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KELLY & WALSH, UmJED-Cmunurd. 

UnTS MADAME ' 1^K"t s,\!f ,^m.;jk. 
JAPf3NNEPIES D'a: tt)M:vt 


i'lG^rrrs oakden of japan. 


I:EIK*S japan, travels and RESEAIiCHES 





Oiuva's Celebrated Collotype Albtims of Japanese Scenery & Types. 


The Bund, Shaughai. | Queen'g Boad, Hongkong, 

Battery Boadf Sii^gapore. 


J. Thompson & Co., 3^ Division Street 


Heary S. King S Co., London. | Bmsch & RothensteiD, Berlin. 




IXEjIlO liAHTISrtlV omcE 



JN 1873 the Equitable Society issued Policy No. 78,061 for 1^1,000. 
This policy was a Twenty-year Endowment, with a twenty-year 
Tontine period. Hence it matured last year. The total amount 
paid in premiums was $953.60. The cash surrender value of the Assur- 
ance (payable to the policy-holder himself during Ms own lifetime) was 
$1,697.04. This is a return of all the premiums paid^ with interest on the 
same at the rate of 6| per cent, per annum. 

All 20 years Endowment Policies issued by the Society show a return 
of over 6 per cent, per annum. Here follow a few examples : — 

ToUil amount paid in 
No. qf Policy. AmonniofPolicg. prem. in 20 year». 

Ca$h mtrrender. Sate qfin- 
valne in 1893. tereti reali$ed. 





77,773 $6,000 $4,949.00 

. 78,620 6,000 4,768.00 

78,941 2.000 1,907.00 

80,348 6,000 4,782.00 

82,044 2,000 1,941.20 

Assets . . #169,066,396 | Income . . $42,022,605 | Surplus . . $32,366,760 

Paid to Policy Holders during the year 1893 $ 17,650,315 

Paid to Policy Holders since organization 1192,572,734 

For additional examples and explanations, or to efiect Assurances, 
apply to any of the Society's Agents. 

W. M. STKAGHAl^ & Co., Agents, Yokohama and Kobe. 
TAKATA & Co., Agents, Tokyo and Osaka. 
HOLME, RINGER & Co., Agents, Nagasaki. 
SHEWAN <fe Co., Agents, Hongkong and Canton. 
THE BORNEO Co., Agents, Singapore. 

J. T. HAMILTON, Manager for the East. 













With Tu'entg-six liftaps and IflaoB and Humerous JllustrattonB 



I^fSn^ ^^ ^^^^ & ^^MH, LIMITED I HONGKONG 




lAll Rig\U Seterced] 


















































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Since the publication of the previous edition of the Japan 
Handbook in 1891, the compilers have a^ain travelled over 
almost every portion of the country, from Yezo to Loochoo. 
They now submit to the reader a text largely re- written and 
thoroughly revised to date, fifteen new Routes in which the 
whole Empire is for the first time included, greatly improved 
mape and plans, and numerous illustrations. 

Grateful acknowledgments are due to numerous kind 
friends, more especially to Rev. Walter Weston for revising 
the Mountain Routes 28 and 80, and to Lafcadio Hearn, Esq., 
for the material of Route 48. 

Corrections or suggestions will be welcome at any time. 
Tokyo, May Ist, 1894. 





1. General ; Books on Japan ; 
Maps 1 

2. Steam Communication .... 2 

3. Custom-House 3 

4. Public Holidays 8 

5. Treaty Limits ; Passports. . 3 

6. Guides 5 

7. Posts; Telegraphs; Banks.. 6 

8. Currency 6 

9. Weights and Measures .... 6 

10. Inns; Travelling Expenses 7 

11. Climate ; Dress ; Time of 
Visit 8 

12. Provisions .'..... 10 

13. Means of Locomotion ; 
Luggage 10 

14. Where to Go and What to 
See 12 


15. Purchases; Objects of Art. . 13 

16. Shipment of Ghoods 14 

17. Shooting 14 

18. Fishing 15 

19. Miscellaneous Hints 16 

20. Language 18 

21. The Shinto Religion 82 

22. Ryobu Shinto 34 

23. Japanese Buddhism ....'.. 35 

24. List of Gods and God- 
desses 39 

25. Christian Mission Stations 50 

26. Outline of Japanese His- 
tory 51 

27. Celebrated Personages .... 53 

28. Population of the Chief 
Cities 68 

29. Outline Tours 68 

Section I. — Eastebn Japan. 


Paos. Boutb. 


1. Yokohama 75 

2. Excursions from Yokohama 77 

3. From Yokohama to T5ky5. 86 

4. T6k>-5 87 

6. Excursions from Tokyo . . 116 

6. Miyanoshita and Hakone . . 122 

7. The Peninsula of Izu 133 

8. Vries Island 188 

9. Fuji and Neighbourhood . . 140 

10. Takasaki-Karuizawa Rail- 
way 148 

11. Earuizawa and Asama- 
yama 150 

12. Ikao, Kusatsu, and Neigh- 
bourhood 153 

13. The Ryomo Railway 159 

14. Nikko and Neighbourhood . 161 

15. From Nikko to Ikao by the 
Valley of the Watarase- 
gawa 178 

16. From Nikk5 to Ikao over 
the Konsei-toge 180 

17. Trips in the Provinces of 
Hitachi, Shimosa, Kazusa, 
and Boshii 182 

18. The Shiobara District .... 194 

19. Bandai-san 196 

20. From Inawashiro to Yone- 
zawa vi& Bandai-san and 
the Hibara-tage 198 

21. From Inawashiro or Waka- 
matsu to Nikko by the 
Valley of the Kinugawa . . 199 

22. From Niigata to Waka- 
matsu 200 

23. From Niigata to Ikao by 
the Mikuni-toge 201 

24. From Eoriyama through 
the Province of Iwaki to 
Taira and Mito 202 




Seotiom II. — Oentbal Japan. 

Plqx. Rovtb. 


25. KaroiBawa-Naoetsu Rail- 
way and Niigata. Island 
of Sado a05 

36. Ways to and from Kofu . . 218 

27. Valley of the Hayakawa . . 224 

28. Mountains between the 
Fujikawa and the Tenryfi- 
gawa 226 

29. Rapids of the Tenr3ra-gawa 230 

30. Mountains of Hida and 
EtchCi 232 

31. The Potteries of Seto 244 

82. The Shrines of Ise 246 

33. The West Coast from Tsu- 

ruga to Naoetsu 257 

Section III. — Routes Connecting TOkyo and Kyoto. 

34. The Tdkaido 263 I 

86. The Nakasendo 277 I 

36. The Steamer Voyage from 
Yokohama to K5be 282 

Section IV. — Western Japan and the Inland Sea. 

37. Kdbe and Neighbourhood.. 287 
88. Osaka and Neighbourhood . 292 

39. Kydto and Neighbourhood . 297 

40. Lake Biwa 328 

41. Nara and Neighbourhood. . 338 

42. Through Yamato to Koya- 
san and Wakayama in 
Kishu 341 

43. Through Kumano to Ise . . 359 

44. Minor Itineraries in the 
Province of Kishti 369 


From Kydto to Ama-no- 
Hashidate on the Sea of 

Japan 370 

From Himeji to Miyazu . . 371 
Matsue and the Temples of 

Izumo 373 

The Oki Islands 375 

The Island of Awaji 377 

The Inland Sea and Chief 
Places on and near its 
Northern Shore 382 

Section V. — The Island of Shikoeu. 

61. North-Eastem Shikoku . . 395 

62. North- Western Shikoku . . 400 
53. Valley of the Yoshino^awa 404 

54. Western Shikoku from Ma- 
teuyama to Uwajima .... 408 

55. Kochi and Ways thither . : 409 

Section VI. — Kyushu and Outlying Islands. 

66. Nagasaki and Neighbour- 
hood 413 

67. Excursions from Nagasaki . 419 

68. The Shimabara Peninsula.. 420 

69. Through North - Western 
Kytlshfl by Rail and Road. 425 

60. The Yabakei Valley 431 

61. North-Eastem Kytishft and 
across Goimtxy to Euma- 
moto 433 

62. A8(H8Ui 437 

63. From Kumamoto to Nobe- 
okaandOita. By the Sou th- 
East Coast to Kagoshima .. 438' 

64. Kagoshima 440 

65. From Kagoshima to Kuma- 
moto vi& the Rapids of the 
Kumagawa. Kirishima . . 443 

66. The Loochoo Islands 446 

67. The Gotd Islands and Tsu- 
shima. Fosan, Gensan, 
and Viadivostook 447 



Bovn. Pagz. 

68. The Northern Railnray ... . 451 

69. Matsushima and Einkwa- 
san 461 

70. The North-East (Toast .... 466 

71. Prom Yonezawa by the 
Miomote Valley to Mura- 
kami on the K.W. Coast 
and to Tsnm-ga-oka 467 




72. From Sendai to Yamagata 
and Yonezawa ««. 469 

73. From Sendai to ^'sum-ga- 
oka, Sakata, Hinjdi and 
Akita ^ 470 

74. WaystoAWta..-^ 472 

76. Prom Akita to Aomori 474 

76. Lake Towada 476 

Section VHI. — The Island of Yezo. 

77. Hakodate and Neighbour- 
hood 479 

78. Excnrsions from Hakodate. 4bl 

79. From Hakodate to Fuku- 
yama 4^3 

80. From Hakodate to Ksashi . 484 


Otaru, Sapporo, Hokkaido 
Hallway, and VolcanoBay.. 485 
The South-East CkMistand 

the Southern Kuriles 488 

S3. From Kushiro to Abashiri 
and Northern Yezo 489 



'• INDEX 497 



1. Jap^n in pocket of oover. 

S. Ktj to Sectional Maps to face title-page. 

8. 8hint6 Temple of Izomo to face p. 33 

4. Buddhist Temple of Ikegami „ p. 87 

5. Eastern Japan „ p. 73 

6. Neighbourhood of Yokohama „ p. 75 

7. Chief Sights of Tokyo , p. 87 

8. Temples and Tombs of Shiba on p. 94 

9. T6ky5 and Neighbourhood to face p. 116 

10. Miyanoshita and Hakone „ p. 123 

11. Fuji and the Hakone District „ p. 140 

IS. Ikao and Kusatsu „ p. 153 

18. Nikko „ p. 161 

14. Nikko Temples across p. 162 

15. Central Japan to face p. 203 

16. Kofu „ p. 218 

17. Oekti Temple at Ise on p. 252 

18. Western Japan and the Inland Sea to face p. 285 

19. Osaka and Kobe „ p. 287 

90. Ky6to „ p. 297 

21. Kytlshti „ p. 411 

22. Neighbourhood of Nagasaki ,, p. 413 

23. Kumamoto Castle > on p. 428 

24. Northern Japan to face p. 449 

25. Matsushima „ p. 461 

26. South-Westem Yezo „ p. 477 

Handbook for Ti^AvELLfeRs 




1. QeDeral ; Books on Japan ; 
Maps 1 

2. Steam Communication .... 2 

3. Custom-House 3 

4. Public Holidays 3 

5. Treaty Limits; Passports.. 8 

6. Guides 5 

7. Posts ; Telegraphs ; Banks. . 5 

8. Currency 6 

9. Weights and Measures .... 6 

10. Inns ; Travelling Expenses . 7 

11. Climate; Dress; Time of 
Visit 8 

12. Provisions 10 

13. Means of Locomotion; 
Luggage 10 

14. Where to Go and What to 
See 12 


15. Purchases ; Objects of Art . . 13 

16. Shipment of Goods 14 

17. Shooting 14 

18. Fishing 16 

19. Miscellaneous Hints 16 

20. Language 18 

21. The Shinto Beligion 32 

22. By6bu.Shint6 84 

28. Japanese Buddhism 35 

24. List of Gods and God- 
desses 39 

25. Christian Mission Stations.. 50 

26. Outline of Japanese His- 
tory 51 

27. Celebrated Personages .... 53 

28. Population of the Chief 
Cities 63 

29. Outline Tours 68 

1.— Genekal; Books on Japan; Maps. 

Japan, secluded for over two centuries from contact with the outer 
world, was burst open by the American expedition in 1858-4 under the 
command of Commodore Perry. Making a virtue of necessity, her nilers 
0oon determined to Europeanise the country as the best means of pre- 
•erring its independence. Ships were bought, foreign naval and military 
instructors engaged, feudalism replaced by a centralised autocracy, 
education re-organised on the pattern offered by Western natious, posts, 
telegraphs, and railways introduced, European dress, European manners, 
European amusements adopted, Buddhism disestablished, Christianity — 
if not encouraged — at least no longer persecuted. In short, in every 
q^hexe of activity the old order gave way to the new. But even Japan, 

2 Introduetion : — Steam Communication. 

great as is the power of imitation and assimilation possessed by her 
people, has not been able completely to transform her whole material, men- 
tal, aad gopial bepg^ within ^h^ limits of a single lifetime. Fortunately for 
the ctripus obserY^,.«i^bontinues in a state of transition, — less Japanese 
and more European da<^ B/cUy, it is true, but still retaining oharacteristics 
of. h^i; own*,* QSj^eoiaUy in thQ 4^ess, manners, and beliefs of the lower 
<fl«teiesi* : Those .wh6^8h t&see ^s much as possible of the old order of 
things should come'^tfi^tly/* '•• 

It is impossible within the limits of this Introduction to enter into those 
details of race, history, customs, religion, art, literature, etc., which, com- 
bined with the influence exercised more recently by Europe and America, 
have made Japan what she is to-day. The traveller who desires to travel 
intelligently — to do more than merely wander from hotel to hotel — may 
be referred for a summary of such information to a small work entitled 
Things JapaiiesCy where, if he wishes for still more, he will find references 
to the original authorities in each special branch. Of religion alone, a 
short sketch seemed indispensable, as the temples are among Japan's 
chief siglits ; an outline of history and lists of gods and celebrated per- 
sonages have been added, in order to assist the traveller to thread his way 
through the maze of proper names with which he will be confronted. In 
Japan, more than in any European country, is it necessary to take some 
trouble in order to master such preliminary information. For whereas 
England, France, Italy, Germany, and the rest, all resemble each other 
in their main features, because all have alike grown up in a culture 
fundamentally identical, this is not the case with Japan. He, therefore, 
who should essay to travel veithout having learnt a word concerning 
Japan's past, would run the risk of forming opinions ludicrously 
erroneous. We would also specially recommend Griffis*s Mikadoes Em- 
pire and Rein's Japan and The Industries of Japan, as books which it 
would be profitable to read on the way out. Rein's works are, it is true, 
fitted only for the serious student, who is prepared for hard words and 
technical details; but The Mikado*s Empire is calculated to appeal to all 
classes of readers. Of books on Japanese art, Anderson's Pictorial Arts 
of Japan is by far the best. We may perhaps also mention Huish's 
more handy Japan and its Art. Morse's Japanese Homes is an excellent 
description, not only of the dwellings of the people, but of all the articles 
belonging to their daily life. Lafcadio Hearn, in his Glimpses of UnfamH- 
tar Japan, treats with intimate knowledge and sympathy of their man- 
ners, customs, and beliefs. 

The elaborate series of maps now in course of publication at the 
Imperial Geological Office may be obtained of Messrs. Kelly and Walsh 
at Yokohama. 

2. — Steam Communication. 

* iKf Japan may be reached by the Canadian Pacific Company's steamers 
from Vancouver in 14 days ; by the Pacific Mail or the Occidental and 
Oriental Company's steamers from San Francisco in about 16 days, or 18 
days if Honolulu be touched at ; by the Northern Pacific Company's steam- 
ers from Tacoma in about 16 days ; or else from Europe through the Suez 
Canal by the Peninsular and Oriental steamers from London or Brindisi ; 
by the ^lessageries Maritimes from Marseilles, and by the Norddeutscher 
Lloyd from Bremerhaven, Southampton, or Genoa in about 40 days. 
There are also outside steamers from London, notably those of the " Glen " 
and " Shire " Lines. Yokohama is the connecting port of all the above. 

Ctutom-Hause* Puhlie Holidays. Treaty lAmiU. Passports. 8 

The principal Japanese Company is the Ni^^gpon Tusen Kwaisha 
(Japan Mail Steamship Company), which mns steamers from Yokohama 
almost daily to K5be, weekly to Nagasaki and Shanghai, every third day 
to Hakodate and Otaru ; from Kobe weekly to Sakai, Tsuraga, Niigata, 
and Hakodate, occupying altogether about six weeks on the round trip,; 
also at longer intervals to the Looohoo and Benin Islands. The Com- 
pany also runs frequent steamers to the principal Korean and Chinese 
ports and to Vladivostock in Siberia, also occasional steamers to Manila, 
Honolulu, and Australia. Numerous smaller companies run steamers to 
the Inland Sea ports and other points on the coast, and also on some of 
the larger rivers and lakes. 

Boats — known in the Treaty Ports as sampans— ply in all the har- 
bours, and land passengers from the steamers. The usual fare from ship 
to shore, or vice veisd, is from 10 to 20 sen per head. Hotel boats are in 
attendance at the larger places. 

8. — CuSTOM-HoUSE. 

Strict examination of the luggage of passengers is made at the 
Custom-House, and the best way to avoid trouble and delay is to open 
up everything freely. Cameras, sporting gear, most special apparatus, and 
many other articles, but not ordinary personal effects, are liable to duty. 

4. — Pi^pLio Holidays. 

The Custom-House and other public oj£ces observe the following 
holidays : — 

New Year Holidays (BhdgwaUu). 

Anniversary of death of Komei Tenno, the late Emperor. 
Accession of Jimmu Tenno in 660 B.C., and Promulgation 

of Constitution in 1889, {Kigensctsu), 
Spring Equinox [Shtmki Kdreisai), 
Death of Jimmu Tennd. 
Autumn Equinox (Shiiki Kdrei-sai^. 
Harvest Thanksgiving to the Deities of Ise (Bhinjd-sai, also 

called Kan-navie Matsuri). 
Nov. 3. Mikado's Birthday {Tenchdsetm), 
„ 23. Second Harvest Festival (Shinjo-aai, or NU-rtame Matsuri)* 

The foreign banks, besides observing Christmas, New Year, and some 
of the Japanese holidays, keep the Chinese New Year, the German Em- 
peror's birthday on the 27th January, the Queen's birthday, and the 
American and French national anniversaries. 

5. — Treaty Limits; Passpobts. 

Foreigners* have the right to reside without passports in the Foreign 
Settlements at the " Open Ports " (also called " Treaty Ports ") of Yoko- 

• " ForeignerJi " (Jap. gwoiiohijin or ijin) is the word tmiversally employed in 
Japan to denote all persons of Caucasian race. It will Round odd to new>oomer8 to 
hc«r Engliebznrn speaking of themaelres as '* foreignerB,'* ** we foreignera." 



















4 Introduction :— Treaty Limits, Passports, 

buna, Kobe, Osaka, Nagasaki, Hakodate, and Niigata, and to travel to- 
any place within a radius of 10 ri, that is nearly 24 1 miles, from those 
ports. Travelling West from Yokohama, the last place on the Tdkaida 
Aailway to which one may go without a passport is K5zu. T5kyo, thougli 
Hot properly an Open Port, may be visited without a passport, as may 
also its immediate neighbourhood ; and the night may be spent at any of 
the foreign hotels, or at a friend's house, without let or hindrance. 

Passports fdr visiting other portions of Japan may be obtained by 
tourists and all others not in Japanese employ by personal application 
to the authorities of the country to which they belong, these officials 
obtaining them from the Japanese Foreign Office. Thus, Englishmen 
must apply through the British Consulate at Tokyo, Yokohama, or other 
Treaty Port (the British Legation is not the proper channel for such applica- 
tions), Americans through the United States Legation in Tokyo or any of the 
American Consulates, Applications sent from abroad are not entertained 
by the British authorities. The American Legation, while permitting 
such applications, requires proof of citizenship £rom tbe applicant. Two 
or more names may be included in the same application, if it is desired 
to obtain a single passport for two or more persons, for instance, a husband 
and wife with their children. Every application should state the time 
for which the passport is desired, three months being the maximum 
usually granted. It is also desirable to state that the journey is intended 
"for the benefit of my health," or **for scientific purposes." Foreign 
employes must apply through their Japanese employers. Persons wishing 
to travel at the close of the year should bear in mind that no applications 
for passports are entertained by the Foreign Office between the 25th 
December and 4th January inclusive. British subjects are mulcted by 
their Consuls in the sum of $2 per passport, while Americans obtain 
theirs for a few cents. Three or four days generally elapse between the 
application for a passport and its delivery. 

The Hakone-Miyanoshita-Atami district forms an exception to this 
mle. Passports for it can be obtained within a few minutes at the Kencho 
(Prefecture) or at the Consulates in Yokohama, on payment of a small fee. 
A similar rule holds good at Kobe with regard to passports for the Kyoto- 
Nara and Lake Biwa district, and at Nagasaki for the baths of Ureshino 
and Takeo. It will often be found highly convenient to avail of one of 
these lesser passports while waiting.for the more extensive one. 

The Japanese authorities generally insist on being exactly informed 
of the route the traveller purposes taking. He is therefore advised to 
make out his application with some minuteness, mentioning as many 
routes and places on each route as possible. This he can best do, either 
by copying portions of the headings and names of the chief places in the 
itineraries given at the beginning of each Route in this volume, or by 
taking counsel with some resident friend. After all, he is not obliged to 
visit every place on his programme, which had therefore better err on the 
side of over-fulness than on that of scantiness. A list of so-called Fixed 
Routes has been issued by the British authorities, and copied with a 
few improvements by the American authorities (see Section 29). The 
term Fixed Routes does not imply that travel is in any way restricted 
to the routes in question. The arrangement is meant only to save trouble 
to applicants as well as to the Consuls. The " Thirteen Provinces round 
Fuji " (Fuji-mi Ju-san^hu) form a favourite, including much of the 
loveliest scenery in Japan. A list of their names is given on the margin 
of the General Map which aooompanies this work. 

OtUdes. Post$0 Telegraphs Banks,- Currency. f 

6. — Guides. 

Guides understanding English oan be procured of the Guides' Asso- 
ciation (Kaiyusha) at Yokohama and Kobe, with branches at Tokyo and 
Kyoto. Apply at any of the -hotels. The fixed charge at present (1894) 
is advertised as follows : — " Two dollars per day for a party of one or two 
tourists; over two, 25 cents added for each tourist. In all cases the 
guide's trayelling expenses must be paid by his employer, except his 
hotel expenses." 

A guide is an absolute necessity to persons unacquainted with 
the language. Those knowing a little Japanese may feel themselyes 
more their own masters by hiring a man-servant, or " boy," also able to 
cook, and having neither objection to performing menial functions, nor 
opinions of his own as to the route which it will be best to take. 

7. — Posts; Telegraphs; Banks. 

The Imperial Japanese Post and Telegraph services are excellent. 
Letters and papers can be forwarded with perfect safety to the different 
stages of a journey. The Post-Office Order system is thoroughly efficient, 
and will be found useful by travellers who wish to avoid carrying about 
much money. 

In most towns of any size, the Post and Telegraph Offices are com- 
bined. Telegrams in any of the principal European languages cost 5 
cents per word, with a minimmn charge of 25 cents, addresses being 
charged for. A telegram in Japanese of 10 Kana characters costs 15 
cents, addresses not being charged for, and the foreign residents therefore 
often avail themselves of this means of communication. Telephone Bx- 
changes have been established in some of the larger towns. 

Tliere are at Yokohama, Kobe, and Nagasaki branches or agencies of 
the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, the Chartered Bank of ladia, Austra- 
lia, and China, and the Kational Bank of China. 

8. — Currency. 

The values are decimal, with the j/en, or silver dollar, as the imit. 
One yen contains 100 sen or cents ; one sen contains 10 rin. The currency 
consists of gold which is practically never seen ; of silver pieces of 1 yen^ 
50 s^n, 20 sen^ 10 sen, and 5 sen ; of nickel pieces of 5 sen ; of copper 

Sieces of 2 sen, 1 sen, 5 rin, and 1 rin besides others issued during feuoal 
ays representing 1 J rin, 8 rin (these are oblong pieces called tem])d, now 
rarely seen), etc. ; and of paper money worth 20 sen, 60 sen, 1 yen, 5 yen, 
10 yen, and various larger sums. Mexican silver dollars can be passed 
only at the Treaty Ports. 

It is best to travel with paper money, both because of its superior 
portability, and because it is better known to the inhabitants of the 
interior than the silver yen. One of the first things the tourist should do 
is to learn the difference between the various notes for the values 
above-mentioned. He is advised to take with him no notes of a higher 
denomination than 10 yen, as it is often difficult to get change except in 
in the big towns. 

Introduction : — Weights and Measures, 

9.^— Weights and Measures. 

Distances are reckoned by ri and cho, 86 did going to the ri.* On^ 
ri is equal to 2.44 English statute miles, or, roughly speaking, to a trifle- 
under 2^ miles. One chd is equal to 358 English feet, or yV ^^ ^ mile. 
The chd is subdivided into 60 ken (1 ken~6 ft. approximately), and the 
ken into 6 shaku (1 8haku^=l ft. approximately). The subdivisions of the 
Bhaku follow the decimal system. Throughout this work, the distances 
are given in ri and chd as well as in miles, as visitors to Japan drop 
▼ery soon into the Japanese method of reckoning, which indeed must 
be learnt in any case, as coolies, jinrikisha-meu, and others know nothing 
of English miles. A word of caution may here be given against the habit 
of certain Japanese having a superficial knowledge of English, who 
mistranslate the world ri by " miles." The following table, borrowed 
from Dr. Whitney's Dictionary of Eoads^ Tou'7is, and Villages of JajmUy 
will be found useful ;— 


Japanese Si. 































46 37 







58 57 









































143 9s 





























200.1 J 








































































































Long Measure (KaTie), 10 hu—1 sun (often translated " inch," but— 
1.19 inches of English measure); 10 sun— I sJiaku; 6 sliaku:^! ken ; 10 
8hakv=^ljd» The Jo, equal to about 10 English feet, is the rmit employed 
in measuring heights and depths. 

Cloth Meastire (Kujira). 10 bu—lsun; 10 sun~l shakn^ or nearly 
12 inches; 10 sJiaku=^lj6, In this measure, the shaku is J longer than 
in Long Pleasure. 

Land Measure {Tsubo). The unit is the tszibo, nearly equivalent to 4. 
square yards English. An acre is nearly equivalent to 1,210 t^ubo. 

1 c/w— 2^ acres, and 1 ri (square)— 6 sq. miles, approximately. 

Measure of Capacity, 10 gb=^l shot which contains about 108^ cubic 
inches, and is a little larger than 1^ quart ; 10 shd—1 to^ nearly half a 

* Some mountain dittricto have a longer ri of 50 cko. 

Imu. Travelling Expenses, 7 

toflhelf or, lor liquids, 4 gallons ; 10 to=l koku, whioh is a fraction less 
ihan 5 Cnglish bushels. 

Weights. The kin is about IJ lb. avoirdupois ; 1 lb. avoir.=about 120 
momme. The Xnoon is equal to 1,000 momme (6| kin or a little over 8| lbs.). 

10. — Inns ; Travelling Expenses. 

The inns are given from personal knowledge or from the best 
aeeessible authorities, an asterisk being sometimes prefixed to the name 
of a house specially worthy of mention. What is termed haiago at a 
Japanese inn includes supper, bed, and breakfast, for which a single 
charge is usually made. This varies in different parts of the country ; at 
present it ranges from 25 sen to 75 sen per head. Anything in the way 
of food or liquor ordered in addition to the meals supplied has to be paid 
for separately. There is no charge for firing, lighting, attendance, or 
baih, provided always the traveller is content with what is given to every 
one eUe, neither is there any for tea. But it is usual, shortly after 
arriving and being shown into a room, or in paying one's account just 
before leaving, to make a present, known as chadai or " tea-money.*' 
Qlie latter course is recommended. With Japanese travellers, this 
tea-money varies with the rank of the individual, the amount of extra 
attention which he desires or has received, and with the quality of the 
aeoommodation. Generally they are very liberal. The foreign tourist 
Is on a somewhat different footing, and there are seldom gradations of 
tank to be considered in his case. As a fair and practical solution of 
a vexed question, those who travel h la japonaise and who are charged 
in accordance with the native scale, may be recommended to make the 
amount of their chadai vary from 25 sen to 50 sen per night. Therefore, 
for a single night's entertainment, the cost — hatago and chadai included 
— ^may be put down at from 60 cents to $1.25. If two or more persons 
are travelling together, the chadai is increased say to one-half more for 
two, and double for three persons. In some parts, especially at bathing 
lesorte, there is a fixed rate for accommodation only, the food being 
charged for separately according to order. In such places, it is usual to 
make a present for distribution amongst the servants in addition to the 
chadai, whereas in the ordinary inns such presents are not looked for. 

It is but fair that foreigners should pay more than natives, both for 
accommodation and for jinrikishas. They usually weigh more, they 
almost always want to travel more quickly, they give infinitely more 
trouble at an inn with their demands for separate rooms, fresh water in 
the bath, the occupation of a portion of the kitchen to cook their 
£iiropean food in, and a dozen other such requirements, to say nothing 
of the necessity under which the host lies of reporting their presence to 
the police. 

In the Europeanised hotels at such frequented spots as Nikko, 
Kamakura, Miyanoshita, Kyoto, Nagoya, etc., the general charge is from 
f3«50 to 93.50 a day, everything included except wines. The charges 
at the hotels under foreign management in the Open Ports are generally 
■Ughtly higher. The charge per diem for a native servant is about 
50 sen a day. The average charge (to foreigners) for jinrikishas in the 
most frequented portions of the country is now (1894) from 10 to 16 sen 
per W, the same per hour, and $1 per diem, — for sightseeing in the cities 
about 80 sen per diem. About 50 per cent, is added to these rates in bad 
VQftthflr and at night. But the tendency of late years has been towards 

9 IntrQduaUon:-^imi. CUmaie. Brest. 

constantly inoreased rates, owing to the rise in the price of rioe and o4her 
staple commodities. It is usual to give a small gratuity {sakate^ to 
jinrikisha-men after a hard run of any distance. 

Perhaps one might say that the total cost to a traveller of average 
requirements, travelling at a reasonable speed, and having with him a 
native servant, should not exceed ^ per diem. If he restricts himself to 
mountainous districts, the expense will be considerably less. A certain 
saving is also e£fected when two or three persons travel together. 

It will be seen from the above that the hostelries at which travelleEa 
in Japan put up are of three kinds, — the European hotel, the Euro- 
peanised or half-European half-Japanese hotel {Jioteru)^ and the purely 
native inn (yadoya). The ryori-ya^ or restaurant, supplies meals with 
less delay than the regular inns, but offers no sleeping accommodation. 
The tea-house (chaya) is different again, being a place where people 
neither sleep nor dine, but only halt for a short time to rest and take 
slight refreshment. Residents in Japan, however, often include inns 
under the denomination of tea-houses. Every little railway sbation has 
its tea-house which undertakes to purchase the traveller's ticket and 
check his luggage. 

The best style of Japanese inn is now generally supplied with a few 
chairs and tables ; or if there are none in the house, some can be brought 
in from the school or the police-station hard by, where they are ds 
ri^ueur. Beds are still rare ; but good quilts (futon) are laid down on 
the mats, wherever may be most convenient; a smaller quilt will be 
rolled into a pillow, and in summer a mosquito-net will be provided. No 
inn in native style has a dining-room. Eeich guest dines in his own 
apartment at whatever time he (or more often the host) may select. 

It is a common Japanese custom to carry letters of introduction {an- 
'ixai'jo) from inn to inn. This has advantages, especially in seasons of 
epidemic disease or under any other circmnstanoes liable to cause the 
traveller to be viewed with suspicion, or when, for the purposes of any 
special investigation, he wishes to be brought into intimate relations 
with his hosts along the road. Many inns keep printed forms of 
annai-jb which they fill in with the traveller's name. Occasionally these, 
and the little paper slips in which toothpicks are wrapped up, as also 
the fans or towels which it is still the custom in many places to present 
on departure to those guests who have given a suitable chadaiy are charm- 
ing specimens of Japanese taste in small matters of every-day life. 

11. — Climate ; Dress ; Time op Visit. 

Kemember that Japan is rot in the tropics, and bring wiurm clothing 
with you, whatever be the season of your visit ; also very light 
clothing, if your visit be in the summer. Even in July, when the mean 
temperature of Tokyo is about 1&^ Fahrenheit, days may come when you 
will be glad of all your winter things. This applies still more to the 
mountains. On the other hand, be more careful of exposure to the sun 
than you would be in England. A sun helmet and a white umbrella are 
useful additions to the traveller's wardrobe. 

Though garments of the roughest description will suf&ce for the 
country districts, bring good clothes, such as might be worn at home, in 
which to appear at the larger hotels, and to mix, if need be, in society, 
whether Japanese or foreign. The Japai^ese authorities now attend th^or 
offices in frock or morning coa4is, and jBtaropeans visiting them should he 

Climate. Dfm. Tiine of Thit. 9 

rizBihurly attired. At a few of the higbest floeial fanctions, frock-coats 
and tall hats are de rigueur. With regard to boots, it is advisable to 
wear such as can be pulled ofE and on easily, e^ it is necessary 
to remove one's boots every time one enters a house or temple^ in 
order not to soil the inats on which the Japanese sit. Grave of- 
fence is given, and naturally given, by the disregard of this 
cleanly custom. Light shoes or boots with elastic sides are therefore to 
be preferred, except for mountain work. If your boots give out, try the 
native straw sandiGtls (waraji) with the native sock (tahi), which give a 
better foothold than boots on smooth rocks. Many foreigners have found 
them excellent foot-gear, the only addition required being a small piece of 
cotton-wool to prevent chafing by the thong which passes between the 
great and second toes. Boots barely holding together can be maide to 
last a day or two longer by tying toaraji underneath them. Kanjiki^ that 
is, iron clamps of triangular shape with spikes, are often fastened below 
the toaraji for walking over snow. The native blue cotton gaiters called 
kyahan afford excellent protection against the attacks of flies, and from 
the rank undergrowth so often found on the lower slopes of Japanese 

At Yokohama, Chinese tailors attend the hotels, and will fit out 
travellers literally between a night and a morning with duck, crape, and 
other light clothing. Washing is expeditiously done at the Open Porte 
and at the principal summer resorts. 

Bonghly speaking, the Japanese summer is hot and occasionally 
wet ; September and the first half of October much wetter ; the late 
autumn and early winter cool, comparatively dry, and delightful ; February 
and March disagreeable, with occasional snow and dirty weather, whicn 
is all the more keenly felt in Japanese inns devoid of fire-places ; the late 
spring rainy and windy, with beautiful days interspersed. But different 
years vary greatly from each other. The average temperature of January, 
which is the coldest month, is between 36° and 37° Fahrenheit at Tokyo ; 
but there are frequent frosts at night during five months of the year, 
namely, from November to March inclusive. Skating is rare in Tokyo. 
The average temperature of August is 78°, and the thermometer some- 
times registers over 90°. The climate of Northern Japan from Sendai 
onwards is much colder in winter, though not appreciably cooler during 
July and August. A similar remark applies even more forcibly to the 
entire West coast, which is exposed to the icy winds that blow direct from 
Siberia. Kishu, Southern Shikokn, and Southern Kyashfl are warmer all 
the year round. 

Each traveller must judge for himself from the above remarks which 
season to select for his tour. If possible, he should be either in Tokyo 
or in Kyoto during the first half of April to see the lovely display of 
cherry-blossoms, which are followed throughout the early summer bv 
other flowers — peonies, azaleas, wistarias, irises — well-worth seeing both 
for their own sake and for that of the picturesque crowds of Japanese 
sight-seers whom they attract. If not able to visit Kyoto early in April, 
he should try to be there at the end of October or early in November, 
when the autumn leaves are in all their glory of red and gold. Tokyo is 
less favoured in this respect, but the chrysanthemums there early in 
November are magnificent. The summer may most advantageously be 
devoted to NikkO, to Miyanoshita, Arima, Unzen, or other mineral bath 
resorts, or else to travelling in Yezo and in the high mountainous districts 
of the intMfior of the Main Island, which are practically inaccessible 

10 Introduction :^^ProvidoM, 

except between Jane and October. Fnji is only ascended during the 
hottest period of summer. 

12. — Pkovisions. 

Except at a few of the larger towns and favourite hill or sea-side 
resorts, meat, bread, and the other forms of European food are unknown. 
Even chickens are but rarely to be obtained ; for though plenty may be 
seen in almost every village, the people object to sell them — partly be- 
cause they keep them for the sake of their eggs, partly on account of a 
lingering Buddhist dislike to taking life. Those, therefore, who cannot 
live on the native fare of rice, eggs, and fish (this, too, not to be counted 
on in the mountains), should carry their own supplies with them. Wines, 
spirits, and cigars are equally unobtainable ; but beer is to be met witli 
in most towns, the Kirin Beer brewed at Yokohama being excellent. It 
is advisable to take one or two knives, forks, spoons, a corkscrew, a 
tin-opener, and the most elementary cooking utensils. Plates and 
glasses can be borrowed almost everywhere. Persons fairly easy 
to please and who wish to travel lightly, can reduce the size of their pro- 
vision basket by using the rice, fish, and eggs of the country as auxiliary 
to what they carry with them. Curry-powder will often help to make 
insipid Japanese dishes palatable, and shdyu (soy) adds a zest to soups. 
When starting off for the first time, it is best to err on the side of taking 
too much. Many who view Japanese food hopefully from a distance, 
have found their spirits sink and their tempers embittered when brought 
face to face with its unsatisfying actuality. 

Milk may now sometimes be obtained at the towns along the Tokaido, 
NakasendO, and other chief highways, but should not be counted on. 
The yolk of an egg beaten up is considered by many to be a good sub- 
stitute for it in tea or coffee. It is essential to avoid all water into which 
rice-fields may have drained. In the plains, water should be filtered and 
boiled before drinking. 

The following Japanese articles of food are considered palatable by 
most foreigners : 

Kasuteira, spongecake. 

Miso-shirUf bean-soup. 

Sakana no shio-yaki^ broiled fish. 

Bakana no temp^ira^ fish fritter. 

SakSy a strong liquor made from rice and generally taken hot. 

Senibelj thin biscuits of various kinds. 

Tamago-yakif a sort of omelette. 

TorUnabcy chicken cut up small and stewed. 

Vshi-nabe, beef similarly treated. 

Uymgi-mcshif layers of rice with eels done in soy. 

Ydkan, sweet-bean paste. 

18. — Means op Locomotion ; Luggage. 

Take the railway wherever available. On those plains which no 
railway yet traverses, take a jinrikislia. Avoid the native basJm 
(carriage), if you have either nerves to shatter or bones to shake, and 
be very chary of burdening yourself with a horse and saddle of your 
own in the interior, as all sorts of troubles are apt to arise with regard 
to shoeing, run-away grooms (bettd), etc. Such, in a few words, is 

Meant ^ Locomotien^ Luggage. 11 

oar advice, founded on long personal experience. Other possible con- 
TQjanoes are pack-horses (but the Japanese pack-saddle is torture), cows, 
the kago — a species of small palanquin, uncomfortable at first, but not dis- 
liked by many old residents, — and lastly chairs borne by four coolies ; but 
tiiese have only recently been introduced from China, and are not found 
«xoept at Miyanoshita, Nikko, and a very few other places much resorted 
fa> by foreigners. The pleasantest sort of trip for a healthy man is that in 
ivhich walking and jinrikisha-iidiDg are combined. In the hilly districts 
which make Japan so picturesque, walking is the ouly possible, or at least 
the only pleasant, metnod of progression. The luggage is then taken on 
a pack-horse or on a coolie's back. 

Persons intending to go at aU ofi the beaten tracks are advised to 
oomptess their luggage within narrow limits. This is specially neces- 
sary in the thinly populated mountainous parts of the country, where 
one coolie — not improbably a grandfather superannuated from regular 
¥rork, or possibly a buxom lass, — is often the sole means of transport that a 
village can supply, all the horses being generally with their masters miles 
sway in the mountains. 

It is always best to avoid large boxes and portmanteaus, and to divide 
ttie luggage into two or three smaller pieces for convenience in piling on 
s coolie's hod, or for balancing the two sides of a pack-horse's load. The 
J^Minese wicker baskets called yanagi-gori are much recommended, as 
elieap, portable, capacious, and contractable. The yanagi-gori (often 
called kori for short) consists of an oblong basket, with a second fitting 
over it to any depth as a cover, and is consequently convenient, not only 
for clothes and books, but for provisions, since the size of the basket can 
be diminished as the stores are consumed, without any empty space 
being left for the remaining articles to rattle about in. A pair of these 
yanagi-gori — one for personal effects, the other for provisions — should 
soffice to him who intends to rough it. They should be provided with a 
lai^ge wrapper of oil-paper (abura-kami) against the rain, and fastened 
mther with cords which can be procured anywhere, or with stout leather 

As to Japanese roads, no general opinion can be expressed. Some- 
times excellent when first made, they are often kept in insufi&cient repair. 
Travellers must therefore not be astonished if they come across rosids, 
which, though mentioned in this work as good for jinnkishas, have become 
almost impassable even for foot passengers—the result of a single season 
of floods or typhoons. The changes in this respect are in proportion to 
the violence of the Japanese climate. It is furthermore probable that 
the distances given in our itineraries differ slightly in some cases from 
the actual truth, notwithstanding all the care taken to obtain information 
•8 accurate as possible. It is hoped, however, that such discrepancies 
will never be so great as seriously to afiect the traveller's plans. An 
^^>arent error of ^ mile wUl occasionally be observed in the total mileage 
€i the itineraries. This arises from the fact that, the mileage of each 
stage of a journey being given only within I mile of the actual distance, 
the fractional errors thus arising, though balanced and allowed for as 
carefully as possible, sometimes unavoidably accumulate. On the other 
hand, the so-called total mileage is obtained, not by adding up the mileage 
column, but by direct calculation (also within | mile) of the value of the 
total in ri and cho. 

On the railroads, men desirous of practising economy will find the 
second class quite good enoogh, and those who wish to make a near 

it Introducti<m:—Wher9 i» Go ami Wktt to See. 

aoquaintsnoe with Japanese life will meet in the second class with far i 
subject-matter for their investigations. But ladies are advised to travel 
first class, as smoking is general, and the ways of the Ji^panose lower 
middle class with regard to clothing, the management of children, and 
other matters, are not altogether as oar ways. Some lines provide noiu 
smoking second class compartments. There are as yet no sleeping-cars^ 
dining-cars, or buffets ; but neat little boxes of Japanese food (bentd), tet^ 
beer, ice, and cakes are offered for sale at the principal stations by runners 
from the inns. The Railway Begulations permit holders of tickets for 
distances of over 50 miles to break their journey at the more important 
places. Luggage is checked as in the United States, each first-class 
passenger being allowed to carry 100 lbs. and each second-class passenger 
60 lbs. free of charge. 

14. — Where to Go and What to- See. 

" How long does it take to do Japan ? 'Ms a question often asked. 
If by *' doing'* Japan, be meant hurrying througn its chief sights, tha 
globe-trotter can manage this in three or four weeks by adopting one of the 
Outline Tours given in Sec. 29. He who is bent on more serious observ- 
ation will not find four months too much ; and one who has spent that 
time rarely fails to come again. Travellers' tastes jdiffer widely. Some 
come to study a unique civilisation, some come in search of health, some 
to climb volcanoes, others to investigate a special art or industry. 
Those who desire to investigate Buddhist temples will find what they 
want in fullest perfection at Ky5to, at Nara, at Tokyo, and at Nikkd. 
The chief shrines of Shinto are at Ise and at Kitsuki in the province 
of Izumo. Those in search of health and comparative coolness during 
the summer months, to be obtained without much " roughing," are 
advised to try Miyanoshita, Nikko, or Ikao in the Tokyo district, Arima 
in the Kobe district, or (if they come from China, and wish to remain as 
near home as possible) Unzen in the Nagasaki district. All the above, 
•except Kitsuki, may be safely recommended to ladies. Yezo is specially 
suited for persons residing in Japan proper, and desiring thorough change 
of air. At Hakodate they will get sea-bathing, at Sapporo they wiU 
get fishing if they go in June or early in July. But Japan is more 
especially the happy hunting-groimd of the lover of the picturesque. 
With the symmetrical outlines of its volcanoes, with its fantastic rocks^ 
its magnificent timber which somehow, even when growing naturally, 
produces the Impression of having been planted for artistic effect, with its 
tiny shrines and quaint hostel ries constantly placed so as to command 
vistas that delight the eye, this beautiful land is a fitting abode for 
the most esthetic of modern peoples. Every variety of scenery, from 
the gracefully lovely to the ruggedly grand, is here to be found. Of the 
former character are the neighbourhood of Yokohama (Kamakura, 
Enoshima, Kanazawa), the whole Hakone district, Fuji and its surround- 
ing ring of lakes, Nikko, Haruna, the Inland Sea, the Kiso valley, 
North-Eastem Kyushu, Matsushima in the North of the Main Island, 
and many more. Hugged and sublime in thsir character are the Hida- 
EtchQ range, Koma-ga-take in Koshu, the whole mass of mountains 
lying between the rivers Fujikawa and TenryG-gawa, and the district 
near the North-Westem coast including Mounts Chokai, Gwassan, and 
Haguro-san. But the travelling amidst these rough mountains is itself 
rough in the extreme. None but thoroughly healthy men, inured to 

Pmehmm. Oijtc^ of AH. H 

liflirdship, should attempt ii. As for what is oallad '* seeing Japanese 
life," the best {dan is to avoid the Foreign Settlements in the Open Ports. 
You will see theatres, wrestling, danoing-girls, and the new Japan of 
European nniforms, political lectures, clubs, colleges, hospitals, and 
Methodist chapels, in the big cities. The old peasant life still continues 
almost unchanged in the districts not opened up by railways. 

15. — PuBCHASES ; Objects of Art. 

Travellers will find the greatest facilities for purchases of every de- 
seription in the large stores of Yokohama and Kobe. They will also find 
much to attract them in T5ky5, Kydto, Osaka, and Nagasaki. The 
names of the best shops are given under each of these towns. Though 
now sometimes sold in large stores, Japanese objects of art are not 
produced in large workshops. In old days, when the best pieces were 
made, few masters employed as many as half a dozen workmen in 
addition to the members of their own family, and chefs-d^oem^re often 
originated in humble dwellings, where perhaps a single artisan laboured 
in the most primitive style assisted by one or two children. At the 
ptesent day, foreign influence is causing the spread of Western business 
methods, extensive manufactures, and splendidly decked out shop- windows, 
but as yet only in two or three of the larger towns. Even there, the best 
things must often be sought in narrow lanes. It was also formerly, and 
is still to some extent, characteristic of the Japanese tradesman and 
artisan-artist to hesitate to bring out his finest specimens at once. The 
rale is that several visits are necessary before he will display his choicest 
articles, and that even then a long time must be spent in bargaining. A 
few establishments of the more modem sort have fixed prices. This 
temark also applies to the Kwankdba, or bazaars. 

Japan is now almost denuded of old curios. Some have found their 
way into the museums of the country, while priceless collections have 
eroesed the sea to Europe and America. But many of the productions 
ol the present day are eminently beautiful, more especially the embroid- 
eries and the clouotin^. It is not possible within the limits of a travelliug 
Handlxx^ to enter into a disquisition on Japanese art — its origin, its 
ehacacteristics, and the great names that adorn its history. A whole library 
on this subject has come into existence within the last fifteen years, and 
the views of connoisseurs differ widely even on points of prime importance. 
We must content ourselves with mentioning the names of certain art- 
fonns unknown in Europe, and for most of which no appropriate English 
eqiuvalents exist. The objects embodying these art-forms will constantly 

t under the traveller's notice if he frequents the curio stores. Such 

The Inrdj a medicine-box in segments, generally made of lacquer. 
Ihe segments are held together by means of a cord, to one extremity of 
which a Netsuke is often attached. 

The Kakemono or hanging scroll, generally painted, sometimes em- 

The K9rd^ or incense-burner, generally in bronze or porcelain. 

The Makimono^ or scroll, not meant to be hung up. It is used chiefly 
ior manuscripts which are often beautifully illustrated. 

The Netsuke, originally a kind of button for the medicine box, pipe- 
oaae, or tobacco-pouch, carved out of wood or ivory. These little articles 
iHife iinoe developed into gams of glyptic art 

14 Introdttction : — Shipment of Goods. Shooting. 

The OkimcnOt a general name for varioas small ornaments having no 
definite use, but intended to be plaoed in an alcove or on a cabinet. 

Wo may also mention various gear appertaining to the Japanese 
sword and often cunningly wrought in metals and alloys, of which 
latter the best known are 8hibu-ichi and Shakudot both formed of a basis 
of copper with varying admixtures of silver and gold. Specially note- 
worthy among these articles are the Taubat or guard, and the Menuki^ 
small ornaments fixed one on each side of the hilt, and held in place by 
the silk cord which binds together the various parts of the handle. 

16. — Shipment of Goods. 

A reference to the local Directories (or Hong Lists, as they are also 
caJled) will furnish the names of those firms in Yokohama and Kobe which 
make a business of shipping travellers' purchases to Europe, America* 
and elsewhere. As a rule, too, the foreign firms which deal in curios will 
undertake to forward anything to destination. Remember, when sending 
a box for shipment to a shipping firm, to nail it down but slightly, as 14 
will be opened and examined at the Custom-House. The shipping firm 
should be furnished with a detailed list of the contents and their value, 
and be requested to see to the box being sectured in a more solid manner 
after examination. 

17. — Shooting. 

The mountainous districts of Japan, especially the Northern portion 
of the Main Island, shelter plenty of deer and boar, while in Yezo many 
bears still remain. Duck of various kinds, the green pheasant, quail, 
woodcock, snipe, and hares, are to be found in the plains and on the 
lower ranges of hills bordering the flat country, while on somewhat higher 
ground the copper pheasant has its abode in the thickest cover. Hybrids 
between the green pheasant and an imported Chinese species are also 
sometimes met with. The gorgeous golden pheasant is extremely rare. 
Japan, with its rich plains and hills giving ample shelter to game, should 
naturally be a good sporting country. It would be still better, if the law 
protecting birds and animals during the breeding season were consistently 
enforced. Be this as it may, the foreign sportsman labours under 
heavy restrictions. The license which he has to obtain at a 
cost of $10 yearly, only entitles him to shoot whthin a radius of 10 ri 
(24^ miles) from the Treaty Ports, and within an irregular boundary of 
less area round Tokyo. But the game having been almost exterminated 
throughout this area, the majority of resident sportsmen have abandoned 
the field. In the event of existing conditions being replaced by others 
which will allow foreigners to travel and shoot all over Japan, there will 
be excellent sport for one provided with good dogs and not afraid of hard 
walking. Meanwhile, a gun-case is a useless piece of baggage to the 
foreign visitor. 

The shooting season begins on the 15th October, and ends on the 
14th March. Shooting licenses may be obtained at the Treaty Ports 
from the Prefecture (Kenchd). Applications by residents in Tokyo for 
shooting licenses must in the first instance be made by letter to the 
Police Bureau (Kcishi^ho), stating the full name, age, and residence of 
the applicant, who must afterwards take delivery in person of the license 
at the Chief Police Office, on being informed that it has been issued. 

Pishing. IS 

The applicant has to enter into a written engagement to observe certain 
r^nlations, the violation of which involves the forfeiture of the license 
and the payment of a fine of $10 more. Shooting beyond Treaty Limits 
is strictly prohibited. 

18. — Fishing. 

Locality. Fly-fishing may be said to be confined to that portion of 
the East Ck>ast of Japan, North of Tokyo, where the water is sufifi* 
ciently cold for salmon and trout. In Yezo, the river Yurap on 
the East Coast, and the Shiribetsn on the West Ck)ast are recom- 
mended. Both are in season about June. In former years good trout 
fishing was obtainable near Sapporo iu the river Toyohira ; but owing 
to the refuse from the flax-mills being allowed to discharge into 
the stream, only few fish now run past it. Most of the other rivers 
of Yezo and of the Northern provinces of the Main Island contain trout. 
The lakes of Yezo also abound in ao-masu and ami-masUf the former a 
pink, the latter a white-fieshed fish. These take the fly greedily, and 
are caught up to 2 lbs. in weight. Near Fukuoka in the province of 
Hikuoku is a good stretch of water, which would probably be best worked 
by staying at Ichinohe. Further South, near Furusawa and close to the 
railway, is a fishing river called the Nagagawa, and in the North-West of 
the Main Island the rivers Iwaki and Noshiro are believed to be worth a 
visit. Trout are also found in Lakes Biwa and Chnzenji. Fly-fishers 
may hope for sport during June, July, and the early part of August. 

Fish. There are two classes of sporting fish, — the shaken or salmon 
as known in Europe, and the masu (Salmo japonictu). The shake is a 
full-sized salmon, and ascends the rivers in great quantities during 
autmnn and early winter. All the Northern rivers hold these fish, which 
in Yezo are so plentiful that they fall an easy prey to crows and 
bears. Many must weigh as much as 80 lbs. when caught; but they 
afford no sport to the angler, since, like salmon in other Pacific waters, 
they neither rise to a fly nor run to a spinning bait. At New Year, the 
shops in Tokyo are full of smoked shake that have been sent down from the 
North. Of the masu there are several varieties ; but all are of the trout or 
salmon-trout description, and all are sporting fish. The true tnasu run 
up the rivers from May to August, the time depending on the temperature 
of the water. These fish are in the best condition at a temperature of 
from 55^ to 65°. Tliey are not taken below 50°. An 8 lb. fish is a 
large one, the usual size being 5 lbs. or 6 lbs. 

Tackle. Ordinary salmon tackle may be used, with flies of medium 
salmon size and plenty of bright colour, especially orange and yellow. The 
fly is but rarely taken on the surface, and should therefore be well drowned. 
A rod of about 16 ft. is the most convenient, as the fish are strong and 
the jjools often large. Wading trousers are useful. Spinning with a 
spoon-bait or a phantom minnow is often successful. In Lake Chnzenji, 
the fish are caught during the summer months by trolling from a boat 
with 60 or 70 yards of line heavily leaded. The bait used is a kind of 
Colorado spoon, and can be obtained from Nakamura, at Kyobashi Qinza 
Itchome in Tokyo, where also Japanese lines can be had to supplement 
the angler's gear for this kind of fishing. 

Accommodation. Except in Yezo, fair accommodation can be had 
almost everywhere. In Yezo one must be prepared for rough quarters, 
and many districts there are quite uninhabited, so that a tent should form 
pait of the sportsman's outfit if he is to be free in his movements. 

t6 Introduction: — Miacdlaneous Hints, 


Take plenty of flea-powder or camphor ; also, if going ofi the beaten 
tracks, take soap, candles, and carbolic acid— the latter to coonteract 
the unpleasant odours that often disturb the comfort of guests in 
Japanese inns. 

Take towels, a pair of sheets, and a pillow, or at least a pillow-case 
to put on the extemporised pillow which the tea-house people will arrange. 
Instead of loose sheets, some prefer to sew two sheets together to form 
a bag which is tied round the sleeper's neck. 

Entrust your passport to your guide or servant. This will obviate 
interruptions from police officers at inconvenient hours. 

If your servant seems honest and intelligent, entrust him with money 
for current expenses. This will save a world of petty bother and vexation 
as to change, Wigaining, and such matters. 

If you have much money with you, entrust it to the host of each 
respectable hotel you stop at, and get his receipt for it. 

Start early, and do not insist on travelling after dark. You will 
thus most easily obtain good coolies or horses for the day's journey. 
By arriving at your destination before sunset, you will be likely to find 
the bath as yet unused, and will thus avoid the trouble and delay entailed 
by the necessity of having other water heated. You will also have a 
better choice of rooms. 

When planning your day's journey, allow an hour for each ri to be 
done on foot, which should be sufficient to cover stoppages and un- 
avoidable delays. Ten ri (24} miles) is considered by the Japanese a 
proper day's work. 

However inconvenient to yourself, never refuse the coolies* request 
to be allowed to stop for food, as they can do no work on an empty 

The Japanese, whose graiide passion is bathing, use water at higher 
temperatures— 110°-120° Fahrenheit— than physicians in Europe consider 
healthful. No one, however, will be injured by taking baths of between 
100° and 106° Fahrenheit, unless he has a weak heart or is liable to 
congestion. Owing to some unexplained peculiarity of the climate, hot 
baths are found by almost all Europeans in Japan to suit them better 
than cold. It is advisable to pour hot water over the head from time to 
time, fiknd strong persons may advantageously end up with a cold douche. 
The hotter the bath, the greater the impunity with which one may 
afterwards expose oneself to the cold air. The reason why people at home 
have come to entertain the notion that hot baths give a chilly reaction, is 
that they do not take them hot enough, or do not immerse themselves 
up to the neck. The Japanese have the habit, to us disagreeable, of 
getting into the same batu, one after another, or even at the same time ; 
but it is a breach of etiquette to discolour the water by the use of soap. 
They soap themselves outside. Tlie first guest to arrive at an inn has 
the prior right to the bath. Formerly, promiscuous bathing of the sexes 
was common ; but this is now forbidden by the police regulations. 

Massage is much practised in Japan, and is a capiteJ restorative 
from fatigue after mountain climbing. The services of a blind sham- 
pooer (amma $an) may be obtained at almost every inn. 

MUcslianeous HinU. 17 

Never enter a Japanese house with your hoots on. The mats take the 
place of our chairs aad sofas. What should we say to a man who trod 
on oar chairs and sofas with his dirty boots ? 

It is next to impossible to get windows opened at night in Japanese 
inns. The reason is that it is considered unsafe to leave anything 
open on acooont of thieves, and there is a police regulation to enforce 

In the' event of trouble arising with regard to accommodation, the 
procuring of coolies, etc., always apply to the police, who are almost in- 
variably polite and serviceable. These officials — for officials they are, 
however small— must not be insulted by the offer of a tip. 

Take visiting cards with you. Japanese with whom you become 
acqaainted will often want to exchange cards. 

Above all, be constantly polite and conciliatory in your demeanour 
towards the people. Whereas the lower classes at home are apt to resent 
0uave manners, and to imagine that he who addresses them politely 
wishes to deceive them or get something out of them, every Japanese, 
however humble, expects courtesy, being himself courteous. His courtesy, 
however, differs from that of the West in not being specially directed 
towards ladies. 

Many travellers irritate the Japanese by talking and acting as 
if they thought Japan and her customs a sort of peep-show set 
up for foreigners to gape at. Others run counter to native custom, 
and nevertheless expect to get things at native prices. They cannot 
understand why a bill for several dollars should be presented to 
them for ten miniates' dancing, which perhaps after all has not amused 
them. The reason for the high charge is quite simple. Japanese 
do not send for dancing-girls without ordering a dinner at the same 
time. The dancing is an incident of the dinner, and it is in this 
dinner that the tea-house proprietor makes his profit. He does not care 
io have his house invaded at unusual hours by people who take nothing 
for the good of the house ; neither can the dancers get ready on the spur 
of the moment. Too many foreigners, we foar, give not only trouble 
and offence, but just cause for indignation by their disregard of propriety, 
especially in their behaviour towards Japanese women, whose engaging 
manners and niu[ve ways they misinterpret. The subject is too delicate 
to be treated here. We may, however, be permitted to remark in 
passing that the waitresses at any respectable Japanese inn deserve the 
same respectful treatment that is accorded to girls in a similar position 
at home. 

Never show any impatience. You will only get stared at or laughed 
at behind your back, and matters will not move any the quicker in this 
land where an hour more or less is of no account. The word tadaimat 
which the dictionaries, in their simplicity, render by *' immediately," 
may mean any time between now and Christmas. Storming will not 
mend matters, when you find (to take one instance out of a hundred) that 
joar jinrikiflha coolies wish to stop for a meal just after you have started 
and have been calculating that you will arrive at such and such a place 
at such and such an hour. It is best to resign oneself at the beginuing, 
onoe for alL While waiting patiently, you have an opportunity of study- 
ing Japanese life. Neither be moved to anger because you are asked 
personal questions by casual acquaintances. To ask such questions is the 
Japanese way of showing kindly interest. 

18 Introduction : — Language, 

20. — Language. 

The Japanese language, though extremely difficult to learn oorreetly, 
is easy to acquire a smattering of ; and even a smattering will add im- 
mensely to the pleasure of a tour in the country, by bringing the 
traveller into pergonal relations with the people, and by delivering him 
from the wearisome tutelage of guides and interpreters. 

Remember, in pronouncing Japanese, that the consonants are to be 
sounded approximately as in English, the vowels as in Spanish or Italian, 
that is to say :— 

a as in father i as in pin 

e as in pet o as in pony 

u as in full 

But t and u are sometimes almost inaudible, and are then marked 
I and u in the following vocabulary, thus arimasikt " there is; '* wakari- 
mashita, " I understand." In diphthongs each vowel retains its original 
force. Thus : — 

ai as in the English word " sky" 
au as in the English word " cow,** 
ei as in the English word " hay.** 

There is scarcely any tonic accent ; in other words, all the syllables 
are pronounced equally or nearly so. But particular care must be taken 
to distinguish long d and u from short o and u. The short vowels are 
pronounced in a very light, staccato manner. Thus O tori nasai means 
** Please take this ;" but O tdri nasai means *' Please come (or go, lit. pass) 

O is hard as in " give," never soft as in ** gin ; " but in Tokyo and 
Eastern Japan it sounds liJce ng when in the middle of a word, exactly as 
in the English words " singer," ** springy " {not ** sing-ger," " spring-gy"). 
B is always sharp as in "mouse." W is often omitted after k ox g^ts 
kashiy *• cake," for kwashi. Be very careful to pronounce double con- 
sonants really double, as in Italian ; thus, kite^ " coming ; " but kitte, " a 

As in all other languages of the Tartar pr Mongolian type, so in 
Japanese the adjective precedes its noun, and the genitive precedes the 
nominative. Prepositions follow their noun, and are therefore really 
** postpositions." The verb comes at the end of the sentence. There is 
no distinction between singular and plural, or between the different 
persons of the verb, and there are no genders. (Consequently such 
phrases d^KimashMa kaf may equally well mean "Has he come?" 
" Has she come ? " or " R&yq they come ? " — for pronouns are very little 
used, the sense they would convey being generally left to be gathered 
from the context. Questions are asked by suffixing the particle kay as in 
the instance just cited. There are no negative adverbs or pronouns, like 
our English " not," " never," " nothing," etc. ; but the tenses of Japanese 
verbs have negative forms. Though the conjugations are too complicated 
to be given here in detail, the following specimens of the most useful 



tensee, podtive aad negative, may be of praoiioal ntiliiy. The beginner 
will prooablyfind the Honorific forms ihe easier to remember. They are 
in constant use. 

Paradigm of Japanbsb Verbs. 

Preeent & Cer- 
tain Fntore. 


Probable Fat. 
Neg. Pies. 
Neg. Past. 
Improb. Fat. 

I Plain. 
( Honorific, 
i Plain. 
( Honorific. 
( Honorific. 
I Plain. 
( Honorific. 
( Honorific. 
1 Honorific. 
1 Honorific. 





Ard or aru daro 







Arimasen deshUa 

Nakard or Arumai 


i There is or 
will be. 
There was. 
There probably will 
There being, having 
i There is not or 
will not be. 
There was not. 

[There probably will 
not be. 

Present & Cer- 
tain Fntore. 


Probable Fnt. 
Neg. Pres. 
Neg. Past. 
Improb. Fat. 

'( Honorific. 
( Plain. 
] Honorific, 
i Plain. 
i Honorific. 
'( Honorific. 
I Honorific. 
( Honorific. 
\ Honorific. 





Ikb or iku dard 







Ikiinasen deshUa 



I go or 
will go. 

I went. 

I shall probably 

«°- , . 
Going, hayiDg 


I do not or 

shall not go. 

I did not go. 

I shall probably not 

Present & Cer- 
tain Fatnre. 


Probably Fat. 
Neg. Pros. 
Neg. Past. 
Impcob. Fat 

1 Honorific. 
'( Honorific. 
\ Honorific. 
'( Honorific. 
J Plain. 
( Honorific. 
I Honorific. 
I Honorific. 





Koyd or kuru dard 







Kimasen deahUa 



I come or 
will come. 

I came. 

I shall probably 

. Coming, having 

I do not or 

shall not come. 

I did not come. 

[ I shall probably not 


Introduction : — Language, 

Present & Cer- 
tain Future. 


Probable Put. 
Neg. Pres. 
Neg. Past. 
Improb. Fut. 

\ Honorific. 
I Plain. 
I Honorific. 
I Plain. 
I Honorific. 
I Plain. 
i Honorific, 
j Plain. 
\ Honorific. 
\ Honorific, 
i Plain. 
( Honorific. 





Shiyd or surti dard 







Shimasen deshita 



I do or 
shall do. 

I did. 

I shall probably 

Doing, having 

I do not or 

shall not do. 

I did not do. 

I shall probably not 

Present & Cer- 
tain Future. 


Probably Fut. 
Neg. Pres. 
Neg. Past. 
Improb. Fut. 

( Honorific. 
1 Honorific, 
j Plain. 
( Honorific. 
] Plain. 
I Honorific. 
1 Honorific, 
j Plain. 
I Honorific. 
J Plain. 
1 Honorific. 





Taheyo or tabeim dar$ 







Tabcinasen deshita 



I eat or 
shall eat. 

I ate. 

I shall probably 

Eating, having 

I do not or 

shall not eat. 

I did not eat. 

I shall probably not 

Adjectives are conjugated somewhat after the model of aru " to be," 
as yoroshii or yoi, '* it is good ;" yokatta, " it was, or would have been 
good ; •* yoXrardt *' it will probably be good ; " yokuiiai, " it is not good ; *' 
yokutCy •' being good ;" yokunakute^ •' not being good." Similarly wami, 
"is bad;*' warukatta^ "was bad;" takai "is dear;" takalninai^ "not 
dear; " vimukashii^ "is difficult; " mttaukashikute^ " being difficult," etc. 

The Japanese, like other nations of the Far-East, are much addicted 
to the use of polite forms of speech. When two equivalents for the same 
English phrase are given in our list of Useful Sentences, that marked 
** less polite " should be used only to coolies and others of the lowest 
class. It will be noticed in numerous examples that our English impera- 
tives are almost always softened down to a polite periphrasis with the 
word kudasaiy " please give," " condescend to .... " Sometimes the final 
kudasai is omitted for brevity's sake, as To wo shiviete kiidasai (lit. 
" Door shutting condescend "), or more fskmiliarly To wo shimetet " Shut 
the door." 

The following Vocabulary of words connected with food and travel, 
and the Sentences that follow, will be found useful. The interlinear 
literal translations serve to show which word corresponds to which, — a 
thing otherwise hopelessly perplexing to the beginner, on account of the 
wide gull that separates Japanese from English idiom. Those ambitious 



of learoiog more of the laDgaage can provide themselves with Chamber- 
lain^s Handbook of Colloquial Japanese, Satow and Ishibashi*8 English- 
Japanese Pocket Dictionary is excellent. Hepburn's Pocket Dictionary 13 
to DO recommended for Japanese-English. 


Aerated water 






Duck (tame) 
Duck (wild) 










furo^ yu 









Express train 







yogi, futon 

Fan (that shuts; 

ogi, sensu 


nema, nebeya 

Fan (not shut- 





gyu-nikUt ushi 















BiU of fare 





furanken, ketto 









Food (European) yd-shoku 






tokkurif bin 

























yadoya, hoteru 




iCi jinka 


















niioa-tori, tori 






mizU'Umi, kosui 


















kohi, kahe 


















tsukegiy matchi 





Dinner (late) 






Melon ^musk-) 
Melon (water-) 

































gwaitd, utoagi 





Parcel post 


Pass (between tdge 



(ryokd) mtnjd 













sumomo, ume 











Potatoes (swee 

t) Satsunut-imo 





Railway train 


Rice (boiled) 

mcski, gozen 





Road (new) 


Road (old) 



heyat MMhlki 


















anata^ omae 


ana hlto, ano otoko 


ano hUo, ano onna 













Boppu, tsuyu 






stattoHt teishaba 








machif Ufri 






cJia, cha 





Telegraph Office dmshin-kyoku 



Temple (Bu 

d- tera 


Temple (Shhito) yashtro, jinja 



Ticket (return] 












Train (first) 
Train (last) 



Train (express) 





aiy yamajne 


ana, Unvneru 




kasa, bihnori 











Water (cold) 


Water (hot) 

benjd, chdzuba 







You (plur.) 



ano hUo-tacki 




iore, are 







« ni 



II 9an 



II shi 



11 go 



„ roku 


nanaUu „ shichi 



,» Tiacki 


iotonotsu t, ku 





















. 1 



. 3 



. 8 



. 4 



. 5 















































1 c 


















2Dd class— c^u/J 


I class— *a/d 

II — ichi-en 

l(f oenta—jis-aen 
20 cents — ni-Ji$-sen 
80 oentB — san^iasen 

Many of oar words have no Japanese eqtiiy&lents, because the things 
§ot which they stand are not commonly known in Japan. Such are, for 
instance, jamt lambt tin-opener. The following are examples of Japanese 
words for which there are no exact English eqoivalonts : 

Bentd, lunch carried with one. 

Bentd-bakOt a box to hold such lunch. 

Bettd, a running groom. 

Kago, a kind of basket or litter in which travellers are carried. 

Yanagi^ori, a useful sort of trunk made of wicker-work. 

Kyahan, a kind of gaiters. 

Useful Sentences. 


How do you do ? 

Konnichi wal 
To-day as f or 

Good morning. 

Honooiably early 

It is floe weather to-day. 

Konnichi tea, 
To*day at for, 


yd tenki de 
good weather by 


Introduction : — Tjfinguage. 

It is hot to-day. 

It is cold to-day. 

(The above weather remarks 
Good evening. 

Good night. 


Thank you. 

Pray don't mention it. 

That is so (^English "yes"). 

,, (less polite). 

Is that so? 
That is not so. 

Isn't that so ? 

Is that all right ? (polite) 

„ (less polite). 
That is all right. 
Is it this ? 

It is this. 
It isn't this. 

Do you understand 

I understand. 

I don't understand. 

Please come here. 

Come in. 

Please sit down. 

Please come again. 

Please excuse me. 

Allow me to congratulate yon. 

That is plenty. ") 

No, thank you. y 

O afsu gozaimasu. 

Honourably hot aagasUy-is 

O samu gozaimasu, 

almost amount to greetings.) 

Komban wa ! 
This evening nsfor 

O yasumi nasai. 

Honourably resting deign 



Dd itashimashite I 
How having done 

Say5 de gozaimasu. 
So by ia 

85 desUf or Bd da. 
So is So is 

Sd desu kaf 

85 ja nai. 
So by isn't 

S5 ja nai ha ? 

Yoroshu gozaimasu ha f 
Good Is ? 

Toroshii ka? 

Yoroshu gozaimasu ; or Toroshii, 

Kore desu ka? 
This is ? 

Kore desu, 

Kore ja nai. 
This by is n*t 

Wakarimashtta kaf 
Have understood ? 



Oide nasai. 

Honourable exit deign 

O hairi nasai. 

Honourable entering deign 

Dozo hake nasai. 

Please honourably to place deign 

Mata irasshai. 

Again come (honorific verb) 

Oomen nasai. 

August excuse deign 

medeto .gozaimasu. 

Honourably congratulatory is 

Mo tahiisan. 
Already plenty 



What shall we do? 

What is it? 

What is this? 

Please show me. 

Please let me know. 

Jnst let me look. 

Please go and ask. 

Yoa had better go and ask. 

Jost go and see. 

Is that all right? 

Don't do that. 

That won't do. 

Why do you do snch things ? 

Please take care. 

Where is it ? 

Who U it ? 
When is it ? 
Where is it from ? 
What o'clock is it? 

Is this all ? 

I don't know. 

He says he doesn't know. 

Wait a little. 

Go quickly. 

That is no good, or That won't do. 

Which is yoors ? 

Do shimasho f 
How Bhall do 

Nan desu kaf 
What iB P 

Kore wa^ nan dsm Jui f 
Tbis as for, what is ? 

Misete kudasai. 
Showing condescend 

Shirasliite kudasai. 
Informing condescend 

Chotto haiken 
Jubt respectful glance 

Kiite ktidasai. 
Asking condescend 

Kiite kuru ga u. 
Hearing tOHXime (nom.) good 

Chotto mite kite kudasai. 
Just looking coming condescend 

Sore de yoroshU ka f 
That )^, good ? 

86 shlcha ikenai. 
So as for doing, can't go 

Sore ja ikemasen. 
That by, cant't go 

Naze sonna koto sum ka f 
Why such things do ? 

Ki wo tsukete kudasai. 
Spirit (accus.) fixing condescend 

Doko desu kaf 
Where is ? 

Dare destt kaf 

Itsu desH kaf 

Doko kara desu kaf 

Nan-doki desu kaf 
What-hour is ? 

Kore dake desu kaf 
This only is ? 

Shirimascn (Bhiranai less polite). 

Shirimascn to iimasu, 
KnowB-Dot that says ' 

Sukoshi mate. 
Little wait 

Hayaku I hayaku ! 
Quickly quickly 

Sore wa, dame destk. 
That as for, useless is 

Dochi ga anaia no deau kat 
Which (nom.) you of is ? 


IntrodMctioH : — Latiguage. 

This is mine. 
Who is that? 
What is his name ? 

That is enoogh. 

Oh, what a bother ! 

Don't make such a row I 

Don't bother so ! 

What a horrid smell t 

Please leave off. 
Don't do that. 

It can't be helped. 
As quickly as possible. 
As early as possiUe. 
Is anything the matter 7 
Which is the best? 
How much for odc ? 
How much per ri (2} miles) ? 
How much per head ? 
What is the charge per ri ? 

I don't want that. 

This is the one I want. 

It doesn't matter. 
Don't trouble about it. 

What a pity t 

I don't want to go. 

Kor$ ga vxUaJMhi no desu. 
This (nom.) me of is. 

Ano hUo loa, dare desu ka t 
That penon Mfor, who is ? 

Ano hlto no na wa, nan 

That penon of name as for, what 

to nmasu kaf 

(hat say P 

Mo yoroshii, 
Abeady good 

Komatta rwnC da, nel 
Troabled thing is isnVit 

Yakamashii I 

IJrusai t urusai t 
Tronblesome troublesome. 

Kusai t kusai I 
Smelly smelly. 

^ O yosJU Tiasai. 

3 Honoorably abstaining deign. 

BhVtata ga nai. 

Doing manner (nom.) isn't. 

Narutake isoide, 

A8...M possible hurrying. 

NanUake hayaku. 

As. . .as possible quickly. 

Do ka shimashUa kaf 
Somehow has done P 

Dochi ga yoroshii f 
Which (nom) good. 

BUotsu ikuraf 
One how much 

Ichi-ri ikura ? 
One ri how much 

HUori-mae ikura f 
One person front how much 

Ichi^ ikura no wari desu 
One-ri how much of proportion is 


Are wa. 
That as for, 

enters not. 


ho ga irimam. 
side (nom.) enters 

Hatters not 

Oshii koto desii, 
Regrettable fact is 

Ikitaku nai. 

Wanting to go am not. 




I don*t wank to e&t. 
I have none at all. 
Has nobody oome ? 

Which is the best inn ? 

Hare yon any rooms ? 

Have yon any beer ? 
Tliis room will do. 

Can yon give ns European food ? 

I suTOose you haven't bedsteads, 
have you ? 

I don't want a bedstead. 

Are there any mosquitoes here ? 

It is dreadfully hot. 
Please open the paper slides. 
Please shut the window. 
Bring some hot water. 

Briog some oold water. 
Where is the W.C? 
Please show me the way. 
Please bring a candle. 

Is the bath ready *t 

Tahetaku nai. 
Wanting to eat am not 

SHJkoshi mo nai. 
Little even isn't 

Dare mo konai kaf 
Anybodj oomesnot ? 



Yado wa, nani-ya 
Hotel a« for» what house 
yoroskii ka? 
good ? 

ZaahiH toa, arimasu Xra? 
Boom as for, is ? 



BUru toa, arimasu kaf 

Kono suiihVci de yoroahiu 
This room hy, good 

Yi^hoku ga dekimam 
8€«-fbod (nom.) eventuates 

Nedai tea, arimasumaii ne ? 
Bedstead as for, probably is not, eh? 

Nedai wa irimasen. 
Bedstead- as for, enters not 

Eono hen wa, ha 

This neighbourhood as for, mosquito 

ga iinasu ka f 
(nom.) dwells? 

Atsukute shiyo ga nai. 

Hot being waj of doing (nom.) isn't. 

Bhqji wo akete ktidasai. 

Paper sUde (acous.) opening condescend 

Mado wo shimete kudasai. 
Window (accus.) shutting oondettcend 

O yu wo motte 

Honourable hot water (accus.) bearing 

Misu motte koi. 
Cold water bearing come 

Beryd wa, dochira desul 
W. O. as for, where is 

Chotto annai shUe kudasai. 
Just guide doing condescend 

Bdsoku wo, motte kite 

Candle (accus.) carrying coming 



Furo ga dekimasHUa ka? 
Bath (nom.) has erentuated P 

IfUroduction : — IjO^guage. 

It is not ready yet. 

Isn*t it ready yet ? 
When will it be ready ? 

Please let me know when it is ready. 

All right, Sir. 

Please buy me five 10 cent post- 

And then please take these thingis 

Have the things come from the 

I am thirsty. 
Give me a glass of water. 
Please give me some more. 
I am hungry. 

I want something to eat. 
Please get it ready qoiekly. 

Anything will do. 

And then please lay down the 

Please let me have more quilts. 

There is a hole in the mosquito- 

(Said only 

Mada dehimasen. 
Still eventoates not 

Mada dekimasen ka ? 

Itsu dekimam kaf 
When eventuates ? 

Dckimashttara, shirasktU 

When shall have eventuated intormixig 



Have been reverential 
to superiors). 

Jis-sen no yubin^U go-mai 
Ten cents of oogtafire-slamp five pieces 

katte kite kusadau 

buyin/? coming condescend 

Sore karay kore wo sagete 
That from, this (accnsj lowering 

Sentaku-tnono ga dekita 

Wash-things (nom.) have eventuated 



Nodo ga 
Throat (nom.) 

has dried 

Mieu wo ippai. 
Water (accas.) one-fnll 

Motto kudasai. 
More condescend 

O naka 

Honourable inside 

has become empty 


Nani ka 

want to eat 

sJiiiaku wo hayaku 

Honorable preparations (accns.) quickly 



Nan de mo yoroshii. 
What by even good 

Sore karat toko shiite kudasai. 
That from, bed spreading condescend 

motto shiite 
more spreadiof; 

Futon wo. 
Quilt (flc::us.) 



Kaya ni, ana ga arintasu. 

Mosquito-net in, hole (nom.) is 


I want to get shaved. Is there a 
barber here ? 

There is. 

Then send for him. 

I feel nnwell. 

Is there a doctor here ? 

Hease call my '* boy.*' 

Please hurry him up. 
Please lend a hand here. 
Please post these (letters). 

Please light the lights. 

I start at 7 o'clock to-morrow 

As I am starting early to-morrow, 
please wake me early. 

I want to be called at } past 5. 

I am going by the first train in the 

At what o'clock does the first train 

Please engage two coolies. 

Hige wo sotte moraitai 
Beti^ (accus.) shaving wantto receire 

gfo, koko ni tokoya ga 

whereas, here in barber (nom.) 

arimasu ka ? 

is ? 

Gozaiviasu (more polite than Ari- 

Bownara^ yonde koi. 
If so, calling oome 

Kagen ga warui. 
Feelings (nom.) bad 

Koko ni isha ga orimasu 
Here in doctor (nom.) dwells 


Watakushi no boy wo yonde 
I of boy (acciis.) calling 


Saisokti shite kudasai. 
Urgency doing cou descend 

Te wo kashtte kudasai. 

Hand (accus.) lending condescend. 

Kono yubin wo dashlte 
This post (accus.) putting forth 



Akari wo 
Light (accus.) 

tmkele kudasai. 
fixing condescend 



To-morrow morn ing seven-hours 
shuttatsu shiniasu. 
departure do 




To-morrow morning 
Jfcara, hayaku 
because, early 

Oo-ji-han ni 
Five-hours-half at, 










de ikimasH. 
by, go 

Ichi-ban-gisha wa nan-ji demt 
One-number-train as for, what-hour is. 

Nin^oku fuiari tanonde 

Coolie two people requesting 




Introduction : — Language. 

Please bring the bill. 

Please to accept this small stun as 

Many thanks for the trouble yon 
have taken. 

Is the luggage ready ? 

Is nothing forgotten ? 
Please order the jinrikishas. 

We will start as soon as everything 
is ready. 

We must not be late. 

Ddka, hatiiS^ahi Vfo (motU 
Please biU-writini? (acooB.) carryinff 

kite kudasai). 
coming oondesoend 

Kore wa, $uko9hi detu go, — 
This as for, little is althoagh,— 
chctdai detu, 

hottoorable tea-price is 

Oki-ni seioa m 

Greatly honourable help to 


have become 

Nimoisu no Mtaku 
Logp^age of prepamtion 
yoroshii leaf 
good P 


Kuruma no 
Jinrikisha of 

ihUe ihidosot. 

doing condescend 

Shltaku skidaU de-lcakematki. 
Preparation according, will go forth 

Otoku naru to xkemax. 
Late become if, can't go 

as for. 

wa nai "ka f 

as for, aren't ? 

shUakvL wo, 
preparation (acoitf .) 



I think 1*11 go out shopping. 

How much is it ? 

That is too dear. 

You must go down a little in price. 

Haven't you any a little>heaper ? 

Kai-mono ni de-lakemai^. 
Purchases to will probably go oat 

Ikura desu ? 
How much is 

Sore wa tahai. 
That as for, dear 

Sukoshi make nosot. 

Little honourably cheapening deign 
M5 chiUo yasiU no ga 

cheap ones (nom.) 

How much does it all come to ? 
Have you change for a dollar? 
Please send them to the hotel. 

still little 
nai ka? 
HTen*t ? 

Mina de, Hcura ni narimasu 
All by howmach to becomes 


Icki-en no tntri wa. 

One-dollar of change asfor 

arimasH ha? 

is P 

Yado ye todokete hudaeai. 
Hotel to forwarding condesoend. 





Which is the way to Kiga? 

Please tell me the way. 

Go straight on. 

Where is the telegraph office ? 

Where is the ticket^ffice ? 

(Give me) one Ist class [ticket to 

(Please book) this 

luggage for 

How many honrs does it take to 
get to Nagoya ? 

Kiga ye iku michi wa, 

Kign to goes road asfor« 

dochira de goMaimatu t 

which hj is 

Michi wo o$hiete htdasai. 
Boad (aocos.) teaching condescend 

Mauugvk oide tiosai. 

Straight honourable exit deign 

DetUhin-hyohk wa, dochira 

Telegraph office as for, where 
dem ka? 
is ? 

Kippu wo uru tohoro wa. 
Ticket (BCCQ8.) sell place as for, 

doko desu kaf 

where is P 

Nikkd made, jdtd ichv- 

Nikko till, snperior class one- 
. mai, 

JTore dake no nimoUu wo. 
This only of Inggage (accos.) 

Nikkd tMide, 

Nikko till 

Nagoya nuide, 

Nagoya tiU, 



I mean to spend the night at 

When does the train for Nikko 

Where do we change trains ? 

I will rest a little. 

What is the name of that moan- 

What is this place called ? 

Nagoya de, ippakii 

Nagoya at, one-night's lodging 

swru tsvmori detu. 

do intention is 

Nikkd-yuki no ki^ha wa, 

Nikko going of train as for, 

nan^ki ni demasu kaf 

what hour at issues ? 

Doko de nori-kaemasu kaf 
Where at ride-change ? 

Sukoshi yasumimashd. 
Little will probably rest 

Ano yama wa, nan to 

That mountain as for, what that 
iimasu kaf 
say ? 

Koko wa, nan to iu 

Here a8f*>r, what that say 

tokoro dem ka f 

place is ? 

$2 Introduction : — The Shinto Religion. 

Is this a Buddhist or a Shinto Kore wa, tera desii 

temple ? ^^ <^ ^^> Buddb. temple U 

kaf yashiro desu ka f 
P 8b. temple ift ? 

How jEar is it from here to the next Koho hara, saki no shuku 
town? Here from, front of post-town 

made, ri-su wa dono 

till, mile-number as for, what 
hirai desu 9 
about ifi 

I will lie down a bit, as I feel Fune m yoimashVa kara, 
seasick. Sbip in bave-got-tipsy l^cause,. 

chotto nemasho. 
little will-lie 

21. — The Shinto Religion. 

The Japanese have two religions, Shinto and Buddhism— the former 
indigenous, the latter imported from India vi& China and Korea ; but 
it must not be supposed that the nation is therefore divided into two 
distinct sections, each professing to observe one of these exclusively. 
On the contrary, the two are so thoroughly interfused in practice, that the 
number of pure Shintoists and pure Buddhists must be extremely small. 
The only exception is afforded by the province of Satsuma, from which the 
Buddhist priesthood has been excluded ever since some of their number 
betrayed the local chieftain into the hands of Hideyoshi. Every Japa- 
nese from his birth is placed by his parents under the protection of some 
Shinto deity, whose foster-child he becomes, while the funeral rites are 
conducted, with few exceptions, according to the ceremonial of the 
Buddhist sect to which his family belongs. It is only in recent years 
that burial according to the ancient ritual of the Shintoists has been 
revived, after almost total disuse during some twelve centuries. This 
apparently anomalous condition of things is to be explained by the fact 
that the Shinto religion demands little more of its adherents than a visit 
to the local temple on the occasion of the annual festival, and does not 
profess to teach any theory of the destiny of man, or of moral duty, thus 
leaving the greater part of the field free to the priests of Buddha, with 
their apparatus of theological dogma aided by splendid rites and 
gorgeous decorations. Multitudinous as are its own deities, Buddhism 
found no difficulty in receiving those of the indigenous belief into its 
pantheon, this catholicity having been previously displayed with regard 
to Hindoo deities and other mythological beings. In most cases it 
was pretended that the native Shinto gods (Kami) were merely avatars 
of some Buddhist deity (Hotoke) ; and thus it was possible for those who 
became converts to the foreign doctrine to continue to believe in and 
offer up prayers to their ancient gods as before. 

Shinto is a compound of nature-worship and ancestor-worship. It 
has gods and goddesses of the wiud, the ocean, fire, food, and pesti- 
lence, of mountains and rivers, of certain special mountains, certain 
rivers, certain trees, certain temples, — eight hundred myriads of deities 
in all. Chief among these is Ama-terasu, the radiant Godjjess of the 
Sun, bom from the left eye of Izanagi, the Creator of Japan, while 
from his right eye was produced the God of the Moon, and from his 
nose the violent God Susa-no-o, who subjected his sister to various 
indignities and was chastised accordingly. The Sun-Goddess was th& 


The Shinto Rdigian. B8 

anoesiress of the line of heaven-descended Mikados, who have reigned 
in unbroken succession from the beginning of the world, and are 
themselves gods upon earth. Hence the Sun-Gk>ddess is honoured above 
all the rest, her shrine at Ise being the Mecca of Japan. Other shrines 
hold other gods, the deified ghosts of princes and heroes of eld, some 
commanding a wide popularity, others known only to narrow local 
fame, most of them tenaed by hereditary families of priests believed 
to be lineal descendants either of the god himself or of his chief 
servant. From time to time new names are fikdded to the pantheon. 
The present reign has witnessed several instances of such apotheosis. 

Shinto has scarcely any regular services in which the people take 
part, and its priests (kannushi) are not distinguishable by their appearance 
from ordinary laymen. Only when engaged in offering the morning and 
evening sacrifices do they wear a peculiar dress, which consists of 
a long loose gown with wide sleeves, fastened at the waist with a 
girdle, and sometimes a black cap bound round the head with a broad 
white fillet. The priests are not bound by any vows of celibacy, and are 
free to adopt another career whenever they choose. At some temples 
young girls fill the office of priestesses ; but their duties do not extend 
beyond the performauce of the pantomimic dances known as haguray and 
assistance in the presentation of the daily offerings. They likewise are 
under no vows, and marry as a matter of course. The services consist in 
the presentation of offerings of rice, fish, fruits, vegetables, the flesh of 
game, animals, and rioe-beer, and in the recital of certain formal address- 
es, partly laudatory and partly in the nature of petitions. The style of 
composition employed is that of a very remote period, and would not be 
comprehended by the common people, even if the latter were in the habit 
of tskking any part in the ritual. With moral teaching Sbint5 does not 
profess to concern itself. " Follow your natural impulsefe, and obey the 
Blikado's decrees:" — such is the sum of its theory of human duty. The 
sermon forms no part of its institutions, nor are the rewards and punish- 
ments of a future life used as incentives to right condnct. The continued 
existence of the dead is believed in, but whether it is a condition of joy or 
pain is nowhere revealed. 

Shinto is a Chinese word, meaning the *' Way of the Gods," and was 
first adopted after the introduction of Buddhism to distinguish the native 
beliefs and practices from those of the Indian religion. 

The architecture of Shinto temples is extremely simple, and the mate- 
ria] used is plain white wood with a thatch of chameecyparisbark. The 
annexed plan of the Great Temple of Izumo (Izuvw no O-yashiro), 
taken from a native drawing sold to pilgrims, and printed on Japanese 
paper, will serve to exemplify this style of architecture. Few Shinto 
temples, however, are quite so elaborate as this, the second holiest in the 
Empire. We find then : — 

1. The Main Shrine (honsha or honden), which is divided into two 
chambers. The rear chamber contains the emblem of the god {mi tamn- 
shiro) — a mirror, a sword, a curious stone, or some other object — and is 
always kept closed, while in the antechamber stands a wand from which 
depend strips of white paper (gohei) intended to represent the cloth 
offerings of ancient times. The mirror which is seen in front of not a 
lew temples was borrowed from the Shingon sect of Buddhists, and has 
nothing to do with the Shinto Sun-Goddess, as is often supposed. 

2. An Oratory (haiden) in front of the main building, with which it 
is sometimes, but not in the case of the Izumo temple, connected by 

84 Introduction: — Rydbu Shinto. 

8. A Corridor or Gallery (ai-no-ma). A gong often hangs over 
the entrance of the Oratory, for the worshipper to attract the attention 
of the god, and beneath stands a large box to receive contributions. 

4. A Cistern (mi tarashi)^ at which to wash the hands before prayer. 

5. A low Wall, or rather Fence (tama-gaki, lit. jewel hedge), en- 
closing the chief temple buildings. 

6. A second Enclosing Fence, often made of boards and therefore 
termed itn-gaki. 

7. A peculiar Gateway (torii) at the entrance to the grounds. Some- 
times there ai-e several of these gateways. Their origin and signification 
are alike iinkno\vn. 

8. A Temple Office {shamusho), where the business of the temple is 
transacted, and where some of the priests often reside. 

9. Secondary Shrines {sessha or massha) scattered about the grounds, 
and dedicated not to tlie deity worshipped at the main shrine, but to 
other members of the crowded pantheon. 

10. A Library {bunko). This item is generally absent. 

11. A Treasure-house {hded). 

12. One or more Places for Offerings {shifiscvjd). 

13. A Gallery {kwairo). 

14. A Dancing-stage (hugdkii-dai). A more usual form of this is the 
hagura-dd, or stage for the performance of the kagurOt an ancient 
symbolic dance. 

15. A Stable in which is kept the Sacred Horse (jimme)^ usually an 

16. An Assembly Hall. This is generally missing. 

17. Gates. 

Frequently there is some object of minor sanctity, such as a holy 
well or stone, the image of the bull on which the god Tenjin rode, etc. 

The curiously projecting ends of the rafters on the roof of the honsha 
are termed chigi. The cigar-shaped logs are termed katsuogi. Both these 
ornaments are derived from the architecture of the primitive Japanese 
hut, the katsuogi having anciently served to keep in place the two trunks 
forming tlie ridge of the roof. The temple grounds are usually surrounded 
by a grove of trees, tlie most common among which is the cryptomeria, a 
useful timber tree. These plantations were originally intended to supply 
materials for the repair or re-erection of the buildings; but in many cases 
their great antiquity causes a sacred character to be attributed to the older 
trees, which are surrounded by a fillet of straw rope, as if to show that 
they are tenanted by a divine spirit. 

The two figures with bows and arrows, seated in niches right and left 
of the gate to keep guard over the approach to the temple, are called 
Zuijiuj or " attendants," more popularly Ya-d/iijiriy or " ministers with 
arrows." The stone figures of dogs— or lions, as some suppose them to be 
— which are often found in temple grounds, are called Atna-inu and 
Koma-i7iUy lit. " the Heavenly Dog " and *' the Korean Dog." They are 
credited with the power of driving off demons. 

22. — Kyobu Shwto. 

The doctrines of metempsychosis and universal perfectibility taught by 
Buddhism naturally made it tolerant of other creeds, and willing to afford 
hospitality to their gods in its own pantheon. Hence the early Buddhist 
teachers of the Japanese nation were led to regard the aboriginal Shint5 

Japanese Buddfasm^ 86 

gods and goddesses as incarnations or avatars — the Japanese term is 
goTujertj signifying literally '* temporary manifestations " — of some of the 
many myriads of Baddhas. Thns was formed a mixed system, called 
Rydbu Shinto or Shin-Butsjc Konkb which lasted throughout the Middle 
Ages. For a thousand years the service of most of the Shinto temples, 
except Ise and Izumo, was performed hy Buddhist priests, and the temple 
architecture was deeply affected by Buddhist (that is, Indian) principles, 
— witness the elaborate carvings, the form of tne two-storied aammon^ or 
outer gate, and even the pagoda itself, which, though essentially Buddhis- 
tic, was found in the most popular Shinto shrines. In several cases, for 
instance Kompira and Hachiman, the so-called Shinto deities worshipped 
were probably uuknown in pre-Buddhist ages, and owed their origin to 
priestly ingenuity. This curious state of things began to totter more 
than a century ago, under the attacks of a school of enthusiastically 
patriotic literati who revived the ancient traditions of " pure Shinto. 
When the revolution of 1863 occurred, and restored the Mikado's authority, 
these old traditions, amongst which the divine right of the sovereign was 
one of the' most important, became paramount. It was for a time hoped 
that Buddhism mignt be suppressed, and Shinto established as the sole 
national religion ; but the extreme party was in -the end not allowed to 
have its way. The reform was limited to the complete separation of the 
two religions, and the Buddhist priests were expelled from the Shinto 
temples, which they had so long " contaminated '* by their sway. All 
bnildings, such as pagodas, belfries, and lichly decorated shrines, that 
did not properly belong to the Shinto establishment were removed, 
many precious structures being thus destroyed by ** purifying " zeal. In 
consequence of all this, the modern visitor to Japan loses much that 
delighted the eyes of those who came twenty years ago. To quote but a 
single example, the temple of Hachiman at Kamakura has been despoiled 
of iu chief beauty. On the other hand, ho has better opportunities for 
familiarising himself with the style of ** pure Shinto," which, if severely 
simple, is at least unique in the world. 

23. — Japanese Buddhism. 

Buddhism, in its Chinese form, first entered Japan viA Korea in the 
6th century of the Christian era, the first Japanese pagoda having been 
erected about A.D. 584 by one Soga-no-Iname. The Constantine of Japa- 
nese Buddhism was Shofcoku Taishi, prince regent under the Empress 
Suiko (A.D. 593-621), from whose time many of the most celebrated tem- 
ples date. Thenceforward, though Shinto was never entirely suppressed. 
Buddhism became for centuries the popular national religion, appealing 
as it did to the deepest instincts of the human heart, both by its doctrine 
and by its ritual, in a way which Shinto could never emulate. Buddhism 
wn.s adopted by the very Mikados, descendants of the Shinto Goddess of 
the Sun. During the 6th, 7th, and 8th centuries, Korean and Chinese 
monks and nuns visited Japan for purposes of proselytism, much as 
Christian missionaries visit it to-day. From the 8th century onwards, it be- 
ca:ne more usual for the Japanese monks to visit China, in order to study the 
doctrines of the best-accredited teachers at the fountain-head. From 
the^e historical circumstances results the general adhesion of the Japa- 
nese Buddhists to the Chinese, Northern, or *' Greater Vehicle " school of 
that religion (Sanskrit, MahdyAna\ Jap. Dayd)^ in whose teachings the 
simple morality of Southern Buddhism, as practised in Ceylon and Siam» 

86 Introduction: — Japanese BuddJtism, 

is overlaid with many mystical and ceremonial observances. It mnst 
not be supposed, however, that all Japanese Buddhists agree among 
themselves. Buddhism was already over a thousand years old when 
introduced into this archipelago, and Chinese Buddhism, in p8irticular» 
was split into niunerous sects and sub-sects, whose quarrels took new 
root on Japanese soil. Some of the Chinese sects of that early day still 
survive. Such are the Tendai and the Shingon, Others, notably the 
Nichiren and Shin sects, are later Japanese developments. The following 
are the chief denominations existing at the present day : — 

Tendai (3 sub-sects). 
Shingon (2 sub- sects). 
Jddo (3 sub-sects). 

Rimai (9 sub-sects). 
Zen, divided into • Sdtd. 

Shin, Monto (Hongwanji), or IkkoKlO sub-sects). 
Nichiren or Hokke (7 sub-sects). 
Yuzu Nembutsu, 

The points in dispute between the various sects are highly metaphy- 
sical and technical, — so much so that Mr. Satow, speaking of the Shiugon 
sect, asserts that its " whole doctrine is extremely difficult to compre- 
hend, and more difficult to put into intelligible language." Of another 
sect he tells us that its '* highest truths are considered to be incom- 
prehensible, except to those who have attained to Buddhaship." * 

Under these circumstances, the general reader will perhaps do best 
simply to fix in his mind the following few cardinal facts : — that 
Buddhism arose in India, some say in the 7th, others in the 11th, century 
before Christ ; that its founder was the Buddha Shaka iMuni, a prince of 
the blood royal, who, disenchanted first of worldly pleasures and then of 
the austerities which he practised for long years iu the Himalayan 
wilderness under the guidance of the most self-denying anchorites of 
his time, at length felt dawn on his mind the truth that all happiness 

• The following msy serve m a specimen of tbo diflBculties to be encoimtercd in 
this study :— ** The doctrine of the sect is compared to a piece of cloth, in which tho 
tcachinj? of Bbaka is the warp, and the interpretation or private judpment of the 
individual, corrected hy the opinion of other monks, is tho woof. It i« held that 
there is a kind of intuition or perception of truth, called Shin-(jjf6, sugpested by the 
words of scripture, hut transcending them iu certninty. Thin is said to l)e in 
harmony with the thought of Shaka. The entirety of doctrine, however, results in 
one central truth, namely that NirvAna is the final result of exiKtenco, a Ktatc in 
which the thinking suhstance, while remaining individual, is unaffected by anything 
external, and is consequently devoid of feeling, thought, or pa&sion. To this the 
name of J/w-i (Asamsknta) is given, signifying absolute, unconditioned existence. 
When this is spoken of as annihilntion, it is the annihilation of conditicnis, not of the 
substance, that is meant. Pushed to its logical result, this would ap])cnr to the 
ignorant (i.e., the unregenorate) to amount to the same thing as non-esisience ; but 
here we arc encountered by one of those mysteries which lie at the foundation of all 
religious belief, and which must be accepted without questioning, if there is to be 
any spiritual religion at all. A follower of Herliert Spencer would probably object 
that this is an ' illegitimate symbolical conception.' 

" Ignorant and obtuse minds are to be taught by hob^n, that is by the presenta- 
tion of truth under a form suited to their capacity. For superior intellects ^haka, 
ouitting the symbolic teaching appropriate to the vemacular understanding, revealed 
the truth in itself. Whoever can apprehend the Ten Abstract Truths in their proper 
onler may, after four successive births, attain to perfect Buddhaship, while the in- 
ferior intelligence can only arrive at that condition after 100 Kalpat, or periods of 
Mm© transcending calcalation.''— (Satow.) 

Japane»e BuddfUtni. 87 

and salvation come from within,— oome from the recognition of the 
impermanence of all phenomena, from tVe extinction of desire which 
is at the root of life, life itself being at the root of all sorrow and 
imperfection. Asceticism still reigned supreme ; but it was asceticism 
rather of the mind than of outward observances, and its ultimate object 
was absorption into Nirvftna, which some interpret to mean annihilation, 
while others describe it as a state in which the thinking substance, after 
numerous transmigrations and progressive sanctification, attains to 
perfect beatitude in serene tranquillity. Neither in China nor in Japan 
has practical Buddhism been able to maintain itself at these philosophic 
heights, but by the aid of Jidben, or pious devices, the priesthood has 
played into the hands of popular superstition. Here as elsewhere there 
have been evolved charms, amulete, pilgrimages, and gorgeous temple 
services, in which people worship not only the Buddha who was himself 
an agnostic, but his disciples and even such abstractions as Ajnida, 
which are mistaken for actual divine personages. 

Annexed is the plan of the temple of Hommonji at Ikegami near 
Tokyo, which may be regarded as fjairly typical of Japanese Buddhist 
architecture. The roofing of these temples is generally of tiles, forming 
a contrast to the primitive thatch of their Shintd rivals. The chief 
features are as follows : 

1. The Sammon^ or two-storied Gate, at the entrance to the temple 

2. The Ema-do, or Ex-voto Hall, also called Odku^, 

3. The SJwrd, or Belfry. 

4. The Honddy or Main Temple. 

5. The Soshi-dd, or Founder's Hall, dedicated to Nichiren the 
founder of the sect to which this temple belongs. 

6. The TaJtd-to, or Pagoda-shaped Reliquary, containing portions of 
Nichiren's body. 

7. The Ttinzd, or Revolving Library, holding a complete copy of the 
Buddhist canon. 

8. The Shain, also called ZashiMj or Priests' Apartments. 

9. The Kyaku-derif or Reception Rooms. 

10. The Hdzdt or Treasure-house. 

11. The Dai-dokoTOy or Kitchen. 

12. The ChdzU'bachiy or Cistern for washing the hands before 

13. The Drum-tower (Koro). 

14. The Pagoda ((3k)-iM no td). 

15. Stone Lanterns (Ishi-daro) presented as offerings. 

All temples do not possess a Founder's Hall in addition to the Main 
Temple, and very few possess a Tdhd-to or a Rimio. In the temples of the 
Monto or Hongwanji sect, which always comprise two chief edifices, the 
larger of the two unites in itself the functions of Main Temple and 
Founder's Hall, while the lesser, with which it is connected by a covered 
gallery, is sometimes specially dedicated to Amiday the deity chiefly 
worslupped by this sect, and is sometimes used for preaching sermons in, 
whence the name of Jiki-doy or Refectory, alluding to the idea that 
sermons are food for the soul. A set of Buddhist buildings, with pagoda, 
belfry, etc., all complete, is often called a 8hichi-dd Oaran. The termina- 
tion jit which occurs in so many temple names, means ** Buddhist 


Introduction : — Japanese Buddhism, 




temple ** in Chinese ; the current Japanese word is tera. lilost 
Buddhist temples have alternative names ending 
in san and in. 

Many temples have what is called an Oku- 
no-ifiy — a Holy of Holies, so to say, which is 
generally situated behind the main shrine, and 
often a long way up the mountain at whose 
foo^ the other temple buildings cluster. Most 
Oku-no-in are less highly ornamented than the 
temples to which they belong. Some indeed are 
mere sheds. 

The ceremony of throwing open to the gaze of 
worshippers the shrine which holds the imago 
of the patron saint, is called Kaicho^ and is usual- 
ly, accompanied by a short service. Pictures of 
the god, together with holy iiiscriptious (o fnda) 
and charms (niaviori) are sold at many temples. 
The specimens here figured are from the great 
shrine of Fudo at Narita. Sometimes cheap 
miniature repriuts of Buddhist sutras are offered 
for sale, bundles of straws or sticks used as 
counters by those performing what is termed 
the Hyaku-do, that is the pious act of walking 
up and down the temple court a hundred times, 
etc., etc. The flocks of pigeons seen fluttering about man}' 
temple courts are not objects of worship. They simply take 
up their home where piety secures from them molestation, 
object frequently seen in Buddhist temple grounds is the 
sotoba or foha, a corruption of the 
Sauski'it sfiipa (tope), which was ori- 
ginally a memorial erected over the 
remains of a saint. It assumes two 
forms in Japan, one being a thin 
stick, notched and often inscribed with 
Indian characters, the other a stone 
monument in common use as a grave- 
stone, where the component elements 
of the structure are more clearly in- 
dicated. Tlicy are the ball, crescent, 
pyramid, sphere and cube, sym- 
bolising respectively Ether, Air, Fire, 
Water, and Earth. One glance at a 
sotoba is said to ensure the forgive- 
ness of all sins. 

The way up to temples or sacred 
mountains is frequently marked by 
oblong stones, like mile-stones, at the 
intei*val of a choy inscribed as follows : 
— WJ" (or — X)» one chd ; zi HT two 
chOy etc. 

Stones with inscriptions, for which 
wooden boards are often substituted, 
also serve to commemorate gifts of 
money to the temple, or of trees to 


{In its two sJiajpes.) 

Oods and OodJetses, 


omament the grounds. Irregularly shaped slabs of stone are much prised 
by the Japanese, who use them as monumental tablets. 

All the famous holy places have subsidiary or representative temples 
(tUsushi or de-bari) in various parts of the Empire, for the convenience of 
those worshippers who cannot make the actual pilgrimage. The shrine 
of the Narita Fudo at Asakusa in Tokyo is a familiar example. 

24. — List op Gods and Goddesses. 

The following are the most popular deities, Buddhist and Shinto. They 
are placed together in one list, because tliroughout Japanese history 
there has been more or less confusion between the two religions : — 

Aizen Myd-d^ a deity represented with a fierce expression, a flaming 
halo, throe eyes, and six arms.- Nevertheless he is popularly regarded as 
the God of Love. Anderson describes him as *'a transformation of 
Atchal& the Insatiable.'* 

Ama-terasUj lit. •* the Heaven -Shiner," that is, the Sun-Goddess. 
Born from the left eye of the Creator Izanagi, when the latter was 
performing his ablutions on returning from a visit to his dead wife Iza- 
nami in Hades, the Sun-Goddess was herself the ancestress of the 
Imperial Family of Japan. The most striking episode in her legend is 
that in which she is insulted by her brother Susa-uo-o, and retires in 
high dudgeon to a cavern, thus plunging the whole world in darkness. 
All the other gods and goddesses assemble at the cavern's mouth, with 
music and dancing. At length curiosity lures her to the door, and she 
is finally enticed out by the sight of her own fair image in a mirror, 
which one of the gods pushes towards her. The origin of the 
sacred dances called Kagura is traced to this incident by the native 
literati. Other names under which the Sun-Goddess is known are 
Shimmei, Ten Shoko Daijin^ and Daijingu. 

Amida (Sanskrit, Amitdbha), a powerful 
deity dwelling in a lovely paradise to the 
West. Originally Ainida was an abstrac- 
Uan, the ideal of boundless light. His 
image may generally be recognised by the 
hands lying on the lap, with the thumbs 

eaced end to end. Very often, too, the 
klo (goko) forms a background not only to 
the head but to the entire body, and is then 
termed funa-gokd, from its resemblance in 
shape to a boat. The spot on the forehead 
is emblematical of wisdom. The great im- 
ago (Daibutsu) at Kamakura represents this 

Anan (Sanskrit, Ananda)^ one of Bud- 
dha*s cousins and earliest converts. He is 
often called Tamon (j^), lit. "hearing 
much," on account of his extensive know- 
ledge and wonderful memory, a name which , 
is also applied to Bishamon. 

Benten, or Benzaiten, one of the Seven 
Deities of Luck. She is often represented 
riding on a serpent or dragon, whence 
poiii^w the saored character attributed akida. 


Introdiiction : — God* and Goddesses, 

in mauy localities to snakes. Benten's shrines are mostly situated 
on islands. 

Benzuru, originally one of the Six- 
teen Rakan, was expelled from their 
number for liaving violated his vow of 
chastity by remarking upon the beauty 
of a female, whence the usual situation 
of his image otttside the chancel. It is 
also said that Buddha conferred on him 
the power to cure all human ills. For 
this reason, believers rub the image of 
Binzuru on that part which may be 
causing them pain in their own bodies, 
and then" rub themselves in the hope of 
obtaining relief. Binzuru is a highly 
popular object of worship with the 
y^^^'^^ lower classes, and his image is often 
f^]^^ to be seen adorned by his devotees with 
T _ _ J a red or yellow cotton hood, a bib, and 

BisHAMON (Sanskrit, Vdisramana^, 
explained in Eitel's Haiid-hook of Chi- 
nese Btiddhism as the God of Wealth, 
has been adopted by the Japanese as 
one of their Seven Gods of Luck, with 
BINZURU. ^j^Q special characteristic of imperson- 

ating war. Hence he is represented as clad in armour and bearing a 
spear, as well as a toy pagoda. 
BoxTEN, Brahmft. 

BosATSu (Sanskrit, B6dhisattva\ the general title of a large class of 
Buddhist saints, who have only to pass through one more human exist- 
ence before attaining to Buddhahood. 

Daikoku, the God of Wealth, may be known by his rice-bales. 
Dainichi Nyorai (Sanskrit, Vdirdtclmna TathAgata), is one of the 
persons of the Tritraiuiy or Bud- 
dhist 'Trinity, the personification of 
wisdom and of absolute purity. He 
ispopularly confounded withFudo, 
the images of the two being diffi- 
cult to distiuguish. 

Daiseishi, a Bosatsu belong- 
ing to the retinue of Amida. 

Daihhi, a title applied to many 
Buddhist abbots and saints. It 
means either *• Great Teacher," 
or *' Perfected Saint" (Sanskrit 
MaMsattva)y according to the 
characters used to write it. 

Daruma (Sanskrit, Dharma\ a 
deified Indian Buddhist patriarch 
of the 6th century, who sat for 
nine years in profound abstrac- 
tion till his legs fell ofi. 

DosojiN, the God of Roads. 


Gods and Goddesses. 


Ebisu, ODe of the Gods of Luck, is the patron of honest labour. He 
bears in his hand a tot-fish. 



Emma-O (Sanskrit, YAma-rAja), the regent of the Buddhist hells. 
He may be known by his cap resembling a judge's beret, and by the huge 
mace in his right hand. Before him often sit two mjrrmidons, one of 
whom holds a pen to write down the sins of human beings, while the 
other reads out the list of their offences from a scroll. 

Fu Daishi, a deified Chinese priest of the 6th century, the inventor 
of the Rinzdy or Revolving Libraries, for a description of which see Route 
4, Asakusa Temple. Fu Daishi is represented in art seated between 
his two sons Fuken and Fujo, who clap their hands and laugh, and 
hence are popularly known as Warai-botoke^ or the Laughing Buddhas. 

Fc DO (Sanskrit, Achala). Much obscurity hangs over the origin and 
attributes of this popular divinity. Accordinjjj to Sir Monier Williams, 
Achala, which means " immovable *' (Ftido, >pift» translates this meaning 
exactly), is a name of the Brahminical God Siva and of the first of the 
nine deified persons called ^* white Balas " among the Jainas. Satow 
Mkys : — " Pudo (Akshara) is identified with Dainichi (V&ir6>l:ana), the God 
of Wisdom, which quality is symbolised by the flames which surround 
him : it is a common error to suppose that he is the God of Fire. 
According to the popular view, the sharp sword which he grasps in the 
right hand is to frignten evil-doers, while in his left hand he holds a 
rope to bind them with." — Fudo is generally represented in art attended 
by his two chief followers, Seitaka Doji and Eongara Doji. 

FuGEN (Sanskrit, 8amanta.hhadra) is the special divine patron of 
those who practise the Hokke-xammaiy a species of ecstatic meditation. 
His image is generally seated on the right hand of Shaka. 


Introdxustion : — Qod» and Goddesses. 


PuKUROKUJU, one of the Gods of 
Luck, is distiDguished by a preter* 
naturally long head, and typiiies 
longevity and wisdom. 

Go-CHI Nyorai, the Five Bud- 
dhas of Contemplation or of Wisdom, 
viz., Yakushi, Taho, Daiuichi, Ashu- 
ku, and Shaka. But some authori- 
ties make a different enumeration. 

GONGEN. This is not the name 
y of any special divinity, but a general 
' term used in Ryobu Shinto (see p. 
85) to denote such Shinto gods as 
are considered to be " temix)rary 
manifestations," tliat is, avatars or 
incarnations of Buddhas. It is, 
however, applied with special fre- 
quency to leyasu, the deified founder 
of the Tokugawa dynasty of Slioguns, 
who is the Gongen Samn^ that is 
Lord Gongen i)ar excclknce. 

GwAKKo BosATsu, a Buddhist 

Hachiman, the Chinese _namo 
under which the Emperor Ojin is 
worshipped as the God of War. The 
Japanese equivalent is Yawata. Tlie 
reason for this particular form of 
apotheosis is not apparent, as no 
warlike exploits are recounted of the 
monarch in question. Perhaps it 
may be owing to the tradition that 
his mother, the Empress Jingo, car- 
ried him for three years in her womb 
whilst making her celebrated raid 
upon Korea. Another explanation, 
suggested by Mr. Satow, is that his 
high position in the pantheon result- 
ed from the fact of his having been 
the patron of the powerful and war- 
like Minamoto clan. 

HoTKi, one of the Seven Gods of 
Luck, typifies contentment and good- 
nature. He is represented in art 
with an enormous naked abdomen. 

HoTOKK, the general name of 
all Buddhas, that is, gods or per- 
fected saints of popular Buddhism. 
The dead are also often spoken of 
as liotoke. 

Ida Ten (Sanskrit, V^da Il^ja)^ 
a protector of Buddhism, generally 
represented as a strong and hand- 
some youth. 

Oods and Goddesses, 



Inari, the Goddess of Bico, also 
called Uga-no-Mitavia, The im- 
age of the fox, which is always 
found in temples dedicated to 
Inari, seems to have been first 
placed there as a tribute to the 
fear which that wily beast in- 
spires ; but in popular superstition 
Inari is the fox-deity. There is 
some confusion with regard to the 
sex of Inari, who is occasion- 
ally represented as a bearded man. 
IzANAGi and IzANAMi, the Crea- 
tor and Creatress of Japan. The 
curious thougli indelicate legend 

of their courtship, the striking legend of the descent of Izauagi into Hades 

to visit Izanarai after the latter's death and burial, and the account of 

Isanagi's lustrations, will be found in pp. 18-43 of the translation of the 

Kofiki, forming the Supplement to Vol. X. of the Tra7isactions of the 

AnaHc Society of Japan. 
Jizo (Sanskrit, Kshitigarhlia), the 

compassionate Buddhist helper of 

those who are in trouble. He is the 

pa&ron, of travellers, of pregnant wo- 

meD, and of children. His image is 

often loaded with pebbles, which serve 

in the other world to relieve the labours 

o£ the young who have been robbed of 

their clothes by the hag named Sho- 

tonka no Baba^ and then set by her 

to perform the endless task of piling up 

stones on the bank of the Buddhist 

Styx. Jizo is repregented as a shaven 

priest with a benevolent countenance, 

holding in one hand a jewel, in the 

other a staff with metal rings (slmkujo). 

His stone image is found more fre- 
quently than that of any other object 

of worship throughout the Empire. It 

need scarcely be said that the resem- 
blance in sound between the names Jizd 

and Jestis is quite fortuitous. 
JuBOJiN, one of the Gods of Luck, 

often represented as accompanied by a 

ftag and a crane. 
Kami, a general name for all Shinto jizo. 

gods and goddesses. 

Ka8h5 (Sanskrit, Kdsyapa)^ one of Buddha's foremost disciples. He 

is said to have swallowed the sun and moon, in consequence whereof his 

body became radiant like gold. 

KiSHi BojiN, the Indian goddess Harili or Aritt^ was originally a 

woman, who, having sworn to devour all the children at Eajagriha, the 

metropolis of Buddhism, was reborn as a demon and gave birth to five 

hundred children, one of whom she was bound to devour every day. She 

44 Introduction: — Gods and Goddesses. 

was converted by Buddha, and entered a nunnery. The Japanese wor- 
ship her as the protectress of children. She is represented as a beauti- 
ful woman, carrying a child, and holding a pomegranate in one hand. 
The lanterns and other ornaments of the temples dedicated to her are 
marked with the crest of the pomegranate. The ofEermgs brought to her 
shrine by bereaved mothers are such as may well touch any heart, — the 
dresses, dolls, and other mementos of their lost darlings. 

KojiN, the God of the Kitchen. 

KoKUz5 BosATSu (Sanskrit, Akdslia Bddhisattva)^ an infinitely wise 
female saint, who dwells in space. 

KoMPiBA (Sanskrit, Kumbhtra). Much obscurity shrouds the origin 
and nature of this highly popular divinity. According to some he is a 
demon, the crocodile or alligator of the Ganges. Others aver that Shaks 
Muni (Buddha) himself became " the boy Kompira," in order to over- 
come the heretics and enemies of religion who pressed upon him one day 
as he was preaching in "the Garden of Delight," — the said "boy 
Kompira" having a body 1,000 ft. long, provided with 1,000 heads and 
1,000 arms. The raediieval Shiutoists identified Kompira with Susa-no-o, 
brother of the Japanese Sun-Goddess. More recently it has been de- 
clared, on the part of tlie Shinto authorities whose cause the Government 
espouses in all such disputes, that the Indian Kompira is none other 
than Kotohira, a hitherto obscure Japanese deity whose name has a oon- 
venient similarity in sound. Consequently the great Buddhist shrine of 
Kompira in the island of Shikoku, and all the other shrines erected to 
Kompira throughout the Empire, have been claimed and taken over as 
Shinto property. Kompira is a special object of devotion to seamen and 

KosHiN, a deification of that day of the month which corresponds to 
the 57th term of the Chinese sexagesimal circle, and is called in Japanese 
Ka-tio-e Saru. This being the day of the Monkey, it is represented by three 
monkeys (sam hiki-zani) called respectively, bj' a play upon words, 
mi-zarUy kika-zant,^ and itca-zarUj that is, " the blind monkey,** " the 
deaf monkey," and " the dumb monkey." Stone sl^bs with these three 
monkeys in relief are among the most usual objects of devotion met with 
on the roadside in the rural districts of Japan, the idea being that this 
curious triad will neither see, hear, nor speak any evil. 

KuNi-TOKO-TACHi, lit. "The Earthly Eternally Standing One." 
This deity, with Izanagi, Izanami, and four others, helps to form what axe 
termed " The Seven Divine Generations " (Tenjin 8hichi-dai). 

KwANNON (Sanskrit, Avalokit^^vara)^ the Goddess of Mercy, who 
contemplates the world and listens to the prayers of the unhappy. 
According to another but less favourite opinion, Kwannon belongs to the 
male sex. Kwannon is represented under various forms— many-headed, 
headed like a horse, thousand -handed. With reference to the images 
of Kwannon, it should be stated that the so-called Thousand-Handed 
Kwannon has in reality but forty hands which hold out a number 
of Buddhist emblems, such as the lotus-fiower, the wheel of the law, 
the sun and moon, a skull, a pagoda, and an axe — this last serving to 
typify severance from all worldly cares. A pair of hands folded on 
the image's lap holds the bowl of the mendicant priest. The Horse- 
Headed Kwannon has three faces and four pairs of arms, a horse's 
head being carved above the forehead of the central face. One of the 
lour pairs of arms is clasped before the breast in the attitude called 
Benge no In, emblematical of the lotos-flower. Another pair holds 

Oods and Goddtssti. 



46 Intwdiiction : — Qod$ and Goddesses. 

the axe and wheel. Yet another pair grasps two forms of the tokko 
(Sanskrit, vdjra\ an ornament originally designed to represent a dia- 
mond club, and now used by priests and exorcists as a religious sceptre 
symbolising the irresistible power of prayer, meditation, and incantation. 
Of the fourth pair of hands, the left holds a cord wherewith to bind the 
wicked, and the right is stretched out open to indicate almsgiving or 
succour to the weak and erring. A title often applied to Kwannon is 
Nyo-i-Hn, properly the name of a gem which is supposed to enable its 
possessor to gratify all his desires, and which may be approximately 
rendered by the adjective " omnipotent." 

The two figures often represented on either side of Kwannon are 
Fudo and Aizen Myo-6. The "Twenty-eight Followers" of Kwannon 
(Nijii-hachi Biishu),—t&younte subjects of the Japanese sculptor and 
paintor— are personifications of the twenty-eight constellations known to 
Far-Eastern astronomy. The various forms represented in the accom* 
pauying illustration are : 

1. Sho-Kwannon (Kwannon the Wise). 

2. Ju-ichi-men Kwannon (Eleven-Faced). 

3. Sen-jii Kwannon (Thousand-Handed). 

4. Ba-t6 Kwannon (Horse- Headed). 

5. Nyo-i-rin Kioannon (Omnipotent). 

^Iarishiten (Sanskrit, Marichi)^ is the personification of light in the 
Brahminical theology, and also a name of Krishna. In Chinese and Japa- 
nese Buddhism, Marishiten is considered to be the Queen of Heaven, 
and is believed by some to have her residence in a star forming part of 
the constellation of the Great Bear. She is represented with eight arms» 
two of which hold up emblems of the sun and moon. 

Maya Bunin, the mother of Buddha. 

l^IiDA, sue Amida. 

MiKOTo, a title applied to Shinto deities. It is best translated 
by ** Augustness." 

MiROKU (Sanskrit, MdiMya)^ Buddha's successor,— the Buddhist 
Messiah, whose advent is expected to take place 5,000 years after 
Buddha's entry into Nirv&na. 

MoNju (Sanskrit Manjnsri\ the apotheosis of transcendental wisdom. 
His image is usually seated on the left hand of Shaka. 

NiKKo BosATsu, a Buddhist solar deitv. 

Ni-o, lit. " the Two D^va Kings," Indra and Brahma, who keep 
guard at the outer gate of temples to scare away demons. Each 
bears in his hand the tokko. The figures of the Ni-o are of gigantic 
size and terrific appearance, and are often bespattered with little pellets 
of paper, aimed at them by devotees wlio think thus to secure the 
accomplislmient of some desire on which they have set their hearts. 

Nyorai (Sanskrit, Tathdgata\ an honorific title applied to all 
Buddhas. It is compounded ot Chinese nyo (jp), *' like," and rai (^, 
•' to come," the idea being that a Buddha is one whose coming and going 
are in accordance with the action of his predecessors. 

Onamdji or Okuni-nushi, the aboriginal deity of Izumo, who re- 
signed his throne in favour of the Mikado's ancestors when they came 
down from heaven to Japan. He is also worshipped under the titles of 
8annd and Bic. 

Oni, a general name for demons, ogres, or devils, — not " the Devil " 
in the singular, as Japanese theology knows nothing of any supreme 
Prince of Darkness. 

God$ and Ooddettes. 


Rakan (Sanskrit, Arhdriy or Arhat), properly the perfected Arya or 
"holy man," but used to designate not only the perfected saint, but 
all Buddha's disciples, more especially his "Five Hundred Disciples" 
(jGo-hyaku BaX:an), and his ** Sixteen Disciples '* {Ju-roku RaXran). Few 
art-motives are more popular with Japanese painters and sculptors. 
The holy men are represented in various attitudes, emaciated and 
scantily clad. 

KoKU-Bu-TEN, a collective name for the Buddhist gods Bonten, 
Taishaku, and the Shi-Tenno. 

Saruta-hiko, a Shinto deity who led the van when the divine 
ancestors of the !Mikado descended to take possession of Japan. 

Seishi, a Buddhist deity who ooustantly attends Amida. 

Seng EN, the Goddess of Mount Fuji. She is also called Asama or 
Ko-no-Hana-Saku-ya-Hime, that is, " the Princass who makes the Flowers 
of the Trees to Blossoms." 



Shaka Muni, the Japanese pronunciation of S'dkya Muni, the name 
of the founder of Buddhism, who was also called Gautama and is gene- 
nlU' spoken of by Europeans as '• Buddha," though it would be more 
correct to say *' the Buddha." In his youth he was called Shitta Taishi 
(Sanskrit, SiddJidrtha). His birth is usually placed by the Chinese and 
Japanese in the year 1027 B.C., but the date accepted by European 
ftcholars is 653 B.C. The most accessible account of Buddha's life and 
doctrine is that given by Professor Rhys Davids, in his little worjc entitled 
Buddhism published by the Society for Promoting Christian Know- 
ledge. The entombment of Buddha, with all creation standing weeping 
a!?oand, is a favourite motive of Japanese art. Such piotures are called 

48 Introduction .'-^Gods and Goddesses. 

Nehancd, that is " Representationaof the Entry into Nirv&na.*' The birth 
of Buddha {tanjd-Shaka) is also often represeuted, the great teacher then 
appearing as a naked infant with his right hand pointing up and his left 
hand down, to indicate the power which he exercises over heaven and earth. 
Our illustration gives the most usual form of his image. Though not un- 
like that of Amida, it differs from the latter by the position of the hand 
and the shape of the halo. The chief festivals of Shaka are on the 8tli 
April (his birthday) and the 15th February (tlie anniversary of his death). 

Sharihotsu (Sanskrit, S'dripiittra)^ the wisest of Buddha's ten chief 

Shichi Fukujin, the Seven Gods of Luck, namely 1 Ebisu, 2 Dai- 
koku, 3 Benten, 4 Pukurokuju, 6 Bishamon, 6 Jurojiu, 7 Hotei. 

Shi-Tenno, the Four Heavenly Kings, who guard the world against 
the attacks of demons, each defending one quarter of the horizon. Their 
names are Jikoku, East (Sanskrit Dhritar&shtra) ; Komoku, South 
(VirCLpakshci); Zocho, West {Virddhaka) ; and Tamon — also called Bisha- 
mon,— North {V&isravana or Kuvira). Their images differ from those of 
the Ni-5 by holding weapons in their hands, and generally trampling 
demons under foot. Moreover they are placed, not at the outer gate of 
temples, but at an inner one. 

Sh5zuka no Baba. See Jitd. 

SuKUNA-BiKONA, a microsoopic god who aided Onamuji to establish 
his rule over the land of Izumo before the descent to earth of the 
ancestors of the Mikados. 

SusA-NO-o, lit. ** the Impetuous Male." The name of this deity is 
eicplained by the violent conduct which he exhibited towards his sister, the 
Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu, whom he alarmed so terribly by his mad freaks 
that she retired into a cavern. Born from the nose of the Creator 
Izanagi, Susa-no-o is considered by some to be the God of the Sea, by 
others the God of the Moon. He was the ancestor of the gods or mon- 
archs of the province of Izumo, who finally renounced their claims to 
sovereignty over any part of Japan in favour of the descendants of the 
Sun-Goddess. Susa-no-o is also styled Gozu Ttnnoy " the Ox-headed 
Emperor," — a name apparently derived from that of a certain mountain 
in Korea where he is supposed to have been worshipped. The temples 
dedicated to Susa-no-o are called Gicni or Ya^aka. The former are 
Buddhist or Ryobu Shinto ; the latter are pure Shinto shrines. 

Taishaku, the Brahminical god Indra. 

Tamon, see Anan. 

Ten, a title suflaxed to the names of many Buddhist deities, and 
equivalent to the Sanskrit D^a. 

Tenjin is the name under which is apothcosised the great minister 
and scholar Sugawara-no-Michizaue, who, having fallen a victim to 
calumny in A.D. 901, was degraded to the post of Vice-President of 
the Dazaifu, or Governor-Generalship of the island of Kyushu, at that 
time a usual form of banishment for illustrious criminals. He died 
in exile in A.D. 90.3, his death being followed by many portents and dis- 
asters to his enemies. He is worshipped as the God of Calligraphy, 
other names for him being Kan Shojo and Temmangti. He is repre- 
sented in the robes of an ancient court noble, and the temples dedicated 
to him bear in several places his crest of six stars. A recumbent image 
of a cow frequently adorns the temple grounds, because Michizane used to 
ride about on a cow in the land of his exile. A plum-tree is also often 
j^nted near the temple, that having been his favourite tree. Indeed^ 

Gods and Goddesses, 


60 Introduction: — Christian Misdon Stations. 

tradition sa^s that the most beautiful plum-tree in his garden at Kyoto 
flew after him through the air to Dasaifu. 

Tennin (Sanskrit, Apsaras)t Buddhist angels — always of the female 
sex. They are represented floating in the air^ clothed in bright-coloured 
robes that often end in long feathers like the tails of the bird of paradise, 
and playing on instruments of music. 

TosHOGU, the name under which the great Shdgun leyasu, also called 
Gongeu Sama, is worshipped. It signi&es " the Temple (or Prince) 
Illuminating the East/' in allusion to the fact that leyasu's glory centrea 
in Eastern Japan. 

ToYO-tJKBBiME, also Called Uke-mochi-no-Kami, the Shinto Goddess 
of Food or of the Earth. The Nihongi^ one of the two principal sources of 
Japanese mythology and early history, says that the Sun-Goddess sent the 
Moon-God down from heaven to visit Uke-mochi-no-Kamt, who, turning 
her face successively towards the earth, the sea, and the mountains, pro- 
duced from her mouth rice, fish, and game, which she served up to him at 
a banquet. The Moon -God took offence at her feeding him with unclean 
viand«;, and drawing his sword, cut off her head. On his reporting this 
act to the Sun-Goddess, the latter was very angry, and secluded herself 
from him for the space of a day and ni^ht. From the body of the 
murdered Earth sprang cattle and horses, millet, silkworms, rice, barley, 
and beans, which the Sun-Goddess decreed should thenceforth be the 
food of the human race. In the Kqjiki version of the myth, it is 
Susa-no-o wlio slays the Goddess of Food, and there are other differences 
of detail. 

Yakcshi Nyorai (Sanskrit, Bhdlshajyaguru)^ lit. "the Healing 
Buddha." His name is explained by reference to a prayer, in which he 
is called upon to heal in the next life the miserable condition of man's 
present existence. The images of this deity are scarcely to be dis- 
tinguished from those of Shaka. 

25. — Christian Mission Stations. 

The Roman Catlwlic Mission in Japan dates from the time of Saint 
Francis Xavier, and though Christianity was sternly repressed during the 
17th and 18th centuries and down to 1873, the emoers continued to 
smoulder, espocially in the island of Kyushu. The Oatholic Church now 
has an Archbishop at T5kyo, and Bishops at Osaka, Nagasaki, and 
Hakodate, with a total following of over 44,000. 

The labours of the Protestant Missionaries commenced in 1859, and 
a network of mission stations now covers the greater portion of the 
Empire. Tokyo and the Open Ports are the head-quarters of most of 
the denominations, and are, for shortness* sake, not mentioned in the 
folltwing list of mission stations, given for the benefit of travellers 
interested in Christian work. 

The Church of Christ in Japan (Nippon Itchi Kydkwai)^ an amalga- 
mation of American and Scotch Presbj^rian Churches, has the largest 
number of members, over 11,000. Stations : — Fukui, Hiroshima, Kana- 
zawa, Eochi, Kydto, Morioka, Nagoya, Okazaki, Sapporo, Sendai, 
Tokushima, Ueno, Wakayama, Yamaguohi, Yokkaichi. 

The Kumi-ai Churches, in oo-operation with the American Board's 
Mission, over 10,000 members. Stations : — Kumamoto, Kyoto, Maebashi, 
Matsuyama, Miyazaki, Okayama, Sendai, Tottori, Tsu. 

The Nippon Set Kdkwaif including the missions of the Church of 
England and of the ProtestMit Bpiscopal Ghueoh of America, 4,000. 

Outline of Japanese HieUmj, 51 

Stations :— Aomori, Fuknoka, Faknshima, Fulniyama, Giln, Ktunamoto, 
Koahiro, Matsue, Nagoya, Nara, Sapporo, Tokushima, Yonago. 

American Methodist Episcopal Churchy over 4,000. Stations :— Puku- 
<dca, Hirosaki, Hiroshima, Kagoshima, Matsuyama, Nagoya, Oita, 
Sendai, Uwajima, Yamagnchi, Yonezawa. 

Methodist Church of Canada, 1,900. Stations :— Fukui, Kanazaw^, 
Kofa, Nagano, Shizuoka, Toyama. 

American Baptist Missionary Union, over 1,800. Stations :—Himeji, 
Nemuro, Sendai, Toyoura. 

The above stations are those at which foreign missionaries reside. 
Native pastors carry on the work at other places. Numerous smaller 
denominations, chiefly American, are also represented. 

The Orthodox Russian Church has a flourishing mission, whose head- 
quarters are at Tokyo. 

26. — Outline of Japanese History. 

Nothing is known concerning the origin of the Japanese people, or 
the period at which they reached their present habitat. The dawn of 
trustworthy history, in the 6th century after Christ, finds the Mikados 
— Emperors claiming descent from the Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu — 
already governing all Japan except the North, which was still occupied 
by the Aino aborigines, and Chinese civilisation beginning to filter into 
what had apparently hitherto been a semi-barbarous land. The chief 
pioneers of this civilisation were Buddhist priests from Korea. From 
that time forward Japanese history consists, broadly speaking, in the 
rise of successive great families and chiefs, who, while always pro- 
fessing a nominal respect for the divine authority of the Mikado, 
practically usurp his power and are the de facto rulers of the country. 
By the end of the 12th century, the old absolutism had been converted 
into a feudalism, of which Yoritomo, the successful leader of the 
Minamoto family or clan, became the acknowledged head under the 
title of Shogun, which closely corresponds in etymology and in mean- 
ing to the Latin Imperator. Thus was inaugurated the dual system of 
government which lasted down to the year 1868, — the Mikado supreme 
in name, but powerless and dwelling in a gilded captivity at the old 
capital Ky5to, the Shogun with his great feudatories, his armed re- 
tainers, and his well-fUled exchequer, ruling the whole empire from 
his new capital in Eastern Japan — first Eamakura, then Yedo. During 
the latter period of the nominal supremacy of the Minamoto family of 
Shdguns, the real power was in the hands of their chief retainers, the 
Hojo family, — the political arrangement thus becoming a triple one. 
The rule of the H5j5 was rendered memorable by the repulse of the 
Mongol fleet sent by Kublai Khan to conquer Japan, since which time 
Japan has never been invaded by any foreign foe. The Ashikaga 
line of Shdguns graroed the power which had fallen from the Hojo's 
hands, and distinguished themselves by their patronage of the arts. 
The second half of the 16th century was a penod of anarchy, during 
which two great soldiers of fortune who were not Shoguns— Nobunaga 
and Hideyoshi — successively rose to supreme power. Hideyoshi even 
went so far as to conquer Korea and to meditate the conquest of China, 
an enterprise which was, however, interrupted by his death in A.D. 1598. 
Tokugawa Idyasu, Hideyoshi's greatest general, then succeeded in making 
Japan his own, and founded a dynasty of Shogans who ruled the land in 

52 Introduction: — Outline of Japaneu Histoi'y. 

profound peace from 1603 to 1868. Among the means resorted to for 
necuriug this end, were the ejection of the Catholic missionaries and the 
closing of the country to foreign trade. Nagasaki was the only place in 
the Empire at which any communication with the outer world was.per- 
mitted, no European nation but the Dutch was allowed to trade there, 
. and even Dutch commerce was restricted within narrow limits. At last, 
in 1858, the goverumeot of the United States sent a fleet under the com- 
mand of Commodore Perry to insist on the abandonment of the Japanese 
policy of isolation. This act of interference from the outside gave the 
coup de grdce to the Shogunate, which had previously been weakened by 
internal discontent. It fell, and in its fall dragged down the whole fabric 
of mediaeval Japanese civilisation. On the one hand, the Mikado was 
restored to the absolute power which had belonged to his ancestors cen- 
turies before. On the other, Europeanism (if one may so phrase it) 
became supreme in every branch of thought and activity. The natural 
outcome of this has been the Europeanisation of the monarchy itself. 
Not only has the Court adopted foreign manners and etiquette, — it has 
granted a Constitution modelled on that of Prussia ; and the Diet, as it is 
termed, meets yearly. The tendency of this body is to grow rapidly more 
and more radical. 

The following are the chief dates of Japanese history : — 


/Accession of the first Mikado, Jimmu Tenno 660 

Prince Yamato-take conquers S.W. and E. Japan . . 97-113 

Conquest of Korea by the Empress Jingo 200 

(First Chinese books brought to Japan 285 

Buddhism introduced from Korea 552 

Shotoku Taishi patronises Buddhism . . . . : 598-021 

Government remodelled on Chinese bm-eaucratic plan . . . . 600-800 

Chinese calendar introduced 602 

Fujiwara family predominant 670-1060 

The Court resides at Nara 709-784 

First extant Japanese book published {Kojiki) 712 

Printing introduced 770 

Kyoto made the capital 794 

Invention of Htra-grmio syllabary 809 

Struggle between the Taira and Minamoto clans 1156-1185 

Yoritomo establishes the Shogunate at ICamakura 1192 

Hojo family predominant 1205-1333 

Repulse of the Mongols 1274-1281 

Two rival lines of Mikados, the Northern and Southern Courts 1332-1892 

Ashikaga dynasty of Shoguns 1338-1565 

The Portuguese discover Japan 1542 

St. Francis Xavier arrives in Japan 1549 

First persecution of the Christians 1587 

Yedo founded by leyasu 1590 

BUdeyoshi invades Korea 1592-1598 

Battle of Seki-ga-hara 1600 

Tokugawa dynasty of Shoguns 1608-1868 

Japan closed and Christianity prohibited 1624 

The Dutch relegated to Deshima 1639 

Kaempfer visits Japan 1690-92 

Last eruption of Fuji 1707 


Celebrated Fenonages, 68 

Arrival of Commodore Perry 1868 

First treaty signed with the United States 1854 

Crreat earthquake at Yedo 1865 

First treaties with European Powers 1857-59 

Yokohama opened : . . . . 1858 

First Japanese cmhassy sent abroad 1860 

Bombardment of Shimonoseki 1864 

The Shogunate abolished and the Mikado restored 1868 

Civil war between Imperialists and partisans of the Shdgon. . 1868*69 

The Mikado removes to Yedo (Tdkyo) 1869 

Abolition of feudal system 1871 

Tokyo-Yokohama railway opened 1872 

Adoption of Gregorian calendar 1873 

Kxpedition to Formosa . . 1874 

The wearing of swords interdicted 1876 

Satsuraa rebellion 1877 

New Codes published 1880-90 

Constitution proclaimed 1889 

First Diet mot 1890 

Great earthquake at Gifu 1891 

27. — List of Celebrated Personages. 

The following list of celebrated personages referred to in this book, 
and likely to be mentioned by guides when explaining objects of historical 
or artistic interest, may be found useful. 

Akahito (flourished circa A.D. 700), one of the earliest great poets of 
Japan. Ilis full name was Yamabcno Akahito. 

Antoku Tcxno, an ill-fated infant Mikado, who perished at sea in 
A.D. 1185, during the civil war waged between the Taira and Minamoto 

AsAiNA iSABuno (end of 12th century), one of Yoritomo's doughtiest 
retainers, was distinguished by almost incredible physical strength. He 
is represented in art as hurling great rocks with the same ease that ho 
flings stalwart rivals, and as swimming with a live shark under each arm. 

Benkei, or ^Icsashi-b6 Benkri, was Yoshitsune's famous henchman. 
How many of Beukei's valorous achievements are historical, it would 
be hard to say. According to the current version, he was eight feet 
v\ height, strong as a hundred men, and had even in early years per- 
formed so many deeds of violence as to have been nicknamed Oni~ 
waJca^ "the Devil Youth." Having attempted to cut down Yoshitsune, 
then a mere stripling, on the Goj5 Bridge in Kyoto, he found in him 
his master in the art of fencing, and was made to sue for quarter. So 
great was the veneration thus inspired in his breast, that he thenceforth 
attached himself to Yoshitsune's fortunes and died battling in his 
cause. The fight between Yoshitsune and Benkei is a favourite subject 
with the artists of Japan. Another is the subterfuge by which Benkoi 
made way for his master and their little band through one of the 
barriers where at that time all travellers were liable to be stopped. He 
pretended that he was a priest sent to collect subscriptions for the 
building of a new temple, and therefore privileged to travel free. The 
pictures represent him reading out his supposed ecclesiastical oommission 
from a scroll to the barrier-keepers, who were too ignorant of letters to 
disoover the feint. This story is the subjeot of a drama called faf^'in-c/i^ 

54 Introduction: — Celebrated Pereonages. 

BusoN (1716-1783) » a highly original and vigorous artist of the- 
Chinese school. 

Gho Densu (second half of 14th century), the greatest and most original 
painter of the Buddhist school, is termed by Anderson " the Fra Angelica 
of Japan.*' 

Date Masamunb (1567-1636), Daimyo of Sendai, is chiefly remem- 
bered for the embassy which he despatched to the Pope and to the King 
of Spain in 1614 (Comp. Route 4, Section 6). Date was eminent as a 
warrior, a diplomat, and a jpatron of learning and art. 

Denqyo Daishi (flourished about A.D. 800) was the first Buddhist 
abbot of Hiei-zau. He made a long sojourn in China for the purpose of 
esoteric study, and brought back with him the doctrines of the Tendai 

En no Sboeaku was a famous Buddhist saint and miracle-worker of 
*the 7th centuiy, and' the first human beiug to ascend Haku-sau, Daisen,. 
Tatevama, and others of Japan's highest mountains, it being part of his 
mission to bring all such remote and inaccessible places under the sway 
of Buddha. Having been slandered as a magician and condemned to 
death, he so fortified himself by the use of mystic signs and formulae that 
the swords of the executioners sent to behead him snapped in pieces ; but 
afterwards he flew away through the air, and was never again seen by 
mortal eyes. 

EsHiN (942-1017), a Buddhist abbot who is famous as a sculptor. 

Fobty-Se\T3N Renins. Their story, too long to be told here, will be 
foimd in Things Japanese. 

Go-Daigo Tenno /reigned 1319-1339) was a Mikado celebrated for his 
misfortunes. At the beginning of his reign, the throne and the nation 
were alike trampled under foot by the Hojo ** Regouts " at Kamakura, and 
his endeavour to shake of! their domination only resulted, after much 
shedding of blood, in his being taken prisoner and banished to the 
Oki Islands. When the Hojo fell in 1333 under the sword of the 
loyalist warrior Nitta Yoshisada, the Emperor Go-Daigo was recalled 
from exile. But the times were not ripe for the abolitiou of military rule, 
nor was Go-Daigo wise in his choice of counsellors after his restoraton. 
Ashikaga Takauji, who had posed as the champion of Imperial rights, 
desired nothing so much as to become Sbdgun himself, and bribed the 
Mikado's concubine Kado-ko to poison her lord's mind against those 
who had served him most faithfully, and even against his own son, Prince 
Moriyoshi, who was declared a rebel, cast into a dungeon at Kamakura, 
and there murdered. Go-Daigo repented of his folly and weakness when 
it was too late. Takauji left Kydto, and the army sent to smite him 
received such a crushing defeat that Go-Daigo was forced to seek safety 
in flight. Thereupon Takauji set another Mikado on the throne. But as 
Go-Daigo continued to be recognised by many as the rightful sovereign, 
the ^likadoate was split into two rival branches, called the Southern 
(legitimate) and the Northern (usurping) Courts. After sixty years of 
strife and misery, the Northern Court triumphed in 1392, the represen- 
tative of the Southern dynasty handing over to it the Imperial regalia. 
Go-Daigo perished at an early period of the struggle. His Court— if we 
may so call the mountain fastness where he mostly encamped — ^was at 
Yoshino, whose position to the South of Kyoto was the origin of the 
epithet '< Southern " applied to it by native historians. 

Gyooi Bosatsu (670-749), a Korean by birth, and a Buddhist abbot 
aod saint, is the subject of many artistic fictions. He is credited not only 

Celebrated Personages. • 65 

wiHi the inyention of the potter's wheel, which was certainly used in 
Japan before his time, but with a number of important wood-carvings and 
other works of art. The waure called after him, Qydgi-yaki is earthen- 
ware, — dai^ glossy, very solid, having wave-lines in the interior, and a 
pattftm resembling the impression of matting on the outside. 

Hachikan Tabo, lit. the First-Born of the God of War, was a famous 
general of the end of the 11th century, whose real name was Minamoto no 
YoMie^ and whose vigorous personality created the pre-eminence of the 
Minamoto family. was who conquered Northern Japan (the part 
beyond Sendai), and brought those hitherto barbarous provinces mto 
permanent subjection to the Imperial sway. Artists often depict an 
episode in his career which showed his skill as a strategist, namely, his 
disoovery of an ambush among the rushes which he inferred from the 
disturbed flight of the wild-geese overiiead. Like many other turbulent 
qiirits of that time, he forsook the world and became a Buddhist monk 
at the approach of old age. 

HiDABi JiNOOBo (1594-16S4), Japan's greatest carver in wood, was a 
simple carpenter whose nickname of Hidari eurose from his being left- 
handed. Among the best known of his works, are the carved gateway of 
tiie Nishi Hongwanji temple in Kyoto, the ramma, or ventilating panels, 
of the principal apartments in the same temple, and three carvings, — two 
of ^epoants after designs by Eano Tan-yu, and one of a sleeping cat,— in 
the mortuaiy chapel of leyasu at Nikko. The notice attracted by his 
labours was so great that the architectural wood-carvers, whose artistic 
efioxts had previously been limited to the execution of mechanical designs 
and conventional flowers, now came .to be regarded as a body distinct 
from the carpenters to whom they had hitherto been affiliated. 

HiDEYOSHi (1686—1698), commonly known as the Taiko Hideyoshi — 
the word Taiko being a title indicative ol exalted rank — has sometimes 
been called the Napoleon of Japan. Of low birth and so ugly as to earn 
the nickname of " Monkey,'* Hideyoshi worked his way up by sheer will, 
hard fighting, and far-sighted ability, to the position of Nobunaga's most 
tnisty lieutenant ; and when that ruler died in 1682, Hideyoshi, having 
dun his chief enemies and captured Kyoto, became practically monarch 
of Japan with the title of Begent {Kwaviha1tu\ which till then had never 
been accorded to any but the highest nobility. Hideyoshi carried out 
many wise measures of internal policy, such as financial reform, the 
improvement of the great cities of Kyoto and Osaka, and the encourage- 
ment of maritime trade. He was also more merciful to his foes and 
nvaU than his predecessor Nobunaga had been. His greatest failing was 
tike vulgar ambition of the parvenu. His drecun was to conquer China and 
become Emperor of the whole East. As a first step towards this, he sent 
an army across the straits to Korea under command of the celebrated 
yperals Kato Kiyomasa and Konishi Yukinaga— the latter a Christian, 
•e were many of the soldiers of the expedition. Korea was mined, and 
Japan nowise benefited. Hideyoshi's death resulted in the withdrawal of 
the Japanese troops from the peninsula, and in the speedy overthrow of 
fak own family power which he had hoped to render hereditary. 

HiTOMABU (flourished circa A. D. 700) was one of Japan's earliest 
giaat poets, and the rival of Akahito. His full name was Kakinomoto no 

Ibmitsu (1604-1651), the third Shogun of the Tokugawa djmasty, in- 
herited the administrative ability of his grandfather leyasu, and devoted 
Ids peaceful reign to perfecting the system of government established by 

66 Introducthn: — Celebrated Personages. 

the latter, inclndiDg the elaborate system of espionage touching which early 
European writers on Japan have so much to say. To him is due the role 
according to which all the Daimyos were obliged to reside during half the 
year in Yedo, and to leave their families tliere as hostages during the 
other half. It was also lemitsu who suppressed Christianity as 
dangerous to the state, and closed up the country against all foreigners 
except the Dutch and Chinese, who were permitted to trade at Nagasaki 
under humiliating conditions. In fact, it was lemitsu who consolidated 
what we call " Old Japan." His tomb is at Nikko near that of leyasu. 

Ieyasu (1642-1616), one of the greatest generals and altogether the 
greatest ruler that Japan has ever produced, was a Samurai of the pro- 
vince of Mikawa, and a scion of the great family of Minamoto. His own 
surname was Tokugawa. Having served under both Nobunaga and the 
Taiko Hideyoshi, he profited by the latter's death in 159|^ to make war 
on his infant son Hideyori, seized the great castle of Osaka, burnt the 
Taiko's celebrated palace of Momoyama at Fushimi, and finally, in the 
year 1600, defeated all his enemies at the battle of Seki-^a-hara, a small 
village in the province of Omi, now a station on the Tdkaido Railway. 
Meanwhile he had, in 1690, moved his own heeid -quarters from Shizuoks, 
where they had been for many years, to Yedo, then an unimportant fish- 
ing-village, which he chose on account of the strategic advantages of its 
position. In 1603 he obtained from the fainMnt Court of Kyoto the title 
of Shogun, which was borne by his descendants during two and a half cen- 
turies of unbroken peace, till Commodore Perry's arrival in 1853 led to the 
revolution of 1868, and to the break-up of Japanese feudalism and dualism. 
The statecraft which caused so long a reign of peace under one dynasty to 
take the place of the secular struggles between petty warring chieftains, 
consisted principally in maintaining a balance of power whereby the rivalries 
of the greater Daimyos were played off against each other, and in the an- 
nexation to the Shogun's own domain, or to those of his nearest relatives, of 
large strips of territory in all portions of the Empire. These served as 
coignes of vantage, whence, in those days of difficult communication, the 
actions of each Daimyo could more easily be controlled. leyasu held in 
his own grasp all the military resources of the country, and forced all the 
Daimyos to regard themselves as his feudatories. He likewise had the 
Court of Kyoto strictly guarded, — nominally as a protection for the sacred 
ISIikado against rebel foes, but in reality to prevent His Majesty, who 
still retained the semblance of Imperial power, from endeavouring to 
shake ofF the fetters which made him a passive instrument in the Shogun's 
hands. leyasu furthermore built powerful strongholds, made new high- 
ways, established a system of posts, and promulgated laws, which — if we 
accept the theory of paternal government alike in politics and in the 
family - were very wise, and which were in any case far in advance of 
anything that Japan had known before. When the government had 
been established on a firm footing in 1606, leyasu followed the usual 
Japanese custom of abdicating in favour of his son. He retired to Shizuc^, 
and spent the evening of his life in encouraging the renaissance of Japa- 
nese literature which had just begun. To his munificence is owing the 
edilio princeps of many an important work. leyasu was first buried at 
Kuno-zan, not far from Shizuoka, in a beautiful shrine on a castle-like 
eminence overlooking the sea. In the year 1617, his remains were re- 
moved to their present still grander resting-place at Nikko. The dynasty 
of Shoguns founded by leyasu is called the Tokugawa dynasty, from the 
surname of the family. 

Celebrated Personages. 67 

IsHiKAWA GoEMON (end of 16th century), the' most notorious of 
Japanese robbers, is credited with having possessed the physical strength 
of thirty ordinary men. Being at last captured at the age of thirty-seven, 
he and his young son Ichiro were condemned to be boiled to death in a 
cauldron of oil, which sentence was carried out in the dry bed of the 
Ramogawa at Kyoto. In accordance with custom, the criminal com- 
posed a death-song, which ran as follows : 

Ishikawa ya 

Hama no viasa^o wa 
Tsukuru to mo, 

Yo ni nusubito no 

Tane wa tsukimaji, 

which may be rendered thus, " Though the stony-bedded rivers (ishi-kawa^ 
a pun on his own name) and the sand on the sea-shore come to an end, 
the line of thieves shall never come to an end." 

IwASA Matahei (16th century) was the originator of the TJhiyo-e 
Hyu, or "popular school" of Japanese art, which, abandoning the pre- 
scribed subjects and conventional routine of the classical schools, under- 
took to paint life as it is. 

JiKAKU Daishi (A.D. 794-864), a celebrated Buddhist abbot. Like 
many others of his time and profession, he visited China in search of 
religious and magical lore. 

JiMMU Tenno, that is, the Emperor Jimmu, is accounted by the 
Japanese annalists the first human sovereign of their country, which had 
till then been ruled over by the Shinto gods. Jimmu Ten no was himself 
descended from the Sun-Goddess Ama-torasu, and consequently semi- 
divine. The orthodox account of his career is that, starting from Kyushu 
in the extreme West of Japan, he rowed up the Inland Sea with a band 
cf devoted warriors, subduing the aborigines as he went along, in virtue 
of the commission which he had received from heaven. After much 
fighting in what are now the provinces of Bizen and Yamato, and many 
miraciilons occurrences, he died at the age of one hundred and thirty- 
seven, and was buried at Kashiwabara in Yamato, where his capital had 
been established after the conquest. The date assigned for his accession 
is the 11th February, 660 B.C., the anniversary of which day has been 
made a public holiday during the present reign, and was chosen for the 
proratilgation of the new Constitution, evidently with the desire to 
strengthen the popular belief in the authenticity and continuity of Japa- 
nese history. Jimmu Tenno and his successors during many centuries 
have, however, been condemned as myths by competent European in- 
vestigators, though it is allowed that the Jimmu legend may possibly be 
an echo of some actual invasion of Central Japan by Western tribes of 
adventurers in very early days. 

J'iNGo KoGo, that is, the Empress Jingo, ruled over Japan, according 
to the native annalists, from A.D. 201 to 269, when she died at the age 
of one hundred ; but Aston, the greatest authority on early Japanese 
history, while not denying the existence of this Japanese Semiramis, 
relegates most of her great deeds to the realm of fable. The chief legend 
connected with her is that of the conquest of Korea, to which country 
she crossed over with a gallant fleet, aided by the fishes both great and 
imaU and by a miraculous wave, and whence she returned only after 

58 Introduction: — Celebrated Personages, 

leoeiving the a^eot submission of the King. Daring the three years of 
her absence in Korea, she held in her womb her son Ojin who is worship- 
ped as Hachiman, the God of War. Next she turned ner attention east- 
wards, and, going in her fleet up the Inland Sea, smote the rebels of 
Yamato, as Jimmu Tenno is said to have done before her. Indeed, it has 
been suspected that the two legends are but slightly vaiying versions of 
the same story. 

JocHo, the most original of Japan's mediaeval sculptors, flourished 
during the reign of the Emperor Go-Ichijo (A.D. 1017-1036). He carved 
Buddhist subjects. 

J5SETSU (flourished about A.D. 1400), was a priest and celebrated 
painter. Anderson calls him the Japanese Cimabue. 

Kano, the family name of a celebrated school of painters, wliich 
originated in the 15tn century and is not yet extinct. Its manner, which 
appears highly conventional to Europeans, is classical in the eyes of the 
Japanese. The greatest of these pednters was Kano ^lotonobu (born 1477). 
Other noteworthy members of the family were K. Shoei, K. Eitoku, and 
K. Sauraku (16th century), K. Sansetsu, and especially K. Tan-yu. 
K. Naonobu, K. Yasunobu, K. Toun, and K. Tsunenobu were also dis- 
tinguished. All these names, from Sansetsu onwards, belong to the 17th 
oentury. The Japanese custom of adoption is the key to the apparent 
mystery of so many men similarly gifted arising in one family. 

Kato Kiyomasa was one of Hideyoshi's generals in the invasion of 
Korea at the end of the 16th century, and a fierce enemy of the Christians. 
He is one of the most popular Japanese heroes, ana is worshipped — 
chiefly by the Nichiren sect of Buddhists — under the name of Sei Shoko. 

Kiyomort (1118— 1181), whom Satow calls the Warwick of Japanese 
history, was head of the great house of Taira during its struggles with the 
rival house of Minamoto, and during the brief period of triumph which 

S receded its final overthrow at Dan-no-ura. From the year 1156 imtil 
is death, Kiyomori was all-powerful, engrossing all the highest offices of 
state for his own kinsmen, and governing the Palace through his kins- 
women where boy Mikados succeeded each other like shadows on the 
throne. To suit his own convenience, he moved the capital for a time 
from Kyoto to Fukuwara near the site of modem Kobe — an act of high- 
handed autocracy which was bitterly resented by the courtiers and the 
nobility, whose habits were interfered with and their resources taxed by the 
double move. While irritating the upper classes by his nepotism and over- 
bearing demeanour, he ground down tne common people by his exactions, 
and endeavoured utterly to exterminate the Taira clan. The fajnous 
beauty Tokiwa, handmaiden to Yoshitomo, was forced to yield to his em- 
braces in order to save the life of her infant, the future hero Yoshitsune ; 
and every woman that pleased his fancy had to minister to his lust. His 
eldest sou Shigemori remonstrated with him in vain. But the storm did 
not break in his time. He died in his bed, leaving his whole house ta 
perish four years later in a sea of blood. 

KoBo Daishi (774—834), the most famous of all Japanese Buddhist 
saints, was noted equally as preacher, painter, sculptor, calligraphist, and 
traveller. Had his life lasted six hundred years instead of sixty, he 
oould hardly have graven all the images, scaled all the mountain peaks, 
oonfounded all the sceptics, wrought all the miracles, and performed all 
the other feats with which he is popularlv credited. Byoburga-ura, near 
the modem temple of Kompira in ShiKoku, was his birth-place. His 
oonception was miraculous, and he came into the world with his hands 

Celebrated Penonaget, 



folded as if in prayer. He entered the 
priesthood in A.D. 793. Various legends 
are told of the trials to which he was 
subjected by evil spirits during his novi- 
tiate. At Cape Muroto in Tosa, dragons 
and other monsters appeared out of the 
sea and disturbed him in his prayers. 
These he drove away by repeating mystic 
formulse called Darani, and by spitting 
at them the rays of the evening star 
which had flown from heaven into his 
mouth. At a temple built by him on 
this spotf he was constantly annoyed by 
hobgoblins who forced him to enter into 
conversation; but he finally got rid of 
them by surrounding himself with a con- 
secrated enclosure into which they were 
imable to enter against his will. Having 
been sent to China as a student in 804^ 
much as promising Japanese youths are 
sent to Europe and America to-day, he 
became the favourite disciple of the great abbot Hui-kwo {Jap. Kei-kwaJ, 
by whom he was charged to carry back to Japan the tenets of the Yoga- 
ckirya, or, as it is c€klled in Japan, Shingon sect, which occupies itself 
greatly with mystic formularies, magic spells, and incantations. Kobo 
Daishl returned home in 806, bringing with him a large quantity of 
Baddhist books and devotional objects, and in 810 was appointed abbot 
of Toji in Kyoto. A few years later he founded the great monastery 
rf Kdya-san, where his last days were spent at the close of a life of 
incessant toil. It is asserted that he did not die, but merely retired into 
• vaulLed tomb, where he still awaits the coming of ^liroku, the Buddhist 
Messiah. Among the innumerable great deeds with which this saint is 
credited, is the invention of the Hiragana syllabary. It should be noted 
that the name Kobo Daishi (lit. the Great Teacher Spreading abroad the 
Law) is a posthumous title conferred on him by the Emperor Daigo in 
the year 921. His name while alive was Kukai. 

KojiUA Takanobi, also called Binqo no Sabnrdj was a high-born 
■mrrior of the 14th century, celebrated for his romantic loyalty to the 
Emperor Go-Daigo. When this ill-fated monarch was being carried off to 
exile by the minions of the usurping house of Hojo, the faithful young 
•oldier endeavoured to rescue him on the road. Having failed not only 
in this, but even in gaining access for a moment to his master's person, 
be hit on a method of communication characteristically esthetic and 
Japanese. Stealing at night- into the garden of the iim where the Im- 
perial party had halted, he scraped bare part of the bark of a cherry-tree, 
and on it wrote the following line of poetry 

which, being interpreted, signifies 

" O Heaven I destroy not Kosen, 
For he is not without a Hanrei I" 

th« allusion being to an ancient Chinese King, who, after twenty years of 
wuiaze, was at length helped to victory by the prowess of a faithful 

60 Introduction : — Celebrated Personages, 

vassal. When day broke, the soldiers, seeing the writing, but being too 
ignorant to decipher it, showed it to their Imperial captive, who at once 
understood that it referred to himself and was meant to intimate that 
faitliful friends were at hand. The choice of a cherry-tree was not the 
least significant part of the deed ; for that tree is in Japan the emblem ol 
of patriotism and loyalty. Later on, Kojima died fighting for his sover- 
eign, and artists still love to reproduce that scene of his life in which 
loyalty and delicacy were so well combined. 

KoMACHi (full name Otio no Komachi), the most famous of Japan's 
many poetesses, seems to have flourished in the second half of the 9th 
century, and left a lasting impression on the national mind by her beauty, 
her talents, and the miserable old age which was the reward of her pride 
and frailty ; but nothing certain is known of her career. Every branch 
of art borrows motives from Komachi's life. '* She is shown," says 
.Anderson, "in her days of pride and luxury, drawing rain down upon 
the parched earth by the numbers of her magic verse, bringing to 
shame the rival who sought to fasten upon her the stigma of plagiarism 
and falsehood; courted by the noblest of the brilliant band that snr- 
rounded the throne — and again, without a step of transition, old, 
enfeebled, clad in unclean rags, begging her way from door to door until 
she died, rotted, and became the food of dogs on the highway — a moral 
illustration of the Buddhistic text. All is vanity, that the artist never 
tires of repeating, and sometimes elaborates with sickening detail." 

KoRiN (latter half of 17th century) was a famous lacquer artist and 

KosE NO Kanaoka (second half of 9th century) was the first great 
Japanese painter. A number of quaint legends testify to the effect which 
his skill produced on the minds of his contemporaries. 

KuMAGAi Naozane, a warrior of the latter half of the 12th century, took 
his surname from the town of Kumagai in the province of Musashi, which 
he received as a fief from Yoritomo. The most striking incidsnt in his life 
was his encounter with Atsumori at the battle of Ichi-no-taui not far from 
Kobe, in the year 1184. Atsumori was a delicate young nobleman of the 
Taira clan, scarcely sixteen years of age, who, when the city of Pukn- 
wara had been taken by the Minamoto, sought safety like the rest of his 
kindred in flight on board a junk, but being pursued by Kumagai Nao- 
zane, had to fight for his life. He succumbed to the veteran, who, tear- 
ing off his helmet the better to cut off his head, beheld the youthful face 
and was struck with pity and sympathy, his own son having fallen earlier 
in the day. He reflected, however, that to spare tlje boy's life might only 
cause him to fall into more ruthless hands. So partly out of compassion, 
and partly for the sake of his own reputation, he resolved to carry out his 
first purpose. .Atsumori submitted to his fate with heroic courage, while 
Naozane, overwhelmed with bitter remorse, vowed never more to bear 
arms, but to forsake the world and spend the remainder of his days in 
praying for the soul of the fair youth whose life he h&d so unwillingly 
taken. He restored to Atsumori's father the head and the other spoils 
which he had won, and after the conclusion of the war went to Kyoto, 
and took monastic vows in the temple of Kurodani, whore numerous relics 
of him are shown to this day. The story has been dramatised under the 
title of Atsunwri. 

KusuNOKi ^Iasashige, also called Nankd (first half of 14th century), 
is celebrated for his courage and for his unswerving loyalty to the throne. 
Had the Emperor Go-Daigo listened to his advice, the rising power of the 

Celebrated Persona ge$. , 61 

honae of Ashikaga might have heen crashed. As it was, Masashige was 
imequallj pitted against a superior foe ; and when his army had heen 
annihilated at the hattlo of Miuato-gawa in 1836, he and a little hand of 
personal followers committed haralciH rather than surrender. A scene 
which artists often represent is Masashige, about to die, presenting to his 
■on the ancestral roll in order to stimulate him to deeds worthy of the 
family renown. 

Masakado (killed A.D. 9i0) was the most celebrated of Japanese 
rebels, and the only one who ever went so far as to arrogate to himself 
the title of Mikado. For details, see under Narlta (Route 17), and the 
temple of Kanda Mydjin in Tokyo. 

Mrro KoMON (1622-1700), second Prince of Mito, a near relative 
(rfthe Tokugawa Shoguns, helped greatly though unconsciously to the 
final overthrow of their house, and of the whole feudal system a century 
and a half later, by means of his celebrated historical work, the Dai 
Nihon Shi, which first caused men to suspect that the Shoguns were 
Qsorpers, and the ^likados the only rightfnl rulers of Japan. He also 
patronised the new school of Shinto literati, whose studies led them, and 
finally the majority of the educated public, to endeavour to bring back 
the state of tilings supposed to have existed in pro-Buddhistic and pre- 
fendal days. Popular tradition ascribes to this prince many fanciful under- 
takings, such as the endeavour to raise the great bell from the river at 
Konodai, and to find the bottom of the Kaname-ishi at Kashima, which 
n sappoeed to be the pivot of the world. 

MuRASAKi Shikibu (flourished circa A.D. 1000) was a Court lady, 
and the most celebrated of Japanese romance-writers. Her chief work 
is the Genji Monogatari. 

Nahihira (A.D. 825-880), the Don Juan of ancient Japan. 
Necta Yoshisada, a warrior of the 14th century, famed for his 
ooorage and for his devotion to the Mikado's cause against the usurping 
families of Hojo and Ashikaga. An incident in his life which artists love 
k> pourtray is that related at the end of the description of Kamakura in 
Boate 2. 

Nobunaga,* properly Ota Nohunaga (1534-1582), was a warrior who, 
in the general scramble for land and power which went on in the latter 
half of the 16th century, gained possession of the provinces of Suruga, 
Mino, Omi, Mikawa, Ise, and Echizen. Having next taken Kyoto, he 
boilt the stronghold of Nijo, and sided with Ashikaga Yoshiaki, who by 
fais influence was made Shdgun in 1558. Six years later the two quarrel- 
led. Nohunaga arrested and deposed Yoshiaki ; and the power of the 
Ashikaga family, which hsul lasted two hundred and thirty-eight years, 
came to an end. By the aid of his generals Hideyoshi and loyasu, he 
brought large portions of the Empire under his sway, but never obtained 
the title of Shogun, which custom had limited to members of the 
Minamoto family, whereas Nohunaga was of Taira descent. Though a 
great soldier, Nohunaga lacked the administrative ability to follow up 
and coosolidate the advantages gained in war. Consequently, when he 
was assassinated by an offended subordinate named Akechi, his power 
died with him. Nohunaga was a bitter foe to Buddhism. Among 
Ins many acts of violence, was the destruction of the great monastery of 
Hiei-san near Kydto and of the Hongwanji at Osaka, on both which 
occasions frightful scenes of massacre ensued. On the other hand, he 

* This article is taken almost v«rbslly from OriffU's MUcado** Empire, Chap. 



Introduction : — Celebrated Personages. 

encouraged the Christians ; but it is not to be supposed that a man of his 
stamp did so out of any appreciation of their theological tenets. 

NicHiREN was bom at Kominato in the province of Awa, at the 
mouth of Yedo Bay, in A.D. 1222. At the age of twelve, he became an 
acolyte in the Shingon sect of Buddhists, and was admitted to the 
priesthood three years later. Shortly afterwards, he adopted the name 
by which he is known to history. It signifies " lotus of the sun,** and is 
derived from a dream which came to his mother of the sun on a lotus-flower, 
in consequence of which she became pregnant. He acquired a thoron^ 
knowledge of the whole Buddhist canon by means of a miracle, and met in 
the course of his studies with words which he converted into the formolA 
Namu Mydho Reffige Kyd, ** Oh, the Scripture of the Lotus of the Wonderful 
Law ! " — a formula which is still constantly used as an invocation by his 
followers, and wliich is to be seen carved on stones all over the countocy 
in the eccentric calligraphy {hige-daimoku) represented in the illustration. 

Having excited the wrath of the 
Regent Tokiyori by the unspar- 
ing manner in which he attacked 
other sects, he was banished to the 

Seninsula of Izu in 1261, but par- 
oned soon after. Ten years later, 
his enemies persuaded the Regent 
Tokimune that Nichiren's doctrines 
tended to subvert the state. He was 
seized and thrown into a cave with 
his six chief disciples, and condemned 
to be beheaded the same night, but 
when brought to the place of execu- 
tion, was saved by a miracle, the 
executioner's sword failing to act 
on the head of so holy a man ; and 
Tokimune, warned in a dream, 
spared his life. Nichiren was, how- 
ever, banished to the island of Sado 
in the North, but was permitted in 
1274 to return to Eamakura, then 
the military capital of Eastern Japan. 
He next retired to live among the 
mountains of Minobu in a hut, which 
he quitted in order to take up his 
abode with the lord of the manor, 
Nambu Rokuro, a devotee so zealous 
HiOE-DAiMOKU. that he bestowed on the saint and his 

sect forever all the lands in his possession. As crowds of disciples flocked 
to Nichiren for instruction in the faith, he erected a small shrine which 
became the nucleus of the now famous monastery of Minobu. In 1283, 
feeling that death was approaching, he removed from Minobu to Ikegami, 
near the modem city of Tokyo, and there died. His body was burnt on 
the spot and the bones were conveyed to Minobu, only a small portion be- 
ing retained at Ikegami as a precious relic. His zeal and his intolerance 
appear to have been inherited by his spiritual children, — the Nichiren- 
Shu, or Hokke-shiij as the sect derived from him is also called, having 
pushed the odium theologicum to a degree otherwise rare in Japan. The 
chief outward and visible— or rather audible — sign of their temples is 

■CtTTT T^ 

Celebrated Personages, 68 

the drum, which the devotees beat for hours together to keep time to 
their chanting of the sacred formula Namu Mydhd Renge Kyd. Nichiren's 
crest is the orange-blossom (tachibana). 

OouBi Hakqwan (15th century) and his faithful wife or mistress, 
Tebute Hime belong rather to romance than to sober history. Bobbers 
having plotted to drug him with sake and murder him during the 
night, she— at that time one of the courtesans of the village, who had 
been invited to assist in the revels— informed him of the plot. 
Vaulting upon the back of a wild horse found in a thicket close by, he 
escaped to Fujisawa on the Tokaidd, where his tomb and Terute Hime's 
are still shown. On another occasion, his enemies decoyed him into a 
poisonous bath which produced leprosy ; but Terute Hime wheeled him in 
a barrow from Kamakura all the way to the hot springs of Yunomine in 
Kishn, where a single week's bathing restored him to^health and strength. 

Okyo (1733 — 1796), properly called Maruyama Okyo, was the founder 
of the Shijo school of painters, whose watchword was fidelity to nature, 
though, as Anderson points out, their practice was far less radical than 
their theory, and did not lead them actually to reject the conventionalities 
of their predecessors. Okyo was specially successful in his representation 
of birds and fishes. 

Saigo, a samurai of the Satsuma clan, whose youth coincided with 
the closing years of the Japanese ancien regime^ conspicuously dis- 
tinguished himself on the Imperialist side. Before the triumph of the 
latter, he was thrice exiled to Oshima in Loochoo, as a political suspect ; 
but after the revolution of 1868, to the success of which he contributed 
so materially as to earn the title of Commander-in-Chief of the Imperial 
forces, he became one of tlie most important personages in the state. 
His programme, however, was no radical one. When his colleagues in 
the government showed that their aim was not, as had at first been 
asserted, a return to the Japan of early historic days, but the complete 
Europeanisation of the country and the abandonment of national 
usages and traditions, Saigo broke with them, and retired to the city of 
Kagoshima in Satsuma, where he founded a military school to which 
all the ardent youth of Satsuma and Osumi soon began to flock. The 
inflnence of this school precipitated the inevitable conflict between the 
old and the new order of ideas. It broke out in 1877, and is known to 
history as the Satsuma Rebellion. After a struggle of several months, 
the Imperialists triumphed, and Saigd himself fell on the 24th September, 
as did the whole of the little band of five hundred that had remained 
faithful to him till the end. Saigo still lives in popular esteem as the 
most perfect example of a brave warrior and a true patriot ; and even the 
Imperial Court now reveres his memory, the ban of degradation having 
bwn removed in 1890, and the dead Commander-in-Chief re-instated post- 
humously in all his honours. The common people say that Saigo's spirit 
has gone to dwell in one of the brightest stars of heaven. The visit of the 
Cxare witch to Japan in 1891 helped to give credence to a wild notion 
according to which Saigo had, like Yoshitsune centuries before, escaped 
to Siberia. 

Saioto Hoshi (died A.D. 1198) was an eccentric monk and famous 
poet of noble birth. 

Sesshu (1421-1507) was the greatest Japanese artist of the Chinese 
school of painting. Anderson says of him : 

*' It is difficult for a European to estimate Sesshu at his true value.. . 
Notwithstamding the boast of the artist that the scenery of China was 

66 Introduction : — Celebrated Personages. 

The maiden answered, * A casket 

I give into thine hand ; 
And if that thou hopest truly 

To come back to the Evergreen Land, 

' Then open it not, I charge thee I 

Open it not, I beseech 1 * — 
So the boy rowed home o*er the billows 

To Suminoye'R beach. 

But where is his native hamlot ? 

Stiaugo hanilots line the strand. 
Wliere is iiis mother's cottage ? 

Strange cots rise on either hand. 

* Wliat ! in three short years since I left it/ 

lie cries in his wonder sore, 
' Has the lionie of my childhood vanished? 

Is the bamboo fence no more ? 

' Perebance if T open the casket 

Which the maiden gave to me, 
My home and the dear old village 

Will come back as they used to be.* 

And he lifts the lid, and there rises 

A fleecy, silwry cloud. 
That floats of! to the Evergreen Country — 

And the fisher- boy cries aloud, 

He waves the sleeve of his tunic, 

He rolls over on the ground. 
Ho dances with fury and horror, 

Iluuuing wildly round and round. 

But a sudden chill comes o*er him 

That bleaches his raven hair, 
And furrows with hoary wrinkles 

The form erst so young and fair. 

His breath grows fainter and fainter, 

Till at last he sinks dead on the shore ; 

And I gaze on the spot when his cottage 
Once stood, but now stands no more. 

Yamato-takk no "Mikoto, one of the eighty children of the Emperor 
Keiko, was a greit licro of tlie pre-historic age. While yet a stripling, he 
was sent by his fatlier to destroy the rebels of Western Japan. In order 
to accompMsh tliis end, ho borrowed the gown of his aunt who 
was high-pviest^ss of Ise, and, thus disguised, made the rebel 
o.liieftains fall in love with him while carousing in the cave where 
they dwelt. Then suddenly drawing a sword from his bosom, he smote 
them to death. Ho next subdued the province of Izumo, and finally 
conquered Eastern Japan, which was at that time a barbarous waste. 
After many adventures both warlike and amorous, he died on the home- 
ward march to Yamato where the Emperor, his father, held Court. 

Celebrated Personages. 67 

ToBiToxo (1147-1199) was the founder of the Shogunate, the first 
Japanese Mayor of the Palace, if one may so phrase it. A scion of the 
great house of Minamoto, as shrewd and ambitious as he was unscrupulous 
and inhuman, he was left an orphan at an early age, and barely escaped 
death as a lad at the hands of Eayomori, the then all-powerful Minister, 
who belonged to the rival Taira clan. Kiyomori's exactions having 
roused the indignation of the whole Empire, Yoritomo saw that the 
moment had come to essay the restoration of his own fortunes. All the 
malcontents eagerly flocked to liis standard ; .and first in Eastern Japan^ 
then at Kyoto, and lastly at the great sea-fight of Dan-no-ura near 
Shimonoseki at the S.W. end of the Inland Sea, Yoritomo defeated the 
Taira and utterly exterminated them, putting even women and children 
to the sword. Yoritomo established his capital at Eamakura, which soon 
grew into a great city, thoroughly reorganised the administration by the 
appointment of military governors, chosen from among his o^vn clan, to 
act conjointly with the civil governors who received their nominations 
from the Mikado, by the levy of taxes for military purposes payable 
into his own treasury, and by other far-sighted innovations made in the 
interests of a military feudalism. At last in 1192, he obtained — in other 
words forced — from the Court of Kyoto the title of Sei-i Tai Shogun, that 
is " Bajrbarian-subduing Generalissimo," which soon came to denote the 
military or actual ruler of the country, as distinguished from its theoretical 
head, the heaven-descended Mikado. Yoritomo, whose life had been spent 
fghting, died peacefully in his bed. Among the many on whom he 
trampled to satisfy the dictates of personal ambition, was his own brother 
Yoshitsune, a far nobler character. Though Yoritomo's system of govern- 
ment remained in vigour for well-nigh seven centuries, the sceptre dropped 
from his own family in the generation following his death, his sons Yoriie 
and Sanetomo being weaklings who both perished by assassination at an 
early age. 

YosnrrsuNE, (b. 1159), also called Vshiwaka^ was younger half-brother 
to the first Shogun Yoritomo, being the son of Yoshitomo by a beautiful 
concubine named Tokiwa. By yielding to the wicked desires of the 
tyrant Kiyomori, Tokiwa obtained pardon for her son on condition that 
he shaved his head and became a mouk. Accordingly he was placed in 
the Buddhist monastery of Kurama-yama near Kyoto. But theological 
exercises were so little to his taste that he ran away to Northern Japan 
in company yfith. a friendly merchant, and at once distinguished himself 
by the valour with which he repelled the assaults of the brigands, slaying 
several with his own hand, though then himself but sixteen years of 
age. When Yoritomo rose in arms against the Taira clan, Yoshitsune 
naturally joined him, and became his greatest general. Indeed, the real 
guerdon belonged rightfully to the younger rather than to the elder 
brother. Yoritomo, far from feeling any gratitude, began to bum with 
iV-alousj' and to detest Yoshitsune as a possible rival. He even went so 
fir as to compass his death. But Yoshitsune escaped again to Northern 
Japan, where, according to one account, he was discovered by spies, and 
killo-i after a desperate fight on the banks of the Koromo-gawa, his head 
bt-ing sent to Yoritomo at Kamakura, preserved in sake. Others say that 
he committed haraHri when he saw that all was lost, having previously 
killed his own wife and children. A more fanciful account is that he 
escaped to Yozo, and then re-appeared on the mainland of Asia as 
Genghis Khan. This fable probably originated in an accidental similarity 
between the Chinese^ characters used to write the names of these two 

68 Introduction : — Population of Chief Citiet. Outlins Tours, 

famous men. But it is a remarkable foot that to this day Yoshitsnne 
remains an object of worship among the Ainos of Yeao. To the Japanese 
his name is a synonym for single-minded bravery and devotion. The 
traveller will often hear mentioned in connection with the name of 
Yosbitsune those of Benkei, his faithful retainer, and Yasuhira, the 
traitor suborned by Yoritomo to slay him. 

28. — Population op the Chief Cities. 

Fukui (Echizen) . . . . ' 41,000 i Nagoya 179,000 

Fukuoka (Chikuzen) . . 56,000 Niigata 47,000 

Gifu 31,000 Okayama 47,000 

Hakodate 58,000 Osaka 484,000 

Hirosaki 30,000 ' Otsu 32,000 

Hiroshima 90,000 i Sakai (Izumi) 45,000 

Kagoshima 56,000 ; Sendai 64,000 

Kanazawa (Kaga) . . . . 93,000 I Shimonoseki 33,000 

Kobe 143,000 Shizuoka 38,000 

Kdchi 33,000 Takamatsu (Sanuki) . . 34,000 

Kof u 33,000 Tokushima (Awa) . . . . 60,000 

Kumamoto 56,000 Tokyd (district of) . . . . 1,628,000 

Kyoto 298,000 j Toyama (Etchtl) . . . . 59,000 

Maebashi 32,000 ' Utsunomiya 31,000 

Matsue 35,000 ! Wakayama 55,000 

Yokohama 143,000 

Yokosuka 32,000 

Matsuyama (lyo) . . . . 34,000 

Morioka 32,000 

Nagasaki 60,000 

Total population of Japan on 1st Jan., 1892, was 40,718,677. 

29. — Outline Tours. 

1, — One Month's Tour from Yokoliama: — 

T5ky5 Sdajs. 

Kamakura and Euoshima 1 „ 

Miyanoshita 3 „ 

From Miyanoshita to Nagoya by Tokaido Railway 1 „ 

Nagoya i „ 

From Nagoya to Kyoto 1 „ 

Kyoto 4 „ 

Lake Biwa and back to Kyoto ^ 1 „ 

From Kyoto to Nara, Osaka, and Kobe ' 3 „ 

Kobe to Yokohama by steamer (by rail i day less) IJ „ 

From Yokohama to Nikko by rail ^ „ 

Nikko and Chuzenji 3^ „ 

From Nikko to Ikao vi& Ashio and the Watarase-gawa .. 2 „ 

Ikao (visit Haruna) 2 „ 

From Ikao to Myogi-san vi& Takasaki 1 „ 

My5gi-san and back to Yokohama by rail 1 „ 

Spare days 2 „ 

Total ..81 „ 

With this tour may be combined the ascent of Fuji from Yokohama 
(see Boute 9). 

OMine T<mn. 69 

2.— Ow Mmth*8 Towrffom Kdbe:-— 

Kobe Iday, 

Osaka, Nara, Kyoto, and Lake Biwa 5 ,, 

Train from Kyoto to Gifu; along the Nakasendd to Asama- 

yama and Kamizawa 6 ,, 

Kamizawa to Ikao 1 ,, 

Ikao 1 „ 

Ikao to Nikkd vi& the Wataiase-gawa . . . . 2 „ 

Nikko 4 „ 

By rail to T5ky6 J„ 

Tokyo 8 „ 

Yokohama, Kamaknra, and Miyanoshita 4^ „ 

Tokaido Bailway to Nagoya 1 ,, 

RaUtoKsbe 1 „ 

Spare days 1 „ 

Total ..31 „ 

3. — One McntKs Tour from Ne^gasaki : — 

Nagasaki and Onsen (Unzen) 4 days. 

From Nagasaki to Kobe hy steamer 2 „ 

Kara, Kyoto, and Lake Biwa 5 „ 

Prom Kydto to Nagoya by T5kaidd Bailway 1 „ 

From Nagoya to Miyanoshita 1 „ 

Miyanoshita 8 „ 

From ^liyanoshita to Kamaknra and Yokohama 1 „ 

Yokohama 1 „ 

Tokyo 8 „ 

From T6ky5 to Nikko and back 4 „ 

Steamer from Yokohama to Nagasaki 4 „ 

Spare days 2 ,, 

Total ..31 „ 

4. — It frequently happens that travellers from America, en route to 
Europe vi& India, have only a fortnight to devote to Japan between the 
steamer that drops them at Yokohama and the next one that picks them 
op at Kobe. To such the following outline is suggested : — 

Yokohama (shopping, travelling arrangements) 2 days. 

Tdkyo (sights and the theatre) 2 „ 

Tokyd to Nikko and back to Yokohama 3 „ 

By Tokaido Bailway to Miyanoshita, visiting Kamaknra and 

Enoshima en route 1 „ 

Miyanoshita 1 ,, 

RaUtoKyoto 1 „ 

Kyoto, Osaka, and K5be 4 „ 

Total .. 14 

AH the above tours are practicable for ladies. Shorter tours cm 
-eadly be arranged by omitting certain portions of them. 

5. YokohAmatoMiyftnoshita,Hakone,andAtami(seeBoute86axxd7). 

TO Introducti^ :^OutUm Tours. 

6. YokohAxna to Nikko, the oopoer-mines of A&Uo, down the Tallej 
of the Watangse-g^ifva ^ Omama, and back to Yokohama by train. Five 
days. One day extra for Kdshin-zan (Routes 14 and 15). 

7. Yokohama to Nikko, Ghfi2enji, and Yumoto ; thence oyer the 
Konseitoge to Maebashi, and back to Yokohama by train. One week. 
Two extra days to visit Ikao at end of trip (Routes 14« 16, and 12). 

8. Yokohama to Tachikawa on the Hachloji Railway; thence yift 
Ome up the valley of the Tamagawa to Kofu. Kofn to Kajikazawa, and 
down the rapids of the Fujikawa (visiting Minobu) to Iwabuchi on the 
Tokaido Railway. One week. If Mitake be visited, one day more. All 
this is included in Route 26. 

9. Yokohama to Ikao, 1st day ; Ikao to Kusatsu, 2nd day ; Kusatsu 
to Shibu, 3rd day; Shibu to Toyono and Nagano, 4th day. Prom 
Kagano to Myogi-san vi4 Karuizawa, 5th day. Train from Matsuida to 
Yokohama in 5^ hrs. One day extra for ascent of Asama-yama from 
Karuizawa (Routes 12, 25, 11, and 10). 

10. Yokohama to Nagano by train, back to Ueda to rejoin the Naka- 
sendo, thence along the Nakasendd to Gifu, and by train to Kyoto. 
Eight or nine days (Routes 25, 85, and 34). 

11. Yokohama by the Koshu Kaidd or Nakasendo to Shimo-no-Suwa, 
and down the rapids of the Tenryu-gawa to the Tokaido- Railway. Five 
or six days (Routes 26, 85, and 39). 

12. Yokohama by train to Shiogama, by water to Matsushima, Ishi- 
nomaki, Kiukwa-zan, and Oginohama, whence steamer back to Yoko- 
hama. Four days. Three extra days to visit Bandai-san from Motomiya 
on Northern Railway. (Routes .68, 69, apd 19). 

18. The Shrines of Ise. Four days from Yokohama or Kobe. 
(Routes 84 and 32). 

14. Osaka through' Yama to to Koya-san, and back by Wakayama. 
Five days (Routes 38 and 412). 

15. Kyoto to Tsuruga on the Sea of Japan ; overland or steamer to 
Fushiki, steamer to Naoetsu, rail to Tokyo. Five or six days (Routes 33, 
25, and 10). 

16. Tour of the Inland Sea and Shikoku. Time uncertain (Routes 
60 to 55). 

17. Nagasaki to the solfataras of Onsen (Unzen) and back. Three 
days (Route 58). 

18. Nagasaki to the hot-springs of Takeo, and back viA the Potteries 
of Arita. Three days (Route 57). 

19. Rapids of the Kumagawa. Four days (Route 65). 

20. From Nagasaki to Ureshino, Takeo, and Saga ; rail to Kurume ; 
vi& Yabakei Valley toNakatsu, Oita, Takeda, Sakanashi, Kumamoto; 
back to Nagasaki by steamer from Misumi, 8 days. Two extra days are 
required for the ascent of Aso-san (Routes 57, 59, 60, 61, and 62). 

21. By steamer from Yokohama to Hakodate and Otaru; rail to 
Sapporo and Mororan ; steamer to Hakodate and Aomori ; back to Yoko- 
hama by rail, visiting Matsushima, Bandai-san, and Kikko eii rouU. 
A fortnight (Routes 77, 81, 69, 19, ^d 14). 

22. By steamer from Hakodate up the East Ooast of Yezo and to tha 
Soathem Knriles (Route 82). . _ 

ChMM Tours. 71 

Lmsov "FDamBoxTTEsoFTBAVsL." 

(A iraveller restricting himself to one of these Koutes need only 
the number in his application.) 


No. 1. By regolar routes* to the Thirteen Provinces round Fuji and 

No. 1-A. (In the American list only). (To Nikko and vicinity, and 
iandcn-san and vicinity by rail; thence by regular routes 
to Kdisuke, ShinanOy Musashi, Sagamiy IzUj Kai, Suruga, 
and Tdtomi to Nagoya, Kydto, and Kobe, Him^ and Oka- 
yama, and return, with permission to visit Nara and Ise 
Shrines en route. — This route may also be applied for from 
Kdbe or NagasaH,) 

No. 2. B^ rail to K5be viA Shizuoka, Nagoya, and Kyoto, with liberty 
to break the journey to visit Hakone and Nara. 

No. 3. To Kyoto by the Nakasendo, and thence to Nara and Kobe by 
regolar routes. {American list includes return). 

No. 4. To Yokkaichi by sea, and thence by regular routes to Ise, 
Naraf Kydto, and Kobe. {**A7id return.** Amer. List.) 

No. 5. By rail to Sendai, and thence to Matsushima and Oginohama 
(and back if necessary), with leave to break the journey to visit Bandai- 
nn. {^^And Hakodate and Nikkd." Amer. List.) 

No. 6. By rail to Sendai and thence by regular routes to Aomori 
and Hakodate and back. 

No. 7. Hakodate, Otaru, Sapporo, and Yezo generally. 

FROM k5be: 

No. 8. To Himeji by rail ; thence to Yokohama by rail vi& Kyoto, 
Nagoya, and Shizuoka, with liberty to break the journey to visit Nara and 
Hakone. {*^ Also NikXro and Ise.** Avur. List.) 

No. 9. To Himeji by rail ; thence by regular routes to Kydto and 
Nara ; thence by the Nakasendo to Tokyo (•* and back.** Amer. List.) with 
liberty to visit by regular routes the Provinces of Kotsuke, Shimotsuke, 
Hitachi, Shimosa, and Musashi. 

No. 10. By regular routes to the provinces of Settsu, Harima, Yama- 
shiro, Kawachi, Echizen, Omi, Izumi, Yamato, Kishu, and back. 

No. 11. To Nagasaki by regular routes through the Provinces of 
Harima, Bizen, Bitchu, Mimasaka, Bingo, Aki, Suvvo, Nagato, Buzen, 
Chikozen, and Hizen, and back. 

No. 12. By regular routes to the Provinces of Harima, Bizen, Sanuki, 
Awa, Kishu, Izumi, and the Island of Awaji aud back. 


No. 13. By regular routes through the Provinces of Hizen, Chikugo, 
Higo, Satsuma, Osumi, Hyuga, Bungo, Buzen, Chikuzen and back. 

No. 14. To the Goto Islands and back. 

No. 15. To Shimonoseki by sea ; thence to Kobe by regular routes 
through the Provinces of Nagato, Suwo, Aki, Bingo, Bitchu, Mimasaka, 
Bisen, Harima, arid back. 

• Officialdom has vouchsafed no definition of thia mystic term ; but in practice 
the regular roads meau all or any roads. 




Routes 2 — 24. 


r«u-Muiij]4 tbiUhonk 

Handbook for Travellers 





Tokohamaf the place where most 
Tisitors first touch Japanese soil, is 
the largest of the Treaty Ports and 
pnctically the port of Tokyo. The 
kndiog place (fiatoba) and the 
eostom-house (zH-kwan) are with- 
fai 5 min. drive of the Hotels and 
within 10 min. of the Hallway 

fibteZs.— Grand Hotel, No. 20; 
Glab Hotel, No. 5-b, both on the 
Bund, facing the sea; Oriental 
Hotel, No. 87, Main Street. 

Restaurants. — (European food) 
Kissei-ro, in Ota-machi, Go-chome ; 
Edoko, in MinamlNaka-dori. (Japa- 
neaefood) Sanomo, in Ota-machi; 
Fukki-ro, near the Railway Station. 

Japanese Inns. — Fokni, in Ben- 
ken-ddri ; Takano-ya, in Honcho- 

Banks. — Hongkong and Shanghai 
Bank» No. 3; Chartered Bank of 
India, Australia, and China, No. 78 ; 
Katianal Bank of China, No. 61. 
AIbo Agencies of the Chartered Mer- 
cantile Bank, and of the Bank of 
China, Japan and the Straits. 

CofMtf/o^,— Britisb, No. 173; 

American, No. 234 ; French, No. 
84 ; German, No. 81. 

Post and Telegraph Office.— This, 
together with the Telephoyie Ex- 
cJiange^ the Custom-House and the 
Prefecture (Ke7ichd\ stands near the 
British and American Consulates, 
on the space between the Foreign 
Settlement and the Japanese town. 
Steoim Communication. — Japan 
Mail Steamship Company (Nippon 
Yusem Kwaisha, close to the Kail- 
way Station ; Peninsular and Orien- 
tal, No. 15 ; Messagerics Maritimes, 
No. 9 ; Norddeutscher Lloyd, No. 
29; Pacific Mail, Occidental and 
Oriental, No. 4-a ; Canadian Pacific, 
No. 200 ; Northern Pacific, and the 
I *» Shire " line, (Dodwell, Carhll 
and Co.), No. 60. B ; »« Glen " line, 
Jardine, Matheson & Co.," No. 1 ; 
" Ben " line, Comes & Co. No. 60 ; 
Holt's line, Butterfield and Swire 
■ No. 7. 

! Churches. — Christ Church (An- 

' glican), No. 105 ; Union Church 

I (Protestant), No. 167 ; Methodist, 

No. 221 ; Roman Catholic, No. 80. 

Clubs* — Yokohama United Club, 

No. 6-A. Club Germania, No. 235. 

Masonic Temple, No. 61. Chess 

Club, No. 86. 


Route I. — Yokohama, 

Photographs of Japanese Scenery 
^nd Costumes.— FB,rs8xi & Co., No. 
16 ; Kimbei, in Honcho-dori ; Tama- 
mura, in Benten-dori ; Suzuki, near 
the Cricket Ground. 

Books and Maps relating to Japan. 
—Kelly and Walsh, No. 61 ; Good- 
enough & Co., No. 66 ; Farsari, No. 

Foreign Stores for Japanese Works 
of Art. — Deakin Brothers & Co., 
opposite the Grand Hotel, and No. 
88 ; Kubn, No. 67 ; Arthur A Bond's 
Fine Art Gallery, No. 12. 

Ja^nese Curio Dealers. — Minoda 
Chojiro, in Honcho-dori, fine lac- 
quer, enamels, and ivories ; Inoue, 
44, Honcho-dori, screens, embroid- 
eries, etc. ; Iklusashi-ya, in Honcho- 
dori, jewellery, ivories, silver-ware, 
etc. ; Nagasaki-ya, in Honcho-dori, 
jewellery, metal-work, ivories, etc. ; 
Matsuishi-ya, in Honcho - dori, 
porcelain in European shapes; 
Tashiro-ya, in Benten-dori, porce- 
lain ; Watano, in Honcho-dori, 
porcelain ; Kosaka, 26, Benten-dori, 
paper fans ; Shamokame, 16, Hon- 
cho-dori, embroidery, porcelain, and 
enamels; Fine Art Exhibition, in 

Silk Store*.— Shobei, Shieno, both 
in Honcho-dori; Noboru-ya Saku- 
bei, in Benten-dori ; also, for cheaper 
articles, Yamaguchi in Ota-machi; 
Matsura, 62, Benten - dori ; Tanabe, 
Honcho-dori; and Tsuruya, Ishi- 

Embroideries^ Silk and Cotton 
Crapes^ Japanese Cottons^ etc. — No- 
zawa-ya, 30, Benten-dori, Ni-chome ; 
Yamagata-ya, opposite Nozawa-ya. 

Japanese Note-paper. — Tanikawa, 
in Minami Naka-dori Itchome. 

ToySy etc, — Nagai, in Honcho-dori. 

Bamboo and Bead Blinds^ Cabi- 
nets, etc. — Moriyasu, 62, Benten-dori 

Florists.— Bodhmer & Co., 4, 6, and 
28, Bluff. Gardeners' Association, 
21, Nakamura Bluff. 

Japanese Theatres, ete.— Tsuta-za, 
in Isezaki-cho; Minato-za, in Smni- 
yoshi-cho, where there is also 
generally a sort of fair. 

Public Garden and Criekst 
Ground. — At the back of the Settle- 
ment, behind the American Consa- 
late ; Bluff Gardens, No. 230. 

Newspapers. — "Japan Daily Ad- 
vertiser," *' Japan Gazette," "Japan 
Herald," "Japan MaU," daily; 
" Box of Curios," " Eastern World,** 

History.— Yokohama owes its 
mercial importance to the foreifrnera who 
have settled there. It was an inaignificani 
fishing villaKe when Commodore Perry 
anchored oft it in 1854, and gave American 
names to several points in the neighbcmr- 
hood. When it was agreed to open a 
Treaty Port in this part of Jaoan« the 
choice natnrally fell, not on Tokohama, 
bnt on the thriving town of Kanagawa* 
on the opposite side of tbe small bay, now 
partially filled in. Bat the Japaaeae 
Grovemment, finding Kanngawa inooo- 
venient because of its situation on tbe 
TdkaidA, at a time when collisions b^ 
tween foreigners and tbe armed retainera 
of the Daimyfle passing to and from the 
capital were to be apprehended, gave 
facilities for leasing gronnd at Yokohama 
instead. Thither accordingly the mer- 
chants, anxious to open up trade, repaired 
in 18ft9. The consuls protested against 
th« change ; but the only lasting result of 
their protest is the retention of the name 
Kanagawa in certain (^cial documents. 
The superiority of the Tokohama an- 
chorage doubtless reconciled thefbroigA 
community to the inferior position of too 
place on a mud flat facing North. The 
greater portion of the Settlement, as it 
now exists, dates from after the fire of 
1866; and the Bluff, on which most of 
the well-to-do residents have their dwell- 
ings was first lessed for building purposes 
in 1867. A large and rapidly growing 
native town has sprung up outside the 
foreign Settlement. The government of 
the Settlement, at one time in the hands 
of a mixed foreign municipality, is at 
present administered by the Prafect of 
Kanagawa. The last of the English 
soldiers, by whom foreign life and 

Sroperty were at one time protected, left 
apan in March, 1875. Waterworts 
opened in 1887 supply Tokohama from 
the Sagami-gawa, S8 m. distant. Har- 
bour-works are sUU in progress.— On the 
81st December, 1S92, the foreign popula- 
tion of Yokohama, exclusive of Cnineee^ 
amounted to 1»588, of whom 768 British. 

It should be explained that al- 
though the streets have names, 
these are comparatively little used, 
as the numbering of the whole 
Settlement it eonnxiDKras, ineapeo- 

Route 2. — Excumom from Yokohama, 


Uve of street names. A similar 
remark applies to the Bluff. 

Though Yokohama boasts but few 
sights properly so called, the curio- 
hunter will here find himself in his 
element ; and to one newly landed 
the native town, with its street- 
stalls, its theatrical and other 
shows, will afford an interesting 
spectacle. A visit should be paid 
to Noge-yaTna, close behind the 
Railway Station, for the sake of the 
general view of the town and har- 
bour. Here stand some smaJl, but 
nular and representative, shrines 
icated to the Shinto god of 
Akiha, to Doryd, a Buddhist saint, 
to Fud5, the great Buddhist god 
whose chief shrine is at Narita (see 
Route 17), and to the Sun Goddess 
of Ise (see Route 32). This last, 
which crowns the hill, is generally 
knoiKii as Daijingu. Festivals are 
are held at Noge-yama on the 1st, 
15th, and 28th of every month. 
The temple of Zotoku-in^ dedicated 
to Yaknshi Nyorai and situated 
close to the Grand Hotel, celebrates 
its festivals on the 8th and 12th of 
the month. 

Yokohama possesses a Public 
Hall, where theatrical and other 
entertainments are given, and a 
Race Course. 

Race meetings, often attended by 
His Majesty the Mikado, are held 
in spring and autumn. The race- 
course overlooks Mississippi Bay, 
which affords a charming objective 
point for a drive. Indeed, the whole 
neighbourhood abounds in beautiful 


ExcuBSiONS PROM Yokohama. 


{All these excursions may he made 
toithout pa^ports, except No. 11.) 

1. — Kamakura is reached from 
Yokohama in 50 min. by the Tokaido 
Railway, changing carriages at 
Of una Junction. This branch line 
continues on to Dzushi and Yoko- 
suka, being altoge^er 21^ miles in 

Kamnknra, once the populous 
capital of Eastern Japan, has now 
shrunk into a quiet sea-side village 
which is a favourite resort of the 
Yokohama residents. The Kaihin- 
in Hotel, or Marine Sanatorium 
(foreign style), situated under a pine- 
grovo near that portion of the shore 
known as Yui-ga-hamat is J hr. 
by jinrikisha from the Station. 
The Japanese tnn, Mitsuhashi, may 
also be recommended. Both provide 
hot and cold salt-water baths. 

Kamakura was the seat of govern- 
mout in Eastern Japan from the end of 
the l2th to the middle of the 15th centmy. 
Yoritomo, who established the Shiiguuaie 
in 1102, chose this place H8 his capital, and 
here was laid the foundation of the feudal 
system of government which prevailed up 
to the year 1868. The city of Kamakura, 
in the time of Yoritumo's immediate 
successors, extended all over the plain 
and into the recesses of the different 
jfatmt^ or dells, which branch off from it 
among the hils. Its population is believed 
to have exceeded one million in the days 
of its glory. Kamakura was the scene of 
innnmerable contests between rival mili- 
tary factions, and of many bloody deeds. 
Here, uix the sea-shore, were beheaded 
the Mongol ambassadors of Kublai Khan, 
{Jap. Kq;>-pit8u-ret8u), who had impe- 
riously sent to demana the submission of 
Japan to his sway. The city was repeat- 


Ecute 2,^ExcufWfUfrom Yokohma. 

edly mcked nnd laid in aalies, and seems 
never to have fully recovered from the 
disasters of the year 14'S6. The nei^hbour- 
iUjET city of Odawara, which next rose into 
importauco as the seat of the powerful 
H6j6 family, attracted to itself large 
numbers of the inhabitants of Kamakura, 
the ruin of which town was completed by 
the founding of Yedo in A.D. 1608. 

The chief siglits of Kamakura are 
the Temple of Hachiman, the Dai- 
butsu or colossal bronze Buddha, 
and the great image of the goddess 
Kwanuon. They all lie within a 
mile of the hotel. 

The Temple of Hachiman^ the 
God of War, dating from the end 
of the 12th century, stands in a 
commanding position on a hill call- 
ed Tsuru-ga-oka, and is approached 
by a stately avenue of pine-trees 
leading up the whole way from the 
sea-shore. Though both avenue and 
temple have suffered from the rav- 
ages of time, enough still remains 
to remind one of the ancient glories 
of the place. Three stone torii lead 
up to the temple, which stands at 
the head of a broad flight of stone 
steps. Notice the magnificent icho 
tree, nearly 20 ft. in circumference 
and said to bo over a thousand 
years old, and the flowering trees 
scattered about the grounds. 

Before ascending the flight of 
steps, the minor shrines to the r. 
deserve passing notice. The nearer 
one, painted red and called Waka- 
miyay is dedicated to the Emperor 
Niutoku, son of the God of War. 
The further one, renovated in 1890, 
is called Shirahata Jinja and dedi- 
cated to Yoritomo. The style and 
structure are somewhat unusual, 
black and gold being the only 
colours employed, and iron being 
the material of the four main pillars. 
The interior holds a small wooden 
imago of Yoritomo. 

A side path leads up hence to the 
main temple, which is enclosed in a 
square colonnade painted red. The 
temple, which was re-erocted in 
1828 after having been destroyed by 
fire seven years previously, is in the 
Bydbu Shinto style, With red pillars. 

beams, and rafters, and is decorated 
with small painted carvings chiefly 
of birds and animals. In the colon- 
nade are several religious palanquins 
(mikoshi) used on the occasion of 
the semi-annual festivals (15th April 
and 15th September), a wooden 
image of Sumiyoshi by Unkei, and 
a few relics of Yoritomo. Most of 
the relics once preserved in the 
temple have been removed to the 
residence of the Chief Priest {Eako- 
zdki Oyatsu-kwan\ and are only 
exhibited at festival time. 

Immediately behind the temple 
of Hachiman, is a small hill called 
Shirahata-yamat whence Yoritomo 
is said to have often admired the 
prospect. The base of the hill is 
enclosed and laid out as a garden. 

The Daibiitsn, or Great Buddha^ 
stands alone among Japanese works 
of art. No other gives such an im- 
pression of majesty, or so truly sym- 
bolises the central idea of Bud- 
dhism — the intellectual calm which 
comes of perfected knowledge and 
the subjugation of all passion. But 
to be fully appreciated, the Dai- 
butsu must be visited many times. 

There had been a temple in this place 
since the 8th century, but the ima^re is of 
much later date. Its precise history is 
involved in obscurity. Tradition, how- 
ever, says that Yoritomo, when takinnf 
part in the dedication of the Daibntsn at 
Nam, conceived the desire of having % 
similar object of worship at his own 
capital, but died beforf he could put the 
plan into execution. One of the ladies of 
his court undertook to collect funds for the 
purpose, and in the year I2r>2 the Kama- 
kura Daibutsu was cast by Ono Gorfiemon. 
History tells of two such imapres. The 
first, a wooden one, was desipned by a 
priest, who collected money far and wide 
amonj!st all classes, and in I2.S8 the head 
of the imaffo, SO ft. in circumference, was 
in its place, while the temple in which it 
stood was completed in 1241 and dedicated 
in 1243. This image is said to have 
represented Amida, and to have been 
destroyed by a tempest. The second is 
spoken of as a prilt bronze image of Shaks, 
and the casting is believed to have been 
begun in 1252. The present one repre- 
sents Amida, and notwithstanding the 
difference of name, is probably the bronxe 
image referred to above as dating from 
1262. It was enclosed in a large building 
60 yds. square, wboee roof was snpparted 



on sixtT-three miissiTe wooden piBan. 
Many of the stone bases on which they 
rested axe still in titu. The templehuild- 
in^ wcT© twice destroyed by tidal waves, 
in 1389 and 1494, after which they were 
not rebuilt. Since that time the image 
has remained exposed to the elements. 

The Daibutsu is best seen from 
aboat half-way up the approach. 
Its dimensioDs are approximately 
as follows : — 

n. i!f. 

Height 49 7 

Circumference 97 2 

Length of face 8 5 

Width from ear to ear .... 17 9 
Bound white boss on fore- 
head 1 8 

Length of eye 3 11 

„ of eyebrow 4 2 

„ of ear 6 6 

„ of nose 8 9 

Width of mouth 8 2 

Height of bump of wisdom 9 

Diameter of bump of wisdom 2 4 
Cuds (of which there are 

880): Height 9 

„ Ihametor 1 

Length from knee to knee 85 8 
Circuniference of thumb . . 8 

The eyes are of pure gold, and 
the silver boss weighs 80 lbs. 
aToirdupois. The imekge is formed 
of sheets of bronze oast separately, 
brazed together, and finished off on 
the outside with the chisel. The 
hollow interior of the image 
contains a small shrine, and a ladder 
leads up into the head. 

The Temple of Kwannon^ known 
as Hcise no Kvoannon^ stands not far 
from the Daibutsu on an eminence 
oommanding a beautiful view of the 
sea-shore towards Misaki, and over 
the plain of Kamakura. The great 
image of the Goddess of Mercy, for 
which this temple is celebrated, 
stands behind folding-doors which 
a small fee to the attendant priest 
will suffice to open ; but the figure 
can only be indistinctly seen by the 
dim light of a few candles. It is of 
brown lacquer gilded over, and its 
height is 30 ft. 5i in. The ad- 
mirable bronze seated figure of 
Dainiohi Nyorai on the 1. was pre* 

sented by the Shognn Ashikaga 
Yoshimasa (b. 1486, d. 1490). 

Close to this temple is a bold olilf 
called Ina/niur<k-ga'SdkL 

In 1333, when the city of Eiunaknra 
was attacked by the partisans of the 
BmpCTor Go-Daii|;!0, part of the force led 
by Nitta Yoshi^da advanced lUongtbe 
strand from the W. of this hill, but were 
nnable to pass under the cliff owing to 
ehevanx-d^jrige beiDK placed against it 
down to the waters edge, while their 
passage in boat» was prevented by a long 
row of war- junks lying some 500 or ^ 
yards off the shore. Yoshisada therefore 
climbed the cliff, Hud after praying to the 
Sea-God, flung his sword into the sea, 
whereupon the tide miraculously re- 
treated, leaving a space a mile and a 
half wide at the foot of the cliff, along 
which he marched his army into Kama- 

Lovers of early sculpture and 
of Japanese historical and anti- 
quarian lore, will find scattered over 
Kamakura many minor temples and 
other objects to arrest their attention. 
Amongst these the following may 
be enumerated : — 

Ennojit small and dilapidated, but 
containing the celebrated image of 
Emma-0, Regent of Hell, called 
Arai-no-Emma, and carved by Un- 

Legend says that Unkei, having died, 
appeared in due course before this r©- 
donbtaUe deity, who thus accosted him : 
*• Thou hast carved many images of me, 
but never a true one. Now that thou hast 
seen my face, return to earth and show roe 
as I am." So Unkei, coming to life again, 
carved this image, which is, therefore, 
said to be Unkei Yomiji-gneri no mkUft^MX 
is, "the work of Unkei redivivus." 

The image is only shown on 
application to the custodian. Other 
large images line the walls, one of 
Sh6zuka-no-Baba(see p. 48), also by 
Unkei, being specially powerful. 

Kenchoji is situated in beautiful 
but now mostly deserted grounds, 
amidst magnificent trees, of which 
the rugged byakushm (Juniperus 
chinensis) is the most prominent 
species, and a favourite material 
with the carvers of Buddhist images. 
The Sammon is a grand structure. 
The main temple contains a large 
imago of Jiso, «ikl four hvndiM 


EouU 2. — Exournoru from Yokohama. 

amall gilt ones of the same divinity 
carved by Eshin. 

A very popular little shrine was 
erected in 1890 on Shojoken^ the 
hill behind Kenohdji, and attracts 
such crowds of pilgrims that a 
special train is run on the 17th day 
o{ the month for their benefit. The 
shrine is dedicated to a goblin 
called Hamdbof to whom enormous 
quantities of small paper flags are 
offered up. These line both sides 
of the pathway that leads up the 
hill for a distance of 5 chd. A tea- 
house near the shrine commands a 
splendid view of Fuji and the sea. 
The Oku-nO'in at the very top 
overlooks a mskze of small hills and 
valleys in the direction of Yoko- 

The ancient Temple of Kokuonjif 
contains images of the Ju-ni-ten 
nearly life-size, and venr large ones 
of Yakushi Nyorai, Nikxd Bosatsu, 
and Gwakkd Bosatsu, all attributed 
to the chisel of Unkei. 

The TotTtb of Yoritomo is a modest 
little monument covered with 

The Kamakura-no-Miya was 
erected in 1869 in honour of a son 
of the Emperor Qo-Daigo, called 
Oto-no-Miya, who, having failed in 
his attempt to overthrow the feudal 
government, was captured, confined 
in a cave, and finally assassinated 
A.D. 1335. The temple, which is 
in pure Shinto style, stands direct- 
ly in front of the cave. 

Enkdkuji possesses the largest 
bell in Kamakura. This bell, dat- 
ing from A.D. 1201, is 6 in. thick, 
4 ft. 7 in. in diameter, and about 
8 ft. high. 

Mydhonji, Kdmyqjit Eishdji, and 
Ju-roku-idOt or the Sixteen Pools, in 
which, according to an apocryphal 
tradition, Kobo Daishi performed 
his ablutions, are also noted. 

2.— Emoshiha. 

This most picturesque spot, 
though called an island, is more 
a peninsula; for only at 
tide is it jrarrounded by the 

sea. The prettiest way there leads 
by the road called Shichi-ri-ga- 
hama* skirting the beach from 
Kamakura, and through the vilL 
of Katase. The distance from Kama- 
kura is 4 m. 

Half-way is the TnJciai-gaim, which, 
thoasrh bat an inHlfi^ilicant streamlet, io 
worthy of mention on acoount of the 
followinjf incident :— 

Whei>rNichiren was miraculously deliv- 
ered from the hands of the executioner 
at the neiffhbourinif villas of Koshi^roe, 
a messenger was at once despatched to 
Kamakura to ask for further orders, 
while at the same moment a reprieve 
was sent from the palace of the Regtjnt 
Tokiyori. The two messengers hap]jen- 
ed to meet at this stream, whence the 
name of Yukiai-yawa, which means "the 
River of MeetiDg.** A stone now marks 
the spot. 

Jinrikishas can be taken as far as 

The heroYoshitsune alighted at the small 
monastery of Mammtkuji in this village, 
when his brother Yoritomo, jealous of his 
exploits and popularity, denied him en- 
trance into the city of Kamakura. The 
priests still show tne draft of the letter 
sent by Yoshitsune. denying the intrigues 
imputed to him and protecting in vain his 
loyalty. The handwriting is said to be 
thst of his faithful henchman, Benkei. 

whence it is a short walk across the 
neck of sand joining Enoshima to 
the mainland. 

A more direct way of approach- 
ing Enoshima is irom Fujisawa 
station on the Tokaido Railway, 
whence it is 1 ri by jinrikisha. 
Residents of Yokohama often go 
by boat down the river, which is 
crossed some 6 chd from the station. 
The road from Fujisawa branches 
off r. to Enoshima dose to the vill. 
of Katase^ at the entrance of 
which stands the temple of Rytk- 
kdjiy founded after Nichiren's 
death by six of his disciples, and 
built on the spot where his execu- 
tion was to have taken place. It 
possesses a number of fine wood- 

Enoshima, being a popular holi- 
day resort, is full of excellent inns. 
The best are the Iwamoto-in and 

• Literally, the "seven ri shore,** the 
ri in early times in Eastern Japan having 
consisted of only ekd. 

Enoshima. DzuM. Kanazawa. 


Bbisa-ja in the Till., and the Kin- 
ki-rd higher up. There- is fair sea- 
baihing^ The shops of Enoshima 
ace full of shells, corals, and marine 
curiosities generally, many of which 
are brought from other parts of the 
coast for sale. The beautiful glass 
tope sponge (Hyalonema sieboldi), 
celled ho9ugai by the Japanese, is 
said to be gathered from a reef deep 
below the surface of the sea not far 
fcooi the island of Oshima, whose 
smoking top is visible to the S. on 
a clear day. 

From the earliest ages the island 
was sacred to Benten, the Buddhist 
Goddess of Luck. 

Before the existence of EnoahiniA, so 
Miys the ancient l»^nd, the site of the 
present cave was the abode of a dragon, 
which need to devour the children of the 
villBge of Koehigoe. In the 6th cen- 
toiy, on the occasion of a violent earth- 
q[ttike, the goddess Benten appeared 
fak the clouds over the spot inhabited by 
that xiM>nAter, and the island of Enoshima 
•oddenlj rising from the waters, she 
desoeuded to it, married the dragon, and 
poian end to his ravages. 

This cult has now been exchanged 
for that of three Shinto goddesses, 
to whom several of the temples 
have been re-dedicated. But the 
qK>t considered most sacred of all 
Is the large cave on the far side 
of the island. It is 124 yds. in 
depth, the height at the entrance 
bang at least 80 ft., but diminish- 
ing gradually towards the interior. 
The rooks near the cave are 
frequented l^ divers, who for a 
firw cents bring up shell-fish from 
the deep, which, however, they may 
be suspected of having previously 
coooealed about their persons. 

Ten chd from Enoshima and 28 
eh5 from Fujisawa station, is the 
•ea-bathing resort of Kugenuma 
{fntij Kosho-kwan). 


Btoshi, on the railway, 2} miles 
to the S. E. of Kamakura, is the 
■tation for Uoriiiclii. 1^ m. dis- 
tant, which has lately risen Into 
favour as a sea-side resort, some of 
the wealthier residrats of Tokyo 

and Yokohama having built villas 
there. A carriage road connects 
Dsushi and Horiuchi, which latter 
place commands a lovely view, — 
Fuji, which rises straight from the 
waters of Odawara Bay, forming the 
central feature of the scene. The 
Hikage-nO'Chaya inn at Horiuchi 
is apt to be noisy. Nearer the station, 
across a ferry, may be found a quieter 
inn, known as the Onsen, with 
better bathing. Half a mile beyond 
the Hikage-no-Ghaya stretches the 
pretty wooded promontory of Morita 
My6jin\ and the walk for 2 m. further 
along the coast to a point called 
Chdja-Baki, where there is a good 
inn and capital bathing, can be re- 

4.— Kanazawa. [^Iine.] 

Jinrikishas may be taken the 
whole way ; two men required. 
The total distance is 4 ri 30 chd 
(llf m.), the road being flat for 
the first 6 m., as far as the hamlet 
of SeH {InUt Ishikawa-ya), and 
after that, very hiUy. 

[At the hamlet of Tanaka, 10 
ch6 beyond Seki, a road prac- 
ticable most of the way for 
jinrikishas, turns off r. to a 
hill called M1ne« which com- 
mands a wonderfully extensive 
view. The fmest prospect is 
towards the N., looking down 
on the multitude of furrowed 
ridges that stretch away to the 
mountains of Kotsuke. To the 
W., the sea is visible near Hira- 
tsuka and Oiso on the Tokaido ; 
beyond it is Fuji, with the 
Oyama and Hakone ranges. 
The distance from Tanaka to 
Mine is 28 chd, say 2 m.] 

On reaching the crest of the 
ridge, the wondrous beauty which 
has led the foreign residents to be- 
stow on this neighbourhood the 
name of the Plnins of Henyen* 
suddenly reveals itself. A scene of 
perfect loveliness may be enjoyed 
from a wayside tea-house called 
Ndkendd, which nestles under a 

Route 2. — ExcM-dom from Yokohama. 

pine-tree known as the Fude-sute- 
matsu, because a Japanese artist of 
olden times here nung away his 
pencil iu despair. At the spectator's 
feet is a wide, cultivated valley, 
bordered by pine-clad hills and 
opeuiug out to the shores of an 
inlet, whose still waters are partly 
hemmed in by small peninsulas 
and islets, with 'to the 1. the pro- 
montory of Kwannon-saki, and on 
the opposite side of Tokyo Bay the 
long crost of Nokogiri-yama. TJie 
most conspicuous of the islands are 
Natsushima (Webster Island), with 
Sarusbima (Perry Island) beyond 
it, and Eboshi-jima which is much 
smaller and recognisable by its 
triangular shape. But a mere cata- 
logue of names can avail nothing 
towards conv(!yiug an idea of the 
peculiar magic of a scene which 
might be the original that inspired 
the Japanese landscape-painter's 

KannzawA {Innsj Chiyo-moto, 
Azuma-ya), on the shores of the 
Mutsura Inlet, is chiefly noted for 
its Hakkeiy a characteristically 
Japanese view from a small height 
just outside the village. Close to 
the ferry at Nojinui (inn^ Nishino- 
ya), is a celebrated peony garden, 
which attracts many "visitors from 
Tokyo during the season of flowering. 
Some of the plants are said to be over 
800 years old. — Kanazawa may also 
be reached by the coast road vi& 
Tomioka on foot in 3 hrs. The way 
back to Yokohama can be pleasant- 
ly varied by taking the jinrikisha 
road across the neck of the little 
peninsula of Misaki to Dzushi 
station on the Yokosuka branch of 
the Tokaido Railway, a distance of 
^ ri (6 m.). 

This trip may advantageously be 
combined with a visit to Kamakura, 
the station beyond Dzushi, or to 
Yokosuka, vi& Will Adams' tomb. 
The wliole neighbourhood offers 
delightful walks, as paths leading to 
the top of every hiU command ex- 
quisite views. 


It is a very pleasant walk or 
jinrikisha ride of about 2 fi 
from Yokohama to Snsrita (Inns, 
Azuma-ya and others), famous for 
its plum-blossoms; and 1 ri far- 
ther on to Tomiokn {Inns^ Kimpa- 
ro, Kaihin-r5), a favourite resort 
of the Yokohama residents, on ac- 
count of the good sea-bathing 
in Mississippi Bay. Tomioka may 
also be esisily reached by boat from 
tJu Cutting at the back of the Settle- 
ment in about 40 min., the distance 
from the Settlement to the point 
where the boat is taken being ap- 
proximately 1 ri. 

A favourite afternoon's walk is to 
MAcpherson*sHill {Mori-tsuka), on 
the way to Sugita. This hill com- 
mands a flne view of Mississippi 
Bay and of the country towards 

6. — Yokosuka, Ubaoa, and 

Yokosuka is the terminus of the 
Ofuna branch line, and is reached 
from Yokohama in I( hr. Steamers 
also ply between Yokohama and 
Yokosuka. The little line of railway 
passes through characteristically 
Japanese scenery — wooded hili 
rising up abruptly from valleys laid 
out in rice-fields, with here and 
there a cottage or a tiny shrine 
half-hidden iu a rustic bower. The 
train darts in and out of short 
tunnels under some of these hills 
before reaching the sea-shore at 

Yokosuka (Inriy Mitomi-ya ; jPot- 
cign restaurant^ Kaiy5-ken). which 
but a few years ago was a poor 
village, is rapidly growing in im- 
portance, on account of the Govern- 
ment Dockyard established there. 
Foreigners may sometimes obtain 
admittance by presenting their cards 
at the gate ; but it is safer to 
provide oneself with an introduction 
from the naval authorities. The 
town is prettily situated on a land- 
looked bay. Its chief interest for 
Englishmen lies in the fact that 

Yokostika, Uraga. 


here IWed and died Will Adams, 
the first Englishman that ever 
landed on the shores of Japan. 

WiU AdamB, a native of OiUingham in 
Kent, was chief pilot to a fleet of Dutch 
•hips which reached the southern coast 
4if Japan on the 19th April, A.D. 1600. 
SKMi^ht as a prisoner into the presence 
of leyasa, Adams soon won the favour 
of that astute ruler, who employed him 
bach as a shipbuilder and as a kind of 
diplomatic agent when other English and 
Dutch traders began to arrive. Adams* 
ooQStantly reiterated desire to behold his 
native land again and the wife and child- 
ren whom he had left behind, was to the 
last frustrated by adverse circumstances. 
Be consoled himself by taking another 
wife, a Japanese, with whom ho lived 
until his death in 1620 at Hemi, a suburb 
rf Yokosnka, where the railway station 
now stands. 

His grave and that of his Japa- 
nese wife are situated on the top of 
a hill, ^ hr. walk from the railway 
station. The Japanese call the 
place Anjin-zukay from anjin which 
means ** pilot/' that having heen 
the appellation by which Adams 
was commonly known. The tombs 
are of stone in the ordinary Japa- 
nese style. Will Adams' monument 
is without an inscription, while that 
of his wife bears the posthumous 
title which every good Buddhist 
receives from the priests of the 
parish temple. Not only is the 
situation of the graves most pictur- 
esque, but the eminence on which 
they stand affords a lovely view of 
land and sea. 

On Azuma-yama^ a high wooded 
eminence ^ hr. from Yokosuka by 
boat, stands a small phallic shrine 
now much decayed. 

Very little is known as to the origin of 
phallic worship in Japan, although this 

r'mitive cult appears to Wve been near- 
universal in the rural districts till 
within quite recent times, when it fell 
suddenly into disfavour through con- 
tact with European ideas. Only one point 
can positively be asserted, namely, that 
its connection is not with Buddhism, but 
with Sbintd. The emblems reverenced 
are aflmetimes natural rocks, as at Nachi 
in KishA, at Necu Dain^djin in the dis- 
trict of Ogata in Shinshfl, and at Inujima 
in Bisen. Hare often they are artificial. 

The S. side of Azuma-yama has 
cut through to afford a short 

water passage from Yokosuka to the 
Torpedo Station of Nagaura. 

Another vantage-point just out- 
side the opposite or E. end of Yoko- 
suka, is Kome-no-yama^ a cliff on 
which stands a temple of the Nichi- 
ren sect, called Byuhonji^ possessing 
some good carvings. The level 
stretches at the foot of the cliffs 
have recently been reclaimed from 
the sea. 

The distance from Yokosuka to 
Uraga is 1 ri 82 chd (4^ m.) 
along an excellent road. A little 
more than _ half-way lies the 
hamlet of Otst^ where there is 
excellent Japanese accommodation 
at the Otsu-kwan, with a good 
beach for bathing. 

Urogra {Inn^ Yoshikawa) is built 
on both sides of a very narrow fiord- 
like harbour, and the two divisions 
thus formed are called respectively 
Higashi- Uraga and NishU Uraga^ 
i.e., East and West Uraga. They are 
connected by a bridge and a ferry. 

In former times all Junks entering the 
Bay of Yedo were stopped at Uraga far 
inspection, and it was here that Ck)m- 
moaore Perry anchored on the 8th July, 
1868, bearing with him the letter of Pre- 
sident Fillmore to the Sbdgun, the result 
of which was to open Japan to foreign in- 

Uraga is noted for its manufac- 
ture of viizu-ame, a sweet and 
wholesome preparation from sake- 
malt, somewhat resembling honey 
in ta^te. It is worth while devot- 
ing J hr. to the climb up Aiago- 
yama^ a hill at the back of Nidbi- 
Uraga, close to the Yoshikawa inn, 
commanding a fine view of the 
town and harbour. The hills be- 
yond the sea to the E. are the 
Boshil range. 

Uraga is in daily steam com- 
munication with T5ky5. The 
steamers touch at Eachiyama, 
Tateyama, and other ports on the 
Bdshfl side. The passage to T5ky5 
occupies about 4 hours. 

It is a walk or jinrikisha ride 
of 4 ri 3 c^ (10 m.) to Misaki, 
first along the sands, and then over 
a cultiyated upland commanding a 


Eoute 2. — Eaeuniomfivm Yokohama. 

fine view of Fuji, the Hakone «Dd 
Oyama ranges, and the opposite 
shores of Tokyo Bay. 

Misaki (Inns, Kinokoni-ya, Ao- 
yagi) has a Marine Biological 
Laboratory (Misaki Rinkai Jik- 
ken-jd), connected with the Science 
College of the Imperial University. 
The marine fauna of this district 
being particularly rich in rare 
forms, dredging has produced re- 
sults highly interesting to the 
zoologist. A lighthouse stands on 
the island of Jdgashima, 15 chd 
from the mainland, with which it 
is connected by ferry. 

One may complete the tour of 
the Sagami Peninsula, at the ex- 
tremity of which Misaki stands, by 
a pleasant walk of about 7 ri (17 m.) 
along the coast to Dzushi. 


This temple of the Nichiren sect, 
about ) hr. walk from the Kana- 
gawa station, is a favourite resort 
of picnic parties from Yokohama. 
From the top of the hill there is a 
fine view towards Fuji and Oyama. 
On the way there, the (clearly 
apocryphal) grave of Urashima, the 
Japanese Bip Van Winkle is pass- 
ed (see p. 65). 

8.— The Caves op Totsuza. 
(Taya no Ana.) 
Though known to foreigners as 
the Cares of Totsnka, these caves 
are really nearer to Ofuna, the 
next station beyond Totsuka on the 
Tokaido Railway, 40 min. run from 
Yokohama. They lie at a distance of 
12 or 15 chd from Ofuna station, but 
nearly 1^ ri from Totsuka station. 
Whichever station one decides to 
alight at, the trip on to the caves 
can be done by jinrikisha, and lies 
through pretty scenery. The caves 
are well worth a visit ; but as they 
are apt to be wet, it is advisable to 
wear old clothes for the occasion. 
The best time to choose is the 
sprinff, as the cherry-trees too will 
ihenbeseentoadTaatage. Gaudies 

are provided at a house near thm 
entrance. A local guide will point 
out the Buddhist carvings with 
which the walls and ceilings are 

Theee caves, with their carvings, are a 
mcmnment of modem BoddhiBt piety. 
Bxisting in embiyo since thfi Middle Agee 
(tradition aeserta them to have been em> 
ployed for the concealment both of troops 
and of treaanre in the 14th century), they 
have only been excavated to their preaent 
extent by an old man atill living — one 
Satd Shichisaemon, also known aa Kino- 
ae-no*Inkyo— whoee family have for 
fleneratiana been rich peaaante in this 
locality. In the year 1861, thia man was 
orged in a dretun to devote his life to 
making these caves into an imperishable 
ahrine to varioas Baddhist divinities, and 
especially to the goddess Ben ten. This 
he accordingly did and still continues to 
do, employing his own money for the 
enterprise and local talent for the 

Among the subjects pourtrayed 
may be distinguished angels, dra- 
gons, lions, birds both natural and 
mythical, the Twelve Signs of the 
Zodiac, the Eighteen Rakan, the 
Thirty-Three Kwannon of the dis- 
trict of Ghichibu, and other Bud- 
dhas innumerable. To explore the 
caves properly takes about 1 hr. 
The rock being quite soft, it may be 
feared that this strange monument 
will not prove as lasting as old Mr. 
Sato piously anticipates. 

9.— Otama. 

This celebrated mountain, 4,150 
ft. high, is most easily reached 
from Yokohama by alighting at 
Hiratsuka station on the Tokaido 
Eailwav, a run of a little over 1 hr.; 
thenoe by jinrikisha to the vill. of 
Oyama on the lower slope, 8^ ri 
(9^m.) distant. It is a favourite 
g(^ of pilgrims, who continue to be 
attracted to its shrine, although the 
old Buddhist objects of worship 
have here, as in so many other 
parts of the country, been repleiced 
by comparatively obscure Shinta 

Indeed, according to Satow, it is un- 
certain who these gods are ; but the beat 
authority aaaerU that the chief deity la 

Ogama. duo. The Kat$itM-gaw». 


Iwaz]ftg»-bime, sister to the goddess of 
Mooni FnjL The people of the neiffh* 
booring coontry-side often call the rnoun- 
tain by the nnme of Sehiton-mxn. Yet 
azkotber name is Afkri-ffaam, 

Jimikishas are left at the yill. of 
Koyasu {Inn, Kami-ya), along street 
of steps, which at its upper end 
changes its name to Oyama (Inn$, 
Koma-ja, with a curious garden; 
Izu-ja). Such of the inhabitants 
as do not keep houses of entertain- 
ment for the pilgrims who flock here 
during the month of June, busy 
themselves with the manufacture of 
rosaries, toys, and domestic utensils. 
The traTeller will notice that the 
posts of two shrines in the village 
are so much cut away as scarcely 
any longer to support the roof ,— a re- 
salt of the visit of many devotees who 
believe that the chips act as charms. 

The ascent and descent of the 
mountain take from 4^ to 5 hrs., 
bat are far more fatiguing than 
most climbs of the same length, 
owing to the multitude of steps. 
A little way beyond the inns, a 
stream rushes out of a hole in a 
ro^ky wall some 20 ft. high, and 
falls into a pool, in which it is con- 
sidered highly meritorious to bathe 
as long as the cold can be endured. 
Ten chd farther up, the entrance 
to the sacred domain is indicated 
by a tcHi perched on the top of a 
flight of steps. Here the traveller 
has to choose between the Oloko- 
xdka (man*8 ascent), and Onna- 
taka (woman's ascent), the former 
a continuous series of steep flights 
of high steps, the latter longer but 
less fatiguing. Both paths unite 
higher up. The prospect from this 
latter point includes the plains of 
Sagami and Mnsashi, vnth the River 
BanyQ, Gapes Misaki and Sunosaki 
at the entrance of Toky5 Bay, the 
sea, and the mountains of Easusa. 
Some flights of steps lead up to the 
maSn temple, whence it is « climb 
«f 38 eha to the summit, which com- 
mands a view of Fuji, the wooded 
top of Tanzawa, the meontaiBB of 
Kudc5, Bnoshima, etc 

(TanMawa, whose name ooours se* 
veral times in this volume, is a 
small range situated close to Oyama 
on the West. It includes Sabutsu- 
yama, Tanzawa proper, and Bodai- 
yama, but offers little interest). 

10. — OlSO AND Kozu. 

Olso is 1} hr. from Yokohama by 
the Tdkaido Bailway. An enjoyable 
day may here be spent loitering on 
the beautiful beach and bathing in 
the sea. There is a lovely view : — 
to the r., Fuji, the Hakone range, 
and the peninsula of Izu; ahead, 
Vries Island; to the 1., the pro- 
montory of Misaki with the islet 
of Enoshima. The • Tdi-yd-kwan at 
Oiso is an excellent inn in Japanese 
style, at which some simple Euro- 
pean dishes may be obtained, and 
where there is a resident doctor. 

Oiso, though apparently so insi^niifl- 
cant a place, boasts considerable antiqnitv. 
Mention of it occnrs in the story of the 
Soga Brethren's Bevengo, in the 12th 
century (see p. 64). 

Kozn (Inn^ Kozu-kwan), the sta- 
tion beyond Oiso, is another sea-side 
village, having much the same view, 
and well-protected from cold winter 
winds — an advantage to which the 
groves of orange-trees covering all 
the surrounding slopes bear witness. 

11.— The Rapids op the 

A pleasant trip, combining varied 
and picturesque scenery with a dash 
of excitement, may be made by 
descending the Katsnra-grawa (also 
called Sagami-gawa and Banyli 
lower down) frcmi Yose on the K5- 
sht Kaido (see Bte. 26) to Atsugi 
near Hiratsuka Station on the To- 
kaidd. The best plan is to take 
train to Hachidji, which will en- 
able one to be at Yose (Inn, Kado-ya) 
in time for dimier, that village being 
reached by basha from Haohioji in 
about 8 hrs. A boat shoula at 
once be ordered for the next morn- 
ing, the oost tanging from 13* 
The fini pertton of the journey is 

EoHt$ 3.—Yoko1tawa to TdhjD by Rail. 

▼ery pretty, as the river runs 
between preoipitons rocky bluffs 
ooTered with a Tariety of trees, the 
asalea being conspicuous in spring 
and the maple in autumn. Some 
distance down, the pumping station 
of the water-works which supply 
Yokohama is seen on the 1. bank, 
where one may land to inspect the 
machinery. At the hamlet of Oi, 2^ 
hrs. from Yose, the best part of 
the journey comes to an end. The 
rest occupies about 3 hrs., the river 
having entered the plain long before 
we arriro at Atsugi. It is possible 
to go all the way to Hiratsuka by 
boat in about the same time (1^ hr.), 
as the distance can be done by 
jinrikisha ; but the road is generally 

Yokohama to Tokyo bt Bail. 












1 Express runs 
j through. 

/Chanffe carri- 
( ages for Sub- 
J urban and 

Northern Rail- 

Shunbaahi St. 





This railway, built bv English 
engineers and finished in the autumn 
of 1872, was the first line opened 
to traffic in Japan. The journey 
from Yokohama to Tokyo occu- 
pies 50 min. The line skirts the 
shores of Tokyo Bay, with the old 
Tdkaidd highway recognisable at 
intervals on the r. by ita avenue of 

CBS. Glimpfet are caught of the 
8 of Xazusa beyond th^ Bay. 

Soon after leaving Yokohama, the 
Tdkaido Railway branches off 1. 
Observe the fine view of Fuji near 
the first station, 

Kauagrawa« once a noted post- 
town on the Tdkaido, and intimately 
connected with the early settlement 
of foreigners in this part of Japan. 
(See p. 76). 

On the Tdkaidd avenue near Namarmngi, 
between this station and the next, occor- 
red the murder of O. L. Richardson, who, 
with two other Englishmen and a Iady» 
got entangfled in the armed procession of 
Shims 7.U Saburfl, Prince of Satsuma, on 
^he 14th 8epteml>er, 1862, an event which 
ultimately led to the bombardment of 
Kagoshima. The whole story will be- 
found iu Black's Toting Japan, Chap. 13. 

KaWAvStki {Tnn, Asada-ya) is- 
noted for a temple situated If m. 
from the station, dedicated to Kobd 
Daishi, and commonly known aa 
Daishi Soma, 

Local legend attributes the sanctity of 
this place to an image of KSljfi Daishi 
carved by that saint himself while in 
China, and consigned by him to the 
waves. It floated to this coast, uhere it 
was caught in a fisherman's net, and 
being conveyed anhore, performed nume> 
rous miracles. The trees in the temple- 
grounds, trained in the shape of junka 
under sail, attest the devotion paid to 
this holy imago by the sea-faring folk. 

So great is its popularity that 
special trains are run on the 
21st of each month to accommo- 
date the crowds that visit it. 
The chief festival takes place on 
the 21st March, when the grounds 
are filled with cheap stalls and itin- 
erant shows. The temple possesses 
some excellent carvings. A Plum 
Garden (Bai-en)^ with pleasant tea- 
houses attached, adjoins the temple 
grounds, and is one of the show- 
places of the f ragran t blossom . The 
river crossed just beyond Kawasaki 
is the Tamagawa or RokugO, the 
upper course of which is roman- 
tically beautiful and is described in 
Bte. 26, Sect. 8. Extensive pear 
orchards stretch on either side of 
the line. Between this station and 
the next, l^e whole Hakone range, 
Buko-zan, and the other mountaina 

Bouts 4.—Tdkyd. 


oi Chiohibu oome in view ahead to 
the 1. On approaching 

dmori. the fine wooded bluff seen 
L is thd 9te of the noted monastery 
of Ikegami, Immediately above the 
station lie the grounds of a tea- 
house oommanding a fine prospect, 
and the range of the Imperial 
Japanese Rifle Club. The shell- 
heaps of Omori discovered by Prof. 
Mme have furnished interesting 
prehistoric remains, which have 
been the subject of vehement dis- 
cussion among the learned. At 

Shim^awa, are seen tbe forts 
built in Tokyo Bay during the latter 
days of the Shogunate, to protect 
the approach to the great city, but 
now dismantled because useless in 
modem warfare. Just beyond the 
gas-works, the line skirts r. the 
prettily laid out garden of the Shiba 
Rikyu, one of the minor Imperial 
palaces. A little further on, the 
noble trees in the grounds of the 
summer palace called Enryd-kwan 
are seen also to the r., and soon 
after, the train enters the 

Shinttmshi terminus, and the 
traveller is in Tokyo. 



Tokyo, also called Tdkeiy former- 
ly Tedo. 

-EToteZs.— Imperial (Teikoku) Hotel 
and Tokyo Hotel, ooth centrally 
situated; Hotel M^tropole, in Tsuki- 
ji ; Seiyo-ken, near the Shimbckshi 
terminus, with branch in Ueno Park. 

Japanese Inns. — Fusbimi-ya, in 
Koko-cbo; Higuohi-ya, in Shiro- 
kane-cbo ; Karuname-ya, in Baku- 
ro-cho — all in the Nihon-bashi 

Restaurants.— {Foreian food) Fft- 
getsu-do, near Shimbaahi, with 
confectionery shop; San-«n-tei, in 
Shiba Puck; Fttjimi-kdii, not far 

from the British Legation.— -(Japa- 
nese /cxxQ Yaozen, at San-ya, Asa- 
kusa ; Yaomatsu, at Mukdjima ; 
Hirasei, in Fukagawa ; Tokiwa-ya, 
in Hama-ch5 (Kyti Hana-YashiM). 

Tea-houses (for entertainments in 
Japanese style). — Nakamura-ro, at 
Ryogoku ; Ibumura-ro, at Asakusa ; 
0-un-tei, in Ueno Park. 

CZti*.— The Tokyo Club, occupy- 
ing a portion of tbe Rokumei-kwan, 
5 min. from Shimbashi terminus. 

Foreign Legations. — Austria, 15, 
Kami Ni-baucbo ; France, 1, lida- 
machi Itchome ; Germany, 14, 
Nagata-ch5 ; Great Britain, 1, 
Kdjimachi Go-bancho ; Holland 
(Denmark and Noi-way), 8, Shiba 
Sakae-cho; Italy, 4, Sanneu-chd; 
Kussia, 1, Ura-Kasumi-ga-seki ; 
United States, 1, Akasaka Enoki- 

General Post Office.— At Yedo- 

Central Telegraph Office.— In Ko- 
biki-cho, near the Shimbashi ter- 
minus. Sub-offices in various dis- 
tricts of the city. 

Telephone Exchange. — At No. 1, 
Eojimachi, Zenigame - cbo, with 
numerous Call Offices in the city. 

Parks. — Shiba, Ueuo, & Asakusa. 

MtiseuTHS. — The Hakubutsu-kwan, 
in Ueno Park ; Educational Mu- 
seum, in the Seidd at Hongo; 
Museum of Arms {Yushu-kwan)j in 
the grounds of the Shokonsha 
temple at Koji-machi. 

Public Library. — The Tosho- 
kwan, in Ueuo Park. 

Churches.— Church of England, 
in Shiba Sakac-ch5 ; American 
Episcopal, Union Church (Pro- 
testant), Roman Catholic, — all in 
Tsukiji ; Russian Orthodox, at 

r^a^es.— Kabuki-za, in Kobiki- 
cho ; Fukano-za, in Tsukiji ; 
Haruki-za, in Hongo. 

WrestliTig.— At Ek5-in, in Honjo, 
twice yearly for ten dajrs in winter 
and spring. Also at other times 
and places not fixed. 

Bazaar (Ktcankdba). — In Shiba 
Park. Fixed prices. 


Bouti 4.^Tdkyd. 

A Railway, officiaJly styled the 
T5ky5 aud Akabane Junction, 
but generally known as the Sub^ 
urban or Circular Railway ^ affords 
an easy means of reaching certain 
points on the outskirts of the city. 
The following is a schedule:— 


ttc: s 











Shinjika Jot 




I Change for Ha- 
I chiOji Branch. 

I Change for the 
I North. 

Conveyances. — Jinrikishas are in 
universal use. Tramcars, not much 
patronised by the gentry or by 
Europeans, because usually crowded 
by the Japanese lower classes, run 
from the Shimbashi terminus along 
the principal thoroughfares to Ueno 
aud Asakusa. Omnibuses of a sort 
are numerous. 

Livery stables, — Tokyo Basha 
Kabu-shiki Gwaisha, with offices at 
the Imperial Hotel, at Monzeki- 
mae in Tsukiji, and at Kanda 

Steam Communication. — The com- 
pany called ToJbyd Wan Kisen- 
Gwaisha runs steamers daily to Ura- 
ga and Yokosuka, Chiba, Kisarazu, 
and other ports on the opposite side 
of the bay, and occasionally to Komi- 
nato and other ports on tne Pacific 
Coast of the Kazusa-Bosha penin- 
sula, to Atami, and other ports in 
Izu. Its steamers start from 

The Tsti'Un Gwaisha runs daily 
steamers on the Tonegawa,— the 
Kami-Tonet or Upper River line, 
taking passengers to Gydtoku, Seki- 
yado, Koga, and numerous minor 
Tillages, while the Shimo-Tonet or 
liower Biver line, braocheB off E. 

at Shiokawafor Sawara, TMinomiym, 
and Omigawa, whence S. to Choshi, 
and N. to Ofunatsu and Hokoda on 
the Kita-ura Lagoon. These jrtieaxn- 
ers start from Bydgoku-badhi 

The local steamers are bat little 
used by foreigners and by the 
better class of Japanese, as tbey are 
small and make scant pretension 
to comfort. There is not even 
always a distinction of classes, 
though it is sometimes possible to 
secure a separate room by paying 
the price of five tickets. The fares 
are extremely low. 

The following are some of tiie 
chief shops at which articles likely 
to interest the tourist are sold :— 

Porcelain. — Kawamoto, at No. 6, 
Ginza Ni-ch5me; Mikawa-ya, at 
Owari-cho Itchome; Takizawa, at 
Kakigara-ch5 Itchdme. 

I/acgtter. —Kuroe-ya, at T6ri It- 
chdme ; Suruga-ya, in Bakuro-cho. 

jBroTWC.— Miyao, at No. 1, Nihon- 
bashi Hon-Shirokane-cho (l&ige 
things) ; Mikawa-ya, at Soto-Kanda 
Hatago-cho Itchome (chiefly small 
things suited to foreign needs). 

Cloisonne. — ^Namikawa, at No. 8, 
Nihon-bashi Shin-emon-cho. 

Juory.— Wakatake, at No. 6 Ni- 
hon-bashi Hisamatsu-cho. 

Bamboo - work. — Fujimura, at 
Kanda Misald-chd San-chome. 

Old Silk and Embroideries.— l^n- 
moto Denshichi, at No. 16, Nihon- 
bashi Kawasekoku-ch5 ; Morita, at 
No. 8, Nihon-bashi Sanai-cho. 

SUk Mercers.— Daimaru, in Hata- 
go-ch5 ; Echigo-ya, in Muro-machi ; 
Shiroki-ya in Tori Itchdme ; Misu- 
shima (chiefly European articles for 
presents), in Honcho Itchome, — all 
m the Nihon-bashi district. Ueda- 
ya, at 16, Yariya-cho, Kyoba- 

Paper and JPans.— Haibara, No. 
1, Nihon-bashi Tori Itchdme. 

Crape Paper Picture Books.— 
Hasegawa, in Hiyoshi-cho near 
Shimbashi Station. 

Old Prints,— Kohsiytabl, at Asa- 
kusa Komakata. 

P/iotc^ap^tfrt.— Ogawft, at Kanda 

Shops. F^$stv»al$. 

liisaJri-obo ; Suanki on Kudan-zaka ; 
Bgi, at Shimbashi Maruya-cbo. 

Photographic Dcpote.— Ogawa, at 
No. 13, Kyobashi, Hiyoshi-ohd; 
Okamoto at Ginza Sbi-chome 

Boo/cwZZer.— Maruaen, at Nibon- 
bashi Tori San-cbome. 

Bosoar.— Tbe Ewankobain Shiba 

Curios in Oeneml. — Morata Kixn- 
bei, at l^ibon-basbi Kawasekokn- 

ob6; Sawada-ya, atKo. 17, Ginza It- 
obome ; Daizen, in Kaka-dori ^chief- 
ly for expensiTe articles) ; 03i^:a-ya, 
at No. 90, Nibon-basbi Aomono-cbo ; 
Ebi-ya, at No. 6. Nibon-basbi Jik- 

Tbere is alflo a very interesting 
street called Naka-dirii running 
parallel to tbe main tborougbfare 
between Kydbasbi and Nibon-basbi, 
full of sbops wbere old curios and 
brocade are exposed for sale. 

Ghibf Popular Festivals. 


W Hf-H'Pi HELD* 

MoDtbly, 5tb Suit^gii Eakigcira-cbd. 

Hontbly, lOtb (October, 

special) Kompira Tora-no-mon. 

Montbly, 17-18tb Kwannon Asakusa. 

Monthly, Slst (Marcb, 

special) Daishi Kawasaki. 

Monthly, 24th (September, 

special) Atago Jirya Atago-sbita. 

Ilrai Day of tbe Hare 

{hatsu-u) MydkeTidd Yauagi-sbima. 

April 17tb Toshdgu Sbiba and Ueno Parka. 

April 18tb Sanja Matsuri Asakusa. 

Miay 6 8tb Shdkonsha (races, 

wrestling, etc.) .... Kudan. 

June 3rd Kumano Jinja ligura and Aoyama. 

Jane 3-14tb TenTid Matsuri Sbinagawa, Yotsuya, 

Asakusa, Senji. 

Mid- July Kawa-hiraki (Opening 

of tbe River) Ryogoku. 

Joly 7-14th Tmnd MaUuri Nakabasbi. 

July 9-lOth Shi-man Boku-sen 

Nichi Asakusa Kwannon. 

July 15tb Sannd Nagata-cbo. 

July 15tb Eikawa Jinja Akasaka. 

September ll-20tb Shimmei Matsuri .... Sbiba. 

September 14-16th Kanda Mydjin Eanda. 

October 13-13tb O Eshiki (Anniversary 

of Nicbiren*s death) Ikegami and Hori-no- 

October IStb Kanda Mydjin Kanda. 

November 6-8tb Shdkonsha^ (races, etc.) Kudan. 

November a2-28th O Kd Mairi Monzeki temple at 

November (on Days of tbe 

Bird, Torino At) TorinoMachi Asaknea. 

Temples having monthly festivals are most crowded in January, 
May, and September. Further, the Ist, 15th, and 96th of each month 
ace moze or less speoially obstwed* 


RouU 4.—Tdkyd. 

Akin to the popular festivals {matsuri or ennicM), are the following 
fairs {ichi), held at the olose of the year for the citizens to make seasonable 
purchases : — 



December 13th Tennd Sama Sbinagawa. 

December 15th Hcichiman Fukagawa. 

December 17-18th Kwannon Asakusa. 

December 20-21 st Kanda Mydjin Xaaida. 

December 22-23rd Shimmei Shiba. 

December 23-24th Atago Atago-shita. 

December 26th Tenjin Hirakawa. 

December 27-28th Ftido Yageu-bori. 


Plum-blossoms {Um^). — Kamada, 
nearOmori Station; Kameido Ume- 
yashiki, Kinogawa Ume-yashiki, 
both close to Mukojima, end of 
February and beginning of March, 
sometimes earlier. 

Cherry-blossoms {Sakura). — Ueno, 
Mukojima, and Shiba,, early in 
April ; Koganei, middle of April. 
So many avenues of cherry-trees 
have been planted in Tokyo during 
the last twenty years, that for a 
brief space in spring the whole city 
is more or less a show of these 
lovely blossoms. 

Peonies {Botan). — Florists' gar- 
dens at Somei, end of April ; Sho- 
kwa-en in Azabu, beginning of May. 

Wistarias {Fuji). - Kameido, first 
week in May. 

Azaleas (Tsutsuji). — Florists* gar- 
dens at Okubo-mura, early in May. 

Irises (Hana-shdbu). — Horikiri, 
beyond Mukojima, early in June. 

Coiwolvuli ( Asagao ). — Florists* 
gardens at Iriya in Sbitaya, end of 
July and beginning of August. 

Lotus-flowers {Hasu). — Lake Shi- 
nobazu at Ueno, and the Castle 
moats, beginning of August. These 
flowers can only be seen to perfec- 
tion during the morning hours. 

Chrysanthemums {Kiku). — Dan- 

fo-zaka and Asakusa, beginning of 

Maples (Momijij. — Kaianji at 
Shinagawa, beginning of November ; 
Qjiy middle of November. 
^ Principftl ^laees Worth VisU- 
angr.—Shiba and tJeno Parks (Tombs 

of the Tokugawa Shoguns in both,, 
the former more easily arccessible). 
Temple of Kwannon at Asakusa, 
Hakubutsu-kwan Museum at Ueno, 
the *Kwankoba Bazaar in Shiba,. 
Atago Tower for view of the city. 
Drive along the Main Street {Ginsa} 
to Nihon-bashi and round the inner 
moat {Naka-bori), 

Time to Chief Points by jinrikisha 
with two men. 

From Shimbashi terminus to : — 

Imperial Hotel 6 Min. 

Tokyo Hotel 7 „ 

Hotel M6tropole 12 „ 

Rokumei-kwan 5 „ 

British Legation 18 „ 

United States Legation . . 10 „ 

Shiba Park 10 „ 

Ueno Park 35 „ 

Asakusa (Kwannon) 40 „ 

HisTOKT AKD T0P00RA.PHT.— Previous 
to its becominpf tho military capital of 
Japan in the j-ear 1590, Yedo was little 
more than a mde fortress surrounded by 
a few scattered villages. This fortress 
was founded in 1456 by a certain Ota 
DSkwan. From 1486 to 1524, it was held 
by vassals of the Uesugi family, but in 
the latter year was taken from them by 
llflj6 Ujitsuna, who was then rising to be 
ruler of the Eastern provinces, and who had 
his capital at Odawara, close to the foot of 
the Hakone pass. In the 13th century, 
the district now called Asakusa stood 
on the sea-shore, at the mouth of a oon> 
siderable inlet. Tho name Yedo means 
" Estuary Gate.'* At the time le.vasu took 
possession in 1690, the coast on the R. side 
of the river bad advanced greatly below 
Asakusa ; but larger lagoons still occupied 
areas whic^have since been filled up and 
built over. Ota Dokwaa's fortress occupied 
a portion of the ground which was later 
included in the Palace of the BhOgnns and 
now la that of His Miijeety the Bmperor. 

History and Topogtxiphy, 


The 8bteim*8 Palace, or CfwUe as it was 
«ften caUed, waa several times bomt 
down and rebuilt, and was totally de- 
stroyed by a fire which took plHce on the 
17th July, 1863. A separate boilding in 
tlie enclosure which had been the resid- 
«Doe of -the heir-spparent to the Sho^uu- 
ale. was appropnated for the Emperor's 
vse aft«r the removal of H.K. to Tdkjd 
in 186B. But this too. was burnt down on 
the nif ht of the 5th May, 1873. From that 
time forward the Bmperor occupied the 
Falaoe at Aojama, now inhabited by the 
Crown I'rince, until the construction on 
Um old site in 1889 of a new Palace, semi- 
Japanese and semi-foriegn in stvlo. Yedo 
baa been repeatedly visited by destructive 
flres. In lO^l the whole city was laid in 
ashes. At that time all the houses were 
thatched with ^rrass, the use of tiles not 
liaTioi? been allowed to the citizens till 
the middle of the 17th century. Great 
ft«8 occurred in 16S7 and again in 
1668. The f^'eatcst confla^sfration of more 
Bftodem times took place in 1846. In 
1606 a lanre part of the hill now called 
8nraga-dai wss cut away, and the soil 
«eed to fill up four sqtiare miles of shallow 
ialeis on the S. side of the town. The 
same year witnessed the construction of 
the fH'cat brld^, Nihon-bashi, from which 
distances have since been measured along 
the chief roads of the Kmpir<<. In 1 64*.', a 
refTulation was made whereby the DaimyOe 
were obliged to reside alternately in Yedo 
and on their domains for certain fixed 
periods. A map dHted 1632 shows that the 
greater pan of what now forms the Kyflbn- 
ahi district, including Tsnkiji, was re- 
claimed from the sea subsequent to that 
date Up to about the ycur KI60, the 
tovraspeople depended for their water 
■npply on the stream from Kanda-yama 
and the lake of Tnme-ike; but shortly 
afterwards an aqueduct was constructed 
en the N. side to brin^ water from the 
I-no-Vashira, Zempukuji, and MyOshd-ji 
teh«a, as well as from the Tamapawa into 
the city. In 166a, the Tamasawa aqne- 
doet, which enters the city by way of 
Totsn>H, was constructed, its length 
beiDg about 27 miles. 

In \e»\ the first theatre was built in 
Kobiki-chd by one Morita Ksn-ya. whose 
name has been borne bv successive eene- 
ntkms of impremri. The history of the 
oity for the most pnrt consists of a succes- 
aion of earthquakes, fires, typhoons. 
epidemics, floods, and droughts. The 
year 1708 was marked by h great earth- 
make ; it is said that on this occasion the 
deaths in Yedo alone were 87,0(>0. An 
^>idemic which ra<ed in 1778 ii« stated to 
teve carried off 190,000 persons, chiefly of 
the \ofnet classes. On the 1 1 th November, 
18K. the Ust great earthquake occurred, 
irtMn I be loss of life was computed at 
100.000 persons. Hut recent investigations 
have shown that this was a gross exag- 

On th^ 18th September, 1868, the desig- 

nation of the city was changed to TOky(V 
or Tdkei, either being a correct way of 
P'-onouncing the two Chinese characters 
He SC which are used in writing the name, 
the fiffuification of which is ''Eastern 
Capital," given in contradistinction to 
8aikvd. g| jg(, or " Western Capital," ap- 
plied at the same time to Kydt<>. in 
November of the same year the Mikado 
visited TdkyO for the first time, and it 
became the recognised seat of Govern- 
ment on 26th March, 1869. A great 
change has since taken place in the 
outwRftl appeamnce of the city. Most of 
theyaMt/h, or mxnsions of the territorial 
nobility, have been pulled down to make 
room for new buildings better Hdapted to 
modem needs. At the same time, the 
disappearance of the two-sworded men, 
the supersession of the palanquin (kago) 
by the jinrikisha. the very »;cneml adop- 
tion of foreign dress, and the European 
style of dressing the hair which is now 
almost universal Hmong the men, have 
rehired the streets of the picturesqueness 
formerly so attractive to tue foreign visi- 
tor. The construction of buildings in 
European stylo dates from about 1873. 
Tdkyd was thrown open to foreign travel 
in lt?69, but not to foreign residence. 
Tsukiji, the foreign concession (A'yorjri*- 
ehi), is still the only quarter in which 
foreigners can lease land. 

The city is divided for admin isti-atlve 
purposes into fifteen districts ( Kn , viz .— 
1, K6ji-machi. 2, Kanda. 3, Nihon-bashi. 
i.Kjd-bashi. 6,Shiba. 6, Azabu. 7, Aka- 
saka. 8,Yotsnya. 9,Ushigome. lO.Koishi- 
kawa. li,Uongd. 12, 8bitaya. IS, Asaku- 
sa. 14, Hon jo. 15, Fukagawa. The princi- 

?al suburbs are Shinasawa S., on the 
'6kaid5; NaitO Shinjiku W., on the 
Chichibu road ; Itabasbi N W., on the 
NakaseudO; and Senji N. E., on the 
Osbu Kaidd. Tdkyd is popularly estimat- 
ed to cover an area of ftmr ri in every 
direction, in other words, a hundred 
s(|uare miles. The population is officially 
stated to Ije, in round numbers, 1,628.000, 
but this includes the whole metropolitan 
dibtrict (Tokvo Fu). The city proper has 
under a million. TfikyO was connected 
by railway with Yokolmma in the autumn 
of 1872 J horse tramways were laid along 
the mam thoroughfares in 1S82; the first 
electric lighting company was formed in 
1686, and a telephone exchange was 
opened in 189<>. In the snmeyear. a short 
electrical railway was laid within the 
grounds of the Ueno Park. 'Ihree great 
Industrial Exhibitions have been held in 
Tdkyd, the first in 1877, and the last in 
1990. The houses of the Imperial Diet, 
iuaugtirated in Novemlier, 1890, were 
burnt down two months later but rebuilt . 
in time for the assembling of the Diet in 
November, 1881. Apian of city improve- 
ment has recently been adopted, in 
consequence of which the narrower streets 
of any district burnt down are widened, 


Boute 4.—T5ky5. 

and better sanitary arrangements intro- 

Owing to the shape and the vcist 
extent of the city, it is impoesihle 
to combine all the chief sights in a 
single round. The best plan is to 
take them in groups, according to 
the direction in which they lie. 
The following description proceeds 
on this principle. 

1.— The Kwakkoba. Shiba Pabk. 
Temples and Tombs of the Sh5- 
GUNS. Zempukuji. Thb Poety- 
sevbn Bonins. Nyoeaui. Ata- 


From the Shimbashi Railway 
terminus, a long narrow street, 
called HikagC'Chd at the beginning 
and Shimmei-mae at the end, leads 
to Shiba Park, and is particularly 
well worth strolling along for the 
sake of the shops. Nowhere can 
one more easily pick up the thou- 
sand and one little articles that are 
in daily use among the people. 

Passing through the Daimon or 
Great Gate, we turn through the 
park r. to the Kwankoha^ the best 
bazaar in Tokyo, where ever^'thing 
is sold at fixed prices. If the trav- 
eller comes straight from the 
Imperial Hotel, he will enter Shiba 
Park by the N. gate {Onari-Mon) 
and have the Kwankdba on his 1. 

Sbiba Park {Shiha Kbtnehi) formed, till 
1877, the grounds of the great Buddhist 
temple of Zdjoj'i. the head-miarters in this 
city of the J6do sect. Here ore still 
preserved the Mortuary Temples (Go Bet- 
ya) of several of the Tokugawa Shdguns, 
leyasu, the founder of that dynasty and 
of Yedo, having taken ZOjOji under his 
special protection, and chosen it as the 
temple where the funeral tablets (ikai) of 
himself and his descendants should be 
preserved. The monastery hud been 
■originally founded in 1803, but was re- 
moved iD 1A9B to the present site. The 
partial transfer of the temple to the Shin- 
toists, in 187S, naturally led to friction 
between them and the Buddhists, rhe 
gravest consequence of which was the 
destruction by fire of the magnificent 
main building on the 1st January, 1874. It 
has lately been replaced by a n«w build- 
ing, smaUei* and much less beautiful. 
Only the large gate {mmmon) xvmains just 

as it wa» boilt in 16S8. This templab 
which is used for populitr worship, mnat 
not be mistaken for one of the McHtuaix 

The following is a list of the Tokngawa 
Shflguns. lliose whose names are marked 
with an asterisk are buried at Ubno, ml 
the opposite end of TOkyd; those whose 
names have a dagger prefixed lie a4 
Nikkd, 100 miles to the N. of TOkyA, and 
the others at Shiba. 




tieyasu TOshdgu IClt 

Hidetada Taitoknin 168S 

tiemitsu Taiyfiin 1651 

*Ietsuna Genyftin 1680 

♦Tsimayoehi ....1dken-in 170© 

lenobu BunshSin 1713 

letsugu YushCin 1716 

•Yoehimune .. Yiitokuin 17M 

leshige Junshin-in 1761 

•leharu Shimmeiin 1786 

•lenari BunKyOin 1841 

leyoshi Shintokuin 1868 

*Ie8ada Onkydin 1858 

lemochi Shdtokuin 1866 

Yoshinobu... . (usually called Kei- 
ki), abdicated, and is still living 
at Shixuoka in Suruga. 

The Shiba Temples, which count 
among the chief marvels of Japct- 
nese art, should, if possible, be 
visited on the forenoon of a fine 
day. Otherwise their situation, and 
the black boarding which has been 
put up to ward off the attacks of 
the weather, will interfere with a 
full enjoyment of their minutely 
elaborate decorations. They may 
best be taken in the following order. 
Persons pressed for time might limit 
themselves to an inspection of the 
temple and tomb (Octagonal Shrine) 
of the 2nd Shogun only (see p. 97). 

The entrance to the Mortuary 
Chapels of letsugu and leshige, 
the 7th and 9th Shoguns, is 
immediately opposite the Kwan- 
kdba. A highly ornamented gate 
called the Ni-Ten Mon, or Gate 
of the Two D6va Kings, leads into 
a court containing numerous stone 
lanterns offered by Daimyds as a 
mark of respect to the memory ol 
their deceased lord and master, the 
Shogun. At the opposite end of the 
court is the Choku-gaku Mon^ or 
Gate of the Imperial Tablet, ao 
cidled from a tablet hung ofcr the 

Shiba I'emples. 


lintel, containitig in gold letters the 
poethnmous name of the 7th Shogun 
m the fac-shnile of the hand- writ- 
ing of the Mikado known to history 
as NcJca-no-Mikado-no-In (d. 1787). 
This gate is remarkahle for its 
pill&rs with dragons twisted round 
them, originally gilt over a coating 
of red oxide of iron. Passing 
through this gate, we enter an inner 
oomi lined with bronze lanterns, 
two hundred and twelve in all, 
dating some from A.D. 1716, some 
trom 1761, also the gift of Daimyos, 
and having r. a belfry and 1. a 
ctstem for holy water. Hence 
through a third gate called the 
O Kara JbToit, or Ohinese Gate, 
on either side of which stretches a 
gallery with beautifully painted 
Darvings of flowers and birds in the 
panels. Observe the angel on the 
oeiUng, the work of Eano Byosetsu. 
A short colonnade of black pillars 
edged with gold leads to the portico 
of the temple, where, among other 
marvels of carving, are two dragons, 
oalled '* the Ascending and Descend- 
ing Dragons *' {^Nobori-ryu aud 
Kudari-ryu)t serving as beams to 
ooauect the temple with two pillars 

Up to this point the public has 
free admittance. Those desirous 
of seeing the interior of the temple, 
together with the tombs, must apply 
to the custodian, and pay him on 
departing a fee of 20 cents per head. 
B<K>ts must of course be removed 
before entering. These observations 
hold good at all the other Mortuary 
Temples. The visitor is led directly 
into the sanctum containing the 
altar. And here be it observed that 
each of these Mortuary Temples 
consists of three parts, — an outer 
oratory (haiden), a connecting gal- 
lery or corridor (ai-no-7iia), and an 
inner sanctum (hcnden). In each 
o£ these one finds oneself in a blaze 
of gold, colours, and elaborate ara- 
besques, which, especiallv if the 
day oe fine, quite dazzle the eye by 

brilliancy. In feudal times, 
trlieii the ShOgun <»me to worship 

the spirits of his ancestors, he alone 
ascended to the sanctum, the 
greater Daimyds ranged themselves 
next to him in the corridor below, 
and the lesser nobility occupied 
the oratory. 

The altar of this temple is separat- 
ed from the corridor by one of those 
bamboo blinds bound with silk, 
which, together with a peculiar Kind 
of banner, temper the brilliancy of 
the other decorations. The sanctum 
contains three double-roofed shrines 
of the most gorgeous gold lacquer, 
picked out with body-colour below 
the eaves, and held together by 
costly and elaborate metal-work. 
That to the r. contains a wooden 
image of the father of the 6th 
Shogun, that in the middle an im- 
age of the 7th Shogun, and that to 
the 1. one of the 9th Shogun, 
together with the funeral tablets of 
each. The images, which are con- 
sidered sacred because presented by 
Mikados, are never shown. On 
either side of each shrine stand 
wooden statuettes of the Shi Tenno, 
who guard the world against 
the attacks of demons. In front 
are Kwaunou aud Benten. The 
wall at the back is gilt, while the 
altar and two tables in front are of 
splendid red lacquer. In innume- 
rable places may be seen the three- 
leaved Asarum or Kamo-aoif which 
is the crest of the Tokugawa family, 
and the lotus, the Buddhist emblem 
of purity. The altar is protected at 
night by massive gilt gates orna- 
mented with the family crest and 
conventional flowers. Descending 
into the corridor, and noticing as 
we pass the gorgeous panelling of 
the ceiling, we reach the oratory, 
where the decorations are on a 
similar scale of magnificence. Ob- 
serve the conventional paintings of 
lions on the wall. Under the 
baldachin sits on festival days (12th 
and Idth of each month, when visi- 
tors are not admitted) the abbot of 
Zojoji, while the priests are ranged 
around at small lacquer tables. 
The lacquer boxes on the lattei 

Shiba Temples. 


contain scrolls of the Buddhisfc 
sutras. As the guide leads the 
way from the temple to the tombs, 
observe on the eaves the carvings of 
musical instruments, lions, dragons, 
etc. Observe, too, the carvings of 
unicorns (kirin) on the Oshi-kiri 
Mon, or Dividing Gate, which is 
DOW passed through. Although the 
carving is open-work, the dragons 
appear quite different according to 
the side from which they are view- 
ed. Thence, through a noble court 
with more bronze lanterns, to a 
stone staircase which leads up to 
the site to the Towi^,— that of the 
7th Sbogun to the 1., that of the 
9th Shogun to the r. Below each 
tomb is a highly decorated oratory. 
The tombs are of stone, in the shape 
called hcto (treasure shrine), which 
somewhat resembles a pagoda. They 
stand on an octagonal granite base, 
with a stone balustrade. Their 
simplicity contrasts strongly with 
the lavish magnificence of all that 
goes before. As Mitford says in his 
Tales of Old Japan^ "the sermon 
may have been preached by design, 
or it may have been by accident, 
but the lesson is there." 

The pattern on the black copper 
facing round the wall enclosing the 
tomb, is intended to represent the 
waves of the sea. The body is said 
to be buried at a depth of 20 ft., 
and to have been coated with ver- 
milion and charcoal powder to 
prevent decay. The tomb of the 
9th Shogun is a replica of that of 
the 7th. On leaving this place, we 
I the oratory of the 7th Shdgun, 

and notice the exquisite carvings in 
high relief of peacocks on the 
panels of the gate. 

Leaving this temple by the Cho- 
ku-gaku Mon^ and turning r. 
through rows of stone lanterns, we 
soon reach r. another splendidly 
carved gate, which gives access to the 
teraple and tombs of the 6th, 12th, 
and 14th Shoguns. In arrange- 
ment, the temple closely resembles 
the one we have just left ; but the 
gilt is fresher, the carvings truer to 
nature, and the general impression 
more magnificent, the result per- 
haps of the interest taken by the 
6th Shogun in the preparation of 
his own last resting-place. The 
fiowers and birds in the spaces 
between the cornice and the lintel 
of the oratory are perfect, both in 
chiselling and in delicacy of colour. 
The coffered ceiling is a master- 
piece; and the vista of the altar, 
as one stands under the baldachin, 
reveals an indescribable glory of 
blended gold and colours. The 
order of the shrines on the altar is, 
from r. to 1., that of the 12th, 6th, 
and 14th Shoguns, the shrine of the 
last containing also the funeral 
tablet of his consort. 

From the Mortuary Temple, a 
flight of steps at the back leads up 
to the tombs of these three Shoguns 
and of the consort of the 14th, who 
was aunt to the present Mikado, and 
after the death of her husband bore 
the title of Sei-kwan-In-no-Miya. 
Her obsequies, in 1877, were the last 
performed within these precincts. 
Each tomb has a small oratory at- 

Index to Plan op Shiba Tempobs. 

L Ni-Ten Mon. 

2. Temple of 7th and 9th Shoguns. 

8. Tombs of 7th and 9th Shoguns. 

4. Temple of 6th, 12th and 14th Sho- 


5. Tombs of 6tfa, 12th and 14th Sho- 


6. Great Gate (Samnum). 

7. Shrine of Five Hundred Bakan. 
6. Priests' Apartments. 

9. Zoioji. 

10. Gokoku-den. 

11. Ten-ei-in. 

12. Temple of 2nd Shdgun. 

18. Octagonal Hall (Hakkaku-dd). 

14. Ankoku-den (Tdshogu), 

15. Maruvama. 

16. Pagoda. 

17. Shrine of Benten. 

16. Kdyo-kwan (Maple Club). 


Rante i.—TiSktfd. 

toohed. The fine bronse gate of the 
enclosure of No. 6, which is the first 
tomb reached, is said to be the work 
x>f Korean artificers; but the design 
was probably furnished by a Japanese 
draughtsman. The dragons in low 
relief on the r. and 1., both inside 
and out, are specially worthy of 
attention. Next to it is the tomb 
of the 12th Shdgun, and beyond il 
again those of the 14th and his 
consort. The tomb of this princess 
is of bronze and marked by the 
Imperial crest, the sixteen-petalled 

Quitting the grounds of this 
Mortuary Temple by a small side 
door to the r., we turn down 1. to 
the main road, and enter the 
grounds of the Monastery of Zdjoji 
by the Great Gate (5awi7Hon), which 
is the oldest (271 years) of all the tem- 
ple buildings, it having escaped the 
great fire of 1874. The upper storey, 
which is reached by an extremely 
steep staircase, contains large images 
of the Sixteen Rakan, coloured and 
seated in an artificial rockwork. 
In the middle is Shaka, finely gilt. 
These can generally be seen only 
on application to the priests. To the 
T. is a small shrine dedicated to 
the Five Hundred Rdkam,^ having 
in front of it a stone with the im- 
print of Buddha's feet, which are of 
phenomenal size. The grand bell, 
also on the r., was saved from 
the fire, and only suspended 
again in 1892. On the 1. are the 

griests' apartments {Hdjo) and 
)mple offices (Jim/usho). In front 
is the main temple of Zojoji, re- 
stored outwardly in the plainest 
style, but spacious within. The 
large gilt image of Amida enthroned 
on the altar is from the chisel of 
the famous Buddhist abbot and 
artist Eshiu. The temple possesses 
many objects of artistic and his- 
torical interest, but they are only 
occasionally di^layed. 

The little temple at the back of 
Zojoji, in the same brilliant style 
of decoration as the Mortuary 
Temple, is called Ookoku-den, It 

oontains the Kuro-Honacn^ or Blade 
Image,— a statuette of Amlda by 
Eshin, noteworthy on account 
of the veneration in which ii 
was held by leyasu, who used to 
carry it about with him in his cam- 
paigns, and ascribed his victories to 
its influence. Admittance to the 
OoJcohu-den is gained through the 
priests' house to the 1. The Black 
Image, wbich is not shown save on 
great occasions, is enclosed in a 
handsome gold reliquary. Another 
reliquary contains small marble 
images of the Sixteen Rakan. 
Notice the curious plate-shaped 
ornaments above the pillars in front 
of the altar, with the Buddhist gods 
Shaka, Monju, and Fugen, and 
attendant animals in high relief. 
The bold paintings of hawks- 
round the walls recall Jeyasu's 
fondness for hawking. The fine 
bronze image of Shaka outside 
dates from the year 1763. 

8ach unprotected statnes are called in 
Japanese oy the rather irreverent nam& 
of Wet 8aint8 (nmre-botoke). The thin 
sticks inscribed with Sanskrit characters 
which stand behind it, are •otoba fsee 
p. 88). 

Coming down from Gokoku-den,. 
and leaving the Zojdji enclosure by 
an opening to the r., we next reacn 
the Mortuary Temple ITen-ei-in) at- 
tached to the tombs of the consorts 
of the 2nd, 6th, 11th, and 12th 
Shoguns. Admittance is by the 
priests' house to the 1. Though the 
oratory is plainer than those already 
described, the altar is by no means 
less splendid. Gilded gates, gilded 
panelling, huge gilded pillars, — 
everything sparkles with gold, while 
the shrines on the altar are the 
most magnificent specimens extant 
of a peculiar kind of lacquer adorn- 
ed with metal-work. Their order 
is, from r. to 1., the consorts of the 
12th, 6th, 2nd, and 11th Shoguns, 
while In the extreme 1. comer is 
that of the concubine of the 5th. 
The coffered ceiling, decorated with 
the phoBuix in various colours, is 
specially sidmired. 

SMba Temple*, 


From this temple, we pass into 
the ooart of that attached to the 
tomb of the 2nd Shogun, — entraDce 
through the priests' house to the 
r. The sanctum is a grand ex- 
ample of Japanese religious ar- 
chitecture. Two huge gilded pillars 
callod daijinbaahira, r. and 1. of 
the altar, support the lofty vaulted 
roof, curiously constructed of a net- 
work of beams. Tho upper part of 
the walls is decorated with large 
carved medallions of birds in high 
relief, richly painted and gilt. The 
shrine is of fine gold lacquer, over 
two and a half centuries old, and the 
tables in front deserve inspection. 
The bronze incense-burner in the 
form of a lion dates from 1635. 
leyasu's war-drum rests on a large 
ornamental stand. The coffers in 
the ceilings are filed with fretwork 
over lacquer. 

A short and pretty walk through 
the wood at the back leads to the 
Hakkaku-ddt or Octagonal Hall, 
oontaiuiug the tomb of the 2nd 
Shogon, which is the largest speci- 
men of gold lacquer in the world 
and one of the most magnificent. 
Parts of it are inlaid with enamel 
and crystals. The scenes on the 
opper half represent the "Eight 
Views " of Siao-Siang in China and 
of liAke Biwa in Japan, while the 
lower half is adorned with the lion 
and peony, the king of beasts and 
mbe king of flowers. The base is of 
stone shaped like a lotus-flower. 
The shrine contains only an effigy 
of the Shogun and his funeral 
tablet, the actual body being be- 
neath the pavement. The interior 
walls of the hall are of lacquer gild- 
ed over. Eight pillars covered with 
gilt copper plates support the roof. 

Oatside this building are two 
eurioasly carved stones dating from 
1614. The subject of one is " Shaka's 
Entry intoNirvftna," andof the other 
the " Five-and-Twenty Bosatsu " 
comiDg with Amida to welcome the 
departed soul. The oratory in front 
of the Octagonal Hall contains no- 
thing worthy of notice. 

Descending again to the Mortuary 
Temple, and passing through its 
two gates, the visitor turns sharp 
to the r. through a third gate, and 
follows a stone walk lined with 
cherry-trees to a toriit standing in 
front of the temple of Ankohu-den. 
Here, on tho 17th of every month, 
a popular festival is held in honour 
of leyasu, who is worshipped as a 
Shinto deity under the name of 
Tosliogu. Constructed when Bud- 
dhism was dominant, this temple 
is architecturally as highly orna- 
mented as the rest, the present in- 
fluence of the Shinto cult being 
indicated only by the paper symbols 
{gohei) in the oratory, which also 
contains a large bronze mirror and 
two gilt ama-inu. The sanctum 
(admittance through the shamusho^ 
or temple office, to the r.) stands 
behind, in a separate enclosure. 
The coffered ceiling is very fine, as 
are the hawks and birds of paradise 
on a gold ground in the panels 
round the interior. Particularly ex- 
cellent is a painting by Kano Hogen 
at the back of the altar, represent- 
ing Shaka attended by Monju and 
Fugen. The shrine is about 4 ft. 
high, with an elaborate cornice of 
three rows of brackets; and its 
walls are of splendid gold lacquer 
with raised designs. In front, on 
the door-panels, are eight small 
landscapes, with dragons de- 
scending through the clouds on 
either hand. At the sides are 
boldly designed groups of the pine 
and bamboo. Inside is a life like 
wooden effigy of leyasu, which can 
be seen only on the 17th day of the 

The big wooden building in 
European style, nearly opposite the 
entrance to Ankoku-den, is called 
YayousJuif and is used for holding 
meetings of various kinds. 

A visit to Shiba may be termi- 
nated by walking up Maniyamat 
the little hill at the back, which 
commands a pretty view of the 
bay. Close to the pagoda, which 
is not open to the public, stands a 


SouU 4,^Tdky6, 

modcnrn Shint5 temple of Yasnkuni, 
better known as the 

Shokonsha, or Spirit-InvoJdng 

This temple was erected in 19W for the 
worehip of the spirits of those who had 
fallen fif^hting for the Mikado's cause in 
the revolutionary war of the previous 
year. Services are also held in honour of 
those who fell in the Saga troubles of 1873, 
and in the S«tsQma rebellion oi lb77. 

The Shokonsha is built in accor- 
dance with the severest canons of 
pure Shinto architecture, and is 
completely empty exoept for a 
mirror, a European drugget, and a 
dozen cheap wooden chairs for the 
use of the officials who come to 
assist at the memorial services 
which are held from time to time, 
the principal ones being on the 6-8th 
May and 6-8th November. These 
occasions are enlivened by horse- 
races, wrestling, and other popular 
amusements. The enormous bronze 
torii was manufsictured in the Osaka 
arsenal, and set up in December, 

The grounds behind the temple 
have been tastefully laid out, and 
look their best in early spring when 
the plum-trees are in blossom. 

The brick building to the r. of 
tlie temple is the Yushu-kwafiy a 
Museum of Arms, which is open 
on Sundays, Wednesdays, and Sa- 
turdays, from 8 A.M. till 5 p.m. in 
summer, and from 9 to 8 in winter. 
It is well worth a visit, for the sake 
of the magnificent specimens of old 
Japanese swords and scabbards 
which it contains, as well as ar- 
mour, old Korean bronze cannon, 
etc. The granite lanterns lining 
the avenue which runs down the 
centre of the race-course, were pre- 
sented by the nobility in 1878. The 
large bronze statue of Omura Hyo- 
bu Taiyfl, a distinguished patriot 
in the war that restored the 
Mikado to power, was erected in 
1892, and is remarkable as being 
the first Japanese example of this 
method of commemorating departed 

Leaving th« groimds of the Sho- 

konsha, we come to an ancient 
stone beacon, which formerly light- 
ed junks on their way up Tokyo 
Bay. Opposite to it, stands a 
monument in the shape of a bayo- 
net, erected in 1880 by the soldiers 
of the Impericd Guard, in memory 
of their comrades who had fallen 
fighting on the loyalist side in the 
Satsuma rebellion. This point over- 
looks the city in the direction of 
Ueno. The prominent edifice on 
the blufi opposite (Suruga-dai) is 
the Russian Cathedral^ consecrated 
in 1891. 

4.— KojiMAOHi (Continued). In- 
ner Moat. The Imperial 
Palace. Insatsu Kyoku. 

Another and more direct way 
from Shimbashi to the Shdkonsha 
at Kudan, is by crossing the first 
bridge (Do-bashi) over the moat, 
passing the Rokumei-kwan, a large 
edifice used for social purposes, on 
the r., and going straight on as far 
as the site of the Houses of the 
Diety at the further end of the 
former Hibiya parade ground, now 
being covered with extensive public 
buildings. Here the road turns r., 
with the Russian Legation, the 
Foreign Office {GioaiimisJio)^ and 
military barracks on the 1. Skirting 
the moat, the large building seen 
in front is the Head-Quarters of the 
General Staff Department. 

Near here, on tt.e 24th March 1R6<^, li- 
Kainon-no-Knmi, Regeut durinsr the in- 
terval precfHling the election of a new 
Sbfl^n. and a man of rare sagacity and 
favourable to foreig^n iutercourw?, was 
asBapsinated in broad da.v light by emis- 
saries of the Prince of Mitb, vrho was 
desirous of seating his own son on the 
throne. To elucidate this incident, it 
should be mentione'l that there were throe 
branches of the Tokugawa family, via. 
Kisbu, Mito, and Owari, from whom the 
Shdguns were elected by a family council, 
and that the election had fallen, upon u 
young prince of Kishu, thiLB baulking^ 
Mito*8 plans. 

The moat here, with its green 
banks and spreading trees, and ia 
winter the myriads of wild-fowl flut> 
tering in %ht water, is one of tiiie 

Imperial Palace. 


prettiest bits of Tdkyd. The vast 
enclomire of ihe Imperial Palaoe 
lies beyond this moat. 
The Imperial Palace* The new 

Palace, inhabited by His Majesty 
the Mikado since 1889, is not acces- 
sible to the public, only those who 
are honoured by an Imperial Audi- 
ence being admitted within its 
walls. Nevertheless the following 
description, abridged from the Japan 
Mail, may be of interest: — Entering 
through long corridors isolated by 
massive iron doors, we find ourselves 
iu the smaller of two reception 
rooms, and at the commencement 
of what seems an endless vista of 
crystal chambers. Tliis effect is 
due to the fact that the shdji, or 
aliding-doors, are of plate-glass. 
The workmanship and decoration 
of these chambers are truly exqui- 
site. It need scarcely be said that 
the woods employed are of the 
choicest description, and that the 
carpenters and joiners have done 
their part with such skill as only 
Japanese artisans seem to possess. 
Every ceiling is a work of art, 
being divided by lacquer ribs of a 
deep brown colour into numerous 
panels, each of which contains a 
beautifully executed decorative de- 
sign, painted, embroidered, or em- 
bossed. The walls are covered in 
most cases with rich but chaste 
brocades, except in the corridors, 
where a thick, embossed paper of 
charming tint and pattern shows 
what skill has been developed in 
this class of manufacture at the 
Imperial Printing Bureau. Amid 
thi*? luxury of well-assorted but 
warm tints, remain the massive 
sqnare posts — beautiful enough in 
themselves, but scarcely harmo- 
nising with their environment, and 
introducing an incongruous element 
into the building. The true type 
of what may be called Imperial 
esthetic decoration was essentially 
marked by refined simplicity — 
white wooden joinery, with pale 
neutral tints and mellow gilding. 
The splendour of richly painted 

ceilings, laoq\ieiied lattice-work, and 
brocaded walls was reserved for 
^nddhist iemplee^ and mautiolea. 
Thus we* haveiifte liJhinto, or true 
Imperial style, presenting, itself in 
the severely colodrless'pilk.^. whila 
the reaoui*o€kB.ef> religious aK*chibeo- 
ture have been drawn upon for the 
rest of the decoration. In one part 
of the building the severest canons 
have been strictly followed : the six 
Imperial Studios, three below stairs 
and three above, are precisely such 
chaste and pure apartments as a 
scholar would choose for the abode 
of learning. By way of an example 
in the other direction, we may take 
the Banqueting Hcdl, a room of 
magnificent size (540 sq. yds.) and 
noble proportions, its immense ex- 
panse of ceiling glowing with gold 
and colours, and its broad walls 
hung with the costliest silks. The 
Throne Chamber is scarcely less 
striking, though of smaller dimen- 
sions and more subdued decoration. 
Every detail of the work shows in- 
finite painstaking, and is redolent 
of artistic instinct. A magnificent 
piece of tapestry hangs in one of the 
salons. It is 40 ft. by 13 ft., woven 
in one piece by Messrs. Kawashima 
of Kyoto. The weaving is of the 
kind known as tstuure-ori^ so called 
because each part of the design is 
separated from the body of the stuff 
by a border of pin-points, so thafc 
the whole pattern seems suspended 
in the material. The subject re- 
presented is an Imperial procession 
in feudal Japan, and the designer 
has succeeded in grouping an im- 
mense number of figures with ad- 
mirable taste and skiU. The colours 
are rich and harmonious, and the 
whole forms probably one of the 
finest pieces of tapestry in existence. 
The furniture of the Palace waa 
imported from Germany. Exter^ 
nally the principal buildings are all 
in pure Japanese style. The ap-> 
propriation iat the Palace was 
13,000,000; but to this amount 
must be added oontiderable suxnr 
voluntarily offered by, wealthy Jap« 


RotOe 4.—Tdkyd. 

nese, as well as Tsloable oontriba- 
tioa0 qI materials. 

The •QnpreieBlibilbB.: Jbr^k an4 
plajtef struoiiii^e tcC-lib'j^n from 
.the^v'Sidfi* jiqV^g. above tlje moat 
*.ni* Iho vilAoe .Qi^losdoSi ooDtains 
tne*offibes *df tl^'lKSpefbtfifoase- 
bold Department (JTtinats/i^). 

Not far from the Palace, in an 
E. direction, is the Iiigatso Kyokii 
or Government Printing Office, a 
vast and well-organised establish- 
ment, to the inspection of which a 
day may be profitably devoted, as 
its scope is very wide, includ- 
ing much besides mere printing. 
Here, among other things, is manu- 
factured the paper currency of the 
country. The Ministries of Finance, 
of Education, and of the Interior, 
together with various other Govern- 
ment Offices, are in the same 


BASHi. Curio Stbeet. SEn>5. 
Kanda Myojin. Imperial Uni- 
versity. Danoo-zaka. O-gwan- 
NON. Botanical Garden. Koi- 
8HIKAWA. Arsenal and Garden. 
GoKOKU-Ji. Imperial Cemetery. 

The most important thorough- 
fare in Tokyo, which none should 
fail to see, leads from the Shimbashi 
terminus to Megane-bashi. The 
portion of it nearest to the station 
is called the Ginza, and has many 
shops in European style. Proceed- 
ing along it, the traveller crosses 
the Kyobashi and Nihon-bashi 
bridges, from the latter of which all 
distances in Eastern Japan are 
calculated. The new General Post- 
Office stands close by. Parallel to 
the portion of the main street be- 
tween these bridges is Naka-ddri, a 
street highly attractive on Skccount 
of its second-hand curio shops, and 
hence commonly known as Curio 
Street among the foreign residents. 
Nihofh-bashi has also given its name 
to the surrounding large and busy 
district, which is filled with shops, 
mi^et-plaoes, and godowns. Tne 

great fish-market is m notable sights 
in the early hours of the mom- 

Another sight (chiefly on the 5th 
day of the month) is afforded by the 
concourse of worshippers at the 
Snltengru Temple. 

The deity her© worshipped is a com- 
pound evolved by the pc^niar conscioos- 
uess from Vantna, the Baddhist Neptune, 
the Shintd sea -gods of Sumiyoehi near 
Osnka, and the boy-emperor, Antoka^ 
who found a watery grave at Dannoura. 

Megane-Bashi, or Spectacles 
Bridge, is so called from its circu- 
lar arches. The portion of the 
canal to the 1. is popularly known 
as ** Sendai*s Weeping Excavation " 

Ixwal history says that Tsnnamune, 
DairfiyO of Sendai. was in the halrit at 
B(iuRndering large snms at the Yoshi- 
wara, and that the ShOgun, in order to 
turn him from his rakish ways, and also 
to put such extravagance out of his 
power, imposed on him the task of deep- 
ening and widening this part of the moat 
— a work which he is said to have per^ 
formed with much lameutation over the 
drain on his purse. 

A little way on is the former 
Seido, the Sage's Hall, or Temple of 
Confucius, now used as an Educa- 
tional Museum. It is pleasantly 
situated on rising ground in the 
midst of a grove of trees, among which 
the fragrant mokusei is most conspic- 
uous. The buildings, which date 
from 1691, are fine specimens of the 
Chinese style of architecture. The 
main hall facing the entrance is 
supported on black lacquered pillars, 
the ceiling also is of black lacquer^ 
while the floor is of finely chiselled 
square blocks of stone. Opposite 
the door is a wooden image of 
Confucius, possessing considerable 
merit as a work of art. The 
Museum, which contains specimens 
of school and kindergarten furni- 
ture, books, maps, etc., is open daily 
to visitors. 

Just above, in the same grounds^ 
stand the two sections of the Nor- 
mal School (Shihan Oakk^), that 
in brick being for young men, the 
other for girls. 

Kanda Myqjin. XJniveruty. Koishikaufa, 


Behind tha Seido, is the Ryobu 
Shinto temple of Kanda MjrdJIn* 
dedicated to the god Onamuji and 
to Masakado, a celebrated rebel of 
the 10th century. 

After the final overthrow of Masakado, 
bis Kboet need to haunt the neighbour- 
fenod. In order to lay this spectre, apo- 
theosis was resorted to in the idth oen- 
txaj. The temple, fur which a hoary 
antiqiiity is claimed, but which was oulj 
established in its present site in 1616. has 
teen frequently iNimt down and rebuilt 
tajkoo that time. 

The temple, originally decorated 
with paintings by artists of the 
Kano school, has now grown some- 
what diogy, but is still popular with 
the multitude. The chief festival, 
oelebrated on the 15th September, 
is well worth seeing. 

Entering the main street of the 
district of Kanda, one of the chief 
arteries of the Northern portion of 
the metropolis, we come r. to the 
laperial UniTersity (TeikokuDai- 
gaku)y a set of handsome brick 
Duildings standing in the extensive 
grounds of the former Kaga Yashiki, 
or mansion of the great Daimyd of 

The perm of this institution was the 
BoMako Shirabe-jo, or ** Place for the Ex- 
amination of Barbarian Writings,*' found- 
ed by the Tokugawa Oovemment in 1866. 
Beren years later, tnis name was altered 
to that of Kaitei-Jo, or ** Place for Develop- 
ing and Completing/' which indicated a 
change for the better in the views held 
by the Japanese a« to the value of Euro- 
pean learning. Numerous other raodifica- 
tioos have taken place both in the name and 
■eope of the institution, which since ISSI 
has been placed on a thoroughly modem 
Sooting, and now includes Ck)lleges of 
Law, Medicine, Bngineering, Literature, 
Science, and Agriculture, wnere lectxires 
an delivered by a large staff of professors 
of various nationalities and in various 
languages. The Htudents number over 
MOO. The courses that attract most 
■Indents are those of Law and Medicine. 
▲ laxge> hospital connected with the Uni- 
versity stands in the same grounds. 
Other institutions under the authority of 
the President of the University are the 
Botanical Gardens in the district of Koi- 
•hikawa, and the TOkyd Observatory at 

Farther on, in the direction of 
Oji, are the florists* gardens of 
Ihuigo-sakJit whither the towns- 

folk flock in thousands to see the 
chrysanthemum shows in Novem- 
ber. The flowers are trained over 
trellis-work to represent historical 
and mythological scenes, ships, 
dragons, and other curious objects. 

The O-Gwannon, or Great 
Kwannon, may be worth a pass- 
ing visit. The gilt image, which is 
16 ft. high, was an offering made in 
the 17th century by a merchant of 
Yedo, and represents the goddess 
bending slightly forward, and hold- 
ing in her hand the lotus, the em- 
blem of purity. Round the walls 
of the shrine containing the image, 
are ranged in tiers the Sen-tai 
Kwannon^ or images of the Thou- 
sand Incarnations of Kwannon. 

The Koishikawa Botiinioal (har- 
den {Shoku-butsii-en) is open to the 
public, and duplicate specimens of 
the plants are for sale at the office. 

The smsdl temple of Mut-yd-in, in 
the same district, is connected with 
the history of the early Catholic 
missionaries to Japan, some of 
whom lie buried in the cemetery. 
Hence the name of Kirishitan-zdka^ 
or Christian Hill, by which the 
locality is popularly known. The 
grave of the earliest of these mis- 
sionaries, Father Giuseppe Chiara, 
who died in 1686, may be dis- 
tinguished by a priest's hat carved 
in the stone. 

Renders desirous of further details are 
referred to the writings of Mr. Einest 
Satow and Professor J. M. Dixon, in Vol. 
VI, Part I, and Vol. XVI, Part HI. of the 
Tranmction* qf the A$iatic Society qf 

The Koi8hikawa Arsenal {HoJiei 
Kosho) occupies the site of the 
former mansion of the Prince of 
Mito. Here are manufactured the 
celebrated Murata rifles. An order 
from the military authorities is 
necessary to gain admittance. An 
order is also necessary for the 
Garden (Kdrahu-en), which still re- 
mains intact, and is the finest 
specimen of the Japanese land- 
scape gardener's art to be seen 
in the capital. The object of ite 


RouU 4i.—Tdkyd. 

deBigner was to reproduce in minia- 
ture many of the soenes whose 
names are classic among the lite- 
rati of Japan. Prince Mitsukuni, 
generally known as Mito Komon, 
laid out the grounds as a place in 
which to enjoy a calm old age after 
a life of labour. If the visitor has 
first inspected the Arsenal, he will 
then be conducted to a summer- 
house in the Garden, with an 
extensive grass-plot attached, and 
overlooking a lake copied from a 
noted one in China, called Sei-ko. A 
small wooded hill rises beyond, 
which we ascend, and on which 
stands a miniature replica of the 
famous temple of Kiyomizu at 
Kyoto, enriched with carvings, but 
worn by time. Descending, we are 
plunged for a minute in the 
depths of a wood before reaching an 
old bridge with a rivulet running far 
below. Crossing the bridge and 
following up a zigzag path, we come 
to the shrine of Haku-i and Shiku- 
sei, the loyal brothers of Chinese 
lore, who, after the overthrow of 
their lord and master, refused to eat 
the corn produced under the con- 
queror's sway, and, secluding them- 
selves on Mount Shuyo, lived on 
ferns till, being told that ferns grew 
also on their enemy's lands, they 
abstained even from that poor food, 
and so died of starvation. An 
arched stone bridge and another 
shrine, shaped octagonally in allu- 
sion to the Eight Diagrams of the 
Chinese system of divination, are 
next passed. From here, a tunnel- 
like opening leads through a thicket 
of creepers and other trees to a lake 
several acres in extent and full of 
lotus-flowers. The water, which 
comes from the Tamagawa aque- 
duct, is made to form a pretty cas- 
cade before falling into the lake. 
An island in the centre is connected 
with the mainland by a bridge. 
Everywhere there are magnificent 
trees— cherry-trees for the spring, 
maples for the autumn, plum-trees 
for the winter, making a change of 
scene at each season. Near the 

exit, is a hill with a path paved in 
such manner as to imitate the road 
over the Hakone Pass. 

On the extreme N. W. outskirt of 
the city stands the Buddhist temple 
of Qokokujiy now used as the head- 
quarters of the Shingon sect, which 
has a seminary there for young 
priests. With its extensive grounds, 
its silent belfry, and the perfect 
stillness of its surroundings, it 
recalls the memory of days now 
irretrievably past, when Buddhism 
was a mighty power in the land. 
The azaleas here are noted for their 
beauty. The chief treasure of the 
temple is a gigantic kakemono of 
Buddha's Entry into Nirvana, by 
Kano Yasunobu, which is shown 
only during the month of April. 

Adjoining Gokokuji is the new 
Cemetery of the Imperial family, 
selected since the removal of the 
Court to T5kyo. It is not open to 
the public. 

6.— Ueno Park, Temples, and 
Museum. Asakusa. Higashi 
HoNGWANJi. Temple of Kwan- 
NON. Mukojima. Hobikiri. 
Ueiio Park, famed for its Temples 
and Tombs of the Shoguns^ is the 
most popular resort in the metro- 
polis, and has been the site of three 
National Industrial Exhibitions. 
Here, in April, all Tokyo assembles 
to admire the wonderful mass of 
cherry-blossom for which it is 
famous. No traveller should miss 
this opportunity of witnessing a 
scene charming alike for natural 
beauty and picturesque Eastern 

The importance of Ueno, which lies due 
N. K. of the Palace, had its origin in a 
wide-spread superstition, which r^^ards 
that quarter as the most unlucky of all 
the points of the compass, and brands it 
with the name of Ki-mon, or the Demons' 
Gate. When, therefore, some progroM 
had been made in the construction of the 
city of Tedo, the Shdgun lemitsu, in the 
year 162A, determined to erect here a set 
of Bnddhist temples, which, eclipsing all 
others in splendour, shonld ward oil 
the approach of such evil influences. 
The or^:inal main temple then founded 

Ueno Park and TempU*. 


oocTxpied the site of the present MuBenm, 
and wa« burnt down In 1868 on the 
occnsion of a bloody battle fought between 
the partisana of the Mikado and those of 
t».e ^hdicun. The outer gate still exists, 
showing the marks of ballots This 
temple was counted among the triumphs 
of Japanese orchitecturo. Here always 
rcai«ied a-* high-priest a son of the reiga- 
ing Mikado, retained in gilded slavery 
for political reasons, as it was convenient 
for the Shdguns to have in their power 
a prince who cfjuld at once be decorated 
with the Imperial title, should the Court 
(t KydU> at any time prove unfavourable 
to their policy. The last high-priest of 
Ueno was actually utilised in this man- 
ner by the "hS^uu's partisans, and car- 
riesd off bv them to Ai«u when they raised 
the f«tandard of rel>eUion. On their defeat, 
he was pardoned by the present legiti- 
m^e sovereign, was sent to Germany to 
study, and is now kno>m by the title of 
Prince Kita-iShirakawa. 

LeaviDg his jinrikisha at the 
bottom of the hill, the traveller 
Aficeuds r. a short flight of steps, 
leading to a plateau planted with 
cherry-trees and commanding a 
good view of the city, especially 
towards Asakusa, including the 
twelve-storied tower which is seen 
rising be^'ond the Ueno railway 
station, and the high roof of the 
great Uongwanji temple. The stone 
xnonament on this plateau is de- 
dicated to the soldiers who fell 
fighting for the Shogun's cause in 
the battle of Ueno. Close by to the 
1., is a dingy Buddhist temple dedi- 
cated to the Thousand-Handed 

Descending again to the main 
road, we reach the celebrated avenue 
of cherry-trees, a uniquely beauti- 
ful sight during the season of blos- 
som. The air seems to be filled with 
pink clouds. To the 1., is a shallow 
piece of water, called Shinobazu 
no Ike and celebrated for its lotus- 
flowers in August. On a little 
peniusnla jutting out into the lake, 
is a shrine dedicated to the goddess 
Ben ten. This formerly romantic 
spot has of late years fallen a victim 
to vandalism, the shores of the lake 
baring been turned into a race- 
course. A litUe farther up, is a 
brmaeh of the *8eiydkm Hotel, 

which commands a good view of the 
lake. The extensive bnildings seen 
in the distance, on a height, are the 
Imperial University and the First 
Higher Middle School. Close to the 
I hotel is a bronze image of Buddha, 
; 21 i ft. high, known as the Daihutsu. 
\ This inferior specimen of the bronze 
j sculptor's art dates from about the 
year 1660. Following along the 
I main road for a few yards, we come 
1. to a bullet-riddled gate, preserved 
as a relic of the battle of Ueno. An 
immense stone lantern just inside 
the gate is one of the three largest 
in Japan, and dates from early in 
the 17th century. Beyond it again, 
has stood since 1890 a switch-back 
railway, whose vulgar clatter strikes 
a strangely discordant note in the 
harmony produced by the stately 
crvptomerias, the ancient pagoda, 
and the glorious gold gate at the 
end of the long avenue of stone 
lanterns, presented in 1661 by 
various Daimyos as a tribute to the 
memory of the Shogun leyasu. To 
this Shogun, under his posthumous 
name of Torthdgfi or Gongen Sama, 
the shrine within the gate is dedi- 
cated. The gate itself, restored in 
1890, is a dream of beauty. Carv- 
ings of dragons adorn it on either 
side. Above are geometrical figures, 
birds, foliage, and everywhere the 
Tokugawa crest of three Asarum 
leaves. It is intended to restore in 
the same style the temple whose 
gold has been worn away in many 
places. The details resemble those 
of the Mortuary Shrines at Shiba. 
The temple contains some fine speci- 
mens of lacquer. Hound the walls 
hang pictures of the San-ju-rok-ka- 
seuy below which are screens with 
conventional lions. 

The 8an^v^rok-ka-$0nf or Thirty-six 
Poetical Geniuses, flourished during the 
8Lh, 0th, and 10th centuries. The grouping 
of their names in a galaxy is attnbute<l to 
a court noble of the I Ith century, named 
Kintd Dainagon. Their portraits were 
first painted taj Fujiwara-no-Nobuzane 
about AD 1200. A complete list of their 
names will be found in vr. Wm. Anderw 
son's interesting Catalogue t^JofommH amd 
Ckinem Paintiuf$, 


Bouts 4.—Tdkyd. 

Betuming to the main road 
the way we came, and passing 
by the former buildings of the last 
National Industrial Exhibition, we 
reach the 

Ueno Mnsenm ( Hakubutsu' 
hwan). This institution, which is 
open from 8 to 5 in summer, and 
from 9 to 4 in winter, Mondays and 
the three weeks from the 16th De- 
cember to the 4th January excepted, 
is well worth a visit. The contents 
are arranged as follows: — 

Ground Floor, R. of Entrance. 
Natural History Department :— ob- 
serve the cocks from Tosa, with tail 
feathers 12^ ft. long. The front 
rooms contain the Zoological Sec- 
tion ; the back rooms, the Mineral- 
Ogical Section. A wing lying beyond 
the room chiefly devoted to osteo- 
logical specimens, is the Department 
of Industry, containing glass and 
porcelain (both foreign and Japa- 
nese), chemical, ship-building, engi- 
neering, architectural, and other 

An annexe at the back of the 
main building contains the surplus 
of the Mineralogical Section. Be- 
hind it a pretty landscape garden 
in Japanese style has been laid out. 

Qr&iind Floor. L. of Entrance. 
Front rooms. Historical or Archae- 
logical Department, including 

Boom I. 
Ancient manuscripts and printed 
books, old maps, paintings, and 

Boom II. 

Stone arrow-heads, spear-heads, 
and pottery of the prehistoric period; 
proto-historic copper bells and mir- 
rors, iron swords, armour, horse- 
trappings, shoes, and cooking uten- 
sils. The most characteristically 
Japanese specimens are the maga- 
tama and kuda-tama in jasper, 
agate, etc.. 

The maga-tama, or "curved jewels," 
which Bomewhat resemble a tadpole in 
shape, were anciently (say, prior to 
the 7tn century) strung together and used 
as necklaoes and ornaments for the waist 

both l^ men and women, as were also 
the huaa4ama or ** tube-shaped jewels.** 
Their use survived in the Loochoo Is- 
lands till a much more recent date. 

Besides the above, notice also the 
pottery anciently used for the pre> 
sentation of offerings to the Shinto 
gods. Some pieces from the pro- 
vinces on the N.E. shore of the In- 
land Sea are remarkably ornamented 
with human figures in high relief. 
Particularly curious are the earthen- 
ware images of men and horses used 
in proto-historic times for interment 
in the graves of illustrious person- 
ages, after the custom of burying their 
chief retainers alive with them had 
been discontinued, the figures of birds 
— apparently geese — which were 
used as a fence round the tumulus 
of the Emperor Ojin in the pro- 
vince of Kawachi, and fragments of 
earthenware posts put to a similflu: 

Boom III. (End Boom). 

Objects illustrating the manners 
and customs of the Ainos, Koreans, 
Loochooans, Chinese, Formosan 
and Australasian aborigines, the 
natives of India, and the American 

The back rooms on this side 
contain palanquins of the Tokugawa 
period, old paint in f;rs^ statues by the 
students of the Tokyo Art School, 
and copies of very ancient Buddhist 
frescoes preserved at the temple of 
Horyuji in Yamato. 

Upper Floor. Landing: — Ancient 
Imperial State bullock cart and 
palanquins, model of the Tenchi 
Maru^ or Ship of Heaven and 
Earth, which was the state bargo 
used by the Shoguns. 

Central Roomy adjoining the 
landing : — Imperial robes, and other 
articles used by the Emperor under 
the old rigime, including the throne 
hung with silk hangings, which 
served to shroud Majesty fix>m the 
gaze of ordinary mortals, who, so it 
was believed, would be struck blind 
if they looked upon the "Dragon 

Veno Mmeum. 


Fttoe." There are also Imperial 
autographs, gold soreens, etc. 

Turning to the r. (over the 
Katoral History Department), we 
ooxne to the Fine Art Depckrtment. 
Boom 1 contains old Kakemonos 
and Makimonos ; Boom % aocient 
masks and images, chiefly bronze ; 
Boom 3, manuscripts and illustrat- 
ed scrolls. The bsick rooms on this 
ade comprise the Art Industry 
Department, — lacquer, porcelain, 
broaze, etc. 

Uppzb Stobey. L. of Entbaitcb. 

Boom I. 

Model, on a scale of •^, of the 
Shinto shrines temporarily erected 
in the Fuldage garden in Tokyo, 
for the ceremonies attending the 
accession of the present Emperor. 
These ceremonies took place in 
1871, and the buildings were at 
once burnt. 

Boom II. 

Department of History. This 
mom is chiefly devoted to ancient 
objects from Horyuji, such as 
temple furniture, sesJs, golden tok- 
ho, and specimens of the miniature 
pagodas {Hachi-man-td) of which, 
in A.D. 764, the reigning Mikado 
eaosed a million to be made for 
£atribntion to all the Buddhist 
temples throughout the land. 
There are also manuscripts, which 
rank among the earliest specimens 
of Japanese calligraphy. They are 
■U in the Chinese lauguage. The 
principal other exhibits are fac- 
$imiUs of ancient objects of daily use 
at the Imperial Court preserved at 
the ShoBO-in, a celebrated store- 
hooiie attached to the temple of 
ISdaiji at Nara, and implements 
med in the Shinto religious cult. 

Two cases in this room have a 
very special interest, as they are 
iUed with Christian relics. 

Mftar til these date from the embassyto 
Bem« of Hnshikora Rokaemon, who was 
■e»c thither hy Date MaMmane, Prinoe of 
tendai, in l«i4, with a train of foUowera, 

and returned to Japan in 1820. The offi- 
cial Japanese accoont of this ouriooa 
episode is that the embassy went at the 
SnOgnn's desire, in order to investigate 
the pc^ticul strength and resoorofs of 
Europe. The version usually accepted by 
European writers is that the expedition 
really was what it avowed itself to be,— 
an act of submission to the religious 
supremacy of the Pope. The envoy was 
well received at the Roman (^ourt, and 
was presented with the freedom of the 
city of Rome, besides being loaded with 
presents. The relics lemained in the 
possession of the Date family at Sendai 
until a few years ago. 

Among the objects in these cases, 
are an oil-painting of Hashikura 
in prayer before a crucifix, an il- 
luminated Latin document confer- 
ring on him the freedom of the city 
of Borne, holy pictures, rosaries, 
crucifixes, a small Japanese book 
of Catholic devotion in Hiragana 
characters, photographs of Date 
Masamune's letters to the Pope in 
Japanese and Latin, a portrait of 
Hashikura in the Italian costume, 
etc. To a set of circumstances very 
different in . their nature, though 
not far removed in time, belong the 
fumi-ita, or " trampling boards," — 
oblong blocks of metal with figures 
in high relief of Christ before Pilate, 
the Descent from the Cross, the 
Virgin and Child, etc., on which 
persons suspected of the crime of 
Christianity were obliged to trample 
during times of persecutiou, in order 
to testify their abjuration of the 
" Depraved Sect," as it was called. 
The Dutch traders at Nagasaki are 
suspected of having lent themselves 
to this infamous practice for the 
sake of monetary gain. 

The last room of this suite con- 
tains objects ilhistrative of Japanese 
social usGiges and etiquette, such as 
symbolical presents given on the 
occasion of marriages and the 
naming of childi-eu, methods of 
folding paper and tying up presents, 
the toys displayed on the Girls* 
Festival of the Srd March, and the 
Boys' Festival of the 6th May, etc. 

The back rooms on this side con- 
tain court robes, ancient textile 
fabrics, armour and weapons, 


Route 4. — TdJet^. 

musical iaBiruments, tea utensils, 
masks, and theatrical costumes. 

Oa quitting the Museum, an 
avenue r. leads to the Art School 
(Bijutsu Gakkd)f not accessible 
without a special introduction. In 
the same grounds are a Public 
Library and Reading Room (Tosho- 
kwan), and a learned Academy 
called the Gakiishi Kwai-in. Close 
by are the Zoological Gardens (Z>d- 

Before reaching the Tosho-kwan, 
an avenue turns off r. to the 

Tombs of the Shogiins (Go Rci- 
ya), abutting on the second and 
finer of the two Mortuary Temples 
(Ni no Go Reiya). The main gate 
is always kept closed, but a side en- 
trance 1. leads to the priest's house. 
The resident custodian will act as 
guide for a small fee. 

The six ShO^uns buried at Ueno l>elcmflr- 
ed to the Tokujmwa family, being the 4th, 
5th. 8th, 10th, 11th, and I3th of their line. 
It is still at the private expense of the 
family that theBe shrines are kept np. In 
general style, they closely i-esenible those 
at Shiba, described on pp. 94—7, and are 
among the priceless le-racies of the art of 
Old Japan. Like the 8hil)a shrines, too, 
they have suffered at the hands of thieves 
since the Revolution of 1868. 

This glorious building, a sym- 
phony in gold and blended colours, 
has a wooden colonnade in front, 
the red walls of which are divided 
into compartments, each contain- 
ing a medallion in the centre, filled 
with painted open-work car\'ings 
of birds and flowers, with arabes- 
ques derived from the chrysan- 
themum above and a carved wave- 
design below. In the centre of this 
colonnade is a gate decorated with 
a painting of an angel. From here, 
an open colonnade leads up to the 
steps of the main building. The 
porch has brackets carved with 
conventional chrysanthemums. Its 
square columns are adorned with 

?lum-blossom8 in red and gold. 
Jnder the beams, are red and gold 
lions' heads as brackets. The doors 
of the oratory are carved in diapers, 

and gilded all over. Note the taste- 
fully painted diapers oo the archi- 
trave. The ceiling is massive and 
loaded with metal fastenings. In 
the coffers are dragons in gold on a 
blue ground. The interior walls 
are gilded, having in some places 
conventional paintings of lions, in 
others movable shutters. This 
apartment is 16 yds. wide by 7 yds. 
in depth. The corridor which sno- 
ceeds it is 4 yds. wide by 8 yds. in 
depth, and leads to the black lac- 
quered steps of the inner sanctum. 
Its ceiling is decorated with the 
phoenix on a green and gold ground. 
Handsome gilt doors covered with 
carved arabesques close the entrance 
' to the sanctum, which measures 7 
yds. in depth by 11 yds. in width. 
The ceiling is decorated with fine 
gilt lattice-work in the coffers. The 
small shrines, containing the me- 
morial tablets of the illustrious 
dead, are gorgeous specimens of 
gold lacquer. Beginning at the r., 
these shrines are respectively those 
of the 5th, 8th, and 13th Shoguns, 
and of K6kyo-In, son of the tenth 
Shogun. R. and 1. are two shrines 
containing tablets of eight mothers oi 
Shoguns. Curiously enough, all weze 
concubines, not legitimate consorts. 
The actual graves are in the grounds 
behind. The finest, a bronze one, 
is that of the 5th Shogim. Its 
bronze gate has magnificent panels, 
with the phcenix and unicorn in 
bas-relief — Korean castings from 
Japanese designs about 140 years 

The First Mortuary Temple (Ichi 
no Go Reiya) is clo-?e to the Seoond. 
On leaving the Seoond, turn to the 
1. to reach the priests* house, where 
application for admission must he 
made. Here are buried the 4ih, 
10th, and 11th Shoguns, together 
with several princesses. The monn- 
ment of the 4th is in bronae, the 
others in simple stone. Over the 
grave of the 11th Shogun hangs a 
weeping cherry-tree, placed there 
to commemorate the love of flowen 
which distinguished that amiable 

Htgodhi Honffwatiji, 


nonce, whose xaign (AJ>. 1787-1888) 
iQimed the cuUninatiDg point of the 
^ilendour of Old Japan. 

Betaming towaros the entrance 
q{ the park, we reach the Buddhist 
temple popularly known as Ryo 
Daishi, properly Jige7i-Dd, dedicated 
to the two great Abbots, Jie Daishi 
and Jigen Daishi, the former of 
whom flourished in the 9th century, 
the latter in the 16th and 17th. 
The portrait of Jie Daishi here pre- 
aerr^ is considered one of the chef- 
^cntvres of the great painter Eauo 
T!ui-yn. On this side of the park 
are some buildings often used of 
late years for art exhibitions of 
various kinds. 

We now leave Ueno, and passing 
akmg a busy thoroughfare, reach 
the district of Asakusa. The first 
object of interest here is the spacious 
tmple of Ui^afihi Hongwanji, 
popularly called Monzckiy the chief 
leligioas edifice in Tokyo of the 
Monto sect of Buddhists. Though 
▼ery plain, as is usual with the 
buildings of this sect, the Monzeki 
is worth visiting on account of its 
noble proportions. It was founded 
in 1657. The iron net-work thrown 
over the temple is intended to pre- 
vent sparks from falling on the 
wood-work, when there is a confla- 
gration in the neighbourhood. The 
huge porch is adorned with finely 
oarved wooden brackets, the designs 
being chrysanthemum flowers and 
leaves, and peony flowers and 
leaves. On the transverse beams 
are some curiously involved dragons, 
which are the best specimens of 
this sort of work in Tokyo, and 
should therefore not be passed over. 
Observe, too, the manner — peculiar 
to the buildings of this sect — in 
which the beams are picked out with 
i^ite. The area of the matted 
floor of the nave {gt^in) is 140 mats, 
and round the front and sides runs 
a wooden aisle 12 ft. wide. Over 
the screen which separates the 
^lancel and its side-chapels from 
the nave, are massive gilt open-work 
MBTiag* jceprssenting angels and 

phosnixes; the largest are 12 ft. 
in length by 4 ft. in height. The 
rest of the building is unadorned. 
Hanging against the gilt bai^kground 
of the temple wall, on either side of 
the altar, are to be seen several 
kakemonos of Buddhist saints, 
indistinguishable in the "dim religi- 
ous light;" also r. the posthumous 
tablet of leyasu, which is exposed 
for veneration on the 17th of the 
mouth. The honzcni, Auiida, is a 
black image, always exposed to 
view, and standing in a very hand- 
some shrine of black and gold lac- 
quer. From the r. side of the main 
hall, a bridge leads down to the 
Jiki-do, or preaching hall. At the 
main temple, sermons are only 
preached for one week in the year, 
viz. from the 21st to 28th Novem- 
ber, when the gorgeous services 
{Ho-on-kd) held in honour of the 
founder of the sect are well worth 
witnessing. On this occasion, the 
men all go to the temple in the 
style of dress known as kata-ginu^ 
and the women with a head-dress 
called tsuno-kaktishi (lit. *'horn- 
hider") — both relics of the past. 
The ** hom-hider " would seem to 
have been so named in allusion to 
a Buddhist text which says : " A 
woman's exterior is that of a saint, 
but her heart is that of a demon." — 
Lesser services are held at the time 
of the vernal and autumnal equi- 
noxes. Quaint testimony is borne 
to the popularity of this temple 
with the lower middle class by the 
notices posted up on some of the 
great columns in the main hall. 
Not only is there one to prohibit 
smoking, but one warning people 
not to come here for their afternoon 
nap (Hiru-ne muyo) ! On quitting 
the Monzeki, notice its nobly mass- 
ive roof, with lions rampant at the 

About 7 chd from the Monzeki, 
stands the great Buddhist temple 
of Sensdjif popularly called Asa* 
kusa KirunnOH, because dedicat- 
ed to Kwannon, the goddess of 


Route 4.—Tdky9. 

A. fabnlonB antiqnitj is claimed for the 
founding in this locality of a Bhrine 
sacred to Ewannon, the tradition beins 
that the imaffe which is novr worshipped 
there, was flshod up on the neighbouring 
strand during the reign of the Empress 
Suiko (A.D. 698—628) by a noble of the 
name of Hashi-no*Nakatomo, who had 
been exiled to this then desolate portion 
of the coast, and with two attendants 
gained his livelihood by cnsting his nets 
at the mouth of the Asakusa river. In 
his flshing'hut the first altar is said to 
have been raised ; and the crest of three 
nets, which is to be seen marking certain 
portions of the buildings, was devised in 
memory of the event. The miraculous 
imJige IS never shown , but is commonly 
believed to be but \\ inch in height; and 
the disproportion l^etween the smallness 
of the imHge and the vastness of the 
temple has passed into a popular saying. 
Instead of the original sacrea image, there 
is exhibited on the 13th December of 
every year a newer and Inrger one which 
stands in front of the high altar. In the 
year 1180, Yoritomo endowed the temple 
with ninety acres of arable land. But 
when levsj^u matle Yedo his capital, he 
found the temple gone to ruin, and the 
priests living in disorder and immoi-ality. 
The present buildings d«te from the time 
of lemitsu, after the destruction by fire 
of the former edifice. They are in the 

Sosscssion of the Tendai sect of Bud- 

On no account should a visit to 
this popular temple and the sur- 
rounding grounds (Kdenchi) be 
omitted ; for it is the great holiday 
resort of the middle and lower 
classes, and nothing is more strik- 
ing than the juxtaposition of piety 
and pleasure, of gorgeous altars 
and grotesque ex-votos, of pretty 
costumes and dingy idols, the 
clatter of the clogs, cocks and bens 
and pigeons strutting about among 
the worshippers, children playing, 
soldiers smoking, believers cha£fer- 
ing with dealers of charms, ancient 
art, modem advertisements — in 
fine, a spectacle than which surely 
nothing more motley was ever wit- 
nessed within a religious edifice. 
The most crowded time is Sunday 
afternoon, and the 17tb and 18tb 
of each month, days sacred to 

The main gate of the temple no 
longer exists. One walks up 
through a lane of red brick shops, 

where toys, photographs, and gew- 
gaws of all kinds are spread out 
to tempt the multitude. The sam- 
moHf or two-storied gate in front of 
the temple, is a huge structure of 
red wood, with images of the Ni-o 
on either side. The immense 
sandals hung up in front of the 
cages containing these images, are 
placed there by persons desiroos 
of becoming good walkers. To the 
1., immediately before passing 
through the big gate, is a popular' 
Shrine of Fuddy just outside of 
which is a shrine of Jizo, distin- 
guishable by a prayer- wheel (go-sh^ 
guruma) roughly resembling a pillar 

The prayer-wheel is, in Japan, found 
only in connection with the mystic doc- 
trine of the Tendai and Shingon sects* 
and its use differs slightly from that to 
which it is put in Thibet. No prayers are 
written on it ; hut the worshipper, attri> 
butingtotn^ira (the Sanskrit karma, which 
means, the effect in this life of the aoticns 
in a former state of existence) any sin 
of which he wishes to be cleansed, or any 
desire that occurs to him, turns the wheM 
with a simple request to Jizd to let this 
ittffwa duly run its course-— the course of 
(nyira resembling the perpetual revoln- 
tions of a wheel. 

On the opposite or r. side of the 
lane, on a mound, is the large Asa- 
kusa bell whose sonorous notes are 
heard all over the northern part 
of the city. 

The great hall of the temple of 
Kwannon is 102 ft. square, and is 
entirely surrounded by a wide 
gallery. The large picture hanging 
above the entrance to the r. re- 
presents life (under the figure of 
two sleeping men and a sleep- 
ing tiger) as nothing more than a 
dream, the only living reality in 
which is the power of religion 
(typified by a Buddhist priest). 
Just below this rests a huge moku- 
gyoy a hollow wooden block, fish- 
shaped, which priests strike while 
praying. The eye is struck, on 
entering, by the immense number 
of lanterns and pictures^ which 
cover the ceiling and walls.' These 
are all offerings presented by be. 

Templs of Kwannon at Amkxua. 


lievers. Some of the pictures are 
by good modem artists. One over 
the shrine to the r. represents a 
performance of the Nb^ or mediseval 
lyric drama, in which the red-hair- 
ed sea-demon called Shdjo jplays 
the chief part. Opposite is a 
curious painted carving in relief, 
representing the "Three Heroes of 
Shoku " (a Chinese state established 
in the 2nd century chiefly by their 
efforts). The hero on the r., called 
Kwan-u, is now worshipped in 
China as the God of War. To the 
1. of this, is one showing On-Uma- 
ya-no-Kisanda fixing his bow-string 
to shoot the foes of his master 
Yoshitsune, the latter (to the r.) 
being awakened by his mistress, the 
renowned and lovely Shizuka Go- 
sen. The ceiling is painted with 
representations of angels, the work 
of Kano Doshun. The seated image 
to the r., with a pink bib round its 
neck, and now almost nibbed away 
with age, was a celebrated work of 
Jikaku Daishi, and represents Bin* 
zuru, the helper of the sick. At 
any time of the day believers may 
be observed rubbing it (see p. 40). 
The stalls in front of the main 
shrine are for the sale of pictures 
of the goddess Kwannon, which are 
nsed as charms against sickness, to 
help women in child-birth, etc., of 
tickets to say whether a child about 
to be bom will be a boy or a girl, 
and so forth. 

The chancel is, as usual, separat- 
ed from the nave by a wire screen, 
and is not accessible to the public. 
A small douceur tendered to one of 
the priests in charge will, however, 
generally procure admission. On 
the high altar, gorgeous with lamps, 
flowers, gold,, and sacred 
vessels, and guarded by figures of 
the Shi Tenno, of Bonten, and of 
Taishaku, the latter said to be the 
work of GyOgi Bosatsu, stands the 
shrine containing the sacred image 
ci Kwannon. On either side are 
ranged images, some 2 or 8 ft. 
high, of Kwannon in her"Three- 
uid- Thirty Terrestrita Embodi- 

ments,*' each set in a handsome 
shrine standing out against the 
gold ground of the wall. B. and 1. 
of the altar, hang a pair of votive 
offerings — golden horses in high 
relief on a lacquer ground — present- 
ed by the Shdgun lemitsu. On the 
ceiling is a dragon, the work of Kano 
Eishin. The side altar to the r. is 
dedicated to Fudo. Observe the 
numerous vessels used in the 
ceremony of the Qoma prayers, 
which are frequently offered up 
here for the recovery of the sick. 
The twelve small images are the 
Jti-ni Doji, or attendants of Kwan- 
non. The altar to the 1. is de- 
dicated to Aizen My6-6, whose red 
image with three eyes and six arms 
is contained in a gaudy shrine. 
The two-storied miniature pagoda 
is simply an offering, as are also 
the thousand small images of 
Kwannon in a case to the 1., and 
the large European mirror, in front 
of which is a life-like image of the 
abbot Zeunin Shonin. At the back 
of the main altar is another 
called Ura Kwannon (ura meaning 
"back"), which should be visited 
for the sake of the modern wall- 
pictures on lacquer vrith a back- 
ground of gold leaf, by artists of 
the Kano school. Above are a crowd 
of supernatural beings, headed by 
a converted dragon in the form 
of a beautiful woman, who offers a 
large jewel to Shaka. Two of the 
latter's disciples (Rakan) are at his 
r. foot, Monju at his 1. foot, and 
Pugen below on the 1. The figure 
of Pugen has been restored within 
the last thirty years. Those on the 
r. and 1. walls are intended for the 
Twenty -eight Manifestations of 

In the grounds are several build- 
ings of interest, and a number of 
ich6 trees whose golden foliage in 
autumn is a sight in itself. Be- 
hind the great temple to the 1., is a 
small shrine full of ez-votos in- 
scribed with the character >f)t 
'* eye,*' presented by persons afiliot- 
ed with eye disease. Beside it is a 


Boute 4>.—T5kyQ, 

large bronze image of Buddha, and 
close by is a lantern on which be- 
lievers pour water to obtain an an- 
swer to their prayers. The small 
hexagonal building immediately be- 
hind the great temple is the Daihd- 
dd or Jizd-ddf containing a crowd of 
little stone images seated in tiers 
round a large one of Jizo. This 
divinity being the special protector 
of children, parents bring the images 
of their dead little ones to his shrine. 
Beyond the Jiz6-dd, is the Nan- 
butsu-dd with a pretty altar. Turn- 
ing r., we come to the Sanja — a 
SViiuto shrine, dedicated to the 
Three Fishermen of the local legend, 
and having panels decorated with 
mythological monsters in gaudy 
colours. Note the bronze and stone 
lions in front. Passing the stage 
on which the Kagiira dances are 
performed, we reach the Rinzo^ or 
Revolving Library, contained in a 
square building with carved lions on 
the eaves. 

The Sinz5 is a receptacle large enonph 
to hold a complete collection of the Bud- 
dhist Scriptures, but taming so easily on 
a pivot as to bo readily made to revolve 
hy one vigorous push. A ticket over tbo 
door explains the use of this peculiar 
book case : " Owing to the volumirtouaness 
of the Buddhist Scriptures — 6,771 volumes 
— it is impossible for any single in- 
dividual to read them through. But a 
degree of merit equal to that accruing to 
him who should have perused the entire 
canon, may be obtained by those who will 
cause this library to revolve three times 
on its axis ; and moreover long life, pros- 
perity, and the avoidance of all misfor- 
tunes shall \te their reward." The inven- 
tion of Revolving Libraries is attributed to 
Fu Daishi (see p. 41 ). That at Asaknsa is 
of red lacquer on a black lacquer base and 
Btoue lotus-shaped pedestal. The ceiling 
of the small building containing it has re- 
presentations of clouds and angels. 'I'he 
images in front, on entering, represent 
Fu Daishi with his sons. Those tramp- 
ling on demons are the Shi Tenno, and 
the life-sise gilt figure is Shaka. The 
books, which were brought from China 
early in the 13th oentor^, are aired every 
year at the autumn equinox, but are not 
shown at other times. The custodian, in 
return for a small gratuity, will allow 
visitors to make the library revdive. 

The Pagoda close by is no longer 
open to visitors. 

Adjacent to the temple enolosiire 
we fold the Asdkusa Kdenchi, or 
Public Grounds, where stands the 
lofty tower, properly called Ryd-utt- 
kaku^ and more popularly, Ju-ni- 
kai. This building, erected in 1890^ 
has twelve storeys, as its popular 
name implies, is 220 ft. in height, 
nearly 50 ft. in internal diameter at 
the base, and commands a more 
extensive view than auy other point 
in the city. 

Tlie grounds of Asakusa are the 
quaintest and liveliest place in 
T5ky5. Here are raree-shows, penny 
gaffs, performing monkeys, cheap 
photographers, street artists, jug- 
glers, wrestlers, theatrical and 
other figures {ningyo) in painted wood 
and clay, vendors of toys and lolly- 
pops of every sort, and, circulating 
amidst all these cheap attractions, a 
seething crowd of busy holiday- 

About 1 m. to the N. of Asakusa 
Park lies the world-famed Yoshi- 
waray the principal quarter inhabit- 
ed by the licensed hetairse of the 
metropolis. Many of the houses 
within this district are almost pala- 
tial in appearance, and in the eve- 
ning present a spectacle probably 
unparalleled in auy other country, 
but reproduced on a smaller scale 
in the provincial Japcmese cities. 
The unfortunate inmates, decked 
out in gorgeous raiment, sit in rows 
with gold screens behind, and pro- 
tected from the outside by iron 
bars. As the whole quarter is under 
special municipal surveillance, per- 
fect order prevails, enabling the 
stranger to study, while walking 
along the streets, the manner in 
which the Japanese have solved one 
of the vexed questions of all ages. 
Their methcKl, though running 
counter to Anglo-Saxon ideas, pre- 
serves Tokyo from the disorderly 
scenes that obtrude themselves on 
the passer-by in our Western cities. 

On the other side of Azuma-bashi, 
the finest bridge in Tokyd, is the 

Muk^iwa» Eko-in. 


Saiake TasMki, which offers one of 
ihe best specimens of the Japanese 
style of landscape gardening. A 
small fee gives admittance to it. 
The noted Yaomat^i tea-house 
stands close by. 

Mukojima, celebrated for its 
aTenne of cherry-trees, stretches 
for more than a mile along the 
L b&nk of the Sumida-gawa. When 
the blossoms are out in April, 
Hukojima is densely crowded with 
holiday-makers from mom till dusk, 
and the tea-houses on the banks 
and the boats on the river re-echo 
with music and merriment. This 
sight) which lasts for about a week, 
should on no account be missed. 
The little temple at the end of the 
avenue was raised in remembrance 
of a touching episode of the 10th 
oentury, which forms the subject of 
a famous Lyric Drama. 

Umewaka, the child of a noble family, 
was carried off from Kydto by a elave- 
Bcgrchant, and perished in this distant 
spot, where his body was found by a 
good priest who gave it burial. The next 
year bis mother, who had roamed over 
the countiy in search of her boy, came to 
the place, where, under a willow-tree, the 
TiDa^ers were weepinj? over a lowlv 
ffmre. On asking the name of the dead, 
■he discorered that it was none other 
than her own son, who daring the night 
appeared in ghostly form, and held con- 
▼erse with her; bat when day dawned, 
nothing remained bat the waving 
faranehes of the willow, and instead of 
his Toice only the sighing of the breeze. 
A commemorative service is still held on 
the 16th March ; and if it rains on that 
day, the people say the rain-drops are 
Umewaka s tears. 

Another favourite flower resort, lying 
some little way beyond Mukojima, 
is Harikirij famed for its irises 
which bloom in Jime. The excur- 
sion is a pleasant one at that time 
of the year. 

7. — Eko-in. The Five Hundred 
Bakan. Kameido. Distbict of 
fukaoawa. susaki. 

Crossing Rydgoku-hashi, one of 
thfS largest bridges in the metro- 
polis spanning the Sumida-gawa, 
we reach the noted Buddhist tem- 
igAB of Eko-in. 

In the spring of 1657, on the occasion of 
a terrible conflagration which lasted for 
two days and nights, lu7,046 persons are 
said to have perished in the flumes. The 
Government undertook the cnre of their 
interment, and orders were ^ven to Dan- 
zaemon, the chief of the panahs,* to con- 
vey the l)odies to Ushijima. as this part 
of Yedo was then called, and dig for tnem 
a common pit. Priests from all the 
different Buddhist sects came together 
to recite, for the space of seven days, a 
thousand scrolls of the sacred books for 
the benefit of the souls of the departed. 
The grave was called Muennika, or the 
Mound of Destitution, and the temple 
which was built near it is, therefore, also 
popularly entitled Mnenji. Ekd-in being, 
on account of its peculiar origin, without 
the usual means of support derived from 
the gifts of the relatives of the dead, was 
formerly used as the place whither sacred 
images were brought from other nrovinces 
to be worshipped for a time by tiie people 
of Yedo, and -as a scene of public per- 
formances. The latter custom still sur- 
vives in the wrestling-matches and other 
shows, which draw great crowds here 
every spring and winter. At Ekd-in 
prayers are offered up daily for the souls 
of dead animals. A fee of 30 cents will 
pi-ocure a short service and burial in the 
temple grounds for such domestic pets as 
cats, dogs, etc., a larger sum being neces- 
sary if the animal's Ihait or funeral tablet) 
has also to be furnished. 

Eko-in might well be taken as a 

text by those who denounce 

'* heathen " temples. Dirty, gaudy, 

full of semi- defaced images, the 

walls plastered with advertisements, 

the altar guarded by two hideous red 

i monsters, children scampering in 

I and out, wrestlers stamping, crowds 

j shouting — the place lacks even the 

I semblance of sanctity. In a small 

arched enclosure behind the temple, 

stands the grave of the celebrated 

highwayman Nezinni Kdzo^ wliere 

incense is always kopL burning. 

The cemetery at the back contains 

monuments to those who perished 

in the great fire of 1667, aud in the 

great earthquake of 1855. 

In Honjoy Midori-ch5, about 1 
mile further on, is a temple con- 

* In Japanese, Eta. Their occtipations 
were to slaughter animals, tan leather, 
assist at executions, etc. The class as 
snch is now abolished ; but remnants of 
its pccnliar costume may still occasional- 
ly be seen in the persons of young girls 
with broad hats, who go about the streets 
playing and singing. 


RouU 4.—Tdkyd. 

taining painted images, almost life- 
size, of the Five Hundred Bakan 
(Go-hyaku Rakan), seated on shelves 
reaching from the bare earth of 
the floor to the rafters of the roof. 
They are from the chisel of Shoun, 
an artist of the 17th century. On 
some of them are pasted slips of 
paper with their names. The much 
larger image in the centre repre- 
sents Shaka, with Anan on his r. 
hand and Kasho on his 1. The 
white image in front of Shaka is 
Kwannon. The temple also con- 
tains a hundred small images of 
Kwannon. The present edifice dates 
only from 1889, when the images 
were removed from an older build- 
ing in the district of Fukagawa, 
which had fallen into decay. 

Not far off stands the Shinto 
Temple of Tenimangti, commonly 
known as Kameido, from a stone 
tortoise seated on a well in the 
grounds. Rngawara-no-Micliizano 
is here worshipped under the title 
of Temmaii Daijizai, i.e., "the Per- 
fectly Free and Heaven -Filling 
Heavenly Divinity." The temple 
grounds have been laid out in 
imitation of those at Dazaifu, the 
place of his exile. Passing in 
through the outer gate, the eye is 
first attracted by the wistarias 
trained on trellis, whose blossoms, 
during the last week of April, make 
Kameido one of the chief sliow- 
places of the capital. They grow on 
the borders of a pond called Shinji 
no Ike, or *'Pond of the Word Heart," 
on account of a supposed resem- 
blance to ^^, the Chinese character 
for *• heart ; " and one of the amuse- 
ments of the visitors is to feed the 
carp and tortoises which it contains. 
A semi-circular bridge leads over the 
pond to a large gate in Yatsu- 
mune-zukuH (i.e., eight- roofed) style, 
standing in front of the temple. 
Glass oases inside the gate enclose 
the usual large images of Zuijin. 
Bound the walls of the temple 
hang small pictures on a gold 
ground of the ancient religions 
dances called Bugaku, 

Beyond a shed contaiDing two 
life-sise images of siiored ponies, is 
an exit by which the visitor can 
reach the Ume-yashikiy or Plimi- 
Qarden of Kameido, 4 chd distant. 
Here grow the Owarydbai (lit. 
Plum-trees of the Recumbent I>ra- 
gon), and it is a great show-plaoe 
early in March, when the blossoms 
are all out. There are over 500 
trees, all extremely old and partly 
creeping along the ground, whenoe 
the name. Most of the cut stones 
which stand about the grounds are 
inscribed with stanzas of poetiy in 
praise of the flowers; and during 
the season, similar tributes written 
on paper will be seen hung up on 
the branches A few chd off lies 
Mukdjitna, described above. 

The S.E. partof Tokyd, consisting 
of the district of Fukagawa on the 
1. bank of the Sumida^gawa, is & 
maze of narrow streets, chiefly in- 
habited by the lower trading and 
artisan classes, and offers little for 
the sightseer. 

Jdshinjiy though the chief temple 
of the Nichiren sect in Tokyo, is 
quite unpretentious ; but there are 
some good carvings on the gates of 
the priests' dwellings which line the 
narrow street leading up to it. In 
the court-yard is a large bronse 
image of Shaka supported on the 
shoulders of stone demons ; and at 
the back, beyond the cemetery, a 
curious susperstitious practice may 
be witnessed at the shrine of 
Shogjo Bosatsu. The stone image 
of the saint stands in a little wooden 
shed hung round with small re- 
gularly cut bundles of straw. The 
faithful buy these at the gate, dip 
them in water, brush the idol with 
them, and then ladle water over his 
head, believing that this ceremony 
will ensure a favourable reply to 
their petitions. The image is con- 
stantly wet, showing how firm the 
belief is. The priests of the sect 
seem unable to account for the 
origin of the usage. 

The Shinto temple of HaeJUman, 
which dates from AJ>. 1668, is 

SuBaki. Tsukiju 


handsome, owing to former Bud- 
dhist inflaence. The walls and 
ceiling are decorated with paintings 
of birds and flowers, and there are 
also some pretty wood carvings. 
The ornamentafcion of the chancel 
is extremely rich, the ceiling being 
panelled, and gold profusely scat- 
tered about. There are likewise 
fold lions, and gold figures of the 
Ion-Goddess Amaterasu and of the 
Gods of Kasuga. Doves fly about 
the grounds, as is usual in temples 
dedicated to Hachiman. They are 
supposed to act as the god's mes- 
sengers, — strange messengers from 
the God of War ! 

The district situated between the 
temple of Hachiman and that of 
Susaki-no-6enten is noted for its 
trade in timber, the town being here 
intersected by numerous canals 
comma ui eating with the river, 
down which come the timber-laden 
rafts from the inland provinces. 
The temple of Susaki no Benten 
(Susaki being the name of the pro- 
jecting point of land on which it is 
situated) dates from the latter part 
of the 17 th century, at which time 
the ground on which it was erected 
had only recently been reclaimed. 
The temple itself is uninteresting ; 
but on a clear day there is a good 
view from the embankment built 
after the ravages of the inundations 
and tidal waves of the eighth decade 
of the last century. At low tide, 
which the Japanese consider the 
prettiest time, and especially if the 
season be spring, numerous pleasure 
boats, with singing-girls and other 
merry-makers, will be seen lazily 
floating about in the offing, watch- 
ing the oyster-catchers ply their 

8.— TsuKiJi. 

On the way from the Shimbashi 
Terminus to the Forelgrn Conces- 
tioD in Tsukiji, several important 
ittodem buildings are passed :~1. 
the Fifteenth National Bank, r. the 
TnfP|M»ri<»-i Department of Oommuni- 
eaaons, and further on r. the De- 

partment of Agriculture and Com- 
merce, a huge building, opposite to 
which is the Seiydken Hotel. Be- 
hind the latter stands the KcLbuki- 
say one of the best theatres of the 
metropolis. The Naval Academy is 
seen to the r. beyond the canal. 
Still further to the r. is the Enryd 
kwariy formerly the summer palace 
of the Shoguns, and more recently 
a place of entertainment for il- 
lustrious visitors. It is also used 
once a year for an Imperial Garden 
party, at the season when the 
masses of double cherry-flowers are 
in bloom. The Enryd-kwan is un- 
fortunately not open to the general 

To the 1. is the enclosure of the 
Nishi Hongwanjiy popularly called 
the Tsukyi MoTtzeki^ a vast temple 
burnt down in 1893, but likely to be 
rebuilt, as it belongs to the rich and 
powerful Monto sect. The Renge- 
den, or Lotus Hall, used for ser- 
mons, remains intact. 

A large proportion of the build- 
ings in the Foreign Concession is 
devoted to religious and educational 
purposes, testifying to the zoal of 
the various missionary bodies, 
whose members form the bulk of 
the population. The most striking 
places of worship are the Cathedral 
of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
of America and the Roman Catholic 
Cathedral. Another conspicuous 
building is the Hotel MitropoUt 
situated on the Bund facing the 
Sumida-gawa near its mouth. Be- 
yond the river lies Ishikawa-jima^ 
where stands a large Convict Prison. 
The land is gaining rapidly on the 
water in this district, the whole spit 
opposite the Bund having been re- 
claimed within the last eighteen 
years. On a fine breezy day, the 
junks sailing un the river mouth add 
picturesque animation to the scene. 


Route 5. — Excursions from Tokyo. 



OANEI. 6. TAKAO-ZAN. 7. OJI. 8. 

(All these 'places may he visited 
without passports, except Takao-tan, 
K&nosUt and Kdnodai.) 

1. Meguro, Yutenji, and Kuhon- 


Hegnro {Tea-houseSy ♦Uchida, 
Hashiwa-ya ; there are several 
others, but they are apt to be 
noisy) is a favourite picnic resort, 
3 m. out of the city westwards by 
road or Suburban Railway ; but the 
station is about a mile from the 
village. Shortly after leaving the 
station, at the top of a descent call- 
ed Gyd7iin-zaka, one sees 1. the small 
temple of Daienji, which deserves 
passing notice for the sake of the 
Qo-hyaku iJafcan,— tier upon tier 
of small seated Buddhist images 
in various attitudes of meditation, 
quaint yet pathetic in their stony 
stillness. Meguro is seen to best 
advantaige when either the peonies 
or the chrysanthemums are in 
blossom. There are two permanent 
sights — the Temple of Fudd, and 
the graves of Oompachi and Ko- 
murasaki. The key to the latter 
is kept at the tea-house. The 
grave is called Hiyoku-zuka, after 
the hiyoku, a fabulous double bird 
which is an emblem of constancy 
in love. It may be added that 
sentiment is the only motive for 
visiting the grave, as there is really 
nothing to see. 

Abont 260 years ago, there lived a 
yonng man called Shirai Gk>mpacbi, who 
at the age of sixteen had already won a 
name for his skill in the nse of arms, but, 
haying had the misfortune to kUl a fellow- 
clansman in a qnarrel over a dog, was 

compelled to fly from his native province. 
While resting at an inn on his way to Yedo, 
a beautiful girl named EomarH«aki came 
andawoke him at midnight, to tell him that 
a band of robbers, who had stolen her from 
her home, intended to kill him for the 
sake of the sword which every Samurai at 
that time carried. Being thus forewarn- 
ed, Gompachi succeeded in slaying the 
thieves when the attack was made upon 
him. He also restored the girl to ner 
grateful father, a rich merchant, who 
would have been glad to make the young 
man his son-in-law ; but being ambitioua^ 
Gompachi insisted on pursuing his way 
to Yedo. Meanwhile, unhanpy Komura- 
saki was left to pine for the handsome 

South with whom she had fallen deeply 
1 love. After further adventures, Gom- 
pachi reached Yedo, only however to faD 
mto dissolute habits. Hearing much 
praise of a lovely and accomplished girl 
who had lately Income an inmate of the- 
Yoshiwara, Gompachi went to see her, 
and was astonished to find in the famous 
beauty no other than the maiden whona 
he had but a few months before rescued 
from the robbers* den. It was the usual 
pathetic story. Her parents having be* 
come poverty-stricken, she had sold her- 
self in order to alleviate their distress. 
Frequent visits to his sweetheart soon 
exhausted Gompachi's slender means, and 
having no fixed employment, he was 
driven in desperation to murder a man 
for the sake of money to spend at the 
Yoshiwara. The crime was repeated, 
until he was caught red-handed, and 
ultimately beheaded as a common male- 
factor. A friend claimed the body and 
buried it at Meguro, whither poor Komii- 
rasaki hastened on hearing the sad news 
of her lover's end, and throwing herself 
on the newly-made grave, plunged a 
dagger into her bosom and died 

At the bottom of the stops lead- 
ing up the temple of Fudo, is a 
pool fed by two tiny cascades. To 
stand naked under the streeon of 
water for several hours in cold 
weather is considered a meritorioas 
penance, the effect of which is to 
wash away all taint of sin. Tradi- 
tion says that Jikaku Daishi, the 
founder of this temple, miraculously 
called the spring into existence by 
the aid of his mace {fohko^, whence 
the name of Tokko-no-takt, or Maoe 
Cascade. The most remarkable of 
the ex-votos is a huge sword, such 
as the god Fudo is often represented 

To prevent mistakes, it may hete- 
be noted that i ri from Keguro 

YuUt^L Kuhon-biUsti. Ikegami. 


proper, and nearer Tokyo, lies an- 
other village called Kami-Meguro. 
At the latter also there is a good 
spot for picnics, known as Shiti-Fuji 
—a small artificial hill, from the top 
of which an extensive view is oh- 
t&ined. A third picnic resort in 
this neighbourhood is Semoku^ 
which has a pretty piece of water. 
It is about 1 ri from Meguro on the 
direct road from Tdkyo to Mariko. 

Ten chd W. of Meguro, stands in 
solemn solitude the handsome tem- 
ple of Yiitcnji^ founded in the early 
part of the 18th century. The art- 
treasures of this temple, which are 
set out in January, May, and Sep- 
tember, will well repay a visit. 
There are a series of kakemono by 
Chd Densu, pahitlugs by Motonobu, 
gorgeous lacquer and bronze objects 
formerly belonging to the Tokugawa 
family, etc., etc. .^ong the most in- 
teresting curiosities, are some fine 
specimens of old European tapestry, 
which were probably presented to 
the Shogun by the head of the 
Dutch factory at Nagasaki. At 
other times it is difficult, if not 
impossible, to see these objects, as 
they are carefully stored away. 
The florist's garden in the immediate 
neighbourhood of Yutenji well de- 
serves a visit in spring. 

Knhon-butsu. These temples, 
containing the nine large and hand- 
somely gilt images of Buddha from 
which the place derives its name, 
are situated in the vicinity of 
Meguro. The direct way is along 
the pretty main road to Futago — 
} hr. ride from the Meguro railway 
station, — thence for 16 min. by a 
path 1. across the fields which 
finally emerges on an avenue lead- 
ing to the temple buildings, charm- 
ingly situated amongst finely wood- 
ed surroundings. Kuhon-butsu be- 
longs to the J5do sect of Buddhists. 
In the upper storey of the massive 
gateway repose a number of gilt, 
but sadly neglected, images of 
Kwannon. The main hall stands 
in the centre of the grounds, and 
the three shrines in each of 

which are three images — splendid 
specimens of the sculptor's art, and 
all in an excellent state of preserva- 
tion. A visit to Kuhon-butsu, 
Meguro, and Yutenji may be com- 
bined in one agreeable outing. 

2.— Ikeqami. 

Ike^ami is reached by train to 
Omori station on the Yokohama 
line in i hr., whence it is about 1 m. 
by jinrikisha. The great temple 
of Honimonji is celebrated, as the 
spot where the Buddhist saint Ni- 
chiren died in A.D. 1282. Its fine 
situation and magnificent timber 
make it one of the most attractive 
points within easy reach of T5ky5. 
The best time to visit it is on the 
12th — 13th October, when the an- 
nual festival in Nichiren's honour 
takes place. On this occasion over 
20,000 persons make the pilgrimage. 
Another festival is held from the 
22nd to 28th April. At the top of 
the temple steps is 1. the Daimoku- 
do, where some of the faithful are 
generally to be heard beating the 
drum and reciting the formulary of 
the sect — Namu Myoho Renge Kyd. 
Next to this, is a temple dedi- 
cated to Kato Kiyomasa. Then 
comes the Shaka-do, or Hall of 
Shaka, where worshippers spend 
the night at the time of the annual 
festivsil, with, behind it, another 
building containing a complete set 
of the Buddhist scriptures that 
may be made to revolve on a huge 
hexagonal wheel. Fronting the 
gate is the main temple, recently 
restored in handsome style, an 
evidence of the popularity which 
this sect still enjoys. On the altar 
stands an exquisitely lacquered 
shrine, containing a life-size image 
of Nichiren in sitting posture, said 
to have been carved by Nichiro, 
one of his chief disciples. The 
upper part of the wall is decorated 
with pictures of angels playing on 
musical instruments. Behind the 
altar, outside the temple, is a 
pictorial representation of the chief 
incidents in the saint's life. The 


RouU 5. — Excumomfrom Tdkyd. 

extensive buildings at the rear are 
the residences of the abbot and 
monks. Although Nichiren died at 
Ikegamiy his bones were conveyed 
to Minobu; all that remain here 
are one tooth and the ashes of his 
funeral pyre. The shrine (Kotsu-dd) 
contaiuing these relics is a short 
way down the hill to the 1. This 
building, about 20 ft. in diameter, 
stands on a huge lotus-flower of 
stone. (For plan of Ikegami see 
p. 37). 

One may picnic either at the tea- 
house (TamWya) in the village, or 
(but in this case notice must be sent 
the day before, as the matter is 
more or less one of favour) at Eijuin^ 
a temple in the wood behind the 
pagoda, having beautiful plum-trees 
and peonies, besides a fine view. 
The imposing-looking tomb in the 
temple garden is that of a Daimyo's 
wife. A third place, immediately 
below the pagoda, is the inmiense 
tea-house of Akebono-ro, popularly 
known as Ikegami Onsen. It is 
quite a curiosity, sprawling as it 
does up and down two hills by 
means of galleries aud bridges, 
which remind the beholder of scenes 
in Chinese art. This tea-house is 
a favourite native holiday resort. 


Fiitago (Inn^ Kame-ya) lies on 
the banks of the Tamagawa, 2^ ri 
by jinrikisha from Tokyo. Just 
before reaching the river, there is 
a striking view of Fuji and a pano- 
rama of the surrounding country. 
During the summer months, the 
Japanese visit Futago for the sake 
of the sport — if so it can be termed 
— of watching fishermen net the ayu 
(or a%)j a kind of trout. A little 
higher up, at SekidOy cormorant 
fishing is practised on a small scale 
(comp. Route 34). One ri down the 
river from Futago lies 

Mariko {Inn, Wakamatsu-ya, on 
the Tokyo side), a place of similar 
character. An alternative wav of 
returning to Tokyo is to take boat 
down the river to Kawasaki station, 

which is about 2 hrs. from Futago. 
The distance by the direct jinriki- 
sha road from Mariko to Tokyo ia 
2 ri 80 chd. 


Junlso. Train to Shinjiku sta- 
tion on the Suburban Line, or jin- 
rikisha all the way. Crossing the 
railway, the extensive works seen on 
the 1. are those of the new water- 
works for the supply of Tokyo, 
whence, proceeding along the Ome 
Kaido for 10 min., the path to 
J&niso turns 1. through the fields, 
and in 10 min. more a short avenue 
of pines is reached, leading to the 
small and deserted temple olJOnisd 
Gongen. Below the* temple lies a 
small lake, plentifully stocked with 
a species of carp. Several tea-sheds 
stand at the upper end. Junisd is 
a favourite spot for pleasure parties 
during the summer months. 

Hori-no-nchi may be reached in 
f br. from Jftuiso. A lane directly 
behind the tea-sheds soon rejoins 
the Ome Kaido, along which we 
proceed for J hr., to leave it again 
by a path 1., at the corner of which 
is a pretty plum orchard. A short 
distance beyond, the path turns 
sharp 1^., where a stone indicates the 
distance to Hori-no-uchi as 16 c7id. 
From here an avenue of double 
cherry-trees is lined with shops for 
the sale of rosaries, salted plums, 
toys, etc. The temple of Mydhdji 
at Hori-no-uchi, belonging to the 
Nichiren sect, merits a visit for the 
sake of the excellent carvings that 
adorn the main* building — those of 
dragons in the porch, below the 
architrave, and m the eaves being 
especially spirited. The iron gates 
and rskilmg to the r. of the main 
entrance are good specimens of 
modern workmanship. On the 1. of 
the court, is a long shed filled with & 
curious collection of ex-votos, such 
as the queues of men whose prayers 
have been granted by the inter- 
position of Nichiren, oil-paintings, 
etc. In the main hall, a splendid 

Hari-no-uchL Lno-kathira, Kogmui. 


shrine 6 ft. square and 10 ft. long, 
covered wifch gilt carvings, occupies 
the centre of the further side of the 
ehancel. It contains a seated image 
ol Nichiren, said to be the earliest 
effigy of the saint, and to have 
been carved in A.D. 1261. It can be 
seen and a short service in its honour 
witnessed, on payment of a small fee. 
The principal festival is held on the 
13th October, the anniversary of 
Kichiren*s death. A polite request 
will generally gain permission to 
visit the lovely landscape garden 
attached to the main temple. 

Half a ri further on is the once 
noted temple of Omiya Hachiman^ 
founded in the 10th century, but 
now terribly decayed. A stately 
avenue of cryptomerias aud maple- 
tiees, together with several torii^ 
attest its former importance. 

Prooeediog through the flat fields 
for 3^ m. further, we reach the 
Temple of Benien^ picturesquely 
atuated on the borders of the little 
lake of I-iio-kiishira, whose waters, 
derived from seven small springs, 
supply the aqueduct leading to 
Kauda in Tokyo. 

History says that in 1600 the lake was 
visited by ievasa, who found the water 
to excellent that it was used ever after 
far making His Highness' s tea. In 1(589 

gawa to Tokyo, is about \\ ri beyond 
I-no-kashira, but should only be 
visited when the trees are in blos- 
som. It is most easily reached by 
train to Sakai on the Hachioji line, 
^ hr. from Shinjiku Junction, and 
{ hr. distant from the avenue. 

Ten thousand young trees were brought 
trom Yoshino in Yamato, and from the 
banks of the 8akura-gawa in Hitachi, 
and planted here in 1735 by command of 
the Shdgun Yoshimune. 

The crowds that assemble daily to 
revel under the shade of the pink 
and white blossoms about the 
middle of April, present a gay 

Instead of returning to Sakai, it 
will be found shorter to walk on to 
Kokubunji station, which is only 
about 20 min. from the upper cud 
of the avenue. A pleasant alterna- 
tive plan is to return by jiurikisha 
vi& I-no-kashira and Hori-uo-uohi, 
3 hrs. to Shinjiku station. 

6.— By the Shikjiku - HachiOji 
Railway to Takao-zan. 

kis grandson, the Slidgun lemitsu, gave 
orders for the water to be laid on to the 
Osstle in Yeda He also, on the occasion 
ef a visit to the lake, carved with the 
saaU kxkife from his dirk the head of a 
wild boar (i no ka$hira) on the trunk of a 
tree close by, whence the present name. 
b was not, however, till about 1653 that 
Ihe aqaeduct was ooDstructed. 

I-no-kashira attracts visitors 
duefly in April for the cheriy- 
faloasoDis, and in May for the azaleas. 

The be^t way U. return to Tokyo ^his is a favourite excursion in 
»torega.utheOmeKaido40mmVgpriog »nd autumn with holiday, 
rtence it is about 2 r. to Shinj.ku ^^^^^^ j^^ Tokyo. The railway 
■tation. After bad weather the journey to Haohioji occupies 1| hrf. 




3 m. 




Tachikawa | 



Alight for cherry 
avenue of Ko- 

Alight for Tama- 
gawa Valley, 
Route 26. 

station. After had weather the 
roads are heavy throughout. 

6. — KOGANBI. 

M#ir*<>®^ ^^^ ^^ ^® avenue of 
cherry-trees 2ii m. in length, along 
the banks of the small canal that 
oonduota the waters of the Tama- 

whence it is 2 ri along the plain to 
the foot of Takao-zan. Jiurikishas 
and hasha traverse this distance in 
about 1 hr. 

The railway track, after leaving 
Shinjiku, lies for a short distance 
close to the Fhrista' Gardens of 


RoiUe 5. — Excursiom from Tdkyd, 

Okttbo, noted for their azaleas, the 
rest of the route passing mostly 
over a flat country with heavy, 
clayey soil. The Tamagawa and 
one of its affluents are crossed 
before reaching 

Haehioji {Intij Kado-ya), the 
centre of an importaut silk district, 
but otherwise uninteresting. One 
long and broad street forms the 
business part of the town. 

A short distance beyond the vil- 
lage of KontaghWy the path lead- 
ing up Takao-zan turns off r. from 
the main road, and crosses the 
stream, from which point to the 
temple buildings is a walk of about 

Tnkao-zaii is a high hill rising 
some 1,C00 ft. above the sea. On 
the summit stands a much frequent- 
ed temple, surrounded by a splendid 
grove, chiefly of cryptomerias, 
planted in past times by de- 
votees of the temple. The road is 
lined with posts on which are 
recorded the names of persons who 
have presented young trees, so many 
hundreds at a time, with the object 
of maintaining the grove undimi- 
nished. On the platform at the top 
of the ascent, stands a fine bronze 
pagoda, 12 ft. in height. Above 
this, on another terrace, are three 
shrines dedicated toFudd, Yakushi, 
and Dainichi, and at the top of a 
long fliglit of steps is a gaudily 
decorated Shinto shrine with paint- 
ed carvings. The annual festival 
takes place on the 21sfr April. 
Trees slmt out the view from this 
point; but lower down a space has 
been cleared, from which the eye 
ranges over the plain of Tokjo and 
the sea in the distance. A narrower 
and steeper path than that ascended 
may be taken on the way down, 
and affords pretty glimpses of the 
densely wooded valley. 

7.— Oji. 
Oil.— The vill. of Oji, long one 
of the favourite retreats in the sub- 
urbs of Tdkyo, now presents more 
the aspect of a manufacturing cen- 

tre than of a holiday resort. Huge 
brick buildings, paper and cotton 
mills, the clash of machinery, and 
lofty chimneys from which columns 
of smoke sweep over the cherry-trees 
on Asuka-yama^ deprive the place of 
much of its former tranquillity and 
beauty. Ojl is, nevertheless, still 
one of the attractions in the envi- 
rons of the great city ; and crowds 
flock there twice yearly, — in spring 
when the cherry-trees are in blossom, 
and in autumn when the maples 
lining the banks of the Tdki-nO' 
gawa put on their crimson tints. 

The train from Ueno station lands 
one in a few minutes close to the 
noted tea-houses, Ogi-ya and Ebi-ya, 
which stand together on the edge of 
the stream, and look out on a small 
but tastefully arranged garden. 
Half a mile beyond the tea-houses, 
in a grove of evergreen oaks on the 
top of a slight eminence, stands the 
Temple of Inari. The buildings 
consist of a rather dilapidated 
oratory and chapel. In the court- 
yard are some fine old cherry-trees. 
The temple and little waterfall dedi- 
cated to Fudd, also in the vicinity 
of the tea-houses, attract many 
visitors. As the trains are gene- 
rally full to overflowing during the 
cherry and maple seasons, some 
visitors may prefer to go out by 
road. The prettiest way, 5 m., 
leaves the little lake at Ueno, and 
passing through the suburb of 
Shimo Komagome, turns to the r. 
on reaching the tomb of the Dai- 
myo of Kaga, descends the hill, 
and follows up the valley to the 1. 

8. — The Caves (Hyaku Aiia) iteab 


These interesting artificial CaY6S 
are situated at Kita Yoshimi-mura 
in the prefecture of Saitama, and 
are within the limits of a short day's 
excursion from Tokyo. Kdnosu is 
reached in IJ hr. by train from 
Ueno station. The road to Kita 
Yoshimi-mura, 2^ ri distant, crosses 
the railway line not far from the 
station, and rons over the plain 

Cavss of Konosu. Konodai. 


straight towards the Ghichibu 
mountains. It is a good jinrikisha 
road, though apt in parts to be heavy 
after rain. Kita Yoshimi-mura 
nestles under the first hiUy ground 
met with on the road. At the 
farther end of the village, the path 
to the caves turns r. On the way, 
a quaint old temple of Kwannoii^ 
worthy^ a few minutes* attention, 
is passed. It is wedged in between 
copks, from the inner side of which 
an entrance leads to a chamber 
containing a number of stone images 
of Kwannon. A few yards beyond 
stands the office of the local author- 
ities, by whom the place is now 
maintained. These officials will 
famish a guide to the caves hard 
by. The whole hillside is honey- 
combed with these relics of a remote 
antiquity, whose origin and use 
have given occasion to controversy 
amongst the learned. 

Mr. Aston, the pioneer in Japanese ar- 
chseological research, deolares that there 
is good reason to believe that the caves 
were primarily intended for sepulchres, 
althoai^h some were doubtless used as 
■belters by beggars and outlaws at a 
later period; while Dr. Tsuboi, of the 
Imperial University of Japan, an energe- 
tic worker in the same field, and the dis- 
coverer of most of the caves at Yoshimi- 
mura, maintains that they were the habita- 
tions of the beings whom the Japanese term 
•'earth-spiders.*' The original Japanese 
word is imchi'ffumo. There is consider- 
able doubt as to its etymology, though 
every one agrees in interpreting it to 
mean a race of cave-dwelling savages. 
Hotoori, the greatest of all Japanese 
literati, explains the name by a com- 
parison of the habits of the race in ques- 
tirwi with those of the spider. But it is 
surely more rational to regard the word 
Umchi-gnmo as a corruption of t$uchl^O' 
mori, " earth-Atrfer*," than which no name 
could be more appropriate to troglodytes. 
These people, wno were widely spread 
over Japan in prehistoric times, were 
probably the ancestors of the modem 
Aiuoe. One of the earliest Japanese his- 
tories describes them as " short in stature, 
and having long arms and legs like 
l>igmies.'* Jimmu Tennd is said to have 
massacred a number of them in one of 
their cave-dwellings. 

The caves, most of which face 
due S., are believed to number two 
hmidred and thirty-seven in all. 
The entrances are about 3 ft. square ; 

then comes a passage of 6 ft. and 
upwards in length, leading to a 
second doorway within which are 
the chambers. These are of various 
sizes, many being 6 ft. square, 
and from 5 to 6 ft. high. The 
ceilings are dome-shaped. Each 
chamber contains one or two ledges 
having slightly raised edges. Traces 
of the use of tools are visible on 
the walls. Iron rings, arrow-heads, 
etc., have been found in some of 
the caves ; but the presence of these 
is doubtless due to the fact, as local 
tradition asserts, that parties of 
fighting men took refuge here in 
more modern times. The hill afiords 
an extensive view of the adjacent 
mountains, including Buko-zan in 
the Ghichibu range, Fuji, and 
Asama-yama. The town of Matsu- 
yama {Inn^ K6ji-ya) is only 13 chd 
distant. It contains a large Shinto 
temple to the gods of Inari, called 
the Yakyu Inari. 


Omnibuses ply constantly between 
Bydgoku-bashi and the Ichika¥ra 
ferry, ^ ri 2b chd (9 m.), a Treaty 
Limit boundary where passports 
have to be shown. Konodai^ pro- 
perly Mama Kdnodai {InUy Musa- 
shi-ya, close to the ferry), is the 
blufi on the opposite side of the 
Yedo-gawa, ^ m. above the ferry, 
and used to be a favourite resort of 
holiday-makers from Toky5. 

It was the site of a strong fortress held 
by Satomi Awa-no-Kami, from whom it 
was captured and razed to the ground by 
the powerful HOjd family of Odawara, in 

A Military Academy for cadets of 
all branches of the service is now 
located here, detracting from the ad- 
vantages of Konodai as a plaoe for 
picnics. The situation affords a 
pleasing view of the plain, with Fuji 
and the Oyama rango in the back- 
ground. Pretty also is the view of 
the fleet of boats sailing up the 
river before a brisk breeze. The 
whole site is thiekly overgrowr 
with tress and rank vegetation 


BouU 6. — MiyanoMta and Hahon$, 

but a priest from the dilapidated 
monastery of Sdner^i^ which stands 
within the same enclosore, will act 
as guide and point out various 
objects of interest, including the 
tomb of Ogasawara Sadayori, the 
discoverer of the Benin Islands. 
Afterwards, a visit should be pckid 
to the temple of Kdhdji in the near 
vicinity, noted for the richness of its 
maple tints in autumn. Down the 
steps on the hill-side, stands a 
shrine dedicated to a beautiful girl 
called Mama-no-Tekona, who, for 
reasons which tradition does not 
assign, drowned herself in the 
swamp close by. 

The story of Mamft-no-Tekona was al- 
ready an ancient one in the 8th century. 
The nnfortiinate maiden is much prayed 
to 1^ <romen for safe delivery in child- 


The Hakone Distbict: Miyano- 
SHITA, Hakone. 


1. — Genebal Infobmation. 

This route is specially recom- 
mended, as uniting charm of 
scenery, accessibility, and an un- 
usual degree of comfort. All 
tourists arriving at Yokohama are 
advised to devote a week to it, and 
if they have not so much time at 
their disposal, then to devote two 
or three days to a portion of it. 
Even should they be disinclined 
for walking and sightseeing, they 
will find no place more plecksant for 
idling in at all seasons than Miya- 

The word Hakone, it should be observed, 
though employed by us, as by all Euro- 
peans, to denote the village called by the 
Japanese Hak<nU'mo-$kulm, Hakont-nC'eki, 

or HaJcotU'mura, is properly the general 
name of the entire mountainous district 
lying at the ueck of the peninsula of Isu, 
between the Bays of Odawara and Snru- 

S. For this reason the Japanese talk of 
yanoshita, Kiga, etc., as being "t» 
EUucone." The original name of Hakone 
Lake (now, however, used only in poetiy) 
is AMki-no-Umi, that is, the Sea of Beeds. 
Hence the name of the hot springs of 
Aahinoyu. The lake measures, in round 
numbers, \\ ri long, 4} ri round, and has 
a depth of 37 fathoms in its deepest pari. 

The following are the heights of 
the chief villages and mountains 
mentioned in this route : — 

Ashinoyu 2,870 feet. 

Dai-ga-take 8,600 

Dogashima 1,060 

Putago-yama 8,620 

Hakone 2,400 

Higane (temple near 

Atami) 2,400 

Kamiyama 4,770 

Riga 1,400 

Kintoki-zan 4,060 

Kojigoku (Kowaki-dani). 2,100 

Koma-gatake 4,600 

Miyagino 1,600 

Miyanoshita 1,400 

MyojiD-ga-take 8,880 

My5jo-ga-take 8,080 

Ojigoku 8,466 

Otome-toge 8,338 

Saijoji (D6ry5-san) 1,240 

Sengoku-hara 2,170 

Ten Province Pass 3,216 

Ubago 2,940 

Yumoto 400 

2. — Miyanoshita and Neighbour- 

Miyanoshita is easily reached 
from Yokohama by the Tokaido 
Railway to Kozu station, IJ hr.; 
thence by tram, jinrikisha, or car- 
riage to Yumoto, 1 hr.; thence by 
jinrikisha (at least two men neces- 
sary) or on foot, for IJ ri up the 
valley of the Hayakawa to Miyano- 
shita, nearly 1 hr. by jinrikisha, 1^ 
hr. on foot — say 4A hrs. for the 
whole journey, including stoppages. 
From Tokyo it is 1 hr. more, or 5 j^ 
hrs. in all. 


for Uurrajrk Uondbook 

Way to MiyanoMta. 


Tbam Itqixbabt along Plain. 
Kmu to:— Bi. Chd, Jf. 

Odawara 1 28 4i 

Yomofco 2 10 S^ 

Total 4 2 10 


UP THE Hill. 

Ymnoto to :— Ri. Chd, If. 

Tonosawa 6^ i 

Miyanoshita .... 1 16} 8| 

{Kiga 9 | 

Miyagino 5 |) 

Total 2 1 6 

At Kozn (Inti, Kdzu-kwaD), it is 
worth deyoting a few minutes to 
walking out on the beach to look at 
the beautiful view of Odawara Bay, 
with to the r. the peninsula of Izu 
on whose coast Atami is situated, 
ahead the volcano of Oshima (Vries 
Island), and the islet of Enoshima to 
the 1. Turning round, one has a 
magnificent view of Fuji. The road 
£rom Kozu to Yumoto — the old Td- 
kaido — leads past (about 1 m.) the 
8kdtd-en^ an inn situated on the 
beaoh, with detfikohed apartments 
and good bathing. It is patronised 
hy the higher official class. Half- 
way we pass through the town of 

Odawani (Inn^ Eoise-ya), cele- 
brated in Japanese history as the 
■oene of many bloody conflicts in 
feudal times. 

Odawarti belonged sncoeeAiyely to vari- 
09M families of Daimyte. who dwelt in 
the oastle which wa« not finally destrOTod 
tin the time of the lat^ revolution. The 
Boat celebrated of these families were 
tbe H^d, a yonnger branch of the family 
o( ** R^?ents,'* who ruled over Japan 
4nrin|r the 13th century and the first 
tliree decades of the Uth. This younger 
branch, choosing Odawara as their capital 
in A.D. 1405, continued to reside there for 
ire gienerations, namely, till 1680, when 
Ih^ were defeated and the power of their 
iKMue broken for ever l^ the TaikO Hide- 

Chi in the battle of Ishikake-yama. 
irinip to their oastle. the various com- 
Mandiofc officers on the H^O side could 
eome to no a^n^ement, as time wore on. 
•• to whether it were better to await the 
naekinfhf d the enemy, or to sally forth 

themselves and offer battle. While they 
were still discussing this question in all 
its bearings, Hidevoshi made a sudden 
attack and captured the castle by a coup 
d4 main. Hence the proverbial saying, 
Odawara Ayd^, that is, the Odawara Con- 
ference, which means endless talk result- 
ing in nothing. 

The tram-oars change horses op- 
posite the ruined walls of the castle. 
On leaving Odawara, the road 
enters the valley of the Hayakawa 
near the mouth of that stream, 
which takes its origin in Lake 
Hakone. The two round summits 
seen almost constantly ahead are 
Futago-yama, or the Twin Moun- 
tains. The avenue to the r. of the 
tram road marks the Tokaido, 
which carriages and jinrikishas still 
follow. Near 

Tumoto (10 min. out of the vill.), 
is a cascade known as Tamadare 
no taki, A small fee is charged 
for admittance. Yumoto boasts 
a large inn, called Fukuzumi. 
Foreigners obliged to break the 
journey are, however, advised to push 
on 6^ chd further to the vill. of 

Tonosawa, where the Tamano- 
yu Hotel will be found a pleasanter 
abode, owing to the fact that Euro- 
pean food and beds are provided. 
There are also good hot springs. 
The white building, which strikes 
the eye on the hill opposite, is a 
Russian chapel. The mosaic wood- 
work (kiji-mono\ which from Yu- 
moto onwards fills such a prominent 
place in every shop- window, is the 
specialty for which the whole 
Hakone district is noted. The 
hamlet more than half-way up from 
Yumoto to Miyanoshita is 

Ohiradni. On the r. side is a 
good wood-work shop, Watanabe, 
whose specialty is the fine bamboo 
basket-work of Shizuoka. 

Miyanoshita (Hotels, *Fuji-ya, in 
European stylo; Nara-ya) is a 
pleasant resort for many reasons — 
the purity of the air, the excellence 
of tne hotel accommodation, the 
numerous pretty walks both short 
and long, the plentiful supply of 
" chains " and of specially large and 


Route 6. — MiyanoMta and HaJeone. 

comfortable kagos for those who 
prefor being carried, and the deli- 
cious hot baths, which, containing 
but faint traces of salt and soda, 
may be used without medical advice. 
The upper portion of the vill. is 
called Sokokura. The principal 
short walks from Miyanoshita are: — 

1. To Kiga (distance, 9 chd, say 
J hr.) :— no climbing, view of fine 
gorge of the Jakotsu-gawa from 
bricCge just below Sokokura, 

Jakotfu-gatra means litemllv "Stream 
of the Serpent's Bones." The name is 
given to this romantic gorpe on account 
of some white stones foTind higher up, 
and popularly believed to be tlie bones of 
dead serpents. 

waterfalls, tame gold-fish to feed 
with cakes at the favourite Senrjoku- | 
ya tea-house. Kiga was formerly 
an agreeable summer resort, but has 
never recovered the destructive fire 
of 1892. Looking back from here, 
one sees the tea-house of Mi-harashi 
perched high up the steep hill- 
side. Paths lead up to it from 
the main road. Equally flat and 
pleasant road 5 chd further up the 
valley of the Hayakawa to Miyagino, 
a vill. built on both sides of the 

2. To Dog^ashima, a hamlet some 
few hundred yards below Miyano- 
shita, down a steep ravine. Here 
are a pretty cascade and a charm- 
ing villa, permission to visit which 
may sometimes be obtained through 
the proprietor of the Fujiya Hotel. 

8. Walk down the main roskdin 
the direction of Tdnosawa to the 
toll-house (8^ chd\ or on to Ohira- 
dai (17 chd), 

4. Climb half-way up Seng'en- 
yama^ the wooded hill immediately 
at the back of the Japanese wing 
of the Fuji-ya Hotel. It is a steep 
pull of 20 min. or ^ hr. to the 
tea-shed, 650 ft. above the village, 
whence beautiful view of upper half 
of Fuji. This walk may be con- 
tinued along (he ridge in the direc- 
tion of Ashinoyu. 

Somewhat longer (1 to 2 hrs.), 

less good walking, but veiy pic- 
turesque are : — 

5. To Kigra and Miyagrino, as in 

No. 1 ; then cross the river and turn 
sharp to the r., walking home on 
the other side, and re-crossing to 
the Miyanoshita side at Dogashima. 
Guide indispensable. This, the 
most beautiful of all the walks near 
^liyanoshita, takes a good walker 
a little over 1 hr. 

6. Up to Kojigrokn (Kowaki- 
dani), then down past the hamlet 
of Ninotaira to Miyagino and Kiga, 
whence home by the main road. 
This walk may be abridged by turn- 
ing to the r. before reaching Koji- 
goku, almost aU the paths r. lecMling 
down ultimately to the Kiga road. 
^lany persons elect to stay at Koji- 
goku rather than at Miyanoshit)B^ 
as the former place is some 700 ft. 
higher, and consequently has cooler 
air. The Kaikwatei Hotel often 
European comforts and excellent 
baths. The 16 did (1 m.) from Miya- 
noshita to Kojigoku is done on foot 
or in kago. 

The meaning of the name Kojigoku is 
Small Hell. It was given to the place in 
allusion to some small sulphur springs, 
which Bupplv the hotel baths. In ISTf^ 
cm the occasion of the visit of H. M. the 
Mikado, the name of Kojigoku was 
officially altered to A'tHroW-doni. which 
means the Valley of the Lesaer Boiling. 
Bat the older name is in common use. 

Good half-day's excursions are 


7. Ojigrokn, or Big Hell, alter- 
natively named Owakl-dani^ i.e., the 
Valley of the Greater Boiling— -dis- 
tance, a little under 2 ri to the top of 
the gorge. Neither name is a mis- 
nomer. The whole gorge reeks 
with sulphurous fumes, vegetation 
decreases as one ascends higher, 
and the aspect of the soene becomes 
weird and desolate. It is advisable 
to keep to the path and tread care- 
fully after the guide, as more lives 
than one have oeen saorifioed by a 
false step on the treacherous cmst. 
The view from the top of the gorge 

Walks at Miyano$hita, AMnoyu. 


differs as widely in its charms from 
the scene of desolation just traversed 
as can well be imagined. In the cen- 
tre, Fuji towers up in perfect beauty. 
To the extreme r. is tooth-shaped 
Kintoki-zan, then the Otome-toge, 
tiie K agao- tdge, and to the 1. the more 
imposing slopes of Ashitaka. The 
sommit of Kammuri-ga-takef which 
rises up immediately behind the 
sulphur springs, distinguishes itself 
by its graceful outline and by the 
dense forest covering its sides. The 
Tegetation of this neighbourhood 
Is remarkable, consisting as it does 
chiefly of tbe small box and asemi 
(Andromeda japcmica). Ojigoku 
looks wildest on a gloomy day. 

8. Up Mydjo-g^a-take, or Mukd- 
yama, the big grassy hill inunediate- 
ly opposite Miyanoshita, on the 
left side of the stream. It is a 
walk of 1^ hr. to the top, the path 
at first leading down through the 
Till, of Dogashima, there crossing 
the stream, and then turning con- 
siderably to the r., before turning 1. 
again along the crest of the hill. 
l!ae view from the summit is magni- 
ficent. In the centre is Fuji, the 
depression immediately in front of 
which is the Otome-toge; then to 
the r. Kintoki and My5jin-ga-take, 
behind which rise Oyama and Tan- 
sawa; in the plain the Sakawa- 
gawa, and behind it the low range 
of Sogayama, in which a red 
treeless patch marks the K5zu 
railway station. The town of Oda- 
wara can be seen by walking back a 
few yards ; then the sea with 
Dshima, and to the r. the low slope 
of Ishikake-yama ; then Futago- 
yama, Koma-ga-take, Kamiyama, 
and Dai-ga-take. The blear spot 
on Kamiyama is the solfatara of 
8o-on Jigoku. Still further to the 
r., in the blue distance, is Asliitaka- 
jama. The best time to view this 
aeene is at sunrise or at sunset. The 
eoolie should therefore carry a lan- 
tern, either for the first or for the 
last portion of the walk. Those who 
aie willing to hice a very stony path 
lor the sake of continued beautiful 

views, are advised to return viA 
Miyagino and Kiga. The whole 
expedition will then occupy 3^ hrs., 
including a short rest at the sum- 

The following are whole day ex- 
cursions : — 

9. To Ashinoyu and Hakone (1 ri 
8 c/i5 to Ashinoyu, thence a little over 
1 ri on to Hakone, say 5^ m. altoge- 
ther). Ashinoyu (Intis^ Matsuzaka- 
ya, foreign food and beds ; Kinokuni- 
ya) is famous for its sulphur springs, 
whose efficacy in the treatment of 
skin diseases and rheumatism at- 
tracts crowds of Japanese patients 
and not a few foreigners, despite 
the bleak uninviting appearance of 
the locality. Ashinoyu is very cool 
in summer, owing to its height, but 
pays for this advantage by being 
frequently enveloped in mist. The 
road thither, about half of which is 
a stiff pull, leads close by Kojigoku. 
Just before reaching Ashinoyu, to- 
wards the end of a steep climb 
called the Nana-wawari, or Seven 
Turnings, the guide should be told 
to lead over a small eminence known 
as Bentetu-yama. It is not at all 
out of the way, and offers a splendid 
view — Odawara Bay, the peninsula 
of Misaki with Enoshima like a 
little knob on the coast ; and be- 
yond that, Tokyo Bay and the blue 
outline of the provinces of Kazusa 
and Bdshti, which divide T5ky6 
Bay from the Pacific. The principal 
mountain to the 1. is Oshima, 
bluntly triangular in shape. Turn- 
ing round, one has Futago to the 
1., Koma-ga-take and Kamiyama 
to the right. Ashinoyu itself has no 
view, as it lies in a marshy depres- 
sion, though on the top of a hill. 

[On a hill 8 chd^ say | hr., beyond 
Ashinoyu, at a place called 
Yu-no-hofnorzawaj a bathing 
establishment with very strong 
sulphur baths was opened a few 
years ago. It commands a 
fine view, similar to that from 
Benten-yama. This walk, and 
thkt along the flat in the direc- 


Route 6. — MiyanoskUa and Hakons. 

tion of Hakone, are the two 
best for invalids staying at 
Ashinoyu. From Yu-no-hana- 
zawa it is a rough climb of 1^ 
hr. up Kflmiyama, the oentral 
and highest peak of the Hakone 
range, the way — we purposely 
say "way," for there is not 
always a path — lying first 
among long grass, and then 
through scrub. An old crater 
is traversed before reaching the 
summit, which commands a 
grander panorama than an^ 
other in this district. Fuji 
towers to the N.W., flanked 
by the snowy summits of 
the Koshu mountains to the 
r. and the Shiushfl moun- 
tains to the 1. Further 1. is 
Ashitaka-yama, then the blue 
Gulf of Suruga with its line of 
surf, and the narrow pine-clad 
promontory of Mio-no-Matsu- 
bara shutting in Shimizu Bay. 
Next comes the peninsula of 
Izu with the Amagi-san range, 
Hatsushima near Atami, smok- 
ing Vries Island and the smaller 
islands of Toshima, Niijima, 
etc., forming with it and with 
more distant Hachijo the 
" Seven Isles of Izu ; " Sagami 
Bay, with the town of Oda- 
wara,the River Sakawa, E no- 
sh ima, and the promontory 
of Misaki, with the further 
promontory of Sunosaki in 
Bosha behind; the plain that 
stretches towards Fujisawa, 
Oyama, and the Tanzawa range. 
All the summits of the Hakone 
range are grouped in the nearer 
distance at the spectator's feet. 
Between him and Fuji is a 
ridge, the three lowest points 
of which are the Otome-toge, 
Nagao-toge, and Fukara-toge. 
The grassy summit on the other 
(southern) side is Koma^-ga-take 
with Futago - yama behind, 
while Taiko-yama and Ishikake- 
yama stiretoh behind that again 
like a long wall. Miyanoshita, 
too, is Tiflible on this side. 


obBBi-red, takes its name from a 
tradition to the effect that the TaikA 
Hideyoehi led hi« troops along it 
when going to fight the battle of 
lehikake-yama. Tue way was shown 
him— so it is alleged— by a hunter* 
whom he thereupon killed, in order 
to make sure that the enemy should 
not profit bj the poor fellow's local 

The descent from the summit 
of Kamiyama to Yu-no-hana- 
zawa will take } hr. The 
whole expedition from Miyano- 
shita and back may be done in 
5 hrs. Its roughness makes it 
unsuitable for ladies, and there 
is a short bit, just beyond 
Yu-no-hana-zawa, where people 
with weak heads are apt to feel 

After leaving Ashinoyu, the path 
is at first level, and then descends 
most of the way to Hakone. The 
first object of interest passed is, 
1., a set of three small stone monu- 
ments dedicated to the Soga Brethren 
and to Tora Gozen (see p. 64). A 
few yards further on, to the 1. and 
half-hidden among the grsrss and 
bushes, is a block of andesite rock 
well-worth pausing a moment to 
inspect, as it is covered with Bud- 
dhist images carved in relief. These 
images are known as the Ni-ju^ 
BosatsUy that is, the Twenty-five 
Bosatsu ; but which of the many 
thousands of these divine beings 
they are intended to represent, is 
uncertain. The carving apparently 
dates only from A.D. 1298, though 
attributed to Eobo Daishi. 

Two or three of the images at the top 
are unfinished. According to a legend 
still credited by the oonntiy-folk, Kdbft 
Daiahi had carved the other twenty-two 
during a single night ; but as day broke 
before the completion of his labours, the 
rest perforce remained incomplete. 

But the chief cariosity on the road 
is the large Image of Jizd {Rokudo 
no JiMd) carved in relief on a block 
of andealte, and ranking among the 
triumphs of the Japimese ohisd. 
Tradition has it that the greai 

Fuiago-yama, Koma-ga-take^ 


Buddhist saint, Kobo Daisbi, carved 
this image also in a single night. A 
festival in its bononr is celebrated 
yearly on the 2drd August. 

[Some way beyond this large 
image, a path up Fiitagro-yama 
( UtDo-FiUago) 

Ftttapo-yama^ lit. Twin Motintain, 
i« a favooiite desi^ation for sach 
donble peaks. 

turns off to the 1. The ascent, 
•which will take a good walker 
20 min. or i hr. from this 
spot, is worth making — per- 
haps most conveniently as a 
separate walk from Miyanoshita 
or from Hakoue — the ancient 
crater (now thickly carpeted 
with moss and overgrown with 
bushes and trees) being re- 
markably extensive, and the 
view from its upper rim, which 
is clear of wood, being very 
fine. The chief points seen are 
almost the same as those 
-enumerated above under the 
heading of Eamiyama. It is 
possible to ascend the further 
summit of Futago-yama {Shi- 
ta-Futago) ; but the labour is 
not repaid, as the summit it- 
self is covered with trees and 
bushes that shut out all view. 
Koiiifi-grii-fake, also, may be 
ascended r. from near the large 
image of Jizo, but is rather less 
worth climbing than Futago- 
yaraa or Kamiyama, as the 
plateau-like nature of the top 
makes it impossible to take in 
the whole of the view from any 
single spot. It has, however, 
the advantage of showing Fuji 
from peak to base. Time, 1^ hr. 

A booMer at the top of Koma-g&- 
take is the subject of a carions 
■aperstitioD. Tt is believed that the 
water contained in the hollows of 
this boulder never runs dry ; and the 
peasants of the surrounding country 
make pllgrimaffes to it in seasons of 
<lroufl:ht, in oraer t« obtain rain t^ 
ficatterinff the drops about to the 
four winds. But if any of the water 
be taken down the mountain, the re- 
sult is a typhoon. 

Eoma-ga-take may also be as- 
cended from a point nearer the 
vill. of Ashinoyn ; but the climb 
is then considerably steeper.] 

The two meres ( Shdni-ga-ike and 
Na3una-ga-ike), r. and 1. on the 
way between Ashinoyu and Hakone, 
are the remains of ancient craters. 
Shoni-ga-ike generally offers fair 
skating in the winter. The first 
hamlet reached on getting to the 
lake is Moto-Hakone, 15 chd this 
side of Hakone itself. The Tsuji- 
ya Inn, pleasantly situated on the 
border of the lake, commands the 
best view of Fuji to be had in this 

Instead of returning to Miyano- 
shita by the way one has come, it 
will be found pleasant in warm 
weather to take a boat from Hako- 
ne (or from Moto-Hakoue, which 
shortens the expedition by one 
mile) to a spot called Shin-yu at 
the far-end of the lake — Umi-Jiri, 
lit. " sea-end," as it is also termed, 
where was formerly a tea-house now 
burnt down. Alighting there, we go 
past the little bathing village of 
Ubago, up the spur separating the 
lake from Ojigoku, and return home 
to IMiyanoshita by the Ojigoku way, 
as in walk No. 7. Those who have 
done the expedition, not on foot, but 
in chairs or kctgos, can take these 
conveyances with them in the boat, 
and can be carried most of the way 
home from Shin-yu. It is only 
necessary to walk over the danger- 
ous portion of the Ojigoku gorge. 
Instead of taking a boat, some may 
prefer to follow the path along the 
edge of the lake. The distances, if 
this extension be adopted, are : 

Miyanoshita to: — Bi. Chd. M, 

Ashinoyu 18 3 

Moto-Hakone .... 23 1} 

Hakone 15 1 

Umijiri 1 18 


Siigoku 8 h 

iyanoshita 1 84 4} 

Total 6 10 16^ 

18 3} 
13 } 


Routs 6. — MiyanosJdta and Hakone. 

10. Up half-way to Ashinoyu, as 
far as two little tea-houses b^ide a 
brook, known as Ike^vri; thence 
sharp 1. for 80 chd down a steep and 
stony but picturesque path, which 
passes through the vill. of Hat a on 
the old Tdkaido. The return to 
Miyanoshita is made yi& Yumoto, 
Tonosawa, and Ohiradai —total dis- 
tance, about 6 ri. The first portion 
of the descent is called Tanizakay 
or Cascade Hill, on account of a 
pretty cascade seen to the r. about 
two-thirds of the way down. There 
is another path to Hata 1., just be- 
fore the final climb to Ashinoyu, 
which joins the Takizaka path ; but 
this makes the walk some 10 chd 

11. To the top of the Otonie- 
toge, or Maiden's Pas!^, distant 2^ ri 
(6 m.), whence can be gained the 
nearest and most complete view of 
Fuji and of the plain at its base. 
The path is not steep, excepting 
some 8 chd in the middle up a hill 
called the Usui-toge (by foreigners, 
«* the Corkscrew "), and 11 c7id at 
the end. It is possible, however, 
except for unusually heavy persons, 
to be carried the whole way in a 
chair. The path leads through 
Kiga and Miyagino, crosses the 
Hayakawa, and continues up the 
valley to the vill. of 

SengokUf noted for its cattle- 
farm, extensive for Japan, whence 
the Miyanoshita hotels are supplied 
with milk and butter. 

[From Sengoku, it is possible to 
ascend Kintokl-zan. The dis- 
tance to the summit is estimat- 
ed at 25 chd, and the climb is 
very steep in some places. The 
people of the surrounding coun- 
try-side ascend Kintoki - zan 
annually on the 17th day of 
the 3rd moon, old style, on 
which day the festival of I-mo- 
hana (" the boar's nose ") is held 
on the summit. The name of 
the mountain is derived from 
that of Kintoki, a mighty hunter 
of legendary fame.] 

The climb up the Otome-t5ge 
commences shortly after leaving 
Sengoku. The lal>our it entails is 
amply repaid by the view from the 
gap forming the pass. Persons with 
sufficient time will do well to climb 
up the hill to the r., from whose top 
are visible the snow-clad peaks of 
the mountains of Kosh£i and Shin- 
shti. It is also possible to walk 1. 
along the ridge to the Nagao-tdge, 
the first ^ hr's. scramble through 
difficult scrub being rewarded by a 
glorious view from the open summit 
of the Nagao-dai. In this case the 
return is made vid the farm. — To 
travel out to Miyanoshita vift the 
Otome-toge, is a pleasant alternative 
route for those who intend visiting 
this district a second time. Instead 
of alighting at Kozu, one continues 
in the train as far as the station of 
Gotemba, situated in the plain at 
Fuji's base. From Gotemba it is 2^ 
ri to the top of the pass. The first 
portion of the way may be done by 
jinrikisha. Gotemba is also the 
nearest station for travellers coming 
up the T5kaid5 Railway from Kobe, 
bound for Miyanoshita. But if they 
have much luggage or object to 
walking, they should go on to Kozu, 
whence the facilities for proceeding 
to Miyanoshita are greater. 

12. To the vill. of Sengoku, as in 
the preceding walk ; there cross the 
river to the deeply wooded hill of 
Dai-ga-take; then through the 
hamlet of Yuba which has mineral 
springs, again crossing and re-cross- 
ing the river to Miyagino and Kiga, 
and so home. The park-like 
scenery about Dai-ga-take and Ytcba 
differs from that of the other 
walks in the neighbourhood of 
^liyanoshita, and offers much plea- 
sant shade besides delightful dis- 
tant glimpses. Path, fairly good. 
Time, 2 hrs. from Sengoku, or 4 
hrs. altogether. 

13. To the Buddhist temple of 
SnijoJI, sonMtimes called Ddryo^ 
sauy distant 3 ri. Though placed 
last, this expedition is perhaps the 
most delightful of all ; for it alone 

Saijdjji (Ddryd'$an). 


inolades arohiteotoral beauties as 
well as beauties of nature. The 
path, after passing through Kiga 
and Miyagino and crossing the 
Hayakawa, leads up to a grassy 
plateau near the summit of Mybjin- 
ga-take^ — not to be confounded with 
the My6j6-ga-take of Walk No. 8. 
(Though kagos go this way, horses 
cannot. Biders therefore have to 
go round vi& Yagura-zawat which 
increases the distance by about a 
eouple of miles.) Tell the guide to 
lead to the spot, not far out of the 
way, whence may best be seen the 
superb view :— on the one hand, the 
tea, with Vries Island, the pen- 
insula of Boshu, and the nearer 
peninsula of Sagami, the plain of 
ftagA.Tni watered by the rivers Ba- 
oyft and Sakawa, the mountain 
ranges of Oyama, Kurakake, Tan- 
lawa, Sdbutsu, Yagura-ga-take, and 
many of the mountains of Koshu ; 
on the other, the wooded heights 
beyond the Hakone pass which 
dwarf the nearer ridge of Takanosu ; 
then turning towards the r., double- 
erested Futago-yama, Koma-ga- 
take, Kammuri-ga-take, and the 
long ridge to the W. of Hakone 
which terminates in Kintoki-zan; 
and above and beyond all, the 
gigantic cone of Fuji. From this 
point it is a descent, Saij5ji being 
even lower down on the far side of 
the mountain than Miyanoshita is 
on the near. Before reaching it, 
the open moorland of the hillside is 
exchanged for a magnificent forest 
of pines and crrptomerisis, with an 
undergrowth of beautiful flowering 
shrubs — deutzia, azalea, pyrus J6i- 
ponica, aucuba, etc., according to 
the season. 

The monastery of Saijdji, which be- 
longs to the Sdt5 sect of Baddhists, was 
foanded ysy a hermit named Rydan, who 
died A.D. 1401 ; bat it owes its special 
rqmtation for sanctity to his successor 
DfliyO. who was supposed to be one of 
the nomeroas incarnations of Kwannon, 
tbe Goddess of Mercy. 

To Doryo's memory is dedicated 
Uie finest of all the shrines which 
eoUeotlTely constitute SaijdjL It is 

called Myokwaku-do, and stands at 
the top of a flight of steps to the 1. 
The links of the chain which divides 
the staircase into two parts are 
often bound with scraps of paper, 
on which pilgrims have written 
their prayers. The fan of feathers, 
which forms so striking a feature 
of the ornamentation, was Dorj-o's 
crest. The winged figures with 
large noses represent goblins (t€ngu\ 
who dwell in the mountains. Do 
not fail to notice the elaborate wood 
carvings. Most of the large up- 
right stones of irregular sliape in- 
scribed with characters in red or 
gold, which are scattered about the 
grounds, are memorials of persons 
who have at various times contri- 
buted towards the repairs of the 
temple. So is the hideous grey 
railing, by which more modern 
piety has endeavoured to mar the 
perfect taste and beauty of the 
scene. It is generally most con- 
venient to lunch at Saijoji al fresco 
in one of the more retired portions 
of the temple grounds. There are 
also some tea-sheds some way down 
the avenue beyond the temple. 

Instead of returning to Miyano- 
shita the way one came, it is far 
better to arrange at the hotel, be- 
fore starting, to have jinrikishas in 
waiting at the end of the stately 
avenue of cryptomerias leading from 
the temple down for 28 cho to the 
vill. of Sekimoto {tea-house, Saka-ya). 
After the fatigues of the walk, one 
can thence bowl along merrily 
through the pleasant valley of 
the Sakawa-gawa, skirting Odawara, 
and thence proceeding up the new 
road to Tonosawa and MiyaDoshita, 
either in the same jinrikisha or on 
foot. The total distance of the trip, 
as thus modified, is 10 ri 25 cho 
(26 miles) ; but the 3rt in jinrikisha 
from Sekimoto to Odawara, and 
the possibility of doing all the 
remainder of the way up to Miya- 
noshita by jinrikisha, prevent it 
from being too fatiguing. — It is 
also possible to take Saijoji on the 
way back from Miyanoshita to 


Route 6. — Miyanoihita and Hakone. 

Yokohama, by joining the Tokaido 
Hallway at Matauday the nearest 
station to the temple. The distance 
from the end of the avenne just 
mentioned, where jinrikishas may 
be obtained, is under 2 ri. From 6 
to 7 hrs. should be allowed for the 
whole expedition including a stop- 
page for lunch. 

8. — Hakone and Neighbourhood. 

Hnkoiie is most quickly reached 
from Yokohama and T5ky6 by the 
Tokaido Railway as far as Kozu, 
thence by train to Yumoto, and on 
foot or in kago along the old To- 
kaidd up the Hakone pass vid. Hata, 
the whole journey taking about 6 
hrs. from Yokohama, or 7 hrs. from 
Tokyo. The way up the Hakone 
pass through the forest is most 
picturesque, hut the road is stony 
beyond description. An alternative 
plan is to continue ou in the train as 
far as Sano, whence walk to Hakone 
by the Izu-Sano path, joining the 
Tokaido at its highest point, — about 
10 m. Many residents prefer to tra- 
vel viA Miyanoshita where they spend 
the night, and then push on next 
morning by Walk No. 9 (see p. 125). 

The respective merits of Hakone 
and Miyauoshita as summer resorts 
form a constant subject of debate 
between the partisans of the two 
places. !Miyanoshita has the ad- 
vantage of hot springs, a drier air, 
easier access, and a hotel in Euro- 
pean style. Hakone is cooler, being 
1,000 ft. higher, it affords more 
privacy, and has a picturesque lake 
where one may bathe and boat and 
go on water picnics. The view of 
Fuji, too, and the reflection of Fuji 
in the lake {Hakone no Saka-Fuji) 
form a great attraction. In winter 
the advantage is altogether on Miya- 
noshita's side. No one thinks of 
staying at Hakone during that 
season, whereas Miyauoshita is 
equally pleasant all the yew round. 
Indeed, many prefer the early 
winter there to the summer, as the 
air is almost always clear in winter, 
and walking consequently more 

enjoyable. The chief vnn at Hakone 
is the Hafa-ya, on the lake. But 
as nearly every house in the village 
is to let during the summer season, 
the plan usually followed by families 
from Yokohama is to hire a separate 
residence by the month, bring their 
own servants with them, and set np 
housekeeping. Foreign furniture 
of a rough kind is generally obtain- 
able, as also provisions during the 
summer season. 

Some of the most enjoyable ex- 
peditions from Hakone are the 
same as those already described 
from Miyauoshita, — for instance, 
those to Ojigoku, to Ashinoyn, 
up Futago-yama, etc. The follow- 
ing may also be recommended : — 

1. The temple of Gongeii. The 
way leads out of the N. end of the 
village, under an avenue of fine 
cryptomerias that line the Tokai- 
d5. A flight of steps will be seen r., 
leading to a small shed whence 
there is a charming view. The 
village formerly extended to this 
place. Here also stood the old 
Barrier (Hakone no seki) and guard- 
house, where all travellers were 
challenged and required to show 
their passports. The barrier was 
removed in 1871, but part of the 
stone-work still remains. 

Kaempfer, who passed this w«y on 
Sunday, the llth March, 1691, write* of 
this pfiiard-house as follows :— *' We came 
to the Imperial f^uard at the end of the 
village, where all the Japanese came oat 
of their Norimom and Canpo$, and those 
on horseback alighted from their horses, 
presenting themselves very respectfully 
and bareheaded, to be search'd. whion 
however was done but slightly. If then 
be any the least suspicion of a woman, 
dieguia'd in man's deaths, they most 
be more narrowly search'd, with this 
difference however, that in this cAse, they 
are examin'd by women. Private persons 
going up to Jetf^, must show their Pass- 
ports at this place, otherwise they are 
kept under arrest for three days, before 
they are permitted to pursue their 

Following along the avenue, we 
soon oome 1. to an Imperial Summer 
Palace (Rikyu), not accessible to 
the public. The next point in ifae 

W<Ukf /ram H^fkms. 


road IB the Tst^i-ya ion, comznand- 
ing the best view of Fuji to be had 
anywhere on the shores of the lake. 
A little further od, we pass under a 
8toae tarii and enter the hamlet of 
Moto Hakofie. We then turn slight- 
ly to the 1., passing under a red 
toriij by the side of which stands a 
wooden shed containing two iron 
rice-boilers said to have been used 
by Yoritomo on his hunting expedi- 
tions. The road here skirts the 
lake, soon bringing us to a charm- 
ing vista as we ascend to the foot of 
the temple steps. On the 1., just 
before passing through the torn, 
stands the custodian's house, where 
Yoritomo's sword and other interest- 
ing relics are shown. On the 1., 
half-way up, is a shrine dedicat- 
ed to the Soga Brethren. The 
main temple contains votive pic- 
tures representing these Brethren, 
the Gods of Luck, Yoritomo's horse, 
etc. The walk back may be varied 
by taking a wide turning to the 1. 
about the middle of Moto Hakone, 
going up the stone steps nearly as 
far as the toriij cmd then taking a 
turn to the 1. which is the Shindd, 
or New Road, to Ashinoyu. After 
following this for about ^ m., we 
strike r. the old path which leads 
to the Tokaido. The pass above 
the iorii commands the view so 
often seen in photographs. 

2. Walk to the End of the Lake. 
— At the entrance to the avenue 
leading to the temple of Gongen, a 
path will be seen 1. lower down, by 
following which a walk of 6 miles 
can be taken to Umyi/riy as the N. 
end of the lake is called. Those 
going by boat (1 hr.) will find that 
the shadow of the large trees over- 
hanging the lake r., shortly before 
reaching Umijiri, affords a nice spot 
for a water picnic. 

3. Along the Snknmo-graira.— 
This is a pleasant but rather rough 
walk. The stream has to be perpe- 
toally crossed and re-crossed, and 
sometimes wading is unavoidable. 
The path finally leads out near the 
vilL of Hata, where kagos can be ob- 

tained for the return vi& the stony 
Hakone Pass. At the beginning of 
the valley, a path to the r. leads to 
Yoshihama on the coast. It affords 
pretty peeps of Fuji and the lake, 
but the high grass intercepts the 
view from the top. 

4. Walks in the direction of 
AtaniL — Several pleasant walks can 
be taken in the direction of the Ten 
Province Pass and Atami, notably 
one up the slope of Okoma-yama 
and over Kazakoshi-yama, to the 
highest point of the Tokaido, where, 
on a little plateau, the boundary 
post between the provinces of Saga- 
mi and Izu is placed ; and back to 
Hakone by the Tdkaido. While 
crossing the plateau, there is a fine 
view of the lake, the mountains 
surrounding it, and Fuji beyond, 
with to the S. the Bay of Suniga, 
the promontory of Izu, the towns 
dotting the Tdkaido, Ashitaka- 
yama, the Fujikawa far away in 
the distance like a streak of silver, 
and still further the long point of 
Omae-zaki stretching out into the 
ocean. Distance about 3^ m. 

Another walk in the same general 
direction is past the pond called 
Nmna-ga-ike, then over a little ridge 
separating it from another pond or 
swamp on the Suruga side, called 
Otama-ga-ike^ and on up the moun- 
tain slope to a gap, where a turn to 
the 1. should be taken up through 
the grass to the survey post. The 
summit affords an extensive view. 

But of all walks in this direction, 
the most delightful is that to the 
Ten ProYince Pass {Jikkokn-fdge 
or Higanetoge). Those intending 
to picnic there should, however, 
take water with them, as none is to 
be obtained on the way. The climb 
is for the most part easy enough, and 
the panorama from the summit, es- 
pecially on a fine day in early winter, 
something never to be forgotten. 
The top of the ridge, which is mark- 
ed by a stone known as the Ten Pro- 
vince Stone^ looks down on the pro- 
vinces of Izu, Suruga, Totomi, 
Koshu, Kotsuke, Musashi, Shimosa^ 


Route 6. — MtyanoMta and Hakons. 

Eazusa, BoBhlL, and Sagami. Bays, 
peninsulas, islands, moontain- 
ranges, lie spread out in entrancing 
variety of form and colour, Fuji 
towering up magnificently above 
all the rest. The distance from 
Hakone is locally estimated at 5 ri, 
but must be less, as it can easily 
be done in 2} hrs. 

[A steep descent of a little over 
3 m. leads from the top down 
to Atami. There is also a path 
from the top to the hamlet of 
Istirsanf distant 1 ri.] 

5. Uirahama on the lake. — A 
short walk may be taken from the 
S. end of the village to the 
foot of the Hakone Pass, where 
there is a path leading to the 
shore of the lake. After skirting 
the latter, the way leads over a 
small hill to the next bay, called 
Hirahama. Should the water be too 
high, Hirahama may be reached 
by the track over Hatahiki-yama. 

6. Umidaira— This is the pla- 
teau rising above the S.W. shore 
of the lake, from which is obtain- 
ed an extensive and beautiful 
view, embracing many of the points 
seen from the Ten Province Pass. 
Time, about 2 hrs. A track leads 
down through the grass to a little 
bay on the lake near the Eiraishiy 
or Flat Stone, whence Hakone can 
be easily reached by boat, which 
should be ordered in advance. 

7. The Subterranean Water- 
Conrse and the Fukara Pass —The 
Fukara Pass is the most southerly 
of three that lead from the end of 
Lake Hakone to Fuji, the other 
two being the Nagao Pass and the 
Otome Pass. The first stage on 
the way to all three from Hakone 
is by boat nesurly to the end of the 
lake. Close to the spot on the 
shore where the ascent of the 
Fukara Pass begins, is a tunnel 
(9rMmon)y through which a portion 
of the waters of the lake is carried 
to several villages on the other 
side of the mountain, serving to 
irrigate their rioe-fields, and then 

flowing on to form the waterfalls of 

This sabCerranean cbannel is said to be 
entirely artificial, the local account bein^ 
tliat it was pierced hy two brothers, who 
bored through the mountain from op> 
posite sides until thej met in the middle. 

The walk up the pass takes 20 
min. The exit of the tunnel (umi 
no ana) may be easily reached from 
the top of the pass, the whole 
expedition from the boat and back 
again taking about 2 hrs. There 
is some climbing and scrambling to 
be done, bat the paths are on the 
whole fairly good. 

8. The Nagao Pass.— This lies 
1 ri 7 chd from Umijiri. The 
way leads first across the Haya- 
kawa, the natural outlet of the 
lake, which later on flows past 
Miyanoshita; then along a broad 
level cinder path to the foot of 
the pass, and finally by an ea«y 
climb of 12^ chd to the top. The 
gap at the summit of the pass com- 
mands a complete view of Fuji from 
b€bse to peak. On looking back, 
the eye sweeps across the plain of 
Sengoku-hara and over the waters 
of Hakone Lake. Eammuri<ga-take 
is also seen to advantage, and on its 
slope can be distinctly traced the sol- 
fataras of Ojigoku. A more exten- 
sive and beautiful view is, however, 
obtained by ascending the hill to the 
1. of the pass. From this stmimit, 
not only Fuji, but the promontory 
of Izu, with Amagi-san, the whole 
of the fertile plain stretching away 
to the r. of the town of Mishima, 
the rugged peaks of Ashitaka, the 
course of the Fujikawa, the pro- 
montory of Mio-no-Matsubara, Ku- 
Do-zan, and the full sweep of Suruga 
Bay lie at the spectator's feet. 

I(quU 7.^^mmda ^J^u. 



The Peionsula op Izu. 

1. atahi and neighbourhood. 
2. hakonb to shuzenji and 
8himoda. 8. fbom numazu to 
shimoda and atami by the coast. 
4. yxroashima to atami. 

1.— Ataki and Nbiohboubhood. 

Atami (*HigTic1ii Hotel, foreign 
style; Sagami-ya, Fuji-ya, and 
many others) is a favourite winter 
resort of the Japanese higher offi- 
cial class, as it is protected hy 
high hills from the northerly and 
westerly winds which prevail at 
that season over Japan. The whole 
stretch of coast from Eozu on the 
Tokaido Railway to Atami partakes 
more or less of the same advantskge ; 
and the soft air, the orange-groves, 
and the deep hlue sea of Odawara 
Bay, combine to make of this dis- 
trict the Riviera of Japan. 

Atami is most easily reached 
from Yokohama by the Tokaido 
Railway as far as Kosu, 1^ hr., 
and then by jinrikisha for the rest 
of the way, nearly 6 hrs. along the 


KOZU to :— Ri. Chd. M. 

Odawara 1 28 4J 

Hayakawa 10 | 

Nebnkawa 1 20 3| 

Enoura 1 12 3J 

Yoshihama 1 82 4A 

Iza-san 2 12 5f 


Total 9 24 28i 

The road is delightfully piotur- 
eeqoe and representatively Japa- 
nese, leading first under an ancient 
avenue most of the way to Oda- 
wara, and thence up and down 
jiIoDg the coast, with eTer-ohangixig 

views of sea and land and of Vries 

Island smoking in the distance. 
The little peninsula whose neck is 
crossed about half-way, is called 
Cape Manazuru. 

Travellers approaching Atami 
from the Kyoto side may find it a 
convenient saving of time to alight 
at Numazu station, and thence to 
proceed to Atami over the hills,~» 
pretty walk of about 6 hrs. ; road 
practicable also, except after heavy 
rain, for jinrikishas with two men. 
The distance is estimated at 7 ri. 
From the town of Mishima to Atami 
is somewhat shorter. During most 
of the way up, a fine near view it 
obtained of Fuji, with to the r. 
Amagi-san and the lower ranges of 
the peninsula of Izu, and in front 
the Bay of Numazu at Fuji's base. 
The view from the top of the ridge 
is rather disappointing. 

A third way, much to be recom- 
mended to good walkers, is that 
from Miyanoshita vift Ashinoyu to 
Hakone (see p. 125), and thence 
over the hills by the Ten Province 
Pass (see p. 181) with its incom- 
parable view. The ascent is not 
very steep, but the descent on the 
Atami side is short aud abrupt. 
The total distance from Miyano- 
shita to Atami by this way is be- 
tween 6 and 7 ri. 

Fourthly and lastly, Atami may 
be reached b^ small steamer from 
Kozu, touching at Odawara and 
Manazuru. It is possible that some 
eccentric persons may prefer this 
means of approaching it. 

The curiosity for which Atami 
is noted is its geyser (Oyu), which 
breaks out once in every four hours 
in the middle of the town. It ori- 
ginally shot straight up into the 
air, but is now partially enclosed, 
and an inhalation house {Kyiiki- 
kioan) has been erected by the au- 
thorities for patients sufferinfr 
from affections of the throat and 
longs, the salt in which the steam 
of the geyser is rich being benefi- 
cial in such cases. The handsome 


Bottk 7. — PiMhuula ofltu. 

house close behind the Kytlki- 
kwan, on the other side of the 
small creek which flows through the 
town, is a villa formerly belonging 
to the millionaire, Mr. Iwasaki, and 
now the property of His Imperial 
Highness, the Crown Prinoe. The 
chief productions of Atami are a 
beautifully delicate kind of paper, 
called gampishij literally, ** wild- 
goose skin paper," and an excellent 
sweetmeat called ame. 

The walks to be recommended 
from Atami are : — 

1. To the grove of Kinomija, a 
few min. distant from the hotels. 
At the far end of this grove, are 
some of the finest camphor trees 
{kusunoki) in Japan. 

2. To UomI, the hut visible high 
up on the cliff that shuts in Ata- 
mi Bay to the S. It is a climb 
of some 20 min., but the lovely view 
from the top amply repays the 
trouble. The name ITomt, lit. "fish- 
outlook," refers to the use to which 
this post of observation is put. 
When a school of bonitos is expect- 
ed — and they frequently visit the 
bay in enormous numbers — a man 
stands on this eminence, whence he 
can see clearly down to a great 
depth in the water, and makes signs 
to the fishermen below, indicating 
to them the direction in which it 
will be best to turn. 

3. To the hot springs of Iza-san, 
^ ri. They are situated on the rock 
below the highway, in a manner 
resembling swallows' nests. 

4. To Bnieiiji, a pretty park. 
This is a pleasant level walk of less 
than 1 ri. ^ 

6. To Tosawo, i hr. climb half- 
way up Higane-san to a beautiful 
grove of trees. There one may turn 
to the r., and come back by way of 
the vill. of Izu-san. (This vill. is not 
below the highway, as are the hot 
springs of Izu-san, mentioned in 
No. 3J 

6. To the little port of AJiro, a 
steep but very pretty walk over the 
lulls, returning, if preferred, by 

boat. The walk takes about 2} hrs., 
the return by sea less. Ajiro, which 
lies at the S. end of a beautiful bay» 
can also be reached from Atami by 
small coasting steamer. It will be 
found best to lunch at the Shimitu- 
ya Intij situated at the point where 
the Shimoda road branches off r. 
over the Taka-toge, and having 
pleasant rooms overlooking the bay. 
The vill. itself offers no attractions. 
The following are pleasant all day 
expeditions : — 

7. To the small island of Hatsn- 
shima* thence to Ajiro, on to a 
beautiful stretch of coast known as 
Nishiki'Uraf and so home. Those 
who like the sea will find this a 
charming boating excursion on a 
calm day. NishlM-ura boasts some 

8. Up Higrane-san, and down a 
steep narrow gorge r. from the 
temple there to the hot springs of 
Ytigawara ; thence back (by jinriki- 
sha, if preferred) viA Yoshihama on 
the Atami main road. 

9. By boat to Ito (Wada), 5 ri 
28 cho by road, but shorter by water, 
and thence vi& the baths of Matsu- 
bara (Inuy Maeda-ya), 

Both Woda and Matsnbara form part 
of a cluster of hamlets collectively known 
as ItQ, and noted for their hot mineral 
waters. The other hamlets of the ffroup 
are Yukawa, Take-no-uchi, and Aral. 

where a guide should be procured, to 
Omuro-aafiy an extinct volcano re- 
sembling Fuji in shape, and there- 
fore often called by the country-folk 
Fuji tw InwtOy *• Fuji's Younger 
Sister," or Scngen-yama (Scngen is 
an alternative name of the Goddess 
of Fuji). About 2 hrs. are required 
to walk from Matsubara to the base, 
which is half-way between the 
hamlets of Ikemura and Totari; 
thence it is 20 min. more to the 
summit, from which there is a fine 
panorama. The crater is about 250 
yds. in diameter, and some 80 ft. 
deep, the bottom being covered with 
scattered blocks of lava. To the 
E. of this volcano stands a smaller 
one called Koniwro-zcm, 

MiMmm^ 8huze9^i. 


S.— Fbok Hakonb to the hot 


Amaoi-san to Shimoda. 


HAKONEto:— Bi. Chd. Af. 

lijshima 3 21 8| 


machi) 2 6 5J 

Ohito 1 82 ^ 

Uryfino 9 I 

8HUZENJI .. 25 If 

Yugashima 3 18 8| 

Nashimoto .... 5 6 12^ 

Mitsukuri .... 2 11 5| 

SHIMODA.... 2 6 6i 

Total 21 25 53 

This is a two or three days* trip, 
winch should be arranged in such 
fashion as to sleep the first night at 
Shusenji, and the second at Yuga- 
no, whence one can easily reach 
Sidmoda by noon on the third day ; 
or if necessary, by pushing on to 
the hot springs of Yugashima the 
first night, Shimoda could be reach- 
ed on the second. It is possible to 
take jinrikishas as far as Yuga- 
ghima, and again along the excel- 
lently graded road from the foot of 
the Konabe-toge into Shimoda, but 
they are not always to be depended 
upon in that direction. Take it 
altogether, the way beyond Sbuzen- 
ji is very hilly, and scarcely to be 
leoommended except to pedestrians, 
who will find it replete with natural 

The above itinerary is given from 
Hakone; but the quickest way of 
Beaching Shuzenji from T5kyo is to 
take train to Numazu, from which 
place a good jinrikisha road follows 
the course of the Kanogawa, joining 
the main road to Shimoda close to 
Hojo, a distance of 8 ri. An alter- 
native road from Numazu vi& Ushi- 
buse is 1 rt longer, but offers lovely 
sea views. One might also alight 
at Sano which is 1 ri 20 cho from 
Mishima by jinrikisha. 

The first stage of the way from 
Hakone to Mishima, teikes the 
traveller along the old roughly 
paved TOkaido, which, soon after 
leaving Hakone, rises to a height 
of 2,970 ft. above the sea, and 
then again descends. About half- 
way down is a vantage-point 1., 
commanding a fine view of the 
country E. of Numazu. The river 
Kanogawa is here seen winding 
between groups of hills, beyond 
which rises the bolder mass of 

Mishima {Iniis, Mishima-kwan, 
Sagami-ya), formerly a busy town, 
still boasts a large and famous 
Shinto temple of Oyama-tsumi, the 
god of mountains. 

This temple, founded in AD. 783, was 
destroyed by earthquake in 1855, and re- 

From this place, the road crosses 
a plain near the head of the Gulf of 
Suruga to the vill. of Daiha, where it 
turns up the valley of the Kanogawa, 
passing through tlie vill. of Hajd. 

Noted in history as tho l>irthplRce of the 
founder of the ti^reekt HdjC family, who, 
during the 13th century and a portion of 
the 14th, ruled Japan as "Regents" 
(ShiH^nJt in the name of the "Puppet 
Sh6;,'uus" of Kamakura. 

The scenery all the way up the 
valley is pretty, including, on turn- 
ing back, charming views of Fuji. 
The rocky sides of Jdyama present 
a striking object as seen on the r. 
of the hamlet of Ohito. Not far 
beyond Ohito, the prefectural road, 
which has hitherto been followed, is 
abandoned for a path leading up the 
1. bank of the Katsura-gawa to 

Shuzenji {Inn, Arai-ya). De- 
lightfully situated in a secluded 
valley, this place is much resorted 
to on account of its mineral waters. 
In the middle of the river, which 
flows down through the village, a 
hot spring rises up in a basin of 
rock. A roofing has been built over 
the spot, and a wooden bridge con- 
nects it with the bank ; so that 
bathers may either luxuriate in the 
high temperature of the spring, or 


RotiU 7. — ^P«»iii«ii/a of Int. 


moderate it by means of the cold 
water of the river. The water is also 
led into the inns by means of pipes. 
On tlie 1. bank stands the temple of 
Shuzenji, belonging to the SotO sect, 
which, though insignificant, gives 
its name to the village. 

Behind the vill. of Odaira, and 
visible from the road, is Asahi-no- 
taki, a cascade of about 100 ft. in 
height, forming a series of four or 
five falls. All this neighbourhood 
abounds in hot springs, those of 
Seko-no-taki being the most notable 
'8 chd off the main road from 

ugashima), and picturesquely si- 

Tn^ashimn {Inns, Yumoto-ya, 
Ochiai-ro, at the hot springs^ is a 
hamlet at the foot of the Amagi- 
tdge. The ascent of this pass (3 ri) 
is mostly gradual, only one-third of 
the distance being steep. The path 
continues along the r. bank of the 
Ranogawa to the hamlet of Takijiri, 
whence, passing through a pretty 
rocky valley and over open grassy 
hills, it ascends the forest-clad slope 
of one of the spurs to the r. of 
Amagi -san. 

Amagi-ffint it should be mentioned, is 
the general name idven to the whole 
monntain maas etretohinf? across the pro- 
montory of lau from E. to W., the loftiest 
summit of which is called Banjird. 
Splendid as is still the timber on this 
rani^e, it has snfTerod much from deforesta- 
tion durinir the last two decades. 

The traveller should turn aside 
to visit the cascade of Jdrcn-takij 
formed by the waters of the Kano- 
gawa. It is situated close to the 
main road. 
The favourite hot springs of 
Tiignno (Inns, Shioda-ya, Edo- 
ya) are prettily situated on the 
banks of the Kawazu-gawa, some 
6 chd only from the poor hamlet of 
Nashivwlo at the foot of the pass on 
the other side. Here a road branches 
off to Kawaeu-no-hama on the coast 
(IJ rt), which affords a different 
route for those desirous of returning 
by land, 

16 chd, and after passing Mitsukuri 
descends a picturesque valley, well- 
cultivated, and irrigated by the 
waters of the Nozugawa, a stream 
fiowing into the harbour of Shimoda. 
The country round is beautifully 
diversified, every hill laid out in a 
series of terraces planted with rice 
and barley. The conspicuous cone- 
shaped hill which seems, from the 
vill. of Kdchiy to block up the mouth 
of the valley, is called Shimoda Fuii. 
Three cho from K5chi stands the 
hamlet of Rendaiji (Inn by Yoshi- 
mura Heijiro), noted for its hot 
springs. Further on, the valley wi- 
dens till it forms an extensive open 
plain before reaching 

Shimoda {Inns, Yamamoto-ya, 
Awaman-r5, a oompskctly built 
and regularly laid out town situated 
on the banks of the Nozugav^a. 
The situation of Shimoda is such 
as to command a healthy climate, 
owing to the dryness of the soil 
and the fresh sea-breezes. The 
harbour, though smaill, is safe and 
convenient. There is also an inner 
anchorage for small junks and boats, 
which is connected with the Nozu- 
gawa, being artificially constructed 
by means of dykes and a break- 

From Shimoda is exported most 
of the stone employed for the new 
constructions in tne capital. It 
comes from extensive quarries at 
Sawada, near Kawazu - no - hama 
{Inn, Mage-ya, with hot springs), 
about 8^ ri distant. 

Shimoda was first visited in 1854 by 
Commodore Peny and the ships of tn© 
United States squadron. By the treaty 
which he concluded, it was constituted an 
open port for American shippinf^ ; and 
here Mr. Harris, the American Miniater, 
resided until the substitution of £Lana> 
gawa as a trading port in 18S9. This 
change was motived by an earthquake 
and huge tidal wave that rendered the 
harbour useless for large ships and 
overwhelmed the town. The limit of the 
tidal wave is marked by the spot on which 
the Normal School now stands. 

The easiest way to quit Shimoda 
Beyond Nashimoto the road I is by small steamer to Atami, calling 
crosses the Konabt-tdge^ a olimb of | at two or three places en route. 

Walk round the Cimt. 


8.— Pbom Numazu to Shihoda, and 


It is possible to walk rouDd 
the entire peninsula of Izn by fol- 
lowing the path that skirts the 
oo<ist, — a journey which, though 
fotiguing, is extremely pretty in a 
characteristically Japanese way, and 
quite off the beaten track. It is a 
good plan to relieve the monotony 
of such a lengthy walking tour by 
taking boat over certain portions of 
the way, especially that between Ina- 
tori and Ito, where the rugged coast- 
line is seen to better advantage 
from the sea. Indeed, steamers may 
be availed of the whole way ; but 
in making plans, it should never 
be forgotten that this apparently 
more rapid method of conveyance 
affords no punctuality and but little 
comfort. The path continually 
winds up and down the cliffs along 
the sea- shore, passing a succession 
of picturesque nooks, bays, and is- 
lets with rocky oaves and pinnacles. 
Of these Ddgashima is the most 
noted. The bay of Enoura is famed 
for its beauty, while all along the 
coast from Shimoda to Atami, the 
▼olcano of Oshima, and the smaller 
isles of Izu are constantly in sight. 
The usual country accommodation, 
with excellent fish, is everywhere 
obtainable. If the trip be made in 
winter, — the month of December is 
reoommended— it may be advan- 
tageous to do it in the reverse 
Erection, in order to have the 
prevailing winds in one's favour. 
The best places to stop at are : — 

HidA (Tnny HaruM-va). 
Tago (inn, Taka-ya). 
Matsuzaki (Inn^ Sh5kai-r5). 
Shimoda (see opposite page). 
Atagawa (Seijo-kwan). 
ltd (Maeda-ya, at Matsubara). 
Atami (•Higuohi-ya), 

The inns recommended at other 
places on the road are : Hashimoto- 
ya, at Mi to ; Mage-ya, at Kawasu- 
Bo-hama ; Shimoda-ya, at Inatori ; 
Kfttta-ya, at Yawatano. 

The following is the 

NUMAZUto:— Ri, 

Enoura 1 

Mito 2 

Tachibo 1 

Hida 2 

Toi 3 

TAGO 6 2 

Matsuzaki 2 18 

Nagatsuro .... 6 — 
SHIMODA. i.. 4 18 

hama 8 20 8} 

Ihatori 1 29 4i 

Naramoto (near 

Atagawa) .... 1 27 4| 
Yawatano .... 2 27 6| 
ITO (Wada) . . 8 10 8 

Usami 1 10 3 

Ajiro 2 — 5 

ATAMI 2 18 6 

Total 47 7 115J 

In the above itinerary the road 
lies away from the coast between 
Matsuzaki and Shimoda, and is 
practicable for jinrikishas for about 
half the distance. The coast road 
vifi, Eano is 8} ri longer. 

From Atami one may reach Eoza 
on the T5kaid5 Railway by the 
itinerary (reversed) given at the 
beginning of this route (p. 183). 

4. — Fbom Yugashima to Atami. 

This walk from the centre of the 
peninsula to the coast offers superb 
views. The itinerary is as follows : 

YUGASHIMA to :— Bi. Chd. M. 

Nagano — 20 1^ 

Harabo 2 — 6 

Hiekawa 1 19 8i 

, Ito (Wada) 2 — 6 

ATAMI 6 28 14 

Total 11 81 29 


Rouie 8.^Vris$ hlani. 


Vbucs Island. 

Tries Island, called Isuno Oshima 
by the Japanese, is the largest and 
most accessible of the leu no Shichi- 
id, or Seven Isles of Izu, which 
stretch away for over 100 m. in 
ft southerly direction from near the 
entrance of Tokyo Bay to 38° lat. N. 
Its greatest length is 10 m. ; its 
breadth in the broadest part 5^ m. 
It is situated 15 m. from tne nearest 
point of Izu, and 28} m. from Misaki 
and Sagami. The ever-smoking vol- 
cano on Vries Island is sighted by 
all ships bound for Yokohama. The 
names of the other six are Toshima, 
Kiishima, Kdzushima, Miyake, 
Mikura, and Hachij5. 

In ancient days Eastern Japan, then 
semi-bHrbarous, was used as a place of 
banishment for criminals expelled from the 
central part of the Empire, that is to say 
Kara, K.vOtO, and their environs, where 
the Mikado held his Ck)urt. When the 
mainland of fi. Japim became settled, the 
islands alone oontmued to be nsed as con- 
vict settlements, and they retained this 
character till quite recent times. There 
were exiles living on Vries as late as the 
end of the 18th century. On Rnglish 
charts, Hachija (misspelt Fatsisio), the 
Bonthemmost of the group, is sometimes 
stated to be "a place of exile for the 
grandees of Japan." But it is a mistake 
to suppose that Hachijd was peculiar in 
this respect, or that grandees were the 
only class of persons transported thither. 
The most noted of the many exiles to 
Vries was the famous archer Tametomo, 
-vrho was banished there in 1156, and 
whose prowess forms a favourite subject 
with Japanese romance writers and 
artists. His picture may be seen on the 
back of some of the Japanese bank-notes. 
The current English name of Vries Island 
is derived from that of Captain Martin 
C^erritss Vries, a Dutch navigator who 
discovered it in 1613. Vries Island was 
noted until recent years for its peculiar 
dialect, and for the retention of curious 
old customs. But few remnants of these 
now survive, excepting the coifHrg of the 
women and their nabit of carrying loads 
cm the head. 

Vries Island has no regular, and 
but little irregular, steam commu- 
nication with the outer world. The 
best way to reach it is by fishing- 
boat from Misaki (see p. 84), whence 

the fare with five sailors should be- 
about 10 yen. The weather being 
favourable, any point on the coast 
of the island may be reached in 
from 5 to 8 hrs. The island may 
also be reached from Shimoda or 
Ajiro in Izu, or by junk from Rei- 
gan-jima, T6ky5. The native craft 
cannot, however, be recommended 
to any persons unacquainted with 
the language or unaccustomed to 
Japanese ways ; and the many de- 
lays and disappointments caused 
by the uncertainty of communica- 
tion with the mainland are hardly 
counterbalanced, except to the in- 
vestigator of volcanic phenomena^ 
by such interest as the island 
possesses. The best season for the 
trip is early spring, the next best 
being winter. 

There are six villages on the 
island, all situated on the coast, 
and named respectively Motomura 
(more correctly Niijima), Nomashi, 
bashikiji, Habu, Senzu, and Okada. 
Of these Motomura is the best to 
stop at, whilst Habu has the ad- 
vantage of possessing a small harbour 
— the submerged crater of an ancient 
volcano — and is therefore the easiest 
to take ship from when departing. 
There are no inns on Vries Island, 
excepting a poor one at Motomura ; 
but accommodation can be obtained 
at the house of the Nanushi (Head- 
man) of each village. There are no 
vehicles of any kind, and but few 
pack-horses. The distances along 
the road or path connecting the 
villages are approximately as fol- 
lows (the estimate is that given by 
the local officials, and seems to be 
a rather liberal one) : — 

Ei. Chd. M. 

Senzu to Okada 1 — 2J 

Okada to Motomura .... 2 — 6 
^Motomura to Nomashi . . 1 — 2 J 
Nomashi to Sashikiji.. 3 — 7J 
Sashikiji to Habu — 19 l| 

For the most part the road nms 
at some distance from the coast, 
which it only rejoins on neaiing 
the villages; and there are also a 

VoleMo ef Mikura. 


number of paths in all direotions, 
used by the inhabitants for bring- 
ing down fire-wood from the hill- 
sides. Usually the way lies throiigh 
s low wood of camellia, skimmia, 
•nd other evergreens, and some- 
times, as for instance between 
Kotomura and Nomashi, along a 
eh&rming fern-dad dell. Pheasants 
aie abundant. 

There is no road round the E. 
eoast from Habu to Senzu ; but the 
distance is approximately 5 ri, and 
the way leads over the desolate 
dope of the volcano by which the 
whole centre of the island is occu- 
nedL The name of the volcano is 
JDhara, 2,500 ft. high. From its 
smnmit smoke perpetually issues, 
mad it is subject to frequent erup- 
tions. The nearest point on the 
oottBt to the summit of the moun- 
tain is Nomashi, but the ascent 
may be undertaken equally well 
Irom Motomura. 

The climb requires only 2 hrs., 
and the whole expedition, including 
stoppages, can easily be made during 
a forenoon. Passing through the 
Tillage, the ascent, as made from 
Motomura, leads for the first hour 
through a wood, and then emerges 
oo to volcanic scoriae, where nothing 
grows but small tufts of grass and 
dwarf alder. The eminence seen 
ahead to the 1. and called Kagami- 
bata, is not the summit of the 
mountain, but only a portion of the 
wall of an immense ancient crater, 
in the midst of which stands the 
preaent cone, with its much smaller 
though still considerable dimen- 
nons. From this point it is a 5 
min. walk to the lip of the an- 
cient crater, which here forms a 
flat oval waste of minute scorise, 
with stones scattered here and 
thero. Its greatest length on this 
side is estimated at nearly 1 m., 
and it is surrounded by low broken 
hillooks of lava, against whose sides 
the sand is piled up. Half an hour's 
walk across this desolate waste, 
where not even a blade of grass is 
to be seen^ Imngs us to the little 

torn marking the Nomashi approach 
to the mountain, and forming the 
limit beyond which women are not 
allowed to proceed. From this 
point there is a fine view. In front, 
and most conspicuous of all, are the 
other islands and islets of the Izu 
group, the curious pyramidal To- 
shima, with Shikine and KOzu 
behind; to the 1. of Toshima the 
longer and lower outline of Niijima, 
with little Udoma in front. To the 
1. again, but considerably more 
distant, are the larger islands of 
Miyake and Mikura, while on ex- 
ceptionally clear days the outline 
of Hachijo — so at least it is asserted 
— can be descried. To the W. are 
seen Amagi-san and other portions 
of the peninsula of Izu, the tower- 
ing cone of Fuji, with the lesser 
Hakone and Oyama ranges ; to the 
N. Misaki in Sagami, and to the 
N.E. the outline of the peninsula 
of Eazusa-Boshti, which shuts in 
T5ky6 Bay from the open Pacific. 
The climb hence to the top of 
the mountain takes J hr. The 
width of the present crater at the 
summit has been estimated at J m. 

Mihara may also be ascended 
from Habu or from Senzu, the climb 
on that side of the island being, 
however, much longer and more 

Excepting the ascent of the vol- 
cano, there are few walks in the 
island deserving of mention. The 
collector of ferns will, however, find 
numerous and beautiful species, 
not only between Motomura and 
Nomashi, but also at a place called 
Bozu-ga-Horay i.e., the Priest's Dell, 
about 1 m. out of Habu in the 
direction of Senzu. A spare day at 
Habu may also be devoted to walk- 
ing along tlie coast towards Senzu ; 
but the vapour spring situated on 
the moimtain -side between the two 
places, of which the visitor will be 
told by the natives, is at a distance 
— 6 ri — which makes it difficult of 
access in one day, on account of the 
arduous nature of the ground ; and 
there is not even a shed in which U 


Bouu Qi^Fkji and Nidj^urhood. 

take shelter. This spring is resorted 
to in cases of wounds and bruises, 
the friends of the sick person erect- 
ing some temporary cover. Futago- 
yama, the double-crested mountain, 
whose red hue, caused bv the pre- 
sence of brittle lava of that colour, 
is so conspicuous from Habu, is a 
mere spur of the volcano, and has 
no special interest. 


Fuji and Neighboubhood. 

1. general information. 2. as- 
cent from gotemba station. 
3. ascent from muratama. 4. 
ascent from subashiri. 5. as- 
cent prom y08hida. 6. ascent 
prom hito-ana. 7. ascent prom 
sutama. 8. summit op fuji. 9. 
circuit of fuji half-way up. 
10. circuit of the base, cave of 
hito-ana, kami-ide waterfalls. 

1. — General Information. 

Time. Mere hurried ascent of 
Fuji and back to Yokohama, 1 day 
and night ; more comfortably in 2 
days and 1 night, which latter is 
spent at one of the huts on the 
mountain side. 

The pleasantest plan is to com- 
bine the ascent of Fuji with a visit 
to the Miyanoshita-Hakone district, 
giving at least a week to the entire 
trip, and climbing the mountain 
during whichever portion of that 
time seems to promise the most 
settled weather. The ascent is 
usually made between the 16th July 
and 10th September, the huts to 
accommodate pilgrims being closed 
during the rest of the year and the 
coolie guides {gbrikx) fearing to go 
up so long as any snow remains on 
the path. The charge at the huts 
is 11 per night. The best time is 

from the 25th July to the 10th 

The best way to reach Fuji from 
Yokohama is to take the l^kaido 
Railway as far as Gotemba Station, 
3 hrs., where guides, horses, foreign 
saddles, as also rough quilts and 
charcoal to ward off the cold air at 
night in the huts on the mountain 
top can be procured. The traveller 
must bring nis own food. Instead of 
staying at Gk>temba and making the 
ascent thence, many prefer to push 
on 6 m. to Subsishiri at the E. base 
of the mountain, where there is a 
better inn and whence the climb is 
a rather easier one. Travellers 
from the Kobe direction should 
alight cither at Iwabuchi or at 
Suzukawa, and ascend from Mura- 
yama, it being 8 ri. from each 
of those stations to Omiya (Inn^ 
Wata-ya). One goes from Iwabuchi 
to Omiya by jinrikisha ; from Suzn- 
kawa to Omiya by tram in 1^ hr., 
pa4ising through the town of Yoshi- 
wara. There is a short cut from 
Yoshiwara for pedestrians. Those 
coming from Kofu will naturally 
ascend from Yoshida. It is also 
possible to ascend from Suyama, 
S. E., and Hito-ana, S. W. ; but 
these last two have nothing special 
to recommend them. Details o£ 
the ascent from Gotemba Station, 
etc., are given below. Numbers of 
travellers choose rather to reach Fuji 
from Miyanoshita or Hakone, by 
walking to Gotemba or Subashiri, 
over the Otome-toge (see p. 128). In 
this case they can provide them* 
selves beforehand with all neces- 
saries at the hotel. It is always 
advisable to take plenty of warm 
clothing, as the temperature fails 
below freezing point at night on the 
summit of tne mountain even 
during the hottest period of summer. 
It is fdso prudent to take an extra 
supply of food, as parties have 
occasionally been detained on the 
mountain side by stress of weather, 
unable either to reach the summit 
or to descend to the base. It is 
possible, by sleeping at Gotemba 


. -^f>wA*Aaira 

^ HYtl 


5;^r^,y-^ UM 


hnrtti utftf ^ 

\ fzttmtn 



P^ C N I N 5 •' 4- A 

(hnsral Iitfarmmtum. 


Station or at Marayama, and start- 
ing at dawn, to reach the summit 
and descend again in a single day 
^ local Japanese parlance hi-yamay 
that is, "day-monntaiu "). Counting 
the working day as having 15 hrs. 
(4 A.M. to 7 P.M.), this would allow 
11 hrs. for the ascent, including 
short stoppages, 1 hr. at the top, and 
8 his. for the descent. The shortest 
time in which the ascent and descent 
have been known to be made from 
Gotemba Station, including stop- 
pages, is 9 hrs. 8 min., of which 6 hrs. 
50 m. were occupied in the ascent. 
Bnt persons less desirous of " break- 
ing the record " than of really seeing 
what they have come so far to see, 
are strongly urged to pursue the 
fe^owing course: — leave Gotemba 
Station or Murayama before day- 
light—say at 2 A.M.— thus includ- 
ing the glory of sunrise on the way 
op. After sunrise, do the remain- 
der of the ascent slowly, reachiug 
the summit about midday. Having 
established himself in one of the 
hats on the summit, the traveller 
should go down into the crater, 
make the round of the crater, and 
spend the night at the top. This 
will afford the chance of a sunset 
and of a second sunrise, after which 
the descent can be at once begun. 
The descent will take most people 
from 4} to 5 hrs. The great ad- 
vantage of this plan is that it 
mnltiplies the chances of a good 
liew from the summit,— such views 
being much more often obtained at 
sunrise and sunset than in the 
middle of the day, and being by no 
means certain at any time. 

Apropo$ of yiewB, may be meotioned tbe 
Japanese term Fuji^mi Ju-mtn-ikUt that ie, 
the Thirteen Pmyinces fitnn which Fuji 
ia riaibl^. These are Mociashi, Bdshu, 
KASoaa, Shimdsa, Hitachi, Shimotsuke, 
KBtonke, Shinshfl, Kfiehfl, TOtdmi, Sam- 
^a, IsQ, and Salami. The map ot theee 
nrovinces is an excellent specimen of old- 
laahkxied Japanese cartofrraphy. A yeiy 
aligbt aoqnaintanoe witn the written 
ofaaraetera will make it one of tbe moat 
«aef al maps to travel with. 

Fuji is much more easily ascend- 
ed ^an many moontaiiis far in- 

ferior in height, as it presents no- 
obstacles in the shape of rocks or 
undergrowth. The first 6,000 ft. of 
the ascent can moreover be per- 
formed on horseback, after which 
the accomplishment of the re- 
mainder is merely a question of 
steady perseverance. The distance 
to the summit from the point call- 
ed Uma-gaeshiy is unequally divided 
into ten parts called gd (the unit 
being oddly enough a aho^ which is 
a measure of capacity containing 
about 1^ quarts), which are sub- 
divided in some cases into halves 
called go-shaku. The first station 
is thus Ichi-gd-met the second Ni-go- 
me, and so on, the last before the 
summit is reached being Ku-gd-ine, 
or No. 9. 

One explanation priven by the Japanese 
of this peculiar method of calculation is 
that the mountain resembles in shape a 
heap of dry rice poured out of a measure, 
and that consequently its subdinsions 
must correspond to the fractions of the 
latter. However this may be, the g5 is 
used as a tenth part of the ri in other 
provinces, especially in Satsnma. 

At most of these stations, as also 
at the top, are huts where accom- 
modation for the night, boiled rice, 
and water can be obtained. 

The number of coolies required 
will of course depend on the amount 
of baggage to be carried. When 
ladies are making tbe ascent, it is 
advisable to have a spare man or 
two to help them when tired. 
Stout gaiters are recommended to 
be worn during the descent, to 
prevent sand and ashes from get- 
ting inside the boots. 

Fuji, often called Fujutan, that is 
Mount Fuji, and by the poets Fuji-no- 
jroNia, that is the Mountain of Fuji, 
whence the form Futiyama often used t>y 
Bnropeans, stands between tbe provinces 
of Snruga and Kflehu, and is the highest, 
the most beautiful, and the most famous 
mountain in Japan. The height of Ken- 
ga-mine, its loftiest peak, has been vari- 
ously estimated at 12,284 ft. (Knipping); 
12.841 ft. (Chaplin); 19,880 ft. (Favre- 
Brandt) ; 18,366 ft. (Stewart) ; 12,400- 
lS,4fiO (Milne) ; 12,437 ft. (Rein). 

Though now quiescent, Fuji must still 
be accounted a volcano. Frequent men* 
tion la mads in Jap a n e se Ifteratara of the 


Route O^-^Ff^i ^nd Nmghkourliood, 

smoke of Faji, which, if the expreesions 
used bj poets may be taken as indicating 
facts, must have formed a constant feature 
in the landscape at lea^t as late as the 
14th century. A hundred yenrs earlier it 
seems, however, to have been already less 
violent than the discharge from Asama- 
yama in Shinshfi. An anthor who flou- 
rished about the end of the 9th century 
says : " There is a level space at the sum- 
mit, about one ri square, having a depres- 
sion in the centre slmped like a cauldron, 
at the bottom of which is a pond. This 
cauldron is ususlly filled with vapour of a 
pure green (or blue) colour, and the bot- 
tom appears like boiling water. The 
steam is visible at a great distance from 
the mountain." In 967 a small mountain 
was formed at the eastern base of Fuji. 
This was proljably the small hump called 
Ko-Fuji, on the 1. of the second station on 
the Gotemba nscent. A traveller's journal 
of the year 1021 speaks of smoke rising 
from the slightly flattened summit, while 
at night fire was seen to issue from the 
crater. Kruptions also occurred in 1062 and 
1649. The most recent one lietran on the 
16th December, 1707, and lasted with in- 
tervals till the 22nd Jannarj", 1708. 
This being the period known in Japanese 
chronology as Ilwi^ the name of HoA-zan 
was given to the hump then formed on 
the upper slope of the S. side of the 
mountain. According to another account, 
a projection had always existed in this 

Elace, but was rendered more conspicuous 
y this latest ei-uption. Be this as it 
may, it is recortled that the ashes lay 6 
feet deep on the TokaidS near Hara and 
Yoshiwara, and even fell in Yedoto adepth 
of inches. Bven at the present day, 
small quantities of steam continue to 
issue through the ashes on th^* E. or 8uba- 
shiri side of the mountain, just outside 
the lip of the crater. It has been widely 
believed that the great earthquake of 1891 
changed the shape of the mountain ; but 
this idea is completely gronndless. 

Enormous must have been the torrents 
of lava that have flowed from Fuji on 
different occusious. Fifteen miles from 
the summit in a direct line, at the vill. 
of Matsuno on the r bank of the Fuji- 
kawa, is the termination of one of these 
streams, while another may be studied 
on the N.K. side of the base, between 
Yoshida and Funatsu. But most of the 
lava has long since been covered up by 
the deep deposits of ashes and scorisp, 
and only becomes visible here and there 
where it is denuded by the streams which 
furrow the lower part of the mountain. 

The aspect of Fuji has so impressed 
the national mind that many other hills 
of like shape derive their name from it. 
Thus we have the Bungo Fuji, Ko-Fuji, 

Fuji stands by itself, rising with 
one majestic sweep from a plain 
almost BurA>Qnded by mountaioa. I- 

The S. side slopes right down to 
the sea, its outline being broken 
only on the S.E. by the rugged 
peaJcs of Ashitaka-yama. On the 
N. and W. rise steep granite ranges, 
stretching away from the MisiUo^ 
toga nearly to the jnnotion of (1m 
Shibakawa with the Fujikawa. 
Against these mountains the showers 
of ashes whioh were ejected from 
the crater have piled themselves 
up, and confined in their separate 
basins the waters of the Motosn, 
Shoji, and other lakes. The S. 
side is shut in by volcanic moun- 
tains of undetermined origin, be- 
ginning near Subashiri, and extend- 
ing southwards into the peninsula 
of Izu. Among them lies Lake 
Hakone, with the numerous hot 
springs of Miyanoshita, Ashinoyo, 
Atami, and their neighbourhood. 
The base of the mountain is 
cultivated up to a height of about 
1,500 ft., above which spreads a 
wide grassy moorland to 4,000 ft., 
where the forest commences. The 
upper limit of this varies consider- 
ably, being lowest on the E. side, 
namely, about 5,500 ft. on the as- 
cent from Gotemba, and 7,900 ft. on 
the Murayama side. But on the 
W. face, between the Yoshida and 
Murayama ascents, and looking 
down over the plain round Hito- 
ana, it must extend as high as 
9,000 ft. or more. This difference 
is no doubt due in a great measure 
to the comparatively recent dis- 
turbance on the S.E. side, which 
caused the present conformation of 
H5ei-zan, when the greater part of 
the ashes thrown out fell in the 
direction of Grotemba, destroying the 
forest, and leaving a desert waste 
which only a long lapse of years 
can again cover with vegetation. 
To the same cause, namely, com- 
paratively recent volcanic sustion, 
must be ascribed the almost entire 
absence of those Alpine plants 
which abound on the summits of 
other high mountains in the neigh- 
bourhood, such as Ontake, Shiiane 
in Kdeh&» aad Yatsu-ga-tai^e. 

Ateentfrom Ootemba and from Murayatna. 


Above the forest lies a narrow zone 
of bushes, chiefly dwarfed larch. 
A few species of hardy plants are 
found up to a height of 10,000 ft. 
on some parts of the cone. 

2. — Ascent fbom Gotemba 

Gotemba Station [Inns, Fuji-ya, 
Matsu-ya) is 12 chd from the vill. of 
Gotemba; and there is no longer 
any necessity for going to the latter 
and thence on to Subashiri, as was 
the general practice in pre-railway 
times, there being now a direct and 
shorter way up the mountain from 
the Station by what is called the 
Nakabataroxitey avoiding both those 
villages. If the traveller intends 
to spend the night at Gotemba 
Station, he should try to arrive 
early, so as to avoid difficulty in 
obtedning accommodation at the inn. 
In order to economise one's 
strength, it is advisable to take 
horses for the first 2^ hrs. of the 
ascent across an open and gently 
rising country. This takes one be- 
yond Uvm-gaeshi^ where horses are 
supposed to be left, to Tarobd (also 
called Komi take), where they intist 
be left.* 

At Tardbd (so called from a 
goblin who is there worshipped), 
staves are sold to help climbers on 
their way up. These staves are 
engraved with the name of the 
mountain, and can have a further 
inscription added by the priests 
who dwell inside the crater. 

Though Fuji, as already stated, 
is theorotically divided on all its 
sides into ten parts, some of 
the stations no longer exist in 
practice — that is, have no rest- 
huts —while others are subdivided. 
On the Gotemba ascent, Nos. 5, 6, 8, 
and top are the best. This should 
be borne in mind, in case of the , 
necessary of calling a halt for the 
night midway. 

• Uma'gafwki^ lit. *' horse aond back," is 
the gencntd niune for that point on a 
iTwnntAJn bejond which it is impOBsible 
to ride. 

The heights of the chief stations 
are as follows : — 

No. 3. 7,086 ft. 

4. 7,937 „ 

6. 8,669 „ 

6. 9,317 „ 

„ 8. 10,693 i, 

From No. 2) to 6 the path skirts 
Hoei-zan, where the steep portion of 
the ascent begins. Atl^Io. 6 a path 
turns off for Hoei-zan. Above No. 8 
the climb becomes more fatiguing 
still, being now over loose cinders. 
From here, too, patches of snow will 
probably be found in rifts in the 
lava rock; but there are nowhere 
any actual snow-fields to be tra- 
versed. At No. 10 — the top — there 
are three stone huts, fairly roomy 
and comfortable. Should they all 
be occupied by pilgrims, the travel- 
ler must walk round to the huts on 
the Subashiri side of the lip of the 
crater, about ^ m. distant. 

The descent as far as No. 7 is 
the same as the ascent. At No. 7, 
it diverges to the r. down a kind of 
glissade (Jap. ha8hir%)ol loose sand, 
over which one may skim at such a 
rate as to reach No. 2} in less than 
1 hr. From Tar5b6 onwards, the 
descent will occupy nearly as much 
time as wm required for the as- 
cent. The entire journey down 
from the smnmit to Gotemba Sta- 
tion can be accomplished in 6 hrs. 


From Mararama {Inn, by Faji- 
masa) to the Uma-gaeshi, or riding 
limit on this side of the mountain, 
is a distance of 3 ri 8 cho. Thence 
onward it is necessary to walk. Of 
the various stations. No. 6 is the 
most to be recommended, though all 
are fair, the ascent from Murayama 
having long been that most 
patronised by the native pilgrims, 
and therefore styled the Omote- 
guchiy or Front Entrance, to the 
mountain. This ascent has the 
advantage of offering more shade 
than the others. Some exi)erienced 
climbers therefore leoommend going 


BouU 9. — Ff^i <tnd Neighbottrhood. 

xig this way, and descending on the 
steeper Gotemba side. 


At Sobashlri. the inn generally 
patronised by foreigners is Yone- 
yama. Yamada-ya also is fair. 
The road to the Uma-gaeshi on 
this side leads for 2 ri up a broad 
avenue through the forest, whence 
it is another 3 ri to a place called 
Chujiki-ba, where a halt for re- 
fresnments is generally made. This 
is 8 chd below station No. 1. The 
best stations are 2, 6, and especially 
No. 8 and the top. At No. 9 is 
a small shrine known as Mukai 
Sengetif that is the Goddess of 
Fuji's Welcome, intimating to the 
weary wayfarer that he is ap- 
proaching the goddess's sanctum. 

6. — Ascent from Yoshida. 
Toshida is an unusually long 
Tillage, divided into an upper por- 
tion {Kami Yoshida) and a lower 
^rtion (Shinto Yoshida). Prom 
Kami Yoshida {Intit Kogiku) the 
way to Uma-gaeshit the 2nd sta- 
tion, as far as which it is possible to 
ride, lies up an avenue. The upper 
edge of the forest is not quitted till 
No. 5 is reached. Thus the view on 
the way up is less good by tliis route 
than on the Gotemba and Mura- 
yama sides. 

6.— Ascent fbom Hito-ana. 
The ascent from Hlto-ana {Inn, 
Akaike Keikichi) is laborious, and 
the view much spoilt bv the 
dense forest through which the 
track lies. It is therefore not 
recommended. Travellers wishing 
to visit the beautiful waterfalls of 
Kami-ide (see Sect. 10) might, how- 
ever, find it worth their while to 
descend on this side. If their lug- 
gage is light, they can take it with 
them over the mountain. If not, 
they must allow plenty of time for 
sending it round the base. 

7.— Ascent fbom Suyajca. 

This is an alternative way for 
persons staying at Hakone, who can 

reach Suyama vift the Lake and 
the Fukara Pass in 6 to 8 hrsr. 
Coolies for the whole trip, includ- 
ing the ascent of Fuji, should be 
engaged at Hakone, as the re- 
sources of Suyama are limited, 
though there is a tea-house (Wa- 
tanabe Hideo). But the ascent 
from Gotemba Station is to be 
preferred. The path up Fuji from 
Suyama joins the path up from 
Gotemba at station No. 8. 

8.— Summit op Fuji. 

The summit of the mountain 
consists of a series of peaks sur- 
rounding the crater, the diameter 
of which is not far short of 2,000 
ft. The descent into it, down the 
loose talus of rock and cinders 
close to the huts at the top of the 
Murayama ascent, is quite easy; 
still it is advisable to take a guide. 
The bottom is reached in 20 min. 
The floor, which is formed of 
cinders, inclines slightly from W. 
to E., and is intersected by small 
stream-beds, which at the E. end 
terminate among the loosely piled 
lava masses forming the core of the 
mountain. All round, except where 
the descent is made, rise precipi- 
tous rocky walls, from whicn large 
pieces detach themselves from time 
to time with a loud crackling sound 
like musketry. On the W. side, 
immediately under Ken-ga-mine, 
there is usually a large snow-slope. 
The depth has been variously cal- 
culated at 416 ft., 548 ft. and 584 ft. 
The return to the edge will take 
about 25 min. 

Before dawn the pilgrims betake 
themselves to Ken-ga-mine^ the 
peak on the W. of the crater, 
and the true suimnit of the mo\m- 
tain, to await the sun's rising. As 
the luminary approaches the hori- 
zon and all the clouds about it 
glow with the most brilliant hues 
of red flame, the feeling of longing 
expectation seems almost to over- 
oome them ; but as soon as the 
burning disc appears, they greet it 
devoutly, rubbing their ohaplets 

Suimnit 9/ Fuji, 


between their hands and mattering 
prayers to the great deity. 

Ken-ga-mine commands a mar- 
vellously extensive view. To the 
8. stretches the Gulf of Suruga, 
shut in on the E. by the lofty 
promontory of Izu, and confined on 
the W. by Miozaki at the termi- 
nation of the long range divid- 
ing the valley of the Abekawa from 
that of the Fujikawa. S.W. is the 
broad pebbly bed of the Fujikawa, 
ite course above the point where it 
crosses the Tokaido being hidden 
by the lower hills. Westwards are 
seen all the lofty peaks of the 
border range of Kosbfl and Shin- 
8h&, beginning with the angular 
gtanite obelisk of Koma-ga-take 
and its lesser neighbours Jizo and 
Ho-d-zan, then the three summits 
of Shirane, known as Kaigane, Ai- 
Do-take, and Nodori, the Koma-ga- 
kUce of Sbinshft rising between the 
Tenryd-gawa and Kisogawa, and 
80 on to £na-san in Mino and 
the top of Shiohimen-zan near 
Minobu. Further to the r., ex- 
tending northwards, comes the 
great range dividing far-ofE Hida 
from Shinshti, amongst whose 
Beaks may be distinguished Nori- 
koia, Yari-ga-take, and, further 
lemote in Etchu, the volcanic 
sommits of Tateyama. Gradually 
moving E. again, along the north- 
ern horizon, we distinguish the 
moontains near Nagano, — Ken-no- 
Bune and the extinct volcano of 
Myoko-zan. Nearer in the fore- 
ground rise the numerous sum- 
mits of Yatsu-ga-take ; and then 
glaiioing farther N., we perceive 
AsanMk-yama's smoking crater, the 
moontains about the Mikuni Pass, 
and next, all the Nikko mountains, 
— Shirane, Nantai-zan, and lesser 
peaks. E. of Yatsu-ga-take is seen 
Khnpu-zan, easily known by its 
tomided shoulder and the pillar of 
nek at the summit ; then Yakushi 
and Mitsumine in Cbiohibu, till 
the eye loses itself in a confusion of 
lower ridges. On the E. side of the 
ecater, from almost any point that 

may be chosen, the eye rests on a 
prospect less extensive indeed, but 
surpassing this in beauty. Far 
away across the plain, is distinctly 
visible the double top of Tsukuba in 
Hitachi, while further S. we descry 
the outer edge of the Tokyo plain, 
with Tokyo lying far up tiie bay ; 
then in succession Capes Sagami 
and Sunosaki, Yries Island, the Gulf 
of Sagami, and nearer in the fore- 
ground beautiful Lake Hakone 
peacefully embosomed among green 

Few will be fortunate enough to 
obtain a perfectly clear view from 
the summit of Fuji, but tlie best 
chances are just before and at sun- 
rise. " Nor,'* says an authority, 
••will the pilgrim be wholly fortunate 
unless he sees the superb cloud 
effects which the mountain affords. 
These are most likely to be enjoyed' 
in ordinary summer weather, be- 
tween noon and 6 o'clock in the 
evening, and they are truly magni- 
ficent. The summit of the mountain 
remains clear, but its shoulders and 
waist are surrounded by billowy 
masses of dense white vapour of 
indescribable splendour. Here and 
there a momentary break may per- 
mit a glimpse of the earth beneath, 
but usually nothing can be seen 
landward but this vast ocean of 
cloud, amid which the peak stands 
as the only island in the world. 
Turning seaward, the ocean itself 
can be seen over the circumambient 
vapour, and affords a striking con- 
trast to the turmoil and restless 
change of form of the clouds them* 

A curious phenomenon may also 
sometimes be witnessed at sunrise 
from the W. side of the sununit. 
As the sun's rays appear above the 
horizon, the shsidow of Fuji (kage- 
Fuji) is thrown in deep outline on 
the clouds and mist, which at that 
hour clothe the range of mountains 
to the west. 

Descending again from Ken-ga- 
mine, the path passes under it, and 
just above the steep talus called 


Route 9. — Fuji and Neighbourhood. 

Oya shirazu Ko shirasu (" Heedlens 
of Parent or Child"), from the notion 
that (Hiople iu danger of falling over 
the edge of the crater would not 
heed even their nearest relatives if 
sharers of the peril. The name 
occurs in similarly perilous places 
in many parts of Japan. Con> 
tinuiug N., the path skirts the 
edge of the cone, passing a huge 
and precipitous gorge which appears 
to extend- downwards to the very 
base of the mountain. This gorge 
is called Osatoa^ the lower limit of 
which may be some 6,000 ft. above 
the sea, or only half-way from the 
summit. Passing across the flank 
of the Bai-iway or Thunder Rock, it 
goes outside the crater wall, ascends 
the Shaka no Wari-ishi (Shaka*s 
Cleft Bock), and leaving Siiaka-ga- 
take — the second loftiest peak— be- 
hind, descends to the Kim-mei-sui 
(Famous Golden Water), a spring of 
ice-cold water situated on the flat 
shelf between the N. edge of the 
crater and the outer wall. Ascend- 
ing again, the path passes the row of 
huts at the top of the ascent from 
Yoshida and Subashiri, and reaches 
a torii commanding the best view of 
the crater. It then turns again to 
the 1., and goes outside the wall of 
the crater, underneath Kwannon-ga- 
take. Here the interesting pheno- 
meuon may be observed of steam 
still issuing from the soil in several 
places, one of which is close to the 
path, while another lies near at 
hand on the 1., about 60 ft. down the 
exterior of the cone, and a third is 
seen immediately underneath a 
wall of rock 60 yds. ahead. A few 
inches below the surface, the heat 
is great enough to boil an egg. 
Beyond this point, the path crosses 
a depression known as Seishi-ga- 
kiibOy ascends E. the Sai-no-kawara, 
dotted with stone cairns raised in 
honour of Jizo, descends to the 
Qim-mei'Sui, or Famous Silver 
Water, at the top of the Gotemba 
ascent, and passing under the low 
peak named Komor^ar-take^ reaches 
the huts at the top of the path from 

Mnrayama. Between th is last point 
and Ken-ga-mine, is a small crater 
named Konoahtro^a-ikef aoceesible 
from the N. The total distance 
round the large crater is said by the 
Japanese to be 1 rt, or 2} miles ; 
but this is doubtless an exaggera- 
tion. An interesting hour may be 
devoted to making the circuit, which 
will flillow for pauses at all the best 
points of view. 

9.— The Chudo-Meguri, or Gib- 
cuiT OF Fuji Halp-way up. 

This walk is a favourite with 
native lovers of the picturesque, 
on account of the panorama wluoh 
it successively unfolds. The path 
encircles Fuji at heights varying 
from 9,490 ft. on the Gotem- 
ba side (which it intersects at 
station No. 6) to 7,460 ft. on the 
Yoshida side. It is best to turn to 
the 1. on starting from the above- 
mentioned No. 6 station, becanae 
the path descends a rapid slope of 
loose sand from the ridge of Hdei- 
zan towards the W., which would 
be very fatiguing if taken in the 
opposite direction. The path pro- 
ceeds along the narrow ridge of 
H5ei-zan, turns down into the deep 
hollow formed by the eruption of 
1707, crosses the ridge at its further 
side to a broad plateau bestrewn 
with the cast-off sandals of pilgrims, 
and climbs steeply to hut No. 5 on 
the Murayama ascent. It then 
continues W. over dykes of lava 
until it reaches the great 0-Sawa 
ravine, and, descending the moun- 
tain to the 1. of the huge mass of 
lava which here projects over the 
chasm, passes through a wood of 
larch and rhododendron to the 8. 
edge of the ravine, which is now 
crossed. The path onward lies al- 
ternately through the wood and over 
the bare northern side of the cone 
to a spot called Ko-mitnket where 
a hut affords accommodation for the 
night. Shortly beyond this point 
the path divides, the r. branch, 
which should be taken, leading to 

Circuit of the Ba$$. 


No. 5^ on the Toshida ascent 
whenoe Lake Yamanaka is well 
seen almost dae £. Turning off 1. 
at No. 6, the path winds over the 
lava dykes to No. 5 on the Suha- 
shiri ascent, and then hy a gentle 
gradient hack to onr starting-point. 
The time required for the entire 
eircnit is from 7 to 8 hrs., the walk 
offering no difficulties. 

10. — CiBcriT OP THE Bask op Fuji. 

(Time, 2J— 3 days.) 

GOTEMBA Station to:— 

JBt. did. M. 

Goiemba Village . . 12 } 

Subashiri 2 18 6 

Yamanaka 2 — 6 

Yoshida 2 8 SJ 

Fonatsu 1 — 2^ 

Kodachi 12 } 

Nagahama 1 — 2^ 

Nisbi-no-umi 12 } 

Nemba 1 12 SJ 

Shoji 1 24 4 

Motosa 2 — 6 

Nebara 18 8 

Hito-ana 2 29 6} 

Kami-ide 18 8 

Omiya 3 8 7f 

SUZUKAWA 8 — l\ 

Total 26 6 63} 

(From Suztikawa by rail to Go- 
temba in 1} hr.) 

The road is practicable as far as 
Subashiri by basha^ and on to 
Kodachi hy jiurikisha, the Kago- 
zaka being the only part where it is 
neceesary to get out and walk. 
Boats can be taken from Kodachi 
to Nagahama, from Nishi>no-nmi 
to Nemba, and from Shdji across 
the lake of the same name. 
Pack-horses can be got at most 
oi the stages for the whole round. 
A tramway runs from Omiya to 
Saxnkawa. Travellers are recom- 
mended to engage horses for the 
wliola trip, and thus render them- 

selves independent of their luggage, 
should they avail themselves of 
the opportunity of doing portions 
of the journey by boat. 

Excepting the first 5 or 6 rt, 
the whole of this trip is highly 
picturesque, leading, as it does, 
along the chain of lakes — Kawagu- 
chi, Nishi-no-Umi, Sboji, and 
Motosu — that encircles the beise of 
Fuji. Were there only good hotels 
or good private houses to hire, the 
shores of all these lakes would 
form delightful summer retreats. 
SceneiT, fishing of sorts (carp, 
eels, aka-haray etc.), short walks for 
the delicate, climhing for the strong 
and active, bathing, nearness to 
such celebrated excursions as Fuji, 
the Misaka-toge, Minobu, etc.,— all 
the elements of a pleasant holiday 
are there. But the accommodation 
is everywhere poor except at Suba- 
shiri, Yoshida, and Kami-ide. 

At Hito-ana is a cave 250 ^ds. 
long, visited by pilgrims anxious 
to worship the little image of 
Kwannon perched on a project- 
ing rock at its far end. But the 
chief sight on the road is af- 
forded by the beautiful waterfalls 
of Kiimi-idef known as Shira-ito no 
taki, or the White Thread Cas- 
cades. The two largest, some 85 
ft. in height, are called respectively 
O'daki and Me-daki, or the Male 
and Female Cascades, and there 
are more than forty smaller falls, 
their children. In the neighbour- 
hood is another fine cascade, about 
100 ft. high and 30 ft. wide, called 

Persons not caring to make the 
entire round of Fuji may visit the 
Kami-ide VTaterfalls by alighting 
at Suzukawa station on the Tokaidd 
Railway, whence it is a distance 
of 6 ri 8 ch6, the first 3 rt of which, 
as far as Omiya, by tram. The 
way there and back can be done in 
a day, under favourable circum- 
stances. One may also alight at 
Iwabuchi (good inn at station), 
whenoe it is only 5} ri ; but there 
is no tram. 

148 EotUe lO.—Th0 Taha$aM*Kamksawa Railway. 

ROUTE 10. 

Thb Tokyo-Takasaki-Kabuizawa 

[cave temple of kagemobi. 







4 m. 







TOKYO (Ueno). 

Aknbane Jet 


Omiya Jet 

rUp trains 
^ change for 
C Yokohama. 

CChange for 
] NikkS and 
C the North. 

See p. 120. 

/Change for 
Kami zawa. 
Pome trainB 
change for 
Maeba$hi, 6 

^ miles. 

jAlight for 

f Mydgi-san. 














This line closely follows the first 
stages of the old Nakcbsendd (see 
Boute 85), and is flat and unin- 
teresting till Takasaki Junction is 
left behind. 

Urawa {Inn^ Yamaguchi-ya) is 
the seat ot government of the pre- 
fecture of Saitama, which includes 
the greater part of the province of 

Oniiya (Inn^ Takashima-ya in the 
Public Garden supplies foreign 
food). An avenue of 1 m. in length 
leads to Hikawa no Jinja^ the chief 
Shinto temple of Musashi, situated 
in grounds that have been turned into 
a public garden. The temple is said 
to have been foimded in honour of 
Susano-o by Yamato-tako, on his 

retom from subduing the barbarous 
tribes of Eastern Japan. Leaving 
Omiya, the first place of importance 
reached is 

Kiima^i (Jnrt, Shimizu-ya), 
which carries on a large trade in 
silk and cotton, and possesses his- 
torical interest in connection with 
the warrior Kumagai Naozane (see 
p. 60). 

[A jinrikisha road strikes off front 
Kumagai to Omiya {Inn^ Kado- 
ya) in Ohichibu, 12 J riy an im- 
portant mart of the silk-trade, 
not to be confounded with 
Cmiya on the Railway, men- 
tioned just above. Twenty chS 
beyond the town, at the vill. of 
Kageniorif is a celebrated Caye- 
temple of Kwannou. The 
stalactites here assume a variety 
of fantastic shapes to which 
realistic names are given, such 
as the Five Viscera, the 
Dragon's Head and Tail, the 
Lotus-flower, etc. — Omiya is 
the best starting-point for 
Bukd-zan, 4,360 ft., the highest 
mountain in Chichibu ; but 
there is no special interest in 
the ascent, and no view obtain- 
able from the forest-covered 
summit, Hikawa^ situated in 
the valley of the Tamagawa 
^see Route 26), about 11 ri 
rrom Omiya, may be reached 
by a lonely mountain path over 
the Sengen-tdge andviftNippsira. 
But the most attractive route 
for enthusiastic climbers is that 
to Koshu by the Karizaka-tdge, 
The distance is variously 
estimated at from 23 to 28 riJ] 

At Honjo (Intif Izumi-ya) there 
are some important cross-country 
roads, one of which joins the Ret- 
heishi Kaidd^ the route formerly 
followed by the Mikado's annual 
envoy to the shrine of leyasu at 

Shimmaolii (Inn, Mitsumata) is 
a large silk-producing place. 

TiilEaMid (Itm, Sakaiya ; Bem.^ 

MaebaM. Itobe* 


Somiyoshl, at Btation) was fonnerly 
the castle-town of a Daimyo, and is 
still aji important industrial centre. 

[The railway branches off here to 
Maebashi^ 6 m.» where it meets 
the RyomO line from Oyama 
(see Boute 13). Maebashi (Inn 
Abnra-ya ; Akagi-tei, foreign 
restt.) formerly the seat of a 
great Daimyd named Matsn- 
daira Yamato-no-Kami, is now 
the capital of the prefecture of 
Gumma, and a great empo- 
rium of the silk trade, one of 
the best qualities of raw silk 
being named after this town. 
The extensive silk-reeling fac- 
tories can be seen on applica- 
tion. To the N. rises the extinct 
volcano of Akagi-san, and W. 
is the curious group of moun- 
tains collectively called Haru- 
na, on the N. flank of which 
are situated the fashionable 
baths of Ikao, desciibed in 
Route 12. Within a short dis- 
tance of Maebflkshi station 
stands one of the largest con- 
vict prisons in Japan, whose 
brick wall 20 ft. high encloses 
11 acres of land.] 

liznka is a station at the W. end 
of T&kasaki, some distance from 
the business part of the town. It 
lies on one of the roads to Ikao. 

Aanaka was formerly a castle- 
town. Two hrs. distant by jinriki- 
iha is Tomioka^ a thriving place, 
which boasts the largest silk filature 
in the Empire established in 1872 
under French direction. 

lM>be(i«ns, 'Kyoja-kwan, Haya- 
shi-ya, and others). This is the 
best station to alight at for a visit to 
the remarkable conglomeration of 
rocks that crown Myogi-san. But 
travellers coming eastwards from 
Kamizawa need not go beyond 
Hatsaida station, the distance from 
each of these two places to ^lyogi 
being nearly the same. Isobe is 
reached in 4 hrs. by rail, and 
Myogi by road in 1^ hr. more ; and 

as less than a day is required far 
seeing the marvels of the mountain, 
the journey from the capital and 
back may thus be accomplished in 
a day and a half. 

Isobe is a watering-place of recent 
growth, lying in a wide valley less 
than 1,000 ft. above the level of 
the sea. Exposed as it is on all 
sides, it is neither mild in winter 
nor cool in summer. The ipineral 
waters of Isobe, which are cold, 
contain a large quantity of carbonic 
acid gas, and, unlike most other 
Japanese springs, are beneficial to 
persons suffering from catarrh of the 
stomach and other internal com- 
plai nts. On the road to Myogi , a good 
view is obtained of Akagi-san and 
Haruna-sckn to the N., and Asama- 
yama to the W. If the visit be 
made in autumn, the precipitous 
sides of the Myogi range will be 
found in a glow of rich colour 
arising from the crimson tints of 
the maples that mingle with the 
variegated leaves of other trees. 

Myogi {Inns, Shishi-ya, Kambe- 
ya) is an insignificant village. 

The Bhrine at Mydgri is dedicated to the 
memory of the 13th abbot of Enryakuji; 
a temple on Hiei-zan near E;r5to, who» in 
the reign of the Emperor Daigo (A.D. 898- 
930), retired here to mourn over the 
sudden downfnll and banishment of his 
pupil, the fNmouB Sugawara-no-Michieane. 
After his death, he was deified under 
the title of MyOgi Dai Gongen. Over two 
centuries ago, a fresh fit of zeal on the 
part of his devotees was the cause of the 
shrine being rebuilt in the grand style of 
which traces still remain. It is now in 
charge (^ Shintd priests. 

The temple stands a short distance 
above the village, in the midst of 
a grove of magnificent crypto- 
merias. The Oku-no-in lies 25 chd 
further up the mountain, and above 
this the cliffs are nearly perpen- 
dicular. A rocky cave, formed 
by a huge block resting in a fissure, 
contains an image of the god. On 
the summit of one of the jutting 
peaks near the Oku-no-in, is the 
enormous Chinese character -^^ (dat), 
"great," whose dimensions are 
stated at 30 ft. by ^0 ft. It is con- 


BotUe 11, — Karuizawa and Asama-yama. 

stnioted of thin bamboos, tied to- 
gether and covered with strips of 
paper, the votive offerings of pil- 
grims, which give it the appearance 
from below of being painted white. 
The surrounding scenery is weird 
and romantic. From the bosom of a 
gloomy grove rise innumerable rocky 
pinnacles, gradually increasing in 
neight round a lofty central peak, 
the wbole vaguely recalling the 
front of some colossal Gothic 

Dr. Naumann deaoribes MyOri-san a« a 
system of grand acute^dged, aeeply 8er< 
rated dykes, apparently radiating from a 
common centre, whose highest summit is 
about 3,880 ft. in height. Probably it is 
the skeleton of a very old volcana 

The ascent of the highest peak 
visible from the vill. can be ac- 
complished in less than half a 
day. To scale this peak is a 
rather dangerous undertaking. 
Those, however, who appreciate 
the delights of rough and difficult 
climbing, ought not to miss the 
opportunity of mounting Hakun- 
jsaitt the jagged ridge rising directly 
above the village. The S. wing is 
called Kinkei-san^ Kinto-san lying 
between the two. The highest point 
of Mydgi-san is behind Hakun-zan. 
BdsokU'ishiy "the Candle- Stone," is 
a conspicuous projection belonging 
to Kiukoi-san and forming the 
N.W. termination of this dyke. It 
takes about 1^ hr. to get from the 
vill. to Daikoku-safif the way there 
leading over the pass between Kin- 
kei-san and Kinto-san. A gigantic 
natural arch, called Ichi no Seki- 
mon, is passed on this way. Ni no 
Sekitnon and San no Sekimon are 
clefts in the mountain further ou, 
reached after a breakneck climb. 
The perforation in Ni-no-Sekimon 
is invisible from this side of the 
mountain, but is to be seen from 
Yokokawa and the Usni-toge. 

According to local tradition, the hole 
was made by an arrow shot from the bow 
of a certain Yuriwaka Daijin while stand- 
ing at the vill. of Yokokawa. 

The Hige-'suri'iwa, or ** Beard- 
Scraping Rock," is a slender i 

oolmnn of volcanic breccia, the* 
last 10 ft. of the climb up which 
is achieved with the assistance of 
an iron chain and ladder. From 
this coign of vantage, the lofty peak 
of Naka-no-take and many other 
curious rocks are visible. The 
modern-looking edifice below the 
Higesuri-iwa was built for the 
priests, after the burning of the two 
temples in 1872. 

Leaving Myogi, the railway may- 
be rejoined at Matsnida ; or else 
one may walk on for 2 ri to a 
point a little further along the 
Nakasendo near 

Yokokawa (Inns, Ogino-ya, Ko- 
dake-ya, both at the station). 

KOUTE 11. 

Kaeuizawa and Asama-yajia. 
1. — Karuizawa autd Neibourhood.. 

Karuizawa is reached from Tdky6. 
by Railway (see p. 148), 6^ hrs. 

The construction of the 7 miles of rail- 
way leading to Knitiizawa over the Ueui 
Pass presented greater difBculties than 
any that had hitherto been contended 
with by eneineers in Jnpan, and for this 
reason a hiatus remained in the middle of 
the line to the West Coast until 189:^, 
when the Abt system, with its cog-wheels 
working on rack-mils, was sncce8afnll.v 
introduced. The gratlient is 1 in 16, and. 
almo8t the whole way a succession of 
bridges and tunnels, the total tunnelling 
aggregating 2f miles. The great viaduct 
over the U8ui-ga>va has four arches, each 
of 60 ft. opening ; and the height of the 
i-ails from the valley is 110 ft. It \ru» 
designed by Mr. C.A.W. Pownall, M. 
Inst. C. E., Principal Engineer to tho 
Imperial Railway Department. 

Shiii-Kariiizawa (Inn, Abura- 
ya), the station, lies J hr. by jin- 
rikiaha from the summer resort, 

Kyii-KaniizaiYii {Inn, Bansho* 
kwan), lying in the upper corner of a 
grassy moor, 780 ft. below the sum- 
mit of the Usui pass. The vill. was 
in former times principally depeu- 

Walk$ from Kaii/fuawa. 


dani upon travellers over the an- 
oient highway, and appears to have 
just escaped rnin, after the con- 
siraction of the railway, by a 
niunber of the foreign residents of 
Tokyo making it a retreat from the 
unhealthy heat of the city during 
the summer months. The old inns 
have been hired, and many new 
villas built on the mountain slopes. 
Facilities exist for European food 
and washing. Karuizawa's lofty 
titaation (3,270 ft.) gives it a tem- 
perature seldom excessive during 
the day, and invariably cool at 
night. The rainfall bears favourable 
comparison with Nikko and other 
mountain resorts, and owing to the 
porous nature of the soil in the 
vicinity, leaves fewer traces behind. 
The pleu^ is nevertheless not free 
from mosquitoes, and the small 
•and-fly called bivyu abounds, — an 
insect which inflicts a bite, painless 
at first, but afterwards extremely 
irritable and liable to swell during 
several succeeding days. Biding 
may be enjoyed over an uncultivat- 
ed moor covered with wild-flowers 
in July and August, which extends 
for miles in a southerly direction, 
and terminates on the E. in a 
Eange of grassy hills. 

The chief excursion from Earui- 
lawa is the ascent of Asama-yama 
(tee next page), and the railway 
affords opportunities for visiting the 
romantically situated monastery of 
Shaknsonji near Komoro, the 
famous Buddhist temple of Zenkoji 
at Nagano, and the mountains 
beyond (see Rte. 25). There is a 
fariety of shorter walks, viz. 

1. To the Top of the Usui-to^e, 
\l m. by a fair road. Asama, the 
Shirane-san and Koma-ga-take of 
Kojhu, Yatsu-ga-take, aud Tate- 
■hina-yama are seen on the way 
op. On the summit stand a few 
houses and a small temple, whose 
vtepA are the host place to obtain 
the view. 

Id this spot is localiBod the following 
Imiinrl. preserved in the Kcjiki .— 
Wliea Tamato-take (see p. 66) was cross- 

ing from Sagami to ICnsiisa, while on his 
exiioilitioa agniast the bHrbaroos tribes 
who then inhnbiced that region, he ridi- 
culed the narae of Uatkiri-mizH ("Running 
Water'*} uiveutotlm utrait, and exclaimed 
that it was no more than an easy jnmp 
acrosH. The Sea-God, offended at this 
insult, 8o disturbed the waters that Ya- 
mato-take's ship was unaJ>le to advance. 
Upon this, his consort Oto-Taohib>«na- 
Hime said to him, '* I will drown myself in 
thy stead " — and as she plunged into the 
sea, the waves became siill. iSeven days 
afterwards her comb floated ashore. The 
prince built a tomb, and deposited the 
comb therein. On returning to the capital 
afur subduing the tril^es, he stopped to 
rrst at the top of the Uivui Pass, and 
gasing over the pin in, said tlirice in a 
melancholy voice : *'AzHma vuya '* (**Ala9! 
my wife";, whence the name of Azoma by 
which Kastem Japan is still known. 

2. Atago-yama. This isolated 
hill, i hr. walk from the vill., is 
ascended by two flights of stone 
steps, and has some curious petpen- 
dicular rocks half-way up. 

5. Hanare-Tamu, about 1 m. off. 
On its E. side, near the summit, 
is a large cave toiiantcd by bats, 
which has to be reached by a very 
rough climb up a precipitous land- 
slip. Tlie view from tho narrow ledge 
at ihe mouth of tlio cave is ex- 

4. Irlyama-tosro, 1 hr., by tho 
basu of the hills skirting the moor, 
aud past the curious rock called 
Kamadoiwa by the Japanese, and 
Pulpit Bock by foreigners. The 
summit commands probably the 
finest view obtainable of the valley 
leading towards Myogi-san, and, 
looking backwards, of the wide 
stretch of moorland at the base of 

6. Wnmi«t«^^e and Uosokn-iwa. 
From the foot of the Iriyama-toge, 
the path keeps to the r., and in f 
hr. more the road from Oiwake 
over the Wami-toge is reached. The 
ascent is easy. After a sliort but 
steep descent on the opposite side, 
a path 1. loads to the hamlet of 
Ongawa situated at the base of the 
Bosokuiwa, aptly re-named by 
foreigners "the Cathedral Rocks,** 
and remarkable for tho petrified 
wood found in the neighbourhood. 


Eoute 11. — Kut^uizawa ami Am»uj^^^ 

These rocks are most easily ap- 1 is a ni'H ^!^! ^^n^ 
proachcd from Ongawa. Instead i by 1 1 1 - i. .fit.M 
of returning the way one came, is3;|iii ^oiuKiii 
a pleasant round may be made patts - the ouo i 
by taking a tortuous hill path lead- i narrow track, ^V 
lug down deep into the Iriyama ! ing the forest, 
valley, from which Karuizawa may mo^intiiM slop' 
be regained by the Iriyama-toge ; — Hanuffutgari-ifi 
or by pursuing a downward course various fiiio Tie 
from Ongawa, the hamlet of Arai, scej^d?* steeply j 
at the lower eud of the Iriyama which viU. This 
valley, may be reached. From this picttirosqiie rou 
point it is a little over 1 ri to given abav€. 
Yokokawa, whence train. In any 
case the excursion will occupy the %—k9f 

greater part of a day. 

6. KiritHiiini (Inn, Chosei-kwan). 

The thermal springs of this place 


only tiif^ 1ivrge«i 

of Hi.]i. 

■ iVOit A I 
1 tUc > 

buvu pn 
the pnhtf^^rmnijfin 

distinrtly l]?4iPd4 I 

exbftbirk'Ue urar rt 
tliife pfirt of tliy aaoo 

The ascent by 
Clmijii rotid, I 

xae tuermai ^pnuKS oi w»»» pi«.«e J but alSQ I 

are reached after a 3 hrs. walk via i rpj^^, uxearaioa tc 

the Usui Pass. Not far from the | ^a,- i^ j^^^ t 

summit a narrow path turns 1., ; ^^j ^^^ 

leading up and down a succession i 

of wooded mountain gorges, till the i g^J^^f^,^"^^ FrentoTB 

final descent is made into the vale ; i^^n .1 

in which Kiritsumi nestles at a sidon*^ 

height of 3,200 ft. These baths may ' vill"*.^- 

be more conveniently reached by a 

jinrikisha road from Yokokawa, 2^ 

ri. The way is pretty, but the view 

shut out on all sides. The water 

of Kiritsumi is slightly saline, 

with a temperature of 104 F. Higher 

up, in a neighbouring valley, is the 

old-fashioned watering-place of Jrt- Kus&tmi, h fehe 

no-yn with accommodation only for ' preferr'^d, and i* 

peasant guests. The baths are sul- , fatiguing. The 1 

phurous and have a high tempera- hors^^ at Karnixi 

ture. j saddlv'R may be 

7. Yiinosnwn, i hr., by a path i Kvfsuhikf {inn, 
leading from the centre of the vill. Asunm ^^ brs.^— t 
towards Asama-yama. In the small 
house here a bath may be had, tepid 
mineral water being brought from 
the hill beyond. Continuing along 
the same path, which soon leads 
over more elevated ground and 
passes through beautiful stretches | about 3 hrs. 
of forest, the baths of I Tho crater is 

8. Ko80 are reached in about m. in t Troumfenenl 
1 hr. Kose is a tiny hamlet in a i peiidiciilar, ho\ 
fold of the hills, but possesses ajburut toaiNsdhti^ 
coniDioflious inn. Just before enter- our i^tt'^m vvella U| 
ing Kose (from Karuizawa), two | and from niiraera 
paths turn to the 1. The first leads I wall^. On< 
to KuUukake on the Nakasendo and | rifle two pt^oi^fcoi 

themoimtaia ddt 
the WfLkfisame-no- 
climb i:^ st^op, hu 
solid OTjt* of ciodei 
vala by small C 
taken to the lip 


- Murrsrs Haiuibook 


Bofute IS — Jkaoi Sumtm, <md Neighbourhaod. 


wparated by a oonsiderable interval, 

the oater one being lower and nearly 

covered with vegetation. They 

stem to be the remains of two suc- 

fiwsive concentric craters, the 

ttdsting cone being the third and 

aiost recent. The nearer is quite 

wre, and columnar in structure at 

^ centre. The side of the cone is 

Ifrewu with large rough fragments 

9i loose lava, and unfathomable 

^ts extend for the greater part of 

*B way down to its base. The 

iw from the summit is very ex- 

sive: — to the N., the whole of 

Kotsuke mountains, with the 

•runa group and Akagi-san ; the 

Tikko range and the E. range 

ividing Shinshu from Kdtsuke; 

>e sea far away in the distance ; 

t the Koshu mountains on the 

with Fuji peering over them; 

le conical Yatsu-ga-take and ad- 

nt summits of K5shu ; and then 

the W., the huge range that 

s the boundary betweein Shin- 

\fk and Hida. The descent to the 

^akasare-no-chaya takes 1^ hr. 

Another way up, also occupying 

)ufc 5 J hr., is from Oiwake {Inrit 

kamura-ya), a vill. on the Naka- 

id5, 2 ri 14 chd from Karuizawa, 

id formerly a place of some note, 

much decayed since railway 

rprise diverted the traffic from 

highway. On leaving Oiwake, 

path ascends gently through 

►ing meadows covered with wild- 

ers ; then the acclivity becomes 

ter, and gritty ash is reached. 

an elevation of 1,145 ft. above 

Iwake, is a cascade hidden among 

trees that skirt a deep gorge. 

height of the fall is about 

ft. ; the red colour of the water 

of the underlying rock — vol- 

ic breccia covered with a red 

gives it a strange appearance. 

a height of 3,225 ft. above 

ake, all vegetation ceases. For 

ft. more, the path proceeds 

a steep ascent of loose ash to 

edge of the outer ridge, which 

the vill. below appears to be 

gammU, ihough in reality be- 

low it. The path then descends, 
and crosses over to the base of the 
present cone, which is more easily 

The ascent can also be made from 
KomorOy a station 13^ m. from Karoi- 
zawa. The path leads straight across 
the fields towards the highest visible 
point of Asama, and in 1^ hr. fair 
walking brings one to the crest of a 
ridge, beyond whicli is a deep ravine 
with a yellow brook at the bottom, 
and the path from Oiwake at about 
one's own level on the other side. 
The brook is crossed after 85 min. 
walking, when the path joins that 
from Oiwake, described above. The 
actual time taken by a good walker 
to make the ascent from Komoro 
was 5f hrs., exclusive of stoppages, 
the last li hr. being an extremely 
rough ana steep climb. 

ROUTE 12. 

Ikao, Kusatsu, and Neiohboub- 



1.— Ikao. 

Ikao is a short day's journey 
from Toky5 (Ueno station) to Mste- 
bashi by the Takasaki-Maebashi 
Railway in 8^ hrs. (see p. 148); 
thence 6 ri 8 chU (16 m.) partly hy 
tram, partly by carriage or jinriM- 
sha, but jinrikisha the whole way to 
be preferred at present. The start- 
ing place of the tram is 1^ m. from 
the station. If three or four per* 


BauU 12. — Buko^ Ku9at9i$t o»d Neighbourhood. 

SODS are traTelling together and 
have much luggage, it may be well 
to hire a private car. The latter 
part of the ride is uphill, so that 
two men to each jimikisha are indi- 
spensable. Shotdd the main road 
Y1& Maebashi be impassable owing 
to floods, Ikflio may also be reached 
by jinrikisha viA lizuka (the station 
at the W. end of Takasaki), 
Kaneko, and Shibukawa :— distance, 
7 ri 8 c;t^ (17} m.). 

Yet another way (6 ri or 14} m.), 
practicable for jinrikishas as far as 
Mizusawa, whence it is hilly and 
venr pretty, starts from Takasaki 
and passes through the hamlets of 
Nakazato, Kashiwagi-zawa, and 
Mizusawa, and round the base of the 
lofty peak of Sengen-yama. At the 
upper end of Misusawa stands a 
temple dedicated to Kwannon, where 
six oronze images, life-size, on a 
revolving platform are worthy of 
notice. This is one of the Thirty- 
three Holy Places of Eastern Japan. 

Hotels. — Kindayfi, Muramatsu, 
European style. There are also the 
Budaiyfl, Chigira, Shinmda Hachi- 
r5, and other good inns in Japanese 

Ikao, one ot the best summer 
resorts in Japan, is built on ter- 
races along the N. E. slope of 
Mount Haruna, at an elevation 
varying from 2,600 to 2,700 ft. The 
picturesque main street, which di- 
vides the vill. into an eastern and 
a western part, consists of one near- 
ly continuous steep flight of steps. 
The houses W. of the steps border 
on a deep ravine called the Yusawa, 
through which rushes a foaming 
torrent. Ikao has the advantage of 
cool nights, absence of mosquitoes, 
and an unusually beautiful situa- 
tion, offering fiom nearly every 
house a grand view of the valleys 
of the Azuma or Agatsuma- 

g&wa and Tone-gawa, and of the 
igh mountain-ranges on the 
border of the great plain in 
which Tokyd is situated. From 
few places can the Nikko moun- 
tains be seen to such advan- 

tage. Ikao is famous for its 
mineral springs, which have a 
temperature of 46° 0. (113° P.), 
and which contain a small amount 
of iron and sulphate of soda. They 
have been known since prehistoric 
times, and the bath-houses pouring 
out clouds of steam form a striking 
feature of the precipitous village 
street. According to the Japanese 
style of bathing, the hot baths are 
made use of several times a day, 
and indiscriminately by patients of 
every description. Lately the water 
has been used for drinking purposes,, 
but it has little more effect than 
pure hot water. 

2.— Walks and Excursions from 

1. Along the Yusawa ravine to 
Tnnioto, about ^ m., nearly level. 
Yu-moto means lit., *' the Source of 
the Hot Water." Seats are erected 
for the accommodation of visitors,, 
who resort there to drink of the 
mineral spring. The water, which 
at its source is quite clear, has a 
slightly inky taste. On being ex- 
posed to the air the carbonic acid 
evaporates, and part of the iron 
which the water contains is pre- 
cipitated as a yellowish mass. This 
covers the bed of the river and the 
bottom of the aqueduct, and gives to 
the water in the baths a thick, dis- 
coloured appearance. The people, 
who have great faith in the 
strengthening effects of this preci- 
pitated iron salt, place large strips 
of cotton cloth in the stream. 
When the cloth has assumed a deep 
yellow colour, it is taken out, dried, 
and used as a belt for the body. 
The mineral water is led down to 
Ikao from Yusawa in bamboo pipes. 

2. Up Kompira-san, i hr. climb. 
Though of no great height, the 
top commands an extensive view, 
stretching from Shiraue-san near 
Kusatsu to Tsukuba-san in Hitachi,, 
and including the Mikuui and Nik- 
ko ranges, AluLgi-san, and the valley 
of the Tonegawa. Just below thd 

Sdfna-yama. Haruna, 


anmmit, a narrow path leads over 
ihe ridge to Futatsu-dake. 

3. To Mushi-ju, Sengen, Futa- 
tsa-dAke, and Sioma-yama. Mushi- 
yu (lit. ''the Steam Bath") is so 
called from the sulphurous gases 
which here emanate from holes in 
the ground, over which huts have 
been erected for the treatment of 
rheumatic patients. The number 
of naked people generally standing 
about at Mushi-yu makes this place 
unsightly. The time taken to reach 
tiie baths is about f hr. Sengen- 
jfotnat FutaUu-dake, and Slhna may 
all be ascended from Mushi-yu. An 
easier way is from the path to 
Haruna on the S. side. Chains are 
hong on the stiffest bits of both 
these ascents to assist the climber ; 
bat there is not the least real 
danger. Up Futatsu-dake there is 

' a path only part of the way, the rest 
being a scramble over stones and 
roots of trees. The view from the 
top of Sdma (4,860 ft. above the sea 
level, 2,150 ft. above Ikao) is 
magnificent. The summit of Fuji 
appears over the Ghichibu moun- 
tains nearly due S. To the W. of 
it are seen the KoshU Shirans, the 
Koma-ga-take*s of KdshU and Shin- 
afafi seemingly in close proximity, 
then Yatsu-ga-take, Ontake about 
W. S. W., Asama-yama a little 
to the S. of W., Yahazu-yama 
W. N. W., then the Shirane of 
Knsatsu, and a part ol the Hida- 
ShinshU range. Eastwards rise 
Trakuba-san and the Shirane of 
NIkko, with one of the peaks of 
Akagi-san half-way between them. 
The town of Maebashi is visible to 
the E. S. E., with the Tonegawa 
half encircling it before pursuing 
ita course down the plain. 

4. To the pretty little waterfall 
of Benten-daki, on the stream 
which issues from Lake Haruna; 
distance a little over 4 m. 

5. To Harana,— about 6 m. to 
the lake, and Ijt m. more on to the 
temple. This, tnough, rough is by 
far iho prettiest walking expedition 

from Ikao. ** Chairs," however, may 
be taken. 

[On the way to Haruna, a con- 
spicuous conical hill called 
Haruna Fuji is passed, the steep 
and stony ascent of which occu- 
pies about } hr. from the place 
where the path diverges. The 
near view from the summit 
is very beautiful, showing the 
lake and surrounding moun- 
tains to great advantage. The 
distant prospect includes most 
of the view already described 
as seen from Soma. The stone 
shrine on the top is very anci- 
ent. — The best plan is to make 
of this a separate expedition. 
There is grazing-ground for 
cattle on this little Fuji, and a 

Lake Unriina, which apparently 
occupies the site of an extinct 
crater, contains salmon and other 
fish. On its border is a tea-house 
where one may lunch. From the 
lake it is a short aud easy ascent 
to the top of a pass called 
Tmjin-tdgey 1,000 ft. above Ikao, 
commanding an extensive view. 
From the Tenjin-toge the path 
descends a wooded glen to the 
ancient Shintd temple of Haruna, 
situated amongst precipitous and 
overhanging volcanic rocks, in a 
grove of lofty cryptomerias. It is 
dedicated to Ho-musubi, the God of 
Fire, and Haniyasu-hime, the God- 
dess of Earth. Over the principal 
building, which is decorated with 
excellent wood-carvings (especially 
two dragons twined round the side- 
beams of the porch), hangs a huge 
rock supported on a slender base, 
which seems every moment to 
threaten the temple with destruc- 
tion. The whole site is one of the 
most weird and fantastic that can 
be imagined, nature appearing to 
have laid a wager here to perform 
quaint feats in stone, the least 
malleable of all materials. 

6. The hot springs of Sbima U 

IM BouU 12, — JIrio, £ii«atMi> 4md Nmghbourhood. 

nearly 8 ri from Bcao, so that 
a trip there involves stajnng 
the Dight. Shima may most cod- 
-veniently be taken en route to Kusa- 
tsu, the way being the same as far 
as 20 chd past Nakanojo on the road 
to Sawatari. Jinrikishas can be 
availed of, but must occasionally be 
alighted from. Shima includes two 
hamlets, called respectively Yama- 
guchi Onsen and Arai-yu, 8 chd 
distant from each other. Travel- 
lers are recommended not to stay 
at the former, but to go on to Arai- 
yu and put up at the inn kept by 
Tamnra ^losaburo. Tho hamlet is 
picturesquely situated close to the 
river, on whose bank the springs 
which supply the baths gush forth. 
Travellers not returning to Ikao, but 
going on to Kusatsu, need not pass 
again through Nakanojo, as there 
is a shorter cut from a place called 
Kimino. It is, however, scarcely 
passable for jinrikishas. 

7. To A8amn-yaniA. It is a 2 
days' trip from Ikao to the volcano. 
The first day takes one by jinriki- 
sha to lizuka (Takasaki), 7 ri 8 chd^ 
whence train to Karuizawa, where 
sleep. For the ascent on the second 
day see p. 152. 

8. To Myofri-Sftit. It is a splendid 
day's walk vi4 Haruna-san, Kami 
Moroda, and Shimo Sannokura to 
Matsuida on the Takasaki-Karui- 
zawa Bailway, about 9 ri^ whence 
1 ri more to the vill. of Mydgi 
(see p. 149). Horses may be engaged 
for th< 

3. Kusatsu. 
The stalwart pedestrian can walk 
over from Ikao to Kusatsu in one 
long day viA Gochoda, Nakanojo, 
Sawatari, and Namazu, — a delight- 
fully picturesque expedition of over 
80 m., or else one may take a pack- 
horse. There is good accommodation 
at Nakanojo ; but should a break in 
the joume}' become indispensable, 
Sawatari(Inns, Fukuda, ShinKano- 
va), a small bathing vill. 6 ri 9 chd 
-cm Kusatsu, will probably be found 

the least unoomfortable place at 
which to spend the night. The baths, 
however, cannot be recommended. 

An alternative way from Ikao to 
Kusatsu is vift the hamlets of Go- 
chdda, Haramachi, Yokoya, and Na- 
ganohara, a distance of nearly 14 ru 
This way is much recommended 
on account of the beautiful scenety 
of portions of the valley of the 
Agatsuma-gawa. It is practicable 
for jinrikishas from Gochoda to 
Yokoya, and for pack-horses the 
remainder of the way. There is no 
acconmiodation until reaching Na- 
ganohara. Instead of going vi& Go- 
chdda, one may take the Haruna 
Lake route and by turning to the 
1. at the vill. of Odo, join the Hara- 
machi route a little beyond £a- 
wara-yu (Inn^ by Hagiwara) where 
are hot springs high up on the 
river bank. 

Kusatsu can also easily be reach- 
ed from Tokyo by taking rail to 
Karuizawa (see p. 148), whence it 
is an 11 ri journey across the delight- 
ful park-like country at the base of 
Asama-yama. Time, 1^ day. 

Kiisatsn (Inns^ *Yamamoto-kwaD, 
with good private baths; Ichii), 
3,800 ft. above sea-level, whose 
trim, cleanly appearance strongly 
recalls that of a village in the Tyrol, 
is the coolest of Japan's simimer 
resorts. Visitors who, attracted by 
these considerations, may think of 
spending any time there, mast 
however remember that the mineral 
waters are specially efficacious — not 
only in rheumatism, and, as re- 
cently discovered by Dr. Baelz, in 
gout— but in syphilis, leprosy, and 
other loathsome diseases, and that 
the first effect of the free sulphuric 
acid in the water is to bring oat 
sores on the tender parts of the 
body. The chief constituents of the 
Kusatsu springs are mineral acids, 
sulphur, iron, alum, and arsenic. 
The temperature of the springs is 
extremely high, ranging from 100® 
to 160° Fahrenheit, while the baths 
are generally 113° to 128°. Tho 
chief bath, called Netsu^no-yu^ has 

Kmaih* Walhs in the 'Neiffhbottrhood* 


throe diviaions of inoreaeing de- 
grees of temperature. Even the 
Japanese, inured as they are to 
scalding water, find their courage 
fail them ; and the native invalids 
are therefore taken to bathe in squads 
under a semi-military discipline to 
which they voluntarily submit. 
Soon after daylight a horn is blown 
aod the bathers assemble, as many 
aa can find room taking their first 
daily bath. Each is provided with 
a wooden dipper, and the ** bath- 
master *' directs the patients to pour 
a hundred dippers of water over 
iheir heads to avoid congestion. 
Attendants are on the watch, as 
fainting fits sometimes occur. Most 
cmious is the sort of ohoric chant 
which takes place between the 
bathers and their leader on entering 
and while sitting in the bath,— a 
trial which, though lasting only 
frofn 8} to 4 minutes, seems an 
eternity to their festering, agonised 
bodies. After the lapse of about 
Qoe minute, the bath-master cries 
oat, and the others all answer with 
a hoarse shout. After a little he cries 
out, ** Three minutes have passed." 
After another half-minute or so, 
** Two minutes more I *' then ** One 
minute more t '* the chorus answer- 
ing each time. At last the leader 
cries " Finished ! '* whereupon the 
iHiole mass of naked bodies rise 
from the water with an alacrity 
which he who has witnessed their 
dow, painful entry into the place 
of torture will scarcely cre- 
dit. The horn is shortly after- 
wards blown again, and the same 
process gone through by another 
Mfcch, the bathing being continued 
from early mom till far into the 
nil^t. The usual Kusatsu course in- 
dudes 120 baths, spread over 4 or 5 
wadra. Most patients then proceed 
lor the "after-oure" to Sawatari, 6 ri 
9 eh6 distant, where the waters have 
a softening effect on the skin and 
qnickly alleviate the terrible irrita- 
tion. Of late years, there has been 
a tendency to desert Sawatari in 
faTomrof Shibu (see next page). 

4. — Walks in the Nbighbour- 
hood of kusatsu. - 

1. To the solfatara of Sessliu- 

fa-wara, on the slope of Lfoto- 
hirane, about 1 ri. 

2. To Sai-no-Kawara and Kori- 
daiii, 20 ch^. The meaning of the 
name Sai-no-Kawara is ** the River- 
bed of Souls." On its numerous 
rocks and boulders, small stones 
have been piled up by visitors as 
offerings to dead children. Among 
these rocks is one called Ytiruqi- 
ishif which, notwithstanding its 
being a huge boulder, is so nicely 
balanced that it can be moved by 
the hand. Eori-dani is so-called 
from the frozen snow which is to 
be found there even during the 

3. To the small Shinto shrine of 
Snwa (Suwa nojinja^^ 25 cho. 

4. Vi& Suwa-no-jinja, Higane,. 
Kiyozuka, and Hikinuma, to Uana- 
shlki near Iriyama, with hot 
springs spurting up near a cold 
stream. About 2} ri. 

5. Part of the way to OtokO) up- 
a pathless hill to a place which, 
just above thirty- three stone images- 
of Kwannon, offers a magnificent 
panorama of the whole neighbour- 
ing country. Distance, about 1 ri ; 
on to Otoku, about 20 chd more. 

6. To Numao, 1 ri. 

7. To Kosaine, IJ ri on the way 
to Sawatari. 

8. To IIlka«re, 2 ri. 

9. To San-no-sawa, 25 cho on 
the way to Karuizawa, and through 
a splendid forest to Haneo or to 
Maeguchi, 20 cho more. Or else 
to San-no-sawa by the new road, 
which skirts Moto-Shirane and is 
therefore somewhat longer. A path 
leads hence, 10 chd^ up one of the 
spurs of ^loto-Shirane to a small 
stone shrine with a fine view of 
Asama-yama and other mountains. 

10. Shirane-san, 

Shira-ne sijjfnifles White Peak, which 
aooounts for there being several moun- 
tains at this natoe in Japian. 

a volcano over 7,000 ft^ forms a 

158 Bout4 le.—IkaOf KUkattu, and Neighbmilfhood. 

pleas&nt day's expedition viA Ses- 
shd-gatoara, the patn leading through 
a remarkable skeleton forest, whose 
every bough and twi^, though per- 
fect in shape, remains blastea by 
the fumes exhaled during the last 
•eruption. The crater is oval in 
shape, its longer diameter being 
about 500 yds., and its breadth 150 
to 200 yds. The walls are very 
steep ; but on the E. side is a depres- 
sion through which travellers can en- 
ter. The sulphurous lake, bubbling 
and seething, is a most remarkable, 
sight. It is 3 acres in extent, and 
consists entirely of hydrochloric 
acid, with iron and alum, only 
waiting to be diluted in order 
to form an excellent lemonade. 

It would be possible to take the 
ascent of Shirane-san on the way 
to Shibu, but the day would be an 
extremely long one, as the volcano 
is considerably of! the road. 

6.— KusATSu TO Nagano over the 
Shibu-togb. The ToRn-TdGB. 


KUSATSU to:— Ri. Chd. M. 

Top of Shibu-toge. 2 82 7 

SHIBU 8 22 Si 

Toyono (Station). . 6 — 12i 

NAGANO 2 29 6} 

Total U 11 85 

On foot or on pack-horse as far 
as Shibu (2,250 ft. above the sea) ; 
thence basha or jinrikisha to Toyo- 
no ; thence train to Nagano. 

This route affords splendid 
scenery. The best plan is to 
, sleep at Sliibn {TnnSy •Tsubata-ya 
and others), catching the train at 
Toyono next-day. Those who do 
not care to visit the temple of Zen 
koji at Nagano, can continue on by 
rail to Karuizawa and Toky5. The 
route is one specially recommended 
to those who have been taking the 
sulphur baths at Eusatsu. Instead 
of going for the "after-cure" to 
Sawatari — the usual Japanese 
routine— they can stay en route at 

Shibn, where there are thennal 
springs suitable to their needs, and 
be far more comfortable, as it is 
one of the cleanest watering-plaoes 
in Japan. 

The extreme picturesqueness of 
the road from Kusatsu to Shibn is 
purchased at the expense of a long 
climb. The descent from the top 
of the pass to the vill. of Shibn is 
also long and steep. The following 
mountains come in sight : — Myoko- 
zan in Echigo, Kurohime, Toga- 
kushi-san, and Izuna. Some 25 
chd from Shibu is an interesting 
geyser {Ojigoku) in the river bed. 

An alternative way to Nagano 
from Kusatsu is over the Yamada- 
tdge, which is comparatively short, 
and where the baths of Yamada 
may be visited. Another is over 
the Torii-t6ge. Both of these 
descend to the vill. of SuMoka, 
The itinerary of the Torii-tago 
route is as follows : 

KUSATSU to:— Bi. Chd, M. 

Mihara 2 6 5J 

Ozasa 2 80 7 

Tashiro 1 18 3} 

Torii-toge 30 2 

Nire 4 24 llj 

Suzaka 1 29 4^ 

NAGANO 8 11 8 • 

Total 17 4 41} 

This so-called pass is but a gentle 
ascent of 50 cho. The prettiest part 
of the route is on the far side of it, 
where, after leaving the vill. of Nire, 
the monotony of grassy hills shnt- 
ting out all distant prospect is ex- 
changed for charming views of the 
mountains on the borders of Echigo. 
Jinrikishas can be obtained at 
Suxaka for the remainder of the 
journey, during which the volcanic 
cone of MadaraOy besides other 
mountains mentioned above, are 

Bouts U.'-^ThB Bydmd Bailway. 


ROUTE 18. 

The BTdMo Railwat. 













t5KY0 (Ueno). 

(-See Northern 
\ Railway, 
C Routeas. 

(■Alight for 
< cav es of 
(. Izoru. 

(-Road to Nik- 
\ kObyWata- 
(. rase-gawa. 








This line of railway, branching 
off from the Northern line at Oya- 
ma, which is reached in 2^ hrs. 
from Tokyo, traverses the provinces 
of Kotsuke and Shimotsuke. It 
i^ords an alternative, though 
longer, railway route from Tokyo 
to Maebashi, and is the easiest way 
of reaching the hot springs of Ikao 
in one day from Nikko. The scenery 
is pretty all along the route. 

Tocllig'i {Inns, Kauahan, Yoshi- 
kawa-ya) is one of the most im- 
portant towns in Shimotsuke. Its 
chief product is hempen thread. 

Snno or Tern my o (Inns, Saito, 
Kiku-ya) is a pretty and prosperous 
place. Its Public Park lies close to 
the station. There also exist the 
ruins of a castle built by Hidesato 
about 900 years ago. 

[From Sano an excursion may 
be made to the very curious 
limestone caverns of Imutu, 
where a temple dedicated to 
Kwannon was founded by Sho- 

d5 Sh5nin in the 8th century. 
In these oaves the saint is 
fabled to have taken up his 
abode, and passed three years 
inpraverandmeditation. They 
are about 6 ri distant from 
Sano on a mountain route to 
Nikko. Jinrikishas are prac- 
ticable most of the way to the 
caves. From the vill. of Izuru^ 
it is a walk of 2 chd up a ravine 
to the cave called Daishi no 
Iwaya, the mouth of which 
is high up amongst the precipi- 
tous rocks, and is only to do 
reached by ladders. Further on 
• is the cave sacred to Xwannon, 
reached by climbing over steep 
rocks with the assistance of 
chains, and then by ladders 
up to a platform on which 
stand imsges of Daikoku and 
Shodo Shonin. The guide 
lights candles and shows the 
way into the cave, which con- 
tains a large stalactite sup- 
posed to resemble a back view 
of the body of Kwannon. The 
cave is evidently much deeper, 
but pilgrims do not usually go 
further in. Close by is a 
hollow in the rock, with two 
issues. The guide climbs np 
a ladder to the upper hole, gets 
inside, and after a minute or 
two appears, head first, out of 
the lower. Half a chd further 
is another cave, named after 
the god Dainichi Nyorai, and 
having two branches, — one 
about 60 yds. deep, the other 
penetrating Itor an unknown dis- 
tance into the mountain.] 

The silk goods produced at Sano, 
although similar in kind to those of 
Ashikaga, are much finer in quality. 

Ashikaga {Inn, Sagami-ro) is a 
great centre of the trade in native 
cotton and silk goods, the former, 
however, mostly woven from foreign 

AshikMza was celebrated for iu Ae^ 
demy of Chineee Learning {Aahikaga Qah- 
M), the fonndatiaii of wmoh institntkm is 


Bouts 13, — AMka^a^ A$emt 6f Akn^-tan. 

twwUlionany M«ribed to- th* eminent 
scholar Ono-no-Takamom ( A.D. 801—862 ) . 
It reached the senith of its proeperitj in 
the time of the Shflfnine of the Aehikaira 
djrnaety, its last great benefactor being 
Uesogi Norizane who died in 1573. This 
Academy possessed a magnificent library 
of Chinese works, and was the chief 
centre of Chinese emdition and of the 
worship of Confucius until the establish- 
ment of the Seidd at Tedo (p. 102). Most 
of the books are now dispersed, but the 
image of Confucius still attracts visitors. 

Kiryii (Inns^ Kanaki-ya, Yama- 
ne), is a large town, about 2 ri 
from its railway station. The chief 
products are crape, gauze, and 
nabutai, a silk faorlo resembling 
tafiety. The large manufactory 
here, called the Nippon Orimono 
Kwaishaf is worth inspection. It is 
famished with French machinery 
for the manufacture of satins in 
European style. A canal has been 
out to bring water from the neigh- 
bouring hiUs expressly for the use 
of this factory. 

Omama {Inn^ Tsonx-ya) is situat- 
ed near the foot of Akagi-san. The 
picturesque road from here to the 
copper mines of Ashio by the valley 
of the Watarase-gawa is described 
in Route 15. Omama itself is a long 
straggling town, and, like the other 
places on this railway ' route, of 
little general interest, being entirely 
devoted to sericulture. Incon- 
venience is caused by the fact that 
the railway station lies over 1 ri 
from the town. Travellers coming 
down the Watarase-gawa must 
allow for this. 

[The extinct volcano of Akaffi- 
san is best asoended from the 
vill. of Ogo, 8 ri 9 chd from 
Omama, whence the climb will 
take from 8^ to 4 hrs. Leav- 
ing the upper end of Ogo vill. the 
path ascends gently for about 
1^ hr. througn hamlets, and 
then over a moor dotted with 
fir-trees to a large stone torii, 
and thence on to the hamlet of 
Miyazawa. The remainder of 
the way is also an. easy climb. 
About 8 hrs. from Ogo we reach 

a grassy kn<^ where the path 
divides, the 1. branch going to 
one of the peaks of Akagi known 
as Nabewariy the other leading 
to a lake about 2{ m. in circum- 
ference, and bean-shaped, with 
a small island in it. The peak ri- 
sing just above thisgrassv knoll 
is Arayama, 4,830 ft. in height, 
which can be ascended in about 
f hr. The summit commands a 
grand panorama of moun- 
tains:— Fuji S. S. W., Kaigane- 
san (part of the Kosha Shirane- 
san) S. W., the numerous peaks 
of Yatsu-ga-take with Tateshina 
nearly W. S. W., Asama-yama 
due W., and the Kusatsu Shi- 
rane about W. N. W. Nearly 
due N. rises Hodaka-san, one of 
the loftiest peaks in Kotsuke, 
easily recognised by its double 
top. The descent from Ara- 
yama on the N. side is very 
steep, but not dangerous, and 
the path is well-marked. From 
the knoll above referred to, 
the main path skirts the E. 
base of Arajrama, and, travers- 
ing a grassy moorland basin, 
crosses a col to the temple 
(Daidd) on the margin of the 
lake. About 2,000 yds. to the 
r. of the path is a tarn called 
Konunuiy the level of which 
must be from 260 to 800 ft. 
higher than that of the larger 

Maeboshi, see p. 149. 

Routs 14.—Nikk6 and Ndghbottrhood, 


ROUTE 14. 


gon-no-taki, chu zenji, nantai- 
zan, and yumoto. 6. ascent of 
shirane-san, and of o-manaoo 
and nantai-zan fbom yumoto. 
1. — Gbnebal Information, 

A popular Japanese proverb says, 
'< Do not use the word magnificent 
till yon have seen Nikko: " 

Nikkd wo mmai uchi wa, 
**Kekkd*' toiunat 

Nikko's is a double glory — a glory 
of nature and a glory of art. 
Mountains, cascades, monumental 
forest trees, had always stood there. 
To these, in the 17th century, were 
added the mausolea of the illustrious 
Sbogun leysisu, founder of the 
Tokugawa dynasty, and of his 
•carcely less famous grandson le- 

Japanese wood-carving, and paint- 
ing on wood being then at their 
zenith, the result was the most 
perfect assemblage of shrines in the 
whole land. But though there is 
gorgeousness, there is no gaudiness. 
That sobriety which is the key-note 
of Japanese taste, gives to all the 
gay designs and bright colours its 
own chaste character. 

Properly speaking, Nikko is the 
name, not of any single place, but 
of a whole mountainous district 
lying about 100 miles to the N. of 
Tokyo. Nevertheless, when people 
•peak of going to Nikko, they ge- 
nerally mean going to one of the 
tillages called Hachi-ishi and Iri- 
nachif between which stand the 
Mausoloa. Lying 2,000 ft. above 
the sea, Nikko is a delightful 
summer resort, for which reason 
many foreign residents of Tdkyo 
have villas there, or else at 

Chtiaenji (4,385 ft.), TJ m. further 
on. The only drawback to the 
climate is the frequent rain« 
Within a radius of 15 miles there 
are no less than tweuty-five or 
thirty pretty cascades. Nikko is 
noted, among other things, for the 
glorious tints of its autumn foliage. 
Nikko is reached in 5 hrs. from 
Tokyo by the Northern Railway, 
carriages being changed at Utsuno- 
miya, where the Nikko branch turns 

Nikko Branch Line. 










T5KY5iUeno) . 


NIKKO (Hachi. 

{See North- 
J era Rail- 
i way. Route 


The railway diverges to the W. 
in order to tap the Beiheishi Kaidd 
at the thriving town of Kanuma, 
and following that highway lined 
with ancient cryptomerias, does not 
come in sight of the other and still 
more imposing avenue ( Nikkd 
Kaidd), 20 m. in length, leading 
from Utsunomiya to Nikko, until 
Imaichi is reached, where the two 
roads join. 

The lUih€i$hi Eaid6 was 80 called be- 
caose in old days the BeiheiMhi, or Envoy 
of the Mikado, need to travel along it, 
bearing gifts from his Imperial mnster to 
be offered at the Mausoleum of leyasu. 

Fine views of the Nikko mountains 
are obtained on the r. between 
Utsunomiya and Togami ; later, 
Nantai-zau alone is seen towering 
above a lower range in the fore- 
ground ; then the lofty cryptomerias 
of the Reiheishi Kaido, closo to 
which the railway runs, slmt out 
the prospect until a break occurs 10 
min. beyond Fubasami, when the 
whole mass appears on tlic 1. ahead. 


R&uts U.-^Nikkd and Neighbourhood. 

The village of Bachiishit being a 
long one, and the railway only touch- 
ing its lower end, there remains a 
stretch of 1^ m. to be done by 
iiurikislia from the station to the 

B^ote?6".-*Kanaya Hotel, •Nikko 
Hotel, *Arai, Suzuki, all in European 
style ; Kouishi-ya, Kamiyama, Jap. 
style. Foreign stores and fresh 
meat can be obtained at Masajfl in 
the vill., close to the Red Bridge. 

Meatis of conveyance. — Chairs, 
kagosy or pack-horses can be taken 
to such places as are not accessible 
by jinrikisha. There is a fixed 
scale of charges. 

Oniic.i are in attendance at the 
Hotels, and will arrange for the 
purchase of tickets of admittance to 
the Mausolea. Additional small 
charges are made at various points 
within the building. Membership 
of the Hdko-ktvai, or Nikk5 Preser- 
Tation Society (§5) confers the per- 
manent pri\ ilege of admission to all 
the temples without further fees. 
The Mausolea of the Shoguns are 
open daily from 8 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
Visitors must remove their boots at 
the entrance of the main shrines. 

Nikko is a mart for skins of the 
badger, doer, marten, wild-boar, etc., 
and various pretty articles made of 
a black fossil wood (jindai-boku) 
brought from Sendai in the north. 

Rittory— The TAToge of moonfAins 
known aa Nikk6-zan li-'« on the N.W. 
boundary of the province of Shimotsnke. 
The original name wa« Fttta-ara-yama^ 
which, when written with Chinese ideo- 
graphs, may alw be pronounced Ni'kd-ean. 
Aocordinff to the popular account, the 
name was derived from penodioal hurri- 
canee in upring and autumn, which issued 
from a great cavern on Nantai-zan, the 
monntnin to the N. E. of Chflzenji. In 
A.D. 82(i KAld Dai8hi visited the spot, 
made a roa^l to the neighbourhood at the 
cavern, and chan^^od the name of the 
ran pre to NikkS-zan, or ** Mountainw of the 
Sun's Brijfhtness.** from which moment 
the storms ceased to devastate the 
country. Up to the end of the 17th cen- 
tury, a family of Shinto priests named 
Ono used to visit the cavern twice yearly 
to perform certain exordsms, the secret 
of which had been impiuted to their an- 
cestor by KObiJ Daishi. A cavern situated 
high up on the face of an inaoceesible 

diff. Just beyond the hamlet of Uma- 
gaashi on the way to Chfizenji, is pointed 
out as the cave in question. Another 
explanation of the name Futapara-yama, 
is that it means " The Two Rifiginff 
Mountains,'* in allusion to the two voi> 
canoes which form part of it, vix jNantai- 
zan and Shirane-san beyond Yumoto. 
But thouf^h the latter brc»tkB out at fre- 
quent intervals, no eruptions have taken 
place from Nantai-san within memory of 

From the earliest ages of which any 
tru a r worthy record remains, a Shint6 
temple existed at Nikkd. which was after- 
wards removed to Utsunomiya. In the 
year 707, the first Buddhist temple waa 
erected by the saint ShOdd ShOnin. Later 
on, in the beginninf^ of the 9th centniy, 
K6h6 Dai8hi, and in the middle of the 
same century the abbot Jigakn Daisldy 
added to the holy places, llie folio winsr 
account of ShddO Hhdnin is summarisea 
from a memoir written by his disciples 
the year after his death. He was bom 
at Takaoka near the E. boundary of 8hi- 
motsuke, in the year 735. His parents 
had long desired to have a son, and at 
la«t their wiah was granted by the Thoa- 
sand-Handed Kwannon of the Isura 
Caves, to whom they had prayed for off- 
spring. Varions portents accompanied 
his birth :— loud thunder was heard, a 
miraculous cloud hung over the cottage, 
flowers fell from heaven into the coiut- 
yard, and a strange t>erfnme filled the air. 
From his earliest years the saint waa 
devoted to the worship of the gods, and 
amused himself by raising toy pagodas 
and shrines of earth and stoncb, which 
gained for him the nickname of "temple 
builder " among bis companions In nia 
twentieth year he secretly quitted hia 
father's house, and took up his abode in 
the cave of the Thousand-Handed Kwan- 
non at Ixuru. After passing three years 
in praver and meditation, he dreamt in 
mid-winter of a great mountain N. of 
Isuru, on the top of which lay a sword 
more than 3 ft. in length. On awaking, 
he left the cave, and endeavoured to 
make his way in the direction indicated ; 
but the deep snow opposed difllcultiea 
almost insurmountable. Vowing to sacri- 
fice his Ufe rather than abandon the en- 
terprise, he persevered, and at last reach- 
ed a point from which he beheld the 
object of his search. Ascending to the 
top of the mountain, he gave himself up 
to austere discipline, living on fruits 
which were brought to him by a super- 
natural being. After thus passing three 
more years, he returned to Isuru, and in 
762 visited the temple of TaVu8hi-ji« not 
far from Ishibashi on the Oshfi K&id\ 
where, meeting some Chinese priests, he 
was admitted by them as a novice. He 
remained in the mooasteiy for five years, 
and then returned to the manntain now 
called Kobu-ga-hara. From its summit 
hs bebeU, on the range to the N^ fear 



olcmde of different ooloors I (probably tbe ancient ri, of whioli ^=1 
~^^ > into the skj, and he mile), he ceme to a great lake (CASr«>i;i) 

r, on 
It the 
id his 
) was 
1 the 





Ai. xionaen. 

28. Tomb of lemitsn. 


RouU 14. — Nikkd mid Neigfibourhood. 

give Baddhist servicen in which both the 
reififning ShOgnn and an envoy from the 
Mikado took part. In the year IBW Jif?en 
Daishi died. The next abbot was a coort 
noble, the next to him was a son of the 
Emperor 6o-Mizuno-o, since which time 
down to the revolution of 186)j the abbot 
of NikkO was always a prince of the Im- 
perial blood. He usually resided at Ueno 
in Yedo, and visited Nikkd three times 
annually. The last piince-abbot wa** 
Blita Shirakawa-no-Miya, already referred 
to on p. 106. 

The great annual festival is held 
on the 1st and 2nd June. The 
sacred palanquins (mikoshi) con- 
taining the divine symbols are then 
borne in procession, when ancient 
costumes, masks, and armour are 
donned by the villagers, old and 
young alike taking part in the dis- 
play. Another, but less elaborate, 
ceremonial is observed on the 17th 

2.— Chief Ob^cts of Interest. 

On issuing from the upper end of 
the village, one of the first objects 
that attract attention is the Mi 
Hashiy a Red Bridge spanning the 
Daiya-gawa, a stream about 40 ft. 
wide between the stone walls which 
here confine its course. The bridge 
is supported on stone piers of great 
solidity, fixed into the rocks between 
which the stream flows, and its 
colour forms a striking contrast to 
the deep green of the cryptomerias 
on the opposite bank. 

It was formerly closed to all persons 
except the Sbdguns, save twice a year 
when it was opened to pilgrims. It stands 
on the spot wnore, according to the legend 
above related, ShddO Bhduin crossed the 

The present structure, which is 
84 ft. long and 18 ft. wide, was 
built in 1688 and last repaired in 
1892. At each end are gates 
which are kept constantly closed. 
Forty yards or so lower down the 
stream, is the so-called " Temporary 
Bridge" (Karibashi)^ which is open 
to ordinary mortals. Crossing this 
and turning to the 1., the visitor 
ascends the Nagasdka through a 
grove of cryptomerias, and reaches 
the enclosure in which formerly 

stood the Eonibo, or Abbot's Palace. 
This is commonly spoken of as 
Mangwanji or i2tnno/t, names 
which, however, properly denote 
all the Nikkd temple buildings 
collectively. The road to be taken 
skirts the S. wall of this en- 
closure, and then follows its W. 
side. On the 1. of the avenue is the 
Chdyd-Kwan^ formerly used for the 
reception of grandees of the Toku- 
gawa family, but now the summer 
residence of the young Imperial 
Princesses, Tsune-no-Miya and 

Within the Mangwanji enclosure 
stands the Sambutsu-ddf or Hall of 
the Three Buddha^, so called from 
gigantic gilt images of the Thousand- 
Handed Kwannon, r. ; Amida, in 
the centre; and the Horse-Headed 
Kwannon, 1., which are enshrined 
behind the main altar. There are 
other images, and a beautiful silk 
Mandara of Dainichi Nyorai and the 
36 Buddhas. Turning towards the 


MawoUum of leyam. 


pretty Landscape Garden, one sees 
«t the back of the Sambutsu-dd a 
row of small painted images, among 
which Fudo and his followers, colour- 
ed blue, occupy the place of honour. 
Close by is a pillar called Sdrinto, 
erected in 1643 for the sake, it is 
said, of averting evil iufluenoes, and 
consisting of a cylindrical copper 
column 42 ft. high, of a black colour, 
supported by horizontal bars cross- 
ing through its centre, which rest 
on shorter columns of the same 
material. The top is adorned with 
a series of four cups shaped like 
lotus-flowers, from the petals of 
which depend small bells. Just be- 
neath the lowest of these cups are 
four small medallions, with the 
Tokagawa crest of three asarum 
leaves {aoi no mon or mitsu-aoik). 
Notice two fine bronze lanterns. 
On the opposite side of the road is 
the new Puhli>c Park in Japanese 

Matisoleiim of Teynsn. Ascend- 
ing some broad steps between two 
rows of crjrptomeriM, we come to 
the granite torii presented by the 
prince of Chikuzen from his own 

Suarries in the year 1616. Its total 
eight is 27 ft. 6 in., and the dia- 
meter of the columns is 8 ft. 6 in. 
The inscription on the columns 
merely records the fact of their 
presentation and the name of the 
donor. On the 1. is a five-storied 
pagoda of graceful form, painted in 
oarmonious colours. It rises to a 
height of 104 ft., and the roofs 
measure 18 ft. on each side. This 
monument was the offering in 1650 
of Sakai Wakasa-no-Eami, one of 
the chief supporters of the Toku- 
g&wa family. Round the lower 
storey are life-like painted carvings 
of the twelve signs of the zodiac. 
Opposite the pagoda, and standing 
amidst the trees to the r. of the 
steps, is the O Kari-den, a building 
used to hold the image of Icyasu 
whenever the main temple is under 
repair. From the toriij a pavement 
leads to the bottom of the steps 
crowned by the Ni-6-mon, or Gtate 

of the Two Kings. The gigantic 
figures of these gods which formerly 
occupied the niches on the outside of 
this gate, have been removed, and 
their places taken by gilt Ama-inu 
And Koma-inu. On the tops of the pil- 
lars, at the four external angles, are 
tapirs (Jap. baku) .representations of 
which are in China believed to act 
as charms against pestilence. The 
heads on the central pillars of the 
two outer ends of the structure are 
lions ; in the niches r. and 1. of the 
lion at one end are unicorns, and 
in the corresponding niches at the 
other end are fabulous beasts called 
takujuy which are supposed to be 
endowed with the power of speech, 
and only to appear in the world* 
when a virtuous sovereign occupies 
the throne. The doorways are 
ornamented with elephants' heads, 
the first portico has lions and 
peonies, and the second tigers. The 
interiors of the niches on the out- 
side of the gateway are decorated 
with tapirs and peonies, those on 
the inside niches with bamboos. 
The carvings of tigers under the 
eaves on the interior side of the 
gateway are excellent. Notice also 
the fine old bronze flower-vases from 

Passing through the gateway, the 
visitor finds himself in a courtyard 
raised high above the approach, and 
enclosed by a timber wall painted 
bright red. The three handsome 
buildings arranged in a zigzag are 
storehouses, where various uten- 
sils employed in the religious ceremo- 
nies performed in honour of leyasu, 
pictures, furniture, and other articles 
used by him during his life-time, 
and many other treasures belonging 
to the temple, are deposited. The 
third is remarkable for two curious 
painted carvings of elephants in 
relief iu the gable of the nearest 
end, which are ascribed to Hidari 
Jingoro, the drawings having been 
made by the celebrated artist Tan- 
yu. It will be noticed that the 
joints of the hind-legs are repre- 
sented bent in the wrong direction. 


Route 14, — Nikko and NeigMourhood. 

On the 1. of the gate stands & 
conifer of the species called kSya- 
makif stirroanded by a stone railing. 

8omo say that this is the identical tree 
which leyasu was in the habit of carrying 
about with him in his palanquin, when it 
was still small enough to be contained in 
a flower-pot. 

Close to this tree is a stable 
for the sacred white pony kept 
for the use of the god. This gate- 
way, like the others to be noticed 
further on, is beautifully carved. 

Over the doors are some cleverly 
executed groups of monkeys, for 
whose signification see Koshin, p. 44. 
A very interesting object is the 
On Chdzuya^ containing a holy- 
water cistern made of one solid piece 
of granite, and protected by a roof 
supported on twelve square pillars of 
the same material. It was erected 
in 1618. The pediment of the roof 
contains a pair of winged dra- 
gons, carved in wood and painted. 
The beautifully decorated build- 
ing beyond the holy- water basin is 
called the KyozOy and is the depo- 
sitory of a complete collection of 
the Buddhist scriptures, contained 
in a fine revolving octagonal book- 
case with red lacquer panels and 
gilt pillars. In front are smiling 
figures of Fu Daishi and his sons (see 
p. 41) whence the name of Warai- 
ddf popularly applied to this edifice. 
Paintings of angels on a gilt ground 
occupy the clerestory of the interior. 
In the centre of the court stands a 
fine bronze torii, with the Tokugawa 
crest in gold on the tops of the 
pillars and on the tie-beam. 

A flight of steps gives access to 
another court, along the front of 
which runs a stone balustrade. 
Just inside are two stone lions in 
the act of leaping down, presented 
by lemitsu. On the r. stand a bell- 
tower, a bronze candelabrum pre- 
sented by the King of Loochoo, 
and a bell given by the King of Ko- 
rea, called the " Moth-eaten Bell," 
because of there being a hole in the 
>p just under the ring by which it 
suspended. On the 1. stand a 

bronse lantern from Korea, a can* 
delabrom from Holland, and a 
drum-tower, no imworthy oompanion 
to the bell-tower opposite. (Be it 
remarked that Holland, Korea, and 
Loochoo were considered to be 
Japan's three vassal states.) The 
lantern is a fine and solid piece of 
workmanship; but its style and 
construction indicate that it does 
not owe its origin to Korea. The 
two candelabra and the lantern, as 
well as the bronze candle-brackets 
fixed upon the interior wall of the 
court, r. and 1. of the steps, probably 
came from Europe through Dutch 
or Portuguese traders. Two iron 
standard lanterns on the r. of the 
steps, presented by Date Masamune, 
Prince of Sendai, and the same 
number on the 1. given by the Prince 
of Satsuma, merit attention. They 
are dated 1641. The total number 
of lanterns contributed by various 
Daimyos is one hundred and 

At the 1. extremity of this same 
platform stands the Temple of 
Yakushiy dedicated to Horaiji Mine- 
no-Yakuslii, the patron saint of 
leyasu, for which reason its Bud- 
dhist emblems have been left intact, 
while Shinto influence has more or 
less modified the other shrines 
during the present reign. A native 
guide-book truly remarks, *' Though 
the exterior of tliis temple is but 
ordinary black and red, the orna- 
mentation of the interior has no 
parallel in Nikkd." It i-^ a blaze of 
gold and harmonious colours. On 
either side of the altar stand images 
of the Shi-Ten no, flanked by Yaku- 
slii's twelve followers. The monster 
dragon in sepia occupying the whole 
ceiling is by Kauo Yasuuobu. 

Proceeding towards the steps that 
lead up to the platform on which 
stands the exquisitely beautiful gate 
called Ydmei-vwn, obsei-ve the fence 
on either side, with fine medallions 
of mountain birds in the upper pa- 
nels, and water-birds in the lower. 
The columns supporting the gate are 
carved with a minute geometrical 

MamoUwn of Iiya$u. 


pattern, and painted white. The 
marking of the hair on the two 
tigers {mokU'tne no tora) in the 
central medallion of the 1. hand 
pillar, is obtained from the natural 
Tein of the wood. The pillar next 
beyond has the pattern carved 
upside down, which was done pur- 
posely, owing to a superstitious 
notion that the flawless perfection 
of the whole structure might bring 
misfortune on the House of Toku- 
gawa by exciting the jealousy of 
Heaven. It is called the Ma-yoke 
no Hashirat or Evil-Averting 
Pillar. The side niches are lined 
with a pattern of graceful arabesques 
founded upon the peony ; those on 
the outside contain the images 
called Sadaijin and Udaijin, armed 
with bows and carrying quivers full 
of arrows on their backs ; the inner 
niches have Ama-inu and Koma- 
ina. The capitals of the columns 
are formed of unicorns' heads. The 
architrave of the second storey 
is adorned with white dragons' 
heads where the cross-beams inter- 
sect, and in the centre of each side 
and end is a magnificently involved 
dragon vdth golden claws. Above 
the architrave of the lower storey, 
projects a balcony which runs sA\ 
Tonnd the building. The railing is 
formed of children at play and 
other subjects. Below again are 
groups of Chinese sages and im- 
mortals. The roof is supported by 
gilt dragons' heads with gaping 
crimson throats, and from the top 
a demon looks down. The Indian- 
mk drawing of dragons on the 
eeUings of the two porticos are by 

Passing through the Yomei-mon, 
we enter a second court in which 
the Buddhist priests used to recite 
their liturgies at the two great 
annual festivals. Of the two build- 
ings on the r., one contains a stage 
far the performance of the sacred 
htgura dances, and in the other, 
ealled Qoma-dd, was an altar for 
boming the fragrant cedar while 
pn^ers were recited. On the 1. is 

the Mikoshi-ddt containing the 
palanquins borne in procession on 
the 1st June, when the deified 
spirits of leyasu, Hideyoshi, and 
Yoritomo are suppoHcd to occupy 
them. So heavy are they that eacn 
requires seventy -five men to carry 
it. By the side of the Mikoshi-dd 
there is an exhibition of relics con- 
nected with leyasu. 

The next object of interest is the 
Kara-mon^ or Chinese Gate. It 
gives admittance to the main 
shrine, the enclosure being sur- 
rounded by the tamagahi^ or feuce, 
forming a quadrangle each side of 
which is 60 yds. long, and is con- 
structed of gilt trellis with borders 
of coloured geometrical decorations. 
Above and beneath these again are 
carvings of birds in groups, about 
8 in. high and G ft. long, with back- 
grounds of grass, carved in relief and 
gilt. The pillars of the Kara-men 
are composed of Chinese woods in- 
laid with great skill and beauty, the 
subjects being the plum-tree, dragon, 
and bamboo. The two white figures 
under the roof are Chinese sages, 
while the lower row represents the 
Emperor Gyo (Yao), the founder of 
the Chinese monarchy, surrounded 
by his court. The folding-doors of 
the Hondeiij or oratory, are lavishly 
decorated with arabesques of peonies 
in gilt relief. Over the door and 
windows of the front, are nine com- 
partments filled with birds carved 
in relief, four on each side of the 
building ; and there are four more 
at the back on each side of the 
corridor leading to the chapel. The 
interior is a large matted room, 
42 ft. long by 27 ft. deep, with an 
ante-chamber at each end. That 
on the r., which was intended for 
the Shogun, contains pictures of 
Uons on a gold ground, and four 
carved oak panels of phoenixes 
which at first sight seem to be in 
low relief, but prove, on closer 
examination, to be figures formed of 
various woods glued on to the 
surface of the panel. The rear 
compartment of the ceiling is of 


RoiUe U.^NikJm and NSffhhourhood. 

carved wood, with the Tokugawa 
crest in the centre surrounded by 
phosnixus and chrysanthemums. 
The opposite ante-chamber has the 
same number of panels, the sub- 
jects of which are eagles executed 
with much spirit, and a carved and 
painted ceiling with an angel sur- 
rounded by chrysanthemums. The 
gold paper gohei at the back of the 
oratory, and a circular mirror are 
the only ornaments left, the Bud- 
dhist bells, gongs, sutras, and so 
forth, having been removed. Two 
wide steps at the back lead down 
into the Stone Chamber, so called 
because paved with stone under the 
matted wooden floor. The ceiling 
consists of square panels, with gold 
dragons on a blue ground. Beyond 
are the gilt doors of the chapel, 
which is divided into four apart- 
ments not accessible to visitors. 
The first, called Heiden^ where 
the offerings are presented, is a 
chastely decorated cnamber having 
a coffered ceiling with phoenixes 
diversely designed, and carved 
beams and pillars of plain wood. 
In it stand gilt and silken gohei 
presented by the Emperor. 

To reach Ieyasu*s Tomby we issue 
again from the Kara-mon, and pass 
between the Oomadd and Kagura- 
dd to & door in the E. side of the 
gallery. Over this door is a carving 
called the Nemuri no Neko, or 
Sleeping Gat, one of Hidari Jin- 
gor5*8 most famous works, though 
most visitors will be disappointed at 
its insignificance amidst so much 
grandeur. From this a moss-grown 
stone gallery and several steep 
flights, of about two hundred steps 
altogether, lead to the tomb on the 
hill behind. After passing through 
the imii at the top of the last 
flight, we reach another oratory 
used only when that below is under- 
going repairs. The tomb, shaped 
like a small pagoda, is a single 
bronze casting of a light colour, 
produced, it is said, by the admix- 
ture of gold. In front stands a low 
jBtone table, bearing an immense 

bronze stork with a brass candle in 
its mouth, an incense-burner of 
bronze, and a vase with artificial 
lotus-flowers and leaves in brass. 
The whole is surrounded by a stone 
wall surmounted by a balustrade, 
the entrance being through a bronae 
gate not open to the public, the roof 
of which, as well as the gate itself, 
is a solid casting. Before it sit 
bronze Koma-inu and Ama-inu. 

On leaving the Mausoleum of 
leyasu, we turn to the r. at the 
bottom of the stops, and pass along 
the avenue under the wall to the 
open space through the tortt, wbece 
stands r. the Shinto temple of 
Futa-ara no Jvnja^ dedicated to the 
god Onamuji. 

When 8hM6Sh5nm, in A.D. 782,reftched 
the top of Nantai-zan, the tntelary deitios 
of the region appeared to him, iwd pio- 
mised to watch over the welfare of human 
beings and the progress of BaddhifiOi. 
These were the god Onamnji, the goddess 
Tagori-hime his wife, and their son A^i- 
Boki-taka-hikone. Japan is believed to 
hftve been saved on manv occasions from 
the perils of civil war and invasion by the 
intervention of these divine beings, who 
are stvled the " Three Original Gongen 
of Nikko ;" and local tradition avers that it 
was owing to the efficacy of the prayers 
here offered, that the Mongol invaders in 
the second half of the 13th oontury were 
repulsed with such terrible loss. The chief 
festival of this temple is held on the ITtli 

In the prettily decorated Honden 
behind, various antique objects, such 
as swords, vestments, lacquer, magO' 
tama, etc., are exhibited. 

In one comer of the chapel en- 
closure stands a bronze lantern 
called the Bakcnumo Tord, present- 
ed in 1292. 

This lantern owes its name to the tradi- 
tion that it formerly had the power of 
taking the form of a demon, and annoy- 
ing the inhabitants of the locality on 
dark nights, until a courageous man 
attacked it, and with his sword gave it a 
wound which is still visible on the cap. 

Turning to the 1. and descending, 
we perceive two red-lacquered build- 
ings (Futatsu-dd), standing together 
and connected by a covered gallery. 
The smaller is dedicated to Kishi 

. MauioUtm of leaiUsu* 


Dojin and Fugen Bosatsu, the larger 
to Amida. Id is also called YoH- 
tomO'ddy because here are preserved 
the bones of Yoritomo, which were 
discovered near the site of the Ni- 
o-mon gate of leyasa's mausoleum 
about the year 1617. Bound the 
ades of the interior are ranged a 
number of Buddhist images. 

Passing under the gallery con- 
necting these temples and ascending 
the avenue, we come to the resting- 
place of Jigen Daishi^ otherwise 
called Tenkai Daisojd, Abbot of 
Nikko at the time of leyasu's inter- 
ment. There is the usual mortuary 
shrine in front ; the tomb is a 
massive stone structure of stUpa 
shape, guarded by life-size stone 
effigies of the Buddhist gods called 
collectively Roku-bu-Ten. To the 
1. up a small flight of steps are the 
mipretending tombs of the prince- 
abbots of Nikko, thirteen in num- 

Mansolenm of lemitsii. The 

building seen to the r. before we 
mount the great stone staircase is 
ByOkd-in, the residence of the 
priests attached to this temple. The 
first gato leading towards tne mau- 
•oleum is a Ni-d-mon containing 
two pairs of Ni-d, those in the 
niches of the inner side having been 
nmoved hither from the gato of 
leyasu's mausoleum. Under a 
beantlful structure r., supported by 
granite pillars, is a massive granito 
water-basin. The dragon on the 
ceiling is by Eano Yasunobu. 
A flight of stops leads to the gate 
oallMl Niten-mon. The niches on 
the outside contain a red statue of 
Edmoka on the 1., and on the r. a 
green one of Jikoku, while the 
inside niches on the inside are 
tenanted by the Qods of Wind and 
Thunder. Three more flights con- 
duct us to the Tasha-moTif or 
Demon Oato, whose niches contain 
ttie Ski-Tefmd. Turning round, we 
have before us an exquisite view 
of foliage. 
The oratory and chapel of this 

mausoleum are less magnifioent 
than those of leyasu. The former 
is crowded with the insignia of 
Bpddhism. Two large horn lanterns 
pointed out as Korean are evidently 
Dutoh. The Tomb is reached by 
flights of steps up the side of the 
hill on the r. of the chapel. It is of 
bronze, and in the same style as 
that of leyasu, but of a darker hue. 
The gates in front are likewise of 
bronze, and are covered vrith large 
Sanskrit characters in shining brass. 

3.— Objects of Minob Intbrbst. 

Besides the mausolea of the 
Shoguns, there are various objecte 
at Nikkd having a lesser degree of 
interest. All are within a short 
distance of the great temples, and 
may be combined within the limite 
of a forenoon. One of these is the 
HongUf a temple dedicated to the 
Shinto god Ajisuki-taka-hikone, 
whose name implies that he was 
mighty with the spade. This temple 
was built by Shodo Shdnin in A.D* 
808, close to the Buddhist monastery 
which he had founded. It is reach- 
ed by ascending the stone steps that 
face the end of the bridge, and then 
turning to the right. The small 
temple, near the three-storied 
pagoda in the same enclosure, 
is dedicated to the Horse-headed 

About } hr. walk from the Hong& 
up the Inaii-kawa valley to the r. 
of leyasu's mausoleum, we come to 
the San-no-miyay a small red 
chapel surrounded by a stone 
balustrade. It is believed that 
women may obtain safe delivery by 
here offering up pieces of wood, 
similar in shape to those used 
in the Japanese game of chess, 
and partly corresponding in their 
movemento to our rook. Be- 
side it is the Kaisan^i a red 
lacquered building 86 ft. square, 
dedicated to Sh5d5 Shdnin, the 
'* pioneer of the mountain,*' as the 
name implies. Peeping through 
the grating which forms the window 
on the E. sidci we see an image of 


Bonis 14^^Nikh5 and Nsigkbourhood. 

Jiaib oooopjing a loft^pogitioD,with 
the effigy of the saint below, and 
those of ten disciples ranged r. and 
1. Behind are the tombs of the 
saint and three of his disciples. 
At the base of the ragged and pre- 
cipitous rock at the back of the 
Kaisan-do are some rough Buddhist 
images, from which the hill takes 
its name of Hotoke-iwa. On the 
summit of this hill stands the tomb 
of leyasu. Proceeding along the 
stone-paved avenue we pass a small 
shrine dedicated to Tenjin. A large 
stone close to the path on the r., 
just beyond this, is called the Te- 
kake-ishiy or Hand-touched Stone, 
said to have been sanctified by the 
imposition of Kobo Daishi's hands. 
Fragments of it are valued as a 
protection against noxious in- 
fluences. Further on is a stone 
bearing a half -effaced inscription, 
erected over the spot where lies the 
horse which carried leyasu at the 
decisive battle of Seki-ga-hara, in 
the year 1600. After the death of 
the master whom he had borne to 
victory, the horse was set free in 
the mountains of Nikko, and died 
in 1630. The next object to be 
noticed is an immense cryptomeria, 
7 ft. in diameter a little above the 
base, called the li-mori no sugi^ 
from the supposed resemblance to a 
heap of boiled rice which its pendent 
branches present. The tree is said 
to have been planted by a deputa- 
tion representing 800 Buddhist nuns 
of the province of Wsikasa. Close 
to the path on the 1. is the Somen 
ga takif or Vermicelli Cascade, so 
called from a fancied likeness to a 
bowl of that food. Another and 
prettier name given to it is Shira- 
tto, " White Thread." 

A short way beyond stands the 
temple of Takino~o, founded at the 
beginning of the 9th century, 
and dedicated to Tagori Hime. 
The curiosities of this spot — a fa- 
vourite one for short picnics — are the 
Santrbwi Sugi, three sacred crypto- 
meria trees enclosed by a palisade ; 
the pool called Sake no Ittumi from 

atradition thatpareso^oDoe welled 
up from it, as water does at the pre- 
sent day; a large stone, the Ko-dane- 
ishi, to which pravers for ofispring 
are offered up by tne childless. 

A pleasant way back to the 
Hotels leads by the path (seen 
on the 1. just below Somen-ga- 
taki as we came up the avenue) over 
the ravine to Futa-ara-jinja. At 
the top of the ravine there is a 
small shrine called the GySja-dff, 
where iron sandals with strings of 
twisted iron are hung up by pilgrims 
who pray for the muscular develop- 
ment of their lower limbs. The 
path leading up behind the Gyoja-do 
is that taken for the ascent <^ 
Nyoh5-san described on p. 172. 

4. — Walks in thk Neighboubhood. 

1. Ryugai-Taiiia is the name of 
the bluff behmd the upper end of 
the vill. A fine view of the river 
and surrounding country is obtained 
from the tea-sheds overlooking the 

2. Oamman-gra-fnchi. About 20 
min. walk from the bridge, along 
the course of the Daiya-gawa, is a 
deep pool called Gamman-ga-fuchi. 
A hut has been erected here close 
to the boiling eddies, opposite to a 
precipitous rock on which is en- 
graved the Sanskrit word Bdmmam. 
It seems impossible that any one 
should have been able to get across 
to perform the work, and so it is 
ascribed to Kobo Daisbi, who ac- 
complished the feat by throwing 
his pen at the rock. But there is 
authority for attributing it to a 
disciple of Jigen Daishi, only two 
centuries ago. On the r. bank of the 
river stand a large number of images 
of Amida ranged in a long row. 

It Is asserted that they always ooiint 
up differently, however aft«ii the attempt 
be made,— a belief bearing a curious 
resemblance to the superstition wliich 
prevailed regarding the Dmidical fetonea 
m various parts of England. It was sup- 
posed that no two person could number 
the stones alike, and that nobodj- (xtuld 
ever find a second counting connrm the 
first. The largest of these images was 
some yea» ago washed down (he river by 

Wiakt m At IMgkkmrhood. 


• flood M faor at Imakitai, anftTixig tlMvo 
bk perfect safety. It bow stands at the 
K. end of that town, with its face towards 

3. Honto Somen-ga-taki, or the 

Beal Yermioelli Cascade, so called 
to distinguish it from the one men- 
tioned on the previous page, is about 
1 hr. walk up the valley nearest to 
Gamxnan-ga-fuchi. It consists of a 
■eries of three cascades, not large, 
bat very pretty after rain. As we 
approach the first fall on going up 
tiie valley, a small trickle of water 
eoming over the face of the hill is per- 
ceived on the 1. This streamlet often 
becomes a clear fall of about 40 ft. 

4. Uainichi-dOf just beyond Gam- 
man-ga-f uohi, on the opposite side 
of the river, merits a visit for the 
nke of its prettily arranged garden. 
The water risiag from a spring in 
one of the artificial ponds is oon- 
adered the purest in the neighbour- 
hood of Nikko. 

5. Tojania. The nearest emi- 
nenoe from which an extensive view 
of the plain can be obtained is To- 
^ama, a hill rising up somewhat 
m the form of a huge animal cou- 
ohant on the 1. bcuik of the Inari- 
kawa, which flows down by the 
Bde of the temples. From the 
hidge to the top is } hr. climb. The 
bat bit of the ascent is steep, but 
the view forms a sufficient reward. 
The large mountain on the extreme 
L is Keioho-zan, also called Taka- 
hara-yama; right opposite is the 
long ridge of Haguro-yama. Tsuku- 
ba's double peak is unmistakable. 
Taming round we see the whole of 
the magnificent range formed by 
Nantai-san, 0-Manago, Ko-Manago, 
Nyoho-zan, and Akanagi. 

6. Kirifori-BO-taki, or the Mist- 
Valling Cascade. By taking a wide 
■weep round the base of Toyama and 
over undulating country to the S., 
ttik cascade may be reached in 1^ 
kr. A tea-house on the hill above 
oommands a picturesque view of 
the fall, and from the top of a knoll 
JQit beyond the tea-house, a grand 
fiew is obtained of the coantiy 

towards the E., S., and W. A 
steep and very rough path leads 
down to the foot, where the fall is 
seen to better advantage. The rare 
fern Aapidium tripteron grows by 
the way-side ; it is also found close 
to the temple of Takino-o. 

7. Makkara-daki, or Pitoh-dark 
Cascade. On leaving Kirifuri we 
retrace the path for a few steps, and 
then follow another to the r. for 
about 2 m. This path crosses the 
stream above Kirifuri three times, 
and then passing over a hill, leads to 
another stream. 

[Just before the first crossing, a 
path down the stream leads in 
2 or 3 min. to a small fall called 

Here we leave the path and plunge 
into a thicket, keeping the stream on 
the r., a short rough climb bringing 
us to Makkura-daki, a fall of 
about 60 ft. in height. The best view 
is obtained from a point a few yards 
up the hill to the 1. The fall shows 
very prettily through the trees as 
it is approached, and altogether 
well repays the toil of reaching 
it. As the path is easily mistaken, 
it is advisable to procure a guide, 
who will also be able to lead one 
back to Nikkd a different way. 

8. Jakko (the site of the 
temple of Jakko, and Nana-taki 
oasoade). The way lies through 
the village of Irimachi and turns off 
at right angles just before descending 
to a bridge, from which it is 1 hr. 
walk further to the temple of Jakko. 
The edifice that stood here was 
burnt in 1876, and the splendid 
avenue of pines and cryptomerias 
which formed the approach has 
been ruthlessly cut down. Behind 
the site of the temples is a cascade, 
a series of falls of about 100 ft. in 
height. It goes by various names, 
one being Nana-taki^ and must not 
be confounded with the other falls 
of the same name mentioned on 
p. 173. 

9. Jakkd Icki-uo-taki. Shortly 
before reaching the base of tl^e hill 


Route M.-^Nikkd^ and Nei^Ufonrhood. 

on which the temple of Jakkd 
stands, we cross a bridge over a 
small stream, where a path leads 
ofF r. around the base of the hill. 
Xjcss than ^ m. up a beautiful 
ravine, lies the waterfall of Ichi- 
no-taki. About half-way up, the 
stream is again crossed, and a few 
yards further we gain the first view 
of the fall. The path thence to the 
bottom is steep. As the way is 
very muddy after rain, and only a 
log bridge spans the stream, this 
excursion may be found awkward for 

10. The Deer Park {Oo Rydchi). 
About half-way to Jakko from Iri- 
machi, a narrow path turns off r., 
leading up a small valley in which 
the Deer Park is situated. Five 
min. walk takes one to the keeper's 
house, where the presentation of 
a visiting card will ensure admis- 
sion. Within the precincts of the 
park are two pretty cascades. 

11. Urami-gra-taki. or Back View 
Cascade, 50 ft. high, derives its 
name from the possibility of pass- 
ing behind and under the fall. 
The road, practicable for jinrikishas, 
turns to the r. shortly after crossing 
anaflauent of the Daiya-gawa. It 
is 1 hr. walk to the tea-houses by 
the side of a stream, whence the 
remainder of the way is an easy 
climb of 5 chd. Visitors passing 
behind the fall and up the ravine 
on the other side, will be well re- 
paid for their trouble and the in- 
convenience of a slight wetting from 
the spray. On reaching the other 
side of the fall, there is a pictur- 
esque view of the rocky basin over- 
hung with trees, of the cascade, 
and of the deep pool into which it 
tumbles. The path behind leads in 
5 min. to another basin with a small 
cascade falling into it. — A short cut 
leads straight up the hill by the 
side of the tea-shed from Urami into 
the Jikwan road. 

Urami may also be conveniently 
visited on the way back from Chii- 
zenji, by taking the road which 
branches off 1., a little below Uma- 

gaeshi, and by ttmsing to the L 
again at Kiyotaki, where a very 
muddy path leads through the 
woods for a distance -of about 1 ri 
to the tea-houses above-mentioned. 

12. Jikwan- 110 -taki (cascade). 
Grossing the stream by the side of 
the tea-houses below Urami, a path 
will be found r. a few steps beyond. 
It leads up the hill, mostly through 
a wood for a little over 1 rt, the 
first part of which is rather steep. 
At top of hill where road divides, 
take the turning to the r. At 
Jikwan there is a pretty effect of 
water falling in a dozen streams 
over a ledge of rock. The view 
from the top of the fall down the 
valley is very fine. About 1 m. be- 
low Jikwan, and visible from a 
small clearing at the edge of the 
hill on the way up, is another fall 
call Jikwan Eatsune. 

18. The Ascent of Nyoho-xaii is 
the best of all the mountain climbs 
near Nikko. It is a whole day's 
excursion, and an early start should 
consequently be made. There are 
two ways up, either vi& Nana-taki 
(" the Seven Cascades "), or viA the 
Fujimi-tdge. By the former route, 
which commands the most exten- 
sive views, average walkers will 
require 5} hrs., including stoppages, 
for the ascent, and 8 hrs. for the des- 
cent. There is no water on the 
mountain, except at a spring some 
10 min. below the log-hut on the 
S. side. Snow may be found close 
to this hat as late as the first days 
of July. The way for pedestrians 
lies past the temple of Futa-ara no 
Jinja and a shrine called the 
Oy^a-dd. Here take a narrow 
track to the 1. through the wood, 
leading, after j hr. easy walking 
with a short climb at the end, to a 
large stone known as the Sesshd-aeJci^ 
which bears an inscription to noti^ 
that killing game is prohibited otn 
these hills. (The best way for horses 
and kagos leads a short distance 
over the Jakko road to a zigzag path 
clearly visible on the hill to the r., 
and joins the path already mention. 

A}Kmt of N$0ho-^Mn dnd NaHtai-gan* 


ed at the Sssshdsehi,) Right ahead 
rises a peak called Akappori^ con- 
spicuous by its precipitous face of 
rod volcanic strata. The path con- 
tinues up the grassy spur in front. 
In 1^ hr. from the Sesshd-seki we 
arrive at a ruined hut called Happu, 
and 5 min. later we come to the 
fldge of a precipice overlooking a 
gigantic chasm, apparently the 
remains of an ancient crater that 
has been broken awav by water on 
tiie S.Ej. side, where the Inari-kawa 
has its source. From Akanagi-san 
an almost unbroken crater wall 
extends westward to Akappori. 
Ihis secondary crater appears not 
to have been very deep, as its pre- 
sent floor, out of which descends 
one of the seven cascades that 
snpply the Inari-kawa, is high above 
the greater ohasm immediately in 
front of us. A projecting spur 
divides the upper from the lower 
ttater, and above it on the 1. rises a 
leaser peeik named ShakujU-qO'take, 
The falls are viewed from the edge 
of the precipice ; and though they 
aie insignificant, the walk to this 
point is one of the most delightful in 
tiie neighbourhood, affording en- 
kanoing views. The excursion as far 
IS Nanflk-taki and back occupies from 
5 to 6 hrs. The path hence winds 
to the 1. not far from the edge of the 
diasm, at first very steeply, and 
then through the wood to a large 
hut in 1} hr. We are now at the 
loot of the final climb which will 
oocapy not more than f hr. more. 
The summit, on which stands a 
■nail shrine dedicated to Ona- 
rnnji, is 8,100 ft. high. To the N. 
it commands a magnificent view 
orer a sea of lower mountains, 
among which lie the secluded valleys 
ef Kuriyama-go. To the N.E. 
Kasuno-yama is rendered conspic- 
uoos by the smoke rising from its 
crater, and further N. is seen 
Bandai-san. To the E. is Taka- 
htta-yaraa, which also has the 
ftppearanoe of a volcano. On the 
immediate W. of the spectator is 
Akakora, merely a continuation of 

Nyoho-zan, then Ko-Manago, 0-Ma- 
nago, and Nantai-zan. Between 
Akakura and Ko-Manago we look 
across to Taro-san. Senj5-ga-hara 
is partly visible, and beyond it the 
bare volcanic summit of Shirans. 
Further to the S. W. are seen Asama- 
yama, Yatsu-ga-take, and numerous 
other peaks probably belonging to 
the Hida-ShinshQ range. The upper 
half of Fuji rises S. over the long 
horizontal line of the Chichibu 
mountains. Away in the plain to 
the £. and S. are perceived the 
broad and deep Kinugawa, stretches 
of the Tonegawa, the vill. of Nikko 
with avenues marking the Nikko 
Eaido and Beiheishi Kaidd, and far 
away on the horizon, Tsukuba-san. 

The way by the Fujimi-tdge is 
also beautiful, and offers the ad- 
vantage that a much further dis- 
tflknce may be ridden and less need 
be walked, as horses go as far as 
the torii at the entrance to the 
mountain precincts. Leaving Nikkd^ 
the path turns r. beside the first tea- 
house on the r. below Urami. For 
about 1 m. beyond Urami it is rough 
— a portion to be avoided before 
nightfall. Thence it leads for several 
miles through pleasant sylvan 
scenery, until it enters a forest of 
weird beauty 1^ m. from the foot 
of Nyoho-zan. The torii is reached 
in 3 hrs., whence the climb by a 
winding path, mostly under the 
shade of fine trees, occupies 2^ hrs. 

14. AscEirr op Nantai-zan yiI 

This is the easiest and pleasantest 
way of making the ascent, though it 
is true that some prefer the shorter 
but steep and rugged path up from 
Ghfizenji (see p. 175). Just beyond 
the tea-houses below Urami, the 
path descends to the 1., crosses the 
stream, and turns at once to the r., 
climbing up through a wood on 
emerging from which Nantai-zan, 
0-Manago, Nyoho-zan, and Akanagi 
are seen in front. After ^ hr. 
walking we get to the dry bed of a 
river, thence up a grassy valley for 


BoMte 14.-^Nikk6 and N^ighhakrhoad. 

some 90 min. and reach a 8ign-i)oet 
where a path to the r. diverges to 
Kyoho-zan, while the 1. branch 
ascends and gradually winds to the 
r. Plunging among trees, it fol- 
lows up a deep, thickly-wooded 
gully, and at last comes to a torn 
standing in the depression between 
Nantai-zan and O-Manago. Here 
the path forks, the r. branch passing 
the spot from which O-Manago is 
ascended and continuing on towards 
Yumoto, while the 1. climbs up to 
the Shdzu huts (6,600 ft.), where the 
back, ascent of Nantai-zan com- 
mences. Horses may be taken 
from Nikko to this place, time 4 
hrs. From Shizu to the summit is 
52,600 ft. further, occupying about 8 
hrs. on foot. The way back by the 
same route is an easy 5 hrs. walk. 
Those intending to return to Nikko 
instead of descending to Gh&zenji, 
must make a very early start, as the 
path below Shizu is much broken 
up, and unsafe after dark. 

[Instead of ascending Nantai- 
zan, one may walk round its 
base to Chuzenji in about 8^ 
hrs. The route for some dis- 
tance follows the path leading 
from Shizu to Yumoto, and 
about 1 ri after crossing the bed 
of a stream, diverges to the 1., 
shortly afterwards issuing on 
the open plain of Senjo-ga-hara^ 
from which moment it cannot 
be missed.] 

6. Kegon-no-taki, Chuzenji, As- 
cent OF Nantai-zan fbom Chu- 
zenji. Yumoto. 

One of the principal points of 
interest near Nikkd is the beautiful 
lake of Chltoenji. The road is prac- 
ticable for jinriMshas with two men, 
not only to the vill. of Chuzenji, 8 
ri 12 ch9 from Nikko, but for 2 ri 27 
chd further on to the hot springs of 
Yumoto. But owing to the steep- 
ness of the hill which has to be 
passed on the way, ladies and 
persons unable to walk, are re- 
commended to take ohain or 

horses. O^ie walk from Kikko to 
Ch&zenji and back in one day is a 
^vourite excursion. Indeed sturdy 
pedestrians are able, by making an 
early start, to do the whole distance 
to Yumoto and back within the 
limits of a day ; but this is neither 
advisable nor necessary. Charming 
at all times, the way from Nikkd to 
Chuzenji is seen at its best late in 
May or early in June, when the 
azalea trees, some of which are from 
10 ft. to 25 ft. high, display their 
red, white, and purple blossoma, 
and the wistarias too are coming 
into bloom. 

Leaving Nikkd, we follow the 
Ashio rofi^ along the course of the 
Dfidya-gawa as far as Futamiya (If 
ri), where the rockd to Chftzenh 
branches ofF r. through a wood, 
still continuing by the river-side. 
This river, which issues from Lake 
Chuzenji, is for most of the year a 
small and quiet stream ; but at timee 
it becomes a dangerous torrent carry- 
ing away roads and embankments. 
The ascent is gradual and easy 
up to the hamlet of Uma-gaeshi, 
where there is a fair inn. Jnst 
before reaching this hamlet, the 
old path from Nikko, still much 
used, joins the new road. The road 
hence for some distance is cut oat 
of the side of the overhanging olifE 
close by the brawling stream, and 
owing to landslips is difficult to 
maintain in order. Formerly the 
path climbed along the face of the 
cliff, and was impassable even for 
horses, whence the name of Uma- 
gaeshi (see p. Ii8). The scenery 
between Uma-gaeshi and the If*- 
sawa tea-house at the foot of 
the actual ascent, 20 min. walk, is 
wild and picturesque. Leaving the 
rugged gorge, a winding path leads 
up to a narrow ridge, where a 
resting-hut commands a pretty view 
of two cascades called Hannya and 
Hdddf at the head of the ravine to 
the r. From this point the ascent to 
the top, which occupies } hr., is ar- 
duoQs. Pedestrians may advant- 
ageoQily take the short cat whioh the 

Ksgmii WaUrfalL CMbt^. 


old road oiien. At the obarmingly 
situated tea-honae called Naka no 
Chaya half-way up, the coolies 
Qsoally make a short halt. On the 
summit, the roc^ parses through a 
wood of pines and oaks, many of 
which are covered with the long 
traUing moss called sarugase 
{Lycopodium sieboldi). A path to 
the 1. leads to a platform com- 
mandiog a fine view of the cascade 

Ke^on-no-taki« The height of 
this fall is about 260 ft. In the 
etflier part of the year it is 
oeeasionally almost dry; but after 
the heavy summer rains, it shoots 
out over the edge of the over- 
banging precipice in considerable 
volnme. A good view is obtained 
bj descending the side of the preci- 
pice to a look-out which has been 
erected just opposite the fall; 
still better by going down to the 
foot. Guide from tea-house, 20 
cents. The road onwards soon 
reaches the shore of the lake, and 
enters the singularly deserted vill. of 


Thia niime. written 'I' j|i ^ » wliich 
tmacks of Buddhism, has been officially 
altered to Chflfffishi, fp'SM^ which Ib 
Sbint6; but the old name is still currently 

which is only occupied by pilgrims 
for a few days in July or August, the 
period for the ascent of Nantai-zan 
as a religious exercise varying from 
jear to year according to the old 
hmar calendar. As many as ten 
thousand sleep at the vill. during 
those few days. The houses stand 
in long rows, containing for the 
most part two rooms, one above 
aad one below. Fair accommo- 
dation can be had at the inns, — 
Kone-ya and Izimii-ya, — which 
have pleasant rooms looking out on 
the lake, and European food can be 
obtained during the summer months. 
The temple here is said to have been 
founded by ShddO Shdnin, in A.D. 
816, after his ascent of Nantai-zan. 
The space between the bronae torii 
and toe ten^la UteU is considered 

holy ground, and pevsons in jinriki- 
shas or kago8 had better go along 
the lower road if they object to 
being required to alight in order to 
pass through. Close to the temple 
is the gate of 

Nantal-EAD^ which is closed except 
during the pilgrim season, when 
entrance tiokete can be purchased 
for 25 cents. The ascent, occupying 
about 8 hrs., is extremely steep ; but 
the lovely view from the summit 
(8,150 ft.) well repays the exertion. 
The best time to see it is at sunrise ; 
so a very early start should be made 
with lanterns. On the S.E. lies the 
plain stretching towards Tokyd ; on 
the W. rises the lofty cone of 
Shirane-san ; further S. is Koshin- 
zan ; below lies the marshy basin 
of Senj5-ga-hara with the stream 
meandering through it, the blue 
lake of Ghnzeoji, a glimpse of Lake 
Yumoto, and N. of Shirane, the 
peaks of Taro-zan, G-Manago, Ko- 
Manage, and Nyoho-zan. Fuji is 
also visible in dear weather. The 
ascent can also be made from Yu- 
moto in about 5 hrs. (see p. 177). 

Luke Ciiiisenji lies at the foot of 
Nantai-zan, being surrounded on 
the other sides by comparatively 
low hills covered with trees to their 
very summit. Ite greatest length 
from E. to W. is estimated at 3 ri, 
its breadth at 1 ri. Soundings show 
the extraordinary depth of 93 fa- 
thoms, shallowing down towards 
Senju and more rapidly towards 
Kegon. The lake, formerly devoid 
of life, now abounds with excellent 
salmon, salmon-trout, iwana, and 
other fish, with which it was stocked 
between the years 1873 and 1890 by 
the Japanese Government. The sal- 
mon and salmon-trout can only be 
taken with rod and line, whilst the 
iwana, a species of white trout which 
never come to the fisherman's bait, 
are the only fish taken in the 
nets. The height of Lake Ghuaen- 
ji above the sea is 4,375 ft. 
Several small temples, which are 
visited by the pilgrims, add to the 
pictoresqneness of tts shoree. The 


Route 14.-^Nikl(o and Nsighbot^hood. 

prettiest are those at Senju Dear its 
W. extremity, and one on a pro- 
montory near the hamlet of Ase 
looking towards the sacred islet of 
Koeuke-shima and Nantai-zan. 

The road to Yumoto lies for ahout 
1 ri along the N. shore, at the edge 
of the forest covering the base of 
Nantai-zan, as far as a promontory 
oalled Shdlmr^no-hamat or Iwa-ga- 
saki, to which point boats may be 

[At the far end of the lake stands 
a small shrine close to a brook 
remarkable for the icy coldness 
of its water. This is a pleasant 
spot for a picnic, and is within 
i hr. walk of the Nishi-no-umi, 
a tarn nestling beneath the 
wooded hills which, at this end, 
recede from Lake ChflzeDJi] . 

Just beyond the promontory, the 
road turns away from the lake and 
soon crosses tbe Jigoku-no-kawa^ 
a slender stream which hurries over 
smooth rooks. Best and shelter 
may be had at a hut close by. 
A little farther on, a path branches 
o£E r. through the grass to a cave 
called Jigoku -no- kama (Hell's 
Cauldron) at the base of I^antai- 
2an. The road ascends slightly 
after leaving the hut, and a few 
steps away to the 1. bring us to 
the foot of the Ryueu-ga-taki^ or 
Dragon's Hes^l Cascade, the most 
ourious of all the cascades in this 
neighbourhood. It consisfis of a 
series of small falls rushing over 
steep black rocks and forming two 
streams. In order to obtain a full 
view, the first stream must be 
crossed. On the 1., the second 
stream plunges down through deep, 
dark hollows in the rock, and loses 
itself in hidden windings. Tiie 
maples at this spot, during the 
month of October, display the most 
glorious tints that can be imagined. 
Beyond this, the road is through a 
desolate forest which was ravaged 
by fire some years ago. At length 
it emerges on the Senjd-ga-hara, 
or Moor of the Battle-field, so 

named on account of an engage- 
ment that took place here in A.D. 
1389 between the partisans of the 
Ashikaga Shoguns and those of the 
Southern dyuasty of Mikados (see 
p. 54). An alternative name is 
Akanuma-ga-hara^ or Moor of the 
Bed Swamp, derived from the colour 
of the tall dying sedges in autumn. 
The irises also are a wonderful sight 
in July. This wide solitude is bound- 
ed on all side by forests, above which 
rise the peaks of Nantai-zan, 0-Ma- 
nago, Ko-Manago, and Taro-zan. 
Far away on the 1. is a wooded 
elevation, in the centre of which 
the cascade of Yu-no-taki appears 
like a silver thread. Above this 
rises the volcano of Shiraue-san, 
the only bare peak in the vicinity. 
The road crosses the plain to a point 
not far from the Yu-no-taki, where 
it begins to rise through a wood 
of oaks. The bottom of the ascent 
is 21 chd from Yumoto. Half-way 
through the wood, a path diverges 
1. to the foot of the cascade, which 
gushes over a smooth black rook 
at an angle of 60*^, forming a 
stream that feeds the Byuzu-ga- 
taki, and finally falls into Lake 
Chuzeuji. Its perpendicular height 
is just 200 ft. A narrow steep path 
by its side leads up to the top, some 
60 yds. from the shore of Lak^ 
Yumoto^ so called from the hot 
springs at its further end. This 
lake, though smaller than Lake Ch^- 
zenji, is still more beautiful. The 
road winds through the wood aiong 
the E. side of the lake to the small 
vill. of 

TiimotOy (Innsy Namma-ya, Ya- 
mada-ya), 6,000 ft. above the sea. 
Here the water is partially dis- 
coloured by the sulphur springs. 
There are altogether ten springs, 
some under cover, others exposed 
to the open air, all open to the 
public and frequented by both sexes 

A picturesque alternative way back 
from Ohfiaenji to Nikko, available 
only for pedestrians and taking 

A$cmt of Shirans^ O-Manago, and Nantai. 


aboni 3 his. to Futami^a, is to 
cross the bridge over the stream 
issuing from the lake just above 
Kegon, aad follow the path that 
leads up the opposite hill oalled 
Kobu-ga-hara-tdge. After reaching 
the top, 1| hr. from GhUlzenji, a short 
walk on the level brings one to some 
huge granite boulders called Kaga- 
ishi^ commanding a magnificent 
view. The path then descends, 
and in ^ hr. joins the Ashio-Nikko 
road, whence, if ordered beforehand, 
jinrikishas may be availed of for 
the rest of the way home. 

(S. — ASCBHT OF Shibanb-san. As- 
okht of 0-Manaqo and Nastai- 


Skirnne-san is a volcano 8,800 
ft. high, and was active as recentlv 
as 1889. The ascent is very rough 
and steep, and should not be at- 
tempted without a guide. For the 
ascent allow 4^ hrs., for the 
descent, 3 hrs. ; hut considerable 
time is needed for a survey of the 
top, so that a whole day is none too 
tittle for the expedition. There is 
no water on the mountain side. 
The first part of the climb is the 
roughest of all , leading over Mae-Shi- 
rane (Front Shirane), a ridge which 
looks as if it had been psurt of the 
wall of a crater, and that within 
comparatively recent times a new 
and higher cone had been formed 
inside its W. limb, which had nearly 
fiUed up the original crater, leaving 
only the intervening valley on its 
E. side, the bottom of which slopes 
off from the centre N. and S. The 
N. end contains a tarn of a remark- 
able green colour. Descending 
from Mae-Shirane, we cross the old 
crater floor, and then ascend Shirane 
proper (Oku-Shirane). The cone 
has a great rent down the side, 
which is kept on the r. in going up, 
and a deep crater at the top whose 
edges are very rotten. From the top, 
which is honeycombed with other 
anall craters, the view is superb. 

The way leading to O-Maiiago 
Aaksa one first akmg the Chfkzenji 

road as far as Senjo-ga-hara, where 
we turn to the 1. close by a fa- 
vourite oold spring. We then skirt 
the moor, passing through a thick 
wood, and after 2^ hrs. from Yu- 
moto, arrive at a shrine containing 
a stone image of Shozuka-uo-Baba, 
with a strange medley of ex-votos 
hanging outside. Shortly after- 
wards we turn to the 1., and in i hr. 
reach the torii of 0-Manago. The 
distance to the summit is 1 ri8 chd, 
the real ascent beginning at a 
bronze image of Fudo on a large stone 
pedestal. Three-quarters of the 
way up, we come to another bronze 
image erected in honour of the 
mountain god of Ontake in Shinshu ; 
and the last bit of the ascent is over 
precipitous rocks, where chains are 
fixed to assist the climber. On the 
top stands a wooden shrine, with a 
bronze image behind it, said to be 
Eunitoko-tachi, the Earth -god. The 
view is less extensive than that from 
Nantai-zan. In order to ascend 

Nantai-znii from this, the Yumo- 
to side, it is not necessary to go all 
the way up 0-Manago, as a path 
to Nantai diverges r. at the torii 
above-mentioned. In this way 
Nantai-zan can be ascended with 
greater ease than from Chuzenji. 
The whole olimb, part of which is 
stiff and leads over roots of trees, 
takes from 4 A to 5 hrs. 

Japanese pilgrims make the round 
of the various mountains near 
Nikko by ascending first Nyoho- 
zan and then Eo-'Manago, descend- 
ing to a place called Sabusawa, and 
ascending 0-Manago from the back. 
They sleep at the Shizu hut, climb 
Taro-zan in the forenoon, Nantai- 
zan in the afternoon, and descend 
to Gh&zenji. 

178 Route 15.— From Nikkd to Ikno via AMo. 

ROUTE 15. 

Pbom Nikko to Ikao by the 
Vali.ey op thb Watabase-gawa. 



NIKKO to:- Ri. Chd. M. 

Top of pass 8 8 8 

ASHIO 8 2 7i 

Sori 2 21 6i 

Godo 2 12 6} 

Hanawa 1 — 2* 

OMAMA 8 4 7i 

Total 15 11 871 

From Omama to T5ky6 by train 
In 4 J hrs. Or from Omama by 
train in } hr. to Maebashi, whence 
see Route 12. 

T}ie road from Nikko to Omama 
over the Hoso-o PasSt whose sum- 
mit is 4,100 ft. above sea level, is 
very rough, but generally practic- 
able for jinrikishas. Pedestrians 
may avail themselves of numerous 
short-cuts on the way up. The 
Watarase-gawa is reached before 

Ashio {Inns, Izumi-ya, Tsuru-ya). 
This place, famed for its copper 
mines, which are the most produc- 
tive in Japan, lies in a deep valley 
at an altitude of about 2,800 ft. 
The Mines f of which there are two 
in the neighbourhood, bear re- 
spectively the names of Ashw and 
Kotakij and are about 3 m. from 
the town. Persons desirous of in- 
specting the mines should obtain an 
introductiou from the Head Office in 

The ore is found in a mntrix of clay, 
calcite, and qnarts, and is almost entirely 
the pyrite or copper sulphide, althouffh a 
small quantity of oxide also occurs. The 
lodes vary from 6 to 20 ft. in width. The 
most approved modem processes of treat- 
inff the ore are in use. The electricity for 
the motors in the Ashio mine is generated 
hy water-power at a station about l\ m. 
distant. The average yield is 19 per cent, 
of metal, and the total annual prodact of 

finished metal from the twominee reaches 
the remarkable figure of 8,000 tons. A 
rope- way some 8 miles in length has been 
constructed over the Ashio Pass for con- 
venience of transport. It consists of a 
continuous steel-rope, 6 m. long, oanied 
on posts, and revolvixigon two drums, one 
at each end. Immense hooks are fastened 
to the rope by thin copper bands at a 
distance of about 80 orlOO yds. apart, the 
ascending line canying bags of coke or 
coal, the descending, Mrs of smelted on 
weighing e.S lbs. each. At some points 
the wire is several hundreds of feet abore 
the ground. A horse tramway now con- 
nects NikkO with the rope-way. 

It should be borne in mind that 
by making an early start from 
Nikko over the Hoso-o Pass or from 
Chflzenji by the path described on 
p. 180, the Ashio mines may be 
taken en route, and done on the 
same day. Six miles will thus be 
saved either way. The Kotaki 
mines are in another direction, on 
the way to Koshin-zan; but it is 
difficult to combine a visit to the 
rocks and the mines in one day. 

[An extra day at Ashio may well 
be devoted to visiting the 
wonderful rocks of Kosliin-san* 
It is a distance of about 1 m. 
from Ashio to the cross-roads, 
where the 1. leads to OmamA, 
and the r. to Kotaki and Ko- 
shin-zan. From the cross- 
roads to the mines is approx- 
imately 1} m., whence to the 
point called Bessho, 4,500 
ft., where the rook scenery be- 
gins, the distance has been 
estimated at 6 m. In order to 
visit the rocks, it is necessary to 
engage the services of a guide 
who lives at the hut. The whole 
round will take about 2| hrs., 
and is perfectly safe for all 
except those who are apt to be 
troubled with dizziness. 

Leaving the hut by the path 
on the S. side, we commence 
the round of the rocks, scram- 
bling up and idown the steepest 
S laces imaginable, traversing 
eep ravines on rough foot 
bridges, and crawling round the 
lace of preoipioee by the aid of 

Koshin-zan. The WataraM-gawa. 


iron chains and foot-steps ont 
in the solid rock. For such 
work the waraji is of great 
convenience. A point called Mt- 
harcLshi commands a magnifi- 
cent prospect of the dense 
f orest-oovered mountains helow, 
and Tsukuha-san in the distant 
plain. Behind, the eye rests 
-upon the gigantic rockwork, 
amidst which conifers have 
perched themselves in inacces- 
sible nooks and crannies. To 
the various features of the 
landscape, more or less fanciful 
names have been given. The 
most striking are the San-jur 
san-gen, a mass of precipices 
dedicated to Kwannon; the 
Spring dedicated to Yakushi, 
the waters of which are 
believed to be efficacious in 
cases of eye disease ; the 
Kinoko-^ekif or Mushroom 
Bock, beyond which comes the 
Tagura-seki^ supposed to resem- 
ble the towers on the walls of a 
fortress; next the Urami-ga- 
taki, or Back View Cascade, 
which falls from a ledge above 
in silvery threads. The huge 
precipice close by is called the 
Oo-shiki no seki, or Bock of the 
Five Colours. The guide points 
out a rock, the Men^eki^ in 
which a remote likeness- to a 
human face may be traced. 
Above this is the Go-ju no Ta, 
or Five-storied Pagoda, and 
near it, a small natural arch 
called the lehi no man. Creep- 
ing through this, the path 
reaches the Bonjv^eki^ or 
Sanskrit Character llocks, next 
passing the Raikd-dani, a deep 
gully supposed to have some 
occult relation with the ori- 
gin of thunder-storms; the 
Tihi^vwaf or Stone-lantern 
Rock ; the Fuji-mi-seki^ whence 
the upper half of Fuji is seen ; 
the ^ishi-^eki, or Lion Rock ; 
the Ogirivxiyay or Fan Cavern ; 
and the Zd^eki, or Elephant 
Book. Next we oome to where 

a hnge natural bridge, called 
the Ama no hathi, or Bridge of 
Heaven, used to span the 
ravine until destroyed by an 
earthquake in 1824. On the 
other side is a hole about 6 ft. 
in diameter, called Ni no mon, 
or Second Gate, where the 
bridge terminated. Ascending 
from this point a very narrow 
crevice by the aid of chains, 
the path reaches the Mi-harashi 
already mentioned. Then pass- 
ing behind a precipitous de- 
tached rock, called the Byiibu- 
iwa from its resemblance to a 
screen, we ascend a gorge, and 
finally reach the Oku-no-in 
(6,460 ft.), where in three 
caverns are small shrines de- 
dicated to the three Sbintd 
deities Onamuji, Saruta-hiko, 
and Sukuna-bikona. It was the 
second of these whose worship 
was originally established on 
this mountain under the title 
of Kdshin. On turning the 
comer just beyond, we see the 
tops of Nantai-zan and 0- 
Manago bearing about N., and 
descending the hillside, reach 
the Bessho again in 26 min. 
from the Oku-no-in. The de- 
scent to the huts at the base of 
the mountain will take nearly 

The scenery the whole way along 
the banks of the Watarase-aawa is 
delightful, and especially between 
Ashio ^nd Oodo quite romantic. 
Occasionally the road actually over- 
hangs the river, which now flows 
on in a perfectly placid course, 
while at others it foams and dashes 
amidst tremendous boulders. After 

S5ri {Inn^ Komatsu-ya), a glade 
of fine ciyptomerias attests the 
priestly care formerly bestowed on 
the temple of Tenno. The road 
then winds up and down the thickly 
wooded side of the valley, high 
above the rushing waters of the 
river to 

180 RouU 16.— Prom Nikkd to Ikao over ike Komsi-toge. 

Oodo (Inn, TnmnrjK), and 

Hanawa (Inn, Wakamatsu-ya). 

After the latter place it becomes 

less picturesque, leading for most 

of the way across a cultivated 

Elateau. The vill. seen on the r. 
ank of the river beyond Hanawa is 
Mizunuma {Inn by *Midori Genki- 
chi), from which it is possible to 
ascend Akagi-san by a shorter 
though rougher route than that 
from Ogo. Large quantities of ad 
are taken both with the fly and the 
net in the Watarase-gawa, which is 
rejoined just above 
Omama (Inn, Tsuru-ya), seep. 160. 
[An alternative way from Nikko 
to Ashio is viA GhtHzenji, whence 
over the mountains in about 5 
hrs. steady walking by a path 
impracticable for conveyances 
of any sort. A boat is taken 
across the lake from Chfl- 
zenji to Ase-ga-hama, ^ hx., 
whence a climb of 8 chd leads 
through a wood to the crest of 
the Asegata-toge, commanding a 
beautiful prospect. Tier upon 
tier rise the forest-clad ridges 
that close in the valley of 
the Watarase. The way down 
the pass lies through narrow 
valleys between steep and 
scantily wooded hills, and over 
rough stones along the torrent 
bed. About 10 m. from Chu- 
zenji the flourishing mining 
vill. of Akdkura, with its copper 
smelting works, is passed; 
whence to Ashio some 2^ m. 
further on, the road, though 
rough and stony, is practicable 
for jinrikishas.] 

ROUTE 16. 

Fboh Nikko to Ikao over the 


NIKKO:— Bi.Chd,M, 

Chtlzenji 3 12 7J 

Yumoto 2 27 6| 

Top of Konsei Pass 1 18 3} 

Higashi Ogawa.... 4 18 11 

Sukagawa 1 18 3j 

Okkai 2 — 6 

Ohara 18 3 

Takahira 1 23 4 

NUMATA 2 13 6f 

Tanashita 2 15 6 

Shibukawa 2 34 7^ 

IKAO 2 17 6 

Total 28 23 70 

On this route an idea is gained 
of the dense forest that covers 
so large a portion of the cen- 
tral mountain-range ; and the val- 
leys of the Katashina-gawa and 
Tonegawa, down which most of the 
latter part of the way leads, are 
most picturesque. Travellers wish- 
ing to return to Tokyo this way 
without visiting Ikao can join 
the railway at Maebashi, 8 ri 
27 chO beyond Shibukawa, the 
railway journey occupying 3i hrs. 
The means of transport for bag- 
gage on this route are : — coolies over 
the Konsei-toge to Higashi-Ogawa, 
horses not being taken across the 
|>ass ; horses to Numata, and thence 
jinrikisha or basha. 

To start from Nikkd itself makes 
an awkward division of the journey. 
The start should be made from 
Ch^enji, in which case, sleeping 
the first night at Higashi C^awa 
and the second at Numata, the 
traveller will reach Ikao on the 
afternoon of the third day. 

The way up the Konsei-toge is a 
continued gentle ascent through a 
forest with an undergrowth of bam- 
boo grass, terminating in a steep 
oUmb. From the top of the peas on 

The Konm-tSge, NtuMita. 


looking round, are seen the thickly 
wooded slopes converging towards 
the dark waters of Lake Yiunoto, 
behind which looms up in hold 
relief the massiye form of Nantai- 
zan, flanked on the 1. by 0-Manago. 
To the r. a glimpse is caught of a 

Sirtion of Lake Chuzenji, while 
oont Tsukuba rises in the distant 
plain beyond. On the Joshtl side 
the thick foliage intercepts all view, 
and there is an equal absence of 
distant prompect during the whole 
of the long downward walk, neither 
is there any sign of human habita- 
tion in the forest, except a solitary 
hunter's hut. Even this is desert- 
ed during the summer, at which 
season alone the tourist will think of 
coming this away, since the road is 
practically impassable from the end 
of October to well on in March. 
The foliage is very fine, and in the 
higher part of the forest a peculiar 
effect is produced by a drapery of 
moss, hanging in gray filaments ^m 
tbe branches of the tall conifers. 
On nearing Ogawa-no-Yumoto^ a 
few huts with thermal springs about 
1 ri from the vill. of Higashi Ogawa, 
the path follows a stream flowing 
down from Shirane-san. 

Higasbi Ograwa (Inn, by Eurata 
Rinzaburo) is 2,800 ft. above the sea. 
The Ogawa, from which this vill. 
takes its name, is a small tributary 
of the Katashina-gawa, itself an 
affluent of the Tonegawa. 

Leaving Higashi Ogawa, and con- 
tinuing down the valley of the 
Ogawa, dotted with many hamlets, 
we cross over a hill before reaching 

Saka^awa in the valley of the 
Katashina-gawa. From a ridge at 
the foot of which lie two hamlets 
with curious names — Hikage Chido- 
ri, or Shady Chidori, and Hinata- 
Chidori, or Sunny Chidori, — there 
is a fine view, on looking back, of 
tiiis valley stretching far away to 
the N. The two hamlets are 
aituated on opposite sides of the 
stream, and united by a bridge. 
ObBerve the terrace-like formation 
•of the hills at the baok of Hikaga 

Chidori and all the way on to 
below Numata. Three terraces at 
least 2 m. long are distinctly 
marked, each of the lower two being 
a few hundred yards wide, and the 
upper one, surmounted by the usuid 
irregular ridge, being from ^ to f m. 
in width. The course of these 
ridges, which seem to mark the suc- 
cessive positions at different periods 
of a river bank, is S.W. by N.E. 
We next reach 

Okkai {Inn, by Hoshino), near 
which the river dashes between 
perpendicular walls of porphyry. 

[Opposite Okkai, on the far side 
of a small affluent of the Kata- 
shina-gawa, lies the vill. of 
Oyu, This place may be taken 
as a starting-point for the climb 
of Akagisan (see p. 160), the 
descent being made to Numata 
on the other side.] 

The path now leaves the valley of 
the Katashina-gawa, and crossing 
a well-cultivated upland, comes to 

Ohara (Inn, Kishi-ya), whence it 
winds over the hills and up the 
Kaeusaka-tdge, The view from this 
point is superb, including Haruna- 
san, the Koshu Koma-ga-take, 
Yatsu-ga-take, Asama-yama, Yaha- 
zu-yama, and the Shirane of Kusa- 
tsu. At 

Takahira« the road becomes level 
and practicable for jinrikishas. 

Numata {Inn, Odake-ya) was 
formerly a castle-town. Soon after 
passing it we enter the valley of the 
Tonegawa, where trout-fishing is 
briskly carried on. A portion of the 
river is enclosed with stones and 
fences running out from each bank 
towards the centre of the stream, 
where a bamboo platform inclined 
at an angle of about 15*^ is fixed 
upon baskets filled with stones. 
The water rushes up this platform 
and leaves the fish at the top. They 
are then caught, and kept alive in 
perforated boxes which are placed 
on the platform. The scenery is 
very picturesque almost the whole 
way from Numata to Shibukawa» 

18S Route 17. — Hitachif Shtntdsa^ Kazuta, and Bdshu^ 

the road passing high and ragged 
cUils that overhang the Tonegawa. 
At one point, where the oliff rising 
sheer from the river allows no room 
for a pathway, a passage ahout 50 
ft. long has been cut through the 
solid rock. 

[About 1^ m. before reaching 
Shibukawa, a road diverges 1. to 
Maebashi vi& the villages of 
Shiroi and Has8eki, whence a 
narrow pathway tunnelled 
through the rock in many 
places leads along the bank 
of the Tonegawa to the bridge 
crossed by the tram from Ikao 
to Maebashi.] 

ShibnkawA is a considerable 
town. Hence to Ikao is, for the 
most part, a gentle ascent over 
grassy mountain slopes. For a de- 
tailed account of Ikao and Neigh- 
bourhood, see Route 12. 

ROUTE 17. 

Trips in the Pbovincks op Hita- 
chi, ShIMOSA, KA2D8A, AND Bo- 









These four provinces farm a natural 
division of the country, all pai-taking 
more or less of the same characteristics 
of flatness and saudiness. The opinion 
of ureologists is that a great part of this 
district, whose sands seem to have l^een 
washed up by the sea, tojfether with the 
wide Tdkyd nlain which is formed by 
aUaviom washed down from the central 
mountain-ranKes, was submeived in quite 
recent times, and that only the southern 
luilf of the peninsula of Kazusa-Bdshil 

stood np oat of the waves. This pro 

of rising: and diying is still going oo. 
The lai^ lagoons on the lower coaim 
of the Tonegawa gradually shrink in sise, 
and the some is true of Tdkyd Bay. 
From these considerations, it will be xn> 
ferred that parts of this district are 
somewhat dreary travelling. Mount 
Tsuknba (2,880 ft.) in the N., and the 
8. portion from Kand-zan downwards, 
with tuff ranges which, though not ex- 
ceeding 1,200 ft., seem higher because 
rising i^lmost directly from the sea, will 
best repay the tourist's trouble. In the 
S. more particularly, there are lovely 
views, as well as a mild winter climate 
due to the JTitrosAto, or Japanese Gulf- 

The three provinces of Sbimtea, Kasu- 
sa, and BCehfi ancientlv fcmned one, under 
the name Fum no A'hiii, said to have been 
derived from the excellent quality of the 
hemp grown there. The district was 
subsequently divided into Upper and 
Lower, or Jiami fm Fu$a and Shimo Urn 
Fvm, contracted into Kazuta and ShimdtOf 
and part of the former was subsequent]^ 
constituted into the province of Awa, 
iMtter known by its Chinese name of 
Btehfl. ** Upper '* and " Lower " seem to 
have been employed to denote the rela^ve 
proximity of these two provinces totho 
ancient capital. Eazusa, Bdshik. and the 
greater part of Shimdsa now constitute 
the prefecture of Chiba, called after a 
town situated on the E. shore of Tdkyd 
B>iy. 1*1)0 rest of Shimflsa and Hitachi 
are included in the prefecture of Iban^i, 
of which Mito is the capitaL 


MiTO Railway. 









(See Northren 
, Railway, 

46 m. 


I Route 68. 







1 Alight for 
i Tsukuba. 








h*2\ Uchihara. 

m MITO. 

The journey by rail to Shimodate, 
the station for Tsukuba, occupies 
a little over 3 hrs. Jinrildshas cai» 

Aicent of Ttukuba-tan. Ka$ama. 


ihenee be taken to the vill. of 
Oriiima, near the foot of the moun- 
tain, a distance of about 4 ri over a 
level and fairly good road; and 
although the ascent to the vill. of 
Tsokuba is 1 hr. rough walking, the 
whole journey may be aooompUshed 
in an afternoon from Tokyo. There 
is &ir accommodation at 

Sklmodate (Inn, Tomo-ya) ; but 
it is best to push on to Tsukuba, 
where the inns are better. The 
jinrikisha-men will act as guides as 
far as the cleanly little vill. of 

TsnkobA [Inn, •Edo-ya), which 
lies about hsdf-way up the moun- 
tain, and contains numerous houses 
much frequented by the people of 
the province of Hitachi. Most of 
the inns command a fine view of the 
plain of Tokyo, stretching away 
towards Fuji. The ascent of the 
mountain begins immediately after 
leaving the vill., the path passing 
throogh the grounds of a temple. 
From this point to the summit of 
the W. peak, called Nantairzan 
(Male Mountain), the distance 
n about 50 chd. This is the usual 
ascent, being less steep than the 
path up the E. and lower peak, 
Nffotai-zan (Female Mountain). 
At the summit are numerous shrines, 
of which the chief is dedicated to 
Ixanagi. Similarly, the temple on 
Nyotai-zan is dedicated to his con- 
sort Izanami. There is a magnifi- 
oent view of the Tokyo plain, Fuji, 
Asama-yama, and the Nikko range. 

The name T^latba is said to be com- 
poted of two Chinese words meaning 
** built liank ; " and the le^rend is that Iza- 
Ba0 and Izanami constracted the moun- 
tarn aa a bulwark against the waves of 
Ihe Paoiflc Ocean, wluoh they had forced 
to retire to the other side of Kashima, 
Cormerlj an island in the sea. This 
tradition is in accordance with the fact, 
neently verified by geologists, that the 
K. rtiorM of Japan have been gradually 
rising during mauv centuries past. One 
Inend says that Tsukuba is a fragment 
«c the sacred mountain in China caUod 
Godai-san, which broke off and flew over 
to Japan. This is supposed to account for 
tke peculiar plants found on it. But the 
fact is that no botanical species occur 
*^ that are not also found on other 
» mountains, although the inhabi- 

tants of the vicinity, noticing the differ- 
ence between the floras of the mountain 
»°<i the plain, might naturally be led to 
attribute a miraculous origin to the 

Pines and oryptomerias cover the 
mountain, and the rocks about the 
summits are awkward to scramble 
over, the assistance of an iron chain 
being necessary in parts. From the 
W. to the E. peak is an interval 
of about i m. The descent from 
the latter is 70 chd. It passes 
over and between huge rocks, to 
which fanciful names have been 
given, from their supposed resem- 
blance to portions of the human 
body. The ascent and descent take 
about 4 hrs. 

Leaving Shimodate, the train 
reaches in 1 hr. the small town of 

Kasaiiia (Inn, *Itsutsu-Ya), stand- 
ing at the base of a lofty hill whose 
summit was formerly crowned by 
the castle of the Daimyo Makino 
Etch&-uo-Kami. The site is easily 
reached by a path leading from tlie 
broad main street of the town. At 
intervals, traces are still visible of 
the old stone-faced embankments, 
of small but deep dry ditches, and 
of nairow bridges and heavy gate- 
ways. At the summit are steep 
fliglits of stone steps, and above aU 
is the limited space originally 
occupied by the Daimyo's palace, 
round which runs a high earthen 
embankment. The place is in- 
teresting, and gives a good idea of 
the style of Japanese fortifications 
where nature rather than art had, 
raised the defences. The strong- 
hold must, under any circum- 
stances, have been well-nigh im- 
pregnable. The Tevtple of Inari, 
once of high repute, is small in 
size. It stands on the 1. of the 
main street, the approach being up 
a narrow alley, through an almost 
continuous archway of torii, placed 
within a few inches of each other. 
The wood-carvings in the chapol 
are beautiful, the human figures 
being exceptionally well-formed. 

There is a jiurikisha road from 

184 Route 17.— Hitachi, 8ki7Hd$a, Kozusa, and Boshu. 

Easama to Mi to (4A rt) ; but it is 
not recommended if the train be 
available. The time by rail is 60 
min. As the train approaches 
Mito, a number of cavities are seen 
on the 1. in the high blufiE on which 
a portion of the town is built. 
These galleries were hollowed oat 
for the sake of the blocks used in the 
manufacture of soft-stone furnaces. 

Mito (InHy Suzuki-ya, with a 
branch establishment near the rail- 
way station), the principal town 
of the province of Hitachi and 
capital of the prefecture of Iba- 
raki, lies some 3 ri inland from 
the shore of the Pacific Ocean, 
on rising ground in the midst of a 
wide plain. The town is in three divi- 
sions, the Lower Town, the Upper 
Town, and the Castle Enclosure 
which lies between the other two. 
The castle, where formerly lived 
the Princes of Mito, is picturesquely 
situated on the crest of the lofty 
ground that rises from the plain. 
The defences consisted of deep 
trenches on the upper town side, 
and lofty banks— the edge of the 
hill, in fact— on the other, with a 
small moat below. Three large 
gates and one tower still remain. 
It is worth walking round the castle 
and under the beautiful trees within 
the grounds. The Public Garden 
on the E. of the upper town, over- 
looking the large mere of Semba, is 
also prettily situated. 

It was laid out some forty-five years 
ago by RekkO, Prince of Mito, as a 
retreat for himHslf after handing over the 
cares of government to his successor. 

A good view is obtained from the 
summer-house in the garden, where 
men of letters formerly assembled to 
write verses and practise penman- 
ship. The staple manufactures of 
Mito are cloth and paper. Tobacco 
is also made into cigarettes in large 
quantities, and a considerable ex- 
port trade is carried on in both salt 
«nd fresh-water fish. 

The visitor with time to spare 
may run out by jinrikisha to the 

pleasant sea-side vill. of Oarai{Ifmt 
Kimpa-rd), 8^ rif a favourite retreat 
of the Mito folk. 

2. — Tokyo to [Chtba,] Nabtta, 
[Kasamobi,] Kadobi, [CndsHiJ 



TOKYO to :— Ri. Ckd, Jf. 

Ichikawa 3 26 9 

Yawata 29 2 

Funabashi 1 12 3i 

Owada 2 28 ^ 

Usui 2 — 6 

SAKURA 1 13 8J 

Shusui 1 8 2^ 

NARITA 2 9 5i 

Ino 8 15 8| 

Sawara 2 26 6| 

Kadori 28 2 

Tsunomiya 18 1 J 

( Ofunatsu boat ) 

KASHIMA — 18 — ) 

CHOSHI (boat) . . 10 15 26^ 

Total 83 5 81 

Omnibuses ply between Ryogokn- 
bashi (Tokyo) and Chiba, leaving 
either place several times daily. A 
small steamer also runs daily, mak- 
ing the passage in 3i hrs. An 
omnibus leaves Ryogoku-bashi at 
7 a.m. dailv for Narita ; but jinriki- 
shas, which are procurable at the 
omnibus office at fixed rates, are 
to be preferred. In any case the 
omnibus would have to be left in 
order to visit the shrine of Saknra 
Sogoro, which is oft the main road to 
Narita, but approachable by jinriki- 
sha. The road is nearly level the 
whole way, a remark applicable to 
this route in general. The Ichir- 
kawa ferry {Inn^ Musashi-ya on 
the far side) over the Yedogavr» 
marks the Treaty Limit at this 
point. Half a mile to the 1., on the 
1. bank of the river, lies the bluff of 
Konodai described on p. 121. 

Tnwata {Inn, Nakamura-ya) 
takes its name from a temple stand- 
ing on the 1. side of the village street. 
The buildings are poor; but hj 

Chiba. Sakura, 


the side of the chapel is a remarkable 
ichs tree, the trunk of which, about 
10 ft. in diameter, has the ap- 
pearance of being formed of some 
40 or 50 trees of different sizes, 
growing together like a huge faggot. 
A little further r. is a small grove of 
bamboos and ^a^i-trees to which 
the villagers attribute peculiar 

Tradition avera that Kdmon, the second 
Prince of Mito, having been bold enough 
to ventore within, was thrown to the 
nound by some inpernatural agency. 
Fearing to offend the spirit of the grove, 
the villagers have always remained igno- 
mat of its mysteries, and have therefore 
giren it the name of TawtUa ShiracHf or 
**Yawata Knows-not." 

Fnii Abash i (Inn, Ebi-ya) is a 
large town, a little way inland from 
Tokyo Bay. 

This place is celebrated as having been 
the rendezvous of the village chiefs who, 
in 16M, headed by the famous Sakura 
SOgordt proceeded to Yedo to protest 
■fi^nst the tyranny of the lord of Sakura. 
Even to protest was in those days a capi- 
tal offence, acquiescence in all the man- 
dates of his suTieriors being an inferior's 
sole and sufficient duty. Not SdgorO only 
was put to death . his wife was crucified 
with faim, and their three children de- 
capitated before their eyes. One, a child 
of seven, was butchered as he was eating 
the ffweetmeats thrown to him by the 
compassionate spectators. This pathetic 
^on^ is graphi(»Uly told in Vol. II. of 
Uitford's Talet qf Old Japan, 

[The carriage road, 4 J ri, to Chiba 
{Inns Kano-ya, Umematsu-ya), 
capital of the prefecture of the 
same name, diverges r. at the 
end of the main street of Funa- 
bashi. This prefecture ranks 
next to Yezo in the abundance 
of its marine products, the dis- 
trict of Kujftkuri to the S. of 
Cape Inuboe affording the 
ricnest field. Three miles be- 
fore reaching the city, at the 
fishing hamlet of Inage, is 
a bathing establishment called 
Kaiki-kwan, where it may be 
pleasanter to stop than at Chiba. 
At Imai, just outside Chibfl^ 
and the suooeeding viUs. along 
the oockst, a eonaiderable mami^ 

facture of starch from the 
sweet potato, is carried on. A 
good 8 m. walk from Chiba 
is to the ancient Temple of 
Daigaaiji, standing in a pine 
forest where thousands of cor- 
morants roost and build their 
nests. There is a finely graded 
road from Chiba to Sakura and 
Narita through pleasant coun- 
try. The total distance to 
Narita is about S ri; but this 
may be shortened by taking 
the branch road which diverges 
at the hamlet of Doi, and re- 
joins in 1 hr. the main road to 
Narita at the town of Shusui.] 

After Funabashi, the road 
traverses an upland country where 
some of the best rice in Japan is 
grown ; it then passes over the 
wide undulating moor of Narashino, 
where the troops forming the 
Tokyo garrison are occasionally re- 
viewed. On the 1. are seen some 
barracks for their accommodation. 
The locality is believed to be 
haunted by the magic foxes and 
badgers that play so important a 
part in Japanese folk-lore. A little 

Owada {Inns, Masu-ya, Naka- 
raura-yaj, the narrow canal which 
brings tne Imba lagoon into com- 
munication with Tokyo Bay is 

Usui {Inn, Ota-ya) is a good- 
sized posting-station on the 8. shore 
of the lagoon. 

Siiknra {Inn, Kome-yaJ is a gar- 
rison town. At an angle of the 
road 1., before reaching the town 
and just within view of the castle 
site, is the old execution-ground, 
where the farmer Sogoro and his 
family suffered death in 1645. A 
large memorial-stone now marks 
the spot. The road passes through 
the lower town by the side of the 
moat, and rises into the upper 

The oastle was formerly the residence 
of the chief of the Bott* faxnily, which 
famished many statesmen to the Gw^ 

186 Boute 17.—Hitaehif Shmosa, Kazum, and Bdshu. 

or Chief Ooanoil of tlie ToknftAwa 
Shflfn>i»> Its Bite ie now occupied l^ 

A short distance beyond 

Hhasoi {Inrit Kome-ya), a road 
diverges 1. for about 1 rt to a 
shrine erected in Kdzu-mura to the 
memory of Sakura Sogoro. The 
buildings are all the outcome of 
modern piety, plain and substantial, 
but adorned with carvings of aver- 
age merit. Charms bearing the 
name and pictures of the martyred 
peasant with his wife and children 
sell in large numbers. Close by on 
the r. is Sogoro's grave, where in- 
cense is kept perpetually burn- 
ing. It is not necessary to retrace 
one's steps, as the road from 
Sogoro's shrine continues on until 
it rejoins the main road again close 
to Narita. 

Nairita (InTW, Ebi-ya, Wakama- 
tsu-ya) is famed for its great Temple 
of Fuddt to which pilgrimages are 
made from all parts of the country. 
The wood-carvings Skdorning it are 
specially noteworthy. 

The full name of this holy place is 
Jfarita-MH Shingo Shin»kO;i, i.e. ** the 
Divinely Protected Temple of Recent Vie- 
to^ on Monnt Narita." The story of its 
origin is as follows :— 

At the time of the foundation of the 
Buddhist faith, an Indian scnlptornamed 
Bishukatsuma carved a wonder-working 
image of the god Pudd (see pp. 41-2), which 
image, after the lapse of many ofuturies. 
was sent to China, where it passed into 
the hands of a holy priest named Keikwa 
Ajari. When the great Japanese saint, 
KObO Daishi, visited China in A.D. 80i. 
to seek instruction in Buddhist mysteries, 
this priest it was who became his teacher ; 
and when tf achor and disciple were about 
to part, each was warned in a dream 
that the miraculous image was destined 
for Japan, and accordingly K6bd Daishi 
brought it home with him and enshrined 
it in a temple on mount Takao near 
KyOtd, together with attendant figures of 
Seitaka DOji and JECx>ngara DOji which he 
carved with his own hand. Now it hap- 
pened that about a century and a hnJf 
later, a revolution broke out. Masakado, 
a courtier of high birth, taking offence 
at the refusal to fu>point him on the staff 
of an embassy about to start for China, 
rebelled a«iiust the legitimate sovereign, 
Shujaku Tennd. Betiring to his native 
province of Shimtea, he sacrilegiously 
assumed the title of Mikado, buut him- 

self a capital in which the plaoe-iuftnea 
round about KyOto were plagi&rised, 
established a mimic Court, and having 
made himself master of several provinces 
in Eastern ■ Japan, prepared to march 
upon Kydto. The legitimate Mikado, 
thereupon, not content with despatching 
against the rebel such valiant loyal war- 
rUirs as Fujiwara-no-Tadabami, Taira-no- 
Sadamori, and Tawara T0da Hidesato. 
applied to the priests for supernatural 
assistance. It was found that no god was 
so powerful as Fudd, and no image of 
him so miraculous as that which Kdb<V 
Daishi had brought over. Accordingly 
KwanchO DaisOjo. a celebrated arch- 
bishop of those days, who was also a 
scion of the Imperial family, was com- 
missioned to carry the image to the seat 
of war and exOTcise the enemy. The 
archbishop. embarked at Naniwa (now 
the city or Osaka), and soon landed on the 
coast of Eastern Japan, whence he pro- 
ceeded inland, and, having set up the 
miraculous image on a rock near the 
rebel's capital, performed before it for 
three weeks the Goma ceremony, that is, 

Srayers and incantations recited while a 
re is kept burning on the altar. The 
result was the total defeat and death of 
Masakado in the year 910, the triumph 
of the loyalists, ana preparations on the 
part of the archbishop to return home, 
when lo and behold! the image waxed 
heavy as a rock, and utterly refused to 
move 1 As usual, a dream served to ex- 
plain matters. The god Fudd appeared, 
and declared his intention of remaining 
where he was, to bless and civilise East- 
em Japan. Accordingly the grateful 
Mikado granted funds for the construc- 
tion of a temple on a grand scale ^ and a» 
local circumstances forbade remaining on 
the exact spot where the image he4 at 
first been set up, lots were drawn )>y 
thirty-three villages in the surrounding 
countiy-side, and the lot fell on Nanta. 
Time brought further changes, and the 
present site— the hill known as MyO- 
ken-zan— was built on only in 1704. Pro- 
bably the great popularity of the Narita 
shrine dates from about that pteriod. In 
any case, the then recent founding of the 
new capital, Yedo, in the near neigblx^ur- 
hood had furnished it with a large 
number of potential pilgrims; and for 
some reason otherwise inexplicable, actors 
and other public entertainers, who flourish 
most in great cities, have long been its- 
most ardent votaries. Many repairs and 
additions have been made during the 
present century, the great Ni-d gate dating 
from 1831, and the Midd from 1856. Of 
the many relics preserved in the treasure- 
house of Narita, the most highly valued 
is the Amakuni no h6keH, a sword said to 
have been forged bv Amakuni, the first 
of all Japanese smiths, for the Kmperor 
Mommu (AD. 683—697), who prised it 
equally with his crown regalia. After 
the suppression of M asakado's rebeUion^ 

TewpU of Fudo at Narita. 


tkis sword wm presented to tbe gfA FndO 
tgr the tlien Emperor Shnjaka, in grate- 
nl ftdcnowledgment of that deity's assis- 
tance. One tooch of it is believM to core 
Insane persons and those possessed of 
foxes. It would seem, however, to be 
BOW never shown. A fcwtiyal takes place 
en tbe SSth of each month. 

The temple stands on the side of 
a hill in a fine grove of ciyptomerias 
and other trees. It is approached 
from the inns by a paved avenue 
hoed with stone lanterns. To the 
r. of the Tamagaki (stone wall), is a 
well where pUgrims perform the 
eeremony of washing with cold 
water. Close by is the Danjiki-do, 
where devotees retire to fast daring 
a whole week, the only refreshment 
permitted to them being the use of 
tbe cold bath. Formerly the period 
was three weeks. 

IVadition says that this practice was 
iutitnted about the middle of the 16th 
eentorj' lor the saint Ddyo, who passed 
a hnndred days in religions exercises. 
At last hie prayers were answered by a 
viaiao of the god, who offered him the 
dkoioe cf a sharp or a blunt sword to 
awailow. The saint chose the sharp one, 
which the god thrust down his tnroat, 
**"«f^g the blood to flow freely. On 
awakening he found his intellectual 
powers immensely increased, and felt no 
baeee of the wound. Nevertheless, 
prieste' robes dyed with the blood shed on 
tkis occasion are preserved among the 
i of the temple. 

In a building to the r. of the Dan- 
pki-do, worshippers may often be 
Men seated in a circle, handing 
RMmd one to another a huge rosary 
to which a bunch of horse-hair is 
attached, and chanting the invoca- 
tion Namu Atnida BtUsu. Opposite 
k the Onna Danjiki-^y reserved for 
ieoutles. Both buildings have ex- 
W)toe oyer the entrance. 

To the 1. of the entrance, a shrine 
ealled the Daishi-dd dedicated to 
Kobo Daishi contains an image of 
that saint, besides fine carvings of 
dragons. The other buildings on 
ttie 1. are residences of the 
priests. The Ni-d-mon is a massive 
stmcture of keyaki wood, oma- 
menied with carvings by Goto 
Kisaboro. Under the architrave 
ate eight groups representiug Chi- 

nese children at play, and sages 
probably intended for Uie ** Seven 
Sages of the Bamboo Grove," whose 
attributes are chess, music, drawing, 
and caligraphy. At the r. end are 
groups of young cook-fighters, and 
the child delivered from the tall 
water-jar by his sharp-witted com- 
panion Shiba Onko, who breaks a 
hole in it with a stone to let the 
water escape. In front r. is a sage 
writing an inscription, 1. a sage 
playing on the harp. On the 1. 
side are children playing, and a 
group the central figure of which 
dances to the music of fiageolet and 
drum. At the back are groups of 
checker-players and of sages in- 
8i>ecting a picture. 

On either side of the steps lead- 
ing up from this gate to the HondOf 
or Main Temple, the prettily ar- 
ranged rockwork crowded with ez- 
votos in bronze and stone has a 
peculiarly bizarre and pleasing 

Ascending the steps, the first 
thing that strikes the eye is the 
huge receptacle for money-ofierings. 
Above it is a large panel with carv- 
ings of phcenixes gorgeously colour- 
ed, and on the r. and 1. of this are 
coloured panels of peacocks, also in 
relief. This is the only colouring 
about the building, the rest of the 
exterior being of unpaiuted keyaki. 
The two sides and the back are de- 
corated with eight splendid panels,, 
each 9 ft. by 4 ft., representing 
groups of the 0<hhyaku Rakan in 
low relief, with an immense variety 
of incident and portraiture. They 
were carved by Matsimioto Ryozan. 
On the huge doors that close the 
sliding windows of this part of the 
building, are beautiful carvings of 
the Tweiity-four Paragons of Filial 
Piety, each panel (2^ ft. by 2 ft.) 
containing two subjects, by Shima- 
mura Shumbyo. 

The dragon and angels on the 
ceiling, and the bold sketches of the 
Ju-roku Rakan behind the main 
altar are by Kauo Kazunobu, a 
painter of the present century. 

188 RouU 17. — Hitachi, Shimdsa, Katusm, and Bd^U. 

In the Naififiy or Holy of HoHes, 
IS the sacred black image of Fudd 
(often called Dainichi, with whom, 
it will be remembered, Fudd is 
identified), hardly visible in the dim 
light. Among the rockery be- 
hind are 86 small bronze figures ; in 
the centre at the top is Fudd in a 
cave, and higlier up on the r. the 
saint En-no-Shokaku. The gro- 
tesque figures popularly called JDoi- 
ra-botchi in the gables, which bear 
the ends of the ridge-pole, are excel- 
lent expressions of the effort to sup- 
port a heavy burden. Bound the 
building, under the architrave, are 
groups of fabulous animals. The 
three- storied pagoda is a beau- 
tiful example of this architectural 
form, finely decorated and painted. 
The black groups on the four sides 
represent the Sixteen Rakan, the 
work of Shimamura Entetsu. The 
bell-tower opposite is also well worth 
a few minutes* inspection. Close 
by on the r. is a handsome 
library (Kyddd), containing a high- 
ly decorated revolving octagonal 
box borne on the shoulders of parti- 
coloured demons. Note the peculiar 
coffered ceiling painted wiih kalei- 
doscopic patterns. In the ex-voto 
Hall (Ema-d6) to the 1. of the 
Library, are pictures of Fudo help- 
ing suppliants ; also a huge rosanr, 
the string of which is a cable made 
of human hair, and various other 
gifts. The two large anchors thick- 
ly encrusted with barnacles were 
found by fishermen near Shirahama, 
off the coast of Boshfl. A flight of 
steps leads up to another platform, 
where stands a large red chapel 
called the Kdmyd-ddt or Hall of 
Resplendent Light. Another ex- 
voto shed 1. contains a large variety 
of interesting offerings, where 
charms and pictures of all kinds 
may be purchased. 

[Nearly 17 ri S. of Narita, stands 
the noted temple of KaMmoii 
dedicated to the Goddess Kwan- 
non. The ordinary pilgrim route 
is from the Till, of Hamano on 

the E. shore of TokyS Bay, 
whence it is a distance of about 
7 ri. The itinerary from Nanta 
is as follows : — 

NARITA to :— Ri, Chb. 3f. 

Shibayama ..4 — 9| 

Naruto 8 18 8| 

Togane 1 27 4| 

Oami 1 16 8^ 

Honnd 1 19 81 

Mobara 1 24 4 

Gh5nan 2 — 5 

KASAMORI.. 1 — 24 

Total .... 16 82 41J 

The temple is built on a plat- 
fonn which rests on the point 
of an irregular conical rock 
some 50 ft. in height, the 
edges being supported by stoat 
wooden scaffolding, and is 
reached by three flights of 
stairs. A country road connects 
Kasamori with Kominato on 
the Pacific coast, distant abont 
11 ri. For Kominato see p. 

Travellers wishing to proceed by 
water instead of road, can catch the 
river steamers at 5efu2a(fairacoom- 
modation), a distance of some 6 H 
from Narita. 

The road from Narita lies chiefly 
over moorland to 

Kadori, also called Snwara (Inn^ 
Ukishima-ya, besides many others 
crowding the entrance to the splen- 
did grove of trees in which the 
temple stands). 

This temple is dedicated to Fateu-noBM 
or Iwai-Dashi, a deified warrior of the 
mythical period, whose symbol is a sword. 
The date of its foandation is unknown, 
bat mnv be placed a good deal earlier 
thsn the 6tn century. The present 
building was erected at the beginning of 
the I7ta century, and restored in A.D. 
17(0. It is said that, as late as the begin* 
ning of the 17th century, the waters of 
the Tonegawa came right up to the base 
of the hill on which the temple stands^ 
and that all the com and rice-fields be> 
tween it and Tsunomiya have beenr»> 
claimed since that period. 

The temi^ is in the medieval 
style ef Shinto mrchiteetnie, wtth a 

Kadoti. Kmhima. ChSihi. 


haftyjzoof of thidc shingling, mnd 
is painted red. R. and 1. of the 
oiatoiy steps, a mirtor and a sword, 
emblematic of the two sexes, are 
siiiq>euded in bags of brocade on 
branches of the sacred nuhsakctki 
tree. Black lacquered doors dose 
the entrance of the chapel. From 
the back of the grove is a fine view 
of the plain to the N., intersected 
bj the Tonegawa and the lagoons. 
^^nkuba is visible to the 1. on a 
dear day. Kashima lies out of 
light behind a wooded hill on the r. 

At TsuBOmijra smaU steamers 
may be availed of to Ofunatsu on 
the Kita-ura Lagoon, whence by 

Kashiaia (numerous fnn«), one of 
the greatest places of pilgrimage in 
B. Japcui. 

The name Ka-shima means *' Deer 
JUand ;" but the district is an island 
DO longer. It consists of a sandy 
•pit, IS rt by 1 ri, separating the sea 
bxmx the Kita-ura lagoon, and end- 
ing at the mouth of the Tonegawa, 
opposite the town of GhoshL The 
deer used to wander freely through 
the groves round the temple, but 
they have now been almost ex- 
tecminated. A broad avenue leads 
to the temple, which is situated in a 
grove of fine cryptomerias. It con- 
asts of an oratory and chapel con- 
nected by a short corridor in the 
1 mediaeval style. 

The principal dei^ here worshipped is 
lUbe-^nika-suohL This ffod wns one of 
thoae sent down from heaven to Japan, to 
ptepare the advent of the line of earthly 
•orereifirns known afterwards as Mikadoa. 
Tke temple is osoally said to have been 
iomtded in the '* A^ of the Oods," and 
eertainly dates from the pre-historic 
epoch. From the most ancient times it 
was the practice here, as at Ise, to rebuild 
watk only the main temple, but also all the 
lafierior ones sorronndmff it, every twenty 
I ; bat about the beginning of the 9th 
f, for reasons of economy, the mle 
) oooflned to the principal boikUng. 

The temple faces N. But the box 
eootaining the sword which is the 
fla^K>diment of the god faoes East, 
ia., tofwards the Pacific Ocean. A 
r path behind the temple con- 
I to a smaA enolosure oootain* 

ingthe celebrated Kaname-Uhif or 
"Pivot Stone," supposed to be a 
pillar whose foundation is at the 
centre of the earth. According to 
one tradition, it was sanctified by 
the local god taking his seat on it 
directly after his descent from 
heaven. Another account is that 
under this place lies confined the 
gpgantic fish called namaiu, whose 
contortions are the cause of earth- 
quakes, and that the stone acts as 
some restraint on the creature's 
movements. Mitsukuni, the seoond 
Prince of Mito, is said to have dug 
for six days round it without finding 
the lower end. About 1 m. from the 
temple is a stretch of moorland 
called Takama-no-harat literally, 
the Plain of High Heaven, where 
the gods are supposed to have as- 
sembled in days of old, and where 
stone arrow-heads are still often 

[River steamers ply from Ofu- 
natsu to Choshi {InnSy *Dai- 
shin, Komai-yasu), a large town 
at the mouth of the Tonegawa,. 
which here contracts, and rolls 
between sharp rocks into the 

The chief occupation of the 
inhabitants is fishing. Im- 
mense quantities of iwashi, a 
fish resembling the pilchard 
but smaller, are caught here 
and all along the coast. They 
are boiled in huge cauldrons 
to obtain the oil, which is used 
for lamps; and the residue, 
dried in the sun, is sent inland 
for manure. 

The whole coast called Ku-ju- 
ku-ri no hama, stretching S. 
from Choshi, is fiat, sandy, and 

3. Kashima to Mito. 

This is a distance of 16A ri (40 m.), 
half of which is traversed by boat to 
Hokoda at the N. end of the Kita- 
ura Lagoon, and half by jinrikisha 
along a sandy road. The accom* 
modation is everywhere poor; 

190 Boute 17. — Hitachi, Shimdaa^ Katusa and BdshH. 

4. Kano-zan, Nokooibi-yama, ahd 

Small steamers from Tokyo (Rei- 
gan-jima, see p. 86) stop at Sakurai 
for Eano-zan, making the passage in 
8 hrs. IJDcomfortable as tnese boats 
are, the monotonous coasb road from 
Tokyo cannot be recommended as 
an alternative. Kano-zan can 
Indeed be reached, and the sea pas- 
sage reduced to 45 min. by taking 
the steamer from Uraga to Kan ay a; 
(see next page) but tnere is always 
some uncertainty about the boats* 
calling at the intermediate ports. 

SAKURAI to ;— Bi. Chd, M, 

Kano-zan 4 — 9f 

Tenjin-yama (Mina- 

to) 8 — 7J 

Tako-ga-oka 84 2{ 

Kanaya 1 81 4^ 

Motona 1 8 8 

Kachiyama 1 — 2^ 

H6j6 4 14 10} 


Total 16 28 41 

Sakiiral {Inn^ Kadomatsu-ya) is a 
vill. 23 chd from the port of Kisa- 
mzn (InnSf Fushimi, Torikai), 
^here the road to Kano-zan branches 
off from the coast, first ascending a 
pretty valley, and then crossing a 
low range of hills to the hamlet 
of Hokisaku. A short way on, the 
Koito-gawa is crossed, and the 
road, winding through the fields, 
reaches the foot of Kano-zan, up to 
which point it is practicable for 
jinrikishas. The ascent takes about 

The mountain of Kano-zan (also pro- 
nonnced Kand-san), which rises to a 
height of 1,260 ft. on the borders of the 
provinces of Kasusa and BOehfi, is a 
oonspicnous object in the view across 
TdkyO Bay, and itself commands a 
mngniflcent prospect. It is sufficiently 
elevated above the plain to escape the 
damp air which renders TOkyO so nn- 
bealthy in summer, and though not high 
enough to have a temperature markedly be- 
low that of the surrounding lowlands, is 
visited by fresh sea-breeses that render it 
an agreeable resort during Uie hot months. 

Kano-Ban (Inns, Marushichi, 
Y&yfk-kwan), a villa^ of about 100 
houses, stands on the top of the 
mountain. It is divided into an 
upper and lower street, the upper 
street running £. and W., and the 
lower N. ana S. Between tbem^ 
surrounded by a thick grove 
of oryptomerias and other conifers, 
stands a large but decaying temple 
dedicated to Yakushi, and erected in 
1708. The inns are situated in the 
upper street facing W., and com- 
mand a superb prospect :— below, the 
blue waters of Tokyo Bay, beyond 
which rises Fuji ; to the 1. the 
Hakone range ; to the r. the Oyama 
and Tanzawa ranges; and further 
N. the Nikk5 mountains, Akagi- 
san, and Tsukuba. Even more 
comprehensive is the view from the 
hill just below the inns, used as 
one of the principal trigonometrical 
survey stations of Japan. One of 
the prettiest walks at Kano-zan is to 
a waterfall, 1 m. from the vill. The 
way there leads from a corner in the 
upper street where there is a school- 
house just opposite the temple of 
Yakushi, and descends in a S. 
direction along the 1. side of a 
thickly wooded valley. The foot- 
path to the fall is not the first one 
reached (which leads to a small 
shrine dedicated to Tenjin), but is 
about ^ m. further on. The volume 
of water, 35 ft. in height, is small ; 
but the basin into which it falls is 
curious, having rocks on either side 
coming together like the bows of an 

A 10 min. walk affording a view 
unique in its way is as follows : — 

Passing through the lower street 
of Kano-zan towards the N., we 
reach 1. a flight of 218 stone steps, 
at the top of which stands a small 
Shinto shnne. This is the highest 
point of the mountain ; but being 
overgrown with tall trees, the sum- 
mit commands no view. Opposite 
the steps on the r., a short pa^ 
leads to the brow of the hill, whence 
there is a fine prospect towards the 
B. and N. Tne side of the moiiii>- 

Kano-tan. Nokogiri-yama. 


tain here slopes away very abmpi- 
ly ; and below, as far as the eye can 
reach, lie low but sharp ridges 
covered with bmshwood, intersect- 
ing and meeting so as to form a 
multitude of tiny valleys, in most 
of which rice is cultivated. The 
view from this point has therefore 
received the name of Ku-ju-ku 
Tanif or the Ninety-nine Valleys. 

The descent from the vill. of 
Kano-zan to Sakurai (not to be 
eonfoonded with the vill. of the 
sune name near Kisarazu) leads 
over sandy hills recently afforested 
with pines, and thence down the 
valley of the Minato-gawa by a good 
road to 

Teiijin-ymna or Minato (Inn, 
•Suiryo-kwan). This prettily situat- 
ed plaice contains a few sake 
breweries and soy manufactories, 
the produce of which is shipped in 
jmi^ to Tokyd ; but the population 
consists chiefly of fisher-folk. A 
smooth sandy beach with a W. as- 
pect stretches 1^ m. along the 
shore to the N., affording excellent 
bathing. About 1 mile off rises 
Hydken-yama, which commands a 
fine view. Ascending from the 
3iIinato-gawa and following along 
aomo low cliffs, the road passes 
through a lofty tunnel hewn in the 
solid rock, just beyond Take-gcL-oka 
{Inn, Matsu-ya) . At Hagyu (no inns) 
the local wonder is a small cavern 
OQotaining a well, called Kogane-ido, 
or the Golclen Well, on account of a 
golden scum that rises on its sur- 
face. This effect is due to the 
finoresoent property of the water; 
bat the' simple country folk hang the 
usual emblems of worship about 
the cavern. More tunnelling 
characterises the road from Hag3rfi 

Konajft (Inn, Kaji-yaV a poor 
place where liteamers, however, 
call to land passengers for Tenjin- 
yama and Kano-zan. It pos- 
lesses a curious relic of anti- 
qqily, known by the name of Kana- 
iatDaimydjin, which is kept shroud- 
ed from public gase in a chamber 

in the rock immediately behind a 
small, dilapidated Shintd shrine. 
It is a disc of iron, between 4 and 
5 ft. in diameter and some 3 in. 
thick, split into two unequal parts. 

Local tradition says that it was dis- 
covered in the bay some six centuries 
ago by the fishermen of the villasie, then 
consiHting of eighteen families, bat that 
its weight was so great aa to render un- 
avsiling their nnited effOTis to bring it 
ashore. The^y therefore implored it to 
divide itself m two, promiidngthatth^ 
wonld then land it, and worship it as 
their patron deity. After passing all 
night in anxious expectation, they found 
that their petiticm had been heaird ; and 
fishing up the two pieces, they placed 
them in the rock chamber, where the 
split disc has remained enshrined ever 

Instead of continuing along the 
coast to Motona, 1^ m. from Ka- 
naya, whence the usual ascent of 
Nokogiri-yama is made, the path 
on the N. side may be taken, a 
steep climb of 45 min. through some 
interesting stone quarries. This 
mountain takes its name, which 
means ** Saw Mountain,*' from the 
serrated ridge of peaks that follow 
each other in regular gradation from 
the highest on the E. down to the 
sea-shore. Bound the promontory 
thus formed, passes the ordinary 
road to Motona. Scattered over the 
S. side of the mountain are the 
remains of a set of stone images of 
the Five Hundred Bakan, many of 
them now headless or otherwise 
mutilated. Besides these, there 
is a shrine hewn out of the 
living rock, in the centre of which 
is a stone effigy of the person to 
whose initiative the carving of 
the other five hundred images was 
due. The view from the point 
called Mi-harashi, 850 ft. above the 
sea, is lovely. Westward rises 
the perfect form of Fuji above the 
low coast of Sagami, while to the S. 
a succession of bays and promon- 
tories marks the W. coast of Boshft. 
First comes the vill. of Yoshihama, 
bent at an obtuse anc^le along the 
sea-shore, and beyond it the cape 
under which nestles the little town 
of Kachiyama. To the E. are the 

192 Bouts 17.— Hitachi, Skimdsa, KoJiUM, and Bdshu. 

higher peaks of Nokogiri-jama, and 
in front a mass of lesser hills 
intervening between the ridge and 
the valley of the Minato-gawa. 
The lighthouse on Kwannon-saki is 
a prominent landmark bearing N. 
W. by N. 

Motona (Innt Masu-ya) is almost 
continuous vfith Hota. The road 
follows the bay in which these 
places lie, and then cutting across a 
tiny peninsula, passes outside 

Kaehtyama {inn, Nakajin), for- 
merly the castle-town of a small 
Daimyo, where it strikes up into 
the hills. The large pond at the 
head of the valley serves for pur- 
poses of irrigation. The road then 
descends in 5 min. to Ichibu 
(Inn, Hashiba), a clean vill. not 
lar from the shore, enclosed in 
pretty hedgerows that remind one 
of England. Behind Ichibu rise 
two conspicuous hills, Nibuyama and 
Tomdyama, the one a grassy sum- 
mit, the other a sharp pesik covered 
with trees. Tomiyama possesses a 
temple dedicated to Kwanuon. 
Passing through a long tunnel — 
250 yards — we gradually drop to 
Nago (Inn, Yamada-ya) on Tate- 
vama Bay, where a good view may 
oe had from a temple dedicated to the 
Thousand-Handea Kwannon, situat- 
ed on a slight eminence at the end of 
the street. Shortly before reaching 
Hoj5, it is worth glancing in at the 
Temple of Hachiman, standing in a 
grove 200 yds. to the 1. of the way. 
The porch has some good modern 
carvings, and a coffered celling 
containing seventy-two compart- 
ments with a dragon carved in 
relief, the design in each compart- 
ment being different. Within is 
another coffered ceiling, decorab- 
ed with paintings of birds and 

Hojo (Inn, •Kimura-ya, outside 
the town, conveniently situated for 
the steamers; Yoshino-an, in the 
town), though given in the itinerary 
as 13 chd from Tateyama, is practi- 
cally continuous with the latter, the 
two places being separated only 

by a small stream. Travellers ar» 
recommended to stay at Hojo. 

A pleasant excursion may be 
made from H5jd across the neck of 
the peninsula to the hot-springs of 
Chikura (Inn, Watanabe) on the 
Pacific Coast. The distance is 3 ri 
by a good jinrikisha road. 

lateyaima (Inn, Matsuoka) com- 
mands an incomparable view of 
Fuji across Tdkyo Bay. Nowhere 
else does the mountain seem to rise 
to so great a height, completely 
dominating the Oyama and Amagi 
ranges which extend r. and 1., while 
on either hand the shores of the bay 
stretch round to form a fitting frame 
for tliis lovely picture. A steamer 
leaves Tateyama daily for Tokyo 
at about 10 a.m., calling at several 
places along the coast, and reaches 
Tokyo in 7 hrs. under favourable 
circumstances. Another leaves 
about noon, calling at Uraga. 

6. — Hojo to Koionato. 


HOjO to :— m. Chd. M. 

Matsuda 3 25 9 

Wada 1 18 3} 

Emi 1 7 3 

Kamogawa 2 31 7 

Amatsu 1 26 4i 


nato-mura) .... 1 8 2} 

Total 12 2 294 

The distance separating Hoja 
from Matsuda on the Pacific is a 
short cut across the tiny province 
of Awa at its narrowest part, and is 
available for jinrikishas. From 

Matsuda {Inn, Abura-ya), the 
road follows tne coast. 

Eiiil (Inn, Hashimoto-ya) is a 
place of some size, standing in what 
for this part of the country appears 
a wide valley, about 1 square mile 
in extent. 

Kamogawa (Inn, Yo8hida-ya\ 
stands at the mouth of a small 
river, the Kamogawa, whence th» 



road leads through a pine- wood and 
over a sandy shore to AmaUu. A 
steep promontory has to be climb- 
ed before descending again to the 
sea at 

Komliiato, also called Minato- 
mura (Inn^ Kadokuma). This 
village, though so remote and 
^Uffioult of access — for it is hemmed 
in on all sides between the moun- 
tains and the sea — is famous 
throughout Japan as the birthplace 
of the great Buddhist saint, Nichi- 

According to some, the original site of 
tlM temple founded b7 Nichiren himself 
on the very spot which gave him birth, is 
now under a stretch of sea called Tai-no- 
mm, said to be the resort of numbers of 
An fish, which are held sacred by the 
tebermen. Another tradition is, that 
from the day of the saint's birth until he 
was seven davs old, two of these flsh five 
test long used daily to appear in the pond 
in his father's garden, whence the spot, 
tinoe covered \sj the waves, took its 
name of *' Tai Bay.** In any case, there 
is ockty just sufficient space between the 
sea and the steep hills behind for the row 
of booses forming the double village of 
Kominato and Ucni*ura. 

The temple raised to the memory 
of Nichiren is called Tat^djit or 
the Temple of the Birth. On the 
L after entering the outer gate, is a 
small square building oyer the well 
which nominally supplied the water 
used to wash the infant saint, — 
nominally only, because the original 
spot was oyerwhelmed by a tidal 
wave in U9d. We next pass 
thioogh a huge gate, to the 
Main Temple, an unpainted wood- 
en building 72 ft. square inside, 
built in 1846. The porch has some 
excellent carvings of tortoises and 
iioos' heads, and the birds in the 
brackets of the transverse beams 
are good. The interior is very 
simple, its only decoration being 
fonr large panels carved with 
diagons, and a coffered ceiling 
wl£ the Mikado's crest painted 
in each compartment. On the 
altar stands a handsome black and 
cold shrine oontainii]^ a life-like 
uoage of the saint, who is repre- 
MQted aa reading Irom a richly gilt 

scroll containing a portion of the 
Hoke-kyd. The doors of the shrine 
are kept closed except during service, 
when they are thrown open in order 
that worshippers may gaze upon 
Nichireu's countenance. 

Two and a half fi from Kominato, 
and li ri to the N. of Amatsu, 
stands the vill. of Kiyosumij cele- 
brated for its temple dedicated to 
Kokuzo Bosatsu. Kiyosuuii lies 
about 1,000 ft. above the sea, and 
being free from mosquitoes owing 
to the dryness of the tuff of which 
the hills consist, is much frequented 
during the summer mouths by 
Japanese desiring to escape the 
damp heat of Tdkyd. The way 
leads through pine woods, which 
cover the mountains as far as the 
eye can reach. The temple con- 
tains some good carvings of Bud- 
dhist deities. 

6. — Ways Back peom Kominato. 

Of ways back from Kominato, the 
most picturesque is that vi& Kiyo- 
sumi and Kururi to Kisarazu (see 
p. 190), whence steamer. Leading 
partly over hills clad with fine forest 
trees and partly through narrow 
ravines, this route yields in beauty 
and variety to no other in the 
peninsula. Guides familiar with 
the landmarks are able to save much 
of the distance by short cuts. The 
best accommodation will bo found 
at Kururij formerly the castle-town 
of a small Daimyd. From here 
Kano-zan can easily be reached. 
Jinrikishas are available between 
Kururi and Kisarazu. The follow- 
ing is the itinerary : — 

KOMINATO to :— UL Chd. M, 

Kiyosumi 2 16 6 

Kuradama 3 13 8J 

Hirooka 2 7 sj 

Kururi 1 32 4^ 

Mari 2 20 6J 

Yokota 1 8 3 

KISARAZU 2 29 6} 

Total 16 17 40i 


Route 18.— Th^ Skidhara District. 

Thope wishing to regain the 
steamer at Tateyajna, but not oar- 
ing to return from Kominato the 
way ihey came, may follow the 
coast road right round the peninsula. 
This road diverges from the route 
already given at the village of Ma- 
tsuda. The complete itinerary is 
as follows : — 

KOMINATO to :— Ri. Chd. M. 

Matsuda 8 13 20^ 

Shirako 1 5 2} 

Asaina — 33 2| 

Shirahama 2 27 Sf 

Mera 1 84 if 

Sunosaki 2 27 6} 

TATEYAMA .... 3 6 71 

Total 21 1 51 J 

The road is mostly sandy and 
heavy for jinrikishas. The best ac- 
commodation is at Matsuda f the 
hot springs of Chikura near Asaina, 
mentioned on p. 192, and at Shira- 
hamay the latter vill. standing at 
the extreme S. point of the peninsula, 
where a direct road, some 9 ri 
in length, cuts across to Tateyama, 
affording fine views. Here, on the low 
headland of Nojima, stands a fine 
lighthouse, the light of which is 
visible for 20 m. This place enjoys 
a much warmer climate than other 
parts of the province. Luxuriant 
oeds of jonquils and other flowers 
abound near the sea-shore, and fill 
the air with their fragrance at 
Christmas-time. Before Afera, a 
choice presents itself of going along 
the beach or of passing over the 
hills by a slightly circuitous 
route. The fishing boats of Mera 
put out in large numbers during the 
season to catch bonitos round Vries 
Island and others of the chain 
extending S. towards Hachijo. The 
scenery from Mera onwards is very 

ROUTE 18. 

The Shiobaba District. 


NishI Nasiino {Inn, Kawashima- 
ya) is reached by the Northern 
Kailway from Tokyo in 4} hrs. (see 
Route 68). This place is an out- 
come of railway enterprise ; so too 
is the redemption of a large extent 
of the moorland which here stretches 
on all sides, the soil having been 
found well -adapted to fruit cultiva- 
tion. Nishi Nasuno is also the 
nearest station to the favourite hot- 
springs of Shiobara, a place formerly 
out of the bt-aten track. Railway 
communication has, however, 
brought it within easy reach of 
Tokyo, and it is now much frequent- 
ed by all classes of Japanese. The 
itinerary of the good jinrikisha road 
from the station is as follows. 


Ri. Chd. Jf. 

Sekiya 3 — 

Owami 1 18 Si 

Fukuwata 24 

Shiogama 13 1 

FURUMACHI.... 8 i 

Total 6 27 14 

As far as Sekiyiu at the foot of the 
mountain, the road is perfectly level 
and goes in a straight line across the 
plain, which is covered with dwarf 
chestnut- trees, — a part of the jour- 
ney apt to be very trying in summer, 
owing to the total aosence of shade. 
Pheasants and other game are plenti- 
ful in the plain, while in the Shio- 
bara mountains bears are still 
occasionally shot by the peasant 
hunters. After leaving Sekiya, the 
road follows the oonrse of the Hoki- 
gawa as it wends its way through 
deeply wooded ravines to the plahu 
At various pc^nts glorious views are 
afforded of the river below, while a 
number of easeades lend varietf lo 

Fukuwata* F^nmacfii. Arayu. 


the scene. At the place where the 
valley narrows tmtil it seems little 
more than a gorge, the road be- 
comes highly picturesque. Every 
smnmer it sufEers severely from 
the heavy raips; bat a staff of 
men is generally in readiness to 
effect repairs, so that jinrikishas 
can always pass. The Owami 
springs, with a hut or two, are 
seen from the roadway, at the 
bottom of an almost precipitous 
descent. They are in the bed of 
the river, and are used only by the 
poorest cla,ss of visitors. 

Fiiknwata (Inn, •Shofnro, and 
others) is, next to Purumachi, the 
most popular liCthing resort in the 
Shiobara district, and will pro- 
bably be preferred by foreigners. At 
the entrance to the hajnlet of Shio- 
gama, a stone has been erected to 
the memory of the famous courtesan, 
Takao, who was bom near this spot 

[Here a bridge crosses the river, 
leading to the hot-springs of 
Shionoyu (Inn, Myoga-ya), 16 
ckd, situated in the bed of an 
affluent of the H5kigawa. The 
road to these springs is practi- 
cable for jinrikishas, and com- 
modious inns have been built 
on the mountain side close by.] 

Fariiniachi {Inns, Fnsen-ro, 
Kome-ya, Aizu-ya) lies on the r. 
bank of the river, and is the principal 
vill. in the district. It is shut in 
by mountains, rising in beautifully 
wooded peaks, one above another 
aronnd it. Although situated at 
no ffreat height (1,760 ft.), Furu- 
maohi is cooler than many places 
at higher altitudes, and suffers less 
from mosquitoes and other insect 
pests. Visitors would do well to 
takf^ provisions with them, as the 
local native fore lacks variety. 

The whole Shiobara district is 
dotted with thermal springs. The 
water at Farumachi is moderate 
ia tempBratxura and mostly free 
ftoBi mineral deposit; the other 
ipringB ace somewh*! saline. A 

favourite midday resort for visitors 
at Furumaohi is Stimdki or Takim 
no-yu ^9 cho), in a hollow of the 
hiUs, with a decent inn. Here the 
water is led in pipes from a spring 
just above the inn, and a hot douche 
can be taken. The temple 
of Myd-onii, a plain thatched 
structure in the vill., is of little 
interest. The only relic in 
the possession of the priests — 
and it is an odd relic in a place of 
worship— is a piece of the wardrobe 
of the frail beauty above-mentioned. 
A pleasant excursion may be 
made to Arayii, lit. " the Violent 
Spring," 2 ri from Furumachi. The 
path leads directly behind the 
Kome-ya Inn at the head of the 
vill., and over the hills in sharp 
zigzags. The views on the way are 
amongst the finest in this vicinity. 

[Near the top of the pass, on the 
1., is a tarn called Onuma. A 
smaller, called Konuma, situat- 
ed in a deeper hollow, 
is not visible from the 
road. A path follows the 
upper edge of these tarns down 
to the Shionoyu springs, and, 
with pretty glimpses of the 
valleys, also makes a good walk 
from Furumachi.] 

Arayu, a cluster of mediocre inns, 
lies on the side of a hill rendered 
barren by the sulphurous water 
that bubbles forth in several spots, 
and gives the place a very desolate 
aspect. It lies on a mountain road 
to Nikkd frequently taken by 
pedestrians, the distances being 
approximately as follows : — 

Arayu to : — Bi. Chd. M. 

Fujiwara 5 — 12J 

Okuwa 3 -_ 7j 

Imaichi 1 15 8} 

Total 9 15 23 

Thsnoe train to Nikkd in | hr. 
The aocommodation en rotUe is 


Route 19. — Bandai'$an. 

Arayu is the best starting-point 
for the ascent of Kelcho-zniif 8} ri, 
one of the peaks of Takahara-yama 
(5,880 ft.), the highest mountain 
of the range separating the pro- 
Tince of Shimotsuke from Iwashiro. 
The walk is somewhat rough and 
monotonous for about 1 hr., all 
Tiew being shut out by woods and 
low ridges on both sides until the 
bed of the Akagawa is reached, 
where the ascent of the Takahara- 
tdge begins. Prom the top of the 
f>ass to the small lake of Benten-gOr- 
tke is a distance of 1 rt, and to the 
summit a steep climb of 20 ch9 
more. The view from the summit 
is very extensive, embracing Fuji, 
Nantai-zan, Gwassan, lide-san, 
Bandai-san, and numerous minor 
peaks. The shrine on Keicho-zan 
18 dedicated to Samta-hiko, and the 
usual time of pilgrimage is spring. 
Those wishing to make the ascent 
from Furumachi in one day must 
start early. An alternative is to 
take it on the way to Nikkd. 

Na8nno*yaiiin can be reached in 
one day from Nishi Nasuno. Jin- 
rikishas are taken to the hot-springs 
of Itamura at the foot of the moun- 
tain, where there are several good 
inns. Nasuno-yama has a fortress- 
like aspect when seen from the S. 
Its side is honeycombed with 
hundreds of solfataras. 

Near Itamura is the Se$ih6-9eki, or 
Death-Stone, famous in a legend which 
has been dramatised as one of the N6, or 
Lyric Dramas, of medisDval Japanese lite* 
ratnre. The story is that a Buddhist 
priest, GennO by name, who while jour- 
neying across the desolate moor of Nasn, 
pauses to rest beneath this rock. A spirit 
forthwith appears and warns him that, 
by remaining in that place, he is risking 
his life, for that not men only, but even 
birds and beasts perish if they do but 
touch it. The spirit and the chorus then 
xeoount to him in verse how once upon 
a time there lived a maiden, as learned 
and accomnlished as she was surpassing- 
ly beautiful, whom the Emperor Toba-no- 
In took to himself as his favourite oon- 
cabine, and for her sake neglected all the 
affairs of state. At last one evening, on 
the occasion of a banquet at the Mace, 
the lighta suddenly went oat, and from 
the girl's body there darted forth a super* 
natural corusoation that illumined the 

whole scene, while the Mikado himself 
waa Btmok dowu l^ diseaie. On the- 
repreeentatiooa of the court magician, 
Abe-no- Yasunari, the vile witch— for the 
pretended beauty was evidently nothing 
better than a witch— waa driven from the 
Imperial presence, and flew away through 
the air to the moor of Nasu. where she 
resumed her original shape, that of a fox. 
In the second act of the play, the spirit 
appearing aRiain, confesses to the good 
pnest that itself is none other than the 
wraith of the witch whose story has just 
been told, and relates furthermore how, 
after escaping from the Palace, she waa 
hunted by dc^ over the moor of Nasu, — 
the origin, as the chorus obligingly sU^m 
to explain, 'of the Japanese sport of inn cm 
mono, or *' dog-hunting.'* The priest then 
exorcises the evil spirit by means of 
Buddhistic incantatious. But his cxor- 
cism seems not to havQ been permanently 
effectual, if, as is asserWd, poisonous ex- 
halations still issue from the Death-Stone 
thrice eveiy day. The stone itself is of 
insignificant sise, but is still regarded by 
the peasantry with superstitious dread. 

BOUTE 19. 


Train by the Northern Railway 
from Tokyo (Ueno station) to Moto- 
miya in 8 hrs. Whole trip, 4 days. 

Motonitya (Inns^ Sakai-ya, Mito- 
ya), itself an unattractive town, is 
the best place from which to reach 
the volcano of Bandai-san, noted 
for its terrific eruption on the 
morning of the 16th July, 1888. 
The itinerary to the town of Inawa- 
shiro, situated at the foot of the 
mountain, is as follows : — 

MOTOMIYA to :— Bi. Chd, M. 

Atami 4 — 9} 

Yamagata 2 — 5 

INAWASHIBO .. 4 — 9f 

Total 10 — 244 

Leaving Motomiya by jinrikishi^ 
in the morning, one reaches Ina- 
washiro early in the afternoon. 
The road as far as Atami (fair 
aoconrtaodation) is flat and pret^ 



.^ood. Here we join the road 
irom Koriyama station, which 
is 1 ri longer than that from Moto- 
miya. From Atami to Yamagata, 
a yill. on the shores of Lake Inawa- 
shiro, the road becomes hilly and 
the scenery more varied. A part of 
the way lies by the side of a canal» 
which has been constructed for 
purposes of irrigation. As one ap- 
proaches the cascade formed by the 
water of the canal falling over a 
cliff, it will be found advisable to 
go on foot up the narrow path, 
steep as it is, rather than follow 
the windings of the main road in 
jinrikisha. From 

YamagAta {Inn, Kashima-ya), 
small steamers cross the lake to Torw- 
kuchi, the nearest point to Waka- 
matsn, the capital of the province 
(see Boute 21). Lake Inatoashiro 
is a large sheet of water measuring 
about 4 ri in every direction, and 
almost surrounded by a succes- 
sion of thickly wooded hills, above 
which, on the N. shore, rises 
the sharp summit of Bandai-san. 
This lake is not a true crater 
lake, as has been supposed, but is 
probably a depression formed by 
evisceration of the ground, result- 
ing from the copious outpourings of 
volcanic matter in its vicinity. Its 
principal feeder, the river Nagase, 
the upper course of which was 
entirely stopped by the dSbris swept 
down during the eruption of 1888, 
again became the main source of 
supply after the formation of Lake 
HilMira by the eruption. It is 
plentifully stocked with salmon- 
trout and other fish. The road fol- 
lows the shores of the lake until the 
N« end is reached, whence it leads 
over a wide cultivated area to 

Inawashiro {Inuy Shio-ya), a 
dull country town . lying on the 
S. E. base of Bandai-san. From 
here the ascent of the monntain 
-and the circuit of the devastated 
district may most conveniently be 

B«Mlai-Mii (6,000 ft.) U the 
usually ^voq to a group of 

peaks oonaisting of O^Bandai, Ko- 
Bandai (destroyed), Kushi-ga-mine, 
and Akahani-yama, surrounding 
an elevated plain caUed Ntmxa-no- 
taira. This group, standing on 
the N. side of Lake Inawashiro, 
forms a very conspicuous object in 
the landscape. When seen from the 
town of Wakamatsu, on the S. W. 
side, it appears as a single pointed 
peak. 0-Bandai, or Great Bandai, 
is the most prominent of the peaks. 
Numa-no-taira is supposed to be 
the remains of the origiual crater, 
and the peaks mentioned are pro- 
bably parts of the wall that encir- 
cled it. Within it were several 
small lakes or pools, as its name 
implies. It was also covered with 
dense forests, which were destroyed 
in the last eruption. 

"On the momingf of Jnly I6tb, 1888, the 
wQAther in the BAndAi district was fine, 
there heing scaroely a cloud ; and a genUe 
breese was blowing from the W.N.W, 
Soon after 7 o'clock, cnrious mmbling 
Doises were heard, which the people 
thouiirht to be the soond of distant 
thnnder. At aboat half-past 7, there 
oconrred a tolerably severe earthquake 
which lasted more than 20 set'onds. This 
was followed soon after by a most violent 
shaking of the ground. At 7.45, while the 
ground was still heaving, the eruptioo 
of Ko-Bandai-san took place. A deDse 
column of steam and dust shot into the 
air, making a tremendous noise. Srolo- 
sions followed one after another, in au to 
the number of 16 or 20, the steam on each 
occasion except the last being described 
as having attained a height aboz9 the 
peatcs about equivalent to that of O-Ban- 
dai as seen from Inawashiro, that is to 
say, some 1,:260 metres, or 4,200 ft. The 
last explosion, however, is said to have 
projected its disohanre almost horixoo- 
tally towards the valley on the N. The 
main eruptions lasted for a minute or 
more, and were accompanied by thnndejv 
ing sounds which, though rapidly lessei*- 
ing in intensity, continued for nearly two 
hours. Meanwhile the dust and st^un 
rapidly ascended, and spread into a great 
cloud like an open umbrella in shapie, at 
a height eqni^ to at least three or four 
times that of 0-Bandai. At the immediate 
foot of the monntain there was a rain of 
hot scalding ashes, accompanied by pitchy 
darkness. A little later, the darkness was 
still great, and a smart shower of rain 
fell, lasting for about five minutes. The 
rain was quite wartn. While datknese 
■B aforoeaia still shrouded the reffion, a 
mifl^li^ avahttohe of earth and ro<^ 


BouU 20. — huxwixMro'to Yonezawa. 

TiUKhed St tefiTiflo speed down the moanteta 
mko9B, buried the N»gaee vsUey with its 
vUlagee and people, and devastated an 
area of more than 70 square kilomtires, 
or 27 eqnare miles.'*— (Abridged from an 
aooonnt published bv Pr«f!B9»or$ Stkifa 
amd Kikueki.) 

The total number of lives lost in this 
great cataclysm was 461. Four hamlets 
were completely buried along with their 
inhabitants and cattle, and seven villages 
were nartially destroyed. Whole forests 
were levelled by the shock, and rivers 
were blocked up by the ejected mud and 


The ascent to the site of the 
explosion begins by following the 
road to Wakamatsu either in jin- 
rikisha or on foot, for 1 rt. A path 
then turns sharp r. over the grassy 
moor skirting 0-Bandai and for a 
considerable distance is a gradual 
olimb. When the higher and 
thickly wooded part of the moun- 
tain is reached, the ascent becomes 
xnuch steeper. Looking backwards, 
fine views of the extensive plain 
in which Wakamatsu is situated 
are obtained at various points. A 
walk of about 8^ hrs. should bring 
one to the crest of a spur on the W. 
side of the mountain, where the 
scene of destruction bursts upon the 
eye with bewildering suddenness. A 
hut, — the Yamanaka Onsen hut, 
half of which was overwhelmed by 
the eruption, the inmates of the 
eastern room being killed and those 
in the kitchen to the West being 
untouched — stands just under the 
ridge on the further side. Leaving 
the hut on the 1., and following round 
the side of the spur, we reach a hol- 
low from which steam still issues. 
A BtiS scramble up the face of 
this spur leads to the brink of the 
main abyss, from which the sight is 
one of the most weird and impres- 
sive to be seen anywhere in the 
world. From the Yamanaka hut it 
is possible to make the circuit of the 
Bandai group. A path passes over 
the sea of mud and rocks in the 
^rect line of eruption, till the hill 
shutting out the valley of the 
l^agase-gawa is encountered. Cross- 
ing this and walking over the site 
M the annihilated hamlet of Kawa- 

kami, we next come, 8 m. farther 
down the valley, to the hamlet of 
Nagaaaka, whose inhabitants, in 
endeavouring to escape to the hilla 
opposite, were overwhelmed by the 
sea of mud. At the vill. of Mine, 
less than } m. from Inawashiro, a 
deflected portion of the muddy 
stream was arrested, and may be 
seen piled up several feet thick. 
Great changes have since taken 

SI ace in the appearance of the 
evastated area, through the effects 
of erosion upon the rugged masses 
of rock and mud left by the catas- 
trophe. The dammed-up waters of 
the Nagase-gawa now foim a large 
lake, 8 miles long and from 1 m. to 2 
m. broad. 

The circuit of the motmtain as 
here described occupies a day, but 
leaves little time for investigation 
of any kind. Local guides are always 
procurable and, it may be addcKS, 
indispensable. Horses may also be 
procured for the greater part of the 

ROUTE 20. 

Fbom Inawashibo to Yonbzawa 
vid Bandai-san and the Hiba- 



INAWASHIRO to:— Bi, Cko, M. 
Yamanaka Onsen 

hut 3 — 7i 

Nagamine 8 — ?{ 

Hibara 2 6 6{ 

Top of Pass 2 — 6 

Tsunagi 1 20 8i 

YONEZAWA 4 — 9f 

Total 16 96 88^ 

This trip occupies 2 days. 

Jinrikisfaas can <Mily be taken for 
1} ri in the Yonesawa plain. From 
Inawashiro to Hibara, luggage must 
be sent round vii Shiobawa and 
Oshio,^to Shi<^W!a 6 ri by jiniiki* 

Mvut* 21—ImawatUro to NikkSi 


sha or paokhorse, from. Shiokawa to 
Hibara 6} ri by packhorse only, in 

For the ascent of Bandai-san, see 
nrevious page. From the Yamanaka 
Onsen hat, it is possible to proceed 
north over the site of the cataclysm 
to Hibara» which lies at the further 
end of the newly formed lake. The 
way leads down for nearly 2 ri 
to the shore of the lake, then 
ascends 1. a hill on the top of 
which the devastated district is sud- 
denly abandoned for a grand forest, 
then down, and along the lake, 
with the skeletons of the trees still 
sticking up out of the water, to 
Ncigamine, 1 ri more. Here a boat 
can at times be got to Hibara; 
otherwise 1 rt by the shore, and 1 ri 
6 chd over the Kwobe-tdge to 

Hibara (/nn, Matsumoto), a vill- 
age left half-in half-out of the water 
by the formation of the new lake. 
Across the lake, 15 chd on the 
way up the Hibara tdge^ are some 
Silver Refining Works, from which 
it is 1 ri to a tea-house, and 20 chd 
more to the top of the pass through a 
soperb forest. Thence 10 chd down 
to a tea-house, and 1 n 10 chd 
mote to 

Taunagi {Innt Aizu-ya), a moun- 
tain vill^e. From here the way 
leads over two low passes, from the 
first of which there is a fine view of 
Aaahi-dake and Gwassan. 

Tonezawa (see Route 68). 

BOUTE fil. 
Fbov Inawabhibo OB Wakahatsu 


This route, lying amongst some 
of tiie finest river scenery in 
Eastern Japan, is recommended 
to tho«e who wish to diverge from 
the beaten tracks. A feeling some- 
what unqrmpathetic towards the 
toeignec may be found to exist in 
ilftocUitriot ol Ai^o, but thia will 

not interfere vrith his comfort. Tho 
police readily afford any assistance 
required in procuring accommoda- 
tion, that at Ikari being the best.' 
The trip will occupy 3 days from 
Wakamatsu. Jinrikishas can be 
taken as far as the Sarmd-ya Irvn, 
l^ri beyond Itozawa at the foot of 
the Sanno-toge ; they are not im- 
practicable over the pass, but rid- 
ing or walking is to be preferred. 
The distance from Inawashiro to 
Wakamatsu by the new road vi& 
Tonokuchi, said to be 8 W, is pro- 
bably an exaggeration. 



Ri. Clio, M. 

KamiMiyori 2 35 7J 

Top of Funako-toge 1 20 31 

Onumazaki 1 21 3f 

Yagoshima 2 11 6f 

Tajima 3 16 8^ 

Itozawa 2 21 6| 

Naka Miyori 6 20 13^ 

Ikari 2 6 SJ 

Takahara 1 26 4^ 

Fujiwara 2 3 5 

Takatoku 1 13 3i 

IMAIGHI 8 16 8% 

Total 30 27 75 

The road from Inawashiro along 
the lake affords charming views. 
It passes over a small col before 
descending to 

Tonokuchi) from whence there 
is an excellently graded road into 
Wakamatsu. This makes a short 
day, but enables the following days 
to be better divided by sleeping at 
Tajima and Ikari. 

WjikmnatKii {Inns, *Shimizu-ya, 
Minato-ya), formerly the castle- 
town of the Prince of Aizu, is 
situated nearly in the centre of a 
great oval plain of from 10 to 12 rt 
in its longest diameter, constitut- 
ing what is properly called the Aizu 
country. The plain is fertile, culti- 
vated with rice, and watered by 
many stiieams that descend from 


RouU 22 — 2^iigata^ W^camaUu. 

the Burroanding znomikuns and 
unite to form Lake loawashiro. 

The AiBu clan spedaUy distin^ished 
itself flffhting on the ShflRTin'B aide during 
the civil war of 1868,— indeed, their ene- 
mies termed them •* the root of the rebel- 
lion." Though their cause was a losing 
one, their giillantry is none the less re- 
membered. Even lads of fourteen and 
fifteen years followed their fathers to the 

The Daimy6*8 castle— the last to 
stajid out for the vanquished Shd- 
gun —stood on a hill, a short 
distance from the town; but it 
has been razed to the ground. 
With the exception of some fine old 
trees, dilapidated gateways, and ru- 
ins of moats, nothing remains to 
attest the former glory of the place. 
Wakamatsu is a convenient point 
from which to make the ascent of 
Bandai-san, described in Route 19. 
A pleasant walk can be taken to 
Higashi Oyama {Iwn, Shin-taki), a 
village of tea-houses 1 ri to the 
S. E. of the town, situated in a 
deep ravine through which flows a 
stream of considerable volume, and 
much frequented on account of its 
hot springs. The waters, which 
gush out of the rocks on the r. 
bank of the stream, have neither 
taste nor smell. Their temperature 
varies from 122*^ to 181° F. 

After traversing a southern ex- 
tension of the plain, the Funako-tdge 
is encountered, for which two men 
are indispensable to each jinrikisha. 
On the other side, the road skirts the 
Tsuruma-gawa, which at intervals 
cuts its way through a small gully, 
while the hills have been tunnelled 
in several places. 
Taj i III a {Itm^ Wakamatsu-ya) is 
•rettily situated in a plain protected 
ly hills on all sides. The chief 
productions of the neighbourhood 
are hemp and ginseng. The SannO- 
tdge is of inconsiderable height. 
The descent on the Shimotsuke 
side leads into the valley of the 
Kinugawa, along which, between 
the villages of 

Ikiiri and Fujiwara, lies the 
prettiest part of the rout^r-de- 


lightfnl river s6enery is far as 
Takah(sra. The road descends « 
ravine, and in many parts actually 
overhangs the river, resting on logs 
which project from the rock and 
are supported by uprights. The 
hot-springs opposite Takahara, of 
which the villagers speak, scarcely 
deserve a visit. Prom Fujiwara the 
country becomes more open, and at 
Takatoku the mountains are left 
behind. The road hence leads over 
high cultivated upland to Imaichi, 
a station on the Utsunomiya-Nik- 
k6 Railway (see p. 161). 

ROUTE 22. 

Fbom Nhgata to Wakamatsu. 


NIIGATA to :— Ri. Chd. M, 

Kameda 3 13 8| 

Yasuda 6 28 U 

Komatsu 8 11 8 

Iwaya (Mikawa).. 2 4 5} 

Tsugawa 2 18 6 

TorU 8 6 7} 

Nozawa 4 10 10| 

Bange 4 34 12 

WAKAMATSU ..8 7 7f 

Total 82 28 79* 

For Niigata, see Rte. 25. 
This trip, practicable for jinriki- 
shas, though over rough and moun^ 
tainous country, may be made in 2} 
days. One H is saved by taking 
boat on the Shinano-gawa from 
Niigata to Kameda, The flrst 
night's halt should be made at 
Komatsu (Iim, Komateu-ya). 
[At Tsugawa, the Agano-gawa Is 
often resorted to by those tak- 
ing this route in the inrerse 
direction. Niigata oflm thus be 
reached in one day tman Tbqw 

Rmie aS.'—Nit^ta to Ikao. 


ga^^ ; bat {f the onrrent is slack, 
a halt mast be made somewhere 
for the night. The boats are 
about 46 ft. long by 6 ft. broad, 
and are propelled by one man 
sculling at the stem, and an- 
other pulling a short-bladed 
oar worked in a loop of wistaria 
at the bow. For about 12 m. 
the river, hemmed in by lofty 
cliffs, studded with rocks visible 
and sunken, making several 
abrupt turns, and shallowing in 
many places, hurries the boat 
swiftly along. The rapids, how- 
ever, are on a small scale and 
anything but formidable.] 

That part of the route lying be- 
tween Iwaya and Nozawa will be 
found the stifiest, but the most 
picturesque. The road passes along 
the side of a ridge above the rapid 
Agano-gawa, with fine grey cliffs on 
Its further side, and conmiands 
excellent views of the abrupt pre- 
cipices of lide-san and Myojin- 
take on the S.W. There is fair 
accommodation at 

XozAWa {Inn, flotei-ya). Leaving 

Banir^ (several inns), the road 
enters the cultivated plain in which 

Wakiimatsii (see p. 199). 

ROUTE 28. 

From NnoATA to Ieao bt the 


The first 17 ri, a day *8 journey, is 
by steamer up the Shinano-gawa to 
NAiTAOka (Inn, Tsuruga-ya), a large 
town, whence 8 ri by jinrikisha to 
Myokeil^ beyond which mostly on 
foot or pack-horse. Ifc is a pity that 
the first part of this route snould be 
flat and uninteresting, seeing how 
beautiful is all the rest from Seki 
onwards, where the pass is ap- 


M YOKEN to :— Bi. Chd. M. 

Eawaguohi ..... ^ 8 14 6h 

Urasa 4 18 11 

Muikamachi .... 8 14 8J 

Shiozawa 31 2 

Seki 1 32 4^ 

Yuzawa 1 17 3J 

Mitsumata 2 5 5^ 

Futai 2 18 6 

Asakai 2 6 

Nagai 8 14 

Saru-ga-kyo .... 22 1 

Fuse 1 81 4} 

Nakayama 2 81 7 

IKAO 6 — 12J 

Total 36 — 87} 

Some of these distanoes are ap- 
proximate only. 

UrnMi has a good inn called Cft^ 
jija, and the viU. of ShioMowa also 
affords fair accommodation. From 
Seki, the road crosses a cliff over- 
hanging the stream, and quits the 
dull valley hitherto followed for very 
pretty country. There are but in- 
different inns at Ytuawa, where 
the ascent of the Miknni Pass begins. 
Properly speaking, four passes are 
included under this general namei, 
the first being the Shibahara-tdge, 
2485 ft. above the sea. Descending to 
the bank of the Kiyotsu-gawa, we ar- 
rive at the vill. of Jditaumata (several 
inns), and mount again to reach the 
top of the Nakano-toge, 2,800 ft., 
amidst lovely views of river, forest, 
and mountain. We now go down 
150 ft. and up to a height of 8,200 
ft., whence far below is descried the 
vill. of Fatal (Inns, Tsf^-un Kwaisha, 
and others). Ascending easily from 
Futai, a short descent leads to 
Asakai (several inns), which stands 
at a height of 2,820 ft. in the midst 
of gentle slopes crowned by densely 
wooded summits. 

Here comes the ascent of the 
MikuniPcus properly so called, 4,100 
ft. above the sea, whence are seen 
Akagi-san, Futaeo-yama, and Kwan- 
non-dake to the 8., and on the K. thr 

m BouU 24.— From Kdriyama to Tmira and Mito. 

loog ridge of Naeba-san. Nagai 
stands in a piotareaqne gorae. A spur 
of the hills is crossed on the way to 
Sarii-ga4L759 where there are hot- 
springs and good aooommodation, 
such as cannot be found at Fttse, 
The scenery beyond this latter 
plaoe is magnificent, the way lead- 
ing through a precipitous gorge to 
the top of the Kirigakubo-tdget 
2,700 ft., at whose far side nestles 
the hamlet of Ndkayama. The 
path now rises by a gentle gradient 
oyer the moorland stretching be- 
tween Komochi-zan 1., and Onoko- 
yama r., to the NakayamO'tdge, 
2,170 ft., and oomes in full yiew of 
the Haruna mountains, with Ikao 
perched far up aboye the yalley, on 
the flank of Kwannon-dckke. 

The regular path descends 1. 
through Yokobori and Shlbukawa 
towai^s Maebashi, while our track 
diverges r., crossing the Asuma-gawa 
by ferry and ascending oyer open 
ooontry to Ikao. 

ROUTE 24. 


-ymcE OF IwAKi TO Taiba and 

Though the proyince of Iwaki is 
not generally considered attraotiye, 
the following itinerary is giyen for 
the benefit of such as may desire to 
trayerse it. 

Starting horn Kdriyama, 7 hrs. 
from Tokyo on the Northern Bail- 
way, the road leads through Mlhara 
to Taira on the Pacific Coast, and 
then diyerges S. to Mito in the 
proyince of Hitaohi, 5 hrs. from 
T6ky5 by rail. Time, 4 or 5 days. 

Inn at Miham, Omi-ya, 
„ „ Ono-niimachi, Kiku^a, 
„ „ Taira, Sumiyoshi. 
„ „ Kamioka, Tdkai-rd, 
„ „ Sukegawa, Ebi-ya. 


KORIYAMAto;— JRuChd. M, 

MIHARU 3 11 8 

Kadosawa 8 10 8 

Ono-niimachi .... 8 15 8J 

Kawamai 4 8 lOJ 

Uwadaira 4 8 10 

TAIRA 2 14 6f 

Yumoto 1 80 4i 

Tanabe 1 83 4f 

Sekida 2 33 7 

Kamioka 1 81 4f 

Takahagi 3 22 Sf 

Sukegawa 4 5 10 

Onuma 2 15 

Ishigami-Sotojuku 2 2 5 

Tabiko 2 16 6 

MITO 2 81 7 

Total 46 11 113 

Horse tram-cars run between Kdri- 
yama and Miharu, whence onwards 
the road is practicable for jinrikishas 
throughout, though mostly heavy 



(Routes 2^—33. 

Route 26.^^The Karmmwa*Nao$t8U Bailway. 


EODTE 25. 

Thx Kabuizawa-Naoetsu Bahi- 








("n*y5 to Ka. 


•] roisawa (see 
I p. 148). 






Branch roads 

to the Naka- 



sendO and 
to Matsa- 









(Boadto Knsa- 



{ tsu over the 

( Shibu-tfige. 




Kashiwabara .. 

I Alight for 
1 L^e NojlrL 
( Alight for as- 
? cent of My6- 
( kd-san. 











This line, starting from an ele- 
▼ation of 8,060 ft. at Karuizawa, 
descends to the sea-coast at Nao- 
etso, and is on the whole the 
most piotnresqoe railway ronte in 
Ivptai. The first five or six miles 
aie over a fairly level plain; 
BqI the conditions are changed 
when the sonthem slone of Asama- 
jHna has to he rounded. Here lies 
a water-shed whence flow large 
ili«n north and sooth, towards the 

Sea of Japan and the Pacific re* 
spectively. All the drainage of the 
ffreat volcano ponrs down through 
deep gnllies into the channel of 
one or other of these rivers. The 
soil, a loosely packed volcanic ash 
and gpravel of light colour, is easily 
scooped away, and large chasms 
are left whose sides the highway 
descends and ascends in zigzags. 
Throughout most of this section, 
the traveller looks down from a 
giddy height on rice-fields far be- 
low. From a point near Oiwake, 
where the Nakasendo is left be- 
hind, on to Komoro opportunities are 
afforded of seeing to advantage the 
Iwamurata plain backed by the 
imposing range of Yatsu-ga-take. 
Asama-yama has a less smiling 
aspect on this side ; the flat top of 
the cone lengthens out, the pinky 
brown colour of the sides assumes 
ahlackish hue, and chasms rough 
with indurated lava break the 
regularity of the slopes. Before 
Komoro is reached, a long volcanic 
ridge, dominating the .valley of 
the river Ghikuma as far as Ueda, 
reveals the fact that Asama is not 
an isolated cone, but the last and 
highest of a range of mountains. 
A former crater, which has dis- 
charged itself into this valley and 
is now extinct, displays a row of 
black jagged rocks in the hollow 
between Asama and the next peak 
of the range, a striking feature as 
seen from Komoro. 

Komoro (Inn, Tsuru-ya; Tea-house 
in public garden with good view) is a 
busy commercial centre. Formerly 
the seat of a Daimy5, it has turned 
its picturesque castle-groimds over- 
hanging the river, into a public 
garden. Saddlery, vehicles, and 
tools for the surrounding district are 
manufactured here. 

About 1 hr. walk from the station 
is the monastery of Shakusonjiy com- 
monly known as Nunobiki no Kwan- 
non^ which lies perched on the side of 
one of the high bluffs that overlook 
the Ohikuma*gawa. It is a very 
romantic spot, approached by a 


BouU 25.^Th6 KMrufpmHi^NifO€t$u BailMm^ 

narrow gouge leading from tlie 
river baiUc. The monks have tim- 
nelled through the rocks in Boveral 
places, making passages which lead 
to the various shrines and form a 
A>ntinuous corkscrew path round 
the perpendicular cliff. The white- 
painted hut close by the bell-tower 
on the summit commands a superb 
view of the Asama range and the 
valley of the Ghikuma-gawa. The 
monastery belongs to the Tendai sect 
of Buddhists. 

From Komoro to Ueda the rail- 
way runs down the valley of the 
Ghikuma-gawa, whose 8. bank is 
here formed by a series of bold bluffs, 
in many places descending sheer into 
the water. The massive Shinshfi- 
Hida range is now also in sight, its 
mountains, even in the height of 
simimer, being streaked with snow. 
A few miles before Ueda, the valley 
opens out into a circular plain of 
which that town is the centre. 

Ueda {InnSf Kame-ya, Uemura- 
ya^ possesses few attractions. 
White and other silks of a durable 
nature, but wanting in gloss and 
finish, are the principal products of 
the district. It is specially noted 
for a sfeout striped silk fabric called 

[The Nakasendd may be joined at 
Nagakubo by a jinrikisha road 
from Ueda, distance 11^ ri. 

A carriage road also turns off 
about the middle of the town 
to Matsumoto, whence a jin- 
rikisha road leads to Shima- 
shima at the foot of the Hida 
range of mountains. 


UEDA to :— Bi. Cho, M, 

Matsumoto ....11 25 28^ 

Enojima 3 — TJ 


Total 16 26 401 

The time taken by coaoh to 
Matsumoto ie from 8 to 10 hrs. 
The vehiol^ rtarts early kk the 

morning. At the top of the 
hill just before descending into 
Uie town, one of the finest 
mountain views in Japan is 
obtained. The Whole Hid& 
range spreads out before the 
spectator, Yari-ga-take being 
specially conspicuous with its 
spear-shaped peak that resem- 
bles the Matterhom. In the 
foreground are well - wooded 
hills, and in the distance the 
river winds like a silver thread. 

Matsumoto (InnSf *Shinano- 
ya, Eome-ya) is one of the most 
important towns in Shinshft^ 
being the centre of commeroe 
between the S. part of this 
province and the province of 
Echigo. Some of the best silk 
in Japan is produced here. The 
other principal manuhu^tures 
are a kind of cotton cloth called 
shiborif candied fruit, and 
baskets and boxes of bamboo 
work. Matsumoto became a 
castle-town early in the 16th 
oentury, and was the seat of 
a DaimyO called Matsudaira 
Tamba-no-Kami. The greater 
part of the castle is still pre- 
served. It is only 5 min. from, 
the inns, and should be visited, 
if only for the sake of the view 
to be obtained from the top 
storey. The chief sights of 
Matsumoto are the Shintd 
temple of Hachiman and the 
Buddhist temple of Sh^yqji. 
Thirty chd from Matsumoto, 
at the vill. of Asama {Inns, 
*Ume-no-yu, Inokuchi ), are 
some excellent hot baths much 
frequented by the people of the 
whole province. 

A carriage road oonneots 
Matsumoto with 8eba on the 
Nakasendd, 4 ri 17 cAd (12 m.). 

HhiMftsliiiiift is divided by 
the AzQsa-gawa into two parta^ 
of which the western is Shima* 
shima proper, and the easiera 
Haihiba {Ifm, ^^limisn^ya). 
The view fxom the ino is highly 
plotuMqna. tke Ml 

(Ma. Nagano and TempU of Z^nk^i. 


place from which to ascend 
Tari^a-take (see Boute 80, 
Section 4.] 

The old castle of Ueda, of which 
one watch-tower still remains in- 
tact, stands on the river hank be- 
yond the town, and forms a striking 
feature in the landscape as the 
train leaves the station. The exit 
from the amphitheatre of hills en- 
closing Ueda is narrow and hidden 
from view. Just before the line 
turns into it, a curious bluff with a 
cave in its face is noticeable on the. 
other side of the river. 

Before reskching Yashiro, there is 
on the other side of the river a hill 
with the curious name of Oba-sute- 
yama^ that is, ** the Hill where the 
Aunt was Abandoned." 

It i8 explAined lay a legend which tells us 
tliat the abandoned one was Qyama-bime, 
aant to Ko-tio-hana-sakn-ja-Hime, the 
knrely goddess of Fuji, who married Ni- 
nigi-no-Mikoto, the first ancestor of the 
Imperial family of Japan This Ojama- 
bime was so ugly, ill-tempered, envious, 
and malicious that none of the gods 
wotild take her in marriage. Her nephew 
and niece, in despair that her evil disposi- 
tion should thus stand in the way of her 
happiness, entreated her to reform, bat 
in vain. At last the younger goddess 
suggested that a tour through the beauti- 
ful scenery of Shinano, when she might 
contemplate the moon from some lofty 
mountain-top, would be likely to have a 
softening effect. So they set out together, 
and after surmounting innumerable 
peaks, at length reached this place. Ko- 
no-b&na-Hime mounted a stone, and 
pointing with her finger, said to her 
aunt, " Youder is a rock. Climb up it and 
look calmly round, and your heart vrtll be 
purified.** The aunt, tired with her long 
Journey, melted under the gentle iuflu- 
enccjt of the harvest moon. Turning to 
her niece, she said, ** I will dwell forever 
on this hill-top, and join with the God of 
Suwa in watcbdng ovor the land." And 
with these words, she vanished in the 
moonbeams.— This legend, though told of 
Shintd divinities, is probably of Buddhist 

At Tasbiro a road branches off 
to the important town of Matsushiro:, 
and down the r. bank of the Ghiku- 
]D»-gawa to Niigata. Before reach- 
ing Nagano, both the Ohikuma- 
nwa and the Scugawa are crossed. 
Tkim hM4^wat«r8 of the latter mm 

near Lake Suwa. It flows pasi 
Matsnmoto, joining the Ghiknma^ 
gawa a short distance to the S.E. of 
Nagano, and forming with this 
laige stream the great Shinano- 
gawa which enters the sea at Nii- 
gata. One of the spans in the 
Saigawa viaduct is 200 ft. long. 

Nagano or Zeiikoji (Inns, *Seiy6- 
ken, Fuji-ya, both semi-foreign ; 
Ogi-ya) is the capital of the pre- 
fecture of Nagano, which comprises 
the whole province of Shinshfl. It 
is beautifully situated at the foot of 
lofty mountains, which form 6in 
imposing background and almost 
surround it. A considerable trade 
is done in woven goods and agri- 
cultural implements. Numerous 
fine buildings in foreign style and 
crowds of pilgrims thronging the 
streets, give the town an air of 
exceptional prosperity. The Japa- 
nese Club called Tosan-hwan^ which 
has a room of 144 mats, commands 
a fine prospect. The Buddhist Tern' 
pie of ZetikUji is one of the most 
celebrated in the whole Empire. It 
is dedicated to Amida and his two 
followers, Kwannon and Daiseishi, 
a group of whose images is here 

This sacred group iB said to have been 
made by Shaka Muni himself out of gold 
found on Mount Shnini, the centre of the 
Universe. After various vicissitudes in. 
China and Korea, it was brought to Japan 
in A.D. 562, as a present from the King of 
Korea to the Mikado on the first intro- 
duction of Buddhism into Japan. All the 
eCTorc of the Japanese enemies of Bud- 
dhism to make away with the image were 
in vain. Thrown into rivei-s, hacked at, 
burnt, it survived all and finally found a 
resting-place at ZenkOji in A.D. 002. 

The building 1. of the entrance 
is the residence of an abbess of 
high rank and a sisterhood of nuns. 
Bows of shops for the sale of 
rosaries and pictures of the sacred 
triad line the oourt. Behind the 
shops are the houses of the priests, 
each in its own neatly arranged 
garden. At the end of this court 
is the chief gatewajc, with imageis 
of Monjn and the Shi Tenn5, which' 
are exhibited oiAj en New Yeax^ 


BoMt^ 25.—Tli4 Karuimwa-^NaoitBU Raiiway. 

dfty. The Main Temple, erected 
in 1701, is a iwo^toned bailding 
198 ffc. in depth by 108 ft. in 
width, with a huge three-gabled 
roof, so that the ridge is T-shaped, 
l^is form is called shumoku-Bukuri, 
from its resemblance to the shumoku^ 
a wooden hammer with which the 
Buddhists strike the small bell used 
by them in their religious services. 
The roof is supported by 136 pillars, 
and there are said to be 69,384 
zafters, the same number as that of 
the written characters contained in 
the Chiuese version of the Buddhist 
scriptures. At the entrance two 
beautiful new marble lamps, about 
6 ft. high, deserve inspection. The 
sacred golden group, standing in 
a chapel on the W. side, is kept 
in a shrine dating from A.D. 1369, 
shrouded by a gorgeous brocade 
curtain. For a small fee, the cur- 
tain is raised so as to show the outer- 
most of the seven boxes in which 
the image is enclosed. A space of 
88 mats (about 1,600 sq. ft.) is set 
apart for the worshippers. On the 
£. side of the main hall is an en- 
trance to a dark gallery which runs 
lound below the floor of the chancel 
(naijin), issuing again by the same 
door. To complete this circuit 
(kaidan-mawari) thrice is con- 
sidered highly meritorious. More 
than 200 bronze and stone lanterns 
crowd the space in front of the main 

The principal festivals are the 
Dai Nembutsu, or Great Invocation 
of Buddha, held on the 31st July, 
those held at the vernal and au- 
tumnal equinoxes, and one on the 
14th March, in commemoration of 
the terrible earthquake which shook 
this reffion in 1847. 

On the r. of the temple enclosure 
is the Public Garden, which com- 
mands a good view of the valley. 

; Excursions prom Nagano. 

1. Bumndo YakosM, 1 WN.E. 
of the town, a shrine dedicated to 
iiae Buddhist god of medicine, is 
peroh^ |4gh ,«Jx>ve the path in a 

large tree growing oat of the rook. 
Close by are some petroleum springs. 

2. Tondcnslii-Mio and Ken-iio- 
mine* Five ri from Nagano is the 
temple of Togakushutafit whither 
the god Tajikara-o-no-Mikoto is said 
to have hurled the rocky door of the 
cavern in which the Sun-Goddess 
had hidden herself from her sub- 
jects in heaven and earth. The 
road, which is passable for jinriM- 
shas drawn by two men, leaves the 
town on the 1. side of the temple, 
and ascends a narrow ravine to the 
hamlet of ArayeLtu^ whence, winding 
over low hills, it issues on to a moor 
which encircles the base of Isuna- 
san. A torii is reached at the 
highest point of the moor. The path 
then descends for over a mile to a 
point where it divides, the r. branch 
proceeding direct to the Chu-in, 
the 1. reaching the Hokd-in after 12 
chd more. The latter temple, 
situated at the top of a long flight of 
steps lined with old crjrptomerias, 
is a large building decorated with 
wood-carvings of considerable merit. 
From this point to the Chu-in is a 
walk of 12 chd through the wood. 
Those who intend to climb Ken-no- 
mine^ the highest point of the moun- 
tain behind Togakushi, will do best 
to pass the night here. The road 
to the Oku-no-in (30 chd) is pretty 
level the whole way, except during 
the last few hundred yards. The 
priests* house commands a fine view, 
including the smnmits of Fuji and 
Asama. Half-way between the 
bridge and the red gate-way on the 
road to the Oku-no-in, a path 
branches off r. under a wooden torii 
to Ken-no-mine. A walk of about 
3 ri leads to the summit, below 
which is a hut where pilgrims pass 
the night, in order to witness sunrise 
from the peak, whence Amida is 
supposed to be visible riding on 
a cloud of many colours. 

3. Iiona-sanf or liauna-san, as 
the name is also pronounced, may 
be ascended either irom Arayasu or 
from the Ohfl-ini but the latter is 
pseferal^e, as the oUmb ttosxk Asa* 

Lmkt Ntijiri. Akakura. 


jrasu 18 steep. From the Ghft-in, 
the summit is easily gained in 1^ 
hr. walking up a long spur. The 
Tiew is very extensive in every 
direction. The traveller may either 
return to Arayasu, or strike 
away to the 1. by a path leading 
over by the moor to Of uruma on a 
cross country road called the Hok- 
koku Kaiddy and close to Kashiwa- 
bara station, — a 3 hrs. walk. 

The railwav from Nagano con- 
tinues along the plain as far as 

Tojono* Here it enters a narrow 
valley, which it follows up until 
Kasbiwabara is reached at a height 
of 3,200 ft. At Toyono a road leads 
over the Shibu-toge to Kusatsu (see 
p. 158.) A fine view is obtained of 
Isnna-san on the 1. as 

Kashiwaliara is approached. This 
section of the line traverses a re- 
gion where the snowfall is peculiar- 
ly heavy, drifts occasionally ac- 
cumulating to a depth of over 10 
ft. and stopping all traffic for 
weeks at a time. 

[The traveller with time to spare 
should alight here to visit the 
beautiful little lake called No- 
jiri-koy 2^ m. distant. As the 
accommodation at the viU. of 
Nojiri is very poor, it will be 
weU to arrange one's plans so 
as to catch a train at Taguchi, 
the next station, or to proceed 
to the hamlet of Akakura, 
situated on the side of Myoko- 
zan and noted for its hot 
spriogR. Akakura is also the 
point from which the ascent of 
Myoko-zan is most easily made. 
The walk from Kasbiwabara is 
through a pleasant oak wood, 
whence the road descends slight- 
ly to 

TH^iM (Inn, Katsura-ya), pic- 
turesquely situated on the 
shores of the lake, which is sur- 
rounded by low hills covered 
with thickets. On a densely 
wooded islet, is a temple called 
Uga-no-Jinja. In front of the 

temple stand two magnificent 
cedars, one of which measures 
27 ft. in circumference. The 
view of the giant masses of 
Izuna, Kurohime, and Myoko- 
zan, as seen from the island, 
is exceptionally fine. Good 
bathing may be had in the 
lake, and the roads in the 
neighbourhood are all that 
could be desired. The lake 
sometimes freezes over at the 
end of January, when the ice 
becomes passable for men and 
horses. Its waters find an out- 
let into the Sekigawa, which, 
flowing from sources on Toga- 
kushi-san and Yakeyama, falls 
into the sea at Naoetsu. 

From Nojiri to Akakura is a 
walk of 2 hrs. But jinrikishas 
may be taken to the vill. of 
Tagiri on the main road, 
whence, turning sharp 1. over 
the lower grassy slopes of My5- 
k5-zan, it leads after 28 chd 
to the baths. Leaving Nojiri, 
the road descends to the small 
town of Sekigawa, named after 
the river and situated at the 
junction of two picturesque 
wooded glens, where the torrent 
rushes under the branches of 
trees overhanging it on either 
side. This river — the Sekigawa 
— here forms the boundary be- 
tween the provinces of Echigo 
and Shinshu. A short distance 
beyond the town of the same 
name a road branches off r. to 
Taguchi station, the nearest 
point on the line of railway 
for Akakura. 

Akaknin is a favourite resort 
of the inhabitants of Takata 
and other places on the plain 
during a part of August and 
September. It possesses an ex- 
cellent Inn, the Kogaku-ro, 
boasting a gigantic bath, which 
is supplied with hot water 
brougnt in pipes from sources 
2 ri further up the mountain. 
This inn is dosed during the 


Route 25,-7— 2^hs Karauawa^Nti^^u Railway. 

wiuter monihR. The other inns 
are of an inferior description. 
From the hamlet nothing 
obstructs the glorious prospect 
of the rich plain extending 
down to Naoetsn on the Sea of 
Japan, and of the island of Sado 
on the dim horizon. About 
8 ri off, between Kurohime and 
Jlvoko-zan, is a large waterfall 
called Nae no iaki. As already 
indicated, Akakura is the most 
convenient point from which to 
make the ascent of 

Myoko-znn (8,180 ft.). This 
mountain is not free from snow 
until July. Instead of ascend- 
iiiR by the pilgrim's path, 
which is extremely steep and 
overgrown with tall bamboo 
grass, the pvath to the solfatara 
uuder Akakura-yama should be 
taken. This also lies through 
the same sort of cane-brake, 
but has the advantage of rising 
very gently and of being shorter 
than the other. Prom the 
solfatara, where two very hot 
springs gush forth, a gully 
has to be ascended, and the 
main path is entered at a 
point where it is no longer 
difficult or steep. Iron chains 
have been fixed in order to en- 
able the mountaineer to pass 
along the narrow ledges — no 
more t|;ian 2 inches wide — 
which at one point serve as a 
path. The track, which ascends 
the crumbling rock of the sum- 
mit by natural steps, is perfectly 
safe, tfiough somewhat steep. 
Myoko-zan forms part of an ex- 
tinct volcano. The mountains 
immediately surrounding it are 
the long semi-circnlar ridge 
called Myoko-zan-no-Urayama, 
or the *' Hind-part of Mvoko- 
zan," on the S.E., and Kana- 
yama on the N. Other solfa- 
taras, besides that mentioned, 
occur on the mountain. Water 
is found at the very sum- 
mit, on which stands a small 
wooden shrine dedicated to 

Amida. The view to the S.E. in- 
cludes Asama and Fuji. Direct- 
ly S. rises Kurohime with its two 
peaks, between which is seen 
the top of Izuna-san. Ken-no- 
mine bears about S.8.W., while 
the round -topped mountain 
bearing W.N.W. is Yakeyama, 
an extinct volcano. To the 
N.E. the view extends over the 
plain of Echigo to the Sea of Ja* 
pan and the Island of Sado. Not 
less than 7 hrs. should be allow- 
ed for the ascent and descent. 
The mountain is much frequent- 
ed by pilgrims, especially on the 
28rd night of the 6th moon, old 
calendar, when they ascend in 
great numbers by torchlight, 
but do not pass through Aka^ 
kura. — From Akakura a path 
descends viA Futamata, (26 cho) 
to Sekiyamat 1^ ri. The path 
to Taguchi station is shorter, 
but the difference has to be 
made up by rail.] 

There is a falling gradient ci 
about 600 ft. in the 4} m. traversed 
between Taguchi and 

Sekiynma (Inn, Ogi-ya). The as- 
cent of Myoko-zan may also be 
made from here, but it involves a 
longer walk over the moor than 
from Akakura. The gradient is still 
heavy until Aral is reached, where 
the country becomes flatter. 

Arai (good accommodation) is a 
flourishing town noted for tobao- 
oo, pueraria starch {knMu)t and pe- 
troleum, the springs being in the 
immediate neighbourhood. Here is 
first seen the custom peculiar to 
most of the towns in Echigo, of 
covered ways along the house-fronts, 
used when the snow lies deep in the 

Takntii {Inn, Koyo-kwan) is a 
large place, formerly the castle- 
town of a Daimyd named Sakaki- 
bara, one of the four families who 
enjoyed the privilege of providing 
a regent during the minority of a 
Shogun. The town is traversed by 
a long street, which bends repeated- 

^aoetsu to Nligata, 


ly at right angles. Ootton-weaving 
is extensively carried on. The Hok- 
koku Kaido branches off 1. near here 
to the provinces of Kaga, Eohizen, 
etc. (see Koute 83). 

Naoetsa (InnSy Matsuba-kwan, 
Fumkawa-ya), situated at the 
mouth of the Sekigawa, is a port 
of call for steamers ,to Niigata, 
Fushiki, and other places on the 
West Coast. It is also at present 
the terminus of the railway which, 
however, the authorities intend 
to cany on to Niigata, about 
74 m. distant. Tliis line, opening 
up one of the richest provinces of 
the Empire, is no less important for 
strategical reasons. It will practi- 
cally bring Niigata within one day 
of the capital. Tunnels are to be 
cut at several places on the coast 
between Hassaki and Kashiwazaki. 
Naoetsu produces a jelly called axoa- 
amcj made from millet, and appre- 
ciated by both Japanese and Euro- 

About 1 n to the S. of Naoetsu 
lies the vill. of (?oc7w(Jnn, Shimizu- 
ya), a favourite resort during the 
hot weather, where several good 
tea-houses have been built on 
cliffs overlooking the sea. Excel- 
lent bathing may be had on the 
long stretch of sandy beach imme- 
diately below. 

The traveller wishing to reach 
Niigata has a variety of routes to 
choose from. The easiest way is 
to go direct by steamer which leaves 
Naoetsu daily, from April to Novem- 
ber, calling at Kashiwazaki, Izumo- 
saki, and Teradomari. The whole 
distance by sea is 84 riy and is 
accomplished in 9 hrs. The distance 
by land is a trifle less, leading for 
the greater part along either the 
sandy beach or a ridge of sand- 
hills. The whole of this coast as 
far as Teradoinari (Inn^ Oshiki-ya) 
is inhabited by a population of 
hardy fishermen ; and the sea yields 
sea-bream Uai)^ plaice {karet)^ and 
a kind of Drill {hirame)^ in large 
quantities and of great size. The 

fish caught here are cons£dd)red 
much superior in flavour to those 
taken off the coast of Etcha further 
West. The women are sturdy and 
capable of the hardest toil. They 
usually perform the labour of porters, 
and even drag carts. Muslin made 
of hemp, and called Echigo chijiani^ 
is woven in the neighbouring vil- 
lages, and generally dyed indigo 
colour wibh a faint pattern in white. 
The Japanese esteem it highly as 
material for summer clothing. 

The journey may also be divided 
between the sea, the road, and the 
river, by leaving the steamer at 
Kashiwazaki (InUf Tenkyo), 11 ri 
from Naoetsu, where a road 
branches off to Nagaoka {Intit Tsu- 
ruga-ya), 7 ri, from which town, 
and calling at Satijd {InUf Chdchin- 
ya) and other minor places, the 
river steamers take 5 or 6 hrs. to 
Niigata. . The scenery is uninterest- 

Or continuing the sea route to 
luumosaki (Inn^ Kakinoki-ya), a 
shorter land journey may be made 
to Yoita {Inn^ Shiojin), 3 rt, where 
also the river is reached, and from 
which Niigata is about 14 ri distant 
by steamer. 

The itinerary by road for the 
whole distance is as follows. 

NAOETSU to :— Ri, Chd, if. 

Kuroi — 86 2i 

Katamachi 1 29 4| 

Kakizaki 2 33 7 

Hassaki 1 24 4 

Aomigawa 2 27 6| 

Kashiwazaki...... 1 34 4| 

Arahama 1 18 8} 

Shiiya 2 — 6 

Izumosaki 2 29 6} 

Yamada 1 28 4 

Teradomari 1 22 4 

Yahiko 3 7 7} 

Takenomaohi .... 2 9 6| 

Akatsuka 1 22 4 

Uchiuo 1 23 4 

NIIGATA 3 19 8J 

Total 33 30 82^ 


Route 25. — The KantUavca^Naoetm Railway. 

Migflta (Hotel by Miola, called 
Bestaurant iDternaiional ; Inns, 
*Yd6hi-kwaD, Koshisei), capital of 
the prefecture of the same name, 
is situated on a narrow, sandy 
strip of land between the Shinano- 
gawa and the sea. 

Niigata was opened to foreign trade 
in 1800 ; bnt the commercial expectations 
entertained with r^;ard to it have not been 
fulfilled, and almost the only foreigners 
now residing there are a few missionaries. 
Owing to the bar at the mouth of the 
river, vessels of foreign build cannot enter 
the port, but are compelled to anchor in 
the roadstead outside. A supplementary 
port in the Island of Sado, called EbitU' 
Minato, is o^ien to foreign vessels to take 
refuge in when the direction of the pre- 
vailing wind renders it dangerous to 
Anchor off Niigata ; but trade is not per- 
mitted there. 

The town, which covers an area 
of ratlier more than 1 sq. mile, 
consists of five parallel streets in- 
tersected by other streets and canals. 
A line of low sand-hills shuts out 
all view of the sea. The climate of 
Niigata is very trying,— hot in sum- 
mer and terribly cold in winter, 
snow falling to a depth of 2 or 
8 ft., and lying for a considerable 
time. The houses are built with 
their gable ends towards the 
street, and the roofs are prolong- 
ed beyond the walls in order to 
prevent the snow from blocking up 
the windows. An enormous quantity 
of coarse lacquer ware is manufac- 
tured at Niigata ; and articles of a 
peculiar pattern called mokusa-nurit 
or " sea-weed lacquer," are brought 
for sale from the district of Aizu 
where they are produced. In the 
suburbs of the city, Echigo chi- 
jimi is manufactured from hemp. 
The small public garden sur- 
rounding the Shinto temple of 
Hakusan, affords a fine prospect of 
the river and of the lofty range of 
moimtains some 10 ri distant to 
the E. The neighbourhood of Nii- 
gata offers few opportunities for 
excursions. The chief one is to 
the kerosene wells of Niitsu, some 
5 ri distant by basha or jlnrikisha. 

Travellers intending to proceed 
north from Niigata, are advised to 

take steamer to Sakata, Funakawa^ 
or Hakodate; or else they may 
go across country from Sakata to- 
Sendai (see Bte. 78). 

Island of Sado. 

The Island of Sado, which lies 3i 
miles W. of Niigata, and is included 
in the Niigata Prefecture, can be 
reached by small steamer from the 
latter place in about 5 hrs. Steam- 
ers run daily from May to Octob^ ; 
for the rest of the year the sailings 
are irregular on account of the fre- 
quent storms that prevail on this 
bleak coast. The island is very hilly, 
consisting of two groups of moun- 
tains, separated by a cultivated 
plain. The principal formation is 
limestone. Sado has a population 
of 111,000, and is principally noted 
for its gold and silver mines situat- 
ed close to the town of Aikawa, 
which have been worked from the 
earliest times. During the middle 
ages, Sado was used as a place of 
exile for criminals. Among those 
who were relegated to its inhospi- 
table shore was the Buddhist saint,. 

Aikawa {Inn, Takada-ya) is a 
poor-looking place, though it has a 
population oi 18,000, and though 
the gold and silver mines are so 
near at hand. 

Kbisn-niinato {Inn by Ito Sei- 
emou), where passengers from Nii- 
gata generally land. Is a large but 
wretched vill., situated on a narrow 
strip of beach between the sea and 
a lagoon. The distance from Ebisu- 
minato to Aikawa is 6 ri 29 did- 
(16i m.). 

RotUe 26. — Ways to and from Kofu. 


BOUTE 26. 

Ways to and from Kopu. 




Kofii is a pleasant resting-place 
After arduous travel, — its central 
situation in the beautiful province 
of Koshu, and its proximity to 
places of such peculiar interest as 
Mitake, Fuji, Minobu, the Rapids i 
of the Fujikawa, etc., causing it to 
be included in so many different 
tours as to render a description of 
the several ways to and from it 

1. — KoFU AND Neighbourhood: 


Kofn {InnSf Choyo-tei with for- 
eign restt. in the public garden ; 
Yonekura in Yanugi-machi ; Sado- 
ya), the capital of the prefecture of 
Yamauashi, is noted for the pro- 
gressive spirit of its people. For its 
size, it has more buildings in Euro- 
pean style than any other provin- 
cial town in Japan. Conspicuous 
amongst these are the Prefecture, 
the Normal School, the Banks, 
the Court Houses, the Town Hall, 
the Industrial School, and the silk- 
filatures. The castle grounds were 
many years ago turned into an ex- 
perimental garden, where excellent 
fruit and vegetables are grown. The 
platform where the keep formerly 
stood, affords a fine view of the 
town and surrounding counti^. 
Kof a is noted for its kaiki, a thin 
«iUien fabric used for the linings 

of dresses and for bed -quilts; 
also for a sweetmeat called tsuki 
no shizukut that is " moon-drops," 
consisting of grapes coated with 
sugar. The province of Koshtk pro- 
duces excellent grapes, and at- 
tempts have been made, of late 
years, to manufacture wine and 
brandy from them. The grapes are 
in their prime about the end of 
September or beginning of October. 
Crystals are found in the neigh- 
bourhood, and cormorant fishing on 
I a small scale may be witnessed. A 
great festival, called Afi-ynki no 
Matsiirij is held in Kofu on the ls( 

The chief historical interest of Kdfa 
centres in it« mediaeval hero, Takeda 
ShinKen, who was one of the fiercest 
feudal chieftains of the lawless times 
that preceded the establishment of the 
Toknffawa dynasty of HhCgnns. Bom in 
1521 as the eldest son of his father, lord 
of Kfisha, it was bis fate to be unjustly 
naKsed over by that father in favour of 
nis second brother; and he was obliged 
to fei»?n stupidity as a l)oy, in order to 
live in safety. When, however, boUK 
youths i-eached man's estate, Takeda 
Shinffcn's superiority in skill and couni^ 
^ined all the warriors of the cliui over to 
his side, and he succee<led his father 
without demur. His whole time w»« 
spent in Avajfing war aiiaiust tl»o liarons 
of the neiffhl)ourinff provinces of central 
and eastern Japan, especially against 
Uesugi Kenshin, lord of Echiffo. Their 
most famous battle was that of Kawa- 
naka-jima. In middle life he liccame 
converted to the doctrines of the Tendai 
sect of Buddhists, built a t<*m])Ie to the 
god Bishamon, did public penance, ab- 
jured the eating of fish and all intercourse 
with women, and went so far as to have 
himself decorated with the title of arch- 
bishop,— for what ecclesiastical author!- 
* ties were going to refuse nnythitig to a 
zealot who disposed of so many soldiers? 
He did not, however, renounce his grand 
passion, war, but kept on fighting till the 
j end, his latter years being much disturbed 
by the consciousness of the growinjf 
lK>wer of Teyasu, and being divi«led bo- 
' tween quarrels and roconciliations with 
' that great captain. When mortally 
j wounde<l in 1573, he left orders with his 
I successor to hold no funeral service in 
j his honour, but to keep nis death a pro- 
' found secret for three years, and then to 
sink his body privately in Lake Sawa, 
enclosed in a stone coflin. I'his was in 
order to prevent his nomerons foe« from 
taking heart at the news of his deceaae. 
His last will and testament was only par- 
tially obeyed; for tboagh bis death wa« 


Route 26.— Way $ to and from Kdju.^ 

kept secret «« lon^ as possible, tbe body 
WAS not sank in tbe lake, but buried at 
the temple of Kirinji at Matsuzato, a few 
miles from Kdfu. The place still exists, 
the temple garden being a tasteful speci- 
men of rockwork on a large scale. Brave 
hat superstitious, Takeda Shiugen whs 
also an adept at gnverniug men. His 
fjeople liked and respected him, as was 
shown by the fact that none ever rebelled 
aoainst nim, even in that turbulent age 
when every man's hand was against every 

From Kofu a very pretty excur- 
sion may be made to the temples 
of IHitake, distant about 5 ri. 
Jinrikishas can be taken as far as j 
a place called Kizawa, soule 2 ri ! 
from Kofu, whence onwards it is 
necessary to walk. The whole , 
distance can be accomplished in j 
3^ hrs. The road winds up a fine | 
rocky valley, crossing and recross- ' 
log the Kamezawa-gawa several ' 
times. Beyond the hamlet of ' 
Kiyokawa, the river cuts its way 
through tlie rocks so as to form a i 
charming double cascade called i 
Sd-gawa-fuchi. A short way on, the 
traveller leaves this, the prettiest 
part of the road, and ascending to 
the r., comes in sight of the rocky 
valley in which lie the temples 
and village of Mitake. Excepting 
the beautiful site, a grove of magni- 
ficent trees, and the fine stone-work 
facing the slopes of the terraces, 
little now remains of the former 
grandeur of the place, which has 
fallen into the destructive hands 
of modern Shinto iconoclasts. Tlie 
village of Mitake (/nit, Tama- 
ya), 2,800 ft. above the sea, lies 
just below the temple grounds, 
on the bank of a stream in the 
midst of extremely picturesque 
scenery, the most conspicuous ' 
rocky peaks being Oaki-san — a| 
peculiar sugar-loaf cone— and Ten- \ 
gu-iiva on the opposite side of the 
valley. Specimens of rock-ciystal , 
are sold in the village. They are I 
procured chiefly from mines in the 
neighbourhood of Kurobira on the 
way to Kimpu-zan. 

Kimpn-zhiiy a granite mountain 
6^3Q0 tt^ high) can be easily ascended 

in one day from Mitake by making 
an early start. The way lies 
through the vill. of Kurobira. Near 
a Shinto shrine 2^ hrs. beyond 
Kurobira, there is a good-sized 
hut for the accommodation of 
pilgrims ; and here the real ascent 
begins, the distance hence to the 
summit being about 2,000 ft. Tho 
way lies over a heap of leirge 
boulders. At two places, ladders- 
are fixed to assist the climber 
over difficult gaps, and at two 
others chains give additional secu- 
rity; but even without the help of 
these, there would be no danger. 
The top is crowned by a huge 
inaccessible mass of granite, rising 
to a height of some 50 ft., and 
forming a landmark by which the 
mountain can be recognised at a 
great distance. The view includes 
Asama-yama on the N., Yatsu-ga- 
tako almost due W., Fuji to the 
S., and the lofty mountain range 
on the Western boundary of the 
province of Koshd. 

2. — From Tokyo to Kofu by the 
KosHu Kaido. [From Saru- 


Tho fir>t stage of this journey, 
viz. as far as Hachioji, is by train 
from either Shimbashi or Shinjiku 
station, IJ hr. from the latter (seo 
p. 119). Tho itinerary of tho rest 
of tlio route is as follows: — 

HACHIOJI to:— m. Chd. il/. 

Komagiuo 2 19 GJ 

Yose 2 30 7 

Yosliino 33 2J 

Uenchara 1 27 4^: 

Notajiri 1 19 3| 

Saruhashi 8 6 7| 

Ozuki 1 2 2i. 

Kuronota 2 29 g| 

Katsunuma 3 15 Si 

KOFU 4 2 10 

Total 24 2 58^ 

The whole ground may be covered 
in 2 days, by taking jinrikishas fiom 
Hachioji to Kdfu, and sleeping the 

The KS^m Kaido. 


first night at Saruhaahi. Carriages 
of the usual springless kind run the 
whole way. The scenery is pretty all 
along the route after passing Ko- 
magino, but the road is often heavy 
ezoept olose to the larger yillages. 

Haehioji (Iniit Kado-ya), the road 
lias along tne flat to Komagino, 
beyond which vill. a gradual rise 
leads up the Kobotoke-tdge. The 
new highway, avoiding as it does 
the summit of the pass (1,850 ft.), 
misses the extensive view over the 
plain of Tokyo and the sea, for 
which this portion of the journey 
was formerly noted; but on the 
way down on the other side, there 
is a fine prospect, of the Kdshtl 
mountains. Soon iho foriil*! valley 
of the Banyu-gawa, also called Ka- 
tsura-gawa, comes in sight. This 
river flows at the bottom of a deep 
ravine and remains a constant com- 

Knion as far as Ozuki. Some poor 
mlets are passed before reaching 

Yosliiuo {Inn by Ofusa Seijtird). 
In the neighbourhood of 

Ueuohura {Inn, Uehara), a great 
deal of refuse silk is spun and woven 
into the fabric called tsumtigiy 
to be taken to market at Hachi- 
^i. The town, lying on a plateau, 
Imls no wells. All the water has 
to be brought from a distance in 
wooden pipes, and is consequently 
fool. From Uenohara, the road 
p^onges down to the bed of the 
Tsorukawa, a' tributary of the 
BanyQ, and then again ascends 
and descends before arriving at 
Notajiri. Delightful glimpses of 
Fnji are obtained on the way. The 
scenery becomes strikingly pretty 
before reaching 

Sarnhashi {Innst Daikoku-ya, 

Uiat is, the *' Monkey's Bridge," also 
called Enkjid, the latter name being in- 
deed bnt tne Chinese pronunciation of 
the same ideoinYtph8 which in pure Japa- 
aae read SarKkathi. The place derives its 
Dune from the bridge huviug formerly 
been a mere crazy plank, such as monkeys 
alone might be supposed likely to venture 

Perpendicular clifls frown down 
upon the dark emerald stream, 
which is narrow and deep at 
this point. The present bridge 
is more or less of the cantilever sort, 
having the ends of the horizontal 
beams planted deep in the soil 
that covers the rock. Saruhashi, 
though but an unpretending place, 
has a certain importance as a 
market- town for the surrounding 
villages. Specimens ot the tsumugi 
above-mentioned may be purchased 
here at cheap rates. 

The scenery continues to be lovely 
after passing Saruhashi. There is 
a celebrated view at a point where 
the Eatsnra-gawa is joined by its 
affluent, the Watagawa, between 
Saruhashi and Komahashi. 

Oziikl is badly situated, as a hill 
rising behind it shuts out the sun- 
light and the view of Fuji ; more- 
over the accommodation is poor. 
[A road to Yoshida, from which 
place Fuji may bo ascended (see 
p. 144), branches off hero to the 
1., following up the valley of 
the Katsura-gawa, and passing 
through the cleanly and thriv- 
ing town of Yamiira (/«?i, 
Susuki-tei). At Toka-ichiba 
there is a pretty cascade, which 
is seen to best advantage from 
the verandah of the tea- 
house close by. The distance 
from Ozuki to Knmi-Y4»shida 
{In7it Kogiku) is just under 6 
ri. The whole road is in' a 
manner dominated by Fuji, 
beginning near Ozuki, whore 
the great volcano appears en 
vignette t and then grows and 
grows till it fills up the entire 
foreground. It is also curious 
to observe the gradual conver- 
sion of the lava into arable 
soil, partly by weathering, part- 
ly by human toil.] 

At Ozuki the road abandons the 
Katsura-gawa, and proceeds up 
the valley of the Hanasaki-gawa 
through villages devoted to the 
breeding of silkworms. The diver- 


Route 26, — Ways to and from Kd/u. 

sified forms of the mountains lend 
an unusual oharm to the soene. 
After passing 

Kiiroiiota (In7if Miyoshi-ya), we 
ascend tl)e Sasago-tdgej 3,500 ft. 
above the sea, or 1,300 ft. above 

Katsiiiinma is one of the cen- 
tres of the grape-growing industry. 
The fertile plain of Koshu now 
stretches out before us, surrounded 
on every side by a wall of high moun- 
tains. The chief summits to the 
W. are Koma-ga-take, Hd-5-zan, 
Jizo-dake, Kwannon, and Yakushi, 
backed by the long chain collec- 
tively known under the name of 
Shirane-san. Fuji also is visible 
now and then over the tops of a 
range bounding the plain on the S. 
From the vill. of Todoroki to Shinto 
Kurihara^ the road is lined with 
peach-trees, double cherry-trees and 
kaido {Pyrus sp€ctahilis\ which are 
in full blossom about the middle of 
April. The road runs along the 
plain from this point into Kofu. 

3. — Tokyo to Kofu by the Valley 
OF THE Tamagawa (Ome Kaid5). 


TOKYO ( Shinjiku Station ) to 
Tachikawa by train in 1 hr., thence 
by road to : — 

m. Cho. M. 

Hamura 3 18 8^ 

OME 1 18 3J 

Sawai 2 18 gJ 

Kotaba 1 18 3J 

Hikawa 2 — 6 

Kochi-no-yu(Yuba) 3 — 7^ 

Kamozawa 2 — 5 

Tabayama 2 18 6J 

Ochiai 3 18 8^ 

Yauagaziwa-toge . . 1 — 2| 

Kamikane 1 18 3f 

Ofuji — 18 l| 

Kusakabe 1 18 3j 

Hirashina 1 — 2^ 

Satogaki 2 — 5 

KOFU 1 — 2i 

Total 30 18 76i 

This exceptionally pretty route, 
passing through some of the finest 
scenery in Eastern Japan, is much 
to be reconunended at all seasons, 
and particularly in spring-time 
when the trees are in flower. Kofu 
can be easily reached by it in 3^ 
days. Jinrikishas are practicable 
from Tachikawa to Ome ; but the 
road across the plain is mostly 
rough, and it is better to walk. 
Jinrikishas can, indeed, be taken 
on to Sawai, where the first night 
should be spent; the rest of the 
journey till within 3 rt of Kofn 
must be performed on foot. Fair 
accommodation is also to be had 
at K5chi-no-yu, Tabayama, and 
Ofuji, but the food is everywhere 
very poor. 

Leaving Tachikawa and passing 
through several hamlets, we reach 
in 1 hr. the squalid-looking town of 
Raijimay a short distance beyond 
the Treaty Limit boundary. From 
the point where the road joins the 
Tamagawa aqueduct to the vill. of 
Hamura, the surface is harder and 
travelling somewhat easier. At 

Hamura (Inn, Tamaru-ya), we 
enjoy a charming glimpse of the 
Tamagawa, and can inspect the 
massive stone-work of the dam 
constructed there to carry ofif 
water for the supply of Tokyo. The 
road hence to Ome follows the 1. 
bank of the river, a heavy portion 
of the roTjte in wej weather. At 
Ome, the Ome Kaiddy or main road 
to Tdkyo, is joined. It is now little 
uspd for through traffic. 

Ome (Inn by Sakanoe Rinzo) 
consists of a single long street, 
lined with old gnarled fruit-trees, 
maples, crape myrtle, and pines, 
which give it a picturesque and 
pleasant appearance. Soon after 
entering the town, at the top 
of a flight of steps, stands a 
Shinto temple decorated with good 
carvings, chiefly of birds and fabu- 
lous animals. On leaving Ome, the 
road at once enters the Valley of 
the Tamagawa, ascending along its 
1. bank. The valley is here rather 

Valley of the Tamagavi 


wide and well-ouUivated. Shortly 
'■after passing 1. the path whion 
leads over a mcmnen^hashi to the 
saored mountain of Mitake, the 
traveller may spend a few moments 
in watching the rafts shoot past 
the rooks in the river. Passing 
through the peach orchards of Mita- 
mura, the hridge at the entrance of 
Sawai is crossed, and here a path 
branches off r., leading by way of 
Hanno to Chichibu and the pro- 
vince of Shinshu. At 

Sawai {Inn, Yamaguchi-ya), the 
beautiful part of the route begins. 
Just before reaching Kotaba, the 
valley contracts and winds, and the 
hills on either side increase in 
height, while in front rises the triple 
summit of Mitake. 

{Mitakey 2,900 ft. above the sea, 
not to be confounded with the 
place of the same name de- 
scribed on p. 214, is a pleasant- 
ly cool spot during the summer 
monthft. It is distant 8^ hrs. 
from Dme on foot; but jinriki- 
shas may be taken part of the 
way. There are no inns at the 
summit, where the temple 
stands. Rooms, however, can 
be hired at some of the houses 
inhabited by the priests.] 

Kotaba (Inn, Naga-ya,) is the 
highest point from which rafts 
descend the river. Further up, 
single logs are thrown into the 
water aud left to float down with 
the current. The scenery con- 
tinues charming; the path con- 
stantly ascends aud descends, 
sometimes rising to a great eleva- 
tion above the stream. Corn, mil- 
let, and potatoes constitute the 
chief crops grown in the valley. 
Indigo and tobacco are also raised 
in small quantities. Descending 
through the remains of a cryp- 
tomeria grove, we cross the Nip- 
para-gawa, an affluent of the Tama- 
gawa, and after a short climb reach 
the village of 

flikaWA (Ina^i Miyamoto-ya). At 

this place, and elsewhere in the 
valley, may be observed bevelled 
water-wheels, used where the bank 
is too high for the ordinary under- 
shot wheel. The floats are small 
and placed wide apart, and the 
8kxle is inclined at an angle in 
order to admit of the wheel 
dipping into the stream. The 
next stage beyond Hikawa is 
extremely picturesque and but 
sparsely populated. Below the 
path, which winds up and down 
the flank of the mountain, the 
stream dashes along a rocky chan- 
nel, sometimes forming deep, clean 
pools ; while above, on either hand« 
rise steep lofty hills, mostly covered 
with timber, but wherever the ex- 
posure is favourable, cultivated up 
to the highest possible point. 
Especially noticeable is the part 
where the road makes a deep bend 
to the r. just before coming to the 

I baths of 

! Kochi-iio-yn (Inn, •Tsuru-ya, 
which has pleasant rooms over- 
hanging the river ; the inn by Hara- 
shima Koichiro has a private bath). 
This place, 1,350 ft. above the sea, 
possesses tepid sulphur springs, 
which are much resorted to by the 
people of the neighbouring' villages. 
Half a mile further we cross a tribu- 
tary stream called the Ogawa to the 
village of Kdchi, and winding round 
to the r., pass in succession through 
Mugiyama and Kawano to the ham- 
let of Kamozawa at the boundary 
between the provinces of Musashi 
and K5shu. 

Kamozawa (no inns) stands in a 
striking situation on the hillside just 
above the road. From a point a short 
distance beyond, the scenery is very 
flne, and the road, considering the 
difficulties that had to be overcome, 
and the impossibility of preventing 
the effects of weathering on the 
easily disintegrated rocks over 
which it passes in many plaoes, is a 
very creditable piece of engineering. 
It winds up the side of a magnifi- 
cent wooded gorge for 4 or 5 m., 
while the river flows away below 


Ectits 26. — Wayt to and from Kofu, 

building, elaborately decorated and 
all ablaze with colours and gold. 
Round the walls, on a gold ground, 
are full-sized representations of the 
white lotus-flower, the emblem of 
purity and of the Buddhist faith. 
The horizontal beams above have 
coloured diapers and geometrical 
patterns, the brilliant effect of which 
is toned down by the black, mixed 
with gold, of the rafters. Black 
and gold are likewise the colours 
used in the ceiling, which is secured 
by admirably worked metal fasten- 
ings. In the ramma are carvings of 
the Sixteen Disciples {Ju-roku Ra- 
kan\ and on the doors are paintings 
of musical instruments. Bright 
individually as are the many colours 
in this temple, all are so cunningly 
blended and harmonised that the 
general effect is one of exceeding ^ 
softness and richness. The shrine ' 
{hdtd)y which was presented by the j 
faithful of the province of Owari, is j 
of gold lacquer and shaped like a i 
two-storied pagoda. In it rests the | 
crj-stal reliquary or casket contain- j 
iug the bones of Nichiren, which is 
in the form of a tiny octagonal | 
pagoda, standing on a base of silver i 
in the form of an upturned lotus- 
blossom, which itself rests on a 
reversed lotus of jade. Its frame- 
work is of the alloy called shakudo^ \ 
and one of the pillars bears an in- I 
scription in silver damascening, > 
which, among other particulars, j 
gives a date corresponding to A.D. ! 
1580. The other pillars are de- 
corated with silver tracery attached 
to the surface of the shakiidd. The 
top is hung with strings of coral, 
pearls, and glass beads. The height 
of the whole is a little over 2 ft. 
Above hangs a baldachin presented 
by the inhabitants of Nagasaki. 
The only European innovation in 
the place is the introduction of two 
glass windows, which pei-mit of a 
much better examination of the 
building than is generally obtain- 
able in the '* dim religious light" of 
Japanese sacred edifloes. The Tem- 
ple of the Posthomous Tablet is a 

plain, uninteresting building. Pend- 
ing the erection of the new build- 
ings, it has been temporarily used 
to hold the remains of the saint 
and an image of him carved by his 
disciple Nichiro. The archbishop's 
residence is a beautiful specimen of 
Japanese house-decoration in the 
old style. Note the exquisite mo- 
dem open-work carvings of cranes 
and geese, and the fine paiutings in 
the alcove (tokcnioma) of the Recep- 
tion Rooms. For a fee of 25 sen, 
the priests officiating at the Kaisan- 
do will display the image on the 
altar and perform a short servioo 
{kaicho) in its honour. The chief 
yearly festival takes place on the 
12tli and 13th October, old calendar 
(some time in November). 

The eiscent to Oku-fio-in .winds 
up Ueno-no-yama, the hill imme- 
diately behind the Founder's Tem- 
ple, and is an easy climb of 50 chd. 
After passing the small temple of 
Sanko-do, the road ascends through 
a forest of cryptomerias, and near 
the summit commands an extensive 
view, including Fuji, part of the 
Gulf of Suruga, and the promontoiy 
of Izu. On the top stands a plain 
little temple dedicated to Nichiren, 
whose crest of the orange-blossom 
is prominently marked on various 
objects within the enclosure. 

A spare day at Minobu may be 

devoted to the ascent of ShichimeH' 

zav. whose summit is not quite 5 ri 

distant. The best place to halt on 

the way is Akasawa (good inn), 3 ri 

2 chd from Minobu. Tiiere is a 

good road all the way up. The 

last 60 chd are marked by stone 

; lanterns numbered from 1 to 60. 

I No. 36 affords the best view, which 

I includes the full sweep of Suruga 

I Bay, with the promontory of Izu 

j stretching far out to sea, a magnifi- 

I cent prospect of Fuji, the fertile 

i plain of Kofu intersected by the 

various streams uniting to form the 

Fujikawa, the valley of the Uava- 

kawa below to the 1., beyond which 

are seen Shirane-san and the Koma- 

gatake oi EoshQ, while Yatsn-ga- 

Shtchimen-zan; Th$ Fujikawa* 


take, Kimpu-zan, and other distant 
xangee bound the prospect on the 
N. On the top, which the forest 
deprives of all view, stands a plain 
bmlding dedicated to the goddess 
of the mountain. 

Acoarding to the legend* fts Nichiren 
was cme day preaching in the open air at 
Ifinoba, a beaatifoi woman suddenly 
made her appearance, and greatly excited 
the cariosity of his auditors. On Nichi- 
ven ordering her to assume her true form, 
ahe explained that she dwelt among the 
mountains to the west, and that seated 
on one of the eight points of the compass, 
she dispensed blessings to the other 
•even. She then begged for water, which 
was given to her in a vase, and at once 
the beautiful woman was transformed 
into a snake twenty feet long, covered 
with golden scales, and armed with iron 
teeth. A terrible blast swept down from 
fcbe mountains, and she disappeared in a 
whirlwind towards the point of the com- 
pass indicated. The words ** seven points- 
oC-the-oompass " (»hiehi'iMn) also mean 
** seven faces ; " and by an equivoque the 
popular belief has arisen that a serpent 
wuh seven heads had appeared to the 
saint, whom he deified under the name 
of ^iekifMn Daimtfdjiu, Buddhist writers 
identity her with Srimah&dSva, the d<&va 
of lucky omen, another name for the 
Hindoo god Siva. 

Game is plentiful on the hills 
sarrounding Minobu. Deer and 
bears are frequently seen, and 
pheasants are abundant. Shooting, 
however, is strictly prohibited, as 
contrary to the tenets of the Bud- 
dhist faith. Departing from Mine- 
bo and passing through 

HakiU the place where travellers 
coming down the Fujikawa en route 
to Minobu leave the boat, we reach 
Fukuit between which vill. and 
Itomi the Hayakawa is crossed. 

[For a description of the extreme- 
ly picturesque valley of this 
river, see p. 224.] 

The current flows so swiftly at the 
fetry that the boat has to be 
fastened to either bank by a rope. 
The crossing is effected by the help 
of a pole, and by quickly hauling 
on one end of the rope as the other 
ia slackened. The scenery at this 
point is remarkably fine. A mass 
ci roek, inclined at an acate angle 

on the 1. bank of the Fujikawa^ 
just opposite the confluence of the 
Hayakawa, deserves notice. From 
Itomi onwards, the road generally 
follows the bank of the river to- 
Ydka-ichiha {Inn^ Wakao-ya) and 
KirUishi (Inn^ Matsuzaka-ya), then 
descending to the vill. of Nishijima, 
where the river makes a wide bend 
to the r. Beyond 

Kajika-zawa {Inn, Ueda-ya), the 
road enters the plain of Kofu, with 
its amphitheatre of mountains,, 
whose various siunmits are seen 
from numerous other points; but 
the best general view of them is 
enjoyed while crossing the bed of 
the Fujikawa, here called the Kama- 
nashi-gawa, beyond Anabara. The 
imposing mass to the 1. is Yatsu- 
ga-take, rising between Kane-ga- 
take to the r. and Koma-ga-take to 
its 1. The high mountain to the 1. 
of the latter, distinguished by a 
pile of rocks on its summit, is 
H6-6-zan, to whose 1. stretches 
the great range of Shirane. The high 
mountain to the r. of Kane-ga-take 
is Eimpu-zan. Fuji's cone alone is 
visible above the intervening range. 
Sbichimen-san is seen on looking 
back down the valley. The ^ ri 
separating Kajika-zawa from Kofu 
can be done by basha in about 

6. — From Kofu to Iwabuchi on 


THE Fujikawa. 

Roughly speaking, this is No. 4 
reversed, but done partly by boat 
instead of wholly by road. Time^ 
1 day; 2 days if the journey be 
broken at Minobu, for which alight 
at Hakiu The walk from the river 
to the vill. of Minobu occupies | 
hr. Coach or jinrikisha can be taken 
for the first stage from Kofu to 
Kajikazawa, where boats are 
engaged to Iwabuchi (price 98^ for 
boat with 4 men, weather being 
^vourable, or seat in ordinary pas- 
senger boat entailing many delays^ 


Eonte 26,'-^Waffs to and/ram Ed/a. 

There is considerable traffic on 
the Fujikawa, no less than 600 
boats being engaged in it. When 
the river is in its ordinary state, 
the times taken are as follo\78 : 

K AJIKAZAWA to :— hbs. 

Hakii 2^ 

Nambu 1 


Total 6i 

As far as the confluence of the 
Hayakawa the river flows placidly 
along, now at the base of bare 
rocky hills, now past villages and 
rice-fields. Below this point begins 
a series of races and small rapids, 
the most remarkable of which is 
just above the Hanging Bridge, 
where the current whirls along 
at a dizzy pace. On nearing 
Matsuno, some fiue groups of hexa- 
gonal andesite columns will be 
noticed on the r. bank. At 

Iwabiiclii (Inn, 'Tani-ya), the 
boats are taken along the canal to 
the landing-place close by the rail- 
way station. 

6.— From Kopu to Shimo-no-Suwa 



KOFU to:— m. Chd. M. 

Nirazaki 3 6 7J 

Enuo 2 — 5 

DAI-GA-HABA ..2 9 6^ 

Kyoraishi 1 16 Sj 

Tsutaki 1 6 2f 

Kanazawa 3 8 Tf 

Kami-no-Suwa 8 19 8i 


Total 17 31 43J 

This road is a continuation of 
the Kosht^ Raido, the first section 
of which, from Tokyo to Kofu, has 
been described on pp. 214-16. It is 
practicable for basha and jinriki- 
shas the whole way. 

Leaving Kofu and crossing the 
Shiogawa, an affluent of the Fuji- 
kawa, we reach | 

Mrazaki {Inn, Yaahima-ya) ftni 
Knito, also called Tsubarai or 
Marino. From a grove of trees just 
beyond Tsubarai, there is a grand 
view of Eoma-ga-take, the whole 
sweep to the sharp summit of the 
precipitous rocky mass being seen 
to perfect advantage. The road 
now ascends the valley of the 
Kamanashi-gawa, the greater part 
of it as far as Dai-ga-hara being built 
up on the stony beds of various 
streams. The scenery of the valley 
is very pretty, and in many places 
quite striking. The r. side is lined 
with peculiar castellated cliffs of 
brown conglomerate, while to the 
1. rises the high range of which 
Koma-ga-take is the principal fea- 
ture. Further on, Yatsu-ga-take 
appears to the r., while on looking 
back beautiful and varied views of 
Fuji are to be seen. We next reaoh 

Oaf-ga-hara {Inn, Take-ya), 
whence the ascent of the Kdshd 
Koma-ga-take can best bo made (see 
p. 228). Beyond Dai-ga-hara, the 
road is lined on one side with fine red 
pine-trees, which shut out the view 
of the river as far as 

Kyorniski {Inn, Izumi-ya). At 
the boundary of the provinces of K6- 
shu and Shinshti, the road crosses to 
the 1. bank of the Kamanashi-gawa, 
and passing through the insignificant 
vill. of Shimo Tsutaki, reaches 

Knini Tsutaki (Inn, Osaka-ya), 
after which it becomes hilly. 
The highest point is reached at 
3,070 ft. above the sea, being 1,060 
ft. above Dai-ga-hara, Thence we 
descend to 

Kanasawa {Inn, Matsuaaka-ya), 
and down the valley ef the Miya- 
gawa, where the waters of Lake 
Suwa soon come in view. From 
several points further on, fine 
views are gained of the mountains 
on the borders of Hida, the most 
oonspiouous summits being Iwasu- 
ga-takeandYari-ga-take. The lofty 
mountain in the distance to the 1. 
of the lake is Kishi Koma-ga- 

Kftnii-iMKSvwa (Inm^ BoUn-ya) 

The Mimka-toge. Kamxzawa td Kdfu. 

is ft busy iown on the bord^s of the 
lake. About 2 ri distant stands the 
Icki no Miyay or chief Shinto temple 
of the province of Shinshu, which 
contains some excellent wood carv- 
ings. The annual festival is held 
on the let August. The road now 
skirts the slopes on the N. shore of 
the lake, and passing through the 
hamlets of Owa and Takaki, reaches 
Shimo-no-Suwa (see Route 35). 

7. — Pbom Kofu ovee the Misaka- 
t5oe to Yoshida at the base 
OP Fuji, and to Gotemba on 
THE ToKAiDd Railway. 


KOPU to :— Ri. Chd. M, 

Izawa 1 23 4 

Kami Kurogoma . . 1 81 4^ 

Tonoki 1 18 3} 

Kawaffuchi 2 80 6} 

YOSHIDA ...... 2 8 sJ 

Yamanaka 4 8 lo| 

Subashiri 2 — 6 

GOTEMBA 2 80 7 

Total 18 36 46J 

Time required, 2 days, stopping 
at Yoshida the first night. Yoko- 
hama may easily be reached by 
train from Gotemba on the evening 
of the second day. Jinrikishas are 
practicable with two men the whole 
way, when the roads are in good 

The road follows the Kdshik Kai- 
dJ as far as 

Izawai {Inn^ Shishimoto), where 
it turns off to the r., and soon 
enters a narrow valley. From Kami 
Kurogoma it rises rapidly to 

TfMioki {Inn, Sakai-ya), 3,200 ft. 
above the sea. It then ascends for 
about 1 hr. through a forest to the 
hut on the summit of the Misaka- 
tdgey which is 5,120 ft. above the 
sea. The view of Fuji from this 
point, as it rises from Lake Kawa- 
guchi, is justly celebrated. Below 
is the vill. of Kawaguchi ; on the 
opposite side of the lake are Fu- 
oatsa and Kodaohi; fuvther S. is 

Lake Yamanaka. The view look- 
iug back towards the N. and W. 
includes Eimpu-zan, Yatsu-ga-take, 
Koma-gatake, Ji£5-dake, and in 
the plain below, the vill. of Izawa. 
It is au hour's descent to 

Ktiwagiiehi (Inn, Nakamura), a 
poor vill. lying a couple of hundred 
yards from the lake. Boats can be 
procured from here to Funatsu, 
making an agreeable change in the 
day's work ; or else one may follow 
the road skirting the lake through 
the hamlet of Akasawa for about 
f hr., with steep mountains on every 
side. Funatsu produces white and 
coloured tstimugi, a coarse fabric 
woven from spun floss silk. From 
Funatsu to Yoshida, and indeed 
all the way on to Subashiri and 
Gotemba, the road traverses the 
moor that forms the base of Fuji. 

8. — From Earuizawa on the Na- 
kasendo to kopu bt the tsuyu- 
TABE Pass. 


KARUIZAWA to :— Ri. Chd. M. 

Iwamurata 4 33 12 

Usuda 2 6 5J 

Takano-machi ..1 7 3 

Hata 1 20 3f 

Umijiri 3 10 8 

Itabashi 2 10 5^ 

Nagasawa 4 4 10 

Nirasaki 4 32 12 

KOFU 8 18 8i 

Total 27 31 68 

This route is recommended to 
those whose chief object is moun- 
tain climbing. Exclusive of such 
climbing, the journey takes 2 days, 
jinrikishas being available for the 
first part between Iwamurata and 
Usuda, and ha>sha from Nirasald 
to Kofu. The rest must be done 
on foot. There is accommodation 
of the usual country sort at the 
places mentioned in the itinerary. 

Hutu is the best place from which 
to, ascend Tateshina-yama. This 
expedition requires the whole of a 


Route 27. — VaUU^ of the Hoffokatca. 

long day, but repays the trouble 
by the extensive view which the 
peak affords. 

From Umijiri, at the end of the 
Iwasaki gorge, one may visit the 
sulphur springs of Inago (21 chd), 
and thenoe go up to the Hcnieawa 
baths (3 rt), situated at a height of 
8,200 ft. above Umijiri. The sum- 
mit of the Honsawa pass, some 40 
min. walk beyond the Honzawa 
baths, is 7,400 ft. above the sea. 
From this point a path leads to the 
summit of Miktiburir-yama, 8,450 ft. 
above the sea. The whole expedi- 
tion will occupy a day. 

Itabashi is the best starting-point 
for the 8iscent of Akadake, but there 
is no path. Two ri across the moor 
from Itabashi is a wood-cutter's 
hut at the base of the spur where 
the ascent begins, and it is advisable 
to sleep there in order to make an ear- 
ly start The hut stands about 5,300 
ft. above the sea, which leaves 3,690 
ft. to be still ascended, the summit 
having an altitude of 8,990 ft., and 
the climb being very steep in parts. 
The view includes Asama-yama, 
Kimpu-zan, Fuji, and all the moun- 
tains on the W. boundary of Koshft. 
Guides cannot always be procured 
at Itabashi. In this case it will be 
necessary to proceed to Hirasawa, 
half-way between Itabashi and 
Kagasawa, where they can be had 
at any time. 

From Na^asawa it is an easy 
climb up Ocmgen-dake, the most 
southerly of the numerous peaks 
known under the collective name 
of Yatsu-ga-take, It is not usual, 
however, with the Japanese to make 
the ascent until after the autumn 
equinox, and the traveller may 
therefore experience a little diffi- 
culty in obtaining guides. In this, 
as in the previous case, he will do 
best to maJce Hirasawa his starting- 
point. The ascent occupies about 5 
hrs., the descent to Nagasawa 3 
hrs., that to Hirasawa 4 hrs. The 
^ew includes the whole of the 
Hida-Shinsht^ range, amongst which 
Yari-ga-take is conspionous to the 

N. W., Fuji is seen towering aloft S. 
by E., the KoshU Koma-ga-take 8. 
W. by S., Shirane a little to its S., 
H6-o-zan S.S.W., distinguished by 
the monumental pile of rocks at 
its summit, and Kimpu-zan S.E. by 

ROUTE 27. 

The Valley of the Hayakawa, 

MINOBUto:- Ri. Chd. M. 

Akasawa 3 — 7^ 

Gokamura 2^ — 6 

Kyd-ga-shima ..2 — 5 

Hayakawa 1 — 2^ 

Shimo Yujima . . 3^ — 8J 

Narada 2 — 5 

Ashikura 5 — 12J 

Arino 2 — 6 

D5do — 15 1 

Midai __ lo f 

KOFU 2 — 5 

Total 23 25 58 

These distances are approximate, 
and it is possible that some of tho 
mountain ri may be of 50 chd in- 
stead of only 36 chd, which would, 
of course, proportionately increase 
the mileage. An alternative plan 
at the start, for those coming down 
the Fujikawa, is to alight at the 
hamlet of Itomi, near the confluence 
of that river with the Hayakawa, 
and join the above itinerary near 
Gk>kamura, 3^ ri from Itomi. 

This route is a very rough one ; 
for though so close to civilisation, 
the country through which it 
leads lies in the heart of the 
great mountain mass dividing Ko- 
shQ from Shinsh^ and Suruga, and 
both the people and the roads are 
in much the same state as they 
were in earlier centuries before rail- 
ways were known or foreigners 



heard of. The joaraey can only 
be acocmpltshed on foot, and one 
should travel as lightly as possible, 
for all haggage has to he carried 
by eoolies, who are often difficult 
to obtain. The traveller will meet 
with no regular inns ; but the offi- 
cials and headmen of the various 
hamlets are very civil, and ready to 
provide the best accomodation their 

g laces afford. It is possible to com- 
ine with this trip the ascent of 
the Eosh& Shirane-san and other 
lofty peaks which form the subject 
of the next route. 

At Akasawa the path strikes r. in 
order to enter the valley of the 
Hayakawa, which it does near Oa- 
kamura, A short way beyond this, 
it descends to a pretty valley near 
the hamlet of Shio-no-uet where the 
scenery is particularly striking. To 
the 1. rises Shiohimen-zan» thickly 
wooded and seen to much better ad- 
vantage here than from Minobu. 
Directly opposite is the bold round 
summit of Amebata-vama, also 
called Zaru-ga-take, through the 
deep ravine to the 1. of which flows 
the Amebata-gawa. Below is seen 
the Hayakawa winding down the 
▼alley on the r., and forming almost 
a complete oirole as it bends round 
a low wooded promontory, which 
from this point has the appearance 
of an island. The path now de- 
scends over a rough water-course to 
the bed of the river, and ascends 
the 1. bank to Ky6-ga-shima, Eight 
c7td further on, it crosses the stream 
on a tsuri-bashiy or ** hanging 
bridge," to the hamlet of Hd, in 
the neighbourhood of which a gold 
mine is worked. 

Fbr a dMoription of tho tnri-bashi of 
the moantain districts of Eastern and 
Oentral Japan, see p. 218. Another primi- 
tire kind of bridfce, called wtannen-ba$ki, 
haa sometimes to be crossed on this ronte. 
It onnsiiitft of a long piece of timber, 
which is simply tied at the end to project- 
ing' sapports, snch as are used in the 
hanging bridge. The span is not so great 
as that of the /mrt-AoMt; bat the narrow- 
ness of the roadway, and the Imperfect 
maimer in which the prelecting oeams 
are sa p p orled, give the traveller a most 

nncomfbrtable feeling of insecnrity. The 
Japanese name is a nyperbole siguifying 
" Bridge of a Myriad Years." 

Beyond Hd, the path leads over 
one of the lower spurs of Daikoku- 
yama, and follows the steep side of 
the valley high above the stream. 
After passing the hamlet of Nishi> 
no-miya, one re-crosses the river to 

Hayakawa* Comfortable quarters 
may be obtained one mile further 
on at the house of the SoncJid (Mayor) 
of MisatOf the *' three villages " of 
which Hayakawa is one. Gold is 
said to be found in the neighbour- 
hood, while plantations of the paper- 
tree (Edgeworthia) and of tobacco, 
line this part of the valley. Higher 
up, beyond the hamlet of Arakawa, 
the scenery is charming. The river 
dashes along through a fine rocky 
glen, and is spanned by one of the 
mannen-bashi at a highly pictur- 
esque spot. After crossing the bridge, 
the road divides. The route to 
Narada turns to the r., and ascends 
a very steep hill for about 1 ri, 
winds round its upper slope, and 
descends again to the river through 
wild and rugged scenery before 
reaching the hamlet of Shimo Yu- 
jvma. Beyond this place, the path 
crosses and re-crosses the river on 
nuifmenbashi. About 40 cho on, 
and a little way up the ravine to 
the r., is the hot spring of Kami 
YVfjima (poor accommodation). 

Narada (accommodation at a 
Buddhist temple), the last in- 
habited place in the valley, consists 
of but a few households. All 
the inhabitants bear the same sur- 
name, and seldom int-ermarry with 
the people of other villages. They 
are a primitive folk of a peculiar 
tjrpe of countenance, who wear in 
summer a loose hempen dress, and 
deer and bear-skins in the winter. 
Their dialect is peculiar, abound- 
ing in archaic words and ob- 
solete grammatical forms. Owing 
to their practical isolation from 
the outer world, their ignorance 
and waut of education are extreme, 
and they are content to live in dirf 

226 Route 28. — MounUiins beUoeen Hu Fujikawa d Tenryli. 

and squalor. Rice, saJkCj and soy 
are with them luxuries to be in- 
dulged in on rare occasions, their 
ordinary food consisting only of 
millet and potatoes. Narada boasts 
" Seven Wonders " ( Nana Fti- 
shigi), amongst which are enu- 
merated a brackish pool, the 
waters of which are said to have 
the property of dyeing black any 
article of clothing left to steep in 
them for forty-eight hours, and a 
reed whose leaves grow only on one 
side of the stem. 

More interesting to the deter- 
mined x)ede8trian than these village 
wonders will be the ascent of Shira- 
ne-san^ which may be taken on the 
way to Ashikura, instead of pro- 
ceeding to the latter place by the 
usual path according to the itin- 
erary. For this ascent, see next pa^ge. 

The ordinary path from Narada 
to Ashikura winds up and down a 
succession of forest- slopes, wlioae 
thick foliage almost entirely shuts 
out all view. Now and then, how- 
ever, glimpses are caught of Shi- 
rane-san aod of the valleys of the 
Arakawa and Norokawa. Further 
on the path divides, — r. to Kofu vlA 
Hirabayashi, 1. to Kofu vi& Ashi- 
kura. The latter is not practicable 
during heavy rains ; but the travel- 
ler is recommended to take it when 
it can be traversed, on account of 
its wild and beautiful scenery. A 
portion of the way lies down a 
precipitous rocky ravine known as 
the Ide-zawa, where the gorge is 
in many places so narrow that its 
perpendicular sides seem almost to 
meet overhead. The path descends 
by the side of a torrent, crossing 
and re-crossing the stream on trunks 
of trees, and being occasionally 
carried over clefts and landslips 
on bridges of very primitive 

Ashiknni^ which stands on the 
1. bank of the Midai-gawa, consists 
of four hamlets named Katsiizawa 
(the highest up the valley), Gzori, 
Kozori, and Fum-yashiki lower 
down. Persons who intend to 

make the ascent of Hd-d-zan or 
Kaigane should stay at Kozori. 
There is also fair accommodation 
at Furu-yashiki. Jinrikishas may 
sometimes be found on entering the 
Kofu plain. 

ROOTE 28. 

The Mountains between the Fuji- 
kawa AND the TeNBYU-GAWA. 



4. AKAI8HI-8AN. 

The great mountain mass to the 
W. of Kofu, lying between the 
valleys of the Fujikawa, Oigawa, 
and Tenryti-gawa, is second only in 
orographical importance to the 
Etchfi-Hida mountains described 
in Boute 30. Climbing in this 
range involves no little hardship, for 
the reasons stated in the introduc- 
tion to the previous route, with 
which the greater part of this one 
may conveniently be combined. 
None but experienced mountaineers 
should attempt it. 

1. — Shibanb-san. 

In order to avoid confusion when 
arranging with peasant-guides and 
hunters, let it be understood that 
Shirane-san is not one individual 
peak, but a general name for the 
northern and more elevated portion 
of the range of which Nodori-san, 
Ai-no-take, and Kaigane are the 
chief peaks. The two latter are 
called Arakawa-dake and Kita-dake 
respectively in the Geological Maps. 

There exists a somewhat amusing 
rivalry Iwtween the inhabitants of Narada 
from which the first two peaks are as- 
cended, and those of Ashikura, the nearest 
point to the third, one village mainUun- 
ing that Ai-no-take is the highest of the 

Ascent of 8hirane-san. 


three and the tme Shhane, while the 
other olaitns that honoar for Kaiffane. An 
onpre judiced observer, locddng at the range 
from the summit of Hd-^zan or from any 
other mountain top that commands a view 
of the two peaks, will adjudge the Ashi- 
kora people to be in the right aboat the 
question of altitude. 

Narada (see p. 225) is the starting 
poiDt for the ascent, — not that there 
IS any regularly marked path thence 
io the top of the range, hut that guides 
are there procurable who know the 
way up, and will cany whatever is 
necessary in the way of provisions 
and bedding. Those who purpose 
to ascend all of Shirane's peaks 
must be prepared to sleep out three 
nights, and, taking Nodori-san first, 
to cross on the fourth day from the 
base of Kaigane to Ashikura {see p. 
5226). Nodori and Ai-no-take in- 
Tolve sleeping out two nights and 
descending on the third day — like- 
wise to Ashikura. There is a hut at 
the E. base of Kaigane, but none on 
the top of the range. Ai-no-take 
cannot be ascended direct from 
Narada; Nodori must first be 
climbed, and the track followed 
along the ridge to the former peak. 

From Narada there is a choice of 
ways up Shiraue, one leading idong 
a ravine called Hiro-Kochi, the 
other up the Shira-Kochi a short 
way below it. To the top of 
the ridge is a stiff climb of 9 hrs., 
frequent rests being needed by the 
guides who carry the burdens. The 
height is 8,400 ft. above the sea, or 
5,9G0 ft. above Narada, and snow 
often lies there as late as July. 
Once on the ridge, the rest of the 
ascent is easy. In 2 hrs. the first 
peak, nameless on the maps, is 
reached. The view includes W.S.W., 
the round top of Ena-san in Mino ; 
N-W. by W., Ontake ; and in front 
of the highest peak of a long ridge, 
the Koma-ga-take of Shinshu. Nori- 
kura bears N.W., and Yari-ga-take 
N.W. by N. In the far distance 
N.E., the top of the Nikkd Shiraue 
can just be descried, and the Chi- 
chibu mountains are well seen in 
the same direction. H5-d-zan is 

nearly N.N.E. ; then come Jizo-ga- 
take, and Kwannon and Yakushi 
close together. Fuji, the basin of 
the Fujikawa, and the K5fu plain 
are distinctly visible. 

Half an hour more brings us to 
the top of Nddori, 9,970 ft., which 
conmiands much the same view as 
the previous summit, with the ad- 
dition of Ai-no-take and Kaigane, 
the latter of which now comes in 
sight for the first time. 

From the summit of Nodori to 
that of Ai-no-take (10,260ft.) takes 
2 hrs. The top consists of bare 
rock ; but a little below, every shel- 
tered nook has a patch of grass, 
gay with the flowers that inhabit 
higher altitudes. Ten min. below the 
summit on the E. side, is an excel- 
lent camping place. The view from 
the highest point includes, besides 
the mountains already mentioned, 
the following :-^Koma-ga-take a 
little to the E. of N., Kaigane 
N.N.E., Yatsu-ga-take just on the 
E. of Kaigane; Kimpu-zan N.E. 
by E., and Senjo-ga-take, a much 
lower mountain on the 1. of 
the Norokawa, N.W. The source 
of this stream is perceived far down 
on the N.W. flank of Ai-no-take. 
Towards the S., and beyond Nddori- 
san, a long range of mountains is 
seen stretching down the frontier of 
Kdshfi, and getting gradually lower 
as it approaches Minobu. Fuji rises 
between S.E. and E.S.E., while Ho- 
o-zan and Jizo-ga-take on the one 
side, and Ontake, Norikura, and 
Yari-ga-take stand up perfectly clear 
on the other. The descent from 
Ai-no-take to Ashikura is fatiguing 
as far as a stream some 4,200 ft. 
above sea level. This stream is 
the Arakawa, one of the sources of 
the Hayakawa. If the day is too 
far spent to allow of Ashikura being 
refiched before nightfall, one may 
sleep at some wood-cutters* huts, 1^ 
hr. before getting to that village. 

KnigTAne (10,330 ft.) can best be 
ascended from Kozon, one of the 
hamlets of Ashikura. It is a day's 
climb to a small temple where a 

Eoute 28. — Motoitaw bepm^eifL the Fujikawa d Tenryu. 

halt may be made for the night, 
whilst the remainder is said to 
take 6 hrs. The usual plan is to 
descend to the temple and spend 
the second night there, returning to 
Ashikura next day. But should the 
traveller wish to complete the round 
by ascending Ai-no-tsbke and No- 
dori-san, it will be necessary to 
sleep out one if not two nights 
more before descending either to 
Narada or to this temple. 

2. — H6-6-ZAN. 

The ascent of this mountain 
(9,550 ft.) which, like that of Kai- 
gane, is oest maiide from Ashikura, 
will occupy a good pedestrian about 
9 hrs., and the descent 5 hrs. in- 
cluding stoppages. Though it is 
possible, by making an early start, 
to complete the ascent and descent 
in one day, it is not usual for pil- 
grims to do so. They generally, 
on the downward journey, halt for 
the night at the wood-cutters* hut of 
«^muro, 1} ri below the summit. 
The accommodation being rough, 
provisions and bedding should be 
taken. Those who wish to enjoy 
the morning view from the simimit 
must either make a late start 
from Komoro and spend tbe night 
at Omuro, ascending next morning 
at daybreak; or start early, and 
bivouac at the hollow between the 
summits of Jizo and H6-d-zan. 
In the latter case it will be necessary 
to take utensils for carrying water, as 
no water can be got beyond Omuro. 
The ascent conmiences beyond the 
bamlet of Kutsuzawa, 12 cho from 
KoEori. The view from Suna-harai, 
arocl^ peak over which the path 
leads, includes in front Senjo-ga- 
take, over whose r. flank is seen 
the outline of the Shinshd Koma- 
ga-tflJco ; on the 1. the ridge slopes 
down to the valley of the Norokawa, 
on the opposite side of which rises 
the sharp summit of Raigane ; lower 
down the valley, stands out the bold 
massy form of Ai-no-take, while in 
the further distance appear the 
lofty mountains on the northern 

boundary of Suruga. To the r., the 
summits of Yakushi-dake and 
Kwannon-dake shut out the more 
distant prospect. The view on 
looking back includes Fuji, the 
Eofu plain, and surrounding moan- 
tains. Yakushi-dake is not usually 
ascended by pilgrims. From Kwan- 
non-dake which they do generally 
visit, there is a fine view of the 
ravine through which the Norokawa 
flows. The highest point — H6-d-zan 
properly so called — is still further 
on, and may be scaled as far as the 
ledge which supports the two enor- 
mous blocks or pillars of granite 
that form the actual smnmit. The 
view closely resembles that from 
Eoma-ga-take described below. 

H6-o-zan may also be ascended 
from Enno on the Kdsha Kaid6 
(see p. 222). The distance to the 
top of the gap between Jizo-dake 
(a lower spur of the Kwannon-dake 
above-mentioned) and Ho-o-zan ia 
called 5 ri. The path crosses the 
spur to the I. of the vill., and 
descends to the bed of the Komu- 
kawa, which is followed up until 
the actual ascent of 2^ ri oom- , 

8.— The Koma-ga-take op Koshu. 

Dai-ga-hara on the Kosht^ Kaida 
is the best starting point for this 
grand mountain, 9,840 ft. above 
sea level. The climb is so precipi- 
tous and difficult in parts as to have 
given rise among the pilgrims to the 
use of such terms as Oya shirasu 
Ko shirasu (see p. 146), Ichi 7to 
NanjOf or the *• First Difficulty," Jc^i 
no No3oki, or the *' First Peep '* (over 
a precipice), etc. The ascent is 
also so long — nominally 7 ri to the 
summit — as to necessitate sleeping 
one night at the Omuro or Uma- 
dome huts on the mountain side. 
Water should be taken up, as none 
can be procured except at tnese huts. 
The summit consists of two peaks, 
on one of which stands a bronze 
figure of the Shinto god Onamuji. 
On the second and higher peajc^ 
called Oku-no-in, is a small image 

A^ent of K^hna-ga-tahe afid Akatskt-utn. 


of tbe Buddhist deity Marishi-ten. 
The summit commands a magnifi- 
cent view on every side. Looking 
S., the eye sweeps over the valleys 
of the Norokawa and Tashiro-gawa, 
to the 1. of which rises the long 
range of Shirane, the most conspic- 
uous summits heing the snow- 
atreaked peak of Kaigane-san which 
stands in close proximity, and 
beyond, the hold mass of Ai-no-take, 
the central portion of the range. 
Beneath is the ravine through which 
the Norokawa flows as it winds 
round the hase of Kai^ane; the 
mountain to the r. is Sen jo-ga- take. 
Beyond Shirane several high moun- 
tains are visihle, heing probahly 
those that stand on the N. 
boundary of Suruga. Towards the 
E. the valley of the Fujikawa is 
seen between the near summit of 
Hd-o-zan and the E. slope of Kai- 
gane, and in the far distance can be 
distinguished the promontory of 
Izu and the sea. The most striking 
feature of the view is Fuji, to 
whose 1. a wide plain stretches far 
away to the E. Towards the N. 
and W. the following mountains 
appear in succession : — A portion 
of the Chichibu range, Kimpu-zan, 
Yatsu-ga-take, Asama-yama, the 
lofty mountains on the borders of 
Etchti and Hida, Ontake, the 
Koma-ga-take of Shinshtl, and 
Ena-san, while the nearer view in- 
cludes the plain of Kofu, the valley 
of the Kamanashi-gawa, Tateshina- 
yama, the mountains about the 
Wada pass, Lake Suwa, and the 
valley of the Tenryfl-gawa. 

Rhododendrons grow in great 
quantities on Koma-ga-take. Dur- 
ing the latter part of July, when 
the trees, which attain to a consider- 
able size, are in full bloom, they 
impart a- charming hue to the scene. 

4. — Akaishi-san. 

This, though one of the highest 
peaks of the range separating tlic 
valleys of the Tenrj'ii and the Oi- 
gawa, is little known because not 
visible from any of the ordinary lines 

of travel. It is best approached 
from Takato (Inn, Ikegami-va), an 
important town situated m the 
valley of the Mibukawa, an affluent 
of the Tenryft. Those coming from 
the E. may most expeditiously 
reach Takatd viA Kofu and Kami 
Tsutaki on the high road to Shimo- 
no-Suwa, whence it is a 7 ri walk, 
the path turning oft I. at the vill. 
of Sezawa, 1 ri beyond Kami Tsu- 
taki, and crossing the Ny^kasawa- 
toge and Shibiri-tdge. Hill scenery 
alternates with park-like stretches 
that recall England. Those from 
the W. reach it from Ina (see p. 230), 

2 ri. Travellers coming from the 
direction of Shimo-no-Suwa may 
also reach Takatd from Kanazawa 
on the Koshfi Kaido, from which 
village it is a pleasant walk of some 

3 ri to Midogaitdijnnj Echigo-ya), 
and then 3^ ri more to Takatd. 
From Takato the road leads due S. 
up the valley of the Mibukawa, 
flkffording good views of the W. side 
of the Kosht^ Koma-ga-take, and 
over the Ichinose-toge (4,450 ft.) to 

This hamlet is Kaid to derive it« name 
from the fact that the women are here 
the heads of the honBeholds. It is also 
stated that if a man from any other place 
marries a woman belongi^K ^ ^^is ham- 
let, he is sure soon to droop and die. 

and Ichiha, which is recommended 
as a halting place. Places further 
on where one may stay are Oka- 
wara^ (Inn by Imai Takijiro), 
Kamazawa, and the warm sulphur 
baths of Koshibu. 

The actual ascent takes 11 hrs. 
from Koshibu, being an arduous 
scramble, during the first part of 
which the Koshibu-gawa has to be 
crossed and re-crossed more than a 
score of times. This is followed by 
a hard climb of 2 hrs. or so up the 
steep tree-clad slopes of a spur of 
Akaishi-san, the ascent then lead- 
ing over bare loose rocks of a red- 
dish colour for 2 hrs. more to a 
point where it is necessary to turn, 
and go straight up to the Anal 
arStc. This is a moderate climb of 
1 hr., and it required another hour 


RoiUe 29.— Rapids of the TenryU-gawa. 

to walk up to the highest point of 
the peak, which affords a fine view 
of most of the high mountains 
of Central Japan. A night has to 
be spent in what the hunter-guides 
call a grand cave, but is a bare 
shelter between two rooks. Water 
is not always easily found on 
the mountain side. About 1 m. 
froifi the summit is a hollow where 
the climber who wishes to see the 
sunrise might sleep. 

Instead of returning to Takato, it 
might be possible to cross over into 
the valley of the Oigawa, and 
either descend to the Tokaido, or 
strike the head-waters of the Haya- 
kawa across another range (see p. 
225); but the country is rough m 
the extreme. 

ROUTE 29. 

The Rapids op the Tenbyu-gawa. 

These rapids, the finest in Japan, 
form a natural route connecting 
the two chief highways of the cen- 
tral portion of the Main Island, — 
the Nakasendd and the Tokaidd. 
The village where one embarks is 
called Tokiiiiata {Inn, *Umeno- 
ya). It is reached from the E. by 
travelling along the Nakasendo as 
far as Shimo-no-Suwa on Lake 
Suwa, thence to Matstishima {InnSy 
Mon-ya and Tsuta-ya) on another 
important highway called the Ina 
Kaidd, and along that highway to 
Uda (Inn, Iwaki-^Iasu-ya), a large 
and flourishing town, formerly the 
residence of a Daimyo named Hori. 
The portion of the Ina Kaido which 
is included in this route is by no 
means lacking in the picturesque. | 
It also brings the traveller into the 
vicinity of the Shinshd Roma-ga- 
take, which may be ascended from 
Akao or from Ina. Those coming 
Irom the W. along the Nakasendo 

may leave that highway either at 
TsumagOf whpnce 3 ri to Hirose,. 
3 ri over the Odaira-tdge to Odaira 
(also called Ohiratoge and Ohira)^ 
and 3 ri more to lida, all on foot ; 
or else at Shiojiri, whence a jinriki- 
sha road leads to Matsushima on 
the Ina Kaido, ^ri2ichd (13} m.). 


Ri, ChO. M, 

Matsushima 6 5 15 

Ina 2 IS 6 

Akao 8 6 7} 

lijima 1 31 4^ 

IIDA 6 27 14 

TOKIMATA .... 2 — 6 

Total 21 15 52jt 

The best accommodation on the 
way to Tokimata is at Matsushima 
and at Ina {Inn, Tomi-ya). Tho 
whole way from Shimo-no-Suwa to 
Tokimata is practicable for jinriki- 
shas and can easily be accomplished 
in two short days ; but the occasional 
roughness of the latter part of the 
route necessitates the talang of two 
jinrikisha-men. The passage by 
hoat from Tokimata down to the 
Tokaidd generally occupies 12 hrs. 
The total distance travelled by 
water is estimated at 3G rt— say 
90 m.;— but the latter portion of 
this is along a comparatively slug- 
gish current. The boat does not 
take the traveller actually to the 
Tokaido Railway. Whether bound 
up or down the line, he alights at 
Nakano-machi, for the station of 
Hamnmatsu. 1 ri ^ chb distant. 
Some may indeed prefer to alight at 
Ikeda for the station of Nakaiztnni ; 
but this station being a small one, 
few trains stop there. A good 
halting-place on the river is U7ina 
{Inn, Ikeda-ya), a resort of pilgrims 
en route for the shrine of Akiha- 
san (see Route 34). 

The charge for a boat in 1893^ 
was 922, the justification of this 
seemingly high price being the fact • 
that it takes from 10 to 12 days to 
tow the boat up stream again. Boats 

Rapids of the Ttnryu-gawa, 


not being always in readiness, it may 
be advisable to write beforehand 
(in Japanese, of course) to the inn- 
keeper at Tokimata to order one 
with 4 boatmen. Travellers are 
alflo recommended to time their 
movements so as to arrive at Toki- 
mata on the afternoon previous to 
their descent of the rapids. This will 
enable them to make all arrange- 
ments overnight and to start 
earl^. One should be prepared for 
possible disappointment in the event 
of continued wet weather, when the 
river rises considerably. Kothing 
will induce the boatmen to under- 
take the journey if the water is 
above a certain height. Under 
such circumstances, tlio alter- 
native return route given below 
may be taken. A spare hour at 
Tokimata can be pleasantly spent 
in visiting the picturesque bridge 
less than 1 ri down the river, at the 
spot where the rough-and-tumble 
part of its course begins. 

The scenery of the Tenry^-gawa 
is most striking. After passing the 
bridge mentioned above, the river 
enters a rocky ravine ; and from this 
point on to Nishinoto, a passage of 
some 6^ hrs., is almost one con- 
tinued series of rapids and races. 
Walled in between forest-clad 
mountains that rise abruptly to a 
height of from 1,000 ft. to 2,000 ft., 
the river twists and tears along 
their rocky base, carving for itself a 
channel where there seems no pos- 
sible means of exit. It is in such 
places that the skill of the boat- 
men will be most admired, where 
the boat, which looks as if it must 
be dashed to pieces in another mo- 
ment, is shot round the comer only 
to be whirled on to some new danger 
equally exciting. Fortunately for 
the lover of the picturesque, some 
blasting which was undertaken a 
few years ago with a view to facili- 
tating the transport of produce, 
has had no marked effect in effacing 
the ruggedness of nature. On 
approaching a rapid, the man 
forward beats the bow of the boat 

with his paddle, both as a 
signal to the others and in the 
superstitious belief that it will bring 
good luck. Of rapids properly 
so-called, there are upwards of 
thirty, the finest of which are: 
Yagtira (The Turret), near Gshima ; 
Shin-taki (New Cascade), 8 ri be- 
low Mitsushima; Takaze (High 
Rapid) ; Chdna (Adze), just beyond 
Otani; Konnyaku (Potato); Shira- 
fuimi (White Waves) ; lori ga tdki 
(Tori's Cascade); and Yavia-buro 
(Mountain Bath), the grandest 
of all, despite its homely 

In the event of flood or any 
other unforeseen circumstance 
preventing the boat journey down 
the Tenryti-gawa, the traveller may 
strike the Tokaido Railway by 
taking a jinrikisha road called the 
Chu Uma-kaiddy which connects 
lida with Nagoya, 30 ri. The vill. 
of Oshina^ where this road would be 
joined, is 2} ri from Tokimata and 
2 ri from lida. The chief places 
passed on the way are Kebane, 
Akechi, Tsuruzato, and Seto. 

Nebnne (7w«, Sumiyoshi-ya) is a 
great centre of traffic between the 
provinces of Sliinsha and ^likawa, 
the latter sending fish and raw 
cotton, for which Shinshu returns 
tobacco, hemp, and dried persim- 
mons. It is possible to reach Toyo- 
hashi on the Tokaido Railway from 
Nebane by a road, some 16 ri in 
length, which leads vi& the temple 
of Horaiji. 

Akeclii(rwn, Snmiyoshi-ya),next 
in importance, is a small but 
thriving town, which produces porce- 
lain—chiefly tea-cups and rice-bowls 
of no artistic value. For Seto^ a 
much more famous ceramic centre, 
see Route 31. 


Route 80. — MovmtamB <4 Hida and Etchu. 

ROUTE 80. 

Thb Mountains of Hida and 

1. inteoductoby bemabks. 2. gipu 
to takayaha in hida. 8. taka- 
yama to matsumoto and ubda 
by the hibayu and abd passes. 

12. ENA-SAN. 

1.— Intboductoby Rbmabks. 

Tho provinces of Hida and Etchti 
may be conveniently taken together, 
because hemmed in between the 
same high mountain ranges which 
render this region exceptionally diffi- 
cult of access, and have prevented 
it from being much visited even by 
the natives of the surrounding 
provinces. Lying completely be- 
yond the reach of railways and 
modern civilisation, no part of 
Japan has changed so little of late 

The range bounding these pro- 
vinces on the E. is the most con- 
siderable in the Empire. The only 
one that can compare with it is 
that lying between the Fujikawa 
and Tenryu-gawa (see Route 28). 
Many of the peaks are streaked 
with snow until the early autumn, 
while in some of the recesses and 
gorges, where it is partially screened 
from the sun's rays, the snow 
never entirely disappears. Extend- 
ing almost due N. and S. for a 
length of 60 or 70 miles, with a 

breadth of from 5 to 10 miles, this 
range forms a well-nigh impene- 
trable barrier to oommunioation from 
the S. and E. It consists ohiefly oC 
granite, overlaid in places with 
igneous rocks. Norikora and Tate- 
yama are of volcanic origin. The 
nighest and most oonspicnous of 
the numerous peaks, beginning at 
the N., are as follows: 


Tateyama 9,600 

Yari-ga-take 10,000 

Myojin-dake 10,100 

Norikura 9,800 

Ontake 9,800 

Haku-san 8,900 

Koma-ga-take 10,300 

The lower flanks of the chain are 
clothed with forests, in which the 
most common trees are beeches and 
oaks. Conifers also are plentiful. 
Among the wild animals of this 
region may be mentioned bears, 
deer, the goat-faoed antelope, and 
two kinds of boar. The streams 
abound with trout. The scanty 
population consists of hardy, simple 
folk, supporting themselves by hunt- 
ing, wood - cutting, and charcoal 
burning. Their staple food is buck- 
wheat and millet, while barley, 
hemp, beans, and mulberry- leaves 
form the other chief productions of 
the valleys. 

It will thus be seen that' the 
mountaineer has but hard fare to 
expect, and will be wise to provide 
himself with as many tins of meat, 
preserved milk, etc., as can be pack- 
ed into a stnail compass. The re- 
commendation is advisedly framed 
in these terms ; for much luggage 
cannot be carried, owing to the 
general scarcity of men to carry it. 
Needless to add that the accom- 
modation is often of the roughest. 
i Only at Toyama the capital of 
I Etchfi, at Takayama the capital of 
I Hida, at Matsumoto, and at a few 
other of the larger towns, is the 
ordinary standard of Japanese pro- 
vincial comfort attained. Should 
the varying effioienoj of the oarry- 

General InfomMUon. Qifu ie Tttkayeana* 


ing companies which nnderfcake to 
forward goods from one portion of 
Japan to another permit, compara- 
tive comfort and plenty may be 
ensured by sending boxes of food, 
extra olothing, books, and whatever 
else may be required, ahead to the 
chief towns through which one ex- 
pects to pass. It is, however, 
always advisable to leave a good 
margin of time, as the Japanese are 
not to be relied on for punctuality 
or despatch. 

For practical convenience' sake, 
four mountains have been included 
in this route that do not topograph- 
fokilj belong to it — Haku-san, On- 
take, the Koma-ga-take of Shin- 
sh^, and Ena-san, because, though 
not actually forming part of the 
same range, they stand not far from 
it, and are likely to interest the 
same class of travellers and to be 
visited during the same trip. 

The district treated of in this 
route may be best approached from 
one of three sides, viz. from Ueda 
or Nagano on the Karuizawa-Nao- 
etsu Railway; from Gifu on the 
Tokaido Railway ; or from the Sea 
of Japan, on which last side To- 
yama is the natural starting-point. 
Tlie first- mentioned approach is to 
be preferred by travellers from 
Yokohama, the last two by those 
coming from K5be. Matsumoto and 
Fakushima make excellent centres 
for excursions among these moun- 

A road is in course of construction 
from Shimashima over the summit 
of the Tokugo-toge, a pass which 
crosses the range running parallel 
to the great ridge of which 
Vari-ga-take forms the highest point. 
Ultimately it will head down to the 
Azusa-gawa, and then probably, 
crossing that river, come out on the 
Hirayu side of the chain. Should 
this be the case, it would afford a 
capital high-level route from Shi- 
nano into Hida, and greatly facili- 
tate travel through the wildest 
district of Japan. 

2.— Pbom Gra^ OH thb T^aido 
Railway to Takatama im Hida. 


GIFU to:— Bi.Cho. M. 

Akutami 2 6 6^ 

SBKI 2 4 6l 

Nakanoho 5 1 12| 

Kamibuohi 1 33 4| 

Kanayama 3 13 ^ 

Shimohara 14 1 

Hoido 3 -_ 7J 

Gero 3 18 8J 

Hagiwara 2 4 5^ 

Ossaka 3 1 7? 

Kukuno 3 32 9^ 

TAKAYAMA .... 3 4 7i 

Total 33 22 82 

This road, called the Hida Kaiddf 
is practicable for jinrikishas through- 
out, though there are some bad 
portions. The best accommodation 
is at Sekl (Inn, •Yorozu-ya), at 
Skiinoharay and at Oero^ also called 
Yunoshimay where there are mineral 
springs. The tame character of the 
landscape during the early part 
of the journey, lying within the pro- 
vince of Mino, is exchanged for 
scenes of entrancing beauty on cross- 
ing over into the province of Hida 
near Kanayania, which continue 
all the rest of the way. From here 
to Kukuno, the traveller wends for 
forty miles along the beautifully 
wooded valley of the Hida-gawa 
(called Mfitsuda-gawa and AdanogO- 
gawa further on), through a succes- 
sion of rocky ravines where the road 
clings to the precipices that over- 
hang the foaming water. Curiously 
enough, one of the finest parts of 
the route has received the ill- sound- 
ing name of Jigoku (" Hell "), ap- 
parently by reason of the awe which 
it has inspired in native beholders. 
Specially grand and rugged is the 
view at the confluence of the Ossaka- 
gawa with the main river. The hill 
between Kukuno and Takayama is 
called the Miya-tdge, from a very 
ancient Shintd temple, the chief 
one of the province. It stands r., in 


Boute 80. — Mountains of Hida and Eieku, 

a beautiful grove on the way down. 
Descending into a small plain, we 
soon enter 

Takajama (Inn, •Taniga-ya). 
This, the capital of Hida, is divided 
into three main parts, called respec- 
tively Ichi-no-machij Ni-no-machi, 
and San-no-^machi, The shops are 
poor. A good panorama of the 
town and neighbouring mountains 
can be had from Shiroyama, a hill 
close by on which a castle formeriy 
stood. It is only 10 min. climb. 

3.— From Takatama to Matsumoto 


Naoetsu Railway by thb Hiba- 
Yu AND Abo Passes. Nobikuba 
and Kasa-dakb. [Nomuoi Pass.] 


TAKAYAMA to :— Ri. Cho. M, 

Matsunoki 15 1 

Haohi-ga-machi ..1 3 2f 

Otani 1 ^ 2i 

Hiomo 1 17 3i 

Kute 1 28 4J 

HIRAYU 2 8 6i 

Top of Abo-tOge . . 2 — 6 
Descent to Azusa- 

gawa 2 — 5 

Top of Hinoki-toge. 1 — 2i 

Onogawa 1 — 2A 

Kumanosawa .... 3 25 9 

SHIMASHIMA .. 2 18 6 

Niimura 3 18 8i 

MATSUMOTO.... 1 18 3f 

Total 25 6 61^ 

Jlnrikisbas can generally be taken 
for a distance of 4 ri out of Taka- 
yama, and again in the Matsumoto 
plain after passing Kumanosawa. 

Leaving the E. end of Takayama, 
the road traverses the vill. of Matsu- 
noki, where a rope stretched across 
the valley testifies to an ancient 
superstition. According to the date 
at which the weather causes this 
rope to snap, omens are drawn for 
the crops of the ensuing twelve 
month. It is replaced yearly 
on the 7th day of the 7th moon. 
This spot is one of the "Eight 

Views" of the province of Hida. 
At the top of the Tete-saka, before 
descending to Hachi-ga'machi, the 
summits of Yari-ga-take, Kasadake, 
Norikura, and Ontake come in view. 

Accommodation may be had at 
various temples between Takayama 
and Hiomo, after which Hatahoko 
is the only halting place for the 
night until we reach Hirayu. The 
first part of the way is extremely 
picturesque, and the road good as 
far 8ts Hiomo, beyond which it 
dwindles to a mere pathwav. At Kute 
commences the ascent of the Hirayu 
Pass, which lies through a dense 
forest of beech, fir, and oak for a 
little more than 1 ri. The descent 
on the other side, also 1 ri, is 
very steep, down to the hollow be- 
tween high mountains where nest> 
les the little hamlet of 

Hirayn (Inn by Emon Saburo). 
This place is frequented by the 
people of the province for the sake 
of its chalybeate hot spring. Hirayu 
forms the best head-quarters for 
those desirous of scaling Norikura 
to the S. and Kasadake to the N. W. 

[Hirayu may also be reached by 
following the Takahara-gawa 
from Funatsu (see p. 240) nearly 
all the way to its source. Ga- 
ma4a^ for the ascent of Kasa- 
dake, 8 ri fi'om Funatsu, may 
be reached in the same way. 
Gamada is picturesquely situat- 
ed, and boasts hot sulphur 

Ascent of Norikura. 

The way from Hirayu leads past 
a magnificent cascade over 200 ft. 
high, formed by the Takahara-gawa 
near its source, and through some 
Mines (Kdean) 2 hrs. from Hirayu, 
where it may be advisable to spend 
the night, so as to make an early 
start unless indeed the mountainer 
prefer to arrange his expedition so 
as to sleep at the Murodo hut near 
the summit, mentioned further on. 
Though the mines lie at an altitude 
of 7,000 ft., work is carried on all 

Ascent of Norikura. 


the year round. The annual output 
is about 150,000 lbs. of copper and 
8,500 lbs. of silver. The ascent be- 
gins, if one may si^ to, by a drop of 
aeveral hundred feet down a steep 
shale slope to a torrent, whence it is a 
fough-and-tumble scramble through 
the forest. Emerging from this, 
the climb is over rocks and snow. A 
charming lake surrounded by rugged 
peaks, and some natural caves are in- 
teresting objects passed on the way. 
Still further on— about 5 hrs. from 
the mines — is a hut called the Muro- 
dd. The final climb leads over lava 
blocks and scorise, ending at the 
small shrine of Asahi Gongen on 
the northernmost and highest peak 
of the mountain. Norikura is an 
old volcano, the peak being really 
one of the sides of the crater from 
which extensive lava-flows formerly 
poured. The view should embrace 
all the great peaks of the Japanese 
Alps — granite giants, which unfor- 
tunately are but too often veiled in 
lain or mist. The return to Hirayu 
occupies about 6 hrs. 

[Norikura may also be ascended 
from the vill. of Onoaawa on 
the E. side. But as the climb 
up and down is likely to prove 
too much for one day, the best 
plan is to spend the night either 
at a sleeping hut 4,800 ft. high 
beside a small stream abound- 
ing in excellent trout, or at 
the Murodd above-mentioned, 
as the last part of the ascent 
from Onogawa coincides with 
that from Hirayu.] 

(The grey cliffs and shining snow- 
slopes of Kasadake form a striking 
picture to one looking down the nar- 
row valley to the N.W. of Hirayu. 
This mountain is believed to have 
never been ascended by Europeans, 
and even the Geological Survey Iklap 
omits to give its height. The na- 
tives, however, assert that it can be 
climbed from the hamlet of Gamaday 
7} m. from Hirayu, see previous 

Few walks of 30 miles are to be 
found in the whole of Japan, com- 
parable for wild and varied pic- 
turesqueness to that from Hirayu 
to Shimashima over the Abo-tdge 
and Hinoki-tdge, On the way up the 
former there is charming sylvan 
scenery wi th moss an d fern s in abund- 
ance, also glorious views 1. of Yari- 
ga-take and Kasadake, and of Haku- 
san to the S.W. After gaining the 
summit of the pass, 6,400 ft. high, 
which forms the boundary between 
the provinces of Hida and Shinshu, 
the descent leads through a forest as 
yet untouched by the woodman's 
axe; but there are several resting 
places suitable for a midday halt. At 
length, far down on the r., we see 
the stc^im rising from the valley in 
which lie the hot springs of Shira- 
hone ; and then the strong current 
of the Azusa-gawa has to be crossed 
on a couple of pine-trees felled for 
the purpose. The top of the Hinoki- 
toge is reached about 1 hr. before 
getting to 

Onoaawa {Inn by Okuta Kiiohi), 
a small vill. prettily situated on 
the banks of the Maegawa, an 
affluent of the Azusa-gawa, afc a 
height of 3,800 ft. The gorge below 
Onogawa, walled in by densely wood- 
ed mountains, is inexpressibly grand 
and beautiful. The path clings or 
should cling to the sides of the living 
rock, for at times portions of it 
slip down into the gulf below. 
After Shimashima, the mountains 
open out to form the Matsumoto 
plain. Jinrikishas may be had by 
sending into Matsumoto, though 
they can sometimes be got at 
Murasaki, about half-way. For 

Hhiuiashimn and Miitsiinioto 
see p. 206. From ^latsumoto, the 
station of Ueda on the Karuizawa- 
Naoetsu Railway can, under favour- 
able circumstances, be reached by 
hasha in 8 hrs. After heavy rains, 
bad roads may make the journey 
half as long again. 

[An alternative way from Taka- 
yama to Matsumoto is over the 


RouU SO.—Mountaini of Hida and EtehS. 

Nomugi Pass. The itinerary is 
as follows : — 


RL Chd. M. 

Kabuto 8 1 7i 

Kibyn-dani .. 2 31 7 

Naka-no-shuku 1 13 3^ 

NOMUGI .... 3 23 9 

Kawaura .... 3 — 7J 

Yoriaido 2 18 6 

Nyu-yama .... 2 — 6 

Inekoki 18 IJ 


Niimura 3 18 8i 


Total .... 24 32 61 

Nomngi and Shimasbima are 
the best places to stop at on 
the way.] 

4. — Yabi-oa-take and Myojin- 


YAri-gft-take, lit. Spear Peak, is 
most easily reached from the Shin- 
shu side vi& Ueda on the Karui- 
zawa-Naoetsu Railway, ^latsumoto, 
and Shimasbima (see p. 206), 
where guides can be engaged. The 
first part of the way lies along a 
lovely valley in which, at a distance 
of about 4 mi from Sliimashima, 
stands a new mineral bath-house 
called Furotaira. The path ulti- 
mately crosses the steep Tokngo'tOge, 
7,000 ft., between Nabekamuvi-yama 
on the N., and Kasumi-ga-take on 
the S. The Tokugo sleeping hut, 
4,950 ft., on the far side of the pa£s, 
is grandly situated in the forest on 
the bank of the Azusa-gawa, at a 
distance of some 7 hrs. on foot from 
Shimasbima. Opposite it rises 
the magnificent granite peak of 
My5jin-dake, which in form and 
position resembles the Aiguille du 
Dru near Chamouix. From the 
Tokugo hut, the climb to the summit 
will take about 9 or 10 hrs., the 
distance being calculated at 8 or 9 
ri^ though the rough nature of the 
ground to be crossed makes such 
calculations of comparatively little 

use. The descent to the Akasdka 
no Iwa-goya will occupy a good 
walker 2} hrs. or so, fair shelter 
under the lee of an overhanging 
rock, and plenty of good vmter ana 
firewood supplying his needs for a 
night's bivouac there. 

[An alternative way up, branch- 
ing ofE 5 m. beyond the Tokugo 
hut, is vift the Tokoo-danu 
Some consider this shorter. In 
any case it is more difficult; 
but the scenery is savagely 
grand, and the torrent need not 
be so often crossed. A natnnJ 
cave about J m. up the vallev 
gives good shelter if needeoL 
The ordinary route is rejoined 
at the base of a spur thrown 
out from the cliffs of Hodaka- 
yama^ a serrated ridge which a 
broken ar^te connects with 

The route lies alternately up one 
side or other of the bed or banks 
of this torrent for about 3 hrs. On 
the 1. the steep, craggy, granitic 
precipices of Myojin-dake, streaked 
with slopes of shining snow, rise to 
a height of over 10,000 ft,, while on 
the r. are tamer wooded hills. Koble 
mountains are these precipitons 
masses of granite, surpassing in 
wildness any to be seen elsewhere 
in Japan, their curiously steep forms 
being not unlike some of the ideal 
crags depicted in Chinese art. Per- 
haps there is no part of the countiy 
in so truly primeval a state — with 
the exception of some districts 
of Yamato-as this torrent valley 
in the heart of the Shinano-Hida 
range, whose sole frequenters are 
huntoi-s seeking bears or tho 
sheep-faced antelope. At an eleva- 
tion of 6,400 ft., a rude shed 
called Akasaka no Iwa-goya^ a 
camping place for hunters, is pass- 
ed ; and just above here the forest 
ceases and the first snow-field is 
crossed. Hence upward the road 
lies mostly over snow ; but just below 
the summit, between the peaks, the 

A'teatt qf Yari-gfi-ta]fe and Mytijm-tUikei 


90uto winds up and amoQg hqge 
iukte masses ox rock piled in inde- 
Boribable confusion. From the irre- 
gular resting of some of these crags 
so-called ** caves" are formed, 
wherein the hunters take up their 
ftbode whilst watching for bears. 
Ptarmigan are common here. After a 
stiff climb up snow and over debris, 
and a rather dangerous scramble 
m> one side of the peak, we gain 
tne summit, which consists of a 
short narrow ridge of broken rock, 
the tip of the " Spear,*' nearly per- 
pendicular on all sides but the S. E. 
"The view" says Rev. Walter 
Weston, " as one looks straight down 
into the wild and desolate valleys 
tiiat stretch away from the base of 
the mountain, is most impressive. 
To the north lie the almost unknown 
peaks of the range between the pro- 
vinces of Shinshti and Etohft, which 
stretches far towards the Sea of 
Japan. On the west stands the 
nigged form of Kasadake, which 
y/re think would afford a grand climb 
from the valley which separates it 
from us. Southwards, the eye rests 
on the nearer giants of this group, 
Hodaka-yamafMydjin-dake) and the 
massive double-topped Norikura, 
and beyond these Ontake with the 
Koma-ga-take of Shinshfi on its 
eastern side. To the south-east, but 
farther off, stands the great mass of 
mountcJns on the borders of Shin- 
sha and Kdshu, the most pro- 
minent peaks being Shirane-san, 
Akaishi-san, and Koma^ga-take. 
But most striking of all is the state- 
ly cone of Fuji rising with its ma- 
jastio sweep supreme above all else, 
at a distance, as the crow flies, of 
over 86 miles. To enumerate all 
the summits to be seen from the 
point on which we stand, would be 
to give a list of all the grandest 
mountains in Japan. Only the haze 
and clouds to the north-west prevent 
our view from embracing the sea in 
the Bay of Toyama, so that nearly 
the whole width of the central por- 
tion of the Empire is included in this 
magoificent prospect." 

The descent will occupy a good 
walker 2^ hrs. to the Akasaka no 
Iwa-goyay and thence 12^ hrs. to 

The ascent of Myojin-dake, as 
well as that of Yari-ga-take, may be 
made from the Tokugo hut. 

**This mountain, whose highest 
point also goes by the names 
of Hodaka-yama and xokoo-dake, is 
one of the most striking peaks in 
Japan, its snow-seamed granite cliffs 
rismg 5,000 ft. sheer from the nar- 
row valley of the Azusa-gawa. For 
a short distance the line of ascent — 
there is no path to follow — lies in 
the direction of Yari-ga-take, and. 
then turns abruptly to the 1. through 
the forest which clothes the lower 
slopes of the mountain. A very 
rough scramble through bamboo 
grass and dense undergrowth at 
length brings one out on to loose 
rooks partly concealed by low shrubs, 
after which several sharp ridges 
have to be surmounted and nearly 
perpendicular cliffs traversed by 
holaing on to bushes and creepers. 
Eventually .we emerge into a wild 
ravine, and a long climb up the 
loose and gradually steepening rooks 
leads to the foot of a snow-slope, 
lying at an angle of about 40°, at 
an altitude of 8,500 ft. A stiff climb 
up this, and then a still rougher 
scramble up large masses of smooth 
rock land us on the main arSte, from 
which rise the varibus peaks of the 
mountain. The highest is seen on 
the left, and a somewhat difficult 
ascent places the climber on the 
topmost summit, which is com- 
posed of broken blocks of very hard 
close-grained granite. The distant 
view is similar to that from Yari- 
ga-take. The ascent will take some 
6 hrs. exclusive of halts, the des- 
cent about 1 hr. less." 

5. — Fbom Nagano to Toyama nr 
Etchu ovbb the Harinoki 

The greater portion of the follow- 
ing itinerary and of the description 
given below mv^ be regarded as* 


Route 30. — Mountains of Hida and Etchu. 

approximate ODly, the difficulty of 
keeping communication open across 
so rugged a country bemg pecu- 
liarly great. There is no possibility 
of crossing the pass before the yamor' 
birakiy or " mountain opening/' on 
the 20th June. Even during the 
summer months communication is 
often entirely interrupted, and none 
but the most experienced moun- 
taineers can hope to succeed in 
forcing a path for themselyes. 
Difficulty is sometimes experienced 
in obtaining the services of hunters 
to act as guides, the Hariiioki-tdge 
being now seldom crossed even by 
the natives, and the huts former- 
ly existing on the way being 
nearly all destroyed, whilst the 
central portion of the original track 
has, owing to avalanches and land- 
slips, been practically effaced. 
Still, the route remains one of the 
grandest, as well as one of the most 
arduous, mountaineering expedi- 
tions in Japan. 


^NAGANO to :— RL Chd. 3f. 

Sasadaira 3 16 8^ 

Shimmachi 2 18 6 

Obara 1 — 2J 

Hashigi 1 18 3f 

So 1 — 2i 

Omachi 2 30 7 

Noguchi 18 IJ 

Shirazawa . . .^ 2 18 6 

Maruishi-bashi 1 2 2} 

Top of Harinoki 

Pass 1 21 3i 

Futamata 24 If 

Kurobe 2 11 6f 

Top of Zaragoe. . . . 1 7 3 

Yumoto 2 — 6 

Yanagiwara 31 2 

Seko 1 6 2f 

Hara 3 — 7i 

Omi 1 — 2i 

Kamidaki 3 — 7f 

TOYAMA 3 — 7J 

Total 36 6 88J 

Jinrikishas can be taken as far 
«s the hamlet of Koichif where the 

Saigawa is joined and from which 
point the scenery becomes pretty. 
One ri before reaching 

8himmii€lli (Inn, Kome-ya), the 
road passes over the Yanoshiri- 
tdge, a steep ascent of 18 chd. 

The deaoent to the hamlet of Anadaira 
on the other side wa« the scene of a great 
convnlsion in the year 1847, when, owins 
to an earthqoake, the river was daounea 
up by the fall of masses of esrth from thm 
hills on both sides. A small cascade 
marks the spot where the waters after* 
wards broke through. Boats former1|y 
went all the way down from Matsomoto 
to Nagano, bnt their passage has evor 
since been interrupted at Anadaira. 

Oinaehi {Innt Yama-cho) presents 
an old-world appearance, owing to 
its flat-roofed wooden houses like 
the cottages in the Alps, with heavy 
stones to keep down the shingling. 
At Noguchi, where comfortable 
quarters can be obtained at the 
house of the Kuchd^ enquiries should 
be made concerning the state of 
the roexl, and stout-limbed guides 
engaged for the ascent of the Hari- 
noki Pass. Very little shelter is to 
be found before reaching Kurobe, 
though just below the summer limit 
of the snow on the pass, about 1 ri 
from the top, at an elevation of 
some 5,600 ft., a rude camping plaoe 
called Ushi-goya can be utilised for 
a bivouac. As it is not feasible to 
reach Kurobe from Noguchi in 1 
day, the traveller must put up 
with this, and on the following day 
a short but extremely rough scram- 
ble over the snow and down the 
steep mountain side and the torrent 
bed on the W. of the pass will bring 
him to Kurobe, where the seoond 
night must be spent. The summer 
limit of the snow on the Harinoki 

• Or NAGANO to.— Bi. Cho. M, 

Sasadaira 8 18 8% 

Nakajfl 2 — 5 

Takebn 2 — 6 

Pemmi 2 — 5 

OMACHI 8 18 8| 

Total 13 -81f 

This is the postal route, bnt that given 
in the text is more picturesque. 

Harinoki Pass. Ascent of Tateyama. 


Pass is reached about 1 ri from the 
top, at an elevatiop of 6,300 ft. 

From the summit (7,700 ft.), Fuji 
is seen as in a vignette between the 
ranges of Yatsu-ga-take and Koma- 
ga-take, the other most noteworthy 
feature of the yiew being Yari-ga- 

[A peak called Goroku-dake, 9,100 
ft., may be ascended from this 
point; but there is no shelter 
to sleep iu.] 

The traveller now leaves the pro- 
vince of Shinshti for that of Etchtk, 
and will notice, both on the summit 
and on the way down, the alder- 
trees {hari-no-icit or han^no-ki) 
which give their name to the pass. 
The valley on this side is known as 
4he Harinoki-sawa. 

Knn>be consists of but one dilapi- 
dated hut on the banks of the swift 
Kurobe-gawa, which has to be ford- 
ed before the hut can be reached. 
From here to Rytlzan-jita is another 
short but arduous scramble over the 
Nukui-dani'tdge and the Zara^oe. 
The valley of the latter pass, filled 
with shining slopes of snow topped 
with precipitous cliffs, is very love- 
ly, whilst the view from the summit 
is magnificently wild. All around, 
enormous landslips and confused 
masses of rook, hurled down from 
the tops of the mountains to the 
gorge below, bear witness to the 
terribly destructive forces by which 
this part of the country has been 
ravaged. The rocky mass in front 
is one of the slopes of Tateyama, 
while on the 1. a view of the soft 
plains of Toyama and of the sea 
beyond contrasts agreeably with the 
savage aspect of the nearer land- 
scape. The Jinziigawa is seen in 
the plain wending its way towards 
the Sea of Japan, and the blue out- 
line of the provinces of Kaga and 
Noto fills up the distant back- 
ground. The descent is through a 
wilderness of rooks and stones, and 
includes the most difficult portions 
of the whole expedition. Here and 
there sulphur fumes are seen rising 

from the mountain side, and short- 
ly before reaching Hy^zan-jita a 
curious circular lake (McLgo-ike) of 
hot sulphurous water is passed on 
the 1. hand. 

Ynmoto, or Ryusan-jUay com- 
monly called TaUyama Onsen on 
account of its hot springs, stands in 
a desolate waste,— a chaos of large 
boulders, sand, and stones, left by the 
great earthquake of 1858. On quit- 
ting this place, the path continues 
down a grandly rugged gorge, called 
Dashiioara-dani at its upper end. 
Before descending to Kamtdaki, the 
best general view of Tateyama and 
of the range forming the boundary 
of the province of Etohil is obtained. 
The names of the highest summits, 
in order from the 1., are as follows : 
— Tsurugi-dake, Kodake, Go-hon- 
sha, Jodo, Tombi, Kuwasaki, and 
Arimine-Yakushi. It is sometimes 
possible to get jinrikishas at Kami- 
daki. The road onward crosses a 
well-cultivated plain, and joins the 
Hokkoku Kaido a few ch5 before 

Toyama (see end of Rte. 33). 

6. — Tateyama. 

Tntefama is the collective name 
given to the lofty summits which 
stand on the E. border of the pro- 
vince of Etoha, and which, toge- 
ther with the jagged peak of Tsuru- 
gi-dake, form the N. extremity of 
the greatest range of mountains in 
Japan. The highest of the peaks 
{Oo-hofisha) rises some 9,500 ft. 
above the level of the sea. The main 
ascent leads up the W. side of the 
mountain from the hamlet of Ashi- 
kura (accommodation at the Shint5 
priest^s house), which can be reach- 
ed from Toyama vi& KamidaJhi. 
The distances are: Toyama to 
Kamidaki, 3 ri 20 chd by jinrikisha ; 
thence on foot to Ashikura, 8 H 8 
choy — making 16^ m. altogether. 

The way up the mountain Is 
arduous in parts, nor is there any 
shelter, except two or three wretch- 
ed huts, to be got during the whole 
distance of 90 m. from Ashikura to 


RpHia B0k~Mmi9Uaini of Uida and Ktcku. 

the MwrodO, 2) m. from khe aum- 
mit. The Murodo itself is a better 
and larger but, whiob is opened for 
the acoommoidatiou of pilgrims 
from the 20bh July to the 10th 
September. No bedding is |>roour- 
able, and little food exoept rice oau 
be depended upon. 

[In a valley situated about 6 chd 
to the 1. of the Murodd are 
the remarkable solfataras of i 
Ojigoku ("Big Hell"). The 
whole valley seems alive with 
pools of boiling mud and sul- 

From the Murodo hut to the 
highest simimit, whose name of Go- 
honsha oomes from the picturesque 
temple with whioh it is crowned, 
is 1 hr. climb, partly across 
anow-slopes and then up the 
looky peak forming the top of the 
mountain. At the end, a truly 
superb panorama unfolds itself be- 
fore the spectator's gaze. The num- 
ber of mountains to be distinguished 
is extraordinarily great. To the 
extreme 1., looldng eastward, are 
seen Myoko-zan, Myogi-san, and 
Yoneyama in Echigo, Nantai-zan 
near Nikko, and Togakushi-aan and 
Asama-yama in Shinshu. Towards 
the S. rises the range of Yatsu-ga- 
take, with the isolated peak of 
Tateshina-yama, beyond which are 
seen Fuji and the high peaks of 
Shirane and Koma-ga-take in Kd- 
shu. Further S. again are Koma- 
ga-take and Ontake iti Shinshu; 
Yari-ga-take, Norikura, and Kasa- 
dake, with in closer proximitv Yaku- 
shi-dake,— all in Hida. To the S.W. 
is Haku-san on the borders of Kaga. 
Below, to the W., lie the plains of 
Kaga and Etchli, the latter water- | 
ed by the rivers Jinzfi and Jogwan- j 
ji, while to the N. the view is 
bounded by the Sea of Japan. j 

The traveller who succeeds in ! 
xeaohing Ry&zan-jita will find the j 
olimb from there up Tateyama far ' 
preferable to that from Ashikura ; j 
tfit though the first purt of the as- 1 

oent is very steep, the whole expedi- 
tion can be comfortably accomplish- 
ed in one day, if the start be made 
at daybreak, and thus the night need 
not be spent in the crowded and 
uncomfortable Murodo, with its 
host of pilgrims and fleas. A little 
more than 1 hr. climb up the clifiEs 
by the pilgrims' path just opposite 
the baths lands us on the edge of a 
wide plateau called Mida-ga-luxra, 
the view from near the top of the 
ridge beinc exceptionally fine. The 
track is then fairly level, though 
generally wet and slippery for some 
distance, and ultimately falls in with 
the path leading from Ashikura 
to the summit. 

7. — From Toyama to Takatama in 
Hida by the Valley of the 


TOYAMA to :— Ri. Chd. M. 

Sasazu ) „«^,^^ 4 — 91 

Kamidera ^PP'^,^- 5 ~ laj 

Mozumi j *"'**^- 3 - tI 


Furukawa 6 26 14 

TAKAYAMA 3 28 9J: 

Total 26 24 62| 

This picturesque route is general- 
ly practicable for jinrikishas. The 
best accommodation is at Mozumi^ 
at Fnnatsn {Innst Yorozu-ya, Wata- 
nabe), and at Furukawa {Inn, Ya- 
tsu-san). Before reaching Kami- 
deray close to the boundary of the 
foovinoes of EtchQ and Hida, the 
Jinztl-gawa curves away to the r., 
while the road to Funatsu follows 
the Takahara-gawa, one of its 
affluents. The view^ at the forking 
of the rivers is most picturesque, 
and the whole way hence to 
Funatsu ruggedly grand. A silver 
mine {Shikawa Oiman) is in 
operation not far from Funatsu. 
Between this town and Furu- 
kawa one crosses the Akasaka- 
tdge, 3,850 ft. above the sea, and 
1,600 ft. above Funatsu. On the 

Valley ttf the Shimhiwa, Hafncmn. 


way down there is a beautiful view | 
across the Ydkaniachi valley and ^ 
the low pipe-clad hills separating 
this valley from that of the Miya- 
gawa and the plain Burrounding the '. 
provincial capital, 

Takn}amii (see p. 234). 

8. — From Kanazawa in Kaga to 
Takayama in Hida by the 
Valley op thb Shirakawa. 



Futamata 2 


Jo-ga-hana 1 

Shimo Nashi 4 

Nishi Akao 2 

Taubaki-hara 3 

lijima 2 

Hirase 2 

Kurodani 3 

Momai 1 

Kami Odori 2 

Maki-ga-hora 2 





























10 i 
20 82 

Total 34 32 85i^ 

This route is not practicable for 
jinrikishas except between Puku- 
mitsu and Jo-ga-hana, and again 
between Mikka-machi and Taka- 
yama. Jinrikishas are always to 
be found at Fukumitsu, but at 
Mikka-machi they cannot be de- 
pended upon. Horses are not pro- 
carable in the valley of the Shira- 
kawa, and baggage is transported 
by cattle or on coolies' backs. 
Fairly good accommodation can be 
had at the towns of Fukumitsu and 
Jd-ga-hana, and accommodation 
which is at least passable at most of 
the villages. The scenery is delight- 
fully picturesque, and there are 
many magnificent distant views. 


This celebrated mountain, stand- 
iDg on the borders of the four pro- 
yinces of Echizen, Kaga, Hida, and 

Mino, may be ascended" either from 
Kanazawa or from Fukui. The 
itinerary by the former route to 
Yumoto, a vill. at the base is as 
follows : 

KANAZAWA (Ghashi) to :— 

Bi. Clw. M. 

Tsurugi 4 7 lOJ 

Ounawara 5 29 14| 

Ushikubi 4 4 10 

YUMOTO (about) 6 — 12^ 

Total 19 4 12J 

Fair accommodation at Tsurugi 
(7nM, Ebi-ya) ; better at 

¥iiiiiot(» {Inn^ Yamada-ya). The 
road is prakctioable for jinrikishas 
over a sandy road only as far as Tsu- 
rugi. From Ushikubi onwards the 
scenery becomes very picturesque. 
Yumoto, noted for its hot springs, is 
completely shut in by densely wood- 
ed hills, and is deserted in winter 
by its inhabitants, who do not return 
till the beginning of June. There 
are several other sulplmr springs on 
the mountain side. The ascent 
and descent of Haku-san from 
Yumoto make an easy day's ex- 
pedition, the climb to the Muro- 
do hut occupying a good walker 
3 hrs., and the steep clamber thence 
to the shrine on the top {Go-honsha)t 
25 min. The glorious view from 
the summit includes Tateyama 
N.E., Yari-ga-take E.N.E., Nori- 
kura a little to the S. of E., Yatsu- 
ga-take and the Koma-ga-take of 
Koshu in the dim distance, Outake 
E.S.E., and the Koma-ga-take of 
Shinshii. In the immediate neigh- 
bourhood are Bessan on the S. and 
Onanji on the N., which, with the 
central and highest peak called 
Gozen-mine, together constitute the 
three summits of Haku-san. To 
the N.W. rises the lofty top of 
Shaka-ga-tako. On the E. side is 
Tsurugi or " the Sword," so called 
from its pointed rocky peaks, and 
on the W. the Oku-uo-in. Two 
tarns lie at the bottom of what are 
apparently ancient craters. 


RotUe 30, — MoHuUiifu of H^ia and Eichu. 

The itinerary from Fukui to Yu- 
moto is as follows : 

FUKUI (Arahashi) to:— 

Ri, Chd. M. 

Matsuoka •. . . 2 4 5i 

Koinyoji 1 22 SJ 

Katsiiyama 4 — 93 

Kogo 2 8 6i 

Hayasbi's farm .. 2 82 7 

Top of Ohara-toge.. 1 18 8| 

^Fizutani 2 — 5 

YUMOTO 18 3 

Total 17 20 42f 

Jiurikishas go sis far as Katsu- 
yania (Tun, Izumi-ya), which offers 
the otily fair accommodation on 
the road. The scenery is wild and 

10.— From Takayama in Hida to 



TAKAYAMA to :— Ri. Ohd. M. 

Kabuto 8 1 7i 

Kibyti-dani 2 31 7 

Naka-no-shuku .. 1 13 

Kami>no-hara .... 1 18 

Adanogo 1 6 2f 

Hiwada 2 20 GJ 

Kami Nishino .... 3 — 7J 

Suegawa 2 1 5 

Kurokawa 3 — 7i 

FUKUSHIMA.... 1 — 2i 

Total 21 17 62i 

As far as Nishino, baggage is 
generally carried by women, some- 
times by cattle. Though either 
means of transport is objectionable, 
there is apparently no other alter- 
native. Beautiful views occur all 
along the route. The best accom- 
modation is at Kami NishinOy 
whence it is possible to ascend 
Ontake, a climb of 7 7*i; but the 
way is a difficult one, and either of 
those given below is to be pre- 

11.— Ontake and thb Eoica-oa- 


Ont4ike*9 one of the loftaest 
mountains in Japan, is considered 
the most sacred next to Fuji, and 
yearly attracts crowds of pilgrimB. 

The phenomena of trance and so-caUed 
divine possession, often to be witnessed 
on this uoly pesk, have been d escri bed hj 
Mr. Percivftl l/owell in Vol. XXtl. of the 
Tmnwrtion* of the Aiiatic Society qfJapam. 

Dr. Rein, writing from a very different 
lK)int of view, says: "Ontake isalon^; 
ridge running N. and S., on the summit 
of which are eight larger and several 
smaller craters. Six of the former lie in 
a row sloDg the ridge, while the other 
two are situated on the N.W. side towards 
Hida. They are more or less circular in 
form, fmm 800 to 1,00U metres (*i.624 to 
.3,2S<) ft.) in circnoiference, and with one 
exception have no great depth. Their 
walls have fallen in in many places, and 
access to most of them is thereby facili- 
tated. 'ITieir relative age can be easily 
recognised by the weathering of the dole- 
ritic lava, but still better by the manner 
in which vegetation has plnnted itself in 
them and their sunken walls. Thus the 
most northerly crater, which now eon- 
tnins a tarn, aud whose sides offer a rich 
hnrvest to the Imtanist, seems to be the 
olflest ; then come the 2nd and Srd, pro- 
ceeding M., and la«tly the 4th and highest, 
from the 6. side of which we survey the 
surrounding prospect. Each of these 
craters lies 15 to 80 metres (50 to 65 ft.) 
higher than the one immediately preced- 
ing. The 6th from the N., which is 
entirely surrounded by the wall of the 
f^th, is indisputably a comparatively new 
formation, for its steep ana fissured sides 
are quite fresh and devoid of vegetation, 
as if they had only lately cooled down- 
No d^bns are to be distinguished any- 
where, «s far AS the eye can follow the 
deep ravine, which is connected with this 
crater on the S.W. Par below springs s 
brook, close to which rises up the sulphur- 
ous stenm of a solfntara. No eruption <rf 
Outake, however, seems to have taken 
place in historical times."— Ontake is 
particularly rich in species of plants 
that are only to be found at great slti- 

The best starting point for those 
approaching Ontake from the Naka- 
sendo side is Fukushima^ whence 
it may be climbed in 1 day by 
making an early start. The night 
is spent at a hut near the top, 
whence the descent occupies a short 

• Also called Mi fake, but not to be con- 
founded with the other monntains of that 
name in Bte. 96. 

Ontake. Koma^ga-take. Efia-san. 


^ay. Some reoommend that while 
the mountain is being climbed, the 
luggage should be sent on to Age- 
matsu, and the descent be made 
to that place by turning oft at 
Kurozawa^ the road between which 
and Agematsu is fairly good and the 
scenery lovely. 

Steps formed of logs somewhat 
facilitate the climb through the 
forest. Ridges of cinders and rough 
debris of rookshave then to be pass- 
ed. The view from the summit 
embraces Haku-san to the N.W., 
then to the r. the peninsula of Noto, 
and still further to the r. a row of 
mighty peaks that bear traces of 
snow even during the greatest sum- , 
mer heats. Conspicuous among ! 
these peaks are Tateyama, Yari-ga- \ 
take, and Norikura. Far to the ' 
N.E. rise the volcano of Asama I 
and the chain separating the pro- 1 
vinces of Kotsuke and Shinsha. To i 
the S.E. appear Yatsu-ga-take and 
far-off Fuji, with the Koma-ga-take 
of Shinsht^ in the near distance. 

The Shinsha Komu-gra-take, 
loftiest of all the mountains bearing 
that bewilderingly common name, 
is most conveniently ascended from 
Aganatsu, The distance from that 
village to the summit is called 4 ri 
8 choj and the ascent, part of which 
is very steep, will occupy a good 
walker over 6 hrs. Three or four 
huts on the way up afiord shelter 
in bad weather. The native pil- 
grims, who do not care to make the 
round of the various peaks forming 
the top of the mountain, but merely 
wish to visit Go-homha, the highest 
point, usually ascend and descend 
in one day. But the traveller is 
recommended rather to time his 
excursion so as to sleep at a hut 
called Tamakubo, 3 ri 32 chd from 
Agematsu, in order to witness the 
magnificent spectacle of sunrise 
from the summit. Looking east- 
wards, the eye sweeps along an 
almost continuous line of mountains 
that rise beyond the valleys of the 
Chikuma-^awa and Tenryu-gawa, 
tlia prominent summits m order 

from the 1. being Asama-yama 
N.N.E., Tateshina N.E. by N., 
Yatsu-ga-take N.E. by E.,the KoshfSi 
Koma-ga-take E. by N., and, directly 
opposite, Shirane-san, including all 
its three summits Kaigane-san, 
Aino-take, and Nodori-san. The 
sharp peak seen between Koma-ga- 
take and Kaigane-san is the summit 
of Ho-o-zan. To the S.E. rises a 
lofty, snow-streaked range with 
three conspicuous summits, the 
highest of which is called Akaishi. 
Another striking feature is the cone 
of Fuji, which towers up beyond a 
depression to the r. of Nodori-san. 
LobkuQg westward, the view em- 
braces a considerable portion of the 
great chain that forms the boundary 
between the provinces of Shinshft 
and Hida, tlie most prominent 
summit being Ontake bearing N. 
of W., to whose r., rising in succes- 
sion to the N., are Norikura, Kasa- 
dake, Hodaka-yama, and Yari-ga- 
take. In the distance, the peaks 
of Tateyama are discernible beyond 
Yari-ga-take. Towards the W. the 
distant outline of Haku-san is visi- 
ble, while in nearer proximity to 
the S. rises Ena-san in the province 
of Mino. There is also an extensive 
view over the province of llikawa 
and a portion of Enshu, with several 
mountains, including the double 
summit of Horaiji-yama in the 
former province and Akiha-san in 
the latter. 

Instead of returning to Agematsu, 
one may descend Koma-ga-ta^ on 
the E. side to Ina on the Ina Kai- 
do, in 1 day. There the Rapids of 
the Tenryft-gawa are within easy 
reach, see p. 230. 


Standing at the S. end of the 
great divide between the Kiso and 
Tenryft valleys, this fine mountain, 
7,450 ft. high, commands a magni- 
ficent panorama of the mountains 
of Central Japan, and has the 
advantage of being comparatively 
easy of access. The ascent is made 
from NaluUsu-^awa {Inn, ^Hashi- 


Route 31.— The Potteries of Seto. 

riki) on the Nakasendo, whence the 
expedition up and down takes one 
long day, with varied and delight- 
ful views. 

Ena-san may also be ascended 
from OcJiiaiy 1 ri further up the Naka- 
sendo than Nakatsu-gawa ; but this 
alternative way, though shorter, is 
much steeper. 

Nakatsu-gawa being conveniently 
situated for reaching the Tenryu- 
gawa, the descent of the Bapids of 
that river may be combined with a 
trip up Ena-san. It is a day's 
walk over the Misaka-tdgCt with 
lovely views of On take and the 
mountains of Kdshu, to Tokimata 
(see p. 230). 

ROUTE 31. 

The Potteries op Seto. 

The province of Owari of which Nagoya 
is the capital, and the adjacent province 
of Mino, nave for many ages been flourish- 
ing centres of the porcelain industry, the 
most famous seat of which is at Seto, 
where Katd Shirozaemon, the first great 
master of Japanese ceramic art, set 
up his kiln about the year 1280 on 
his return from six years of diligent study 
in China. Thenceforth Seto became 
the head-quarters of the manufactiu'e 
of dainty little jars, ewers, and other 
utensils for the tea ceremonies (eha-no-yn), 
so that the word f^/o-mono, literally ''Seto 
thinirs," has come to be employed in Japa- 
nese as a generic name for all pottery and 
porcelain, much as the word china is used 
in English. Seto has remained the chief 
porcelain manufactory of Japan. Many of 
the pieces now turned out—especiHlly the 
monster blue-and-white vases— are intend- 
ed only for the foreign market. ITiis local- 
ity suffered terribly from the great earth- 
quake of 1891 ; for though the houses re- 
mained standing, the kilns and entire 
stock were smashed. 

Persons whose time is llmitod can 
witness the processes of porcelain 
manufacture at Matsmnura*8 es- 
tablishment in Nagoya. Those with 
a day to spare should visit Seto, 5J 
ri (13i m.) from that city along a flat 
and excellent jinrikisha road. 

Seto (no inns) is a general name 
for the four hamlets of Kita Shingai,. 
Minami Shingai, G5, and Hora, 
situated on low hills that surround 
an almost circular valley. About 
eighty households are engaged in 
the manufacture of porcelain, and 
seventeen or eighteen in that of com- 
mon pottery. The clay is found in 
the immediate neighbourhood, the 
silica being brought from Sannagi 
in the N. W. comer of Mikawa, about 
3 ri distant. A large proportion of 
the common pottery that goes under 
the name of Seto ware comes from 
Akazu, about 1 ri further up the 
valley to the E. The establishments 
best worth visiting are those of Kat5 
Mokuzaemon, Kato Shigejf^, and 
Kate Masukichi in Kita Shingai, 
and Kat5 Gosuke in Minami Shin- 
gai, the latter being noted for his 
translucent white ware, chiefly sa7c«- 
cups. The Tdki-kwan at Minami 
Shmgai is a bazaar for all the wares 
of the neighbourhood. There are 
numerous smaller houses, — indeed 
the villagers carry on no other trade. 
Kato Gosuke owns another and 
larger manufactory at Tajimi, a 
vill. about 2^ ri from Seto, not ac- 
cessible by jinrikisha, where is pro- 
duced the finest porcelain in Mino, 
with delicate decorations in pale 
blue, obtained from the native cobalt 
known under the name of konjd, A 
darker shade is derived from an im- 
pure cobalt imported from China, 
and called by the potters kyUgosu. 
Our word cobalt has been corrupted 
by them into kohani^ and this term 
is employed to denote the pigment 
obtained from Europe. 

In the near vicinity of Nagoya are 
various smaller villages devoted to 
the production of minor kinds of 
porcelain and pottery, such as the 
Ofiike-yakiy Yosamu-yakif Fujimi- 
yakif Toyoraku-yaki^ aud InuyaTna- 
yaki. Coarse earthenware is made 
at Tokonabe, 10 ri to the S. of Na- 
goya, near Taketoyo. 

Boute 32.— The Shiineso/Jse. 


ROUTE 82. 

The Shbines of Ise. 

1. prelim in aey information. 2. 
from the tokaido to yamada. 3. 
from kyoto to yamada. 4. yoko- 
hama to yamada by sea. 6. 
yamada and neighbourhood, 
the temples of isb. [province 


1. — Preliminary Information. 

IS6 is the name, not of a town, bnt of a 
province lying to the E. and 8.E. of Kjdto 
on the W. shore of Owari Bay. The temples, 
which rank liigbest among the huly plHCcs 
of the Shintd cult, stand on the outskirts 
of the town of Tamada^ near the S.E. fron- 
tier of the province. It should be premised 
that the interest of the trip to Ise is chiefly 
antiquarian. Without going so far as to 
say, with a disappointed tourist, that 
** there is nothing to see, and they won't 
let you see it," we may remind intending 
travellers of the remarkable plainness of 
all Shintd architecture, and add that the 
veneration in which the sbrinee of Ise are 
held is such that none bnt priests and Im- 
perial peraona|^8 are allowed to penetrate 
into the interior. The rest of the world 
may only peep through the outer gate. 

The ways of reacbiug Yamada are 
as follows : 

I. From Tokyo to Atsuta (former- 
ly called Miya) on tbe Tdkaido Rail- 
way, Ist day ; thence by coasting 
steamer to Yokkaichi, whence train 
(Kwansei Tetsudd) to Tsu, and jin- 
rikisha to Yamada, 2nd (long) day. 
Instead of going from Atsuta to 
Yokkaicbi by steamer, one may per- 
form that part of the journey by 
jinrikisha vi& Kuwana, and thus 
avoid tbe sea altogether; but this 
lengthens the journey by some 
hours. It is intended to connect 
Atsuta with Yokkaicbi by railway, 
and that will then be the best route ; 
but only the W. Section of 8J miles 
between Kuwana and Yokkaicbi is 
likely to be soon completed. Atsuta 
being the next station to Nagoya, 
some may feel disposed to spend the 
night at the European hotel at the 
latter plaoo rather than at one of 

the Japanese inns at Atsuta. It 
would still generally be possible to 
catch the steamer leaviug Atsuta 
the following morning. The 23f nu 
separating Tsu from Yamada will 
also soon be traversed by a rail- 

n. Prom Kydto by the Tokaido 
Bailway as far as Kusatsu Junc- 
tion, whence by Kwansei Railway 
to Tsu, 4 hrs. from Kyoto. Jinriki- 
sha from Tsu to Yamada in 5 hrs. 

III. Instead of the railway, take 
the steamer direct from Yokohama 
to Yokkaicbi, where tranship for 
Kami Yashiro, the port of Yamada, 
from which it is distant 1^ ri (3^ 
miles) by jinrikisha. Time from 
Yokohama, about 30 hours, part of 
which is done at night. 

rV. There is a cross-country road 
from Nara to the Temples of Ise, 
practicable for jinrikishas and oc- 
casionally affording pretty views. 
It is much frequented by pilgrims 
who combine the Yamato-incguri^ 
or Round of the Holy Places of 
Yamato (see Route 42j, with the 
Ise-^mairiy or Ise Pilgrimage, and 
the Kufnano^mairiy or Kumauo Pil- 
grimage (see Route 43). The trip 
from Nara to Yamada takes 2f 
days, the itinerary being as fol- 
lows: — 

NARA to:— Ri.Chd,M. 

Saknrai 2 20 6^ 

HASE 1 23 4 

Haibara 1 15 3i 

Sambou-matsu 2 17 6 

Nabari 2 15 

Ao 3 4 7i 

Iseii 35 2^ 

Kaito 2 18 6 

Onoki 2 18 6| 

Rokken (Miwatari). 3 — vj 

MATSUZAKA . . . . 1 2 2^ 

Raigti 2 20 " 

YAMADA 2 27 

Total 28 15 

The main Ise road is joined at 
Rokken. The best inns at the 


Route 32.— The Shrines of I$e. 

various places mentioned in the { 
above ways to Ise are as follows : — 

At Atsnta» 


„ Iseji, 
„ Kaito, 

Kikyo - ya, near 
station ; Okada- 
ya, near steamer 

Idami-ya, Yoshi- 



Kami Yashiro, Ozaki-ya. 



Tawara-ya, | 

du Progr^s), , 




„ Kuwana, 
„ Matsuzaka, 
., Nabari, 
„ Nagoya, 

„ Onoki, 

., Rokken, 

„ Sakurai, 

,, Sambon-matsu, Mnshi-ya. 

„ Seki, Uo-ya. 

„ Tsu, Waka-roku. 

„ Yamada, •Abura-ya. 

„ Yokkaichi, Hamada-ya. ' 

2.— Fkom the Tokaido to Y'amada. i 
Atsuta (see p. 271) is the station 
on the Tokaidd Railway at which , 
to alight. Here one gets on board 
a boat to convey one to the steamer 
which takes passengers across the 
head of Owari Bay in SJ hrs. to 

Yokkaichit where also it is neces- 
sary to land in a small boat. Indeed, 
the extreme shallowness of Owari 
Bay prevents any but quite small 
craft from approaching the shore at 
any point. The Hamada-3ra Inn is 
at the landing-place. Tall chimneys 
rise above the roofs of the houses, 
giving the town an appearance | 
which, at least for Japan, is peculiar. • 
The situation is a good one, there [ 
being fresh breezes from the bay in ; 
summer, and a fine prospect of _the ' 
mountaius on the borders of Omi 
and Iga. Tarusaka-yatnat in the ! 
vicinity, is the favourite holiday! 
resort of the citizens, especially in i 
spring. Among the principal pro- i 
ducts of Yokkaichi may be men-, 
tioned oil, rice, paper, silk, and 
Banko faience, — a ware, for the 
Most part, exceedingly light and 

having hand-modelled decoration ixtc 
relief. The best Banko shop is that 
kept by Kawamura Matasuke in 
Minami-machi ; but as every variety 
of this cheap and fascinating ware 
is easily procurable in Yokohama 
and Kobe, there is no call to stop 
over a steamer on its account. Yok- 
kaichi is one of the ♦* Special Open 
Ports " for the export of rice, wheat, 
flour, coal, and sulphur. 

[The alternative plan of going by 
jinrikisha from Atsuta to Yok- 
kaichi round the head of the 
Bay of Owari occupies about 
6 hrs. in fine weather with two 
coolies. The country is flat,, 
and the road generally good. 
It is a part of the Old Tdkaidik 
— little used, however, even in 
pre-railway days, the sea pass- 
age being so much shorter. 


ATSUTA to :— Ri. Cli5. M. 

Fukuda 8 8 7j 

Maegasu 2 11 SJ 

KUWANA .... 1 22 4 
YOKKAICHI.. 3 23 9 

Total 10 28 26i 

The country is intersected by 
a network of rivers which here 
debouch into the sea. The- 
Kisogawa, swelled by the 
waters of the Nagara-gawa and 
the Ibigawa, is the largest of 
these. At Maegasu^ where it 
has to be crossed by ferry, it is 
over 9 J clio (nearly | m.) wide. 
Very extensive works are in 
progress with the object of 
minimising the recurrence of 
destructive floods. The view of 
distant mountains is pretty all 
the way as one proceeds west- 

Kiiwaiia (Inn, *Ky6-ya) is a 
large town, formerly the re- 
sidence of a rich Daimyo. Its 
decidedly second-rate attrac- 
tions are the Temple of the 
Gods of Kasuga, and at the W» 

Various Ways to Yantadn. 


end, Atago-yama, whither the I borders of Omi, the most prominent 
inhabitants go out on holidays boiug the Suzuka-toge, with Kama- 
for the sake of the view. The \ ga-take at the N. and Kyoga-mine 

noted Shintd Temple of Tado, 
which stands in a glen a few 
miles off the road on the way 
between Msiegasu and Kuwana 
(3 ri 23 c7t^ from the latter 
town), has lovely maples and 
flowering trees, and is alto- 
gether a picturesque and 
curious place. 

It iB dedicated jointly to the Snn- 
GoddeBsand toIchi-moka<ren, a one- 
eyed draKou god, who is very power- 
fnlasa rain-producor. Accordingly 
this temole U much resorted to in 
times of onniffht, the peasants carry- 
ing off gokei ii-om it to their respec- 
tive fields and villrtj^es. Tlicy must, 
however, be careful not to let t\\egokei 
touch the ground anywhere uu the 
way ; for all the rain would then fall 
on that spot, and none would be left 
for the places where it is wanted. 

at the S. end. At 

iHhiildeil) is an enormous Bud- 
dhist temple called Senshtiji, or 
more commonly Takata no Gohd. 

This, the chief monastery of the Takata 
snb>scct, was founded at Takata in Hhimo- 
tsuke by the celebrated abtot >hiDran 
Shdnin in 1226, and removed hci« in 1465 
by the priest Shin-e. 

The building closely resembles in 
style and scale the vast Hoogwanji 
temples described under Tdkyo and 
Kydto, which is as much as to say 
that it is majestically spacious and 
chfiistely rich. The architectural 
similarity is accounted for by the 
fact that the Takata aud Hongwanji 
are sister sects, both being sub- 
divisions of the great Shin sect. 

ichi the only thing to notice is 
the view of the mountain- 
range that separates the pro- 
vinces of Ise and Omi.] 

Arrived at Yokkaichi, we take 
the railway, of which the following 
is a schedule : — 

KwANSEi Railway. 

^ Thii (In7W, Waka-roku, with 

Prom Kuwaua on to Yokka- ! Europ. resit near by; Murati^ya). 

which, with its suburbs, is 5 m. 
long, i« the capital of the Prefecture 
of Mie, wherein are included the 
provinces of Iga, Ise, Shima, and 
the N. E. part of Kishu. 

Formerly it was the castle-town of the 
T6<ld fHraily, whose flef was valued at 
323,'. '50 bags of rice. 

In the middle of the town, close 
to tlie inns, stand two noted Bud- 
dliist temples, — Kicannon-ji and K6 
«o Amidaf the former rather tawdry, 
the latter exquisite though on a 
small scale. 

The legend on which the sanctity of this 
I temple rests, is a good exsmnle of the 
j fusion that took place between Buddhism 

and Hhintd in earl^ timen. A Buddhist 

priest named Kakujd made a pilgrimage 
I of one hundred days to the shrine of the 
I Sun-Goddess at Ise, to entreat her to 
! reveal to him her origiuHl shape,— the 
' idea in those days being that the Shintd 

deities were avatars, or temporary mani- 
I festatiotis {Gongen), of which Buddhist 

snints were the originsls (llouchi Butm). 

I On the hundretlth night the Huu-Gofldess 

T&ma, the railway more than once , appeared to Kakujd in a <lrenm, com- 

1 ,-J- « -««t;/s« Xf fV»« ry\A TrtVfl iHft I manding him to go out next morning on 

the sea-shore of Futami, where she pro- 









Kameyama Jet.. 




(-Most trains 
] change car- 
C riages. 

Between Yokkaichi and Kame- 

crosses a section of the old Tokaidd 
now abandoned by the so-called 
Tokaido Railway. The avenue of 
pine-trees lining this road forms a 
oharaoteristic feature. The moun- 
teins to the r. are those on the 

mised to show herself to him ta^ Khe really 
was. He did so, aud there appeared 
floating on the surface of the waves a 

S)ld-o^onrod serpent over ten feet long, 
at the prieet was not yet satisfied 
•• This,** cried he, ** is but a piotui devic 


Route 32.—The Shrine* of he. 

on the pnrt of the divinity, whose real i 
shftpe thftt monster can never be,'*— and 
so sayintr. he took off him his pricBtly 
scarf and flunp it at the serpent, which 
vanished with it into the sei. Three niphts 
larer the Goddess appeared to Kaknjd in 
a second dream, and said : '* The serpent 
indeed was but another temporary mani- 
festation. My real shape is preserved in 
the temple of MnryOjuji at K6 in the dis- 
trict of Suzuka in this same land of Ise. 
Go thither, and thou shalt see it." He 
went accordingly, and found that Amida 
was the Buddhist deity there worshipped. 
The imatre was considered so holy that 
the priests of the temple at first refuseil 
t^ show it ; but what was not the aston- 
ishment of all present when, on Kakujd*s 
request beinff at last fn-ante d, the scarf 
which he had thrown at the sea-serpent 
was found twined round the image's 
neck !--All this happened at a very early 
period. The removal of the tenaple to 
Tsu took place about A.D. 1680, when the 
original shrine at Kd had fallen into 
decay, and the ima^e hatl been found one 
flay thrown down on the place where the 
temple now holdini^ it has Ixjen raised in 
its honour. 

The holy image is enclosed in a 
shrine on tlie altar, and is only 
exhibited on paynient of a fee, 
when a short sei-vice in its honour 
is performed and the legend re- 
cited by the attendant priest. R. 
and 1. are images of Kwanuou and 

Behind, and continuing all round 
the walls of the building, ai-e dimi- 
nutive images of all the Buddhas 
and Bosatsu, called Sen-oku Butsu, 
lit., a thousand hundreds of thou- 
sands of Buddhas. Among other 
objects of interest, note the very 
large wooden figure representing 
Buddha dead. It is laid on real 
quilts. Gilt and painted carvings 
of Buddhas and angels fill the 
ramvia of the chapel. The green 
<3offered ceiling is covered with gilt 
Sanskrit chai-acters in relief. A 
mirror in front of the altar attests 
that the temple belongs to the 
Shiugon sect. A small octagonal 
structure to the 1. contains gilt 
images of the Thirty-three Kwaunon. 
If possible, this temple should be 
visited in the evening, when there 
arc almost always crowds of pil- 
grims, who— though Ise is their 
chief objective point— also think it 

well to pay their respects at all the 
lessor shrines on the way thither. 

TSU to :— Ri. Chd. M, 

Onoe 2 6 5J 

Rokken 1 8 8 

MATSUZAKA .... 1 2 2^ 

Saigu 2 20 " 

YAMADA 2 27 

Total 9 27 28f 

Taking jinrikishas at Tsu (until 
the railway be finished), we have the 
advantage of a good, flat road all the 
way to Yamada. Indeed throughout 
the province of Ise the excellence of 
the roads, of the jinrikishas, and of 
the jiurikisha-men adds considerably 
to the traveller's enjoyment. It is 
also possible to travel in carriages 
which resemble small prison-vans. 
Pilgrims avail themselves largely of 
this method of progression, which 
is cheaper than jiurikisha, but also 

At the far-end of the town, stands 
1. a temple dedicated to Yuki Kdtsu- 
ke 110 Suke^ a celebrated retainer of 
Kusunoki Masashige. It dates from 
1884, and offers an elegant example 
of modern Shinto architecture. The 
same grounds contain a small but 
gaily painted shrine of Hachiman. 
A little further on, various paths 
marked by torni or sign-posts lead 
1. to an ancient and popular Shinto 
temple, situated in a pine-grove on 
the sea-shore, anc* called Karasu 
Oozcn no Yashiro (or for short, 
Karasu)t that is, ohe Crow Temple. 
A large sea-bat aing establishment 
has recently bjen started here. 

This temple is dedicated to Waka- 
hirume (also called Ori-hime, i.e., the 
Wenviuff Maiden), a yonncer sister of the 
8un-Goddes8. The name Karasu in itself 
}Mnnt8 to some connection with the sun ; 
for that luminary- is popularly supposed 
to l)e inhabited by a crow. Hence a crow 
looking; at the sun is a subject frequently 
treated by Japanese artists. 

As we hurry on, numerous vil- 
lages are passed through, constant 
bands of wayfaters are met arrayed 
in holiday attiroi and An air of 

Variotu fVayato' Yiinwda. 


bustle and prosperity is seen to 
jjervade the whole country -aide. 
To the r. are the mountains on the 
borders of Iga. The well-cultivated 
plain to the 1. mostly appears 
boundless, as it is too level to allow 
of many glimjpses being caught of 
Owari Bay which lies beyond. 

Rokkcn, though a well-known 
place, offers no attractions. Offi- 
cially it ifi now known by the name 
of MiwaUiri. Here the road follow- ! 
ed by pilgrims to Hase and the \ 
other Holy Places of Yamato turns I 
off r. i 

Matsnzaka (Inn, Tai-ya). The 
name of this town should be fami- | 
liar to all Japanese scholars, as the 
birth-place of Motoori. 

Motoori Norina^, the prince of Japanese 
literfttl, wns l)om in 1730 aiid died in 1801. 
A pupil of the scarcely less di8tinguie>hed 
Hcholar Mabucbi« he continued Mabuchi's 
work of inveHbi^tinff Japanese antiquity, 
briiijffing back into literary use the pure 
ancient Japanese language, restorinpr the 
Shiut<) religion to the supremacy of which 
Buddhism had robl)ed it, in a wo«d, em- 
phasising and glorifying everythinir na- 
tive as against that part of Japanese 
civilisation which was now and of foreign 
origin . The restoration of the Mikado to 
the absobite authority which centuries 
before bad been usurped by the ^<hflffun8, 
was naturnlly a prime object or the 
endeavours of a man to whom antiquity 
and perfection were convertible terms, 
and in whose belief the Mikiido was really 
and truly a desccndBnt of the Gocldcss of 
the Sun. Motoori and his school thus be- 
came to some extent the authors of the 
revolution which, half a century later, 
overturned the KhOgunate and brought 
the if ikado forth from seclusion to govern 
as well as reign. Motoori's works were 
very numerous. The greatest is his ela- 
bornte commentary on the Ko/iki, called 
Kojiki D^n, which Is practically an ency- 
clopfpdia of Japanese ancient lore, written 
in a t*tyle as clear as it is elegant. The 
printing of the forty-four volumes of 
which it consists was not concluded till 
lb22, long after the author's death. Mo- 
toori was first buried at Mydrakuji, some 
milcH from Matsuzaka. 

The town is dominated by a hill 
called Yoio no Mori, on which 
stands the remains of the castle 
founded in 1584 by Kamau Hida- 
no-Ka)ni Ujisato. Below, at the 
entrance to tho grounds, is the 

I little Shinto Temple of Yainamuro 
I Jinja, dedicated to Motoori who 

has been apotheosisod during the 
I present reign. 

I Saigii was in ancient days the 
1 abode of tho Imperial virgin 

priucesses who, until the civil wars 
I of the 14th century, successively 
^ held the office of High IMestess of 
I the Sun Ooddess. 

3.— From Kyoto to Yamada by 
ToKAiDo Railway and Kwansbi 















Otani. _ 


Baba (OTSU). 


Kusatsu Jet 

1 ('hange carri- 
1 ages. 









Or Kami Tsage. 




Kameyama Jet.. 

1 C'hange carri- 
^ ages. 

For the first portion of the jour- 
ney, which follows tho Tokaido 
Railway and skirts Lake Biwa, see 
the latter part of Route 34 and Route 
40. At Kusatsu we change into 
the Kwansei Tetsudo carriages, and 
though leaving the so-called Td- 
kaidd Railway, really follow and 
cross and re-cross, a section of the 
old Tokaido road all tho way to 
Kameyama. The line is a pretty 
one, especially between Ti>uge and 
Seki, where the gradient is steep 
enough to make the assistance 
of an extra engine necessary, al- 
though two tunnels have been cufe 
through the steepest parts of the 
ascent. This is the Suzuka-tdge. 
Tlie long serrated peak to the r. 
after leaving Seki is Shakuj6-ga- 
take. At Kameyaina we change car- 
riages a^ain, and tho rest of the 
journey hence to Yamada coincidef 


Bouie 89.— The 8hrine$ of l$e. 

with that giyen in the preceding 

4.— Yokohama to Yamaoa by Sea. 

Should the traveller elect to go 
by sea, he had better begin by en- 
quiriDg whether there is any Euro- 
pean food to be had on board, and 
if not, then take provisions with 
him for the 18 or 20 hrs. voyage 
from Yokohama to Yokkaichi, as 
well as for the further voyage next 
day on to Kami Yashiro. The 
voyage is the same as that de- 
scribed in Route 36 as far as the 
entrance of Owari Bay^ where the 
track diverges, the steamer turning 
to the r. up the bay near the head 
of which Yokkaichi is situated. 
The scenery at the entrance is very 
pretty. The ship passes between 
r. Irako-zaki, the hUly promontory 
forming the S.W. extremity of the j 
province of Mikawa, and 1. the islet 
of Kamishima, behind whose white 
and red cliffs lie other larger islands 
and the mainland of the diminu- 
tive province of Shima. Ahead and 
to the r., as the ship glides into the 
still waters of the landlocked bay, 
are seen portions of the provinces 
of Mikawa and Owari, notably Cape 
Morozaki,— the tip of the peninsula 
on which stand the commercial 
towns of Handa and Taketoyo, 
connected with the Tdkaido by 
a branch line of Railway, of 
which Obu is the junction. At 
Yokkaichi the excellent Nippon 
Yfisen Kwaisha steamer is exchang- 
ed for a small coasting one. 
Leaving Yokkaichi, the views are 
delightful as one skirts the \V. 
shore of Owari Bay. In the dis- 
tance are the mountains of Omi, 
Iga, and Ise, and in the foreground 
a pine-clad beach, forming a de- 
licious symphony of yellow, green, 
and greyish blue, especially when 
seen through the opal haze of 
spring or autumn. The steamer 
calls in at Tsu, a little more 
than half-way to Kami -Yashiro. 
Total time of voyage from Yokka- 
ichi, about 5 hrs. 


Temples op Ise. [Province op 

Yamada {ItiTtSt 'Abura-ya, Kyfl- 
ka-en in a quieter part of the town 
close to the Geku temple, and no 
less than 268 others, great and 
small) is a large town formed by the 
amalgamation of several smaller 
ones — Yamada proper, Uji, Furu- 
ichi, etc. It lives by and for the 
Ise pilgrims, as do all the towns on 
the road leading to it from the 
North. So openly is this fact 
acknowledged, that the completion 
of the projected SangH Tctsudot or 
Pilgrim Railway from Tsu to 
Yamada, has been deferred from 
year to year at the earnest entreaty 
of the inhabitants of ^latsuzaka 
and other towns and villages on the 
line, who not unnaturally fear the 
ruin of their trade. Yamada would 
be the only place benefited. The 
inns and tea-houses of Yamada are 
very lively, especially at niglit. At 
some of them a celebrated dance is 
performed, called the lae Chido. This 
dance possesses much grace, added 
to the interest of a considerable 
antiquity. Unfortunately, however, 
the character of the houses at which 
alone it is generally to be witnessed 
precludes us from recommending a 
visit thither. A religious dance 
called Kagura is executed at the 
temples for such pilgrims as 
choose to pay for it. It is divided 
into three grades, called " Small," 
" Great," and " Extra Great" {Slid, 
Daiy Dai-(iai). The charges for 
these dances were, in 1898, as fol- 
lows : — 

Ise Ondo S 2 

Sho Kagura 5 

Dai Kagura 10 

Dai'dai Kagura 20 

Among the peep-shows and booths 
in which the main street of Yamada 
abounds, ai-e some devoted to yet 
another kind of dance which may 
be seen for a cent or two. It is 
called Svgi O Tama. The fun 
consists in the spectators flinging 

Yamada. The Ise Pilgrimage, 


obppers at the faces of the girls who 
fMm the little orchestra, and who 
are trained to such skill in " duck- 
ing,*' that it is said they are never 
fait. The chief ohjects for sale at 
Yamada, besides holy pictures and 
other articles of Shinto devotion, 
are ornamental tobacco-pouches 
made of a peculiar sort of oil-paper. 
The best 'vay to see the sights of 
Yamada and neighbourhood is to 
ff> the following round, which takes 
a day by jinrikisha to do comfort- 
ably :— from the inn to the Gekti 
Temple, Futami, Toba (for the view 
from Hiyori-yama), the Naiku Tem- 
ple, and back to the inn. The road 
is mostly excellent and quite level, 
except between Futami and Toba. 
One may conveniently lunch either 
at Futami or at Toba. In addition 
to this round, or in lieu of Toba, 
good pedestrians are advised to 
olimb Asama-yama (see p. 256). It 
may be mentioned that Iqcal Japa- 
nese parlance indicates respect for 
• the great temples by suffixing the 
word SaUf '* Mr.,'* to their names, — 
thus Naiku San^ Oeku San^ pro- 
nounced Naixaii, Oexan. 

Tbousande of pilf^rima resort annually 
to the temples of Ise, chiefly in winter 
and spring, when the country-folk have 
Bkore leisure than at other seasons. The 
ntimiaUstic educated classes of course 
take little part in such doings ; but even 
at the present day the majority of arti- 
Momin Tdkyd, and still more in Kj'Oto 
and Osaka, believe that thev may find 
diflicnlty in Raining a livelihood unless 
they invoke the protection of the tutelaiy 
Koddesses of Isg by perfoiming the pil- 
grtmaf^ at least once in their lives, and 
the peasants are even more devout be- 
Iferers. In former times it was not un- 
eommoD for the little shop-1x)ys of Yedo 
to ahecand for a while nrom their em- 
plojerSf and to wander along the Tdkaidd 
as far as I^e, sulwisting on the alms 
which they begged from travellers ; and 
baying obtained the bundle of charms, 
emaiating of bits of the wood of which 
the temples are built, they made their 
way home in the same manner. This 
surreptitious method of performing the 
pilgrimage was called mrAr-MaiW, and 
enstom forbade even the Htemest parent 
nr master from finding any fault with the 
young devotee who had been so far for so 
hcAj a purpose. Stories are even told of 
dogs having performed the pilgrimage by 
themaelTes. ThoM whose residence ia^yO- 

to are met by their friends at the suburb 
of Keage on their return home. The custom 
is for these friends— mostlv females— to 
ride out singing the tune of the Ise Onda 
dance, three persons being seated on each 
horse, one in the middle, and one on either 
side in a sort of wooden hod or basket. 
High revel is held at the tea-houses with 
which Keage abounds. This custom is 
termed taka-utukai. The Ise pilgrims may 
be distinguished by their gala clothes, 
and by the large bundles of charms wrap- 
ped in oil-pnper or placed in an oblong 
varnished box, which they carry suspend- 
ed from their necks by a string. 

The special character of sanctity attach- 
ing to the I&e temples arises partly from 
theii* extreme anticjuity. partly from the 
pre-eminence of the goddeshes to whom 
they are dedicated. The :y^oiku, lit. " Inner 
Temple," is believed by the Japanese to 
date from the year 4 B.C., and is sacred 
to the 8un-Cioddess Ama-terasu, ances- 
tress of the Mikados. Down to the 14th 
century, some virgin Princess of the Im- 
perial family was always entrusted with 
the care of the mirror which is the Sun- 
Goddess's emblem, and of which some 
Japanese writers speak as if it were itself 
a deity, while others take it to be merely 
the image of the goddess. It is kept in 
a box of chamtec^'paris wood, which rests 
on a low stand covered with a piece of 
white silk. The mirror itself is wrapped 
in a bag of* brocade, which is never opened 
or renewed ; but when it Ijegins to fall to 
pieces fi*om age, another bag is put on, 
so that the actual covering consists of 
many layers*. Over the whole is placed a 
sort of wooden cage with ornaments said 
to be of pui-e gold, over which again is 
thrown a cloth of coarse silk, falling to 
the floor on all sides. The coverings of 
the box are all that can be seen when the 
doors are opened at the various festivals. 
The Oelii, or "Outer Temple," so-CHlled 
because of its slightlj' inferior sanctity, is 
now dedicated to the Goddess of Food, 
Toyo-uke-bime-no-Kami, also called L'ke- 
mochi-uo-Kami, but was in earlier times 
under the patronage of Kuni-toko-taohi- 
no-Mikoto, a go«l whose name signifies 
literally ** His Augnstness the Karthly 
RtemHlly Standing One. " In either case, 
this temple may be considered as sacred 
to the worship of a deification of the 
earth, while the Kaiku is dedicated to a 
deification of the sun, the great ruler of 
heaven. The native authorities do not in- 
form us of the character of the emblem by 
which the Earth-Goddess is represented. 
As in the case of other Shintd temples, so 
here also at Ise many secondary deities 
[ai'dono] are invoked. Those of the A'aiku 
are Tajikara-o-no-B^ami, lit. " the Strong- 
Handed-Male-Deity," who pulled the Sun- 
Goddess out of the cave to which she had 
retired to avoid her brother's ill-usage, 
and a goddess who was one of the fore- 
bears of the Imperial line. The second- 
ary deities of the QekU are Ninigi-no- 

• The GekU Teirtph. 


Mit^oto, grandBon to the Sun-Goddos8 and 
ancestor of the Imperial Hue, and two of 
the gods who attended him on the occa- 
sion of his descent from heaven to earth. 

The architecture seen at Ise is believed 
to represent the purest and most archaic 
Japanese style,— the old native hut, in 
fact, before the introduction of Chinese 
models. A very ancient rule prescribes 
that the tvro great Ise temples, as also 
werv minor edifice oonneoted with them, 
shall be rased to the ground and recon- 
structed every twenty years in exactly 
the same style, down to the minutest 
detail. For this purpose there are, both 
St the Nttiku and at the O^ku^ two closely i 
adjacent sites. The construction of the j 
new temples is commenced on the vacant 
sites towards the end of the period of | 
twenty years ; and when they are finish- 
ed, the ceremony of Sengj/o, or " Trans- i 
ference," takes place, the sacred emblems 
being then solemnly and amidst a great 
oonoonrse of pilgrims removed to the new 
buildings from the old. These are forth- 
with pulled down and cut up into myriads 
of charms (o Aarai). which are sold to 
pilgrims. The renovation last took place 
m October, 1889. The immemorial anti- 
quity of the Ise temples is therefore only 
Uio antiqnity of a continuous tradition, 
not that of the actual edifices. It is pro- 
baUe, however, that at no time for many 
eentaries past could Ise have been seen to 
sach advantage as at present, when the 
minnte and enthusiastic researches of 
foar generations of scholars of the " Shtn- 
tA Revival*' school into the religious 
srchseology of their nation have at last 
met with official encouragement, and the 
priests have been endowed with the pecu- 
niary means to realise their dream of 
restoring the Japan of to-day to the reli- 
gious practices, architecture, and ritual 
of pristine ages untouched by the foreign 
tnflaence of Buddhism. 

Closely connected with the great Ise 
shrines are two smaller ones, the IzOgu at 
Isobe on the frontier of Ise and dhima, 
some 4 or 5 r» beyond Toba, and the 
TakUtara Ou at Nojiri in Ise. The sacred- 
sees of these places is traced to the fact 
that they were in turn the temporary 
head-quarters of the cult of the Sun-God- 
dess before it was fixed definitively in its 
pie s c nt site. The Izdgu scarcely deserves 
a visit. The Takihura Ou is described 
r the end of Boute 43. 

Leaving the Abum-ya inn and 
wending through the town, we pass 
r., in Okamotocho, the Shimpu 
Kdsha^ where are 8old small gold 
and silver medals called Shimjni, 
inscribed with the name of the 
Gekti temple, together with other 

The Gekil Temple. The ap- 
proach is pretty. A Shin-en^ lit. 
*' Divine Park," containing a circular 
lake, has replaced the houses and 
fields that covered the place previ- 
ous to 1889, and beyond rises a hill 
finely timbered with cryptomerias, 
huge camphor- trees, maples, keyaki^ 
and the sacred though not imposing 
ma-sakaki (Cleyera japonica). The 
main entrance is by the Ichi no 
Torii^ or First Archway, to whose 
r. is the SanshushOj lit. " Place of 
Assembly," where members of the- 
Imperial family change their gar- 
ments previous to worshipping in 
the temple. A broad road leads 
hence through the trees to the 
temple. A short way up it is the 
Ni no Toriif or " Second Archway," 
near which stands a shop for the sale 
of pieces of the wood used in the con- 
struction of the temple, packets of 
rice that have been offered to the 
gods, and ofuda, or paper charms 
inscribed with the name of the 
Goddess of Food. Next door is 
a building where the kagura dances 
are performed at the request of 
pious pilgrims, and where the food 
offerings are sold for a few sen 
a meal. Beyond these buildings we 
soon reach the enclosure contain- 
ing the GekUf or actual temple, 
concealed for the most part behind 
a succession of fences. The outer 
fence, called Ita-gaki^ is built of 

Index to Plan of Ise Temple 

1. Batnpei (screen). 

2. Ita-gaki (Ist fence). 
8. Ara-gaki (2nd fence). 
4. Tama-gaki (8rd fence). 
6. Mitu-gaki (4th fence). 
6. Qate-koeper's Lodge. 

7. Shijd-den. 

8 ) 

q' > Hdden (treasuries). 

10. Shdden (chief shrine). 

11. Mike-den* 


Boute 82.— The Shrinm of I$e. 

oryptomeria wood, neatly planed 
and unpainted. It is 839 ft. in 
width at the front, and 835 ft. in 
the rear ; the £. side is 247 ft., the 
W. side 235 ft. long, so that the 
shape is that of an irregular 
oblong, the formation of the ground 
rather than any necessary relation 
of numbers having determined the 
proportions. The temple on the 
alternative site, which was hewn 
down in 1889, had its long side 
E. and W., and the short N. and S. 
A little to one side of the middle 
of the front face is the principal en- 
trance, formed of a torii similar to 
those already passed, but of small- 
er dimensions. The screen opposite 
is called a bampci. There are four 
other entrances in the Ita-gaki 
formed each by a torti, one on each 
side and two at the back, one of 
which belongs to the Mike-den^ 
whore the food offerings are set out 
twice daily. The S. torii gives 
access to a small court, the further 
side of which is formed by a thatch- 
ed gateway ordinarily closed by a 
white curtain, while the ends are 
formed by the Ita-gaki. On the 1. 
baud is a gate-keeper's lodge. Un- 
less the pilgrim be an Imperial 
personage, he is prevented by the 
curtain from seeing much further 
into the interior. 

The curtain here mentioned has a 
melancholy historicul interest. Viscount 
Mori, Japanese Representative, first at 
Washiuffton and then in London, after- 
wards Minister of Education and one 
of the foremost leaders of modem Japa- 
nese progress, was assassinated by a 
Shintd fanatic for having, when on a 
visit to Ise, lifted this curtain with his 
walkinpr-stick in onler to obtain a better 
view of the interior of the temple court. 
The murder did not take place at once, 
"but some months later, on the llth 
February, 18*<9, as Mori was donning his 
gala uniform for the ceremony of the pro- 
mulgation of the Japanese Constitution. 
The assassin, one Nishino Buntard, was 
immediately cut down by the Minister's 
attendants ; but by an obliquity of judg- 
ment curiously common in Japan, popular 
sympathy ran^d itself so markedly on 
his side as against his unfortunate victim, 
that pilgrimages were made to his grave 
in the Yanaka cemetery at TOkyO, hun- 
dreds of wreaths and sticks of incense 
were placed upon it, and odes composed 

in the asaassin's bonoor. The popular 
infatuation even went so fur that it waa» 
and perhaps still is, believed b^ manv 
that Nishino Buntarft's intercession with 
heaven will ensure the fulfilment of any 
desire offered up to the gods through him. 

The thatched gate-way above- 
mentioned is the principal opening 
in a second fence called tn^ Ara-gaki^ 
composed of cryptomena trunks 
alternately long and short, placed 
at intervals of about 2^ ft., with 
two horizontal railings, one running 
along the top, the other along the 
centre. The distance of this fenoe 
from the outer enclosure varies from 
10 ft. to 36 ft. on different sides of 
the square. Besides the torii on 
the S., there are three others, one 
on each side, corresponding to the 
other three main entrances of the 
boarded enclosure. These are un- 
usual in style, being closed with 
solid gates, an arrangement rarely 
seen in Shinto temples. Inside the 
thatched gate- way is a shed 40 ft. 
by 20 ft. called the Shijd-den, a 
restoration of one of three buildings 
anciently called Naorai-donOf which 
were set apart for the entertainment 
of the envoys sent by the Mikado, 
after the celebration of the Kannami 
Matsuri^ or "Festival of Divine 
Tasting " (see p. 3). Just inside a 
small torii are the ishi-tsubOf — 
spaces marked out by larger stones, 
r. for the Mikado's envoy, 1. for the 
priests of the temple. At a dis- 
tance of 83 yds. from the first 
thatched gate-way is a second, 
which gives access to a third court, 
surrounded by a palisade called the 
Taniorgakit formed of planks about 
8 ft. high, placed close together. 
Just within this court is a small 
wooden gate-way, immediately be- 
yond which is a thatched gate-way, 
forming the entrance into the cen- 
tral enclosure. This enclosure is 
surrounded by a wooden palisade 
called Mizugakif and is almost a 
perfect square, being 134 ft. by 131 
ft. At the back of it is the Shdden 
or chapel, on the r. and 1. of the 
entrance to whioh are the treasuries 

Ths 04kn Temple. FuUmU. 

The chapel is 84 ft. in length hy 
19 It. in width. Its floor, raised 
about 6 ft. from the ground, is 
supported on wooden posts planted 
in tlie earth. A balcony 3 ft. wide, 
-which is approached by a flight of 
nine steps 15 ft. in width, runs 
right round the building, and car- 
ries a low balustrade, the tops of 
whose posts are cut into the shape 
oalled hdshu no taina^ whico, 
strangely enough, is a Buddhist 
ornament, the so-called ** Precious 
Jewel of Omnipotence." The steps, 
balustrade, and doors are profusely 
overlaid %vith brass plates ; and the 
•external ridge-pole, cross-trees, aud 
projecting rafters are also adorned 
with the same metal. A covered 
way leads from the inner gate up 
to the steps of the chapel. The 
two treasuries are raised on short 
legs or stands, after the fashion of 
the store-houses of the Loochooans. 
They are said to contain precious 
silken stuffs, raw silk presented by 
the province of Mikawa, and trap- 
pings for the sacred horses. Be- 
tween the Ita-gaki and the Ara- 
^aki stands the Heihahtt^den^ in- 
tended to contain the offerings 
called gohei. Another building in 
the enclosure is the Mike-den^ 
where the water and the food 
offered up to the gods of both the 
Oeku aud Naiku are daily set forth, 
in winter at 9 a.m. and i p.m., in 
summer at 8 a.m. and 3 p.m. 

Ud to A.D. 729, the food offerings for 
the Naikd, having first been prepared at 
the Geku, were conveyed to the former 
temple, there to be set oat. In that year, 
as thi» ceremony was being performed, 
the offerinifs were unwittingly carried 
pa»t some pollnting object which happen- 
ed to be in the roed. The consequence 
was that the Mikado fell sick, and the 
diviners atiribated bis sickness to the 
anger of the Son-Goddess. Since that 
time the offerings for both temples have 
been set out only at the Gekii. 

The offerings made to each of the 
principal deities consist of four cups 
of water, sixteen saucers of rice, 
and four of salt, besides fish, birds, 
fruits, seaweed, and vegetables. 
The offerings to each lesser deity 

are the same, except that only hal 
the quantity of fruit is provided. 

The chief festivals are the " Pray- 
ing for Harvest" {Kmen-sat)^ 4th 
February ; " Presentation of Cloth- 
ing** {Onso-sai), 17th April; 
"Monthly Festival** (Tsukinami 
fio iruUsuri)^ 16th June; "Divine 
Tasting** {Kan-name), 16th and 
16th October ; " Harvest festival ** 
(Shvixd-sai), 28rd November. Be- 
sides these, a ** Great Purification " 
(0-barai), is performed once every 
month, and also before each of the 
above-named grand festivals. The 
above dates are those of the celebra- 
tion at the Naiku. The ceremonies 
are repeated at the Oeku on the 
following day, at the Izdgu on the 
third day, and at the Takihara Gu 
on the fourth; but the Imperial 
envoy who represents the Mikado 
at the two former shrines, does not 
visit the two latter. 

On the side of a low hill to the S. * 
of the chief temple buildings, stand 
two much smaller shrines. That to 
the 1. is known as ^ro-fiia^nrt, that 
to the r. as Ame-no-miya. Higher 
up the same hill is the Taka-no- 

After thus seeing as much as is 
permitted to be seen of the Qeku^ 
we re-enter our jiurikishas and 
speed along an excellent level road 
to f\itam1, a distance of 2 ri 10 chd. 
Several villages are passed, of which 
Kawasaki and Kurose are the lar- 
gest, and an unusuaJly long bridge 
called the Shio-ai no Hashi^ span- 
ning the estuary of the Isuzu-gawa. 
There are constant delightful views 
of a mountain range to the r., of 
which Ascuna-yama is the most 
conspicuous summit. 

Fiitami (Inn, Kaisui-rd, with sea* 
bathing) is considered by the Japa- 
nese to ne one of the most pictures- 
que places on their coast, and few 
art motives are more popular than 
the Mydto-seki, or " Wife and Hus- 
band Ilooks,**— two rocks close to 
the shore, tied together by a straw 


HfUte 32.— The Shnnet of Ise. 

In thig ciwe the Btrnw rcpe ($hime) pro- 
bably symbolises coujukhI union. There 
is, howover, » legend ro the effect thnt 
the ^l Susa-no-o, in return for hospitality 
received, inBtructe<l a poor villager of this 
place how to i)r<)tect hiJs house from future 
vieitationB of the Pla|fue-God b,v fHsteniujf 
such a rtme across the entrance. A liny 
shrine called Somin Skozai no Tu»kiro com- 
memorates the legend. 

The view of islets and bays 
Btretching away eastwards is certain- 
ly very pretty, even distant Fuji being 
occasionally visible ; and the nic- 
tamorphic slate rocks ( chlorite : 
schist) are such as Japanese esthetes I 
prize highly for their gardens. It ' 
may nevertheless be doubted whe- 
ther Europeans would single out 
Futami for particular praise from 
among the countless lovely scenes 
in Japan, especially in a neighbour- 
hood boasting the glorious views from 
Hiyori-yama and Asama-yama. The 
building beyond the Futami inn is 
the Einjitsu-kwan^ erected in 1886 
for the Empress Dowager who is a 
great traveller. The way from Futa- 
mi to Toba is rather hilly, but pretty, 
especially near the Ikeno-ura, a 
many-branched inlet of the sea. 

Tobn (Inn, Osaka-ya) is a sleepy 
little town, enlivened only by the 
visits of coasting steamers ; and the 
private Dockyard (Tekkosho), es- 
tablished there some years ago, has 
not proved a success. But the top 
of Hiyori-yania, only 3 cho from the 
inn, liords a view which is a perfect 
dream of beauty. It includes Fuji, 
Haku-san, and most of the moun- 
tains mentioned on the next page iu 
the list of those visible from Asama- 
yama. But its special loveliness 
is the foreground,— a labyrinth of 
islets and peninsulas and green hills, 
and the blue sea studded with the j 
white sails of junks, while other j 
ranks He at anchor in Toba harbour. 
The hill rising conspicuously in the 
middle of the town was the site of 
the castle of the former Daimyo, 
Inagaki Shinano-no-Kami. 

[From Toba, roads lead round 
and across the Province of 
Shima into Eishd. Steamers 

also call in at Matoya and 
Hamajima on their way west- 
wards. Shima resembles Kisliti 
in its general features, but is 
less well-worth visiting. The 
reader is accordingly referred 
to Rte. 48. 

The little province of Shima has 
been celebrated from the earliest 
antiquity for its female divers {»ma), 
picturet^ of whom—bare to the waist 
and with a red nether jrarment — 
may often be seen. They fish up 
ateabi (sea-ears) and trnfftimi, a kind 
of sea- weed (Gtf^idtnm cartwitm) which 
is used to malce a deUeious jelly 
called tolroro-fen. So hardy are they, 
that they will goon divinj? even wlien 
on the eve of childbirth ; but they ngo 
quickly and become repulsively u^ly, 
with coarse tanued skins and hair 
that turns reddish f r< m contttant 
wetting, and is apt to fall off in 
patches. The women of Shima not 
only dive ; they also do most of the 
field work. In fact they support 
their fathers, brothers, and hus- 
bands, who loll about, smoke, play 
ohesst and are, in a word, the weaker 
vessels. Pew girls get married who 
are not expei-t divers, nor do they 
marry very earlv in most cases, 
being too valuable to their parents 
as bread-winners. Even the wife of 
a man in easy circumstances— a 
village elder, for instance — is forced 
by public opinion to gain her liveli- 
hood aqnatically. The best places 
at which to see the diving arc 7d>^t- 
mvra, avill. on one of the largo islands 
opposite I'oha, A'amt/inia, an island 
beyond 'Iflshijima, and Koka near 

No pedestrian, even if he have 
seen the view from Hiyori-yama, 
should miss that from Asama-yama. 

This name, which is written with the 
cliaracters i|H ^. has nothing to do with 
the Asama of rfhinshfl, which is written 

The way back from Toba and Futa- 
mi skirts its base; and as jinriki- 
shas can be availed of to a spot 
within 22 chd of the top, the best 
plan is to take them so far and 
either return again the same way,, 
or, better still, send then round to 
wait at the Naikti Temple, wliich 
latter plan gives one a capital 
4 or 6 m. walk down the gradual 
incline of the other slope of the 

Rauie 33.—We9t OoaHfrom Tsuruga to Naoetsn. 267 

moantam. The celebrated view is 
obtained from a spot 1,800 ft. above 
the sea, where there is a tea-house 
oalled Tofu-ya. A curious fact is 
that one of the widest mountain 
panoramas in Japan is obtained 
in spite of the circumstance that 
barely half the horizon lies open 
to view. Below in the foreground is 
Owari Bay, looking Uke ajake, while 
in the distonce beyond it stretches 
a long series of mountains, — Futago- 
yama on the Hakoue pass, Fuji, 
Yatsu-ga-take, Akiha-san, the vol- 
cano of Asama, Koma-ga-take, 
Tateyama in Etchu, On take, Nori- 
kura in Hida, Haku-san, Aburazaka 
in Echizen, Ibuki-yama in Omi, 
Tado-san, Mitsugo-yama, Suzuka- 
yama, and Nunobiki-yama on the 
W. frontier of Ise. 

[Though one must return to the 
T6fu-ya tea-house in order to 
get home, it is worth walking 
on 10 chd to the Oku-no-in of 
this holy mountain for the 
curious view which it affords 
of the green-blue jumble of den- 
sely wooded hills that form the 
province of Shima and Eastern 
Kishu. On the way one passes 
several little Buddhist shrines, 
and — piquant contrast ! — the 
head-quarters of a favourite old 
quack medicine, the Mother 
Seigel of Japan. Mankintan — 
for so this medicament styles it- 
self — brings thousands of dollars 
yearly into the pockets of the 
people of Yamada, where there 
are scores of agencies for its 
sale. The Oku-iw-in, which is 
dedicated to Kokuzd Bosatsu, 
was formerly a gem, but is now 
much decayed.] 

The views on the way down 
Asama-yama are delightful. At 
length one plunges into a sort of 
cauldron, where stand the vill. of 
Uji and the Nadkii 't'emple, em- 
bosomed in an antique grove of 
onrptomerias, camphor-trees, and 
other magnificent timber which in 
itself is worth coming out to see. 

The camphor-treea have railings round 
them to prevent people from peeling off 
the bark and making charms of it. The 
efficacy of these charms is specially be- 
lieved in by sailors, who throw them into 
the sea to calm the waves. 

After passing the second /ort'i, one 
sees r. the little River Isuzu, where 
the pilgrims purify themselves be- 
fore worship by washing their hands 
and mouth. Being dedicated to 
the Sun-Goddess Ama-terasu, the 
Naiku is of even superior sanctity 
to the Geku, and is constructed on a 
somewhat larger scaJe. But as the 
arrangement of the temple grounds 
and enclosed buildings closely re- 
sembles that of the Geku already 
described in detail, no particulars 
will be needed except the measure- 
ments. The outer enclosure is 195 ft. 
in front, 202 ft. at the back, and 369 
ft. at the side. The innermost en- 
closure {Mizu-gaki) measures 149 ft. 
in front, 150 ft. at the back, and 
144 ft. on each side. The bare open 
space adjoining the temple is the 
alternative site, which will be used 
to build on in the year 1909, when 
the present buildings are pulled 

ROUTE 38. 

Thb West Coast from Tsubuga 
TO Naoetsu. 

1. itineraries: maibara-tsubuga 
branch railway, tsubuga to 
foshiki, fushiki to naoetsu. 
2. descbiption: tsubuga, fu- 
kui, kanazawa, fushiki, [nanao 
in noto,] toyama. 

1. — Itineraries. 

A four or five days* trip, enabling 
the traveller to see something of 
the coast of the provinces of Echi- 
zen, Kaga, and Etchu on the Sea 
of Japan, is that from Kyoto to 
Tsuruga by the Tokaido and Mai- 
bara-Tsuruga Railways, through 
the historic old city of Kanazawa 

268 Route S3, — WeH Coast from Tsnruga to Naoetsu, 

in Kaga to the port of Fushiki in 
Etchti, whence Naoetsu, the present 
tenniims of the Karuizawa-Naoetsu 
Railway, can be reached by steamer 
in a night. The entire distance 
between Tsuruga and Fushiki may 
be accomplished in jiurikishas. 

Maibara-Tsuruqa Branch Ry. 






Q ^ 




See Route 34. 
See Route 4(». 


















(Pier Station). 

Itineuaby from Tsuruga to 

TSURUGA to :— Bi. Chd. 3f. 

Daira 6 4 16 

Takefii 4 36 12i 

FUKUI 6 4 12i 

Maruoka 3 24 9 

Daishoji 6 7 12J 

Komatsu 6 2 12| 

Matsuta 6 3 12* 

KANAZAWA .... 3 12 8 

Tsubata 3 18 8i 

Imaisurugi 3 26 9 

Takaoka 4 3 10 

FUSHIKI 1 36 4J 

Total 51 29 126i 

The best plan in fine weather 
is to abandon the land for the sea 
during a portion of this journey, by 
taking steamer from Tsuruga to Sa- 
kal for Fukui, a run of 4 hrs. ; or to 
Kanaiwa for Kanazawa. 

lu the event of the steamer 
between Fnshiki and Naoetsu not 
being available, the following is 
the itinerary by road,— mostly dull 

FUSHIKI to: — Ri, Chd, M. 

Higashi Iwase .... 8 6 7} 

Namerikawa 8 6 7| 

Uotsu 2 8 5J 

Tomari 7 29 19 

Itoigawa 9 6 22^ 

Nagahama 9 8 22^ 

NAOETSU 2 18 6 

Total 87 8 90f 

2. — Description. 

The railway journey between 
Kyoto and Maibara is described in 
Route 34 ; and the shores of Lake 
Biwa, as far as the next station, 
Nagahama, in Route 40. 

At Nagiiliama. (Inn, Masu-ya at 
station), the railway leaves the 
lake and the scenery becomes tame. 
From Yanagase onward to Hikida^ 
the line runs in narrow valleys 
between wooded hills and through 
several tunnels; thence through 
cultivated country down to tne 
coast of the Sea of Japan. 

'I'siirn^H (Inuy Kome-ahichi-ya) 
has two stations, one called Tsum- 
ga, another, 5 min. further on, 

Kaiiiii-grai-saki, or the Pier Sta- 
tion. The latter (Inns^ Daikoku-ya, 
Kome-shichi-ya) should be prefer- 
red, as the steamer-office, bank, and 
other useful institutions are in 
its vicinity. Tsuruga has the best 
harbour on the Sea of Japan, and 
is in constant steam communication 
with the lesser ports up and down 
the coast. The town itself is some- 
what shut in ; but a charming view 
of land and sea may be obtained by 
climbiug a small hill near the rail- 
way station called Atago-yama^ 
beyond which again is the site of 
the castle of the celebrated warrior 
Yoshisada. The long promontory 
closing in the bay on the W. side, 
and sheltering it from those N. W. 
blasts that render the winter on 
this coast so terrible, is called 
Tateishi'Zaki, On its extremity 
stands a lighthouse — not, however, 
visible from the town. The stretch 

Tsnruga, Fukui, Kanazawa. 


of land to the N. E., which looks 
like a promontory as seen from 
Tsuraga, is called Kome-no-ura. 

Dnira Oair accommodation at the 
house of Kinoshita Kichiemon) is a 
regular halting place. Here the 
road strikes inland. 

l*nkefn (Innf Kome-ya) manu- 
factures marhled paper (sumi- 
naga8hi)t cotton, silk, and hard- 
ware. One of the most striking 
ohjects in the vicinity is the moun- 
tain of Hinaga-take. 

Ftikni {IiiUt Nawa-ya; restL Tsu- 
kimi-r5), formerly the capital of the 
Daimyos of Echizen, still possesses 
the picturesque remains of the 
-castle which was their seat, and a 
Hongwanji temple with a beautiful 
view toward the hills. It is noted 
for the manufacture of habuiai, 
paper, and yutcntf—Q. thick oil-paper 
used to cover the mats in summer. 
Maganiy a species of crab, is caught 
all along the coast, and tinned for 

To foreigners, Pukui will be further of 
interest as having been the residence, 
from 1S71 to 1872. of the nnthor of the 
Mikado*9 Empirey Rev. Wm. K. Ghiffis, to 
whose imges the reader is referred for a 
graphic and touching account of the abdi- 
cation of the Daimy6 on the Ist October, 
1871, when the decree abolishing feudalism 
hcul been issued. 

Sakai, also called Mikani (Inn, 
Morota), the port of Fukui, stands 
at the confluence of the rivers 
Hino, Asuwa, and Kuzuryti, and 
has steam communication with the 
other ports on the coast. 

Dnishojl (Inm, Daikoku-ya, Ka- 
ruhana) was one of the places to 
which the Christians of the Naga- 
saki district were exiled during the 
last persecution of 1867-1873. 

Komntsii (Irtn, Shimotoku) was 
formerly a castle-town belonging 
to the Daimyo of Kaga. Not far 
from Komatsu is the vill. of YaTna- 
shiro with hot springs. It also 
provides most of the clay for the 
potters of Terai and Kanazawa. 

Mntsnto is noted as the birth- 

?lace of the poetess Kaga-no-Ohiyo. 
travellers will remark the great 

industry and economy practised in 
the agriculture of this district, even 
the ridges between the rice-fields 
being sown with beans or barley. 

Kaiinzawa {Inns, Ayabe, Asada, 
Takabatake; European food at a 
restt. in the public garden) was the 
seat of the lords of the province of 
Kaga, the richest of all the Dai- 
myos. It is now the capital of the 
prefecture of Ishikawa, which in- 
cludes the provinces of Kaga, Noto, 
and Etcht^. It is both clean and 
picturesque, and the hills above 
it command a fine prospect. The 
castle is now used as the head- 
quarters of a military division. To 
the r. of the castle is the Public 
Garden called by the literati the 
*' Six-fold Garden," because possess- 
ing six excellencies, viz. size, pleasing 
appearance, labour bestowed upon 
it, an air of antiquity, running 
water, and a charming view. The 
grounds contain an Industrial 
Museum (Kwangyo Hakubutau- 
kwan), and a fine monument erected 
to the memory of the soldiers who 
fell fighting in the Satsuma rebellion. 
The monument, which was erected 
in 1880, consists of a pile of large 
stones on which stands a handsome 
bronze figure of Yamato-take, over 
18 ft. high. At Kanazawa the 
celebrated Kutani porcelain may bo 
procured in abundance. A visit 
should be paid to the Potteries of 
Oankwa-dd near the Public Garden, 
where the processes of manufactur- 
ing and painting the porcelain can 
be inspected. Bronzes inlaid with 
gold and silver (zdgan), and fans 
are also produced. A pleasant bath- 
ing resort near Kanazawa is Ndka- 
yama Onsen, with good inns. 

Imaisiirn^i {Inn, Tokko-ya) is a 
flourishing place. 

Takaoka (Inns, Akai-ya, Etchft- 
ya) stretching for a mile or more 
along the road in a cotton-weav- 
ing and silkworm-breeding district, 
is noted for its dyes and hard- 

Fiishiki (Inns by Okada, Ueda), 
having been made one of the ''Specia^ 

260 Boute 33. — Wegt Coast/rom Tswuga to Naoetm. 

Open Ports," has lately risen into 
prominence, but is unattractive. 

[An excursion may be made from 
Fushiki to Nanao, the capital 
of the province of Noto. 

This province, the Jutland of 
Jftpan, obtains its name from the 
word uofiu, which means "penin- 
sula " in the language of the former 
Aino aborigines. 


FUSHIKI to:— Ri. Chd. M. 

Himi 2 28 6} 

Ninomiya .... 3 33 9^ 
NANAO 2 17 6 

Total 9 6 22i 

Though the road is ostensibly 
meant for jinrikisha traffic, the 
heavy nature of the soil and a 
pass called the Arayama-toge, 
which has to be encountered on 
the way, generally necessitate 
walking as far as Ninomiya. 
Fair accommodation at Himi. 

Nanao (Inn, Ogome-ya) is a 
considerable town situated on 
the shores of a miniature inland 
sea, across which toy steamers 
ply. No mail steamers call in 
here, unless it be for shelter 
during a gale. The chief holiday 
resort in the neighbourhood is 
the mineral spring of Wakura, 
6 m. distant; but it, and in- 
deed the province of Noto gene- 
rally—low, sandy, and poor in 
historic associations — are little 
calculated to interest the foreign 
visitor. Mr. Percival Lowell, 
the well-known traveller and 
author of Noto : An Unexplored 
Comer of Japan, after having 
divided all places into two sorts. 

namely, those worth seeing but 
already seen, and those not yefe 
seen but not worth seeing, says» 
*< Wakura struck me as falling 
into the latter halves of both 

The best balling-places between 
Fushiki and Naoetsu are Votsu 
{Inn, Hakata-ya), and Itoigawa 
(Inn, Hayakawa). The last day ot 
the journey is also the most pic- 
turesque, as the road leads for 
several miles along bold cliffs by 
the shore, commanding a glorious 
view of the Sea of Japan. 

For Naoetsu see p. 211. Travel- 
lers desirous of visiting 

Toyania {Inns, 'Ki-ya, Taisei- 
kaku, European food), capital of the 
prefecture of the same name and of 
i the province of Etchu, can do so 
by taking a small boat from Fushiki 
to Higashi'Iwasc (Inn, Kushi-ya), & 
smsJl port at the mouth of the 
Jinzu-gawa, in about 3 hrs., whence 
to Toyama is 2 ri 2 chd by jinriki- 
sha. Toyama can also be reached 
more directly from Takaoka by jin- 
rikisha all the way, 5 ri 29 chd. 

Toyama was formerly the castlc-town 
of Matsudaira Shigematsu, a cadet of the 
Maeda family, of which the Daimyd of 
i Kaga was tlie head. The castle is now 
utilised as a school. In spite of its ont-of- 
the-way situation, Toyama enjoys the dis- 
tinction of having, compared with other 
provinces of Japan, the least numl)er of 
illiterates. But a large nroportion of the 
inhabitants are wall-eyed. The principal 
trade of the place consists in medicines- 
and leather. 

The snow-capped summit of Ha- 
kusan forms a striking object in 
the landscape. Toyama is a good 
starting point for those who, ap- 
proaching them from this side, wish 
to scale the peaks of Etchu and 
j Hida, described in Route 30. 



(Routes 34 — 36. 

Route 34.--The Tdkaido. 


ROUTE 84. 

The Tokaido by Bail fbom T5kyo 
TO Kyoto and Kobe. 








TOKYO (Shim- 









. See Route 3. 








(Change for 
{ Kamakura & 


OFDNA Jet. . . 

( Yokosuka. 



( Alight 
[ cent of Oya- 
( ma (p. 84). 





lAlight for 



) MiyauosMta, 
I Hakone, and 
\ Atami. 









) Alight for as- 
1 cent of Fuji. 





from the west 



alight for 

PujL Atlwa- 

•< bachi alight 

for Kami-ide 


waterfalls (p. 
147) and Mi- 

V nobu(p.S19). 





1 Excnrsion to 
( Kond-san. 














fAlipht for 
I Akiha. 



1 down rapids 



of Tenryfl 
4 bound E., 
enter train 

rTenrvi tra- 



} vellers for 
1 the W. enter 
L train here. 
















^Change for 



) Karacfc-aki, 
") Hftiida, and 

v^ Take toy 0. 





CChn nge for 
I Ise. 













lAlijarht for 
» Ydi-0. 




(Change for 
! Natrahama 
{. & Tsuruga. 











[ Kwausei Rail- 
! wiy, tjee p. 



( 247 


Baba (OTSU). 




















(Alitrht for 
; N a r a and 
( Hakni. 








J See cantioD 
♦ on p. 277. 




Routs 34.— The I'dkaidd. 

The word Tdkaidd signifies " Eastern Sea 
Road." The name was given to this road 
at an early date on acoonnt of its running 
alonflr the sea-shore in an easterly direc- 
tion from Kyoto, which, being the old 
historic capital, was naturally regarded 
as the starting-point. From the 17th 
centnry onwai-ds, the TOkaidO was tra- 
versed twice yearly by DaimyCs coming 
with gorgeous retinnes to pay their re- 
spects to the ShQgnn at Yedo; and all 
the chief towns, here as on the other great 
highways of the Empire, were provided 
with Aon./i»— that is, specially fine tea- 
houses— ifor their lordships to sleep at. The 
greater portion of the beautiful avenue of 
pine-trees with which the road was lined 
still exists, and can be seen occasioually 
from tht» windows of the railway carriage. 
The rood itself is now comparatively 
deserted. " But what a scene it used to 
present ! How crowded with pedestrians ; 
with norimons (the palanquins of the 
upper crust), and attendants ; with can- 
goes (the modest liamboo conveyance of 
the humble classes) ; with pack-horses, 
conveying merchandise of all kinds to 
and from the capital or to the busy towns 
and villages along the route : with the 
trains of daimyos or of lesser gentry en- 
titled to travel with a retinue ; and with 
the coramonaUy, men, women and child- 
ren, on foot, all with their dresses turned 
up fi^r facility of movement, and for the 
most part taking the journey pretty 
easily; frequently stopping at the num- 
berless tea-houses or resting sheds by the 
way, and refreshing themselves with the 
simple little cup of weak green tea, and a 
cheery chat with whomsoever might stop 
like themselves to rest. It used to seem 
that disfance was no consideration with 
them. They could go on all day, and day 
after day, if only they were allowed 
(which they generally were) to take their 
own time and pace. The value of time 
never entered into their thoughts. . . . 

The numerous trains of armed men pass- 
ing iu l»oth directions were the most strik- 
ing feature of the scene. Never could one 
go out of one's house in any direction, 
but these two-sworded men were met 
with; but on the Tokaido, and in the 
streets of Yedo, they appeared to Ije more 
numerous than the common people ; and 
it must l)e understood that at this time of 
which I am speaking, the crowds on por- 
tions of the road and in all the principal 
thoroughfares of the capital, were as great 
as in the most crowded thoroughfares of 
London. It took one forcibly liick to the 
feudal times in Europe, when no noble or 
landed proprietor thought of going abroad 
unattended by his armed dependants. 
Added to this, there was a certain air of 
antiquity that iinparted its charm to the 
scene. The old Dutch writers described 
the road long ago, and it was even in their 
day, precisely as it waa in ours. A good, 
well macadamised, causeway, (except that 

the hard stratum was of pebbles, not of 
broken stones), passing through numeroas 
populous villages, only divided from each 
other by short intervals, where fine old 
trees on both sides of the road were the 
sole division between the road and the 
paddy fields. The etiquette of the road 
was well and rigidly defined. When the 
trains of two princes met, it was incum- 
bent on the lesser of them— (measured by 
his income as recognised by the Crovem- 
ment, and published in the official list), to 
dismount from his norimon, if he hap- 
pened to be riding in one, and draw with 
uis followers to the side of the road whilst 
the other passed. Whenever it was 
possil)le, therefore, such meetings were 
avoided." • 

The railway was begun in 1872 and 
finished in I8B9. It reduces to 17 hrs. the 
journey from Tdkyd to KyOto, which 
formerly was an affair of 12 or IS days on 

Travellers with time od hand are 
advised to break the journey at 
KozUy in order to visit Miyanoshita 
and Hakone ; at Okitsu, in order to 
visit Kund-xan on the way between 
that station and Sbizuoka ; at Shizu- 
oka itself, and at Nagoya. Of these 
places, three, viz. Miyanoshita» 
Shizuoka, and Nagoya, have hotels 
in foreign style. Those who are 
hurried may console themselves for 
missing these interesting places by 
the knowledge that the scenery 
through which they are to pass of- 
fers many charms, including superb 
views of Fuji from both the land 
and the sea side. The least in- 
teresting portion of the line is that 
between Shizuoka and Nagoya, a 
six hours' run which may with little 
disadvantage be performed after 
dark, most of it passing through flat 
country devoted to the cultivation 
of rice. 

The first hour of the journey — 
that between Tokyo and Yokohama 
— having been already described 
in Route 8, calls for no further 
remark. The train runs into Yoko- 
hama station to pick up passengers 
for the West, and runs out again 
for a few min. over the same ground, 
but soon diverges to the 1. At 

Ufkina Junction, a short branch 

* This description is quoted from Black's 
ToHMff Japant YoL I. p. MS, et Mf • 

From Fujisatca to Nnmitzu. 


line takes travellers to the famous 
Daibutsu at Kamakura (see pp. 77-9). 

Fnjisawa (Innsj Inage-ya and 
Wakamatsu-ya at station) is noted 
for its Buddhist temple of Yugyd- 
dera^ in the miraculous healing 
powers of whose abbots extraordi- | 
nary faith is placed by the lower ' 
orders of the surrounding country- ^ 
side. Unfortunately, a fire de- 1 
stroyed the greater portion of ' 
the buildings in December, 1880. , 
Should the intention of restoring ! 
them to their original splendour ' 
be carried out, they ynll well merit I 
a visit. The site lies some 8 chd j 
from the railway station. After 
passing Fujisawa, the Hakone range, 
behind which towers the Cone of 
Fuji, begins to come in sight r. 
Soon afterwards the line crosses 
the broad stony bed of the River 
Banyu, which rises in Lake Yama- 
naka on the N.E. flank of Fuji. 

Oiso is a favourite bathing resort ; 
see p. 85. At 

Kr>zii (Inn, Kdzu-kwan), the line 
turns inland up the valley of the 
Sakawa-gawa, in order to avoid the 
Hakone mountains which effectually 
bar the way to all but foot-pass- 
enger). The scenery now becomes 
mountainous, with to the 1. the 
chief peaks of the Hakone range — Fu- 
tago-yama (the "Twin Mountain," 
so-called from its double rounded 
summit), Myojin-ga-take, Kammuri- 
ga-take, and Kintoki-zan (horn- 
shaped). An extra engine is put on 
at Yamakita to help the train up 
to Gotemba, the highest point on 
the line — 1,600 ft. above sea level. 
Between Yamakita and Oyama (not 
to be mistaken for the mountain 
Oyama, with a long 0), the soenery 
becomes wildly picturesque, and 
there is a rapid succession of tunnels 
and bridges, testifying to the en- 
gineering difficulties that had to be 
oonqnered. At 

(sliteiiilNl (Inns, Matsu-ya and 
Fuji-ya at station; the viU. is 12 
chd distant), the passenger finds 
himsell in the broad and fertile 

plain surrounding Fuji's base, a 
plain whose soil indeed has been 
formed by the outpourings of the 
great mountain during countless 
ages. Nothing here interrupts the 
view of the volcano from baee to 
summit. The long-ridged wooded 
mountain immediately to the 1. of 
Fuji is Ashitaka. The range to 
the spectator's 1. from the carriage 
window is the Hakone range, the 
lowest point of which seen from 
here is the Otome-toge leading over 
to Miyanoshita. 

Gotemba derives its name from having 
been the seat of the hunting lodge of the 
great Shdgun Yoritomo, when he came 
from his capital at Kamakura to hnnt in 
the neighboorhood of Fuji. 

The gardens around Gotemba are 
' gay with red camellia blossoms in 
] spring. The Mitsumata (Edgeworth- 
j ia papyrifera) is also to be seen in 


At SanO) there is a semi-European 
I Hotel close to the waterfalls (Sano no 

taki), 12 chd from the station by 

jinrikisha. The wat^r forming these 
I fine falls comes from Lake Hakone, 

vi4 the tunnel mentioned on p. 132. 
I Kcigashima, 17 chd beyond the 

falls, is another picturesque spot, 
I remarkable for its curious rocks and 
I possessing a deserted shrine suitable 
' for a picnic. 

. One still has Fuji and Ashi- 
' taka to the r., the other mountains 
; from r. to 1. being Amagi-san in Izu, 
\ Yahazu-yama (a small peak), Higa- 
; ne-san on the other side of which 
! lies Atami, the Hakone range, and 
I in front, isolated as if let drop 
j independently into the plain, Kano- 
I ki-yama. The railway turns West, 
I and rejoins the old Tokaidd at 

Nnmazu (Inn, Moto-doiya). 
i There is much marshy ground in 
I this neighbourhood, whence pro- 

bably the name of the place {numa 

=" marsh ") . Most persons, rather 
I than stay in Numazu itself, prefer 
I to go on 25 min. by jinrikisna to 
' the vill. of Ushibuse, on a beautiful 
! landlocked bay which offers exoe)- 
I lent sea-bathing. The Sekko Boko^ 


Rotas 34.— The Tokaido. 

daytl inn^ vf'ith detaofaed apartments 
ensuring priyaoy, is reoommended, 
as also the delightful walk along 
the coast to Eiumra on the road to 
Shuaenji in Izu. It is about 

Siiznkawa {Innj Koshft-ya) that 
the nearest ana most perfect yiew of 
Fuji is obtained. Nowhere else does 
the •* Peerless Mountain " so ab- 
solutely dominate its surroundings. 
The beauty of the stretch of shore 
from here to the mouth of the 
Fujikawa, called Tago-iio-ura, lias 
been sung by a hundred Japa- 
nese poets. The Fujikawa is noted 
for its rapids (see p. 221). From 

Iwabiichi {Inn, *Tani-ya at sta- 
tion) to Okitsu is very beautiful, the 
space between the sea and a range 
ot hills to the r. becoming so narrow 
as barely to leave room for the rail- 
way to skirt the shore. In the neigh- 
bourhood of 

Kambara^ large fields of sugar- 
cane will be observed. 

The caltivation of the small but hardy 
Ohineae variety of the Biif<ar-cane {Saccha- 
rum ninenDf) is carriod on with fair success 
in the warmer provinces of Japan, such as 
Mikawa, Owari, KishQ, Southern Shiko- 
ka, and Satsuma. Being unable to with- 
stand the frosts of winter, it is planted out 
In March or April, and harvested not later 
than Novemlwr. Tlie cane which is used 
for planting is buried in a dry place to 
preserve it from the cold. In spring 
It is cut into pieces, which are planted out 
in the usual way. 

Okitsu (InfiSf •Kaisui-ro, Mina- 
kuchi-ya ; the latter is semi-foreign, 
the former has arrangements for 
sea-bathing) has a lovely view of 
the Bay of Suruga, the large moun- 
tainous peninsula of Izu, and to 
the r. the point of land called Mio- 
no-Matsubara, celebrated alike in 
poetry and art. It is covered with 
pine-trees, is low and sandy, and 
nence more pleasant to look at 
than to walk on. Still further to 
the r. lie the Kuno-zan hills, with 
the white little sea-port town of 
Shimizu nestliug at their base. 

At Mio-no-Matsubara ia laid the scene 
of Ha-aoromo, or " The Robe of Feathers," 
one of the prettiest and most fanciful of 
th» Japanese I^rric Dnunas {X6 no Ufai). 

A fiaherman landing on this strand finds 
a robe of feathers hanging to a pine- 
tree, and is about to carry it off as treasure 
trove, when a beautiful fairy suddenlv 
apnears and implores him to give it back 
to her, for that it is hers, and without it 
she cannot fly home to the Moon, where 
she is one of the attendants on the thirty 
monarchs who rule that sphere. At first 
the fisherman refuses to grant her re- 
quest. He only does so when, after many- 
tears and agonies of despair, she promises 
to dance for him one of the dances known 
only to the immortals. Draped in her 
fnathery robe, she dances beneath the 
pino-trees on the beach, while celestial 
music and an unearthly fragrance fill the 
air. At last her wings are caught by the 
breese, and she soars hen von ward, past 
Mount Ashitaka, past Fuji, till she is lost 
to view. There is still a snAall shrine on 
Mio-no-Matsubara dedicated to this fairy» 
where a relic of her robe is shown. 

The Temple of Seikcnji or Kiyomi- 
dera at Okitsu, bolougiug to the 
Zen sect of Buddhists, merits a 
visit, partly for the sake of the 
view, partly for the temple itself 
and the temple grounds, which 
even the railway, thougl) it cuts 
through them, has not entirely 
spoilt. The very plain altar in the 
small chapel near the Hondo — a 
large hall paved with tiles — con- 
tains funeral tablets of all the 
Shdguns of the Tokugawa dynasty. 
In a side temple are forty brilliant- 
ly coloured figures, three-fourths 
life-size, of Rakan— old, but restor- 
ed in 1881. They were formerly 
kept in a tea-house in the town, 
which became a favourite resort, 
and brought in a considerable in- 
come to the priests. This, however, 
moved the towospeople to jealousy 
and dissatisfaction, for which 
reason the images were removed to 
their present site where money can 
no longer be made out of them. 
In the grounds are 800 (formerly 
500) stone images of Rakan, The 
creeping plum-trees {gwaryu-bai) 
in front of the temple are said to 
have been planted by leyasu's own 
hand. Besides the temple proper, 
a suite of rooms is shown, affording 
an example of the best style of 
Japanese domestic architecture. 
Built in 1865 for the use of the 
Shogun lemochi, they have of late 



been sometimes ocoupied by His Im- 
perial Highness, the Crown Prince. 

[A detour of 7 or 8 hrs. to Knno- 
lait will afford the traveller 
a real multum in parvo, — splen- 
did views, superb temples, 
nearer acquaintance with Japa- 
nese town and country life off 
the beaten track. — The plan is 
to leave Yokohama by the first 
train, alight at Okitsu, and 
thence go by jinrikisha with 
two men, rejoining the railway 
at Shizuoka, where sleep. Sei- 
kenji, described above, is first 
risited; thence through Ejiri 
{InUy Kyo-ya), one of those 
smaller Tokaido towns which 
the railway has paralysed, and 
ShimizUf a neat bustling sea- 
port town ; and then strikes in- 
land to Tesshujiy a ruined 
temple on a low hill called 
Fudaraku-san, 4 did in height. 
Yamaoka Tetsutaro, writing- 
master to the present ^likado, 
collected funds for the restora- 
tion of this place; but the 
money was squandered after his 
death, and the temple is no- 
thing, but the view simply 
magnificent, recalling a Claude 
Lorraine. At the beholder's 
leet stretches a green carpet of 
rice-fields, with the town of 
Shimizu and the curious square 
enclosures in the adjacent sea, 
used as hsh-preserves to supply 
the needs of the inhabitants in 
stormy weather. The two pro- 
montories to the 1. are the 
Satta-toge and the point near 
Kambara, beyond which come 
Fuji, Ashitaka, and the Hakone 
range. The largo peninsula of 
lau extends the whole way 
round from 1. to r., like a 
gigantic scythe, forming the 
Gulf of Suruga, while much 
closer and smaller, making a 
bay within a bay, stretches the 
pine-clad promontory of Mio- 
no-^Iatsubara, which is from 
here seeo to divide at the tip 

into three points like claws. 
Close to Tesshuji is another 
temple called Ryugeji, noted 
in the vicinity for its sotetsu 
(Cycas rcvoluta) and prickly 
pears — the latter a great rarity 
in Japan ; but the view, bhougn 
good, is not comparable to that 
from Tesshuji. 

The way now leads bock to 
the sea and along the sandy 
shore to the hamlet of Nekoya 
(Intiy Fukushima-ya) at the foot 
of Kuuo-zan, one of a range of 
hills only some 500 ft. high, but 
fortress-like in steepness. Here 
was the first burial-place of the 
great Shdgun leyasu, and the 
shrines here erected in his 
honour were the originals of 
which those at Nikko are but 
a more elaborate development. 
Travellers who are unable to 
go to Nikko, can therefore 
obtain an idea of what the 
Nikkd temples are like by visit- 
ing Kuuo-zan. According to 
some, leyasu's body still lies 
here, only a single hair or 
other minute portion having 
been transported to Nikkd. The 
ascent to the temples is by a 
steep zigzag path cut in the 
living rock. A guide must be 
applied for at the shaimtsho, or 
temple ofl&ce, near the top on 
the 1. The view over the sea 
from this temple office is 
glorious, but a still better one 
is obtained from a pine-tree 
called t>ie ^fono-mi no viatsii. 
The headlands seen hence are 
T6me-i)0-saki, Wada no-misaki, 
and Omae-zaki.' The temples, 
though "purified" to a certain 
extentby the pro-Shinto party 25 
years af;o, retain their Buddnist 
ornamentation. The wooden 

igy of a sacrod horse 1. is 
by Hidari Jingoro. Up a flight 
of steps hence, we come r. to 
the drum-tower, and 1. to the 
side of the five-storied pagoda 
removed by the "purifiers" as 
savom-ing too much of Bud 


Route 34.— The Tokaido. 

dhism. Above these again are 
r., the kagura stage, the trea- 
sure-house or " godown," and a 
building formerly dedicated to 
the Buddhist god Yakushi, and 
now to the Shinto god Oyama- 
gui-no-Mikoto ; while 1. is the 
building where the sacred offer- 
ings are prepared. The oratory 
proper is painted red on the 
outside, black and gold within. 
Kound the interior, hang pic- 
tures of the Tliirty-six Poetical 
Geniuses, and there is an elabo- 
rate bordering of phoenixes and 
chrysanthemums. A final flight 
of steps behind the oratory leads 
up to the stone tomb, which is 
an octagonal monolith. The 
annual festival at Kuno-zan is 
held on the 17th April. Services 
are also celebrated on the 17th 
of the other months. The tem- 
ple treasures are exposed to 
view in October, when the an- 
nual airing (miiski-boshi) takes 
place. On leaving Eun5-zan, 
the road first follows the sea- 
shore and then turns inland, 
reaching Shizuoka in about 

Between Okitsu and 

Ejlri (Intif Kyo-ya), there is a 
view of Mio-no-Matsubara. After 
leaving Ejiri, the line turns inland 
to avoid the Kuno-zan hills. 

Shizuoka (Hotels, •Daito-kwan, 
foreign style ; Kiyo-kwan), formerly 
called Sumpu, is the capital of the 
prefecture of the same name and 
of the province of Suruga. It is a 
clean, airy, flourishing city, noted 
for its manufactures of cheap lacquer 
ware, delicate basket-work in curious 
aad beautiful shapes, and fine bam- 
boo plaiting used to cover egg-shell 
porcelain cups which are brought 
from the province of Iklino. The 
tea produced at Ashikubo, a vill. 2 
ri distant, ranks second only to that 
of Uji. 

Historically, Shizuoka is remarkable 
chiefly as the place where leyasa chose to 
spend the evening of his life in learned 
leisure, leaving his son Hidetada to carry 

on the government at Yedo. Here for tb« 
first time many of the treasures of Japa- 
nese literature, which had hitherto exist- 
ed only in numuscript, were put into 
print. Shizuoka is now the place <^ 
retirement of the ex-Sbdgnn Reiki, who 
lives there in quiet seclusion as a private 

An afternoon is enough for the 
sights of Shizuoka, which consist of 
the ruins of the former castle, and 
of two fine temples — Binzaiji and 
Sengen. All that remains of the 
Castle are tlie decaying walls and 
the moats. Within its enclosure 
stands the Prefecture, a hideous red 
brick building. The Court House 
and Normal School are outside the 
moat, on the S. side. 

The Buddhist temple of Binzaiji 
lies 8 chd away from the city, at the 
foot of a range of wooded hills. It 
belongs to the Zen sect, and is noted 
for its connection with leyasu and 
for the number of objects of art 
which it contains. The little-room 
of only 4^ mats (yo-jo-han), where 
leyasu learnt to write, is shown, 
as are several scrolls, screens, pieces 
of lacquer and porcelain, etc., pre- 
sented by him to the temple in his 
old age. There is also a thread- 
bare but still beautiful piece of 
embroidery presented by the Mikado 
Go-Nara (A.D. 1527-1657), and a 
number of kakemono by Kano Masa- 
nobu. Chin Nampin, and other old 
masters. In tlie Hondd is a painted 
statue of Imaga\va, Yoshimoto, 
younger brother to Ujiteru, founder 
of the temple. Another painted 
statue represents the second abbot. 
The Honzoti is Aniida, a black image 
with a gold background. In a side 
chapel is pieserved the wooden 
image of Marishi-ten, which leyasu 
— who for all his political and mili- 
tary genius, was not free from the 
superstitions of his time — used con- 
stantly to carry about with him 
as a charm. The visitor will also 
be shown a small pagoda- shaped 
gilt revolving book-case containing 
a complete set of the edition of 
the Buddhiist soriptofes, piloted 
for the first time with moTable 


types in 1888. The Ist and 2nd 
October are the great festival days 
at Binzaiji. 

The Temple of Settgen, which 
stands at the N. limit of the town, 
was built under the superintendence 
of Okubo Hikozaomon, a personage 
famous in Japanese history as the 
minister and coufidant of the Sho- 
gan lemitsu. Though chieily dedi- 
cated to the worship of Ko-no-hana- 
saku-ya-hime, alias Seugen, the 
beautiful Shinto goddess of Mount 
Fuji, it is constructed and decorated 
in the most ornate Buddhist style. 
Specially noteworthy are the 
wood-carvings. The grounds now 
serve as a public park. Entering 
by two handsomely carved wooden 
gates, the visitor ^nds himself in a 
large (quadrangle, in the centre of 
which IS a stage formerly used for 
the performance of the kagtira dance 
by young girls. The interior of the 
oratory proper {go Imiden no d- 
biroma) is a hall 63 ft. by 33 ft., 
with large solid pillars of keyaki 
lacquered red, two of which form 
at the same time the corner pillars 
of the upper storey. The two 
central compartments of the ceiling 
are painted with dragons, one 
called the ShiJw no Hyd, or *' Dra- 
gon of the Four Quarters," because 
whatever quarter of the compass he 
be viewed from he seems to glare 
down directly at the spectator ; the 
other, Happd no Ryoy or •• Dragon of 
the Eight Quarters," because his 
glance is directed to every point of 
the circle. The former of these is 
by Yflsen Hogan, the latter by 
Kano Motonobu. Eight other com- 
partments contain pictures of 
angels playing on musical instru- 
ments, also by painters of the 
Kano school. Two broad flights 
of steps behind the oratory lead 
up to a building containing two 
onapels, one dedicated to Sengen, 
the other to Ouamuji. The two 
chapels are connected by a room in 
which a nightly watch was formerly 
kept by retainers of the Tokugawa 
family. Do not fail to notice 

the carvings on the gates leading to 
these twin chapels. One set repre- 
sents a lioness with her cub, and 
on a second panel her royal mate, 
— both surrounded by peonies, the 
king of flowers, as the lion is the 
king of beasts. Another set repre- 
sents hawks with pine-trees. Bound 
the chapel itself are carvings of the 
pine-tree, bamboo, and plum-blos- 
som by Hidari Jiugoro. The crest 
of a fan of feathers is that of the 
goblin {U7igu) who was god of 
Mount Oyama and father of the 
goddess of Fuji. 

Near the main quadrangle is a 
smaller building called SosJia, 
formerly dedicated to Marishi-ten 
and now to the Shinto god Yachi- 
hoko-no-kami. It is the newest of 
all the buildings, and the decora- 
tions are therefore in bettor repair. 
In the curved roof of the porch a 
phoenix carved out of a single block 
of wood is very fine ; and all round, 
above the architrave, runs a series of 
delicate little groups representing 
the Twenty-four Paragons of Filial 

The stone lanterns in the grounds 
were presented by various Daimyds 
and Jaafamotos. — Beyond the Mari- 
shi-ten temple, a broad flight of 
105 stone steps leads up to the 
Oku-no-iny which affords a good view 
of the town. 

The best excursion from Shizuoka 
is that by jinrikisha to Ruuo-zan 
(3 ri) ; see pp. 267-8. 

From Shizuoka to Nagoya, a 
distance of 115 miles, the line for 
the most part ceases to skirt the 
sea, and runs over a flat country 
with low hills on one or both sides, 
or else among rice-fields. Spurs of 
the central range forming the back- 
bone of the country are, however, 
often seen far away to the r. Just 
outside Shizuoka we cross the 
Abekawa close to its mouth, and 
obtain a pretty glimpse of the sea 
with the small promontory of Kuno- 
zan and the large promontory of 
Izu, before passing through two long 


Uoute 34,—Tft^ Tokaido. 

tunnels. The Oigawa is crossed after 
passing the station of Shimada. 

Knnayn (good accommodation at 
the Clwgetsii'kxcany a bathing resort 
25 did from the station). Like all 
the rivers on this coast, the Oigawa 
has a bed out of proportion to the 
small volume of water that gene- 
rally flows down it, the bed being 
nearly a mile broad, while the 
actual stream is not more than 
some 50 yds. except in flood- time. 

„ In pre-railway days, the passage of the 
Oigawa was one of the most exciting 
portions of the journey along the Tdkaidd. 
No ferrj'-boats could be used on Mceount 
of the swiftness of the current, and travel- 
lers were carried across on small hand- 
platforms called rendai. The naked coolies 
who bore these aloft always chose the 
deepest parts of the ntream, in order to 
impress thoir fares with a sense of the 
peril of the undertaking, and thus obtain 
the largest possible pourhoire. This inci- 
dent of old-iashioned travel is ponrtrayed 
in almost every set of coloured prints 
repre^entinsr the *' Fifty-three Stages of 
theTdkaidS" {TbkaidO Qo-jv^mn Ttugi). 

Kftkejurnwa (Inn Kyugetsu-ro) 
manufactures hnzit-ori^ a sort of 
Jinen cloth woven from grass. 

[It is the station where those 
must alight who desire to visit 
the Temple of Akiha, some 12 
ri inland, of which the first 6ri 
as far as the vill. of Mikura are 
practicable for jinrikishas. The 
visitor may conveniently sleep 
at Sakashita some 4^ ri further 
ou, at the base of the mountain 
on which the temple stands. 
The ascent, locally computed at 
60 cJidy is probably less. The 
last part commands an extensive 
and beautiful view, including 
the wide plain of Totomi with 
the sea beyond, towards which 
the broad white bed of the river 
Tenryu is seen winding its way. 

The temple of Akiha enjoys a wide 
reputation for sanctity, and is visited 
annually by crowds of pilgrims. Un- 
fortunately for the tourist of artistic 
and antiquarian tastes, all the l>eauti- 
ful Buddhist building in which 
Kwannon and other deities had few 
centuries Ixjsn invoked, were de- 
stroyed by Are on the occasion of the 
great 3'early festival in 1876, and the 

present temple was afterwards c 
ted in the bare, uninteresting style 
of Pure ShintA. It has been dedi- 
cated to Kagutsuchi-no-Mikoto, wlio 
is reg»rde<l by some as the Gkni of 
Fire, but is more correctly- explained 
as the God of Summer Heat.] 

Before reaching Hamamatsa the 
train crosses the Tenryu-gawa, 
whose celebrated Rapids form the 
subject of Route 29. The Tenryft 
is the first of the three great rivers 
from which the province of Mikawa, 
which the line here traverses, takes 
its name. The other two are the 
Ogawa (also called Oyagawa or 
Ohira-gawa) on this side of the 
station of 

Okaxaki, noted in history as the 
birthplace of the great Shdgun le- 
yasu, and the Yahagi-gawa just 
beyond the same station. 

Nakaiziimi (Inn opposite railway 

_ Haiiianiatsn (Inns, * Hana-ya, 
Ogome-ya, each with a branch at 
the station) is the only place be- 
tween Shizuoka and Nagoya where 
the journey can be broken with 
any comfort. The town derives a 
peculiar appearance from the use 
of long projecting eaves which 
cause the nouses to look as if about 
to tumble forward into the street. 
Just beyond 

Maisnka, we reach a large lagoon 
(Hamano no Mizn-umi), of whose 
beauties the railway affords but a 
passing glimpse while crossing its 
mouth on a long series of dykes 
and bridges, whence the roar of 
the breakers of the Pacific can be 
distinctly heard. 

Though called a lake in Japanese, this 
lagoon has now a narrow entrance about 
000 yds. across formed in the year 1499, 
when an earthquake broke down the 
sand-spit that had previously separated 
the fresh water from the sea. The pro- 
vince of T6t6mi derives its name from 
this lake, which w^as called Tdtdai, n 
corruption of To-tiat-aiPa-umi, '* the distant 
foammg sea," in contradistinction to Lake 
Biwa, named Ckika-tnt-awti-nuiit " the 
near foaming sea,'! which gav« its name 
to the province of Omi. 

Between Washizn and ToyoUft> 
shI) a fine bronze image of Kwannon 

AUuta, Nagoya, 


10 ft. liigh and dating from the 
year 1766, is seen perched r. on a 
pinnacle of rock. 

[The town of ToYOkawa, 2^ ri 

N. of Toyohashi, possesses a 
large and famous Temple of 
Inari^ which can be visited be- 
tween trains by taking a jin- 
rikisha with 2 men.] 

Between Goyii, where the line 
again touches the picturesque shore, 
and Kamagori there are delightful 
peeps of the sea, of the islets in the 
Bay of Toyohashi, and of the moun- 
tains of the provinces of Shima, 
Ise, and Iga beyond. Alter Okaaa- 
ki comes a dull bit, flat and with 
rice-fields on either hand, or sand- 
hillocks and pine scrub ; but from 
Otaka the fine range separating the 
provinces of Ise and Omi rises 
ahead, and is kept in view all the 
way to 

A1«nta {InnSy Kikyo-ya near 
railway station; Okada-ya near 
steamer landing-place). Foreigners 
rarely alight at this town, which is 
practically a suburb of Nagoya, 
unless they are bomid to the 
temples of Ise (see pp. 245-6). It 
possesses, . however, a fine set of 
Shinto temples of its own, from 
which it derives its alteiiiative 
name of Miya, These temples, 
originally founded in A.D. 686, 
have recently been restored in Pure 
Shinto style, exactly on the lines 
of the Ise temples. Persons unable > 
to spare time for visiting the latter 1 
may therefore, by stopping over a 
train at Atsuta, gain some notion 
of what Ise is like. The jinrikisha 
ride on to the next station, Nagoya, 
where they would probably break 
their journey in any case, is only 
some 4 miles. The official name of 
the temples is Atsuta Daijingu. 

The gods worehipped here are the Sun- 
(3«lde»8 Ainater«8u, her brother Suba- 
no-o, Prince Yumato-tAke (Bee p. 66), the 
lAtter'e vrife Miyazu-hime, and her brother 
Take-iDA*tane. But the object really most 
venerated,— indeed, the ratton d'etre of the 
temples and congequontly of the town,— 
is tne famoHR aword called Kumi-naffi-no 
Tmrugi, one of the three antique objects 

which form the Imperial regalia of Japan, 
the other two being a mirror and a jeweL 
This sword (so legend goes) was found bj 
Susa-no-o in the tail of an eight-headed 
8en)ent, which he intoxicated with mke 
and then slew. Haying been lnt>nght 
from heaven many centories later by the 
first ancestcn* of the Mikados, it came into 
the possession of Yamato-take and assist- 
ed tiiat Prince in the conquest of Kastem 
Japan. This treasure is never shown, bat 
a great festival is held in its honour on the 
21 St June. The outer box enshrining it 
has an autograph inscription by the pre- 
sent Emperor, llie complete legend of 
the sword Kuta-nagi will be found in 
the Kojiki (Trans, of the Asiatic Soc. 
of Japan, Vol. X., Supplement, Beok 
X7Iir., LXXXIL, and LXXXIII.). At 
some little distance from the chief temple 
is Another dedicated to a scarcely less 
sacred sword called Ta'tmmgi. The 
legend concerning kept as an esoteric 

XriStiTA (Inns^ Shinachtl, also 
called H6tel du Progrds, foreign; 

This flourishing commercial city, the 
largest on the TfikaidA, capital of the 
Province of Owari and of the prefecture 
of Aichi, was formerly the seat of the 
Prince of Owari, whose family was closely 
allied to that of the Tokugnwa ShOgims, 
the founder of the house of Owari having 
been a son of leyasn. Their fief was 
rated at 550,000 XrojrK of rice, and the Owa- 
ri's ranked as one of the " Three August 
Families" (Oo 8an-k^Y, entitled to furnisli 
a successor to the Shdgun's throne in 
default of an heir. Their castle, which is 
still one of the wonders of Japan, was 
erected in 1610 by twenty gresit feudal 
lords, to serve as the residence of leyasu's 
son. In the early years <>f the present 
regime it was handed over to the Military 
Department; and the beautiful decora- 
tions of the Prince's dwelling apartments 
suffered, as did so much else in Japan. 
from the almost incredible vandalism and 
vulpar stupidity of that period,— common 
soldiers, or officers as ignorant as they, 
being allowed to deface the priceless wall- 
paintings of a Tan-yd, a Motonobu, and a 
Miitahei. This denecration is now happily 
put an end to, though much irreparable 
damage has been done. The castle has 
been taken over by the Imperial House- 
hold Department, to be preserved as a 
monnment of historic interest. The two 
pfolden dolphins {1cinno9hac\i-kol'o)^ which 
can be i*een glittering all over the cifej 
from the top of the flve-st^ried donjon 
{lenrhn)^ were made in 1610 at the cost of 
the celebrated general, KaUi Kiyomasa, 
who also built the keep. One of them 
was sent to the Vienna Kxliibition of 
1673, and on its way back was ^vreckctl in 
the JUtMagerie$ Maritime* Steamer "Nil.'' 
Having been recovered with groat difP 


EatUe 34.—Thi Tokaido. 

eaXtj, it was fln&lly restored to its original 
position, maoh to the satisfaction or the 
eitixens. The golden dolphins measnre 
87 ft. in height, and are valued at $180,000. 

Nagoya is noted for its manufac- 
ture of porcelain, cloisonne, and 
fans. The principal dealers are : 

Porcelain. — Takito, Matsumura. 
At the latter the processes of 
manufacture can be inspected. 
Those interested in porcelain should 
compare Route 31, p. 214. 

Ctoiso7in6. — Honda, Kodama, Ta- 
keuchi. Processes of manufacture 
shown to visitors. 

.Faits.— Ohashi, Matsuo. 

SM Mercers. — It6, Daimaru. 

There are many lesser but good 
shops for all the above articles; 
also several bazaars {kwankoba) for 
articles of general utility. Five or 
six large cotton-mills have been 
started of late vears, and the em- 
broidering of handkerchiefs has 
taken a considerable place among 
the local industries. 

Theatre. — Suehiro-za. 

The Museum contains a collection 
of the various manufactures of the 

It may be worth spending a day 
at Nagoya to see a nourishing prc- 
vincial town. Though the Castle 
is now inaccessible except to visitors 
of special distinction, all may in- 
spect Nagoya's second greatest sight 
— the Higashi Hongwanji Temple — 
the Museum, and the minor temples 
described below. The evening may 
be agreeably whiled away by going 
the round of the bazaars. | 

The Castle (O Shiro).— The space ! 
between the inner and outer moats, 
now containing extensive barracks 
and parade-grounds, was formerly 
occupied by quarters for the 
Prince's samurai or retainers, of- 
fices civil and military, etc. Pass- 
ing into the inner enclosure over a 
moat now dry and used to keep 
tame deer in, the traveller is first 
shown through the Apartments, — a 
beautiful wreck, for mats and 
furniture are gone and the walls 
vte considerably defaced, but very 

fine nevertheless. The sliding 
screens (fusuma) between the 
rooms, the alcoves {tokonomdif and 
the wooden doors separating trie dif- 
ferent sets of Apartments are all 
decorated with paintings of flowers, 
birds, etc., chiefly by artists of the 
Kano school, such as Eishin, Moto- 
nobu, and Tan-}u. One room has 
cherry-blossoms and pheasants by 
Tosa - no - Mitsuoki. Another — the 
most attractive of all — has multi- 
tudinous scenes of popular life by 
Ukiyo Matahei. One specially 
gorgeous apartment, decorated by 
Tau-yti with ideal Chinese scenery, 
was reserved for the use of the 
Shogun when he came to visit the 
Prince his kinsman. Observe the 
difference of height between the 
inner and outer portion of this 
room, — the former (jodan) being 
for the Shogun himself, the latter 
(gcdari) for those inferior persons 
who were graciously admitted to an 
audience. The ramnia (ventilating 
panels) of this room have exquisite- 
ly faithful carvings of a crane and 
tortoise and of a cock perched on a 
drum, by Hidari Jingord, who also 
carved the flowers and birds in 
certain other rooms. Leaving tlicse 
apartments, one comes to a much 
humbler suite brought from Nobu- 
naga's castle at Kijosu, and is then 
led into the donjon or keep, a 
gloomy five-storied building, all of 
stone without, but furnished with 
wooden staircases within. The well 
at the bottom, called Ogon-suif or 
'•the Golden Water," was dug by 
Kato Kiyomasa. The fifth storey 
commands an extensive view — the 
town of course, the sea, the im- 
mense plain of Owaii and Mino laid 
out in rice-fields, and, limiting the 
horiz'^n, the mountains of Ise, Iga, 
Omi, Echizen, Hida, Shinshfi, and 

No fee is accepted by the custo- 
dian of the Castle. 

Higashi Hongwanji^ 

This wonderful Bnddhist temple, where 
exterior and interior are botn eqoa^Iy 
grand, dates in its aetaal shape from the 



beginniiiff df the praMnt oentiuy. In 

■MaoduBvaT times a OHstto oocapied its site, 
whence the caeble>Iike walls that still 
onrronnd the enclosure. On the occasion 
of the combined military and naval 
manflBuyres at Naprinra in 1890, the apart- 
ments were occupied l^ H. M. the Mikado. 

The two-storied gate-house, a 
magnificeot structure in wood, has 
three portals, decorated with floral 
arabesques in relief on the lintel 
and posts; and the gates have 
scrolls and open-work diapers, with 
solid bronze plates binding the 
framework together, the whole in 
excellent taste and style. On the 
further side of a spacious court 
rises the lofty main building, which 
looks two-storied, an effect pro- 
duced by the exterior colonnade 
having a roof lower than that of 
the main structure. The interior 
measures 120 ft. in length by 108 
ft. in depth, and is divided longi- 
tudinally into three parts, that in 
front being for the use of ordinary 
worshippers, the centre for the con- 
gregation on special occasions, and 
the innermost being the nat/tn, or 
chancel. This latter is divided into 
three compartments, the central one 
being occupied by the shumv-dan^ 
a platform on which stands a 
handsome gilt shrine holding an 
image of Amida about 4 ft. high. 
Both the shumi-dan and the table 
in front are enriched with small 
painted carvings, that produce a 
glorious effect. L. of the chief shrine 
to a smaller one, containing a por- 
trait of the founder of the sect, talcen 
from the effigy in the metropolitan 
temple at Ky5to. In the ramma 
along the front of the naijin are gilt 
open-work carvings of angels, with 
gut carvings of the peacock and 
phoenix in the kaeru-mata above. 
The heavy beams of the ceiling are 
supported by excellent carvings of 
lotus-flowers and leaves. In some 
of the kaeru-mata over these beams 
are spirited carvings of conven- 
tional lions. The ceiling itself is 
uopainted, and divided into coffers 
about 3 ft. squar^.^'The oompart- 
mettts-r. and 1. -of Miealtar have gilt 

coppered ceilings. In the JhaerU' 
mata of the external colonoade are 
well-conceived groups of super- 
natural beings, — Gama Senuin with 
his frog, Kinko riding on the carp, 
Koan on the tailed tortoise, O-Shiko 
riding o^ his crane, Ka-Shinjin 
administering medicine to the 
dragon, the umbrella miraculously 
fl3ring back to Shoichi through the 
air, and two carrying baskets of 
flsh. The series is continued round 
the sides by the crane, the lion, and 
the flying dragon. As usual in 
Hongwanji temples, there is another 
building called the Jiki-dd, connect- 
ed with the main building by a gal- 
lery resembling a bridge. Though 
much less elaborate than the main 
altar, the altar of the Jiki-dd is yet 
a fine blaze of gold. R. and 1. of 
the central image of Amida, are 
some charming gold sliding screens 
representing mountain scenery. The 
apartments of the temple contain 
several kakemonos and other works 
of art, which are, however, generally 
stowed away in a godown. In 
front of the main gate is an avenue 
of drooping cherry-trees (shidare- 
takwra), which are very pretty in 

The remaining temples of Nagoya 
are much inferior. The following 
may be mentioned : — 

Eikokuji (close to the Higashi 
Hongwanji), in the courtyard of 
which is a stone with the imprint of 
Buddha's feet. They seem to have 
been in proportion to his stature, 
which legend fixes at 16 ft. On the 
soles are representations of the 
wheel of the law(rtw6d), fishes, etc. 
Nishi Hongwanji t not to be com- 
pared with the Higashi Hougi^'anji 
for size and beauty. In the kaeru- 
mata above the altar are groups 
of the Four-and-Twenty Paragons 
of Filial Piety. 

NanatsU'derat the interior walls 
of which are gilt and decorated with 
good paintings of angels. The large 
bronze image on the verandah repre- 
sents either Dainichi or Amida — 
which of the two is not quite certain. 


RouU 34^^ne Tokaidd. 

Go Hyaku Rakan (properly Dai- 
ryuji). It is worth applying to 
the custodian for admittaDoe to 
the gallery behind, where are kept 
five liuDdred images of Buddha's 
chief disciples, mostly about 2 ft. 
high, all brightly painted, and all 
different. Some are smiling, some 
are solemn, some are fierce, some 
stupid-looking, some have a super- 
cilious air, some an air of smug 
self-satisfaction, some few are lying 
down, others are praying, others 
again have their arms extended in 
the attitude of benediction, one has 
three eyes, one holds a tiger-cub in 
his arms, others ride on horses, 
elephants, phoenixes, and so on 
almost ad infinitum. No wonder 
the Japanese say that among the 
Five Hundrecl Eakan^ every specta- 
tor can find the likeness of his own 
father by dint of a little search- 

Na.goya, like most other large 
towns, possesses a number of new, 
uninteresting buildings in the style 
or no style known in the Japan of 
to-day as "foreign." Such are the 
Prefectural Office, the Post and 
Telegraph Office, the Hospital, the 
Normal School, the Court Houses, 
etc., etc. 

The only excursion to be recom- 
mended in the neighbourhood of 
Nagoya is to the potteries of Seto 
between 5 and 6 ri distant. See 
p. 244. 

From Nagoya on to Kusatsu the 
railway line deserts the old Tokaidd, 
and, though called the Tdkaido 
Railway, really follows the Naka- 
sendo. Quitting Nagoya, the ti-ain 
wends on through more aud ever 
more rice-fields, with blue moun- 
tains far ahead, somewhat to the I. 
They are the mountains dividing the 
provinces of 0^vari and Mino from 
those of Dmi and Ise. Fourteen 
miles out of Nagoya, the line crosses 
the Kisogawa, the river whose 
upper course forms so beautiful a 
portion of the Nakasendo (see p. 
280), and which is pietuiesque even 
here near itf mouth. 

On the Mlh OetMMr, ISBl, Oenfenl JapMi 
was oonvftlaed bgr one of tlie giMilaet 
qarthquakes on record. Severely felt ov«r 
an area eqoal to that of England, the 
meet dieaetmus effects were confined to 
the fertile plain of the pravinoee of Mino 
and Owari, with its thickly populated 

towns and villafres, which included pli 
of such magnitude as Nagojra, thi* fourtb 
citv of the.Rmpire ; Gifu with ao,000 in- 
habitants ; Ogaki, Kasamatsn, and Take- 
l^hana. The last two were totallv des- 
troyed. Are having oompleted the ruin left 
by the first upheavaL A similar fate 
overtook scores of hamlets dotting the 
plain, and levelled to the ground the 
almost continnone line of houses which 
stretched along the old highway from 
Nagoya to Gifu. a distance of 19 miles. 
Large brick bnildingrs in Nagoya and in 
Osalca, 7 -'^ miles from the seat of maximum 
disturbance, collapsed like a houc« of 
cards. Railway communication jwas in- 
terrupte<i between AtKUta and Ogaki, a 
distance of 32 milea, and was not entirely 
restored until the 16th April, 1802. No- 
thing, indeed, showed the violence of the 
earthquake wave so markedly as the 
shattered cast-iron piers of the great 
bridge spanning the Nagara-gawa, whose 
embankments also subsided, leaving the 
rails suspended in mid-air. Even more 
tlUnic were the forces at work in the 
vnlloy of the Neo (Neo-dani) some 10 miles 
N. of Gifu. Great landslips took plaoe, 
mountains were dislodged, mud geyaers 
appeared, and many houses sank out of 
sight in huge earth-fissures. Altogether, 
about ten thousand people perished, twen- 
ty thousand were wounded, and one hun- 
dred and twenty-eight thousand houses 
were destroyed. 

The lesson plainly taught by this terri- 
ble calamity was the anty of building 
solidly. Flimsy stmctures whether of 
wood or brick were shattered in an in- 
stant, whereas the solid masoniyjtf the 
castle of Nagoya and even that of OgakS, 
which was close to the centre of distur- 
bance, showed scarcely a trace of the 

Gifu (Inns, *Tamaiya, Tsuno- 
kuni-ya) is au important place, and 
capital of the prefecture of the same 
name, which includes the two pro- 
vinces of Mino and Hida. A conical 
hill named Inaba^yama, E. of the 
town, was the site of a castle huilt 
hy the great warrior Ota Nohunaga. 
Raw silk and the silk of the wild 
silkworm are produced in laige 
quantities in tne neighbourhood, 
most of it being woven into crape. 
In this the glittering threads of the 
wild silk, which takes the dyes in a 
less degree IbMiihai ef ibe eattntiy 

Oi/U, Water/alt qf YStH. 


«ilkwonn, are inferoclaeed to form 
the pattern. The mon-chirimen 
woven in this manner is a very 
handsome fabric. Gif u is also noted 
for its paper-lanterns (said to be the 
best in Japan) and other paper- 
wares, the vUn<hgami being univer- 
sally prized. 

In the summer-time it may be 
worth staying over a night at Gifu, 
in order to see an extremely curious 
method of fishing with the help of 
cormorants (Ukai) on the River 
Nagara. The traveller is referred 
for a description of this to the arti- 
cle entitled '* Cormorant Fishing " 
in Tilings Japanese. On nearing 

Oiraki C£w?w, Kyomaru-ya at the 
station ; Tama-ya), the castle of 
the former Daimyo, now Viscount 
Toda, with one turret in fairly good 
preservation, is seen 1. of the line. 

[Not to the hurried tourist, but to 
the leisurely lover of Old Japan 
and her ways, a day or two at 
Yonl, in this neighbourhood, is 
much to be recommended. The 
plan is to alight at Ogaki sta- 
tion, there take a jinrikisha over 
the plain through the vill. of 
Takada (2} ri) to Ishibata (10 
cho more), and thence walk 
the last 1 rt to Yoro, which 
stands on the flank of the 
mountain ridge of the same 
name. One may return either 
the way one came, or else to 
Tarui station, about same dis- 
tance, or Seki-ga-hara, nearly 
1 ri longer. Seki-ga-hara is 
the best station from which to 
approach Yoro when coming 
from the Kyoto direction. 

The raison d*itre of the little 
village of Yoro (Inns, 'Kiku- 
sui-ro, Murakami^, of the gar- 
dens, and of the nne Kairaku- 
sha club-house dating from 
1880, is the celebrated water- 
faU called Y9rd-^a^takL 

This name, which may be ixmoslat- 
•d M *tbe CMcade ofFUia] FStety/' is 
explained hy the f olkywing legeml : - 
In A.D. 711 tbere Uved a ««od<«iter 
infllialin Us-eoadQct tbat he yrm 

wont to expend the proeeede of hie 
toil on mike tor bis aged father, 
whose grand passion was stron^r 
drink. As a reward for such exem- 
plary piety, there WHS one day reveal- 
ed to nim the existence of this cae- 
cade, which consists (or at least con- 
sisted at that time) of pure and 
excellent mke. The legend forms a 
favonnte subject of Jaimnese art. 

Both the Kiku-sui-r5 inn and 
the Kairakusha club command 
lovely views of the broad sweep 
of the Mino plain, with Ontake, 
Ena-san, and other mountains 
beyond. Very charming too is 
the thoroughly Japanese ar- 
rangement of the park, and the 
walk up to the waterfall through 
5 chd of cherry and maple-trees. 
The fall itself, which is 70 ft. 
high (not 106 ft., as local 
fondness pretends), is embosom- 
ed in maple-trees. The rock 
on either side contains fossil- 
ferns, known as Shinobii-seki. 
Yoro is a cool place in summer. 
In winter the Shinto-ike, a large 
mere a little over 1 H distant 
in a S.E. direction, swarms with 
wild-geese, duck, etc., which 
are taken by means of nets, 
and at all seasons with eels, 
carp, and perch, which help to 
supply the Kyoto fish -market. 
The distance to the summit of 
Tdrd-yama is locally estimated 
at 2 ri. A most extensive view 
rewards the climber. While 
in this neighbourhood, one 
might visit the marble quarries 
of Akasauxi-yama, also called 
Kinsbo-zan, 1 ri 10 clid from 
Ogaki in the direction of Tarui, 
and the celebrated temple of 
Tanignmi-dera, some 7 ri to 
the N. of Tarui by a jinriki- 
sha road. This temple is the 
thirty-third and last of the 
Places Sacred to the Goddess 
Kwannon (see Rte. 42). Of Uie 
many inns that have sprung up 
near it, the best are tne Suisu- 
ya and Kame-ya.] 

There are inferior inns ai the 
small stations of 

Tima And MU-f«.k(M«. 


Route 34.— The Tdkaidd. 

8eki-fra-ham takes Its xuune, which 
means lit*»rallv "Mcxr of the Barrier," 
from the harrier of Fuwa (Fuwa no $eki) 
established at this spot in A.D. 073 by the 
Emperor Temmu, it having been a Japa- 
nese custom from the earliest period down 
to the beginninf;: of the present reign to 
hamper fi^e compiunication throughout 
the country ^by means of barriers near the 
capital, which none might pass without a 
special permit. Seki-ga^m is celebrated 
in Japanese history as the scene of a 
decisive battle fought in the year 1600 
between leyasu and Hideyori, son of the 
great Hideyoehi, in which leyasu triumph- 
ed. His camp at 8eki-ga-hara was on 
a level piece of ground among the hills on 
the L side of the road, near a hamlet 
called Nogami*mura. 

Here the long journey across the 
plain terminates, and the Tdkaido 
Kailway again enters diversified 
scenery, as it plunges among the 
hills that enclose heautiful Lake 

Between Seki-ga-hara and 
Nagraokii the gradient is steep, 
the line heing led up a narrow valley 
opening out on a small plain devoted 
to the cultivation of the mulberry- 
tree. The tall bare mountain fre- 
quently seen looming up to the r. 
during this portion of the journey 
is Ibuki-yama (about 4,300 ft.), one 
of the " Seven High Mountains " of 
Central Japan, and noted in the 
early Japanese pharmacopoeia for 
its wealth of medicinal plants. 

The "Seven High Mountains*' are Hiei- 
ean, Hira-yama in Omi, Ibuki-yama, Kim-* 
|)u-zan (or Omine) near Yoshino, Atago- 
san in Tnmashiro, TAiomine, and Kazu- 

Passing among pretty, pine-clad 
hills we reach 

Maibara (Inuy Itsutsu-ya at the 
station), whence all the way on to 
Baba, the station for the important 
town of Otsu, the line runs along 
the basin of Lake Biwa, though 
unfortunately not near enough to 
the shore to allow of many glimpses 
of the lake being obtained. The 
whole scenerv is, however, pretty — 
and pretty m a way of its own. 
Quite close, to the 1., is the range 
of hills forming the southern rim 
of the Lake Biwa basin ; far away 
to the r., in the <3im' distanbe^ «kre 

the blue mountains enclosing the 
lake on the N., while immediately 
on either side of the line is a fair 
cultivated plain. At 

Hikone (InnSt Baku-raku-tei, 
Matsu-ya), the former Daimyo's 
cattle is seen r. on a wooded hill. 
Before reac^ling 

Notogawa^ the rivers Serigawa^ 
Inukami-gawa, and Echigawa are 
crossed. The cone of Mikami-yama, 
also called Mukade-yama, shaped 
like Fuji but thickly wooded, begins 
to peep up from behind a nearer 
range of hills before reaching 

Knsatfto. Between this place 
and Baba, the most striking view 
on the whole Tokaidd W. of Shizu- 
oka is obtained on crossing the long 
bridge that spans the Setagawa, 
where the lake opens out beautifully 
for a few minutes. From 

Baba or Olsn {Inn, Minarai-tei, 
foreign style), the line passes 
through a tunnel under Osaka- 
yama (nothing to do with the city 
of Osaka), before reaching the small 
station of 

Otanif where it emerges on a 
narrow valley. The hills are cover- 
ed with that thick growth of pine- 
trees which cliaracterises all the 
country round about Kyoto. 

[For further details concerning 
the portion of the Tdkaido 
Route^ lying between Maibara 
and Otani, see Koute 40, en- 
titled Lake Bitoa,] 

The train then passes through 
the stations of 

Yamashina and Inarl. Over 
11,000 pilgrims alight yearly at this 
latter place on the occasion of the 
yearly festival of the Shinto temple 
of Inari, for which see Route 39. 
The train then enters the old 

Kyoto, fully described in Route 
39, after which it crosses a wide 
plain, and passes through several 
minor stations before reaching the 
great commercial town of 

Osaka, described in Route 36. 
From Osaka onwards, the hiils in 

Route 35.—Ths Xakasetido. 


the distance to the r. begin to draw 
in, the broad fruitfol plain rapidly 
<;ontract8 until it becomes a mere 
strip fringing the sea-shore, and at 
ihe station of 

Nlslilnoiiiiya, there begins to rise 
T. the screen of somewhat barren 
bills that help to give Kdbe its good 
•climate by protecting that part of 
the coast from wintry blasts. The 
high land seen in the distance 
Across the water is not, as might be 
supposed, an island, but a portion 
of the province of Izumi. At Nishi- 
nomiya stands a small but famous 
Temple of EbisUy one of the seven 
gods of Luck, to which immense 
<5rowds of worshippers flock on the 
First Day of the Horse {HatsU'Uma) 
of the First Moon, O.S.,-— generally 
some day in February. This part 
of the country is one of the onief 
•centres of the sake manufacture. 
The three timnels passed through 
on this section of the journey are 
remarkable as goiug under river- 
beds. Owing to the proximity of 
the neighbouring mountains to the 
sea, quantities of sand and stones 
are swept down whenever the 
streams are swollen by rain. As a 
<;onsequence of this, the river-beds 
tend constantly to raise themselves 
more and more above the general 
level of the country, which they 
traverse like dykes. Occasionally 
of course a dyke breaks down, and 
then there is an inundation with 
attendant loss of life and property. 
Soon after passing through 

Siimiyoshi, an insignificant place 
not to be confounded with the well- 
known Sumiyoshi near Sakai, the 
train runs in to 

Siinnomiyii, and the long jour- 
ney is at an end, Sannomiya being 
the station for the foreign settle- 
ment of Kobe. To go on one 
station further, to what is tech- 
nically called 

SobO) would carry the traveller 
past his destination into the native 
town. It must therefore be dis- 
tinctly borne in ipind that if bound 

for Kobe, one must book only as 
far as Sannomiya. 

[For Kobe and Neighbourhood, 
see Route 87.] 

ROUTE 86. 

Thb Nakasendo. 

Itinerary of the Nakasendo from 
KarwUawa to Oifu, 


Ri. Chd, M. 

Kutsukake 1 10 8 

Oiwake 1 6 2f 

Otai 1 12 si 

Iwamurata 1 8 2} 

Shionada 1 16 8^ 

Yawata 28 ij 

Mochizuki 33 2^ 

Ashida 1 9 3 

Nagakubo 1 18 3} 

Wada 2—6 

SHIM0-N0-8UWA 5 23 13f 

Shiojiri 2 80 7 

Seba 1 28 4J 

Motoyama 28 2 

Niekawa 2 — 6 

Narai 1 29 4 J 

Yabuhara 1 12 3? 

Miyanokoshi 1 35 41 

FUKUSHIMA.... 2 11 5f 

Agematsu 2 11 5} 

Suwara 3 7 7} 

Nojiri 1 29 4* 

Midono 2 11 5} 

Tsumago 1 8 8 

Magome 1 84 4f 

Ochiai 1 7 8 


Oi 2 26 6i 

Okute 8 18 8i 

Hosokute 1 26 4+ 

Mitake 2 38 7 

Fushimi 1 8 8 

Ota 1 82 4i 

Unuma 2 10 5 J 

Kan5 4 7 IQJ 

GIFU 24 l| 

Total 64 4 166) 


RouU 93.— The Nakasendo. 

The Nakfisendd, or Centml Moantain 
Rood, is so nnmed in coutrmlistino- 
tion to the Tdknidd or Kastem Sea 
Boad, and the comparatively unim- 
portant Hokuroku-dd, or Northern Land 
Road in Kaga and Etchd, 1)etween 
which it occupies a middle position. It 
runs from TOkydto Kydto, passinf^ throui^h 
the provinces.of Miisashi, Kdtsuke, Shin- 
ahd. Mino, Omi, and Yamaflhiro. 'Vhe 
road seems to have been orijrinally con- 
stmcte<l early in the 8th century. Legend- 
ary history states, however, that in the 
reign of the Kmneror Keikd (A.D. 71-130), 
his son, Prince Yftmato-tftke, crossed over 
the Usui Pass during his conquest of Ksst- 
ern Japan, suggesting the inference that 
aome kind of track was l)eliove<l to have 
existed there from the ver>' earlient times. 
The railway route closely follows the an- 
cient highway over the TOkyd plain, and 
is flat and uninteresting till Takasaki is 
left behind. 

Though, properly speaking, the 
Kakasendd runs the whole way from 
Tokyo to Kyoto, tlie portion between 
Karuizawa and Gifu is the only one 
now usually done by road, the Tdkyo- 
Karuizawa Railway, described in 
Boute 10, having replaced the Naka- 
sendo across the plain of Tdkyo, and 
the final flat piece between Gifu and 
Kydto being also now travelled over 
by the Tdkaidd Railway (see Route 
84). The distance between Karui- 
zawa and Gifu may be accomplished 
in 6 daj^s. Jinrikishas with two men 
are practicable as far as the Wada- 
tdge, after which point it is only pos- 
sible to use them on the flat portions 
of the road ; but three or four coolies 
can take one riglit througli. The 
distance by road may be shortened 
by taking train to Tanaka on the 
Karuizawa-Naoetsu Railway, IJ hr. 
from Karuizawa. Travellers coming 
from the directioii of Naoetsu and 
desirous of joining the Nakasendo, 
should alight at Ucda (see Route 25). 
Those coming from the Kyoto direc- 
tion are advised to engage jinriki- 
shas at Gifu for the through journey 
to Karuizawa. At the latter place 
it is more dif)icult to make such an 
arrangement for the journey to Gifu. 

The Nakasendo traverses moun- 
tainous, sparsely cultivated districts, 
remote from populous centi:es, and 
the peasantry -along portions of I 
the route have a poverty-stricken | 

I appearance. The accommodation^ 

however, is fairly good. Milk, beer,. 

I potatoes, etc., may be procured at* 

I several places. The best time for 

travelling along the Nakasendo is 

I the summer or autumn. Between 

I January and April this route is not 

to be recommended, on account of 

I the snow— especially on the passes. 

After passing through 
; KntHukflke ilnn, Masu-ya), and 
I 01 wiike (Inn^ Nakamura), the latter 
a place once possessing some im- 
portance, but now ruined by the 
railway having diverted the traffic 
from the old highway, the Nakasendo^ 
makes a sharp turn to the 1., and 
gradually descends the grassy base 
of Asama-yama. 

[For the eiscent of this volcano 

see p. 152.] 
The ample sweep of the moun- 
tain is calculated to impress the 
beholder, and the walk over the 
springy turf is most exhilarating. 
Large blocks of lava lying scat- 
tered about in all directions attest 
the violence of the eruption which 
occurred in 1788, when Oiwake and 
other places in the vicinity were 
completely destroyed. The track of 
the Karuizawa-Naoetsu Railway is 
crossed about 1 H after leaving Oi> 

Iivnmiiratii (Inn, Wakamatsu- 
ya) was formerly the seat of a small 
Daimyd, Naito Wakasa-no-Kami. 

[At this place a road branches 
off 1. to Kofu vi& the Tsuyutare 
Pass ; see p. 123.] 

Beyond Shionada the road cross- 
es the Ghikuuia-gawa, also called 
Shinano-gawa, which, flowing north- 
ward, becomes one of the great 
rivers of Japan and falls into the 
sea at Niigata. Between Yatcata 

jHochiziiki {Inn, Kawachi-ya), 
a fine view of Yatsu-ga-tako and 
the mountains E. of ^latsumoto is 
obtained from a hill callod Ur3u- 
zaka. From Mochizuki the road 
gradually rises over undulating 
country formed by the spurs ot 

From KMmitmwa to Shmo-nO'Suwa. 


Tileshina-yaanA to AshUa, a poor 
yiU. at the foot of the Kasatori- 
t5ge. The ascent of this pass, 8,200 
ft. above the sea, is short and easy, 
and from the tea-house at the top, 
the traveller can enjoy a glorious 
prospect. The summit of Asama- 
yama rises grandly above Gimba- 
yama, with lesser heights stretching 
away in a line to the 1., while 
below lies the wide moor that has 
just been traversed. At the foot of 
the pckss on the other side (650 ft. 
down), is the village of 

NagTAltabo {Innt Yamazaki-ya). 

Wada {Inns, Nagai, Kome-ya), 
lies at the N. E. foot of the pass of 
the same name {Wada-t5ge)y the 
longest and highest on Ihu Naka- 
sendo, being 5,800 fb. above the 
level of the sea. Snow lies on it up 
to the end of April, but is seldom 
80 deep as to block the road. 
Bather than stay overnight at 
Wada, which is often crowded in 
summer, most travellers prefer 
pushing on to the cluster of tea- 
houses (Kiso-ya and Tsuchi-ya are 
the best) collectively known as 

Higraslii Moehiya^ 5 chd from 
the top of the pass. The glorious 
view from the summit may best 
be enjoyed by climbing one of 
the hills to the r. of the road, 
involving ^ hr. delay. To the N.E., 
rises Asama-yama; to the S.E. 
Tateshiua and Yatsu ga-take ; S.W. 
the eye rests upon the basin of 
lAke Suwa; further to the W. 
stand Koma-ga-take and Ontake, 
while to the N.W. a groat portiou 
of the Hida-Shinsha range is visible. 
The descent to Shimo-no-3uwa soon 
leads to a dull valley between hills 
of no great height, every avail- 
able nook of which has been brought 
imder cultivation. The stoue monu- 
ment passed on the way is to the 
memory of six warriors who, sur- 
prised here by the enemy, com- 
mitted harakiri rather thau sur- 
oeoder. This was in December, 

HUnKKno-Snwa (Inns, Maru-ya, 
Kame-ya, Ogi>ya) lies, in a large 

basin, the greater part of which is 
occupied by Lake Suwa. It is 
celebrated for its hot springs, the 
principal of which, called Wata-no- 
yUy are situated at the top of the 
street where the Nakasendo turns to 
ther. and tlie KOshti Kaido branches 
ofi to the 1. The baths are quite 
clean ; the temperature, 1 13°.9 F. 
According to the in habitants, these 
waters contain silver. Of the 
twu other principal sources in the 
vill., one called Ko-yu, which con- 
tains alum, has the high tempera- 
ture of 145°.4; the other, called 
Tanga-yu, has a temperature of 
114^.8. As in the case of many 
Japanese spas, Shimo-no-Suwa is 
apt to be noisy of an evening. In 
the day-time it is busy with the 
silk industry. The only buildings 
of any interest at Shimo-no-Suwa 
are two temples dedicated to the 
Shinto goddess Yasaka-iri-hime, 
one cf which is called Haru-no- 
miya, or the Spring Temple, the 
other, Aki-no-miya, or the Autumn 
Temple. In the grounds of the 
latter stands a cryptomeria remark- 
able for its gigantic size. A quarter 
of an hour's walk takes one to the 
lake which is almost circular in 
form, having a diameter of about 1 
ri. Its depth is said to be 35 ft. 

Luke Suwa freezes over moat winters so 
solidly that heavily laden pack-horses can 
croBS over t<> Kufni-no-SKirn, near the S.E. 
extremity of the lake, with perfect safety. 
The inhabitants do not, however, venture 
upon the ice until it has cracked across, 
believing this to be a sign from heaven. 
Some attiibute the crackiner to the foxes. 
During the winter the flsnermen maUo 
holes in the ice, through which they insert 
their nets and c -ntrive to take a considet-- 
able quantity of fish, especially cnrp. From 
the S. end of Lake Suwa issues the Ten- 
ryii-gawa, which flows into the sea on the 
TdkaidO. For the descent of the fine 
rapids of this river, see p. 2^10. 

From Shimo-no-Suwa the Naka- 
sendd runs for some distance 
through rich rice fields extending 
to the edge of the lake. To the foot 
of the Shiqjiri'toge is a distance of 
21 chd. On looking back, views of 
Fuji are obtained from different 
poiuts. The ascent of the pass is 

Route 86.r^The Nahamdo. 

at first gentle, and in the steeper 
part there is a well-gr«ided jinriki- 
sha road. But pedestrians will do 
hest to take the older and steeper 
path, which saves time and affords 
finer views. The finest view of all 
is to he obtained from a slight 
eminem^o to the 1. of the road at 
the top, 8,840 ft. above the sea. 
Below lies the lake with villages 
studded over the adjacent plain. Of 
the high mountains that almost 
completely encircle the lake basin, 
Yatsu-ga-tolce is the most pro^ii- 
ncut. To the r. of the dip at the 
far-end of the lake, a portion of 
Fuji is seen behind the nearer range. 
The sharp peak further round to the 
r. is the Koshu Koma-ga-take, and 
further away rises the long summit 
of Shirane-san. A little further 
back, the top of On take is 
visible. Just behind are the lofty 
peaks of the range separating the 
plain of Matsumoto from the pro- 
vince of Hida. The descent on the 
other side is very easy. Ten chd 
beyond Shi<Jiri (Inn, Kawakami) 
a carriage road branches of! at 
DaimoH to Matsumoto (see p. 200), 
4i ru Passing through Seba and 

Moto.vaitiA (Inn, Tamaki-ya), we 
<?ome to some charming scenery on 
the banks of the Saigawa, and follow 
that river to Nieffiiwa, where the inn 
kept by Okuya Dembei is the most 
comfortable to be found anywhere on 
this route. After Niegawa, the road 
crosses the river to Hirasawa, 
where cheap and useful lacquered 
articles are made in large quantities, 
and then re-crosses to 

Nnnil (Inns, Echigo-ya, Tokkuri- 
ya), 8,330 ft. above the sea at the 
foot of the Torii-toge. This steep 
pass, 4,200 ft. has been made easier 
by recent improvements in the 
road. From the top, the eye 
wanders over the valley through 
which flow the upper waters of the 
Kisogawa which is famous for its 
beauty. Hence the alternative 
name of the Kiso Kaidd, by 
which the Nakasendd is sometimes 
mentioned. The foliage is very 

fine, — beeches, horse-chestnuts, wal- 
nut-trees, and maples, which in 
autumn blaze with every tint of red 
and yellow. 

The name of this pass is derived from 
the torii on the top, dedicated to Ontake, 
the snmmit of which sacred mountain is 
visible hence on a clear day. Strange as 
it may seem, two battles were fouf^ht on 
this spot in the 16th century, between 
some of the rival chieftains who, daring; 
that period of anarchy, disputed Eastern 
Japan amongst them. From the base of 
Asama-yama up to this point, the preva> 
lent formation iH stratified rock which 
bi-eaks up into small sharp pieces ex- 
tremely uncomfortable to the feet, while 
beyond it is chiefly granite which, when 
disintegrated, forms an excellent mate- 
rial for road-making. 

The descent to 

Yiibiihara ( Inns, Kawakami, 
Kawashima-ya ), 8,150 ft. above 
the sea, is by an easy gradient. 
The peasants, both male and female, 
of this neighbourhood wear a 
divided skirt of a peculiar cut. 
They also use an odd kind of 
spade, heavy and two-handled. The 
diggers stand opposite each other, 
one delving, the other using the 
second handle to assist in raising 
the blade for the next blow. Good 
potatoes are grown hereabouts, and 
are largely used, not only for food, 
but for the manufacture of spirits 

[From Yabuhara a road follows 
the r. bank of the Kisogawa 
nearly up to its source, and 
passes over into the province of 

The road now follows the 1. bank 
of the Kisogawa, crossing to the r. 
bank at a point where the valley 
contracts and begins to wind about. 
After passing 

MijaiiOkoshi (Inn, Tonari-ya), 
there* is a fine view near the village 
of Ueda of the Shinshii Koma-ga- 
take, which consists of several rugged 
peaks rising to an altitude of over 
10,000 ft. The lower hill in front is 
called Suish5-zan, from the fact 
that rock-crystals are found in it. 
All the available ground near Miya- 
nokoshi is planted with mulbc^ 

From FiikuMina ^^nd Agm^ii^u to Oi, 


trees. Most of the silk produced 
findB its way to the looms of Naga- 
hama in Omi. 

Fiikitshiiua (Inn, Suimei-r5, pic- 
turesquely situated) is a good-sized 
town extending along both banks of 
the Kisogawa. The portion of the 
route betwen Fukushima and Age- 
matsu surpasses all the rest of the 
Nakasendd both in charm and 
grandeur. Indeed, either Fuku- 
shima or 

Ageniatgn [Inn, Hakuichi) would 
be a delightful place for the lover 
of mountain scenery to stay at for a 
few days. Both Ontake and the 
Shiushu Koma-ga-take can be con- 
veniently ascended from these points, 
and from the top of Koma-ga-take 
one may descend to the Ina Kaid6 
for the rapids of the Tenryfi-gawa 
(see Route 29). The ascent and 
aescent on the other side could be 
done under favourable circumstances 
in one extremely long day ; but it is 
better to stop at the hut recom- 
mended on p. 243, or at another 
lower down. 

The next object of interest on the 
road is the monastery of Rineenji, 
from the grounds of which a steep 
path descends to a platform of rook 
known as NeMiime no Toko, or "the 
Bed of Awakening." 

This carious name is derived from a 
local tmdition whicn avers that Unishima, 
the Japaneee Rip Van Wiukle (see p. 
65), awoke in this spot from his loug 
drcMm. Others, more matter-of-fact, ex- 
plain the name to mean that the view 
*' wakes np/' that is, startles those who 
come npon it. 

Besides the "platform," there are 
other rocks, precipitous and pic- 
turesque, to which fanciful names 
have been given, such as the Screen 
Rock, the Llat Rock, etc. A native 
guide-book says. "The wonderful 
scenery at this spot surpasses even 
the most magnificent prospects in 
other parts. Its noble character 
can scarcely be fully appreciated by 
the mind, or adequately described in 
languase " (I) 
• The NanUgatoa is next crossed by 

a bridge which affords a fine view of 
Koma-ga-take up the gorge. A little 
beyond this on the ]., just before 
reaching Ogiwara, is the Cascade of 
Ono. Fifteen chd further on standi 
the vill. of Tatsumaohi, and 1} 
ri more journeying brings the travel- 
ler to 

Siiwnra {Inn, Sakura-ya), which 
lies in a more open part of the 
valley, near to the level of the river. 
At Hashiwa, a hamlet beyond Su- 
wara, skins of the great falcon 
{kunia-taka) and of the sheep-faced 
antelope (iwa-shika) are hung out 
for sale. Prom 

N<Jiii {Inn, Furu-ya) to 

Midoiio {Inn, Miyagawa) is the 
narrowest part of the valley; the 
rocks are steep, and the road over- 
hangs the rushing stream. In many 
places it is laid on ledges built out 
from the rock, and at one point passes 
over a projecting rock by means^of 
two bridges thrown across deep 
gullies. Tsumago {Inn, Matsu- 
shiro-ya) is but a poor place. 
The roBid now ascends the Mago- 
me-tdge by a gentle gradient. The 
summit commands an extensive 
view of the province of Mine, with 
its low-lying, somewhat bare and 
sandy hills. On the other side of 
the pass is the vill. of 

Mngoitie {Inn, Kuno-ya), perched 
on the top of a wooded hill cut into 
terraces for the cultivation of rice. 
The descent from Magome is called 
the Jik'koku-toge, said to be a cor- 
ruption of Jik'kyoku, or " ten turn- 
ings." About 400 ft. below Magome, 
a post marks the boundary between 
the provinces of Shinshi^ and Mino. 
Ochiai lies in a hollow by the side 
of an affluent of the Kiso-gawa, 
which latter river here again comes 
in sight to the r. The road now 
crosses the spurs of Ena-san until 

Nakaisn-gftWA {Inn, •Hashiriki), 
which is situated close to the base 
of that mountain (see p. 248). From 
here the way is mostly hilly on to 

Vi {Inn, Ishikawa). 


RoHt$ 9^—Voy4ig^ fnm Yokokmm •» JMe. 

[Between Oi ftod Mitake, adis- 
tanoe of 8 ri along the Naka- 
Bendd» 1 ri may be saved by 
diverging along branch roads 
called the Shimo Kaidd and 
Naka Kaiddt passing through 
the village of Kantado (InUy 
Suzuki), and avoiding the climb 
over the Ju-san-tdge, On this 
route lies a gorge lined with ' 
great black boulders of curious ! 
shape, known by such names 
as the " The Devil's Washing ' 
Basin," "The Hanging Belli 
Rook,*' etc. Crystals and peb- 
bles of various colours are found > 
here. The Shimo Kaido also 
leads to Nagoya vi& Oiwake and 
Utsutsu, about 18 ri, mostly 
feasible for jinrikishas.] 

The road from Di to Okute lies 
over a succession of hills called the 
Jifisan-tdge^ or Thirteen Passes, 
none of which are very high. From 
an elevation above the Shichi-Jion' 
matsti-zaka^ or Hill of the Seven 
Pine-Trees, there is a grand view of 
both Ontakeand Koma-ga-take. The 
general aspect of the surrounding 
hills is bare. 

Okute (Inn^ Yamashiro-ya) is a 
neat town on the level. Between 
here and 

Hosoknte (Inn, Matsu-ya), the 
road passes over a series of hills 
called collectively the Biwa-tdge. 
At Hosokute the traveller should 
ask for tsugumi, a kind of thrush 
preserved in yoast {kdji-xukc), which 
is delicious when slightly roasted, 
and forms a welcome addition to 
monotonous travelling fare. Passing 

Mitake (Inn, Kawaguchi-ya) and 
Ftishimif we cross the Kisogawa to 

Ota (Inn, Iwai-ya), from which 
place the river is navigable. The 
road follows the r. bank of the river 
among pine-trees. Glimpses of the 
stream may now and then be caught 
as it foams over its rocky bed at the 
foot of dark, rugged hills, whose 
covering of dwaff trees iookB at a 

dtstanoe like a vi^l of green gos* 
samer. Lower down, the Kisogawa. 
becomes a broad and deep river ; 
and the road, which crosses a level 
grassy plain, calls for little remark. 
Gifn (see p. 274). 

ROUTE 36. 



While steaming down Tokyo Bay, 
there is a good view of Fuji with 
th^ Hakone range in the foreground 
on the r. ; on the 1. is the flat shore 
of the province of Kazusa. At 1 hr. 
the ship will beuearKwaiinon-zaki, 
on which there is a fixed white light 
visible 14 miles, showing a red ray 
in a certain direction to guide ves- 
sels clear of Saratoga Spit (Futtsu- 
saki) and Plymouth Rocks to the 

Powerful forts have been con- 
structed on Kwannon-zaki and on 
Saratoga Spit for the defence of the 
Bay. After passing Kwannon-zaki, 
the ship steers down the Uraga 
Channel, so called from the town 
of that name on the shores of a 
small harbour a fe^v miles S.W. of 
Kwannon-zaki, which was formerly 
the port of entry for Tokyo Bay. 
At 2 hrs. Tsurugi-saki, the south 
end of the channel, is rounded, 
where there is a light visible 24 m. 
Thence the track lies S.W. to Rook 
Island across the Bay of Sagami, 
which opens on the r., and close 
past the north end of Vries Island, 
described in Route 8. From 4 to 
6 hrs. the ship will be running 
almost parallel to the coast of the 
peninsula of Izu, within 10 m. of 
the shore. A fine prospect may be 
enjoyed of its rugged mountain 

• The expressions * at 1 hour,' ' nt 2 
hours,' etc., in the descnption of this 
voyage, signify * when the steiuner has 
l)een I hour out of Yokohama,' ' 2 hours 
out of Yokohama.' etc., taking 12 knots 
per boar as the average speed. 

WfMh^ 0^ ^ Coast of Kiahu. 


dhain, with Fnjiwfaioh towers be* 
hind, bearing N.W. The Island 
beyond Vries, looking like a oooked- 
hat, is Toshima, the second of 
the SeTen Isles of Izu. At 6 
hrs. Rock Island {Mikomoto), off 
(he extreme S. of Izu, is reach- 
ed; on it is a fine light visible 
SO m. From Rook Island, the 
direct route is W.S.W. to the S.E. 
extremity of the province of Kishfl. 
This course, which is followed in 
the summer months, leads the ship 
so far off shore that there is little 
to be distinguished. But in winter 
(he N.W. winds generally blow so 
strongly that, to avoid the heavy 
sea, the ship, after passing Rock 
Island, is kept due W., crossing the 
mouth of Suruga Qulf, and at 9 
hrs. is off Omsbe-saki, distinguish- 
able at night by a red light visible 
19 m. Fuji is now 60 m. distant, 
and will not be seen much after this 
point except in clear winter weather. 
From Omae-saki the track recedes 
for some hours from the land, which, 
being low, is not particularly iu- 
teresting ; and if the ship left Yoko- 
hama just before sunset, this part 
will be passed in the night. At 18 
hrs. the ship is off Owari Bay, a 
deep bay stretching some 80 m. to 
the northward, narrow at the en- 
trance, but widening out consider- 
ably inside. It is from Omae-saki 
to this point that the voyage is 
generally most trying to bad sailors. 
At 15 hf s. the ship is off Gape Shima, 
whence to Oshima is a run of 70 m., 
gradually approaching the land, 
where fine views of the bold and 
picturesque mountains of the pro- 
vinces of Kishti and Yamato are to 
be had. 

Tlu^ Oshima is of coarse different from 
the 0»bima (Vries Island )_ mentioned 
above. 'Vhwe are nnmerons Oshima's off 
the Jaimnese coast, which is not to be 
wondered at, as the name simply means 
** h%g island." This particular Oshima has 
be^ the sc'eiie of repeated maritime dis- 
asters. I'he most terrible in recent years 
waa the foondarins of the Turkish man-of- 
war ** Krtougroal ''^on the 16ih September, 
ISftQ, when 602 _ men perished out of a 
crew of 071.' Oshima and its neighbour- 

hood form an important whaling centre. 
The whalinff guilds conduct their opera- 
tions according to an elnliorate system, 
described by Rev. R. B. Orinnan in the 
Japan Mail. Minute laws regulate the 
construction of the boats ana weapons 
employed, and the functions of the various 
classes of men engaged. The following 
description of the modH$ operandi is some- 
what condensed :— •* The signals are a 
very important part of the work. Men 
with glasses are arranged on three differ- 
ent mountains, one above the other. The 
man from the highest point, being able to 
see furthest, gives the first notice as to 
the approach of a whale by lighting a 
fire anu raising a smoke, and at the same 
time by means of his flag he signals to 
the men on the mountain below, and they 
In turn signal to the boats. It is neces- 
sary for the men in the boats to know 
beforehand what kind of whale is coming, 
also his size and distance from the land ;. 
for the attack differs according to these 
three things. The species of the whale is- 
known in most cases by the manner in 
which the water is spouted up. The first 
thin^ to be done when the boats move 
out, 18 to put down the nets across the 
path of the whale. This is rather diflB- 
cult to do correctly, for in the first place 
they must be arranged acconling to the 
species of the whale. Another thinsr to 
be calculated on is the strength and 
course of the tide. One fighting lx)at 
goes to each net boat, to assist in arranK- 
mg the nets in their proper order. Not 
allof the nets are put down at first. The 
nets that are put down are placed 
one after the other in parallels, with 
slight curves, with short spaces inter- 
vening. After the first net is laid, 
the others are all arranged a little to 
the right or left, so that when all the 
nets are down they slant off to one side 
or the other, and thus cover a bi-oader 
space across the path of the whale. As 
soon as the nets are arranged, the net 
boats draw off on each side and look on. 
Then some of the fighting boats go 
around behind the whale to attack from 
that iK>int, while others arrange them- 
selves on the sides 8<j as to drive the 
whale into the nets. Those from liehind 
strike with the harpoons and run the 
lines out. The whale then rushes for- 
ward, and must be driven into the nets. 
Then a wild scene ensnes, and every effort 
is made to surround the whale that is 
making frantic effctrts to escape. He 
often does c»cai>e ; but if he does not, he 
is soon surrounded by nearly three hun- 
dred naked yelliag men, who throw har- 
poons and stones in such numbers that 
the huge prey is overcome. It is really 
an awful as well as pitiable sight ; for the 
noble animal until very weak makes 
furious efforts to escape, rushing forward 
and then diving and coming up again to 
beat the i»ea into a bloody foam, at times 
smashing the boats or overturning the m 

284 RonU 36.— Voyage from Yokajkama'ko Kobe. 

And above all the din and yelling of the 
men, can often be heard the plaintive cry 
of the whale as the deadly weapons sins 
deep into his flesh. Before the whale is 
^leatl, and while he is mshing forwiu^, 
a man with a very sharp knife leaps on 
his back near thu head, and slashes two 
great gashes into the flesh and passes a 
large rope several times around in the 
flesh, leaving a loop on the outside ; the 
same kind of loops are made in the flesh 
nearer the tail. This is done in ordet that 
the whale may be tied up between two large 
boats to beams stretched across, and thus 
kept from sinking when he dies. In this way 
he is earned iu triumph to the shore. The 
operation of cutting the holes and putting 
iu the ropes is only done by the bravest 
and most skilful men {Haza»hi). While 
the holes are being cut and the ropes pass- 
ed in, the man must hold on to the wnale, 
and even go down with him into the water 
if he dives ; for if he lets go, he is liable to 
be struck by the whale's tail and killed. 
The onl3'^ thing to do is to tuck his head 
down and cling to the animal by the holes 
he has cut. Ho cannot raise his head, 
because he will at once be blinded by the 
water being driven into his eyes. When 
the fight draws to a close and the huge 
mammal is dying, all the whalers prav for 
the ease of the departing spirit by calling 
out Jdrahu ! Joraku ! Jdraku ! in a low deep 
tone of voice. Again, on the third day 
after the whale is taken, a memorial ser- 
vice is held and piayers offered for the 
repose of the d^-parted soul. If a baby 
* ' ■ ■ ired, B 

whale is captured, a special matmri is held 
on the niuth day afterwards. As soon as 
the whale is landed he is cut up, and it is 
a fearful sight ; for the men strip them- 
selves of all clothing, and hack an«i cut like 
madmen, all yelling at the same time 
with the greatest excitement. Some men 
■even cut holes and go bodily into the whale, 
and, coming out all covered with blood, 
look like horrid red devils. Most of the 
whales taken are about 50 ft. long." 

From 16 hrs. to 29 hrs. is gene- 
rally considered the most enjoy- 
able part of the run from Yoko- 
hama to Kobe, and the traveller 
should make a point of being 
on deck as much as possible. 
Rounding Oshima, which is mark- 
ed by a red light visible 18 
miles, at 20 hrs., the vessel 
is close enough to the shore to 
note the thickly studded fish- 
ing villages, whose fleets of 
boats cover the water for miles. 
Half an hour's steaming from 
Oshima brings us to Shio Misaki, 
on which is a light visible 20 m., 
intended to guide vessels from the 

eastward. From Shio Misaki the 
track lies close along the shor& — 
sometimes within 2 m., seldom mora 
than 4 m. — to Hiino Misaki, a raa 
of about 60 m., which, if made in 
daylight, vnll be even more enjoy- 
able than the 70 miles mentioned 
above. The hills of the bold and 
rugged coast of Kishft to the r. 
abound in pheasants, deer, boars, 
and monkeys. The land now 
visible on the I. is the East coast 
of the Island of Shikoku. At 25 
hrs. the ship is off Hiino Misa- 
ki, and after steering due North 
for 26 m., will pass through Izumi 
or Yura Strait, which is about 6 m. 
wide, the passage for ships being 
narrowed to 2 m. by two islands 
called Ji-no-shima and Oki-no- 
shima, on the W. side of which 
latter is a lighthouse. Observe 
both r. and 1. how the heights have 
been levellel for the erection of 
forts to protect this approach to 
Osaka and Kyoto. From Izumi 
Strait to K5be is a run of 30 m. 
across a completely landlocked bay, 
vdth the large Island of Awaji on 
the 1. Kobe is generally reached 
at from 28 to 30 hrs., weather being 
favourable. The highest hill seen 
to the r., with white temple build- 
ings sparkling in the sun, is Maya- 
san; the highest away to the 1. 
behind Hyogo is Takatori. 

Pfikssenger steamers usually re- 
main 24 hrs. at Kobe, which gives 
travellers an opportunity ,to visit 

The chief distances of the run 
between Yokohama and K5be, as 
made by the Nippon Yusen Kwair- 
sha*8 steamers, are as follows : — 

Yokohama to:— Miles. 

Lightship '. 2. 

Kwannon-zaki 14. 

Gape Sagami 23. 

Rock Island 74. 

Oshima 244. 

Hiino Misaki 297. 

Oki-no-shima 322. 

Hyogo Point 34e. 

Company's Buoy 348. 



(Routes 57 — ^0. 


i 1 

V^^' ) J ,'. -^r' 

TAlCI-tAKUSAN ^.w- ^, 


\. Vi 7-*^^^ 

■••Xr^^-'"v / ^' 

■M- -J^ 



Scale 1 •• 200000 

for Murraj's Buulbooh 


« »r 

* H f, , 

Baute S7. — Robe und Neigkbrna^^oad. 


BOUTE 87. 


MOON temple). FUTATABI - SAN. 

ma. rokeo-san. hyooo. 


Japanese Inn, — Toldwa. 

Consulates. — British ( inoluding 
Austro-HuDgarian and Spanish), 
and German (inoluding Italian), on 
the Bund; American, No. 15, 
Settlement ; French, No. 21. 

Banks. — Hongkong and Shanghai 
Bank, No. 2, Band; Agents for 
Chartered Mercantile Bank, No. 7 ; 
Agents for Chartered Bank of In- 
dia, Australia and China, No. 26. 

Churches. — Union Protestant 
•Church (Anglican and Congrega- 
tional services), No. 48; Boman 
•Catholic, No. 37. 

Curio-dealers. — Museum of Arts 
and Manufactures, No. 80, Settle- 
ment, a foreign store. 

Native Curio-shops. — Echigo>ya 
and various others in Moto-machi ; 
Ohashi, for modern art products, at 
the end of Division Street near the 

Bamboo • work. — I wamoto, near 
the Nank5 temple. 

Photographers. — Ichida, in Moto- 
machi (Main Street), native town ; 

Newspapers. — " Hyogo News," 
*'Kobe Chronicle," and **Kdbe 
Herald," daUy. 

Steamer Agencies. — Peninsular 
&nd Oriental Co., No. 109; Mes- 
sageries Maritimes, No. 5; Nord> 
dentsoher Lloyd, No. 10 ; Canadian 
Pacific, No. 96; Nippon Yttsen 
KwMsha, Na 3, Native Band. 
Xdbe is aka the oeaire lor the 

nomerons small steamers plying on 
the coast of the Inland Sea. 

The Kdbe Club and the Recrea- 
tion Ground for cricket, base-ball, 
lawn-tennis, etc., are at the E. end 
of the Settlement. 

T^i0aire.— Daikoku-za, at Nankd- 
mae in the Japanese town. There 
is also one at Hyogo, called Ben- 

The Post and Telegraph Office 
and the terminus (Kobe station) of 
the Tokaido Railway from Yoko- 
hama to Kobe are in the native 
town, at tlie W. end of Sakae- 
machi. The station nearest to the 
Settlement for travellers to Osaka, 
Kydto, and Yokohama is Sanno- 
miya, 5 min. from the landing- 
place, following Division street. 
Kdbe station is also the terminus 
of the Sanyo line running down the 
shore of the Inland Sea, and travel- 
lers in that direction should, in 
order to avoid delay, ntart from 
Kobe station, not from Sannomiya. 
No passports arc required for Osaka ; 
but persons trnvelling to places be- 
yona that town in one direction, 
or to Himeji and beyond in the 
other, are compelled to produce 
passports before tickets are issued to 
them. Local passports for Kyoto, 
Nara, and the shores of Lake Biwa 
are procurable at the foreign de- 
partment of the Prefecture; but 
strangers must apply for them 
through their consulates. More ex- 
tensive passports are obtainable 
within three or four days from the 
Japanese Foreign Office in Tokyo, 
on ai^lication through the Con- 

The pretty basket-work sold at 
Kdbe is made at Arima (see p. 291). 
The celebrated Kobe beef comes 
mostly from the province of Tajima 

Kdbe was opened to foreign trade in 
1806. Prerioos to that time the nHtive 
trade wa« oarried on at Hydgo. a large 
town ad^crfniDK KAbe on the 8.W., and 
giving ita name to the whole Prefeetore. 
The mnnicSpal affairs of the Settlenkent 
are managed tqr a Ooancfl eonnisthiir of 
the JapaneM pNlwti ti>S tamign i oti aeis, 


Route 37i»^Kdbe arid NeighJIxmrhood. 

and three elected memben of the com- 
munity. Owing to the inoreeee in the 
trade and population of the port, Kdbe 
is rapidly extending beyond the Settle- 
noent ap the slope to the foot of the hiUa, 
aa far as the limit within which foreign- 
ers M^ allowed to lease land and honees. 

Kobe is the favourite open port 
in Japan, owing to the purity and 
dryness of its air, and its nearness 
to many places of beauty and in- 
terest, such as Kyoto, Lake Biwa, 
Nara, and the Inland Sea. The 
neighbourhood abounds in pretty 
walks and picnic resorts, of which 
the following are the chief. (All 
may be visited without passports 
except Hirano) : — 

1. ^Ikiita. The Shinto temple of 
Ikuta stands in a wood of cryp- 
tomerias and camphor trees, 5 min. 
walk behind the Foreign Settlement. 
The deity worshipped there is 
Waka-hirume-no-Mikoto, who may 
be styled the Japanese Minerva, as 
she is supposed to have taught the 
use of the loom and to have in- 
troduced clothing. 

The temple is Raid to have been found- 
ed by the BmpresH JingO on her return 
from her famous ex^^ition auainst 
Korea, in honour of this goddess whom 
she had adopted as the patroness of her 
enterprise, and to whom she owed the 
victory gained by her arms. B^ideyoshi, 
when despatching his expedition to Korea 
in the 16tii century, caused prayers to be 
offered up at the r>hrine or this goddesb. 
Prayers to her in seasons of drought or 
of excessive rain are said to be invariably 
answered. Festival, 8rd Ainil. Annual 
fair, 23rd to 27th September. 

2. The Niinobiki Waterfalls, 

which are about 20 min. from the 
Settlement. The path first reaches 
the Mcn-daki, or " Female Fall," 43 
ft. high ; then passing through a tea- 
house and over a covered bridge, it 
climbs to other tea-houses command- 
ing a view of the upper, or '* Male 
Fall " (On-daki), 82 ft. high. Paths 
lead down to the bottom of each 
fall, and it is possible to bathe at 
certain hours of the morning. 
Large monkeys are occasionally seen 
Jn this neighbourhood. Ladies are 
advised oi;ily to visit Nunobild, under 
the escort of gentlemei^ as the ..tea- 

houses are apt to be noisy. A good. 
view of Kobe and the surroundioc^ 
country may be had from Sanago- 
yama, a detached hill near the fall. 
There is a tea-house at the top. 

8. Snwa-yama. This spur of the 
range behind Kobe, crowned by tea- 
houses where mineral baths may be 
taken, commands an extensive 
view of the town and sea-shore. It 
was here that, in 1874, the transit 
of Venus was observed by a party of 
French astronomers. 

4. Maya-san is the name of one 
of the highest peaks (2,400 ft.) of the 
range behind K5be. The summit is 
about 2 hrs. walk from the Settle- 
ment, retam 1^ hr. This place is 
known to foreigners as the Moon Tem- 
ple- a purely fanciful designation, 
as the place has nothing to do with 
the moon, but is dedicated to Maya 
Bunin, the mother of Buddha. The 
temple stands on a platform at the 
top of a stone stairccise, about 400 
ft. below the top of the mountain, 
which is reached by passing through 
a door to the 1. of the chapel in the 
rear, before ascending. The temple 
contains a small image of Maya 
Bunin, one of a pair made by order 
of Wu Ti of the Liang dynasty 
(A.D. 502-629), with the object of 
diminishing the mortality of women 
in child-birth, which was very great 
during his reign. It was obtained 
by Kdb5 Daishi during his stay in 
China. The 7th day of the 7th 
moon, old Calendar, is the great 
annual festival here. Those who 
make the ascent on that day, obtain 
as much merit as if they had as- 
cended eighteen thousand times. 

5. Fiitatabi-san, a temple dedi- 
cated to K5bo Daishi, stands on a 
conical hill covered with trees be- 
hind the first range of hills to the 
N. of K6be. It is accessible either 
by a stiff climb of 1 hr. through a 
pass properly called Kurumadaniy 
but known to the foreign residents 
as " Hunter's Gap," at the foot of 
which is a small spring containing 
sulphur; or by a more roundaboat 
bat leka steep ascent enteriDg a 

Wfflki and Eneeursioin. 


YiUey to the W. of Sawa-yama. 
The view from the top repays the 
olimb, and the outlooK to the K. 
is pictoiesque, giviug a bird*8-eye 
view of the lake and oare weather- 
worn hills known to foreigners as 
Aden, which locality the prospect 
somewhat resembles. The Japanese 
name is Shari-yama. In the au- 
tumn, the colouring of the foliage 
on Futatabi is particularly fine. 
Near the summit, ou the r. hand 
going up, is the Kamaishi, a rock 
the top of whicli is roughly fashion- 
ed into the head and fore-legs of a 
tortoise {katne). 

6. An agreeable round of a little 
over 3 hrs, may be made by passing 
Futatabi-san on the \V., descending 
to Aden, and taking a path along 
the W. shore of the lake, which 
leads into the Arima road near Obu, 
whence the pedestrian can return 
to Kobe y\k Hy5go. Jinrikishas 
may usually be procured at the 
Obu-no-chaya, a tea-house a little 
way up the Arima road. 

7. A pleasant walk may be taken 
by following up the waterfall stream 
above the falls ; but a time should 
be chosen when the stream is not 
over-full, as the path crosses it 
some twenty times by means of 
stepping-stones. From poiuts on 
this path the ascent may be made 
of Futatabi-san on the W., and of 
Maya-san on the E. 

8. A track following the summit 
of the first range at the back of 
Kobe from E. to W. affords, along 
its entire length, a fine view of the 
sea. One of the ways down near 
Suwa-yama passes througli the 
Cremation Ground, where cremation 
is carried on in a way more curious 
than agreeable to the senses of sight 
and smell. 

9. Zenshoji or Momiji-dera, that 
is, *' Maple Temple,** lies some dis- 
tance beyond Hyogo. Though the 
walk there is uninteresting, the 
temple itself is prettily situated. 
Further again to the W., in the 
hills behind Takatori-yama, or 
*' Goal Hill,*' lies Daisaiyi, a large 

collection of old temple buildings, 
situated in a valley surrounded by 
finely wooded hills. The Nagata 
temple in the same district may 
also be mentioned. 

10. A good walk may be taken by 
following the road from Karasu- 
wara ou the outskirts of Hyogo, 
through the " Horse-slioe Valley " to 
Obu* Particular notice sliould be 
taken of a precipitous rock high 
up the hillside on the 1. hand. On 
its face the Buddhist invocation 
Namti Amida Butsu has been cut 
in gigantic characters, to accom- 
plish which the person who oarved 
them must have been suspended 
from the summit by a rope. 

The railway now affords facilities 
for making a number of more dis- 
tant excui*sious. Such are those to 

11. Tiikamziikii ('Takarazuka 
Hotel, foreign style), also called 
Isoshi, a little over 1 hr. by jin- 
rikisha with 2 men from Nishino- 
miya station. This place has good 
mineral baths and several pretty 
walks, especially those to the 
temples of Kdjin-san and Naga- 

12 In the same direction is Ka- 
httto-yama, called by the foreign re- 
sidents Bfsmnrck HilU from the 
resemblance of the four trees on its 
summit to the four hairs which the 
great Chancellor is said to have on 
his head. Curious stone images and 
shrines are here to be seen perched 
on apparently inaccessible pinna- 
cles. The climb, easy as far as the 
temple of Hachiman, is stiff from 
there to the summit; but the view 
is magnificent, this hill bei'ig a 
landmark for the wholo country- 
side and for ships navigati'.ig up the 
Kii Channel. From the bridge at 
Nishinomiya the top can b: reached 
in 1^ hr. 

13. Nakayamn-dera {Inn, Nishi- 
ki-no-Bo) the twenty-fourth of the 
Thirty- throe Holy Places of Kwan- 
non, possesses — besides its temple — 
a charming view and mineral 
springs. It is reached by taking the 
railway to Kanxaki station, thenca 


EotiU 37. — Kobe and Neiffhbowhood, 

tram to Itami^ from which it is 60 
chd by jinrikisha. 
14. Siimn, Malk's and Akashf are 

well-kuown places on the Sanyd 
Railway, where the Kobe residents 
often hire summer lodgings and 
enjoy excellent sco-bathing. The 
following iitns may be recommend- 
ed: — Hoyo-in at Suuia; Kamo-ya 
at Maiko', and Hashimoto-ya at 
Akashi. At Akashi, which is a 
pleasant spot for picnics, there is a 
pretty little Shinto temple in honour 
of the ancient poet Kaki-no-moto- 
no-Hitoinaro, and there remain the 
moat and walls of the large castle 
of ^lat'^udaira Sahy5e-no-snke, a 
Daimyo of 100,000 koku. Akashi is 
also re»narkable as the place recently 
selected as the time meridian for 
all Japan. 

'l*iik2i8iigro {Inn, Shikata-ya), and 
Soiie a little further down the 
coast, are much visited by the 
Japanese, who alight at Kakoqaxra 
station, and rejoin the train at 
Amida, after a round of 2^ ri by 
jinrikisha. Tlie attractions are 
some famous old pine-trees and a 
temple '^f Tenjin. These places, to- 
gether with Befn and Onoc in the im- 
mediate neighbourhood, constitute 
what native travellers call the 
Harinia Alcnuriy or Round of the 
Province of Harima. 

From the time of Hitomaro early in the 
8Ui et'nturj' onward, the Japanese poets 
hnve never tired of HiuprinR the beauties 
of tills pine-clHd const. The spirits of two 
ancient pinc-ti-oes (Ai-oi no Mafnt) at Tnka- 
sairo, personified as a man and woman of 
venemble n^e who are occupied in raking 
ut) pine needles, form a favourite subject 
of Japanese srt ns typifying longevity. 
Here rIso is laid the scene of some of the 
most celebmted chapters of the Oenji 
Mon/>f)utari, the greatest of the classical 
romances, coTnposo<\ circa A.T). lOoo. This 
co>i8t hns likewise bi'cn the scene of stir- 
ring historical events, more particularly 
of a great Imttle fought in the vear 1184 
between the nrmies of the rival clans of 
Taira and Minumoto, who were then still 
struggling f r political supi emacy, thouirh 
the final triumph of the Miuamoto in the 

Serson of Yoritomo was not far ofT. The 
attle was fought close to the W. end of 
6uma in a valley called Ichi-no-tani, and 
was the occasion of an incident famous in 
history find song as the '* Death of At8ii> 
mori.'' (See Knmagai Naotane, p. 60). 

15. H Imeji (Jnns^ Inoue-ro, wiSh 
foreign restt. ; Kome-sei, Tatsuman), 
capital of the province of Harima, 
is a busy commercial centre, being 
at the junction of three highways — 
the Sanyddo which runs along the 
northern shore of the Inland Sea 
to Shimonoseki ; a road to the pro- 
vinces of ^limasaka, Hoki, and 
Izumo ; and a third up the valley of 
bho Ichikawa, vi& Ikuno to Toyooka 
in the province of Tajima. Himeji's 
chief attraction, however, is its an- 
cient Castle^ which still remains in 
a state of exceptional preservation 
and eminently deserves a visit, being 
the largest in Japan next to Osaka. 
It is five-storied, and the top com- 
mands a fine view. Permits are 
granted at the KdbePrefecture(Jr«n^ 
cho) on presentation of passport. 

The castle, as it stands, is the outcome 
' of tho w:\rlike laljours of several noble 
I families during many ages. Founded in 
the IVJi century by Akamatsa Enshin, a 
retainer of the unfortunate Bmpei-or Go- 
Dniiro, it soon fell into the hands of the 
As'uknim Shflguns, but was recovered in 
I4rt7 by a descendant of the Akamatsa 
frtmily'. In l.'>77, Ota Nobnnaga. then all- 
powerful, gj»ve the provhice to Hideyoshi, 
who enlni-ged the castle Hud crowned it 
with thirty turrets. In 16(tft, Ikeda Tera- 
masu, to whom it had l>een meantime 
grant,ed in flef, raised the number of 
turrets to fifty which took him nine years 
to finish. Thenceforward Himeji was 
at peace ; and at the time of the collapse 
of feudalism, belonged to a Dai myd named 
Sakai with an income of 150.000 koku of 
rice. The barracks now used are of 
modem construction. 

The chief productions of Himeji 
are cotton and stamped leather 
goods. At Shirakawa, a short dis- 
tance from Himeji, are some plum 
orchards which form a good spot 
for a picnic. 

16. Hirnno. This place is situat- 
ed 10 m. north of Kanzaki station 
on the Tokaido Railway. A jinriki- 
sha road leads to it, passing about 
half-way a very pretty gorge through 
which dashes a stream called 
Tsuzumi-ga-taki. The mineral 
spring of Hirano is the ApoUinaris 

pnng 01 uirano is tne Apouinans 
>l Japan. Visitors will be shown 
over the establishment by the 

Mind. Arima. Hyogo, 


17. Mino. This place is best 
xeaohed by train to Osaka, whence 
it is a 2 hrs. jinrikisha ride. The 
jinrikishas mnst be left at the en- 
trance of the vill. Shortly beyond, 
the path enters a beautiful glen 
some 2 m. in length, terminated 
abruptly by a tall cliff over which 
falls a cascade 70 ft. high. The 
best time to visit Mino is in Novem- 
ber, when the maple-trees glow 
VTith an almost incredible blaze of 
•colours. It is also very pretty in 
April, when the cherry-trees are in 
blossom. Some way up the glen, 
on the r., stands a temple with a 
little pavilion overlooking the 
stream — a favourite spot for picnics. 

18. Ariiiin, also called Yuyaina 
{Inns, Sugimoto-ya, Masuda-ya with 
European food and beds), the favour- 
ite hill station and summer resort 
of the Kobe residents, lies 9 m. from 
Kobe as the crow flies, and is 1,400 
ft. above sea level. The air is cool, the 
sceneiy pretty enough though not 
remarkable, and pleasant rambles 
may be taken in the vicinity. 
The arrangements at the mineral 
springs are not specially adapted 
for foreign visitors ; but all the inns 
have an abundance of beautifully 
clear, cold water. Arima may be 
most easily reached by taking the 
train to Sumiyoshi, 15 min., and 
then walking over the Bokkd-san 
Pass, a distance of 8 m. for which 
3 hrs. must be allowed. Persons 
incapable of walking so far can hire 
chairs at Sumiyoshi station, and get 
carried up in 4 hrs. The pass, 
which is about two-thirds of the 
way to Arima, lies 3,000 ft. above 
the sea. From the top of Rokko- 
san itself, 200 ft. higher, a fine view 
may be obtained. 

A pleasant round from Kobe is by 
traiu to Nishinomiya, thence by jin- 
rikisha (two men necessary) to 
Takarazuka, 2^ ri, and Arima, 3 ri 
12 chd more ; thence back to Kobe 
over Bokkd-san. Time, about 8 hrs. 
If this trip be reversed or the start 
be made late in the day, one may 
advantageously sleep at Takarazuka. 

19. It is easy from Kobe to visit 
the large and interesting Island of 
Awajiy which forms the subject- 
matter of Route 49, and to start 
on a tour down the Inland Sea 
I or to Shikoku (Routes 50-55). 


Hyogpo (Inn, Tokiwa) adjoins 
Kobe on the S.W. It begins just 
beyond the Minato-gawa, which is 
easily distinguished by the tall pine- 
trees lining its banks. The bed of 
this river, like many others along 
this coast, is raised to a consider- 
able height above the surrounding 
country, owing to the masses of 
sand and pebbles continually swept 
down from the neighbouring hills. 
It is generally dry, except im- 
mediately after heavy rain. The 
banks have been neatly laid out so 
as to form a public walk, which, 
leads to the Shinto temple erected 
since the Restoration of 1868 to 
the memory of the loyal warrior 
Kusunoki Masashige. 

Hy6go, under the earlier name of Bnko, 
had existed as a port from very ancient 
days. It rose into prominence in the 
latter part of the 12th century, when 
Kiyomori removed the capital from KyOto 
to Fukuwara in the immediate vicinity. 
This change of capital only lasted six 
months— from the V8th June, 11^, to the 
aoth December of the same year; but 
Kiyomori's partiality for the place left 
permanent effects, he having? diverted the 
bed of the Minato-gawa to its present 
coarse so as to prevent it from flooding 
the town, and havinjj constructed the 
artificial island of Tenkijima which sub- 
sists to this day. The stony bed of the 
Minato-gawa was the scene, in A.D. 1.336, 
of a bloody battle between the partisans 
of the rightful Kmpcror Go-Daigo, and 
Takanji, founder of the Ashikaga line of 
Shdgnns. In this battle the famous Iqyal 
warriors Nitta Yoshisada and Kusunoki 
Masashige suffered a crushing defeat^ 
after which Masashige, rather than fly, 
committed karakirL 

Hy6go*s chief sight is the Daibu- 
tsu, or great bronze Buddha, erected 
in 1891 in the precincts of the 
temple of Nofukuji. It is 48 ft. 
high, and 85 ft. round the waist ; 
length of face, 8} ft.; eye, 8 ft.; ear, 6 
ft. ; nose, 8} ft. ; mouth, 2^ ft. ; dia- 


BauU 38.—dMka and Neighbimrhood. 

meter of lap» 25 ft. ; and oirottxn- 
ference of thumb, 3 ft. This 
large work owed its inception to 
the piety of a paper xnaDufactiiTer 
of Hydgo, named Nanjd Sbdbei. 
Though by no means equal to the 
ancieut Daibutsu at Kamakura, 
the face is better than that of the 
Kara Daibutsu. The visitor is 
taken into the interior of the image, 
where is an altar to Amida, besides 
a number of lesser images (four of 
which are by Unkei, viz. those of Ka- 
sho, Anan, an elephant, and a lion), 
bells, tokkot wheels of the law, etc. 
The naked infant is what is called 
a Tanjd'Shaka (see p. 48). The 
numerous mirrors hung up here 
are gifts from the faithful. When 
sufficient funds shall have been 
collected, a five-storied pagoda is to 
be erected on an adjacent plot of 

Not far from Nofukuji is ano- 
ther Buddhist temple, called Shin- 
kifji^ with a bronze image of 
Amida, which, though much smaller 
than the Daibutsu, is a remarkable 
work of art. It is, moreover, pretti- 
ly placed on a large stone pedestal 
in front of a lotus pond, so that the 
effect is charming when those flowers 
are out. The temple itself is plain, 
but well-preserved. On the opposite 
side of tlie road is a stone Monument 
to Kiyomori, in the shape of a small 
thirteen -storied pagoda. About 10 
min. further on is Wada no Misaki, 
a point of land which juts out into 
the sea and is a favourite pleasure 
resort of the citizens, on account of 
the view, the finest in the whole 
neighbourhood. A trifle enables the 
visitor to enter the grounds of the Wa- 
rakuent where are tea-houses, fish- 
ponds, flower-shows from time to 
time, and a two-storied edifice, from 
whose roof a good view may be enjoy- 
ed. T)ie high land seen ahead is that 
separating the provinces of Izumi 
and Kishti. The large island of 
Awaji lies to the r., divided from 
the mainland by Akashi Strait. 
The low round tower in front of the 
Waraku-en is the remnant of an 

aoeient fori. The large Shinto 
temple passed both in going from 
Riyomori's monument to Wada-no- 
Misaki, and also on the way back 
thenoe to Kdbe, is called Wada no 
Mydjin, A short morning will suf- 
fice for the sights of Hydgo, if done 
in jinrikisha. 

ROUTE 88. 

Osaka and Neighbourhood. 
1. THE citt: the must, tenjin 
sama, kozu-no-mita, ikudaha-ko- 


gwanji temfles. 2. neighbocb^ 
hood : suhiyoshi and sakai. 
1.— The City op Osaka. 

OSAkOy also pronounced Ozaka« 
is reached by the Tokaidd Bailway 
from Kobe in a little over 1 hr., and 
from Kyoto in 1^ hr. 

fibteZ.— Jiyutei, in Nakanoshima,. 
10 min. from the Tokaidd Railway 

The curious brouKe monument shaped 
like a lighted candle, which stands ^ust 
outside this hotel, is a memorial raised 
iu 1882 to the loyalist soldiers who fell in 
the Satsoma and other civil wars. 

Japanese Inn. — Tokiwa. 

Japanese Restaurant. — Seikwan- 

Post and Telegraph Offices. — At 
the Umeda Railway station, at 
Shinsai-bashi, at Korai-bashi, and 
in the Foreign Settlement. 

Theatres. — In the Dotombori. 

Curio Dealers. — Yamanaka, Ogu- 
nl, and others at Korai-bashi. 

Poi'celain Decorator. — Ytibei Mei- 
zan, 197 Yashiki. 

Silk Mercers. — Mitsui, at Korai- 
bashi ; Daimaru, in the Shinsai- 
bashisuji ; and Obashi-ya in Mido- 

Sakai i2u<75.— Mitani, in Hon* 

Hiitory find Topography^ The CustU. 

There are many good shops of 
Tarious kiads in the Shinsai-bashi- 
stiji. The bazaars (kwankdba) de- 
serve a visit. The best are the 
Furitsu Hakubutsu-jd between Ume- 
•da Station and Tennoji, the Shdhin 
Mihon Chinretsurjo in Dojima, and 
"Ibe Shdgyd Club at Imamiya. 

For Steam Communication to 
Awaji and Inland Sea ports, see 
Rentes 49 and 50. 

Railway Stations.— There are 
three, viz., one at Vmcda for the 
Tokaido, one in Minato^hd for Nara, 
and one at Namba for Sumiyoshi 
tand Sakai. Each of these stations 
ifl about 20 min. by jinrikisha from 
*the others. 

Hittory and Topoffrapky.— This wealthy 
commerciivl city covers an area of nearly 8 
Fqoare miles, tbt) earliest use of the name 
5$tika occurs in a document dating from the 
end of the 15th century, where it is applied 
to part of the township of Ikudama. The 
ancient name of the city, still used in 
poetry, was Xaniicaf said to be a corrup- 
tion of nami hayn ** wave-Bwift," or nami 
httna ** wave flowers," lx;cau«e the fleet of 
Jimmu TennO here encountered a boister- 
■ous sea on its arrival from Hyflpra. This 
word is also^ound in Nambn, the name of 
one of the Osaka railway stations^ In 
lfi83, HideyoHhi resolved to make Osaka 
tne seat olf his power, judpring that he 
oould from this position most easily domi- 
nate the Daimyfif* of the South and West. 

The city of Osaka lies u|K>n the banks 
of the Yodotrawa, the nver draining 
Lake Biwa. Nakanoshima, an island iu 
the centre of the stream, divides the 
river into two courses of about equal 
width. The scene here on summer eve- 
nings is of the gayest description. Hun- 
dreds of boats float Isrily upon the water, 
filled with citizens who resort thither to 
enjoy the cool river breezes, while itine- 
rant musicians, vendors of refreshments 
and fireworks, etc., ply amongst the merry 
throng doing a thriving biisiness. The 
city IS also intersected hy numerous 
canals, which necessitate a great number 
of bridges, and give it an appeamnce 
which i])ayremlna some travellers of Hol- 
land. Osaka always suffers to a greater 
degree than other cities in the Empire 
from epidemics, probably due to contami- 
nation carried by so much water com- 
municatioo. The three groat bridges 
across the Yodogawa are the Temma- 
bashi, Tenjin-baahi and Naniwa-bashi. 
The principal thoroughfare is called Shin- 
.sai-bMhi-aoji, whkh its fine shops, thea- 
tres, and bustling aspect render one_pf the 
moat interesting streets, not only in Osaka, 
hal in Japan. In sunnier, this street 

derives quite an Oriental f^ppearanoe from 
the cnrtoins stretched across it to keep 
out the sun, and from the bright hues of 
many of the articles of merchandise. 

The Foreign Settlement is situated at 
Kawaguchi, at the junction of two 
streams. Close by are the Custom Hoosee, 
and the whacvos for the steamers that 
ply between Osaka and Kdbe, ShiJcokn, 
and the ports of the Inland Sea. Osaka, 
for all its bustle and prosperity, has not 
fulfilled the expectations formed of it as a 
centre of foreign trade. The affairs of 
the foreign municipalitv are managed by 
a committee constituted in the same waj 
as at Kobe. 

The Castle (O Shiro). Permits 
can be obtained on application at 
the Osaka Fu (City Office), J hr. 
from Jiyfitei's, open daily from 
9 to 4, except Sundays and national 
holidays, and on Saturdays only till 
noon. The application must be 
made personally, as it has to be 
signed, but only one of a party need 
present himself. The permit most 
be used the same day, and given up 
to the sentry. 

When Hideyoshi set about the building 
of this castle in 1583, labourers weie 
drawn from all parts of the country (ex- 
cept the domain of leyasu), and the work 
was completed in two years. The palace 
thus raised within the castle was pro- 
bably the grandest building which Japan 
ever boasted. It survived the taking of the 
cnstle bj' leyasu in 1615; and in l«67 and 
HHi8 the members of the foreign legations 

. were received within its walls by Oie last 
of the Tokugawa Shdguns. Will Adams, 

' and his contemporary Captain John 

J Saris, give in the quaint style of those 
days, a good idea of the splendour of the 

I palace and the extent of the city at the 
opening of the 17th centuiy- Adams 
says :— ** I was carried in one of the King's 
gallies to the court at Ottrat where the 
King lay about eightie leagues from the 
place where the shippe was. The twelfth 
of May 1600, I came to the great King's 
citie who caused me to be brought into 
the court, beeing a wonderfull costly 
house guilded with gold in abundance." 
Saris' account is as follows : " We found 
Ozaca to be a vety great towne. as great 
as London within the walls, with many 
faire timber bridges of a great height, 
seruing to pass ouer a riuer there as 
wide as the T1utme$ at Londcu. Some 
faire houses we found there bat not 
many. It is one of the chiefe sea-ports 
of all l9pam : hauing a castle in it^ mar^ 
uellous large and strong, with very 
deepe trenches about it, and many draw- 
bridges, with gates plated with yroo. 
The castle if. ImiU.aV of .free-stone^ witb 


Boute 38, — dnaka and Ndghbourkood, 

tmlwarks and battlements, with loope 
holes for smal shot and airowes, and 
diners passages for to cast stones vpon 
the asmjlants. The walls are at the 
least sixe or seaen yards thicke, all (as I 
said) of f ree«Btone. without any filling in 
the inward part with trumpery, as tney 
reported vnto me. The stones are great, 
of an excellent quarry, and are cut so 
exactly to fit the place where they are 
laid, that no morter is used, but onely 
earth cast betweene to fill vp voyd 
creuises if any be."— Excluding the 
palace, this remains an excellent descrip- 
tion of the locality as seen to-day. The 
huge Htones forming the walls of the 
principal gate of the castle attest the 
magnificent design of its founder. Out- 
side the present fortress ran a second line 
of moat and parapet, the destruction of 
which was made a condition of peace by 
leyasu after the first siege in 1614. The 
moat varied in width from 80 yds. to TiO 
vds., and in depth from 12 ft. to 24 ft.; but 
it was completely effaced in about three 
weeks' time. On the vnd Feb., 1868, the 
buildings within the castle were set on 
Are by a train laid by the Tokugawa 
party before their final retreat, and were 
completely destroyed in a few hours. 
The castle now serves as the Head- 
quarters of the Osaka garrison. 

The size of the stones, all granite, 
used in the construction of the 
walls is stupendous. Some measure 
as much as 40 ft. long hy 10 ft. in 
height, and are several ft. in thick- 
ness. The moats are paved with 
granite throughout. The view 
from the top of the platform on 
which stood the donjon (ttnshu), 
is very extensive, embracing such 
distant ohjects as Hiei-zan to the 
N.E., Koya-san to the S., Kongo-san 
and other high mountains of Yama- 
to to the S.E. Immediately below 
is a noted well called the Kimmei- 
8ui, lit. '* Famous Golden Water," 
which furnished a sufficient supply 
for the garrison in time of siege. 

The following are the other chief 
places of interest in Osaka, begin- 
ning with those nearest to the To- 
kaidd Railway station, and making 
the round of the city. One day is 
sufficient for the whole. 

The Mint {ZbhMcyohu), about 
90 min. in jinrikisha from the 
station, organised in 1871, with 
a staff of British officials, has 
been under Japanese management 
4Ancel689. It now produoes ahnoet 

exolnsively silver and copper coins. 
Besides the Mint proper, there are 
sulphuric acid works and a refinery. 

Te^Jin HnmSf on theN. side of the 
river, not far from the Tenjin-bashi^ 
is a popular temple sacred to 
Sugawara-no-Michizane, and fonnd> 
ed in the 10th century. The princl- 
pal festival is held on the 25th June. 
The temple contains some good 
carvings, and the ex-voto sheds- 
several pictures of merit. Crossing, 
the river by the Tenjin-bashi, and 
proceeding S. for about 1 m., we 

I Kozn-iio-miya, on a hill to the 
1., which commands a fine view W. 
over the town. This temple is 
dedicated to the Emperor Nintoku, 
born 278 A.D. according to the re- 
ceived chronology. In the florist's 
garden (Kichisuke's) at the foot of 
the hill, the show of peonies at the 
end of April is among the finest in 
Japan. The Kaiujiku-cn chrysan- 
themum show in the same district 
well deserves a visit in November. 

The Ikiulama Jinja, a little 
further S. up a flight of steps, is 
a picturesque Shinto shrine dedicat- 
ed to the patron deities of the city,, 
and fabled to have been founded by 
Jimmu Teuno on the spot where 
the castle now stands. Hideyoshi 
removed the temple to its present 
site about the year 1596. The view 
from the new votive hall (Eina-db) 
at the back, looking towards the 
strait of Akashi, is pretty. About 
1 m. further S. stands the famous- 
Buddhist temple of 

Tennojf, which occupies an im- 
mense extent of ground on the S.E» 
of the city. 

It was founded by the illustrious Im-^ 
perial devotee, Shfltoku Taislii, about A.D. 
600, but has frequently fallen into ruin, 
and been renovated at the expense off 
either the Mikados or the Shdguns. 

On entering the great south gate^ 
we find ourselves in a large open 
space, the centre of which is oocv- 
pied by a square colonnade, open on 
the inner side. On the r. is a 
chi^l cidled Taishi-dd, dedicated 

Tenndji and other Temples. 


to Shotokn Taisbi. It is a bulldiDg 
of uupaioted wood, roofed with 
thick shingles. Opposite this is a 
ohapel containing the Lidd no Kane, 
or *'Bell of Leading," which is rang 
in order that the Saint-Prince may 
oondiict the dead into Paradise. 
Dolls, toys, and children's clothes are 
offered up before it. Further on is 
ft building which contains a curious 
stone chamber, with water pouring 
into it from the mouth of a stone 
tortoise. The names of those re- 
cently dead are written on thin 
slips of bamboo, aod held at the 
end of a long stick in the 
sacred stream, which also carries 
petitions to Shotoku Tai.shi on 
behalf of the departed soii1><. Be- 
yond, is a pond with live tor- 
toises. It is partly covered over 
by a large new stone dancing stage, 
which also serves as a bridge to the 
Bokuji-dd temple opposite. Close by 
18 another Indo-no-kane. 

From the gallery at the top of the 
lofty five-storied pagoda, the whole 
city and surrounding country can 
be seen. The Kondd, or Golden 
Hall, is about 54 ft. by 48 ft., and 
the highly decorated shrine within 
is dedicated to Nyo-i-rin Kwan- 
non. The image, which is copper 
gilt, is said to have been the first 
Buddhist image ever brought to 
Japan from Korea ; but that honour 
is also claimed by the triple image 
at Zenkoji (see p. 207). Various 
treasures dating from the 7th and 
8th centuries are preserved at 

Returning by the same streets to 
the entrance of Kozu-no-Miya, and 
going W., we soon find ourselves by 
the side of the Ddtombori canal, in 
a street consisting chiefly of thea- 
tres, variety shows, and restaur- 
ants. This part of Osaka is 
especially interesting at night. 
Turning to the r. at the Ebisu- 
bashi, we cross into the Shinsai- 
bashi-suji, about half-way down 
which, a little to the 1., are the two 
temples of the Hongwanji sect of 
Baddhists. The first is the Hl^ashi 

Hotigiraiiiji, built about the year 
1615. It contains some fine massive 
open-work carvings. The Nishi 
llongrWAi^i stauds a few hundred 
yards further north in the same 
street. Its gateway is a beautiful 
example of the application of the 
chrysanthemum in tracery and 
open-work carving. On the main 
altar is a statue of Amida 3 ft. 6 in. 
high, with the abbot Shi nran Shonin 
ou his 1., in a richly carved and 
gilded shrine. 

a. — Neighbourhood op Osaka. 

The principal places of interest in 
the inamediate neighbourhood of 
Osaka are Sumiyoshi and Sakai, 
both reached by the Hankai Rail- 
way. Trains run from either end 
at intervals of 40 min. throughout 
the day. 

Hankai Railway. 


S '= 




C'SAKA (Namba) 

* Alifrht for 
1 temple. 


The large embankment seen be- 
tween Osaka and Tenga-jaya is that 
of the Nara Railway. 

Tenga-jaya is so called because 
Hideyoshi, when lord of the Em- 
pire, had a villa there, which is 
still maintained for the sake of its 
historical associations. It stands in 
a small grove visible to the I. from 
the carnage windows. The name 
of this place is familiar to all 
Japanese theatre-goers, as the scene 
of a famous vendetta which is often 
represented on the boards. The en- 
trance to the temple of Sumiyoshi 
i^ passed just before reaching the 
station of that name. 


liotUe 38. — d»4ika and Neighbourhood, 

The I'omple of SniufyoAhi, de- 
dicated to the three gods of the sea 
who, according to the legend in 
the Nihojigif assinted the Empress 
Jingo in her expedition to Korea, is 
held in high veneration by the lower 
classes of Osaka, great crowds flock- 
ing to it on festival days (every U- 
no-hif or '* Day of the Hare"). Out- 
side are innumerable stone lanterns 
presented as ex-votos. In the pond, 
over which passes a semi-circular 
bridge, live a number of tortoises 
with water-weed growing on their 
backs. These are popularly known 
as mino-ganie, — from m«u>, the grass- 
coat worn by peasants in rainy 
weather, and kauie, a tortoise. The 
Yamato-gawa is crossed near its 
mouth before entering 

Sak:ii (Inns, Bokai-ro and several 
others on the sea-shore, with good 
view ; Satsuma-ya in the town on 
the K5ya-san side), a large manufac- 
turing centre. Its fine beach called 
Chinu-ga-ura, which is lined with 
tea-hon«e8, attracts many visitors 
from Osaka during the summer 
months. Tlie view thence includes 
Bokko-zan to the r., Kobe straight 
in front, the island of Awaji to the 
1., and still further 1. the hills that 
separate the province of Izumi from 
Kishu. The lofty chimneys are 
those of brick kilns, and of coke 
and cotton factories. Sakai also 
produces a large amount of cutlery, 
sake, and cosmetic powder. But 
the most characteristic industry is 
the manufacture of excellent cotton 
rugs and carpets {Sakai cUmtbu). 
They are of two Innds, — ori-dashi 

! colours woven in), and some-komi 
colours dyed). The former are 
much the handsomer and more 
durable. Hideous specimens are 
now made to foreign order. 

Sakai takes its name from its position 
clo80 to the Iwundniy of the three pro- 
vinces of Izumi, SettBo, and Kawachi, 
having been ori^nally called Sakai no Tm, 
that id, Boatidajy HHrbonr. Until the 
end of the 14th (^ntory, when a fortress 
was built liere by Yamana Ujikiyo, it was 
a mere village. Konishi Settsu-no-ktuni, 
one of Hideyoshi's moB« diatinguianed 
officers and an early convert to Christian- 

ify, was bom in this town, where his 
forefathora for several geoerationa bail 
carried on the business nt druggists. 
Another equally celel)rated native of 
Sakai was 8en-uo-Rlkya, a great favourite 
with Hideyoahl, and often regarded as 
the father of the tea-drinking cerenM>- 
nial (Cha-Mo-jfu). In the 16th century 
Sakai was one of the most flourishing of 
the Roman Catholic mission stations, 
and is frequently mentioned by the 
Jesuits and other early writers. Will 
Adams thus describes it: "Right over 
against Ozaca, on the other side of the 
riuer, lyeth another grt«t Towne called 
Saeey, but not so bigge as Ozaca, yet is ife 
a towne of great trade for all the Hands 

The well-kept temple of MydkokU" 
ji, belonging to the Nichiren sect 
of Buddhists, has a three-storied 
pagoda with elaborate carvings by 
Hidari Jingoro. The sanctum in 
the main building is handsome. 
In the grounds are some far-famed 
specimens of the sotetsu (Cyoas 
revoluta), often erroneously called 
the sago-palm. 

They were planted here by Miyoahi Ji- 
l<yfl about the middle of the 16th century, 
leyasu carried the best away to his own 
residence in 1 6>^?, but finding that it re- 
fused to flourish there, restored it to its 
home. It is popularly believed that this 
plant, the name of which means "revival 
by iron." is much benefited by that metal, 
and accordingly iron coins and myriads of 
broken needles will here be noticed mnnd 
the roots. The needles are thrown there 
by the women of the country side, for 
the purpose of giving the fittest sepul- 
ture to the most pnjcious instruments of 
feminine toil. 

In the front court of this temple are 
buried eleven warriors of the Tosa clan, 
who were condemned to disembowel them- 
selves for having shot down the same 
nural)er of unarmed French sailors in the 
spring of 1868. It must be remembered 
that this form of capital punishment, 
barbarous as it may seem to Europeans, 
was at that time recognised as a privilege 
of the tamnrai class, and preferred by them 
to simple decapitation. 

On the S.E. of the town is the 
Tumuhts (misasagi) of Nintoku 
Tcnnd, a double mound. The north- 
ern summit is 84 ft., the southern 
100 ft. high, while the circuit of 
the base measures 1,526 yds. It 
is surrounded by a doable moat, and 
in the immediate neigkbourhood are 
nine smaller tumoli. 





J"'" „l 

Route 39. — Kyoto and Neighbourhood. 


ROUTE 89. 

Kyoto and Nsiqhbourhood. 

emvibons : iwashimizu, atago- 
yama, bapids op the kat8uba- 


Kyoto, also called Snikyo* is 
easily accessible from Kobe by local 
passport (see p. 287). The whole sur- 
rounding district is often spoken of 
as Kamigata. 

Hokls.^^Kyoto Hotel, also call- 
ed Tokiwa, in Eawara - machi ; 
*Yaami, fine view; Nakamura-ya, 
also called Niken-jaya. 

Japanese Intis. — Ikeshd, Kashiwa- 
tei, in Kiyamachi. 

Japanese Restaurants. — Takemu- 
ra, Hachishiu. 

Tlieatres and other places of 
amusement, in Shin Kyogoku ; two 
theatres in Shijd Kawa-Higashi. 

Telegraph and Post Office^ in San- 
jo-d5ri Higashi-no-Toin. 

Kyoto is noted for its pottery and 
porcelain, its embroideries, cut vel- 
vets, and brocades, its bronzes, and 
its cUnsoniUs. The following shops 
may be recommended : — 

Pottery and Porcelain, — Kinko- 
zan, at Awata, where manufacture 
on a large scale for export is carried 
on ; Nishida, at Gojo-zaka. There 
are many other manufacturers and 
dealers in Kiyomizu and at Gojo- 
zaka, but they work mostly on a 
small scale. 

Embroidery^ Velvets^ and Mer- 
cery. — Takashima - ya, Orimono- 
Gwaisha, Nishimura, Daimaru, 
Tanaka Rishichi, and Ono (in 
Karasu-maru Shichijo). 

Bronze^ Cloisonn^^ and other 
MetaUWork. — Shojddd (Jomi), in 
Teramaohi Shijo-sagaru ; Kanaya 
Gorosa; Namikawa at Shirakawa- 
bashi {cloisonni only). 

Curios (especially bronze, dot- 
sotinif and porcelain). — Bdekl- 
Gwaisha, Eyiikyddo, Takada, and 
Hayashi, a4 Fwunon-zen; Ikeda, 
at ShimmoQ-ien. The street called 

MaDjaji-ddri is almost entirely 
tenanted by curio-dealers of the 
more old-fashioned sort. 

Lacqtier. — Nishimura, in Tera- 

Bam6oo-TForAp.— -Wada, in Kiya- 

Fans and Toys. — Nishida, at 
Higashi-no-Toin Shichi-j6 ; Misaki, 
in Shichi-j5-dori Yanagi-no-Baba. 

Religious /Scrwces.— Presbyterian, 
every Sunday morning in the library 
of the Ddshisha; Roman Catholio 
Church, at the back of the Kyoto 

The Mikado's Palaces (Gosho 
and Nijd no Rikyu), together with 
the Imperial villas {Katsura no Ri- 
kyu and Shtigaku^)^ are not 
open to the public, permits being 
obtainable only by visitors of speciiJ 
distinction. Kyoto's other greatest 
buildings are the San-jft-san-geu-do, 
Nishi Hongwanji, Kiyomizu, Gion, 
and Chiou-in temples, in addition 
to which at least one of the cele- 
brated landscape gardens — say 
Kinkakuji or Ginkakuji— should be 
visited, as they are among the most 
characteristic products of Japanese 
estheticism. The best general view 
of Kyoto is usually considered to 
be obtained from a hill called Sho- 
gun-zuka^ close to Maruyama on the 
E. side of the city, 1^ hr. excursion 
from the Kyoto Hotel, but has been 
somewhat spoilt of late years by 
the growth of trees. Fairly good 
views of the city and neigh- 
bourhood may be gained with less 
trouble from the Shinto memorial 
to dead warriors {Shdkon-hi) just 
above Kodaiji, and from the Yasaka 
Pagoda. Kiyomizu-dera, and the 
Yoshimizu tea-house close to the 
Yaami Hotel, also command charm- 
ing views. 

xTo one visiting Kyoto at the 

S roper season should fail to see the 
fiyako-odori, a fascinating kind of 
balliet given every evening from 5 to 
10 o'clock at Htntami-k^it near the 
Gion-za Theatre, entrance 90 sertf 
first class. Tlie performanoes 
generally begfan in eariy April, aa? 


Route 39. — Kyoto and Neighbourhoods 

last twenty nights. V eiy oharacter- 
istio, too, is the manner in which 
the citizens take the air on summer 
evenings in that part of the bed of 
the Kamogawa which is crossed by 
the Shij5 Bridge. Liitle tables are 
placed in the dry spaces, to which 
miniature bamboo bridges lead from 
either bank ; and there the people 
sit eating and drinking, and fan- 
ning themselves, and listening to 
the music of singing girls. This is 
known as Shijd-gawara no Suziimi. 
The various religious festivals 
{matsuri) at Kyoto are particularly 
curious and interesting, more es- 
pecially the Gion Matsuri on the 
16th June, and the InaH MatsuH 
on the 9th April. Furthermore, no 
one having money iu his purse 
should fail to visit the shops, 
which are perhaps the most attrac- 
tive iu Japan. 

Though a superficial acquaint- 
ance with Kyoto may be gained in 
a couple of days, at least a week is 
necessary to form an adequate idea 
of its mauifold beauties. Owing to 
the gradual shrinking of the citv in 
modern times, many of the best 
sights are some distance away in 
the country, and much time is 
spent iu going from one to 
another. The following is offered 
as a sketch of the order in which 
the various sights of Kyoto may 
best be visited. Careful sightseers 
will scarcely be able to see all that 
we have crowded into one day for 
the guidance of such as are pressed 
lor time ; but they can resume next 
day at the point where they left off, 
as the order follows regularly round 
the points of the compass, begin- 
ning with the north-central portion 
of the city : — 

l8t Day.— The Mikado's Palace, 
—even a passing glance at the ex- 
terior is better than nothing — Kita- 
no Tenjin, Hirano Jinja, Daitokuji, 
the Shinto shrine of Ota Nobunaffa, 
Kinkakuji, T6ji-in, Omuro Qosho 
(if rebuilt and qsen to the public, 
which is doubtful, as it now ranks 

among the Imperial Palaces), Uzo- 
masa, Seirytlji, Arashi-3rama. 

2nd Day.— The Nijo Palace (the 
exterior in anv case), Nishi Hon- 
gwanji, Higashi Hongwanji, Tdji, 
the Inari temple at Pushimi, T6- 
fukuji, San-jtl-san-gen-dd, Daibutsu. 

3rd Day. — Kenninji, Nishi Otani, 
Kiyomizu-dera, the Yasaka Pagoda» 
Kodaiji, Shogun-zuka, Maruyama,. 
Higashi Otaui, Gion, Chiou-in. 

4th Day. — Nanzenji, Eikwando, 
Kurodani, Shinnyodo, the temple 
of Yoshida, Ginkakuji, Shlnio- 
Gamo, Kami-Gamo. 

5th Day. — Iwashimizu. 

6th Day. — Atago-yama. 

7th Day.— The Rapids of the 

8th Day.— Vii. 

9th Day.— Hiei-zan. 

Hittory and Topography. — From the 
OArliest ngee, the seat of the Mikado's 
rule was generally in the province of 
Yamato ; biit ovrinj? to the ancient custom 
of not continuini? to inhabit the house of 
a deceased parent, the actual site wa» 
usuallj' changed at the commencement of 
each reign. At the Iteginning of the 8th 
century the capital was established at 
Nara, where it remained until A.D. 784, 
when the reigning sovereign Kwammn 
moved to Nagaoka, a 8 pot at the foot of 
the hills about half-way between Yama- 
zaki aud Arashi-yama iu the province of 
Yamashiro. In 7W), ho selected a fresh 
site at the village of Uda in the same 
province, and transferred his Court thi- 
ther towards the end of the following 
year. In order to conciliate fortune, he 
Is said to have bestowed on his new capi- 
tal the name of Heian-jd, or the City of 
Peace; but this never en me into use as 
the common designation of the city, which 
v^s spoken of as Miyako or KyOto. the 
former being the Japanese, the latter the 
Chinese word for ''capitnl cit.v." When 
first laid out, the site meaaured nearly 
3 m. from K. to W., and about 3^ m. from 
N. to S. The Palace, which occupied 
almut one-fifteenth of the area, was 
situated in the centre of the N. side, and 
a fine street 2K) ft. wide led from the 
great gate down to the S. gate of the city. 
Nine wide streets, called Ichi-jd, Ni-jd, 
8an-jd, and so on up to Ku-jd, intersected 
the city from E, to W., the widest of 
these measuring 170 ft., the narrowest 
somewhat less than half. Similar streets 
crossing them at right angles ran from 
N. to S., and between them at equal dis- 
tances were lanes each 40 ft. in width. 
A double ditch, backed by a low wall with 
a gate at the end of each principal street, 
sorroimded the whole of this huge square. 

HUtory and Topography* Mikado's Palace, 

In 1 177 (be Palace was deairoyed by fire, 
and tbree years later tbe seat of govern- 
ment was removed by tbe all-powerful 
minister Kiyomori to Fnkuwara, tbe 
modern town of HyOgo, Tbe Court, bow- 
erer, soon returned to Kyflto, wbere it re- 
mained stationary until 1868. Botb tbe 
city and tbe Palace bave repeatedly fallen 
a prey to tbe flames, and as often been 
reDuUt, as far as possible in tbe original 
s^le. Tbe present Palace was e