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HANDBOOK— NEW ZEALAND, Auckland, The Hot Lake District. 
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Uay, ISCl. 


















i&t*. . \ 

MAY 29 1 895 


13 HA 


9'^ / ' -". 



A FEW years ago, tourists were almost unknown in New 
Zealand. This is now changed; every summer brings 
many travellers in search of health and pleasure both 
from Europe and Australia; and as the beauty and in- 
terest of the country becomes more widely known, a 
steady increase in their numbers may be expected. It 
seems therefore that the time has come when a guide to 
New Zealand should be added to Mr. Murray's list. 

There are, however, special difficulties in compiling a 
Handbook to New Zealand. It is a country of great 
variety, both in natural features and history. To describe 
it fully, and to enumerate all the possible excursions 
which a traveller might wish to make, would require 
many volumes. The aim of the present work is merely 
to select the best routes, and those which possess the 
greatest atti-actions for tourists, to point out how they 
can most conveniently be followed by those who have 
a limited time at their disposal, and to draw attention to 
the various objects of interest which may be seen on the 
way. For this purpose, a brief account of the geology, 
botany, and history of the country has been included in 
the Introduction. Followir.2_on the Introduction are the 
most popular Routes, in detail, with a selection of some 
which, though even more beautiful, are itscs - aco^sible. 
It must be remembered that the country is constantly 
changing; new Routes are being opened, new beautic 


discovered, new settlements formed. Maps and guide- 
books become out of date more rapidly than in an older 

In the Hot Lake district, the activity of certain geysers 
so frequently varies that travellers should make enquiries 
on arrival at each spot. 

On the other hand, the amount of information that has 
already been collected about New Zealand by scientific 
and literary men is enormous. English travellers will 
probably be astonished to find the care and ability which 
have been expended in geological, zoological, and botanical 
research ; and not only the colony as a whole, but almost 
every separate district, has found its historian. 

In order to make the book still more complete, a section 
has been added to the Introduction relating to the climate, 
the best season of the year for travelling in the Colony, 
and the best means of reaching it ; and this is accompanied 
by some useful information regarding the steamship lines 
between England and New Zealand, supplied by Mr. Philip 

The editor takes this opportunity of expressing his 
sincere thanks to the many friends in all parts of the 
Colony who have kindly allowed him to make use 
of their labours. Amongst these must be mentioned 
especially Sir G. Grey, K.C.B. ; Sir J. Hector, K.C.M.G. ; 
the Hon. C. C. Bowen ; Dr. Hocken ; Mr. Percy Smith ; 
Mr. F. Chapman ; and Mr. H. Brett. 

As it is inevitable that inaccuracies and omissions must 
occur in the first edition of a volume like the present, it 
is earnestly hoped that all travellers who make use of 
the guidebook will kindly se^4 a note of any errors which 
they may discover to ' Mr. Murray, 50 Albemarle Street, 
LondeiBt, JSfr- " 



Tht figures [p[^ )mdicate. the pages wfcer g thwart, to befJMiui 

173 174 J7« 


T^^ssfe": . 







so loo 


















Loxxdon. JoLn'McuiFa^ALbeiaaple Street. 

J'.Saatholanipn; Sdixx. 





« » 


The namee of places are printed in thick type only in those routes where the pkuxs 

are deacribed. 



1 AnoklA&d and Heiffbboiu> 

hood I 

2 The Far North; Auckland 

to Whanffarei, The Bay of 
Islands, Hoklanga, and 
Kalpaxa .... 6 

3 Auckland to Botoma . lo 

4 Botoma and Helffhbour- 

hood 15 

5 Botoma to Tanpo • 28 

6 Tanpo to Hapier . • 3^ 

7 Tanxanga to Oishome and 

Hapier by land . . • 38 

8 Hapier and Heiffhbonr- 

hood 4a 


9 Hapier by Woodville and 
Masterton to Wellinirton . 44 

10 Tanpo to Wanganni . . 48 

11 AnoUand by Frankton and 

Te Kuiti to Wanganni . 53 

12 Anokland to Hew Ply- 

month • 56 

13 Hew Plymonth to Wan- 

ganni 67 

14 Wanganni and Heighbonr- 

hooi 70 

15 Wanganni to Wellington . 72 

16 Wellington and Heighbonr- 

hood 75 


17 Wellington to Pioton, Blen- 

heim and Helson • 78 

18 Helson and Heighbonr- 

hood 81 

19 Helson to Westport, Orey- 

month and Kokitika . 84 

20 BoUtika, by Kumara, the 

Otira Gorge and Springfield 

to Christohnroh 89 

21 Blenheim by Kaikoura, 

Waiau and Oulverden to 
Christohnroh < 9^ 

22 Christohnroh and Heigh- 

bonrhood . . '95 

23 Christohnroh to Dnnedin . 104 

24 Tlmam by Tekapo and 

Pukaki to The Hermitage 
(Mount Cook^ ; and thence 
by Pukaki, Omarama and 
Kurow to Oamam . .110 

25 Dnnedin and Heighbonr- 

hood 1T7 

26 Dnnedin by Balclutha and 

Gore to ZaToroargill . .124 



27 Dunedln by Lawrence and 

Clyde to l^kes Wanaka 
and Wakatipn . .137 

28 The Hermitage (Mount 

Cook) to Kakea Pukakl, 
Wanaka, KaweaandWaka- 
tipu ia8 

29 Hokitlka by the Haast Pass 

to Kake Wanaka . 131 


80 ZnTerearffill and VeUth' 

hood ..... 138 

81 ZnTorcarfflU to Aake Waka- 

tipu 142 

82 Zinmsden to Aakea Te Anau 

and Manaponxl . . 148 

33 The West Coast Bounds . 153 

Index 159 


General Map of the North Island . * , . ,att}ie beginning 
Index Map showing the position of plans, the limits of 
sectional maps, giving references to the pages at which 
they occur in the book, and to the Routes or pages 

where districts are described io face p. vi 

Map — Mercator's Projection showing SS. routes from England ,, „ [2] 
,) New Zealand and part of Australia, showing the 

Union SS. routes »> » [s] 

' Geological Map of New Zealand », >» [20] 

' Plan of Auckland ,, ,, 2 

Map of Rotorua, Tarawera, &c „ „ 22 

,, Botomahana ,, ,, 26 

„ Wairakei, Taupo, &c >> m 3^ 

Plan of Wellington (city ) >> »> 75 

„ „ and suburbs ,, ,» 78 

Map of Nelson, Westport, and intervening country , . „ „ 86 

„ Grey mouth and West coast road . . . . ,, „ 90 

Plan of Christchurch ># » 100 

Panorama of the Mountains from Burke's Pass .... page 1 13 

Plan of Dunedin to face p,iao, 

Map of the Otago Lakes ^ ^y 128 

;, the South Island and Stewart Island . . . , aithe end 




BotttestoN. Z [i] 

Time for travel and routes 

throng the Golon:^ . . . [6] 

Coach Services . . . . [8] 

Outfit and expenses . . • [n] 

01](jects of travel . . . . [u] 
SacrioN n. 

General description of K. Z. . [12] 

Geology [15] 

Mineral Waters . , . . [21] 

Vegetation ..... [28] 

Skction II. (continued) 

Animal Life .... [44] 

The Native Race .... [46J 


Abstract of N. Z. history . , [54] 
Skctioit V. 
Government, Population, Re- 

lil^on, and Education . . [58] 
Industries of the Colony . . [60] 
Literature [63} 

Routes prom England to New Zeai^and. 

There are three principal routes from England to N. Z. 

1. By America. Passengers by this route embark at Liverpool, 
Queenstown or Southampton, and cross to New York by one of the 
Atlantic lines ; thence go by rail to San Francisco. 

From San Francisco there are steamers every four weeks to Sydney, 
touching at Honolulu and Auckland. From San Francisco to Honolulu 
is 2,100 m.; and from Honolulu to Auckland, 3,810 m. From San 
Francisco to Auckland takes about 19 days. The fares to Auckland 
are as follows : — 

From London, ^64 Ss, to £67 8s. (according to choice of steam 

line to New York) ; Steerage, £$0 i8«. 9<?. 
From San Francisco, £40 ; Steerage, £20. 
From Honololu, £30; Steerage, £15. 

This route, though somewhat more expensive than the direct sea 
route, is convenient for tourists who intend to visit America and the 
Sandwich Islands en route. 

In former times the journey b ;^ween San Francisco and N. Z. was 
performed by old American paud.j^wheel steamers, passengers often 
having to tranship at Honolulu. After various temporary contracts, 
all more or less unfortunate, the N.Z. Government succeeded in making 

* [New Zealand.]* b 


a satisfELctory arrangement with the Union Steamship Company of 
N. Z. Since 1886 this has been the only route subsidized by the N. Z. 
Government for postal purposes. The Union SS. Go. have made a sub- 
arrangement with Messrs. Spreckels, the American shipowners. The 
vessels now in use are the Monowai (belonging to the Union Co.), 
and the Alameda and the Mariposa (belonging to Messrs. Spreckels) ; 
they all exceed 3,000 tons. 

It is possible also to go by the Canadian Pacific Railway from 
Montreal to Vancouver in 6i days; and to proceed thence by the 
N. Z. and Australian SS. Co.'s line ; but as their vessels do not call at 
Auckland, passengers have either to change at Honolulu or go on to 
Brisbane and Sydney ; and to go from Honolulu or Sydney in one of 
the Union SS. Co.'s steamers. The vessels of the N. Z. and Australian 
SS. Co. now in use are the Warrimoo and the Miotcetxt (each 5,000 
tons) ; they leave Vancouver monthly, and average 15 knots across 
the Pacific, reaching Sydney in about 20 days. 

2. By the Suez Canal and Australia. (Persons intending 
to go to N. Z. vi3. Australia should be careful to book in London for 
some port in N. Z., as in that case there is no extra charge for the 
ticket from Australia to N. Z.) 

The route vi3, Suez and Australia is an interesting one, the monotony 
of being long out of sight of land being avoided, whilst the drawback 
is that in the summer months the heat of the S. end of the Red 
Sea is somewhat trying. Passengers wishing to avoid the Bay of 
Biscay can send their liiggage by sea from London and proceed them- 
selves overland acrbss Europe and join the steamer at Brindipi or 

The voyage from London to Adelaide takes about 38 to 40 days ; 
and that from Brindisi or Naples about 29 to 30 days. At Adelaide 
travellers can, if they prefer it, land, and proceed by rail to Melbourne 
or Sydney. 

The principal lines of steamers to Australia are the Peninsular and 
Oriental, the Orient (both carrying English Mails), and the Messageries 

(i) The vessels of the P. and O. Company start from London 
fortnightly on Friday, and call at Gibraltar, Malta, Brindisi, Port 
Said, Aden, Colombo, Albany, Melbourne and Sydney. 

The P. and 0. Co. run the Australia (6,901 tons) ; Oceana (6,362 
tons) ; Britannia (6,257 tons) ; Massilia (4,918 tons) ; Paf*ramatta 
(4,771 tons) and Ballarat (4,748 tons). 

Fares from London : — ist Saloon, £63 to £73 ; 2nd Saloon, £yj to £42. 

Return Tickets : ist Saloon, £105 (available for nine months), and 
£115 (available for twelve months) ; 2nd Saloon, £65 (available for 
twelve months). 

(2) The vessels of the Orient Line also leave London fortnightly ; 
thus alternating with those of the P. and 0. Company. They touch 
at Plymouth, Gibraltar, Naples (where overland passengers are em- 
barked), Port Said, Suez, Colombo, Albany, Adelaide, Melbourne and 

The Orient Co. run the Ophir (twin screw, 6,910 tons), Orizaba 

J. jgrfliolflWMiw; XduJT 


(6,077 tons), Oroya (6,057 tons), Ormuz (6,031 tons'^, Oruba (5,552 tons), 
Oratava (5,552 tons), Austral (5,524 tons), and Orient (5,365 tons). 

Fares from London : — ist Clafis, £63 to ^£73; 2nd Class, £37 to 
£42 ; 3rd Class, £17 17s. to £22. 

Return: ist Class, £105 (available for nine months); £115 
(available for twelve months) : 2nd Class, £65 (available for twelve 

Round-the-world tickets outward by the Suez Canal and home by 
San Francisco and vice versa are also granted. 

(3) The vessels of the Messagrerles Maritimes Cie. leave Marseilles 
on the 1st or 3rd of each month. Luggage can be sent from London 
by sea. 

These steamers call at Mahe (Seychelles), Albany, Adelaide, 
Melbourne, Sydney and Noumea. 

The M. M. Cie. run the Armand Behic, Australien, Polynesien, and 
Ville de la Ciotat, all of 6,500 tons, in this service. 

Fares from Marseilles to Sydney : ist Class £65, 2nd Class £40, 
3rd Class £20. 

Return : ist Class £105, 2nd Class £64, 3rd Class £34. 

There are also several other lines, English and German. 

3. By the Cape of Good Hope and Hobart, returning by 
Cape Horn and Rio. — This (which is commonly spoken of as the 

* Direct * Route) is not so interesting as that by the Suez Canal ; on 
the other hand, it does not necessitate transhippinff, it avoids the Red 
Sea, 'and entails as little of the tropics as possible* The steamers 
start from London, and touch at Plymouth, where the mails are em- 
barked. From thence it takes about five days to Teneriffe, where 
a halt of nearly a day is made. About a fortnight later the steamer 
reaches Cape Town, and here passengers usuafly have time to visit 
some of the vineyards. From Cape Town to Hobart (Tasmania) takes 
sixteen or seventeen days ; after a short halt at Hobart the steamer 
proceeds across what is now called the 'Tasman Sea' to N. Z. in 
about four days. 

On the homeward route, the voyage from N. Z. to Cape Horn takes 
about a fortnight. Vessels usually pass round the Horn, very few 
now going through the Straits of Maffellan. Eight days from the 
Straits brings the steamer to the lovely harbour of Rio de Janiero, 
where a halt of about twenty-four hours is made, which enables 
the passengers to visit the famous Botanical Gardens, and to ascend 
some of the mountains by rail. After leaving Rio, the steamer 
rounds Cape Frio, and makes a straight course thence for Teneriflfe 
(which is reached in about twelve days), and so proceeds to Plymouth 
and London. 

The outward voyage is 13,013 m. in length, and takes from forty- 
three to forty-five days; the homeward is 11,946 m., and takes from 
forty to forty-two days. Two companies take the direct route— the 

* N. Z. Shipping Co.' and the * Shaw Savill and Albion Co.* 

The v. Z. Shlppinsr Co. commenced with a fleet of iron sailing ships 
of about 1000 tons register; they were named after the N.Z. rivers — 




e.g. the WaikatOy Hurunui, &c. In 1882, however, the Company 
decided to inaugurate a direct steam service. They chartered two 
3,000 ton Liverpool steamers belonging to the British line, the 
, British King and the British Queen \ these made the passage in 
forty-seven days. They next arranged with the owners of the White 
Star liners to place two of their vessels, the Ionic and the Doric 
(4,750 tons each>, in the N.Z. trade under the N. Z. Shipping Co.'s 
flag. This having been successful, the company resolved in 1884 
to have steamers specially built for them by Messrs. John Elder 
and Co. ; these have been named after N. Z. mountains. Their 
present fleet consists of the Budhine (6,127 tons), the Kaikoura 
(4,474), the Bimutaka (4,473), and the TongaritVy the Aorangi and 
the Biiapehu (each 4,163); besides three cargo vessels, the Waikato 
(4,766 tons), the Tekoa and the Otarama (about 4,000). The vessels 
designed for carrying passengers are all constructed on the most 
approved principles of the day, and are fitted up with every luxury. 
The Buahine is rigged as a brig, and has her first saloon amid-ships ; 
the others are barque-rigged, with the first saloon aft and the second 
amid-ships. All can when required attain a speed of 15 knots 1 
the BimtUaka on one occasion landed her mails in 39 days and 
3 hours, including stoppages, but ndt calling at Hobart, her average 
speed being 13^ knots for the entire passage. 

The vessels of the N. Z. Shipping Co. leave London every fourth 
Thursday and Plymouth two days later. 

Fares from London to N. Z. ports : ist Saloon, 60 to 70 guineas ; 
2nd Saloon, 35 to 40 guineas ; 3rd Class, 16 to 20 guineas. 

Return Tickets are issued on the following terms: — ist Saloon 
£105, if the return is completed within nine months from departure, 
and £115 if completed within twelve months; 2nd Saloon £65; 
3rd Class £31, £35, and £^gj according to berthing; Return to be 
completed within twelve months. Passengers who have paid the full 
fares to or from the Colony, and return by the Line of Steamers 
within six months of landing, will be allowed a reduction of 20 per 
cent, ofl" their fare, or 10 per cent, if they re-embark not more than 
twelve months after arrival. These abatements must be claimed 
at the time of re-booking. 

The Shaw Savill firm (now the Shaw SavUl and Albion Company) has 
been engaged in the N. Z. trade since 18^8, and has for a long 
time possessed a magnificent fleet of sailing vessels, but did not 
inaugurate a steam service until 1883. As soon, however, as the 
contract between the N. Z. Shipping Co. and the owners of the White 
Star liners terminated, the Shaw Savill and Albion Co. chartered 
the Done and the Ionic to run under their flag. Since that thejr have 
also chartered a third vessel, the Coptic (4,448 tons), belonging to 
the same line, and have had two vessels, each of over 5,000 tons, built 
for them by Messrs. Denny, Bros, of Dumbarton ; these have been 
named the Aiwva and the Tainui^ after two of the canoes in which 
the Maoris went from Hawaiki to N. Z. The model of the Arawa, 
shown at the Inventions Exhibition of 1885, gained the gold medal 
as the best of the year ; she was the first ocean steamer to work 
with a pressure of 160 lbs. to the sq. inch, her engines being on 


the triple expansion system, then in its infancy. The Araua left 
England on her first voyage in 1884, and made the outward trip 
to N. Z. in 38 days 30 min., and the homeward in 35 days 3 J hrs. ; 
thus going round the world in 73 days 4 hrs. ; in 1889 she made 
the homeward voyage in 34 days 23 hrs. steaming. The Tainui 
is identical with the Atuwa in almost every respect. All the steamers 
owned or chartered by the Shaw Savill and Albion Co. have the 
first saloon amid-ships and the second saloon aft. 

The vessels of the Shaw Savill and Albion Co. leave London every 
fourth Thursday, and alternate with the N. Z. Shipping Co.'s steamers 
to form a fortnightly service by the direct route. 

Fares : — ist Saloon, £63 to £y^ io«. ; return £105 (available for 
nine months), £115 (available for twelve months). 
2nd Saloon, £36 is«. to £42 ; return, £65 (available for twelve 

3rd Class and Steerage, £16 i6d. to £21.;. return £31 to £39 
(available for twelve months). 
(Special arrangements are made in particular cases.) 

Steam Communication between Australia and N. Z. and 
BETWEEN N. Z. PORTS. — This is chiefly in the hands of the Union SS. 
Company. The rise and progress of the trnion steamship Company is 
an important chapter in the history of N. Z. They commenced as 
the owners of three harbour steamers at Dunedin. In 1874-5, they 
procured from Messrs. Denny of Dumbarton two steamers, the Hawea 
(800 tons) and the Taupo (737 tons). These, like all vessels since 
then built for the Company, are named after N. Z. lakes. The 
Company has gone on increasing the fleet steadily ; they now possess 
52 steamers in all, varying from the Monowai (3,433 tons) to the Waihi 
(92 tons). The Tarawera (2,003 tons) is the vessel usually selected 
for the excursions to the West Coast Sounds (see Rtei 33). Several of 
the vessels can attain a rate of 16 knots. 

A traveller arriving at an Australian or N. Z. port should at once 
go to the office of the U. SS. Co. and obtain a copy of their monthly 
guide, which contains their programme for the month and a time- 
table of the principal trains in N. Z. One of the U. SS. Co.'s steamers 
leaves Sydney about once a week, and proceeds to Auckland (about 
five days) and then down the E. Coast, touching at Gisborne, Napier, 
Wellington, Lyttelton, Dunedin, and the Bluff; and thence going to 
Hobart (four days) and Melbourne. Another weekly steamer performs 
the same journey the opposite way. The Company have also a line 
of steamei*s plying between Onehunga, New Plymouth, Nelson, and 
Wellington, and back ; and another plying about once a fortnight 
between Sydney and Wellington direct. 

Besides these lines, communication between Auckland and the 
ports in the north of N. Z. is chiefly in the hands of the Horthem 
Steam Ship Co. ; and there are various steamers belonging to different 
owners plying between the smaller ports and on the lakes. 

[6] genebal infobhatiok. 

Best Season for Travel and Boutes through the Colony. 

The summer— that is, between October and March— is the best 
time for touring in N. Z. It is in the early part of the summer 
when there is much snow on the mountains that the country 
looks most beautiful. On the other hand, those who wish to do 
much climbing had better wait until the snow has melted. 

It is impossible to see anything of the two islands in less than two 
months ; indeed, a very much longer time would be necessary to 
exhaust the beauties of N. Z. scenery. *If one had a dozen 
summers to spend in New Zealand I believe they could all be passed 
in breaking new ground, and in the enjoyment of scenery of the 
most varied beauty * (W. S. Green). 

Those who have less than two months at their disposal had better 
content themselves with seeing one island only. Persons who wish 
to avoid the severity of an English winter can best do so by leaving 
England early in September, and arriving at Hobart in the middle of 
October. A pleasant detour may be made by landing at Hobart, 
proceeding by rail to Launceston, and crossing thence to Melbourne. 
After spending the first week of November at Melbourne, so as to see 
the Races (the great annual gathering of Victoria), the traveller can 
proceed by rail to Sydney, spend the second week of November there, 
and then go on by the Union SS. Co.'s steamer to Auckland. 

The route through N. Z. may be from N. to S. or vice versa. 
The former is preierable, especially if the tour is made at the 
beginning of the summer, for the climate of the North Island is 
warmer and earlier than that of the South. 

Travelling through the country is performed partly by rail (of 
which there are now upwards of 2,000 miles open) and partly by 
coach (for the list of Coach Services see p. [8]). Nearly all the rail- 
ways belong to the Government. The usual charges are as follows :— 


ist GL 


ist Bet. 

2nd Bet. 





















Season ticket for the whole Colony for six weeks, £S. 

Trains are not remarkable for speed ; few exceed twenty miles an 
hour ; the ordinary rate is about fifteen. Private vehicles (generally 
' buggies ') may be hired ; and should the tourist extend his travels 
into the less frequented parts of the country, it will be necessary to 
go on horseback. All travellers are recommended on landing to consult 
Messrs. Thomas Cook and Son's agents, who are to be found in every 
town and who will readily make every possible arrangement. In this 
way much trouble and some expense may be avoided. The N. Z. 
Railway guide, which is issued monthly by the Government, contains 
full information as to trains, coaches and steamers. 

Supposing the traveller to land at Auckland he may commence by 
the tour through the far north ; but this must be omitted if he is 
going to devote only a month to the N. island. Leaving Auckland 


he will proceed to Rotorua; thence to Taupo. On leaving Taupo 
he must choose between the Wanganui and the Napier routes ; the 
former is more beautiful and interesting, but at the same time more 
tiring and expensive. The other routes— viz. that by Te Kuiti and 
the King country; and that by New Plymouth— are only recommended 
to those who have already seen the Hot Lakes district. In any case 
the tour of the N. island ends at Wellington. 

Travellers who land at Wellington should go to Auckland by one 
route and return by the other ; ror instance they may go by Wan- 
ganui and New Plymouth, and return by Rotorua, Taupo, Napier and 
Masterton ; thus seeing much of the country and never retracing 
their steps. 

Leaving Wellington at the end of the year, the traveller should go to 
Nelson either altogether by steamer or by coach from Picton ; thence 
by the Gorge of the BuUer to Greymouth on the W. Coast, and 
over the mountains to Christchurch ; the E. Coast route vi& Eaikoura 
is less beautiful; and to go from Wellington to Lyttelton by sea 
is a mistake for any traveller who has the opportunity of seeing the 
W. Coast. 

From Christchurch the traveller goes S. by train as far as 
Timaru. After leaving Timaru, he must be entirely guided by the 
amount of time at his disposal, and his peculiar tastes. If he has at 
least five weeks left, and wishes to see as much as possible of the 
works of God and man, he can go by Fairlie and Pukaki to the 
Hermitage; thence by Pukaki, Omarama, Kurow and Oamaru to 
Dunedin ; thence by Lawrence, Roxborough and Cromwell to Lakes 
Wanaka and Hawea ; thence to Queenstown, for the excursion to the 
head of Lake Wakatipu and back ; thence by Kingston and Lumsden 
to Lakes Manapouri and Te Anau ; thence return to Lumsden, and 
down to Invercargill. If he has only three or four weeks, he must 
decide whether he will sacrifice cities and settled districts, or some 
of the mountains and lakes. If the former, he will proceed as above 
as far as Omarama, but thence go direct to Lake Wanaka, omitting 
Dunedin. If the latter, he may follow the first route as far as 
Cromwell and go thence to Queenstown, omitting Wanaka, and 
Hawea ; also (if necessary) omitting Manapouri and Te Anau. If 
his time is still shorter he can follow the first route as far as Dunedin ; 
thence go by rail vi§, Gore and Lumsden to Kingston ; by steamer 
to the head of Lake Wakatipu and back, and thence rail down to 
Invercargill. As the route is thus intricate and the time uncertain 
(the days on which the coaches run being occasionally altered) all 
travellers should discuss the matter fiilly vnth Cook's agent before 
leaving Christchurch. 

One important consideration in fixing the time will be the date of 
the Union SS. Co.'s excursion to The Sounds. All travellers should 
manage this, if possible ; less adventurous tourists should take it as 
their final trip (as almost any sceneiy looks poor after Milford Sound) ; 
but those who are able to walk from the Sutherland Falls to Lake 
Te Anau should conclude their Sounds trip by leaving the steamer 
at Milford Sound and going thence by Te Anau and Manapouri to 



A traveller who has but one month to spend in N. Z. and is deter- 
mined to see as much as he can of all parts of the countiy (including 
the Hot Lakes, forest, lake and mountain scenery, and cities) regardless 
of fatigue, may adopt the following programme : — 

At Auckland, i day. To Rotorua, i day ; at Rotorua, i day. To 
Taupo, I day ; at Taupo, i day. To Napier, 2 days ; at Napier, i day. 
To Wellington, i day ; at Wellington, i day. To Nelson, 2 days. To 
Kumara, the Otira Grorge and Ghristchurch, 6 days ; at Ghristchurch, 

1 day. To the Hermitage (Mt. Cook) and back to Timaru, 5 days. To 
Dunedin, i day; at Dunedin, i day. To Wakatipu, i day; at Wakatipu, 

2 days. To Invercargill, i day. Total, 30 days. 

This is the programme now followed by many tourists ; but it is 
making a toil of a pleasure. The reader, by consulting the various 
Routes given in this volume, will find out the additional time which 
should be ^iven to each, and must decide for himself what part of the 
trip to omit. 

After the tour is completed, the traveller will make his way to the 
port whence the direct steamer starts for London; and will thus 
reach England about the end of March or early in April. 

Coach Services in New Zealand. 

[Note. — Aa these occaaionally change, traveHera should make inquiries on arriving 

in the Colony.] 

Auckland ahd Hawkx's Bat PBOYiKCiAii DiSTRicm. 













Kawakawa . 
Kawakawa . 
Te Aroha . . 


Ohinemutu . 
Ohinemntn . 
Taupo . . . 

Hokianga . 
Thames. . 


Tanranga • 
Taupo . . 
Napier . . 

Tues. II am . 
Sun. 9 am . . 
Mon. Iliurs. 6 

am ; Tues. 

Wed. Fri. 

Sat. 7.30 am 
Tues. Thurs. 

7.30am ; Sat. 


Tues. Sat. 7 am 
Wed. 7 am 
Thurs. 7 am . 

Taranaki and Wellinotoh Proyihcial Districts. 

New Plym'th 

Opunaki . . 

Mon. Wed. Fri 
9.30 am 

Hawera . . 

Opunaki . . 

Tues. Fri 
noon ; Mon. 
Wed. Thurs. 
Sat. 2 pm 

Tues. Thurs. 

Sat. 9.30 am 
Tues. Fri 4.30 

am; Mon. 

Wed. Thurs. 

Sat. 8 am 



Thurs. 6 am . 
Sat. 8.30 am . 
Daily, 7.30 am 




Mon. 8.30 am ; 
12.30 pm ; 
Wed. Fri 



12.30 pm 
Tues. Sat. . . 
Thurs. 7 am . 
Mon. 6.30 am . 













Tabahaki and Welukgtom pBOYiHciAii D1STBIGT8 {cofUmued), 











Greatford . 

Kereru . , 
Woodville . 

WoodviUe . 

KketAhnna . 
Ifasterton . 


Bulls . . . 

Fozton . . . 
Eketalmna . 
Pahiatna . . 

Knmeroa . . 

Pahiatna . . 
Castlepoint . 

Featherston . 

Daily, 8.27 am, 
9.41 am, 1.5 
pm, 3.15 pm, 
7.21 pm 

Daily, 1 0.20 am 

Daily, 9.30 am 

Daily, i pm, 

Wed. Sat. 2.30 

Daily, 6 am . 

Tues. Fri 7.30 

Daily, 6.30 am 

Daily, 7.45 am, 
9 am, 12.30 
pm, 2.40 pm, 
6.30 pm. 

Daify, 6 am . 

Daily, 1.15 pm 

Daily, 8 am, 
1.30 pm 

Wed. Sat. 9 am 

Daily, 6 pm . 
Wed. Sat. 5.30 

Daily, 10.35 am 








• • • 







• • • 



MAsiiBOROUOH, Nelson, Canterbury, and Westland Provinciaij Districts. 


. Nelson . . . 

Tues. Thurs. 

Mon. Wed. Fri 

Sat. 7 am 

7 am 


. Havelock . . 

Ditto . . . 

Ditto .... 


. Molesworth . 

Wed. II am . 



. Kaikoura . . 

Mon. 6 am . . 

Thurs. 6 am . 


. Westport . . 


Mon. Wed. Fri 

11.5 am 

7 am 


, . Westport , . 

Daily, 7 am . 

Dealy, 7 am . 


. Waiau . . . 

Daily, i pm . 

Daily, 11.45 am 


. Hanmer 

Daily, 12.40 pm 

Daily, 9 am . 


. Kaikoura . . 

Mon. I pm . . 

Thurs. 6 am . 


i , Kumara,Hoki- 

Tues. Fri. 12 

Tues. Fri. 6 am 




i . Greymouth . 

Ditto. . . . 

Ditto. . . . 


i . Westport . , 

Ditto. . . . 

Sun. Tues. Fri 

fr Q TVl 


b1 . Windwhistle . 

Fri. II am . . 

Sat. I pm . . 


b1 . T^akeColeridge 

Ditto. . . . 

Sat. 9.30 am . 

Little Biv 

er . Akaroa . . . 

Mon. Wed. Sat. 

Mon. Wed. Sat. 

11.30 am 

7.30 am 


. Peel Forest . 

Tues. Thurs. 

Tues. Thurs. 

Sat. 1.35 pm 

Sat. 8.45 am 

Orari . , 

, . Gteraldine . . 

Daily . . . 

Daily. . . . 


, . Silverstream . 

Tues. Sat. 5 am 

Mon. Wed. . 


. Burke's Pass . 

Ditto. . . . 

Ditto. . . . 


, . Tekapo . , . 

Ditto. . . . 

Ditto .... 


• Pukaki . • . 

Ditto. . . . 

Ditto .... 

PiiTraki . 

, , Pembroke . . 

Fri 7 am . . 

Mon. 12.30 pm. 


> . Mount Cook 

Tues. Sat. 5 am 

Mon. Wed. 6 


























 • • 







































Otaoo Fsovivciai/ Dutbict. 












Knrow . . 

Omarama . 

Mon. Fri. 9 am 

Tues. Sat. 9 am 


12/6 20/ 

Kurow . . 

Ben Ohau . . 

Thurs. 9 am . 

Fri 9am 


17/6 30/ 

Palmerston . 

Nenthom . . 

Mon. Wed. Fri. 
11.15 am 

Tues. Thurs. 
Sat. 12 noon 




Palmerston . 

Eyebnm . . 

Mon. Fri 8 am 

Tues. Sat. 8.30 





Palmerston . 

Naseby . . . 

Ditto. . . . 

Tuee. Sat. 7 am 





Hyde . . . 

Mon. Wed. Fri 
II. 15 am 

Tues. Thurs. 
Sat. II am 





Kyebnm . . 

Ditto. . . . 

Tues. Thurs. 
Sat. 9 am. 





Naseby . . . 

Ditto. . . . 

Tues. Thurs. 
Sat. 7 am 





Alexandra . . 

Ditto. . . . 

Mon. Fri. 7 am 





Clyde . . . 

Ditto. . . . 

Mon. Fri 6 am 


47/6 90/ 


Catlin's Biver 

Mon. 12.35 pm ; 
Wed. Fri. 
12.3s pm, 8.45 

Mon. II am ; 
Wed. Fri 11 
am, 7pm 





Bozburgh . » 

Mon. Wed. Fri. 

Tues. Thurs. 


12/6 ao/ 

I pm 

Sat. 8 am 


Alexandra . . 

Ditto. . . . 

Mon. Wed. Fri 
3-15 pm 





Clyde . . . 

Ditto. . . . 

Mon. Wed. Fri 
2.15 pm 





Cromwell . . 

Ditto. . . . 

Mon. Wed. Fri 
12 noon 




Lawrence . 

Arrowtown . 

Ditto. . . . 

Mon. Wed. Fri 

$9 OTVl 





Queenstown . 

Ditto. . . . 

7 orin 
Mon, Wed. Fri 





Wyndham . 

Fortrose . . 

Mon. Wed. Fri. 
10.30 am 

Tues. Thurs. 
Sat. 10 am 




Wjmdham . 

Edendale . . 

Daily, 8.20 am, 
12.5 pm, 2.10 
pm, 4.10 pm 

Daily, 9.10 am, 
i.o pm, 2.45 
pm, 6 pm 




Riversdale . 

Waikaia . . 

Mon. Wed. Fri. 
Sat. 3.20 pm; 
Tues. Thurs. 
5- 15 pm 

Mon. Wed. Fri 
Sat. 9.30 am; 
Tues. Thurs. 
6.45 am 




Queenstown . 

Pembroke . . 

Sat. Tues. 8 am 

Mon. Thurs. 8 




Queenstowu . 


Ditto. . . . 


Mon. 8 am . . 



 • • 

Queenstown . 

Cromwell . . 

Mon. Wed. Fri. 
5 wn 

Tues. Thurs. 
Sat. 12.30 pm 




Arrowtown . 

Queenstown . 

Tues. Thurs. 
Sat. 5 pm; 
Mon. Thurs. 
9 am 

Mon. Wed. Fri. 
10.30 pm 




Pembroke , 

OromweU . , 

Mon. 5 am ; 
Thurs. 10 am 

Tues. Sat, i pm 




Pembroke . 

Pukaki . . . 

Mon. 12.30 pm 

Fri 7 am . . 




liumsden . . 

Te Anftu . , 

Tues, Sat, . , 

Mon. Thurs. . 





Outfit and Expenses. 

The only outfit required will be such clothing as would be worn in 
an English summer. All ordinary things can be purchased in any of 
the Colonial towns ; the prices are however high in consequence of 
the enormous protective duties. 

English money is of course in circulation, but a charge is made on 
cashing English banknotes. There are Banks in every village, at 
which circular notes may be cashed. 

Letters of introduction to residents in the Colony are most valuable. 
A tour through N. Z. is not complete without seeing something 
of social life, especially In the country. Besides this, in every 
town there is a club, to which gentlemen travelling through the 
Colony can be introduced as honorary members. Living at a club is 
rather more expensive than at an hotel, but £R.r preferable. 

The general charge at an hotel in N. Z. is los. a day ; 28. 6d. 
for bed, breakfast, luncheon, or dinner. In some of the hotels in 
the larger towns the charge is 128. b, day, and in less frequented 
districts Ss, or even 68, If the traveller stays more than one night, 
meals must be paid for, whether partaken of or not. The term 
* hotel' is generally applied to any inn possessing a licence, irrespective 
of size; those which do not possess a licence being called 'accommoda- 
tion houses.* Hotels are usually called by the name of the manager — 
e. g. Jackson' 8, Coker's— which is confusing on account of the frequent 
changes. Although there are but few hotels which can compare with 
those to be found in English or continental cities, it may safely be 
said that taking the Colony as a whole the hotel accommodation is 
quite equal to that of any European country. There are also many 
boarding and lod^ng houses. 

As the wages m the Colony are very high, * tipping' is not so 
universal as in Europe. It is much to be hoped that tourists will not 
extend this stupid and annoying custom. 

The rate for coaches and guides differs in each district. Horses to 
hire are generally about ic«. a day. 

Objects of Tkavel. 

N. Z., as would be expected, possesses but little of interest in the way 
of architecture ; but in its history and natural features— in geology, 
botany, ornithology, ethnology— there is enough to delight the most 
exacting of tourists. The scenery can only be compared to Switzerland, 
Norway, and Iceland put together ; for the health-seeker no tour in 
the world can be more cordially recommended. Maori legends, tales 
of the old tribal raids, and incidents in the modem wars, to some 
extent supply the place of the historical associations of European 



countries. No Englishman can fail to be interested in watching the 
progress and observing the institutions of this flourishing Colony ; 
and the varied industries which have already sprung up will repay 

Excellent trout fishing may be obtained, especially in the S. Island, 
from October to March; a licence costs £i. (For full information 
on this subject see * Trout Fishing inKZ,' by Spackman.) In the autumn 
there is deer-stalkinff in the Wellington, Nelson and Otago districts, 
and some pheasant shooting in Auckmnd and Taranaki. Calif omian 
quail are to be found in fair quantities in the Wellington and Nelson 
districts ; the shooting being during the months of May, June and 
July. A traveller who announces that he enjoys rabbit-shooting will 
probably receive many invitations to stations which are suffering 
from these pests. Enjoyable race meetings are held at all the 
principal towns during the summer ; and should the tourist extend 
his visit to the winter, he will find several packs of harriers in different 
parts of the country. There is good sea-fishing, especially off the 
coast of the N. Island, all the year round. 

The principal curios to be collected are : — Specimens of Maori 
work, including carvings in wood and greenstone, and mats woven 
in native flax {Phormium tenax) ; ornaments made of green-stone 
and of the beautiful amber-like kauri gum ; inlaid wood-work ; pressed 
ferns ; and skins of native birds. These may be purchased in all the 
principal towns ; but as a rule the Auckland shops are the best for 
the purpose. 


General Description of New Zealand. 

The Colony consists of two islands called the North and South Islands 
and a small island at the southern extremity called Stewart Island. 
The S. Island is oflScially termed the * Middle Island,* but the more 
natural name is commonly used. There are also several small islets, 
such as the Eermadec, Chatham, and Auckland Isles, that are 
dependencies of the Colony. The entire group lies between 33** and 
48" S. lat., and 166° and 179** E. long. The two principal islands, 
with Stewart Island, extend in length 1,100 m., but their breadth is 
extremely variable, ranging from 46 m. to 250 m., the average being 


about 140 m., but no part is anywhere more distant than 75 m. from 
the coast. 

Sq. Miles. 


The total 


of New Zealknd 

18 about 






the N. Island being 






»j "• »» 







„ Stewart 





It will thus be seen that the total area of N. Z. is somewhat less 
than that of Great Britain and Ireland. In shape, latitude and 
climate, it resembles Italy more than any other European countiy. 
The N. and St Islands are separated by a strait only 13 m. across 
at the narrowest part, presenting a feature of the gi'eatest importance 
from its facilitating intercommunication between the different 
coasts without the necessity of sailing round the extremities of the 

Both Islands are mountainous, with extensive plains, which in the 
S. Island lie principally on the E. side of the mountain range, while 
in the N. Island the most extensive lowlands lie on the W. side. In 
the N. Island the interior mountainous parts are covered with dense 
forest or low shrubby vegetation ; while in the S. Island these parts 
are chiefly open and well grassed, and are used for pastoral purposes, 
the forest being chiefly on the broken ground to the W. of the 

In the N. Island the mountains occupy one tenth of the surface, 
and do not exceed from 1,500 to 4,000 ft. m height, with the exception 
of a few volcanic mountains that are more lofty, one of which, 
Tongariro (6,500 ft.), is still occasionally active. Ruapehu (9,100 ft.) 
and Mount Egmont (8,300 ft.) are extinct volcanoes that reach above 
the limit of perpetual snow ; the latter is surrounded by one of the 
most extensive and fertile districts in N. Z. 

The mountain-range in the S. Island, known as the Southern Alps, 
is crossed at intervals by low passes, but its summits reach a height 
of from 10,000 to 12,000 ft., and it has extensive snowfields and 
glaciers. Flanking this mountain-range and occupying its greater 
valleys are extensive areas of arable land, which are successfully 
cultivated from the sea-level to an attitude of over 2,000 ft. 

The Climate is more equable than that of Great Britain, the 
extremes of daily temperature only varying throughout the year by 
an average of 20**, whilst London is 7° colder than the N. and 4° colder 
than the S. Island. The mean annual temperature of the N. Island 
is 57** and of the S. Island 52**, that of London and New York being 
51 . The mean annual temperature of the different seasons for the 
whole colony is, in spring 55**, in summer 63°, in autumn 57°, and in 
winter 48*. 

To the N. of Auckland oranges grow splendidly ; lemons ripen as far 
S. as Wellington. English fruits abound all over the S. Island, 




















Warmest ] 

















North Itland. 

o / 



35 » 


























39 4 

174 5 

























41 x6 














175 6 











South Island. 


41 x6 

173 19 










54- 7« 















43 2 













42 33 













45 52 


























45 2 




40-0 x 








* Height above sea, 2,104 '^ t Height above sea, 550 ft. X Height above sea, 1,070 ft. 

The climate on the W. coast of both Islands is more equable than 
on the E., the difference between the average summer and winter 
temperature being nearly 4 degrees greater on the S.E. portion of the 
N. Island and 7 degrees on that of the S. Island than on the N. W., on 
which the equatorial winds impinge. This constant wind is the most 
important feature in the meteorology of N. Z., and is rendered more 
striking by comparing the annual fluctuation of temperature on the 
opposite seaboards of the S. Island, which have a greater range of 
temperature by 18 degrees at Ghristchnrch on the £. than at Hokitika 
on the W. 

Mean Annual Rainfall, 

N. Island. 

AtLokland 45.306 

Taranaki 58.084 

Napier 37.260 

Wellington 50.781 

S. Island. 

Hokitika 1 12.156 

Ghristchorch 25.774 

Dunedin 32.019 

Southland 43.674 

The observations that have been taken show that the northern part 
of N. Z. is within the influence of the subtropical winter rainfall, the 
probability of rainfall in winter in that part of the Colony being twice 
as large as in summer. 

In the S., however, the rainfall, though irregular, is distributed more 
equally over the year. The chief difference to be observed is that on 
the W. coast spring rains prevail, and summer rains on the E. coast • 

GEOLOGY. [15] 

while in the middle of the Colony the driest season is autumn, and in 
the S. it is the winter and spring. 

The contrast between the rainfall on the E. and W. coasts, as with 
the temperature, is most striking. Thus, in the N. Island, Napier on 
the E. has only half the amount of rain that falls in Taranaki on the W. 
But the S. Island, with its longitudinal range of lofby mountains, 
exhibits this feature in a still more marked manner, for the rainfall 
on the W. is nearly five times greater than that on the E. The 
excess of precipitation on the coast is clearly illustrated by the distri- 
bution of the glaciers on the opposite side of the range. Those on the 
W. slope have an excessive supply of snow, and descend to a line 
where the mean annual temperature is 50° Fahr., while on the £. slope 
they descend only to the mean annual temperature of yj°. The 
winter snow-line on the Southern Alps on the E. side is 3,000 ft., and 
that on the W. side is 3,700 ffc. 

Very few of the rivers in the Colony are navigable ; most of them, 
rushing down from the mountain sides, are subject to floods. The 
estimated discharge per minute of the Waikato is 839,168 cubic feet, 
and of the Clutha 1,088,736. In many places, especially on the 
Canterbury plains, the rivers have frequently shifted their courses, 
leaving dry beds of enormous width. 

The prevailing winds are westerly, but they are much modified by 
the form of the land. When the centres pass to the N. of N. Z., the 
result is that N. E. winds impinge on the E. coast, bringing rain, 
followed by cold south-easters, with heavy storms of rain and snow 
during winter in the S. 

The more common westerly winds begin in the NNW., with 
heavy rain on the W. coast, and gradually veer to S.W., when fair 
bright weather sets in on that coast ; but the same southerly wind, 
sweeping along the E. side of the Islands, brings heavy strong weather, 
locally known as * southerly bursters,' which, from the shape of the 
coast, reach the region of Cook Strait as S.E. stoims. All the other 
winds are either land or sea draughts, with fine light weather, or are 
moderate winds produced by the circulation of the atmosphere round 
anticyclonic areas of high barometric pressure, that are far more per- 
sistent in their influence than the fast-moving cyclonic or low-pressure 

Thunderstorms are most frequent in the districts where the changes 
of wind are most suddenly felt, from the moist equatorial currents or 
the cold polar currents of the S.W. They are most frequent in spring 
on the W. coast, except in the extreme S.W. of Otago, where during 
winter thunderstorms are of almost daily occurrence. 


The Geological Survey of N. Z. has been carried out under the able 
direction of Sir James Hector, K.C.M.G., F.R,S. ; but although it has 
been made with great care and skill, it must be recollected that it is 
necessarily not so minute as in better-known countries ; Sir J. Hector 



considers that in some respects the classification must be regarded as 

The accompanying map gives a general idea of the structure of the 
Islands and the distribution of the chief groups of rock formation ; 
but for further detail the traveller must consult the larger max>6 
which are to be found in all public libraries in N. Z. 

I (a). PosT-TEBTUBT (Recbut).— The deposits belongfing to this period 
have accumulated with greater rapidity in N. Z«, owing to the 
mountainous character of the country giving to the rivers, even when 
of large size, the character of torrents, which are liable to occasional 
floods of extreme violence. To some extent, also, the remarkable 
indications of change which are everywhere manifest must be attri- 
buted to alterations of relative level which have affected the surface, 
some of which have occurred durinc^ the present century. Such 
changes are more easily detected on the sea-coast, where they effect 
sudden alterations of the shore-line, but there is no doubt that they 
have been equally potent in inland districts, and have caused, for 
instance, marked alterations in the courses of some of the rivers. 

The Maori race is considered, from the evidence afforded by their 
traditions, to have been established in N. Z. for little more than 
five hundred years before the first arrival of Europeans ; but during 
that period, while the Islands were being explored in all parts by this 
intelligent and adventurous native race, the spread of nres, causing 
the destruction of the primaeval forests and rank vegetation, was the 
means of setting free vast accumulations of loose soil and disintegrated 
rock that were formerly retained on the mountain-slopes. The material 
thus displaced has accumulated in the river-courses, causing them to 
raise their beds above the adjacent lands, so that they have broken 
a^^ from their channels in many places. 

The race of gigantic Moa birds (Dinomts) had its maximum 
development in the N. Z. area, and only became extinct during 
the recent period, but their extermination must have commenced 
at an earlier date than the first human occupation, as their bones 
are found deeply embedded in the gravels and swamps, while the 
evidences of human occupation are confined to the surface-soil, shelter** 
caves, and sand-dunes. 

I (&). Pliocene.— This formation belongs to a period when N. Z. was 
the mountain-range of a greatly-extended land-area, and when, 
in the North Island, the volcanic forces had their greatest activity, 
attended with the rapid elevation of local areas of fossiliferous deposits 
that were at this period forming in adjacent seas. In the South 
Island no marine deposits of importance belonging to this period are 
present, but the great area of land above the shore-line intensified 
the erosive action of the glaciers radiating from the mountain-* 
centres, and gave rise to enormous deposits of gravel, such, for 
instance, as compose the greater part of the Ganteroury Plains, and 
the Moutere Hills in Nelson. 

The economic importance of this formation is very considerable, 
from its containing the richest deposits of alluvial gold that form the 
support of the mining population. The beds cover a considerable 
surface-area, both in the North and also in the South Island, 

GEOLOGY. [17] 

2 (a). Upper Miocewe. - The marine beds of this age consist of a series 
of sandy, calcareous^ and argillaceous strata, the distribution of which, 
and as a rule also the mineral character, indicate that they were related 
to a closely adjacent shore-line, as they often pass, almost suddenly, 
from coarse conglomerates into narrow strips of fine mud and clay, 
such as are deposited in the centres of deep channels and inlets. 

2 (b). Lower Miocene. — This formation, which is distinfpished from the 
foregoing chiefly by its fossils, is a calcareous and argillaceous forma- 
tion, widely spread over the E. and central part of the North Island 
and both sides of the South Island, and, when not removed by denuda- 
tion, can be traced to an altitude of 2,500 ft. above the sea. It 
represents a period of great depression, and the deposits are remark- 
able for the absence of evidence of volcanic activity in any part of the 
region, and for the abundance of marine life. 

f 2 (c). Upper Eocewe. — This is a veiy marked formation of calcareous 

\ ~ sandstone, composed of shell fragments, with corals and Bryozoa, and 
is a shallow-water and littoral deposit. 

Intense volcanic activity prevailed during this period in both Islands, 
and the calcareous strata are frequently interbedded with contem- 
poraneous igneous rocks and tufas, and in the North Island are often 
replaced by wide-spread trachyte fldes and volcanic breccias. 

The lower part of this formation passes at places into an imperfect 
nummulitic limestone, or a friable calcareous sandstone, evidently 
deposited in shallow seas, and forming the lowest member of the 
proper marine Tertiary series. 

3 (a). Cretaceo-tertiary. — This constitutes the Cretaceo-tertiary group, 
being stratigraphically associated and containing many fossils in 
common throughout, while at the same time, though none are existing 
species, many from even the lowest beds present a strong Tertiary 
facies, and in the upper part only a few are decidedly Secondary 

The distribution of this formation shows that it was not like the 
foregoing formations of later date, deposited in relation to a form of 
the land like that at present obtaining in the N. Z. area, except in the 
vicinity of some of the oldest and most lofty land-masses in the south, 
which appeared to have remained above the water-line since the 
Lower Cretaceous period. 

The upper part of this formation is a deep-sea deposit, but the 
lower subdivisions indicate the close vicinity of land, and are replaced 
in some areas by true estuarine and fluviatile beds containing coal. 

The most valuable coal deposits of N. Z. occur in the Cretaceo- 
tertiaiy formation, but always at the base of the marine beds of the 
formation, in every locality where they occur. The coal-bearing beds 
always rest upon the basement rock of the district, marking a great 
unconformity and the closing of a long-persistent land-area at the 
period to which they belong. 

3 (&). Lower Greensand.— This formation consists of green and grey 
incoherent sandstones, with hard concretions, and large masses of 
silicified wood. 

It is confined to a few localities of limited extent, is very rich in 
[New Zeaicmd,'] c 



fosBils of the genera Beletnniies and Trigonia, with a few Saurian bones 
and large Chimaeroid fishes. 

4 (a). JvKAflsio. --These beds, which are the youngest of the Lower 
Secondary formation in N. Z., consist in the upper put of estuarine 
beds, marine fossils being absent or rare. 

Following these are marlstones, represented in southern districts 
by coarse-grained sandstones, which pass near the base of the forma- 
tion into conglomerates with ban<u of indurated shale, enclosing 
plant-remains and irregular coal-seams, which have been included 
m the next group as its upper member. 

They are all of marine origin, and contain Middle and Lower Oolite 

4 (b). Lias. — This formation consists in its upper part of conglomerates 
and sandy grits, with plant-remains too indistinct for identification ; 
and in the lower of marly sandstones in banded layers of different 
colours, at the base having a concretionary structure, which has led to 
their bein^ termed ' the cannon-ball sandstone : ' similar sandstones 
also occur m the Otapiri formation. 

4 (c), Trias. — It has been found necessary to include in this formation 
a thickness of strata which is quite unusual in other parts of the 
world ; but the close connexion which exists throughout, founded on 
both palaeontological and stratigraphical grounds, and the clearly- 
defined Permian character of the next underlying formation, renders 
this classification absolutely necessary. 

4 (d), Permian. — ^The mineral character of this formation is grey and 
green sandstone with breccia and heavy conglomerate beds. Marine 
fossils have only been found at i ,ooo ft. below the great conglo- 
merate that divides its two sections. 

5 (a). Lower Carboitiferous and Upper Devonian. — This formation is of 
considerable importance from the large share it takes in the structure 
of the great mountain-ranges, and from the occasionally great de- 
velopment in it of contemporaneous igneous rocks, with which are 
associated metalliferous deposits. In the upper part this formation 
consists of fine-grained argillaceous slates (Maitai slates of Hoch- 
stetter), becoming calcareous and passing into true limestones at their 
base. These limestones, which close the Maitai series, contain Lower 
Carboniferous fossils. 

Succeeding these is an enormous thickness of greenstone breccias, 
aphanite slates, and diorite sandstones, with great contemporaneous 
flOes and dykes of diorite, serpentine, syenite, and felsite belongings 
to the Upper Devonian period. 

5 (b). Lower Devonian. — These, as determined hj their fossil contents, 
have only been distinguished in one locality, viz., Reefton, although 
from their mineral character they are evidently present in many other 
parts of the South Island. 

5 (c). Upper Silurian. — Many areas of metamorphic schists should 
probably be included in this formation, but it has only been distin-> 
guished by its fossil contents in the north-west district of Nelson, 
where botn Upper and Lower Silurian rocks are present. 

The Upper Silurian rocks consist of grey cherts, sandstones, and 
calcareous slates, with occasional beds of blue b'mestone. 

aEOLOGY, [1 &i 

In the Baton River they contain a ^reat variety of fossils in the 
calcareous strata, and not infrequently in the sandstones and cherts, of 
which thirteen species have been determined, besides which a great 
variety of corals and corallines occur ; crinoids also are veiy abundant. 

5 {d). Lower Silubian. — These rocks form the mass of Mount Arthur 
and the range to the north-east as far as Separation Point, and they 
consist chiefly of a dark bituminous slate, associated with a blue or 
grey submetajnorphic limestone, which is in places developed to a very 
large extent. White crystalline limestones are aho associated with 
these beds throughout the whole length of the district from Mount 
Owen to Motueka. 

The whole series is disturbed by eruptive homblendic and syenitic 
rocks, which are probably of Devonian a^e. 

Fossils have been found in two locahties only, and these consist 
entirely of encrinite remains,- one species of coral not yet determined, 
and Graptolites which occur in the slates. 

The central axis of these beds consists of true mica-schists, to the 
east and west of which the limestone and bituminous slates overlie. 

6. PoLUTED Schists. — The metamorphic rocks under this division 
have as yet been only subdivided according to their mineral character ; 
but they probably consist chiefly of altered Silurian rocks, and even 
those of formations as young as the Maitai or Lower Carboniferous 
beds. The less metamorphosed areas of Lower Palaeozoic rocks in 
the South of N. Z. have yielded no fossils. They were formerly classed 
as the Eaihiku series, but this name has latterly been transferred to 
the Permian formation of which the Eaihiku Range is more largely 

7. Crystallii^e Schists and Granite. — The south-western portion of 
the district of Otago is composed of ciystalline rocks, forming lofty 
and rugged mountains, of which the chief characteristic is their 
cubical form, due to their being intersected in all directions by pro- 
found but narrow valleys, with abrupt precipitous sides to three-fourths 
of the extreme height of the adjacent mountains. The valleys are 
occupied on the west by arms of the sea, and on the east by those of 
inland lakes that resemble the Norwegian fiords, and present most 
wonderful mountain scenery. 

The base rock of this formation is foliated and contorted gneiss 
corresponding to Humboldt's gneiss-granite of South America, and 
associated with it are granite, syenite, and diorite, which belong to 
the next p^roup. 

Wrapping round these crystalline strata, and sometimes rising to 
an altitude of 5,cxx> ft. on its sur^Ekce, is a series of hornblende schists, 
soft micaceous and amphibolic gneisE^ clay-slate, and quartzites, 
associated with felstone dykes, serpentine, and granular limestone. 
I believe these latter to be metamorphic rocks of not very ancient 
date, probably of Devonian age. 

Areas within the ciystalline schists where true granite occurs, 
either metamorphosed or in the form of perfect dykes, have been 
distinguished under this group. 

Granites of a light-grey colour and very fine grain are found in 
the Nelson and Westland districts, forming isolated hills along the 

c a 



boundary of the Foliated Schists on the east and Lower Devonian 
beds on the west. In the south-western extremity of N. Z., at 
Preservation Inlet, coarsely crystalline granites, of white and flesh* 
colour, appear to break through and overlie the younger members of 
the crystalline schists. 

Igneous Bocks, 

8. Basic Volcanic, Plutokic, and Dtke Rocks. 

9. Acidic Volcanic Rocks. 

Or, if grouped according to age, as in the geological sections, — 

A. Volcanic group. Il^cent and Post-tertiary. 

a. Basaltic. 
6. Rhyolitic. 

B. Trachytic group. Eocene. 

a. Trachyte-porphyries. - 
6. Trachyte-breccias. 

C. Dolerite group. Upper Cretaceous. 

a, Trachy-dolerites. 
h, Anamesites. 

D. Propylite group. Lower Cretaceous. 

E. Diabase group. Triassic. 

P. Diorite group. Lower Carboniferous. 

The igneous rocks have played an important part in almost every 
formation in N. Z., marking great movements of the earth's crust at 
the different geological periods, while the superficial and later-formed 
volcanic rocks occupy nearly one-third of the area of the North Island. 

They are divided on the map into the above groups, of which the 
plutonic and dyke rocks include syenite and diorite, with associated 
breccias, serpentine, and olivine rocks (dunite), the eruption of which 
took place in the Upper Devonian period. 

These rocks are found on a line which extends almost continuously 
through the South Island ; but diorite rocks reappear in the extreme 
north of Auckland, and on the Cape Colville Peninsula and Great 
Bai-rier Island. They are generally more or less metalliferous, chrome 
and copper being the ores of most frequent occurrence. 

Basic Volcanic Rocks, — These belong to three different periods, when 
there were active eruptions, attended by the formation of flOes of both 
compact iffneoufl rocks and tufaceous breccias. 

The earliest of these occurred during the Triassic period, and 
consists chiefly of diabase and serpentinous breccias. The next 
eruptions took place about the close of the Jurassic period, along the 
eastern base of the Canterbury Alps, where the rocks occur in dome- 
shaped mountains as melaphyres associated with felsite (quartz) 
porphyries which belong to the next group. 

In the Cretaceo-tertiary period are massive trappean eruptions of 
trachy-dolerite and dolerite, while in the same period must be placed 
the propylite group, consisting of greenstone-trachytes, and fine- and 
coarse-grained breccia rocks, which form the matrix of the auriferous 
reefs of the Thames goldfields. 

In Eocene times dolerite flSes were contemporaneous with the 
limestones of the period of the Hutchinson's Quarry beds, while lastly 




in this group have been placed the basaltic lavas of Pliocene age in the 
northern parts of the colony, and also certain dykes of vesicular lava 
that cut through and alter the Upper Pliocene gold-drifts in the 
Haniototo Plain, in the interior of Otago. 

Acidic Volcanic Rocks, — The rocks belonging to this group have 
a similar distribution in time to the foregoing, the earliest being the 
felsite (quartz) porphyries, while trachyte porphyries and breccias 
played an important part during Cretaceo-tertiary and older Tertiary 
periods, scoriaceous lavas and rhyolites being the characteristics of 
the later outbursts, which have continued down almost to the present 

The geysers and boiling springs in the North Island give rise to the 
formation of siliceous sinter, whicn must be included as the most purely 
acidic products of volcanic action, and as due to the decomposition of 
the older rocks by the action upon them of fresh water ; but in the 
case of White Island, and other localities where the decomposition is 
broufi^ht about by the agency of sea-water, the sinter deposits are formed 
chiefly of sulphate of lime, and not silica. 

Principal Mikebal SpRiiras. 

N. Z. is singularly rich in springs of water that hold mineral salts in 
solution, and some of these are already noted for their valuable 
medicinal properties. 

Both hot and cold springs are found, the former being, with few 
exceptions, confined to &e (ustricts of the North Island where volcanic 
forces have been active during the latest Tertiary period, and are not 
yet altogether dormant. A few thermal springs are found to escape 
from the Upper Mesozoic rocks, in localities where the source of heat 
can only be attributed to chemical decomposition of bituminous 
matters and sulphides ; and in a few instances warm waters spring 
from Palaeozoic rock-formations in the South Island. The cold 
mineral springs have a wider distribution, but have only as yet been 
examined from comparatively few localities. 

The mineral waters of N. Z. are classified, from analyses that have 
been made in the Colonial Laboratory, under the following groups : — 

iSaZm^.— Containing chiefly chloride of sodium. 

Alkaline, — Contaimng carbonates and bicarbonates of soda and 

Alkaline Siliceotis, — Waters containing much silicic acid, but 
chan^ng rapidly on exposure to the atmosphere, and becoming 

Hepatic or Sulphurous, — ^Waters the prominent character of which 
is the presence of sulphuretted hydrogen and sulphurous acid. 

Acid Waters, — In which there is an excess of mineral acids, such as 
hydrochloric and sulphuric acid. 

The following is a list of the best-known mineral springs, full details 
concerning which are to be found in the Official Laboratory Reports ;— 




Name and Locality. 






















Bay €(/ liUmdt DiiMa, 
Ohaeawai and Pakaraka 



Bay cf PUnty. 
White Island Lake,' Dry since 1886 
White IsUuid Springs . 

Fink Terrace Geyser i Destroyed 
White Terrace Geyser) in 1886. 

Torikore, or Spirit Bath 
Koroteoteo, or Oil Bath . 
Ngatarawa, Gas Pool . . , 
Papatangi, Lobster-pot . 



Snlphnr Pool . . . 
Sulphur Spring .... 
Sulphur Stream . . . . 
Mud Lake 

Tapui te Koutou, Graham's Eorm 


Kuirau, Washing Spring 
WaihTmuhmiTikuri, Li^e House 

Clear Bath 

Lake House Acid Bath . 
Waikite (a), Morrison's Hotel Bath 
Waikite (6), Scott's Bath 
Hinemaru, Hughes's Baths . 
Te Kauwhanga (a), Cameron's 


Te Kauwhanga (&), Painkiller 
Perekari, Sulphur Point Boiling 


Mud Bath, Sulphur Point . 
Hot Pool, Sulphur Point 
Whangapipiro, Madame Bachel's 



Hospital Lake .... 
Te Pupunitanga, Priest's BaUi 

Te Kute, mud lake at Tihitari 
Te Mimi, hot waterfall, from 33° C. 
































Chemical Obaraeter of 
























1 1*4 




Acid, aluminous; de- 
posits mercury. 

Alkaline, saline. 
Carbonated, alkaline. 

Strongly add. 



Caustic, alkaline. 


Saline, acidic. 


Alkaline, siliceous. 




Acidic and hepatic 


Acidic and hepatic 


Alkaline and siliceous. 

Acidic, hepatic 




Name and Locality. 





















TVittjpo DiitricL 
Botokawa, BLsMsk Water 

„ Yellow Water 

Waixakei, Piroirori, or Wliite 


Buahine, Crow's Negfe 

Witches' Cauldron 
Ohinekahoro . 
,, spring on flat near track 
OtTimahike, Acacia 
Iiofiey's Qully, McFherson's . 
Coldstream . 
warm stream 
Source No. i . 
Source No 2 . 
„ Kokowai 

Waipahihi, A.C. Bath No. i . 
„ No. 9 . 
Tea-tree Spring . 
Source No. i . . 
Source ^o. 2 
Waipahihi Stream 



Left bank, Waikato, Waiariki 

WaOcato DUbricL 
Whangape .... 

Bua^%u District, 
Onetapu, Waikato . 

JBaat Cape Dittrict, 
Boparoa, Waiapu . 

Waipaoa, Borerty Bay 
Waipiro, Waiapu . 

WeUington District, 
Wallingford . 
FAhua .... 
Burton's Spring 
Akiteo (a) . . . 

ih) . . . 


South Island, 
Hanmer Plain Springs, Amuri 
Sumner Lake Springs „ . 
Amberley Spring, Canterbury 
Wickliffe Bay Spring, Otago . 
Gibson's Spring, Southland . 







































Chemical Character of 


e • 











Feebly saline. 

Ftebly alkaline. 




Alkaline, siliceous. 
Alkaline, saline. 
Feebly saline. 
Chlorinated saline. 

Alkaline, siliceous. 


Chlorinated saline. 



Saline, bituminous. 

Hydrocarbon gas. 
Calcareous, bitumin- 





t\ For the Waters of Te Aroha see p. 15, Boute 3. 



1. Ohaeawaif Auckland. — A group of springs used as baths, 17 m. 
from Bay of Islands, the waters of which are acidic, depositing sulphur 
and alum on cooling. Silica is only deposited as a granular sediment. 
These springs are chiefly interesting from their being accompanied 
by an escape of mercurial vapour, which deposits cinnabar and metallic 
mercury. Their medicinal action is tonic and chalybeate, and they 
have a specific alterative action in skin diseases. 

2. Waitvera, on the coast, 30 m. north of Auckland. A powerful 
escape of weakly alkaline and saline water, extensively used as baths 
for rheumatic and dyspeptic complaints ; used internally it has also 
a mild antilithic action. This spnnff is largely resorted to, and most 
comfortable accommodation is provided for visitors. 

Chloride of sodinm . 
lithium . 
Iodide of magnesiiun 
Sulphate of soda 
Bicarbonate of soda . 
„ iron . 

Alumina • 
Silica . • . 



Grains per GkUlon. 








3. Puriri, about 10 m. from Grahamstown. A cold, eflfervescent 
water, having valuable properties from the presence of a large 
percentage of alkaline carbonates. It is bottled both as still and 
aerated water, and is coming into repute as an antilithic aperient, 
and would probably be useml in cases of acid dyspepsia and in 
disorders of the kidney and bladder. In chemical properties it 
approaches very closely to Fachingen and Ems waters of Nassau in 

Grains per Gallon. 
Chloride of sodium ...... 21*938 

Iodide of magnesium 
Sulphate of soda 

„ potash • 

Carbonate of iron . 
Bicarbonate of lime . 

soda . 

„ lithia 

Silica . 
Phosphoric acid » 







not determined 


4-5. White Island, — A conical island in the Bay of Plenty, formed 
by the summit of an extinct volcanic mountain rising out of deep 
water. The crater is occupied by a lake of strong mineral water, 
which is fed by intermittent geysers and boiling springs which 



surround it. All these waters are intensely acid) and deposit sulphate 
of lime ; while the accompanying vapours form irregular deposits of 
pure sulphur. The first water is too powerful to be used medicinally 
in its natural state, but might be turned to valuable account in certain 
chemical manufactures. 

6-34. Are associated geographically as all coming from the famous 
Rotorua and Rotomahana Districts. They, however, present con- 
siderable variety in quality, and may be classed as follows : — 

6-17. Alkaline and Siliceous Waters.-— These differ from the ordinary 
alkaline vTaters in the presence of silicic instead of carbonic acid as 
the combining agent. They are remarkable from their building 
extensive mounds and terraces composed of silica deposited by the 
cooling water, and involving as it solidifies a certain amount of 
granular silica, which is held in mechanical suspension ; in this 
manner the wonderful pink and white terraces of Rotomahana and 
the domes of Whakarewarewa have been formed. This class of 
water invariably contains carbonic-acid gas, and in some cases also 
sulphuretted hydrogen in large quantity, the oxidation of which 
leads to the formation of sulphurous and sulphuric acid and the 
liberation of hydrochloric acid, and in this way gives rise to the acidic 
waters. When used as baths they have an undoubted alterative 
action, and are very useful in rheumatic affections, especially in gouty 
constitutions. This is probably due to the specific action of silicates 
in promoting the discharge of uric acid from the system, as has lately 
been pointed out by French chemists. 

Acidic Waters, — In the case of these waters the carbonates have 
been wholly eliminated, and the alkaline salts are formed by a mineral 
acid, either sulphuric or hydrochloric. In some cases the acid is 
greatly in excess, forming a bath which has a powerful action upon 
the liver and upon diseases dependent on the derangement of that 
important organ. In some the presence of sulphurous and hydro- 
sulphuric acid in large quantities gives these baths great efficacy in 
cutaneous diseases. 

The following are the analyses of four types of the mineral waters 
in the Rotorua District ; — 

32. Te Pupunitanga, commonly known as the * Priest's Bath ; ' 
aluminous and strongly acid (reaction acid). 

Sulphate of soda 

„ potash . 
„ lime 
„ magnesia 
„ alumina 
„ iron 

Snlphnxio acid 

Hydzochloric acid . 



■rains per Gallon. 








Sulphuretted hydrogen .... 
Carbonio-acid gas « « • • • 


► 2'l6 



29. Whaiiga]^ipiro, commonly known as ' Madame Rachel's Bath ;* 

r T*B*W^*W ***«*• WAAA-^^BWVVi^lW \* ' 


Grains per GkJlon. 

Chloride of aodiuin ...... 69-43 

„ potasnnm 




„ lithium . 




Sulphate of soda 




„ lime 


„ magnesia 


Iron and alimiina oxides . 



I « 


Carbonio-acid gas . 




1 < 


24. Te Eauwhanga (the Pain killer) (a), commonly known as 
* Cameron's Bath;' hepatic, feebly saline, with excess of acid (re- 
action acid). 

Sulphate of soda 

Chloride of potassimn 

Hydrochloric acid 

Sulphuretted hydrogen 
Carbonio-acid gas . 


Grains per Gallon. 








8. Turikore (Spout Bath). Faintly acid reaction, which tarns to 
alkaline on boiling. 

Silicate of soda 

„ lime 

„ magnesia 

„ iron 
Sulphate of soda 
Chloride of potassium 

„ sodium . 
Phosphate of alumina 

k 1 


rains per Gallon. 

» 16*32 





I '24 



An interesting paper, communicated to the At^stralasian Medical 
Gazette by Dr. Hope Lewis, and a pamphlet by Dr. A. Ginders \ the 

1 The Thermal-Springs, Botorua, New Zealand : Hints on cases likely to 
benefit by treatment threat. Wellington. By authority: G«orge Bidsbuiy, 
Government Printer. 



knedical officer in charge^ give full particulaiB of the medicinal 
advantages of the many springs. 

35-56. With the exception of the first two their general characters 
are saUne and faintly acid. They are reported to be suitable for internal 
and external use, as alteratives, in scorbutic and tubercular diseases, 
also in chronic nervous affections and cutaneous eruptions. The 
presence of iodine in these waters, which was formerly reported, has 
been disp roved by recent analyses of authentic samples. 

57. Whan^pe, Waikato, is a hot alkaline water, having a com- 
position similar to those of Puriri and Waiwera. 

58. Onetapu Desert, at the sources of the Waikato and Wangaehu 
Rivers. This powerful spring, which issues at the base of Ruapehu, is 
00 strongly chaiged with sulphates of iron and alumina as to taint the 
water of the latter river from its source to the sea, a distance of 70 m. 
it is only one of the many mineral springs which occur in the still 
active volcanic district of Ton^riro. 

59-62, In the East Cape and Poverty Bay District are four— out of 
some seventeen different springs which have been discovered — that 
yield hydrocarbons, either in the form of gas or oil, and associated 
n^th saline waters. The source of these springs is probably certain 
bituminous shales at the base of the Cretaceous formation. 

63. Waipiro is interesting as being a hot spring . in the same dis- 
trict (in which there is no evidence of any volcanic action), and as 
depositing immense quantities of carbonate of lime in acicular crystals. 
This lime-deposit is built up in the form of a wall, marking the line 
of fissure through which the water escapes. 

64, 65. Are cold springs in the Wellington District, and belong to 

the class of saline waters, which are generally feebly acid. Springing 

from rocks of Lower Secondary formation, they are interesting from 

the large proportion of iodine and other exceptional elements which 

they contain. Pahua is the most notable in this respect, and has the 

following composition ; — 

Grains per Gallon. 
Chloride of sodium .... . • . 11303*329 

„ calcium 

Iodine of magnesium 
Bromide of magnesium 
Sulphate of lime 
Phosphate of alumina 
„ iron . 

„ lime . 

Bicarbonate of lime . 
Iodine, free . 











Total quantity of iodine to the gallon (free and combined) 
2*127 mins. 

66. ^urton*8 Taipo, in addition to iodine, contains traces of 



67, 68. Akiteo (a) is a strong saline water containing iodides and 
bromides, while Akiteo (b) is an aerated chalybeate water, and would 
be valuable as a tonic, being similar to tne springs at Pjrmont, 
Waldeck, and Recoaro, Yenetia. Aerated chalybeate waters of medi- 
cinal value are found in many other parts of N. Z. ; among these may 
be mentioned a locality near Whangarei, in the N., and Chain Hills, 
near Dunedin, in the S. 

69. The springs which occur at the Hanmer Plains, Amuri, are 
alkaline, with a strong escape of sulphuretted hydrogen, and would 
form useful baths in rheumatic and cutaneous diseases. 

70. At the distance of a few miles from Sumner Lake water has 
a temperature of 93° Fahr., as it gushes from the sandstone rock, but 
it does not contain sufficient matters in solution to entitle it te rank 
as a mineral water. 

71. Amberley. This was analysed and reported on by Professor 
Bickerton, of the Canterbury College, as a chalybeate water, but unfit 
for use on account of the organic matter present. The analysis gave 
the following quantitative results : — 

Total diflflolved solids 
Volatile . • 


Carbonate of lime . 
Carbonate of magnesia 
Chlorine . • 

Iron protoxide * 

Pree ammonia . 

Albominoid ammonia 
Sediment . • 

Grains per Gallon. 










72. Wickliffe Bay, Otago. An analysis of this water is given by 
Professor Black, of Otago University. It appears to be a saline 
water : — 

Grains per Gallon. 
Sniplinric acid (combined) . » . . . 39*3 


Magnesia . 

Lime . • 


Carbonic acid (combined) 






73. Gibson's Spring, Southland, is a water which is stated to be 
a specific in diarrhoea, and contains a large amount of organic matter, 
to some astringent quality of which its medicinal qualities are pro- 
bably due. 


The New Zealand forest (or 'bush* as it is irreverently and incorrectly 
called) is extremely beautiful. It is true that it presents little of the 
gorgeous splendour of tropical vegetation; but still, although the 


trees are all eveigreens, the tints of the dense undergrowth are so 
varied that it has none of the monotonous gloom of the forests of 
Northern Europe, whilst its density and the wealth of creepers and 
parasitic growth remind one of far hotter latitudes. There are but 
few wild lowers which the traveller would compare to those familiar 
to him in England ; but in the mountains splendid ranunculi (^ moun- 
tain lilies*), white gentians, ffiant daisies or asters, and edelweiss 
flourish in rich profusion ; and in the forests and glens below the 
want of small flowers is more than supplied by masses of ferns (of 
which there are some 150 varieties, from the tree-fern 40 ft. in 
height to tiny plants which can hardly be seen without a microscope), 
and flowering trees and shrubs. Many of these blossom nearly the 
whole year round ; but the traveller will specially notice in autumn 
the deucate lacebark, in appearance and scent not unlike orange- 
blossom ; the koromiko (veronica), of which about eighty varieties may 
be found ; and the green blossoms of the tutu (strangers must bear in 
mind that the seeds of the tutu are poisonous, although the juice of 
the berries may be sucked with impunity). In the early spring the 
winebeny (makomako), which seems to start up spontaneously 
wherever the bush is cleared, reminds one somewhat of the rhybis of 
English cottage gardens ; the forest trees are tied together by great 
festoons of white clematis ; here and there may be found the scarlet 
kowhai (which tradition says the Maoris brought with them from 
Hawaiki), and more frequently the yellow variety, not unlike a 
laburnum; in the northern forests the puriri is covered with pink 
blossoms. Then come the kokutukutu, or native fuchsias of every 
sort, with blossoms red, purple, and green, some standing 45 ft. 
high, others delicate creepers. In summer, however, the flowers are 
richest ; the swamps are covered with the waving toitoi, which re- 
sembles the American pampas grass, but is more graceful, and the so- 
called native flax (phormium tenax) ; for many miles the country is white 
with the manuka, or tea tree, on the black birch trees are masses of 
brilliant crimson — the N. Z. mistletoe. But the greatest glory of N. Z. 
flowers is the Rata. The most striking variety of this is the Northern 
(Robusta), which grows to about 100 ft. in height and 20 in diameter. The 
seeds are often carried by the wind into the forks of lofty trees, where 
they readily germinate in the vegetable mould formed by the decaying 
leaves of orchids and other epiphytes. The seedling grows freely 
until the limited supply of nutriment at its high level is exhausted, 
when it boldly stretches one or more aerial roots down the trunk of 
the supporting tree, until they reach the earth, in quest of an increased 
food-supply ; as increased nourishment is thus drawn directly from 
the soil, the aerial roots gradually assume the appearance of stems, 
and present one or two features of great interest. If, during the 
progress of growth, a single root-stem becomes forced away from the 
supporting trunk for a portion of its length, a lateral root is given off 
at right angles, and grows horizontally around the supporting trunk 
until it returns to the opposite side of the main root-stem ; sometimes 
several lateral arms are given off in this way. When two or more 
root-stems are developed, they are frequently connected by laterals, 
and in many cases they give off oblique laterals, which usually become 



united by a proceBS of natural grafting, and the supporting tree is 
sooner or later killed by their iron embrace. A rata tree thus 
frequently has the appearance of a single standard tree ; and yet 
when it is cut down, the remains of another tree is found inside. In 
the height of summer the rata is covered with crimson blossoms of 
almost dazzling brilliancy. Tourists should make their plans so as to 
enable them to see some of these in their full beauty. The Southern 
Rata is a smaller plant, but the blossoms are almost the same ; it is 
found even in the Auckland Islands. In the N., near the sea and 
some of the lakes, a specially beautiful variety of the same order 
is found — the Pohutakawa; the name literally means 'washed by 
the sea/ 

There are a large number of native ffrasses in N. Z., which, if less 
profitable to the settlers than the En^psh varieties which are now 
rapidly supplanting them, are of more interest to the botanist. 

The Fern Vegetation. 

The abundance and diversity of ferns in the vegetation of New 
Zealand attracted the attention and excited the admiration of tiie 
early explorers of the country ; and even so competent an observer 
as Dieffenbach, writing some fifty years ago, expatiated on their 
beauty and variety, and declared that they took the place of the 
grasses and other herbaceous plants constituting the carpet of 
northern countries. His is a somewhat exaggerated description, yet 
it is very near the truth, except that the great predominance of ferns 
is no longer so striking a feature in the vicinity of the towns and 
other settlements, where cultivation and introduced plants have so 
altered the face of the country as to give it an almost European 
aspect. Still one has not to penetrate far into the interior to become 
impressed by the fact that ferns abound to an extent unknown in 
similar northern climes. It is not merely the large number of species, 
as compared with the flowering plants with which they are associated, 
but also the astonishing development of individuals. With regard to 
the actual number of different species, there is perhaps no better 
means of conveying an idea than by comparisons. In the British 
Islands, of somewhat greater extent than New Zealand, there are 
about forty species of ferns belonging to seventeen genera, against 
about 1,500 species of flowering plants ; and only one of these British 
ferns, the common bracken, covers large areas, whereas in New Zealand 
there are about 140 species belonging to thirty-five genera, associated 
with only about 1,000 species of flowering plants. This comparison 
extended to the whole of Europe gives about seventy-five species of 
ferns to 10,000 species of flowering plants. These very diverse pro- 
portions are due to a variety of causes which we have no space to 
discuss here ; but a humid, equable climate in the first instance, and 
the ease with which the microscopic germinative spores of ferns are 


conveyed long distances by winds, may largely account for the great 
preponderance of ferns in a remote insular country such as New 
Zealand. Mere number of species, however, can give only a very faint 
conception of the actual condition of things. Ferns abound from the 
sea-coast, within the influence of the salt spray of the ocean, up to 
the snow-line on the lofty mountains of the interior ; but it is in the 
deep glens and gorges and dark dripping forests where they appear 
in their fiill glory and beauty. Some species, like the common 
bracken and Alsophila Cdensoi, a fern with a trailing stem, cover 
hundreds of square miles of the open plains, but they are among 
the least elegant and deHcate. Moreover ferns are not only 
almost ubiquitous in New Zealand, they also exhibit nearly the 
whole ranffe of diversity in habit and size, rigidity and grace, 
contour and cutting displayed elsewhere in the whole world by this 
favourite fieimily of plants. In the deep recesses of the mountains 
there are groves of tree-ferns, southwiaid even to the beauti^I 
Stewart Island, whose columnar trunks, often clothed with the 
delicate transparent fronds of filmy ferns (HymenophyUum and 
Trichoinane8)y commonly rise to a height of 25 to 50 feet, occasionally 
even more, terminating in a crown of ample, often graceful, fronds of 
varied hues. Remarlutble among these is the * Silver Tree-fern/ 
Oyathea dealbata, readily distinguished from all others by the dazzling 
white under-surface of the fronds. It is a favourite fern of the Maoris, 
who prefer its fronds to all others for bedding. In contrast to this is 
the ' Black Tree-fern,' Cyathea medMaris, the tallest of all the New 
Zealand tree-ferns, occasionally attaining a height of 70 feet, and 
remarkable for the black colour of the leaf-scars on the trunks and of 
the chaff-like scales with which the fronds are beset. The veteran 
W. Colenso, who has botanized New Zealand for upwards of sixty 
years, thus describes a tree-fern grove in the forest of the Seventy- 
mile Bush : * On a flat, in the heart of the forest, in a deep hollow, 
lying between steep hills, the bottom of which for want of drainage 
was very wet and uneven, and contained much deep vegetable mould, 
even in the driest summer season, I found a large and continuous 
grove or thicket of very tall tree-ferns, chiefly Dicksonia squarrosa 
and Z). fibrosa, with a few of CyatJiea dealhata intermixed, and a few 
forest trees and shrubs growing scattered among them. I estimated 
their number at 800 to 1000, and they were from 25 to 35 feet high, 
and in many places growing so close together that it was impossible 
to force one's way turough them. Their trunks were most profusely 
covered with the smaller epiphjrtal ferns, conspicuous among them 
the rare HymenophyUum subtUissimumf which literally clothed their 
trunks from top to base.' 

Climbing ferns are nowhere numerous, but the climbing genus 
Lygodium is veiy widely spread in warm countries, and the peculiar 
New Zealand L. articulatum is one of the characteristic tjrpes of the 
forests of the northern half of North Island, where it festoons 
the loftiest trees, its thin wire-like stems closely coiling round the 
branches for support. These stems are so tough that the Maoris use 
them for cordage and other purposes, and the early settlers made 
substitutes for spring-matkesses of the dense coils of the stems. 



This is one of the few ferns that may easily be identified without a 
technical description, and there are excellent illustrated books ^ by 
which almost any of them may be determined with a little patience. 
To attempt to particularize the numerous species of the various genera 
in the little space here allotted to the subject would be useless, but a 
few words concerning some of the other marked genera may not be out 
of place. Foremost among these is Gleichenia, of which there are 
three species ; one of them is specially abundant in North Island. 
It grows in the scrub, forming dense tangled bushes of slender stems 
and very small ultimate divisions of the fronds, sometimes as much 
as 8 or lo feet high. All three species occur in Stewart Island. 
The Filmy Ferns number at least twenty-five species, including the 
British H, tunhridgenaej and no fewer than twenty of them have been 
found in Stewart Island. Maiden-hair ferns are represented by 
six species, yet the almost cosmopolitan Adiantum capillua-veneris 
is not among them. Hypolepis millefolium is a most elegant plant 
having very finely-divided fronds, recorded only from Alpine 
localities on the margins of rivulets formed by the melting snow. 
Lomaria procera, the Korokio of the Maoris, is one of the very 
commonest ferns throughout the colony, but as there are at least 
fifteen species of the genus in New Zealand it is needless to say 
more than that it belongs to the group having simply pinnate fronds 
of two kinds, sterile and fertile. Asplenium numbers about a dozen 
species, several of which inhabit the rocks of the sea-shore. Todea 
superbuy the * Crape Fern,' peculiar to New Zealand and the adjacent 
islands, and one of the most lovely members of the family, havinjo^ 
finely divided transparent fronds, often two or three feet in length, is 
exceedingly common in moist, bushy situations, chiefly in mountainous 
districts up to 3,000 feet, but descending almost to sea-level in the 
south. Schizaea is a curious genus having quite small fan-shaped 
fronds borne on relatively long slender stalks and tipped with the 
spore-cases. Allusion has already been made to the common bracken. 
Formerly the Maoris used the rootstocks as food, and, as prepared by 
them, the early voyagers found it quite palatable, and not unlike 
English gingerbread. 

Stewart Island is a veritable natural fernery, such as exists 
perhaps in no other part of the world outside tropical limits : 
it has an estimated area of only about 650 square miles, or 
less than half that of the county of Sussex; yet no fewer than 
seventy species of ferns and lycopods have already been discovered 
there ! The surface is undulating and hilly, and even rugged in 
the north, where the hills attain an elevation of upwards of 3,000 feet. 
Much of it is covered with dense forest, composed of a greater variety 
of trees than we are accustomed to see in England. Nearly 400 
species of flowering plants are recorded from the island, and some 
of them have very brilliantly coloured flowers, in striking contrast 
to the fern and coniferous elements. In December and January, 
the summer of the antipodes, the Rata, Metrosideros l%icida, is one 

^ e. g. ' The Ferns of New Zealand and its immediate dependencies, 
by H. C. Field, C.E. (Griffith, Farran and Co.) * 



blaze of crimson. Thomas Eirk, who writes with more authority 
than any other person on this subject, is eloquent on the beauties 
of this small island, the southern termination of New Zealand. 
Lycopodium is represented by six species, and L. ramulosum covers 
acres of the open ground. In conclusion, it may be mentioned that 
ferns generally have a much wider geographical distribution than 
flowering plants, and at least half a dozen British species extend 
to New Zealand. Nevertheless, many species are local, and about 
one-third of the New Zealand species have not hitherto been found 

List of New Zealand Ferns. 

Prepared from Hooker and Baker's Synopsis Filicum^ 1868 ; showing changes 
from the nomenclature adopted by Dr. J. D. Hooker in the Handbook of Neic 
Zealand Flora ; and including new species. 

Adiantum ^thiopicnm. 

— affine. 

— diaphannm. 

— formosum. Plumed Maidenhair. 

— fiilvnm. 

— hispidulnm. 
Alsophila Colensoi 

Aspidinm aculeatnm. Prickly Shield 

— aristatnm. 

— capense. 

— cystosteginm. Egmont Fern. 

— RichardL 

— Richardi, var. a. 

— Richardi, var. b. 
Asplenium bnlbifenun, 

— bnlbifenxm, var, h, 
«— caudatnm. 

— Colensoi 

— falcatum. 

— flabellifolium. 

— fiaccidnm, var. a, 

— flaocidnm, var. b. 

— fiaccidnm, var. d, 

— fiaccidnm, var. e. 

— fiaccidnm, var. f. 

— fiaccidnm, var. g, 

— Hookeriannm. 

[New Zealand.\ 

Aspleninm obtnsatnm. 

— obtnsatnm, var. b. 

— obtnsatnm, var. g. 

— Richardi 

— Trichomane& 

— nmbrosum. 
Azolla rubra. 

Botrychium tematum. Batttesnake 

— Lunaria. 
Cheilanthes tenuifolia. 

Cyathea dealbata. Silver Tree Fern. 

— meduUaris. Black Tree Fern. 

— Gunninghamii. 

Cystopteris fragilis. Brittle Bladder 

Davallia Forsteri. 

— Novae Zelandiae. 

— Tasmani. 
Dicksonia fibrosa. 

— lanata. 

— squarrosa. Slender Tree Fern. 
Doodia caudata. Sacred Fern of Vie 


— media. 

— media, var. b. 
Gleichenia circinata. 

— dicarpa. Swamp Fern. 
•» dicarpa, var. b, alpina. 




Gleichenia Cunninghamii Umbrella 

Lycopodinxn scarioeaxn. 


— selago. 

— dichotoma. 

— varinm. 

— flabellata. Fan Fern. 

— volnbile. 

Gymnogramme leptophylla. 

Lygodinm articnlatnm. 

— Pozoi, var. b. 

Miutittia fraxinea. Horsetikoe Fern, 

Hemitelia Smithii Ths Soft Tree Fern, 

Kephrodiom decoxnpositam. 

Hymenophyllom bivalye 

— deoompositnm, var. 6. 

'— Cheesemanii. 

— hispidnm. Hairy Fern, 

— molle. 

— ciliatam. 

— demiflsnin. 

— thelyptris, var. b, Bqtuunnlosaxn. 

— dilatataxn. 

Mareh Buckler Fern, 

— flabellatom. 

— nnitam. 

— infeacenB. 

— velatinnm. Dirty Fern, 

— Javanicnm. 

Kephrolepis oordifolia. 

— Malingii 

Nothocbiaena distans. 

— multifidiiTn, 

Ophioglossnm Lnsitanicum. L^^ 

— polyanthos. 

Adder-tongue Fern. 

— pulchorrimom. 

— valgatnm. Adder4ongue Fern. 

— rarum. 

Fellaea falcata. 

— scabrum. 

— rotondifolia. 

— subtil iHRimnm. 

Fbylloglossum Dmmmondii 

— tnnbridgense. 

Folypoditun anstrale. 

— tunbridgense, var. 6, 

— Billardieri. 

Hypolepis distAHB. 

— Cnnninghamii 

— MillefoUiixn. 

— Grammitidis. 

— tenuifolia. 

— Novae Zelandiae. 

Lindsaya linearis. 

— pennigemm. 

— mlorophylla. 

— punctatum, var. 6. 

— trichomanoidea 

— pasttdatum. 

— trichomanoides, var. b. 

— serpens. 

— viridis. 

— tenellmn. 

Lomaria alpina» 

Fsilotom triquetmm. 

— attennata. 

Pteris aqnilina, var. g. escnlenta. 

— Banksii. 


— discolor. 

— oretica. 

— dura. 

— comans. 

— fiUformis. 

— incisa. 

— fluviatilis. 

— macilenta. 

— Fraseri. 

— scaberula. 

— lanceolata. 

— tremnla. Scented Fern, 

— membranacea. 

Schizaea austxalis. 

— nigra. 

— bifida. 

— Patersonl 

— dichotoma. 

— procera. 

— fistulosa. 

— procera, var. a. 

Tmesipteris Forsteri 

— procera, var. b. 

Todea barbara. 

— procera, var. d. 

— hymenophylloides. 

— procera, var. g. 

— snperba. Prince of Wales FeatJura, 

— pumila. 

Tnchomanes Armstrongii (n. sp.). 

— viilcanica. 

— Colensoi 

Lozsoma Onnninghannii 

— homile. 

I^copodium Billardiei* 

— I^yalUi. 

— CaroliniaTinin. 

— reniforme. Kidney Fern, 

— cemnum. 

— rigidum. 

— clavatum. 

— rigidum, var. b. 

— densonx. 

— venosum. 

— laterale. 

For the Flora of N. Z. see the books mentioned on p. [64] and for 
fuller information concerning the Alpine Flora see Rte 24. 


Forest Trees.— The principal native trees are the following : — 

Order— Coniperas. 
Genus— Dawwara, L*Heritier. 

Dammara australis, Lambert. 

Kauri. — The kauri is the finest forest tree in N.Z., and attains 
a height of 1 20 ft. to 160 ft. The trunk is sometimes 80 ft. to 100 ft. high 
before branching, and attains a diameter at the base of 10 ft. to 20 ft. 

The timber is in high repute for masts and spars, deck and other 
planking of vessels, and is largely used for house finishings. There 
IS abundant evidence of its durability for more than sixty years in 
some of the old mission-buildings at the Bay of Islands. The buried 
logs of an ancient kauri forest near Papakura have been excavated and 
found to be in perfectly sound condition, and were used for sleepers 
on tHe Auckland and Waikato Railway. On the Thames goldfield 
kauri is used for mine-props, struts, and cap-pieces. It forms the 
bulk of the timber exported from N. Z. 

Some of the largest and soundest kauri timber has richly mottled 
shading, which appears to be an abnormal ^owth, due to the bark 
being entangled in the ligneous growth, causing shaded parts, broad 
and narrow, according as the timber is cut relative to their planes. 
This makes a rich and valuable furniture wood, and in the market is 
known as * mottled kauri/ 

The kauri pine occurs only in the North Island and north of Mercury 
Bay, and grows best near the sea on wet clay land. The kauri forests 
are largely composed of other trees as well as their characteristic tree. 

The turpentine of this tree forms the celebrated kauri gum, which 
is extensively excavated from the sites of old forests as far south as 

Genus— it6oce<?nw, Endl. 

Libocedrus doniana, Endl. 

Kawaka, Cypress, Cedar. — This handsome tree attains a height of 
60 ft. to 100 ft., and a diameter of 3 ft. to 5 ft. Wood reddish, fine- 
grained and heavy; used by the Maoris for carving, and said to 
be excellent for planks and spars ; grows in the North Island, being 
abundant in the forests near the Bay of Islands and to the north of 

Libocedrus BidtcUliif Hook. 

Pahautea, Cedar. — A handsome conical tree 60 ft. to 80 ft. high, 
2 ft. to 3 ft. in diameter. In Otago, it produces a dark-red free- 
working timber, rather brittle, chiefly adapted for inside work. Found 
on the central ranges of the North Island, and common throughout 
the forests of the South Island, growing at altitudes of 500 ft. to 
4,000 ft. This timber has been used for sleepers on the Otago rail- 
ways of late years, is largely employed in that district for fencing 
purposes, and is frequently mistaken for totara. In former years it 
was believed to be suitable only for inside work. 

GemiB^ PodocarptiSj L'Heritier. 
Fodocarpus ferrugineay Don. 
Miro, Bastard Black-pine of Otago.— A large ornamental and useful 




timber tree; attains a height of 40 ft. to 60 ft., trunk 2 ft. to 3 ft. in 
diameter. A asefiil wood, but not so durable as the matai or true 
black-pine wood; reddish, close-grained, and brittle; the cross section 
of the timber shows the heartwood star-shaped and irregular. The 
timber is generally thought to be unfitted for piles and marine works, 
except when only partiiuly exposed to the influence of sea- water, as 
shown in the railway embankment at Bluff Harbour, where it is 
reported to have been durable. Grows in the North and South Islands 
at altitudes below 1,000 ft. 

Podocarpus totara, A. Cunn. 

Totara.— A lofty and spreading tree, 60 ft. to 120 ft. high, 4 ft. 
to 10 ft. in diameter. Wood very durable and clean-gramed, in 
appearance like cedar, and works with equal freedom ; it is adapted 
for every kind of carpenter's work. It is used extensively in Wellington 
for house-building and piles of marine wharves and bridges, and 
railway sleepers, and is one of the most valuable timbers known. The 
wood, if felled during the growing season, resists for a long time the 
attacks of toredo worms. It splits freely, and is durable as fencing 
and shingles. Totara post-and-rail fences are expected to last from 
forty to fifty years. The Maoris made their largest canoes from this 
tree, and the palisading of their pas consisted almost entirely of this 
wood. Grows throughout the North and South Islands upon both flat 
and hilly ground ; the timber from trees grown on hills is found to be 
the most durable. 

Podocarpus spicata, Br. 

Matai, Mai, Black-pine of Otago. — A large tree, 80 ft. high, trunk 
2 ft. to 4 ft. in diameter. Wood yellowish, close-grained, and 
durable; used for a variety of purposes— piles for bridges, wharves, 
and jetties, bed-plates for machinery, millwright's work, flooring, 
house-blocks, railway-sleepers, and fencing. Bridges in various parts 
of the colony afford proof of its durability. Mr. Buchanan has 
described a log of matai that he found had been exposed for at least 
two hundred years in a dense damp bush in North-East Valley, Dunedin, 
as proved by its being enfolded by the roots of three large trees of 
Griselinia littoralis, 3 ft. 6 in. in diameter, with over 300 growth 
rings. Grows in both North and South Islands at altitudes under 
1,500 ft. 

Podocatyus dacrydioides, A. Rich. 

Kahikatea, White-pine. — A very fine tree, 100 ft. to 150ft. high; 
trunk 4 ft. in diameter. Timber white and tough, soft, and well 
adapted for indoor wook, but will not bear exposure. Abundant 
throughout the North and South Islands. When grown on dry soil 
it is good for the planks of small boats, but when from swamps it is 
almost useless. A variety of this tree, known as yellow-pine, is largely 
sawn in Nelson, and considered to be a durable building timber. 

Genus — Dacrydium, 

Dacrydium cupressinunij Soland. 

Rimu, Red-pine. — Tree pyramidal, with weeping branches when 
young; 80 ft. to 130 ft. high, and 2 ft. to 6 ft. in diameter. An 


ornamental and useful timber; wood red, clear-grained, heavy, and 
solid ; much used for joisting and planking, and general building 
purposes, from Wellington southward. Its chief drawback is in being 
liable to decay under the influence of wet. It is largely used in the 
manufacture of furniture, the old wood being handsomely marked 
like rosewood, but of a lighter-brown hue. The juice of this pine is 
agreeable to drink, and was manufactured into spruce beer by Captain 
Cook. Grows throughout the North and South Islands, but is of best 
quality in the central district. 

Dacrydium Colensoij Hook. 

Manoao, Yellow-pine.— A very ornamental tree, 20 ft. to 80 ft. 
high. Wood light yellow. It is the most durable and strongest 
timber in N.Z. Posts of this wood have been in use among the 
Maoris for several hundred years. Grows in the North and South 
Islands up to 4,000 ft. altitude. This tree is curious from having 
two kinds of leaves on the same branches. It is greatly valued for 

Genus — PhyUodadus. 

FhyUodadus trichomanoides, Don. 

Tanekaha, Celery-leaved Pine. — A slender, handsome tree, 60 ft. 
high ; trunk rarely exceeds 3 ft. in diameter ; wood pale, close-grained, 
and excellent for planks and spars ; resists decay in moist positions 
in a remarkable manner. Grows in the North Island, especially in 
the hilly districts. 

Phyllocladus alpinus. Hook. 

Toatoa. — A small ornamental and densely-branched tree, sometimes 
2 ft. in diameter. Bark used for dyeing and making tar. Found in 
both North and South Islands. 

Order— Cupuliperae. 

Genus— 2^a^««, Linn. 
F(igu8 Menziesiiy Hook. 

Tawhai, Red-birch (from the colour of the bark).— A -handsome 
tree, 80. ft. to 100 ft. high ; trunk 2 ft. to 3 ft. in diameter. The 
timber is chiefly used in the lake district in the South Island. Durable 
and adapted for masts and oars, and for cabinet and cooper's work. 
Grows in the North Island on the mountain-tops, but abundant in the 
South Island at all altitudes to 3,000 ft. 

Fagusfusca, Hook. 

Tawhai, Tawhairaunui, Black-birch of Auckland and Otago (from 
colour of bark), Red-birch of Wellington and Nelson (jfrom colour of 
timber).-— This is a noble tree, 60 ft. to 90 ft. high ; the trunk 5 ft. to 
8 ft. in diameter. The timber is excessively tough and hard to cut. 
It is highly valued in Nelson and Wellington as being both strong 
and durable for all purposes. It is found from Kaitaia in the North 
Island to Otago in the South Island, but is often locally absent from 
extensive districts, and grows at all heights up to 3,000 ft. altitude. 
FcLgua Solandri, Hook. 

White-birch of Nelson and Otago (from colour of bark). Black- 
heart birch of Wellington.— A lofty, beautiful evergreen tree, 100 ft. 



high ; trunk 4 ft. to 5 ft. in diameter. The heart timber is darker than 
that of Fagu8 fusca, and is very durable. The wood is well adapted 
for fencing and bridge-piles, and the bark is useful as a tanning 
material. This tree occurs only in the southern part of the North 
Island, but is abundant in the South Island, at 3,000 ft. to 5,000 ft. 


Genus — Leptospermum, Forst. 

Leptospeftnum acoparium, Forst. 

Kahikatoa, Tea- tree of Cook.— It is ornamental, and useful for 
fuel and fencing ; generally a small shrub, but occasionally 20 ft. in 
height in the South. Abundant throughout the Islands. 

Leptospermum ertcoideSf A. Rich. 

Manuka.— A slender tree, 10 ft. to 80 ft. high, highly ornamental, 
more especially when young. The timber can be had 28 ft. to 30 ft. 
long, 14 in. in diameter at the butt, and 10 in. at the small end. The 
wood is hard and dark-coloured, largely used at present for fuel and 
fencing, axe-handles and sheaves of blocks, and formerly by the 
natives for spears and paddles. The old timber, from its dark- 
coloured markings, might be used with advantage in cabinet-work, 
and its great durability might recommend it for many other purposes. 
Highly valued in Otago for jetty- and wharf-piles, as it resists the 
marine worm better than any other timber found in the district. It 
is extensively used for house-piles. The lightest-coloured wood, called 
* white manuka,* is considered the toughest, and forms an excellent 
substitute for the * hornbeam * in the cogs of large spur-wheels. It is 
abundant as a shrub, and is found usually on the poorest soils, but 
is rare as a tree in large tracts to the exclusion of other trees. 

Genus — Metrosiderosj Br. 

Metrosideros lucida^ Menzies. 

Rata, Ironwood. — ^A very ornamental tree; attains a height of 
30 ft. to 60 ft., and a diameter of 2 ft. to 10 ft. The timber of this tree 
forms a valuable cabinet wood ; is of a dark-red colour ; splits freely. 
It has been much used for knees and timbers in ship-building, and 
would probably answer well for cogs of spur-wheels. Grows rarely 
in the North Island, but is abundant in the South Island, especially 
on the West Coast. 

Metrosideros rohitstaj A. Cunn. 

Rata. — A tall erect tree, 50 ft. to 60 ft. high ; diameter of trunk 
4 ft., but the descending roots often form a hollow stem 12 ft. in 
diameter. Timber closely resembles the last-named species, and is 
equally dense and durable, while it can be obtained of much larger 
dimensions. It is used for ship-building, but for this purpose is 
inferior to the pohutukawa. On the tramways at the Thames it has 
been used for sleepers, which are perfectly sound after some years' 
use. Grows in the North Island; usually found in hilly situations 
from Cape Colville southwards. 


Metrostderos tomeniosa^ A. Cunn. 

Pohutukawa. — This tree has numerous massive arms ; its height 
is 30 ft. to 60 ft. ; trunk 2 ft. to 4 ft. in diameter. The timber is 
specially adapted for the pui-poses of the shipbuilder, and has usually 
formed the framework of the numerous vessels built in the northern 
districts. Grows on rocky coasts, and is almost confined to the Pro- 
vincial District of Auckland. 

Order — Meuaceae. 
(j(QnM&—Dy80xylum, Blum. 

Dysoocylum spectahile, Hook. 

Kohekohe. — A large forest tree about 40 ft. to 50 ft. high. Its 
leaves are bitter, and used to make a stomachic infusion ; wood tough, 
but splits freely, and is considered durable as piles under sea- water. 
Grows in the North Island. 

Genus — Eugenia. 
Eugenia maire, A. Cunn. 

Mairetawhake. — A small tree about 40 ft. high ; trunk i ft. to 2 ft. 
in diameter. Timber compact, heavy, and durable. Used for moor- - 
ing-posts and jetty-piles on the Waikato, where it has stood well for 
many years. It is highly valued for fencing. Common on swampy 
land in the North Island. 

Order — Onaorarieak. 

Genus — Fuchsia^ Linn. 
Fuchsia excorticata, Linn. 

Kotukutuku. The fruit is called Konini.— A small and ornamental 
tree, 10 ft. to 30 ft. high ; trunk sometimes 3 ft. in diameter. It 
appears to furnish a durable timber. House-blocks of this wood, 
which had been in use in Dunedin for more than twenty years, were 
still sound and good. The wood might be used as dye-stuff, if rasped 
up and bled in the usual way, and, by mixing iron as a mordant, shades 
of purple may be produced even to a dense black, that makes good 
writing ink. The juice is astringent and agreeable, and yields a 
medical extract. Its fruit is pleasant, and forms the principal food q!^ 
the wood-pigeon. Grows throughout the Islands. 

Order — Araliageae. 
Genus — Panax, Linn. 

Panax crassifolium, Dene, and Planch. 

Horoeka,Ivy Tree. — An ornamental, slender, and sparingly-branched 
tree. It has a singularly graceful appearance in the young state, 
having long reflexed leaves. The wood is close-grained and tough. 
Common in forests throughout the Islands. 

Order — Corneae. 

Genus— 6rn»eZmia, Forst. 

Griselinia littoraliSy Raoul. 

Pukatea, Broadleaf.— An erect and thickly-branched bush-tree, 
50 ft. to 60 ft. high ; trunk 3 ft. to 10 ft. in diameter. Wood spHts 



freely, and is valuable for fencing and in shipbuilding ; some portions 
make handsome veneers. Grows chiefly in the South Island and near 
the coast. 

Order — Gompositae. 
Genus — Olearia^ Moench. 

Olearia avicenniaefolia^ Hook. 

Mingimingi, Yellow- wood.— An ornamental shrub-tree ; flowers 
numerous ; ttunk 2 ft. in diameter. Wood close-grained, with yellow 
markings, which render it desirable for cabinet-work ; good for 
veneers. Occurs in South Island. 

Olearia nitida. 

An ornamental shrub-tree, 20 ft. high and 2 ft. in diameter. Wood 
close-grained, with yellow markings ; useful for cabinet-work. Found 
in the mountainous region of the North Island and throughout the 
South Island. 

Olearia Cunninghamii, 

An ornamental shrub-tree, 12 ft. to 20 ft. high, with very showy 
flowers. Found abundantly on west coast of South Island, and not 
uncommon in North Island. 

Order — Ebiceae. 

GanwB—Dracophyllum, Lab. 

Dracophyllum longifolium, Br. 

Neinei.— An ornamental shrub-tree with long grassy leaves. Wood 
white, marked with satin-like specks, and adapted for cabinet-work. 
Grows in South Island and in Lord Auckland's Group and Campbell 
Island ; none of the South Island specimens are as large in the folisLge 
as those in Auckland Islands. In the vicinity of Dunedin attains 
a diameter of 10 in. to 12 in. 

Order — Verbehaceae. 

Genus — Vitex. 

Vitex littoralis, A. Cunn. 

Puriri. — A large tree, 50 ft. to 60 ft. high; trunk 20 ft. in girth. 

" ]od hard, dark olive-brown, much used ; said to be indestructible 
und^?kall conditions. Grows in the northern parts of the North 
Island u?*ly. Considered very valuable for railway- sleepers. 

Order — Laurineae. 

Genus — Nesodaphne, Hook. 
Nesodaphne tarairij Hook. 

Tarairi. — A lofty forest tree, 60 ft. to 80 ft. high, with stout 
branches. Wood white, splits freely, but not much valued. Grows 
in northern parts of North Island. 

Nesodaphne tawa. Hook. 

Tawa.— A lofty forest tree, 60 ft. to 70 ft. high, with slender 
branches. The wood is light and soft, and is much used for making 
butter-kegs. Grows in the northern parts of the South Island and also 
in the North Island, chiefly on low alluvial grounds ; is commonly 
found forming large forests on river-flats. 


Order — Monimuceae. 

Genus — Atherosperma, Lab. 

Atherosperma novae-zealandiae^ Hook. 

Pukatea. — Height 150 ft., with buttressed trunk 3 ft. to 7 ft. in 
diameter ; buttresses 1$ ft. deep at the base ; wood soft and yellowish, 
used for small boat planks. A variety of this tree has dark-coloured 
wood that is very lasting in water, and greatly prized by the Maoris 
for making canoes. Grows in the North Island, and northern parts of 
the South Island. 

QcewiA—Hedycarya^ Forst. 
Hedycarya dentata, Forst. 

Kaiwhiria. — A small evergreen tree, 20 ft. to 30 ft. high ; the wood 
is finely marked and suitable for veneering. Grows in the North 
Island, and as far south as Akaroa in the South Island. 

Order — Proteaceae. 

Gifiwi^—Knig'htia, Br. 
Knightia excelsa^ Br. 

Rewarewa. — A lofty slender tree, ico ft. high. Wood handsome, 
mottled red and brown, used for furniture and shingles, and for 
fencing, as it splits easily. It is a most valuable veneering wood. 
Common in the forests of the North Island, growing upon the hills in 
both rich and poor soils. 

Order — Maqnoliaceae. 

Genus — Drimys. 
Drimys axillaris, Forst. 

Horopito, Pepper-tree, Winter's Bark. — A small slender evergreen 
tree, very handsome. Whole plant aromatic and stimulant ; used by 
the Maoris for various diseases. Wood very ornamental in cabinet- 
work, making handsome veneers. Grows abundantly in forests 
throughout the Islands. At altitudes of 1,000 ft. the foliage becomes 
dense and reddish -coloured. 

Drimys colorata, Raoul. ^  

This is a very distinct species, very common near Dunedin ; it is 
a very ornamental shrub-tree, with leaves blotched with red. - 

Order — Violarieae. 

Genus — MelicytuSy Forst. 

Melicytus ramiflorus, Forst. 

Mahoe, Hinahina. — A small tree, 20 ft. to 30 ft. high ; trunk often 
angular, and 7 ft. in girth. The wood is soft and not in use. Abundant 
throughout the Islands as far south as Otago. Leaves greedily eaten 
by cattle. 

Order — Malvaceae. 

Genus — Hoheria, A. Cunn. 

Hohena populnea, A. Cunn. 

Houhere, Ribbonwood of Dunedin. — An ornamental shrub-tree, 
10 ft. to 30 ft. high. Bark fibrous and used for cordage, and aiFords 


a demulcent drink. Wood splits freely for shingles, but is not 
durable. Grows abundantly throughout the Islands. Bark used for 
making a tapa cloth by the Maoris in olden times. 

Order — Tiliaceai. 
Genus —Aristotelia, 

Aristotelia racemosa, Hook. 

Mako. — ^A small handsome tree, 6 ft. to 20 ft. high, quick-growing, 
with large racemes of reddish nodding flowers. Wood very light, and 
white in colour, and might be applied to the same purposes as the 
lime-tree in Britain ; it makes good veneers. 

Genus— Elaeocarpus, Linn. 

Elaeocarpus dentatus, Vahl. 

Hinau. — A small tree, about 50 ft. high, and 18 in. thick in stem, 
with brown bark which yields a permanent blue-black dye, which is 
used for tanning; it is used by the Maoris for colouring mats and 
baskets. Wood a yellowish-brown colour and close-grained; very 
durable for fencing and piles. Common throughout the Islands. 

Order — Olacikeae. 

Genus — Pennant ia, Forst. 

Pennantia corynibosa^ Forst. 

Kaikomako.— A small, very graceful tree, with white sweet-smelling 
flowers ; height 20 ft. to 30 ft. Wood used by the Maoris for kindling 
fires by friction. Grows on the mountains of the North Island, and 
more abundantly throughout the South Island. 

Order — Rhamneae. 

Genus— Discarta, Hook. 
Discaria toumatou^ Raoul. 

Tumatakuru, Wild Irishman. — A bush or small tree with spreading 
branches; if properly trained would form a handsome hedge that 
^ould be stronger than whitethorn. The spines were used by the 
' ^ris for tattooing. 

Order — Sapindageae. 
Genus— Dtw^onaea, Linn. 
Dodonaea viscosa, Forst. 

Ake. — A small tree, 6 ft. to 12 ft. high. Wood very hard, varie- 
gated black and white ; used for Maori clubs ; abundant in dry woods 
and forests. 

Genus— Alectryon, Gsertner. 
Alectryon excelsum, DC. 

Titoki. — A beautiful tree with large panicles of reddish flowers. 
Trunk 15 ft. to 20 ft. high, and 12 in. to 20 in. in diameter. Wood 
has similar properties to ash, and is used for similar purposes. Its 
toughness makes it valuable for wheels, coach-building, &c. ; the oil 
of the seeds was used for anointing the person. Grows in the North 
«^d South Islands ; not uncommon in forests. 


Order— Cokiahieak. 
Genus— Cona Wo, Linn. 

Coriaria I'UsdfoUaj Linn. 

Tupakihi, Tree Tutu.— A perennial shrub loft. to i8 ft high; trunk 
6 in. to 8 in. in diameter. The so-called berries (fleshy petals) vaiy 
very much in succulence, the less juicy bearing seeds which, according 
to Colenso, are not poisonous. The juice is purple, and affords 
a grateful beverage to the Maoris ; and a wine, bke elderberry wine, 
has been made from them. The seeds and leaves contain a poisonous 
alkaloid, and produce convulsions, delirium, and death, and are some- 
times fatal to cattle and sheep. Abundant throughout the Islands. 

Order — Lequminosae. 
Genus— iSc[pAora, Linn. 

Sophora tetraptera^ Aiton. 

Kowhai.— A small or middling- sized tree. It has a splendid appear- 
ance, with large pendulous yellow flowers. Wood red ; valuable for 
fencing, being highly durable; it is also adapted for cabinet-work. 
It is used for piles in bridges, wharves, &c. Abundant throughout 
the Islands. 

Order — Saxifrageae. 

G[&ii\X!a—Carpodeiu8y Forst. 

Carpodettis serratus, Forst. 

Tawiri, White Mapau, White-birch (of Auckland). — A small tree, 
lo ft. to 30 ft. high ; trunk unusually slender ; branches spreading in 
a fan-shaped manner, which makes it of very ornamental appearance ; 
flower white, profusely produced. The wood is soft and tough, and 
might be used in the manufacture of handles for agricultural imple- 
ments and axes. Grows in the North and South Islands; frequent 
by the banks of rivers. 

Genua —Weinmanniaf Linn. 

Weinmannia racemosa, Forst. 

Towhai, Kamahi. — A large tree ; trunk 2 ft. to 4 ft. in diameter, 
and 50 ft. high. Wood close-grained and heavy, but rather brittle ; 
might be used for plane-making and other joiner's tools, block-cutting 
for paper and calico printing, besides various kinds of turnery and 
wood-engraving. The bark of this tree is largely used for tanning. 
The extract of bark is chemically allied to the gum kino of commerce, 
their value being about equal. Grows in the middle and southern 
parts of the North Island and throughout the South Island. 

Order — Rubiaceae. 
QtenyxA—Coprosmay Forst. 

Coprosma linariifoUa, Hook. 

Karamu. — An ornamental shrub-tree; wood close-grained and yellow; 
might be used for turnery. Grows in mountain localities of the North 
and South Islands. 

Several other species of this genus grow to a considerable size, and 



have ornamental timber. It has been proposed to use the berries of 
C, bauen'ana as a substitute for coffee. 

Order— Jasmtvbab. 

Genus— O^a, Linn. 

Olea CunninphamUy Hook, fil. 

Black Maire. — 40 ft. to 50 ft. high, 3 ft. to 4 ft. in diameter ; timber 
close-grained, heavy, and very durable. Much of this very valuable 
timber is being destroyed in clearing the land. 

Order — Sartalacbie. 

Genus — Santalum, Linn. 

Santalum Ciinninghamiiy Hook, fil. 

Maire. —A small tree 10 ft. to 15 ft. hiffh, 6 in. to 8 in. in diameter; 
wood hard, close-grained, heavy. Used by the Maoris in the manu- 
facture of war implements. Has been used as a substitute for box by 

Animal Life. 

Until the colonization of N. Z., the country was strangely devoid of 
•animal life. The only mammals known to have been there before the 
time of Captain Cook were a small brown rat (which had probably 
been brought in some chance vessel) ; a tiny bat, which is very rare ; 
and the dogs which the Maoris had brought with them from Hawaiki. 
Snakes are unknown; reptiles are uncommon; the most interestinjor 
being the tuatara or native lizard (sphenodon punctatum), which is 
found on a few small islands and, though certainly not beautiful, is of 
special interest to zoologists as being the type of a distinct genus, 
differing in important structural characteristics from every other 
known saurian, partly resembling a lizard, partly a crocodile. In the 
centre of the head is a third eye, which is clearly visible through the 
skin of the young animal, but becomes more thickly covered as it 
attains maturity. 

Coming to birds, however, there is a different story to tell. There is 
no hope now of a live moa being found ; but many complete skeletons 
may be seen in the Museum at Christchurch and elsewhere. It was 
a wingless bird, standing 12 or 15 ft. high, stalking on legs 
as long and strong as a cameVs, laying eggs a foot in length, and 
swallowing handfulls of pebbles to aid its digestion. Judging from the 
recent appearance of the bones, feathers, and other relics, which are 
found in caves or close to the surface of the ground, it might be 
supposed to have died out, like other native birds, within the memory 
of man. Some old Maoris have been heard to declare that they 
hunted and ate the moa in their youth. Yet the fact that no allusion 
to the moa has ever been found in any Maori legend or genealogy, 
whereas these records abound in allusions to all other natm'al objects, 
seems a strong argument against the bird having existed since a remote 


antiquity. That the moa was at one time hunted and eaten in 
enormous numbers is proved beyond question by the evidence of 
cooked bones found amon^ burnt stones in ancient ovens, with stone 
implements. But when the time was, or who the moa hunters were, 
none can say. 

In 1838 a man brought to the late Professor Sir Richard Owen 
a bone which a Maori had told him belonged to a bird. The Professor 
deduced from it a correct idea of a Moa. (See Transactions of the 
Zoological Society^ 1S39.) Searches were made by the Missionaries 
and by Sir William Martin, then Chief Justice of N. Z. Before long 
Professor Owen had completely restored 1$ species of the Dinomis. 
(Royal Colonial Institute Proceedings, 1878-9.) 

Some of the poor relations of the great moa family still survive— 
three wingless birds of comparatively small size ; the two varieties of 
the kiwi ; and the weka. The weka may often be seen by travellers 
when they camp out or coach through the less frequented parts of the 
country. There are several kinds of parrots, amongst which the most 
destructiye is the kea {nestor notabilis). It descends upon the flocks, 
and, fastening itself upon the back of a sheep, tears away the wool, 
skin and flesk with its powerful beak, and makes with unerring instinct 
for the kidney fat, which it ^eedily devours, leaving the sheep to die 
in agony, ilow a bird which must have been in the country for 
centuries has acquired the habit, must for ever remain a mystery. 

In the forests, travellers will notice specially the tui, which some- 
what resembles a blackbird, and the huia, the royal bird of the Maoris. 
Wearing a bunch of its white-tipped feathers was with them an 
invariable emblem of chieftainship. 

Native fresh-water fish are rare, but the streams and lakes abound 
with koras (crayfish). 

The insects which make life unbearable in hotter countries are 
unknown in N. Z. In some parts indeed mosquitos and sandflies are 
annoying. The most extraordinary of native insects is the aweto, or 
vegetable caterpillar. It is a perfect caterpillar, and usually crows 
to about 2 inches in length. It is only found in the ground, and 
usually near a rata tree. When full grown, the spore of a vegetable 
fungus fixes itself upon its neck, and takes root. The plant grows 
vigorously to a height of about 8 inches, with a single stem and no 
leaves, but a dark-brown head like that of a diminutive bulrush, which 
stands a few inches above the ground ; the root simultaneously grows 
into the body of the caterpillar, and fills it in every part. When both 
the caterpillar and the fungus die, the animal or vegetable (for it 
seems hard to know which to call it) becomes dry and hard, and may 
be kept for any length of time. How the species is propagated, none 
can say. 

Of European animals and fishes which have been imported, it is 
unnecessary to speak here. With the sole exception of the salmon all 
have thriven — some only too well. 




The Native Bace. 

The early history of N. Z. is shrouded in hopeless mystery. Some 
writers contend that there was an aboriginal race of whom nothing is 
known except that thev hunted the moa, but who are now absolutely 
extinct, unless indeea the Morioris of the Chatham Islands are 
descended from them. Others believe that the Maoris were them- 
selves the moa hunters, and that the Morioris are a branch of the 
same race. As no one can say when the moas became extinct, or 
when the Maoris arrived in N. Z., the problem is insoluble. 

That the Maoris belong to the great Polynesian family is certain ; 
colour, language, traditions and customs are practically identical ; but 
beyond that nothing can be said with certainty. Innumerable theories 
have been propounded ; they have been identified with the Toltics of 
Central America; the Egyptians; the Ten Lost Tribes; the race 
which peopled Java before the invasion of the Malays ; the Malays 
themselves; and even the Anglo-Saxons! Some have argued that 
they are a cross between the Negro and Mongolian races; others 
(notably Mr. E. Tregear) that they are Aryans, and came from India. 

Their own traditions, so far as they go, are perfectly clear. They 
tell us how their ancestors once lived in a place called Hawaiki. 
Driven thence by civil war, they took refuge in their canoes and 
steered towards the rising of the Southern Cross until they landed at 
various points in the N. part of N. Z. There they drew up their 
canoes on the beach, let loose the dogs and rats, and planted the sweet- 
potatoes and seeds they had brought vdth them. From the party who 
came in each canoe the various tribes who peopled the country were 
descended. (See Rte. 7.) The genealogical sticks, which were carved 
by the tohungas or priests for the Chiefs, show that the immigration 
took place at least fourteen generations ago. 

Unfortunately, this goes but a little way towards clearing up the 
mystery. Some writers have attempted to identify Hawaiki with 
Hawaii, others with Savaii ; but the natives of Hawaii have a similar 
legend of how they came from Hawaii and called their new home 
after the old one ; and the natives of Savaii tell the same story. In 
other words, they are all various forms of the same legend. The 
utmost that can be said is that they may have stopped at some island 
on the way, but we have no evidence as to their original starting- 
point. Nor can anything more definite be decided as to the date. 
The genealogical sticks may be imperfect or incorrect. Hence various 
dates between b.c. 2000 and a.d. 1450 have been suggested. 

Nearly all the Maoris settled in the N. Island ; very few (and those 
probably only the remnants of conquered tribes) penetrating further 
South, The state of Maoriland must have been not unlike that of 


Ireland before the English invasion, or Germany in pvehistorical times. 
The fortified pas or villages bear some resemblance to the raths with 
which travellers in Irelaiid are so familiar, although of course they 
contained no places for keeping cattle. Each tribe was independent ; 
tribal wars were incessant. Cultivation was rude in the extreme — 
fern-root, rats, birds and shellfish being their ordinary food. Metals 
were unknown, but the art of carving in wood was carried to a high 
state of perfection. Weapons and ornaments were made from the 
native greenstone— a variety of jade ; they were sometimes merely 
chipped into shape, but more often beautifully finished by polishing. 
Stone adzes were fastened to sticks as handles ; the fibres of the native 
flax being used to tie them fast, just as gut was used by the Irish. 
Great canoes were hollowed out of the trunks of trees by burning and 
cutting, and then most elaborately carved and decked with feather 
ornaments. The glory of each tribe was its whare-pune, or Meeting 
House, with panels fantastically carved, representing the ancestors 
and genii of the house. In the strange interlacing in some of these, 
we are again reminded of the Irish carvings. The native dress was 
composed of flax mats, beautifully woven, sometimes ornamented with 
coloured feathers, sometimes with dog-skin. 

Their religion was curiously like tiie mythology of ancient Greece. 
There were families of gods and giants; trees, fishes, birds— every 
object in nature— having its presiding spirit. There was Ea, the god 
of day and light ; and Po, of nigbt and death ; Maui, whose strength 
had drawn up the N. Island from the bottom of the sea, but who had 
vainly striven to win immortality for man by a struggle with the 
goddess of death ; and gods of every wind. The most powerful was 
Tu, the lord of strength and war, who was worshipped in various 
aspects, like the Egyptian sun-god. In the name of Tu, children were 
baptized ; in the case of a boy, the prayer running thus ; — 

Baptized in the waters of Tn 

Be thoa strong 

By the stren^^ of the heel of Tn 

To catch men. 

To climb the mountain ranges. 

May the power of Tu be given to this boy. 

Be thoa strong 

To overcome in the battle, 

To enter the breach. 

To grapple with the foe. 

Be thou strong by the power of Tu 

To pass over the lofby mountains, 

To ascend the mighty trees, 

To brave the billows of the ocean, 

To battle with its might. 

Be strong to cultivate thy food, 

To build great houses, 

To make war canoes. 

To welcome visitors, 

To complete all thy work. 

There comes the strength from the land of Death 

To bear me to the northern Strand, 

To the place where Spirits depart into night.— 

Ah! what know I further? 



Over a girl, the words were as follows : — 

Baptized in the waters of Ta 

Be thoa strong by the strength of Ta 

To get food for thyself, 

To make clothing, 

To weave flaxen mats, 

To welcome strangers, 

To carry firewood. 

To gather shellfish. 

May the strength of Ta be given to this daughter. 

Some of the Maori myths were not devoid of poetry ; for instance, 
when they told of how the Heaven was separated from his spouse, the 
Earth ; how he still sheds tears for her, which we call rain, and the in 
answer sends back sighs to him, which to men appear as mists. 
Strange to say, idolatry was hardly known ; but prayer— at least in 
the form of incantations — was offered by the tohunga at every solemn 
moment of life. Marriage was not a religious ceremony. They 
professed a belief in a life after death— the spirit being sometimes 
spoken of as passing northwards to its old home in Hawaiki ; but it 
was a life of continual decay, the soul ending at last in becoming 
a worm, and dying. The great institution of the religion was tapu ; 
perhaps sanctity is the nearest equivalent in English. This power of 
tapu must have made life a chronic burden to half the nation. A new- 
bom child was tapu until it was baptized. Chiefs were so remarkably 
sacred that the houses where they slept, the food they touched, even 
the articles of propertv they laid claim to, were tapu. Witchcraft, 
the evil eye, and such-lite superstitions, were as universal amongst the 
Maons as amongst other uneducated races ; the power of the tohungas 
being strengthened by what doubtless was in reality ventriloquism. 

One of the duties of the tohunga was to tattoo the young people. 
Girls were tattooed only on the lips; boys all over the face. The 
instrument used was a small stone sulze ; blue paint, made out of the 
pulverized charcoal of the veronica, being rubbed into the wound. 
The agony was intense ; but what race is there who will not submit to 
any pain rather than be out of the fashion ? 

The slightest insult was enough to light the spark of war; and 
when once it was kindled, it was kept alive for generations, by the 
* utu * or family vengeance. Fighting was considered the profession 
of a gentleman, weaving and cultivation being left to slaves and 
women. But the native character was not devoid of beauty. Even 
their communistic manner of life had its advantages. Hospitality was 
universal ; the greatest reproach to a man was to call him a miser. 
The passion of love was strong ; many of their favourite poems were 
love-songs and laments. The following may be taken as a specimen ; 
it was composed by the brother of the great chief Te Heu Heu, who 
had been killed in a landslip at Tokaano in 1847 (see Rte. 6). 

Lamest foh Te Heu Heu. 

See, o'er the heights of dark Tanhara's peak 

The infant morning wakes. Perchance my friend 

Betums to me, clad in that lightsome cloud. — 

Alas ! I toil alone in this cold world. For thon art gone I 


GK), thou mighty one ! Go thon hero ! 

Go, thou that wert as spreading trees to shelter 

Thy people, when evil hovered round. 

Ah! what Strange GK>d has caused so dread a death 

To thee and thy companions! 
Father, sleep on within that dark abode ! 
And hold within thy grasp that weapon rare 
Bequeathed to thee by thy renowned ancestor 
Ngahue, when he left the world. 

Turn yet this once thy bold majestic form! 
And let me see thy skin cfurved o'er with lines 
Of blue, and let me see thy face 
So beautifully chiselled into various forms! 
Ah! the people now are comfortless and sad. 

The stars are faintly shining in the heavens, 

For 'Atatahi' and ' Benua-kai-tangata ' 

Have disappeared, and those bright stars that shone 

Beneath the Southern Gross — Emblems too true 

Of thee, oh friend beloved. 

The Mount of Tongariro rises lonely in the South, 

While the rich feathers that adorned thy great canoe ^Arawa* 

Float upon the wave. And women from the West look on and weep. 

Why hast thou left behind the valued treasures 

Of thy famed ancestor Bongomaihua 

And wrapped thyself in night ? 

Cease thy slumbers, Oh thou son of Bangi ! 

Wake up and take thy battleaxe, and tell thy people 

Of the coming signs, and what will now befall them, 

How the foe tumultuous as the waves will rush with spears uplifted, 

And how thy people will avenge their wrongs, nor shrink at danger. 

But let the warriors breathe awhile, nor madly covet death. 

But thou art fallen, and the earth receives thee as its prey, 

But thy wond'rous fame shall soar on high, resounding o'er the heavens ! 

The Maori language is very simple. It possesses but fourteen 
letters, A, E, I, 0, U, H, K, M, N, P, R, T, W, Ng. (This last is a nasal 
sound, not very unlike the Spanish n. Indeed, the number of vowels, 
and the absence of closed syllables, make the language sound not 
unlike Spanish). The language was put into writing by the mission- 
aries ; according to the system they wisely selected, the vowels are 
pronounced as in French. The construction of sentences is as simple 
as in Hebrew. Most of the Maori names of places are mere descrip- 
tions of some natural object, and should be written as separate words. 
Hence, throughout N. Z. we have the same names occurring again and 
again ; for instance, Wai-tangi^ weeping water, a name common to 
many waterfalls ; Wai-roa, long water : roto-mahana, warm lake ; 
rotO'itij little lake : Totara-nui, great totara tree ; ti-nui, great 
ti tree ; Whanga-nui, great mouth ; Whanga-roa, long mouth. Unfor- 
tunately, in many instances, the settlers have abolished the soft- 
sounding native words, in order to call the lands after their own 
names; and in others, from inability or vulgar laziness, have so 
mispronounced them as to make them hideous. 

The intricacies of native law as regards the tenure of land are 
ierrible. All land was held by a tribe or branch of a tribe ; there 
[New Zealand.'] e 



was no such thing as individual ownership, in either chiefs or others. 
The boundaries were rivers, mountains or, in some cases, piles of 
stones. The right to share in the tribal estate depended on an 
infinite variety of circumstances — occupation, descent, conquest 
(where one tribe actually seized and held as their own the land of 
another), intermarriages, and a number of reasons depending on the 
peculiarities of native customs. A slight acquaintance with the 
subject will show that a settler could no more extinguish native title 
by buying from a single native than an Englishman could purchase 
a high road by {p'ving a bribe to a county surveyor. This is the key to 
the land question, which has been the cause of most of the wars 
between the colonists and the natives. 

Such was the state of the Maoris down to the beginning of this cen- 
tury. In the year 1 814 Anglican Missionaries began to labour amongst 
them ; a few years later they were followed by Wesleyans and Roman 
Catholics. The work of the missionaries was most arduous, but they 
were indefatigable. Under their influence slavery and cannibalism 
were abolished; agriculture improved, and education was introduced; 
a large number of the natives became Christians. At the same time, 
however, other Europeans were coming to N. Z. ; by 1835 they were 
ai-riving in such numbers that the country was rajjidly becoming the 
Alsatia of the Pacific. The natives, too, were acquiring firearms, and 
tribal squabbles which had hitherto been comparatively harmless were 
becoming wars of extermination. To avoid anarchy, the missionaries 
urged the chiefs to agree to the Treaty of Waitangi, which was done 
on February 5, 1840. The words of the Treaty were as follows : — 

1. The Chiefs of the Confedexution of the United Tribes of N. Z., and the 
separate and independent chiefs who have not become members of the con- 
federation, cede to Her Majesty the Queen of England, absolutely and without 
reservation, all the rights and powers of sovereignty which the said con- 
federation of independent chiefs respectively exercise or possess, or may be 
supposed to exercise or possess, over their respective territories, as the sole 
sovereigns thereof. 

2. Her Majesty the Queen of England confirms and guarantees to the chiefs 
and tribes of N. Z., and to the respective families and individuals thereof, the 
full, exclusive and undisturbed possession of their lands and estates, forests, 
fisheries, and other properties which they may collectively or individually 
possess, so long as it is their wish and desire to retcdn ^e same in their 
possession. But the chiefs of the united tribes and the individual chiefs yield 
to Her Majesty the exclusive right of preemption over such lands as the pro- 
prietors thereof may be disposed to alienate, at such prices as may be agreed 
upon between the respective proprietors and persons appointed by Her Majesty 
to treat with them in that behalf. 

3. In consideration thereof. Her Majesty the Queen of England extends to 
the Natives of N. Z. her Boyal protection, and imparts to them all the rights 
and privileges of British subjects. 

It would be beyond the limits of this work to give any detailed 
account of the wars which have arisen in N. Z. They are referred to 
in the synopsis of events, and in the notices of the various places. 

In 1857 a large number of natives (prompted, it is said, by their studies 
of the Books of Samuel) resolved to unite the strength of the tribes 
by electing a king. They chose a prominent chief, Te Whero Where, ^ 
and hailed him as * Potatau, King of N. ZJ He died in i860, and his 


son Tawhiao was chosen as his successor. His authority, however, has 
only been recognized by a portion of the native population. In 1885 
he visited England, and in 1891 accepted a seat in the Legislative 

In 1864 some of the natives adopted a new reli^on, a sti'ange 
medley of heathenism and certain portions of the Scriptures. Their 
worship consisted in dancing round a pole and uttering wild ejacula* 
tions, from which they were called Hauhaus. The religion may be 
now said to be extinct. 

In numbers the Maoris are steadily decreasing. In 1800 there 
must have been at least 100,000 in the N. island alone, the population 
in the S. island being much smaller, The census of 1891 showed only 
39,800 in the N. island and 2,200 in the S. 

Many Maoris are wealthy men, possessing large estates (which are 
frequently let to Europeans). Schools are established in various 
districts, Maori children being quick learners. (See pp. 4, 39, 43, 45.) 

There are four Maori members in the House of Representatives, and 
two in the Legislative Council. 

Even in the briefest account of the Maori race, it would be impos- 
sible not to mention the names of two great chiefs, who flourished 
during the most exciting part of N. Z. history — Hongi and Te 

Hongi was bom about 1770. He belonged to the Ngapuhi tribe, of 
which his ancestors had been chiefs ever since their arrival from 
Hawaiki. In 181 4 he went to Sydney in the brig Active, which had 
been despatched to N. Z. by the Rev. Samuel Marsden to make 
preparations for the establishment of a mission. At Sydney 
Hongi stayed as a guest at Mr. Marsden's house. A few months 
afterwards he returned to N. Z. by the same vessel, which also brought 
Mr. Marsden, who in turn became the guest of Hongi. A commission 
had been granted to Honei and two other native chiefs, by the 
Governor of New South Wales, empowering them to give or withhold 
permission to white men to remove natives from N. Z. — for even then 
the 'labour traffic,' with its attendant abuses, had begun. Hongi, 
dressed in his regimentals, was present when Mr. Marsden conducted 
divine service at the Bay of Islands on Christmas Day, 18 14, and soon 
afterwards placed his mark to the deed by which the land for the 
Church Mission was granted. In 18 18, however, Temorenga, another 
Ngapuhi chief, having obtained possession of 35 muskets, attacked 
a pa at Tauranga (see Rte. 3), and slew hundreds of his foes. Hongi 
thereupon determined to do even more than Temorenga. He started 
for England in the whaleship New Zealander, and arrived there in 
1820. He went to Cambridge, where he assisted Professor Lee in the 
preparation of his Maori grammar, and made the acquaintance of 
Baron de Thieny, then a student at the University. In London he 
had an interview with King George IV, who presented him with 
a helmet and a suit of armour ; other people aiso loaded him with 
.valuable gifts. Returning to Sydney, he sold all his presents, and 
purchased 300 stand of firearms, with which to destroy his fellow- 

e 2 


countrymen. No sooner had he arrived in N. Z. than he commenced 
a series of raids, the first object of his attack being the N^timaru at 
Totara on the Thames in 1821 (see Rte. 3). The following year he 
carried by assault two large pas at Mount Wellington, near where 
Auckland now stands. He then dragged his war canoes across the 
isthmus, entered and crossed the Manakau harbour, dragged his 
canoes overland again to the Waiaroa, descended it, and proceeded up 
the Waikato to Matakitaki, where he landed and attacked the great 
pa there (see Rte. 11). In 1823 he took his canoes down the E. coast 
and sacked the Arawa stronghold at Maketu (see Rte. 7), and then 
proceeded to attack the island of Mokoia (see Rte. 4). In 1827 he 
made war on the tribes at Whangaroa (see Rte. 2), but was wounded 
by a bullet, and, after lingering a few months, died in March, 1828. 
He had never professed Cnristianity, but was a staunch supporter of 
Mr. Marsden's mission, and gladly sent his children to the mission 
schools. His last directions to his family and tribe were, ' Be kind to 
the missionaries, for they do much good and no harm.' 

The name Te Bauparaha is. so often mentioned in connezioh with 
various parts of the country that it is well here to give a brief abstract 
of the hfe of that extraordinary man. He was born about 1770 at 
Kawhia, then the head-quarters of the Ngatitoa tribe, of which he 
was a chief. In very early life he became famous as a warrior, fighting 
against the neighbouring Waikato. In the course of time the pos- 
session of firearms bj his neighbours (which they obtained by trading 
with the whalers) placed his tribe in a position of threatened exter- 
mination. This led to his determining to escape from his circumscribed 
territory, and fight his way into a safe region, with an outlet to the 
seas visited by Europeans, so that he might be free from hostile tribes 
and yet become rich by trading. Having in the course of a raid to 
the S. observed a suitable locality, he decided on his celebrated 
march. Leaving his home about 1820, he cut his way thence by 
a course of diplomacy and fighting through hostile territory to the 
vicinity of Cook's Straits, carrying with him nearly 400 of his people 
— men, women, and children— of whom 170 were warriors. On the 
way he formed an alliance with the Ngatirakawa, who were also 
moving out of their inland territory. A long and bloody series of wars 
with the three local tribes ensued. These were subdued or humbled, 
and Te Rauparaha established his head-quarters on the island of 
Kapiti off the W. coast (see Rte. 15). The island formed a base of 
operations by sea and land. Looking across the straits to the lofty 
mountains of the S. Island, then peopled by tribes rich in the posses- 
sion of weapons carved out of the much-prized greenstone, he yearned 
to conquer them. An excuse was found in a disrespectful remark 
concerning Te Rauparaha carelessly made by a southern chief, and 
an invasion followed, with disastrous results to the people of the S. 
A long series of invasions and expeditions then occupied the exiles 
from ICawhia and the numerous adventurers who had joined them. 
In the course of many of these raids, Te Rauparaha had the assistance 
of his kinsman Te Pehi Kupe (whose name has been distorted in the 
Library of Entertaining Knowledge for 1830 into Tupaicupa). This man, 
determined to obtain a supply of firearms, in imitation of Hongi, caused 



himself to be carried out into the Strait, and climbed on board a home- 
bound whaler there. No force that the crew could bring to bear being 
successful in dislodging him from the ringbolt to which he clung, he was 
taken to England, where, enlisting the sympathy of various good but in- 
discreet people, he obtained a number of presents, which he exchanged 
for firearms and ammunition. Aided by him, Te Raupajraha and his 
followers carried wars of extermination into almost every bay in the 
ramified series of sounds in the N. end of the S. island. The conquest 
was carried down the E. coast, and bloody conflicts occurred at 
Kaikoura, Banks* Peninsula, and Eaiapoi (see Rtes. 21 and 22). 
The famous siege of Kaiapoi is still a topic of conversation amongst 
the few Maoris who still remain in the S. Island. It came about in 
consequence of the treacherous murder of Te Pehi Kupe, who had 
gone thither on a friendly visit. 

The first invasion of the S. Island occurred about 1830, and the wars 
continued for seven years more. At the same time an expedition was 
sent down the W. coast in search of further conquests and of green- 
stone. The fate of this part is referred to under Fueerau (see Rte. 26). 

Te Rauparaha returned to his island stronghold. His conquests 
had, acconiing to Maori law, given him a title to various lands in the 
S. Island. Some of these were bought by the N. Z. Company ; but, the 
extent of their purchases being a matter of dispute,, a collision arose 
which resulted in the Wairau massacre in 1843 (see Rte. 17). After 
that, Te Rauparaha retired to Forirua, but, being suspected of com- 
plicity in the plots of his son-in-law Te Ran^haeata, he was arrested 
by Sir George Grey in 1846 (see Rte. 15). He was soon afterwards 
liberated, and in the following year was brought back to Waikanei. 
He found afi;airs there much changed ; most of his people had become 
Christians and gone to live at OtakL He soon joined them, became 
a Christian, and helped to build the church there (see Rte. 15). He 
died peacefully in 1848 ; his body now rests in the Otaki churchyard. 

List of Common Maohi Words. 

Te the (sing.) 

Nga the{pl.) 

Tangata man 

Wahine tooman 

Tamaiti boy 

Kotiro girl 

Maori native 

Pakeha Jbreigner 

Hoa .friend 

Hoa-riri enemy 

Iwi tribe 

Hapu st^tribe 

Pa stockade; forti' 

JUd place 

Whare house 

Kainga (in Sou- 
thern Maori 
Kaik) village 

Whenna land 

Oneone soil 

Mannga mountain 

Puke hill 

Awa river 

Wai vxUer 

Moana sea 

Boto lake 

Waika canoe 

Kaipuke ship 

Bakau tree 

Manga branch (of a tree 

or river) 
Whanga ^V; moutho/a 


Onepu sand 

Hau unnd 

Ua rain 

Ra sun; day 

Po nigM 

Marama moon; clear 

Whetu star 



Moe «Ieep 

Axoha love 

Mana authority; power 

Ae yee 

Eahore no 

Pai good 

Kino bad 

Noi lO'Tffe 

Iti email 

Boa long 

Wera warm 

Mate dead 

Pouri dark 

Tahi one 

Boa tioo 

Toru three 

Wha /o«r 

Bima Jive 

Ono «to 

Whitn Mtwn 

Warn eight 

Iwa n<n« 

Tekau ten 

Ban hundred 

Mano tAotiMNui 

Whaka A prefixed oanBatiye, 

hJavixi^ the sense of 
*to cause/ ' to make 
to do * ; as taJboto, to 
lie down ; fehakO' 
takoto, to lay down. 

Tenakoe! how do you dof (Lit. 

here you are !) 

Here-mai ! welcome ! 

Tomo-mai ! come in! 

No hea koe? ...whence come you? 

He aha tena ?...iofta< if tftot f 


Abstract of New Zealand History. 

It is uncertain who was the first European to visit New Zealand. 
Claims have been put forward on behalf of both Frenchmen and 
Spaniards. In a Dutch atlas published before 1638 an indistinct line 
of coast is marked as ^ Zelandia Nova.' Tasman, who saw N. Z. in 1642 
thought it was part of a southern continent to which the name ^Staaten 
land ' had been given, and therefore named it * Staaten land.' When 
this error had been corrected, it was again named *New Zealand.' 
The Maoris had called the N. Island Te ika a Maui, and the S. Te 
Wai o Pounamu ; and the two together Te Ao tea roa. 

Tasman anchored in Golden Bay (which he named Murderer's Bay) 
and coasted N. to Cape Maria van Diemen ; but he never landed in 
the country. 

Captain Cook paid five visits between 1769 and 1770, circum- 
navigating the islands and surve^ng the coast. On Jan. 30, 1770 
he hoisted the flag of Great Britain on a hill overlooking Queen 
Charlotte's Sound, and called the Sound after the Queen. 

Several French explorers arrived soon after Captain Cook. By the 
year 1800 some whalers and other adventurers had settled on the 
islands, and the numbers steadily increased during the early part of 
the present century. 

In 1809 took place the massacre of the Boyd (see Rte. 2). 

In 1814 the Ang, mission was established; in 1822 the Wesl., 
and in 1838 the B. C. 

Between 1814 and 1827 a war raged through the Thames, Waipa, 


and Waikato districts, between the 'followers of the two great chiefs, 
Hongi and Te Rauparaha. 

In 1825 the N. Z. Company was formed in London, Lord Durham 
being the Chairman. The following year the Company landed a 
party of emigrants at the Bay of Islands, but of these only four 
resolved to remain, the others preferring to return home. 

Kororareka may be said to have been founded in 1827 (see Rte. 2). 

In 1 83 1 an adventurous Frenchman, Baron de Thierry, attempted to 
found a monarchy of his own, and called himself * King of N. Z.' His 
pretensions were never recognized, and he subsequently retired into 
private life, and died peaceably at Auckland in 1861. This attempt 
however led to a petition from several Maori chiefs at Eerikeri to King 
William IV, praying for the establishment of a British Protectorate. 
Mr. Busby was accordingly appointed British Resident in 1833. He 
attempted to form a Native State under the title of * the United 
Tribes of N. Z.* with a flag, a Parliament, and a Constitution ; but it 
was a failure. 

In 1837 the * N. Z. Association ' was formed by Mr. E. Gibbon 
Wakefield, to colonize the country; and about the same time was 
formed the French Company, the Nanto-Bordelaise (see Rte. 22). The 
N. Z. Association speedily collapsed, but in its place rose the N. Z. 
Land Company (which was formed in London m 1839), which was 
chartered in 1841 under the name of the *N. Z. Company.* Its object 
was to buy land from the Maoris and sell it in England to intending 
settlers. The price was to be sufficient to leave a surplus to pay the 
passage of emigrant labourers, to provide churches, schools and roads, 
and to give a fair profit to the shareholders. The Colonial Office and 
the Church Missionary Society, fearing that native troubles would 
arise, opposed the Company. At this time also speculators were stream- 
ing over from Sydney, and many of them claimed to have purchased 
lai^e tracts of land. The Company accordingly despatched Colonel 
Wakefield in the ship Tory to N. Z., to buy land and arrange for the 
reception of the colonists who were to follow. He immediately took 
possession of Port Nicholson in the name of the Company. The first 
batch of emi^ants arrived in Jan. 1840 in the Aurotn. In the same 
month Capt. Hobson arrived as British Consul at the Bay of Islands, 
and soon afterwards the Treaty of Waitangi was executed (see p. [50]). 
In the following June the sovereignty, by right of discovery, was 
again separately proclaimed over the South and Stewart's Islands 
by Major Bunbury, by planting the flac at Cloudy Bay. 

During the same year the French Admiral D'Urville arrived with 
the exploring ships Astrolabe and Zelie, This led to a formal 
assertion of the Queen's sovereignty by the establishment of police 
courts at various places where Europeans were settled. In August 
the French man-of-war L*Aube, and the emigrant ship Compte de Farin 
arrived at Akaroa (see Rte. 22). 

On November 16, 1840 a Patent was signed by Her Majesty, 
creatine New Zealand a separate Colony. The N. Island was named 
New Ulster, the S. New Munster and Stewart's Island New Leinster. 
Capt. Hobson was appointed Governor with a Legislative CounciL 
The news was officially proclaimed at Auckland on May 3, 1841. 


In the year 1841 were founded the settlements of Auckland (see 
Rte. i), New Plymouth (see Rte. 12), and Nelson (see Rte. 18). 

In 1842 Hobson died. Durin«^ the same year, Mr. Spain was 
appointed to investigate the alleged purchases of land from the 
natives by the Company and others, and, when they proved to be 
satisfactoiy, to issue formal titles. Bp. Selwyn arrived in N. Z. 

In 1843 occurred the first collision between the colonists and the 
Maoris — the Wairau Massacre (see Rte. 17). In December of that year 
arrived Capt. Fitzroy, the new Governor. He disallowed the alleged 
purchase of a large tract of land at New Plymouth (see Rte. 12). 

In 1844 the second collision with the natives occurred, the flagstaff 
at Eororareka being cut down by Honi Heke and Eororareka burnt. 

The Okaihau and Ohaewai pas were attacked unsuccessfully 
(see Rte. 2). 

In 1845 Capt. Fitzroy was recalled, and Capt. (now Sir George) 
Grey appointed Governor. The Ruapekapeka pa was captured 
(see Rte. 2) and the war brought to an end. 

In 1846 occurred a terrible landslip near Taupo, in which Te Heu 
Heu and fifty-four of his followers perished (see Rte. 10). 

The same year troubles arose with the natives in the Hutt Valley. 
Te Rauparaha was arrested at Porirua and convened by sea to 
Wellington (see Rte. 15). Pahautanai was occupied by British 
troops. A military colony, formed of old pensioned soldiers enrolled 
in England as the ' N. Z. Fencibles ' was planted near Auckland. 
This led to fresh troubles with reference to the purchase of land, and 
a long and bitter controversy arose between the Governor, the 
Colonial Office, and the Missionaries. 

At this time a new Charter was granted to N.Z. by which the 
Colony was divided into two provinces New Ulster (the northern half 
of the N. Island) and New Munster (the rest of the Colony). Each 
Province was to have its own House of Representatives, Legislative 
Council, Governor, and Lt.- Governor. A General Assembly, consisting 
of a House of Representatives, a Legislative Council and Govemor-in- 
Chief, was to govern the whole Colony. The operation of the Charter 
was however suspended. 

Lord Grey, then Secretary of State for the Colonies, sent a despatch 
to the Governor, directing him to seize all the lands owned by the 
natives not actually occupied by them, in violation of the Treaty of 
Waitangi. This caused a vigorous protest from the Bishop, the Chief 
Justice, and others, and was never acted on. 

In 1847 a native outbreak occurred at Wanganui, and Mrs. Gilfillan 
was murdered (see Rte. 14). 

In 1848 Te RauparaJia died and was buried in the churchyard at 
Otaki (see Rte. 15). A serious earthquake occurred, doing much 
damage to Wellington. The Free Eirk settlers arrived in Ota^o, and 
founded Dunedin (see Rte. 25). Large purchases of land m the 
S. Island were peacefully made by the Government officers. 

The Canterbury Association (see Rte. 22) was formed in London. 

In 1853 the Constitutional Act— which has been a subject of 
constant discussion since 1848 — came into operation. By it the 
Colony was divided into six Provinces, each with a Provincial Council 


and a Superintendent. The General Assembly, which was to meet at 
Auckland, was to consist of a nominated Council and an elected House 
of Representatives. Thus N. Z. cea-sed to be a * Crown Colony,' and 
became a * Colony possessing responsible Government.' Native affairs, 
however, were still left under the charge of the Governor personally. 

In 1854 the first Assembly was opened. 

About this period gold was found in several districts of both Islands, 
and population increased rapidly. 

In 1857 a large meeting of natives was held on the banks of the 
Waikato R., at which the chief Te Whero Whero was formally hailed 
as * Potatau, King of N. Z.,' the old flag of the United Tribes being run 
up as a symbol of his sovereignty. 

Tn 1858, the Province of Hawke's Bay was separated from 
Wellington ^see Rte. 8). 

In 1859 tne Governor (Gore Browne) resolved that henceforth he 
would treat with individuals in purchasing native lands. The 
immediate result of this measure was the episode of the Waitara 
block the commencement of the first Taranaki War (see Rte. 12). 
From this time there was fighting in one part or another of the 
N. Island until 1870. 

In this year the Province of Marlborough separated &om Nelson 
(see Rte. 17). 

In i860 the Waireka pa was stormed (see Rte. 12). The war now 
extended into the Waikato district. 

In 1 86 1 Sir G. Grey returned as Governor, for a second term of 
office. Extensive gold fields were found in Otago. 

Potatau died, and was succeeded by his son Tawhiao (see p. [51]). 
The Province of Southland separated from Otago (see Rte. 30). 

The year 1863 is chiefly noted for various stirring incidents 
connected with the war. In May the ambush was laid at Oakura 
(see Rte. 13) ; in July the Governor ordered the natives residing 
between Auckland and the Waikato frontier either to swear allegiance 
to the Queen or to retire beyond the frontier; in November the 
Ran^^iriri pa was carried by Gen. Cameron ; in December, Ngarua- 
wahia was occupied by the British troops (see Rte. 3). 

Two important Acts were passed by the Colonial Parliament ; the 
Suppression of Rebellion Act, whereby despotic power was given to 
the Government ; and the Settlements Act, whereby land might be 
confiscated as a punishment for rebellion (see Rte. 11). 

In 1864 occurred the incidents of the Orakau pa and the Gate pa 
(see Rte. 3). Hauhauism arose under the prophet or fanatic Te Ua 
(see p. [51]). The Hauhaus made an attack on an entrenchment near 
New Plymouth, but were defeated. They then attempted to attack 
Wanganui, but were routed by the Wanganui Maoris (see Rte. 14). 

The seat of Government was transferred from Auckland to Welling- 
ton (see Rte. 16). 

In 1865 the Wereroapa was captured (see Rte. 13). Major Brassey 
was relieved at Pipiriki (see Rte. 10). Mr. Volkner was murdered at 
Opotiki (see Rte. 7). On the E. coast several pas were captured, and 
Hauhauism was practically put an end to in that district. The chief 
Te Kooti was captured, and exiled to the Chatham Islands (see Rte. 22). 


Much gold was discovered on the W. coast of the S. Island. 

In 1866 General Chute, who succeeded General Cameron, made his 
famous march from Wancanui to Taranaki (see Rte. 12). He also 
captured Te Ua. The Haunaus were routed at Omaranui (see Rte. 8). 
The Imperial troops were gradually withdrawn from N. Z., by the 
orders of Lord Cardwell, then Secretary of State for War. Towards 
the end of the year, several engagements took place, both on 
the E. and W. coasts, between the Colonial forces under Colonel 
McDonnell and the Hauhaus. 

In 1867, a Maori Representation Act was passed, whereby four 
Maoris were elected to the House of Representatives. 

The Rly. between Lyttelton and Cnristchurch was opened (see 
Rte. 22). 

In 1868, Te Eooti escaped from the Chatham Islands. Towards 
the end of the year there was some desultory fighting in both E. and W. 
On November 7, occurred the * Poverty Bay Massacre* (see Rte. 7). 
On December 30, the Colonial forces and Maori allies attacked Te 
Kooti at Ngatapa, near Gisbome, and captured the pa, but Te Eooti 
escaped. A price was set upon his head. He took' refuge for some 
time in the tipper Waikato district, but afterwards returned to the 
£. Coast. He was finally amnestied in 1883. 

In this year the Province of Westland separated from Canterbury 
(see Rte. 19). 

In 1870 was inaugurated the * Public Works Policy,* by Sir Julius 
Yogel. Enormous sums of money were borrowed, and roads and 
railways made in every direction. In seven years the Colonial debt 
was increased by thirteen millions. 

In 1876 the Provinces were abolished. The Colony was at the same 
time divided into counties, each possessing a County Council. 

In 1 88 1 occurred the last Maori trouble worthy of mention. Te 
Whiti, a native prophet, commenced holding a series of large meetings, 
and his followers ploughed up some land which was said to belong 
to European settlers. A force of 2,000 men was sent to arrest Te 
Whiti ; after a short time he was set at liberty. 

In 1883 Tawhiao was formerly reconciled v^ith the Government. 
At the same time, a general amnesty was declared. 

In 1892 the Earl of Glasgow was appointed Governor of N. Z. 


Government, Population Eelioion and Education. 

The Constitution of N.Z. is intended to be an imitation of that 
of the mother country, so far as circumstances- will permit. The 
Governor is appointed by the Crown. The Parliament consists of 


two Houses. The members of the Legislative Council are nominated 
by the Governor, on the advice of the ministers ; in future appoint- 
ments will be for seven years only. The honorarium is £ioo per 
session. The number Of councillors is unlimited ; at present there 
are forty -five. The House of Representatives consists of seventy 
European and four Maori members ; the N. Island returning thirty 
European members, the S. forty. Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch 
and Dunedin each return three members; other electoral districts 
one each. Parliaments are triennial ; the honorarium is at present 
£ioo per session and £50 for expenses. Manhood suffrage is the 
law; out the agitation in favour of female suffrage is growing 
stronger each year. A ministry never lasts more than three years ; 
few so long. The Executive Council consists of the Governor and 
the Ministers ; the Ministers also form the Cabinet. 

Wellington is the seat of government; the Governor has also 
a residence at Auckland ; and there are Government offices for local 
matters at each of the larger towns. 

The provision for local government in N. Z. is more complete than 
in England. Every County has its Council, every town its Corporation ; 
small villages have Town Boards. There are also Road Boards,* 
River Boards, and Harbour Boards. 

For the Administration of Justice there are a Supreme Court, 
District Courts, and Magistrate's Courts. The Chief Justice resides 
at Wellington; the four Puisne Judges at Auckland, Wellington, 
Christchurch and Dunedin ; they hold Circuit Courts at smaller 
places. There are five District Court Judges, and twenty-eight 
salaried Resident Magistrates. Ten of these are also Wardens of 
Goldfields. Besides these, there is a Native Land Court, for the 
purpose of investigating title to land accoi*ding to Native custom, 
and issuing Crown Grants. 

The Defence Force consists of the Permanent Artillery and 
Torpedo Corps; and the auxiliary force of Volunteer Cavalry, 
Mounted Rifles, Naval Artillery, Field Artillery, Engineers and Rifle 

The Population, according to the census of 1891, was as follows : — 

N. Island and adjacent Islands, ezolusive of Maoris 281,455 

S. Island, Stewart's Island and adjacent Islands „ 344)9^3 

Chatham Islands (exclusive of Natives) 271 

Kermadec Islands 19 

^ Total for the Colony (ezdnsiye of Maoris) 626,658 

Maoris 4Ij953 

Morioris at Chatham Islands 40 

Total 668,651 

About f of the population were bom in N. Z. and nearly all the 
rest in the United Kingdom, not 4* being fore^ers. There are 
about 4,500 Chinese. More than half the population are under the 
age of twenty-one. 

All religions are- tolerated and no state aid is given to any ; but 
in some special settlements (such as Canterbury and Otago) land 



was reserved as an endowment for religious purposes at the foundation 
of the settlement ; and in some instances the Goyemment in former 
times granted lands for Church purposes. The number of places of 
worship is enormous; every building, however tiny, belonging to 
any denomination being usually spoken of as a * Church/ There are 
thus about 1,200 churches besides 400 schoolrooms used for worship. 
The principal denominations are as follows : 

Anglicans about 
Presbyterians „ 
Boman Catholics „ 




Wesleyans „ 
Baptists „ 
Salvationists „ 


There are six Anglican Dioceses — ^Auckland, Waiapu, Wellington, 
Nelson, Christchurch and Dunedin ; in the Boman Catholic Church 
there is an Archdiocese of Wellington, and Dioceses of Auckland, 
Christchurch and Dunedin. The Presbyterian Church is divided into 
the Preshytenan Ch, of Otago and Southland^ which includes those 
Provincial Districts; and the Presbyterian Ch, ofN,Z, which includes 
*the rest of the Colony. 

The "University of N. Z. is merely an examining body ; but there 
are affiliated colleges at Auckland, Christchurch and Dunedin. There 
are about twenty-four high or secondary schools; and elementary 
schools maintained by Government in every village, in which the 
instruction is free, compulsory (where practicable) and secular. 
There are also private elementary schools, most of which belong to 
the Roman Catholics. 

Industries of the Colony. 

Crops. The Northern part of the N. Island is the only district in 
which the traveller will find crops with which an Englishman is not 
familiar; such as tobacco, sorghum, oranges, and vines. In other 
parts he will find wheat (400,000 acres, yielding 10,000,000 bus.), oats 
(325,000 acres yielding 11,000,000 bus.), barley (25,000 acres, yielding 
700,000 bus.), and peas (10,000 acres yielding 250,000 bus.). There 
are also 425,000 acres under turnips ; besides large cultivations of 
potatoes rape, mangolds, and carrots. All English grasses do welL 

Sheep and Cattle. There are about 19,000,000 sheep —Merinos, 
Lincolns, Leicesters, and Southdowns and various crossbreeds. Nearly 
2,000,000 sheep and lambs are annually frozen and exported ; and the 
value of the wool annually exported exceeds £4,000,000. 

There are eight woollen factories, employing about 1,200 hands. 

There are about 850,000 head of cattle, and an annual export of 
100,000 cwt. of frozen beef. The dairy industry is growing rapidly ; 
there are already eighty cheese and butter factories, the value of 
the products exported being £250,000. 

Frozen Meat. The first vessel containing a cargo of frozen meat 
arrived in London in 188 1. In 1882 the yearly export from N.Z. was 
valued at £19,339, in 1891 it had risen to £1,194,724. This trade 


furnishes one of the most remarkable instances of the application of 
a scientific principle to commerce. The sheep-farmers in N. Z. did 
not know what to do with their surplus stock. They boiled them 
down for tallow, or they preserved them in tins. But there was often 
very little profit on either of those processes, and both together failed 
to meet the requirements of the case. Meanwhile the ^reat cities in 
Great Britain were in chronic want of meat, and especisilly of mutton. 
One day it was discovered that mutton could be sent from N. Z. to 
Great Britain in a frozen state without losing anything in quality. 
The process is in principle this : Air, at the ordinary natural tempera- 
ture, is compressed to, say, one-third of its natural bulk in pipes 
over which cold water is continuously poured. It is then let into 
a chamber with walls impervious to heat. The sudden expansion 
of the air to its natural bulk again reduces it to one-third of its 
former temperature, producing an intense cold within the chamber, 
and this process being constantly maintained by steam-power the 
temperature within the chamber is permanently kept down to a 
point corresponding to the compression of the air. The carcases 
of the sheep, ready dressed for sale, are placed in the chamber, 
where they are frozien quite hard, and remain entirely unchanged 
until they are landed in England. There they are slowly thawed, and 
are not only as wholesome, but as palatable and as agreeable in 
appearance as the best English mutton. 

Fruit. Vines, Oranges, Bananas, and English fruits are grown ; but 
the traveller will probably be surprised not to see the fruit industry 
more developed than it is. 

The Timber industry is of course an important one. There are 
about 140 saw mills, employing 3,200 hands. It is much to be 
regretted that whilst bush falling proceeds so rapidly, little is done 
in the way of replanting. The timber annually exported is about 
£180,000 in value. 

Native Flax or more correctly N. Z. hemp (Phonnium tenax). 
The name Phonnium tenctx is derived from the Greek word phortnos 
(a basket) and Latin tenax (strong). Sir James Hector, in Appendix I. 
to his work on the Phormium Tenax as a Fibrous Plant (1889), gives 
fifty-five different names as applied to the Phormium plant by the 
Maoris, but says it is doubtful if more than twenty marked varieties 
can be distinguished. The Phormium plant grows in bunches or 
groups of plants or shoots ; each shoot has five leaves. Ten of these 
shoots go to a bunch on the average, or, in all, fifty leaves. These 
vary, according to the soil, from 5 ft. to 10 ft. in length, and each 
consists of a double-bladed leaf, which, when closed, is from 2 inches 
to 4 inches wide. The history of the industry is disappointing. 
The Maoris have long used the fibre in making their mats and 
baskets ; but, though many efforts have been made, no one has 
succeeded in inventing a machine by which it can be remuneratively 
woven into fabric. Specimens of linen made from it may be seen in 
the Wellington Museum and elsewhere. It is now used only for rope 
and twine, much of the twine employed in American reaping 
machines being made &om it. About 1890 the export increased 
enormously, but unfortunately much that was exported was ill- 


prepared, which has prejudicially affected the market price in 
London. The annual export at present is about 16,000 tons, valuing 

Perhaps the industry which will most interest the tourist is the 
Kauri g^um. The beautiful kauri trees which are still found in 
some parts of the N. at one time extended over a large part of the 
Province of Auckland. The resin or gum which they contained fell 
into the ground as the trees died, and (not being soluble in water) 
has remained there ever since. Men go about with spears which they 
drive into the ground, and if they find small pieces of gum sticking 
to the end of the spear, they commence digging, and are often 
rewarded by coming on large lumps of gum. Less valuable gum is 
also taken from standing trees. About 4,000 men are enga^^ed in 
this employment, the earnings of a skilful digger amounting to 
nearly £4 a week. The clearest specimens (which much resemble 
amber) are made into ornaments (Auckland is the best place for 
purchasing them), but the gum is principally used in varnishes. 
About 8,000 tons, amounting to £400,000 in value, are annually 
exported ; the price varies according to quality, from £100 per ton 
downwards. The unsatisfactory point about the industry is the 
thought that in a comparatively few years it must come to an end. 

Sea-fishing is not so important an industry as might have been 
expected, considering how abundant the supply is. About 700 
persons (many of them being natives of countries bordering on the 
Mediterranean) are employed in it. 

Although many valuable Minerals are found in N.Z., with the 
exception of gold and coal, few have been worked to any extent. 
Gold was found in Coromandel in 1852 and in Otago in 1853. The 
first payable gold-field opened was that at Collingwood in 1857. 
The ^gold rush ' in Otago took place in 186 1-2, in Westland in 1864, 
and at the Thames in 1867. Altogether, gold to the value of nearly 
£50,000,000 has been exported from N.Z., the average value of annual 
export at present exceeding £1,100,000. 

The history of gold-mining in N. Z, as elsewhere may be divided 
into periods. In the early days, as soon as a gold-field had been 
discovered, men went out and took up claims singly or in small 
parties, equipped only with shovels and ' cradles * ; dug up the sand 
by the rivers, and washed it for the grains of gold it contained* 
That time soon passed, and other methods had to be resorted to, 
for which more capital— supplied either by companies or the govern- 
ment—was necessary. The two principal methods are deep alluvial 
wm'hing and quartz reefing. For the former, water is brought from 
a height through channels called 'head races,* which sometimes 
exceed 60 miles in length, and sent by a hose in torrents against the 
side of a hill with such tremendous force that stones, earth and 
shingles are washed down, and carried along tail races or sludge 
channels for some distance. These have false bottoms ; and as the 
earth and stones are hurried onwards, the tiny fragments of gold fall 
through the interstices of the false bottom, into a trough below, 
whence they are carefully taken. One drawback to this method is 
that after a time the debris accumulates to such an extent as to 


prevent the further washing away of the auriferous earth ; but this is 
overcome by an ingenious application of the pressure of water forcing 
the earth and stones up through a pipe, to a flumin^ at a higher 
level. This is known as Perry's system, having been introduced by 
a man of that name. Hydraulic sluicing on a somewhat similar 
principle has been in use in California for some years. 

Although the area still to be thus worked is veiy larffe, and will 
last for many years, it seems probable that quartz reefing will be 
a more permanent industry even than the deep alluvial working. In 
visiting a quartz mine, the tourist should first go down the mine 
(orders are usually obtainable without diflBculty) ; the underground 
galleries of white quartz are clean, dry, and often very pretty. He 
should then inspect the operations above ground, by which the stone 
is crushed to powder, and the precious metal separated by means of 
quicksilver and blankets. 

The tourist will have good opportunities of inspecting alluvial 
workings at Kumara (Westland), Lawrence and Naseby (Otago) 
and elsewhere; and quartz reefing at Reefton (Westland), Thames 
(Auckland) and Wakatipu (Otago). 

All the gold found in the N. Island contains a considerable percentage 
of silver, but beyond this very little silver has been worked. The value 
of copper exported amounts to £18,000; of antimony £40,000; of 
manganese £54,000 and of chrome £38,000. Lead, iron, cinnabar and 
tin are scarcely worked. 

The principal coal mines are on the W. coast of the S. Island. The 
average annual output amounts to about 700,000 tons. It is, however, 
nearly all consumed in the Colony and coal is also imported. 


The books that treat of subjects connected with N. Z. may be counted 
by hundreds. Most of them may be seen at the N. Z. Government 
Office, 13 Vioioria Street, London, S.W., which is open to visitors. 
A list of all published up to 1889 may be found in The Literature 
relating to N,Z, by Collier. The following are but a few of the more 
important ones. Of many of them free use has been made in compiling 
this Handbook. 

N. Z. Generally. 
N. Z., Hochstetter. 
N. Z., Thomson. 

TransactioDB of the N. Z. Institute, Vols. 1-25. 
Fifty years in N. Z., E. Wakefield. 
Handbook of N. Z., Sir J. Hector, K:.C.M.G., F.E.S. 
N. Z. Official Handbook for 1893. 
The Colony of N. Z., Gisbome. 
Handy Gnide to N. Z., Brett. 


Annual Beports of the Geological Department, Vols. z-22. 
Geology of Canterbury and Westland, Sir J. von Haast, K.C.M.G. 
Geology of Otago, Hntton and Ulrich. 




Flora of N. Z., Sir Joseph Hooker, K.G.S.I. 

Forest Flora of N. Z., Kirk. 

Grasses of N. Z., Buchanan. 

Ferns of N.Z., Field. 

Ferns and Fern Allies of N. Z., Thomson. 


Birds of N. Z., Sir Walter BuUer, KC.M.G., F.R.S. 
N. Z. Fishes, Hector and Hntton. 
N. Z. Insects, Hudson. 


Old N. Z., Maning. 

History and doings of the Maoris, Gudgeon. 

Angus's New Zealanders. 

Polynesian Mythology, Sir George Grey, K.C.B. 


History of N. Z., Busden. 

Early History of N. Z., Sherrin and Wallace. 

Defenders of N. Z., Gudgeon. 

Maori History, M'DonnelL 

School History of N. Z., Moss. 


Trout Fishing in N. Z., Spackman. 


High Alps of N. Z., Green. 

With Axe and Bope in N. Z. Alps, Mannering. 

Aorangi, Boss. 

The Lake District of Otago, Boss. 


N. Z. Besources, Griffin. 
Handbook of N. Z. Mines. 

Local affairs. 

Auckland Almanack, Brett. 

History of Taranaki, Wells. 

Wellington Directory, Stone. 

Nelson Almanack. 

The Golden Coast of N. Z., Beid. 

Picturesque Dunedin, Bathgate. • 

Southland, Trail and Scandrett. 

Noie. — ^Travellers making a prolonged stay at any place are recommended to 
purchase the local Almanack. Every town possesses at least one. They ar^ 
usually carefully prepared, and kept up to date. 




[An (uterisk is attached to the names of places to which it is desired to 

call special oUtention.] 


Hotels: Grand; Albert; Prince 
Arthur; Star; Interval; Waverley (at 
the Rly. Station) ; and many others. 

Clubs: Northern; Auckland (both 

Ghnzohes: Ang.; Free,; R,C.; Wesl.f 
Cong,; Bapt; and others. There is 
also a Synagogue, 

Fop.: 60,000, including suburbs. 

Conveyanoes. Tramways connect 
the city with Ponsonby and Newton 
on the W., and with Newmai'ket 
and Kyber Pass on the E. Ha4ilcney 
carriages: Within a radius of 3 m. 
from the Post Office : with one horse 
IS. 6d. for a quarter of an hour ; as. 
for half an hour ; is. extra for every 
additional quarter of an hour. With 
two horses, as. for a quarter of an 
hour ; as. 6(2. for half an hour ; 4s. 
for three quarters of an hour ; 5s. for 
an hour ; is. ^d, extra for every addi- 
tional quarter of an hour. Beyond 
the three mile radius : one horse, 5s. 
an hour and is. 3(2. extra for every 
additional quarter of an hour ; two 
horses, 6s. an hour and is. 6d. extra for 
every additional quarter of an hour. 
Between 8 p. m. and 8 a. m., half fares 
in addition. 100 lbs. of luggage free. 

Sliops. There are good shops for 
native curios, ornaments of kauri 

iNmo ZeaUmd,'] 

gum (which are remarkably pretty 
and characteristic), inlaid woods, and 

HisroBicAL Sketch. 

The view of Auckland from the sea 
is very striking. It is situated on the 
Hauraki Golf, which is dotted over with 
little islands, reminding the traveller of 
the far-famed Isles of Greece ; and as 
the isthmus on which the city stands 
is but 8 m. wide, it has frequently been 
called the Corinth of N. Z. The most 
characteristic feature of the scene is 
the number of extinct volcanoes which 
appear in all directions. There are at 
least 63 points of eruption within a ten- 
mile radius of Auckland. The district 
must have passed through a long period 
of volcanic activity. At one time (so geo- 
logists say) there were a large number of 
tt^ volcanoes in eruption ; one of these 
was close to where Queen Street now 
stands. The small volcanic hills, com- 
posed of scoria, probably in most cases 
date from a later period when the force 
had diminished. In removing part of 
these hills for road-metalling (an act 
of barbarism of which the Auckland 
people have more than once been guilty) 
the remains of trees which must have 
been growing there previous to the 
formation of the hills have been dis- 
covered. These trees were of the same 
varieties as those still growing in the 
neighbourhood. In this, as in all other 
Toloanio districts, patches of the richest 


and of the poorest soil are to be found 
side by side. 

On Sept. 19, 1840, the British flag was 
hoisted at Anckliuid, Governor Hobson 
having decided to make it the capital of 
the New Colony. In 1846 it became the 
residence of the Lieutenant-Govemor of 
New Ulster. In 1853, when the Provinces 
were founded, it became the seat of the 
Gk>vemment of the Province of Auck- 
land. The Central Gk>vemment was 
transferred to Wellington in 1864, and 
here as elsewhere Provincial govern- 
ment was abolished in 1876. The Pro- 
vincial district covers an area of 
17,000,000 acres. 

Auckland was at one time greatly 
troubled by the Maori wars, but they 
are now long since things of the past. 
Several traces may be seen of the time 
when Auckland was garrisoned by 
Imperial troops. 

The climate of Auckland is mild, 
warm, and somewhat relaxing. Spring 
and autumn are pleasanter seasons 
than summer. 

BuiLDiiras, Places of ihtebest, ^c. 

Qc/vnaamnt House is a wooden 
structure, of no areliitectural preten- 
sionS) standing in charming grounds 
amidst groves of oaks and pines. 
The GoYemor usually resides here 
for a short time each year. 

Close by is the Supreme Court, 
a pleasing red-brick building in the 
Tudor style. 

None of the Chs. oontain anything 
to detain the traveller long ; St. Maryfs 
(Ang). Cathedral at Pamell will when 
finished be a fine wooden Ch. ; the 
combination of native timbers being 
decidedly good. St, Pcmts^ the oldest 
Ch. at Auckland, now in process of re- 
building, contains many monuments 
to the memory of early Gk)vernors 
and of soldiers who fell in the war. 
St Patrick's (B. C.) Cathedral has a 
well-proportioned stone spire, but 
the edifice itself is poor. Some of 
the Chs. of other denominations are 
pretentious, but tasteless. 

The University ChUege, the Grammar 
School, and the other educational 
institutions may be visited by those 
who take a special interest in the 

subject, but none possess any archi- 
tectural beauty. 

The Art OiOlery aaA Free Zi. 
brarj * should certainly be seen ; 
the ocdlection of pictures, both oil 
and water colours, is far better than 
the tourist would expect to find, 
chiefly owing to the munificence of 
Sir G. Grey and the late Mr. M'^Kelvie. 
The books and MSS. which have been 
presented by Sir G. Grey are of great 
value and interest, some of them 
being priceless. 

Tourists who take an interest in 
history should ask to see the Thurloe 
Popers. Amongst these will be found 
an original letter from Sir Philip 
Meadows (one of Cromwell's Secre- 
taries of State, and at that time his 
Ambassador to the king of Sweden) 
addressed to ' the Bight Hon*^^<* John 
Thurloe, Esq., Principal Secretarie of 
State, &c.' It is dated from Oldsloe, 
four leagues from Lubec, July 12^ 
1658. The following passage may 
be regarded as a triumph of diplo- 
matic style of correspondence : — 

*He* (the king of Sweden) * spoke to 
me concerning y« promised supply of 
moneys out of England and asked me 
if I had anything in instruction con- 
cerning a strict alliance to be made 
between my master and him. I formed 
my answer suitable to my orders and 
in my apology to the former I remember 
one passage which I know not whither* 
(sic) *I do well to mention. And yet the 
king has several times formerly spoke 
to me to the same purpose Although 
I never took notice of it in my letters 
as not pertinent to my business and 
not knowing whither (sic) displeasing 
or no to TTi« Highness. Excusing the 
non-payment of these moneys from the 
dissolution of the Parliament before 
provision was made for the supply of 
my master's treasury. The king told me 
he wondered His Highness my master 
so prudent and experienced a Prince 
took no more effectual caxe to extricate 
himself out of those necessities and that 
he who had achieved so many brave 
actions though accompanied witii mani- 
fold dangers should now at last scruple 
that which would be his best and most 
visible security. This he spoke in 
reference to assuming the title of King.' 














In the same collection may be 
seen a Treaty dated |^ July, 1659, 
between the English and the Dutch, 
eonfirming the Treaty entered into 
between Oliver Cromwell and the 
Protestant Powers. It is signed by 
Lawrence (President of the Council), 
five members (of whom Gen. Lam- 
bert is one), and three Foreign 
Ambassadors. This is believed to 
be the only treaty that was made 
by England during the brief Pro- 
tectorate of Richard Cromwell. 

There is a large nimiber of medi- 
aeval MSS., some of them being ex- 
quisitely illuminated ; amongst them 
are — a copy of the Gospels in Greek, 
certainly not later than the tenth 
century — a folio MS. Bible in 9 vols, 
supposed to be possibjy the copy 
liom which Gutenberg and Fust set 
their type. In the binding of the 
back of the book Sir George Grey 
k>und a slip of paper inserted, with 
a Latin inscription of which the 
following is a translation : — 

* In the year of Christ 1450 at Mainz in 
GTermany John Gondenborg with two 
partners first founded type, arranged it, 
and fitted it to a press to such great 
amazement of all and to such fiir- 
therance of the public advantage that 
he wrote on the machine, " It prints in 
a day as much as can scarce be written 
in a year." * 

— ^a MS. in French translated from 
the Latin for Philip le Beau by 
Jehan de Maun, author of the Roman 
de la Rose. 

There are also several early printed 
works, amongst them a first edition 
of the Faerie Queen (1590), published 
by Ponsonby, and a copy of Pinson's 

In cases in the Art Gallery is 
a splendid collection of Maori and 
other curios. The stone image 
brought in the Arawa canoe from 
Hawaiki (see p' [46] ) is amongst these. 

The Xnsenm* is well worthy of 
a visit. Travellers who have just 
arrived in the Colony should ex- 
amine carefully the various speci- 
mens of Maori Art, (especially the 
elaborately carved war canoe and I 

house. The Museum also contains 
a valuable collection of books on 
subjects connected with N. Z. The 
Curator, Mr. T. Cheeseman, is always 
kind and courteous in showing his 
treasures to visitors. 

The principal Park at Auckland 
is the I>oniain (100 acres). It con- 
tains a Botanical Garden, a pic- 
turesquely situated cricket-ground, 
and many pleasant shady walks. 
Albert Park is a pretty garden of 
15 acres in the town, near Govt. 
House. In Ponsonby is a small Park 
called Western Park. 


There are very many delightful 
excursions to be made from Auckland 
both by land and water. Tourists 
will do well to remain here at least 
for some days. 

(i) To Mount Eden. The first 
excursion every tourist should take 
is to the summit of Mount Eden, an 
extinct grass-grown volcano (644 ft. 
high). It is possible to drive to the 
summit in a cab ; omnibuses pass 
close to the foot ; and it is less than 
an hour's walk from the Poet Office. 
The Panorama* is magnificent. The 
mountain itself is terraced ; the 
terraces being really the remains of 
native fortifications made in the days 
of the tribal wars when the crater 
of the volcano foi*med a strong pa. 
Traces of its occupation are found in 
the quantities of sheUs which occur 
in heaps close under the grass — the re- 
mains of the shell-fish which formed 
the staple food of the Maoris. The 
traveller will notice the city itself, 
with the suburbs of Newmarket, 
Remuera, Pamell, Ponsonby and 
Newton ; the islands of Tiri Tiri, 
Waiheke, Ponui, Motutapu and 
Rangitoto ; Mount Albert, Mount 
Hobson, Mount Smart, One Tree HiU, 
Mount Victoria, and other extinct 
volcanoes ; the Frith of Thames with 
Tamaki River and Hobson Bay ; and 

9 3 


to the West the Manukau Harbour 
and the Waitakerei Ranges. If the 
traveller is walking or going by cab, 
he may return by Bemuera. 

(2) To Famell. Tourists who 
have taken an interest in the life 
and work of Bishop Sdvoyn will not 
omit to visit the suburb of Parnell^ 
close to the city. At the upper end 
of the Manukau Boad, on the left- 
hand side, is Bishop^s Court, which 
was built by Bishop Selwyn. It is 
a pleasant, old-fashioned building, 
commanding from the windows a 
beautiful view of the harbour. The 
Library, which is worthy of inspec- 
tion, contains a number of volumes 
presented by the Bt. Hon. W. £. 
Oladstone, Bp. Selwyn, Sir W. 
Martin, and others. The ground 
on the opposite side of the road was 
purchased by Bp. Selwyn as a site 
for a Cathedral. Beyond this, on 
the main road, is the Ch, of England 
Grammar School, founded by Bp. 
Selwyn in 1859. Beyond Bishop's 
Court, on the left, is St StephevCs 
Avenue ; in it is situated a boarding 
school for native boys, built partly 
on ground given by the Government 
for the purpose, partly on ground 
purchased by the Bishop. About 50 
boys are educated and maintained 
here, and fitted for various pro- 
fessions and trades. On the opposite 
side of the avenue is the Parnell 
Orphan Home, one of the most success- 
ful orphanages in the Colony. Near 
at hand are the temporary quarters 
of St John's Theological CoUege, Further 
down the avenue, on a slight emi- 
nence overlooking the harbour, is the 
little Chapel (^ St Stephen, Taurarua, 
with a pretty cemetery attached. 
In this chapel was drawn up by Bp. 
Selwyn, Sir W. Martin, and other 
members of the General Synod, the 
constitution of the Anglican ch. of 
N. Z., which has been taken as a 
model in many other Colonies. In 
the Bay are to be seen the quaint old 
residences once occupied by Sir W. 
Martin, the first Chief Justice, and 
Mr. Swainson, the first Attorney- 

General, of N. Z. ; it is still known 
as Judge's Bay, 

A pleasant drive of 6 m. through 
the picturesque suburb of Bemuera 
leads to St, John's CoUege, the scene of 
Bp. Selwyn's first labours in Auck- 
land. It is now a Ch. of England 
boarding-school. Some of the build- 
ings are unfortunately in bad re> 
pair. The beautiful little Chapel* 
which stands in the grounds contains 
interesting memorial windows and 
tablets to the memory of various 
missionaries to N. Z. and Melanesia. 

About I m. further, on the beach, is 
Kohimarama, the original head* 
quarters of the Melanesian mission. 
Here Bp. Patterson (who was conse- 
crated in St. Paul's Ch., Auckland), 
lived for some years when not on his 
island trips. When the headquarters 
of the mission were transferred to 
Norfolk Island, the buildings were 
utilized as an industrial school. 

NearKohimarama is a little ruined 
Ch, {St Thomas*)hiult by Bp. Selwyn, 
one of the first he erected. The ivy- 
covered walls give the building a 
quaint old-world appearance. 

(3) To the North Shore. Cross- 
ing the harbour by the ferry (which 
runs every half-hour ; return fare 6d.) 
the traveller lands at the charming 
little suburb of Devonport (Hotel: 
Masonic), amidst peaceful villas and 
gardens. From this an omnibus goes 
to LaJee Takapurui (4 m.), a lovely spot. 
The Lake Hotd is a pleasant place 
to stop at. The Lake is of curious 
formation, being of fresh water, and 
of great depth, although close to the 
sea, and having no visible inlet or 

The Flagstaff Hill close to Devonpoi't 
is worth ascending, as the view from 
the simimit is very fine. There is 
a large Dock at Calliope Point; it is 
500 ft. long, 80 ft. broad, and 33 ft. 

(4) To the Thames (see Bte. 3). 

(5) To Bangitoto. Tourists can 
hire a small steamer or sailing-boat.^ 


The distance is about 5 m. The climb 
is a yery stiff one ; the mountain, 
though only 960 ft. high^ bein^ com- 
posed of scoria and lava ; but the view 
from the top is worth the labour, 
and the loss of a pair of boots, which 
are sure to be ctit to pieces in the 

(6) To the Great Barrier. 
Steamers run weekly ; taking about 
7 hours, through the calm waters of 
the Hauraki Gulf. The island is 
mountainous, about ao m. long by 
la broad at its widest part. Small 
inns exist in nearly every bay, 
where the accommodation is simple 
but comfortable. All the W. coast of 
the island is indented by a number 
of beautiful bays, the scenery being 
exquisite. Po9i i\tz Roy (the largest) is 
a land-locked harbour, large enough 
to contain the whole British fleet. 
Boats may be obtained at the various 
settlements ; most of the excursions 
are made by water. The sea-fishing 
is excellent. 

(7) To Walwera. 30 m. by 
steamer ; 20 m. by road from LakeTa- 
kapuna. Tourists are recommended 
to go by one way and return by the 
other. The road is good, though not 
pretty; the steam up the Hauraki 
Gidf, between the Islands, is very 
pleasant. At Waiwera is a large 
Hotel, close to the warm baths. (See 
p. [24] ). It is also a good spot for 
sea and river bathing. 

Many of the steamers which go to 
Waiwera proceed to Mahwrangi Heads, 
about 10 m. further. The principal 
charm of this trip is the sight of the 
pohutakawa bush, with which the 
headlands and ridges are densely 
covered. At Christmas time this is 
all one sheet of brilliant crimson. 

(8) To Onehunga. 8 m. Ely. ; 
7 m. Eoad. Trains and omnibuses 
are frequent. The route passes across 
the isthmus, between pleasant villas 

and small farms, and comes down to 
the somewhat sleepy little town of 
Onehungaj at the upper end of the 
Manukau Harbour, Efforts have been 
made to establish works for ironsand 

(9) To the WaitaJEerei Falls. 
22 m. It is possible to go by rail to 
Henderson (14 m.) and then drive on ; 
but the pleasantest way is to drive 
from Auckland, and picnic at the 
lovely Falls. Tourists can also stay 
at Henderson, or at the small Inn 
at the Falls, and make excursions 
in the neighbourhood ; the walks and 
drives near the W. coast being very 
pretty. Tourists who do not intend 
to go further N. can here take the 
opportunity of seeing some kauri trees 
growing; there are several in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the 
Falls ; and 4 m. further on, along the 
W. coast road, is a small but beautiful 
kauri forest containing many trees 
ranging up to 16 ffc. in diameter. 

(10) To the Nihotapu Falls. 
These are quite as beautiful, and 
more accessible. The road is the 
same as that to Waitakerei as far as 
Waikomiii (12 m.). From this the 
road continually ascends for nearly 
6 m. ; the tourist can drive to within 
half a mile of the Falls. 

The two excursions may be made 
together ; but in that case it is 
advisable to e^nd the night at 

(11) To the Kermadeo and 
Three Kings Islands. These 
Islands, like those to the far south 
(see Ete. 30), are occasionally visited 
by the Government Steamer Htnemoa. 
Travellers desiring to obtain per- 
mission to go by her must apply to 
the Minister of Marine at Wellington. 

The Kermadecs are inhabited by 
one family ; the Three Kings are 




Thin is for some reasons the moot 
characteristic trip in N. Z. It includes 
a visit to kauri forests and gum fields. 
Native districts of special interest, and 
historical sites. The scenery is rich and 
varied. On the other hand, as it is the 
warmest part of the country, it is not 
recommended in the height of summer ; 
and, being much out of the beaten track, 
the travelling is necessarily somewhat 
rough. It is possible, leaving Auckland 
on Friday evening, spending Saturday 
night at KawaJcawa^ Monday at BusaeU, 
Tuesday at Hokkmga^ Wednesday at 
Omapirij and Thursday at Dargaville, 
to complete the tour in a week ; but 
at least ten dajrs are necessary in order 
to make it enjoyable. 

The distances and means of transit 
are as follows : — 

88 m. Sea . • . 


4 m. Ely. . . . 


36 m. Coach . . 


8 m. Ely. . . , 


4 m. Stm. launch 


38 m. Coach . . 


aa m. Stm. launch 


a5 m. Bide . . . 


16^ m. Bly. . . , 


65 m. Stm. launch 


38 m. Bly. • . . 

Auckland to Whanoarei. 88 m. 
sea. The steamers of the Northern 
SS, Co, start from Auckland every 
Tuesday and Friday evening. There 
is also a road, by Waiioeraj but no 
coach beyond Mahurangi, 

[Another route is by sea from Auck- 
land to the Bay of Islands. Steamers 
every Monday evening. The tourist then 
lands at Bussell, and goes by Opua to 


Hotal: SetGers*. 

OhurolMS : Ang.; Ptes.; B. C; Wesl.; 
and Ffym, Br, 

A small town, of little interest, in 
a rich farming district. The vine* 
yards and orange gardens in the 
neighbourhood are worthy of inspec* 
tion. There are also some coal mines, 
both here and at Kamo. If a stay be 
made here, several excursions may be 
made in the neighbourhood ; amongst 
others, to the Great Wairua Fall, about 
14 m. distant. 

Whangarei to Kamo. 4 m. Bly. 
Trams run in connexion with the 
steamers, and at other times when 


Hotel: Harrison* s. 

A small settlement, chiefly noted 
for its coal mines. 

Kamo to Kawakawa. 36 m. coach. 
Brindon's coach leaves Kamo on 
Saturday mornings, and arrives at 
Kawakawa about five o'clock the 
same evening. 

The country is undulating, with 
fertile spots at intervals, partly open, 
partly bush, and in some places very 
barren. Many kauri gum-diggers 
work in this district. 

7 m. Hikurangi. 

Hotel : EoUeston's, 

[A halt may be made here, for an 
excursion into the magnificent kauri 
forest of JPuhipuhi^ about 10 m. distant. 
Horses may be hiied at the Hotel.] 

About 15 m. the traveller will 
observe on the rt. the hill of Buape- 
kapekaj on which once stood Kawiti's 
famous pa. 

The pa measured 170 yards by 70, and 
was of extraordinary strength, each hut 
being a complete fortress in itself, 
strongly stockaded all round, with heavy 
timb^ sunk deep in the ground and 


placed close to each other, few of them 
being leas than i fb. in diameter and 
many considerably more, besides having 
a strong embankment thrown up behind 
them. Each hut had aJso a deep ex- 
cavation close to it, forming a complete 
* bomb-proof,' and was sufficiently large 
to contain several people, where at night 
they were completely sheltered from 
both shot and shelL In Dec. 1845 it 
was resolved to capture this pa, but so 
difficult was communication ihat nearly 
three weeks were spent in bringing the 
troops and g^uns from the bank of the 
Kawakawa river, 9 m. distant. The at- 
tacking force amounted to 1,173 English 
and 450 natives ; the entire garrison of 
the pa did not exceed 50a On Jan. 10, 
1846, after cannonading all day long, 
two small breaches were made in the 
stockade. The next day being Sunday, 
the garrison retired outside &e pa for 
prayers ; the English, finding what had 
taken place, piuhed inside the pali- 
sades, captured the fort, and destroyed 
it. The fall of Buapekapeka brought 
to an end the war which had lasted firom 
July, 1844, to Jan. 1846. 

36 m. Kawakawa. 
Hotel: Star, 
Cliurelies: Ang,; West, 

Fop-: 375. 

A good place to stay for the ni^t. 
Hie centre of a ooal-mining district. 
The scenery in the neighbourhood, 
especially by the river, is very 

[An interesting Bxoursion may be 
made from here to the Bat of Islands*, 
which should not be omitted unless 
the traveller has already touched at 
the Bay of Islands on his way from 
Sydney. The scenery is lovely.] 

Kawakawa to Opua. 8 m. Ely. 

On the opposite side of the river 
from Opua may be seen the site of 
the pa once belonging to the great 
Chief Pomare. 

Opua to Bussell. 4 m. steam 


SoWl: Duke of UarlbwmigK 

CAuxoI&m: Ang.; R,C.; Wed, 

V0p.: 256. 

This is the oldest town in K. Z. 

In the eighteenth century the Bay 
was the resort of South Pacific Whalers 
and European desperadoes. The name, 
* Bay of Islands,' was given by Captain 
Cook. Cn»et attempted to 6haxijg& ild 
name to * Bay of Treachery,' in conse« 
qmenoe of the massacre of Marion Du 
Frame uid his party in 1773 ; but Cook's 
name hazily prevailed. The native 
town was formerly known as Koro- 
rareka. In 1835 Mr. Busby was stationed 
here as ' British resident.' It was the 
seat of government from 1841 until the 
following year, when Auckland was 
founded. It is much to be regretted 
that so little is being done to utlQze the 
rich land which exists in the interior. 
At present this lovely Bay is almost in 
a wild state, and its beauties are fetx 
less known than they ought to be. 

In the Churehyard may be seen the 
Monuments to Tamati Waka None 
(who procured the signing of the 
Treaty of Waitangi by the Native 
Chiefs, see p. [50]) and to the Officers 
and men of H. M.'s forces who fell 
during the war of 1845. 

From Russell several interesting 
excursions may be made. 

(i) To the Flagstaff Hill. 
About half an hour's walk to the 
summit. The Flagstaff which for- 
merly stood here was solemnly cut 
down by Honi Heke, in July, 1844, 
as a repudiation of British authority. 
This was the commencement of the 
' Heke war.' The flagstaff was twice 
re-erected, and each time again cut 
down by Heke's followers. In the 
following year the settlement of 
Kororareka was evacuated, and sub- 
sequently burnt by the natives, with 
the exception of the Ang. and B. C. 
Chs. and the house of the B. C. 

The view over the harbour and 
the surrounding country is very fine. 
Across the Bay may be seen Te Puna, 
the oldest Mission Station in N. Z., 
established in 1814 ; now deserted. 

(a) To Ounuora. A walk or ride 



of about 4 ™« leads to the summit 
(about 500 ft. in height). The view 
from there is magnificent. 

(3) To Waltangi Falls. About 
6 m. by water. Boats may be hired 
at Russell. In crossing the Bay, 
Pahia, an Ang. Miss. St. still used, 
the White Stone Obelisk and the 
Waitangi Hall, built by the Natives 
in commemoration of the famous 
Treaty (see p. ( 50] ), may be observed 
on the 1. On the rt., Victoria, the 
house of Mr. Busby, where the Treaty 
was signed in 1840. The Fall is 
exceedingly pretty ; about 35 ft. in 

(4) To Keri-Keri. la m. by 
water to the settlement ; a m. fur- 
ther up the river to the Falls. A 
small steamer goes to the settlement 
and back every Saturday; rowing 
boats may also be obtained. The 
scenery is charming and the vege- 
tation rich. At the settlement is 
shown the oldest house in N. Z., and 
a stone building once used as Mission 
store and a library by Bp. Selwyn. 
The Mission (the station of which 
was at one time called Gloucester) 
was established by Mr. Marsden in 
1819. Close by was the scene of 
many of Hongi's terrible orgies. 

The falls are about 95 ft. high and 
ao yds. broad. Amongst the rich 
vegetation near them maybe seen the 
crimson kowhai, said to be brought 
from Hawaiki. 

(5) To Whawoaboa. 48 m. sea. 
Steamers every Tuesday evening. 


Hotel: Whangaroa, 

Clinrclies : Ang,; Wed. 

A splendid and beautiful harbour. 
Fine kauri forests still exist in the 
neighbourhood, but are rapidly being 
destroyed. Whangaroa was the scene 
of the massacre of the passengers 
and crew of the ship Boyd in 1809 — 
in revenge for an insult committed 
to a native chiel In the neigh- 
bourhood, in the valley of the Kaeo 

River, the first Wesleyan Mission was 
founded in i8aa ; but the missionaries 
were soon afterwards requested to 
retire during a tribal war. 

Kawaeawa to Herd's Point, Ho- 
KiANOA. 38 m. coach and 8 m. steam 
launch. Coach weekly (Tuesday). 
The scenery is of much the same 
character as that already passed 
through ; mostly open country, but 
with more bush towards the end of 
the journey. Cultivation at inter- 
vals ; large gum-fields. 

10 m. Fakeraka. A pretty rural 
district, well cultivated. 

16 m. Ohaeawai Telegraph Station, 

[A branch road leads to Ohaeawai, 
a small settlement with an Inn, and 
Maori Gh. (Ang.) and school. Here are 
the mins of the Ohaeawai pa. This was 
strongly fortified by three rows of pali- 
sading, a fosse 5 feet deep, undergronnd 
passages, and screens of flax. It was 
atta,cked by Colonel Despard with a 
force of upwards of 600 English and 
250 Maoris and 4 gnns on June 24, 1845, 
and evacuated by the garrison on July la 
The English loss was 34 dead and 66 

19 m. Waimatej an old Mission 
Station, may be seen on the rt. 

ai^ m. Oxnapiri Xiake. 

Close to the lake stood the Okaihau 
pa, a strong fortress with two palisades 
and a ditch. It was attacked by Colonel 
Hnlme and a force of 800 men (English 
and Native) on May 8, 1845, but was 
found impregnable without artillery. 
The English loss amounted to 14 killed 
and 39 wounded. 

aa m. Okaihau. A thriving 
settlement of farmers from Nova 

The road after this passes through 
a wild, volcanic district, of no 
special interest. 

38 m. Horeke, on the Hoki- 
anga R. Here the coach stops, and the 
traveller proceeds by steam launch. 
The scenery along the river is 
remarkably pretty. 


3 m. Eohukohu. A small settle- 
ment and saw-mill. 

8 m. Herd's Point. A good 
place to halt for the night. 

Hotel: Masoflic, 

Fop.: ISO. 

The place is named after Captain 
Herd, the agent of the first N. Z. 
Company, who purchased some land 
in N. Z. in 1825. 

There is a large Maori population 
in the district, chiefly of the Nga- 
puhi and Rarawa tribes. 

Herd's Poiirr to Omamri at 
HoKiANOA Heads. 14 m. steam 
launch. The scenery isT very pretty. 
On the 1. may be seen Onoki, the 
residence of the late Judge Maning, 
the ' Pakeha Maori/ 


Kotel: lioawdCs, 

Here horses must be hired. (This 
Omapiri must not be confused with 
the lake of the same name already 

Omapiri to Opanaei. About 25 
m. ride. The track passes over the 
hill, crosses the Waimamuku R. by 
a bridge, then goes along the beach 
for a considerable distance ; it then 
crosses a steep wooded hill near the 
Maunganui Bluff, and .after a few 
miles along the plateau, descends into 
the Kaihu valley. Groves of kauri 
trees may be seen in all directions. 

Travellers must be sure to reach 
Opanaki in time for the afternoon 

Opaitaki to Daboayille. i6i m. 


Kotels: North£rnWair(ia; Kaihu, 

Ohuxoh: Ang, 

Fop. : 90. 

A small township, prettily situated 
on the banks of the Wairoa. A 
centre of the gum-digging and saw- 
milling industries* 

[From Dargaville a pleasant Excur- 
sion may be made up the Wairoa^ by 
steam letiinch for about 30 m., to 
TangiHroria. On each side the scenery 
is beautiftd, with dense forests of kahi- 
kahitea and occasional kauri. At 
Tangitiroria is a small HoteL] 

Daroayille to Helensville. 65 
m. river. Steamers run twice a 
week, and take about eight hours. 
At AratapUj Te KopurUy and other 
settlements are extensive saw mills. 
On the 1. may be seen the hills Toka- 
toka and Maungraho rising above the 
forest. The Maori legend connected 
with these hills is interesting, as 
being one of the legends common to 
all the Polynesian race. It is said 
that these hills, with some others, 
were travelling at night from the 
west across the sea. After landing, 
they proceeded on their journey. 
Manaia, being the strongest, man- 
aged to reach Whangs rei before 
sunrise. The strength of each of 
the others is shown by the distance 
they travelled. TaungcUara, the weak- 
est, was overtaken by daylight 
before it got ashore. As the hills 
are there now, who can doubt the 
truth of the story? 

Kaipara Heads. A curious 
harbour, with an inlet of the sea 
formed by the meeting of five rivers. 
The island of Motaremo was famous 
in Maori history for its pa, which 
was besieged and taken by Kawharu, 
a giant, some six generations ago. 


Kotel: Terminus, 

CSlmroliMi: Ang.; Pres,; R, C; West, 

A small settlement of no special 

Helensville to Aucklaitd. 38 m. 
Rly. The line passes through a 
settled and prosperous, but not 
specially beauiiful, country. 

3 m. Here the Kaipara R. is 
crossed. The line then i>asses 
through about 6 m. of native bush ; 
after tiiat through open fern country, 



particularly adapted for fruit-grow- 
ing, for about ao m. 

13 m. Kumeu. 

30 m. Avondale. Here the sub- 
urbs of Auckland commence. The 
lunatic asylum, a fine building, may 
be seen on the 1. The tall chimneys 
of various factories are on either side. 

On the rt. Mount Albxrt and 
Mount Eden are passed. 

36 m. Newmarket. A suburb 
of Auckland largely composed of 
breweries. Many villas and resi- 
dences in the neighbourhood. 

38 m. Auckland. See Bte. i. 



Of course all visitors to K. Z. will 
desire to see the Hot Lakes. It is best 
to go from Auckland, and then pro- 
ceed overland to Taupo, and so on to 
Wellington. Those who wish to avoid 
much coach travelling can, however, 
return to Auckland from Rotorua or 
Taupo, and then proceed S. by sea, 
by either the E. or the W. coast. 
In that case they should go from 
Auckland by one Route, and return 
by another. Several alternative 
Routes are therefore given. 


Rotorua can be reached in one day 
from Auckland ; 134 m. Rly., 30 m. 

The Coaches from Oxford to Ro- 
torua run more frequently during the 
tourist season than at any other times 
of the year. As arrangements con- 
stantly change, inquiries should be 
made before leaving Auckland. 

Auckland to Oxfobd. 134 m. Rly. 
27s. 1 1(2. ; iSs.Sd. ; R. 37s. 3(2.; 248.11(2. 

4 m. Qreen Xiane. On the 1. 
may be seen the race-course of the 
Auckland Jockey Club. 

5 m. Ellerelie. 

6 m. Penrose. A branch line 
from here leads to Onehunga (a m.). 

9 m. Otahuhu, On the Manu- 
kau harbour. This may be con- 
sidered the limits of the suburban 
district. The line then passes through 
a rich and settled agricultural dis- 
trict for 14 m. On the 1. heavily 
timbered ranges are seen to the E. 

aa m. Drupy. For 5 or 6 m. the 
country is poor. Various small 
settlements may be seen to the E. 

31 m. Fukekohe. A good 
farming district, celebrated for its 

The traveller now enters the scene 
of theWaikato war of 1863-64 during 
which upwards of 10,000 British 
troops were engaged. Several re- 
doubts were placed here. 

39 m. The Rly. crosses the Maun- 
gatawhiri R. This was the Rubicon 
of the Waikato war. The Maoris 
had declared that the passage of it 
would be regarded by them as a 
declaration of war. On July la, 
1863, General Cameron crossed with 
380 men and commenced building a 
redoubt at Koheroa. Fighting be- 
gan immediately afterwards. The 
natives, worsted at Koheroa, re- 
treated to Meremere, a little beyond 
Mercer, where they constructed a 
strong fortress ; but they evacuated 
it shortly afterwards. 



43 m. Meroer (Refreshment 
room at the station). 

Hotels: James's; Porter* 8. 

Ohurohs Ang, 

A thriving settlement and railway 
centre. Here the first sight of the 
Waikato R. is obtained. The river 
scenery is beautiful. A Maori re- 
gatta is held here every March, and 
is attended by several thousand 
people. TawhiaOy the so-called Maori 
king, lives here. 

The line then passes for 2a m. 
through low hills and swamp. The 
land is poor, but part of it has 
been planted by the Gk)vemment 
with wattles and gum trees. 

The Waikari lake may soon be 
seen on the 1. 

56 m. Bangiriri lake. The site 
of a celebrated pa. 

Here the natives concentrated their 
forces after evacuating Meremere. On 
Nov. 30, 1863, this was attacked by 
General Cameron with a force of 1,270 
%men, bnt was defended heroically by 
the natives as long as daylight lasted. 
During the night more t^m joo of 
them succeeded in escaping. The 
following morning a white flag was 
hoisted on the pa and the English 
entered and took 185 prisoners, whom 
they conveyed to the Island of Eawan. 
The English loss was 132 men, including 
Captain Mercer, who had been in com- 
mand of the artillery. The Maoris lost 
about the same number. 

65 m. Huntly. 
Kotel: Harris's, 

An important coal-mining dis- 
trict. There are five mines in the 
immediate neighbourhood. The coal 
is valuable lignite, and is much used 
for steam and household purposes. 

The line now passes through the 
Taupiri gorge beside the river, with 
high hills on either side. 

70 m. Taupiri. 

Motel: Taupiri, 

A small settlement. Thiswas once 
a centre of missionary enterprise. 
Groves of peaches and cherries, { 

which were planted by the mission- 
aries, may be seen on the W. side 
of the river. 

The line now leaves the river, and 
enters on the great Waikato plain. 

74 m. Ngaruawahai 
Kot^ls: DeUa; Waipa, 
dmrohos: Ang.; Pres.; R, C; West. 

The Rly. here crosses the Waikato 
R. by a fine bridge. The Waipa R. 
at this point joins the Waikato. 
Both rivers are navigable. The 
tongue of land formed by their 
junction is known as the * Delta.' 

This was the residence of the 
first Maori king. It was evacuated 
by the Maoris after the &11 of the 
Rangiriri pa, and immediately occu- 
pied by General Cameron as his 

It is now a thriving settlement 
with several mills and a brewery. 

The line now goes across the plain 
for la m. 

85 m. Frankton. (Refresh* 
ments at stall on platform.) Here 
a line branches off to Te Kuiti. 
(See Rte. 11.) 

86 m. Hamilton. 

Kotels: Hamitton* ; Commercial, 
ChuxcliMi: Ang,; Pres,; R, C; West, 
Fop.: i,aoo. 

An important township on both 
sides of the Waikato R. It may 
justly be termed the centre of the 
Waikato district. There aro several 

Tourists wishing to break their 
journey may well do so here. There 
are several drives to be taken, 
through scenes of historical interest 
in the time of the war. 

Immediately after leaving Hamil- 
ton, the line crosses the Waikato 
R. and enters upon the Piako 
swamp. Tourists who take any 
special interest in laige drainage 
works may stop and see them. 
Mr. Gordon, the Manager of the 
N. Z. Land Association, is always 



ready to give information on the 

89 m. Buakura Junction. 

[Here a branch line leads to Cam- 
bridge, 10 m., a town prettily situated 
on the Waikato B., the centre of the 
richest farming country in the Wai- 
kato district. Hotels : National; Cri- 
terion. Chorohes : Ang. ; Pre9. ; R. C. ; 
Wesl. ; Bapt, Fop. : 30a Several fine 
estates and niunerons good farms 
are in the immediate neighbourhood. 
The scenery is very fine, ttie views of 
the Maungatautari Sange is specially 
striking. The climate is healthy and 

Excellent riding or driving accommo- 
dation may be obtained at Cambridge. 
The hot lakes can be reached from this 
place by road.] 

From Buakura the line continues 
to cross swamp and lowlying 
country until it reaches 

103 m. Morrinsville. Kotel. 

A small settlement. 

[Here a branch leads to Te Aroha, 
12 m. See alternative Bte.] 

After this, a level agricultural 
district, drained by the Waitoa, 
Piako, and Thames rivera, and 
bounded on the E. by a lofty range 
of mountains, and on the W. by the 
Maungakawa and Maungatautari 
hills, is passed through. 

118 m. Waharoa. On the 1. can 
be seen a lofty waterfall, in the 
Te Aroha range. 

isa m. Matamata. A cele- 
brated sheep-run. Warm springs 
exist here. 

131 m. Okoroire. 

[From this the tourist has the 
choice of two routes ; either to coach 
from here (which is shorter both in 
time and distance), or to proceed by 
rail to Oxford. Should he choose 
the former, he will find vehicles in 
waiting at the station to meet each 
train (no charge). 

am. Okoroire Sanatorium. This 
hotel is situated on the banks of the 

Thames. It is very comfortable, 
with every accommodation ; a day 
may well be spent here. In the 
grounds are hot baths, ranging up 
to 1 13^ ; the bather can also have 
the luxury of a plunge in the cool 
river. The waterfall, though not 
large, is pretty; the gorge through 
which the river passes being some- 
what like that of the Huka on a 
smaller scale. The grounds are 
laid out tastefully, with fruit trees, 
flowering shrubs, and walks ; the spot 
will doubtless become a favourite 
sanatorium. The river is stocked 
with trout. Travellers will notice 
specially the natural stone bridge, 
and the Maori canoe, which is said 
to have been constructed by the 
natives who lived higher up the 
river as a present for their friends 
lower down, but to have broken 
adrift from its moorings and been 
carried down to the Falls. 

From Okoroire sanatorium to Bo- 
torua is 27 m. Coaches run regu- 
larly three times a week, and at other 
times when required. Soon after 
leaving the sanatorium, the road 
joins that from Oxford.] 

134 m. Oxford. 

Kotel : Oxford (excellent). 

Here the coach starts for Botorua. 

[From Oxford it is possible to go on 
to Wairakei and Taupo direct, omitting 
Botorua. After leaving O^ord, the 
raifway line rapidly ascends ; and at 
Lichfield (12 m.), the terminus, attains 
an altitude of Soo ft. above the sea leveL 

Iiiohfleld. ^otoZ; Lichfield. This is 
the headquarters of the Patetere estate. 
From thiis place a weekly coach runs 
to Wairakei and Taupo, 50 m. The 
road passes for 20 m. along a barren 
and uninteresting country, covered 
with volcanic ddbris. Then it joins the 
road from Botorua to Taupo. See Bte. 5.] 

OxFOBD TO Botorua. 39 m. coach. 

The road on leaving Oxford crosses 
the Thames B. and then passes 
through broken country, recently 
cleared, for about lom. ; then through 
an undulating district with flat- 



topped hills. The strange natural 
terraces which may be seen here 
are a common featui'e in many parts 
of N.Z. Geologists differ as to the 
cause of their formation. Here and 
there patches of Maori cultivation 
are seen ; there are several native 
villages in the district, but none 
close to the road. A small patch of 
bush, in which pheasants may often 
be found, is passed on the L The 
mountain of Rangitoto can be seen 
in the distance. 

12 m. Waipima^ consisting 
merely of a cottage and stable. 
Here horses are changed. The view 
over the Patetere plain is fine. 

The road soon crosses the saddle, 
3, GOO ft. above sea level and 900 ft. 
above Rotorua. From the top, Rua- 
pehu and Tongariro may be seen in the 
far distance. The gorge (down which 
fine views may be obtained) is then 
on the rt. 

14 m. Here the road enters the 
Buas. Mr. Froude is mistaken in 
stating that the kauri trees are being 
ruthlessly destroyed here ; the kauri 
pine has never been known in this 
district. The forest scenery is, how- 
ever, rich and be'autiful ; many rare 
ferns may be found in this bush. 

24 m. At the point where the 
road leaves the bush and enters the 
volcanic country are numbers of 
curious conical rocky mounds some 
20 or 30 ft. high. Pumice-stone and 
other traces of former eruptions 
may be seen everywhere. The lake 
HoTOBUAy with the island of Moeoi a y 
and the white cliffis of the opposite 
shore (which some have compared 
to the Dover coast), may now be seen 
in the distance. 

a8 m. The road here reaches the 
border of the lake, and joins that 
fromTauranga. It then passes round 
a spur of the hill, and the volumes of 
steam rising from Whakarewarewa 
and Botorua appear in sight. 

3a m. BoTQBUA. See Bte. 4. 



AucxLAiTD TO Tattrasqa, 159 m 
steamer. Thence 40 m. coach. 

A steamer leaves Auckland and 
reaches Tauranga in about la hours. 


Kotela: Tauranga; Star; Com- 

OhTiroliMi: Ang,; Pres,; R, C; Wed. 

A pretty sea-side place in the Bay 
of Plenty. It is unfortunately not 
now as prosperous as it was before 
the direct route between Auckland 
and Botorua was opened. 

am. The Gate Fa. 

This was the scene of the famons 
attack on April 39, 1864. The native 
fortifications, which consisted of an' 
oblong palisaded redoubt guarded by 
an entrenched line of rifle pits, had 
been erected on a narrow ridge of 
high ground between two swamiMB, 
which thus formed a kind of gate- 
way or passage between two tracts 
of land. The English force consisting 
of about 1,700 of the military, besides 
seamen and marines, attacked the spot 
at daylight. The pa cannot have con- 
tained more than 200 natives. The de- 
fenders had placed a flag-staff, not 
inside, but about 100 yards away from 
the pa, and by this almost childishly 
simple device, succeeded in misdirect- 
ing the English flre for about two 
hours. But the truth was then dis- 
covered and artillery were brought to 
bear fall on the natives defending the 
fortification. A breach was made and 
a storming party was led up to it from 
the front. All firing having ceased 
they imagined that the pa must have 
been deserted, but when they came 
dose to the fortifications, a tremendous 
fire was suddenly poured forth upon 
them. However, an entrance was 
effected. The fort which had hardly 
room for the defenders, was now 
thronged with the mass of the attack- 
ing force* Ftom behind fern and earth* 



works, partly concealed by the volumes 
of smoke, the Maoris shot down the 
invaders right and left. What ensued 
will never be known. Some say that 
the word * Betreat * was called, no one 
knows by whom; others, that the 
natives, seeing the case was hopeless, 
attempted to escape, by the rear ; but 
finding their path was stopped by the 
68th Begiment, mshed back, and the 
military within the pa mistook them 
for a fresh body of natives who had 
come up as reinforcements. A panic 
seized the English troops. Their officers 
(who stood &rm) attempted in vain to 
rally them. They tnmed and fled, 
leaving a score of their comrades dead 
or wonnded behind them. In the dark- 
ness of night the Maoris stealthily 
escaped, creeping away in small bodies. 
Next morning the English entered the 
deserted pa. There they found lying 
the dead and wounded of the night 
before— not a single English soldier 
stripped or mutilated, and by the side 
of one who was still living was placed 
a vessel of water which the Maoris had 
penetrated through the English lines 
at the risk of their lives to procure^ 

II m. Oropi. i,ooo ft. above the 
sea. The view from this point is 
very picturesque. A pleasant walk 
of ten minutes leads to a very beauti- 
ful waterfall, which the owner, Mr. 
Kensington, kindly allows travellers 
to visit, ^e road now enters the 

30 m. Manoaorewa R. The gorge 
of this river, through which the 
coach passes, is remarkably fine, 

36 m. Here the shore of the lake 
is reached. The road now joins 
that from Oxford* 


AvcKLAJSn to Thames, 4a m. 
steamer. The steam along the 
Gulf, through smooth water, is 
enjoyable. The islands of Bangitoto, 
Moiuihif Wai?ieke, Ponui, and Pakiki 
(where the lighthouse is placed) are 
passed. The jovirne^ takes about 
five hours. 


Kotols: JRoyai ; Pacific ; and many 

ChnrohM : Ang,; Pre8.;B.C,; Wesl.; 
Bapt; and others. 
Fop.: 4,500. 

This is the centre of a gold- 
mining district, not so prosperous 
now as it once was. The gold is all 
found in quartz reefs. It is a good 
opportunity for seeing a mine. At 
Parawai, about a mile distant, is a 
fine Maori house. At Tararu, 3 m., 
is a splendid kauri tree, 140 ft. 
high, its circumference at six feet 
from the ground being 46 ft. 

Thames to Te Aboha. 32 m. coach. 

4 m. Totara. Here is the site 
of an old pa belonging to the 
Ngatimaru tribe, which was taken 
by Hongi, and a force of Ngapuhi, 
with fearful slaughter in 1821. It 
is said that 1,000 were slain ; some 
of their bones may still be seen in 
the valley of the Waihou River. 

9 m. Furiri. A mineral spring 
of natural soda water. (See p [24]). 

13 m. The Hikutaia stream is 
here crossed. 

20 m. Fairoa. A small village. 

[Here a coach road branches ofif to 
the Ohinemuri and Waihi gold fields 
and Tauranga. 

5m. Ohinemuri gorge. OThe scenery 
here is fine. After this the road passes 
through open country. 

18 m. Katikati. A special settlement 
formed by Mr. Vesey Stewart. Many 
farmers from the North of Ireland are 
settled here. 

25 m. Tauranga.] 

The road then passes over a 
wooded range, and undulating open 
country to 

32 m. Te Aroha. 

Hotels : Club ; Hot Springs ; Palace; 
and others. There are also several 

Churches: Ang.; Pres.; B. C; West, 

Pop.: 700. 



A rising township in a mining and 
lich agricultural district, chiefly 
famed for its hot springs, which re- 
semble those of Vichy and Ems, and 
range up to iig° Fahr. The Table 
below gives an analysis of some of 
the baths. 

It is rapidly becoming ^a faTourite 
health resort. A pleasant stay may 
be made here; there are several 
interesting excursions to be made. 
The ascent of the Te Aroha moun- 
tain (3,176 ft.) is not di£Scult ; the 

Sulphate of lime . . 
Snlphate of magnesia 
Sulphate of potash . 
Sulphate of soda . . 
Chloride of sodiam . 
Bi-carbonate of soda . 
Carbonate of ammonia 
Carbonate of iron . . 
Carbonate of lithia • 
Phosphate of soda . . 
Phosphate of alumina 


Sulphuretted hydrogen 

Total solid matter 

view from the summit, over the 
Thames and the Bay of Plenty, is 

Another excursion may be made 
to the Waiorongomai goldfields. 

From Te Aroha a Rly. la m. leads 
to MorrittsviUej and thence to Auck- 
land, or to Oxford, and so by coach 
to Botorua. 

[Steamers also run from Thames 
to Te Aroha, up the river. The 

Lav 1 R»>.r^/***.>* J *.* 

No. 1 

No. a 





























(heavy traces) 


















SOTOSIXA is the ofScial name 
how given to the scattered township 
at the S. end of the lake of that 
name and includes the old Maori 
village of Ohinemutiu This change 
of name is the cause of some incon- 

Kotels, fto. : At Ohinexttu^ Lake 
Jlouse ; JPoUace ; Botorua, 

I M. FROM OHiNEXtrrn (within the 
Government township), The Govern^ 
ment Sanatorium, Invalids intending 
to take the baths will do well to find 
quarters here. Terms about £a 
a week including medical allowance. 

Opposite the Sanatorium, Brents 

Temperaruie Boarding Housey con- 
veniently situated for persons taking 
the baths. 

At Whakasewabewa (a m. from 
Ohinemutu), The Qeyser Hotd, com- 
fortable, the best stopping-place for 
tourists. (For the convenience of 
persons staying at the Geyser Hotel, 
vehicles ply free of charge from it 
to the Sanatorium and Ohinemutu 
four times a day.) 

Church: Ang, 

Botorua is the centre of the 
N. Z. Wonderland ; the great line of 
volcanic activity, which extends from 
White Island to Buapehu, being 


about 150 m. in length , and from 
10 to 20 in breadth. However often 
and graphically it may be described, 
no one who has not seen it for 
himself can have any idea of it. 
It has suflfered terribly from the 
great eruption of 1886, notably in 
the destruction of the far-famed 
Pink and White Terraces ; but 
though they were the most beautiful, 
they were hardly the most curious 
and by no means the only sights 
in this marvellous district ; and 
even the eruption has brought 
many fresh wonders into existence. 
Almost every variety of thermal 
phenomena may be seen in this 

As some of the most wonderful 
of the sights are close to the hotels, 
tourists can obtain some idea of the 
district by staying for a single day, 
but as the excursions are varied 
and numerous, and some of them 
fatiguing, at least four days should 
be allowed. 

Tourists who have but one day 
should visit The Native ViUagey The 
Government Sanatorium and Sulphur 
Pointj and Whakarewareuxi. Those who 
have two days may omit Whakare- 
warewa the first day, and on the 
second day visit T?ie idand of Mokoia, 
TiJdterej Roto Itif and Whakarewareuja, 
Those who are staying longer may 
divide these into separate excur- 
sions, and make the other expeditions 
mentioned below according to incli- 
nation and strength. 

The Native Village is close to 
the Hotels at Ohinemutu and forms 
an amusing sight. Natural baths, 
of every variety of temperature, may 
be seen in all directions. Little 
brown children dive for coppers, 
whilst their fathers and mothers 
look on and smoke or are busy 
boiling their potatoes and washing 
their clothes in the hot water. 
These baths, rudely dug out of the 
ground, are supplied by water 
flowing from the numerous very 
hot or boiling springs in the neigh- 
bourhood. One of these hot springs 

is the largest known, and gives forth 
in the 24 hours as much as 500,000 
gallons, at a temperature of 170^ 

The costume of the natives here, 
when they are not bathing, is of a 
nondescript character, some wearing 
European clothing, others blanket^ 
and shawls. They themselves must 
not be considered good specimens 
of the Maori race. Many of them, 
chiefly the women, are hideously 
tattooed. Their huts (Whares) are for 
the m ost part low thatched buildings. 

Some posts rising out of the lake 
show that the pa at one time ex* 
tended much further, and that some 
volcanic eruption has caused the 
earth to sink. The carved house 
(Tamate-kapua), where all native 
meetings, &c. take place, is worthy 
of inspection ; the carving is in the 
same style as that which the tourist 
will have already seen in the 
museum at Auckland, and though 
the building itself is of modem 
construction, and the roof of 
corrugated iron, * crumpled tin,' it 
is according to the old Maori design. 

The Church which is close by is an 
uninteresting building. Near at 
hand is the cemetery. 

The Government Sanatorium 
is about a mile from Ohinemutu, near 
the shore of the lake. The extensive 
city which has been laid out and is 
to cover a large space of ground 
here, still exists in contemplation 
of law only ; but the Government 
have done wisely in securing the 
site, and in erecting the Sanatorium, 
&c. Old travellers indeed, who 
remember the baths in their pic- 
turesque wildness, cannot but regret 
the loss of the romance of the scene ; 
but poetry must here give way to 
utility. The waters are classified 
as follows : i. Saline, a. Alkaline, 
3. Hepatic or Sulphurous, 4. Acidic. 
For Analysis see Introduction, pp. 
[25] [26]. 

The Baths themselves are un- 
doubtedly most efficacious in a great 
number of complaints, and especially 
useful in rheumatic and cutaneous 



diseases, but no inTalid should think 
of taking a course of baths without 
consulting Dr. OinderSy the resident 
physician. He makes a careful 
analysis of the vanous waters from 
time to time as they vary in 
strength and properties. 

The accommodation for bathers is 
rough, and invalids must not expect 
to find the luxurious and scientific 
appliances of European bathing 
establishments. The most important 
baths are the ^Priest's Bath' (so 
called from the fact that a priest was 
amongst the earliest of European 
visitors to benefit by its healing 
properties) ; the water is received 
into two piscines, No. i varies in 
temperature from 96°-ioo°, No. a 
from ioo°-i03° ; * Madame Kachel * 
(which is said to have so softening 
an effect on the skin that the bather 
becomes beautiful for ever), the 
Pain-killer, and the Blue Bath. 
In the grounds are several others. 
The group of artificial geysers in 
the centre of the gardens will be 
examined with interest. It was 
constructed by Mr. Malfroy, the 
engineer in charge. By enclosing 
the hot springs which supply the 
Blue Bath reservoir, within the 
narrow limits of three 6-in. 
tubes, and controlling their dis- 
charge by an ingenious contrivance 
to regulate the return of the cooled 
water, he established a series of 
three intermittent geysers, whose 
fountains rise te a height of from 
6 to 25 ft. and furnish a constant 
supply of hot water te the baths. 

The promontory of Sulphur 
Point juts inte the lake within the 
Sanaterium reserve. Its natural 
features are curious, but walking in 
this neighbourhood, if not dangerous, 
should be undertaken with caution 
on account of the rotten surface of 
the ground, and of the fumeroles and 
deep holes and pools, some filled 
with nauseous mud, some containing 
a liquid the colour of coffee and 
others again clear water, but all 
emitting a disagreeable sulphurous 

[New Zealand,'] 

Whakarewarewa is an easy 
walk or drive of about a m. from 
Ohinemutu across a plain covered 
with manuka scrub. 

Kotel: Chyser; see above, a very 
short distance from the celebrated 
Baths— the *Turikore' or * Spout 
Bath,' and « Korotiotio or * OU Bath ' 
(so called from the fact that the 
water runs off the skin like oil). 

For an analysis of the waters see 
Introd., p. a6. 

From the hotel, the Puarenga 
creek and the steam clouds arising 
from the geysers are seen, they are 
directly ui>on the central line of 
volcanic activity. 

The Maori village lies just across 
the bridge : there is atoll is. 6d, for 
each visiter, and a guide will accom- 
pany the party for another shilling, 
to point out the following objects of 
special interest : — 

Passing the village laundry and 
bathing pools the attention will be 
directed to Parekohuru, the great 
Ngawha and cooking pool, a re- 
markable circular crater of clear 
blue water, nearly always at boiling 
point, and KoroUoUo, a furiously 
boiling broken crater, which supplies 
the Oil Bath and the open baths of 
the natives. About a hundred 
yards further is the geyser plateau, 
where by the side of an extinct 
geyser is the Brain Pot, a rude 
circular basin ui>on a raised platform 
of decomposing geyserite ; it has a 
curious but horrible history, and 
recalls the old days of cannibalism. 
Close by is the geyser Waikorohihi, 
the most persisten t and regular in the 
neighbourhood. A few yards nearer 
the bank of the stream is the great 
geyser Pohuf/U, which is supplied by 
the open reservoir Te Horo, a great 
well of boiling water, 15 to 20 ft. in 
diameter. The water in Te Horo is 
constantly rising and falling. As 
it rises it boils furiously, and gives 
off dense clouds of steam ; when 
nearly full, thousands of large glassy 
bubbles dance all over its siirface, 
and beautiful fountains of dazzling 


brilliance play up at intervals to 
a height of from a to ao ft. ; then 
suddenly, and with a tremendous 
overwhelming rush, PohiUu sends up 
from its open mouth a tall, steaming 
column of water, to a height 
ofttimes reaching loo ft. ; it some- 
times maintains its discharge for 
two or even three hours. The 
magnificence of this grand display 
cannot be expressed in words. 
Immediately under Pohutu, and 
close to the bed of the creek, is the 
geyser Kereru, and under the water 
the Torpedo keeps up a series of 
detonations and eruptions. About 
a hundred yards beyond is the plat- 
form and cone of the Waikite geyser, 
the best known in the district, and 
since the eruption of Tarawera in 
constant activity, throwing up a 
column of water at times to a 
height of 30 ft, high, at intervals of 
4 minutes. Its waters are highly 
charged with silica, and artificial 
erections have been built to convey 
the discharge over a large surface, 
so that in a few years the mound 
will be coated all over with a 
beautiful enamel, similar in appear* 
ance to that of the Botomahana 
Terraces. The great Wairoa geyser 
is an uncertain fountain, which 
issues at very irregular intervals 
from an orifice just below the 
Brain Pot ; at favourable opportu- 
nities its column is said to rival 
in height that of Pohutu. A little 
below Waikite and higher up the 
creek is the Qianfs Caldrony a fierce 
boiling crater on the bank of the 
stream. Five years previous to the 
great eruption of 1886 these geysers 
ceased to be active, but after its 
occurrence they regained their 
energy but played in -a different 
manner and at different intervals. 

Across the stream and by the 
side of the Taupo road is a series of 
beautiful mud vokanoeSy and a warm 
opal lake, very curious and interest- 
ing; while about a mile from the 
road is the Arika-kapa-kapa bath and 
lake, celebrated for its curative 

Between Whakarewarewa and the 
Sanatorium, to the £. of the direct 
road, are two large beds of sulphur 
deposit, several acres in extent, called 
Sodom and Oomoxrali. 

Close by is the small Cemetery 
containing the monuments to the 
Europeans who were killed in the 
eruption of 1886. 


For the more distant excnrsions 
necessitating the nse of boats, horses, 
or guides, especially where cnrioas 
sights are on native land and where 
natives have a right to levy toUs, which 
are in some cases exorbitant, travellers 
are reconunended to consult Messrs. 
Cook & Son,, whose agent resides at 
Botortia daring the smnmer months. 

The tourist stopping at Ohinemutu 
and wishing to make the excursions to 
the leland of Mokoia^ Tikitere and 
Whakarewareiwa in one day, can do so 
by engaging a boat at Ohinemutu, for 
the island, having previously sent a 
vehicle round to Te Ngae^ the old mis- 
sion station, to meet him on landing 
from Mokoia. From Te Ngae he should 
drive to Tikitere^ thence walk to Roto 
Iti and back, and drive home by Sodom 
and Gomorrahy and WJiakareuxtrevM, 

(i) The Island of Mokoia 
near the centre of Lake Rotorua is 
the most conspicuous object in the 
surrounding landscape. A steam 
launch or sailing boat can be ob- 
tained at Ohinemutu, distant about 
4 m. Mokoia rises to a height of 
600 ffc. above the lake and is 1,518 ft. 
above sea level. It is chiefly covered 
with grass but is luxuriantly wooded 
in places, and has some patches of 
cultivation round its shores amongst 
the scattered Maori dwellings. It 
was the Holy Isle of the Maoris, 
where the tohungas or priests stored 
the sacred relica brought from 
Hawaiki, and is inseparably con- 
nected with the legend of Hine-Moa, 
whose bath is shown near the S. 
point of the island. 

The legend cannot be better told 
than in the words of an old chief 
who related it to Sir George Grey 
{Polynesian Mythology), 




*Bangi-Ura was the name of the 
mother of a chief called Tokanekai ; 
she was properly the wife of Whakane- 
Kaipara (the great ancestor of the 
Kgatiwhakane tribe); but she at one 
time ran away with a chief named 
Tuwharetoa (the great ancestor of the 
Te-Henkeu and the Ngtatituwharetoa) ; 
before this she had three sons by 
Whakane, tiieir names were Tawake- 
heimoa, Ngararanni, and Tateaiti. It 
was after the birth of this third son 
that Bangi-Um eloped with Tuwha- 
retoa, who had come to Botorua as 
a stranger on a visit. From this affair 
sprang Tutanekai, who was an illegiti- 
mate child ; but finally, Whakaue and 
Bangi-Um were nnited again, and she 
had another son whose name was 
Kopako ; and then she had a daughter 
whom they named Tupa ; she was the 
last child of Whakaue. 

* They all resided here on the Island 
of Mokoia. Whakaue was very kind 
indeed to Tntanekai, treating him as 
if he was his own son; so they grew 
np there, Tutanekai and his elder 
brothers, until they attained to man- 

*Now there reached them here 
a great report of Hine-Moa that jshe 
was a maiden of rare beauty, as well 
as of high rank, for Umukaria (the 
great ancestor of the Ngati Unui-kara- 
hapu, or sub -tribe) was her father; 
her mother's name was Hine-Maru. 

*When such fame attended her 
beauty and rank, Tntanekai and each 
of his elder brothers desired to have 
her as a wife. 

^ About this time Tutanekai built an 
elevated balcony, on the slope of that 
hill called Kaiweka. He had con- 
tracted a great friendship for a young 
man named Tiki They were both 
fond of music; Tntanekai played on 
the horn, and Tiki on the pipe; and 
they used to go up into the balcony 
and play on their instruments in the 
night ; and on calm evenings the 
sound of their music was wafted by 
the gentle land-breeze across the lake 
to the village at Owhata, where dwelt 
the beautifol Hine-Moa, the younger 
sister of Wahiaa 

* Hine-Moa could then hear the 
yweet-sounding music of the instru- 
ments of Tutanekai and his dear 
friend Tiki, which gladdened her heart 
within her. Every night the two 
friends played on their instruments 

in this manner, and Hine-Moa then 
ever said to herself. Ah, that is the 
music of Tutanekai which I hear. 

*For although Hine-Moa was so 
prized by her family, that they would 
not betroth her to any chief, neverthe- 
less she and Tutanekai had met each 
other on those occasions when all tiie 
people of Botorua come together. 

*In those great assemblies of the 
people Hine-Moa had seen Tutanekai, 
and as they often glanced each at each 
other, to the heart of each of them 
the other appeared pleasing and 
worthy of love, so that in the breast 
of each there grew up a secret passion 
for the other. 

* Nevertheless, Tutanekai could not 
tell whether he might venture to 
approach Hine-Moa to take her hand, 
to see would she press his in return, 
because said he, ** Perhaps I may be 
by no means agreeable to her " ; on the 
other hand, !EQne-Moa*s heart said to 
her, ** If you send one of your female 
friends to tell him of your love, per- 
chance he will not be pleased with 

* However, after they had thus met 
for many, many days, and had long 
fondly glanced each at the other, 
Tutanekai sent a messenger to Hine- 
Moa, to tell of his love; and when 
Hine-Moa had seen the messenger, she 
scud, " Eh-hu ! have we then each 
loved alike ? " 

'Some time after this, and when 
they had often met, Tutanekai and 
his family returned to their own 
village ; and being together one even- 
ing, in a large warm house of general 
assembly, the elder brothers of Tu- 
tanekai said, "Which of us has by 
signs or by pressure of the hand, 
received proofis of the love of Hine- 
Moa?" And one said, "It is I who 
have " ; and another said, " No, but it 
is JJ* Then they also questioned 
Tutanekai, and he said, "I have 
pressed the hand of Hine-Moa, and 
she pressed mine in return ; ^ but his 
elder brothers said, " No such thing ; 
do you think she would take any 
notice of such a low-bom fellow as 
you are ? " He then told his reputed 
father, Whakaue, to remember what 
he would then say to him, because he 
really had received proofs of Hine- 
Moa's love; they had even actually 
surranged a good while before, the 
time at which Hine-Moa should run 

o a 



away to him ; and when the maiden 
asked, " What shall he the sign hy 
which I shall know that I i^otdd 
then run to you?" he said to her, 
"A trumpet will be heard sounding 
every night; it will be I who sound 
it, beloved — ^paddle then your canoe to 
that place." So Whakaue kept in his 
mind this coijJPession which Tntanekai 
had made to him. 

'Now always about tiie middle of 
the night Tntanekai and his* friend 
Tiki went up into their balcony and 
played, the one upon his trumpet the 
other upon his flute, and Hine-Moa 
heard tiiem, and desired vastly to 
paddle in her canoe to Tntanekai ; 
but her friends suspecting something, 
had been oarefdl with the canoes, to 
leave none afloat, but had hauled 
them all up upon the shore of the 
lake ; and thus her fHends had always 
done for many days and for many 

'At last she reflected in her heart, 
saying, "How can I then contrive to 
cross the lake to the island of Mokoia ? 
it can plainly be seen that my Mends 
suspect what I am going to do." So 
she sat down upon the ground to rest ; 
and then soft measures reached her 
ear from the trumpet of Tntanekai, 
and the young and beautiful chief- 
tsdness felt as if an earthquake shook 
her to make her go to the beloved 
of her heart ; but then arose the 
recollection, that there was no canoe. 
At last she thought, perhaps I might 
be able to swim across. So she took 
six large dry empty gourds, as floats, 
lest she should sink in the water, 
three of them for each side, and she 
went out upon a rock, which is named 
Iri-iri-kapua, and from thence to the 
edge of the water, to the spot called 
Wai-rere-wai, and there she threw off 
her clothes and ccbst herself into the 
water, and she reached the stump of 
a sunken tree which used to stistnd 
in the lake, and was called Hinewhata, 
and she clung to it with her hands, 
and rested to take breath, and when 
she had a little eased the weariness 
of her shoulders, she swam on again, 
and whenever she was exhausted she 
floated with the current of the lake, 
supported by the gourds, and after 
recovering strength she swam on 
again ; but she could not distinguish 
in which direction she should proceed, 
from the darkness of the night ; her 

only guide was the soft measure from 
the instrument of Tntanekai ; that 
was the mark by which she swam 
straight to Waikimihia, for just above 
that hot spring was the village of 
Tntanekai, and swimming, at la^ she 
reached the island of Mokoia. 

'At the place where she landed on 
the island, there is a hot spring sepa- 
rated from the lake only by a narrow 
ledge of rocks; it is called Waiki- 
mihia. Hine-Moa got into this to warm 
herself, for she was trembling all over, 
partly from the cold, after swimming 
in the night across the wide lake of 
Botorua, and partly also, perhaps from 
modesty, at ^e thoughts of meeting 
Tntanekai. Whilst the maiden was 
thus warming herself in the hot 
spring, Tntanekai happened to feel 
thirsty, and said to his servant, 
" Bring me a little water ; " so his 
servant went to fetch water for him, 
and drew it from the lake in a cala- 
bash, close to the spot where Hine-Moa 
was sitting. The maiden, who was 
frightened, called out to him in a gruff 
voice, like that of a man, " Whom is 
that water for?" He replied, "It's 
for TutanekaL" " Give it here then," 
said Hine-Moa. And he gave her the 
water, and she drank, and having 
finished drinking, she purposely tibrew 
down the calabash, and broke it. Then 
the servant asked her, " What business 
had you to break the calabash of Tnta- 
nekai?" but Hine-Moa did not say 
a word in answer. The servant then 
went back, and Tntanekai said to him, 
"Where is the water I told you to 
bring me?" So he answered, "Your 
calabash is broken," and his master 
asked him who broke it, and he 
answered, "The man who is in the 
bath broke your calabash." And Tn- 
tanekai said to him, " Go back again 
then and fetch me some water." 

'He therefore took a second cala- 
bash, and went back and drew water 
in the calabash from the lake ; and 
Hine-Moa again said to him, "Whom 
is the water for?" So the slave 
answered as before, " For Tntanekai." 
And the maiden again said, " Give 
it to me for I am thirsty." And tiie 
slave gave it her, and she drank, and 
purposely threw down the calabash 
and broke it. And these occurrences 
took place repeatedly between those 
two persons. 

'At last the slave went again to 



Tatanekai, who said to him, "Where 
is the water for me ? " And his servant 
answered, " It is aU gone. Your cala- 
bashes have been broken." **By 
whom?" said his master. ** Didn't 
I tell yon there is a man in the 
batiti ? " answered the servant. " Who 
isthefeUow? " said Tntanekal "How 
can I tell ? " replied the slave ; " why 
he's a stranger." "Didn't he know 
the water was for me?" said Tatane- 
ked. "How did the rascal dare to 
break my calabashes? Why I shall 
die from rage." 

'Then Tntanekai threw on some 
clothes, and canght hold of his club, 
and away he went, and came to the 
bath, and called out, "Where's the 
man who broke my calabashes ? " And 
Hine-Moa knew the voice, that the 
sound of it was that of the beloved 
of her heart ; and she hid herself under 
the overhanging rocks of the hot 
spring ; but her hiding was hardly 
a real hiding, but rather a bashful 
concealing of herself from Tutanekai, 
that he might not find her at once, 
but only b^t trouble and careful 
searching for her. So he went feeling 
about along the banks of the hot 
spring, searching everywhere, whilst 
she lay coyly hid under the ledges 
of the rocks, peeping out, wondering 
when she should be found. At last 
he caught hold of a hand, and cried 
out, "Hollo, who's this?" and Hine- 
Moa answered, "It's I, Tutanekai" 
And he said, "But who are you? 
who's I?" Then she spoke louder, 
and said, "It's I; 'tis Hine-Moa." 
And he said, " Ho I Ho ! Ho ! can such 
in very truth be the case ? XiCt us two 
then go to my house." And she 
answered, " Yes ; " and arose up in 
the water as beautiful as the wild 
white hawk, and stepped upon the 
edge of the bath as graceful as the 
shy white crane ; and he threw gar- 
ments over her, and took her, and 
they proceeded to his house, and re- 
posed there ; and thenceforth, accord- 
ing to the ancient laws of the Maori, 
they were man and wife. 

* When the morning dawned, all the 
people of the village went forth firom 
their houses to cook their breakfasts, 
and they all ate ; but Tutanekai tarried 
in his house. So Whakaue said, " This 
is the first morning that Tutanekai has 
slept in this way ; perhaps the lad is 
ill ; bring him here — ^rouse him up." 

Then the man who was to fetch him 
went and drew back the sliding 
wooden window of the house, and 
peeping in, saw four feet. Oh! he 
was greatly amased, and said to him- 
self, " Who can this companion of his 
be?" However he had seen quite 
enough, and turning about, hurried 
back as fast as he could to Whakaue, 
and said to him, " Why there are four 
feet, I saw them myself in the house." 
Whakaue answered, " Who's his com- 
panion, then? hasten back and see." 
So back he went to the house, and 
peeped in at them again, and then for 
the first tixne he saw it was Hine-Moa, 
in the house of Tutanekai. Then he 
diouted out in his amazement, " Oh ! 
here's Hine-Moa, here's Hine-Moa, in 
the house of TutEtnekai ! " and all the 
village heard him, and there arose 
cries on every side, " Oh ! here 's 
Hine-Moa, here's Hine-Moa with Tu- 
tanekai ! " And his elder brothers 
heard the shouting and they said, 
" It is not true ; " for they were very 
jealous indeed. Tutanekai then ap- 
peared coming from his house, and 
Hine-Moa following him, and his elder 
brothers saw that it was indeed Hine- 
Moa ; and they said, " It is true, it is 
a fact." 

'Affcer these things Tiki thought 
within himself, "Tutanekai has mar- 
ried Hine-Moa, she whom he loved ; 
but as for me, alas ! I have no wife ; " 
and he became sorrowAil, and returned 
to his own village. And Tutanekai 
was grieved for Tiki, and he said to 
Whakaue, "I am ill from grief for 
my friend Tiki." And Whakaue said, 
" What do you mean ? " And Tutane- 
kai replied, "I refer to my young 
sister Tupa ; let her be given as a wife 
to my beloved friend Tiki." And his 
reputed father Whakaue consented to 
this. So his young sister Tupa was 
given to Tiki and she became his 

'The descendants of Hine-Moa and 
of Tutanekai are at this very day 
dwelling on the lake of Botorua, and 
never yet have the lips of the offspring 
of Hine-Moa forgotten to repeat tales 
of the great beauty of their renowned 
ancestress, Hine-Moa, and of her 
swimming over here ; and this, too, is 
the burden of a song still current.' 

The island is however connected 
with a less romantic and more 



terrible history. In the early part 
of this century, a party of the 
Arawa tribe, ignorant of the power 
of the great chief, Hongi, and the 
use of firearms, took refuge on 
Mokoia^ where they considered 
themselves perfectly safe ; in 1823, 
however, Hongi dragged his war 
canoes 30 miles overland from the 
Bay of Plenty, launched them on 
lake Botoiti, thus proceeded to 
Rotorua, and attacked the island. 
Of the unfortunate Arawa — who 
are believed to have numbered 
about 700 — not one was left alive 
to tell the tale. 

On leaving Mokoia, if time per- 
mits, it is well to proceed to the N. 
extremity of the lake in order to 
visit the cold sparkling spring of 
Kamurana, the copious source of 
a small river which flows into the 
lake. It is necessary to leave the 
launch in exchange for a rowing 
boat, in which the bar at the mouth 
of the river can be crossed. A short 
row thence past a small Maori 
village, amongst reeds and luxuriant 
brushwood, brings the boat above 
the river source where the crystal 
stream wells up in great volume 
from unknown depths below. On 
the return journey, if not proceed- 
ing to Tikitere the traveller might 
stop at Aioahouy a native village on 
the W. side of the lake. 

(a) Tikitere is about 9 m. by road 
from Ohinemutu and about 4 m. by 
water from Mokoia at the N.E. of 
the lake, near the isthmus which 
separates Rotorua from Rotoiti. 
The road from Ohinemutu passes 
near the Sanatorium, crosses a small 
river, and skirts the E. shore of 
Rotorua through manuca-scrub to 

8 m. the old mission station of 
NgSLBy now converted into a small 
farm. It is a pretty spot, and may 
remind the Englishman of a bit of 

9 m. Tikitere, a desolate valley of 
solfataras, mud volcanoes and boil- 
ing springs in furious activity, and 

usually canopied by dense clouds 
of steam. In the centre of the 
valley lie two boiling lakes, terribly 
turbulent, separated by a narrow 
neck of land upon which the 
spectator can stand and realize the 
awful activity of the mighty plu- 
tonic forces which make the soil 
tremble and almost confuse his 
senses. This narrow bridge is 
called the Gates of Hades. The 
repulsive odour of sulphuretted 
hydrogen is wafted in the dense, 
hot steam clouds which completely 
envelop the spectator, and through 
which the boiling waves on either 
side can be occasionally discerned. 
The situation is truly appalling, 
and is calculated to give the stoutest 
heart such a thrill of horror as one 
does not often care to experience. 
Towards the north, across a fearfully 
treacherous area, is the Ii\femo, 
a precipitous yawning black pit in 
which a great mud geyser is tossing 
and dashing its seething contents 
with a fury well worthy of its 
name. Towards the south is a 
spring of healing waters, much 
patronised by the natives and 
occasionally by Europeans. 

Behind the Inferno^ is a track 
leading over the Hot Water FdUs, 
where a warm stream (less in 
volume since the great eruption) 
leaps in a series of small cascades 
over the rocky steep. Further on 
is another area of desolation, by 
which a track leads to Terata^ a for- 
midable active mud crater in the 
side of the hill ; and about half 
a mile further in the direction of 
Rotoiti is the extensive crater-basin 
of Ruaihine, at the bottom of which is 
the Black Lake, a very remarkable 
area of boiling mud and water, ux>on 
which may be seen about ten or 
twelve mud fountains in intermittent 
activity bursting through the glisten- 
ing surface, tossing up thick, black 
slime to a height of i to 6 feet. 
The valley around is everywhere 
perforated by steam-holes, and 
masses of sulphur incrustations are 
seen on every side. 

Spr.«3' "nd Cij,..rj O 


From the hill, surmounted hy 
the Trigonomeiriccd Survey Station, above 
Tikitere there is a beautiful pano- 
rama over the lakes, and in the 
hillside, near the summit, is the 
QrecU FumaroUj a roaring steam-hole, 
in constant activity. 

Within a mile, in the bush, is 
Roix}kav5au, a lovely green lake, 
a perfect paradise of beauty, and 
the most complete contrast to the 
dismal plain that can possibly be 

(3) The Cold Iiakes. Thisfoi-ms 
an extension of the Tikitere trip. 
Two days at the least are necessaiy, 
the night being spent camping at 
Tapuwaeharuru ; but a longer time 
must be given if the trip is to be 
really enjoyable. Taking the steam 
launch or Warbrick's boat from 
Ohinemutu and crossing Botorua, 
the boat enters Botoiti by the ser- 
pentine Ohau channel. 

The shores of Botoiti are varied 
by long peninsulas and indented by 
numerous bays and coves, so that an 
ever-changing landscape is presented 
in picturesque variety as the little 
vessel crosses the lake or skii*ts the 
shore. On the south, not far from 
Tikitere, is the Manupi7ua bcUh, a very 
valuable hot sulphur spring, beauti- 
fully sheltered under a high cliff, 
and so close to the lake that a swim 
in the clear, cold water can be en- 
joyed after the bath. On the north 
are the TaJieke outlet, rapids and 
falls, and the Maketu-Tauranga road 
(see Bte. 7). At the eastern end the 
shores are beautifully wooded, steep 
precipitous clifiGs, clothed with bush 
and fern to the water's edge, with 
the dark-browed ^ummit of Mata- 
whaura rising behind, forming a bold 
and romantic picture. Under these 
cliffs, through a cleft in the rock, 
is an outlet of the lake. At the 
extreme east, on a low, shelving 
beach, is the Maori village, Tapu- 
waeharuru, where the traveller 

EoTOEmr, a romantic lake with 
numerous picturesque inlets on its 

northern shore, is reached across 
a narrow neck of land overgrown 
by the most luxurious forest in the 
country, rivalling in its wealth of 
beauty the far-famed Tikitapu bush. 
BoTOMA is the gem of the series, 
and can be reached on foot by 
skirting Botoehu and crossing the 
Waitangi ford, where there is a re- 
markable soda-water spring, and 
a most refreshing fountain of 
chalybeate water. The shores of 
the lake are broken by long, jutting 
points, clothed with dense foliage, 
into sheltered, sandy bays. The 
great charm of Botoma is the 
wonderful rich blue of its waters, 
deepening in tint toward the centre, 
and reflecting perfectly the rocky 
banks and overhanging shrubs. 
The solitude which now reigns 
supreme, will be broken by the 
murmur of many voices, so soon as 
this delightful retreat becomes more 
widely known, and a little more 
accessible to pleasure-seekers. 

(4) Mount TUgOng&t&kA (9,554 
ft.). Before leaving Botorua the 
pedestrian may with advantage 
ascend one or more of the sur- 
rounding mountains or hills. As 
this, however, may entail a con- 
siderable amount of scrambling 
and heavy walking he will do well 
to select Ngongataka, up which 
a path was made to commemorate 
the Queen's Jubilee. 

The foot of the mountain is aA m. 
S.W. of Ohinemutu across a bracKen- 
covered moorland. The ascent 
begins through tangled forest so 
dense that an effect of twilight is 
produced by reason of the thick 
foliage and matted creepers over- 
head. The bush, which in places is 
full of luxuriant ferns, varies in 
character and extends to the very 
summit of the mountain. The 
panoramic view from the top is very 
extensive, and includes the ocean to 
the N.E. and Mt. Tarawera. 

(5) Wairoa Iiake, Tarawera, 
and Botomahana. Those who 



knew this district before the erup- 
tion will hardly enjoy visiting 
the ruins of what was once so ex- 
quisite ; it is like the contrast 
between Paris in 1869 and in 187 1. 
Still, it is very marvellous ; and 
nature is already hard at work trying 
to repair the destruction she has 
herself caused. The trip can be 
made in one day, but it is better 
(and, if the ascent of Tarawera is 
included, necessary) to take two ; 
the night being spent in camping 
out at Tarawera. 

Special arrangements can be made 
for this trip with Mr. Alf. Warbrick, 
who provides horses, boats, tents, 
&c., as required. 

The period of violent action which 
at one time prevailed in the Hot 
Lake District seemed to be steadily 
passing away up to 1880, at which 
time signs of increased activity 
began to appear. Millions of dead 
fish were strewn on the coasts of the 
Bay of Plenty, which had probably 
been poisoned by some fi-esh erup- 
tion of gases. In 1881 and again 
in 1883 the water in Botokakahi 
suddenly rose without any warning. 
In July, 1885, the crater-lake in 
White Island disappeared, leaving 
its bed dry. Soon afterwards the 
hot springs near Mt. Edgecombe 
and Te Teko became more active and 
the water hotter. In November 
violent explosions occurred at the 
White Terrace, the steam rising to 
at least 1,000 ft. Buapehu, then 
believed te be an extinct volcano, 
commenced sending up a column of 
steam, and the lake lying amidst the 
snows in its crater-like hollow became 
hot. Mud and water burst forth at 
several spots near Tokaano. In 
May, 1886, waves rose to the height 
of I ft. on Lake Tarawera, and hot 
mud was poured from a geyser close 
to the Pink Terrace. These pre- 
monitory signs warned residents in 
the district that something still more 
unusual might ere long be expected. 

At that time Rotomahana occupied 
nearly the lowest position on the 

central axis of the volcanic zone 
between Wahanga and Buapehu 
mountains. Its height above sea 
level was 1,080 ft. and its area 185 
acres. The whole lake was warm, 
in some places barely tepid, in 
others approaching boiling-point. 
Around its margins the steam 
escaped from innumerable hot 
springs, fumaroles, and solfataras, 
particularly at the N. end, near the 
White Terraces. On the W. shore 
the Pink Terraces were also sur- 
rounded by hot springs and fuma- 
roles. The water of the lake was of 
a greenish hue, reflecting the fern 
and manuca-oovered hills which 
surrounded it ; in its sedgy margins 
were vast numbers of aquatic birds. 
Several small streams of cold water 
found their way into the lake ; but 
the outlet, from the N. end, was a 
strong stream of hot water forming 
the Kaiwaka Biver, which after a 
course of i m. and a descent of 40 ft. 
fell inte Tarawera Lake, near the 
Maori village of Te Ariki. It had 
hitherte been unknown what was 
the source of this river, as the 
supply from the streams that ran 
into Botomahana was quite insuf- 
ficient to account for the volume of 
the outflow ; the eruption has dis- 
closed the fact that it was mainly 
subterranean, the surface of much of 
the watershed being a porous deposit 
of pumice and loam. 

Between Botomahana and Tara- 
wera Mt., about J m. from the 
White Terraces, was Botomakariri, 
the cold lake, vrith an area of about 
33 acres, drained by the Awaporohe 
Stream. Between this lake and the 
mountain was a shallow valley 
called Waingongongo. 

The plateau -like mountains to 
the E. of Lake Tarawera are 
now generally known by the 
name Tarawera; the Maoris how- 
ever called the N. part Wahanga 
(* bursting open ')> the central Bua- 
wahia (*the cloven cave*), Juid the 
S. Tarawera (*the burnt cUff')- I* 
is remarkable that these names 
should have been given previous 



to the eruption of 1886, as there is 
no evidence that an eruption had 
taken place for many centuries, 
most probably not since the arrival 
of the Maoris in the country. 

At I a.m. on June 10, 1886, slight 
earthquake shocks were felt and 
rumbling noises heard at the Wairoa 
village, 8 m. from Mt. Tarawera, and 
at Botorua. By the rumbling 
had increased to a roar and the shocks 
became violent. Clouds of smoke 
and vapour, their edges outlined and 
coloured by vivid flashes of elec- 
tricity, rose over the hills near 
Tarawera. This was followed hy 
repeated claps of thunder ; whilst 
above the deafening roar was heard 
a strange rustling or crackling noise. 
An eye-witness, standing at the 
Wairoa, saw amidst the flashes of 
electricity, balls of flre, shooting 
forth, some apparently rolling slowly 
down into the lake. Up to a.30 
shocks continued at regular intervals 
every ten minutes. Small stones 
began to fall at Wairoa, as the great 
black cloud which had formed over 
the mountain worked its way 
towards the W. ; this was followed 
by a downx>our of mud, water, and 
larger stones, which destroyed 
several of the houses. This con- 
tinued up to 6 o'clock, and was 
accompanied by a hot, suffocating 
blast. Meanwhile a great wind had 
arisen which rushed down the 
valley of the WAiroa towards the 
eruption, and branching off by the 
Tikitapu lake, passed up the fimnel- 
shaped valley, and prostrated the 
beautiful forest. 

Explosions, like the sound of 
distant cannon were heard as far as 
Whangarei, New Plymouth, Waia- 
pu, Wellington, Nelson and Christ- 
church. At each report the windows 
of the houses at Auckland rattled, 
and flashes of the electric display 
were clearly seen. 

The cloud of ashes and dust, which 
rose to a height of about 8 m., was 
carried by shifting winds flrst to the 
W. and then to the N. and E., and 
darkened the sky for hours after 

daylight should have appeared. It 
finally passed out to sea, dropping as 
it went its load of matter, varying in 
depth from i in. to 3 ft., all over an 
area of 5,700 sq. m. of land, from the 
coast near Tairua on the W., to 
Anaura near Gisbome on the E. 
In some places the sun was not 
visible until i p.m. For several 
weeks afterwards slight shocks of 
earthquake were constantly felt in 
various parts of the country. 

The matter ejected from Wahanga, 
Buawhia, and Tarawera consisted 
only of black and red scoria, and it 
appears that the eruption was all 
over in about 6 hrs., as far as those 
mountains were concerned. At 
Botomahana, however, it must have 
lasted much longer, and vast quan- 
tities of mud were thrown up — 
caused probably partly by the con- 
densation of the steam-cloud charged 
with dust as it met the cold S.W. 
wind, and partly by the water and 
mud which occupied the former 
basin of the lake. This mud was 
cast to the W. and extended to Lake 

The greatest consequence of the 
eruption has been the formation of a 
gigantic fissure running for 8| m. 
from the N. end of Wahanga to near 
Okaro Lake. To the S.W. of this it 
is continued by earthquake cracks 
for some miles farther. The greatest 
width of the fissure is i| m., and 
greatest depth 1,400 ft. It is not 
a continuous rent, as in several 
places it is bridged over by parts of 
original surface remaining in posi- 
tion ; and thus rather presents the 
appearance of a series of irregularly 
shaped craters. The site of the 
Pink Terraces is now within the 
fissure ; and Botomahana and Boto- 
makariri are both so changed in 
size and shape as to be practically 
new lakes. 

(For further information, see 
The EruptUm of Taraioera^ by S. Percy 
Smith ; and Report on the Eruption 
qf Tarawera and Botomahana by Pro- 
fessor A. P. W. Thomas. Both these 
valuable pamphlets were published 



by the N. Z. Goyemmenty and can be 
found in any of the large libraries 
in the Colony.) 

The track from Ohinemutu follows 
the old road which led to the 
Terraces, through the once famous 
Tikitapu Bush^ destroyed by the over- 
whelming force of the indraught of 
air which took place after the great 
eruption of Tarawera (see above). 
The bush has, however, already re- 
gained much of its former verdant 

The path descends to Tikitapu Lake, 
which before the eruption was as 
blue as a sapphire but is now opaque 
like milk, its water being whitened 
by the great avalanches of pumice 
boulders and dust washed out of the 
mountain side. The scorisd and 
fine dust, already referred to, which 
descended over all this country, 
caked hard over the surface like 
cement ; and when the rains fell, the 
water, instead of sinking into the 
ground, flowed down the steep sides 
of the mountains, in torrents, 
cutting deep channels as it went ; 
or filled the hollows like reservoirs 
until their sides could no longer 
bear its pressure, and bursting spread 
desolation on all sides. A narrow 
neck of land separates Tikitapu from 
the Green Lake {Rotokakahi), loo ft. 
below it, where the same milky hue 
prevails. The path skirts this lake 
and soon Wairoa Valley is reached, 
and the new deep chasms opened in 
the soil attest the depth of the 
volcanic deposit and drift, and the 
excavating power of the rainfall. 

The ruins of the once smiling 
village and mission station of Wairoa, 
and especially the wreck of the 
mission house and hotels, give start- 
ling evidence of the horrors of that 
fatal night, when the rain of stones 
and mud buried its unfortunate 
victims, and drove out so many 
homeless wanderers. Nature is 
doing her utmost to hide the scene 
of utter desolation, under a forest of 
new growth. Poplars, acacias, and 
gum-trees have taken a new lease of 

life, and the spread of fern and 
shrubs, with dense thickets of tupaki, 
are rapidly effacing the destructive 
effects of that terrible devastation. 

The beautiful Wairoa FdUs^ and 
the picturesque descent to the old 
landing-place, are still a fearful 
picture of ruin and disaster, and 
amid gaunt trunks of dead trees 
one seems to descend into the valley 
of desolation and death. 

Taeawera Lake has completely 
lost its ancient charm of beauty. 
Bleak and barren cliffs frown, 
seamed and scarred around its 
borders, where verdure used to 
smile in rich luxuriance ; a duU, 
creamy tint prevails over lake and 
shore, where once the deep blue 
waters rippled, reflecting the glossy 
green of its dense and overhanging 
foliage. A death- like silence reigns 
supreme where the Maori villages 
lie buried deep beneath that over- 
whelming torrent of mud and ashes. 

Landing at the foot of Tabawbba 
MouNTAiNf by water-courses exca- 
vated more than fifty feet in the old 
and new deposits, the ascent is eai^ 
till the Great Bift overlooking 
BoTOMAHANA (*the Warm lake') is 
reached. Here the fearful force of 
the terrible explosions can be par- 
tially realized as the panorama 
of desolation spreads in dead mono- 
tony over the landscape. Higher 
yet, the incline becomes steeper, but 
stout hearts and sturdy limbs sur- 
mount all difKcul ties, and the summit 
gained, the vastness of the destruc- 
tive agencies of volcanic activity 
becomes real and apparent. 

The mountain is rent in twain, 
and as far as the eye can reach, the 
whole country is covered with the 
ashes of that terrific outburst. The 
new BoTOMABANA is slowly filling up 
the site of many of the deep craters 
formed during the morning of that 
great convulsion. The yawning 
rift is still hot and steaming ; the 
stones near its mouth are too hot to 
handle, and a stick thrust into some 
of the fissures near the edge will 
take fire in a second. The sight is 



Sld. education and an experience to 
be remembered for a lifetime. Should 
time permit^ a camp may be formed 
at Tarawera, and the exploration 
continued over the site of the lost 
terraces, and around the chasms and 
ridges of Botomahana. 

(6) Waiotapu. This at present 
forms a separate excursion, the 
traveller returning to Botorua ; 
but when the carriage road which 
now stops at Waiotapu is continued 
further, it will join the road to 
Taupo at Wairakei ; and Waiotapu 
will then be yisited on the way 
from. Botorua to Taupo. Even now 
it is possible to ride on, either to 
Orakeikorako (i8 m.) and thus to 
join the Taupo Boad (see Bte. 5) : 
or to Ohaki (6 m.) and thence to 
Wairakei (20 m. further). 

The principal sights at Waiotapu 
are a little more than 20 m. from 
Ohinemutu ; a carriage must be 
hired. It is possible to make the 
whole excursion in one day ; but it is 
better, if time allows, to stop for the 
night at Scott*s bungalow at Waio- 
tapu (rough accommodation). In- 
deed, many days might be spent 
in exploring the wonders of this 
valley. One advantage of the 
excursion is that the terraces, the 
silica and other deposits, and the pools 
here seen, though on an infinitely 
smaller scale, enable the traveller to 
form a far better idea of what 
Botomahana was before the eruption 
than anything else can do. 

The traveller quits Botorua by the 
S. road, passing Whakarewarewa. 
After 3 m. the road leaves that to 
Taupo on the rt. and turning to the 
E. crosses Earthquake Flat^ a curious 
circular plain about i^m. across, 
surrounded by low grass-covered 
hills and traversed E. and W. by 
several cracks or fissures where the 
ground in places is as much as 6 ft. 
lower on one side than the other. 

4 m. Pabehxbu. From the summit 
of this hill there is an extensive 
view* of the whole district where 

the eruption took place, including 
the cleft in Tarawera. 

The road then takes a winding 
course, and finally enters the 
Waiotapu valley between Mt Kaka- 
ramea (2,500 ft.) and Mi. Mangaun* 
gaunga, Kakaramea, peculiar for 
the remarkable shades of red of 
which its rocks are composed, is 
a scarred and seamed volcanic cone, 
steaming at early morning from 
base to summit. At the foot of this 
mountain are two smaU takes ; one, 
of a bright green colour, is largely 
impregnated with iron, with curious 
ferruginous incrustations around 
its margins. 

The Waiotapu valley extends for 
many miles southward in the direc- 
tion of Taupo, but the road is only 
fit for horsemen. The view in that 
direction is fine, including the great 
snow mountains beyond Taupo lake. 

Evidences of thermal action are 
very numerous, but the principal 
objects of interest are :— the Ckam- 
pagne pool (close to the small summer 
house made by the Maoris, a good 
place in which to rest or picnic), 
about ^ of an acre in extent, is 
boiling and of a yellow colour ; 
as soon as a handful of earth 
from the surrounding soil is thrown 
into it the water begins to effervesce 
— hence the name. The outlet 
from this pool flows down an abrupt 
slope and is called the Primrose 
FaHSf from the tint given by 
sulphur and silica to the deposit 
over which the water steams ;— the 
Suiphur Falls, a pretty little cascade ; 
the Eapliosion Craters, a number of 
funnel-shaped pits; — the Boiling Lake, 
a vast caldron of deep blue water 
canopied by dense clouds of steam, 
similar in character to that of the 
lost Pink Terrace ; — the New Terrace, 
a wide gentle slope of white 
silicious deposit, descending in 
rippled gradations from the caldron, 
and breaking into a series of small 
cascades ; — and the Alum Cliffs, 
a series of bold white glistening 
bluffs, about 20 ft. high, sparkling 
with incrustations of alum, and ' 



rising with perpendicular face 
from the shallow pools of warm 
water. The scenery here is ex- 
ceedingly picturesque ; the effect is 
heightened by dark clumps of 
manuka scrub and the varied tints 
and colours of the waters. Here are 
cbcid lakes adjoining others decidedly 
cUkaliney and pools of briUiarU colours 
close to others dark and muddy. 
The soil in places is of remarkable 
colour, varying from pale yellow to 
deep Indian red and crimson. 

At a short distance from the 
above-mentioned springs is the so- 
called QrecU Mud Crater, a conical 
mound, some 8 or lo ft. high, open 
at the top and filled with seething 
mud, like x>orridge : on its surface 
the rising bubbles of gas throw 
up small spurts of mud, which 
falling take the form of odd formal 
rosettes and flowers ; they remain 
for a few seconds, and gradually 
losing their shape are absorbed and 



By the main road, the distance 
is 56 m. Coaches run frequently, 
especially during the summer^ and 
take one day to Taupo (and two on 
to Napier). But the tourist is re- 
commended to go by Wairakei 
(which is off the direct road) and 
stay at least one day there and 
another at Taupo ; the best plan 
therefore is to form a party and 
arrange for a special coach. 

On leaving Botorua, the road goes 
through the JSemo gorge above WJia- 
karewarewa. Soon the turn to Waio- 
iapu is passed on the 1. The road 
is level and good, but the scenery, 
though wild, is desolate ; the pumice- 
stone, which has been showered 
over the land, adding to its barren- 
ness. On the rt. is the flat-topped 
SoBoaoBo Mt.j which rises to an alti- 
tude of 2,800 ft. above the sea, and 
is a remarkable instance of the 
natural terracing already referred 
to. It has been suggested that the 
top of this basaltic mountain marks 
what was once the level of all the dis- 
trict, and that the land between it 
and the Paeroa Range to the 1. has sub- 
sided. The road runs parallel with 

it for 10 m. At its N. extremity is 
Sugarloaf HUt and a mausoleum of a 
Maori chief, and at its southern 
end is a curious detached pillar of 
basalt known as Hine-Moa's Rock. 

18 m. Some strange rocks are 
I>assed bearing an odd, but some- 
what far-fetched, resemblance to 
familiar objects. Amongst them 
the face of the Duke of Wellington 
is conspicuous. 

24 m. Here the road to Lichfield 
branches off to the rt. (see Rte. 3), 
and soon the Waikaio valley is 
entered, and turning 1. the river 
is crossed to 

25 m. Ateamuri. 

Hotel (very comfortable). 

The clear blue river is here seen 
sweeping round the base of Mt, 
Ngatuku and breaking into rapids 
above the bridge. All around is a 
wilderness of detached rocks; the 
largest, Pohaturoa, a solitary pyramid 
about 800 ft. in height, is a striking 
and picturesque object, at one time 
the site of a fortified pa. The 
natural terracing in this district 
is very marked. 



At Ateamuri a halt is made for 
lunch ; and travellers not pressed 
for time may make a longer stay, as 
there are many hot springs and 
baths in the neighbourhood, and the 
river scenery is very pretty. 

[An interesting excursion may be 
made from this point to Orakei- 
korako. Horses and guides can be 
obtained from the hotel. After a 
ride of about 12 m. through some 
very pretty river scenery, SirUer 
Slope is reached. Down this flows 
a stream of hot water, which leaves 
a silicious deposit of a pink colour. 
The top of the hill is a mere crust 
perforated with many holes through 
which steam rises. After walking 
along this for about a quarter of 
a mile, the traveller comes to the 
entrance of the Alum Cave^. This 
is an arch of about 30 ft. high and 
the same width ; within, the cave 
descends at a slope of 40 degrees, 
the width inside being about 4a ft. 
and the greatest height 64. Close 
to the entrance, some magnificent 
tree-ferns are growing. The colour- 
ing is exquisite ; the roof being of 
every possible hue, beautifully 
blended ; the blocks of rock with 
which the floor is strewn covered 
with a delicate deposit of snow- 
white alum. At the bottom is a 
warm pool of transparent green. 
Strange noises which proceed from. 
an inner cave to the 1. add to the 
weird effect of the scene. 

A little lower down the river, 
chiefly on the opposite side, is a 
marvellous collection of geysers ; 
Hochstetter counted seventy-six, all 
visible from one point. The ground 
near to them is very dangerous ; 
tourists had better content them- 
selves with a view from a safe 

Those who wish it, however, can 
have a delicious bath in the pool 
called Te Mimuihomaiterangi (the pro- 
perties of which are somewhat like 
those of Madame Bachel's bath at 
Rotorua) and a cold dip in the river 
afterwards. The river is crossed by 
a canoe* 

From Orakeikorako the traveller 
may return to Ateamuri ; or go on 
by another track, following the 
telegraph line for about 10 m. and 
then rejoin the Taupo road at 
Oruanui, about 3 m. N. of the turn- 
ing to Wairakei (see below) ; or he 
may ride over the hills to Waiotapu 
(see Rte. 4).] 

After leaving Ateamuri several 
Maori settlements are passed, and 
from PuketenUa, the last of them, 
a distant view is obtained of Ruapehu 
and Tongariro, the snow-capped vol- 
canoes to the S. of Lake Taupo. 

45 m. Here the road divides. The 
more interesting one strikes off L 
to Wairakei, Travellers who are 
going by a coach which takes the 
other route, but who wish to stop 
at Wairakei, should send a telegram 
beforehand to Mrs. Graham, of the 
Wairakei hotel ; she will then have 
a buggy to meet them here. 

[49 m. Wairakei (about 1,500 ft. 
above sea-level). 

Kot«l : Qraham's, homely and com- 

At this charming spot the traveller 
may enjoy an invigorating climate, 
and see a marvellous variety of 
natural phenomena in constant ac- 
tivity. The flowers and fruit-trees 
near the homestead form a pleasing 
contrast to the wild moorland which 
has been passed through. At least 
a day should be spent here. The 
hotel is situated close to the banks 
of the KiHohinekai, a hot stream 
which flows from the Bhie Lake to 
the Waikato Rixety with a tempera- 
ture ranging from 90*^ to 110°. 
Along its course are several small 
falls, and the pools beneath them 
form natural baths, where comfort- 
able bath-houses have been pro- 

The Waikato R. is about i m. dis- 
tant. The path to it leads through 
low terraced pumice hills, most 
remarkable for their extreme regu- 
larity and symmetry, resembling 



military earthworks or embank- 
ments rather than natural mounds. 

The Geyser Valley. — ^Across a 
range of fern hills, about a mile N. 
from the hotel, columns of steam 
may be seen rising from those mar- 
vellous hot springs and geysers ^which 
will make the name of this district 
famous as one of the most wonderful 
centres of thermal activity in the 

The Valley of Gteysers has abrupt 
sides, from 60 to 100 ft. in height, 
beautifully wooded with manuca and 
carpetted with the choicest ferns and 
mosses. The numerous hot springs 
are made apparent by the dense 
clouds of vapour which are con- 
stantly ascending, and by myste- 
rious noises, formed by the rushing 
of the waters and the escape of steam. 
The soil on both banks is very 
insecure ; where it is not actually 
occupied by boiling or steaming 
holes, thousands of tiny steam-jets 
will be found issuing in every 
direction, many of which are hidden 
under dense velvety cushions of 
beautiful moss; patches of bare 
earth, porous and honeycombed, are 
to be avoided by the traveller, and 
the utmost caution must be exer- 
cised, as appearances are deceitful 
and treacherous in the extreme. 

Tb WjjBAKEif the hot stream, 
which flows in rapid course over 
broken rocks through this valley, 
fed by the numerous hot springs on 
its banks, opens out into a blue 
lakelet of great beauty, and flows 
in a devious course into the Waikato 

Thb Steam Hammer. — On the banks 
of the lakelet, at regular intervals, 
the thud as of a Titanic forge at 
work is distinctly heard, followed 
by heavy reverberations which make 
the earth tremble ; at each explo- 
sion the visitor looks round in sur- 
prise, not unmixed with alarm, to 
discover the cause : nothing is to be 
seen, however, but numerous jets 
of steam issuing from the banks of 
the stream. 

Taking the geysers in order along 
the S. bank of the stream from 
E, to W., the first is Te Rekereke — 
a dark, cavernous opening, about 
25 ft. in height and 10 ft. in width, 
close to the creek. It is enclosed 
by black rocks, which on the right 
are incrusted with white sinter. 
Some fragments of rock make a 
rough bridge across the opening, 
behind which can be seen a deep 
basin of boiling water. At irregular 
intervals this throws up a column 
of water to a height varying from 
5 to lo ft. 

TusuATAHi, — ^This is an enormous 
boiling caldron, situated about the 
centre of the geyser valley ; it is 
easily approached by a good foot- 
path from the hilL The dense clouds 
which rise from its basin prevent 
any close examination from above ; 
but from the side of the hill and 
from the level of the creek the sight 
is truly magnificent. The circidar 
basin of about 50 ft. in diameter is 
in perpetual ebullition — in some 
places with bright, clear bubbles 
like champagne, in others, with 
sudden upheavals of vast masses of 
water to a height of 6 or 8 ft., while 
smaller fountains are constantly 
playing in different parts of the 
boiling area. Sometimes the action 
becomes more violent, and the whole 
surface is convulsed with foaming 

An escarpment of the hill rising 
about 60 ft., as a wall of black rock, 
with a fern-clad summit of about 
20 ft. higher, forms a striking back- 
ground. A buttress of rock la ft. 
high partly encloses the basin on 
the right, and affords a good position 
for a view of the caldron, and the 
enormous sponges of silicious deposit 
which are to be seen just below its 
deep blue surface. 

A parti-coloured terrace of very 
brittle sinter forms the lip, or outer 
margin of the basin, and extends in 
rippled gradations to the stream ; 
this is opened by numerous small 
springs, each of which imparts its 



own peculiar colour to the deposit ; 
patches of glistening white are here 
and there stained dark red or 
brown, while other springs form in- 
crustations of the colour of sulphur 
or of cream. 

A narrow fretted channel carries 
away the surplus water over in- 
crusted sticks and stones to the 
creek. The general view of this 
geyser, obtained from the opposite 
bank, is magnificent, but from any 
distance Tuhuatahi is one of the 
most interesting and wonderful 
sights in the district. 

On the hillside is the Pack-horse 
Mud Geyser, a deep crater of lead- 
coloured mud, recently excited into 
activity by the frantic plunges of 
a pack-horse which accidentally fell 
into the opefi pit. 

Tss Obxat Waibakei, — A short 
distance higher up the creek is 
another escarpment, in which is 
situated the Great Wairakei Geyser. 
The crater is a deep triangular 
chasm, about 20 ft. wide at the top, 
opening close under a perpendicular 
cliff of black rock, streaked with 
white incrustations. The crater is 
formed by beautiful spongy masses 
of light brown sinter. A large in- 
crusted rock, like a canopied arm- 
chair, forms the apex of the triangle, 
and at its foot is the narrow outlet. 
This geyser is very energetic, but 
intermittent, and of irregular force 
and volume ; at intervals of about 
eight minutes the water in the 
crater becomes suddenly and vio- 
lently agitated ; it then rises rapidly, 
and enormous quantities are spas- 
modically ejected to a height of from 
4 to 15 ft. — occasional outbursts 
forming a fountain of 40 ft. high — 
the whole eruption lasting about 
two minutes; the boiling overflow 
then rushes through a channel of 
broken sinter to the creek. The 
finest view of the eruption is to be 
seen frvm the steep bank, just to 
the right of the crater, but the posi- 
tion is very dangerous and must be 
taken with great care. 

Little Wairakei^ a picturesque 
boiling pool, with small fretted 
white terraces, situated about 20 ft. 
to the west of the Great Wairakei. 

SuLPHUB Pool, a small circular 
pond of 10 ft. in diameter, enclosed 
by manuka scrub, situated just above 
little Wairakei, constantly exhaling 
fumes of sulphurous acid. 

The Hsbon*8 Nsbt, a remarkable 
geyser cone of incrusted sticks, close 
to the bank of the creek above Great 
Wairakei, but very difilcult of access, 
except from the opposite bank. This 
has an intermittent fountain, rising 
6 or 8 ft. ; around this cone are 
numerous fumaroles, partially con- 
cealed in the scrub, but the treacher- 
ous nature of the soil forbids a closer 

The Nobth Bank. — Crossing the 
creek by the Steam Hammer, the 
tourist will discover a succession of 
terraces and geyser cones, which, 
with their extraordinary variety of 
formation, colour, deposit, and in- 
crustation, form marvellous pictures 
of enchanting scenery and wonder- 
ful natural phenomena. 

The PETBiFriNo Ostseb. — ^This re- 
markable spring rises in the steep 
bank of the hill, about 40 ft. above 
the level of the creek, and covers 
every substance over which it falls 
with an exceedingly beautiful in- 
crustation resembling red coral. 

The source of the stream is an 
irregular intermittent geyser, with 
a small funnel opening in hard, grey 
rock, and the overflow falls in a suc- 
cession of red coralline cascades, 
formed by its own deposits. The 
glistening stream rippling over the 
beautiful lace-work of incrustations, 
and the rich contrast of colour, 
formed by the warm, red ground, 
with the overhanging foliage, com- 
pletes a most delightful series of 

The Tebbaoe Oetbsbb. — On the rock- 
strewn bank of the Wairakei Creek, 
under the shelter of high manuca. 



the tourist obtains a view of this 
unique system of thermal action. 

Nga Masjlnga (tee Twins), a large 
pear-shaped basin, 24 x la ft., bor- 
dered with irregular spongy rocks of 
light brown sinter, with a back wall 
of dark grey rock, partially incrusted 
in various fantastic forms. The 
front of the basin forms a lip about 
4 ft. above the stream, which the 
overflow has draped with long, pen- 
dant, spongy masses. The basin 
is divided into two portions by a 
mass of sinter resembling a large 
Turkey sponge, about 10 ft. in 
diameter, rising about 3 ft. above 
the surface of the water. 

When an eruption is about to take 
place, the smaller portion of the 
basin heaves and raises a fountain 
about 4 ft. high, after which the 
whole basin suddenly rises about 
a foot, and then boils furiously for 
a few seconds. This is only a prelude 
to the great display, when, from the 
whole surface of the water, rises 
a splendid fountain to a height vary- 
ing from 3 to 15 ft. — the upper spray 
being sometimes thrown to twice the 
elevation of the main body of water. 
Several outbursts occurred at inter- 
vals of four or five minutes, lasting 
about thirty seconds ; the periods 
are, however, very irregular. A 
reddish-brown slimy cascade, and 
numerous rounded masses of white 
and orange sinter, form the western 
boundary of The Twina^ adjoining 
which are large rounded masses of 
grey rock, forming a long, broken 
terrace, having together a frontage 
of about TOO ft. 

The Psinoe of Wale^ Feathebb. — 
In the midst of a large mass of pale 
brown incrustations, in the centre 
of the TeiTaoes, is a circular opening 
of about la in. in diameter ; with 
a small bridge, like a child's arm, 
across the mouth ; from whence 
issues suddenly, and without warn- 
ing, at irregular intervals, a beautiful 
fountain which takes the form of the 
Prince of Wales' feathers — fre- 
quently throwing its watery plumes 

on either side to a distance of 50 ft;., 
and reaching an elevation of at least 
25 ft. — this extraordinary display 
lasting about thirty seconds. As 
there is nothing whatever in the 
appearance of this insignificant 
opening to give the faintest idea of 
the pent-up force below, this part of 
the terrace should be approached 
with the greatest care. 

The WmsTLEB. — ^About 6 ft. behind 
is a black cavernous mouth, a ft. in 
diameter, through which water is 
occasionally spouted ; this has been 
called Korowhitif or The Whistler. In 
a fissure of black rock, 10 ft. to the 
west, is a small toater'Spouty which 
appears to act simultaneously with 
the whistle, at intervals of ten 
minutes. Directly under the hill 
above The Whistler^ and completely 
sheltered by scrub, is a bath of boil- 
ing water, ao ft. X3 ft., of a delicate 
pale blue tint, lined with white 

Tee Boiless. — ^This is a rock-bound 
pool, about 8 ft. X 3 ft., with a back- 
ground of dark red rock, covered 
with green slimy algae, partially 
separated by a narrow chasm from 
the rest of the terrace. The water 
is continually boiling, and spas- 
modically ejecting a column to the 
height of 6 or 8 ft. Below this is 
another opening with white coralline 
incrustations. The overflow forms 
a pretty cascade, falling into the 
creek and forming the western ex- 
tremity of the terrace. 

The Funnel is a large triangular 
fissure in the black rock, 25 ft. above 
the creek, adjoining the terrace. 
Steam is continually issuing from 
its mouth, but occasional geyser dis- 
plays of great volume are accom- 
panied with a loud, roaring noise, 
and a sudden cascade of hot water 
falling over a series of broken in- 
crustations in its descent. 

The Eaql^b Nest. — Concealed 
among the trees, a few yards further 
to the west, is this singularly beau- 
tiful geyser cone, about i a ft. in 



diameter, and rising 4 or 5 ft. from 
the ground ; it is formed of long 
sticks, built up like an eagle's nest, 
incrusted and cemented with snow- 
white sinter. An intermittent gey- 
ser sends up a feathery fountain at 
irregular intenrals, the deposit upon 
evaporation frosting the sticks which 
have been laid across the basin. 

The Old Tsbbaos. — This forms a 
paved plateau on the higher ground 
above the creek. It is partially 
decomposed and overgrown with 
tangled shrubs. The basin from 
whose overflow it was formed — a 
circular pool of thick, white, muddy 
water, hissing and sputtering at its 
surface— may be found behind, par- 
tially concealed in the scrub. From 
this terrace the best general view of 
the caldron of TuhucUahi is to be 

The Mud Voloawoks form an in- 
teresting series of great variety. 
They occur in several large patches 
of white and grey mud, forming 
deep cup- shaped craters, steaming 
cones, and seething pools of various 
degrees of consistency. 

Tee White Spbinob are two large 
blue basins, and a small lakelet of 
milky water, containing white clay 
in suspension, boiling and bubbling 
constantly, but being at times more 
violently agitated. The high ground 
here affords the best view of the 
Great Wairakei. 

The Donkst Enojne. — In the valley 
by the bed of the creek, and imme- 
diately opposite the Great Wairakei, 
is a small, regular, intermittent 
ejector, whose pulsating throb rever- 
berates like the thud of a small 
steam-engine. It is very difficult of 
aooeaa ; but, when standing on the 
opposite bank, the regular puff of 
steam and its monotonous vibrations 
are very striking. 

On this lower level, and partly 
concealed under the dense foliage, 
are the Fairy BathSy a pretty group 
of small, hot pools, of various tints. 

[Nwt Zealand.'] 

The Draoos^b Mouth. — A short dis- 
tance further to the westward is 
a singular geyser-fissure, opening 
from a long, deep chasm about 30 ft. 
above the level of the creek, to the 
1. of which is a small opening, 
apparently full of bright red paint. 
The geyser is very energetic — boil- 
ing, sputtering, and throwing up 
beautiful feathery fountains, some- 
times to a height of 10 ft above the 
cone. An eruption lasts from fifteen 
to twenty seconds, succeeded by 
a short interval of rest. The dis- 
charge falls in a narrow channel, 
through spongy masses of incrusta- 
tions, and forms a very pretty series 
of small cascades. inLe terrace is 
about 15 fli. wide — parti-coloured 
red, dark brown, black, grey, and 
white. The soil above is bright red, 
overhung with stunted shrubs and 

Near the base is the Lightning Pool, 
a small, circular, boiling basin, about 
4 ft. in diameter, in whose blue 
depths the bubbles of steam can be 
seen to ascend like balls of light, 
which break in heavy ripples on its 
surface. The lower portion of this 
terrace is covered with a pink coral- 
line sinter of exquisite beauty. 

The Black Oetbem, — ^A short dis- 
tance further, and dose to the bed 
of the creek, is one of the most 
remarkable of this wonderful series ; 
a small circular black basin, of 
about 8 ft. in diameter, with clear, 
hot water, partly filled with smooth, 
black incrusted stones, shining like 
fragments of coal. Around this 
basin is a brown deposit with 
numerous small nodules and con- 
cretions. This geyser fountain plays 
occasionally, and the surface of the 
pool is in a state of constant agitation. 

PiBOBiBOBi, OB Blue Lake, — ^This 
volcanic centre is situated near the 
road, two miles west from the station. 
It consists of a long, oval lake, with 
steepy precipitous banks, which on 
one side are covered with dense 
vegetation, and on the opposite side 
the bare &ce of the cliff is orna- 




mented by variegaied vertical bands 
of coloured clays. At one side of the 
lake, reached by a steep descent, is 
a dark cave, lined with some rare 
ferns and lichens, and on the oppo- 
site side the lake opens into an 
active volcanic area, with numerous 
mud pools and boiling springs. Two 
circles near the shore of the lake 
enclose hot pools, producing the 
singular effect of a lake within a 
lake. The soft, pale blue colour of 
the lake is due to the clay, &c. held 
in suspension in its constaintly active 
basin ; the outflow forms the Kirio- 
hinekai hot stream. 

SuLPEUB SPBIN08. — A short dis- 
tance toward the south are some 
energetic solfataras, with large de- 
posits of pure sulphur. 

Okubawai ( Teb Coloubsj} Spbinob), — 
These remarkable hot springs are 
situated on the side of a hill, about 
i| m. S.W. from the homestead, 
where more than a hundred boiling 
springs break out through mud of 
various colours ; some are active 
basins, 20 ft. in diameter, vigorously 
ejecting spouts of water or clay, from 
a to 4 ft. in height ; others are 
simply boiling mud holes, from a few 
inches to 10 or la ft. in diameter. 
The great charm of Okurawai is the 
great variety of colour here dis- 
played. Pools, like pots of red paint, 
alternate with pink, orange, yellow, 
cream, grey, and white. The hill- 
side is fdrther variegated by patches 
of red, black, orange, and grey, with 
beautiful emerald clumps of fern 
and moss, while the banks are 
covered with dark green scrub, 
sprinkled with white blossom, and 
the foreground is broken by some 
blue and white pools. The rising 
and drifting veil of steam, partly 
hiding, then disclosing fresh com- 
binations of colour, produces a 
dazzling and enchanting effect. 

Kabapiti (Tex Great 8txam-Holm) * 
is a m. from Wairakei on the hill 
side, beyond the coloured springs, 

1 This can jMrhaps be most oonTenientlj 
Men on the way to Taupo (see below). 

facing southward. It is one of the 
most remarkable sights in this truly 
remarkable district, and forms a 
striking feature in the landscape for 
miles round. It is rather difiScult 
of access owing to the treacherous 
nature of the ground and to the den- 
sity of manuka scrub with which it 
is surrounded. The hole itself is 
about I ft. in diameter, and from it 
a fierce jet of steam constantly issues 
with a deafening roar. It is impos- 
sible to estimate its force with exact- 
ness, but it has been calculated as 
equal to the pressure of 500 lbs. to 
the square inch. 

[An excursion may be made from 
Wairakei to the Arateatea Rapids, 
about 3^ m. down the Waikato. Here 
the river rushes with furious speed 
through a long tortuous channel 
between enormous scattered boul- 
ders and formidable rocky walls, 
forming foaming cataracts, rush- 
ing rapids, and deep dark pools, with 
the steep sides of the valley rising 
on either side more than 200 ft. in 
height. From the heights on the 1. 
bank of the river a good general view 
of the rapids may be obtained.] 

Proceeding on the road to Taupo, 

51 m. Kabapiti (the great steam 
hole) is passed at a short distance 
off the road to the rt. 

S^in^. ^he HuKA FAI.L8, A splendid 
fall of the Waikato River. The river 
is confined for some distance in a 
straight, narrow chasm or channel, 
between precipitous rocky walls. 
The course forms a steep and rugged 
descent, along which the deep blue 
water foams, whirls, and surges 
with terrific fury, until at length it 
breaks with a fearful roar over a 
steep precipice into a wide open 
pool below, that foams and heaves 
with breaking circles and whirling 
eddies, while rainbow hues flit 
about the drifting spray. 

It is possible to clamber underneath 
the Falls, between the water and the 
rock ; but the descent is difficult, and 
the return much more so. None 
should attempt it without a guide. 



A story is told of a party of Tanpo 
natives who went to visit the Wan- 
ganni tribe, and told them abont their 
famous rapids, which no canoe could 
pass. The Wangantd men, accnstomed 
to a more pea^sefnl river, ridiculed the 
idea. Their Tanpo friends accordingly 
dared them to come and try. They 
accepted the challenge ; came to the 
spot and made the attempt, only to 
learn the folly of ignorant boasting; 
the canoe was dashed to atoms and 
none of the Wanganni men escaped 

The Valley below the Falls towards 
Wairakei is well wooded, and the 
surrounding scenery is rugged and 
romantic. Well-defined river ter- 
races form a succession of levelled 
strands, while Tat^uvra and some 
smaller hills make a picturesque 

A splendid view may be obtained 
from the suspension bridge which 
crosses the river above the Falls. 

56 m. Taupo— or rather Tapu- 
waeharuru, which is the proper 
name of the township : Taupo, like 
Rotorua, properly meaning the lake. 

Hotels: QaUagher*8 and Nobie'Sy in 
the township. 

Joshua's, at the Spa described be- 
low (a m. from the township). 

Ecis^s Hot Lake Hotel, at Waipahihi 
(i| m. from the township). 

Travellers who wish to be near 
hot baths will probably choose 
either Joshua's or Ross's. 

The village is now very small ; 
it was larger in former times, when 
it was an important station for the 
armed constabulary. Taupo is the 
largest lake in the Island, its ex- 
treme length is about 25 m., and its 
total area 230 sq. m. : its altitude 
above the sea is i^aii ft. Steam 
launches and boats can be hired 
dose to the Village. The view over 
the lake, with Tongariro and Ruapehu 
in the distance, is very fine ; on 
the other side, the solitary peak of 
Tauhara (3,603 ft,), an extinct vol- 
cano, stands out impressively. Close 
by, the Waikato R. flows out of the 

lake ; many of the reaches are very 
beautiful, and of easy access either 
from the township or from Joshua's. 
The air in this neighbourhood is 
fresh and invigorating. 

If the tourist is not staying at 
Joshua's, he should make it his first 
excursion. A good road of about 
a m., pleasantly planted with trees, 
leads to it from the township. 
The gardens of the hotel have been 
beautifully laid out ; it forms a 
delightful place for a few days' rest. 
The Maori house, which is close to 
the Spa, has very fine specimens of 
native carving, in the usual style. 
The swimming hath — where the bather 
can take a swim in hot, warm, or 
cold water as he pleases — is simply 
delightful. Within a mile round 
the Spa are about twenty warm 
springs ; and sources of totally 
different characters — alkaline, saline, 
sulphurous, arsenical, and others — 
flow into the same channel that 
passes through the grounds of the 
Spa. In the valley are sulphur and 
alum baths, tiny volcanoes of boiling 
mud (which the natives eat with 
relish, but Europeans usually con 
sider too like magnesia to be appe- 
tizing), and many steam holes and 
boiling springs. The most beautiful 
sight is the Crow's Nest *, a low mound 
of silicious deposit around the orifice 
of an eruptive geyser, which sends 
up volumes of water to a height 
varying from 8 in. to 80 ft. at un- 
certain intervals. Situated as it is 
close to the beautiful river (which 
in fact is the cause of the geyser) 
the sight is all the more impressive. 
If, however, the tourist has de- 
cided to stay at Joshua's, his first 
excursion will be to 

Waipahihi, about i| m. beyond 
the township, at the junction of 
the roads to Tokaano and Napier. 
The hotel (Ross's) is new and large ; 
the view from it over the lake mag- 
nificent. The best baths are those 
in the little valley at the back of the 
house which are indudetd in the 
hotel grounds, comprising about 
7 acres, tastefully laid out. 

D 2 



In this little ravine, which leads 
from TavJuira mountain, is a series 
of miniature hot lakes, mineral 
springs, and chalybeate waters, with 
excellent bathing accommodation. 

The Blade Terrace is a curious de- 
posit of bronze, green, and black, 
streaked with white and brown, 
caused by the admixture of iron 
with the silica of the hot springs. 


(i) To Tauhara. The base of 
this mountain is about i mile from 

the township. The ascent ia not 
diiBcult, and the view from the sum- 
mit well repays the traveller. 

(a) To Botokawa. A ride or 
drive of about 8 m. It is an ex- 
tensive lake ; at the N. end are hot 
springs, and large deposits of crys- 
tallized sulphur. 

(3) To Tokaano. See Bte. lo. 

Excellent pheasant and duck 
shooting can be obtained in the 
vicinity of Taupo. 



From Taupo to Napier is 98 m. 
coaching and takes two days» Coaches 
run frequently, especially in sum- 
mer ; and arrangements for special 
coaches can easily be made. The 
whole journey is interesting^ and 
part of it very beautiful. 

Tauto to Tailaweba. 48 m. 

i^ m. Waipahihi, See Bte. 5. 
Here the road to Tokaano branches 
off to the rt. (See Bte. 10.) 

The road then gradually ascends 
until it reaches 

19 m. Opepe. The scene of a 
terrible incident which occurred on 
June 7, 1869. 

Colonel St. John was engaged in- 
vestigating the positions near Taupo 
available for military purposes, whilst 
a number of his men mounted guard 
at Opepe. The Maoris discovered their 
presence by seeing smoke isfming from 
-whaxea which had been deserted. 
The troopers foolishly left their arms 
in the whares. The natives by a rvae 
got in between the troopers and their 
arms, and then attacked them ; eight 
were killed, and one wounded ; tl:^ee 
escaped unhurt and reached G-alatea 

the next day. The graves of those who 
fell may be seen in passing Opepe, on 

The road then passes over the 
Kaingaroa PlainSj a barren tract of 
country, sparsely covered with ma- 
nuca and tussock grass. The views 
of the mountains to the rt. are fine. 

aom. Banoitajki Stseam. Travel- 
lers stop for luncheon at the little 
hotel here. 

The great Bununga plain is theo, 

36 m. The Waipuna atreamj on the 
edge of the plain. Just after crossing 
the bridge, a fine tBater/aU may be 
seen on the rt. A finer one how^- 
ever, which is not in sight from the 
road, may be reached by a walk of 
a few minutes. 

On the top of the hill which over- 
looks the Waipuna, was placed a 
redoubt during the campaign of 1868. 

41 m. Here the road enters a 
magnificent forest, which it is an 
insult to call * bush.' The whole road 
from this to Tarawera is pretty and 
winding; passing through charming 








^ * 



gorges. It descends for about 1,000 
ft. down the Pakaranui hiU, and at 
last reaches 

48 m. Tarawera* KoteL 

A small settlement on the Wai' 
punga River, not to be confused with 
the lake of the same name near 
Botorua. At the comfortable little 
hotel, a halt is made for the night. 
The natural terracing is very re- 
markable. Some traces of ancient 
Maori fortification, and of the war 
time, may be seen. As the name 
Tarawera implies, there are warm 
springs here ; but as the nearest is 
i^m. from the hotel, the tourist is 
not likely to visit them. 

Tabaweba to Kapier. 50 m. 

After leaving Tarawera^ the road 
descends into the Waipunga gorge, 
and at 4 m. rises by a long zigzag 
for 4| m. up the Turanga'kumu hill. 
The ' view on the ascent from 
SUmey Creek stream (about 1,600 ft. 
above the sea) is glorious ; in the 
foreground are deep valleys, and 
beyond, mountain ranges stretching 
away as far as the eye can reach. 
The road continues to ascend, pass- 
ing through stunted bush; the 
highest point, Tupurupuru, being 
nearly 3,000 ft. above the sea. The 
Maori settlement of Te Haroto, and 
a blockhouse of the same name, 
which was erected in 1866, are then 
passed ; and the road, descending 
for 9 m. , passes down the steep side 
of the hill. Remains of charred wood 
will be noticed in the pumice on the 
1. side of the road. This marks the 
outskirts of the Taupo volcanic zone. 

17 m. MoHAKA RivEB. Small Hotcl. 
At this point the road crosses the 
river by abridge, near a small cascade 
on the further side, and winds up a 
terribly steep cliff and hill, ascend- 
ing 1,400 feet in 5 m., to the summit 
of the Titiokuru Saddle (a, 450 feet) 
on the Maungaharuru range. From 
this point the view over the sea and 
the Napier hills is very fine. The 
town may be seen. The road then ' 

again descends rapidly, and passes 
through a small piece of bush. 

23 m. Pohui. Here a halt is 
made for luncheon. 

The road now passes for some 
distance over an open plateau, and 
then enters the valley of the Esk. 
This river is forded no less than 
forty-seven times. The scenery, 
which is not remarkable, improves 
at the lower end, when the fertile 
valley of the Petane is entered. The 
name Petane (Bethany) was given 
by the missionaries. Unfortunately 
the associations with the spot are 
anything but peaceful. 

At the station known as Carr's a 
detachment of twenty-five Maoris was 
intercepted by Major Fraser in 1866. 
Major Praser first sent a party to cnt 
off the enemy's retreat by a small 
gorge through which they had to pass, 
and then barred their way in front 
with the remainder of his company. 
The natives refused to surrender, and 
retired to a small house for shelter ; 
Major Pra«er immediately ordered his 
men to fire ; twelve were killed, one 
wounded, and three taken prisoners ; 
six only managed to escape by fording 
the river. 

A new road, now in course of 
construction, will pass through the 
MangaJcopikopiki valley. (The name 
means J very crooked,' and all travel- 
lers will admit the correctness of 
the designation.) The crossings of 
the river will be thus avoided. The 
old road will be rejoined at the 
lower end of the valley of the Esk, 

45 m. Fetajie. Kotel. 

A small settlement, close to the 
sea. At the mouth of the river is 
a Maori village, usually containing 
from fifty to one hundred natives. 

A long bridge, called the Ahuriri, 
crossing an estuary which forms the 
Inner Harbour, leads to ScindelsUmd 
(as the Peninsula is named on which 
Napier is built). Passing by the 
Spit (a suburb of the town) the road 
rises to 

50 m. Napier. ;See Bte. 8. 




This is an interesting and beauti- 
ful trip) much of it being through 
native districts. It is, however, 
very rough, and should only be 
attempted by strong and adventurous 
tourists. From Tauranga to Gisborne 
will take ten days. It is possible to 
drive for the first three days to 
Opotiki (or even to do this part in 
two days, by going the first day as 
far as Matata). After Opotiki, the 
traveller must ride ; it is therefore 
the simplest plan to buy a horse and 
saddle at Tauranga, and ride the 
whole way. 

The Bay of Plenty is a fertile 
district, with a mild and delightful 
climate. It was visited by Cook in 
1769, when coming northwards from 
Turanga (Gisborne). There was some 
fighting here during the East Coast 
War of 1865. 

Taubanoa. See Rte. 3. 

From Tauranga to Maketu is 30 m. 
by the inland route, aa m. by the 
beach. The former is recommended. 
There is a good coach road all the 
way. The country is flat and open, 
with scrub and fern ; farms and flax 
mills are seen at intervals. 

15 m. TePuke, Kotel. 

A small village, the centre of a 
special settlement of small farmers, 
founded by Mr. Vesey Stewart. The 
scenery is pretty, but not bold. The 
alluvial soil is rich. 

30 m. Maketu. Here a halt may 
be made for the night. 

Hotel: Robertson's. 

A large native settlement with 
a European quarter, official and 
missionary. Tradition says that it 
was the original landing-place of the 

Maoris in N. Z., the 'Arawa' and 
the ^Tainui' having come here. 
The Tainui went on to Mokau, but 
the Arawa was drawn up on the 
beach here. On the beach may be 
seen the Arawa grove, which is said 
to have grown from the skids of the 
great canoe, which the emigrants 
had brought with them from Ha- 
waiki. The present trees, however, 
seem to be common native ones. 
(At Mokau there is a similar grove, 
called the Tainui grove ; the trees 
of which it is formed being of a 
variety otherwise unknown in N. Z., 
and called the Tainui trees. It is 
of course possible that similar trees? 
may have taken root here, but:^ 
been killed by the stronger native 

Many old fortifications, telling of 
ancient tribal wars, may be seen in 
the immediate neighbourhood. A 
large pa here was sacked by Hongi 
in i8a3. 

The road goes somewhat inland, 
the scenery for some way not being 
striking. After passing the small 
native settlement of Otamarakau^ on 
a river of the same name, it skirts 
the foot of some lofty pumice-stone 
cliffs, of which the colouring is very 

50 m. Matata. Here the tra- 
veller halts for the nights 

Hotel. A large native settlement. 

On leaving Matata, the Rangitaiki 
River is crossed in a canoe. A buggy 
can be taken in the canoe, the horse 
swimming. Fare, 15. per passenger ; 
5s. for a buggy. 

The road then goes along the 
beach. The Burima Bocks, Whale 
Island, and the lofty crater of White 
Island, from which a column of 



steam usually ascends, may be seen 
on the 1. 

Shortly before reaching Whaka- 
tanae, the river Whakatanae is 
crossed in a canoe ; fare, as above. 

65 m. Whakatanae, HoWL 

A settlement, both native and 
European, situated at the foot of a 
range of hills. 

This was the scene of the murder of 
Mr. Falloon by the Hanhaus in 1865. 
The murderers were pursued by the 
Arawa under Major Mair; captured, 
tried, and executed. The village was 
destroyed and the district overrun by 
Te Kooti in 1869. 

Small steamers ply between this 
and other coastal ports. 

The road then ascends the range 
and proceeds alougan upland plateau 
for about 3 m. Before the descent 
to the beach, the panorama is fine. 

75 m. Ohiwa. Zim. 

Here an inlet of the sea is crossed 
by a canoe (fare as. per passenger). 

Enquiries should be made here as 
to the practicability of the Waiotahi 
ford, which depends on the tide. 

79 m. Waiotahi. Here the river 
is forded. 

83 m. The Huntress' Greek is 

85 m. OpotildL Here the tra- 
veller halts for the night. 

Hotels: Opotiki; Maaonic; and 

Cliuroli: Ang, 

The Bev. C. Tolkner, a devoted mis- 
sionary, was barbarously murdered 
here on March a, 1865. The Bev. T. 
Grace, and some others who had come 
from Auckland with Mr. Tolkner, were 
seised and kept for some time in dose 
confinement ; but on the arrival of 
H.M.S. Eclipae they managed to escape. 

The town is situated on a large 
alluvial flat at the foot of the hills. 
The land is very fertile. Small 
steamers ply between this and other 
coastal ports. 

Excursions maybe made from here 
into the * Uriwera Country.' 

Opotiki being the most easterly 
settlement in the Bay of Plenty, the 
traveller now enters a purely native 
district. Almost the only European 
residents are the teachers at the 
Government schools, which are 
established in all the larger native 
villages. The buggy (if used so far) 
should be here discarded, and the 
traveller proceed on horseback. The 
services of the guide become valuable, 
and, after a short distance, necessary. 

Before leaving Opotiki, enquiries 
should be made as to the fording 
of the Omaramutu Biver, which 
depends on the tide. 

93 m. Omaramutiu A large 
Maori settlement, near the river. 

[From here a track strikes across the 
county to Gisbome, 100 m. The 
journey takes three days, the nights 
being spent in camping out. The 
scenery in crossing tiie ranges, and 
passing through the bush, is very fine.] 

The road then proceeds over hilly 
country with very beautiful scenery 
towards the shore, to 

100 m. Turere. A large native 

104. m. Hawai, The crossing of 
the stream here is sometimes diffi- 
cult. Inquiries should be made at 
the settlement. 

Here the track divides. The 
relative advantages of each depend 
on the tides, &c. 

109 m. MaraenuL A Maori 
settlement of considerable size. 

Just after passing Maraenui, the 
Jfoft« Biver is forded. A guide is 
absolutely necessary. 

ii6m. Omaio. Here the traveller 
halts for the night. 

Hot^ A large native settlement, 
all Hauhaus. 

Soon after leaving Omaio, a fine 
view may be seen to the rt., with 
Mount Hardy in the distance. 



196 m. Te SZaha. Zbb. 

A collection of Dative settlements. 

The road now becomes very ro- 
mantic, with deeply wooded Talleys, 
interspersed with bare ridges of hill ; 
on the 1., broken coast and deep-blue 
sea. White Island ma j be seen at 
a distance of upwards of 30 m., 
sending up its cloud of steam. In 
front) the coast line stretches far 
away to Cape Runaway. 

Here and there on the way are 
passed immense trenches, telling of 
ancient tribal wars, with trees of 
considerable size growing in them. 

146 m. Baukokore. Here the 
traveller halts for the night. There 
is an hotel, but the accommodation 
is rough. 

The next morning, an early start 
should be made. A guide is abso- 
lutely necessary for the whole day's 

154 m. Whangaparaoa, close 
to Cape Runaway. 

When Cook visited this district in 
1769, armed Maoris put off from the 
shore in a menacing manner. Grape 
and cannon shot having been fired 
near them, they ran away. Hence the 
name of the Cape. 

Here the Bay of Plenty is left. 
The road follows for a short distance 
the course of the Whomgaparaaa Ritm" ; 
then crosses high hills which form 
the watershed between the Bay of 
Plenty and Hicks' Bay. The Rauku- 
mara Range, and Mount Hikurangi, may 
be seen to the rt. The vast extent of 
hill scenery is striking and remark- 
able. After crossing the dividing 
range, the road follows the gorge of 
the Waikohu (^literally, the ^ Misty 
Water') to Hicks* Bay. The scenery 
on the river is very beautiful. The 
road crosses and recrosses the river 
by innumerable fords. 

171 m. Hicks' Bay. Here the 
traveller halts for the night. There 
is a native accommodation house, 
kept by Wi Pahuru. The Bay was 
first descried by Lieutenant Hicks, 
during Cook's first visit to N. Z. 

The road now traverses a steep and 
lofty hill, commanding a beautiful 
view to the east. 

181 m. Te Kawakawa. Hotel. 

On the hill above the settlement 
are the remains of an extensive pa, 
where some severe fighting took place 
in the time of Hongi. 

The road now goes along the beach, 
broken here and there by headlands 
with papa rocks at the foot of them. 
The last headland is East Cape. The 
road then crosses the hills to 

905 m. Waiapu. Here the tra- 
veller halts for the night. HoteL 

A small settlement in an impor- 
tant Maori district of the same name. 
The Ang. Bp., who resides at Napier, 
takes his title from this place. 

From Waiapu the view of the 
Hikuraugi mountain is magnificent. 

A few miles up the river are the 
petroleum workings, now abandoned. 

The road then crosses the Waiapu 

. 209 m. AwaniiL After this, the 
services of a guide are no longer 
essential. European settlement be- 
comes frequent. The road is along 
a rough beach. 

215 m. Beporua. A consider- 
able native settlement. 

219 m. Tuparoa. Kot^. 
Near here, is Sir George Whit- 
more's station. 

226 m. Akuaku, on Open Bay. 

229 m. Waipiro. From this the 
inland track should be taken, 

234 m. A small group of hot 
springs are seen here. One of them., 
which has passed through a bed 
of rock salt, forms a pleasant 

The road comes down to the sea 
again at 

239 m. Tokumaru. Hotel. 
From this the inland track should 
again be taken to 



270 m. Tolago (Uawa). Here 
the trayeller halts for the night. 

Hotel: (good). 

This place was visited by Cook on Oct. 
29, 1 769. Haying been as far sonth as Cape 
Tomagain, he turned again and came 
northward along the coast. Both Cook 
and Sir J. Banks bore testimony to 
the politeness and oiyilization of the 
natives residing there. 

Cook's Cove, from which he took 
his supply of fresh water, can be 
reached by boat or on horseback. 

After this, there is a good road 
along the coast. 

284 m. Fakarae. Hotel. 

Here the traveller may lunch, 
having ordered his luncheon by 
telephone from Tolago. 

305 m. OZBBOBVB. 

Hotels: Masonic; Argyle; Album; 
and others. 

Gtab: Poverty Bay (non-residential). 

CSmrches : Ang. ; Free, ; R. C, ; 
Weal,; Cong. 

Pop.: 3,350. 

This was the first district visited 
by Captain Cook. He landed at 
Turanga on Oct. 8, 1769. In conse- 
quence of his unfortunate encounter 
with the natives, during which 
several of them were killed, he was 
unable to proems anything but a 
little wood ; hence he named it 
(most inappropriately) Poverty Bay. 
A boy on board his ship, named 
Nicholas Young, having been the 
first to sight N. Z., the S.W. point 
of the bay was called * Young Nick's 

About 10 m. inland is the district 
of Matawhero, the scene of the mas- 
sacre of Europeans and friendly 
natives by Te Kooti on the night of 
November 9, 1868. There was much 
fighting in the district soon after. 

The soil in the neighbourhood is 
very rich, but difficulty of access 
both by land and sea has hitherto 
retarded settlement. Much of the 
land is owned by natives, and the 

harbour is not good. A breakwater 
is however now in course of con- 

From Gisborne the traveller may 
proceed by sea to Napier, 90 m. Large 
steamers go weekly; smaller ones also 
frequently. He may, however, con- 
tinue his journey overland, by 
Wairoa, 140 m. From Gisborne to 
Wairoa, 70 m., there is a coach 
road, and coaches occasionally run. 
The journey occupies two days, the 
night being spent at the Wathofu lakes^ 
where there is a small inn. 

70 m. Wairoa (Clyde). 
Hotels: Clyde; Wairoa, 
OhnrolLMi : Ang. ; Prea. ; R. C. 

From Wairoa several excursions 
can be made. The scenery in the 
district is very lovely. The most 
famous sights are the Waikaremoana 
lake (as beautiful as any in the 
Island), the Te Reinga FaMs of the 
Wairoa R. J and many limestone caves 
in the Wkakapunaki range. 

From Wairoa the traveller may 
proceed by sea to Napier, 40 m. Only 
small steamers however call at 
Wairoa. If he desire to proceed by 
land, he must make the journey on 
horseback, 70 m. A guide is not 
absolutely necessary. The road is 
in many places very broken, but all 
quite practicable. 

so m. Mohaka. Hotel. 

Here the traveller halts for the 

The geological formation of this 
place is curious, the natural terracing 
being very strongly marked. The 
spot has also a painful historical 
interest, as the site of the massacre 
of seven Europeans and fifty-seven 
natives by Te Kooti and his followers 
in 1870. 

The road then lies at first along 
the beach, and afterwards crosses 
five lofty limestone ridges, every- 
where very rich in fossils. At last 
a descent is made near the mouth of 
the Petane R. (See Rte. 6.) 

70 m. Napies. (See Rte. 8.) 





Hotels: Criterion; Masonic; Claren" 
don; and others. 

Clubs : Hawke's Bay (residential) ; 
Napier (non-residential). 

Chnrolies : Ang. ; Pres. ; R, C. ; 
Wesl. ; and others. 

Pop. : 8,400. 

CoBveyanoes : OmnAbuses ply be- 
tween the town (starting at the 
Bank of N. Z.) and Hospital Hill. 

Hackney Carriages, Within the 
town, one - horse carriages, each 
passenger, 6d, ; two • horse car- 
riages, one passenger, 15. ; every 
additional passenger, 6d. From 
Port Ahuriri to the town, all 
carriages, is. per passenger. From 
the Port or the town to the hills, 
one passenger, as, ; every additional 
passenger, is. By time. One-horse 
carriage, 4s. an hour ; is. every 
subsequent quarter of an hour ; two- 
horse carriages and hansoms, 5s. 
an hour, is. 3^2. every subsequent 
quarter of an hour. Half fares extra 
between 9p.m. and midnight ; double 
fares between midnight and 6 a.m. 

Napier may be approached 

(i) By coach from Taupo. See 
Rte. 6. 

(a) By rail from Woodville. See 
Rte. 9. 

(3) On horseback from Wairoa. 
See Rte. 7. 

(4) By sea, from Gisbome or Wel- 

The town was laid ont in 1855. The 
Province of Hawke's Bay, of which 
it was the capital, was separated from 
Wellington in 185a Here as elsewhere 
Provincial Government was abolished 
in 1876. The Provincial District in- 
clndes some of the richest land in New 
Zealand, and contains about 13,000 

horses, 54,000 cattle, and 5,000,000 
sheep. The climate is warm, dry, and 
healthy ; in several places particnlarly 
suited to the cultivation of grapes, 
hops, tobacco, and various kinds of 
fruit. The natives in the district have 
shared in the general prosperity, many 
of them are w^thy huidowners, living 
in comfortable houses, and keeping 
horses and carriages. 

The site of the present town was 
visited by Cook during his first voyage 
in 1769. His Tahitian boy, Tayeto, was 
kidnapped by the natives, but shortly 
afterwards escaped. From this inci- 
dent Cook named the promontory to 
the S. Gape Kidnappers ; at the same 
time he named the Bay after Sir 
Edward Hawke ; and the Island to the 
N.W. Portland Island, from a fancied 
resemblance to Portland Island in the 
English Channel. 

Public Buildikos, Places of 


The town of Napier is charmingly 
situated at the foot and on the sides 
of steep hills overlooking the sea, 
and will remind the traveller of 
some of the prettiest of English 
watering-places. The visitor arriv- 
ing by sea will have the difficulty of 
landing in a launch, and then coming 
by cab or train from Port Ahuriri to 
the town (a m.). 

The Rly. station is in the mid- 
dle of the town, a few minutes' 
walk from the Hotels, Cathedral, 
AthensBum, and Esplanade. 

Almost the only building that can 
lay claim to architectural merit is 
the Cathedral of St. John {Ang.)^ a 
fine b;L*ick church in the Gothic style 
of the thirteenth century, the roof 
being constructed in the manner 
often adopted in districts of Spain 
and Italy, where earthquakes are 
of frequent occurrence. Additional 



strength is afforded by buttresses 
plaoed inside tbe building. The 
open timber roof, framed of matai, 
rimu, and kauri, is very successful. 
The AtheiUBiiin, Phllosopliioal Zn- 
■tituta and Xusenm occupy one 
building ; the reading room is open 
to the public at a charge of is, per 
month. The Museum (open free) 
contains a good collection of Maori 
carvings and weapons, a fine skeleton 
of a Moa, and other objects of in- 

From the Museum, the tourist 
should walk on to the Esplanade, 
which is considerably over i m. in 

From this point he can see the 
Breakwater, now in process of con- 
stiiiction ; the Harbour Board have 
been empowered by Parliament to 
raise a loan of £300,000 for the 
work ; 1,344 ^ have already been 

The tourist should then walk, or 
go by cab or omnibus, to the top of 
Hospital HiUy where the Botanical 
gttrdens are situated ; they are 
small, but very pretty ; and the 
view from the highest point of the 
hill, close to the gardens, is fine. 

Those who take any interest in 
Native affairs will have an oppor- 
tunity of inspecting two admirable 
institutions — the Protestant Vative 
Oirl'a School, which is under the 
management of Miss Williams 
(daughter of the late Bp. Williams^ 
and St. Joseph's ProTldenoe, con- 
ducted by the Sisters of Our Lady 
of Missions. At each of these schools 
native girls are receiving a superior 
education of an English character ; 
at the former the numbers are about 
fifty ; at the latter, about twenty- 

Dbives and Excubsions. 

The roads round Napier are good, 
and several of the drives pretty. 
The Ahuriri plains, which adjoin the 
town, are very fertile. Passing over 
them, on the Omahu Road, at 5 m. is 
reached the now almost deserted 
pa of Wai'O'hiki, The heights round 

this spot are all crowned with the 
banks and ditches of the old fortified 
pas ; the one at Reddiffe covering an 
area of several acres. i| m. up the 
river from this point on the rt. 
bank is Omaranui, the scene of a 
skirmish in Oct. 1866, in which 
twenty-three natives were killed, 
twenty*eight wounded, and forty- 
four taken prisoners. This was the 
first occasion in which the colonists 
successfully encountered the natives 
without the aid of Imperial troops. 
The drive may be extended by 
Omahu (another native village) 
and Hastings — ^a circuit of about 
30 m. 

The traveller should, at some time 
during his tour, go over a meat- 
freezing establishment ; and this is 
a good opportunity for him to do so. 
Nearly half a million frozen carcasses 
are now annually exported froia 
Hawke's Bay. The works first 
opened were those of Messrs. Nelson 
at Tomoana near Hastings in i88a ; 
they now have branch establish- 
ments at Waipukurau, Woodville, 
and Gisbome. There are also ex- 
tensive works at the Western Spit 
belonging to the North British 
Freezing Company. Strangers can 
easily obtain permission to see over 
the works. It seems uncertain 
what process will be ultimately de- 
cided to be the best ; at present some 
works use compressed air, others 

Travellers who have arrived at 
Napier by sea should take a drive 
to Petane (see Rte. 6), and those 
who, having arrived from Taupo, 
intend to go on by sea should take 
a short trip along the Rly. (see Rte. 
9) and back in order to see the 

An excursion may also be made 
by sea or on horseback to Wairoa. 
See Rte. 7. 


This trip takes five days ; two 
days' coaching to Moawhanga, a day's 



rest there, and two days' return 
coach. A coach leaved Napier erery 
Monday morning. The scenery is 
wild and picturesque, but the road 
is rough. 

Leaving Napier by the Puketapu 
road, the Tutaiktiri valley is followed 
for some distance. The road then 
rises rapidly and traverses a high 
pastoral country, and descends into 
the valley of the Ngaruroro B, 

43 m. Kurlpapanfira. 

Hotel (comfortable). 

Here the coach stops for the night. 

On leaving Kuripapanga, the 

Ngaruroro R. is crossed by a bridge. 

50 m. The Taruarau R. is forded. 
After this the road rapidly ascends 
until the upper central plateau of 

Owh<Mku is reached. The tussock 
grass and other vegetation which is 
found here, is more like that of the 
S. Island than the N. 

63 m. The BangiWcei R. is forded. 
The road then passes through ' Ere- 
whon,' the station of Messrs. Birch, 
and reaches 

75 m. Moawhan^a. 

Hotel: Bailey's, 

A large native settlement with a 
few European houses. At Batley's 
hotel excellent guides, horses, and 
every provision may be obtained for 
further tours inland through the 
volcanic district. Travellers can if 
they desire ride or dri^e from here, 
about la m., to* Turangiriri (see Rte. 
10), and on to Karioi, about 35 m. 



It is possible to go from Napier to 
Wellington in one day, viA Wood- 
vllle and Palmerston. The Master- 
ton route is perhaps more interesting, 
but takes two days. Travellers who 
prefer the latter route, must decide 
where they will pass the night. 
They may any day leave Napier in 
the afternoon, sleep at Dannevirke, 
and go on the following morning by 
early train to Woodville, coach to 
Eketahuna, and afternoon train to 
Wellington. On certain days also 
they may leave Napier by the morn- 
ing train for Woodville, and thence 
coach to Eketahuna, sleep at Eketa- 
huna, and go on thence by the 
morning train to Wellington ; but 
as the morning train from Eketa- 
huna : only runs on certain days, 
they must make their plans before 
leaving Napier. 

Napieb to Woodville 95 m. Rly. 

19s. lorf , I3«. 3d,; R. a68. 5d., 17a. 8d. 

The line at first follows the sea 

beach and then enters a very rich 
agricultural and pastoral district. 
In its original state this part of the 
country was densely covered with 
bracken. The land is mostly undu- 
lating, but in some places very flat, 
and everywhere sadly devoid of 
timber. Ornamental trees are, how- 
ever, being steadily planted. There 
are a number of fine country-houses 
in the district, but unfortunately 
few are seen from the Rly. 
Ranges of limestone hills are passed 
through. Several small native 
settlements and houses are passed. 
Soon after leaving Napier the summit 
of Ruapehu may on clear days be seen 
in the distance on the right. 

Before reaching Farndon, the 
Ngaruro R, is crossed. 

6 m. Farndon. 

10 m. The Ngaruro is again 
crossed. Pretty weeping willows 
grow on each bank. 



II uu Tomoana. Here may be 
8een Nelson Bros.' freezing works. 
Large numbers of sheep and some 
cattle are frozen here and exported 
to England. 

19 m. Hastings. A thriving 

Hotels: BaUway ; HasHnga ; and 

Ghnxohes : Ang.; Pres,; R, C; West, 
Tlie Ang.Gh. is worthy of inspection, 
as the combination of various native 
woods is very pleasing. 

37 m. Te Aute (Refreshment 

A long swampy chiefly filled with 
bullrushes, here and there attaining 
the dignity of a lake but now being 
reduced in size by drainage, is seen. 
The native proprietors, so far as their 
possessions extend, resist all drain- 
age schemes, as the swamps form 
valuable preserves for eel9, swamp- 
hens, &c. 

Soon afterwards is passed on the 
rt. the Native College. This in- 
teresting institution is built on 
ground which was given by the 
natives to the Anglican Missionaries 
for educational and ecclesiastical 
purposes. About sixty young men 
are being educated here, the educa- 
tion being the same as at an English 
High SchooL Students frequently 
pass to the University of N. Z. 

36 m. Kaikora. 

39 m. Waipavra. The county 
town of the county of the same 

The Waipawa R. is crossed by a 
long bridge. The fine range of the 
Ruahine Mts. maybe seen on the rt. 

44 m. Waipukurau (Refresh- 
ment Room). 

On the river of the same name, 
which is crossed by a long bridge. The 
township was part of the estate of the 
Hon. H. R. Russellandlaidoutby him 
under long leases, equal to freeholds, 
but enabling him to make conditions 
Si» to the business carried on, the 

arrangements of buildings, streets, 
&c. The result is that it is one of 
the best laid-out towns in the 
Colony. It possesses only one Hotel. 
The plantations are tasteful and 

The Rly. now enters on the Rua- 
tanitoha Piain, 

57 m. Takapau. On the 1. may 
be seen the house and plantations 
of Mr. S. Johnston. 

Here the Rly. enters the old 
^seventy mile bush' now being 
rapidly destroyed. 

66 m. Ormondville. One of 
several Scandinavian settlements 
which have been formed in this dis- 
trict. Parties were sent out during 
the years 1870-73 ; amounting in all 
to about a,ooo Danes, 735 Swedes, 
and 740 Norwegians. Sections of 
land of forty acres each (for which 
they paid £1 per acre by instal- 
ments) were allotted to them. They 
were also employed in the construc- 
tion of the main road, which then 
passed through dense forests. Being 
naturally good axe-men, the work 
was congenial to them ; in very many 
cases pleasant homesteads and smil- 
ing farms have taken the place of 
the primaeval forest. 

68 m. Mokotuku, 

79 m. Dannevirkfi. 

Hotels: Masonic; Raihcay; and 

This, as the name implies, is a 
Danish settlement ; but is gradually 
losing its characteristics, as the 
younger generation grow up speaking 
English, and population shifts. 

86 m. Matahiwi. 

95 m. Woodville. 

Hotels: Club ; Masmie. 

dnurclMS : Ang, ; iVes. ; R. C. 

A rising township, with a dairy 
factory, a meat-freezing establish- 
ment, and several sawmills. 



[If the traveller wishes to reach 
Wellington the same day, he may 
do so by remaining in the train , 
proceeding by Palmerston North. 
From Woodville to Palmerston is 
17m.; from Palmerston to Welling- 
ton 88 m. 

The seat on the 1. side of the 
carriage should be taken. The line 
proceeds along an irregular plain 
covered with dismal looking stumps, 
which are all that remain of the 
magnificent forest that was standing 
but a few years ago. After a m. the 
plain is leffc, and the line proceeds 
down the rt. bank of the Manawatu 
QoRQM, Tourists who are visiting 
K. Z. for the first time will probably 
much admire the scenery; but to 
those who knew it in its pristine 
beauty, it cannot be otherwise than 
melancholy. First, one side of the 
gorge was much injured for the sake 
of making the road ; then the other 
and more beautiful side was abso- 
lutely destroyed in order to con- 
struct the railway. The outline of 
the hills is still bold, but the magni- 
ficent rata trees which adorned the 
lower parts and in summer clothed 
them with one sheet of brilliant 
crimson, are dead, and but little 
remains of the rich mass of tree- 
ferns, palms, and varied shrubs 
which once covered the whole gorge. 

After leaving the gorge, the Po' 
hangina River, a tributary of the 
Manawatu, is crossed. 

8 m. Ashurst. A small settle- 
ment in the * Manchester Block' 
(see Rte. 15) in cleared land at the 
lower end of the gorge. 

17 m. Palmerston North. See 
Rte. 15.] 

Woodville to EKETAHuirA, a6 m. 

This route at one time lay entirely 
through magnificent forest. It is 
now being rapidly cleared for settle- 
ment ; but enough is still standing 
to make the drive a very pleasant 
one. Several native settlements are 

9 m. The Maungatoa stream is 

4 m. The Manatoaiu R, is crossed 
by a fine bridge. About J m. 
higher up, the river has been joined 
by the Teraumea. Hence the spot is 
known as ^Ngawapurua* (literally 
* the meeting of the waters '). 

8 m. The Mangatenuka (a beautiiiil 
river) is crossed. 

II m. Fahiatua. A rising settle- 
ment. Much of its success must be 
attributed to the liberal expenditure 
incurred by the Rt. Hon. A. J. 
Balfour (who owns a valuable pro- 
perty in the district) in clearing, 
sowing, fencing, and otherwise pre- 
paring the land for profitable occupa- 
tion. This enabled the smaller 
settlers to find immediate employ- 
ment in the vicinity of their holdings, 
and the village rapidly grew up. 

a6 m. Eketahuna. 

Hotel: Eketahuna, 

The settlement is principally 

Eketahxjka to Wellikoton 93 m. 
Rly. igs. $d.f las. iid, ; R 95s. iid.j 
17s. 3d. For the first 13 m. the Rly. 
passes through bush country with 
occasional clearings, and then enters 
on the Opaki plain. 

10 m. Mauriceville. About 
9 m. from the Scandinavian settle- 
ment of Mauriceville. 

18 m. Opaki. 

The Rly. then crosses the Rttama- 
hunga JR. 

99 m. Masterton. 

Hotels: Chib; Occidental; Empire; 
and others. 
dub ; Mastertm (non-residental). 
ClmroliM: Ang. ; Pres. ; R,C. ; Wed, 
Pop. : 3,900. 

An important town, the capital 
of the Wairarapa District, lliere 
is an interesting fish nursery here, 
in which ova are hatched for distri- 



bution amongst the rivers in the 

[From Masterton a coach goes to 
Cairtlepoint, 42 m.] 

[From Masterton an excursion may 
be made to Mount Houldaworth ; a drive 
of 9 m. up the Waingawa Valley leads 
to the foot of the mountain, £rom 
whence it is i)oesible to ride to the 
summit, 5,300 ft. above the sea. Horses 
and guides can be obtained at Mas- 

For the next 25 m. the Rly. then 
skirts the Wairarapa plainy an ex- 
tensive agricultural area along the 
base of the Tararua range, 

3a m. Carterton. 

39 m. Woodside. Here a branch 
line runs to Grey town , 3 m. 

44 m. Featherstone. 

[From here a coach goes to Martin- 
borough, 12 m.] 

For several miles the Wairarapa 
lake can be seen to the 1. The plain 
contracts into a narrow valley, to 

51 m. Cross's Creek. Here engines 
are changed and the train runs up 
a steep incline (i in 15) rising 871 ft. 
in a^ m. by means of a central rail 
about a foot above the ground which 
is gripped by horizontal wheels on 
the engine. This, which is called 
the 'Fell' system, was the one in 
use over the Mont Genis before the 
tunnel was made. 

The winds in the mountain gullies 
are proverbially strong. The travel- 
ler will see at one point a breakwind 
erected (locally known as * Siberia *) 
which marks the spot where two 
carriages were overturned, wrenched 
off the train, and precipitated down 
the gully. 

Several tunnels are passed through 
during the ascent. 

59 m. Summit. i,i6a ft. above 
the sea. Here the engines are again 
changed, and the line begins to 

67 m. Kaitoke. Here the train 
usually stops for tea and coffee. 

74 m. 17pi>er Hutt. Here the 
valley of the HuU R. is entered. A 
narrow fertile valley closely settled, 
containing several market gardens 
and small farms. The native name 
of the river was Heretaunga. This 
was unfortunately changed to Hutt 
in compliment to Mr. Hutt, M.P., 
a member of the N. Z. Gompany. 
There was some fighting here in 
1846-47 when Porirua was the 
stronghold of the chief TeRauparaha, 
but the district has been peaceful 
for many years. 

85 m. Iio^wer Hutt. This may 
almost be said to be a suburb of 
Wellington, as many Wellington 
people have residences here. There 
are some beautiful gardens in the 
neighbourhood ; i m. from the stat. 
are M^Nab's gardens (admission is.), 
where tea and fruit may be obtained. 
The trains between the Lower Hutt 
and Wellington are frequent. 

87 m. Petone. This is the site 
of the original settlement, named at 
the time Britannia (corrupted into 
Petone by the Maoris.) 

It was the residence of the chief 
Te Puni, and many of his tribe (see 
Rte. la). It is now a flourishing 
township, with a woollen factory, 
a meat-frsezing establishment, and 
Government workshops. 

The line now skirts along Welling- 
ton harbour : best views on the 1. 

90 m. Ngahauranga. At the 
foot of a gorge, the road up which 
leads to Johnsonville. Tanning, 
meat-freezing, and other works are 
established here. 

9a m. Kaiwarra. A suburb of 

93 m. Wellington. See Rte. 16. 

IVom Wellington the line pro- 
ceeds 1} m. to Te Aroy which is part 
of Wellington. Travellers who in- 
tend staying at the Royal Oak or 
Empire Hotel should go on to Te 
Aro ; others alight at the Wellington 





This journey may be acoompliahed 
in four days, but at least a week 
should be given to it, to do it justice. 
Few Routes can be compared to it. 
The scenery is magnificent, and 
of great interest to the student 
of geology or botany. Travelling 
is at present rough, but increased 
facilities of communication are 
being provided every summer, and 
doubtless in a few years the route 
will be as well known as any of the 
familiar tourist trips of the South 

Of course, if the reverse route be 
taken, more time must be allowed, 
as the current up the Wanganui JR. 
is strong, and the ascent tedious. 

Taupo TO ToKAANO. 35 m. by Water, 
33 m. by land. A steam launch runs 
at irregular intervals ; it can also be 
hired for private trips. Travellers 
going this way should make a detour 
to Western Bay ; on the way thither, 
a few miles from the township, some 
interesting caves are passed. 

Carriages for the land journey may 
be hired at the township. The drive 
along the eastern shore of the lake 
is lovely. 

li m. Waipahihl See Rte. 5. 
Here the road to Napier branches 
off to the 1. (See Rte. 6.) 

6| m. Here the road leaves the 
lake, and. |)asses through a narrow 
gorge, with almost perpendicular 
sides. It does not appear, however, 
ever to have been a waterway. 

la} m. The Hinemaiai stream is 
here crossed by a ford. The road 
then skirts the lake. In spring 
time, the masses of yellow kowhai 
(the N. Z. laburnum) which gi*ow 
here are very pretty. On the rt. is 
seen the island of Mototaiki, a mass 

of scoria. At one time the lake was 
the crater of a vast volcano. The 
island probably marks the last point 
of activity. 

99 m. Tauranga-taupo. A large 
native settlement. 

The road then makes a detour in* 
land, passes through several streams, 
and crosses the Waikato R. by a 
bridge, about 3' m. from the spot 
where it flows into the lake. 

95 m. Tokaajio. 

[It is possible also to ride along the 
W. coast of the lake from Taupo to 
Tokaano ; but the track is much too 
rough for ordinary tourists.] 

Tokaano. (Sometimes also spelt 
TokanOy or Tokaanu.) 

Hotel : Blake* s, 

A small settlement at the S. end 
of the lake. Hot springs and other 
volcanic wonders are to be seen on 
all sides ; perhaps the most curious 
being three large * puias/ or circular 
basins, near together, which hav« 
the peculiarity of rising and falling 
at uncertain intervals, and of chang- 
ing in temperature from boiling- 
point to cold. 

A story is told of how some natives 
from Wanganni once came to visit their 
friends here. On the evening of their 
arrival iJiey were taken for a bathe in 
the warm water. The following mom* 
ing they started out alone for another 
swim, not knowing the peculiarity of 
the pnia ; they jumped in, and were 
boiled to death. 

Within a mile, a broad strip of 
hot red earth still marks the course 
of a huge landslip of boiling mud 
and earth, which came down in May, 
1846, and destroyed the great Chief 
Te Heu Heu and a pa containing 



fifty-four persons (see pp. [49], [S6]). 
The Waihi pa is close to the spot. 
Hard by is the Waihi water/aU *, which 
consists of three cascades, 95 ft., 
140 ft., and 20 ft. in height, as 
beautiful as any in the N. Island. 

Near this also is Poukaioaf the 
scene of the labours of a devoted 
missionary, the late Bev. W. Grace. 
The noble life that he led is testified 
to by Dr. Hochstetter, who was his 
guest in 1859 ; but all his work was 
undone by the outbreak of Hauhau- 
ism, and Mr. Grace was obliged to 
flee. His son is now restoring the 
cultivations round his house. 

There is an extensive B. C. Mission 
in this district. 

The traveller should if possible 
spend some days at Tokaano. Many 
delightful excursions may be made. 
The scenery along the W. shore of 
the lake is bold and striking ; the 
shore being composed of high vol- 
canic counti*y with precipitous basalt 
walls stretching from 1,500 ft. above 
the surface of the water to 600 ft. 
below. In every direction are seen 
volcanoes, some perfect, others almost 
total wrecks. Various Maori legends 
are told about every spot. 

An easy afternoon's ride will take 
the traveller to the summit of 
Pi?iangi and back. This is on the 
track leading to Taumaranui. See 

Those who are fond of mountain- 
eering can make the ascent of Tonga' 
riroi Ngauruhoej or Ruapehu ; or the 
easier fiscent of KaJcaramea (4, 259 ft.), 
the base of which is within a m. of 

A charming trip of three or four 
days may be made round the moun- 
tain by Waimarinoy Okakune, and 
Karioi, returning by the E. side of 
the range, across the Rangipo desert. 

Horses, Maori guides, and all in- 
formation may be obtained at Peters' 
Stables at Tokaano. 

From Tokaano the tourist has the 
choice of two Routes. 

(i) By Karioi and Pipiriki. 

(a) By Taumaranui and Pipiriki, 

[Neto Zealand,'] 

( I ) ToKAAito TO Karioi. 45 m. A good 
coach road. The journey may easily 
be accomplished in one day. The 
traveller cannot fail to be delighted. 
All along the way, magnificent views 
of the range, and especially of the 
three great mountains, Tongariro 
(5,641 ft.), Ngauruhoe (7,481 ft.), and 
Riuipebu (8,878 ft.) may be seen on 
the i*t. These gigantic lava-built 
active volcanoes are amongst the 
greatest wonders of N. Z. The 
Maori legend is as follows: — 

Amongst those who came to New 
Zealand in the great canoe Arawa was 
the famous chief Ngatoroirangi. When 
the others had formed a peaceful home 
at Maketu, he, thirsting for fresh ad- 
ventures, set out, accompanied by his 
son Ngauruhoe, to explore the new 
lan<L Passing over the plains, and 
skirting the la^e, he cast his staff into 
the water; the great totara tree into 
which it grew may be seen to this day. 
Just then the clouds, whioh had hitherto 
concealed the moun tain ,parted asunder 
and disclosed the great cone of Ton- 
gariro which he immediately resolved 
to ascend. But the intense cold of the 
snowy height was too much for a lad 
who had but lately left the balmy 
breezes of Hawaiki ; so Ngatoroirangi 
called to his friends in White Island 
to bring fire to warm the stiffening 
limbs of Ngauruhoe. The charge was 
speedily obeyed, some say by the mother 
of the boy, o41iers by a mighty taniwha ; 
as the messenger came in haste hot 
cinders were dropped all along the 
way, which are yet to be seen burning. 
When the relief arrived, alas ! it was 
too late. Ngauruhoe was already cold 
and dead. Ngatoroirangi in sad de- 
epair threw the useless torch upon the 
summit of Buapehu, and the smoke 
which even now rises from it shows it 
is smouldering there still. 

The first mountain which comes 
in view is Tongabibo, a volcanic cone 
with the top blown off. On its N. 
face can be seen the hot springs of 
Keteiahi and Te Mari. Just to the S. 
of it j-ises the perfect cylindrical 
cone of NoAUBUEoSf built up of light 
scoria and ashes ; from its crater is 
always issuing either a white column 
of steam or a gigantic pillar of dense 
black smoke. To the S. again is 




RuAPMHU, the largest and loftiest 
mountain in the Island, which marks 
the southernmost point of the yol- 
oanic region. The vast crater of 
Buapehu is surrounded by walls 
of ice, and is partly filled with 
a lake which is usually frozen hard ; 
when the volcano is specially active, 
the ice melts and the whole lake 
becomes a boiling mass, giving forth 
volumes of steam. 

Soon after leavingTokaano the road 
crosses the Waikato R., and then, 
after climbing the hill, passes along 
an elevated table-land, clothed with 
stunted vegetation that will almost 
remind the traveller of the Arctic 
regions, lying between the volcanic 
range on the one side and the deep 
blue of the Kaimanaioa Mts. on the 
other. Several rivers, which have 
cut deep ravines for themselves 
through the pumice stone (which 
has been poured forth from the 
volcanoes farther N. during former 
eruptions) are crossed. 

llie traveller will notice in these 
cuttings the charred remains of 
forest trees which were destroyed 
by the eruption. 

After about 30 m. the road passes 
through the Rangipo or On«topu desert, 
a barren tract 4 m. bi'oad, totally 
devoid of vegetation . At the southern 
end of this the Wangaehu R., a mar- 
vellous stream of rushing milk-white 
water, highly charged with mineral 
salts and sulphuric acid, is crossed. 
(See p. [27]) 9 m. over the Murumutu 
plains then leads to Karioi. 

45 m. Karioi. A village, both 
English and Maori. Good accommo- 
dation for the night maybe obtained. 
Karioi is situated at the foot of Rua- 
pehu, and commands splendid views 
of the mountain and its glaciers. 

Karioi to Pipiriki, 35 m. The 
road at first lies along the open 
Murumutu plains, and then enters 
a very pretty wooded country. 

10 m. Ohakuni. A track to the 
rt. here branches off to Waimarino. 
See Bte. 11. 

Should the traveller wish to break 
his journey and stop here, rough 
accommodation may be obtained. 

The country after this is very 
hilly, with deep ravines, and wild, 
magnificent forest. 

35 m. Pipiriki. Znn. 

On the Wanganui River. 

If possible, a day should be spent 
here, a canoe hired, and an excur- 
sion made up the river. For the 
scenery, see below. 

There was a military station on the 
rt. bank here during the native tronblej 
in 1865. The remains of the earthworks 
may still be seen. Major Brassey was 
besieged there by the natives. His am- 
munition and supplies running short, 
it was necessary for him to obtain as- 
sistance at all hazards. The only means 
of doing so was to send a despatch to 
the Governor at Wererpa. The fear 
was, however, that a letter might fall 
into the hands of the enemy, and 
serious consequences might ensue if 
they learnt the true state of affairs. 
Many of them could read English, and 
some (who had been instructed by the 
B. C. missionaries) might understand 
French. The gallant Major there- 
fore resolved to write his despatch in 
Latin. It consisted of the words 
'Sumus sine rebus belli satis.' This 
expressive (if hardly Ciceronian) epistle 
was carried by a friendly native and 
delivered safely. It had the desired 
effect ; the garrison was soon after- 
wards relieved, and the enemy cleared 
from the neighbourhood. 

(a) From Tokaano it is possible 
also to go W. to Taumaranui, on the 
Wanganui B., and thence down by 
canoe to Pipiriki. This route enables 
the traveller to see some of the finest 
river scenery in N. Z., and to have 
a most enjoyable trip on the river ; 
but is longer and more expensive 
than that already described. 

ToKAANO TO Taumaranui. 38 m. 

The traveller will have obtained 
horses and guides at Tokaano. 
He should be careful not to go the 
shortest track, which saves but little 
in time, and omits the most beau- 



tiful part of the soenery. The proper 
route is over the lofty ridge of Pi- 
hangij an active Tolcano. iVom this 
point there is a magnificent view * 
over Lake Taupo and the undulating 
country beyond ; the volcanic range, 
and, far away in the E., the Kai- 
manawa mountains. 

From Pihangi the route descends 
rapidly to the shores of 

la m. Boto Aira. A beautiful 
little lake. 

Some of the last skirmishes be- 
tween the natives and the colonists 
took place, near here, in 1869. 

The route then strikes W. across 
a district covered with volcanic ashes 
and pumice stone, until it reaches 
the rich alluvial flat of the Wan- 
ganui R. 

38 m. Taumaranui, a native 
village on tlie Wanganui 12., near its 
junction with the Ongaruhe. The 
projected route of the Rly. from 
Marton descends a, 000 ft. from the 
Waimarino table-land on the S., and 
crosses the Wanganui R. near this 
point, and then follows up the 
valley of the Ongaruha towards 

In the time of the war an English- 
man named Moffat lived at Tanma- 
ranni, and earned his living by makiTig 
gunpowder for the natives. Some 
years afterwards, the natives, being 
jealons of him, resolved to shoot him. 
However he had one Maori friend who 
protested against this course ; and 
when the others fired at Moffat he 
mshed forward and clasped him in 
liis arms ; but they, disregarding this, 
£red again, and the two friends fell 
dead. Moifat is supposed to have 
amassed a large sum of money which 
he buried somewhere, but it has never 
been foimd. 

Taumaraitui down the biveb to 
PiPiBiKi AND Wanganui. 

A journey of 136 m. From Tau- 
maranui to Pipiriki (66 m.) the 
traveller must go by Maori canoe. 
At least three days must be allowed. 
From Pipiriki onwards he may go 
either by canoe, for which two 

days should be allowed, or by 
steamer, which takes less than half 
a day. 

Provisions for the canoe trip should 
be taken ; also sleeping rugs and a 
small tent, unless the traveller is 
prepared to risk the accommodation 
of a whare at one of the native 

The scenery throughout the whole 
journey is very fine ; at every turn 
are seen fresh scenes of interest, the 
river taking sudden bends, at one 
time passing through rapids, at 
another through peaceful lake-like 
reaches between banks of bold papa 
rocks overhung with beautiful masses 
of ferns and shrubs. Richly wooded 
hills, broken by deep gullies, with 
occasional waterfalls, rise far over- 
head on either side. Perhaps the 
most striking scenery is that between 
Taumaranui and Pipiriki. The fall 
between Taumaranui and the ocean 
is 600 ft. 

For the first 8 m. the river is 
rather open, then it becomes more 
thut in. At 13 m. the banks become 
bold and lofty, and a series of rapids 
is entered. The passage of these is 
not dangerous, as the Maoris know 
every turn of the river, and are well 
practised in steering their canoes. 
It is interesting to watch their 
skilful management. 

18 m. The Faparoa rapid. Thfe 
scenery is very fine. The river is 
divided into two channels by a rocky 
islet. There is a waterfall on the 
rt. bank. 

a6 m. Here the river Ohura joins 
on the rt., and falls over a papa 
ledge into the Wanganui R. 

38 m. The Ohei rapid. A bold 
cliff on the rt. bank is passed, which 
resembles the fore part of a large 
ironclad. It is called Te Rerenga- 
o-ko-Inaki, from a Maori legend of 
how one Inaki here leaped into 
the river and ended his life. The 
traveller may twist this into what- 
ever love-tale he pleases. 

E 3 



41 m. Taurapoklore. Here a 
huge landslip has come down on the 
1. and confined the river into a swift 
and difficult rapid. 

The traveller will after this notice 
various streams flowing into the 
river. Some of them have cut deep 
into the papa rocks ; others appear 
to be falling over buttresses of fan- 
tastic shapes. 

5a m. Here the river Tangarakau 
joins on the rt. bank. There are 
some coal formations up the course 
of this river. 

65 m. Utapu, a native village on 
the rt. bank. 

After tbis there are some good 
reaches, with bold papa rock &ces 
upon both sides. In these may be 
observed holes worn by the ends of 
canoe poles used for generations in 
poling up the stream. 

7a m. The river Manga-nui-o-te-ao 
joins on the 1., haidng flowed down 
from the snows of Ruapehu. It is a 
remarkable scene. It is well worth 
while to go up the Manga-nui-o-te-ao 
for a short distance ; the cliffs ure 
bold and covered with rich foliage ; 
the effects of light and shade are 

The river now passes through the 
Ngaporo and Autapu rapids, between 
almost perpendicular cliffs richly 
clad withferns.and other vegetation. 

On the rt. -may be observed several 
caves in the rock ; in the largest of 
these is a waterfall about 35 ft. high. 

79 m. Pipirikl 

Here the former Bte. is joined. 

Fbom PlPEEUBci TO Waxoasvi, 57 m. 
Two days by canoe ; less than half 
a day by river steamer. 

Just below Pipiriki the jK^eneiy is 
very picturesque. 

a m. Here a fine quiet reach is 
entered upon. 

6 m. Hiruharama (Jerusalem). A 
native settlement on the 1. bank, 
worthy of a visit. It has a R. 0. 

mission, and some extent of cleared 

8 m. Moutoa Island, the scene 
of a famous combat. 

In 1864, after the outbreak of Hau> 
hanism, Met^ Eingi and his followers 
challenged the Haahaos to prove the 
strength of their new deities by meeting 
them in battle. They accepted, and Metd 
Eingi, coming up from Wanganm with 
about 300 men, met Matend, the Hauhan 
chief, who was coming down the river 
with about half that number, on the 
island. The battle, though at one time 
doubtful, ended in the complete route 
of the Hauhaus. The victors lost 
twelve killed and thirty wounded ; 
the Hauhaus left nearly forty dead on 
the island (including Maten^), and 
many more were shot in their attempt 
to escape by the river. Many prisoners 
were taken, and handed over by Kingi 
to tke English, with an earnest request 
that they might soon be set at liberty ; 
they were aooordingly returned to 
Eingi, and afterwards lived peaceably 
with him. 

10 m. Ranana (London). An 
important native settlement or 
^ kainga.' 

13 m. Slaraitea (Galatea). 

17 m. Koriniti (Olorinth). A native 
village on the 1. bank. Some good 
specimens of native work may be 
seen in the meeting house. 

35 m. Atene (Athens). A pic- 
turesque bend of the river. 

The site of the old river bed may 
be seen to the 1. According to the 
Maori legend eonoeming the journey • 
ingfi of Taranaki, the present course 
of the river was scouped out by the 
mountain when coming down from 
Taupo. (See Rte. la.) 

3a m. Farakino, on the L bank 
(also known as Eaitangata). 

From this point the river passes 
through more open scenery, and soon 
enters the parts occupied by Euro- 
pean settlers. The region of tidal 
influence is soon afterwards reached. 



50 m. XTpokongaro, on the 1. 
bank. After this, the scenery is of 
a quiet character. 

54 m. Araxnoho. The river here 
passes under the Rly. bridge, and 
soon afterwards enters the suburbs 
of Wanganui. A fine iron bridge 
crosses the river close to the wharf 
and the Rly. station. 

57 m. Wanganui. See Rte. 14. 

[Another very beautiful if less 
interesting route is from Tokaano by 
coach to Waioru in the centre of the 
Murumutu plain, where a halt is 
made for the night ; and the next 
day by Turangariri (see Rte. 8) to 
the terminus of the Rly. which is 
rapidly being extended from Marton 
vi& Hunterville (see Rte. 15) and is 
intendedultimately to unite with the 
line from Auckland vi& Te Kuiti.] 



This Route cannot compare in 
matter of interest with that by Ro- 
torua and Taupo ; but if the traveller 
has ali'eady seen the central part of 
the Island, it enables him to explore 
a new and little known district, 
and to descend the Wanganui River 
without going over the same ground 

As facilities for accommodation, 
expenses, &c., are constantly chang- 
ing, enquiries should be made before 
leaving Auckland. 

Auckland to Te Kum, ia6 m. Rly. 
q6s, 3^., 175. 6d. ; R. 35*., 235. 4rf. 

Auckland TO Fbankton, See Rte. 3. 

85 m. Frankton. 

For 10 m. the Rly. crosses the 
Rukuhia swamp, of a similar forma- 
tion to that at Piako. 

94 m. Ohaupo. 

Hotel: Ohaupo, 

A small settlement in a pros- 
perous agricultural district. Many 
tons of honey are exported annually. 
The cattle trade is extensive. 

97 m. Ijake Hoad, The small 
lakes from which this and the next 
fitat. (Nga roto) take their names, 
may be seen on the rt. 

The road now goes through a roll- 
ing country to 

100 m. Te Awamutu. 

Hotel: Leioiii'. 

dxnxokes: Ang^; Pres.,- WesL 

Thisr district has been the scene of 
many engagements dnring the war 
time. In 1862 Mr. (now Sir John) 
Gorst was living here as. a Resident 
Magistrate, bnt was driva& away, and 
the school he had established for the 
natives broken up. In the following 
year it was the headquarters of General 

Three miles from Te Awamutu is 
the site of the Orakau Pa, the cap- 
ture of which formed one of the 
most thrilling incidents in the 
Maori war. 

The pa stood on a long rolling mound ; 
northwards, the land sloped down to a 
patch of forest. From the S.W. a ridge 
curved round to the S.E. at a distance 
of about 300 yds., leaving a hollow 
between the pa and the crest of the 
ridge at the S.E. To the S. the ridge 
was steep, and about 40 fb. high. 
The ground was covered only with 
ferns and a few flax bushes. On this 
spot — chosen not so much on account 
of its natural strength as for other 
reasons — the natives under Rewi 
hastily constructed rifle-pits and de- 
fences. Gen. Cameron resolved to make 



an attack with a force of 1,300 men, 
divided into three bandB. The defend- 
ing party, including women and chil- 
dren, cannot have amounted to more 
than one-third of that number. Yet, in 
spite of these fearful odds, with no better 
defences than flax and fern and their 
hand weai>on8, did the natives through 
two terrible days and nights — sup- 
ported by nothing but a few gourds 
and raw potatoes, and without a drop 
of water--drive back one after another 
the assaults of the attacking party. 
By the end of that time, however, the 
sappers had done their work. Strong 
reinforcements arrived. A breach was 
made, and cannon brought up so as to 
bear directly on the native force. Then 
the General, struck with admiration at 
the gallantry of the little defending 
party, called on them to surrender, 
under a solemn promise that their lives 
should be spared. To this Bewi replied 
' Ka wluiwhai tonu^ ak^y aki^ aki ! ' (We 
will fight to the end, for ever, for ever, 
for ever !) Once more the General urged 
them at least to save the lives of the 
women and children by sending them 
into the English camp. But the old 
warrior merely answered, ' Maori 
women fight like Maori men.' Seeing 
with sorrow that there was no alterna- 
tive, Cameron ordered an assault. For 
a time attack afber attack was driven 
back by the wearied and famishing 
Maoris, with the courage of despera- 
tion, when suddenly the fearful truth 
flashed across them that their ammuni- 
tion was almost spent. Then they 
called upon their long-forgotten deities 
— on Tu-matu (the god of terrible form) 
and Ta-whakaheke (the destroyer of 
men) for aid against their enemies ; 
and commenced their final retreat. In 
an instant a cry ran through the Eng- 
lish ranks, ' They are escaping ! ' In 
moments of intense excitement it is 
always hard to discover the exact de- 
tails. One of the English soldiers who 
was present has reported that they 
marched out in a solemn column, the 
women, children, and g^eat chiefs in 
the centre, as cool and steady as if 
they had been going to church. An- 
other eyewitness said that they rushed 
forth headlong down the slope, and 
leaped sheer over the heads of the 
soldiers who were in a trench below 
the ridge. At least this is certain, 
that almost without ammunition or 
defence, a body of the natives did 

force their way out, and, under a 
terrible and galling fire from the Eng^- 
lish troops, reach the swamp below, 
and thus escape down the river, taking 
with them a number of their women 
and children. 

This was practically the end of the 
Waikato war. 1,195,306 acres were con- 
fiscated, and setUements of soldiers 
and others formed. On the hill of 
Eakepuku the traveller may still see 
the spot where Wiremu Kingi went to 
have a last view and to weep over the 
land he had lost. Those who have 
travelled in Spain will not fail to be 
reminded of *E1 ultimo suspire del 

3 m. from Te Awamutu is Kihi- 
Tdhi, which was formed as a mili- 
tary settlement. Rewi now lives 
there peaceably, in a comfortable 
English house. 

8 m. from Te Awamutu is Alex- 
andra, a settlement beautifully situ- 
ated at the foot of the Pirongia 
Range, at the head of the navigation 
of the Waipa R. 

Near the present town once stood 
the famous pa of Matakitaki^ which 
was situated between the Maungapiko 
and the Waipa rivers, and was attacked 
by Hongi during a tribal war about 1822. 
The inland side of the pa was strongly 
fortified ; but Hongi's force came in 
their canoes, and hmded at a point of 
low huid. The strength of the fortifi- 
cations made it the more difficult for 
the besieged party to escape. A num- 
ber of them who attempted to scale 
a lofty palisade fell back and were 
crushed to death by other fugitives 
pressing on behind. About 1,000 must 
have perished in the siege. Te Whero 
Where, who was afterwards known as 
Pototau, King of New Zealand (see pp. 
[51], [$7]\ was amongst the few that 

Alexandra formed a frontier town, 
being close to the boundary of the con- 
fiscated land ; it was parcelled out to 
the 2nd Regiment Waikato Militia at 
the end of the war, in 1864. A short 
distemce beyond Alexandra, just within 
the native territory is Whatiiohatihoe, 
which was built by the Maori King 
Tawhiao, when he resolved to relax his 
policy of isolation towards the Euro- 
peans. The first time he visited Auck- 



land after the war, he was courteously 
received, and accordingly invited a 
number of Europeans to pay a return 
visit to him at Whatiwhatihoe. 

About 3 m. S. of Te Awamutu, 
the Punui R, is crossed ; this is the 
limit of the confiscated territory. 
The * King country * is then entered, 
and cultivation left behind. Along 
the line are to be seen various pas, 
with patches of potatoes. 

115 m. Otorohanga. Hotel. 

A small settlement on the Waipa 
R. The great chief Wahanui lived 
in his old age in a comfortable 
house on the 1. side of the Rly. The 
Native Land Court (for investigating 
and individualizing the title to land 
owned by natives according to tribal 
custom) now holds sittings here. 

[From Otorohanga an excursion may 
be made to the exquisite Waitomo 
caves. There is a carriage road from 
the next station, Hangatiki ; but as 
. there are no carriages or horses to be 
obtained there, the only way to reach 
the oaves is on horseback from Otoro- 
hanga. Mr. Hettit, of the Otorohanga 
hotel, will make all arrangements ; as 
mails are few, it is better to telegraph 
to him previously. Unfortunately, the 
trains at present are so inconvenient 
that part of the excursion must be 
made by night. If the moon is shining, 
this is pleasant enough ; otherwise, 
tourists had better arrange to drive 
from Te Awamutu. 

Soon after leaving Otorohanga, the 
Waipa B. is forded. Then a path 
leads through fern and manuka ; the 
track is soft and easy, but the scenery 
is not striking. At 6 m. the road from 
Hangatiki is reached ; after this the 
scenery becomes richer and more 
varied, and a pleasant canter along the 
soft road for 5 m. takes the traveller 
to the beauti^ valley in which the 
caves are situated. Here the horses must 
be left with the guide and the caves 
entered. These are much like other 
stalactite caves, graceful pendants 
hang down like delicate drapery from 
the roof, or form themselves into 
pillars by uniting with the stalag- 
mites which rise to meet them. The 
great charm lies in their being as yet 
perfectly unspoUt ; they are exquisitely 

white, resembling sometimes crystal, 
sometimes wool; no torches have 
blackened the roof, and but few snobs 
have managed to desecrate the spot by 
breaking oft specimens or scrawling 
their unworthy names. Fantastic re- 
semblances to bulbs, figures, organ- 
pipes, and Gothic arches have already 
been discovered, the most curious being 
the blanket* which is shown by a 
light being held behind it, when it 
appears exactly like a blanket, not only 
in shape and texture, but even in the 
colour of the lines and the stitching at 
the edge. The most lovely spot of all 
is the gloui>-worm grotto* ; myriads of 
tiny glowworms light up the roof, and 
are refiected in the water of the river 

As all the country as far as the 
Mokau is of the same limestone forma- 
tion, fresh caves are being constantly 

The country after this is remark- 
ably pretty, well watered and tim- 
bered, and admirably adapted for 

120 m. Hangitiki. 

ia6 m. Te Kuiti. Inn. 

This was at one time the capital 
of the King country. 

Soon after this, the Rly. crosses 
the Waiteti valley by a viaduct. It 
then ascends rapidly, until the head 
waters of the Mokau are reached. 
At this point, the rails for the pre- 
sent cease ; but a tunnel has been 
made further on. 

The land in this district is all 
owned by Maoris. Horses and a 
guide must be obtained at Te Kuiti. 

Te Kuiti to Taumabanui. 57 m. 

It is better to take two days over 
this part of the journey. Arrange- 
ments can be made for staying the 
night at the small village of Poro- 
taroa, at the northern end of the 
tunnel of that name. 

The country is rich, chiefly 
wooded, and partly open ; the 
scenery varied, but not striking. 

8 m. Mokau River. Lower down 
the river, which is here crossed, are 



fine deposits of coal of which speci- 
mens were shown at the Great Ex- 
hibition of 1 85 1. 

29 m. Porotaroa. 

About 5 m. after this, the scenery 
entirely changes. The track enters 
the deep, wide valley which has 
been covered, and partly filled, by 
tremendous showers of pumice-stone 
from volcanic eruptions. Manuka 
and other small shrubs grow at 
intervals through the pumice-stone. 

30 m. Ongaruha River^ the main 
tributary of the Wanganui. The 
track now goes along the river 
valley, until the junction of the 
Ongaruha and Wanganui rivers, near 

57 m. Taumaranui. 
Thence down the Wanganui River. 
See Rte. 10. 

[It is possible also to proceed by land 
vift Waimarino and Ohakuni. 2 days' 

Taumaranui to OTiakuni. 50 m. 
Soon after starting, the traveller 

fords the Wanganui R. ; and, after 
crossing fertile fiats for about 5 m., 
Mkters the wonderfdl totara forest* of 
the Waimarino. After about 25 m. of 
magnificent forest and bush country, 
the track passes out into the open flats, 
with an extensive view across the 
tussock-covered plains towards the 
volcanic mountains. 

32 m. 'Waimarino, at the end of the 
plains of that name. Here there are 
some Government huts, and a pa at 
which a halt for the night may be 
made. At this point the vegetation 
becomes entirely diflferent. The alti- 
tude is about 2,600 ft., the country open 
and park-like. Then the track passes 
through more forest and woodland 
scenery. Two enormous canons, densely 
wooded and of great depth and beauty, 
are crossed. 

50 m. Ohakuni. See Rte. la 
Rough acoommodation may be ob- 
tained here should the traveller wish 
to proceed to Pipiriki. Should he wish 
to go- by Karioi, Turangarere, and 
Hunterville, he had better press on to 

ROUTE 12. 


AUCKLA17D TO Onehunga. 8 m. 
Rly. (See Rte i.) 

Onehunga to New Plymouth. i6o 
m. Steamer. 

The Union SS. Co.'s steamers go 
frequently. There are also steamers 
belonging to the Northern SS. Co. 
running between Onehunga and 
Waitara, whence there is a Rly. to 
New Plymouth (12 m.) 

At Onehunga (Rte, i) the tra- 
veller leaves the train and embarks 
on the SS. for New Plymouth. 

The first part of the voyage is in 
a westerly direction across The 
Manukau^ an extensive and land- 
locked sheet of water, enclosed by 
pretty hills, some of them still well 

timbered. Unfortunately it is shal- 
low and, like most of the harbours 
on the W. coast, has a bar which can 
only be crossed, even by medium 
sized vessels, at high tide. 

Along the coast outside the Bar 
can be seen at low tide some frag- 
ments of H.M.S. Orpheus, a steam cor- 
vette, lost here with 189 hands on. 
Feb. 7, 1863. The ill-fated vessel was 
on her way from Sydney with stores 
for the ships of war then in N. Z. 

1 It is possible alsoto proceed from Auckland 
as far as New Plymouth overland. 126 m. 
Rly. to Te Kuiti and 8 m. ride thence to 
Mokau River (aee Rte. 11). Thence down the 
river to its mouth by Maori canoe ; and ride 
thence to New Plymouth. This way is how- 
ever so rough that it cannot yet be called a 
toniiat route. 



waters. When at the entrance to 
the Manukau Harbour, she struck 
on a sandbank M'hich had increased 
in size since the Admiralty chart 
had been published, and foundered. 
On a clear day, some time after 
leaving Manukau Heads, the glorious 
cone of the extinct volcano Mount 
EoMONT (8,260 ft.) appears in sight. 
Japanese visitors have confessed 
that it rivals their own Fusiama ; 
and Cook, somewhat fan-cifu-lly, 
compared it to the Peak of Tene- 
riffe. Perhaps the most striking 
view is from the S.y where the 
solitary cone seems to stand up from 
the plain perfectly symmetrical. 

According to a strange Maori legend, 
T^ranaki (by which name the Maoris 
designate the mountain) originally 
stood at what is now Lake Taupo. Ton- 
gariro and Taranaki were rival aniiors 
for the afiPections of Suapehu ; as she 
favoured Tongariro, Taranaki plucked 
up his roots and moved to Bcmgatanay 
where there is now a small lake. Look- 
ing back, the sight of the wedded bliss 
of his rival was too much for him, so 
he moved on to the Waitara district, 
and halted where Lake NukuTnaru now 
lies. Tongariro and Buapehu were still 
in sight ; but in the other direction he 
espied Poatoha^ a female mountain 
which stood aJone on the western 
coast. Charmed by her, he forgot 
Buapehu, and settled down happily by 
her side. The hills on the eastern 
bank of the Wanganui B. are the 
offspring of Tongariro and Buapehu; 
those on the western, of Taranaki and 
Poawha. The truth of the story is 
proved by the channel near Atene, 
which Taranaki cut on his way down 
the Wanganui R (see Bte. 10), and 
by the existence of the koaro fish, 
which are found in Taupo and the 
other lakes where Taranaki stopped, 
but nowhere else in N. Z. 

(This is but one of many Polynesian 
legends about the vagaries of moun- 
tains. It has been conjectured that it 
refers to some g^at volcanic disturb- 
ance which took place after the Maoris 
had arrived in N. Z.) 

160 m. New Plymouth Break- 
"water. Here passengers land and 
take the train to 

a m. 

Kot«U: Criterion; White Hart; and 

GhnxolxM: Ang. ; Pres. ; JR. C. / 
West.; Bupf, 

CoBveyanoeii : Hackney Carriages. 
By distance : is. a mile for each person ; 
6d. each additional half mile, for each 
person. By ttjne : a horse cab, 5«. 
an hour ; each subsequent ^ hour, is. 
I horse cab, 4s. an hour ; each sub- 
sequent i hour, 9<f. JDouUe fares be- 
tween 6 p.m. and 8 a.m. 

Historical Sketch. 

The district has had a strange and 
interesting history. According to 
Maori tradition, the first canoes which 
arrived here were the Maiahoura and 
the Aotea (the name of the latter being 
still retained in the town of Patea). 
Next came the Tokomaru bringing the 
ancestors of the warlike Ngatiawa tribe, 
led by the chief Manaia. They soon 
dispossessed the peaceiul tribes who 
had already settled in the neighbour- 
hood, and in their turn sent out 
colonies N. and S. 

la i8a3 Hongi, the Kgapuhi chief 
from the Bay of Islands (see p. [51]), 
commenced his raid on the natives in 
the S. ; his principal follower, Waka 
Nene, coming as far as Taranaki. 
A Waikato chief, Te Wherowhero, 
attacked Pukerangiora, on the Wai- 
kato Biver. 

In 1831 an army of about 4,000 Wai- 
kato invaded the district. The pa of Ti- 
korangi was easily taken ; the stronger 
position at Pukerangiora was besieged 
and after twelve days was captured. 
The vanquished were treated with 
savage brutality by the conquerors, 500 
being slain and the rest carried into 
slavery. The Waikato then proceeded 
southwards, to attack the Ngamotu 
pa at Moturoa (close to the present 
breakwater). This, however, was forti- 
fied not onl^ in native fashion but also 
with four small cannon, the property of 
Europeans living with the Ngatiawa. 
Strengthened by these and the advice 
of their European friends, the Ngatia- 
wa at length repelled the Waikato 
with great slaughter. One of these 
cannon may now be seen in the Becrea- 



tion grounds at New Plymonth (see 

These old tribal raids, however, were 
no more devoid of chivalry and romance 
than the mediaeval wars which they so 
strangely resemble. The following 
story connected with the famous Wha- 
karewa pa (the remains of which are 
still to be seen about 12 m. to the 
S. of New Plymouth) was narrated by 
a Maori chief to Sir Gheorge Grey, who 
has published it in detail in his Polj^ 
nesian Mythology : — ' There was, several 
generations since, a chief of the Tara- 
naki tribe, named Bangirarunga. His 
pa was called Whakarewa ; it was a 
large pa, renowned for the strength of 
its fortifications. This chief had a very 
beautiful daughter, whose name was 
Bau-mahora ; she was so celebrated 
for her beauty that the fame of it had 
reached all parts of these islands, and 
had, therefore, come to the ears of Te 
Bangi-apitirua, a chief of the Ngati- 
Awa tribes, to whom belonged the pa 
of Puke-ariki, on the hill where the 
Governor's house stood in New Ply- 
mouth. This chief had a son named 
Takarangi; he was the hero of his tribe. 
He, too, naturally heard of the beauty 
of Bau-mahora ; and it may be that his 
heart sometimes dwelt long on the 
thoughts of such great loveliness. 

* Now in those days long past, there 
arose a war between the tribes of Te 
Bangi-apitirua and of the father of 
Bau-mahora ; and the army of the 
Ngati-Awa tribes marched to Taranaki, 
to attack the pa of Bangirarunga, and 
the army invested that fortress, and 
sat before it night and day, yet they 
could not take it; they continued 
nevertheless constantly to make as- 
saults upon it, and to attack the garri- 
son of the fortress, so that its inhabi- 
tants became worn out for want of 
provisions and water, and many of 
them were near dying. 

' At last the old chief of the pa, Bangi- 
rarunga, overcome by thirst, stood on 
the top of the defences of the pa, and 
cried out to the men of the enemy's 
army, *' I pray you to give me one drop 
of water. " Some of his enemies, pitying 
the aged man, said *'Yes;" and one 
ran with a calabash to bring him water. 
But the majority being more hard- 
hearted, were angary at this, and broke 
the calabash in his hands, so that not 
a drop of water reached the poor old 
man ; and this was done several times, 

whilst his enemies continued disputing 
among thems^ves. 

' The old chief still stood on the top 
of the earthen wall of the fortress, 
and he saw the leader of the hostile 
force, with the symbols of his rank 
fastened on his head ; he wore a long 
white comb, made from the bone of a 
whale, and a plume of the long downy 
feathers of the white heron, the em- 
blems of his chieffcainship. Then was 
heard by all, the voice of the aged man 
as he shouted to him from the top of 
the wall, "Who art thou?" And the 
other cried out to him, " Lo, he who 
stands here before you is TakarangL" 
And the aged chief of the pa called 
down to him, "Young warrior, art 
thou able to still the wrathful surge 
which foams on the hidden rocks of 
the shoal of 0-rongo-mai-ta-kupe ? '* 
meaning, " Hast thou, although a 
chief, power to calm the wrath of 
these fierce men ? " Then proudly 
replied to him the young chief, "The 
wrathful surge shall be stilled ; this 
arm of mine is one which no dog 
dares to bite," meaning that no ple- 
beian hand dared touch his arm, 
made sacred by his deeds and rank, or 
to dispute his wilL But what Taka- 
rangi was really thinking in his heart 
was, " That dying old man is the father 
of Bau-maliora, of that so lovely maid. 
Ah, how I should grieve if one so young 
and innocent should die tormented 
with the want of water." Then he 
arose, and slowly went to bring water 
for that aged man, and for his youthful 
daughter; and he filled a calabash, 
dipping it up from the cool spring 
which gushes up from the earth, and 
is named Fount Oringi^ No word 
was spoken, or movement made, by the 
crowd of fierce and angry men, but all, 
resting upon their arms, looked on in 
wonder and in silence. Calm lay the 
sea, that was before so troubled, all 
timid and respectful in the young 
hero's presence; and the water was 
taken to Takarangi, and by him was 
held up to the aged chief; then was 
heard by all the voice of Takarangi, as 
he cried aloud to him, " There :— said I 
not to you, *No dog would dare to 
bite this hand of mine?' Behold the 
water for you and for that young 

1 The spring of Oringi is still well known 
to the Taranaki natives, as also the site of 
the pa near it. 



fpxV* Then they drank, both of them, 
and Takarangi gaaed ea^rly at the 
yonng girl, and ^e too looked eagerly 
at Takarangi; long time gazed they, 
each one at the other ; and as the war- 
riors of the army of Takarangi looked 
on, lo, he had climbed np and was sit- 
ting at the yonng maiden's side ; and 
they said among themselves, " O com- 
rades, our lord Takarangi loves war, 
bat one would think he likes Ban- 
mahora almost as welL" 

' At last a sadden thonght straok the 
heart of the aged chief, of the father of 
Ban-mahora : so he said to his daoghter, 
** O my child, woold it be pleasing to 
yoa to have this yoong chief for a hos- 
band?" and the yoong girl said, *'I 
like Imn." Then the old man con- 
sented that his daoghter shoold be 
given as a bride to Takarangi, and he 
took her as his wife. Thence was that 
war brooght to an end, and the army 
of Takarangi dispersed, and they re- 
tomed each man to his own village, 
and they came back no more to nu^e 
war against the tribes of Taranaki — 
for ever were ended their wars against 

^ And the descendants of Bao-mahora 
dwell here in Wellington. They are 
Te Poni, and all his children, and his 
relatives. For Takarangi and Bao-ma- 
hora had a daoghter named Bongooa- 
roa, who was married to Te T\^ti; 
and they had a son named Aniwaniwa, 
who married Tawhiriknra; and they 
had a son named Berewha-i-ter-angi, 
and he married Poko, who was the 
mother of Te Poni* 

As early as 1825 establishments for 
Eoropean whalers had been formed at 
intervals along the coast. That at 
Motoroa was kept by ' Dicky Barrett ' 
the owner of the gun referred to 
(p. 60). 

In 1834 a whaling barqoe (Oapt. 
GkiardX ran a-shore 31 m. S. of New 
Plymooth. The captain's wife and chil- 
dren and the crew got safely to land, 
bat were attacked by a party of natives. 
The men managed to escape and were 
sheltered by the Motoroa natives, bot 
Mrs. Goard and the children were 
taken prisoners. Gapt. Goard then 
went to Sydney and persoaded Gover- 
nor Boorke to sendH.M.S. ^U^atorand 
Isabella with a detachment of the 50th 
Begiment to rescoe them. This led 
to the first actoal encoonter between 
British soldiers and the Maoris. Accord- 

ing to Dr. Marshall, an eye-witness, the 
episode does not add to the glory ol 
England. The captives had been kindly 
treated, and the natives were willing 
to restore them for a moderate ransom. 
The English cheated the Maoris oot of 
the promised ransom and then shot a 
nomber of them after the captives had 
been restored, with no provocation and 
whilst a flag of trace was flying. The 
following day the soldiers amosed 
themselves by playing football with the 
head of a chief. The captain's official 
report stated that twenty to thirty had 
been killed. 

In iTanoary 1840 an association called 
*The Plymooth Company of New Zea- 
land' was formed in England, the 
Earl of Devon being Governor. In the 
previoos year CoL Wakefield had con- 
Bolted Dicky Barrett as to the soit- 
ability of the district for settlement. 
Land was porchased from the natives ; 
and doring the year 1841 three ships 
arrived bringing parties of inmiigrants 
(most of them stordy yeomen from the 
W. of England); and these were followed 
by other vessels in 1843. 

In 1844 however the great * land qoes- 
tion' arose. The settlers claimed to 
have porchased 70,000 acres from the 
natives. Mr. Spain, a commissioner 
sent oot from England to enqoire into 
alleged porchases of land, redoced the 
amoont to 60,000. Even this decision, 
however, was not final ; the governor 
(Fitzroy) being reqoired to hold an in- 
dependent investigation at Taranaki, 
decided not to confirm even Mr. Spain's 
award, and redoced the settlement to 
4,000 acres. This decision was irrevoc- 
able. Under the next governor, Gapt. 
(now Sir) George Grey, aboot 30,000 
acres were reporchased. 

By 1850 the Eoropean popolation 
had risen to nearly i,aoo inhabitants, 
and in 1853, onder the Gonstitotion 
Act, Taranaki became a province with 
a soperintendent and a Provincial 

Soon, however, the land troobles 
began again. Althoogh several chiefs 
resolved to sell no more land the 
Government continoed making por- 
chases. In 1859 Governor Browne 
purchased a hafgQ block of land at 
Waitara fi*om an individoal named 
Teira who claimed to be the sole owner ; 
this Wi Kingi and other chiefs of the 
district denied, asserting that it was 
sobject not to individoal bot to tribal 



ownership. (It is in fact generally ad- 
mitted that snch a thing as priyate 
ownership of land with right of sale 
never existed anywhere amongst the 
Maoris, and to the misunderstanding 
on this point are due all the land dis- 
putes which brought about this lament- 
able war.) The Government neverthe- 
less proceeded to take possession of the 
land ; and this was the immediate 
cause of the Taranaki war, which lasted 
from Feb. i860 to March 1861 ; from 
1863 to the end of x866 ; and from May 
1868 to the middle of 1869. Aa it was 
but a part of the same war which was 
carried on in the other districts also, 
it may be said to have gone on without 
intermission from i860 to 11871. The 
details are too intricate to be given. 
here. On March 38, i860 was fought 
the battle of Waireka (5 m. from New 
Plymouth, see Bte. 13) in which the 
Imperial troops and blue jackets and 
the Taranaki militia and volunteers 
took part. This was followed by the 
battle of Fuketakuere (9 m> from New 
Plymouth). In the second war (1863- 
1866) both Wellington and Auckland 
became involved in the trouble. In 1866 
General Chute marched with a strong 
force from the S. through the then dense 
and unexplored forest to the E. of the 
mountain, and to New Plymouth, and 
thence round the coast to Patea and 
Wanganui destroying all the cultiva- 
tion and Maori pas on the way. The 
Government then made large confisca- 
tions of land belonging to the tribes 
that had taken part in the rebellion in 
order to meet the expenses of the war. 
The next war, which broke out in 1868, 
was fought with colonial troops alone^ 
the imperial forces having left in 1867. 
The natives were gradually driven into 
the interior, and their principal leader, 
Titoko Warn, finally escaped through 
the Ngaire swamp^ Peace waa soon 
afterwards proclaimed. 

In 1873 the purchase of land was re- 
commenced, but the system of purchas- 
ing openly from the whole assembled 
tribes was now reverted to. By the end 
of 1874 the Provincial Council became 
possessed of 380,000 acres suitable for 
settlement. In 1875 the road to Wai- 
tara was opened. Some aktroa was felt 
at New Plymouth in 188 1 at the prospect 
of the renewal of disturbances at Parie- 
haka (see Bte. 13) ; but the native diffi- 
culty may now be regarded as practi- 
cally at an end. 

The district was described by Go- 
yemor Hobson as 'the garden of 
New Zealand/ and every traveller 
will admit the accuracy of the de- 
scription. Even were Mount Eg- 
mont not there, the richness of the 
vegetation would alone be sufficient 
to make the scenery charming. It 
is possible to see the sights of the 
little town in a single morning, all 
being within a short walk ; but 
there are so many enjoyable walks 
and drives in the neighboiirhood, 
that the tourist (especially if fond 
of sketching or photography), should 
if possible arrange to make a longer 
visit. If pressed for time, the 
traveller should take a cab, and 
drive along Oarrington Boad to 
the entrance of the Heereatioa 
Uronnds. Walking through them, 
he will observe the Lake, which, with 
its masses of water-lilies, and groves 
of tree-ferns, makes a beautiful fore- 
groimd to the view of the mountain. 
Close by is Dicky Barretfs Cannon. 
Leaving the Gardens by the Liardet 
Street gate (where the cab should 
be in waiting), he should next drive 
to the Haoe Ck^nrse, in order to 
see the view from the top of the 
Grand Stand. Close by is Mandand 
BUI : it was formerly surmounted 
by the Barracks, and is worth as- 
cending for the view over the tovm, 

St. Mary's Cliiiroh (Ang.) in the 
Early English style, stands close to 
the foot of the hill, and is worth 
a visit ; it was commenced in 1845, 
and thus ranks as the oldest stone 
church in the colony. 

A drive of less than i m. leads 
to Mr. Mitehinson's Oardens, to 
which tourists are always welcomed. 
Close by is the Cemetery, in which 
is a monument erected to the me- 
mory of the soldiers of the 57th 
Begt. who fell during the war ; and 
another to the victims of the mas- 
sacre of 1869. 

Walks and Drives. 

A pretty drive of a| m. up the 
Avenue Boad leady to the Meeting 
of the Waters. 



Another drive of nearly 3 m. 
leads to the Waterworks at Puke- 
totara, on the Waiwakaiho Biver. 
The scenery by the river is veiy 


1. To the Breakwater, a m. by 
Bail or on foot. 

Travellers who have not landed 
at the Breakwater should on no 
account omit going to see it. The 
strange conical hills, called ^ The 
Sugarloaves,* rising out of the water 
at once catch the eye. They are 
not (as one is at first inclined 
to assume) tiny replicas of Mount 
Egmont, but are of a totally dif- 
ferent formation. The most lofty, 
Paritutu, rises to a height of 503 ft. 
A well-cut zigzag path leads to the 
summit. It was a great stronghold 
of the Maoris ; the pits they used for 
the storage of food are still to be 
seen on the smnmit. Close to Pari- 
tutu stood the Ngamotu pa, see p. 57. 

The breakwater, commenced in 
r88i with funds raised -by a loan of 
£aoo,ooo, has been completed to 
1,950 ft. It is 34 ft. in width on 
the top, and 4a at the base ; the 
concrete blocks with which it is 
faced have an average weight of 
s6 tons. Whether this great work 
will ever be really saiiisfactory — 
financially or otherwise — is doubtful. 

All along the coast will be noticed 
masses of black-looking sand. This 
is the famous ^ iron sand,' of which 
so much was at one time hoped. 
Various companies have been form- 
ed, and many thousands of pounds 
have been spent in proving that it 
can be smelted ; but how to do so at 
a remunerative rate has still to be 

2. To Waireka and Oakura. 
(See Bte. 13.) 

3. To Waitara. This excursion 
can be made either (i) by Bly. 
(la m.) or (a) by Boad (10 m.). 

(i) The Bly. proceeds in a N.E. 
direction to 

6 m. Sentry Hill June. Sta. 
(At this point the main line turns 
S. to Wanganui and Wellington.) 

10 m. Waitara Road Sta. 

la m. Waitara Sta. 

(a) The road passes through the 
suburb of Fitzroy, crosses the 
WaiuHtkaiho Bridge to 

7 m. Hua village. 

dose by is Mahoetahi^ the scene of a 
desperate enconnteronNov. 16, i860, be- 
tween the Waikato and the Yolnnteers 
assisted by the 65th and 40th Begts., re- 
sulting in a crushing defeat of the 
natives. This spot is also interesting 
as being, according to tradition, the site 
of the first settlement of the Maoris in 
the district. 

Soon after leaving Hua, the tra- 
veller passes over Waiongona Bridge^ 
and, X m. further, turns rt. along 
the Waitara Road. A short distance 
along this road on the 1. side is 
Kadrau, a small native village, 
which marks the site of No. i Be- 
doubt, occupied by Gen. Pratt with 
1,000 men in Dec.i86o. From this base 
he commenced the celebrated Siege 
0/ Te Arei. In the fields to the 1. of 
the road will be noticed the remains 
of several redoubts. In one of these 
— No. 3 — Mr. Simon Andrews, one 
of the few remaining pioneers, has 
built up his homestead, and from 
here the General ran the longest sap 
on record towards Hapurona's posi- 
tion at Te Arei. The remains are 
still to be seen running through the 
meadows parallel with the road. 
A special interest is attached to this 
No. 3 Bedoubt, as here the Maoris 
suffered a crushing repulse, which 
turned the tide of battle in favour of 
the English. 

In the early dawn of Jan. 33, 1861, 
about 140 natives, headed by Bewi 
Maniapoto, Hapurona, and others, crept 
unseen into the ditch of the redoubt, 
and were partly up the face of the 
parapet before they were discovered. 
A desperate hand-to-hand fight ensued, 
but the Maork -drew off on the ap- 
proach of British support from Eairan, 



leaving forty-five dead bodies in the 
trenches and many others outside. 

Passing through the little vil- 
lage of Huirangi, known as No. 6, 
and I m. beyond, the traveller 
drives through a double line of 
trenches and is within the lines of 
Te Arei. From here there is a fine 
view. A short distance further was 
the celebrated old native strong- 
hold of Fukerangiora (see p, 57), 
and a few paces further is the edge 
of the precipice where aoo ft. below 
rushes the Waitajra Riveb ; here it 
is that numbers of the Ngatiawa 
first threw over their children, then 
plunged headlong themselves to 
certain death rather than be taken 
alive by their inveterate foes, the 

Looking down from the brow of 
the hill, a fine panorama is ob- 
tained. Immediately to the 1. is 
the site of the old L pa (so called 
from its shape), the scene of the 
first encounter in the war of i860. 
In front winds the Wait aba Riveb. 
Between the spot where the tra- 
veller is standing and the ICaraka 
Grove, but a little to the rt., is 
Fuketakuere, the scene of the 
battle already referred to. 

On June 27^ i860, 250 men of the 40th 
Begt. and 55 bluejackets under Capt. 
Seymour (afterwards Lord Alcester), at- 
tempted to drive the Maoris out of the 
pa, and after four hours' desperate 
fighting, had to retire with heavy loss. 

A drive of i m. down a gentle 
slope leads into 

10 m. WAIT ABA. 

Hotel: Masonic. 

Ghnrches : Aug. ; Wed. 

The site is historically interesting, 
as being in the block of 600 acres 
bought from Teira in 1859 ; the 
mound called Manukorihiy on which 
Wi Kingi's pa stood, is close to 
the Rly. line. The town is now 
rapidly increasing. The Meat-freezing 
wwks are the most important in- 


Fi-om Waitara several pleasant 
excursions may be made ; amongst 
others, (i) to Tikorang^ Hill, a 
drive of 5 m. ; (a) to Urenui ; (3) the 
Mlnril Valley; (4) Fukeanihe 
(the scene of the < White Cliffs' 
Massacre in 1869) ; (5) and more 
adventurous tourists can proceed 
by Faranihinihi, the Tongapomtu 
River, SZawau, the Mohdkatino River 
to the Mokauj and so to Te Kiiiti 
and Auckland. (See Rte. 11.) For 
this a guide must be obtained at 

4. To the Banges. A drive of 
13 m. along the Mangorei Road 
takes the traveller to the spot where 
the carriage must be left. The 
Ranges are all wooded, but, with 
attention, the track is easily fol- 
lowed. The ascent is at first gra- 
dual, until a plateau is reached 
called Grayling*s Clearing. Then the 
track becomes perceptibly steeper, 
and soon another plateau is gained. 
This is a Government clearing, from 
which a fine echo may be heard ; a 
good place for luncheon. A stiff 
pull soon leads tQ the summit. The 
time usually taken from the place 
where the carriage is left is about 
3 hrs. The summit is 4,000 ft. above 
sea level, and commands a splendid 

6. To the Summit of Mount 
Sgmont*. The best time of year 
for this excursion is from Feb. to 
April, when the mountain is almost 
free from snow and the weather is 
generally favourable. The ascent is 
tedious, as the mountain is steep, 
and the loose scoria affords no firm 

At a height of about 2,500 ft. tlie 
forest gradually changes, the imder- 
growth becomes less dense than it is 
below, the trees begin to be stunted ; 
and at 3,500 to 4,000 ft. the moun- 
tain sides are covered with a thickly- 
matted scrub, the foliage is shaved 
off with the winds like a cloaely- 
trimmed fence, and he stems are 



twisted and gnarled into all kinds 
of fantastic shapes. Above this, 
grasses, rushes, and moss extend 
about I, GOO ft. higher, and these in 
their turn give place to huge masses 
of rock, scoria, snow^ and ice to the 

The ascent can be made in several 
directions. For convenience the 
principal routes are given here all 

AscEirr No. i. From Niw Ply- 
mouth by the Egmont Mood. The 
traveller should leave New Ply- 
mouth about noon, and drive for 9m. 
along the junction road, and then 
for 5| m. up the Egmont Road, 
which extends along what may be 
called a spur of the Mountain, and 
lies between the Waiwakaiho and 
Mangaoraka Streams. A journey of 
about 6 m. up a gentle incline leads 
to the Forest Reserve, which is reached 
after an easy ride or drive of about 
3 hrs. (14 J m.) from New Plymouth. 
Here the vehicles must be left, as 
the road ends, and there is only a 
bridle-road for the remaining 4 m. 
to the point known as the Camp. 
At an elevation of 3,aoo ft., there is 
a small grassy clearing with an 
AccommMUUion Hut where travellers 
must stay the night. 

The start for th^ summit should 
be commenced not later than 7 a.m. 

The spur becomes narrower and 
sharper, and rises more abruptly, 
until, after a tramp of from 15 to 
20 min., the scrub having dwindled 
down to about 3 ft. in height, a 
magnificent view is obtained of the 
country from the W. round to the 
S.E. Looking W. towards the sea 
lie New Plymouth, the Sugar 
Loaves, and Breakwater; towards 
the N. Waitara, the Urenui Bight, and 
the White Qiffs ; and to the E. the 
grand peaks of RuAPEHUy Nqaruhoe, 
and TovGABiRO (see Rte. 10) covered 
with perpetual snow. Immediately 
below are various townships, clear- 
ings, and homesteads. From here, 
and even more so from a point 
about 1,000 ft. higher, the view, 
though not so extensive, is clearer 

than that from the summit of 
the mountain. To the 1. is the 
precipitous side of the ravine, al- 
ready seen at the camp : and to the 
rt. is a similar one — containing one 
of the sources of the Waiwakaiho 
River, Leaving the ravine just be- 
fore it flattens out into the moun- 
tain, and turning slightly to the 1., 
after a little climbing the traveller 
comes to a large bed of moss, green 
and smooth as a lawn, and continues 
rising on this to a height of about 
5, 300 ft. This is on a level with Hum- 
phries* CasttSy and this is the farther 
point spoken of as commanding a 
splendid view. Befoi'e leaving here, 
a stranger, unless with a guide, 
should take particular notice of the 
position of the CastUy as it should be 
his guide in descending. The spurs 
and ravines are so much alike that, 
without some such landmark, he 
might get confused, and descend a 
wrong ravine, and have the un- 
pleasant experience of camping in 
the bush for a night without fire, 
food, or bedding. From the above 
point he turns off sharply to the rt. 
to avoid loose scoria, and travels up 
the W. edge of the spur on which 
the CasUe stands. The walking is 
now principally on rock or large 
scoria, and is much less fatiguing 
than on the small scoria or gravel ; 
which is convenient to come down 
over, but must be carefully avoided, 
where possible, in going up. After 
toiling slowly up the ridge to a 
height of about 7,500 ft., the foot of 
the rocks which surround the crater 
is reached. These rocks or peaks, as 
they may be called (parts of the lip of 
the crater), are three in number. The 
W. peak rises to about 80 ft., the £. 
to about 60 ft, and the N. to about 
35 ft. above the level of permanent 
ice. There are thus three openings, 
by which the crater is reached, and 
subsequently the peaks. The best 
way, on arriving at the foot of the 
northern peak, is to turn 1. (E.) pass 
under the peak, involving a little 
climbing over and up some masses 
of rock, and thus without much 



difficulty reach the N.E. entrance. 
Here the snow comes down on the 
scoria, and the traveller can pass 
easily from one to the otker, con- 
sidering the slope, and up the thin 
coating of snow (about 4 to 6 in. in 
summer) which rests upon tlie ice, 
steadying himself by digging a 
pointed stick into the snow and 
ice, he will thus soon mach the 
highest part of what may be called 
the Crater, and will find himself 
standing apparently on the summit 
of a huge billow of snow. To the 
W., E., and N. stand the peaks 
before mentioned ; towards the S. 
all has been broken away. The peak 
usually ascended is the W. or 
highest one, and this is easily ac- 
complished by crossing the crater to 
the S.W. base of the peak and 
climbing up the latter over some 
rocks ; the view from this point is 
glorious. Far away to the S. glisten 
the snowy peaks of the Southsbn 
Alps in the South Island ; on three 
sides lies the ocean. Apparently 
immediately below though nearly 
20 m. distant is the shore of the 
circular promontory of Taranaki, 
extending from Waitara on the N. 
to Hawera on the S. Beneath are 
the various towns, villages, clear- 
ings, and homesteads encircling the 
mountain, the swamp lying near 
the Ponakai Range, the Stony River 
(Hangatahua) like a silver thread 
winding its course to the sea, and 
the numerous rivers which take 
their rise in the mountain — all can 
be clearly traced. To S.E. are two 
green-and-yellow patches, like small 
meadows ; these represent the Ngaire 
Stpamps — thousands of acres in ex- 
tent. To the E. tower the snow-clad 
peaks of Ruapshu and the cones of 
Ng ABU HOE and Tonoabibo ; and to 
the N. are the Paranini Cliffs, 1,000 fl. 
in height, though apparently just 
above the sea. New Plymouth Break- 
water is dwarfed to the size of a 
walking-stick, and the Sugar-Loaves 
look like thimbles. Humphries* Castle 
— 3,000 ft. below — is only a point, 
but it is one to be carefully watched 

in returning. After luncheon^ a 
visit may be made to the Ice Cave. 
Climbing down on the S.W. side of 
the mountain the traveller comes 
to a ledge of rock and ice, and enters 
into a cave of ice directly under the 
upper ice dome of the crater. Sta- 
lactites of ice hang in profusion ; 
and in very warm summers when 
the snow is thin on the crater, a 
sea-green light shines down through 
the dome. Chilled to the bone the 
traveller soon emerges and, climbing 
back on the crater, commences the 
descent of the mountain. 

Passing out of the OtcUer by the 
N.E. entrance, and keeping well 
over to the £. to avoid having to 
climb down rocks, a ridge of loose 
scoria is soon reached. Down this 
fair progress can be made, and the 
traveller keeping Humphries' Castle in 
view, should make for it, and, cross- 
ing a small ravine at the foot of the 
seoriaspur, will soon reach the moss. 
Careful walking is here required to 
prevent slipping. Soon now the 
traveller passes under the Castle, 
runs the gauntlet through the 
prickly shrub known as the Wild 
Irishman, and finally arrives at the 
camp he left in the morning. It 
is possible to return to New Ply- 
mouth the same evening. 

The time occupied in the ascent of 
the mountain, f^rom. the ca^p to the 
siunmit, varies very much. It has been 
done by young bushmen in a little over 
2 hrs. But the usual time for men is 
from 3 to 4 hrs., and for ladies from 4 
to 6 hours, the return journey occupy- 
ing about half the time taken in the 
ascent. For a mixed party of ladies 
and gentlemen a fair time for the as- 
cent would be about 5 hrs., and for 
the return about 3 hrs. Allowing 
I hr. on the summit, — ^and most i>eople 
wiU find that enough, — 9 hrs. i^oold 
be sufficient for an «asy journey to and 
from the camp. The journey back to 
New Plymouth occupies from 4 to 5 hrs., 
and therefore, to those who have not 
much time at their disposal, an ab- 
sence of I K days from New Plymouth 
will suffice for the whole trip, and few 
who make the ascent will grudge the 
time, labour, or expenao. 


The cost of the trip will be as fol- 
lows : — For a party of not less than 
four — Horse and carriage fare 58. 
each way (including driver, who 
will take charge of horses and meet 
party returning next day). 

All things necessary for the trip 
may be procured from Mr. Butter- 
worth of New Plymouth. 

Mr. Harry Peters, whose postal 
address is Inglewood, will provide 
a guide for £1. 

Ascent No. a. From Nxw PiY' 
MOUTH by way of the Ranges. 

This route, as far as the summit 
of the Ranges, has already been de< 
scribed (p. 6a). The way is often 
called the Old Route, having been 
popular in former times ; it is now 
Heldom taken. It is long and tedious, 
requiring three or four days to do it 
properly. On the other hand, it 
commands splendid views from the 
summit of the Ponakai liANaia, and 
affords an opportunity of seeing 
BsLvs FallSj which are very beau- 
tiful. For this ascent a guide is 
absolutely necessary. Messrs. Coad, 
who live on the Mangorei road, can 
be recommended. Their charges are 
from I OS. to I as. a day. 

AscEirr No. 3. From Steatfobd. 
(See Rte. 13.) 

The advantages Stratford claims 
as a base of operations for an ascent 
of Mt. Egmont consist in (i) its 
being the nearest town and Rly.- 
sta. to the summit, the distance, as 
the crow flies, being exactly la m., 
and the actual distance traversed 
not more than 14 m. ; (a) the Rly.- 
sta. being 990 ft. above sea-level ; 
^3) the first portion of the journey 
being of so gradual a slope that horses 
can be ridden to a height of 4,000 
ft. ; (4) the ascent and descent being 
possible in one day. 

Having arrived at Stratford 
over-night, and arranged for horse, 
guide, provisions, and early break- 
fast, 7 a.m. should see the traveller 
in the saddle. (Here a word of warn- 
ing : Remember that the main part 

\New ZecUandA 

of the journey has to be done on foot 
and see that the clothing is loose.) 
A 7 m. canter leads to the boundary 
of the Forest Reserve, The wide open 
road is at an end ; the track wanders 
between the trunks of mighty pities 
and rotas until, with a change in the 
character of the bush, the grade be- 
comes steeper. The forest hereabout 
becomes weird and peculiar, fully 
justifying its name of The Goblin Bush, 
Another stiff rise or two and the 
first halting-place is in view — a 
rough shanty, in a small clearing. 
A second breakfast may well be taken 
here, cooking utensils being kept in 
readiness, and water to be procured 
at a short distance. A little fuiiiher 
and the rapidly-dwarfing bush gives 
place to scrub. A glance back, and 
the whole immense tract of forest is 
seen spread out below — in the dis- 
tance, the forms of the mighty RuA' 
PERU, Ngaeuhoe with his cloud of 
steam, and Tonoabieo a little more 
to the N. ; in the foreground are the 
clearings and homesteads of the 
settlers ; and conspicuous to the 
S.K the Ngaire Swamp. Another stiff 
bit for the horses, and they tread 
the level top of the ridge. There 
are some small clearings here. The 
horses are ridden some distance 
farther and tethered on the tussock 
grass, a considerable expanse of 
which intervenes between the scrub 
and the barren rocks of the upper 
regions. The riders, now dismount- 
ed, alpenstocks in hand, sandwiches 
and flasks safely stowed away, turn 
their faces to the mountain side, and 
continue along the crest of the ridge, 
having the dry narrow gorge of the 
Manganui to the rt. ; while to the 1. is 
a wider one, with the infant river 
Kapuni flowing peacefully along, 
little recking of the terrible tumble 
it will presently have over the rocks 
of Dawsoh's Falls, The route turns 
sharply to the rt., and making a de- 
scent crosses the gorge. The traveller 
should choose the path of solid rock, 
avoiding the treacherous shingle 
and the loose terribly exhausting 
scoria, and climb over the glisten- 



ing expanse of snow to the highest 


Luncheon and a rest may be taken 

at the top. 

The descent is, as may be sup- 
posed, much easier than the ascent, 
the principal difficulty being to avoid 
excess of speed. Five o'clock should 
find the traveller at the camp, where 
only a short stay should be made, 
as it is well to be clear of the bush 
by dark. If he is going to New 
Plymouth, it will be well to catch 
the through train, which leaves 
Stratford in the evening (see time 

From the camping-ground many 
objects of interest are accessible, in- 
cluding Dawson's FaJls and Kendall's 
Cascade on the Kapuni ; Fantham Peak, 
the picturesque and seldom-visited 
Gorge of the Manganuiy with its water- 
falls, &c. (for all of which see 

The cost of the trip will be as fol- 
lows : Hotel : Tea, bed, and break- 
fast, two nights, io». (or if one night 
only, rather less) ; horse hire, one 
day, 68. ; guide, one day, iss, ; pro- 
visions, 3s. ; total, 31s. By making 
up a party of, say, four, the charge 
for the guide and provisions would 
be shared, reducing the expenses of 
each person to ais. ; but parties of 
more than six are not recommended. 
Messrs. G. and H. Curtis, of Strat- 
ford, undertake to supply horses, 
guides, and provisions at short 
notice, and have also on hire tents 
and blankets for parties who wish 
to spend a few days camping out. 
Mr. T. H. Penn, of Stratford, will 
be happy to afford tourists any in- 
formation in his power. 

Ascent No. 4. From Manaia. 
(See Rte. 13.) The trip from 
Manaia to the summit of Mt. 
Egmont and back to Manaia has 
been done in 15 hrs., about half that 
time being spent in the saddle ; but 
the most pleasant way is to start 
from Manaia after mid-day dinner, 
camping at Dawson's Falls, and 
leaving again at daybreak next 

morning for the top of the mountain. 
This will allow plenty of time to 
return to Manaia by the middle of 
the afternoon, and, if desired, to 
reach Hawera (see Rte. 13) the same 

Dawbon'8 Falls are reached by the 
Manaia Road, which stops at the 
Forest Reserve line, and the track, 
which succeeds the road is known, 
as Dawson's Track. This goes be** 
tween the Kapuni on the right and a. 
branch of the Kaupokonui on the left 
— both clearly marked mountain, 
streams. Wherever possible, a view 
should be obtained of the Kapunf 
River, with its crystal waters in all 
their varying beauty. 

A splendid view of Dawson's Falls 
is obtained from a point about 400 
yds. below them. They are, though 
only 64 ft. in height, well worth 

A Maori tradition tells how a slave 
named Rereanokea escaped from his 
captors and took to the mountain, and 
how, being hotly pursued, he preferred 
death by jumping over the Falls to 
recapture with horrible torture, and 
thenceforth gave his name to the Falls, 
which they retained till the late Mr. 
Dawson re-discovered them. 

One of the best views of the 
surrounding country is obtained by 
crossing the stream and ascend- 
ing about 100 ft. on the opposite 
bank. The track from the Falls 
at present runs along the ridge 
for a time, and then drops down 
into the bed of the Kapuni ; thence 
to Kendalls Cascade, where the real 
climbing begins. This Cascade 
comes from Chadtmck Glacier, between 
Fantham Peak and Egmont proper, and 
is one of the most beauti^l views on 
the track. The traveller should not 
proceed by the spur immediately in 
front, but cross over to his left a 
distance of about 20 yds., and start 
on the loose scoria. From here to 
the top no further directions are 
needed. There are other routes to 
the top from the Cascade, but they 
should not be attempted without a 
guide, and for safety the traveller 



Bhould return by way of Fantham 

Under Chadunck Glacier will be seen 
a large hole from which the Kapuni 
rushes. The steep incline at the top 
of the mountain is very easily 
climbed. From the S. lip the 
crater looks rather difficult to cross, 
but the difficulty is more imaginary 
than real, and should not deter 
anyone from reaching the highest 
point. A free use of the hatchet is 
sometimes necessary to cut steps, if 
the ice be very slippery. 

Cost. Horses about $8, per day. 
Guide (not absolutely necessary) los, 
to 90S. per day. Horses may be 
engaged from the Manaia, Waimate, 
or Commercial stables (all at Manaia). 
It is best to write or telegraph before- 
hand. Supplies may be obtained at 
Davy and Falkner*s or at Cullen's 
stores at Kaponga, and tents can 
also be hired there. 

Hotel charges at Manaia, 6s. per 
day. There is also an accommoda- 
tion house at Elaponga (Melville's). 

ROUTE 13. 


107 m. Rly. 228. 4d., 14s. iid. ; 'R, 
sgs. gd.f 19s. iid. (For the coach 
route, see below.) 

This journey can be done in less 
than a day ; but as express trains 
only run on certain days, the travel- 
ler must consult the monthly guide 
as to the best day on which to start. 

It is best to take a seat on the 1. 
side of the Rly. carriage, as the train 
reverses at Sentry Hill, and after 
that the views of Mount Eomont are 
on the rt. 

The route at first lies through the 
suburbs of the town, and then 
through open country divided into 
small fetrms and well cultivated. 

8 m. Sentry Hill, (Refreshments 
may be obtained at the station on 
Tuesdays and Fridays.) 

The jimction for the Waitara 
branch. The scene of many skir- 
mishes during the wars. 

The line soon enters the forest, 
which is each year being rapidly 
and ruthlessly destroyed by ever 
advancing settlement. It is one of 
the misfortunes of the K. Island of 
K. Z. that settlement seems always 
to destroy the beauties of nature. 
Nothing can be more hideous than 
the blackened logs and stumps which 

mark the place where the bush has 
recently been burnt ; and even the 
stiff rows of gums and pines, with 
which the settlers love to ornament 
their homesteads, form but a sorry 
substitute for the rich beauty of 
the natural forest. Fortunately no 
* improvements ' can take away the 
glorious view of the mountain to 
the rt. 

17 m. Ingle^^ood. 
Sot«l: Ingletoood, 
Chnrches : Ang, / R. C, ; WetA. 
Pop. : 400. 

A thriving little settlement com- 
menced in 1875. Land to the £. 
is rapidly being taken up. The Rly. 
gradually rises for 27 m. when it 
attains a height of 1,122 ft. above 
the sea level. 

A settlement 

30 m. Stratford. 

on the Patea R. 

Hotel: Stratford. 

Cliiirches : An^. ; Pres. ; R. C. 

It was at one time proposed that the 
Ely. to connect Wellington with Auck- 
land should branch off here, but the 
scheme was abandoned in favour of 
the Marten route. A road, however, 
will be made £com Stratford to the 

F a 




Wanganoi R. (about 50 m.), which may 
then become an alternative route for 

For the ascent of Mount Egmont 
from this point, see Rte. 12. 

34 m. "Ngaire, It was through 
the swamp here that Titoko Warn 
and his followers e8caped(8eeRte. 12). 

Soon after this the railroad leaves 
the forest, and passes out into the 
fertile Manaia plains* 

45 m. Xformanby. Soon after 
leaving Normanby the traveller sees 
the Hawera Racecourse on the rt. 

48 m. HatKrera (Refreshment stall 
at the station). 

Kotels : Commerciai ; Empire. 

Cliiixohes : Ang, ; Pres, ; R. C. ; 

Pop.: 1,300. 

A singularly ugly township in a 
rich agricultural and pastoral district. 
It has, however, a good recreation 
ground and a fine racecourse. The 
view of the mountain from Hawera 
is magnificent. Large numbers of 
moa bones have been found in the 

[A pleasant detour may be made 
by starting from New Plymouth by 
coach and going round the W. side 
of the mountain, vid, Opunaki to 
Hawera. The road is good and the 
constantly changing views of the 
mountain are magnificent. Nearly 
the whole way the country is thickly 
studded with small farms. Skir- 
mishes took place all over this 
district during the Taranaki wars. 

The traveller will also have the 
opportunity of seeing Te Whiti, the 
famous Maori * Prophet of the Moun- 
tain,' at his home. 

New Plymoxjth to Hawesa. 70 m. 

A coach leaves New Plymouth 
three times a week in the morning 
and reaches Opunaki the same 

evening. The following morning 
a coach starts from Opunaki very 
early in the morning, so as to catch 
the train at Hawera which reaches 
Wellington that night. It is much 
pleasanter to spend two whole days 
on the road, the second day being by 
buggy, hired at Opunaki. 

5 m. Allen's Hill. 

A fight took place here on Oct. 2, 
1861. Lieutenant Downes of the 57th 
Regiment obtained the V.C. for bravery. 
A short distance to the rt. of the 
road is the site of the battle of Waireka 
(see Rte. 12). The outlines of the Maori 
trenches may still be seen. On March 
38, i860, a company of the 65th Regiment, 
some bluejackets, local militia and 
volunteers (in all about 375 men) were 
hotly engaged with a Maori force for 
some hours. Reinforcements arrived 
at dusk, stormed and captured the fort 
and tamed the fortunes of the day. 
The Maori loss was very severe. 

7 m. Tapiiae B. A small but 
pretty stream. 

9 m. Oakura stream. A small 

The second Taranaki war commenced 
here in 1863. A party of English 
soldiers on their way from Tataraimaka 
to New Plymouth were fired on by an 
ambuscade and nine killed. 

II m. Ahuahu. 

Here Capt. Lloyd and his party were 
surprised by the natives. His head 
was cut ofif, and sent round to the 
various tribes in the neighbourhood in 

13 m. Tataraimaka. An ex- 
ceedingly pretty district between 
the mountain and the sea. The tree- 
ferns are as fine as any in N. Z. 

14 m. Okato. A small township 
once a military settlement. 

25 m. FuDgarehu. An old 
station of the armed constabulary. 

li m. to the L is Farehaka, a Maori 
town of about 1,200 inhabitants (the 
number constantly varies). This is the 
residence of Te Whiti, the Prophet of 



the Mountain. He is always ready to 
receive visitors courteously. In 1881 
he held a series of meetings, at which 
he impressed his audience with his 
views as to the wrongs of the Maoris. 
He and his followers tiien commenced 
ploughing up some land belonging to 
European settlers. A body of 3,000 
volunteers and armed constabulary was 
sent against them ; Te Whiti, his 
principal follower Tohu, and others 
were arrested. Most of the natives 
soon returned to their homes ; and as 
soon as matters were quiet, the men 
who had been arrested were released. 

Here the lightliouse may be seen 
on the rt. 

a8 m. Raliotu. A small Tillage. 

The road now enters a stony dis- 
trict of curious geological formation, 
abounding in small hillocks. 

Beautiful little streams descend 
from the mountain. 

44 m. Tenamu. A small bay. 
The steamer Lord W&rdey was wrecked 
here, at the time of the war. 

45 m. Opunakl 
Kotel: MiddleUm*8, 

A small town, situated on a 
curious bay of the sea. Here the 
coach stops for the night. 

60 m. Ohakeho. 

65 m. Manaia. 
KoMl: Lewis's, 

Chuxolies: Pres.; R. C; Wed, 
Pop.: 400. 

In the centre of the town stands 
a granite obelisk, which has been 
erected to the memory of the men 
who fell during the war of 1868-69. 
The road here passes through a very 
fertile district of the Waimate Plains. 
The Waimate Pa, from which the 
district takes its name, stands on 
a promontory jutting into the sea. 
Being protected on the land side 
by a small lake, it was considered 
impregnable by the Maoris, but was 
shelled by H. M. S. Alligator in 1835 
(see Rte. 12), 

For the ascent of Mount Egmont 
from Manaia, see Rte. 12. 

If the traveller is driving by 
huggy, a pleasant detour may be 
made by Nobxanbt, The country is 
rich and thriving, and the view of 
the mountain from this side, where 
the great cone seems to stand out 
alone in the heavens, is ];)erbaps the 
most striking of all. 

70 m. Haw^era.J 

The route now continues through 
open country,, fertile and prosperous, 
but windy and not striking. The 
valleys are in some places beautiful 
with native bush and tree-ferns ; in 
others with masses of flax and toi- 

66 m. Fatea (Refreshments may 
be obtained at the Station on Tues- 
days and Fridays)* 

SoMls : Albion and Central. 
Ghnrohes : Ang.; Pres. ; R. C. ; Wesl. 
Pop. : 730. 

A bleak-looking township on the 
river of the same name, which is 
navigable for small steamers to 
within a mile of the town. The 
town was at one time known as 
Carlyle, but the native name is 
fortunately now chiefly used. 

71 m. The Whenuahura R, is here 

75 m. Waverley. 

This was the scene of the Wairoa 
redoubt. This and Fatea were held 
by the Colonial forces during the war 
of 1868, when the rest of the district 
was in the hands of the natives. 

82 m. Waitotara. A small set- 
tlement on the river of the same 

In 1864-65 this district was occupied 
by some thousands of Imperial troops. 
At that time all the country was a 
mere tangle of fern, tutu busies, toi- 
toi, and flax. The Maori stronghofd, 
the Weraroa Pa, was situated on an 
eminence on the L bank of the 



riverf inland of the Bly. Some idea 
of its real or snpposed strength 
may be given by the following quota- 
tion from a letter from General 
Cameron to Sir George Grey, then 
Governor of N. Z. : — * I consider my 
force insufficient to attack so for- 
midable a work as the Weraroa pa. 
It would be necessary to establish 
two posts to keep our communication 
open with Wanganui, and we should 
have to furnish escorts daily for con- 
voys. This would reduce my force to 
700 or 800 men, which would not be 
sufficient to provide for the protection 
of the camp in such a country, and at 
the same time cany on all the labo- 
rious operations of a siege. Instead 
of 1,100 men, my present available 
force, I should require 3,00a' The pa 
was, however, captured without any 
loss of life, by the Colonial forces and 
friendly natives, under Sir George 

The road from this toWanganui 
(26 m.) is pretty and good for 

Some small lakes will be seen in 
the neighbourhood. 

86 m. Nukumaru. 

In approaching this station is 
passed on the 1. the site of Oen. 
Cameron's camp, which was attacked 
in a daring manner by the natives 

in the campaign of 1865. The graves 
of several soldiers killed in this 
attack are on a fern ridge to th€» 
rt. of the Rly. 

On the height to the 1. is the site 
of the Taurangaika Pa, a strongly 
fortified position, protected by works 
of fern and earth, and containing 
many complicated covered ways, 
which was built by the natives 
during the war of 1868, but cap- 
tured soon afterwards. 

Not far off is MabahaUj a fine 
sheep station belonging to the Hon. 
Robert Pharazyn, through which the 
Rly. passes for some miles. 

95 m. Kai I'wi. The site of an 
old Wesleyan Mission Station. 

100 m. Brunswick. 

From this point the Rly. rapidly 
descends the valley of the Wanga' 
nut R, 

104 m. Aramoho Jtmctioii 
(Refreshment room at Station). 

The main line goes on hence to 
Pcdmersion; a branch line leads be- 
tween pleasing fields, gardens, vine- 
yards, and villas to 

107 m. Wahganui. See Rte. 14, 

ROUTE 14. 



Hotels: Rutland; Victoria; Steam 
Packet; Pier (near the Railway Sta- 
tion) ; and others. Good lodgings 
may also be obtained. 

Club : Wanganui (non-residential). 

CShuxolies : Ang. ; Pres, ; R. C, ; 
Wesl. ; and others. 

Pop.: 5,000. 

Wanganui may be approached (i) 
By rail from New Plymouth. See 
Rte. 13. (a) By rail from "Welling- 

ton. See Rte. 15. (3) By boat down 
the river. See Rte. 10. (4) By 


This is a thriving town situated 
in a valley, on the banks of the 
splendid Wanganui River^ about 4 m. 
from the ocean, and containing 
several factories, breweries, and 
mills. Some wine is also made 
here, English fruits grow admir- 
ably. "Unfortunately at this, as 
at all other harbours on the "W. 
coast, there is a bar ; but it can be 
crossed by vessels drawing 9 or 10 



feet of water. Steamers ply be- 
tween this and other ports, and 
direct shipment is made to England 
by lightering to vessels lying out- 
side the bar. 

According to the Maori legend, the 
site was once beneath the sea level. 
At that time several ' taniwhas ' dwelt 
in the river, and one of these monsters, 
named Tutaiporoporo, lived at what is 
now Potiki, a native village across the 
river, whence it used to issue, destroy 
passing canoes and devour the crew. 
At length an old man named Aokehu 
resolved to slay the dreaded taniwha. 
He provided himself with the tooth 
of a great fish called tnatini, which 
he notched like a saw, made a kind of 
box, into which he got, and floated 
down the river to Potiki The hnngry 
monster at once opened its jaws and 
swallowed the box. Aokehn, when 
safely inside, proceeded to cut his way 
out, and thus killed the monster; 
whereupon (although the connexion 
between the two events does not 
appear clear to the dull mind of the 
Pakeha) the sea receded, and left 
the sites of Wanganui and Potiki dry 

Wanganui was one of the early set- 
tlements of the N. Z. Company. It 
was commenced in 1840; before that 
time it had only been visited by a few 
whalers. The settlement progressed 
slowly until 1847, being hindered by 
the ' land question ; ' various Euro- 
peans declaring that they had pur- 
chased vast tracts of land (which in 
several instances were the same) from 
the natives, and they on the other 
hand xoainiaining that they had only 
sold a small tract far inland. The 
matter was settled without any blood- 
shed. In 1847, however, more serious 
troubles began. A chief having been 
accidentally wounded by a midship- 
man, ' utu * (or vengeance) was taken 
by the murder of Mrs. Gilfillan and 
three children at Matarawa (see Bte. 15). 
The murderers were, however, pursued, 
captured, tried by court martial, and 
hanged. Immediately after this a 
desultory war between the two races 
began ; at one time the town was 
actually invested and several houses 
in the suburbs burnt. Sir George Grey 
visited the settlement in person, and 
landed some soldiers and sailors from 
a man-of-war which was lying off the 

bar. A skirmish took place in St. 
John's Wood (on a hill near the down) 
which ended the disturbance in July, 

Since then the town has been safe 
from attack, but it has been frequently 
agitated by the different native wars 
which occurred both further up the 
coast and inland ; and the Wanganui 
Militia and Volunteers, assisted by 
friendly natives, have been more than 
once called on to take the field against 
the natives ; notably during General 
Cameron's campaign in 1865, and again 
in 1868 when tiie enemy were in pos- 
session of the country to the N.W. 
within 12 m. of Wanganui For many 
years, however, idl anxiety has ceased, 
and the singularly peaceful-looking 
town and neighbourhood have been 
gradually increasing in population. 
The climate is remarkably pleasant 
and healthy. 

PuBLio BuiLDnros, Objects op 

Iin!EREST, &C. 

A few minntes walk from the 
Bly. Station leads to Victoria Avmv£j 
the principal street in the town, 
which runs from the bridge towards 
the N. In this street are situated 
several churches, banks, and good 
shops. A short way up the street, 
a turn to the rt. leads into Queen's 
GardenSf a hill once the site of a 
Blockhouse, now a pleasure garden. 
From the summit is a good view 
over the town and suburbs, with 
hills further off, and snow- clad 
Ruapehu in the distance. In the 
garden is placed a monument to the 
soldiers who fell during the war. 

A little way to the 1. of Victoria 
Avenue is another hill, which also 
marks the site of a Blockhouse ; it 
is now called Cook's Garden. The 
view from this is very similar. 

Not many of the buildings call 
for observation. The 22. C. Ch. (with 
the Convent attached) is perhaps the 
most pleasing. In the churchyard 
at the Ang. Ch. are some monuments. 

Further up the Avenue, on the 1. 
is the Waniruml Ck>llegiate School, 
a Ch. of England High School, built 
on ground presented by Sir George 



Grey when Governor to Bp. Selwyn 
for educational purposes. It is now 
one of the largest boarding schools 
of the sort in the Australasian Colo- 
nies. The Chapd is small but well- 
proportioned, built of native woods, 
and is fortunately not made to look 
like stone, as is the case with too 
many buildings in N. Z. 

The traveller should here turn 
to the rt., and by any of the streets 
leading in that direction make his 
way to the river, and return to the 
Station along the bank. Close to 
the river, near the Omrt House, is a 
mo/nument which bears the following 
inscription in English and Maori : — 
* To the memory of the brave men 
who fell at Moutoa, 14th May, 1864, 
in defence of law and order, against 
fanaticism and barbarism. This 
monument is erected by the Pro- 
vince of Wellington.* 

Wanganui also possesses a well- 
endowed Qirls* College, and several 
Qovemment Schodla ; a Hoepiial ; a good 
Public Library and Free Beading Komi. 


(i) To the Flag Staff HilL Cross 
the river by the toton bridge, and 
ascend the hill on the other side. 
The view from the top is fine. 

(2) To the Heads. A Rly. of 4 m. 
length leads to the Heads, a favourite 
spot for sea air and bathing. 

Kot«l: CasGe Qif; comfortable 
rooms may also be obtained. The 
meat-freeziug works are established 

(3) "Cp the Biver. See Rte. 10. 

For short trips, good rowing boats 
may be hired. 

There are several pretty drives in 
the neighbourhood, but none calling 
for special remark. The tourist 
who is tired of hard travelling, will 
find Wanganui a pleasant place for 
a few days' quiet rest. 

ROUTE 16. 


151 m. Ely. 315. 6d., ais, ; R. 42s,, 

This journey can easily be made in 
one day ; but travellers wishing to 
do it all by daylight must halt for 
the night at Palmerston. 

4 m. Aramoho Junction. Here the 
main line is reached. Travellers 
may have to change trains. The 
Wanganui R. is crossed by a 
bridge 600 ft. long. After this, the 
country is open, with occasional 
wooded valleys. 

9 m. Mataraw^a. The scene of 
the GilfiUan massacre in 1847. See 
Rte. 14. 

The line now rapidly ascends, 
rising 380 ft. in 4 m. 

13 m. Fordell. 

The line now descends again, 
and soon crosses the Wangaehu R., 
which flows down from Ruapehu^ 
From the mineral springs on the 
mountain it has acquired an acid 

18 m. Wangaehu. A Maori set- 
tlement. Much of the land here 
belongs to the natives. The country 
now becomes flat and uninteresting 
to all except agriculturists. The 
Rly. then enters the valley of the 
Turakina, and crosses the river. 

24 m. Turakina. 

33 m. Marton. The town is 
about half a mile from the Station. 



. Hotels : White Hart ; Club ; and 

Glmrolies : ^n^. ; Pres.; Wesl.; LU' 

Pop. : lyOoo. 

The county town of the Rangitikei 
county, situated in a rich district. 

34 m. Marion Jtmction. 

[Here the line branches off which is 
nltimately to join that from Auckland 
to Te Kuiti. Settlement is progressing 
as rapidly as the line is opened. The 
line ascends steadily all the way. 

5 m. Overton. The line passes close 
to the beautiful residence and grounds 
of Mr. F. Arkwiight. The house is an 
admirable instance of the old English 
style, slightly adapted to the climate. 
The grounds, which are laid out with 
great taste and skill, command charm- 
ing views of the Poreuxi E. and valley, 
with distant ranges of mountains. 

i6 m. Hunterville. 

19 m. Bangatira.] 

The Rly. continues to pass over 
open country, somewhat monoton- 

38 m. Qreatford. Here a 
coach starts for the little town of 
Bulls, 4 m. distant 

The Rly. soon enters the valley of 
the Rangitikei R. Westoe^ a pretty 
country seat, once the residence of 
Sir Wm. Fox, may be seen on the 1. 
Then the Rangitikei R. is crossed, 
and the Manauoatu County is entered. 
The land becomes more undulating. 
Much of it once consisted of dense 
bush, which is being rapidly cleared. 

The whole Manatoatt^Rangitikei dis- 
trict was purchased from the natives 
by Dr. Feafherston^ Superintendent of 
the Wellington Province, in 1865. "^ 
1873 aiL association, called the '^Emi- 
grants' and Colonists' Aid Corporation,' 
was formed in London. The Duke of 
Manchester was Chairman of the 
Board of Directors. They purchased 
a block of 100,000 acres, and sent out 
emigrants in large numbers. The 
settlement did not at first progress aa 
rapidly as was anticipated, but now 
(although it has to some extent lost its 
original character as a special settle- 

ment) it is steadily increasing in popu- 
lation and prosperity. 

43 m. Halcombe. A small town- 
ship in the ^Manchester Block.' 
Named after Mr. Halcombe the agent 
for the Corporation. 

51 m. Feilding. The fii-st town- 
ship formed by the Corporation, 
commenced in 1874. Named after 
General Feilding, who selected the 
block on behalf of the Corporation. 
The nominal population is 1,400 ; 
but the so-called town is so scattered 
that it is rather a collection of small 
farms than a village. The native 
bush has nearly all been cleared, 
and the monotonous plain is ugly ; 
but the Ruahitie range on the 1., 
will always form a fine background. 
The land is very rich. 

53 m. Aorangi. A small native 

61 m. Palmerston North (Re- 
freshment room at Station). 

(Not to be confused with Palmers- 
ton in Otago.) 

Hotels : Commercial ; Club ; Claren' 
don; and others. 

Glinxclies : Ang^ ; Pres. ; WesL ; 

Pop.: 4,500. 

A rapidly increasing borough, 
with meat-freezing and other in- 
dustiies. If the land which has 
been sold in *town sections' and 
^suburban sections' is ever all 
built over, it will be an enormous 
city ; at present it is very scat- 

The train usually stops a quarter 
of an hour at Palmerston. 

[From Palmerston a branch line 
goes to Woodville and Napier, by 
the Manawatu Gorge. See Rte. 9.] 

65 m. A^va Funi. A small na- 
tive settlement, with a runanga 
house, visible from the Rly. 

67 m. Iiongburn. A small but 
rapidly growing settlement. Meat* 



freezing works have been established 

At this point the Goyemment 
line is left, and the train proceeds 
along the private line belonging to 
the Manawatu Co. Their trains have 
a ^ dining car ' in which a good plain 
meal may be obtained at a moderate 
charge whilst the train is in motion. 

[From Longbtim the Government 
line goes on to Foxton. It rans 
throngh a rich flat agricultural county, 
a great part of which has lately been 
reclaimed from the swamp by judicious 

7 m. Oroua Bridge. A large native 
settlement with a fine runanga house. 

14 m. Camarvan. Here a branch 
line, worked by the county, runs inland 
through the Oroua Downs estate, which 
formerly belonged to the late Hon. B. 
Campbell, but is now occupied by 
numerous settlers all the way to Sanson. 

20 m. Foxton. Near the mouth of 
the Manawatu B. A small town- 
ship dependent chiefly on the flax in- 
dustry. It is a port for small steamers 
which ply to other ports along the 

The Rly. still proceeds through 
bush (now being rapidly cleared) 
with occasional swamps of raupo, 
flax, and toitoi. Several saw^mills 
are passed. All the way along the 
picturesque Tararua Batige may be 
seen on the 1., and to the rt. is 
KapiU Island, 

82 m. Shannon. 

90 m. Iievin. 

94 m. Ohau. The stream, from 
which the station takes its name, is 
crossed soon after. 

105 m. Otaki. About a mile 
from the station is the little town 
of Otaki. 

Hotels : Ferry ; Telegraph. 

Clmrches: Aug.; R. C, 

This is an important native settle- 
ment. The district was the scene of 
the labours of the Bev. Octavius Had- 

fleld, for many years a devoted mis- 
sionary, afterwards Ang. Bp. of Wel- 
lington and Primate. At that time 
there was a lai^ native population at 
Otaki, Waikanei, and Kapiti, many 
having been driven there during tribal 
wars. The settlement itself, however, 
has always been peaceful. Te Bau- 
paraha came here after the Wairau 
massacre (see p. [56], and Bte. 17), and 
afterwards ended his days here in 
peace. Close to the church is a monu- 
ment erected to his memory. The Ang. 
Ch.*f which was built by the natives in 
1853, is an excellent instance of the 
native style adapted to a Christian 

Soon after leaving Otaki, the Otaki 
R. is crossed. 

114 m. Waikanei. A native 
settlement on the river of the same 

124 m. Paikakariki. A favourite 
resort of Wellington people who go 
for change of air. 

From this for 40 m. N. extends the 
'Forty mUe beach,' along which the 
coach used to go before the Bly. was 

ITie line now passes through 
several tunnels and curves round 
a few miles of ridgy bush country 
as it approaches on Porirua Harbour, 
an arm of which it crosses on a 
cylinder bridge. 

135 m. Paremata. On the beau- 
tiful but shallow Porirua Harbour. 

138 m. Porirua. 

In this neighbourhood once stood 
the dense forest of Porirua, now nearly 
aU cleared. The two famous chiefs, 
Te Bauparaha and Bangihaeata, were 
supreme in the district. In 1846 Maoris 
from here marauded the European 
settlers in the Hutt valley. Governor 
Grey seized Te Bauparaha, and carried 
him away by sea to Wellington. 
Bangihaeata came to Porirua to aid 
his friend, but arrived too late j the 
steamer was sdready leaving the har- 
bour. The following are extracts from 
the Lament^ in which he gave vent to 
his feelings : — 


J.fiiatbalamsvr, i;<lii^ 


nla fifnooi- 


*Baha, my ohief, my friend, 
Thy lon^y journey wend ; 
Stand with thy wrongs before the 

God of Battles' face, 
Bid him thy foes requite. 
Ah me ! Baukawa's fonl desertion 

and disgrace! 
Ah me! the English Bnler's might ! 

*One counsel more, the first I gave, 
Break np thy forces, comrade brave ; 
Scatter them ronnd about the land 
In many a predatory band; 
But Porirua's forest dense 
Ah! thou wouldst never stir from 

There, saidst thou, lies my best de- 
Now, now, of such design Ol-starr'd, 
How grievously thou reap'st the full 

The Bly. then runs up the Tatca 
Flaty a closely-settled farming dis- 

148 m. Johnsonville. A rising 
township with large cattle yards. 

Thence the line rises still to 

149 m. Khandallah. The highest 
point on the line, 490 ft. above the 

The line then passes through 
several tunnels and twists between 
hills. The best views are to the 1. 
Soon the line descends rapidly, and 
the beautiful Wellington Harbour is 

154 m. Wellington. See Ete. 16. 



Hotels: dub; Occidental; BoycdOak; 
Empire; Albert; and others. Good 
lodgings may be obtained. 

Clubs : Weilingtori^ a fine building 
in a central position (residential) ; 
Central (non-residential\ 

CihiiroliMi: Ang.; R. C, ; Pres,; 
Wed.; Methodist; and others; also a 

*op.8 35»ooo. 

ConTejraiioes : Tramcars run fre- 
quently between Thomdon and New- 
town. The cab fares are so elabo- 
rate that they occupy six pages in 
the local guide. They vary according 
to distance and hills that have to 
be climbed; from is, to 3s., with an 
additional charge from the Mana- 
watu Station orthe wharf (passengers 
arriving by steamer without luggage 
should therefore walk along the 
wharf and not engage a cab until 
they reach tlie land). Hansom cabs, 
double fares. Double fares between 
8 and 9 p.m., and on Sundays ; 

greatly increased rates for cabs 
ordered for night work. By time : 
one-horse carriage 49. the first hour, 
18. each subsequent quarter of an 
hour; two-horse carriages, $s, and 
15. Qd, ; 40 lbs. of luggage free. 

Licensed express vans for luggage meet 
steamers and trains. 

For persons arriving by steamer, 
arrangements as to luggage, &c., are 
convenient. Those coming from 
ports beyond the colony must have 
their luggage examined. If they 
wish to leave it in bond, the Har- 
bour Board officials (who meet every 
steamer) will take it free of charge 
to the bonded sheds, where it can 
be stored for is. per ton per week. 
The Custom House is on the wharf. 
The Harbour Board officials will take 
it there ; and then (if travellers 
wish) remove it free of charge to the 
< Free Luggage Store/ shed F, where 
it may be stored at similar rates, 
and obtained at any time from the 
day or night watchmen. The Har- 
bour Board officials also transfer 
luggage from one steamer to an- 


other. Licensed porters also meet 
all steamers. All cabmen, express 
men and porters, must show a 
printed scale of fares when asked. 
In the Harbour Board oifices adjoin- 
ing the wharf is a comfortable wait- 
ing room for lady travellers, with 
every convenience ; open week-days 
8 a.m. to 6 p.m. At other times the 
watchman in charge will open it 
when required. 

Boat hire. Bowing boats i5. 6d, the 
first hour, is. each subsequent hour ; 
sailing boats as. an hour. 

HisTOBiCAL Sketch. 

Wellington was, of conrBe, named 
after the great Dnke, the name being 
given by Gibbon Wakefield. Port 
Nicholson (as the outer harbonr is 
oalled) was so namied by Cook, who 
visited the place. It is said that the 
peninsula at one side of Port Nicbols<m 
was at that time an island. The dis- 
trict was first settled by the N. Z. 
Company in Jan. 1840, the spot origin- 
ally chosen being at the N.E. end of 
the harbour, and the name Britannia 
(pronounced Petone by the Maoris) was 
given to the settlement, but the floods 
in the Hntt river, which flows into the 
harbour at that end, and the want of 
deep water there soon led the settlers 
to migrate to the S.W. end, the site of 
the present city. At that time there 
were two pas, named Te Aro and 
Pipitea; hence one part of the town 
is still known as Te Aro, and the 
name of the other pa is preserved 
in Pipitea Street in Thomdon. The 
town is shut in by hills ; but much has 
been done to extend its limits by re- 
clamation works ; and houses are 
rapidly spreading up the slopes. 

In 1847, when N. Z. was divided into 
two provinces, Wellington became 
the residence of the Lieutenant- 
Governor of New Munster (Mr. Eyre, 
afterwards Governor of Jamaica). 
This arrangement was abandoned in 
1853, when under the Constitution Act, 
the colony was divided into six pro- 
vinces, of which Wellington was one. 
In 1864 the Government was trans- 
ferred from Auckland to Wellington. 
In 1876, here as elsewhere. Provincial 
f(ovemment was abolished. 

In 1848, and again in 1855, N. Z. was 

visited "by serious earthquakes. One 
result was to raise some parts of the 
land round Wellington Harbour some 
4 or 5 ft. Evidence of this upheaval 
may be seen in the raised beach upon 
which the Bly. runs on approaching 
Wellington. What had been reserved 
as a basin for ships is now the cricket 

The forts which protect the harbour 
were (Uke those at the other ports of the 
Colony), erected under the supervision 
of Lt.-Gen. Sir Wm. .Tervois, and Col. 
Cautley, B.E., in 1884. 

The city has been lighted with the 
electric light since 1888. 

Wellington may be approached 
either by the Manawatu Bly. (see 
Bte. 15), by the Masterton Bly. (see 
Bte. 9), or by sea. Steamers up 
to 6,000 tons can lie alongside the 
wharves, which are in the middle 
of the town, close to the Post Office. 

Although Wellington cannot com- 
pare in size or interest with some of 
the other cities of N. Z., tourists 
will find enough to enable them to 
spend some days there pleasantly. 
It is beautifully situated at the 
S.W. end of the lake-like harbour, 
the hills round which can never 
be entirely spoilt, although the 
dense forest growth with which 
they were once covered has been 
barbarously destroyed. The climate 
is pleasant, without any extremes 
of JSeat or cold ; the only drawback 
being the frequent winds. The 
' season ' at Wellington is during the 
session of Parliament, which usually 
lasts from May to October. As soon 
as the recess begins, the members 
disperse, and the town relapses into 
its summer quietness. There is, 
however, always a good deal of 
pleasant society at Wellington. 

Public Buildings, Places of 
Interest, &c. 

Oovemment Rouse is a comfort- 
able-looking building, without much 
pretence to architectural beauty, 
standing in a pretty garden. Inter- 
nally, it is well planned, and the 
rooms of good proportions. 


The ParUamentary Bnildlnira are 

n semi-Gothic pile. The Library con- 
tains a large and valuable collection 
of books. Visitors are allowed to 
read there during the recess, if in- 
troduced by a member. The two 
Chambers (for the Legialatiye Council 
and House of Bepresentatives) are 
worthy of inspection. Englishmen 
will not fail to notice how much 
more complete they are in their 
arrangements than the House of 
Commons. The debates are open 
to the public ; a short visit to one 
will probably satisfy a traveller. 

The Xuseuiii (which is close to 
Government House) is noticeable 
chiefly for its splendid Whare^puni 
(Maori house),* which was carved 
by artists of the Ngatikaipoho tribe 
in 184a, and purchased by the Go- 
vernment. The interior length is 
43 ft 8 in., and the width 18 ft., 
and the apex of the roof laft. above 
the floor. The figure on the post to 
the rt. of the entrance represents 
Raharuhi Rukupo, the designer ; the 
other figures represent various an- 
cestors of the tribe. The carved 
walls have been raised on a plinth 
a^ ft. above the original level, so 
that the eye of the visitor when 
standing may be at the same eleva- 
tion as if he were sitting on the 
floor of the house in its original 
state, according to Maori custom. 
In order to admit sufficient light, 
the reeding which originally filled 
the spaces between the pillars at 
one end of the liouse has been re- 
moved, and replaced by stained glass. 

Visitors should not omit to see 
the live Tuataras* (Sphenodon puncta- 
turn), see p. [44]. 

The Museum also contains the 
complete type collections of the 
minerals, fossils, birds (including 
moas), fishes, timbers, and vegetable 
products of N. Z. which have been 
described in the various publications 
of the Geological Survey Depart- 

The H. C. Cathedral is a promi- 
nent feature. The proportions are 

good, but unfortunately the style is 
not suited to a wooden building. 

8t. Fanl'8 CShnroli (the Ang. Pro- 
Cathedral) was at one time a well- 
proportioned building ; but subse- 
quent additions, though necessary 
for utility, have spoilt the symmetry. 
The stained-glass windows are good. 

The OoTsnunent Bnildlngv stand 
close to Government House. It is 
the stock remark that they are the 
largest wooden structure in the 
world ; they are certainly not the 
most beautiful. The officials in the 
various departments are always 
courteous in giving information to 
travellers on any subject connected 
with their department. 

The most noticeable educational 
buildings are WeOingUm College^ St. 
Patricias (12. C) OMege ; also the QirU* 
High School, 

Walks and Drives. 

The Botanical Oardens are close 
to the town, one entrance being near 
the Museum. They are rather re- 
serves of vii^gin bush than gardens, 
but have been richly planted as an 
arboretum, and contain charming 
walks through valleys shaded by 
tree-ferns and a variety of native 
trees and shrubs, and fine views 
from the top of the hill. 

Pleasant afternoon walks may also 
be made to the summit of, Mt. 
Victoria (the signal station) or any 
of the hills which rise above the 

Wellington can boast of but few 
drives. There are good roads to 
Island Bay^ where there is a Race- 
course ; round Mt, Victor ia^ returning 
by KUbimie ; to Karori ; and along the 
harbour to the Hutt^ at the N.E. end, 
where are McNab*s Oardens and near 
them another Bacecourse. The Hutt 
may also be reached by Rail ; see 
Rte. 9. 

Travellers who are fond of fishing 
may drive from the Hutt over the 
hill to the Wainuiomata (8 m.), an 



excellent trout stream in a pretty 
valley of the same name. 


AND Nelson. A delightful trip, taking 
at least four days. See Rte. 17. 

ExcuBsioN TO Palmeboton North 


TEBTON. For the first part of this 
Excursion, see Rte. 15, and for the 
latter, see Rte. 9. It takes two days, 
and enables tourists who do not 
intend to make a prolonged tour 
through the N. Island, to see some- 
thing of its scenery. 



The traveller having now com- 
pleted his tour of the N. Island 
should proceed through the S. The 
route that is most recommended is 
to cross to Picton and thence to go by 
Blenheim, Nelson, the West Coast, and 
the Otira Gorge to Christchurch. Those 
who are pressed for time may pro- 
ceed by sea from Picton to Nelson. 
The West Coast route is more beau- 
tiful than by the East Coast; and 
either is preferable to the direct 
route by sea to Lyttelton (port for 
Christchurch). liavellers who do 
not intend to make the tour of 
the S., but have a few days to 
spare at Wellington, may make an 
excursion to Picton, Blenheim, and 
Nelson, and return to Wellington by 
sea ; or vice versa, according to the 
time when the steamer starts, which 
is regulated by the tide. 

Wellington to Picton, 53 m. The 
U. SS. Co.'s steamers ply frequently, 
the time occupied being about four 
hours. After leaving the heads, the 
steamer turns to the W., passes the 
bold headland of Cape Teeawhitj, 
(near which several unsuccessful 
attempts at gold-mining have been 
made), and then strikes across Coo^e 
Straits. On entering Tost Ceannbl, 
between Asapawa Island and the 
mainland, the rough water is left, 
and the steam up the Sound for 
nearly 20 m. is beautiful, the hills 
on each side being thickly covered 

with bush. Soon the island is left, 
and the steamer enters Queen ChaB' 
LOTTiia Sound (so named by Cook 
when, on Jan. 30, 1770, he first 
hoisted the British Flag on a small 
hill overlooking the Sound, and 
took formal possession of the country 
in the name of King George the 


Kot«l: Terminus. 

Clmrolies : Ang. ; Pres, ; R.C.; Wesl, 

Pop.: 800. 

A charmingly situated little town, 
at the head of the Sound. It will 
doubtless become of considerable 
importance when the fishing in- 
dustry is developed, and the mines 
in the district are properly worked ; 
but at present it is stationary. Many 
Wellington residents come to Picton 
during the summer, to enjoy the sea 
fishing (which is very good), boating, 
bathing, excursions through the 
Sounds, and rambles over the hills. 

From Picton there are three ways 
of going to Nelson : (i) By sea ; (a) 
By Cullensville and Havelock ; (3) 
By Blenheim. 

(i) Picton TO NEI430N BY SEA. 85 m. 

On leaving Picton the steamer 
proceeds for about a^ hours through 
the Queen Charlotte Sound to Co^s 
Straits, The scenery in the Sound is 
very fine; several picturesque islandB 

1 ^Pdub £ka«Zra2/ 
a SfMoayg CaOeJral' 

*. Congn^atianaiL Oaa-ek. 

5 SfJkaiw* Ottirdc 

6 Su^rmtitfA RJCCourt 
B OeeidmitalMotA 

19 OovfPrinting O/ket, 

10 Svnagogue' 
H jTationdiL Sank 
12 Dhu?n.JBank. 

15 Bmk oflfmf Zmaland 
1^ jEmpirt, Motel 

16 smaryefa»An^da Ch. 

16 ^Jdtats ChurcK 

17 SrFmer* ChMinA, 



London. JolmHTiica^ALbemaizle Stjpeet. 

J-Btathnlnmnvr. Edii^ 



with foliage down to the water's 
edge are passed ; the hills on both 
sides of the Sound being high and 
covered with bush. On opening out 
into Cook's Straits the revolving 
light on * ITie Brothers * islands may 
be seen at night to the S. About 
two hours after leaving the Sound 
the steamer passes through the 
Fbbnoh PAsSy a narrow channel be- 
tween J/Ubville Island and the 
mainland. Owing to a low ridge of 
rocks which juts out from the 
island, the Pass at its northern 
entrance is only a few chains 
wide, and can only be navigated at 
high water, so that vessels leaving 
Picton and Wellington are timed to 
suit the tide, which rushes through 
the narrow channel with great 
force. There is a lighthouse at the 
northern entrance to the Pass. 

D'UsriLLE Island was named after 
Captain Dumont If UrviUej of the French 
navy, who was sent out to N. Z. by his 
Government on an exploring expe- 
dition in 1827. The island is owned 
by the natives and is very rugged. 
Indications of copper have been seen. 
Three or four hours after leaving 
the Pass the Port of Nelson is reached. 
The harbour has a narrow entrance 
through which the current runs 
with great swiftness, the rise and 
fall of the tide being about 14 feet. 
The harbour is a remarkable one, 
being protected from the sea by a 
natural boulder bank on which a 
lighthouse stands. Ships of large 
draught can only enter at high tide. 


Havelock to Nelson. This journey 
takes two days. 

The scenery is very fine, and tra- 
vellers who do not intend visiting 
the mining districts of Westland or 
Otago will have a good opportunity 
of seeing something of N. Z. gold- 

A steamer leaves Picton almost 
every morning at about 9 o'clock. 

7 m. The Grove, Here travellers 
take the coach, which passes through 

a low open valley, with high wooded 
ranges on either side to 

10 m. Ciillensville, a mining 

KotelB : Grand Nationalj and others. 
Pop. : aoo. 

As the coach stops about three 
hours, the travellers may inspect 
the mining operations. The work- 
ings are alluvial, the gold being 
obtained from the beds of creeks and 
terraces ; the deposits are found at a 
depth of from 10 to lao ft. Quartz 
reefs also exist in the neighbouring 
ranges, and the Wakamarina district 
which have been considerably open- 
ed up. The gold field (including 
Wakamarina, Mahakapaioa and Waika" 
hako) is about 25 m. from E. to W. 
by 12 m. from N. to S. Pop. of the 
district about 600. Yield of gold 
per month about 200 oz. 

The coach leaves Oullensville be- 
tween 3 and 5 p.m. (according to 
tides) for the Mafiakapawa wharf 
about I J m. from Oullensville. 
Here the traveller takes the boat for 
Havelock, The waterway is very 
shallow and only suitable for small 
boats. When the tide is high the 
scenery is fine, rich vegetation grow- 
ing down to the water's edge. Large 
quantities of soles and other fish are 
caught on these flats. About 6 
o'clock the boat reaches 

22 m. Havelock. Here the 
traveller stays for the night. Here 
the route joins that from Blenheim. 
See below. 


Havelock to Nelson. Picton to Btm' 
heim, 18 m. Rly. (3s. gd,, 2s. 6d, ; 
R. 59., 3s. 4(2.), 20 m. road. Coaches 
run duily. The Ely. and road run 

Travellers who have spent the 
night at Picton and have time to 
spare will find it pleasant to walk to 
Tuamarina (13 m.) and then take the 
train on to Blenheim. 

On leaving Picton the road rises 



rapidly to 3 m. Eletxxtionj 253 ft. above 
the sea. After this the road slowly 
descends, and for some way skirts 
along a swampy district at the foot 
of the hills. 

6 m. Koromiko. 

13 m. fPaumarina. A station 
close to the stream of the same name. 
The scene of the celebrated Wairau 
massacre which took place on June 
17, 1843 ; the monument to the 
twenty-two victims of that unhappy 
tragedy being in the little cemetery 
on the hill above the station. 

In April, 1843, the N. Z. Com- 
pany sent a party of forty men to 
survey the land in this district. The 
chiefs, Te Bauparaha and Bangihaeata, 
who denied that the land hcMl ever 
been sold, urged that no snrvey should 
be mode until the Ck>mniissioner, Mr. 
Spain (see Bte. 12), had held an inquiry 
and made a report on the subject. Never- 
theless the surveyors proceeded with 
their work. The natives accordingly 
removed the surveyors' tents and valu- 
ables from the land which they claimed 
as their own, and burnt a reed hut that 
the surveyors had erected. A warrant 
was immediately issued by the police 
magistrate at Nelson, to arrest the 
chiefs on a charge of arson. A party 
of forty-nine men led by the magistrate 
(Mr. Thompson) and Captain Wakefield 
proceeded to execute the warrant. 
Coming up the N. bank of the 
Wairau, they found the natives sitting 
in groups on the other side of the Tua- 
marina, and then halted, facing the 
creek, with the fern hills in their rear. 
Thompson then asked the natives to 
place a canoe athwart the creek, that 
he and some of his followers might 
cross over and explain to the chiefs the 
purpose for which they had come. A 
colloquy ensued, which lasted some 
time, and ended by Thompson telling 
Te Bauparaha that if he would not 
come peaceably he must be taken by 
force, and calling on the men on the 
other side of the stream to advance. 
A shot was fired — accidentally, it is 
said ; whereupon the firing became 
general. The English, who were un- 
disciplined and ill-armed, fled ; but 
amongst the Maoris killed was Te 
Bonga, the daughter of Te Bauparaha 

and wife of Bangihaeata. Captain 
Wakefield waved a flag of truce, but 
some of his men, whilst moving up the 
hill, turned from time to time and. 
fired. Te Bauparaha wished to save 
the lives of Captain Wakefield and the 
others who had surrendered ; but Ban- 
gihaeata, seeing the dead body of his 
wife, rushed up, demanded ' utu * (ven- 
geance), and slew them alL The Maori 
loss was five killed and eight wounded. 
The Bev. Mr. Ironside, a Wesleyan 
missionary stationed at Cloudy Bay, 
came to the spot as soon as he heard of 
the massacre ; he found the bodies 
lying unxnutilated, and reverently 
buried them. 

Soon afterwards the Commissioner 
arrived and, after holding an inquiry, 
reported that no evidence of the pur- 
cluuse of the Wairau district had been 
CMlduced by the Company's agent. It 
was subsequently purchased by Sir G. 
Grey on behalf of the Colony, in 1847. 

After leaving Tuamarina, the road 
and Bly. diverge, but both pass over 
the rich Wairau plain, and cross the 

15 m. Spring Creek. A large 
meat-freezing establishment has 
been erected here, the force used 
being supplied by the river. 

Shortly before reaching Blenheim, 
the Opawa R. is crossed by a bridge, 
which serves for both road and Bly. 

t8 m. Blenheim. 

Hotels: Criterion (veiy comfort- 
able) ; and others. 

Club : Marlborough (non-residen- 

Cliarohss : Ang. ; Pres. ; R. C. ; 
and West. 

Pop.: 3,aoo. 

A thriving little town in a rich 
agricultural and fruit-producing dis- 
trict. The B. {Opawa) is pleasant 
for boating ; there are some phea- 
sants in the neighbourhood, and 
many quail. 

Blenheim was the capital of the 
Province of Marlborough from its 
separation from Nelson in 1859 until 
the abolition of the Provinces in 



[From Blenheim a coach runs to 
Kaikoura. See Bte. ai.] 

Blekhexk to Nelson, 78 m. A 
coach runs three times a week, 
taking about twelye hours. 

Leaving Blenheim by the South 
Boady the Bte. lies over the rich 
agricultural plain to 

7 m. Benwick. 

The Waieau B, is then forded, and 
the Kaituna Valley entered, and fol- 
lowed down to 

28 m. Havelock. 

Hotels : Masonic ; Commercial ; and 

CShiurclLes : Ang. ; Pres, ; H. C. 

Fop. : 300. 

The town is situated in the Pxlobvs 
80VND, and is the centre of a saw- 
milling district. 

[From Havelock it is possible to 
return to Picton by steamer and 
coach. See above.] 

The road skirts the Sound for a 
short distance, and then enters 
another valley. At Cooper's Hotd the 
coach halts. 

From this for many years the only 
way to Nelson was by a horse-traok 
over the Maungatapu (3,500 ft.). The 
neighbourhood was unhappily asso- 
ciated with the murders of Mathieu^ 
JTemptikonM, Dudley y and De Pontius in 
1866, for which Burgess, KsUy, and 
Levy were hanged, SuUwan having 
turned Queen's evidence. 

A pleasant stay may be made at 
Cooper's by travellers fond of sport. 
Deer, quail, hares, and pigeons may 
be found ; and the trout fishing in 
the Pelorus B. is excellent. 

The road then crosses the Pelobus 
B, and passes through the thickly- 
wooded district of the Bye Valley, 
with fine rimu, rata, black birch, 
and other forest trees. The view 
from the stunmit, looking back, espe- 
cially when the rata is in bloom, 
is magnificent. The descent into 
the Wasoamoa Vallet then commen- 
ces ; the road then turns to the 1., 
ascends the Wangamoa Valley and 
crosses a high saddle at the head of 
the valley into Happy VaUey, and 
thence by the Wakapucika road into 

78 m. Nelson. See Bte. t8. 

BOUTE 18. 



Hotels: Masonic; Trc^algar; Com- 
mercial; and others. Comfortable 
rooms may be obtained at Warwick 
House (Hardy Street) ; Panama House 
(Collingwood Street) ; and other 
lodging houses. 

CnrarohMi: Ang.; B. C. ; Pres. ; 

Wed, ; Cong, ; Bapt, ; and others. 

Club : Nelson (non-residential). 

^ops 7»30o. 

ConTeyanoes: Hackney Carriages. 
Fares by distance : For each pas- 
senger, from the wharf to any 

[New Zealand,'] 

stand 6d. ; from any stand to the 
Bly. Stat., Victory Square or Bot. 
Gardens 6d. ; double fares be- 
tween 6 and 8 a.m., and between 
9 p.m. and midnight. By time : 
For one-horse vehicle 4s. the first 
hour, gd, each subsequent quarter 
of an hour ; for two-horse vehicle 59. 
and IS, 14 lbs. of luggage free. 

Nelson may be approached (i) By 
sea (see Bte. 17) ; (a) By rail from 
Bellgrove (see Bte. 19) ; (3) By road 
from Havelock (see Bte. 17). The 
rail which will connect Nelson with 
the W. coast and with Christchuroh 
wiU not be completed for some years. 

82 BOUTK 18.— nelson: histoeical sketch, buildings. 

Historical Sketch. 

The settlement of Nelson dates from 
Feb. I, 1843 ; it was the third planted 
by the N. Z. Company, the earlier ones 
being Wellington and New Plymouth. 
Captain Wakefield decided that it 
should be located somewhere in this 
district, and sailed from Wellington to 
Blind Bay, anchoring under Astrolabe 
Island. The natives having reported a 
good harbour and site for a town at 
Wakatu (Nelson) he sent a boat to ex- 
plore, and ultimately fixed upon the 
present site. A remarkable feature of 
the harbour is that it is formed by a 
boulder bank about 9 m. in length, ex- 
tending from the entrance at the 
Arrow Bock to Mackey's Bluff. Accord- 
ing to the original scheme, the land 
was to be sold at high prices, and the 
money so obtained devoted ta the ex- 
pense of emigration, the establishment 
of the settlement, and providing for 
the religious and educational require- 
ments of the settlers. Difficulties with 
the natives soon arose ; the Maori 
chiefs contending that the land had 
never been sold by them. This cul- 
minated in the Wairau massacre in 
June, 1843 (see Bte. 17). Since tiien, 
however, all has been peaoefuL In 
1853 the coal seams to the W. of Nelson 
began to be worked, and in 1856 the 
gold in the Motueka district. Under 
the Constitution Act of 1853 Nelson 
became a Province, with a superinten- 
dent and provincial council ; in 1857 
Marlborough separated and became a 
separate Province. In i860 a number 
of settlers, driven from Taranaki by 
the war (see Bte. la), took refuge at 
Nelson. Funds even beyond what were 
required were liberally subscribed for 
their relief; the unexpended balance, 
after lying at the Bank for thirty years, 
was ultimately expended in ti^e pur- 
chase of Trafalgar Park. In 1876, here 
as elsewhere, provincial government 
was abolished. The present provincial 
district contains about 6,700,000 acres. 

The prevailing scenery is bold and 
grand (the loftiest mountain, Mt. 
Franklin, attaining a height of 7,671 fb.), 
with fertile valleys w^ adapted for 
agriculture and fruit-growing. The 
lai^gest area of agricultural land is con- 
tained in the Waimea Valley, near the 
city. This is a picture of Eboiglish rural 
scenery. The principal wealth of the 

provincial district is its minerals. The 
climate is soft and genial. 

Nelson was of course called after the 
celebrated Admiral, and the streets of 
the city bear names connected with 
him and his victories. 

Public Buildings, &c. 

The public buildings of interest are 
few. TheAjig.CtktheAnlChristCfi^^ia 
strikingly situated on a commanding 
mound in the centreof rra/o^arS^uare. 
The site is memorable in the early an- 
nals of the Colony. At the time of the 
Wairau massacre it was feared that 
the Maoris might make a descent 
upon the town ; and this mound 
was entrenched in order to form a 
place of refuge in which the women 
and children could be defended. 
Happily, however, it was not needed. 
The present building stands on the 
site of an earlier church: it is of wood 
and dates from 1887 ; the interior 
decoration is a very happy combina- 
tion of the various native timbers. 
The Bishopric of Nelson was founded 
in 1857, Dr. Hobhouse being the first 
Bp. On his resignation in 1864 he 
was succeeded by Dr. Suter, who 
resigned in 1891. The present Bp. 
is Dr. Mules. AU Saints Ch. iA Van- 
guard Street possesses a small set of 
tubular bells, which when heard on 
a calm Sunday morning will remind 
the tourist of an English village. 
The P»*es. Ch, recently erected is a 
light and elegant structure ; but none 
of the other churches call for any 
special remark. There is a large R. C. 
Convent and School in CoUingwood Street, 

In Hardy Street is a small but 
comfortable PuUlo Znstltate and 
lAhrtajf to which is attached a 
small museum. Adjoining it are 
the OoTemment Bnlldinira, con- 
taining the offices of the various 
public dex)artments, and the Hall 
formerly used for the Provincial 
CouncUj now utilized for public meet- 
ings, &c. 

Nelson has long been celebrated 
for its educational institutions. The 



C^lleire for Boys, which was part 
of the original scheme, is situated 
on the Waimea Boad, ahout a mile 
from Trafalgar Square. There has 
lately been added an excellent Kierli 
Scliool for Girls, which is situated 
in Trafalgar Street, S. 

The ILunatlo Asylum and Hos- 
pital for the provincial district 
occupy beautiful sites, and are sur- 
rounded by pleasing grounds on the 
Waimea Biaad just beyond the Col- 
lege. About ^ m. further is Bishop- 
dcUe, the residence of the Ang. 
Bp. which was considerably en- 
larged and beautified during the 
episcopate of Bp. Suter. A small 
ITieologiccU, College is attached. 

Wales, Dbiyes, and Excubsions. 

(i) To the top of Botanic Hill, 
471 ft. A zigzag path with an easy 
grade leads to the summit, from 
which is obtained a beautiful view. 
From Trafalgar Square to the summit 
is about half an hour's walk. 

(a) To the Beservoir, 3 m. A 
pretty drive through the town and 
up the Brookstreet VdBey between lofty 
hills. After the reservoir has been 
inspected it is well to go on to the 
dam which is a little further up, 
and is picturesquely situated. In 
the bush by the roadside ferns 
grow luxuriantly. 

(3) Up the Matai Valley. A 
short and pleasant drive, to the E. 
of Nelson, on the old road to BleiV' 
heim across the Maungatapu, In the 
Maiai J2:, which runs alongside the 
road, and is forded several times, 
are good spots for bathing, and 
excellent trout fishing may be ob- 
tained in the season. As the road 
is imeven, it is better to ride than 

(4) Round the Three Bridges. 
One of the most picturesque country 
drives at Nelson, through the greater 
part of the Waimea Plain with its 
English-looking lanes, and fields of 
barley and hops. The villages of 
Bishopdale, Stoke t Bichm/mdf Appleby, 
Waimea West, Brighhoater (where a 
halt may be made for refreshments), 
and Hope are passed ; and the return 
made through Richmond again. The 
whole excursion occupies five hours. 

(5) To Cable Bay. Start from 
Nelson by the Wakapyaka road 
(which leads to Havelock ; see Rte. 
17). The view is best when the 
tide is high. After about 9 m. 
to Suburban North, Happy VaMey is 
reached ; a turn to the 1. is taken, 
and a drive through the bush leads 
to the Cable Station (16 m. from 
Nelson), the offices of the Eastern 
Extension Cable Company, and of 
the N. Z. Government lines. A 
small Maori pa and cultivation is 
situated about i m. from the Cable 

(6) ToBellgrove by train. See 
Rte. 19. 

(7) To Collingwood. Those 
making a prolonged stay at Nelson 
may enjoy a summer excursion to 
Collingwood. From Nelson to 
Motueka is 32 m. by coach, or two 
hours by steamer. At Motueka 
(Hotels : Post Office ; Motu^kcu 
Clmrolies : Pres. ; R. C) a halt may 
be made, and horses and buggies 
obtained for an excursion to the 
Ta^aka VaUey and Collingwood 
(Hotel: Commercial; ClinrclL: Ang.). 
From Collingwood several excursions 
maybe made, the favourite one being 
to the stalactite caves, about 10 m. 
distant, for which horses, guides, 
and lights can be obtained at Col- 

o a 



BOUTE 19. 


This Route is best taken as part of 
a tour from Nelson to Christchurch. 
The whole tour should occupy ten 
days ; but it may be shortened to 
six by omitting Hokitika, and eyen 
to five by omitting Westport. The 
tour is yery beautiful, and the road 
fairly good all the way. 

It is possible to start in the morn- 
ing and reach Longford the first 
evening ; but travellers having time 
to spare will do well to leave Nelson 
in the afternoon and spend the night 
at Foxhill. 

Nelson to Bellobove. aa m. Rly. 
4s. 7^.) 3a. id. ; R. 6s. id,, 4s, id. 

The line passes through the 
Waimea Plain, dotted with farms 
and homesteads. 

a m. Bishopdale. So called 
from its being the residence of the 
Ang. Bp. of Nelson. See Rte. 18. 

5 m. Stoke. A pleasing village 
with a pretty little stone church. 

8 m. Bichmond. 

13 m. Brightwater. 

17 m. Wakefield. 

tains must be made on horaebaok. 
trip takes at least four days. 


a I m. FoxhilL 

Hotel (veiy 

22 m. Bellgrove. The present 
terminus of the Rly., which is how- 
ever being extended by .a tunnel 
through Spooner's Range to Niyrris' 
Valley, a further distance of 6 m. 

pProm Bellgrove it is possible to go to 
Christchurch across the mountains to 
the Hanmer Plains^ and thence to CfuU 
verden^ and so on by raU. Ihere are 
small inns at which the traveller can 
stop ; but the journey across the moun- 

BsLLasovi: to Hakmkb PijAIKs. 91m.. 

At first the scenery is not remarkable, 
but the beauty increases as the road as- 
cends the mountains. The district is 
densely timbered with black and red 

39 m. Top House. Inn. Here the 
traveller halts for the night. 

The road then proceeds through the 
Wairau Gorge, the scenery being very 

49 m. The Rainbow. Inn. 

63 m. Tamdale. The highest in- 
habited station in N. Z., being 4,500 ft. 
above the sea. Travellers can stay at 
the station for the night. 

91 m. Jollie's Pass. 

Here the Hanmer Plain$ are reached, 
and the hot springs may be visited. 
For the rest of the way, see Bte. 21.I 

Bellgbove to Westpobt. lai m. 

This route was first explored by 
Brunner in 1846. 

The road ascends Spooner^s Range, 
bare rolling mountains of loose sedi- 
mentary formation covered with 
bracken and coarse grass ; from the 
summit the view over the Waimea 
Plain, Blind Bay, and jyUrvHU^s Island 
is fine. It then descends through 
the somewhat desolate Norris^s QuUy, 
where Califomian Quails abound. 

10 m. The Motueka R. is crossed by 
a bridge. 

The road then turns 1. up the 
Motupiko VcUley, passes a small Inn, 
crosses a low saddle, and ascends 
the Clark VcUley until it reaches 

a6m. Tee Hope Saddle (a,oo3 ft). 



Here the real beauty of the joorney 
begins. If the day is fine, the ooach- 
driver will kindly stop for a few 
minutes on the top, if requested, to 
allow travellers to enjoy tiie view*. 
Facing S.E., Qordon*8 Knob (5,459 ft.) 
is seen 10 m. off. To the rt. are the 
Red HiUs which divide the valleys of 
the Motueka and the Wairau, Further 
to the rt. is the St Amaud Range 
(6,000 ft.) at the end of which rises 
Mt Travers (7,666 ft.). Next come 
the Spencer Ranges, stretching away to 
the S., amongst which will be seen 
the snowy peak of Mt. FranJdyn 
(7,671 ft.) 30 m. distant. To the rt. 
again are Mt, Murchison (4,813 ft.) 
10 m. distant, Mt, Hope (4,070 ft.), 
Mt, Owen (6, 100 ft.), and Mt, Arthur 
(5,500 ft.). 

The road then descends rapidly 
with many sharp curves, and soon 
enters the densely-wooded valley of 
the Hope. At the junction of the 
Hope and the BuUer the valley opens 
out on a larger and grander scale, 
and the Gorge scenery commences, 
which continues to Westport. The 
characteristic feature of this scenery 
is the dense luxuriance of the vege- 
tation. The mountains are clothed 
in verdure from base to summit, and 
although they are in some places 
precipitous, few rocky crags are 
visible. The beauty and variety of 
the ferns, from the mammoth fern 
downwards, is especially remarkable. 

The road then proceeds along the 
VdUey of the BvUBter R, which takes its 
rise in Lake Boto-iti, 60 m. from 

40 m. The junction of the R/oto/rva, 
from the E. with the JBuZfer jB. After 
this the scenery is very lovely. 

4a m. Qramt)! Oreek is crossed by a 

47 m. The Ovoen. is crossed by a 
bridge. Some of the mountains, 
rivers, &c. in this neighbourhood 
have been called after English men 
of science, and amongst others will 
be recognized the names of (Oharlea) 
Lyell, (Boderick) Murchison, and 
(Richard) Owen. 

59 m. The junction of the Mangles 
and BuHer rivers. Nearly opposite 
this the valley narrows and the 
river passes between some remark- 
able conglomerate rocks. The strata, 
turned up edgewise, form a series 
of parallel walls : one of them ex- 
tending for some aoo yds. along 
the BuUer, and rising in places 
to a height of ao ft. above it, 
6e})arates the river from the road, 
which has a lower wall for its 
natural parapet and a perpendicular 
cliff rising 600 ft. on its farther 
side. In mid stream, and on the 
opposite bank, the succession of 
these odd natural walls continues. 

60 m. Longford. At the comfort- 
able accommodation house here the 
coach stops for the night. There is 
a telegraph station close by. 

The river here, as in many places 
in N. Z., can only be crossed in a 
box swung upon a wire, the pas- 
senger pulling himself over by means 
of a cord attached to either side of 
the river bank. It is chiefly miners 
and bushmen who have recourse to 
this method of transit. 

63 m. The Matiri R. is crossed by 
a bridge, and then for about 2 m. the 
road proceeds along a gallery cut 
in the rock over the Matiri Bluffs, 
from which a beautiful view is 
obtained across the BuUer B. over 
the Four Rivers Plain, so called from 
the MataMtaki, Matiri, and Maruia 
which discharge into the BuUer in 
the neighbourhood. 
Then the road descends and reaches 
67 m. Fern Flat, at the entrance 
to the Lyell Gorge, and proceeds 
through magnificent gorge scenery 
until it reaches 

84 m. Lyell. 
Hotel: FenndVs, 
Ohiurclies: Ang, ; R. C, 

A curiously situated little mining 
town, onoe more prosperous than at 

[From here it is possible to take. a 



boat and go down to Westport (38 m.) 
by water. The services of an expe- 
rienced boatman should be secored, as 
there are many rapids ; bnt the beauty 
of the river scenery repays the tourist 
for all trouble and any possible danger.] 

li m. after leaving Lyell, the 
Buller is crossed by a girder bridge 
of two spans. 

93 m. The Inang<»hua R. is crossed 
by a bridge immediately above its 
junction with the Boiler. 

Inangahua Junction. Znn. 

At this point the road to Re^flon 
branches off 1. One day may be saved 
by going on to Reefton direct, omit- 
ting Westport ; but as far the most 
beautiful part of the Buller Valley 
is that below Inangahua, this course 
is not recommended. 

The road now continues down the 
1. bank of the Buller, here a mighty 
river which in times of flood has 
been known to rise 60 ft., sweeping 
all before it. The moist climate of 
the W. Coast makes the vegetation 
of this part specially luxuriant, and 
in combination with the bold shapes 
which the limestone mountains here 
assume affords most striking scenery. 

About 100 m. at an elbow in the 
river's course the road is carried, 
partly by means of galleries, along 
the face of * Little Hawks Craig,* a 
conglomerate cliff which rises per- 
pendicularly from the water's edge. 
A few miles further the gorge 
abruptly terminates and the travel- 
ler sees the plain before him. At 
the mouth of the gorge the coach is 
conveyed across the river by a ferry, 
worked by tneans of the current ; 
but unless the traveller is particu- 
larly desirous of seeing the town of 
Westport he is recommended to pass 
the night at the small Znn on the 
1. bank of the river, amidst the 
attractive scenery of the defile, re- 
joining the coach next morning on 
its recrossing the river to return up 
the gorge ^. 

1 If the ooaoh does not run on the f ollowli^ 
day« and the traveller desires to prooeed on 
his journey, he can arrange to have a bnggy 
from Westport to meet him. 

By stopping in the pass the travel- 
ler saves a tedious hour's drive at 
the end of a long day and another 
hour the following morning. On the 
other hand the accommodation is 
limited and rough. After a weari- 
some drive of 18 m., mostly through 
swamp land, the coach reaches 

131 m. Westport. 

Bot«Li: Stewarts; Hugfie^s (both 
in Pdbnerston St, close to the Rly. 

Chiirolies: Ang.; Pres. ; R. C; Meth. 

Fop.: a,ooo. 

A flourishing town, chiefly de- 
pendent on the coal mines of the 
district, which is estimated to con- 
tain 140,000,000 tons. 

Tourists should first inspect the 
Harbour Works, which were designed 
by Sir John Coode, and commenced 
in 1886. Two groins are being con- 
structed in order to confine the large 
volume of water which comes down 
the Buller into a definite channel, 
and cause such a scour as to wash 
the Bar away. The estimated cost 
to complete this work is £500,000, 
to be raised by loan. 


An interesting excursion of one 
day may be made to Coalbrook Dale, 
the principal mine in the district, 
belonging to the Westport Coal 
Company. The average annual out- 
put is about 200,000 tons ; the 
quality being equal to that of the 
best Welsh coal. The traveller takes 
the train for 10 m. along the 
Ngakaujau line as far as TFatrna- 
ngaroa, and then proceeds by the 
branch line belonging to the West- 
port Coal Co. for 2 m. to Conn*s Creek, 
From this a beautiful winding track 
of an easy grade leads up through 
the forest to the township of Den- 
niston (altitude 1,800 ft.) 4 m. Travel- 
lers who do not wish to walk, can 
procure horses (inquiries should 
be made at the Hotel at Westport 
previously). The manager of the 


fbrtstt i Bu^h Lands oetourad Grg»n, ' ^ ' 

BridltJhieks tmmm 



Colliery at Benniston is always 
courteous in showing the mine to 

The coal from the mine is let 
down to Conn's Creek by a steep 
incline of more than i m. in length, 
with a grade from i in 3 to i in ij ; 
the loaded waggons drawing up the 
empty ones, and the whole regulated 
by powerful hydraulic brakes. 

Westport to Reefton. 48 m. coach. 
The road, the same as that pre- 
viously traversed, is retraced to 

28 m. Inangahiia Junction, Znn. 

Here the coach halts for lunch. 
The road now goes through an un- 
interesting wooded country partly 
cleared to 

48 m. Heefton, where the travel- 
ler stops for the night. 

Hotels: Dawson's; Stevenson^s, 

Clmrclies: Ang.; Pres,; B,C,; Meth. 

Fop.: 1,100. 

A flourishing town, in a wide 
valley, the principal centre of quartz 
reefing in N. Z. The average annual 
yield of the district has for many 
years been of the value of £100,000. 
This was the first town in N. Z. 
lighted by electricity. 

Beefton is at present the terminus 
of the Ely. which is to connect Grey- 
mouth and Nelson, and is being 
constiTicted by the Midland Ely. Co. 

Eeefton to Gretmoxjth. 47 m. 
Ely. 128. 3(2., 8$. 4eZ. ; E. i6a. 8(2., 
118. id. 

The line passes through beautiful 
woodland country, with much set- 
tlement at the various open spaces. 

20 m. TotaraFlat. 

25 m. Ahaura. Hotel : OtZmo^Vs. 
Chnrclies : Ang, ; R, C. 
Fop. : 200. 

A small town on the river of the 
same name. If the traveller has 
time to spare, a stay may be plea- 
santly made here, as the excursions 

up the river are beautiful. Adven- 
turous travellers may make their 
way by. a mountain track across to 
Hanmer Plains (see Ete. 21) in three 

Just after leaving the town, the 
Ahaura R., an affluent of the Qreyj 
is crossed by a bridge. 

The line then proceeds down the 
Vailey of the Qrey, with the Paparoa 
Range (which is beautifully wooded, 
to the summit) on the rt. In many 
of the gullies, gold miners are at 
work ; and at the base, important 
deposits of coal exist. One of these, 
the Black Ball, is now in process of 

36 m. The AtTiold R,, the boundary 
between the Nelson and Westland 
provincial districts, is here crossed. 

39 m. Brunner. The seat of the 
Grey Coal Mining Co.*s operations, 
the average annual output being 
160,000 tons. The coal is bitumin- 
ous, and specially suitable for steam 
and gas making. 

47 m. Greymouth. 
Hotels: OUmer^s; Albion; and others. 
ClmrolLes: Ang.; Pres.; R. C; Wed. 
Vop. : 3,200. 

The most important town on the 
West Coast. Harbour Works, simi- 
lar to those at Westport, are in pro- 
gress here ; but as the set of the 
ocean currents and the trend of the 
coast are more difficult at this point, 
the result of the works has so far 
not been so satisfactory. 

Tourists will notice a cmrious cus- 
tom which is still maintained here, 
though it has long since died out in 
Europe ; all through the night the 
watchman at intervals calls out the 
time and the state of the weather. 


A pleasant excursion of one day 
may be made to Ijake Brunner. 
A Ely. is being constructed by Lake 
Brunner to the Teremahau R. ', but i 



is not yet open. The road (15 to 
ao m.) is good ; horses and carriages 
may be hired at Greymouth. The 
road is pretty, passing through 
woodland scenery ; and the lake, 
which is surrounded by grand moun- 
tains, very beautifuL 

Gbeymottth to Ettmaba. 10 m. 
Horse Tram. (Endeavour to secure 
seats beside the driver.) 

The wooden tram-road at first 
skirts the sea coast, amongst sand 
hills and large patches of N. Z. flax. 

In clear weather a glimpse of 
snow mountains is seen to the S.W. 
beyond lines of distant headlands ; 
further on the road enters the bush 
luxuriant with ferns of every de- 
scription which crop up between 
the wooden rails and overhang the 
track, until at 

6 m. it ends abruptly on the pre- 
cipitous edge of the Teremakau River, 

The traveller is taken across, a 
distance of 700 ft., in a 'cradle' 
susx)ended on wires and drawn by 
an endless rope, worked by steam. 
There is nothing to alarm the most 
timid tourist, as the ' cradle ' is like 
a large omnibus, and the motion 
perfectly smooth. 

The tram-road then proceeds as 
before through a beautiful forest, 
marvellously rich in ferns. Amongst 
the other species which cling to the 
trunks of the trees may be noticed 
the Kidney Fern with its odd lobe- 
shaped frond. 

10 m. Kiimara. 

Hotels: Steward s ; Kumar a ; Chroum; 
and others, all somewhat rough. 

Chnrclies : Ang.; Pres,; R. C; Wed, 

Fop. : z, loa 

Close to this mining town are some 
of the most extensive hydraulic 
sluicing operations in the Colony. 
Several sludge tunnels run into the 
Teremakau R., and the debris thus 
carried down partly dams it up and 
alters its course until a flood comes 
down and washes it all away. 

If the tourist does not intend to 
proceed to HckiHkOf he will have 
time to see the workings early in 
the morning whilst waiting for the 
coach for the OHra Gorge, Two 
hours will be enough to give him a 
general idea. 

KuxABA TO HoKinKA. i8 m. ooach. 

The scenery is somewhat unin- 
teresting; decayed mining town- 
ships and deserted workings being 
passed. Nature is however striving 
to repair the damage done by man, 
and the vast heaps of debris are 
becoming covered with lichens and 

15 m. Arahiira. Here is a small 
native settlement, and school. 

18 m. Hokitika. 
Hotels: Commercial; En^re, 
Clmrelias: Ang.; Free.; JR. C; Wed, 
Fop.: 9,700. 

HisTosiCAL Sketch. 

The Maori popolation of the W. 
coast was never large, yet there were 
many tribal wars. The Ngaitahu held 
most of the oountiy. The Ngatimamoe, 
reduced in niunbeir by wars with their 
hereditaiy foes, retired to the moun- 
tains W. of Lakes Hawea and 
Wanaka; some writers consider that 
it is not impossible that a few of them 
may stiU be discovered in the hitherto 
tmezplored districts of the S.W. ; but 
most probably they are extinct. The 
traces of native settlements fomid near 
those lakes are doubtless i^cs of this 
tribe. Some of the Ngatitoa tribe at 
one time came down from Gk>lden Bay 
and settled at Mawhere (Greymouth), 
but they afterwards returned to the N. 
The present native population of the 
W. coast is about 50. 

Exploration in the district com- 
menced in 1846. In 1857 Grey coal was 
discovered. In i860 the whole country 
from Lake Botoroa to IfUford Sound 
was purchased from the natives for 

In 1864 Hokitika was founded; the 
next year the famous ' gold rush ' took 
place, miners flocking tiiither, mostly 
arriving by sea, but some crossing the 



momitains from Christchnrch. Large 
quantities of gold were found, and their 
newly acquired fortunes in too many 
cases squandered by the diggers with 
lavish folly. Many claims in the Grey 
district are said to have yielded their 
owners i lb. of gold a day ; but no 
one thought of saving. Prices were 
enormous, flour being £150 a ton. 
Greymouth was founded in 1865. ^ 
1866 a road was made from Christ- 
ohurch to Hokitika (150 m.) at a cost of 
£150,000; in the same year the yield of 
the gold fields in the district amounted 
to the value of £ 1,400,00a 

In 1867 *li6 Province of Westland 
separated from Canterbury. The new 
province (now provincial district) con- 
tains about 5,045,760 acres, of which 
only 172,000 are open country. Here as 
elsewhere provincial government was 
abolished in 1876. The present popula- 
tion is about 17,00a 

Hokitika, once the capital of the 
province, is now the county town. 
Although it has much decayed since 
the prosperous days of gold mining, 
it contains several breweries, tan- 
neries, and other permanent indus- 
tries, and nice villa residences. A 
Rly. is now in course of construction 
connecting it with Greymouth. 


(i) To Lake Mahinaputi, 6 m. 
A pleasant excursion of one day, 
best made by boat up the Makinapua 
R.J a small tidal stream, the reflec- 
tion of the almost tropical vegetation 
on the banks of which is very beau- 
tiful. On entering the lake (which 
is about 3^ m. long, and shaped 
somewhat like the letter L) on a 
fine day is obtained a panoramic 
view* of the main Alps, extending 
as far down as ML Cook. The re- 
flection of the snowy range in the 
waters of the lake will remind 
travellers of similar effects in the 
Italian lakes. 

(a) To Lake Kanieri, 17 m. 
Horses and carriages may be ob- 
tained at Hokitika. The road is 
good, and very lovely ; the growth 
of ferns being marvellous. The lake 
is surrounded by hills, vnth dense 
and varied bush growing down to 
the water's edge. 

(3) To Boss. See Rte. 29. 

ROUTE 20. 



This delightful trip should, if 
possible, be taken by all tourists. 
Those who come overland from 
Nelson (see Rte. 19) will probably 
stop at Kumara, and not go on to 
Hokitika, thus avoiding the early 
start from that place. Those who have 
gone by the E. coast (Rte. 22) or by 
sea to Ohristchurch should cross the 
mountains and return the same way ; 
unless they have time to stop and 
see the neighbourhood of Hokitika, 
they also may stop at Kumara. The 

best time of year is the end of 
January, when the rata is in 

The road was made in the year 
1866 by the Provincial Government 
of Canterbury. 

It is frequently discussed whether 
it is better to make this tour from 
E. to W. or from W. to E. On the 
one hand, it is better to have the 
most beautiful part of the journey 
— that is, the western— last ; on the 
other, it is well to creep up the 



lovely Otira Oorge as slowly as pos- 
sible, and then hurry rapidly down 
the less beautiful eastern side. 

The trip may be best done by form- 
ing a party, and hiring a special 
coach (£5 a day ; a coach will take a 
party of five) for a day when the 
ordinary coach is not running ; in 
that way tourists .will be sure of 
finding room at the Bealey Hotel, 
and if not pressed for time, they can 
stay a day or two at some of the 
wayside accommodation houses, 
which though simple are comfort- 

Travellers should provide them- 
selves with warm clothing and 



For the firat part of the journey, 
see Bte. 19. 

19 m. Kumara (see Rte. 19). 

The road then passes up the valley 
of the TeremaJcau R, In other parts 
of the world there are higher snow 
mountains, larger glaciers, and 
deeper gorges, but in few places 
is such grand mountain scenery 
found in combination with such 
luxuriant vegetation, as in this 
valley. The mountains seen here 
are higher than those on the Buller 
Boad, and tower above the forest 
line (about 4,000 ft. above the sea) 
in fine bold rocky shapes culminat- 
ing in ML Rollesion (8,000 ft.), which 
overhangs the Otira Gorge. At first, 
the most prominent object before the 
traveller is Mt. Alexander, with its 
snow-covered summit rising to a 
height of 6,460 ft. Through the 
lovely bush, with its marvellous 
imdergrowth of tree-ferns, a suc- 
cession of mountain views unfold in 
ever-varying combination. 

37 m. The Taipo JR. is crossed by 
a bridge and the road then passes 
beneath some splendid trees called 
* The Avenue.* 

44 m. Jackson's Accommodation 

This is a good place for tourists to 
stay who wish to visit Lake Brunner 
(see Rte. 19). Horses, buggies, and 
guides can be obtained at Jackson's. 

The road still continues along 
the valley of the Teremakau, until 
the Otira (or Otairi) R. is reached, and 
then proceeds up that river, and the 
real grandeur of the Gorge scenery 
commences. The brilliant masses of 
rata which clothe the sides of the 
goige, aild the delicate white blos- 
soms of the lacebark lower down, 
will delight the eye. 

After fording the river, 

59 m. The Otira Hoteff where the 
coach stops for lunch, is reached. 

On leaving the hotel the steep 
ascent of the Otiba Oobos* com- 
mences. Travellers will do well to 
walk up the hill, stopping at in- 
tervals to look back and enjoy the 
glorious view. The road ascends by 
a very steep zigzag, and has to con- 
test the passage with the brawling 
torrent that descends from the 
Glacier of Mt. RoUeston on the rt. 
At places the road is carried 
along a narrow rocky ledge, where 
sufficient width is obtained by- 
brackets and stays fixed securely to 
the rock. As it winds out and in, 
round the steep rocky face, the 
traveller's progress seems to be 
barred at every turn, but it is re- 
assuring to know that during all the 
years that this road has been opened 
no accident has occurred to the coach 
going either up or down the gorge. 

The vegetation becomes less luxu- 
riant as the top of the Gorge at 
Arthur's Pass (3,038 ft.) is reached, 
Alpine flowers are seen here, and 
amongst them must be noticed the 
lovely Alpine lily (ran,unciUus lyaUt). 

Shortly after passing the summit 

63 m. is a post, marking the divi- 
sion between Westland and Canter- 

High up on the rt. rise the Rolles' 
TON Mountain and Olacieb. 

The road is now comparatively 
level for some distance. It then de- 
scends rapidly by a winding course, 



through manuka scrub and stunted 
birch, along the bed and banks of 
the wild Bealbt Rives, 

Several waterfalls may be seen on 
the descent, but the finest is the 
Bevirs punch-bowl (500 ft.) on the 1. 

68 m. the bottom of Arthur's Pass 
is reached. After this, the ever- 
changing track, often crossing the 
straggling river from side to side, 
follows the desolate stony valley of 
the BeaHey, as it winds between the 
mountains which rise abruptly on 
either side, until it reaches the 
valley of the Waimakabibi, The 
river of that name is crossed by 
a long winding ford just before 

74 m. Bealey Hotel. Here the 
coach stops for the night. Travel- 
lers who have time to spare, and 
wish to benefit by the mountain air, 
can stay for a few days and enjoy 
the excursions in the neighbourhood. 
The most beautiful of these are to 
the Rolleston Glacier and to the gla- 
ciers at the head of the White R. ; 
either excursion can be made in one 
day ; horses and guides can be ob- 
tained at the Bealey Hotel. 

The scenery on leaving this becomes 
less beautiful, as the birch trees are 
stunted, and soon disappear entirely, 
leaving the ground clothed only by 
the monotonous tussock. 

The road proceeds along the 
flats of the Waimakariri River for 
some distance, and then ascend- 
ing by a steep incline cut in the 
face of the mountain, passes round 
the Sugarloaf HiU and descends to 
(83I m.) the ford and the Ac- 
commodcUion House on the Cass River 
(1,890 ft.) : then after skirting 
Lake Ghassmere it crosses over a 
slight rise to LaJce Pearscn^ and at 
(91 m.) Craigie Burn (2,150 ft.) passes 
through a large sheep station. The 
homestead is seen to the left. 

98 m. The Broken River is forded ; 
and soon after Cloudesley*s Accommoda- 
tion HiMse (2,370 ft.) is reached. 

Kear this 1. is * Flock HiU,* so 

called from a quantity of white 
rocks strewn over it, in the dis- 
tance resembling a flock of sheep. 
Close by is the large sheep station 
named ^ Castle Hill,' from the 
strange castle-like rocks which may 
be seen on both sides of the road. 

104 m. 7716 Springs. Here the 
coach changes horses, and the road 
then rapidly rises to 

106 m. Lake Lyndon (2,730 ft.). 
The peculiarity of this lake is that 
no river flows into it, and very 
seldom does any water flow from it. 

The road then rises for a short 
distance up * Starvation Gully ' and 

107 m. A saddle of Mt, Todesse 
(3,100 ft.) called Porter's Pass, The 
descent (1,037 ^t* » 3 ^a.) is done in 
about 12^ minutes. The level of the 
Canterbury Plains is thus reached. 
Accommodation House, 

The road then crosses the Porter R, 
and proceeds over the plain, slightly 
descending, and crossing the Koioai 
River to 

119 m. Springfield. Hotel. 

Here the coach stops, travellers 
lunch, and prepare to continue 
their journey by train. 

A stay may however be made here 
by those who wish to ascend Mt. Tor* 
lesse (6,500 ft.). It is an easy excur- 
sion of one day ; guide unnecessary. 
The view from the summit over the 
Canterbury plain is very extensive. 

Springfield to Chbistichubch. 44 
m. Rly. 9s. 2d,, 6s, ad. ; R. las, ^d,, 
83, 3d. 

The whole line is a steady descent 
from 1,252 ft. to 13, across a well 
cultivated plain. 

6 m. Shefl&eld. 

15 m. Darfield. 

20 m. Eirwee. 

30 m. Rolleston Junction, Here the 
Christchurch-Dunedinline is joined. 
See Rte. 23. 

44 m. CHBISTCHtTBCH. See RtO. 22* 



ROUTE 21. 



163 m. coach and 69 m. Rly. 

This Rte. cannot compare in gran- 
deur or interest with that by Nelson 
and the W. coast ; but part of it is 
very beautiful, and it forms a plea- 
sant change for those who have 
already been the other way. 

The journey only takes four days ; 
but according to existing ooach 
arrangements, a day must be spent 
at Kaikoura. Travellers leaving 
Blenheim on Monday morning can- 
not (unless they take a special ooach) 
reach Ohristchurch before Friday 

As the stopping places are few, 
and not at the most convenient 
intervals, tourists will do well in 
providing themselves with some 
luncheon beforehand. 

Bleitheim to Kaikoura, 98 m. 

The road soon leaves the Blenheim 
plain, and enters a wild, treeless 
district, winding about between hills 
covered only with yellow tussock- 
grass. A few sheep and innumer^ 
able rabbits are seen, but few other 
signs of life. 

15 m. Awatere. A small hotel 
in the valley of the river of the same 
name. Here the coach halts for 
breakfast. The lofty peak of TapxjaE" 
NUEA, 9,46a ft. high, maybe seen on 
the rt. On the 1. is the sea, with 
the lighthouse on Cape CampbeU (which 
was named by Cook when he sighted 
it on January 14, 1770). 

The road continues to pass through 
sheep-runs, wiUi a little planting 
near the larger houses. As the road 
crosses the paddocks, many gates 
have to be opened. 

. 27 m. Ctiffbrd Bay, A curious effect 

may often be observed here. What 
at first looks like an inlet of the sea 
is seen on ooming down the hill to 
be only a mirage. Some small lakes, 
which are sometimes dry, are passed. 

98 m. Flaocboume. The extensive 
sheep-station of Sir Qeo, Clifford. 
Here the coach stops for lunch. 

After leaving Flaxbourne, the road 
passes through some more country 
of the same character, and then goes 
down to the sea shore. For the rest 
of the way to Eekerangu, it is in 
places sandy and very heavy. The 
steep hills to the rt. are bold, but 
bare ; occasionally fine viei^^ of the 
mountains further inland are seen. 

54 m. Kekerangu. The station of 
Mr. Symons, in a peaceful valley. 
At the small inn here the coach 
halts for the night. Close to the 
homestead is a little cemetery, con- 
taining the graves of some who were 
lost in the Taiaroa on April 11, 1886. 

The road then continues along the 
sea shore ; the cliffs become more 
wooded and beautiful. WaipapaPmnt, 
on which the Taiaroa was wrecked, 
is seen. 

73 m. The Clabenoe (Waiau-toa) 22. 
is crossed by a bridge ; the view up 
the valley is beautifiil. At the little 
inn, the coach halts for breakfast. 

After this the great beauty of the 
road commences. The hills are 
covered with bush ; the road, after 
winding round the Ohau hill, skirts 
the shore, but is better for travelling 
than it was near Kekerangu. A 
Native reserve is passed through, 
with some faint traces of fortified 
pas, which were destroyed in tribal 
wars. Several caves are seen in the 



rocks. In front, the promontory of 
Kaikoura is to be seen, and the 
houses of the town gradually come 
in sight. 

89 m. Maungamanii. A small 
Native settlement on the Hapuka R.y 
which is here forded. 

98 m. Kaikoura. 

Hotels : Cliib ; CommercicU; and 

Clmrolies : Ang, ; Pres, ; R, C, 

Fop. : 4cx>. 

A scattered township, strikingly 
situated in a small plain with the 
promontory on the S., the sea on the 
E., and the glorious range of the 
Kaikoura mts. on the N. The most 
noticeable of these are Mt, Fyuffe 
(5,500 ft.)) Kaitarau (8,700 ft.) and 
Wfiakari (8,500 ft.). This range was 
named by Cook 'The Lookers-on,' 
from the behaviour of some of the 
natives when they visited his ship 
at Kaikoura in Feb. 1770. On the 
hill just above the town are the 
ruins of several pas, destroyed during 
the raids made by the natives of 
the N. Island on the feebler tribes of 
the S. 

At Kaikoura coaches are changed. 



This is a drive of great beauty, 
through a wild mountainous district, 
with splendid views of the Seaward 
Kaikcmras on the rt., and of less im- 
portant ranges on the 1. It is a 
tiring drive, as for some distance the 
road is a mere track along river- 
beds. In wet weather the rivers are 
not infrequently impassable. 

i8 m. Oreeti Hills. A station be- 
longing to Mr. Bullen. Here a halt 
is made to rest the horses, as there 
is no change before Waiau. Befresh- 
ments are provided for travellers. 

28 m. The Comoay R, is forded, and 
the Provincial Bistrict of Nelson is 
entered. The road then winds round 
the * Whalers Back/ a remarkable hill 
of volcanic formation, composed of 

tufa and lava which has forced its 
way through the limestone of which 
the district is composed. On the 
1. is passed Mt, Cookavn, near the top 
of which are some curious caves and 
holes of great depth, in which many 
moa bones have been found. The 
road then follows down the bed of 
the liason R. for some distance ; then 
crosses a thickly-wooded tongue of 
land into the Wandd R., and follows 
its bed until it joins the Mason, and 
then again goes down the Mason. 

51 m. Big^fidd Station, the pro- 
perty of Mr. H. Wharton, is passed 
on the 1. 

59 m. Waiau, A small settle- 
ment at the junction of the Mason 
and Waiau rivers. 

Hotel : Wctiau, 

Here the coach stops, and the 
traveller may rest for the night, 
unless he is anxious to press on to 
Culverden the same day. 

[A very pleasant detour may be made 
by more adventurous travellers, by 
taking the route from Kaikoura to 
Waiau by the Amubi Bluff. There is 
no cociioh, and for the first part of the 
way it is necessary to go on horseback. 
A horse may be hired at Kaikoura, and 
(if the traveller is unwilling to complete 
tiie journey on horseback) arrangements 
made for a buggy to be sent up from 
Waiau so as to meet the traveller at 
Boat Harbour, In this way it is possible 
to make the expedition in one day. 

Kaikoura to Boat Habboub (Claver- 
ley), 25 m. riding. 

The track skirts along the beach ; the 
scenery is not to be surpassed by any in 
the Biviera. On this coast are large 
indications of the existence of dia- 
monds; and small stones which have 
been found here have been pronounced 
by Mr. Streeter to be genuine dia- 

Boat Habboub to Waiaxj, 35 m. 

The road goes up the Contpay R, for 
8 UL It then passes Hawkswood ; goes 
in sight of Parnassus, a sheep station 
near the Waiau ; follows up the Leader 
R. ; and winds through the hills to the 
township of Waiau.] 



On leaying Waiau, the Waiau R, is 
crossed by a long bridge. 

The road is then over a flat grass 
eountry, with occasional agriculture, 
all the way to Oulverden. 

6i m. Hotherham. Soon after 
leaving Rotherham, a fence of rabbit- 
proof netting is passed through. 
This was erected by the Government, 
at the instance of Mr. J. D, Lance, in 
order to arrest the spread of the 
rabbits southward. 

A water-race by which water is 
brought from the Waiau B. is 

67 m. A signpost here marks the 
way to the Hanmxb Speinos, They 
are usually reached by coach from 
Culverden, 24 m., coach daily. 

[The road to the Hanmer Springs 
crosses the plain and passes through 
the Waiau GorgCf commanding fine 
views of the mountains. The Waiau 
is crossed by an iron bridgOi 180 fb. 
above the water. 

Hanmer Plains. 

Hotels: Jollie't Pass Hotel; Jack's 
Pom Hotel. 

The former is 2^ m. from the Springs, 
the latter i m. The managers of i^e 
Hotels provide carriages free to persons 
visiting the baths twice a day. The 
baths are twelve in number, with an 
open swimming bath ; they are under 
the control of the Government. (Terms, 
4s. for six baths.) The baths have for 
many years proved very efficacious for 
skin diseases, rheumatism, and liver 

68 m. Culverden. 
Hotel: Culverden, 

Culverden TO Ohbistchubch. 69 m. 
Rly. 14s. 5d., 9s. Id, ; B. 195. 3d., 
I2S. 9(2. 

7 m. Balmoral. Here the Hurunui 
R. is crossed, and the Provincial 
District of Canterbury entered. 

12 m. Medbury. After leaving 
the station, the house and woods of 
Horsley BowYi, the property of Messrs. 
Mallock and Lance, may be seen on 
the rt. 

ao m. Waikari. After this the 
line passes through the Weka Pass of 
limestone formation, interesting to 
geologists. Many remarkable fossils 
have been found. On some rocks 
here have been found paintings of 
a rude character (now unfortunately 
much injured) which archaeologists 
have considered to be of ancient 
Maori, or even pre-Maori work ; 
indeed it has even been argued that 
they are Tamil, and must have been 
executed by exiles from Ceylon I 
Copies may be seen in the Christ- 
church Museum. 

On leaving the pass, the house and 
grounds of Glenmark, the residence of 
Mr. J. H. Moore, may be seen on the 
1. Here were found the largest col- 
lection of moa bones ever discovered : 
they are now in the Christchurch 

29 m. Waipara. Here the WaU 
para R. is crossed. 

36 m. Amberley. 

43 m. Sefton. 

47 m. Ashley. Here the Ashley 
R, is crossed. 

49 m. Rangiara Junction, 

[From here a branch line runs to 
Oxford West, 21 m., and so round to 
Kaiapoi, or on to Springfield. (See 
Bte. 20.)] 

56 m. Kaiapoi. 

Hotels: Kaiapoi; Middleton; and 

Clinrchss : Ang. ; Ptes, ; WetL 

Fop.: 1,600. 

A flourishing town on the Waima* 
kariri R, which is navigable for small 
steamers up to the town. There ai^ 
several mills and factorie& the most 
noticeable being the woollen factory, 
at which nearly 600 hands are em- 
ployed. N. Z. wools are here worked 
up into cloth, flannel, and blankets. 
Mr. Blackwell, the Managing Birec- 
tor, kindly affords every facility to 
visitors who wish to inspect the 


Near Kaiapoi is a small native 
settlement, composed of the remnant 
of the once famous Ngaitahu tribe, 
which suffered severely from the 
raid of Te Rauparaha in 1830- (see 
P- [53])' The ancient stronghold, 
which is still in a good state of pre- 
servation, is about 4 m. from the 
present town of Kaiapoi. It was on 
a promontory, which projects into 
a deep swamp, and was thus pro- 
tected on all sides but one. Along 
this side it was defended by a double 
line of palisades and a deep ditch, 
with two outworks. It was besieged 
for some months, but Te Rauparaha 
at last carried a sap, the lines of 
which still exist, up to the palisade, 
piled up brushwood, and burnt the 
palisade ; his followers then rushed 
in, and a general massacre ensued. 
But the labours of the missionaries 
have not been without their effect. 
Some years afterwards, when Bp. 
Selwyn came to preach to the natives 
at Kaiapoi, he was accompanied by 
a son of the once dreaded Te Raupa- 

The present Maori reserve is about 
2,640 acres. The Maoris are slowly 
decreasing in number. At present 
they are about 150. They possess 
a school and runanga house. 

[From Kaiapoi a branch line runs 
to Ooiford W.J 27 m., and so on to 
Bangioraj or to Springfield {bqq Rte. 20).] 

61 m. Belfast. A large meat- 
freezing establishment may be seen 
on the 1.- This has all the latest 
improvements, and is well worthy 
of a visit, if the traveller has not 
already seen one of the sort. 

65 m. Fapanui. A suburb of 
Christchurch. A steam tram runs 
from the station in to Christchurch, 

68 m. Addington. Large govern- 
ment workshops for manu£[icturing 
railway plant may be seen on the 
1. and the showyards on the rt. 

69 m. Ghristchubch. See Rte. 


ROUTE 22. 


Hotels; Wamet^s*, close to the 
Cathedral ; Coke/s *, nearer the Rly. 
Sta. (charges at each los. 6d. per day, 
£3 3«. per week) ; Clarendon (8s. per 
day, £2 as, per week) ; Terminusj close 
to the Rly. Sta. (7s. 6d, per day, £2 
per week). Good lodgings may be 

Clubs : Christchurch ; Canterbury 
(both residential). 

dLUXohes : Ang. ; Pres. ; R, C. / 
Wesl, ; Cong. ; Bapt, ; and others ; also 
a Synagogue. 

Fop. : 45,000 (including suburbs). 

Conveyances : Trams run fre- 
quently f^om the centre of the 

city to the Rly. Sta., to Sydenham, 
to Sumner, to Papanui, and to New 
Brighton. There are also frequent 
coaches to the Port Hills, Hal swell, 
Sunnyside, Richmond, Fendalton, 
Riccai'ton, and other suburbs. 

Cab fares. By time : Within the 
boundary, for fifteen minutes, is.6d.; 
for one hour, 4s. ; each subsequent 
quarter of an hour, is. Outside the 
boundary, for one hour, 5s. ; each 
subsequent quarter of an hour, is. 
By distance : Within the boundary 
(including the Rly. Sta.) is. ; for 
each j m. beyond the boundary, 6d, 
Half fares extra for each passenger 
beyond two. Half fares extra be- 
tween 10 p.m. and midnight ; 


double fares between midnight and 
7 a.m. 

Hones and vehicles of all kinds for 
excursions can be obtained at Dda" 
maine's in Gloucester St, and dark- 
son's in Gashel St. 

Boat hire : Boats and Canoes for going 
up the river may be hired at Cam- 
bridge Terrace West, close to the 
Hospital ; and for going down the 
river, at the N. end of the E. Town 

HiBTOBicAL Sketch. 

Capt. Cook sailed along the E. coast 
in i770f and called what was sub- 
sequently found to be a peninsula, 
'Banks' Island,' after Sir Joseph Banks. 
The first European settlement in the 
district was the French settlement at 
Akaroa (see p. 102). 

In 1843 two brothers named Beans, 
from Biccarton in Ayrshire, settled 
at a spot then known as Potoringa- 
motu, which they called after their 
old home. It is said that they also 
named the river the Avon, after the 
Avon which flows into the Clyde ; 
but this has been disputed, others 
maintaining that it was named after 
Shakespeare's river. In the meantime, 
the N. Z. Company purchased from the 
natives the greater part of the S. Island, 
and bought from the French the 
claims on Banks* Peninsula which 
they had acquired from the natives. 

In 1849 the Canterbury Association 
purchased from the Company ' all that 
tract of waste and unappropriated land 
situated in the middle ishmd of N. Z., 
being bounded by the snowy range of 
hills from Double Comer to the river 
Ashburton, by the river Ashburton 
from the snowy hills to the sea, and by 
the sea from the mouth of the Ashbur- 
ton to Double Comer, and estimated to 
contain 3,500,000. acres, more or less, 
with the exception of certain buildings 
and the land marked out as appur- 
tenant thereto, situate on Banks' 
Peninsula, and purchased by the N. Z. 
Company from the Nanto-Bordelaise 
Company, and with the exception of 
certain property acquired by purchase 
and exchange with M. de Belli^y, such 
lands so excepted being reserved to Her 
Majesty, her heirs and successors.' 

The object of the Canterbury Associa- 
tion — which consisted of men of high 
position, the Archbishop of Canterbury 
being the President — ^was to found a 
settlement, the colonists of which 
should be members of the Ch. of Eng- 
land, with a Bp. and clergy ; to estab- 
lish schools and a college properly 
endowed. Indeed, in the matter of 
education, the views and hopes of the 
Association were very far reaching, they 
hoped that the influence of the system 
to be established would extend not 
only to Australia but would attract 
students from India and Qmuk 

The cost of rural lands to settlers 
was to be £3 per acre, in sections of not 
less than 50 acres ; of this money 109. 
was to go to the cost of forming the 
settlement and paying for the land ; 
£1 per acre was to be devoted to the 
Beligious and Educational Fund ; £1 
per acre to the -Immigration Fund, smd 
109. to survey, roads, bridges, &o. The 
price of a half-acre allotment in the 
capital was to be £24, and of quarter- 
acre allotments in other towns, £12. 
These prices were paid by all the first 
settlers. The scheme, however, was at 
a later time considerably modified. 

In 1848 surveyors were sent out to 
make preparations for the arrival of the 
colonists. On Sept. 7, 1850, four ships, 
bearing a party of emigrants of all 
classes (commonly called The Canter- 
bury Pilgrims) left Plymouth ; the first 
of these arrived at Lyttelton on Deo. 
16. Canterbury is thus the youngest of 
the N. Z. settlementa For some little 
time Lyttelton, now the i>ort of Christ- 
church, and separated from it by a 
ridge of steep hills, remained the 
principal settlement, the difficulty of 
crossing the hills being very great. By 
the end of 185 1, 3,000 persons had arrived 
from Enghuad, many also froxn Aus- 
tralia ; the town of Christohurch had 
been commenced, and an agitation 
started for the erection of Canterbury 
into a separate province. (At this time 
the Lieutenant-Governor of Ne'w 
Munster, whose jurisdiction extended 
all over the South Island, resided at 
Wellington. Sir Q-. Grey proposed to 
addfive members from Canterbury to th« 
Provincial Council of New Munster, 
but his action in the matter was dis- 
allowed by the Home GTovemment.) In 
1853, under the Constitution Act, Mr. 
J. E. Fits Gerald was elected superin- 



tendent of the province, and the Pro- 
vincial Council met. Christchurch was 
not however made a municipality until 
1862. In 1876, when the Provincial 
Governments throughout the colony 
were abolished, Canterbury ceased to 
be a province. 

The Situation of GliristoliiirolL 

in a dead, flat plain, with but little 
native timber, though suitable for a 
town, was not prepossessing. But 
what nature lacked, art has abund- 
antly supplied. The distant moun- 
tains to the W., especially in winter 
and spring, when covered with snow, 
form a beautiful background to the 
city, whilst to the S. the LyiteUon 
Hills rise to a height of 1,600 ft. 

The city has been admirably 
laid out ; the roads which follow 
the winding banks of the river 
break the monotony of the straight 
streets ; large plantations of English 
trees have been made in the parks, 
squares, avenues, and private gar- 
dens ; the general character of the 
buildings, many of them excellent 
specimens of architecture, whether 
built of grey stone, brick, or wood, 
is very pleasing ; and the taper- 
ing spire of the Cathedral, rising 
from the centre of the city, com- 
pletes the English appearance of 
tUe whole. All travellers, whether 
coming from Europe or elsewhere, 
will agree in. thinking Christchurch 
a model city. 

Public Buildinos, Places of 
Ihtesest, etc. 

If the traveller is pressed for 
time, he should take a cab to the 
Cathedral, and thence walk along 
Worcester Street, making a short 
detour to the rt. at the river, to see 
tho Provincial Council Chamber, 
the Art Society's Gallery, and the 
Supreme Court; then returning to 
Worcester Street to Canterbury Col- 
lege, the Museum, the Public Gar- 
dens, and Hagley Park. Several 
days, however, may be pleasantly 
spent in Christchurch and its sub^ 
urbs if time permits. 

[New Zeaiand,^ 

The Cathedral, in the centre of 
the city, is built in the Early English 
style, from designs by Sir Gilbert 
Scott, R.A., the local architect being 
Mr. Mountford. 

The foundation stone was laid 
Dec. 16, 1864, by Bp. Harper. The 
extreme length of the building when 
finished will be 203 ft. : the height 
of the Tower and spire is aioft. 
Only the nave, aisles, tower, and 
spire are as yet completed (conse- 
crated Nov. I, 1881), but the foun- 
dations of the choir and transepts 
are laid. The funds have been sup- 
plied partly from the estate reserved 
for the Dean and Chapter at the 
commencement of the settlement, 
partly by private subscription ; the 
Tower, Steeple, and peal often beUs were 
presented by the Rhodes family. 
During the earthquake of 1887, tho 
top of the spire was overthrown, but 
it has since been restored. 

Over the W. door is a relief, in Bath 
stone, of the Saviour seated in glory ; 
unfortunately the stone has been in- 
jured by the weather. 

The Font was presented by the late 
Dean Stanley, of Westminster, to 
the memory of his brother. Captain 
Owen Stanley, R.N., who hoisted the 
British flag at Akaroa in 1840. 

The Pulpit, in marble and alabas- 
ter, is a memorial to the late Bp. 
Selwyn. The alabaster panels were 
executed in England ; the rest is 
local work. 

The Cathedral contains several 
memorial windows, all executed by 
Messrs. Clayton and Bell ; and somti 
memorial panels. 

The Eoof is composed of native 
black-pine timber. Visitors should 
not omit to ascend the tower, from 
which the view is very fine. 

There is a daily Choral service in 
the Cathedral, and the Chorister 
boys receive a good education in the 
* Cathedral School ' near the river. 

The first Bishop of Christchurch 
(Rev. J. C. Harper, D.D.), was conse- 
crated in England 1856 ; on his re- 
isignation the present Bishop (Rev. 



Churchill Julius, D.D.) was conse- 
erated in the Cathedral 1890. 

Opposite to the Cathedral is the 
•tatua.of Ifr. J. R, Godley, who came 
out as Agent of the Canterbury 
Association, in 1849, ^nd returned 
to England in 1853. It was exe- 
cuted by Woolner and erected by 
the Provincial Council ; it is con- 
sidered a faithful portrait. 

Proceeding down Worcester Street, 
the City OounoU duunbers (a red 
brick building) are seen on the rt. 

A slight detour to the rt., along 
the river, leads to the Provinolal 
Council Chamber, a beautiful build- 
ing in the early Decorated style, 
commenced in 1858. The wooden 
buildings adjoining are still used as 
Government offices. 

A little beyond the Government 
Buildings, in the Market Place, is 
the Supreme Court, a stone build- 
ing which contains besides the 
Court of Justice, a valuable Law 

Returning to Worcester Street, 
the Boyu* High. Sohool, an admir- 
able building in the same style 
as the Provincial Council Chamber, 
is seen on the L This school was 
endowed with a grant of land by 
an Act of the General Assembly, 
in 1878, and has proved a great suc- 
cess ; about 150 boys are now being 
educated here. 

Just beyond this is Canterbury 
College the University College of 
Christchurch, which is affiliated to 
the University of N, Z. The style 
is peculiar, segmental arches being 
substituted for the ordinary pointed 
ones, but it is effective ; and the 
large Hall, 80 ft. by 35 ft., is espe- 
cially well worthy of a visit, 'fiie 
College was founded by the Pro- 
vincial Gh)vernment, and is under 
the charge of a Board qf Oovemors 
who also have under their control 
the Musemn, the Public Library, 

the Boys' High School, the Girls' 
High School, the School of Art, and 
the Lincoln School of Agriculture. 
There are five Professors, beside lec- 
turers ; instruction is given in Clas- 
sics, English, Mathematics, Chemis- 
try, Geology, and Engineering. 

At the end of the street stands 
the Xiuwuii. It was endowed by 
the Provincial Government, but its 
excellence is due to the untiring 
energy and ability of the late Sir 
Jtdius von HcMSty K.CM.Q., who v^as 
appointed Provincial Geologist in 
i860. He presented a large number 
of moa bones, found by himself, to 
various foreign museums, and in 
return received presents for the 
museum of various highly interest- 
ing objects. He thus laid the foun- 
dation of the present collection of 
Assyrian, Egyptian, Etruscan, and 
mediaeval curiosities, which has 
been si nee added to by private donors. 
The Museum contains a very large 
number of geological, mineralogical, 
and botanical specimens, stuffed 
animals from all parts of the world, 
native birds (several of which are 
now extinct), shells, &c. The pic- 
tures, which at present occupy one 
hall, are intended to be removed to 
a gallery of the Art Society. Tra- 
vellers &om England will probably 
be most struck with the skeletons 
of the extinct giant bird — the 
moa — which fill one room, the 
height of the tallest one is 16 ft., 
and its bones are very massive ; the 
wing is represented by a small rudi- 
mentary bone hardly noticeable un- 
less sought for. The Ma/ori Houses 
which was originally designed by 
Hone Taahu as a residence for He- 
nare Potae, a Chief of the Ngatiporou 
tribe, is inferior to the one at Wel- 
lington, but contains a number of 
native curios, including those col- 
lected by Captain Cook during his 
visits to N. Z. 

To the rt. of the Museum are the 
buildings and grounds of Cbriat's 
Colleg'e, an institution bound up 



with the history of the settlement. 
It was part of the original scheme 
that there should he a College with 
two Departments, a Grammar school 
for boys under 17, and a College 
proper for young men above that 
age. It was endowed with a fond 
provided by the early settlers for 
educational and church purposes. 
Donations of various kinds, includ- 
ing money and books, were made 
by friends in England ; one of these 
being a gift of land, which formed 
a special endowment for the ^ Somes 
Scholarships/ The Grammar school 
was first opened in 1851 at Lyttel- 
ton by Rev. H. Jacobs (afterwards 
Dean of Christchurch\ and moved to 
a house in Oxford Terrace, Christ- 
church, in the following year. The 
College was incorporated by an Act 
of the Provincial Council in 1855, 
which granted to it 10 acres of land 
adjoining the Park, as a site for the 
Grammar School. The first part of 
the present buildings was com- 
menced in 1857. Since then the 
school has continually grown, and 
has earned a high reputation 
throughout the Colonies. The sys- 
tem of education is modelled on 
that of English public schools. The 
Chapel is handsome, and the other 
buildings, though of a humbler cha- 
racter, are pleasing in appearance 
and well adapted to the objects for 
which they are intended. It is, 
however, the situation of the school 
—in the city and in the country at 
the same time — which gives it a 
charm that no tourist will fail to 

The plan for the Senior Depart- 
ment has been much modified. The 
funds at first proved sufficient only 
for a good grammar school. When 
Canterbury College (see above) was 
established, it was obvious that a 
xival institution was out of the ques- 
tion. The Senior Department of 
Christ's College has therefore taken 
the form of a hostel for Church of 
England students attending Canter- 
bury College, and a College for Theo- 
logical students. It at present occu- 

pies a large house near the School of 

On the other side of the Museum, 
across the road, is the Sohool of 
Art, another Gothic building 
worthy of a visit. It was opened 
in i88a, in oi'der to foster the sys- 
tematic study of practical Art, and 
the knowledge of its scientific prin- 
ciples, with a view to developing 
the application of Art to the com- 
mon uses of life, and to the require- 
ments of trade and manufacture. 
Instruction is given on the South 
Kensington system. The classes are 
largely attended. 

Opposite to the School of Art 
are the Pnbllo Oardena, containing 
about 80 acres, beautifully laid out, 
and almost surrounded by the river, 
the willows on the banks of which 
are a striking feature. Travellers 
who have been to Cambridge may 
be reminded of the Cam at the 
backs of the Colleges. Near the 
main entrance is the atatiie of Mr. 
W. S, Moorhousej who was three times 
Superintendent of the Province. It 
was designed by Lawson, and erected 
by public subscription. In different 
parts of the garden are being col- 
lected trees and plants from various 
countries — the most interesting 
groups are those representing Aus- 
tralia, Japan, Great BritalD, and 
N. Z. The gardens are constantly 
being enriched by the exchange 
of seeds and plants with those of 
other countries. 

Adjoining the Gardens are the 
AooUmatisatio]! GToands, in which 
fish are hatched to be turned 
out into the rivers and lakes of the 
district. The grounds also contain 
a small collection of birds and 

Two footbridges over the Avon lead 
from the Public Gardens into Ea^- 
ley Park (400 acres), well planted 
with English and American trees, 
and containing cricket grounds, 

H a 



Bliady footpaths, and delightful gi-ass 

The Public Ubraxy is in Gam- 
bridge Terrace West. The Reading 
Room and reference library (which 
contains upwards of 8,ocx> volumes, 
besides many magazines and news- 
papers) is open to the public free of 
charge. To the lending library, 
which contains ia,ooo volumes, the 
subscription is io5. a year. 

The Girls' Vigh. Soliool was 
opened in 1877, and was removed to 
the present Gothic stone building 
in Oranmer Square in 1881. Many 
of the pupils have carried off dis- 
tinctions at the University of N. Z. 

The Monasterj of the Baorad 
Eaart of Votro Dame des Miti- 
sions is situated in Barbadoes 
Street, not far from the Rly, Sta. 
It is of red brick relieved with white 
stone, and is under the direction 
of *Les Soeurs de la Mission,' who 
conduct a High School for yoimg 
ladies. The B. C. Fro-Catliodral 
and the residence of the Bishop 
adjoin the monastery. 

Several other religious and edu- 
cational buildings, &c. though not 
I>erhaps calling for detailed mention, 
are worthy of a visit as good speci- 
mens of architecture. Amongst 
these are the Vormal Sohools in 
Cranmer Square, the Glmroli of 
St. Mioliael {Ang.) in Oxford Ter- 
race West, the Olmxcli of St. 
Andrew {Pres,) in Tuam Street, 
and the country churches at Avon- 
side and Riccai-ton ; the Hospital ; 
and the lunatic Asylum, a very 
large building about 3 m. from 
Christchurch on the Lincoln Road. 

In Lancaster Park, to the S.E. 
of the city, is a good cricket ground. 

BoatiniT on the Avon is very 
pleasant, especially on the upper 
part of the river, where it flows 
between the Public Gardens and 
Kagley Park. 


The drives in the neighbourhood 
of Christchurch are pleasant and 
home-like, through quiet villages 
with pretty gardens and orchards, 
and rich agricultural land. The 
principal are : — 

(i)To New Brighton (K0MI3 
Patteraon'a), 5 m. tram or omnibus. 
A favourite seaside resort for Christ- 
church residents. 

(a) To Sumner (Hotel : Morton^s), 
8 m. tram or omnibus. Also a sea- 
side resort, situated at the foot of 
the Lyttelton Hills. 

Here is situated the Deaf and 
Dumb Institution. Near the town 
is a cave in which many moa bones 
were found, 

(3) To Iiyttelton. 7 m. rly. 
Travellers who have not reached 
Christchurch by sea should not 
omit to make this trip. The line 
runs through the suburbs of Opawa, 
Woolston, and Heathcote, and then 
enters the Lyttelton tunnel. 

One of the great difficulties which, 
the early settlers had to contend 
with was that of communication 
between the Port and the Plains. 
At first, the only means of conveying 
goods to Christchurch was by sea in 
steam lighters to the estuary of the 
Avon, and up the river Heathcote. 
In 1857, the road between Christ- 
church and Sumner was opened, but 
it was soon afterwards resolved to 
make a tunnel through the hills. 
The execution of the work ^vas 
mainly due to the enei^ and per- 
severance of Mr. W. S. Moorhouse, 
the Superintendent of the Province, 
The timnel is a,866 yds. in length 
— the longest in the Southern Hemi- 
sphere. The line was opened in 1867, 
being the first rly. constructed in 
N. Z. 


Hotels : Mitre ; and others. 
Clinrclies : Ang. ; Pres» ; B,C, ; Wesl^ 
Pop.: 4,000. 



Portem. Persons arriying by 
steamer will find licensed porters in 
attendance. They are obliged to 
work for any persons wishing to hire 
them between 6 a.m. and 8 p.m., 
except on Sundays. Charges:— for 
carrying a load not exceeding 56 lbs. 
for a distance not exceeding j m., 
18. ; for each additional 56 lbs. or 
part thereof, an additional is. ; each 
additional ^ m. or part thereof, an 
additional fall fare. Double fare 
between 8 p.m. and 6 a.m. 

N.B. Porters must show their 
licences, if required. Travellers 
should see that they are not over- 

The town is historically interesting 
as being the point of arrival of * the Can- 
terbury Pilgrims.' It was named after 
the 4th Lord Lytteltou, who had taken 
an active part in the Association. Pre- 
vious to that time, the harbour had 
been known to whalers as Port Cooper. 
The first church in the settlement was 
commenced here in 1852 ; it was at one 
time intended that this should be the 

Lyttelton is of great importance 
now as the principal port of Canter- 
bury. The harbour is completely 
landlocked, and is surrounded by 
rugged hills some a, 000 ft. in height. 
There are fine wharves, alongside 
which ships drawing 35 ft. of water 
can lie in smooth water, protected 
by two breakwaters, 1,400 ft. and 
2,010 ft. long, which enclose an 
area of about 100 acres, and are 
well lighted by electric light. 

The export trade in frozen meat 
is very considerable and is annually 
increasing. In the season 1889-90, 
1,445,109 carcases (mutton), besides 
48,019 'pieces 'of beef (8, i98,393lbs.), 
were shipped from this port alone. 

From Lyttelton a coach road runs 
to Sumner 4 m. and thus to Christ- 

Steamers of the Union SS. Co. ply 
regularly between Lyttelton and 
all the larger ports ; smaller vessels 
go to Kaikoura ; also to Pigeon Bay 
and other bays on the N. of Banks' 

(4) To Lincoln. 14 m. rly. The 
same distance by road ; the drive is 
pretty. The rly. after passing the 
suburbs, runs through an agricul- 
tural district. 

14 m. Lincoln Sia, (junction for 
Little River, the terminus for Akaroa 
(see below) ; the main line goes on 
to Southhridgej 31 m.). 

At Lincoln is the School of Agricul- 
turty which is under the control of 
Canterbury College, and was founded 
for the purpose of imparting a 
thorough knowledge of agriculture, 
both scientific and practical. The 
buildings (which accommodate the 
teaching staff and forty-five students) 
are in the Elizabethan style, of brick 
and stone. There are also complete 
farm buildings, with all the latest 
improvements, and a farm of 660 
acres. All the subjects, theoretical 
and practical, useful to a farmer, 
are here taught, for the moderate 
charge of £40 a year, which includes 
board, residence, and tuition. The 
school is always full. 

(5) To the Belfasl Meat-freezing Works 
and the Kaiapoi WooUen Factory. See 
Rte. 21. 

(6) To Hanmer Springs. See Rte. 2 r . 

(7) To Akaroa. This pleasant 
excursion can be made in one day, 
returning the next. It is possible 
to go (o) all the way by sea from 
Lyttelton, 50 m., in about four hours ; 
or (b) by sea to Pigeon Bay, 15 m., 
and thence by coach 16 m. ; or (c) 
by rail from Christchurch to Little 
River, 36 m. ,and then by coach 20 m. 

Taking the route (5) by Pigeon 
Bay, the road lies up a valley to the 
Pigeon Bay saddle, 3 m. through 
land once thickly covered with bush, 
but now nearly all cleared ; and 
thence descends to Duvanchelles 
Bay, where it unites with the road 
from Little River. 

The Little River Route (c) is the 
most popular. 

14 m. Lincoln June. Sta. (see 
above). Here the line branches off 
from the Southbridge line. 



Lakm EiLEaMEBX, a vast salt water 
lagoon, may be seen on the rt. ; hills 
on the 1. 

36 m. Iiittle Bivep Terminus 
8ta. Near this is a small native 

LitUe River is really a pretty little 
lake on which an annual regatta is 

From Little River Sta. the coach 
ascends to a lofty saddle by a road 
which was cut through dense and 
beautiful bush ; now the hillsides 
are quite bare. After crossing the 
saddle the road descends rapidly, 
to Babbtb Bat, giving glimpses 
from time to time of the upper part 
of Akaroa Harbour. From Barry's 
Bay it passes close to Massacre Point, 
the scene of Te Rauparaha's mas- 
sacre (see below), and enters Duvan^ 
cheOes Bay, a pretty inlet of Akaroa 
Harbour. After this, the road, 
which Is in many places very steep, 
skirts the harbour and dips into 
several bays, all cultivated, until it 

ao m. A^roa. 

Eot«l8: Bruce* s; Wagstaff's. 

Ohnrolios : Ang, ; Pres, ; R.C, ; Cong. 

Fop. : 700. 

This peacefal settlement has had a 
curious history. In 1830 there was a 
frightfal massacre of the natives of 
Akaroa by Te Bauparaha (see p. [53]), 
in revenge for the murder of a relation 
of Te Bauparaha at Kaiapoi by an 
Akaroa native. A man named Stewart 
(see Bte. 30), who owned a vessel, 
brought Te Bauparaha and a party 
of his followers down from Kapiti; 
and when they had arrived at Akaroa, 
concealed them in the hold whilst he 
induced some unfortunate Akaroa 
natives to come on board. Te Bau- 
paraha at once killed them all ; and 
then proceeeded to attack the others 
on shore. The Akaroa natives, who 
possessed no firearms, endeavoured to 
entrench themselves on Massacre Point, 
hastily erecting defences on the isth- 
mus which connects it with the main- 
land. The northern men, however, 
effected an entrance, and captured aJl 

the besieged TpBrty, except two who 
succeeded in swimming across the bay 
to the mainland. The raid ended in 
the last great cannibal that took 
place in the island. Te Bauparaha 
afterwards cheated Stewart out of the 
payment he was to receive for his share 
in the proceedings. 

In 1838 Langlois, the captain of a 
French whaler, bought 400 acres of 
land from the natives. He returned 
to France and sold his claim to the 
Nanto-Bordelaise Company, which had 
been formed to acquire the whole of 
N. Z. At the instigation of Baron 
de Thierry, who was at that time 
living at Hokianga, and called him- 
self king of N. Z., the French Govt, 
signed a convention with the company, 
which soon afterwards took the name 
of ' La Compagnie Fran^aise de la 
Nouvelle Z^lande.' The French cor- 
vette L'Aube, under Captain Lavaud, 
WCU9 sent to the Bay of Islands to take 
possession of the N. Island, with in- 
structions to proceed afterwards to 
Akaroa to take possession of the S. also. 
Captain Langlois with 57 settlers em- 
barked in the French Gk)vt. transport 
Comte de Paris to proceed to Akaroa 

But when the Atihe arrived at the 
Bay of Islands in July 1840 he found 
that the treaty of Waitangi had been 
signed and the English had already 
taJcen possession, and laid claim alao 
to the S. Island, by virtue of Cook's 
discovery. Gk>vemor Hobson suspect- 
ing the designs of the French, de- 
spatched H.M. Brig Britomart, under 
Captain Steinley (a brother of the well- 
known Dean of Westminster) to Akaroa. 
He reached Akaroa on August 10, and 
the next day hoisted the British flagf 
and established a court of petty ses- 
sions. The Aiibe arrived on the 15th, 
and the Corrvpte de Paris (which had 
reniained at Pigeon Bay from the 9th) 
on the i6th. Thus ended the attempt 
to make N. Z. a dependency of France. 
Many of the French settlers returned 
at once to their old homes ; others 
remained at Akaroa until the founda- 
tion of the Canterbury settlement and 
then took the opportunity of selling 
their land and going to the Marquesas 
Islands ; in 1849 the N. Z. Company 
bought up the claims of the French for 
£4,500 ; but Akaroa has never entirely 
lost all its early French characteristics. 



It is now a favourite watering- 
place for residents at Christchureh. 

There are a number of pleasant 
walks in the neighbourhood of 
Akaroa, especially those over the 
spurs of the hills. Active tourists 
will find delightful excursions by 
walking or riding to the tops of the 
hills (from which the views are 
splendid), and down into the pictur- 
esque bays beyond. 

A rough track of about 6 m. 
leads to the Lighthouse. The bush 
abounds with ferns, mostly of the 
common varieties. The chief charm of 
a visit to Akaroa, however, consists in 
boating and yachting — visiting the 
various little bays in the large 

(8) To the West Ck>a8t by the 

Otira QorgB (see Bte. ao). This is 
a trip which no traveller should 
omit. Those who have not come 
from, and do not intend to proceed 
to, Nelson (see Bte. 19), should go 
to the W. coast, and return the 
same way, 

(9) To the Chatham Islands. 
lliese Islands belong politically, 

but scarcely geographically, to N. Z. ; 
nor can they be said to be within 
the route of an ordinary tourist ; 
but if the excursion is made, Christ- 
church must be the starting-point. 

From LvTTELTON TO THE Ghathaxs. 
536 m. Steamers run every three 
months ; more frequently during 
the wool season* The journey takes 
two or three days. 

The main Island contains 230,000 
acres. The scenery is pretty, and 
on the S. coast may be described 
as grand* The forest growth is 

dense, but there are no very large 
trees. There are masses of tree 
ferns, and beautiful wild flowers, 
especially the blue Chatham Island 


There are many streams ; one 
large lake, and several smaller ones. 

The Chatham Islands were discovered 
by Lient. Bronghton in 179a They 
were peopled by the Morioris (see p. [46]) 
and a few Maoris who had intermarried 
with them. 

Ix^ 1^35) the remnant of the Ngati- 
manni tribe, many of whom had been 
killed by the trooi>s sent to N. Z. in the 
Isabella (see p. 59), resolved to take xe- 
frige in the Chat.haTns. They arranged 
with the captain of the Sydney brig 
Rodney to conduct them thither ; about 
450 were taken by him in two voyagea 
They then slew nearly all the Morioris. 

In 1839 ^® Maoris on the Islands 
captured a French whaler. In 1867 
Te Kooti and his party were sent to tiie 
Islands ; but in the following year they 
seized the schooner Sifleman and escaped 
to N. Z. (see p. [58]). 

The present population is about 
250 Europeans, 250 Maoris, and 
20 Morioris. 

The township of Waitangl con- 
tains an Hotel and an Ang. Church. 
Horses may there be hired. The 
best excursion is round the Island ; 
but as there are no inns, travellers 
who have not brought introductions 
to the settlers must provide them- 
selves with tents at Christchureh. 
There is plenty of duck, pigeon, 
and wild goose shooting. Pitt 
Island, which is about 18 m. distant, 
contains pretty wooded scenery ; 
but unfortunately there is no regu- 
lar communication with it. 



ROUTE 28. 


230 m. RI7. 475. lid., 328. ; R. 
638. I id., 435. Qd. 

This journey occupies ten hours. 
As the trains run only by day, 
travellers who are in a hurry may 
often save time by going by sea; 
the steamers usually making the 
journey by night. 

The great Canterbury Plain, which 
stretches from the Waipara R on 
the N. to the dolerite plateau of 
Timaru on the S., and is bounded 
on the E. by the sea and the vol- 
canic hills of Banks' Peninsula, 
and on the W. by the southern 
Alps, is about 112 m. long by 50 
wide at its widest point. 

It is not (as travellers might at 
first suppose) a raised beach, but 
is formed by the detritus washed 
down from the mountains and 
glaciers by many rivers. Although 
apparently level, it really slopes 
downwards to the sea from an alti- 
tude of about 1,200 ft. at the base 
of the hills. Advantage is being 
taken of this slope for the water 
supply ; at the points where the 
rivers emerge from the mountain 
gorges, water is stopped and di- 
rected into little channels which 
form a network over the plain. 
These ai'e at present used for water- 
ing stock, but it is intended to 
utilize them also for irrigation pur- 
poses. The rivers frequently swell 
after the mountain storms, and 
often change their course ; hence 
the beds, both present and disused, 
are enormous, and the railway 
bridges of great length. The land, 
once clothed only with tussock and 
an occasional cabbage-tree, is now 
nearly all cultivated ; and in some 
places local Boards and private 
persons have made large plantations 

of gums and other trees ; it is only 
the river beds that can give the 
traveller an idea of what the plain 
was like when settlement com- 
menced. The streams have all been 
stocked with trout. 

The line runs along the plain as 
far as Oamaru. Travellers should 
choose seats on the rt. side, for tlie 
view of the mountains. On leaving 
Oamaru, the train goes in the re- 
verse direction ; but seats should 
not be changed, as the best vie^vs 
then are on the 1. 

2 m. Adding^ton Junction. 
Here a line branches off to CiUverden, 
See Rte. 21. 

6 m. Hornby Junction. Here 
a line branches off to Lincoln, Little 
River (see Rte. 22), and Southbridffe, 

14 m. Rdleston Junction, Here a 
line branches off to Springfield (see 
Rte. 20) and Whitediffs. 

After this the views of the moun- 
tains become finer. 

The Sdtpyn River is crossed just 
before reaching 

23 m. Selwyn. Mt. Torlesse (6,500 
ft.) and the Gorge of the Waima- 
kariri (see Rte. 20) are seen. 

31 m. Bonkside. Just after 
leaving this, the line crosses the 
old bed of the Rakaia; and soon 
after, the present river is crossed 
by a bridge i j; m. long. 

36 m. Rakaia. Here a line 
branches off to Methven. Mt HuU 
(7,200 ft.) is seen at the Gorge of 
the Rakaia. 

44 m. Chertsey. The altitude 
of this place (378 ft.) is the highest 
attained during the whole journey. 



47 m. Dromore. On very clear 
days the summit of Mt. Cook can be 

53 m. Ashburton. 

Hotels: Central; Ashburton; and 

Chuxchea : Ang. ; Pres, ; JR. C. ; 
Wed.; Meth, 

Pop. : i,8oo. 

A rising county town possessing 
woollen and other factories. 

Here a line branches off to Spring^ 
bum (30 m.). 

Immediately after leaving Ash- 
burton, the AshhurUm R, is crossed. 
The Mt. Somers Range (5,511 ft.) is 

55 m. Tinwald. About this point 
will be noticed the break in the 
mountain range out of w^ich the 
Rangitata R. takes its rise. This is 
the district which was named ^ Meso- 
potamia* by Mr. Butler, the author 
of * Erewhon ' and * Fair Haven.' 

59 m. Winslow. Not far from 
the line on the 1. is Longbeach, one of 
the finest agricultural properties in 
N. Z. 

The Hinds River is crossed just 
before reaching 

64 m. Hinds. 

72 m. Ealing. Here the line 
descends through a deep cutting to 
the Rangitata R., which is crossed by 
two long bridges. Travellers have a 
good opportunity here for seeing the 
geological formation and the primae- 
val condition of the plains. 

75 m. Rangitata. From here a 
coach goes to Peel Forest, 13 m. 

There are several pleasant country 
seats in the neighbourhood. 

In the range will be seen Mt. Peel. 

81 m. Orari. From here a coach 
goes to Qerdldinej 5 m. 

The line then enters a rich agri- 
cultural district and crosses the 
Orari R. 

85 m. Winchester. 

Hotel : WolseleyArms (comfortable). 

This is a good place for fishermen 
to stop and make their headquarters : 
both for the fly-fishing and for the 
live bait fishing at the mouth of the 

89 m. Temuka. 

Hotels : Croum ; and others. 

ChnrolieB i Ang. ; Pres. ; R. C. ; 

A small town possessing a cheese 
factory, a paper mill, and other 

Close to the township is the native 
settlement of Arovohenua^ on the 
river of the same name. 

100 m. TZMABU. 

Hotels: Orosvenor ; Queen's; and 

Glmrohes : Ang. ; Pres. ; R. C. ; 
West.; Meth. 

Club : Timaru (non -residential). 

Public Reading Room (free) and 
library (68. 6d. a quarter) at the 
Mechanic's Institute, North Street. 

Fop. : including suburbs, 5,500. 

The name is a coriTiption of a 
Maori word meaning * The resting- 
place.' Is is now a good-sized town, 
the county town of Gteraldine, con- 
taining refrigerating works, woollen 
and flour mills, wool scouring and 
tannery works, and other industries. 
Assizes are held here quarterly. 

Pbiwcipal BuiLDmos and Objects 


The traveller on leaving the Rly. 
Sta. should walk along George Street, 
and then turn to the rt. at the first 
insection of roads, and proceed up 
Stafford Street; then taking the first 
turn to the 1. up Stralhalarh Street, he 
will soon see on the 1. an obelisk 
erected to the memory of those who 
perished at the wreck of the Ben 
Venue, in i88a, many of whom lost 
their own lives in the gallant 



attempt to save others. Just behind 
this, farther to the 1., is a large 
building containing the Post, Tde» 
graphs and Qotemmmt Offices. In front 
is the Ang. Ch. of St. Mary*, which 
is built of blue stone relioTed with 
Oamaru stone, in the £. E. style, 
with nave and aisles. The interior 
is well worthy of inspection; the 
pillars are of Peterhead granite with 
carred capitals of Oamaru stone ; 
the roof is of kauri timber. The 
chancel, tower and spire are un- 

Proceeding further up 8tr<Uhalan 
Street, which bends to the rt., and 
becomes Church Street^ the traveller 
takes the second turn to the 1., 
along Theodosia Street, A little to 
the rt. is seen the PuUie Schoolf 
a fine stone building in a large 
open space. Crossing North Street, 
and proceeding along the Town Belt, 
the Monastery of the Immaculate 
Heart, with a school for boys ad- 
joining, and a small public pleasure 
garden are seen on the 1. : the R. C, 
Ch. of the Sacred Heart (a pretty 
wooden building) and the Convent* 
and school (an imposing edifice, well 
situated in a garden) to the rt. Just 
beyond the convent, a road to the 
rt. leads to the Boys^ and Oirls* High 
School. Proceeding along the Town 
Belt, the traveller soon reaches the 
Park, a reserve of about 40 acres, 
tastefully laid out with belts of 
trees, walks and flowers. Entering 
this, and turning to the 1., the 
traveller emerges by a small gate 
near the sea, on the high road. Then 
turning to the 1., the Hospital (a 
cheerful looking and well-situated 
building, with a pleasant garden) is 
seen on the 1. Further on, the road 
becomes Stafford Street, and the 
traveller soon finds himself close to 
the Rly. Sta. again. 

The Harbour is enclosed on the 
S.E. side by a concrete Brectkioater 
which was commenced in 1878 ; it 
is 30 ft. wide at the top, and 2,278 
ft. in length, exclusive of 150 ft. ap- 
proach. On the N.W. side the 

harbour is enclosed by a rubble wall 
2,400 ft. in length. The space en- 
closed is 50 acres ; vessels drawing 
20 ft. of water are discharged and 
loaded with facility. The expendi- 
ture on the breakwater, wall and 
wharves has amounted to £280,000. 
The annual exports, which include 
wool, grain, frozen mutton, and 
other things, amount to nearly 
90,000 tons. 

To the north of the Harbour is 
Caroline Bay, a favourite bathing- 
place. Bathing-machines, both for 
ladies and gentlemen, are always 

A beautiful drive may be taken 
over the Downs at the back of the 
town. The soil, which is of volcanic 
formation, is rich and highly culti- 
vated ; there are several large and 
valuable estates in the neighbour- 

From Timaru a line branches off 
to Fairlie Creek (see Rte. 24). 

After leaving Timaru the line 
skirts the shore. The mountain 
views cease, but on the rt may be 
seen some of the best agricultural 
land in Canterbury. The Pareora B, 
is crossed just before reaching 

no m. St. Andrews. Several 
smaller rivers are also crossed in this 

124 m. Studholsie Junction. 

[Here a line branches ofif to Waihao 
Downs, 13 m. 

a m. "Waimate. The line then runs 
through the Waihao Gk>rge to 

13 m. VT'aihiao Downs. A rioh 
agricultural district.] 

138 m. Waitaki North. 

Soon after leaving the station the 
Waitaki K, which divides Canter- 
bury from Otago, is crossed. It is 
in fact the Tweed of N. Z., dividing 
the English from the Scotch settle- 

One of the peculiarities of the 
Southern Maori dialect is substituting 
k for ng. Hence Waitaki is the same 



as Waitangi, and means 'weeping 

139 m. Waitaki South. 

147 m. FuJceuri Junction. 
Here a line branches off to Kurow 
and Hakateramea, 43 m. See Bte. 24. 

The Oamaru High School is seen on 
the 1. just before reaching 

152 m. OAMABU. 

Kotelfl : Star and Qarter ; Queen's ; 
Globe ; and others. 

Olub : Oamaru, in rooms adjoining 
the Star and Garter Hotel. 

ClmrolieB : Ang. ; Prts, ; IL C. ; 


Pop.: 5,500- 

The name, like Timaru, is a cor- 
ruption of a Maori word meaning 
* Resting-place/ or * Shelter.' 

Oamaru is the county town of the 
Waitaki county, which embraces 
1,700,000 acres. Assizes are held 
here quarterly. 

The town is celebrated for its 
white stone, of which there are large 
quarries in the yicinity. It is an 
oolitic limestone, containing a very 
high proportion of pure lime. It 
has a high value as a building stone, 
as it ]'s,when newly quarried, readily 
worked by sawing ; on exposure to 
the air it hardens. Several large 
buildings in Australian cities have 
been built of it. It is also easily 
turned in a lathe into columns, and 
is capable of being worked into 
mouldings and ornamentation. 

Oamaru is the seaport of about 
200,000 acres of deep limestone soil, 
the product of this stone ; this com- 
monly yields forty bushels of wheat 
to the acre, and enormous crops of 

Objects op Intebest. 

Travellers will be struck with the 
general appearance of the town, all 
built of white stone. Close to the 
Rly. Sta. is the Habboub, which is 
protected by a concrete sea wall, 
1,850 ft. long, 34 ft. high and the 

same wide, and a rubble mole i, 730 ft. 
long. The harbour contains 60 acres, 
with a depth of 24 ft. 6 in. of water 
alongside the Sumpter Wharf] vessels 
of upwards of 5,000 tons load here, 
and take away cargoes of wool, grain, 
and frozen meat. The Harbour 
Works have cost about £300,000. 

At the back of the town, a space 
has been reserved for the Botanioal 
Garden ; under energetic manage- 
ment this has made great progress, 
the soil being suitable for flowers 
and shrubs brought from widely 
different countries. The stream 
which flows through the garden is 
stocked with perch and trout. The 
fish nursery, which is under the care 
of the Waitaki Acclimatization 
Society, is situated in the gardens. 
Many of the neighbouring rivers 
have been stocked from it ; the fish- 
ing in the district is excellent. 

The town also contains a vmtlen 
miUj refrigerating vxyrks, and several 
very large flour mills. 

At the At?ienaeum is a good library 
and reading room ; also a small 
museum. Admission to reading 
room free ; books may be taken out 
of the library on payment of £1 is. 
a quarter. 


(i) To 19'gapara. A pleasant 
excursion for tourists who take an 
interest in agricultural pursuits may 
be made by driving or rail toNgapara, 
1 7^ m. Driving is preferable, as the 
places to see are on the way. 

2 m. Waireka JwuMon. Here the 
main line is left, and the line pro- 
ceeds up tha Waireka Valley in the 
centre of the Oamaru District. 

4 m. Weston. 

5 m. Cormack's. This station is 
built over a large deposit of diato- 
maceous earth, which is obtainable 
in vast quantities both here and in 
other localities in the neighbour- 
hood. This earth contains at least 
283 forms of fossil microscopic dia- 



tomaceae, of which 107 are new to 
science ; the previously known fonns 
however comprise species heretofore 
found in such widely diiferent locali- 
ties as Japan, Hong Kong, Fiji, Bom- 
bay, and Barbadoes. 

"riiis earth is now largely sold to 
students of the microscope ; and will 
probably ultimately find its way into 
commeix;ial channels as a polishing 
powder and in the manufacture of 

10 m. Sjlderslie. Near this is 
Elderslie, the beautiful country seat 
of Mr. John Beid, and Windsor Park, 
the seat of Mr. E. Menlove. On these, 
as on other estates in the neighbour- 
hood, agriculture and stock raising 
are carried to a high pitch. 

13 m. Windsor Junction. 

[From this a branch line goes to 
TokaraJciy la m., near which is the 
seat of Messrs. M^'Master. 

About 5 m. beyond Tokaraki is 
the Livingstone gold field, where 
large sluicing operations have been 
carried on for many years.] 

14 m. Corriedale. Near this is 
CorriedcUej the seat of the Hon. B. 

17I m. 19'gapara. 
Hotels: Railway; Tenniniis, 

A small township at the head of 
the valley, surrounding which at its 
original level is the * Tables* country, 
remarkable for its fertility. 

Brown coal is obtained in the 
immediate vicinity. 

(2) To Kurow and Omarama. 
See Bte. 24.] 

The line then passes through an 
undulating and varied country. 

158 m. Totara. The station is 
on the magnificent estate of the 
N. Z. and Australian Land Company, 
who possess several properties in 
this Island, on which the highest 
class of farming is conducted. 

160 m. TeschmaJcer's, The line 
passes through a cutting in the 

stone, and TeschmaJcer's quarry may 
be seen. 

161 m. Maheno. 

166 m. Herbert. 

174 m. Hampden. 

177 m. Hillgrove. Near this is 
MooraU, a growing watering-place 
for residents at Bunedin and Oamaru. 
It is on the Moeraki peninsula ; in 
its immediate vicinity is a Maori 
village containing a considerable 
native population, which migrated 
here from Elaiapoi after the siege by 
Te Bauparaha (see Bte. 21). Those 
who are interested in geology should 
not fail to notice the huge spherical 
boulders lying on the shore near 

184 m. S?iag Point. Here a small 
line branches off to the 1., to the 
Shag Point Coal mine^ 2 m. A similar 
line is seen further on, leading to 
the AUandale pit. 

189 m. Falmerston. 

Hotels: Empire; Palmerston; and 

Chnrolios: Arig. ; Pres.; R, C. ; West, 
Fop. : 900. 

The peaked hill of Puketapu is seen 
on the 1. 

From Palmerston a line branches off 
to DuT^a^h. 10 m. 

Coaches nm from Falmerston to 
Naseby, 54 m. ; one line via Waihemo 
and the other vift Macrae's Flat. At 
Naseby the line joins the main coach 
line from Middlemarch to Clyde and 
Central Otago. 

199 m. Waikouaiti (also known 
as Hawkesbury). 

Hotels : Golden Fleece ; Railway. 

Clinrclies : -4wflr. ; Pres. ; R. C. ; Wed. 

Fop. : 700. 

After this, the rest of the journey 
is very pretty. 

The line skirts the ocean, some- 
times descending almost to the sea 
level, sometimes rising up the face 
of the cliff, with views down valleys 
covered with groves of broadleaf, 



fuchsia, and manuka, and across 
picturesque bays and inlets. 

Soon after leaving Waikouaiti, the 
river of that name is crossed. At 
the mouth of this was the great 
whaling station so often referred to 
in old books on N. Z. 

204 m. FiLketeraki. A small 
native settlement with a little Oh. 
is seen on the 1. Some good land in 
this district is owned by natives and 

A short tunnel is then passed 

206 m. Sea diff. The lunatic 
asylum for Otago (a fine Scotch- 
looking building, with accommoda- 
tion for 500 patients) is seen on the rt. 

The line then descends to 

a 13 m. Waitati. 
Hotel : Saratoga. 

A small township at the head of 
the shallow Blueskin Bay, a favourite 
resort for excursionists from Dune- 
din. From here a good coach road 
goes to Dunedin, 12 m. (see Rte. 25). 

The line then ascends rapidly, 
through beautiful coast scenery. 
Looking backwards towards the W. 
the serrated line of the SUver peaks 
is seen. The line passes round the 
face of the Purakanm Cliff. A tunnel 
C333 yds.) is passed through ; it 
was constructed to avoid the danger 
of material falling from the face of 
the clifE^ The old line is seen to 

This place is associated with a 
terrible incident in Maori history. 

A chief, named Taonga, came from 
his home near Oamaru, with a train of 
attendants, to visit his relative, the 
chief Te Wera, at Parakanni Taonga 
having given offence to Te Wera, he 
replied by murdering a woman of 
Taonga's party, and then embarked in 
his canoe with a number of his tribe 
and made his way to Oamaro. There 
he landed, uid falling saddenly on 
Taonga's tribe, slaughtered several and 
returned in triumph to Parakanni 
Taonga retired to his home, resolved 
on vengeance. He returned with a 
large force, determined to wipe out the 

insult. Te Wera's pa, which was named 
Mapoutahi, was situated on a small 
peninsula in Purakanui Bay, and 
strongly fortified. For a long time it 
was besieged in vain ; but one snowy 
winter's night Taonga and his followers, 
finding the pa insufficiently guarded, 
managed to scale the palisade, and thus 
gain the interior of the fortress. Te 
Wera's party, surprised in their sleep, 
fell an easy prey; and all were slain, 
except a few who leaped into the sea 
and escaped. The morning light showed 
the dead lying in heaps in all directions ; 
hence Taonga called the name of the 
place Purakanui (that is, great heaps). 
The date of the battle, as in all events 
of Maori history, is uncertain ; it prob- 
ably took place in the first half of the 
eighteenth century. 

218 m. Purakanui. 

The line then passes through three 
tunnels, of which one is nearly a 
mile long ; and reaches 

222 m. Fort Chalmers Upper 
(so called to distinguish it from the 
lower station, 80 ft. below). 

Hotels: Provincial; Marine; and 

Chnxolies: Ang,; Pres.; R.C.; Wed,; 
Cong, ; and others. 

Pop.: 2,500. 

A busy town, the port of Dunedin, 
named after the eminent Scotch 
divine. It is situated on a promon- 
tory in Otago Harbour, once the site 
of a Native settlement named Kupu- 
tai, at which the Deed was signed 
by which Otago was purchased by 
the N. Z. Company. It possesses a 
fine graving dock. The town has 
not advanced as rapidly as might 
have been expected, as the extensive 
dredging in t3ie harbour now enables 
ships drawing 19 ft. to pass it by and 
go up to Dunedin. 

Tlie line now E^Lirts the harbour, 
passing by various seaside resorts 
and villas. 

223 m. Sawyer's Bay. A large 
tannery may be seen close to the Rly. 

226 m. Burke's. 

930 m. DuKEDnr, See Bte. 25. 






The Mount Cook iESxcursion is 
one of marvellous beauty, affording 
to practised mountaineers oppor- 
tunities for climbing that cannot 
fail to satisfy the most enthusiastic, 
and to less adventurous travellers 
facilities for rambling over glaciers 
larger than any in Switzerland and 
seeing all the wonders of Alpine 
scenery. It is true that the N. Z. 
mountains have no historical asso- 
ciations, nor do the valleys contain 
the quaint chalets and picturesque 
villages which add such a beauty to 
European scenery ; and yet this 
Switzerland of the South has a charm 
all its own. A few years ago it was 
so inaccessible that weary days or 
even weeks had to be spent in travel- 
ling to the base of the mountains 
that were to be ascended ; now roads 
and bridges have been constructed, 
tracks cut and huts built which 
make the journey simple and rapid. 
On the other hand nothing is as yet 
hackneyed ; there are innumerable 
peaks still untrodden, and views 
which the eye of man has never 

In the vicinity of Mt. Cook, within 
easy distance of the Hermitage, glacier- 
action can be studied in all its varied 
and most interesting forms. 

Large as the glacier system is at the 
present day, it is remarkably small as 
compared with the vast extent of the 
glaciers which filled the valleys and 
descended far down the plains in the 
Pleistocene period. The ancient mo- 
raines and well-defined roches movton- 
niesy met with far beyond the terminar 
tion of the present evidences of glacia- 
tion, are unmistakable signs of the older 

ice-fields, which existed when the great 
mountain peaks were much higher than 

The greatest accumulation of ice and 
snow lies at the head of the TasTnan and 
Murchiaon glaciers, on the eastern side 
of the main range of the Alps. The 
Mueller^ the Hooker, and the Godley 
glaciers on the same side are likewise of 
large extent ; while on the western side 
of the Mt. Cook Range there are other 
glaciers of large size, one of which, the 
Franz Joa^ glsbcieT, descends to within 
about 6oo ft. of the sea, and has beauti- 
ful tree-ferns, and. a vegetation which 
appears almost semi-tropic, growing 
within a few yards of its terminal face. 

One peculiar feature of the Southern. 
Alps is the comparatively small number 
of sub-Alpine passes over the mountain 
range. The principal passes are — the 
Haast Pass J leading from Lake Wanaka 
to the W. coast (see Rte. 39), the Hurunui 
Pass, dividing the sources of the river 
of that name ; and the TeremaJcau and 
Arthur's Pass (see Rte. 20). Other passes 
are, however, being discovered by sur- 
veyors and explorers. 

According to Mr. E. Dobson, the 
absence of passes is to be accounted for 
by the very peculiar structure of the 
central chain. He says the first point 
to be noticed in regard to the central 
chain is that it does not, as is popularly 
supposed, present an unbroken line of 
watershed, but rather a series of peaks 
and broken ridges, separated from each 
other by deep ravines, and for the most 
part perfectly inaccessible. The due 
to this system of ravines and ridges is 
to be found in the fact that the Palaeo- 
zoic rocks forming the main rang^ have 
been at a very early period subjected to 
extensive pressure, the effect of which 
has been to crumble them up into huge 
folds, the upper portions of which have 



been removed, leaving the remaining 
portions of the strata standing np on 
edge, either in a vertical position, or at 
very steep inclinations. 

The strike of the beds, corresponding 
vdth the directions of the axis of the 
foldings, is tolerably regular, being 
generally about N. aS" E. (true), thus 
differing from the general direction of 
the dividing range by 33^ At the same 
time it is important to observe that the 
rule which has been found to prevail 
in other mountain-chains of a similar 
formation appears also to hold good in 
the central chain — viz., that the greatest 
amount of denudation has taken place 
along the original ridges, which are 
now occupied by vaUeys, whilst the 
existing peaks are on the sites of former 

The next feature to be noticed is the 
jointed structure of the rocks. Although 
the joints cross each other in all direc- 
tions, apparently without order, there 
are two prevailing systems of joints, 
which have an important influence on 
the configuration of the surface. These 
are : First, a system of vertical cross- 
joints at right angles to the stratifica- 
tion, and running in unbroken lines for 
great distances, with such regularity 
that they might easily be mistaken for 
planes of stratification, were it not for 
the frequent occurrence of beds of trap- 
rock, the outcrop of which marks unmis- 
takably the true bedding; secondly, a 
system of joints, more or less inclined 
to the horizon, not running in parallel 
planes, but arranged in a series of curves 
radiating from a common centre. 

The effect of this system of jointing, 
combined with the strike of the beds or 
the direction of the axis of folding, is to 
produce two distinct systems of valleys 
in the central chain, the direction of 
which is very remarkable. The one 
radiates from a common centre, situated 
about 50 m. N. of Mt. Darien^ in the sea, 
near Cliffy Head, This system includes 
all the principal vaUeys from the Tere- 
makau on the N. to the Makarora on 
the S., their direction varying from N. 
83° E. to 8. 30° W., giving the idea that 
the country has been starred, just as 
a mirror is starred by a violent blow, 
or, as in rock-blasting, a set of radiating 
fissures is sometimes produced by a 
single shot. To the other system belong 
the valleys of rivers and watercourses, 
running either on the strike of the 
beds, or in the direction of the cross- 

joints, or in a compound zigzag course, 
following alternately these two direc- 
tions like a line struck diagonally 
across a chess-board, but following the 
sides of the squares, and giving to the 
cliffs which bound these valleys a pecu- 
liar rectangular appearance resembling 
ruined masonry on a gigantic scale. 

According to Sir Julius von Haast, the 
western slope and part of the central 
chain consists of crystalline rocks and 
metamorphic schists, highly auriferous, 
and resting on a basis of granite, that 
presents itself here and there to the 
view in the rugged bluffs and declivities 
on the W. coast. To the eastward of the 
crystalline zone stratified sedimentary 
rocks appear, such as slates, sandstones, 
conglomerates, indurated shales inter- 
stratified with trappean rocks of a 
dioritic or diabasic nature. These com- 
pose by far the greater part of the eastern 
side of the central chain, exhibiting 
everywhere huge foldings. This exten- 
sive formation of sandstones and slates 
in some places is overlaid unconform- 
ably by a carbonaceous system. 

The extensive development of lime- 
stones, such as are peculiar to the Euro- 
pean Alps, is totally lacking, and it is 
easily seen that only the eastern half of a 
complete mountain system has been pre- 
served, while the western half is buried 
in the depth of the main. The eastern 
foot of the mountains is formed by 
tertiary and alluvial deposits, broken 
through by volcanic rocks. The period 
of volcanic energy was one of up- 
heaval; and since it closed we see no 
evidence of there having been sub- 
mergence of the Island on the E. side, 
whiM on the W. coast the evidence 
derived from the mountains rising 
directly from the sea, and penetrated 
by fiords, indicates rather a gradual 

At Mt. Cook the botanist has a 
splendid field before him. The Alpine 
and sub-Alpine flora is of the most 
beautiful and diversified character, and 
to the traveller making his first visit 
from, the northern hemisphere it will 
also have the charm of novelty. Among 
the shrubs there is considerable variety, 
and many of the bushes are during the 
autumn laden with prettily-coloured 
berries; among these the totara^ with 
a sweetly-flavoured edible crimson 
berry, and the Coproemas, with berries 
of various colours, being most notice- 
able. Discaria toumatouy a thorny 



shrab, known among the settlers as 
the ' wild Irishman,' is also prominent, 
and occasionally, in one's twilight 
wanderings on tiie hillsides, painfulJy 
obtrusive, as is also its neighbour, the 
* Spaniard,' or bayonet-grass— ^ctpA]/Ua 
coletuoi. There is quite a bewildering 
variety of veronicas^ olearicUf senecios; 
and the coMtnta and panax family are 
also represented. Among the larger 
trees, a variety of beech {Fagua diffor- 
tioidet) and the white blossomed ribbon 
wood {PlagiafUhua ZyalZt) are most 
prominent. The pretty green foliage 
of the broadleaf is also conspicuous, 
while among the Coniferae may be men- 
tioned Phyllodadua (Upinua^ Podocarptta 
nivdli8y and Vacrydium colenaoi. But it 
is probably among the herbaceous 
plants that the botanist will delight 
most to linger. Four or five kinds of 
ranunculus are to be met with, and 
among them, growing in great profusion 
at every turn, is the Eanunculua lycUli^ 
the king of the £anunctitoc6a6. CeLmirias 
also abound, from the tiny thin-leaved 
kind to the larg^ varieties, with their 
beautiful flowers and broad silvery 
leaves. Three or four varieties of gen- 
tians are found on the plains and in 
the vaJleys. Near the rivulets are 
masses of Evening Primrose {epUobium). 
Forget-me-not (myoaobia) and eye-bright 
{euphrana). Violets are found in all 
directions. jE^ZtoeiM grows luxuriantly, 
at an elevation of about 3,000 ft. above 
sea level. 

The peculiar characteristic of the 
Alpine flowers of N. Z. is that nearly 
all are white. 

Of course on the mountains travellers 
may gather flowers and dig up plants 
at pleasure, but in the inmiediate 
neighbourhood of the Hermitage great 
care is being taken to preserve the 
native plants and to propagate those 
introduced from other countries. It is 
earnestly hoped that travellers will 
co-operate in this good work, instead of 
destroying the beauties of nature for 
their own selfish amusement. 

Amongst the birds most frequently 
met with are the wingless toekaa and 
the ke<u (see p. [45]). Kakaa^ wood 
pigeons^ tuU, hellbirdaj wrena^ and other 
varieties are also seen. Paradiae ducka 
and blue ducka are found in the streams. 

All travellers must stay at the 
Kermitaffe ; an hotel which, if not 
affording the elaborate luxuries of 

those at Interlachen and Ponti'esinfty 
will supply all the comfort a tourist 
can require. Although it is but 
2,500 ft. above the sea, the air there 
much resembles that of the En- 

In order to reach the Hermitage, 
Pukakl must be passed. Pukaki 
may be reached (i) from Lake Wa- 
naka by Omarama, see Rte. 28 ; (a) 
from Oamaru by Kurow and Oma- 
rama, see below ; (3) from Timaru by 
Fairlie and Tekapo. This last is the 
favourite route. Travellers are re- 
commended to come this way and 
leave by one of the others. Those 
who wish to leave by the Kurow 
route, should send their heavy lug- 
gage from Timaru to Oamaru ; those 
who intend returning by the way 
they came, should leave it at Fairlie ; 
as only light baggage is carried on 
the coach. 

Some tourists who are pressed for 
time remain but one day at the 
Hermitage and return by the next 
coach. This course is not reconi> 
mended, as the coach journey is long 
and tiring. It is better not to at- 
tempt the trip unless at least three 
days can be spent at the Hermitage ; 
and of course a longer time is desir- 
able, if possible. The best time of 
year is from December to February ; 
the flowers are at their full beauty 
in early summer. 

All travellers should, before leaving 
Christchurch, provide themselves 
with strong warm clothing, and a 
light suit for hot days ; stout boots 
with nails in them ; great coats and 
waterproofs ; tinted spectacles ; cold 
cream ; a few cakes of chocolate ; 
and some of the books on the district 
(see p. [64]) for amusement on wet 
days. Those who intend to do any 
climbing should also take Whymper 
tents, ice axes, Alpine roi>e, a light 
portable cooking lamp, sleeping bags 
lined with felt or blanketing, Alpine 
boots, veils, warm gloves, and a good 
supply of tinned meat and tea. Ladies 
should bring strong dresses with, 
short skirts ; the gymnasium costume 
is the best of all. Messrs. Plaisted 


and Son, of Christchurch, are the 
outfitters recommended by the N. Z. 
Alpine Club. 

Christchurch to Timaru. ioo m. 
Rly. See Rte. 23. 

Timaru to Fairlie. 39 m. Rly. 
The line ascends the whole way, 
Fairlie being 1,000 ft. above the sea. 

4 m. Washdyke. Here the main 
line is left. 

7 m. Xievels. So called from the 
splendid estate of the N. Z. and 
Australian Land Co., which is here 
passed through. 

13 m. Pleasant Point. 
Hotels: Point; Boydl. 
Clmxclies : Ang. ; Pres. 
Pop. : 500. 
A busy little country town. 

aa m. Cave. So named from some 
caves in the neighbourhood, in which 

a number of Maori relics have been 

39 m. Albupy. Here the line 
crosses the Tengawai R.j and proceeds 
through the downs. 

39 m. Fairlie. 

Hotels : Gladstone ; Fairlie Creeks 
Olmrclies : Ang, ; R. C, 
Pop. : aoo. 

The terminus of the Railway. 
Here the traveller stops for the 

Fairlie to the Hermitage. 90 m. 
coach. The road is in part very 
rough, but is being improved and 
shortened each year. "Hie journey 
takes one day. A special coach 
(which will take two days on the 
journey) can be arranged for by 
telegraphing previously to the Mt. 
Cook Coaching Co., Fairlie ; the 
charges vary, but are always high. 

Ben Ohau 




r* **■ *; 

^ CO u: 

c» *=> «. 

•o f^ S 

03 a> § 

^ e I 

* « 2 

*• -c i; 

^ K * 












' Seeley Moorhoiise { 
' Range Rang^ LleUi 


i ^ 





The road winds through tussock- 
covered hills, up the valley of the 
Qpahi R.J ascending rapidly. 

la m. Burke's Pass Hotel. 

.14 m. the summit of Burke's Pass 
(a, 500 ft.). This must have been 
one of the overflows of the gigantic 

INew Zealand.] 

glacier which at one time filled what 
is now the Mackenzie Plain, From 
here there is an extensive view over 
the plain, with the Ben Ohau range 
in the distance. 

The road then descends slightly, 
and takes a sharp bend to the rt. 
A road to the 1. leads by the Oram- 




pians and the Heketeramea Feus to 

i8m. EdiDard*8 Orifek is crossed. 
From this point the first Tiew of 
the summit of Mt Cook may be ob- 
tained, appearing above the nearer 

24 m. Iiake Tekapo. It is beauti- 
fully situated, amidst grand moun- 
tains, but somewhat treeless. It is 
15 m. in length, with an average 
width of 3 m. Altitude, 2,437 ft. 
The water, coming from glaciers, 
is of an opal tint. 

The road crosses the Tekapo R. by 
a bridge, and reaches the Tekapo Hotel. 

Persons wishing to stay here will 
find trout fishing in the lake. Mt. 
John, a lonely hill, may be easily 
ascended ; from the summit the 
view is fine, and Mt. Cook may be 
seen. An excursion may be made 
to Lake Alexandrina, a pretty little 
lake within an easy drive. 

In this neighbourhood are seen 
several erratic rocks, brought down 
by the old glaciers. 

30 m. Here a road branches off 
to the rt. to Braemar Sto., and goes 
on thence across the Tasman R. to 
Mt. Cook. This is much the shortest 
way to the Hermitage ; but unfor- 
tunately the Tasman R. is frequently 
uncrossable during summer. 

The road then crosses the Forks R., 
passes BalmoraZ Sta., and descends to 
Irishman Greek, where one of the first 
views of Mt. Cook is obtained. 

The traveller will realize how 
fitting was its old Maori name, 
Aorangi (*Tho light of day*), so 
called because it was the first to 
catch the morning rays, and the last 
to remain bathed in sunlight when 
the world beneath was shrouded in 
the dusk of evening ; and will regret 
that the name was ever changed by 
the settlers. 

The Maryhum R, is crossed, and 
a short rise leads to 

46 m. Simon*s Pass, 
The road then winds through old 
moraine accumulation to 

50 m. Dover's Pass. The view* 
of the mountains and of Lake Pukaki 
beneath them is splendid. The 
road then skirts the shore of the 
lake, on one of the old terraces. 

54 m, PukaM HoteL 

Lake Pukaki, which is at an alti- 
tude of 1,717 ft., is about la m. in 
length, with an average width of 
4 m. The colour is much the same 
as that of Tekapo. 

Fitjm Pukaki an excursion may be 
made in one day by driving to Lake 
Ohau; a pretty lake of translacent 
water sorrounded by hills and idopes, 
some of which are wooded down to the 
water's edge. 

Just after leaving the hotel, the 
Pukaki 22. is crossed by a ferry. The 
road to Omarama then branches off 
to the 1. The road then leaves the 
lake, and passes Ben Ohau and 
Rhoborough Downs stations on the 
1., then returns to the lake, and 
skirts it for some distance. 

65 m. At the head of the lake 
near the old station of the GUn 
Tanner Run the whole valley of the 
Tasnian comes in sight. The road 
then, on passing over a series of 
low downs to avoid the swamps of 
the Tasman, commands magnificent 
views of the mountains. 

76 m. From the present Qlen 
Tanner Homestead the first glimpse 
of the Great Tasman Glacier is ob- 
tained ; but the best view of it is 
(82 m.) at the top of a rise where the 
river is seen flowing from beneath 
it, and the Ball and Hochstetter glaciers 
rising above.. 

84 m. Birch HUl Station. 

After some distance the valley 
of the Hooker opens out to the 1. 
of the spur of Mt. Cook. The 
Hermitage appears in sight. 

88 m. An enormous bluff of rock 
called Sebastopd is rounded, and 
Mt, SEFTOif* appears in view ; and 
soon after, Mt. Cook is again seen. 

The road now enters the valley 
of the Hooker. 


90 m. The Hermitage. 

Oharg'Mi : 14s. a day for a stay of 
less than three days ; 12s. a day for 
a stay of less than a week ; £3 los. 
per week. SorseSj los. a day. QuideSf 
los. a day for short excursions, £1 
a day for more difficult ones. John 
Adamson can be recommended as 
a competent and trustworthy guide. 

All trayellers are recommended 
on arrival at the Hermitage to con- 
sult the manager, Mr. F. F. G. Hud- 
dleston, as to the best way to dis- 
pose of their time. It must be 
remembered that the number of 
possible excursions is imlimited, 
and those to be selected must de- 
pend on the strength and taste of 
the traveller, and on the state of 
the weather ; and moreover, the 
constant chimges caused by the 
movements of the glaciers make 
the excursions vary from year to 
year. Amongst favourite excursions, 
the following may be specially men- 
tioned : — 

(i) To View Point, White 
Horse Hill. An easy climb of 
half an hour up a good track. From 
the summit a fine view * is obtained 
over the Mueller and Hooker Gla- 
ciers, with Mt. Cook in the dis- 
tance, and the Moorhouse Bange 
to the 1. Avalanches may frequently 
be seen and heard thundering down 
from Mt. Sefton. The European 
will notice one peculiarity of N. Z. 
glaciers — the immense mass of mo- 
raine debris. This is caused by the 
very friable nature of the rock, 
which is composed of sandstone and 
slate. The central part of the 
glaciers moves at the rate of about 
I ft. a day. 

(a) To Governor's Bush and 
Harper Creek. A walk of i| m. 
down the valley leads to the spot 
where Harper Creek emerges from 
the hills to the W. A scramble up 
the Creek is rough, but pleasant ; 
many good spots for picnics may be 

(3) To Kea Point and the 

ICueller Glacier. A well-defined 
track of a m. leads N. to Kea Point, 
just above the Mueller Glacier, and 
i4 m. from the base of Mt Sefton, 
Tne traveller can extend his walk 
by going over the glacier to the 
base of the mountain, as far as the 
waterfall and the Countess Glacier, 
This walk takes about six hours 
in all ; and it may be further ex- 
tended by returning over the Seeley 
Range — ^an excursion of about eight 
hours in all. 

(4) To the Mueller and Hooker 
Glaciers. The traveller proceeds, 
as in Excursion (3), to Kea Point ; 
then crosses the Mueller Glacier to 
the base of the Stocking Glacier, and 
returns by the lower end of the 
Hooker Glacier, crossing the Hooker 
R, by the suspension bridge. 

(5) Up the Hooker Valley. 
Crossing the suspension bridge 
above mentioned, the traveller 
skirts the terminal face of the 
Mueller Glacier, where wonderful 
changes are continually taking 
place ; and then goes round a steep 
bluff into the Upper Hooker Valley ; 
then along the lateral moraine of 
the Hooker Glacier to a little valley 
at the base of Mt MaJbel and Mt 
Rosa, overlooking the white ice and 
crevasses of the Hooker Glacier. 
To the N. is seen a magnificent 
view of the Hooker Ice FaU, Mt. 
Stokes, and Mt. Cook ; to the 
W. the fuU expanse of the Moor- 
house range with its hanging gla- 
ciers. Just beyond Mt. Mabel is 
a lofty pass which connects the 
Hooker with the Ball and Tasman 
Glaciers. All up the valley the 
flowers are very beautiful, con- 
tinually changing as higher alti- 
tudes are reached. The track all 
the way is good. 

(6) To the Tasman Glacier**. 
A delightful excursion of two or 
three days, either on horseback or 
on foot. It was once an expedition 
of much difficulty, but is now easy, 
even for ladies. 

T a 



Proceeding down the lower Hooker 
VaUey to the junction of the Taaman, 
a wire rope and cradle are seen 
whereby the Hooker R, is crossed. 
The track then leads up the VaUey 
of the Taaman for 4 m., when the 
terminal face of the Tasman Glacier 
is reached, and the lovely little 
Blue Lake, nestling between the old 
moraine and the slope of the moun- 
tain, is passed on the 1. Proceeding 
up the valley with the glacier on 
the rt. for about 6 m., the traveller 
reaches the BaHl Glacier which, com- 
ing in from Mt. Cook, forms a 
little grass plateau, on which the 
Government have erected a two- 
roomed hut for the convenience of 
tourists. Here a halt is made for 
the night. Mr. Huddleston, under 
whose care the hut has been placed, 
keeps there a good store of blankets 
and other comforts. The tr^iveller 
may either make his excursion over 
the white ice of the Tasman the 
afternoon of his arrival at the hut, 
and then return to the Hermitage 
the following morning ; or may rest 
for the evening and visit the white 
ice the following morning. If he 
wishes to proceed far up the glacier, 
he had better devote an entire day 
to it, and sleep a second night at 
the hut. If a good climber, he may 
ascend the Ball Pass and return by 
the Fairbanks Glacier and the Hooker 

The view of the Tasman and 
adjoining glaciers, surrounded by 
a panorama of ice-clad mountains, 
cannot be surpassed by anything 
in Switzerland, and must be seen 
to be realized. The Tasman Glacier 
is 18 m. in length by about 1} in 
breadth, and contains nearly 14,000 
acres of ice. 

Mountain Ascents. The great- 
est of these is Mt. Cook, which 
was first accomplished by the Rev. 
W. S. Green, accompanied by two 
Swiss guides, in i88a. None but 
the most experienced mountaineers 
should venture to attempt it. 
Amongst less lofty peaks which 

have been ascended may be men- 
tioned the HochsteUer Dome, Mt. de la 
Beche, Mt, Wakefidd, Mt Huddlestm, 
Mt Rosa and Mt. MaJbet; but w^ith 
few exceptions the whole range of 
mountain peaks have stiU to be 

From the Hermitage the traveller 
retraces his steps as far as Pukaki, 
From that to Kurow the road is 

Pukaki to Omahaila. 24 m. coach. 
The road, after crossing the ferry, 
proceeds along the open plain. 

9 m. The Ohau R., which divides 
Canterbury from Otago, is crossed 
by a bridge. 

Ben More is seen on the 1., and the 
Ben More run is passed through, 
close to the junction of the road to 
Lake Ohau. 

23 m. The Ahuriri R, is forded. 

24 m. Omarama. Hotel. 

Ohabaka to Kubow. 30 m. coach. 
The road goes down the valley of 
the Ahuriri B. 

4 m. A deserted Maori encamp- 
ment is passed. 

8 m. At Otamatata (Hotel) the 
road leaves the river and ascends to 
(12 m.) Ahuriri Pass: it then goes 
down the course of a small stream 
to (18 m.) Parson's Bock, where 
it joins the Waitaki R, which 
divides not only Otago from Canter- 
bury, but also the old gold-bearing 
foliated schists from the newer non- 
auriferous schists and slates of Can- 
terbury. On the rt. of the valley 
may be seen the blufis of the Oamaru 

The road then goes through the 
Bugged Banges Station. 

30 m. Kuro^r. 

Hotels: Delargy's; RaHway, 

Olmroli: Ang, 

A small township on theWaitaki B. 



KuRow TO Oamabu. 41 m. Rly. 
8s. ^.y 5s, lod. ; B. 119. 8(2., 7s. ^. 

The line which commences at the 
township of Sandhursiy crosses the 
Waiiaki i?. by a bridge nearly i m. 
in length before reaching Kurow. 

The scenery is not striking. 

14 m. At Duntroon the river 
is left, and the line sweeps round 
the foot . of the hills to Oamaru 
through the fertile Papdkaio plain. 

18 m. Borton's. Near this is the 
magnificent farm belonging to Mr. 
John Borton. 

20 m. Black Point. Here the 
water-race by which the Oamaru 
water-supply is drawn from the 
Waitaki, is crossed, and at 

36 m. Pukeuri Junction, the main 
line from Ghristchurch is joined. 

41 m. Oaxabu. See Bte. 23. 




Hotels : Crrarwf, 12s. a day ; Wains* , 
I2S. 6c2. and los. 6d. a day, £3 3s. 
per week (arrangements made for 
families); City ; Criteiion ; Shamrock; 
Wood*s Temperance; Siik's Letiaihan 
Temperance (moderate) ; Coffee Palace 
(moderate) ; and others. 

Clubs : Duriedin (residential) ; Otago 

OonveyaJices : Cab fares. By time : 
Vehicles with one horse, 4s. jwr hour 
for first three hours, 39. for each 
subsequent hour ; half and quarter 
hours at same proportionate rates. 
Vehicles with two horses, 5s. per 
hour for first three hours, 4s. for 
each subsequent hour ; half and 
quarter hours at same proportionate 
rates. By distance: Vehicles with 
one horse, first i m., is. ; first m., 
IS. 6d. ; every additional ^ m., gd, ; 
Vehicles with two horses, first j m., 
IS. 6d. ; first m., as. ; every addi- 
tional I m., IS. Double fares be- 
tween I p.m. and 8 a.m. 


(i) From Gargill's Monument to 
the N. boundary of the city at the 
Botanical Gardens, and thenco along 

the N.E. valley to Normanby and 

(2) Prom Gargiirs Monument by 
the Castle Street route, past the 
University, to the Botanical Gardens. 

(3) From Manse Street, via St. 
Kilda to Ocean Beach. 

(4) From Manse Street, via St. 
Kilda to Caverbham, with branch to 
St. Clair. 

(5) Cable tram from Grand Hotel 
to Momington, thence by Morning- 
ton extension tram to Maryhill. 

(6) Cable tram from Shamrock 
Hotel, Battray Street, to Town Belt 
at Boslyn, thence by Boslyn Exten- 
sion tram to Boslyn. 

Horses and carriages may be hired 
at Bacon's stables, Taggart's stables, 
or Power's stables. 

A ferry runs frequently from Bat- 
tray Street Jetty to Waverley and 
Anderson's Bay. 

A small steamer runs from Dune- 
din to Portobello daily, 

Boa^ may be hired at the foot of 
Jetty Street overbridge, at the end 
of Jetty Street, and at the Cement 
Works at the end of Frederick Street. 
Sailing boats : 2s. 6d, per hour ; 
rowing boats : is. 


EOUTE 25.— dunbdin: history. 


The name Otago has a onrions origin. 
When the Maoris went into battle 
they painted their faoes and bodies 
with red oohre mixed with sharks' oiL 
This ochre was ordinarily procured 
from seams in volcanic cUffs; but a 
finer variety was obtained from running 
water which carried oxide of iron in 
suspension. The gummy fibres of the 
leaf of the Phormium tenax were placed 
across the stream, and to these the fine 
particles of ochre adhered. When full, 
they were burnt ; and the fibre and 
gum being thus destroyed, the ochre, 
which was left behind, was prepared 
for use. This highly-prized paint was 
called Otakou — or, according to the 
dialect of the Kgaitahu tribe, Otago. 
A kaik near Taiaroa Head, whence it was 
obtained, bore the name of Otakou; 
from this the whalers, called the whole 
harbour Otago; and the name was 
afterwards extended to the Province. 

The history of Otago during Maori 
times is very obscure. The southern part 
of the Island from time to time afforded 
a refuge for various tribes who had been 
driven from their homes in the N. in the 
constantly recurring tribal wars ; each 
new wave of immigrants in their turn 
atts/cking the former refagees. Thus 
the population was constantly shifting, 
and many sites of old fortifications and 
battlefields are pointed out. The neigh- 
bourhood of the present city was occu- 
pied by various branches of the Ngati- 
mamoe and Ngaitahu tribes ; a large 
pa once stood at what is now the end 
of Frederick Street ; and Halfway Bush, 
then known as Taputakinoi, was the 
scene of a fierce battle. Every hill, 
valley, and stream had its name ; it is 
to be regretted that in but few instances 
these have been retained. 

During the early part of the present 
century, several European whalers and 
other settlers had established them- 
selves at Wedkouaiti, Otago Heads, 
Foveaux Straits, and other spots along 
the coast, and were living on friendly 
terms with the natives. No organized 
attempt at colonization was made, how- 
ever, until after the foundation of the 
settlements at Wellington, New Ply- 
mouth, and Nelson. The idea of a 
special Scotch settlement originated 
with Gibbon Wakefield. Soon after 
the Disruption of the Established Church 
of Sootlcmd, a society was formed at 

Edinburgh and Glasgow, called the 
^Lay Airaociation of tiie Free Oh. of 
Scotland for Promoting the Settlement 
of a Scotch Colony at Otago, N. Z.' Port 
Cooper (now called Lyttelton Harbour) 
was first suggested as the site for the 
New Edinburgh settlement; but as 
soon as Mr. Tuckett, the chief surveyor 
at Nelson, had made a careful explora- 
tion of the southern coast, the present 
site was selected : 400,000 acres were pur- 
chased by the N. Z. Company from the 
natives, the name Otago (by which the 
district near Taiaroa Head had pre- 
viously been known) was given to the 
whole settlement, and (at the suggestion 
of Mr. Chambers, the editor of the 
Encyclopaedia) Dunedin was substituted 
for New Edinburgh as the designation 
of the intended city. 

In 1847 A pnblic meeting was held at 
Glasgow, at which it was announced that 
144,600 acres had been surveyed and 
divided into 2,400 properties. Each pro- 
perty consisted of 6oi acres ; of which i 
acre was to be in the proposed city, loacres 
in the suburbs, and 50 in the country. 
The price of each was to be £120 100. ; 
the proceeds of the sale were to be 
applied as follows:—! to the expenses 
of immigration, I to survey and roads, 
I to the N. Z. Company, and ^ to reli- 
gious and educational purposes. 2,000 
properties were open for selection by 
intending purchasers; 100 were assigned 
as a Municipal Estate ; 100 as a BeUgious 
and Educational Endowment ; and 300 
to the N. Z. Company; each of these 
bodies paying for their properties at 
the same rate as private individuals. 
. On March 23, 1848, the John Wicklig^ 
arrived at the Heads with Captain 
Cargill (the official agent) and 90 immi- 
grants ; and on April 15, following, the 
Philip Laing arrived with the Bev, Dr. 
Bums and 236 immigrants. 

The chief characteristics of the settle- 
ment have thus been from, the first its 
connexion with Scotland and the Free 
Church ; but there has been no spirit of 
exclusiveness ; there has always been 
a large English element, and all forms 
of religion have been freely toleratecL 
The zeal for education which has always 
marked the Scottish people has borne 
rich fruit in their adopted land ; to 
which the University, High schools, and 
elementary schools all bear witness. 

By the N. Z. Constitution Act of 1852, 
Otago was formed into a Province, con- 
taining 16,500 sq. m. ; Captain Cargill 



was elected the first Sapeiintendent ; 
the Provincial Conncil held its first 
session in 1853. 

Id. 1861 Southland separated and 
became a new Proyince ; but the scheme 
not having been saocessfnl, it was re- 
annexed in 187a In 1861 gold was dis- 
covered at ^Gabriel's Gully/ Toapeka 
(see Rte. 27), and an enormous immi- 
gration from Anstralia and elsewhere 
uoamediately took place. 

In 1876 Provincial Government was 
abolished here as elsewhere. 

The situation of Dunedin is the 
very antithesis to that of Christ- 
church. The sloping ground at the 
head of a lake-like harbour, sur- 
rounded by lofty hills, densely 
clothed v^ th bush down to the water's 
edge, must have presented more at- 
traction to the eye of an artist than 
an intending citizen. But the early 
settlers at onee commenced clearing 
the forest (the dense growth of the 
present Town Belt will give to the 
tourist an idea of how severe the 
labour must have been) ; and as 
the town extended, large reclama- 
tion works were undertaken. Part 
of the hill on which the First Church 
stands was quarried and used as 

Dunedin became a municipality 
in 1865. The present city, including 
the eight suburban boroughs, con- 
tains a population of about 47,000. 

The harbour is strongly fortified ; 
batteries having been placed at the 
Ocean Beach and Otago Heads under 
the direction of Sir William Jervois. 

The best time of year for visiting 
Dunedin is the summer. The Agri- 
cultural show, which is held at 
Tahuna T&A on the Ocean Beach, 
takes place in November. There are 
many race meetings ; the principal 
one of the year being the ' Cup ' 
meeting, at the end of February. 
These are the occasions on which 
Dunedin looks its gayest. 

Some time may be pleasantly 
spent at Dunedin, as there is much 
to see ; and fishermen will find it 
a good place to make their head- 
quarters, as the fly-fishing in 'the 
rivers of Otago and Southland is 

splendid. Amongst the most favour- 
ite spots within an easy distance of 
Dunedin are Ginton and Waipahi, on 
the line to Invercargill, and the 
Waikaii B. on the line to Christ- 


The traveller who has only one 
day at Dunedin should take a walk 
through the town. Supposing him 
to start from the Grand or Wain's 
Hotel, he will see on the opposite 
side of the street .the Ck>ve<ii]nent 
Buildininir containing the Post Office, 
Supreme Ccurt^ &c. Next to these is 
the ColonicU Bankj built of Oamaru 
stone at the cost of £30,000 by 
the Provincial Qovemment, and de- 
signed for a Post Office, but never 
used for that purpose. It was for 
some time occupied by the Otago 
University. The Oustmn House and 
the Telegraph Office are close by. Oppo- 
site to the Custom House is the 
Monnmuit erected by the Provincial 
Gk)vemment to the memory of Cap- 
tain Cargill, the first Superintendent 
of the Province. 

Beyond the Monument, on the 
way to the Rly. Sta., is the Trianglej 
a prettily laid-out public garden, 
containing a bronze fountain and 
a marble bust of the late Mr. J. 
M^'Andrew, once Superintendent of 
the Province. The best view of the 
First Church is from the Triangle. 

Proceeding along Prince's Street 
towards the N., on the rt., in Moray 
Place, is seen the First Church, on 
a fine situation overlooking the har- 
bour. It is a large building of Oamaru 
stone in the early Decorated Gothic 
style, with a well-proportioned spire 
175 fb. high. Although it was not 
commenced until 1872 the name is 
not inappropriate, as it is the repre- 
sentative of the first church built by 
the settlers. The Ptdpit, fonty and 
some oi* the capitals were beautifully 
carved by Godfrey, but unfortunately 
have been injudiciously coloured. 



There is nothing else in the interior 
of the building to detain a tourist. 

Hetuming to Piince's Street, cross- 
ing it, and proceeding up Moray Place, 
W., the traveller reaches the bottom 
of View Street, close to the Synagogusj 
and the Cong. Church, The Wesleyan 
Church (a handsome building in the 
Decorated Gothic style) is seen a 
short distance off. 

Mounting the steep ascent of View 
St., he sees in front of him the Oirls' 
High. Boliool. This institution was 
founded by the Provincial Govern- 
ment in 187 1 ; for a time the Boys* 
and Girls' High Schools occupied one 
building, but when the present build- 
ing for the Boys* High School was 
opened, the whole of the premises 
previously used were devoted to the 
Girls' High School. The present 
number of pupils is about 200. 

Close by is the Convent, occupied 
by nuns of the Dominican Order, 
who have a lai^e boarding school for 

Next to the Convent is the R. C. 
Cathedral of St. Joseph, an imposing 
building in the Gothic 15th century 
Decorated style. The situation is 
striking. At present only the nave 
and western towers are completed ; 
it is intended ultimately to be cruci- 
form, with a central tower and spire. 
In the interior the High Altar and 
several of the capitals of the pillars 
(by Godfrey) are beautiful ; and the 
windows of Munich glass are worthy 
of inspection. The architect is F. W. 

On the opposite side of the street 
is the residence of the B. C. Bishop. 
The diocese was founded in 1869 ; the 
first and only Bp. being Dr. Moran. 

The traveller should then ascend 
the hill by the cahle tram, for the 
view from the summit ; and return 
the same way, stopping at the old 
cemetery^ now disused ; it has been 
tastefully laid out with walks and 
shrubs and contains a monument to 
those who are there interred. 

Not far off is the Boys' High School, 
a large building in the Tudor style, 
containing a central HaR and several 
CUiss-rooms, Adjoining are the head- 
masters residence, the boarding- 
house for pupils, the gymnasium, 
tennis courts, cricket field, &c. 

The history of the Boys' High School 
is bound np with that of the settle- 
ment ; a proposal for its establishment 
was made at the first session of the 
Provincial • Council, in 1853, and the 
Ordinance establishing it was passed 
by the ConncU in 1856. It was endowed 
with land by the Provincial Gk)vem- 
ment. The present buildings w^ere 
opened in 1885 ; the Sector is the Be v. 
Dr. Belcher. 

The traveller then takes the first 
street to the rt., which leads him 
back to Prince's Street, at the Octagon^ 
a small open space. Here is situated 
St. Paul's Chuzoh (the Ang. Pro- 
Cathedral), a building in the Early 
English style containing several good 
stained glass windows presented by 
various donors. The diocese of 
Dunedin was separated from that of 
Christchurch in 1869; the present 
Bp. is Dr. Neville. Adjoining is the 
Town KaU, with a lofty Clock Tower. 
On the opposite side is the Athe- 
naeum and reading-room ; admission 
easily obtained by introduction from 
a subscriber ; books may be taken out 
on payment of a small fee. In the 
Octagon are a bronze Stabue of Robert 
Burns, erected by public subscrip- 
tion at the time of the Burns Cen- 
tenary ; and a stone cross erected to 
the memory of his nephew, the Rev. 
Dr. Burns, the first pastor of the 
Presbyterian Ch. of Otago. 

Turning to the N. the continuation 
of Prince's Street is called Gteorge 
Street. Proceeding along this street 
for some distance the traveller reaches 
Knox Church, a Decorated Gothic 
building of blue stone relieved with 
Oamaru stone, surmounted by a 
graceful spire. It was completed in 
1876 ; the architect of this, as of the 
First Ch., being R. A. Lawson. The 
Rev.' Dr. Stuart, who arrived in i860, 
is the pastor. 


Here the traveller should follow 
the tram line, turning out of 
George Street by Albany Street into 
Great King Street, and then continue 
towards the N. On the rt. side is 
seen the Museum*, which contains 
a remarkably fine collection of moa 
skeletons, and of the birds, minerals, 
and woods of N. Z. ; a large number 
of valuable and curious Maori carv- 
ings from the N. island, presented 
by Br. Hocken ; and a few good 
pictures which are intended to form 
the nucleus of an Art gallery. The 
building is unfinished. The Museum 
is under the able superintendence of 
Dr. Parker, F.R.S. ; it is connected 
with the University of Otago, and its 
income is derived from a govern- 
ment grant of land. 

The next turning to the rt. (Union 
Street) leads over a bridge which 
crosses the Water qfLeith to the Uni- 
▼ersityf a large building in the 
Domestic Gothic style, of basalt re- 
lieved with Oamaru stone. The 
architect was Mr. Bury. It con- 
sists of three disconnected blocks, 
the first devoted to the Arts School, 
the second to the Medical and 
Chemical, and the third to the 
Mineralogical. The building is un- 
finished. The Library occupies a 
large hall, which is also used for 
University functions. It contains 
portraits of various Otago worthies. 
Adjoining are the red brick, Queen 
Anne houses of the Professors. 

The University of Otago was founded 
in 1869 by an Ordinance of the Provin- 
cial Council, and is endowed with a 
grant of 221,000 acres of land ; besides 
which it receives £1,800 a year from 
the Educational revenue of the Presby- 
terian Ch., and several scholarships 
have been founded. It was originally 
intended that the University should 
confer Degrees; but on the establishment 
of the N. Z. University it was affiliated 
to it, and, though the name University 
is still retained, it is really now merely 
a University College like Canterbury 
and Auckland. Tbere are nine pro- 
fessors and fourteen lecturers. Both 
day and evening classes are held, the 
fees being very moderate. The Univer- 

sity is entirely secular, possessing no 
Theological School. 

The Rev. Dr. Stewart is the Chan- 
cellor ; Mr. Justice Williams the Vice- 

Proceeding northwards along 
Castle Street on the rt. bank of the 
Water of Leith, the Botanical Oar- 
dens are reached ; they are pretty, 
but not extensive. 

From there the tourist can return 
by tram. If he wishes to extend 
his walk, he can return to King 
Street, and then turn to the rt. along 
Duke Street, and so go to the Beservoir 
and the WaterfaU (see below). 

Amongst other buildings may be 
mentioned St. Matthew's OlmrclL 
(Ang.) in Stafford Street ; and the 
Hospital in Great King Street. There 
are many fine private residences with 
beautiful gardens in the suburbs. 

Walks, Drives, and Excursions. 

(i) To the Beservoir and 
Waterfall. A walk of 4 m. from 
the city boundary. 

The traveller should take the tram 
from CargiU*8 Monument and proceed 
along Prince's Street and King Street ; 
or walk along Prince's Street and 
George Street ; until Duke Street 
intersects. He then turns to the 1. 
and follows up Duke Street and the 
Water of Leith VaUey, passing the 
Flour Mill and the Paper MiU on the 1. 
At the latter, a small bridge to the 
1. is crossed, and thence the pipe 
track is followed up a narrow wooded 
valley to the Reservoir, which is 
prettily situated at a higher level, 
about I m. ft*om King Street. Re- 
turning to the bridge, the traveller 
crosses it and turns to the 1. follow- 
ing up the main stream for about 
I m. Shortly after entering a pic- 
turesque gorge, NichoU's Greek comes 
in on the 1. ; and a short distance 
up this is the WaterfaU, a favourite 
resort of Dunedin holiday makers. 
A climb further up the rocky bed of 
the stream is well worth the toil. 


(a") The Queen's Drive. A charm- 
ing driTe or walk along the Toum Belty 
with continually changing views 
overlooking the city and harbour. 
The whole distance is about 7 m. 
The Town Belt occupies 500 acres, 
chiefly covered with bush. 

(3^ To Roalyxi. The traveller 
should take the cable tram from the 
Shamrock Hotdy Battray Street, as far 
as the summit ; then by the Boslyn 
extension to the terminus. \ m. 
down the hill on the other side is 
the Roslyn Woollen Factory (strangers 
admitted by order, to be obtained 
at the office of Messrs. Boss and 
Clendening in High Street, Dune- 
din\ Beturning to the top of the 
hill, the traveller should walk along 
towards either the N. or the S., 
enjoying the extensive view over 
the city, harbour, and neighbouring 
hills, and then return to the city by 
any of the many roads that lead 
down to it. 

(4) To St. Clair and Ocean 
Beach. 3 m. tram ; i m. walk. 

The traveller should take the tram 
from Manse Street to St. Claire which 
is on the ocean, and the best place 
for bathing near Dunedin. It is 
worth while also to walk up the 
zigzag road to The Qiffs, passing the 
battery, for the view from the top. 
A walk of I m. from St. Clair along 
the beach leads to the large Pacific 
Hotel close to the battery at Ocean 
Beachy where the tram may be taken 
for the return to town. 

(5) To Portobello and the 
Heads. To Portobello 14 m. ; to 
the Maori kaik near the Heads, 5 
m. further. There is a good carriage 
road all the way. 

The best route is to go out by the 
high road thTough Anderson's Bay^ 
along the summit of the main ridge 
of the Peninsula, and then descend 
to Portobello, During the descent is 
seen the lighthouse on Cape Saunders^ 
so named by Gapt. Cook in honour 
of Sir Chas. Saunders. Travellers 
may lunch or dine at the comfort- 

able hotel at Portobello ; those who 
intend to do so should telephone 
beforehand from Dunedin. The i«- 
turn journey may then be made by 
the Beach Road, 

The drive may be extended beyond 
Portobello in two ways ; either by 
crossing the Peninsula to Hooper's 
Irdet (I m.\ a pretty sheltered bay 
surroimded by fiarms ; or by con- 
tinuing along the shore of the har- 
bour towards Tasaeoa HmaDj passing 
through the scattered Maori kaik 
(village) of Otakon, from which the 
name of the Province has been 
derived (see above\ Bp. Selwyn 
visited the kaik in 1844. 

In Maori history this district is 
famooa for numerons battles and stirw 
ring events ; chief among which is the 
siege of Pukekura^ the ancient name of 
Taiaroa Head, where the lighthouse 
now stands. At the period — ^probably 
about the early part of the eighteenth 
century — ^when the now extinct Ngati- 
mamoe tribe had been driven S. and 
were making a stand in the region 
surrounding Dunedin, which was also 
partly in the possession of their ene- 
mies, the conquering Ngaitahu tribe, 
many engagements occurred between 
these factions. The Ngaitahu held 
Pnkekura, whilst a pa at Papanui, a 
few miles away, was occupied by the 
Ngatimamoe. On one occasion a fisast 
was held, which was partaken of by 
the children of both tribes. When the 
feast was over, the children began to 
play at their usual sports. Soon, the 
elders who were looking on began to 
join in the games ; when suddenly the 
pe<^le of Papanui (amongst whom was 
the great chief Whaka-taka-anewha) 
attacked the people of Pnkekura, killing 
most of those present and taking some 
prisoners ; amongst the latter being the 
renowned warrior, Tarewal Nine men 
seized him, wrested his m&re from him, 
and commenced to torture and kill him 
with a flint knife; but such was the 
strength of Tarewai, that he succeeded 
in shaking off his enemies and escaping. 
Beturning after a sojourn in the forest 
with his wounds healed, he found the 
Ngatimamoe besieginghis pa. By a clever 
stratagem he recovered his mere^ tiien 
dimbed a tree in the forest and waved 
the tnere as a signal to his friends 
inside the pa. They, seeing it waived 



in the air, prondly oommenoed a war- 
danoe, which provoked the besi^pers to 
a gimilar act of defiance. The Ngaitaho, 
directed by signals from Tarewai, cnn- 
ningrly led the dance towards the ocean, 
wh^ gave Tarewai his opportunity; 
he roshed past and entered the pa. 
The next morning he performed the 
greatest of all his military feats; he 
led the whole of his people through the 
enemy (thongh their numbers were far 
larger), killing many and putting the 
rest to flight; thus he proceeded on- 
wards, and lefb the pa deserted. 

The Heads are now fortified with 
modem batteries. 

Portobello may also be reached by 
rail to Port Chalmers and thence by 
steamer (excursion steamers frequent 
during the siimmer). Tickets for 
train and steamer are issued at the 
Dunedin RIy. Sta. 

(6) Down the harbour to the 
Heads. Excursion steamers fre- 
quently go during the summer ; the 
trip takes in all three or four hours. 

(7) To "Waitati. This excursion 
may be made (a) by rail, 17 m. (see 
Rte. 23^ ; (6) by road, la m. The road 
is good, and the scenery beautiful all 
the way ; (c) on foot, by the Leith 
VdUeyj 14 m. The traveller goes to 
the Water/all (see above) and thence 
over the saddle ; the track is perfectly 
clear, and generally fit for riding as 
well as walking. 

A pleasant excursion of one day is 
made by going by one way and re- 
turning by another. 

(8) To MosgieL By rail (see Rte. 
96'^, or by driving along the main 
South Road 10 m. 

A longer but very pleasant ex- 
cursion may be made by driving out 
by the West Taieri Rood Yik Boslyn And 
HaJJioay Bushy passing Asfiibum HaM 
lAmatic Asylum, descending to the 
Taieri plain at the Silver Stream, and 
thence crossing a portion of the plain 
by a crossroad to Mosgiel ; and re- 
turning by the main Sou;ffi Boad. The 
whole drive is about a6 m. 

At Mosgiel is a large woollen 
factory. Visitors admitted by ticket ; 

application should previously be 
made at the office of the Company, 
High Street, Dunedin. 

(9) To Flagstaff Hill. Follow- 
ing the route described in the drive 
to Mosgid as far as Ashbum HaJl, the 
traveller turns to the rt. just before 
passing that building, and takes a 
road (which is good for walking or 
riding but not for driving") to the 
summit of FlagstafBiU^a^ 150 ft.), the 
bare mountain to the N.W. of Dune- 
din. The view from the summit 
over the Taieri plain, the coast, and 
Dunedin, is very fine. 

(10) To Brighton. A favourite 
watering-place, with an hotel and 
boarding houses, on the seaside, 13 
m. south of Dunedin. This is 
reached by driving, the road passes 
through Caversham and Green Island, 

(11) To Fine Hill and Mount 
CargilL A beautiful walk of five 
hours in all ; but travellers who do 
not wish to make so long an excur- 
sion will find it pleasant to walk or 
drive part of the way. 

Starting from opposite the gate 
of the Botanical Gardens, the road up 
Pine HUl is seen, rising at a steep 
grade. The view becomes more 
beautiful all the way up the ascent. 
From here a more lengthened walk 
may be taken to the summit of Mt. 
CargiU ; from which the view is very 
extended, both over the town and 
towards the N. It is possible to 
ride or drive to the commencement 
of the light bush, which clothes the 
upper part of the mountain. 

(la) To Signal Hill. This is the 
bare hill overlooking the harbour 
on the N.E. side of the town. The 
traveller may start either from the 
junction of Clyde Street and Dun das 
Street, following the Cemetery Road 
to the suburb of Opofio ; or may reach 
that suburb from the tram terminus 
just beyond the Botanical Gardens, 
ascending to the rt. Thence fol- 
lowing the main road through 
Opoho, at the height of 1,000 ft. 



a stone farm-house is reached. If 
the traveller wishes to proceed to 
the summit, he should ascend to 
the highest point of the cultivated 
land, strike thence across to the rt. 
through the scrub i m. to the Trig. 
Station, marked by a cairn. The 
harbour and peninsula appear 
mapped out below. This walk may 
be accomplished in two and a half 
hours from the starting-point. 

(13) To the Taieri Mouth. Rail 
to Henley ai m. (see Rte. 26) ; 
thence steamer (excursions frequent 
during summer) to the Mouth, one 
hour. Time : one day ; but travel- 
lers wishing to make it two, can 
find a boarding-house at the Mouth. 

The master of the steamer will 
point out the 'Maori Leap' or 
* Maiden's Leap.' 

A small body of ftigitive Ngatimainoe 
tinder Tokiauau had fortified a pa on 
Lake Waihola\ Korokiwhiti, the son 
of Tnkianau, became acquainted with 
Hakitekora, the daughter of a Ngaitahu 
chief, whose pa was situated on the river. 
The lovers held clandestine meetings 
on the sands, until rumonrs of wars 
caused Takianau to abandon his pa and 
make for the S. He embarked with 
his followers in a large war canoe and 
proceeded down the Taieri. As they 
were passing beneath her father*s pa, 
Hakiteknra, eager to join her lover, 
sprang from the cliff into the water; 
but, striking either a rock or the canoe 
in her descent, was killed. Her father, 
Tuwiriroa, overwhelmed with gfrief and 
rage, swore that he would destroy the 
man that had caused this disaster. 
Following him to Rakiura (Stewart's 
Island) he slew him and all his people 

HOUTE 26. 


139 m. Rly. 

This cannot be recommended as 
a beautiful trip ; but the line passes 
through a rich agricultural and pas- 
toral district, and the journey is not 
without interest. 

The line at first passes through 
the S. part of Dunedin, then 
across some fields to the suburb 
(a m.) of Caversham. Imme- 
diately after leaving the station 
the Rly. passes through a tunnel 
of more than | m. in length, and 
then enters the Kaikorai Valley^ at 
the head of which is the large Roslyn 
WooUen FacUyry. Chemical works, 
freezing works, and candle and other 
factories are seen. 

4 m. Cattleyards. Here the large 
stock sales take place. 

5 m. Abbotsford (in the town 
called * Green Island'), where a 

line branches off 1. to the Green Island 
Coal Pits ; and another rt. to the 
FemhiU Coal Pit. 

The line then turns to the rt. and 
goes through the Chairs Hills Tunnel 
(J m.) to the Taieri Plain, a rich 
agricultural district. On the 1. is 
seen Saddle Hid, one of the points 
of which Captain Cook took bear- 

9 m. Wingatui Junction. 

[From here a line, known as the 
' Otago Central,* branches off to Middle- 
march, 40 m. About 6 m. after leaving 
Wingatui, it passes over the Mulloky 
Qully viaduct, 691 fb. in breadth and 
193 in height. It then runs for many 
xuiles up tiie narrow gorge of the Upper 
Taieri, through wild, rocky scenery. 

16 m. Hindon. There is a small gold- 
field in the vicinity. 

35 m. Sutton. After this the line enters 
the Strathtaieri P2atn, bounded on the 
W. by the Rock and Pillar Range. 


40 m. Middlemarch, the present 
terminus. Hotel. 

From here a mail coach mns by 
Hyde, Kyebnm, Naseby, and Alexandra 
to Clyde. See Rte. 27.] 

10 m. Mosgiel Junction, A 
large woollen factory. 

[From here a line branches off to 
Outram, 9 m., a holiday resort for 
people from Dunedin, prettily situ- 
ated close to the Mungatua Range.] 

From Mosgiel the Ime runs along 
the Taimbi Rivmb to 

15 m. Qresrtown. On the oppo- 
site side of the plain is seen the 
Mungatua Ranoe^ 

ai m. Henley. From here 
steamei*s frequently run down to 
the mouth of the river. 

Shortly after leaving the station, 
the two branches of the Taieri are 
crossed by iron bridges. 

96 m. Waihola, on the lake of 
the same name. The waters are 
discoloured by the sluicing at the 
mines further inland. Tea and 
coffee may be obtained at the sta- 

3a m. MiUbum. Near the station 
is a large lime-burning establish- 

36 m. Milton* 

Kot^Ui : Commercial ; and others. 
Clmrolies : Ang.; Pres. ; R» C, ; Wesl. 
Pop.: i,aoo. 

The town, situated in the centre 
of the Tokcmairiro Plain, contains 
pottery works, mills, and factories, 
and there are several coal-pits in 
the neighbourhood. 

[Here a line branches off to Lawrence, 
whence a coach mns to Qneenstown. 
Travellers wishing to visit Lake Waka- 
tipu, and not pressed for time, may take 
this route. See Rte. 37.] 

Shortly after leaving Milton, the 
line crosses the Tokomairiro R, 

44 m. LoveWs Flat, The lakes Tua' 
kiiito and Kaitangala, which may be 
seen on the L, afford sport to many 
visitors from Dunedin. 

50 m. Stirling. Here a line 
branches off to Kaitangaia, 5 m., a 
large coal mine. 

The Clutha R, is crossed shortly 
before reaching 

53 m. Balclutha. 
Hotels ; Orown ; Oriterion, 
Olmroliofli : Ang. ; Pres, / R, C. ; Wesl, 
Pop.: 900. 

A thriving town on the banks of 
the Clutha or Mouneux (the river 
bears both names ; the name Moli- 
neux was given to the Bay at the 
mouth by Captain Cook). 


(i) To Kaitangata and the mouth 
of the Molineux. 

The main line is retraced as far as 
Stirling, and thence the branch to 
Kaitangata taken. Visitors are allowed 
to inspect the coal-mine, on application 
to the manager. From the coal-mine 
the tourist may walk over the hill to 
the ocean; and tiience southward by 
the beach to the moath of the river, 
returning by its banks to Kaitangata. 
The whole excursion may easily be made 
in one day. 

(3) To the Nuggets. By rail to 
Bomahapa^ 8 m. Buggies can be ob- 
tained there; or can be ordered pre- 
viously from Nuggets Bay (Campbell's or 
Ottaway's Boarding House). Romahapa 
to Nuggets Bay, 8 m. The road passes 
Port Molineux at the mouth of the 
river, near which is a small Maori kaik. 
At the Bay, comfortable lodgings may 
be obtained at either of tibe above- 
mentioned boarding houses. Abeautifal 
excursion may be made thence, on foot 
or horseback, to Roaring Bay and 
NuggeVs Point Lighthouse, 4 m. ; and 
many beautiful walks through the 

(3) To Catlin'8 Blver. By rail to 
QlenoTnaru^ 12 m. ; and by coach thence 
to Owaka, 9 m. Hotels : ViaVs and 
Paterson's. At either Hotel the neces- 
sary conveyances and horses may be 
obtained (previous notice should be 
given). Boats may be hired from 
Messrs. John Oliver, Campbell, Duncan 
M'Kenzie, and Hanning. A beautiful 



ezcnnion may be made by boat to the 
mouth of the riyer ; another bj boat up 
Catlin'B Lake and B. A driving excur- 
sion may be made up the Owaka VaUey. 
A prolonged excursion may be mckde, by 
buggy, horseback, or on foot, 17 m., to 
the mouth of the Taukupu £., returning 
the same day. There is no settled 
habitation at the Taukupu ; but a camp 
may be formed, and it is easy to obtain 
a boat to proceed up the Taukupu B., 
6 m. The excursion may be prolonged 
to the TatUuku £., 6 m. ; and thence 
further to the Cathedral CaveB. 

Survey and settlement are proceeding 
so rapidly in this district, that further 
facilities for tourists will doubtless soon 
be provided. 

74 m. Clinton. Here the train 
usually stops for lunch. Refresh- 
ment room at the station. 

Hotels : RoycU Mail ; Railufay. 

ChuroliMi s Ang. ; Prea, 

A small settlement in the centre 
of a fertile district. There is a large 
fish-nursery here. 

14 m. WaipaM. 

[Here a line branches off to Heriot, 
20 m., through a sporting country, hav- 
ing fallow deer in the ranges and trout 
in the streams.] 

91 m. Pukerau. 

This was the scene of a famous Maori 
battle. Te Bauparaha from his strong- 
hold at Eapiti (see Bte. 15) sent a branch 
expedition down the W. coast of the 
S. Island. After destroying and scatter- 
ing the inhabitants of the greenstone 
country near Hokitika, they crossed 
into the interior by the Haast Pass (see 
Bte. 39), and massacred the natives at 
Hawea. They then came down the 
Clutha for some hundreds of miles, on 
rafts made of the flower-stalks of native 
flax ; and crossing thence to the Ma- 
taura Valley, were met by local forces, 
aided (it is said) by some European 
whsilers frozn Foveaux Straits, and 
utterly destroyed, the few survivors 
being made prisoners. The date of the 
battle was about 1836. 

In this, as in several districts of 
Southland, the traveller will be 
reminded of Scotland by seeing 
peat being cut. 

Shortly before reaching Gore, the 
line crosses the Matauba. Rivbb, 
which was the boundaiy of the 
province of Southland. 

100 m. Gk>re. 

Hotels: BaUuay; Gere; and 

Olmrolies: Ang,; Pres. 

Pop,: 700. 

A flourishing settlement, with 
mills and factories. 

[Here a line branches off across the 
Waimea Plains to Lumsden, and so on 
to ELingston. This is the direct route 
fix>m Dunedin to Lake Wakatipu. 

GoRX TO Lumsden. 37 m. Bly. 7«. pd., 
58. 2(2. ; B. 108. 4d., 68. iid. 

18 m. JUveradale, 

37 m. Lumsden. See Bte. 31.] 

107 m. Mataura. 
Hotels: Mataura ; Bridge, 
ChuxolLes: Ang,; Pres, 

A small town on the Maiavara Rivery 
and one of the oldest settlements 
in the district ; it has not, however, 
progressed as rapidly as some others. 
The paper mills, at which thirty 
hands are regularly employed, are 
worthy of a visit. 

Here the line enters on the Great 
Southland Plain. It was at one time 
mostly covered with bush, as ean 
be seen by the roots of trees which 
are come across in digging, but 
much of it has disappeared. 

116 m. Sdendale. 

A small settlement, founded by 
the N, Z, and Australian Land Co, 
At one time many steam ploughs 
were employed in this district, but 
they were soon found to be a mis- 

[Here a line branches off to "Wynd- 
ham, 4 m., a small town of 400 in- 
habitants. S.ote\ iBay^a, Churches: 
Ang, ; Pres From Wyndham a coach 
goes through a fertile country, prettily 
broken by hills and streams, to Fortroee^ 
25 m., a small settlement at the znouth 
of the Maiaura B, Along the beach 



towards TTolpopa Pointy quantities of 
black sand may be seen, somewhat 
richer in iron than that at Taranaki 
(see Bte. la), and containing gold in 
fairly paying quantities. 

At Waipapa Point, oocurred the 
wreck of the Tararua, on April 39, 1881. 
The ship struck during the night, and 
the captain unfortunately decided that 
the Sflhfest course was to remain on 
board until assistance came, instead of 
landing the passengers and crew by 

boat. With the rising tide, however, 
the heavy seas, which were breaking 
on the reef, destroyed the vessel, and 
1 30 persons were lost.] 

za8 m. Woodlands. A rising 
township, containing meat-freezing 
works and a dairy factory. 

135 m. Mill Rocui. 

139 m. Ikvebcasgill. See Rte. 




(From Dunedin to either Wanaka 
or Wakatipu takes two days.) 

Dunedin to Lawrence. 60 m. RIy. 
I2s. 6d., 83. ^d, ; R. i6s. Sd., lis. id. 

For the first part of the journey to 
(36 m.) Milton, see Rte. 26. 

38 m. Clarkesville. Here the 
line diverges from the main line, 
and goes up the valley of the S. 
branch of the Tokomairibo R. 

41 m. Qlenore. A small mining 
township, once more busy than it 
is now. 

45 m. Manuka. The line then 
follows the valley of the Manuka 
Creek, and passes through undula- 
ting country to 

53 m. Waitahuna (otherwise 
Havelock), another mining township. 

It then winds through the ranges to 

60 m. Iiawrence. Rly, terminus. 

Hotels: Commercial; Bailioay, 

Ohnxeliefli : Ang, ; Pres. ; R, C. ; Wed.; 

Fop.; 1,100. 

The town was originally estab- 
lished in i86a in connexion with 

the rich alluvial gold-fields of Ga^ 
brieVs GvUy. It is still the centre 
of an important field, worked chiefly 
by sluicing; some quartz reefs are 
also being opened. Besides this, 
it is in a good agricultural and 
pastoral district. 

Lawbence to Pembroke. 125 m. 

The road traverses a well-grassed 
pastoral country, with stretches of 
agricultural land. 

13 m. The Clutha R. is crossed 
by a bridge. 

The road then proceeds along or 
near to the bank of the Clutha. On 
the way is passed the famous 
^Island Block,' where extensive 
sluicing operations are going on, 
following the lead of gold deposited 
in an ancient channel of the Clutha. 

For several miles the road tra- 
verses a plain known as ^Moa Flat/ 
from the number of moa bones found 

40 m. Roxburgh (otherwise 
called Teviot), 

Kot«il8 : Comm&rdaZ ; and others. 

CburohMi : Ang, ; Free. ; R. C. ; Wesl. 

3Pop.: 350. 

Here the coach stops for the night. 


Along the base of the Mr, Benqer 
Ranges immediately N. of Roxburgh 
for 5 or 6 m. there are considerable 
orchards and fruit gardens where 
peaches, apricots, and vines bear 
well in the open air. Large quanti- 
ties of fruit are sent to Dunedin. 

The road then follows along the 
Range keeping close to the Clutha 
R. The river is crossed by a hand- 
some suspension bridge just before 

70 m. Alexandra. A mining 

Kotelfli: Criterion; Caledonian, 

ChuroliMi : Free. ; R, C. 

Vop. : 350. 

The road from Alexandra then 
passes through the ^ Dunstan Flat/ 
a level expanse of sandy plain to 
(75 m.) Clyde, which may be de- 
scribed as the gateway into the 
interior lake country. 

[A coach goes £roxn here to Naseby 
and Middlexnarch. isoni. See Rte. 26.] 

The road then follows the course 
of the Clutha through the Dunstan 

88 m. Crom^well. 

Kotelfli: Mounteffs; Junction; Com- 

Churoliefli : Ang, ; Pres. ; R. C, ; Weal, 

Pop. : 500. 

A mining town with both alluvial 
working and quartz reefing in the 
neighbourhood. Brown coal is also 
worked, for local consumption. The 
town is situated at the junction of 
the Kawarau^ the outlet of Lake 
Wakatipu, with the Clutha^ the out- 
let of Wanaka and Hawea. 

[Travellers who do not intend to 
visit Lake Wanaka will proceed to 
Queenstown on Lake Wakatipu. 

Obomweui to Queekstown. 43 m. 

For the first 3 or 4 m. the road 
traverses a beautifully level tract 
of grass country ; then enters the 
KaiDarau Gorge, following the bank 
of the Kat4)arau R, for 30 m., and 
then crosses the river by a fine 
suspension bridge. About 3 m. 
beyond the bridge, the road from 
Pembroke to Queenstown is joined. 
For the rest of the way, see Rte. a8.] 

The road then follows up a beau- 
tiful grass valley of considerable 
width along the banks of the Clutha, 
and passes several mining and other 
settlements. Close by on the 1. is 
the lofty Pisa Range (so called from 
a fanciful resemblance between 
some of the pillar-like rocks and the 
famous JiOaning Tower), and on the 
rt. are the Dunstan Mts, 

125 m. Pembboke. See Rte. a8. 

ROUTE 28. 



This route takes three days' coach- 
ing ; but at least two days' halt 
should be made at Lake Wanaka. 

The HEBKrEAGE to Pukaki. 36 m. 

PuKAKi TO Omabaka. 35 m. See 
Kte. 24. 


TO Pembboke. 71 m. 

The road crosses a level plain, the 
Abxtbibi R. being on the rt., and then 
winds up the valley of the Long Slip 
Creek so gradually that the traveller^ 
will be surprised to find that at 



ao m. Lindis Pass, the altitude of 
3,185 ft. has been reached. 

It then descends the Lindis Valley 
amidst pretty scenery^ not so tree- 
less as that already passed through 

On the way down the valley Morven 
HUl Station is passed, and soon after, 
a bridle track goes to the rt. up a 
long spur, to Qband View ; and then, 
skirting to the 1. of the peak, de- 
scends and rejoins the coach road. 
From Grand View (as its name im- 
plies) the panorama is magnificent. 
From the point at which the coach 
is left to that where it is picked up 
again is 10 to la m., whereas by the 
coach road it is about 30 ; hence, 
good walkers can leave the coach 
and rejoin it at the end of their 

Emerging from the valley the road 
passes over the Lindis Ihwns and 
strikes across some rolling country. 

Tarras Station, the property of 
Messrs. Dalgetty & Co., is passed 
through, and the homestead seen on 
the 1. The road enters the valley 
of the Clutha, and after this is fairly 

63 m. A road to the rt. here leads 
to Haioea FlcU and Lake Hawea. 

The Clutha is crossed by a punt 
just below its junction with iheHawea 
River and immediately afterwards 

(70 m.) Albert Town (otherwise 
NevxasUe) is reached. 

The road is now nearly level to 

(71 m.) Pembroke. 

Hotels : Wanaka (very comfort- 
able) ; Commf^ciaL 

Buggies (15s. single, 30s. double) 
.and horses {'js. 6d.) may be hired at 
the Wanaka Hotel. 

Fop.: 200. 

The surface of Lake Wanaka is 
930 ft. above sea level, whilst its 
bottom is 155 ft. below. It is about 
30 m. long by 3 m. wide ; and has an 
area of 57, 000 acres. Unfortunately, 
hotels on the lake are few ; besides 
the hotel at Pembroke the only 
accommodation houses are at the 

\Neio Zeaiaand,'\ 

head of the lake and at Minaret Bay. 
Tourists taking long excursions in 
other diiections must therefore 
camp out. 

Travellers say that this lake is 
even more beautiful than Wakatipu, 
having a greater variety of outline, 
and the mountain peaks being more 
distinct and less in mass than those 
around Lake Wakatipu. 

It is said that Wanaka, like Hawea 
and Wakatipu, was scooped out by 
glacial action, as the moraine at 
the lower end of each testifies. 


There is a steamer on the lake 
which takes different trips on various 
days, and at other times may be 
hired from Messrs. M^Dougall, of 
Pembroke. The principal water 
excursions are 

(i) To the Head of the Iiake, 
two days ; the night being spent at 
Moffat's accommodation house at 

As the steamer goes along, after 
passing Plantaiwn Island, there is 
seen in front Crescent ikand, with 
Mi. Alta (7,838 ft.) rising above it. 
To the right is the Peninsula^ behind 
which an estuary runs up for about 
5 m., and Mt. Grandview in the dis- 
tance. To the westward aie the 
Harris Range, in which Black peak 
rises to a height of 7,566 ft. ; the 
Btickanan Peaks and CRendhu Bay. 

Passing between Roy*s or Wallace 
Peninsula and Crescent Island, Matuki' 
iitki Bay is seen on the 1., and a more 
extensive view opens up, including 
Manuka Island, the TioinPeaks (5,687 ft. 
and 5,438 ft.), the Miyiarets (7,189 ft.), 
Mt, Albert (7,063 ft.), and the Turret 
Peaks (5,145 ft.), and on the rt. Mt. 
Burke (4.461 ft.), with Mt. Gold to 
the S. of it, Sentinel Peak (5,959 ft.)> 
and the McKerrow range (7,422 ft.). 

(a) To Manuka (sometimes also 
called Pigeon or Weka) Island. A 
lovely island, containing a small 
lake {Rototui) 480 ft. above the level 



of the main lake ; from Craigektchie, 
the rock above the lakelet, the yiew 
is very picturesque. 

(3) To West Wanaka and 
Olendhu Bay. 

This includes a glorious view of 
Mt. Aspiring (9,960 ft.). 

(4) To East Wanaka and Pub- 

Amongst the excursions by land 
should be mentioned 

(i) To Iiake Hawea, a pleasant 
drive of is m. along the Hawea Flats. 

The Clutha B. is crossed by a punt 
at Albert Town, (see above). The sur- 
face of Lake Hawea is 134 ft. higher 
than that of Wanaka ; it is also 
aoo ft. deeper. 

The scenery of the lake is pretty 
but cannot be compared in grandeur 
to that of the other lakes. On the 
range close to the lake ai-e numbers 
of red deer, which have been intro- 
duced from Scotland by the Accli- 
matization Society. Licenses for 
shooting may be obtained at Dune- 
din ; the shooting season is April 
and May. 

(fl) Up the Matukltukl VaUey 
to the foot of Mt. Aspiring. A 
day's excursion on horseback, or for 
some distance by buggy; a guide 
not necessary to experienced travel- 
lers, as the track is level and in an 
open grassy valley all the way. 

The track passes Olmdhu Bay, where 
Mt. Aspiring (9,960 ft.) first comes in 
sight, and then goes up the valley, 
crossing the McUatapu (a tributary of 
the MatukitvM) from which an hour's 
ride leads to CaMle Floats Station ; after 
that numerous streams are crossed 
and waterfalls seen. Whilst pro- 

ceeding up the valley, magnificent 
views of the snowy mountain and 
glaciers of Mt. Aspiring are obtained. 

(3) To CriffeL A drive of about 
10 m. from Pembroke ; near the 
summit is a mining township. 

Hotel: Maidmen's. 

The view is very extensive and 
somewhat resembles that from Grand 

Pembroke to Queekstown. 4a m. 
coach. The scenery is not especially 
striking at first. A glimpse of the 
summit of Mt. Airing is seen look- 
ing backwards just before entering 
the Cardrona Valley. The district has 
sufiered severely from the rabbit 

The road proceeds up the valley of 
the Cardrona R. to 

(16 m.) Cardrona. Inn. A 
small mining township once more 
prosperous than it is at present. 

The traveller then continues up 
the valley until he reaches the saddle 
of the Crown Range, the watershed of 
the Clutha R, The view here is very 
fine. Lake Wakatipu, Lake HayeSf the 
Kaioarau R.j Ben Lomondj the Remark' 
abkSf and other mountains may be 

The road then descends through 
an agricultural district which though 
at an altitude of 2,000 ft. above the 
sea, produces splendid crops of wheat 
and oats on the Crown Terrace. 

29 m. Here the road to Cromwell 
branches off to the 1. See Bte. 27. 

33 m. Arrowtown. 

For the rest of the way see Rte. 31. 

42 m. Queenstowk. See Rte. 31. 



ROUTE 29. 


235 m. 

This is only a Boute for strong and 
adventurous travellers. Though very 
beautiful and interesting, it cannot yet 
be recommended for ordinary tourists. 
It takes at least five days. From Hold- 
tika to Big Wanganui R. {go m.) a buggy 
can be taken ; after that the road is for 
the most part a bridle track, and fairly i 
passable, having been formed and ' 
metalled where necessary. Most of the 
Bte. is through a sparsely-fettled forest 
country, -with occasional stretches along 
ocean ai^ river beaches, affording a 
great variety of scenery, from the 
majestic peaks of the Mt. Cook Bange 
to the softest sylvan, lake, and marine 
views. The forest is always beautifiil,. 
but especially during spring and sum- 
mer, when the flowers are in blossom. 
The many rivers to be traversed, and 
the beaches and bluffs to be negotiated 
lend a sufficient spice of adventure to 
the trip to make it attractive. At all 
the large rivers down the coast the 
Westland County Council have placed 
ferry-men and boats for the convenience 
of travellers when the rivers are un- 
fordable, which is most frequently in 
summer, the rivers being snow-fed. 
Wooden signals for calling the ferry- 
men are supposed to be kept in order 
at each, but the usual method is to 
* cooey.' The fares vary from i«. 6d, to 
30. for man and horse. An experienced 
traveller may frequently, even in sum- 
mer, go right through without employ- 
ing a boat, but strangers should never 
attempt this. Autumn and winter are, 
however, the best times for travelling, 
not only on account of the rivers, but 
Cklso for the mountain scenery. On 
several of the ocean beaches, bluffs 
have to be traversed, in some parts of 
which narrow tracks have been benched 
out of the hillside to aUow of passing at 
high-water. The state of these bluffs 
frequently alters in a single tide from 
smooth sand, round which a buggy can 
h^ driven, to^ bare rough rocks and 

boulders, over which an Inexperienced 
horse scrambles with difficulty even 
when led. 

An old traveller, although a stranger, 
can, with the advice received from 
ferrymen and others, easily go from 
Hokitika to the moutlx of the Hatut R. 
without a gfuide; but from thence to 
Lake Wanaka, as well as for any of the 
side excursions, agfuide should be taken. 
From Rota to Gillupiea there is a weekly 
horse mail carried by Mr. John Adam- 
son of Boss; and from Gillespies to 
Haast a fortnightly one, carried by 
Mr. Daniel Koiti of Gillespies. Tra- 
vellers can easily arrange to go under 
the escort of the mailmen, from whom 
also horses can generally be hired, if 
wished, along their respective routes. 
It is, however, better to hire horses at 
Hokitika and return them by the mail- 
men. From Haast to Wanaka there is 
no regular communication, and no 
inhabited halfway house ; the Gk>vem- 
ment has built two iron huts for this 
purpose, where travellers can camp for 
the night, one on each side of the Haast 
crossings: near the Burke junction, 
below ^e Clarke Bluff; but, as these 
contain neither beds nor food, every- 
thing must be taken from Mr. Cron's, 
at the mouth of the Haast, who can 
also generally supply horses and a g^de 
for UuB part of the journey. 

From many of the river crossings and 
beaches are seen magnificent views of 
the peaks in the main range of the 
Southern Alps, which are never more 
than 30 zn. distant, and (like many 
nearer ones) are perpetually snow-clad. 

All the ferry-houses are also accom- 
modation ones. 

From Hokitika the main S. road 
runs nearly parallel to, and a short 
distance from, the Hokitika R, 

3 m. Kanieri. A small township. 
Here the river is crossed by a long 
w^ooden bridge. 

K2 ^ 



The road then follows up the 1. 
bank of the river through the little 
mining village of Woodstock, and then 
turns off to the S.W. and passes 
through another village named 

9 m. Frosty Creek is crossed by 
a bridge. 

12 m. 0gilvie*8 Accommodatwn House, 
From here the beautiful Mahinapua 
lake (see Rte. 19) is only some a m. 
distant by road and boat. 

ao m. Hoss. 

Hotels: Empire; Junction; Club; 
and others. 

Churoliefli : Ang, ; Pres, ; R. C; West, 

Pop.: 800. 

A pretty and clean-looking mining 
township. The famous * Ross United' 
*Mt. D'Or/ and < Prince of Wales* 
sluicing gold-mining claims are 
situated around here. 

aa m. Donoghu€*3 School and a few 
scattered cottages. 

. a4 m. Mikonui R, Ford and Ferry 
kept by Chas. Holly : house on S.W. 

30 m. Mr. Samuel Ferguson's home- 

35 m. Lit&e Waitaka, or Gordon R. 
There is no ferry ; the ford is good 
at ordinary times, though a little 
rough with stones ; over it is a wire 
suspension bridge. 

[The Mt. Bongitoto silver mine is 
some 6 m. up this valley ; it is reached 
by a metalled track up the 1. bank, re- 
crossing to the rt. about 5 m. up. There 
is some very fine gorge scenery up this 
river. The mine has not been developed 
to any extent, but excellent prospects 
have been obtained.] 

34 m. The road here enters, and 
for about i m. follows the bed of the 
Waitaka R.j which is now running 
in a number of streams, generally 
easily crossed when not in flood. 
There is what is termed a horse 
ferry, but no boat on this river ; the 
house, which is on the 1. bank, is 
kept by Alexander Urquhart. 

38 m. DUiffer^s Creek. A few gold 
miners are at work here. There is 
a good ford, and a wire foot-bridge. 

39} m. to 41 m. The road skirts 
the beautiful lake lanthe, from the 
beach of which a lovely view of the 
lake itself, the surrounding hill a, 
and Mt. Adams in the distance, is 

41 J m. A cold sulphur spring in 
the creek on the 1. side of the road. 

45 m. Evans* Creekj generally dry or 
nearly so ; rough stony crossing. On 
the S. side Mr. Karnbach has a hut 
and considerable clearing. 

50 m. Big Wanganui R. Ferry-house 
and boat on the S.W. side, kept by 
Mr. Peter Hende. A strong and 
rapid river, generally fordable in 
winter, and to the experienced tra- 
veller in summer also ; but strangers 
should always take the ferry, as the 
water is discoloured and some parts 
of the ford are rough. There are 
several hot sulphur springs up the 

About this point the dray road 
turns into a mere bridle track. 

53 m. Wafiganui schoolhouse. 

54 m. Here a road branches off to 
the rt., through some good agri- 
cultural land. 

56 m. Little Wanganui R., running 
in several streams, with good cross- 
ings, easily forded in ordinary 
weather. There is no ferry. Mr. 
Thomas Ferguson's homestead and 
clearings are on the rt. bank. 

57 m. The road begins to ascend 
the slope of Mt. Hercules (the only rise 
of any consequence from HokitikaJ. 
The saddle is reached in i m. 

59 m. (Down the opposite slope, 
below the old hut.) A good binl's 
eye of the Rotokino and Wataroa flats 
is obtained here. Lake Rotokino ap- 
pears below in the rt. comer, the 
Little Man R, or l)ry Creek (as it Is 
more often called) winding about 
in the centre with an occasional 
glimpse of the Wataroa R., and sur- 




rounding hills in the distance, 
whilst a few settlers' houses dimly 
visible give animation to the scene. 

60 m. The flat is again reached. 
The road then runs through a some- 
what swampy but good flat, mostly 

64 m. J>ry Creek. On the rt. bank 
Mr. Thomas Ferguson has an out- 
station. As the name denotes, this 
stream is generally dry where the 
road crosses, the water filtering 
through under the gravel. 

67 m. Near this two rough little 
streams, Parker'' s and Rough Creek, not 
containing much water at ordinary 
times, but bad in floods, are crossed. 

69 m. Wataroa R. Ferry-house 
and boat on S.W. side, kept by Mr. 
Alexander Gunn. A strong and 
rapid river with opaque water and 
rough bottom ; strangers should call 
the ferryman, although regular 
travellers can usually ford it in 
winter and sometimes in summer. 

[The Seeley Pass through the Southern 
Alps to Canterbury is some aoin. up this 
river. It is said to be an easy pass; 
altitude 5,800 ft.] 

71 J m. The road to Wataroa Flat 
set&ement turns up to the rt. From 
here the road is a good dray one to 
Okarito and Mapourika township. 

7a m. Waitangi schoolhouse, and 
a few settlers' cottages ; no Accom- 
modation House. 

73 m. Waitangi Taona R. A clear 
stream, with a good ford at ordinary 

77 m. Lake Wahapo, a pretty sheet 
of water, surrounded by hills on 
three sides is touched and skirted 
for ij m. 

79 m. Forks of Okarito R., and 
junction of Manapourika road. 
Small Accommodation House. 

[From this x>oint the road to Mana- 
pourika Lake and township, and to the 
Francis Joseph Glacier, turns off. It is 
a trip well worth making, for the lake, 
fountain and glacier scenery. It is 

best to make Okarito the headquarters. 
A horse can be taken almost to the foot 
of the glacier, which is only 705 ft. 
above the sea level ; for the convenience 
of foot travellers, several wire bridges 
have been erected over the Totara and 
Waiho rivers on the way up. From 
Okarito Forks the distance to Mapourika 
village, and the lower end of the lake is 
3^ m. ; to Patrick and Green's Sta. on 
the Totara R. 10 m. ; and to the foot of 
the glacier, 15 m. If the start is made 
from Okarito township, 4 m. must be 
added to these distances. A few gold- 
miners are at work about 2 m. below 
the glacier. To avoid retracing his 
steps, the tourist can, when returning, 
ride straight down the Waiho R. and 
flat to the sea, and thence along the 
coast to Okarito, the distance being 
much the same either way.] 

83 m. Okarito. 

Hotels: Patrick's; Bridgeman's, 

A small town, once more flourish- 
ing than it is now. It is distant 
from Hokitika 55 m. by sea. A 
small steamer makes quarterly trips 
to this and some places further S. 
with goods, &c., for the settlers and 
miners. The Okarito lake or lagoon 
is a sheet of water some 6 m. long 
with an average width of more than 
I m. ; it is a favourite resort of 
wild ducks and black swans all the 
year round. The swans' eggs t, which 
are equal to four hens' eggs) at cer- 
tain seasons form a considerable 
item in the diet of the inhabitants : 
one person may often gather 100 in 
a day. The sea frequently throws 
a shingle- bank up across the entrance 
to the harbour, which all kinds of 
traffic can pass over dryshod ; it re- 
mains until the water rises up to 
near the houses, when all hands 
collect and cut a channel ; a very 
small opening suffices, as the accu- 
mulated water in the lagoon soon 
sweeps it out, and a good entrance 
is again formed. 

From Okarito southwards to 
Bruce Bay the road follows off and 
on the ocean beaches. On leaving 
Okarito when the tide suits and the 
bluff is good, the traveller keeps 



round the beach; when otherwise 
he takes the track taming off to the 
1« between the Court and the har- 
bourmaster's house, which leads 
over the Bluff and (though steep in 
places) is a fairly passable bridle- 
road, striking the beach again near 
the 3 m. creek and lagoon, on the 
opposite side of which is the Ferry- 
house, kept by Mr. Graham. Occa- 
sionally, and for considerable 
periods, the mouth of the creek and 
lagoon is blocked by a bar of shingle 
thrown up by the sea, across which 
it is safe to ride ; the dangerous 
time being for a day or so after it 
first breaks out, when many quick- 
sands form ; after it has run for a 
while the bottom becomes firm. 
Strangers should always take the 
boat ; many lives have been lost in 
this stream. In the early days, 
good gold was obtained on this 3 m. 
beach ; some years ago a suction 
gold dredge was tried, but proved a 
failure ; the machinery has lain 
there ever since. 

87 J m, Blanchard*8, or Five mile Bluff, 
The traveller keeps round the beach 
or goes over by the track, according 
to the state of the tide and bluff. 

88 m. The Five Mile Beach gold 
diggings, once rich and famous, with 
a flourishing township, containing 
hotels, dancing houses, and stores, 
now represented by some half 
dozen huts scattered along the 
beach where a few miners still eke 
out a living. Another suction dredge 
was erected here, but proved a 

90} m. Wai?to Bluffy on which is 
the signal for calling the feri*yman. 

9i| m. WaihoK. Ferry-house on 
the S.W. side, kept by Mr. Wallace. 
The river runs swift and strong, but 
has a good bottom, although the 
crossing alters with each flood. The 
best fords are above the bluff, round 
which the County Council has cut a 
track ; the flats down to the sea are 
full of quicksands. Strangers should 
always call the ferryman. 

On a fine day a grand view of the 
main range, and the Francis Joseph 
Glacier are obtained from the river- 

93 m. Omoeroa Bluff. This is rarely 
passable on the beach, but there is 
a track over the back ; and the 
traveller, having crossed it, can 
either turn on to the beach again 
at once, or keep on along the track 
past Mr. Gault's house, and across 
the Omoeroa stream (94 m.) before 
turning down. 

96 m. Waikukupa stream and ac- 
commodation house kept by Mr. E. 

103 m. OcUway Bluff; generally a 
rough and rocky one to get round, 
although at times the rocks are so 
sanded up that one can ride round 
with ease, following the beach all 
the way to Gillespie's ; when the 
extreme point {Gillespie's Bluff) is 
bad, there is a track turning off up 
the side of the hill about i^ m. on 
the N.E. side, which leads through 
a short tunnel cut in the ridge and 
joins what is known as the * far 
downers ' track. After crossing the 
liill through the bush, this track re- 
turns to the beach just beyond 
Gillespie's point, crossing the Wai' 
kohai stream by a bridge (106 m.), 
and following along the beach to 

108 m. Qillespie's. 
Hotels: Ryan's; M^Bnde's, 
Churcli: R, C. 

X long straggling village built on 
the sandhills fronting the beach, 
where the schooner which brought 
round the dredging plant still lies 
embedded in shingle. Here also 
a suction gold-mining dredge vras 
tried and proved a failure. 

From Gillespie's a magnificent 
view* is obtained of Mis. Cook 
(ia,349 ft.), Tasman (11,475 ft.), and 
La Perouse (ro,359 ft.). Excursions 
can be made to the Fox and BcUfour 
OlacierSj the distance to the former 
being about 15 m., and to the latter 
about 20 m. A horse can be taken 

EOUTE 29. — cook's lagoon — PARINGA EIVER. 135 

to within i m. of the Fox, but not 
nearer than about lo m. of the 
Balfour, to a point where there are 
some miners' huts, and a wire foot- 
bridge over the Cook R. To both 
a guide is necessary, and can be 
procured at Gillespie's. Part of the 
return journey may be varied by 
coming down Myers* Tracks which 
follows the rt. bank of the Lotver 
Cook R. to the sea, some 9 m.' be- 
low the meeting of the Cook and 
Fox rivers. 

109! m. A very short and easy 

110} m. Cook*8 tagoon is crossed 
in front of the house of the ferry- 
man, Mr. Dan. Koiti. The track 
then proceeds along the river-bed 
for about ^ m., and crosses over 
Cook^s R. (which is usually in two 
branches) and down the shingle bed 
to the point of Cook's Bluff. Strangers 
should never attempt to cross the 
river without the ferryman, as there 
are occasionally quicksands. Bound 
Cook's Bluff a narrow track for 
horses has been cut for more than 
J m. just above the rocks. 

1 13 1 m. The Oinetamafsa or 
SaUioater Creek (often dangerous) is 
crossed. Strangers coming from 
the N. should take the Cook's R. 
ferryman on with thetia ; and those 
from the S. the Karangarua ferry- 
man, to put them across ; it is part 
of their duty under agreement with 
the County Council. 

1 15 J m. Ferry-house at Karari' 
garua R., kept by James Ferguson. 
Sometimes this river can be forded 
on the beach ; but except in times 
of flood there is always a good ford 
straight over from the house. The 
track skirts down the edge of the 
river, and goes out at Hunt's Beach. 
(117^ m.). A basket signal, to be 
erected by any one coming from 
the S. and requiring the ferryman, 
stands on a sandhill on the S. side 
of the mouth of the river ; as the 
distance from the house is consider- 
able, time is saved by raising a 

smoke at the foot of the signal. 
There is plenty of dry wood about. 
Hunt's Beach is usually hard and 
sandy. A few miners are at work 
near Hunt's Creek, some of whom have 
been there for twenty-five years. At 
times traffic goes along the beach 
and round * Jacob's Bluff* on *Ma- 
kawiho point ' to Bruce Bay ; but this 
is not generally good, and as a rule 
the best way is by the Manakaiau i?., 
turning off the beach near M'Culloch's 
Hut 1 I2T m.), crossing that river at 
a ford (1^2 m.)* 

193 m^ MaJkattiho or iTacd)*3 R. is 
forded. This is a beautiful stream. 
The track then turns down the 1. 
bank of the river. 

195 m. A small native village is 
passed through. 

126 m. The track goes out on 
the beach near the school, which is 
a mixed one for both Natives and 

127 ih. Hitchie's Accommodation 
House and store. 

The landing and goods shed at Bruce 
Bay are nearly 2 m. further on, and out 
of the line of the southern traffic. 

Shortly after leaving Ritchie's, 
the track leaves the beach and 
follows generally the course of the 
Mahitahi R. 

132 J m. The Mahitahi R is crossed. 
There are a few settlers' houses on 
the rt. bank. 

After leaving the river, the track 
passes through some low swampy 

139 m. The Paringa R. is crossed. 
The ford is good ; there is no ferry. 
Messrs. Power have their homestead 
on the 1. bank, and Mr. O'Rourke 
his (which is also the Post Office), 
about i^m. further on. There is no 
regular accommodation house, but 
travellers can generally get put up 
at either place. 

144 m. The track passes close to 
the end of the pretty Paringa Lake, 


149} m. A metalled bridle road 
here turns off to the rt., ftnd leads 
to Lake Moeraki (5} m.) and the Ocean 
Beach (9 m.). 

151 m. The Moeraki or Blue R. is 
crossed. The ford is fair ; there is 
no boat, but a good wire foot-bridge 

The road then begins to ascend 
by a winding route. 

154 m. The Wakapohai Saddle is 

The road then in descending con- 
tinues to twist in and out of one 
gully after another, the only sign of 
habitation being Adair's Iron Hut on 
the 1., which is seldom occupied. 
From many of the outward bends, 
however, splendid views are obtained 
of the grass land on the Okuru-Mata' 
kitaki Range above and to the 1., and 
also of the flat country extending 
from Ship Creek to the Haast R.y and 
of the Open Bay Islands 20 m. away. 
On the flat are seen a chain of small 
lakes known as TauwherikiH or the 
Maori Lakes. Ship Oreek takes its 
name from the remains of an old 
ship which lies some 40 or 50 yds. 
up from highwater mark; she has 
been diagonally planked and fast- 
ened together with hardwood screw 

167 ^ m. The flat is again reached. 

170 m. The Waita R. is crossed 
for the first time. 

172} m. The Waita R is again 
crossed ; the ford is good. Messrs. 
Robinson and Friend have their 
homestead at the elbow of the river. 

173 m. The track crosses the 
Waita Laooon^ and goes out on to 
the Ocean Beach ; there is a wire rope 
and cage over the lagoon for foot 
passengers, and a good hard ford on 
either side of the cage line, although 
the water is sometimes over the 
horse's back when the mouth of 
the lagoon is blocked, or the tide 
is high. 

173} m. Two tall TotarapostSy evi- 
dently the remains of an old Maori 
store, stand a little back from the 
beach, and have doubtless at one 

time been surrounded by a native 

176} m. Here the traveller leaves 
the beach and enters on a bush 
track known as the gluepot, which 
extends to 

178} m. The Haast Riveb^ which 
is usually ford able in winter when 
the tide is out ; but no stranger 
should attempt it without the ferry- 
man who lives on the S. side. Mr. 
Adam Cron keeps it and also the 
accommodation house (179 m.). 

The SS. Waipara occasionally visits 
the Haast, but more often lands supplies 
at the Okuru £., about 8 m. down the 
coast, whence they are sent on pack 
horses. On the Okuru and TumbuU 
rivers are a number of settlers, also at 
Waitoto, 16 m. from the Haast, and at 
the Aravxxta £., 20 m. ; while at Jack- 
son's Bay, 34 m., is a very good roadstead 
harbour. This may be said to be the 
ultima Thnle of settlement in S. West- 
land, although there is another station 
on Casca>de i?., and there are a few 
miners at Big Bay. Jackson's Bay 
landing is 203 m. by land, and 140 m. by 
sea, from Hokitika. 

Leaving Oron's, the track follows 
generally the direction of the Haast 
R., although for a few miles it is 
some distance back from it, in the 

186 m. The Big Eluff is rounded. 
The track then comes out on the 
river-bed, which (except at the 
different bluffs, where it goes inland 
for a few chains, and crosses on zig- 
zag tracks) it follows nearly all the 
way up to and past the Clarke Bluff. 

189 m. The Thomas Bluff. 

193 m. Halfway ELvff. 

\ m. further on is Oap Creek, which 
is only some 3 m. in length ; at the end 
there are some little grassy flats about 
^ m. wide ; these again being surrounded 
by a i m. fringe of bush, beyond which 
rise on three sides vertical clifGs, some 
3,000 to 4,(xx) ft. high, while above them 
again and on either hand stand the 
snow-clad peaks, Victor C6,3i9 ft.) and 
Nerger (6,21 r ft.). This wonderful place 
is easily accessible on foot, though there 
is no out track. 



195} na. Demon Creek ; up which 
are Demon Quick, Imp Grotto, and the 
banning of Parapet CliffSj which run 
parallel to the river, but a little 
distance in. 

198 m. Roaring BUfy Creek comes 
brawling down on the opposite side 
of the Haast R. 

202} m. Ni33en*s Bluff is crossed. 

204 m. An iron hut placed here 
by the Government as a halfway- 
stage and a shelter for any travellers 
caught by floods and unable to ford 
the river above. 

206 m. The Clarke Bluff, opposite 
the. junction of the Garke and LandS' 
borough rivers with the Haast. The 
track has been formed to each side, 
but not round this bluflF; conse- 
quently it is necessary to cross and 
re-cross the Haast, which runs in 
against the Bluff. Mr. ^ewart of 
Wanaka has an outstation some 2 m. 
up, on the 1. bank of the Lands- 
borough ; it is visible from the track, 
but seldom inhabited. 

aioj m. The traveller crosses to 
the rt. bank of the Haast. The ford 
is good. 

211 m. Another iron hut placed 
here by the Government as a shelter 
in times of flood for travellers from 
the Wanaka side who may be unable 
to ford the river. Nearly opposite, 
but a few chains below this hut, the 
Burke R. flows into the Haast through 
a wonderful gorge or caflon which is 
only a short distance above the junc- 
tion. The water comes rushing and 
boiling through a narrow opening 
about 12 ft. wide, with precipitous 
cliffs rising on each side to a height 
of 400 or 500 ft. The water of the 
Burke is beautifully clear and trans- 
parent, and forms a contrast to 
that of the Haast, which in summer 
time is of the usual milky colour of 
all glacial rivers, although in winter 
quite clear, with beautiful ultra- 
marine depths showing here and 
there. In the Burke just above the 
junction where the water is still and 
deep, thousands of grayling may be 

On leaving the hut, the track 
skirts round a rocky siding parallel 
to the Haast. 

213m. The track crosses the WiUs R. 
just above its junction with the Haast 
by a neat and substantial bridge ; 
and then continues up the gorge to 
DarCs Ford, where it again crosses to 
the 1. bank ; and from this point it 
continues to cross and recross the 
Upper Haast at intervals until near 
the Pass. 

215 m. Pepson's or Tin Hut, and 
Mule Flat (so named from an explorer 
named Pyke having had to leave his 
mules here). 

216 m. Pyke's Creek, at the head of 
which, in full view from the track 
is the Brewster or David CRacier, the 
colours of which are beautiful. Mt. 
Brewster is 8,265 ft. high. 

219 m. Haast Fa438Setddle. Alt. 
1,716 ft. There is seldom much snow 
on this Pass. From this point to 
the Fish R, the road has been badly 
laid out, having many steep and 
apparently unnecessary ups and 

221 m. The Fish R, is crossed above 
it« junction with the Makarora, which 
here turns off to the E. through a 
rocky gorge. 

222 m. The Maikarora R, is crossed 
at Kiwi Flat. 

223 } m . The track crosses Cameron ^s 
Creek and goes out on an open grassy 
flat of the same name. This, like 
many parts of the Haast district, 
is much infested with rabbits. 

230 m. Makarora Post Office, 
and a few settlers' houses are passed ; 
and on the opposite side, backed by 
high hills, is seen Mr. W. G. Stewart's 

235 m. Head o/Lake Wanaka, into 
which the Makarora B discharges 
itself. Accommodation House, Mo ff&Vs, 

The road then continues down the 
eastern side of the lake ; but travel- 
lers will probably prefer to go by 
steamer. See Bte. 28. 


ROtTTE 30. 



Roielg : Orescent ; Club ; tAMon ; 
and otliers. 

Club : InvercargiU (non-residential). 

Churclies : Ang. ; Pres. ; R. C, ; 
Wesl. ; and others. 

Pop. : (including suburbs) 9,iooo. 

Conveyances : Trams run from the 
town to Waikiwi, a m. Cab fares : is. 
per mile. Double fares after 11 p.m. 

The district now called Southland 
was inspected as early as 1841, but 
described by the surveyor as 'a mere 
bog, utterly luifit for habitation.' 
Settlement, however, commenced in 
1857, the settlers mostly coming from 
Dunedin. The town was called after 
Mr. Cargill, at that time Superintendent 
of the Province of Otag^. 

In 1861 they separated from Otago 
and formed the Province of Southland, 
but the scheme was not a financial 
success, and in 1870 they were reunited. 
Invercargill became a municipality in 

The borough of Invercargill con- 
tains 1,000 acres, divided into 
blocks by v^ide streets all at right 
angles. It is surrounded by a belt 
or reserve 460 ft. wide. To the N. 
of the borough 200 acres have been 
reserved as a park. 

There is not much at Invercargill 
to detain the tourist. The first 
thing to do is to ascend the Waier 
Tower, 90 ft. high, (entrance free, on 
application,) from which there is an 
extensive view over the town and 
neighbourhood. Far away to the 
N.W. may be seen the lofty Takitimu 
Range (see Rte. 32), to the N.E. the 
Hokonuiy to the S. the Bluff Hillj 900 
ft. high (the entrance to the har- 

bour being at the E. of the hill). To 
the S W. Stewart Mandj and to the 
W. L(mgvx>wi Range. The machinery 
by which water is supplied to the 
town may also be examined. The 
supply is unlimited. Many saw-mills 
are at work in the neighbourhood, 
besides the usual industries of brew- 
ing, meat-freezing, cheese-making, 
foundries, factories, &c. 

The Athenaeum contains a good 
library and reading room (open to 
visitors), and a small musexun, 
chiefly of stuffed birds, animals, and 
geological specimens. The shops at 
Invercargill are good. The town 
also possesses a High School for boys 
and girls, a good Ho^[>ital, and other 

The Estuary, at the head of which 
Invercargill is built, is called the 
New R. It was a harbour of some 
importance until the Bly. to the 
Bluff was opened ; but although it 
would be possible to deepen the 
channel so as to admit vessels draw- 
ing ao ft., this is unnecessary as the 
Bluff Harbour supplies all present 


With the exception of Stewart 
Island none of the excursions from 
Invercargill can compare with those 
in other parts of N. Z. ; but persons 
who wish to benefit by the bracing 
climate of Southland may find them 
enjoyable, whilst to the fisherman 
the district affords many attrac- 

(i) To Wallacetown. 4m. coach. 
The coach leaves at 4 p.m. A small 
settlement on the banks of the. if a- 



karewa R. a little above its junction 
with the Oreti. The fish ponds may 
be inspected ; they have been of 
much use in the past, many ot the 
lakes and rivers in the district hav- 
ing been stocked from them ; but at 
present they are not so well cared 
for as those at Clinton. 

(a) To MokotucL 13 m. Rly. 
Q8. ^.y IS. lod. ; B. 38. 8d.f 2S. ^d 
The line runs through the Seaward 
Bushy and iis interesting to those who 
wish to get an idea of the impor- 
tance of the timber trade of the 

(3) To The Bluff. 17 m. Bly. 3*^ 
a«. ; B. 38. 6d.y as. 6d, Nearly all 
visitors to Invercargill will have 
arrived by the Bluff, or will leave 
by it. The journey is bleak and 
unattractive. For some distance 
the Estuary is seen on the rt. 

6 m. Woodend. 

la m. Greenhill. The Bluff har- 
bour is here seen on the 1. 

17 m. Campbellto^^m, the ter'- 
minus (for the Bluff Harbour). 

Hotels : Eagle ; CMden Age. 

Churoh : Methodist. 

Pop.: 500. 

Important chiefly for its shipping, 
meat-freezing works, and splendid 
oyster fisheries. Those who enjoy 
climbing will find a fine yiew from 
the top of the hill. The Blnff 
Karbonr is safe from all winds, and 
has no bar. It is the southern- 
most port of the South Island 
of N. Z., the last at which vessels 
touch on leaving, and the first 
they make on arrival from Hobart. 
Of the islands in the straits, the 
most interesting is Ruapuke, which 
once contained a large Maori popu- 
lation, and was the scene of the 
labours of the late Bev. Mr. Wohlers, 
a devoted German missionary. The 
island produces good granite. 

(4) To Orepuki and Nightcaps. 
Travellers who have not seen large 

gold-fields or coal mines in other 
districts, will find this an interest- 
ifig toul". 

ImrEBCABOiLL TO Orepvki. 43 m. 
Bly. 99., 6s. ; B. las., 8s. 

8 m. Makarewa. 

The line then crosses the Oreti and 
passes over An extensive plain 
watered by the Waimatuku R. 

ao m. Thombury (Befreshment 
room at station). Sotol. 

Chnrch: Ang, 

A small market town. 

[From Thombury a line branches off 
to Nightcaps. 

TaOSlTBUBT TO l)'lOHTCAF8. 3$ m. $8. $d.y 

39. 6d.; B. 7«., 4s. Sd. 

The line for some time follows up the 
fertile valley of Aparima Rt 

3 m. HayleU$. Here the Aparima B. 
is crossed by a long bridge. 

7 m. Fairfax. A small settlement, 
with a dairy fiEM^tory. 

ti m. Otautau. 

Hotels: Otautau; Commercial. 

A day's excursion may be made from 
here to the beautifol limestone caves 
at Waiau. Horses, guides, and lights 
may be obtained at Otautau. The road 
(18 m.) is good, and passes through the 
beautiful estate of Merivale. The 
entrance to the caves involves some 
rough crawling and climbing. Some 
of the passages are nearly a mile long. 

Adventurous travellers may take a 
delightful ride from the caves up the 
Waiau over Black Mt.^ crossing the 
Mararoa B. (which is nearly always 
fordable, except during floods) to Lake 
Manapouri (see Bte. 33), a distance of 
about 38 m. There is a beaten track 
up the 1. bank of the Waiau. 

The line then leaves the river and 
passes through open country, in which 
much natural terracing will be ob- 

25 m. Xightcaps. Hotel. 

A large amount — estim.ated at 
100,000,000 tons— of brown coal exists 
in this neighbourhood. It has a good 
local demand.] 



26 m. Biverton. 

Kotals : Aparima ; Commercial; and 

ClinrcliMi : Ang, ; Pres, ; Weal, 

Pop. ; 1,000. 

There is also a small Maori settle- 
ment. A prettily situated little town 
on the estuary of the Aparima R, in 
which there is excellent boating and 

The line then passes up the estuary. 

29 m. Longtoood, 

33 m. Colac. KoMl : Railway. 

The Bay, which is situated about 
a mile from the station, contains 
a Native settlement and excellent 
fishing ; mullets, flounders, and red 
cod can be obtained. 

[A walk of 6 m. along a good road 
leads from Oolac to Round Hill, a min- 
ing settlement with large sluicing 

At the township of Com^onanumber 
of Chinese miners reside. 

Hotel : Hammer^ 8. 

The bush scenery is pretty, but 
there are no extensive views. The 
traveller can walk on thence to 
Orepuki, 6 m.] 

The line then runs through bush, 
passing the small settlements of 
Kuahine and Pahia Flat. 

43 m. Orepuki. Hotel. 

A small town on the sea-coast, 
from which there is a good view of 
the Solander Group. 

(5) To Ijakes Poteriteri, Hau- 
roto and Monowai. These lakes 
are still too inaccessible to be 
reckoned within ordinary tourist 
routes. Travellers who wish to visit 
them must camp out. Enquiries and 
preparations may be made at Inver- 

(6) To Ifake Wakatipu. See 
Rte. 31. 

(7) To Ijakes Te Anau and Ma- 
napouri. See Rte. 32. 

(8) To Stewart Island. An in- 
teresting and delightful excursion 
for good sailors who do not object to 
somewhat primitive accommodation. 
The sea fishing in the many bays of 
the island is splendid. The bush 
scenery is lovely, the ferns and 
shrubs in the district facing Foveaux 
Straits resembling those of districts 
much farther N, ; from which it 
may be gathered that the climate 
though rough is not severe. It is 
most healthy. The Island was seen 
by Capt. Cook in 1770, but he sup- 
posed it to be part of the S. 
Island. It was discovered to be a 
separate Island by the infamous 
Stewart (see Rte. 22) in 1808, and 
called after him. It was at one time 
o£ficlally called * New Leinster.' (It 
is much to be regretted that the 
native mxciQ—Rakiura — was not 
preserved.) It is over 40 miles 
long by 25 broad, and contains an 
area of about 1,300 square miles. 
The highest mountain is Mt. Anglem 
(native name Hananui^, 3,200 ft. 
high. There are several fine har- 
bours. It contains much valuable 
timber ; saw-mills are now at work. 
Gold and tin have been found, but 
are not now worked. The oyster 
beds are celebrated. There are 
a few sheep farms on the island. 

A small steamer leaves the Bluff 
once a week for HoUfMoon Bay. Dis- 
tance, 24 m. Time about 3 hours. 
Return ticket, 78. 6d, It is also 
possible to hire a sailing boat at 
the Bluff. At Half Moon Bay is 
the settlement of Oban, population 
about 160. Here are several comfort- 
able accommodation houses {Thorn- 
son's, Macrae's, Hairold's, and Scully's 
can be recommended) at which the 
charge is about 25^. a week. No 
spirituous liquors can be obtained 
on the Island. Travellers had better 
stay at Oban, and there hire a cutter 
for excursions by water. The most 
beautiful of these is to Paterson In'et. 
When there a visit may be made to 
the native settleinent and school at 
The Neck. At the head of the inlet is 
Mt, Rakiahua, 2,140 ft. ; the climb is 



sdff, but the view from the Bummit 
we'll repays it. A guide is necessary 
either for this or for Mt. Anglem. 
A pleasant excursion may be made 
by rowing up Freshwater R, for some 
distance, and then walking across 
the Island to Mason Bay. Arrange- 
ments should be previously made to 
stay for the night at a house at 
Mason Bay (there is no regular ac- 
commodation house) ; and the return 
journey may be made the next day. 

P&rt Pegasusy to the S. of the Island, 
is another beautiful inlet with some 
fine waterfalls. The district is un- 
inhabited. There are many bush 
tracks through the Island available 
for horsemen or pedestrians. 

The Islands on the S.W. coast of 
Stewart Island are breeding places 
for the mutton birds, the young of 
ivhich is a favourite food of the 
Maoris. These Islands have never 
been acquired from the Natives, and 
are visited by them annually in 
March by sailing boats starting from 
Biverton and the Bluff. They take 
and preserve the birds on the Islands 
and send them thence in large num- 
bers for sale in N. Z. Permission to 
accompany the expedition is readily 

(9) To the uninhabited Islands 
to the South. 

An excursion may occasionally be 
made to several groups of unin- 
habited islands of great interest. 
This is not ordinarily within the 
reach of tourists; and special per- 
mission has to be obtained from the 
Minister of Marine at Wellington. 
The Government steamer Hinemoa 
is despatched at irregular intervals, 
about twice a year, to replenish 
d^pdts maintained for the support 
of shipwrecked i>eople and to bring 
home any castaways who may be 
found. The islands are visited in 
the following order : 

I. The Snares. A small group 
63 m. S. of Stewart Island, crowded 
with penguins, mutton birds, and 

other sea birds ; and containing a 
few species of land birds and plants 
of interest to naturalists, some of 
the plants being endemic. 

a. The Auckland Islands. A 
group, of about the area of an Eng- 
lish county, in lat. 51^, containing 
a great variety of beautiful flowering 
plants, numerous land and sea birds, 
and other objects of interest. It is 
the breeding home of the albatross, 
and the scene of numerous wrecks. 
The group contains several fine har- 

3. Campbell Island, in lat. 53", 
containing similar plants of even 
more robust growth. Here too are 
several. fine harbours. The French 
station for the observation of the 
transit of Venus in 1874 was placed 
here, under M. Bouquet de la Grege ; 
but the day proved unfavourable. 

4. liacquarie Island, in lat. 55°, 
is not within the limits of N. Z., and 
is rarely visited. Here for many 
years a station for procuring sea 
elephant oil, and subsequently the 
oil of the king penguin, was main- 
tained ; but the Government of Tas- 
mania (to which the Island belongs) 
has forbidden the further destruc- 
tion of these creatures. 

5. Antipodes Island. Lat. 51°. 
A small Island, approximately an- 
tipodal to Greenwich, but actually 
about corresponding with Barfleur 
in France. It is the nesting place 
of the albatross and other birds. It 
is also covered with vegetation. 

6. Bounty Islands. A collection 
of rocks crowded with sea birds, and 
once the resort of numerous fur 
seals. They are destitute of vege- 

(For further information concern- 
ing these Islands, see * Chapman on 
the Islands south of N. Z.' in the 
Transactions of the N, Z. Institute for 




Wakatipu, the most easily acces- 
sible of the southern lakes, may be 
reached, (i) from Lake Wanaka by 
coach to Queenstown (see Rte. 28) ; 
(2) from Clyde by coach to Queens- 
town (see Rte. 27) ; (3) from Dunedin 
or Invercargill by rail vjft Lumsden 
to Kingston. For the rail from 
Dunedin to Lumsden see Bte. 26. 
As the upper part of the lake is the 
most beautiful, tourists lose little by 
omitting the paH south of Queens- 
town. But most travellers will have 
to traverse this route, either to or 
from InvercargilL 


Ely. iSs. 9d., I2S. id, ; E. 24s. sd., 
i6s. 1(2. 

8 m. Makarewa Junction* 

[Here a line branches off to Ore- 
puki and Nightcaps. See Ete. 30,] 

The line then passes through an 
extensive agricultural plain. 

19 m. Winton. 

Hotels: Caledonian; Railway; and 

Clmrolies : Ang, ; Pres. ; R. C, 

Pop. : 300. 

The land in this neighbourhood is 
very rich, partly owing to the lime- 
stone. Near Winton are some large 
lime kilns. 

The plain then narrows into a 

37 m. Dipton. 
Hotels: Dipton; Raittoay, 
Clmrclies : Ang, ; Prea. ; R. C. 
Fop. : 300. 

A good place for sportsmen to 
halt, as the trout fishing and duck 

shooting in the neighbourhood are 

The line for some distance is close 
to the Obsti R. 

The valley then opens out again 
into a plain, bounded on the E. by 
the HoKONui Mtb, This plain was 
evidently once the bed of a vast 
glacier ; the natural terracing is very 

50 m. Iiumsden. 
Hotels: Elbow; Railway, 
Clinrolies: Ang.; Pres.; K C, 
Pop.: 300. 

This is the point of departure for 
the Te Anau and Manapouri excur- 
sion. See Rte. 32. 

From Lumsden a line branches 
off across the Waimea plains to Gore. 
See Rte. 26. 

Another line branches off to Moss- 
burn, II m. 

In the neighbourhood of Lumsden 
are several fine estates, both pastoral 
and agricultural ; the principal being 
Cas&e Rock (Hon. Matthew Holmes), 
Waimea Plain (N.Z. Agricultural Co.), 
and Five Rivers (Messrs. Ellis). 

69 m. AUid, Here the if otoura E., 
which divides Southland from Otago, 
is crossed by a bridge. 

79 m. FairiighL 

87 m. Kingston. Hotel : Kingston, 

A small settlement at the lower 
end of Lake WakaHpu, 

The name Wakatipu is a corrup- 
tion of Waka tipoa, ' the canoe of 
the goblin.' 

According to the Maori legend, the 
hollow now filled by the lake was 
caused by a fire, lit by the brave 



warrior Matakauri who thus slew 
the giant Matau. Geologists say it 
was caused by glacial action, the re- 
mains of the moraine being visible 
near Kingston. The upper part of 
the lake was unexplored until i860 ; 
in 1 86a, however, the discovery of 
the Wakatipu gold-fields attracted 
an immense population to the dis- 

The lake lies at an altitude of t,o6o 
ft., but at many places the bottom is 
1,100 ft. below the sea level. The 
water is deep blue and remarkably 
pure. A few ft. below the surface 
its temperature never falls below 
52° or rises above 54°. The only 
visible outlet is by the Katoarau R. 
near Queenstown ; no doubt, how- 
ever, there is a subterranean channel 
from the lower end of the lake. The 
lake is stocked with trout, which 
grow to an enormous size and are 
excellent eating, but will seldom 
take a fly ; fishermen should there- 
fore have recourse to neighbouring 
streams. The length from Kingston 
to the head of the lake is 50 m. ; its 
breadth vanes from i m. to ^ ; the 
surface area is iia square m. 

Kingston to Queenstown. 85 m. 
steamer. Fares, los., ^8. 6d, ; B. 15s., 


The scenery, not remarkable at 
first, steadily improves. I^atural 
terraces, so common a feature in 
N. Z. scenery, will be observed. 
Soon after leaving Kingston, the 
Hector Mts.^ culminating in the 
DouNe Cone of the Bemarka^leSy will 
be seen across the lake. * The Devil's 
Staircase,' which was the only track 
to Queenstown in the early days, is 
seen on the rt. On the 1. is Mt, 
IHck; and soon afterwards a pic- 
turesque inlet known as Halfway Bay 
is seen, the Eyre Peaks backing the 
narrow valley through which the 
Lochy R. rushes to the lake. Next 
comes Bayonet Peak ; the steamer 
then passes Colin's Bay, rounds Mt. 
CecUj and crosses the lake towards 
Ben Lomondf affording a fine view of 
the Middle Arm to the 1. and the Re- 

markctbles to the rt. The approach to 
the little Alpine town of Queenstoim 
is charming. 

^ . 


Hotels : Eichardfa (very good 
M^Bride's; Mountaineer (both mode 
rate). Private lodgings may also 
be obtained. 

Buggies and horses may be hired 
at all the hotels. Single buggies 
about 128. 6d, per day ; double ones 
a5«. ; horses about los. ; guide 7$. 6d, 

Clinrclies: Ang.; Free,; R.C.; Wed. 

*op. : 750. 

Queenstown is a delightful place 
for a prolonged stay, as the climate 
is healthy and bracing, and there 
are many splendid excursions and 
good places for fishing in the neigh- 


The Pq,rk and Esplanade, within 
a few minutes of the town. The 
Waterworks i J m. on One Mile Creek ; 
follow the upper road above the 
Esplanade, till reaching the pad- 
dock, where finger-posts will be 

Dbives and Excubsions. 

(i) To the Summit of Ben IjO- 
mond. An easy ascent of 4,700 ft. 
above the lake. The excursion may 
be made in one day, on foot or par- 
tially on horseback. 

Starting from the terrace above 
Bobertson*s Jetty, a well-defined 
horse-track zigzags to the saddle 
(4,300 ft.) between Ben Lomond and 
Bowen Peak, this having been, in 
early days, the only means of con- 
veying supplies to the Moke Creek 
and Moonlight diggings. The saddle 
may easily be reached in a| hours. 
It is a good spot for luncheon ; 
a small spring will be found to the 
rt. of the track, just before reaching 
the flat of the saddle. 

The ascent of the peak, now close 
by on the 1., presents no serious 
difficulties even to ladies. The 



panorama from the summit is splen- 
did; westward the RicJutrdson Mts. 
extend in continuous succession of 
rugged peaks from 6,000 ft. to 8,000 
ft. high. Adjoining them, to the 
northward, Mta. Aurum and Larkins 
stand out conspicuously. If the day 
is clear, the snow-capped shaft of 
Mt Aspiring (9,960 ft.) may be dis- 
tinguished 40 m. distant, due N. 
At the foot of the peak lie Moke Lake 
and Lake Dispute ; to the east, Lake 
HayeSy the Crovm Terrace (over which 
travelled the first sheep) and, in the 
far distance, the Leaning Rock of the 
Dunstan Mts.,, near Clyde. Turning 
round, Lake Wakatipu is seen wind- 
ing round the base of the serrated 
Remarkahles, and losing itself behind 
Mt, Cecil, in the direction of Kingston. 
Westward, Waiter Peak (5,956 ft.). 
A/ton Peak (5,043 ft.), and Mt TurnbuU 
(6,306 ft.) rise sheer from the oppo- 
site side of the lake, backed by the 
mountain - tops which real* their 
heads in the direction of the Mavora 
Lakes, lying but a short 15 m., as the 
crow flies, from where the spurs of 
Mt. Nicholas meet the waters of Lake 

(2) To Arrowtown via Frank- 
ton, and back by the Shotover 

This trip covers about a6 m,, over 
good roads, and through a diversity 
of lake, mountain, and pastoral 
scenery. Time — driving or riding 
— about 6 hours, including a halt 
for lunch at Arrowtown. 

For 4 m. the road skirts the 
Frankton Arm of the lake, and on 
reaching the hamlet of that name, 
a detour may be made to the FdUSf 
where the waters of Wakatipu find 
their only visible outlet into the 
Kaioarau branch of the Clutha R, 
From here a fine view of the Remark- 
ables is obtained. Near the falls, on 
the 1. is the Lak^s District Hospital ; 
and across the water a pleasing 
station homestead is seen. 

Rejoining the main road, the way 
lies chiefly among well-tilled farms, 
crosses the Shotover Bridge (^dredges 

for gold may be seen above and 
below) and skirts Lake Hayes, a pretty 
sheet of water famed for its monster 
trout. It was named after ' Bully 
Hayes/ a famous buccaneer of the 
South Seas in former times, aj m. 
from the lake, the traveller comes 
suddenly upon the important mining 
centre of 

Arrowtown. Here a halt may 
be made for lunch. 

Hotel: Royai Oak. 

Clmrolies : Ang, ; Pres, ; R. C. ; Wesi, 

Pop. : 450. 

Those interested in gold-mining 
may spend an hour in picking up 
information regarding the MaceUxuin 
reefs, or inspecting the banks of a 
river made famous by the incredible 
quantity of gold won here in former 
years. The scenery of the Arrow 
Gorge is also worthy of a visit. 

From Arrowtown the main road 
goes on to Pembroke (see Rte. a8) 
and Clyde (see Rte. 27). 

Shortly after starting on the re- 
turn journey by the Arthur^ s Point 
Road, the traveller will notice Thurihy 
Domain, famous for its fruit. Just 
before reaching Ar^urs Point Bridge 
will be seen the Skipper's Track — 
which for miles overhangs the 
cliffs of the Shotover River. Arthur's 
Point derives its name from a man 
named Arthur who one morning left 
Queenstown to search for gold, with 
no better implements than a knife 
and a pannikin, and returned in the 
evening with several pounds weight 
of gold. No doubt vast deposits 
exist in the Upper Shotover, but 
they are difiicult to obtain ; di-edg- 
ing in the Lower Shotover, however, 
promises to be very successful. 

The Q<yrge is soon entered, and a 
drive of about 4 m. through its wild 
scenery brings the traveller back to 

(3) To the Phoenix Mine at 
Skippers. About 96 m. on horse- 

Proceeding along the Arrow Rontd 


Ib a northerly direction, the Shotover 
R. is crossed at Arthur^s Point, About 
ijm. farther on, the Aitow Boad 
is left, and the traveller, still mak- 
ing in a northerly direction, crosses 
a low range of hills and enters the 
valley of the Shotover. The road follows 
the valley to the township of Skippers ; 
thence it goes up Skipper's Greek till 
the Quartz Re^s are reached, and fur- 
ther progress is barred by the high 
mountains which close in abruptly 
on either side. In the Shotover 
Valley the road is in some places 
hewn out of the solid rock, hundreds 
of feet above the river. The scenery 
is wild and rugged, and gradually 
gets more impressive as the road 
winds up the narrow gorge of Skip- 
per's Creek. The mine is about 
8 m. beyond the township. The 
mine machinery is worked by elec- 
tricity, the motive power for sup- 
plying which is a waterfall some 
miles distant in another valley. 
After inspecting the mine, the 
traveller returns to the township, 
and stays for the night at the ac- 
commodation house there, proceed- 
ing back to Queenstown the following 

(4) To the Head of the Iiake. 
30 m. steamer. Fare, 11s.; R 153. 

This excursion must on no account 
be omitted. Anthony TroUope says, 
'I do not think that lake scenery 
could be finer than that of the upper 
arm of Lake Wakatipu.' It must 
be admitted, however, that this was 
the only one of the Otago lakes he 
saw ; and, on the other hand, bush 
fires have somewhat marred its 
sylvan beauty since his visit. The 
excursion may be made in one day ; 
but travellers are strongly recom- 
mended, if possible, to stay some 
days at the head of the lake, and 
make farther expeditions thence. 
The first question to decide will be 
-whether to stay at Klnloch or Glen- 
orchy. The answer is that there 
are lovely excursions from both 
places, and travellers having leisure 
should stay at both ; those pressed 

[New Zealand,'] 

for time must choose which excor- 
sions they prefer, and decide ac- 

Starting from Queenstown, Mts. 
Cecilj WcUteTj Afton, and Nicholas, and 
the Von jR., are seen across the lake. 
The steamer then rounds WJiite's 
Point, and the panorama of the Upper 
Arm is seen. To the rt. are the 
Richardson Mis,, culminating in Stom 
Peak; then in the distance Mt, Eams' 
late, with its large glacier ; then 
Mt. Alfred and Mt. Cosmos. Nearer, 
to the L come the HumholdtSf the 
chief of which, ML Bonpland, rises 
sheer above Kinloch. Further L are 
the valley of the Greenstone i?., and 
Tooih Peaks. Passing Long Island, 
Pigeon Island, and Ral>hit Island, Green- 
stone Gorge (which leads to Rere Lake) 
is seen on the 1. Steaming along 
some 6 m. under the slopes of the 
Humboldts — once densely clothed 
with bush, now sadly injured by 
fires — Kinloch is reached. 

30 m. Kinloch. 

Kotel : Glacier (comfortable). 

Horses, 7s. 6d, to 10s. a day ; guides, 
10s. to 158. Boat, free ; boatmen to 
Rere Lake, &c., 8s. each. 


(It is well in all of these to take 
a guide, as mountain mists may 
come on unexpectedly.) 

(i) To the Bryant Glacier. 
Time : one day. 

The glacier lies on Mt Bonpland, 
almost behind the hotel, and may 
be clearly seen from the birch-trees 
studding the flat between the tram 
line and the Bart. The track leads 
right to the ice, whence a fine view 
of Eamslatfl, the glaciers of the Bart 
and the Forbes, and the Richardson 
Mts, may be obtained. 

(a) To Here iLake. 8 m. boat, 
then a m. on foot. Time : one day. 

A calm day should be chosen. 
The boat goes down the lake as far 
as E^n Bay. At the landing-place 



will be seen an old hut and wool- 
shed (now deserted), and the track 
to Here Lake will be found behind 
the latter. Arrived at the top of 
the terrace, the traveller should 
look at the view of Eartuia*o and 
the Richardaon Mta. The path then 
enters the bush, passes an old 
shingle-splitter's camp, goes beneath 
some lofty silver birch trees, and 
out into the open again. The cliflPs 
of Tooth Peak and a pretty cascade 
are seen on the 1. The path then 
re-enters the forest, and in a few 
minutes reaches the lake, which is 
i m. long, of oval form, surrounded 
on three sides by forest, with Bald 
Peak rising above. It is very lovely. 

(3) To Sylvan Iiake, Paradise, 
and the Valley of the Dart. 14 m. 
Guide and horse, 15& ; extra horseSy 
^s. 6d. each. Time : one day. 

If the traveller intends making 
a stay at Glenorchy as well as at 
Kinloch, this trip may be limited 
to Sylvan Lake, the rest being more 
accessible from Glenorchy. And 
if, whilst at Kinloch, he intends 
making the Boutebum Valley ex- 
cursion (see below), Sylvan Lake may 
be added to it by making a slight 

The trip to Sylvan Lake and back 
is about 24 m. It may be done on 

The track goes through the bush 
for a mile or two, and then the valley 
opens out into a beautiful grassy 
glade. Here the view is very fine ; 
Mts, Alfred and Eamdaiu> to the rt., 
the HumbcUdts to the L, the valley 
of the Dart, hemmed in by the 
Forbes Mts., in front. At 6 m. Lude- 
manfCs Station is reached, i m. after 
leaving the Station, the Martin's 
Bay track is left, the Routelfum R, 
must be forded, and a track taken 
to the rt. 

(4) Boutebum Valley and 
Xiake Harris Saddle. 19 m. Guide 
and ?ior8e, 15s. a day; additional 
horses, 10s. each. Time : two days. 

A horse is necessary to carry the 

blankets and provisions ; but travel* 
lers can, if they wish it, walk. 

As far as LudemanrCa Station, see 
last excursion. 

After this, continue the Martin's 
Bay Tr(»ck, which enters the bush 
and skirts the Rout^mm R, Before 
fording the river, a waterfall 700 ft. 
high is seen. Soon after, the path 
rises rapidly by a zigzag, and then 
continues through bush until the 
Upper Route^um Flat is reached. Be* 
crossing the stream, a few minutes 
takes the traveller to the GovemmerU 
Hut, 15 m. from Kinloch, 1,500 ft. 
above Wakatipu. Here a halt should 
be made for the night. 

The next morning, the track 
(which will be found at the back of 
the hut) leads upwards through the 
forest. The bush level is reached 
at 3,000 ft., and then the track goes 
through a grassy valley in which 
the mountain lily (ranunculus lyaUi) 
grows abundantly, to Lake Harris^ 
Ascending the steep slope on the 1., 
a path goes up to the highest point 
(4,900 ft.), and a few minutes more 
take the traveller to the Saddle. The 
view   from this point is splendid^ 
but not equal to that from the Trig, 
station either to the rt. or 1., whence 
may be seen Lakes M<>Kerrow, Gunn, 
Fergus, Howden, and M<^Kellar, and 
Mts, Tutoko, Christina, and many lesser 
peaks, and several glaclera 

The return journey to Kinloch can 
be done the same day. 

31 m. Glenorchy. 

Hotels ! EamdoMJ ; Alpine Clvb ; 

Horses, los. a day; guides, los. to 
£1 ; boat and man, i$s. ; buggies, 
£1 ss. to £fl. 

ExouBsiOBS VBOX Glbnobcht. 

(i) To Diamond Iiake and 
Paradise. 13 m. Time : one day, 
whether by carriage, on horseback, 
or on foot. 

The road follows the rt. bank of 
the Rees near to the Oxbum; then 
crosses the river and trends towards 


the exit of the Eamdaw Creek, shortly 
after which Diamond Lake is seen. 
Skirting the lake through beautiftil 
bush the traveller enters Paradiae 
Flat, a settled farming distriet, onoe 
peopled by Maoris, as several stone 
implements which have been found 
here testify. About i m. further on, 
the Jktrt VaUey is reached. At Parci- 
diee Flat is an accommodation house 
(comfortable). Travellers will do 
well to stop there and make excur^ 
sions thence to the Lennox FaUs and 
other spots. A coach in connexion 
with the accommodation house meets 
the steamer at Glenorchy. 

(2) Bees Valley. From la to 
92 m. Time : one day by buggy, on 
horseback, or on foot. 

The road crosses Temple Bum, and 
proceeds up a lovely valley with 
several waterfalls. Splendid views 
of Templje Peak, ML Aurum, Siair Peak, 
Centre Peak, ML Arnstead, and other 
mts. are seen. At ao m. is reached 
the Lennox FaUs, which range from 
100 to 300 ft. 

(3) To the ScheeUte Mine and 
Stone Peak. Time : one day. 

The track goes up Budder Bum 
(famous for its gold) and along the 
side of Mi, Judah. From the saddle 
a splendid view is obtained of many 
mountain peaks lying towards Lake 
Wanaka ; but it is much better to 
extend the excursion by ascending 
Stone Peak or Temple Peak. From the 
summit of either may be seen Lakes 
Wanaka and Hawea ; and the whole 
panorama is marvellous and sub- 

(4) To the irt. Eamalaw Ola* 
derB. Time : drive 1 1 hours ; climb 
to ridge 9^ hours ; and from ridge to 
glacier s^^ hours. 

The excursion can thus, if neces- 
sary, be done in one long day ; it is 
better however to allow two or even 

The road goes up the Bees R. to 
the open ground which extends to 
the Diamond Lake* The views axe 

(5) To the Mount Eamalaw 
Glaciera and to within 600 ft. 
of the Biunmit of the mountain. 

To Lennox FaUs 90 m. ; climb 7 m. 
Time : at least three days. 

The traveller rides up the Rees 
Valley to the Lennox Falls (see Ex- 
cursion 9) ; and then climbs through 
the forest and camps at a spot above 
the bush line (at an altitude of 
4,000 ft. above the sea). The next 
day he ascends over grass and rocky 
slopes and nSve to an altitude of 
8,000 ft., returning in the evening 
to his camping ground. This climb 
can be undertaken by good walkers. 
It is somewhat tedious, but the 
views are magnificent. The com- 
plete ascent of the mt. should only 
be undertaken by experienced Alpine 
climbers. It has been twice made 
during recent years. 

NoTB. — ^The above are but a few of 
the innumerable excursions which 
mountaineers may make from Kin- 
I loch and Glenorchy. 

L 9 



BOUTE 32. 


This excursion is somewhat tiring, 
but includes scenery of great beauty. 
It should occupy at least seven days 
from Inyercargill, or nine from Dune- 
din. Te Anau is the largest, and 
Manapouri is the loveliest, of all the 
lakes in the Island. Until recently 
they have been difficult of access ; 
probably they will soon be as fami- 
liar to tourists as Wakatipu is now. 
If the traveller is not a mere tourist 
but an explorer, prepared for hard 
work, this part of the country will 
offer him a splendid field ; for of 
the district W. of the WaiaUy the 
southern portiop, though laid down 
on the maps, has been but roughly 
surveyed ; and a large track to the 
N. is still marked as * unexplored 
at present.' 

The district was at one time peopled 
by the Ngatimamoe tribe, but they were 
destroyed by marauding bands from the 
£. coast. Various battles were fought, 
on the banks of the Aparima B. and 
elsewhere. It is now almost certain 
that the Ngatimamoe are extinct, 
although for a long time it was hoped 
that a few survivors might be found in 
the mountain fastnesses. Many re- 
mains — stone weapons, ornaments, and 
eeltraps of wood and flax — have been 
found by Hr. W. S. Mitchell and other 

The lakes abound with eels, and 
trout have been placed in both lakes 
and in the rivers. Excellent fishing 
may already be obtained. 

It is possible to ride or drive from 
Otautau to Manapouri ; but the only 
way that can yet be described as 
a tourist route is by Lumsden. 
From that point a coach goes to 
Te Anau vi& the Key; and a branch 
coach goes from the Key to Mana- 
pouri. Buggies may also be hired 

at Lumsden, 253. a day ; longer 
periods by arrangement. 

Those who wish to visit both 
lakes should arrange to drive from 
one to the other direct, instead of 
going round by the Key. As there 
is no buggy at Manapouri, travellers 
arriving there first should tell the 
driver of the coach from Lumsden 
to direct the buggy from Te Anau 
to be sent to Manapouri to fetch 

For travellers who intend return- 
ing to Lumsden it is immaterial 
which lake is first visited. Those 
who contemplate proceeding by the 
Sutherland Falls to Milford Sound 
in order to catch the steamer, should 
go to Manapouri first. (As will appear 
below, the plan most recommended 
is to visit the Sounds first, and then 
come from Milford down Lake Te 

LuxsDEN TO Te AjfAu. 53 m. 

The road at first lies through an 
undulating country, very sparsely 
settled, and follows the same route 
as the Bly. To the rt. may be seen 
the EiitM Mt8. (named aft-er the 
Lt.-Govemor of New Munster. See 
Rte. 16). 

la m. Mossbum. 

Hotels: Railtoay; Commercial. 

A small township, the terminus 
of the branch rly. 

Proceeding up the valley of the 
ObxtIj a fine view of the Takitimu 
Mtb. is obtained on the 1. To the rt. 
may be seen the Wmbt Domb Mt, 

According to Maori tradition, the 
Takitimu was one of the canoes which 
brought their ancestors from Hawaiki. 



It has been tamed into stone; the 
sails of the oanoe now form the Five 
Biyers Plain. 

17 m. Centre Hill. AeoornvmadO' 
Hon House, where the coach stops for 

[A road branches off to the rt. to 
Bnrwood Forest, and so on to Lake 
Wakatipn. It is roogh, and but little 
used. The Mavora Lances, which are up 
the vaJley of the Hararoa B, a little 
way off this road, are very beautiful, 
but as yet inaccessible for tourists.] 

37 m. The SadcUey at the head of 
the Weydon Bum^ commands the first 
view of the W. Coasts Mts. The 
road then proceeds down Ocrge 
Creek into the valley of the Mararoa. 

35 m. ' The Key/ AocommodcUUm 
Uiyuse (comfortable), 8s. a day. 

A good place for fishermen and 
sportsmen to stay at and make ex- 
cursions from. 

[Not long after passing the Key, 
the road to Manapouri (16 m.) 
diverges to the 1. and some little time 
after it has left the Te Anau Bd., it 
traverses the White Stone Creek (a 
famous trout stream) and passing 
3ft. York, crosses the Home Creek at 
the Birch Tree Crossing.'] 

Soon after leaving the Key, the 
Mararoa River is forded ; and before 
long the road to Manapouri turns 
off to the 1. 

The undulating country which the 
route now follows affords no specially 
interesting scenery, except for the 
grand view of the western mts. which 
is seen in front. 

45 m. Lynicood StaUon, 

53 m. Te Anau. Snod^ntM' 
Hotel, at the S. end of the Lake, 

The lake is 38 m. long and i to 6 
broad. It lies at an altitude of 694 ft. 
above the sea. The three Western 
Arms or Fiords are from 10 to 18 m. 
long and from i to 3 broad. The 
total area of the lake is 13a square 
miles. It is almost surrounded by 
mountains densely clothed with 
forest, and contains innumerable 
islands ; but here, as in many of the 

larger lakes of N. Z., the scenery at 
the lower end is inferior to that at 
the upper, the land to the S.E. being 
almost flat. 

There is a steam launch that may 
be hired (£5 per day\ and boats and 
buggies nuiy be procured at the 

Sailing hoofs, los. and 58. a day, 
according to size^'' Guides, los. a, day. 
Buggy and pair, 958. Horse, 10s. 


(i) To the Maori kaik. About 
I m. from the hotel, near the mouth 
of the Upukerora R., are the remains 
of an extensive Maori kaik. It was 
abandoned early in the present cen* 
tury, when the natives went to live 
near Foveaux Straits in consequence 
of the opportunities of trading with 
the whalers there. Hardly any re- 
mains of the kaik are left. 

(a) To Iiake Msmapouri. 13 m. 

The road for about 6 m. follows 
the course of the Waiau, across which 
fine views of the mountains to the 
W. are obtained. Travellers should 
pause at the Horse S?ioe Bend, to enjoy 
the full beauty of the exquisite 
view * *. 

13 m. Manapouri* The deri- 
vation of the name is uncertain. 
Murrell's Hotel is beautifully 
situated at the S.E. end of the lake, 
where the Waiau R. flows from it. 
The view* from the hotel— including 
mountain, forest, and lake — is mag- 

The area of the lake is estimated 
at 50 sq. m. ; but its shape is so 
peculiar that the extent can hardly 
be determined with accuracy. The 
lake is almost surrounded with 
mountains, rising from 6,000 to 
7,500 ft. above the sea ; the slopes 
of these, up to an altitude of about 
3,000 ft., and the islets in the lake 
are densely clothed with rich forest 

There is a small steam launch, 
which may be hired ; and sailing 



and rowing boats may be procured 
at the hotel. Erery excursion is fiill 
of beauty. Of the many islands in 
the lake, the two largest are named 
Bona and Pomona, In every arm 
are beautiful beaches which form 
excellent camping grounds. 

The first arm that is reached on 
the 1. is called ^ Mmument Arm^' from 
the hill at the head of it. Next 
comes ^Qrebe Armf* about 6 m. in 
length ; near the head of it is a 
beautiful waterfall, known as ' Kd- 
pie*8 Foot: 

The next — South West Arm — points 
towards the coast. Passing up it, 
the Leaning Peak (upwards of 5,000 ft. 
high) will be seen ; it is easily ac- 
cessible. At the head of the arm 
the Spey R, runs into the lake ; and 
a short walk through the forest leads 
to two lovely little lakelets. Many 
efforts have been made to find a 
route from here to the Sounds. In 
Dec. 1888, Professor Mainwaring 
Brown, of the University of Otago, 
who was engaged on one of these 
expeditions, left his companions 
at what is now known as * Dis- 
aster Bum,' and was never seen 
again. Messrs Barber and Murrell, 
when searching vainly for his body, 
crossed over the pass and on Jan. 4, 
1889, reached the head of Deep Cove, 
Smith's Sound. 

The N.W. arm has been named 
*St Paul's Arm,' from the large 
dome-shaped mountain at the head 
of the lake. 

In returning, the boat skirts along 
the N. shore, and passes by Pomona 
Island and the ^ Beehite* a striking 
wooded headland jutting out into 
the lake. At the back of the Bee- 
hive is a small lake named Easlmere, 
famous for duck, black swans, 
crested grebe, and wild fowl. It 
was celebrated as an eeling place 
in Maori times. The boat next 
passes Bona and Midwinter Islands, 
and the place where the Waiau 
flows in from Lake Te Anau ; and 
then skirts the eastern shore back 
to the hotel. 

[An adventurous party has suc- 
ceeded in canoeing down the Waiau 
R. to the mouth ; but the passage is 
dangerous. 1 

[!^x>m Manapouri a road leads 
back to the Key, 16 m. See above.] 

The principal excursions on Lake 
Te Anau are : — 

(i) Up the S. Fiord. By steam 
launch £1 per head per day. One day 
by steamer or sailing boat. At the 
entrance to the Fiord, the Borne 
Islands (which contain an excellent 
harbour and camping ground) are 
jMiSsed. On the main land to the rt. 
is Garden Point, where Mr. M^^Kinnon, 
the well-known guide and the dis- 
coverer of the Pass to the Sutherland 
Falls, lived. He was drowned in 
the lake, opposite the N. Fiord, in 
November, 189a. 

The scenery gets finer as the Fiord 
narrows. Close to its mouth, on 
the mainland to the 1., are several 
little lakelets of great beauty. Ar- 
rangements are being made for 
placing small boats on these lakelets. 

From the head of the S. Fiord to 
Thompson Sound is but 8 m. as the 
crow flies; but no pass has as yet 
been discovered. 

(a) To the mouth of the Middle 
Fiord and round the Islands. 
One day by steamer (£1 5s. per head) 
or sailing boat. At the entrance is 
a lovely group of wooded islets 
divided by narrow channels. The 
excursion may be extended by going 
up the Fiord; but, unless the 
weather is very favourable, this 
necessitates camping out or sleeping 
on board the steamer. 

In 1887 Messrs. M*>Elinnon and Tucker 
crossed from the S.W. eurm of the Middle 
Fiord to the neighbourhood of Caswell 

In 1889 Mr. B. Henry crossed from 
the N.W. arm to George Sound. The 
distance is only 13 m., and includes 
three small lakes, one of which {Lake 
Hankinaon) is very beautiful, 

(3) To the W. Fiord. £1 los. per 
head by steamer. This may be 


taken as a two days' excursion by 
steamer or sailing boat, from the 
hotel ; or it may be made part of a 
longer excursion that would include 
the head of the Lake (£2 per head 
by steamer). The N. Fiord is less 
wide than the others, especially at 
one point called ^ T?te NarrotoSy' where 
it hardly exceeds a stone's throw in 
breadth. The cliffs are precipitous, 
and the scenery very grand. At the 
entrance to the Fiord the lake attains 
the depth of 970 ft, 

(4) To the Head of the Iiakes. 
£1 los. per head by steamer. Two 
days by steamer or sailing boat ; the 
night being spent either on board 
the steamer, camping out, or in the 
GoYernment Hut at the mouth of 
the Clinton. (Before long, however, 
a house will be erected at the head 
of the lake.) The scenery steadily 
increases in grandeur as the head of 
the lake is approached and the snow- 
clad mountains become nearer. 

After passing Leo Island there is 
a beautiful Harbour called Safe Cove 
on the W. side of the lake. At the 
Head, the lake divides into two; 
the Western branch leads to the 
valley of the Wobsliy JR., a deep gorge 
clothed with rich forest growth. 
About I m. from the mouth of the 
river, a lovely waterfall (the Margaret 
FaU) is seen. The Eastern branch 
leads to the Clinton i2., at the mouth 
of which the Gk>vemment have 
placed a hut for the convenience of 
tourists going to the Sutherland 

(5) To the Sutherland Falls. 
This is the most favourite excursion 
of all. The Falls were discovered by 
Messrs. Sutherland and Mackay (who 
went up from. Milford Sound) in 
1880; the pass from Te Anau was 
discovered by Messrs. M^Kinnon and 
Mitchell in 1888. It is now com- 
paratively easy for good walkers ; 
several ladies have made the ex- 
cursion. The route from Milford 
Sound is however much easier than 
that from Te Anau, but of course 

does not include the magnificent 
scenery of the Clinton Valley. 

If the weather is favourable, the 
excursion takes four days from the 
Hotel to Milford Sound; the first night 
being spent in the hut at the mouth 
of the Clinton (see Excursion 4) ; the 
second in the hut at the foot of the 
saddle ; the third at Beech Hut ; 
and the fourth at the Hotel at Mil- 
ford Sound. But at least one extra 
day should be allowed, in case of 
detention by heavy rain. 

A guide isnotabsolutelynecessary, 
but all tourists are recommended to 
take one, to help in carrying baggage 
and in making the party comfortable 
at the huts. Guides can be obtained 
at the hotel. 

Until better arrangements are 
made at the huts, travellers must 
take their own blankets or rugs and 
provisions. These should be wrapped 
up in waterproof sheeting. It is best 
to procure this outfit at Dunedin or 
Invercargill. Ere long, however, 
supplies of blankets and tinned 
meat will be placed at the huts. 

After leaving the first hutj the track 
goes up the VaUey of the ClinUm, 
through bush almost the whole way. 
The Valley is about ^ m. in width, 
the sides being almost precipitous, 
and from 4,000 to 7,000 ft. high. 
After rain, numerous waterfalls of 
great height pour down the cliffs. 
Several glaciers are seen ; the largest 
of them, the Jervois glacier, being the 
main source of the river. The St. 
QuenHn FcUls may be observed on the 
rt. ; they are well worthy of a visit. 

The walk to the htd ai the foot of the 
saddle takes seven or eight hours ; 
an early start is recommended, as 
travellers will wish to stop and enjoy 
the magnificent scenery. 

The second day's walk is not long, 
but it includes the climbing of the 
saddle, which is 1,400 ft. in height, 
the summit being 3,400 ft. above sea 
level. The climb is an easy one ; 
the first two-thirds being through 
bush and the last one-third over 
open ground, covered with rich 
masses of the beautiful Alpine 



flora of N. Z. On this open 
ground, as there is no track, poles 
have been set up as marks ; travel- 
lers must follow these carefully. 
The panorama from the summit** 
including the views down into the 
Arthur Valley on the one side and 
the Clinton Valley on the other, 
with the Jervois glacier and the 
amphitheatre of mountains above, is 
one of the finest in the district. 

The descent to the Beech Huts is 
more than a,ooo ft. When the bush 
line is reached, the track follows 
the course of Boaring Creek, on which 
some fine rapids and falls may be 

The walk to the Beech Huts takes 
from five to six hours. Baggage is 
left there ; and the Sutherland FaXls 
(about I m. from the huts) may be 
visited in the afternoon ; the track 
is good. 

The Falls consist of three leaps ; 
the upper leap being 815 ft., the 
middle one 751 ft., and the lower 
leap 338 ft. ; making in all 1,904 ft. 
A comparison is often made between 
them and the great Yosemite Water- 
falls in California, which are said to 
be 2,548 ft. ; but it must be remem- 
bered that that height is made up 
of the Upper Fall of 1,502 ft., the 
Lower Fall of 487 ft., and the rapids 
between them of about j m. long, 
having a total fall of 559 ft. 

From the Beech huts the traveller 
may either return to Te Anau or go 
on to Milford Sound. Should he 
decide on the latter, an easy track, 
following down the Arthur JR., leads 

in about 5^ m. to the point where 
the boat must be taken. From there 
to the lower end of Lake Ada is 4 m. 
The formation of the lake is interest- 
ing ; it has been caused by a large 
landslip in comparatively recent 
times ; the tops of the beech trees 
which once grew beside the B. now 
form snags in the lake. The scenery 
of the Arthur Valley is inferior only 
to that of the Clinton. From the 
lake to Milford Sound is an easy road 
of 2 m., constructed by prison 
labour. At the end of the road a 
boat is taken for about three-quarters 
of an hour to Sutheriand*8 Hotdj on 
the other side of the Cleddau River. 

The only difficulty about the Mil- 
ford Sound route is securing a boat 
to go down Lake Ada, and finding 
a steamer leaving Milford Sound. 
Travellers who Intend taking it 
should therefore fit in their pro- 
gramme so as to meet the excursion 
steamer (see Bte. 33) and communi- 
cate with the Union SS. Co. before 
leaving Bunedin or Invercargill. 

Those who wish to combine the 
Sounds and the Lakes trips are 
however recommended to do so by 
taking the Sounds trip first, and 
then going from Milford Sound to 
Te Anau. Those who wish to do so 
should write to the Hotel keeper at 
Te Anau before leaving the Bluff for 
the Sounds ; he will arrange to have 
a guide in readiness at Milford 
Sound (guide's fee £5) and the steam 
launch waiting at the head of Lake 
Te Anau. 



BOUTE 33. 


This beautiful excursion is one 
that no tourist should omit, and 
since the whole of it is made by 
water, and much of it through lake- 
like inlets, none need be deterred 
by fear of fatigue. It combines the 
grandeur of the Norwegian Fiords 
with a wealth of almost tropical 
vegetation ; in fact, it may be de- 
scribed as an Alpine trip by steamer. 

The best way to go is in a steam 
yacht ; (and if the traveller does not 
mind the cold, the weather is often 
at its best and the scenery most 
lovely in May and June) ; but those 
who do not possess such a luxury 
should join one of the excursions of 
the Union SS. Co. There are usually 
three of these every summer ; two 
in Jan. and one in Feb. The com- 
fortable steamer Tarawera is the 
one generally selected. Fare £ia ; 
the trip taking eight days. The 
dates of the excursions are adver- 
tised some weeks previously. 

The programme of the steamer is 
as follows : — 

Wedn&iday. — Leave Port Chalmers 
at 5 p.m. 

2%ttr«day.— Call at the Bluff early 
in the morning ; proceed thence to 
l^esenKOiixm Inlet; visit Long Sound 
and return to OutUe Gove for the 

Friday. — Spend the day at CutGe 
Cove, making excursions. 

Saturday. — Leave CuMe Cove at 
5 a.m., for Dusky Sound ; go to the 
head of the Sound, and make for 
Wet Jacket Arm, where the night is 

Sunday,^Ij6&ye Wet Jacket Arm at 
5 a.m. for JDovib^ut and Smith Sounds, 

proceeding thence through Thompson 
Sound to George Sound, at the head of 
which the night is spent. 

Monday, — Spend the day in Oeorge 

Tuesday. — Leave Oeorge Sound at 
daylight, reach MH/ord Sound at 8 
a.m., and proceed to the head of 
the Sound. Travellers wishing to 
visit the Sutherland Falls then make 
the expedition. 

Wednesday. — Leave MUford Sound in 
the afternoon. 

Thursday,— CslU at the Bluff. 

Friday. — Arrive at Port Chalmers 
in the morning. 

Port Chabners to Bluff . . . . 

Bluff to Long Sound 

Long Sound to Cuttle Cove . . 
Cuttle Cove to Dusky Sound . . 
Dusky Sound to Wet Jacket Arm 
Wet Jacket Arm to Hall's Arm . 
Hall's Arm to George Sound . . 
Geoige Sound to Milford Sound . 
Milford Sound to Bluff . . . . 
Bluff to Port Chalmers .... 


. 139 

. 98 

. 15 








Travellers should provide them- 
selves with protection against sand- 
flies in the shape of veils, gloves, 
indiarubber bands to keep down 
coat cuffs, and plenty of ammonia 
or a mixture of acetic and carbolic 

Passengers by the Tarawera are 
provided with fishing appliances, 
&c. Shooting is not recommended, 
as everything that can ' be called 
game is protected during the sum- 
mer season. 

Admiralty Charts (which may be 
purchased at the offtce of the Col- 


lector of Customs at Dunedin or 
Invercargill) add greatly to the in- 
terest of the excursion. 

After leaving Port Chalmers and 
passing the Heads, the steamer 
rounds the bold headland of Cape 
Saunders; and then takes a S.W. 
course passing the coast of the 
PeninsiUa and the Ocean Beach, and 
making a direct run for Nugget Point 
(see Rte. a6). Other headlands are 
passed ; notably Chasland*8 Mistake, 
named after * Tommy Chasland/ 
an Australian half-caste whaler, 
about whose almost superhuman 
powers many stories are told. It is 
said that his sight was so keen that 
he could track a sounding whale 
under the ocean ! He once navi- 
gated an open sealing boat from the 
Chatham Islands to N. Z. ; and on 
pne of his voyages he mistook this 
iieadland for Cape Saunders. The 
point is about the middle of the 
Tautuku Forest, 

After passing Waipapa Point (see 
Rte. a6\ Foveaux Straits, which divide 
the S. Island from Stewart Island, 
is entered, and Ruapuke Island (see 
Rte. 30) passed on the 1. 

Prom the MViff^ the course runs 
along the S. coast, which is inha- 
bited as far as the Waiau R, ; beyond 
this, only a few adventurous spirits 
have yet settled ; in addition to 
whom are the gold seekers at Wilson 
R. and Coal Island — two small fields 
recently opened. 

The steamer then passes Centre 
Mand (called Rarotonga by the Maoris 
— a name brought by them when 
they first came from their northern 
home) and the Sdander Islands ; so 
named by Capt. Cook after the 
Swedish botanist who accompanied 

The Sounds are thirteen in num- 
ber, counting the entrances from 
the ocean ; but several of these are 
considerably ramified within, and 
in two instances they are in pairs, 
connected inland and separated at 
the mouth by large Islands. The 

whole region is of granite and allied 
rocks ; excepting a district about 
the mouth of Preservation Inlet and 
Chalky Sound, where coal and lime- 
stone are found. It is in this district 
alone that gold has been discovered. 
The Sounds are manifestly of 
glacial origin, though the ranges 
behind them, being of considerably 
less altitude than the Southern Alps 
of Canterbury, no longer carry large 
snow fields or glaciers. The best 
evidence of ancient glaciation is 
found in their similarity to the 
Fiords of Norway and similar regions 
in British Columbia and about Cape 
Horn. A glance at the map shows 
how closely the Sounds correspond 
in character with the arms of Lake 
Te Anau and Manapouri ; the glaciers 
of both having originally been fed 
from the same snow fields. That 
moraines exist at the mouths of 
most of them may be inferred from 
the fact that the soundings there 
show a depth of 40 fathoms or less, 
whilst further in they frequently 
exceed 100 fathoms. Roches mouion' 
nees are seen at a few points ; but in 
most places are masked by the dense 
growth of vegetation which the in- 
tensely humid atmosphere nourishes 
at every part. The steepness of the 
land, which rises almost sheer from 
the water's edge, and exhibits only 
here and there a flat surface, and 
the great rainfall, amounting to 
about lao inches in the year, militate 
against the permanent settlement 
of this beautiful region ; but the 
excellence of the timber at a few 
accessible spots, and the great abun- 
dance of fish, give promise that one 
day it may prove of commercial 
value to the Colony. At present it 
is purely the resort of pleasure 
seekers ; as, apart from the small 
mining population already referred 
to, the coast is absolutely unin- 
habited for more than lao miles. 

(i) Preservation Inlet, leading 
into Iiong Sound, 20 m. in length. 
The usual anchorage is at CtdUe 
Cove, which is dotted with tree-clad 


islands. On each side of the sound 
are long ranges of mountains rising 
above the forest line to an altitude 
of upwards of 4,000 feet, some of the 
distant peaks covered witli perpetual 

Various fishing and sketching 
excursions may be made. 

(a) Chalky or Dark Cloud 
Inlet. This Sound divides into 
two ; the southern, Ounaris, being 

5 m. long ; the northern, Edtoardson, 

6 m. At the entrance is Chalky 
Isicmd, whose cliffs formed a well- 
known landmark for the early 

(3) Dusky Bound (called Dusky 
Bay by Capt. Cook, who discovered 
it on his first voyage and entered it 
on his second). He then formed 
his camp at PickersgiU Harbour ; the 
stumps of the trees which he had 
cut were found in i86a. Goose Cove, 
Cormorant Cwe^ and Five Fingers Penin- 
syla were named by Capt. Cook ; 
Facile Harbour by Vancouver. In 
Facile Harbour near the beach to 
the 1. may still be seen below the 
surface the wreck of the Endeavour, 
a Sydney vessel which put in here 
leaking about a century ago. Her 
crew built a small vessel and escaped 
to Norfolk Island. Resolution Idand 
was named after one of Cook's ships. 

The Sound is aa m. long; the 
steamer passes Indian Island^ Long 
Island^ and Cooper Island. On the 
N. side is Docherty's landing ; in the 
vicinity is the Asbestos lode, and on 
the opposite side the now abandoned 
copper mine. Large steamers seldom 
anchor in the Sound as, though it 
is very deep, it is not free from 
dangers in the more interesting 
portion near the mouth, and is still 
imperfectly surveyed. The vessel on 
leaving the Sound enters the cross 
channel Acheron passage (named after 
H. M. S. Acheron, in which Capt. 
Stokes conducted the surveys on 
which the Admiralty chart is based), 
called ^Nobody knows whod* by Capt. 
Cook's party, who did not pass com- 

pletely through it. The vessel then 
runs up Wet Jacket Arm, the head of 
which is one of the most striking 
parts of the Sounds. 

The steamer then proceeds along 
Acheron passage and goes to sea 
through Breaksea Sound. 

(4) Breaksea Bound. This 
Sound divides into two, near its 
head ; it is about ao m. long. The 
head of the Northerly Arm (Vancouver) 
closely approaches the head of Hall's 
Arm in Doubtful Sound, 

(5) Dagg's Sound. A small 
Sound seldom visited, named after 
an old whaler, Capt. Dagg. 

(6) Doubtful Sound. This 
Sound, by either of the main 
branches which may be said to be 
common to it and to Thompson Sound 
(from which it is separated by Secre- 
tary Island), runs inland for some 
30 m. The meeting-place of the 
four Sounds is a broad sheet, one 
of the finest pieces of still water 
in this region ; and in it are gene- 
rally seen sea cows, porpoises, and 
similar marine mammals. 

Doubtful Sound has several minor 
branches, one of which — De^ Cove — 
probably approaches within less than 
la m. of Lake Manapouri, to which a 
high pass has been discovered (see 
Rte. 3a). Rdla Island, near the head 
of Smith Sound, is a spot of great 
beauty. In the passage inside this, 
the Tarawera struck in 1883 with 
80 fathoms alongside. The branch 
to the S., called Halts Arm, i6| m. 
from the entrance, is seldom entered 
by steamer, having a danger at its 
mouth. It is said to be of extra- 
ordinary grandeur. Bradshaw Sound 
is sometimes visited, having a con- 
venient anchorage at the head. 

(7) Thompson Sound gives an- 
other access from the sea to this 
ramified series of arms. Towards 
its mouth on the N. side is Deas Cove, 
a snug anchorage for smaller vessels. 
Secretary IsUmd (named after Sir E. 



Deas Thompson, formerly Colonial 
Secretary of New South Wales, of 
which N. Z. was at the time a de- 
pendency) is somewhat similar in 
character to Resolution Island. 
From each of these islands a single 
specimen of the Tikah^ {Notcmis 
Mantelli) has been obtained. This 
bird, a giant coot, is now extremely 
rare, if not extinct. The two 
specimens referred to are in the 
British Museum ; whilst a third, 
obtained at Te Anau, was purchased 
for i'lao for the Dresden Museum. 
Roches moutonnees are seen on this 

(8) 19'anoy Sound. A small 
sound not often visited. 

(9) Charles Sound. A small 
branched sound, not often visited. 

(10) Cas'weU Sound. 9J m. 
Near the mouth of this is a marble 
quarry which was for some time 
worked experimentally by a com- 
pany. It may yet be found to supply 
building stone of great beauty and 
value. A pass to Te Anau has been 
discovered (see Rte. 3a). 

(11) George Sound. lam. This 
is a favourite anchorage, and affords 
many excursions by boat. Amongst 
these may be mentioned that to the 
waterfall close to the anchorage, 
and the little lake above it. A pass 
to Te Anau has been discovered (see 
Rte. 33). Here were found the 
last traces of the Ngatimamoe, who 
were driven to the mountains during 
the last century, and vindictively 
pursued even in their refuge. 
Though the smoke of their fires was 
reported to have been seen as lately 
as 187a, they are now probably 

(la) Bligh. Sound. Now seldom 
visited. In this sound, H.M.S. 
Clio struck on a sunken rock and 
had to be beached; but Sir James 
Hector, who was on board, passed 
up the coast to Martin's Bay, and 
made his way thence through the 
forest and over one of the Jmsses into 

the interior, and telegraphed for 
assistance from Queenstown. 

N. of this is Sutherland Sound, 
recently discovered by an explorer 
of that name. It is not separately 
numbered, as it differs from the true 
Sounds in having a shallow entrance 
almost closed by a bar. 

(13) Mllford Sound. The grand- 
est of the series. At the mouth is 
Afiita Bay^ suitable for small vessels. 
It is difficult to anchor large steamers 
in this landlocked bay ; because if 
water shallow enough for the an- 
chor to reach the bottom is chosen, 
the vessel is so near the land that 
its stern must swing against the 
shore. In anycase an anchor dropped 
upon the sloping bottom will not 
hold a vessel ; it must also be tied 
to the trees. 

This stupendous inlet is, as it 
were, chiselled out of the solid rock 
of the n^ountain range which rises 
thousands of feet on every side. 

'Wherever vegetation could get a 
footing on these immense precipices 
lovely tiee-fems and darker sluniba 
grew in profusion, all dripping with 
moistnre, and running np the diffis in 
long strips of verdure till lost to our 
view aloft in the torn white mists. 
The vivid green of the foliage was the 
feature of all this wondrous scene which 
struck me most. Two or three miles 
up the Sound, we steamed close to an 
immense waterfall which, in one plunge 
of 300 ft., leaped into the Sound with a 
roejr like thunder, drowning our voices 
and sending great gushes of spray over 
the steamer's deck. The face of an- 
other great cliff was so drai>ed with 
numberless small falls that it seemed 
to be covered with a veil of silver gamse 
about 300 yards in width. ... As we 
entered the inner basin of the Sound 
the forest increased in beauty. The 
totara pines, draped with festoons of 
grey lichen, contrasted well with the 
soft green of the great fem-£ronds, and 
formed a suitable background to the 
scarlet blossoms of the rata (Metroaiderot 
Iticida) which here and there lit up 
the upper surface of the forest with 
patches of intense colour. G-leams of 
sunshine began to dart through the 
clouds, giving a momentary flash on 


one of the ntiinerotiB cascades, and then, 
passing over forest and cliff, added new 
beanties of light and shade. When 
about 8 m. from the open sea a boom- 
ing sound rose higher over the voices of 
the numerous cascades, growing louder 
as we advanced, and rounding a forest- 
clad point we came upon . . . the great 
Bowen Fall. Its first fall is only about 
50 ft. into a rocky basin, but, leaping 
from it upwards and outwards in a 
most wonderful curve, it plunges down 
with a deafening roar in a single leap of 
3Poft.' W, 8. Green. 

On the beach is found the Tangi- 
waif a soft kind of nephrite (green- 
stone) much prized by the Maoris 
for making transparent ornaments. 
It is chemically different from the 
true nephrite found further N. 

Stirling Falls are seen on the N. 
side, 500 ft. high. Harrison CJove is 
next reached ; and beyond it is ob- 
tained a fine view of Pembroke Peak 
(6,710 ft.), with snow fields and a 
small glacier. Near the head of 
the Sound is the Botceti Fall (530 ft.), 
the water of which, gushing into a 
basin, spouts up to some height 
before falling. Beautiful orchids 
grow on the trees near the Fall ; 
and on the rocks are seen mount^iin 
asters. Close by is Sutherland's hut. 
Large vessels may here enter the 
freshwater basin. On the N. side 
rises the Ikofran Range with Txitoko 
(9,04a ft.) and other peaks over 
7,000 ft. Perliaps the most striking 
feature is the remarkably-shaped 
MjTBX Pbak^ rising abruptly to a 
height of 5^560 ft. immediately over 
the S. side of the Sound. 


To the Sutherland Falls**. 
This excursion owes its charm not 
merely to the Falls themselves, but 
also to the beauty of the scenery on 
the way. It takes one and a half days, 
the night being spent at Beech hut. 
Passengers by the Taravcera have to 
carry their blankets and provisions 
for the night. 

The landing is about i m. from 
the moorings. Thence a walk on a 
beautifully formed track to the foot 
of Lake Ada (am.). Passengers are 
then rowed across the lake by the 
guides, the passage being somewhat 
difiicult for an inexperienced person, 
owing to the submerged snags. The 
lake is about a m. long. On leaving 
the lake the boats proceed up the 
Arthur R. to the beginning of the 
track cut alongside the river up to the 
Falls (see page 15a). From leaving 
the boat, the distance to the Falls is 
about 7 m. The track is perfectly easy 
even for the poorest walker ; it may 
be done in safety alone. At present 
a fee of £1 a head is demanded by 
the guide, but this includes the use 
of the boat, which belongs to the 
Union Ca 

The Sounds trip may be combined 
with that to Lakes Te Anau and 
Manapouri by going on from the 
Sutherland Falls over the pass to 
Lake Te Anau (see Bte. 3a\ A 
guide from Lake Te Anau meets 
the Taratvera at Milford ; travellers 
can arrange to go with him. 


Abbotsford, p. 124. 
Acheron Passage, 155. 
Ada, Lake, 157, 153. 
Addington, 95, 104. 
Afton Peak, 144, 145. 
AgriciUturaZ StatisticSy 

Ahanra B., 87. 
Ahoalio, 68. 
Ahnriri bridge, Napier, 

Ahnriri Pass, Canterbury, 

Ahnriri Plains, Napier, 

Ahnriri, Port, Napier, 42. 
Ahnriri B., Canterbnry, 

116, 128. 
Akaroa, 102, 103. 
Albert, Mt., Anckland, 

3» 10. 
Albert, Ht., Otago, 129. 
Albert Town, 129, 130. 
Albnry, 113. 
Alce^er, Lordy 62, 
Alexander, Mt., 9a 
Alexandra, Anckland, 54. 
Alexandra, Otago, 128, 125. 
Al^candrina, lUike, Can- 

terbnry, 114, 
Alfred, Mt., 145, 146. 
Allandale, 108. 
Allen's Hill, 68. 
Alligator, H. H. S., 69. 
Alpine Flora, xii, 112, 90, 

Alps, Sonthem, 64, 89, 

no, 131, 133, 154. 
Alnm Caye,Qrakeikorako, 

Alnm Cliffs, Waiotapo, 27. 
Amberley, 94. 
Amnri Blnff, 93. 
Ananra, 25. 

Anderson's Bay, 117, 122. 
Anglem, Mt., 140, 141. 

Animal Life in N, Z., [44}- 

Anita Bay, 156. 

Antipodes ledand, 141. 
Aokehu, 71. 

Aorangi (Mt. Cook), 114. 
Aorangi, Wellington, 73. 
Aotea Canoe, 57. 
Aparima B., 139, 140, 148. 
Appleby, 83. 
Arahnra, 88. 
Aramoho, 53, 70, 72. 
Arapawa Island, 78. 
Aratapn, 9. 
Arawa, [4], [49], [52], 3, 22, 

38* 39i 49. 
Arawata B., 136. 

Arika-kapa-kapa, 18. 
Arnold R, 87. 
Amstead, Mt., 147. 
Arowhenna, 105. 
Arrow Book, N^Lson Har- 

bonr, S2. 
Arrowtown, 144, 13a 
Art Qallery, Anckland, 2. 
Arthnr, Mt., Nelson, 85. 
Arthnr B, Otago, 152. 
Arthnr's Pass, Canter- 

bnry, 90, 91, iia 
Arthnr's Point, Otago, 

i44i 145. 
Ashbnm Hall Asylnm, 

Xhinedin, 123. 

Ashbnrton, 105. 

Ashbnrton B., 96, 105. 

Ashley B., 94. 

Ashnrst, 46. 

Aspiring, Mt., 130, 144. 

Astrolabe Island, 82. 

Ateamnri, 28, 29. 

Atene, 52, 57. 

Athenaenm, Dnnedin, 12a 

Athenaenm, Inveroa^gill, 

Athenaenm, Napier, 43. 
Athens, 52. 
Athol, 142. 
Anckland, [i], [5], [6], [7], 

[55], C56I, [57I 1-5, 6, 7, 
»o. 137 14, 15, 25, 39, 53» 
54, 62, 67, 73, 76. 

Anckland Islands, 141. 

Anmm, Mt., 144, 147. 

Antapn rapid, 52. 

Avon B., 96. 

Avondale, la 

Awa Pnni, 73. 

Awahon, 22. 

Awanni, 40. 

Awaporehe Stream, 24. 

Awatere, 92. 


Baldntha, 125. 
Bald Peak, 146. 
Balfonr Glacier, 134, 135. 
Ball Glacier, 114, 115, 116, 
Ball Pass, 116. 
Balmoral, Nelson, 94. 
Balmoral Station, Canter* 

bnry, 114. 
Bank8, Sir J., 41. 
Banks' Peninsnla, [53], 96, 


Bankside, 104. 
Barrier, Great, 5. 
Barry's Bay, 102. 
Bay of Islands, 7, 6, 57, 102. 
Bay of Plenty, 13, 24, 38, 

Bayonet Peak, 143. 
Bealey Hotel, 91, 9a 
Bealey B., 91. 
Beech Hnts, 152, 151. 
Beehive Hill, Manaponri, 

Belfast, 95, loi. 
Bell's FaUs, Mt. Egmont, 

Bellgrove, 84, 81, 83. 
Ben Lomond, 130, 143. 
Ben More, 116. 
Ben Ohan Mts., 113. 
Ben Ohan Station, 114. 
Benger Mts., 128. 



Bethany, 37. 
Big Bay, 136. 
Big Bluff, 136. 
Big Wanganiii B., West- 
land, 132. 
Birch Hill Station, 114. 
Birch Tree Crossing, 149. 
Birds^ [44], 113. 
Bishopdale, 83, 84. 
Black Geyser, Wairakei, 

Black Lake, Tikitere, 22. 
Black Mt., Southland, 139. 
Black Peak, Wanaka, 139. 
Black Point, Oamam, 117. 
Black Terrace, Tanpo, 36. 
Blanchard's Bluff, 134. 
Blenheim, 80, 78, 79, 81, 83, 

Bligh Sound, 156. 
Blind Bay, 82, 84. 
Blue Lake, Wairakei, 33, 


Blue B., Westland, 136. 

Blueskin Bay, Otago, 109. 

Bluff, The, [5], 138, 139, >53, 

Boat Harbour, 93. 

Boilers, The, Wairakei, 32. 

Boiling Lake, Waiotapu, 

Bonpland, Mt., 145. 

Borton's, 117. 

Botanical Gardens, Dune- 
din, 121, 117, 123. 

Botanical Gardens, Na- 
pier, 43. 

Botanical Gardens, Oa- 
mam, 107. 

Botanical Gardens, Well- 
ington, 77, 

Botanic Hill, Nelson, 83. 

Bounty Islands, 141. 

Bowen Fall, 157. 

Bowen Peak, 143. 

Boyd Massacre^ [54], 8. 

Boys' High School, Christ- 
church, 98. 

Boys' High School, Bune- 
din, 120. 

Bradshaw Sound, 155. 

Braemar Station, 1 14. 

Brain Pot, Whakarewa- 
rewfib, 17. 

Brasaey^ MaJoTy [57], 50. 

Brea,ksea Sound, 155. 

Breakwater, Gisbome, 41. 

Breakwater, Napier, 43. 

Breakwater, New Ply- 
mouth, 61, 57, 63. 

Breakwater, Oamaru, 107. 

Breakwater, Timaru, 106. 
Brewster Glacier, 137. 
Brewster Mt., 137. 
Brighton, Dunedin, 123. 
Brightwater, 83, 84. 
Britannia, 47, 76. 
Broken B., 91. 
Brothers Islands, The, 79. 
Broughton^ Lieuty 103. 
Broumey Qkwr., [57], 59. 
Broum^ Prof. MaiTWoaringy 

Bruce Bay, 133, 135. 
Brunner, 87. 
Brunner, Lake, 87, 9a 
Brunswick, 70. 
Bryant Glacier, 145. 
Buchanan Peaks, 129. 
Buckler Bum, 147. 
BuUer E., [7], 85, 86. 
Bulls, 73. 

Burke, Mt., Otago, 129. 
Burke B., Westland, 137. 
Burke's, Dunedin, 109. 
Burke's Pass, 113. 
Bums, Rev. Dr., 118, 120. 
Bums' Statue, Dunedin, 

Burwood Forest, 149. 
BueibyyMr.y [55], 7, 8. 


Cable Bay, 83. 
Calliope Point, 4. 
Cambridge, 12. 
Cameron f Qenl.y [58], 10, 11, 

S3, 54, 70, 71. 

Campbell, Cape, 92. 

Campbell Island, 141. 

Campbelltown, 139. 

Canadian Pacific Bly., [2]. 

Canterbury, 96, 89, 90, 94, 
106, 116. 

Canterbury AsaocioHony 
The, [56], 96. 

Canterbury Coll., Christ- 
church, 98, lOI. 

* Canterbury PilgrirMy 96, 


Canterbury Plain, 104, 91. 
Canton, 14a 
Cape Town, [3]. 
Cardrona, 130. 
Careyy Gen.y 53. 
(Mrgilly Capt.y 118, 119, 138. 
Cargill, Mt., Dunedin, 123. 
Carlyle, 69. 
Carr's Station, 37. 
Carrington Boad, New 
Plymouth, 6a 

Carterton, 47. 

Cascade B., 136. 

Cass B., 91. 

Castle Hill, Canterbury, 

Castle Bock, Southland, 

Castlepoint, Wellington, 

Caswell Sound, 156, 150. 
Cathedral, Christchurch, 


Cathedral School, Christ- 
church, 97. 

Catlin's Lake, 126. 

Catlin's R, 125, 126. 

Cattle in N. Z., [60]. 

Cattle Flats Station, 130. 

Cattleyards, 124. 

Cautl^y Col.y 76. 

Cave, 113. 

Caversham, 124, 117, 123. 

Cecil, Mt., 143, 144, 145. 

Central Otago Rly.y 124,108. 

Centre Hill, 149. 

Centre Island, 154. 

Centre Peak, 147. 

Chadwick Glacier, Mt. 
Egmont, 66y 67. 

Chain Hills Tunnel, 124. 

Chalky Inlet, 155. 

Chalky Island, 155. 

ChamberSy Mr.y 118. 

Champagne Pool, Waio- 
tapu, 27, 

Charles Sound, 156. 

Chasland's Mistake, 154. 

Chatham Islands, [58], 103, 


Chertsey, 104. 

Christ's College, Christ- 
church, 98. 

Christchurch, [7], [8], 95- 

103, 25, 78, 81, 84, 89, 91, 

92, 112, 113, 119. 
Christina, Mt., 146. 
Churches in N. Z., [60]. 
Chtetey Oen.y [58], 60. 
City Council Chambers, 

Christchurch, 97. 
Clarence B., 92. 
Clark Valley, 84. 
Clarke Bluff, 137, 131. 
Clarke IL, 137. 
Clarkesville, 137. 
Claverley, 93. 
Cleddau B., 15a. 
Clifford Bay, 9a. 
Cli£Ey Head, in. 
Climate o/N, Z., [13]. 
Clinton, 126, 119, 139. 



dinton R., 151, 153. 
Cloudy Bay, 80. 
ClathaR, 125, 126, 127, 128, 

129, 130, 144. 
Clyde, 128, 108, 125, 142, 

Coach Servicei in N. Z, [8]. 
Coal in N. Z., [62]. 
Coal Island, 154. 
Coalbrook Dale, 86. 
Colac, 14a 
Colin's Bay, Wakatipn, 

College, Nelson, 83. 
College, St. Patrick's, 

Wellington, 77. 
College, The, Wellington, 

Collegiate School, Wan- 

ganui, 71. 
Collingwood, 83. 
Coloored Springs, Wai- 

rakei, 34. 
Compte de Paris, The, 102. 
Constitution Act, The, [56]. 
Constitution cfN,Z., [58]. 
Convent, Dnnedin, 120. 
Convent, Nelson, 82. 
Conn's (>eek, 86. 
Conway B., 93. 
Coode, Sir J., 86. 
Cook, Capt, [54], 7, 38, 40, 

41, 42, S7i 78. 9a» 93, 9<5, 
98, 122, 124, 125, 140, 154, 

Cook, Messrs, T & Son, 

[6], [7], 18. 
Cook, Mt., 110-117, 105, 

131, 134. 
Cook B., 135. 

Cook's Blnff, 135. 
Cook's Lagoon, 135. 
Cook's Straits, [52], 78. 
Cookson Mt., 93. 
Cooper Island, 155. 
Cooper, Port, loi, 118. 
Corinth, 52. 
Cormack's, 107. 
Cormorant Cove, 155. 
Corriedale, 108. 
Cosmos, Mt., 145. 
Countess Glacier, 115. 
Crescent Island, Wanaka, 

Criffel, 130. 
Cromwell, [7], 128, 13a 
Crops in N. Z., [60]. 
Cross' Creek, 47. 
Crown Bange, 130. 
Crow's NestGeyserjTaupo, 


[New Zealand,"] 

Crozet, 7. 

CuUensviUe, 79, 78. 
Culverden, 94, 84, 93. 
Cunaris Sound, 155. 
Cuttle Cove, 153, 154. 


Dannevirke, 45, 44. 
Dan's Ford, 137. 
Darfield, 91. 
DargaviUe, 6, 9. 
Darien Mt., iii. 
Dark Cloud Inlet, 155. 
Darran Mts., 157. 
Dart Glacier, 145. 
Dart Valley, 146, 147. 
David Glacier, 137. 
Dawson's Falls, Mt. £g- 

mont, 65, 66. 
De la Beche, Mt., 116. 
Deas Cove, 155. 
Deep Cove, 155. 
D^ence Force o/N, Z., [59]. 
Demon Creek, 137. 
Denniston, 86. 
Despard, Col., 8. 
Devil's Punch Bowl, 91. 
Devil's Staircase (Waka- 

tipu), 143. 
Devon, Earl of, 59. 
Devonport, 4. 
Diamond Lake, 146, 147. 
Diamonds in N, Z., 93. 
Dick, Mt., 143. 
' Dicky Barrett,' 59, 6a 
Dipton, 142. 
Dispute, Lake, 144. 
Df^^on, Mr. E., iiol 
Dochertys landing, 155. 
Dock, Calliope Point, 4. 
Dome Islands, Te Anau, 

Donkey Engine, Wal- 

rakei, 33. 
Double Comer, 96. 
Doubtful Sound, 155, 153. 
Dover's Pass, 114. 
Doumes, Lietit., 68. 
Dragon's Mouth, Wai- 

rakei, 33. 
Dromore, 105. 
Drury, la 
Dry Creek, 132, 133. 
Dublin Bay, Wanaka, 130. 
Duffer's Creek, 132. 
Du Fresne, Marion, 7. 
Dunbach, 108. 
Dunedin, [5], [7], [8], [56], 

1 17-124, 104, 108, 109, 

125, 126, 127, 128, 138, 142, 

Dunstan Flat, 128. 
Dunstan Mts., 128, 144. 
Duntroon, 117. 
D'UrvUle, Capt Dumont, 

[55L 79. 
D'Urville Island, 79, 84. 
Dusky Bay, 155. 
Dusky Sound, 155, 153. 
DuvanchellesBay, loi, 102. 


Eagle's Nest, The, Wai- 

nkkei, 32. 
Ealing, 105. 
Eamslaw Creek, 147. 
Ea m s l aw, Mt., 147, 145, 

Earnslaw, Mt., Glaciers, 

Earthquake Flat, Waio- 

tapu, 27. 
Eastmere Lake, 150. 
Eden, Mt., Auckland, 3,1a 
Edendale, 126. 
Edgecombe, Mt., 24. 
Edward's Creek, 1 14. 
Edwardson Sound, 155. 
Egmont, Mt., 57, 60, 61, 

67, 68. See also New 

Plymouth and Tara- 

Egmont, Mt., Ascent of, 

Egmont Boad, New Ply- 
mouth, 63. 

Eketahuna, 46, 44. 

Elderslie, Otago, 108. 

Elevation, 80. 

Elfin Bay, Wakatipu, 145. 

Ellerslie, Auckland, 10. 

Ellesmere, Lake, 102. 

Endeavour, The, 155. 

Erewhon, 44. • 

Esk B., 37. 

Evans' Creek, 132. 

Eyre, Lt-Qovr., 76, 148. 

Eyre Mts., 143, 148. 

Explosion Craters, Waio- 
tapu, 27. 


Facile Harbour, 155. 
Fairbanks Glacier, 116. 
Fairfax, 139. 
Fairlie, [7], 113, 106, 112. 




Fairlight, 143. 
Fairy Baths, Wairakei,33. 
Falloon^ Mr.^ 39. 
Fantham Peak, Mt. Eg- 

mont, 66. 
Famdon, 44. 
Featherston^ Dr.y 73, 
Featherston, 47. 
Feilding, 73. 
Fendalton, 95. 
Fergaa Lake, 146. 
Ferfu in N. Z., [30H34]. 
Fern Flat, 85. 
Femhill Coal Pit, 134. 
Fish, [u], [45], [62\. 
Fish B., 137. 
Fitz Gerald, Mr. J. E., 

Fitz Roy, Governor, [56]. 
Fitz Boy, New Plymouth, 

Fitz Boy, Port, Qreat 

Barrier, 5. 
Five Fingers Penlnsala, 

Five Mile Beach, 134. 

Five Mile Bluff, 134. 

Five Bivers, 142, 149. 


Flagstaff Hill, Dunedin, 

Flagstaff Hill, Bussell, 7. 
Flagstaff Hill, Wanganui, 

Flax, Native, [6i]. 
Flaxboume, 93. 
Flock Hill, 91. 
Floi^a, Alpine, in, 113, 90, 

Fiora ofN. Z., [38H30]. 
Forbes Mts., 146. 
Fordell, 72. 
Forest Beserve, Mt. Eg- 

mont, 63, 65. 
Forest Trees in K. Z., [35]- 

Forks B., 114. 
Fortrose, 136. 
Fox Glacier, 134, 135. 
Fox, Sir Wm., 73. 
Four Bivers Plain, 85. 
Foxhill, 84. 
Foxton, 74. 
Foveaux Straits, 118, 136, 

139, 140, 149, 154. 
Franklin, Mt., 83, 85. 
Frankton, u, 53. 
Franz Joseph Glacier, 133, 

Fraser, Major, 37. 
Freezing Works, [60], 43, 

45, 47, 63, 73, 80, 95, 106, 

107, 134. 
French Pass, The, 79. 
French Settlemsnt at Aka- 

roa, 102, 96. 
Freshwater B., 141. 
Frosty Greek, 132. 
FruU in N. Z., [61]. 
Funnel, The, Wairakei,33. 
Fusiama Mt., 57. 
Yyffe Mt., 93. 


Ghiibriel*8 Gully, 137, 119. 
Galatea, 53. 
Galway Bluffy 134. 
Gap Greek, 136. 
Gate Pa, The, [57], 13. 
Geology ofN. Z., [i5H38]. 
George Sound, 156, 150, 153. 
Geraldine, 105. 
Geyser Valley, Wairakei, 


Geysers, Orakeikorako,39. 

Geysers, Botorua, 17. 

Giant's Galdron, Whaka- 
rewarewa, 18. 

Gilflllan, Mrs., [56], 71, 72. 

Gillespie's, 134, 135. 

Gillespie's Bluff, 134. 

Girl's GoUege, Wanganui, 

Girls' High School, Christ- 
church, loa 

Girls' High School, Dune- 
din, I30. 

Girls' High School,Kelson, 

Girls' High School, WeU- 

ington, 77. 
Gisbome, [5], [58], 41, 25, 

38, 43, 43. 
Gladstone, Bt. Hon. W. E.,4. 
Glacier action, no, in, 115. 
Glaciers :-^ 

Balfour, 134, 135. 

Ball, 114, 115, 116. 

Brewster, 137. 

Bryant, 145. 

Ghadwick, 66, 6j, 

Countess, 115. 

Dart, 145. 

David, 137. 

Fairbanks, 116. 

Fox, 134, 135. 

Franz Joseph, no, 133. 

Godley, no. 

Hochstetter, 114. 

Hooker, 115, no. 

Jervois, 151, 153. 

Glaciers— contd. 

Mt. Eamslaw, 147. 

Mt. BoUeston, 90, 91. 

Mueller, no, 115. 

Murchison, no. 

Stocking, 115. 

Tasman, 115, no, 114, 
Glasgow, Earl of, [58]. 
Glendhu Bay, 139, 13a 
Glenmark, 94. 
Glenoxnam, 125. 
Glenorchy, 146, 145. 
Glenore, 127. 
Glen Tanner, 114. 
Gloucester, 8. 
Goblin Bu£^ Mt. Egmont, 

Godley Glacier, no. 

Godley Statue, Christ- 
church, 98. 

Gold Mining, [62]. 

Gold, Mt., 129. 

Golden Bay, [54], 88. 

Gomorrah, 18. 

Goose Cove, 155. 

Gordon R, Westland, 132. 

Gordon's Elnob, Ne]son,85. 

Gore, [7], 126. 

Gor^, Sir J., 53. 

Government Building, 
Dunedin, 119. 

Government Buildings, 
Nelson, 82. 

Government Buildings, 
Wellington, 77. 

GK>vemment House, Auck- 
land, 2. 

GTovemment House, Well- 
ington, 76. 

Government cfN. Z., [58]. 

Governor's Bush, Mt. 
Cook, 115. 

Grace, Rev. T., 39. 

Gra4x, Rev. W., 49. 

Grammar School, Auck- 
land, 2. 

Grammar School, Par- 
nell, 4. 

Grampian Mts., 113. 

Grand View, Mt., 129. 

Granity Greek, 85. 

Grassmere, Lake, 91. 

Grayling's Clearing, New 
Plymouth, 62. 

Greatford, 73. 

Grebe Arm, Manapouri, 

Green Hills,Marlborough, 

Green Lake, Botorua, 20. 



Green Lane, Auckland, la 
Green, Rev. W, 8.y [6], 116, ! 

Greenhill, Southland, 159. 
Greenstone S., 145. 
Grey Coal Mining Co.y 87. 
Greymoath, [7], 87, 84, 88, 

Gr0jr R, 87. 

Grey, Sir G., [53], [$61 [57I 
2, 18, 58, 59, 70, 7h 74» 96. 
Greytown,Wellington, 47. 
Greytown, Otago, 125. 
Grove, The, 79. 
Guard, Oapt,, 59. 
Gonn, Lake, 146. 


Haast Pass, 137, no, 126, 

Haast R, 131, 136, 137. 

Haast, Sir Juliue von, 98, 

Hadfleld, Bp., 74. 
Hakateramea, 107. 
Hakiteknra, 134. 
Halcombe, 73. 
Half Moon Bay, 14a 
Half Way Bay, Wakatipn, 


Half Way Bluif, West- 
land, 136. 

Half Way Bush, Dunedin, 
118, 123. 

Hall's Ann, 155, 153. 

Halswell, 95. 

Hamilton, 11. 

Hampden, 108. 

Hamurana Spring, 22. 

Hananui, Mt., 14a 

Hangatahna R, 64. 

Hangatiki, 55. 

Hankinson, Lake, 150. 

Hanmer Plains, 94, 84, 87. 

Hanmer Springs, 94, loi. 

Happy YaUey, 81, 83. 

Hapuka R, 93. 

HapuTona, 61. 

Harbour Works, Grey- 
mouth, 87. 

Harbour Works, Napier, 

Harbour Works, New 

Plymouth, 61. 

Harbour Works, Oamaru, 

Harbour Works, Timam, 

Harbour Works, West- 
port, 86. 

Hardy, Mt., 39. 

Harper, Bp., 97. 

Harper Creek, Mt. Cook, 

Harris, Lake, 146. 
Harris Mts., 129. 
Harrison Gove, 157. 
Hastings, 45, 43. 
Hauhauitm, [51], [57], 39, 

49i 5a. 
Hauraki Gulf, i, 5. 

Hauroto, Lake, 14CX 

Havelock, Hawke's Bay, 

81, 78, 79, 83. 
Havelock, Otago, 127. 
Hawai Stream, 39. 
Hawaiki, [4], [46}, [48], 3, 8, 

49, 148. 
Hawea Flat, 129, 130L 
Hawea, Lake, [7], 130, 88, 

128, 129, 147. 
Hawea R, 139. 
Hawera, 68, 64, 66, 69. 
Hawke, Sir Ed., 42. 
Hawke's Bay, [57], 42, 43. 
Hawkesbury, 108. 
Hawkeswood, 93. 
Hawthorne, 117. 
Hayes, Lake, 144. 
Hayletts, 139. 
Heathcote R, loa 
Hector Mts., 143. 
Hector, Sir J., [15], 156. 
Heke, [56], 7. 
Heketeramea Pass, 114. 
Helensville, 9, 6. 
Hemo Gk>rge, 28. 
Henderson, 5. 
Henley, 125, 124. 
Herbert, 108. 
Hercules, Mt., 132. 
Herd, Capt., 9. 
Herd's Point, 9, 8. 
Heretaunga, 47. 
Heriot, 126. 
Hermitage, The, Mt. Cook, 

[81 fel "5i "o, I "7 "3, 
114, 116, 128. 

Heron's Nest,Wairakei,3i. 

Hicks' Bay, 40. 

Hicks, Lieut., 4a 

High School, Oamaru, 107. 

Highfield, 93. 

Hikurangi, 6. 

Hikurangi, Mt., 40. 

Hikutaia R, 14. 

Hindon, 124. 

Hinds R, 105. 

Hinemaiai Stream, 48. 

Hinemoa, Legend of, 18-21. 

Hinemoa's Bock, 28. 

Hiruharama, 52. 
Hobart, [3], [6]. 
HobJtouse, Bp., 82. 
Hobson Bay, 3. 
Hobeon, Governor, [55], 2. 
Hobson, Mt., 3. 
Hochstetter, Di\, 49. 
Hochstetter Dome, 116. 
Hochstetter Glacier, 1 14. 
Hocken, Dr., 121. 
Hokianga, 8, 6, 102. 
Hokianga R, 8. 
Hokitilus 88, 84, 89, 126, 

»3i, i3a» I33» »36- 
Hokonui Mts., 138, 142. 
Home Creek, 149. 
Hongi, [51], [54], 8, 14, 22, 

38» 40, 54, 57- 
Honolulu, [1], [2]. 

Hooker Glacier, 115, no. 

Hooker R, 115. 

Hooker Valley, 115, 114. 

Hooper's Inlet, 122. 

Hope, 83. 

Hope, Mt., 85. 

Hope R, 85. 

Hope Saddle, 84. 

Horeke, 8, 6. 

Hornby Junction, 104. 

Horohoro, Mt., 28. 

Horsley Down, 94. 

Hot Water Falls, Tikitere, 

HoteU in N. Z., [ill 
Houldsworth, Mt., 47. 
Howden, Lake, 146. 
Hua, 61. 
HuddleeUm, Mr. F. F. C, 

ii5» "6. 
Huddleston, Mt., 116. 
Huirangi, 62. 
Huka Falls, 34. 
Hulme, Col., 8. 
Humboldt Mts., 145, 146. 
Humphries Castle, Mt. 

Egmont, 63, 64. 
Hunt's Beach, 135. 
Himt's Creek, 135. 
Hunterville, 73, 53, 56. 
Huntly, II. 
Huntress' Creek, 39. 
Hurunui Pass, no. 
Hurunui B., 94, iia 
Hutt, Lower, Wellington, 

47, 77- 
Hutt, Mr., 47. 

Hutt, Mt., Canterbury, 104. 

Hutt R, Wellington, 47. 

Hutt, Upper, Wellington, 

Hyde, 125. 



lanthe, Lake, 132. 

Ice Gave, Mt. Egmont, 64. 

InaJdj 51. 

Inangidiaa Junction, 86, 

Inangahna B., 86. 
Indian Island, 155. 
InduHriei cf N. Z., [60}- 

Inferno, Tikitere, 32. 
Inglewood, 67. 
Insects in N. Z., [45]. 
Institute, Public, Kelson, 

Invercargill, [8], 138-14 1, 

119, 124, 127, 142, 151. 
Irishman Greek, 114. 
Ironsand, 5, 61, 127. 
Ironside J Rev. Mr.^ 80. 
Island Bay, Welling^n, 

Island Block, 127. 

Islands, Bay of, 7, 6, 57, 



Jackson's Bay, 136. 

Jacob's Bluff, 135. 

Jacob's R., 135. 

Jacobs^ Rev. H.y 99. 

Jerusalem, 52. 

Jervois Glacier, 151, 152. 

JervoiSy Sir TFm., 76, 119. 

Jockey Glub, Auckland, 10. 

John, Mt., 114. 

John Wickliffe^ The^ 118. 

Johnsonville, 75, 47. 

Jollie's Pass, 84. 

Joshua's Spa, 35. 

Judah, Mt., 147. 

Judge's Bay, Auckland, 4. 

Julius f Bp., 98. 

Justice^ Administration C(/, 


Kaeo B., 8. 

Kai Iwi, 70. 

Kaiapoi, [53], 94, 95, loi, 
102, 108. 

Kaihu, 9. 

Kalkora, Hawke's Bay, 45. 

Kaikorai Valley, Dune- 
din, 124. 

Kaikoura, Marlborough, 

[7], [53I 93» 92, loi. 
Kaikoura Mts., Marl- 
borough, 93. 

Kaimanawa Mts., 5a 
Kaingaroa Plains, 36. 
Kaipara Heads, 9, 6. 
Kaipara B., 9. 
Kairau, 61. 

Kaitangata, Otago, 125. 
Kaitangata, Wanganui B. , 

Kaitarau, Mt., 93. 

Kaitoke, 47. 

Kaituna Valley, 81. 

Kaiwaka B., 24. 

Kaiwarra, 47. 

Kakaramea Mt.,Taupo,49. 

Kakaramea, Mt., Waio- 

tapu, 27. 
Kakepuku hill, 54. 
Kamo, 6. 
Kanieri, 131. 
Kanieri, Lake, 89. 
Kapiti Island, [52], 74, 102, 

Kaponga, 67. 
Kapuni B., 65, 66^ 67. 
Karaitea, 52. 
Karangarua B., 135. 
Karapiti, Wairakei, 34. 
Karioi, 50, 44, 49, 56. 
Karori, 77. 
Katikati, 14. 
Kaupokonui B, 66. 
Kauri gum^ [62]. 
Kawakawa, 7, 6, 8. 
Kawarau B., 128, 130, 143. 
Kawau, 62. 
Kawau, Island of, 11. 
KawharUy 9. 
Kawhia, [52]. 
Kawiti^ 6. 

Kea Point, Mt. Gook, 115. 
Kekerangu, 92. 
Kendall's Cascade, Mt. 

Egmont, 66. 
Kereru Geyser, 18. 
Keri Keri, 8. 
Kermadec Islands, 5. 
Ketetahi, Tongariro, 49. 
Key, The, 149, 148, 15a 
Khandallah, 75. 
Kidnappers, Cape, 43. 
Kihikihi, 54. 
Kilbimie, 77. 
*King Country,' The, [7], 

Kingston, [7], 142, 144. 

Kinloch, 145, 146, 147. 
Kiriohinekai Stream, 

Wairakei, 29, 34. 
Kirwee, 91. 
Kiwi Flat, 137. 
Koheroa, 10. 

Kohimarama, 4. 
Kohukohu, 9. 
Koriniti, 52. 
Korokiwhiti, 134. 
Koromiko, 80. 
Kororareka, [56], 7. 
Korotiotio Bath, Whaka- 

rewarewa, 17. 
Kowai B., 91. 
Kumara, [8], [63], 88, 89. 
Kumeu, la 
Kuputai, 109. 
Kuripapanga, 44, 43. 
Kurow, [7], n6, 107, 108, 

112, 114, 117. 
Kyber Pass, Auckland, i. 
Kyebum, 125. 

L^Aube^ 102. 

La Perouse, Mt., 134. 

Lake Boad, 53. 

Lance J Mr. J. £>., 94. 

Landsborough B., 137. 

Larkins, Mt., 144. 

Lavaudy Capt., 102. 

Lawrence, [7], [63], 127, 125, 

Leader B, 93. 

Leaning Peak, Mana- 
pouri, 150. 

Leaning Bock, Dunstan 
Mts., 144. 

Lennox Falls, 147. 

Leo Island, Te Anau, 151. 

Levels, 113. 

Levin, 74. 

Library,Free, Auckland,2. 

Library, Parliamentary, 
Wellington, 77. 

Library, Public, Christ- 
church, 100. 

Library, Public, Kelson, 

Library, Public, Wanga- 
nui, 72. 

Lichfield, 12, 28. 

Lightning Pool, Wairakei, 

Lincoln, loi. 

Lindis Pass, 129. 

Lindis Valley, 129. 

Literature concerning N.Z.^ 

Little Man B., 132. 
Little B., 102, loi. 
Little Wanganui B, 

Westland, 132. 
Livingstone Goldfield,io8. 
Lloyd^ Captf 68. 
Lochy B., 143. 



London, 52. 

Long Island, Dnsky 

Sound, 155. 
Long Island, Wakatipn, 

Long Slip Creek, ia8. 

Long Sound, 154, 153. 

Longbeach, 105. 

Longburn, 73, 74. 

Longford, 85, 84. 

Longwood, 14a 

Longwood Hts., 138. 

Lookers-on Mts., 93. 

Lord Wortileyy The^ 69. 

Lovelies Flat, 125. 

Lndemann's Station, 146. 

Lnmsden, [7], 143, 126. 

Lyell, 85, 86. 

Lyndon, Lake, 91. 

Lynwood Station, 149. 

Lyttelton, [5], [7], loo, 78, 

96, 97, loi, 193, 118. 

Lyttelton Tunnel, [58],ioa 

Mabel, Mt., 115, 116. 
Mackenzie Plid^, 113. 
Mackey's Bluff, Nelson 

j^trbour, 82. 
Macquarie Island, 141. 
Macrae^s Mat, 108. 
Madame Bachel's Bath, 

Botorua, 17, 29. 
Mahakapawa, 79. 
MiUieno, 108. 

Mahinapua, Lake, 89, 132. 
Mahitahi B., 135. 
Mahoetahi, 61. 
Mahurangi Heads, 5, 6, 
Mair, Major^ 39. 
Makarewa, 139, 142. 
Makarewa B., 138. 
Makarera, 129, 137. 
Makarora B., iii, 137. 
Makawiho B., 135. 
Maketu, [52], 38, 23. 
Jfonata, 57. 

Manaia, Mt., Auckland, 9. 
Manaia, New Plymouth, 

69, 66, 67. 
Manakaiau B., 135. 
Manakan Harbour, [52], 4, 

5, «o. 56. 
Manapouri, Lake, [7], 149, 

139. Hh »54» 155. 
Manapourika, Lake, 133. 

'Manawatu County, 73. 

Manawatu €k>rge, 46, 73. 

Manawatu B., 46. 

Manawatu Bly., 74, 75, 76. 
* Manchester Block,' 73, 46. 
Mangakopikipiki Yuley, 

Manganui Gorge, 65, 66, 

Manga-nui-o-te-ao B., 52. 

Mangaoraka Stream, 63. 

Mangatenuka B., 46. 

Mangaungaunga, Mt., 27. 

Mangles B., 85. 

Mangorei Boad, New Ply- 
mouth, 62, 65. 

ManiapotOj 61. 

Maning, Judge, 9. 

Manuka, 127. 

Manuka Isltuid, Wanaka, 

Manukorihi, 62. 

Manupirua Spring, Boto 
Iti, 23. 

Maori lake, 136. 

Maori Words, Lift of, {53]. 

Maoris, History of the, 


Mapourika, 133. 

Mapoutahi, 109. 

Maraenui, 39. 

Marahau, 70. 

Mararoa B., 139, 149. 

Margaret Fall, 151. 

Marlborough, Province of, 
[57], 80, 82. 

Marsden, Bev, Mr,, [51], 8. 

Marshall, Dr., 59. 

Marshmd Hill, New Ply- 
mouth, 60. 

Martin, Sir Wm., [45], 4. 

Martin's Bay Track, 146. 

Martinborough, 47. 

Marton, 72, 51, 53, 67, 

Marton Junction, 73. 

Maxuia B., 85. 

Marybum B., 114. . 

Maryhill, Dunedin, 117. 

Mason Bay, Stewart 
Island, 141. 

Mason B., Nelson, 93. 

Massacre Point, Akaroa, 

Masterton, [7], 46, 44, 47, 
76, 78. 

Matahiwi, 45. 

Matahoura canoe, 57. 

Matai B., 83. 

Matakauri, 143. 

Matakitaki, New Ply- 
mouth, [52], 54. 

Matakitaki Mts., West- 
land, 136. 

Matakitaki B., Nelson, 95. 

Matamata, 12. 

Matarawa, 71, 72. 
Matata, 38. 
Matatapu B., 130. 
Maiau, 143. 
Mataura, 126. 
Mataura B., 126, 142. 
Matawhaura, 23. 
Matawhero, 41. 
Maten^ 52. 
Matiri Bluffs, 85. 
Matiri B., 85. 
Matukituki Bay, Wanaka, 

Matukituki B., 13a 
Maungaharuru Mts., 37. 
Maungakawa, Mt., 12. 
Maungamanu, 93. 
Maunganui Bluff, 9. 
Maungapiko B., 54. 
Maungatapu, 81. 
Maungatapu B., 83. 
Maungatautari Mts., 12. 
Maungatawhiri B., la 
Maungatua Stream, 46. 
Maung^aho, Mt., 9. 
Maurioeville, 46. 
Mavora Lakes, 144, 149. 
Mawhere, 88. 
M'^Andrew, Mr. J., 119. 
McDonnell, Col, [58]. 
M^'Kellar, Lake, 146. 
McKelvie, Mr., 2. 
M<^Kerrow, Lake, 146. 
M^Kerrow, Mts., 129. 
McKinnon, Mr., 150. 
Medbury, 94. 
MeUmesian Mission, 4. 
Mercer, 11, la 
Mercer, Capt., 11. 
Meremere, 10, 11. 
Mesopotamia, 105. 
Messageries MariHmes Cie, 

Metd Kingi, 52. 

Methven, 104. 

Middle Fiord, Te Anan, 

Middlemarch, 125, 108, 124, 


Midland Bly. Co., 87. 

Midwinter Island, Mana- 
pouri, 150. 

M^onui B., 132. 

Milford Sound, [7], 156, 88, 

>48, 15I1 15a, 153. 
Mill Boad, 127. 
MiUbum, 125. 
MHton, 125, 127. 
Mimi Valley, 62. 
Minarets, 129. 
Mineral Waters, [aiH^]> 



Minerals in N. Z., [62]. 
MisHmaries, [50], [54]. 
Mitchell, Mr.W.S., 148, i5»- 
Mitre Peak, 157. 
ModU, [16], [45], 68, 94, 98, 

100, 137. 
Moawhanga, 44, 43. 
Moeraki, Otago, ic8. 
Moeraki Lake, Westland, 

Moeraki B., Westland, 136. 

Mojffht^ 51. 
Mohaka, 41. 
Mohaka B., 37. 
Mohakateno B., 62. 
Mokau E., 38, 55, 56, 62. 
M6ke Creek, 143. 
Moke Lake, 144. 
Mokoia Island, Botorua, 

[52], 18, 13, 16, 
Mokotua, 139. 
Mokotnku, 45. 
Molinenx, Port, 135. 
Molinenx B., 135. See also 

Clutha B. 
Monastery, Ghristcbnrch, 

Monowai, Lake, 140. 
Monument Arm, Mana- 

pouri, 15a 
MoorJunise^ Mr. W. S.^ 99, 

Moorhonse Mts., 115. 
Moorhonse Statne, Christ- 
church, 99. 
Morany Bp., lao. 
MorioriSj 103. 
Momingfton, Dunedin, 117. 
Morrinsville, 13, 15. 
Morven Hill, 139. 
Mosgiel, 123, 135. 
Mossburn, 148, 143. 
Motaremo, 9. 
Mototaiki Island, 48. 
Motu B., 39. 
Motueka, 83, 83. 
Motueka B., 84, 85. 
Motuihi, 14. 
Motupiko Valley, 84. 
Moturoa, $7* 
Motutapu, 3. 
Mouniiford, Mr.j 96. 
Moutoa Island, 53, 73. 
Mud Crater, Great, Waio- 

tapu, 38. 
Mud Volcano, Waiotapu, 

Mud Volcanoes, Wairakei, 

Mueller Glacier, 115, no. 
Mulest -Bp., 82. 

Mulloky Gully Viaduct, 

Mnngatua Mts., 135. 
Murchison Glacier, iia 
Murchison, Mt., 85. 
Murumutu Plain, 50, 53. 
Museum, Auckland, 3. 
Museum, Christchurch, 

Museum, Dunedin, 121. 

Museum, Inyercargill,i38. 

Museum, Napier, 43. 

Museum, Oamaru, 107. 

Museum, Wellington, jj, 

Myers' track, 135. 


Nancy Sound, 156. 
Nanto - Bordelaiae Com- 
pany, [55], 96, I03. 

Napier, [5], [7], [8], 43-44, 

a8, 35, 36, 37, 38, 40, 4», 

Naseby, [63], 108, 125, 128. 

Native College, Te Aute, 

Native Schools, Napier, 43. 

Natives, See Maoris. 

Nelson, [5], [7], [8], [56]. 81- 
83, »5, 79. 84, 85, 87, 92, 
103, 118. 

Nelson, Port of, 82, 79, 

Nerger, Mt., 136. 

Neville, Bp., 13a 

New Brighton, Christ- 
church, 100, 95. 

New Edinburgh Settlement, 
The, 118. 

New Leinster, [55], 140. 

New Munster, [55], [56], 

New Plymouth, [5], [7], [56], 

[57I 57-60, 35, 67, 68, 70, 
83, 118. See also Mt. £g- 
mont, and Taranaki. 

New Biver, 138. 

New Ulster, [55], [56], 2. 

Newcastle, 129. 

Newmarket, i, 3, 10. 

Newton, 3. 

Ngahauranga, 47. 

Ngaire, 68, 60, 64, 65. 

Ngaitahu, 88, 118, 132, 133, 

Ngakawau, 86. 

Nga Mahanga, Wairakei, 

Ngamotu, 57, 61. 

Ngapara, 108, 107. 

Ngaporo rapid, 52. 

Ngapuhi, [51], 9, 14, 57. 
Nga roto, 53. 
Ngaruawahia, [57], 11. 
Ngaruhoe, Mt., 49, 63, 64, 


Ngaruro B., 44. 

Ngaruroro B., 44. 

Ngatapa [59]. 

Ngatiatca, 57, 62. 

Ngatimamoe, 88, 118, 122, 
134, 148, 156. 

Ngatimaru, [52], 14. 

Ngatirakawa, [53]. 

Ngaiiruanui, 103. 

Ngatitoa, [52], 88. 

Ngatoroirangi, 49. 

Ngatuku, Mt., 28. 

Ngauruhoe, legend of, 49. 

Ngawapurua, 46. 

Ngongataka Mt., 33. 

Nicholas, Mt., 144, 145. 

Nicholl's Creek, Dunedin, 

Nicholson, Port, 76. 

Nightcaps, 139, 142. 

Nihotapu FslIIs, 5. 

Nissen's Bluff, 137. 

' Nobody knows what,' 155. 

Normal Schools, Christ- 
church, icxx 

Normanby, New Ply- 
mouth, 68, 69. 

Normanby, Dunedin, 117. 

Norris's Gully, 84. 

Northern SS. Co., [5]. 

North Fiord, Te Anau, 150. 

North Shore, Auckland, 4. 

Nugget Point, 154. 

Nuggets, 125. 

Nukumaru, Wanganni, 70. 

Nukumaru Xiake, New 
Plymouth, 57. 

N. Z. A Australian Land 
Co., 113, 126. 

N. Z. & Australian SS, Co., 

N. Z. Company, [53], [55], 

76, 80, 96, 109, 1 18. 
N. Z., Description of, [13], 

N. Z. Shipping Co., [3], [4]. 


Oakura, [57], 68, 61. 
Oamaru, [7], 107, 104, 108, 

109, 113, 117. 
Oamaru Stone, 107, 116, 119. 
Oban, 140. 
Ocean Beach, Dunedin « 

123, 117, 119, 154. 



Ohaeawai, 8. 
Ohakeho, 69. 
Ohakuni, 50, 56. 
Ohan, Wellixigton, 74. 
Ohau Channel, Botonia, 

Ohau Hill, Marlborough, 

Ohau, Lake, Canterbury, 

114, 116. 
Ohau B., 116. 
Ohanpo, 53. 
Ohei rapid, 51. 
Ohinemnri, 14. 
OhinenLatTi,i5, 22, 23, 26, 27. 
Ohiwa, 39. 
Ohnra B., 51. 
Oil Bath, Whakarewa- 

rewa, 17. 
Oinetamatea Creek, 135. 
Okaihau, 8. 
Okarito, 133. 
Okarito B., 133. 
Okaro, Lake, 25. 
Okato, 68. 
Okoroire, 12. 
Oknrawai Springs, Wai* 

rakei, 34. 
Okuru Mts., 136. 
Okom B., 136. 
Omahu, 43. 

Omaha Boad, Napier, 43. 
Omaio, 39. 
Omapiri, 6, 9. 
Omapiri Lake, 8. 
Omarama, [7], 116, 108, no, 

112, 114, 128. 
Omaramntu B., 39. 
Omaranni, [58], 43. 
Omoeroa Bluff, 134. 
One Tree Hill, 3. 
Onehunga, [5], 5, 10, 56. 
Onetapn desert, 5a 
Ongaruha B., 51, 56. 
Onoki, 9. 

Opahi R, Canterbury, 113. 
Opaki, Wellington, 46. 
Opaki Plain, Wellington, 

Opanaki, Auckland, 9, 6. 
Opawa, Christchurch, loa 
Opawa B., Marlborough, 

Open Bay Islands, 136. 
Opepe, 36. 

Opoho, Dunedin, 123. 
Opotiki, [58], 39, 38. 
Opua, 6, 7. 
Opunaki, New Plymouth, 

Ors^u Pa, [57], 53. 

Orakeikorako, 29, 27. 
Orari, 105. 

Orepuki, 140, 139, 142. 
Oreti B., 139, 142, 148. 
Orient 88. Co., [21(3], 
Ormondville, 45. 
Oropi, 14. 
Oroua Bridge, 74. 
Oroua Downs, 74. 
Orphan Home, Pamell, 4. 
Orpheus, Wreck of The, 56. 
Oruanui, 29. 
Otago, 118, 79, 106, 109, 116, 

119, 138. 
Otago Central Ely., 124, 108. 
Otago University, The, 121, 

118, 119. 
Otahuhu, la 

Otaki, Wellington, [53], 74. 
Otakou, Ihinedin, 122, 118. 
Otamarakau, ^ 
Otamatata, 116. 
Otautau, 139, 148. 
Otira Gorge, [8], 90, 78, 88, 

89, 103. 
Otorohanga, 55. 
Oanuora, 7. 
Outram, 125. 
Overton, 73. 
Owaka, 125, 126. 
Owen, Mt., 85, 
Owen B., 85. 
Owhaoku, 44. 
Oxbnm B., 146. 
Oxford, Auckland, 12, 10, 

i4i 15- 
Oxford West, Canterbury, 



P. and O. 88. Co. [2]. 

Pack-horse Mud Geyser, 
Wairakei, 31. 

Paeroa Bange, 28. 

Pahautanui, [56]. 

Pahia, Auckland, 8. 

Pahia Flat,Southland, 140. 

Pahiatua, 46. 

Paikakariki, 74. 

Pairoa, 14. 

Pakarae, 41. 

Pakeraka, 8. 

Pakihi, 14. 

Pahnerston, Otago, 108. 

Palmerston, North, Well- 
ington, 73, 46, 70, 78, 

Papakaio Plain, 117. 

Papanui, Christchurch,95. 

Papanui, Dunedin, 132. 

Paparoa Mts., Westland, 

Paparoa Bapids, Wan- 

ganui B., 51. 
Paradise, 146. 
Parakino, 52. 
Paranihinihi, 63. 
Paranini Cliffs, 64. 
Parawai, 14. 
Parehaka, 60, 68. 
Pareheru hill, 27. 
Parakohuru, Whakarewa- 

rewa, 17. 
Paremata, 74. 
Pareora B., 106. 
Paringa Lake, 135. 
Paringa B., 135, 
Paritutu, 61. 
Park, Nelson, 82. 
Parks, Auckliaind, 3. 
Parks, Christchurch, 99, 

Parker's Greek, 133. 
Parliamentary Buildings, 

Wellington, jj^ 
Parnassus, 93. 
Pamell, 4, 3. 
Parson's Book, 116. 
Patea, Hawke's Bay, 4.^. 
Pat6C^ New Plymouth, 60, 

Paterson Inlet, 14a 
Patetere plain, 13. 
Paiterson, Bp., 4. 
Pearson, Lake, 91. 
Peel Forest, 105. 
Peel, Mt., 105. 
Pegasus, Port, 141. 
Pelorus Sound, 81. 
Pembroke, Lake Wanaka, 

129, 127, 130, 144. 
Pembroke Peak, Milford 

Sound, 157. 
Peninsula, Dunedin, 122. 
Peninsula, Wanaka, 129. 
Penrose, la 
Petane B., Hawke's Ba>-, 

Petone, Wellington, 47, 76. 

Petrifying Geyser, Wai- 
rakei, 31. 

Petroleum workings, 
Waiapu, 4a 

Philip Laing, Hie, 1 18. 

Phoenix Mine, Skippers, 

H4i 145. 
Phormium tenax, [61]. 

Piako B., 12. 

Piako Swamp, 11, 53. 

Pickersgill Harbour, 155. 

Picton, [7], 78, 79. 



Pig^eon Bay, Banks* Penin- 

sala, loi. 
Pigeon Island, Wakatipn, 

Pigeon Island, Wanaka, 

Pihangi, Mt., 49, 51. 
Pine Hill, Dnnedin, 123. 
Pink Terrace, Botoma- 

hana, 16, 34, 35. 
Pipiriki, [57], 50, 49, 51, 56. 
Pipitea, Wellington, 76. 
Pirongia Mts., 54. 
Pirorirori Lake, Wairakei, 


Pisa Range, 138. 

Pitt Island, 103. 

Plantation Ledand, Wa- 
naka, 139. 

Pleasant Point, 113. 

' Plymouth Company of 
N. Z.,' TJie, 59. 

Poawha, Mt., 57. 

Poetry^Specimeru of Maoris 

Pohangina B., 46. 

Pohatnroa, Mt., 38. 

Pohiii, 37. 

Pohutu Geyser, 17, 18. 

Pomare^ 7. 

Pomona Island, Mana- 
pouri, 150. 

Ponakai Banges, 63, 64, 65. 

Ponsonby, Auckland, i, 3. 

Ponoi, 3, 14. 

Population ofN. Z., [59]. 

Porewa B., 73. 

Porirua, [53], [56], 74, 47. 

Porotaroa, 56. 

Port Chalmers, 109, 153, 154. 

Port Nicholson, 76. 

Porter B., 91. 

Porter's Pass, 91. 

Portland Island, 42. 

Portobello, 133, 117, 133. 

Potatau, King, [57], 54. 

Poteriteri Ls^e, 14a. 

Potiki, Wanganni, 71. 

Ponkawa, 49. 

Poverty Bay, 41. 

Poverty Bay Masaacre, [58]. 

Pratt, Gen., 61. 

Preservation Inlet, 154, 153. 

Priest's Bath, Botoma, 17. 

Primrose VtJla, Waiotapn, 

Prince of Wales' Feathers, 
Wairakei, 33. 

Provincial Council Cham- 
ber, Christchnrch, 97. 

Puarenga Creek, 17, 

Public Gardens, Christ- 
church, 99. 

Public Library, Christ- 
church, loa 

Public Library, Wan- 
ganni, 73. 

Pnhipnhi, 6. 

Pnkaki, Lake, [7], 114, no, 
113, 116, 138. 

Pukaki B., 114. 

Pnkearuhe, 63. 

Pnkekohe, la 

Pukekura, 133. 

Pnkerangiora, 5j, 62, 

Pukerau, Otctgo, 136. 

Puketakuere, 60, 63. 

Puketapu, Otago, 108. 

Puketapu Boad,Napier,44. 

Puketeraki, 109. 

Pukeuri Junction, 107, 1 17. 

Pungarehu, 68. 

Punui B., 55. 

Purakanul, 109. 

Puriri, 14. 

Pyke's Creek, 137. 


Queen Charlotte's Sound, 

[54], 78. 
Queen's Drive, Dunedin, 


Queenstown, [7], 143, 125, 
128, 130, 143, 144, 145, 156. 


Babbit Island, Wakatipu, 


Bace Course, New Ply- 
mouth, 60. 

Bace Courses, Wellington, 

Bohotu, 69. 

Railtoaya m N. Z., [6]. 

Bainbow, The, 84. 

Rainfall in N. Z., [14]. 

Bakaia B., 104. 

Bakiahua, Mt., 14a 

Bakiura, 14a 

Banana, 53. 

Bangatana Lake, 57. 

Bangatira, 73. 

Banges, Ponakai, 62, 64, 65. 

Bangihaeata, 74, 8u 

Bangiora, 94, 95. 

Bangipo Desert, 50. 

Rangirarunga, 58. 

Bangiriripa, [57], 11. 

Bangitaiki B., 36, 38. 

Bangitata B., 105. 

Bangitikei County, 73. 

Bangitikei B., 44, 73. 
Bangitoto Island, Auck- 
land, 4, 3, 14. 
Bangitoto, Mt., Westland, 

Ranunculus LyaUi, 90, 1 12. 
Rarawa, 9. 

Barotonga Island, 154. 
Baukokore, 4a 
Baukumara Mts., 4a 
Raumahora^ Legend of 58. 
Becreation Ground, New 

Plymouth, 60. 
Bed HiUs, Nelson, 85. 
Bedcliffe, Napier, 43. 
Beefton, [63], 87. 
Bees Biver, 147, 146. 
Refrigerating. See Freest- 

Religions ofN, Z:, [6o\ 
Religion, Old, of t?ie Maoris, 

U7I 54. 
Bemarkable Mts., 130, 143, 

Bemuera, Auckland, 3, 4. 

Benwick, 81. 

Beporua, 4a 

Bere Lake, 145. 

Rereanokea, 66. 

Beservoir, Dnnedin, 121. 

Beservoir, Nelson, 83. 

Besolution Island, 155, 156. 

Revji, 54. 

Bhoborough Downs Sta., 

Biccarton, 95, 96, loa 
Bichardson Mts., 144, 145, 

Bichmond, Christohurch, 

Bichmond, Nelson, 83, 84. 
Bio de Janeiro, [3]. 
Rivers ofN. Z., [15]. 
Biversdale, 126. 
Biverton, 140, 141. 
Boaring Bay, Otago, 135. 
Boaring BUly Creek, 

Haast B., 137. 
Bock and PUlar Bange, 

Bella Island, 155. 
BoUeston Junction,9i, 104. 
BoUeston, Mt., 90, 91. 
BoUeston, Mt., Glacier, 90, 

Bomanapa, 125. 
Bona Island, Manapouri, 

Bosa, Mt., 115, ii6w 
Boslyn, 122, 117, 123, 124. 
Boss, 132, 89, 131. 



Botherham, 94. 

Roto Aira, 51. 

Boto Iti, Auckland, 33, 16, 

18, 22, 

Boto Iti, Nelson, 85. 

Botoehn, 33. 

Botokakalii, 26, 34. 

Botokawa, Taupo, 36. 

Botokawaa, Botoma, 33. 

Botokino Mat, 133. 

Botoma, 33. 

BotomiUiana, 36, 33, 34, 35, 

Botomakariri, 34, 35. 

Botoroa, Nelson, 88. 

Botoma, Anckland, [7], [8], 
15-38, lo, 13, 13, 35, 53. 

Botoma B., Nelson, 85. 

Botottd, Wanaka, 139. 

Bough Creek, 133. 

Boutebnm Valley, 146. 

Eoutea to N. Z., [1H5]. 

Boxboxgh, [7], 137, 138. 

Bnahine Mte., Welling- 
ton, 45, 73. 

Bnahine, Southland, 14a 

Buahine, Tikitere, 33. 

Buakura, 13. 

Buamahunga B., 46. 

Buapehu, Ht., 13, 15, 34, 

35i 44i 49» 50, 53, 57» 63, 

64, 65, 7h 72. 
Buapekapeka, [56], 6, 7. 
Buapuke Island, 139, 154. 
Bnataniwha plain, 45. 
Buawahia, 34, 35. 
Bugged Banges Sta., 116. 
Bukuhia Swamp, 53. 
Bunaway, Cape, 4a 
Bununga Plain, 36. 
Burima Bocks, Matata, 38. 
Bussell, 7, 6. 
Bye Valley, 81. 


Saddle Hill, 134. 
Safe Cove, Te Anau, 151. 
Saltwater Creek, 135. 
San Francisco, [i]. 
Sanatorium, Botoma, 16, 

Sandhurst, 117. 

Sanson, 74. 

Saunders, Cape, 133, 154. 

Saunders, Sir Chas., 122. 

Sawyer's Bay, Dunedin, 


Scandinavicm SetUemenU, 

45, 46. 
Scheelite Mine, 147. 

School of Art, Christ- 
church, 99. 

Scinde Island, 37. 

Scotch Colony, Association 
for Promoting, 118. 

ScoU, Sir Gilbert, 97. 

Sea Cliff, 109. 

Seaward Bncdi, 139. 

Sebastopol, 114. 

Secretary Island, 155. 

Seeley Mts., 115. 

Sealey Pass, 133. 

Sefton, 94. 

Sefton, Mt., 114, 115. 

Sdwyn, Bp., [56], 4, 8, 95, 

97, 133. 

Selwyn B., 104. 

Sentinel Peak, 139. 

Sentry Hill, 67. 

Shag Point, 108. 

Shannon, 74. 

Shato Savill and Albion 

SS. Co., [3], [4]. 
Sheep in N. Z., [60]. 
Sheffield, 91. 
Ship Creek, 136. 
Shotover B., 144, 145. 
* Siberia,' 47. 

Signal Hill, Dunedin, 133. 
Simon's Pass, 114. 
Sinter Slope, Okakeiko- 

rako, 39. 
Skippers, 144, 145. 
Skippers' Track, 144. 
Smart, Mt., 3. 
Smith Sound, 155, 153. 
Sodom, 18. 

Solander Islands, 140, 154. 
Somers Mts., 105. 
Sounds, The, 153-157. 
South Fiord, Te Anau, 15a 
Southbridge, loi, 104. 
Southern Alps, 64, 89, no, 

131, i33i 154- 
Southland, [57], 138, 119, 

Southland Plain, 136. 
Spain, Mr. Commissioner, 

[56], 59, 80. 
Spencer Mts., 85. 
Spey B., 150. 
Spooner's Bange, 84. 
Sport in N. Z., [n], [13]. 
Spout Bath, Wliakarewa* 

rewa, 17. 
Spring Creek, 8a 
Springfield, 91, 94, 95. 
Springs, The, 91. 
St. Andrews, 106. 
St. Amaud Mts., 85. 
St. Clair, Dunedin, i33. 

St. John, Colonel, 36. 

St. John's Wood, Wan- 

ganui, 71. 
St. Paul's Arm, Mana- 

pouri, 15a 
St. Quentin Falls, 151. 
Stair Peak, 147. 
Stanley, Capt., 97, los. 
Starvation Gully, 91. 
Steam Hammer, Wai- 

rakei, 3a 
Steam-Hole, The Great, 

Wairakei, 34. 
Steam Ship Co., Northern, 

[5], 6. 
Stevoart, 102, 14a 
Stewart IsLajid, 140, 138, 

Stewart, Mr. Vesey, Special 

Settlements, 14, 38. 
Stirlii^, Otago, 135. 
Stirling Falls, Milford 

Sound, 157. 
Stocking Glacier, 115. 
Stoke, 83, 84. 
Stone Peak, 145, 147. 
Stoney Creek Stream, 37. 
Stony B, Mt. Egmont, 64. 
Stratford, 67, 65, 66. 
Strathtaieri Plain, 134. 
Stuart, Rev. Dr., i3o, 131. 
Studholme Junction, 106. 
Sugarloaf Hill, Canter^ 

bury, 91. 
Sugarloaf Hill, Botoma, 

^ Sugarloaves,' The, New 

Plymouth, 61, 63, 64. 
Sulphur Falls, Waiotapu, 

Sulphur Point, Botoma, 

17, 16, 
Sulphur Pool, Wairakei, 


Sulphur Springs, Wai- 
rakei, 34. 

Summit, 47. 

Sumner, 100, 95, loi. 

Supreme Court, Auck- 
land, 3. 

Supreme Court, Christ- 
church, 98. 

Supreme Court, Dunedin, 

Suter, Bp., 82, 83. 

Sutherland Falls, [7], 153, 

h8, 151. 153, ^57- 
Sutherland Sound, 156. 

Sutton, 134. 

Sroainson, Mr., 4. 

Sylvan Lake, 146. 




Taheke, Boto Iti, 23. 
Taiaroa Head, las, 118, 123, 


Taiaroa, The^ 9s. 

Taieri Month, 124. 

Taieri Plain, 123, 124. 

Taieri B., 124, 125. 

Taieri, Upper, 124. 

Taimui, 38. 

Taipo B., Westland, 9a 

Taima, 25. 

Takaka Valley, 83. 

Takapan, 45. 

Takapnna, Lake, 4, 5. 

rofcarongri, 58. 

Takitimn Mts., 138, 14& 

TWnaki B., 3. 

Tamati Waka Neme^ 7, 57. 

Tangarakan, 52. 

Tangitiroria, 9. 

Taonga^ 109. 

Tapuae B.,New Plymonth, 

Tapnaennka, Mt., Marl- 
borough, 92. 

Taputa^noi, 118. 

Tapuwaehamra, Lake 
Taupo, 35. 

Tapawaehamm, Boto Iti, 

Taranaki Mt., 52, 57. 

Taranaki Province, 59, 82. 
See dUo Mt. E^ont 
and New Plymouth. 

Taranaki Wars^ [57], 60, 68. 

Tararu, Auckland, 14. 

Tararoa Mts., Welling- 
ton, 47, 74. 

Tararua^ 2%e, 127. 

Tarawera, Lake, 24, 26. 

Tarawera, Mt., 23, 24, 25, 
26, 27. 

Tarawera Settlement, 
Hawke's Bay, 37, 36. 

Tarawera^ The^ 153, 155, 157- 

TareuxUy 122, 123. 

Tamdale, 84. 

Tarras Station, 129. 

Tamaroa B., 44. 

Taaman, [55]. 

Tasman Glacier, 115, no, 
114, 116. 

Tasman, Mt., 134. 

Tasman B., 114. 

Tasman Sea, [3]. 

Tasman Valley, 114, 116. 

Tataraimaka, 68. 

'Bauhara, Mt., 35, 36. 

Tauknpu B., 126. 

Tanmaranm, 51, 49, 50, 55, 

Taungata^^ Mt., 9. 
Tanpirl, 11. 
Tanpo, Lake, [7], [8], 35, lo, 

". «7, 36, 42, 43, 48, 51, 

5h 53» S7' 
Taurakopiore, 52. 
Tanranga, [51], 13, 14, 38. 
Tanranga^iaapo, 48. 
Tanrangaika Pa, 70. 
TanraroA, Auckland, 4. 
Tantukn Forest, 154. 
Tautokn B., 126. 
Tanwherikiti, Lake, 136. 
Tawa Hat, 75. 
Tawhiao, King, C5«l iS»l 

TayetOj 42. 

Te Anan, Lake, [7], 148- 
152, 140, 142, 154, 15S, 157. 

Te Arei, 61, 62. 

Te Ariki, 24. 

Te Aro, Wellington, 76, 47. 

Te Aroha, 14, 12, 15. 

Te Aroha, Mt., 15, 12. 

Te Ante, 45. 

Te Awamutn, 53» 54» 55- 

Te Haroto, 37. 

Te Heu Heu, [48], [56], 48. 

Te Horo, Whakarewa- 
rewa, 17. 

Te Kaha, 4a 

Te Kawakawa, 4a 

Te Kootiy [58], 39, 41, 103. 

Te Kopuru, 9. 

Te Kuiti, [7], 55, 11, 53, 56, 

6a, 73- 
Te Mari, Tongariro, 49. 

Te Mimiahomaiterangi,29. 

Te Ngae, 22, i& 

Te Puke, 38. 

Te Puna, 7. 

Te Punt, 47, 59. 

Te RangiJiaeata, [53], 74, 8a 

Te Bauparaha, [51], [53],[56], 

47, 74, 80, 95, 102, 108, 

Te Beinga Falls, 41. 
Te Bekereke Geyser, Wai- 

rakei, 3a 
To Berenga-o-ko-Inaki, 51. 
Te Bonga, 8a 
Te Teko, 24. 
Te Ua, [58]. 

Te Wairakei Stream, 3a 
Te Wera, 109. 
Te Whero Whero, [57], 54, 

57. See Pototott, King, 
Te WhUi, [58], 68, 69. 
retm, 59, 62. 

Tekapo, Lake, 114, no, 112. 
Tekapo B., 114. 
Temple Bum, 147. 
Temple Peak, 147. 
Temuka, 105. 
Tenamn, 69. 
Teneriffe, Peak of, 57, 
Tengawai B., 113. 
Terata, Tikitere, 22. 
Teraumea B., 46. 
Terawhiti, Cape, 78. 
Teremakau B., 87, 88, 90, 

no. III. 
Terrace, Black, Taupo, 36. 
Terrace Geyser, Wairakei, 


Terrace, New, Waiotapn, 

Terrace, Old, Wairakei,33. 

Terrace, Pink, Botoma- 
haaa, 24, 16. 

Terrace, White, Botoma- 
hana, 24, 16. 

Teschmaker's, 108. 

Teviot, 127. 

Thames, [63J, 14, 4, 12. 

Thames, Frith of, 3. 

Theological CoUege, Nel- 
son, 83. 

Theological College, Par- 
nell, 4. 

Thierry, Baron de, [51], [55], 


Thomas Bluff, 136. 
Thompson Sound, 155, 15a 
Thombury, 139. 
Thomdon, Wellington, 76. 
Three Bridges, Nelson, 83. 
Three Kings Islands, 5. 
Thurlby Domain, 144. 
Thurloe Papers, 2. 
Tikitapu Bush, 26, 23. 
Tikitapu Lake, 26. 
Tikitere, 22, 16, 18, 23. 
Tikorangi, 57, 62. 
T"*"iru, [7], [8], 105, 106, 

107, n2. 
Tinwald, 105. 
Titiokuru Saddle, 37. 
Titoko Waru, 60, 68. 
Tohu, 69. 
Tokaano, [48], 48, 24, 36, 

Tokaraki, 108. 

Tokatoka, Mt., 9. 

Tokomairoro Plain, 125. 

Tokomairoro B., 125, 127. 

Tokumam, 4a 

Tokumaru Canoe, 57. 

Tolago, 41. 



Tomoana, 45, 43. 
Tongapomtti B., 62, 
Tongariro Mt., [49], 13, 35, 

49» 57y ^ 641 65. 
Tooth Peaks, 145, 146. 

Top House, 84. 
Torlesse, Mt., 91, 104. 
Tory Chann^ 78. 
Tory, The, [55]. 
Totcura, Aaokland, [52], 14. 
Totara, Otago, 108. 
TotaraFlat, Westland, 87. 
Totara B., Westland, 133. 
Town Belt, Dnnedin, laa, 

Town Hall, Dnnedin, 120. 
Trayers, Mt., 85. 
Trees in N. Z., [ssHul 
Trigonometrical Survey 

Station, 23, 134. 
TroUope, AnUiony, 145. 
Tnrakina, 73. 
Toakitito, Lake, 135. 
Tuamarina, 80, 79. 
Toapeka, 119. 
Tohnatahi, Wairakei, 30, 

Titkiauau, 134. 

Tnpurupum, Mt., 37. 

Toranga (Gisbome), 38, 41. 

Toranga - kumn hill, 

Hawke's Bay, 37. 
Torangiriri, 44, 53, 56. 
Turere, 39. 
Torikore Bath, Whaka- 

rewarewa, 17. 
Tumbnll, Mt., 144. 
TamboU B., 136. 
Tarret Peaks, 139. 
Tataikuri Valley, 44. 
Tutanekai, 19, 30, 31. 
Tntoko Mt., 146, 157. 
Tuwiriroa, 134. 
Twin Peaks, 139. 
Twins, The, Wairakei, 33. 


Union 88. Co., [3], [5], [6], 
loi, 153, 153, 157. 

University College, Auck- 
land, 3. 

University of N. Z., [60J. 

University of Otago, Tbe, 
131, 118, J 19. 

Upokongaro, 53. 

Upper Hutt, 47. 

Upukerora B., 149. 

Urenui, 63, 63. 

Uriwera, 39. 

Utapn, 53. 


Vancouver, Breaksea 

Sound, 155. 
Victor, Mt , 136. 
Victoria, Mt., Auckland, 3. 
Victoria, Mt., Wellington, 

View Point, Mt. Cook, 115. 

Vogel, Sir Julius, [58]. 

Volkner, Sev. C, [57], 39. 

Von B., 145. 


Wahanga, Mt., 34, 35. 

Wahcmui, 55. 

Wahapo, Lake, 133. 

Waiapu, 40, 35. 

Waiaroa B., [53]. 

Waiau, Nelson, 93, 94. 

Waiau Gk>rge, Nelson, 94. 

Waiau B., Nelson, 93, 94. 

Waiau B., Southland, 139, 
148, 149, 150, 154. 

Waiau-toa (Clarence) B., 
Marlborough, 93. 

Waihao Downs, Canter- 
bury, 106. 

Waiheke Island, 3, 14. 

Waihemo, 108. 

Waihi Fall, Taupo, 49. 

Waihi goldfield, Auck- 
land, 14. 

Waiho Bluff, Westland, 

Waiho B., Westland, 133, 

Waihola, Lake, Otago, 135, 

Waihou, Lakes, Gisbome, 

Waihou B., Thames, 14. 
Waikahako, 79. 
Waikauei, [53], 74. 
Waikaremoana, Lake, 41. 
Waikari, Canterbury, 94. 
Waikari Lake, Auckland, 

Waikato B., [53], 11, 13, 38, 

29* 34, 35, 50. 

WaiJcato Tribe, 57, 62. 

Waikato War, 10, 11, 54. 

Waikite Geyser, Whaka- 
rewarewa, 18. 

Waikohai Stream, West- 
land, 134. 

Waikohu, Hicks' Bay, 40. 

Waikomiti, 5. 

Waikorohihi Geyser, 

Whakarewarewa, 17 

Waikonaiti, 108, 109, 118. 
Waikukupa, 134. 
Waimaktuiri B., 91,94,104. 
Waimamuku B., 9. 
Waimangaroa, 86. 
Waimarino, 51, 56. 
Waimate, Canterbury, 106. 
Waimate Mission Station, 

Auckland, 8. 
Waimate Plain, Hawera, 

Waimatuku B., 139. 
Waimea Plain, Nelson, 8^, 

Waimea Plain, Southland, 

136, 143. 
Waimea Valley, Nelson, 

Waingawa Valley, 47. 
Wainuiomata B, 77. 
Wai-o-hike, Napier, 43. 
Waiongona Bridge, New 

Plymouth, 61. 
Waioru, 53. 
Waiotahi Ford, 39. 
Waiotapu, 37, 38, 39. 
Waipa B., Auckland, 11, 

54, 55. 
Waipahi, Otctgo, 136. 

Waipahi B, Otago, 119. 

Waipahihi, Taupo, 35, 36, 

Waipapa Point, Marl- 
borough, 93. 

Waipapa Point, South- 
land, 137, 154. 

Waipara B., Canterbury, 

Waipawa B., Hawke's 

Bay, 45. 

Waipiro, 4a 
Waipukurau, Hawke's 

Bay, 45, 43. 
Waipuna, Botorua, 13. 
Waipuna Stream, Taupo, 

Waipunga B., Hawke's 

Bay, 37. 
Wairakei, 39-35, 13, 38. 
Wairakei Geyser, Great^ 

3h 33. 
Wairakei, Little, 31. 
Wairarapa, Lake, 47. 
Wairarapa Plain, 47. 
Wairau Gorge, 84. 
Wairau Massacre, [53], [56], 

80, 83. 
Wairau Plain, 8a 
Wairatf B., 81, 85. 
Waireka, New Plymouth, 

[57], 68, 60, 61. 



Waireka Junction, Oa- 
mam, 107. 

Wairoa (Clyde), 41, 42, 43. 

Wairoa, Tarawera Lake, 
26, 25. 

Wairoa Falls, Tarawera 
Lake, 26. 

Wairoa GhByser, Whaka- 
rewarewa, 18. 

Wairoa Lake, Rotoma, 23. 

Wairoa Bedonbt, Waver- 
ley, 69. 

Wairoa B., Hawke's Bay, 

Wairoa R, Northern, 9. 

Wairoa Fall, Whangarei, 

Waita Lagoon, Westland, 

Waita R, Westland, 136. 

Waitaliuna, 127. 

Waitaka B., Westland, 132. 

Waitaka B., LitUe, West- 
land, 132. 

Waitakerei Falls, Auck- 
land, 5. 

Waitakerei Mts., Anok- 
land, 4. 

Waitaki County, 107. 

Waitaki, NorUi, Canter- 
bury, 106. 

Waitaki B., Canterbury, 
106, 116, 117, 119. 

Waitaki, South,Otago,io7. 

Waitangi, Chatham Is- 
lands, 103. 

Waitangi^ Treaty of, [50], 

Waitangi, Westland, 133. 

Waitangi Falls, Auck- 
land, 8. 
Waitangi Ford, Botorua, 

Waitangi Hall, Auckland, 


Waitangi Taona B., West- 
land, 133. 

Waitara, [57I 62, 56, S7j 
59, 61, 63, 64, 67. 

Waitara B., 62. 

Waitara Boad Station, 61. 

WaitlCti, Otago, 109, 123. 

Waiteti Valley, Auckland, 

Waitoa B., Auckland, 12. 

Waitotara, Wanganui, 69, 
Waiwakaiho B., 61, 63. 
Waiwera, 5, 6. 
Wakamarina, 79. 
Waka Nene, 7, 57, 

Wakapohai Saddle, 136. 

Wakapuaka Boad,Nelson, 
8i, 83. 

Wakatipu, Lake, [7], [8], 
[63], 142-147, "5, 126, 127, 
128, 129, 130, 140, 148, 149. 

Wakatu, NelisK>n, 82. 

Wakefield, Nelson, 84. 

Wakejield^ Capt., 80, 82. 

TTafc^W, Col, [55], 59. 

Wak^/ield, Gibbon^ [55], 76, 

Wakefiejd, Mt., 116. 

Wallacetown, 138. 

Walter Peak, 144, 145. 

Wanaka, Lake, [7], 129, 88, 
no, 112, 127, 128, 131, 137, 

Wandel R, 93. 

Wangaehu R, 72. 

Wangamoa Valley, 81. 

Wanganui, Wellington, 
[7], [56], [58], 70-73, 53, 60, 
61, 67. 

Wanganui, Westland, 132. 

Wanganui Heads, W^- 
ington, 72. 

Wanganui B., Welling- 
ton, 50-53, 48, $6, 57, 70. 

Wanganui B., Big, West- 
land, 132. 

Wanganui R, Little, 
Westland, 132. 

Wanganui tribe, 35. 

Washdyke, 113. 

Wataroa Flat, Westland, 

132, 133- 
Wataroa R, Westland, 

132, 133- 
Water of Leith, Dunedin, 

121, 123. 
Waverley, Dunedin, 117. 
Waverley, Wanganui, 69. 
Weka Island, Wanaka, 

Weka Pass,Canterbury,94. 
Wellington, [5], [7], [8], [56], 

[57], 75-78, 10, 25, 42, 44, 
46, 47, 61, 67, 68, 70, 82, 1 18. 

Wellington, Mt., Auck- 
land, [52]. 

Wereroa, [57], 69, 5a 

West Dome Mt., 148. 

Westland, [58], 89, 79, 87, 

90, '31. 
Westport, 86, 84, 85, 87. 

WegtpoH Coed Co., 86. 

Wet Jacket Arm, 155, 153. 

Weydon Bum, 149. 

Whakapunaki Mts., 41. 

Whakarewa Pa, New Ply- 
mouth, 58. 

Whakarewarewa, 17, 15, 
16, 18, 27, 28. 

Whakari, Mt., Marl- 
borough, 93. 

Whakortakaranewha, 122. 

Whakatanae R, 39. 

Whale Island, 38. 

Whale's Back, The, 93. 

Whangaparaoa R, 4a 

Whangarei 6, 9, 25. 

Whangaroa, [52], 8. 

Whatiwhatihoe, 54. 

Whistler, The, Wairakei, 

 White Cliffy ' Manacre, 62. 
White Horse Hill, Mt. 

Cook, 115. 
White Island, 15, 38, 40U 
White Springs, Wairakei, 

White Stone Creek, 149. 
White Terrace, Botoma- 

hana, 24, 16. 
Whitoi^iffs, Canterbury, 

Wi Kingi, 59, 62. 
Wills B., 137. 
Wilson R, 154. 
Winchester, 105. 
Windsor Junction, 108. 
Wingatui Junction, 124. 
Winslow, 105. 
Winton, 142. 
Wiremu Kingi^ 54. 
Wohlera, Bev. Mr., 139. 
Woodend, Southland, 139. 
Woodlands, Southland, 

Woodside, Wellington, 47. 
Woodstock, Westland, 132. 
Woodville, Hawke's Bay, 

45, 42, 43, 44, 46, 73, 78. 
Woollen Factory, Eaiapoi, 

Woollen Factory, Mosgiel, 

123, 125. 
Woollen Factory, Petone, 

Woollen Factory, Boslyn, 

122, 124. 

Woolston, loa 

Worsley R, 151. . 

Wyndham, 126. 


Young, Nicholas, 41. 
Young Nick's Head, 41 




JAMES MILLS, Esq., Managing Director. 

Fleet of 52 Steamers from 3,500 Tons upwards. 


Intercolonial Services. 

Australia and New Zealand. 

The stpamers of the Company leave Melbourne wpekly for all New Zealand Ports, via 
Hobart, and vice versa. They also make weekly departures from Sydney for New 
Zealand, via Auckland and East Coast Ports; and fortnightly, via Cook Strait and 
Wellington, and vice versa. 

Australia and Tasmania. 

Steamers leave Melbourne thrice weekly for Launceston, weekly for Hobart, and weekly 
for North-west Ports, and vice versa. They also leave Sydney for Launceston, via Eden, 
every ten da) s ; and for Hobart, via Eden, twice weekly, and vice versa. 

South Sea Islands. 

A steamer is despatched from Melbourne once a month for Suva and Levuka (Fiji), and 
another from Auckland (New Zealand) for the same ports ; while one of the Company *s 
steamers plies regularly between the principal islands of the Fiji Group. There is also 
a monthly service between Auckland and the Samoan and Tongan Groups. 

Coastal Services. 

On the Coast of New Zealand there are frequent and regular services between the 
various ports ; v^ hile between the principal ports there is almost daily communication. 

San Francisco (Trans-Pacific) Royal Mail Service. 

In conjunction with the Oceanic Steam-ship Company, and under contract with the 
Governments of New Zealand, New South Wales, ana the United States of America, the 
Company run a regular four- weekly mail service between Sydney and San Francisco, via 
Auckland, Apia (Samoa), and Honolulu, and vice versa. 

This is undoubtedly the passenj^er route to and from England, avoiding alike the heat 
of the Red Sea and the cold of Cape Horn, and giving passengers the opportunity of 
travelling in luxury and comfort through the most interesting country in the world ; while 
it is also the quickest route Home, the trip occupying only thirty-one days from Auckland. 

Round the World Tours. 

The Company issues * Round the World * Tickets, giving passengers the choice of 
proceeding from Europe by any of the magnificent steamers of the Peninsular and 
Oriental, Orient, North German Lloyd, and Messageries Maritimes Lines to Australia, 
thence to New Zealand by the Company's fine Inter-Colonial steamers, and Home via 
their mail steamers to San Francisco, thence by any of the. various trunk-line routes across 
the American Continent, and from the Atlantic sea-board to Europe by any of the 
unrivalled steam-ships of the Canard, White Star, American, North Grerman Lloyd, &c. 
Lines. It is at the option of the passenger to make the trip in the opposite direction, 
commencing via the Atlantic. 

For further particulars and full information apply at Head Office of the Company, 
Dunedin, or at the Compan)r*s Branches and Agencies throughout New Zt-alanil, 
Australia, and Tasmania, and in San Francisco at Messrs. J. D. Spreckels & Bros. 
Co., or at the London Office, 18, Walbrook, EC. 





Maf^ificent fuli-powered Royal Mail Steamers of the 

Shaw, Savill, and Albion Co/s Line 

Leave LONDON {Royal Albert Docks) 



No Red Sea Heat. Superb Accommodation. Electric Light. 
Patent Refrigerators for Fresh Meat, Vegetables, .&c. Unsurpassed Cuisine. 

Experienced Surgeons carried. 

Reduced Fares. Cheap Return Tickets. 

Special Round the World Rates. 

For full particulars apply to the Head Oppicb— 


Or to any of the Agents of the Company. Agents and Correspondents throughout the World- 


{iHCWfortUed by Act qf General Assembly, yuly 39, x86t). 

CAFITAIi - - iB900,000. 

Reserve Fund, £s5i^>^>^' Reserve Liability of Shareholders, £i,fiOOyOoo, 


Directors— "Richard H. Glyn, Esq, President; Colonel Robert Baring; John 
A. EWBN, Esq (of Messrs Sargood, Son, & Ewen); The Right Hon. Sir J. 
Pergusson, Bart., G.C.S.I., K.C.M.G., MP.; E. Herbert Fison, Esq. 

Manager— C. G. Tbgbtmeibr. 

Auditors— ^t^sfxn. Price, Waterhouse & Co. 

London Bankers— TiLR Bank op England; Messrs. Glyn, Mills. Currie& Co. 

Chief Office in Colonies— Avcklajhd, New Zealand. 

General Manager— V^iiAAAU Turtom Holmes. 

In Australia— AdelaAde^ S A. ; Melbourne, Victoria ; Newcastle and Sydney, N.S.W. 

In New Zealand— Auckland, Ashburton, Blenheim, Christchurch, Dunedin, Gisbome, 
Greymouth, Hamilton, Hokitika, Invercareill, Lyttelton, Milton, Napier, Nelson, 
New Plymouth, Oamaru, Thames, Timara. Wanganui, Wellington, Westport, and at 
Ninety-four other Towns and places throughout the Colony. 

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Ct)e TSTcb) 2^calanti l^ecalD, 

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Is published in Auckland every morning, and is universally recognized as the leading and 
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The Best Baily AdTertisinff Kedium in tbe Colony. 

The New Zealand Herald is the only New^per in the Colony which regnularly consists 
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The Best Weekly Advertising Medium in New Zealand. 

3rt)e ^ucfelanti aSEeefeli) TSTetos 

Has the Largest Circulation of any Weekly Newspaper in the Colony^ 
And is the only Weekly Newspaper of its kind published in the Provincial District of 
Auckland, and consists of forty-eight pafi[es, or two hundred and forty columns, .every 
week. It circulates especially amongst Farmers, Squatters, Settlers, Storekeepers, and 
itt the country districts where a Daily Newspaper is not taken. 

Considering the class of its readers throughout New Zealand, it is, as an Advertising 
Medium for AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS and the various necessities of a farming 
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Advertisements received at the Lx>ndon Office, 30^ Fleet Street, E.C. 


C§e ^ttfftrafian Jtttgation Cofonie^t 


Established by Special Acts of the Colonial Parliaments^ and regelated by 

the respective Governments^ 

Offer a pleasant occnpatioii— a healthy life —a cheerful home — a Soil of un* 

equalled fertility— producing by Irrigation results unparalled in the 

annals of Horticulture— comfort, civilization, and material 

prosperity combined. 


• <♦ 

HALF'A-MILLION ACRES in the sanny and salubrious climate of Victoria and 
South Australia, on the ^eat River Murray, which affords an abundant supply of 
fertilizing^ water for the irrigation of Vineyards and Fruit Farms, and for the production, 
in assured quantity and excellence, of Grapes, Oranges, Lemons, Olives, Apricots, 
Fig^, and other Fruits (already so successfully grown in Australia^ by Cultivators with 
large or small capital (easy terms of purchase being afforded to the latter), holding from 
Ten to Eighty Acres and upwards. The Wines and Fruits of Australia are now in 
extensive demand in British and Colonial Markets, and there is a practically unlimited 
Geld for such production, under most profitable conditions to Settlers. 

From the speech of His Excellency the Governor of Victoria (Lord Ho|)etoun) in 
Laying the Foundation-stone of the Chaffey College of Agriculture, at Mildura, in 
April, 1891 :— ' 1 have long looked forward to the opportunity of seeing the Settlement, 
wnich has so recently sprung into existence, and which seems to be growmg in importance 
day by day. I congratulate you upon the satisfactory report of the local health officer, and 
on the fertility of your soil, so suitable alike for the growing of the orange, the vine, and 
other fruit trees. 1 have been very much pleased with Mildura, and I think the success of 
the enterprise will be a grand thing, not only for Victoria, but for the whole of Australia/ 

Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bart.. M.P., writes : — * From time to time the door opens and 
the way is pointed to exceptionally promising fields of enterprise. Such seems to be the 
case at the present time in the Irrigation Colonies on the River Murray.* 

The Bishop of Manchester (Dr. Moorhouse), late Bishop of Melbourne, speaking at 
Salford, England, in 1888, remarked : — *The Murray, by means of irrigation, would 
maintain an immense population, and lead to the accumulation of untold wealth." 

The Rev. W. J. Hedley, Wesleyan Minister, Market Harboro', Proprietor of forty acres 
at Mildura, where he has placed two of his sons, writes, April 11, 1893: — 'I have just 
received some canned fruit — ^peaches, &c. — from Mildura, "Mallee Brand." I find they 
are in flavour unapproached by anything in the English market. They have, as no others 
have, the flavour of the fresh fruit, and are, besides, a fine sample." 

Mr. Richard Tangye, of Birmingham, and others, write to the same effect, with 
reference to the sun-dried apricots and other fruits received from the Irrigation Settlements, 
which are declared to be of ' excellent quality " and likely to be in very extensive demand 
in the future. 

'An Extraordinary Achievement in Australian Colonization.' 
' It is a noteworthy, if not unprecedented, fact in the history of British colonization, 
having regard to the remarkable extent and productive value of the work which has been 
so rapidly accomplished, that since the commencement of the Irrigation Colonies on the 
river Murray, by the well-known Company of Chaffey Brothers, Limited, about five years 
ago, no fewer than five thousand persons, consisting of all ranks and conditions, including 
noblemen, sons of gentlemen, retired naval and military officers, professional men, &c., 
chiefly from Great Britain, have become settled at the Irrigation Colony of Mildura in 
Victoria, or have acquired property there.'— /^r«a««Vr, June, 1893. 

%* Samples of this Season's Products may be seen at the Imperial Institute and the Crystal 
Palace, Sydenham ; also at the Kiosk of the Australian Irrigation Colonies, Eari's 
Court Gardening and Forestry Exhibition. Pamphlets^ ^c, Free. 

London Offices : Cornwall Boildinos, 35, Qoeen Victoria Street, E.G. 

Chief Commissioner: Mr. J. E. Matthew Vincent, F.R.G.S. 




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A Record of Observations made during the Voyage of H.M.S. 'Challenger' 
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