 
P. 6-9. (R.) 6. longer than ov. — Chalk-pits. Old waUs. 

2. C. caldtrapa.* Radi(^ leaves ovate ; stem leaves pinnatifid. Spur very 
P. 7. £.-1. short^Eltfaam, Kent. 

2. Yalebia'ka. L, Valerian. 

Cor. 5-bbed, not spurred. Stam 3. Fruit 3-celled; 2 of the cells empty, inflated, 
or reduced to filiform ridges ; crowned with the erect, unequal teeth d^ caL 

* Flowers dioecious ; cor. gibbous at base. 

1. y. dioiea. Boot-leaves ovate, stalked ; those of stem pinnatifid, with 

P. 6. ( — ^B.) P. 8.-17. a large terminal lobe ; stem simple. — ^Moist places. 



24 CampanulesD.] Synpetalous Pebigtnous Exogens. [Lobelia. 

* Fl's. perfect ; cor. gibbous at base. 

2. y. officinalis. Leaves all pinnate, stalked ; leafl. lanceolate, serrated, all 
P. 6, 7. ( — R.) 20, of equal size. — Moist places. 

3. V. Pyrenaica,* Leaves cordate, serrate, stalked, the uppermost with 1 or 
P. 6, 7. ( — R.) S.-3. 2 pairs of small, lanceolate leafl ^Woods. 

3. Yalebiane/lla. Toum, Lamb's-lettuce. Corn-salad. 

Cor. 5-lobed, not spurred. Stam. 3. Fruit 8-celled ; 2 of the cells empty, inflated, 
or reduced to filiform ridges ; crowned with the erect, unequal teeth of caL 

* Fruit with 1 fertile, and 2 barren cells ; bracts ciliated ; fl. capitate. 

1. y. olitoria. Fruit crowned with 3 minute, inflexed teeth, compressed, 
A. 6, 6. ( — ^B.) 20. oblique, cells not ribbed ; leaves ovate-spathulate. — 

Banks. 

2. y. carinata. Fruit crowned with 1 straight tooth, carinate, the cells all 
A, 4-6. ( — B.) E. S.-1. equal, 1 -ribbed ; leaves from spathulate to oblong. — 

Hedge banks. 

3. y. Auricula, Fruit crowned with 1 erect membranous leaf, sub-globose, 
A. 7, 8. ( — R.) 1. furrowed, fertile cell smallest ; leaves from obovate to 

oblong. — Cultivated ground. 
' Fruit having 2 compressed, prominent ribs in place of the barren cells, 

4. y. dentata. crowned with the small, oblique, unequally 4-toothed cal., 
A, 6, 7. ( — R.) 17. glabrous; fl's in spreading corymbs. — Corn-fields and 

banks. 
/3. mixta, caL 3-toothed ; fruit villous. 

6. y. eriocdrpa. Fruit crowned with the large, oblique, unequally 5-7 

A. 6, 7. ( — P.) E.-1, toothed cal. j fl's. in condensed corymbs. — Ormeshead. 

Order ly.— CAMPANULE.E. 

Herbs, rarely shrubs, having a milky juice which is sometimes acrid and emetic 
Leaves alternate, ex-stipulate. CaL 5-lobed, or entire. Cor. 5-lobed, often ir- 
r^nlar, inserted with the stam. on the caL Anth.free or united, Ov, 2-5'Celled; 
style simple, hairy. Fruit dry, capsular, many-seeded^ opening by lateral fissures or 
valves at the apex. Emhr. straight, erect^ in axis of fleshy alb, 

* Cm. irregular. 1. Lobelia. 

■ Cot. regular, 

t rotate, in 5 deep segments. Fl's. in heads. 

Anth. cohering by their bases. 2. Jasiove. 

Anth. wholly firee 3. Fhttbuma. 

t Ck>r. campanulate, segments shallow. Fl's. not in heads 4. Cabcpanvla. 

Tr. L LOBELIDJE. FVs, irreytdar. Anth. cohering. 

1. LOBE'UA. L. 

Cor. 2-lipped, cleft to the base on the upper side. Stigma surrounded by a fringe of 
hairs at base. Caps. 2-3-celled, the upper free part 2-3 valved. 

1. L. drens. Leaves nearly glabrous, toothed, lower obovate, stalked, 
P. 8, 9. ( — B.) E.-1. upper lanceolate, sessile ; stem leafy, branched ; racemes 

terminal. — Heaths, Axminster. 

2. L. Dortmdnna. Leaves sub-cylindrical, of 2 parallel tubes ; stem leafless, 
P, 7. ( — ^B.) 2. simple ; racemes terminaL — ^Mountain lakes. 



Campanula.] Sthpetalous pEBionroua Ezogehs. [CampanaleaB. 25 

Tr. IL CAMPANULIDJE. Cor. regular, Anth. mostly free. Style hmry. 

2. Jasio'he. L. ShaepVlHt. 

Cor. rotate, in 5 deep segments. Anth. muted at base. Stigma davate. Ciqw. 
2-edled, opening at the top by a yaivular pore. 

1. J. ffMm/^wo. Leaves linear, Uuntish, waved, hii^id ; ped. soHtary, bear- 

P. 7. (B.) 20. ingadenaelMadoffl's. — Heatfaj hills. 

8. Phtteu'Ma. L. Bampion. 
Cor. as last FiL dilated at base. Stigma 2-3-cleft. Caps, opening at rides. 

1. P. orbieulare. Stigmas 3 ; heads globose, oblong in fruit ; leaves crenate, 
P, 8. (B.) £.-1. lower cordate-ovate, stalked, evanescent, upper linear- 
lanceolate, sessile. — ^^halkj soiL 

2, P. tpieatum. Stigmas 3 ; heads oblong, cylinrlrical in fruit ; leaves as 
P, 8. (+W.) £.-1. bst, the lowest doubly serrated.— Thickets. 

4. Campa'kula. L, BeU-fiower. 

Cor, campanulate or sub-rotate, with 5 broad, shallow segments. FiL dilated at 
base. Stigma 2-5-fid. Caps. 2-5-celIed, bursting laterally, rarely at top. 

* PL sessile in dense solitary and terminal heads. 

1. C. plomerdta. Stem angular, simple ; leaves rough, crenate, ovate-Ian- 
P. 7, 8. (B.) E. S.-13. ceolate, the lower stalked, upper clasping. — Dry pas- 
tores. 

• PL stalked. 

f CaL hatiy or scabrous, 

2. C h^hrida, the limb longer than the nearly rotate cor. ; caps, elongated, 
^.6-9.( — R.)£.S.-10. triangular; leaves smooth, crenate, wavy, lower spa- 

thulate, upper oblong, sesnle. — Com fields. 

3. C. TraeheUum, CaL-limb shorter than the campanulate cor. ; cape, glo- 
P. 7, 8. (B.) 14. bose ; leaves rough, doubly serrate, lower cordate, stalked, 

upper ovate, sessile. — Hedges and thickets, 
t CaL smooth. 

% Stem procumbent, fiHform, branching ; fl. solitary. 

4. C. heder&cea. Leaves stalked, roundish-cordate, angulariy 5-toothed, 
P, 7, 8. (B.) 5. glabrous or with a few scattered hairs. — Moist woods. 

X Stem erect or ascending. 

§ Leaves scabrous or hairy; fl. numerous, in erect racemes or 
panicles. 
I Cor. pubescent or hairy. 

5. C. loHfolia. Stem simple ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, crenate-serrate, 
P. 7, 8. (B.) 14. lower stalkoi, upper nearly sessile. — Shady woods. 

6. C. rapunculoideM, Stem slightly brandied ; leaves crenate-serrate, lower 
P, 7, 8. ( — ^B.) K S.-3. cordate, stalked, upper lanceolate, sessile. — ^Woods. 

I Cor. glabrous ; leaves crenate. 

7. C. Rapuneulu»,* Segments of caL enture, subulate ; leaves wavy ; lower 
P, 7, 8. ( — ^B.) E.-5. obovate-obkmg, stalked, upper lanceolate, sessile. — Gra- 
velly soO. 

8. C. patula. Segments of caL toothed at base ; leaves even, lower ob- 
B. 7, 8.) (B.) E.-3. ovate-lanceolate, snb-petiolate, upper linear-lanceolate. — 

Thidbets. 



26 Lonicereae.] Stnpetalous Periotnous Exogens. [Lonicera. 

§ Leaves and stem smooth ; fl. 1 or more, racemose. 
9. C. peraidfolia* Fl. erect ; segments of cal. lanceolate ; leaves slightly ser- 
A. 7. (B.) S.-1. rate, lower obovate, stalked, upper Imear-lanceolate, ses- 
sile ^Woods. 

\Q, C. rotundifolui. FL drooping; segments of caL linear-subnlate ; leaves 

P. 7, 8. (B.) 20. slightly crenate, lower cordate orreniform, (soon wither- 
ing,) gradually narrowing into linear ones upwards on 
the stem. — D^ places. 

Obdeb v.— LONICERE^ 

Shrubs or herbs possessing cathartic, diaphoretic, or emetic properties. Leaves 
opposite, mostly exstipulate, Cal. with a superior 4-5-cleft limb, usually with 2 or 
4 bracts at base. Ov, with 1-6 cells, 1 being often 1- seeded, the rest many-seeded. 
Style 1 or ; stigmas 3-5. Fruit not lobed, indehiscent, 1 or more-celled, dry or 
succulent. Seeds either single and pendulous, or numerous and attached to axis. 
Embr. small, straight, in fleshy alb. ; rad. superior. 

« Style ; stigmas 3. 

I/eaves pinnate. Cor. rotate. . . . .1. Sambvcus. 

Leaves simple. Cor. ftinnel-shaped. .... 2. Yiburhum. 
* Style filiform ; stigma capitate. 

Cor. mostly irregular. Stam. 5. . . . .3. Lonicera. 

Cor. regular. Stam. 4. ..... 4. LiNNiBA. 

1. Sambu'cus. L. Elder. 

Cal. 5-cleft. Cor. rotate, 5-lobed. Stam. 5. Stigmas 3, sessile. Berry 3 or 4- 
seedeQ. 

1. S. ebulus. Stip. leafy ; leafl. lanceolate ; stem herbaceous, bearing 
P. 7. (W.) 18. cymes with 3 principal branches. — ^Hedges. 

2. S. nigra. Stip. ; leafl. ovate ; stem arboreous, bearing cymes with 
T. 6. (+W.) 19. 6 principal branches. — Hedges. 

fi. lacinidta, leafl. ladniated. — ^Near Ayr. 

2. Vibu'bnum. L. Guelder-rose. 

Cal. 5-cleft. Cor. campanulate, 5-lobed. Stam. 5. Stigmas 3, sessile. Beny 1- 
seeded. 

1. v. Lantana. Leaves elliptic, cordate, serrated, downy beneath ; young 
T. 5. rW.) K S.-10. branches veiy downy. — ^Thickets. 

2. y. Optdus. Leaves 3-5-lobed acuminate, serrated, glabrous ; branches 
S. 6. (W.) 19. aU glabrous.— Thickets. 

3. LoNi'CEBA. L, Honey-suckle. 

Cal.-limb small, 5-toothed. Cor. tubular, or funnel-shaped, the limb irregular, 5- 
cleft. Stam. 5. Style filiform. Beny 1-3-celled, 1 or more-seeded. 

1. L. Caprifolium.* Fl's. in terminal, sessile whorls; leaves smooth, the upper 
S, 6, 6. ( — Y*) K S.-4. connate perfoliate ; stem twining. — ^Thickets. 

2. L. Periclymenum, Fl's. in terminal, stalked heads; leaves aU distinct, smooth, 
S. 6. (r. — ^Y.) 20. rarely downy beneath ; stem twining. — Hedges. 

8. L. Xylosteum.* Fed. 2-fl'd., woolly ; leaves oval, downy, distinct ; stem 

S. 7. (T.) E. S.-3. erect, not twining.— Thickets. 



Galium.] Stnpetalous Pebigtnous Exogens. [Galieae. 27 

4. LiNN^A. Gronov. 

CaL-limb 5-clefL Cor. campanalate, 5-cleft, regular. Stam. didynamoos. S<yle 
filiform. Fmlt a diy l-seeded, 3-celled beny ; 2 of the cells barren. 

1. L. borealis. Stem creeping ; ped. erect, with 2 drooping fl*s. ; cor. cam- 

P. 5, 6. ( — R.) E. S.-3. panulate. — ^In fir woods. 

Order VI.— GAUE^ or STELLATJE. 

Herbs, wUh tohorled leaves, and angular stems, withoat anj important qualities, 
limb of caL 4or5-lobed, or obsolete. Cor. regular 3, 4 or 5-cleft Stam. 4 or 5, epipeta- 
lous, Ov. 2 -celled. Styles 2. Fruit a didymous, indehiscent pericarp. Seeds 2 ; 
embr. in etxis of homy alb. ; rad. inferior. 

Cor. mottly ff-cleft. Stun. 5. Cal. limb 1. Bubia. 

Cor. 3 at 4-cleft. Stam. 4. 

Cal.-limb 0. Cor. rotate 4-cleft 2. Galium. 

CaL-limb 0. Cor. fimnel-Bhapod 3 or 4-eleft. ... 3. Abpebula. 

CaL-teeth4, 2oftheteethbifid 4. Shbbabdia. 

1. Bu'bia. L. Madder. 

Cor. rotate or campanulate, 3-5-cleft. Stam. 4 or 5. Fruit a 2-lobed beny; caL- 
teeth 0. 

1. R. peregrtna. Leaves 4-6 in a whorl, lanceolate, shining, margin and 

P. 6-8. (Y.) E. I.-4. keel rough with reflexed bristles. — GraveUy places. 

2. Ga'lium. L. Bed-straw. 
Cor. rotate, 4-cleft. Stam. 4. Fruit dry, not crowned by teeth of cal. 

* Leaves, especially the upper, 4, rarely 5 in a whorl, not bristle pointed. 

f Leaves and stem hairy, (not bristly.) Fruit smooth. 
1. 6. cruciatum. Leaves ovate, 4 in a whorl ; ped. axillary corymbose, with 

P. 6, 6. (Y.) 18. 2 bracts, terminal fl's. fertQe.— -Hedges, 

t Leaves not hairy, smooth or briistly. Fed. patent in fruit 
2 G. palustre. Fruit smooth; panicle diffuse; leaves oblong- lanceolate, 

P. 7, 8. (W.) 19. obtuse, their margins and the lax spreading stems 

smooth. — Wet places. 
(i. Witherinffii. leaves 5 in a whorl ; margins and stem rough with de- 

flexed bristles. — Dry places. 

3. 6. boredle. Fruit rough with hooked bristles ; corymb, compact ; 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 7. leaves lanceolate, 3-ribbed, smooth, mucronate; stem 

erect. — ^Moist rocks. 

* Leaves more than 5 in a whorL 

f Stem smooth or haiiy, not bristly. 

X Margins of leaves rough with bristles pointing forwards. 
§ Edges of leaves revolute. 

4. 6. vSrum. Leaves linear, channelled above, downy beneath ; panicles 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 20. densely flowered Dry places. 

§ Edges of leaves not revolute. 

5. G. er^tum. Leaves lanceolate, 8 in a whorl, mucronate, with 2 rows of 
P. 8. (W.) 7. marginal bristles, sometimes downy beneath, mid-rib 

slender; panicles of many ascen(Ung branches; pet. 
acuminate. — ^Pastures, hedges. 
iS. cinereum. leaves linear, 6-8 in a whorl. 



28 GaliesB.] Sympetalous Perigynous Exogens. [Sberardia* 

6. 6. saxatile. Leaves obovate, about 6 in a whorl, pointed, with a fbw 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 20. ascending, marginal prickles; stem much branched, 

corymbose ; pet. acute, not mucronate. — Rocky heaths. 

7. G. Mollugo, Leaves obovate-oblong, cuspidate, 8 in a whorl, and as 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 15. well as stem glabrous ; panicles lax, {^reading ; pet. 

mucronate, thi^-tipped. — Hedges. 
fi. sc&bum, leaves 6-whorled, and with the stem hairy. 

y. insubricum. leaves 6-whorled, obovate, abruptly cuspidate ; panicles 

terminating in S-chotomous umbels. 
y arUtatum, leaves 6-whorled, petioled, lanceolate, mucronate; fruit 

separating into 2 reniform carpels. 
X Margins of leaves smooth or hairy. 

8. G. pusiUum, Leaves 8 in a whorl, linear-lanceolate, somewhat haiiy, 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 3. hair pointed ; panide terminal, forked ; fruit smooth. — 

Limestone-hills, 
t Stem rough at the angles with recurved bristles. 

% Margins of leaves rough with bristles pointing forwards. 

9. G. A'nglicum. Panicles dichotomous, axillary, branches bifid ; fruit granu- 
A. 6, 7. (W.) E.-4. lated, the stalks divaricating ; upper leaves 6 in a whorl, 

linear-lanceolate. — Dry places. 

10. G. sacchardfum, Ped. 3-fl'd axillary; fruit a double globe, warted, droop- 
P. 6-8. (Y.) E. S.-1. ing ; leaves all 6-whorled, linear-lanceolate. — Corn- 
fields. 

i Marginal bristles of leaves recurved near the apex. 
§ Leaves mucronate, 6-8 in a whorl, lanceolate. 

11. G. uliginosum. Fruit smooth ; fl's. in small 3-chotomons panicles; stem 
P. 6-8. (W.) 17. weak, rough with reflexed bristles. — Wet places. 

12. G. Aparine. Fruit covered with hooked bristles ; fl's. 2-3, axillary ; 
A, 5-8. (W.) 20. stem very long and weak, very rough with reflexed 

bristles. — ^Hedges. 
§ Leaves not mucronate. 

13. G. tricome. Fruit laige, double, granulated, drooping ; ped. axOlary, 
A. 6-9. (W.) E.-6. 8-fl'd. ; stem procumbent — Chalky fields. 

14. G. spurium. Fruit small, 2-lobed, smooth, divaricating } ped. axillaiy, 
A, 6, 7. (W.) S. ? more than 3-fl'd. ; stem straggling, cymose. — Forfar- 
shire. 

(L Vaillantii, fruit small, hispid. 

3. Aspb'rxtla. X. Woodrufil 
Cor. funnel-shaped. Stam. 4. Fruit dry, not crowned by teeth of caL 

1. A. Ci^nchica. Leaves 4 in a whorl, linear, mucronate, the upper very 
P. 6, 7. ( — ^P.) E. T.-8. unequal ; fl*s. in corymbs ; cor. 4-cleft, scabrous. — ^Diy 

* banks. 

2. A. odorSta, Leaves 6-8 in a whorl, lanceolate, with a hooked point, all 
P. 5, 6, (W.) 20. equal; fl*s. panicled, cor. often 8-cleft, smooth. — Woods. 

4. Shera'rdia. X. Field-madder. 

Cor. funnel-shaped. Stam. 3 or 4. Fruit dry, crowned by caL-teeth \ 2 of the teeth 
bifid. 

S. arvensis, Fl's. in a small, sessile, terminal ambel ; leaves 6 in a 

A. 5-7. (B.) 20. whorL, obovate-lanceolate, acute. — Gravelly soils. 



Apopetalous Perigtnous Exooeks. [Angelicese. 29 



Division II. — Apopetalotjs Perigynous Exogens. 

Periotnous Exooens, with the corolla consistiiig of distinct petals, or altogether 
absent 

Obdeb VIL— GEOSSULARBELE. 

Shrubs, often spiny, with alternate, lobed, exstipnlate leaves, and innocnoiu pro- 
perties. Fl*s. rarely dioecious. CaL with a 4 or 5-cleft limb. Pet5,smaIL Stem. 
5, qngynoos. Ov, 1-celled, with 2 oypoAtA parietal placenUB ; style deft Fruit a 
beny, crowned with the remains of the fl., 1-celled. Seeds numerous^ suspended 
in the pulp by long funiculi ; testa gelatinous extonally, firmly adherent to the large 
homy alb. ; embr. minute^ straight ; rad. next hilum. 

1. RiBES. L. 

* Stems spinous; fl's. 1-3, axillary, (Gooseberry.) 

1. R. Grosstdaria. Leaves rounded, lobed ; ped. hauy, 1, 2, or rarely d-fl*d., 
iS*. 4, 5. (+W.) 13. with 2 minute bracts ; fruit generally hairy ; branches 

spreading. — Thickets. 
^ recUnatum. branches arched, recurved. 

* Stems not spnnous ; fl's. numerous, in racemes, (Currant) 

f Bracts longer than the often dioecious fl's., lanceolate. 

2. R. alpinum. Racemes upright in fl. and fruit ; caL glabrous, the limb 
S, 4, 5. (— Y.) K S.-6. nearly flat ; leaves 3-lobed, serrate. — Woods. 

t Bracts shorter than the pedicels of the perfect fl's. 

3. R. niyrum, CaL pubescent, the limb campanulate ; bracts subulate ; 
S. 5. ( — G.) 9. racemes lax, downy, pendulous. — Damp woods. 

4. R, rubrunu CaL glabrous, the limb nearly flat ; bracts ovate ; racemes 
S. 5, 6. ( — G.) 6. nuMtly glabrous, pendulous. — ^Mountain woods. 

fi. petrafum, racemes sightly downy, erect in fl., pendulous in fruit 

y. spicatum. racemes erect in fl. and fruit 

Obdeb Vni.— ANGEUCE^ OB UMBELLIFERiE. 

Hertw, generally with fistular, furrowed stems ; often hi^ily poisonous, except the 
fruit, wldch is rarely so. Leaves mostly divided, and sheathing at base. FTs. ar- 
ranged in umbelSf simple or compound; sometimes in compact heads. Cal. with the 
limb 5-toothed, or obsolete. Pet 5, usually with an inflexed or incurved point 
Ov. 2-ceDed. Styles 2. Fruit generally crowned by the indurated base of the 
styles (stylopodium) ; consisting €^2 carpels, separable from, a common axis to which 
they adhere by their face (commisure) ; each carpel has 5 primary more or less dis- 
tnact, and sometimes 4 intermediate, secondary ridges ; and in the substance of the 
lipe pericarp of many species, may be observed dark linear reoqttacles of oil (vittae). 
Seeds solitary, pendulous, rarely loose in the pericarp ; embr, minute at base of a 
large alb, 

* LMTca tiiiiple, newer pimiate. Umbdfl dmple, or bardlj pcrCKt 
t Fruit nnooth, lateraUy oompreMed. CftL-teeth 0. 

Fmtt Umgu than bxMd. Gwpelf nesrlj tenOe. 83. Btpleuscm . 

Ruit braider than long. Cwpckflat .12. Utdrocotyle. 



so Angelicese.] Apop£TALons Perigtnous Exogens. 



t Frait rough; roundish tranivenely. 

Leavet ipinoni. Fruit with hooked prickles. . .14. 

Leaves not spinous. Fruit scaly or bristly. .15. 

Leaves not spinous. Bidges of fruit toothed. . .13. 

Leaves compound. Umbels mostly compound and perfect. 
t i Fruit beaked. 

Beak more than twice the length of firuit. . .1. 

Beak shorter than firuit. ..... 2. 

t * Fruit linear, but not beaked. 

Fruit (nearly an ineh long'), with a double pericarp. . 3. 

Fruit (much shorter), with a single pericarp. . 4. 

t ' Fruit neither beaked nor linear, 
X prickly, 

Yaad laterally compressed. 

Prickles of fhiit straight. . . . .9. Tortus. 



Ebynoiux. 
Sanicula. 

ASTBAHTIA. 



SOAMDIX. 

Ahthriscvs. 

Mtrbhis. 
Chjbrophtllum. 



5. ECHIHOPHOBA. 



17. tobdylivm. 

18. Pastinaca. 

19. Hebaolkum. 



Prickles of firuit hooked. . .10. Caucaus. 

$ Fruit rather dorsally compressed. . . .16. DAUcna. 

t Fruit smooth, or rarely hairy. 
§ Leaves and invoL spiny. ..... 

$ Neither leaves nor invoL spiny. 
y 1 Fruit much and dorsaUy compressed, 
Y with a single wing at each side ; 
** Wings with a thick, knotty border. 
** Wings flat and even, 

tt And the 2 lateral ridges near the edge of each. 
tt Bidges on the wings. 

Vittfls on the upper half of the fruit only. 

YittsB as long as fhiit. . . .20. Fbvoedaiivm. 

T Fruit with a double wbig on each side. . 21. Anoklica 

I * Fruit perfectly circular in a transverse section. 
T Partial invol. of 3 bracts; general 0. . . 25, JEtuvba, 

\ Partial invol. of more than 3 bracts. 

** Styles long, erect. . . .22. GBhahthb. 

** Styles short, reflezed, or diverging. 

ft Carpels with Ihe 5 primary ridges more prominent. 
tt General invol. of 1-3 bracts rarely 0. 
Pet. elliptical, the point incurved. 
Pet. ol)«vate, with an inflexed lobe. 
tt General invol. of more than 3 bracts. 
Leaves not fleshy. Fruit hairy. 
Leaves flesliy. Fruit smooth. 
Leaves not fleshy. Fruit smooth, 
ft Carpels with the 4 secondary ridges mrae 
prominent. .... 

I * Fruit laterally compressed. 
^ Leafl. of all the leaves linear, or in flliform segments. 
»« Cal. ofSkaiyteeth. .... 30. Ciouta. 

** CaL-teeth obsolete. 

ft Stylopodium conlcaL 
ft Stylopodium depressed, or 0. 
it Fl's. perfect Fruit oblong. 

Pet. obcordate,with an inflexed point. 
Pet. roundish, with an obtuse, invo- ) 
lute s^rment. . . ) 

ti FI*s. didinoufl. Fruit ovate. 
^ Leaves mostly with broad, oblong, or roundish lealL 
«• With both general and partial invoL's. 
ft Pet. with a straight or incurved apiculus. 
ft Pet. with an inflexed point. 

Xt Carpels with wavy or crenate ridges. . 
it Carpels with straight and even ridges. 
^ CaL with 6 small teeth. 

Bidges on fruit indistinct. 
Bidges on firuit prominent. 
li CaL-teeth obsolete. 

Partial invol. of 5 bracts. 
Pbrtlal invoL of 1-3 bracts. 



} 



27. 
28. 

23. 
24. 
26. 



Mbum. 

SILAUS. 

Seskli. 

LlOUSTICUM. 

Cbithmum. 



U. CORIAKDBUM. 



39. BUKIUM. 



40. 
29. 
84. 



CaB€H. 
F<BiriCVLVM. 

Tbinia. 



31. Helosciadivm. 

7. COHIUM. 



6. 
32. 

37. 
88. 



Physosp^bmum. 

SiVH. 
PETBOSBLIirVM. 

Sitoir. 



ChseropbjrUnm.] Afopetaloos Perigtnous Exogens. [Angeliceas. 31 

•• Invori. 0. 

ft Pet. obcordate, with an Inflexed point 

Stylopoditim conical. . .35. 2BOOPODIVM. 

Stjlopodium depressed. . . .41. Fimpixblla. 

ft Pet. roundish or elliptical, entire. 

Fruit with the opposite paixiof lateral ridges i « qw-b^»«.«w 
obsolete, approximate. . • > hmyrhium. 

Fruit with the opposite pairs of lateral ridges) «- apium 
prominent, and separated by a fissure ./ apium. 

N. B. — ^The following is the arrangement of this order in De Caadolle's Frodiomns. 

Sub-Order I — CAMPYLOSPERMIN^. Alb. or seed deeply chaimeDed or 
involute next the commissure. 

Tr. 1. SCANDICIDJE. Fruit beaked or oblong, laterally compressed. Carpels 
with 5 primary ridges, which are sometimes indistinct, but well marked on the beak. 
Secondary ridges 0. Cal.-teeth mostly obsolete, 

1. Sca'ndix. L. Shepherd's-needle. 

Emit with a very long beak. Carpels with 5 obtuse ridges. Pet. obovate, with an 
inflexed point. Partial inyol. of 5-7 bracts. 

1. S. Pecten- Veneris, Fruit nearly smooth, beak bristly-edged ; leafl. cut into 
A, 6-9. (W.) 20. linear segments. — Corn-fields. 

2. Anthri'scus. Spreng. Beaked-parsley. 

Fruit constricted at suture, the beak ribbed, shorter than the ribless caipels* CaL- 
teeth obsolete. Pet. obovate. Partial invol. of many bracts. 

1. A. sylvestris. Umbels stalked, terminal ; fruit linear, glabrous ; leaves 
P. 4-6. (W.) 20. bijMnnate — Banks. 

2. A, vulgdris. Umbels shortly stalked, lateral ; fruit ovate, hispid ; leaves 
A, 6, 6. (W.) 19. tripinnate. — Waste places. 

2. A. cerefolium,* Umbels sessile, lateral ; fruit linear, smooth ; leaves tri- 

A, 6, 7. (W.) 4. pinnate. — Waste ground. 

3. My'rrhis. Totim. . Cicely. 

Pet obcordate, with an inflexed point. Fruit not beaked. Pericarp double, the 
outer portion with 6 sharp ridges, hollow within ; the inner closely adnate to seed. 
YittsO. 

1. M. odorata. Leaves downy beneath, tripinnate ; bracts of partial invol. 

P. 5, 6. (W.) 8. lanceolate-acuminate. — Hilly pastures. 

4. Ch^bropht'llum. L, Chervil. 

Pet obcordate, with a short, inflexed pomt Fruit not beaked. Carp, with 5 equal, 
obtuse ridges. Tltts single in the interstices. 

1. C. temulSnium. Leaves bipinnate ; leafl. ovate-oblong, with obtuse mucro- 
P. 6, 7. (W.) 20. nate segments. — Hedge-banks. 

2. C. arom&ticum,* Leaves bipinnate ; leafl. ovate, sub-acute, sharply ser- 
P. 6. (W.) S. ? rated.— Roadside. 

8. C. avrevm.* Leaves tripionate; leafl. of the upper leaves attenuated, 

P. 6. (Y.) S. ? sharply pinnatifid.--.Field8. 



32 Angelicese.] Apopetalous Perigynous Exogens. [Torilis. 

Tr. II SMYRNIDJE. Fruit never beaked^ rather laterally compressed. 

Carpels with primary ridges only, which are sometimes indistinct, 

6. EcHiNo'PHORA. L, Prickly-samphire. 

CaL 5-toothed. Pet. obcordate, with an inflexed point. Fniit orate, lodged in a 
prickly receptacle, with a prickly invoL Channels with single vittffi, covered by a 
web. 

1. £. spinosaJ* Leaves bipinnatifid, the segments trifid, subulate, spinous ; 

P. 7. (W.) E. ? invoL entire. — Sea-shores. Kent. Lancashire. 

6. Physospe/bmum. Cass, Bladder-seed. 

Cal. 5-toothed. Pet ob-cordate; the point inflexed. Fruit of 2 ovate-globose car- 
pels, each with 5 filiform ridges, and single vittse between. 

1. P. comubiense. Lower leaves triternate, or deeple 3-lobed; leafl. wedge- 

Pa 7. (W.) E.-1. shaped, cut, upper temate, lanceolate, entire ; seed 

loose. — Bushy fields. 

7. Co'nium. L, Hemlock. 

Cal.-teeth obsolete. Pet obcordate. Fruit broadly ovate. Carpels with 5 promi- 
nent, waved, or crenate ridges. Vittae 0. 

1. C. maculdtum. Stem glabrous, spotted ; leaves tripinnate ; leafl. lanceo- 

B. 6, 7. (W.) 19. late, pinnatifid, with cut segments; partial invol. 3- 

leaved, spreading, unilateral. — Hedge-banks. 

8. Smy'rihum. L. Alexanders. 

Cal. -teeth 0. Pet lanceolate or elliptical, with an inflexed point. Fruit of 2 turgid 
carpels, each with 3 dorsal, prominent ridges ; the 2 lateral ones obsolete, and 
combined with those of the opposite carpel. 

1. S. olftsatrum. Stem-leaves temate, stalked ; root-leaves with sheathing 

B. 6, 6. (g Y.) 20. petioles; leafl. ovate, shining, cut and serrated. — Waste 

grounds. Sea cliflfs. 

Tr. III. — CAUCALIDJE, Fruit not beaked, slightly laterally compressed. 
Carpels with the secondary ridges prominent, and often prickly. 

9. Tobi'lis. Adans. Hedge-parsley. 

Cal. 6- toothed. Pet obcordate, outer ones radiant and bifid. Carpels with the pri- 
mary ridges bristly ; prickles of the interstices numerous, straight. 

1. T. Anthriscus. Stem erect ; umbels compound, terminal ; general invol. of 
A. 7, 8. (W. V. — R.) 20. many subulate bracts ; leafl. lanceolate, cut and serrate. — 

Hedge-banks. 

2. T. infesta. Stem erect ; umbels compound, terminal ; general invol. 
A. 7, 8. ( — R.) 12. 0, or of 1 bract; leafl. ovate, pinnatifid, cut — Waste 

places. 

3. T. nodosa. Stem prostrate ; umbels simple, lateral, nearly sessile ; 
A. 5-7. ( — R.) 16. outer fruits most prickly ; leafl. ovate, with linear, acute 

segments. — Dry places. 



Eryngitun*] Apopstalous Perigtnous Exogens. [Angelicese. 33 

, 10. Cau'cams. 

-CaL 5-toothed. PeL obcordate, with an inflexed point ; onter radiant, and deeply 
bifid. Caipek with the primary ridges bristly, the secondary with hooked prickles. 

1. C. daucoides. Umbels all 3-cleft ; general invoL 0, partial of 3-5 bracts ; 
A, 6. ( — W.) E.-2. leaves 2 -3- pinnate, leafl. with short, linear segments. — 

Chalky fields. 

2. G. laHfoUa,* General umbels 3-cleft, partial 5-fl*d. ; invols. membra- 
A. 6. ( — B.) K-1. nons : leaves pinnate, lei^. lanceolate, decnrrent, ooarsdy 

serrated. — Chalky fields, Cambridgeshire. 

Sub-Ordeb IL — CiELOSPERMIN^ Seed not channelled next the commis- 
sore ; but the base and apex curving inwards. 

Tr. IV. — CORIANDRID^, Fndt glohote or didymous, smooth; carpels 
unth the secondary ridges the more prominent. 

11. Coria'ndbum. L. Coriander. 

CaL 5-toothed. Pet obcordate, the point inflexed. Fruit globose ; carpels hemi- 
spherical, with 4 secondary ridges. Conmiissm^ with 2 vitts. 

C. sativum* General invol. 0, partial on one side ; leaves bipinnate, 

A. 6. (W.) K S.'l. the upper with linear segments. — Fields. 

Sub-Obdeb nL— ORTHOSPEBMINiB. Seed or albumen solid, not chan- 
nelled next the commissure, nor curved. 

Tr. Y,^HTDROCOTrLIDJE, FFs. in simple or imperfect umbels; some- 
times capitate or tohorled. Fruit much compressed laterally, 

12. Htdboco'tyus. Z. White-rot Marsh-pennywort 

Ca].-teeth 0. Pet ovate acute. Fruit of 2 flat, nearly orbicular carpels, each with 
5 filiform libs, of which the middle dorsal and 2 lateral are often indistinct 
TittsO. 

1. H. vulgaris. Leaves peltate, orbicular, somewhat lobed and crenate ; 

P. 5-7. (W. V, — B.) 20. umbels capitate, 5-fl*d — ^Marshy places. 

13. Ahtba'ntia. L. 

CaL of 5 kaiy teeth. Pet erect, connivent; point long, inflexed; carpels with 
5 platted and toothed ridges. 

1. A. mdjor* Lower leaves palmate, 5-7-fid, lobes cut and serrate ; bracts 

P. 6-8. (W.) K-1. entire; caL-teeth ovate-lanceolate. — Malvern. Lud- 
low. 

14. Ebt'ngium. X. Eryngo. Sea-holly. 

CaL of 5 leafy teeth. Pet erect, oblong ; point long, inflexed. Fruit ovate, co- 
vered with chaf^ scales or bristles. Bidges 0. Tittsd 0. 

1. £. maritimum. Boot-leaves roundish, plaited, spinous, stalked ; upper lobed, 

P. 7, 8. ( — ^B.) 10. rigid, clasping; bracts 3-lobed, spinous; scales of reoep- 

Ude 8-cleft.— -Sea-shore. 



34 AngeliceaB.] Apopetalous Perigtnous Exogens. [Pastinaca. 

2. E. campestre* Boot-leaves sub-temate, lobes pinnatifid, upper leaves bi- 

P. 7, 8. ( — P.) E. I.-l. pinnatifid, clasping, all spinous ; bracts luLceolate, spi- 
nous; scales of receptacle entire. — Stonehouse, Ply- 
moutli. Lismore. 

15. Sani'cula. L, Sanicle. 

CaL-teeth leafy. Pet. erect, obovate, with long, inflexed, connivent points. Fruit 
ovate, covered with hookeid prickles ; ridges ; vittse many. 

1. S. Europafa, Lower leaves palmate, 3-5-lobed, the lobes 3-fid., cut and 

P. 6, 6. (W.) 20. serrate ; fl's. nearly aU sessile. — Woods. 

Tr. VII DAUCID^, Umbels perfect. Fruit not beaked^ dor sally com- 
pressed. Carpels with the 5 primary ridges^ filiform and bristly ; the 4 secondary^ 
prickly J and often the more prominent. 

16. Dai/cus. L. Carrot. 

CaL 5-toothed. Pet. obcordate, the outer ones radiant and deeply bifid ; carpels 
with bristly, primary ridges; the secondary ones with a single row of long 
prickles. 

1. D. Carota. Umbels, when in fruit, concave ; fruit rough, with sub- 
B. 7, 8. (W.) 20. ulate bristles ; general invol. with pinnatifid bracts ; 

leaves tripinnate ; leafl. pinnatifid, not fleshy, with acute 
segments. — Banks. 

2. D. maritimus. Umbels, when in fruit, convex ; fruit rough, with dilated, 
B. 7, 8. (W.) 2. flattened bristles ; general invoL and leaves as last, but 

with fleshy leafl., and rounded segments. — Sea-coast 

Tr. VIII — PE UCEDANIDJE. Umbels perfect. Fruit not beaked, much and 
dorsally compressed, with a single wing at each side. Secondary ridges 0. 

17. Toedy'lium. L. Hart-wort. 

CaL-teeth subulate. Outer pet. radiant Fruit with a broad, thick, crenate or 
waved margin ; carpels with 3 dorsal, and 2 distant, marginal, indistinct ridges. 
Channels with 1-3 vittae. 

1. T. officinale.* Invol. as long as umbels ; 2 outer pet radiant, each with 
A. 6, 7. (W.) E. ? 2 very unequal lobes ; margin of fruit glabrous. — ^Near 

London. 

2. T. maximum.* InvoL shorter than umbels ; 2 outer pet radiant, with 2 
A. 7. ( — R.) E.-1. equal lobes ; margin of fruit with adpressed bristles. — 

Waste ground. 

18. Pastdta'ca. L. Parsnep. 

CaL-teeth minute. Pet. entire, involute, with a sharp point Fruit with a broad 
margin ; carpels with 3 dorsal, and 2 distant, marginal ridges, with single fili- 
form vittse between. 

1. P. sativa. Leaves pinnate, downy beneath ; leafl. ovate, cut and 

B.7. (Y.) 11. serrated; terminal one 3-lobed; invoL Chalky 

soil. 



GSnantbe.] Apopetalous Perigtnous Exogens. [Angelicese. 35 

19. Heba'cleum. L. Cow-parsnep. Hog-weed. 

Cal. -teeth minnte. Pet. obcordate, with an inflexed point, the outer radiant ; carpels 
with 8 dorsal, and 2 distant, marginal lidgea, and single clavate, abbreviated 
vittae between. 

1. P. sphondylium. Leaves pinnate, haiiy ; leafl. pinnatifid, cut, sinuated ; 

B,l, (W.) 20. pet. unequal ; fruit, at length, glabrous. — Hedge-banks. 
iS. anfftutifSUum, leaves deeply pinnatifid, lobes laoiceolate. 

20. Peuce'danum. X. HogVfenneL 

Pet. ovate, or obcordate, with an inflexed point ; carpels with 3 dorsal, filiform 
ridges, the 2 lateral obsolete, and single filiform vittse between, f 

1. P. officinale. Leaves 5 times 3-parted ; leafi. linear-filiform, acute, flac- 
P. 7-9. (Y.) E.-1. cid ; general invoL of 3 bracts. — Salt marshes. 

2. P. palustre. Leaves tripinnate ; leail. pinnatifid, with linear-lanceolate, 
P. 7, 8. (W.) E.-6. acute segments; general invoL of many deflexed bracts 

Marshes. 

3. P. Ostruthium* Leaves bipinnate ; leafl. broadly ovate, lobed, cut, serrated, 
P, 6. (W.) S.-5. sheaths large ; general invol. 0. — ^Moist pastures. 

Tr. IX. — ANGELICID^. Umbels perfect. Fruit not heaJted, much and 
dorsally compressed^ with a double wing at each side. 

21. Ange'lica. L, 

Pet. entire, with an inflexed point ; carpels with 8 elevated, dorsal ridges, the 2 
lateral ones dilated into a wing at each side. 

* Cal.-teeth obsolete ; channels with single vittee, seed with none. 

1. A. sylvestris. Leafl. all equal, ovate, not decurrent, serrated at base, 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 14. lateral ones rather unequal at base. — Wet-places. 

* CaL-teeth 5 ; vittse none on the fruit, numerous on seed. 

2. A. Archangelica,* Leafl. ovate, the terminal one trifid, all sessile, decur- 
P. 7-9. (— G.) E. S. ? rent— Watery places. 

Tr, X. — SESELIDJE. Umbels compound. Fruit not beaked^ rounds or 
roundish in a transverse section^ not much compressed eitlier way. 

22. (Ena'nthe. L. Water-dropwort 

CaL-teeth lanceolate. Pet obcordate, with an inflexed point Fruit ovate-cylin- 
drical, crowned with the long, erect styles ; carpels more or less corky, with 6 
blunt, convex ridges, and single vittae between. 

* General invol. 0, or of not more than 4 bracts. 

t Stem leaves simply pinnate, leafl. linear. 

1. (Kfistulosa. Petioles very long, hollow; root-leaves with 3-fid leaflets; 
P. 7-9. (W.) E I.-17. root with creeping scions ; fruit . . . ? — By ditches. 

2. (E. Smithii, Petioles shorter than leaves; leafl. all simply pmnate; 
P. 6. (W.) R-7. root with a cluster of shortish, thick clavate, or oblong, 

fusiform, sessile tubercles ; fruit sub-cylindrical, scarcely 
so broad as caL, callous at base. — ^Marshes, 
t Leaves all 3-pimiate, leafl. ovate, pinnatifid, cut 



36 Angelicese.] Apofetalous Perigtnous Exooens. [Meum. 

3. CE. PheUandrium. Umbels opposite the leaves ; rhizome jointed, with whorls 
P. 7-9. (W.) 13. of fibres at joints ; fruit ovate-oblong. — In ditches. 

/3. Jluviatilis, submersed leaves multifid. — Swift streams. 

* General invol. of more than 4 bracts. 

4. CE. Lachendlii, Leafl. of lower leaves linear-obovate, or cuneate, trifid, ob- 
P. 6-9. (W.) 10? tuse, with a short and straight mucro; fruit oblong, 

turbinate, broader than cal., tapering below, not callous 
at base; root bearing elongate, slender, clavate, fusi- 
form, or sub-cylindrical, sessile tubercles. 

5. CE. pimpineUoides. Leaves pinnate, leafl. and segments very acute, with a 
P. 7-9. (W.) ? curved mucro, those of the lower leaves shorter and 

broader; fruit cylindrical, as broad as cal., callous at 
base ; tubercles of the root roundish-oval on long, slender 
stalks. 

6. CE. crocata. Lower leaves 2-3-pinnate, those of stem pinnatifid ; leafl. 
P. 7. (W.) 15. oblong-wedge-shaped, variously cut ; fruit cylindrical, 

oblong ; root with lai*ge, fusiform tubercles. — ^Wet places. 

23. Se'seix L, Meadow-saxifrage. 

Cal.-teeth acute. Pet. obcoi'date, with an inflexed lobe. Fruit ovate, crowned with 
the reflexed styles ; carpels with 5 thick, blunt ridges, and single vitt» between. 

1. S* LibanoHs. Fruit hairy; leaves bi-pinnate; leafl. cut, the segments 

P. 7, 8. (W.) E.-1. lanceolate, very acute ; general invol. of many bracts. — 

Chalky fields. 

24. LiGu'sTicuM. X. Lovage. 

Cal. -teeth small or 0. Pet. obcordate, with an inflexed lobe, and short claw. Fruit 
elliptical ; carpels with 5 sharp, somewhat winged ridges. Yitt«e many. 

1. L. ScoHcum. Leaves twice temate, leafl. sub-rhomboid, dentate-serrate, 

P. 7. ( — G.) E. S.-6. not glossy ; invol. of 6-7 bracts. — Bocky coasts. 

26. ^THU'sA. X. Fool's-parsley. 

CaL- teeth obsolete. Pet. obcordate, point acute, inflexed. Fruit globose-ovate, 
crowned with the reflexed styles ; carpels with 6 keeled ridges, and single vittse 
between. 

1. M. Cynapium. Leaves uniform, leafl. wedge-shaped, decurrent, segments 

A, 7, 8. (W.) 20. lanceolate. — Melds and gardens. 

26. Cri'thmum. L, Samphire. 

Cal-teeth obsolete. Pet elliptical, entire, involute. Fruit oval; carpels spongy, 
with 6 elevated, sharp ridges, and with the free seed marked with many vittie. 

C. maritimum. Leaves fleshy, 2-3-pinnate, leafl. lanceolate ; invoL with 

P. 8. ( — G.) 3. ovate bracts. — Sea-clif^ 

27. Mb/um. Toum, SpigneL Meu. Bald-money. 

CaL-teeth 0. Pet entire, elliptical, the point Incurved. Fruit oval; carpels with 
6 prominent, keeled, equal ridges, and many vitt» between. 



Bupleurum.] Apopetalous PERiCTNoas Exogens. [Angeliceae. 37 

1. H. at/utm&nticum. Leaves bi- pinnate, leafl. mnltipartite, segments bristle- 
P. 6, 7. ( — ^Y.) E. S.-6. shaped, acute. — Dry hilly pastures. 

28. SiLAu's. Besser. Pepper-saxifrage. 

CaL-teeth 0. Pet nearly entire, with an inflexed lobe, sessile, truncate, and ap- 
pendaged at base. Fruit oval ; carpels with 5 sharp, somewhat winged ridg-es, 
and many vitt» between. 

1. S.prutensis, General invol. of 1 or 2 bracts; leaves tripinnate, leafl. 

P. 6-9. (— 'Y.) 13. linear-lanceolate, opposite. — Moist pastures. 

29. FcENi'cuLUM. Hoffm, Fennel * 

CaL-teeth 0. Pet. roundish, with an obtuse, involute lobe. Fruit oblong ; carpels 
with 5 prominent, obtuse, keeled ridges, and single vittee between. 

1. F. tmfyire. Involucres 0; stem terate below, solid ; leaves bi-temate, 

P. 7, 8. (T.) E. L-11. leafl. filiform, with subulate segments. — Sea-clifi's. 

Tr. XI. — AMMINIDJE, VmheU compound, rarely imperfect. Fruit late- 
rcJiy compressed, or dUfymous, Carpels loith 5 equal, filiform ridges, 

30. Cicu'ta. L, Water-hemlock. Cowbane. 

GaL-teeth leafy. Pet. obcordate. Fruit of 2 nearly globose carpels, with 6 broad, 
flattened ridges, the 2 lateral connate, and single vittse between. 

1. C. tfirosa. Leaves tripartite; leafl. linear-lanceolate, acute, serrate, 

P. 7, 8. (W.) 11. decurrent. — Watery places. 

r 

31. Hklosgia'dium. Koch, Marsh-wort. 

CaL-teeth often 0. Pet ovate, obtuse, with an apiculus. Fruit ovate or oblong ; 
carpels with 5 slender, prominent ridges, and single vittse between. 

1. H. nodifiorum. Stem procumbent; leafl. ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, ob- 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 16. tusely serrated ; umbels sessile, or nearly so. — Ditcii- 

banks. 
^. repens. stem creeping ; leafl. acutely indso-serrate ; umbels shorter 

than peduncles. 

2. H. inund^m. Stem creeping ; leafl. of the lower leaves capillary of the 
P. 6, 7. (W.) 18. upper cuneate, trifid ; umbels 2'rayed. — Submersed. 

32. Si'UM. L. Wator-parsnep. 

Gal. -teeth smalL Pet. obcordate, with an inflexed point Fruit ovate, or didymous ; 
carpels with 5 obtuse ridges, and triple vittse between. 

1. S. angusHfolium. Leaves pinnate, leafl. ovate, unequally lobed and serrated; 
P. 8. (W.) 17. umbels opposite the leaves. — Ditches. 

2. S. latifolium. Leaves pinnate, leafl. oblong-lanceolate, equally serrate ; 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 11. umbels terminal. — ^Elvers. 

33. BupLEU'RUM. L, Hare's-ear. Thorow-wax. 

CaL-teeth 0. Pet roundish, retuse, with an involute, broad, ret use point Fruit 
ovate-oblong ; carpels with eq ual more or less prominent ridges. Yittss 0. 



38 ADgelicese.] Apopetaloos Perioynous Exooens. [Sison. 

* Leaves linear or lanceolate ; stem branched ; umbeb shorter than invoL 

1. 6. tenuissimum. Umbels mostly sessile, of 3-5 fl's, both lateral and ter- 
A. 8, 9. (Y.) E.-3. minal ; invoL of 5 setaceous bracts. — Salt marshes. 

2. B. aristatum. Umbels stalked, of more than 5 fl's, terminal ; invol. of 3-5 
A. 7, (Y.) E.-1. lanceolate, somewhat awned bracts. — Bocks; Torquay. 

* Leaves, especially the lower, broad. 

3. 6. falcatum* Lower leaves elliptic-oblong, on long stalks ; upper linear, 
P. 8. (Y.) E.-1. sessile; each invol. of 5 bracts ^Near Ongar, Essex. 

4. B. rotundifolium. Leaves all oval, acute, perfoliate ; general invol. 0, bracts 

A. 7. (Y.) E.-9. of partial invol. mucronate. — Corn-fields. 

34. Tri'nia. Hoffin, Hone-wort 

Dioecious. Cal. -teeth 0. Pet. of the barren JPs lanceolate, with a narrow, involute 
point ; of the fertile ovate with a short, inflexed point. Fruit ovate. Carpels 
with 5 prominent ridges, and single vittse between. 

1. T. glaherrima. Glabrous ; leaves tripinnate, leafl. linear-filiform ; invol. 0, 

P. 5, 6. (W.) 1. or of 1 bract. — Limestone Hills. 

35. JEgopo'dium. L, Gout-weed. Herb-Gerarde. 

Cal. -teeth 0. Pet. obcordate, with an inflexed point. Fruit oblong; stylopodium 
conical ; carpels with 5 filiform ridges. Vittae 0. 

M, Podagr&ria, Leaves twice or thrice temate, leafl. ovate-acuminate, un- 

P. 6, 7. (W.) 18. equal at base, acutely serrate. — Damp places. 

36. A'piUM. L. Celery. Smallage. 

Cal. -teeth 0. Pet roundish, entire, with a small, involute point. Fruit roundish- 
ovate, didymous ; carpels with 5 filiform ridges, and smgle vittse between. In- 
vol. 0. 

1. A. graveolent. Glabrous; leaves pinnate or temate, leafl. of the upper 

B. 7, 8. ( — G.) 14. cuneate, notched at end. — ^Marshes near sea. 

37. Petboseli'num. Hoffm. Parsley. 

CaL-teeth 0. Pet. roundish, with a narrow, incurved point. Fruit ovate ; carpels 
with 5 slender ridges, and single vittae between. 

1. P. sativum.* Leaves all tripinnate, shining, leafl. of the lower ovate- 
B. 6-8. ( — G.) 2. cuneate, trifid and toothed ; umbel with many bracts. — 

Old walls. 

2. P. segetwn. Boot-leaves pinnate, upper with linear very imperfect 
B. 8, 9. (W.) 8. leafl. ; umbels with few and unequal bracts. — Moist 

fields. 

38. Si'soM. L. Bastard-stone-parsley. 

Cal.-teeth 0. Pet. broadly obcordate, deeply emarginate, with an inflexed point. 
Fruit ovate ; carpels with 5 Qliform equal ridges, and single, abbreviated, cUvate 
vittae between. 

S. Am&mum, Lower leaves pinnate, with lobed, cut, and serrated leafl. ; 
B. 8. ( — ^Y.) E. S.-12. upper in narrow segments ^Damp places. 



Adoxa.] Apopetalous Perigtnous Exogens. [Aralies. 39 

89. Bu'nium. L. Earth, Pig, or Kipper-nat 

CaL-teeth 0. Pet obcordate, with a broad, obtuse, inflexed pomt. Fruit oblong ; 
caipeU with 5 slender, obtuse ridges, and 1-3 vittaa between. Stylopodium conical. 

1. B. flexuosum. General invol. of 1-8, partial of several bracts ; fruit oval, 
P. 6, 6. (W.) 20. crowned by the erect styles ; root a tubercle Pas- 
tures. 

40. Ca'rum. L. Caraway. 

Cal.-teeth 0. Pet. obcordate, with an acute, inflexed point. Fruit oblong ; carpels 
with 5 ridges, and single vittae between. Stylopodium depressed. 

* General invoL 0, or of 1 bract ; partial 0. 

1. C. Cdrui. Leaves bipinnate, leafl. cut into linear segments; stem 
B. 6. (W.) 9. branched ; root fusiform. — Pastures. 

* General and partial invoFs. of numerous bracts. 

2. C. verticilldtum. Leaves pinnate, leafl. divided to the base into capillary, 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 1. spreading, apparently whorled segments ; root fascicu- 
late Miches near the sea. 

3. C. Bulbocastanum. Leaves tripinnate, leafl. in linear acute, not whorled seg- 
P. 6. (W.) £-8. ments ; root tuberous. — Fields on a chalky soil. 

41. Pimpine'lla. L. Bumet-saxifrage. 

Cal.-teeth 0. Pet obcordate, with an inflexed point Fruit ovate ; stylopodium 
conical; carpels with 5 slender, obtuse ridges, and many vittae. 

1. P. m6gna. Leaves pinnate, leafl. all ovate, serrate, cut, the terminal 

P. 7, 8. (— R.) E. L-12. one (rarely the lateral) 8-lobed ; invol. 0. — Shady 

places. 
2. P. Saxifraga. LeiEives of the stem bipinnate, with linear segments, of the 

P. 7, 8. ( — R.) 20. root roundbh, serrate ; invoL 0. — Dry pastures. 

Order IX.— AR^LIE^E. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, possessing aromatic properties. Leaves alternate, without 
atip. FL mostly in umbels. CaL adnate, with ov., with an entire or cleft limb. 
P&L 4, 5 or 10, rarely combined, or 0, (eativation valvate, Stam. 5, 8, or 10 ; anth. 
turned inwards, opening longitudinally. Ov. more than 2'Celled ; stylet at many 
aa eettt. Fruit succulent, or dry, 8-5-celled, each cell with 1 pendulous seed adher- 
ing to pericarp ; alb. fleshy ; embr. generally small. 

Hcrbt. CftL 3-cleft. Pet. slightly cohering. ... 1. Adoza. 

Clhnbiag diralM. CaL 5-tooUied, Pet. firee. . . 2. Hbdbba. 

1. Aix/xA. X. Moschatell. 

CaL ^inferior, 8-cleft Pet 4-5, sh'ghtly cohering. Stam. 8-10, hi pairs ; anth. 
terminal, 1-celled. Berry 4-5-celled. Embr. minute. 

A. mosckatellma. Rhizome bearing scions ; stem erect, simple ; leaves of 

P. 4, 5. ( — G.) 19. root tri-temate, of stem bi-temate. — Shady woods. 

2. He'dbra. L, Ivy. 

CaL 5-toothed. Pet broadest at base. Stam. 5-10. Style simple, or 5-10 and 
more or less combined. Beny 3-5-8eeded. 



40 Lorantbe^.] Synpetalous P£rigynous Exogens. [VUcum; 

1. H. Helix. Leaves coriaceous, ovate, or cordate, angularly 3-5-lobed, 

.S*. 10-12. ( — G.) 20. shining; umbels simple, downy, erect. — Walls; hedges. 

Order. X.— CORNILE. 

Trees or shrubs, with tonic febrifuge qualities. Leaves mostly opposite, entire ; 
stip. 0. Fl's. cymose, or umbellate, with or without an invol. Sep. 4. Pet. 4, 
broad at base. Stam. 4, inserted with the pet. at the top of tube of cal. Ov. 2- 
cclled ; style filiform ; stigma simple. Fruit fleshy, with a 2 -celled nut. Seeds 
solitMT}', pendulous. Embr. long, in axis offieahy ajb. ; rad superior. 

1. CkyRxus. L, ComeL Dogwood. 
Cal. -teeth 4. Pet. 4, superior. Stam. 4. Nut of the drupe 2-celled, 2-seeded. 

1. C. aanguinea. Shruh ; branches straight ; leaves opposite ovate^ cuspi- 
S. 6. (W.) 16. date ; invoi ; fl. cymose. — Thickete. 

2. C. Suecica. Herb ; leaves opposite, ovate, not cuspidate ; invol. of 4 
F. 7. (+ P.) E. S.-4. petEdoid bracts ; fl's. umbellate Moist pastures. 

Order XI SANTALINEffi. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, possessing astringent properties. Gal. with a 4-d-cleft 
limb, and a valvate aestivation. Cor. 0. Stam. 4 or 6. Ov. 1-celled, with from 1-4 
ovules, attached to a central placenta ; style 1 ; stigma often lobed. Fruit 1-cdled, 
hard, dry, and drupaoeous, l-seeded. Emhr. inverted, taper, in axis of a large, 
fleshy alb. 

1. Thb'sium. L. Bastard-toadflax. 

Cal 4-5-cleft, funnel-shaped. Stam. 5, ,wlth a fascicle of hairs at base. Fruit crowned 
with the persistent caL 

1. T. Linoph^Uvm. FU in leafy racemes or panicles ; fhiit nearly globose, 
P. 6, 7. (W.) E.-4. strongly ribbed; leaves linear-lanceolate, 3-nerved. — 

Chalky hois. 
/3. humUe. fl. in spikes ; leaves linear, fleshy, 1 -nerved. 

Order XII LOKANTHE^. 

Parasitical, shrubby plants, with entire, mostfy opposite exstipulate leaves, and 
often diclinous fl's., possessing no n^markable qualities. CaL sonoetimes 0, (n* of 3, 
4. or 8 Sep., arising from the rim of a fleshy exi>ansion of the pedicel, wldch sur- 
rounds and adheres to the ov., usually with 3 bracts at base. Pet. 0. Stam. equal 
in number, and opposite to sep. Ov. 1-celled ; ovules with a naked nucleus, erect 
or suspended from the point of a central placenta; stigma often sessOe, simple. 
Fruit mostly succulent. Seed solitaiy, pendulous ; embr, longer than fleshy alb. ; 
cot. 0, or mere than 2 ; rad. remote fh>m hilum. 

1. Yi'scuM. L. Misseltoe. 

Fertile fl. : — cal. of 4 ovate, fleshy sep., united at base. Anth. adnate to them, many- 
celled. Fertile fl^s, : — caL of 4 erect, minute sep. Stig sessile. Seed sometimes 
with 2 embr. / 



CirccBa.] Apopetalous Pe&iotnous Exogbns, [Onagreee. 41 

1. y. A'lbum. Stem repeatedly dichotomous, with sessile axillaiy clusters 

P. 3-5. ( — T.) £.-12. of about 5 fl. ; leaves obovate-lanceolate. — Parasitic on 

trees. 

Order XIII.— ARISTOLOCHIE^ 

Herbs, or often climbing shrubs, with stimulating and tonic qualities. Stem ob- 
scurely exogenous in structure. Leaves simple, alternate, often with a stipule opposite 
each. GaL ^-adherent, with a usually, irregularly-lobed, dilated limb. Cor. 0. 
Stam. 6-12, often adhering to the style. Ov. 6 or rarely 3 or 4-celled ; stigma of as 
many rays as cells in ov. Frmt 3 -^-celled, many-seeded, Embr, minute in the 
bate of a fleshy alb, ; cot. inconspicuous ; rad. next hilum. 

CaL with an irregular limb. Stam. 6, gyxumdrout. . . 1. AaiSTOLOCHlA. 

GaL oampanulate, 3-fid. Stam. 12, free. . . . . ' 2. Asarcm. 

1. Aristolo'ohia. L. Birthwort 

CaL tubular, swelling at base, the mouth dilated on one side. Anth. 6, sessile on the 
short style beneath the 6-rayed stigma. 

1. A Clematis, Stem erect, simple ; leaves cordate, glabrous, stalked ; fl. 

P. 7, 8. ( — Y.) E.-2. aggregate, upright — ^Among old ruins. 

2. A'sARUM. L. Asarabacca. 

CaL campanulate, 3-fid. Stam. 12 ; anth. attached to the middle of the fl. Stigma 
<^ 6 rays. 

1. A. Europa'um* Leaves binate, reniform, obtuse; fl. solitary, axillary, 
P, 6, (+P.) E. S.-3. drooping, on a long stalk. — ^Woods. 

Order XIV ONAGRELfi. 

Herbs, or shrubs, mucilaginous and innocuous. Leaves simple. Fl. axillary or 
terminaL Cal-limb free, 2, or ^-lobed ; the lobes often cohering. Pet, 2 or 4, 
twisted in aestivation, rarely 0. Stam, 2, 4, or 8. Ov, 2 or 4-ceUed ; placenta in 
axis; ovules horizontal^ ascending; style filiform; stigma capitate, or 4-lobed. 
Fruit a berry or capsule, with 2, 1 -seeded, or 4 many-seeded cells ; seeds without 
alb, ; rod, long, taper ; cot, large and flat, 

« ^ Stam. 2. Pet 2. ...... 1. Circ^a. 

* Stam. 4. Pet. 4 or 0. ...... 2. Isitardia. 

« * Stam. 8. Pet. 4. 

Segments of cal. free. Seeds bearded. . . . 8. Epilobidm. 

Segmenta of cal. combined. Seeds naked. . . 4. (En other a. 

1. Circjb'a. L, EnchanterVNightshade. 
CaL with 2 segments. Pet 2, obcordate. Stam. 2. Frmt 2-celled, 2-8eeded. 

1. C. alpxna. Leaves cordate, toothed, shining, as long as the petioles ; 
P, 7, 8. (W.) 6. stem ascending, mostly glabrous. — ^Woods. 

^, intermedia, plant larger, more pubescent. 

2. C. Lutetidna, Leaves ovate, acuminate, toothed, opaque and downy, 
P, 7, 8. (W.) 19. longer than petioles ; stem erect, pubescent. — Woods. 

-% E 2 



42 Oaagre».] ApaPETALOUs Hypogynous Exoqkns. [CEnotbera. 

2. Isna'bdia. L, 

Cal.-fimb 4-cleft. Pet. 4 or 0. Stam. 4. Stigma capitate. Fruit obovate, 4- 
celled, 4-yalved, many -seeded. 

1. I. palustris. Pet. ; fl. axillary, solitary ; leaves opposite, ovate, acute, 

A, 6. (G.) E.-1. stalked ; stem procumbeoit, rooting. — Wet places. Sus- 

sex. Hampshire. 

3. Epilo'bium. L, "WiHow-herb. 

Gal-lirab 4-parted; segmeots free, deciduous^ Pet 4. Ciq)s. elongated, 4-sided, 
4-valved, many-seeded ; seeds bearded at one end. 

• Stiema 4-cleft 

f Leaves glabrous, (margins and vdnaof 2 £. pubescent) 

1. E. anguHifSlium. YL irregular; stam. decKnate; leaves linear-lanceolate, 
P. 7. (R.) 14. scattered, denticulate. — Shady places. 

/3. hrachycarpum, ped. longer than ov. ; fruit spreading. 

2. B. m<mt6,num, Fl. regular ; stam. erect ; leaves ovate, the lower shortly 
P. 7. (R.) 20. staged, all toothed. — Dry, shady places. 

/3. lanceolatum, leaves lanceolate, all stalked. 

t Leaves hairy, sessile, opposite, especially the lower. Stem hairy or downy. 

3. E. hxraiitum. GaL green ; leaves clasping, ovate-lanceolate, deeply ser- 
P. 7, 8. (R.) 18. rated ; stem much-branched ; root with scions. — Ditches. 

4. £. parviflorwn. Cal. coloured ; leaves not clasping, lanceolate, slightly 
P. 7. (R.) 20. toothed ; stem nearly simple ; root fibrous — Marshes. 

• Stigma undivided, very rarely 4-lobed. 

f Leaves sessile, 

5. E. palustre. linear-lanceolate, nearly entire, with a cnneate base ; stem 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 19. round, often with 2 hairy, not elevated lines. — Wet 

places. 

6. E. tetruffSnum, Leaves oblong-lanoeolate, denticulate, with a rounded base, 
P. 7, 8. (R.) 19. some decurrent ; stem with 4 angles ; scions short, ter- 
minating in a rosette of leaves. — Damp places. 

/3. virffotum. leaves none decurrent ; scions filiform, not ending in a ro- 

sette, 
f Leaves stalked, or attenuated at base ; cal. green. 

X Fl's numerous ; leaves ovate-acuminate, or lanceolate, 

7. £. rSseum, all finely toothed ; stem somewhat 2-edged, with 2 or 4 
P, 7, 8. (R.) E. S.-5. elevated, glabrous lines. — Wet places. 

8. £. ahdnifblium. The lower leaves entire ; stem rounded, with 2 elevated, 
P. 7. (R.) E. S.-2. hairy lines; ov. pubescent — ^Mountain streams. 

X Fl's. 2-3 ; leaves ovatcroblong, or lanceolate, 

9. £. alpintan. attenuated below, nearly entire ; stem with elevated, hairy 
P. 7. (R.) S.-3. lines ; root with sdons. — ^Mountain streams. 

4. CEnothe'ra. L, Evening-primrose. 

Cal. with 4 deep, reflexed, more or less combined segments. Pet 4. Caps, elon- 
gated, with 4 valves, and many naked seeds. 

1. (E. biennis* Leaves ovate-lanceolate, flat, toothed; stem somewhat 

B, 7-9. (Y.) E. -4. btury ; fl's. sessile ; pet. half as long as tube of caL — 

Sandy soiL 



Htppuris.] Apofetalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [Crassules. 43 



Obdeb XY.— HALORAGEiEL 

Mostly aquatic herbs, often with diclmoas fl's. C<il, rarely inferior^ with a mi- 
nute Umb or 0. Pet. minute or 0. Stam. 1-8. Ov. 1 or more-celled ; style ; 
stigmas equalling the nmnber of cells. Froit dry, indehisoent, 1 or more-celled. 
Seed solitary, pendulous^ with a small quantity <^ fleshy alb. ; embr. straight ; rad. 
saperlor ; cot. minute. 

MoncBeiong; ttam. 8. CaL inferior, 4- parted. . .1. Mtbiopbyllum. 

Perfect; stam. 1. GaL-Umb inperior, very minnte. . . 2. Hippubis. 

1. Mtbiopht'llum. L. Water MUfoiL 

Monoedoiis. Cal. inferior, 4-parted. Pet 4 ; small or in the pistilliftroas fl's. 
Stam. 8. Sti^ 4. Fruit separable into 4, 1 -seeded carpels. Leaves whorled. 

1. M. aUemifoHum. Sterile fl's. alternate, on an erect, leafless spike, nodding 
P. 7, 8. ( — R.) 10 ? in bud, with 1-3 fertile ones at base ; bracts pectinated ; 

leaves 3 in a whorl Ponds. 

2. M. spicatum, Fl's. forming a leafless spike, erect in bud ; bracts entire ; 
P. 6, 7. ( — R.) 20. leaves 4-whorled, pectinated. — Ponds. 

3. IL verticillatum. Fl's. all axillary, whorled ; bracts longer than fl's., and with 
P. 7, 8. ( — R.) 11. the leaves pinnated. — Ponds. 

2. Hippu'ris. L. Mare's-taU. 

Fl's. perfect Gal-limb superior, forming a very indistinct rim to ov. Pet 0. Stam. 
1. Style 1. Fruit a small, 1-seeded nut 

1. H. vuigdris. Leaves 6, 8, or 10 in a whorl, linear, with a callous point 

P. 6, 7. (G.) 16. fl's. in the axilla of each of the upper leaves. — Ponds. 

Sub-Class II.— HYPOGYNOUS EXOGENS. 

ExooENs, with perfect flowers, the calyx not adherent to ov., and the stamens and 
corolla inserted either on the calyx (perigynous), or under the ov. (hypogynous). 

Division III. — Apopetalous Hypogynous Exogbns. 

Htpogtnous Exogens, with the corolla composed of distinct petals, or altogether 
wanting. 

Ordeb XVL—CRASSULEiE. 

Succulent herbs or shrubs, with entire or pinnatifid, exstipulate leaves, having 
tonic, refrigerant, or acrid properties. FL rarely dioedous. Sep. 3-20, more or less 
united at base. Pet. as many as sep., sometimes cohering, ins^ted at base of caL 
Stam. faiserted with pet, as many, or twice as many. Carpels as many as pet., 
distinct, each having a scale at its base. Fruit of numerous follicles. Seeds 
variable ; embr. straight, in axis of a small, fleshy alb. ; rad. pointing to hilum. 

• ^ Sep. 3 or 4. 

Fl*t. perfect. Stam. 3 or 4. . .1. TnxAA. 

n*s. inq^erfeetly di«Kioas. Stam. 8. . . .2. Bhodiola. 



44 Crassuleae.] Apopetalous Htpogynous Exogens. [Sedum. 

* * Sep. 6. Stam. 10. 

Cot. lynpetaloiii, 5-cleft. ..... 3. Cotyledon. 

Pet. diatinct. 5. ...... 4. Sedum. 

* 3 Sep., pet., and carpels mostly 12 or more. . . . 5. Ssmpbuyivcm. 

1. TlLLiE^A. L, 

Sep.. pet., stam., and carpels 3 or 4 ; each carpel 2-seeded. Hypogynous scales 0. 

1. T. muscSsa, Stems branched and decumbent at base ; fl. axillary, ses- 

A, 6-6. (W.) 1. sile, mostly 3-cleft. — Barren heaths. 

2. Rhodi'ola. Zr. Rose-root. 

Fl. imperfectly dioecious. Sep., pet., and carpels 4, the latter many-seeded. Stam. 
8. Hypogynous scales emarginate. 

R. rosea. Root fleshy ; leaves oblong, serrated at tip, smooth ; fl's. in 

P. 6, 7. (Y.) 4. a compact, terminal cyme. — ^Wet, alpine rocks. 

3. Cotyle'don. L, Penny-wort. 

Sep. 5. Pet. cohering in a tubular, 5-clefk cor. Stam. 10, epipetalous. Carpels 5, 
each with an entire scale at its base. 

1. C. umbilicua. Leaves peltate, crenate, depressed in centre ; stem with a 
P. 6-8. (g W.) 7. usually simple raceme of pendulous fl's. ; upper bracts 

minute, entire. — Rocks, walls. 

2. C. luteal Lower leaves only somewhat peltate, upper crenate, or 
P. 7. (Y.) E.-? toothed ; raceme of erect fl. ; bracts toothed. — York- 
shire. Somersetshire. 

4. Se'dum. L, Stone-crop. Orpine. 
Sep. and pet. 5. Stam. 10. Carpels 6, each with an entire scale at its base. 

* Leaves sessile, rounded, but not produced beyond the base. 

t Leaves flat, 

1. S. Telephium, oval-oblong, serrated, upper rounded at base ; stem erect, 
P. 7, 8. (P.) 18. spotted ; corymbs dense, leafy, root thick. — Hedge banks. 

(i, purpureum. leaves from oblong to lanceolate, all attenuated at base, 

f Leaves terate or gibbous, 

X scattered on the stems ; flowering stems erect 

2. S. villosum. Glandular-pubescent ; leaves linear-oblong, flat above ; 
P.?6-8. ( — R.)E. S.-8. pet ovate; root small, without shoots. — Wet, rocky 

places. 

3. S. album. Glabrous ; leaves oblong, cylindrical ; pet lanceolate ; root 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 6. small, produdng procumbent, rooting shoots. — Rocks. 

j3. turffidum. leaves gibbous beneath. 

% Leaves opposite on the barren shoots. 

4. S. dasyphyUutn, Leaves ovate, obtuse, gibbous ; pet and sep. ovate, obtuse ; 
P. ? 6, 7. (W.) 5. panicle glandular-pubescent — Rocks, walls. 

* Leaves produced beyond the base, 

f ovate, thick, tumid, mostly alternate. 

5. S. A'nglicum, Cyme of 2 smooth branches ; pet lanceolate, very acute ; 
A, 7, 8. (W.) 8. sep. ovate, blontish. — Sandy places. 



Peplitt.] Apopetalous Hypogynoos Exogen8. [Lythraries. 45 

6. S. acre. Gvme of 3 smooth branches ; pet. lanceolate, acute ; sep. 
P. 6, 7. (Y.) 20. ovate, obtuse, gibbous at base. — Walls, sandy places. 

t Leaves from lanceolate to subulate, not ovate. 
X terate, not flattened, 

7. S. sexangulare. those of the barren shoots in alternate whorb of threes, 
P. 7. (T.) £. S.-3. making 6 rows along the stem, Imear, obtuse, spreading ; 

sep. and pet. lanceolate, ac^nbe. — Old walls. 

8. S. reflexum. Leaves scattered, subulate, the lower recurved ; sep. ovate, 
P. 7, 8. (T.) 18. acute; pet. lanceolate, obtuse ^WaUs. 

fi. glaucum. leaves more slender, glaucous, straight. 

X Leaves flattened, 

9. S. rupestre. linear-lanceolate, glaucous, those of the branches erect, in 
P. 6, 7. (T.) R-2. 5 close rows ; fl's. imperl^ctly cymose. — Limestone rocks. 

10. S. Forsteridnum, Leaves lanceolate, not glaucous, of the branches spreading. 
P. 6, 7. (Y.) E.-1. in many rows ; fl's. in a compact cyme. — Bocks, Wales, 

i0* These Ust three ipedeB are probably varieties. 

5. SempebyiVum. L, Houseleek. 

Sep., pet, and carpels 6-20. Stam. twice as many. Hypog3mous scales ladniated. 

1. S. tectorum* Leaves ciliated, glabrous, succulent ; pet. entire, hairy at 

P. 7. (R.) 17. margins ; shoots spreading. — Walls, and cottage roofe. 

Order XVIL— LYTHRARIEiE. 

Mostly herbs possessing astringent properties. Leaves opposite, entire ; stip. 0. 
Fl*s. regular or irregular, CaL i^rnsepalous, lobed, valvate, often with intermediate 
teeth. Pet, inserted between lobes ofcfd., deciduous or 0. StanL inserted within the 
tabe of caL, once, twice, or thrice as many as pet Ov. free, 2-^-celled ; style fili- 
form or short ; stigma capitate. Fruit a dehiscent, memlutmous capsule. Seeds 
numerous, adhering to a central placenta ; alb. ; embr. straight ; rad. turned to- 
wards the hilum. 

Gal. tubuLir. Style long. . . . . . .1. Ltthbum. 

CaL campanulate. Style short. ..... 2. Pbplis. 

1. Lt'thrum. L. Purple Loosestrife 

Gal. tubular, cylindrical, with 4-6 large, and as many intermediate, small, subulate 
teeth. Pet 4-6. Stam. 1, 2, or 3 times as many as pet Style filiform. 

1. L. hyssopifoHum. Stam. 6 ; leaves alternate, linear-lanceolate, obtuse ; fl's. 
A. 6-9. (P.) E. L-3. axillary, solitary, wfth 2 minute bracts. — Damp places. 

2. L. SaKcdria, Stam. 12 ; leaves opposite, famoeolate, from a cordate base ; 
A, 7, 8. (P.) 17. fl. in a whoried, leafy spike; bracts — Ditch-banks. 

fi. eaneseens, leaves downy, with crisped hairs. 

2. Pe'plis. L, Water-purslane. 

Cai campanulate, with 6 large and 6 small, subulate teeth. Pet 6, minute, or 0. 
Stam. 6. Style very short. 

1. P. Portula, Leaves opposite, obovate, stalked ; fl's. axiBary, solitary, 

A. 7, 8. ( — R.) 19. sesdUe; stam. 6 ; stem prostrate. — Damp places. 



46 Saxifragese.] Apopetalous Hypogynous Exogens. [Saxifraga. 



Order XVIIL— SAXIFRAGEJE. 

Herbs with astringent properties. Cal. superior or inferior, cohering more or less 
below. Pet. 6, inserted between the sep., or 0. Stam. either inserted into the 
calyXy or beneath the ov, Ov. superior, or j-superior, of 2 carpels, cohering towards 
the base, with 2 cells and an axile placenta^ or less freqaently with 1 cell and 
sutural placentcs. Styles distinct. Carpels divaricating when ripe. Seeds nume- 
rous, very minute. Embr. taper, in axis of a small, fleshy alb,, the radicle next 
the hilum. 

1. Chrysople'nium. L, Golden-Saxifrage. 

Cal. superior, 4 or 5-cleft, somewhat coloured. Cor. 0. Caps, with 2 beaks, many- 
seeded. 

1. C. alternifolium. Leaves alternate, lower ones sub-reniform, upon very long 
P, 4. 12. petioles. — ^Among rocks and springs. 

2. C. opposiiifSlium, Leaves opposite, lower ones roundish-cordate, stalked, 
P. 4, 6. 18. wavy. — Damp, shady places. 

2. Saxi'fraga. L, Saxifrage. 

Cal. superior or inferior, or ^-inferior, in 6 segments. Pet. 5. Caps, with 2 beaks, 
2 -celled, 2 -seeded, opening between the bei^ Placentas attached to the dissepi- 
ment. 

• Cal. inferior, reflexed. 

t Leaves reniform (1), or cordate (2), at the base. 

1. S. Geum, Leaves roundish, broader than long, acutely crenate or ser- 
P. 6. (W. /, R.) S. L-1. rate, more or less hairy ; petioles linear, channelled. — 

Mountains. 
/3. dentdta, leaves glabrous, more sharply toothed, 

y. pSlita, leaves light green, glabrous, shining, sharply toothed. 

i. minor, leaves smaller, hairy on both sides; fl's not spotted; scape 

slender. 

2. S. hirsuta. Leaves longer than broad, acutely crenate, with cartilagi- 
P, 5, 6. (W. .'. R.) L-1. nous edges, hairy, the petioles linear, channelled, taper- 
ing upwards, much longer than leaves. — Killamey. 

f L^ves not reniform or cordate at the base. 
% Stem leafless ; fl's panicled. 
§ Leaves stalked. 

3. S. eleganfi. Leaves round, smooth, shining, acutely serrated, not taper- 
P, 6, 6. (W .". R.) L-1. ing at the base, (forming rosettes) ; petioles linear, flat 

alK>ve, hairy on the edges, as long as the leaves. — Turk 
Mountain, Killamey. 

4. S. umbrosa. Leaves obovate, smooth, with sharp, cartilaginous crena- 
P, 6. (W. .•. R.) L-3. tures, tapering at the base into the flat, dilated petioles. 

— ^Mountains, Kerry, Donegal. 
fi, punctata. leaves roundish, dentate-serrate ; petioles elongated. 

y. serratifolia, leaves oblong-ovate, glabrous, light green, with deep, acute 

serratnres ; petioles oblong, flat. 



Saxifraga.] Apopetalous Htpogtnous Exooens. [Saxifragese. 47 

§ Leaves neariy sessile, 

5. S. steUaria, elliptic-caneate, coarsely dentate-serrate, tapering and en- 
P. 7. (W. [ Y.) 5. tire at base ; panicle coiymbose, of few fl's. — Wet moun- 
tain rocks. 

/3. inteffrifolia, leaves qoite entire. 

y. repens. stem creeping. 

X Stem leafy, erect ; fl's solitary, 

6. S. ffircmhu. erect; leaves lanceolate, entire, those of root narrowing 
P. 8. (T.) 4. into a foot- stalk ; sep. at length reflexed, obtuse, downy 

at the margin and npper part of stem. — ^Wet moors. 
* CaL superior, or ^ -superior, erect or spreading, not reflexed. 
f Leaves neither lobed nor divided. 

% Stemleafless, erect ; fl's in a dense head. 

7. S. nivalis. Leaves roundish, obovate, acutely crenate, narrowed into a 
P. 7. (W.) E. S.-1. foot-stalk Alpine rocks. 

J Stem leafy, 

8. S. oppositifolia. procumbent ; leaves opposite, imbricated, oblong, obtuse, 
P. 4, 5. (P.) 2. ciliated ; fl's solitary, terminal — Moist, alpine rocks. 

9. S. azotdes. Stem ascending; leaves alternate, linear-oblong, mucro- 
P. 7-9. (Y. .*. ) 4. nate, ciliated, convex beneath. — ^Wet, alpine places. 

/3. ctentata, leaves with several strong teeth. 

10. S. pygma^a. Leaves linear, abrupt, smooth; fl's coiymbose; pet. ob- 

P. 5. (W.) S.-1. ovate, scarcely longer than the very obtuse, glandular 

caL — Highlands, 
f Leaves more or less lobed or divided. 

{ Plants having barren, tufted shoots at base. 
U.S. pedatifida. Fl's numerous, panicled ; root-leaves, and those of the 

P. 5. (W.) S.-1. short, sterile shoots, long-stalked, divided into 3 deep, 

linear-lanceolate, acute, spreading segments, the lateral 
ones bifid ; panicle (ymose ; cal. superior, as long as ov. 
— Clova Mountains. 

12. S. CiBspitosa, Fl's 1-5 ; root-leaves crowded, 3-5-cleft, obtuse, very 
P. 5. (W.) 1. veiny, fringed, the lowermost undivided ; caL ^^inferior ; 

sep. obtuse; pet. rounded, triple-ribbed. — Mountains, 
North Wales. Aberdeen. Kerry. 
/3. deeipiens, lai^r, the fl's more numerous. 

13. S. hypnoides. Fl's 1-5; root-leaves 3 or 5-cleft; those of the barren 
P. 5, 6. (W.) 6. shoot undivided, or 3-clefk, all bristle-pointed, more or 

less fringed ; sep. ovate, pointed ; pet roundish, obovate. 

— ^Alpine rocks. 
fi. platypetala. leaves of barren shoots undivided, or 3-cIeft; pet. broad. 

y. hirta. leaves crowded, all 3-cleft ; stem ascending, hairy. 

i. affi'nis. root- leaves 5-cleft, those of shoots 3-cleft; lobes linear, 

pointed ; sep. subulate ; pet inflexed at edges. 
«. incwrvifiUa. nearly glabrous ; segments of leaves obtuse, incurved ; sep. 

ovate, acute; pet roundish, emarginate. 
^. denudata. segments of leaves linear-subulate, acute ; sep. lanceolate, 

mucronulate ; pet obovate, emarginate. 
n. elongeUa. root-leaves 3 or 5-cleft, all bristle-pointed, slightly fringed ; 

primaiy flower-stalks very long, simple, naked ; sep. 

pointed; pet obovate. 



48 Rosess.] Apopstalous Hypootnous Exooens. [Saxifraga. 

$. Icstemrens. leaves 6 or 3-parted ; lobes linear, acute ; sep. lanceolate, 

mucronate; pet. spathulate, emarginate. 
X Plants having no barren shoots ; stems leafy. 
§ Stem simple, l>fl'd. 

14. S. cemva. Root-leaves reniform, on long petioles, palmately lobed ; 
P. 6-8. (W.) S.-1. upper nearly sessile, sub-trifid, uppermost, entire ; axils 

bearing bulbs ; caL quite inferior. — Breadalbane Moun- 
tains. 
§ Stem branched, panided, 

15. S. rivulari$, few-fl'd^ pubescent ; root-leaves sub-reniform, 3-5-pal- 
P. 8. (W.) S.-1. mately lobed, glabrous, on long stalks ; upper bracts 

lanceolate, entire. — Moist, alpine rocks. 

16. S. granul&ta. Hairy and glandular ; root-leaves on long, channelled 
P, 6, 7. (W.) 17. stalks, reniform, crenately lobed, those of stem nearly 

sessile, with 3-6 acute lobes ; not granulated Gravelly 

places. 

17. S. tridactylttea. Viscid and glandular ; leaves cuneate, 3-5-fid, with aflat 
^.4-7. (W.) 15. petiole, tiie lowest ones often simple and spathulate ; 

uppermost bracts undivided ; pedicels 1-fl'd with 2 bracts 
at base. — Walls and dry banks. 

*« * I had hoped to haye been favoured with a oontribntion on the British Sazifraices, by a gentle- 
man who has long and diligently studied these plants ; but unavoidable circnmstanoes have pre- 
vented him from preparing the manuscript in time for the press. I am therefore compelled to 
substitute the preceding arrangement and descriptions of the genus, in the hope of being able, at some 
future time, to insert a contribution on this subject by one better qualified for the task than I 
can pretend to be. 

Obdeb XIX._R0SR£. 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs with astringent properties, and all, except the Amygdalida 
which abound in prussic add, innocuous. Leaves alternate, unth stip, FVs regular, 
often diclinous. CaL 4 or 5-lobed, free, or sometimes adherent to ov. Pet with the 
odd segment anterior, rarely 0. Stam. usually indefinite, inserted on cal. Ov. of lor 
more free, rarely cohering carpels ; styles distinct. Fruit various ; seeds 1 or rarely 
more in each carpel ; embr. straight ; alb. 0. 

* Pet. 0. Mostly herbs. 

t Fl's diclinous. Stam. SO-30. ....!. Potbbium. 

t Fl's perfect. 

Stam. 4. CSal. 4-cleft, with 2 or 8 outer scales. . . 2. Sahouisorba. 

Stam. 1-4. Cal. 8-parted, the outer segments the smaller. 3. Alchkmilla. 

• Pet. 4, 5, 8 or 9. 

t iSrees or shrubs, often with spines or prickles. 

t Styles 1-5. Shrubs or trees often bearing spines. 

$ Ov. of 1 free carpel, becoming a drupe, marked by ) . ustTMn. 

a suture on one side J ** ^»"''"»- 

$ Ov. of 1 or more carpels, adhering to the cal. 
and to one another, 
g Fl's solitary. ..... 5. Mespilus. 

n Fl's clustered. 

% Thorny trees. Carpels bony, 1 or 2-seeded. 6. Cbatjbous. 
it Trees without thorns. 



H's an perfiBct. Carpels of fhiitcartUar-l ^ Prana 

ginous, cohering at the centre. . } *' *^*"** 

Fl's polygamous. Nuts of the fttiit not i - n-«.-«.- . . — — 

cohering at the centre. . f »• CO'O" « aweb. 



Alchemilla.] Apopetalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [Roses. 49 

t Stiylef more than 5. Prickly ihmbf. 
CtA, urceoUitet indndiiig the cwpd*, and terminating \ q jt^.. 

InSMsments. / ** "****• 

Cal. flat, 5-cleft. . . . .12. BUBUs. 

t Herb* or nnder ahmba which axe never prickly. 

t CaL 4 or 5-parted, with alternate, Bmaller ngmenta. 

$ Stam.-5. ...... 13. Sibbaldia. 

I Stam. more than 5. 
I Pet. 4 or 5. 

Styles terminal, peniitent, hooked at end. . 14. Obuv . 
Stylea lateral, withering, not hooked at end. 
Leaves pinnate ; or temate, in which case "^ 
the uppermost stem^leaves or bracts are > 15. Fotbhtilla. 
stipoled. . . .J 

Leaves temate, the bracts not stipnled. . 16. Fraoabia. 
I Pet 8 or 9. . . .10. Dry AS. 

X CaL 5-parted, without alternate segments. 

Fl's spiked. Carpels 3, 1 -seeded, enclosed incaL 11. Agrimoria. 
Fl's panicled or cymose. Carpels mote than 2, 2 ) j<^ api»v. 
or more-seeded, not enclosed in caL .J ' 

Tr. I. SANGUISORBID^. Apeialous. Cal.4orS'Cleftiper8UteHt,the tube 
enchnng 1-8 akema. 

1. Pote'kium. L. Salad-bnmet 

Fi*8 in monoBcioiis heads, the upper ones fertile. Barren JTs : — CaL in 4 deep s^- 
ments. Stem. 20-80, with long, flaccid fiL Fertile JTs : — CaL uroeolate, wi^ 
4 deddooas teeth. PLstLLs 2 ; stigmas tufted. 

1. P. SanffnuMa, Herbaceous, unarmed; stem sb'ghtly angular; caL 4-an- 
P. 6-d. (P.) 12. golar in fruit ; leaves pinnate. — Dry soil. 

2. Sanguiso'rba. L. Bomet 

CaL 4-deft, colonred, with 4 scales or bracts at base. Stam. 4. Fmit 1 or 2-seeded, 
snrrouided by the persistent base of caL 

1. S. officinSdis, Spikes ovate ; stam. as long as caL ; leaves pinnate, gla- 

P. 6-8. (+P.) 8. broos, leafl. cordate-oblong. — ^Damp pastures. 
/3. media. spikes cylindrical. 

3. ALOHEicfLLA. L. Lady's-msntle. 

CaL 8-cleft, outer segments the smaller. Stam. 1-4. Fruit 1 or 2-seeded, sur- 
rounded by the persist^t caL 

* Leaves remform, 7-9-lobed, 

1. A. mdgaris. the lobes rounded, serrated ; fl*s in lax, terminal, coiym 
P. 6-8. (--G.) 18. hose dusters ^Dry, hilly pastures. 

fi. minor. leaves very pubescent. 

* Leaves palmate or digitate. 

2. A. arvensis. Leaves palmately 3-fid., cuneate at base, pubescent, lobes 
A. 5-8. ( — G.) 20. 3-toothed at end ; fl*s sessile, axillaiy. — Dry places. 

8. A. alptna. Badical leaves digitate, in 5-7, oblong, obtuse divisions, 

P. 6, 7. (— G.) 2. serrated at end, silky beneath ; fl's in interrupted qpikes. — 

Mountains. 



50 Roseae.] Apopetalous Hypogtnous Exogens. [Pyrus. 

4. A. conjuncta. Badical leaves palmate, in 5-7, oblong, obtuse divisions, 

P. 6, 7. ( — G.) E. S.-1. the lateral ones produced beyond the base, and approxi- 
mating ; in other respects as last — Clova Mountains. 
Gatesgarth pass, Cumberland. 

Tr. II. AMYGDALID^, Pet, 6. Fruit fiee^ a solitary drupe, with 1-2 pen- 
dulous seeds, Cal, deciduous, 

4. Pru'nus. L, Sloe, Plum, Cherry. 
CaL 5-cleft. Pet. 6. Drupe fleshy, its nucleus with slightly prominent seams. 

* Ped. solitaiy, or in pairs ; young leaves convolute ; fruit with bloom. 

1. P. spinSsa, Ped. mostly solitary, glabrous ; branches very spiny ; 
S. 4, 5. (W.) 20. leaves elliptical, glabrous ; fruit globose Hedges. 

^. insititia,* ped. in pairs, downy; branches slightly spiny; leaves 

downy beneath ; fruit globose ; shrub. 

y, domestica.* ped. in pairs, glabrous; spines 0; leaves ovate -lanceolate, 

hairy at mid-rib beneath ; fruit oblong ; tree. 

* Ped, in racemes or umbels ; young leaves condupUcate ; fruit without bloom. 

2. P. p&dus. fl's in pendulous rac^nes ; leaves obovate, or oval, finely 
T. 6. (W.) 18. serrated, glabrous. — ^Woods. 

8. P. cerasus, "EVs in nearly sessile umbels ; leaves oblong-obovate, 

S, 5, (W.) E.-17. doubly crenate-serrate, somewhat downy beneath ; tube 

of caL not contracted ; sep. crenate-serrate. — Hedges. 
/3. dvium, leaves oblong-obovate, suddenly cuspidate, indso-serrate 

slightly downy ; tube of caL contracted ; sep. entire — 
Woods. 

Tr. III. POMIDJE, Fruit a l-b-celled pome, the cells lined with a cartilagi- 
nous or bony substance, 

6. BIe'sfilus. L, Medlar. 

CaL-segments foliaceous. Pet roundish. Disk large. Styles 2-5. Fruit turbi- 
nate, the upper ends of the bony cells exposed. 

1. M. Germdniea. Leaves lanceolate, undivided, slightly downy ; fl's solitary, 

T. 5, 6. (W.) K-1. terminal ; when wild, spiny. — Hedge near Reigate. 

6. Cbat^'gus. L, Hawthorn or May. 

CaL-segments acute. Pet roundish. Styles 1-6. Fruit oval or round, conceal- 
ing the 1-5 bony carpels. 

1. C. Oxyc&ntha, Spinous; leaves glabrous, cut into 3-5 deeply serrated 

T. 6, 6. (W.) 20. segments, cuneate at base ; style 1-2. — Hedges. 
/3. eriocdrpa. caL-tube densely hoaiy. 

7. Py'rus, L, Apple. Pear. Quicken or Service Tree. 

CaL 5 -toothed. Pet 5. Styles 2-5. Fmit fleshy, with 5 cartilaginous, distinct, 
2-Beeded cells. 



Rosa.] Apopbtalous Hypogtnous Exogens. [Rose®. 51 

* ' Leaves not lobed, ovate serrated, acnte. 

1. P communis. Styles free to the base; ped. corymbose; fruit turbinate 

T. 4, 6. (W.) 10. Woods and hedges. 

2. P. Mdltu, Styles combined at base ; ped. in sessile umbels ; fruit glo- 
r. 6. (— R.) 18. bose.— Woods and hedges. 

fi. tomentosa, ped., caL-tnbe, and leaves below pubescent 

* ' Leaves lobed, not compound, or only so at base, 

3. P. A'ria. cut and serrated, or slightly lobed towards apex, white 
T. 6. (W.) 11. and downy beneath; fl's corymbose; firuit globose. 

Mountain woods. 
fi. intermedia, leaves doubly serrate, deeply lobed towards the middle of 

the leaf. 
y. pinnatifida. leaves deeply serrate near the apex, pinnatifid or pmnate 

below. 

4. P. torminalis. Leaves ovate or cordate, lobed, glabrous ; lobes triangular- 
T. 4, 6. (W.) R-10. acute, serrated, lower lobes spreading. — ^Woods. 

* ' Leaves pinnate, glabrous above, downy beneath, 

5. P. Aucuparia, leafl. serrated ; fl*s and fruit corymbose, the latter small, 
T. 6, 6. (W.) 18. globose, red.— Woods. 

8. Cotonea'steb. LindL 

Fl*8 polygamous. Pet 5, short, erect. Stam. erect, as long as the 5, short, erect 
teeth of caL Fruit turbinate, its nuts adhering to the sides of cal., but not cohering 
at centre. 

1. C. vulgaris. Leaves ovate, rounded at base ; cal smooth ; ped. slightly 

S.b, (— R) E. downy.^Cliflfe. 

Tr. rV. ROSIDJE, Fruit of numerous dry, hairy akenia, enclosed by, but 
merdy attached to the inside of the fleshy tube of the cal. 

9. Ro'sA. L, Rose. 

CoL uroeolate, terminating in 5 segments. Pet 5, and with the niunerous stam. in- 
serted on the rim of caL-tube. 

' Shoots bearing seta. Prickles mostly straight, scattered, slender, 
t Bracte large. Sep. long, simple. 

1. R JDicksoni.* Leafl. oval, irregularly and doubly serrated, hoary ; fruit 
S. 6. ( — Rl) L-1. ovate-urceolate — South of L^land ? 

2. R cinnamSmea,* Leafl. lanceolate-oblong, simply serrated, downy and glan- 
S. 5, ( — R) 1. dulose beneath. — Hedges. 

t Bracts small or 0. 

t Leafl. doubly serrated, hairy and glandular beneath. Sets few. 

3. R involuta. Prickles crowded, very unequal, straight ; sep. mostly 
S. 6. (W.v. — R) S. L-1. simple, slightly leafy, nearly as long as cor. ; firuit glo- 

bose-urceolate, setose. — ^Mountainous places. 

4. R Siibini. Prickles scattered ; sep. somewhat pinnate ; firuit globose, 
S. 6. ( — R) 6. or slightly urceolate, setose : in other lespecto as last — 

Rocky places. 
fi. Donidna, leaves very hairy; sep. almost simple. 

y. gr&cilis. larger prickles falcate ; sep. as last 



52 Rosesa.] Apopetalous Htpogtnous Exogbns. [Rosa. 

X Leafl. simply serrate, their disk vithoat glands. 
§ Prickles few or scattered, 

5. R. rubella, nearly equal, imiform, slender ; setae dense ; leafl. naked ; 
S, 6. ( — R.) £. S.-1. fruit urceolate or oblong. — Sea-coast, Northumberland. 

Banks of Dee. 

6. R. Hibemica, Prickles unequal, larger, somewhat falcate ; sets few ; 
S, 5-10. ( — R) I.-1. leafl. hairy beneath ; fruit nearly globular. — Down. 

Deny. 
§ Prickles numerous, crowded, very unequal, stnught. 

7. R 9pinonuma» Leaves not haiiy above ; sep. entire, half as long as cor., 
S. 5. (+W.) 12. acuminate ; fruit nearly globular, erect. — Sandy heaths. 

/3. pilSsa. dwarf; leaves acute, hairy beneath. 

8. R. WiUoni. Leaves hairy on both sides ; sep. mostly simple, shorter 
S, 6. ( — R ) £.-1. than pet. ; fruit ovate-uroeolate. — ^Near Bangor. 

* SetsB mostly 0, or very few. 

t Leaves glandulose ; leafl. doubly serrated, downy or hairy. 
% ' Prickles uniform, nearly straight and equaL 

9. R. viUosa, Sep. nearly simple, connivent in fruit ; root-shoots straight, 
S. 6, 7. (R) 12. erect, coloured. — ^Hedges and thickets. 

10. R tomentSsa. Sep. copiously pinnate, spreading in fruit; root-shoots 
S, 6, 7. ( — R) 12. mostly arched. — Hedges and thickets. 

/3. fie'tida. leafl. nearly smooth above. 

X ' Prickles uniform, uncinate, mostly unequal. 

11. R. inodSra. Sep. doubly pinnate, mostly deciduous ; ramuli without 
S, 5, 7. (R.) E. L-8. setae ; frxdt ellipticiEd or roundish. — Hedges; 

12. R. micrantha, Sep. pinnate, elongated, deciduous ; ramuli with few sets ; 
S, 7, 8. (R) R L-10. fruit small, ovate. — Hedges and thickets. 

X ' Prickles of various forms, larger uncinate, smaller subulate. Sep. and 
pinn» elongated and narrow, persistent. 

13. R. rubiginosa. Leafl. rounded at base, rugose, opaque ; fruit turbinate. — 
S, 6, 7. (R.) 17. Bushy places. 

14. R septum. Leafl. acute at each end, shining ; fruit ovate, rounded at 
S, 6. (R) E.-2. base. — ^Hedges. 

t Leaves without glands. 

X Styles united into a colnnm, mostly protruding from cal. Leafl. simpfy 
serrate ; styles hairless ; sep. sparingly pinnate. 

15. R ayst^Ux. Boot-shoots nearly erect, arched; central carpds stalked ; 
S, 6, 7. ( — R) E.-8. prickles uniform uncinate. — Thickets. 

16. R arvetisis. Root-shoots long, trailing; carpels all sessile ; prickles un- 
S, 6, 7. ( — R) 16. equal, nndnate, slender on ramulL — Thickets. 

X Styles distinct, included in caL Prickles uniform, hooked. 

17. R canina, Sep. fully pinnate, deciduous ; leafl. amply or doubly ser- 
S, 6, 7. ( — R. 9. W.) 20. rate, naked, or slightly hairy ; bracts short — Hedges. 

a. ctmina. leafl. naked, carinate ; serratures simple. 

/3. »arment&cea, leafl. same ; serratures compound. 

y. surculosa, leafl. naked, flat ; serratures simple. 

}. dumetorum, leafl. haiiy, flat. 

«. Forsteri, leafl. hairy, not flat. 

18. R bracte»cent, Sep. fuUy pinnate, deciduous; leafl. simply serrated, 
S. — . ( — R) E.-? downy beneath; bracts overtopping fruit — Ulverston, 

Lancashire. 

19. TL cassia, Sep. sparingly pinnate; leafl. doubly serrated, downy; 
S, 6. (— R) ? shoots assurgent ; fruit elliptical—Thickets. 



Rubm.] 



Afopctalous Htpootvods Exogbvs. 



[R 



53 



Tr. y. POTENTILLIDJE. Fndt of nmmeromg akema or dmpet, placed an a 
Jletky receptacle, not inclnded in the herlMceoMS caL 

10. Dbt'ab. L. Ayeos. 

Cal. 8-10-deft, its segments equal and in 1 row. Pet 8-9. Stam. nnmeroiu. 
Fniit of nomeroas akema, tipped with long^ iSeatbeiy tails. 



1. D. oetopetala, 
P. 6, 7. (W.) 



Pet 8 ; leaves crenate-semite, oMnse ; caL hemispherical 
2. at base; sep. acute, ooYered with red haiia. — ^A^tine si- 
tuations. 
^. pUoaa. 8q>. sligiitlj pointed, covered with dark haira ; segments 

of leaves acote. — Clare. 
y. depresaa, aep. obtuse, roonded at end ; base of caL tnmcate, nearly 

flat 



11. Aobixc/hia. L. Agrimony. 

CaL tmbinate, covered with hooked bristles, 5-cleft. Stam. 7-20. Frait of 2 inde- 
hiaoent carpds, invested by the hardened caL 



1. A Empatoria, 
P. 6, 7. (Y.) 



Leaves intermptedly-pinnate, leafl. deq>ly serrated; the 
20. terminal one stall^ ; qnkes long, lax. — ^Waste places. 



12. Bi/bus. L. Bramble. 

CaL 5-parted, concave or flattish. Pet 5. Stam. numerons. Fruit of several 
1-seeded, juicy drapes, placed upon a protoberant, spongy receptacle. Seed pen- 
dnloos. 

AhALTSIS of the SUB-DIVISIOaB OF THE BUBI. 



H 



* Shrubby, with the barren stem 

f arched and rooting at the extremity, 

Casiatu ; pnano$e, but not hoary, with un- 
equal prickles, and variable »et4B often 
nuded. .... 

Glandulose ; covered with numerous aciculi } 
and seta, . 5 

Villous ; generally closely hairy, the aeicuU, > 
if any, hidden in the pubescence, . . { 

PUose ; sparingly clothed with spreading ) 
hairs, . . { 

Hoary and glaucous; leaves hoary-white \ 
beneath, • , y 

Smooth and polished : always quite smooth, 
t Erect, or sub-erect, not rooting. 

Sub-erect ; with 5-nate or 1-nate leaves, , 

Erect : mostly with pinnate leaves, always ) 
white beneath. . 5 

* Herbaceous, ..... 



i. B. CiEsn. 

iL B. Glaitdulosl 

iiL B. ViLLosi. 

iv. B. PiLOfii. 

V. B. Cahdicastl 
vL B. KrriDi. 

viL B.SUB-EBECTI. 

viiL B. Id^l 
Sp. 39, 40, 41. 
F 2 



54 Roses.] Apopbtalous Hypootnous Exogens. 



[Rubus. 



A. Frmiieote. Biennial or Sub-perennial. 
a. Stem arched, and rooting at the extremity. Sub-perennial. 

Sub-div. L — BuBi Cjbsil. Barren »tem pruinose, with unequal prickles, gene- 
rallg with few seta, prostrate unless supported. 



1. R. casiuf. 
S. 6-10. (W.) 16. 



j3. rugSsus. 
y. hispidus. 
i, nuddtus. 



I. tenuis. 



2. R. dumetorum. 
5'. 6-8.(W.r.— P.)16. 



«. glabratus. 
j3. pilotus. 
y. bxfrons. 

%. fcrox. 

3. R. WahlbSrgii. 
S. 6-8. (P.) ? 



4. R suhlustris, 
S.6-8.(W.v.—F.) 



fi. Salteri. 

y. coBnosus. 
i. grandifSlius. 



10. 



Stem glaucous, round ; prickles slender, unequal ; leaves 
mosUy temate, flexible, naked, eentral leafl. narrowed 
at base ; panicle simple, glandular ; fruit glaucous ; sep. 
inflexed Thickets, ditches. 

stouter, more prickly ; panicle compound. 

paidde and cal. excessively glandular. 

sets and glands 0; leaves often 5-nate, pubescent be- 
neath. 

stem smooth ; prickles strong ; panicle slender and prickly ; 
fruit black. 

Stem angular, setose ; prickles many, very unequal ; leaves 
5-nate, coriaceous, downy beneath; central leafl. cor- 
date-cuspidate; panicle branched, leafy, prickly, more 
or less setose ; caL involute on fruit — Hedges, tiiickets. 

stem prickly, smooth ; panicle with few sets. 

stem and panicle tomentose ; leaves haiiy beneath. 

stem sub-glabrous ; prickles long ; panide and caL downy ; 
leaves hoary beneath. 

stem horrid with prickles and setae ; leaves large; panicle 
very setose. 

Stem obtusely angular, with few hairs and setae, but many 
unequal prickles ; leafl. broadly ovate acuminate ; panide 
long, setose, and prickly ; floral leaves broad at base ; 
Sep. patent in fruit. — Thickets. 

Stem angular, smooth, (rarely with setae) ; prickles small, 
distant, straight ; leaves 5-nate, smootJi above, green, 
with soft pubescence beneath, central leafl. ooryUTorm, 
last pair sessile, overlapping ; panide corymbose, downy, 
leafy bdow ; caL reflex. — Hedges. 

stem downy or hairy; leafl. ovalj hairy on both sides; 
panide much brandied. 

stem and panicle very white with close down. 

leaves very large and broad ; central leafl. lobed. 



Sub-div. ii. — Rubi Glandulosl Barren stem arching or procumbent, hairy, 
more or less covered with adculi and seta. 

* Stem with 3-nate or pedate, rarely 6-nate (as 7 /3) leaves. 
o. R Schleicheri. Stem angular, sparingly setose ; prickles slender, unequal; 

S. 6-8. (P.) 14. leaves opaque, the ribs haiiy beneath ; lowest pair of 

leafl. sessile; central one cordate acuminate, coarsdy 
serrate; panide with distant, leafy branches, hairy, 
setose, crowded at the summit; caL patent — Hedges 
and thickets. 



Kubus.] 



Apopetalous HiPooYNocs ExoGENS. [Rose®. 55 



7. R. BeU&rdi. 
S, 7, 8. (W. V. p.) 



5. 



/S. Lejeunii. 



6. R. GuHtheri. Stem prostrate, angular, with scattered hairs, numeroiu 

S. 7-9. (P.) E.-4. short setae, aiid uneqoal weak prickles ; leaves smooth 

above, pilose beneath, central leafl. obovate, acmninate ; 
panicle very narrow, flexuoas, sub-racemose, haiiy and 
glandular, with few weak prickles; pet. narrow, in- 
flexed. — Shady woods. 

Stem procumbent, roundish, closely haiiy and setose; 
prickles very smaU, numerous, we£^ ; leaves with pale, 
prominent, ciliated ribs beneath; central leafl. ovate 
cuspidate, finely serrate; panicle closely hairy, densely 
but minutely glandular, crowded at the summit ; sep. 
patoit ; fl's involute. — ^Marshy woods. 

stem minutely setose, with longer prickles mixed with the 
small ones ; leaves 4 and 5-nate; central leafl. obovate 
lanceolate ; panicle much branched, leafy, crowded with 
unequal setsB and aciculi. 

prickles on the stem stronger and more unequal ; petioles 
densely prickly ; leaves coarsely serrate ; panicle widely 
branched, with many prickles, hairs, and long setae ; sep. 
lengthened. 

Stem procumbent, covered with rigid hairs, setae and un- 
equal prickles ; leaves coriaceous, hairy beneath ; cen- 
tral leafl. roundish ovate ; panicle long, branched, leafy, 
covered with purple setae, glands, and rigid hairs ; caL 
shaggy, patent. — Upland woods. 

leaves smaUer ; central leafl. ovate-lanceolate ; panicle less 
cn)wded, haiiy. 

excessively hirsute; cal. horrent ; leaves jagged. 

Stem procumbent, round, hairy, and setose; prickles 
numerous, very slender and unequal, passing into 
setae; leaves finely serrate, pale and hairy below; 
panicle branched, lower branches elongated, leafy; upper 
1-fl'd, with weak hairs, setae, and long prickles. — Glen 
Falloch, Perthshire. 
Barren stem mostly with 5-nate leaves, 
t Prickles unequal, passmg into setae. 



y. rosaceus. 



8. R. hirtus. 
S. 7-11. (P. ».R.) 



6. 



/3. MoB'nehii. 

y. monstrijictu. 
9. R. humifusus. 

S, 7, 8. (P.) S.-1. 



10. B./lMCtM. 

& 7-9. (P.) 



11. R. Bloxamii, 
S, 7-9. 



Stem angular, haiiy, with few setae, and weak declining 
6. prickles ; leaves large, coarsely and irregularly serrate, 
green, and velvety beneath ; central leafl. cordate-ovate, 
acuminate; panicle long, straggling, corymbose, often 
leafy to the summit, densely hiury and setose, with 
slender prickles interspersed. — ^Hilly woods. 
Stem sulcate, with scattered hairs and numerous setae pass- 
£.-1. ing into aciculi ; prickles slender, declining ; leaves soft, 
hidry, green on both sides, the lowest pair of leafl. sup- 
ported by the intermediate, central lef^. ovate-rotund., 
cuspidate, inciso-dentate ; rachis very hairy and setose ; 
panicle widely branched, paniculate, with large, temate, 
floral leaves below, bracteated only but crowded at the 
summit; ped. armed with numerous prickles. — Leicester- 
shire. 



56 Rosese.] Apopetalous Htpogtnous Exooens. 



[Bubus. 



12. R, fuseo-ater, 

S, 7, 8. (—P.) 8. 



13. R. Ktehlen. 

S. 7, 8. (P.) 10. 



/3. cuspiddtm. 
y. echinattu. 
y infestus, 

14. R. p6Uidu9, 

S, 7, 8. (+P.) 



8. 



/3. foUosus. 



15. R. thyrHflorus, 
S, 8. (P.) E.-1. 



t Prickles nearly 
16. R. rudis, 

S. 7, 8. C+P.) 10. 



a. verus. 
/3. Leightoni, 

y, Reichenbachii, 

I. attenuatus. 

17. R. Hy»trix, 

S. 7-10. (P.) 12. 



Stem decumbent, with scattered hairs, sets, and nneqntl 
straight prickles; leaves opaqae, pale with soft pu- 
bescence beneath; central leafl. cordate-ovate, wavy, 
acuminate ; panicle often rather short, leaiy, with short 
hairs, longer setae, and long, declining priddes. — Woods, 
thickets. 

Stem horrent, with innumerable, unequal, straight prickles, 
and setsB passing into aciculi; leaves 6-nate, opaque, 
coriaceous, closely hairy, but green beneath; central 
leafl. obovate acuminate, sharply serrate ; panicle long, 
prickly, and setose, narrow, with short, distant, corym- 
bose branches. — ^Thickets. 

prickles shorter ; central leafl. obovate cuspidate ; panicle 
with fewer prickles. 

stem more prickly and setose; leafl. broader; panicle 
wider, with longer branches, hairs, and set«B. 

stem with short, very strong prickles, and short adcuU ; 
panicle almost simple. 

Stem sulcate, hairy, with many unequal setas, and weak, 
deflexed prickles ; leaves hairy, pale beneath, often large ; 
central leafl. obovate elliptical, acuminate, sharply ser- 
rate ; panicle broad, hairy, and setose, with long, pale 
prickles, and distant corymbose, leafy branches. — 
Woods. 

panicle yery long, excessively hairy, with long setae, and 
pale prickles ; lower branches corymbose, leafy ; upper 
with long foliaoeous bracts. 

Stem angular, sulcate, with small, unequal prickles, and 
many equal setae; leaves green on both sides, hairy, 
coarsdy serrate ; panicle very long, the lower branches 
paniculate, upper ones numerous, extra-foliaceous, dose, 
hairy and glajadular, many-fl'd. — Devonshire, 
equal, with small setae and adculL 

Stem angular, sulcate, hispid with the short setae, prickles 
extending beyond them ; leaves nearly smooth above, 
grey wiUi pubescence beneath, sharply doubly serrate ; 
panicle long, hairy, leafy, densely glandular, with few 
pale prickles, its short branches crowded at the sunmiit.^ — 
Thickets. 

central leafl. obovate- lanceolate. 

leaves thin ; central leafl. roundish ovate, suddenly cuspi- 
date. 

stem haiiy, with few setae and aciculi ; central leafl. sub- 
rotund. 

central leafl. obovate, with a veiy long cusp, pale, green 
beneath. 

Stem angular, sulcate, hairy, with unequal setae ; prickles 
very numerous ; leaves jagged, dosely hairy beneath ; 
central leafl. elliptical, narrow at base; panide long, 
leafy, prickly ; setae extending beyond the hairs ; upper 
branches short and crowded ; sep. setose, elongated. — 
Thickets. 



Bubtu.] 



Apopetalous Hypogtnous Exooens. [Roseae. 57 



B, r&dula, 

y. pyfffnafus, 

18. B. lingua, 
S, 7, 8. (P.) 



stem less hafay, more aetoee ; leaves white beneath ; cen- 
tral leafl. ovate acominate. 
stem ronnd, more hahy, setose, and prickly ; petioles veiy 

setose ; leaves haiiy on both rides. 
Stem slightly haiiy ; seta few, inconspicaons ; prickles 
2. few, distant ; leaves large ; leafl. rotondo-ovate, abrapdy 
cuspidate, thin and green on both sides, nearly smooth ; 
panicle widely spreading, leafy below, the upper flowers 
on long, hairy, setose ped. armed with very long, weak 
prickles. — ^Woods. 



Sub-div. iii. — Bubi Villosi. Stem angular, arching^ closely hairy , with occa" 
tional seta. Rachis very hairy. 



19. B. Babingtonii, 
S. 7-10. (W.) E.-? 



20. R. sylvStteus, 
S, 7-10. (W. V. P.) 6. 



fi. mllicaulis. 
21. R. vestitus. 



Stem rounded, sulcate, hispid with short hairs, setn, and 
adculi, (afterwards denuded) ; prickles short, dedining, 
irregularly scattered; leaves 3-nate, or 5-nate, very 
large, green on both sides, almost smooth, mucronate- 
dentate, central leafl. obovate, sharply cuspidate ; panicle 
very long, haiiy, prickly, the lower branches paniculate, 
upper crowded, compound, ped. closely prickly; floral 
leaves large. — Shady thickets. 

Stem angular, hispid, with short, dose, parallel hain; 
prickles short, deflexed, sharp, slightly unequal ; leaves 
6-nate, large, smooth above, green and soft with pu- 
bescence beneath ; leafl. all stidked ; central leafl. cor- 
date, coarsely serrate, with a long cusp ; panicle long, 
pubescent, with numerous, alternate, corymbose branches, 
the greater part with bracts only. — Dense thickets. 

stem with stouter prickles; leafl. rounder, cuspidate; 
panicle with longer, more compound branches. 

Stem angular, covered with fasdcled hairs ; prickles strong, 
S. 7-10.( — P. «. +P.) 16. hairy, numerous, sometimes with smaller ones, or setae ; 

leaves 5-nate, coriaceous, with hairy, veiy prickly 
petioles, smooth above, white with pubescence beneath ; 
central leafl. roundish-cordate, cuspidate; panicle long, 
densely haiiy ; lower branches leaTy, corymbose, upper 
crowded; ped. and caL white with pubescence. — 
Woods and thickets. 

stem with scattered hairs, or denuded ; leaves thick, clothy, 
the whole plant coarse and rough. 

stem densely downy, silvery, with large prickles ; leaves 
silvery below; panide very long, with straggling 
branches. 

stem nearly smooth; leaves green and smooth on both 
sides; central leafl. cordate, apiculate-dentate ; panide 
leafy. 

excessively tomentose and woolly. 

Stem angular, sulcate, with unequal, close, and scattered 
hairs ; prickles equal ; leaves 5-iiate, densely prickly at 
the origin of the leafl. ; central leafl. ovate, gradtudly 
acuminate, ja^edly serrate, plicate at the edges ; panicle 



/3. diversifiUus, 
y. argenteus. 



%. semirdsus. 



f. villosus. 
22. leucostachys, 
S. 7-9. ( W.) 



12. 



58 RoseaB.] Apofetalous Hypogtnous Exogens. 



[Bubus. 



/3. sericdtus. 



23. R. Leightonidntts, 
S, 7-9. E.-? 



long, thorny, tawny, with unequal hairs, branches 
spreading ; floral leaves incised, narrowing upwards to 
die entangled summit; caL shaggy, more or less 
prickly. — Hedges, thickets, 
stem very hairy, leaves densely downy beneath ; panicle 
narrow, its very short branches flossy, with concealed 

Stem sub-angular, hairy ; prickles somewhat unequal, de- 
clining ; leaves 3 or 5-nate, doubly dentate apiculate, 
pilose above, hairy and pale beneath; central leafl. 
nearly round, the others acute ; panicle densely hairy, 
concealing setae, leafy below, upper branches short, few- 
fl'd. — Shropshire. 



Sub-div. iv. Bubi Pilosi. Stem arching, angular, with equal prickles, sparingly 
clothed with spreading hairs. 



24. R. carpinifoUus, 
S. 7-9. (P.) 8 



25. R. Sprengelii, 
S. 7-9. (+R. V, W.) 6 



/3. Borreri, 

26. R amplijicatus. 
S. 7, 8. (W.) 10, 



Stem angular, with scattered hairs ; prickles deflexed, yel- 
lowish; leaves 6-nate, hairy above, glaucous-green, 
and pubescent beneath, central leafl. obcordate, or ob- 
tusely wedge-shaped, with a long cusp, acutely serrate ; 
panide narrow, white with hairs concealing glands, its 
branches ascending, close at the summit — ^Thickets. 

Stem round or angular, prostrate, alternately branched, 
clothed with long hairs, and armed with very small, 
hooked prickles ; leaves mostly 3-nat«, thin, smooth 
above and beneath; central leafl. obovate, cuspidate, 
sharply serrate ; panicle slender, with crowded, divari- 
cated, densely tomentose and frizzled branches; pet. 
small, obtuse, rugose. — ^Thick woods. 

stem stouter, with larger prickles, and a few seta ; leaves 
5-nate ; panicle corymbose, prickly, leafy to the summit. 

Stem decumbent, very long, with scattered hairs, and few 
deflexed prickles; leaves 5-nate, the leafl. elliptical- 
acuminate, almost smooth above, pale, green, and pu- 
bescent beneatii, central leafl. cuneate, with a long, 
curved cusp; panicle long, narrow, leafy below, brandies 
short, ascending, and few-fl'd above. — Woods. 

Stem deeply striated, pithy, almost smooth ; the prickles 
5. few and small ; leaves 5-nate, their leafl. large, elliptical, 
irregularly dilated, coarsely serrate, green on both sides, 
and ciliated on the ribs below: central leafl. ovate- 
acuminate; rachis downy; panicle almost unarmed; 
branches numerous, coiymbose, leafy below, above 
crowded, densely hairy, with many-fl*s.--Shady glens. 

Sub-div. V. RuBi GAin>iOANTL Stem sulcate, angular, glaucous-hoary when 
young, with equal prichles, 

28. R JruticSsus, Stem glaucous, with minute pubescence ; prickles often 

S, 7, 8. (P. V, W.) 18. very &lcate, numerous ; leaves 5-nate, smooth above, 

hoary-white beneath, coriaceous; central leafl. ovate- 



27. R. macrophyllus. 
S. 8, 9. (W. r. P.) E. I.. 



Bubus.] 



Apopetalous Htfogtnous Exogbns. [Roses. 59 



fi. digcolor. 

y, thyrsoidevs, 

). macroacanthus, 

i. pemindtus, 

29. R. argenteus, 

S. 7, 8. (W.) 6. 



oblong, acute ; panicle long, narrow, compound, hoary, 
with patent, almost leafless branches. — Hedges and 
thickets. 

branches of the panicle fewer, more distant, less crowded ; 
ped. white, witii down, the leaves still whiter beneath. 

prickles almost straight, the branches of the panicle with 
numerous fl's, each on a long, slender ped. 

leafl. broader, with long cusps; panicle tomentose and 
prickly, witii ascending branches. 

branches of the panicle and fl*s excessively multiplied, al- 
most unarmed. 

Stem almost smooth, polished, sulcate, with declining 
prickles ; leaves 5-nate ; leafl. all elliptical, acuminate, 
sharply serrate, smooth above, silvery beneath ; panicle 
hairy, leafy, with acutely ascending branches, crowded 
at the summit — Thickets. 



Sub-div. vi Bubi Nrrmi. Stem arched^ angular, sulcate, quite smooth. Prickles 
nearly equal. Sepals constantly reflex. 



30. R. cordifolius, 
S. 7-10. (W.) 



^. hldnditus. 

y. macilentus. 

31. R. affi'nis, 
S. 7-10. (—P.) 



32. R. nitidus. 

S. 7, 8. (—P.) 



Stem deeply sulcate, smooth, with distant, deflexed prickles ; 
12. leaves 5-nate, coriaceous, smooth above, greyish green 
beneath ; leafl. all stalked, central one cordate, caq>idate ; 
panicle chiefly extra-foliaceous, closely downy, the upper 
branches (ymose, spreading, closely crowded.— Woods 
and thickets. 

very luxuriant, with lengthened panicles, and large floral 
leaves. 

growing in a fastigiate manner, with small leaves, and 
short panicles. 

Stem angular, with numerous straight, or declining prickles ; 
? leaves 6-nate, smooth and polished above, greyish green, 
with pubescence beneath ; lower leaflets stalked, incum- 
bent on the petiole, centrid leafl. obovate, inciso-dentate, 
with a long cusp ; panicle broad, compound, the lower 
branches widely spreading. — Woods. 

Stem assurgent, smooth, and polished ; prickles few, de- 
E.-4. clining; leaves 5-nate; leafl. all stalked, deeply cut, 
hairy on both sides, central leafl. ovate-acuminate; 
rachis and panicle hairy, with many long, hairy, spread- 
ing, corymbose branches, leafy to the crowded sum- 
mit. — Tliickets. 



b. Erect, or sub-erect, not rooting, biennial, 
Sub.-div. vii Rubi Sub-ebecti. Sub-erect, with 5-neUe, or 7-nate leaves. 



88. R. suberectus, 
S, 6-8. (W. V, P.) 10. 



Stem angular, smooth; prickles distant, straight; leaves 
6-nate, or 7-nate, flexible, with prominent veins beneath, 
central leafl. cordate-ovate, acuminate, narrowed at the 
base ; panicle almost simple, slighdy hairy, broad at the 
base, the upper fl's on long ped. ; sep. patent on the half- 
ripe fruit. — ^Moist woods. Boggy hei^hs. 



60 Rosese.] Apopetalous Hypooynous Exooens. 



[Rubus. 



/3. fastiffiatus, 
y, fiuut, 

y trifoli&tus, 

f. attenudtus, 
34. B. umbrosus, 

S. 8. (W.) E.-1. 



35. R. pUedtus. 

5. 7, 8. (P. ». W.) 10. 



/3. carinatus, 

36. R, lentipinosus. 
S. 7, 8. (P.) 1. 



stem dedining ; fl's in simple, alternate, leafy corymbs. 

prickles numerous, slender ; leaves rather glaucous beneath, 
central leafl. divided. 

stem polished; prickles few; leaves 3 -nate ; panicle elon- 
gate. 

very slender, trailing ; fl's and fruit small. 

Stem much branched, firm, angular, sulcate, polished; 
prickles exceedingly small; leaves 6-nate, l^;ge, the 
lowest pair of leafl. petiolated, central one cordate-acu- 
minate, dentate-serrate, point very long ; panicle simple, 
almost unarmed, ped. 1-fl'd, with large, cordate, floral 
leaves overtopping the summit — Deep woods, Devon- 
shire. 

Stem angular, smooth, with many deflexed prickles ; leaves 
6-nate, the lowest pair of leafl. sub-sessile, pilose be- 
neath, central one cordate-cuspidate, plicate, the petiole 
prickly; panicle racemose, prickly, leafy below, the 
lower leafl. dilated at base; ped. many-fl'd, closely 
hairy. — Damp thickets. 

prickles hooked; leafl. elliptic -lanceolate, acutely carinate 
at the base and summit. 

Stem farrowed, covered on all sides with rigid, equal 
prickles, and red, sessile glands ; leaves 6-nate, smooth 
above, slightly hairy beneath ; lowest pair of leafl. ses- 
sile, all plicate and indso-serrate, central leafl. ovate- 
elliptical, acuminate; panicle almost simple, prickly, 
leafy below; ped. and cal. tomentose, and minutely 
glandular. — ^Mountains. Moel Siabod, Wales. 



Sub-div. viiL Rubi Idjei. Erect, most commonly with pinnate leaves. 



37. R. Idanu, 

S. 6, 6. (W.) 

fi. iuperrimus. 



20. 



y, microphallus, 
38. R. Leesii. 
S, 



Stem round, pruinose, covered with minute prickles ; leaves 
pinnate, with 6 or 3 ovate leafl., white and plaited be- 
neath ; fl's in a2dl]aiy corymbs, drooping. — ^Woods. 

stem rough, with tawny, setaceous prickles; ped. very 
prickly, 

leaves trifoliate, very smalL 

Stem tomentose, bendmg; prickles purple, few, very 
E.-? small ; leaves all 3-nate, tbe leafl. roundish-ovate, al- 
most sessile, the side ones lapping over the terminal 
one, very white and soft breath; fl^s and fruit un- 
kiMnm. — ^Near Brendon, Devonshire. 



39. R. saxatUis. 
P. 7, 8. (— G.) 



40. R. arctieus, 
P. 6. 



B. Stem herbaceous. 

Stem slender, prostrate, creeping, rooting, unarmed, or 
9. with a few adculi, flowering branches onect; leaves 
d-nate ; leafl. obovate, deeply cut ; fl's in terminal co- 
rymbs ; pet small, oval, pointed, erect — Stony ground. 
Stem erect, unarmed; leaves 3-nate; fl's solitary; pet 
( — R) S.-1. roundish, notched, much longer than caL — Scottish 
mountains. 



Potentilla.] Apofstalous Htpootnous Exoobks. [Roseae. 61 

41. B. Chanutm6nu, Stem simple, erect, anarmed; leaves simple, lobed, and 
P. 6. (B.) 7. plaited ; fl's terminal, solitarf. — Peaty moora. 

13. Sibba'ldia. L. 

Od. ooDcare in 10, alternately large and small, segments. Pet 5. Stam. 5. Fruit 
of 6 or 10 small akenia, placed on a dry receptacle. 

1. 8, proedmbent. Leaves temate, leafl. weilge-shaped, with 8 teeth at end; 
P. 7. (T.) 8.-1. fl's corymbose. Pet lanceolate Mountains. 

43. Gfi/uM. L. Avcns. 

Cal. lO'Cleft, tiie outer alternate segments minute. Pet 5. Stam. nunu;roai<. 
FmSt of sereral akenia, tipped with the long, persistent jointed styles which an: 
booked at the joint, placed on a dry receptacle. 

1. O. ttrh/inum, Fl*s mostly erect ; carpophore ; root- leaves interruptedly 
P. 7-8. (T.) 20. pinnate and lyrate, those of stem 3-nate; slip, large, 

round ; pet. olxivaU;; cal. of fruit reflcxed. — Thickets. 
fi, itdermedUim, pet. roundish, with a wedge-shaped claw; cal. of fruit 

patent. 

2. Q, rw6le, W» nodding; carpophore elongated; leaves as last ; stip. 
P. 6, 7. (p. Br.) 17. small, ovate, to^ith(xl ; pet obcrjrdate ; cal. of fruit 

erect. — Damp wrx>ds. 
^. hdhridum. fl*s ^-double ; sep. transformed into leaves. 

15. POTEjm'LLA. L. 

CoL concave, 8-10-parted, segments alternately smalh;r. Pet. i-5. Stam. numerous 
Fndt of numeroas, minute akenia, place<l uf^on a flattish, dry receptacle . 

* Letves pinnate, especially the lower. 

t Pet. obtuse, larger ttian sepals. 

1 . P. frutic6$a. Stem erect, shru>4/y ; leaves of mofdly 5, erjual, oblong, 
P. 6. (Y.) E. L-3. acute, entirrj, hairy leafl., with revolute margins — York- 
shire. Galway. Clare. 

2. P. rttpegtri*. Stem erect, hcrfwiceous ; lower leaves of 6-7 equal, rrmndish- 
P. 6, 6. (W.) E.-1. ovate, cut ami eerraUi leafl., with flat margins, upj^r 

leaves 3-nate Craig Breflin, Montgomery»hirc% 

3. P. amefina. Stem creeping ; leaves tff numerous, uner|ual, oblong, 
P. 6, 7. (Y.) 20. acutely serrate leafl,, silky ami white beneath. — Boad- 

indes. 
/8. terieea, leaves white an^l silky on both sides, 

f Pet acmninate, smaller than sepals. 

4. P. C6marum. Stem a«<»mding, l^anched ; leaves of 5-7 elliptic-oblong, 
P. 7. (+P') 16. sessile, acute, sharply serrate leafl. ; receptacle at length 

enlarged, spf/n^ry. — ^^farshes. 

• Leaves digitate, 6-7-nate, especially the lower. 

t Petals 4 ; stem-leaves 3-nate, sessile, <jr shortly stalked. 

5. P. TormenMa, homar leaves 5-nate, on long stalks; stlp. cut. — Dry 
P. 6-8. (Y.) 20. pla^res. 

/3. nemardlis, leaves all shortly stalkerl ; stip. mostly entire. 



62 Roseae.] Apofetalous Hypogtnous Exogbns. [Spiraea. 

t Petals 5. 

X Leaves 5-iiate ; leafl. oboyate-cuneate. 

6. P. argentea. Stem decumbent, or ascending ; leafl. white and downy be- 
P. 6, 7. (Y.) 13. neath, indso-serrate, with revolute margins. — Dry- 
places. 

7. P. vema. Stem prostrate ; leaves sometimes 7-nate, leafl. with 2-4 
P. 4, 5. (T.) E. S.-8. teeth on each side towards the end, bristly on margins 

and ribs ; lower stip. linear. — Dry pastures. 
/3. alpestris. stem ascending ; leafl. somewhat hairy ; stip. all ovate. 

8. P. reptans. Stem creeping and rooting; leaves all 5-nate, serrated 

throughout, rough on ribs and margins. — ^Banks. 
/3. sericea, leaves and caL with silky hairs on both sides. 

y, acntijoHa, leaves silky as /3, lanceolate, deeply toothed. 

X Lower leaves of 7 linear-cuneate leaflets, deeply serrated throughout, 

9. P. opdca. green above and below, those of stem 3-nate ; teeth more 
P. 6. (Y.) S.-1. than 6 on each side of leafl. — Clova. Balquiddar. 

* Leaves 3-nate. 

10. P. tridentdta. Leafl. oblong-cuneate, 3-toothed at end, glabrous above, 
P. 6, 6. (W.) S.-1. hairy beneath ; pet oval — Werron-hill, Clova. 

11. P. Fragariastium. Leafl. roundish-obovate, serrate, silky above and below ; 
P. 3, 4. (W.) 20. pet obcordate. — Hedge-banks. 

16. Fraga'bia. L, Strawberry. 

Cal. concave, 10-cleft, segments alternately smaller. Pet. 5. Stam. numerous. 
Fruit of numerous, minute akenia, placed upon a large, succulent, dissolving recep- 
tacle. 

1. F. Elatior.* Hairs on ped. and pedicels spreading, and somewhat de- 
P. 6-9. (W.) 6. flexed ; caL spreading or reflexed in fruit — Woods. 

2. F. vetea. Hairs of ped. widely spreading, of the pedicels appressed, 
P, 5-7. (W.) 20. silky ; caL spreading or reflexed in fruit — ^Woods. 

Tr. VI. SPIRJEIDJE, Fruit of numerous follicles, withjrom 1-6 seeds sus- 
pended from the inner suture, Cal. persistent. 

17. Spuur'a. L. Meadowsweet. Dropwort 

Cal. 5-cleft, persistent, not enclosing the carpels. Pet 5. Follicles 3-10, 2-6- 
seeded. 

1. S. Filipendula. Herbs; stip. of lowest leaves linear, acute, entire, of stem 
-P* 7. ( — Y.) 16. 1.-1. rounded and cut ; leaves unequally pinnate, leafl. all 

oblong, deeply cut and serrated; fl. cymose. — ^Diy, 
chalky pastures. 

2. S. Ulm&ria. Herbs ; stip. all rounded, toothed ; leaves unequally pin- 
■P» 7. ( — Y.) 20. nate, lead, ovate, undivided, the terminal one larger, 

8 -lobed ; fl's cymose. — ^Meadows. 

3. S. salicijoUa.* Shrubby ; stip. ; leaves elliptic-lanceolate, serrated, gla- 
P. 7. (R.) E. S.-7. brous ; racemes terminal, compound. ^Moist woods. 



OnobrycbU.] Apopbtalous Htpootnous Exoobns. [Cicerese. 63 



Obdeb XX.--CICEERffi ob LEGUMINOS^. 



Mostly herbs or shrabs, having alternate stipaled, rarely sunple leaves, with 
various important properties, none of which in native plants are poisonous. Cal. 
6-eleft, the odd segment anterior. Cor. generally paptlionaceoui, the odd pet pos- 
terior. Stam. mmtlj 10 ; fiL mon. or diadelphous. Ov, nmple^ tuperior ; pla- 
cemUe wutural. Style and stigma simple. Fruit a 1 or many-seeded, often carved 
or WfknX legume, Embr, withottt alb. ; rad. bent on edges of cot., or straight. 



I 






Pod of 1 or more, 1-weded Joint*. Lmtm neither temate, nor 
with tendril*, 
t Pod of but 1 Joint, tlie npper entire, ttntight, tlie lower) 
tliin, ennred, and tootlied. FL nmbelUte. .) 

t Pod of lereral Jointi. Fl'i racemoae. 

Pod cylindrieal, ilightlj narrowed at Joint*. 
Pod comp ret aed and 

notdied eqnall j in tioth tatnrei. Heads of fl*f 

with a pinnate leaf under eaclu 
Pod f innated deeplj In upper future onlj. Fl*a 
witlumt a pinnate leaf. 
* Pod oontinnoni, not in Joints. 

t Petiole ending in a tendril or an herbaceous point. 

X Btjle filiform, hairy all over, bearded beneath stigma. 
X Style flattened or dilated upwards. 

Petiole tendrilled, or expanded Into a single, linear \ 
leaf, without leafl. . .} 

Petiole ending in an herbaceous point ; tendrils 0. 
t Peti<de ending in a luA. or a bristlj point, nerer in a tendril. 
X Pod imperfectlj 2-celled by the inflexion of the 
lower suture. Leaves 3-nate, or simple. . 
upper suture. Leaves pinnate. 
X Pod 1-celled, sutures not inflexed. 

f CaL 2-leaTed, with 2 Uteral bracU at base. 
f CaL 5-toothed, or parted, biUbiate. 
I Style curled up, orhoolied, 

thickened at the end. Stigma capitate. 
Style subulate. Stigma oblique. 
I Style ascending. 
1[ Pod 1-4 seeded, dehiscent, nerer renlform. 

FiL monadelphous. Leaves seldom 3-nate. 



1. Orobbtohis. 



2. Abthbolobidm. 



3. Obvithopus. 

4. HiPPOCBSFIS. 
6. ViCIA. 

6. TjAranvu. 

7. Orobvi. 



8. ASTBAOALUS. 

9. OXTTBOPIS. 

10. UtEX. 



11. BAROTBAUVVt. 

12. Obvista. 



CaL inflated, 5-toothed. . 

CaL campannlate, deeply 5-cleft. . 
FiL diadelphous, 9 united, 1 teparate. 

Fl*s In 1-sided racemea. . 

Fl's in dense heads or spikes, 
t^ Pod usually more ttian 4-seeded, if] -seeded 
it is then indehisoent and renlform. 
Pod straight. 
Pod fiUcate or spiral. 

Fl's minute, reddish. 

Fl*s not small, yellow. 



13. AVTHTLLIS. 

14. Ovoms. 

16. MbIiILOTUS. 

16. Tbifolium. 



18. Mbdicaoo. 
17. Tbioovblla. 

19. Lotus. 



Tr. L HEDVSARIDJS. Pod divided tramveruly into \-$eeded joints, 
uMuaUjf teparating and indehiacent. 

Osro'BBTcms. Toum. Saintfoin. 

CaL nearly equally 5-toothed. Keel obliquely truncate, longer than wings. Stam. 
diadel|riions. Pod 1-celled, indehisoent, 1-seeded, upper suture straight, lower 
carved, thinner. 



64 CicereaB.] Apopetalous Htpootnous Exogeks. [Vicia. 

1. O. sativa. Leaves about 12 ^-pinnate, nearly smooth ; wings shorter 

P. 6, 7. (R.) K S.-11. than cal. ; keel as long as standard. — Chalk-hills. 

2. Arthrolo'bium. Desv. 

Cal. tnbular, nearly equally 5-toothed. Keel obtuse, rery small. Pod cylindrical, 
curved, scarcely narrowed at the articulations. 

1. A. ebractedtum. Stem filiform ; leaves with many pairs of elliptic-oblong 

P. 7, 8. (T.) E.-1. leafl., the lowest pair remote from stem ; ped. as long as 

leaves, 2-4 fl'd. — Scilly Islands. 

3. Orni'thopus. L. Bird's-foot. 

CaL tubular, nearly equally 5 toothed. Keel obtuse. Pod elongated, compressed, 
curved, contract^ equally on both sides at the articulations. 

1. O. perpusillus. Leaves pinnate, with 5^-9^ pairs of leafl. ; fl^s capitate, 

A. 5-7. (W. II R.) 18. bracteated ; legumes curved upwards. — Gravelly places. 

4. Hippocre'pis. L. Horse-shoe Vetch. 

Cal. short, with 5 acute lobes. Style filiform, acute. Pod compressed, each of the 
numerous joints crescent-shaped. 

1. H. comosa. Ped. longer than the 6^ to 12j-pinnate leaves ; pods 5-8, 

P. 5-8. (Y.) E. S.-9. umbellate, scabrous. — Dry banks. 

Tr. II. VICIIDJE. Pod continuous. Cot. in fferminaiion remaining under 
ground. Stajn. diadelphous, i. e. 1 and 9. Leaves mostly cirrhose, 

5. Vi'ciA. L. Vetch. 

Style filiform, with a tuft of hair beneath the stigma, or its upper part hairy all over. 
Leaves mostly with tendrils. 

* * Pod 2-8eeded, hairy, or glabrous (1 jS) ; cal. teeth equal. 

1. V. hirsuta. Ped. 2-6-fl'd, as long as leaves ; leafl. in 6-8 pairs, linear, 
A. 6-8. ( — B.) 20. oblong, truncate, mucronate Com fields and hedges. 

(i. augustifolia. ped. 1-2-fl'd. 

* ■ Pod 4-seeded, smooth ; caL teeth unequal, the upper shortest 

2. V. tetrasperma. Ped. 1-2-fl'd, as long as leaves ; leafl. in 4-6 pairs, oblong, 
A. 6-8. ( — B.) 15. obtuse, mucronate. — Hedges and fields. 

3. V. gracilis. Ped. 1-4-fl'd, longer than leaves; leafl. in 3-4 pairs, linear, 
A. 6-8. ( — B.) E. I.-2. acute. — Com fields and hedges. 

* • Pod more than 4-8eeded. 

t ' Ped. 1-3-flU 

X Leafl. in 1-3 pairs. 

4. V. lathyroides. FL sessile ; tendrils often reduced to herbaceous points ; 
P. 7, 8. (P.) 11. leafl. obcordate or oblong, mucronate. — Dry, graveUy 

soil. 

5. V. bith{in%ca. Fl. on stalks ; tendrils perfect ; leafl. varying from linear 
P. 7, 8. (P.) E.-3. to elliptic, acute. — Dry and sandy places. 



Latbyros.] Apopetalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [Cicereae. 65 

X Leafl. in more than 4 pairs. 

6. V. lutea. Leafl. elliptdc-lanceolate, pointed ; stip. orate, pointed, 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) K S.-2. brown Sea-beach. 

7. V. sativa, Leafl. elliptic-oblong, often obtose, truncate, mucronate ; 
A, 5, 6. (P.) 20. stip. ^-sagittate, toothed, with a brownish depression 

beneath ; fl. often in pairs. — Cnltivated gronnd. 
/3. angtutifolia, upper leaves with linear-lanceolate, lower with obcordate, 

mucronate leafl. ; stip. with a black depression beneath. 
y, Bohartti, upper leaves with linear truncate leafl. ; stip. with a pale 

depression beneath, 
t ■ Ped. 4-fl'd, short. 

8. v. Septum. Leafl. in 4-8 pairs ; ovate, obtuse, mucronate, hairy ; di- 
P. 5, 6. (P.) 20. minishing upwanls on petiole ; stip. roundish, pointed. — 

Hedges. 
t ' Ped. more than 4:-fl'd, long. 

9. v. iylvatica, Leafl. in 6-8 pairs, elliptical, mucronate, smooth ; stip. 
P. 7. (7. & B.) 16. somewhat lunate, frequently and deeply toothed at lower 

part — ^Woods. 
10. V. cracccu Leafl. in 8 -10 pairs, lanceolate, not mucronate, downy ; 

P. 7, 8. (B.) 20. stip. ^-sagittate, entire. — Hedges. 

6. La'thtbus. L. Vetchling. Everlasting Pea. 

Style dilated upwards, naked on the upper side, hairy beneath the stigma. Leaves 
mostly with tendrils. 

* ' Petioles destitute of true leafl., 

1. L. A'phaca. but ending in tendrils, with 2 large stipules at base ; ped. 
A. 5, 6. (Y.) E.-5. 1-fl'd; bracts minute; (2 leafl. are rarely present.) — 

Sandy fields. 

2. L. NUsolia. not forming tendrils, but expanded into linear -lanceo- 
A, 5-8. (P.) E-8. late, straight-ribbed leaves ; ped. 1-2-fl'd, without a 

bract — Hedges. 

* ' Petioles furnished with 1 pair of lea^ 

t Stem winged. 

X Ped. 2-flowered. 

3. L. hiritUui. Leafl. linear-lanceolate ; stip. narrow, ^sagittate ; pods 
A, 7. ( — B. & R.) E-3. hairy ; seeds globose, tubercular. — Fields. 

X Ped. many-flowered ; pod. reticulated. 

4. L. tylvestrU, Leafl. 3-ribbed, lanceolate ; stip. ^-hastate, narrow ; seeds 
P. 7-9. (T. & P.) R S.-12. compressed, smooth ^Moist thickets. 

5. L. latifolius* Leafl. many-ribbed, elliptical, pointed; stip. ^sagittate, 
P. 7, 8. (R.) K S.-1. triangular, ovate, broad ; Seeds tubercular, rugose — 

Woods, 
t Stem not winged, angular ; pod obliquely veined. 

6. L. pratensis, ] Ped. many fl*d ; stip. sagittate, amplexicaul ; leafl. lanceo- 
P. 7, 8. (T.) 20. late, silky ; seeds glol^se, smooth. — ^Moist pastures. 

* ' Petioles furnished with 2 or more pairs of leafl ; ped. many-flowered. 

7. L. pcduttrit. Stem winged ; leafl. in 2-8 pairs, Imear-lanceolate, acute ; 
P. 7, 8. ( — ^P.) 4. sdp. ^sagittate, lanceolate. — ^Moist meadows. 

8. L. marttimui. Stem angular ; leafl. in 3-8 pairs, oval ; stip. large, oval, 
P. 7, 8. (P^ 1. cordate, hastate. — Sea-beach. 

^. aeutifiliut, leafl. elliptic-lanceolate. — Unst, Shetland. 

6 2 



66 CicereaB.] Apopetalous Hypogtnous Exogens. [Ulex. 

7. O'robus. L, Bitter-vetch. 

Style linear or dilated npwards, naked on the upper side, hairj beneath the stigma. 
Leaves with herbaceous points in place of tendrils. 

1. 0. tuber Ssus, Stem winged, simple; leafl. in 2-4 pairs, elliptical, mucro- 
P. 6, 7. (P.) 18. nate; stip. ^-arrow-shaped, broad. — Mountam woods. 

/3. tenuxf6liu9. leafl. linear-lanceolate. 

2, O. niger. Stem angular, branched ; leafl. in 3-6 pairs, oblong-lan- 
P. 6, 7. (P.) 18. ceolate, rounded, aplculate; stip. linear-awl-sbaped. — 

Woods. 

Tr. III. LO TIDM. Pod continuous. Cot. in germination rising above the 
ground^ and becoming green leaves. Leaves not cirrhose. 

8. AbtbaWlus. L, Milk-vetch. 

CaL 5 -toothed. Keel obtuse. Pod more or less perfectly longitudinally 2 -celled 
by the inflexed margins of the lower suture. 

* Peduncles much shorter thon leaves ; pods smooth. 

1. A. glgcgphyllos. Stip. ovate-lanceolate, free; leafl. ovate in 6-6 pairs, 
P. 6. (+Y.) E. S.-13. smooth; fl. in ovate spikes; pod. triangular, curved. — 

Woods and thickets. 

* Peduncles not shorter than leaves ; pods hairy. 

2. A. hypoglottis, Stip. combined ; leafl. in 8-10 pairs, hairy beneath ; pods 
P. 6, 7. (h. P.) E. S.-6. ovate, erect ; fl. in large heads. — Gravelly soil. 

3. A. alpmug. Stip. free ; leafl. in 10-12 pairs ; pods oblong, pendulous ; 
P. 6. (W.* P.) S.-1. fl. in capitate spikes Glen Dole, Clova. 

9. Oxy'tropis. De C. 

Cal. 5- toothed. Keel ending in a narrow exserted point. Legume spuriously lon- 
gitudinally 2-celled by the inflexed margins of the upper suture. 

1. O.uralensis. Stem 0; leafl. ovate, acute, silky; pods ovate-oblong, 
P. 7. (P.) S.-l. abrupt, with a very oblique, acute point ; ped. erect, 

longer than leaves. — Hilly pastures. 

2. 0. campestris. Stem short ; leafl. lanceolate, somewhat hairy ; pods ovate, 
P. 6. (p. Y.) S.-1. hairy, with a slightly oblique point ; ped. ascending, 

rather shorter than leaves. — Clova mountains. 

10. Ulex. L, Furze. Whin. Gorse. 

Col. of 2 leaves, the upper onej2, the lower 3- toothed, with 2 lateral bracts at base. 
Stam. monadelphous. Pod oval-oblong, turgid, scarcely longer than cal. 

1. U. Europa^us. Gal. -teeth very minute, converging; bracts ovate, lax; 

S. 5, 6. (Y.) 20. fl's lateral ; spines strong ; branches ascending. — 

Heaths. 
/3. strictus. fl's rare, terminal ; spines slender ; branches compact. 

2' U. Nanus. CaL -teeth lanceolate, diverging ; bracts minute, adpressed ; 

iS'. 8-11. (Y.) 14. spines slender, terate; branches reclining. — Heaths. 
/^ m&jor, spines strong, deflexed. 



Melilotus.] Apopetalous Uypooykovu Exoobns. [CicercflB. 67 

11. Sabotiia'mnus. fVimm, Broom. 

CaL 2-Upped, upper lip 2, lower 8-toothed. Stam. monadelphoui. Style long, 
curved, thickened upwards, cliannclled witliin. Stigma small, capitate, terminal. 
Pod. flat. 

S. 9cop&riu$. Leaves temate or solitary ; branches angular, without 

S. 5, 6. (Y.) 20. thorns ; fl. axilUiry, solitary, or in pairs ; pod fringed 

Heathy hills. 

12. Gbni'bta. L. Petty-whin. Green-weed. 

Cat 2 -lipped, upper Up with 2 deep segments, lower 8-toothed. Standard oblong ; 
keel oblong, straight Pod flat, compressed, or rather turgid. 

1. G. pilosa. Stip. ovate, blunt ; fl. lateral ; ped., cal., and underside of 
S, 4. (Y.) E.-1. leaves silky ; spines ; jx^ds hauy Gravelly heaths. 

2. G. tinctdria. Stip. minute, subulate ; fl. racemose ; cor. and pods gla- 
S, 7, H. (Y.) 1 6. brous ; spines ; stem not SfHnous Thickets. 

a, proatr&ta, stem and branches procumbent. 

3. G. &ngliea. Stip. ; fl. solitary in the axib of the up{)er leaves ; cor. 
.y. 5, 6. (Y.) Yj. S.-19. and pods glabrous; stem spinous. — Boggy heaths. 

18. Antiiy'llis. L, Kidney- Vetch. 

CaL tubular, inflated, une^jually 5-toothed. Pet. nearly equal in length. Stam. 
roonadelphous. Pod oval, 1-8-seeded, covered by the persistent caL 

1. A. vulnerdria. Heads of fl. in pairs, surrounded with digitate bracts ; leafl. 

J\ C'H. (Y.) 19. wiequaL — Dry pastures. 
fi. DUUmi. fl. red ; plant smaller, nearly smooth. 

14. Ono'ni8. L. Itcstharrow. 

Cat campanulate ; segments 5, linear. Standard large, striated. Stam. mona- 
delpbous. Pod. turgid, sessile. 

1. O. arventis. licaves mostly sessile, lower temate, rest simple ; cal. 
P. 6-8. ( — R.) 20. shorter than cor., longer than the 2-8 smooth-seeded 

jKxl ; stem ascending, hairy, often viscid. — Sandy places. 
^. $pin69a. stem procumlx;nt, usually spinous ; seeds wartcd. 

2. 0. recliiUita. Leaves all stalked, temate ; cal. as long as c(;r., shorter 
A, 7. ( — K.) S.-l. tlian pod.; seeds H-16, warted. — Bank near Tarbert, 

Galloway. 

15. Melilo'tua. Toum. Meliot. 

CaL tabular, nearly equally 5-tootlied. Pet. distinct, deciduous; keel obtuse. 
StanL diadelphous ; fil. filiform. Ov. tttraight. Pfxl. 1 or few-seeded, coriaceous, 
indehiscent, longer than caL 

1. H. offiein&lU. Cor. more than twice as long as cal., pet. nearly equal ; 

A. 6, 7. (Y.) 18. pods acute, hairy ; stip. setaceous. — Waste places. 

2. H. wdg&riB, Cor. twice as long as cal., wings and keel shorter than 

B. 7, 8. (W.) 8. standard ; pods obtuse, smooth ; stip. subulate. — Sandy 

places. 



68 Cicereffi.j Apopetalous Hypogynous Exogens. [Trifolium. 

16. Tbifo'lium. L, Trefoil. Clover. 

CaL tubular, mostly unequally 5-toothed. Pet. combined by their daws. Keel ob- 
tuse. Stam. diadelphous ; fil. slightly thickened upwards. Pod. 1-4-seeded, in- 
dehiscent, shorter than the persistent, investing cal. 

* Heads of fl. sessile, or on stalks not exceeding them in length ; fl. numerous. 

t Heads terminal, but rarely in pairs. 

X CaL not J the length of cor., (except 1/3.) 10-ribbed, 
§ its teeth setaceous, the lowest much the longest, 

1. T, pratense. all ciliated, the tube hairy; leafl. oval, often with a pale 
P. 6, 6. (P. V. W.) 20. spot, lower emarginate ; stip. oval, bristle-pointed. — 

Pastures. 
/3. parviflorum. cal. longer than cor. 

2. T. medium, CaL-teeth hairy, its tube glabrous ; leafl. ovate, not spotted, 
P. 6-9. (P.) 20. all apiculate; stip. lanceolate. — Pastures. 

§ Cal.-teeth lanceolate-subiUate, nearly equal. 

3. T. incarndtum* Plant villose ; stip. ovate, obtuse ; leafl. ovate, retuse, or 
A. 6, 7. ( — P.) E.-1. obcordate. — ^Naturalized. 

fi. Moiinieri. fl's yellow ; leafl. obcordate. 

t CaL more than ^ the length of cor. 

4. T. Bocconi* Heads usually in pairs, sessile ; cal. -teeth lanceolate, subu- 
A. 7. ( — Y.) E.-1. late, mucronate, hairy, as long as cor., erect, each 

1 -ribbed. — Dry places, Cagewith, Cornwall. 

5. T. maritimum. Heads not in pairs, stalked, ovate, globose; cal. shorter 
A, 6, 7. ( — R.) 2. than cor., its teeth at length broad, leafy, acute, spread- 
ing, l-ner>'ed, the lowest 3-nerved ; stip. subulate, very 
long. — Salt marshes. 

6. T. arvense. Heads not in pairs, stalked, at length cylindrical ; caL 
A. 7-9. ( — R.) 19. longer than cor., hairy, its teeth setaceous, hairy, nearly 

equal, nerveless, at length spreading ; stip. ovate, acu- 
minate. — Sand-fields, 
f Heads both lateral and terminal on the one stem. 

X Cal. -teeth hairy, mucronate, caL 10-ribbed, mostly as long as cor. 

7. T. striSitum. Tube of caL slightly inflated when in fruit ; the teeth 
A, 6. ( — P.) 14. subulate, straight ; leafl. obovate. — Sandy fields. 

13. erictum. cor. longer than cal ; stem erect 

8. T. sc&brum. Tube of caL cylindrical in fruit, the teeth lanceolate, at 
A. 5, 6. (W.) 11. length patent; leafl. obcordate. — Sandy fields. 

X Cal. -teeth smooth, and 

9. T. glomeratum. contracted at base, ovate, patent, the tube smooth, 10- 
A. 6. (R.) 8. ribbed, cal. nearly as long as cor. — Sandy coast. 

10.|T. sujffbcdtum, not contracted at base, reflexed; the tube haiiy, not 

^. 6, 7. ( — R.) E.-3. ribbed ; caL much longer than cor. — Sandy coast 

* Heads on stalks longer than ^ their length. 

f Fl's more than 12 in the heads. 
X InvoL multifid. 

11. T. Jraffiferum, Cal. when in fruit inflated, bladdery, deflexed, its 2 
P. 6-8. ( — P.) 15. upper teeth prominent ; seeds 2 ; stem smooth. — Moist 

meadows. 

12. T. ochrole&cum, CaL not inflated ; the lowest tooth much the longest ; 
P. 6, 7. ( — ^T.) E. S.-15. seeds single ; stem hairy. — Gravelly soib. 



Medicago.] Apopstalous Htpoqtnous Exogens. [Cicereae. 69 

t InvoLO. 

13. T. stelldtum. CaL longer than cor., teeth equal, long, ciliated, spreading 
A. 6, 7. ( — ^Y.) K -1. after flowering — Gravelly beach. 

14. T. repens. CaL shorter than cor. ; stem smooth ; caL teeth nearly 
P. 6-9. (W.) 20. equal ; leafl. all shortly stalked, roundish, often emargi- 

nate, with a lunate spot ^Meadows. 

16. T. procvtmberu. Cal. shorter than cor. ; stem hairy ; cal. teeth unequal ; the 

P, 6, 7. (T.) 20. middle leafl. on a short stalk, all obovate, emarginate, 

without a lunate spot. — Dry fields, 
f Fl's not more than 12 in the heads. 
X Stalks as long as heads. 

16. T. subterraneum. Fl's2-6; cal. producing numerous stellate bodies, which 
y<. 6, 7. (W.) 11. ultimately fold over the ftruit. — GraveUy places. 

X Stalks much longer than the heads. 

17. T, minus. Heads erect; fl*s 3-5, lax, ultimately deflexed; standard 
A. 6, 7. (T.) 29. furrowed, truncate, quite covering pod Dry gravelly 

places. 

18. T.jUiforme. Heads drooping; fl*s about 12, close, and ultimately de- 
A. 6, 7. (Y.) 20. flexed ; standard even, emarginate, covering pod. — Pas- 
tures. 

17. Trigone'lla. Linn, 

CaL campanulate, 6-cleft. Keel very small ; wings and standard similating a tri- 
petabus cor. Pod many-seeded, oblong, compressed or cylindrical, acuminate. 

1. T, omithopodioidea. Fl's 2-4 ; stem prostrate ; leafl. obcordate denticulate ; pod. 
A, 6, 7. (R.) 6. twice as long as cal Waste places. 

18. Medica'oo. L. Medick. 

CaL somewhat cylindrical, 6-cleft. Stam. diadelphous. Pod many-seeded and fal- 
cate, or spirally twisted, or rarely 1 -seeded and reniform. 

* Pods not prickly. 

1. M. lupulina. Pod reniform, with a spiral point, rugged, 1 -seeded; fl's 
A, 6-8. (Y.) 20. in dense ovate heads ; leafl. obovate, denticulate above, 

mucronate. — Waste ground. 

2. M. falcata. Pod falcate, downy, many-seeded ; fl's in racemes ; pe- 
P. 6, 7. (Y.) E.-3. dicels longer than bracts Dry banks. 

8. M. sativa. Pod m a loose, open spiral, many-seeded ; fl. in racemes ; 
P. 6, 7. (R.) E. S.-7. pedicels shorter than bracts Fields and hedges. 

* Pods with 2 rows of divergent, hooked or curved prickles, 

f compactly spiral. 
4. M. maculata. Convex edge of pod thick, 4-ridged, with a central fiir- 

A, 6, 6. (Y.) 9. row ; leafl. with a purple spot in centre ; stip. toothed ; 

ped. 2-3-fl*d Gravelly soil. 

6. M. mxnima. Convex edge of pod thin, without a furrow; leafl. not 

A. 6, 7. (Y.) E.-2. spotted ; stip. entire ; ped. 1-6-fl'd.— Sandy fields. 
/3. canescens. stems and leaves hoary, 

f Pod loosely spiral. 
8. M. denticulata. Convex edge of pod thin ; leafl. obcordate ; stip. lancini- 

A, 6-8. (Y.) E. L-1. ated. — Sandy sea-coast 
fi. apicul6ia. spines of pod very short, not hooked. 



70 Celastrinese.] Apopetalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [Staphylssa. 

19. Lo'tus. L. Bird's-foot-trefoil. 

Cal. tabular, 5 -cleft Keel ascending, with a narrow beak ; wings connivent at upper 
margin. Pod cylindrical, somewhat spongy within, and imperfectly divided by 
transverse partitions. 

* Claw of standard obovate, transversely arched. 

1. L. comiciddtus. Cal.-teeth straight in the bud, notch between the upper 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 20. teeth rounded ; stem ascending Dry banks. 

/3. tenuis. stem filiform, procumbent ; leafl. linear. 

* Claw of standard linear, or subulate, not transversely arched. 

2. L. major, Cal.-teeth stellately spreading in bud, subulate ; heads 
P. 7, 8. (Y.^ 16. 8-12-fl'd; stip. roundish-ovate. — Damp places. 

/3. glabriusculus, leaves, stip., bracts, and sep., ciliated. 

3. L. auffustisdmus. Cal.-teeth straight in bud, subulate ; heads 2-fl'd ; pod 
A. 7, 8. (Y.) £.-1. linear, 6 times longer than cal Fields near sea. 

(i, htspidus, pod terate, rugose, twice as long as caL ; heads 3-4 fl'd. 

Order XXI THYMELE^. 

Shrubs with entire, exstipulate leaves, possessing stimulating and vesicating quali- 
ties. Cal. inferior, tubular, coloured, the limb 4, rarely 3 or 6 -cleft, imbricated in 
estivation, with a fleshy disk lining the orifice. Cor. 0, or scale-like. Stam. de- 
finite, inserted on the tube of cal. Anth, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally, Ov. of 
1 carpel ; ovule 1, pendulous. Fruit a nut or drupe. Alb, 0, or thin and fleshy ; 
embr. straight; rad. superior* 

1. Da'phne. L. Mezereon. Spurge-LaureL 

Cal. 4-fid, coloured, deciduous. Stam. 8, shorter than caL, inserted in 2 rows. Fruit 
fleshy. 

1. D. Mezereum,* Cal. subtemate, lateral, sessile, appearing before the de- 
S, 3. (R.) E. S.-3. dduous, lanceolate leaves ; tube hairy. — Woods. 

2. D. Laureola. CaL 4-cleft ; racemes of about 5 glabrous, drooping, 
S, 2-4. ( — G.) K S.-17. bracteated fl*s ; leaves persistent — ^Woods. 

Order XXIL— CELASTRINEiE. 

Shrubs with leaves having minute stipules, possessing an acrid principle, which es- 
pecially abounds in the se^ Sep, 4-6, aestivation imbricate. Pet. 4-5. Stam, 
alternate, and with the pet perigynous. Ov, 3 or ^-celled ; cells 1 or more-seeded ; 
placenta in axis. Fruit capsular or drupaceous. Seeds definite^ ascending, often 
with an arillus ; alb, small^fleshg ; embr. straight ; rad. inferior. 

Leayes compound. Styles 2 or 3. . .1. Staphti.aa. 

Leayea simple. Style 1. . . . .2. Eiroiiriius. 

1. Staphyljs/a. 

CaL 5-parted, coloured with a cup-shaped disk at base. Pet. and stam. 5. Capsule 
2-3-celled. Seeds few, without an arillus. 

1. S,pinnata,* Leaves 5-7-pinnate; petioles without glands; fl's race- 

S, 6. (W.) E.-1. mose ; capsule bladdery. — Hedges near Windermere. 



Uhnua.] Apopetalous Htpootnous Ezoosns. [Ulmeae. 71 

2. Eno'kymus. L. Spindle-tree. 

CaL flat, 4«5-cleft, irlth a peltate disk at base. Pet and stam. 4 or 6. Caps. 3-5- 
cdled and yalved. Seeds solitary, arillate. 

1. E. EvTopafftu. Fl's mostlj with 4 stam. ; pet. oblong, acute ; leaves evate- 

S, 5. (G.) 16. lanceolate, minutely serrate. — ^Woods. 

Obdeb XXIIL— BHAMNEiB. 

Threes or rimibs, often spiny, the fruit violently cathartic. Leaves simple. Fl's 
scMnetimes declinous. CaL 4 or 5-cleft. Stam, perigynoiiSj as many as, and opp(h- 
tUe to pet. Ov. 2, 3, or 4-oelled, surrounded by a fleshy disk ; placenta axile, 
fditaryj erect; alb. small ; embr. long, straight. 



1. Rha'mnub. X. Buckthorn. 

CaL nrceolate, 4-5-cIeft Pet 4 or 6, sometimes 0. Berry 2-4-celled. 
1. R. Catharticus, Spines terminal ; fl's 4-cleft, diaecious ; leaves ovate, sharply 
S, 5, 6, ( — G.) K L 12. serrated ; seeds 4. — ^Woods. 
3. R. FrangnUu Spines ; fl's 5-cleft, perfect ; leaves obvate, entire ; seeds 2. 

S, 5, 6, (G.W.) E.L 9. Thickets. 

Order XXIV.— ULMILfl:. 

Trees or shrubs with slightly bitter and astringent properties, having rough, alter- 
nate leaves, with minute stip. Fl*s in loose clusters, not in catkins, sometimes'poly- 
gamous. Cal. membranous, inferior, trreffidar. JPet. 0. Stam. definite, erect in 
SBsti v a tion, inserted on base of caL Ov, free, 2-ceUed; placentcB axUe ; stigmas 2. 
Fmit 1-2-eened, indehiscent, membranous, or drupaceous. Seeds solitary, pendu- 
kui ; alb, ; embr. straight or curved with foliaceous cot., and inferior rad. 

1. Ulmus. L, Elm. 

PI perfect CaL campanulate, 4-5-cleft, persistent Stam. 3-6. Styles 2. Cap- 
sule oompressed, winged aU round, 1 -seeded. 
* Leaves at length quite Smooth above, smooth or glandular beneath, ovate-lanceo- 

1. U. glabra, late, acuminate, doubly and evenly crenate-serrate, cu- 
ll 3. ( — P.) K-5. neate and oblique at base'; a few hairs in axill® ; branches 

smooth, wiry, weeping ; fruit obovate, deeply cloven, 
fi gilandxdosa. leaves very glandular beneath. 

y loHfSUa. leaves oblong, acute, very broad. 

* Leaves scabrous above, 

f hairy or downy beneath. 
X Fruit deeply cloven. 

2. U. campestris, oblong ; leaves doubly and irregularly serrated, rhomboid- 
T, 4, 5. ( — ^P.) 15. ovate, acuminate, obliquely cuneate at base, axillie gla- 
brous ; branches wiry, slightly corky, pubescent when 
young. 

3. U. niber6sa. Fruit nearly round ; leaves doubly and regularly serrated, 
T, 3. ( — P.) 7. nearly orbicular, acute, obliquely cordate at base, axillie 

hairy ; branches spreading, winged, with corky excres- 
cences, very hairy when young. 



72 HypericineiB.] Apopetalous Hypogynous Exogens. [Polygala. 

X Fruit slightly cloven, 

4. U. major. obovate ; branches spreading, winged, with corky excrea- 
T, 3. ( — ^P.) E.-? cences, smooth when young; leaves ovate-acuminate, 

very oblique at base, doubly and regularly serrated, with 
a dense tuft of white hairs in their axillas. 

5. U. montdna. Fruit oblong-rhomboid ; branches not corky, always smooth, 
T. 3, 4. ( — ^P.) 17. cinereous ; leaves ovate-cuspidate, cuneate, and nearly 

equal at base ; axillae without hairs. 
f Leaves smooth beneath, simply crenate-serrate, coriaceous, 

6. U. carpinifolia. strongly veined, slightly oblique and cordate at base ; 
T. 4. (P.) E.-1. branches nearly smooth. 

7. U. strtcta. Leaves obovate, cuspidate, nearly doubly and evenly cre- 
T. 4. ( — ^P.) E.-? nate-serrate, cuneate, obhque at base, with hairy axillae, 

branches smooth, rigid, erect, very compact. 
0. parvifolia, leaves much smaller, finely crenate. 

Ordeb XXV.— ACERINEJE. 

Trees often with a saccharine juice. Leaves opposite, simple, lobed, exstipulate. 
Fl's often polygamous in axillary corymbs or racemes. Cal. 5, rarely 4-9 -parted. 
Pet. as many ; imbricate in cestivation. Stam. generally 8, on an hypogynous disk ; 
anth, opening longitudinally. Ov. 2-lobed, 2-celled ; style 1 ; stigmas 2 ; placentae 
axile. Fruit winged, separating into 2 indehiscent, 1'2-seeded carpels. Seeds e»- 
arUlate ; embr. curved, exalb. with foliaceouB, wrinkled cot., and an inferior rad. 

1. A'oER. L. Maple. 

Fl*8 polygamous. Cal. 6-cleft. Stam. mostly 7 or 9. 

1. A campestre. Corymbs erect; leaves of 5 obtuse, inciso-serrate lobes; 
T. 5, 6. ( — G.") 14. . stam. of the barren fl's, as long as cor. — ^Woods. 

2. A PseudoplatanuM. i Racemes pendulous ; leaves of 5 acuminate, unequaUy 
T. 5. 6. ( — G.) ? 11. serrate lobes ; stam. twice as long as cor. — Woods. 

Order XXVI.— POLYGALE^E. 

Herbs or shrubs, with mostly simple leaves ; stip. ; with milky roots, and mostly 
bitter qualities. Sep. 5, imbricate, irregular, 2 interior larger petaloid. Pet. un- 
equal, usually 3, of which 1 is ant^ior and larger, (the keel), and 2 lateral smaller ; 
keel often crested. Stam. 8 ; fiL monadelphous, tJie tube slit; anth. 1-celled, open- 
ing by pores. Ov. 2-3-celled, with soKtary ovules ; style single. Capsule 1-3-celled, 
with a loculicidal dehiscence, and axile placenta. Seeds pendulous, with an ariUus 
or caruncle ; embr. in a small, fleshy alb, ; the rad. superior and next hilum. 

1. Polt'gala. L, Milk-wort. 

Pet. slightly connected together, the lower one keel-shaped. Capsule compressed, 
2-celled, 2-valved. Seeds solitary, with a 4-pointed caruncle at base. 

1. P. vulgdris. Keel crested ; fl's in a terminal raceme ; wings of ~ cal. 

P. 6-9. (B.) 20. obovate, mucronate ; lateral bracts longer than pedicels ; 

lower leaves smaller than upper. — Dry pastures. 
/3. oxyptera. racemes 1 -sided; cal. -wings narrower. 

y, an^ra, cal. -wings not mucronate; lateral bracts shorter than pedi- 

cels ; upper leaves larger than lower. 



Hjpericam.] Apopetalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [HypericinesB. 73 

Order XXVII HYPERICINILE. 

Herbs, shmbs, rarely trees, with a resinous, aromatic or pnrgative juice. Leaves 
opposite, entire, exstipulate, usually with transparent dots, and fringed with black 
glands. Sep. 4-5, imbricated. Pet. as many as sep., oblique^ twisted in cestivation^ 
bordered with black glands, Stam, tncfe/tni^e polyadelphous, or 5 fertile and numerous 
barren ones, united so as to form 5 fringed scales. Ov. of 3-5 carpels, with as many 
Umg styles ; stigmas rarely sessile. Fruit mostly a dry or fleshy capsule, 1 or many- 
oeiUed and yalved, the placenta being axile. Seeds indefinite, exalb. ; embr. straight 
or curved ; rad. inferior. 

Stem, indefinite, united at the baw, into 3 or 5 sete. . 1. Htpericuv. 

Stam. 5, idth 5 intermediate, Aringed scalei. . . - . 2. Farrabbia. 

1. Hype'ricxjm. L, St John's-wort. 

CaL 5-parted, or 5-cleft. Pet. 5. Styles 3, rarely 5. Caps, more or less perfectly 
3-oeIled. 

• Styles 6. 

1. H. ealycinum^ FI. solitary ; sep. unequal, obovate, obtuse ; stem shrubby, 
P. 7-9. (Y.) S.L-8. branched, square. — Bushy places. 

• Styles 8. 

t Sepals more or less unequal. 

2. H. Andros€B'mum. Stem shrubby, compressed, 2-edged ; capsule fleshy, im- 
S, 7. (Y.) 10. perfectly 3-cellcd ; leaves ovate, sessile. — Bushy places. 

3. H. humifusum. Stem prostrate, somewhat compressed, nearly round ; cap- 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 20. sule dry, 3-celled ; sep. oblong, obtuse, mucronate ; 

leaves oblong, with flat margins. — Gravelly heaths. 

4. H. linariifoKum, Stem ascending, terate ; capsule dry, 3-celled ; sep. lan- 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) E.-2. ceolate acute ; leaves linear, obtuse, with revolute mar- 
gins. — Banks of Teign, Devon. Cape ComwalL 

f Sepals equal, 

% their margins fringed with glands. 
§ Stem smooth. 

II Leaves with revolute margins ; pet with black dots on both 
sides ; stem somewhat 2-edged. 

5. H. barbdtum* Leaves ovate-lanceolate, with black dots, clasping the 
P. 8, 9. (Y.) S.-l. stem. — Hedge, Aberdalgy, Perthshire. 

II Leaves with plane margins ; pet. not dotted ; stem round. 

6. H. monthnum. Sep. lanceolate-acute, fringed with stalked glands : leaves 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) E.8. ovate-oblong, sessile, dotted near the margin. — Hills. 

7. H. puhhrum, Sep. broadly ovate, obtuse, fringed with sessile, black 
P. 6, 7. (Y.) 20. glands ; leaves cordate, claisping, with scattered dots re- 
mote from margin. — Dry banks. 

§ Stem rough. 

8. hirtutum. Stem erect; pet. linear-oblong, edged with stalked glands ; 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 16. leaves ovate, downy. — Thickets. 

9. H. elodes. Stem procumbent ; pet. ovate, entire, without glands ; 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) 10. leaves rounded and shaggy like the stem. — Bogs. 

X Margins of sep. without glands. 

§ Stem 2-edged, or not prominently quadrangnlar ; pet. streaked 
and dotted beneath. 



74 Tili^.] Apopetalous Hypogtnous Exogens. [TilU. 

10. H. perforatum, Sep. erect, lanceolate ; leaves from linear to elliptic-oblongt 
P. 7, S. (Y.) 19. obtuse, with pellucid dots ; stem 2 -edged. — Woods. 

11. H. dxiibmn, Sep. reflexed, elliptical, entire; leaves elliptic-ovate, obtuse, 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) K S.-9. without (or with a few) pellucid dots ; stem obscurely 

4-angular. — Hilly places, 
/t. mae¥l&tmtt, sep. ovate-lanceolate, denticulate, mucronate; stem more 

decidedly 4- angular. 
§ Stem 4-winged ; pet. not streaked beneath. 

12. H. quadranguhtm. Stem erect ; leaves oval-oblong, with pellucid dots ; sep. 
P. 7. (Y.) 20. erect, lanceolate, acuminate, entire.— Wet places. 

2. Parna'ssia. Xr. Grass of Parnassus. 

CaL deeply 5-cleft. Pet. 5. Stam. 5, with 6 fringed scales between. Caps. 1- 
celled, 4-valved, each valve with a linear many-seeded placenta. 

1. P. palustrU, Fil. of the scales 9-13 ; pet. with a short claw ; root-leaves 

P. 8, 9. (W.) 16. cordate, stalked, those of stem clasping. — Damp places. 

Obdeb XXVin — ^ELATINEiE. 

Inconspicnous, unimportant herbs, growing in wet places, with fistular, rooting 
stems, and opposite, simple, stipuled leaves. Sep. 3-5. Pet, as many as sep,, im- 
bricated. Stam, hypogi/nouSf once, or twice as many as pet, Ov. 3-5-celled, with as 
many styles. Caps, 2 -5 -celled, 3-5-valyed, loeulicidal, with a 4-winged, central 
placenta. Seeds numerous, exalbuminotis, wrinkled transversely, with a straight 
embr. ; rad. turned to hUum. 

I. Ela'tine. L, Water-wort 

CaL 3-4-parted, peraialent Pet 3-4. Stam. 8-4, or 6-8. Styles 3-4, short. 
Caps. d-4-Yalv6d and celled. 

1. E. Hex&ndra, Leaves longer than petioles ; fl's stalked, erect, with 6 
A, 8. (B.) 2. stam., and 3 obovatepet ; caps. 3-celled; seeds straight 

— ^Margins of ponds. 

2. E. Hydropiper, Leaves shorter than petioles $ fl's nearly or quite sessOe ; 
A, 8. (B.) E.L-1. stam. 8 ; pet 8, ovate ; capsule 4-celled ; seeds much 

curved. — Under water. 

Obdbb XZIX-^TILIE^ 

Mostly trees or shrubs, having a mucilaginous and slightly astringent juice. Leaves 
simple, stipulate, alternate. S^, 4 or 5, aestivation valvate. Pet 4 or 5, imbricated or 
twisted, sometimes 0. Stam, ind^inite, distinct, hypogynous, Ov. of 2-10 mostly 
united carpels ; style 1 ; stigmas as many as carpels. Fruit dry, or pulpy, some- 
times winged, many-celled, or 1-celled by abortion, placente in axis ; embr, erect, in 
axis of a emails tiibj alb, ; xad. next Mlum. 

1. WiJA. L, lime, or Linden-tree. 

Sep. 5, decidaoos. Pet 5, with or without a gland at base. Stam. indefinite. Ov. 
5-celled, oeUa 2-seeded. Emit 1-celled, 1-2-seeded. 



Altfalea.] Apopetalous Htpogynous Exogbns. [MalvesB. 75 

* Fed. maiij-fl'd ; kaYes g labroos, obliquely cordate ; glands at base of pet 

1. T. Europafa* Leaves twice the length of petioles ; fruit coriaceous, not 
T. 7. (y. G.) 11. angular, downy Woods. 

2. T. parvifilia. Leaves about as long as petioles ; fruit brittle, thin, angu- 
T, 8. ( — ^Y.) 4. lar, nearly glabrous. — ^^Voods. 

* Fed. about 8-fl'd ; leaves downy, especially beneath, obliquely cordate ; glands 0. 
8. T. grandifSlia* Young branches hairy ; leaves longer than petioles ; fruit 

r. 6, 7. ( — ^Y.) 2. 5-angled, woody, downy, turbinate. — Woods. 
/5. corallina, fruit globose, woolly. 

Obdeb XXX.— IOlLVKS. 

iDBOcaDUfl, mnrilaginons herbs, ahnibs, or trees, with alternate, stipulate leaves, 
mostly clothed with a stellate pubescence. Slep, 5, 3 or 4, valvate^ surrounded by an 
invoL Pet, as many as sep., twisted in tBttipotion, usually with their lower lamina 
fajpogynous, and their upper adhering to the base of the tube of the numerous mona- 
ddphoMS, hypogynout atam, ; anth. 1 -celled, turned inwards, opening across. Ov. 
formed by several earpeU round an axis, distinct or united ; styles as many as car- 
pels. Fruit mostly capsular, many-celled, the cells 1 or more-seeded ; alb. ; embr. 
curved ; oot twisted and doubled. 

IbtoL 3-lobed. . . . .1. Layatbba. 

Innd. of 3 distinct bracti. .... 2. Malta. 

InToL 6-9-lld. . . .3. Althjba. 

1. Laya'teba. L. Tree-MaUow. 

InvoL 8-lobed. CaL 5-fid. Carpels numerous, arranged in a whorL 

I. L. arb6rea. Stem woody ; leaves with about 7, angular, plaited, velvety 

B, 7, 9. (p. B.) 4. lobes ; ped. axillary, 1-fl'd, aggregate.-^Rocky islets. 

2. Ma'lva. i. Mallow. 
InvoL of 3 distinct bracts. In other respects as Lavatera. 

* Stem erect ; fruit-stalks erect ; leaves rcniform, 

1. If. moschata, of 5 or 7 deep, pinnatifid lobes, with linear segments, bwer 
P. 7, 8. (B.) 19. ones indso-crenate ; bracts linear-lanceolate ; fruit haiiy. 

— Gravelly soiL 

2. M. sylvestris. Leaves with 7 crenate, rather acute lobes ; bracts lanceo- 
P. 6-9. (P.) 20. late ; fruit glabrous, reticulated. — Road sides. 

* Stem decumbent ; fruit-stalks bent down ; leaves roundish-cordate, 

3. M. rotundifolia, with 5 crenate lobes ; bracts linear-lanceolate, shcnrter than 
P. 6-8. (P.) 20. Sep., which are much shorter than pet; stip. ovate. — 

Waysides, &c. 
/3. horeStUs. bracts as long as Sep., which equal pet.; stip. lanceo- 

late. 

3. Alteub^a. L, Marsh-Mallow. 

InvoL 6-9-fid. In other respects as Lavatera. 

1. F. hirsuia. Fed. axillary. 1-fl'd, longer than the palmate, 5 or 3-acutely- 

A, 6, 7. ( — B.) E.-1. lobed, hiq;>id leaves, the lower reniform, obtusely 5-lobed. 

Near Cobham, Kent. 



76 Geranie®.] Afopetalous Hypogynous Exogens. [Geranium. 

2. P. qfficin&lia. Ped. axillary, many-fl'd, shorter than the cordate or ovate 

P. 8, 9. ( — R.) 3. 3-6-lobed,crenate-serrate, soft, downy leaves. — Marshes. 

Order XXXI GERANIE^. 

Herbs or shrubs possessing astringent or aromatic qualities. Stems tumid at the 
j oints, with leaves opposite each other, or the ped. , with membranous stip. Sep. 5, 
imbricated, persistent, one sometimes spurred or saccate at base. Pet, 6, rarely 4, 
clawed, twisted in cestivation, Stam, definite^ monadelphous, hypogynous, twice 
or thrice as many as pet Ov. of 6 carpels, placed round an awl-shaped torus. Fruit 
of 5 membranous, indehiscent pericarps, which adhere by their styles to the long- 
beaked torus, and which, finally separating below at the base, are made to curl up- 
wards by the elastic force of the styles. Seeds solitary, exalbuminous. Emhr, curved 
and doubled up ; cot. foliaceous, plaited ; rad« pointing to base of celL 

Fil. 10 (or 5, as in 10 G.)> all bearing ftnfth. . . • 1. GsRAiriUM. 

Fil. 10, 5 only bearing anth. .... 2. Ebooium. 

1, Gera/nium. L, Crane's-bill. 

Sep. 5. Pet. 6. Stam. 10, rarely 5, slightly monadelphous, alternate ones larger, 
and with glands at their base. Pericarps each with a long, ultimately recurved, 
internally glabrous awn. 

* Pet. twice as long as sep. 

t Ped. l-fl*d, with 1 leaf opposite to it. 

1. G. sanguineum. Leaves orbicular, in 7 deep, trifid lobes ; caps, bristly at 
P. 7. (P.) 12. summit; seeds smooth. — Rocky places. 

/3. lancastri^nse, stem nearly simple, decumbent. 
t Ped. 2-fl'd. 

J Pet. deeply notched ; ped. with 2 leaves at base. 

2. G. pyrenaicum. Downy ; stem round ; leaves reniform, of 6-7 oblong, ob- 
P. 6, 7. ( — ^P.^ 8. tuse, 3 -fid lobes, toothed at end ; caps, keeled, downy 

Pastures. 
J Pet. entire, or nearly so ; capsule even, hairy. 

3. G. sylvaticum, Fil. hairy ; leaves sub-peltate, with 5-7 deep, acute, cut 
P. 6, 7. (P.) 9. and serrated lobes ; stem difiuse. — ^Woods. 

4. G. prat^se. Fil. glabreus ; leaves palmate, with 5-7 multipartite lobes ; 
P. 6-8. (P.) 17. stem erect, corymbose Pastures. 

* Pet equal to, or somewhat longer than sep. ; ped. 2-fl'd. 

t Pet entire. 

X Ped. opposite to a single leaf. 

5. G. pha/ym. Capsule keeled, hairy below, wrinkled above ; leaves with 
P. 5, 6. +P. W.) E. S.-9. 3-7 acute, cut, serrated lobes ; stem erect — Woods. 

% Ped. with 2 leaves at base. 
§ Leaves glabrous, 

6. G. lucidum, roundish, 5-lobed ; lobes 3-fid., notched, obtuse, shortly 
A, 6, 7. (B.) 16. mucronate ; caL pyramidal, angular; caps, wrinkled. — 

Walls. 
fi, R&ii, cal. shaggy ; caps, keeled. 

§ Leaves hairy, or downy. 

7. G. Robertidnum, Leaves 3-nate or 5-nate ; leafl. pinnatifid, segments mu- 
A, 6-7. (R.) 20. cronate, hairy ; caps, downy, wrinkled ; seeds smooth. — 

Thickets. 



Impatieiis.] Afopetalous Htpootnous Exooens. [Balsaminese. 77 

^ futrpdrtMrn, capeok glabrous ; leaves in less broad segments. 

8. G. rf^wndifiUMm, LofiTes roundish or renifbrm, cut, downy ; caps, not 
A, 6, 7. (r P.) 8. wrinkled ; seeds reticulated. — ^Waste places. 

t P^ notdied. 

X Fed. opposite a single leaf. 

9. 6. pusUlum, Stam. 6 ; leaves rounded or reniform, with 5-7 deep, 3-itid 
A, 6, 9. (P.) 18. lobes ; caps, even, keeled, downy ; seeds smooth — 

. Waste ground. 
^ humile. leaves more finely cut. 

10. G. mSUe, Stam. 10 ; leaves rounded or reniform, in 7>9 deep, cu- 
^.4-8. (P.) 20. neate, 3-fid segments; caps, wrinkled ; seeds smooth. — 

Pttssim, 
X Ped. with 2 deeply divided leaves at base ; seeds dotted. 

11. G. di89ectum, Ped. shorter than the 5-partite leaves, the lobes linear, 
A, 6, 7. (*-B.) 20. 3-fid, or cut ; pet notched ; capsules hairy. — Gravelly 

places. 

12. G. eolumhinum, Ped. longer than leaves, which are in 5-7, deep, laciniated 
A, 6, 7. ( — B.) 15. segments ; pet. entire ; caps, glabrous. — Gravelly soiL 

2. Ebodium. VHent, Stork's-bilL 

Sep. 5. Pet. 5. Stam. 10, 5 bearing anth., with glands at base, and 5 without 
Pericarp, each with a long, ultimately spirally twisted, internally bearded awn. 

1. E. maritimum. Leaves undivided, ovate-cordate, lobed, crenate ; ped. 1 oi 
P. 5-9. ( — R.) 6. 2-fl'd ; stem depressed, slightly hairy. — Sandy coasts. 

2. E. cicut&rium. Leaves pinnate, leafl. sessile, pinnatifid, cut ; ped. many- 
A, 6-8. ( — P.) 20. fl'd ; stem prostrate, hairy. — ^Waste ground. 

3. E. moschdtum. Leaves pinnate ; leafl. ovate, nearly s^sile, not pinnatifid, 
A. 5, 6. ( — ^R.) 6. unequally cut ; stem depressed, hairy. — Waste places. 

Order XXXII BALSAMINKfi. 

Soocolent herbs possessed of no remarkable qualities, having simple, exstipulate 
leaves. Sep. 5, irregular, imbricate, deciduous; the lateral ones external, the 2 
dorsal ones connate coloured, the lower spurred. Pet. 4, by the abortion of the 
upper one, irregular^ united in lateral pairs, astivtition convolute, Stam. 5, free^ 
hypogynoug, opposite the sep. Ov. of 5 combined carpels, 5-ceIled ; stigma sessile. 
Cape. 5-celled, by the projecting arms of the axUe placenta^ op^iing with remark- 
able elasticity by 5-valves. Seeds many, or sofitary, suspended; aib. 0; embr. 
strai^^t ; rad. superior. 

1. Impa'tiexs. L. Balsam. 

The 2 lateral external sep. deciduous. Pet. very irregular. Anth. united. Caps, 
i^iening with elasticity. 

1. L noH-me-tangere.* Ped. solitary many-fl'd ; leaves ovate, with coarse serra- 
A, 7-9. (Y. & R.) 3. tnres without glands ; spur entire. — Damp woods. 
2. Lfulva.* Ped. solitary, about 4-fl'd; leaves ovate, with coarse, 

A, 8. (+T. & B.) E.-1. glandular serratures ; spur, emarginate. — ^Banks of Wey^ 

Surrey. 

H 2 



78 Lineae.] Apopetalous Hypogynous Exooens. [Linum. 



Order XXXIII OXALIDILE. 

Mostly herbs, under shrubs or trees, with alternate ezstipulate leaves, abounding 
in oxalic add. Sep. 5, imbricate. Pef. 5, equal, with a spirally twisted (Estivation, 
Stam. 10, hypopynous, 6 outer ones shorter than the inner, the fil. combined at base. 
Ov. of 6 carpels ; styles distinct. Caps. 6 or 10-valved. Seeds few, fixed to the 
axile placenta J and enclosed in a fleshy, elastic integument (arillus), which, when 
opening,' expels the seed with force. Embr. as long as the cartilaginous alh,^ the 
rad. towards the hilum. 

1. CxALis. L. Wood-sorrel. 

Sep. 5, connected below. Pet. 5, slightly cohering by the claws. Caps. 5, angular, 
2 or many-seeded. 

1. O. Acetosella. Stem ; acspe 1-fl'd, longer than the temate, hairy, ex- 
P. 6. (W.) 20. stipulate leaves. — Shady woods. 

2. O. Comiculata, Stem branched, branches procumbent ; ped. 2-fl*d, shorter 
A, (>-9. (Y.) E.-3. than the temate, stipuled leaves. — Devon. Cornwall. 



Order XXXIV.— LINRffl. 

Mostly heibs, some possessing purgative qualities. Leaves simple, entire, exstipu- 
late. Sep' 3-5, pennstent, imbricate. Pet. as many as sep., twisted in cestivation^ 
fiigaceous. Stam, as many as pet,, united below in an hypogynous ring, from 
wldch arise as many abortive stam. 6v. with as many cells and styles as sep. Caps, 
having each cell completely or partially divided by an imperfect dissepiment, arising 
from the dorsal suture opening by 2 valves at apex ; seeds oily and mucilaginous, 
.2 in each spurious cell compressed, inverted ; alb, ; embr. straight, the rad. 
superior, pointing to hilum. 

Sep., pet, wad lUm. 5. . .1. Linum. 

Sep., pet., and lUm. 4. ...... 2. Radiola. 

1. L^NUM. L, Flax. 

Sep., pet, and stam. 5. Caps, spuriously 10-celled, 10-valved. 

Leaves alternate. 

f Sep. acuminate, 3-nerved, 

1. L Usitatissimum* ovate; stem solitary ; leaves lanceolate, distant. — In cul- 
A, 7. (B.) 10. tivated fields. 

2. L. angusHfSlium, Sep. elliptical ; stems numerous ; leaves linear-lanceolate. — 
P. 7. ( — ^B.) 3. Sandy and chalky pastures. 

f Sep. obtuse, obovate, obscurely 5-ribbed. 

3. L. perenne. Leaves finear-lanoeolate, acute ; stems numerous ; fruit- 
P. 6, 7. (B.) 5. stalks erect— Chalky hills. 

* Leaves opposite, 

4. L. cath&rticum. obovate-lanceolate ; sep. elliptical, acuminate, serrated ; 
A. 6, 7. (W.) 20. pet acute ; stem forked above. — Dry pastures. 



Dianthtu.] Apopitalous Htpogtnous Ezogens. [Caryophjlles. 7i> 

2. Radi'oia. GtntL Flax-weed. 

Sep. 4, comiected below, deeply 8-fid. Pet and stam. 4. Caps, spurioiuly H-odleil, 
8-yalyed. 

K. mUUffr6ma, Stem frequently dichotomouH ; perl. ^tWiary : leavee entire, 

A. 7, 8. (W.) 13. glabrous. — Damp places. 



Order XXXV CAKYOPHYLLEiE. 



Herbs possessing no important qoalities. Stems swollen at joints. Leuvea op- 
potitei entire, without ttip, I*Ts very rarely diclinous. Sep. 4 or 5, distinct, or united. 
Pet 4 or 5, mostly with daws, sometimes 0. Stam, once or twice as many an pet., 
or on an kypogjftumM ring, and inserted along witli them on the pedicel of ov. ; 
anth. Innate, opening longitudinally. Ov, borne by a pcdlcr;!, Tgynopliore). of2-'> 
earpeUj 1 or Bpurunuly more-celled ; stigmas 2-5, sessile, filiform, papiliose on inner 
surface. Capt. 2* 5-valved, or toothed, with a central placenta which i* free, or 
slightly adherent to edges of dissepiments. Seeds mostly indefinite ; embr. curvefl 
ronnd the outside of a mealy alb. ; sometimes straight, rarely siaral. witliout alb. : rad. 
pointing to hilum. 



8ep. united Into ft tube, 
t iStignusa. 

CftL with a few imbricAtcd bncU Bt iu hMe, orattlie) 
Iwieof pedicelf. . . . . ) 

CaL naked Bt but. ..... 

t • MguuM 3. 

(kpt. flcthy, I-celled. ..... 

OBpt. dry, aucelled at bast. .... 

y 1 BtlsBias o. • 
Rep. dittlnet. 
t Stjlea 3 or 3. Pet. 4 or 5. 

t 1 Vet bifld. Stam. 10. ... 

X ' Pet entire, or ilightly emarglnate, or 0. Stam. 8-10 
Pet. con^>iciionf. .... 

Fiet. rery minute. .... 

t * Pet. jacfed or toothed at end. Stam. 3, 4, or 5 
t St7lci4or5. 

Pet bifld or notched, 4 or 6. 
Pet entire or 0. 

fHam. 4. Pet. shorter than lep. or 0. . 
8tam. 5-10. Pet longer than lep. 



1. In AVTHVH. 

2. HAPO.«ilKIA. 

3. Cl'CL'BALCM. 

4. HlLB.<VE. 

5. LYf;H?ii». 

0. Stki.laria. 

7. AREJTAkM. 

8. CliKBLKBlA. 

9. IIOLOkTKUM. 

10. CKBAkTlCM. 

11. KA(iI.<VA. 

12. 8i>EKOKLf.A. 



Tr. I. SILENID^. Sep, united into a tube. 



1. DiA'NTiius. L. Phik. 

CaL 5-toothed, with 2 or 4 imbricated, opiXMite bractH at liaiic. Pet 5, clawed. 
Stam. 10. Styles 2. Caps. 1 -celled, many-seerlcd, opening at top with 4 valves. 
Seeds peltate, keeled. 

* Bracts enclosing several fl^s, (except I /S.) 

1. D. prolifer. Stem glabrous ; bracts membranous, ovate, obtuse, bovkAU, 

A, 7. (R) E.-1. longer than cal., the outer ones shorter, mucronate. — 

Sandy places. 
/}. diminutus. dwarfish, 1-flM. 



80 CaryopbjlleiB.] Apopbtalous Htpootnous Exogens. [Silene. 

2. D. Armeria, Stem downy ; bracts herbaceous, lanceolate-sabolate, 
A, 7, 8. (R. .*. W.) R S.-8. downy, as long as cal. — Pastures ; waste places. 

* Bracts enclosing a single fl. only. Leaves linear, or linear -lanceolate. 

t Bracts 2, (except 3 /S,) ludf the length of tube of caL, ovate-aristate. 

3. D. deUotdes. Lower leaves obtuse, rough on keel and edges ; stem leaves 
P. 6-9. (B.* W.) E.-9. acute, and as well as stem, downy ; pet obovate, toothed. 

— Pastures. 
fL alauca. bracts usually 4 ; leaves glaucous ; fl. nearly white, 

f Bracts more than 2, quarter the length of tube of caL 

4. D. cafsiua. Stem 1-fl'd ; bracts adpressed, ovate, obtuse, pointleted ; 
P. 6, 7. (B.) E.-1. leaves rough at edge ; pet unequally notched, bearded. — 

Cheddar. 
6. D. caryophyUug* Stem more than l-fl*d ; pet crenate-dentate, ovate, gla- 

P. 7, 8. ( — R.) K-2. brous ; leaves smooth at edges. — Ruins, Kent. 
6. D. phtmarius. Stem more than 1-fl'd ; pet mnltifidly digitate, downy in 

P. 6. ( — B. V, W.) £.-1. centre ; leaves with rough edges. — Buins, Shropshiie. 

2. Sapona'bia. L, Soap-wort 

CaL 5-toothed, without bracts at base. Claws of pet as long as cal Seeds glo- 
bular or reniform. In other respects as Diantkus, 

1. S. offidn&lU.* CaL cylindrical, glabrous; leaves ovate-lanceolate, ribbed; 

P. 6-9. ( — B.) 13. fl's fascicled, corymbose. — Hedge banks. 
^ h^brida, pet cohering ; upper leaves combined, sheathing. 

8. Cuci/balus. L, 

CaL naked at base. Styles 3. Fruit a 1-celled, globose berry. Seeds reniform. 
In other respects as Dianthus, 

1. C. baccifmu* Stem spreading, branched ; leaves ovate, acute ; caL cam- 
P. 8. (W.) £.-1. panulate ; pet distant — Isle of Dogs, near London. 

4. SujsfKE, L, Catch-fly. 

CaL tubular, often inflated, 5-toothed, naked at base. Pet dawed, mostly crowned 
at the mouth, the limb generally notched or bifid. Stam. 10. Styles 3. Caps, 
dry, 3-celled at base, 6-valved. 

* Flowers dioecious. Stem nearly simple. Panicle of opposite many-fl*d ra- 

CoihbB. 

1. S. Oiites, Pet linear, undivided, without scales in throat; leaves 

p. 6. ( — ^Y.) E.-2. spathulate, those of stem linear. — Sand fields. 
^^ See also 9 S., which is often dioecious. 

* Flowers perfect 

f CaL bladdery, inflated, reticulated, with acute teeth. 

2. S. infldta, ¥Va drooping, numerous, in terminal panicles ; pet deeply 
P. 6 8. (W.) 20. cloven, segments narrow, without a scale in throat 

Way-sides. 
/3. hirsuta, stem and leaves haiiy ; caL downy. 

3. S. nuarttima, Fl's erect, mostly soUtary, or in few-fl'd, terminal panicles ; 
P. 6-8. (W.) 18. pet slightly doren, with a scale in throat — Sea-shwe. 



Lychnis.] Apopetalous Htpootnous Exooens. [Caryopbjlless. 81 

t CaL not bladdery, swollen, or tabular, 

X pubescent Stem elongated. Pet with a deft scale in throat 
§ Fl's m leafy racemes, alternate. Plant haiiy, visdd. 

4. S. A'ngliea, Pet slightly bifid ; cal. cylindrical in fl., ovate and de> 
A, 6, 7. (W.) 11. flexed in fruit Sandy fields. 

^. quinqueMnera* pet. entire, spotted with red ; caL erect 
§ FL in panicles. 

II l^em branching, forked. Fl*s in the forks, or terminal. 

5. S. c^mco. CaL with 80 furrows, conical, umbilicate at base ; pet ob- 
A. 5-7. (p. R.) K-1. cordate ; leaves linear, downy. — Sand fields, Kent, near 

Bury. 

6. S. nocHflora, CaL with 10, branching, hairy, glandular ribs, elliptic-ob- 
A, 7, 8. (W.) 6. long ; pet deeply bifid ; leaves lanceolate, the lower 

obovate. — Sand fields. 
II Stem not branching, but bearing an elongated, 1-sided 

7. S. n^oMs, panicle, with drooling, trichotomous, d-7-fl'd, opposite 
P. 6, 7. (W.)E. S.^ branches^ caL swollen; pet. bifid, witii linear seg- 
ments. — Chalky places. 

X Cal. glabrous. 

8. S. Armiria.* Stem elongated, bearing a crowded coiymb of fl's ; pet. 
A, 7, 8. (B.) E. I.-2. notched, with subulate scales in throat ; caL clavate ; 

leaves ovate-lanceolate. — ^Banks of the Roe, Deny. Near 
Eilrush. 

9. S. aeavHa, Stem short, tufted, l-fl*d ; pet emarginate, with a notched 
P. 7, 8. (+R.) 2. scale in throat ; leaves linear ; cal. campanulate. — 

Mountain. 

6. Lt'ohnis. L. Campion. 

Often dioecious. Cal. tubular, 6-toothed. Pet. 5, clawed. Stam. 10. Styles 5. 
Caps. 1-or half-5-celled, 5 or 10 toothed. 

* FL dioecious, (except in 1 y.) 

1. L. diOma. Tlllous ; pet. bifid ; leaves ovate, acute ; caL-teeth of the 
P. 5, 6. (R.) 19. fertile fl's triangular; caps. globose. — Hedge banks. 

^. tylvestrU, fl*s white. 

y, vespertina, fl's often perfect reddish-white; caL-teeth linear-lanceo- 

late. 

• Flowers perfect 

f Stemvillose. 

2. L. Flos'cuculu Pet. deeply 4-cleft, with a scale in throat ; caL-teeth, 
P. 5, 6. (R.) 20. short ; fl's loosely panided ; stem visdd. — Damp fields. 

3. L. Gith&go. Pet entire, without a scale ; caL-teeth longer than its tube 
A, 6-8. (P.) 20. or the pet ; fi. solitary, long-stalked. — Com-fidds. 

f Stem glabrous, 

4. L. Visc&ria, visdd bdow joints ; pet emarginate, with a scale in throat ; 
P. 6. (R.) £. S.-2. leaves lanceolate, fringed at base. — Rocks. 

5. L. aipina. Stem not visdd ; pet. doven, scale in throat obsol^ ; 
P. 6, 7. (R.) S.-1. leaves linear-lanceolate, naked at base. — Topof Clova 

Mountains. 



82 CaryophjUe®.] Apopetalods Htpogtnous Exogens. [Arenaria« 

Tr. n. ALSINJD^, Sep, distinct 

6. Stella'bia. L. Stitch-wort 

Sep. 5. Pet 5| bifid, or deeply doyen. Stam. 10. Styles 3. Caps. G-yalved or 
toothed. 

* Stem with a hairy line, alternately between each joint 

1. S. eerasiioides^ Pet twice as long as sep., which are downy beneath ; 
P. 6. (W.) S.-1. leaves sessile, elliptic-oblong, blontish, smooth ; styles 

and teeth of capsule variable in nmnber. — Highland 
mountains. 

2. S. media. Pet not longer than sep. ; leaves usually ovate, acuminate, 
^.4-11. (W.) 20. stalked, upper sessile; stam. 3-10. — Passim. 

fi, DrummSndii, pet absent ! 

* Stem without an alternate luury hue. 

t Ped. much longer than the stem. 
8. S. seapigera. Leaves linear-lanceolate, with pubescent margins ; sep. 

P. 6. (W.) S.-1. fringed, S-nerved, as long as pet — Loch Nevis, near 

Dui^eld. 
t Ped. shorter than the stem. 

X Stem downy above (S. 4), or with 4 rough angles (S. 5). 

4. S. nemorum. Lower leaves cordate, stalked, upper ovate, sessile, entire ; 
P. 5, 6. (W.) E. S.-8. panicle forked ; ped. alternately pubescent — Damp 

woods. 

5. S. HoiSttea, Leaves lanceolate-attenuated, acute, sessile, with a finely 
P. 5. (W.) 20. serrated marghi and keel ; panicle forked, ped. gla- 
brous. — Hedges. 

X Stem smooth, quadrangular. Leaves sessile, entire. 

§ Pet nearly as long as, or longer than the B-nerved sep. ; leaves 
linear-lanceolate. 

6. S. gramtnea, FL in a forked panicle ; leaves ciliated below, not glaucotns ; 
P. 6. (W.) 20. bracts scarious, with ciliated margins. — Heaths. 

/3. Bahingt6nii. leaves linear, with a lanceolate point, not ciliated below. 

7. S. glaCkca, Fl. solitary, or in a few-fl'd corymb ; leaves not ciliated, 
P. 6, 7. (W.) 15. glaucous ; bracts with scarious and glabrous margins. — 

Marshes. 
§ Pet shorter than the lanceolate 3-nerved sep. ; leaves oblong- 

8. S. uliginSsa, lanceolate, acute, with a callous point, slightly ciliated be- 
A, 6. (W.) 20. low ; fl's lat^nl and terminal, panided ; bracts scarious, 

with smooth margins. — Wet places. 

7. Arena'bia. L, Sandwort 

Sep. 5. Pet. £, entire. Stam. 8-10. Caps. 8, 4, or 6-valved. Leaves toithout 
sHp 

* Leaves broad, dliptical, ovate, or spathulate. 

f Pet longer than sep. 

X Leaves fleshy, and with the stem glabrous. 
1. A. peploides. Leaves ovate, sessile, acute ; sep. ovate, obtuse, 1-ribbed, 

P. 9-9. (W.) 11. shorter than pet ; fl. sometimes dioedons. — Sea-shores. 



Ceraftiiun.] Apopbtalous Hyfogynous Exogens. [CarjophjlleaB. 83 

2. A. NovegUa. Leaves spatbulate; sep. ovate, acute, with 3-5 obscure 

P. 6. (W.) S.-1. ribs, half as long as pet — Uost, Shetland. 
X Leaves not fleshy, ciliated, roughish. Stem downy. 
8. A. eUiita, Leaves spatbnlate ; stem much branched, procumbent ; 

P. 8, 9. (W.) I.-1. sep. ^ as long an pet., lanceolate, acute, prominently 

3-ribbed. — Beu-bulben, SHgo. 
t Pet. shorter than sep. ; ped. long, 1-fl'd ; leaves ovate, acute, 

4. A. trinervU, the lower petiokte, 3-nerved, ciliated ; sep. lanceolate, 
A, b. (W.) 19. acute, obscurely 3-5-ribbed, rough on the middle one 

Shady moist places. 

5. A. SerpiflKf6lia. Leaves all sessile, nerveless, roughish ; sep. lanceolate, 
A. 6. (W.) 20. acute, hairy, the outer ones 5-ribbed. — Dry waste 

places. 

* Leaves narrow, linear or subulate. 

t Sep. not longer than pet. 

6. A vima. Leaves acute, when dry 3-nerved ; pet. obovate, as long as 
P. 5-9. (W.) 5. the capsule and tlie lanceolate 3-nerved sep. — Mountain 

rocks. 
^. Ger&rdL leaves bluntish, adpressed ; pet. elliptical 

t Sep. longer than pet. 

7. A. rubella. Stems nearly simple, numerous ; pcd. terminal, downy, 
P. 7. (W.) S.-1. 1-fl'd; leaves linear, obtuse, 3-ribbed; sep. 3-ribbed. — 

Tops of mountains. 

8. A. tenuifolia. Stems much branclied, dichotomous, paniclcd above; leaves 
A. 6. (W.) E.-8. subulate, acute, 3-ribbed ; sep. 3-ribbed — Sandy fields. 

9. A. fastigiata. Stems erect, straight, densely corj^mbose ; sep. white, much 
A. 6. (W.) S.-l. acuminate, with 2 central, green ribs. — Mountains, 

Clova. 

8. Cheble'kia. X. CyphcL 

Sep. 5. Pet 5, very minute, notched, or 0. Stam. 10, with glands at base. Styles 
3. Caps. 3-valved. 

C. tedaidet. Stems numerous, matted, close to the ground; leave 

P. 6-8. (y. G.) S.-1. crowded, linear-subulate, finely ciliated ; fl. solitary — 

Mountain tops. 

9. HoixysTEUM. L, Jagged Chickweed. 

Sep. 5. Pet 5, jagged at end. Stam. 5, 3 or 4. Styles 3. Caps, nearly cylin 
drical, opening with 6 teeth. 

1. H. umheU&tum. Fl*s umbellate; ped. pubescent, viscid; leaves elliptic- 

A. 4. (r. W.) E.-1. ovate, acute. — Old walls. 

10. Cera'sticm. L. Mouse-ear-chickweed. 

Sep. 4-5. Pet 4 or 5, bifid or notched. Stam. 10, 5 or 4. Caps, opening with 
10 teeth, rarely with 5 bifid valves. 

* Pet longer than sep. 

t Leaves from ovate to lanceolate. 
1. C. aqufiticum. Leaves cordate-ovate, acuminate, sessile, the lowest stalked ; 

P. 7. (W.; 13. pet bi-partite.— Wet places. 



84 Caryophylleae.] Apopetalous Hypogynous Exogens. [Sagina. 

2. C. alpinum. Leaves from ovate to lanceolate, as well as the ascending 
P. 6. (W.) E. S.-1. stem, with a long, silky pubescence ; fl's few ; bracts often 

with narrow, membranous margins ; caps, curved at end ; 
seed small, acutely tuberculated. — Mountains. 

3. C. latifolium. Leaves elliptical or lanceolate; stem prostrate, caespitose; 
P. 6. (W.) E. S.-l. pubescence short, rigid ; fl's 1, rarely 2 or 3 ; bracts 

herbaceous; caps, strtught; seed large, rugose. — Moun- 
tains. 
fi. nigr^scens, leaves roundish-ovate, dark green ; fl's as long asped. ; 

stem short, densely leafy. — Unst, Shetland, 
t Leaves narrow. 

4. C. arvense. Stem ascending, prostrate below ; leaves linear- lanceolate, 
P. 4-8. (Y.) 13. more or less pubescent, especially at base ; sep. and 

bracts lanceolate, slightly acute, with membranous mar- 
gins and apices. — Gravelly places. 
/3. ttrictum. stem declinate, with sub-linear, acuminate, glabrous, or 

sub-hirsute leaves. — Great Arran Isle, Gal way. 
* Pet shorter than or equal to sep. 

t Stam 10 ; pet about as long as caL 

5. C. glomeratum. Sep. lanceolate, acute, longer than ped. ; leaves ovate ; 
A, 4-9. (W.) 20. sep. lanceolate, acute ; bracts herbaceous ; caps, ascend- 
ing, with subulate teeth. — Banks. 

6. C. trividle. Sep. oblong-ovate, bluntish, shorter than ped. ; leaves ob- 
P. 6-9. (W.) 20. long-lanceolate ; bracts with membranous margins ; caps. 

deflexed, with lanceolate teeth. — Waste places. 
)3. hvlostioides, glabrous ; intemodes of stem alternately pubescent, 

t Stam. 6 or 4. 

7. C. aemidecandrum. Leaves broadly ovate; sep. lanceolate, broadly membra- 
A. 4, 5. (W.) 18. nous at margins and apices ; bracts membranous in their 

upper half; caps, erect, longer than cal., at first deflexed, 
at length erect. — Dry places. 

/3. pumilum. bracts and sep. with a narrow, membranous margin ; fruit- 

stalks scarcely longer than caL, reflexed. 

y. pedunculdtum. bracts and sep. as last ; fruit-stalks 2 or 3 times longer 

than caL 

}, atrovirens. sep. with a narrow, membranous margin ; bracts herba- 

ceous ; fruit-stalks as /3. 

f. tetrandrum. pet, Sep., stam., and styles 4 ; fruit- stalks reflexed ; apex 

of sep. with a central line. 



11. Sagi'na. X. Pearl-wort. 

Sep. 4. Pet. 4, rarely 6, shorter than sep., entire. Styles and stam. 4. Caps. 
4-valved, or 8-toothed. 

• Pet. shorter than caL ; caps, opening with 4 teeth, longer than cal. 
1. S. procumbens. Glabrous ; stem very short, with elongated branches ; 

A. 6-9. (W.) 20. leaves linear, mucronate ; pet sometimes ; ped. re- 
flexed after flowering. — Waste ground. 
/3. sptnSsa, leaves minutely spinosely ciliated on edge. 



lUecdbmm.] Afofbtalous Htpogtnous Exogeks. [Illeoebreae. 85 

2. 8.apStala, Stem glabrous, erect, or ascending, elongated, forked; 

A, 5'9. (6.) 16. leaves ciliated, linear, mncronate ; pet minute ; ped. 

always erect — Dry places. 
fi, gUhra, leaves glabrous. 

y, lafvit. plant idtogetber smooth. 

I. prottr6ta. plant deep green, very hairy, prostrate ; leaves short 

8. S. maritima. Stem slightly hairy, elongated, forked, with ascending 

A, 5-9. (6.) 7. branches ; leaves fleshy, blunt, glabrous ; pet ; ped. 

always erect — Sea-shore. 

* Pet as long as, or longer than caL ; caps, opening with 8 teeth. 

4. S. erecta. Stem 2 -fl'd, glabrous ; leaves linear-lanceolate, rigid, acnte, 

A. 5, 6. ( — G.) 7. glaucous ; lep. with broad, membranous margins. — Dry 

places. 

12. Sfeboe'lla. Spurrey. 

Pet 5, longer than caL, entire. Sep. and styles 5. StauL 5-10. Caps. 5-valved, 
many-seeded. SHp, 0. 

1. S. nodSga. Pet. much longer than caL ; leaves subulate, glabrous, the 
F. 7, 8. (W.) 18. upper ones fasciculate, lower sheathing; ped. always 

erect. — Wet, sandy places. 

2. S. toffinoidet. Pet shorter than cal., which is only half the length of 
P. 6-8. (W.) 8 ? caps. ; leaves linear, mucronate, smooth ; ped. and caL 

glandular-hairy. — Mountains. 
fi. gubul&ta, leaves subulate, often dUated, awned ; stem, ped., and caL, 

glabrous. 

Order XXXVL— ILLECEBREiE. 

Herha or half-shrubs with sessile, entire leaves, and scarious stip. Fl's with 
scarioos bracts. Sep. 5, seldom 3 or 4, distinct or cohering. Pet small, inserted on 
fftir, as many as sep. or 0. Stam. variable in number ; fiL distinct. Ov. 1 -celled ; styles 
distinct, or partially combined. Fruit small, dry, 1 -celled, rarely d-celled, indebiscent, 
or S'Valved. Seeds numerous, on a free, central placenta, or 1 and pendulous from 
A ftmicle arising from base of caps. Emhr. more or less curved round, or on one side 
€/[ afarinaeeous alb, ; rad. pointing to hilum. 

* ^ StigniM 2. Seed ilngle. 

eefi. honied at back. Cft|w. S-rtlred. .1. Illrcbbrum. 

Sep. not horned at back. Cftpt. indehiioent . • .2. Herhiabia. 

* tStigmMS. 

Fralt l-ieeded. ...... 3. Corbioiola. 

Fruit nuny-Keded. Stam. 3-5. Fet. emarglnBte. . • 4. Polycabpoit. 

Fmit many-ieeded. Stam. 10. Pet. entire. . . .6. Speroulabia. 

* * aUiniM 4. Pet. entire. ...... 6. SpsaeuLA. 

1. Illece'brum. L, Knot-grass. 

Sep. 5, thickened, homed at the back. Pet 0, or reduced to 5 subulate scales. 
Stigmas 2. Caps. 1 -seeded, covered by the caL 

L verticiUdtumJ' Stem procumbent, filiform, glabrous ; leaves broadly ovate ; 

A. 6, 7. (W.) K-1. fl's axUlary, in crowded whorls. — Marshes. 



86 Portolee.] Apofetalous Htpogtkous Exogbns. [Spergula. 

2. Herioa'bia. L, Raptare-wort. 

Cal. deeply 5-cleffc. Pet 5, filiform. Stam. 5 fertile, and 5 sterile; inserted on a 
perigynous disk. Stigmas 2, nearly sessile. Fruit 1 -seeded, indebiscent. 

1. H. glabra. Stem herbaceous, prostrate ; leaves oval, a little tapering 

P* 7. ( — G.) £. L-2. at base; fl's sessile, in axillary clusters, coalescing into 

a slightly leafy spike. — South-western coasts. 
/3. subcilidta. leaves more or less ciliated. 

y. dlidta, clusters distinct, not coalescing into a spike ; leaves orbi- 

cular-ovate, ciliated. 

3. CoRRioi'oLA. L, Strap-wort. 

Cal. deeply 5-cleft Pet. 5, as long as sep. Stam. 5. Stigmas 3, sessile. Fruit 
1 -seeded, indehiscent 

1. C. littoralis. Stems numerous, leafy on that part which bears the fl*s ; 

A, 6, 7. (W.) E.-1. leaves of stem oblong, narrow. — South-west coast 

4. Polyca'epon. L, All-seed. 

Sep. 5. Pet 5, emarginate. Stam. 3-5. Styles 3. Caps. 1-celled, 3-valved, 
many-seeded. 

1. P. tetraphyUum. Stam. 3 ; stem-leaves in whorls of 4, those of the branches 
A. 6-8. ( — G.) E.-4. opposite Sea-coasts. 

6. Spebgula'ria. Pers. 

Sep. 5. Pet 5, entire. Stam. 10. Styles 3. Caps. 3-valved, many-seeded. 

1. S. rubra. Leaves flat on both sides, linear, tipped with a minute 

-r4. 6-9. (P.) 13. bristle ; Sep. lanceolate, obtuse, obscurely 3-nerved, equal- 

ing the caps. ; seeds angular, rough, wingless. — Sandy 
fields. 
1. S. marina. Leaves convex below, fleshy, linear, pointless ; sep. as 

A. 6-8. (P.) 12. last, but shorter than capsule ; seeds nearly round and 

smooth, winged. — Sea-coast 
/3. obesior. caps, mudi larger than caL 

6. Spe'rgula. L, Spurrey. 

Sep. 5. Pet 5. Stam. 5-10. Styles 5. Caps. 5-celled, 5-valved, many-seeded. 

1. S. arvensis. Leaves whorled, linear, convex above, flat beneath, mi- 

A. 6, 7. (W.) 20. nutely stipuled at base; fruit-stalks reflexed. — Corn- 
fields. 
jS. tmlg&rta, seeds covered with clavate papillae. 

y. pentandra, stam. usually 5 ; seed bordeied. 

Obdeb XXXVII PORTULRffi. 

Succulent herbs or shrubs possessing no remarkable properties. Leaves alternate 
entire, exstipulate. Sep. 2, cohering at base. Pet. 5, distinct or cohering. Stam. 



Poljgomun.] Afopbtalous Htfogtmous Exogens. [Polygoneas. 87 

imerto d on tlie pet, perigynoos or hypogynons, 3 or more, often opposite pet Ov. 
l-oefled; stigmas seVenl, almost sessile. Capsule opening across, or by valves, 
manjr-seeded, or l-aeeded and indehiscent Placenta central, Embr, curved round 
aforimacwmt aib. ; rad. long, next hibmu 

1. Mc/iiTiA. L, Blinks. 

Sep. 2, penistent Pet 5, nneqnaL Stam. 3, opposite the smaller pet Stigmas 
8, downy. Cspe, l-oeUed, 4-valyed, 3 -seeded. 

1. ILfomiaiuu Stem ascending; leaves opposite, spatholate, entire; ped. 

A. 6^. (W.) 20. often forked, nearly terminal. — Spongy, wet places. 
fk, wt^r. , stem ekmgated, flaccid &om growing in water. 

Ordeb XXXVm.— POLTGONEiE. 

Mostly beilM, with leaves containing oxalic add, and their roots possessing astrin- 
gent p roperties. Leaves alternate, with stip. cohering romid the stem in the form of an 
odma or boot FL racemose, sometimes diclinous. CaL free, often coloured, deeply 
deft. Pet. 0. Stam. definite, inserted on base of caL Ov. ofS-carpeh^ 1-celled, with 
2, 3, or more styles or sessile stigmas. Fruit usually a triangular nut. Seed 1, erect ; 
eimbr, inverted, mostly on one side, or in axis of a farinaceous alb. 

CaL G^eleft, eokmred. Stylef 2-3. .1. Polyookum. 

8ww€b 8^ki3. ....... 2. BVMBX. 

GUL 4-parted. Stiguuw 2. ..... 3. Oxtria. 

1. Polygonum. L. Bistort Peracaria. Knot-grass. 

CaL inferior in 5, deep, coloured, persistent segments. Stam. 5-8. Styles 2-3. Fruit 
a 1-seeded, trigonous, or compressed nut 

* Styles and stigmas 3. Fruit triquetrous. Ochres cyllndricaL 
f Leaves cordate-sagittate at base. 
X Stem twining, 

1. P. convolvulus. angular; s^ments of caL bluntly keeled; fruit opaque, 
A. 7, 8, ( — G.) 20. striated with minute points. — Corn-fields. 

/3. alatum. segments of caL winged. 

2. P. dumetorum. Stem striated; segments of caL with a membranous wing ; 
A. 7. ( — G.) E.-1. fruit quite smooth and shining on surface. — Thickets. 

X Stem erect, 

3. P. Fayop^rum.* not prickly ; leaves acute ; fruit with the angles even. — 
A. 7, 8. (— R.) E S.-? Cultivated ground. 

f Leaves with a rounded or lanceolate base. 

X Stem snnple ; ochres cylindrical ; fl*s spicate ; root rhizomatous. 

4. P. viviparuM. Spike solitary, dense, with viviparous buds ; leaves linear- 
P, 6, 7. ( — B.) 4. lanceolate, the lower elliptical, with revolute margins, 

and winged petioles. — Mountain fields. 

5. P. BistSrta, Spike racemose, solitary, dense, without viviparous buds ; 
P. 6. ( — ^R.) 17. leaves ovate, waved, the lower ones tapering into a 

wingless petiole. — Moist meadows. 
X Stem branched, procumbent ; ochrese 2-lobed ; fl's 4, axillary ; root 
fibrous ; leaves elliptical lanceolate. 

6. P. aviculare. Ochres shorter than intemodes, about 6-ribbed ; stem her- 
^.5-9. ( — B.) 20. baceous; fruit shorter than caL, striated. — Waste 

places. 



88 PoljgoneflB.] Apopetalous Hitpogtnous E^ogbns. [Rumeit. 

7. P. Rdii. Ochres shorter than intemodes, with a few mdistinct ribs; 
A. 8, 9. (' — B.) 6. ? stem herbaceous ; fruit longer than caL, nnooth, shin- 
ing. — Shores. 

8. P. maritimum. Ochres as long as intemodes, with about 12 branched 
j4. 8, 9. ( — B.) K L-2. ribs ; stem woody below ; fruit longer than caL, smooth, 

shining ; leaves fleshy, glaucous. — Christ-church Head. 
Killiney Bay. 
Stigmas 2 ; fruit compressed, 2-edged ; ochres cylindricaL 

f Stam. 6 ; spike dense, solitary, oblong-ovate ; styles 2, united in the lower 
half. 

9. P. amphibium. Leaves stalked, ovate-lanceolate, or oblong, rough at the 
P. 7, 8. (B.) 20. margins, smooth on the surface. — Ponds. 

fi. terrestre. leaves narrow, lanceolate, hispid on both sides, 

t Stam. 6. 

X Spikes drooping, interrupted, filiform ; styles ^-united ; stem erect. 

10. P. Hydropiper, Fl's glandular ; leaves lanceolate, waved ; ochres gla- 
A, 8, 9. (B.) 20. brous, with short cilis. — Wet places. 

11. Y, mite. Fl's without glands; leaves lanceolate, slightly wavy; 
A, 8. (B.) £.-? ochres hairy, with long dlis. — ^Wet places, Chelsea. 

Cambridge. 
% Spikes erect 

§ Styles combined in their whole length. 

12. P. mxwus. Spikes filiform, lax ; leaves Unear-lanceolate, plane, shortly 
A, 9. ( — B.) 1. stalked ; ochres with long cilis. — Wet commons. 

§ Styles distinct, or half united. 
18. P. lapathifolium. Styles distinct ; ochres not fringed ; leaves ovate-lanceo- 
A. 7, 8. (r — G.) 20. late, shortly stalked, not spotted ; ped. and caL glandu- 
lar-scabrous. — Fields. 
/3. nodosum, stem with tumid joints ; spikes in pairs. 

14. P. Persicdria, Styles half-united; ochres strongly fringed; leaves lan- 

A, 8. ( — B.) 20. ceolate, plane, often with a dark spot; ped. and caL 

snK)oth. — Waste ground. 
/3. incdnum, leaves woolly beneath. 

7. Idxum. ped. and petioles glandular-scabrous. 

2. Bu'mez. L, Dock. SorreL 

Cal. 6-parted, the inner larger segments connivent. Stam. 6. Styles 3 ; stigmas 
mulUfid. Fruit triquetrous, covered by the enlarged, inner segments of caL, 
which often bear tubercles. 

* Flowers perfect Plants not add. 

f Margin of inner sep. toothed, mostly with an acute point 

X Leaves linear-lanceolate, each sep. with tubercles externally. 

1. B. maritimus, Sep. deltoid, with 2 (4, £'m.) long, bristly teeth at each 
P. 7, 8. (+Y.) 10. side ; whorb crowded, many-fl*d, leafy. — Marshes. ' 

2. B. palustris. Sep. ovate-oblong, with 3 setaceous teeth on each dde ; 
P. 7-9. (g.Y.) £.-5. whorls distant many-fi'd, leafy. — ^Marshes. 

X Leaves broad, obtuse ; one sep. only tuberculated. 

3. 'R.pulcher, Lower leaves fiddle-shaped; sep. ovate, deeply toothed, 
P. 8, 9. ( — G.) 10. point short, acute; whorls leafy. — Dry places. 

4. B. ohtusifolius. Lower leaves cordate-ovate ; sep. ovate, toothed below, 
P. 7-9. ( — G.) 20. with a long point ; whorls leafless. — Waste ground. 



Amanntliiii.] Apopbtalous Htpogtmous Exogens. [AmaranthesB. 89 

f Mngin of hmeraep. entire, or obscorely toothed, obtuse at apex. 
X ^ Toberdes on sep., which are broadly cordate and reticukted. 
5. IL aqmiHcms. Leaves lanceolate, the Iowot ones cordate-ovate, crisped, 

P. 7, 8. ( — G.) E. S.-1. wavy ; whorls mostly leafless. — Wet places, York, Ayr. 
X ' One sep. only with a tubercle, 
& IL cruptit. all cordate and equal; leaves lanceolate, acute, waved, 

P. 6-^ ( — G.) 20. crisped ; whorb crowded, leafless. — ^Way-sides. 

7. B. wamfftumems. Sep. oblong, obtuse ; leaves lanceolate, somewhat cordate, 
P. 7. ( — G.) S, with red ribs ; whoris distant, leafless. — ^Woody places. 

/S. vindis. 18. ribs of leaves green. 

X ' Eadi aep. with a tubercle. 

8. R. aeiitus. Lower leaves cordate at base, all oblong, acuminate ; inner 
P. 7. ( — G.) 15. sqi. linear-oblong, nearly entire; clusters leafy — Wet 

places. 

9. R. Hydrcl&pathMm, Leaves lanceolate, tapering into a petiole ; inner sep. ovate- 
P. 7, 8. ( — G.) 16. ddtdd, entire ; whorls crowded, mostly leafless. — River 

sides. 
/S. m&ximus, lower leaves with a cordate base. 

* Flowers diclinous ; inner sep. entire, or nearly so. 
f Monoecious ; juice not acid. 

10. R. alpinua* ' Inner sep. cordate, margin nearly entire, one only bearing 
P. 7. ( — G.) K S.-3. a small tubercle ; leaves broadly cordate, upper ovate. 

f Dioecious ; jmce acid.— SorreL 

11. R. aeet6s€u Outer sep. reflexed, inner roundish-cordate, minutely tu- 
P. 5, 6. ( — P.) 20. bercalated at base; leaves oblong-sagittate. — Meadows. 

12. R. Acetosetta. Outer sep. ascending, inner ovate, not tubercuUted ; leaves 
P. 7. ( — R.) 20. lanceolate-hastate or linear, lobes entire. — Meadows. 

8. Oxt'bia. HiU. Mountain-SorreL 

CaL 4-parted, 2 inner segments the larger. Stam. 6. Stigmas 2. Fruit compresse<l, 
with a broad membranous margin. 

0. remifirmia. Leaves radical, reniform, obtusely sinuated at apex ; pedi- 
P. 7, 8. (r. G.) 2. eels thickened upirards. — Mountains. 

Obder XXXIX.— AMARANTHEiE. 

Herbs or shrubs, having emollient qualities, with simple exstipulatc leaves. Fl's 
in heads and spikes, often diclinous. Sep, 3 or 5, persistent, scarious^ often coloured, 
distinct, or united at base, and often with dry coloured bracts. Stam. 5, or some 
multiple of that number, hypogynous ; fiL often monadclphous ; anth, often l-celled; 
ov. free, 1 or few-seeded ; style 1 or 3 ; stigma simple or compound. Fruit a mem- 
branous utricle. Seeds lentiform, pendulous ; embr. curved round the circumference 
ofaib, Rad. next hilum. 

1. Amara'nthus. L, 

MoDoedous. Gal. 3-5-parted. Stam. 3-5. Styles 3 or 2. Capsule 1 -celled, 1- 
seeded, opening transversely. 

1. A Blitum.* Fl's 3-fid. ; stam. 3 ; clusters small, lateral, the upper 
A. 8. ( — G.) £.>?-2. ones in a small, naked spike ; stam. spreading. — Wadte 

places. 

I 2 



90 ChenopodiesB.] Afopetalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [Atriplex. 



Obdeb XL.-~CHEN0P0DIEJL 

Herbs, rarely shrabs, often jointed, containing many esculent vegetables, bat few 
dekterions ones. Fl*8 sometimes diclinous. Cal, deeply o-lobed, herbaceous, im- 
bricated. Cor. 0. Stam. mostly 5, sometimes 2 or 1, on base of caL ; anth, 2- 
eelled, Ov, single^ (?) l-ceUed; style divided. Fruit membranous, indehiscent, 
sometimes baccate, l-seeded. Embr. encircling the alb. ; or a flat spiral separating 
2 masses of alb., or conically spiral without alb. ; rad. turned to hilum. 

* Fl*i monoecious, or polygamoiu. ..... 1. Atbiflbz. 

* Fl*i aU perfect. 

t Stem jointed. Stam. 1 or 2. . . . • .2. SAiftcoRNiA. 

t Stem not jointed. Stam. 5. 

t Fl*i destitute of bracts. ..... 3. Chenopodicm. 

t Fl*s with bracts. 

§ Or. half adherent to tube of caL Leayes not fleshy. 4. Bbt a. 
$ Oy. entirely free. Leaves fleshy, 

spinous. CaL-segments at length appendaged at ) g Sal80I.a 

back. * . . . j ' 

Leaves not spinous. CaL not appendaged. . 6. Schobbaia. 

Tr. I. ATRIPLICIDJE, FVs monacious, rarely perfect, Embr, curved round 
the alb, 

1. A'tbiplex. L. Orache. 

Barren and perfect Jt*8 : — CaL 5-parted, free. Stam. 5. Stigmas 2. PistUliferous 
jVs : — Sep. 2, persistent, enlarging, and covering the fruit 

* Fl's in interrupted spikes or panicles, not in sessile, axillary clusters, 
t Leaves entire, or scarcely toothed. 

1. A, portulacoides. Stem woody; leaves obovate-lanceolate, entire; caL of 
P. 8-10. ( — T.) 8. fruit nearly sessile, with 3 equal lobes. — Sea-shore. 

2. A. pedunculatus. Stehi herbaceous, spreading; leaves obovate-lanceolate, 
A. 8, 9. ( — G.) 3. entire ; cal. of ifruit on long stalks, with 1 small middle, 

and 2 large, lateral lobes. — Sea-coast 

3. A. littoralis. Stem herbaceous, erect; leaves linear-lanceolate, mostly 
A. 7-9. ( — 6.) S. entire ; caL of fruit spreading, ovate, sinuated. — Salt 

marshes. 
jS. nuirina, leaves ovate-lanceolate, toothed; caL of fruit closed, o\y- 

cordate-triangular, 
f Lower leaves lobed or angular, 

X ' their lobes spreading horizontally. 

4. X.pituia, Upper leaves lanceolate, almost entire, lower ovate- 
A. 6-10. (y. G.) 20. hastate, denticulate ; fl. in simple, interrupted spikes ; 

cal. triangular-rhomboid, nearly entire, longer than 
fruit — Waste places. 

fi. prostrata, lower leaves triangular-hastate, intermediate ones with 2 

ascending lobes from a cuneate base ; caL cordate-tri- 
angular, not longer than fruit 

y, microtperma, lower leaves ovate-lanceolate, with 2 lobes, upper linear- 
subulate, hastate; caL ovate-triangular, rather longer 
than fruit ; fl's densely panicled. 



GheDopodltiiiL] Apofetaloits Htpootnocts Exoqens. [CbenopodiesB. 91 

t ' Lobes of tibe leaves desoending. 
5. A. deUoidia. Leaves all hastate-triangular, 2-lobed, uneqiially or sin- 

A» 7-10. ( — G.) E.-6. natelj toothed ; fl's densely panicled ; cal. of fruit orate- 

triangular, rather longer than fruit — Waste places. 
X ' Lower leaves with 2 ascending lobes from a cuneate base. 
€. A. angugtifSUcu FTs in simple interrupted spikes ; leaves lanceolate, entire ; 

A, 7-10. ( — ^6.) 2.0. caL of fruit entire, smooth on back. — ^Waste places. 

7. A. erecta, Fl's in branched, dense spikes ; leaves ovate- lanceolate, the 
A. 8. ( — G.) 20. lower sinuated ; caL of fruit denticulate, tuberculated on 

back. — Waste places. 

* Fl's, particularly In the fertile ones, in axillaiy, sessile clusters. 

8. A. rSsea. Leaves nearly ovate-triangular, somewhat 3-lobed, un- 
A. 7-9. ( — G.) ? equally sinuate-dentate; cal. of fruit rhomboidal-acute, 

toothed, with 2 rows of tubercles on back. — Sea-shore. 

9. A. laeini&ta. Leaves mealy beneath, triangular- rhomboid, laciniated ; 
A, 7-9. ( — 6.) 9. caL of fruit rhomboidal, with 3 lateral, truncate lobes, 

and 2 rows of tubercles on back. — Sea-shore. 

Tr. XL CHENOPODID^, FT a perfect, curved round the alb. 

2. Sauco'rnia. L, Glass-wort 

CaL tumid, fleshy, obscurely lobed, imbedded in the rachis. Stam. 1 or 2. Style 
short ; stigmas bifid. Fruit a 1 -seeded utricle. 

1. S. herb&cea. Stem leafy, herbaceous, its divisions compressed, thickened 
A, 8, 9. (G.) 12. upwards ; spikes cylindrical, slightly taper at end. — 

Salt marshes. 
/3. procumhetu. stem procumbent. 

2. S. radicafu. Stem leafless, woody, procumbent, rooting, its divifflons 
A, 8, 9. (G.) E. I.-1. compressed, cylindricJEd ; spikes oblong, obtuse. — Salt 

marshes. 

3. Chenopo'dittm. L. Goose-foot. 

CaL 5-cleft, persistent, unaltered. Stam. 5, hypogynous. Stigmas 2-3. Pericarp 
tfahi, free. Seed lenticular. 

* Leaves toothed, angled, or lobed. 1 

f Leaves green on both sides, 
X triangular. 

1. C. BoHus-Henricus. Leaves sagittate at base, entire ; fl's in compound, terminal, 
P. 8. ( — G.) 20. leafless spikes ; seeds smooth. — Waste places. 

2. C. urbicum. Leaves straight at base, shortly toothed ; fl's in compound, 
A, 8. ( — G.) 11. erect, nearly leafless spikes ; seeds minutely rough. — 

Waste places. 
/3. intermedium, leaves with longer, more acute teeth. 

X Leaves not triangular. Spikes much branched, divaricating, cymose, 
leafless. 
8. C. mur6le. Leaves ovate, somewhat rhomboid, unequally and sharply 

A. 8. ( — G.) 13. toothed, entire towards base. — ^Waste ground. 
4. C. hyibridum. Leaves cordate, angled, toothed, acuminate, teeth large, 

A. 8. ( — G.) 7. distant — Cultiva^ and waste places. 



92 Chenopodiese.] Apopetalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [Schoberia. 

f Leaves glaucous, white or mealy beneath. 

% Upper leaves quite entire, oblong or lanceolate ; stam. 5. 
5. C. &lhum. Leaves ovate-rhomboid, sinaately toothed, entire at base ; 

A. 7, 8. ( — G.) 20. fl's in branched, nearly leafless racemes. — Waste places. 
/3. viride, racemes interrupted ; leaves gre^i, more entire. 

6. C.ficifiHum, Leaves ovate-oblong, sinuate, somewhat hastate; fl^s in 
A, 8, 9. ( — G.) 5. erect, nearly leafless, cymose racemes. — ^Waste ground. 

% Upper leaves toothed or serrated ; stam. 1-2, or 3. 

7. C. rubrum. Leaves triangular, somewhat rhomboid, toothed, and ser- 
A, 8, 9. ( — G.) 17. rated; caL 3 or 4, rarely 5-cleft; spikes erect, com- 
pound, leafy. — ^Near the sea. 

^. hi^rtfodet, leaves triangular, scarcely toothed. 

8. C. glaucum. Leaves oblong, sinuately toothed ; caL 3-cleft ; sjHkes 
A. 9. ( — G.) R-1. nearly simple, leafless. — Waste, sandy ground. 

* Leaves entire, 

9. C polyapSrmum. sessile, ovate-elliptical; fl's in axillary, leafless, cymose 
A. 8, 9. ( — G.) 10. racemes, or spikes. — Moist places. 

^. acuHfSlium, leaves acute ; stem erect ; fl's spicate. 

10. C. olidum. Leaves petiolate, ovate-rhomboid, mealy, foetid ; fl's in 

A. 8, 9. ( — G.) 9. dense, leafless, clustered racemes; stem difl^use. — ^Near 

the sea. 

4. Be'ta. L, Beet 

CaL 5-cleft, persistent, half inferior. Styles 2-3. Stam. 5, from a perigynons ring. 
Seed 1, immersed in fleshy base of cal. « 

1. B. maritima. Stems procumbent at base; fl's mostly in pairs; leaves 

P. 7-9. ( — G.) 7. ovate-cuneate ; caL-segments entire. — Sea-shores. 



Tr. in. SALSOLIDJE. FT s perfect. Emhr. spiral; alb. 0. 

5. Sa'lsola. L. Salt-wort 

Cal. 5-parted, persistent, enveloping the fruit with its base; its segments, at length, 
bearing a transverse, dorsal appendage. Stam. 6. Style 2. Fruit a 1-celled 
.utricle. Testa crustaceous. 

1. S. K&li. Stem herbaceous, prostrate; leaves fleshy, subulate, spi- 

A. 7. ( — ^G.) 10. nous-pomted, rough ; fl's axillary, solitary.— Sea-shore. 

6. Schobe/ria. C. a. Meyer. 

Cal 5-parted, without appendages. Stam. 5. Styles 2. Fruit a membranous 
utricle. Testa membranous. 

1. Cfruticoaa. Stem erect, shrubby; leaves J -cylindrical, obtuse; styles 
P. 6, 8. (— G.) E.-2. 3 ; fl. axiUary, solitary, or clustered. — Sea-coast 

2. C. maritima. Stem herbaceous ; leaves ^-cylindrical, tapering, acute ; 
A. 7-9. (— G.) 12. styles 2 ; fl's axillary, solitary, or in pairs.— Sea-shore. 



Epimeditim.] Apopbtalocts Htpogtnous Exogens. [Ranuncalese. 93 



Obdeb XLL— SCELERANTHEiB. 

InoQDflpiciioiu, mdrnportant herbs, with opponte exstipulate leaves. Fl. axillaiy, 
sessile. CdL 4 or 5-toothed, its limb indurated, at length enclosing the fruity bear- 
tii^ 1-10 Mtam. Cor, 0, Ov, l-celled, l-seeded; styles 2, or 1 and emarginate. 
OtmleM 1 or 2, haiiging from a faniculiis, which rises from base ofcelL Embr, 
cyfindrica], curved round afarinaceoiu alb, ; rad. superior, next hilom. 

1. Solera'nthus. L, EnaweL 

CaL nroeolate, 5-deft. Stam. 10, 5 freqnentlj abortive, or wanting. Styles 2. 
Fmit membranous, l-seeded, covered by caL 

1. S. dnnuus, CaL-segments acute, patent in fruit, with a narrow, mem- 
A, 7. ( — 0.) 20. branous border ; stems branching, spreading. — Sandy 

fields. 

2. S,perSnnM, CaL -segments obtuse, connivent in fruit, with a broad, 
P. 6-8. ( — G.) E. S.-2. membranous margin ; stems nearly simple, procumbent. 

—Norfolk. Suffolk. Forfar. 



Obdeb XLII ^BERBERIDEiE. 

Mostly spinose shrubs, with alternate compound, exstipulate leaves, and add 
astringent properties. Sep. 3-4-6, in a double row, surrounded by petaloid bracts. 
Pet. and stam. as many as sep., and opposite to them and each other. Anth. 2- 
celled, opening by an upwardly curved valve. Ov. of 1 carpel^ free. Fruit fleshy, 
or dry. Seeds few ; embr. in axis of fleshy alb. 

Sep. end pet. 6. ....... 1. Bsbbsris. 

Sep. and pet. 4. ....... 2. Epimboiux. 

1. Be'bbebis. L. Barberry. 

Sep. 6, deciduous. Pet. 6, each with 2 glands at base. Fruit fleshy, 2-8eeded. 

1. B. vulgaris, Bacemes pendulous ; spines 3-forked; leaves obovate, dli- 

S. 5, 6. (T.) 17. ftted, serrate ; pet entire — ^Thickets. 

2. Epime'dium. L. Barren-wort 

Sep. 4, deciduous. Pet 4, each with a cup-shaped scale at base. Fruit a many- 
seeded pod. 

1. E. alpinum.* Fl. panicled ; leaves of stem twice temate, leafl. cordate, 

P. 6. (R.) E. S.-1. serrate.— Woods, Yorkshire, Cumberland, Edmbuigh. 

Obdeb XLIII RANUNCULEiE. 

Herbs, rarely shrubs, with alternate, rarely opposite, generally divided leaves, the 
petiole dilated into a half-clasping sheath at base. Sep. 3-15, often coloured and 
petaloid. Pet. 5-15, often deformed, sometimes wanting. Stam, hypogynous, 
mostly indefinite ; anth. adnate. Carpels numerous^ free. Fruit of dry akenia, or 
foUides, or baccate with 1 or more seeds. Embr. minute^ in a large, horny alb. 



94 Ranuncolen.] Apopetaloqs Htpogtnoub Exogsns. [Anemone. 

* Pet 0, or much imaller than the eqtial, mostly petaloid lep. 
t CarpeU munerous, more than 10. 

X Leave* opposite. Stem climbing. . .1. Clematis. 

t Leaves alternate, or radicaL Stem not climbing. 
i Carpels 1 -seeded. 

InvoL of I, oat leave* beneath the fl. . .8. Ahbm ohs. 

InvoL 0. . . . . .a. Thauotbum. 

S Carpels more than I -seeded. 

Sep. generally in more than 1 row. Pet. small,) q rr^^^,,„m 

linear, flat. f *' ^"O^^^*- 

Bep. in 1 row. Pet. small, tabular, 2-lipped, with I q ■»» . «•„,. 

alongcUw f ». Ebahthis. 

t Carpels 3-10. Sep. 5, petaloid. 

Pet. 0. Sep. deciduous. ..... 7. Caltha. 

Pet. small, tabular, 2-lipped, clawed. . . .10. Hkllkbobus. 

* Pet as large as, ex larger than sep. i if smaller, the sep. are on- 
equaL 
t All or some of the pet. deformed, having a horn-like spur beyond 
the base. 
Sep. equal, not spurred. . . .11. Aquilboia. 

The upper sep. elongated into a hollow spar at base. . 12. Dblphiitium. 

The upper sep. helmet-shaped, concealing 2 pet. . . 13. Aconitum. 

t All the sep. and pet. uniform, not homed at the base. 
X Carpels numerous, 1 -seeded, indehiscent. 

Pet. with a scale or pore at base. Carpels in a globose | 6. Bahuhculus. 
head. . . . . . ) 

Pet. with a long, tubular claw. Carpels on a long, flli- 1 - MYoannna 
form recepude. . . . . •) JnyuBUBua. 

Pet. without either a pore, scale, or tube. Carpels in \ . . »»».. 

a short spike / *• -^^'O*"- 

t Carpels 1 or 2-5, many-seeded. 

Sep. 5, persistent. Pet. 6 or more. • .14. Pjkohia. 

Sep. 4, deciduous. Pet. 4. . . . .15. Actjsa. 

Tr. I. CLE MA TIDJE. Cal, valvate^ or indupHcate, Anth, extrorse, 

1. Clb'matis. Z. Traveller's-joy. 

Sep. 4-6. Pet 0. Akenia terminated by a long, feathered taU. 

1. C. vitalba. Leaves pinnate, leafl. cordate-ovate, inciso-Iobate, petioles 

S, 6. (g. W.) 10. twining ; sep. downy. — ^Hedges. 

Tr. II. ANEMONIDJE. Cal. imbricate, seed inverted. Antk. extrorse. 

2. Thali'ctruk. L. Meadow-rue. 
Sep. 4 or 5. Cor. 0. Akenia without a taiL 

* Stem simple, nearly leafless. Raceme simple ; terminal, fl. drooping. 

1. T. cdptnum. Leaves on long stalks, bi-temate ; fruit-stalks reflexed ; 
P. 6. ( — ^T.) 3. carpels on short stalks, curved at end. — Mountains. 

* Stem branched, rather leafy ; fl's panicled. 

2. T. minus. Leaves 3 or 4-pinnate, leafl. roimdish, smooth, 3-fid, toothed, 
P. 6, 7. (T.) 10. glaucous beneath ; panicle difiuse, its branches alternate, 

orwhorled; fl. drooping; stip. rounded. — Sand-hills. 
B. mdjus. segments of leaves acuminate ; stip. crescent-shaped. 

8. T. flavum. Leaves 2-pinnate ; leafl. broadly ovate, 3-fid ; panicle com- 

P. 6, 7. (Y.) 17. pact, coiymbose; fl's erect. — Wet places. 

8. Ane'mone. L. 

Sep. 5-9, petaloid, with an invoL of 8 divided leaves. Pet 0. Akoiia placed on a 
thickened receptacle, sometimeB tipped with the feathery styles. 



Ranunculiis.] Apopbtaloos Htpogtnous Exooens. [Ranancaleie. 95 

* InvoL in deep, Hnear s^ments ; carpels with bearded tails. 

1. A. PulMotina. FL solitaiy; sep. 6; invol. sessile; leaves bi-pinnate, 
P. 4, 5. (P.) E.-3. leafl. pinnatifid, segments linear. — Chalky pastures. 

* InyoL in broader lobes or segments ; carpels without tails. 

2. A. rmnmetdotdeM* FL solitary, or in pairs ; sep. 5, elliptical ; invoL of 3, ses- 
P. 4. (Y.) K-1. sile, temate, deeply cnt leafl. ; leaves similar. — Woods, 

Herts, Kent. 
8. A nemarosa, FL solitary ; sep. 6, elliptical ; invol. and leaves of 3, ter- 

P. 8-5. (W. r. P.) 19. nate or qoinate, stalked leaves, with lobed and cat leafl. 

—Woods. 
4. A. Apeimina* FL solitaiy j sep. 12-14, lanceolate; invoL and leaves of 

P. 4. X — ^0 ^*^* ^* temate, stalked, deeply cnt leafl. 

4. Ado'nis. L, Pheasant's-eye. 

Sep. 5. Pet 5-10, without a nectary. Akenia without tails. 

1. A tmtumndlis,* Pet. concave, connivent, scarcely longer than the glabrous 
A, 9, 10. (S.) 6. caL ; leaves 3-pinnatifid, segments linear. — In com. 

5. Myosu'bus. L. Mouse-taiL 

Sep. 5, prolonged into a spur at base. Pet. 5, with a filiform, tubular daw. Akenia 
numerous, placed npon a very long, filiform receptacle. 

IL minimtu. Stem simple, leafless, 1-fl'd, as long as or longer than 
A. 5, 6. (T.) E.-10. L-1. leaves ; spurs of caL leafy Damp fields. 



Tt, m, RANUNCULIDuE. CalimbHcate. Akenia Useeded, toUhout tails. 
Seed erect, Anth, extrorte. 

6. Rani/nculus. L. Crow-foot Butter-cup. Spear-wort 

Sep. 5, rarely 3. Pet 5, rarely more, with a nectariferous scale or pore at the base. 
Carpels pointed, in a globular head. 

* Leaves more or len dMded or lobed. 
t Pet with a small scale at base. 

X CaL reflexed ; stem erect, hairy, many-fl'd ; ped. furrowed. 

1. R. bulbSsus, Stem bulbous as base ; leaves divided into 3, stalked leafl., 
P. 5. (T.) 20. which are 3-lobed, or 3-fld and cut ; carpels smooth. — 

Meadows. 

2. B. hirsutuM, Stem not bulbous ; leaves 3-lobed, or 3-parted ; lobes ob- 
A. 6-8. (T.) K S.-16. tuse, cut ; carpels margined, tubercular — Meadows. 

fi, pSamdus, smaller in all its parts. 

X CaL spreading, 

§ Carpels rough. 
8. "R. petrviJlSrus, Stem prostrate; ped. opposite leaves; leaves roundish- 

A. 6t 6. (Y.)E.L-11. cordate, 3-5-lobed, sharply cut, upper oblong, entire, 

or 3-lobed ; carpels muricated. — Dry places. 
4. B. arvhuis. Stem erect; ped. axillaiy; leaves 3- cleft, toothed, those 

A, 6. (T.) 17. of stem once or twice temate, with linear, lanceolate seg- 
ments ; carpels spinous, beaked. — Corn-fields. 



96 RananculesB.] Apopetalous Htpootnous Exogens. [Caltha. 

§ Carpels smooth. 

5. R. ripens. Stem with creeping scions ; ped. furrowedf with spreading 
P. 6-8. (T.) 20. hairs; leaves of 3, stalked, 3-lobed or parted, cat leafl. — 

Pastures. 

6. R. Acris. Stem erect ; scions ; ped. not fmrowed, with adpressed 
P. 6, 7. (T.) 20. hairs; leaves palmately 3-5-parted, with linear seg- 
ments — Pastures. 

f Pet. having a minute pore at base, without a scale. 

X Stem erect, not floating ; carpels not rugose or tubercular. 

7. R. alpestris. Stem 1-fl'd ; leaves smooth, those of root somewhat cor- 
P. 6. (W.) S.-1. date, deeply 3-5-lobed, crenate at end, those of stem li- 
near or trifid. — ^Moist rocks, Clova Mountains. 

8. R. auricomua. Stem many-fl'd ; leaves smooth, those of the root reni- 
P* 4, 5. (T.) 18. form, 3-parted, cut, those of stem in linear segments ; 

caL pubescent, shorter than pet. ; carpels in a globose 
head Woods. 

9. "B., scelerattu. Stem many-fi'd;. leaves smooth, those of root 3-parted; 
A, 6-9. (Y.) 20. lobes cut, very obtuse, upper stem-leaves in 3, linear, 

cut segments ; caL glabrous ; carpels in an oblong head. 
— Ditches. 
X Stem creeping or floating ; carpels transversely wrinkled. 

10. R. hederaceus. Creeping ; leaves roundish-reniform, with 3-5, rounded, en- 
P. 6-9. (W.) 20. tire lobes ; stam. 5-10 — ^Wet places. 

/3. partitus, lobes of leaves notched ; stip. very broad, adnate to petiole; 

pet. longer and larger. 

11. R. aqu&tilis. Floating; sub-mersed leaves capillary, the floating ones 
L, 5, 6. (W.) 20. 3-5 parted, all more or less stalked. — Ponds, ditches. 

/3. pantothrix, leaves all multifid and setaceous. 

y, fluitans, leaves multifid, with very long, parallel segments. 

i, circinatus, leaves multifid, with rigid, capillaiy, radiating segments. 

* Leaves neither divided nor lobed, 
f the lower ones cordate, petiolate. 

12. R. ophiogloanfolius. Stem erect, many- AM, bearing oblong, sessile leaves ; scale 
A. 6. (Y.) C. of pet entire. — St. Peter^s Marsh, Jersey. 

13. R. Ficdria. Stem erect, 1-fl'd ; scale of pet. notdhed, all the leaves cor- 
P. 4, 5. (Y.) 20. date, angular ; sep. 3 ; pet 8 or 9. — Moist phioes. 

f None of the leaves cordate, 

14. R. Linffua. but lanceolate-acute, sub-serrate, sessile, half-dasping ; 
P. 6, 7 (Y.) 15. stem erect, many-fl'd. — Wet places. 

15. R. Flammula. Leaves ovate, lanceolate, bluntish, nearly entire, stalked ; 
P. 5-8. (Y.) 20. stem reclining at base. — Wet places. 

fi, reptans, leaves linear; stem procumbent, filiform. 

Tr. rV. HELLEBORID^, Cal imbricate in tBsHvatton, Follicles many- 
seeded, Anth, extrorse. 

7. Ca'ltha. L, Marsh-marigold. 

Sep. 5, petaloid. Pet 0. Follicles 5-10. 

1. C.palustris. Leaves roundish, cordate, crenate; stem ascending; caL 

P. 8, 4. (Y.) 20. of 5-6 oval leaves. — Marshy places. 
/3. minor, smaller ; stem 1-fl'd ; leaves more deeply cordate. 



Pfionuu] Apopbtalods Htpoothods Exogesis. [Ranunculeae. 97 

y. r6dieang, stem creeping ; leayes oordate-trumgular, crenate. 

8. Tbc/luus. L. Globe-flower. 
Sep. 5-15, petakid, deddnoiu. Pet 5-10, small, linear, flat, clawed. Follicles na- 



1. T. EwropafuM. Sep. 10-15, converging into a globe; pet 6-10, nearly as 

P. «, 7. (T.) 10. long as stam. ; leaves 6-parted.— Shady places. 

9. Eba'nthis. SalUh, Winter-aconite. 

Sep. 5-8, petakid, dedduoos. Pet small, tabular, 1-lipped, with a long claw. Fol- 
fidee mmieroiis, stalked. 

1. E. hyenUMs.^ Sep. 6-8, oblong ; root-leaves long stalked, 5-7-parted, 
P. 2, 8. (T.) £. S.-1. deeply cut into linear, oblong segments. — Thickets. 

10. Heixe'borus. L, Hellebore. 

Sep. 5, peniftent Pet small, tubular, 2-lipped, clawed. Follicles 3-10, sessile. 

\,^TL fie^Hdut* Leaves pedate; sep. converging; stem many-fl'd, leafy, 

P. 8, 4. ( — G.) K S.-12. upper becoming ovate bracts. — Thickets. 

2. H. vMUsJ^ Leaves digitate, stalked, upper sessile at the branches ; 
P. 8, 4.(g. T.) 11. sep. spreading. — Thickets. 

11. Aquile'oia. L. Columbine. 

Sep. 5, deddnous, petaloid. Pet 5, terminating below in a horn-shaped spur. Fol- 
licles 5. 

1. A. vmlg&ris. Spurs of pet incurved ; stem leafy, many-fl*d ; styles as 
P. €. (P.) 15. long as stam. ; follicles hauy Woods.' 

12. Delphi'xium. L. Larkspur. 

Sep* 5, petaloid, dedduoos, unequal, the upper one produced at the base into a spur 
P^ 4, the 2 upper tpamA and included in the spurred sep. Fullicles 1, 3 or 5. 

1. D. eon»6Jida,^ Stem erect, branched, nearly smooth ; racemes lax ; pet. 
A. 6, 7. (B. B. W.) E.S.-5. combined ; spur longer than cal Dry places. 

18. Aconi'tum. X. Wolf's-bane. MonkVhood. 

Sq[>. 5, petaloid, unequal, the upper one helmet-8hap<^ ; the upper pet. tubular, de« 
fbnned, on long stalks, and concealed within the helmet-shaped sep. 

1. A. Napellus* Upper sep. arched at back ; spurs of nectaries nearly coni- 

P. 6, 7. (B.) K S.-3. cal, bent down ; leaves with cuneate, pinnatifid lobes 

young carpels diverging. — River-banks. 

14. P^'oHiA. L. Paeony. 

Sep. 5, persistent Pet 5-10, concave. Anth. extrorse. Follicles 2-5, many- 
teeded, burstii^ inwards, crowned with the bi-lamuiated stigma. 
1. P. coraUina? Leaves bi-temate, glabrous ; segments, ovate, entire ; fol- 

P. 5, 6. (+B.) K'-l. licles downy, recurved. — Steep Holmes Isle, in Severn. 



98 PapaveresB.] Apopetalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [Nuphar. 

Tr. V. ACTJEIDJE. Cal. coloured^ imbricated. Fruit succulent, indehiscenty 
1 or many-seeded. 

16. Act^'a. L. Bane-beny. 

Sep. 4, petaloid, decidaons. Pet. 4. Anth. extrorse. Ov. of 1 carpel, which be- 
comes a fleshy, indehiscent, many-seeded pericarp. 

1. A. spic6ta. Raceme simple, elongated; pet. as long as stam. ; fruit 

P. 6. (W.) E. S.-2. oval, on slender pedicels. — Bushy places. 

Order XLIV.—NYMPH^EiE. 

Aquatic herbs, with fleshy, simple leaves, and unimportant qualities. Sep. gra- 
dually passing into pet, arranged in several rows, and again insensibly passing 
into stam.f which are indefinite, and inserted with the pet. into a disk surrounding 
the ovary. Anth. adnate, opening longitudinally by a double cleft. Ov. many- 
celled, many-seeded, crowned by the radiating stigmas, which alternate with the 
dissepiments bearing the placentcB, Fruit indehiscent. Seeds surroimded by a 
gelatinous arillus ; embr. small on the outside of the base of a farinaceous alb., and 
enveloped in a membranous bag. 

CaLof4Bep. ....... 1. Ntmphjba. 

Cal. of 5 or 6 sep. ....... 2. Nuphab. 

1. NYMPaB'A. L, White Water-lily. 

Sep. 4. Pet. numerous, inserted with the stauL, on a fleshy disk surrounding the 
ov. Fruit a many-celled, many-seeded berry. 

1. N. Silba. Leaves orbicular, deeply cordate, entire, the basal lobes 

P. 7. (W.) 19. approximating; stig. of 12-20 rays. — Stillwater. 

/3. minor. a small variety. 

2. Nuphar. Sm, Yellow Water-lily. 

Sep. 5. Pet. numerous, inserted with the stauL on the xsoeptade. Fruit a many- 
celled, many-seeded berry. 

1. N. latea. Stigma with an entire margin, of 14-20 rays ; leaves ob- 
P. 7. (T.) 19. long-cordate; anth. linear, oblong. — ^Lakes. 

2. N. p&mila. Stigma with 8-10 rays, forming a toothed margin ; leaves 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) E. S.-2. ovate, deeply cordate, with distant lobes ; anth. short — 

Mountain lakes. 

Order XLV.— PAPAVERE^. 

Herbs, rarely shrubs, with an opaque, narcotic juice. Leaves alternate, simple, or 
divided, exstipulate. Ped. 1-fl'd. Sep. 2, deciduous. Pet. 4, rarely 8 or 12, 
crumpled before expansion. Stam. indef, in 4 parcels, eadi adherent to base of one 
of the pet ; anth. 2-celled, innate. Ov. 1-celled, with parietal placenta ; stigmas 
as many as, and alternate with the placentte, when numerous radiating. Seeds inde- 
finite, innocuous ; emhr. minute, stridght, at base, of a fleshy or oily alb. 



CheUdoninm.] Apopbtalous Htfogtnous Exogens. [Papavereae. 99 

* Tndt globote, or orate, 1 -celled. 

Stigmmt 4-10, cohering so H to ft>rm a disk. Juice ▼hite. . 1. Papater. 
Stigmmt 4-6, partially cfriiering. Juice yellow. . 2. Mkcoaopsis. 

* Fruit linear. Juice yellow. 

Fruit 2-celled, S-vaWed. ..... 3. Glaccicm. 

Fruit 1-celled, opening by 3-4 Talrei from top to bottom. . 4. Bosm kri a. 
Fruit l-oeQed, t^ening by 8 ralTea from bottom to top. 5. Chelidomivm. 

1. Papa'ver. L. Poppy. 

Stjle ; stigma of 4-20 cohering rays. Caps, obovate, with parietal placcntse pro- 
jecting fiir into its cavity, opening by pores beneath tlie stigma. 

* Caps, hispid; fiLdavate; leaveabi-pinnatifid. 

1. P. Argemone. Caps, clavate, ribbed, with spreading bristles ; cal. hairy ; 
A, 6, 7. (y. R.) 17. stem leafy, many-fl'd Corn-fields. 

/}. marihrntcm. stem 1-fl'd. 

2. P. h^hridum. Caps, ovate, nearly globose, furrowed, with spreading 
A. 6, 7. (+R.) E. L-8. bristles ; cal. bristly ; stem as last Sand-fields. 

* Caps, smooth. 

f Fil. subulate ; stem and cal. hairy or bristly. 
8. P. dubium. Bristles of ped. apprcssed ; leaves pinnatifid, cut unequally ; 

A. 6, 7. (y. R.) 20. stigmas 4-6-rayed ; caps, clavate, angular. — Com-lields. 

4. P. Rhceas. Bristles of ped. spreading ; leaves pinnatifid, cut equally ; 
A, 6, 7. (y. R.) 19. stigma many-rayed ; caps, obovate — Corn-fields. 

/3. strigosum, ped. rough, with appressed hairs. 

f Fil. clavate ; stem and cal. smooth. 

5. P. somniferum* Capsule globose ; leases smooth, glaucous, unequally 

A. 7. (W. * P.) 3. toothed, clasping at base. — Sandy soil. 

2. Mecono'psis. Vignier, Welsh-poppy. 

Styles short Stigmas 5 or 6, partially cohering. Caps, obovate, with scarcely pro- 
jecting placentae, opening with 5 or 6 small, valvular pores beneath stigma. 

1. M. Cambrica, Capsule glabrous ; leaves mostly petiolate, pinnate, cut — 

P. 6. (Y.) 3. Shady and rocky places. 

3. GiiAi/ciUM. Toum, Horned-poppy. 

1. G. liiteum. Leaves clasping, wavy, sinuate, glaucous ; pod minutely 

B. 6-8. (Y.) 9. tuberculous. — Sea-shores. 

« 

4. Roeme'ria. De C. 

Stigmas 2-4, sessile. Caps, linear, 1-celled, 2-4-valved. 

1. R. hgbrida* Pods 3-4-valved, erect, with rigid bristles at the apex ; 

A, 6, 6. (Y.) 1. leaves bi-pmnatifid, with linear, smooth, bristle-pointed 

segments. — Corn-fields. 

5. CHELiDO^NiirM. L. Celadine. 

Stigma 2-lobed. Caps, linear, 1-celled, 2-valved. Seeds crested. 
1. C. majvB. Ped. umbellate ; leaves deeplv pinnatifid, segments rounded, 

P. 6-8. CY.) 18. and bluntly lobed Old walls. 

/3. laciniatum^ segments of leaves deeply pinnatifid, lobed, inciso-serrate ; 

pet jagged. 



100 Fumariese.] Apopetalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [Fumaria. 



Order XLVI FUMARIE^ 

Herbs with a colourless juice, and bitter, astringent, or acrid qualities. Leaves 
mostly alternate, multifid, often with tendrils. Sep. 2, deciduous. Cor. irregtdar, 
of 4 parallel pet. Stam, 4, distinct, or 6, in 2 parcels opposite the outer pet. ; lateral 
stam. in each parcel 1-celled, the middle 2-celled. Ov. 1-celled ; stigma with 2 or 
more points. Fruit dry or fleshy, 1 or more-seeded ; placent® parietal. Seeds hori- 
zontal, crested, or arillate ; alh. fleshy ; embr. minute, abaxile, straight in the inde- 
hisoent fruit, curved in those which op^. 

Seedi nmneroiu. . . . . . .1. Cobtdalis. 

Seedftingle. ....... 2. Fumaria. 

1. Coky'dalis. De C. 

Pod. 2-valyed, many-seeded, compressed. Sep^ 2. Pet 4, the upper one spurred at 
base. Stam. diadelphous. 

1. C. claviculata. Bracts oblong, acuminate ; root fibrous ; leaves pinnate, 

A. 6, 7. (W.) 14. pinnae temate ; petioles ending in tendrils. — Bushy 

places. 
2. C. lutea.* Bracts minute, oblong, cuspidate ; root fibrous ; leaves bi- 
P. 6-8. (Y.) E. S.-4. pinnate, leafl. cut or trifid ; tendrils Walls. 

3. C. sSlida* Bracts palmate ; root solid ; leaves bi-temate, cut, lowest 

P. 4, 6. (—P.) E. S.-3. petiole a leafless scale.— Thickets. 

2. Fuma'ria. L. Fumitory.- 
Fruit inddiiscent, 1-seeded, style decidnoas. In oth^ respects as Cordyalit. 

* Sep. as broad as, or broader than cor., 

f ovate, acute, toothed or cut 

1. F. capreolata. Stem mostly cHmbing ; bracts shorter than fruit-stalks ; 
A. 5-8. (P.) 17. fruit globose, emarginate; leafl. broad. — Cultivated 

ground. 

2. F. parviflSra. Stem erect ; bracts as long as ftvit-stalks ; fruit globose, 
A. 8, 9. ( — R.) E. S.-3. pointed ; leafl. linear, channelled. — Kent Edinburgh. 

f Sep. orbicular ; bracts longer than fruit-stalks. 

3. F. micrantha. Fruit globose, slightly pointed ; cor. twice the length of 
A. 6-9. ( — P.) E. S.-4. bracts ; leaves in nimierous, linear segments. 

* Sep. not so broad as cor., 

4. offidn&tts. ovate-lanceolate, broader than pedicel, § shorter than cor. ; 
A. 5-9. (R.) 20. bracts § the length of pedicel ; stem erect — Dry places. 

fi. scan'den$. sep. nearly as long as cor. ; stem climbing. 

5. F. Vaillantii. Sep. minute, much shorter than cor. ; bracts as long as 
^. 6-9. ( — P. o.W.)15. pedicels; stem slender, spreading; leafl. in capiUaiy 

segments. 



Heliantbemum.] Afopetalous Hypogynous Exogens. [Cistineae. 101 



Order XLVIL— DROSERE^E. 

Herbs often covered with glands or hairs. Leaves alternate or radical, with fringed 
slip., and a drciuate vernation, possessing acid and acrid qaalities. Ped. circinate 
when young. FVs regular. Sep. and pet. 6. Stam free, 1, 2, 3, or 4 Hmea as 
many as^ arid alternate with pet. Ov. single ; styles 3-5. Capsule 3-5 valved^ with 
parietal placenttB. Seeds indefinite, sometimes with an arillus. Emhr. minute, in 
the base of fleshy alb. 

1. Dro'sera. L. Sun-dew. 

GaL 5- deft. Pet. 5. Stam. 5-10. Styles 3 or 5. Leaves covered with numerous 
glandular hairs. 

1. D. A'nglica, Leaves radical, linear-spathulate, erect, on long, glabrous 
P. 7, 8. (+W.) 9. petioles ; ped. erect ; seeds with a loose, chaly coat 

Bogs. 

2. D. intermedia. Leaves radical, spathulate, erect, on long glabrous petioles ; 
P. 7, 8. (+W.) 10. ped. arcuate, or decumbent at base ; seeds with a close, 

rough, chaffy coat. — Boggy places. 

3. D. rotundifolia. Leaves radical, orbicular, spreading ; petioles hairy ; ped. 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 19. erect ; seeds with a loose, chafly coat — Bogs. 



Order XLVIIL— CISTINEiE. 

Shrubs, or herbs, with entire leaves, possessing no marked qualities. Fl's very fugacious 
Sep. 3-6, 2 outer sometimes wanting, 3 inner with a twisted aestivation. Pet. 6, rarely 3, 
corrugated in aestivation, and twisted in a direction contrary to that of sep. Stam. 
generally indef. Ov. 1 or spuriously many-celled ; style and stigma simple. Fruit 
capsular, 3, 6 or 10-valved. PlacentcR parietal. Seeds generally indefinite ; emhr. 
inverted, spiral or curved in the midst of a small j mealy ^ or homy alb. 

1. Helia'nthemum. Tourn. Rockrose. 

Sq). 5, the 2 exterior smaller or wanting. Pet. 5, deciduous. Stam. numerous. 
Capsule 3-valved. 

Leaves, especially the lower, with stip. ; leaves opposite ; racemes brac- 
teate. 

1. H. polifolium. Leaves revolute at edge, hoary on both sides ; pubescence 
S. 7, 8. ( W.) E.-2. stellate ; inner sep. obtuse. — Torquay. Somersetshire. 

2. H. vulgare. Leaves green above, hoary beneath, edges nearly fiat ; in- 
S, 7-9. (Y.) 18. ner sep. obtuse, apiculate. — Dry pastures. 

/3. surrejanus. pet. lanceolate, often cut. 

y. tomentosum. more pubescent. 
* Leaves, especially the lower, without stipules, 
f Low shrubs ; racemes bracteated, terminal. 

3. H. eanum. Leaves opposite, ovate or oblong; stalked, fiat, hoaiy be- 
S. 5-7. (Y.) £. I.-3. neath ; style twisted at base, point inflexed. — Alpine 

rocks. Great Arran Isle. 

K 2 



102 BrassiceflB.] Apopstalous Htpogtnous Exogbhs. [Helianthemum. 

f Herbaceous plants. 

4. H. siuttaium. £rect ; racemes ^without bracts ; leaves oblong-lanceolate, 
A. 6, 7. (Y. * R.) £.-1. or linear, the lower opposite, upper alternate, with or 

without stip. — Holyhead Mountain. Jersey. 

5. H. BrSweri, Stragghng; pedicels with linear bracts; leaves linear- 
A. 6, 7. (W.) E.-2. oblong, veiy obtuse, those of stem opposite, sessile, sti- 
pulate, of root rosulate. — Holyhead Mountain. Alwich. 

Order XLIX.— BRASSICE^ or CRUCIFER^ 

Herbs with alternate leaves, abounding in an acrid, pungent principle, but none 
injurious. Fl's g^erally racemose. Sep. and pet. 4, the latter cruciate, rarely 0. 
Stam, 6, tetradynamousj rarely 4 or 2. Disk with glands between pet., stara., 
and ov. Ov. superior, with 2 parietal placent® which meet in the middle, form- 
ing a septum ; stigmas 2, opposite the placentae. Fruit a siliqua or niicula, 1 
<^ furiously 2-celled, 1 or more seeded. Alb. ; rad. folded in various ways upon 
the cotyledons, so as to present, on making a section of a half ripe seed appearances, 
which the following symbols have been adopted to represent : — Incumbent (o ||), 
the rad. being simply bent up, and lying against the back of the cot. Accum- 
bent (o s=s), tile rad. bent up, but lying against the edges of the cot. Again, the 
radicid is incumbent, but the cot. are doubled on themselves thus : (o || ||) ; or 
doubled a second time thus : (o |{ || Q). Conduplicate (o >'=>), the rad. being in- 
cumbent, and the cot. folded lengthwise, so as to receive the rad. within the fold. 
Upon these characters De Candolle has made his divisions of this order to dep^id : 
ao arrangement, which is observed below in the descriptions of the species : — 

* Fmit a liliqua or pod, except in some Nasturtia i but in theM 
the fl's are yellow, the septum broad, and the embr. (O =.) 
t Pod separating tranivenely into 1 -seeded joints. . 34. Baphahus. 

t Fod continuous, not in 1 -seeded joints. 

X Cal. with 2 opposite sep., saccate at base. 

Stigmas sessile, connirent, gibbons, or homed atl . «.__„->.,. 
back. Pod terate, or Uterally compressed. .| '' ^^ttdiola. 

Stigmas on a short style, capitate, or patent, simple, l „ p--,« .-,„„. 
Pod dorsally compressed. . . .f »• ^""AWtHBs. 

Stigmas nearly sessile, conyerging, simple. Pad]^ .g hespebis. 
terate, or 4-4x>mered. . . . ,}' 

% All the Sep. equal at bose. 
} Pod compressed, 2-edged. 

II much longer than its pedicel. 

Valye. with 1 prominent rib. SeediinS) «. tuhbitis. 

rows. . . . . , I 

Yalres mostly 1-ribbed. Seeds in 1 row. 6. Ababis. 

Yalres ribless ; seeds in 1 row. . . 7. Cabdamink. 

9 Pod equal to, or shorter than its pedicel, I 

lanceolate, ribless. Seeds in 1 row, their) « n_ 

stalks winged. . .f «• Dbwtabia. 

Pod linear, 1-ribbed. Seeds in 2 rows, their > -„ Tk,„,^. «.. 
stalks simple } 30. DiPLorAXia. 

i Pod not compressed, terate, or 4-angular. 

B Sep. spreading almost horiaontidly. Talresl -, a.«.«.. 
conrex, 1, 3 or 5-ribbed. . . . f **• ^iWAPia. 

II Sep. erect. 

t Pod terate, 

** eqoal to, or shorter than pedi- 
ceL Yalyes conyex, 
each I -ribbed. Sep. close. Seeds') -o »„...,«. 
in 1 row, their stalks simple. . f '^- B»a«"CA. 
Each.TalTcS-ribbed. Sep. hue. Seeds i «« .„,,„, 
in 1 row, their stalks winged. . / ^'** alliabia. 



Iftttbiola.] AropCTALovs Htfogtnous Exogehs. [Brassiceae. 103 

f Fod 4«fldnai8iilar. Sep. erect. Seed* in 1 row. 

Mgm* entire. Yalrca 1 -ribbed. 4. Babbabka. 

Stigma entire. Yalre* Cribbed. . 21. CoxBixttiA. 

8t^2..p>e«Unc. Vlre. keeled, with J gj. e,„„^^. 

• DraitseilienlA. whieii, if Meoapuied with yellow fl's,itsMp- 
tarn ie narrow, 
t Mlicnln 1, tmrdj 2-«eeded, withoot • Kptnm, 

globose and 1-eelled. .33. Cbambb. 

SHicidn mgnhv, KMietinica 2-eelled. .18. Cabilb. 

SHicnln latcmUy eompreMed, l-«elled. .39. Ibatib. 

t Saicaln dirtdcd \rj n Kptam into 2 cells, 2 or more seeded, 
I kirenny eomffttsMd. 

{ 1 Seeds solitary in each eelL Septum linear. 

Talrcs rentrieose. Silienls 2-lobed. 25. CoBOBOPca. 

Yalrcs compres s e d, keeled. Pet. eqnaL 26. Lbpidivm. 

Yalres eompresied, winged. Pet. uneqoaL . 14. Ibbbis. 
f S Seeds 2 in each celL Septum oanrow. 

ffilienla emarginate at tommit. .15. Tbbsdalia. 

Wlicoto entire at end. .16. Hctcbixsia. 

{ s Seeds mote than 2 in eadi eelL 

I LeaTes sabnlate. Septum orate. . 28. SfTBULABiA. 

I Leares not tubulate. Septum linear. 

Silienljt roundish, notdied. Valres winged. 17. TBLAapi. 
Siliealatriangular-obeordatcValTes keeled. 27. Capsblla. 
I SilimU not laterally compresMd. 

{ Yalres reatrieose. Silicula terate. Seeds many, 

Yalres baring a linear process at end confluent 1 oj r> .«»-. «« 
with the style. . I ^a««^a. 

^"'todribT* *! *^ ''."^ * I^inent. <>«rsal | 12. Cocblbabba. 
Yalves rounded at end, without a rib. . 13. Abmobacia. 

f YalTCS flat, or eooTex. Silicula dorsally com- 



*^*'S2!S1: ^.""'^ Hn»w««J 9.ALT«ir«. 
Cells many-seeded. FiL simple. Glands 0. 11. Dbaba. 

Scb-Obder I.~PL£UB0RHIZIN.£.— Cot flat, aocambent (o ^), Bad. lateraL 
Seeds oomprettsed. 

Tr. L ARABIDJE. SUiqua linear^ or linear-lanceolate, rareiif globose or 
ovate, dehiscing with 2 valcet. Seeds numerous. Cot. parallei with septum. 

1. Matthi'ola. Br. Stock. 

Pod rounded, or laterally oompruAed. Stigma of 2 erect lobes, gibbons or homed at 
the back. CaL erect. Longer fiL dilated. 

1. ]£ inemuu Stem shmbby, apright, branched ; leaves lanceolate, hoary, 
P. 5, 6. ( B.) E.-1. eDtire ; puds cylindrical, without glands. — Isle of Wight. 

2. K. sinuata. Stem herbaceoiu, spreading ; leaves oblong, downy, the 
B. 6-8. (P.) £. L-2. lower sinoate ; pods compreased, gUndolar. — Shores, 

Wales. ComwalL Arran Isle. 



104 Brassiceae.] Apopetalous Hypogtnous Exogens. [Turritis. 

2. Cheira'nthus. L. Wall-flower. 

Pod doraally compressed ; valTes, each 1 -ribbed. Style short ; stigma of 2 patent 
lobes, or capitate. Sep. erect, 2 opposite ones saccate at base. 

1. C. Cheiri, Leaves lanceolate, acute, entire, with bi-partite, adpressed 

P. 4, 6. (+Y.) 18. hairs; lobes of stigma patent ; stem shrubby. — Ruins. 

3. Nasti/rtium. Br. Cress. 

Pod nearly cylindrical (sometimes a silicula). Valves convex, almost ribless. 
Stigma capitate. Sep. patent Seeds in 2 irregular rows. 

* Leaves pinnate, or deeply and regularly pinnatifid. 

1. N. officinale. IdsA. ovate, subcordate, sinuate-dentate ; pods linear, about 

P. 6, 7. (W.) 20. as long as ped Ditches, &c 

2 N. sylvestre. Segments of leaves lanceolate, cut, those of the uppermost 

P. 6-8. (Y.) 10. entire; pod linear, equalling ped Wet places. 

• Leaves, especially the lower, scarcely pinnatitid, mostly lyrate. 

3. N. dnceps. Lower leaves lyrate, upper pinnatitid, segments oblong- 
P. 7, 8. (Y.) £. S.-3. lanceolate, toothed ; pods oblong, half as long as ped. ; 

pet. twice as long as caL — Wet places. 

4. N. amphtHum. Leaves oblong-lanceolate, serrated ; pods elliptical, much 
P. 6-8. (Y.) 17. shorter than ped. ; pet. longer than cal Wet places. 

6. N. terrestre. ] Lower leaves lyrate, upper deeply pinnatifid ; pods oblong, 

P. 6-9. (Y.) 19. turgid, as long as ped. ; pet. as long as caL — ^Wet 

places. 

4. Babbabe'a. Br. Winter-cress. 

Pod 4-angular, the valves convex, with a prominent rib. Stignui capitate. CaL 
erect. Seeds in 1 row. 

• Uppermost leaves undivided, toothed, the lower lyrate, 

f having the 2 upper lobes, and the large terminal one equal in breadth. 

1. B. vulgaris. Raceme close ; pods, when young, erect, straight ; seeds 
P. 5-8. (Y.) 20. angular, scarcely longer than broad. — Damp places. 

2. B. arcuata. Raceme lax ; pods, when young, patent, curved ; seeds 
B. ? 6-8. (Y.) E.-1. oblong.— Llangollen, Wales. 

f Lower leaves, with the 2 upper lobes narrower than the terminal one. 

3. B. stricta. Raceme close ; pods adpressed ; seeds angular, about as 
B. ? 5-8. (Y.) K-2 long as broad.— Near Sheffield, Weedon. 

* Uppermost leaves pinnatifid, 

4. B. prcB'cox.* with linear, oblong, entire segments, the lower lyrate ; 
B. 4-8. (Y.) E.-6. pods patent, straight — ^Waste places. 

6. Turri'tis. L. Tower-mustard. 

Pod elongated, 2-edged ; valves nearly flat, with a prominent rib. Stigma capitate. 
Seeds in 2 rows. 

1. T. glabra. Radical leaves toothed, hairy, those of stem glabrous, en- 

B, C, 7. ( — Y.) E.-7. tire, sagittate, clasping; stem erect — Banks. 



Aljssam.] Apopetalous Hypogtnous Exooens. [Brassicese. 105 

6. A'rabis. X. Rock-cress. 

Pod Imear, compressed ; valves nearly flat, with a prominent rib, or several indistinct 
ones. Stigma nearly sessile. Seeds in 1 row. 

* Stem-leaves with a cordate, clasping base. 

1. A. hir»%ita. Pods straight, erect, with slightly keeled valves ; leaves 
B, 6-8. (W.) 15. all hispid, toothed. — Old walls, rocks, and banks. 

2. A. Turrita, Pods recurved, its stalk erect ; lower leaves clothed with 
B.5, (W.)£.S.-2. forked hairs, elliptical, toothed, stalked — ^Walls. 

* Stem leaves not clasping. 

3. A. cilidta. Leaves glabrous, ciliated, somewhat toothed, the lower 
B, 7. (W.) I. S.-1. oval, nearly sessile. — Sea-cliffs. Cunnemara. Glen Esk. 

4. A. gtricta. Leaves hispid and ciliated, the lower somewhat lyrate, 
P. 4, 6. (W.) E. I.-1. stalked ; pods erect — Limestone. Bristol. Arran Isle. 

5. A. petrafa. Leaves glabrous, or hairy, the radical ones lyrate-pinnatifid, 
P. 7, 8. (p. W.) 1. stalked ; pods spreading. — Rocks. 

7. Cardami'ne. L, Bitter-cress. 

Pod compressed ; valves flat, ribless, dehiscing elastically. Seeds in 1 row, on simple, 
filtfinm stalks. 

* Petioles of stem-leaves with ciliated, sagittate stip. ; leaves pinnate. 

1. C. impaiiens. Leafl. of the lower leaves ovate, 3-fid, of the upper, lan- 
A. 7, 8. (W.) E -6. ceolate, cut, or entire ; pet. linear, or 0. — Moist rocks. 

* Petioles not stipuled ; leaves pinnate. 

t Pet twice as long as cal. 

2. C. sylvdtica, Stam. 6 ; leafl. of the lower leaves roundish, angled, or 
A. 4-9. (W.) E. S. toothed ; pods erect, the pedicels patent — ^Woods. 

/3. hirsiita, stam. 4 ; pods and pedicels erect 

t Pet 3 times the length of cal. ; leafl. of lower leaves roundish, 

3. G. pratensis. toothed, of the upper leaves linear, lanceolate, entire ; stem 
P. 6. (p. W.) 20. simple ; stam. half the length of pet — Moist fields. 

/3. dentdta, leafl. of lower leaves acutely angular. 

4. 0. amSira, Leafl. of all the leaves angular, toothed, of the upper ob- 
P. 6, 6. (W.) 14. long ; stem with scions ; stanL nearly as long as pet — 

Wet fields. 

8. Dbnta'ria. i. Coral-wort 

Pod compressed, lanceolate ; valves flat, ribless, dehiscing elastically. Stigma capi- 
tate. Seeds in 1 row, on dilated, winged funiculi 

1. D. bttlbifera. Stem quite simple ; lower leaves pinnated ; upper ones 

P. 4, 6. (P.) E. S -1. simple, with axillary bulbs.— Shady places. Sussex. 

Dalkeith. 

Tr. n. ALISSIDJE. Silicula bi-vahed. Valves flat^ or concave; septum 
broad, oval, membranous. Seeds compressed, or ovate. Cot, flat, accumbent, 
parallel with septum, 

9. Aly'ssum. L, 

Silicula roundish or oval, dorsally compressed. FiL toothed. Hypogynons glands 
4. Seeds 2-4 in each cell 



106 Brassiceas.] Apofetalous Htpogynous Exogens. [Armoracia. 

1. A. calycinum* Stellatdy hoary; leaves obovate-lanceolate, attenuate be- 

A, 5, 6. ( — ^Y.) £. S.-1. low ; silicula roundish, pubescent ; caL persistent. 

10. Koni'ga. Br. 

Silicula oval, dorsally compressed. Fil. simple. Hj'pogynous glands 8. Seeds 1, 
rarely 2 in each cell, the base of their stalks adnate with the septum. 

1. K. maritima* Stem procumbent, with bi-partite hairs ; leaves linear- 

P. 8, 9. (W.) 1. lanceolate, acute ; silicula oval, pointed, glabrous. — Sea- 

cliffs. 

11. Dba'ba. L. Whitlow-grass. 

Silicula oval, slightly convex. Fil. simple. Cells many-seeded. 

• Stalks leafless, or rarely 1 -leaved. 

1. D. verna. Pet. deeply cloven ; leaves lanceolate, somewhat toothed, 

A, 3-6. rW.) 20. hairy Walls, &c 

8. inflata, silicula inflated. 

2. D. aizoides. Pet. slightly notched ; leaves linear^lanceolate, glabrous, 
P. 3, 4. (Y.) E.-1. keeled, ciliated, in dense tufts ; sihcula with a long 

style. — Walls, Swansea. 

3. D. rupestris. Pet. undivided ; leaves plane, lanceolate, stellately hairy ; 
P. 7. (W.) I. S.-1. silicula, style short. — Arran Isle. Highlands. 

• Stalks leafy. 

4. D. incana. Leaves lanceolate, toothed, stellately hoary ; silicula some- 

B. 6, 7. (W.) 2. what twisted, erect ; style slender. — Mountains. 

5. D. murdlis. Leaves ovate, clasping, toothed, scabrous ; silicula not 
A. 4, 6. (W.) 1. twisted, spreading; style 0. — Rocks, Walla. 

12. Coghleari'a. L, Scurvey-grass. 

Silicula globose, many-seeded ; valves very convex, with a prominent, dorsal rib. 

* Radical leaves cordate, or reniform, stalked. 

1. C. officinalis. Stem-leaves sessile, oblong, sinuated, half-clasping ; silicula 
A. 6, 6. (W.) 10. globose. — Wet places by the sea. 

/3. alpina. leaves smaller ; silicula ovate. 

2. C. Ddnica, Stem-leaves stalked, 3-5-lobed, somewhat deltoid ; silicula 
A, 6. (W.) 20. ovate-elliptical, veiny. — Sea-coast. 

/3. integrifolia, radical leaves reniform, all entire. 

* Radical leaves ovate-oblong, toothed near the base, stalked. 

3. C. A'nglica, Stem-leaves mostly sessile, lanceolate, toothed ; silicula 
A, 5. (W.) 20. eUiptical, strongly reticulated with veins. — Sea-shores. 

13. Abmoba'cia. Rupp, Horse-radish. 

Silicula globose, many-seeded ; valves very convex, ribless. 

1. A. rusticana* Radical leaves oblong, crenate, on long petioles ; stem 

P. 5. (W.) £. S.-13. leaves elongate-lanceolate, sub-sessile ; i^cula oval.— 

Near gardens. 



Cakile.] Apopetalous Hypogynous Exogens. [Brassiceae. 107 

Tr. III. THLASPIDJE. Silicula laterally compressed, with a narrow sep- 
tum, and keeled or winged valves. 

14. I'beris. L. Candy- tuft 

j^cnla ovate, or ronndish, emarginate; valves keeled and winged; cells 1 -seeded. 
The outer pet. longest. Fil. simple. 

1. I. amdra. Leaves lanceolate, acute, somewhat toothed, glabrous ; fl*i 

A, 7. (W.) ,E. S.-4. in oblong clusters, at first corymbose. — Cludk-fields. 

16. Teesda'lia. Br. 

Silicnla roundish, emarginate, the valves keeled below, winged above ; cells 2-seedcd. 
HL with a scale at the inside or the base of each. 

1. T. nudicaulis. Leaves numerous, radical, lyrate-pinnatifid ; pet unequal. 

A. 6. (W.) E. S.-16. — Dry, gravelly places. 

16. Hutchi'nsia. Br. 

Sflicola oval, entire ; valves keeled, not winged ; cells 2-seeded. FiL simple. 

1. H. petrte'a. Leaves pinnate, entire; pet scarcely equal to cal. ; silicula 

A, 3, 4. (W.) K-2. obtuse at both ends ; stigma sessUe. — Rocks, Walls. 

17. Thla'spi. L. Penny-cress. 
Silicnla roundish, emarginate ; valves winged ; cells many-seeded. Fil. simple. 

1. T. arvense. Silicula orbicular, with a broad wing ; leaves oblong-sagit- 
A. 6, 7. (W.) 17. tate, toothed, glabrous Fields. Roadsides. 

2. T. perfoliatum. Silicula obcordate, style included witliin the notch ; stem 
A, 5. (W.) E.-2. leaves cordate, somewhat toothed, glabrous. — Oxford- 
shire. Gloucestershire. 

8. T. alpSstre. Silicula triangular- obcordate; style exserted beyond the 

P, 6-8. (W.) £. S.-3. notch ; stem-leaves cordate, sagittate. — Hilly pastures. 

Tr. TV. CAKILIDjE. Silicula or siliqua jointed^ each joint with 1 or more 
Meeds, Septum often absent. 

18. Caki'le. G<Brt. Sea-rocket 

Silicnla angular, of 2, 1 -seeded, indehiscent joints, the upper joint deciduous, with an 
erect seed, the lower persistent, seedless, or with 1 pendent seed. 

1. G. mantima. Joints of silicula 2-edged, the upper one sagittate ; leaves 
A. 6, 7. (p. W.) 10. fleshy, pinnatifid, somewhat toothed Sea-shores. 

Sub-Ordek IL— NOTORIIIZIN^. Cot flat, incumbent (o ||). Rad. lying 
on back of cot Seeds ovate, not bordered. 

Tr. V. SISYMBRIDJE. Siliqua elongated, 2'Valved; valves concave, or 
keeled; septum narrow. 



108 BrassiceiB.] Apopbtalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [Erysimum. 

19. He'spbris. L. Dame's Violet. 

Pod 4-angiilar, or somewhat 2-edged. Stigma sub-sessile of 2 converging, simple 
lobes. Cal. erect Seeds in 1 row. 

1. H. matron&lis* Stem erect ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, toothed ; pet. obovate, 

B. 6, 6. ( — ^P.) 10. obtuse, apiculate ; pods erect, twisted — Hilly pastures. 

20. Sisy'mbriux. L, Hedge-mustard. 

Pod terate ; valves 8-ribbed. CaL erect Stigma entire. Seeds in 1 row, com- 
pressed. 

1. S. officinale. Pods subulate, pubescent, adpressed to the hispid stem, 
^. 6, 7. ( — Y.) 20. nearly sessile; leaves runcinate-pinnatifid, haiiy. 

Way-sides. 

2. S. Prio. Pods terate-linear, longer than pedicels, nearly erect; 
A. 7, 8. (Y.) 4. leaves runcinate, toothed, glabrous as well as stem. 

Waste places. 

3. S. Sophia. Pods terate-linear, longer than pedicds, rather patrat; 
j4. 6-8. ( — Y.) 16. leaves 2 or 3-pinnatifid, with narrow segments, and as 

well as stem, slightly downy. — Rubbish. 

21. Conri'noia. Link, 

Pod 4-angled ; valves 8-ribbed, the middle one prominent Cal. erect Stigma en- 
tire. Seeds as in Sisymbrium, 

1. C. thaliana. Leaves somewhat toothed, hairy, radical ones obkmg, 

A. 4. (W.) 20. slightly stalked; stem branched; poda ascending..— 

Walls. 

22. Allia'ria. Adans. Sauce-alone. 

Pod terate ; valves convex, 8-ribbed, the middle one prominent, the lateral ones 
branching. CaL lax. Stigma entire. Seeds in 1 row, striated; funicle flat- 
tened, winged. 

1. A. officinalis. Leaves cordate, the lower reniform, sinuate-dentate, all 

B. 5, 6. (W.) 20. stalked ; seeds oblong, striated. — Hedge banks. 

23. Ebt'simum. L. Treacle-mustard. 

Pod 4-angled ; valves keeled with 1 pronunent rib. CaL erect Stigma obtuse, 
sometimes emarginate with patent lobes. 

1. £. Cheiranthoides. Leaves lanceolate, mostly entire, with 3-partite hairs, leafl., 
B. 6-8. (Y.) K L-9. all stalked ; ped. longer than caL ; pods patent, ascend- 
ing. — Cultivated ground. 

2. E. virg&tum. Leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, with 2 or 8-partite hairs, 
B. 7, 8. (Y.) E.-1. upper sessile ; ped. as long as cal. ; pods erect — Bath. 

3. £. orient&le. Leaves eUlptic-oordate, obtuse, clasping, radical ones oh- 
A, 6. (W.) K-2. ovate, all glaucous, entire. — Western coast 



Snbalarin.] ArorBTAidOirs Hipootmoits Exooxvs. [Brasaioes. 100 



Tr. YL CAMELINIDjE. SUieuia lateralfy camprtgied. Falvts eaneave 
or keeUdf at right anglet with eot. 

24. Cameu^ma. Crantz, GMoffHeamm, 

SificaU fnb-orate, maoj-aeeded; yahres inflated, haying a linear prolongitioa at cod, 
eonfliunt with the style. 

L C toHva,* ISIiciila oborate, bordered, twice as long as style ; stigma 

A. 6, 7. (T.) 4. simple ; leaves lanceolate, sagittate. — FUx fields. 

Tr. yn. LEPJDIDJE. SiKcula with a very narrow septttm, parallel with 
eot, Valvet very concave or keeled. 

25. CoBQNo'pus. Gart, Wart-cress. 

Sfficola of 2 Ycntiioose lobes. Seed solitary in each celL 

1. C BmelUL SOicola entire, nndivided, renifbnn, crested with little sharp 
X6, 9. (W.) 17. points; style prominent; leaves pinnatifid. — Waste 

groond. 

2. CL tRdgma. Silk»da emarginate, of 2 wrinkled lobes ; style very short ; 
A, 7-9. (W.) K. L-8. leaves pinnatifid. — ^Waste ground, near sea. 

2B, Ijbpi'dictic. L, Peppsr-worL 

SiEcnla roundish or oblong, entire or notched ; valves compressed, keeled or winged. 
Pet equaL Seeds 1 in each cell. 

* Sftteda with vahres winged towards end, ovale, emargmate, 

1. L. SmithH, wiUi few scales, or ; style much longer than the notch ; 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 11. lower leaves obcordate, stalked, upper ifln^^^^lwfa* sagit- 
tate. — ^Banka. 

2. L. eampe e tr e , Silicnla scaly ; style not longer than notch ; lower leaves 
A. 6-8. (W.) 17. obloBg, narrowed into a foot-stalk, upper as last — 

Dry soiL 

* SiBeala with valves not winged, ronndbh, notched. 

8. L. rmder6le. Radical leaves pinnatifid, those of brandies finear, entlie ; 

A, 6. (W.) i. fl. diandrons, apetalons. — Near aea. 

4. L. DrVKu* Silicula cordate ; valves turgid ; radkal leaves oblong, en- 
P. 6, 8. (W.) E.-2. tire, or tood^ those of stem sagittate, ckiqiing; fl*s 

tetradynamous, with pet. — Relds. 

5. L. latifSHum, Silicnla oval, entire ; leaves ovate, lanceolate, serrate, or 
P. 7. (W.) 6. entire; H as h»t-~Wet, shady pUices. 

27. CaPtE'LLa. Ve C. Shepherd's -parse. 

Sfficola triangnlar-obcordate ; valves compressed, sharply keeled, without wings, 
many-seeded. 

1. C Burea-pasiSris, Badical leaves lanceolate, pinnatifid, or undivided, toothed ; 
A, 8«9. (W.) 20. sflicuU triangular-obcordate. — ^Waste places. 

28. Subula'bia. X. Awl-wort 

Silicula oval, laterally compressed. Valves boat-shaped, turgid, many-seeded. 

S. aqn&tica. Leaves few, radical, subulate; fl*s small, sub-merged; 

P. 7. (W.) 4. root of king, white fibres.— In shaUow water. 



no Brassiceae.] Apopetalous Htpooynous Exogbns. [Brassica. 

Tr. YIU. ISATIDJE, SUicula Ucelled, Iseeded^ scarcely dehiscent. Vahes 
keeled. 

29. I'sATis. L. Woad. 

Silicula laterally compressed, 1 -celled, 1-seeded, yalves keeled, at length separating. 

1. I. tinctoria.* Silicula obovate-oblong, abrupt, smooth ; radical leaves 

B. 6. (Y.) E.-2. oblong, crenate, those of stem sagittate, entire. — ^fields. 

Sub-Order III. ORTHOPLOCIN^ ( o > > ). Cot. incumbent, folded length- 
wise on the midrib, and receiving the radical. Seeds generally globose. 

Tr. IX. BBASSICIDJE. Siliqua dehiscing with 2 valves. Septum linear. 

30. Diplota'xis. De C. 

Pod compressed ; valves sub-convex, with 1 straight rib. Seeds oval or oblong, in 
2 rows. . 

1. D. tenuifilia. Stem branched, leafy, glabrous ; leaves glaucous, lanoeo- 
P. 7-9. (Y.) E. S.-9. late, acute, 1 or 2-pinnatifid ; upper entire. — Rubbish. 

2. D. muralis. Stem simple, almost leafless, hispid ; leaves glabrous, ovate- 
^. 8, 9. (Y.) 2. lanceolate, sinuate, or lyrate. — ^Dry places. 

31. Si'napis. L, Mustard. 

Pod terate ; valves convex, with 1, 3, or 5 strong ribs. CaL spreading. Seeds glo- 
bose, in 1 row. 

* Pods closely adpressed to the stem, 

1. S. tnca»a. turgid, with a short, 1-seeded beak; valves 1-ribbed; 
B. 7, 8. (Y.) C. leaves lyrate, hispid, those of stem linear-lanceolate. — 

Sandy places. 

2. S. nigra. Siliqua 4-angular, without a beak; leaves lyrate, toothed, 
^. 6-8. (Y.) 17. hispid, of stem Imear-lanceolate, glabrous. — Hedge banks. 

* Pods spreading, knotty and turgid, 

3. S. arvensis. longer than the conical, 2-edged beak ; valves 3-ribbed ; 
A. 6-8. (Y.) 20. leaves ovate, stalked, upper sessile. — Com fields. 

/3. retrohirtus. plant rough, with deflexed bristles. 

4. S. alba. Siliqua shorter than the ensiform beak; valves 5-nerved; 
A. 7. (Y.) 18. leave? lyrate-pinnatifid. — Waste places. 

32. Bra'ssica. L. Cabbage. (4 B.) Tumep (1 B. fi). 

Pod terate; valves convex, 1-ribbed. Cal. erect Seeds globose, in 1 row, their 
stalks not winged. 

* Lower leaves more or less hispid ; stem erect, leafy, 

1. B. campestris, lyrate, toothed ; upper cordate, acuminate, clasping ; root 
A. 5, 6. (Y.) 6. and stem slender ; pod cylindrical, veiny, beak sutKilate, 

seedless. — Borders of fields. 
/3. Rapa, root fleshy, orbicular, depressed. 

2. B. Cheirdnthus. Leaves stalked, all deeply pinnatifid; pods cylindrical, 
P. 6-8. (Y.) C! 3-ribbed, beak 1-3-seeded — St Aubin's Bay, Jersey. 



Reseda.] Apopbtalous Htpootnous Exoobns. [Resedese. HI 

* Leaves all glabrous. 

5. B. Moninsis, Pods with 3-ribbed valves, and a 1-2-seeded beak ; leaves 
P. 7. (Y.) 2. deeply pinnatifid ; stem prostrate, leafless Sea- coast. 

4. B. olerdeea. Pods ribless, and without a beak ; leaves glaucous, waved, 

B, 6f 6. (Y.) 4. and lobed, lower Ijrate, those of the erect stem oblong, 

sessile. — Sea-cliffs. 

6. B. NdpuM. Pods as last ; leaves glabrous, the lower lyrate, toothed, 
B, 5, 6. (Y.) 17. those of erect stem cordate, lanceolate, clasping. — Borders 

of fields. 

TV. X. RHAPHANID^, SUiqua or siUcula dividing transversely into 1- 
seeded Joints or cells. Seeds globose, 

33. Cba'mbe. L, Sea-kale. 

£ffliciilaof2 joints; the upper globose, indehiscent, deciduous, with 1 seed pendent 
from a long curved funide, which arises from the base of cell ; lower joint barren. 

1. G. maritima. Longer fiL forked ; silicula pointless ; leaves roundish, ser- 

P. 6. (W.) 7. rated, waved, toothed, glaucous, glabrous as well as 

stem. — Sea-shore. 

34. Ba'phanus. L. Radish. 

Pod linear or oblong, tapering upwards, indehiscent, or dividing across into 1-seeded 
cells, the lowermost cell barren, resembling a pediceL CaL erect. 

1. 13L maritimus. Radical leaves interruptedly pinnate ; siliqua monilifonn, 

A, 6, 7. nr.) 18. jointed, of 1-cell, striated. — Com fields. 

2. B. Baphanistrum. Leaves simply lyrate ; siliqua monilifonn, jointed, of l-cell, 
' A. 6, 7. (Y.) K S.-2. striated.— Beechy Head. Bute, Galloway. 

Order L.— RESEDKffi. 

Herbs, rarely small shrubs, with alternate leaves, and minute, gland-like stipules, 
possessing no remarkable properties. FL racemose, or spiked. Sep. many. Pet. 
broad, fl^y, unequal, with lacerated appendages at back. Stam. numerous f 12-20), 
on a one-sided disk. Ov. 1 -celled, of 3 carpels, scarcely closed ; stig. 3, sessile. 
Frtdt open at apex, with parietal placentae ; or rarely apocarpous, with empty car- 
pels surrounding a free, central placenta. Seeds numerous, reniform ; emhr. curved^ 
exaUnaninous ; rad. next hilum. 

1. Rese'da. L. Dyer's-rocket. 

CaL many-parted. Pet. more or less divided, unequaL Stam. numerous. Capsule 
1-ceIled, opening at end ; stigmas 3-6, sesdle. 

1. R. Lvteola, Leaves undivided, lanceolate; sep. 4; pet 4 or 5, very 

B, 7, 8. ( — ^Y.) 19. unequal, longer than caL — ^Waste places. 

2. R. Ititea, Leaves 3-cleft, or pinnatifid, the lower pinnate ; sep. 6 ; 
B. 6-8. (Y.) 14. L-2. pet. 6, very unequal, as long as sep. — ^Waste places. 

3. "EL fruticulosa* Leaves all pinnate, waved, glaucous; segments, linear, 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 3. acute ; sep. 6, linear-lanceolate ; pet. 6, nearly equal, 

3-fid, longer than cal. — ^Waste places, near sea. 
/3. alba, pet. and sep. 6. 



112 Violaries.] Apopetalous Hypootnous Exoeiirs. [Viok. 



OsDSB LL— TAMARISCINILS. 

Shrubs, or barbs, with bitter, astringoit qnalitiefl. Leaves alternate, itimple, scale- 
like. Fl. in spikes or racemes. Col, 4-b-parfed, persistent Pet. 4-5. St€m. 
hjfpogyfum9^ as many, or twios as many, sometimes monadelphons ; sBstiTation imbri- 
cate. Ov. 1 -celled ; styles 8. Caps, 8-yalyed, with 8 parietal or h€ual placenta. 
Seeds ascending, indefinite, comose; alb. 0; embr. etraiffht; rad. in&rior. 

1. Ta'kabiz. 

Cal. 5-parted. Pet 5. Stam. 5 or 10. Styles 8, patent, featheiy. Seeds attached 
to basal placentsB, tipped by a feathery down. 

1. T. A'ngHca,* Leeres minute, appressed, dasping', flptomd ; spQcflB kteral, 

8» 7. (•— R.) K-2. somewhat panickd, slender. — Coast 

Ordkb LIL— FRANKENIEiE. 

Herbs, or under shrubs, without any important qualities, with opposite, ezstipulate 
leaves, having a membranous sheathing base revolute at edge. FL in the divisions of 
branches. Sep. 4-5, united into afwrowed tube below. Pet. hypogynous, altemate 
with Sep., clawed, with appendages at base of limb, Stam. as many as, or more 
than pet ; anth. free, versatile, opening longitudinally. Style filiform 2, 8, or 4-fid. 
Ovules indefinite, attached to parietal placentas by long stalks. Caps. 1 -celled in- 
closed in caL, 3, 8, or 4-valved, the plaoentSB on their margins. Embr, straight 
erect, in the midst of a small alb.^ with a very short, inferior rad. 

1. Fraitks'nia. L, Sea-heath. 

Sep. united. Pet 6. Style 8-fid ; lobes oblong, the stigma on the inner side. 

1. F. Ue^vis. Leaves linear, revolute at mar^^, glabrous, ciliated at the 

P. 8, (R.) £.-8. base ; stem prostrate. — Salt marshes. 

Ordbb Lin ^VIOLARlEiE. 

Herbs, rarely shrubs, with simple, stipulate, usually altemate leaves, involute hi 
vernation, possessing emetic and purgative properties. Sep. 5, imbricate in aestiva- 
tion, mostly elongated at base. Pet. 5, often unequaL Stam. 5 ; anth, introrse, 
crested^ 2 in the irregdUur fl's with an appendage at base. Ov. 1-celIecl, with 8, 
many-seeded, parietal placentae opposite the oitter sep. Style smgle, ttostiy deeK- 
nate, with an oblique, hooded stigma. Caps. B*valvedy bearing the pearietal pla* 
cent<B in their asds. Embr, straighi^ ered^ m axis efa smailj fltshy alb, 

1. VfOLA. L, Violet. 

Sep. eloiligated at base. Pet unequal, the lower one produced into a hollow 4>ur at 
base. Anth. cohering, 2 lower ones spurred behind. 

* Plants with an evident stem. 

t Stip. of the middle leaves pinnatifid ; stigma uiceolate ; leaves ovate;, 
crenate. 



Viola.] Stnpbtalous Htpooynous Exogens. [Orobancheee. 113 

1. V. tricolor. Stip. lyrate-piimatiiid, the terminal lobe Bpatbulate, cre- 
A, 6-9. (T. * B.) 20. nate ; spurs of anth. filiform-davate. — Dry places. 

&. arvensia. pet shorter than cal. 

2. V. lutea. Stip. palmatelj pinnatifid, the terminal lobe narrow, en- 
P, 5-7. (T. * P.) 9. tire ; spurs of anth. elongated, filiform. — Pastures. 

$, anue'na. leaves broadly ovate, subcoriaceous ; fl. deep yellow. 

y, CwHni. stem angular, rough ; pet hairy. — ^Near sea. 

t Stip. of middle leaves lanceolate, entire, ciliated or toothed ; stigma not 
vroeolate, an oblique point 

3. y. eanina. Leaves ovate or oblong, cordate; spurs of anth. lanceo- 
P. 4-8. (B. o.b. W.) 20. late, acute; sep. acummate. — Shady places. 

/3. sjflvdHca, leaves sub-reniform, acuminate ; stip. lanceolate, attenuate ; 

fruit acuminate. 
y, pusitta, leaves small, roundish-cordate, rather acute ; stem woody 

at base. 
). flavieomU, similar to last, but with cordate, oblong leaves. 

I. Idctea. leaves ovate-lanceolate, narrowed at base into a petiole, 

the lower cordate ; stip. large, cut ; fl. cream-coloured. 
* Plants without an evident stem. 

4. y. Odordta. Leaves cordate, glabrous, petioles with deflexed hairs; 
P. 8, 4. (B. o. W.) 18. scions creeping; spur of cor. straight; spur of anth. 

lanceolate ; bracts near fl. ; lateral pet with a hairy line. 
— Banks. 
fi, imberbis, pet without a hairy line, white. 

5. y. hirta. Leaves cordate, hairy, as well as petioles ; scions ; spur 
P. 8, 4. ( — B. o.W.) 15. of cor. hooked at end ; bracts distant from fl's ; spurs 

of anth. linear. — ^Woods. 
j3. minor. fl. smaller ; ped. much longer than leaves. 

6. y. ptdustris. Leaves reniform-cordate, glabrous ; scions ; spur of cor. 
P. 4-6. ( — P.) 15. straight, obtuse ; spurs of anth. short, thick, rounded ; 

pet without a hairy line. — Marshes. 



Division IV. — Synpetalous Hypogynous Exogens. 

Htpooynous Exooeks ; with the petals cohering to one another, so as to form a 
corolla, whidi is separable in a single piece. 

Order Liy.— OROBANCHEfi. 

LeaJleM herbs, parasitic on the roots of other plants, with stimulant, astringent, 
bitter properties. Stems covered with brown scales. Cal. persistent Cor, irregu- 
lar, persistent, imbricated in sBStivation. Stam, 4, didynamous, on cor. Auth. 1-2- 
oeUed, the ceUs often mucronate or bearded at base. Qv. superiw, 1 -celled, seated 
in a fleshy disk, the 2 carpels right and left of the axis ; style 1 ; stigma 2-lnbed. 
Fruit l-celled, 2- valved, each valve with 1 or 2 placenta in the middle. Seeds in- 
definite ; embr. minute at base of a fleshy alb. 

Cal. of 2 lateral tegmenta. Cor. ringent, 4 or 5-cleft. . 1. OROBAircHB. 

Cal. eampanulate, 4-cleft. Cor. tabular, 2-lipped. . . 2. Lath baa. 

L 2 



114 GentijMiete.] SriipisTALOnB Hypoctnous ExoobM* [Lathrsea. 

1. Oroba'nchb. L* Br£K>ni-fApe. 

Cal. of 2 lateml segments, often combined, or deeply 4 or 5-eleft. Ck>r. tubular, 
ringent, 4 or 6-cleft, deddaons, its base persistent 

* BmctB 1 to eadi fl. ; s^ 2, entir* or b&fid, stpante or oombiittd bd<yw la ftont. 

f Sep. each equal, bifid. 

% Upper Up of cor. nearlj entire. 

1. O.mSQor, Cor. campamilate, inflated at baM; Kpl wa?7, denticu- 
P. 6, 7. (Br.) 15. lated, the middle kbe of the lower one ttiwk the longest ; 

sep. l^nerTed.i^Oii Bro9m and Furze. 
% Upper lip of eor. 2-lobed, 

2. O. etiryoph^&cea, lower lip of 3 obtuse^ nearlj eqvj&l lobes, all wvrj^ its tube 
P. 7. ( — P.) K-1. inflated above ; stjle pubescent ; stam. hairy within, be- 

1ow.-^->Ob Galium MoUng*,, 
8. 0. elatior. Lower lip of 3, acute, w»kAj equal lobes, its tube oom- 

P. 6-8. (r. Br.) £.-6. pressed abote; «tem. glandidar-hairy in the tower half 

within.— On Cemtmiiarta tcabiosa. 
t Sep. entire, or with 2 sabalate points, 

i lanceolate-subulate, 1 -nerved, longer thaa tafoe ef cor» 

4. O. rubra, Gor. campanidate, igUndular-pubescent exteraally; 1^ 
P. 7, 8. (r. Br.) t, acntely dendcolated, upper emaf>g^ate ; style pubescent 

in the upper part. — -Oa. Tkipnvs Serphyllum. 
X Sep. ovate, suddenly contracted mte 1 or 2 subulate points. 

5. 0. barbdta. Lower Hp of oor. havulg the middle lobe soAieWhat the 
P. 7. (y. — B.)£.I.*1. longest; sep. 1-nerved; stigma nearly entire. •<— On 

Ity. 

6. 0. minor. Lower lip of oor. with equal lobes ; sep. many- nerved ; 
j4. 7, 8. (y. — R.) IS. stigma 2-lobed-'-On 7Vt/b/««fn pratense, 

* Bracts 3 to each flower; sep. 4-5, combined below. Caps, bursting at top. 

7. O. oeertUea, Stem simi^ ; eep. 5, with triangiUar-subukte teeth ; ^yle 
P. 7, 8. (B.) £.-1. downy; lobes of lips of oer. obtuse; anth. hairy. — On 

AchilUBa Millefolium, 

8. 0. ramoaa. Stem branched ; sep. 4, with triangular, ovate-acuminate 
A, 8, 9. ( — ^B.) 2. teeth ; anth. glabrous. — On Hemp, 

2. LxTraELB^A. L, Tooth-wort 

Cal. campanulate, 4-cleft. Cor. tubular, 2-Upped, the tqi^per Up galeate, entive. 

1. L. 9quam6ria, FL pendulous, in 1 -sided racemes; stem dmple, lower lip 

P. 4, 6. (P.) 10. of cor. 3-cleft — On Hatch and Elm, 

Obdkr LV.-^GEN11ANK£. 

Mostly smooth herbs, with opp()Site, enifire, or alternate, sessile, d-5-ribbed leavef, 
and bitter qualities. P7. regular, CaL persistent. Cor, hypogynoun^ staminifhvui, 
marcescent, the Cmb mostly 4-5, or 8-cleft, often fHnged in tibe throat. Stam. as 
many as the segments. Calpels 2, the edges relflexed, and forming a 1, or imper- 
fectly 2 -celled ovary, with parietal ptacenta. Style 1. Stigmat 2, rig^t and kft 
of axis. Fruit a many-seeded berry <nr capscde, mostly 2-vah«d. Embr, minuie, in 
axis ofhfletky alb, ; nod. neift hUum. 



0«itiAiA.] StnpitaLous Htpootnous ExooiMs. [Gentianes. 115 

• Fl't 4-iiaJ7. Calycine leginentf equmL 

Siain. 8. Cal. in 8 deep tegmente. . .1. Chloba. 

sum. 4. Od. 4 h>bed, tubular. .... 3. Cicxitdia. 

* n*e »-«tf7 1 tf 4-ttar7,«lM ealyetae legBtfltt an nmqul. 

t liBttvet oppeeile. 

8«7leerec4. JLnth. «l length ^inllj listed. 8. Ebtthbjia. 

Style 0. Anth. not twitted. * . ^ OXJITIAIIA. 

T uBsveiAliflftMle. 

Cor. rotate. Learee limple. . . .8. Yillabiia. 

Cor. ftmnel-shaped. Learee tenute. . . 8. MBVYwurrBBt. 

Tr. L GBNTIANIDjX^ Leuvti opfmite. Cor. twitted in ^Bttwrntion, 

1. Chlo'ra. L. Yellow-wort 

CaL in 8 deep segments. Cor. nearlj rotate. Stam. 8. Stigmas 2, bifid. 

1. C. perfoliata. Leaves broadlj connate, the lower elliptic-oUong, narrowed 

A. 7-9. (T.) 12. betow ; plant gUuioooi.— Dry hills. 

2. CiCE'imiA. Adana, Gentianella. 
CaL 4-cleft. Cor. 4 -cleft, ftmnel-shaped. Stam. 4. Stigma entira. 

1. C,JUif6nnis. Stem filiform, forked; fl. solitaiy, on long stalkB ; fesree 

A. 7, 8. (T.) £. I. -2. linear-lanoeolate, or anbulata. — Damp plao«. 

8. Erythbje'a. Ren, Centaury. 

CaL 5-cleft Cor. funnel-shaped. Stam. 5 ; anth. at length spiraDy twisted. Stig- 
mas 2. Caps, linear, imperfectly 2-celled. 

* CaL shorter than the tube of the budding cor. ; leaves ovate- oblong. 

1. £. Centaurium, FL sessile, cor3rmbo8ely panicled ; stem erect, simple be- 
A, 7, 8. (R.) 19. low ; leaves elliptic-oblong, upper acute. — ^I^ places. 

2. £. pulcheUa, FL stalked, axilhuy and terminal ; stem erect, mnch 
^. 7-9. ( — P. ? branched; leaves oblong -lanceolate, upper ovate.---SaD4y 

sbore. 

* CaL as long as the tnbe of cor. 

3. £. Ibtarifilia. Stem simple ; leaves oblong-Ilnear, obtuse^ the lower 
A. 7, 8. (R.) ? crowded, spaihulate; fi. sessile, corymbose.^ — Sea shore. 

4. £. latifSUa, Stem sboit, branched from the base ; leaves broadly elBp- 
A. 6-8. (R.) £. L-? tical, obtuse ; fl. sessilfe, hi dense, forked tufts. — Sea 

shore. 

4. Gentia'ha. L. Gentian. 

CaL 4-cleft. Cor. sub-campannlate, ftemel or salver-shaped. Stam. 5. Styles 
often combined. 

* Cor. bearded in the throat, salver-shaped. 

1. G. AmartVa. FL 5-nary ; calydne segments nearly equal, linear-lanoeo- 
A, 8, 9. ( — P.) 15. late ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, sessfle ; lower obovate. — 

Diy places. 
fi, Germaniea. tube of cor. enlarged upwards; ov. oblong-linear, and 

with the capsule stalked. 

2. 6. eampeatris, Fl. 4-naiy, the 2 lateral oaL-segments laxge, ovate ; leaves 
A, 8-10. (B.) 16. el]iptic-oblong.-.Lime8tone-hil]8. 



116 IliciDeaa.] Stnpetalous Htpogtnous Exooens. [Vinoa. 

* Cor. naked in the throat ; fl. 5 -nary. 

f Cor. salver-shaped, with 5 large, and 5 smaller, bifid segments. 

3. G. vema. Stem 1-fl ; cal. with 5 acute teeth, and prominent angles ; 
P. 4. (B.) E. I.-2. leaves ovate, the lower tufted. — Limestone-hills. 

4. G. nivalis. Stem slightly branched ; branches l-fl*d; caL cylindrical, 
A. S. (B.) S.-1. with 5 acute angles; leaves elliptical, (not tufted ?) — 

Mountains, 
t Cor. campanulate, 5-cleft. 

5. G. Pneumonanthe. FL nearly sessile, terminal and axillary, solitary; caL- 
A. 8, 9. (B.) K-7. segments, as also the leaves, linear, obtuse. — Heaths. 

6. Villa'rsia. Fent. 

CaL 5-parted. Cor. rotate, the limb often ciliated. Stam 5. 

1. y. NymphtBoides. Leaves orbicular* cordate, floating; ped. aggregate, 1-fl'd; 
P. 8. (Y.) E.-4. cor. ciliated Still water. 

6. Menya'nthes. L, Buck-bean. Marsh-trefoiL 
CaL 5-parted. Cor. funnel-shaped ; segments hairy within. Stigma 2-lobed. 

M. trifolidta. Leaves temate; leafl. equal, obovate, wavy, obscurely 

P. 5-7. ( — R.) 18. toothed ; fl's clustered, opposite to a leaf. — Boggy places. 

Order LVL— APOCYNE^ 

Herbs, but mostly trees or shrubs, frequently virulently poisonous, with a milky 
juice, andoppofflte, entire exstipulate leaves, Cal. persistent and with the cor. 5«parted ; 
aestivation twisted. Stam, 5, on the cor. ; anth. 2-celled. Pollen granular, glo- 
bose, or 3-lobed, immediately applied to stigma. Ov. 2-lobed, 1-2-celled, many- 
seeded. Carpels slightly cohering. Styles 1 or 2; stigma 1, contracted in the 
middle, the base expanded and cup-shaped. Fruit a follicle, capsule, drupe, or 
berry, double or nngle. Seeds usually pendulous ; embr. foliaceous ; alb. fleshy or 
eariilaginous ; rad. turned towards hilum. 

1. Vi'nca. L. Periwinkle. 

Cor. salver-shaped, with oblique segments ; mouth closed with spreading hairs, and 
oonnivent stigmas. Follicles 2, erect. Seeds naked. 

1. y. minor. Stem procumbent ; leaves elliptic-lanceolate, and with the 
P. 5, 6. (B.) 16. small lanceolate teeth of cal. glabrous. — ^Hedges. 

2. y. m&jor,* Stem somewhat ascending; leaves ovate, cordate, their 
P. 5. (B.) 12. margins, as well as the elongated, subulate segments of 

caL ciliated. — ^Hedges. 

Order LVII ILIdNKfi. 

Trees, or shrubs, with persistent, coriaceous, exstipuled leaves, possessing tonic 
and emetic properties. Sep. 4-6. Cor, 4-6-parted, imbricate in asiivation. Disk 



YMcmhim.] Stmpbtalous Htpoctvous Exogens. [Erioese. 117 

0. Oy. tree, S^-eeBed; §iiffma mb-tatSe, lobed; omks aoGtaiy, with a cop- 
AMp&A Amide. Fnnt fleihj, 2-6-8eeded; piaeenta axile. Seed hard, nupended: 
«mbr. small, 2-lobed, lying next liflam; iwL sopenor ; aJb. Imyeyfietkg, 

1. Flex. L, HoOy. 
CaL 4 or 5-tootfaed. Cor. rotate, 4 or 5>cleft. Stigmas 4, sob-sessile. Fmit 



1. L AqinfoBnau Leaves ovate, acate, shiniiig, wavy, wifli spinoiis teeth ; 

T. 5, 6. (W.) 20. fl's sob-unbellate ; ped. axiDaiy.— Woods. 

Order LVIIL— ERICEiE. 

Shmbs, or hert)6, with opposite, entire, ezstipalate leaves, so m e tim es parasitic and 
leafless, possMsing tonic, and in some instances dioretie or intozieating qnalitieB. 
CaL 4-6-deft, firee, rarely adherent to ov. Cor, sometfanes apopetalons, regohff, 
Arh-eUfi ; nstivation imbricate. Stam. as many, or twice as many as divisions of 
cor., and not nsoally attached to it : out A. 2-eeZ/ed^ often appendaged, mostfy open- 
ing by pores at apex. Disk hypogynons, sometimes epigynons. Ov. mostly free, 
unally vriih at many eeXU as diviaums ofjL Frmt capsular, or baccate, many- 
oeDed, wUh arSe placentiB, Embr. immersed in a fleshy aJb, 

* Or. inftrior. Stem dvnUqr. . .1. YACCimni. 

* Ot« rapcrior. 

t Shraha. 

i Cor. 4-toothi1, loofsr fli«a eaL 

CvB» with a loenliddal dehiwenee. 3. Eaic a. 

Gsiw. with a npCieidal dehiaoenoe. 3. Dabcbcia. 

$ Oar. 5-cleft, ahorter than thft eoloimd eaL 4. Caxxvua. 
X GaL5-parted. 

i Stam. 5. Or. S-3-edIfld. .... 6. Aiat.ka. 

f Stam. 10. Or. 5-oelled. 

I FndtflMhy. .....& AxBvrv^. 

I J'rait dry, 5-TalTed. 

FlLSat: anth. with 8 horat at back. 7. AirDaoMSDA. 

Fn. flUftnn { aafli. withoat homi. a. Fhtixodocb. 
t HeriM. 

CaL graea. Btjie 5-lotad. .... 9. Ftbola. 

CaL ookmred. Style simi^ . .10. Mohotropa. 

1. VACci'iouif. i. Whorfle-bcny. 

CaL peraisteDt, tiie limb snperiar, entire, or, as well as the coTi^ 4 or 5-fld. Berry 
globose, 4 or 5-ceUed, many-seeded. 

* Stem trailing, filiibnn ; segments of cor. revdiite. Leaves evergree n . 

1. y. Oxyeoecos, Leaves oblong, with revolote margins, gliuicoas beneath ; 
S, 6, 7. (R.) 12. ped. temunal, 1-fl'd ; antii. sfanple.— Bogs. 

2. y. maerocarpunu Leaves ovate, with plane margins, whitish beneath ; ped. 

5, 7. (— B.) S.-1. latoal, l-fl*d; anth. 8nnp]e.--Soaghtonbog, Pfiatahire. 

* Stem not trailing, erect or spruding ; segments of cor. not revolote. 

f FL in terminal, drooping rsoemes ; anth. ample. 
8. y. FiHs'Ida'a, Leaves persistent, obovate^ dotted beneatii; margins sUg^ly 

6, 5, 6. ( — R.) 10. revolnte, nearly oitirei^— Dry heaths. 



118 Ericese.] Stnpetalous Hypogtnous Exooens. [Calluna.; 

t Ped. 1-fl'd ; anfh. with 2 horns at back. Leaves decidaons. 

4. y. uUffinSaum. Leaves obovate, entire, glaucous and vemed beneath ; stems 
S. 6. ( — R.) E. S.-8. rounded Mountam bogs. 

5. y. MyrtiUus, Leaves ovate, serrate, glabrous ; stems acutely angular. — 
S. 6. (r. G.) 17. Stony heaths. 

Tr. II. ERICIDJE, Shrubs or trees, Ov, superior, with an hypogynous disk, 

2. Ebi'ca. X. Heath. 

Sep. 4. Cor. campanulate or ovate, often inflated, 4-toothed. Stam. 8. Caps. 4- 
oelled, 4-valved, with a loculicidal dehiscence. 

* Stam. included ; fiL capillary ; cor. urceolate. 

t Anth. with appendages at base. 

X Leaves 4-whorled, mostly ciliated; fl*s capitate, (or racemose, 1 E. y.) 

1. E. Tetrdlix, Leaves lanceolate or linear, downy above, and on mid- 
S, 7, 8. (r. P. ©."W.) 20. rib beneath ; style as long as cor. — ^Moors. 

/3. Mack&iu leaves glabrous, with revolute maigins ; s^le protruding. 

y, Watsoni. cor. ventricose ; fl's racemose. 

X Leaves 3-whorled, not ciliated; fl's racemose; style slightly pro- 
truding. 

2. E. einSrea. Leaves glabrous, linear-lanceolate, acute, keeled beneath, 
S. 7, 8. (r. P.) 19. with a central furrow ; margins not revolute. — Heaths. 

f Anth. without appendages ; leaves 4-whorled ; style protruded. 
8. E. cilidris. Leaves ovate, glandulose, ciliated, with revolute margins ; 

S. 7, 8. (P.) E. I.-l. fl's in terminal, unilateral racemes. — Dorset. Cornwall. 

Cunnemara. 

* Stam. and style exserted ; fil. flattened. 

4. E. Mediterranea. Cor. tubular, urceolate ; cal. coloured ; leaves 4-whorled, 
S, 4. ( — R.) I.-l. linear, glabrous, flat, convex above, with a central fur- 
row beneath ; anth. not glabrous at base ; fl's in leafy 
racemes. — Mountain bogs, Cunnemara. 
5 E tj&gans. Cor. campanulate ; cal. green ; leaves 3-5-whorled, linear, 

S, 7, 8. (R. V, W.) E. I.-1. glabrous ; anth. gibbous at base ; fl. axillary, crowded. — 

Heaths in ComwalL Tramore, Waterford. 

8. Dabce'cia. 2>. Don, St Dabeoc's heath. 

Cal. 4-cleft. Cor. ovate, ventricose ; limb 4-toothed. Stam. 8, included; anth. 
sagittate, longer than fiL Caps. 4-celled, 4-valved ; dehiscence septiddaL 

D. polifSlia, Leaves ovate; margins revolute, white, and downy be- 

S. 8. (P. V, W.) L-1. neath ; fl's in termmal, ,leafy panicles. — Cunnemara, &c. 

4. Calx.u'na. Salisb, ling. 

Sep. 4, coloured, concealing the cor., surrounded by four green bracts. Stam. 8. Caps. 
4-cefled ; dehiscence septifragal. 

C. vulgaris. Fl's in almost unilateral panicles ; leaves small, sessile, op- 

S, 6-8. (R.t;.W.) 20. posite, with 2 spurs at base, smooth. — Heaths. 
fi, tomentosa, leaves hoary. 



i 



P/rolm.] Synpetalous Htpogtmous Exooens. [£rice». 119 

5. Aza'lea. L, 

CSaL 5-paited. Cor. campannlate, 5-cleft. Anth. roundish, opening longitodinaOj. 
Ctep^ 2 or 8-oelIed, 2 or S-valyed. 

A. proedmhefu. Branches spreading and procnmbent; leaves opposite, 

S. 5-6. ( — R.) S.-1. revolate, veiy smooth ; fl's in terminal racemes. — High- 
land momitains. 

6. Arbu'tus. L. Strawbeny-tree. Bear-beny. 

CaL de^ly 5-cIeft. Cor. ovate. Stam. 10. Anth. fomiahed at back with 2 re- 
flexed awns. Fndt fleshy, 5-celled, many-seeded. 

* Berry grannlar, with 5 many-seeded cells. 

1. A. Unedo. Stems upright; bark rough; leaves elliptic-lanoeolate, 
T. 9, 10. (+W.) L-1. serrated, pendstent; panicles terminal; fl's drooping. — 

Killamejr. Bantry. 

* Beny smooth, with 5, 1-seeded cells ; racemes termlnaL 

2. A. alpina. Stems procumbent ; leaves obovate, wrinkled, serrated, de- 
S, 5. (W.) S.-1. dduous. — ^Mountain heaths. 

2. A. Uva-ur»i, Stems procumbent ; leaves obovate, not wrinkled, shining, 

S, 6. ( — R.) 6. entire, persistent. — ^Dry heatiis. 

7. Andbo'meda. L. Wnd-rosemary. 

Fruit capsular, diy, 4 or 5-celled; dehiscence loculiddal; otherwise aa Arbutus. 

1. A. poUfSUa, Leaves persistent, alternate, lanceolate, glaucous beneath, 

S, 6, 7. ( — ^R.) 3. with revolute margins ; fl's drooping, in short, terminal, 

umbellate racemes. — Bogs. 

8. Phtllodo'ck. Saiiaib. 

CaL 5-parted. Cor. uroeolate, 5-toothed. Stam. 10; fiL slender; odls of anth. 
short, truncate. Stigma witii 5 tubercles. Caps. 5-oelled, septiddaL 

1. P. oBrulea. Leaves numerous, scattered, linear, denticulated ; ped. 

S. 6, 7. (b. B.) S.-1. glandular, hairy, terminal, aggregate, simple. — Sow of 

Athol, Perthshire. 

Tr. TIL PYROLID^. Herbi. Cor. or 4 of 5 ditHnet pet., or 0. Disk 0. 
Caps. 5-XHilvedy with a central placenta. Seeds with a loose skin or wing. 

9. Py'bola. L. Winter green. 

CaL 5-parted. Pet 5. Style 5-lobed. Anth. 2-celled, opening by pores at the 
base or apex. 

* FL solitary ; anth. with 2 tubular horns ; stigma radiant, 5-8-parted. 

1. P. unijlora. Scape with drooping fl. ; leaves roundish, serrated ; style 
P. 7. (W.) S.-1. short, straight — ^Alpine woods. 

* Fl's racemose ; anth. without horns, opening by 2 pores. 

f Style longer than stam. ; stigma annidar, with 5 points. 

2. P. rotundifolia. Stam. ascending ; style deflexed, curved upwards at end ; 
P. 8. (W.) K S.-7. leaves nearly round ; sep. lanceolate. — Bushy places. 

3. P. media. Stam. inflexed ; style straight, or slightly decurved ; leaves 
P. 7, 8. (r. W.) 6. nearly round ; sep. ovate, acute. — ^Woods. 



120 PlomlMgineflB.] Stnpstalous Htfootvous Exoosks. [Anneria. 

f Style shorter, or equal to stam. ; stigmA not annolar, S-lobed. 
4. P. minor, Stam. inflezed, equalliiig the straight, indoded style ; fl. 

P. 7. ( — ^R.) 11. racemose ; leaves roundish-oval, crenate.— Woods. 
b. P. seeunda, Stam. incurved, shorter than the straight, protruding style ; 

P. 7. (W.) 8. fl. in 1-sided racemes ; leaves ovate, acute, serrated.—^ 

Woods. Yorkshire. Deny. fflgMftnds. 

10. MoiroTBo'PA. L, Bird^s-nest. 

CaL 4 or 5-parted. Cor. of 4 or 5 pet, each cucullate at base. Style simple. Anth. 
l-cflUed, opening transversely. 

1. M. HypSpifyi, FL clustered, drooping ; lateral ones with 8 stam. ; ter- 
P. 6, 7. (+T.) 9. mmal one with 10 ; stem scaly Dry woods. 

Obdeb LIX PLUMBAGINK£. 

Herbg wHh entire, somewliat sheathing leaves, and narcotic, astringent pro- 
perties. Stip. 0. FL in panides or heads. CaL 5-cleft, persistent, plaited. Cor. 
6^d, somedmes apopetalous. St€tm, 5, ixdkering to the pet. in the apopetalous, free 
in the sympetalous species, opposite the pet Ov. free, l-celled ; ovule 1, inverted^ 
pendulous from the point of a Juniele, aruing from the bottom of a cavity; styles 
generally 5. FruU a mtrieU, Seed 1, inverted ; tmbr. in axi$ of mealy alb. ; rad. 
superior. 

Fl*t 1-iided, on the bnmohM of a p an i cled icape. . . .1. Statigi. 

n't In a hMd, with an ererted, membranoni bract at baw. 2. AaMsaiA. 

1. Statigb. L, Sea-lavender. 

Fl's in one-sided spikes, whidi are panided, surrounded by scarious scales. Cal. 
funnel-shaped, dry, membranous. 

* Leaves spathulate, mucronate below the apex, narrowing below into a 8-ribbed 

stalk. 

1. 8. Mpatkui&ta. Scape branching from a little b^ow t&e middle branches, 
P. 7, 8. (r. B.) 1. divided ; paiddes ascending ; sep. blunt, entire. — Bocky 

shores. 

2. S. reticulata. Scape branching fh)m the base; branches much divided ; 
P. 7. ( — R.) £.-1. panicles asc^iding; sep. obtuse, dsnticBlate. — J9alt 

marshes, Norfolk. 

* Leaves elliptic-oblong, stalked, mucronate, 1-ribbed, 

8. S. LmSnimn, strongly ribbed ; scape branched abovethe middle ; branches 

P. 7, 8. (r. B.) 6. much divided, corymbose, curved outwards ; outer bracts 

large, obtuse.-— Salt marshes. 
4. S. rarjflSra. Leaves fiuntly ribbed; scape branched from below tbs 

P. 7, 8. (-—B.) R S.-1. middle ; branches divided, ascending, orin carved; outer 

bracts small, acute. — Searcoast 

2. Aehe'bia. Willd. Thiift 

Fl*s collected in rounded heads with an everted, cyfindncal sheath at base. In other 
respects as Statice. 



Littoreila.] Sympetalous Htpogtkous Exoobks. [Plantagineae. 121 

1. A. maritima. Leaves linear, 1 -ribbed ; outer bracts of in vol. obtuse, 
p. 7, 8. ( — R.) 20. shortly macronate ; caL>teeth acute. — Sea-clifis. 

2. A, plantaginetL Leaves linear-lanceolate, 3-5-ribbed; outer bracts of invol. 
P. 6, 7. ( — P.) C. cuspidate ; caL-teeth setaceous. — Sandy places. 



Obdeb LX.— PLANTAGINEiE. 

Innocuous herbs mostly with radical, tufted leaves. Fl. seldom diclinous, in 
spikes^ rarely solitary, CaL 4, rarely 5-parted, imbricated, persistent Cor. 4-parted, 
r^gfular, scarious. Stam. 4, inserted on and altematinp with segments of cor. ; fil. 
filiform, doubled upwards in tesUvation ; anth. versatile, 2-ceIIed. Style 1 ; stigma 
hi^id. Caps, membranous^ opening transversely ; placenta central^ winged, bearing 
1, 2, or many seeds ; seeds sessile, peltate, or erect. Embr, lying across the hilum, 
tji axis of fleshy alb. ; rad. inferior. 

Fl'i perfect, in cylindrical or orate ipiket. . . 1. Plabtaoo. 

Fl't monoDcions, solitarx, or in pain. . .2. Littorxlla. 

1. Planta'oo. L. Plantain. 

FTs perfect, spiked. Cal. 4-cleft Cor. 4-cleft, with reflexed segments. Stam. 4, 
very long. Caps. 2-4-celled, 2-4-seeded. 

* Leaves pinnatifid, or toothed ; lateral sep. with a ciliated, winged midrib. 

1. P. Coronopus, Scape rounded ; spike slender ; placenta 4- winged, dividing 
P. 6, 7. ( — Br.) 19. theov. into 4, spurious, 1 -seeded ceUs. — Sandy places. 

* L^ves undivided, entire, 

t ^ linear, grooved, fleshy, woolly at base ; ^pe terate. 

2. P. mariiima. Bracts ovate, acuminate ; sep. not winged at bade ; tube 
P. 6-9. ( — Br.) 13. of cor. pubescent ; seeds 2 Sea-coast. 

t ' Leaves lanceolate, attenuated at both ends, 5-ribbed, (3-ribbed, 3 ^.) 

3. P. laticeolata. S(^pe furrowed, angular ; bracts ovate or cuspidate ; tube 
P. 6, 7. ( — ^Br.) 20. of cor. glabrous ; seeds 2. — Pastures. 

/3. altissima. leaves and the terate scapes very long. 

y. sphcerostachya. spike globose ; leaves linear-lanceolate, 3-ribbed. 
t ' Leaves ovate, 

4. R. major. almost smooth, on longisti, channelled stalks ; sep. with a 
P. 6-9. ( — Br.) 20. prominent, dorsal rib ; seeds 2. — ^Meadows. 

/3. microstachya. spike about 6«fl^d ; scape shorter than leaves. 

5. P. media. Leaves pubescent, on broad, short stalks ; sep. without a 
P. 6-9. ( — Br.) 15. rib ; seeds more than 2. — Waste places. 

2. Littobe'lla. L, Shore-weed. 

Monoecious. Barren fVs : — Sep. 4. Cor. 4-fid. Stam 4, very long. Fertile 
fCs : — Sep. 3. Cor. urceolate. Style long. Caps. 1-seeded. 

L. lacusttis. Leaves all radical, semicylindrical, fleshy ; sterile fl*s soli- 

P. 6, 7. (W.) 16. tary, rarely 2, on a scape ; fertile fl. sessile, in axils of 

the leaves. — ^Watery places. 



122 Primulen.] Sthpbtaloits Htpootvous Exogbvs* [Trientalis. 



Obdkb LXI_PBIMnLEy£. 

HerbSf rarely shmbSi often with acrid, aedatiTe, or tonic qualities. Leaves ex- 
stiplilate. CaL superior, (half-inferi<Hr in Stamolus,) Cor. regular, staminiferons, the 
limb 4, 5 or 7-cleft, (none in Glaux,^ Stttm, equal in number, and opposite the 
segments of cor. Ov. 1-oelled ; 9tyU 1 ; stigma capitate. Fruit a capa,^ opening 
with valves, or widi a transverse incision. Placenta central. Seeds numerous, 
peltate ; embr. imcbuied tn a fleshy alb,, and fying across the hilnm. 

• Or. halfinferioc Old. with • 6-dflft Uab. 1. Bamolvs. 

* Or. wholly ■aptrlor. 

t ^ Cor. 0. CaL edoaxed, 5HP*rted. . . . S. Olaux. 

t * Cor. 4-cl«rt, with aa inflated tnbe. .3. CxHTUHCULiTft. 

t * Cor. with a 6-parted limb, 
X rotate, without a tube. 

Fl'i axillary, aoHtary. .... 5. Ahaoaixis. 
Fri in panicle* or racemea. . & Lybimachia. 

I Cor. not rotate. Stam. indnded in its tube. 

9 Limbof oor. reflexed. .... 7. Ctclamsv. 
I Limb of oor. flat or concave. 

Gal. tubular, 5-toothed. . . S. Primula. 

CaL deeply 5-cleft. . . .9. Hottohia. 

t * Cor. 7-parted, rotate. ..... 4. Teikittajlib. 

1. Sa'molub. L, Brook-weed. 

CaL 5-cleft, its tube adhering to the lower half of ov. Cor. salver-shaped, its tube 
short, with 5 scales at its mouth. Caps. 5-valved, many-seeded. 

1. S. Valerandi. Leaves obovate, or roundish, obtuse, upper ones acnmi- 

P. 7, 8. (W.) 17. nate; stem erect, racemose, many-fl'd; bracts smalL — 

Wet places. 

2. Glaux. Xr. Sea Milk-wort 

CaL free, campanulate, coloured, 5-lobed. Stam. alternate with its lobes. Cor. 0. 
Caps, globose, 1-celled, 5-valved, 5-10-8eeded. 

G. maritima. Stem mostly procumbent; leaves opposite, ovate, gla- 

P. 7, 8. ( — ^R.) 12. brous, fleshy, entire, sessile ; fl's sessUe, azillai7.--J^ear 

the 



3. Cbntu'kculus. L, Chaff-weed. Bastard pimpernel. 

CaL tubular, 4-parted. Cor. 4-cleft, with an inflated tube. Stam. 4. Fruit a 
many-seeded py2ddium. 

1. C. minimtts, FL sessile ; cor. without glands at base ; leaves ovate, al- 

A. 6, 7. ( — E.) 10. temate, acute ; plant very small. — Damp places. 

4. Trienta'lis. L, Chickweed-wintergreen. 

CaL 7-parted. Cor. rotate, 7-parted. Stam. 7. Fruit fleshy, opening with 5 revo- 
lute, fugaceous valves. 

1. T. Europa'a. Leaves oblong-obovate ; fl*s obtuse, on slender stalks ; stem 

P. 6. (W.) E. S.-4. with the leaves mostly at its summit. — Woods. 



PrimnU.] Stnfbtalovs Hipootroits ExoesHS. [Primuleae. 123 

5. Abaga'Ujs. L, FlmpennL 
CaL 5>pcrtBd. Cor. rotate, 5-parted. Stam. haiiy. Fmit a pyzidiom. 

1. A. arvensis. Leaves sessile, dotted beneath, ovate ; oor. rotate ; fiL dis- 
A. 6, 7. (y. B.) 20. tinct ; pet about equal to caL, mmntely notched, fringed 

with glandular hairs. — Gom-fields. 
fi. cmriUea. peL bine, strongly notched, without glandular hairs. 

y. pdlKda. oor. white, with a pink centre. 

2. A. teneJIa, Leaves stalked, not dotted, roundish ; oor. funnel-shaped ; 
A, 7, 8. ( — ^R.) 19. fiL connected bek>w ; pet. much longer than caL entire, 

not fringed. — ^Bogs. 

6. Ltsima'chia. L, Money-wort. 
CaL 5-parted. Cor. rotate, 5-parted. Stsm. not hairy. Caps. 5-10-vaIved. 

* Flowers in stalked clusters ; stem upright. 

1. L. vulgaris, Panides temidnal, many-fl^d ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, op- 

P. 7. (Y.) 17. posite, or 3 or 4 in a whorl ; fiL combined in their lower 

half. — ^Damp places. 

9. L. thyrriflora. Racemes axillaiy, densely fl^d ; leaves lanceolate, opposite ; 

P. 6, 7. (Y.) E. S.-7. fit combined in a ring at base. — Marshes. 

* Fl's solitary, axillary ; stem prostrate. 

8. L. Nummmlaria, FiL gluidular, connected at base; sep. ovate, acute ; leaves 
P. 6, 7. (T.) 15. ovate, cordate, obtuse, shorter than ped. — Shady pas- 

tures. 

4. L. urmoTMR. FQ. smooth, distinct ; sep. linear-subulate ; leaves ovate, 

P. 6-8. (Y.) 20. aeute, shorter than ped. — Shady places. 

7. Ct'clamkn. L. Sow-bread. 

Cal. campanulate, lialf-5-cleft. Cor. with a short tube, and 5-parted, reflexed limb. 
Anth. 5, sessfle, included. Caps, many -seeded, opening with 5 teeth. 

1. C. hederafoKum,* Leaves cordate, angular, finely toothed, thdr ribs and loot- 
P. 4 & 10. (r. W.) £-1. stalks roogfaish ; scapes finally twisting downwards. — 

Suflblk. Kent. 

8. PfifMULA. L. Primrose. Cowslip. Qzlip. 

CaL tubular, 5-tootlied. Cor. salver-shaped, with a cylindrical tube wider at the 
mouth where the stam. are inserted. Caps, opening with 10 teeth. 

* Leaves wrinkled. 

t Limb of cor. ^at ; scape 8ingle-fi*d, (except 1 P. ^.) 

1. P. tmip&rU. Leaves oMmg-Ofvirte, crenate ; caL tubultf, with Enear- 
P. 4, 5. (— Y.) 20. lanceolate, attenuated, very aeute teedi; fl's erect — 

Woods. 
/3. umheUdta, scapes umbeOate. 

y. intermedia, 
f Limbof cor. concave (rarely flat as hi 2 P.) ; sciqws umbelliferous. Leaves 
ovate, contracted bebw, erenato or dentate. 

2. P. Elkior, CaL tubukur, ito teeth laiiwolate, acute; fl*8 etect; fimb 
P. 4^ 5. (Y.) £.-? of cor. flat, with oUoog-oboovdate, ot nearfy square stf^ 



124 Solanese.] Stnpetalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [Ligustrum. 

8. P. verts. CaL swollen, with short, ovate teeth ; fl^s nodding ; limb 

P. 4, 5. ( — ^T.) 20. of cor. concave, the segments obcordate. — Meadows. 

/3. major, 
* Leaves even, obovate-lanceolate, mealy. limb of cor. flat. 

4. v. farinSsa. Stigma midivided; cal. -teeth linear; segments of cor. as 
P. 6, 7. (—P.) E. S.-8. long as tube.— HUls. 

5. P. ScoHca. Stigma 5-lobed ; cal.-teeth short, ovate, obtuse ; segments 
P. 6, 7. ( P.) S.-2. of cor. half as long as tube. — Sea-shores. 

9. Hotto'nia. L, Water-violet 

Cal. 5- parted to the base. Cor. salver-shaped, with a short tube. Caps, opening 
with 5 teeth. 

1. '&, palustris, Fl^s whorled, on a long, solitary cylindrical stalk; cor. 

P. 5, 6. ( — P.) £. I.-9. longer than cal. ; leaves submersed pectinated. — Ponds. 



Order LXIL— OLEINEiE. 

Trees or shrubs, possessing tonic, febrifugal qualities, and often yielding a sweet, 
concrete, aperient substance, Manna. Racemes or panicles terminal or axillary. 
Fl*s sometimes diclinous. Cal. persbtent, synsepalous. Cor, 4-eIeft, rarely ; 
aestivation valvate. Stam. 2 or 4, inserted on cor, ; anth. 2-celled, opening longi- 
tudinally. Ov. 2'ceUed; ovules in pairs, pendulous. Stigma entire, or lobeid. 
Fruit fl^y, or capsular, or a samar, often by abortion 1 -seeded ; plaeent<B axile. 
Alb. dense^ fleshy ; embr. straight ; rad. superior ; plumule inconspicuous. 

Cor. 0. CaL 4-cleft, or 0. Fruit a tanuur. . . . 1. Fbaxihus. 

Cor. 4-cleft. Fruit fleshy. ..... 2. LiersTarif. 

1. Fra'xincjs. L. Ash. 

Cor. 0. CaL 4-cleft, or 0. Stam. 2 or 0. Fruit dry, a pendulous samar, of 1 or 2 
l-seeded cells. 

1. F, excelsior. Leaves all 4 (-8 ^-pinnate; leafl. nearly sessile, ovate-Ian- 

T. 4, 5. (W.) 20. ceolate, acuminate, serrated ; cal. 0. 
/3. Heterophylla, some of fiie leaves simple. 

2. LiGu'sTRUM. L, Privet 

Cor. 4'Cleft, funnel-shaped. Stam. 2. Fruit fleshy, containing 2 membranous, 1- 
seeded cells. 

1. L. mdgare. Leaves elliptic-lanceolate, entire, glabrous, obtuse, but with 

<S^. 6, 7. (W.) 17. a small point ; panicles terminal, dense. — Hedges. 



Order LXIII SOLANEiE. 

Herbs or shrubs, with alternate undivided, or lobed leaves, sometimes opposite and 
beneath the flowers, with narcotic, acrid, and poisonous properties. CaL 5, rarely 4- 
parted, persistent Cor, staminijerous, regnlary the limb 5, rarely 4-cl6ft, dedduons, 
with a plicate, imbricate, or valvate SBstivation ; &tam. at many as its seyments, Ov. 



Datura.] Stnpstalous Htfogtnovs Exogbns. [Convohules. 125 

S-coDed, of 2 oarpelB right and left of axis. Style and stigma dmple. Fruit 2-4- 
eelled, a capa. with a double dissepunent parallel with the yalyea, or a berry with 
the placenta eidhenng to the axU, Seeds indefinite. Embr. utuaUy curved, in a 
fleshy alb, ; rad. next hilnm. 

* ^ Cor. rotate. Asth. erect, opening I7 terminal poret. . 1. SOLAirair. 

* ' Cor. eampuinlate. Anth. not opening by poret. . 8. Atbopa. 

* ' Cor. fkinnel'thiqwd. Anth. not opening by poree. 

Stignw capitate. Cape. 3-oeIled, opening by a lid. . t. Htosctamus. 

Stigm 3-lobtd. C^pa. i^seltod, 4-Taltwl. ... 4. Datvba. 

1. SoLAlnjiL L. Nightshade. 

CaL of 5-10 segments. Cor. rotate. Anth. opening by 2 pons at end. Fndt fleshy, 
romidish, 2 or more-oelled. 

1. S. Dulcam&ra. Stem woody, miarmed, zigzag, eUmbing ; leaves cordate- 
Si 6, 7. (P.) 20. ovate, upper ones hastate or anrid^ ; ped. opposite 

leaves ; berries ovate. — Hedges. 
/S. tomentStum, downy, with patent hairs. 

y, nutrinum, yonng branches and leaves fleshy, mostly pubescent, in- 

cunred upwards; leaves cordate. — Sea-beech. 

2. S. nigrum. Stem herbaceous, unarmed ; leaves ovate, obtusely toothed, 
A, 6-9. (W.) 14. wavy; ped. not of^jKWte leaves; berries globose. — 

Waste ground. 
/}. miniatum, angles of stem tuberculated ; leaves sinuate. 

2. A'tBOPA. L. Dwale. Deadly-nightshade. 

CaL 5-parted. Cor. campanulate, with a short tube, equally 6-lobed. Stam. distant 
above. Fruit globose, fleshy, 2 -celled. 

1. A. Belladonna, Stem herbaceous ; leaves ovate, entire; fl's axillaiy, soli- 

P. 6-8. (g. P.) 13. tary, on short ped. — Shady places. 

8. Htosct'amus. L, Henbane. 

CaL tubular, 5-cleft. Cor. funnel-shaped, with 5 slightly unequal, obtuse lobes. 
Stigma capitate. Caps. 2-celled, opening with a lid. 

1. H. niger. Leaves oblong, sinuate, sessile, clasping, lower stalked ; fl*s 

A, B, 7. (W.) 19. nearly sessile, axillaiy, unilateraL — Waste places. 

4. Datu'RA. L, Thorn-apple. 

CaL tubular, deciduous. Cor. funnel-shaped, plaited, 5-lobed. Stigma 2-1ob6d. 
Caps. 4-valved, with 2, partially bi-parted cdls. 

1. D. Stramonium,'^ Herbaceous; leaves unequally sinuate-dentate, ovate, 
A. 7. (W.) 8. smooth ; fruit spinous, ovate, erect — Waste ground. 

Obder LXIV.— CONVOLVULELfi. 

Mostly smooth, climbing herbs or shrubs, with an acrid, purgative, milky juice. 
CaL 5 or 4-cleftt'm^'ca^ecf. Cor, regular, the limb 6-lobed, or S-cleft^ plaited. 
Stam, 5, on cor, S>v. 2 or 4-celled ; style 1, divided or lobe^at summit, or as many as 

M 2 



126 PolemoniesB.] Stnpetalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [Polemonium. 

cells of ov. Fruit capsular, rarely baccate, with 1-4, 1 or ^-seeded cells, opening by 
valves separating from the angles of a loose dissepiment ; placenta basal, Emhr. 
in a small quantity of mucilaginous alb. 

Learei alternate. . . . .1. CoiiyOLTiTLUs. 

LeavetO. ... . . . .2. Cuscuta. 

Tr. I. CONVOLVULIDJE. Leaves alternate, simple. Fed. mostly l-JVd, 
axillary or terminal with 2 bracts. Embr. curved, with leafy, shrivelled cot. 

1. Convo'lvulus. L. Bind-weed. 

Cal. 5 -cleft. Cor. campannlate, plaited, with 5 shallow lobes. Style simple; stigmas 
2. Caps. 1, 3 or -incelled ; cells 1 or 2-seeded. 

1. C. arvensis. Climbing ; leaves sagittate, with acnte lobes ; ped. mostly 
P. 6-8. (— .R. II W.) 20. 1-fl'd ; bracts minute, distant from fl's.— Hedges. 

/3. hirtus. stem and leaves downy. 

2. C. Sepium. Climbing ; leaves sagittate, with truncate lobes ; ped. 1-fl'd, 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 19. square ; bracts large, cordate, close to the fl*s. — Hedges. 

3. C. Soldanella. Prostrate; leaves reniform, fleshy ; ped. 1-fl'd, with 4 winged 
P. 4-8. ( — R. II Y.) 5. angles ; bracts ovate, dose to fl. — Sea-shore. 

Tr.ll. C use UTIDJS. Leafless, climbing parasites. FL densely clustered. 
Embr. spiral, without cot. 

2. Cuscu'ta. L. Dodder. 

Cal. 4 or 5-cleft. Cor. 4 or 5-lobed. Styles 2. Caps, opening transversely at base. 

* Cor. becoming ventricose, the scales adpressed to its tube ; s^les induded. 

1. C. Europte'a. FVa more than 5 in a duster; scales of cor. bifid; caL 
A. 8, 9. (r. — Y.) 10. dose-pressed, much shorter than the cor. — On herbs. 

2. C. Epinnum.* FL about 5 in a cluster ; scales of cor. palmately cut ; cal. 
A. 8. (W.) £. S.-1. with spreading, fleshy s^ments, nearly as long as tube 

of cor. — On flax. 
" Cor. cylindrical, the scales oonvergiug, palmately cut ; styles exserted. 

3. C. Epithymum. Heads many-fl'd ; cal. much shorter than tube of cor. ; 
A. 7-9. (W.) £. S.-11. sep. rhomboidal-ovate, apiculate,* unequal, reddish. — On 

shrubs. 

4. C. Trifoli. Sep. ovate-lanceolate, acute, whitish, nearly as long as 
A, 7-9. (W.) ? tube of cor. ; in other respects as last. — On clover. 

Order LXV.— POLEMONIEJE. 

Herbs with mostly opposite leaves, and mucilaginous, bitter properties. CaL 5- 
parted, persistent. Cor. regular, 5-lobed. Stam. 5, inserted on cor. Ov. 3-celled ; 
placent€B axile ; style simple; stigma trifid. Caps. S celled^ 3-valved, few or many- 
seeded ; dehiscence loculiddal or septicidal, separating from the axis. Embr. straight, 
in axis of a large, horny alb, ; rad. inferior. 

1. Polemo'nium. L. Greek-valerian. 

Cor. rotate, with a short tube, the throat nearly closed by the dilated base of fiL 

1. P. cceruleum. Leaves pinnate, glabrous; leafl. oblong-lanoeolate. acumi- 

P. 7. (B.) 5. xiate ; stem angular ; panicle downy. — Bushy hills. 



SjmphTtain.] Stnpetalous Htpogtnous Exogens. [Boraginese. 127 



Order LXVL— BORAGINRfi. 

Innocaons berbs or shrubs, rarely with square stems. Leaves alternate, usuaHjr co • 
vered with asperities. Infl. in 1 -sided, gyrate spikes or racemes, rarely soHtaiy and 
axillaiy. FVs mostly 5-nate, rarely irreffular, imbricate, rarely twisted in testiya- 
tion. Stam. inserted on, and as many as lobes of cor., rarely unequal in length. 
Oy. 4-parted, 4-seeded. Style arising fh)m the base of lobes of oy. ; stigma simple 
or bifid. Fruit of 2 or ^-niUs, Seeds solitary ; alb, ; rad. superior. 

* Throat of oor. eloaed with icalM. 

t Stem, included witliln the tube. 

t 1 Cor. cylindricsl-camiNmiilate. ... 3. Srsf phttvm. 

X * Cor. fanjiel-ihaped, (in Anchuta 2, almoft Mdrer- 
■li«ped), imbricate in attiyation. 
9 Fl'i axillary, lolitary. . .1. AsPXBVao. 

9 Fl'i raoemoM, or q>iked. 

I Tube of cor. bent I limbobliqne. 6. Ltcopsis. 

I Tube of cor. itraight. 

Cal. 5-cIeft. Nntf fixed to baw of ftjle. 2. Ctsoolomvii. 
CaL 5-fid. Nuts free from ityle. 4. Ahcbvsa. 

X s Cor. falver-tliaped, twisted in Bttivation. . 5. MTOSOTia. 

t Stam. exierted. Cor. rotate. . .7. Bobago. 

* Throat of cor. witliont Male*, or tlieie very minnte. 

t Segmentfof cor. unequal. . .8. ECBIVM. 

t Segments of oor. equal. 

X Stam. included ; flL short. 

CaL tubular, 5-fld. . . .9. FvLM OBAbia. 

CaL in b deep segments. .10. Litbospkbvum. 

} Stam. exserted I flL long. .... 11. Stsbkbammbba. 

Tr. I. CVNOGLOSSIDJE, Nuts attached to pernstent style. 

1. Asperi/go. L, Mad-wort 

CaL 5-cleft, with alternate smaller teeth, folded and compressed in fruit Cor. short, 
funnel-shaped, its month with convex, connivent scales. 

A. procumbens. Stem procumbent, angular, bristly ; leaves oblong, hispid ; 

A, 6, 7. (B.)- £. S.-6. lower stalked ; upper sessile. — Waste places. 

2. Ctkoolo'ssuu. L, Hound's-tongue. 

Cal. 5-cleft Cor. short, funnel-shaped, with convex, blunt scales in throat Stigma 
emarginate. Nuts depressed. 

1 . C. officinale. Leaves downy, acute, those of the stem lanceolate, atten- 

B. 6, 7. (+B.) 16. uate at base, sessile, lowest elliptical, on long stalks. — 

Waste ground. 

2. C. sylvaticum. Leaves nearly glabrous and shining above, scabrous be- 
B. 6, 7. (b. R.) 4. neath, those of the stem lanceolate, broad at base, ses- 
sile, lowest ovate-lanceolate, on long stalks. — Shady 
places. 

Tr. XL ANCHUSIDJE. Nuts attached to an hypogynous disk. 

3. St^mpuytum. L. Comirey. 

Cal. 5-cleft, or parted. Cor. cylindrical-campanulate ; tube short, its month closed 
with connivent, subulate scales. 



128 Boraginec.] Sthfbtalous Htpootnous Exogins. [Lycopsis. 

1. S. officinale. Stem winged above by the very decmrent bases of the 
P. 5, 6. ( — T.) 18. ovate-lanoeolate leaves. — Damp places. 

0. patens, caL-segments spreading. 

2. Sb tuberosum. Stem scarcely winged ; leaves ovate-oblong, attenuated 
P. 6, 7. ( — ^Y.) 8. bebw, upper sUgfatly decunent — ^Damp places. 

4. Anchu'sa. L. Alkanet 

CSal. 5-fid. Cor. ftmnel-shaped, with a straight tube, and conTez, comiivent scales 
in throat. Nuta concave at base. 

1. A. offiein&Hs.* Leaves lanceolate ; siukes crowded, unilateral'; caL-seg- 
P. 6, 7. (+P0 £.-2. ments bluntisb, haiiy within and without. — Waste 

ground. 

2. JL sempermrens,* Leaves ovate ; ped. axillary, bearing 3 dense spikes, with 
P. 5-8. (B.) 11. an intermediate flower ; caL -segments not haiiy within. 

— Waste ground. 

5. Mtoso'tis. X. Scorpion-grass. 

CaL 5-clefk, or toothed. Cor. salver-shaped ; lobes obtuse, twisted in aestivation, 
the mouth half dosed, with short, round scales. 

* > Umb of cor. flat, longer than tube ; ped. longer than caL 

f CaL with short, triangular teeth, open in fruit, with straight 

1. yLpalustris. adpr^sed bristles; stem with a spreading pubescence; 
P. 6-8. (B.) 16. leaves bluntish, apiculate ; pet emaiginate. — Ditches. 

f CaL deeply cleft, with long, lanceok^ teeth. 

2. M. repens. Bristles of caL straight, adpressed, its teeth acute, mostly 
P. 6-8. (B.) 8. connivent in fruit; pubescence of stem spreading 

Bogs. 

3. IL suavMens, Bristles of caL straight, with a few curved, adpressed, its 
P. 6-8. (B.) S.-1. teeth bluntish ; lower leaves on long stalks, pointed. — 

Breadalbane Mountains. 

4. M. sffhatiea. Bristles of cal. hooked, spreadfaig, its teeth closed in fruit ; 
P. 6, 7. (B.) 10. lower leaves on short, dilated stalks, bluntish. — Shady 

places. 

* ' Lamb of cor. concave, equalling its tube. 

5. IL easpitSsa, CaL with straight, adpressed bristles, open in fruit, diorter 
B, ? 6-8. (B.) 8. than ped. ; leaves obtuse. — ^Wet places. 

6. M. arvensis, CaL witii hooked, spreading bristles, closed in fruit, shorter 
P. 6-8. (B.) 20. than ped. ; leaves acute. — Hedge banks. 

* ' Limb of cor. concave, shorter than its tube. 

7. M. coUina, Cal. open and ventricose in fruit, equalling the divergent 
A. 4, 5. (B.) 10. ped., its tube with hooked bristles. — Dry banks. 

8. M. versicolor, Cal. dosed, and oblong in fruit, longer than the ascending 
A, 5, 6. (B.) 17. ped.; bristles of tube hooked, spreading. — Banks. 

6. Ltco'psis. L, Buglosa. 
CaL deeply 5-cleft. Cor. with a curved tube ; limb oblique. 

1. L. arvensis. Plant very bristly ; leaves lanceolate, repando-denticulate, 

A, 6, 7. (B.) 20. wavy ; cal. erect — Corn-fields. 



Steenbammera.] Stnpetalous Htpogtnous Exogbms. [BoraginesB. 129 

7. Bora'go. L. Borage. 

CaL 5-partecL Cor. rotate, 5-cleft, its mouth dosed, with 5 obtnse, emargmate 
scales. Nuts wrinkled. 

1. B. officinalis.* Lower leaves obovate, attenuated at base ; segments of cor. 

B, 6, 7. (B.) 12. ovate, acute, spreading. — In rubbish. 

8. E/cHiuiL L. Yiper's-bugloss. 

Cal. in 5 deep segments. Cor. irregular, its throat dilated, without scales. Stigma 
deeply cloven. 

1. £. violSuieum, Stem erect, branched, diffuse, pilose-hispid; lower leaves 
B. 6-9. (p. B.) C. ovate-oblongf stalked, upper oblong, cordate ; qiikes 

panicled — Ihy, sandy places. 

2. £. vulgar e. Stem simple, hispid, with tubercles ; leaves lanceolate, 1- 
B. 6, 7. (B.) 19. ribbed, upper narrowed at base ; spikes short, lateral, 1- 

sided.— Diy places. 

9. Pulmona'bia. L, Lungwort. 

CaL tubular, 5-fid. Cor. funnel-shapedf its throat naked, or nearly so. Stam. in- 
cluded. Nuts stony, attached by their truncate, flat base, with a central tubercle. 

1. P. officinalis. Leaves scabrous, often spotted, ovate, roundish or cordate, 

F, 5. (P.) K S.-6. stalked; upper ovate, sessile. — ^Woods. 
fi, angustifolia, leaves seldom spotted, all lanceolate. 

10. Lithospe'rmum. L, GromwelL 

Cal in 5, deep segments. Cor. funnel-shaped, its throat naked, or with very minute 
scales. Stam. included. Nuts stony, attached by their truncate, flat base. 

1. L. arvense. Stem erect, branched; leaves lanceolate, acute, hispid, 
A. 5-7. (W.) 20. with adpressed, tubercular hairs above and below; cor. 

a little longer than caL, with minute scales in throat — 
Corn-fields. 

2. L. officinale. Stem erect, branched ; leaves lanceolate, acute, veined, 
P. 6-8. ( — Y.) 18. bristly, tubercular above, hairy benen^; tube of cor. 

as long as caL, its throat naked«^»Dry, stony places. 

3. L. purpurO'Cceruleum, Barren stem prostrate, creeping ; leaves lanceolate, acute, 
P. 5-7. (B.) K-1. hispid and tubercuUr above; cor. much longer than 

caL, its throat naked. — ^Thickets. 

11. Steenha'mmera. Reich. 

CaL in 5, deep segments. Cor. campanulate, with a short, thick tube, and 5 pro- 
tuberances in throat. Stam. protruded beyond the throat. Nuts rather drupaceous, 
attached laterally near the base, by a flat surftce. 

1. S. maritima. Stems procumbent, branched ; leaves ovate, glaucous, 

P. 5, 6. (p. B.) 6. fleshy, rough with callous dots, upper lanceolate. — 

Gravelly coast 



130 Menthen.] Stnpetalous Hypogtnocs Exogess. 



Obdeb LXVn.-— MENTHEiE. 

Aromatic, innocaons herbs, or under-shrabs, with 4-aiigIed stems, and opposite 
hfinchet. Leaves opposite, exstipalate, with receptacles of oiL GaL tabular, rega- 
larlj 5 or 10-toothed, bilabiate or irregularly 3-10-toothed. Cor, bilabiate, or 
tiUghtly unequoL Stam. 4, didynamous^ the 2 upper sometimes wanting, Ov, 
deeply 4-lobed, each lobe with 1 erect ovale ; style 1, arisiog from the base d ovary ; 
stigma bifid. Fruit of^ smaU, l-seeded nuts, eoclosed in &e persistent caL Embr, 
erect; alb, 0. 



* Upper Up of oor. Teiy minnte or upptaentij 0, 

o£2i]uaiowlobM» .... 
Upperlipof cor. deeply deft. • • 

* C«r. 2-Uppedr or aaeily evully deft. 

t Stam. 3. 

CaL 3-lipped. Cot. 3-lipped. . • 

CaL &-deft. Cor. nearly equally 4-deft. 

t Stam. 4, 

X ^ nearly eqnal, distant. Cor. nearly eqnal. 



1. AjruoA. 

2. TaucRiuv. 



t * Upper Item, longer than lower. Cor. 3-lipped. 
t * Upper itam. ihorter than lower. 
i Cor. neariy equally 4-deft. 
I CaL equally 5-toothed. 
I GaL 3-lipped, 

lower middle lobe of oor. entire* acute. 
Lower lobe of oor. emarginate. 
i Cor. bilabiate, 

B iti upper lip flat. 

5^ CaL with 3-5, broad lobei. 
i CaL 5-ia-toothed. 

Stam. longer than tube of oor. 
Stam. ihorter than tube of cor. 
I Upper lip of cor. ooncare or ardiad. 
% CaL 5-toothed, not 3-llpped. 

** Lower lip of oor. of 1 large lobe, "I 
and 3 or more, or dfaeolete lar > 
teralteeth. . ,} 

** Lower lip of cor. of 3 naeqnal 
lobea, 
tt having 3 Kalea on the 1 
upper forflMe. . ) 

tt Lower lip of cor. without 
■cales. 

Lower Up of c<n>. 3-fld, ^ 
the middle Mgment f 
the largest and ob- 1 
cordate. . ,) 

Lower Up of cor. of 3" 
nearly equal, entire 
lobea. CaL 5-rib- 
bed. Anth. ap- 
proaching. . 
Lower lip ^eor. ofS 
unequal lobea. CaL 
lO^ribbed. Stam. 
length direiging. 
Uwer Up of cor. oon- 



8. Salvia. 

4. Ltcopus. 

5. Hbktha. 

6. VapBTA. 



7. Obioavux. 

8. Thymus. 

9. Calakiktha. 



10. Hbllitis. 

11. LX0irUR178. 

13. Marbubxum. 



13. LAMiaic 



14. Galbopsxs. 



15. Ballota. 



<■ 16. Galxobdoloit. 



fii 

•Lf 
atf 

• 'J 



17. Stagbts. 



CaL 3-Upped. 

care. 
Fil. with a horn beneath the anth.'k 

Upper Up of oaL without a scale, > 18. Tkuvklla. 

8-toothedt lower Mild. . ,) 

HL simple. Lips of caL entire» the "t 

upper bearing a small scale. . f 

FiL simple t upper Up of caL 3-tooihed, 

without a scale. 



'.} 



19. SCTTTXIXATA, 
30. MBX.I88A. 



Salhra.] Stnpbtalous Htpogtnoub Exoobnb. [Menthen* 131 

Tr. I. AJUGOIDJE. Cor, with the tapper lip verp ghort, or apparenliy want- 
ing^ 2-lohed^ or de^fy cleft, Stam, much exserted, 

1. A'juoA. L. Bogle. 

CaL 5-cleft, nearly equaL Upper lip. of cor. emarginate ; lower 8-lobed. Stam. 
parallel, ascending. 

* FL solitaiy, axillaiy ; stem branching. 

1. A. ChamafpUye, Leaves 3-cleft, with linear, entire segments; the lowest 
A. 5-7. (T. .*. R.) E.-4. undivided, toothed Sandy fields. Kent, Essex. 

* FL whorled; stem solitaiy. 

t Stem-leaves stalked ; scions ; whorls distant 

2. A. alpina. Floral leaves 3-lobed, the upper entire ; stem-leaves ovate- 
P. 7. (B.) E. I.-2. lanceolate, toothed, serrate. — ^Mountains. 

t Stem-leaves sessile. 

3. A. reptans. Scions creeping ; upper whorls crowded ; leaves obovate, 
P. 5, 6. (B. V. b. R.) 20. crenulated or entire. — Wet places. 

4. A. pyratniddKs, Scions ; all the whorls crowded ; leaves crenulated, or 
A, 6. (B.) S.-8. entire. — Highland mountains. 

2. Teu'cbium. L. Germander. 

CaL nearly equally 5-toothed, or 2-lipped. Upper lip of cor. deeply bifid ; lower 
3-fid. Stam. parallel, between the fissure of the upper lip. 

* ^ Leaves divided, 

1. T. Botrys, bi-pinnatifid and cut into several narrow segments; fl*s 
A, 8, 9. (R.) E.-1. few, 3, axillar}% not whorled. — Bozhill, Surrey. 

* ' Leaves undivided, stalked, serrated, hairy. 

2. T. ScorodSnia, Fl's in 1 -sided, lateral racemes ; leaves oblong-ovate, with 
P. 7, 8. ( — T.) 20. a cordate base, crenate-aerrate, wrinkled. — Woods. 

/3. dent6tum, leaves oblong, truncate below, coarsely toothed. 

3. T. ChanuB^drvs,* FFs in whorls of about 6 ; leaves ovate, tapering at 
P. 7. (r. P.3 4. base into a short foot-stalk, deeply crenate, cut, plane. 

Dry places. 
* ' Leaves undivided, sessile. 

4. T. sc6rdium. Leaves oblong, attenuated below, toothed, serrated, all 
P. 7, 8. (P.)K?L-3. aUke; whorls 2-6-fi'd, distant — Oxfordshire. Por- 

tumna-bridge. 
fi. scordUndee, leaves cordate below, clasping ; stem y^jj woolly. 



Tr. IL MONARDIDJE. Cor, 2-lipped, Stam, 2, fertile, paraOel under 
the upper lip of cor, 

8. Sa'lvia. L, Sage or Clary. 

Cal. 2-Iipped. Tube of cor. dilated ; upper h'p of oor. galeate, concealing the stam. 
flL with 2 divaricating branches, 1 only bearing a l-oelled antb. 

1. S. verhen&ca. Cor. about twice the length of cal. ; leaves oblong, obtuse, 

P. 5, 6. (P.) 15. cordate, nnuate, toothed, stalked, upper short, broad, 

cordate, clasping. — Diy places. 



132 MenthesB.] Stnpetalous Htpogtnous Exooens. [Mentha. 

fi, clandesHna, upper leaves oblong, acute, not cordate, sessile. 

2. S. pratensia* Leaves oblong-ovate, cordate, crenate and toothed ; upper 

P. 7. (B.) E.-1. small, sessile, lanceolate, acute. — Meadows. 

4. Lycopus. Zr. Gipsey-wort 

Cal. 5-toothed, as long as the nearly equally 4-cleft cor. Stam. 2, ultimately di- 
verging, the 2 upper wanting, or rudimentary. 

1. L. Europafus. Leaves deeply serrated, or pinnatifid, ovate-oblong, gla- 

P. 7, 8. (W.) 16. brous; barren stam. 0. — River banks. 

Tr. III. MENTHOIDJE, Cor. catnpanulate, nearly equal Stam. 4, distant^ 
straight. 

5. Me'ntha. L. Mint 

CaL equal, 5-toothed. Cor. nearly equally 4-fid., with a short tube, the upper lobe 
broadest, often emarginate. Stam. 4 ; anth. 2-celled. 

* Whorls of fl's spicate, sometimes distant from each other, but without true leaves. 

f Leaves, at least on their under side, and stem hairy ; spike dense towards 
end. 
X Cal. hairy all over. 

1. M. rotundifolia. Leaves sessile, elliptic, obtuse, sharply serrated ; bracts 
P. 8, 9. ( — P.) 9. lanceolate ; spikes interrupted ; cor. downy Moist 

ground. 
/3. velutina. leaves cordate-elliptical, clasping, apiculate. 

y. crispa. leaves deeply cut, and crisped. 

2. M. sylvestrU. Leaves nearly sessile, ovate or lanceolate, very acute, un- 
P. 8, 9. ( — P.) K-8. equally serrate ; bracts subulate ; spikes dense. 

)3. Britiinfferi. leaves ovate -lanceolate, with a white tomentum. 

% Base of cal. smooth, glandular; teeth hairy, lanceolate-subulate. 

3. 'NL piperita. Leaves shortly stalked, ovate-lanceolate, or oblong, ser- 
P. 7, 8. ( — P.) 9. rated, acute ; bracts lanceolate ; spikes interrupted be- 
low. — Wet places. 

/3. ovata. leaves ovate ; spikes short and blunt. 

"f Leaves and stem smooth ; spikes altogether of distant whorls. 

4. M. mridis.* Leaves lanceolate, acute, serrated ; bracts setaceous, some- 
P. 8. ( — P.) 6. what hairy as well as tube of caL ; pedicels glabrous. — 

Marshy places. 
fi. crispiformis. leaves wavy, crisped. 

* Whorls in the axils of true leaves. 

f The uppermost whorl terminal and capitate. 

5. M. acutifolia. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, tapering at each end ; plant pu- 
P. 9. ( — P.) K-2. bescent ; cal. and pedicels hairy all over. — River banks. 

6. M. aqudtica. Leaves ovate, serrate, rounded, or slightly cordate below, 
P. 7, 8. (P.) 20. somewhat stalked ; plant pubescent ; cal. and pedicels 

hairy ; teeth triangular, subulate. — ^Wet places. 
fi. citrata. leaves ovate-cordate ; plant glabrous, 

f The uppermost whorl not terminal nor capitate. 

X Throat of caL closed with hairs ; stem prostrate. 

7. M. Pulegium. Leaves stalked, elliptical, downy, obtuse, sub-crenate, re- 
P. 8, 9. ( — P.) 9. curved ; pedicels slightly, and caL very hairy. — Wet 

places. 



Calamintha.] Stnpetalods Hypogynous Exogeks. [Mentheie. 133 

% Throat of caL naked ; stem upright. 
§ Teeth of cal. longer than broad. 

8. M. Sativa. Leaves shortly stalked, ovate or elliptical, serrate; cal. 
P. 7, 8. ( — P.) 14. tubular or campanulate ; teeth lanceolate, acuminate; 

caL and pedicels hairy ; plant hairy. — Damp places. 
&. rubra, base of caL and pedicels smooth ; plant smooth. 

y, gStUilis. base of caL and pedicels smooth ; plant pubescent. 

§ Teeth of cal. triangular, broader than long, the tube campanu- 
late. 

9. M. arvenns. Plant hairy ; cal. and pedicels haiiy all over ; leaves some- 
P. 7-9. (P.) 20. what stalked, all similar, ovate or elliptical, serrate, nar- 
rowed below. — Corn-fields. 

fi. apregtit. leaves cordate below. 

Tr. rV. NEPETIDJE. Statn. approximating^ parallel under upper lip of 
cor., the 2 lower ones shorter than the upper, 

6. Ne'pbta. L. Cat-mint. 

CaL cylindrical, many-ribbed, its mouth a little oblique, 5-toothed. Cor. with a 
long tube, ringent; upper lip emarginate; lower 8-fid; lateral lobes reflexed; 
middle one notdied. 

1. N. Gleehoma. Fl's ui threes, axillary; stem creeping; leaves reniform, 
P. 4-6. (B.) 20. crenate ; anth. forming a cross ; nuts dotted. — ^Banks. 

/3. hirstUa. caL-teeth elongated, linear-lanceolate. 

2. N. Catdria. Fl's in dense whorls, forming a spike ; stem erect ; leaves 
P. 7, 8. (W.) 16. cordate, dentate-serrate; anth. curving outwards; nuts 

not dotted — Waste places. 

Tr. y. SATUREIDM, Stam, 4, cUstant, the 2 upper shorter; anth, with 
the cells separated by a dilated eonneetitfe. 

7. Ori'oanum. L. Marjoram. 

Spikes 4-rided, imbricated with bracts. Cal cylindrical, 10-18-ribbed, 5-tooihed; 
throat hairy in fhdt Upper lip of cor. erect, nearly fiat ; lower patent, 8-fid. 

1. O. vulgdre, FVb in crowded, panided heads ; bracts ovate, longer than 

P. 7, 8. (P.) 19. cal. ; leaves broadly ovate, obtuse, entire. — ^Dry places. 

8. THY'jfus. L. Thyme. 

Fl's whorled, or capitate. Cal. 2-lipped, 10-13-ribbed ; upper lip 8-toothed ; lower 
2-fid ; throat hairy. Upper lip of cor. erect, nearly plane ; lower patent, 8-fid. 

1. T. SerpyUum, ¥Vb whorled, or capitate ; stem branched, decumbent ; 

P. 7, 8. (r. P.) 20. leaves ovate, obtuse, entiife, petiolate, ciliated at base.— . 

Dry pastures. 

9. CALAJo'ifTHA. Mcench, Calamint 

CaL 2-lipped, 18-nerved. Cor. with the upper Bp nearly plane ; lower 8-lobed, the 
middle one emarginate. Anth.-cd]B at length div«]^j;isg, with a sab-triangular 
connective. 



134 MeathesB.] Stnpbtalous Htpooynous Exogens. [Lamium. 

* Whorls on forked, many-fl'd stalks. 

1. C. Nepeta, l£outh of caL with prominent hairs ; leaves ovate, obtuse, 

P.7,8. ( — P.r.W.) K-9. serrated, pale below, shortly stalked; nuts smooth, — 

Dry banks. 

2. C. officin&Ui, Mouth of caL with short hairs ; leaves broadly ovate, 
P.7-9.( — P. r.W.)E.I.-14. rather acute, with shallow serratures, green below, 

on long stalks ; nuts dotted. — Dry banks, Bridgewater, 
North Devon. 

* Fl. in simple whorls of separate peduncles. 

3. C. A'cinos, Whorls about 6-fl'd ; leaves ovate, acute, sub-serrate, or 
A. 8. (P.) 12. entire, ciliated at base ; cal. gibbous at base — Dry 

places. 

4. C. Clinopodium, Whorls many-fl'd, with an invol. of many bracts : leaves 
P. 7, 8. (P.) 20. ovate, obtuse, crenuUted ; cal. equal at base. — Dry, 

bushy places. 

Tr. VI. STACHVIDJE. Stam, approxmating^ parallel, 2 lower longest. CaL- 
teeth spreading in fruit, 

10. Melli'ttis. L. Bastard-balm. 

CaL campanulate, ample, with 8 or 4 broad lobes. Cor. twice as long as cal. ; upper 
lip flattish, entire ; lower of 3 rounded, nearly equal lobes. Stam. longer than its 
tube ; anth. approaching and forming a cross. 

M. MelissopMllum, Leaves oblong, ovate, or slightly cordate ; upper lip of cal. 
P. 6, 6. (W. I P.) K-1. with 2-3-teeth.— Woods. 

11. Leonu'rvs. L, Mother-wort 

CaL tubular, teeth 5, subulate, 2 lower rather the longest Cor. with the up- 
per h'p v«iy hairy above, entire; lower patent, 3-fid. Stam. longer than its 
tube ; antiL-ceUs nearly paralleL 

1. L. CardMca, Whorls crowded; lower leaves palmatdy 3-lobed ; upper 

P. 8. (P.) 12. entire ; tube of cor. with an oblique ring. — Hedges. 

12. Mabbi/biubi. L, White-horehound. 

CaL 10-ribbed ; teeth 5-10, spreading ; throat hairy. Cor. a little longer than cal. ; 
upper lip straight, linear; lower 3-lobed, the middle lobe largest, emarginate. 
Stam. shorter than its tube. 

1. M. vulg&re. Hoary, with a white, woolly pubescence ; leaves roundish- 

P. 8, 9.. (W.) 15. ovate, toothed, wrinkled ; whorls numerous. — ^Waste 

places. 
/3. dptdum, leaves cordate at base, very wooUy. 

18. La'mium. L. Dead-nettle. 

Cal. campanulate, nearly equaL Cor. with an inflated throat ; upper lip arched, 
entire ; lower patent, 3-lobed, the lateral lobes reduced to 1 or 2 teeth on each 
nde at base ; tube shorter than stam. 



Galeopsis.] Stnfetalous Hipogtmous Exogens. [Menthe®. 135 

* Tube of cor. straight ; cal.-teeth longer than tube. 

f Floral leaves sessile, amplexicaul, crowded, roundish or reniform, cordate, 
inciso-crenate, lower clasping. 

1. L. amplexicaule. Lateral teeth of lower lip of cor. obsolete; caL-teeth at 
A. 5-8. (R.) 20. length connivent. — Sandy-fields. 

2. L. intermedium. Lateral teeth of lower lip of cor. single ; cal.- teeth always 
A. 4-6. (R.) L S.-2. spreading. — ^Waste places. Sh'go. Edinburgh. 

f Floral leaves somewhat stalked, crowded, cordate, obtuse, 

3. L. incisum, inciso-serrate ; lateral teeth of cor. single ; caL -teeth always 
A, 4-6. (R.) ? spreading. — ^Waste ground. 

* Tube of cor. turned upwards, 

t and clothed internally at its lowest part with a ring of hairs. 

4. L. purpttreum. Leaves roundish-cordate, crenate-serrate, upper crowded ; 
A. 5-8. ( — P. .*. R.) 20. caL-teeth spreading ; lateral lobes of cor. with 2 teeth. — 

Waste ground, 
t Tube of cor. naked internally; leaves cordate-ovate, acuminate, deeply 
serrated. 

5. L. maculdtum. Tube of cor. longer than cal., the 2 lower caL-teeth widely 
P. 6-8. (P.) E. S. ? 1. separated from the 3 upper ; lateral teeth of cor. single ; 

lower leaves with a white, spot, cordate-ovate. — Clova. 
Fifeshire. 
/3. IcBvig&tum. leaves spotless, triangular-cordate. 

G. L. album. Tube of cor. as long as cal., the uppermost cal. -teeth dis- 

P. 5, 6. (W.) 18. tant from the rest ; lateral teeth of cor. 3 — ^Waste 

ground. 

14. Galeo'bdolon. Huds, Weasel-snout 

Cal. campanulate, 5-ribbed, nearly equal, 5 -toothed. Upper lip of cor. incurved, 
arched, entire ; lower smaller, in 3 nearly equal, acute lobes, its tube shorter than 
stam. 

1. G. luteum. Leaves ovate-acuminate, truncate at base, coarsely ser- 

P. 5, 6. (Y.) 10. rate, stalked ; upper lanceolate. — ^Woods. 

15. Galbo'psis. L, Hemp-nettle. 

Cal. with 5 equal, mucronate teeth. Upper lip of cor. arched ; lower with 3 unequal 
lobes, having 2 teeth on its upper side, its tube inflated, ezserted, shorter than 
stam. Anth. bursting transversely. 

* Stem not thickened below the joints, softly pubescent 

1. G. L&danum. Upper lip of cor. slightly crenate ; leaves lanceolate, sub- 
A. 8, 9. (P.) 15. serrate, or entire, downy on both sides. — Gravelly places. 

2. G. ochrole^ca. Upper lip of cor. deeply notched ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
A. 7, 8. ( — T.) 3. serrated, soft and downy on both sides. — Sandy-fields. 

* Stem thickened below the joints, hispid ; leaves 9vate, acuminate, serrate. 

3. G. Tetrahit, Cor. with the upper lip erect, ovate, entire, the tube as 
A. 7-9. (P. V. W.) 20. long as the tubular di — Cultivated ground. 

4. G. versicolor. Cor. with the upper lip horizontal, inflated, the tube much 
A. 7, 8. (T. * P.) 14. longer than caL — Cultivated gromid. 



136 MenthesB.] Stnpetalous Htfogtnous Exogens. [Scutellaria. 

16. BixiiO^A. L, Horehonnd. 

CaL ftmnel-ahaped, with 5 equal teeth, lO-ribbed, naked within. Cor. a little longer 
than cal., the upper lip erect, concave ; lower one 3-fid ; middle lobe ovate-emar- 
ginate. Stam. longer than tube of cor. Anth. approximating, the ceUs spreading. 

1. B. nigra. Leaves ovate, crenate-serrate ; cal.-teeth broadly ovate, 

•P. 7, 8. (P. or W.) 17. suddenly acuminate, keeled, reflexed,*mucronate. — ^Waste 

places. 
^. fa^tida. caL-teeth with very short points ; plant downy. 

y. ruderdlis, caL-teeth acute, gradually acuminate, aristate, erecto- 

patent. 

17. Sta'chts. i. Wound- wort. 

CaL sub-campanulate, 10-ribbed ; teeth 5, nearly equal, acuminate ; upper lip of 
cor. concave ; lower of 3 unequal lobes, the lateral ones r^exed. Stam. longer 
than tube of cor., 2 outer ones at length diverging. 

* Lower leaves sessile, or longer than their petioles. Stem erect. 

1. S. BetSnica, Lower leaves ovate-oblong, cordate, crenate, obtuse, stalked ; 
P. 7, 8. (P.) 17. floral ones lanceolate, acute, serrate, sessile; bracts as 

long as cal. — ^Woods. 

2. S. paltutrU, Leaves ovate-lanceolate, sub-cordate, crenate-serrate, acute, 
P. 7, 8. (P.) 20. nearly sessile ; bracts minute. — River banks. 

/3. ambigua, leaves ovate-lanceolate, on stalks but half their length. 

* Lower leaves equal to or shorter than their petioles. 

f Whorls spiked ; stem erect. 

3. S. sylvdtica. Leaves cordate ovate, serrate, the floral ones linear, en- 
P. 7, 8. (P.) 20. tire ; bracts minute Woods, hedges. 

f Whorls in the axils of leaves similar to the lower ones. 

4. S. Germ&niea, Stem erect, woolly ; leaves oblong-ovate, crenate, wrinkled, 
P. 9. (P.) E.-2. whitish, densely silky ; bracts as long as cal Hedges. 

5. S. arvensU, Stem decumbent, nearly smooth ; leaves cordate, obtuse, 
A. 8, 9. (P.) 19. crenate, even ; floral ones sessile, acute, slightly hairy ; 

bracts minute. — Corn-fields. 

Tr. VL SCUTELLARID^. CaL 2-lipped, closed in fruit. Stam. 4, the 
lower longest^ approximating under the upper lip of cor, 

18. Prx/nella. L. Self-heal. 

Upper lip of cal. flat, 3-toothed ; lower bifld. Cor. with the upper lip nearly entire, 
arched ; bwo: 3-lobed. 2 lower stam. longest ; fiL with a tooth below the anth. 

1. P. vulgaris. Leaves all ovate-oblong, stalked ; teeth of the upp&r lip 

P. 7, 8. (p. B.) 20. of caL almost obsolete, those of the lower mucronate. — 

Waste places. 

19. Scutblla'bia. L. Skull-cap. 

Cal-lips equal, entire ; upper one with a concave scale above. Tube of cor. much 
exserted. Upper lip straight, arched ; lower trifid. 



Verbena.] Stnpetalous Htpooynous Exogens. [Scrofularinese. 137 

1. S. galericuUcta, Leaves all oblong-lanceolate, shortly stalked, crenate-ser- 
P. 7, 8. (B.) 20. rate ; fl's l-sided, axillary, in pairs. — River-banks. 

2. S. minor. Lower leaves broadly ovate ; upper lanceolate, nearly en- 
P. 7-9. ( — R.) 11. tire; fl's same as laist — ^Moist heaths. 

Tr. VIIL MELISSIDJE, Cal, 2'Hpped, 5-toothed, IB-nerved. Stam. spread- 
ing^ the upper shortest, Anth.-cells connected above. 

20. Melissa. L. 

Cal. 2-lipped, upper lip flat, 3-toothed, the lateral teeth folded at the midrib. Cor. 
with the upper lip concave ; lower patent, 3-fid. 

1. M. officinalis.* Leaves ovate, crenate-serrate, acute, pale beneath ; cal. 

P. 6-9. (+W.) KL-1. sub-campanulate ; upper lip flat, truncate, with 3 short, 

broad teeth ; lower with 2 lanceolate teeth. 

Ordeb LXVIII VERBENEiE. 

Herbs, more commonly trees or shrubs, with aromatic properties. Leaves gene- 
rally opposite, exstipulate. Cal. tubular, persistent. Cor. tubular, deciduous, with 
an irregular limb ; aestivation imbricated. Stam. mostly didynamous, rarely 2, on 
the cor. Ov. 2-4-celled ; style 1 ; stigma bifid or imdivided. Fruit a capsule or 
berry of 2 or 4 adhering nucules. Seeds single^ erect or ascending ; alb. 0| or small 
and fleshy ; embr. erect ; rad. inferior. 

1. Verbena. L, Vervain. 

Cal. 5-fid, unequal. Cor. 6-lobed ; limb rather 2-lipped. Stam. included. Car* 
pels 4, separating. Seeds 2 or 4, in a thin, evanescent pericarp. 

1. V. officinalis. Stem erect, branching, somewhat hispid ; leaves ovate- 

P. 7. ( — R.) 15. oblong, serrate, trifid and cut ; fl's remote, in filiform 

spikes, — Road-sides, 



Obdeb LXIX— SCROFULARINEiE. 

Herbs, rarely shrubs, with sedative and virulently poisonous properties. Leaves 
usually opposite. Fl's axillary, or racemose. CaL 4 or 5-naiy. Cor. dedduoas, 
irregular^ often bilabiate, with an imbricate aestivation. Stam. 2, or didynamous, 
rarely 5. Ov. of 2 carpels, 2-celled ; style dmple ; stigma mostly 2-lobed. Fruit 
mostly capsular^ 2-celled, 2-valved, or opening by pores ; placenta axile. Seeds 
rarely definite ; embr. straight, in axis of a fleshy alb. ; rad. inferior. 

* Cal. inflated, 

4-toothed. ....... 2. RHiifAMTBVs. 

CaL 5-cleft, or irregularly 2 or 3-lobed. . . .3. Fsdicuxaris. 

* CaL not inflated, 

t 4-cleft, or 4-toothed. 

Seedi 1 or 2 in each oelL .... 4. Mklam ptavm. 

Seed! many. Middle lobe of lower lip of oor. emarginate 6. Eupbbasia. 

Seedanuiny. Middlelobeof lower lip of cor. entire. . 5. Babtsia. 
t CaL 5-parted. 

1 1 Cor. rotate. 

Btam. 2. Cor. 4-cIeft . • • . 1. Vbbohica. 

N 2 



138 Serofalarineae.] Sympetalous Htpogtmoi78 Exogeks. [Veronica. 



4. Cor.4<kft. 
Stem. ft. Oor.ft-eteft. 
t * Oor. cMipannkte, 

tiw OMmth 4-lobed, cMiqut. 

I s Oor. ^obow, or ringent, with an iniUted tnbe, 

the nonth eontrftcted. Stignw simple, . 

Moath ofeor. noCcontrKCed. Btigow of 2 irri 
tftUeplstee. .... 
X ^Cor. perMniate, 

ffibbon* at the baie. ... 

Cor. q^arred at the baae. ... 



8. SIBTHORPIA. 

10. YBBBAaCUM. 

7. DiOITALIS. 
6. JLlMOSBLLA. 

11. SCBOFTLABIA. 
I 13. MlMULUB. 

13. AUTiBRBmuac. 

14. LiXABlA. 



1. Yebo'kica. L. Speedwell 

CaL 4 or 5-paited. Cor. rotate, 4-cleft, lower lobe smalledt Stam. 2. Seeds few 
or many. 

* FTs in axiDaiy racemes. 

t Baoemes opposite. 

% Plant smooth ; fruit-stalks spreading. 

1. \. BeccaJbimga, Leaves shortly stalked, dttiptical, obtuse, crenate-serrated ; 
P. 5-8. ( — B.) 20. stem procumbent at base, rooting Ditches. 

2. v. AtiagalUs, Leares sessile, lanceolate, acute, serrate ; stem erect, bear- 
P. 6-8. (B.) 20. ing scions, hollow. — Stagnant water. 

X Plant haiiy. 

3. v. Chamafdrys, Stem with 2 opposite, haiiy lines ; leaves sessile, cordate- 
P. 5, 6. (B.) 20. ovate, indso-serrate ; caps, obcordate. — Banks. 

t Racemes alternate, very rarely opposite. 

X Leaves stalked ; caps, longer than caL ; plant hairy. 

4. y. qffieinalit. Bracts lanceolate, longer than pedicels ; leaves elliptical, 
P. 6-8. (B.) 20. serrate ; caps, obcordate, deeply notched. — Heaths. 

fi. glabra. plant universidly smooth. 

y, hirtiUa. leaves ovate-lanceolate ; caps, abrupt, undivided. 

5. V. montana. Bracts linear, shorter than pedicels ; leaves broadly ovate, 
P. 5, 6. (B.) 19. serrate ; caps, flat, orbicular, notched, with crenulated 

and ciliated margins. — ^Woods. 
X Leaves sesrile ; caps, longer than caL, of 2 flat, orbicular lobes ; plant 
mostly smooth. 

6. v. scuteUata. Leaves linear-lanceolate, acute, somewhat toothed ; fruit- 
P. 7, 8. ( — R.) 20. stalks deflexed ; stem erect. — Ditches. 

(I. parmularia. stem haiiy. — Boggy places. 

* Fl's in terminal spikes or racemes, or solitary and axillary. 

f Leaves (but especially the middle ones) all stalked. 
X Flower-bearing leaves in opposite pairs; seeds flat. 

7. V. saxatalii. Raceme lax, few-fl'd, corymbose, pubescent with crisped 
P. 7. (B.) S.-1. hairs; leaves elliptical, subserrate; caps, ovate, valves 

bifid Breadalbane and Clova Mountains. 

X Flower-bearing leaves, single ; seeds concave. 

§ Leaves with 5-7, large teeth or bbes, cordate ; cells 2-seeded. 

8. y. hederifSHa. Sep. cordate, ciliated ; caps, of 2 turgid lobes ; stem pro- 
j4, 4, 5. ( — B.) 20. cumbent — ^Fields and banks. 

§ Leaves cordate, ovate, indso-serrate ; cells 6-10 -seeded. 

9. y. Buxb&umii.* Leaves shorter than ped ; sep. lanceolale^ acate ; caps. 
A, 4-9. (B.) 8. obcordate, of 2 turgid, divaricated lobei^ which are 



Pedicularis.] Stnpetalous Htpootnous Exogens. [Scrofularinea. 139 

compressed upwards, and sharply keeled. — Colthrated 
ground. 

10. V. politcu Leaves mostly shorter than ped. ; sep. broadly ovate, acute ; 
A. 4-9. (B.) ? caps, of 2 turgid lobes — Cultivated ground. 

fi. grandiflSra, cor. large. 

11. y. agrestis. Leaves mostly longer than ped. ; sep. oblong, obtuse; caps. 
A. 4-9. (— B.) 20. of 2 turgid, keeled lobes, smaller than caL— Fields. 

f L^ves, except the lower ones sessile. 

X Flower-bearing leaves in opposite pairs ; ped. in the axils of one or 
both. 
§ Lowest flowers in the axilbe of true bracts. 

12. Y. spicdta, Stam. protruding beyond cor. ; racemes spiked, many-fl*d, 
P. 7, 8. (B.) £.-1. densely imbricated ; leaves haiiy, ovate or lanceolate, 

crenate-serrate ; lower with a cuneate base. — Dry places. 
fi. hyhrida. lower leaves ovate, with a roundish, cordate base. 

13. y. alpina. Stam. shorter than cor.; racemes fiew-fi'd, loosely spiked ; 
P. 7, 8. (B.) S.-1. leaves smooth, elliptical or ovate, entire or toothed. — 

Mountain summits. 
§ Lowest pedicels in the axillse of true leaves. 
II Leaves undivided ; seeds flat. 

14. Y.fruticulSsa. Leaves elliptic-oblong, or lanceolate, obtuse, sub-serrate ; 
P. 7. ( — R.) S.-1. stem pubescent; caps, ovate; valves bifid. — Moun- 
tains. 

15. y. serpyttifoHa. Leaves ovate, slightly crenate, with 3 main ribs, and a 
P. 5-8. ( — W.) 20. smooth disk ; caps, longer than caL — Way-sides. 

/3. humifiua, stem prostrate ; racemes shorter. 

16. y. arventis. Leaves ovate-cordate, crenate, hairy, with 1 main rib; 
A. 4-7. ( — B.) 20. caps, shorter than caL, ciliated. — ^Sandy places. 

H Lower leaves divided, or lobed ; caps, obcoi^te, compressed, 
ciliated on keel. 

17. y. verna. Ped. shorter than cal. ; leaves pinnatifid, lowest ovate- 
A, 5. (B.) E.-1. serrate ; seeds flat. — Sandy heaths. 

18. y. tryph-jllo*. Fed. longer than cal.; leaves digitate, lowest ovate, den- 
A. 4. (B.) E.-1. ticulate ; seeds concave. — Sandy fields. 

2. RniNA'NTiiug. Xr. Yellow-rattle. 

Cal. inflated, 4-toothed. Upper lip of cor. laterally compressed ; lower plane 3-lobed. 
Caps, compressed, obtuse. ScckIs fiat, bordered. 

1 . R. CrUta-gaUL CaL glabrous ; leaves lanceolate, serrated ; fl*s in lax spikes ; 

A. 6 (Y.) 20. bracts ovate, indso-serrate. — Meadows. 

^. major. leaves linear-lanceolate ; spikes dense ; bracts with an at- 

tenuated point. 

3. Pedicula'ris. L. Louse-wort. 

Cal. inflated, 5-cleft, or imequally 2 or 3-lobed. Upper lip of cor. laterally com- 
pressed, arched ; lower plane 3-lobed. Caps, compressed, acute. Seeds angular. 

1. P.jNiiiM<rM. CaL of 2 cut and toothed lobes, pubescent, ovate; stems 

P. 6, 7. (B.) 20. solitary, branched ; leaves pinnatifid. — Wet meadows. 



140 ScrofulariiiesB.] STifPETALoas Htpogthous Exogbns. [Digitalis. 

2. P. aylvatiea. CaL of 5 irr^^olar, notched lobes, glabroiis, oUong ; stems 

P. 5'^. (R.) 20. several from the base, spieadiiig, simple ; leaves {hh- 

natifid. — Heaths. 

4. Melamfy'bum. L. Cow-wheat 

CaL tubular, 4-tootlied. Upper lip of cor. lateraUy compressed, with reflexed mar- 
gins; lower 3 -fid. Csps, oblong, 2-ceUed, obliquely acuminate, opening on 1 side. 
Seeds sofitaiy, gibbous at base. 

* FL in spikes, not l-sided. 

1. M. cristatum. Spikes doiselj imbricated, 4-sided ; bracts cordate, acumi- 
J, 7. (Y.) E.-3. nate, finely toothed, ciliated. — ^Woods. 

2. M. arvemse. Spikes lax, conical, terate ; bracts lanceolate, pinnatifid, 
A. 6. (T.) E.-1. the segments setaceous. — Corn-fields, Norfolk. Isle of 

Wight. 

* FL axillary, l-sided, and with the leaves in distant pairs. 

3. "ilL pratente. Bracts of upper fl*s with 1-2-teeth at base; cor. 4 times 
A, 7, 8. ( — ^T.) 20. as long as caL, its lower lip protruded. — ^Woods. 

fi. montanum. bracts entire ; stem with an alternate, haiiy line ; leaves 

linear-lanceolate. 
y. latifSKum, bracts toothed at base ; stem with an alternate hairy line ; 

leaves ovate- lanceolate. 

4. M. sylv&ticum. Bracts all oitire, linear -lanceolate ; cor. twice as long as 
A. 7. (T.) 6. caL, its lips equaL — ^Alpine woods. 

5. Ba'btsia. L. 

CaL tubular, 4-cleft Upper lip of cor. entire ; lower 3 lobed. Ciq)8. pointed, many- 
seeded. 

1. B. alpina. Leaves all opposite, ovate, clasping, bluntly serrate ; fl. in 
P. 6, 7. (+B.) 2. a short, terminal, leafy spike ; anth. haiiy. — ^Mountains. 

2. B. vUcosa. Upper leaves alternate, ovate-lanceolate, sessile, acutely 
A, 7-9. (Y.) 3. serrate; fl. solitary, axillary, distant; anth. hairy. — 

Damp places. 

6. EuPHBA/siA. L. Eye-bright 

CaL tubular, 4-fid, or 4-toothed. Upper lip of oor. entire ; lower 3-lobed. Caps, 
obtuse, or emarginate, many-seeded. 

1. ^officinalis. Cor. glabrous; upper lip divided; stam. included ; leaves 
A. 7, 8. (W.) 20. ovate or cordate, nearly sessUe, serrate. — Heaths. 

2. £. Odlontites, Cor. pubescent ; upper lip entire ; stam. protruded ; leaves 

A, 7, 8. (R.) 20. linear-lanceolate, remotely serrate. — ^Waste places. 

7. Digita'lis. L, Fox-glove. 

CaL in 4 deep segments. Cor. campanulate, with an oblique mouth 4 or 5-lobed. 
Caps, many-seeded. 

1. D. purpurea. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, crenate, downy, lower narrowed 

B, 6, 7. (P.) 20. into a foot-stalk; sep. ovate, acute; ivper lip of cor. 

nearly entiie. — Hilly places. 



Scrofularia.] Stnpetalous Hypogtnous Exogenb. [Scrofalarineffi. 141 



8. Sibtho'rpia. L, 

CaL in 5 deep, spreading segments. Cor. rotate, 5-cleft) the 2 lowest segments 
narrowest Caps, compressed, orbicular, 2-yalved, 2-Beeded. 

S. Europafa, Plant baiiy ; stem creeping, filtform ; kayes alternate, 

P. 6-9. (+W.) £. I. -1. roondish-reniform, broadly crenate. — Damp places. 

9. Limose'lla. L, Mud-wort. 

Cal. 5-cleft, equaL Cor. 5-fid, campanulate, equal. Stam. nearly equaL Caps, 
globose, 2-valved, 1-celled. 

1. L. aquaiica. Leaves lanceolate, spathulate, long-stalked; peduncles 

A, 7-9. ( — R.)E. S.-9. crowded, shorter than petioles. — ^Wet places. 

10. Yebba'scum. L, Mullein. 

CaL 5-parted. Cor. rotate, unequal, Stam. 5, dedinate, often hairy. Caps. 2- 
celled, 2-yalved. 

* Leaves all decurrent or sessile. 

t Fl's in spikes (1. Y.), or densely racemose (2. Y.). Leaves woolly, crenate. 

1. Y. Thdpnu. AnUi. nearly equal ; cor. twice as long as the caL its s^- 

B. 7, 8. (Y,) 18. ments oblong, obtuse ; leaves ovate-oblong. — ^Waste 

ground. 

2. Y. ThapsifSrme, 2 of the anth. oblong; cor. 4 times as long as caL, its 
B, 7, 8. (T.) K-1. segments obovate ; leaves lanceolate, ovate ; upper acu- 
minate. — Way-side. 

f FL solitary, or few together, somewhat panicled ; hairs on fiL purple. 

3. Y. Blattaria. Fed. solitary, much longer than the bracts ; stam. unequal ; 
B. 8. (Y.) E.-2. leaves crenate, glabrous. — Gravel banks. 

4. Y. virgatum. Fed. 1-5 together, shorter than bracts ; stam. neaily 
B, 8. (Y.) E. L-3. equal ; leaves doubly serrate, glandular-hairy. — Gravel 

banks. 

* Leaves not decurrent, the lower stalked. 

t FiL with purple hairs. 

5. Y. nigrum. Leaves nearly glabrous above, pubescent beneath, cordate, 
P. 7, 8. (T.) E. S.-12. ovate or oblong ; Ift's spicate ; stem angular. — Banks. 

^. tomentoaum. leaves pubescent above, woolly beneath. 

y. nigro-lychnitis, lower leaves ovate-lanceolate, pubescent above, downy be- 
neath, 
t FiL with white hairs. 

6. Y. floccoium. Leaves with a loose wool on both sides, crenate, ovate- 
B. 7. (T.) K S.-1. oblong ; stem terate, panicled. — ^Way-side. 

7. Y. LydinttU, Leaves neieuiy glabrous, wooUy and powdery beneath, cr&- 
B, 7, 8. ( — T.) E.-4. nate; lower oblong; upper ovate, acuminate; stem an- 
gular, panicled. — ^Waste places. 

11. ScBOruiiA'BiA. L, Fig-wort 

Cal. 5 'lobed, rarely deeply 5-cleft Cor. globose, the tube inflated with a minute, 
2-lipped Ihob^ the upper lip 2-lobed, witii, rarely without, an internal scale («ta- 
mtiio<lti0ii). Stigma simple. 



142 ScrofbUrineflB.] Stkpbtalous Htpogtnous Exogbms. [Linftria. 

* Leaves ^abfons ; sep. roundish, with a membranoiis margin. 

f Stem with 4 angles, but not winged. 

1 . S. nodosa. Leaves ovate, acute, sob-cordate, doublj serrated ; stami- 
P, 6, 7. (+P*) 20. nodiom very broad, slightly emaiginate. — ^Moist places. 

t Stem and petioles winged. 

2. S. EhrhSarti. Staminodiom of diverging lobes ; bracts leafy, lanceolate, 
P. 8, 9. (+P.) K S.-3. acate ; leaves ovate-lanoeolate, sub-cordate, serrate. — 

Wet places. 
8. S. aqwtica. Staminodium roundish-reniform, entire ; bracts linear, ob- 

P. 7, 8. (+P*) 18. tuse ; leaves obkuig, cordate, obtuse, orenate-serrate. — 

Wet places. 

* Leaves downy, or hairy. Stem with 4 blunt (4), or winged (5) angles. 

4. S. Seorodonia, Staminodium roundish, entire ; stam. included ; caL with 
P. 7. (+P.)KL-1. 5 rounded, membranous, edged lobes; leaves cordate- 
triangular, with large, double serratures ^Wet places. 

5. S. vemaiis, Staminodium ; stam. protruding from the veiy contracted 
P. 4, 5. (T.) K S.-3. mouth of cor. ; caL with 5 deep, acute, segments ; leaves 

cordate, acute, doubly serrate. — ^Waste places. 

12. MfMULUs. L, Monkey-flower. 

CaL tubular, 5-angled, 5-toothed. Cor. ringent, upper lip 2-lobed, without a stami- 
nodium ; lower 3-fid. Stigma of 2 plates, which are generally irritable. 

1. M. luteu$.* Glabrous ; leaves erosely toothed ; leaves ovate, or sub- 

P.5-7. (Y.*br.)E.S.-l. lyrate; upper rounded, cordate, clasping; caL with 

ovate, acute teeth, the upper one larger. — South Wales. 
Forfarshire. 

13. AiniRRHi'NXTM. X. Snap-dragon. 

CaL 5-paTted. Cor. personate, gibbous at the base, without a spur. Caps, opening 
by 3 pores at the top. 

1. A. majw.* Sep. ovate, obtuse, shorter than cor. ; leaves lanceolate, 
P. 7, 8. (+R. W.) 12. glabrous ; fl's in a dense raceme. — Old walls. 

2. A. Orontium, Sep. linear, longer than cor. ; leaves linear-lanceolate, gla- 
A, 7, 8. (P.) E. L-9. brous ; fl's loosely spiked. — Corn-fields. 

14. Lina'bia. L, Toad-flax. 

CaL 5-parted. Cor. personate, spurred at base. Caps, opening by teeth or valves 
at apex. 

* Stem or branches trailing ; leaves broad. 

1. L. Cynibaldria* Leaves broadly cordate, alternate, 5-lobed, glabrous; fl. 
P. 6-10. ( — P.) 10. solitary, axUlaiy, on long stalks. — ^Walls. 

2. L. spuria. Leaves ovate, mostly alternate, entire, downy ; cor. with 
A, 7-9. ( — Y.) E.-10. a subulate, curved spur; ped. hairy. — Sandy fields. 

3. L. Elaiine, Leaves ovate-hastate, lowest ovate, downy ; cor. with a 
A. 9. (p. Y.) B. L-ld. subulate, straight spur; ped. glabrous. — Dry fields. 

* Stem or branches upright, not trailing ; leaves narrow. 

t CaL as long as, or bnger than spur of cor. 



Utricularia.] Stnpbtalous Htpootnoub Exoobns. [Lentibolariese. 143 

4. L. minor. Leaves glandular-pubescent, linear-lanoeolate, obtuse, most- 
A, 6-8. (p. T.) 15. ly alternate ; fl. solitaiy, axillary ; seeds sulcate. — 

Sandy fields. 

5. L. repent. Leaves glabrous, linear, scattered ; fl*8 racemose ; seeds 
P. 8, 9. ( — B.) 5. transversely striated. — ^Near the sea. 

f CaL shorter than the spur of cor ; plants glabrous ; fl. racemose. 

6. L. Pelisteridna, Leaves linear, the lower 3-nate, or 4-nate, the upper alter- 
A, 6. (P.) C. nate ; caps, shorter than the linear sep. ; seeds with a 

fimbriated wing. — Bushy hills. 

7. L. Italica, Leaves all linear-lanceolate, scattered ; capsule longer than 
P. 8, 9. (T.) K L'3. lanceolate sep. ; seeds tubercular, with a membranous 

margin. — Banks. 

8. L. vulg&rtM, Leaves linear-lanceolate,'scattered, crowded ; capsule longer 
P. 6, 7. (T.) 18. than the ovate sep. ; seeds tuberculax, with a membra- 
nous margin. — Hedges. 

The eor. of this and oerUin other ipeciet hmre % tendency to heccmie zegnUr, and to piodaet 
more than % lingle ipnr at their baie, as in the remarkable rariety. 
/3. Peloria. fl's regular, with 5 spurs at base. 

Order LXX— -LENTIBULARIE^ 

Unimportant herbs living in marshes with radical and undivided leaves, or in 
water with compound, root-like leaves, bearing vesicles. Fl. on a scape, single, 
spicate, or racemose, with a bract. Cor, irregular, Stam, 2 ; anth. 1 -celled. Ov. 
of 2 carpels, 1 -celled ; stigma 2-lipped, almost sessile. Caps, l-celled, many-seeded, 
with a large, central placenta. Seeds numerous ; alb. ; cot. very small ; rad. 
next hilum. 

CaL 2-llpped. . .1. Pihouioula. 

Cal. S-leared. ....... S. Utricular^. 

1. Pmoui'cuLA. L. Butter-wort. 

Cal. 2-lipped, lower of 1 bifid, upper of 8, segments. Cor. ringent, spurred. Stig. 
large, of 2 unequal plates or lobes. 

* Spur subulate shorter than (1. P.), or as long as (2. P.), the very unequal limb 

of cor. 

1. P. tndg&rit. which is veinless, its segments oblong-ovate, rounded, en- 
P. 6. (P.) 14. tire; caps, ovate. — Bogs. 

2. F. graruHJlora. Limb of cor. veined, its segments broadly obovate, tnm- 
P. 5. (P.) L-1. cate, the lower middle one notched ; capsule oval, 

rounded. — ^Marshes. 

* Spur conical (3 P.), or cylindrical (4. P.), shorter than limb of cor. 

3. P. alpina. Segments of cor. unequal, the upper curved towards the 
P. 6. (T.) S.-1. lip of cor. ; scape glabrous ; capsule acuminate. — Bogs. 

4. P. Lutitanica. Segments of cor. nearly equal; spur decnnred; scape 
P. 7. (T. p.) 2. downy ; capsule globose.^ — Bogs. 

2. Utricula'ria. L. Bladder-wort 

Cal. 2-leaved, equal. Cor. personate, spurred. Stig. 2-lipped. 

1. U. mUgStrU, Spur conical ; upper lip of cor. as long as the palate ; ve- 

P. 6-8. (T.) 17. fides sessile, on the multo-partite Ieave8.-^l>ltc]ie8. 



144 CoryliDeA.] Anoiospxbmods Diclinous Exogbns. [Corylus. 

2. U. inUrmedia, Spar conical ; upper lip of cor. twice as long as palate ; 
P. 8. ( — ^T.) 3. vesicles stalked from the tripartite leayos, the segments 

linear, dichotomons. — Ditches. 

3. U. minor. Spur short, obtose ; upper lip of cor. as long as palate ; 
P. 6) 7. ( — ^T.) 18. vesicles sesale on the dichotomously mnltifid leaves. 

Ditches. 



Sub.Cla88 III DICLINOUS EXOGENS. 

EzooEKs, with flowers, some of which bear stamens alone, and some pistils ,- the 
petals and sepals, one or other being also generally absent 

Division V. — ^Angiospermous Diclinous Exogens. 

Diclinous Exooens ; the seeds of which are enclosed within a pericarp. 

Order LXXL— CORYLINE^. 

Trees, or shrubs, abounding in astringency, with alternate, simple, stipulate leaves. 
Barren ffs : — Amentaceous, Stam. 5-20, inserted on the base of the surrounding 
scales, or of a membranous, valvate cal. Fertile fi's : — solitary, amentaceous, or ag- 
gregate. Cal, (idnate to oo., and seated within a coriaceous invoL (cupuW)^ or 
absent. Ov. with many cells, and pendulous ovules ; stigmas several, sub-sessile, 
distinct. Fruit a bony or coriaceous, 1-celled nut, sunk in the eujnde ; seeds 1, 2, 
or 3 ; embr. exalb., with a minute, superior rad., aiyl large, fleshy cot 

« 8tigiiiM2. 

Sctdet of the iMurreneatkini roundish. .1. Carpihus. 

Scales of the burren cstkins S-deft. .8. Cortlvs. 

* StigmMa. 

Barren catkins long, pendolons, Iftz. . . 3. Qubrous. 

Barren catkin globose. ..... 4. Faous. 

1. CA'RPmus. L, Horn-beam. 

Monoecious. Barren catkins, long, cylindrical, the scales rounded, dliated at base. 
Fertile catkins, lax, conical, the scales large, leafy, 8-lobed, 2-fl'd. Ov. 2-celled ; 
styles 2 in an urceolate, 6-toothed caL Nut 1 -seeded, long, bony. 

1. C. Betulus, Scales of fruit oblong, serrated, the 2 lateral lobes the 

T. 5. 11. smaller; leaves ovate, doubly and sharply serrated. — 

Woods. 

2. Ck/BTLUS. L, Hazel-nut 

MofKBcious. Barren JVs, in a cylindrical catkin, its scales 3-deft. Fertile fls, 
several in a scaly invoL Ov. 1-ceUed, naked ; stigmas 2. Cal. 0. Nut l-seeded, 
smooth, enclosed in the lacerated invoL 

1. C. Avell&ria, Stip. oblong, obtuse ; leaves rotmdista, ooxdate, pdnted ; 

P. 4, 5. 20. invoL of the ovoid fruit campannlate^ qpresding. — 

Hedges. 



Betala.] Angiospebmous Diclinous Exogens. [Betulineae. 145 

8. Qu'ebcus. L, Oak. 

Moncecions. Barren JTs, in a long, pendulous, lax catkin. Cal. 5-7-cleft. Stam. 
5-10. Fertile fl*s, solitary. Ov. round, 3-celled, seated in a cupule. Nut 1- 
celled, 1 -seeded, surrounded at the base bj the cupule. 

1. Q. Robur. Young branches glabrous ; leaves shortly stalked, slightly 
T. 4, 5. 20. pubescent beneath, lobes oblong, rounded, with acute 

sinuses ; fertile catkins long-stalked. — Woods. 

2. Q. intermedia. Young branches glabrous; leaves long-stalked, glaucous, 
T, 4, 5. ? with a copious stellate pubescence beneath, lobes short, 

rounded, with shallow, obtuse sinuses; fertile catkins 
short-stalked. — ^Woods. 

3. Q. setiiliflora. Young branches pubescent ; leaves long-stalked, glabrous 
T. 4, 5. ? beneath ; lobes ovate-oblong, obtuse ; sinuses deep, 

acute ; catkins sessile. — Hilly woods. 

8 and 3, probably bat Twietiea of 1. 

4. Fa'ous. L, Beech. 

Monoedous. Barren jTs^ in a globose catkin. Stam. 10-15. Fertile JTs in pairs. 
CaL 6-lobed, adnate, with the 3-celled, 3-angled ov., and enclosed in a spiny, 4- 
lobed invoL Nut 1 -celled, 1 or 2 -seeded. 

1. F. sylvatica. Leaves ovate, glabrous, obsoletely toothed, with ciliated 

21 4, 5. 17. margins; prickles of invoL simple. — Woods. 

Order LXXII.— BETULINEiE. 

Trees, or shrubs, with a tonic astringent bark and alternate simple leaves, with 
deciduous stip. Fr» amentaceous with scaly bracts often in a whorl, and resembling 
a caL Barren fl*s : — Stam. variable, opposite the bracts. Fertile fl's : — Ov. superior, 
l-ceUed, Stigmas 2. Fruit membranous, indehisoent, not united with the scales, 
by abortion 1 -celled. Seeds pendulous, not villose ; embr. straight ; alb, ; rod, 
superior. 

Fertile catkin eloofated. ...... 1. Bbtvla. 

Fertile catkin ronndiah-orate. ..... S. Almos. 

1. Be'tttla. L. Birch. 

Barren catkin : — Scales 3-nate, the middle one stameniferous. Cal. 0. Fertile 
catkin : — Scales 3-lobed, 3-fl*d, deciduous. Ov. 2-celled. Styles 2. Fruit winged, 
with 1 fertile oeU. 

1. B. 6lba. Leaves ovate-ddtoid, doubly serrate, acute, nearly smooth ; 
T. 4, 5. 20. scales of fertile catkin 3-lobed ; fhiit shorter than the 

wing ; branches erect, pubescent when young. 
^. pendula. branches weeping, smooth and warted when young. 

y. glutinosa. leaves cordate-ovate ; finit equally winged. 

2. B. n&na. Leaves orbicular, obtusely crenate, glabrous ; scales of fer- 
S. 5. S.-d. tile catkin trifid, divided to base; segments equal — 

Bogs, Highlands. 
fi, BaXnmgtSmL scales dividi^ half way. 



146 SalicinesB.] Angiospermous Diclinous Exogens. [Salix. 

2. A'lnus. Tourn. Alder. 

Barren catkin : — Scales 3-lobed, 3-fl'd. CaL 4-parted. Fertile catkin : — Scales 
3-lobed, persistent, 2-fl'd. Cal. 0. Styles 2. Nut compressed, not winged, 2- 
celled. 

1. A, glutinSsa. Leaves roundish-cuneate, obtase, glutinous, with a lobed 

^- 4. 20. and serrated margin, downy in axillaa of ribs beneath. — 

Watering places. 



Order LXXHI.— SALICINEiE. 

Trees, or shrubs, with alternate, mostly simple, stipulate leaves, possessed of tonic, 
bitter, and astringent qualities. FL amentaceotu, mostly dicecious. Barren fl's : — 
Stam. distinct, or monadelphous. Fertile fl's : — Ov. superior ^ 1-celled, with numerous, 
erect ovules. Stig. 2-4. Fruit l-celledj S-valvedj many-seeded. Seeds adhering to the 
lower part of the valves, or base of cell, covered with long, silky hairs ; alb. ; embr. 
erect ; rad. inferior. 

Stam. 8-30. ........ 1. FoPULUS. 

Stam. 1-5. ........ 2. Salix. 

1. Po'puLUS. L, Poplar. 

Scales of amentum lacerated. Stam. 8-30, from an oblique cup (nectary). Fruit a 
follicle, almost 2-celled by the involute margins of the valves. 

* Leaves white, do^ny, or hoary beneath. 

1. T, dlba. Stigmas 8; catkins ovate; leaves roundish-cordate, 
T. 4. 15. lobed, toothed, of the young shoots 5-lobed. — Damp 

woods. 

2. P. canescens. Stigmas 4 ; catkins cylindrical ; leaves roundish, deeply 
T. 4. 9. waved, toothed; of the young shoots entire. — Damp 

meadows. 

* Leaves glabrous on both sides. 

3. P. tremula. Leaves nearly round, acute, broadly toothed; stigmas 
T. 3, 4. 16. 4, erect, each pan* with an auricled lobe. — ^Moist woods. 

4. P. nigra. Leaves deltoid, acuminate, serrated; stigmas 4, ample, 
T. 3. 13. spreading. — Wet places. 

. 2. Sa'ux. L, Willow. Osier. Sallow. 

Scales of catkin imbricated. Stam. 1-5. Fruit a 1 -celled, naked follicle, with a 
gland at base. 

* Catkins pedunculate, 

f * appearing with the leaves, lateral ; trees or large shrubs ; nectary 

double ; leaves serrated, inclining to lanceolate. 

X Scales of the fertile catkins deciduous before the maturity of the fruit, 

pale, of the same colour throughout. 

§ Petioles glandular, especially towards the top ; stam. about 5. 

1. S, pentandra. Leaves ovate, or elliptic-lanceolate, actmunate, smooth, 

T. 4, 5. 11. with glandular serratures ; barren catikins laige and 



Salix.] Angiospermous Diclinous Exogens. [Salicinese. 147 

handsome, flagrant; caps, smooth; style and pedicel 
short ; (2) (a). 
A large, handwme fhrub, or gmall tree, resembling an evergreen in ita bright, glossy leaves. 

*S. cuspiddta, differs from S. pentandra in its fewer stam., more elon- 

gated pedicel (3-4), its more acominatod leaves, and 
oblique stip. 
§ Petioles without glands ; stam. 2 ; young shoots very brittle in 
the spring. 

2. S.jrdffilisy L. Leaves lanceolate, acuminate, very smooth, except in a 
T. 5. 1 6. young state, serrated ; stip. ^-cordate ; caps, ovate- 
lanceolate, smoothj pedicellate ; style moderate ; stigma 
rather thick, bifid ; (2) or (3). Plant bright green. 

a. decipiens. bark polished like porcelain ; buds black in the spring ; 

young shoots often crimson, the colour extending oc- 
casionally to the mid-rib of the leaves ; leaves lanceo- 
late, quite smooth, serrated, pale, and much reticulated 
beneath. The barren tree only referred to. — £ssex. York- 
shire, &c. 

^- fragiliM^ E. Bot. leaves lanceolate, or ovate-lanceolate, much acummated, 

serrated, often broad at the base, and glaucous beneath, 
smooth or slightly downy on the under side ; ov. short, 
thick; stigmas about equal with the scale; style and 
pedicel very short; barren catkins large, thick, and hand- 
some. 

y. Rustellidna. leaves narrower than the last, more downy beneath when 

young, very coarsely and irregularly serrated ; ov. taper- 
ing ; stigmas extending considerably beyond the scale ; 
pedicel and style longer than the last ; barren catkins ^ 
as in /}, but the leaves more coarsely serrated, and more 
downy beneath. 

3. S. alba, leaves lanceolate, acuminate, serrulate, silky on both sides, 
T. 5. 17. stip. lanceolate; floral leaves of barren catkins beautifully 

ciliated ; scales rounded, broad at the base, but suddenly 
contracted, much shorter than the stam., but about 
equal to the ov., which is short and thick ; pedicel and 
style very short ; general tint at a distance dull grey. 

«. coTulea. leaves ultimately smooth beneath, and glaucous. 

/3. vitelUna. shoots golden yellow; scales longer than either stamens 

or style, lanceolate, pointed. 
Trees of large sise and rapid growth, the var. ceerulea the most remarkable in this respect ; var. 
fi less frequent. 

i Scales of the fertile catkin persistent, of the same pale colour through- 
out ; stam. 3 ; plants casting their back towards autumn ; stip. 
shorter than petiole. 

4. S. amygdalina, L, leaves serrated, glabrous ; stipules ^-cordate, approaching 
T. 4, 5. £. S.-5. to reniform, blunt ; scales of the catkins nearly smooth, 

(2) or (3) By water. 

(a) The numbers at the end of the descriptions of each species, reftr to the relative proportion bonie 
by the pedicel of the caps, to the nectary. The nectary is taken to be 1 1 (1 ), denotes equality ; (0), 
that the nectary surpasses the base of the caps., and c2) or c3), Ac, represents the multiple the pedicel 
is of the nectary. 



148 Salicines.] Anoiospermous Diclinous Exogens. [Salix. 

«. amygdaKna E, Bat. young shoots strongly furrowed ; leaves ovate, or ovate- 
oblong, glancous beneath ; ov. short, thick, with 2 deep, 
and 2 shallow furrows; style scarcely any; stigmas 
large, spreading horizontally ; a huge shmb. 

fi. eontorta. shoots furrowed ; leaves green on both sides, linear-lanceo- 

late, flat ; ov. attenuated above ; a large shrub. 

y, triandrcL, E, Bot. leaves linear-oblong, serrated, smooth ; ov. somewhat at- 
tenuated, rather longer than the scale ; stigmas minute ; 
s^'le short. 

t, Hoffinanidna. shoots round ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, acuminate ; pale be- 
neath ; stip. very large, sometimes equal with the petiole. 

i. triandra, curtut, shoots slightly angular towards the point ; leaves lanceo- 
late, or linear-lanceolate, smaller than in any other fore- 
going ; stip. also smaller, approaching to reniform ; ov. 
attenuated. — Barren plant, Essex ; fertile, Yorkshire. 

5. S. undulata. Leaves lanceolate, much acuminated, sharply and finely 
S. 4, 5. K ?-4. serrated, smooth, often undulated ; stip. ^-cordate, acute ; 

scales very hairy ; ov. smooth, constricted about the mid- 
dle ; style short ; stigmas spreading, emarginate or bifid ; 
(2).— Essex. 
f ' Catkins appearing with the full grown leaves, lateral or sub-terminal : 
shrubs about a foot high, very much branched ; nectary single ; ped. 
leafless above; leaves with prominent ribs, green on both sides. 

6. S. myrsinites. Leaves approaching to ovate, scarcely an inch long, serrated, 
S. 4, 5. S.-1. sometimes downy on the prominent ribs, twisted and 

undulated, drying black ; stip. often as long as, or longer 
than the petiole, serrated, smooth ; ov. on a short stidk, 
downy or smooth ; style elongated ; stigmas cloven, red- 
dish ; scales dark brown, hairy ; (0) Highlands. 

/3. arhutifilia. fi, smaller in all its parts. 

Flowering, when cultivated, in May. The withered leaves remain even until the young cat- 
kins show themselves, so that in the tarly qpring the plants look dead. The bunches of young 
leaves have a strong, resinous smell. 

7. S. procumbetu. Leaves flat, drying yellowish green, slightly serrated ; style 
S^ 5, 6. S.-1. very short; ov. pubescent; leaves and catkins much 

larger than in the last, the catkins far more pubescent ; 
ped. with buds in the axils. — Highlands. 
A low, procumbent shrub, with exceedingly thick branches, and large buds. 

f ' Catkins appearing with the ftill-grown leaves, terminal ; dwarf, alpine 

shrubs, the trunk creeping beneath the surfEU^ ; ped. gemmiferous ; 

leaves inclining to orbicular. 

8. S. reticuldta. Leaves rounded or ovate, glaucous beneath, much reticu- 

S. 6. £. S.-1. lated, entire, on a long petiole ; ped. with about 3 leaves, 

bare for about the length of the catkins ; (0). — Lofty 
mountains, Scotland and North of England. 
A beantiAil dwarf shrub. 

9. S. herbdcea. Ped. with 2 leaves at the base of the catkins ; catkins of 

S. 6. E. S. few fl*8 ; leaves rounded, crenate, green and shining on 

both sides, nearly sessile; (0). — Moimtain summits, 

Wales, Scotland, North of England. 
Often not rising more than on inch above the earth. 



Salbu] Amgiospekmous Digumous Exooems. [SaHciiiefle. 149 

* Catkms seisOe. 

t Antb. becoming final! j lHatk ; oqw. wemSle, pobeseent ; leaves green, or 

glanocKu beneath, not white and alky, genendly smooth, more <fr less 

aenated. — Osiers. 

X Stip. ; style very short, or none ; stam. 1, of 2 fiL combined ; anth. 

4'locidar; leaves oiften opposite. 

1 0. S. fntrpurea, L. Leares lanceolate, broader above, acominate, findy serm- 

T. 3, 4. late, fiat, smooth ; caps, ovate, sessile, tomentose ; style 

short; stigmas ovate ; (0). — Biver-banks. 
«. Helix. a small tree, with erect, yellowish branches ; leaves ob- 

loogo-lanceolate, elongated, acominate, at the base linear 
and obllqae. 
fi. purpurea, E. Bat, decombent, with erect, porple branches ; leaves obliqiie, 

broadest and serrated towards the point, very narrow at 
the base, ^anootis beneath ; fertile catkins remarkably 
slender and compact 
y, WooUgariama, leaves cmudfonn, short, very broad above, ^^anooos be- 
neath, serrated, scarcely oblique; fertile catkins nmch 
thicker and softer. 
). ramuiosa. )ea,rea obkmgo-lanoeolate, more or less obliqne, atten n at ed 

at the base, varying in breadth above, and more or less 
acmninate^ pale beneath. 
f . Lttmbertiana, leaves oUong, or Imear-hmoeolate, sharply serrated towards 

the point, scaroely altwinafed towards the base, and very 
sU^^tfy obhqae. 

X Stip. finear; style of moderate length; stam. 2, fiL more or less com- 
bined ; leaves mostly aitemate, 

U.S. r^ra, MonadelphMis ; leaves linear-lanoeolate, elongated, (broader 

S. 4, 5. 6. and las elongated in the barren plant) ; stigmas ovate, 

midivided; style as long as the stigmas ; {0). — Kiver- 
banks. 
«. Farbpama, leaves broader, pubescent beneath, especially when yoong ; 

stigmas filiibrm, divided. 
In iU ksvM 8. nd^a ftapetiaUj the fertile tiant), mppnmOitM the Vimhialct. The broad-lesvid 
cxMipolate forae, reeeaiMe mmte of the ram of 8. purpmrea. The Uarpar titjlti bowercr, and hslf- 
'■•yaneeled flaoMBt, dietfafobfa ft from 8. purpurea i and the want of ritkj hain on the mdcr'tfaic 
of the leares from the VbiUaalea. The bade of 8. rukra aiet fa the aprfaif, of a bri^ aiamm. 

t Anth. becoming yellow or brown; stam. 2 ; catkins lateral 

X ' Leaves long, comparatively narrow, with a silky, shining pobesoenoe. 

§ ' Caps. sessO'i, or verynearly so, pubescent ; slender trees or large 

shrubs with limg, comparatively narrow leaves. — OtAers, 

12. S. viminoHs. Leaves linear, or llnc^r-lanoeolate ; stip. inoonqiicaons ; 
S. 4. 20. .style elongated ; stigmas undivided ; (0). — ^Biver-banks. 

fi. intricaia. with broader leaves ; caps, shorter, dothed with apptessed 

silkiness; style veiy short; stigmas from the first di- 
vided, reflezed and entangled, 

y. stipularis. leaves lanceolate; stip. genoaOy present, linear-lanceolate, 

denticulate, or ^-cordate, acuminate; stigmas elongated. 

13. S. stipmlaris. leaves lanceolate, ^-eordate, acute ; caps, sessile ; styleveiy 

S, -L £.-3. short (EngL FL), elongated (Hook. Br. FL), stigmas 

linear, undivided; (0).— Osier-holts, Suffolk. 
HfmarVible for iU atoot eatfciaa, and iU rerj large mpultt. The style fa EL BoC is rcptcseoted 
■aoeh shorter than the stifBaa. la naay respects this ^eeics affcoachcs 8. riatiaalia. 

o 2 



150 Salicineae.] Awgiospermous Diclinous Exoobns. [Saliz. 

§ ' Caps, oo a ped. abcmt equal to the nectaiy, pubescent ; style 
0(Mi8picaoiis ; slender trees, or shrubs, with long, ocHnpara- 
tively narrow leaves. — Osiers. 

14. S. ^mi^Aftoiia, fft/Ul Leaves broadly lanceolate ; styk about equal to the stigmas; 
^'- ^' 10. caps. ovate-Ianoeolate ; stigmas filiform, often divided; 

stip. reniform, ^-cordate, acuminate; (1) River-aides. 

«. ^mtVAidjia,£.^^8tip. linear, ^lunate; leaves rounded at the base, long 

and tapping, not linear ; whole plant of a bright, lively, 
green hue. 
A. rugosa. stip. ^-cordate; leaves approaching to oblong-lanceolate, 

not so long as the last ; plant of a darker hue ; stigmas 
undivided or doven. 
y. ferruginea. stip. reniform ; leaves undulated, denticulate, often almost 

green beneath. 
The leaves of 8. Smithiana are Inroader and lets white beneath than in S. vimindUst in addition to 
which the diitinctneM of the pedieel, in tlie former, will lerre readily to distingoiah the Bpecies. The 
Tarieties of both are inflnite. 9,f€rrugiHea recedes the most widely fkom the general ^tpearanoe of 
the Viminalea. The true /etru^inea^ AmL^ has the style so short, that it has been referred to 8. 
eintrea. Specimens frmn Shrewsbury have catkins pecoliarly soft and TillooSt resembling in thia 
respect the continental 8. tnoUisstmOf Ekr, 

15. S. acuminata,* leaves lanceolate-oblong, cinereous beneath, and clothed 
S, V. T. 12. with pubescence, which is less silky, and more crisped 

than in the rest of the section ; stip. large, ^-coi^atA ; 

style distinct ; stigmas ovate, undivided ; (1) ; fertile 

catkins exceedingly soft and villous Hedges. 

The affinity of tliis species to the Cineress is striking, but it is a coarse osier, sending np long, 
stout rods, clothed in the upper part with brown pubescence. The nectary is stated by Koch to be 
equal to the pedicel ; in the English Botany, it is represented longer. The leares are much broader, 
and more glaucous beneath than in the other Viminales. 

§ ' Caps, on a ped., twice, or more than twice the length of the 
nectary, rarely smooth ; small shrubs, either upright or pro- 
cumboit; leaves very variable both in size and figure, 
sometimes very small, but characterised by their satiny, 
shining pubescence. 

16. S. rosmarinifolia. Erect, slender; leaves linear-lanceolate, entire, silky and 
'S'. 4. 3. shining beneath, turning black in drying, with a straight 

point ; stip. lanceolate ; barren catkins short, oval ; fer- 
tile, ^" shortly oblong, curved, lax ; ov. stalked, alky, 
lanceolate, acuminate ; style about equal to the linear, 
divided stigmas ; scales short, villous ;" (2 or 8.) 
This and S. inctAaeeth WiUd.t (S. angustifoUa^ Wulf.^) serve to connect S. otmmo/M with S. 
reptnt. 

17. S. angustifSlia, ** leaves linear-lanceolate, nearly glabrous, with minute, 
T. 4. S.-1. glandular teetti, the young leaves silky, glaucous be- 
neath; catkins ovate, erect; ov. ovate, acuminate, 
densely silky, stalked ; style about as long as the broad, 
erect stigmas ; scales very villous, nearly as long as the 
young ov.** (2 and 3). — Mountains. 

8. angUMtifoUa^ Wulf. Koch / has lanceolate leaves, approaching S. viminattst lanceolate stip., cylin- 
drical, erect catkins, pedicellate and tomentose ov., and style equal to or shorter than stigmas. 
The Aill-grown leaf figured in E. Bot. is quite unlike. 8. rotmarintfoUa^ Zr, Koch I diifers in the 
fertile catkins, being almost round and very short, buried in the floral leaves, and not curved as in 
E. Bot. 

18. S. Doni&na. Leaves ovate, lanceolate, tapering at base, with a short point, 
S, 5. S.-1. entire, or with a denticiUation here and there, pale, and 



Salix.] Angiospebmous Diclinous Exooens. [Salicinese. 151 

occasionallj downy beneath; stip. generallj ; catkins 
erect, cylindrical, pubescent ; ov. ovate, conical, stalked, 
silky ; style very short ; stigmas minute ; (2). 
The barren plant la stated to be monadelphoos, the anth. turning yellowish-brown in withering. 

19. S. repenSj L, *' Leaves elliptical, or elliptic-lanceolate, acute, entire, or 
S. 5. 16. with minute, glandular serratures, somewhat downy, 

glaucous, and generally very silky beneath ; ov. on a 
long stalk, lanceolate, very silky ; stigmas bifid ; stems 
more or less procumbent ;" (Hook), (2 or 3). — Sandy 
heaths. 

«. fusca. " stem much branched, upright, decumbent below ; leaves 

elliptic-lanceolate." 

A. repensj E. Bot. " stem depressed, with short, upright branches ; leaves 

elliptic-lanceolate." 

y. prostr&ta, *' stem prostrate, with elongated, straight branches ; leaves 

elliptic-oblong " 

1, fcetida, '' stem recumbent ; leaves eUipticaL** 

Sub- var. partn/o/ia. E. Bot., "leaves smaller." 

I. incubdcea, ^' stem procumbent ; leaves elliptic- lanceolate." 

$. argentea, **stem erect, or spreading; leaves elliptical, with a re- 

curved point, very silvery beneath." 
Dwarf, mnch branched, ihmbs, recognised by the pecnliar character of Itf silTery, appreesed 
pubeecence, and the generally twisted point of its leaves. 

20. S. ambiffua. Ehr. Leaves obovate, cuspidate, tapering at base, rather wavy 
S, 5. 2. and denticulate at margin, rugose and pubescent be- 
neath ; stip. ^-cordate, denticulate, hairy ; catkins oval ; 
ov, pedicellate, ovate, very silky ; style short ; stigmas 
pale ; (3-4). — Heaths, bogs and woods. 

m. ambiguaj WiUd, Ehr, " stigmas sessile, or nearly so ; leaves moderately hairy, 

or sUky." 

/3. " stigmas sessile, or nearly so (quite entire) ;" leaves ob- 

ovate, very silky on both sides. 

y, spathuldta, style elongated ; leaves oblong, moderately hairy or silky. 

X ' Leaves comparatively broad, approaching to elliptical, pale, glaucous, 
or reddish and pubescent beneath, the down crisped, not white 
and silky ; style almost ; ped. thrice (or more) as long as nec- 
tary ; ov. pubescent ; large shrubs or small trees, with torulose 
branches. 

21. S. cinSrea, L, Buds pubescent; leaves somewhat serrated, oblong-obovate, 
S. 3, 4. 12. villous beneath ; stip. ^-cordate ; (4). 

«. cinereOy E. Bot. leaves obovate-lanceolate, thick, reddish beneath ; stip. ^- 

cordate, acute. 
/S. aquatica. leaves obovate, elliptical, thin, glaucous beneath ; stip. reni- 

form. 
y. oleifolia. leaves obovate-lanceolate, narrower, green beneath; stip. 

smalL 
There are many intermediate forms. Style always very short; leaves exceedingly variable, 
sometimes resembling those of S. acuminata; sometimes very thin, glaucous beneath, elliptic- 
lanceolate, wavy and slasheil, rather than serrated, with very large stip; sometimes varigated; oc- 
casionally glaucous, and nearly smooth, or rusty beneath, with crisp putMsoence, round at the ban, 
or tapering, so also at the point. Catkins more constant. 

22. S. aurxta. Buds smooth ; leaves obovate, repando-dentate, rugose, 
S. 4. 18. often tapering at the base, thin in texture, pale green 



152 Salicineae.] Angiospermous Diclinous Exooens. [Salix. 

beneath, oblique at the point ; stip. broadly ^-cordate ; 
stigmas and scales often pale-reddish; barren catkins 
slender, frequently on a leafy peduncle; (3 or 4). — 
Woods and Hedges, or turfy pastures and bogs. 
The itip. are generally very contpicaoiu ; the plant rariefl from a shrub not more than 18 inchea 
high, to a slender tree. The dwarf rariety grows in turfy, spongy situations. 

23. S. caprca. Buds smooth, those containing the catkins very large ; 
T. 3, 4. 20. leaves extremely broad, crenate-serrate, very soft, 

glaucous and tomentose beneath, elliptical, ovate, or 
cordate, pointed ; stip. ^-cordate ; catkins large, blunt, 
thick ; style very short ; pedicel long, tomentose ; (4-6). 
— Hedges. 
Readily known by its Inroad crenatoi rather than serrated leaTes, green above, strongly veined, 
white and tomentose beneath. 

«. sphacelata. a sub-alpine var., known by its smaller size, its elliptical, 

pointed leaves, not so strongly veined and tomentose 
beneath, and withered at the tip. 
It forms a low, red-twigged bush. 

In & caprea the catkins haye been obserred to change their nature, the same capsule producing 
at the i^ez pollen, and containing below orules. The like alteration occurs in the Bicolort. It 
has been supposed that this metamorphosis is owing to summers warmer than usual, and it is men- 
tioned here to draw the attention of botanists to the subject. 

X ' Leaves serrated, inclining to lanceolate, downy beneath, becoming 
almost smooth, turning black in drying ; stip. with a straight 
point ; style elongated, deeply cloven, giving the caps, a beaked 
appearance; ov. smooth, or downy, subulate; large or small 
shrubs, with torulose branches. 

24. S. nigricana, Fries. Leaves ovate-elliptical, or lanceolate, undulate- serrate, 
S. 4, 5. ? glaucous or pruinose beneath, thin in texture ; young 

shoots and leaves villous ; stip. ^-cordate, often large ; 
caps, ovate, subulate ; scales brown, haiiy ; (2 or 3). — 
River-banks. 

«. S. hirta. catkins dense, blunt, with few, floral leaves ; ov. very 

pubescent ; pedicel downy ; style rather short, cloven ; 
stigmas short, thick, emarginate ; leaves elliptic-obovate, 
pale and downy beneath ; extremities of shoots densely 
cottony ; stip. minute, glandular, smooth. 

/S. cotinifolia. young shoots finely downy ; leaves oval, approaching to 

orbicular or cordate, pale and somewhat downy beneath ; 
catkins short, but dense; ov. pubescent; style cloven, 
more than half way down, the points tipped with the 
small, emarginate stigmas ; stip. small, or wanting. 

y. nigricans, Sm. " leaves elliptic-lanceolate, acute, crenate, glabrous, with a 

downy rib above, glaucous beneath ; stamens 2, thrice 
the length of the hairy scales ; ov. lanceolate, downy, 
on a short, downy stalk." 

). Andersonidna, leaves elliptical, or elliptic-oblong, pointed, pale, or some- 
what glaucous beneath, nearly smooth ; shoots and young 
leaves villous; stip. smooth, glandular; catkins short 
at first, enveloped in the fioral leaves, and never sur- 
passing them ; caps, subulate, smooth as well as its 
pedicel ; style cloven ; stigmas bifid. 



Salix«] Amgiospxamous Diclimous Exogexs. [SalicineflB. 163 

i. S. DamoBcena, leaves broadljr tX&iAaal, pdnted, green on both sides, thio 

in texture, finely downy beneath, crenate-semte ; ttip. 
often wantmg ; catkhis longer than the hut ; ov. smooth 
as well OA its pedicel; lljrle cloven; stigmas longer, 
cloven, entangled. 
|. For$Uruma, leaves elliptical, pointed, finely serrate, glaucous beneath ; 

sttp. small, smooth ; catkins much kn^er than the floral 
leaves ; caps, more or less downy, oft^ nearly smooth : 
stigmas short, thid( ; pedicel villous. 
n. pttrafa. leaves and whole plant dark green, narrower in proportion 

to their length than in any of the above, ellipde-oblong, 
sometimes approaching to lanceolate, tapering at Ijoth 
ends, rather coarsely serrated and wavy at the margin, 
somewhat rugose above, paler beneath ; stip. larger than 
in any of the foregoing; catkins blunt, longer than 
floral leaves; ov. smor/th, much wrinkled upwards; 
style cloven ; stigmas divi^ied. 
/. mpettfiM. ** stem trailing ; leaves obovate, acute, serrated, flat, even, 

silky on both sides; stip. hairy; brandies mtnutety 
downy ; ov. stalketl, subulate, silky ; style as long as 
the Uunt, undivided stigmas.** Borr, 
I. prop'mqua, *^enct; young slvxits minutely pubescent; leaves ellip- 

tical, obscurely crenate, nearly flat ; with slightly sunken 
veins, nearly naked on both ndes, pale green beneath ; 
stip. small, vaulted, glandulose; ov. sUUked, silky tf>- 
wards the point ; style longer than the notched stig- 
mas. Borr. 
8. nigrieamSf ft wfll be wen, U a rerj rarUMe tfttAtt, Other tomu «ni« doobtle« oecnt, whit h 
will not be rrtoirfble to mj of the alMTe ▼•rfcti««. Tbc qpcehnrM In the Saliei. BrtL, rtUmd to a. 
Urta^ hsTe mbooIIi cape., and the Icnrcs are rtry twoad. I am inibnoed by Mr. Ward, tint the 
faUle plant oeeart in Caatk Eden Dene, and that ft doca not torn Uaclu I poMeai a lirinf plant 
naaed 0, nigrieatUt the IcaTca, fboota, and bnda of whSdi are qnSte nnootb, rcaembUof one of 
the Birokrrs ; Icnrca wemrtstAf wenaitd^ eUiptieKibkng, tapcainf at bcAh ends. 8. petrtta fa • 
weU'marked Tarfety. I am nnaen n ai nt ed wftli the true rupettrUi dttrribtd in Englfah flora { 
tait tlie fiwnia in SaUet Brit.^ ttetUXvUjt tan Tery nnlfke tlte other rart., and even diflSer from 
each other. TLt/ do not tvm btaek fn dryinf , nor fa the eapaale sohnlate, nor tlie style to marked 
and prominent. Pcrhapa tliey wonid more eorreetly 1» arranftd vfth the pnbeiecBt ran. of 8. 
6«r«£or, each aa 8. Umtkn. Tht leaTca are nearly entire, or vith wary teeth, taroad or narrow, 
generally elHptle-oblonff, d<rwny on both tides, ci^«eially on the ftrong, prominent, reddidi riba i 
or nearly tmooth, pale beneath, with a few weak bain, vr M^iooaly rilky. C^pa. smooth or 
downy, in iiorm rather eonical than aubnlate. The qtedmens named 8. propimqua in SatieL Brit,^ 
hare learca ermate, nearly smooth, fkwoons beneath ( caps, almost entirely smooth. 

X * Leaves serrated, smooth, not toming black ; stip. generally nmrate, 

with a carved point ; style elongated, most frequently cloven ; 

ov. ovate-lanceolate, smooth or lUmny ; branches tondose. 

2.5. S. hicolor. leaves ovate-elliiitical or lanceolate, serrulate or eatire, ge- 

S, 4. E. S.-4. nerally of a bright, shining green ; in texture, when 

mature, rigid, usually glaucous beneath, glabrous ; stip. 
oUique at the point, minute ; young shoots and bods 
rarely pubescent, except towards the point ; oqw. ovate- 
lanceolate, pedicellate, smooth or downy ; scales brown ; 
(2-3).>-North of En^and and Scotland. 
«. tenai&r. buds and shoots smooth, except at the points ; leaves nar- 

row-lanceolate, or lanceolate-oblong, po^it^d, nearly 
smooth and entire, ghueoos beneath ; stip. mall ; cat- 



154 Salicineae. 



AifGiospfiftMocs DicLinous ExoGENs. [Salix. 



/S. lawina. 



y. laxifiwa. 



2. r€LdS.ca%», 



t. Borreriana. 



^. Davalli&na, 
n. tetrapla. 



t. Weigelidna. 



t. tenuifSlia. 



K. nit ens. 



loos an inch long, deader; ov. orate-lanoeolate, pu- 
bescent as wen as the pedicel; style short; stigmas 
small, ondivided. 

lefl:Ves elliptic-obovate, tapering at the base, pointed, scarcely 
serrated, finely downy ben^th, incurved at the margin ; 
stip. small; catkins stoat, veiy villons; oy. ovate- 
lanceolate, very pabesoent; style short; stigmas short 
and thick. 

shoots and buds smooth, except towards the point ; leaves 
broadly elliptical, or elliptic-obovate, pointed, smooth, 
glaoooos beneath; stip. small; catiuns ratiier thick, 
often lax towards the base ; ov. constricted about the 
middle, smooth below, or altogether smooth as well as 
the pedicel ; style long ; stigmas cloven. 

"leaves obovate, or elliptic-lanceolate, with often wavy 
serratures, glalvoas, glaucous beneath ; ov. lanceolate, 
stalked, very silky as well as the scales ; style elongated ; 
stigmas entire or bifid.** 

shoots and buds of the male plant smooth ; leaves lanceo- 
late, or lanceolate-oUong, tapering at both ends, ser- 
rate, somewhat downy beneath, especially near the mid- 
rib, glaucous below; sterile catkins abundantly pro- 
duced, large, handsome ; stip. small or wanting ; ** ov. 
lanceolate-subulate, on long stalks, quite glabrous; 
style long, bifid ;** stigmas linear-bifid. A particularly 
elegant vaiie^. 

shoots and buds smooth ; leaves narrow-elliptical, pointed, 
smooth, glaucous beneath, obsoletely seriated; catkins 
blunt, thick, dense ; ov. pubescent ; stigmas doven. 

shoots and buds quite smooth, except at the point ; leaves 
elliptic-obovate, with an elongated point obsoletely ser- 
rated, glaucous beneath ; stip. small ; ov. ovate-lanceo- 
late, pubescent towards the base of the style ; pedicel 
villous ; stigmas short, undivided. 

shoots smooth ; buds slightly downy ; leaves (of the sterile 
plant) elliptic, sometimes almost round, with a short point, 
and shallow serratures, smooth, glaucous beneath ; (of the 
fertile plant) elliptical, tapering at both ends, serrate, with 
a longer point, nearly smootii beneath; stip. on both 
sterile and fertile plants minute, or wanting ; male cat- 
kins finally on a short stalk ; ov. lanceolate, pubescent, 
as well as the pedicel ; style and stigmas doven. 

shoots and buds towards the points very villous ; leaves 
dliptical, with wavy, irregular crenatureB, often some- 
what twisted at the point, finely downy and glaucous 
beneath, ultimately glabrous; stip. moderate, oblique, 
downy; ov. pubescent towards the base; pedicel very 
villous; style elongated; stigmas cloven. There is a 
second form with dender, curved catkins ; ov. ovate, 
short, smooth, as well as the stalk; stigmas minute, 
cloven ; young leaves clothed, with shining pubescence. 

buds downy; e£oots nearly smooth; leaves rather dis- 



Salix.] 



Angioipermous Diclinous Exogens. [SalicineaB. 155 



coloured in drying, generally narrow, elliptical, but 
variable in breadth, pointed, tapering at the base, slightly 
downy beneath ; midrib downy above, bluntly serrate ; 
stip. small ; sterile catkins large, handsome ; twigs 
very dark-coloured, and shining ; fertile catkins short, 
rather slender ; ov. ovate, pubescent, on a downy stalk ; 
stigmas undivided. 

X. Crowedna, shoots smooth; buds slightly downy; leaves elliptic- 

obovate, pointed, tapering at the base, nearly quite 
smooth, glaucous beneath, obsoletely serrated ; fil. com- 
bined at the base. 

fit, florihunda. shoots and buds nearly smooth ; leaves rather broadly el- 

liptical, tapering at both ends, often oblique at the point, 
very glaucous beneath, nearly smooth, serrated ; stip. 
crescent-shaped, generally present, serrated, glaucous on 
the under-side ; ^' filaments slightly beard^ at the base." 
(Hook. Br. n.) 

f. phyllereifolia. shoots and buds villous ; leaves elliptical, tapering at both 

ends, on rather long petioles, little more than an inch 
long, serrated, glaucous beneath, smooth ; sterile catkins 
oval. A particularly elegant dwarf shrub. 

\. Dicksoniana. " leaves elliptical, acute, ^ghtly toothed, glabrous, glau- 
cous beneath; young branches very glabrous; catkins 
ovate, short, erect; ov. stalked, ovate, silky; stigmas 
nearly sessile," (Hook) A small shrub of the habit 

and stature of the last. 
The rarietie* of this ipecie* are endleM, and recognized with much difficulty. From the tpedmeni 
in the Saliet. Britannicum^ it will be leen, how little dependance can be placed upon the alight cha- 
racter! by which the forma are distlngniihed. 8. Weigeliana^ Forbes ^ (S. anuxna^ M8S.) might have 
been added to the liit. 8. tenuior^ for example, with its broad, terrated leaves, and short. Inroad cat- 
kins, bears but little resemblance to 8 tenioor, E, BoLj above described. The same m«y be said of 
the specimens of 8. ttturina^ 8. tetrapla^ and others. 8. tricolor and 8. nigricatu are, ondonbtedly, 
distinct, though pouling forms occur, with difficulty referrible to either. The dark hue, and thin 
texture, and more abundant pubescence, and pruinose appearance of the leaves beneath, as well as 
the straight pointed stipules (Kock. and lYies), subulate ovarium, and long style, are marked charac- 
ters of 8. nigricaru. 

X ' Leaves tomentose, cottony, not silky, often so on both sides; caps. 

nearly sessile; style much elongated; small, much branched 

shrubs, with entire leaves, white and cottony, especially benea^. 

26. S. Lapponum. ** Fertile catkins in fruit sub-pedunculate; cape, ovate- 

S. 6-8. S.-4. lanceolate, tomentose or glabrous, sessile, ultimately on 

a very short stalk ; stigmas linear, bifid ; leaves lanceo- 
late, or elliptical-aciuninate, very entire or serrulate; 
younger ones silky villous, when mature rugose above, 
beneath tomentose, dull; stip. ^-cordate, recurved at 

the point" (0 — 1) Koch, Syn. 

«. glauca, leaves green, nearly smooth above, very white and cottony 

beneath ; ov. short, broad, very villous ; style short, 
(** much elongated as the fruit ripens." — Smith.) 
fi. arenaria, leaves ovate, or elliptical, dull green above, or grey on 

both sides, often white and cottony beneath, but the con- 
trast between the two surfaces less striking than in the 
last ; style much elongated, dark-coloured. 



156 SalicinesB.] Angiospermous Diclinous Exoobms. [Salix. 

Sab-yar. Stuarti&na. — ^leaves ovate-lanceolate, sharp at both ends, grey, with 

hairs above, even when full grown. 
8. glauea L., Reiehenbach^ Fl. OermMi. Exotic. No. 1G28 ! diffen in tlie nature of its pabe«c«Boe, 
which i« TilloDB, and not cottony, criap or itrmight, Irat not matted and entangled ; in the form of it* 
leaves, which are elliptic-lanceolate, acuminate, and in the pedunculate catkins, famished with 
ioral leares, and the style doren to the base with bifld stigmas. Any one comparing the deecrip- 
Uons of Smith and Hooker, will see how impossible it is to distinguish the modlflcstions of 8. Lappo' 
num by the forms and pubescence of the leaves. 

% * Leaves very veiny, crenate or serrate, glanoous beneath, either quite 
smooth, or downy beneath ; caps. fJmost sessile, pubescent ; style 
moderate ; much branched, dwarf, alpine, or sub-alpine shmbs. 

27. S: ar5tMc«/a. ** catkins pedunculate; peduncle leafy; caps ovato-conical, 
S» 4-6. S.-1. tomentose, sessile, ultimately on a very short stalk ; 

nectary reaching beyond the base of the caps. ; style 
elongated, often cloven half way down ; stigmas bifid ; 
leaves smooth, lanceolate-acute, or ovate-obtuse at the 
base and apex, with a short point remotely or densely 
serrate, shining above, of a dull glaucous hue beneath. 
{Kock. 5yn)."— Highlands. 

«e. vasciniifilia, " leaves lanceolate-ovate, serrated, glabrous and even above, 

glaucous and silky beneath ; caps, ovate, silky ; stems 
decumbent." 

fi. carin&ta, " leaves ovate-serrated, glabrous, glaucous beneath, and fre- 

quently folded so as to form a keel ; ov. sessile, oblong- 
ovate, extremely silky; style short; stigmas emaigi- 
nate." 

y. prunifSlia, " leaves ovate, serrated, more or less veiny, glabrous, glau- 

cous beneath ; ov. sessile, oblong-ovate, extremely silky; 
style short ; stigmas emarginate." 

). venuISsa. " leaves ovate, serrated, naked, reticulated with prominent 

veins above, rather glaucous beneath ; ci^ ovate, silky; 
stem erect, much branched." 
Elegant, much branched, dwarf shrubs. 

X ' Leaves rather broad, glaucous beneath ; stip. very large, equal to, or 
longer than petiole ; ov. nearly sessile, smooth ; style doogated ; 
scales remarkably villous. 

28. S. hatt&ta. '* leaves broadly elliptical, waved, thin, and crackling, quite 

S, 5. S.-1. glabrous, glaucous beneath ; stip. large, cordate, about as 

long as the foot-stalks ; ov. on a short stalk, lanceolate, 
acuminate, glabrous ; styles elongated ; stigmas cloven ; 
scales very shaggy, with long silky hairs ;'' (IJ.) 
The fertile eatklni are distinctly pedunculate. This species is remarkable for its villous scales. 

29. S. lan&ta, leaves broad, elh'ptical, or ovate, entire, shaggy, especially 
S, 5. S.-1. at the margin, or nearly smooth, glaucous and reticu- 
lated beneath ; stip. as in the last ; catkins terminal, 
(by the abortion of the leaf-buds at the extremities of 
the shoots, owing to frost — Fries), large, handsome, 
very villous; ov. nearly sessile, smooth; style elon- 
gated ; (1).---Highland mountains. 

Not unlike, at ilrtt si^t, alpine f<mns of 8. eapreo^ but in ftnctllloation widely different. IMec 
remarks that it often comes so near S. hattaia m scarcely to be distlngnished without the firolt. 



Hippophae.] Anoiosfermous Diclinous Exogbns. [UrticesB. 157 



Order LXXTV.— MYRICE^ 

Shrubs with resinous glands, endowed with aromatic, astringent, and tonic quali- 
ties. Leaves alternate, simple. FFs in catkins^ wanting cal, and cor. Barren 
fl's : — Stam. 1-8, with a scale at base ; anth. 2-4-celled. Fertile fl's : — Ov. superior^ 
I'Celled, surrounded by several hypogynous scales, with a Mlitary^ erectj ovule; 
stigmas 2, subulate. Fruit becoming fleshy with tiie adherent, hypogynous scales 
of ov. Seed solitary ; embr. exalb. ; rod. superior , short 

1. Mtri'ca. L. Gale. 
Scales of catkin concave. Stam. 4-8. Fruit drupaceous. 

1. M. G(Ue. Stem shrubby; leaves lanceolate, broader upwards, ser- 

S. 5. (G.) 16. rated ; catkins sessile, erect. — ^Bogs. 

Order LXXV.--ELEAGNEiE. 

Trees, or shrubs, usually covered with a leprous scurf, having entire exstipulate 
leaves, and possessing slightly narcotic properties. Fl. mostly dioecious. Barren fl's : — 
catkins, each with a scale-like bract at base. Sep. 2-4, sometimes united into a cop. 
Anth. 3, 4 or 8, sessile, 2 -celled. Fertile fl's : — CaL tubular, with a fleshy disk, the 
limb entire, or 2-5 -toothed. Ov. superior, simple, 1 -celled; ovule solitary, ascend- 
ing, stalked, anatropal ; stigma simple, subulate, glandular. Fruit crustaceous, en- 
closed within the fleshy caL Seed erect ; embr. straight, in a thin, fleshy alb. ; rad, 
short, inferior. 

1. Hippo'pHAS. L. Sallow-thorn. 

Dioecious. Barren fl's : — Sep. 2, adhering by their points. Anth. 4. Fertile fl^s:^ 
solitary ; cal. cloven at summit. Stigma subulate, exserted. 

H. rhamn(ndes. Thorny, with linear, lanceolate, scattered, silvery leaves ; 

S. 5. (Br.) K-4. fl*s very small, appearing with the young leaves. — East 

coast 

Order LXXVI.— URTICEJB. 

Trees, but mostly shrubs or herbs, with a limpid, caustic, or narcotic jtcice. Leaves 
rough, stipulate, often stinging. FPs not in catkins. Gal. membranous, lobed, per- 
sistent Barren fl*s: — Stam. definite, distinct, on caL; fil. incurved in sestivatioD, 
elastically recurved when the anther bursts. Fertile fl's : — sometimes in spikes or 
cones. Ov. superior, simple ; ovule solitary, erect, or pendulous ; stigma simple, 
fringed or bifid. Fruit indehiscent Embr. straight, with a small, fleshy alb., or ; 
or hooked or coiled ; cot flat ; rad. superior. 

Plant not twining. Stigma simple. 

Style filiform. Fl's polygamons. . . i. Paristaria. 

Stigmu seisile. Fl*i monoDciooa. . * . S- Urtica. 

Flmat twining. Stigmas 8, filifonn. .... 8. Humulus. 



158 CeratophjDes.] Anoimpbamous Diclinoub Exogbne. [Cento^jUom. 

Tr. L URTJCIDJE, Seed erect, albuminous ; embr. straight. 

1. Pasieta'ria. L. Wall-peDitory. 

FVb polygamouB, snrroimded bj an invoL CaL 4-parted. Stam. i. Style filifonn ; 
stigma hairy. 

1. P. offieinaUs. Learea OTate-lanoeolate, 3-ribbed, but not to the base ; 

P. 6-9. (p. G.) 19. invoL 7-fl'd, of 2 bracts, the central one fiertik, each 

bract with 7 ovate segments. — On old walls. 

2. Urti'ca- L. Nettle. 

Fl's moDcedoiis. Barren, jVs : — CaL 4-leayed. Stam. 4. Fertile JTs : — in capitate 
racemes. Sep. 2. Stigma sessile. 

* Fertile fl's in globose heads. Leaves opposite, 

1. IJ. pilulifera. ovate or slightly cordate, acominate, serrated; stip. ob- 
A. es. ( — G.) £. L-2. long-ovate. — ^Near sea ; Norfolk. Suffolk. Bantry. 

2. U. Dodartii. Leaves ovate, or ovate-lanceolate, nearly entire; stip. 
A. 6-8. ( — G.) £.-1. lanceolate. — East of England. 

* Fertile fl*s in axillary spikes. Leaves opposite, 

3. U. wrens, elhptical, serrate ; fl. monoedoos ; spikes nearly simple, 
A, 6-9. ( — G.) 20. in pairs, shorter than petioles. — Waste gronndT 

4. W. dioica. Leaves ovate, cordate, serrate, acuminate ; fl. dicedous ; 
P. 6-9. ( — G.) 20. spikes panided, longer than petioles. — Waste ground. 

fi, angustifiUa. leaves ovate-lanceolate, rounded at base. 

Tr. II. CANNABJNJDJE. Seed suspended, without alb, ; embr, spiral, 

3. Hu'mulus. L. Hop. 

DioBdous. Barren JTs : — racemose. CaL 5-parted. Stam. 5. Fertile JTs : — ^in lax, 
membranous cones. 

H. Lupulus* Stems long, weak, and climbing, scabrous ; leaves petiolate, 

P. 7. (g. T.) 17. I.-4. opposite, d-5-lobed, serrated, rough — Thickets. 



Ordeb LXXVII CERATOPHYLLEJE. 

Submersed herbs, with cellular, vertioillate, forked leaves. Fl^s monoedons. 
CaL inferior^ many-parted. Anth. 12-20, sessile, 2-celled. Or. simple, superior, 
1 -celled ; ovule solitary, pendulous ; style pervious ; stigma filiform, oblique. Fruit 
1-seeded, mdehisoent, crowned with the hardened stigma. Seed 1 ; aXb, ; embr, 
vrith 2 cot,, a large, many-leaved plumule, and an inferior radicale, 

1. Cbbatopht'llum. L, Horn-wort 

1. C. demersum. Fruit armed with 2 spines near the base, terminated by 
P. 7. 2. the curved, subulate style ; segments of caL notched at 

end. — ^Ponds, &c. 

2, C. submersum. Fruit without spines, terminated by the short, curved styles ; 
P. 9. £. S.-2. caL-segments acute, entire. — Ponds. 



Euphorbia.] Angiosperkous Diclinous Exoqsns. [EuphorbiesB. 159 



Order LXXVIIL— CALLITRICHINE^. 

Small aquatic herbs, with opposite, entire leaves. FVs axillary, solitary, monacious, 
with 2 eoloared bracts, rarely 0. Cal. and cor. 0. Stam. 1 ; fil. filiform ; anth. 1- 
celled, 2-valved. Ov. A-cornered, A-celled, with solitary, suspended ovules ; pla- 
centa axile ; styles 2, subulate. Fruit 4-celled, 4-seeded, indehiscent Seeds pel- 
tate ; embr, inverted, in axis of fleshy alb. ; rad, very long, superior, 

2. CALLiTRfcHE. L, WateT-staTwort 

* Bracts 2, falcate ; fruit nearly sessile, tetragonal, 

1. C. verna, each portion bluntly keeled at back ; styles always erect ; 
A. 4, 6. (G.) 20. leaves connate. — Still water. 

2. C. platyc&rpa. Carpels slightly winged at back ; styles erect in bud, at 
A, 6, 7. (G.) ? length r^exed. — Muddy places. 

* Bracts ; lobes of fruit ke^ed, or winged. 

3. C. pedunculata. Fruit stalked, regularly tetragonal ; styles divaricate in fl. ; 
A. 6. (G.) ? leaves linear. — ^Marshes. 

fi. sessilis. fruit sessile ; upper leaves ovate-spathulate. — Lakes. 

4. 0. autumnalis. Fruit nearly sessile ; lobes diverging, acutety winged at 
A. 6-10. (G.) ? back ; style spreading ; leaves linear, broader at base. — 

Ditches. 

Order LXXIX.— EUPHORBIE^ 

Trees, shrubs, or herbs, often with an acrid milk, which is frequently vesicating 
and poisonous. Leaves rarely compound, often stipuled. Fl's usually monoecious, 
sometimes enclosed in a synphyllous involucel, resembling a caL Cal. lobed or 0. 
Pet. sometimes present. Stam. 1 or more ; anth. opening by pores. Ov. free, ses- 
sile or stalked, 2-3-celled ; styles as many as cells ; placentm axUe. Frait mostly 
of 3 carpels, separating elasticjolly from the common axis, sometimes fleshy. Seeds 
solitary, or ttoin, suspended ; embr, in a fleshy alb. ; rad. superior. 

styles 2. Cal. 3-parted. ...... 1. Mbbcvbialis. 

Styles 3. 

The namerous ttam., and the single pistil, plaeed within a > ^ ir„nD/«iiBti 
calyx-like involucel. Sep. and pet. 0. . . . I ** *''^^«<'«»'^- 

Barren and fertile fl*t with both cal. and pet. . . .3. Buzus. 

1. Mebcuria'lis. L, Mercury. 

Cal 3-parted. Fertile fl's: — Ov. 2-celled; ovules solitary. Styles 2. Barren 
fVs : — Stam. 9-12 ; anth. of 2 globose lobes. 

1. lA. perennis. Stem perfectly simple; leaves rough, ovate-oblong ; fertile 
P. 4, 5. ( — G.) 20. fl's on long stalks; root creeping.----Shady places. 

2. M. annua. Stem with opposite branches ; leaves glabrous, ovate- 
A. 8, 9. (G.) 12. oblong; fertile fl's nearly sessile; root fibrous ^Waste 

places. 
fi. ambiffua. leaves lanceolate ; fl's whoried. 

2. Eupho'rbli. L, Spurge. 

Cal. and cor. 0. Fertile fls : — Ov. 3-oelled, with solitary ovules ; styles 3. Bar- 
ren fl's, — numerous, of single stam., placed, along with the pistil, within a cam- 



160 Euphorbies.] Angiospermocs Diclinous Exogens. [Euphorbia. 

panalate inyoluoel, the limb of which is in 4 or 5 s^ments, having as many con- 
spicnooB glands of yarioos forms between the segments. 

* Glands of inrolaoel roimded, oval or reniform, not Innate or toothed. 

t FL solitary, axillaiy ; stem procumbent, forked ; leaves stipuled, 

1. E. PepUs. opposite half-cordate, nearly entire; glands of involncel 
A. 7-9. (r. T.) £.-2. with small scales beneath ; caps, smooth South sea- 
coast. 

t Fl. in umbels of mostly 5 principal branches ; stems erect ; leaves not 
stipuled. 
X * Caps, perfectly smooth ; seeds reticulated and pitted. 

2. R helioscopia. Bracts and leaves membranous, obovate-cuneate, serratad 
A. 6-9. (g. Y.) 20. upwards. — ^Waste ground. 

X ' Caps, warted or tuberculated, not hairy or woolly ; seeds smooth. 

3. E. platyphylla. Bracts cordate, mucronate, and, as well as the obovate- 

A. 7, 8. (g. T.) E.-6. lanceolate acute leaves, finely serrated. — Corn-fields. 
/3. gtricta. leaves narrower ; invoL hairy. — ^Ilntem. 

4. K Hiberna. Bracts and leaves ovate or elUptical, obtuse, entire. — Bushy 
P. 6. ( — G.)E.I.-1. places; Devon. Down. Donegal. Cork. Kerry. 

X * Caps, hairy or woolly. 

5. 'E. pilosa. Bracts all elliptical, glabrous; leaves elliptic -lanceolate, 
P. 5, 6. ( — Y.) E-1. minutely serrate, slightly hairy beneath ; caps, warted, 

hairy. — Prior-park lane, Bath. 

6. E. coralloides* Bracts ovate-oblong, the partial ones ovate, hairy ; leaves 

B. ? ( — Y.) E.-1. lanceolate, minutely serrate, hairy on both sides ; caps. 

not warted, woolly. — Slinfold, Sussex. 

* Glands of involucel crescent-shaped or toothed. 

t The oppoate bracts connate, rounded ; umbel of 5 or more branches ; 

7. E. amygdaloidea. Leaves ovate-lanceolate, hairy beneath, attenuated at base, 
P. 3, 4. ( — Y.) E. L-9. entire ; caps, minutely warted ; seeds smooth. — Woods. 

f Bracts separate. 

X Umbel of 5 or more principal, 2 -fid branches. 
§ Umbel of numerous branches. 

8. E. CyparUnas.* Bracts cordate, acute ; leaves linear, entire ; ov. roughish 
P. 6, 7. (g. Y.) E.-3. with dots ; seeds smooth. — Woods. 

9. E. E'sula,* Bracts cordate, obtuse, mucronate ; leaves lanceolate, den- 
P. 7. ( — Y.) E. S.-3. ticulate ; ov. smoothish ; seeds smooth. — Woods. 

§ Umbels of but 5 principal branches. 

10. E. Pardlias. Glands of involucel 6 ; leaves coriaceous, imbricated, el- 
P, 8, 9. ( — Y.) 8. liptic-oblong, glaucous, obtuse ; seeds smooth. — Sea-coast. 

11. E. Portlandica. Glands of involucel 4 ; leaves membranous, spreading, ob- 
* P. 7-9. ( — Y.) 8. ovate-lanceolate, apiculate; seeds pitted. — Sea-coast 

X Umbels of 8 or 4 principal forked branches. 
§ Leaves alternate, scattered ; seeds rough. 

12. E. Peplus, Bracts ovate ; leaves broadly obovate ; caps, smooth, with 
A. 7, 8. ( — Y.) 20. rugose keels ; seeds dotted — ^Waste gpround. 

13. E extgua. Bracts, as well as the leaves, linear-lanceolate; ci^m. nearly 

A, 7. ( — Y.) 16. smooth ; seeds warted and netted. — Corn-fields. 

§ Leaves in whorls of 4 ; seeds smooth. 

14. E. L&thyrU.* Bracts ovate-snbcordate, acuminate; leaves oblong-lanceo- 

B, 6, 7. ( — Y.) K S.-2. late ; upper cordate at base ; ov. glabrous. — Thickets. 



Bryonia.] GncifospvEifous Diclinous Exooehs. [Cacvrbiteae. 161 

3. Bi/xus. L, Box. 

Barren jr$ : — CaL 3-parted. Pet 2. Stam. 4. Fertik fl's: — CaL 4-parted. Pet 
3. Cape, d-celled; oella 2-8eeded. 

1. B. «eMpcrrt90M. Leaves oirate-ohloiig, ooriaoeoafl, ahminft ttie petioles 
5. 4-6. (— T.) £.-5. slightly haiiy; anth. ovate-sagittate.— Piy bilk. 

Order LXTX. — EMFETKE^ 

Small sfarobs with heatfa-like, exsCipalate kaves, having add properties. FVb 
axittarp. CaL of several hypogjnoiis scdes, arranged in two rows, the inner some- 
times petaloid, and rai^ combined. Barren fl's * — Stam. as nuutf as the inner row 
of Sep., and alternate with them ; anth. ronndish, of 2 distinct oeOs, bursting longi- 
todioalfy. Fertile fl's: — Ov. in a fleshy diak, 3, 6, or 9-eelled ; style 1 ; Hiffma 
with a$ many ray om edit in ov, ; plaeenUe aziU, FntU fleshy, 3, 6, or 9-cdUed, 
with solitary, ateeuding seeds, Embr, taipa, in axis of a fleshy alb. ; rod, in- 
ferior, 

1. Empb'truic. L, Crow-beny. 

Cal. of 3 green and 3 petaloid pieces. Barren fl, : — Stam. 3. Fertile fl, : — Stig- 
ma nearly sessale, with 6-9 rays. Berry 6-9 seeded. 

1. £. niffrum. Procumbent ; leaves lioear-oblong, their margins recorved, 

S, 5, (P.) 10. so as to meet in a white line beneath. — H^iths. 

Order LXXXL— jCUCURBITEA 

Herbs climbing by means of tendrils, with palmate, soccolent, hispid leaves, pos- 
sessing more lew of acrid and drastic properties, which are lost by cultivation. 
CaL 5-toothed. Cor. synpetaloms, 5-cleft. Stam. 5, 4 of the fiL often cohering in 
pairs ; anth. 2-cened, veiy l<Hig and sinoons. Ov, inferior, l-ceHed, with S parietal 
placenta, whidi often project into the cavity, omte in the centre, and divide it into 
3 cells ; styles short'; stigmas thick, velvety, fringed. Fndt pulpy. Seeds mostly 
■omerons, flat ; atb, ; embr. flat ; oot foliaoeoas ; rad. next bilnm. 

1. Brto'vla. L. Bryonj, 

Pet cohering at base. Barren fl. : — CaL 5-toothed: stam. 5, in 3 paneb (2, 2, 
and 1). Fertile fl : — Styk 3-fld. Frait a globose, many-seeded harry. 

1. B. dioiea, FL dicedoos; leaves palmate, 5-lobed, toothed, rough on 

P. 5-9. (+W.) E.-11. both sides; caL of the fertile fl. half as long a» CQr_ 

Thickets. 

Division VI. — Gymnosfermous Diclinous Exogens. 

Seeds not enclosed in a pericarp. The ovuk fertilized directly throng the fera- 
men without the intervention of a styk or stigma. The woody vessels, as seen Uuou^ 
the microscope, exhibiting numerous discoid spUt, each with a central appsnot per- 
foratioa. 

P 2 



1C2 Pioese.] Gtmnosferhous Diclinous Exogbns. 



[Piniis. 



Order LXXXII — PINILE or CONIFERfi. 



Much hranehed trees or evergreen ghrubs^ abonndhig in resm, turpentine, and 
balsam, with narrow^ rigid, entire leaves. CaL and cor. 0. FL mon- or dioedoiis. 
Barren Jl: — Stam. 1, or more and monadelpbous, collected into a decidaona cat- 
kin, roimd a common axia. Fertile fl's: — solitary, or in cones. Or. spread open, 
scale-like, destitute of style and stigma, arising from the axis of a membranooa Inract ; 
ovule erect, naked, sometimes seated in an envelope, vrhich in Taxus is succulent. 
Nuts either solitaxy and naked, or enclosed within the hardened scales of a woody 
cone. Embr. straight, in axis of fleshy alb ; cot subulate, from 2 to 10 in number; 
\ rad. superior. 



Fertile fl*i Mdittfy. . 
Fertile fl*i in catkiiui or eonet. 

Stam. 4-7. 

Stun. 2. 



I. Taxus. 



2. JmiPBRUs. 

3. PiMVS. 



Tr. I. TAXIDJE, Fertile fl's solitary, naked, or bracteated, 

1. Ta'xus. L. Yew. 

Catkins of barren JVs oval. Stam. numerous; anth. 4~6-celled. Fertile JTs: 

scaly below. Seed inmiersed in a fleshy disk. 

1. T. baccata, FI. axillary, sessile; leaves 2-ranked, crowded, linear 

T. 8, 4. 20. acute ; fruit roundish, drupe-like Woods. 

^. fastigiata. leaves scattered ; fruit oblong Giant's Causeway. 



Tr. IL CUPRESSIDjE. Fertile fi's few, in a small catkin or cone. Ovules 
pointing from the axis. 

2. JuNi'pERUS. L. Juniper. 

Stam. 4-7, on lower edge of scale; anth. 1 -celled. Scales of fertile catkins imbri- 
cated, lower ones bairen. Ovules 3, surrounded by a 3-fid, fleshy invoL, formed 
of the 3 uppermost connate scales of the catkin. 

1. J. communis. Leaves 8 in a whorl, spreading or imbricated, Unear, mu- 

S. 5. 17. cronate, keeled, longer than ripe fruit — Dry hills. 

/3. ndna. leaves broader, incurved ; stem procumbent. 

Tr. III. ABIETIDjE. Barren fl's in catkins, Stam. 2 \ anth. 1-celled, ad- 
nate to under sides of scale. Fertile fl*s in cones. Ovules in pairs, pointing towards 
the axis, 

3. Pi'nus. L, Fir. 

Barren catkins crowded, racemose. Carpels (scales of cone) thickened and angular 
at end. Seeds with a crustaceous, winged coat 

1. P. sylvestris. Leaves rigid, in pairs ; cones ovate, acute, when young 

T, 5, 6. S.-5. stalked, recurved, in pairs as long as leaves. — High- 

lands. 



Stratiotes.] Pebigtvous Endogcvs. [Orchides. Id3 



CLASS II.-SNDOOSNS OB MONOOOTTLBDONS. 

Stem not formed of dbtoict bark, wood and pith ; irhea cot tnogwenely, no radiat' 
ing lines are teen, the woody tobes being scattered indiscriminatelj through the od- 
lular tisMie. In consequence of the stem growing by the snocesstve intrusion of new 
wood at the centre, it is found to be denser at the circunilSerenoe than the interior. 
Leaves with parallel rflM, often connected by transverse ones, but rery rai^ reticn- 
lated. Fl's mostly S-nary. Embryo with 1 cotyledon, the radide in gemunation 
having to burst through the substance of the embryo. 

Sub-Cla88 VL— PEEIGYN0U8 ENDOGEXS. 

KsujoGKJtH having the tube c^ the caL adherent to the ovary. 

Order LXXXIIL^HYDBOCHABIDEiE. 

Water plants, sometimes with spiny leaves. FF* mostly dtclinaus, issuing from 
a Mfiathe. Sep. 3, herbaceous. Pet, 3, petaloid, inserted with the stam, oh eoL, 
»ffm*ititw» 0. Ov. compound 1, 6, 8 or 9-ceUed ; stigmas 3-6 ; plaoent« often parie- 
uL Fruit indebiscent, 1 or more celled. Seeds numerous ; aW. ; embr. straight, 
cylindrical, umlivided ; plumule smaO, lateral ; rad. nauAe from hflnm, 

Sf«tbc 9^*4 1 ftaai. 9-13. ..... I. HvDBOCRAais. 

Hp»thc 1 I'd ( itaa. 30. 2. MraATiOTB*. 



1. HrDROCHA'Ria. L, Frog-bit. 

l>vtMfrtu ; barren JTs, — spathe 2'parted, 3-ffd ; stam. 9-12. Fertile/,, — spathe 
1-fl'd ; stigmas 0, wedge-shaped, biikL 

H. morjnu-rarue. Floating and creeping ; leaves stalked, roundish, reniibrm, 

P. 7, 8. ( W.; .S. ? E. L-12. entire ; fl's snb-umbeUate..-.Ponds. 

2. SrsATu/TEa. L, 

Imperffictly diredous ; spathe 2-parted, 1-flU Stam. about 20, on top of tube of 
perianth. 

1. alotdes. Leaves sword-shaped, triangular, rigid, spmosely serrate ; 

P. 7. (W.) S. 7 E-8. scape 2-edged ; root cne^Bg. — ^Lakes and ditchea* 

Order LXXXiy.--OBCHn)E£. 

Herbs, rarely shrubs, with unimportant properties. Boot fasicnlated, of flediy 
tubers, or iibrous. FFs irregular, Sep. 3, mostfy ooloored, 2 nsualty inferior, 



164 Orchides.] 



Perioynous Endooens. 



[MalaxU. 



1 saperior. Pet, 3, 2 usually superior, and 1 inferior called the lipy which is larger 
than the others, and generally of a very fantastic form. Stam. 3, united with the 
pittil to form the cdumn, the 2 lateral ahortine, the middle fertile; or in Qjrpripe- 
dium, the middle alone abortive ; pollen powdery, or collected into an indefinite number 
of grains or wedges, or consolidated into masses of a waxy texture^ and definite in 
number. Ov. 1- celled, with 3 parietal placenta ; stigma a viscid space in froiA of 
the column, its upper edge often furnished with 1 or 2 glands, or extended into a 
beak, or otherwise deformed. Caps, usually 6-valved, 3 only seminiferous. Seeds 
indefinite ; testa loose, netted ; embr. solid, fleshy ; alb, (LdndL) ; rad. nexthilom. 



• Lip of cor. iUpper-th*ped. Anth. 2. . 

* Lip not ilipperHihaped. Anth. I. 

t Lip prodooed into a flree ipnr beyond the bace. 
X 8«P> and pet. «11 converging. . 
X Lip distant from the other pet. and lep. 
Lower lobe of lip rounded, entire. . 
Lower IoIm of lip notched or truncate, 
t Lip not ipnrred at base, 
X entire. 

} The 2 lateral lep. and imall lip uppermoet. 
I The 2 lateral tep. and lip undermoet. 
B Column nearly at long as sep. . 

B Column much shorter tlian sep. 
Sep. herbaceous. . 
Sep. petaloid. 
X Lip more or less lobed, notched or toothed. 
} Plant destitute of leaves. 

Stem with a few brown, scaly sheaths. 
Stem with a few green, herbaceous sheatlis 
} Plant with green leaves. 

B Lip divided transversely Into 2 lobes. 
Lip not divided transversely. 

Y Sep. and pet. converging into a hood. 
^ Sep. and pet. all spreading. 

* * Pet. all similar in form, herbaceous. 
** Lip very unlike the other pet. 
Pollen granular. 
Pollen in 



B 



15. Ctpbipbdium. 



7. Habbnarxa. 

5. Gymradbria. 
4. Orchis. 



2. Malaxis. 

1. LiPARIS. 

10. Good VERA. 

11. tiPIRAKTHBS. 

12. Xbottia. 

3. corallorhiza. 

14. epipactib. 

6. ACERAS. 

8. Hrrmimicm. 

13. LiSTBRA. 

9. Ophrys. 



N. B. The following is Dr. Lindl«y*s arrangement of this order : — 



Tr. I. MALAXIDJE. Anth, single. Pollen cohering in grains or nuuses, 
which are definite in number^ and waxy, and without a caudicle or stigmtUic 
gland, 

1. Li'PABis. Rich, 

Sep. and pet. spreading, the Up much larger than sep., and undermost Colunm 
nearly as long as sep. Pollen-masses 4. 

1. Jj. LcMcllii, Leaves 2, broadly lanceolate ; scape triangular; lip chan- 

P. 7. (y. G.) E.-1. nelled, entire. — Sandy bogs. 



2. Mala'zis. Sw, Bog-Orchis. 

Sep. spreading. Pet herbaceous, smaller than the sep., the lip and 2 lateral sep. 
uppermost Colunm short Pollen-masses 4. 



1. M. pahtdSsa. 
P, 7-9. (— G.) 



Stem with 8-5 oval, very concave leaves, papillose at the 
7. extremity ; lip concave, acute. — Bogs. 



Orchis.] Perigtnocs Exdooeks. [Orchideae. Id5 

3. CoBAixoRHi'zA. Hall, Coral-root. 

Sep. and pet spreading, the lower sep. cohering at base. Sep. sparred at base ; 
spur adnate with or. Column elongated, entire ; stigma triangnlar. 

1. C. innata. Spor rery short ; lip slightly 3-lobed ; root of thick, flesbv, 

•P. 7 ( — ^T.) S.-1. moch-branched fibres. — Boggy woods. 

Tr. IL OPHRFDIDjE. Anth, single, terminal, erect. Pollen powdery, or 
collected into an indefinite number of grtant. 

4. CKbchis. L. 

Sep. and pet converging mto a hood. Lip 3-lobed, sparred. Glands i£ the stalks 
of the poUoi grains contained in a common pooch. 

* Lower lobe of lip divided or notched. Tabers of root entire. 

t Lip with a small point in the notch. 

1. O. mascvla. Spar rather longer than ov. ; lobes of Cp all broad, some- 
P. 6. (P.) 20. what crenate ; sep. acote, the 2 lateral ones reflezed up- 
wards. — Pastures. 

2. O. miUtariM. Spur about ^ as long as ov. ; lateral lobes of hp obkmg ; 
P. 5. (P. * W.) E.-1. middle one dilated towards the end, with a central hi^d 

line ; sep. acuminate, converging, including the pet — 
Chalk-fields. 
/3. fxuca. middle lobe of lip large, obcordate, crenate; segments 

ovate, sub-truncate ; sep. rather obtuse. 
y, macra. lip with crystalline points; lobes linear, the middle one 

with 2 long, narrow segments, 
f Division of the middle lobe of hp without a point 
X Segments of lip broad and shallow. 

3. T). Morio. Spur ascending, obtuse, neariy as long as ov. ; s^ and 
P. 5, 6. (P. .*. ) E. L-15. pet obtuse, conniving into a hdmet ; bracts 1-nerved.-^ 

Meadows. 

4. O. laxifSra. Spor emarginate^ much shorter than ov. ; lateral sep. re- 
P. 5, 6. (P.) C. flexed; upper pet oonnivent; bracts S-nerved — Boggy 

places. 
X Segments of lip narrow and deep, 
o. O. uttulata. Middle lobe of lip in 2 linear-oblong segments ; sep. coo- 

P. 6. (W. .*. P.) E.-10. verging, acute, mcUiding the lateral pet — Chalky 

downs. 
Ck O. hirctna. Mkidle lobe of lip very long, linear, twisted, notched at the 

P.7.( — P.&. W.)E.-1. end; lateral shorter, wavy; sep. oonnivent, inclnding 

the small linear pet.- Hills, Kent Surrey. 

* Middle lobe of lip undivided, entire. 

t Spur filiform, sobulate, longer than ov. ; tubers of root undivided. 

7. O. pyramydalis. Lip with 3 equal lobes, and 2 tubercles at the base above ; 
P. 7. (r. P.) 12. sep. spreading, amminate. — Chalky pastures. 

t Spur cylindrical, shorter than ov. ; tubers palmated. 

8. O. lati/olia. Lip obscurely 3-lobed, its sides reflezed, crenate; sep. 
P. 5. (P.) 20. patent; pet conniveot ; leaves not spotted. — ^Marshes. 

9. O. maeulata. Up 3-lobed, flat, crenate ; 3 sep;. patent ; pet oonnivent ; 
P. 5, 6. (—P. I P.) 20. leaves osoaDy qwttfd. — Heaths. 



166 Orchides.] Perigynous Endoobns. [Ophrys. 

5. Gtmnade'nia. Br, 

Sep. and pet conTerging into a hood. Up 3-lobed, spurred. Glands of the stalks 
of the pollen-masses naked, approximated. 

1. G. conSpsea. Tuber of root palmate ; lobes of lip equal, entire, obtuse; 

P. 6, 7. (y. W.) 19. spur filiform, twice as long as oy. — Hilly pastures. 

6. A'cERAS. Br. Man-orchis. 

Sep. and pet forming a hood ; lip hanging down, not spurred. Glands of the stalks 
of the pollen-masses enclosed in a common pouch. 

1. A. authropophora. lip longer than oy., 8-parted ; segments linear, middle 
P. 6. (g. Y.) E.-2. one bifid.— Dry, chalky places. 

7. Habena'ria. Br. 

Sep. and pet hooded ; lip 3-lobed, or entire, spurred. Glands of the stalks of the 
pollen-masses not enclosed in a pouch. 

* Spur much shorter than oy. 

1. H. albida. lip in 3 deep, acute lobes, the middle lobe longest ; spur 
P. 6, 7. (y. W.) 8. obtuse, entire ; tubers of root undiYided, clustered. — 

Hilly pastures. 

2. H. viridig. lip linear, flat, 3-pointed, the middle point the shortest ; 
P' 6t 7. (g. Br.) 13. spur 2-lobed ; tubers palmate. — Pastures. 

* Spur twice as long as oy. 

3. H. bifolia. Lip entire, lanceolate, obtuse ; pet conniYent, obtuse ; root- 
P. 6, 7. (W.) 19. leaYes 2, oblong-oboYate, attenuated at base ; anth.-oelIs 

parallel — Heaths. 
fi. chlordntha. anth.-cells diYerging at base j fl's green. 

8. HfRMi'xiuM. Br. Musk-orchis. 

Sep. and pet erect Lip 3-lobed, not spurred. Anth.-cells parallel. Glands of the 
stalks of the pollen-masses naked. 

1. B.. monSrchis. Boot-leaYes 2, lanceolate; middle lobe of lip longest; 

P. 6, 7. (G.) E.-3. tubers of root 2, very unequal — Chalky soil. 

9. O'PHRTS. L. 

Pet smaller than sep., both spreading ; lip convex, not spurred, variously lobed. 
Pollen-masses wiUi 2 glands, each enclosed in a distinct pouch. 

* ' Lip 4-lobed, with an intermediate tube or appendage. 

1. O. apifera. Lip as long as caL, tumid, 5-bbed, the terminal one sabu- 
P. 6, 7. (Br. * T.) E.L-11. late, x^flexed ; anth. elongated, with a hooked point ; 

pet oblong, downy. — Calcareous soils. 

2. O. arachnites, Sep. longer than cal., somewhat tumid, of 5 obscure, in- 
P. 4-6. (+P. * Y.) E.-1. flexed lobes, the terminal one flat, rather corditte ; 

anth. as last ; pet deltoid, downy. — Kent 

* ' lip 4-lobed, without an intermediate one. 

3. O. aranifera. Up as long as cal., tumid, clothed with dense short hairs, 
P. 4, 6. (Br. I) R-6. obscurely 4-lobed ; anth. acute ; pet glabrous. — Chalky 

places. 



Epipactis.] Pebioynous Endoqeks. [Orchideae. 167 

fi. fucxfera. lip longer than cal., obovate, undivided, with a spreading, 

wavy margin ; pet. scabrous. 
4. O. mtwci/era. Lip twice as long as cal., with 4 expanded lobes, its disk 

P. 5, 6. (br. P.) E. I-.l. pale, polished ; anth. obtase ; lateral pet filiform. — Damp 

soil. 

Tr. III. NEOTTIBJE, Anth. singhj fertile, hinged^ dorsal. Pollen powdery, 
or granular. 

10. Goo'dyeba. Br. 

Sep. spreading, ovate, herbaceous, including the saccate base of the lip, which is 
entire at the end. Colunm free, with 2 teeth at apex ; stigma prominent, round- 
ish. Pollen angled. 

1. G. repens. Lower leaves petiolate, ovate; sep., pet., and lip ovate- 

P. 8. (W.) S.-2. lanceolate ; spike spiral ; root creeping. — Fir woods. 

11. Spira'nthes. Rich. Lady's- tresses. 

The coloured sep. and pet. converging. Lip channelled, clawed, fringed with 2 fleshy 
projections at base. Column davate, with 2 teeth at apex ; stigma prominent, 
prostrate. 

1. S. autumnalis. Root-leaves oblong, those of stem bract-like ; spike dense, 
P. 8, 9. (g. W.) E. I.-13. 1-sided, spiral ; tubers ovate-oblong. — Dry places. 

2. S. (Bhtivalis. Root-leaves oblong- lanceolate, those of stem narrow ; spike 
P. 7, 8. (b. W.) E.-1. lax, 1-sided, spiral ; tubers cylindrical New Forest, 

Hants. 
8. S. gemmipara. Leaves lanceolate, as tall as stalk ; spike 3 -ranked, twisted ; 
P. 8. I.-1. bracts smooth Bog, Bearhaven. 

12. Neo'ttia. L. Bird's-nest. 

Sep. and pet. brown, converging ; lip dependant, 2-lobed, concave at base. Column 
elongated, taper, erect ; stigma 2 -lipped. Anth. not hooded. 

N. Nidus-A'vis. Stem with brown scales, without true leaves ; h'p linear- 

P. 6, 6. (Br.) F.-14. oblong, with 2 spreading lobes. — Woods. 

13. Li'sTERA. Br. Tway-blade. 

Sep. and pet. herbaceous, spreading ; lip. dependant, 2-lobed. Column taper, erect, 
very short ; stigma plane, ovate. Anth. covered by a hood. 

1. L. ovata. Leaves 2, ovate ; lip bifid, not toothed at base ; column 
P. 5, 6. (y. G.) 20. with a crest^ in which is placed the anth. — Woods. 

2. L. corddta. Leaves 2, cordate ; lip bifid, with 2 lateral teeth at base ; 
P. 6-8. (g. Br.) 8. coliunn without a crest. — Moors. 

Tr. IV. ARETHUSIDJE. The intermediate anth. fertile, terminal, hinged. 
Pollen powdery or granular. 

14. Epipa'ctis. Swartz, Helleborine. 

Sep. and pet. coloured, all converging ; lip concave at base, the extremity undivided 
or 3-bbed, the middle lobe large, articulated. Colmnn 2-toothed at apex. Pol- 
len-masses acuminate. 



168 Iridee.] Perigtnous Endogens. [Iris. 

* Or. straight, on a twisted stalk ; colnmn short ; stigma beaked. 

1. £. latifilia. Bracts, particularly the lower, longer than the drooping 
■P» 7, 8. (g. P.) 18. fl's ; leaves broadly ovate ; h*p shorter than sep. and 

pet., its terminal lobe entire, with a minote point. 

Mountainous woods. 
^. media. leaves ovate-oblong, upper lanceolate ; lip as long as sep. 

(p. 6.) and pet., terminal, triangular-cordate. 

y. purpurata. leaves ovate-lanceolate ; Up shorter than sep. and pet. ; ter- 

(y. G.) minal lobe as last, crenate above. 

). ovalis. leaves ovate-oblong; upper bracts shorter than fl., the 

(+R.) lower than fruit ; lip as long as sep. and pet. 

2. E. paltutris. Bracts shorter than the slightly droopmg fl*s ; lip longer 
P. 7. (W. II B.) 15. than sep. and pet., its terminal lobe roundish, crenate, 

obtuse. — Moist places. 

* Ov. twisted, on a straight stalk ; column elongated ; stigma not beaked. 

8. E. grandiflora. Bracts longer than the glabrous ov., or the fl*8 ; leaves 
P. 6. (W.) E. I.-6. ovate- lanceolate, acuminate Woods. 

4. E. rubra. Bracts longer than the downy ov. ; leaves lanceolate ; Up 
P. 6, 6. (R. W.) E.-1. acuminate, as long as pet. — Hilly woods. 

5. E ensifolia. Bracts subulate, very minute; ov. glabrous; leaves lanoeo- 
P. 5, 6. (W.) 5. late, much acuminated ; lip obtuse, shorter than sep. 

and pet. — Mountain woods. 

Tr. V. CVPRIPEDIDJE. The 2 lateral anth. ferHle. 

16. Cypripedium. L. Lady's-slipper. 

Lip large, inflated. Column terminated at the back by a petaloid lobe, representing 
a barren stam. between the 2 anth. The 2 lateral sep. often combined. 

1. C* calceolus. Stem leafy ; columnar appendage nearly oval ; lip shorter 
P. 6. (P. & Y.) R-2. than sep., calceolate Woods in the North. 

Order LXXXV IRIDE^. 

Mostly herbs, possessing slightly stimulating, or nauseating properties. Root 
tuberous or fibrous. FL issuing from a spathe. Perianth 6-parted, petaloid, in 2, 
often unequal rows, imbricated, Stam, 3, arising jrom, and opposite to the outer 
divisions of perianth. Anth. turned outwards, 2-celled, bursting longitudinally, at- 
tached by Uieir base. Ov. of 3, many-seeded cells ; placentse axile ; stigmas 8, often 
petaloid. Caps, 3-celled, 3-valved, with a loculicidal dehiscence; embr. enclosed 
in a fleshy or homy alb., the rad. always next the hilum. 

3 oater Kginenti of perianth reflezed i stigiuM broad, petaloid. • 1. Iris. 

All the segments spreading ; stigmas each 2-parted, filiform. . 2. Trichokbma. 

All the segments erect i stigmas entire, thick at end. . 8. Crocus. 

1. Iris. L. Fleur-de-lis. 

8 outer divisions of perianth reflexed, Stigma 8-parted, dilated, petaloid, covering 
the stam. 

1. J. Pseuddeonts, Leaves sword-shaped; stem round; perianth beardless, its 
P. 6, 7.(Y.) 20. inner segments smaller than stigmas. — ^Wateiy placea. 



Narcissus.] Perigtnous Endoobns. [AmarjUideae. 169 

(i. eitrina. fl*8 smaller ; segments of perianth narrower, its inner ones 

more acute , stem taller. 
2. J.ftxtidtssima. Leaves sword-sbaped ; stem 1 -angled ; perianth beardless, 

p, 6, 7. ( — B.) 10. its inner segments spreading, equalling the stigmas. 

Woods. 

2. Trichone'ma. Ker. 

Segments of perianth alike, regular, spreading. Stigmas 3, each 2-parted, the seg- 
ments filiform. 

1. T. BulbocSdium. Scape 1-fl'd, slightly drooping; leaves filiform, compressed, 
P. 3, 4. ( — P.) £.-1. channelled, longer than the scape; style shorter than 

stam. — Dawlish, Devon. 

8. Cbo'cus. L. 

Segments of perianth alike, regular, erect, funnel-shaped, with a long tube. Stig- 
mas 3, entire, thick and convoluted ; ov. subterraneous. 

1. C. vernug,^ Leaves and fl*s at the same time ; stigma cut into 3 jagg«l, 
P. 3. (P.) £.-4. wedge-shaped lobes ; throat of fl. hairy. 

2. C. nudifldrua.^ FI's appearing before the leaves ; stigmas in 3 deeply la- 
P. 10. ( — P.) E.-2. dniated, tufted segments, equalling stam. 

/i. speciotus, stigma overtopping the stam. 

3. C. satitnts. Scape in a sheath ; stigma protruding beyond the fl., droop- 
P. 9. (—P.) ing. 

4. C. minimut. Scape not in a sheath ; stigma longer than stam. 
P. 3. (P.) 

5. C. aureus. Scape not in a sheath ; stigma shorter than stam. 
P. 3. (Y.) 

The foregoinf tpeeie* ot Croeu hare no cli^mi to be considered nfttire. The Uct three, thoof h in- 
trodueed in the ITloraf, m foond in meadowi in teTeral localitice in England, are not eren natural- 
ised. 

Obdbb LXXXVI.— AMARYLLIDEiE. 

Plants mostly with bulbs, many highly poisonous. Leaves radical, ensiform. Fl 
usually issuing from a spathe. Pet. and sep. 6, petaMd, cohering, regular , imbri- 
cated, bearing 6, rarely more stam., and often furnished with a cup-shaped nec- 
tary or crown surmounting the tube ; anth. opening inwards. Ov. inferior, 3-ceIled, 
the cells rarely l-2-see(ted ; style 1 ; stigma 3-Iobed. Fruit either a 3-ceIled, 3- 
valved capsule, with a locuhcidal dehiscence, or a 1-3-seeded berry. Alb. fleshy or 
homy ; embr. nearly straight ; rad, next hUum, 

Perianth hTpocraterifonn, with a enp-thaped nectary at its throat. 1. NaBClstOS. 
Nectary 0. Perianth campanalatc* the segments equal. S. Lbccojom. 

Nectary 0. Perianth of 6 deep segments, the 3 outer the longcet . 3. Gala mtmos. 

1. Narci'ssus. L. Daffodil 

Perianth faypocrateriform, the limb with 6 equal segments, having a cup-shaped 
crown surrounding the top of the tube. Stam. 3 short, and 3 kmg. 



170 Trilliett.] Htpogtnous Endoobks. [Tamss* 

1. X. pokicut,* Leaves linear, obtnselj keded; scape mostly l-fTd ; Grown 
P. 5. 0^>) £.-2. short, concave, with a cienate, red margin. — Fldds. 

2. N. biflonu.^ Leaves linear, acatety keeled ; scape mostly 2-fl*d; crown 
P. 4, 5. (W.) 6. veiy short, concave, with acrenate, pale margin. — Sand 

fields. 

3. N. pseudo-narcissus. Leaves linear, not keded ; scape 1-fl'd ; crown as kog 
P. 3-5. (Y.) 13. as segments, campanulate, with a crisped, crenate mar- 
gin. — Woods. 

2. Leuco'jum. L. Snow-flake. 

Perianth campannlate, the segments equal, thickened at the point Stam. eqnaL 

1. L. astivum, Scape 2-edged ; spathe manj-flM ; style thickened np- 

P. 5. (W.) £.-2. wards ; leaves long, linear, keeled. — Wet meadows. 

8. Gal^'bthus. L, Snow-drop. 

Perianth deeply 6-parted, the 8 ooter segments spreading, the 3 inner shorter, emar- 
ginate. Stam. eqoal. 

G. nivalis.^ Leaves 2, broadly linear, keeled, glauooos; scape with 1 

P. 2, 3. (W.) E. a-11 droopmg fl.— Thickets. 



Order LXXXVlL—DIOSCOREiE. 

Twining shrubs, often acridly poisonous, with large tubers, having alternate, some- 
times opposite leaves with reticulated ribs^ the wood of the roots arranged somewhat 
likethestemofanEndogen, P/. small, Juectoiw, spiked, bracteate. Perianth Aer6aceoM«. 
Barren JVs : — Stam. 6, on base of perianth ; anth. turned inwards. Fertile JTs: — 
Ov. adherent, with 3, 1 or 2-seeded cells ; style deeply 3-fid ; ovules suspended. Fruit 
leafy, compressed or succulent Seeds 1 or 2 in each ce^ ; embr. small, near the 
hilum, in a cavity within the cartilaginous alb, 

1. Ta'mus. L, Black Bryony. 
Perianth campanulate ; limb 6-parted. Ov. with 3 stigmas. Berry 8-celled. 

1. T. communis. Leaves cordate, undivided, acute; stem long, twining; 

P. 6. (g. W.) 14. root fleshy, acrid — Thickets. 



Sub-Class IV.— HYPOGYNOUS ENDOGENS. 

Kni>ooe2CS ; having the ovary and calyx entirely free. 

Order LXXXVm.— TRILLIE^. 

Herbs with simple stems and rhizomes, possessing poisonous, narcotic, acrid, or 
emetic properties. Leaves verticillate, with netted ribs. FL perfect, large, ter- 
minal. Sep, 8-4, herbaceous. Pet, 8, usually 4, petaloid. Stam. 6-10, ^Jpogy- 



Tulipa.] Htpogtnous Endoobns. [LiliesB. L71 

nooA. Ov,free 3, 4, or 5 -celled, with aa many styles ; placenta axile. Fruit suc- 
calent 8-5 -celled. Seeds numerous; emhr» minute, in a fleshy alb, 

1. Pa'bis. L: Herb Paris. 

Sep 4, pet 4, spreading, the latter narrower than the former* Stam. 8 ; anth. on 
middle of the subulate fil. Ov. of 5, several-seeded carpeb. 

1. P. quadrifSlia. Leaves ovate, usually 4 in a whorl, none at the root; sep. 

P. 5. (Y.) 15. lanceolate ; pet subulate. — Damp woods. 



Obdeb LXXXIX.— LILIK^ 

Herbs, shrubs, or trees, with fleshy or fibrous roots, 3H[eid]ng numerous drugs, pos- 
sessing stimulating or acrid, emetic or purgative properties. Leaves with unbranched, 
mostly parallel ribs. FL almost always perfect, Sep, and pet, 6, rarely 4, alike 
coloured, regular, often cohering. Stam. as many as divisions of perianth, rarely 3 ; 
anth. opening inwards, Ov, free, 3-celled; style 1. Fruit succulent, or dry, 3- 
celled, mostly many-seeded ; embr, in the same direction as seed, in axis of a large 
fleshy alb, 

* Fl*i with bracts, or a membranoiu tpathe at bate. 

t Perianth of 6 spreading le«yei. 
X Fl'i in umbels. 

Fl*s yellow. Stigma gaping. . . .4. Oagba. 

Fl*s not yellow. Stigma simple. . . .5. Allium. 

X Fl's in racemes, corymbs, or panicles. 

Stam. nearly free. ..... 6. Orrithooalvm. 

Stem, attached to loWer half of perianth. . . 7. Scilla. 

t Perianth of 6 cohering or erect leaves, 

tubular, 6-fld, the points inflezed. . . .8. Aor aphis. 

Perianth globose, &-toothed, narrowed at the month. . 9. Mubcari. 

* Fl's without bracts, or a membranous spathe. 

t Stem shrubby. Fl's solitary, in the centre of the penis- ) .. j^i^.^u, 

tent leaves. . . . . . . j ' 

t Stem herbaceous. 

Frs solitary, or rarely in pairs. 

Style 0; stigma sessile, 3-lobed. . . .1. Tulipa. 

Style 3-fld at apex. . .2. Fritillaria. 

Style filiform ; stigma trigonons. . . . 3. Lloyoia. 

X Fl*s clustered. 

9 Perianth 4-parted. . . . .10. Maiahtuehvm. 

\ Perianth 6-parted. 

Leaves from linear to ovate. Stigma entire. II. Gohvallaria. 

Leaves setaceous. Stigmas 3. .12. Asparaoub. 

Tr. I. TULIPIDJE, BuUnferous. FTs without a spathe. Fruit capsular, 
Anth, versatile, or loosely attached. 

1. Tu'lipa. L, Tulip. 

Perianth campanulate of 6 pieces, without nectaries. Stigma sessile, 3-lobed. Cape, 
trigonous. Seeds flat 

1. T, sylvestrin, I\, at first drooping; segments of perianth ovate-acuml- 

P. 4. (Y.) £. S.-7. nate ; stamens hairy at base ; stigma abrupt 



172 Lilies.] Htpogynous Endoobns. [Alliam. 

2. Fritilla'ria. L. Fritillary. 

Perianth campanulate, of 6 pieces, each with a nectariferous cavity at base. Stigmas 
3. Caps, trigonous. Seeds flat 

1. F. Meleagria. Stem 1-fl'd, leafy; leaves alternate, linear lanceolate; nec- 
P. 5. ( — P.) E.-4. taiy linear ; points of perianth inflexed Meadows. 

8. Llo'ydia. Salisb. Spider-wort 

Perianth of 6 spreading leaves, with a transverse, nectariferous fold at base of each. 
Anth. attached by their base. Style filiform ; stigma trigonous. Seeds convex 
above, flat below. 

I>. serottna. Leaves semicylindrical, dilated and sheathing at base. FL 
P. 6. (W. II R.) E.-1. mostly solitary Welsh mountains. 

4. Ga'oea. Salub. 

Perianth of 6 pieces, connivent below, spreading above. Stam. adhering to its base ; 
fil. not dilated at base ; anth. erect, attached by their base. Stigma gaping. Capa. 
trigonous. 

]. G. lutea. Radical leaves 1-2, linear-lanceolate, longer than the an - 

P. 3, 4. (Y.) E. S.-7. gular scape ; bracts 2, longer than umbd. — ^Wooda. 



Tr, IL SCILLIDJE, Bulbiferous. FVs issuing from a membranous gpathe, 
Anth. incumbent. Fruit capsular, 

5. Allium. L. Onion. 

Perianth of 6 ovate, spreading pieces. Stam. inserted at base of perianth. Caps. 
triquetrous. 

* Leaves flat, not hollow, 
t Stam. all alike, simple. 

1. A. carindtum. Stems rounded, leafy below ; umbel bearing bulbs; leaves 
P, 8. (+W,) 1. linear, keeled; bracts unequal, longer than umbeL 

Sandy places. 

2. A. ursinum. Stem triangular, leafless ; umbel level- topped, without 
P. 5, 6. (W.) 20. bulbs ; leaves ovate-lanceolate, stalked ; bracts equal. 

Woods, 
t Each alternate stam. 3-pointed, the middle point bearing the anth. Stem 
leafy below. Umbels spherical, 

3. A. Ampeloprasum. without (or with) bulbs ; leaves linear, acuminate, keeled, 
P. 8. (p. W.) E. ? I.-l. the sheaths not cylindrical; bulbs of root clustered. 

Steep Holms Isle. Gt. Arran Isle. 

4. A. Halleti. Umbels bulbiferous ; leaves linear, with cylindrical sheaths ; 
P. 8. ( — P.)K?I.-2. bulb of root simple; stam. exserted; fil dilated. 

Roundstone. Arran Isle. 

5. A. ScorodSprcuum. Umbels bulbiferous; leaves linear, with keeled sheaths; 
P 6, 7. ( — P.) ? bulb of root simple ; stam. included. — Sandy places. 



Mascari.] Htpootnous Endoo£N8. [Lilies. 173 

* Leaves roundish, tabular, or rarely solid and fleshy, 

f 3 alternate stam. 3-pointed, the middle point antheriferous. Stem leafy 
below. 

6. A. vineale. Umbel ynHh numerous bulbs ; spathe of 1 (or 2) bracte ; 
P. 7. ( — R.) 16. stam. protruded ; bulbs numerous. — ^Waste ground. 

/3. compactum, umbels without fl^s, bearing bulbs only. 

7. A. spharocephalum. Umbel without bulbs ; qiathe of 2 bracts ; stam. twice as 
P, 7. (R. V. P.) C. long as perianth ; bulb with stalked ofisets. — Sands. 

f All the stam. simple. 

8. A. oleraeeum. Umbel bulbiferous ; leaves grooved above, ribbed beneath ; 
P. 7, 8. ( — 6.) K S.-6. one of the bracts with a long point — Fields. 

9. A. SeomSprasum, Umbel not bulbiferous ; leaves terate, or slightly flattened 
P. 6, 7. ( — P.) £. S.-2. above, subulate ; bracts ovate, equal, short — Fields. 

/3. €u^cuatum, leaves arching, with crenulated strise. 

6. Ornitho'galum. L. Star-of-BethleheuL 

Perianth of 6 persistent pieces. Stam. alternately larger, or dilated at base. Caps, 
with 3 angles, and 3 furrows. 

1. O. nutatu. FL pendulous, in a unilateral raceme ; fiL broad, trifid, al- 
P. 4, 6. (W.) E.-3. temately longer, and with deeper lobes. — Orchards. 

2. G. Pyrenaicum. FL at l^igth erect, in an el<«igated raceme ; fil. all dilated, 
p, 5. ( — g. W.) E.-4. with an elongated point ; leaves fugaoeous. — Woods. 

3. O. umbellatum, Fl. corymbose ; ped. longer than bracts ; fil. subulate, 
P. 5. (W.) E. S.-7. simple ; leaves linear, acuminate. — Meadows. 

7. Sci'lla. L. SquilL 

Perianth of 6 spreading, deciduous leaves. FiL filiform, glabrous, inserted at its 
base. 

1. S. vema. Bracts lanceolate, as long as ped. ; raceme few-fl'd, cor>'m- 
P. 4. (+B.) 4. hose ; leaves linear, channelled. — Coasts. 

2. S. autumn&lis. Bracts ; raceme hardly corymbose ; leaves linear. — Dry 
p. 9. (_r. P.) E.-1. pastures. 

8. A'oRAPHi& Link. Blue-belL 

Perianth tubular, campanulate, of 6 connivent leaves, combined below. FiL attached 
nearly by the whole length to the perianth (decurrent), alternately shorter. 

1. A. nutans. Fl's nodding, in a raceme; bracts in pairs; leaves long, 

P. 5. (B. V. W.) 20. linear, channelled, acuminate. — Woods. 

9. Musca'bi. Town. Grape-Hyacinth. 

Perianth ovate, inflated, 6-toothed. FU. inserted on the perianth, not decurrent 
CeUs 2-seeded. 

1. M. racem6sum. Fl*s ovate, crowded, nodding; upper ones sessile; leaves 

P. 5. (B.) K-1. linear, flaccid, keeled, longer than scape. — Fields near 

Pakenham, Suflblk. 

Q 2 



174 MduthMe.^ Htvosysocs Ex 



Tr. m. ASPARAGISID^E, SMam tmOiArwrnM. SpaAe «X 
Umi. 

PerixBdi t p ft ed: a^jtuu ifRKfi*^ bora):«taOT. or RAexed. SttH. 4. Style 




1. M. fcySZin.* 

P.O. 



Pfrtnth tabokr «r cnqMBolatev ^-pntiel or S-toocbed. Or. S-cdkd, omles 2 m 
each rtagma. qbOMe. tneonoos. Berrr vtth 3. l-aeakd odk. 



11. CojnTAU-i'KLi. X.. &Asmaa»-«tmL 



* FTf rtinifnnlttf the feements reczrrcii. 

1. C. majaiis. Scape ^-crfiDiricaL leadew: fl's nooBMoe, nodffii^; lesres 
P. 5. ''W.) 15. E.-1. r&£.^ f.rate-liacejJaxe. — ^Wood& 

* FYs crfindrical-tsbalar. tbr K^rast^ i>:-c rEconred. 

2. C. mmHiHom. Leares eUIf-dc-ivate. alternately clasping: stem round; 
P. 5, 6. ;;'W.) E. S-9. ped. axillary. 1 or many-dd : fiL haiir— WoodsL 

3. C. Poiyyomaiwm. LeaTCS as last : stem angular ; ped. l-2-fl*d ; fiL glabvoiia. 
P. 5. 6. (g. W.) E.-3. —Woods. 

4. C. verlicellita. Leaves whorled. linear-laiioeolate : stem erect, angnlar; 
P. 6. (y. W.) &-2. ffs solitary.— Woods, Den of Bediip. near Dimkeld. 

Blair, AtboL 

12. Aspa'ragus. L. 

Perianth 6-parted, deddnoos. Stam. 6. Sdgmas 3, redexed. Ovary 3-ce]led: 
ovules 2 in each odL Berry globose. 

1. A. qficimaliM. Stem mostly erect, rounded, much branched; leaves ae- 

P. 8. (g. W.) E.-3. taoeous, fayirwlatp ; stip. mostly single; ped. jointed.^ 

Coasts. 

13. Bu'scus. L. ButcherVbroom. 

FTs imperfectly monoedons. Perianth 6-leaved. FiL combined at base. AnUi. 8 
fertile ones. Style 1. Stigma capitate. Berry of 3, 2-fleeded cells. 

1. R. aemUatug. Stem rigid, branched; leaves ("flattened shoots**) ovate, 

Sh. 3, 4. (y. W.) £. S.-8. evergreen, rigid, and pungent, bearing 1 fl. on the middk 

of their upper surface. — Thickets. 
fi. laxua. ? 

Order XC— MELANTHRfi. 

Mostly bulbiferous or tuberiferous plants, possessing highly poisonous, acrid, and 
narcotic properties. FL rarely polygamous. Perianth petaloid, Q-^eaved^ the daws 
often combined, the pieces generally involute in aestivation. Stam. 6, on the perianth. 
Anih. turned oiUwards. Ov, 3-celled, many-seeded ; ttyles dtsHnet, or partially 



Luzula.] Hyfootnods Enoooens. [Junceae. 175 

united. Caps, separable into 3 pieces, sometimes dehiscing locolicidally. Seeds 
with a membranous testa ; embr. very minute, in a large, dense, fleshy cdh, 

1. Co'lchicum. L, Meadow-safiron. 

Perianth funnel-shaped, with a long tube ; limb 6-parted, issuing from a spatbe. 
Carpete 3, combined. 

1. C. autumndle. Leaves flat, broadly lanceolate, erect; ov. subterraneous, 

P. 2, 10- ( — P.) 10. at the base of the bulb. — ^Meadows. 

2. Tofie'ldia. Huds. Scottish-Asphodel. 

Perianth 6-parted, the common ped. issuing from a 3-partite invoL Carpels 3-6, 
united in the lower half, forming a 1 -celled ovary. 

1. T. palustris. Fl. in an ovate spike ; stem glabrous, filiform, nearly leaf- 

P. 7. (y. W.) 3. less ; pet obovate, obtuse ; leaves linear, sword-shaped. 

Mountain bogs. 

Ordeb XCI JUNCEiE. 

Herbs terate, with fistular, or sometimes flat and channelled leaves, without any re- 
markable properties. Cal, and Cor, Q-parted^ more or less glumaceous, or cartilagi- 
nous, sometimes petaloid ; stam. 6 ; anth. 2-celled, turned inwards. Ov. 1 or 3-celled, 
1 or many-seeded, or 1-cclIed and 3-seeded; ovules anatropal; style 1 ; stig. 3 or 1. 
Fruit capsular, with 3 valves, bearing the dissepiment in their middle, 1 -seeded l^ 
abortion. Embr. very minute, undivided, cylindrical, in the base, of a hard, fleshy, 
or cartilaginous alb. 

Fl't petaloid. ....... 1. Narthbcidm. 

Fl'i glumaoeoQt. 

Cap*. 1 -celled. Leaves flat. . * . .2. Luzula. 

Cap*. 3-celled. Leaves rigid, terate, or channelled. . 3. Juhcus. 

1. Narthe'cium. Huds, Bog-AsphodeL 

Fl's of 6, linear -lanceolate, petaloid, spreading pieces. Stam. woolly. Ov. pyramidal. 
Caps. 3-celled; 3-valvedL Seeds with a long filiform appendage at each end. 

1. N. osstfiragum. Leaves linear, sword-shaped, uniform; pedicels with 1 bract 

P. 6, 7. (Y.) 17. at base, and another above the middle; perianth longer 

than stam. — Turfy bogs. 

2. Li/zuLA. De C. Woodrush. 

Fl*s cartilaginous. Caps. 1 -celled, 3-vaIved, valves without dissepiments. Seeds 
3, at bottom of the celL 

* Jnfl. a dense, solitary, compound, drooping spike. 

1. h, spicata. Leaves somewhat channelled; spikelets shorter than their 

P. 7. (+Br.) E. S.-1 membranous, mucronated bracts ; sep. and pet. acumi- 
nate, bristle-pointed, about as long as the rounded caps. 
— North of England and Scotland. 



I 



174 ioans.: HirK¥4»cs ff¥»ngro [J 

* InjL nmuMHcevv 
* Pal I-fLna 

/•. 4. J. -Be. :>. 

P. 4. <. Br. E.^-1. BflBK. A 

-^ Pad. :^ •»- auTR-ff'l k a 

P. 4-^. Br. :?. dmbirecapoaki; 

d. L. ■■^'rfnj. fl* K 3 or 4. 

P. i. y Br.. M. fxmfD; a 

kotev du 

WoQibaiidt^l 

• _ _ _ - * 

». I. crewte. I^neie HbHHBbeikK. «f fev S-^dTd^ diwuii^ Iwada, on 

P. 7. .^.; E. S-1. long ped. : ae{h. and pet. bnadlr laneeolate. longer than 

the cfTiat-^ohcm caf&. : kaves dmndfed Cann- 

gocK and Sathaisid Montifiw 

3. Jr xcn. Z. BimIl 




.S«(i. aivl pec 3, membcMowi penucoic. Scam. 6 : wben 3, oppoote the Kpw Caps. 
3-«e{kd, 3-TalTed ; ralrta with the aeed-beann^ doaepimcBti in tbe middle. 

* Plant widi barrcB items <r leares wladi lewmble them. 

t Panicle lateral : the mperkr portioa of the acapa eoDtamaaa with the in- 
ferior, aarTOOBded at the iMse with meuibranwin riwaflii (abortive 
leaves). 
X Scape fifiiirm. drooping naked, ftintlr striated. 

1. J./Uijormis. Panicle simple, of about 7 fl'a, phned near the middle of 
P. 7. ( — G.) E.S.-1. scape; aep. and pet. lanceolate^ acnminate^ larger tiiaa 

the nmndish caps. — Margins of lakea. 
X Scape thirkish, erect. 

§ soft, fiunthr striated and naked. 

2. J. eomglameraiua. Fanklea much bfanched, denaeljoons^omMate; aepi. and 
P. 7. (g. P.) 20. pet lanceolate, acnte, nearlj equal, aboot at long as 

the broadly orate, Toy obtnae^ apirnlatft caps.; stam. 
3.— liarsfaeflL 
fi. eJfuiuB. panicle more diffuse. 

3. J. ejfiuut. Panicle very much branched, difiiiae; sep. andpet subulate- 
P, 7. ( — Br.) 20. haxeobte, acuminate, nearly equal, rather longer than 

the obovate, obtuse^ not apicukte ciq» ; stam. 3>6. — 
Marsbee. 
§ Scape rigid, naked, 

4. J. glaiieuM. glaucous deeply striated ; pith intemquted ; panicle much 
P, 7. ( — Br.) 18. branched, erect; sep. and pet lance olate -g n bnlate, 

rather longer than tbe eDiptio-mucronate caps. — Wet 
places. 
b. J. diffiuut. Scape finely striated; pith continuous; root not creep- 

p, 7, 8. ( — Br.) S.-? ing ; panicle loose, much-bnmched, erect ; s^ and pet 



Juncus.] Hypogynous Exogens. [Juncese. 177 

lanceolate- subulate, longer than the obovate, mncronate 
caps. — Wet places. 

6. J. Baltictu. Root creepmg widely; panicle erect, slightly branched ; 
P. 7. (Br.) E.S.-1. sep. and pet. ovate-lanceolate, as long as the terate- 

elliptical, mncronate caps. — Sea-coast, 
t Panicle terminal, the outer bract dilated at the base ; scape with barren 
stems (or leaves) sheathing round its base. 

7. J. maritimut. Panicle very compound, lax, proliferous ; clusters 4-8-fl'd ; 
P. 7, 8. (Br.) 7. sep. and pet. acute, as long as the elliptic, mncronate 

caps. — Salt marshes. 
^ 8. J. acutus. Panicle very compound, mostly compact ; clusters 2-4-fl*d ; 

P. 7, 8. (Br.) E. I.-l. pet. obtuse, with a broad, membranous border, half the 

length of the roundish, ovate, acuminate caps. — Sea- 
shores. 
* Plants destitute of barren stems. 

f Pedicels bearing the fl's in clusters or heads. 

X Scape bearing a terminal, compact cluster of 1, 2, or 3 heads, with 

1-4 fl's in each. 

§ Bracts more than double the length of the infl., long, setaceous ; 

9. J. trijidus. scape with 1 leaf on its upper part; heads 1-3 in a 

P. 7, 8. (Br.) S.-1. cluster; sheaths fringed; sep. and pet. acute, shorter 

than the rounded, elliptical caps ; root creeping. — Moun- 
tains. 
§ Bracts not double the length of heads, or shorter. 
II Stam. 6. 

^ Scape not bearing leaves, but having sheathing ones 
surrounding its base ; roots not creeping. 

10. J. trigl&mis. Bracts shorter than fl's; heads 2-fl'd; leaves channellc<l ; 
P. 7, 8. (Br.) E. S.-2. caps, elliptical, acute, longer than the bluntish sep. and 

pet. ; leaf-sheaths auricled. — Mountain bogs. 
(i. hracteattu. outer bract longer than heads. 

1 1. J. biglumia. Bracts longer than fl*8 ; heads 2-fl*d ; leaves not diannelled ; 
P. 8. (Br.) S.-1. caps, turbinate, retuse, longer than the obtuse sep. and 

pet. — ^Mountain bogs. 
^ Scape bearing 1-3 leaves about its middle. 

12. J. ctutaneuM, Leiaves grooved above; heads 1, 2, or 3, shorter than the 
P. 7, 8. (Br.) E. S.-l. bract; caps, ovate, trigonal, nearly twice as bng as the 

elliptic-lanceolate sep. and pet — Mountain bogs. 
II Stam. 3. 
i 3. J. capitatut. Stem naked ; leaves filiform ; heads of fl's sessile, shorter 

A. 6, 7. (Br.) C. than the setaceous bracts ; sep. and pet. ovate-lanceolate, 

acuminate-aristate, twice as long as the truncate, apicn- 
late caps. — Sandy ground. 
X Scape bearing the numerous heads in much brandied panicles. 
§ Panicle (often very) compound. 
II Sep. and pet. obtuse. 
14. J. ohtunfi6ru9. Scape 2-leaved, and with the internally divided leaves erect, 

P. 7-9. (Br.) 10. rounded ; panicle very compound, spreading and divari- 
cated ; sep. and pet equal, as long as the ovate, acute, 
trigonous caps^^-Marshes. 



17B Graminese.] HtpootnousEndoobns. [Janciis. 

I Sep. acate, 

15. J. lampoc&rpui. shorter than the ovate, attenuate, macronate, triquetroni 
P. 7, 8. (Br.) 20. caps. ; stem 8-6-leayed, and, as well as the intemalljr 

divided leaves, compressed; panicle very oon^Mnmd, 
spreading. — Boggy places. 
/S. niffritvUut, panicle slightly compomid ; sep. and pet shorter than the 

caps. 

16. J.acuiifiSnu, Sep. and pet acmninate-aristate, the pet kxigest, nearly 
P. 6-8. (Br.) 18. as long as the narrow ovate, sub-acaminate cape. ; stem 

3 or 4-leaved, and as wdl as the internally divided 
leaves, slightly compressed; panicle compoond, pyra- 
midaL — Bogs. 
§ Panicle nearly simple, elongated, with a few distant das- 

17. J. ntpinus, ters ; stem filiform ; leaves setaceous ; sep. and pet equal, 
P. 6-8. (Br.) 20. acute, nearly as long as the eUiptical caps. ; stam. 

3 ; anth. as long as fiL ; fl*s frequently viviparoos. — 
Bogs. 
fi. subverticillatus. stems spreading or procumbent 
y, btUbosus. stems erect, with a swoUen, bulbous base. 

i, Bahinfftonii, stam. 6 ; fil. twice as long as anth. 

f Pedicels terminated by single fl's, in much branched panides. 
X Scape not bearing leaves. 

18. J. tenuis. Stem above shortly dichotomous, panicled; leaves linear- 
P. 7. (Br.) S.-1. setaceous, grooved ; fl*s solitary, proximate, sessile; sq>. 

and pet very acuminate, longer than the spherical caps. 
— Clova mountains. 

19. J. squarrosus. Stem simple; leaves linear, grooved; panide compound, 
P. 7. (Br.) 19. with cymose branches; sep. and pet ovate-lanoeolate, 

as long as the dliptical-ovate, obtuse^ mucronate caps. — 
Moors. 
X Scape bearing 1 or more leaves about its middle or upper part 

20. J. compretsus. Sep. and pet. obtuse, oval-oblong, shorter than the round- 
P. 6-8. (Br.) 18. ish, mucronate caps. ; stem 1 -leaved, compressed ; leaves 

linear, setaceous, grooved ; panicle very compound, shorter 
than bract — ^Wet places. 
^. ccenSsus. panicle nearly simple, longer than bract; sep. and pet 

equal to caps. 

21. J. buf6niv8. Sep. and pet lanceolate, acuminate, unequal, longer than 
A. 7, 8. ( — Br.) 20. the oblong-obtuse caps. : stem usually bearing only 1 

leaf above, dichotomous ; leaves setaceous, grooved ; fl*s 
unilateral, scattered, mostly single. — Marshes. 
fi. faicicul&ttu. fl*s 2 or 8 in each cluster. 



Obdeb xcn.— GRAMINE^ 

Herbs rarely nocuoos. Stem cyUndrical, mostly fistular, but closed at tiie joints. 
Leaves narrow, simple, with a split sheath, having a membranous expansion at its junc- 
tion with the blade, — the liguk. Fl's in little spikes, arranged in a spicate or panicled 
manner, of 1 or more florets. SpikeUts composed of imhricated, scaly bracts^ the 
outer pair of which are called glumes, those within them 1, 2, or more, immedlEitely 



HTfooTiM»oi EyooGCM. iCrnamoem. 179 



nwiawng tltt fUai^ fttliGC;. 8tMk 2 «r S, or is fsnipt j^tkmU more mumwm m. O9, 
— <tlifii%^iMi)ntiite ftuB tftie icciL ir»|ir, }^^ «• oae j«<e, </« farmaetmiM ath^ M 



• Upstate. 9^am4tkt, martawu— , m wt^tf m, aenr l^rl- 

♦ >■!»% wlOi • —Iff oflai^f t»<iCt> t—wO <a»!ii ttiflriiit, 3 fSfiMtfA* 

I ijflrrtrti, 1^4. 

Ptft* Miwi flt kMKu Htm %Mam. * , 1#. TntMKn. 



* lad^UMt tft^h^-aktUUintr > <Mrf« tf tente m4 4mW^m 

♦ %««»« if«4te.«r««ifc3S^ilrai^taMdb«^ •#«■ «Jlktr«r 
vUA O* l-tf'4 lyflHicli Mr wwlh, «r Mrflf m^ Mi 






Gkmtmt, « <u KwAfrtM, 



{ I fci^iifcwiiiBr nli^lr^WM^il M M te Ik^^I 

■■■» pHi9BHV>' # ^ 









$ 'ififcdMil-ri, 
I 






. Ur, jffuraL 




i*HSktyt» t4t4i iiMiffiiiii Mif flit mil i «r» 






180 Graminese.] Htpootnous Endooens. [Echinochloa. 

Vtiem naked at bate i or if not the Infl. ia 1 «| 



raremote. ■ « -«»• 



B Outer palea of lower flor. awnleta* occasionally 
with a terminal leta. 
^ Upper theath longer than its leaf. 

Upper flor. awned. . 33. Ho LC us. 

AwnsO.I .30. KoBiJiKia. 

^ Upper thMth shorter tlian its leaf. 27. Ukuca. 

{ Olomea shorter than flor. 

n FalesB awned from near the base. . . B*2. Arkhbnatbbrcm. 

y FalesB not awned. 

Leaves hairy abore. . . .29. Molivia. 

Leaves not hairy. . .28. Catabrosa. 

X 8 Splkelets of 3 or more flor., rarely 2, bnt the flor. are 
then webbed at the base, or the outer palea is 
hairy on the mid-rib. 
§ Infl. dense, spike-like, 1 -sided or terate. 

II Spikelets solitary on 1 side of the rachis, each 1 ,- r«w-«.-«-„- 
with a pectinated scale at base. J38. Cthosurub. 

y Spikelets on 2 opposite sides of the rachis. 

^ Spikelets in pairs on each tooth, ap-l^i r.-^n- 
parently forming whorl*. . .f**' ''^•^■■''»- 

^ Spikelets single on each tooth of rachis. 

Glumes 2, opposite. . . 39. Triticcm. 

Glumes single. . . .42. Louum. 

{ Infl. loosely panicled or racemed. 

y Glumes nearly as long as or longer than flor. ; 
the palesB not webbed at base, nor hairy 
on the mid-rib below. 
Infl. a raceme of few erect spikelets. 25. Triodia. 

Infl. a compound panicle of many spikelets. 24 HiKROCBLOB. 
y Glumes much shorter than spikelets ; if as long, 
the palesB are either webbed at the base, or 
the outer one is hairy on the mid-rib be- 
low. 

' °'":^s:rp^.n''.ir "™'."" "^!}»«- »•«"•• 

^ Outer palea with a short awn or 0, rarely 
with a long one, but with a very slunrt 
2-lobed ligule. 
«* Flor. in tufts at the end of thel»» nA«»v»». 
panicle branches. . ,i^' ^act YU.. 

** Flor. not tufted equally, diffuse. 

tt Flor. with very long, straight l-n Arhmdo 
hairs at base. . .f^' -^"""^O- 

ft Flor. naked at base. 

tt Spikelets oblong or lanceo- 
late. 

FalesB often bristle-point-' 
edor awned, or mem- I -- i5«».-„«* 
branous at the summit, [^' rBSTDCA. 
with setaceous leaves. ._ 

FalesB never bristle-point- "^ 
ed or awned; leaves not > 23. Foa. 
not setaceous. . J 

Tr. I. PANICIDjE, Infl, close, Spikelets dorsaVy compressed^ with an invol. 
of long bristles at base, of 1 perfect flor,^ and occasionally an abortive one. The 
lowermost glume very snuilL Ligules very shorty or wanting, 

1. EcHnrocHLo'A. JBeauv. Panick-grass. 

Bristles of inyoL smooth. Outer glome haiiy. Outer pal»a bristle-pointed. 



Knappia,] 



HrWOQYMOVB EXDOCXJW. 



[ 



181 



1. £. Crm»-^aBL* Badns baring opposte or jdtcnate tpQum, the ipckdeU 

y|. 7. E.-1. crr/vdcd ; ffi anilatrral ; %iilcs 0. — ^MflMt fuL 

2. ScTArKLi. Beamt. BsisOtb-gnm, 
Bnitks <9f inroL PMigiL dnnKS noc haarj. Xestnl floe </ 1 polca, not 

1, Su rbiifij.* Brkdcs of the inroL basing atna^Bf^ teeth alwat 3 
P. 7,9. E.-2. the bs^ of Uk f|»kder«_FiddL I/wdoo; 3i 

2. Su RrfcnOoita.* Tccllk of nroliKral briitla icflezcd ; bradei a fio^ 
^. 7, «. 1. than tiK tpikrirt.. — Fields, LondflB. Sonridi. 



Tr. IL SPARTISIDjE. SpiJUUts arram^ am 1 or 2 ntUs of the raekU, 
tUker ttaUud vr teuHt, etuk wfiktUt tf V, rardy 2 aacmUtt fUtr. Ghame» 2, 
rartb/ 0. 

3. DKSKA'na. Scop. Yhapx-fptm. 



SpQuA 3-5 from the aamt ffrAnt; wpSkAin m |Mdn. oo one ade of radnir daortiy 
Afallud. Lignk pfomtocnt, oitiit:. Srvica luig, dkciact; flCygmaf IcBg. AbUl 
ckyroi at 4adk end. 



]. D. A«»tyM«a.* Lanrca aad dicatlM i^abPMs: flor. ovate, pubfaofBt, titt 

y|. 7. 4. Ep-l* liba of palor giabfiNHk. — Saadj-Mda. 

S{ix«« 3 or 6, 6uii tht want yaaX ; tfUkdeU I'ffd, sae^ <ai 1 ade of 
Glonvta ncailf cqoal, dawttt* than (akx^ botk awaleak Style 



I. C. dittylm. Spikes 3-5, 

^. 7. 9. £.'1. ncath tiie 



; palor ^alaiwiy aritfc a tnatfe ht>- 
ooe; karca doaiij fimtarti; 
Dewm; ConvaD; Dontt. 



5. SrjucTx'sa. IFTZZcC Conl-gnHk 

S(«ki» 2or niofe; jpflkckti MMikv onilatefaL of 1 flor. GloBKa toj nneqiaalr 
pnamfL wnmlnatt Stjlca kag, paitlf aoited. Andi. dorm bdoir. ligale 
Aoru 



1. S.«rrMte. flpikcft 2 or 3, loagv than dbe karca; 
P. 9. E^2. aMie than half the kflgtk of the 

2. 8u oiierm iJ iuf tL . 
P. a. E.-L balf tiie kflgth of inner. — SiTcr Itdtea, Sootbaaqtw. 



6. KaA'FTiA. Am. 

Spike aai^ l-«dcd ; ffOekts of 1 avnkai flor. Giamca cqaaL Pakat 
r^rj haarr. Lignk pnwiBcat. Stvia rcrj fhort ; fttgane kag. Aiadtx. 



K. ^roi^diM. Pakat haiyj, iborter tkaa 

A. 3-5. E.'L dM«t, foagk — Saaif plana, near 



182 GnauDMB.] Htpootvous Eitdogbhs. [Phbnm. 

7. Ka'bdcs. X. Utt-grasB. 

Spikdecs Mssile oo 1 aUe of tbe ndiis. Gfamies 0. Pales 2. 

X. 9tricta, Spike ckse, am^ erect ; lower leaTes more than twioe the 

P. 7. 19. length of the aheaths.— .Heaths. 

8. RoTTBo^LLiA. L. Haid Sea-graaa. 

Spikekts embedded on ettdi aide of the radiia, rarely with 2 flor. Glames 2. 

1. R. imcunyka. Spike cylindrical, conned ; gfannea muted at baae. — Sea- 

A. 7. 17. ahoiea. 

/3. JUijormis. spike fililbnn, aomewhat oompreaaed, eracL 



Tr. in. AL OPECVRID^. JmJL deute, eUme, imterrmpied, or rtOher tpread- 
imp. SpiJkeiet* of 1 jlor. Gbames equal, or very nearly to, frequently owned. Bate 
\fjior. noAed^ or viik 3 scales or hrisdes at base. Stiymas long. 

9. Alofbcu'bus. L. Foxtail-gnas. 

Glumes without awns, moatlj connate at baae. Faka ain^ with an awn riaiDg 
from below its centre. 

* Upper leaf much ahorter than its sheath. Stem erect, smooth. 

1. A. alpinus. Pankle spiked, oblong, 3 times as long as broad ; ghmtes 

P. 7. S.-1. acote, haizy; awn projecting not ^ its length beyond 

the palea. — High moantain& 
3. A. pratentis. Panicle ^liked, qrHndrifal, more than 4 times its breadth ; 

P. 5, 6. 20. ghunes acute, riliatfd, downy; awn projecting more 

than the length of the flor. — P^utures. 

* Upper leaf equalling its sheath. 

t Awn projecting fiv beyond the flor. Panicle qiiked, cylindricaL 

3. A. yeniculdtus. Stem smooth, bent at the joints, not bulboos ; glumes acute, 
P. 6, 7. 20. and cfirerging at summit, ciliated; palea obtuse ; stem 

not bulbous. — ^Wet places. 

4. A. hulbosus. Stem smooth, erect, bulbous ; glumes abrupt^ acute, not 
P. 6. R-2. direrging at sununit, downy ; palea truncate, witha bifid 

point — ^Salt marshes. 

5. A. ayrestis. Stem rough above, erect ; panicle tapering, spiked, slender ; 
A. 7. £. S.-14. gluuMS and palea meats, nearly ^abrous ; awn project- 
ing more than the loigth of the flor. — Passim, 

t Awn only as long as flor., not projecting ; stem ascending, bent at the 

6. A-jftUvus, joints, smooth; panicle spiked, cylindrical ; glumes dBated; 
P. 6. £. S.-3. anth. orange-coloured. — ^Wet places. 

10. Pmjs'uic. L. CatVtafl-grass. 

Panicle spiked, compact Glumes neariy equaL Paleas 2, not awned, the outer one 
sometimes with a minute point Stigmas long and slender. 

* ' Glumes wedge-^aped, rather abmptty pointed at summit, rough, naked on 
l,P.dsperum. the keel; panicle cylindrical; pales toothed ; stem often 

A, 7. E.-2. branched; figule acute. — Diy, open fiekls. 



Calftmagrostis.] Htfootnous Exogens. [Oraminese. 1B3 

* ' Glomes rounded below, truncate, with a bristly point at back. 

2. P. pratente. Panicle cylindrical; glumes more than twice as long as the 
A. 6. 20. mucros, ciliated on the keels. — Fields. 

fi. nodStum, root rather tuberous. 

3. P. alptnum. Panicle ovate-oblong ; glumes not twice the length of the 
P. 7. S.-1. mucros, ciliated on the keels. — High mountains. 

* ' Glumes acute at each end. 

4. P. Bafhmeri, Panicle spiked, cylindrical ; glumes linear-lanceolate, ob- 
P. 7. K-1. liquely truncate, mucronate, scabrous ; outer palea nearly 

as long as glumes. — Dry fields. 

5. P. aren&rium. Panicle oblong, narrowed below ; glumes ciliated on the 
A, 6, 6. 9. back above ; outer palea notched at the summit, much 

shorter than glumes. — On sand near the sea. 

11. PoLYPo'oosr. Detf. Beard-grass. 

Panicle compact, interrupted. Glumes equal, with long, slender awns. Palese ^ as 
long as the glumes, the outer obtuse, tipped with a seta. 

1. P. littor&lis. Awns twice as long as the linear- lanceolate, rather acute 
P. 6, 7. E.-l. glumes. — Salt marshes. 

2. P. Monspelientia, Awns thrice as long as the linear, obtuse glumes. — Salt 
P. 6, 7. E. S.-1. marshes. 

12. Pha'labis. L, Canaiy-grass. 

Infl. dense, or lax. Glumes erect, carinate. Pales smaller than the glumes, at 
length indurated, and covering the fruit, the outer one without lateral ribs. 

1. P. CanariSnns,* Panicle dense, oval ; glumes wmged on the keel ; paleae 
A, 7. E. S.-11. with 2 lanceolate scales between them at the base. 

2. P. arwuUndcea. Panicle compound, with patent branches; glumes not 
P. 6, 7. 20. winged ; palen with 2 featiiery setaB alternate with them at 

the base. — Lakes and rivers. 
/3. picta, leaves variegated with green and white. 



Tr. IV. AGROSTIDJE. Infl. pcmicled, close or spreading. Spikelets of I 
flor. Stams. equal, or nearly so, Palete more or less hairy at base, owned or 
tipped with a minute point, or very unequal* 

18. Ammo'phila. Host, Sea-reed. 

Panicle spiked. Glumes nearly equal, keeled, not awned. Palee a little shorter 
than glumes, surrounded at the base with a tuft of hairs. 

1. A. arundindcea. Panicle acute above and below ; glumes and palee linear- 
P. 7. 10. lanceolate, acute, with a tuft of hairs at their base \ 

their length. — Sea-shore. 

14. OALAMAOBO'sns. L, SnuUl-reed. 

Panicle lax. Outer glumes rather smaller than inner. Palese very unequal, sur- 
rounded at the base by a small tuft of hairs. Outer one awned. 



184 Grainioes.] HrrooTivors Eitdogcxs. [GastrifimiL 

* n«ini longer th«n flor. 

1. B. EpigijoM. Awn projectmg beyond the flor.; figole aeolc^ bifid; 
P. 7. 12. glomes subalate, the keel roogfa. — Shadv places. 

2. K. laneeol&ta. Awn not prDJ<Hling; lignle obtose, entire; ghmiee km- 
P, 7. E.-7. oeolate, the ked smooCfa — ^Wet ptooes. 

* Hairs Hhorter thim flor., 

3. C. Lapponiea. ligule oblong ; glomes Unce<^«te, scaminate ; paleae nesrij 
P. 6, 7. I.-l. as long ns the hairs and awn, which latter is inaerted 

near the base. — Loog^ Neagh, Antrim. 

4. C. ttActa. Lignle abrupt; glomes broadlj lanoedate, acute; pales 
P, 6. S.-1. moch longer than hairs, with an awn equal to it in 

hei^t, inserted above its middle. — ^Near Foiikr. 

15. AoiuysTis. L. Bent-graas. 

Infl. panicled, spreading. Oater glome a little larger than inner. Pakae much 
shorter than caL, very unequal, the inner sometimes wanting, sometimes with a 
minute tuft of hairs at base. 

* Sheaths roughish from above downwards. 

1 . A. setacea. Leaves setaceous ; outer paka with a long, gemcnlated, 
P. G, 7. £.-1. twisted awn from its base, inner one very minii^, — Dry 

places in the South-west 

2. A. 6lba. Leaves linear-lanceolate ; outer palea 5-ribbed, not aimed ; 
P. 7, 8. 20. inner one smaller. — Pastures ; roadsides. 

fi. itolonifera. branches of panicle tufted ; root creqnng, with kmg^ pfo* 

cumbent scions. 
y, palditrU. spikelcts large ; outer palea with a very minute awn. 

* Sheaths and stem perfectly smooth. 

8. A. xnUgArU. Lignle short, truncate; branches of panicle dtveiging; 

P. 7. 20. outer glume toothed on the upper part of the keel; 

outer palea 3-ribbed. — Dry places. 
/3. arUtata. outer paka sli^tly awned. 

y. pumila, not 3 inches high, cfBspitose. 

4. A. canina. Dgule long, acute ; panicle spreading when in fl., oClier- 

A. 7, 8. 18. wise close ; outer glume toothed on the whole length dT 

the keel ; palea not ribbed with a dorsal awn. — Heaths. 

16. Anbhaqbo'stis. Trin. 

Infl. panicled, spreading ; inner glume smaller than outer. Paless as long as the 
glumes ; outer one with a long, dorsal awn. 

1. A. Spica-venti. Awn arising from a little below the summit of the palea, 

A. 6, 7. E. S.-7. and more than 8 times its length. — Sandy fields. 

17. Gabtri'diitm. JBeauv. Xit-grass. 

Panicle spiked. Glumes equal, ventricose at base. PalesB equal, not ^ the length 
of the glumes, the outer one with a long awn. 

1 . G. lendigerum. Glumes lanceolate-acuminate ; awn twice their length ; lignle 

A. 7. E.-2. oblong.^Wet places near the sea. 



Aiithoxaiitliiiiii«] Htfogtnous Endogeks. [Gramineae. 185 

Tr. y. STITAIDM, SpiAdeU of 1 flor. PaUte strongly owned, Glumet 
lomg^ hairy, taper-poixted 

18. Lagi/bits. Haie's-tafl-graas. 

Pcmcle spiked. Ghunes frmged, lengthened into feathery sets. Outer paka ending 
in 2 Imig setae, and a darsal, twisted awn between. 

Ih ovatut. Spikes ovate, soft; leaves bfroadly lanceolate, downj. — 

A. 6. C Sandy places, Gnernsey. 

Tr. YL MILJIDJB. InfL eompcmnd-patdded, spreading. SpiJkelets dor sally 
confessed, of 1 Jhr. Gimmes nmfy equal. PaUst mot owned, naked ot hose. 

19. MfuLiE. L. Idlet-grass. 

Ghunes flattish, rather acnte^ 3-rihbed. Palese nearly as long as glnmea, mooth, 
not awned, hardening on tiiefriiit. 

1. IL effSismm. Panicle diflnec, smooth, its branches sub-vertirdlatf, spread- 

P. 5. 18. ing; leaves lanceolate. — Shady places. 

Tr. YIL ARUNDINID^. Infl. eompound-panieled, spreading. Spikelets 
of ^b flor. Gimmes very unequaL Palete acute, not owned, very ludry at base. 

20. Abi/itdo. L. Beed. 

Ptande laige and spreading. Inner palea half the length of the ooter. Footstalk of 
secondary flor. with very long hairs. 

1. A. Phragmites. Ghunes acmninate, coloured, ribbed, about 5-fl'd, shorter 

P. 7. 20. than pales ; leaves lanceolate, — By water. 

Tr. YIIL SESLERIID^. Infl. compact. SpiAelets many-fll'd. PdUm 
toothed at summit, acutely owned, naked at base. Styles very short ; stigmas very 
long. 

21. Sbsls'bia. L. Moor-grass. 

Glomes nearly equal, pointed, diorter than the pales. 

1. S. earulea. Baceme oval ; outer paka 4-toothed at smmnit, inner 2- 

P. 4, 5. 3. toothed ; leaves abmpC, with a minnte, roogfa point — 



Tr. IX. ASTHOXANTHID^. Infl. dense. SpikeieU of 1 hairy flor. 
Bath palea owned. Gimmes very unequaL Style very short ; stigma very long. 

22. A3rTBOXA'aTHr]f. Sweet Yemal-grasB. 

Panicle ovate-oblong. Ghnnes very nwqnal. Pales equal, modi shorter than 
^mnea. Ov. with 2 notdied scales at base. Stam. 2. 

1. A. odaraium. Glomes about as long as the awns ; base of leaves haiiy. — 

P. 5, 6. 20. Meadows. 

Tr. X. POIDJE. Infl. panided orracemcd, Spikeletsof 2 to IS flor. Paltst 
mostly membranous at summit, oecasionalfy pointed, but not owned. 

R 2 



186 Gramines.j 



Htpogtkocs Esdogeses. 



[p« 



23. PoA. L. McAdow-gnM. 

GluiDtt Ah'irter thAo pftkae. nKMUj S-ribbed. Pakae genenlty wriibed at 
one S-T-ribbed ; dwMl and marginal ribs hmmUj haiiy. 

* Pake with a web at their base. 

t Upper kaf much shorter than the sheath, 
1. P. prmihuU. 
P. 6, 7. 



20. 



20. 



with a short and roanded fignle : spiktJfta obkng-orate. 
of 4 acute dor. ; outer pake 5-ribbiBd ; stem and iqipcr 
sheath smooth ; rwA creepmg. — ^Meadows. 

smaller ; leaves long, slender, lower ones mrolnte. 

S(Mkekts broader ; leaves broad and short, g^aneona. 

Lignk of apper sheath long and pointed ; s|akekta orate, 
of 3 acnte flor. ; outer paka 5-ribbed ; stem and diflatfas 
rongfaish ; root fibroii& — Shatfy places. 

spikel^s 1 or 2-fl'd. 

Lignk prominent, acote ; qiikekts of 3 or 4 acute flor. ; 
outer paka with 3 sUkj ribs ; leaves with a iriiite aer- 
rulat^ margin ; stem a<»newhat bolbooa. — Sands in the 
South and £a^ 
t Upper leaf as long as, or longer than its sheath. 



^. angusti/oKa 
y, subc^trSUea. 
2. P. trimalu. 
P, 6, 7. 



^. parvifiora 
3. P. bulbosa. 
P, 4, 5. 



K.-1. 



4. P. nemoralis. 
P. «, 7. 



fi. glauca, 
h. P. Bal/ourn. 
P. 7. 



6. P. compressa. 
P. 7. 



16. 



Panick sligfatlj drooping; lignk Teiy minute, obtoae; 
1 5. spikekts acute, 3-4-fl*d ; outer paka 5-ribbed, the dorsal 
and 2 lateral ones hairy ; stem smooth, round.— Shady 
places, 
gkucous ; spikekts long-stalked, few-ffd. 
Panick erect, sknder ; lignk prominent, obtuse ; spikekts 
S.-1 . 3-fl'd, obtuse ; outer psdea 5-neryed, the dorsal and mar- 
ginal ones hairy; stem compressed, slig^y rough.— 
Mountains in Perth and For&r. 
Panick slightly 1 -sided, spreading in fl., at other times 
close ; ligule short, obtuse ; spikdets ovate, or oUong- 
ovate ; fl*8 5-7, obtuse, slightly ribbed at base ; outer 

paka with 3 haiiy ribs ; stem very much compressed. 

Dry places. 
Pales not webbed at base, 

f but with hairs, espedally on the ribs at base. 

X Outer palea 3-ribbed. Uppermost ligule acute. 

Spikelets erect, of 4-5-flor. ; leaves broadly linear, obtuse, 
1. folded ; uppermost joint exposed. — Lofty mountains. 
Spikekts slightly drooping, of3-4-flor. ; leaves narrowty 

S.-l. linear, acute, flat; uppermost joint concealed. Ben 

Nevis, 
branches of panide wavy ; fl*s mostfy viviparous. 
X Outer palea 5-ribbed. 

§ Upper joint at or about the centre of ston. 



7. P. alpina. 

P. 7, 8. 
8 V.l&xa. 

P. 7. 

^. flexuosa. 



9. V, palynoda. 
P. 6, 7. S.-l. 

10. P. PamellU. 

P, 7. S.-1. 

11. P. montdna. 

P. 6. S.-1. 



Panick ovate-oblong ; second sheath not readiing to the 
first joint ; fl's 4 or 5, acute. — Edinburgh. 

Panide close, oblong ; second sheath not readiing to the 
first joint ; fl's 2 or 8, acute Teesdale. 

Panicle long, dender; second sheath enclosing the first 
joint ; spikekts 2 or d-fl'd. — ^Ben Lawers. 



Hierocbloe.] 



Htpootnous Endooens. 



[Gramines. 187 



12. P. cassia. 
P, 7. 

13. P. digtans. 
P. 6-8. 



K S.-1. 



8. 



fi. Borreri. 



14. P. maritima. 
P, 6, 7. 

15. P. Annua. 
A. 3-7. 



t 



1 6. P. procumbens. 
P. 6-9. 

17. F.Jl&Uans. 
P. 6-9. 

18. P. plicaia. 
P. 6-9. 



§ Upper joiot below the ceotre of stem. 
II Stem, rachifl, and branches rough. 

Panicle ovate ; branches ascending in pairs , spikelets ovate ; 
glumes acute ; pale® 6-ribbed, the doreal and marginal 
ribs hairy. — Mountains. 
Panicle el<nigated; branches at length spreading or de- 
flexed, the lower in 4*8 or 6's ; spikelets linear ; glumes 
obtuse ; pale» with aU the ribs gUbrous except at the 
base, the central one extending to the summit — Sandy 
shores, 
panicle branches erecto-patent ; rachis terate ; outer palea 

apiculate. 
Stem and rachis smooth. 
Panicle-branches at length erect ; spikelets linear, adpressed, 
4-8-fl'd ; outer pal^ obtuse, ajnculate ; leaves flat ; 
ligule obtuse, de<mrrent ; with scions — Sea-coast. 
Panicle branches spreading; spikelets ovate-oblong, 6 or 
6-fl*d ; outer palea with 5 more or less silky ribs ; leaves 
involute ; ligtUe oblong, acute ; scions 0. — Pcutim. 
Pales without hairs at the base. 

X Upper sheath longer than its leaf; spikelets stalked on the rachis. 
§ Spikelets linear. 



II 



11. 



20. 



Panicle oblong-lanceolate; spikelets numerous, 5-fl'd; 
7. glumes with a dorsal, and 2 prominent, lateral ribs ; outer 
palea 5-ribbed, the dorsal rib smooth. — Salt marshes. 
Panicle with nearly simple, roughish, ascending branches ; 
20. spikelets linear, adprrased, of 7-12 oval, oblong, obtuse 
flor. ; outer palea thrice as long as broad. — StiU water. 
Panicle with compound, nearly smooth branches, erect in 
K-? fl., divaricate in fr. ; spikelets linear, of 7-20 lanceolate- 
oblong, acute flor. ; outer palea twice as long as broad. — 
Hampstead. 
§ Spikelets, especially the upper, lanceolate or ovate. Branches of 
panicle rough. 

Panicle erect ; spikelets of 4 to 8 flor. ; glumes broad, ob- 
14. tuse; outer palea 7-ribbed, the dorsal one closely and 
minutely toothed. — Wet places. 
Panicle and branches slightly drooping ; spikelets of 8 flor. ; 
3. glumes narrow, acute ; outer palea rough, membranous 
at summit, 8-ribbed, the dorsal rib serrated, distantly 
and minutely toothed. — Mountain woods, 
spikelets of 2 flor. ; leaves narrower. 
X Uppersheath shorter than its leaf; or the spikelets sessile, on the rachis. 

2 1 . P. rigida. Panicle compound, 2-rided ; sunmiit of the upper glume on 
^.6. 16. a level with the base of the third flor. — Dry places. 

22. P. lolidcea. Panicles with the spikelets sessfle on each side of the rachis ; 
j4. 6, 7. 6. summit of the upper glume on a level with the base d 

fourth flor. — Sandy-coast 

24. HiEBOCHix>'s. Ghnel. Holy-grass. 

Panicle mostly lax. Spikelets laterally compressed, of 8 flor., enclosed within the 
nearly equal glumes. Outer palea 6-ribbed ; anth. 2 in the perfect flor. 



19, P. aqu&ticfi. 
P. 7. 

20. P. Hylv/itica. 
P. 6, 7. 



/3. decidua. 



188 Graminefle.] Htpootnous Endoobns. [Koelcrk. 

1 . H. bore&lit. Panicle erect, the branches smooth, in pairs ; awns ;^'\mter 

P, 7. S.-1. palea ciliated at margin. — Mountain vaU^ of Kella, An- 

gushire. 

25. Trio'dia. Br, Heath-grass. 

Panicle raoemed. Spikelets laterally compressed, of 2-4 flor., enclosed within thi 
glumes. Outer palea with 8 teeth at end. 

1. T. decumbens. Panicle of few, oval spikelets ; glumes as long as the flor. ; 

P. 7. 20. ligule reduced to a tuft of hairs. — Heaths. 

26. Bri'za. L. Quaking-grass. 

Panicle lax ; spikelets suspended. Glumes equal, spreading, 8-ribbed. Flor. 5-8 in 
each spikelet Outer palea broad, cordate, rounded on back ; lateral ribs 0. 

1. B. media. Spikelets broadly ovate, of about 5 flor.; glumes shorter 
P. 6. 20. than the flor. ; ligule truncate, very short — Pastures. 

2. B. minor. Spikelets triangular, of about 7 flor. ; ligule elongated, lan- 
P. G. K-1. ceolate. — Fields in the South. 

27. Me'lica. L, Melic-grass. 

Panicle lax, or raoemed. Spikelets of 1 or 2 perfect flor., enclosed by the glumes. 
Glumes nearly equal, 5-ribbed. Outer palea 7-ribbed, becoming hardened on the 
fruit. 

1. M. nutans, Spikelets ovate, drooping, of about 2 flor., in a 1 -aided ra- 
P, 5, 6. 8. ceme. — Mountain woods. 

2. M. uniflora, Spikelets oblong, cylmdrical, erect, of 1 perfect flor., in 
P. 6. 18. a lax slightly drooping, paiiicle.---Shady wooda. 

28. Catabbo'sa. JBeauv, Whorl-grass. 

Spikelets of 1 -3 flor., much longer than the obtuse, very unequal glumes, which have 
2 faint, lateral ribs. Outer palea notched above, 8-iibbed. Ligule prominent. 

1 . C. aquatica. Brandies of panicle whorled, spreading ; leaves broadty 

P, 6, 7. 1 7. linear, obtuse. — In ditches, &c. 

j3. maritima, spikelets 1-fl'd. 

29. MoLi^NiA. Schrank, 

Spikelets of 1-4 flor., much longer than flor. ; glumes without lateral ribs. Outer 
palea acute, entire at summit, 3, rarely 5-ribbeid. Ligule very smalL 

1. M. carulea. Panicle erect, elongate, narrow; leaves much shorter than 

P. 7, 8. 20. panicle, ludry above ; flor. 2-4 — Damp heaths. 

fi. depauperdta, spikelets l-fl*d, few ; outer palea sometimes 5-ribbed. 

80. Ecelb'bia. Link. 

Panicle rather close. Spikelets of 2 flor. enclosed within the unequal glumes. Outer 
palea 3-ribbed, keeled, acuminate, awnless. 

1. K. erist&ta. Panicle ovate, interrupted below ; leaves narrow, rough at 

P. 6, 7. 14. the edges, ciliated. — Dry pastures. 



Holcus.] Hypogtnous Endogens. [Gramineae. 189 

Tr, XL A FEN ID jE, Jnfl, racemed or panicled. Spikelet8of2-AJlor. Palea 
owned from the hose or centre. 

31. Ave'na. L. Oat or Oat-grass. 

Panicle lax. Spikelets 2 or more fl'd. Paleae lanceolate, firmly enclosing the froit ; 
outer one bearing a twisted, dorsal awn. Upper flor. often imperfect. 

• Inner glume 7-11 -ribbed. 

1. A.fdtua. Flor. shorter than glumes; spikelets of about 3 flor., pen- 
^. 7. 14. dulous ; outer palea with yellowish hairs at base, bifid 

at the end. — Corn-fields. 

2. A. itriffSsa. Flor. not shorter than glumes ; spikelets drooping, of about 
A. 7. 6. 2 flor. ; outer palea glabrous, ending in 2 long, straight 

bristles. — Corn-fields. 

* Inner glume with 3 ribs. 

f Radical leaves not hairy. 

3. A. pratensis. Spikelets racemed, erect, of 3-6 fior., wluch are longer than 
P. 6. 14. the glumes ; leaves finely serrated. — Dry pastures. 

fi. longifolia. radical leaves as long as the stenu 

y. alpina. fior. 5 or 6 ; leaves suddenly acuminate ; sheath keeled, 

smoothish ; panicle offcen branched. 

4. A. planiculmis. Panicle compound ; spikelets of 5-7 fior. ; leaves scabrous, 
P. 7. S.-1. broadly linear, suddenly acute ; sheaths fiat, carinate, 

scabrous ; lower part of stem compressed. — Isle of Arran. 
t Radical leaves hairy ; spikelets of 3 flor. 

5. A. puhescens. Panicle nearly simple ; outer palea often jagged at summit ; 
P. 7. 16. ligule prominent, acute. — Calcareous soil. 

6. A. Jlavescens, Panicle much branched; outer palea with 2 terminal 
P. 7. 15. bristles ; ligule very short, obtuse. — ^Diy meadows. 

32. Abbhenathe'ruh. JBeauv, 

Panicle lax. Spikelets of 2 flor, the lower one with stamens only, its lower palea 
with a long, twisted awn above the base ; the upper flor. perfect, with a short, 
straight awu from below the apex. 

A. avenaceum. Panicle lax, simple ; leaves harsh, rouglui^ above and be- 

P. 6, 7. 20. low, crowned with a short, obtuse, ragged ligule. — Pas- 

tures. 
/3. nodosum. stem nodose at the base. 

83. Ho'lcus. L, Soft-grass. 

Spikelets of 2 flor. Upper flor. stameniferous, having its large palea awned a little 
below the summit ; lower seldom awned, harden^ on fruit ; glumes longer than 
flor. 

1. H. moUis. Inner glume acute; awn exserted, geniculated, rough in 
P. 7. 20. its whole length ; joints hairy ; root creeping.— Pas- 
tures. 

2. H. lan&tus. Inner glume obtuse, mucronate; awn included, curved, 
P. 6, 7. 20. smooth except near the tip ; joint smooth ; root fibrous. 

— ^Meadows, &c. 



190 Gramineae.] Hypooynous Endogbns. [Festuca. 

84. Ai'ba. L. Hair-grass. 

Panicle lax. Spikelets of 2 or 3 flor. ; lower one sessile. Glumes of equal length. 
Outer palea very indistinctly ribbed, awned. 

* Awn protrudhig beyond the summit of the palese, 

t davate above, fringed about the centre, shorter than glumes; panide 

1. A. canescens, spreading, infl. otherwise dense; branches rough; palea 
P. 7. E.-1. acute at end; leaves setaceous. — Sea-coast, Norfolk, Suf- 
folk. 

t Awn filiform. 

X Sheath of upper leaf rough from above downwards ; outer palea bifid, 
but not deeply, at summit 

2. X.Jiexu6sa. Panicle difiuse in fl. ; flor. villous at base, as long as the 
P, 7. 19. glumes; awn arising from a little above the base of 

palesB. — Heaths. 
X Sheath of upper leaf rough from above downwards ; palea with an 
attenuate, deeply bifid point 

3. A. caryoph^JUa, Panide branches much divaricating ; glumes rounded at 
A. 6. 20. base ; awn from bdow the middle of the palea. — ^Dry, 

gravelly places. 

4. A. prtBfcox, Panide somewhat spiked ; glumes scarcdy rounded below ; 

A. 4, 5. 20. the awn from about the middle of the palea. — Sandy 

hills and pastures. 

* Awn not protruding beyond the summit of the palese. 

5. A. alpina. Panicle rather close ; branches scabrous ; leaves mostly in- 
P. 8. S. £.-2. volute ; palea acute, bifid at summit ; awn from above 

its middle. — ^Mountains. 

6. A. ccMpitosa, Panicle diffuse ; branches smooth ; leaves flat ; palea trun- 
P. 6-8. 19. cate, jagged at summit; awn from a little above its 

base. — Fields. 

Tr, XII. FESTUCWJE. Infl. panicled or racemecL Spikelets of 2-14: flor. 
Palete generally awned from the summit^ or a little beneath it. When not atoned^ 
the glumes are unequal^ and the ligvle short and truncate. 

36. Fbstu'ca. L. Fescue-grass. 

Panicle lax. Glumes unequal. PalesB lanceolate, awned, or bristle-pointed at the 
summit ; inner one minutdy ciliated. Ligule of upper sheath veiy smalL 

* Outer palea terminating in a long bristle (except 3 y) ; leaves very narrow ; 

ligule bi-lobed. 
t Lower glume obsolete. 

1. F. uniglumis. Raceme 2-ranked, turned to 1 side; flor. compressed, 

B. 6. E. I. -4. keeled, shorter than the bristles. — Sea-shores. 

f Lower glmne prominent, not obsolete. 
X Bristles much longer than palesB. 

2. F. bromoides. Panide 1-seeded, contracted ; glumes very unequal ; fl's 
A. 6, 7. 15. terate, monandrous ; stem leafless above. — Dry places. 

/3. pseudo-myiirus, stem leafy above, branched bdow. 
X Bristles shorter than pale®, or 0. 

3. F. ovina. Stem, under the panicle, rough and angular ; root fibrous ; 
P. 6. 20. spikdets in a close, 1-sided panide, of 6 flor. ; leaves 

setaceous, tufted. — Dry pastures. 



Bromos.] Htpootnous Endooens. [Graminese. 191 

fi. cafsia. stoater and taller, glaucous. 

y, tenuifolia. palen acuminate, not mucronate ; leaves long, slender. 

4. F. rubra. Stem, panicle, and spikelets as last ; leaves involute, seta- 
P, 6. 10. ceous, downy above ; root creeping. — Dry, sandy places. 

5. F. durixucula. Stem smooth under the panicle ; sp^elets of about 6 flor., 
P. 6, 7. 20. and unilateral ; stem-leaves nearly plane, those of root 

setaceous; root creeping. — ^Waste ground, 
p. hirsuta. outer palea hairy. 

* Outer palea awned or not ; leaves broad ; ligule imperceptible. 

f Spikelets arranged in a simple panicle, or a 2-slded spike. 

6. F. pratetuis. Panicle simple, slightly turned to one side ; spikelets ovate- 
P. 6, 7. 20. lanceolate; flor. numerous, cylindrical; paleas obscurely 

ribbed ; awn very short — Pastures. 
/3. loli&cea. spikelets rarely sesdle, in a 2 -sided spike ; awn obsolete, 

f Spikelets in compound, somewhat drooping panicles. 

7. F. eldtior. Awn of the palesB extremdy short ; spikelets ovate-lanceo- 
P. 6, 7. ? late, of 5-10 flor. ; outer palea obscurely 6-ribbed ; leaves 

linear-lanceolate. — ^Wet meadows. 
S. F. gigantea. Awn of the palese very long ; spikelets ovate-lanceolate, 

P. 7. 17. of about 5 flor. ; outer palea 5 -ribbed ; leaves lanceolate, 

flat, acute.-:-Thickets near the sea. 
/3. triflora. panicle somewhat erect ; spikelets of about 3 flor. 

36. Bbo'mus. L. Brome-grass. 

Panicle lax. Spikelets more than 5-fl*d. PaleoB lanceolate, outer one awned below 
the bifld extremities. Ligule of upper leaf prominent Styles arising from below 
the summit of ov. 

* Large glume 7-ribbed. 

f Summit of large glume midway between its base and apex of third flor. 

1. B. mollis. Glumes and paleee hairy ; panicle close ; flor. closely im- 
A, 6, 6. 20. bricated, erect in fl. and fhiit — Passim, 

/3. pseitdo-velutinus, spikelets and leaves densely pubescent ; panicle quite simple. 
y. racemSsus. panicle somewhat compound ; glumes and pales scabrous, 

not hairy. 

2. arendrius. panicle quite simple ; simple ped. very short 

t Summit of large glume midway between its base and apex of second flor. 

2. B. secalinus. Leaves hairy, with nearly glabrous sheaths ; spikelets of 
A, 6, 7. 16. about 7 flor., glabrous, oblong, erect, slightly drooping 

in fruit, the flor. thin, laxly imbricated ; outer palea not 
twice as long as broad. — Corn-fields. 

3. velutinus, panicle nearly simple ; flor. large, downy. 

3. B. commutdtus. Leaves and sheaths hairy ; spikelets of about 11 flor., gla- 
A, 6, 7. 20. brous, oblong-lanceolate, slightly drooping ; flor. not so 

lax in fruit as last ; palea twice as long as broad. — Corn- 
fields. 

* Large glume 8-ribbed. 

f Awn longer than the glumes ; outer palea 7-ribbed. 

4. B. sterilis. Panicle drooping ; ped. long, slightly branched ; spikelets 
A, 6, 7. 20. linear-lanceolate ; palesB scabrous, shorter than the awn ; 

leaves pubescent — Fields and hedges. 



192 Gramine®.] Htpootnous Endooens. [Trittcom. 

5. B. m&ximus. Panicle erect, lax, at length nodding, slightly bnmdied; 
A. 7. C. ped. elongated after lowering; spikdets lanceolate, 

downy ; palea ^ the length of awn ; leaves downj on 
both sides. — Sandy places. 

6. B. MildritensU, Panicle erect, simple; ped. short; spikelets lanceolate; 
A, 6, 7. £. S.-4. paleie sab-scabroos, as long as awn ; leaves sab-glabroos. 

— Barren wastes. 
/3. riffidus. pedicels, rachis, and glomes pabesoent. 

t Awn much shorter than flor. 

7. B. dsper. Panicle drooping ; flor. remote, sab-cylindrical ; outer pakt 
A. 6, 7. 19. 7-ribbed; root-leaves very narrow, dilated. — Woods and 

hedges. 
/3. villosus. outer palea hairy. 

8. B. erectus. Panicle erect ; flor. remote, linear-lanceolate ; outer palea 

hairy, 5-ribbed ; leaves broad, hairy. — Damp woods. 

37. Da'ottlis. X. GockVfoot-grass. 

Panicle with the secondary branches short, very dense and 1-sided. Spikelets of not 
more than 4 flor. Palea minutely awned. 

1. D. gloinerdta. Panicle branches distant, bearing ovate, 1 -sided dusters of 

P. 6, 7. 20. spikelets ; root oespitose. — M^ows. 

88. Cynosu'rus. L. Dog's-tail-grass. 

Panicle spiked, 1 -sided, each spikelet with a pectinate bract at its base. Outer paka 
with a rough, terminal seta. 

1. C. cristatua. Infl. linear, spikate, unilateral, straight; paleae with a yery 
P. 8. 20. short awn Pastures. 

2. C- echinatu$. Infl. capitate, spikate, unilateral, recurved ; pales with 
A. 7. £.-1. awns their own length. — Sandy places in the South. 

39. Tri'ticum. L, Wheat or Wheat-grass. 
Spikelets placed singly on each side of rachis. Glumes 2, opposite. 

* Glumes unequaL (Brachtpodium Beauv.) 

1. T. sylvdticum. Spike drooping; spikelets distant, nearly cylindrical, hairy; 
P. 7. 20. setae of the upper flor. longer thiin the paJesB; root fibrous. 

— ^Woods and hedges. 

2. T. pinnatum. Spike erect; spikelets nearly cylindrical, hairy; setae of 
P. 7. £. I.-8. upper flor. shorter than their paleas ; root creeping. 

Heaths. 

* Glumes equal (TRincux.) 

t Stem rough. 

3. T. critt&tum. Spikelets of 4 flor. ; glumes subulate, keeled, with ter- 
P. 7. S.-1. minal setae ; outer palea with a seta as long as itself. — 

Sea-side between Arbroath and Montrose, 
f Stem smooth. 

X Setae longer than the flor. ; root fibrous. 

4. T. caninum, Spikelets of about 6 flor. ; glumes 8-5-ribbed ; rachis 
P. 7. 17. hispid ; leaves flat, rough on both sides. — Banks. 



Lolium.] Htpootnous Endoosns. [Gramineae. 193 

X Sets 0, or very short ; with underground, creeping stems. 

5. T. repens. Spikelets 4-8-fl'd ; rachis rough; glumes acute, 5-7-ribbed; 
P. 7. 20. outer palea acute ; leaves flat. — ^Waste places. 

/3. artstatum. outer palea with a seta less than ^ its length. 

y, Httor&le, spike contracted; rachis smooth and glabrous ; setse short. 

6. T,juneeum, Glaucous; spikelets 4-6-fl'd ; glumes obtuse, 6- 11 -ribbed ; 
P. 7. 10. outer palea obtuse; rachis smooth; leaves involute, pun- 
gent. — Sea-shores. 

fi. scdbrutn, rachis slightly rough at the angles; leaves 0, minutely 

scabrous above. 



Tr. XIII. HORDEIDJS, Infl, spiked, or shortly racemed, Spikelets on both 
sides of rachis, of i-18-/lor. Palea seiigerous or owned ; (awn sometimes Qi), 

40. Ho'rdeum. L, Barlev.. 

Spikelets of 1 flor., in threes from each tooth of the rachis. Glumes terminating in 
bristly setae, both on one side of the rachis. 

* Glumes of the middle spikelet linear-lanceolate, fringed, 

1. H. murinum, those of the lateral, imperfect ones, setaceous, scabrous. — 
A. 6, 7. 20. Waste places. 

* Glumes of the middle spikelet not iringed, 

2. H. maritimum, the inner one of the lateral, imperfect flor. half-ovate, the 
A, 6. 5. rest setaceous. — Sandy pastures. 

3. H. pratense. Glumes all setaceous, rough ; lateral flor. imperfect — Damp 
A, 7. 15. meadows. 

4. H. sylv&Hcum, Glumes all subulate, rough ; lateral flor. perfect, inter- 
A, 7, 8. £.-5. mediate one often barren. — On calcareous soiL 

41. E'ltmus. L, Lyme-grass. 

Spikelets arranged in pairs on each side of rachis. Glumes 2 on the same side of the 
spikelet, 2-8-fl'd, all perfect 

1. E. arenarius. Spike close, erect ; rachis flat, not winged ; glumes lanceo- 
P. 7, 20. late, downy, as long as flor. ; leaves involute, pungent — 

Sea-shores. 

2. E. geniad&tus. Spike lax, bent down, at an angle ; rachis winged ; glumes 
P. 7. E.-1. subulate, glabrous, longer tiban flor. ; leaves involute, 

pungent^Salt marsh, Gravesend. 

42. Lo'livm. L. Darnel or Rye-grass. 

Spikelets smgle on each side of rachis, with many flor., and but 1 glume, rarely 2, 
but then the glume is as long as the spike. 

1. L. perenne. Spikelets 6-8-fl'd, longer than glume ; flor. not awned ; 
P. 6. 20. root bearing barren i^oots. — ^Way-rides. 

fi. artstatum. outer palea with a long awn. 

y. tenue. spikelets few-fl'd ; leaves slender. 

2. L. multiflSrum* Spikelets 10-14-fl*d, longer than glume ; outer palea with 
A. 6. E. S.-5. ? a long awn ; root without barren shoots. 

8 



194 ^Cyperes.] Hypootnous Endoobms. [Orperus. 

3. L. temulentum. Spikdets about 6-fi'd, equal to or shorter than glomes; 

A. 6, 8. 16. outer palea as long as its awn. — Fields. 

/3. arvense. flor. 4 or 5, with short awns or 0. 



Order XCIII.— CYPEREiE. 

Innocuous herbs, with narrow, grass-like leaves^ their Inues often sheathing the 
stem, the sheaths not being slit. Stem solid, mostly angular. .fT« perfect, or dicli- 
nous, consisting of imbricated^ solitary glumes. Stam. 1-7, 10 or 12; anth. at- 
tached by their base, entire at apex, 2-celled. Ov. often surrounded by the rudi- 
ments of a perianth, in the form of setsB or bristles, which is sometimes, however, 
membranous ; ovule single^ erect ; style 2 or Z-fid ; stigmas 2-fid. Enibr, minute 
within the base of the mealy or fleshy alb. 

* Fl's diclinoui. 

Spikeleti 2-fl*d, the nppcr fl. staminiferous, the lower piitil- ) n «* «» 
liferoQs. Fruit not endoMd in the perianth. . f "* **'»"^ 

Spikelets monoBcioui, the ttominiferoui ones being tenninaL ) « n . b»t. 
Fruit endowd in the urceolate perianth. . i ^arbx. 

* Fl's perfect. 

t Flor. with permanent, hypogynous aetsB, 

t which are much longer than the glumes. 5. Eriophobum. 

t SetsB equal to, or shorter than the glumes. 
$ Lower glumes destitute of stam. or pistil. 

Spikelets in 3 rows, on a zigsag rachis, each with ) g Bltsmub 

a bract at base. . ) * 

Spikelets condensed into an orate head, and sur- ) ,<> d„„.^„^._ 

rounded by a many-leaved inyoL . | ^^' Khyhchospora. 

} Lower glumes with stam. and pistils. 

Spikes in clusters. Style deciduous. . . 8. SciRPUS. 

Spikes solitary. Style persistent. 9. Elbocharis. 

t Hypogynous setse 0, or fugaoeous. 

} Scales of the spikelets in 2 rows. Style 3-fld. 

Spikelets l-3-fl*d. Outer scales smaller, empty. 2. Schoevus. 
Spikelets many-fl'd. All the scales equal, fertile. 1. Cypertjs. 
} Scales imbricated on all sides. 
11 Style bifid below, 

the branches bifid or trifld, . 3. Cladium. 

the branches undiyided. . 5. ELBoexTOir. 

II Style trifld. .4. Isolbpsib. 

N.B. — The following is, with a slight alteration, the arrangement of Nees yon Esenbeck. 



Tr. I. CVPERIDM. FFs perfect. Spikelets with the scales imbricated in 2 

rows. 

1. Cype'rus. L. Galingale. 

Spikelets arranged in compound, irregular umbels, with a leafy invoL Bracts im- 
bricated in 2 rows, in pairs, the outer smallest at base, the inner adhering to the 
rachis, each pair with 1 fl. Setae 0. Style trifld. Fruit triangular. 

1 . C. ISngus. Spikelets in erect, twice compound umbels, the ped. un- 
P. 7. (r. Br.) E.-1. equal, with 2 or 8 long leaves at base ; root creeping. — 

In the South. 

2. C.fiiscus. Spikelets in small, roundish heads, with 8 unequal leaves 
P. 8, 9. (+Br.) K-1. at base ; root flbrous. — ^Marsh near little Chelsea. 



Bljsmos.] HypooTNOUs Endooens. [Cjperes. 195 

2. Schce/nus. L. Bog-rash. 

Spikelets 2-4-fl*d, in a terminal capitnle, with 2 or more sheathing leaves at base. 
Bracts 6-9, in 2 or 3 rows, the lower ones empty. Setas 0. Style 3-fid. 

1. S. nigricans. Stem romid, naked ; spikelets 5-10, in a roundish head, 

P. 6. (+Br.) 9. shorter than one of the bracts of invol. — Turfy bogs. 

3. Cla'dium. Schrad. Twig-rush. 

Spikelets 1-2-fl'd. Glumes 6 or 6, the outer ones empty and smaller. Fruit with a 
thick, fleshy coat. SetsB 0. 

1. C. MarUctu. Panicle much branched, lateral and terminal ; spikelets 

P. 7. 6. capitate, conglomerate; stem rounded, leafy; margins 

of leaves and keel rough Bogs. 

Tr. II. SCJRPJDJE, FFs perfect, Spikelets imbncated on all sides. 

4. Isolb'psis. Br, Club-rush. 

Spikelets many-fl'd, fascicled, with a 2 or more leaved invol., the lower one long. 
SetsB 0. Style 3-fid, nearly equal at base, deciduous. 

* Heads of 1-2 sessile, and 2 or 3 unequally stalked spU^elets. 

1. J. Holoscha^nus. Stem rounded ; leaves subulate, channelled ; bracts obovate, 
P. 9. ^Br. II W.) E.-1. emarginate, with a short mucro. — Sandy coast, Devon. 

/3. elegans, stem compressed at summit ; bracts obovate, with a pro- 

jecting mucro. — Somerset 

* Spikelets 1-3, all sessile. 

2. J. setdceus. Stem compressed, with 1 or 2 leaves at batte , the lower 
P. 7. (Br. II W.) 20. bract of invoL erect, elongated, continuous with the stem ; 

stam. 2 ; fhiit transversely striated ^Moist places. 

3. J. Saviana, Stem terate, leafy below ; bracts of invoL shorter than the 
P. 7. ( — 6. • br.) 6. ? spikelets ; stam. 3 ; finiit sub-globose, rough with slightly 

raised points. — ^Wet bogs. 
/3. monostachys. spikelet solitary, with a short bract. 

6. Eleooi'toit. Link. 

Spikelets terminal, solitary, naked. Bracts gradually lessening, all floriferous. Setae 
0. Stj'le bifid, dedduous. Fruit 2-edged, mucronate. 

1. Y.-fluitans, Stem floating, compressed, branched, leafy; spikes ovate; 

P. 6, 7. (r. Br.) 17. glumes nearly equal, obtuse ; fruit obovate, tipped with 

the narrow base of style. — In water. 

6. Blt'smus. Panz. 

Spikelets arranged on a zigzag rachis, in a 2-rowed spike. Scales imbricated in 4 
rows. Ov. with persistent, toothed sets at base. S^le bifid, quite compressed. 

1. B. compressus. Stem almost triangular; spikelets 6-8-fl'd, the lower bract 

P. 6, 7. (r. Br.) E. S.-9. at its base le^ ; setie with strong, deflexed teeth ; 

leaves linear, flat. — Wet places near tiie sea. 



196 Cypereee.] Htpootnous Endooens. [Scirpns. 

2. B. r{khu. Stem terate ; spikelets 2-4-fl'd, equal to the membranous 

P. 7. ('T-Br.) 7. bract ; sets slender, with spreading or ascending teeth; 

leaves very narrow, channelled. — ^Marshes. 

7. Ebio'phobux. L, Cotton-grass. 

Spikelets many-fl'd, either solitary, or in clusters, with an invoL Scales imbricated on 
all sides. Fruit with very long, silky hairs at its base. Style 8-fid. 

* Spike solitary ; upper sheaths inflated, without leaves. 

I.E. t>affin6ium. Stem triangular above ; spike oblong ; leaves long, se- 

P. 5. 14. taceous ; fruit obovate. — ^Mountain bogs. 

2. 'Ei. capitatum^ Stemroonded; spike sub-globose ; leaves linear-subulate; 
P. 8. S.-1. fruit oblong-obovate. — Summit of Ben Lawers. 

* Spikelets many. 

3. E. polystachyon. Stem round ; leaves linear, flat, triangular in the upper 
P. 6. 14. half; pedicels of spikes smooth ; sets 3 times as long as 

spike. — Bogs. 
(3. anpustifoUum. stem nearly round ; leaves channelled near the base ; setft 

4 times as long as spike. 

4. E. latifSlium, Stem triangular above ; leaves finear, nearly flat, contracted 
P. 5, 6. 5. above the middle into a triangular point ; pedicels sca- 
brous ; sets 2 or 8 times as bug as spike. — BDgs. 

5. E. ffrdcile. Stem somewhat triangular ; leaves narrowly lii^ar, tri- 
P. 6, 7. E. S.-1. quetrous; pedicels downy; fruit linear-oblong, 3 cor- 
nered ; setae twice as long as spike. — Bogs. Yorkshire. 
Guildford. 

8. ScfKPUS. L, Club-rush. Bull-rush. 

Scales imbricated on all sides, equal, 1 or 2 outer glumes empty. Setae bristly, per- 
manent Style 2-8-fid, deciduous. Fruit 2 -edged. 

* Stem terate. Stigmas 2. 

1. S. lacustris. Spikelets in compound, almost terminal panides, mostly 
P. 6, 7. 19. shorter than the rounded, almost leafless stem; glumes 

emarginate, mucronate, glabrous, fringed. — Rivers, &c 
fi. glaucut, smaller and glaucous. 

* Stem triangular, especially in the upper part 

t Stem leafy ; stigmas 8, very rarely 2. 

2. S. maritimtu. Spikes in a dense, terminal cluster, with an invoL of several 
P. 7. 11. leafy bracts; glumes 2-fld, witii an intermediate mucro. 

— Salt marshes. 

3. S. sylvaticut. Spikes in a veiy compound cjrme, with an invoL of several 
P. 7. 15. leafy bracts ; glumes entire, apiculate. — ^Moist places. 

t Stem with sheaths destitute of leaves ; stigmas 2. 

4. S. earin&bu. Stem obtusely 8-angular above ; invoL of 2 unequal bracts ; 
P. 6, 7. E.-1. glumes emarginate, mucronate, slightly punctate-flcabroQS, 

pilose, fringed. — Rivers near London. Sussex. 

5. S. triqueter. Stem acutely triangular throughout ; invoL ; glumes 
P. 8. E.-1. emarginate, glabrous, fringed, obtusely lobed. — Banks of 

Thames. Sussex. 
/3. piinffens. glumes acutely lobed ; anth. with a subulate, fringed point. 



Elyoa.] Hypootnous £ndooem0. [CypereaB. 197 

9. Eleocua'bis. Br, Spike-rush. 

Spike aolitaiy. Glnmes imbricated on all sides, aniform, nearly all floriferoos. SeUe 
1-12, toothed. Style 2 or 3-fid. Fruit lenticular, crowned with the broad base of 
styles. 

* Stem with sheaths bearing scales and subulate leaves below, 

1. E. caspitota. rounded, or slightly compressed; 2 outer glumes longer 
P. 6-8. 18. than the very small spikes, ending in bng, rigid points ; 

stigmas 3 ; fruit mucronate ; sets 6. — Tmfy heaths. 

* ' Stem with sheaths destitute of leaves. 

t Stigmas 2. 

2. E. palustris. Stem rounded ; root much creeping ; fruit lenticular, piano- 
P. 6, 7. 20. convex ; setss 4 ; outer glume smallest— -Wet places. 

t Stigmas 3. 

I Setae 2 or 3. 

3. E. acicularis. Stems numerous, slender, 4-angular ; spike ovate, acute ; 
P. 7, 8. 12. fruit with numerous furrows and striae. — Wet places. 

t Setae 4-6. 

4. E. muUicaulit. Outer glumes smallest ; stem rounded ; root hardly creep- 
P. 7. 13. ing; fruit obovate, 3-angular, shorter than the 6 seta:. 

— Wet places. 

5. E paudfiora. Outer glumes large, shorter than, but enclosing the spike ; 
P. 6-8. 13. root with long, jointed runners ; fruit obovate-mucronate, 

3-angular, longer than the 6 setae. — ^Moors. 

* ' Stem destitute of leaves or sheaths, or with only 1 sheath. 

6. ILparmdu. Spike terminal, few-A'd; leaves filiform, acute; radical 
P. 7. E-1. ones roundish, clasping ; stigmas 3 ; 2 outer glumes 

the larger ; bristles twice as long as fruit, with defiexed 
teeth. — Muddy flat near Lymlngton, Hants. 

10. Rhyxcho'spoba. Vahl. Beak-rush. 

Spikes terminal and axillary, with a many-leaved invoL Lower glumes the smaller, 
and empty. Setae 6-10. Style bifid, subulate. Fruit somewhat 3-comered. 

1. K. alha, Spikelets in a compact corymb, as long as the outer bracts ; 
P. 7. 12. stam. 2 ; leaves narrowly linear. — Wet places. 

2. R. fuica. Spikelets in an oval head, much shorter than the outer 
P. 7, 8. E L-1. bracts; stam. 3 ; leaves filiform. — Bogs in South-west 



Tr. III. EL VNID^. FVt dicUnous. Ov. with 1 or 2 scales at its bast. 

11. Ely'sa. Schrad. 

Spikelets 2-fl'd, upper with 3 stam. only ; bwer pistilliferoas, in clu ded in a lung, 
sheathing bract Ov. with 1 hypogynous, convolute scale. Stigmas 3. 

1. Kearicina. Spikelets aggregate, compound; leaves slender, shorter 

P. 7. E. S.-3. than the stem. — Moors, Durham. Yorkshire. Perth- 

shire. 

8 2 



198 Cypertsje.] HTrooTNousENDoofiNi. [Girez. 

12. Ca'bsx. L. Sedge. 

Fl's collected into an imbricated spike, each covered by a scale. FertiUJt» with a 
ftinprle, urceolate, persistent perianth. Style 1 ; stigmas 2-8. Barren fit : — 
Htam. 8, without a perianth. 

* Spike single, or very rarely with a second (6), simple. 

t Stigmas 2. 

1 . C. dioica. Spike dioecious ; fimit ascending, ovate, shortly acaminate, 
P. 5, 6. 16. rough on the angles above; leaves and stem smooth; 

root creeping. — Bogs. 

2. C. pulicarU, Upper lialf of spike barren ; fruit remote, at length de- 
P. 5, 6. 20. flexed, oblong-lanceolate, smooth and shining . nxyt not 

creeping B^s. 

t Stigmas 3. 
1} . C, rupettrU. Upper half of spike barren ; firuit obovate, triquetrous, 

P. 1, E. S.-1. prostrate, adpressed, hardly longer than the obtuse, per- 

sistent glumes. — Iligh mountains. 

4. C. paucijiora. 1 or 2 terminal flor. barren ; fruits few, lanceolate-subulate, 
P. 0, 7. 4. patent or reflexed, longer than the dedduous glumes. — 

Bogs. 

* Spikes compound, continuous or interrupted, of more than 2 spikelets. 

f Stigmas 2. 

f ' Terminal spike or spikelet with both barren and fertile fl's. 
§ Sterile fl's at the apex of the spikelets. 
I Root creeping. 

5. C. iueurva, Spikelets in a roundish head, with a membranous bract at 
P. G. S.-2. base; stem smooth, compressed, the beak notched on 

one side. — Sea-shore, North of Scotland. 
ti. ('. divisa. Spikelets in an ovate head, sometimes interrupted below, 

P. 5, ti. 3. with a leafy bract at base ; stem roughish at summit ; 

fruit plano-convex, the beak cloven. — Marshes. 
y Root fibrous. 

% Lowest bract much shorter than the inflorescence. 

** Spikelets simple. Stem triangular, with rough 
angles. 

7. C. muricata. Spikelets approximate, in an oblong spike ; fruit ovate, 
P. 6. 16. acuminate, bifid, finely serrate above, divergent; nut 

ovate. — Gravelly pastures. 

8. ('. divuha. Spikelets distant, the upper approidmate; fruit ovate, 
i^ t>. 10. acute, bifid, smooth, ascending; nut ovate-oblong. — 

Shady pastures. 

** Spikelets compound. 

ft Stem acutely triangular, with flat faces. 

9. C. vulpina. Spike cylindrical, crowded ; fruit ovate-acuminate, plano- 
P. 5, 6. 20. convex, bifid, finely serrate above, divergent. — Wet 

places. 
10. C. paniculdta. Spike panicled, with elongated, diverging branches ; fruit 

P. 6. 19. deltoid, gibbous, with a 2- toothed, serrulate, triangular, 

winged beak. — Bogs. 



Car ex.] 



Hypooynous Enoooens. 



[Cypereae. 199 



11. C. paradoxa. 



P. 7. 



E. I.-1. 



ft Stem triangular, with convex faces. 
Spikes narrowly panicled, the lower branches rather distant ; 
fruit ovate, gibbous, with numerous short elevated ribs 
near the base ; beak 2 -toothed, serrulate, not winged. — 
Bogs, near Mulllngar. 
Spikelets ovate, in an oblong, compact spike ; fruit ovate, 
gibbous, with 3 or 4 central ribs on the convex side, 
and a 2-toothed, serrulate, winged beak. 
% Lowest bract as long as or longer than the inflorescence. 
13. C. Basnninghausidntt. Lower spikelets distant, of alternate, secondary spikelets ; 



12. C. teretiuscula' 
P. 7. 



16. 



P. 6. 



14. C. axillaris, 
P. 6. 



15. C. stellulata. 
P. 5, 6. 

16. C. curta. 
P. 6. 



17. C. leporina. 
P. 8. 



18. C. ovdlis. 
P. 7. 



19. C. elongdta. 
P. 6. 

20. C. remota. 
P. 6. 



/3. tenella. 



K-1. fruit as long as glumes, lanceolate, tapering into a nearly 
entire beak, strongly serrated from below the middle ; 
leaves channelled. — Near Hertford. 
Lower spikelets very distant, of crowded, secondary spike- 
5. lets ; fruit longer than glumes, oblong-ovate, tapering, 
bifid and serrated above ; leaves flat — Marshes. 
§ Sterile fl's at the base of the spikelets. 
II Spikelets 3-6, 

% forming a more or less interrupted spike. 
Spikelets 3 or 4, roundish ; fruit spreading, broadly ovate- 
20. acuminate, plano-oonvex, striated, the beak bifid, with 
serrated edges. — Bfarshes. Heaths. ' 
Spikelets elliptica], about 5, slightly distant ; fruit erect, 
15. broadly ovate, acute, plano-convex, faintly striated, 
rough at the edges above, as long as the scales. — ^Bogs. 
% Spikelets forming a dense, continuous head or spike. 
Spikelets 3-4, roundish-elliptica], contiguous ; fruit elliptic, 
S.-1. rather longer than the ovate scales, the beak almost en« 
tire and scarious at the summit, with smooth edges. — 
Loch-na-Grar. 
Spikelets about 6, oval, crowded ; finiit ovate-acuminate, 
19. as long as the lanceolate scales, the beak bifid, with a 

broad, rough, membranous margin. — Bogs. 
y Spikelets more than 6, 

oblong, approximate; bracts very short-pointed; fruit 
E. I.-2. patent, oblong-racuminate, many-ribbed ; beak almost 
entire, with rough edges ; nut linear-oblong. — Marshes. 
Upper spikelets crowded, lower very distant, with nar- 
row bracts longer than infl. ; fruit oblong-ovate, angular, 
bifid at the point, serrated above ; nut dUptical. — Damp 
places, 
spikelets small ; frrat doubly convex. 



21. C. intermedia. 
P. 5, 6. 



i ' Terminal spikelets of fertile fl's alone, as well as the inferior ones. 



22. 



those intermediate barren, all collected into an oblong, in- 
15. terrupted spike; frnit ovate-lanceolate, acutely mar- 
gined, longer than glumes, with serrated edges above ; 

stem triangular ; leaves plane ; root creeping Wet 

meadows. 
i * Terminal spike of barren fl's alone. 

§ Spikelets collected into an interrupted spike. 
C. arenaria. Intermediate spikelets wiUi barren fl's at the summit ; 



P. 6. 



11. lower fertile; frtiit ovate, nerved, winged, and finely 



200 Cyperese.] 



HypoQYNous Endogens. 



[Carex. 



23. C vulffdrit. 
P. 6, 6. 



24. C caspitota. 
P. 5. 



25. C. stricta. 
P. 6. 



2(>. C. acuta. 
P. 6. 



serrate above, shorter than glomes; root creeping. — 
Sands. 
§ Spikes several, distinct 

II Bracts auricled or sheathing at base. 

Spilies erect, sub-sessile, cylindrical; bracts with short 

20. auricles, foliaoeous ; firuit elliptical, plano-oonvex, manv- 

nerved below, with a short, entire, slender beak ; sheaths 

of leaves not webbed ^Biarshes. 

Spikes erect, the fertile spikes sub-sessfle, oblong ; bracts 
? with long auricles, lowest slender, foUaoeoos, rimrt ; fruit 
elliptical, acute, lenticular, not ribbed, rather patent, 
with a short, entire beak ; sheaths of leaves lightly 
webbed. — Marshes. 
Spikes erect, fertile ones sub-sessile, elongate, cylindrical ; 
12. lowest bract foliaceous, short; fruit elliptic-oblong, acute, 
compressed, ribbed ; beak short, entire ; sheaths of 
leaves with a filamentous web. — Marshes. 
Spikes drooping, long, cylindrical, slender, erect in fruit ; 
19. lowest bract long, with elongated auricles ; frnit oblong, 
doubly convex, with a short, entire beak ; sheaths not 
filamentous. — Wet places. 
II Bracts not auricled or sheathing. Lower spike stalked. 
^ Barren spikes slender, acute, 
mostly single ; fertile 1 or 2, ovate, obtuse ; fruit oblong- 
S.-1. ovate, nerved, inflated, narrowed into a short, bifid beak, 
twice as long as the acute glumes — Clova. 
^ Barren spikes short, obtuse, 
rarely 2 ; fertile 1 or 2, roundish, ovate, lower one stalked, 
S.-1. erect; fruit ovate, nerveless, inflated, with a short, 
notched beak, longer than the rather obtuse glumes. — 
Mountains. 
Barren spike 1, fertile, short, oval ; lower bract foliaceous, 
3. shorter than infl. ; fruit elliptical, doubly convex, rib- 
less, with a very short, entire beak ; stem rongh towards 
the summit. — Alpine rocks. 
Barren spike 1 or more ; fertile elongated, narrowed be- 
S.-1. low ; bracts foliaceous, longer than the infl. ; fruit as 
last ; stem smooth. — Clova Mountains, 
f Stigmas 3. 

i Terminal spikelets with both barren and fertile fl's, the rest fertile. 



27. C. Grahami. 
P. 7. 



28. C saxatili*. 
P. 6. 



29. C. ngida. 
P. 6, 7. 



30. C. aquatUis. 
P. 7. 



31. C. Vafdii. 
P. 7, 8. S.-1. 

32. C. canescens. 

P. 7. I.-l. 



33. C. atrata. 

P. 6, 6. 1. 



Spikes roundish or oblong, contiguous ; fruit obovate, tri- 
quetrous, scabrous above, shortly beaked, longer than 
the ovate, acute glumes. — Rocks, Loch CaUater. Clova. 

Spikes oblong, continuous, the lowest shortly stalked, and 
rather distant ; fruit oval, obtuse, trigonous when rq)e, 
2-toothed, rough, shorter than the ovate, cuspidate 
glumes; sheaths of leaves with a filamentous web. — 
Islet in Lough Neagh. 

Spikes ovate-oblong, shortly stalked, at length drooping ; 
fruit rouncUsh-ovate, compressed, with a slightly notched 
beak, broader, but not longer than the acute glumes. — 
Alpine pastures. 



Carez.] 



Htpoothous Exogens. 



[CjpereaB. 201 



34. Q. prafeox. 
P. 4, 5. 



35. C. tomentosa. 
P. 6. 



36. C. montana, 
P. 6. 



37. C. pilulifera. 
P. 6. 



38. C.flava. 
P. 5, 6. 



5. flETderi. 



39. C. exttnsa. 
P. 6. 



E.-1. 



20. 



40. C. capHlarit. 
P. 6. 



41. C. rariflSra. 
P. 6. 



42. C. /tm^Mz. 
P. 6. 



{ Terminal spike with barren fl's alone. 
§ Barren sinke single. 

I All or greater port of the spikes at the apex of the stem. 
^ Fertile s^kes sessQe^ or nearly so with indnded ped. 
•• Fndt downy. 

ft Boot creeping. 
Fertile spikes 1-8, oblcmg, approximate, sessile; bracts 
20. dasiHng, the lowest foliaoeoos, and slightly sheathing ; 
frmt ovate, trigonous, entire at sommit ; glumes broadly 
orate, acuminate. — Dry places. 
Fertile spikes 1 or 2, shortly cylindrical, obtuse, slightly 
E.-1. stalked; lowest bract foliaceous, with a very short 
sheath; glumes broadly ovate, acute; fruit obovate, 
gbboee; beak short, slightly emarginate. — Merston 
Measy, Wilts. 

ft Boot fibrous. 
Fertile spikes 1-3, ovate, sessile; bracts small, membra- 
nous, the bwest with a subulate point ; fruit narrowed 
below, oblong-obovate, trigonous, beak short, notched. 
— ^Tunbridge-wells. 
Stem scabrous, decumbent ; fertile sjnkes about 3, round- 
ish, sessile ; bracts small, sub-foliaceous, not sheathing ; 
glumes broadly ovate, strongly mucronate ; frxdt stalked, 
sub-globose, beak short, bifid. — ^Wet heaths. 
** Fruit firlalm>u8. 
Le.v<.lm>«l, fotOe spikes n>ni>dish-oM latber disUnt, 
20. sub-sessile; sterile <me distinctly stalked; bracts loni^, 
foliaceous, with short sheaths; fruit obovate, inflated, 
s|neadmg, with a more or less deflexed, rough-edged, 
bifid beak. — ^Wet places, 
sterile spike nearly sessile, all dose together ; fruit with a 

short, straight beak. 
Leaves long, narrow, convolute; fertile spikes oblong, dose 
8. together, all sub-sessile; bracts very long, foliaceous; 
fruit ovate, not spreading, triquetrous, striated, with a 
short, straight, smooth-edged, Irifid beak. — ^BCarshes near 
the sea. 

^ Fertile spikes on exserted ped., 
** drooping and ablweviated, 
tt l«x and few-flU 
One of the bracts sbeathing^ and including 2 or more ped. ; 
£. S.-2. fruitoUong, triangular, acuminate, as long as the ovate, 
membranous, obtase glumes; root tufted. — Teesdale. 
Highland Mountains. 
Bracts not sheathing; fruit oblong-obovate, some^diat 
S.-1. acute, striated, nearly terate, shorter than the broad, 
ovate, acuminate glumes; root creeping. — Mountain 
bogs. 

f\ Fertile spikes with densely imbricated fl*s. 
Bracts not sheathing, aorided ; fruit roundish-obovate, com- 
8. pressed, ribbed, with a short, acute beak, as long as the 



202 Cjrperese.] 



Htpootnous Endoobns. 



[Ctrez. 



0. irrigua. 



43. C. diffitdta. 
P. 4, 5. 



44. C. palleteent. 
P. 6. 



K-8. 



16. 



44. C. humilia. 
P. 4, 6. 



E.-2. 



45. C. depauper&ta. 
P. 6. E. S.-2. 



46. C. distant. 
P. 6. 16. 

/3. punctata. 

47. C. binervis. 
P. 6, 7. 11. 



48. C.fulva. 

P. 6. 9. 

/S. speirottachya. 



49. C. panicea. 
P. 6. 



20. 



j3. ph<B08t&chya. 



50. C. Utvigata. 

P. 6. 20. 

51. C. uhigSsa, 

P, 6, 6. 9. 



broadly oval, acute glumes ; karea lou^ at edges ; root 
creeping — Bogs, 
leaves broader, rongh at the edges; firoit shorter than 
glomes, fiuntly ribbed. 
•* Fertile spikes erect, 
and as well as the barren one, linear, lazly-fl'd; brscts 
membranous, sheathing, obliqaely tnmcate, pointletted ; 
fruit obovate, triquetrous, downy, narrowed below, with 
a short, nearty entire beak. — Woods on limestone. 
Fertile spUies ovate ; bracts foliaceous ; fhiit ovate-obkmg, 
doubly convex, obtuse. — Harshes. 
Spikes distant, descending along the stem. Fruit ^- 
brous. 
% Spikes short or erect, 
•• of 8 or 4 fl's., 
concealed in the membranous sheathing bracts ; fimit ob- 
ovate, subtriangular, narrowed below, with an eotire, 
oblique mouth. — Limestone hills. 
Sheaths of leafy bracts much shorter than ped. ; fimit large, 
nearly globose, having a long, bifid beak with rough 
edges. — Dry woods, Surrey. Kent ForfJEU*. 
** Spikes of more numerous fl*8. 

ft Ped. of all but the lowest spikes included, 
or nearly so, in the sheaths of the bracts. 
Fertile spikes oblong; fruit ovate, triquetrous, equally 
ribbed, smooth, with a narrow, short, bifid, rough- 
edged beak ; glumes mucronate. — ^Biarshes. 
upper ped. slightly exserted; glumes awned; fruit pel- 

luddiy punctate, with a smootii beak. 
Fertile spikes cylindrical ; fruit ovate, triquetrous, with 2 
principal, green, sub-marginal ribs on the outer surface ; 
beak smooth, broad, bifid; glumes mucronate. — Dry 
heaths. 

tf Ped. all, or almost all exserted. 
Fertile spikes oblong-ovate; glumes acute; fruit broadly 
ovate, triquetrous, ribbed, with a rough-edged, bifid 
beak ; stem sharply triangular, rough-edged. — Bogs, 
fertile spikes oblong, on longer stalks; beak of fruit 
smoother ; stem bluntly triangular, almost quite smooth. 
Fertile spikes sub-cylindrical, with distant fl*s ; glumes 
rather acute, with a green keel ; fruit ovate-subglobose, 
inflated ; beak short, terate, obliquely truncate. — Bogs, 
fruit with a recurved, obliquely bifid beak ; bracts shelv- 
ing, hardly leafy. 
^ Spikes elongated or drooping. 

** Sheaths more than ^ as long as ped. 

Fertile spikes cylindrical ; barren one triquetrous ; glumes 

acuminate ; fruit ovate, attenuate, striated, with a long, 

bifid beak. — Bogs. 

Fertile spikes slender, filiform, nearly erect ; frtdt obkmg- 

lanceolate, narrowed at both ends, triangular, ribb^ 



Carez.] 



HypooTNous Endogcns. 



[Eriocaulese. 203 



slightly recunred, with an obliquely tnmcate month. — 
Thickets. 
Fertile spikes cylindrical, very long, pendnlons; fmit 
ovate, shortly acuminate, tomid, with a short, trigonous, 
bifid beak. — Damp woods. 

** Sheaths of bracts only ^ as long as ped., or 0. 
Fertile spikes filiform, slender ; bracts foliaoeous, sheath- 
ing ^ the ped. ; glomes ovate, mucronate ; fruit broadly 
ovate, triangular, narrowed into a long, cloven, smooth 
beak. — Moist woods. 
54. C. Paeudo-cypertu, Fertile spikes cylindrical, pendulous ; bracts very leafy, 
P. G. 11. not sheathing; glumes setaceous; fruit oblong, much 

attenuated into a deeply bifid beak. — Damp places. 
§ Barren spikes 2 or more, very rarely single. 
Fruit downy. 



52. C.pendula. 
P. 5. 



53. C. sylvatica, 

P.O. 



15. 



19. 



55. C. glaUca. 
P. 6. 

fi. Michelidna. 
y. ttrictocarpa. 

56. C.filiformis. 
P. 5. 



20. 



9. 



67. C. hirta. 
P. 4. 



20. 



58. C. ampullacea. 
P. 6. 

59. C. vencdria. 
P. 0. 



60. C. paludosa. 
P. 6. 

61. C. riparia. 
P. 6. 



18. 



13. 



16. 



17. 



Barren spike sometimes 1 ; fertfle long-stalked, at length 
drooping, cylindrical; bracts not sheathing; glumes 
ovate, acute; fruit elliptical, obtuse, entire. — ^Wet places. 

glumes obtuse ; fruit smaller, smoothish. 

fertile spikes ovate ; fruit obovate, dotted. 

Barren spikes 2 or more, fertile, distant, remote, nearly 
sessile, erect, oblong-cyUndrical ; bracts foliaceous, long, 
narrow ; sheaths very small ; glumes oblong-ovate, cuspi- 
date ; fhiit with a short, deeply bifid beak ; leaves chan- 
nelled Bogs. 

Barren spikes 2 or more; fertile distant, erect, stalked, 
oblong-cylindrical ; bracte long, foliaceous ; lower sheaths 
nearly as long as ped. ; glumes oval-lanceolate, cuspi- 
date ; fruit narrowing into a deeply divided beak ; leaves 
flat, hairy, rarely glabrous. — Wet pastures. 
Fruit glabrous ; bracts foliaceous, without sheaths. 
f Fruit mflated. 

Fertile spikes cylindrical, long, nearly erect ; glumes lan- 
ceolate; fruit sub-globose, with a long, narrow, bifid 
beak; stem obtusely angled. — Bogs. 

Fertile spikes cylindrical, slightly drooping ; glumes lan- 
ceolate ; fruit broadly ovate, with a subutete, bifid beak ; 
stem sharply angled. — ^Bogs. 
f Fruit not inflated. 

Fertile spikes broadly cylindrical, obtuse ; glumes of the, 
barren spike obtuse; fruit oblong-ovate, compressed, 
acute, striated, bifid at the point. — Ditches. 

Fertile ^nkes cylindrical, acute ; glumes of the barren spike 
acute ; fruit oblong-ovate, doubly convex, narrowed into 
a short, cbven beak. — ^Wet places. 



Obdeb XCIV.— ERIOCAULE^. 



Marsh plants, with narrow, cellular, spongy leaves, sheathing at base. FL dicli- 
nous, bracteate, very minute. Glumes 2, vnilatercd, Anth. 2-eelledL Ov. tuperwr, 
3 or 2-ceUed, turrounded by a membranous tube^ with 2 or 3 teeth or lobes ; ovules 



204 Aroideft.] Htpogtroub Emdoosiis. [Typhi. 

■oliUiy ; tti^moB at wumy as there are eette in ovary. Fruit a 8 or 2-oeDed cap- 
sule, with a loculiddal dehiscence. Seeds solitary, ooveied with rows of hairs ; embr. 
fying on the alb.<, at the end remote from the hihm, 

1. EIriocau'lon. L, Pipe-wort. 

Fl*8 in a compact, scaly head. Barren JTe hi oentre. Perianth 2-6-fid, the inner 
segments united nearly to sunmiit Stam. 4-6. Fertile Jte in the drcumfiBreDoe. 
Ov. surrounded by a deeply 4 -parted mvestment Stigmas 2-8. 

1. £. septangulare. Scapes striated, longer than the oellolar, oompreosed, subs- 
P. 8. I. S.-1. late, glabrous leaves; fl's 4-cleft, hairy at the extremities, 

as well as the scales ; stam. 4 ; capsule 2-odled. — Lakes ; 
Cunnemara. Hebrides. 



Order XCV.— AROIDEiE. 

Herbs or shrubs. FL perfect, and with a 4-6, rarely a 8-parted perianth, or di- 
clinous and naked, arranged upon a spadix^ which is either surrounded by a lai^ge 
spathe, or without one. Stam, very short, Ov. free, 1 or many, 1-8-cellfid, and 1 or 
more seeded ; stig. sessile ; ovules mostly erect. Fruit indehisoent, baccate, or cap- 
sular. Embr. in axis of a fleshy alb.^ with a lateral deftjbr the emission of the 
plumule. 

• Spftdiz enyeloped in a ipatiie. LeaTet with bnnclMd riba. . 1. Aaux. 

• Spadiz naked. Leayea with straight riba. 

t Fl's moncBciooi. 

Spadiz cylindrical. . .9. Ttpra. 

Spadiz with the fl*t In globoet tnftt. . .5. SPAaeAHiUM. 

t Fl*s peHbct. .4. AooBCs. 



Tr. I. AROIDJE. Fl. monoecious. Perianth 0. Spadix surrounded by a 
spathe^ its summit naked. Leaves with branching ribs. Mostly acrid and poisonous. 

1. A'rum. L, Cuckoo-pint Wake-robm. 

Spathe single, convolute at base. Barren fCs : — a number of 2-ceUed, sessile antiL, 
clustered around the middle of the spadiz. Fertile fi^s : — a number of solitary 
pistils, clustered round its base. Berry 1 -celled, many-seeded. 

1. A. maculdtum. Leaves all radical, hastate-sagittate ; spadiz davate, ob- 

P. 4, 5. (p. G.) 19. tuse, shorter than spathe. — ^Hedge banks. 

Tr. n. TYPHAID^. Fl, monoeeious^ surrounded by a setaceous or scale- 
like perianth, Spadix without a spathe. Leaves with parallel ribs. Innocuous. 

2. Ty'pha. L. CatVtaiL Beed-mace. Bull-msh. 

Sterile and fertile spadices cylindrical. Stam. 3 together, united below into 1 fiL, 
surrounded by setae. Ov. at length stalked, surrounded with setae. 

1. T. latifolia. Leaves linear, nearly flat; sterile and fertile spadioee ccm- 

B. 7. (Y. & Br.) 19. tinuous ; perianth setaceous. — Margin of poiuis. 



Lemnar] Hypooynous Endooens. [LemnesB. 205 

2. T. angustifolia. Leaves linear, grooved below ; sterile and fertile spadices a 

P. 6, 6. CY. & Br.) 12. little distant ; perianth scaly— Ponds. 

3. SPARGA'incTM. L. Bur-weed. 

Sterile and fertile spadices globose. Fl's each with a single, 3-leaved perianth. Drupe 
dry, sessile, 1 -seeded. 

1. S. ramosum. Stem branched; leaves triangular at base, with concave 
P. 7. ( — Y.) 20. sides ; stigmas linear. — Ditch-banks, &c 

2. S. simplex. Stem simple ; leaves triangular at base, with flat sides ; 
P. 7. ( — Y.) 20. stigmas linear. — Ditches. 

3. S. nhtans. Stem simple; leaves floating, flat, concave at base; stigma 
P. 7. ( — Y.) 14. ovate, very short — Stagnant water. 

Tr. III. ACORIDJE, Fl perfect^ surrounded hy a perianth. Spadix naked. 
Leaves straight-rihhed, 

4. A'ooRUS. L, Sweet-sedge. 

Spatlie 0. Perianth 6-parted, inferior. Stam. 6. Ov. 3-celled, many-seeded. 
Stigma sessile. Fruit dry. 

1. A. Calamus. I^&fy summit of the flower- stalk rising high above the 

P. 6. f— Y.) E. S.-8. spadix; scape, like the leaves, ensiform, flattened In 

water. 



Obdeb XCVI.— LEMNE^. 

Mostly floating plants, with cellular, lenticular jfronds or leaves, generally destitute 
of spiral vessels, and possessing no remarkable properties. FFs monoecious^ in the 
margins of the fronds, 2 or 3 together^ and destitute of a perianth, but enclosed in a 
spathe, without a spadix, Stam. deflnite. Ov. single^ 1-celled ; stigma simple, 
nearly sessile ; ovules erect. Fruit dry, indehiscent, 1 or more seeded. Embr. mostly 
in axis of fleshy alb.j with a lateral slit far the emission of the plumule^ or at the 
apex of the nucleus. 

1. Lb'mna. L. Duck-weed. 

Spathe 2-fl*d, membranous, urceolate, immediately beneath the margin of frond. Stam. 
2. Fruit utricular. True leaves and stem 0. 

• Roots solitary. 

1. L. trisulca. Fronds thin, pellucid, elliptic-lanceolate, with the caudate 
A. 6. 14. root at one end, serrated at the other, 

2. L. minor. Fronds obovate, compressed, opaque, slightly convex be- 
A. 6, 7. 20. neath. 

3. L. gihha. Fronds obovate, nearly flat above, gibbons and spongy be- 
A. G-8. 10. neath. 

* Roots numerous, clustered. 

4. L. polyrhiza. Fronds roundish-obovate, compressed. Fl's unknown in 
A. 10. Britain. 

These four ipeciee are fouud in itagnant pools. 



'iOf> Aiisrnes.] Hypootnous Enpoobms. [Aotinooarpns. 



Obder XCYTI — AUSMEiE. 

Aquatic liirbs rarely with a milky juice, possessiiig no remarkable qoalitiffi. FL 
rarely diclinous, in racemes or panicles, rarely solitary. Sep, 8, sometimes petaloid. 
Pet. 3. Stam. definite or indefinite. Or. superior, o/3, 6 or more^ distinct, some- 
times united carpels ; ovules solitary, in pairs, or indefinite. Fruit <^ 1 or many 
I)ericarps, 1 or more seeded, dehiscent or indehisoent Alb. 0. £mbr. straight, or 
incurved ; rad. next the hilum. 

• Fl's perfect 

t Or. conioUdated. Stam. 9. . . .1. BoTOMUS. 

t Or. of distinct carpels. Stam 6. 

Carpels 6-8. .2. AcTiiroOARPUS. 

Carpels numerous. . .3. AusM ▲. 

* I- r« monoDcious. Stam. 20. . . .4. Saoittaria. 



Tr. 1. BUTOMIDjE. Placenta parietal, reticulated^ many-seeded. Embr. 
straight or curved. 

1. Bu'tomus. L. Flowering-rush. 

Sej). 3, petaloid. Pet. 3. Stam. 9, 3 interior. Caps. 6, connected below, bursting 
inwards. 

B. itmhellatuit. Leaves linear-subulate, trigonous ; fl. bracteated, in umbels, 

P. G, 7. ( — R.) 15. having a d-leaved spathe at their base. — Ponds, &c. 

Tr. II. ALISMIDjT:. Placenta: sutural, unth 1 or 2 seeds, Embr. solid, 
doubled on itself, 

2. Ali'sma. L. Water-plantam. 

Fl's perfect. Sep. 3. Pet. 3. Stam. 6. Carpels numerous, clustered, 1 -seeded, 
indehiscent. 

* FL -stalks branched. 

1 . A. ranuneuloides. FL umbellate ; caps, acute, arranged in a globose, squarrose 
P. 8, 9. (W.) 18. head; leaves linear^lanceolate. — Bogs. 

jS. repens, with creeping scions ; fl. larger. 

2. A. plantdffo. FL -stalk panicled, with whorled, compound brandies; 
P. 7. (W.) 9. caps, obtusely trigonal, circularly arranged ; leaves orate. 

Ponds, &c. 
(i. lanceolata. leaves lanceolate, attenuated below. 

* Fl.-stalks simple from the joints of the stem. 

3. A. nutans. Stem floating and rooting, leafy ; carpels obliquely acumi- 
P. S, (W.) 2. natc, in a globose head ; leaves oval, obtuse. — Lakes, &c 

8. AcTiKOCA'RPUS. Br. Star-fruit. 
Carpels 6-8, radiating, 2>seeded, sometimes dehiscent, otherwise as Alisma, 

1. A. Damasonium, Stalks with 1-3 whorls of fl's; caps. 6, subulate, oom- 

P. 6, 7. (W.) E.-3 pressed, opening longitudinally; leaves 5-ribbed. 

Pools, &c. 



Potamogeton.] Hypogtnous Endogens, [Juncaginese. '207 

4. Sagitta'ria. L. Arrow-head. 

Fl. monoecious. Sep. 3. Pet 3. Stam. 20 in the barren fl's. Carpels numerous, 
1 -seeded, compressed, on a globose receptacle. 

1. A. SagittifSlia. Leaves sagittate, with lanceolate, straight lobes ; fl. -stalks 
P. 8. (W.) E. I.-12. simple, with whorled fl's In water. 

Order XCVIII JUNCAGINEiE. 

Aquatic or marsh herbs, of no important qualities. Fl. inconspicuous, sometimes 
diclinous. Sep, and pet, small, uniform^ herbaceous j sometimes absent. Stam. 1, 
2, 4, or 6. Anth. usually turned outwards, opening longitudinally. Carpels single, 
or 3, 4, or 6, mostly distinct. Ovules 1-2, erect or pendulous. Fruit diy. Emhr. 
exalb. ; rad. remote from hilum. Plumule large, issuing through a lateral cleft in 
the embr. 

* FI'i perfect. 

t 1 Anth. 2. Carpeli 4, l.ieeded. .4. Ruppia. 



t * Anth. 4. Carpels 4, 1-teeded. 
t > Stun 6. Pet. 8. Sep. 8. 

Anth. Kfliile. . . 

Anth. on slender filaments. 
• Fl*s diclinous, 

concealed in 2 rows in a slit in the leaves. 
Fl. axillary, solitary. 



3. POTAHOOKTON. 

1. TBIOLOCHIir. 

2. SCBKUCHZBRIA. 

6. ZOBTBBA. 

h. ZAIfNICHELLIA. 



1. Triglo'chht. L. Arrow-grass. 

Perianth of 6 concave, deciduous pieces, 3 outer and 3 inner, bearing the sessile, ex- 
trorse anth. Carpels 3-6, l-seeded, separating below from a central axis. 

1. T. pal&stre. Fruit linear, angular, d-celled ; leaves linear, fleshy, 

P. 8. (6.) 20. grooved, all radical ; fl. in a solitary, lax spike 

Marshes. 

1. T. maritimum. Fruit broadly ovate, angular, 6-celled ; leaves and inf). as 

P. 6-8. (6.) 12. last, but plant larger. — Salt marshes. 

2. Soeuohzb'ria. L, 

Perianth of 6 partly united pieces. Anth. on .slender fil. Carpels 3, inflated, 2- 
valved, 1 or 2-8ee(ded. 

S. palustris. Leaves few, alternate, in 2 rows, ^-cylindrical, with a 

P, 7. (G.) £. S.-2. minute pore near apex ; fl. racemose, on a bracteated 

scape. Bogs. 

3. Potamoge'ton. L. Pond-weed. 

Fl's perfect, on a spadix, which issues from a spathe. Perianth of 4 scales ; anth. 
sessile, opposite to them. Pistils 4, becoming 4 hard akenia. 

* Upper leaves floating, 
f all on long stalks, 
1. "P. ndtans. coriaceous, elliptical; lower linear, sub-membranous, or 

P. 6, 7. 20. wanting ; nuts large, rounded on back when fresh, keeled 

when dry. 



208 JuDcaginee.] Hypogtnous Endooens. [ Potamogetoo. 

2. P. itb^ongMi. Upper leaves coriaceons, elliptic-oblong ; lower linear-Ian- 

P. 7. ? ceolate ; nuta minute, always rounded on back. 

.'} P. piantagineuM. Leaves membranous and pellucid ; upper elliptic, often 
/'. G, 7. ? nearly sessile and orbicular; lower oblong; nuts minute, 

rounded on b&ck, keeled when dry. 
t Submersed leaves sessile, or nearly ho, narrowed at both ends. 
X Ped. enlarged upwards ; nuts obtuse on back. 
4. P. heterophyilus. Floating; leaves elliptical, sub-coriaceous, submersed, mem- 
P. «;, 7. 12. branous, denticulate, apiculate. 

X Ped. cylindrical ; leaves lanceolate, entire, not pointed. 

0. P. rvfrtcens. Leaves reddish, submersed, membranous, lanceolate, many- 
P. 7. 10. ribbed, floating, sub-coriaoeous, obovate, shortly stalked; 

nuts acutely keeled. 
*). V. ianteofatvM. Leaves green, submersed, membranous, 5- 7-ribbed, floating, 

P. 7. £. S.-3. sub-coriaceous, elliptic-lanceolate, stalked ; nuts . . . 

. V — Anglesea. 
* Leaves all submersed 

t and opposite ; stipules 0. 
7. P. dittsHi. Leaves clasping, lanceolate, or ovate-acuminate ; spikes 

P. ii. 14. shortly stalked, at length reflexed. 

f Leaves alternate. 

X Stip. adnate to petiole, so as to form a sheath at base. 

1 . P. pectinatus. Leaves linear, setaceous, 1-ribbed ; spikes intermpted ; 
P.l. 17. nuts roundish-obovate, rounded on back, with 2 lateral 

ridges. — Surrey. 
p». Jiliformis. leaves 1-ribbed ; nut without ridges or keels. 

y. zosteraceus. leaves obscurely 3-ribbed ; nut keeled when dry. 

X Stipules free. 

§ Leaves linear ; stem flattened, 

II with 3 principal ribs, and numerous, close, parallel, trans- 
verse ones. 
<♦. P. zoMter<ffoliuM. Spikes 10-16-fl'd, cylindrical, on long ped. ; nuts obovate, 
P,(i. E. S.-2. keeled ; style terminal. — ^Yorkshire. For&r. 

1 0. P. acutifoKus. Spikes 4-6-fl'd, ovate, equalling the ped. ; nuts reniform, 
p. (J. E.-1. acutely keeled ; style continuous with the inner edge. — 

Sussex. 
II Leaves 3-5-ribbcd, with a few obscure, connecting ones. 

11. P. gramxneus. Spikes ovate, dense, continuous, about equal to the short 
p. 6, 7. E.-9. ped. ; nut obovate, keeled. 

12. F. puhillus. Spikes not interrupted, much shorter than ped. ; nut ob- 
p. 0. 1 7. liquely elliptical, obtusely keeled. 

/3. compressus. leaves broader, 5-ribbed ; spikes interrupted. 

§ Leaves lanceolate, or broader. 

II Leaves stalked, elliptic-lanceolate, denticulate, mncronate, 

1 3. P. lucena. with many opposite pairs of parallel, secondary ribs, oon- 
p, 6. 16. nected by reticulations; spikes cylindrical, nuiny-fl'd. 

II Leaves sessile, or nearly so, pellndd, 

f and serrulated; ped. cylindrical; nuts keeled when 
dry. 

14. P. crisput, ^ Stem compressed ; leaves linear-oblong, obtuse, wavy ; nuts 
P. 6. 20. beaked. 

/3. serr&tum, leaves plane, serrulate. 



Zostera.] Htpogtnous Endogens. [Juncagineae. 209 

15. P. perfolidtus. Stem round ; leaves cordate-ovate, clasping, serrulate, plane ; 
P' 7. 18. nuts not beaked. 

% Leaves entire. 

1 6. P. pralongus. Peid. elongated, cylindrical, many-fl'd ; leaves oblong, ob- 
P. 6. E. S.-2. tuse, clasping, hooded at end ; stip. not winged. 

17. P. longifoKus. Ped. elongated, davate; leaves elongate, lanceolate, apicu- 
P. 8. K I.-1. late, attenuated at base, not hooded at end ; stip. winged. 

— Rjrdal Water, Westmoreland. Lough Corrib, Galway. 

4. Ru'ppiA. L, 

¥Vs 2, perfect, on a spadix, in the sheathing bases of the leaves. Perianth 0. Auth. 
2, the cells widely separated, on short, s(»le-like fil- Carpels 4, 1 -seeded. 

1. R. marth'ma. Leaves linear, with large, inflated sheaths; anth. large, 
P. 7, 8. C. sessile, with 1 oblong cell bursting transversely. — Salt 

marshes. 

2. R. rostelldta. Leaves filiform, with small, close sheaths ; anth. sessile, 
P. 7, 8. 9. the cells nearly round. — Salt marshes. 

5. Zakniche'lua. L. Homed pond-weed. 

Fl's solitary, monoecious, in a spathe. Barren fis : — Stam. 1, naked. Fertile JVs : — 
pistils 2-6, in a campanulate perianth, each 1 -seeded, stalked in fruit; pollen glo- 
uose. 

1. Z. palastris. Stem filiform ; leaves opposite, linear ; fl. sessile, axillar}-, 

P. 7, 8. 16. in a membranous bract ; stigma entire. — Stagnant water. 

fi. peduncul&ta. cluster of fruit stalked. 

y. dentata, stigma notched. 

6. Zostet'ra. L. Grass-wrack. 

Fl*s mon-or dioecious, arranged as sessile, naked anth., in 2 rows within a linear, 
leafy spathe. Pistils single, simple, 1 -seeded, with a cleft style. Pollen filamen- 
tous, confServoid. 

1. Z. marxtia. Leaves obscurely d-ribbed, sheathing, and enclosing the 

P. 8, 9. 10. fl*s at base; stem slightly compressed — Salt water. 



T 2 



210 FiliccaD.] AcaoGBNt. 



Plants destitute of both caljx aud corolla, and without either stamens or pistils. 

ACBOOXNS. 

Flowkrless plants, having a distinct axb of growth, furnished with leaves ; the 
stem, when much developed, increasing in length merely, by the extension of the 
growing point at its summit. 

Ordeb XCIX FILICEiE. 

l^icafy, perennial plants, often rhizomatous, composed of vascular as well as ceUular 
tissue, possessing mucilaginous, astringent, or aromatic properties. Fructification of 
one kindf consisting ofcapsules^ or seed -covers, which, under the microscope, may 
1m.> generally seen to be furnished each with an articulated^ elcuHc ring. These 
capsules are spiked, or generally collected into clusters of various shapes, — aori, — 
mostly on the hack or margin of the frond or leaf, naked or covered by a membrane 
called the indusium. Seeds or sporules minute. 

* Capsule* ipiked or clattered at the apex, on a leparate branch of 

the frond, without an articulated elastic ring, 
t Stem hard, woody, solid. .... 16. Oshuhda. 
t Stem succulent, hollow, diyiding into a flrond and spike. 

Capsules in a single spike. . . .18. Ophioolossdm. 

Capsules in a compound spike. . . 17. Botbtcbicm. 

* Capsules neither spiked, clustered at the apex, nor on a separate 

branch of the Arond, having an articulated, elastic ring, 
t Caps, seated on the margin of the Arond, attached in in- 
dusia. 
Rib of indusium prolonged in an exserted awn. . 14. Tbichom akbs. 

Rib not longer than the indusium. . .15. Hymbh ophyllvx. 

t Caps, seated on the l>ack of the Arond, not In indusia. 

X Back of frond covered with brown scales concealing the > . n»«»B » «« 

son* • • • • ■ ^ 

X Back of frond not covered with brown scales, 

§ without an indusium. .2. Foltpodiom. 

\ With an indusium, 

D distinct from the margin of the frond. 
^ Sori elongate. 

e«ai«>ruj^««tedon2.epar«te,dirtinct| 9. scolopbndbiuh. 

each sorus not so seated. 

SoriparaUelto,and close to mid- J ,2. Blechium. 

Sori not parallel to midrib. 

Sori straight. . 7. AsPLBiricx. 

Sori cresoentic 8. Athtbux. 



Woodsia.] Acrogeks. [Filiceae. 211 

f Sori not elongate, circular, or nearly lo. 

Indasinm inferior; margin cleft into) , -nr »/«»•*« 

many, often capillary segments,! * "«od8ia. 
Indnsinm superior. 

orfoicular, peltate, . 4. ASPIDIUM. 

renlform, fixed at the sinus, 5. Lastbba. 

oyate, cucullate. . 6. Ctstoptsbib. 

g Indufium not distinct from margin of fhe 
flrond. 
^ Sori continuously marginal. . . 10. Ptbbxs. 

Y Sori not continuously marginaL 

^^ ^!^! !*™ l«^«"dinrily I ,j CBYPTOOBAliMA. 



Margins of fertile pinn« not longitudl- \ , - * «, . «-„«« 
nally reflexed. . ./*'*• adiahium. 



Tr. I. POLVPODIDJE. Capstdes dorsal or marginal, with an elastic ring^ 
opening transversely and irregularly. 

1. Ce'terach. WUld, Ceterach. 

Sori obloDg or linear, straight, scattered, covered, as well as the whole of the back 
of the frond, with chafiy scales. Indusium obsolete. 

C. officinarum. Frond pinnatifid or pinnate ; segments ovate, obtuse, alter- 

4-10. (3-6.) (a) 7. nate. — Rocks and walls. 

2. PoLTPODiuM. L. Polypody. 
Sori drcnlar. Indnsiam absent. 

* Stipes 3-branched, deep green. 

f Frond and rachis pubescent. 

1. P. calcareum. Branches bi-pinnate, erect, rather rigid ; segments obtuse, 
7. (6-8.) £. 3. somewhat crenated ; sori crowded, marginal, and finally 

confluent ; stipes 6-8 inches high.— Stony places, 
f Frond and rachis not pubescent. 

2. P. Dryopteris. Fronds bi-pinnate, spreading, deflexed ; segments obtuse, 
7. (6-8.) 9. subcrenated. — Shady, mountainous places. 

* Stipes not 3-branched. 

t The 2 lower pinns deflexed ; ribs hirsute. 

3. P. Phegopteris. Fronds triangular, bi-pinnatifid ; segments linear-lanceolate, 
7-9. (6-10.) 7. obtuse, ciliated ; sori marginaL-— Shady, rocky places. 

t The 2 lower pinnsB not deflexed ; ribs smooth. 

4. P. wlgdre. Fronds pinnatifid or pinnate ; s^ments linear-laneeolate, 
8-10. (6-12.) 20. obtuse, more or less serrated.-r-Bocks and walls. 

/3. cambricum. pinnae interrupted^ pinnatifid. 

y. serratum. pinns serrated, deeply serrated or crenated. 

3. Woo'dsia. Br. Woodsia. 

Sori circular, scattered, having an indusium beneath, which is divided at the edge into 
many (often capillaiy) segments. 

(a) TlM flgores in tlM brackeCa indicate tinb length of tiw firond in indict. 



i.i : uctam. , ^rirtfciiBfc [Lasterci. 



i. Ji fr f m r t iu . liauuB MiamL. 'wiA ■■* ikaMam Intwrn Gljibi Fcwt. 




4. AiPl 

"uor. «3iaaRfL f-nfawnm ir^inilar. 



r -i-ll, }. «mG£ : jiwv^ oBS iiifiriHT, — ^toc thuu alpine rodLa. 

" Fr^mi* 21- ginnaa* 

z. X. bnufrxnoK. P*nnalis i^icd. <«Miinf». ■' ' ' n or axHtatcv aaxided 

r :i-f4. 13. tt ?am m du ippcr jUe ; tibe one next the main ndus 

Lircs than die rsst. the mbsb «Rated and ifnnikK: 
«i2«i jmi rxhm maj cfcaflV. — Woods and heiige- 



J j><4«ir«jB. rmhii} oorrrvgr : pmnoKS oeciuieuL roiw » ^ ; anride not 

io iccomc harvu^ a dinmct tMCh at the base, besiii^ 
X xnax ipiiK : ribs hairj fc»««**rf» 
y. :.mcMit.)40iti. poQue nsfiR or leaf eombined. man ti^^^^M f ; neartr aDied 

to :h« iinaer species. 
"^ PznizLes :hm. aKmbna.HXdw pUae. dxadnctir prtinkri 
.1. A. ^MgmLJrr. Froois bcrwilT Kszkceoiase : i»— "W orate. *»i*J»wi«*» ob- 

7. 12-^4., I->. erne, xriscafie. dKCDcthr anrided at Iwae ; lowv ones 

<:Ain 'iwp^ pamjtiai: stipes and ncfak Tcrjcfaafiy. 
EUiit green: frockik more or less carred.— Woods and 
h«dg«-faaiikA. 

5. LAarnTA. /Veal. ShieU-ienL 

>>f\ cirLuLir. scattered. Ic'insiim ortacalar- nailiunu , sttarhed at the maiginal 
noich. 

* Frrjods pinnate. Son not seated close to mid-rib; 

t Plmue lanceolate, or linear-LancetJate. Son at length, eonflncDt. 

X The 2 or 3 pairs of lower pimw vcnr short, nsaiiy tiMBgnUr ; son 



1. L. vr^jpteris. FSmue laneec^ate, pomatifid, not comrohitc^ ^andnlous; 
7, 8. (20-40.) 17. segments lanreiolstey obtme, when drawn thioogh the 

hand, emitting a strong odoor. — MoantnnooB places. 
X The 2 or 3 pairs of lower pinme not shmt, lanceolate. 

2. I^ ThtlypierU. Pinnae linear-lanceolate, cooTulnte; segments ovate, entire; 

7, 8. (6-20.) ? rachis pubescent, light green. — ^Hanfay pb^es, KiDaniey. 

t An the pinnaB cordate-attennate, deeply pinnatifid, waataStj aoRated. Son 
Urge. 

3. L. crist/Ua. Frond erect, stipes long ; pinnae distant ; segments oUoog, 

8. (20-40.) E.-5. orate, obtose. — Boggy heaths. 
* Frr/nda bi-pinnate. 

t Segments toothed, either not spinoloee, or fironds haying the son huge, pro- 
minent, seated close to mid-rib ; indusiam persistent. 



Aspleniam.] Aceogens. [Filicete. 213 

t Lower piniue graduafly diminishecL 

4. L. FUix-Mas. Pinnules oblong, roonded, sometimes combined at base, 

6.7. (30-40.) 20. serrated ; stipes very chafiy. — Woods and shady banks. 

X Lower pinns not gradually diminished ; pinnales somewhat stalked. 

5. L. riffida. Fronds lanceolate ; pinnules crowded, nearly [Hnnatifid ; 

7.8. (12-24.) £.1. indusiom fringed, odorous, glaucous. — Canal, Lancashire, 
t Segments toothed, spinulose ; frond sub-tripinnate ; sides of frond nearly pa- 
rallel, often linear, erect ; stipes long. 

t Scales on stem uniformly coloured ; indusium not glanduloos. 

6. L. spinoscu Fronds plane ; segments convolute. — llarshy places, not un- 
7 8, (40-50.) ? common in L^land. 

X Scales on stem ovate-lanceolate ; indufflum glandulous ; frond gene- 
rally triangular. 

7. L. dihudta. Pinnules oblong, distinct, dai^ green Moist woods, 

7, 8. <40-50.) 17. abundant 

fi. recurva, lowest pinnse large ; seg. curved in an opposite directi<»i 

to pinnae. 

y. concava. jfrond shorter, concave, as also every pinna and pinnole. 

y 7 frond of a light green colour, much broader and spread- 

ing. 



6. CiSTcypTEBis. Bern, Bladder-fern. 

Son circular. Indusium inserted by its cucullate base at the underade of the soros, 
opening by a lengthened, fringed, free extremity, which points towards the apex 
of the frond. 

* Fronds tri-pinnate, pinnatifid, 

t triangular. 

1. C. montana. The lower pinnae, pinnules, and segments larger ; first pair 
7. (^"^O ^* 1* of pinnse opposite. — Found on Ben Lawers, Scotland. 

t Frond lanceohite, not triangular ; pinnse triangular, finely divided. 

2. C. alptna. Pinnae confluent, smooth, bright green. — ^Walls, Layton, 
7. (4-10.) E.1. Essex. 

* Fronds bi-pinnate. 

3. C. fragUis. Pinnae ovate-lanceolate, deeply pinnatifid ; rachis winged. — 
7. (3-12.) 11. Rocks and walls. 

^. auguMtateu pinnae oblong-ovate, or linear, never loonded or ovate ; of 

a more pliant texture than fragili*. 
y. dentata, segments rounded, pointlesSi, — Ben More. 



7. Abfle'nium. L. Spleen-wort 

Son linear. Indusium linear, its attachment straight, opening on one side longita- 
dinaUy towards mid-rib. 

* Fronds i^iparently without a mid-rib ; the petioles gradually expanding into 
pinnae or pinnules. 
1. A. septetUrionale. Fronds simply partite ; segments linear, acutely toothed 
6-10. (2-4.) E. a 1. at the extremity. — Bocks, Azthnr's seat, Edinborgfa. 



214 Filices.] Aceogens. [Pteris. 

2. A. Ruta-tnuraria. Fronds bi-pinnate, obovate-caneate, oenate ; pimue moB% 
6-10. (3-5.) 20. alternate; indusiiim jagged ; radiis nearly black; loto 

dark green Walls and rocks. 

&. altemifilium, fVonds pinnate ; pinn» alternate, coneate, tootbed. 

* MUl-rib apparent. 

t Fronds pinnate. 

X Rachis distinctly winged. 

3. A. marinum. Fronds oblong-linear ; pinnae obttue, serrate ; superior base 
6-10. (3-9.) 9. slightly aorided. — Rocks on sea-coast. 

X Rachis not winged, 

4. A. TrichSmanes. black, fronds linear; pinns sub-rotund, obtuse, stalked, 
5-10. (3-6.) 19. crenate ; ribs forked below sori, dark green. — Rocks. 

5. A. mride. Rachis green, fronds linear; pinnae roundish-deltoid, cre- 
6-10. (4-6.) 4. nate ; ribs forked above sori, light green. — ^M<nst rocks. 

t Fronds bi-pinnate, 

X first pair of pinnae longest ; sori elongate, centraL 

6. A. ^eftan/vm nt^mim. Fronds triangular, tri-pinnate below; pinnae triangular, 
6-9. (6-8.) 20. alternate; pinnules indso-serrate ; stipes winged, pur- 
plish black, dark green. — Banks and fissures of ro^s. 

X First pair of pinnae not longest ; sori short, nearly marginal. 

7. A. lanceoldtum. Frond lanceolate; pinnae and pinnules obovate, sharply 
9. (3-6.) E.-1. toothed at apex ; rachis green, bright green. — On hfgfa 

rocks near Tunbrige Wells. 

8. Athy'rium. D. C. Athyrium. 

Sori oblong, reniform. Indusium crescent-shaped, opening towards mid-rib, free, its 
margin cut into capillary segments. 

* Pinnae and pinnules decurrent. 

1. Ath. mSlle, Frond ovate-lanceolate, bi-pinnate; lower pair of piniue 
6, 7. (18-36.) short, deltoid, deflexed; pinnules flat, toothed, bright 

green. — Bogs. 

* Pinnae not decurrent. 

f Pinnules not convolute ; stem swollen at base. 

2. Ath. Filix-fa'mina. Fronds lanceolate, bi-pinnate; pinnules linear-oblong, dis- 
6, 7. (12-48.) 19. tinct, deeply serrated, or pinnatifid. — Moist places. 

^. vimpara, the extremities of all the pinnae tasseled. 

t Pinnules convolute, linear, narrow. 

3. Ath. rho^ticum. Fronds linear, bi-pinnate ; pinnae and pinnules distant ; 

E. 1. margins notched, yellowish green. — ^Trevenna, Cornwall 

9. Scolope/itdbiitm. Sm. HartVtongue. 

Sori linear, transverse, on lateral ribs. Indusium doable, occupying both sides of 
the sorus, opening, as it were, by a longitudinal suture. 

S. vulgare. Fronds simple, oblong-ligulate, with a cordate base. — 

7,8. (12-24.) 19. Shady banks. 

10. Pte'bis. L, Brake. 

Sori continuous, linear, marginaL Indusium formed of the reflexed maigin of the 
jfrond. 



Hymenophyllum.] Acbogens. [Filicese. 215 

P. aquUina, Fronds tri-partite ; branches bi-pinnate; pinnules pin- 

7. (12-60.) 20. natifid below; segments oblong, obtuse Woods and 

heaths. 

11. Ckyptogra'mma. Br. Rock-brake. 

Sori at length confluent and marginal. ludusium formed by the revolute margins 
of the pinnules. 

C. crispa. Fronds triangular; pinnae and pinnules alternate; fertile 

7. (6-12.) 3. fronds bi-pinnate, tri-pinnate below; pinnules linear- 

oblong, or rather obtuse, entire, slender, very brittle, 
bright green. — Stony places in mountainous coun- 
tries. 

12. Bl£'chium. L, Hard-fern. 

Sori linear, longitudinal, contiguous, parallel on each side of the mid-rib. Indusium 
continuous, opening interiorly. 

B. boreale. Sterile fronds pinnatifid ; segments lanceolate, rather obtuse ; 

7. (8-16.) 20. fertile fronds pinnate ; pinnee linear, acuminate — Woods 

and heaths. 

13. Adia'ntum. L. Maiden-hair. 

Sori oblong or roundish. Indusium membranaceous, arising from the reflexed por- 
tions of the margin of the frond. 

A. Capillus Veneris. Frond bi-pinnate ; pinnae alternate ; pinnules thin, leafy, 
5-9. (6-12.) 1. obovate-cuneate, alternate, on black, capillary petioles ; 

sterile pinnules sharply serrated ; light green. — Fissures 
in damp rocks. 

14. Tbicho'manbs. L, Bristle-fern. 

Sori marginal. Capsules upon an elongated receptacle, within a cylindrical or sub- 
urceolate, monophyllous indusium, of the same texture as the frond, opening 
above. 

T. spec'wsum. Fronds tri-pinnatifid ; lobes linear, entire, or bifid; in- 

10. (4-8.) I — 1. volueres solitary, in axils of upper seg., dark green, 

glabrous. — Wet rocks. Turk Waterfall, Killamey. 
/3. Andrewsii. fronds lanceolate; stipes long; receptacle 5 or 6 times 

longer than the involucre. — Gouin Carach, Kerry. 

15. Hymksophy'llum. Sm. Filmy-fern. 

Sori marginaL Capsules upon a narrow receptacle, within a 2 -vulved indusium 
which is of the same texture as the frond, opening above. 

* Pinnae not recurved; involucre orbicular, compre8se<l, spinnlose serrate, light 

green. 
1. H. Tunbridffefue. Fronds pinnate; pinnae distichous, vertical; seg. linear* 
7. (1-3.) 10.? rachis broadly winged ; not rare Damp, shady rocks. 



216 llartiliee.] AcftocEsrs. [Pilolam. 

# 

* Pimue l e cuiied ; inrolacre ormte, inflatfd, entire, dnk green* 
2. H. WihomL Froodfl pinnAte; segments finear, when in froit the leafy 

7. (1-3.) 10.? expansions torn in one direction, the fhut in the oppo- 
site ; not rare. — Damp, shadj nx^a. , 

Tr. II. OSMUSDID^E, CapsnUt spiked or duttered, reymlea-fy 2'Valved, 
without a ring. 

16. Osxu'xDA. L. Flowering-fern. 

Capsules sub-globose, pedioellated, clustered, striated, half 2-yalyed. Indosinm none. 

O. regalia. Fronds bi-pinnate ; pinnules oblong, nearly entire and ses- 

7-9. (30-70.) 14. sile; lower ones slightly aurickd. — Watery meadows, 

near lakes. 

17. Botrt'chium. Sm. Moon-worL 

Capaoks sub-globose, sessile, clustered at the margin, on one side of a pinnated 
rachis, 1-cvUed, 2-valved, compressed, opening transversdy. Indnaiom none. 

B. Lnmaria. Frond pinnate, solitary; lobes fon-shaped, crenate; cap- 

7. (2-6.) 16. snles smooth, dull, yellowish green. — Pastores. 

18. OPHiooLo'ssuac L. Adder's-tongne. 

Capsules 1 -celled, 2-valved, opening transyersely, connate, forming a compact, 2- 
ranked spike. Indusium none. 

0. vulgatum. Spike cauline ; frond entire, ovate, obtuse; Gapauks smooth. 
6. (4-8.) 18. —Moist pastures. 

Obdeb C — MAKSILIEiE. 

Stemless creq>ing or floating plants, with erect leaves, having a drdnate vonatioa. 
Fructi/ictxtioH of two kinds^ enclosed in a capstde-like invol., with B or ^ cells; the 
one clustered and stalked, or crowded confiisedly without stalks ; the other simple, 
oval bodies, with a terminal nipple, whence germination proceeds. 

Inrol's. 1 -celled in the bMe of the leayes. . . . 1. Isobtks. 

InTol's. 4-eeUed, axUUry. . . .2. Pilularia. 

1. Isoe'tes. L, Quill-wort. 

In vol's, not opening, formed by the swollen base of the leaves, 1 -celled. Sporules m- 
serted upon many filiform receptacles. 

1. J. lacustris. Leaves subulate, bluntly 4-angular, of 4 longitudinal, in- 
■P. 2. temally jointed tubes; rhizome blunt, tnl^rous. Bot- 
toms of Mountain lakes. " 

fi. filiformis, densely tufted, with erect, slender leaves. 

2. Pilula'bia. L, Pill-wort 

Invol's opening, solitary, nearly sessile, globose, coriaceous, 4-celled, each cell con- 
taining 2 kinds of bodies, — granules, or membranes containing muricate grains. 



Lycopodium.] Acrogens. [Lycopodiea. 217 

P. fflobulifera. Rhizome elongated, entangled ; leaves very slender, erect, 

P. 12. bearing the nearly sessUe, hairy invol's. in their axilUe. 

— Margins of lakes. 



Order CI LYCPODIE^. 

Moss-like plants, with creeping stems, and imbricated leaves, or stemless, with erect, 
subulate leaves, possessing highly irritant and cathartic properties. Fructifica- 
tion of 1- S-celled, axillary^ sessile^ spore cases^ either bursting in distinct valves, or 
indehiscent, tome including a fine powder^ other* reproductive granule*, 

1. Lycopo'dium. L. Club-moss. 

Caps. 1 -celled ; some 2-valved, includmg a fine powder ; others d-valved, containing 
1-4 granules. 

* Leaves scattered irregularly. 

f Spikes 2 or 3 together, stalked, 
1* L. clavdtum. cylindrical, with ovate-triangular, eroso-dentate scales; 

P. 7, 8. 15. leaves scattered, incurved, hair-pointed; branches as- 

cending — Mountain heaths, 
f Spikes solitary, terminal, sessile, 

2. L. annotinum. oblong-cylindrical ; scales roundish, with an attenuated 
P. 8. E. S.- 1. point ; leaves lanceolate, mucronate, serrulate ; caps, all 

with powder. — Mountains. 

3. L. inunddtum. Si»kes with leafy scales; leaves linear, acute, curving up- 
P' 8, 9. 10. wards ; caps, all with powder. — Moist heaths. 

4. L. aelaginoides. Spikes leafy, on short, erect branches ; leaves lanceolate, 
■P. 8, 9. ciliated ; some caps, with powder, some with granules. — 

Mountain bogs. 

* Leaves arranged in 4 or 8 rows along the stem. 

5. L. alpinum. Leaves in 4 rows, oblong, convex, acute, keeled, entire ; 
P. 8. 7, spikes sessile, terminal, solitary, short, cylindrical, with 

ovate-lanceolate, flat scales. — High mountains. 

6. L. Seldgo, Jjcaves in 8 rows, crowded, linear-lanceolate, acuminate ; 
p. 6-8. 14. caps, not in spikes, but in the axilLee of tl^e common 

leaves. — Mountain heaths. 



ADDENDA. 



SPECIEB LATELY DISCOVERED IN BRITAIN, NOT INCLUDED IN THE FOREGOING. 

Order I ASTEREufi. 

Carduus setotus {Beib.) not the plant before described, which ia Cirsium 9etontm 
(D. C). It is mentioned by Mr. Babington as a variety of Carduug arreMu, 
dififering in its lanceolate, flat, entire, or slightly lobed leaves. — Culross, Scotland. 

Carduus oleraceus ( Vill,), Cirtium, (^Alb.\ Cnieus (X.). Leaves not decorrcnt, 
oordate, clasping, spinosely-ciliated, glabroos, pinnatifid below, ovate, acate at the 
summit, the floral ones surrounding and overtopping the sub-sessile, sub-a^r^ate 
heads; bracts of in voL linear -lanceolate, almost unarmed. — Isle of Wight, Lincoln- 
shire. 

Filago apiculata (G. E, Smith). Stem, flexuose; leaves spathulate, all i^cu- 
late, pale-green, smelling like tansey ; heads of 10-20 fl's scattered on the branches ; 
bracts purple, with a strong, spinous point ; seeds with few elevations. — Borders of 
fields, near Doncaster. 

Achillea tanacetifolia (^AIL), Stem-leaves with an oblong outline, bi-pinna^d, 
woolly, or nearly glabrous ; rachis winged, serrate ; pimue, pinnules, and teeth of 
the rachis inciso-serrate ; corymb dense ; rays about ^ as long as invoL (Bab.). — 
Near Sheffield. Cromford Moor, Derbyshire. 

Order XIX.— ROSEiE. 

Agrimonia odorata (^AU.), CaL of fruit campanulate, furrowed on the upper half; 
outer spines reflexed ; leaves interruptedly pinnate, hairy, with minute glands be- 
neath (Bab.). — Beaumont, Jersey. 

Order LIV.--OROBANCHEiE. 

Orobanche amathyHtea (^ThuiW), Sep. bifid, many-nerved; cor. tubular, curved 
immediately from the base, and subsequently straight ; lips unequally toothed, undu- 
late, with branching veins ; upper lip hooded, emarginate, with a curved border ; 
stam. inserted near the base of cor., glabrous externally, but hairy at the base with- 
in ; stigma with 2 divaricating lobes. — On Daucua maritimus ; White-sand Bay, 
Cornwall. 



ADDENDA. 219 



Obdeb LXXXY IBIDEiE. 

SiSTBiHCinuM. Toum, 

Spathe 2-leay6d. Pet 6-clefty snperior ; segments nearly equal, potent Stig- 
mas 3, filiform, involute. FiL connate below. Caps. 3-oelled, S-yalved* 

1. S. Anceps, Stem broad, fiat, winged ; or. glabrous ; spathe about 4-fl*d ; seg- 
ments of perianth emarginate, mucronate. — Woodford, near Galway. 

MMt unlikely to be ft tutiref thoni^ ite eppeenmce in the abore loeelity eeaaot be eeoonnted for 
Mtiffbetorilj. 

Order CXIL— GRAHINEiE. 

Leersia. Sol. 

Spikelets fiat, compressed, l-fl*d. Pakte 2, compressed, keeled, awnkss; lower 
much broader. 

1. L. oryziMeM. Panide patent, with wavy branches, but mostly enclosed in 
uppermost sheath oflonves; qnkelets 3, ^-oval; inyol. dilated; glumes 0. — ^Near 
Henfield, Sussex. 



INDEX. 



[ Theftguret prefixed to the specific names' correspond with those in the body qfthe work. The 
Synonyms are printed in iteUics. Where the Generic name is/oUoteed by a word qf three tetters^ the 
Oenus thus commencing is referred to for corresponding Synonyms. The figures ttfter the ntames f^f 
species indicate the volume and plate in Sowerby^s English Botany. In some cases, other iUustroHons 
are referred to^ as R. Reiehenbach^s Icones. Plant.^ and Icones. FL German, or others morefitUy 
named.^ 



Faob. 
Arblb-trbb = Fopulni, 1. 
Abama ossifiraga. D. C. = Narthecinm, I . 
AoerM. 166 

1. anthropophor*. Br. 1-39. 

AC6T. • • • • I* 

1. campestre. L. 5-304. 

S. Pseado-pUtanna. L. 5-303. 
AOBRIRBS. .. ib. 

Achyrophorus. D. C. = HypoduBria, 1-9. 
Achillsa. .. .. .. ..21 

1. MiUefolium. L. 11 758. 
3 Ptannica. L. 11-757. 

4. lerrata. ReU.1 36-2531. 

tanacetifolia. All. .. ..118 

2. tomenton. L. 36-2532. 
Achnodon. Trin. = Fhlenm, 5. 
Acinos = Calamintha, 3 

Aconituni. .. .. 97 

I. Napellai. L. 38-2730. 

I. vulgare, De G. 
Aooms. .. •. 205 

I. Calamua. L. 5-356. 
Actea. 98 

1. tpicata. L. 13-918. 
Aerostichium. L. 

Ilvense := Woodsia. 
septentrionale. Aspleninm, 1. 
Actinocarpot. .. .. 206 

1. Damaaoninm. Br. 23-1615. 
Adder'a-tongue. .. .. ..216 

Adiantum. .. .. .. .. 215 

CapiUoi yenerli. L. 5-320. 
Adonia. .. .. ..95 

1. autamnalif. L. 5-308. 

1. astivalis. With. 
Adozo. .. .. .. 39 

moMhetellina. L. 7-463. 
.fgopodium, .. 38 



Page. 



1. Podagraria. L. 14-940. 
jEgilops. L. = BottbdUia, 1. 

^thUMU 

^.1. Cynapium. L. 17-1192. 

meum. L- :=: Memn. 
Agraphis v. Hya. Sci. 

1. nutans. Link. 6-377. 
Agrimonia. .. .. . 

Enpatoria. L. 19-1335 

odorata. Ait. 
Agrimony. . • ... 

^gropyrum, Beav. ^ Tiitieom, 3* 4, 5, 6. 
Agrostemma. L. =: Lychnia, 3. 
Agrofltis o. Am. 

2. alba. L. 17-1189. 

1. atpina. With. 

austreUis. L. = Gaitridiom, 1. 

3. /S. ariitata. 

4. canina. L. et With., 26-1856. 
3. hispida. WiUd. 

littoraUs. Sm. = Polypogon, 1. 
minima. I*. = KnM>pia. 

2. mutabilis. Knapp. 

2. y. palnitrlf. SineL 
panieea. Ait. = Polypogon, 1. 

3. polymorpha. Hnda. 

3. 7. pumila. L. 

rtUtra. Hndt. ^ Oaatrldiom, 1. 

1. Ktacea. Curt. 17-1188. 

Spica-ventu L. = Anemagroatii, 1. 

2. fi, ftolonifera. L, 22- 1532. 

4. strieta. Bind. 

4. tenuijblia. Curt. 

triaristata. Kui^p. ^ Polypogon, 1. 

ventricosa. Gooan = Gaatridium, I . 
4, vinealis. With. 

3. migarif. WUh, 34-1671. 

^LlTft* M^» •• •• •• 

L 2 



36 



173 
53 

118 
53 



184 



190 



2'2'2 



INDEX < 



146 

32 '■ 
128 j 

86 I 
206 



Paob. 
&. alplna. L, 

aquatisa, L. = Catnbrota, 1. 

6. cMpitoM. L. 21 -ma. 

1. eannceni. L. 17-1190. 
eerruUa, L. =s MolinU, 1 . 

3. caryophjrilmu L. 12-812. 
cristatOt Li. ^ Koeleria, 1 . 

2. flezoota. L. 22-1519. 
&. Itrvigata, Sm. 

2. mtmtana. Hudt. 

4. pnscox. L. 18-1296. 
AirockUm. Link =■ Koeleria, 1. 

AJufa. •• •* •• 131 

2. alplna. L. 7-477. 

1. Chamapitjn. Sm. 2-77. 

2. geneveruu. With. 

4. pyramldalif. L. 18-1270. 

3. reptans. L 7-489. 

Alchemilla. .. .. .49 

.1. alpina. L. 4-244. 
2. aphanet. Leera. 

2. arrcnsis. Sm. 15-1011. 

4. conjuncta. Bah. 
1. fi. minor. Hudt. 

1. vulgaris. L. 9-597. 
Alder. 

Alexanders. .. 
Alkanet. .. 

All-seed. 
Alisma. . . 

Damofonium. L. = Actiuocarpus, 1 

3. natans. L. 11-775. 

2. li. lanceolata. WUh. 

2. Plantago. L. 12-837. 

1. ranunculoides. L. 5-326. 
1. /9. repens. Cav. 38-2722. 

AUiaria. .. .. .. .. 108 

I. offlcinaUs. D C. 12-796. 
Allium. .. .. .. • 172 

3. Ampeloprasum. L. 24-1657. 
9. fi. arcuatum. 

6. arenarium. Fries. 

5. arenarium. L. 

1. carinatum. L. 24-1658. 

6. /3. compactum. 

4. Halleri. Bab. 

8. oleraceum. L. 7-488. 

9. Schsenoprasum. 

5. scorodoprasum. 

4. scorodoprasum. 

2. ursinum. L. 2-122. 

6. vincale. L. 28-1974. 
Allosorus. Kaulf. = Cryptogramma. 

Alnus. .. .. .. ..146 

1. glutinosa. Gtert. 21-1508. 
Alopeeurus. .. .. .. •• 182 

5. agrestis. L. 12-848. 

1. alpinus. Sm. 16-1126. 
4. bulbosns. L. 18-1219. 

6. fnlvus. Sm. 21-1467. 

3. geniculatus. L. 18-1250. 
monspeliensis. L. = Polypogon, 2. 

2. pratensis. L. 11-759. 
Alsine media. L% = Stellaria, 2* 

AlthsBa* •• •■ •• 75 



L. 34-2441. 
L. 7 191358. 
Sm. 



2. oiBclnalis. L. S-147. 
1. hlrsnta. L, 37-2674. 
Alya-marina = Zoatera, 1. 
Aljrssum. 
1. Calyeinum. L. 39-2863. 
mariiimum. 8m. = Konlga, 1. 
mimrnwrn. L. = Koniga, 1. 
saiivum, 8m. = Camellna, 1. 
Amaranthbjb. 
Amaranthus. 
1. Blitum. L. 31-2212. 

AMARYLLIDBiB. 

Ammophilla v. Cal. . . 

1. Arenaria. Ed. Cat. 

1. arundinacea. Host. 8-520. 
AnacampHs. Bich. = Orcliifl« 7. 
Anagallis o. Lys. 

I. arvensis. L. 8-529. 

1. /3. cserulea. Sm. 26-1823. 

1. 7. palida. L. Cat. 

2. tenella. L. 8-530. 
Ani'husa. 

1. officinalis. L. 10-662. 

2. semperyirens. L. 1-45. 
Andromeda. L. 

ccerulea. L. = Phyllodoce, 1 . 
1. polifolia. L. 10-713.? 
Anemone. . . . . . . 

4. Apennina. L. 15-1062. 

3. nemorosa. L. 5-355. 

1. Pulsatilla. L. 1-51. 

2. ranunculoides. L. 21-1484. 
Anemagrostis. t>. Agr. 

1. Spica-rentl. Trin. 14-951. 
Anoklicb^. 

Angelica. 

2. Archangelica. L. 36-2561. 
1. sylrestris. L. 16-1128. 

Anthemis. .. .. .. 

1. anglica. Spreng. 33-2370. 

3. arvensis. L. 9-602. 

4. Cotula. L. 25-1772. 
1.? maritima. L. 

5 nobilis. L. 14-980. 

2. tinctoria. L. 21-1472. 
Androstemum. Allioni. 

officinalis. Alb. := Dypericom, ] 
Anihericum. L. 

ostifragum. L. = Narthecinm, I 

colyculatum. L. =r Tofleldia, 1. 

serotinum. L. = Lloydia. 
Anthoxanthum. 

1. odoratum. L. 9-647. 
Anthriscus v. Can., Che. 

3. cerefolium. Koch. 18-1268. 

1. sytvestris. Koch. 11-752. 

2. vulgaris. Pers. 12-818. 
Anthyllis. .. 

1. vulneraria. L. 2-104. 
1. /3. Dillenii. Schultes. 
Antirrhinum. = Linaria. 1 « 2, 3, 4, 
t/f o« • • • • •• • 

1. majus. L. 2-129. 

2. Orontium. L. 17-1155. 
Apargia. Schreb. 

autumnalis. Willd. = Op<»ini», 



Page. 



.. 105 



89 
. ib. 

.. 169 
.. 183 



123 



128 

119 

94 



184 

29 
35 



21 



185 
II 

67 

142 



1. 



IHDEX. 



223 



kirta. Koff, = Leoattodon, 1. 
kispida, Willd. = Leontodon, 2. 
prtUemtis. Link. = OporinU, 1 0. 
taraxaei, WOd. = Oporinia, 1 /S. 
Apinm. .. 

17-1310. 
L. := PetnweliBain. 1. 



Paob. 



1. 



gimTeolna. L. 
Petrotelituam, 
Apocthba. 
Apple. 
AqaiiegiA. L. 

1. Tolgaria. L. 
Arabia. 

3. eiUaU. 
1. hinnta. 
5. hispida. 

4. ttricU. 
thatiana. 



5-297. 



38 



116 
51 
97 

105 



Br. 25-1746. 

Br. 9-587. 

D. C. 7 469. 
Huds. 9-614. 
L. = ConringU, 1 . 



Sm. 35-2478. ? 
18-1228.? 
Konth. = Arbntiu, 3. 



3. tnrrito. L. 3-178. 

Arbutui. .. .. 

3. alpina. L. 29-2030. 

1. osedo. L. 34-2377. 

3. UvA-ani. L. 10-714. 
ArehoHgeliea officinalis. Hoff. =: Ange- 

licft, 2. 
Arctioin. •• 

1. /3. Bardaiuu 

1. Lapp*. L. 
Areto$taphylo*. 
Arenaris v. Spe. 

3. eiliata. L. 25-1745. 
9. fastisiata. Sm. 25-1744. 
6. etB$pitota. £hr. 
10. eetrnpegtriM. L. 
6. jianperina. With. 

6. lariafolia. With. 
wtarina. (Ed, = Spergnlaria, 2. 

3. muUieattlis. ? L. 

2. Nonregica. Gunn. 39-2852. 
1. peploides. L. 3-189. 

7. quadrivalvi*. Br. 

7. rubella. Hook. 37-2638. 
rubra, L. = Spergnlarla, 1 ; 

5. aerpfayllifolia. L. 13-9-^3. 

6. saxatiU*. Hudi. 

8. tenaifolia. L. 4-219. .. 

4. trinenria. L. 21-1483. 
6. Tema. L. 8-512. 

Ariatolochia. 

1. clematia. L. 6-398. 
Akistolocbibjb. Juss. 



39 
119 



15 



82 



1. maritima. WiUd. 4-226. 

3. plantagioea. WiUd. B. 966. 
Armoracia c. Coch. 

1. mtttcana. PL We/t. — 33-2323. 
Amoeerit. .. .. 

ptullla. Gtxrtn. 2-95. 
Aroidb.b. .. 
Anow-graM. 
Arrow-head. 
Artemiaia. 

3. Absinthiom. L. 18-1230. 

1. campeatria. L. 5-338. 

2. /3. Gallica. Wild. 14-1001. 
2. maritima. L. 34-1706. 



22 



41 



41 
120 



106 



204 
207 

lb. 

22 



Paob 
4. mlgarla. L. 14-978. 
Arrhenathemm T HoL Aye. .. 189 

1. avenaceiuii. B€am>. 12-813. 
/3. buiboMum, Domort. 
fj. nodoanm. 
Arthrolobiom. .. .. .. 64 

1. ebracteatnm. D. C. 39-2844. 
Arum. .. .. 204 

1. macnlatnm. 19-1898. 
Arondo. L. v. Pbr. .. .. 185 

Calamagrottis. L. ft Hnda. = Afroa- 

tia, 2. 
eotoreUa. 8m. = Phalaria, 2. 
epigejot. L. = Agroatia, 1. 
1. Phragmitea. L. 6-401. 
Aaarabacca. .. ..41 

Aaanun. .. .. .. .. ib. 

1. EuropKum. L. 16-1083. 

.. 124 



Aaparagiia. .. .. 

I. officinalia. L. 5-339. 
Aspen := Popnlua. 3. 
Aaperula. L. 

1. cjmanchica. L. 1-33. 

2. odorata. L. 11-7^5. 

Aaperugo. .. .. .. .. 

procombens. L. 10-661. 
Aapidinm. 5ir. 

2. aculeatum. Sw. 

3. angalare. WiUd. 38-2776. 
cristaium. 8w. = Laatrea, 3. 
denteUum. 8». = Cystopteria, 3. 
dUitatum. Hook. = Laatrea, 7. 
dumetorum. 8w. = Laatrea, 7. 
Filix-famina. Sw. ^ Athyrinm, 3. 
Filix-max. 8w. = Laatrea, 4. 

fragile. Hook. ^ Cyatopteria, 3 
irnguum. 8m. = Athyrinm, 2. 
2. /3. lobatnm. Sw. 22-1563. 

1. Lonchitia. 8w. 12-^7. 
oreopteris. S». = Laatrea, 1. 

2. J. lonchitioidea. 
rigidum. Sw. = Laatrea, 5. 
tpintdutum. 8m. ^ Laatrea, 7. 

Thelypteris. 8w. = Laatrea, 2. 
Aapleniom. L. .. .. .. 

6. Adiantum nigrum. L. 28-1950. 
2. /S. alternifoliiun. WiUd. 32-2258. 

Ceteraek. L. = Ceterach. 
FiUxfamina. Bemh. ^ Athyriam, 2. 

7. lanceolatom. Hntdt. 4-240. 
2. marinom. L. 6-392. 

2. Rata-muraria. L. 3-150. 
Scolopendrium. L. := ScoIopendriaDL. 

1. septentrionale. HalL 14-1007. 

4. Trichomanea. UalL 8 576. 

5. Tiride. Hud*. 32-2257. 

tripoliom. L. 2-87. 

^&>TBKK^B« •• •• •• •• 

Astragaloa. .. 

3. alpinoa. L. 38-2717. 

2. arenariut. Hoda. 
campestris. L. = Ozytropia, 2. 

1- glycyphyUoa. L. 3-203. 

3. hjpogtoUia. L, 4374. 



28 



137 
213 



313 



16 



66 



2*24 



I2n>BX« 



Faob. 

aordiduB. Witld. = Ozytropif, S. 

waientu. L. •=. OxytropU, 1. 
Afltrantift* 33 

major, h. 
AtMamanta, L. 

Libanotit. L. v. Sefdi, 1 . 

Meum. L. v. Menm, 1. 
Athaneuia L. =r Diotif . 
Atriplex. ..90 

6. angwtifolU. 5m. 25-1774. 
ft. datoidea. Bab. S9-2860. 

7. erecU. Huds. 31 -2223. 
9. UciniaU. L. 3-166. 

3. littondii. L, 10-708. 

3. /S. marina. 

4. f. mlerofperma. W. ft K. 
4. patnla. L. 13-936. 

2. podnnealata. L. 4-232. 
1. portolacoidea. L. 4-261. 
4. /9. proatrata. Bouch. 

8. roaca. iLr. 

3. /9. serrata. Hnda. 
Atropa. 

1. Belladonna. L. 9-592. 

Athyrium. D. C. p. Asp. Aapl. 214 

2. Filix-fcemina. 21-1459. 

1. moUe. 

3. rhoeticnm. 31-2199. 

2. /9. vivipara. 

Arena o.Tri. .. ..189 

3. y. alpina. Sm. 30-2141. 
3. bromoides. It, 

etatior. L. ^ Arrhenatherum. 

1. fatua. L. 31-2221. 

6. fliYoaoens. L. 14-952. 

3. /3. longifoHa. 

nodosa. Cullnm = Arrhenatherum /9. 

4. planiculmia. Schrad. 37-2684. 
3. pratensis. L. 17-1204. 

5. puhcaena. L. 23-1640. 

2. strigoaa. Schreb. 18-1266. 



Avena. . . . . . . 


61 


Awlwort. . . . . 


.. 109 


Aaaiea. . . . . 


.. 119 


procumbena. L. 13-865. 




BeUdingera. Dumort = Fhalaris, 2. 




Balaam . * 


.. 77 


Baldmoney. .. 


36 


BALSAMINBiB. 


.. 77 


BsUotta. 


.. 136 


1. /3. foetida. L. 




1. nigra. L. 1-46. 




1. J. mderalia. Fries. 




Barbareo. 


.. 104 


2. arcuata. Rich. R.-4357. 




4. prflBcox. Br. 16 1129. 




3. atricta. Andrz. 




1. Yulgaria. Br. 7-442. 




3. parvifiora. Friea. 




Baneberrjr. . . • . . . 


.. 98 


Barley. 


.. 193 


Barkhauaia. v. Cre. .. 


.. 12 


2. foetida. D. C. Lob. Ic. 226. 




1. taraxacifolia. D. C. 




Barberry. 


.. 93 



Barren-wort. 
Bartaia. 

1. alpina. L. 6-961. 

Odontites. Ha la. = Euphnd*, ! 

2. Tiaooaa. L. 15-1045. 
Baae-rocket = Beaeda, 2. 
Beak-nuh. .. 

Baatard-alkanet =: Lithoepermom, 1. 



PaOB. 
93 

,. 1« 



197 



balm. 


.. 134 
38 






.. 122 




toad-flaz. 


40 


Beaked-paraley. 


.. 31 


Beam-tree. PyruSy 3. 




Beard-graaa. 


.. 183 


Bear'a-foot = HeUebonu, 1. 




Bed-atraw. .. 


.. 27 


Beet. 


92 


Bee-nettle. = Qaleopaia, 4. 




Beech. 


.. 145 


Belladonna. .. 


.. 12S 


Belliale-crcaa = Barbarea, 1. 




Bell-flower. .. 


U 


Bellia. 


.. 16 


percnnia. L. 6-424. 




Bent-graaa. .. 


.. 184 


Bbrbrridba. 


.. 93 


Berberia. 


93 


Tulgaria. L. 1-49. 




Berberry. 


.. 93 


Berry-bearing Alder — Bhamna, 1. 




Beta. 


9S 


1. maritime L. 4-285. 




Beton^ . = Stachya, 1. 




Betunica L, 




officinalis. L. := Stachya, 1. 




Betula. L. .. 


. 145 


1. alba. L. 31-2198. 




Alnus. L. •!= Alnua, 1. 




2. fi. Babingtonii. 




1. fi. margaritacea. 




2. nana. L. 33-2326. 




1. /9. pendula. Both. 




1. fi. verrucoaa. Ekr, 




I. y. glntinoaa. 




Bidena. 


18 


1. cemna. L. 16-1114. 




1. /9. coreopaia. 




1. f3. minima. L. 




2. /d. radiata. 




2. tripartita. L. 16-1113. 




Bilberry = Vaccininm, 4, 5. 




Bindweed. .. 


.. 126 


Birch. .. .. •• 


.. 145 


Bird'a-eye Primroae. = Frimula, 4. 




BirdVfoot. .. 


64 


Bird'a-foot trefolL 


.. 70 


Bird*a-nest. .. .. .. 


.. 119 


Bird*a-tOBgue. 8«neciOy 7. 




Birth-wort. .. *• .. 


41 


Biatort. .. .. .. 


.. 87 


Bitter-aweet = Solannm, 1. 




Black-byony . . . . 


.. 170 


bindweed = Polygonum, 1. 




noneauch. ^ Medicago, 1. 





Bitter-creaa. 



105 



INDEX. 



225 



Faob. 



BUek-thom ^ Pmnni , 1 . 

Blftdder-fem« 

Bladder-nut. 

Bladder-ieed. 

Bladder- wort. 

Blechium. . . 

boreale. 8tP. 17-1169. 
Blinkf . . • . • 

Bine-bottle. ^ Centanrea, 6. 
BIne-bell. 
Blytmuf p. Sch. Sci. Car. 

1. compreuui. Panz. 11-791. 

3. mfut. Link, 15-1010. 
Bog-bean. = Menyanthei, 1. 
Bog-mi h. . . 

BORAOINBiB. 

Borage* •• .. 

Borago. • * 

1. officinalis. L. 1-36. 
Botrychium. 

Lunar la. Sw. 5-318. 
Box-tree. • • • . 

Brachypodium. Beauv. ^ Triticum, 
Brake-fern. . . 
Brank == Polygonum, 3. 
Braaiica. 

1. campestrif. L. 22-2234. 

a. Chciranthui. VUl. 39-2821. 

3. Moneniif. Br. 14-962. 

5. Napuf. L. 30-2146. 

4. oleracea. L, 9-637, 
orientalit, L. = Erysimum, 3. 

1. fi. Bapa. Ir. 31-2176. 
Brlstle-fem. 
Bristle-grasf. 

Bnsa. . . . . • . 

2. tupera, Knapp. 

1. media. L. 5-340. 

2. minor. X. 19-1316. 
Brome-grass. 

Bromus. . . . • • . 

8. agrettU. AIL 
1. arenariui. 

7. asper. L. 17-1172. 

6. eiUatu*. Huds. 

crUttUtu. L. =: Triticum, 3. 

3. oommutatus. Schrad. 13-920.? 

6. diandrus. Curt. 

8. erectus. Hud*. 7-471. 
giganteut. Vill. = Feitnea, 8. 

7. hirtutus. Curt. 
7. hordeaceut. L. 

6. Madritenslt. L. 14-1006. 

5. maxtmus. De^f. 39-282a 
1. mollis. L. 15-1078. 

7. montanus, PolL 

1. /9. muU\fioru$. 8m. 

6. muralis. Huds. 

7. nemoruUs. L. 

7. nemoronu. YilL 

8. perenni*. Vill. 

1. polymorphu*. Huda. 

3. praienns. E. Bot. 

I. /9. pseudo-yelutinua. 

1. 7. racemoaus. L. 15-1079. 

3. aecallnua. L. 17-1171. 






1,2. 



213 

70 

32 

143 

215 

87 

173 
195 



195 
127 
129 
129 

216 

161 

102 

110 



215 
181 
188 



191 
191 



4. tterilis. L. 15-1030. 
2. /9. Telutinus. 27-1884. 

7. /}. Tillosus. Ltight. 
Brooklime = Veronica, 1. 
Brookweed. .. .. .. 

Broom. • . . . . . 

Broom-rape. • . . . • • 

Bryonia. .. .. 

1. dioica. Jcxq. 7-439. 
Bryony. 

Bnckbean. .. .. 

Bucktliorn. 

Buekwheat= Polygonum, 3. 
Bugle. 

Bucetum == Festnca, 6, 6 /3. 7, 8. 
Bugloss. .. .. 

Bullace = Prunus, 1 fi. 
Bunias Cakile L. = Cakile, 1. 
Bunium. .. *. .. 

1. deundatum. D. C. 

1. flexuosum. With, 14-988. 

2. Bulboccutanum v, Carum, 3. 
Bull-rush. .. .. .. 

Bupleurum. .. .. 

2. aristatum. BartL 35-2468. 

3. falcatum. L. 38-2763. 
2. Odontite*. 8m. 

4. rotundifolium. L. 2-99. 
1. tenuissimum. L. 7-478. 

Burdock. .. .. .. 

Bur-marigold. .• .. 

Burnet. .. .. •. 

Burnet-saxifrage. 
Bur- reed. 
Bur- weed. .. 
Butcher's-broom. • • 
Butomus. .. .. 

umbellatuB. L. 10-651. 
Butter-bur. .. .. •• 

Butter-cup. .. 
Butter-wort. 
Buxus. .. *• 

1. semperrireni. L. 19-1341. 

Cabbage = Brassiea, 4. 

Cakile. v. Bun. .. •• < 

1. marltima. WiUd. 4-330. 
Calamagrostis. .. •• 

arenaria. Roth = Ammophila* 1. 

1. Epigejos. Roth.et With, 6-408. 

2. Unceolata. Roth, et With. 30-2159. 

3. Laponica. Hartm. 

4. stricta. Nult, 30-2160. 
Calamint. .. .. >. 
Calami ntha. v. Aci. Thy. .. • 

4. clinopodium. Benth. 20-1401. 
3. Acinos. Clairv. 6-411. 
1. Nepeta. Clairv. 20-1414. 

3. officinalis. Mattch. 32-1676. 
Cal«thian violet = Gentiana, 5. 

CALLITBICniHBA. .. 

Caliitriche. L. 
1. aquettica. Sm. 

4. autumnalii. L. et Hook. 38-3733. 

8. pedunculate. D. C. 37-3606. 
3. pUtycarpa. KUU. 89-3864. 



Paob. 



.. 133 

.. 67 

.. 114 

.. 161 

.. ib. 

.. 116 



.. 131 
.. 188 



39 



.. 196 
87 



16 

18 

49 

39 

804 

22 

174 

206 

18 

95 

138 

161 



107 
183 



133 
13S 



159 

ib. 



236 



IMDBX. 



S. /3. teMilit. Bab. 

2. ttagnaUi. Soop. 

1. Twrna. L, U-7Si. 
Callan*. •• 

Tolgarit. SaUtb. lS-1013. 
Caltlia. .t 

1. /3. Binor. />. C. 

1. paliutri*. L. 8-S06. 

1. y. radicans. For«r 31-2175. 
Cal70tcffia. Br. ^ ConTolvalns, 2, 3. 
Camelin*. v. Alj. 

1. MtWa. CrantM. 18-1254. 
CampuiaU. .. 

1. glomenU. L. 2-90. 

4. hedcncwu L. 2-73. 

2. hybrlda. L. 6-375. 

5. UtifoUa. L. 5-302. 

8. patoU. L. 1-42. 

9. peniclfolla. L. 38-2773. 

7. Rapuncoloa. L. 4-283. 

6. rapuncaloidet. I>. 20-1369. 

10. rotundifolia. L, 13-866. 

8. Trachellam. L. 1-12. 
Campahulbjb. 

Campion. .. •• .. 

Canary-graM. . . 

Candy-toft. .. .. 

CapaelU o. ThL 

1. Bona-paitoria. D, C. 21-1485. 
Caraway. .. 
Cardamine. L, 

4. amara. L. 14-1000. 
6tflfr(/!rra. Br. = Dentaria. 

8. /9. dentata. Koch, 
hattulata, Sm. = Arabli, 5. 

2. /9. hinuta. L. 7-492. 

1. impatiens. L. 2-80. 

2. /9. parvi/lora. Lightf. 
petrega. Hudi. ^ Arabiit 5. 

3. prateniif. L. 11-776. 

2. sylyatica. Link. R. 4303. 
Carduuf . L. v. Gir., Cni. 

4. acanthoidet. L. 14-973. 
10 acaullB. L. 3-161. 

9. arrensit. Curt. 14 975. 

4. criipus. Hadf. 
12. ditteetu*. Vill. 

6. eriophonu. L. 6-386. 
8. Fortteri. Ba6. 

11. hellenoides. Hodt. 

11. heterophylluf. L. 10-675. 

1. lanceoUtut. L. 2-107. 
Marianus, L. = 9ilybiim, 1. 

3. nutans. L, 16-1112. 
oleraceni. 

2. paloBtris. L. 14-974. 

12. pratenilt. Huda. 

Silybum. Gmrt. ^ Silybnm, 1. 

13. aetorat. 

Ktofuf. JBeU>. •• 
12. Ptendo-Fonteri. 

5. tenuifoliua. Curt 6-412. 

7. taberomu. L. 36-2562. 
Carcx. . . . . . . 

26. acuta. L, 9-580. 

2. attenuata. Br. 



Paob. 

. 118 
96 



109 
25 



24 

81 

183 

107 

109 

39 

105 



14 



118 



198 



S2. Agattaehyt. Shr. 

58. AmpuUacea. Good. 11-780. 

28. tmgutti/bUa. Sm. 

30. aquatUia. Walh.t 88-2758. 

22. artnarla. L. 13-988. 

33. atrata. L. 29-2044. 

14. axillaria. Good. 14-993. 

47. binerrit. 5m. 18-1S35. 
13. Bsnnfnghantiana. Woiko, 

31. Buxbaumii. WahL 

23. c€P*ptto*a, Sm. 

24. cMpitoM. L. 25-1507. 

32. caneioena. L. 
1. eapitata. Hudi. 

40. capillaris. L. 29-8069. 

44. clandesUna. Good. 

16. eurta. Good. 20-1386. 

45. depaupoata. Goo€L 16-1098. 

43. digiUta. L. 9-615. 
1. dioica. L. 8-543. 

46. diitana. L. 18-1234. 

6. diviM. Huds 16-1096. 
8. dirulMU Good. 9-689.? 

19. elongata. L. 27-1920. 
39. externa. Good. 18-833. 

56. flliformis. L. 13-904. 
38. flara. L. 18-1894. 

48. ftUra. Good. 18-1895. 
55 glauea. Scop. 21-1506. 
23. Goodenotfii. Gay. 

27. GrahamL Boot 

57. birta. L. 10-685. 

48. /9. Hotteana. D. G. 

44. hnmilis. Leyt$. 

5. incurra. Lightf. 13-987. 
81. intermedia. Good. 89-8048. 
42. /3. irrigna. Sm. 32-8895. 
60. IsYigata. .Sm. 20-1387. 

17. leper ina. L. 39-8815. 
4. leucogtochin. Ehr. 

42. limoM. L. 89-2043. 

52. maxima. Soop. 

55. fi. Micheliana. Sm. 38-2836. 

49. j8. Mielichqferi. Hook. 

36. montana. L. 

7. muricata. L. 16-1097. 
38. /9. (Ederi. Ehr. 

18. oralif. Good. 5-306. 
44. paUeMeni. L. 31-8185. 
60. paludoMk Good. 12-807. 
49. panioea. L. 21-1505. 

10. panicuUta. L. 15-1064. 

11. paradoza. WiUd. 

4. pandflora. Ltghtf. 29-8041. 
52. pendula. Huds. 33-8315. 
49. /9. pluBoatachya. Sm, 

37. pUulifbra. L. 13-886. 

34. praooz. Jacq. 16-1099. 

54. Paeudo-cyperdfe. L. 4-348. 

1. psyUophora. Ehr. 
46. j8. punctata. Ehr. 

2. pulicaria. L. 15-1051. 

28. pulla. Good. 

41. rariflora. Sm. 85-1516. 

55. recurva, Hodi. 

20. remota. L. 12-838 



PAei 



INDEX. 



227 



29. rigida. Good, 29-2047. 
61. riparU. Ctxrt, 9-580. 

8. mpestris. AIL 
49. /8. tcUina, Don, 

28. Mucatilia. L. 29-2045. 
48. fi. ipeirostachya. Sw. 38-2770. 
7. tjncaia. Uudi. 
15. fteUulata. Oood. 12-806. 
55. y. strictocarpa. Sm. 38-2772. 
25. liricta. Good, 13-914. 
51. Btrigooa. Huds. 14-944. 
53. Bylvatica. Hudt, 14-995. 
20. fi, tenella. Schk. 
12. teretiuBcula. Good. 15-1065. 
35. tomentoM. L. 29-2046. 

uliginosa. 1^ = Blyamot, 1. 
31. YahUi. Schk. 37-2666. 
59. yesicaria. L, 11-779. 
23. Tolgaris. Fries. 

9. Tulpina. L. 5-307. 
Carlina. 

2. raoemosa. L, 

9. yulgaiifi. L. 16-1144. 
Carline-thistle. 
CSamatiou = Dianihtu, 5. 
Carpiniu. 

1. Bctnliu. L. 29-2032. 
Canot. 
Caruin. .. .. 

3. BnlbocMtanuin. Koch. 39-2862. 

1. Carui. L. 21-1503. 

2. yerticillatam. Koch. 6-395. 

C ABTOPH Y LLKJS. 

Catabroia v. Aira. 

1. aquatica. Beatno. 22-1557. 
CaUpodium = Foa, 22. 
Catch-fly. 
CSat-mint. .. .. .. 

\/at S"^ar. . . 

CatVtail graft. 
CSaacalit r. Tor. 

AnthrUeuM. Hadi. = Torilis, 1. 
arvensis. Hadt. = Torilis, 2. 

1. dauroides. L. 3-197. 
infettu. Curt. = Torilit, 2. 

2. latifoUa. L. 3-198. 

1. UptophyUa. Huds. 
scandidna, Wigg. = Anthriicus, 

Celandine. 

Celery. 

CSLASTRINBiB. 

Centary. .. .. •• 

Centanrea. 

2. calcitrapa. L. 2-125. 

6. Cyanna. L. 4-277. 
1. IsnardL L. 32-2256. 

4. Jacea. L. 24-1678. 

5. nigra. L. 4-278. 

5. >8. nigreacena. Wittd. 
5. >8. radiata. Bab. 

7. Bcabioaa. L. 1-56. 

3. aolstitialia. L. 4-243. 
Centranthoa. v. YaL •. •. 

1. latifoliua. Ihtfir, 22-1531. 
Centonculna. .. .. • 

1. minimna. L. 8-531. 



Faob. 



.. 13 

.. 13 

.. 144 

.. 34 

.. 39 



79 
28 



80 

133 

8 

182 

33 



99 
38 
70 
115 
13 



23 
122 



Faob. 
Ed. Cat = EpipActia, 



Cephalantherti, 

3, 4, 5. 
Cerastiam. . . . . . . . . 

2. alpinum. L. 

1. aquaticom. L. 8-538. 

4. arvenae. L. 2-93. 

7. d. atrovirena. Bab. Mag. Bot. and 
Zool. ii., t. 9. 

5. glomeratom. ThuiL 11-789. 
3 latifolium. L. Fhyt., 1-497. 

3. fi. lati/oUum. Sm. 

3. fi. nigreacena. 

7. fi. pumilum. Curtu. FL Lond., 2-92. 
7. semicandnun. L. 20-1630. 

4. fi. Btrictum. L. 

tetrandrum. Curt. Fl. Lond. 6-30. 

6. triviale. Link, 11-790. 
6. viscosum. 1*. 

5. Yulgatum. L. 11-789. 
Ceranu. Toum = Frunua, 2, 3( /S. 
Ceratophtllba. .. 
Ceratophyllam. .. .. .. 

L. 11-947. 
L. 10-697. 



83 



WiUd. 18-1244. 



1. demeraum. 

2. aabmeranm. 
Ceterach. 

officinarum. 
CluBrophyllum. .. .. .. 

2. aromaticnm. L. 37-2636. 

3. anreum. L. 30-2103. 
Odoratum. Hook = Myrrhia, 1. 
aatirum. Sm. = Anthriacua, 2. 
sylvettre. L. = Anthriacua, 1. 

1. temolentnm. L. = 22-1521. 
x/iiaii-weeu. •« .. «. .. 

Chamomile . .. .. .. .. 

Charlock ^ Sinapis, 3. 
Checquered daffodil = Fritillaria, 1. 
Cbeiranthaa. 
1. Cheiri. L. 27-1934. 

erytimoidet. Huda. = Eryaimum, 1. 
1. fruHctUosus. L. 

incanus. L. = Matthiola, 1. 
sinutUut. L, = Matthiola, 2. 
tricuspidatus. Huda. = Matthiola, 2. 
Chelidonium, .. .. .. 

glaucium. L. = Glaudum, I. 
hybridum, L. = Rflemeria. 
1. majna. L. 22-1581. 
1. /9. laciniatum. L. 

CHBIfOPODIB.& 

Chenopodium. .. .. 

9. fi. acutifolinm. Sm, 21-481. 

5. album. L. 24-1723. 
9. arrectum. Deam. 

1. fionuB Henricua. L. 15-1033. 

7. fi. botryodea. Sm. 32-2247. 

6. flcifolium. L. 24-1724. 
/rtUicosum. Schrad =■ Schoberia, 1. 

8. gUucnm. L. 21 -1454. 

4. hybridum. L. 27-1919. 

1. /3. intermediam. Mert. and Koch. 

wutritimum. L. = Schoberia, 2. 
3. mnrale. L, 24-1722. 
10. olidnm. Curt. 15-1034. 

9. polyapermum. L. 21-1480. 

7. mbmm. L. 27-1721. 



158 
ib. 



211 
31 



122 
33 



104 



99 



90 
91 



228 



IMDBZ. 



€. Mrotinum. Huds. 

2. urblrum. Sim, 10-717. 
6. fi. ValTurU. L. 

Cherleria. 

Mdoidet. L. 17-1212. 
Cherry = Pruntu, 2, 8. 
Chenrll. 

Chick-weed = StelUris, 2. 
ChironU = Krythnea, 1, 2, 3. 
Chive* = AUimn. 9. 
Chlora. 

1. perfoliftto. L. 1-CO. 
Chryimnthemum v. Mat. 

4. inodorum. L. 10-676. 

1. Learanthemum. L. 9-601. 
4. /9. maritimum. Sm. 14-979. 

3. Parthenium. Sm. 18-1231. 

2. Mgetum. L. 8-540. 
Chrytocoma v, lAn. 

Linocyria. L. 35-2505. 
Chryfopleniuro. 

1. alternlfolium. L. 1-54. 

2. oppMitifolium. L. 7-490. 
Cicely. 

Cicendla. r. Exa. 

1. fllifurmia. Reich. 4-235. 
Cichorum. . . • . . . 

Intybus. L. 8-539. 

x/ICKkBa* • • • • • • 

Cicuta. . . . . t . 

1. TiroMu L. 7-479. 
Cineraria. .. .. •« 

i. alpina. Iluds. 

1. campeftris. Retz. 3-152. 

1. inteirrifoUa. Jacq. 

2 palustria. L. 3-151. 
CinqaefoiU .. 
(. ircsa. • . • • 

1. alpina. L, 15-10.^7. 

2. lutetiana. L. 15-1056. 

ClBTINB.V. .. 

Cirsium = Carduni, I, 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, 

12, 13. 
Cistopteris. v. Aap. Cya. Pol. . . 

2. alpina. Desv. 3-163. 
1. fi. anguatata. 

3. 7. dentata. Hook. 23-1588. 
8. firagilia. Demh. 23-1587. 

1. montana. Link. 
Cistus Zf. = Helianthemum. 
Cladium. Schrad. 

1. MariacuB. Br. 14-950. 

1. Oertnanicum. Schrad. 
Cleavers = Oaliam, 12. 
Clinopodium = Calamintha, 4. 
Clover. . . . • • • 

Cloud-berry = Rubus, 41. 
CIaI>-ruah. .. 

Cnicus = Carduus, 1, 2, 6, 7,9, 10, 11, 
Cochlearia. .. .. .. 

1. /3. alpina. 34-2403. 
3- Anglica. L. 8-552. 

armoracia. It. = Armorada. 
Coronopus. L. = Coronopui, 1. 

2. Danica. L. 10-696. 
draba. L. = Lepidium, 4. 



Paok. 

83 
.. 31 

.. 115 
20 



Faob. 



17 
46 



31 
115 

8 

63 
37 

18 



• • 

• • 


61 
41 


11. 


101 


• • 


213 



.. 195 



.. 68 

.. 195 
12. 

.. 106 



1. /9. GranUmdiea, Lt. 

1. offlcinalia. L. 8-551. 

2. /9. integrifolia. D. C. 
Codlings and cream = EpiloUnm, 3. 
Colchicum. .. .. 

1. autumnale. L. 2-133. 
Cole-seed =c BraHica, 5. 
Colt's foot. . . 
Columbine. .. 
Comarunt. L. 

palustre. Sm. = PotentilUt 4. 
Comfrcy = Symphytum, 1. 

CoMPOaiTA. 

Condylocarpus, Hol&ii. ^ Tordylinm, 1. 

Co.'«lFBRjB. 

Conium. 

1. msculatnm. L. 17-1191. 
Conopodium. Koch. = Buninint 1. 
Conringia v. Sis. 

1. thaliana. Reich, 13-901. 
Convallaria. .. ,. ., 

bifoiia. It. Maianthemom, 1. 

1. roajalts. L. 15-1035. 

2. multiflora. L. 4-279. 

3. Polygonatum. L. 4-280. 

4. verticilUta. L. 2-128. 
Convolvulus. .. .. .. 

1. arvensis. L. 5-312. 

2. Sepium. L. 5-313. 

3. Soldanella. L. 5-314. 
Conyza tquarrosa, I*. = Inula, 1 . 
Corallorhiza. 

1. innata. Br. 82-1547. 
Coral-root. .. 
Coral- wort. .. 
Coriander. .. .. .. ., 

Coriandrum. 

sativum. L. 
Coreopsis Bident. 

x/ORPiB^B. .. •. •• 

Cornel. 

Corn-cockle ^ Lychnis, 8. 
Cornish-rooney-wort = Sibthorpla, I. 
Corn-marigold = Chryaanthemom, 2. 
Corn-salad. .. .. .. 

CornuB. .. .. .. 

1. sangninea. L. 4-249. 

2. suecica. L. 5-310. 
Corrigiola. .. 

1. littoralis. L. 10-668. • . . 
Coronopus v. Coch., Lep., Seh. . . 

2. didyma. Sm. 4-248. 
1. niellli. Sm. 24-1660. 

Corydalis. .. .. 

3. bulbosa. D. C. 

1. claviculata. D. C. 3-103. 

2. lutea. D. C. 9-588. 

3. solida. Hook. 31-1471. 

CORYLINEiB. 

Corylus. .. .. .. 

1. Avellana. L. 11-728. 
Cotoneaster. 

1. vulgaris. 
Cotton-grasa. 
Cotton-weed. 
Cotton-thiatle. 



1-67. 

L. =Bidens, 1. 



175 



18 

97 



162 



174 



126 



165 

165 

105 

38 

lb. 



40 
fb. 



84 

40 



86 
109 



100 



Lindl. 38-2718. 



144 
fb. 

51 

IM 
21 
15 



INDEXi 



229 





Page. 


Cotyledon, v. Umb. . . 


44 


2. lutea. Huds. 22-1522. 




1. nmbilicuf. Hud*. 5-325. 




Gouch-graM = Triticom, 5. 




Cow-bane. «« 


.. 37 


Cow-berry = Vaccinium, 3. 




Cow-parsnep. 


.. 35 


Cow-slip = Primula, 3. 




Cow- wheat. 


.. 140 



Crab-tree = Pynw, 2. 

Crake-berry = Empetmm, I . 

Cnunbe. •. •• •• ..III 

1. maritima. L. 13-924. 
Cranberry := Yaccinium, 1-2. 
Crane*s-bilL .. .. *. ..76 

Cbassulejb. .. .. ..43 

Ciategai ». Met. . . . . . . 50 

Aira. L. Pyruf, 3. 
1. /8. eriocarpa. 
1. Ozycantha. L, 35-2504. 
tcandica. Wahl. ■= Pynu, 3 ft, 
tenmnaUs. L. = Pyrtu, 4. 
Creplf V. Hed., Hie.iliap., Pre., •. 11 

5. biennis. L. 3-149. 
faetida. L. = Barkhansia, 1. 

3. palndosa. Memck, 16-1094. 

1. pulchra. L, 33-2325. 

4. snccisaifoUa. Tautck. 31-2210. 

2. tectorum, 8m. 

2. yirens. L. 16-1111. 

Cress. .. •• •• 104 

Crithmum. .. •• •• ..36 

maritimnm. L» 12-819. 
Crocus. .. . «. •• 169 

6. aureus. Sm. 37-2646. 
4. b^kmu. Mill. 

3. autumnaUs. E. Bot. 

4. minimus. Red. 37-2645. 

2. nudiflorus. Sm. 7-491. 

3. qfficinalu. Huds. 
8. satiTUS. L. 5-343 

a. fi. speciosus. Beib. 38-2752. 
1. Temus. Wiild. 5-844. 
Crow-berry. .. .. .. .. 161 

Crow-foot. .. .. •• •> 95 

CRUoirBR.s. .. .. .. 102 

Qryptogramma. v. Pte.' .. .. 215 

crisp*. Br. 17-1160. 
Cuckoo-pint. .. •« •> 204 

Cncubalus. .. •• .. ..80 

aetudU. L. = Silene, 9. 
Behen. 8m. = Silene, 2. 
1. baocifems. L. 22-1575. 
Otites. 8m. =: 8ilene, 1. 
viscosut. Huds. == Silene, 7. 
CUOUKBITBJB. .. .. ..161 

Cud-weed. .. .. .. ..20 

Currant. «. •• •> ..29 

Cuscuta. .. .. 126 

a. Epilinum. Weihe. 39-2850. 
8. Epithymum. L. 1-55. 
I. Europ«a, L. 6-378. 

1. mqjor, D. G. 

2. minor. D. C. 

Cffothea. 8m. =r Cistopteris, 2, 3. 

Cyclamen. .. •. . .. 123 












1. Europteum. Sm. 
1. hedenefolium. WUld. 8-548. 
Cynodon. .. .. .. .. 

1. dactylon. Pert. 12-850. 
CynogloBsum. .. .. .. 

2. montanum. Lam. 

1. officinale. L. 13-921. 

2. sylvaticum. Hashke, 23-1642. 
Cynosurus. .. .. .. .. 

ceeruletu. L. = Sesleria, 1. 

1. cristatuB. X. 5-316. 

2. echinatus. L. 19-1333. 
panicetu, L. = PolypQgon, 2. 

Cyi>eru8. • . . . . . . , . 

2. fuBcus. L, 37-2626. 

1. longus. L, 19-1309. 

nigricatu. With. =. Schoenus, 1. 
CypheL .. •• ». •. 

Cypripedium. 

1. Calceolus. L. I. 
Cytinu := Sarothamnufl. 

DaboBcia. r. Epi.,Men. 

polifolia. Don, 1-85. 
Dactylis. .. .. .. .. 

cynoturoidet, Huds. ^ Digitaria, 1. 

1. glomerata. L. 5-335. 
ttricta. Ait = Digitaria,!. 

Daffodil. 

Daisy. 

Dame's violet. 

Dandelion. . . 

Dane- wort = Sambucus, 1. 

Daphne. . . . . 

2. Laureola. L. 2-119. 
1. Mezerium. L. 20-1381. 

Darnel. . . . . 

Datura. . . . . 

I. Stramonium. L. 18-1288. 
Daucus. .. .. .. .. 

1. Carota. L. 17-1174. 

2. maritimus. L. 36-2560. 
Deadly-nightshade. .. .. .. 

Dead-nettle. .. .. .. 

Delpliininm. .. .. .. 

1. Consolida. L. 26-1839. 
Dentaria. .. .. .. .. 

1. bulbifera. 5-309. 
DevU's-bit = Scabiosa, 1. 
Dew-berry =: Bubus, 1. 
Dianthus. .. .. .. 

2. Armeria. L. 6-317. 
5. arenarius. Huds. 

4. CBBsiuB. Sm. 1-62. 

5. Caryophyllus. L. 3-214. 

3. detoides. L- 1-61. 
3. /9 glaucus. L. 

6. plumarius. L. R.-5030. 
1. prolifer. L. 14-956. 

Digitalis. .. .. •. •. 

1. purpurea. L. 19-1297. 
Digitaria v. Dae. Pan. Syn. .. 

1. humifusa. Pert. 12-849. 
Digrapkit. Trin. s Phalaris, 2. 
DiOSOORBJB. .. 



Page. 

. 181 

. 127 

. 182 






194 
194 



83 
168 



118 
192 



169 
16 

108 
10 

70 



193 
125 

34 



125 

134 

97 

105 



79 



140 
181 

170 



230 



INDEX. 



Faok. 



Dioiis. *• 


21 


maritinuu De^f. 3-141. 




Diplotaxis V. Sin., SU. 


.. 110 


2. monOia. D. C. 16-1090. 




1. tenaifbliA. D. C. 8-525. 




DiPSACBiB. 


.. 22 


Dipmctu. •• 


.. ib. 


1. Fallonmn. L. 29-2080. 




8. plloras. L. 18-877. 




2. lylTMtrU. L. 15-1032. 




Dock. . . • • • • 


88 


Dodder. . . 


. 126 


Dog't-tail-graai. 


. 192 


Dog's-tooth-gnat. 


. 181 


DoronicuiD. .. •• •• 


.. 19 


1. PanUlUnchflt. L. 27-2654. 




2. plantagineam. L. 9-630? 




Dnttw r. Ero. . . 


. 106 


2. aisoidea. L. 18-1271. 




4. eoniorta. D. C. 




3. hirta, L- 




4. incana. L. 6-388. 




1. fi. inflata. Hook. 




5. mnralia. L. 13-912. 




8. rapettria. Br. 19-1338. 




1. Terna. L, 9-586. 




Dropwort = Spirm, 2. 




jrfoacrai .. 


. 101 


1. anglica. Huda. 13-869. 




2. intermedia. Uayne. 13-868. 




2. longifoUa, I*. 




3. rotondifolia. L. 13-867. 




DR08BRBJC 


. 101 


Drjaa. *• •« .. 


53 


1. 7. depreaaa. Bab. 




1. octopetala. L 7-451. 




1. B. piloaa. Bab. 
Duck-meat. 




. 205 


Dormaat Oak =s Qnercns, 3. 




Dwale. * . . . • 


. 125 


Dyer's-rocket. 


. Ill 


Dyer's- woad. .* 


. 110 



Barth-nnt. .. «. 

Echinochloa v. Opl. Pan. 

1. Crua-gaUi. Beauv. 13-876. 
Echinophora. 

1. apinosa. L. 34-2413. 
Echlnm v. Lye. • . 

2. Italicum, Sm. 

1. plantagineum. L. 

1. Tiolacenm. L. 39-2798. 

2. vtOgare. L. 3-181. 

ELATINSiB. 
Elatine. .. 

1. hexandra. D. C. 14-955. 

2. Hydropiper. L. 87-2670. 
1. trip0tala. Sm. 

Elder. .. • •• 

Elbaorb^. 

Eleocharia v. Sci. .. .. 

3. aoicnlaria. Rcem. 11-749. 

1. caapltoaa. Liftk. 15-1029. 
fluitaru. Hook =s Eleogiton. 

4. mnlticaulia. 8m. 17-1187. 

2. palttstria. Br. 2-131. 






39 
180 

32 

129 



74 
.. ib. 



.. 26 

.. 157 

. 197 



6. parmla. L. 

5. panciflora. Link, 3-216. 
Eleoffiton v. Ele. ScL .. 

1. floitana. Link. 3-216. 
Elm. .. .. .. 

Elymos. 

1. arenarioa. L. 24-1672. 
caninus. L. ^ Triticnm, 4. 
Europatu. L. = Hordeom. 4. 

2. geniculatna. Curt 23-1586. 
Elyna v. Kob. . . . . 

1. caricina. M. et K. 20-1410. 

ElCPBTRB£. 

Empetrom. . . . . 

1. nigrum. L: 8-526. 
Enodium. Dnmort = Molinis, I. 
Epilobium. .. 

9. alpinnm. L. 28-2001. 

8. alainifolium. VUL 28-2000. 

1. angustifolium. L, 28-1947. 

1. /9. brachycarpum. 
4. kirnUum. Huda. 

3. hlrsutnm. L. 12-838. 

2. /9. lanoeolatnm. 

2. montanum. L. 17-1177. 

4. panriilorum. Schreb. 13-795. 
4. pubescent. Willd. 

3. ramotum. Huda. 

7. roseum. Schreb. 10-693. 

6. tetragonum. L. 28-1948. 

4. vUlotum. Curt. 

6. /9. Tirgatnm. Pries. 
Epimedium. 

1. alpinnm. L. 7-438. 
Epipactia. 

5. ensifolia. Sw. 7-494. 

3. grandiflora. Oaud. 4-271. 
1. latifolia. Su>. 4-269. 
1. $. media. A.-l 141, 1142. 
Nidus avis. Sw. = Neottia. 

1. 6. OTslia. 

3. pollens. Sw. 

2. palustria. Sw. 4-370. 
1. 7. purpurata. 38-2775. 

4. rubra. Sw. 7-437. 

5. xiphophylla. Sw. 
Eranthia. .. .. .. 

1. hyemalia. SaUsb, B.-4714. 
Erica. . . . . . • 

3. clliaris. L. 37-2618. 

2. clnerea. L. 15-1016. 
ceerulea, Willd. = Fbyllodooe. 
DcUxgcia. L. =: Daboed*. 

5. didymu. With. 

1. fi. Mackaii. Hook. 

4. Medlterranea. £. 38-2774. 

5. mnltlflora. Huds. 

1. Tetralix. L. 15-1014. 
5. yagana. L, 1-3. 

vulgaris. L. =s Callnna. 

1. 7. Wataoni. L. Cat. 

JSaRICBa. .. .. .. 

Erigeron. •• .. •• 

2. acre. L. 17-1158. 

3. alpinnm. L. 7-464. 

1. Canadenae. L. 29-3019. 



Pa«b. 



.. 195 

.. 71 
.. 193 



.. 197 

.. 161 
ibw 



42 



93 

167 



97 
118 



117 
16 



INDEX. 



231 



Page. 

3. fi, nniflorum. 34-2416. 
Ebiocaulba. .. .. 203 
Eriocftnlon. .. .. 204 

1. septangnlore. With. 11-733. 
Ekiophomm. .. .. .. 195 

8. /3. angoBtlfolium. Roth. 8-664. 

2. capiUtom. HotL 34-2387. 
ft. gracile. Roth. 34-2402. 

4. Utifolium. Schrad. 37-2633. 

3. polystachyon. L. 8-563. 

4. pubescens. Sm. 

2. Scheuchaeri. Both. 

5. triquelrum. Schrad. 

1. vaginatnin. L. 13-873. 

Erodiom v. Ger. . . . . 77 

2. cicntariam. Sm. 25-1768. 

1. maritimoin. Sm. 9-(i46. 

3. moschattim. Sm. 13-902. 
Erophila vulgaris. D. C. = Draba, 1 . 
Ervum. L. = Vicia, 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Eryngiom. .. .. .. ..33 

2. campestre. L. 1-57. 

1. maritimam. L. 10-718. 
Eryi imum v. Chei. 

AUiaria. L. ^ Alliaria, 1. 
Barharea. L. ^ Barbarea. 

1. Cheiranthoides. L. 14-942. 
officinale. L. = SiiTmbrium. 

3. orientale. Br. 26-1804. 

3. per/oliatum. D. C. 
prcBcox. 8m. = Barbarea, 4. 

2. yirgatum. Roth. B.-4389. 

Erythraa V. Chi. .. .. ..115 

1. Centaorium. Pert. 6-417. 

4. latifolia. Sm. 38-2719. 

2. piilchella. Hook. 7-458. 
4. littoralis. Hook. 

3. linarlfolia. Ed. Cat. 33-2305. 

4. ramotissima. £hr. 
Ettonymus. .. 

1. EuropenB. L. 6-362. 
Evpatoritun. 

1. cannabinam. L, 6-428. 

EUPUORBIEJE. 

Euphorbia. 

7. amygdaloidei. L. 4-256. 

6. coralloides. L. 39-2837. 

8. Cyparigsias. L, 12-840. 

5. epithymoides. Bab. 

9. esula. L. 20-1399. 

13. exigua. L. 19-1336. 

2. helioflcopeia. L. 13-883. 

4. Hibema. L. 19-1337. 

14. LathyriB. L. 32-2255. 

5. pabutrit. L. ? 

10. ParaliaB. L. 3-195. 

1. FdpUB. L. 28-2002. 

15. Peplns. L. 14-959. 
ft. pUoML L. 38-2787. 

3. platyphylla. L.l Jacq. Ic. Rar.,376. 

11. Portlandica. L. 7-441. 
3. fi. Btricta. R.-4767. 

Eaphrasia o. Bar. .. 140 

2. OdontiteB. L. 20-1416. 
1. offldnaliB. L. 20-1415. 

Syebright. .. .. .. 140 



71 

17 

159 
ib. 



Eyerlasting-pea. 
Evening-primroBe. . . 
Exacum, L. = Cicendia, 1. 



Page. 

6ft 

,. 42 



7. 
2, 

3. 



8. 
5. 
6. 



6. 
2. 



3. 



Fagopyrum esculentum = Polygonum, 3. 
FaguB. 
1. Bylyatica. L. 26-1846. 
Fedia. VaM. = Yalerianilla. 
Fennel. .. .. .. 

FescueTgrasB. 

Featuca. L. v. Bro., Buc, LoL, Sch., 

V Ul. •• .. a« .. 

arundinacea, Sclireb. 
bromoidea. L. 20-1411. 
Calamaria. Sm. =5 Foa, 19. 
/9. coesia. E. Bot. 27-1917. 
decidua. Sm. = Poa. 
decumbent. It. = Triodia, 1. 

5. duriuseula. L. 7-470. 

6. elatior. Host. 

7. elatior. L. 23-1593. 
Jluitans, L. = Poa, 17. 
gigantea. Sm. 26-1820. 
/9. kirsuta. 
/d. loliocea. Huds. 26-1821. 

3. ovina. L. 9-585. 
pinnata. Sm. = Triticum, 2. 
pratenBiB. Huds. 23-1592. 
/3. pseudo-myuruB. 

4. rubra. L. 29-2056. 
tylvatica. Sm. = Triticum. 
tylnatica. Vill. = Poa, 19. 
7. tenuifolia. Sibth. 

8. /S. triflora. E. Bot. 27-1918. 
1. uniglurais. Soland. 21-1430. 

Feverfew = Pyrethrum. 

Ficaria verna. Sm. = Ranunculus, 13. 

Field-madder. 

Filago. Log. .. .. 

1. Qallica. L. 33-2369. 
3. Germanica. L. 14-946. 

2. minima. L. 17-1157. 
Fig-wort. 

J^ iLIdC^B* •• •• •• •• 

Filmy-fern. .. 

Finger-grasB. 

Fiorin-graBB == AgroBtiB, 2. 

X lax. .. .. .• .. 

Flea-bane. • . • . . . . . 

Flix-weed = SiBymbrium, 3. 
Flowering-fern. .. 

Flowering-ruBh. .. 

Fleur-de-liB. 
Focniculum v. Meum. 

1. vulgare. Gcertn. 17-1208. 
FoorB-parsley. .. .. .. 

Fox-tail-grasB. 

Fox-glove. .. •. .. .. 

Fragarla. .. .. .. 

1. elatior. Ehr. 31-2197. 
sterilis. L. = PotentUU, 10. 

2. TCBca. L. 22-1524. 
Franksniejb. 

Frankenia. .. .. .. *. 

1. InviB. L. 2-205. 
Fraxinus. .. .. «. 



145 



37 

190 

190 



19 



28 
19 



141 
210 
215 
118 

78 
16 

216 

206 

168 

37 

36 
182 
140 

62 



112 
ib. 

124 



232 



1. czealiior. L, 24-1699. 

1. $, heteropliyllQa. VakU S5-S478. 

1. p. nmpUeifiMa. WUld. 
Fivnch wUlow = £pUoblu>, 1. 
Frltilkrla. .. 

1. Mcleagris. L, »-633. 
Fritillary. .. .. .. 

JProg-bit. •• •• 

Fuuuuria. L. .. 

8. eaieitrapa, 

1. cmpreolata. 



P4«B. 



IW 

163 
100 



B«b. 

L. 14-MS. 
ctavicuUUa. L. ^ Corydmlis, 1. 
UaU€H. Willd. =: CorytUUa, S. 
iM/ea. L. CorjdalU, 2. 
6. Uueantha. Vlr. 
1. mtdia. LoltcL 

3. micranthA. Lag. Hook. le. PL 363. 

4. oAcinalia. L. 9-SS9. 

3. twrriiiorm. Lain, 9-590. 

4. p. icandena. Reich, 
tolida 8m = CkMydmlli, 3. 

5. YailUntiL Lois. B..4452. 

FUMARIBJB. .. 100 

FomitoFj. . . ib. 

Forae. 66 



Oagva 0. Om. 

1. latMu Ktr. l-Sl. 
Oalanthuf. 

niralit. L. 1-19. 

Qaleobdolon v. OaL, Lam. 

1. Oaieopti*. Curt. 

1. luteum. Hmds. 11-787. 
Oaleofwia. 

1. anguHififUum. Ehr. 

4. eantuUdna. Willd. 

OcUeobdolan. L. =s Qaleobdolon. 

3. grandifiora. WUId« 

1. T4ulannni. L. 13-884. 

3. laUfblia. Ehr. 

3. ochroleaca. 13-3353. 

3. Tetrahlt. L. 3-307. 

4. rerticolor. Curt. 10-667. 
3. vHtota, Hada. 

Oaliba. 
Oaliam. 

9. Anglicnm. Uudt. 6-384. 
13. Aparine. L. 13-816. 

7. 3. ariitatom. 38-3784. 

3. boreale. L. 3-105. 

5. /9. cinerenm. ^/t 38-3783. 
I. cmciatum. L, 3-143. 

5. fi. d^usum. Hook. 

5. erectum. Huda, 39-3067. 
7. 7. inrabricum. 

7. Mollugo. L. 34-1673. 

6. nunUanum. Huds. 

5. p. monttmu$n. With. 
3. palnttre. L. 96-1857. 

6. procumbent. Witii. 

8. posillnm. L. 3-74. 

10. laeoharatam. L. 31-3173. 

6. MizatUe. L, 13-815. 

7. /9. fcabrum. Joc^. 
13. jjNfrtKm. Hodf. 



173 

170 

157 
135 



135 



87 
ib. 



14. ipariiuii. L. 36-1371. 

13. trloome. Wiih, SB-1641. 

10. trieome. O. Don. 

11. nlig1no»Bi. L, SS-1973. 
10. verrueonun, 8m. 

4. Tcrom. L, 10-660. 

3. p. WttbcrincU. An. 11.3306. 

14. p. Yaillantii. 

Qaatridiom. B^mof. Afr., Alo., MIL, 

1. Icndigemm. Link, 16-1107. 
OcnisCa. • « 

3. Anglica. L. 3-1 3S. 

1. piloM. L. 3-301. 

tcoparia. D. s: Sarothamnva. 

3. Unctoria. L. 1-44. 
Oontiana. 

1. AmarftUa. L, FL Daa. 338. 

1. p. AmtareUa, 8m. 

3. campettria. L. 4-337. 
cenfawrimm. L. = ErTthraa, 1. 
JUifbrmie, L. r= doendl*, 1. 

4. niraUi. L. 13-896. 

1. p. Oermanica. WiUd, 4-336. 

5. Pnenmonanthe. L, l-Mi 
3. Tema. L, 7-493. 

QBllTIAaBA. 

Oentianella. 

OBRANIBiB. 

Qcraniom. .. .. .. 

eieutarhtm. L. = bodiam, 3. 
13. coltunbiniim. L. 4-859. 
18. dlMectnm. 11-753. 

10. p, homile. Com, 
7. luddam. L, 1-75. 

1. p. LancaitriesM. WUk. 

11. moUe. L. 11-778. 
matehatum, L. ^ Erodivm, 3. 

3. nodotnm. L, 16-1091. 

6. phaum. L. 5-333. 
5. pratenn. L. 6-404. 

10. puiilliim. L, 6-385. 

3. pTrenaiciua. L. 6-405. 

7. p. BaU. 

8. Bobertianmn. L. 31-1486. 

9. rotnndifoUum. L, 3-157. 
1. MUkgaineom. L. 4-373. 

4. syWaticnm. L. 8-131. 
Germander = Yeronkat 3. 
Genm. . . 

3. p. hybridom. L, 

1. p. intermedium. 

3. rirale. L. 8-1061 

1. urbannm. L. 80-1400. 
Oithago. D. 0. =s Lyehnii, 3. 
Gladwyn = Irii, 3. 
Globe-flower. 
Glaucium. .. .. .. 

1. flavum. Grants. 

1. luteum. 8eop, 1-8. 

I. viUaeeum, ftoa. 
Glanx. .. .. .. 

maritima. L* 1-lS. 
Oleehoma. L. =: Kepeta, 1. 
Glyceria. 8m. = Foa. 13, 14, 16, 17, 

31. 
Qmvhalinm. 



Paob. 



184 
67 

115 



114 

115 

76 

ib. 



61 



96 
99 



.. 198 

19. 
.. 19 



IITDEJC. 



233 



6. 
1. 
1. 
3. 
3. 
6. 
6. 
5. 
4. 



Pa OB. 



Ughf. 
dioicnm. L. 4-367. 
B, h7periK»««m. 37-2640. 
intoo-albmn. L. 14-1002. 
margariteeemn. L. 39-2018. 
/9. fmsfUnin. Heenke, 
■apinnm. L. 17-1193.? 



fylTaticmn. L. 13-913. 
aUginoram. L. 17-1194. 
Gold of pleanire. 
Goodyera. 

1. repens. Br. 5-289. 
Ooowbeny. .. .. 

GooM-foot. .. 
(jrono. . . . . 

Goot-wocd. • . 
Greek- valerian. 
Green-weed. 

Groond-lry = Nepeta, 1. 
Groondiel. .. 
Qrauivkm. 
GroMMiMMf ^ Ceterach. 
Gbomvl A RI EM. 
Ooelder-rofe. 
Gymnadenia v. Orch. 

1. eonopeea. Br. l-IO. 

albida. Rich. = Uabenaria. 

Habenaria v. Gym., Orch., Per., Pla. 

1. allrida. Br. 8-505. 
3. bifolla. Br. 1-22. 

3. /S. chlorantha. Hook. 1-32. 

2. Tiridis. Br. 2-94. 
Halffnuu. Wallr. = Atriplex, 1 , 2. 
Hairbell = Campanala, 10. 
Halorages. . . 
Hare'a-tail-grara. 
Hawthorn. 
Hasel-nnt. 

Heart't-eaae = YioU, 1. 
Heath. 
Heath-graM. 
Hedge-mustard. 
Hedge-parsiey. 
Hedcra. 

1. Helix. L. 18-1267. 
Hedysarum onobrfchu. L.' 
Helianthemum. 

5. Breweri. Planck. 

3. cannm. Dun. 6-396. 

4. gnttatnm. Mitl. 9-544. 

1. polifoliom. Amott. 19-1322. 

2. >3. rarreganam. 31 2207. 

3. 7. tomentoiam. 31-2208. 
3. Tolgare. Gtertn. 19-1321. 

Hellebore. 
HeUeboma. 

1. fcBtidoa. L. 9-613. 

3. viridii. L, 3-200. 
Helminthia 0. Pic 

1. echioidet. Ocerm. 14-972. 
Heloeciadlnm v. Sli. . . 

2. inundatnm. Koek. 3-327. 
1. nodiflonun. Koek. 9-639. 
1. fi. repcna. Koch, 30-1431. 



109 
166 

29 
91 
66 
38 
1-26 
67 

18 

168 

29 
26 



166 



•• r 


.. 43 

.. 185 
.. 50 
.. 144 




.. 117 
.. 188 
.. 108 
.. 32 
.. 39 


[hjobryt 

• • 


:hit, 1. 
.. 101 



97 
lb. 



13 
37 



Hemlock. .. .. .. .^ 

Hemp-agrimony. .. .. 

Hemp-nettle. 

Heracleum. . . . . . . 

1. j8. angnstifolinm. Sm. 

1. iphondyliom. L. 14-939. 
Henbane. .. .. .. .. 

Herb-Bennett == Genm, 1. 

Herb-Christopher = Actasa, 1 . 

Herb.-Gerarde. 

Herb.-Paris. 

Herb.-Bobert =■ Geranium, 8. 

Herb-two-pence = Lysimachia, 3. 

Herminium v. Oph. . . . . . . 

1. Monorchis. Br. 1-71. 
Hemiaria. .. .. .. .• 

1. glabra. L. 3-206. 

1. 7. ciliata. Beib. 20-1379. 

1. fi. lubciliata. 
Uespens. .. .. .. .. 

7. inodora. L. 

1. matronaliB. L. 11-731. 

! Hieracium. .. .. .• 

2. alpinum. L. 16-1110. 

13. /3. angufltifolinm. 

4. aurantiacum. L. 21-1469. 

10. amplexicanle. L. 37-2690. 

15. boreale. Friet. 6-349. 
9. centunculus. L. 34-2378. 

14. denticulatum. Sm, 30-2122. 
2. /d. HaUeri. ViU. 34-2379. 
7. inuloides. Tausch, 

13. Upvigatum. Koch. 

1. PUosella. L. 19-1093. 

14. prenantkoides. Sm. 
6. prenanthoides. VOL 32-2235. 

12. 7. pseudo-pictom. 

5. /9. pulmonarium. VUL 33-2307? 

2. /S. pumilum, Willd. 

11. labaudum. L. 

12. iylvaticum. Sm. 29-2031. 

6. spicatum. AIL 

16. fi. Taylori. 
Turaxaci. L. = Oporinia, 1 /8. 

16. umbellatnm. L. 25-1771. 

2. /9. villosum. Urn. 
12. vulgatum. Fries. 
Hierochloe e. HoL .. .. .. 

1. borcalis. Raem. 37-2641. 
High-taper =: Verbascnm, 1. 
Hippocrepia. .. .« 

I. comosa. L. 1-31. 
Hipp<9had. .. •• 

rhamnoides. L, 6-425. 
Hippuris. 

1. Tulgaria. L. 11-763. 
Hirculus. L. = Saxifraga, 6. 
Holcns. .. .. .. .. 

avenaceu*. Soop. = Arrhenathemm. 
borecdis. Schrad. ■=- Hierochloe, 1. 

2. Unatns. L, 17-1169. 
1. moUii. L. 17-1170. 

odoratus. Li. = Uierochloe, I. 
Hog's-fennel. 
Hog- weed. .• 



Paob. 
r 32 
. 17 
. 135 
. 35 



125 



38 
171 



166 
86 



108 



187 



64 
157 



189 



35 
35 



X 2 



Pa««. 




l-tl. 



I. VM. I7-I0ML 
L. 2»>1»7I. 
I- 
iib^. 6-409. 

WTlld. 




u 


1. sanm. 


L. 


1-M. 




■Bdbraa 


iu. 


L. = Tfniilii. 1. 


117 


yv»_ 


• • 


• • • • 


m 


1. A<«iM] 


tlHB. 


. L. 7-4ML 


S7 


lUCUBX. 


• • 


•• • • 


M 


IlXBCmBBX 


M. 


«• • • 


IM 


vcfftKin 


■tw 


B. ll' IS-M.' 


in 


lapaticaiw 


• • 


• • • • 




IL fklra. 


.V^X. J9.1194. 




1. STofe-M 


r Of 


Bffrtc. L. 13-987. 




■HB, 


3L 






Infer. Com. 


• • • • 




1. cxmya- 


D 


. C. 17-1 IM. 




1. rrilkwaO 


Mm 


. L. 




1. CritluBoideiL ^ l-CI^ 


itt ' 


- ■ ■-_ J- ■ 
cynMBFi 


iCM. 


Witk. = Pidianfe. 1. 


144 


^Mlift 


ran 


u L. = PidieBriB, IL 


M 


■ItflMM 


m. 


8Mh. = PMliaria,t. 


IM 


latik 


m m 


• - •• 


M 


Maetorla. 


L. t-97. 



4S 

114 



I. p.li 
Hoavli 

Inpvloiw L. 6-t27. 
HalrhiBflia r. Lcp. •• 

I. pctiM. Br. S.I1I. 
H^memthMM. L. 

»»m-tcnphu. Li. = AfnrhM, I. 
r^rftiitf. It. := Jfaaeafl, I. 
HTDBOCBAUDI 



I 




L. V 
Bydfocotylc r. 

1. Tvlffwic L. 11-751. 
HjTBBCDOiAylliini. 

miaham. 8m. = Trieboauukea. 

1. Tonbrifeiue. Smt. 3-l6t. 

S. WilioaL ffoo*. 37-2686. 
HyoKiamsc 

1. niger. L. 9-591. 
Htpcbicivkjl 

ziTPCTICUlll. . . 

t. AndroHemiim. L, 18 1S3.V 

5. bubiaiim. Jmeq. 38-1986. 
I. Cftlyefnimi. L. S9-3017. 

11. /3. delphinetue. Yill. 
11. dabinm. Leers. 5-396. 

9. elodet. L. 3-109. 

9. hirititviB. L. 17-1156. 

3. hiim'ftiram. L. 18-1226. 

4. linmriirolinm. VakL 39-3851. 
11. /9. maraUtam. CrntUM. 

6. montanom. L. 6-371. 
10. perfbratam. L. 5-295. 

7. palekmai. L, 17-1327. 
13, qnadraofalom. £. 6-370. 
1 3 tetrapterum. Friea. 
llypodueris v. Ach. . . 

3. glabra. Im 8-575. 
I. maenUta. L. 4-225. 
3. radicata. L. 12-831. 



lit : 

107 I 

I 



163 
lb. 

33 

315 



135 

73 
ib. 



PAai. 
. 107 



117 



IIS 
85 
ib. 

77 



17 



1. 
iMlcpisr. HoL 



L. 37- 
L. IS^IOM. 
1. 



Ill 
41 

316 
191 



1. BokmAamm. Sekrmd. 913-1613. 
3. /S. 

3. 

3. Sariaaa. Ana. el Sek. 3»-9783. 

1. ^eksaM. 

Avy • • • • • • • • 




1. BKMtaBa. L. 13-183. 
Jvsci 
it 
16L aeatiionia. EAr. 4-338. 

8- acntiu L. 33-1614. 

5. arcHemt. Hook. 
19. articalatiML £. Bet. 
17. h. BabiagtoalL L. CmL 

6. Balticos. WiUd, 37-3681. 
11. bighuali. L. 13-896. 
10. /3. bracteatiii. 
31. bnfoniiM. L. 11-801. 
17. fi. SolhoMM. L, 

emmtpeetri*. WlUd. = : 
13. eapltatea. Weig. 37-1644. 
13. eaaUDeoa. &n. 13-900. 
10. ^ eaenoRH. Beiek, 37-3680. 
3. /). eoeipactiia. LeigU. 

30. eomprmM. Jacq. 13-838. 
3. congkMneiataa. L. 11-835. 
5. dilfDMis. Hoppe. 

3. cAuaa. L. 12-836. 
3. fi. einttiu. LeigkL 

31. fi. fiMciciilatiM. 

1. llUformia. L. 17-1175. 
Forsteri, ftn. =s Losola, 3. 
15. Qemeri. 



17S 
17S 



INDEX. 



235 



Pagb. 



Faob. 



4. gUoeoa. SOtJL 10-665. 




3. distectum. WHh. 




9. graeiiis, BoCk. 




3. inciram. WiUd, 27-1933. 




15. graeUU. flm. 




2. Intennediimu Pries. B. 964. 




a. h^UxuB. Bclhaii. 




5. macnUfcam. L, 




If. LMBpoewpna. Bhrh. 90-2143. 




4. purpoream. L. 27-1933. 




7. marttimiia. Sm. 25-1726. 




6. tmlgatum. Benth. 




maximut. Ehr. = LuzaU, 4. 




Lamb'a-lettuoe. 


24 


IOL wumatUluu. Jaoq. 




Lappa. Toom. := AKottiun, 1. 




19. newtor9tut. Sibth. 




T^apMina. 


8 


If. /3. BigriteUna. Sm. 37-2643. 




ekondritloides. L. = Crepia, 1. 




14. obtnsiflonu. £*r. 30-2144. 




1. oommimii. L. 12-844. 




pilonu. Lu := Lasala, 2. 




minima. Lam. — Amoaeria. 




15. fi. polffcepkalut. D. Don. 




pusiUa. Willd = Amoaeria. 




17. /S. getifoUu$. Ehr. 




Larbraa. St. Hil. = 8tellaria, 8. 




gpieahu, L. = Liuii1a, 1. 




Iiarkapur. . 


97 


19. SprenteUi. Wflld. 




Laatreao. Aq^ 


212 


19. aqiuuToni*. Z,. 13-933. 




3. eriatata. Presl. 30-2125. 




17. /9. tabrerticDlatiis. Wul/. 




7. delitata. Pretl. 21-1460. 




17. Ripfniia. IfomrA. 12 801. 




4. FiUx-maa. PresL 21-1456. 




tylvaUetu, Hod*. =£ Imsnlft, 4. 




1. Oreopteria. PrtsL 15-1019. 




19. gybfoiieut. Wnid. 




5. rigida. PregU 38-2724. 




la. tenmit. flooic. 31-2174. 




6. apinoaa. Netnm. 




9. trifldna. L, 21.1482. 




2. ThelTPteria. Presl. 15-1018. 




10. Iriglnmi*. £. 13-889. 






114 


17. tOtginotu*. Bibtti. 




1. aquamaria L. 1-50. 




jMoft-ladder =r FolenKmimn, 1. 




Lathyma v. Pia. 


65 


Jointed Charlock rs Baphanns, 2. 




1. Aphaca. L. 17-1167. 




Jointed OlaM-wort ~ Balieornia, 1. 




3. hirantoa. L. 18-1255. 




Jmiipnr* 


162 


5. latifolina. L. 16-1106. 




Jmupama. 


ib. 


8. maritimna. Big. 15-1046. 




1. wmimla L. 16-1100. 




2. Niaaolia. L. 3-112. 




1. /3. nana. Sm. 38-2743. 




7. palnatria. L. 3-169. 

8. pisiformit. L. 




Kklney-TeCdi. 


67 


6. pratenaia. L. 10-670. 




IDppcr-nut. 


39 


4. aylreatria. L. 12-805. 




KniVpiav.Aer.Clia. 


181 


LaTatera. •• 


75 


agnwtidca. Sm. 16-1127. 




1. arboiea. L. 26-1841. 




Kn^Mreed =s Centerea, 5. 




LB0DMIir08.B. 


63 


Knanna v. Sea. 


23 




205 


arrenria. CouU. 10-659. 




3. gibba. L. 18 1233. 




JLOItVCl* 


93 


2. minor. L. 16-1095. 




^UBIW*^FBflp« 


85 


4. polyrhtza. L. 35-2458. 




tMresia, Willd = Elyna, I. 




1. trianlra. L. 13-926. 




Kaahleria V. Aira., Airo., FOa. .. 


188 


LK9TIBUI,ARIB.B. .. 


143 


1. eriatata. Pert. 9-648. 




L«opard*a-bane. 


19 


Koniipa. 


106 


Leontodon. . . . . 


12 


1. maritima. Pert. 25-1729. 




autumnale. Lu =Oporinia, 1. 
1 fi. dnbinm. 




XjABIATA* 


130 


1. hirtnm. L. 8-555. 




J^bCvOCAv 


10 


2. hiapidnm. L. 8-554. 




2. MOigna. Zr. 10-707. 




qffleinaie. With. = Tarazaeam, 1. 




1. mnralia. L. 7-457. 




paiusiris. Sm. = Tarazaenm, 1 6. 




4. aeariola. L. 4-268. 




tttraxaeum. L. = Tarazacmn* 1. 




4. sffb/estri*. Lanu « 




Leonnma. .. .. .. 


134 


3. TiroM. L. 28-1957. 




1. cardiaca. L. 4-286. 




I^aUaa-flnger. 


11 


Lepidinm V. Coeh. 


109 


Ladiea-alipper. 


168 


2. campeatre. Br. 20-1385. 




Ladlaa-Traeea = SpiranthM, 1. 




iJUdifmum. L. — Corooopiaa, 2. 




Lady'a-Biantle. 


49 


4. Draba. L. 37-2683. 




liagnma. 


185 


5. latifolinm. L. 2-182. 




orataa. I. 19-1334. 




petreeum. L. = Hntehinaia, 1. 




I^unf nm. 


134 


3. mderale. L. 23-1595. 




6. album. L, 11-768. 




1. Smithii. Hoolc 26-1803. 




1. amplexieaate. L. 11-770. 




Lepturut = BottboUa, 1, 2. 




Otdeottdotam. Grania. =s Oalaohdo- 




l^KSCDAfia 


10 


lon,l. 




A^^wi^a^Bw ■• •• •• 


70 



236 



iin>sx. 



Paoi 



1. actimiB. L. 9-611. 
Libanofit momtanm ^ SckU, 1. 
LignaCienm. 

eomiMens9. L. = Phywfpermiini, 1. 
Memm. Grants := Menm, 1. 
1. Hroticom. L. 17 1207. 
LifQrtruni. .. .. •« 

1. Tulgare. L. 11-764. 

lAif ofthe Valley = ConTallaria, 1. 
Limtbmrda. Can. = Inula, 'i. 



1. aqoatica. L. 5-357. 

Ltnaria o. Ant. 

1. CrnibaUria. Mill. 7-502. 

5. ElaUne. Dt^f. 10-692. 

7. Italiea. Trev. R. 608. 

4. minor. D€^f. 28-2014. 

6. PeliMeriana. D. C. 39-2832. 

8. /3. Peloria. 4-260. 

5. repens. AH. 18-12.53. 

2. qmria. Mitt. 10-691. 

8. Tulgaria. JUetnek. 10-658. 
Llndcn-tiQC* • • 

A^ing* *. .. 

LlnnMa. 

1. borealli. Oronov, 7-433. 
Linum. I 

2. angnstifoliom. Hud*. 6-381. 
4. catharticom. L 6-382. 

3. perenne. L. 1-40. 
Radiola. L. =: Radiol a. 

2. terutifoUum. With. 
1. uBitatiMimum. L. 19-1357. 
Liparis. 0. Blal., Oph. 

1. LoBMlii. Rich. 1-47. 
Liftera v. Opli. 

2. cordaU. Br. 5-358. 
Nidus-avii. IIooli. = Neottia. 

1. orau. Br. 22-1548. 
Lithocpermum. 

1. arrente. L. 2-123. 
maritimum. Lelim. = Steenharainera. 

2. officinale. L. 2-134. 

3. porporeo-caruleam. L. 2-117. 
Littorella. 

lacustris. L. 7-468. 
Lire-long ^ Sedom, 1. 
Lloydia *i. Anth. • . 

1. lerotina. Salisb. 12-792. 
Lobelia. • . • • 

2. Dortmanna. L. 2-140. 
1. urent. L. 14-953. 

Logfia. Cast. = Filago, 1 , 2. 
Loueluria. Dear. = Azalea, 
l^olium. •. •• " .. 

1. /3. aristatom. 

3. fi. arrenae. With. 16-1125. 
bromoide*. Hud*. = Feituca, 1 . 

2. multiflorum. Lam. 
1. perenne. L. 5-315. 

3. temulentum. L. 16-1124. 
1. f. tenue. L. 



124 
171 



141 

74 
142 



74 

78 

118 

27 

78 



164 
167 



121 



172 
24 



193 



Lmmaria. Ed. Cat. = Bleehli 
London-rocket =: SiiTmbrinm, 8. 
London-pride ^ SaxifragEt 4. 

LOHICBRBJL 

liOntoera. •• •• *• 

1. eaprifblinm. L. 12-799. 

2. peridTmennm. Z>. 12-800. 

3. Xyloctenm. L. 13-916. 

LORAaTHB^S. 

Lotoi. •• .. •• 

3. angnstiMimna. L. 13-925. 

1. comicolatn*. L. 30-2090. 
3. /9. hitpidn*. 

3. dijftutu. Sm. 

2. fl. glabrioacalnt. Bab. 

2. major. Scop. 80-2091. 

1. /3. tennis. Bab. 37-2615. 
Loose- wort. . • 

LoTage. 

Lnoeme = Medicago, 3. 
Lung-wort. 
Lnzula v. Jun. 
6. arcnata. Sm. 37-2688. 

5. campestris. fViUd. 10 672. 

6. fi. congesu. D. C. 38-2718. 

3. Forsteri. D. C. 18-1293. 

4. maxima. Hook. 

2. piloea. WUU. 11-786. 
1. tpicata. D. C. 17-1176. 

4. sylvatica. Rieh. 11-737. 
Lyctinit T. Agrostemma. 

5. Alpina. L. 32-2254. 
1. dioica. L. 

1. dioica alba. 8m. 

1. fi. dioica rubra, Sm. 

1. diurna. Sibth. 22-1580. 

2. Flos-cuculL L. 8-578. 

3. Githago. D. C. 11-741. 

1. /8. sylTcstris. Hoppe. 22-1579. 

1. 7. respertina. Sibth. 22-1580. 

4. Viacaria. L. 11-788. 
Lycofodibjb. 
Lycopodium. 

5. alpinum. L. 4-234. 

2. annotium. L. 24-1727. 
I. claratnm. L. 4-224. 

3. inundatnm. L. 4-239. 

4. selaginoide*. L. 16-1148. 

6. Selagu. L. 4-233. 
Lyoopsis. . . . . • . 

violacta. Ray = firhinm, 1 . 

1. arveiisis. L. 14-938. 
Lycopus. 

£urop»a8. L. 16-1105. 
Lyme-grasB. .. 
Lytimachia. 
4. Nemorum. L. 8-527. 
3. Nummular ia. L. 8-528. 
tenella. L. = Anagallis, 2. 

2. tluryrsiflora. L. 3- 176. 
1. vulgariii. L. 11-761. 

LrrnRARiBiB. 
Lythrum. .. .. 

1. hyssopifolium. Sihtk. 5-292. 

2. SaUcaria. L. 15-1061 . 



Paob. 



15 

ib. 



40 
.. 70 



131 
36 

129 
175 



81 



. 217 
tb. 



.. 118 



.. 193 
.. 123 



.. .45 
• • lb. 



INDXX. 



237 



Mftdwort* 

Madder. •• 

Malanthemum v. Con. 8ci. 

bifoUnm. D, C. 1«24. 
MftidenVludr. .. 

ICalaxis. L. v. Oph. . . 

LaseUii, 8w. := Lifwris. 
1. palodOM. L, 1-72. 
Mallow. 

dUUvCvB* 
JUU Vft* 

8. /9. borealU. LHjebl. 

1. motcluita. Z/. 11-754. 

3. /9. ptuilia, 8m. 

8. rotnndifoU*. X,. 6-1092. 

3. fyWeitris. L, 10-671. 
Muuut-gnuM = Poa, 17. 
Maple. 

MareVtail. .. 
Maijorum. . . 
Maxnin = AnmK^hillat 1. 
Marmbium. 

1. Tulgare. L, 6-410. 
MartUa. Cass. = Anthemis, 4 
Marsh-mallow. 
Marsh-marigold. 
Marsh-penny- wort. 
Marsh-samphire = Solicomia, 
Marsh-trefolL 
Marsh- wort. 

Master- wort = Fenoedanum, 3 
Marsilib JE. 
Mat-grass. 
Matricaria. .. 

1. chamomilla. L. 18-1232 

mart/tmo. L. = Chrysantheroam, 4 ^. 
Parthenium* L. =r Chrysanthemum, 4. 
MatthioU v. Chei. 

27-1935. 
7-462. 



Paob. 
. 127 
. 27 
. 174 



Br. 
Br. 



1. incona. 

2. sinnata. 
Maj. 

Meadow-grass. 
Meadow-rue. 
Meadow-saflh>n. 
Meadow-saxifrage. 
Meadow-sweet. 
Meconopsis v. Pap. 

1. Cambrica. D. C. 1-66. 
Medicago. .. 
6. fi. apicnlata. 

5. /8. canescens. 

8. falcata. L. 15-1616. 

6. denticulate. Wtild. 37-2634. 
1. Inpnlina. L. 14-1616. 

4. macuUta. Sibth. 23-1616. 

6. minima. WtUd. 87-2635. 

4. polymorpka. L. 

4. satlTa. L. 25-1749. 
Medick. 
Medlar. 
Melampymm. Reick. 

8. arrense. L. 1-53. 

1. crirtatnm. L. 1-41. 

8. 7. latifolimn. 

3. /9. montanum. 

3. pratenae. L. 2-113. 



215 
164 



75 
ib. 
ib. 



72 

43 

133 

134 



76 
96 
33 

116 
37 

216 

182 

21 



108 



50 
186 
94 
174 
36 
62 
99 

69 



69 

50 

140 



4. sylvaticum. L. 12-804. 

HELAHTHK.S. 

Melica. .. .. .. 

ceentUa. L. = Molinia, 1 . 

decumbens. Web. =^ Triodia, 1. 
2. Lobelii. Yill. 

1. morUana. Hods. 
2. mUaru. Hnds. 

1. nutens. L. 15-1059. 

2. nniflora. Retz. 15-1058. 
Melissa. 

1. ofBcinalis. 

Melilotus. . . • • . . 

2. UucarUha. Koch. 

1. officinalis. L. 19-340. 

2. vulgaris. WiUd. 37-2689. 
Melittis. 

1. grandiflora. 8m. 9-636. 

1. HeUssophyUum. L. 9-577. 
Mentha. .. .. .. 

5. acutifolia. Sm. 34-2415. 
9. /8. agrestis. Sole. 

6. aquatica. Huds. 7-447. 

5. arveruit. Benth. 

9. arvensis. L. 30-2119. 

2. /?. Brittingeri. 

6. /9. citrata. Ehr. 15-1025. 
4. /9. crispiformis. 

1. y. crispa. L. 30-2785. 

8. 7. gentilis. E. B. 30-2118. 
8. 7. gracilis, 8m. 

3. hircina. HuU. 
6. hirtuta, L. 

2. longifoUa. Hads. 

2. nemorota. Willd. 
6. /8. odorata. Sole. 

3. qffUinalit. HnU. 
3. /9. ovata. 

8. paludoMO. Sole. 

6. palustris. Sole. 

3. piperita. Sm. 10-687. 

9. prepcox. Sole. 

7. Pulegium. L. 15-1026. 

1. rotundifolia. L. 7-446. 

8. rivalis. Sole. 

8. /3. rubra. Sm. 20-1413. 
8. satira. L. 7-448. 

2. sylrestris. Sm. 10-686. 

1. /8. yelutina. Bab. 
8. verticiUata. L. 

2. tnllota. Huds. 

4. Tiridis. L. 30-2424. 

AlBBiTtfEA. .. .. .. 

Menyanthes. . . . . 

nymp/uBoidet. L. = Yillarsia. 

1. trifoUato. L. 7-495. 
Menzieria. Sm. 

cofrulea. 8w. = Phyllodoce. 
potifolia. Sm. Dabceda. 
Mercurialis. . • . . 

2. annua. L. 3-559. 

I. perennis. L. 26-1872. 
Mespilus. 

cotoneeuter. L. = Cotoneaster. 
1. Oermanica. L. 22-1523. 

Oxycatttha, Sm. =x Cratagas, 1. 



Paob. 

. 174 

. 188 



137 
67 



134 



132 



130 
116 



159 



50 



238 



1. athanuuitleam. Jaeq. 32-2249. 
FwfUcMUtm, Sfveiif. ^ Fanlculom, 1. 



Faob. 
lb. 



1. effuMUB. L. 16-1106. 

Itndigerutik, L. := Qaatridiom, I. 
Mignonette. 
MillfbiL 
Milk-thiftle. 
Milk-wort. .. 
Mllk-retch. .. 
Mint. 

MiUet-graM. 
Mimaliu. 

1. luteus. L. 
MiMletoe. 

Uatnekia. Ehr. = Segtna, 1. 
Mcekringia, L. = Arenaria, 4. 
Molinia v. Ain., HcL 

I. c«rale«. JUetnck. 11-750. 

1. /3. depaaperata. 
MonJc'f-hood. 
Moon-wort. 
Moor-griM. .. 
Monotropa. . . 

1. Hypopitjt. L. 1-69. 
Montia. 

1. fbntana. L. 17-1206. 
MoeehatelL .. 
Mountain Ash = Fynu, 6. 
Mouw-ear Chickweed. 
Molgediom. 

1. alpiaun. Let*. 34-2425. 
Mullein. 
Mutcari v. Ilya. 

1. raoemonun. Mill. 27-1931. 
Muik-thistie = Carduus, 2. 
Mustard* 
Myoeotia. 

4. alpettru, Sm. 

6. arreniis. Uojfm. 36-2629. 

5. OBspitOMu Schultx. 37-2661. 

7. oollina. Hoffm. 36-2558. 

6. ifUermedia. Link. 

1. paluftrit. Rofh. 28-1973. 

2. paiuttris, /9. Hook. 

2. repeni. Don. 32-2703. 

3. rupincola. 8m. 
1. tcorpioidet. It. 

4. lylvatica. Hoffm. 37-2630. 
3. luaveolens. KU. 36-2559. 

8. renicolor. Erh. 7-480. 
Myoeum*. 

minimus. L. 7-435. 
Myrica. •. >• 

1. Oale. L. 8-562. 
Myricbjb. .. 
Myriophyllnm. . . . . 

1. alternifoUum. D. C. 39-2854. 

2. fpicatnm. L. 2-83. 

3. rerticillatum. L. 4-213. 
Myrrhif = CluBrophyllum, 1« 2, 3. 

1. odorata. Scop, 10-697. 

Ifardssus. 



70 
185 



111 

21 

14 

72 

66 

132 

185 

142 

40 



188 



97 
216 
185 
120 

87 

39 

83 
11 

141 
173 



110 
128 



96 

157 

157 
43 



169 



5. biflonu. CmrL 4-276. 
1. poetieos. L. 4-375. 

3. Peeudo-aarchia. L. 1-17. 
Nardna. •• «• 

■tricta. L. 6-290. 
Nartbecinm v. Aba.» Anth. 

1. OMifiragnm. Hud$, 8-636. 
Nasturtium. 

4. amphibium. Br. 26-1840. 
3. anceps. ReUk, IL-4364. 

1. ofBcinale. Br. 12-856. 

2. syUestre. Br. 33-3824. 

6. terrestre. Br. 36-1747. 
NeoUia v. EpL, Us. Oph., 161. 

€e$tivaUs. D. C. = Spiranthes, 3. 

Nidus-ayis. Rich, 1-48. 

repens. 8w. = Goodyera, 1. 

tpiralu. 8w. ^ Spixantlies, 1. 
Kepeta v Ole. 
8 cataria. L. 8-137. 
1. Glechoma. Btnik. 13-863. 

1. /3. liirsuta. 
Nettle. 

Nightshade. .. 
Nit-grass. 

Norwood-oak = Qnercos, 2. 
Nuphar. o. Nym. 

2. Kalmiana. Hook. 

1. Intea. 8m, 3-159. 

2. minima. £. Bot 

2. pumila. D. C. 33-3293. 
Nymph JEBJL 

Nymptuea. .. .. 

1. alba. L. 3-160. 

UtUa, Jj, = Nuphar, 1. 

X^fllKa • • • • 

vS>W • • • • • • 

CEnanthe. v. Fhe. 
6. crocata. L. 83-2313. 

1. flttalosa. L. 6-363. 

3. /?. fluTiatilis. 

4. Lachenalii. Gm»l. 5-348. 

2. peucedanifolia. Poll. 

3. rhellandrium. Spreng, 10-684. 

5. pimpinelioides. Lets, 
2. Sialifolia. Beib. 

2. Smithii. L*e*. 6-848. 
<Enothera. .. 
1. biennis. L. 22-1534. 

vLBIRBA. .. .. •. 

OlfAGRBA. .. 

Onobrychis v. Hed. 

1. sativa. Lam, 2-96. 
Ononis. .. .. 

1. aryensis. L. 10-683. 

1. p. antiquomm. L. 37-8669. 

2. reclinata. L, 
1. /8. spinota. Jj, 

Onopordum. « . • « 

1. acanthtum. L. 14-977. 
Ophioglossum. 

Yulgatum. L. 3-108. 
Opkiunu. BeauY. = BottboUia, 1. 
Ophrys v, Ordi. . • 

Anthropophira, L. ^ Aceraa, 1. 



7a«B. 



181 



104 



133 



158 
185 
184 

98 



98 
ib. 



145 

189 

35 



43 

124 
41 
63 

67 



15 
316 

16f 



239 



Paos. f 




L. »-«Sl. 

B«dL 8-110. 
L. 1-lS. 



i«-iia. 




8m. Zt'K». 




r» I*, M-TJ9^ 

Ml RHkj 
L l^llilu 
1. 
flttliz, 4, IS, 11, 14. Mu 

• • • • • 

I^ S-10». 



12 



90 
16» 



133 
173 

64 



112 
119 
21S 





PjltfS. 


Oxalic. 


71 


1. fBtUmXU. L. 11-7«S. 




2. eoraieslala. I. 24-17261 




OX'^yc • • • • * • 


20 


Ox-lip = Prfmnla, 2. 




Ox^coeeuM. Bidi. = ▼friai— , 1, 2. 




OxjTis r. Bom. 


19 


ffc- -t-|,|M|J- 


66 


uxyuDpic 


2. camptatrU. D. C. Zfi-iSM. 




1. nnJcmi*, 2>. C, 7-466. 





ConlllM. B«£c tt-MlZ, 
Tt&^ = Ptiaala, 3L 
Panirmm, 'L. 

Cru^gaUL L. = EeUaoch]M,l. 

utngrumalig. I* ^ lMsitark^ 1, 

vertieillettwm. I* = 8ctaria,2. 

eiriile. Lu = ScCois, 1. 
Tmamj ■=. Tiob, 1, 2. 

1. ArftaoM. £. »-6a. 

3. datHmn. X» Su644. 

2. hjltndn^ £. 1-43. 
1. fi. maritonnt. 

5. wrnnHavm, U 30-21 4S. 

PaFATEKKjC 

Pwitsuati^ •. 

1. oAdMdiai JL. l»-«7», 
Faria. 

1. «MdrBbiia. L. 1-7. 



87 



1. Maitria. L. 2-«3. 
Panlej, 
Fanlcy-f^iot. = AldwalOa, 2. 



1. 

1. Mtrra. L. 6-^96. 
PMl'a-Betoay = Tcymriea, IS. 
Pea = Latb jnv, &, 
Peagi-wart, •• 



Ftodiealaria. .. 
1. iwIbMiji. i. 
; 2! fflratiea. L. 6-440. 
Peaay-fojal =s Ifgatha, 7. 

I 1. Ptortala. L. 17-1211. 
i Ttppenmhkt = Mnrtha, 3, 
' Feriviakk. .. .. 

Posias-vilkm = EpOabtaa^ 1. 



66 

PertTftt^ku, UtaOL ■=■ 

1. k^brida, E. Boc 6-430. 
• 1. Twlsaria. />(4/: 6-431. 
I Pttiuatltaos. •• 

I 1. ntrnaa. ITarA. 3».27». 
816 . 2. Mcetou ICbdL 4-828u 
I P cwca d aa — v, lapt .. 
; 1. oSeiaale. L. 2»-1767. 
7S I 3L Omnthimm. K^ek. 80-1300. 



1,2. 



89 

IM 

171 
74 
3t 
34 
34 



ft 



116 
§7 
10 



240 



INDEX. 



5. paliutrv. Mttnek, 4-S39. 
SUatu. L. s SUau. 1. 

PhaUrU v. Dig. .. 

artnaria. WUld. =s Fhleom, 6. 
a. Mmndiiuoaa. L. 6-401. 

1. Canariensli. L. I9-1S10. 
panieuUtta. Alt. = Fhleam, 1. 
PkUoidti. L. =: Phleam, 4. 

2. /9. picU. 
PbeMaiit't-ejre. 

PkMandrium. L. =r (Enftnthe, 3. 
Fhleum r. Pha. . . . . . • 

3. alpinum. 5m. Pwti. Scot. OrsM., 6. 

6. arenariam. L. 4-923. 

1. Mperuin. Jacq. 15-1077. 

4. BiBhmeri. Schrad, 7-459. 

2. /). nodosum. L. 

1. ponicailci/ian. liuda. 

2. pratcnae. X.. 15-1076. 
1. 0trui«. All. 

Fhyllodoce r. And., ErL 

1. carolea. 25-2469. 
FhyMMpermum r. Lig. 

1. aquilegifoUnm. Koch. 

1. cornnbicnae. D. C. 10-683. 

1. commutatum. Spreng. 
Ft&jrteonuL .. •' 

1. orbicular*. L. 2-142. 

2. apicatum. L, 37-2598. 

Picria. . .. •• •< 

Echioide*. L. =: Helminthia, 1. 
1. hieracioiilM. L. 3-196. 

Taraxaci, AIL =s Oporinla, 1 /3. 



Paob. 



183 



95 
182 



32 



25 



12 



216 



39 



123 
153 



Pilularia. 

1. globttlifera. L. 8-521. 
Fimpinella. L. .. .. 

dioica. 8m. r= Trinia, 1. 

1. magna. L, 6-407. 
PimpomoL • . . . 
Pinguicula. .. 

3. alplna. L 39-2747. 

2. grandiflora. WiUd. 31-2184 

4. Luaitanica. L. 3-145. 
4. viUosa, Hnda. 
1. Tulgaris. L. 1-70. 

Pink. « . . . 

Pinua. 
1. aylyeatria. L. 15-2460. 
Pitum. L. = Lathyrua, 1. 

PLANTAOINK.S. 

Plantain. 

Plantago. .. .. 

3. /9. altiaaima. 

1. Ck>ronopua. L. 13-892. 

3. lanceolata. L. 8-507. 

4. nuOor. L. 22-1558. 

4. /9. microatachya. Koch, 

2. maritima. L. 3-175. 

5. media. L. 22-1557. 

3. 7. apharoatachTa. W. et Q, 
PkUantkera. Rich = Habenarla, 8, 3 /8. 
Plum ^ Prunna, 1 7. 

Plumbaoiiiba. .. .. .. 120 

Poa V. Cat., Fea., OI7., Hyd., TrL .. 186 

7. alplna. L. 14-1003. 

1. /S. anguatifoUa. 



79 
162 



120 

ib. 

121 



IS. annua. L. 16-1141. 

19. iiquatiea. L. 10-1315. 

5. BalfouriL Pom. 

15. /9. BorrorL Hook. 89-2797. 

3. bulboaa. L. 15-1072. 

1. 7. cttruUa, 

12. oaaia. 8m, 

6. compreaaa. L. 6-365. 
erutata. WUld. =s Kahl«ria. 

20. /S. deddna. 32-2266. 
deeumbem. With. = Triodia, 1. 

13. diatana. Z,. 14-866. 

2. dubia. L. 

17. fluitana. Seop, 23-1520. 

8. laxa. Httnin, 16-1123. 
22. loliaoea. HwU, 4-321. 

14. maritima. Hudt. 16-1140. 

4. nemoralia. L. 18-1265. 
10. PameUil. Bab. 

18. pUcata. 

2. /9. parriflora. Pom, 
1. pratenaia. L, 15-1073. 

16. procumbena. CmrL 8-533. 
13. retrq/lexa. Curt. 

21. rigida. L. 20-1371. 
16. rup€$tns. With. 

1. 7. aub-caBrulea. An. 14-1004. 
20. ajlratica. PolL 14-1005. 

20. trinervata. Ehr. 

2. tririalia. L. 15-1072. 

POLBMOHIBA. 

Polemonium. . . . . 

1. casruleum. L. 1-14. 
Poljcarpon. .. .. .. 

1. tetraphyUum. L. 15-1081. 

POLTOALBjB. 

Polygala. 
1 Tulgaria. Don. 1-76. 
1. 7. amara. L. 38-2746. 
1. /9. oxyptera. Rnch, 39-2827. 

POLYOOHBiB. 

Polygonum. 
1. fi. alatum. 

9. amphibium. L. 7-436. 
7.7 aeetotum. Hook. 

6, aviculare. L. 18-1253. 

5. Biatorta. L. 8-509. 

1. couTolrulua. L, 14-941. 



Paor. 



8. dumetorum. 
3. Fagopymm. 

10. Hydropiper. 
14. /3. Incannm. 

9. mtermeditim. 



L. 39-3811. 
L. 15-1044. 
L. 14-989. 

WiUd. 

Ehr. 



I 



13. lapathifolium. L. 30-1882. 

14. 7. laxum. 39-3833. 

8. maritimum. L. 39-3804. 
11. mite. Sckrank. 39-3867. 
18. minua. Htid*. 15-1048. 
13. /3. nodoaum. 

13. paUidum. Whh. 

14. Peraicaria. L. 11-756. 
7. BaiL Bab. 39-2806. 

13. Peruytvanieum, Curt. 
7.r Roberta. Lola. 
0. fi. terreatre. 
4. riyiparum. L, 10-669. 






126 
ib. 

86 

72 
72 



87 
ib. 



INDEX. 



241 



FolTpodium. .. 

1. emlemreom. An. 22-1525. 

2. DrjopieriB, L. 9-916. 
PUbe-ftjemina. L. = Athyriam, 2. 
Fiiix-imu. L. = Lactrea, 4. 
kyperborettm. Snu = Wood«U. 
LonehtUs. L. =s Afp'diam, 1 . 
OreopUriM. 8m. = Lastrea, 1 . 

3. Phegopteris. L. 31-2224. 
Thetypteris. L. = l*Mtrta^ 2. 

4. Tolgare. L. 16-1149. 
"Poljpogon V. Agr., Alo., Cyn. 

1. littonaii. 5m. 18-1251. 

2. Moiupeiieiuis. De^r. 24-1704. 
Poplar. «« •• 
Popjpjr. •« .. 
Popolos. 

1. alba. X«. 23-1618. 

2. canescens. Z,. 23-1619. 

4. nigra. L. 27-1910. 
1. ntoea. Willd. 

3. tremuU. L. 27-1909. 

POKTDLBJS. 

PotamogetoA. 

10. acotifoUiu. PresL 40-2909. 
9. eomptanattu. Willd. 

12. /3. compreMUS. Sm. 6-418. 

14. crispiu. L. 16-1012. 
9. euspidatut. Schrad. 

7. densiu. 6-397. 

8. ^. flliformi*. Per$. 5-323. 

5. fitdtant. 8m. 

11. graminetu. I,. 32-2253. 

4. heterophylltu. &rAre6. 18-1285. 

6. lanoeolatuf. 8m, 28-1985. 
17. longifoliiu. Qay. 39-2847. 

13. Inceni. L. 3-367. 
8. marinus, L. 

1. mUaiM. L. 26-1822. 

3. oblongiu. Ftv. 39-2849. 

5. obscurum. D. C. 

7. opposUifoUut. D. C. 

8. pectinatos. I,. 5-323. 

15. perfoliatiu. L. 3-168. 

3. plantagineoa. Duer. 39-2818. 

2. Plantngo. Bab. 

16. pnelongna. ITu^/: 39-2858. 

13. paallltu. L. 3-215. 

f. mfefoeaa. Sekrad, 18-1286. 

14. /9. wrrattu. Lam, 
7. serratu*. L. 

7. tetaceu*. Jj. 

8. uUginosum. Bcenningh. 

8. -v. Zuateraoeiu. Frt«#. 

9. ZotterifoUoa. Sckum. 37-2685. 
FotentlUa p. Fra. .. •« 

8. 7. acatifoUa. 

7. A. alpestrU. ffol/. 8-561. 

8. Mueriiia. L. 12-861. 

6. argentea. L. 2-89. 

7. /3. tturea, 8m. 

4. CofBarnm. Scop. 3-172. 

11. Fragariaatram. Ekr. 27-1785. 
1. fVotlooML L, 2-88. 

5. fi, ncmorallf. NesH. 12 864. 

9. opaca. L. 35-2449. 



Paob. 

. 211 



183 



146 

96 

146 



86 
207 



61 



4. paliutris. Lehm. 

5. fi. procumbens. Sibtk. 
8. reptont. L. 12-862. 
2. nipeatria. L, 29-2058. 

4. rubra. HalL 

7. fi. SaUsburgensis. Hcnke. 

8. /?. lericea. 

5. Tormentilla. Sibth, 12-863. 
10. tridenUta. &>/. 34-2389. 

7. vema. i&n. 1-37. 
Poterium. .. 

1. Sanguiaorba. L. 12-860. 
Prerumthe*. L. = Crepit, 1. 
Prickly-Munphire. 
Primriwe. 
Frimala. 

1. acautis. Jacq. 

2. elatior. Wi/h. 8-513. 

4. farinoMU L 1-16. 

5. Scotica. Hook. 37-2608. 
1. /9. ambellata. 

3. reris. L. 1-5. 
1. ralgaris. Huds, 1-4. 

Primolea. 

Prumatocarpu* =^ Campanula, 2. 
Privet. 
Prunella. 
1. Tulgarit. I,. 14-961. 
I Pranu. 

1. fi. arium. L. 10-706. 
' 3. cera«tu. L. 39-2863. 
I 1. ^. domestica. L. 25-1783. 

1. fi. insititia. L. 12-841. 

2. Padtu. L. 20-1383. 
1. spinoia. L. 12-842. 

Pulicaria. .. .. .. 

1. dyienterica. Casi. 16-1115. 

2. ralgarif. Geertn. 17-1196. 
' Pteru. 

aquilina. L, 24 1679. 
erupa. L. = Cryptogramma. 
Pulmonaria. 
1. /?. angiutifolia. L. 23-1628. 
maritima, L. =s Steenhammera. 

1. officinalis. L. 2-118. 
Pnrple-looMstrife. 

Pyrethrum. Hall = ChryMnthemnm. 
Pyrola. .. .. . 

3. media. Sw. 28-1945. 

4. minor. L. 36-2543. 

4. rosea. Sm. 

2. rotundifolia. L. 3-213. 

5. lecnnda. L. 8-517. 
I. uniflora. L, 3-146. 

Pyru V. Cra. .. .. 

3. Aira. 8m. 26-1858. 

5. aucnparia. Oarin. 5-337* 

1. communis. L. 25-1784. 
3. /9. intermedia. Ehr, 

2. Mains. L. 3-179. 

3. 7. pinnatifida. Ekr. 33-2331. 

4. torminalts. Sm. 5-298. 

Quaking grass. 
Quercus. 
1. /armina. With. 



Paoe. 



49 



32 
123 
123 






122 

124 
136 

50 



.. 17 
.. 214 
.. 129 

45 

.. 119 



50 



188 
145 



242 



XNDSXi 



FAas. 



t. intcrnMdU. Don. 

1. ptdunculata. Willd. 

I. Robur. L. I9-1S42. 

3. Robur. W1U(L 

3. WMillflora. SaUsb, 26-1845. 
Quirken-tree = Fyros, 6. 
Quill-vort. .. 

Radish. 
Rft'iioUr. Lin. 

Miilegrana. 5m. 13-893. 
Raffffed-robin =s Lychnis, 3. 
Rag-weed. .. 
Rampion. .. 

RA!IU?fCDLKiB. 

Ranunrulua. r. Flc. .. 
6. arris. L. 10-6.^^. 



116 

111 
79 



18 
25 
93 
96 



13. 
15. 
11. 
II. 
10. 
2. 



34-2390. 

2-1'U. 

2-135. 

9-624. 
8-515. 
Sibth. 40-2869. 



7. alpeiitrit. L. 
11. aqnatilis. L. 

4. arrentis. L 

8. auricomua. L. 

1. bul hocus. L. 
\\. 6. circinatus. 

Fioari*. L. 9-584. 
FUmmul*. L. 6-387. 
7. fluiUns. Lanu 40-2870. 
6. Jtmriatais. Wigg. 
hedenceus. L. 28-2003. 
hirsutus. Curt. 21-1504. 

10. /). Lenormandi. 

14. Lingua. L. 2-100. 

I'i. ophiogloMifoliui. VilL 39-2833. 

11. /9. pantothrix. D. C. 
10. /3. partitua. 

3. panrifloros. L. 2-120. 

2. /9. pArmlus. L. 
2. Philonitis. Ehr. 

5. repeni. L. 8-516. 

15. fi. repUns. 

9. soeleratus. L. 10-681. 
lUpe = BratMie*, 5. 
Raphanna. .. 

1. maritimni. 8m. 23-1643 

2. Raphanlstnun. L, 12-856. 
Raaberry =r Eubua, 37. 

Reed-mace. • • . 

ReH-harrow. 

Reeeda. 

3. ft. alba. L. 

2. Intea. L. 5-321. 
3 fruticuloML L. 37-2628. 
1. Lateola. L. 5-330. 
Rrsbdba. «• .. 

** Iff A M fi B jB. .. 

Rhamnus. .. .. .. 

1. cathartinu. L. 22-1629. 

2. FrangulA. L. 6-250. 
Rhinanthni. .. .. 

1. Crista-OalU. L. 10-667. 

1. fi. mr.jor. 38-2737. 
Rtiodiola. .. .. .. 

rosea. L. 8-508. 
Rhyn'-hodpora. v. ScIioB. 

1. alba. Vaht. 14-985. 

2. fusoa. 8m. 22-1575. 






111 



185 

204 

67 

111 



111 
71 

ib. 



139 

44 

197 



Fagb. 
BiDes. ** 

2. alpinnm. L. 10-704. 

1. OroaralarU. L. 18-199S. 

3. nigrum. L. 18-1291. 

4. ft. Petranm. Hook. 10-705. 
1. ft. redinatum. L. 

4. ruhrum. L. 18-1289. 

4. 7. spicatura. Robaon. 18-1290. 

1. Uva-crispa, L. 
Roan-tree =PynM, 5. 
Roaat-beef plant = Iris, 2. 
Roberttonia. Haw. = Saxtfraga, If 2, 3, 

4,5. 
Rockroae. •• .. >• •. 101 

Roomer la. M 

1. hybrida. D. C. 3-201. 

icoaa. •• •• ai 

16. anrenais. Hud* 3-188. 
II. Borrori. Wood*. 38-2728. 

18. bracteaceni. Wood*. 

19. csBsia. Sm. 38-2367. 

17. canina. 8m, 14-992. 

2. cinnamomea. L. 34-2388. 
17. «. eoUuta, Jaeq. 

15. eolUna. 8an. 

1. Dicksoni. Lindl. 82-2707. 

4. ft. Doniana. Wood*. 37-2601. 
11. Dumetorum. 8m. 26-2579. 
17. d. Dumetorum. ThuiL 37-9610. 
13. eglanteria. Hud*. 

10. ft. fteUda. Bai. 27-1806 f 
17. «. Forsteri. Sm. 37-2611. 
17. ft. glaucopkyUm. Winch. 

4. v. graeUli. Wood*. 9-588. 
9. kettrophyUa. Wood*. 

6. Hibemlca. Sm. 31-2196. 

11. inodora. Prie*. 26-2679. 

3. luToIuta. Sm. 29-2068 1 fruit, 37-2601. 

12. mlcrantha. Sm. 85-2490. 
9. moUi*. 8m. 86-2489. 

8. nivali*. I>owb. 

7. ft. piloMU UmU. 
7. pimpineUifiMa. 1m 

7. pulcketla. Woods. 

16. repen*. Ehr. 

5. rubella. 8m. 86-2521 1 fruit, 86-8601 . 

13. rubiginoaa. L. 14-991. 

4. Sabini. Wood*. 87-2594. 

17. ft. lannentaoea. Wood*. 87-8686. 
10. *cabriu*cuta. E. Bot. 

14. Sepium. ThuiL 87-2658. 

6. spinoflMima. L. 8-187. 

15. ttytota, Desr. 
10. Bubgloboia. Sm. 

17. 7. snrrulOMU Wood*. 
12. tuavifbUa. Lfghtfl 
15. ay sty la. Batard. 27-1896. 
10. tomentoaa. An. 14-990. 

9. Tillosa. L. 35-2459. 

8. WllK>nL Borr. 88-2738. 

Roae. •• • .. 51 

R08BA. .. .. •. .. ih. 

Roae-root. .. .. .. .. 44 

Bottbollia o. .£g., Oph. .. ..181 

1. incnrrata. L. 11-700. 
nubia. .. •. a. 87 



L iSMk. WtO, a Sit. 






w. a K. K-tSU. 



n. ^ (MiilBiii. IT 1/ w. 



N. icrat^amM. 






MiRiL ir.tfH. 



^. ilpliinL L. »t-KH. 



h ayin\a^a.<m. Ilmti. K-tlOL 



I. fi. iriHH. (Mb. 



244 



INDEX. 



Ssfiturla. .. 

1. MgittifoUa. L. i-M. 
S«llrorniA. .. 

1. annua. Sm. 

2. fruticota. L. 35-2467. 
I. herbaccA. L. 6-415. 

1. /9. piocumbent. Sm. 35-1467. 

2. radicans. 5m. 24-1691. 

SALICIRKiB. 

oUllX* •• •• •■ •• 

15. acnminata. Sir. SO- 1434. 

19. b. otUcendtnt. 8m. 

3. alha. L. 34-2430. 

20. a. ambigoa. WiUd. 

20. ambigua. Ehr. 38-2733. 
4i amygdalina. Sm. 

4. a. amygdalina. L. 27-1936. 

24. 6. Andenontana. Sm. 33-2343: 
17. anguttifolia. Wulf.l 19-1366. 

21. /JL aqoaticc. Sm. 20-1437. 

17. arbuseuia. 8m. 

27. arbutcula. L, 2din. Kock-, 

6. /3. arbutifolia. WiUd. 

26. /? arenaria. 5m. 26-180!). 
19. C argentea. Sm. 19-1364. 

22. aarita. L. Sl-1487. 

25. bicolor. 5m. 26-1806. 

25. e. Bonreriana. Sm, 37-2619. 

23. caprea. L. 21-1488. 

3. /3. csrulea. Sm. 34-1243. 

27. $. carinata. 5m. 19-1363. 
21. cinerea. L. 

21. /3. cinerea. E. Bot. 27-1807. 

24. /3. ootinifolia. Sm. 20-14U3. 

4. fi. contorta. Crowe. 

25. t. Croweana. Sm. 16-1 14& 

I.* cuspidata. Sckultx. Loud., Arb., 
1439. 

24. e Damascena. Borr. 38-2709. 

25. C DftvalUana. Sm. 38-2701. 
2. a. decipieni. Hoffm, 27-1937. 

25. ( Dickaoniana. Sm, 20-1390. 

18. Doniana. Sm. 37-2599. 

14. 7. ferruginea. And. 37-2665. 

25. /u. floribumla. 

19. a. foetida. Sm. 28-1962. 

11. a. Forbyana. 5m. 19-1344. 
24. C Fonteriana. Sm. 33-2344. 

2. fragilia. L. 

2. /9. fragilia. K Bot. 26-1807. 
19. a. fuaca. Sm. 28-1960. 

26, a. glaaca. L. 26-1810. 

28. haatata. L. 23-1617. 
10. a. Helix. L. 19-1343. 

9. herbacea. L. 27-1907. 
24. a. hirta. Sm. 20-1404. 

4. 6. Hoffinanniana. 5m. 20-2436. 
14. /9. hoh>$*ricea, H. 

19. e. incnbacea. L. 37-2600. 
19. 3. incubacea. ThnU. 

12. fi. intricata. LeeJIe. 

5. /3. lavi$. Hook. 

10. e. Lambertiana. 8w, 19-1359. 

29. lanata. L. 37-2624. 
5. lanceolata. Sm. 

26. Lapponnm. L. 



Page. 

. 207 



91 



146 
ib. 



S6. fi. lanrina. Sm. 

26. 7. laxiflora. Borr, 39-2749. 

27. a. Uvida. Hook. 
l.» Mtytriana, Wflld. 
10. monandra. Ehr. 

6. Myninitet. L, 19-1360. 
25. (. myrtiUoidea. 5m. 

24. nigrlcana. Fries. 

24. 7. Bigricana. Sm, 17-1213. 

25w K, nitena. Ander$. 

21. 7. oleifolia. 5m. 20-1402. 

19. h. parrifona. 5^ 28-1961. 

1. pentendra. L. 26-1805. 

24. t|. petrasa. And. M. 5. 38-2795. 

25. f. phyllereifolia. Borr, 37-2660. 

7. procumbena. Forbes. 88-27.53. 

24. I. propinqua. Borr. 38-2729L 
19. 7. proatrvta. 5m. 28-1959. 
27. 7. prunifolia. 5m. 19-1361. 
19. purpurea. L. 

10. /3. purpurea. Sm, 20-1388. 

25. a. radicam. Sm, 28-1 9S& 

10. 6. ramuloaa. Borr, 

19. /9. repena. E Bot, 3-183. 

8. reticulata. L. 27-1908. 
5. retuta. Dicka. 

16. rofmarinifblia. L, 19-I36& 

11. rubra. Hud*. 16-1145. 
14. /9. rugoaa. Borr. 

20. e. rupeatria. Sm. 33-2343. 

2. X* Ruaselliana. L. 28-1808. 

14. a. Smitiiiana. £. Bot, 21-1609. 
14. Smidriana. WiUd, 
20. 7. apathulata. Sm. 
23. a. aphacelata. 33-23831. 

12. 7. atipularia. Sm. 17-1214. 

26. yS. Stuartiana. Sne, 36-2586. 
2.5. (. tenuifolia. Sm, [31-2186. 

26. a, tenuior. Borr, 37-2650. 
25. n. tetrapla. Walk, 38-2702. 

4. «. triandra. L. 20-1435, 

5. undulata. Ehr, 20-1436. 

27. a. racciniifolia. Sm. 33-2341. 
27. 6. venuloaa. Sm. 19-1362; 

12. ▼iminalia. L. 27-1898. 

3. /9. Titellina. L. 20-1389. 
20. 7. versifoUa. Walk. 

25. (f. Weigeliana. WUtd, 37-2666: 

10. 7. Woolgariana. Hook. 

Sallow. 

Sallow-thorn. 

Salt- wort. .. .. 

Salaify = Tragopogon, 2. 
Salaola. .. .. .. 

firuHcota. L. ^ Seholwria, 1. 
1. Kali. L, 9-634. 
ruilViA* •• •• •• • 

1. /3. clandeatin*. 

2. pratenaia. L, 8-163. 

1. Yerbenaca. L, 3-164. 
Sambucua. .. .. .. . 

:i. Ebulua. L. 7-476. 

2. nigra. L. 1-4l16. 

Samolua. .. .. *• . 

1. YalerandL JL 10-709. 
Samphire. .. »■ .. • 



Page. 



146 
157 

9a 

it». 



181 



as 



lat 



243 



Pa 



I. /J. 
1 



L. 

L. 1S.1S12. 

1. EaroiMM. L, 1-ML 

SmmfAtna. Li. = Dsoc^ 



1. ofleiaalML I. 1»-1060L 
1. A hjbridft. I^ 

r. Cyt , Gca., Spa. 
iw. Vbmi. 19.1»9. 



»-2277. 



1 Alpiaa. D. C. 9-999, 
Harifff* «- Hir.. Lri,, Bob. 

9. auoMlML £. 1-39. 
12. OHpitM. X,. 13-794. 
14. eenwM. L. 10-664. 
12. ^ <ScidpieiM. 

1. ^. dcatata. 

12. {; «!<-«iKlrt«. 

2. depkat. Mnek. 

13. >|. ekmfella. 

1. Genm. L. VtA^Wi 

16. grtaolAU. L. 7-400. 

12. Grctnlandieiu Lu 

6. hinnUiis. L. 1»-1009. 

2. hinaU. 

13. 7. hirtii. I>oii. 32-2291. 
13. hjpnoMc*. X,. 7-4M. 
13. c. incorrilblu. />iw. 
13. d. UtrU, Don. 

13, 9. beterirena. Dom. 
1. d. minor. 

10. OT«#fA4i£a. £. Bot. 

7. nirmlu I^ 7-440. 

8. oppontifoliam. X. 1-9. 
12. pa lw uM i a, 6m. 

11. ptdBttftda. Ekr. 92-tSli. 

12. pttTOfo, With. 

13. /3. platypetala. Sm. 32-2276. 
1. 7. polite. 

10. pjgmaa. Haw. 

4. ^ poneute. 

11. qmhu/ut^/Ua. Dob. 

1ft. rmdvia. £. 32-2275. 

5. ileUarif. L. 3-167. 
4. 7. MrrmtiiblkL 

17. tridfletyUtea. L. 7-501. 
4. ambroaa. X.. 10-663. 



34 

40 
80 

67 
13 
46 



arvemsi*. L. =r Knantf*, 1. 
2. eolmnbaria. L. 19-1311. 
1. fueeiflft. JL. 13-87tt. 



46 
23 



31 



AmtkriMctu, L. = Artiirianii, 2. 
cer^oliwm. L. = Aathrbeaa, 3. 

Feetca-Tcocria. JL 20-1397. 



paloitriiL X. 26-1801. 



. 207 
.. 194 



oKttf. Ifc =: BbTBfilKMporm, 1. 
r. I«. = Blycmna, 1. 



fm*cu». L. = Bbrackoapora, 2. 
amnutf. Font. = JnacM. 9. 
1. aicricua. L. 16-1121. 
nc^. BodiL = BljBnw, 2. 

1. frnticoaa. Jlqr. 9-635. 

2. marituM. JMry. 9-633. 
Seilla. 

2. aotnmBalia. h. 2-78. 

«M«-«crtpte. Bcdoote ^ A graphic. 

mmtans. Sm. ^ Afrapiiia. 1. 
1. Tcna. Hh^. 1-23. 

e^tpit»$u*. L. ^ EleDcfaara, 1. 
eortrnutf . Sduafd. = BtjinuM, 1 . 

4. earinatiM. 5m. 28-1943. 
Jbdtams. "L. = Eleogikm. 1. 

1. ^. gUaou. An. 92-23\2. 
HoLMckottuu. Ih = hoitfit, 1. 

1. laciutria. L. 10-666. 

2. maricimiu. L. 8-542. 
wudtu:amUM. Sm. flerieliarM, 4. 

5. /?. pnnenu. KaiU. 39-28(9. 
UtmuinuM, L>. = IjolepU. 1. 
Betaceus. JL. = laol^ia, 2. 

3. fylTatiena. L. 13-919. 

1. fi. Tabenutrntomtani. GmeL 

4. trtqoeter. L. 24-1C94. 

SCLERASTBEiE. 

bcrleruitfaoa. 

1. aonutia. L, 5-351. 

2. pemmia. L. 5-352. 

2. p^carpcn. Light/. 
Scrofialaria. .. 

3. aqoaliea. L. 12-854. 
2. Elirfaarti. S<er. 

1. DocUxa. L. 22-1544. 

4. Seorodoaia. L. 31-22C9. 

5. Tcrnaila. L. 8-567. 

SCEOrr LAKI SEjE. 

Scutellaria. 

1. gakricalata. L. 8-523. 

2. mio<ir. Z» 8-524. 
Seolopentlriaai. 

▼nlgare. Spm, 16-1150. 
8ea-hoUj. 

kale. 

reed. 

Hedge. 
Sedom. 

6. acre. L. 12-839. 
8. fi. aiheseems. Haw. 

3. album. L. 22-1578. 
5. Angiicnm. Hmd*. 3-171. 
5. anntutm. Bada. 

4. daayphjllam. L. 10-656l 
10. Forrtcriaaom. fiai. 26-1802. 

8. /3. glaucum. Sm. 
1. ^ purpureum* 

8. reflcxnm. L. 10 695. 
Rhodiota. D. C. = Rhodiola. 

9. mpcatre. L. 3-170. 

7. aexangulaie. L. 28-1946. 

1. Telephinm. L. 9-1319. 
3. /9. turgidom. 

2. Tflloaam. L. 6-394. 

Y 2 



Fa«s. 



1. 



92 
173 

i96 



if3 



141 



137 
13« 



:el4 

;^ 
111 

l9.i 

l*f7 
44 



246 



Paob. 
SnoperriTiun. ... 46 

1. tectorum. L. 12-1330. 
Setubiera. D. C. = Goronopu, 1« 2, 3^ 



4. 
8. 



Senecio. 
€. aqiutttcns. Hud*. 16-1 Ul. 
6 Jacobea. L. 16-1130. 
3. lividus. L. 

7. pftladosut. L, 10-600. 

8. Sftiraceniciii. L. 31-2311. 
aqualldus. L. 9-600. 
sylratictu. L. 11-748. 

5. tenalfolio*. Jacq. 8-574. 

3. riaoofiu. L, 1-32. 

1. Tulgarii. L. 11-747. 
Serrice-tree = Fynu, 5. 
HerratnUt. 

alpma. L. := Sanainreft, 1. 

1. tinctoria, L, 1-38. 
Seaeli v. Ath. 

1. Libanotis. Koch. 2-188. 
pumilum. L. =: Trinia* 1 . 
Sesleria v. Cyn. 

1. cmruleo.. Scop. 23-1613. 
Setaria t>. Pan. 

2. Terticillata. B^attv. 13-874. 
1. riridlB. Beam. 13-875. 

Shield-fern. 
Sherardia. .. 

1. arrenslB. L, 13-891. 
Sheep's-bit. .. 
Shore-weed. .. 
Shepherd'i-purse. 
Sibbaldia. 

1. procumbens. L. 13-897. 
Sibthorpia. .. 

1. Enropflea. L. 10-649. 
Silaos V. Pea. 

1. pratensiB. Beater. 30-2142. 
Silene v. Cue. 

9. acaulia. L. 15-1081. 

3. amcena. Hud*. 

4. Anglica. L. 17-1178 
8. armeria. L. 20-1398. 

2. Be hen. Scop. 

5. conica. L. 13-922. 
2. /8. hinnta. Leigkt. 

2. inflata. 8m. 3-164. 

3. maritime. With, 17-957. 

6. noctiflora. With. 5-291. 

7. nutans. L. 7-465. 
1. Otites. Sm, 2-85. 
7. paradoxa, Sm. 

4. /5. quinqtwTulnera. 

3. untjlora. Both. 
Silybom. v. Car. 

1. Marianom. 
Sinapia. L. 

4. alba. L. 24-1677. 

3. arrensii. L. 25-1748. 

cheiranthu*. Koch. = Brusicft, 2. 

1. incana. L. 39-2848. 
muraU*. Br. = Diplotaxis, 2. 

3. /9. retrohirtOB. 

Monerui*. Bab. =£ Braiaica, 3. 

2. nigra. L. 14-969. 
tenuifitUa. Br. = Diplotazb, 1. 



18 



16 



36 



185 
181 



211-212 
.. 28 

25 
.. 121 
.. 109 
.. 61 

.. 141 

.. 73 

.. 80 



L. 2-86. 



Oigrtn. 14-976. 



14 
110 



Pa OS. 



amomum. L. 14-954. 

inundatum, Wigg. := HelOKiadiBinr2. 

Podagraria, ^[weng. =s JEigopo> 

dinm, 1. 
*eg»tum. It. =; PetroBellnnm, :t. 
verticiUatum, L. v. Carum, 2. 
SiBymhrium V. firy. .. .. .. lOt 

amphibium. L. =: Nastiurtium, 3. 

2. Irio. L. 23-1631. 
numerue. L. = Braaaics, 3L 
murale. L. = Diplotaxi8» X. 

1. officinale. Scop. 11-735. 

3. Sophia. L. 14-963. 
thatianum. Hook ^ Conringia, 1. 

SlBynchium. .. .. .. 219 

1. anceps. Curt. Bot. Mag. 13-464. 

Slum. L. m. .. .. mm 9J 

1. angustifolium. I^ 2-139. 

2. latifolium. L. 3-204. 
nodijlorum. L. = Helosciadtnm, 1. 
verticiUatum. Lam. =: Carum, 2. 

Skull-cap. .. .. .. .. 136 

Sloe = PrunuB, 1. 

Smyrnium. .. .. .. ..32 

1. Olusatrum. L. 4-230. 
Snake- weed =: Polygonum, 5. 
Snap-dragon. .. .. .. 143 

Snow-drop. .. .. .. .. 170 

Soap-wort. .. .. .. .. SO 

Soft-graBB. .. .. .. .. 189 

SOLANB.B. .. .. .. .. 124 

Solannm. .. .. .. .. 125 

2. /3. miniatum. 

1. Dulcamara. L, 8-565. 

1. f. marinum. 

2. nigrum. L. 8-566. 
2. /9. tomentOBum. 

Solidago. .. .. .. .. 17 

I. /8. cambric*. Hud*» 

1. Yirganrea. L. 5-301. 

SonchuB. .. .. .. ..11 

alpinu*. L. = Mulgedium, 1. 

4. arveuBiB. L. 10-674. 

2. aaper. Hoffin. 38-2765-66. 
cteruteu*. Sm. = Mulgedium, 1 
canadetui*. L. ^ Mulgedium, 1. 

1. oleraceuB. L. 12-843. 

3. paluBtriB. L, 13-935. 

SorreL .. .. .. .. 88 

Southern-wood. .. .. .. 22 

Sow-thistle. .. .. .. ..II 

Sparganium. .. .. .. .. 205 

1. erectum. L. 

3. natans. L. 4-278. 

1. ramoBum. Hud*. 11-744. 

2. simplex. Huds 11-745. 
Spartium, L. ^ Sarothamnna. 
Spear -mint ^ Mentha, 4. 
Spear-wort = Rannnculof, 15. 

Speedwell. .. .. •• 188 

SpeeuUaria =: Campanula, 8. 

Spergella t>. Spe. .. .. ••85 

1. nodosa. Camh. tlO-694. 

2. Baginoidei. Camb. 80-2105. 
8./8. sabulata. Cam6. 16-1062. 



IMDSZ. 



247 



SpcrguiA. « . 

1. anrensis. L. 22-1535. 

nodoaa, 1$. =: SpergelU, 1. 
1. 7. pentaadnt. L. 22-1536. 
saginoide*. Jj. = SpergelU, 2. 

1. ^. Tulgaris. 
SpergulariA o. Are. .. .. 

2. marinA. 14-958. 
2. /9. obesior. 

1. rubra. 12-852. 
Spiranthesv. Neot.,Oph. 

2. aoBtivalis. Rich. 39-2817. 
1. autumnaliB. Rich. 2-541. 

3. gemmipara. LinM. 39-2786? 
Spindle-tree. . . 

spirflBfl • • • • • • • 

1. Ftlipendula. L. 4-284. 

3. salicifolia. L. 21-1 168. 

2. Ulmaria. L, 14-960. 
Spleen-wort. . . 
Spurge-laurel. 

S^niU. . • . . . . 

StachyB. 
2. /3. ambigua. Sm. 

5. aryensis. L. 17-1154. 

4. Germanica. L. 12-829. 

1. Betonica. Benth. 16-1142. 

2. paluBtrii. L. 24-1675. 

3. sylTatica. L. 6-416. 
Staphylaoa. 

1. piunata. L. 22-1560. 
Star • of-Buthlehem. 
Star-thitrtle = Cyanui , 2. 
Statice. 

Artneria. L. = Armerla, 1. 

3. Limonum. L. 2-102. 

2. reticulata. L. 5-328. 
4 rariflora. Dr^\ 

1. tpathulata. Ve^f. 37-2663. 
Steenhammera v. Lith. 

maritlma. Reich, 6-368. 
St. JohnVwort. 

STBLLATiB. 

Stellaria. .. .. ■■ 

6. /3. Babingtonii. Deak. 

1. cerastioides. L, 13-911. 

2. fi. Drummondii. 

7. gUnca. With. 12-825. 

6. graminea. L. 12-803. 

5. Uoloetea. L. 8-511. 

2. media. With. 8-537. 

7. media. Sibth. 

4. nemonun. L. 2-92, 

3. Kapigera. WtUd. 18-1269. 

8. uUginoea. 8m. 15-1074. 
Stock. • . . • . . 
Stone-crop. .. .. •• 
Strawberry. .. .. 
Stratiotes. .. 

1. aloidet. L. 6-379. 
Sturmia, L. := Llparii, 1. 
Sttbnlaria. .. .. 

aqnatiea. L. 11-732 
Snocorj. •• •• .. 

Sweet-foented Temal-graaa. 
Symphjtum* 



Page. 
86 



86 



.. 167 



.. 71 
.. 62 



.. 213 

.. 70 

.. 17S 

.. 136 



70 
173 
120 



73 

27 

28 



103 
44 
62 

163 



109 

8 
185 
127 



1. officinale. L. 12-817. 

1. /3. patens. Sibth. 

2. tuberosum. L. 21-1502. 
Sycamore = Acer, 1. 
Sweet-briar = Boaa, 12. 

Tamariscinbje. 
Tamarix. 

1. Gallica. L. 

1. Anglica. Webb. 19-1318. 
Tamus. 

1. communis. L, 2-91. 
Tanauetum. .. 

1. vulgare. L. 18-1229. 
Taraxacum ». Leo. .. .. 

1. /3. lavigatum. 

1. 7. £rythro8i)ermum. 

1 . Dens- Leonis. Desf. 

1. officinale. Sibth. 8-510. 

1. d. palustre. D, C. 8-553. 
Taxus. 

1. baccata. L. 11-746. 

1. /9. fastigiata. 

X VftS^la •• •• •• 

Teesdalia v. Ibe. 

1. nutlicaulis. Br. 5-327. 
Teucrium. .. 

1. Botrys. 

3. Chamffidrys. L. 10-680. 
Cftamcepitys. L. = Ajuga, 1 . 

2. Scorodonia. L. 22-1543. 

4. /?. Scordioides. Schreb. 12-828. 
4. Bcordium. L. 12-828. 

Thalictrum. 

1. alpinum. L. 4-262. 

3. flavum. L. 6-367. 

2. /3. majuB. Crantx. 9-611. 

2. minus. L. 1-11. 
Thesium. 

1. linophyllum. L. 4-247. 
Thistle. 
Thiaspi. 

3. alpestre. L. 2-81. 

1. anrense. L. 24-1659. 
Bursa-poMtorie. L. == Capsella, 1 , 
campettre. L. = Lepidlum, 2. 

2. perfoliatum. L. 33-2354. 
Thrincia =: Leontodon, 1. 
Thrift. 

Thymus := Calamintha, 1, 2, 3. 
1. Serpyilum. L. 22-1514. 

X iLlEiE* • • • • • • 

Tilia. 

3. fi. coralUna. Sm. 

1. Europea. L. 9-610. 

3. grandifolia. Ehr. 38-2720. 

2. panrifolia. Ehr. 24-1705. 

3. platyphylla. D. C. 
3. /9. rubra, D. C. 

X liUB&a • • • • • • 

1. muscoaa. L. 2-116. 
Timothy-graM = Phlenm, 2. 
Tofleldia. 

palustria. Hud*. 8-536. ? 
TOach-me-not = Imyatleni, 1. 



Fags. 






112 
ib. 



170 
22 
10 



162 



22 
107 

131 



94 



40 

14 
107 



120 

70 

133 

74 
ib. 



44 



248 



IllDKX. 



Tordylium. .. .. 

Uitifiihttm = Caoealto, 2 

31. mAximam. L. 17-1179. 

nodosum ■=. Torili*, 3. 
I. offlcimae. L. 24-1440. 
Torili* V. Caa. 
1. Antbritcuf. Gtertn. 14-987. 
8. inktU. Spreng, 19-1314. 

8. nodoHu Oartn. 3-199. 
TormetitiUa. L. =* PotentiUa, 5 

I. fi. minor. Ed. Cat. 

S. porrifoiio*. L. 9-638. 

1. pratemU. L. 7-484. 
TrefolL 
TriehomAnM. 

1. aUttum Hook. 

1. Europtmrn, 8m. 

1. speciocum. fVtUd. 90-1417. 
Trichonema e. IzU. . . 

1. Bmlbooodina. 5m. 36-3549. 
TrienUlii. . 

1. Europaa. L. 1-15. 
Trlfolium. • . . • 

6;. airenM. L. 14-944. 

4. BocconL Sav, 

17. dtibium. Slbth. 

7. /J. erectum. 

18. flliforme. /,. 18-1257. 

11. fragiferum. L. 151050. 

9. glomeratom. L. 15-1063. 
3. incamatam. L. 4-230. 

5. maritimom. Huds. 3-220. 

2. medium. L. 3-190. 
17. mintu. RehL 18 1256. 

3. /9. Molinieri. 

12. ochroleucnm. L. 17-1224. 
(ificineUe. 8m. =■ Melilotaf. 1. 
Ornifhopodioidet. L. = Trignnella. 1 

1. /3. parriflomm. 

1. pratenie. L. 26-1770. 

15. procuuiljena. L. 14-945. 
14. repens. L. 25-1769. 

8. ■cabrum. L. 13-903. 

13. >tenatiim. L. 82-l.')45. 
7. Btriatum. L, 26-1843. 

16. rabterranemn. L. 15-1048. 
10. fuffocatum. L. 15-1049. 
Triglochln 

2. maritimam. L. 4-255. 
1. palnstre. L. 6-366. 

TrigoneUa o. Trtl 

1. ornithopodioidet. L. 15-1047. 
Trillikje .. 
Trinia f. Pim. Set. 

1. glaberrima. £/<#«. 17-1209. 
Triodiar. Fe*. Foa. Mel. .. . 

1. decnmbens. Beattv. 11-792. 
TriMetum = Avena, 3, 4, 5, 6. 
Triticum ^ Agr. Bro. £ly. Foa. 

5. /3. ariitatom. 

4. caninom. Uud$. 20-1372. 

3. cristatum. L. 88-2267. 

6. jonoeam. L. 12-814. 

5. 7. littorale. Bab, 
loUaeeum. 8m=aFoa. 21. 



Faob. 
34 



32 



12 



68 
215 



169 

122 

68 



207 



69 

170 
38 

188 



192 



8. pinaatom. Pom. 11-780. 

6. fi. tcalntim. 

1. sylvaticum. Pam. 11-729. 

5. repens. L, 32-909. 
Trolliiu .. .. 

1. Europniu. L. 1-28. 
Tnlipa 

1. sylyestris. L. 1-63. 
Tomep = BraMiea. 1. /9. 
Turrltis = Arabis 1, 2, 3. 

1. glabra. L. 11-777. 
TuMilago .. 

Farfara. L. 6-429. 
kybrida. L. Fetasitea. 1. 
Pttasites. /,. = FetaHites. 1. 
Typha .. •• 

2. angnstifulU. L. 2l-14':6. 
1. latifolia. L. 21-1455. 

Ulez 

1. Europmu. L. 11-742. 

2. /9. major. BcUt. 

2. nanuB. Forst. 11-743. 

1. /8. Btrictof Mack. 
Ulmbje 

Ulmiu .. 

2. caropettris. L. 27-1886. 

6. carp aifolia LmdI. 

1. gUbra. JkliUer. 82-2248. 
1. (i. glandaloia. 

1. 7. latifolia. 

4. mivior. Sm. 36-2542. 

5. montana. Bauk. 27-1887. 

7. fi. parvifolla. 
7. stricta. LAndl, 

3. Bu'jeroMu Ehr. 31-2161. 
Umbkllikbra ... 
UmbiUciu = Cotyledon. 
Urtica 

4. p. angUBtifolia. W. «/ G. 

2. Do<lartiL L. 

4. dioica. L. 25-1750. 

1. pilnlifera. L. 3-148. 

3. urenB. L. 18-1236. 
Urtiobjb .. 

Utricalaria .. .. .. 

2. intermedia. Haynt, 35-2489. 

3. minor. L. 4-254. 

1. Tulgarif. L. 4-253. 

Vaccinium v. Oxy. .. .. 

5. MyrtiliuB. L. 7-456. 

2. maorocarpom. AiL 

1. OxycoccaB. L. 5 319. 

4. uliginuBum. L* 9-581. 

3. Vitis-Idaea. L. 9-598. 
Yaluriana. . . . . 

dentata. Willd. s Yalerianella. 

1. dioica. L. 9-628. 

2. offlcinaliB. L. 10-698. 
oUtoria. X,. = Yalerianella. 1. 

3. pyreoaica. L. 23-1591. 
rM5ra. L. =^ Centraothus, 1 . 

Yalbbiahbje. 
Yalerianella &. Fed. .. 

6. eriocarpa. Deav, 



Fa OK. 



97 
171 

104 
18 

204 

66 



71 

.. 71 



29 

. . Ids 



.. 158 
.. 143 



.. 117 



23 

4. 



.. 23 
.. 84 



INDEX. 



249 



p 


AGE. 


• 


~ 


Page. 


4. denteta. D, C. 20-1370. 




Villarsia v. Men. 


• • 


. 116 


4. /3. mixta. 




1. nymph»oides. Vent, 4-217. 




1. olitoria. Mamch, 12-811. 




Vlnca. . . . . 


• • 


.. 116 


3. AuricuU. Gaud, 39-2809. 




2. major. L. 8-514. 






2. carinata. Lois, 39-2810. 




1. minor. L. 13-917. 






Verbascam. .. 


141 


Viola. 


• • 


.. 112 


3. Blattaria. L, 6-893. 




2. /9. amoena. Sym, 






6. floccosoin. W. et K. 7-487. 




1. fi. arvensis. Sibth, 38-2712. 




7. Lychnitis. L. 1-58. 




3. canina. L, 9-620. 






6. nigrum. L. 1-59. 




2. 7. Curtisii. Font, 38-2693. 




6. pulvertUentutn. YilL 




3. 7. flavicornie, 8m. 






8. thapsiforme. Schrad. 




2. grand\fiora. Hnds. 






1. Thapius. Wifh. 8-559. 




5. hirta. L, 13-894. 






4. Yixgatum. With, 8-550. 




3. 7. lactea. Sm, 7-445. 






Vetch. .. •• •• .. 


64 


2. lutea. Hud*, 11-721. 






Verbena. 


137 


4. odorata. L. 9-619. 






1. officinalis. L. 11-767. 




6. palustris. L. 7-444. 






Verbkhk^. 


137 


3. 7. pusilla. 88-2736. 






Veronica. 


138 


1. tricolor. L. 18-1287. 






11. agrestis. L. 37-2603. 




3. fi. sylvatica. 






13' alpina. L. 7-484. 




VIOLARIEA. 




.. 112 


2. Anagallis. L. 11-781. 




Viscum 




40 


16. arvensis. L. 11-734. 




1. album. L, 21-1470. 






1. Beccabunga. L. 10-655. 










9. Boxbaumii. Ten, 38-2769. 




Wake-robin. 




.. 204 


3. Chamsodryi. L. 9-623. 




Wallflower. .. 




.. 104 


9. JiliformiM. Hook. 




Water-cre8s:=Iifarsturtinm, 1. 






14. ft-uticuloaa. L. 15-1028. 




Water-dropwort. . . 




.. 35 


4. /?. glabra. 




Water-hemlock. 




37 


8. hederifolia. L, 11-784. 




Water-lily. .. 




.. 98 


4. 7. hirsuU. Uopk. 37-2673. 




Way-Beunet=Hord6ttm, 1. 






15. ^. humifusa. Sm. 




Wheat-grass. 




.. 192 


12. /3. hybrida. L. 10-673. 




Whortle-bcrry. 




.. 117 


5. moiitana. L. 11-766. 




WiUow. 




.. 167 


4. officinalis. L. 11-765. 




WiUow-herb. 




.. 42 


6. /9. parmularia. Poit, 




Winter-aconite. 




.. 1*7 


13. pumila. All. 




Winter-green. 




.. 119 


10. polita. Friet, R.-404-5. 




WolTs-bane. 




.. 97 


7. saxatilis. L. 15-1027. 




Woodbine := Lonicera. I. 






6. Bcutetlata. L. 11-782. 




Woodruff. .. 




.. 28 


15. serpyllifolia. L. 15-1075. 




Wood-sorrel. 




78 


12. spicata. L. 1-2. 




Woodsia V. Act. 




.. 211 


18. triphyUofl. L. 1-26. 




7. hyperborea. Br, 29-2023. 




17. rema. L, 1-25. 




Urcnsis. Br, 37-2616. 






Veryain. . . • . • . . . 


137 


p. intermedia. 






Viburnum. .. 


26 


Wormvood. .. 


• • 


.. S3 


1. Lantuna. L. 5-331. 










2. opulus. L, 5-332. 




Xanthium. .. 


• • 


.. 22 


Vicia V. Ery., Orob. . . 


64 


1. strumarlum. L, 86-2544. 




1. /8. angustifoUa. Friea. 37-2614. 










5. Bithynica. L. 26- 1842. 




Yarrow. .. .. 


• • 


.. 21 


7. -y. Botartii. ForH, 38-2708. 




Yellow- wort. 


«• 


.. 115 


10. Cracca. L. 17-1168. 




* CW« • • * a 


• • 


.. 162 


S. gracilis. Loit. 










1. hlrsuta. Ed. Cat. 14-970. 




Zaniiichellia. 


• • 


.. 209 


4. Uthyroides. L. 1-30. 




1. palustris. L. 26-1844. 






6. lutea. L. 7-481. 




1. 7. dentata. 






7. satlTa. L. 5-334. 




1. B, peduncolata. 






8. npium. L. 22-1515. 




Zostera. 


• • 


.. 209 


9. ^Iratioa. L. 2-79. 




marina. L. 7-467. 






2. tetrasperma. Koch, 17-1223. 











TBM END.