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HANDBOOK— TRAVEL TALK,— Enoush, Fabnob, Gbbicak, and Italian 

lOmo. Ss. 6d. 




Plana. Post 8vo. 10«. 

Works. By CROWE xm> CAVALCASELLE. With lUxiatrafcions. Poet] 
8vo. 7«. 6d. 

ROWE. With 60 lUuetrationB. 2 to1& Crown Sto. 

j)BOOK— SOUTH GERMANY, Wurtemburo, Bavaria, The Tyrol, 
BALZBimn, Styf'.ia. Hitnoary, and Tub Danube, from Ulm to thk Black Ska. 

Maps a; ■ vo. 10#. 

BBOOK— bWiiZhitLAND, The ALft> oi- bAVuif iitDMuwr. Ahb 
Ipauan Lakes and Part or Dacphin*. Maps and Plans. In two Parts. 

ist 8vo. IQs. 


CE, Part I.: Normandy, Brittant, The Sbinb , 

R-T-Kvux, Thb Oabonnb, LiMouanr, Tbs FntKiiBEa, Ac^ 

i'.,.y. ■ vo. 7s. 6d, 

POOK— FRANCE, Part II.: Central Fra 
ENNE3, Burgundy, The Rhone and Saonk, Pj. 
nixEs, The Fbchch Alps, Alsace, Lorraine, < 
Post 8to. 7«. 6(2. 


It. 6<2. 

;,The Ce- 

RLES, Mar- 

Maps and 

Maps and PIuis. I6mo. 

HANDBOOK— MEDITERRANEAN : The Coasts v, Spain, Italt J 

:■ : TV 7 , r-—- V ' • "TlVOR, FORMING A G Li I IT. .-.-.^ SARDINIA,' 

IsiJiNDs, Crete, Rhoi' . dw. W^th 

^DBOOK — ALGERIA AND TUNIS, Aloiii antinb, Obak, 

The Atlas llANOE, .*--. M-i— -! Plans. PostSv*.*. x^o. 

DBOOK— SPAIN. •0, Ttfe Casth^es, The Basqtjb Pro- 

■ lA, Seville, 

Ic A, Araooit, 

Kavauuk, IHE bALfciAKic IsLANDti, «tc., ctic. M : ij ►» uiiu iiaus. X'Uiib 8V0. 20*. 

aud Plan. Post 8to. 12*. 

, 1882. . 


CiNTiiA, Mapra, &c. Map 



Tali AN La., 


fONA, Tffii 
A, Padua., 

. PlAC£NZA, 

jt 8vo. ion 
. Umbria, 
ind Plan*. 

nd of the PROGRESS 

IS and PlanB. Port 

iv LADY 

• I, tA-.'irVM, i'OZZUOLl, 
•ilOU ItolCB TO NaPLSS. 

> ^ AlCD 

!iE UASES, The Frooii, 



... .:i':iH-08, 


-. Post 8?o. 6*. 

.w-KHOTxr r^f'^ALA, u./iiii^xBuao, Thb Shobbs 
t 8vo. es. 

i^i^iiGBN, TaONDHJEM, Tmv FtVXDB, 
Svo. 9#. 

i UR, AlnsfOTv Ftt^-m.*^" Maps 


iNAi, Edom, The Syrian 
vLMYHA. Hap» and Plana. 

Palestine, In a Case 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 






PAET IL .-r^7\ 


^ . . LONDON: 



Hie right of Translation 

Ur^-''9W^ '?^C 




In Belgium, HoUand, and Germany. 


• BXKDSB ft rOVTAnil.— 

igTHIGB • • MAirZ. — AOKXSMAni. — 

BBU88SU • 
«RATZ • 


BlLB • 













. MULLEB.— KIBBIBqiili. 

. MARX. 





. jeOEL. 




• MOHB. 


, SCHBAG.~£ 







In Switzerland, 


















• KAI8BB. 



• JXNT. 







• SFITHOvbB. — PIALB. ~ VO- 






• M0XISTJBB.^I![BnrXB8« 

In France. 













— ANDRi. 


NIC! • • 






• gatinbau.—pestt. 



FAU • . 



















. HUE. 















• BiGHOr. 

Itrotes , 

In Spain a 

fid Portugal 




. LBWTA8. 



In Buniat Sweden, Denmark^ and Norway, 




At Malta. . In (he Ionian Islnnde, 


In Greece. 



At Constantinople. 


At Alexandria and Cairo. 


In Indi: 



Section V.— Andaluoia. Page 305. 


85 Madrid to Cordova, by Al- 

cazar de San Jnaa, Mama- 
nares, Valdepenas, Vadollano, 
Menjibar, and Andnjar. 
Rail 308 

86 Ooidova to Seville. Bail ..321 

87 Seville to Cadiz, by Utrera 

and Jerez. Rail 354 

88 Seville to Cadiz, by San 

Lnoar. River 363 

91 Cordova to the Baths of Car- 
ratraoa, by GK>bante8. Rail 
and Diligence during the 

bathing season 364 

93 Seville to Huelva and Mines 
of Sio Tinto: Excursion to 
LaBabida. Rail 365 


94 Jerez to Areos. Carriage- 

road 369 

95 San Lucar de Barrameda to 

San Lucar de Ouadiana, 
and the frontier of Portugal. 
Horseback 369 

96 Cadiz to Gibraltar, by San 

Fernando, Chidana, Medina 
Sidonia, and Algeoiras. Dili- 
gence and Steamboat . . . . 370 

97 San Fernando to Algeciras 

and Gibraltar, by Chiclana, 
Conil, and Tarifa. Diligence 
and Steamboat 3S0 

98 Gibraltar to Ceuta, Tangier, 

and Tetoan. Steamboat and 
Horseback 885 

Section VI.— Ronda and Granada. Page 390. 

103 Madrid to Granada, by Cor- 
dova, Rail ; or by Jaen, Dili- 
gence 393 

103AGranada to Lanjaron — ^As- 
cent of the Sierra Nevada . . 419 
lOSBMarehena to Eoija .. .. 426 

104 Seville to Granada, by Utrera, 
Marohena, Osuna, La Boda, 
and Antequera. Rail.. .. 426 

105 Seville to Carmona, by Aloal6 
deGuadaira. Rail .. ..428 

106 Cordova to Malaga, by Mon- 
tUla. RaU 430 

107 Malaga to Gibraltar, by Mar- 
bella and Estepona. Carriage- 
road and Horseback .. .. 437 

108 Malaga to Granada, by Loja. 

68 m. by Road 139 

109 Malaga to Granada, by Al- 
hama. Carriage-road and 
Horseback 440 

110 Malaga to Bonda, by Goban- 
tes. Rail and Diligence .. 441 

111 Ronda to Gibraltar, by Gaucin 
and San Roque. Horse- 
back 444 

112 Ronda to Seville, by Utrera 
and Moron. Horseback and 
RaU 446 

113 Ronda to Seville, by Zahara 
and Coronil. Horseback and 
Rail 447 

114 Granada to MotrlL Dili- 
gence 447 

115 Granada to Almeria,,by Gua- 
diz. Diligence 418 

116 Granada to Adra, by Lan- 
jaron. Carriage-road .. .. 450 

117 Adra to Malaga, by Motril 
and Almunecar. Diligence- 
road .. .. 452 

Digitized by VjOOQI^ 2 


CmteiUs of Part IL 

Seotion VII.— Mubcia and Yalenoia. Page 453. 


121 Madrid to Oartagena, by Ar- 
ohena and Xnreia. Bau .. 459 

122 Madrid to Alioante, by La- 
Encina. Bail 463 

123 Madrid to Valencia, by Alca- 
zar, Albaoete, Almansa, and 
Jativa. Bail 464 

124 Granada to Murcia, by Ba2a 
and Loroa. Diligence-road 481 


125 Cartagena to Alicante, by 
Orihuela and Elohe. Dili- 
gence 483 

126 Alicante to Valencia, by Al- 
coy. Diligence 484 

127 Valencia to Denia, by Silla. 
Bail and Horseback .. .. 485 

128 Oastellon to Morella. Dili- 
gence-road 486 

. Section Vni.— Catalonia. Page 487. 

134 Valencia to Tarragona, by 
Muryiedro, Gastellon, and 
Tortosa. BaU 491 

135 Tarragona to L^ida, by BeiiB 
and Poblet Bail and Dili- 
gence 501 

136 Tarragona to Barcelona, by 
Vartorell. Bail, &«. .. ..503 

136ABaroeloDa to the Monastery 
ofHontserrat 515 

136b Barcelona to Villanaeva and 
Vails 517 

137 Perpignan to Barcelona, by 
Oerona. A. Coast line, by 
Arenys. B. Inland line, by 
Oranollen. Bail 517 

138 Barcelona to Ureel and Pnig- 
oerdi. Bail and Diligence.. 523 

139 Barcelona to San Juan de lai 
Abadeeas, by Vioh and BipoU. 
BaU 524 

140 Barcelona to Tonlonse, by 
Bibas and Puigcarda. Bail, 
Horseback, and Carriage . . 525 

142 Barcelona to Az, by Urgell 
and Andorra^ Bail, Diligence, 

&c 525 

143 Barcelona to Lerida, by Sa- 
badell, Monistrol, Manresa, 
and Bellpuig. Bail .. .. 527 

144 Lerida to Praga. Carriage- 
road 532 

Seotion IX.— Abagon : Nayabbe. Page 533. 

148 L6rida to Zaragoia. Excur- 
sion to the Monastery of 
Sigena. Bail 538 

148AZaragoza to Pnenta de Hyar 548 

149 Zaragoza to Madrid, by Cala- 
taynd, Albama (Excursion to 
Piedra}, Hedinacdi, SigH- 
enza, Guadalajara, and Aloala 

de Henares. Bail .. .. 549 

150 ZaragDza to Huesoa and Pan- 
ticosa. Bail and Diligence 558 

151 Zaragoza to Barbastro and 
Bagndres de Inchon. Bail, 
Diligence, and Horseback .. 561 

152 Zaragoza to Jaoa, with Ex- 
cursion to the Monastery of 
San Jnan de la Pena. Bail 
and Diligence 562 

156 Calahorra to the Baths of 
Amedillo, by Amedo. Dili- 

gence during the bathing 

157 Alfaro to Soria. Diligence 

158 Alfaro to the Baths of Pi- 
tero. Diligence during the 

159 Alfaro to the Baths of Gra- 
valos. Diligence during the 

160 Alfaro to Miranda del Bbro, 
by Calahorra, LogroSLo, and 
Haro. Bail 

161 Soria to Madrid, by Almazan 
and iSigiienza. DUigence and 

162 Soria to Logrolio. Diligence 5G9 
162 Zaragona to Pamplona, by 

Tudela, Castejon, and Olite. 

Bail 569 

164 Tudela to Tarazona, with 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -.^jx^^^-x t'*^ 






Contents of Pari IL 

Section IX. — continued. 


Ezonrsion to Moncayo and ! 170 Pamplona to San Sebastian, 
the Abbey of Vemela. Car- i Carriage-road or Bail .. .. 578 

riageroad 574 

1G7 Pamplona to St. Etlenne de ' 1 171 Pamplona to Bayonne, by 
Baigorry, by Bonoeiralles. Alsasua. Hail 578 

Horseback 575 

169 Pamplona to Logrolio, by 
Paente de la Seixia, Estella, 
and Tiana. Excursion to 
Ihrache. Diligence-road .. 577 

172 Pamplona to Bayonne, by 
Soranren, Eliiondo, the Valley 
of Baitan, and Urdaz. Car- 
riage-road 579 

Section X. — The Balearic Isles. Page 581. 

a. IDijorea, Pahna. Excursiona ; c. Ivita '..'..' 604 

to BellTer, Bazfi, IFalldemoBat , . 

mramar, Xanaeor, ArUi, La ; <^- Formentera 604 

Piiebla,Alciidia,Polleiisa,and i ^ /i-v,««- cf\A 

h. Menoroa, Pert XahoH. Excur- / Dragonera 604 

sion8 to the Iklyoti and 

CSludadela 592 g. Conejera 604 

Digitized by G00gl(? 

( vi ) 



Plan of Mosque (now Cathedral), Cordoba 316 

Seville to face 322 

„ Cathedral 332 

Gibraltar to face 372 

Granada .. „ 395 

The Alhambra in detail „ 397 

„ General Plan and Generalife . . 398 

Map of Chain of the Sierra Nevada .. .. .. .." .. .. ^o /ace 419 

Plan of Malaga „ 431 

Valencia .. .. „ 468 

Barcelona „ 504 

„ Cathedral 508 

Gerona „ 519 

Zaragoza tofojce 539 

The Baleabic Islands — 

Plan of Port Mahon 593 

Travelling 3Iap of Spain in Focket at the end. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

( 305 ) 



Zl Bd&o de Andaluda must take precedence over all others in Spain. Here, 
after the fall of the Gothic rule, the Oriental took possession and left the 
noblest traces of power, taste, and intelligence, which centuries of neglect have 
not entirely effaced. Andalucia is the Tarshish of the Bible. It was called 
Tartessus in the uncertain geography of the ancients, who were purposely kept 
mystified by the jealous Phoenician merchants, who had little notion of free 

Some assert that the Moors called the territory Yandalucia or Beldd-^l- 
Andalosh (^* the territory of the Vandals "), but in the word Andahsh (the land 
of the west) a sounder etymology may be found. 

The Moors divided the 8. extremify of Spain into the **Four Kingdoms," 
viz., Seville, Cordova, Jaen, and Granada, which still exist as territorial 
divisions. They are defended from the cold K. table-lands by the barrier 
mountains of the , Sierra Morena — a corruption of the Montes Marianos of 
the Romans, and not referring to the tatony-brown colour of its summer 
hortus-siccus garb. The four Mngdoms contain about 3283 square 1., coipiposed 
of moimtain and valley ; the grand productive locality is the basin of the 
Guadalquivir, which flows under the Sierra Morena. To the S.E. rise the 
mountains of Bonda and Granada, which sweep down to the sea. As their 
summits are covered with eternal snow, while the sugar-cane ripens at theii* 
bases, the botanical range is inexhaustible : these sierras also are absolutely 
marble and metal pregnant. 

The cities are of the liighest order in Spain in respect to the fine arts and 
objects of general interest, while Gibraltar is a portion of England herself. 
▲ndalnda is admirably suited to our invalids ; here winter, in our catch-cold 
acceptation of the term, is unknown. Justly did the ancients place their 
Elysian fields amid these golden orange-groves. This, the sweetest morsel of 
the Peninsula, has always been the prize and prey of the strong man, no less 
than the theme of poets ; and the Andaluz, &om the remotest periods of history, 
has been more celebrated for social and intellectual quaUties than for the 
practical and industrial. 

The Andalucian authors revived literature, when the Augustan age died at 
Borne, as during the darkest periods of European barbarism, Cordova was the 
Athens of the west, the seat of arts and science. Again, when the sun of 
Baphuel set in Italy, painting here arose in a new form in the Velazquez, 
Murillo, Zurbaran, and Alonso Cano school of Seville, the finest of the 

The Oriental imagination of the Andalucians colours everything up to their 
bright sun. Their exaggeration, ponderadon, or giving weight to nothings, 
converts their molehills into mountains ; all their geese are swans. Nowhere 

[Sj^inj 1882.] -y u.^u uy ^ ^ ^^ Ctr 

306 Andalucia. Sect. V. 

will the stranger hear more frequently those talismauic words which mark the 
national ignoramus character — No se sahe, no se puede, " I don't know ;'* " I 
can't do it ;" the Mariana^ pasado maHana, the ** To-morrow and day after to- 
morrow." Their 8ahe Dios, " God knows," is the ScUem Allah of the 
Moors. Here remain the Bdkalum or Ferewios, " We will see about it ;** the 
Pek-eyi or muy hien^ ** Very well ;" and the 0/a2a, or wishing that Gtod would 
do their work for them, the Moslem's Inxo-Allaht the old appeal to Hercules. 
In a word, here are to be found the besetting sins of the Oriental, — ^his in- 
difference, procrastination, and religious resignation. 

In compensation, however, nowhere in Spain is el trato, or friendly and social 
intercourse, more agreeable than in this pleasure-loving, work-abhorring 
province. The native is the gradoso of the Peninsula, a term given in the 
playbills to the cleverest comic actor. Both the gracia, wit, and elegance, and 
the sal Andaluza are proverbial. This salt, it is true, cannot be precisely called 
Attic, having a tendency to gitanesque and tauromachian slang, but it is 
almost the national language of the smuggler, bandit, bull-fighter, dancer, 
and Majo, and who has not heard of these worthies of Baetica? — ^the fame of 
Ck)ntrabaiidista, Ladron, Torero, Bailaxin, and Hajo, has long scaled the 
Pyrenees, while in the Peninsula itself, such persons and pursuits are the rage 
and dear delight of the young and daring, of all, indeed, who aspire to be 
sporting characters. Andalucia, the head-quarters of the " fancy," or afidoiij is 
the cradle of the most eminent professors, who in the other provinces become 
stars, patterns, models, and the envy and admiration of their applauding 
countrymen. The provincial dress, extremely pictures(][ue, is that of Figaro in 
our theatres ; and whatever the merits of tailors and milliners. Nature has lent 
her hand in the good work : the male is cast in her happiest mould, tall, well- 
grown, strong, and sinewy ; the female, worthy of her mate, often presents a 
form of matchless symmetry, to which is added a peculiar and most fascinatinff 
air and action. The Majo is the dandy of Spain. The etymology of this word 
is the Arabic Majar, brilliancy, splendour, jauntiness in walk, qualities which 
are exactly expressed in the costume and bearing of the character. The Majo, 
especially if crudo, or boisterous and raw, is fond of practical jokes ; his out- 
breaks and "larks" are still termed in Spanish by their Arabic namesj^arawa, 
jaUo, i.e. Hhala-a, ** waggishness." This type is, however, losing its originality- 
day by day, and will have disappeared before long. 

Nowhere in the Peninsula is the Spanish language more corrupted than in 
Andalucia ; in fact, it is scarcely intelligible to a true Toledan. The ceceo, or 
pronouncing the c before certain vowels as an 8, and the not marking the th clearly 
—for example, plaser (phicer) for plather — is no less offensive to a fine gram- 
matical ear than the habit of clipping the Queen's English. The Gastilian 
enunciates every letter and syllable, while the Andalucian seldom sounds the d 
between two vowels : lo come, he eats it, and says, comio, queriOy ganaOf for 
comido, querido, ganado; no vale no, no hay nd, for no vale nada^no hay mxda, 
and often confounds the double I with the y, saying gallanqos for gayangos. 

The fittest towns for summer residence are Granacmand Honda ; Seville and 
Malaga suit invalids during the winter, or Gibraltar, where the creature com- 
forts of Old England abound. The spring and autumn are the best periods 
for a mere tour in Andalucia. The cities of the plain, and some of those on 
the shore on the E. searcoast, are intensely hot in summer, but Granada, Bonda, 
and the mountain districts are cool. The towns on the coast are easily visited, 
as constant intercommunication between Cadiz and Malaga is kept up by 
steamers, which touch at Gibraltar and Algeciraa. The river Guadalquivir 
is provided with steamers to Seville. 

In spite of a fertile soil and beneficent climate, a great part of Andalucia is 
abandoned to a stato of nature. The soil is strewed with Moorish remains, 
and covered with lentisks, liquorice, palmitoBt and other aromatic undertrood. 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^j'w.^^-i f»^- 

Introd. Andaluda, 307 

We still find in daily use the exact ploujjh which is sculptured on Egyptian 
monuments, whilst the method of threshmg, by the treading out of oxen, and 
the mode of winnowing by the wind, are precisiely those used in the days of the 
patriarchs. Here, where nature is so lavish, man does little ; in the thirsty 
Andalucian soil irrigation is the only guarantee the farmer has that he 
shall reap what he has sown. Still he is content to use the Moorish Noria, or 
wheel, for raising water, although a centrifugal pump would raise him twenty 
times the quantity of water, at a great saving of mule-power and of labourers' 
time. It is true that some of the chief " Icwradores " or farmers (educated in 
France or Belgium) have of late years introduced modern ploughs and even 
steam-machinery, and the Duke or Montpensier has set an excellent example 
to his brother agriculturists by the introduction of steam-ploughs, &c. ; but the 
spirit of combination, which in other countries enables agriculturists of limited 
means to avail themselves of the most improved and costly implements, is 
almost absent in Spain. 

Andalucia produces the vsines which are of most importance to English 
consumers ; Teres, with the tower of Pigarette, and the belt of vineyards 
which produce the mnos secos, and ahocados. The best red wines of Andalucia 
come from Bota. Second to these are Mogner, Bando, and Seville itself. 

The sherry wines are, generally speaking, the products of the district of Cadiz. 
It includes Jerez de la ^ontera; San Lucar de Barrameda, Trebigena, to the 
north of San Luoar, and Puerto de Santa Maria. The vineyards in this district 
amount to 33,355 English acres. There are four kinds of soil which determine 
different kinds of wine — ^Albariza, composed of carbonate of lime and magnesia, 
mixed with clay ; Barros, red iron ochre soil — ih these two soils only about 
three butts to the acre are obtained — Bogeo or alluvial soil, and Arenas or 

The large sugar-plantations near Motril in the province of Granada have 
increased to a very great extent during the last few years. They now form 
one of the greatest sources of riches of the south of Spain. A great number 
of sugar refineries have been established along the coast, which are well pro- 
vided with excellent machinery. 

The farms around Seville, being perfectly level and undivided by hedges or 
dykes, and averaging 1500 to 2000 acres each, are peculiarly adapted to the 
employment of steam machinery, but the essays made up to the present time 
have not given satisfactory results on account of the soil. This is especially 
the case with the steam-plough ; the great heat and chalky or clayey soils 
make the earth so hard, that it is most difScult to cut through it with machinery 
adapted to soft and damp soils. The Diputacion at Seville tried a thresliing^ 
machine, but without giving practical results. The hydraulic olive-presses, 
on the contrary, are satisfactory in every way, and in 1882 a great number 
of English and American machines were employed there. 


( 308 ) 



85 Madrid to Cordova, by Al- 

oaiar de San Jnan, Manza- 
nares, ValdepeSas, Vadollano, 
Hexgibar, and Andigar. 
Bail 308 

86 Cordova to SeviUe. Rail . . 321 

87 Seville to Cadiz, by Utrera 

and Jerez. Bail 354 

88 Seville to Cadiz, by San 

Lacar. Biver 363 

91 Cordova to the Baths of Car- 
ratraoa, by Gobantes. Bail 
and Diligence during the 

bathing season 364 

93 Seville to Hnelva and Mines 
of Bio Tinto : Excursion to 
La BaMda. BaU .. ..365 


94 Jerez to Arcos. Carriage- 

road .. 369 

95 San Lucar de Barrameda to 

San Lncar de Gnadiana, 
and the frontier of Portugal. 
Horseback 369 

96 Cadiz to Gibraltar, by San 

Fernando, Chiclana, Medina 
Sidonia, and Algeoiras. Dili- 
gence and Steamboat . . . . 370 

97 San Fernando to Algeciras 

and Gibraltar, by Chiclana, 
Conil, and Tarifa. Diligence 
and Steamboat 380 

98 Gibraltar to Centa, Tangier, 

and Tetaan. Steamboat and 
Horseback 385 

ROUTE 85. 


273 jm. 

An express train leaves Madrid for 
Cordova and Seville on Mondays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays, and returns 
on alternate days. 

For detailed description of route as 
far as Alcazar de San Juan Stat., see 
Bte. 123. The route is thoroughly 
uninteresting, and the journey may as 
well be made by night as by day. 

The stations are — 


9 m. Getafe Stat. 

Pop. 3498. 

2 m. Santa Paula Stat. 
2i m. Finto Stat. Pop. 2098. 
3| m. Valdemoro Stat. Pop. 2261. 
4| m. Ciempoinelos Stat. Pop. 2473. 
91 m. Aruijues Stat. Pop. 8155. 
9| m. Castillejos Junct. Stat, (change 
for Toledo). Bte. 4. 

51m. Villagequilla Stat. Pop. 1276. 
The district is populated by well-to-do 
farmers. To the rt. are the vineyards 
of Yepes, which produce a fine white 
wine, held in considerable estimation. 

6J m. Huerta Stat. Pop. 1705. Cele- 
brated for its breed of sheep. 

llf m. Tembleque Stat. Pop. 3428. 

Ill m. Villacaaias Stat. Pop. 5105. 
Bridges over the Gignela and Bian- 

8i m. Quero Stat, Pop. 1724. Obs. 

u,y,u..u by Google 

Andalucia. Boute 85. — ArgamasiUa de Alha^VaUepenas. 309 

to the rt. several salt-water pools. Here 
an extensive salt and soda manufactore 
is carried on. 

8f m. Aloanr de San Jnan Janet. 
Stat. (Baffet» where excellent sponge- 
cakes may be boaght.) Here the line 
to Alicante and to Valencia^ brandies 
to the I. (Rte. 128.) Passengers must 
inquire whether they are to change 
carriages. This ancient town (Pop. 
8397) IS now busil v engaged in various 
mannfiictnring indnstries. It dii^utes 
with Alcala de Henares (see Rte. 149) 
the honour of being the birthplace of 
Cervantes. From Alcazar de San 
Jnan the districts of El Toboso and 
Arganuudlla can be conveniently visi- 
ted. [Rly. to Qnintanar de la Orden 
(16 m.), a small agricultural town of 
7235 Inhab.] 

16 m. Argamaiilla de Alba Stat. 
Pop. 2691. The village is some dis- 
tance from the stat. (jervantes is here 
said to have written his ' Don Quijote ' 
whilst imprisoned in the Oasa de 

We now enter La Maneha (Mancha 
is probably derived from the Arab 
JtfattSBOr— dry land). This denuded 
province consists of a wide expanse of 
monotonous steppes exposed to cutting 
wintry blasts, and scorched by the cal- 
cinating summer heats. Nought but 
the genius of a Cervantes could have 
thrown any charm over such a tawny, 
arid wilderness. 

Leaving ArgamasiUa the mountains 
of the Sierra Morena are seen in the 
distance to the rt. 

13 m. Maanaares Stat. Here the 
line to dudad Beal and Portugal 
branches rt, (Bte. 70). Bfanzanares 
{Inn: El Parador. Pop. 8936) is a 
pleasant town. The ecclesiologist may 
visit its modem Gothic church. 

[A detour can be made to the venta 
de Quesada (7 m.), where Don Quijote 
was knighted. Cervantes must have 
sketched the actual inn, and its still- 
existing well. The water communi- 
cates with the Guadiana iWadi-Anas 
in Arabic), which, like thp Guadal- 

quivir, eats its dull way through loamy 
banks. It rises in the swamps, or 
Lagrnnas de Bnidera, and loses itself 
again, 15 m. from its source, atTome- 
Uoso : it reappears, after flowing 23 m. 
underground, at DaimieL The lakes 
which it throws up are called the eyes, 
Los ojos del Guadiana, and the ^und 
above is called the bridge. Then: chief 
interest arises from Don Quijote. The 
Cueva de Hontennos, into which the 
knight descended, really exists in the 
Oampo de Hontiel, the site of the de- 
cisive battle (fought on a Wednesday, 
14th March, 1369), which was the last 
act of the fratricidal warfare waged be- 
tween Don Pedro the Cruel and Heniy 
of Trastamara, who here butchered his 
king and brother, aided by French 
knights, hj whom the monarch was 
held unfairly down in the death- 
struggle. Thfy cave lies about 3 m. 
from the village of Osa de Hontiel 
(Pop. 968), it IS near the Xrmita de 
SkMlicei, and close to one of the 
lacunas (of which, by the way, there 
are 11, and not 7, as Cervantes says\ 
These lagunas are full of fish. Each 
lake has its own name, that of La 
Ck)lgacla beins^ the deepest, and most 
interesting, because its cool waters 
are guarded by the ruined castle of 
Booamda, in which lived Boca Flori- 
da, to whom Montesinos was married. 

Al Caitillo llaman Boca^ 
T i la ftieate Friday 

The Cuera de Montesinos (Don Quij. 
ii. 23) itself is about 40 yards wide and 
60 deep, and is used as a refuge in 
storms by hunters and shepherds. The 
entrance is blocked up with under- 
wood. As in the Don's time, it is 
still the haunt of bats and birdja, who 
have deposited a bed of guano nearly 
a foot thick. There is a lake at the 

From Manzanares the rly. traverses 
a district thickly clothed with vine- 
yards to 

17} m. ValdepeSIaB Stai (Jnn: 
Posada del Mediodia.) Pop. 13,598. 
The red blood of the grape issues frow 


Boute 85. — Venta de Cardenas — Linares. Sect. Y. 

this vaUey of sUmes, and is the produce 
of the Burgundy vine, transplanted 
into Spain. The liquor is kept in caves 
and in huge tinajas or jars ; when re- 
moved it is put into goat and pig skins, 
cueros, such as Don Quijote attacked. 
The wine, when taken to distant places, 
is generally adulterated. When pure, 
it is rich, fruity, high-coloured, and 
equal to Chateau Lafitte. It will keep 
well, and improve, for 10 years. 

8} m. Santa Cruz de Mudela Stat. 
Pop. 3642. Its church dates from the 
15th centy. It carries on a trade in 
wine, cutlery, and garters, which . are 
offered for sale at this stat. and at 
Aranjuez and Alcazar de San Juan. 
Some of the garters are gaily em- 
broidered and enlivened with apposite 
mottoSy e.g. 


" Te dinin estas ligas 
Mis penas y fSsitigas ;" 

" Intrepido es amor, 
De todo sale vencedor;'* 

and so forth. These epigrammata are 
truly antique, and none wrote them 
neater than the Spaniard Martial. 
Visit the Bodegas of the Marques de 
Santa Cruz de Mudela. 
10^ m. Almuradiel Stat. Fop. 865. 

6} m. Venta de Cardenas Stat. 
Here we think of Don Quijote, Car- 
denio, and Dorothea, for these fictions 
rank as realities. In the immediate 
Sierra to the 1. is the scene of the 
knight's penance. Neai* Torre Nueva 
he liberated the galley-slaves. The 
rly . now passes through the magnificent 
defile of the Despe^aperros ("thrown 
over dogs" — ^meaning the "infidel 
hounds "), which the traveller from 
Madrid passes at 8 a.m., and has his 
first impression of the beauty and 
grandeur of a Spanish Sierra. Eight 
tunnels here succeed each other, and 
eight bridges carry the rly. across an 
equal number of deep ravines. 

7i m. Santa Elena Stat. Pop. 1581. 

10 m. Vilohes Stat. Pop. 3199. In 

the neighbourhood are neglected copper 

and silver mines. [Near Vilches to 
the rt. are the plains of Las Vayas de 
Tolosa, where, on Monday, July 16, 
1212, Alonso VIH. defeated Moham- 
med Ibn AbdaUah, King of Morocco, 
who was sumamed .^^aesir Lediu- 
Allah (the Defender of the Beligion 
of Gk)d). The conquest of Toledo by 
the Christians had led to a firesh inva- 
sion of Spain from Barbary : the news 
spread dismay over Christendom, and 
Innocent III. proclaimed a general 
crusade. It is said that no less than 
110,000 foreign crusaders came to as- 
sist the Spaniards irom all parts of 

The allies left Toledo June 21, to 
meet the invaders. They found the 
passes guarded by the Moors, and 
despaired, when a shepherd, since 
ascertained to have been San Isidor 
himself, appeared miraculously and 
pointed out a bye-path. The Chris- 
tians opened the attack ; the Andalu- 
cian Moors, true to their unwarlike 
character, were the first to turn and 
run. The remainder followed their 
example. Archbishop Don Bodrigo, 
one of the most important historians 
of the middle ages, was present, and 
describes the battle. Owing to a de- 
fect in the MSS. there is an error as to 
the number slain.] 

7 m. VadoUano Stat. [For the mines 
of Linares, J hour, by branch line into 
the town — two trains daily. 

Linares. — Inns: Fonda de los dos 
Amigos, Calle de la Corredera, clean 
and reasonable. 

Casino Espafiol, in the Calle del 
General Echague: visitors introduced 
free for 15 days. 

CaU Catalan, in the Calle Moridi- 

Plaza de Toros, near the Paseo de 
la Virgen de Linarejos, erected in 1866. 
Fights on the 16th May, on St. John's 
Day (in June), on Corpus Christi Day, 
and during the fair, which commences 
28th August. 

H.BM. Consul : T. Sopwith. Esq. 

Stores for English Goods: Jaramillo 
and Miguel Bubio, both in the Plaza. 

English Fhysieian : Thomas Charles 


Boute 85. — Gaatuh — Baeza. 


Blanohard, Esq., No. 17, Calle de Pon- 

Linares (the HeUanesof the ancients) 
has a mining population of 31,194. 
It is placed near the Sierra Morena 
mountains, and is the centre of one of 
the richest mining districts of Spain, 
and has increased greatly in imports 
ance during the last four years. Obs. 
its fine fountain of Boman origin. 
Yisit the pleasant English cemetery, 
i m. distant from the town, which was 
csonsecrated by the Bishop of Gibraltar 
with more than usual solemnity, in the 
autumn of 1866. 

Eide out to the supposed site of 
Castnlo (or Gazlona) 2 m., where 
mutilated sculpture is frequently 
found. Visit the presumed ruins of 
the palace of Hunilce, wife of Hanni- 
bal, which is situated at PalazueloSf 
near the site where the great battle 
won by Scipio was fought. Visit also 
the mines of Linares — ^ftere is a branch 
line to the mine of Pozo Ancho — 
which are most of them situated to 
the KW. of the town, between it 
and the Sierra Morena. Linares was 
celebrated in antiquity for its copper 
and lead deposits. The oldest mine 
belongs to Grovernment, but it is 
miserably deficient in machinery and 
appliances of every kind. Perhaps 
the most compact and ably managed 
mine is "La TwtiUa" directed by 
Mr. T. Sopwith, C.E. The mines 
"Los Quinientos" and ** El Pozo 
AticTio," belonging to the Linares 
Mining Company, and *'Lo8 Alamillos" 
and " La Fortuna" belonging each to 
a separate company, are excellently 
managed. The ** La Cruz*' mine 
is owned by a Franco-German com- 
pany. The •* San Rogue ** and ** Santa 
Clementina '* mines are also produc- 
tive. Every day new shafts are 
being opened, and new " concessions '* 
asked for from the government The 
working is said to be very prejudicial to 
the he^th of the miners, but they are 
a tolerably healthy-looking set of men, 
and the rate of mortality in the neigh- 
bourhood is 710^ considerable. 
N. of Linares, about 5 m. from La 

Carolina (Pop . 6474), are certain ancient 
mines still called Los Pozos deAnibal; 
they are situated in el Cerro de Yal-de- 
infiemo and should be visited alike by 
the geologist and antiquarian.* 
Railway in construction to Almeria.] 

6 m. Baeia Stat. This stat. serves 
for the towns of Baeza (Pop. 13,251). 
and Ubeda '(Pop. 17,935), which lie 8 
and 10 miles respectively to the 1. of 
the line. 

Inn : Fonda de Ana Dolores in the 
Calle de San Pablo. Caf^ in the 

The once noble Franciscan convent 
has been converted into a theatre. The 
town contains a good Institute and 
Casino in the Calle de San Pablo. It 
was the Bxtica Ba&cula of the ancients, 
and occupies the spot where Scipio the 
younger routed Asdrubal (u.o. 545). 
Under the Moors it became a flourish- 
ing town. It was taken and sacked by 
St. Ferdinand in 1239. Its old walls 
and its Aliatares tower, and the fine 
Benaissanoe facade of the Town Hall 
may be visited. The Cathedral was 
modernised in 1857; obs. the basso- 
relievo by Gerdnimo Prado, over the 
classical portal. The Capilla de San 
Jose is in excellent plateresque. The 
celebrated sculptor, Gaspar Becerra, 
was born at Baeza in 1520. The town 
was formerly celebrated for its jealous 
enmity to Linares — 

** Baeza quiere pares 
Y no quiere Linares.** 

^ m. Javalquinto Stat. Pop. 2122. 
To the 1. flows the Guadalquivir. 

Now we are fairly in Andalucia, and 
have left the despohlado steppes of 
La Mancha to enter upon a region 
of luxuriant vegetation. 

4} m. Menjibar Stat. Pop. 2704. 
(Buffet.) The Guadalquivir is crossed 
by a handsome bridge. From tlus 
station there is a carriage-road to the 
battle-field of Bailen, 9 m. The battle 
was fought July 18, 1808, between the 
Spaniards under Castafios and the 

* For a fall account of Linares and its mines, 
see « Untrodden Spain,' by Rev. J. H. Kose. 


Boute 85. — Andujar — Akolea. 

Seot. V. 

French under Dupont, which ended in 
victory for the former. Railway pro- 
jected to Granada. 

2^ m. Espeluy Stat. Pop. 322. 

Here the raUway brancnes off to 
Jaen. Travellers who go by diligence 
to Granada must change here. 

6^ m. Villaaueva de la Beina Stat. 
Pop. 2367. Obs. its fortified church. 

8 m. Andujar Stat. Pop. 11,825. 
This dull unwholesome town is built 
upon the Guadalquivir, which is 
crossed by a dilapidated old bridge. 
The porous, coolmg, clay drinking- 
vessels, dlcarrazas or Jarras (Arabic^ 
hariiset), which, filled with water, 
stand at the entrance of every venta, 
are made here. A great variety of 
painted common pottery is manufac- 
tured at Andujar, which is most 
artistic in colour and form. A good 
collection exists at thd S. Kensington 
Museum. Specimens may be bought 
at the station. The Farroquia of Santa 
Xaria was a mosque. The neighbour- 
hood abounds in game. At Andujar 
were signed two memorable docu- 
ments ; first. July 23, 1808, the con- 
vention of Bailen, and secondly, Aug. 
8, 1823, the decree of the Buke of 
Angoul^me, whereby superiority was 
assumed by the French over all 
Spanish authorities. 

3f m. AxjoniUa Stat. Pop. 3165. 

3^ m. Marmolejo Stat. Pop. 3553. 
Near here is a mineral spring highly 
charged with carbonic acid gas, and 
highly beneficial for disorders of the 
digestive organs. 

8 m. Villa del Bio Stat. Pop. 4234. 
Here is an ancient Moorish palace, now 
converted into a church. 

7 m. Montoro Stat. Pop. 10,673. 
Obs. its curious 16th-cent bridge. 

6 m. Pedro Abad Stat. [5 m. to 
the 1. is the ancient tovm of Bujulance, 
Pop. 8500, with its Moorish castle 
flwifeed by seven towers.] 

2} m. £1 Oarpio Stat. Pop. 3132. 
Obs. its Moorish tower, built in 1325. 

3 m. Villafranoa Stat Pop. 3321. 

The Guadalquivir is again crossed 
before reaching 

9 m. Las Ventas de Aloolea Stai 
Obs. particularly its noble bridge of 
20 arches constructed of dark marble, 
and built by order of Charles HI. 
Alcolea is a common name in Spain, 
being the Aloalaih, the fortress, the 
outpost of the Moors. Here, June 7, 
1808, Pedro Echavarri (who had pro- 
moted himself to the rank of lieut- 
general), with some thousand men, 
ought to have stopped Dupont ; but at 
the first French advance this general 
turned and fled, never halting until he 
reached Ecija, 40 m. off ; then, had 
Dupont pushed on, instead of thinking 
of plunder, he would have won Anda- 
luda without firing a shot Near this 
occurred the fight of Sept. 28, 1868, in 
which the forces of Queen Isabel were 
defeated, and the Bevolution secured. 

Not far from Aloolea is the great 
stable La Begalada, for the once cele- 
brated breeding-grounds of Gordovese 
barbs : the establMiment has never re- 
covered from the effects of the Penin- 
sular War, when the best stallions 
were carried off by the invaders. 

Leaving this stat. obs. to the rt. the 
peaks of the distant Sierra Morena. 
To the S.E. is an isolated conical hill 
crowned by the picturesque castle of 
Almodovar, built by the Moors, and 
used by Don Pedro the Cruel as a de- 
pository for his treasures. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Boute 85. — Cordova. 



Index. See Plav. 

$ 1. Hotels, Cafes, Spanish Protestant 
Chapel, Bull-ring, anb. Public Li- 
brary, Carriages, Consul, Prome- 
nades, Shops, Baths 313 

6 a. Historical Notice 313 

3. Cathedral 316 

A 4. Ghurchea; Public Buildings, Gates . . 319 
6. EzcuTsions 320 

7 m. €k>rdoTa Stat (Buffet, bad 
and dear. There is a room at the 
Bestaorant where ladies will find La- 
vabos ; charge, 2 reals each.) Omni- 
bus to the town. N.B. The streets are 
very intricate, and it may save time to 
take a boy as a guide. 

§ 1. Hotels, Oaf^ Spanish Pbotw- 
TANT Chapel, BuLL-Biva, Club, 
Public Libbabt, Cabbiages, Con- 
sul, Pbomenadbs, Shops, Baths. 

Inns : Fonda Sniza, kept by the 
proprietors of the hotels " de Paris " 
in Madrid, Seville, and Cadiz, good, 
Fonda de Oriente, 2nd dass, but people 
civil and clean, and the food is good — 
25 reals a day, all included ; CSisa de 
Hu^pedes ; Las Mariquitas, Calle de 
Ambrosio Morales. Pop. 47,830. 

Cktfes: Ca,f4 del Gran Capitan, a 
feasant resort in the fashionable 
Paseo del Gran Capitan ; Cafi^ Suizo. 

At Puzzini's, Calle de Ambrosio 
Morales, may be bought the excellent 
sweatmeat made of orange - flowers, 
" 4uloe de azahar/' 

Protestant chapel and school (Ola- 
piUa EffangeUea}* 

Plant de Toroi, near the rly. stat 
Bull-fights take place during the an- 
nual mir (held m the last weds in 

Casino, a first-rate Club, well worth 
a' visit Visitors are courteously ad- 
mitted on introduction by a member. 
Look at the finely decorated saloon. 

PubUo Library : Biblioteca Provin- 
cial ; it contains more than 7500 vols. : 
admittance free. 

Carriages can be procured in the 
Plaza del Angel, between the two 
hotels — 12 reals per hour, Tor 1 or 4 
persons. Biding horses may be ordered 
at the hotel, 20 reals per day. 

JET. B. M. Vie&'Cansul : Duncan Shaw, 
Esq. He lives near the walls of the 

Promenades: El Paseo de la Vic- 
toria, between the rly. stat. and the 
town. El Paseo del Gran Capitan, bor- 
dered with orange-trees and Japanese 
medlars, the grewt resort in spring and 
summer evenmgs. 

Objets d'art may be found by in- 
quiry at the hotel, as the dealers' wops 
are very poor. 

Baths, near the Fonda Suiza. 

Good specimens of silver filagree 
work may be had at a Plateria (silver- 
smith's) in the Calle de Armas, 17. 

§2. Histobical Notiob. 

Cordoba retains its time-honoured 
name Kartortt^ an " important city.'* 
It was called by the Carthaginians 
the *' gem of the South," by the Romans 
it was called Corduba. It sided with 
Pompey, and was therefore half de- 
stroyed by CsQsar, who put 28,000 of 
the iphabitants to death in tnrore-Kn, 


Boute 85. — Cordova : History, 

Sect. V. 

Gffisar's lieutenant Marcellus rebuilt 
the city and founded the first Boman 
colony, peopling it with pauper patri- 
cians fi^om Rome ; henoe its epithet 
" Patricia." Under the Goths the city 
lost its former importance, but regained 
it under the Moors, when it became 
the Athens of the West. Subject at 
first to the khalifate of Damascus, the 
cil^ declared itself free in 756 ; after 
wmoh it became — under Ummey&h 
Abdu-r-rahman — ^the capital of Moor- 
ish Spain. The wealth, luxury, and 
refinement of this period in the history 
of Cordoba reads as if it were an Alad- 
din tale. The most flourishing period 
was until a.d> 1009. The Moorish 
dynasties are usually divided into four 
periods : the first, extending from 711 
to 756, during which Spain was go- 
verned by Anurs, deputed by the Kalif 
of Damascus. The second, extending 
from 756, in which year Abdu-r-rah- 
man declared his independence and 
made Cordoba his capital, to 1009, 
during which 10 sultans ruled. The 
third period, extending from 1009 to 
1227, during which two Motions took 
the lead in the divided house; first, 
the Almoravides-Murabitins (men con- 
secrated to the service of Grod, the 
types of the Christian knights of Sant- 
iago) ; and secondly, their rivals, and 
by whom they were put down in 1156, 
viz. the Almohades, or Unitarian dis- 
senters, headed by Ibn-Abdallah, a 
Berber lamplighter, who persuaded the 
mob to believe that he was the Mehedi, 
or "only director," in the paths of 
virtue. The fourth period commences 
June 30, 1235, the date of the capture 
of Cordoba by St. Ferdinand. Then 
it was that lbnu-1-ahmar, a vassal of 
St. Ferdinand, founded the last dynasty, 
that of Granada, which after two cen- 
turies and a half (in 1492), was in its 
turn undermined by internal dissen- 
sions, until the union of Aragon and 
Castile under Ferd. and Isab., taking 
place at the period of the greatest 
Granadiandi visions, completed the final 
conquest, and terminated the Mohame- 
dan dynasties in Spain.* Almakkari 

• For C6rdoba, consult * AntlgUedades de 
Espafia,' Morales, Alcali de Henares,1675, chap. 
31; 'Almakkari,' translated by the learned 

tells us that from the 9th to the 12th 
centy. Cdrdoba contained 1,000,000 
inhab., 300 mosques, 900 baths, and 
600 inns. It was the birthplace of the 
following eminent men, viz. Seneca 
(6 A.C.); Lucan (39 A.C.); Averroes 
(12th centy.) ; Juan de Mena (the 
Chaucer of Spain — bom in 1412); 
Ambrosio Morales, the Leland of 
the Peninsula, in 1513 ; Thomas 
Sanchez, the Jesuit, and author of the 
celebrated treatise De MatrtTnonio;* 
Pablo de C^spedes, painter and poet 
(in 1538) ; and Luis de Gongora, the 
Euphuist (in 1561). Here,inthe church 
of San Vioolas, Gonzalo de Cordoba, 
the great Captain of Spain, was bap- 

Cordoba is the residence of local 
authorities, with a Liceo, Theatre, 
fine Casino, a Foundling Hospital, a 
National Museo, which contains some 
interesting Arabic remains, consisting 
chiefly of inscriptions, tiles, and a cu- 
rious bronze deer, from a fountain at 
Medina Azzahra, and a splendid brim 
of a well of green pottery with an 
Arabic inscription. The pictures are 

It is a charming residence for 
the winter and spring months. The 
climate is delightful, and the rides and 
drives near the town most enjoyable. 
One or two days will suffice for the 
mere sightseer, but many more days 
may be spent with pleasui-e in this in- 
teresting old town. Many of the houses 
retain ti^eir Moorish patios, but they 
are not nearly so handsome as those of 
Seville. The entrance porch, Zaguan, 
is also common, but the inner door is 
usually of wood and closed. The city 
arms are " a bridge placed on water," 

P. OayangoB. The third book records what 
Cordoba was in all its gloiy. * Los Santos de 
Cordoba,' M. de Koa, 4to., Cordova, 1627 ; * De 
Corduba in Hispanift,* 4to., Lyons, 1617 ; ' Ajitl- 
gtledadesdeC6rdova/ Pedro Diaz de Rivas, 4to. 
1624 ; and * Antiguo Principado de C6rdova, 
M. de Roa, 4to., Cordoba, 1636 ; the ' Indicador,' 
by Luis Maria Ramirez de las Casas J)eza ; and 
the *Manualito' de C6rdoba; read also Leb- 
redit's essay in Ashur's * Benjamin de Tudela,' 
ii. 318 ; * Recuerdos y Bellezas de Espafia,* by 
Pedro de Madrazo, Madrid, 1855 ; * Quia de C6r- 

* The best ed. is that of Antwerp, 3 vols, 
fol., 1607. 


BaiUe S5.— Cathedral. 


alluslye to that over the river: the 
fotmdations of it are Soman ; the pre- 
sent irregular arches were built in 719 
by the governor Assamah. 

§3. The Gathedbal. 

. The Oaihedral or mosque. La Mez- 
quita as it is still called (mesgad, from 
masegad, Arabic^ to worship prostrate)^ 
8tan(u isolated. It is open all day, 
and, except between 8 and 10, the 
sacristan will show the chapels. It 
was built on the same spot formerly 
occupied by the Basilica, which had 
also been erected upon a Roman temple 
dedicated to Janus. 

When the Arabs entered Cordoba 
afker the battle of Guadalete, 711, 
th^ converted half the Basilica into 
a mosque. This arrangement had 
already been made in the Basilica of 
St. John at Damascus, afterwards 
converted into the great mosque. This 
state of things lasted in Odrdoba about 
seventy years, when Abdu-r-rahman I. 
determined to build a temple which 
should compete with the finest in the 
iEast, and before pulling down what 
remained pf the Basilica, he bought 
from tbe Christians the other half, 
vhieh tiiey had hitherto used for their 
worship, with only the stipulation that 
the purchase money should be paid in 
gold and that they should be allowed 
to consecrate another church in Cor- 
doba, dedicated to SS. Faustus and 
MarciaL The priests quitted the Ca- 
thedralpeacefully bearing in procession 
the Telica and images of the saints. 

The new building was begun in 786, 
on the site of the Christian church. 

Abd-el-Bahxnan collected at an enor- 
mous expense columns of different 
>inds, many from Constantinople and 
Alexandria; some, with their carved 
oapitalsy belonged probably to the 
!Boman temple of Janus, which is said 
to have o(»upied the site before the 

first Christian church was built 

The Ealiphtook the greatest interest 
in the new mosque, and, if we believe 
the Moorish historians, drew part of 
the ornamentation with his own hand. 
After his death his son Hichem I. 
continued it, and finished it in 796 at 
the enormous cost of 300,000 sold 
doblas. Among the objects Aba-el- 
Bahman had in view was to save his 
people from the dangerous pilgrimage 
to the tomb of the Prophet The 
mosque was composed at that time of 
eleven aisles, which are those to the 
right entering by the Court of Oranges ; 
they run f^om N. to S. The sixth or cen- 
tral nave, which is rather wider, leads 
to the Mihrab. The original structure 
terminates at the S., where the chapel 
of Yillaviciosa is placed. [See Plan."] 
The earliest Boman and Yisigothic 
capitals are also in this part of the 

During the reign of Hakem U., 
961-^967, the building was lengthened 
from N. to S., from the line where the 
chapel of Yillaviciosa begins to the 
present Mihrab, which was built at 
that time. The belfry, which no 
longer exists, and fountains of the 
Court of Oranges, were built by Abdu- 
r-rahman III., 912-961. Al Manssour, 
the minister of Hakem III., 988-1001, 
added 8 more naves to the E., from 
N. to S., thus throwing the sanctuary 
out of its central position, and probably 
built the Chapel of Yillaviotosa. 
These naves are easily recognised. 
[See Plan,'] The capitals on the 
columns in this part of the church 
were made by the Arabs in imitation 
of the composite order, and in the 
construction of the naves added by Al 
Manssour the style is less pure, and 
at times the pointed arch is visible.* 
The mosque is mclosed by vralls from 30 
to 60 feet high, and averaging 6 feet in 
thickness: walk round them and ob- 
serve the square buttress-towers with 
fire-shaped or bearded parapets ; it is 

* For fall details of the mosque during the 
time of the Arabs, consult * Moh. Pjmasties in 
Spain ;' Edrisi, *0^ographie,' edit of Leyden ; 
and * Becuerdos j BeUezas de Espafia,' by Don 
Pedro Madrazo. Cordova, Madrid, 185G. 


Boute 85. — Cordova : Cathedral. 


the type of that which was at Seville. 
Examine the rich Moorish spandrels 
and latticed openings of the different 

entrances, especially those at the N.E. 
side, with fine Oriental ornamentations 
and Onflo inscriptions. Opposite the 

- Mr-'TX'7 


"W. side is the plateres^ue door of the 
church of San Juan, which is worthy of 

Enter the Patio de los Naranfosj 
Gonrfc of Oranges, at the Pnerta del 
Perdon, of which the type is truly 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


EotUe 85. — CiUhedral. 


Oriental. The doors are covered 
with bronze plating, with Gothic and 
Arabic inscriptions — ^the words" Dew" 
and '' The Empire belongs to God, all 
is Hi8>" These doors were restored in 
1539. On the sides are the arms of 
Castile and Leon, and the following 
inscription : ^ On the 2nd day of the 
month of March, of the Era of GflBsar, 
1415 (1377 A.a), in the reign of the 
most High and Paissant Don Enriqoe, 
King of Castile." 

The courtyard was built by Said Ben 
Ayub in 937. Over thewhole area of the 
Patio orange trees were planted con* 
tinning the lines of columns inside. 
Two entrances open into the street from 
the other side. Obs. the military 
columns found in the middle of the 
mosque during the repairs of 1532: 
the inscriptions (re-engraved 1732) 
record the distance, 114 miles, to Cadiz, 
from the temple of Janus, on the site 
of which the mosque was built. 

This buildlDg offers the finest type 
in Europe of the true temple of Islam. 
The labyrinth, a forest or quincunx of 
pillars, was chiefly constructed out of 
the materials of the Temple of Janus. 
Out of the 1200 monolithic columns 
(now reduced to 1096) which once 
supported its low roof, 115 are said to 
have come from Nimes and Narbonne, 
in France ; 60 from Seville and T^ura- 
gona in Spain ; while 140 were pre- 
sented by Leo, Emperor of Constanti- 
nople; the remainder were detached 
from the temi>les at Carthage and other 
cities of Africa. The columns are in 
no way uniform — some are of jasper, 
porphyry, verd-antique,andotherchoice 
marbles: neither are their diameters 
equal throughout, the shafts of some 
which were too long having been sunk 
into the floor to a depth of several feet; 
while in those too short, the deficiency 
was supplied bjr means of a dispropor- 
tionate Corintman capital. 

The general plan of this Mosque and 
Court resembles others built by the 
Arabs, especially that of Kairwan in 
Morocco, which was also rebuilt be- 
tween the 7th and the 9th centuries. 
It has also on the W. a great court, 330 

feet long by 240 wide, with a double 
arcade round it. See Rae's " Country 
of the Moors." 

The mosque was called ZeccL, the 
house of purification (the old Egyptian 
Sekos). In sanctity it ranked as the 
third of mosques, equal to Vie Al 
Aksa of Jerusalem, and second only 
to the Caaba of Mecca. A pilgrimage 
to this Ceca was held to be equivident 
in the Spanish Moslem to that of Mecca, 
where he could not go. According 
to the measurements given by Mr. 
Waring in his * Notes of an Architect 
in Spain,' the Mosque is an oblong 394 
feet by 360. In the time of the Moors 
the 19 aisles of the Mezquita were all 
open to the Court of Oranges. Thev 
are now all closed but 3. The pil- 
lars divide it into 19 longitudinal and 
33 transverse aisles; the laterals are 
converted into chapels. Obs. the 
double arches and those which spring 
over pillars ; some of the upper arches . 
are beautifully interlaced hke ribands. 
The roof is about 40 feet high, and 
originally was flat. The whole mosque 
was covered by an arched wooden 
ceiling running north and south over 
the aisles : it was richlpr pannelledand 
gilt, and probably sioular to that still , 
eidsting over part of the great mosque 
of Fez. It was allowed to fall into 
decay, and was flnally removed in 1713, 
when the present mean vaulting was 
put up. The real lowness is apparently 
mcreased by the width of the mterior, 
just as the apparent height of the 
choir is increased by the narrowness 
of the aisles. The mosque covers four 
acres, into the midst of which a Re- 
naissance cathedral has been intro- 
duced. The side of the church which 
faces the Court of Oranges was nearly 
rebuilt in 1879. 

Visit the Oapilla de Villavidosa, once 
the Mctkeurah or seat of the khalif. 
This chapel is raised upon a crypt 
about 3 yards from the ground. 
Much has been written upon the object 
for which it was built Edrisi, who 
describes it in the first hale of the 12th 
centy., says that the gold and 
silver vessels used in the 27th night 
of Bamadlian were kept there, with the 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.x^-.^^-t t'*^. 


Route 85. — Cordova : Cathedral. 


fine Koran» which it required two men 
to move; it was probably the Mak- 
snrah, or place where the Sultan 
prayed on Fridays. Outside are 
still to be seen the original arches, 
similar to those of the Mihrab. The 
cupola inside is of the same cha* 
racter. The interior is decorated 
with a fine ornamentation in stucco, in 
the same style as that of Granada, of 
the 14th centy., and evidently decorated 
after the mosque had been converted 
into a Christian temple. The heraldic 
lions and arms of Castile and Leon 
must be noticed. Head the Gothic 
inscrip. dated 1409. The tiles are of 
the same period. The ins. in Cufic and 
African letters are equally appropriate 
to Christian and Moorish buildings. 
The mixture of Oriental and Gothic 
ornamentation combined in this man- 
ner is the peculiarity of the Hispano' 
Arab style: no specimens like the 
vestry of this chapel are to be met 
with out of Spain. This influence is 
evident when we consider that during 
the rei^ of Alonso el Sabio, 1275, 
permission was panted to the dean 
and chapter of the cathedral to have 
at all times, free of taxes, four Moorish 
workmen, two of them masons, and 
two carpenters, who were to be em- 
ployed exclusively for repairs in the 
cathedral with the other artists. This 
circumstance has undoubtedly contri- 
buted to the good preservation of the 
Moorish remains, notwithstanding the 
instances in which an exaggerated de- 
votion, or the necessities of the church, 
liave altered what we now see of the pri- 
mitive buildings. Opposite is the Ga- 
pilla de Ban Pedro, once the Cella, the 
'• Ceca" the Holiest of Holies, and the 
IMahy or point turned to Mecca, which 
lies to the E. from Spain, but to the 
S. from Asia. Three chapels are in- 
cluded in this sanctuary ; the one in 
the centre leads to the Mihrab (sanc- 
tuary). Within it stood the Miribar 
or pulpit made of sandal wood and 
ebony inlaid with pearl and ivory — it 
cost 35,700 dinars. The traveller must 
notice Uie admirable construction and 
ornamentation of these chapels, the 
beauty of the interlaced arches and 
cupolas. Thcmosuica which decorate 

the fa9ade of the central chapel are 
first-rate specimensof Roman Byzantine 
decoration. Six of them were restored 
at the end of the last century. They 
were placed thei:e (according to Adzan, 
a contemporary author, see Madrazo's 
• Cordoba ') in 966, and were sent by 
Leo, the emperor of Constantinople, 
with a Greek artist, who taught the 
industry to Al Hakem's workmen. 
The rest of the chapel is ornamented 
with stone and stucco carvings. At 
the end is a small heptagon covered 
with an admirably constructed stucco 
shell-shaped roof, supported by lateral 
arches. The richly illuminated MS. of 
the Koran written by Othman wasplaced 
there. It was torn to pieces by tlie 
Christians under Don Alfonso when 
Ben Sagiah delivered up the city of 
Cordova in a.d. 1146. This chapel 
was called by the Spaniards Del Zan- 
earroUy in derision of the foot-bone of 
Mahomet The pilgrim compassed 
this Ceca seven times, as was done at 
Mecca ; hence the foot-worn pavement. 
In the middle of this chapel is the tomb 
of the Constable Conde de Oropesa, by 
whom in 1688 Cordova was saved 
from Don Pedro and the Moors. At 
the side is a Moorish doorway. 

After the conquest of Cordova under 
Don Alfonso, the chapter formally 
entered into possession at the end of 
A.]). 1238 and dedicated the church to 
Sta. Maria. At intervals for 200 years 
chapels and alterations were made 
chiefly by Moorish workmen. This 
influence may clearly be traced in 

The modem addition to the mosque, 
the Goto; this was done in 1523 by 
the Bishop Alonso Manrique. The 
city corporation, with a taste and judg- 
ment rare in such bodies, protested 
against this ** improvement;" but 
Charles Y., unacquainted with the 
locality, upheld the prelate. When he 
passed through in 1526, and saw the 
mischief, he mus reproved the chap- 
ter : " You have hwdt here what you^ 
or wMi one, might have huiU anywhere 
else; out you have destroyed what was 
unique in the worlds It was com- 
menced by Feman Ruiz in 1523, and 
completed in 1598. The cinqnecento 
uruamcuts and roofs arc picked out in 

Andalucia. Boute 85. — Cathedral^Bishop's Palace. 


white and gold. The pulpits are splen- 
did, and the fine brass balustrades very 
•tfeotive. The SiUeHat which condsts 
of 109 seat) is one of the most striking 
examples of Churriguera art in Spain ; 
it is by Pedro D. Gomejo ; he died 
in 1758, cei 80, and is Duried near 
the Capilla Mayor. The choir books 
are very fine. Obs. one called, **de 
lo8 Apdstoles," The excellent Beiablo 
was designed in 1614, by Matias 
Alonso ; the painting is by Palomino. 
The tomb, Al lado de la Epfytola, is 
that of the beneficent Bishop Diego dc 
Mardones, ob. 1624. Lope de Bueda 
lies buried entre loe dos caros. The 
rejas are poor. 

The lateral chapels of the cathedral 
are not so interesting. Pablo de Ctfs- 
pede8» ob. 1608, is buried in front of that 
of JSan Pahlo : by him are the paintings 
of St. John» St. Andrew, and a neg- 
lected ** Last Supper," once his master- 
piece. In the Capilla de los Seyes is 
buried Alonso XI., one of the most 
chivalrous of Spanish kings — ^the hero 
of Tarifa and Algeciras : his ashes have 
been moved to Ckui Hlpdlito. In the 
Oapilla del Cardenal is the rich tomb 
of Cardinal Pedro de Salozar, ob. 1706. 
It is Churrigueresque ; the statues are 
by Jose de Mora. In the altar of La 
Enoamaeion, near the Mihrab, is a 
remarkable early Spanish picture 
painted on panel — the earliest Spanish 
dated picture known — ^with the follow- 
ing inscription : — 

" Esta obrra e retablo mando faser 
Diego Sanchs de Oastro canonigo desta 
iglea a onor de dios nro senor i de 
Santa Encamacion e de los bien auen- 
turados S» Jua bap** e Santiago et S" 
Llorente p de Santo Ibo de bretafla et 
de Sato Pio Papa, e de Santa bar- 
bara. Acabose a xx. dias de Marco de 
M.cccxJLXXY. alios. Pedro de Cordova 

The fine Cliurch ornaments which 
have escaped the French, and different 
revolutions, mavbe seen in the Capilla 
del Cardenal ; they are readily shown, 
and worth the visit. The finest is the 
Cuitodia, a noble gothic silver-gilt 
work by Enrique de Arfe, 1517 ; some 
additions were made to it in 1735, 
by Bernabe Garcia, which are not so 

pure in taste. Three splendid proces- 
sional crosses are worthy of notice, all 
made at Cordova ; two of them are in 
the Gothic plateresque style, and the 
third Benaissance, ornamented with 
enamels. A Porta Pax, 16th centy.j 
forming the fa9ade of a temple, with a 
large garnet at the base : four Gothic 
Porta Pax. A silver brasier, 16th 
centy., and a fine gold enamelled 
chalice. The remaining objects have 
little artistic value. The large silver 
lamp, one of the few examples of the 
kina which remain in Spain, which 
hangs before the high altar, weighing 
42.5 pounds, is very grand. 

Ascend the belfry tower^ which, like 
the Giralda, was shattered by a 
hurricane in 1593; it was recased and 
repaired the same year by Feman 
Buiz, a native of this city. 

The Bishop's Palace, close by, was 
built in 1745, and is in a bad rococo 
style ; the inside is all gilding, marble, 
and whitewash. In the Bala de la 
Andieneia are a series of bad portraits 
of prelates. Obs. the gigantic lemons, 
Arabic^ laymoon, in the lovely garden. 
The artist must not fail to weJk below 
the bridge to some most picturesque 
Moorish mills and pleasant fresh 

§ 4. Churches; Publio Buildingw; 

Formerly there were 35 convents 
besides 13 parish churches, in this city, 
the most interesting Gk)thic churches 
which remain are, Bta. Xarina, San 
Lorenio, Baa Kioolae, Baa PaUo, Baa 
FraaoiBeo, Sta.][arta and the Hospital 
de EspdiitOB. Ambrosio Morales was 
buried in Los Martyres, where his friend 
the Archbishop of Toledo, Bojas San- 
doval, placed a tomb and wrote an epi- 
taph ; the ashes were moved in 1844 to 
the Coleffiata de Ban Hipdlito. The 
artist will also find good specimens of 
the Mud^ar style in the facade of the 
house of Don Juan Concfc, and the 

Ljiyiii/_eu uy >^_.'w.^-t t'*^. 


Boute 85. — Cordova : ChurcJies — Excursions. Sect. V. 

patio of the ruined convent of Adiolo 
7 Viotoria, now a carpenter's shop. 
The best Moorish remains are at the 
Huerta del Bey, and Oasa de Us 0am- 
paaas, a girls' school. The Benais- 
sance houses of Gerdnimo Paer, Mar' 
ques de ViUaseea and Conde del AguUa, 
are worth visiting. The Plaza^ with 
its wooden galleries, and the Galle de 
la Feria, abound with quaint archi- 
tectural designs. In the CSolegio de 
la AsuxLoioiiy the Arabic bell of Samson 
may be inquired after. A Boman 
pavement may be seen at a carpenter's 
in the Plaza de San Bafael. 

At the town entrance is a classical 
Doric gate erected by Herrera for 
Philip II. on the site of the Moorish 
Babu-1-Kanterah, **the gate of the 
bridge." The relievos on it are said 
to be Torrigiano. Near this is the 
Churrigueresque El triunfOf on the top 
of which is the Cordovese tutelar saint, 
Bafael; read the curious inscription on 
the column. The Aloaiar rises to the 
1., and was built on the site of the 
BaUUt Ludheric, the castle of Boderic, 
the last of the Goths, whose father. 
Theofred, was duke of Cordoba. During 
the time of the Arabs the Archbishop's 
palace, the stable, and huerta, were 
included in what is now called AleaiBtr 
Vi^'o y VueYO. Formerly it was the 
residence of the inquisition. The 
lower portions were converted into 
stables by Juan de Minjares in 1854, 
for the royal stallions. Here, under 
the Moors, were the AViaras (unde 
Haras), the mounted guard of the 
king ; they "were foreigners, with whom 
suspicious despots have ever striven to 
surround themselves. 

Go into the garden, which is worth 
a visit. The view over the river is 
charming and the orange and lemon 
trees are splendid. 

The walk round the lonely Citv 
WaUs is beautiful. They are Moorisn 
and built of tapia ; with their gates 
and towers they must have been nearly 
similar to that original circumvallation 
as described by GsBsar (B. 0. ii. 19). 
The view of the town horn the other 
side of the bridge is very fine. The 
palms overtopping the wall from a 

convent garden near the Pu«rta de 
Plasmda are most picturesque. 

The octagon tower, near this Puerta, 
La Xal Huerta, was erected in 140() 
by Enrique III. 

The English word Cordwainer, a 
shoemaker, is derived from the Cordo- 
van leather imported into England to 
make shoes. The Spanish leather 
was once celebrated, but the Moors 
carried their art and industry to 

§ 5. Excursions. 

(1.) A morning's excursion can be 
made to the Amtafa and the adjoin- 
ing hermitage of the Val Paraiso. 
The Arrizafa is approached bv a path 
which ascends through gardens: it 
is 1^ m. from the town. The hermi- 
tages occupy a charming position ou 
the Sierra: they are inclosed by a 
wall. Nothing can be more beautiful 
than the mass of flowers in the early 
spring. The views over the sur- 
rounding countrv are superb. Omni- 
buses ply from the hotels, and horses 
may be had for 20 reals for this ex- 

(2.) Another pleasant afternoon's 
ride can be taken to the ruins of the 
Geronimite Convent (2 m.) which looks 
over the Gampifia; it is surrounded by 
olive-groves and evergreen oaks. This 
convent was built in 1405, vfith the 
remains of the ruins of Medina Azzahra, 
1 m. distant (Cordoba la Vieja). No 
systematic excavations have been 
made in these ruins which were so 
important during the reigns of Abdu- 
r-rahman and Alhakem, in the 10th 
centy. See *Moham. Dynasties' by 

(3.) Pleasant drives may be taken 
to the " La Albaida," a &rm belonging 
to the Duke of Homachuelos — the 
viewbeyondisveryfine. The **Qiii]itay" 
of the Marques de la Vega de Armijo 
should also be visited; the gardens 
are most beautiful. 


Boute 86. — Cordova to Seville, 


(4.)0ordovatoBelmesKly. 2trainB 
daily ; 43} miles. 

Ck>rdoYa Stat. 

13 m. ObejoStat. Pop. 710. 

4| m. Yaoar Stat. 

8} m. Alhondifirnilla Stat. 

3f m. Espiel Stat. Pop. 2821. 

12} m. Gabeia de YaoaStat. 

12i Belmes Stat. Pop. 6794. 

The line branches from Belmez by 
Almorchon to Madrid and Lisbon. 

The geologist should explore the 
district to the N. of Cordova, where 
lies the Belmez and Espiel coal-field. 
One of the most interesting phenomena 
of this district is a mine which is 
burning slowly; flames may be seen 
issuing through the soil. The slate is 
calcinated, and the most distinct im- 
pressions of ferns are visible. 

In the same locality there are 
several important iron mines. 

Baihoaya from Cordova to Seville 
(Rte. 86), to Malaga (Rte. 106), to 
Granada (Rte. 103). 

ROUTE 86. 


The rly. follows the valley of the 
Guadalquivir. Obs. to rt. of the line the 
breeding-ground of the bulls intended 
for the rmg: it is inclosed within 
walls, and is of considerable extent. 

8 m. YUlarrnbia Stat. 

8 m. Almodovar Stat. Pop. 2521. 
The castle with its elevated tower was 
fortified by Don Pedro the Cruel. 
Ascend to the top for the magnificent 
view obtained from its sumnut. 

Leaving Almodovar, the Guadiato 
id crossed by a viaduct of iron. 

5i m. Posadas Stat. Pop. 4370. 

6 m. Homaohuelos Stat The Bern- 

[JSpain, i882.] 

bezar is crossed by an iron and stone 
bridge of elegant proportions. Obs. 
the ruins of a MToorish fort which 
crowns the summit of an adjoining 
hill. Pop. 1839. 

7 m. Palma Stat. Fop. 6965. The 
oranges grown in this district are some 
of the fi.nest in Spain. 

[From Polma Stat, a diligence runs 
daily to 

]3J m. Eoija. Pop. 24,979. It may 
also be reached from Marchena by 
rail. (See Rte. 103a.)] 

2 m. FeHaflor Stat. Pop. 2403. 
Obs. the fine cupola of the church. 
This (the Roman Hiesd) was once an 
important strategic position. 

Soon after leaving Pefiaflor, the 
Guadalvacar is crossed by an iron 
bridge. Obs., in the ravine below, the 
ruins of an old castle called Setefllla. 

15. m. Lora del Bio Stat. Pop. 
6772. To the rt. is a chapel in the 
early Roman style with a fine W. 
doorway. At a little distance from 
the town is a celebrated sancUiary, 
dedicated to the Virgin, which crowns 
the M(mte de Setefilki, 

Railway in construction to Llerena. 

13 m. Onadigoi Stat. 

3| m. Todna Stat. Situated in the 
midst of a fever-haunted morass. Sr. 
Fernandez, a chemist, has an interest- 
ing collection of coins and other works 
of art which he is pleased to show to 
visitors. Pop. 1455. 

Toeina Jnnot. Stat. Pop. 1455. [A 
branch railway to Pedrosa, 22 m., 
passing by Toeina, Empalme Stat. 

1 m. Todna Pueblo Stat. Pop. 1455. 

12} m. Minas Stat. 

3 m. Yillanueva y Aloolea Stat. 

2^ m. Yillanueva de las Minas Stat. 
l| m. Uinas Ooadalqnivir Stat. 
2| m. Pedrosa Stat. Pop. 334.] 

8 m. Brenes Stat. A poverty- 
stricken village of 1200 inhab. There 
is a Spanish proverb which says, ** Si 
vas d Brenes lleva que cenes.'' 

5^ m. £1 Empalme Stat. Soon after 
leaving this stat. the fisimous Giralda 
of Seville is seen rising in the distance. 
To tile rt. are the ruins of Itdlica and, 
still further off, the monastery of San 
Gerdnimo and the Cartuja de Triana. 

Seville Stat. Omn ihicses to the towa, 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^j'w^^-t it 


Boute 86. — Seville : Buildings. 

Sect. V. 



6 1. Hotels, Batbs, CafSs, Clube ... 322 
'$2. Tbeatrea, Bnll-rlnfr, BegstU dub, 

Hone-radng Society .... 322 
$3. Toet and Telegraph Offioe, Oonsnla, 
Chaplain and Proteetant Church, 
Doctors, Bankers, Tradespeople, 
Carriages 322 

i4. Historical Notice 323 
5. Giralda Tower— Cathedral . . .325 
6. Alcazar 335 
7. Picture Gallery 337 
8. Old Houses, Public Buildings, 

Squares, Hospital of La Oaridad . 339 
5 9. University, Churches, Gates, Tobacco 

Manufactory, Palace of San Telmo 341 

A 10. Suburb of Triana— 349 

$ 11. Kxcursions 350 

§ 1. Hotels, Baths, Cafes, Oldbs. 

Seville. Inns: Fonda de Paris, 
Plaza de la Magdalena, good. Fonda 
de Madrid, in the same Plaza, has a 
good patio. Fonda de las Cuatro 
Naciones, Plaza Nueva, large, no 
patio. Fonda de Europa, Calle de las 
Sierpes, a commercial hotel with a 
good patio, moderate terms; a good 
guide, Jos^ Navarro, is attached to this 
hotel. Fonda Bspafiola, Placentines 1, 
clean, 20 to 80 rs. (a commercial house, 
20 rs. a day), very fair. Hotel Suizo, 
Calle de las Sierpes, 37 to 40 rs., 
arrangements may oe made to dine k 
la carte at this hotel. Fonda de 
Londres, Plaza Nueva, reasonable. 

An interpreter from the Fonda de 
Paris meets the train. 

N,B. Secure a cuarto hajo (or 
ground-Jloiyr apartment) during the 
summer months : the difference of tem- 
perature hetioeen the ground and second 
floor is often 6 to 10 degrees in favour 
of the former. Visitors to Seville 
during &e fair-week should invariably 
mtdtB a distinct agreement with the 
landlord before enga^ng rooms. They 
must be content to pay double or triple 
the usual prices (80 to 100 reals per 
day at least in the hotels). 

Cafes: El Gran Cafe', large and 
elegantly famished ; el Suizo, in the 
Calle de las Sierpee. 

Bestaurants : Ifone good ; the table 
d*h6te dinner at the hotel is fal* better. 

El Suizo, in the Calle de las Sierpes ; 
el Gran Cafe', in the same street. 
Dinners at all hours.. 

Baths : La Iberia, 5 rs., with linen, 
Calle de San Vicente. In the Calle 
de las Sierpes, near the Fonda de 

Casinos : Circulo de Labradores, in 
the Calle de las Sierpes ; el Casino, in 
the Plaza del Duque. Visitors intro- 
duced free to either of these dubs for 
14 days, upon presentation by a member. 

§ 2. Theatbbs, Bull-bing, Regatta 
Club, Hobsb-bacing Society. 

Theatres : Teatro de San Fernando, in 
the Calle de Tetuan, a handsome build- 
ing erected in 1847. Here Operas are 
given duringtheseason. Teatro Eslava, 
near the Puerta de Jerez. Teatro de 
Cervantes, Teatro de Lope de Vega, 
both in the Calle Amor de Dies. 
Teatro del Duque, in la Plaza del 

BvU-Bing : on the banks of the 
Guadalquivir, capable of seating 11,000 
persons. The building, which is very 
fine— of stone — was commenced in 
1760, and finished in 1881. The 
first fights of the season take place 
on the 18th, 19th, and 20th of April : 
there are also fights on Corpus 
Christi and St. John's Day, and 
upon 2 or 3 other occasions during the 
months of June and August, and 
during the second &ir, 28th, 29th, and 
30th of September. There are also 
so-called fights every Sunday during 
the autumn months. The best seats 
for ladies are the Delantera de palco, 
36 rs. ; Segunda de palco, 20 rs. For 
gentlemen alone, Asiento de cajon, 
36 rs. Centre, 12 rs. 

Begatta Club, established in 1875, 
Calle de Catalanes, No. 3. 

Horse Bacinp Society: Calle del 
Duque de la Victoria, No. 9. Baces 
in April and November. 

§ 3. Post and Teleobafh Office^ 
Consuls, Chaplain and Pbotes- 


Tbadebfeoplb, Cabbiagbs. 

Post Office: in the Calle de las 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Boute 86. — History, 


Telegraph Office : at the Post Office ; 
open day and until 12 at midnight. 

H.B.M. Vice-Coruul: E. F. John- 
ston, Esq., Calle de las Palmas. 

U. S. A. Constd : Charles Eder, Esq., 
Calle de Guzman el Bueno. 

Protestant Chaplain: Rev. B. G. 
Mof&kt. Seryice on Sundays at the 
Iglesia de la Asuncion, Calle de las 
Armas. Sundays at 10 a.m. Wednes- 
days 7*30 P.M. Protestant Spanish ser- 
vice at the church of San Basilic, and 
Mariners* Chapel, Triana. 

Protestant Cemetery : A new one is 
attached to the Catholic cemetery of 
San Fernando. 

Medical Men : Dr. Ph. Hauser, Calle 
de la Laguna, 24. 

Professor of Languages: Mr. Ed- 
ward F. Budd, Garzo No. 21.— N.B. 
This veteran teacher of Spanish, Por- 
tuguese, and French can be recom- 

Bankers : Messrs. John Cunningham 
& Co., Calle de Guzman el Bueno, 
No. 17 ; Messrs. Cahill, White, & Beck, 
Calle San Fernando, No. 17 ; Messrs. 
Noel y C», Beyes Catdlicos, No. 27; 
Tomas de la Calzada, Calle de 

Photographic Artists: S'. Beaucliy, 
Sierpes, 130 ; Antonio Bodriguez, Calle 
de las Sierpes. 

Laurent s photographs are the best ; 
ask to see those of ^e reliquaries at 
the cathedral. His depot at Seville 
is at 47 Calle de Geneva. 

Booksellers: Bafael Tarasco, Sier- 
pes No. 78 ; Hijos de Fe', 84, Calle de 

Glover : Gely, in the Calle Sierpes. 
Seville gloves are good and cheap. 

Curiosity Shops : Manuel Tapia, 
Alameda de Hercules, 45-47. 

Books and Antiguedades : Bianchi, 
K^ua, 22. 

Carriages, with one horse. The 
course until 12 at night — 

For 1 or 2 persons 4 reals 

„ 3or4 „ 6 „ 

The hour „ 1 or 2 „ 8 „ 

„ „ 3or4 „ 10 „ 

Breaks— The course .. 10 „ 

„ hour .. 14 ^, 

Seville contains a population of 

132,738. It is the see of an arch- 
bishop, having for suffragans Cadiz, 
Malag:a, Ceuta, the Canary Isles, and 
Teneriffe. It is the residence of a 
captain-^neral, of an audiencia (whose 
chief judge is called d Begente\ and 
it contains the usual provincial civil 
and military establishments. 

§ 4. Historical Notice. 

Seville was the Phoenician Sephela, 
or Spela, which Punic words signify 
*• a plain.** The Greeks changed the 
name into ''lairoKa, and the Bomans 
into Hispalis, of which the Moors 
made Ishbiliah, whence Sibilia, Sevilla. 
Julius CsBsar patronised Sevilla, be- 
cause Cordova had espoused the side 
of Porapey ; having captured it Aug. 9, 
forty-five years before Christ, he be- 
came its second founder, made it his 
capital, a conventus juridicusy or town 
of assize, and gave it the title B<mula, 
the little Bome ; but even then it was 
more a Punic than Roman city, and 
by no means splendid, according to 
Italian notions ; it was, however, 
walled round. 

Seville was the capital of the Silingi, 
and of the Goths until the 6th centy., 
when Leovigild removed his court to 
Toledo, as being more centrally situ- 
ated, while Hermenegildus, his son and 
heir, remained as vicerov ; he soon re- 
linquished the Arian faiui, and declared 
against his father, by whom he was 
put to death as a rebel ; but when the 
Athanasian Creed was finally intro- 
duced, ;he was canonised as a martvr. 
These religious wars were headed by 
the brothers San Laureano and San 
Isidore, men of powerful intellects, 
successively Archoishops of Sevilla, 
and now its sainted tutelars. The 
former is called the ** Apostle of the 
Goths," the latter the "Egregious 
Doctor of Spain." 

Seville, with all Spain to the west, 
was conquered by the Mahomedans 
under the same Kalif Walid, who sub- 
jugated Scinde also to the east. The 
unwarlike city surrendered to the Moors 
at once, after the defeat of Don Bode- 
rick on the Guadalete : there was trea- 
son and dissension within its walls, and 


Boute 86. — Seville : History. 

Sect. V. 

the dethroned monarch's widow, Egi- 
lona, soon married Abdu-1-aziz, the 
son of the conqueror Musa-Ibn-Nosseir. 
Seville continued its allegiance to the 
Kalif of Damascus until the year 756, 
when Abdu-r-rahman established at 
Cordova the western Kalifate of the 
Beni Umeyyah family, to which Se- 
ville remained subject until 1009, 
when that dynasty was overturned. 

Separate adventurers set themselves 
up as kings — ^sheikhs — over each pro- 
vince and town, to become rivals and 
enemies of each other. The house 
divided against itself could not stand, 
and still less when the kingdoms of 
Leon and Castile were consolidated 
under St. Ferdinand, one of their best 
of kings, and bravest of soldiers. 

He advanced into Andalncia, taking 
city after city, the petty rulers being 
unable to resist single-handed ; nay, 
partly from tribe hatred, and partly 
from selfish policy, they assisted as 
allies of the Christians, each bidding 
against the other; thus Ibn-1-ahmar, 
the upstart Sheikh of Jaen, mainly con- 
tributed to the capture of Sevilla. The 
city was besieged from the S.E. side, 
at Tablada, Aug. 20, 1247 : the details 
are quite a romance, especially the 
vision of the Virgin, the breaking of 
the bridge of boats by Bamon Bonifaz, 
and the prowess of Diego, ElMachuca, 
the brother of Garcia Perez de Vargas, 
the model of Don Quijote (i. 8). Se- 
ville surrendered Nov. 23, 1248, on 
St. Clement's day. The citizens had 
previously been subject to the Em- 
peror of Morocco, but at the death of 
Arrashid, their African liege lord, in 
1 242, they had chosen a king of their 
own, whom they soon displaced, esta- 
blishing a sort of republican Junta, 
headed by Sakkaf, the Axataf of Spa- 
nish annals. Thus Seville was lost to 
the Moors after a possession of 536 
years. After the capture, St. Ferdinand 
divided the houses and lands among 
his soldiers. 

St. Ferdinand granted to the city 
for arms, himself seated on his throne, 
with San Laureano and Saii Isidoro 
for his supporters. He died liere, while 
meditating an invasion of Africa, worn 
out by long services, May 31, 1252, 

and was canonised in 1668 by Clement 
IX. ; his body was removed to its 
present shrine, in 1729, by Philip V. 

Seville, in the unnatural civil wars, 
after the conqueror's death, was the 
only city which remained faithful to 
his son and successor, Alonso el Sabio, 
the learned^ but not wise.* Alonso 
gave Seville the badge, which is to 
be seen c€urved and painted every- 
where. It is called El Nodo, and is 
thus represented : No. 8 do ; the hiero- 
glyphic signifies No-nCJia dexa-Do, 
"It has not deserted me." Madexa 
in old Spanish meant a knot, and is 
the Gothic Mataxa, Nodus. Thus was 
reproduced unintentionally the old 
Phoenician merchant mark, the Nodtis 
HercuUs — the knot which guaranteed 
the genuineness of the contents of 
every bale; hence the Mark of these 
founders of commerce became the sym- 
bol of peace, trade, and of the god of 
thieves, and was perpetuated by the 
Greeks in the twisted ornament of the 
heraldic Cadticeua of Mercury. The 
city also rejoices in the titular epithets 
of muy lecd y nohle^ to which Ferdinand 
Vn. added muy herdica. 

Seville continued to be the capital 
of Spain, and especially of Don Pedro, 
who was more than half a Moor, until 
Charles V. removed the court to Valla- 
dolid ; yet it remained faithful during 
the outbreak of the comunerosy and 
was rewarded by a motto, " Ah Hercule 
et Cassare noMlitas, a se ipsdfidelitas.* 
The discovery of the New World raised 
it to a more than former splendour; 
it became the mart of the golden colo- 
nies, and the residence of princely 
foreign merchants. Buonaparte's in- 
vasion, and the subsequent loss of the 
transatlantic possessions, cast her down 
from her former pride of place. It 
is, however, fast becoming again a 
prosperous commercial city. Its streets 
are lull of people. Seville now pos- 

* Among the many works which were 
written by the order and under the protection 
of Don Alonso, in which he took part, may be 
mentioned the following : ' Las C^ntigas ; ' * La 
Gran Conqulsta de Ultramar;' 'Historia 
general del Mundo;' »Hi8toria de Kspafla:' 
' Los Libros del Saber de Astronomia,' <tnd 
eight legal compilations. 


Boute 86. — Giralda Tower, 


sesses direct cotmnunication with 
London, by means of the excellent 
line of steamers established (and 
chiefly owned) by our countryman 
John Cunningham, a gentleman well 
known in Spain for his singular busi- 
ness ability, whilst he is as justly 
esteemed throughout Andalucia for 
Ms unostentatious charity. 

The best time to visit Seville is in 
the spring, during the Holy Week, 
before the great summer heats com- 
mence, and in autumn. The winters 
are occasionally wet ; and snow is not 
unknown. The cily lies on the 1. 
bank of the Guadalquivir, and is in- 
closed by Moorish walls buUt of tapia^ 
which in some parts are still quite 
perfect. The climate is so dry and con- 
servative that the best houses erected 
by the Moors are still preserved almost 
unaltered, and most charming and 
unique they are, and perfectly suited 
to the climate. The narrow tortuous 
streets which keep out the sun, and 
the wide spacious mansions with cool 
courts and gardens, prove how wise 
the Moors were. The windows are 
barricaded with rejas, or iron gratings, 
and are protected from the sun 
in summer by an awning. These 
shutterless windows form the evening 
rendezvous to the cloaked lover who 
whispers soft nothings to his bar- 
imprisoned sweetheart; hence he is 
said to live on iron, comer hierro. The 
houses generally have an entrance 
porch, el Zaguan (Arabicb sahan), 
which leads to the cancel^ or open- 
worked iron gate, occasionally of 
admirable workmanship. They are 
also enriched with Moorish tilings 
still called azidejos. The interiors are 
built with an open square courtyard, 
patiOf on each side of which are cor- 
redores supported by marble pillars ; a 
ftbentepr fountain plays in the middle ; 
this court is covered over in summer 
with an awning, ioldot and then be- 
comes the drawing-room of the in- 
mates, who occupy the cool groimd- 
floor, migrating to the warmer upper 
rooms in winter. 

The lower part of the town, the Ala- 
meda Vieja, is ofton flooded, but the 

streets are provided with malecones or 
hatches, which are then shut down 
and keep out the water. The summer 
is so very hot, that it is almost impos- 
sible to face the sun, which, with every 
precaution, can with difficulty be re- 
duced to 90° Fahr. in-doors. However, 
the town is never more healthy than 
during these great heats. Then the 
inhabitants keep still in their cool 
houses until the evening. Seville is 
one of the most agreeable towns in 
Spain for a lengthened residence, ex- 
cept in the dog-days. The shooting to 
the rt of the Guadalquivir is good and 
novel ; the Theatre is commodious, 
and the operatic companies first-rate ; 
the masquerading at carnival-time is 
entertaining ; the dances, both those of 
the stage and the gipsies, are truly 
national and Oriental. 

Seville is the alma mater of the bull- 
fight, and the best animals and masters 
of the art are furnished from B^tica. 
The religious functions of Seville are 
unrivalled, especially in the Holy 
"Week — Corpus, St. John's Day — 
Christmas, with its NadmientoSy carols, 
and shepherd-dances — and the winter 
Kosarios. The ceremonial of the Se- 
mana Santa is second only in interest to 
that of Eome, and is in many respects 
quite peculiar, such as in the Pa^os, or 
painted and graven images, which are 
carried through the streets in solemn 
procession; then also the monvmento, or 
sepulchre, in which the Host is buried, 
is lighted up in the cathedral, and must 
be seen to be really understood. 

Sightseeing in Seville. The Cathe- 
dral, with the Giralda Tower, and old 
churches. The Lonja, the Alcazar and 
Moorish houses, the Juderia and Mu- 
rine's house, the Picture Gallery, La 
Caridad, La Cartuja, Casa de Pilatos, 
the Palace of San Telmo, Fabrica de 
Tabaco. Those who are interested may 
visit the large convict establishment 
Presidio, where 800 prisonei-s are em- 
ployed, &c. 

§ 5. GiBALDA Tower— Cathedral. 

First visit the Cathedral-tower, the 
GiBALDA, so called from its vane, qtie 
gira (which turns round). It was b uilt 


Boute 86. — Seville : OiraMa Towif. 

Sect. V. 

by Abu-Jusuf Yacub, in 1196, the 
foundations being composed of de- 
stroyed Roman and Christian statuary. 
The Moors attached such veneration 
to this Mueddin tower, that before the 
capitulation they wished to destroy 
it, but were prevented by the threat of 
Alonso el Babio of sacking the city if 
they did. 

Abu-Jiisuf Yakiib, says Gayangos, 
was the great builder of his age ; he 
caused a bridge of boats to be thrown 
across the Guadalquivir on the 11th of 
October, a.d. 1171. He built also a por- 
tion of the exterior walls, and erected 
quays along the banks of the river. 
He repaired the Boman aqueduct, now 
known as the Ga£L08 de Garmona, and 
raised the great Mosque of Seville, 
which was similar in design and exe- 
cution to the celebrated Mezquita at 
Cordoba. Begun in Oct., a.d. 1171, it 
was completed by his son and successor, 
Abii Yiisuf Yakiib, who, in the year 
1196, added the tower, the work of 
Jaber, whom the Spanish authors call 
Gever, and who, from the coincidence 
of his name, has been reputed, though 
most erroneously, to have been the in- 
ventor of algebra.* On the summit 
were placed four brazen balls, so large 
that, in order to get them into the 
buUding, it was necessary to remove 
the key-stone of a door, called *• The 
Gate of the Muezzins," leading from 
the mosque to the interior of the tower : 
the iron bar which supported them 
weighed about 10 cwt., and the whole 
was cast by a celebi-ated alchemist, a 
native of Sicily, named Abil Leyth, at 
the cost of 50,000Z. sterling.f This 
beautiful tower forms the emphatic 
feature of Seville. It was originally 
only 250 ft. high, the rich filigree 
belfry, 100 ft high, having been added 
by Fernando Euiz in 1568. The base 

* Algebra is derived from the Arabic phrase 
Al-jebra, " condensation, contraction." 

t it is a carious £act, showing the minute 
accuracy of the writer from whom we quote 
these particulars, that when, during the earth- 
quake in 1395 (157 years after the overthrow of 
the Moorish power), these balls, together with 
the iron support, were thrown down, the latter 
was weighed, and the weight, as given by one 
of tlie historians of Seville, is exactly the same 
M that stated by the Mahomedan writer. 

of the tower is a square of 50 ft. The 
Moorish ajaracas, or sunk patterns, 
differ on either side. The belfry is 
g^dled with a motto from the Proverbs 
(xviii. 10), Nomen Domini fortiwima 
turrii ; on grand occasions it is lighted 
up at night, and it then seems to hang 
like a brilliant chandelier from the 
dark vault of heaven. 

The upper niches were painted in 
fresco by Luis de Vargas, 1538-58 ; 
but the work is almost obliterated, 
while the subjects lower down have 
been repainted and spoilt. The ascent 
is by easy ramps (i.e. successive 
inclined planes, set at right angles 
one to another), 35 in number. The 
panorama is superb. The clock, made 
by a Franciscan monk, one Jos^ Cor- 
dero, bears the date 1764 : the former 
clock was the first ever put up in 
Spain, A.D. 1400. The pinnacle is 
crowned with a female figure in bronze. 
El GirardiUot intended to represent 
La Fe (The Faith), a somewhat strange 
choice for a vane, to be blown about 
by every wind, seeing that both sex 
and character adopted should never 
vary nor be fickle.* The figure is truly 
Italian, and was cast in 1568 by Barto- 
lom^ Morel. Although 14 ft. high, and 
weighing 25 cwi, it turns with the 
slightest breeze. It bears the Laharo, 
or banner of Constantino. This belfry 
is the home of a colony of pigeons and 
hawks (the Falco tinuncohides). The 
first Christian knight who ascended 
the Giralda after the conquest was 
Lorenzo Poro (Lawrence Poore), a 

It was the great tower &om whence 
the mueddin summoned the faithful to 
prayers ; and here still hang bis sub- 
stitutes, the bells, for they are almost 
treated as persons, being all duly bap- 
tised, before they are suspended, with a 
peculiar oil, and they are christened 
after saints. The largest is called 

• The Pagan Spaniard Seneca may be quoted : 
" Vento quid levins ?— Fulmen. Quidfalmine ? 
— Fama. 
Quid Fama?— Molier. Quid MuUere?— 

f His descendant, the Marques de la Motilla, 
still owns the ancestral house in the Galle de la 
Cuna. A Scotch herald will do well to look at 
the coats of arms in the Patio. 


Boute 86. — Chapter Library. 


Santa Maria, or La Ctorda. There are 
21 bells. When they are all rung, the 
pertbrmance is called a repique, which 
IS totally unlike our sweet village bells, 
or impressive cathedral peal. 

The Giralda is under the especial 
patronage of the two female Saints 
Justa y Bufina, who are much revered 
at Seville. In a thunderstorm, 1504, 
they scared the devil, who unloosed 
the winds to fight against this church : 
this, their standing miracle, is the one 
so often carved, and painted by Murillo 
and others. 

Of tho other Moorish minaret or 
mtieddin towers, obs. those of San 
Marcos, Santa Marina, Santa Gatalina, 
and Omnium Sanctorum. That of San 
Pedro has been modernised. 

Below the Giralda is the Moorish 
Fatio do los Naranjos, the court of 
orange-trees, with the ori^nal fountain 
at which the cleanly Moslem once 
performed what polite writers call 
**his ablutions." Only two sides of 
this " court of the house of the Lord," 
this r4fi€vos, or "grove," remain. 
Enter it at the N. by the rich Puerta 
del Ferdon, which was modernised in 
1519 by Bartolom^ Lopez. Obs. the 
Moorish arch and original bronze 
floors, but the belfry is modem. The 
terracotta statues are by Miguel FUy- 
rentin, 1519-22. The " Saviour bear- 
ing his Cross," by Luis de Vargas^ is 
I'uined by repainting. This subject, 
the Via Orucis, the Via Dolorosa of the 
Italians, is commonly called in Spain 
la Calle de la Amargura, the street of 
bitterness, from the agony endured by 
the Bedeemer. 

Entering to the rt is the sagrarioy or 
parish church, and in front the Gothic 
pile, with the magnificent Giralda 
tower. To the 1. is a stone pulpit, 
where San Vicente Ferrer, and other 
instigators of autos defe, have preached 
{see the inscription). In the 1. corner 
a staircase leads to 

The Chapter Library, also called La 
Columbina, because lefb to the canons 
and bookworms by Fernando, the son 
of Columbus. It was destined by him 
to be a future Bodleian, but the chapter 
grossly neglected their trusts, although 

largely endowed. It still contains 
about 18,000 voliunes. The MS. of 
Columbus's travek, containing notes 
written by himself, has been pmced in 
a cabinet, which is shown to the public ; 
inquire .for a * Tractatus de Imagine 
Mundi,' Petri de Aliaco, his cabin com- 
panion during his eventful voyage; 
also look at the MS. tract drawn up by 
him when in prison, to <satisfv the In- 
quisition and prove that his discovery 
of the New World was predicted in 
the Scriptures. Amon^ the innumer- 
able treasures contained in this Library 
is the fine Bible translated by Pedro 
de Palencia in the 13th century, which 
was supposed to have been lost since 
Cean Bermudez saw it at the beginning 
of the present century. Above the 
handsome cedar book-shelves, the gift 
of Queen Isabella II., which, in the 
same manner as the rest of the 
Library, have been very much im- 
proved, are hung portraits of arch- 
bishops, and the pictures themselves 
mark the rise and decline of Church 
power. The older, the Tello, Albomoz, 
Luna, Toledo, Fonseca, and Mendoza, 
are men of master mind, who bore their 
great commissions in their looks ; the 
latter, in their blue and white ribands 
and periwigs, are mere stall-fed cour- 
tiers, or boudoir-frequentiDg Abb^. 
Obs. a portrait of EV. Bonifaz, a 
physician, by Alonso Cano ; and a San 
Fernando by Murillo, not very good. 
Inquire for tlie sword of the great 
Count Feman Gonzalez, used by 
the hero of Seville's conq^uest, Garcia 
Perez de Vargas, in cuttmg Moorish 
throats, as some verses shown with it 
detail ; read them. At the entrance of 
this Library there is an interesting in- 
scription ornamented in the Visigothic 
manner, and one of the few remains of 
this period which exist at Seville, re- 
lating to Bishop Honoratus, successor 
to San Isidore, a.d. 641. 

On the staircase, obs. the tomb of 
liiigo de Mendoza, 1497 ; and in the 
Ouarto de los Subadiofl, a Pietli by 
Juan Nufiez, one of the earliest of Se- 
villian painters ; opposite the Puerta 
del Perdon, in the Sala de la Herman- 
dad del Santisimo, is a " Dispute of the 
Sacrament," by Herrera el Mozo ; it is 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.'w^^-i i'*^. 


Boute 86. — Seville : Cathedral, 

Sect. V. 

affected and indistinct. The others are 
by Arteaga : obs. also a small Infant 
Saviour, by Montafies. 

A dark gate, where a horseshoe of the 
old mosque remains, leads into the in- 
terior ; here hangs what was the croco- 
dile, or d Lagarto (whence our term 
alligator)^ sent to Alonso el Sabio, in 
1260, from the Soltan of Egypt, who 
requested the hand of his daughter: 
the Infanta declined a suitor whose 
first present scarcely indicated the 
affectionate. Here are buried some of 
the conquerors of Seville,, Pedro 
del Acero, 1265. 

The Cathedral is one of the largest 
and finest in Spain: the solemn, 
or " (xrandeza," is its distinctive 
quality, as elegance is of Leon, 
strength of Santiago, and wealth of 
Toledo. The original mosque, on 
whose peculiar oblong quadrilateral 
form it is built, was erected by Abii 
Yiisuf Jacob-Al-Mansiir, 1172, and 
continued to be used as a cathedral 
imtil 1401, when the chapter, seeing 
the state of the building, determined 
to pull it down. They began the new 
cathedral in 1403. It was finished in 
1506, but the cupola fell down the fol- 
lowing year, ana the works were not 
completed imtil 1519. The chapter 
in their first conference determined to 
** construct a church such and so good 
that it never should have its equal." 
The name of the architect is not 
known ; whoever he was, he worked, 
with no thought of self, for the sole love 
and glory of God. The cathedral is at 
present in course of restoration, under 
the superintendence of S'. Casanova 
(1 882). The sacred edifice is inside and 
outside a museum of fine art in spite of 
foreign and native church spoliations. 
It preserves the form of the original 
mosque, and is an oblong square, some 
414 ft. long by 271 wide ; it has 5 aisles 
— ^the two lateral are railed oflf into 
ch apels ; the centre nave is magnificent, 
the height amazing, being 150 ft., while 
tiie drnborio or transept dome rises 
171 ft. ;* the offices connected with the 

* The corresponding meaflures in metres : 
Length. . . . 115-60 
Width . . . . 75*60 
If eight . . , . 44-0« 

cathedral and chapter are built outside 
to the S. ; the superb pavement, in 
black and white chequered marble, 
was finished in 1793, and cost the then 
enormous sum of 155,304 dollars. 

Walk round the outside of the 
cathedral, which, with the adjoining 
buildings, offers a most interesting 
epitome of the rise, progress, and 
decline of Spanish church architecture. 
Commence at the N. side: obs. the 
solid tapia, Moorish walls, the square 
buttresses, the bearded or fiame-fnnged 
battlements. The elevated steps are 
called Las Gradas, the old English 
"grees," degrees. The truncated 
piUars belonged to the mosque, and, 
previously, to Roman temples. This 
terrace was long the exchange of 

To the E. is the Arohbishop's Palace, 
a Churrigueresque pile, built in 1697. 
The staircase is handsome; the curious 
clerical cell. La Parra, in which pec- 
cant priests once were imprisoned, de- 
serves notice: otherwise the interior 
contains little worth mention. 

Passing onward to the 1. rise the 
Moorish walls of the Alcazar, while to 
the rt is the semicircular exterior of 
the chapel of San Fernando, adorned 
in the heraldic Berruguete style of 
Charles V. The S. entrance of tlie 
transept is unfinished ; in front is the 

Loiga (the exchange, the long room), 
a classic building and a fine specimen 
of the skill of Herrera, by whom it was 
designed. Formerly the bill-brokers 
and gossipers desecrated the cathedral, 
until the Archbishop, Cristobal da 
Rojas, in 1572 — the year after Greshuni 
had removed our money-changers from 
SI. Paul's, by providing them with the 
Boyal Exchange of Ijondon — peti- 
tioned Philip II. to follow this ex- 
ample, and erect a suitable casa de 
contratacion, or house of contracts, 
for the growing commerce of Seville. 
After infinite difficulties Juan de Her- 
rera concluded the edifice in 13 years, 
and it was opened for business Aug. 
14, 1598. It IS an isolated quadrangle, 
each side being some 200 ft. wide by 
63 ft. high to the ante pecho. The stone 
cjime from the quarries of Martelilla, 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -.^j'w^^-i f»^ 


Hoiite ^i.—CafJiedrat. 


liear Jerez. Within is an ardaded 
court. The Doric and Ionic Patio is 
magnificent : ascending a marble stair- 
case to the upper floor is the Arohivo de 
Indias, the archives of S. America, 
which were arranged here by 
Charles III. in 1784; the necessary 
alterations have ruined the proportions 
of the design of Herrera. The papers 
werebrought together from the archives 
of Simancaa, and put in order by Lara 
and Gean Bermudez ; they are stowed 
away in handsome mahogany Doric 
bookcases, in docketed bundles, above 
30,000 in number, which have never 
yet been fully investigated. Obs. the 
marble pavement ; the inner corridor 
is modem and paltry : the portrait of 
Colimibus is quite as apocryphal, and 
by no means so fine, as that by Parmi- 
gianino at Naples. In an end room 
are some vile portraits of Spanish 
sovereigns. The lower storey is 
appropriated to el conmladot the 
tribunal of commerce. The Loigawas 
scarcely begun before the real com- 
merce of Seville had departed. 

In the Plaza de Santo Tomas is said 
to have been the barber's shop of the 
immortal Figaro. Unfortunately, no 
barber now fives in the square, other- 
wise every traveller who has music in 
his soul would doubtless go to him to be 
shaved 1 The W. or grand feiQade of the 
Cathedral remained incomplete until 
1 827, when themodemand inferior work 
was commenced. It is now in course 
of construction; the intention is to 
complete the statues that are wanting. 
Obs. over the side doors the quaint 
figiires in terracotta, by Lope Marin, 
1548 ; the contrast of expression in the 
severe faces of the males, and the 
smir^ng females, is remarkable. The 
enormous over-ornate pile to the 1. is 
the Sagrario, or parish church annexed 
to the cathedral, in which many of the 
archbidiops are buried. This was 
commenced by Miguel de Zumarraga 
in 1618, when architecture was on the 
decline, but not finished until 1662. 
The interior consists of a single nave, 
the size of which has often rendered 
doubtful the security of the building. 
The Betahlo came from the Franciscan 
oonvont, and is known in Ixmks of art 

as that of the CapiUa de log Vuseainos. 
The sculptured Veronica and San 
Clemente are by Pedro D. Comejo; 
the Virgin with Christ, St. John, «nd 
the Magdalen, are by Pedro Roldan ; 
by the same sculptor is the basso 
relievo of the entrance into Jerusalem. 
The door leadin&: into the cathedral, 
and adorned with statues and Corin- 
thi«n pillars is by Jose de Arce, 

At the W. end of the centre aisle 
lies buried Fernando, son of Columbus, 
or Colonj as Spaniards ceJl him, and 
one who would have been considered 
a great man had he been the son of a 
less great father. Obs. the quaint 
caravels, or ships of the navigator; 
how small their size, for the mighty 
journey over vast and imknown seas ! 
and the motto again how short, but 
the greatness of the deed suffices : A 
Castilla y a Leon, iivsvo mundo did 
Colon ; read also tiie touching epitaph 
of his son. Many careless writers 
describe this as the tomb of Columbus 
himself, who died at Valladolid, and 
whose bones at last rest in the Havana. 
Over this grave-stone during the holy 
week is erected the monumento, an 
enormous wooden temple in form of 
a Greek cross, in which the Host is 
deposited. It was designed and exe- 
cuted in 1544, by Antonio Florentin, 
and originally consisted only of three 
storeys, terminated by a cross, but sub- 
sequent additions were made in 1624 
and 1688, which have injured the effect, 
and rendered the whole out of propor- 
tion for th e cathedral . However, when 
lighted up during the night of Thurs- 
day and Good Friday, alter the Host 
is inclosed in the silver custodia, the 
effect is most marvellous. 

The cathedral is lighted by 93 win- 
dows; the painted ones are among 
the finest in Spain: the earliest are 
by Micer Onstdbal Aleman, 1504. 
Obs. the "Ascensions," the "Mag- 
dalen," a "Lazarus,** and an "Entry 
into Jerusalem,' ' by Amaa de Flandres, 
and his brother, 1525 ; and the *' Be- 
surreotion,'* in tie Capilla de las Don- 
cellas, by Carlos de Bruges, 1558. 
These artists were foreigners and Fle- 
mings, as thoir names denote. 


Soute B6.— Seville : Caihedrcd. 

Sect. V. 

At the main entrance in the first 
chapel to the r. is Murillo's charming 
picture of M Angel de la Ouarda, a 
guardian angel holding hy Hie hand a 
fiweet child. Advancing up the aiale, 
the grandeur of which is broken up 
by the coro, obs. its traacorot a rich 
frontage of Doric work, with precious 
marbles. The picture over the altar 
is a Virgin and Child of the School of 
Siena — 14th centy. The poor "San 
Fernando " is by Pacheco, 1633. Two 
doors on each side lead into the coro ; 
the 4 bas-reliefs were made at Genoa. 
Above rise the enormous organs : the 
palisadoes of pipes and cumbrous 
ornaments are Churrigueresque and 
inappropriate, but as instruments their 
deep-swelling tones are magnificent; 
that to the 1., al lado de la Epistola, 
was made by Jorge Bosch in 1792. 
Before entering the Coro, obs. its 
Bespaldos and the cinquecento chapels, 
especially those to the right (see 
Plan, 39-40), the sculptures in 
chapel No. 39, and the exquisite Virgin 
carved by Juan Martinez Monta&es, 
the Phidias of Seville (ob. 1640). 
This sweet and dignified model was 
the favourite of his great pupil Alonso 

The Coro is open to the high altar, 
and is railed off by a fine gilt reja^ the 
work of Sancho Mufioz, 1519. The 
Silleria del Coro was carved by Nufix) 
Sanchez, 1475, Dancart, 1479, and 
Guillen, 1548. Obs. in the stalls the 
Moorish traceries denoting the Ori- 
ental influence and the archiepiscopal 
throne in the centre: the elegant 
facistol is by Bartolome Morel, 1570, 
In the entre loa coros is put up during 
Easter week the exquisite bronze 
candlestick, 25 feet high, called El 
Tenebrario, one of the finest specimens 
of bronze work of the 16th centy. 
which exists (it may be seen in the 
sacristy), and wrought,* in 1562, by 
the same Morel: when the Miserere is 
sung in Holy Week, it is lighted with 
thirteen candles, twelve are put out 
one after another, indicating mat the 
Apostles deserted Christ ; one aloue of 

* Far further detftils, see Gonzalez de Leon, 
foL, p. 110. 

white wax is left buiiiing, and is a 
symbol of the Virgin true to the last. 
At £aster also, tiie Cirio pascfwl or 
"fount-candle," which is eaual to a 
lar^e marble pillar, 24 feet high, and 
weighing 7 or 8 cwt. of wax, is placed 
to the 1. of the high dltar. 

Before ascending the steps to it obs. 
the two pulpits and the rejaprincipd, 
made in 1518 by the lay Domimcan 
Fr". de Salamanca : those at the side 
are by Sancho Mufioz, 1518, and are 
first-rate specimens. 

The Oothio Betablo of the high altar 
see plan (11), divided into 44 compart- 
ments, is unequalled in Spain in size 
and elaborate details ; each compart- 
ment contains a group of painted and 
gilt sculpture, representing subjects 
from the Old and Nevr Testament, and 
the life of the Virgin, and is termina- 
ted by a crucifix, and the life-size 
figures of St. John and the Virgin. 
This retablo was desired in 1482 by 
Dancart, and was continued by several 
other sculptors and painters, who 
finished it in 1526.* In 1550. the 
sides of the presbytery were covered in 
the same style by Baldun and other 
sculptors, who finished them in 1564. 
In the centre of the Betablo is an 
image of Nuestra Seuora de la Sede, 
made of silver, in 1596, by Francisco 
Alfaro; the tabernacle and ele^t 
book-stands on the altar, exquisite 
specimens of the Renaissance style, 
are by the same artist. There is here 
a small, dark room, called Sacristia 
aUa (41), where the plate used for the 
daily service of the church is kepi 
The Alphonsine tables, now in the 
hands of the cleaner, which are 
placed on certain days on the altar, 
are kept in this room. This interest- 
ing reUquary is in the form of a trip- 
tych. In different square compart- 
ments are placed the relics, the homers 
of which are set with cameos. The 
outside is covered with silver plates, 
with repousse work representing the 
Annunciation of the Virgin, and arms 
of Castile and Leon ; it was given to 

* For further particnUrs. see Gonzalez de 
Leon, * Noticla Artistica,' voL U., 4to., SeviUA, 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Bmte Se.— Cathedral 


the cathedral in the 13ih centy. by 
Don Alonso el Sabio. 

Walking ronnd the lateral chapels, 
and b^inning at the door of the Sa- 
grario with those on the W., is that de 
lo8 Jacomes (22). Obs. a Roelas, 
retouched by one Molina and quite 
spoilt. In the next chapel, San 
Leandro (23), is a Betahlo painted by 
Pedro Marmolejo de Villegas, bom 
at Seville, 1520-1570, and an imitator 
of the Florentine school. Obs. the 
portrait of Diego de Boldan, who gave 
this Betahlo. In the Gapilla de N. 8. 
del Consiielo (25), is a ** Holy Family/* 
the masterpiece of Alonso Miguel de 
Tobar, the best, perhaps, of Murillo's 
pupils, 1678-1758. Next, a fine 
*' Nativity,** by Luis de Vargas, who 
may be called the Pierino del Vaga of 
Seville, 1502-1569. Obs. the predeUa 
of this picture, which is different in 
style from other works by the same 

Coming now to the chapels on 
the rt., in the Chapel of Santa 
Ana (28), there is a Gothic retahlo, 
divided into compartments, with 
figures painted on panel towards the 
middle of the 15th century, an inter- 
esting specimen of the old Spanish 
school. The painting in the lower 
part, which represents St. Anna, was 
placed there, as the inscription states, 
in 1504, by Hernandez y Barba Mar- 
molejo. This altar is in the upper 
part, and forms a tribune, underneath 
which a door leads to the Archives, 
which are very perfect, as the chapter 
sent them to Cadiz, and] they thus 
escaped being made into cartridges by 
Boult. Adjoining is the Mayordomia, 
"Examine the splendid choral books. 
Returning to the cathedral, in the 
chapel of San Jose (29), obs. a 
"Nativity," by Fr°. Antolinez, ob. 
1676 ; and a " Marriage of the Virgin " 
by Valdes Leal ; and in the next, a 
statue of Hermenegildo, by Montafies ; 
and the magnificent tomb of the 
Archbp. Juan de Cervantes, ob. 1453, 
the work of Lorenzo de Mercadante. 

The next chapel, de la Antig^ (31), 
is one of the Sancta Sanctorum, on ac- 
count of the ancient mural picture 
which exists in the centre of the altar. 

It represents the Virgin standing with 
the liafant Saviour leaning on her left 
aim, and a rose in her right hand. 
This picture belongs to the Byzantine 
school : it is not known when it was 
taken to the cathedral, or when it was 
painted. In 1578 it was placed in the 
place it now occupies. The paintings 
representing this, with portraits of 
those who helped to remove the Virgin, 
may be seen m this chapel. Obs. the 
marble altar, the silver railing with 
the words " Ave Mario," the fine pla- 
teresque tomb of Archbp. Mendoza, not 
the Cardinal, erected in 1509, and 
carved by Miguel Florentin ; opposite, 
that of Archbp. Luis de Salcedo, a 
feeble imitation in 1 741 . The frescoes 
were painted by Domingo Martinez. 
The marble statues in the Betahlo are 
by Pedro Duque Comejo. 

Now advance into the transept, and 
look up at the Gothic balconies of the 
galleries. The mahogany clock is in 
modem taste. To the rt. of the Puerta 
de la Lonja is the celebrated ** La 
Genera>cion " of Luis de Vargas. The 
breast of Eve was covered by the 
prudish chapter. This truly Italian 
picture, and the painter's masterpiece, 
is also called " La Garnba,'" from the 
leg of Adam, which Mateo Perez de 
AJesio is said to have said was worth 
more than all his colossal *' Saint 
Christopher," painted opposite in fresco 
in 1544, and which is 32 feet high. 
In the predeUa of this picture there 
are a series of heads copied from 
Kafael's " Dispute of the Sacrament." 
Among them is the portrait of the 
donatorio. San Cristobal is painted 
at the entrance of most Spanish 
cathedrals, of colossal size, that all 
may see hUn, because all who look on 
him cannot come on that day to an 
evil death. He carries the Infant 
Saviour, who holds the globe in his 
hand, across a river. In the Gapilla 
de la Santa Cmi (33), is a ''Descent," 
by Pedro Fernandez Guadalupe, 1527. 

Next enter the elegant Saoiistia de 
loB Calioes, in the chapel of Los Dolores, 
designed in 1530 by Diego de Rialio. 
Obs., opposite the entrance, the fine 
crucifix by Montafies. In the centre 
of the wall to the 1. is a picture 


^ouie 86. — Seville : Cathedral. 

Sect. V. 

Tlas of Cathedral at SBvn.LE. 

1. Pnerta Mayor (or Grande); 

2. de Pan Uignel. 

8. de San Jnan (or Bantlamo). 

4 — — de las Oampanillas. 

A — -delo8Palo8(ordelaTorre). 

6 — — de la Lo^Ja (inr San Cri»- 

7. de loB Naranjos (or del 


8. delLagarto. 

<i. del Sagrario. 

11. Gapilla Mayor. 

12. — -Real, 

m. '— de San Pedro. 

14. •^— de la Gonoepcion Grande. 

15. deNnestraSenora del Pilar. 

16. de Los Rvnngelistas. 

17. do la Ylmtadon (or Don- 


Gapilla de Ran Frandsoo de AbIs. 
— — de 8antia(;o el Mayor. 
— — de los Eocalas. 
— — de San Antonio. 
— • de los Jaoomes. 

de San Leandro. 

— - del Santo Angfel. 

de N. Sefiora del Oonsoelo. 

— de Baa laldoro. 
— — de Saa Lanreano. 

de Santa Ana. 

de San Joed. 

^de Saa Hermenegildo (or 

del Gardenid Genraatee). 

de la Anticna. 

— — de la Gamoa. 

de la Santa Cmz. 

de Nneiitm Reiiora de los 

Dolores. uiumz-t 

Gapilla de San Andrew. 

de la Pariflcacion (or d«l 

— de San Gregorio. 
de Nnestra Seiiora de !• 

— — de la Goooepdon Cbica. 
de la Ananciftokm (or 

flacziatia de la OapQla Mayor. 
— » de la Aatigoa. 

de los Galfces. 

Mayor (or de los Alhtgas). 

Ante-Saia de la Sacristia Mayor 

Sala Capital V. 




4|jO0qj> Qf Fernando Colon. 


Boute 86. — Cathedral, 


painted in 1817 by Goya, of the patron 
saints of Seville, 8S. Justa and Rufina. 
The models were two frail ladies of 
Madrid named Ramona and Sabina. 
Underneath this picture there is an 
interesting old panel of the Spanish 
school, painted at the end of the 15th 
centy. and signed by Juan Nuflez, a 
pupil of Sanchez de Castro. It 
represents the Virgin Mary with 
the dead Christ in her arms — St 
Michael and St. Vincent, and portrait 
of the donor. At each side of this 
picture there are two paintings on panel 
of the German school — one which re- 
presents the death of the Vii'gin, the 
other a Dolorosa embracing a dead 
Christ. On the other side, a Con- 
cppcion by Murillo, of no great merit. 
Opposite there is a triptych by Morales, 
au Ecce Homoy with Saint John and 
the Virgin on each side. To the rt., 
in the angle, is the Tintoretto-like 
portrait of Contreras, painted in 1541 
by L. de Vargas, and the Beata 
Dorotea by Murillo. Opposite is St. 
Ferdinand adoring the image of Nues- 
tra Sra. de las Satallas, now in the 
cathedral. To the rt. of the doorway 
is the Death of a Saint, by Zurbaran, 
und to the 1. a Trinity, by El Greco. 
Tliere are several other pictures of 
indifferent merit in this sacristy, by 
Zurbaran and other painteris. Obs. 
the marble tables and pavement. In 
the next chapel are four tombs of armed 
knights and ladies. 

Enter the antesala (anteroom) of 
the principal vestry where the 
church plate is kept, the Sacriatia 
Mayors (45), which occupies tlie 
Hpace of the last chapel on this 
side : obs. the trunk-like roof and 
cardinal Virtues in niches. The Sa- 
cristia, the triumph of the rich plater- 
osque style, was designed in 1530 by 
Diego de Riafio, who died in 1533. It 
Wiis built by Martin de Gainza (1535- 
1 543), with some alterations from the 
original plan. It may be pointed out 
as one of the finest specimens of deco- 
ration produced by Spanish Renais- 
sance s^le. Obs. the carved door, the 
decorative sculptures, and the plate- 
chests. On each side are two indif- 
ferent paintings by Murillo, represent- 

ing San Leandro and San Isidore. 
Three fine paintings on panel by 
Alexo Fernandez, have been placed 
here ; they were formerly in the 
Sacrietia alta. The "Descent from 
the Cross," over the altar, is by Pedro 
Campafla, who, bom at Brussels in 
150'3, and a pupil perhaps of Michael 
Angelo, was one of the first to intro- 
duce the Italian style. Painted in 
1548, it now seems somewhat dark 
and hard ; but such, when it was first 
exhibited, was its life-like awful cha- 
racter, that Pacheco* was afraid to 
remain after dusk alone : and before 
it Murillo used to stand, watching, 
as he said, until those holy men should 
have finished taking down the Saviour, 
and before this picture he desired to 
be buried ; it then decorated the altar 
of his parish church. Soulfs vandals 
broke the picture into five pieces, and 
so it was left until more peaceable 
times, when the chapter employed 
Joaquin Cortes, who was occupied for 
three months in the restoration. Obs. 
the 3 curious paintings by Alejo Fer- 
nandez, the master of Castillo, whose 
pupils were Cano and Murillo, painted 
at the beginning of the 16th centy. 
The fine silver monstrance is kept 
here : it was finished in 1580-87, by 
Juan de Arfe, who also wrote a pam- 
phletf explaining its structure and 
subjects of the relievos. This mon- 
strance was repaired in 1668 by Juan 
de Segura, who added the figure of 
the Virgin, and notwithstanding these 
additions is one of the grandest speci- 
mens which exist of Spanish silver- 
smith's work. Underneath it in the 
same closet are several pieces of 
church-plate. Obs. especially a splen- 
did Gothic cross and candlestick. Near 
the entrance door are kept the large 
silver candelabra, and portable silver 
altar of the monstrance,which is canied 
by 20 men. Obs. the exquisite Tenebra- 
Ho, or bronze candlestick, used during 
the HolyWeek, with the statues of Jesus 
Christ and the Apostles— the finest 
specimen of the kind existing in Spain, 
tjnderneath the picture of the Descent 
by Campa&a are kept the relics. Obs, 

• * Arte de U Pintura.* p. 67. 
f See Ce«n'e article of Arfe. 


Boute S6.—SeviUe: Cathedral 

Sect. V. 

the splendid monstrance studded with 
1200 jewels; a gold censer; a cross, 
said to be made from the first gold 
brought by Columbus from America ; a 
fine Gothic cross of 1530 by Francisco 
Merino; the rock-crystal cup be- 
longing to St. Ferdinand ; a iGothic 
Lignum Grucis; an agate chalice. 
The identical keys presented to St 
Ferdinand when Seville surrendered : 
that given by the Jews is of iron 
gilt, and the letters on the wards 
represent " Melech hammelakim giph- 
thohh MeleJc kolhaaretz gaho" — the 
King of kings will open, the king of 
all the earth will enter ; translated by 
Spaniards Dios abrird y rey entrard ; 
the other key of silver gilt was given 
by Axataf, and is inscribed in Arabic, 
** May AUah render eternal the domi- 
nion of Islam in this city" On each side 
of the sacristy are kept the splendid 
vestments. Obs. those embroidered at 
the Carthusian convent of Casalla. 

The Relahlo of the Gapilla del Ma- 
risoal (36) contains some of the latest 
and finest works of Campafia. 

The Sala Capitular, or chapter-house, 
at the S.E. of the cathedral (46). is 
another of Biafio's plateresque saloons, 
and easier to be described with the 
penoU than pen ; built in 1530, it is 
eliptical, 50 ft. long by 34 ft.: obs. 
the marble pavement, worked to cor- 
respond with the elaborate ceiUng. 
The beautiful ^* Concepcion*" is by 
Murillo ; St. Ferdinand is by Pacheco ; 
the Four Virtues, with Shields and 
Children, are by Pablo de C^spedes, 
the learned painter-poet of Cordoba, 
1538, 1608, and re-touched by Murillo 
in 1667. The 16 marble medallions 
were made at Genoa ; the 8 ovals 
between the windows are painted by 
Murillo. Betuming through the Ca. 
del Mariscal, to the Contaduria Mayors 
is a St. Ferdinand, by Murillo, and 
a Justa and Bufina by Pablo de 

The first chapel on the £. end, called 
de la ** Concepdon grande ** (14), is in 
degenerate cinquecento : here lies bu- 
ried Gonzalo Nufiez de 6epulveda,who, 
in 1654, riohlv endowed the " Octave " 
in honouJr of the ** Immaculate Con- 

cepcion." Obs. the pictures treating 
of that mystery ; the large crucifix 
has been attributed to Alonso Cano. 
At this Octave and at Corpus, the 
Quiristers or Seises (formerly they 
were 6 in number) dance before thi) 
high altars with castanets and with 
plumed hats on their heads ; dressed 
as pages of the time of Philip III., 
they wear red and white for Corpus, 
blue and white for the festivals of the 

The Gapilla Beal (12) is almost a 
church by itself with its regular staff 
of clergy. Built in 1514 by Martin, de 
Gkiinza. it is artistically inferior to the 
saloons of Biafio, for the j)latere8que 
was then going out of &shion ; 81 ft. 
long, 59 wide, 130 hi^h, it is entered 
under a lofty arch. The statues of the 
Apostles and Evangelists were sculp- 
tured by Lorenzo del Vao and Campos 
in 1553, &om designs by Campaila. 
The Reja is of the bad period of 
Cdrlos II. : here are the tombs of 
Alonso el Sabio and Queen Beatrix, 
now covered with cloth-of-gold tissue 
crowns and sceptres, the gift of Queen 
Isabel II., and medallions of Garcia Pe« 
rez and Diego Perez de Vargas. Over 
the high altar is placed the V€rgen 
de los Beyes, an image given to St. Fer- 
dinand by St. Louis of France. This 
life-size image is of great archaso- 
logical interest ; it is made like a mov- 
able lay figure, the hair is of spun gold, 
and the shoes are like those used in the 
13th centy., ornamented with the lilies 
of France and the word Amor. In 
1873 the fine gold crown belonging to" 
this image, tlie gift of St. Ferdinand, 
was stolen. This image is seated on 
a silver throne, 13th-centy. work, em- 
bossed with the arms of CastUe and 
Leon. St Ferdinand, who died May 
31, 1252, lies before it stretched out in 
a silver shrine made in 1729, finely 
chiselled. The altar fi-ontal is also 
made of silver. The body, nearly per- 
fect, is displayed on May 30, Aug. 
22, and Nov. 23, and none should fail 
to attend the striking military Mass, 
when troops are marched in and the 
colours lowered to the conqueror 
of Seville : obs. tiie original sepulchre 
of the king, on which the Uma is 


Route Se.—The Alcazar. 


placed, with epitaplis in Latin and 
Spanish on the rt., and in Hebrew and 
Arabic to the 1., with orles of castles 
and lions; the epitaphs were composed 
by his son, Alonso el Sabio. In the 
13th and 14th centuries, when the 
anniversary of the death of King Fer- 
dinand was celebrated, 100 Moors, sent 
by the King of Granada, were placed 
with lighted wax torches in their hands 
romid the cata&lque in the centre of 
the church. Underneath the altar in 
a small room is kept the original coffin, 
covered with silk, in which the body 
of the king was formerly placed. 
On the small altar is an interesting 
ivory statuette of the Virgin of las 
BataUas, King Ferdinand carried this 
image in front of him, fastened to his 
• saddle, in his campaigns. The sword 
of St. Ferdinand is kept in this 
chapel. In this chapel also is buried 
the gentle and beautiful Maria de 
Padilla, the mistress of Pedro el Cruel, 
and the Minister of King Charles III., 
Count Florida Blanca. In the Sala 
Capitular of this chapel there is a St. 
Ferdinand by MuriUo, and in the sacris- 
ty opposite a Dolorosa attributed to 
Murillo ; two portraits by Pacheco, of 
St. Ignatius and San Francis Xavier. 
The Belahlo in the Capilla de San 
Pedro (13), In the Herrera style, contains 
pictures by Zurbaran, 1598-1662 : obs. 
the lock of the grating made by Cor- 
dero. In the chapel of Knestra SeSora 
del Pilar (15) there is an interesting 
example of Spanish sculpture signed 
MiUan, In the N. transept, in a 
small chapel at the 1. of Uie door 
called JV"- S"- de Bden, is a charm- 
ing "Virgin and Child." by Alonso 
Oano. In the Capilla de San Tran- 
eiBOO (18) is the Assumption of the Tu- 
telar, one of the best works of the 
presumptuous Herrera d Mozo. The 
window, painted in 1556, is remark- 
able. In the Capilla de Santiago (19) 
is a picture of that patron of the Spains, 
riding over Moors with miraculous 
energy, by Juan de las Boelas (1558- 
1625). The painted window, the 
Conversion of St Paul, 1560, is full 
of the richest reds and blues ; the 
San Lorenzo is bv Valdes. Obs. the 
tomb of Arohb. Vargas, ob. 1362, era 

1400 ;* and in the next ohapel, San 
Antonio (21), that of Baltazar del Bio, 
Bishop of Scalas, 1518, a firiend of Leo 
X. The arch is Italian work ; the last 
chapel contains the Fila or font, with 
the Giralda windows, painted in 1685. 
Here is the large and much-admired 
painting, the San Antonio of Murillo, 
painted in 1656. The kneeling figure 
of the saint was cut out of the canvas 
durmg the night of the 4th Nov. 1874. 
The Government telegraphed to their 
ministers and consuls abroad, and the 
picture was found in New York, thanks 
to the honesty of Mr. Sohaus, to whom 
it had been oflfered for £50. The pic- 
ture was sent back to Seville, and was 
placed in its original stalte with great 
skill by Sr. Martinez. In it the Infont 
Saviour attended by cherubs visits the 
kneeling monk. 

The cathedral staff formerly con- 
sisted of an archbishop, an auxiliary 
bishop, 11 (now reduced to 5) digni- 
taries, 40 (now reduced to 16) canons, 
20 prebendaries, 20 minor canons, 20 
veinteneros, and 20 chaplains of the 
quire. Their emoluments were very 
great: nearly 900 houses in Seville 
belonged .to the chapter, besides vast 
estates, tithes, and corn-rents. Mendi- 
zabal, in 1836, appropriated all this to 
the State, and the revenues are now 
much curtailed. 

The sexes were formerly not allowed 
to walk about or talk together ; the 
ancient SilentiaHi, in the form of 
celadoresy and periiQueros, beadles, 
and vergers, kept guard, and papal 
excommunications are suspended in 

§ 6. Alcazab. 

The Aloaiar is seen by applying at 
a small office near the entrance. A 
pass is furnished gratis. Before enter- 
ing, ask to see the Sala do Jfutioia, 
which is entered by a door to the left 
in the Patio. The Alcazar is entered 
by two gates, either by that de las Ban- 
dieras, where the colours are hoisted 
when the sovereign is residing, or by 
that de la Monteriay from whence he 

* See Introdudion, for ezplaiiatlon of the 
Spanish Era. OOCjIp 


Boute 86. — Seville : The Alcazar. 

Secfc. V. 

sallied forth to the chase. The grand 
portal was built by Don Pedro the 
Cruel, the great restorer of this 
palaoe. At &is period the elaborate 
Oriental decorations of the Alhambra 
were just completed by Yusuf I. ; 
and Pedro, who was frequently on the 
best terms with the Moors of Granada, 
desirous of adopting that style, em- 
ployed Moorish workmen. Obs. the 
<lelicate arabesques, the pillar-divided 
windows, ajimezes^ and the carved soffit. 
The quaint Gothic inscription almost 
looks like Cufic; it runs thus: ** El 
muy alto, y muy noble, y muy poderoso, 
y conquistador Don Pedro, por la gracia 
de Dio8, Bey de CktstiUa y de Leon, 
mando facer estos alcazares y estag 
fa^adas que fue hecho en la era mil 
quatro dentos y dos," that is a.d. 1364. 
— " The most high, noble, and powerful 
conqueror, Don Pedro, by the Grace 
of God, King of Castile and Leon, 
ordered these castles and facades to be 
made in the era One thousand four 
hundred and two," — a.d. 1364. 

The royal residence — Alcazar — al- 
Kasr, the house of Cnsar, whose name 
is synonymous with majesty, occupies 
the site of that of the Eoman prsdtor ; 
it was rebuilt in the 10th and 11th 
centuries, by Jalubi, a Toledan archi- 
tect, for Prince Abdu-r-rahman An- 
na'ssir Lidin-Allah (the defender of 
the religion of God). 

It has been often and much altered. 
Don Pedro began by repairing the whole 
of the western side, and his painted 
ceilings still remain, as the badge of 
Ids Banda evinces. Isabel erected 
the beautiful chapel upstairs, with the 
very interesting Azulejo ornaments 
Charles V. was here married to Isabel 
of Portugal, and being of chilly habits, 
put up the fire-places in the second 
rtoor to the E. Philip II. introduced 
the portraits into the hall of ambassa- 
dors; Philip III., in 1610, built the 
armoury, and Philip V., in 1733, raised 
the pillared ^jjea^ero; here he resided 
in morbid seclusion for 2 years, amusing 
liimself ^vith religious p^inances, and 
fishing in his pond. The oficinas over 
the baths of Padilla were erected by 
Ferd. VI. This Alcazar was bar- 

barously whitewashed in 1813, but re- 
stored m 1857. 

On entering, the columns in the 
vestibule are Boman, with Gk>thic 
capitals : these belonged to the orip:inal 
palace. Don Pedro brought from Va- 
lencia many other pillars taken out of 
the Royal Aragonese residence, which 
he destroyed. The grand Paiio is 
superb, 70 ft. by 54. It was modern- 
ised in 1569. The stucco work is by 
Fr". Martinez. Many of the doors, 
ceilings, and AztUejoe are the genuine 
Moorish ones ; the oldest portion fronts' 
the garden. Visit the pretty puppet 
Patio de las Muflecas, and the adjoin- 
ing saloons, which have been restored. 
The hall of ambassadors has a glorious 
Media naranja roof: but the Spanish 
balconies and royal portraits mar the . 
Moorish character. In the next room 
it is said that Don Pedro caused his 
brother, El Maestre de Santiago, whom 
he had invited as a guest, to be mur- 
dered. Another anecdote of this 
Richard III. of Spain deserves men- 
tion. Abu Said, d Bey Bermejo^ who 
had usurped the throne of Ishmael II. 
of Granada, fled to Seville from the 
rightfal heir, under promise of safe 
conduct from Pedro, who received, 
feasted, and then put his guest to 
death, in order to seize his treasure in 
jewels under circumstances of inhos- 
pitable and mocking cruelty.* 

Fail not to visit the truly Arabian 
suite of rooms fronting the garden, 
and then ascend to the second storey, 
modernised by Charles V. : walk out on 
the terrace over the garden : visit Isa- 
bel's chapel, which lies to the N.W. : 
it is very small, 15 ft. by 12, but is 
covered with cinquecento tiles; it 

* See, his * Chronica,* chap. 6. Gayangos 
found, in an Arabic MS. in the British Museum, 
a contemporary account of the event. Among 
the gems is specified " three huge rubies," bip 
as a pigeon's egg — htievo de paloma. One vra^ 
a Koh-i-noor, to which Pedro attached sucli 
value that he specified it in his will, as the 
" Balax of the Red King." This particular gem 
was given by Pedro co our Black Prince after 
the victory at Navarrete. This is the " fair 
ruby, great like a racket-ball," which Queen 
Elizabeth showed'to Mary of Scots' ambaRsador. 
Melville, and which the canny chiel wanted her 
to give to his mistresi*, and is the identical gem 
which now adonis the royal crown of Knglai^ 
in the Tower. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Boule 86. — Picture Gallery. 


is quite Peniginesque, and perhaps 
is the finest Christian specimen of this 
decoration in Spain. The titles were 
painted in 1504, by Nictdoso Fran- 
cisco, an Italian. See inscription on a 
label to 1. In the large chapel of the 
Alcazar, on the high altar, there is an 
image of the Virgin, probably of the 
time of Charles V., imitated in style 
from the older one at the cathedral. 

Pass next alon^ a corridor to the 
Cnarto del Prinoipe. This Alham- 
braic-looking room is placed over the 
entrance vestibule. In a long saloon 
downstairs were kept, or rather were 
neglected, in heaps on the floor, those 
antiquities, which chance discovered 
"while a road was making at Italica, 
and which were not reburied, from the 
accident of the Alcaide^ Don Francisco 
Bruno, being a man of taste. 

Now visit the lovely cinquecento 
Gardens, laid out by Charles ; they are 
among the most curious in Europe. 
Obs. the tank where Philip V. fished, 
and the vaulted Bailos where Maria 
de Padilla, mistress of Pedro el Cruel, 
bathed, and which probably were ori- 
ginally prisons. Maria ruled in this 
Alcazar^ and so tamed her royal beast 
that the vulgar attributed her influence 
over Pedro to magic, but it was nothing 
but the natural and all-sufficient 
charms, the toitchcraft of a fair and 
gentle woman. The fine tiles, with 
Italian Benaissance designs, in the 
large room near the garden, called of 
Charles V., deserve notice. This room 
is unfortunately turned into a stable ; 
happily the pens for the horses are 
not put against the wall. The gar- 
dens are those of a Hesperus ; the plots 
are divided by orange-clad walls ; there 
is a labyrintii ; the balmy air is per- 
fiuned by the azahar, or blossom, and 
by the golden fruit, large date palms 
which bear fruit, bananas, etc. The 
compartments are arranged in quaint 
patterns (such as the eagles and coats 
of arms of Charles V. cut out of box 
and myrtle). Beware of certain 
hidden fountains in the walks, with 
which the unwary traveller will be 
sprinkled. Visit the semi-Moorish 
azttlejo-adomed Kiosk in the under 

[%iiii, 1882.] 

garden; ascend the rustic terrace to 
the N. for the view. 

Those interested may see some 
Moorish remains in a Patio of a house 
near the Alcazar. 

§ 7. Picture Gallbbt. 

The Fiotore Gallery should next be 
visited. It is situated at the S. side of 
the Plaza del Museo. The statue of 
Murillo in the middle of the square was 
erected in 1866. The collection of 
paintings is badly arranged around the 
ugly walls of the former church and 
sacristy of the suppressed convent of 
la Merced^ which was founded by St. 
Ferdinand in 1249, and enlarged during 
the reign of Charles V., and the 
general effect is unpleasant. 

Strangers are admitted daily from 
10 to '4 gratuitously; it is customary 
to give 4 reals to the attendants. An 
excellent little catalogue, price 4 reals, 
can be bought of the porter. D. Jose 
Contreras (35, Calle Miguel del Cid, 
which street turns out of the Calle de 
Baiios) can be recommended as an 
experienced copyist of Murillo. Dn. 
Juan Bejarano is also strongly recom- 
mended, his studio is at the picture 
gallery. An "Exposicion de bellas 
artes" has been opened near the 
Alcazar. Gk>od copies may be ob- 
tained from the pictures at Madrid 
and Seville, and originals of merit 
from contemporary Spanish painters. 

The Museo of Seville is the creation 
of accident and individuals. In 1836, 
upon the suppression of the convents. 
Dean (then Canon) Manuel Lopez 
Cepero — a gentleman of real taste and 
honour, had the best pictures removed 
from the convents to the cathedral, and 
two years afterwards SeHor Bejarano 
managed, by aid of a private subscrip- 
tion, to move them into their present 

The gallery will probably disappoint 
those wno expect to find a large col- 
lection of pictures. It only contains 
266 paintings in all, of which 100 are 
by unknown artists — chiefly of the 
Sevilllan school, and only 163 are un- 
doubted originals : these, however, in- 
clude some of the choicest gems of the 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -.^jx.^JJ^-x t'*^. 


Route 86. — Seville: Picture Gallery. 

Sect. V. 

Andalucian school, although Velazquez 
(bom in Seville) is entii-ely unrepre- 
eented, and Alonso Gano is represented 
by only one of his minor works. Of 
Murillo there are 24 examples (21 of 
which are undoubted originals) ; of 
Zurbaran, 19 ; of Herrera el. Vi^Oj 10 ; 
of Herrera el Mozo, 2 ; of Pacheco, 6 ; 
of Boelas, 1 ; of Juan de Castillo (mas- 
ter of Murillo and Alonso Cano), 7 ; 
of Alonso Cano, 1 ; of Oespedes, 2 ; of 
Bocanegra, 1 ; of Juan de Valdes Leal, 
11 ; of Martin de Vos, 1 ; &c. 

Enter now the principal saloon, which 
was formerly the convent church ; it 
consists of one nave. Here 165 of the 
pictures (including all the MuriUos) 
are hung. The visitor will of course 
jirst examine the works of Murillo, for 
here, on his native soil, he can best be 

BartolomS Estehan Murillo (nat. Jan. 
1, 1616, ob. April 3, 1682). His finest 
pictures were painted for the convent 
de los CapucMnos, which was biiilt in 
1627, and destroyed by the mob in 

Murillo had three distinctive styles ;* 
he had also tiiree favourite subjects 
which he especially loved to paint ; his 
beggars are beyond praise; his Fran- 
ciscan monks are faithful delineations 
of monastic nature, in which dignity 
of attitude and beneficence of heart 
are admirably combined with a heavenly 
expression of beatified content; his 
virgins are fine conceptions of female 
beauty, unruffled by guilt or passion. 
Pearls, indeed, beyond price are some 
of Murillo*8 female creations, in which 
the hidden strength of chastity in 
all its unconquerable majesty is most 
exquisitely portrayed. His Infant 
Christs are, however, with one or 
two exceptions, children and nothing 
more — with sweet, childlike, loving 
countenances, but without a trace of 
any supernatural intelligence in their 
bonny olack eyes. 

Of the 24 pictures by Murillo which 

* Viz., the FriOy his earliest, which was dark, 
with a decided outline ; the CdlidOt bis second, 
the colouring of which was wanner, the drawing 
being equally well defined ; and the Vaporosot 
his last, which was less decided in its detail and 
less sparing in its colouring : his latest style 
li&s contributed moet to his popularity. 

exist in this musemn, only a third part 
are really worthy of this painter. 

To the left of the entrance door, 
fronting where the high altar formerly 
stood, is the large Concepcion, No. 68, 
which was painted by Murillo to be 
placed at a great height in the cathe- 
dral. It is not easy to appreciate the 
merit of this painting, for want of dis- 
tance, but it is one of his finest works. 
Facing the entrance door are four pic- 
tures, undoubtedly the best in this 
gallery: No. 84, St. Thomas de Villa- 
neuva; No. 88, St. Francis embracing 
the crucified Saviour ; 90, San Felix 
Cantalicio, with the Infant Saviour in 
his arms ; 92, St. Anthony of Padua 
kneeling before the Infant SaAlour 
seated on an open book. It is difficult 
to praise too highly the beauty of the 
composition of these four pictures, the 
elegance and grace of the figures, and 
charm of the colouring. These paint- 
ings, with the St. Elizabeth and two 
large paintings, the Dream of the 
Roman Senator, at the Acad, of Madrid, 
are Murillo's best works. Opposite, 
or to the left of the entrance door, is 
No. 44, St. John the Baptist, painted 
in the manner of Titian; No. 45, 
St. Joseph, a very pleasant picture; 
No. 55, a Concepcion, far inferior to 
those at Madrid or Paris, although 
the angels are fine ; No. 52, the Virgin, 
called de la Servilleta^ from the tradi- 
tion of its having been painted on u 
napkin. The remaining pictures by 
Murillo, except No. 95, SS. Justa y 
Eufina, and No. 83, St. Leandro and 
St. Buenaventura, are less important. 

Zurbaran (1598-1662) follows next 
in merit and number. His finest work 
is No. 1, The Apotheosis of Santo 
Tomas de Aquino, which occupies th« | 
place where the high altar once stood. 
The saint is represented in the upper 
pai-t of the picture, surrounded by 
Christ, the Virgin, St. Paul, St. I>o- 
minic, and the four Doctors of the 
Church : Charles V., Archbishop Dez«| 
and other personages of the time aM 
represented kneeling in the foreground 
A head which appears behind th»i 
Emperor is said to be the portrait qf! 
Zurbaran. It is a most efiecitivc piece! 
of painting, and undoubtedly the bejl 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Souie 86. — Old BottBeB, de* 


work of this artist. The remaining 
pictures by him are not so good ; his 
single figures are the best. No. 14, the 
In£nt Saviour weaving a crown of 
thorns ; No. 122, the Beato Pinzon ; 
Nos. 136, 137, 138, three Bishops. They 
are remarkable for their good colouring 
and realistic tendencies. The large 
compositions by Zurbaran are generally 
bad. No. 67, Sam Hugo, and No. 74, 
the Virgen de las Cuevaa, hang to the 
left, near the large Concepcion by 

The remaining pictures which are 
worth noticing, which belong to the 
school of Seville are : No. 89, El Mar- 
tirio de San Andres, by Boelas, which 
is placed near the entrance. Boelas 
was Zurbaran's master; his Veronese 
colouring is very fine. No. 5, by Castillo, 
the master of Murillo and Cano ; No. 
6, San Pedro Nolasco, by Pacheco, the 
master of Velazquez. The standing 
figure in the boat has been supposed 
to be a portrait of Cervantes. Nos. 107 
and 110, two Saints by Valdes Leal, 
which are placed behind the statue 
of St. Jerome ; and No. 69, the Last 
Supper, by Cespedes ; and No. 109, San 
Hermenegildo, by Herrera el Viejo. 
Three fine paintings by Juan de 
Valdfe Leal have lately been added to 
this collection. They represent The 
Temptations of St. Anthony, The 
Ascension, and Conception of the 
Virgin. The remaining pictures hardly 
deserve a special notice. 

Sculpture. — The best piece of sculp- 
ture is a St. Gerdnimo, by Torrigiano,* 
the rival of Michael Angelo. This 
statue is larger than life-size, and is 
modelled in terracotta in a most ad- 
niirable manner. Goya and Oean 
Bermudez have considered it the best 

* This great Italian, born at Florence about 
1470, and well known for breaking his co- 
pnpil Michael Angelo's nose, was sent 'to 
Spain by his patron. Pope Alexander VI. (a 
Borgia and a Spaniard), tie came to Granada, 
hoping to execute the sepulchres of Ferdinand 
and Isabel ; reijected, he tnmed to England, and 
•wrought that of Henry VII. in Westminster 
Abbey. Torrigiano returned to Spain, where 
he modelled a virgin, of which the charming 
3iano a la teta. in the Seville, plaster-shops, is 
a cast. He died in 1522 in the Seville prison ; 
the reasons for his imprisonment have never 
peen satisfigictorily known. 

specimen of Renaissance sculpture 
existing in Spain. Torrigiano wrought 
the sepulchre and screens of Henry 
VII.'s chapel at Westminster. Obs. a 
San Bruno by Montafies. The remain- 
ing sculptures by this author are not 
so important 

In the court-yard, patiOf may be seen 
several fragments of Koman sculpture, 
found at Italica, which consist of capi- 
tals, inscriptions, terracottas, and a 
variety of small objects ; among them 
some belong to the Arab dominion. 

The fine azidejoe proceed from the 
convents pulled down in Seville, and 
have been collected by the Oomision 
de Monumentos. 

§ 8. Old Houses, Public Buildings, 
Squabes ; Hospital of La Cabidad. 

Among the most remarkable houses 
in Seville visit the Casa O'Shea, in the 
CaUe Guzman el Bueno, No. 8. It is 
a perfect Moorish specimen. In the 
adjoining Calle de los Abades, in the 
same street, the Casa Carasa is a 
superb specimen of the Aragonese 
plateresque, erected in 1526 by Canon 
Pinero ; but it has been much restored 
and modernised, and is now a private 
house, and cannot be visited. Go also 
to the CaUe de las Duefias, No. 3, a 
most Moorish palace of the Duke de 
Alba, where Loi-d Holland lived. It 
consisted once of 11 Patios, with 9 
fountains, and more than 100 marble 
pillars. Walk through its gardens and 
the forest of orange-trees and myrtles. 
In the Oasa CantillaiLa, Puerta de 
Jerez, Lord Wellesley resided. The 
house was afterwards jjaade a diligence 
inn, and then a wine-store. 

The family house of the Taveras, 
which all who read the charming 
drama of Sancho Ortiz de Roelas will 
visit, is in the Calle de la Inqnisioion 
Vieja. Here is still shown the garden 
door, by which Sancho el ; Bravo 
intended to carry off the beautiful 
Estrella de Sevilla. 

Next visit the Casa de Pilatos, near 
the Gate of Carmona ; it belongs to 
the Duke of Medinaceli; so called 
because said to be built in imitation 
of that of Pontius Pilate at Jerusalem, 
z 2 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -.^j'w^^-t t'*^ 


Boute 86. — Seville : PMic Buildings. 

Sect. V. 

Tho black cross in the Patio is the 
point from whence las Estadones, the 
stations to the Crns del Campo, begin. 
No city is without these stations, which 
lead to the Calvario, a Golgotha, or 
hill with crosses on it, and erected in 
memorial of the crucifixion. During 
Passion Week these stations are visited 
and at each of them a prayer is said. 
This palace was built in 1533, by the 
^eat nobleman of the day, Fadrique 
Enriquez de Bibera, in commemoration 
of his having performed the pilgrimage 
to Jerusalem in 1519.* Enter the 
lower rooms, and obs. the splendid tiles 
and the coats of arms, the fine in- 
terlaced woodwork of the windows, 
picturesque re^aSt and doorways. The 
style proves how closely the Spanish 
architects of the 15th centy. imitated 
the Saracenic forms. Obs. the Gothic 
balustrade over the entrance, the grand 
PatlOy with its fountains and Boman 
statues of Pallas, Ceres, and others. 
The Virgin's chapel is adorned in the 
most gorgeous Hispano Moresque style. 
Ascend the magnificent staircase ; obs. 
the splendid cupola and ceilings of the 
chief suite of rooms, in one of which is 
a ceiling painted by Pacheco. Facing 
the staircase hangs a good copy of the 
Vtrgen de la ServiUeta by Murillo. 
Everything that stucco, carving, Azu- 
lejOt and gilding could do, was done. In 
the lovely garden and lower arcade 
are several Boman busts and columns 
said to have come from Itdlica. Among 
them is a Bonus Pastor, 

Visit the Jews* quarters. Before 
thdr expulsion from Seville they lived 
in a separate ** Jewry," 1a Juderia, 
which resembled La Moreria, where 
the Morisooes dwelt, and is a perfect 
labyrinth of picturesque lanes. In the 
Juderia is the house of Bartolom^ Es- 
teban Murillo ; it lies close to the city 
wall, the last to the rt. in a small 
j^laza at the end of the CaUe de lope 
de Bueda, Plant de Alfaro, No. 2. 
Here the great painter died on the 
3rd April, 1682. Murillo's painting- 
room, nay, living-room — ^for he lived 

* He was accompanied by the poet Juan de 
la Encina, who pablished their tour, Tribagia^ 
lloma, 1521, also at Seville, 4to., 1606, and re- 
printed at Madrid, fol., 1748. 

to paint — is on the upper floor, and is 
still as sunny and as cheerful as his 
works. Obs. in his garden the foun- 
tain, and frescoes of fauns, mermaids, 
and women with musical instruments : 
they have been attributed to Murillo, 
but are most probably by Vergata. 
The parish church, La Santa Cms, in 
which he was buried, was pulled down 
under Soulfs rule, who scattered his 
bones. Murillo was baptised Jan. 1, 
1618, in the Magdalena; that eh. 
also Soult destroyed. Uis baptismal 
entry has escaped, and may be seen at 
San Pablo. The street in which he 
was bom now bears his name. His 
tomb consisted of a plain slab, placed 
before Campaiia's picture of the De- 
scent from the Cross, with a skeleton 
engraved on it, and the motto, " Vive 

El Oorral del Conde, Calle de San- 
tiago, is a barrack of washerwomen, in 
a large Patio surrounded by houses 
with wooden balconies. What a scene 
for the pallet ! what costume, balconies, 
draperies, colour, attitude, grouping I 
what a carrying of vases after tie 
antique! what a clatter of female 
tongues, a barking of dogs, a squalling 
of children — all living Murillos — 
assail the impertinente curtoso ! 

¥oT plateresqtie architecture, the best 
specimen is La Oasa del Aynntamiento, 
the corporation - house on the great 
phiza, built in 1545-64 by some great 
unknown. The exterior is a silver- 
smith chasing in stone-work, antl 
undoubtedly the most delicate example 
of Spanish plateresque work whicli 
exists, although unfortunately restored, 
and a heavy upper storey added. Here 
may be seen in the Archivo an inter- 
esting collection of well - arranged 
historical documents ; the title-page of 
the privileges granted by Philip IL 
to the town, admirably painted 
by Pantoja; a rich collection of 
seals and medals, and the banner of 
St. Ferdinand, a very remarkable 
specimen of early embroidery. King 
Ferdinand III., is represented in 
the centre, surrounded by a fine 
border of heraldic designs. Obs. the 
staircase, the carved doors, and the 
8ala grande haja, with the Spanish 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -^-.■w^^-i f»^ 


Bouie 86. — University. 


kings, aiTanged in 35 squar^ or 
La4iunareSy on the ceiling. Admirable 
also is the inscription on Spanish 
Justicia of the 15th centiuy ; the very- 
sound of which, so perfect in theory, 
practically implies delay, injustice, 
i-uin, and death. The Audienciat or 
high court of what is called Justice in 
Seville, sits in the opposite comer of 
the Plaza^ and is presided over by a 
Begente. The prison close by is called 
by the Majos, el colegio, the school for 
teaching rogues. 

The great square of Seville is called 
Plan Nueva. Several hotels, lodging- 
houses, and cafes are situated there, 
and it is the &shlonable promenade in 
summer evenings. The square of San 
Francisco, called so from the convent 
which occupied its site, is the forum of 
the city, the place of gossip. A great 
number of new houses are being built 
round it, which are unfortunately spoil- 
ing its former picturesque appearance. 

The best pictures in Seville, be- 
sides those already described in the 
cathedral andmuseo,are in La Caridad 
and the University. 

La Caridad is an admirably-con- 
ducted alms-house, under the charge of 
Sisters of Charity, destined for some 
80 poor, old, and chiefly bed-ridden, 
men : it lies near the river, and adjoins 
the custom-house ; the entrance is gra- 
tis, but a small fee ought to be given to 
the nun who attends for the poor. On 
ringing the bell admittance is granted 
at all hours. This hospital, dedicated 
to St. George, was founded in 1578, and 
rebuilt in 1661, by Miguel de Maflara 
Vicentelo de Leca, a friend of Murillo, 
who, when young, was in profligacy 
a Don Juan. He was buried in the 
Capilla Mayor. Bead his epitaph — 
cenizas del peor hombre que ha habido 
en el mundo. On entering the church, 
obs. the finely carved and painted De- 
scent from the Cross over the high 
altar ; it is the masterpiece of Pedro 
Boldan. In 1660-74 Murillo painted 
for this ch. the series of magnificent 
pictures, of which Soult carried off 5. 

The six originals that remain are 
an •* Infant Saviour " on panel, and a 
companion picture ^*St. John" both of 
them wonderfully painted, a ** San 

Juan de Dios,* very fine, and the 
** Pan y Feces,'' or Loaves and Fishes ; 
and " Moses striking the Bock,^* The 
latter is a representation of the Hagar- 
like thirst of tiie desert, and is justly 
called La Sed : the figure of Moses is, 
however, poor, and wants relief, but the 
parched foreground groups are excel- 
lent. Both pictures are colossal, and 
painted in a sketchy manner, calcu- 
lated for the height and distance of 
their position from the spectator,which, 
however, is inconveniently high and 
distant ; but here they still hang, in 
perfect preservation, like rich oranges 
on the bough where they originally 
budded. The two pictures at the en- 
trance under the choir are by Vald& 
Leal, his finest works. They represent 
Death destroying the world, and the 
dead body of a bishop, with the hand 
of Justice holding the balance. It 
would be difficult to find a romantio 
subject better expressed, or a more 
horrible and repugnant subject. 

§ 9. University, Churches, Gateb, 
ToBACoo Manufactory, Palace cop 
San Telmo. 

The TTniverdty of Seville was ori- 
ginally a convent erected by the Je- 
suits in 1565-79, after designs of Her- 
rera. When Charles III. expelled the 
order 'in 1767, the building was as- 
signed, by the praiseworthy efforts of 
Olavide, to purposes of education. A 
tolerable library has been formed from 
those of the suppressed convents, and 
the system of education has been mo- 
demised and improved since 1846. 

Although the position of the Coro 
Alto of the chapel spoils the general 
efiect, the raised alta mayor, with its 
tabernacle by Matias, 1604, is noble. 
The superb Corinthian EetahlOf de- 
signed Dy Alonso Matias, in 1606, 
contains three grand paintings by 
Eoelas — a Holy Family, with Jesuits ; 
a Nativity ; and an Adoration. Also 
an Annunciation by Pacheco; a St. 
John the Evangelist, and a St. John 
the Baptist, by Alonso Cano. Obs. 
the smaller picture by Boelas and par- 
ticularly the Infant Saviour. Al lado 
del Evangelio ftT^.iJi^ feOP^^W^u- 


Eoute 86. — SetnUe : Churches. 

Sect. V. 

ments of Francisco Duarte and his 
wife Oatalani, ob. 1554; both were 
brought in 1840 from the Oonvento de 
la Yictoria de Triana. 

The Betdblos of the chapels of la 
Conoepeioxi and Las Beliqiiias deserve 
notice ; in the latter are pictures 
by Francisco Pacheco. The two 
images made to be dressed, imagenea 
de vestivj of Francisco de Borja and San 
Ignacio,were wrought in 1610 by Mon- 
tafies ; the latter was coloured by Pa- 
checo, and probably is the best portrait 
of the founder of the order of Jesuits 
that exists; also, perhaps, by Montafies, 
a crucifix and a fine Uoncepcion ; 
and some indiflferent pictures by Oano, 
of the lives of San Cosme, San Damian, 
a Saviour, and a Holy Father. Amon^ 
the monumental curiosities removed 
from Santiago de la JEspada, obs. 
first, the founder's tomb, Lorenzo 
Suarez de Figueroa, with his favourite 
dog Amadis at his feet ; and next the 
sepulchre of the learned Benito Arias 
Montano, ob. 1598 ; these were brought 
also from the church of Santiago, and 
properly placed here as an example to 
young students ; remark the costume. 
In an adjoining apartment are 4 heads 
of Latin fathers by Alonso Oano. 2 
pictures by Eoelas, and a good Zur- 

On the suppression of the Cartuja 
convent, the burial place of the Bibera 
family, Dean Cepero induced their 
representative, the Duke of Medina- 
celi, to remove the fine sepulchres of 
his ancestors : that of Pedro Enriquez, 
ob. 1492, was sculptured at Genoa by 
Antonio Charona in 1606. The Virgin 
and Child is much admired, as also 
the weeping genius, called La Tea, 
from the reversed torch. The armed 
effigy is somewhat heavy. Obs. the 
statues of Diego Gomez de Ribera, 
ob. 1434, and his wife Beatriz Puerto- 
Carrero, ob. 1458. Among others of 
this warlike family, most of whom 
spent their lives in combating the 
Moor, are Perafan de Bibera, ob. 1455, 
and another of the same name, ob. 
1423, aged 105, his brass monument 
is very fine ; perhaps the finest is that 
of Dofia Qatalina, ob. 1505, which was 

made for her son Fadrique, in Genoa, 
1519, by Gazini. 

Ask to see the rooms of the Se&or 
Bector — ^they contain a fine picture by 
Zurbaran, some paintings by Pacheco, 
and a St.. Jerome, a splendid example 
of the German School. Oranach ? 

Among the most interesting old 
churches which have survived the 
French invasion and the subsequent 
suppression of convents are the follow- 
ing, viz. — 

San Marcos is mud^ar; it was 
originally a mosque, but has suffered 
severely : it is, however, of the highest 
interest. The portal is very remarkable, 
and is reproduced by Digby Wyatt in 
his • Architect's Note-book in Spain.* 
The tower is one of the highest in 
Seville. It may be ascended, as Cer- 
vantes often did, to see the house near 
it of his beloved Isabel. 

San Iiorenio : here is a Concepcion 
bjr F. Pacheco, 1624 ; and an Annun- 
ciation by Pedro de Villegas Marmo- 
lejo, who lies buried here, with an 
epitaph written by Arias Montano. 
In the Metahlo are 4 medallions and a 
San Lorenzo, by Montafles, by whom 
also is Nuestro Seflor del gran Poder^ a 
superb graven image. The altar of 
Nuestra Sefiora de Bocamador and ad- 
joining frescoes are worthy of notice. 
Here is buried the prolific priest Juan 
BuBtamente, ob. 1678, setat. 129 ; this 
true Padre was father of 42 legitimate 
and 9 natural children. 

San Martin is Gothic. The retablo 
is fine, it contains early paintings by 
Herrera el Viejo. The fine statues of 
theDlvinaMae8tra,and SS. Peter and 
Paul are by MontaiSes. The Christ 
carrying the Cross,by a pupil of Valde's, 
is good. The chapel of Juan Sanchez 
Gallego, built in 1500, and repaired in 
1614, is interesting. 

San Nicolas contains some good pic- 
tures. Admirers of Cervantes may en- 
quire for a document in which he is 
mentioned as living in the parish in 

Onmium Sanctorum is one of the 
most interestiug churches in Seville. 
It was built by King Peter the Cruel 
upon the ruins of a Homan temple. 


Boute 86. — Churches. 


Walk round and look at the frescoes 
on the tower. 

San Vieente was founded in 300. In 
the sacristy is the small chapel where 
San Isidore died, a.d. 636. The picture 
over the altar is by Roelas. The affect- 
ing account by Bedempto, an eye-wit- 
ness, is printed in the * Esq. Sagrada.' 
Ix. 402. This church contains some 
good sculpture, a Descent from the 
Cross by Cano, and several pictures 
by Morales, Herrera, and the school of 
Albert Diirer, and a large number of 
sepulchres of worthies of Seville. 

Santiago el Mayor was built over 
the ruins of a Boman temple. The 
picture of the tutelar is by Perez Alesio. 
In the sacristy may be seen the fine 
cope worn by the Emperor Charles V. 
on his coronation. Murillo lived in 
this parish in 1660. 

The Goleglo de Uaese Bodrigo (the 
Seminario, formerly the University), 
80 called from the founder, Bodrigo 
Fernandez de Santaella, 1505, is 
Gothic. The retable is full of inte- 
resting early paintings on panel. The 
altar frontal of tiles is very striking. 
Notice the fine portrait of the founder 
kneeling at the foot of the Virgin. 
Beaders of Cervantes should look at 
the Marmorillos, mentioned in Binco- 
nete y CortadiUo. 

The magnificent ch. of the convent 
of San Pablo has been appropriated to 
the Parish ; it contains paintings by 
Arteaga, and frescoes by Lucas Valdes, 
and some fine Pasos. 

In San Alberto there is a fine Via 
Gruois by Cano, and some indifferent 
pictures by the same master. 

The tower of San Pedro was formerly 
an excellent example of Moorish archi- 
tecture ; obs. the artesonado roof and 
the fine Betdblo: the pictures by 
CampafUi have been repainted. The 
** Delivery of St. Peter " is by Boelas. 
The figure of the Angel is of the 
hiojhest order. The painter Velazquez 
was baptized here in 1599. 

San Juan de la Pahna was a Moorish 
mosque dedicated to the Baptist ; the 
Arabic inscription at- the entrance 
records that "this great temple was 
rebuilt in 1080 by Axataf." The cross 
pocupies the sit^ of the palm, u^der 

which the dead were buried. Inside 
is a " Crucifixion " by Campaila, early 
and hard, and an Infant Christ by 

In San Isidore is " El Trdruito** or 
the death of the tutelar saint, the 
masterpiece of Boelas, a very great 
master, although much less known 
and appreciated than he deserves: 
obs. the gray heads, the Con-egiesque 
flesh-tints, so much studied by Mu- 
rillo, and the admirable composition : 
the heads are evidently portraits. 
Here also are some pictures by Valdes 
and Campafia : the Cireneo is carved 
by Bernardo Gijon. 

In Santa Maria la Blanca, a syna- 
gogue down to 1391, are some granite 
columns thought to be Boman. Soult 
plundered it of the 5 Murillos, leaving 
only by him a " Last Supper," in his 
frio style. Here is a ** Dead Christ,'* 
by Vargas, and an ** Ecce Homo " by 
Morales. The good pictures by Mu- 
rillo which remained in this church 
were removed to the Academia at 

The Golegiata San Salvador con- 
tinued in its original mosqtte form 
down to 1669, when it was rebuilt in 
the worst Churriguerismo, and after- 
wards still more disfigured by Caye- 
tano Acosta, by whom is the abomi- 
nable Transfiguration; the image of 
San Cristobal is by Montaiies, those of 
Sa. Bufina and Sa. Justa are by Cor- 
nejo. The Patio was the original 
Moorish court: here is a miracvloua 
crucifix, M Cristo de los Desamparados, 
where countless pictures and " votive 
tablets ** are hung up by those relieved 
by its miracles. The tower is Moorish, 
and has some Moorish inscriptions. 

In San Julian is a fresco of St. 
Christojpher by Juan Sanctis de Ciistro, 
1484: it was barbarously repainted 
in 1828. Utider some shutters to the 1. 
is a ** Holy Family " by Alejo Fernan- 
dez ; it is one of the oldest paintings 
in Seville : the kneeling figure repre- 
sents a member of the Monsalvez 
family, who were buried here. This 
Virgin is caUed de la Iniesta, Obs. 
the Rejas, made of votive chains of 
captives delivered by her interference. 
The Concepcioi^ at the ajtar is, somo 


Boute 86. — Seville : Chur cites. 

Sect. V. 

say, by Cano. The plateresque Be- 
taJblo has a fine painting of Santa 
Lucia, the patroness of eyes (Ittx, 
light). In the church of this Santa 
Luciay once a mosque, is a Martyr- 
dom of the Patroness, by Boelas, and 
a Concepcion by Oano. A fine rotable 
from this church, an authentic paint- 
^Si t>y Sanchez de Castro, has been 
removed to the Cathedral. 

San Esteban, once a Muzarabic 
church, contains poor specimens by 
Zurbaran, and a nne " Christ bearing 
the Cross,** by Montanes. 

Santa Catalina must be visited ; the 
roof of the central nave is splendid. 
The artist "will look with interest at 
the mudejar Capilla Mayor, and Moor- 
ish vaulted roof of the chapel of the 
Exaltacion. A number of details of 
Oriental architecture will be found 
outside the church. 

The admirers of Roelas * should visit 
la Aoademia, where is a '^ Concepcion " 
by him equal to Guide. 

Of the. convent chs., which must be 
visited early, the most remarkable 

San Clemente el Beal, one of the 
finest buildings in Seville, containing a 
splendid alerce roo^ a plateresque high 
altar by Monta&es, a portrait of St. 
Ferdinand by Valdes, and 2 pictures 
of him by Pacheco : the Azvtejoa are 
splendid, they are dated 1588. Obs. 
the grand and powerful St. John the 
Baptist, carved by Jasper Nuliez Del- 
gado, and painted by Pacheco. 

At the convent of Santa Paola do 
not fail to look at the AzuLeQo 
portal of the time of the CathoUc 
kings. The tiles are as fine as those 
at the chapel of the Alcazar, and of 
the same date. Some of the medal- 
lions are inferior in merit ; the one of 
the centre of the arch is the best. 

* Several pictures by Boelas exist at OUvareSt 
14 ID. N.W. of Seville, and a pleasant ride. He 
was canon of that church. There he painted, 
in 1 624, a ** Birth of Christ," now much injured ; 
an *• Adoration," an ♦* Annunciation," a "Mar- 
riage of the Virgin," the •• Death of St. Joseph ;" 
but, although his last, they are not his best 
worics. The artist died at Olivares on the 23rd 
April, 1625. Do not fail to look at the fine 
statue of Our Lord by Montafies, taken there 
from the Church of San Miguel, 

Obs. the Betahlo, representing the Life 
of St. John, by Montafies. The church 
is also effectively decorated with tiles. 
There are sepulchres of Juan, constable 
of Portugal, and Isabel bis wife, the 
founders. This monastery contains 
most interesting architectural details 
of Moorish stucco work of 10th centy. 
This church recalls similar construc- 
tions in Italy. 

In the convent church of Santa Clara 
there are some excellent sculptures by 
Montanes and Cano. The tomb of Fray 
Alvaro Pelaez, ob. 1349, is fine. 

Not far from Santa Clara, in the 
street of the same name, is the convent 
of Calatrava. The paintings on panel 
in the Presbytery are very remarkable, 
as showing the direct influence of the 
German manner on the early Spanish 
school. They are attributed to Juan 
Sanchez de Castro. Two others be> 
longing to the same series are in the 
church. Obs. the affinity between the 
San Cristobal, with a similar saint 
painted in fresco in the church of 
San Julian, undoubtedly by Sanchez 
de Castro. 

The church of the convent of Santa 
Isabel is one of the best in Seville. It 
was founded in 1490. It contains good 
examples by Montafies, and paintings 
by the pupils of Murillo and Boelas. 

The convent of Santa Ines is Gothic, 
it was founded by Dofia Maria Coronel. 
The church contains some good rota- 
bles with sculpture by Montanes. In 
the cloister may be seen the extremely 
interesting chapel of the foundress, a 
good specimen of stucco mudejar work. 
This convent is full of details of this 

The Calle de las Sierpes, the Bond 
Street of Seville, leads to the Plaza del 
Dnque, where the Dukes of Medina 
Sidonia have their palace. Here also 
is the former palace of the great Guz- 
man family, now cut up and divided, 
into many residences. 

Continuing from this plaza, walk by 

the ch. of San Vieente to tlie Alameda 

Vieja, the ancient but now deserted 

walk of Seville. The water of the foun- 

I tain here, del Arzohispo, is excellent, 

I and the best in Seville. Look at the 

I Roman pillars and statues. Here ro- 



Baute 86. — Hospitals, 


side the horse-dealers and jockeys, and 
cattle-dealing continually goes on. To 
the 1. of the fountain is a barrack, for- 
merly a convent of Jesuits, and after- 
wards occupied by the Inquisition. 

On St. John's bay (June 24) every 
plaza in Seville, but especially this old 
Alameda, is proverbially merry : — 

•* La de San Juan en Seyllla, 
£s alegre & maravilla." 

St. John's Eve, our Midsummer Eve, 
is dedicated to flirtation by both sexes, 
who go (or ought to go) out at day- 
break to gather vervain, coger la vev' 
henOf which represents in Spain the 
magical fern-seed of our forefathers. 

Turning from the Alameda Vieja to 
tlie rt. is La Feria, where a fair is held 
every Thursday, which all should visit; 
it is the precise Soock ejuma of Cairo ; 
the street leads to the Plan de la 
Encamadon — now the market-place, 
to construct which the French pulled 
down a convent dedicated to the 

In the Calle del Candilejo is a bust 
of Don Pedro, placed, it is said, in 
memorial of his having here stabbed a 
man. The Rey Justiciero quartered 
himself in effigy ordy. His and Lord 
Byron's "friend,** Don Juan, was a 
Sevillian 7na/o,and a true hidalgo. The 
family name was Tenorio. He lived 
in a house now belonging to the nuns 
of San LeandrO) in which there is some 
good carving. The Tenorios had a 
chapel in the Franciscan convent, 
-where the murdered Oomendador was 
buried, and to which Don Juan fled :* 
the chapel and the statue were destroyed 
when the convent was burnt. 

The foundling hospital, or La Cuna, 
the Cradle, as it is called in Spain, is 
in the Calle de la Cuna ; a marble tablet 
is thus inscribed, near an aperture left 
for charitable donations : " Quoniam 
pater meua et maier mea deliquerunt 
me Dominus autem GMumpsit** (Ps. 
xxvil 10). A wicket-door, el tomo, 
is pierced in the wall, which opens 
on being tapped, to receive the sinless 
children of sin, who are received night 

• For details read • Don Juan de Mafiara,' 
l>y M. de Latour. 

and 6Ajt and no questions asked. The 
house is under the care of Sisters of 
Charity, and is well managed. 

Hospital de la Hiserioordia. There 
is a large fresco in the Patiot repre- 
senting the Last Judgment, which, 
although in bad condition, is interest- 
ing as the work of Luis de Vargas. 

Seville is surrounded with seven 
suburbs; the circuit of the Moorish 
walls, about a league with its gates 
and towers, once numbering 166, con- 
tains many objects of flrst-rate interest. 
We shall commence by going out from 
the CaUe de las Armas, by the former 
Pnerta Beal, the Royal Gate, through 
which St. Ferdinand entered in tri- 
umph. It was called by the Moors 
OoteB, Emerging from a dip to the rt. 
is the Colegio de la Meroed, or San 
Laoreaao, behind which was the 
house of Fernando, son of the great 
Columbus. The suburb is called Los 
Humeros, and is supposed to have been 
the site of the Boman naval arsenal. 
It is now tenanted by gipsies, the 
Zincali. Those who wish to see a 

flpsy-dance may apply to Dn. Silverio 
ranconnetti, at the Cafd of that name, 
in the Calle del Bosario. They must 
however, be cautious, for, as Cervantes 
says, ** These gipsies are but a good- 
for-nothing people, and are only bom to 
pick and steal. * The handsome young 
gipsy fortune-tellers are popular : they 
prophesy money to Spanish men, and 
husbands to Spanish women; and in 
spite of a general distrust in their 
cheating words, a little credulous faith 
will stick with listeners who readily 
believe what they vehemently wish. 

Turning to the rt., between the river 
banks and the walls, is the Patin de las 
Damas, a raised rampart and planted 
walk, made in 1773. The city on this 
side is much exposed to inundations. 
Opposite in its orange-groves is Messrs. 
Pickman's porcelain manu&ctory, for- 
merly the celebrated Cartiga convent 
(see p. 350) ; beyond, in the far dis- 
tance, rise the towers of Italica, and 
the purple hills of the Sierra Uorena. 
Passing the gate of San Juan is La 
Barqueta, or the ferry-boat. In the 
Choias, opposite, true ichthyophiles go, 
like herons on the bank, to eat the 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^j'w«^-t i-'*^ 


Boute 86. — Seville : Gates, 

Sect. V. 

shad, Savalo, the Moorish Shebbel. 
Sitevos and Savalo asado are the cor- 
rect thmg. Here also el SoUo, the 
sturgeon, is caught in large quan- 
tities; the cathedral chapter used to 
send one of these royal fish annually 
to the king's table. The walls now 
turn to the rt. Half a mile outside is 
the once noble convent of St Gerdnimo, 
called, from its pleasant views, La 
Bnena Vista. The patio of the fine 
church (in Doric and Ionic worthy of 
Herrera) was designed by two monks, 
Bartolome de Oalzadilla, and Felipe de 
Moron, in 1603. Obs. the spacious 
red marble staircase, and the rich 
plaster pendentives to the ceilings in 
the first floor leading to the mirador. 
Here Axataf took his la*st farewell of 
Seville, when St. Ferdinand entered. 
Eeturning by gardens hedged with 
aloes and ta:ll wnispering canes, is San 
Lazaro, the Leper Hospital foimded 
in 1284. The terracotta ornaments on 
the Doric fa9ade are fine. 

A Moorish causeway, raised in order 
to be a dam against inundations, leads 
to Iia Maoarena, the huge La Sangre 
Hospital, rising to the rt. This is the 
suburb of the poor and of agricultural 
labourers. Their carts, implements, 
children and animals are all pictures. 
Obs. the primitive carts (true 'plaustra) 
netted with esparto, and the patient 
resigned oxen with lustrous eye, so 
Scriptural and sculptural. Hither 
Murillo came for subject and colour, 
in which he reveDed ; here are beggars, 
imps, and urchins, squalid and squal- 
ling, who, with their parents, when 
simply transcribed by his faithful 
hand, seem to walk out of the frames. 

Continuing the walk, turn 1. to the 
enormous Hospital de la Saagre or de 
las oinoo Uagafl, the 5 bleeding wounds 
of our Saviour, which are sculptured 
like bunches of grapes. This edifice 
was erected in 1546 by Martin de 
Gainza and Herman Buiz, tlie foun- 
dress being Catalina de Bibera. 

The S. and principal fa9ade, 600 ft. 
long, presents a noble architecture of 
the Ionic and Doric style. The portal 
is one of the good architectural bits in 
Seville. The interior Patio is striking ; 
^\^e handsome chapel occupies the | 

centre ; on the front are sculptured me- 
dallions of Faith, Hope, and Charity, by 
Pedro Machuca ; the chapel is a Latin 
cross, with Ionic pillars : the Betahh of 
the high altar was designed by Maeda 
in 1600, and gilt by Alonso Vazquez 
whose pictures in it have suffered from, 
neglect and repainting. The most im- 
portant paintings from other hospitals 
have been collected here. The best 
are : — ^Boelas ; The Coming of the 
Holy Ghost and Apotheosis of San Her-^ 
menegildo,and Descent frolnthe Gross ; 
Zurbaran; eight standing figures of 
female saints, excellent for details of 
costume ; Juan del CastUlo ; The In- 
fant Saviour ; Bernardo German ; The 
Birth of Our Lord. 

The ecclesiologist may also visit 
the Gothic church of the Hospital of 
San Lazaro; the early frescoes are 
extremely interesting. 

Beturning to the city walls, obs. la 
Barbaoana, che Barbican, Arabic^ JBab- 
el-cana, the gate of the moat, or inclo- 
sure. The circumvallation all the way 
to the gate of Osarlo — so called be- 
cause leading to the Moorish burial- 
ground — ^and admirably preserved, is 
built of tapitty with square towers and 
battlements, or almena^, which girdled 
Seville with a lace-like fringe. 

Near the Cordova gate, and opposite 
the hermitage of San Hermeneg^do, 
where Herrera el Viejo was imprisoned, 
is the Capuchin convent of Santas 
Justa and Rufina, built on the spot 
where the lions would not eat these 
ladies, patronnesses of Seville. 

Passing the long fantastic salitres^ 
the saltpetre manufactory, the scene 
becomes more lively at the place 
formerly occupied by the gate of Car- 
mona. To the 1. is 8an Agustin, once 
full of Murillos ; Soult carried off the 
best, gutted the convent, and destroyed 
the magnificent sepulchres of the 
Ponce de Leon family : the tombs were 
restored in 1818 by the Countess- 
Duchess *of Osuna, and an indignant 
record placed of these outrages against 
the dead. 

The long lines of the aqueduct, Los 
CaSos de Carmona, now run pictn- 
resquely up to the Hiunilladero pr Crius 
del Campo, 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy ->^j'w^^-i f»^ 

Andalucia. Boute 86. — Tobacco Manufactory, 


The Parroquia de San Bernardo con- 
tains a snperb ** Last Judgment," by 
the dashing Herrera el Viejo ; a " Last 
Supper/* in the Sacristia, by Varela, 
1622 ; and a statue of the "Tutelar," 
by Montalles, and others by Boldan. 

In this suburb is also the matadero 
(slaughter-house), close by which Fer- 
dinand Yn. founded his tauromachian 
university. These localities are fre- 
quented by the Seville fancy, whose 
favourite and classical dishes of tripe, 
caUos y mentidos, are here eaten in per- 
fection. N.B. Drink manzanilla wine 
with these peppery condiments. — The 
sunny flats under &e old Moorish walls 
are the haunts of idlers, Barateros, and 
gamesters. The lower classes of Span- 
iards are constantly gambling at cards : 
ffroups are to be seen playing all day 
long for wine, love, or coppers, in the 
sun, or under their vine-trellises, capital 
groupings and studies for artists. 

Near the former Puerta de la Came 
a planted walk leads to the Fundi- 
don, an artillery foundry erected by 
Charles III., who employed one Maritz, 
a Swiss, to cast his cannon. 

The open space beyond the Came, 
and call^ el Rastro, presents a national 
scene on the Sahado Santo, which may 
be considered a holiday equivalent to 
our Easter Monday. There and then 
the Paschal lambs are sold, or corderos 
de Pascua, as Easter is termed in 
Spanish. The bleating lambs are 
confined in pens of netted rope-work ; 
on every side the work of slaughter 
is going on. The buying and selling 
continues from the Saturday until the 
end of Monday. 

Betuming to the walls the cavalry 
barracks are seen. Now the Alcazar 
towers above the battlemented girdle 
of walls to the rt. To tiie 1. is 

La Eabrioa de Tabaoos, where tobacco 
is made into snuff and cigars. Visitors 
are admitted at all hours: a fee to the 
conductress should he paid. 

The enormous edifice has 28 interior 
patios, and covers a quadrangle of 662 
ft. by 524. It was finished in 1757 after 
plans of one Vandenbeer, a Dutchman. 
It is guarded by a moat, not destined to 
prevent men from getting in, but to pre- 
yent cigars from being smuggled out, 

There are sometimes as many as 
5000 women and girls employed in 
making cigars ; on an average' 2 mil- 
lions of pounds are made in a year. A 
good workwoman can do in a day from 
eight to ten atados (bundles), each of 
which contains 50 cigars; they are 
paid 6 cuartos (nearly 2d.) per bundle. 
Some of these cigarreras are fine good- 
looking women ; they form a class to 
themselves like the grisettes of Paris, 
and, like them, they are reputed to be 
more impertinent than chaste ; tliey 
used to wear a particular mantilla de 
tira, which was always crossed over 
the face and bosom, allowing the upper 
part only of most roguish-looking fea- 
tures to peep out. In the under-floor 
a rappee snuff is made, called tahaco 
defraile. The use of tobacco, now so 
universal among all classes in Spain, 
was formerly confined to snufi', the 
solace of the clergy. 

On the flat plain outside the walls, 
called £1 Prado de San Sebafltian, was 
the Quemadero, or the burning-place 
of the Inquisition, where the last act 
of the religious tragedy of the auto de 
fe was left, with the odium, to be per- 
formed by the civil power. The spot 
of fire is marked by the foundations 
of a square platform on which the 
faggots were piled. Here, about 1781, 
a beata, or female saint, was burnt. 
Townsend (ii. 342) says that she was 
very bewitching. 

According to the best authorities, 
from 1481 to 1808, the Holy Tribunal 
of Spain burnt 34,612 persons alive, 
18,048 in effigy, and imprisoned 
288,109--the goods and chattels of 
every one of them being first duly 

On the other side of the plain was the 
great city cemetery of San Sebastian, 
now moved N.not to offend the Infanta 
who lived near it. Into this Eomanist 
necropolis, no heretic, if dead, is al- 
lowed to enter ; the canons of the 
cathedral have a separate quarter from 
the laity. The catacomb system is 
here adopted : a niche is granted for 
6 or 7 years on payment of 80 reals, 
the term being renewable {prorogado^ 
by a new pa7m^i>j^ ^, __^.^_ 



Route SG.^SeviUe : Palace of San Tdmo. Sect. V. 

There is at present a Protestant 
cemetery at Seville, 1882. 

The present cemetery should be 
visited on the last night of October, 
or AU Hallowe'en, the vi^il of All 
Saints' Day ; and again on Nov. 2, the 
day of All Souls, when all the town 
repairs there. It is rather a fashion- 
able promenade than a religious per- 
formance. The spot is crowded with 
beggars, who appeal to the tender re- 
collections of one's deceased relations 
and Mends. Outside a busy sale of 
nuts, sweetmeats, and cakes takes 
place, and a crowd of horses, carriages 
and noisy children, all vitality and 

The quarter adjoining the former 
Puerta de Jerez, and the site now of 
pleasant summer theatres and gardens, 
should next be visited. It was once 
the dunghill of the city, until it was 
convert^ into a Paradise by Jose 
Manuel Arjona, in 1830. This, the 
last Asistente of Seville — Ultimus Ro- 
manorum — was its Augustus : to him 
are owing almost all of the many mo- 
dem improvements, paving, lighting, 
cleansing, &c. The principid walk was 
laid out by him in honour of Cristina, 
then the young bride of Ferdinand VIL 
El Salon is a raised central saloon, 
with stone seats around. Beyond, along 
the bank of the river, are lias Delioias, 
a series of charming rides and walks, 
planted with orange-trees, Japanese 
medlars, pomegranates, palms, and 
roses. Here all the rank and fashion 
of Seville assemble in the evening 
to promenade, and truly delicious are 
these nocturnal strolls. Night in the 
south is beautiful of itself. The sun 
of fire is set, and a balmy breeze fans 
the scorched cheek: now the city 
which sleeps by day awakes to light 
and love, and bright eyes sparkle 
brighter than the stars. Near Las 
Delicias is the Botanical garden. 

At the land side of the walk is the 
Palace of San Telmo, belonging to the 
Duke of Montpensier, son of Louis 
Philippe, and husband of the only 
sister of the ex-Queen of Spain. It 
was formerly a nautical college. 
Founded by Fernando, son of Colum- 
bus, and built in 1682 by Antonio 

Rodriguez; the fa9ado is Ghurrigue- 
resque; it was given to the Duke in 
1489. The palace and beautiful groundB 
of San Telmo, fall of rare plants and 
flowers, may be visited by writing 
(inclosing card) to the "Jefe del 
Palacio;" permission is readily granted 
when the Duke is absent. 

The Pioture Oallery is extensive, and 
is well arranged. It contains many of 
the chefS'^o&uvre of art formerly be- 
longing to Louis Philippe. Most of 
the pictures bear the name of tlie 
painter : they are cdl numbered. Obs. 
the sketches of the portraits painted 
by Velazquez of PhiUp IV. and Oli- 
vares, four splendid examples of Zur- 
baran, viz.. No. 174, a Circumcision ; 
No. 189, a Nativity; No. 186, The 
Annunciation; and 179, the Adora- 
tion of the Shepherds. No. 79, a Vir- 
gin de la Faja, is a beautiful speci- 
men of the second style of Morillo. 
No. 169 is a Piedad by Morales — 
perhaps his masterpiece. No. 155, 
The Death of Laocoon, is a splendid 
example of El Greco. No. 187, 
Caton re-opening his Wound, is by 
Ribera. No. 168, Maria Magdalena 
before her Looking-glass, by Boca- 
negra. No. 237, Ladies looking out 
of a Balcony, by Francisco Goy€^ is 
very fine. Obs. also No. 255 by the 
same artist. 

There are also good examples 
of Orrente, Meneses, Frutet, Valdes 
Leal, Herrera d Viejo^ and (by foreign 
painters) of Sebastiano del Piombo, 
Kubens, and Van Ostade. Of tbeso 
latter, obs. particularly Nos. 352, 767, 
and 800, by Ary Scheffer; No. 191 
by Johannot; a magnificent Jewess, 
by Lehman, and a Wine-house scene 
in Aragon, by Leleux. 

At the head of the great gallery is 
a fine antique head. Amongst the 
curiosities, obs. the guitar of Qneen. 
Isabel Farnesio, which contains inside 
a musical box, a sword of Pedro el 
Cruel, a fine candelabrum by Benve- 
nuto Cellini, and a variety of objects 
of every kind which constitute a 

The gardens and pleasure-grounds 
which adjoin the palace are very ex- 
tensive, The palm-ti-ecs are splendid, 


Boute 86. — Suburb of Triana, 


and the orange-trees — especially those 
which bear the hitter orange — are very 
fine ; they are said to yield an annual 
income to the Dnke of from £600 to 

Leaving the Palace we continue our 
walk by &e still called — although the 
gate itiself, with several others, was 
pulled down during the late improve- 
ments in the town — ^Puerta de Jerei. 
Now the arroyo Tagarete reappears. 
This rivulet, or rather Fleetditch, 
winds round the E. and W. sides of 
Seville, and here empties itself and its 
impurities into the Chxadalqnivir. The 
Moorish walls which hang over this 
stinking Styx were once painted in 
fresco. Up to 1821 they connected 
the Alcazar with the outpost river- 
guarding tower, the picturesque Torre 
del Oro, **of gold," to distinguish 
it from La Torre de Plata, that of 
"silver,'* which lies nearer the mint. 
These fine names are scarcely sterling, 
both being built by Moorish tapia. 
The former one, most absurdly ascnbed 
to Julius Csesar, was raised by the Al- 
mohades, who called it Borju d-dahah, 
"the tower of gold," because their 
treasure was kept in it. It was used 
by Don Pedro et Cruel, as a prison for 
his enemies and his mistresses. 

Passing on, are 'Hhe Atarazanas," 
the Dar-san'-ah, or house of construc- 
tion of the Moors, whence the Genoa 
term dareena, aqd our word arsenal. 
The present establishmentwas founded 
by Alonso el Sabio, and his Gotho- 
Latin inscription still remains im- 
bedded in the wall near the Caridad 

Adjoining the arseiial is the quarter 
of the dealers of hacalao or salted cod- 
fish. This article formed a most im- 
portant item in national food. The 
numerous religious corporations and 
fast-days necessarily required this, for 
fresh-water fish is rare, and sea-fish, 
until the days of railways, was almost 
unknown, in the great central parame" 
ras of the Peninsula. It is still much 
consumed, mixed with rice. It ought 
to be put many hours en remcjo, to 
soak in water, which takes out the salt 
and softens it. The Carthngcnians 
and ancients knew this so well, that 

the first praise of a good cook was Sett 
muriatica ut maceret (Plant. * Poen.* i. 
2, 39). 

Near la Carreteria, and close to the 
river's bank, is the Flaia de Tores, a 
fine amphitheatre, which will hold 
more than 12,000 spectators; it was 
injured by a hurricane in 1805. On 
one side there is an imposing view of the 
Giralda. The effect in the twilight is 
venr grand, when the setting sunrays 
gild me Moorish tower as the last bull 
dies. This Plaza is under the superin- 
tendence of the Maestranza of Seville, 
an equestrian society of the highest 
rank, which was formed in 1526 to 
encourage tournaments, and the spirit 
of chivalry then wearing out ; now the 
chief end is the wearing a scarlet uni- 
form. Tauromachian travellers will 
remember, the day before the fight, to 
ride out to Tablads to see the ganado, 
and go early the next day to witness 
the encierro ; be sure also at the fight 
show to secure a holetin de somhra, 
i.e. a good seat in the shade. 

Leaving the Plan, we now approach 
el Bio, the River Strand, along which 
a handsome steamboat quay has been 
recently built of stone. A rude boat- 
bridge here for ages stemmed the Gua- 
dalquivir ; formerly it was a ferry until 
Yusuf abu Yacub first threw across 
some barges Oct. 11, 1171, by which 
the ciijr was provisioned from the fer- 
tile Ajarafe. In June, 1852, an iron 
bridge was opened to the public. Near 
this bridge obs. the monument el 
Triunfo, raised in honour of the 
triumph obtained by the advocates of 
the Immaculate Conception. Now re- 
entering the city, the circuit is con- 


The suburb Triana, at the other 

side of the river, should be visited. It 

is the Moorish Jarayana^, a name sup- 

osed to be a corruption of Trajana, 

'rajan having been bom near it. It 

: the Trastevere of Seville, and is 

inhabited by smugglers, bull-fighters, 

gipsies, and other picturesque rascals. 

During the floods of December, 1876, 

the gipsy quarter at Triana was wcll- 

360 Botde 86. — Seville : Excursions — Cartuja Convent, Sect. V. 

nigh swept away. For eight days 
the wretched inhabitants caught hold 
of loaves of bread pushed to them 
from boats whirling down the current 
Seville was under water for five days, 
the water mounting to the cathedral 
doors. The whole city was in dark- 
ness, as the gasworks were under 
water. To the rt. on crossing the 
bridge was the once formidable Moorish 
castle, subsequently used by the Inqui- 
sition. It was almost swept away in 
1626 by the river. The dread tri- 
bunal was then removed to a palace in 
the Galle de San Marcos, and thence to 
its last quarters in the Alameda Vieja. 
The principal street in Triana is the 
Galle de Castilla. On no account omit 
to visit the Parroquia de Santa Ana, 
built by Alonso el Sabio in 1276. This 
line Gothic church has three naves 
40 metres long, supported on robust 
columns. The plateresque retable is 
very fine : it contains 15 paintings by 
Pedro Campafia, painted in 1548. The 
St. George and the Assumption are 
very good. The group of the Virgin 
and St. Anne, in the centre of the 
retable, belongs to the foundation. 
The statue and has reliefs are by 
Delgado. On the Gospel side there is 
is an excellent painting by Alejo 
Fernandez. The Virgen de la Bosa 
at the back of the coro is also by him. 
The paintings in the retables of the 
different chapels in the ch. are by 
Sanchez de Castro. The retable of the 
altar of Sta. Catalina is the finest work 
of Frutet, 1548. Look at the interest- 
ing tomb covered with tile decoration 
between the chapel of Sta. Barbara and 
Augustias : it is the work of Niculoso 
Francisco Italiano, and is dated 1503, 
the finest specimen of the kind in 

Coarse pottery, artistic in form and 
colour, is manufactured in the same 
manner as in the days of Santa Justina 
and Santa Bufina, at Triana. A very 
fair collection of specimens may be seen 
at the South Kensington Museum. 
The best examples will be found at Sr. 
Montalban*s, Calle de San Jorje. 

§ 11. ExcmsioNs FBOM Seville — 
Cabtuja Convent; ItIlica. 

1. A morning's drive should be 
taken to the Oartiija Convent, and 
Santi Ponce, near whldi are the ruins 
of Italica. Make a bargain before- 
hand with the coachman. The usual 
price is 40 rs. A drive of J hour, over 
the bridge and through the Triana 
suburb, turning to the rt., will bring 
you to the Cartuja, owned by our 
countryman, Charles Pickman, Esq., 
now Marques de Pickman. 

The convent, dedicated to Nuestra 
SeSora de las Cnevas, is now a porce- 
lain manufactory, having been bought 
of government by Mr. Pickman in 
1839 (3 years after its sequestration) 
for forty thousand dollars. The chapel, 
however, is preserved intact, and the 
spacious church is but little injured 
by being filled with potter's wheels. 
This once noble Cartiya was founded 
in 1400 by Don Gonzalo de Mena, 
archbishop of Seville, monk of the 
order of San Bruno and a native of 
Toledo ; he lies buried in the Oapilla 
de Santiago in the Cathedral at Seville. 
Finished by Perafan de Bibera, it be- 
came a museum of painting, sculpture, 
and architecture. Obs., in the chapel, 
the fine carving of the siUeriadel Ck>ro^ 
executed by Comejo, and the finely 
carved Virgins and Saints, which, how- 
ever, would be seen to better advant- 
age if they were more suitably 
arranged. The Virgen y San Jose is 
attributed to Montaiies. Obs. also the 
curious Gothic inscription of the time 
of Hermenegildo, wluch was found at 
Alcala de Guadaira in 1669. Notice 
the stones which record the height of 
frequent inundations. "Walk through 
the beautiful gardens and orange- 
groves, and inquire for the site of the 
old burial-ground where foreigners 
used to be buried before the Elnglish 
Cemetery was established. 

The amateur of ceramic art should 
ask to see the specimens of His- 
pano-Moresque lustred ware collected 
by Don Bicardo Pickman, Mr. Pick- 
mans eldest son. The chef-d'oeuvre of 
his collection is engraved in p. 13 of 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Bmte Se.—ltdltca. 


the * History of l*ottery,' by Joseph 

Leaving the Cartuja, the rt. bauk of 
the Guadalquivir must be followed to 
Hanti Ponce (5 m.). This miserable 
village, the name of which is a corrup- 
tion of San Geroncio (its Gothic 
bishop), occupies the site of the ancient 
Italioa. It was the birthplace of the 
Emperors Trajan, Adrian, and Theo- 
dosius. Founded u.c. 5^7, on the site 
of the Iberian town Sancios, by Scipio 
Africanus, it was destined by him as a 
home for his veterans. It was adorned 
by Adrian with sumptuous edifices. 
The citizens petitioned to become a 
Colonia, that is, subject to Rome, 
instead of remaining a free Munici- 
pium; even Adrian was surprised at 
ill is Andaluoian servility. Many 
Spaniards assert that the poet Silius 
Italicus was bom here ; but then the 
epithet would have been ItdHoerms; 
his birth-place is in reality unknown ; 
probably he was an Italian, for Martial, 
liis friend, never alludes to his being a 
paisanOf or fellow-countryman. 

Italica was preserved by the Goths, 
and made the see of a bishop ; Leovi- 
gild, in 584, repaired the walls when 
he was besieging Seville, then the 
stronghold of his rebel son Hermene- 
gildo. The name Italica was corrupted 
by the Moors into Talikah, Talca ; and 
in old deeds the fields are termed hs 
campos de Talca, and the town Sevilla 
la Vi^'a, The ruin of Italica dates 
from the time when the river changed 
its bed, a common trick in wayward 
Spanish streams. The Moors soon 
abandoned a town surrounded bv 
" laud which the rivers had spoiled,*' 
and selected Seville as a better site ; 
and ever since the remains have been 
used as a quarry.f 

On Dec. 12, 1799, a mosaic pave- 
sient was discovered, which a poor 
nionk, named Jos^ Moscoso, to his 

• ' History of Pottery and Porcelain (Mediae* 
val and ModeraV by Joseph ^SjaxryaA. Third 
AUi^ton, enlarged. London, 1848. See also the 
Frencli Traoslation bjM. Bipcceivs. PariSi 18/B6. 

f Conflult ' Bosqu^ de Italica,' Justlno Ma- 
tute, Sevilla, 1827 ; and for the medals, Florez, 
' MchI./ il, 477. Of these many, chiefly copper 
or small silver coins, are found and offered for 
Bale to foreigners by the peasants. 

honour, inclosed with a wall, in order 
to save it from the usual fate in Spuin. 
The traveller will find a copy in the 
cathedral Ubrary in the Patio de lo8 
Karanjos at Seville. 

The ampliitheatre lies outside the 
old town. On the way ruins peep out 
amid the weeds and olive-groves, like 
the grey bones of dead giants. The 
form is yet to be traced, and the broken 
tiers of seats. The scene is sad and 
lonely; read in it by all means the 
fine ode by Bioja, *^Las ruinas de 
Italica,' A few gipsies usually 
lurk among the vaults. The visi- 
tors scramble over the broken seats 
of once easy access, frightening the 
lar^e and gUttering lizards or lagartos, 
which hurry into the rustling brambles. 
Behind, in a small valley, a limpid 
stream still trickles from a font, and 
still tempts the thirsty traveller, as 
it once did the mob of Italica when 
heated with games of blood. The rest 
of Italica either sleeps buried under 
the earth, or has been carried away 
by builders. To the west are some 
vaulted brick tanks, called La Casa de 
lo8 Baflos. They were the reservoirs of 
the aqueduct brought by Adrian from 
Tejada, 25 m. distant. Excavations 
are made, but the antiques found are 
usually of a low art. The site was pur- 
chased, in 1301, by Guzman el Busno, 
who founded the castellated convent 
San Isidoro, as the burial-place of his 
family. The entrance doorway is in 
coloured bricks and tiles in the same 
style as Sta. Paula of Sevilla. It is 
now used as the village church. 
The interior consists of two naves. 
Opposite the entrance door are some 
pictures on panel. Obs. the statues 
of San Isidoro and San Gerdnimo by 
Monta&es, and the effigies of Guzman 
and his wife, who lie buried beneatli, 
which date from 1609. The tomb was 
opened in 1570, and the body of the 
good man, according to Matute, was 
''found almost entire, and nine feet 
high." Here also lies Dofia Urraca 
Osorio, with her maid Leonora Bavalos 
at her feet. That beautiful lady was 
burnt alive by Pedro el Cruel for re- 
jecting his addresses. A portion of her 
chaste body was exposed oy the flames 


Boute 86. — Seville : Eoccursion — Olive-farm, Sect. V. 

whioli consumed her dress, whereupon 
her attendant, faithful in death, rushed 
into the fire, and died in concealing her 
mistress's beautiful form. The facistcl 
is worth looking at. Hie sacristy 
contains an ancient painting on panel 
representing Na. Seiiora de La Antigua, 
and some good vestments. There is a 
patio in the mudejar style of two co- 
loured bricks, and passing into a 
smaller one obs. some interesting old 
paintings, in fresco. 

The Feria de Santi Ponoe, held in 
the beginning of October, is to Seville 
what our Greenwich fair used to be to 
London: booths are erected in the 
ancient bed of the river, which becomes 
a scene of Majeza and their Jaleos. 
The holiday folk, in all their Anda- 
lucian finery, return at nightfall in 
Carretas (carts). The Galle de Gastilla 
then resounds with re^uiebros, and is 
enlivened with exhibitions of small 
horns made of harro^ the type of the 
Comiido paciente of Seville. 

The traveller may return from Ita- 
lica to Seville by a different route, 
keeping under the slopes of the hills : 
opposite Seville, on the summit to the 
rt., is Castileja de la Cuesta, from 
whence the view is fine and extensive. 
Here, in the Calle Beal, lived and died 
Heman Cortes : he died Dec. 2, 1547, 
aged 63, a broken-hearted victim, like 
Cardinal Ximenez, Columbus, Gonzalo 
de Cordoba, and others, of his king's 
and country's ingratitude. He was 
first buried in San Isidoro at Italica, 
imtil his bones, like those of Columbus, 
after infinite movings and changings 
of sepulture, at last reached Mexico, 
the scene of his glories and crimes 
during life. 

Keeping the hill Ohaboya to the rt., 
we reach San Juan de Al&raclie, Hisn- 
al-£Eiraj, ** of the fissure or cleft ; " it 
was the Moorish river key of Seville, 
and the old and ruined walls still 
crown the heights. This was the site 
of the Boman Julia Constantia, the 
Gothic Osset, and the scene of infinite 
aqueous miracles during the Arian 
controversy ; a font yet remains in the 
chapel. Bead the inscription concern- 1 

ing the self-replenishing of water 
every Thursday in the Holy Week.* 
Obs. the Retdblo, with pictures by Cas- 
tillo, which originally existed in San 
Jnan de la Palma. The panorama of 
Seville, from the convent parapet, is 

The village below the hill of Alfa- 
rache, being exempt from the odiouH 
Derecho de ^puertas^ and being a plea- 
sant walk, IS frequented on holidays 
by the Sevillians, who love cheap drink , 
&c. Those who remember what pre- 
ceded the birth of El Picaro Guzman 
de Alfarache — a novel so well trans- 
lated by Le Sage — may rest assured 
that matters are not much changed. 
Oelves, Gelduba, lies lower down the 


The olives and oil of Bsetica were 
celebrated in antiquity, and still form 
a staple and increasing commodity of 
Andalucia. The districts between Se- 
ville and Alcala, and in the Ajarafe, 
are among the richest in Spain : an 
excursion should be made to some 
large Sacienda in order to examine 
the process of the culture and the 
manufacture, which are almost identi- 
cal with those described by Varro, 
Columella, and Pliny. Seville is sur- 
roimded with Haciendas, which com- 
bine at once a country house, a village, 
and oil-manufactory. 

San Bartolome, a farm belonging to 
the Patema family, may be visited as 
a specimen of a first-rate JETaci- 
enda; it contains about 20,000 trees, 
each of which will yield from 2 to 3 
bushels of olives ; the whole produce 
averages 5000 arrobas (of 25 lb.), 
which vary in price from 3 to 5 dollars. 
The olive-tree, however classical, is 
very unpicturesque ; its ashy leaf on a 
pollarded trunk reminds one of a 
second-rate willow-tree, while it affords 
neither shade, shelter, nor colour. 

• Consult the quarto *Sobre la mila^nx^sa 
fuente,* by Josef Santa Maria, Sev., I63u, and 
the *Esp. Sag.' ix. 117. Strabo, however, 
(ill. 261), points oat among the marvels of 
Bsetica certain wells and fountains which ebbed 
and flowed spontaneously. 


Boute 86. — Seville : Excursions. 


The trees are usually planted in 
formal rows : a branch is cut from the 
parent in January ; the end is opened 
into 4 slits, into which a stone is 
placed: it is then planted, banked, 
and watered for 2 years, and as it 
grows is pruned into 4 or 5 upright 
branches: they begin to pay tiie ex- 
pense about the lOtii year, but do not 
attain their prime before the 30th. 
The best soils are indicated by the wild- 
olive (oleaster, ficebiuihe\ on which 
cuttings are grafted, and produce the 
, finest crops. The Spaniards often sow 
corn in their olive-groimds, contrary to 
the rules of Columella, for it exhausts 
the soil, chupa la tierra. The berry is 
picked in November and December, 
when it is purple-coloured and shin- 
ing, baccsB splendentis oUysb : then the 
scene is busy and picturesque; the 
peasant, clad in sheepskins, is up in the 
trees like a salyr, heating off the fruit,* 
while his children pick them up, and 
his wife and sisters drive the laden 
donkeys to the mill. The berries are 
emptied into a vait, el trujcd, and are 
not picked and sorted, as Columella 
enjoined, for the careless Spaniard is 
rude and unscientific in this, as in 
his wine-making; he looks to quan- 
tity, not quality. The berries are 
then placed on a circular hollowed 
stone, over which another is moved by 
a mule ; the crushed mass, horujo 
is shovelled on to round mats, capa- 
chos, made of esparto^ and taken to the 
press, el trujal, whidh is forced down 
by a very long and weighty beam com- 
posed of 6 or 7 pine-trees, like a ship's 
bowsprit, over which, in order to resist 
the strain, a heavy tower of masonry is 
built ; a score of frails of the horujo is 
pl€u;ed under the screw, moistened with 
hot water, that the horujo may set free 
the oil which is attached to it These 
primitive presses are very imperfect ; a 
great quantity of oil is wasted. English 
hydraulic and other machinery has 
been used by the Marques de la Laguna, 
at his splendid farm. La Lftgnna, near 
XJbeda, and at Bailen by Se&or Bar- 
reda. Small olive-presses are made in 
large quantities at Antequera, which 

* The andents never beat the trees (Plin., 
[Spairiy 1882.] 

are supplanting the old-&shioned ones 
all over the country. The liquor as 
it fiows out is passed into a reservoir 
below ; the residuum comes forth like 
a damson cheese, and is used for fiiel 
and for fattening pigs ; the oil as it 
rises on the water is skimmed off, and 
poured into big-bellied earthen jars, 
tinajasj and then removed into still 
larger, which are sunk into the ground. 
These amphorae will hold from 200 to 
300 arrobas, t.e. from 800 to 1200 
gallons each. 

The oil, aceite (Arabic^ azzait\ thus 
produced is strong and unctuous, but 
not equal in delicacy to the purer, finer 
produce of Lucca. The second-class 
oils are coarse, thick, and green- 
coloured, and are exported for .soap- 
making or used for lamps. A large 
farm is a little colony ; the labourers, 
fed by the proprietor, are allowed 
bread, garlic, salt, oil, vinegar, and 
pimiento^ which they make into migafi 
and remqjon. 

The ancient distinctions remain un- 
changed. The first class, RegisB^ Ma- 
jortTiaSt are still called Beynas^ Padro- 
nasj and ManzaniUa^. The finest is 
the gordaly which only grows in a 
circuit of 18 m. round Seville : the 
berry is gathered before quite ripe, in 
order to preserve the green colour : it 
is pickled for 6 days in a Salmuera, or 
brine, made of water, salt, thyme, bay- 
laurel, and garlic; without this, the 
olive would putrefy, as it throws out a 
mould, nata. The middling, or second 
classes, are clilled la^ Moradaa, from 
their purple colour. The oHve is 
nutritious, but heating ; the better 
classes eat them sparingly, although a 
few are usually placed in saucers at 
their dinners. 


The geologist may visit VUlaniieva 
del Bio, 25 m. from Seville, and ex- 
amine the coal-mines, which, long ne- 
glected, are now worked by the Re- 
union Company. 



BotUe 87. — Seville to Cadiz. 

Sect. V. 

ROUTE 87. 

BAIL. 95 m. 

Three trains daily, in 6 hours. The 
riy. stai for Cadiz is situated near the 
fidr ground, the tobacco manufactory, 
and the Palace of San Tehno. (Rte.86.) 

The line follows the valley of the 
Guadalquivir: it crosses the Guadaira 
soon after leaving Seville. The two 
villages of Coria and San Juan de 
Alfarache, the ancient garden of 
Seville, are seen upon the opposite 
fiide of the river. 

8} m. Bos Hermanas Stat. Pop. 
5651. This pretty village is sur- 
rounded by orange-groves and olive- 

11 J m. Vtrera Stat. Change for 
XoronaTuiOsnna— small Buffet Pop. 

Utrera, Utricula, during the Moorish 
struggle, was the refuge of the agricul- 
turist who fled from &e Spanish tolas 
and border forays, and is inhabited 
by rich farmers, who rent the estates 
around, where much com, oil, frait, 
and wine is produced. Here vast flocks 
are bred, and those fierce bulls so re- 
nowned in the Plaza. The street and 
alamedas are kept clean and fresh by 
running streams. Formerly flourishing 
and very populous, Utrera fell into 
decay, but was much improved by 
D. Clemente Cuadra y Gibaja. This 
gentleman, together with his son, Don 
Federico, has set a valuable example to 
his brother labradores by introducing 
Ransome's agricultural machineiy. 
The Carmelite convent has been 
turned into a prison, and the 
church of Sn. Juan de Dios into a! 
philharmonic theatre. The church of 
Sta, M^ria de H Mesa has a goodBer^ | 

ruguete portal, called el PerdoUj and 
a tomb of a Ponce de Leon, with an 
armed kneeling figure. Obs., amongst 
its relics, one of the 80 coins which 
Judas received for the betrayal of 
our Lord. The shrine of Our Lady of 
Consolation in the convent of Minimos, 
outside the town, is held in great vene- 
ration by the neighbouring peasantry. 
Built in 1561, it used to be frequent<^ 
by thousands on the 8th of Sept., when 
a Mr was held, and votive offerings 
made : now little more takes place than 
the sale of children's toys.* Utrera, 
in a military point of view, was for- 
merly of some importance. The ruins 
still exist of a castle. About 6 m. 
fh>m Utrera is a fine olive hacienda of 
the Conde de Torre Nueva, which is 
well managed ; at Xoralei, 3 m. to 1., 
are the ruins of a most andent castle. 
A rly. connects Vtrera vrUh Moron. It 
was constructed to open out the rich 
marble quarries in the Sierra Estepa. 
8^ m. Las Aloantarillas Stat. Obs. 
the ruins of an ancient fortified castle. 

7f m. LaB Cabeias Stat. Pop. 4670. 
The town is distant 2 m. to the 1. of 
the rly., and is surroimded by sugar- 
plantations. Of this place the pro- 
verb says. No se ha4ie nada en el consejo 
del rey, sin Cabezas. 

10| m. Lehr^a Stat. Pop. 12,405. 
This nicely placed town (the Moorish 
Nebrishah) is the ancient Nebrissa- 
Veneria, according to Pliny. Hero 
was bom Antonio Cala Jarana del Ojo 
(better known as Nebritsensis), who 
was the great grammarian and restorer 
of letters in Spain. Obs. La Mdriquiia 
dd MarmolejOt a headless Boman 
statue, now christened the little marble 
Mary : notice the fiorid plateresque 
Betabloot the Parroquia, once a mosque, 
with some of the earliest carvings in 
cedar and mahogany of Alonso Cano, 
1630-36, especially the Virgin and 
Child, with all his mild and melan- 
choly grace, and the St. Peter and Si 
Paul. Behind the church is a pretty 

* Consult an especial book on this * Santoarlo, ' 
bv Rodrlgo Caro, Svo., Osuna, 1622. Consalt 
*Epnogo de Utrera,' Pe^ro Homan Melen4e)b 
no., Seville, 1V30, 

Andalucia. Boute 87. — Jerez de la Frontera : Churches. 


orange-planted cloister, with a good 
crucifix by Montaiies. 

7i m. Gasas del Caeryo Stat. 

12^ m. Jerez de la Frontera Stat. 

[A horse rly. (&re 2 reals) connects 
the rly. stat. with the town.] 

[Here change for San Lucar de 
Barrameda. 3 trains daily. (SeeBte.88.) 

Jerez. Stat. 

Laz Tablas. Stat. 

San Lucar. Stat.] 

Jerez. Inns: Fonda de Jerez, Calle de 
las Naranjas, dear; make bargain before- 
hand ; FondEi de Europa, 86 Oorredera, 
reasonable and well situated ; Fonda 
de la Victoria, on the Plaza del Arenal, 
inferior to the above hotel, but clean 
and moderate in its charges. 

CaMnos : De Isabel Segunda in the 
Calle Larga, frequented by the English 
residents : English newspapers. Casino 
Jerezano, in the same street, a hand- 
some club, frequented by commercial 
men. Visitors introduced to both clubs 
for 1 month upon the introduction of a 

Fast-office: In the Calle de Medina. 

English Vice-Considf George "W. 
Suter, Esq., 1 Plaza del Mercado. 

U.S.A. Consular Agents H. E. 
Davies, Esq. 

Plaza de Toros. There is a fine 
new bull-ring erected in 1875, and the 
fights are first-rate even for Andalucia ; 
they begin in May. 

Jerez (or Xeres) de la Frontera (Pop. 
55,924) is celebrated for its wines. It 
is called ofihe Frontier to distinguish 
it from Jerez de los CahaMeros, in Estre- 

Jerez was taken from the Moors by 
Alonso el Sabio in 1264. The Moorish 
Alcazar adjoins the pleasant Alameda ; 
it is a fine specimen of a walled pala- 
tial fortress. Its Torre del Homenaje, 
and the octagonal tower to the 1. of the 
entrance-gate command a fine view of 
the city and its suburbs ; the Salon del 
Trono, and tlie elegant Patios are inter- 
esting. The Alcazar may be visited 
when the owner, the Duke of San| 
Lorenzo, is not residing there. | 

The Cathedral (or colegiata), begun 
» 1095, was completed by C^you, the , 

architect of the cathedral of Seville ; 
in style it is Ohurriguereeque. The 
interior is spacious and lofty, but in 
bad taste. Its hbrary and collection 
of coins was the gift of JDiaz de la 
Ouerra, Bishop of SigUenza, a native 
of Jerez. 

The Ghnroh of San Miffuel has a fine 
Gothic fa9ade, masked, however, by a 
more modem GrsBCO-Roman fi*ont. The 
lateial portals are also Gothic. The 
interior is elegant ; it consists of three 
naves divided by bold pillars. The 
elaborately ornamented transept af- 
forded subject for a well-known picture 
by Roberts. Obs. the bassi-relievi by 
Montaiies, within the presbytery near 
the Altar Mayor: they represent the 
Nativity, the Adoration, the Annim- 
oiation, the Transfiguration, &c., and 
were executed in 1652. The Sagrario 
contains folding-doors by Berruguete, 
and a Christ by Montaiies. This 
church has been restored at a great ex- 
pense ; the stone carving is excellent. 

The Church of Santiago has a fine 
lateral fa9ade; the statues are good. 
The interior consists of three naves ; 
the gilt capitals of the pillars upon 
which the arched roof rests are in the 
shape of thorns. 

The Church of San Dionisio is in 
Moro-Gothic style. It dates from the 
13th centy., having been founded by 
Alonso el Sabio. Obs. the grotesque 
carvings around the spouts and gutters, 
and the delicate mouldings of the 

Jerez is a well-built, clean-looking, 
flourishing town. Its Plaza del Arenal 
is very Oriental-looking, being sur- 
roimded by stately palm-trees, which 
are splendidly relieved upon a back- 
ground formed of whitewashed houses. 
Here military bands play twice a week 
during the summer and autumnal 
evenings. The Alameda Vieja, and 
the Paseo are pleasant promenades; 
the latter, however, is now exclusively 
used by the working classes. The 
elegant miradores and beautiful paiios 
of the houses, looking so cool and clean, 
will remind the traveller of Seville. 
The maJQs may be. seen in all their 
glory on the great day of the Jerez 
Ffirtr, ^9i.j 1st, when 3pecial trains ruu 


Bouie 87. — Jerez : Wine-cellars ; Excursion. Sect. Y. 

all day, and bring numberless visitors 
to the fair and annual race meeting. 

The Bodegas or wine-cellars are the 
lions of Jerez : each one is a true 
Temple of Bacchus, some of them 
holding as much as 14,000 butts, al- 
thougli the buildings tiiemselves are 
mere huge low sheas, and wanting in 
architectural proportions. The Bode- 
gas of Gosens have, however, some 
architectural pretension, the supports 
to each span of roof being circular 
columns with finished capitals, an im- 
provement upon the square and un- 
sightly pillars common to the older 
buildings. Those of Messrs. Domecq, 
Gonzalez Byass and Co., Patrick 
Garvey, Gordon, M. Misa, J. Pemartin, 
and Eichard Davis, are amongst the 
finest. The Bodegas are courteously 
fihown to visitors from 9 a.m. to 4 p.m. 
(Sundays and holidays excepted). 
The visitor is invited to taste each 
quality of wine, from the raw mosto to 
the mature golden fluid. We recom- 
mend the student to hold hard during 
the first samples, as the choicest wine 
is naturally reserved for the last. 
Visit Domecq's cellar, and ask to be 
introduced to his "Napoleon" cask. 
Messrs. Gonzalez and Co. have a 
model Bodega on the Alameda Vieja. 
Of their " 12 Apostles," try the wine 
contained in cask No. 3 from the 
entrance door : their " Oloroso muy 
viejo," their " Methusalem," 90 years 
old, their E.I.S. (East Indian sherry, 
so called because it has made the 
voyage to India, for the sole purpose 
of improving its quality), their N.P.XJ. 
(ne plus ultra) wine, 50 years old and 
valued at 500L per butt, and, last but 
not least, tiieir " Vino de Jesu Cristo," 
a vintage of the year 1811, should all 
be tasted. Upon the occasion of the 
Ex-Queen Isabel's visit to this Bodega 
in 1862, Messrs. Gonzalez christened 
after her a new butt of 1832 wine. A 
silver padlock guards the bung-hole, 
which IS not to be removed until her 

The sherry wine was first introduced 

into England about the time of our 

Henry VII.* The great wholesale 

* For further details read * Facts about 

Sherry,' by Viaetelly. London, I8t6. 

merchants will only sell their wine to 
the trade, and the retail dealers at 
Jerez are said to sell the worst sherry 
in the world. 

Those who are interested in wine 
culture may visit El Xaohamudo, a 
crack vineyard belonging to Mons. 
Domecq, situated near the town. 
M. Fermartin's Garden is one of the 
sights of Jerez. 

Excursion from Jerez. — No one 
should fail to visit the Cartnja, which 
lies 2} m. from Jerez, in an E. direc- 
tion. The road is bad : it requires 40 
minutes to ride or drive. (Carriages 
are exorbitantly dear in Jerez, and tiie 
two hours' drive will cost from 4 to 
6 dollars. Decent riding-horses can, 
however, be obtained (25 reals per 
horse) of San Antonio del Eiego, near 
the Tienda de los Palos, in the Plaza 
de la Beina. Fee to the custodian of 
the Cartuja, 6 reals. 

This once magnificent Monasteiy 
was founded in 1477 by Alvaro Obertoe 
de Valeto, who died 1482, and is buried 
here. His figure in armour was en- 
graved in brass before the high altar. 
The principal portal was the work of 
Andres de Ribera, 1571 ; it is flanked 
by four fluted pillars of the Doric 
order. The niches are filled with 
statues. The cloisters or patios are 
three in number, the principal is sup- 
ported by 24 white marble piUais. 
This monastery was especially rich in 
Zurbarans ; the finest were bought for 
the private collection of Louis Philippe, 
and by Mr. Miles Standish, of Seville. 
They have since been sold and some 
of them may be seen at the gallery of 
the Duke de Montpensier, who bought 
them at the sale of his father's pic- 
tures. This Cartuja was once very rich 
in excellent vineyards, and its YegimdOt 
or breeding-ground, has always been 
celebrated for its splendid Anaaludan 
barbs : now no less than 100 govern- 
ment stallions are permanently located 

Below the Cartuja rolls the Guada- 
lete, the Leteo of the Bomans, the 
Wad-alrleded of the Moors. A small 
knoll called £1 Beal de Don Bodrigo 
marks the head-quarters of the last of 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.'w^^-t t'*^. 


Boute 87. — Puerto de Santa Maria, 


the Goths ; here the battle was fought, 
July 26th, 711, between him and the 
Berber anny, which put an end to his 
dynasty. Lower down is el Portal, 
which was formerly the port of Jerez ; 
now the rly. conveys the butts to the' 
very ship-board in Cadiz and El Puerto 
de Santa Maria. 

From Jerez the rly. continues in a 
S.W. direction to 

9} m. Puerto de Santa Xaria Stat. 
Inn: Yista Alegre, very good but 

H, B. M. Vice-Consul: Charles S. 
Campbell, Esq. 

Doctor: Dr. Lorenzo Varies, Calle 
de la Luna. 

British Chaplain for the district of 
Jerez, Cadiz, Port Royal and Port 8t. 
Mary : Kev. B. Croker. 

Post' Office: Calle de Santo Domin- 
There are good river semi-salt baths 
in the Guadsdete during the summer 

BtM-ring : The bull-fights are per- 
haps the best in Spain. Here was 
given the celebrated fight in honour of 
the Duke, which is described by Byron 
(better as a poet than as a correct 
torero). The grand fight of the year 
takes place on el dia de la Asuncion. 
Good regattas are held at Port St. Mary 
in June between Seville, Cadiz, and 
Port St. Mary. 

El Puerto (or Port) of St. Mary was 
the Portus Menesthei of the ancients. 
Pop. 19,555. The town is clean and 
well-built ; the best street is the Calle 
Larga, the prettiest promenades are 
the Alameda de la Vietoria and the 
Yejir, where the band plays on Sun- 
days. A large Jesuit college has lately 
been established here,where 500 youths 
are educated. The boys wear a uni- 
form. The river is crossed by an ele- 
gant suspension-bridge. The town vies 
with Jerez and San Luoar as a wine- 
exporting place, and although the wine 
trade has much decreased, the wine 
exported is of the very highest class, 
the principal houses being English and 
French. The bodegas or wine stores 
can be visited, although those of Jerez 
are on a grander scale. 

Excursions. Bide and visit the En*::- 
lish cemetery on the Jerez road, erected 
at the expense of C. S. Campbell, Esq. 

5i m. Puerto Beal Stat. Pop. 8793. 
This port — despite its having been 
founded by Isabel herself in 1488 — 
is a tiresome fishy place laid out in 
parallel and rectangular streets. It lies 
at the head of the Trocadero, on an 
inner bav. It was the head-quarters 
of Marshal Victor, who, by way of 
leaving a parting souvenir, destroyed 
900 houses. Opposite is the river or 
canal Santi or Saneti Petri (the Sancto 
Petro of olden chronicles), which di- 
vides the Isla from the mainland. On 
the land-bank is one of the chief naval 
arsenals of Spain. La Carraca, the 
station of the Carra^cas^ galleons, or 
heavy ships of burden. The Normans 
invaded these coasts of Spain in huge 
vessels called kardkir. This town, 
with the opposite one of San Carlos, 
was founded by Charles III. to form 
the Portsmouth and Woolwich of his 
kingdom. Here in the good old times 
Mago moored his fleet, and CflBsar his 
long galleys ; here Philip anchored the 
VTwelve Apostles,* the treasure gal- 
leons taken by Essex ; here Drake, in 
April, 1587, with 30 small ships de- 
stroyed more than 100 Frencn and 
Spanish men-of-war, singeing, as he 
said, " the King of Spain's wmskers ;" 
here were collected in after times the 
40 saU of the line prepared to invade 
and conquer England. Here also, in 
June, 1808, 5 French ships of the line, 
runaways from Trafalgar under Rosilly, 
surrendered nominaUy to the Span- 
iards, for Collingwood, by blockading 
Cadiz, had rendered escape impossible. 

The Santi Petri river, the water key 
of La Isla, is deep, and defended at its 
mouth by a rock-built castle. This, 
the site, of the celebrated temple of 
Hercules, was called by the Moors 
" The district of Idols." Part of the 
foundations were seen in 1755, when 
the waters retired during the earth- 
quake. The river is crossed by the 
Puente de Zaan>, so called &om the 
alcalde Juan Sanchez de Zuazo, who 
restored it in the 15th centy. It is of 
Roman foundation, and was con- 
structed by Balbus to servo both as a 


lioute 87. — San Ferncmdo — Cadiz, 

Sect. V. 

bridge and an aqueduct. The water 
was brought to Cadiz from Tempul, 
near Jerez, but both were destroyed 
in 1262 by the Moors. The tower was 
built by Alonso el Sabio, who had 
better have restored the aqueduct. 
This bridge was the pons asinorum 
of the French, as the English never 
suffered them to cross it. 

6J m. San Fernando Stat. Pop. 
26,346. Inn: In the Calle de San 
Juan de Dios, No. 24. 

This is a straggling, gay-looking 
town, with its fantastic lattices and 
house-tops glistening in the bright 
sun. Salt, the staple trade of the town, 
is made in the salincLs and the marshes 
between San Fernando and Cadiz, 
where the huge piles glisten like the 
white ghosts of the British tents, when 
our red jackets were quartered here. 
The salt-pans have all religious names, 
like the wine-cellars of Jerez, or the 
mine-shafts of Almaden, e.g. El dulce 
norribre de Jesus^ &c. 

Visit the splendid building which 
contains the Observatory. It is one of 
the best appointed in the world, on 
account of its admirable topographical 
and meteorological position. It is placed 
in the most southern position in Europe 
(25 meters above the sea-level) with 
the exception of that of Malta. It is 
under the Ministry of Marine, and is 
well provided with first-rate English 
instruments. The fine meridian circle, 
constructed by Troughton, is similar 
to the one used at Greenwich. The 
library is veiy complete. Electrical 
registers are used for making the 
observations. A course of instruction 
is given at this observatory to oflScers 
in the Spanish navy who wish to devote 
themselves to a purely scientific 

San Fernando is the residence of the 
Captain-General of the district. 

La Isla de Leon, is so called be- 
cause granted in 1459 to the Ponce de 
Leon family, but resumed again by the 
crown in 1484. This island was the 
Erythrjea, Aphrodisia, Ootinusa, Tar- 
tessus of the uncertain geography of 
the ancients. Here Geryon {Vepav, 
a fine old fellow, the Stranger in the 

Hebrew) fed those fat Mne which 
Hercules *' lifted. ' ' His descendant the 
Duque de Osuna is still the great 
*• Lord of Andalucia ; '* but his ances- 
tors* breed of cattle is extinct, and 
Bsetican bulls are now better for bait- 
ing than basting. In these marshes 
and along the coast breed innumerable 
small crabs, cangr^os, whose fore-claws 
are delicious and form tit-bits for the 
Andaluz ichthyophile. These hocas 
de la Isla are torn off fix)m the living 
animal, who is then turned adrift, that 
the claws may grow again: a very 
large prawn is also found in these la- 
goons, called Langostin, they are most 
excellent, enormous oysters, oationes, 
bastard lobsters, mussels, shrimps, and 
other shell -fish. Chameleons also 

Diligences to Algedras/or Gibraltar, 
daily^ 100 rs. berlina, 80 rs. interior ; 
they leave on the arrival of the train. 

The road is good, and passes by 


Venta de Gonil. 

Venta de Bcjer. 



Steamers leave AlgeciroBf and in fine 
weather reach Gibraltar (5 m.) in an 

Diligences to Medina Sidonia. 

Leaving San Fernando, the rly. tra- 
verses the narrow peninsula to 

2 m. Agnada Fnntales Stat. 

1 J m. Cadiz Stat. Terminus. Omni- 
bus to the hotels. 

Upon entering the harrier, between 
the rly. stat. and the town, a strict exa- 
mination of luggage takes pla.ce ; have 
keys ready. The Custom House officers 
are to be conciliated by patience, cour- 
tesy, and a cigar. 

Cadiz. Inns: Hotel de Cadiz, in 
the open Plaza de San Antonio; Fonda 
de Paris, in the narrow Calle de San 
Francisco ; dear. Fonda de las Cuatro 
Naciones; excellent cuisine. Fonda 
Madrilefia, quiet and well ordered. 
Fonda de America, in the Calle San 
Jose, small but very comfortable; 
dinner at any hour. Fonda de Europa, 


Boute 87. — Cadiz : Sistory. 

in the Galle de Golumela, a first-class 
commercial hoiue. 

CafA: Cafe Suizo, CaUe de San 
Jose, Gerveceria Inglesa, Oalle del 
Tinte, an excellent place to lunch at. 
Cafe Apolo in the Plaza San Antonio ; 
del Oon-eo, in the Oalle del Bosaiio. 

Theatres: Teatro Principal; Del 
Balon (comedies, Spanish dances, 

Bull 'Ring: Near the Puerta de 
Tierra. Good horse races take place 
in April and November, bel^een 
English thoroughbreds and Spanish 

P<M« Offiee : In the Oalle de Babao. 

Tdegrciph Office: At the Oustom- 
house. Open night and day. 

H.B.M, Constd: Gerald Perry, 
Esq. Vice-CoTutd: Hy. Macpherson, 
Esq., 21, Alameda de Apodaca. Con- 
sular office, Oalle de Ahumada. 

U. 8, A, Consul : E. L. Oppenheim, 

Carriages, Street cabs, one horse, 
8 reals per hour and course'; two- 
horse carriages, 25 reals per hour. 
There are also open breaks 12 rs. per 

Casino : In the Plaza de San Anto- 
nio, excellent; introduction through 
member or Consul. 

YacM Club: Circulo naiitico de 
Cadiz ; introduction through consul. 

English Agents : 

Bankers : Messrs. Aramburu, Bros. 
Messrs. Douarte & Co., Oalle del 
Bosario, Coutts's Agents. 

Boats: To or from a steamer the 
usual charge is 4 reals per person, and 
2 reals for each article of luggage. 
From landing-place to the custom- 
house, or any part of the town, 4 reals 
for each article. A good boatman, 
who speaks English, Jos^ Nufiez ; but 
make your bargain beforehand. 

Baths : Warm baths near the Plaza 
de Mina, 6 reals each bath. Excel- 
lent sea-bathing establishments on the 
Alameda de Apodaca, and near the 

Cadiz contains a population of 
64,551. Although one of the oldest 
towns in Europe, it looks one of the 


newest and cleanest : the rust of anti- 
quity is completely whitewashed over. 
It is well built, paved, and lighted, 
and so tidy — ^thanks to the sewer of 
the circumambient sea — that the 
natives compare it to a toza de plata, a 
silver dish (Arabic^ tcut). Cadiz is a 
garrison town, and a see of a bishop 
suffragan to Seville. It rises on a low 
rocky peninsula of concrete shells 
shaped like a ham, some 10 to 50 feet 
above the sea, which girdles it aroimd, 
a narrow isthmus alone connecting it 
with the mainland. It was founded 
by Hercules, or the PhoBnicians, 347 
years before Bome, and 1100 before 
Christ. It bears for arms Hercules 
grappling with two lions, with the 
motto '* Gadis fundamentor dominator- 
que." The Punic name Was corrupted 
by the Greeks, who caught at sound, 
not sense, into roSctpo, quasi yns Scipa, 
a neck of land, whence the Boman 
Gades. Gaddir was the mart of the 
tin of England, and the amber of the 
Baltic. The Phoenicians, jealous of 
their monopolv, permitted no stranger 
to pass beyond it. Cffisar (whose first 
office was a qusestorship in Spain) saw 
the importance of this key of Anda- 
lucia. He strengthened it with works, 
and, when Dictator, gave imperial 
names to the city, "Julia Augusta 
Gaditana." Ghdes became enormously 
rich by engrossing the salt-fish mono- 
poly of Bome: its merchants were 
princes. Balbus rebuilt it with marble, 
setting an example even to Augustus. 
Italy imported from Cadiz those im- 
probes Gaditanm, whose lascivious 
dances of Oriental origin still exist in 
iheBomaZis of the Andaludan gipsies. 
The prosperity of Glides fell with that 
of Bome, to both of which the founda- 
tion of Constantinople dealt the first 
blow. Then came the Goths, who de- 
stroyed the city : and when AUmso el 
Sabio captured Eidis from the Moors, 
Sept. 14, 1262, its existence was almost 
doubted by the infallible Urban IV. 

Cadiz (long called Cales by the 
English) was sacked June 21, 1596, by 
Ijoinl Essex. The expedition was so 
secretly planned, that n. ne on board, 
save the chiefs, knew its destination. 
The booty of tJio conquero. s was enor- 


Boute S7. -—Oadiz: The OathedraU. 

Sect. V. 

mous : 13 ships of war, and 40 huge 
South American galleons were de- 
stroyed, whereby an almost uniyersal 
bankruptcy ensued, and tbe first blow 
was dealt to falling Spain, from which 
she has never recovered.' The city 
was again attacked by the English in 
1625, who failed to take the place 
through the incapacity of the com- 
mander, Lord Wimbleton, a grandson 
of the great Burleigh. Ano^er Eng- 
lish expedition failed in August 1702. 

Cadiz in the war with Fmnoe nar- 
rowly escaped. When the rout of 
Ocafia gave Andalucia to Soult, he 
turned aside to Seville to play the 
" conquering hero." So Albuquerque, 
by taking a short cut, had time to 
reach the Isla, and make a show of 
defence. The bold front presented by 
Albuquerque saved the town. He 
soon after died in England, broken- 
hearted at the injustice and ingrati- 
tude of the Cadiz Junta. 

The discovery of the New World 
revived the prosperity of a place which 
alone can exist by commerce, but 
since the loss of the Transatlantic co- 
lonies it has decreased to about half its 
former population. 

Begin sight-seeing in Cadiz by as- 
cendmg la Torre de la Vigia. Below 
lies the smokeless whitened city, with 
its miradorea and azoteas, its look-out 
towers and flat roofs, from whence the 
merchants formerly signalled the arri- 
val of their galleons. 

Cadiz possesses twocaihedraU^plaLced 
near each other. ** La Vicja " was 
almost entirely rebuilt in 1597, to re- 
place that which was destroyed during 
the siege by Lord Essex. The ori- 
ginal structure was 13th-centy. work, 
erected during the reign of Alonso X., 
Pope Urban IV. having removed the 
see of Sidonia hither about the year 
1265. Over the high altar is a fine 
Churrigueresque rotable. The silver 
Custodia is worth seeing ; it is 25 feet 
high, and requires 26 men to push it 
along. The want of dignity of the old 
cathedral induced the city, in 1720, to 
commence a new one, '* La Nueva ; ** 
but the plai s given by Vicente Acero 
were so ba i that no one, in spite of 
many atter ipts, was found able to cor- 1 

rect them, so the work was left unfi- 
nished in 1769, and so remained until 
1832, when the interior was completed 
by Bishop Domingo de Silos Moreno at 
a cost of £300,000. Obs. his statue 
facing the cathedral. The florid Corin- 
thian is overcharged with cornices and 
capitals. The high altar is of white 
marble and vile taste, and was erected 
in 1866 at the expense of Queen 
Isabel n. The vaults are worth see- 
ing, although their proportion is not 
good. The nUeria del coro formerly 
belonged to the Carthusian convent 
of Santa Mariade las Cuevasin Seville; 
it was removed to its present (Kwition 
in 1859. The paintings are almost all 
daubs. Obs., however, in a chapel be- 
hind the high altar, a fine copy of one 
of Murillo's Concepciones by Clemente 
de Torres, and a St. Luke by iUbera. 

Visit next Los Gapoehiiios, the sup- 
pressed convent of San Francisco. 
Lord Essex occupied it as head-quar- 
ters in 1596. Its chapel contains (over 
the altar mayor) me last work of 
Murillo— an admirable piece of paint- 
ing — the Marriage of 8t. Catherine. 
The work was almost completed when 
the artist fell from the scaffolding (in 
1682). He died at Seville shortly 
afterward in consequence of the inju- 
ries he then received. The smaller 
subjects were finished from his draw- 
ings by his pupil Fro. Meneses Osorio, 
who did not venture to touch what 
his master had done in the first lay of 
colours, or deprimera mano. Obs. also 
a San Francisco receiving the Stig- 
mata ; it is in Murillo's best manner. 
Notice in a chapel opposite, a Concep- 
don attributed to tne same master. 
These pictures were the gift of Juan 
Violeto, a Genoese, and a devotee to 
St. Catherine. The chief benefactor 
of the convent was, however, a foreign 
Jew, one Pierre Isaac, who, to con 
ciliate the Inquisition and save his 
ducats, gave half his profits to the 
convent. Some single figures by Znr- 
baran came from the Cartuja of Jerez. 

In the Church of San Felipe Hen 
there is a Concepdon by MurUlo and 
a Padre Etemo by Clemente de Torres. 
The Cortes of Cadiz sat during the 
war of independence there. Their de^ 


Bottle S7.— Walks round the Toum. 


bates ended September 14» 1813. In 
the Church of the Hospital de Mugeres 
there is a good example of El Oreco 
which represents St Francis. 

There are very few good pictures in 
Cadiz ; being a purely commercial town 
it has little fine ait or learning ; Us 
lettres de change y sont les heUes-leUres. 
It is scarcely even Ihe jocom Chdes of 
the past ; for the society, being mercan- 
tile, is considered by Spaniards as 

The Mnseo contains some 50 or 60 
second-rate paintings, the best are by 
Znxbaran; a San Bruno — ^Eight Monks, 
figures smaller than life, from the 
Cartuja of Jerez; two Aiagels ditto, 
and SIX smaller; the Four Evangelists, 
San Lorenzo and the Baptist. There 
is a Virgen de la Faja, a copy after 
MuriUo, by Tobar: a San Agustin, 
by L. Giordano ; a San Miguel and 
Evil Spirits, and the Guardian Angel. 
An echo also greatly amuses children. 

Libraries. The provincial library 
contains 25,000 vols. The Bishop's 
library contains 300 vols. The Instl- 
tuto possesses the most complete Phy- 
sioal Laboratory in Spain. There is 
also an excellent school of music, Sta. 
Cecilia ; it is supported by voluntarv 
snbscription, and is very weUorguiisea, 
with classes of music, universalhistory, 
and the fine arts. 

Walks round the Town, 

The outside of the prison and 
Esonela de Comeroio are cited by 
natives among their lions. La Calle 
Anoha (in truth, the only broad street) 
is the lounge of the city ; here are all 
the best shops. 

La Plaza de San Antonio is the chief 
square, and is really a square, planted, 
and provided with seats. La Plaia de 
Mina is a favourite evening loimee: 
it was created out of the garden be- 
longing to the Capuchine convent 
suppressed in 1836. Here a military 
bond plays 8 times a week during the 

The Botanioal Garden is worth see- 
ing. Look at the fine specimen of the 
Dragon-tree, 500 years old. Two of 
these curious trees exist at Gibraltar. 

The astronomical student may visit 
the private observatory of Don Augusto 
Arcimis, F.B.S., Plaza de Mina, 16. 
The sea-ramparts which encircle the 
city, extending more than 4 m. round, 
are most remarkable ; here the rooks 
rise the highest, and the battering of the 
Atlantic is the greatest as the waters 
gain on the land ; tlieir maintenance 
and rebuilding is a constant source of 
expense and anxiety. Here idlers, 
seated on the high wall, dispute with 
flocks of sea-birds for the saMonete, 
the delicious red mullet. Their long 
angling-canes and patience are pro- 
verbial — la paciencia de un pescador 

Following the sea-wall and turning 
to the rt. at the Puerto de la Caleta, 
in the distance the fort and lighthouse 
of San Sebastian rises about 172 ft. 
above the rocky ledge, from whidi a 
splendid view of Cadiz may be had, 
which proved the barrier that saved 
Cadiz from the sea, at the Lisbon 
earthquake in 1755. Next obs. the 
huge yellow Doric pile, the Gasa de 
Miserioordia, built by Torquato Cayou. 
This, one of the best-conducted refuges 
of the poor in Spain, sometimes con- 
tains 1000 inmates, of wliich 400 arc 
childreti. Its great patron was O'Beilly, 
who, in 1785, for a time suppressed 
mendicity in Cadiz. The court-yards, 
the patios of the interior, are noble. 
Here, Jan. 4, 1813, a ball was given by 
the grandees to the Duke, fresh from 
his victory of Salamanca, by which the 
siege of Cadiz had been raised, and 
Andalucia saved. 

Passing the Artillery barracks and 
arsenal, we turn by the balnarte de la 
Gandelaria to the Alameda. This 
charming walk is provided with trees, 
benches, fountains, and a miserable 
statue of Hercules, the founder of 
Cadiz, whose efi&gy grappling with 
2 lions, the city bears for arms. 
Every Spanish town has its Public 
Walk, the cheap pleasure of all classes. 
The word alameda is derived from 
alamo, poplar. Sometimes the es- 
planade is called El Salon (the saloon), 
and it is an al-fresoOy out-of-doors 
Bidotto. Tomar el fresco (to take the 
cool) is the joy of these southern lati- 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.'w.^-t t'*^. 


Bottte 87. — Cadiz : Plaza Nueva — Rota, 

Sect. V. 

tndes. Those who have braved the 
dog-days of the iDterior can best esti- 
mate the delight of the sea-breeze 
which springs up after the scorching 
sun has sank beneath the western 
wave. This sun, and the tides, were 
the marvels of Cadiz in older times, 
and descanted on in the classical 
handbooks. Philosophers came here 
on purpose to study the phenomena. 
Apollonius suspected that the wafers 
were sucked in by submarine winds ; 
SolinuB thought this operation was per- 
formed hj huge submarine animals. 
The Spanish Goths imagined that the 
sun returned to the E. by unknown 
subterraneous passages. The prosaic 
march of int^ect has settl^ the 
poetical and marvellous of ancient 
credulity and admiration. 

Barring these objects of undeniable 
antiquarian and present interest, there 
is little else to be seen on this Alameda 
of Cadiz. The principal building. El 
G&rmen, is of the worst ChurriguerUmo: 
inside was buried Adm. Gravina, who 
commanded the Spanish fleet, and re- 
ceived his death-wound at Trafalgar 
(see Rte. 97). Continuing to the E. is 
the large Aduana or Custom-house. 
The artist should now visit the Plaza 
Hueva, a most animated scene in the 
early morning. The fruits and vege- 
tables are superb, and there are studies 
for every variety of costume, colour, 
and grouping. Then walk to the fish- 
market. Examine the curious varie- 
ties of fish, which also struck the 
naturalists and gourmands of anti- 
quity (Strabo iii. 214). The dog-fish, 
the PintarcjOf for instance, is a deli- 
cacy of the omnivorous lower classes, 
who eat everything except toads. The 
fish of the storm-vexed Atlantic is 
superior to that of the languid Medi- 
terranean. The best here are the San 
Pedro, or John Dory, our corruption 
from the Italian Janitore^ so called 
because it is the fish which the Porter 
of Heaven caught with the tribute- 
money in his mouth ; the Salmonetes, 
the red mullets (the Sultan al hut, 
the king of fishes of the Moors) are 
ri^ht royal. Here are also to be seen 
other fishes not to bo found in Green- 

wich kitchens or ia English dictiona- 
ries : e.g. the Jurel, and the Mere : the 
flesh of the latter is said by Spaniards 
to rank amongst flsh as the sheep does 
among animals, 

" En la tierra el camero, 
En la mar el mero/' 

The Dorado, the lunated gilt head, so 
called from its golden eyes and tints, 
if eaten with tomata-sauce and lubri- 
cated with golden sherry, is a dish fit 
for a cardinal. 

Visit the Kngliah Cemetery, situated 
to the 1. of the land gate (between the 
AguadaandSanJos^). It was acquired 
and planted by Sir John Brackenbnry, 
a former English consul at Cadiz. 

The outer bay of Cadiz is rather ex- 
posed to the S.W., but the anchorage 
in the inner portion is excellent. 

1 m., at Matagorda, is the dry dockof 
Messrs. Lopez. It can take a vessel 
of 500 ft. long in the keel, and opposite 
is the Castle of PuntaleB. 

Some dangerous rocks are scattered 
opposite the town, in the direction of 
Bota, and are called Las Pueroas and 
Lob CkHshinos — and this porcine appel- 
lation is not a bad simile for such rocky 

Bota lies on the opposite (W.) side 
of the bay, and is distant about five 
miles across. Inn: Fonda de la 
Aurora. This picturesque town sup- 
plies Cadiz with frait and vegetables. 
The districts round abound with maize 
and melon plantations. Here the tent 
wine used for our sacraments is miade; 
the name being nothing but the Spa- 
nish tintUUi, from tinto, red. 
Steam Communications from Cadiz. 

To Seville 2 or 3 times a week, in 
8J hrs. To Gibraltar and Algeciras, 
almost daily, in 8 hrs. To Lisbon, 
Thursdays and Sundays. To Havre 
every 14 days. To Malaga, Alicante, 
Barcelona, Vigo, and La CorujEla at 
least three times a week (see announce- 
ments posted on the walls). To Puerto 
Bico and Havana on the 10th and 30th 
of the month. To New York once a 
month. To London, twice a week. 
To Liverpool, weekly. To the Canary 
Islands (to Tenerife in 4 days), on the 
7th and 22nd of tlie month. To Bio 

Ljiyiii/_eu uy >^_.'w.^-x t'*^. 


Mmte 88. — Seville to Cadiz. 


Janeiro, Buenos Ayres, and Monte- 
video, 4 times a month. 

Yachts of any tonnage can go almost 
always from Cadiz by river to Seville. 
Pilots are to be had at Bonanzas. 

Bailway to Seville, Bte. 86. 

ROUTE 88. 


Steamers^ almost daily, run up and 
down, weather permitting, from the 
Torre del Oro, 60 rs ; breakfast, 12 rs. 
The Guadalquivir, the ** great river," 
the Wddorl-KeMr or Wddorl adhem of 
the Moors, traverses Andalucia from 
E. to W. The Zincali, or Spanish 
gipsies, call it Len Baro, also meaning 
*' the great river." The Iberian name 
was Certis, which the Romans changed 
into Baetis. 

The river rises in La Mancha, about 
83 m. N. of Almaraz, and at Ecija re- 
ceives the Genii and the waters of the 
basin of Granada: other ntunerous 
affluents come down from the mountain 
valleys on each side. Leaving Seville, 
the pleasant public walk is skirted to 
the L and the steamer glides under the 
Moorish Hiflnu-l-foraj (Castle of the 
Cleft), now called San Juan de Al- 
farache. At Coria, famous under the 
Bomans for bricks and pottery, the 
enormous earthenware jars are still 
made in which oil and oUves are kept : 
these tinajas are the precise amphora 
of the ancients, and remind one of 
Morgiona and the Forty Thieves. At 
la Paebla, with its church and heavy 
tower, the lulls are covered with 
olive plantations, and in the fields 
horses and bulls are continually 
grazing. The river now divides, form- 

ing two unequal islands, La Isla Xayor 
and Menor. On one of the hillocks of 
Isla Menor is the hamlet of Lebreja, 
a little further on is Trebujena, sur- 
rounded by gardens. The river here 
becomes very wide. The Isla Mayor, 
the Kaptal of the Moors and Cartel of 
old Spanish books, has been cultivated 
with cotton, by a company who also 
cut a canal through the Isla Xenor, 
called La Cortadura, by which 10 m. 
of winding river are saved. 

The traveller, before he reaches the 
bay of Cadiz, will find that an actual 
acquaintance with the far-famed Gua- 
dalquivir will dispel any poetry and 
illusion which the native poets have 
conjured up. This "pellucid river" 
is, in sober reality, as dull and dirty 
as the Thames at Sheemess. The 
turbid stream slowly eats its way 
through an alluvial level given up to 
herds of cattle and aquatic fowls: 
nothing can be more dreary: white 
sails occasionally enliven the silent 
waters, but no villages cheer the desert 
steppes. In this fluvial tract, called 
La Marisma, favourable to animal and 
vegetable life, but fatal to man, the 
miserable peasantry look yellow skele- 
tons when compared to flieir fat Mne. 
Here, in the glare of summer, a mirage 
mocks the thirsty sportsman. This 
Sarab or vapour of the desert, with its 
optical deceptions of atmospheric re- 
firaMstions, is indeed the trick of fairies, 
a Fata MorganOy and well may the 
Arabs term it Moyet-Ehlis, the Devil's 

Bonanza is now reached, a clean and 
thriving town ; a branch railway con- 
nects it with San Lucar and Jerez. 
It is so called from a hermitage, Luoi- 
feii fanum, erected by the South 
American Company at Seville to 
Hnestra SeSLora de Bonanza (our Lady 
of fine weather). Here is established 
an aduanoy where luggage is examined. 
The district between Bonanza and San 
Lucar is called Algaida, an Arabic 
word meaning a deserted waste, and 
the view over the liat marisma, with 
its agues and fevers, swamps and 
shifting sands, arenas voladeras, is 
truly desert-like, and a fit homo of 

364 Boute 91. — Cordova to Baths of Carratraca. Sect. V. 

After passing Sanlucar the pleasant 
little town of Eota appears. Pop. 7200. 
To the 1. of Rota a bay is formed, into 
which the river Salado pours itself. 
Several dismantled batteries are on this 
coast, which terminates with the rocky 
promontory on which is the Fort of 
Santa Catalina. Soon after, a white 
mass appears, which seems lost in the 
sea : it is Cadiz. (For Ete. to Sanlucar 
de Guadiana on the frontier of Portu- 
gal, see Bte. 95.) 

Between Sanlucar and the Puerto 
the traveller will remember the Ori- 
ental ploughings of Elijah, when he 
sees 20 or more yoke of oxen labour- 
ing in the same field (1 Kings xix. 19). 

Gadii. (See Bte. 87.) 

birds and beasts of prey, hawks, stoats, 
and custom-house officers. 

Sanlucar de Barrameda. Bailway 
to Jerei. 

BritishVioe-Consul : O.Phillipe,Esq. 

Luciferi Fanum rises amid a 
treeless, sandy, undulating country, 
on the rt. bank of the Guadal- 
quivir. It is a favourite summer resi- 
dence, and very lively during the 
bathing season. The Duke of Mont- 
pensier has a fine country house 
here. Pop. 21,918. Taken from the 
Moors in 1264, it was granted by 
Sancho el Bravo to Guzman el Bueno. 
The importance of the transatlantic 
trade induced Philip IV., in 1645, to 
resume the city, and make it the resi- 
dence of the captain-general of Anda- 
lucia. Visit the ancient English Hos- 

Eital of St. George, founded in 1517 
y Henry VIII. for English sailors. 
The fort of OhipioxLa is at the S.E. 
From Sanlucar, Fernando Magal- 
liaens embarked, Aug. 10, 1519, on the 
first circumnavigation of the world; 
the Victoria was the only ship which 
returned, Sep. 8, 1552, Fernando hav- 
ing been killed, like Gapt. Cook, by 
some savages in the Philippine Islands. 
Sanlucar exists by its wine-trade, and 
is the mart of the inferior and adulter- 
ated vintages which are foisted off in 
England as sherries. N.B. Here, ai 
least J drink manzaniUa, however much 
it may he eschewed in England,* 

The climate of Sanlucar is ex- 
tremely hot Here was established, in 
1806, a Jardin de Aolimatadon, in 
order to acclimatise South American 
and African animals and plants : it 
was arranged by Boutelou and Bojas 
Clemente, two able gardeners and na- 
turalists, and was in high order in 
1808, when the downfall of Godoy, the 
founder, entailed its destruction. The 
populace rushed in, killed the animals, 
tore up the plants, and pulled down 
the buildings, because the work of a 
hated individual. 

* The name describes its pecaliar light camo- 
niiU flavour, which is the trae derivation, for it 
has nothing to do with mamana, an apple, and 
ptill less with the town ManzanUU on the op- 
posite side of the river. It is of a delicate pale 
•traw colour, and is extremely wholesome. 

ROUTE 91. 



Take the train on the Cordova and 
Malaga line, as far as — 

84 m. Oobantes Stat. (See Bte. 

Thence a regular service of dili- 
gences run (during the season — 15th 
June to 15th September) direct to the 

7 m. Baths of Carratraca. Inns: 
Fonda de Calenco, clean and comfort- 
able. Fonda del Prfncipe, also com- 
fortable and well-conducted. Fonda 
del Leon de Oro; the rooms in this 
hotel are inferior, but the management 
is good. 

Casino^ and Cafi. 

Post Office: In the Calle de la Iglesia. 

Promenades: La Glorieta and the 
Alameda are pleasant paseos. 


Boute 93. — Seville to Htielva. 


The Estableeimiento is a handsome 
modem stracture, opened in 1856. 

The waters are sulphureous, of the 
mean temperature of 64** Fahr. They 
enjoy great celebrity from their 
peculiar efficacy in certain female 
jliseases. Syphilitic and rheumatic 
disorders are also treated here. One 
department is reserved for lepers, who 
also derive great benefit from the 
external use of the waters. From 20 
to 30 baths are generally required to 
effect a cure. No one is allowed to 
bathe in the stronger water, without 
having first obtained the permission 
of the medical superintendent. There 
are 16 private bath-rooms for patients, 
two very handsome public marble 
tanks for those who prefer the old 
Spanish system of bathing together ; 
and 12 warm-bath rooms, supplied with 
non-medicinal water, for the general 

The climate of Oarratraca is very 
salubrious, although not so cool as 
Bonda and Granada in summer. Open- 
air balls and concerts are frequently 
given in the patio adjoining the Fonda 
deCalenco. Pop. 1684. 

Near Oarratraca (1^ m.) is a singu- 
lar cavern discovered in 1821. Obtain 
guide and torches at the hotel. The 
entrance is steep and difficult; the 
glittering effect produced by the lights 
upon the stalactites and spars, is sin- 
gularly beautiful. The cavern can 
only be approached on foot or on 

From Oarratraca, Bonda (see Bte. 
110) may be reached in 8 hrs. Attend 
to the provend. Horses and guides 
may be procured at the hotel. 

Another excursion can be made to 
the old Roman town of Teba, the place 
£rom which the Empress Eugenie took 
her title of Countess of Teba. The salt 
lake near to Antequera may also be 
virited (see Rte. 104). 

ROUTE 93. 


Seyillb Stat, in six hours. 2 trains 

l| m. Triana Stat. 

l| m. Camas Stat. Pop. 1011. 

5 m. Salteras Stat. Pop. 1229. 

3^ m. Villaaaeva del Ariaoal Stat. 
Pop. 2326. 

8f m. Sanli^oar la Mayor Stat. 
(Pop. 3377), built upon an elevated 
site, from whence a fine view is obtain- 
ed over the wide extent of plain. The 
fertile country in the neigbbourhoocl 
was called by the Moors the Grarden 
of Hercules. 

2 m. Benaoason Stat. 

5^ m. Asnaloaiar Stat. Pop. 1182. 
si Huevar Stat. Pop. 1129. 
3| m. Carrion de los Cespedes Stat. 
Pop. 2212. 

3 m. Esacexia Stat. Pop. 1804. 

7 m. Villalba del Alcor Stat. Pop. 

3^ m. La Palma Stat. Pop. 5199. 
Situated in a district of great fertility. 

2i m. Villarasa Stat. 2434. 

3f m. iriebla Stat Pop. 1047. 
The lead and silver mines in the 
neighbourhood give a considerable 
amount of traffic to this line. The 
Ilipla of the Romans lies between 
the rivers Yillarasa and Beas. It has 
a castle, which was ruined by the 
French, and a fine old Roman bridge, 
in good preservation. The railroad 
on each side is bordered by fine plan- 
tations of Eucalyptus. The convent 
of La Rabida is seen in the distance. 
It was ^e chief town of its country, 
or contadOf under the Moors. 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.'w.^^-i f»^ 


Boute 93. — Hudva : Excursion. 

Sect. V. 

11 m. San Jnan del Puerto Junct. 
Stat Pop. 3278. A picturesque, white- 
washed town, with irregular streets 
and pleasant neighbourhood. There 
is a considerable traffic in orange and 
lemon trees. Opposite, on the other 
side of the river Tinto, is Mognior. 
Pop. 78,000. The caravels which 
left Spain with Columbus, left &om 
FaloB and Moguer. Here Frederick 
Bobert was murdered in 1871 ; the 
murderer, Juan Beltran, was con- 
demned November, 1876. 

[Railway from San Juan del Puerto 
to Buitron and Zsdamea, in combina- 
tion with Huelva and Seville, 2 trains 

San Juan Stat. Pop. 3278. 

5 m. TrigneroB Stat. Pop. 4889. 

4 m. Beas Stat. Pop. 1775. 

5 m. Valverde Stat. Pop. 7817. 
2^ m. Zalamea Stat. Pop. 7530. 

This line is used to bring minerals 
to the port.] 

8 m. Huelva. Pop. 12,621. Inn: 
Hotel Bica, Galle de Palacios. From 
30 to 40 r. a day. Fonda de las Cuatro 
Naciones, Galle de la Planta, 20 to 
30 r. a day. Oasa de Huespedes, in the 
Galle de Monasterio; from 12 to 20 r. 
a day. In the summer these prices 
are increased. 

The town (Pop. 12,629) is ad- 
mirably situated at the confluence 
of the rivers Odiel and Tinto, and 
is increasing daily in importance. 
Some antiquarians read in the word 
Huelva, Chiuba, *' abundance of grape 
bunches," but Astarloa prefers lie 
Basque, and translates Wuelba, " a hill 
placed under a height." This seaport, 
the capital of its triangular province, 
is in constant communication with 
Portugal, Gadiz, and Seville, sending 
much fruit and floor-matting to those 
places. It is the great seat of the 
sardine fisheries. The climate and 
water of Huelva are delicious. Boses 
are in full bloom in February. It is 
an excellent resort for invalids in the 
winter, being many degrees warmer 
than Nice or Pau. The vestiges of 
a Boman aqueduct are still visible. 
The fimhH motto of tJiis port is 

**Portus maris et terrcB custodial" 
An English mining colony are estab- 
lished here. 
British Viee-Constd : S. G. Gampbell, 

'.8.A. Consular Agent : F. H.Stan(l, 

Gommunication with Oadii in open 
felucca three times a week. By 
steamer three times a week. 

Huelva has two Parroquias : that of 
St. Pedro is very ancient. 

Excursion from Huelva to Falos and 
La Babida. Take a boat with fonr 
oarsmen at the old pier, 1 hr.'s row 
will bring the traveller to Palos (Pains 
Etreplaca), whence Golumbus set sail 
on the 3rd of August, 1492, to discover 
the New World. His fleet consisted of 
two caravels, or light vessels without 
decks, and a third one of larger burden. 
He was accompanied by 120 persons, in- 
cluding some adventurers of the name 
of Pinzon, a family not yet extinct in 
these localities ; and to this very port, 
on March 15th, 1493, 7 months andll 
days afterwards, did he return, having 
realised his grand conception, con- 
ferred a new world on his sovereigns, 
and earned immortality for himself— 
services soon to be repaid by breach 
of faith and ingratitude. At Palos, 
again, Gortes landed in May, 1528, 
after the conquest of Mexico. By a 
strange coincidence, Pizarro, the con- 
queror of Peru, was also here at this 
moment, commencing that career of 
conquest, bloodshed, and spoliation, 
which Gortes was about to close. Pi- 
zarro was afterwards assassinated. 

Three miles from Palos is the Con- 
vent of Santa Maria la B6bida, a Moor- 
ish name so common in Spain, and sig- 
nifying " frontier or exposed situation," 
Babbitah,Bebath,which were defended 
by the Babitos ; these were the Mara- 
bitins, the Morabitos, the Almorabides 
of Gonde, a sort of Ghilzee, or half- 
fanatic soldier-monk, from whom the 
Spaniards borrowed their knights of 
Santiago. This convent was ordered, 
in 1846, to be preserved as a national 
memorial. Here, in 1484, Golxmibus, 
craving charity with his little boy, 


Boute 93. — Bio Tinto Copper-mines. 


was received by the Prior, Juan Perez 
de Marchena. This monk alone, when 
the wisest kings and councils had 
rejected as yisionary the scheme of 
the discovery of the New World, had 
the wit to see its probability, the 
courage to advocate the plan, and the 
power to prepare the experiment. He 
must, indeed, share in tiie glory of the 
discovery of America, for by his in- 
fluence alone with Isabel was his 
protege Columbus enabled to sail on 
this expedition. Here alsa Cortes 
found shelter on his return from 
Mexico. Those accomplished Ameri- 
cans, Prescott and Washington Irving, 
have, with singular grace and pro- 
priety, illustrate the age of Ferdinand 
and Isabel, when their country was 

[A narrow-gauge railway runs from 
Huehra to fio Tinto in 5 hours. 
Lai^ warehouses filled with copper 
and pyrites have been built near the 
station at Huelva. 

The river Odiel is crossed. The 
country is arid and uninteresting. 
There are four stations on the road 
to the Mines. 

Corrales Stat. 

San Bartolom^ de las Torres Stat. 

Xedio Millar Stat. 

Tharsis (Bio Tinto) Stat.] 

20 m.MinasdeSio Tinto, Pop. 3345. 
The village is built about a mile from 
the mines : the immediate approach is 
like a minor infernal region, the road 
being made of burnt ashes and scoria^ 
and the walls of the houses being com< 
posed of lava-like dross. The inhabi- 
tants — ^haggard miners — creep about, 
fit denizens of such a place. The 
miners and persons employed are 
housed in excellent houses constructed 
by the company, at a cost of about 800 
fr., which are let to them at £2 lOs. 
a year. The view from above the 
dinrch is striking ; below lies the vil- 
lage with its tinged river ^ a green cop- 
pery stream which winds under a hmk 

* For the best works on its early history, 
oonsolt catalogue pablisbed by Mr. Bich, in 
London, 1832 ; or, in the ' Bibllothbque Ameri* 
Mio«i' by M. Ternaux, Paris, 1837, 

of firs, la mesa de lospitwSy and through 
a cistus-clad valley. To the 1. rises 
the ragged copper hill wrapt in sul- 

Ehureous wreaths of smoke, from the 
owels of which the river flows out. 

The Rio Tinto oopper-mineb were 
perfectly well known to the ancients, 
Wh Bomansand Moors having worked 
on the N. side of the hill ; ancient 
galleries and shafts are being con- 
stantly discovered, and the enormous 
accumulation oiesoorialee shows to what 
an extent they carried on operations. 
Philip y. granted a lease of &e mines 
to Liberto Welters, a Swede : they 
reverted to the crown in 1783. Para- 
lysed by the French invasion, they 
were again farmed (in 1829) to Sefior 
Bemisa upon a 20-years' lease. In 
1873 they were sold by the Spanish 
Government for £3,720,000 to an 
English company, presided over by Mr. 
Matheson. Great reforms have been 
introduced in the establishment, the 

Eroduction has increased on a very 
igh scale, the best English machinery 
is employed. A fine iron pier, 700 
metres long, constructed by an English 
engineer, upon the river Odiel, in Huel- 
va, and a branch line, which carries the 
mineral from the foot of the mine to 
the pier. At these mines about 4000 
men are employed at average wages of 
from 3 to 6 pesetas per day. The com- 
pany have a force of 100 men, on 
hor8eback,recruited out of the Ouardia 
Civil, under the conunand of a captain 
of the same, equipped on their own 

The traveller may follow the ore 
through every stage of its process 
until it becomes pure copper. Entering 
the shaft, you descend by a well arpozoj 
down a ladder, to an irnder gallery : the 
heat increases with the depth, as there 
is DO ventilation; at the bottom the 
thermometer stands at 80° Fahr., and 
the stout miners, who drive iron wedges 
into the rock previously to blasting, 
work almost naked, the few clothes 
they have on being perfectly drenched 
with perspiration ; the scene is gloomy, 
the air close and poisonous, the twink- 
ling flicker of the miners' tapers blue 
and unearthly ; here fmd there figures, 


Boute 93. — Hueha : Bio TirUo Copper-mines. Sect. Y. 

with lamps at their breasts, flit about 
like the tenants of the halls of Eblis, 
and disappear by ladders into the 
de^er working 

The copper is found mixed with iron 
pyrites and yields about 5 percent. The 
stalactites are very beautiful; forwhere- 
ever the water trickles through the 
roof of the gallery, it forms icicles, as 
it were, of emeralds and amethysts ; but 
these bright colours oxidise in the 
open air, and are soon changed to a 
dun brown. When the Zafra, or rough 
ore, is extracted, it is taken to the Cal- 
cinacion on the brow of the hill, and 
is there burnt three times' in the open 
air : the sulphur is sublimated and lost, 
as it passes off in clouds of smoke ; the 
rough metal, which looks like a sort of 
iron coke, is next carried to be smelted 
at houses placed near the stream, by 
whose water-power the bellows are set 
in action. The metal is first mixed 
with equal parts of charcoal and escori- 
alest the ancient ones being preferred, 
and is then fused with hrezo, a charcoal 
composed of cistus and rosemary. 
The iron flows away like lava, and the 
copper is precipitated into a pan or 
copela below. It is then re&ied in 
ovens, orreverheros, in which process it 
loses about a third of its weight ; the 
scum and impurities as they rise to the 
surface are scraped off with a wooden 
hoe. The purest copper is, however, 
obtained from the river itself, which is 
so highly impregnated with the mineral, 
that it is supposed to find its source 
in some internal undiscovered conduit. 
Iron bars are placed in wooden troughs, 
which are immersed in the waters ; the 
cascara, or flake of metal, deposited 
on it is knocked off; the bar is then 
subjected to the same process until 
completely eaten away. The water is 
deadly poisonous, and stains and cor- 
rodes everything that it touches. 

The consiunption of pig-iron at the 
Rio Tinto Company is more than 
12,000 tons a year. The Tharsis mines 
consume more than 10,000. Coal 
is brought now in great (Quantities by 
rail. The monthly expenditure is about 
£16,000 in stores and wages, and tho 
railway and workshops cost about £600 
more. 16,000 tons of minerals are ex- 

tracted per week, 4000 are exported to 
Englana, and the rest is burnt in the 
kilns; the sulphur is thereby con- 
sumed, and when the iron is manu- 
factured there, the cost will be mucli 

The antiquarian may visit the cele- 
brated mines of Tharsis, the Tarshuh 
of ancient history. This mine is 30 m. 
from Huelva, and not far from Pales. 
The galleries by which these mines 
were worked in ancient times were 
round and square. The square galleries 
are believedf to be Phoenician and the 
round Boman. The Tharsis mine has 
been unworked until about 20 years 
ago. In the old excavation a lake of 
sulphurous water had formed, to which 
people came to bathe. Attention was 
drawn to the forgotten mine, the water 
was pumped away, and a great mass of 
mineral exposedabout a thousand yards 
in length. The depth of the lode seems 
unlmown. It is interesting to note that 
in the heaps of ancient slag on the sur- 
face hardly any trace of copper remains, 
showing how perfect the process of the 
anciento was'.in smelting. Boman and 
Phoenician remains have been found 
at the Tarshish mine. 

A pleasant long walk may be taken 
to the tiny port of Cartaya, to the N. of 
Huelva : here are built the western 
Mediterranean small craft, familiar to 
travellers as * parejas,' ' fiduchos,* * mls- 
ticos,* and large <uy docks exist. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Audalucia. Bte, 94.— Jerez to Arcos. — 95. — SarUucar. 


ROUTE 94. 

JEttEZ TO ABOOS. 16 m. 

Railway in construction. 

An excellent >oad leads over the 
plains of LlanoB de Don Ofirlos, and 
Llanos de Canlina, to 

10 m. ArooB de la Frontera. Pop. 
14,240. Inns : Paradorde San Antonio, 
on the road to Jerez ; Oasa de Hu^s- 
pcdes de Mariscal, in the Plaza 

Arcos rises over the Gnadalete at 
two points, one crowned by a tower, 
the other by a convent. This steep 
wild place is iidiabited by the true 
AndaluHian Majos, who continue to 
wear their national costume in all its 
glory. The views from many points 
are superb. The plains below, oeing 
irrigated by the Guadalete, produce 
I abundant crops and fruits. ArcoB, Arci 
Golonia, Arco Briga, was an Iberian 
town, jBWaa being equivalent to " city '* 
—burgh, Dorough, bury. It was taken 
by Alonso el Sahio from the Moors, 
and was called de la frontera from its 
frontier position. Almost impregnable 
by nature, it was embattled with walls 
and towers, portions of which remain. 
The portal of the church of Santa 
Xaria de la Aannoion is in excellent 
Gothic of the Catholic kings. The 
banners taken at Zahara in 1483 were 
kept in the San Pedro. The Arcos 
barbs, and their watchful daring riders, 
are renowned in ancient ballads. They 
were reared in the plains below, and 
especially in the once &.mous Haras of 
the Carthusians of Jerez. 

[From Arcos a pleasant excursion 
can be made to the little town of 
BwnoB by a good road (7 m. to the 
^•K). Inn: Gasa de Huespedes de 
Catalina Fuerte. This place is cele- 
brated for its salubrious climate, and 
its picturesque position. It contains 
a population of 5000.] 

[Spain, 1882.] 

ROUTE 95. 

POBTUGAD. 88 m. 

The first portion of this equestrian 
Bte. passes through some of the finest 
shooting country in Andalucia. Ma- 
rismillas is an excellent preserve. 

13 m. El Falaeio de DoSLa Ana, a cor- 
ruption of Ofiana, was the celebrated 
sporting seat of the Duque de Medina 
Sidonia, where he entertained Philip 
IV. in 1624. in the National Gallery 
and at the Madrid Gallery there are 
two pictures representing this famous 
entertainment* [To the N. lies the 
Goto del Key (or Lome del Ornllo). 
The shooting-box of this royal preserve 
was built last century by Francisco 
Bruno, the alcaide of the alcazar of 
Seville, under whose jurisdiction these 
woods and forests are or were. Parties 
who come with a permission from the 
Alcaide can be lodged in this Fala^no, 
as it is here called; which (as often 
elsewhere) means, in plain English, 
cuatro paredes, four bare walls. A 
prudent man — experto crede — will 
always send on a gsdera laden with 
everything from a cook to a mattress : 
take especially good wine, for fuel and 
game alone are to be had. This coto 
is distant 26 m. from Seville, the 
route runs through BoUullos (10 m.), 
Aznalcazar (6 m.)> Villa Manrique 
m m.), and El Goto (6J m.). The 
ride is wild, running through the 
Ajarafe, ** the hilly country. ' ' This fer- 
tile distiict, once called the garden of 
Hercule8,was reserved by St. Ferdinand 
as the lion's share at the capture of 
Seville. It produced the finest Bseticau 
olives of antiquity, and under the Moors 
was a paradise, but now all is desola- 

* For farther details, see 'Bosque de Dofia 
Ana,' 'Demonstracionesque el Duque S** de Me- 
dina Sidonia,' &c., Sevilla, Juande Cabrera,lG'J4 . 
2 B 


Boute 96. — Cadiz to Gibraltar. 

Sect. V. 

tion, for the ruius have remained uu- 
removed, unrepaired, during the six 
centuries of neglect and apathy ; mean- 
while tliere is not only excellent lodg- 
ing for owls in the old huildings, but 
capital cover for game of eveiy kind, 
which thrive in these wastes, where 
Nature and her fer« are left in undis- 
puted possession. No man who is 
fond of shooting will fail to spend a 
week, either at the Goto del Bey, or that 
of Do&a Ana.] Leaving JDoiia Ana, 
wo pass the Lady of Dew, a sanctuary 
dedicated to one of the numberless 
Virgins of Spain. 

20 m. Almonte. Pop. 5805. This 
place is situated in the "Condado*' of 

20 m. Trifi^eros, Pop. 4889 (Coni&- 
torgis), was the port from whence the 
ancients shipped the ores of the Sierra 
Morena {Monies Marianos). 

7 m. Gibraleon, *' the hill of Colour," 
as the Arabic name signifies, is a 
decayed old place with a Pop. of 4286. 

28 m. Sanluoar de Onadiana, Pop. 
786, is a poor ill -provided frontier 
town, on its river of the some name, 
which divides Spain from Portugal, 
aud which is navigable to the ['pictu- 
resque rock-built town of Mertola. 

See Handbook to Portugal. 

ROUTE 96. 


9^ m. San Pemando. See Rte. 87. 
{From SanPemando there is a regular 
diligence service to Medina Sidonia), 
and anotlier to Algeoiras via Tarifa. 
See Rte. 97. 

If any traveller wishes to go to Gib- 

raltar by Medina Sidonia h^ must go by 
rail to San remando (for description 
see Rte. 87, p. 358), and there take the 
diligence to Medina Sidonia, and ride 
from Medina Sidonia to Algeoiras or 
San Boqne. 

After leaving San Fernando the 
old bridge of Suazo is crossed. 

10^ m. Chiolana. Inn: Fonda de 
las Diligencias. Pop. 11,595. This 
healthy town is beautifully situated 
in the midst of a cultivated plain. 
Here are two well-frequented mineral 
springs. The water is sulphurous, 
cold, and used .both externally and 

The road, upon leaving Ohiclana, 
passes up the vine-clad valley of lirio 

13} m. Medina Sidonia. Inn: Po- 
sada del Sol. Pop. 12,234. This town 
when first approached looks like a pearl 
set in silver, on a hill where it cannot 
be hid. Its white houses, painted rail- 
ings, orange-groves, and crumbling 
battlements look most enchanting from 
afar, but the illusion is dispelled on 
entering into the city, where all is 
poverty, decay, and dirt. Medina Si- 
donia {Medinaiu Shidunah\ the city 
of Sidon, is thought by some to have 
been the site of the Phoenician Asidon. 
It gives the title to the ducal house of 
Guzman el JBmno, to whom all lands, 
lymg between the Guadalete and the 
Guadjiaro, were'granted for his defence 
of Tarifa. The city was one of the 
strongest, holds of the family. Here 
the fascinating Leonora de Guzman, 
mistress of the chivalrous Alonso XI., 
and mother of Henry of Trastamara, 
fled from the vengeance of Alonso's 
widow and her son Don Pedro. Here 
again that cruel king, in 1361, impri- 
soned and put to death his ill-fated 
wife Blanche of Bourbon — the Mary 
Stuart of Spain — like her beautiful, 
and of suspected chastity ; this execu- 
tion cost Pedro his life and crown, as 
it furnished to France an ostensible 
reason for invading Spain, and placing 
the anti-English Henry of Trastamara 
on the throne. 

Here the diligence stops, and horses 
are required to take the traveller to 
Algeciras or San Roquc. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Andalncia. Boute 96. — Spanish Lines — Neutral Ground. 371 

market and bull-ring. Midway, to the 
rt. the great sea-fight took place be- 
tween Lrolius and Adherbal (Livy 
xxiii.), and again between Didius and 
Yarns. Beyond the lines, a row of 
18 white sentry-boxes stretch across 
the narrow flat strip of sand, and foim 
the outposts of the Spaniard. Here 
are the Carabineros, whose duty it is to 
examine all carriages, baskets, and 
bundles for articles liable to duty. 
This is done most strictly; but how 
can we account for the groups of men 
and women whom the traveller will 
meet on the Neutral Ground packing 
themselves and each other with cotton 
and silk goods, tea, small parcels of 
tobacco, and other contrabuid articles? 
Further on, another row of sentrv- 
boxes of the familiar lead colour marks 
the English boundary of the Rock. 
That part of the sandy isthmus be- 
tween these two parallel lines, is called 
the Kentral Ground, and between the 
English sentries and the Rock the 
North Front, on which are the Race- 
Course, cricket-ground, rifle-ranges, 
cemetery, cattle-sheds and slaughter- 
houses; passing which, the outer or 
Bay wide Gate of the Portress is entered, 
from which the road is carried over 
*Hhe inundation," formed fiom a 
marsh. At every turn, a well-appointed 
well-fed sentinel indicates a watch- 
fulness which defies surprise. Cata- 
lan Bay is reached from the North 
Front. During the siege the enemy's 
most advanced trench was within 500 
yards of the Bayside Gate, rather 
nearer to Spain than the en- 
trance of Queen Victoria's Road. 
Here, previously to the attack by the 
fire-ships, a mpst stupendous parallel 
had been built, at which 10,000 men 
were employed. The line embraced 
each side .of the isthmus, with a 
formidable earthwork in front; tho 
epaulement was raised of sand-bags 10 
to 12 feet high, and of proportional 
thickness, and 1,600,000 sand-bags 
were employed in its erection. The 
town is situated on a shelving ledge : 
as we enter, the defences are mul- 
tiplied; every bastion is defended 
by another; guns stand out from 
each embrasure, pregnant with death, 
2 n 2 

lOi m. Las Oasas Viejas. The neigh- 
bourhood is wild, but well cultivated 
and productive. 

11 m. El Cortijo de la Java. 

9^ m. Los Barrios. Inn: Posada del 
Caballo, decent. Pop. 5476. At this 
point the bay of Gibraltar opens to 
view. The road divides : that to the 
1. leads to St. Roque and the Rock, 
that to the rt. to Algeciras. For de- 
scription of Algeciras see p. 384. 

The coast road — ^bad — is intersected 
by the rivers Paimones and Guadfitfan- 
que; on crossing the former, on an 
eminence to the 1. is 

6 m. £1 Booadillo, now a farm, the 
com growing where once Carteia flou- 
rished. This was the Phoenician Mel- 
earth (Melech Kartha— King's-town), 
the cily of Hercules, the type, symbol, 
and personification of the navigation, 
colonisation, and civilisation of Tyre 
(the Phoenicians called it Tartessus, 
Heracleon). Carteia was afterwards 
one of the few Greek settlements to- 
lerated in Spain by their deadly rivals 
of Tyre. It was sacked by Scipio 
AMcanus, and given (171 B.C.) to the 
illegitimate children of Roman soldiers 
by Spanish mothers (Livy, xliii. 3). 
Here the younger Pompey fled, wound- 
ed, after his defeat of Munda, where- 
upon the Carteians, his former parti- 
sans, at once proposed giving him up 
to Caesar. The remains of an amphi- 
theatre may yet be traced. The Moors 
and Spaniards have alike destroyed 
the ruins, working them up as a quarry 
in building Algeciras and San Roque. 
The coins found here are very beautiful 
and numerous (see Florez, Med. i. 

From El Rocadillo the road crosses 
the Spanish LineB, built in 1728, now 
occupied by a considerable town, 
Unea, of 12,000 people, with a church, 

* Ccnsult, for ancient antborlties Ukert (i. 
2. 346); *A Disoonrse on Carteia,' John Conduit, 
4to., London, 1719; and the excellent 'Journey 
fiom Gibraltar to Malaga,' Francis Carter, 
2 vols., London, 1777; • Gibraltar Directory,' 
Major (illbard (yearly). 


lloute 96. — Gibraltar, 


The Korth Front is a great source 
of comfort to the inhabitants during 
the summer months. The eastern 
beach, known commonly by the name 
of IjCargate, is the general afternoon 
resort. A raised Esplanade with band 
stand has been buil^ and trees planted 
along the main road. 

4 m. OIBBALTAB. A charge of 
Is. a head to land (without luggage) 
from steamer. 

Inns: Europa, on the New Mole 
Parade, small but good ; Boyal H. in 
the main street, opposite the Ex- 
change, lOs. a day without extras. In 
the main street are also the King's 
Arms, the Victoria and the Spanish 

CZfi6«; Exchange Club, in Commer- 
cial Square, well supplied with English 
newspapers and periodicals. Gibraltar 
Club, in the City Mill Lane. Visitors 
are introduced to either club free for 
14 days by a member. 

Hunt Clvb: The "Calpe Hunt** 
has been kept up ever since it was 
started by Admiral Fleming in 1817. 
The hounds meet twice a week in the 
season, and the sport is good, and 
covers excellent. The best meets 
are the first and second Ventas, the 
Pine Wood, Duke of Kent*s Farm, 
Long Stables and Eastern Beach. Ap- 
ply to the secretary for admission. 

Garrison Library: This is an ad 
mirable institution, and the resource, 
par exceUenee, of the'Rock, The build- 
ing was planned by Colonel Drink- 
water in 1793, and subsequently com- 
pleted (at the public expense) by Mr. 
Pitt. It contains somewhere about 
40,000 vols., to which additicHis are 
made monthly. The spacious reading- 
rooms are plentifully supplied with all 
the leading English papers and perio- 
dicals. A special room is set apart 
for ladies. OflScers of the Army and 
Navy and officials of the garrison are 
members on payment of a very mode- 
rate subscription. A few honorary 
members are firom time to time elected 

by ballot. Visitors may be admitted, 
on introduction by members, for a cer- 
tain number of days, without payment. 
An adjoining building, known as the 
Pavilion, has been attached to the 
library. It contains Beading and 
Billiard rooms, a Dressing-room and 
a small Bar. 

PhiPiarmontc Societies: Liceo Cal- 
pense : Circo del Becreo ; Circo Artis- 
tico ; Circo Constancia. 

Promenade Music : One of the gar- 
rison bands play on tlie charming 
Alameda on Mondays and Thursdays : 
in sTunmer at 9*15 p.m., in winter 
at 4 P.M. 

Theatre: Theatre Boyal; an indif- 
ferent building. Operas during the 
autumn. Spanish comedies and 
dramas during the winter and spring. 

Bankers: Archbold, Johnson, ant 
Power, Horse Barrack Lane. Corre 
spondents of Messra. Coutts, J. Gul 
leano, Four Comers. 

Consuls: United States of America 
Horatio Jones Sprague, Esq, : Spait 
Dn. Agustin Bodriguez; Portuga 
Senhor Jos^ Benso ; Morocco, Had^ 
Said Guesus; Germany, F. Schot 
Esq.; France, H. Mimaut, Esq.] 
Russia, L. T. Power, Esq. 


Medical Men: Dr. Patron; 
Bryant, Dr. Lomefia. 


Surgeon Dentists: Mr. Martinc 
Bell Lane ; Mr. Martinez, CoUej 

Wine and Spirit Merchants and Iih 
porters of Havana Cigars : D. Gero- 
nimo Saccone, in the Market Street, 
opposite the Police Office. Messrs. J. 
Andrew Speed, & Co., Main Street, 
agents to Messrs. Goosalez and Byass, 
of Jerez. Both these firms also act as 
bankers, &c. 

Stationer and Dealer in Fancy 
Goods : D. Frederico Bassano, and T. 
Beanland, Waterport Street. 

-i'A ^ 

HodsQu, LitKion-dor 
Digitized by VjOOQIC 

372 lloute 96.— Gibraltar. Sect. V. / 

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Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Boute 96. — GHhraltar, 


Onide Book. — Straugers makmg a 
abort stay at Gibraltar diould provide 
themselves with Major Gilbani's ex- 
coUent Guide to Gibraltar. It is full 
of practical information: Tables of 
Gunfire for the year, &c. &o. Price 3«. 

Pose Oj^ce; In Waterport Street. A 
closed mail between Gibraltar and the 
United Kingdom (vi& Madrid and 
Paris) is despatched and received daily. 
It takes 4} days in its transit — postage, 
under J oz., 2^. Mails are also des- 
patched by homeward-bound steamers. 

Letters to Spain must be prepaid in 
English stamps, under J oz. Id, 

Telegrams : Post Office telegrams to 
England vi& Spain, 98. ; and by sub- 
marine cable vid Falmouth^ lis., which 
is the quickest and most direct; for 
France, Spain, and the Continent, 
International scale of charges. The 
Eastern Cable Company have their 
offices in Irish Town, whence messages 
may be despatched to England and 
the East. 

Couriers : Good guides may be 
heard of at Andomo's livery stables, 
and at the Livery Stables in College 

Hunters and Saddle Horses: At 
Andomo's, opposite the Spanish 
Pavilion, and at Franco's, whose 
i^bles are in the street behind the 
King's Arrns.^ Hunters, 4 dollars a 
day ; riding-horses, 1 dollar the half- 
day, and 2 dollars the whole day. 
Horses for Bonda, Granada, &c., are 
charged 1} dollar a day. N.B. Gen- 
tlemen who intend to make shooting 
excursions into the interior of Spain 
and into Barbary, will get all necessary 
information at tiie Hotels. 

Carriages: Light four-wheeled car- 
nages, covered and open, ply for hire 
in Commercial Square, near the 
Waterport Gate, Church Street and 
other places. The tariff is Is., Is, 6d.y 
and 28., accordiag to distance. 

Boat Hire : To or from the steamers, 
U. each person. To Bagged Sta^T 

Stairs, 2s, To the new mole, Ss. By 
the hour or day a special agreement 
must be made. Each boat is known 
by its number. 

The Gibraltar system of currency is 
anomsdous and, to strangers, very per- 
plexing. Of late years it has under- 
gone a change, but, the old system 
having been only partially superseded, 
confusion seems only to have been 
made worse confounded. The stand- 
ard is the dollar (duro)y the value of 
which has, by the recent change, been 
reduced from 50d, to 4Qd. (par). At 
this exchange the troops and civil 
officers are paid. By the new system 
accounts are kept in dollars, reals de 
vellon, and d^imos. Spanish gold 
and silver and English copper are 
the only legal tenders. The gold 
coins in circulation are the Doblon 
(onza) = 16 dollars (£3 5«. 4d.). the 
Doblon <2'Isa5e2=5 dollars (£1 08. 5(2.), 
the 4-dollar piece, 2-dollar piece, and 
1 -dollar piece, la silver, the dollar, 
i dollar (escudo), \ dollar * (nominal 
shilling), i dollar (sixpence) and ^ dol- 
lar (threepence) pieces. Pesetas and 
half-pesetas are also in circulation, but 
only to a limited extent In copper, 
English pence, half-pence, and far- 

Police Begulations : No one is per- 
mitted to enter Gibraltar without first 
showing a passport. Strict regula- 
tions are observed in regard to all 
Foreigners who visit Gibraltar. None 
but British subjects can reside on the 
Rock, without a householder or a con- 
sul becoming a security. Permits for 
provisional residence (granted for 10, 
15, or 20 days) must be applied for from 
the police magistrate by aU American 
and non-British visitors. 

Hours of Gunfire: The gates are 
closed at sunset--a few minutes after 
the evening gun has been fired — and 

• The i dollar piece is like the peseta, only 
it has the two columns at either side of the 
Spanish arms, as on the i dollar and dollar 
pieces. This coin is rare in Spain although 
still current ; but in Gibraltar it is abundant 
and convenient, being of the nominal value o( 
our iiinglisb shilling, 1 1 ^^^ uy ^^ ^ ^^ ^^ 


Boute96, — Gibraltar: The Siege. 

Sect. V. 

are not opened nntil sunrise. See the 
GibraUar Directory, But the P. & O. 
Steamers can land or take off pas- 
sengers from the Bagged Staff at any 
hour; and, by permission from the 
Town Major, any one can go off at 

The Boek of Gibraltar was well 
known to the ancients, but was never 
inhabited. The Phoenicians called it 
Alube, this the Greeks corrupted into 
Ka\v^, KaKmi, (yotpe^ which has been 
mterpreted Ga-alpe, the cavern of God, 
or Cal-be, the watching at night. 
CoZpe was the European, and JJbyla 
the African pillar of Hercules, the ne 
plus uUra land and sea marks of jealous 
Phoenician monopoly: here, in the 
words of Ariosto, was the goal beyond 
which strangers were never permitted 
to navigate— '^ Xa meta que posse ai 
primi navigcmU Ercolo invitto,-* The 
Komans are thought never to have 
really penetrated beyond these keys of 
the outer sea, or the Atlantic, before 
the reign of Augustus. The rock now 
bears the name of its Berber conqueror 
Gebal-Tarik, the " HUl of Tarik ;*' he 
landed here, as Gayangos has demon- 
strated, on the 80th April, 711. Now, 
as in those days, the hi^h rocky fronts 
of each continent remain the two me- 
taphorical pillars of Hercules. 

The Bock is composed of compact 
limestone or dense grey marble, varied 
by beds of red sandstone and fissures 
of osseous breccia, which last resembles 
in character that found in the lime- 
stone rocks of Antibes, Nice, Pisa and 
Dalmatia, and contains the bones of 
several animals. It is 1430 ft. high 
at its highest point ; its circumference 
is about 6 miles, and its length, from 
N. to S., about 3 m. It has probably 
been uplifted at a comparatively re- 
cent epoch, as a marine beach exists 
more tiian 450 ft above the sea-level. 
This movement was only partial, and 
confined to the southern portion ; the 
Bock was broken across, the line of 
fracture being plainly marked by the 
gap and ravines between Middle HUl 
and Bock Gun Height. No general 
change of level has taken place pro- 

bably during the human period ; but 
the elevation must have been instan- 
taneous, as fossil shell-fish are found 
with both valves adhering, showing 
the animals must have been alive at 
the time. 

Gibraltar was first taken from the 
Moors, in 1309, by Guzman el Bueno ; 
but they regained it in 1333. It was 
finally recovered in 1462 by another of 
the Guzmans, and incorporated witli 
the Spanish crown ia 1502. The arms 
are ** gules, a castle or, and a key," it 
being the key of the Straits. The place 
was much strengthened by Charles V. 
in 1552, who employed Juan Baut". 
Oalvi, in raisiag defences against Bar- 

Gibraltar, on which our sagacious 
Cromwell -had an eye, was captured 
during the War of lie Succession by 
Sir George Booke, July 24, 1704, who 
attacked it suddenly, and found it gar- 
risoned by only 150 men. Gibraltar 
was then taken by us in the name of 
the Archduke Charles. George I. 
would have given it up at the Peace of 
Utrecht, so little did he estimate its 
worth, and the nation thought it a 
"barren rock, an insignificant fort, 
and a useless charge.** So it was again 
offered to Spain, if she would r^hise 
to sell Florida to Buonaparte. It was 
besieged by Spain in 1704 and 1727. 

The siege by France and Spain began 
1779, and lasted 4 years. It ended in 
the repulse of the enemy, whose float- 
ing batteries, the invention of the 
ingenious Mons. d'Ar^on, — that could 
neitiier be burnt, sunk, nor taken, — 
were either burnt, sunk, or taken by- 
plain Englishmen who stood to their 
guns, on the 13th of Sept., 1783. 
Old Eliott stood during that glorious 
day on the ** King's Bastion,'* which 
was erected in 1773, by Qen, Boyd, 
who, on laying the first stone, prayed 
'*to live to see it resist the united 
fleets of France and Spain." Hia 
prayer was granted; there he died 
contented, and there he lies buried— 
" Gloria autem minimi coMeptdta." A 
fitting tomb I See p.-^gt.- 

Andalucia. Boute 96. — Europa Point ; New Mole. 


The rock is now a bright pearl 
in the Ocean Queen's Crown,* though 
the cost to Great Britain of main- 
taming it and its garrison is not 
less than 200,0002. per annum. It is, 
as Burke said, **a post of power, a 
post of superiority, of connexion, of 
commerce ; one which makes us in- 
valuable to our &iends, and dreadful 
to our enemies." Its importance, as a 
depot for coal, has greatly increased 
since steam navigation. Sir John 
Jones was sent out in ] 840, and under 
his direction tremendous bastions were 
made at Europa Point, Ragged Staff, 
and near the Alameda ; while heavier 
guns were mounted on the mole and 

The bay of Gibraltar is formed by 
two headlands, Europa Point, on the 
Bock itself, and Cabrita Point, in 
Spain. The anchorage is not good, 
and the bay is open and much ex- 
posed, especially to S.W. winds. The 
Levante, an E. wind, called the tyrant 
of Gibraltar, often causes serious 
The tide rises about 4 ft. 

The Dockyard has been greatly 
improved, and is now supplied with 
every requisite for the repair and refit 
of H.M. ships, machinery of the 
largest t3rpe having been sent out 
from England at great cost. 

The Hew Mole, constructed by Go- 
vernment at great expense, affords 
shelter to large war-steamers, which 
ride in safety within it, while merchant 
vessels can coal from hulls at anchor 
in the bay. The harbour requires pro- 
tection from the S.W. wind, but is en- 
tirely defended from the equally dan- 
gerous E. wind or Levanter. 

* Books on Gibraltar. — Major Gilbard's 
•History of Gibraltar and Guide Book,' ia the 
^0^ condensed and accurate account of the 
Jock and its Garrimn. Jt may be procured at 
Qibraltir. •Descripcion de Gibraltar,* Fran- 
cto» Perez. 4to., Mad., 163B, or the excellent 
Historia de Gibraltar,' by Jgnacio Ixpez de 
Ayala, Mad., 178-2. The 'History of the 
SleKC,' by Col. Drinktcater, 1783, repiiblished 
by Murray, 1844, details the defence, and utter 
inwtratlon by sea and land of the combined 
fleets and armies of Spain and France. 

At about 10 m. walk from the Dock- 
yard is the Victualling Yard at Bosia. 
It contains provisions and clothing for 
a large fleet, and a reservoir contain- 
ing 6000 tons of water. 

The improvements of modem gun- 
nery have called for additional works 
of strength for the protection of the 
fortress and harbour. The Eock has 
been scarped in some places to prevent 
steamers boarding it, and additional 
casemates formed in the Bock. 

Since 1870 much activity has been 
displayed and large sums spent in 
bringing; the fortifications of the Bock 
up to the mark of modem gunnery. 
Formidable forts have been erected at 
the Waterport or North End of the 
Line Wall, at Bagged Staff, and at 
Bosia. These are mounted with 
18- ton guns and have shielded em- 
brasures. The defences of the New 
Mole have been strengthened by a 
casemate battery; while immediately 
above, at the north comer of the New 
Mole Parade, the "Alexandra Bat- 
tery'* — ^the foundation-stone of which 
was laid by the Prince of Wales in 
1876 — carries a 38-ton gun ; others of 
the same size being at Europa and in 
casemates on the Line Wall. Case- 
mates for heavy ordnance have also 
been constructed, at the top of Willis's 
Boad, overlooking the town. About 
30 heavy guns, though of varying 
calibre, are already in position, and 
two 100-ton guns are to be sent to 
Gibraltar to be mounted, the emplace- 
ments for which are now in course of 

Gibraltar contains a resident popu- 
lation of about 20,000, together with 
a garrison of from 5000 to 6000 men. 
It looks more populous than 'it really 
is, from the number of sailors on shore 
during the day, and of military officers, 
and strangers passing through, but 
more especially from the population of 
Linea, 8000 of whom, at least, enter 
daily by permits. 

The "Main, or Wivterport Street,'' 
the aorta of Gibraltar, is tlie antithe- 
sis of a Spanish town. Lions and 


Bmte 96. — Gibraltar. 


Britannias dangle over innuinerable 
pot-houses, the roreign names of whose 
proprietors combine strangely with the 
Qaeen's English. "Manuel Jimenez 
— ^lodgings and neat liquors." Every- 
thing and everybody is in motion; 
there is no quiet uatil the hour of 
midnight approaches, after which no 
one without a " night pass " is allow^ 
out of doors. All is hurry and scurry 
during the day, for time is money, 
and Mammon is the God of Gib., ay 
the name is vulgarised. Here all 
creeds and nations meet, and most of 
them are adepts at the one grand 
game of beggar my neighbour. The 
Sunday is strictly kept as in England, 
The principal square is the '* Com- 
mercial," one side of which is occu- 
pied by the Public Exchange. 

Gibraltar has ceased to be the 
grand depot it once was for Eng- 
lish goods, which formerly were 
smuggled from hence into Spain, to 
the great benefit of the Spanish frontier 
authorities (placed nominally to pre- 
vent what they really encouraged), but 
to the serious injuiy of Spanish credit 
and finance. [The tobacco trade, how- 
ever, still thrives, nay, has even in- 
creased, and large quantities of this 
commodity, either manufactured or in 
its raw state, are smuggled hy the 
Spaniards into Spain. As a means of 
checking this fruitful source of un- 
pleasantness with the Spanish Govern- \ 
ment, the English Government pro- 
poses to establish a Custom-house at 
Gibraltar. The scheme naturally 
met vnth strong opposition from the 
Gibraltar merchants and traders, who 
denounced it as an infraction of the 
privileges of Gibraltar as a free port and 
an injustice to themselves, who have 
been induced, on these terms, to embark 
their capital. The matter was taken 
up by the Chamber of Commerce in 
]^gland, and the proposal was with- 
drawn.] The Bock, which in itself pro- 
duces nothing and consumes every- 
thing, is admirably supplied. Visit 
its market, close to the Waterport 
Gate : it infuses life into the Spanish 
vicinity, which flourishes by furnish- 
ing the garrison wjth vegetables, and 

other articles of consumption: the 
beef, however (which is not a thing of 
Spain, except at certain seasons, when, 
by the terms of the contract, the 
succulent beef of Galicla is suppUed 
to the troops only), comes from Bar- 
bary. Gibraltar is dear, especially as 
regards house-rent, wages, and labour 
of all kinds. 

The climate is considered fatal to 
children durintj: early dentition ; other- 
wise it is healthy ; disagreeable, how- 
ever, during the prevalence of easterly 
winds, when a misty vapour hangs 
over the summit of the Bock, and the 
nerves of man, monkey, and beast are 
grievously affected. 

The Levanter is recognised by dull 
pains in the bones, the tongue is 
parched, and an oppressive languor 
paralyses both mind and body ; when 
the wind suddenly changes, the sen- 
sation is one of the greatest pleasure. 
It is curious to see the so-called 
'* manufacture '* of the Levanter from 
the Governor's Cottage, Europa. 

The Gibraltar fever, about which 
doctors have disagreed so much, is 
most probably endemic. It is caused 
from chill, and is called into fatal 
activity by some autumnal atmos- 
pherical pecidiarity. The quarantine 
regulations, especially as regards' ships 
coming from the Havana, Alexandria, 
and the ports on the opposite African 
coast, are severe. 

The health requirements of Gibral- 
tar have undergone, of late years, 
very important improvements. Under 
the auspices of the "Sanitary Com- 
mission," an extensive and costly 
system of drainage and water supply 
was first commenced in the town, in 
1865, and has been extended to the 
whole of the South District as far as 
Europa Flats. An apparently inex- 
haustible supply of water was dis- 
covered, some years ago, under the 
sand of the North Front, just above 
the sea-level, and this is piunped 
into the town and upper part of the 
Bock. It is of fairly good quality, 
according to recent analyses, except 
in very dry seasons. . It is held by 
some that this supply should be sup- 


Bte, 96. — Churches; Fortifications. 


plemented, or, indeed, that the fortress 
might-, in case of necessity, be made 
altogether independent of it, either by- 
deep well boring on the Bock itself, or 
by a development of the tank system 
as at Aden. The latter would be a 
very costly process, if thoroughly 
carried out; as it is, a great part 
of the average annual rainfall of 27 
inches is allowed to escape into the 
sea, although tanks are obligatory in 
all new buildings. Projects, however, 
for improving and extending the water 
supply are, from time to time, engag- 
ing the attention of the authorities. 

Gibraltar has an Anglican Bishop, 
and the Boman CathoUc Vicar-Apo- 
stolic of Gibraltar, who is Bishop of 

The English Cathedral Churoh of 
the Holy l^inity, a grotesque building 
in the Moorish style, was consecrated 
in 1832. The services on Sundays are 
at 8 A.M. (Holy Communion), 11 a.m., 
and 6.30 p.m. There are also week- 
day services. The handsome Boman 
Catholic Churoh of the Sacred Heart 
of Jesiis in Castle Boad, and adjoining 
schools, were erected mainly through 
the constant energy of the late Vicar 
Apostolic of Gibraltar, the Bight 
Reverend Dn. Scandella, Bishop of 
Antinoe, but they are left unfinished. 
Dr. Scandella is buried in this church. 
There is also a Convent and young 
ladies' Seminary at Europa Me^n Boad 
winch is largely attended. 

The Presbyterian Church occupies a 
comer of" Gunners' Parade," and there 
is a Wesleyan Chapel in Prince 
Eiward's Boad. The Jewish Syna- 
gogue is curious ; the females do not 
appear, but are hid helinnd jalousies. 

The traveller will of course examine 
the Fortifications. The ascent is 
tatigoiBg, and it is better to hire 
^oiBes. First asoend to the castle 
Onving procured a pass from the 
JlWttery Secretary, GovemOf's Lane, 
^thout which no civilians are ad- 
mitted to the fortifications*). A 
gonner will here take charge of the 

* To visit the Lower Lines a permissioij 
trom H JJ. the Goyernor la required, 

visitors, to whom a gratuity of half-a- 
crown can be made, according to the 
number of the party. The castle is one 
of the oldest Moorish buildings in 
Spain, having been erected by Abu- 
Abul-Hajez in 725. The Torre del 
Homenige is riddled with shotmarks, 
the honourable scars of wounds in- 
fiicted during the siege. The ci- 
leries are here entered. The visitor 
must obtain a permit from the Mili- 
tary Secretary's Office. They aro 
divided into two ranges, the upper and 
lower (Windsor and Union Galleries). 
They were begun to be excavated out 
of the solid Bock during the siege, to 
bring a flanking fire to bear on the 
approaches of the Bock, by convict 
labourers imder Lieutenant Evoleth, 
B.E. They are tunnelled in tiers along 
the N. front, and are 2 or 3 miles in 
extent. Tho gold of England has 
been lavished to put iron in the bowels 
of the earth. But " the glorious de- 
fence" made Gibraltar popular, and 
no money was grudged for defences. 
These batteries are perhaps more a 
show of terror than a reality. At the 
extremity is the ** Hall of St. George/' 
where Nelson was feasted. A spiral 
wooden staircase now conducts to the 
** crow's nest," a ledge of rock which 
juts out at the extreme N. point of the 
fortress. Betumiug, the " Hail of Lord 
Comwallis " is approached by a stair- 
case also of wood. Willis's Battery 
may next be visited ; the fiats, which 
here overhang the precipice, were 
called el Salto del Lobo (Wolf Leap). 
Here the feu 6^ artifice on the Queen's 
birthday begins. The eflect is verj^ 
striking ; the Bock gun fires first, and 
then the royal salute goes down the 
hill by the galleries to Willis's battery, 
and is afterwards taken up by the 
troops at the bottom. Next visit 
the Signal Tower, which, under the 
Spanish rule, was called El Haoho, 
" the torch," because here were lighted 
the beacons in case of danger. At 
sunrise and sunset is fired a gun, 
which, ** booming slow with sullen 
roar," speaks the only language which 
is perfectly understood on both sides 
of the strait. All ships passing tho 
, straits are signa(},§4 Ji^^i^^tto, ptation, 

378 Boutedd. — Gibraltar : Signal Tower ; Alameda. Sect. Y. 

aDd reported to the governor below, 
and thence to ** Lloyd's," in London. 
At the signal tower, refreshments (in- 
cluding excellent English ale) are 
provided by the sergeant of the Royal 
Artillery who is in charge. The pano- 
rama from El Hacho is unrivalled. 
The mountains of Eonda loom on the 
northern horizon, Granada's snowy 
sierras rise like a shadow to the east," 
whilst across the straits Oeuta glistens 
in the sunlight, an African town, now 
in the possession of Spain, occupying 
a strong and almost insulated military 
position at the foot of the mountain 
ridge (2200 ft. high), which forms the 
Ahyla, the ** mountain of God," of the 
Phoenicians, the Gibel Mo-osa (hill of 
Musa) of the Moors, the Caho de Bullo- 
nes of the Spaniard, the ** Ape's HiU '* 
of the Englishman, and the African 
pillar of Hercules. Towards the 
north-west, in the distance, are the 
hUls of Ojen and Sianorra, and the 
arid smnmits of Monte Cuervo, whilst 
picturesque Algeciras is seen across 
the bay, and San Eoque rises behind 
its cork wood to the rt. Gibraltar and 
the long line of the lower bastions 
skirt the Bock below, and complete 
one of the grandest panoramic views 
to be obtained in Europe. 

From the Signal Tower visit la Si- 
mta, **the little chair," to which a 
narrow path formerly led down to 
Catalan Bay : it was destroyed many 
years ago to prevent surprises, as 
Gibraltar was once nearly taken by a 
party of Spaniards, during the siege 
of 1704, who crept up this pathway 
during the night. The * S. point 
of the rock is called O'Hara's 
Tower (or O'Hara's Folly), from its 
having been built by that sapient 
officer to watch the movements of the 
Spanish fleet at Cadiz ; it was soon 
afterwards struck by lightning, which 
completed its inutility. The view 
from this point is also magnificent ; it 
is indeed the sentinel watch-tower of 
the Mediterranean, the battle-sea of 
Europe, to visit whose shores must 
over, as Dr. Johnson says, be the first 
object of travel. 

St. Michael's Cave may next be 

visited (obtain a special permission and 
key from the Town Major beforehand, 
and come provided with blue-lights). 
The stalactite interior presents a fine 
effect when fully illuminated. The 
entrance is about 1000 ft. above the sea. 
It has a large hall, with stalactites 
reaching from floor to roof, and several 
lower caverns. In the bone breccia 
formed in the fissures and oaves of the 
rock, fossil remains of animals, and 
even of man, have been found. 

Now return again to the city, by 
the admirably engineered zigzag roads. 
On the way you may have a chance 
to descry in the distance some of the 
real lions of "Gib.," hs monos (the 
apes) for which Solomon sent to 
Tarsiiish (1 Kings x. 22). They 
haunt the highest points, have no 
tails, and are perfectly harmless. Idke 
delicate dandies, they are seldom seen 
except when a Levanter blows ; it 
affects their nerves, and drives them 
from the inaccessible caverns of the E. 
side to the W. end of the rock. The 
oldest and most respectable monkey is 
said to take command of the rest, and 
is called by the inhabitants the " town 
Major." These monkeys rob the gar- 
dens where they can, but chiefly subsist 
on the sweet roots of the Palmitos, and 
the fruit of the prickly pear. At one 
time they were imfortunately decreas- 
ing in number, but by recent " inter- 
esting events" the members of the 
thbe have been raised to more than 30. 

A second day may be devoted to the 
lower portion of the Rock. The tra- 
veller may begin at *' Land Port," and 
walk to the head of ** Devil's Tongne 
Battery :*' he should then follow the 
sea or "Line Wall" to the "King's 
Bastion ; " and give a look at the Pro- 
testant cathedral where lies Gen. Don, 
the Balbus, the Augustus of the Bock, 
which he strengthened and embel- 
lished ; his bones rest on the site which 
he so loved and so much benefited. 

Now pass out of the " South Port," 
by the defences built by Charles V. 
against the Turks, into 

The Alameda or Esplanade, formerly 
called the " red sands,'* and a burning 
desert until converted by Gen. Don, in 
1814, into a gardett-o|^sweets and de- 

Andalucia. Boute 96. — Bagged-staff Stairs ; Excursions. 379 

light, of geranium-frees and hellas Mm- 
hroi; and grateful, indeed, is shade on 
this burning rock. These beautiful 
gardens have been greatly improved 
by Lord Napier of Magdala. 

The Monuments to Eliott and Wel- 
lington are more military than artistic. 
Here, during winter afternoons and 
summer evenings, the fair sex listen 
to the band, and are gazed at them- 
selves by the red-coated Briton, the 
tnrbaned Turk, and the white-robed 
Moor. Here the cockney, newly im- 
ported per P. and O. Steamer from 
Southampton, may be seen staring at a 
Black date-merchant from Timbuctoo, 
despising, and being mutually despised 
I by his fellow-promenader. The dif- 
: ferences of costumes are very curious : 
a motley masquerade ifl held in this 
halfway paseo between Europe, Asia, 
and Africa, where every man appears 
k his own dress, and speaks his own 

To the rt. of the gardens are ** Bag- 
ged-staff Stairs " (the ragged staff was 
one of the badges of Burgundian 
Charles Y.) ; this portion, and all about 
"Jumper's Battery," has long been, 
and still is, the weakest part of the 
^ Bock ; here the English landed imder 
Admiral Booke. Ascending Scud Hill 
and Windmill Hill, the dockyard is 
seen below, and the New Mole, which 
is still uncompleted. Near this is the 
Bhelyiag Bay of BoBia, a fresh, wind- 
blown nook, sometimes 6 degrees cooler 
than the town. In the vicinity is the 
Kaval Hospital, and the fine build- 
ings called the " South Barracks and 
Payilion;" while higher up and far- 
ther to the S. are &e more recently 
I constructed "Buena Vista" barracks, 
I extending to ** Eurona Pass." 

The extreme ena of the Bock is 
I called " Europa Point ; " here, under 
the Spaniards, was a chapel dedicated 
tola V<rgen de Europa, the lamp of 
vhoee shnne served also as a beacon 
to mariners. Now a new light-house 
«nd batteries have been erected. The 
"Plats" are an open space for man- 
CBuvres and recreation. The road to 
Suiopa Point from Commercial Square 
in a charming drive through lovely 

shady glens, filled with villas and 
gardens; albeit these pretty Bura in 
Marie savour more of the Cockney 
than Hercules. 

Bound to the E. of the point is the 
cool summer pavilion of the governor, 
which nestles under beetling cliffs ; 
below is a cave tunnelled by the waves. 
Beyond this the rock cannot be passed, 
as the cliffs rise like walls out of the 
sea. This side is an entire contrast to 
the other : all here is solitude and in- 
accessibility, and Nature has reared 
her own impregnable bastions. 


(1) To Estepona (Pop. 9316) is 7 Sp- 
leagues — 25 to 30 m. from Gibraltar- 
Partridges and wild fowl abound in 
the vicinity of Estepona. It supplies 
Gibraltar with fruit and vegetables, 
and is worth a visit. A fine bull-ring 
opened in 1877. During the season 
the hounds meet bi-weekly, and the 
sport is excellent. 

There is good ibex shooting on the 
Sierra Bermeja near Estepona. The first 
2^ leagues is along a good carriage road ; 
there is half-a-league of mountain foot- 
path. Beaters wUl meet sportsmen at 
Benahabis, arrangements having been 
made two days before by a letter written 
in Spanish to D. Jose Montesinoat Ben- 
ahabis. The tents may be pitched in 
tJie midst of the splendid scenery of 
El Caporal, about 3 leagues ofi\ The 
Seflor Adminutrador of Dr. Tomas 
Heredia at Estepona must be written 
to, in order that he may enjoin civility 
from his keepers to visitors. 

Tents and food should be taken, or 
a hut built. Wine and aguardiente 
can be had 10 m. off at a small Bodega ; 
bread, beef, and mutton at Estepona. 
The cost of such a trip should not 
exceed 5 dol. a day. On the lower 
ground near Ben Eabis deer and wild 
boar are to be foimd. 

The best season for ibex shooting is 
September and October. 

(2) To £1 Convento del Cuervo — 
22 m. 2 days are required for this 
interesting excursion. Kide out in the 
afternoon of the first day to Los Barrios, 


Baute 97. — San Fernando to OibraUar. 


12 m., where sleep at the decent Posada 
del Caballo. Eiu-ly next morning ride 
to the convent (10 m.). It was built 
during the reign of Charles V. as a 
place of penance for monks convicted 
of heinous crimes. The dungeons may 
be visited. The view from the convent 
is very fine: behind rises the Sierra 
del Nifio, and to the N.E. the moun- 
tains of Ronda. The ride back to 
Gibraltar will take about 6 hours. 

(3) San Boqne, 5 m. (See Kte. 111). 
The site of an ancient hermitage. 
There is good woodcock shooting in 
the beautiful cork woods around, but 
they are now preserved. A ride of 
about 4 m. through beautiful scenery 
leads to second Yenta. 

(4) To Orange Grove — Puente 
Mayorffa, a picturesque fishing village. 
The ride from here to the first Venta 
over the Carteian Hills is pleasant. 

(5) To Carteia — 6 m., an early 
Carthaginian city ; remains of amphi- 
theatre, walls, &c., still exist. 

(6) To Jimena— 24 m., famous for 
its Moorish castle and Caves. The 
Sanctuarjr of Nnestra Seflora de los 
Angeles is situated } league to the 
S. of the town. The sacr^ image is 
very ancient 

(7) To £1 Convento del Almoraima 
and Castellar — 14 m. This convent 
was founded in 1603. It is now a 
farmhouse. In the chapel a ser- 
vice is celebrated on the 3d of May, 
which is attended by the country 

ale, and well worth seeing. 4 m. 
ler on, the nobly situated Castle 
and fortress of Castellar, situated on a 
bare rugged mountain which rises be- 
tween the rivers Hosgarganta and 
Guadarranque. It is reached by a rocky 
stair 2000 ft. high. It belongs to the 
Duke of Medinaceli. 

(8) To San Pedro Alcantarar— 14 m., 
where is an extensive sugar-cane plan- 
tation belonging to General Concha. 

(9) To Ceuta, Tangier, and Tetuan. 
See Rte. 98. 

(10) To Bonda (see Rte. 111). 

Steam Communications, The P. & 
O. Packets for Southampton (5 days) 
are due every Monday. With Liver- 
pool (C davs) the communication is 

more frequent. The steamers of Messrs. 
Moss & Co., Bibbv & Co., the Cunard 
line, and others being constantly in 
and out of ttie port. For Glasgow the 
Anchor line steamers sail at frequent 

For London, calling at Malaga, 
Cadiz, Lisbon, and Vigo, Messrs. Jolm 
Hall and Co.'s steamers leave about 
once a-week. 

To Malta, Alexandria, and the East 
by the P. & O. Packets every Tuesday. 
For Genoa, Leghorn, Naples, Sicily. 
The * Verite * and other French vessels 
sail from Marseilles for Oran and 
Algiers, cidling at Gibraltar, but at 
uncertain intervals. With the Morocco 
ports there is communication by a 
London line of steamers. 

To Malaga (7 hours) and Cadiz 
Messrs. Haynes's boats and the *■ Adri- 
ano* run three times a week, 8 brs., 
fare £1 Is. 

The * Hercules* *Lion Beige,' and 
'Jackal' cross to Tangier seveial 
times a week. 

Spanish steamers for Alicante, Valen- 
cia, and Barcelona may be token at 

ROUTE 97. 


Railroad in construction. 

The new carriage -road which leaves 
San Fernando is traversed by a daily 
diligence as far as Algeciras, where a 
steamer takes travellers to Gibraltar 
in } of an hour (8 r.) on the arrival of 
the diligence. 

The route is tlie same as Rte, 90 
tts^avai^y^^ by Google 

Audalucia. Boute 97. — Chiclana — Battle o/Barosa, 


5 m. Chiolana, whence tlie road 
noon enters a wild, eandy, aromatic, 
snake - peopled solitude: to the rt. 
rises the immortal knoll of Barosa. 
The country has long remained as 
it was left after the discomfiture of 
the Moor, but the new road will soon 
change its aspect. 

Battle of Babosa. 

Gleneral Graham was admitted into 

Cadiz, in 1810, as commander of the 

British forces; and sailed for Tarifit 

in February 1811, with the intention 

of attacking the rear of the French 

blockading army under Victor, but 

being carried on to Algeciras, landed 

j there on the 22nd. Marching to Tarifa, 

I he united his force with the garrison, 

vhich was British, thus raising it to 

4000 infantry, with some cavalry. On 

the 27th, La Pefia, a Spanish general, 

landed at Tarifa with 7000 Spaniards, 

and Graham, to soothe his feelings, 

bnt contrary to orders, placed himself 

under his command. La Pefia's inten- 

: tion was to operate against the rear of 

the blockading army, while General 

2ayas should issue from the Isla of 

Leon by a pontoon bridge. La Peiia's 

I force captured Casa Vieja on the 2nd 

I Harch, 1811, and being joined on the 

ronte by Beguines, with 1600 infantry 

and some cavalry, reached the Barosa 

i heights on the 5th March. Zayas 

I attempting to join him on the 2nd, 

! had been driven back by Villatte to 

I the Isle de Leon. From the Yigia 

de la Barosa, a large watch-tower on 

the heights, the spectator will see 

to the W. tiie plain, which is bounded 

I by the pine forest, and beyond which 

is the Bermeja ridge, whioli, sweeping 

ronnd in a N.E. direction from the 

Bio de S. Petri, and crossing the 

Ahnanza Greek near the bridge on the 

road to Ghiclana, enters the forest of 

that name. To the S. is the sea ; to 

the N. the lagoon of Pueroo , and from 

the £. the Allies approached along the 


The Allies' van was commanded by 
Lardizabal ; the centre by the Prince 
of Anglona ; Graham commanded the 
rear, in which the British were posted. 

The French, under Victor, numbered 
9000 and 14 guns, and were placed in 
the Chiclana woods, close to the roads 
to Tarifa add Medina Sidonia; Vil- 
latte occupied the rt., near the S. 
Petri Channel, Laval occupied the 
centre, and Buffin the 1. 

La Pe&a, on reaching the Barosa 
heights on the 5th March, witliout 
communicating with Zayas on the 
Isla or Graham in his rear, ordered 
Lardizabal to advance to the S. Petri ; 
beating the French back to the Chi- 
clana bridge, he succeeded in joining 
Zayas, who came across the pontoon 
bridge he had laid down to connect the 
island with the mainland. Graham, 
ordered by La Pefia to follow, and 
under the impression that the latter 
would retain the heights, left his bag- 
gage under the command of Major 
Brown, with the detached companies 
of the 9th and 82nd ; and in spite of 
his troops having marched 24 hrs. 
without refreshment, and his own 
anxiety to retain the excellent position 
he was in, entered the pine wood. 
La Pefia instantly made for the S. 
Petri ; and Victor, who had concealed 
his forces in the woods, attacked the 
heights, directing Laval with the 
centre to oppose Graham, and BufQn 
to intercept the Spanish detachment 
which was coming up the Medina 
road. Major Brown, perceiving the 
position of affairs, retreated in good 
order from the heights to the sea, and 
sent to Graham for directions. Gra- 
ham laconically answered "Fight;" 
and, wheeling back, assailed the French 
in two masses, in the composition of 
which the distinction of brigades 
was forgotten : one under Gren. Dilkes 
attacking IlufiOin, and the otlier under 
OoL Wheatley, LavaL The 87th here 
earned the name of **Faugh-a-ballagh," 
"Clear the way." Bushing against 
the first line, they threw them on to 
the second in confusion, and routed 
them. Dilkes's column, reaching the 
edge of the hill, were met with 
a shower of bullets from Ruffin's 
column, with which Brown had been 
maintaining a gallant contest, but 
after a fierce and for some time 
doubtful struggle, they drove tliu 


Boute 97. — Gonil — Venia de Tabilla. 

Sect. V. 

French down the heiglits, and took 3 
giins. The French attacked again; 
but the artillery under Duncan, who 
had assisted materially in the battle 
' from the commencement, made huge 
f^&ps in their ranks, and the attempt 
to divspute the victory was abandon^. 
The French retired by the lagoon of 
the Puerco, and 180 horsemen, under 
Ponsonby, charging, overthrew the 
250 French cavalry and captured 2 

The battle lasted less than an hour 
and a half, but the British alone lost 
1200 men; the French 2000, two 
Generals, Ruffin and Chaudron Eous- 
seau, 400 prisoners, 6 guns, and the 
first eagle captured by the Allies in 
the war. La Peaa had not assisted 
the British in the fight, and on the 
completion of the victory threw away 
the advantage of it by not following it 
up, and allowing the French to resume 
the blockade.— E. F. D. 0. 

3 m. Conil is passed on the rt. Pop. 
5559. British Vice-Consul: Dn.J.M. 
Lobaton. Built by G-uzman el Bueno, 
this town was long famous for the 
extraordinary productiveness of its 
tunny fisheries. The Ahnadraba 
(catching), which took place during 
the months of May and June, used to 
be a season of great festivity. Formerly 
70,000 fish were taken, now scarcely 
4000; the Lisbon earthquake of 1755 
having thrown up sands on the coast, 
by which the fish are driven into 
deeper water. The *^atun eschabe- 
cJiado,"' or pickled tunny, is the 
rapiyeiai, with which Cadiz supplied 
the Boman epicures. Much sulphur 
is found in the immediate neighbour- 

Tiie Promontorium Junonis of the 
Eomans, the Taral-al-ghar — ** promon- 
tory of the cave" — of the Moors), now 
stretches towards Tarifii. It was off 
this cape that the immortal Nelson- 
felix opportunitate mortis^ sealed with 
his life-blood his country's supremacy 
over the ocean. On the memorable 
2l8t of October, 1805, he commanded 
27 small ships of the line and 4 frigates. 
The French , under Admiral Villeneuve, I 
and Spaniards, under Admiral Gra-J 

vina, had 33 sail of the line and 7 
frigates. Nelson was wounded at a 
quarter before one, and died on board 
his beloved " Victory " at 30 minutes 
past four P.M., aged 47 years. The 
Spaniards fought well at Trafalgar: 
their noble commander, being also 
mortally wounded, died soon after 
Nelson. Almost with his last breath 
he told the English medical man (Dr. 
Fellows) who was in attendance, that 
he was going to join Nelson, the 
"greatest man the world has ever 

The road continues through a coun- 
try given up to the wild plant and 
the insect : earth and air here teem with 
life, and Nature is busy in. her mighty 
work of creation, heedless of the absence 
or presence of the larger insect, man; 
and after crossing a bridge over the 
Barbate, near the venta, leaving Veger 
de la Fronteia to the 1. 6^ m. 

[A mile inland is the Lagnna de 
Janda. Near this lake, Taric, landing 
from Africa, April 30, 711, encountered 
Roderick, the last of the Goths. Here 
the action commenced, July 19, which 
was decided July 26, on. the Guadalete, 
near Jerez. This one battle gave 
Spain to the Moslem ; the secret of 
whose easy conquest lay in the civil 
dissensions among the Goths, and the 
aid the invaders obtained from the 
moneyed Jews, who were persecuted by 
the Gothic clergy.] 

14. m. Yenta de Tabilla. Here the 
track branches ; that to the 1. leads to 
the Trooha, while a picturesque gorge 
to the rt., studded with Moorish frag- 
ments, leads to the sea-shore. At the 
tower of La PeSEa del Ciervo (the 
Highar EggSl of the Moors) the coast 
opens in sdi its grandeur. 

Where Maaritania's giant shadows frown. 
From mountain-clifb descending sombre 

And here let the traveller gaze on the 
magnificent panorama I Two continents 
lie before us: we have reached the 
S.W. extremity of Europe. Africa rises 
abruptly in a tremendous jumble be- 
5^ond the Straits, backed by the eternal 

y Google 

Andalucia. Boute 97. — La Pena del Ciervo — Tarifa. 


snows of the Atlaa langc. Yon low 
sandy headland to the rt. is Trafalgar. 
Tarifa juts out before us, and the plains 
of Salado, where the Cross triumphed 
over the Orescent. The white walls of 
Tangier glitter (on a clear day) upon 
the opposite African coast; behind 
Tangier lies the desert. The separated 
continents stand aloof. A thousand ships 
harry through the Straits, laden with the 
commerce of the world. Beyond that 
point is the bay of Gibraltar, on whose 
gray rock — the object of a hundred 
tights, and bristling with cannon — the 
flag of England still braves the battle 
and the breeze. Far in the distance 
the blue Mediterranean stretches itself 
away like a sleeping lake. 

It is geologically certain that the 
two continents were once united, as is 
proved by the variations of soundings. 
Tradition declares that the ** wonder- 
working** Hercules (i.e. the Phce- 
nicians) cut a canal between them. 

The Moors called the Mediterranean 
the White Sea, Bahr eZ Ahiad and Bahr 
Hum, the Boman Sea ; they also termed 
this Strait, which our fars have vul- 
garised into the *' Gut," Bab-ez-zakak, 
the "gate of the narrow passage." 
The length of the Straits from Gape 
Spartel to Oeuta in Africa, and from 
Trafalgar to Europa Point in Spain, is 
ahout lo m. The W. entrance is about 
30 m. across, the E. about 20 m. ; the 
narrowest point is at Tarifa, about 
10 m. A constant current sets in from 
the Atlantic at the rate of 2^ m. per 
honr, and is perceptible 150 m. down 
to the Oabo de Grata ; hence it is veir 
difficult to beat out in a N.W. wind. 
During a long prevalence of this wind 
numbers of sailing-vessels are detained, 
sometimes for weeks together, at the 
hack of the rock and in Gibraltar Bay. 
Directly a more favourable turn takes 
place ui the wind, many hundred sail 
n^ay he seen making the attempt to 
l)eat through the Straits. 

Between La Pe&a'del Ciervo and 
Tarifa lies a plain watered by the 
Diackigh Salado, where Walia, in 417, 
defeated the Vandali Silingi and drove 
them mto Africa. Here also, on the 

28th Oct., 1340, the chivalrous Alonso 
XI. overthrew the united forces of 
Yusuf I., King of Granada, and of Abu- 
1-hassan, King of Fez. This victory 
paved the way for the final triumph of 
the Cross, as flie Moors never recovered 
the blow. Cannon made at Damascus 
were used here, for the first time in 
Europe, as is said by Oonde, iii. 133. 

17 m. Tarifa. Here the diligence 
stops for dinner. Pop. 11,900. British 
Vice-Consul : Don J. M. Morales. Inn : 
a decent casa de Huespedes iu the 
Calle de Sancho el Bravo. This, the 
most Moorish town of Andalucia, was 
the ancient Punic city called Josa, 
which Bochart (Can. i. 477) translates 
the ** Passage ; " the Komans called it 
Julia Traducta : the Moors, Ta/rif Ihn 
Malik, after a Berber chief who was 
the first to land in Spain. Tarifa 
bears for arms ita castle on waves, 
witii a key at the window ; and the 
motto, " Sed fuertes en la guerra^*' be 
gallant in fight. Like Calais, it was 
once a frontier key of great importance. 
Sancho el Bravo took it in 1232, when 
Alonso Perez de Guzman, as all others 
declined, offered to hold this post of 
danger for a year. The Moors belea- 
guered it, aided by the Infante Juan, a 
traitt)r brother of Sancho's, to whom 
Alonso's eldest son, aged 9, had been 
entrusted previously as a page. Juan 
now brought the boy under the walls, 
and threatened to kill him if his father 
would not surrender the place. Alonso 
drew his dagger and threw it down, 
exclaiming, ** I prefer honour without 
a son, to a son with dishonour." He 
retired, and the Prince caused the 
child to be put to death. A cry of 
holTor ran through the Spanish 
battlements : Alonso rushed forth, be- 
held his son's body, and returning to 
his childless mother, calmly observed, 
** I feared that the infidel had gained 
the city." Sancho the King likened 
him to Abraham, from this parental 
sacrifice, and honoured him with the 
name, **El Bueno,'* The good {Guz- 
man, Gutma/n, Goodman). He became 
the founder of the princely Dukes of 
Medina Sidonia, now merged by mar- 
riage in the Villafrancas. 

.,y,u..u by Google 


Boute 07. — Varifa — AlgeeiraA, 

The towu i« nearly quadrangular: 
the narrow and tortuous streets are en- 
closed by Moorish walls. The Alameda 
runs under the S. range, between the 
town and the sea. The Alcazar^ a 
genuine Moorish castle, lies to the E., 
just within the walls. The site of the 
above>mentioned murder is marked by 
a more modem tower — called La Torre 
de Guzman. 

The "Lions" of Tarifa are the 
women, who are proverbial for gracia 
y meneo. They continue to wear the 
mantilla as the Arabs do the boorko, 
in which only one eye is discovered ; 
that, however, is generally a piercer, 
and as it peeps out from the sable veil 
like a star, beauty is concentrated into 
one focus of light and meaning. These 
tapadas, being all dressed alike, are 
most effectually concealed, insomuch 
that husbands have actually been de- 
tected making love to their own wives 
by mistake. 

The crumbling walls of Tarifa might 
be battered wiSi its oranges, which 
although the smallest, are beyond 
comparison the sweetest in Spain, but 
defended by brave men, they have 
defied the ball and bomb. Soult 
attempted to take it, but it was 
bi-avely defended by Gen. Campbell. 

Gough in a good hour came up with 
his 87th, the "Eagle-catchers," and 
with his 600 men, beat back 1800 
picked Frenchmen in a manner " sur- 
passing all praise." Victor, Victus as 
usual, retreated silently in the night 
leaving behind all his artillery and 
stores. This great glory and that 
astounding failure were such as even 
the Duke had not ventured to calcu- 
late on: he had disapproved of the 
defence, because, although " we had a 
right to expect that our oflScers and 
troops will perform their duty on everj^ 
occasion, we had no right to expect 
that a comparatively small number 
would be able to hold Tarifa, com- 
manded as it is at short distances, and 
enfiladed in eveiy diiection, and un- 
provid«l with artillery, and the walls 
scarcely cannon-proof. The enemy, 
however, retired with disgrace, in- 
finitely to the honour of Sie brave 
troops who defended Tarifa." (Disp. 

Feb. 1. 1812.) The English not only 
defended but repaired the breach. 
Their masonry is good, and their 
inscription, if not classical, at least 
tells the truth ; " Hanc partem muri a 
QbIUs obsidentlbus dimtam, Britanni 
defensores constroxerunt, 1812." 

The real strength of Tarifa conedsts 
in the rocky peninsula which projects 
into the sea, on which a fortress has 
long been building. It is the most 
southerly point of Europe, being 5 m. 
farther south than Europa Point. 
There is a good light house, 135 ft. 
high, visible for 30 m., and a small 
sheltered bay. This castle commandii 
the straits under some circumstances, 
when ships are obliged to pass within 
the range of the batteries, and if ther 
do not hoist colours are at once fired 
into, especially those coniing from 

The ride to Algeciras over the 
mountain is glorious; the views are 
splendid. The wild forest, through 
which the Guadalmeci boils and leaps, 
is worthy of Salvator Eosa. Gibraltar 
and its beautiful bay are soon seen 
through the bleeding branches of the 
stripped cork-trees, which are here 
fringed with delicate ferns. 

Between Tarifa and Algeciras on 
the 9th June, 1801, the gallant San- 
marez attacked and partially destroyed 
the combined French and Spanish 
fleets under Linois; the enemy con- 
sisted of 10 sail, the English of 6. 

15 m. Algeoiras. Inn : Fonda de la 
Marina. English spoken. There is 
also an excellent Casa de Huespedes 
at 16 Plaza de la Palma. Saddle- 
horses can be obtained at these hotek. 

English Vice-Consul : Don J. Santa- 

U»8.A, Consular Agent : H. Spraguc, 

Steamers to Gibraltar, leave at regu- 
lar hours two and three times a day- 
Fare one sihiUing. The hours differ in 
summer and winter. To Ceuta daily, 
weather permitting. To Cadis and 
Malaga three timss a week. Pop. 11,848. 
Algeciras, the Portus AJbus of the Bo- 
man8,was the green island of the Moor^ 


Itoute 9S. — Gibraltar to Ceuia, 


Jeziratu-l-Ehadrd ; an epithet still 
preserved in the name of the island 
opposite, La Isla Verde, also called de 
lu Falomas. The King of Spain is 
ilso King of Algeciras, a remnant of 
Ite former importance, it being the 
lioors' key of Spain. It was taken by 
the gallant Alonso XI., March 24, 
1334, after a siege of 20 months, at 
which foreign crusaders from all 
Christendom attended. It was the 
iiege of the age, and 40 years after- 
wards Chaucer describing a true 
knight, mentions his haying been an 
•Algecir" — a Waterloo, a Trafal- 
frr man. Our chivalrous Edward 
Ul. contemplated coming in person to 
Rssist Alonso XI., a monarch after his 
Awn heart* Alonso destroyed the 
Xoorish town and fortifications. 

Modem rectangular commonplace 
Algeciras has risen like a Phoenix, 
having been rebuilt in 1760 by Charles 
pI., and fortified, to be a horuets' nest 
Igainst Gibraltar, and such it is, swarm- 
m% with privateers in war-time, and 
%ith guarda costas or preventive service 
•otters in peace. The handsome plaza 
1^ a foun^Ln erected by Castauos, who 
Was governor here in 1808, when the 
yw of independence broke out. The 
poll-fights are among the best in 
Bpain. The artist should sketch Gib- 
laltar from the aqueduct, and Holino 
le San Bernardino. The walk to the 
waterfalls is picturesque, the cork- 
trees grand, the picnics pleasant. The 
Wateifell, Las Ohorreras, 4 miles 
from -Algeciras, is well worthy of a 
''isit. The distance to Gibraltar is 
abont 5 m. by sea and 10 by land. It 
1^ far preferable to go by steamer, 
which crosses the bay several times 
10 m. Gibraltar. (See Rte. 96.) 

• In the 'Cronica de Alonso XI.' Froissart 
«<*Ub the gallant behaviour of the English 
I ^ the Earls of Derby and SallBbury (Chr. 
*J), and the selfish misconduct of the French 
*||«r Gaston de Folx, who kept aloof at the 
"Weal nuNuent (Chr. 311). 

WiWtn, 1882.] 

ROUTE 98. 

TETUAN, &0. 

No one should omit to make the 
following delightful excursions. 

(1) Excursion to Ceutft. — ^This op- 

S)site rock to Gibraltar is the Botany 
ay of Spaniards. Occasional steamers 
from Gibraltar direct. From Algeciras 
daily, weather permitting. In times 
of anticipated pronundamientos as in 
July, 1868), a special permission to 
land at Ceuta is necessary. 

Geuta. Inn: Fonda Italiana. Pop.; 
civilians, 10,526; convicts, 3500: 
troops, a500. 

Passports required to land at Ceuta. 
They are returned when you embark. 

Ceuta, SebtOt is a corruption of *• sep- 
tem," so called from the seven hillB 
upon which it is built. It was in the 
possession of Portugal firom 1485 to 
1640, in which year it was annexed to 
the crown of Castile. Its northern 
extremity, now called Frmta de Afrioa, 
was one of the pillars of Hercules. It 
is strongly fortified, especially on the 
land side, and is well garrisoned for 
Spain. It is an important presidio or 
Spanish military prison ; all the Spa- 
niards, the guards as well as the 
guarded, are moreover confined to their 
rock — ^kept in presidio by the Moors, 
who shoot at them whenever they stir 
beyond their defences. At the foot of 
the citadel are some Roman remains ; 
the walls and gates are very remark- 
able. From Ceuta the Moors embarked 
on their invasion of Spain. Its port 
also formed the basis of Spain's mili- 
tary operations against Morocco in 
1859-60. The town itself is dull but 
clean, and paved in a mosaic pattern. 


It receives its chief supplies from 
Malaga and Algeciras. 

Spain possesses, besides Oeuta, the 
following convict stations upon, or in 
the vicinity of the Africian coast, viz., 
Alhucemas, Melilla, Peflon de Velez, 
and the Islas Gha&rinas, accessible 
from Malaga 3 tunes a month. 

(2) Excursion to TtokgiBT. — Steamers 
leave Gibraltar three times a week 
for Tangier, making the passage in 
about 3^ hours. The passage across 
the straits is agreeable, although the 
strong currents in the centre often oc- 
casion a heavy sea. On entering the 
Bay of Tangier a small fort on Cape 
Malabatte is seen on the 1., and the 
town on the r. The steamer anchors 
just inside the remains of the old mole. 
Until 1878 the landing was effected on 
the backs of Jews, as no Moslem would 
carry a Christian. Now by the exer- 
tions of the Foreign ministers and 
Consuls a small wooden pier has been 
built by which the landing is effected. 
The Bay of Tangier is soon entered ; 
to the 1. is Cape Malabatte, to the rt. 
Cape Spartel. 

Tangier. Inns: Hotel de France, 
by Bruzeauds, excellent. Antonio 
Sotiry, a good guide, is to be 
heard of there. Hotel de rUnivers, 
dean and cheap ; usual charge 10 frs. 
a day. The Victoria Hotel, 14 beds. 
Very comfortable accommodation^ but 
dear. The proprietor has also a de- 
lightfully situated Carmen outside the 
town, which can be especially recom- 
mended as a cool summer residence. 

Medical Men: Don O. Canares, a 
Spaniard. Dr. Meguires, who speaks 

English Minister: Sir John H. Drum- 
mond Hay, K.C.B. English Consul: 
Mr. Horace Philips White. United 
States Consul : Mr. Mathews. 

Church of England Service on Sun- 
days at the English Consulate. 

Money. — Spanish coin is the general 
currency, but French money also cir- 
culates. The only Moorish coin used 
is a smsdl copper coin of little value. 

Tangier (Pop. 15,000, of which 
10,000 are Moors, 4000 Jews, and 700 

Boute 98. — Tangier. 

Sect. V. 

Spaniards) is the capital of the Pacha- 
Uk, or province of Haabat, and the 
residence of foreign ministers and 
consuls to the court of Morocco. 
Tandja, the **city protected by the 
Lord." Two miles to the S.E. is the 
Roman Tangio; it is reached by a walk 
or ride over the semds. Tangier fell 
into the hands of the Portuguese in 
1485, from whom it passed to the 
English crown in 1662, having formed 
part of the dowry of Catherine of 
Braganza, the Portuguese wife of 
Charles II. The English built for the. 
protection of the shipping a mole 
extending 300 yards from the shore; 
it was partially destroyed when they 
left in 1684. The remams are still 
visible at low water. The town coven 
two hills and the valley between them. 
On the hill to the rt. is the dilapidated 
Kasbah, Moorish castle, and residences 
of the Moorish officials. To the 1. are 
the houses of the European ministers. 
The Jews have no separate quarters. 

The pier is European, but on leaving 
that, the traveller loses sight of every- 
thing European, and entering the old 
gate, where is the custom-house, goes 
up a narrow ill-paved lane, swarming 
with Moors in jellabies, Jews ia 
gaberdines, negroes, women in haito, 
mules, asses, and water-carriers— in 
fact with everything but what he has 
seen before. 

No European is allowed to visit a 
mosque, but he is allowed to go to 
any part of the town without an- 
noyance, except by Jews eager to 
act as guides. The principal street 
commences at the Bab-el-Marsa (the 
"gate of the marine "), and terminates 
with the Bab-el-Sok (the "gate of the 
market-place**) with Moorish shop- 
keepers sitting in their little shops 
like boxes with the lids closed. Tire 
Sok outside the town is still more 
curious, and should be visited early on 
Thursdays and Sundays. It is on a 
bare hill, which is covered with comitry 
people, animals, and agricultural pro- 
duce. To the rt. extends the burial- 
ground with a wilderness of agaves, 
with a few gravestones and some large 
tombs among them. 

The European ministers and con« 


Boute 98. — Cape Spartel, 


sols have built for themselves yillas on 
the Jebel Kebir, a hill overlooking the 
Straits, 3 m. from the town. The 
views from the gardens of these villas 
are delightful, and the tropical plants 
Y&rj remarkable. Sir J. Drum- 
mond H^y has a pack of boar 
hounds, and the meet is usually on 
the Jebel Kebir. The scene is most 
carious and picturesque. Visit 
also the Alcazar, the Boman bridge 
outside the town, and the villa of 
Mustafa Dicali. The palace of the 
Basha mav also be visited ; ladies can 
enter the harem. It has been a fine 
building in the style of the Alhambra 
at Granada. In the outer court are 
two prisons* which the visitor may 
inspect through holes in the wall. 
Justice is stiU administered by the 
Basha in the gate. A veiy graceful 
archway forms the entrance to one of 
the principal buildings. Another has 
a fine porch supported by a series of 
delicate arches.. Beyond this building 
are the prisons. 

Education in the common schools is 
Uted to learning the Koran by heart. 
This is accomplished by the Arab youth 
vhile seated cross-legged on the ground, 
swaying backwards and forwards as 
they repeat the words in a loud voice. 
Above the bustle of the city may be 
heard the voice of the Mueddin on 
the Minaret calling the &ithful to 
pniyer. The market-place is still en- 
liYened by the barbaric music of the 
snake-charmers, and by the voice and 
earnest gestures of the narrator of the 
Thousand and One Kights as he 
strides up and down before his au- 
dienoe who are seated on the ground 
before him. 

The people are much addicted to the 
smoking of keef {Cannabis indica% for 
which a special pipe is used. A small 
shop for the sale of this article should 
be visited by lovers of the pictui-esque, 
j^ within the gates as one enters the 
city from the market-place, where a 
group of men in a state of silent 
bewildered intoxication are to be seen 
seated on the ground quietly smoking 
hy the hght of a flaring torch. 

At Tangier eat the small delicate 
oysters, and the red mullet (called by 

the Moors " the sultan of fishes **) 
Turtles also abound, and the salmon 
of the river Onmer-Bia is excellent. 
About 5 m. W. from Tangier is a 
beautiful grove of sacred olive-trees, 
which has been used by the Moors as 
a burial-place, which Henry Begnault 
was very fond of sketching. 

A. Excursion to Cape SpartaL — 
Guide necessary. Distance about 9 m. 
Fairly good saddle-horses may be hired 
for one dollar a day. There are no 
roads, but an endless variety of bridle- 

The handsome lighthouse of Gape 
Spartel was built by the Governor of 
Morocco, and is maintained by con- 
tributions from the other Powers, 
each of whom assumes control for a 
definite period. It is usual to take 
lunch from Tangier, but it may be 
obtained at the lighthouse, as well as 
limited accommodation for the night. 
Permission to visit the lighthouse 
must be obtained from one of the 
Consuls at Tangier. The road to the 
Cape passes over a long range of hills 
bordering the ocean, on the first of 
which are situated the summer resi- 
dences of some of the Consuls and of 
the Shereef, who is lionoured as the 
last descendant of Mahomet Before 
reaching the lighthouse the road 
plunges down towards the sea, afford- 
ing coast and ocean views of unex- 
ceptional grandeur. Beyond Cape 
Spartel some long stretches of sea- 
beach are crossed, on which the surf 
breaks finely, and after a ride of 
f of an hour a remarkable grotto is 
reached, within which grindstones are 
cut The manufacture is of extremely 
ancient date. Indications of it are to 
be seen on the rocks at some distance 
from the cave, and are said to extend 
even below the present low water- 
mark. The grotto is entered by a 
narrow tunnel on the land side, ai'ter 
passing which the visitor finds himself 
m a large cave, resembling, with its 
stone piQars, some cathedral. There 
is a larger opening towards the sea, 
admitting a pale weird light to the 
interior, which is again dimmed by the 
2 2 


Boute 98. — Cape Malabatte — Larache. Sect. V. 

shadow of eaxsh wave as it rises and 
breaks into the month of the cave. 

B. To Cape Malabatte, also a da/s 
excursion. Part of the road, which is 
very bad, first crossing the long beach, 
stretching off to the right at the foot 
of the promontory on which the city 
stands, and then winding along the 
rocky shore, where the path becomes 
in some places so narrow and stony 
that it scarcely deserves the name. 
Another way leads among the hills 
further inland. Towards the further 
end of the beach several bits of in- 
teresting Boman remains are passed ; 
first, a picturesque Bridge over a 
small stream not fax from the ocean ; 
somewhat further on, the massive walls 
of two gates, believed to have (been 
the water-gates of the old Roman 
Tingis, from which the sea has since 
recSed. Third, part of a tower on a 
hill further inland, but visible from 
the beach. 

C. Excursion from Tangier U> 
Tetoan. — ^This interesting and per- 
fectly safe excursion can be made with 
either camels, mules, or horses. Dis- 
tance, 36 m. Apply to the English 
or U.S.A. Consul for an escort, a 
soldier, a mark of respectability, to 
whom 2 dollars per day (his horse 
included) must be paid. Mules, or 
horses, 1 dollar a day for each animal. 
The journey can be made in one day 
in summer, but in winter it will be 
necessary to sleep at El Fondak. 
Leaving at 6 a.m. in summer, £1 
Fondak may be reached at 1, and 
Tetuan at 6 p.m. This is a mere native 
place of rest like one of the Khans in 
the East, and filthy beyond descrip- 
tion. The only place to sleep in if the 
night is not cold is the terrace above. 
The road lies first along the shore, 
then across the fertile and well- 
wooded plains of Barbary, which sup- 
ply the Rock with its beef, mutton, 
and game. 

Tetuan. Inn: there is no regular 
hotel, but excellent lodging, with first- 
rate food, may be procured at the 
house of Solomon Nahon, who resides 
in the Jews' Quarier. 

English Conwl (acting) : Mr. Isaac 
S. NfUion. 

Tetuan contains a population of 
22,000 (14,000 Moors, 7500 Jews, and ; 
500 Spaniards.) It was defended \ 
stoutly b^ the Moors, and taken by 
the Spaniards imder O'Donnell and 
Prim in 1860, and afterwards restored 
to the Moors. The city rises on the 
steep slopes of hills, and is backed by ; 
the Riff range : it was founded in 
1492 by the refugees from Granada, 
many of whose direct descendants still 
retain the title-deeds of their ancestors! 
Andalucian estates, and the keys d 
their houses in Granada, which thej 
hope once more to use when they re- 
turn to their former homes. A Teto- 
anese may be taken as a fair type of 
what a Spanish Moor was in days past 
Visit the markets and bazaars, and the 
Kaid in the Alcazar. The ChozaSj9d 
gardens of the wealthy Moors may 
also be visited. 

Centa may be reached from TetnaH' 
The distance is 20 m., partly along the 
shore, and partly through an almofii 
uninhabited country. 

D. Excursion from Tangier to I* 
raohe and Casablanca in Africa.-^ 
days. Escort and guide required. 

This interesting excursion must noi 
be made before the middle of Se]» 
tember, on account of the fever, whici 
however, usually disappears with tin 
intense heats of July and August 

The first day's ride will take yonll 

28 m. Andlla. Inn : kept by a Jel 
who acts as British Consular Agent 
Pop. 2600. Arzilla may be madi 
head-quarters for wild boar and pai* 
ridge shooting. Sleep here and pw 
ceed the next day to 

Bpt byJ 

80 m. Larache. Inn: kept 
Jew. Pop. 6000. English Vice-Cc ^ , 
Mr. Joseph Imossi. Near Larache if 
a large fresh-water ]ake, 40 m. in cl^ 
cumference, situated in the midrf 
of a perfectly level plain : its maishy 
shores swarm with wild-fowl, flamin- 
goes, partridges, and other game. 
Snipes breed here during the summer 

From Larache the track passes netf 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -i^j'w.^^-i t'*^. 


Boute 98. — Medhia — CasaManca. 


the lake, and through an interesting 
country abounding in game to 

30 m. TheeasOeandtawnofULMdA. 
No Inn. Sleep at the house of a Jew. 
Visit the castie for the view ; obs. the 
cannon taken by the Moors from the 

Thenoe, continuing the route, the 
walls of the holy city of 

16 m. SaUe, Pop. 23,000, are skirted. 
No Christian is permitted to enter 
within its walls. 

Crossmg the Biver Rabat, we now 

2 m. Babat. No Inn, Lodgings 
may be obtained at the house of any 
respectable Jew. Pop. 12,000. Eng- 

lish Vice-Conml: Mr. John Frost. 
Excellent wild-boar shooting in the 

Hence the port of Casablanca can 
be reached by sea in 5 hrs., or by land 
in 12 hrs. 

40 m. Casablanca. Inn: Hotel de 
Rafael Lite, a native of Gibraltar. 
Pop. 12,000. Steamers and sailing- 
vessels frequently leave Casablanca, 
for Gibralti^ and other Spanish ports. 

English ConsukUes: A. Payton, 
Esq., is Consul at Mogador; Mr. 
George P. Hunst Vice-Consul at Saffee ; 
and Mr. John Lapeen, Vice-Consul at 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

C 390 ) SectYI. 


Though the districts of Bonda and of Graimda are separated only a few. 
leagues from tlie plains and coasts of Seville eind Malaga, the difference of' 
climate and geography is most striking ; thus, while the barley harvests aw 
over in the tierra eaXiente about the middle of May, the crops in the Vega of 
Granada are green in June. These mountains form the barrier wliich divides 
the central zone from the southern, and are a sort of offshoot from the great 
Sierra Morena chain. Temi>erate Bonda and delightful Oranada are conse- 
quently much resorted to in summer by the parched inhabitants of the 
hotter districts. 

The Serrania de Bonda is a jumble of mountains, in which Bonda is the 
centre and capital. It lies to the 1. of the basin of the Guadalquivir, and 
between the sea and the kingdom of Granada. Bonda, elevated amidst its 
mountaloB, enjoys at once the fresh breezes from the sea and the open 
country ; the air is pure and bracing : thus, in summer, the mornings and 
evenings are cool, although the thermometer in the shade reaches 80° at mid- 

The roads are steep, rugged, and bad : many are scarcely practicable even 
for mules. The posadas are not much better than the roads, and suit the iron 
^mes, and oil-and-garlic ilia and digestions of the smugglers and robbers, 
who delight, like the chamois, in hard fare and precipices. The traveller 
must attend to the provend. 

Eonda and Granada are good central spots for excursions. Their sijvwy 
sierras are river-sources for the tierras calientes, and the fruits and vegetation 
in the fresh hills are those of Switzerland ; thus to the botanist is offered a 
range from the hardiest lichen of the Alps, down to the orange and sugar-cane 
in &e maritime strips. This serrania is best seen in the summer. 

The natural strength of this country has from time immemorial suggested 
sites for ** hill-forts," the type of whicn is clearly Oriental ; they are perched 
everywhere like eagles' nests on the heights, and exactly where a painter 
would place them for a picture, and are the homes of brave highlanders, who 
were once the robbers, and are now the smugglers of the Peninsula. They 
formed also the raw material of the guerriUero, who has always been recruited 
from the robber-bands of Spain. The war-whoop, during the Garlist struggle, 
was " Viva Fernando y vamos robando.^* The French, during the Peninsolar 
war, were so constantly beaten back by these sharpshooters, uiat they became 
very sby of attacking hornets' nests fidler of lead than gold. 

The Spanish smuggler, so far from feeling himself to be a criminal or de- 
graded, enjoys in his country the brilliant reputation which attends daring 
personal adventure, amon^ a people proud of individual prowess. In former 
<lays he was l^e model ot the sculptor and artist, and saug the well-known 
Seguidilla : " Yo que soy contrdbandista I" to the delight of old and young, 
^m the Straits to the Bidassoa, tide-waiters not excepted. In his JW 

Introd. Bonda and Oranada. 391 

tfharacter he was welcome in every village : bringing sngar and snuff for the 
Borate, money and cigars for the attorney, ribbons and gossip for the women. 
Ee used to be magoificently dressed in majo costume, and carried his retaco 
[blunderbuss) in his hand. Now, alas I they axe dressed in a cosmopolite dress, 
ind are anything but pleasant to deal with. 

The traveller near Gibraltar will see enough of the (hntrabarididaBondetU), 
he is the best specimen of his class : a cigar and a bbta of wine open his heart 
it the Venta fire-side, and he likes and trusts an Englishman. The Contraban- 
iista of Ronda is one of the most picturesque of his numerous class in a 
locality where ** everybody smuggles." 

The kingdom of Granada is about 240 miles long, by 80 to 80 miles broad. 
The area contains about 9000 sq. miles. The Sierra Nevada, with its diadem 
>f snow, rises nearly 12,000 ft. above tiie sea-leveL Thus, under a latitude 
rf39° eternal snow and the blood-heat of Africa are combined ; hence every 
rariety of production, &om the hardest lichen to the cotton-plant, indigo, and 
BDgar-cane. The snowy range is a perpetual alembic of fertilising water ; the 
hotter the weather the greater is the melting in the snowy regions above. 
The hemp is the finest in the world, and the succession of the crops never 
ceases. The Alpine range of the Alpigarras, grand beyond description, is the 
Switzerland of Spain ; it is pregnant with interest alike to the geologist, the 
artist, and the botanist. 

The name Granada is a corruption from Kamdttah, the ancient fortress of 
Phoenician origin. The prefix car occurs in many cities buUt on an eminence, 
e.g. Carthago, Garteia, Carmona, Oartama. Nata has been interpreted by 
0ome as ** stranger," and by others as the name of a local goddess. 

The conquests of Jaime I. in Valencia, and of St. Ferdinand in Andaluoia, 
ruinous elsewhere to the Moorish cause, created the prosperity of Granada, 
which became the asylum of every Moslem from other parts of Spain. Ibnu-1- 
ahmar, "the red man,** was the founder of this kingdom. This talented 
prince, dying in 1273, was succeeded by two equally able rulers, by whom was 
erected the Alhambra, the fortress-palace, which Moors have delighted to 
adorn, and Spaniards to disfigure. 

The city of Granada, under the Moors, contained half a million souls. The 
date of its conquest by the Christians is January 2, 1492, when the banner of 
Ferdinand of Castile first fioated on the towers of the Alhambra. A Christian 
iroman was the cause of its downfall. Her name was Isabel de Solis, daughter 
of the Governor of Martos, who, being taken prisoner by the Moors, became 
the favourite wife of Abti-l-hasan, king of Granada. Her Moorish appellation 
is Zoraya, ** morning star,'* in allusion to her surpassing beauty, on account of 
which 'Ayeshah, another wife and also a cousin of Abii-1-hasan, became 
jealous of her rival, and the court became divided into two parties. The 
Zegris (Thegrim, the people who came from the province of Aragon) espoused 
her faction, and the Abencerrages (the Beni Cerraj, " children of the saddle ** 
or "palace**) aided Zoraya. In June, 1482, Abii-Abdilla (corrupted by the 
Spaniards into Boabdil), son of Abii-l-hasan by 'Ayeshah, dethroned his 
&ther. He was also called by the Moors As-Saghir^ the younger — ^the less 
(whence the Spanish term, d Bey chico\ to distinguish him from Abii-l-hasan, 
his father. Thus the Moorish house was divided against itself, just when 
Castile and Aragon were united under Ferdinand and Isabel. On the Bey 
chico*8 being taken prisoner at Lucena in 1483, the old king returned and, 
being blind, abdicated in favour of his brother, Mohamed aU., called Az- 
iagM, the valiant. Boabdil now became a vassal of Ferdinand, and at length, 
after a long siege, surrendered himself and his kingdom. The Spaniajds 

subsequently violated most of their pledges and capitulations, and Cardinal 

Xhnenez proceeded to convert the Moors to Christianity by fire and sword ; 

they naturally rebelled, and were then put down without morov. Again they 

392 Bonda and Oranada. Sect. VI. 

were cnushed by John of Austria, and finally expelled, in 1610, by Philip III, 
as the Protestants afterwards were by Louis XIV. 

The details of the conquest of Granada must be looked for in Prescott's able 
work and Bemaldez* ' Historia de los Reyes OatcSlicos.' The effects are less 
understood. The possession of the Moor, the apparent weakness of Spin, 
was in fact the secret of her strength. Then all parties, as in their private 
juntas, united to pull down the holder of power, and when that was accom- 
plished, fell to loggerheads with each other, quarrelling for the spoil. Bead, 
in the AOutmbra, the legend tales of the Moors, and the ballad romances of 
the old days of Crusade. The melancholy retrogression of two once noble 
nations increases the interest of these relics of better times, which have drifted 
down like the spars of storm-wrecked battle-ships. In this contrast between 
former pride of place and present nothingness, our sympathy, as we tread the 
lonely Alhambra, is with the Moor. Granada is still the chosen land of 
romance. The tale of Auld lang syne re-echoes through her lonely myrtle 
courts, and the many flowers which still enamel the well-kept Generalife 
attest that a garden of Eden must once have smiled. 

The best time for visiting Granada, and for making mountain excursions in 
the serrania of Ronda and Granada, is in the spring ; during tiie rest of the 
year the treeless country is burnt up and brown and hideous. 

The local and county histories, and other works referring to the important 
events and " romance " of Granada, are infinite.* 

• For ftiTther details, consult 'Belaciones del Reino de Granada/ by Baeza, Mad., 1868. 
Historia de Granada,' Lafaente, Alcantara ; ' Granada y sus Monumentos Arabes,' Jos^ y Maniiel 
Oliver, Malaga, 1876 ; * Detfcripcion de Granada, SevlUa y Gdrdova/ R. Contreras, Granada, 1875. 
Of engraved works of the Alhambra, the first was ' Antigttedades Arabes,* 4to., s. d. about 1735; 
a second and folio edition was published in 1804. The Arabic inscriptions were poorly translated 
by Pablo Lozano. The 'Souvenirs de Granade,* * Essai,' and other works, par M. Girault de 
Prangey, Paris, 1837 ; the * Erinnerungen ' of Wilhelm von Gail, Munich ; and even the splendid 
work of F. M. Hessemer, Berlin, 1836, 4to., fade before the English publication by Owen Jaaes, 
* Plans of the Alhambra,' London, 1842. The scrupulous architectural and artistical aocortcy 
is rivalled by the gorgeous execution. The value of the engravings is enhanced by a masterly 
history of Granada, and by really accurate translations fh)m the Arabic inscriptions by Gayangos. 
The substance of the former with woodcuts, and the whole of the latter, have been thrown by 
Owen Jones into his ' Alhatanbra Handbook ' for the Crystal Palace. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Bonda & Granada. 

Boute 103. — Madrid to Gramda, 




103 Madrid to Granada, by Cor- 
dova, Bail ; or by Jaen, Dili- 
gence 393 

lOSAQranada to Lanjaron — ^Ab- 

oent of the Sierra Nevada . . 419 
103b Marchena to £<»ja .. ..426 

104 Seville to Granada, by Xrtrera, 
Xarchena, OBona, La Soda, 
and Antequera. Bail . . 426 

105 Seville to Carmona, by Alcala 
deGuadaira. BaU .. .. 428 

106 Cordova to Malaga, by Uon- 
tilla. Bail 430 

107 Malaga to Gibraltar, by Mar- 
bella and Estepona. Carriage 
road and horseback .. .. 437 

108 Malaga to Granada, by Loja. 

68 m. byBoad 439 

109 Malaga to Granada, by Al- 
hama. Carriage-road and 
Horseback 440 


110 Malaga to Bonda, by Goban- 
tes. Bail and Diligence .. 441 

111 Bonda to Gibraltar, by Gancin 
and San Boque. Horse- 
back 444 

112 Bonda to Seville, by XTtrera 
and Moron. Horseback and 
BaU 446 

113 Bonda to Seville, by Zahara 
and Coronil. Horseoack and 
Bail 447 

114 Granada to Motril. Dili- 
gence 447 

115 Granada to Almeria, by Gua- 
dix. Diligence 448 

116 Granada to Adra, by Lan- 
jaron. Carriage-road .. .. 450 

117 Adra to Malaga, by Motril 
and AlmuSieoar. Diligence- 
road 452 

BOUTE 103. 

madbed to gbanada bt oobdova, 
bail; and jaen. 

Diligence, 274 m. 

For detailed description of route as 
far as Alcazar de San Juan, see Bte. 
123. From Alcazar to Cordova, see 
Rte. 85. From Cordova to Granada, 
aee Btes. 104 and 106. The journey 
to Granada takes two hours less by 
diligence than by rail, but although 
the road is picturesque the oonveyances 
are unoomrortable, and it is preferable 
to go by raiL The railroad from Jaen 
IB in construction by Martos. The 
expieas for Cordova and Seville leaves 
Madrid on Mondays, Wednesdays, and 
Satiupdays. Travellers going to Gra- 
nada can make a hurried visit to Cor- 
dova for they arrive at 6 a.m., and the 
tiain for Granada and Malaga only 
loaves Cordova at 11.50 a.m. See 
Indicador to Granada. 

. The stations are from Madrid. 

9 m. Getafe Stat. Pop. 3498. ) See 

2 m. Santa Paula Stat. > Bte. 

2i m. Pinto Stat. Pop. 2098. ) 4. 

3^ m. Yaldemoro Stat Pop. 2261. 

4| m. CienpoziLeloB Stat. Pop. 2473. 

9{ m. Aranjuez Stat. Pop. 8156. 

9| m. CaBtillejo Junct. Stat (Change 
trains for Toledo.) 

5im. YillaseqaillaStat Pop. 1276. 

6| m. Huerta Stat. Pop. 1705. 

llf m. Tembleqne Stat Pop. 3428. 

Hi m. YillaeafiaB Stat. Pop. 5105. 

8^ m. Quero Stat. Pop. 1724. 

8f m. Aloazar de San Joan Junct. 
Stat (Pop. 8397) (BufFet). Here the 
line to Alicante, Valencia, and Murcia 
branches to the 1. (Bte. 123.) 

16 m. Argamasilla Stat Pop. 2691. 

13 m. ManzanaroB Junct Stat Pop. 
8963. Here the line to Ciudad Beal 
and Portugal branches to the rt. 

17im. ValdepeOasStat Pop. 13,598. 

8^ m. Santa Cruz de Mndela Stat. 
Pop. 3642. 

10} m. Almnradiel Stat. Pop. 845. 

6^ m. Yenta de Cardenaa Stat 

7i m. Santa Siena Stat. Pop. 158}, 


Boute 103. — Jaen — CampUlo de Arenas. Sect VI. 

10 m. Vilohes Stat. Pop. 3119. 

7 m. VadoUano Stat, for Linares. 
Pop. 81,194. . 

6 m. Baeza Stat. Pop. 13,251. 

8} m. Jayalqninto Stat. Pop. 2122. 

4.^ m. Menjibar Junct. Stat. (Buffet). 
Pop. 2703. Railway projected to 
Granada. [Here a rly. branches off 
by Espeluy to Jaen, and thence to 
Granada by diligence. Those who 
wish to go by diligence to Granada 
must write for places to the Adminis- 
trador de Diligencias at Jaen, or secure 
them at Madrid. A rly. is in construc- 
tion from Jaen to Martos.] 

For the continuation of the journey 
by rail to Granada see from Espeluy 
to Cordova — Rte. 85, p. 31 1, and from 
Cordova to Bobadilla, Rte. 106, from 
BobadiUa to Granada, Rte. 104. 

The stations that are passed on the 
line to Jaen are — 

Espeluy Stat. Pop. 322. 

Menjibar Stat. Pop. 14,621. 

Villargordo Stat. Pop. 2158. 

13f m. Jaen Stat. Inn : Fonda de 
Earopa, in the Plaza del Mercado ; a 
clean and comfortable inn. Pop. 23,045. 
Jaen {Jaygan)'was a little independent 
kingdom under the Moors, consisting 
of 268 square leagues. Gien^ in 
Arabic, is said to signify fertility. Its 
position is most picturesque ; the castle 
standing like a sentinel commands the 
gorge of the mountain approach from 
Granada. The surrounding jumble of 
mountains is called del Yiento, La 
Pandera, and Jabalou. The two latter 
are the local barometers. Thus says 
the proverb — 

Cucmdo Jdbdlcut Uene capus 
TLa Pandera numtera, 
LUnerd aunqw Dios no quiera. 

Jaen is a bishopric conjointly with 
Baeza. The cathedral is built after 
the style of its metropolitan at Gra- 
nada and Malaga. It was originally a 
mosque, which was pulled down in 
1492, the present edifice having been 
commenced in 1532 by Pedro de Val- 
delvira. The plan (in the Grseco- 
Roman style) is noble and regular, 
the W. ia9ade standing between two 
fine towers. The sacristy and Sagrario 
are elegant. Notice the silver custodia 
by Juan Ruiz, and the statue of San 

Eufrasio. The grand relic of Jaen is 
M Santo Bostro, or the Santa Faz, a 
Holy Face of our Saviour, impressed 
on the handkerchief of la Ver&nica, 
which is said to have been lent to the 
suffering Saviour on the road to Cal- 
vary. It was borne by St. Ferdinand 
at the head of his army. It is shown 
to the public on Good Friday, and 
on the day of the Ascension of the 
Virgin : to great personages it is pri- 
vately shown on other occasions. 

Visit the old Gothic Church of San 
Julian, also the Choroh of San Miguel, 
where obs. the fine portal by - Vi3del- 

The charming Alameda commands 
splendid views over the surrounding 
Alps. The Fnente de la Magdalena 
can also be visited ; it bursts from the 
rock as if struck by the wand of Moses. 
The walk to the mineral springs near 
the Jabalcu (1^ m.) is delightfiiL 
Jaen surrendered itself to St. Ferdi- 
nand in 1246. Here it was that Fer- 
dinand rV. suddenly died (aged 25), 
on the 7th Sept. 1312, having been 
sunmioned to appear before the judg- 
ment-seat of God upon that day, by 
two brothers, Juan and Pedro Car- 
vajal, who were executed thirty days 
before by order of the King, without 
sufficient evidence of guilt having 
been brought home to them. Fer- 
dinand having thus died as predicted, 
is called El EmplazadOj "the cited 

The first portion of the road to Gran- 
ada runs through a well- watered valley 
full of figs, pomegranates, apricot- 
trees, and vineyards. The gorge then 
becomes wilder and narrower, and is 
carried through the Puerto de ArenuB, 
the sandy gate of Granada, by ft 
tunnel 35 yards long. 

22^ m. Cam^o de Arenas. Pop. 

The road continues through wild 
mountain scenery, with here and there 
a farm-house surrounded by its luxu- 
riant huertay to beautiful Graiutda, 
which it enters by the Plaza del 

Granada Stat. N.B.— The 
money current in the town is not 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -^-.■w^^-i f»^ 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

LoneLon. John Murray. fd>.20^2S€9. *-' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


& Granada. Baute 103. — Granada: Directory. 




'$ 1. Hotels, Cafes, Casinos, Consuls, 

Theatres, Post and Telegraph, 

Baths. Carriages, Guides, Shops . 395 
$ 2. Sight-seeing, Historical Notice. . : 396 
i 3. The Alhambra, Generalife, House 

of Calderon 397 

$ 4. Museo, Cuarto Real, Public Walks, 

Markets. Archbishop's Palace . 409 

$ 5. Cathedral 411 

^ 6. Zacatin, Fuente de los Avellanos, 

Albaicin, Gates, Garti^a Convent, 

Hospitals 413 

$ 7. San Ger6nimo, [Old Houses and 

Churches 416 

$ 8. Excursions. ....... 417 

and Del Callejon, in the Calle de loa 
Mesones. The agraz and iced drinks 
made here are very good. Excellent 
iced soda-waters and American drinks 
are to be had at the Fdbrica de Gaseosas 
de Pablo Jimenez on the Carrera del 

CoBino: on the Carrera del Genii, 
Visitors are free for one month upon 
ihe introduction of a member. 

CircuU) de Amigos on the Puerta 
Beal ; admission as at the Casino for 
a fortnight. 

British Vice-CmmL : Henry Stanier, 

. 8, A. Gmuiut or Agent : Dr. Pedro 

§ 1. Hotels, Cafes, Casino, Consuls, 
Theatres, Post and Tblegbaph, 
Baths, Caeblages, Guides, Shops. 

31 m. Gbanada. The station is 
half-an-hour's drive from the Alhambra. 
Write and order a carriage from either 
of the hotels on the AllStmbra hill to 
be at the station — it costs S4 reals, for 
the omnibus is generally full. 

Hotels on the Alhambra Hill : Fonda 
de loB Siete Suelos; Antonio Valen- 
znela, guide at the Siete Suelos, may 
be recommended. Fonda de Washing- 
ton Irving, immediately facing the 
Siete Suelos Hotel : both very expen- 
sive. Engage rooms beforehand at the 
hotels on the hill. 

In the Town : Fonda de la Victoria, 
on the Puerta Beal. Fonda de la 
Alameda, upon the Alameda and the 
Carrera de Genii. Fonda de Europa, 
near the Victoria. Fonda de Minerva, 
on the Carrera de Genii, third-rate in 
accommodation. The hotels in the 
town are much more reasonable in 
their charges. N.B. Families intend- 
! mg to reside in Granada may take 
forniahed villas, in the immediate 
vicmity of the Alhambra, by the 
month or year. Such houses are 
known as Cdrmenes (from the Arabic 
word Karmy a vin^ard). Any respec- 
table guide will inform travellers of 
those C&rmenes which are unoccupied. 
Cafe»: El Suizo, on the Puerta 
Real ; del Comercio ; De los Dos 
AmigoB, on the Campillo. The excel- 
lent old-established cafes Del Leon 


Theatres : El Principal on the Plaza 
de Campillo; De Isabel la Catdlica, 
on the Plaza Santo Domingo. 

Plaza de Toros : near the Triunfo. 

Post Office : on the Plaza del Cdrmen. 

Telegraph Office: CalledelaDuquesa. 

Baths : at the Cafe del Leon de Oro 
in the Calle de Mesones (warm baths 
and ladies* and gentlemen's plunge- 
baths). Also in the Calle de Varela. 
Baths of running water, de acequia, 
in the Paseo, near the Puerta del Pes- 
oado. These are only open duruig the 
Temporada or summer months. 

Guides: Manuel Lara, attached to 
the Victoria, can be recommended to 
travellers who wish to improve their 
Spanish. He is an intelligent and 
thoroughly trustworthy guide. Jos^ 
Ximenez, son of the guide immor- 
talized by Washington Irving, can be 
recommended ; he speaks French, and 
lives near the Alhambra. Joseph 
Serfoty, a native of Gibraltar, is at- 
tached to the Siete Suelos Hotel. To 
gentlemen intending to make horse- 
back tours in Spain he will be found 

It is well to caution travellers that 
the charge for seeing the gypsies 
dance is 5 francs ; it is a disgusting 
sight. They are advised not to assent 
to the proposals of the hotel guides 
for taking mem to see it. The exhibi- 
tion is one that most people, especially 
ladies, would give ft good deal not tq 
have seen, ^,,,,^^ J ^^^,-. .^ 


Boute 103. — Orcmada : Sightseeing. Sect. VI. 

all day, but a card of admission is 
generally obtained from tbe Adndnis- 
trador of the Marqnis of Campotejar, 
who resides in the Casa de los Tiros, 
in the town near the Capitania. Al; 
though it is said that a permission 
is required, which entails expense, it 
is sufficient to giye 4 reals to the 
gardener, and 2 reals to the gate- 
keeper, to be allowed to enter at all 
hours. El Convento de la Cartm'a is 
open all day. Fee, 4 reals to the 
guardian. The Cathedral is open from 
7 to 12, and from 3 until dark. High 
Mass is performed every morning (at 
10 in winter, at 9 in summer). The 
CapiUa Beal (which contains the 
tombs of Ferdinand and Isabel, and 
also those of Philip and his queen 
Juana) can be seen when mass or 
choral service are not going on. The 
Casa de Looos (madhouse) may he 
visited from 9 to 12, and fix)m 3 until 
dusk. The Casa de Calderon, on the 
Alhambra Hill, can only be seen 
when the fiamily are absent from home. 
The Casa del Carbon, the Zaoatin, the 
Aloaioeria, and the Albaidn (or Moor- 
ish town), in which is the Barrio de 
los OitaxLOS (or gipsy quarter), may be 
all visited at any hour of the day; 
the best time, however, is early in 
the morning, or a little before sunset. 
£1 Convento de San Oerdnimo (now 
a barrack), open from 7 to 8.30 a.m. 
El Convento de Santo Domingo, open 
from 7 to 10 A.M., which contains the 
Huseo Provincial. 

Carriages: Granada is well pro- 
vided with carriages with two horses. 
They are stationed in the Carrera and 
Plaza del Gormen. 

Tariff. Eeals. 

Course 6 

By the hour (if to any part of Granada 
or its environs, except to tbe Alham- 
bra or to the Moorish quarter called 

theAlbaicin) 12 

By the day at the same rate per hour, viz. 12 
Open and closed cabs with one horse, 

course 4 

By the hour 8 

With the same extra charge for the Alham- 
bra, etc. 

When hired for the Alhambra or 
Generalife there is an extra charge of 
10 reals to the price of the course or 
hour, on account of the steep hiU. For 
the Albaicin or Monte Santo, an extra 
charge of 20 reals. These carriages 
can accommodate 7 or 8 persons. 

Biding Horses : Good saddle-horses 
may be procured of Fernando, at his 
stables oehind the Posada del Sol, 
CaUe de la Alhondi^a. 20 reals per 
horse for the d^. 

Magazine of Granada Manufactures: 
Esteban Ribot y hermano. No. 4, Calle 
del Zacatin. Here may be bought good 
Capotes de Monte (ponchos used for 
riding), Moorish Fajas (scarfs), and 
silk handkerchief ornamented with 
bull-fighters, peasants in Andalucian 
costumes, &c. 

Curiosity Shops : comer of the Plaza 
Nueva; Pepa the best. Two other 
diners' shops are in the Ouesta de 
Gomeles. Inquire for the special 
things you want from your guide, and 
beware of the imitations of lustred 

Tomas Perez, Ouesta de Gomeles, 
sells models, water-coloured drawings, 
and photographs. 


ai Chra/nada: The Al- 
hambra is open to visitors at all hours. 
It is customary to give the person who 
walks through with the traveller 
4 reals upon the occasion of the first 
visit. It can be seen by moonlight by 
arrangement. The Generalife is open 

The city of Granada contains about 
75,215 Inhab. (in the time of the Moors 
it had 500,000). It is the see of an 
archbishop, the residence of a captain- 
general, and of the provincial civil and 
military authorities. Besides the Ca- 
thedral it has 18 Paxroquias, a Boyal 
Chapel, 5 Hospitals, 17 Convents of 
Nuns, and 3 Poor Houses, 6 Colleges, 
a University, and had 19 Convents of 
Friars before they were suppressed in 
the year 1836. 

The city is built on and at the baae 
of several hills, spurs of the Siena 
Nevada mountains, which rise to the 
S.E; Its altitude (2100 ft. above the 
sea-level), coupled with the snowj' 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

JFroTTL the 'work, of 
Bon Rafcud. Conireras, 






tC., ,,,^.oogle 

Eonda & Granada. Itouie 103. — The Alhdfnhra, 

bookgroimd, renders it an agreeable 
summer residence, whilst the fertility 
of its vega is unbounded, the snowy 
sienas furnishing a continual supply 
of water for irrigation. The portion 
of the .town wMch hangs oyer the 
Genii, to the rt., is called Antequeruela, 
from the fact that the natives of Ante- 
qnera found refuge here after the cap- 
ture of their own city in 1410. The 
suburb of the Albaioin is separated 
from the Antequeruela by the river 
Darro, above which rises the command- 
I ing height crowned by the Alhambra. 
The Albaicin — Bahad-hu-l-Bayisin — 
was assigned to the refugees from 
Baeza, when that dty was retaken by 
the Christians in 1227. 

Granada is a city of running watei-s 
and fountains. The water supply is 
obtained from the rivers Geml and 
Darro ; it is drawn off in canals from 
near their sources, thus the waters re- 
tain a high elevation above the town 
and the Alhambra. The Genii (the 
Singilis of the Eomans, the Shingil of 
the Moors) flows down from the Sierra 
Nevada : its waters, being composed of 
melted snow, are considered unwhole- 
some, and have a purgative tendency. 
The Darro rises near Huetor, and ap- 
proaches Granada under the Monte 
Santo. The Eomans called it Salon, 
but it derives its present name from 
Sddaroh (Hadar, "rapidity in flow- 
ing"). The gorge through which it 
rushes, under the Generalife, was the 
Haxariz, the "garden of recreation," 
of the Moors. Gold being found in its 
bed, amphibious gold-fishers may be 
seen puddling in its eddies, earning 
thereby a precarious livelihood. 

The Moorish name of the city was 
Kamattah, which some, catching at 
sound, not sense, have derived from 
" granatum,*' the Latin word for pome- 
granate, because the hiUs upon which 
the city is built are divided somewhat 
like tliat fruit The Moors, however, 
would never have taken a Latin word; 
had they wished to call the town 
"Pomegranate," they would have pre- 
ferred Romuran, their own word for 
that fruit. The pomegranate, stalked 
uid proper, has however been adopted 
«8 the ** canting *' arms of the city. 


§ 3. The Alhambba, Genebalife, 
House of the Mabquis of Caldebon. 

The Alhambra being the emphatic 
attraction to travellers from aH foreign 
parts, we will begin our sight-seeing 
at this palatial fortress. The Alhambra 
Hill is 2690 ft long by 730 ft in its 
widest part, and the Moorish palace 
which is called in England the Al- 
hambra covers but a small part of it. 
In the circuit of the walls are two 
churches, a large number of ^r 
houses and straggling gardens, besides 
the Moorish Palace and Palace of 
Charles V. The walls which encircle 
it average 30 ft. in height, and 6 ft in 
thickness. In shape it is like a grand 
piano, with the point towards the Torre 
de la Vela. It is no doubt a spur of 
the mountain which was cut off by an 
artificial ravine, and fortified by the 
Moors. The walls are like those of a 
medisBval castle. 

The principal building was com- 
menced by Ibn-1-ahmar, in 1248; it 
was continued by his descendants. The 
founder, like Edward III. at Windsor, 
has everywhere introduced his motto, 
his ** Honi soit qui mal y pense." The 
words Wa ha ghdliba ilia AUali — " and 
there is no conqueror but Allah," 
are to be seen in every portion of the 
Tarkish. The origin is this : when he 
returned from the surrender of Seville, 
his subjects saluted him as galib — the 
conqueror, and he replied — adopting 
the Tahlil, or true Mussulman war-cry 
— " There is no conqueror but Grod.** 
This motto also appears on his coat of 

The greatest decorators of the Al- 
hambra were Yusuf I. and Moham- 
mad V. (1333—1391), if we judge by 
the number of times that their names 
are repeated on the walls. The palace 
then must have been a thing of the 
•Tales of the Genii;' now all is de- 
serted and unfurnished ; yet time and 
the dry air of Spain have used it 
gently.* Its degrsidation dates from 

* Peter Martyr, an Italian of taste, thus 
wrote when he entered it in the train of the 
Gothic conquerors: "Alhambram, pro! dii 
immortales ! qualem Begiam I unlearn in orbs 
terrarum crede ! " 


111*^11111 1 ^ll 




zed by Google 

Eonda & Qranada. Route 103. — Athamhra: Torre de Jusiicia. 399 

the very day of the Castilian conquest, 
for sometimes the rooms were altered 
that the different kings might lodge 
there, as was the case with Charles V., 
Philip IV., and Philip V. ; at other 
times the restorations were made to 
preserve the building itself; in both 
instances without judgment^ although 
happily the most important portions 
still exist. It must al^ be remembered 
that Moorish ornamentation consisting 
chiefly, as it does, of wood and stucco, 
could not last so long without repair as 
buildings made of stone, and required 
continually to be kept in order. This 
has been especially the case since 1590, 
vhen a powder manufactory exploded 
under the Alhambra on the river- 
side, near San Pedro; this explosion 
shook the foundatiouB of the Palace, 
and threw down some ceilings; it 
was most providential that the whole 
building did not then fall to the 

The Alhambra is approached from 
the town by the Cuesta de los Gomeles, 
and the gate de las Oranadas, or de 
Carlos Quinto. 3 paths now diverge : 
that to the rt. leads to the Torres Ber- 
mejas,, the " red towers," a sort of out- 
work, and the most ancient portion of 
Granada, for it existed when Illiberis 
was the chief town, and is mentioned 
as **Kar-at Al-hamra," "the red 
castle," by an Arabian poet, so early 
as A.D. 864. It was afterwards called 
Medinah Al-hamra, '*the red city," 
and may have existed even before the 
time of the Bomans. Habus Ibn Ma- 
kesen, when he removed from Illiberis 
in 1019, erected above this outwork 
the Kassabah Al-hamra, **the enclo- 
sure of the red," the present Alcazaba. 
The long lines of walls and towers 
crown the hUl, and follow the curves 
and dips of the ground, just as an 
artist would have placed them. 

The centre walk leads to the Hotels 
I«B Siete Suelos and Washington 
Irving, the walk to the rt to the Casa 
de Calderon, and the walk to the 1. to 
the Alhambra. 

The wooded slopes are kept green 
by watercourses, and tenanted by night- 
ingales. Although everything looks 
the work of nature, it is the creation 

of mail, as the Moor changed the 
ban*eu rock into an Eden. The elm- 
trees were sent out from England in 
1812 by the Duke of Wellington, who 
presented them to the governor of the 
Alhambra: 74 of them were blown 
down during a gale. May, 1882. The 
cherry-trees which grow amongst the 
elms almost overtop them in height. 
On reaching a semicircular barbican, 
at the 1. of the Torre de la Justioia, 
below it is a fountain in the Berrugueto 
style: it was erected by the Alcaide 
Mendoza, whose arms, with those of 
Charles Y., are sculptured on it ; the 
river-gods represent the Gtenil and 

A sharp turn to the 1. now conducts 
to the grand entrance. La Torre de 
Justioia, the "Porch," the "gate of 
judgment," the "Sublime Porte," at 
which the king or his kaid dispensed 
judgment as in the East (Deut. xvi. 
18 ; 1 Kings viii. 7). This gate was 
erected in 1348 bv Yusuf I. The Moors 
called it Babu-sh-sbari'ah, the "gate 
of the law." The inscription over the 
inner doorway records its elevation, and 
the name of the founder. It ends, " May 
the Almighty make this [gate] a pro- 
tecting bulwark, and write down its 
[erection] among the imperishable ac- 
tions of the just** The Moorish diapery 
has been broken, to make a niche for 
a poor wooden image of the Virgin. 
Over the outer horseshoe arch is seen 
an open hand, which some consider as 
emblematic of hospitality and gene- 
rosity, the redeeming qualities of the 
Oiiental ; whilst others refer it to the 
Hebrew jadh, the sjrmbol of power and 
providence. We mcline, however, to 
the belief that it was merely intended 
as a talisman against the much-dreaded 
"EvU Eye," from the fact that the 
Moorish women (like the Neapolitans 
of the present day) wore small hands 
of gold and silver round their necks, 
until Charles Y., by a Pragmatic in 
1525, forbad the usage. 

Over the inner arch is a sculptured 
key, in which some see the Oriental 
symbol of power (Isa. xxii. 22), and 
others the " key of David " (Bev. iii. 
7). Others, however, hold that it is 
I allusive to the "power of the keys," 


Boute 103.— Torre de ta tela. 


by which the true prophet opened the 
gates of heaven and hell : the key 
however, was a symbolic sign among 
the Siifis, denoting knowledge — *^the 
"key by which God opens the heart of 
believers .*' There is an idle tale how 
the Moors boasted that tliis gate never 
would be opened to the Christians, 
until the hand took the Icey, 

The entrance is carried through a 
double gate, the intricate, tortuous 
passages of which are contrived so as 
to obstruct an entering enemy. Oppo- 
site the entrance the holes stiD remain 
where the lances were placed. 

Passing onwards, near a paltry altar- 
screen is a Gothic inscription, coeval 
with the conquest, recording that event, 
and the appointment of Ifiigo Lopez de 
Mendoza as alcaide. Hence a narrow 
lane leads to the open place, Plaza de 
lo8 Algibes, under which are the Moor- 
ish " cisterns/* which are filled by the 
Darro ; they are cleaned in January, 
and can then be visited. In summer 
an awning is erected over a well, 
whence a supply of cool water is sold 
to those who come up from Granada 
with donkeys. On the right is the 
Torre del Vino, on the 1. the Aloazaba 
— Kassdbah, the citadel. The latter 
was formerly entered by the Torre del 
Homenage, "Homage," which rises 
opposite the palace. The Alcazaba is 
frequently used as a prison for galley- 
slaves. The once most curious Moor- 
ish armoury was sold by its governor, 
Bucarelli, to defray the cost of a bull- 
fight. Visit the beautiful little garden 
of Los Adarves on your way to the 
Torre de la Vela. They were laid out 
with other bastions or adarves by 
Charles V. in hanging gardens, with 
fountains, busts, and cinquecento 
sculpture, of which very little remains. 
This little garden was the subject of 
one of Fortuny*s most poetical pictures. 
The cypresses seen everywhere from 
afar, are the sole constant mourners 
of the Moor. The views at all hours, 
especially at moonlight and sunset, are 
most striking. 

Ascend the Torre de la Vela by its 

tion records, the Christian flag was 
first hoisted by Cardinal Mendoza and 
his brother, on the 2nd Jan. 1492, 
after 777 years of Moorish occupation. 
The panorama is glorious. Below lies 
Granada, belted with plantations ; be- 
yond expands the Vega, about 30 m. 
in length by 25 in width, and 70 in cir- 
cumference, guarded like an Eden by 
a wall of mountains. The Vega is 
studded with villas and villages ; every 
field has its battle, every rivulet its 
ballad. It is a scene for painters to 
sketch, and for poets to describe. To; 
the 1. rises the snowy Sierra Nevada, 
then the distant Sierra of Alhama, 
then the gorge of Loja in the dis- 
tance, then the round mountain of 
Parapanda, which is the barometer of 
the Vega, as Soracte was to Horace; 
for when its head is bonneted with 
mists, so surely does rain fall: " Cuando 
Parapanda se pone la montera^ Llueve 
aunqtie Bios no lo quiera?* Nearer Gra- 
nada is the Sierra de Elvira, the site of 
old Uliberis, and below the dark woods 
of the Duke of Wellington's Soto de 
Boma. To the rt. is the rocky defile 
of Moclin, and the distant chains of 
Jaen. The Torre de la Vela is so called, 
because on this " tcafc^-tower " hangs 
a silver-tongued bell, which, struck by 
the warder once every 5 minutes, from 
9 in the evening until 4 a.m. all the. 
year round, gives notice to irrigaton! 
below of the hour of the night, thus, 
acting as a primitive watch. It is heard 
on a still night even at Loja, 30 m. oft 
and tender and touching are the feel- 
ings which the silver sound awakens. 
This bell is also rung on the 2n(l of 
Jan., the anniversary of the surrender 
of Granada ;. on that day the Alhambra 
is visited by crowds of peasantry. Few 
maidens pass by without striking the 
bell, which ensures a husband, and a 
good one in proportion to the noise 
made, which it need not be said is 
continuous and considerable. The fete 
is altogether most national and pictur- 

Ascend the torre just before the sun 

sets. Then, as darkness come on, the 

long lines of burning weeds and stubble 

in the Vega run and sparkle, crackling 

narrow staircase. Here, as an inscrip- } like the battle-flashes of infantiyi w- 


Bonda & Granada. Boute 103. — Alhamhra: Inscriptions, 401 

from the Koran, interwoveu with geo- 
metrical ornaments and flowers, not 
drai^-n decidedly from nature, but 
translated through the loom: for it 
would seem that we Arabs, in changing 
their wandering for a settled life, in 
striking the tent to plant it in a form 
more solid, had transferred the luxu- 
rious shawls and hangings of Cashmere 
which had adorned meir former dwell- 
ing, to their new, changing the tent- 
pole for a marble column, and the 
silken tissue for gilted plaster. With 
regard to the Arabic inscriptions, these 
emgranvmaixL are written m an ornate 
cnaracter, and are decorations of them- 
selves. They are of three sorts ; — 
Aydt^ that is, verses from the Koran ; 
Js/d, pious sentences not tcdcen from 
the Koran ; aud ^IsAdr, poems in praise 
of the builders or owners of the palace. 
Like most Oriental poetiT^, the import 
is altogether flat and insipid to Euro- 
pean readers; the charm appears to 
consist rather in sounds and words than 
in meaning. 

The short inscriptions are generally 
written in Oufic, the character of the 
city El Koofeh, founded about the 17th 
year of the Hegira. The square form 
lends itself to geometrical patterns. 
The Gufic letters are so arranged as 
to present a uniform appearance boiJi 
ways: thus the inscription can be 
read from the rt. to the 1., or from the 1. 
to the rt., and upwards or downwards. 
These records are full of meaning, 
bearing witness at every turn to the 
reverential feeling with which the Moor 
regarded the greatness, goodness, and 
unity of the Godhead. The inscrip- 
tions which are less frequently used in 
the Alhambra are taken from the 
Koran, or from poems. On the con- 
trary, short sentences, written some- 
times in Ouflc characters, and some- 
times in Neskhi, or cursive character, 
are repeated and combined in the 
ornamentation thousands of times all 
over the palace. Those most frequently 
used are — 

** There is no conqueror hut AUdh ; ** 
** God U our refuge in every trovbU ; " 
" The glory ^ the empire^ belong to God ;'* 
" Praise he to God for the blessings of 
Islamism ; *' " There are no gifts among 
2 x> 

calling the last campaigns of the Moor 
' and Christian. 

Beturning to the Plaia de los Al- 
gibes, there is an isolated Moorish 
tower. La Torre del Vino, built by 
Mohammad V. ; the beautiful tiles in 
the triangles of the posterior arch must 
be notic^; also an elegant Moorish 

The large Palace opposite was be- 
gun by Charles V., who left it un- 
ifinished and unroofed. The founda- 
tions were laid with an evil omen, 
^nd in the tears of a pillaged people. 
!7bis true Chateau en Espagne was be- 
gun in 1526, progressed slowly until 
il533, and was then abandoned. It 
consists of a square of 220 ft., with 3 
elaborate fa9ades, and was one of the 
irst buildings erected in Spain in the 
GrsBco-Koman Bramante style. 

The Entrance to the Moorish Palace 
18 in an obscure comer on the I. of the 
palace of Charles V. See ground plan. 

Before entering, it may be as well to 
say a word on the erection of this 
;6difice, the Arabic inscriptions, colours, 
ttilings, and architectural peculi- 
arities. Its severe, simple, almost for- 
lidding exterior gives no promise of 
the Aladdin gorgeousness which once 
shone within, when the opening of a 
tingle door, as if by the tap of a fairy's 
irand, admitted the stranger into an 
^ofit Paradise. In common with 
other Moorish Alcazars, it. is built on 
the crest of a hill, and of tapia. This 
fortress-palace, the dwelling of an Ori- 
ental, was intended to awe the city 
below with the forbidding exterior of 
power, to keep out heat and enemies 
fereign and domestic, and to keep in 

The internal arrangements were 
purely Oriental, with its colonnaded 
walks, the fountains, the baths, the 
diaper-stucco, the Tarkish^ and the 
Azil^o dado, above which hung the 
Bch Artesonado roof, gilded and starred 
like a heaven. ** The architecture of the 
Arabs," says Owen Jones, " is essen- 
tially religious, and the oi&pringof the 
Koran, as Gothic architectmre is of the 
Bible. The prohibition to represent 
inimal life caused them to seek for 
othermeans of decorations-inscriptions 

[Spain, 1882.] 


Boute 103. — Tower of Comarea. 

Sect. VI. 

you hut those of God ; '* " Continued 
prosperity ; '' " Perpetual salvation ; " 
" Blessing ; " " Felicity ; " ** A perpetual 
empire for the owner of this palace ; '* 
•• Ghry to ov/r Lord the Sultan Ahul 
Hachach [Jusuf /.], prince of the Mus- 
lims" or **Abu Abdillah \_Moham' 
mad F.]." * 

The elegant palm-like white marble 
pillars deserve notice, and especially 
the variety of their capitals, which 
were originally ornamented in gold 
upon a blue or red ground: none of 
them retain their colouring perfect, 
itiiough traces of it appear in almost 
all. The white marble pillars them- 
selves were never coloured, although 
Owen Jones suggests that they were 
originally gilt. The common inscrip- 
tions upon the capitals are, " And there 
is no conqueror hut God ;*' and " Bless- 
ing.'* The dados of azulejo and the 
frets deserve careful notice, for, intri- 
cate as they appear, they are designed 
in accordance with the simplest rules. 
In tiie azulejo pillars the component 
parts are the same, the infinite variety 
of pattern being obtained by changing 
the colours and juxtaposition of the 
separate parts. 

The honeycomb stalactical pendent- 
ives are all constructed on mathema- 
tical principles. The various compo- 
nent parts are capable of an infinite 
variety of combinations as infinite as 
the melodies which may be produced 
from the seven notes of the musical 
scale. The conical ceilings in the 
Alhambra attest the wonderful power 
and effect obtained by the repetition 
of the most simple elements ; nearly 
5000 pieces enter into the construc- 
tion of tiie ceilings of Las dos Her- 
manas; and although they are of 
plaster, strengthened here and there 
with pieces of reed, they are in most 
perfect preservation. 

The doors move on pivots, which 
are let into a socket in a marble slab 
below, and above into a projecting 
beam-head or boss. 

Enter by the obscure portal of 

* Consult Lafuente * Inscripciones Arabes 
de atanada,' Hid., 1860. 

Spanish construction ♦ into the first 
court : it has various names ; it is called 
de la AVb&rca—oi the "Fish-pond." 
" Beerkeh,** in Arabic, signifies a tank, 
unde Alberca. The side walls tire 
planted with myrtles, orange-trees, 
and Japanese medlars ; it is also called 
de los Arrayanes, Arrayhdn, Arabic^ 
** a myrtle," and is about 150 feet long 
by 80 wide. 

To the rt. is an elegant double cor- 
ridor, the upper portion being the only 
specimen of its kind in the ^hambia. 
Here was the winter quarter, which 
was pulled down by Charles V., who 
built up his palace against it. The 
tank, Estanque, in the centre of the 
court, was formerly enclosed by » 
Moorish balastrade, which was pulled 
down and sold, in the time of Bucarelli. 
The marble pavement came from 

On the 1. of the entrance are a set 
of small rooms fitted up for Ferdinand 
and Isabel; their coats of arms may be 
seen on the ceilings. 

Advancing to the great Tower oC 
Comares, obs. the elegant ante-gallery; 
the slim columns would appear no* 
equal to the superincumbent weight, 
were not the spandrels lightened by 
perforated ornaments, by which also ft 
cool current of air is admitted. Tbi 
real supports were concealed, and pm 
posely kept unexpressed, so that tbi 
apparent supports — ^thin pillars, an 
gossamer-perforated fabric — 
fairy work. The divans or alcoveg- 
each end of this anteroom, and tl 
AzuUjo pillars and portions of ti 
original colours, with which the stod 
Tarkish was decorated, are especial 
worthy of observation. The ceilil 
is most remarkable ; it consists of. 
waggon-headed dome of wood, of mi 
elaborate patterns, and the honeytMH 
stalactical pendentives. 

Before entering the Hall of Amb( 
sadors, there is a staircase to the 

* Since 1868 the Alhambra has cea«d to 
governed by a military govenior. Slwr 
afterwards it passed to the Minister of Poo 
"Works, and is bow under the charge of 
** Conservateur,*' the intelligent architect, 
Ba&el GontreiM 

.by Google 

Bonda & Granada. Boute lOS.-^Alhambra : Mezquita. 403 

which leads down to the Hezqnita. 
The patio has been terribly injured 
but is now (1882) undergoing repair 
and restoration: it is a perfect pio- 
tore. Obs. the curved form which 
one of the flat alabaster slabs support- 
ing the doorway has taken. The carved 
beams of the. roof are the finest speci- 
mens in the Alhambra. A barbarous 
Spanish gallery destroys one side. 
This part of the palace has suffered 
the greatest alterations since the 16th 
centy. This courtyard is called in 
ancient documents del Mexuar, or " of 
the Council ;" it is inferred that in one 
of the adjoining rooms justice was 
administered, and there is no doubt 
that the entrance to the palace was on 
this side, the only part accessible to 
the public. Entering the door where 
the curved alabaster slab may be seen, 
there is a large gate, not used now, 
vith an Inscription in large characters 
above it, which is supposed to have 
been one of the original entrances. 

Proceeding to the Mesqnita, the roof 
must be noticed, it was re-painted by 
Ferdinand and Isabel. Before enter- 
ing, notice the exquisitely designed 
niche (the Mihrdb or sanctuary), in 
which the Koran was deposited. The 
inscription at the springing of the 
arch is " And he not one of the negli- 
gend** Now enter the Christian 
chapel. This saloon was rebuilt in 
the Moorish style during the reign 
of Charles V. It was converted into 
a chapel when Philip IV. visited Gra- 
nada, the chapel or oratory being re- 
moved from the Sala de la Justtda. 
The altar is an incongruous mixture 
of different things. The marbles are 
from a chimney-piece. The lower 
gallery, facing the altar, was added 
during the reign of Philip V. The 
yiindows look out upon a oharm- 
ing garden called the patio de Mew 
^^Mca, the architect of Charles the 
Fifth's palace, who lived in this part 
of the building, which still contains 
several Moori^ remains. The floor 
basbeen lowered about 2 feet, probably 
with a view to obtain height for the 
gallery. The fine tiles, and shields 
with the arms of Charles V. and Count 

of Tendilla, Ifiigo Lopez de Mendoza, 
are most interesting. 

Reascending to the anteroom of the 
Sala de los Embigadores, on each side 
at the entrance are recesses into which 
vases were probably placed with water 
for holding flowers. In the inscriptions 
in marble which surround them men- 
tion is made of vases, viz., " Look upon, 
this veufe;" " This vase toill appear to 
you like unto a man standing. In the 
recess near the saloon itself me inscrip- 
tion runs, •* The vase which is toi(hin we 
is like a holy man,'* &c. " Jf any one 
approach me complaining of thirsty he 
wiU receive cool and limpid water, sweet 
without admixture.** This reception- 
room of state occupies the whole inte- 
rior of the Comares tower, which is a 
square of 87 ft., by 75 ft. high to the 
centre of the dome : in the thickness 
of the walls there are 9 alcoves or 
small cabinets which add to the beauty 
of the whole. The one opposite to the 
entrance was probably the site of the 
royal throne, as the inscription infers. 
That to the rt. runs, ** Frcrm me, this 
throne^ thou art welcomed morning and 
evening by the tongues of Blessing — 
Beik&h—prosperityy happiness, and 
friendship ; that is the elevated dome, 
and we, the several recesses, are her 
daughters ; yet I possess exceUence and 
dignity above all those of my race. 
Surely we are all members of the same 
body, but I am like ihe heart in the 
midst of them, and from the heart 
springs all energy of soul and life'' 
The 1. inscription runs, " True, my fel- 
lows, these may be compared to the signs 
of the zodiac in the heaven of that dome, 
but I can boast that of which they are 
wanting, the honowr of a son, since my 
lord, the victorious Yusiif, has decorated 
me with robes of glory and exceUence 
vnthout disguise, and has made me the 
Throne of his Empire : may its emi^ 
nence be upheld by the Master of divine 
glory, and the celestial throne V* Splen- 
did indeed must all this have been 
under the Moor I The existing cell- 
ing, a dome of wood, ornamented 
by ribs intersecting each other in 
various patterns, with ornaments in 
gold painted on grounds of blue and 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy "'^-2'-J>-^3)'^'*^ 


Boute 103. — Qmen^8 Dressing-room ; Baths. Sect. YI. 

red in the interstices, is composed of 
the Alerce, and darkened by time. The 
enormous thickness of the walla may 
be estimated by the window?, which 
are so deeply recessed as U) look like 
cabinets. The views from them are 
enchanting. '• Ill-fated the man who 
lost all this," said Charles V. when he 
looked out. The beautiful dado of 
azulejos, or tiles, is the finest in the 
Alhambra. Below this hall are some 
vaulted rooms, where second-rate mar- 
ble statues, 2 nymphs and a Jupiter 
and Leda, are deposited. The part 
of the building hitherto described, 
which included the Mesquita, the Mez- 
uar, the Patio de la Alberoa, and Salon 
de Comares, with the adjoining apart- 
ments, have been considered to be part 
of the building used by men alone and 
accessible to the pubUc for the admi- 
nistration of justice, receptions, and 
audiences. The rest of the palace, 
taking as a centre the Court of Lions, 
is supposed to have been reserved for 
domestic life (el Haram, "the re- 
served "). 

Coming up again, turning to the rt., 
a heavy gallery, built by Charles V., 
leads to the Tooador de la Beina, or 
the dressing-room of the Queen, as the 
Spaniards have called this somewhat 
exposed and a la Bathsheba Miradorf 
which is only the Tooc keyseh of the 
Moslem of Cairo (see Lane, ii. 62). 
The royal dressing-room is about 9 feet 
square; the interior was modernised 
by Charles, and painted in arabesque 
like the Vatican loggie. The artist 
appears to have been, from the papers 
of the archives, Julio Aquiles, who 
painted these frescoes in 1546. They 
are among the finest which exist in 
Spain. They represent in the interior 
the fable of Phaeton and other mytho- 
logical subjects, and in the exterior 
the expedition of Charles V. to Tunez. 
These walls are scribbled over with 
the names of travellers,* and have 

* Too much cannot be said against the valgar 
habit of scribbling names and tearing off pieces 
of plaster and tileH from the Alhambra. The 
guides of the building have the strictest orders 
not to let travellers remain there alone, and if 
they see them ii\)uring in any way the building 
to report to the authorities immediately. 

been barbarously mutilated. To the 
rt. of the door when entering, in the 
corner, is a marble slab (kiUed with 
holes, made in 1540, through which 
perfumes were wafted from a room 
below while the person was dressing; 
opposite is the place for the looking- 
glass. The views from the marble 
colonnade are superb. 

From the anteroom of the Comares 
a passage, protected by iron gratings, 
leads to the Moorish baths ; this place 
is absurdly called O&roel de la Bdna, 
from supposing it to have been the 
dungeon of Ayeshah. The little patw 
below is well preserved, for these hailos 
lay out of the way of ordinary ill-usage 
in the last century. They consist of 
El BaSLo del Rey, and El Bi^o del 
Frindpe. The vapour-bath is lighted 
from above by small lumbreraa oi 
" louvres." The Moorish caldron and 
leaden pipes were sold. The Azulejos 
on the ground in the entrance saloon 
are remarkable. This saloon has been 
painted and restored since 1S40 by 
different artists. The arrangement of 
these baths is that still used in Cairo: 
the bathers undressed in the entrance 
saloon, and underwent in the Hararak 
or the " vapour-bath," the usual sham- 
pooings. The upper portion of the 
chamber of repose is surrounded by a 
gallery. Among the inscriptions is 
" Glory to our Lord, Abu-l-Hajaj 7u- 
stift commander of the Moslems: tnajf 
God render him victorious over his ene- 
mies ! What is most to he wondered at 
is the felicity which awaits in this de- 
lightful spot." Close to the baths is a 
whispering-galleiy, near the charming 
patio of Lindaraja, with its charming 
Oriental fountain, violets, Japanese 
medlar and orange-trees. The suite 
of rooms above it were modernised by 
the newly married Charles V., who 
arrived here June 5, 1526. The ceil- 
ings, heavy fireplaces and carvings of 
Charles, the fashion of the tune, are 
diametrically opposed to the work of 
the Moor. 

Retracing our steps through the 
Patio de la Alberca, in which there is 
an unaltered Moorish sleeping room, 

Ronda & Granada. Boute 103. — Alhamhra: Court of Lions. 405 

we pass by an anteroom into the 
Court of Lions, partially defaced by 
Spanish repairs and whitewashing. 
This patio is an hypethral quadrila- 
teral oblong of some 116 ft. by 66 ; 
128 pillars of white marble, 11 feet 
high, support a peristyle or portico on 
each side. At each end two elegant 
pavilions project into the court, one 
of which has been lately restored, 
owing to its ruined condition, by 
Don Bi^Eael Oontreras. The columns 
are placed sometimes singly, some- 
times grouped; although they are so 
slender that they scarcely seem able 
to support the arches, yet 5 centuries 
of neglect haye not destroyed this 
slight &iry thing of iiligree ; wherever 
the destroyer has mutilated the fragile 
ornaments, the temple-lovine martlet, 
guest of summer, builds nis nest, 
breaking with his twitter the silence 
of these sunny courts once made for 
Oriental enjoyment, and even now just 
the place in which to read the Arabian 
Nights, or spend a honeymoon. The 
fuente in the centre is a dodecagon 
basin of alabaster, resting on the backs 
of 12 lions, rudely but heraldically 
earved, and closely resembling those of 
Apulia and Calabria, by which tombs 
and pulpits of Norman-Saracenic mo- 
' saic work are supported. These Ara- 
bian sculptures make up for want of 
reality, by a sort of quaint heraldic 
antiquity. Their faces are barbecued, 
and their manes cut like scales of a 
griffin, and the legs like bedposts with 
tbe feet concealed by the pavement, 
while a water-pipe stuck in their 
mouths does not add to their dignity. 
The Hypodromus, the " portico with 
a hundred pillars,*' the Aztdejo pave- 
ment, the cypresses, the network of 
fountains, the sound of falling waters, 
are all detailed by Martial. The in- 
scription round flie basin signifies, 
"^Blessed is He who gave the Imam 
Mohamed a mansion, which in beauty 
exceeds aU other marmons ; and if not 
<o, h^e is a aarden containing toonders 
of art, the like of which Ood forbids 
flmld elsewhere be found. Look at 
'^M sob'd mass of pearl glistening aU 
mund, and sprecMing tfirough the air 
Us ihow of primnaUe buhbieSj which 

faU within a circle of silvery froth 
and flow amidst other jewels, surpass^ 
mg everything in beauty, nay, ex- 
ceeding the marble itself in whiteness 
and transparency : to look at the basin 
one would imagine it to be a mass of 
solid ice, and the water to melt from 
it; yet it is impossible to say which 
of the two is really fiomng. Seest 
&0U not how the water from above 
flows on the surface, notwithstanding 
the current underneath strives to op- 
pose its progress; like a lover whose 
eyelids are pregnant witii tears, and 
who suppresses them for fear of an in- 
former i for truly, what else is thi9 
fountain but a beneficent cloud pouring 
out its abundant supplies over ifte 
lions underneath, like the hands of the 
Khalif, when he rises in the morning 
to distribute plentiful rewards among 
his soldiers, the Lions of war'i Oh! 
Uiou who beholdest these Lions crotich- 
ing, fear not ; life is wanting to enable 
them to show their fury: and oh! 
thou, the heir of the Anssdr, to thee, 
as the most illustrious offspring of a 
collateral branch, belongs that ances- 
tral pride which makes thee look with 
contempt on the kings of all other 
countries. May the blessings of Ood 
for ever be with thee! May He Wioke 
thy subjects obedient to thy rule, and 
grant thee victory aver thy enemies T* 
The fountain of the Lions, like all 
the fountains of the Palace, only play 
on the 2nd day of January, and upon 
the occasion of royal visits. 

Some of the most beautiful chambers 
of the Alhambra open into this court : 
begiiming to the rt. is the Bala de los 
Abencerrages ; obs. the exquisite door ; 
the honeycomb stalactite roof; the 
slender pillars of the alcove explains 
how Samson pulled down the support 
of the house of Dagon. The roof and 
Azvlejos were repaired by Charles V. : 
the guides point out some dingy stains 
near the fountain, as the blo(Ki-marks 
of the Abencerrages, massacred here 
by Boabdil : alas, that boudoirs made 
for love and life ^ould witness scenes 
of hatred and death 1 The visitor will 
do well to try and believe tMs and 
every tale of the Alhambra, a sacred 


Boute 103. — Sola de Justicicu 

Sect. VI. 

spot far beyond the jurisdiction of 
matter-of-fact and prosaic history : so 
deem not these spots ferruginous, for 
this blood is quite as genuine to all 
intents of romance as is that of Bizzio 
at Holyrood House, or of Thomas k 
Becket at Canterbury I 

At the E. end of the court are 3 
alcoyes of extremely rich decoration ; 
the Bala de Justioia is so called from 
an assemblage of 10 bearded Moors 
seated in a oounoil or divan, which is 
painted on the ceiling; they deserye 
especial notice as giving the true cos- 
tume of the Granada Moor. The other 
pictures represent chivalrous and amor- 
ous subjects, all naturally tending to 
the honour of the Moor, whose royal 
shield is seen everywhere: in one a 
Moor unhorses a Christian warrior; 
another represents a captive lady lead- 
ing a chained lion, while she is deli- 
vered from a wild man by a knight. 
Obs. a game of draughts (the ddmA of 
the Arab) ; also the boar-huntings, with 
ladies looking out of turretcd castles, 
Christians on horseback, Moors in 
sweeping robes, with a background of 
trees, buildings, animals, magpies, and 
rabbits, painted like an illuminated 
book of the fifteenth century, or a dream 
of Chaucer's. It is not known by whom 
these pictures — unique, considering 
the period, pei'sons, and locality — were 
executed, probably by an Italian artist 
in the 14th centy. They are painted 
in bright colours, which are still fresh ; 
the designs are flat, and were first 
drawn in outline in a brown colour ; 
they are painted upon leather nailed to 
the dome : a fine coating of gyps am was 
used as priming — a common process 
with the early Byzantine painters : the 
ornaments on the gold ground are iu 
relief. In this chamber Ferdinand and 
Isabel placed their chapel, and it was 
here that the first Mass was said after 
the conquest. 

Of the many beautiful arches in this 
building few surpass that whidi opens 
into the central saloon: observe the 
archivolt, spandrells, and inscriptions : 
surface lace-like ornamentation never 
was carried beyond this. In the last 
of the 3 rooms the cross was first 
placed by Cardinal Mendoza, the iden- 

tical one used being preserved at To- 
ledo. Ferdinand introduced his and 
his wife's badges, the yoke and bundle 
of arrows, in the ornamentation of 
these alcoves. 

Opposite to the Sala de los Aben- 
cerrages is that of Las do8 Hermanas, 
so called from the 2 slabs of Macael 
marble, sisters in colour and form, 
which are let into the pavement This 
formed a portion of the private apart- 
ments of the Moorish kings, of which 
so much has been destroyed, and the 
alcoves or sleeping-rooms on each side 
give it the character of a residence. 
This Sala and its adjuncts is im- 
equalled for the beauty and symmetry 
of its ornaments, its stalactite roof and 
general richness. Well may one of 
the verses of the poem, which is copied 
in the 16 medallions and cartoaches 
upon the tiles, invite us to *' Look oMen- 
lively at my elegance, and reap the 
benefit of a comrnentary on decoration ; 
here are columns ornamented vnih every 
perfection, the beauty of which ha* be- 
come proverbial — columns which, when 
struck by the rays of the rising sun, one 
might fancy, notuoithstanding their co- 
lossal dimensions, to be so many blocJis 
of pearl ; indeed, we never saw a palace 
Tfi/ore lofty than this in it* exterior, or 
more brilliantly decorated in its interior^ 
or having more extensive apartments.'* 
The entrance to this beautiful Saloon 
passes under some most elaborate en- 
grailed arches with rich intersecting 
ornaments. Above is an upper storey 
with latticed windows, through which 
the ** dark-eyed," or Hauras of the 
Hareem, could view the f§tes below, 
themselves unseen and guarded, the 
idols of a secret shrine, treasures too 
precious to be gazed upon by any one 
but their liege lord. 

At the end of the Sala is a charming 
window looking into the Patio de lin- 
dariga. Some say that this window 
and its alcove was the boudoir of the 
Sultana, on which poetry and art ex- 
hausted their efforts. The varieties of 
form and colour which adorn other por- 
tions of the Alhambraare here united. * 
The inscriptions, to those who do not 
understand Arabic, appear to be only 

Bonda & Granada. Bmte 103. — The Alhamhra. 


beantiful and complex scroll-work; 
while to the initiated they sing 
*^ Praise to Ctodl Delicately have the 
fingers of the artist evribroidered my 
robe, after setting the jewels of my 
diadem. People compare me to the 
^rone of a bride ; yet I surpass it in 
this, that I can secure the felicity of 
those who possess me** Such is the 
Palace of the Alhambra. It is now 
but the carcase of what it was when 
vivified by living souls ; now it is the 
tomb, not the home of the Moor. 

In a room to the left of the entrance 
to the Court of Lions a small museum 
of Moorish remains has been formed. 
The most important object it contains 
is the splendid vase, decorated in the 
Persian style of Hispano-Moresque 
pottery, enamelled in blue, white, and 
gold.* There are also several tomb- 
stones of Moorish kings, a sarcophagus 
ornamented with reliefs representing 
the deer-slaying lion, bronze medal- 
lions from the palace of Charles V., 
<»pitals of colxmms, fragments of carved 
and painted beams^ and other Moorish 

To understand the Alhambra, it 
I must be often visited, and beheld, 
i in the semi-obscure evening, so beau- 
; tiM of itself in the South. Then, 
when the moon floats above it in the 
air like his crescent 83rmbol, the tender 
beam tips the filigree arches ; a depth 
is given to the shadows, and a misty 
undefined magnitude to the sulons 
beyond. Gramda with its busy hum, 
lies below us, and its lights sparkle 
', like stars on the obscure Albaicin, as 
if we were looking down on the reversed 
: firoiament. The baying of the dog 
and the tinkling of a guitar, indicating 
life there, increase the fascination of 
the Alhambra. Then in proportion to 
the silence around does the fietncy and 
the imagination become alive; the 
shadows of the cypresses on the walls 
assame the form of the dusky Moor as, 
dressed in his silken robes, he comes 
to lament over the profanation by the 
infidel, and the defiilement by the un- 
clean destroyer. 

• See Baron Davillier, • Faiences Hispano- 
Monaqoet k refleU metaUiques.' 

Leaving the palace, the visitor turns 
round the palace of Charles V., and 
near a small Alameda is the parish 
ch., Santa Maria, built in 1581, by 
Juan de Vega, on the spot which was 
occupied by the mosque of the Moors. 
On the S. side, let into the wall, is a 
Gothic stone, found in digging the 
foundations, and recording the restora- 
tion of three churches by one Gudilla ; 
obs. the use of servuUiB operarios^ in- 
stead of the ablative, as an early in- 
stance of the change taking place in 
grammatical Latinity. Following this 
direction to the 1. of the Moorish 
palace are the Cdrm^enes, or country 
houses, which formed part of the palace, 
and which are called in the plans 
Torres de las Damas. They are open 
at all hours. To one was attached a 
Moorish Mezquita, which has been re- 
stored, and is open at all hours to 
visitors. The view from the little 
window over the grounds of the Gen- 
eralife is superb. In a little room 
behind the mihrah, or holy niche in 
which the Koran was placed, is a large 
marble slab, placed in its present posi- 
tion in 1868. It bears a very per- 
fect Arabic inscription. It originallv 
formed the corner stone of the arcn 
supporting the principal entrance to 
the Moorish mint. The two Moorish 
lions which guard the entrance to this 
miniature mosque were also brought 
from the mint. 

The grand Mosque of the Alhambra 
stood near; it was built in 1308 by 
Mohammed III. 

Continuing lower down is the Moor- 
ish postern gate. La Torre de los Picos, 
but the machicolations are of the time 
of the Catholic sovereigns. The French 
intended to blow up this tower; the 
holes made by their miners yet remain, 
but the procrastination of their agent, 
Farses, saved the building. From 
this gate a path, crossing the ravine, 
formerly led up to the Oeneralife ; it 
is now closed. 

Turning hence again, to the walls, 
visit La Torre de las Infiantas, once 
the residence of the Moorish princesses, 


Boute lOS.^Granada : The Generalife. Sect. VI. 

now of squalid poverty ; to the 1. are 
2 other towers, called those of del 
Candil and de la Cautiva; the latter 
contains elegant arches and delicate 
Tarkuh* Continuing to the rt. is 
the comer tower del Agna ; here an 
aqueduct, stemming the most pic- 
turesque ravine, supplies the hill with 
water. Other towers now intervene 
between *'IiOB Siete Sueloe,*' the 7 
storeys, or the former grand gate by 
which Boadbil went out, descending 
to the Genii by the Pnerta de los Ho- 
linoB ; hence it was afterwards walled 
up, as being a ^te of bad omen. 
This is a pure Orientalism. Passing 
the Pnerta del Carril, by which car- 
riages enter the Alhambra, the circuit 
is completed. 

To visit the Oeneralife, go beyond 
the hotel of the Siete Siielos;'a little 
liigher up are the iron gates which 
form the entrance; to the 1. are the 
remains of the stables of the Moorish 
guard. Ascending, amid figs and 
vines is the Oeneralife— Jennatu-l-'arif, 
the " garden of the architect," of whom 
Isma il-Ibn-Faraj, the Sultan, pur- 
chased ;the site in 1320. This villa, 
Senectutis nidulua, now belongs to the 
Marquis of Campotejar, of the Gri- 
maldi Gentili family, better known as 
PaJavicini of Genoa. This is a villa 
of waters; the canal of the Darro 
empties here its full virgin stream ; it 
boils through the court under ever- 
green arches, while an open colonnade 
overlooks the Alhambra, no longer 
seeming like a filigree boudoir, but a 
grand, sombre, solid mass of fortress. 
The paltry chapel is not worth visiting. 
Near it is La Snca, an open kind of 

* In order to visit these towers, which are 
interesting, permission must be obtained from 
the conierje, the chief porter, who will send a 
dependant with the keys. If the visitor wishes 
to study any of the other buildings adjoining 
the Alhambra, or wishes to paint in the Alham* 
bra, or for any special information, he must 
call upon the conservateur employed by the 
governor, Don Kafael Ciontreras, who lives next 
to the Puerta dd Ftno, a most intelligent person, 
who has taken chai^ of the palace during more 
than thirty years. The series of beautii\il 
small models and reductions of the Alhambra, 
varying in price from £1 to £6, may be seen 
and bought at his house. A complete series 
exists at the South Kensington Museum. 

summer-house, formed of bamboo- 
canes, where the Moors took their 
coffee. The living-rooms are at the 
head of the court. Before enteiing 
the small picture gallery, obs. the well- 
preserved ceiling in the ante-room. 
The carved doors are of the time of 
Philip II. In the left and right-hand 
saloons is the portrait gallery. The 
arches and arabesques are very fine; 
here are some bad and apocryphal 
portraits ; one of El Bey Ghico is 
dressed like Fran9ois I., in yellow and 
black fur, and has the inoffensive look 
of a man fitter to lose than to vnn i 
throne ; here is also a bad portrait of 
the Great Captain, in black and gold; 
ditto of Ferdinand and Isabel. The 
genealogical tree of the Grimaldi ; the 
founder, Cidi Aya, a Moorish infante, 
aided Ferdinand at the conquest, and 
became a Christian by the name of 
Don Pedro ; here also is his son Alonso, 
trampling like a renegado on Moorish 
flags. Visit the cypresses, the " tryst- 
ing-plaoe " of the Sultana ; which axe 
enormous, and old as the Moors, the 
middle one having been planted in the 
13th centy. Under it the frail Zorayi 
is said to have been discovered with 
her lover, the Abenoerrage. Behind 
these cypresses is a raised garden, with 
flights of Italian steps, perforated with 
fountains; ascending, are some re- 
mains of Moorish tiuiks, and among 
them the well-built Algibe de la Llinrii, 
about which the guides tell a story of 
Don John of Austria's thirsty troops: 
the palace of los Alizares, which stood 
above, has disappeared. The gardens 
rise to a mirador or look-out, with an 
extensive view. Outside the gardens 
at the top of the hill is a knoll called 
the Moor*s chair, la Silla del Ifioro; 
here are the ruins of a Moorish build- 
ing, and of the Spanish chapel of Santa 
Elena : the view is splendid. j 

Betum to. Granada by the cypred 
avenue, whence, turning sharply to th 
1. a road leads to the Oampo Santo 4 

Those who dislike cemeteries i 
on leaving the Generalife avenue, _ 
to the rt. Dy the public gardens to tl 
site of the €k>nvent de los Ittrtiri 
where the beautiful house and ground 

Eonda & Granada. Boute 103. — Convento de Santo Domingo. 409 

of the Marquis of Calderon are situated. 

They are readily shown to visitors 

when the family are not staying there, 

I and are worth seeing. The gardens 

I are beautiful, and flowers may be 

i bought there. Here Bishop Pedro 

Gonzalo was martyred in 1456. 

Visit now the harranco or ravine 
behind it, where gypsies live in troglo- 
dyte burrows, amid aloes and prickly 
pears. The dark daughters of Moultan 
sit in their rags under the vines, while 
their elfin brats beg of a stranger " un 
ochavicor* Hence to the Gampo del 
I Prineipe— the parish oh. of San Oecilio 
; is said to have been a Mozarabic, and 
i has the privilege of ringing its bell on 
I Good Friday, when all other belfries 
I are mute. 

§ 4. MusEO, CuARTO Beal, Public 
Walks, Mabkets, Abchbishop's 

The fine Convento de Santo Domingo 
now serves for the Museo ; the noble 
&9ade is by Diego de Siloe. The in- 
terior chapel is all Mppery, and the 
alter del Bosario of outrageous Chur- 
rigueresque. There are specimens of 
AUmso danOy Jtum de Sevilla, Atanasio 
Bocanegra, and a parcel of San Brunos 
and Carthusians by /. Sanchez Cotan. 
The portable altar &om the Convent 
de San Geronimo, with 6 fine enamels 
on copper, in the style of Jean Peni- 
caud of Limoges, is very fine ; unfortu- 
nately the original mounting has been 
destroyed. Notice also some carving 
by More and BisuefLo, pupils of Cano. 
Visit the room, Sala de Jniitas, where 
the Camision de Monumentos held their 
meetings, and another room on the 
ground floor, which contains a collec- 
tion of objects found at or near Granada. 
They consist of Boman inscriptions 
and bronzes and Moorish pottery. Obs. 
the interesting Moorish arquebus. 
The convent garden is now the property 
of a member of the Pulgar family, who 
built the new theatre, de Isabel la 
Catdlioa, upon a portion of it. The 
Cnarto Beal is situated within this 
garden; it was once a royal Moorish 
villa. It is approached under a high 
embowered archway of bays and enor- 

mous myrtles. The saloons and the 
AsnlejoB are decorated with Cufic 
inscriptions in green, white, and blue. 
The white tiles with goldeo scrolls 
occur nowhere else. This estate was 
called by the Moors Almanjaraj and 
the suburb Btbal Fajarin, It was 
ceded, April 5, 1492, to Alonso de 
Valiza, prior of Santa Cruz, of Avila. 
Of the two gardens, the larger belonged 
to Darlhorra, mother of Muley Haoen, 
and the smaller to the Alcade Mofarax. 
The original deed was copied into the 
Libro Becerro of the convent, from 
which we make an abstract. The 
"livery of seisin" was thus:— Don 
Alonso entered the garden pavilion, 
affirming loudly that he took posses- 
sion; next he opened and shut the 
door, giving the key to MacafretOy a 
well-known householder of Granada; 
he then went into the garden, cut oft' 
a bit of a tree with his knife, and dug 
up some earth with his spade. Such 
was the practice of Moorish convey- 

Betum now to the Gampillo, the 
"little field," or space, opposite the 
Teatro Principal, and the site of the 
monument to the unfortunate Dofia 
Maria Pineda. The Moorish citadel 
£1 Bibautaubin, surrounded by walls 
and towers, formerly occupied the site 
of this square ; one tower still exists 
below the Cafe' del Oomercio, imbedded 
in a modern barrack, the portal of 
which is Churrigueresque. 

Hero commences the Carrara do 
0enil, or public walk. It communi- 
cates with the Alameda on the Genii, 
and is much frequented in the morn- 
ings of winter, and the evenings of 
summer. A military band plays on 
Sunday and Thursday evenings. 

The artist will, of course, trace the 
Genii up to its glacier sources, from 
whence it gushes, pure and cold. Far 
from cities, and free from their drains 
and pollutions, the waters descend 
through a bosom of beauty, jealously 
detained at every step by some garden, 
which woos its embrace, and drains 
off its affection. The fickle impatient 
stream enters Granada under the An- 
tequeruela, and is crossed by a bridge 
i built by ^bastiani, who laid out a 


BoiUe 10S,r-GTcmada: Public Walks. Sect. VI. 

botanical garden on the banks, which 
the Spaniards destroyed at his depar- 
ture, carrying their Iberian hatred and 
vengeance from persons to things and 
even benefits. The Salon, a fine walk, 
was much improved in' 1826 by Gen. 
Oampana. The Bomba fountain is 
charming; the elm-trees, the only 
ones which have not been cut down, 
are very fine. The beauty and fashion 
of Granada congregate on this Ala- 
meda, which is constantly injured by 
overfloodings. The Genii and Darro 
unite below it, and, after cleansing the 
town of its sewers, are " aangrtido** or 
drained, themselves, for the irrigation 
of the Vega. The grand fete on tiiis 
Alameda is St. Johji'a Eve, when at 
12 o'clock, at the cry of las doce, all 
rush into the Genii to wash their faces, 
and thus ensure good complexions. 

The Fruit and Vegetable Karkets 
deserve a visit. The fruit is very fine, 
especially the grapes, figs, and melons : 
the latter are piled in heaps like can- 
non-shot. The figs pass all praise, 
from the fleshy purple Breba to the 
small greengage-looking later fruit. 

Go without fail, ye artists, up the 
Garrera de Barro. The Alameda itself 
is charming, and the view of the 
Alhambra palace most picturesque. 
The walk up the 'Cuesta de los 
Muertos ' to the Alhambra is beautifuL 
Obs. and sketch the arches of the 
aqueduct which carries the water to 
some mills, and hence to the town. The 
Darro reappears at the end of its 
career, and then marries itself to the 
Genii. From there to the celebrated 
Flaza de Vivarambla, the "gate of 
the river," the Moorish arch struggles 
amid modern additions, incongruous 
but not unpicturesque. The old gate 
is called de las Orejast now in course 
of restoration, because at a festival in 
1621 the mob tore off the ears of many 
ladies to get] the rings; formerly it 
was called de hs CuchiUos, because 
here the police stuck up the dagger- 
knives found on rogues; the modern 
gate a little further on is called de las 
Cucftarrcu, of the spoons : pleasant and 
poetical nomenclature! The quaint 
Moorish Plan was once converted by 
the Spaniards into a market-place. 

This is the square so famous in ballad 
song for the UafUu, or the Jereed, and 
the bull-fightings of Gazul. Here the 
pageantry of Pasoe and Corpus Christi 
are displayed; the members of the 
Ayuntamiento looking on fiom their 
appropriate Gasa de los Xiradores. 

Keeping along the L side, enter the 
Pescaderia ; the old wooden balconies 
that are left will delight the artistic 
eye, as much as the fishy smell will 
otfend the nose. The Cathedral is 
opposite ; it was built on the site of 
the great mosque. It is a fine building;^ 
the open W. front is unfinished, while 
the heavy N. tower, of Doric, Ionio,i 
and Corinthian orders, wants the upper 
storey ; and the other, which was to 
have been its companion, is not even 
begun. The lover of Alonso Cano will 
visit his workshop in the tower. The 
fa9ade to the grand entrance is deco- 
rated with masks, rams* horns, and 

Turning to the rt. and walking 
round, you pass the plateresque frout 
of the Archbiehop*$ PaJace, whose ser- 
mons Gil Bias was simple enough to 
criticise,* a casa de raioneSt althougU 
Le Sage, who never was in Spain, de- 
scribes it as rivalling a king's palace 
in magnificence. Close adjoining is 
the royal chapel, of the rich Gt>thio 
of 1510. The Berruguete doorway is 
later, and was buUt bj? order of Charles 
V. The « St John," the patron of 
the Catholic sovereigns. TheCasadel 
Ayuntamiento opposite, now a mana- 
factory of linen, is Churrigueresque, 
but most artistic in colour and efi'ect. 
It was the University or Madresa of 
the Moors. In the principal saloon 
there is a fine ceiling of the oeginniog 
of the 16th century. The small square 
on the S. of the cathedral, the most 
picturesque in Granada, was chosen l^ 
Fortuny as the subject of one of his 
best pictures. Turning to the L, enter 
the Oalle de la C&xeel, 'Hhe prison- 
street." Opposite is the Puerta del 
Perdon, an unfinished oinqueoento 
plateresque portal of the time of 
Charles. v., by Diego de Siloe. 

* See also in George Ticknor's Life, the enter- 
taining aooount of hu visit to the archbishop. 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy '.^j'w^^-i L-*^ 

Eonda & Granada. Bmte 103. — Cathedral. 


§ 5. Cathedral. 

The Cathedral was built in the 
Grseco-Boman style, jast when the 
Oluistian Grothic was going out of 
fashion, and is undoubtedly one of the 
finest examples which exist of this 
r style of architecture (see Fergussou, 
' Hist of Architecture '). It was begun 
March 15, 1529, from designs of Diego 
de Siloe, in the Corinthian order. The 
groined roof of the five aisles is sup- 
ported by piers composed of four 
; Corinthian pillars, placed bcusk to back. 
The corot as usual, occupies the heart 
ef the centre aisle, the trctseoro is 
iChurrigueresque, the white statues at 
Clhe comers are made of glazed pottery. 
[The white and grey marble pavement 
m handsome : the E. end is circular : 
the high altar is isolated and girdled 
by an architectural frame. The ad- 
mirable Cimborio rises 220 ft. : obs. 
fte noble arch, 190 ft. high, which 
-epens to the eoro. 

The dome is painted in white and 
ffAA. The efQgies of Ferdinand and 
^bel kneel at the sides of the high 
altar : above, and let into circular re- 
cesses, are the splendid colossal heads 
ef Adam and Eve, carved and painted 
by Alonso Cano ; by him also are the 
7 grand pictures relating to the Virgin. 
They represent the ^'Annunciation," 
** Conception," " Nativity," " Presenta- 
tion," "Visitation,'* "Purification,*' 
and " Ascension." Cano (bom 1601, 
died 1667) was the minor canon, or 
Baeionero, of this cathedral, which he 
has enriched with the works of his 
ehisel and brash. Under its choir he 
fies buried. Obs. by him an exqui- 
litely carved " Virgin and Child," 
originally placed at the top of the 
fojciglol in the coro^ but removed for 
tafety to the sacristry, as the San 
hfblo by Bibera was stolen in 1842 : 
the child is inferior, and possibly by 
I toother hand. By him, in the Oapilla 
' ie la Virgen del C&rmen, are the heads 
of St John the Baptist, full of death, 
«nd of St. Paul, full of spirit ; they are 
life-size, and rank among Cano's finest 
works. Over the door of the Bala 
Ci^italttr is a "Charity,** by Torri- 1 

giano, executed as a sample of his 
talent, when he came to Granada to 
compete for the " 8epulchre of the 
Catholic Sovereigns." Among the 
paintings obs. in the Capilla de la 
Trinidad and Jesus Nasareno, three by 
Bibera — St. Anthonv, St. Jerome, and 
St. Lawrence ; four by Cano— not very 
fine — viz., a Saviour bearing his Cross, 
a St. Augustine, a Virgin, and a 
Trinidad, the Father bearing the Dead 
Son: the large pictures in the tran- 
sept are by Juan de Sevilla and Pedro 
Atanasio Bocanegra, a disciple of 
Cano, who exaggerated one defect of 
his inaster — ^the smallness of the heels 
of children. Obs. his "Virgin and 
San Bernardo" — it forms an altar- 
piece, in the centre aisle, in which the 
Virgin is directing a stream of milk 
from her rt. breast to the open mouth 
of the Saint Notice also a " Scourg- 
ing" by the same artist 

In the Capilla de Ban Miguel, the 
first to the rt on entering, is a fine 
melancholy Cano, called " La Virgen 
de la Sohdad." This picture was cut 
out of its frame some few years ago, 
and found by accident in a house in 
the Carrera de Barro. It is very finely 
painted, but the treatment of the 
figure is stlfif and conventional; it 
recalls the statne of Becerra in the 
San Isidro at Madrid, and is indeed 
the type of this subject. This chapel 
was decorated with marbles, in 1804, 
by Archbishop Juan Manuel Moscoso 
y Peralta, and finished in the fatal 
1808. One of the best of Spain's 
great prelates, this good man expended 
his large private fortune in works of 
piety and beneficence. The single 
slab of the altar was brought from 
Macael: the red marbles came from 
Luque. Admirers of Oriental china 
will admire the two fine vases in this 

Behind the equestrian figure of 
Santiago, and too high up to be well 
seen, is a Florentine copy of a Virgin 
and Child, said to have been painted 
by St. Luke, which was given to 
Isabela la Catolica by Innocent VIIL, 
and before which mass is said every 
January 2nd, the day of the conquest 

412 Boute 103.— Granada : Catliedral; Chapels. Sect. VI. 

hambra, Isabel ia represented riding 
upon a white palfrey, between Ferdi- 
nand and the great cardinal Mendoza, 
who sits on his trapped mule, like 
Wolsey. He alone wears gloves ; his 
pinched aquiline face contrasts with 
the chubbinesB of the king and queen. 
He opens his hand to receive the 
key, which the dismounted Boabdil 
presents, holding it by the wards. 
Behind are ladies, knights, and hal- 
berdiers, while captives come out from 
the gates in pairs. Few things of the 
kind in Spain are more interesting. 
The other basso-relievo records tha 
"Conversion of the Infidel;*' in it tb^ 
reluctant flock is represented as unde> 
going the ceremony of wholesale bap- 
tism, the principal actors being shorn 
monks. Obs. the costumes : the 
mufflers and leg-wrappers of the wo- 
men — the Eoman fascias — which are 
precisely those still worn at Tetuaa 
by their descendants. 

In the centre of the chapel are 2 
magnificent Sepulchres, wrought s^ 
Genoa by Peralta, in delicate al*» 
baster ; on these are extended thtt 
marble figures of the Catholic sove* 
reigns, and those of their next sue* 
c€ssors. Ferdinand and Isabel slum^ 
ber side by side, life's fitful fever o'e^ 
in the peaceful attitude of their loii| 
and happy imion; they contrast, thi 
ruling passion strong in death, witi 
the averted countenances of Juaoii 
their weak daughter, and Philip, ha 
handsome but worthless husband.* 
Obs. carefully the details of thesi 
umas and the ornaments : in thai 
of Ferdinand and Isabel the Fool 
Doctors of the Church are at tha 
comers, with the Twelve Apostles at 
the sides : Ferdinand wears the Garter* 
Isabel the Cross of Santiago. Their 
faces are portraits: their costume is 
very simple. Analogous is the uma\ 
of Philip of Burgundy and Jwtna la\ 
Loca — crazy Jane. They are both; 
gorgeously attired: he wears the in* 
signia of the order of the Golden Fleece. 
The decorations are cinqueoento, and 

of Granada, when it is lowered for 
public adoration. 

In the Capilla de la Antigua, so 
called from the Image found in a cave, 
and used by Ferdinand as a battle 
banner, are portraits of Ferdinand and 
Isabel, copied by Juan de Sevilla after 
Kincon ; the hght is bad. They are 
represented kneeling at prayers under 
rich canopies; the king is clad in 
armour, the queen in a'blue and maroon 
cloak. Beds are the prevalent colours, 
and the style is Venetian. The image 
of the Virgin is an interesting sculpture 
of the 15tii centy., and was brought by 
Ferdinand and Isabel to the siege of 

In the detached Sacristla is a charm- 
ing " Concepcion,*' carved by Cano, 
with his peculiar delicate hands, small 
mouth, full eyes, and serious expres- 
sion : obs., in the Oratorio, a " Virgin *' 
in blue drapery, also by him, and very 
dignified, and a Crucifix by Becerra. 

Now enter La Capilla Beal, placed 
between the Sagrario and Sacristla, 
the gem of the cathedral, although it 
is quite independent of it, having its 
especial chapter, chaplains, &c. The 
rich Gothic portal, having escaped the 
whitewash, contrasts with the glare 
around. It is elaborately wrought 
with emblems of heraldic pride and 
religious humility, which accord with 
the tender sentiment which the solemn 
Gothic peculiarly inspires. The su- 
perb Meja, of iron, partly gilt, was 
made, in 1522, by the Maestro Bar- 
tolom^, whose name is near the key- 

On each side of the high altar kneel 
carved efiigies of the king and queen, 
which are very remarkable, being 
exact representations of their faces, 
forms, and costumes: behind Ferdi- 
nand is the victorious banner of Castile, 
while the absorbing policy for which 
both lived and died — the conquest of 
the Moor, and the conversion of the 
infidel — are embodied behind them iu 
singular painted carvings ; these have 
been attributed to Felipe Vigarny, 
and are certainly of the highest anti- 
quarian interest. In that which il- 
lustrates the surrender of the Al- 

* Queen Isabel died 26th November, 1604; 
King Philip L on the 26th September, 1506; 
Queen Joanna on the Uth April. 1666; King 
Ferdinand d CatdUco on the 23rd Jan. 1616. 

uiym^eu uy -^^ ■^^ -^^ ^ l'^ 

Granada. Bte. 103. — Boyal Sepiilchrea : TheZacatin. 


tome of the sculptared children are 

quite Baphaelesque. 
Isabel died £gu: from Granada, but 

desired to be buried here, in the bright- 
: est pearl of her crown. Isabel was 
;the brightest star of an age which 
j produced Ximenez, Columbus, and the 
Great Captain, all of whom rose to 
full growth under her smile, and 
: withered at her death. She is one of 
I the most faidtless characters in history, 
one of the purest sovereigns who ever 
graced or dignified a throne, who, •* in 
all her relations of queen or woman," 
was, in the words of Lord Bacon, '*an 
honour to her sex, and the corner-stone 
'«f the greatness of Spain."* 

The sacristan will raise the grating 
pod allow the visitor to descend into 
Jlfceir last resting-place ; a low door — 
tttnd your head — leads down to the 
vault, a small space, as Charles Y. 
said, for so much .greatness. The royal 
coffins are rude and misshapen, plain 
tod iron-girt. There are five: those 

El Ferdinand and Isabel, Philip II., 
oanna, and their son, but they are 
lenuine, and have never been rifled by 
Gaul or Ghoul, like those of Leon and 
elsewhere. The ashes of the royal 
Oouqueror have never been insulted. 
Phe letter F. marks the tomb of Fer- 

Among other relics which are shown 
h the sacristia of this chapel, and 
thich were bequeathed by Ferdinand 
md Isabel, are the identical royal 

I* For the' true character of the Catholic so ve- 
Ngiu, coDsalt PrescoU's excellent work ; also 
PhaJupere, who, understanding human character 
If intuition, Justly descrihes Ferdinand as 

I " The wisest king that ever ruled in Spain ;" 

«d thus portrays Isabel ;— 

I "If thy rare qualities, sweet gentleness. 
Thy meekness saint-like, wife-like govern- 
Obeying in commanding, and thy parts ~ 
Sovereign and pious, else could speak thee out 
The Qneen qf earthly queens r 

tbo Clemendn, *Elogio de la Reina Cat6Iica,' 
'Memorias de la Academia de la Historia,' vol. 
I; Flores, * Reinas Gatdlicaa.' Mad., 1770; 
'Machado's Embassy to Spain,' Ck)l. of State 
Papers, Lond., 1858, edited by Gardiner. For 
hiteresting details of her daughter Joanna, Col. 
of State Papers, edited 1^ Corgenroth, vol. v. 
Appendix, London, 1862. .^ 

standards used at the conquest, and 
the sword of the king ; obs. its singu- 
lar semicircular guard: also a plain 
silver-gilt crown, a Gothio cross, two 
pixes (one Gothic), an exquisite ena- 
melled viril, one of the finest things of 
the kind in Spain, and the queen's 
own ** missal," which is placed on tiie 
high altar on the anniversary of the 
conquest : it was finished by Francisco 
Florez on Monday, July 18, 1496, and 
contains 690 pages : one of the best of 
the illuminations is the ** Crucifixion," 
p. 313. Obs. also a chasuble said to 
have been embroidered by Isabel, a 
small "Adoration of the Kings," by 
Memling of Bruges ; and, in a chapel 
to the rt., a singularly fine picture," 
probably by Van der Weyden: the 
centre, the " Descent from the Cross," 
has been mutilated. A darkish pas- 
sage connects this royal chapel with 
the Sagrario, which was the original 
mosque ; here is bun? a picture which 
represents the episode of the " Ave 
Maria" of Heman Perez del Ptdgar 
(1451, 1531), "El de las hazafias," the 
knight who, during the siege, rode 
into Granada, and affixed a taper and 
the " Ave Maria " on the doors of this 
mosque, thus consecrating it, as it 
were, to her, a feat which is charged 
on his shield. While alive he was 
allowed the honour of sitting in the 
coroj and at his death was buried in 
the tomb-house of royalty, and on the 
site of his great deed. 

This Bagrario itself is a monstrous 
jumble of Churrigueresque, costly in 
material and poor in design. The 
** San Jose," by Cano, is hung too high 
to be well seen. Here lies the golod 
Fernando de Talavera, the first arch- 
bishop, ob. May 14, 1507. The Conde 
de Tendilla, the first Alcaide of the 
Alhambra, raised this tomb, and in- 
scribed it ** Amicus Amieo." 

§ 6. Zacatin, Fuente del Avellano, 
Albaioin, Gates, Cartuja Con- 
vent, Hospitals. 

On leaving the cathedral, enter the 
Zacatin, the " shopping-street " (Zok — 
Arabice market) of Granada : which, 
since the river has been closed over, 


Boute 103. — Oranada: The Zacatin. 

Sect. VI. 

has loBt its pictmesqae effect: to the 
1. is the AloaiBeria, which, previous 
to a fire in 1843, was an identical 
Moorish silk-bazaar,with small Tetnan- 
like shops, and closed at night by doors. 
Halfway down the Zacatin, cross a 
small street to the Oasa del Carbon. 
This Moorish building — Carbone no- 
tandum — ^was built very early, and was 
used as a Fondah or hosteliy : now it 
is degraded into a den of beggars, 
Carhoneros, and their charcoal. The 
archway is very rich. Adjoining is 
the house of the Duque de Abrantes, 
by whose wife this Moorish residence 
was some years ago modernised and 
whitewashed. Below is a subterranean 
passage, said to communicate with the 
Alhambra ; his incurious graoe, how- 
ever, blocked it up without any pre- 
vious examination. This grandee pos- 
»fsae8 much land in the Vega : one 
farm was bought of the In&nta Fatima 
in 1495 for 4000 reals, and is now 
worth a million. His Arabic title-deeds 
deserve the notice of conveyancing 

The Zacatin is filled with shops of 
all kinds; at the end is the Plan 
nneva and the Chanoilleria, or Court 
of Chancery, with its handsome facade, 
built in 1584, by Martin Diaz Navarro, 
after designs of Juan de Herrera. 
Here resided the Captain General. 
The court is no longer what it formerly 
was, viz. the sole grand tribunal of 
appeal for the 8. half of Spain. Pur- 
suing the course of the Darro, turn to 
the 1., near a half-broken Moorish 
arch, which, stemming the torrent, 
connected the Alhambra hill with the 
Moorish Mint, which was pulled down 
in 1844. In the OaUe del B^nelo 
is a Moorish bath with horse-shoe 
arches ; it is entered from the Carrera 
del Dorro, No. 37, and is quite a 
picture, although now only used by 
women, who wash linen, but do not 
wash themselves. 

Near this in the Calle del Oro are 
some well-preserved Moorish houses, 
the best of them is No. 14, now occu- 
pied by linen-weavers, and can be 
visited in every part. 

Passing the elegant tower of Santa 

Ana, we reach the Alameda del Barroi 
a bridge leads up to the Cuesta deloi 
HoUnoB, and also to the L up to thi 
medicinal Fuente del AveUano, i 
most charming walk in the early spriD 
morning. The views are beantifa 
Those who do not cross the bridg 
may continue to ascend to the Baal 
Monte, where a gross trick was pkyei 
ofif in 1588 on the Archbishop d 
Castro, who founded a college on tli 
site of some discoveries of forged lelia 
and marked the spots by crosses. Til 
view from this of Granada is splendlj 
Beware of the gipsies on the road. 

Descending again to the Alamd 
del Darro, turn up the Calle de I 
Viotoria to the Casa del Chapii on th 
rt. hand, a now degraded but one 
beautiful Moorish villa. Now asoea 
to the Albaiein, and visit the Cbmi 
of San Nioolas for the view. Thai 
are few panoramas equal to it in til 
world. The Albaiein suburb, bn 
and industrious under the Moor,! 
now the abode of idleness andpovertj 
it still retains its own circumvallatioi 
and many of the Moorish houses of d 
humble refugees from Baeza still i 
main here unchanged. After leavii 
St. Nicolas, the visitor ought to ] 
through the picturesque P^za Lar| 
to San Cristdbal, where the panorad 
is also unrivalled. 

Passing out at a portal, anoth 
ravine is crossed, beyond which 
another suburb, also walled in by loo 
lines, which terminate at San Kigt 
el alto. The long line of wall whi 
runs up to this height is called t 
Ceroa del Obispo, because raised bf 
Don Gonzalo de Zufiiga, the captive 
Bishop of Jaen, as his ransom. From 
the conical height above the cb. the 
prospect of Granada and the Vega is 
magnificent; the sunsets are nnri* 
vailed ; none should omit the ascent. 

Turning to the 1., we descend into 
Granada by a ravine ; to the rt was 
the ancient Moorish Casa del Cfallo, 
which was pulled down in 1817 to 
build a tile-manufactory; formerly it 
was a look-out guard-post, and ^^ 
weathercock indicated watchfolness— 
•* fore-warned, fore-anned." ThfiTM» 


Boute 103. — The Cartuja Convent. 


consisted of an armed Moor, whose 
lanoe veered with the wind. 

**Dloe el Sabio Aben Habttz 
Qae asi 86 ha de guardar al Andaluz." 

This was held to be a charmed talis- 
man, and its being taken down by the 
Moors was thought to haye entailed 
the Christian triumph. 

Crossing the defile, the walls of the 
Albaicin may be re-entered by a Moor- 
ish gate, above which is another, 
called La Pnerta de Honaita. This 
fine masonry tower overlooks the en- 
trance to Granada, and the Puerto de 
' Elvira^ which has been barbarously 
* Opposite is an open space, converted 
^ in 1846 into an Alameda, the trees of 
I which were ruthlessly cut down for 
I tome fireworks when Queen Isabel II. 
F risited Granada in 1862 ; in the centre 
^ is ]^1 Trinnfo, with a statue of the 
Virgin by Alonso de Mena, near which 
executions used to take place. Here, 
on the 26th of May, 1831, Doiia Maria 
Pineda, aged about 32 years, a lady of 
Urth and singular beauty, was cruelly 
strangled. A simple colunm, upon 
which is an almost illegible inscription, 
marks the spot. Her only crime was 
the findingin her house an embroidered 
constitutional flag. She died like a 
heroine. Her body was exhumed in 
1836, and carried in state to the Ayun- 
tamiento. A monument has been raised 
in her honour, and placed within a 
railed enclosure upon the Oampillo. 

The suppressed Cartiga Oonvent is 
a mile from the Triunfo. It lies 
within a kind of courtyard, which is 
entered by a gateway to the rt. of the 
road. This once enormously wealthy 
convent was founded by the Carthusian 
order of monks, upon an estate granted 
to them by the Gran Capitan Gonzalo 
de GordobjA. Sebastian! plundered it, 
and carried away all the pictures by 
Oano, except his fine Virgin and Child, 
whioh forms the rotable of the AUar 
Sagrario : the Head of Christ imme- 
diately above is said to be by Murillo. 
The doors of the chapel are lieautifuUy 
inlaid with ebony, mother-of-pearl, 
cedar-wood, and tortoise-shell. The 
Banckutfy is richly ornamented with 

marbles from the neighbouring moun- 
tains. Its cupola is painted in fiasco 
by Palomino. The refectory has a 
sing^ular echo. In the Sacristy, obs. 
the drawers where the vestments 
are kept, which, like the doors, are 
beautifully inlaid. This industry has 
been most admirably revived at Gra- 
nada by a cabinet-maker, called Mar- 
tin, who lives in the Tintes. Obs. also 
two splendid pieces of agate, said to be 
the largest yet found in Spain. The 
statue of San Bruno, carved in wood 
and painted, is by Mora. The high 
altar, of which this statue forms the 
centrepiece, is richly inlaid with fine 
slabs of Granada marble. The guides 
point out several curious resemblances 
to human and brute forms, amongst 
the variegated veins of these marblcH. 
One of the most fantastic forms is 
called by them " eZ Ahogado Antiguo ;* 
another is known as "eZ Gristo de la 
Colunma.*' The cloisters contain a 
series of pictures by Brother Cotan, a 
Carthusian monk. They represent 
most repugnant scenes of Carthusian 
persecutions and martyrdoms, said to 
have been enacted by Henry VIII. 
and the English Protestants, in the 
year 1535 ! 1 

The gardens of the convent are 
charming : they are not, however, open 
to the public, having been purchased 
by a private gentleman, and attached 
to his own house. A model govern- 
ment farm has been established in the 
grounds of the Cartuja, 1882. 

Betuming to the Flaia del Trinnfo, 
at the corner is the Hospital de los 
LoooB, founded by Ferdinand and Isa- 
bel, and one of the earliest of the 
lunatic asylums. It is built in the 
Transition style from the Gothic to 
the plateresque, having been finished 
by Charles V. The initials and badges 
of all parties are blended. Obs. the 
^tioj and the light lofty pUlars. The 
mterior is clean ; all the lunatics, ex- 
cept those who are locked up because 
dangerous, are allowed to associate 
together, with little attempt adopted 
to promote their recovery. At the 
upper end of this Plaza is the bull- 
fight arena, burnt down in 1877, and 

.by Google 


Boute 103. — Oranada: San Oeronimo. 


near it *^ Las eras dd Oristo,^* "the 
threshing-floor of Chriat." In the 
adjoining Calle de San Lasaro is a 
large hospital. Betracing our steps to 
the Calle de San Joan de Bios, visit 
tlie hospital founded hy the saint him- 
self. Juan de Robles was a truly 
philanthropic and good man, and be- 
ibre the spirit of his age; thus from 
his preaching the necessity of found- 
ling hospitals he was shut up as a 
madman, and his jaula or cage is still 
shown: he died March 8, 1550, and 
was canonised in 1699 by Urban VIII.* 
Over the entrance is his statue by 
Mora, in the usual attitude in which 
he is painted and carved, namely, that 
in which he expired — on his knees. 
His body was kept in an uma, the 
pillars and canopy of sQver were 
melted by Sebastiani. The hospital 
has two courts : the outer has a foun- 
tain and open galleries ; the inner is 
painted with the saint's miracles. In 
the W. angle of the outer court, over a 
staircase, is a fine artesonado ceiling. 

§ 7. San Gebonimo, Old Houses 
AND Ohueches. 

Hence to San 0er6nimo. This once 
superb convent, now a cavalry barrack, 
was begun by the Catholic sovereigns 
in 1496. The chapel was designed by 
Diego de Siloe: left incomplete, the 
building was finished by the widow of 
the Great Captain. On the exterior is 
a tablet supported by figures of Forti- 
tude and Industry, inscribed " Gon- 
zalo Feminando a Corduba vmgno 
Hispanorum diici, CkiUorum ac Tur- 
corum Terrori:" below are his arms, 
with soldiers as supporters. The 
grand patio is noble, with its elliptical 
arches and Grothic balustrades. The 
Betabh of four storeys bore the armo- 
rial shields of Gk>nzalo. The effigies 
of the Captain and his wife knelt on 
each side of the high altar, before 
which he was buried: the epitaph of 
this truly great man is simple and 
worthy of his greatness : " Oonzali 

* CJonsnlt his * Biografia,* by Francisco de 
Castro, 8vo., Granada, 1613, and printed again 
ut Burgos, 1621. 

Fernandez de Cordovay qui jwoprw 
virtute ma>gni ducts nomen proprium 
sibi fecit, ossa perpetuas tandem luci 
restituenda huic interea loculo credita 
sunt, gloria minime consepuUa.*' This 
convent was pillaged by Sebastiani's 
troops, who tore down the Sacristia 
for the sake of the wood, while Sebas- 
tiani destroyed the tower, in order to 
use the materials in building a bridge 
over the Genii ; they carried off the 
Great Captain's sword, and puUed 
down his banners. This fine church 
was restored 1882. 

We are now approaching the 'aris- 
tocratic portion of Granada, and the 
Calle de las Tablas. Here the Conde 
de Luque has a mansion. Near Sas 
Francisoo is a grand old house, well 
worth a visit. La Casa de Tiros, be- 
longing to the IMarquis of Campotejar 
(Count Pallavicini). His agent will 
show the sword of el Bey Chioo. It is 
in excellent preservation. Another 
house worth looking at is the Casa de 
Gastril, near San Pedro y San Pablo, 
with good cinquecento ornaments in- 
side and out, after designs of Diego de 
SUoe, 1539. In Santa Gatalina de 
Zafra is a tolerable picture of the 
marriage of the tutelar, by Alonso 
Cano. Visit by all means San Jnan de 
loB Beyes. It was the first Moorish 
mosque consecrated by Archbishop 
Ferdinand de Talavera: here Isabel 
attended mass, and gave a BetaJbk, 
with portraits of herself and husband 
by Antonio Bincon. It has unfortih 
nately been much spoilt by a modem 
building which has been added to it. 
In the Calle de Elvira is the heaver, 
ill-execut6d fountain del Toro, attri- 
buted (erroneously) to Berruguete. 
The Churrigueresque Chureh of las 
AngnBtlaB on the Garrera del 0enil, has 
12 Apostles carved by Pedro Dnqne 
Cornejo, and a rich jasper Ckmarin, 
under which is the miraculous image, 
la Patrona de Granada. This image 
is carried to the cathedral every 
Easter Monday. 

On the opposite side of the Genii, 
near the Ermita of St. Sebastian, is a 
garden, belonging to the Duke of Gror, 
which contains an interesting tower, 
decorated with arabesques, which be* 



B(mte 103. — Soto de Hoina. 


longed to the Alcazar of Said. It has 
been restored by Seflor Contreras. 

§8. Excursions. 

■ These are nmnerous and fiiU of in- 
terest to the historian, artist, and geo- 

(1) To Soto de Boma. By Bail to 
Pinos Paentes, which is close to the 
house. The Englishman may wish 
to visit this estate of the 'Great 
Captain ' of England, not that it has 
much intrinsic interest. It lies about 
: 9 m. from Granada, and is bounded 
to the W. by the Sierra de Elvira, 
which rises like a throne of stone 
i over the carpeted Vega. A spring 
of water, which gushes horn this rooky 
^ alembic, is good for cutaneous com- 
i plaints. Near Atarfb are some re- 
I mains of the ancient city Illiberii. 
; Here the celebrated Council was held 
about the year 303, at which Osius of 
i Cordova presided over 19 Spanish 
i bishops. The 81 canons breathe a 
I merciless anathema and death, worthy 
; of the land of the future Inquisition. 
; The crimes and penalties give an in- 
sight into the manners of the age. The 
canons are printed in Fedraza, 217.* 
- ^ This hill possesses a mournful fame 
• in Spanish nistory from the defeat of 
, the InJGantes Pedro and Juan. They 
/ had advanced against the Moors with 
''numbers that covered the earth.'' 
. After much vainglorious boasting they 
' retired, and were followed, June 26, 
1319, by about 5000 Moorish cavalry, 
and entirely put to rout: 50,000 are 
said to have fallen, with both the 
Infantes. The body of Don Pedro was 
skinned, stuffed, and put over the gate 
of Elvira; many princes were slain, 
and among them the Lord of Ilkerin- 
terrah, or England. This disaster was 
amply avenged 21 years after, by 
Aionso XI. at Tarifa, and again by 
Juan n., or rather Alvaro de Luna, 
who here, in June, 1431, defeated the 
Moors. The battle is generally called 

* The best editioii of the early councils and 
tt&ons of Spain is the • GollecUo Maxima.' Jos^ 
' ^^Knz de Agoirre, fol., 4 vols., Roma, 1«93^ ; 
OT the foL 6 vols., Koma, Jos. Catalan!, 1763. 
we »l8o • La Defensa y aprobadon del Ooncilio 
lUibwltaiio,* F. Mendosa, foL, Mad., 1694. 
[Spoin, 1882.] 

de la Higueruda, from the little flg- 
tree under which the king bivouacked, 
or others say, from the bribes enclosed 
in figs, with which Alvaro corrupted 
the Moorish captains.* 

The Soto de Soma is so called, either 
from the •* Wood of Pomegranates," or 
more probably from the village Boma, 
Buma, which, in the time of the 
Moors, was inhabited by the Christians, 
Bum, Bomi. The estate was an ap- 
panage of the kings of Granada, and 
was granted May 23, 1492, by Ferdi- 
nand to his lieutenant at that siege, 
the uncle of the celebrated Se&or de 
Alar9on, to whom were committed as 
prisoners both Francois I. and Clement 
Vll. The Soto, on the failure of the 
Alar^on; family, was resumed by the 
crown, and henceforward granted to 
court favourites. Charles III. gave it 
to Bichard Wall, his former prime 
minister. This Irish gentleman lived 
here in 1776. Before he came here 
the house was in ruins, and the lands 
neglected, the fate of roost absentee 
properties in Spain, but Wall, although 
83 years old, put eveirthing into per- 
fect order. Charles IV., after Wall's 
death, granted the estate to the minion 
Godoy. At the French invasion Joseph 
secured the property to himself. The 
victory of Salamanca proved a flaw in 
the title, whereupon the Cortes granted 
the estate to the able practitioner who 
settled the reconveyance ; and this is 
one of tiie few of their grants which 
Ferdinand VII. confirmed, but very 
reluctantly : the^ Duke of Wellington 
held it by escrUura de posesion, in fee 
simple, and unentailed. It contains 
about 4000 acroA, This estate is di- 
vided in two parts, the Soto de Boma, 
and Behesa bfga de niora. The Soto 
consists of a band of fine irrigated 
soil, which is cultivated by 800 eolonos^ 
and produces 8000 fanegas of com. 
In the centre is the village of Fnente 
VaqaeroB, which contains the Com 
Beal, granaries, and manager's house. 
The Behesa de Illora, 6 m. from the 
Soto, contams two of the finest plan- 
tations in Spain, which produce from 
5000 to 6000 arrobas of oil yearly, and 

* Of this engagement there is a most cnrions 
i chiar-owuro fk^soo on a wall at the Esoorial. 


Route 103. — Oranada : Excursions. 

Sect. VI. 

two yineyards which produce about 
5000 arrobas of wine. There ia a fine 
fruit-garden, and a good steam-engine 
is used at the mill. The value of the 
estate has been much magnified. 

The visitor, if on horseback, may- 
cross the Genii, and return to Granada 
by the now decayed town of Santa Fe, 
built by Ferdinand and Isabel while 
besieging Granada. The miserable 
spot was much shattered by an earth- 
quake in 1807. Here the capitulation 
of Granada was signed, the original 
deed of which is at Simancas. It was 
dated at this town of *' sacred faith'* 
as if in mockery of the Punic perfidy 
with which every stipulation was sub- 
sequently broken. It was from Santa 
Fe that Columbus started to discover 
the New World, and where he found, 
when success had rewarded his toils, 
every pledge previously agreed upon 
scandalously disregarded. 

(2) To the Quarries from whence the 
Green Serpentine is obtained. The 
geologist will find this an interesting 
excursion. The quarries lie imder the 
Ficacho de Veleta, and belong to the 
Marquis de Mondejar. Ascend the 
charming valley of the Genii to Senes, 
3 m. ; thence to Pinos, 3 m. ; and to 
Huetor, 3 m. Here vast quantities of 
silkworms are reared. The winding 
the thread is anything but a sweet- 
smelling job; but seen from afar, as 
the peasants prepare the golden tissue 
in most patriarchal poverty, the poetry 
and the picturesque is perfect While 
the dinner is getting ready at the tidy 
Tio Pardo's (Nunky Brown — ^bring the 
materials with you), ride up the defile 
to the Barranoo de San Juan, ^ m., 
taking a Huetor guide. The green 
serpentine blocks Ue in the bed of the 
stream. Betum to Huetor, and let 
both men and beasts dine. 

(3) Excursion to the sandy knoll 
known as £1 ^timo suspiro del Hero, 
or La ouesta de las lagrimas (2 m.}, 
where Boabdil, Jan. 2, 1492, sighed 
and wept his last farewell to Granada 
and the Boyal Alhambra. Then the 
banner of Santiago floated on his red 
towers, and all was lost. Behind wa9 , 

an Eden, like the glories of his past 
reign; before him a desert, cheerless 
as the prospects of a dethroned king. 
Then, as tears burst from his water- 
filled eyes, he was reproached . 
'Ayeshah, his mother, whose rivalrie. 
had caused the calamity. ** Thou dost 
well to weep like a woman, for that 
which thou hckst not defended like a 
man.** When this anecdote was told 
to Charles V., " She spake well." ob- 
served the Emperor, ** for a tomb in 
the Alhambra is better than a palace 
in the Alpujarras.*' Thither, and to 
Fnrchena, Boabdil retired, but not for 
long. He sickened in his exile, and, 
passing over into Africa, is said to 
have been killed in a petty battle, 
thus losing his life in defending 
another person's cause better than he 
did his own (Sist. Africa Marmol. i 
248). Gayangos, however (Moh. D, 
ii. 390), has ascertained that he lived 
at Fez imtil 1538, where his posterity 
was long to be traced^ but reduced to 
the lowest poverty, existing as beggars 
on the charity doled out at the mosque- 
doors I a sad reverse of fortune, and a 
melancholy conclusion of the brilliant 
Mohammedan dynasty in Spain. Do 
not return to Granada by the same 
road ; but ask for the villages OtuM 
and Ogijares, and then strike to thert 
and cross the rivulet Dilar to Zulna, to 
which, during tlie siege, Isabel rode 
to have a view of the Alhambra: 
while she halted in the Louse with 
Claude-like miradores, a Moorish sally 
was made, and she was in much 
danger. In memory of her escape she 
erected a hermitage to the Virgin, who 
appeared visibly for her protection, 
and the building still remains amid 
its laurels, and now belongs to the Doke 
of Montpensier. Betuming home, just 
on entering the avenue of the Gienil, 
to the 1., on its banks is San Sebastiaii, 
once a Moorish Caaba, to which Ferdi- 
nand and Isabel accompanied BoabdU 
on the day of Granada's surreuder.— 
Bead the inscription let into the wall 
The extraordinary Alamo, or tree, 
under which the first mass was said, 
stood here, but was cut down by some 1760. This most interest- 
ing building is now used as a chapeL 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -.^j'w^^-i f»^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Route 103a. — Sierra Nevada, 


From Huetor an excursion may be 
made to the glacier and Corral del 

(4) Excursion to the Archbishop's 
Palace of Viznar, built by Hoscoso y 
Peralta, a South American prelate. 
3 m. further on is la Fuente Grande, 
a vast spring of water which bubbles 
up in a column several feet high. 

(5) Agcent of the Sierra Nevada. — 
The lover of alpine scenery should by 
all means ascend one of the peaks of 
the Sierra Nevada. (See Boute 103a.) 

CrOXLve3ranoe — Granada to Madrid by 
fdilig^ence to Menjibar Stat, in 12 hrs., 
IrHhence rail in 12 hrs. 
j, Granada to Seville, rail by Utrera, 
HBobadilla, and Loja. 

ROUTE 103a. 


This range of mountains, the Oroe- 
peda of the ancients, the Ho-lair of 
the Moors* presents a most imposing 
appearance from Granada. Its most 
lofty pinnacles are eternally covered 
with snow. 

To the botanist this sierra is un- 
rivalled. The herbal of Spain was 
idways celebrated (Pliny, * N. H.,' xxv. 
8). The vegetation commences with 
toe li<^en, and terminates with the 

The following detailed description of 
the Aecent is from the pen of Charles 
Packe, Esq., the experienced Alpine 
and Pyrenean traveller (see map of 
Sierra Nevada) : — 

** The highest peak of this range is 
the Gerro de Mvlhaha^eny 3567 metres 
= 11,703 ft, which takes its name from 
the father of Boabdii, the last king of 

♦• The next is El Picaoho de Veleta, 

the * weather-cook'* 3487 m^res,=r 
11,441 ft., which from Granada is the 
most conspicuous point, being of a 
conical, and not of a rounded form ; 
the Mulhaha^en, being barely visible 
from Granada, though its rounded top 
just peers up to the left of the Veleta 
over the high ridge running N. from 
the latter peak, the Peilon de San 

*« The Gerro de la Alcazaba. 3461 
mMres=ll,356ft., the third peakE. of 
the Mulhaha9en, is entirely hidden ; 
but to the W. the ridge is broken by 
the eminences of the Machos, 3288 
metres, =10,788 ft., and the Caballo, 
3179 metres, =10,430 ft, from which 
last it gradually slopes away to the 
Ultimo Buspiro del Morcf 

The whole range forms an eternal 
rampart to the lovely Vega ; the sharp 
mother-of-pearl outline cuts the blue 
sky, clear and defined ; size, solitudoi 
and sublimity are its characteristics. 

*' The Fiohaoo de Veleta, as being 
not only the most conspicuous, but the 
most easily ascended, is that which is 
generally aimed at from Granada. 
The distance is 19 miles in a direct 
line, but the windings among the 

* harrancos * are so numerous, that the 
ascent cannot be accomplished under 
about 9 hrs., exclusive of stoppages, 
and 7 to return. The greater part of 
the ascent may be ridden; for the 

* neveros,* who go nightly up for snow, 
have worn a roadway with their mules 
to within 1 hour of the top. A guide 
for this ascent may be heiurd of at any 
of the hotels of Granada ; but there is 
little occasion for one. The route is 
as follows: 

^ Leave Granada by the avenue of 

* La Alameda,' and 10 minutes after 
crossing the river Genii, quit the road 
to Alhendin, and take the path on the 
left that mounts gradually in a direc- 
tion first E. and tUen E.S.E. across 
some *miebrad<i8* or ravines of new 
red sandstone, forming the last spurs 
of the Dornajo ridge. The wheat 

* The legend is quoted by Femaa Gaballero 
In the * FamilJa de Alvareda.' 

f The heights of the two highest peaks are 
given as measured by Boissier. They are rather 
lower than those given by Rqjas, Glemente, and 

Boute 403a. — Ascent of the Sierra Nevada, 86ct. VI. 


crops which occupy a great portion of 
this upland plateau will be found cut 
at the end of June ; but the red soil is 
not left bare, but sprinkled with a 
profusion of showy wild flowers, Sene- 
do leticophyllosy Marrvbium sericeum, 
Trachelium casmJeum, Cetpparia 8pi' 
nom^ Phlomis lychnitis, and Phlomis 

** After about 2 hours of continual 
but gradual ascent, a rill from a scanty 
spring (called the ^Fuente de los 
Oastafios *) is seen trickling across the 
road. Beyond this the red sandstone 
strata are replaced by calcareous ridges. 
Here the Ctattis ladanifera, Asperula 
paniculata, Lavandula lanata, Lavan- 
dula latifolia, and Salvia Hispanorunif 
will be met with. 

** The lower ridges are almost desti- 
tute of water, but just at the foot of 
the Domajo (about 4 hours from Gra- 
nada, and 15 minutes below the col) 
there is an excellent spring, where the 
traveller is recommended to make his 
halt for breakfast. From this spot 
there is a view of the old hermitage 
of San Gerdnimo, with the village of 
Guejar beyond, on the far side of the 
Grenil valley. Here is a rich treasure 
for the botanist, a beautiful feathery 
boraginaceous plant, Echium albicans, 
the silvery tufts and purple flowers 
of a dwarf convolvulus, G. nitidus, a 
plant special to the Sierra ,* and thick 
beds of the Teucrium aureum^ the 
Teucrium polium, and several kinds 
of thyme. 

" On attaining the ridge just E. of 
El Domajo, the Pico de Veleta first 
comes into view. Looking back, Gra- 
nada is seen bearing W.N.W. 

*' To reach the Pichacho from this 
point requires about 4 hours. The 
path is carried almlost on a level round 
the head of the gorge, amid a thick 
undergrowth of Juniperus ectbinay Ju- 
niperus vulgaris, and Astragalus aris- 
tatus. Among the smaller plants those 
most deserving mention are the Ju- 
rinca humUiSj Reseda compUcala, and 
a beautiful little one-flowered Senecio, 
the S, Boissieri, the flower of which 
much resembles the Homogyne alpina, 
but the leaves are spathulate and 
shining. After turning the head of 

the gorge of the Mona^ihil, the path is 
carried over some roughish ground to 
the * Borreguiles * or swampy pastures 
at the head of the barranco, which are 
fertilised by the melting snows of the 
Veleta and the Machos. Among thesfe 
are the * ventisqueroe * or pits of snow 
(which never entirely melt), and seve- 
ral little mountain tarns. 

"Here, at a height of 2700 tnetres, 
= 8858 feet, the plants become truly 
alpine, but many of them different 
from their cognate species in the Alps 
and the Pyrenees. Both the Gentiam 
verna and G. acauUs may be seen 
here, their bells of bright blue set 
off" by the shining silvery patches of 
a beautiful little plantain, Plantago 
nivalis, which in its turn is relieved 
by the crimson tufts of the little dwarf 
ArmeiiBi^ A. australis. In addition to 
these we have the Gagea minima, and 
two rare white-flowering ranunculi, B- 
acetosellxfolius and R. angustifoUnst 
representatives of the i2. ampleadoavUt, 
and R. pyrenaicus, of the Pyrenees. 

"Above this, at 2800 mtoe8=9187 
feet, we have no more pasture. Plants 
still exist up to the very summit ; but 
only here and there growing in the 
interstices of the gneiss rock. Thus 
far the sheep mount in midsummer, 
but their domain here ends, and is re- 
placed by that of the izard. One or 
two of these animals may occasionally 
be seen, but miserably thin, and bold 
because unscared by any hunter : how 
different from their sleek though timid 
cousins of the Alps and Pyrenees! 

" From the plateau of the ' Borre- 
guiles ' 2 hours will suffice to reach 
the summit of the Veleta. 

" Leaving (on the rt.) the path lead- 
ing to the Col de la Veleta, the track 
first becomes indistinct and then ceases, 
the traveller subsequently making his 
way up the cone of the Picacbo, over 
the debris of gneiss rocks alternated 
with snow-beds, a work of no difficulty, 
though involving some fatigue. 

** The plants most conspicuous as 
vou approach the summit, are a veiy 
beautiful composite, apparently an 
Anthemis with yellow rays, Pyretiirum 
radicans; a thorny pink Alyssum, 
Alyssum epicatwn; a crimson Draha, 


BotUe 103a. — Sierra Nevada. 


PtUotriclium purpwewm; and an ex* 
qaisite little Artemisia allied to the A. 
gladalU, and A, mtUeUina of the Alps, 
but smaller and more aromatic, the A. 
nevadensis* This plant, which is spe- 
cial to the summits of these mountains, 
is much prized by the natives under 
the name of Manzanilla real ; and the 
inhabitants of Granada and Lanjaron 
drink large quantities under the form 
of *tisanne.' For delicate stomachs 
of n less sober temperament, it is used 
to flavour the Manzanilla sherry. With 
these are two plants special to the 
western peninsula, found also in the 
Pyrenees, but at much lower eleva- 
tions, Galiwm pyrenaicum and Are- 
nana tetraquetra, 

*' The view from the Picacho de 
Yeleta is very extensive, although the 
traveller who has climbed the Alps and 
the Pyrenees may be disappointed. 
The mountains are uniform and barren, 
nor are there forests and serrated 
ridges to compensate for the absence 
of snow and glacier. In autumn, after 
the first rains, the atmosphere is the 
dearest; then the widest range of 
prospect is obtainable. The coast of 
Africa, in a direct line, is about 130 
miles distant, and consequently within 
a possible range of vision in a favour- 
able season ; but few, if any, travellers 
have seen it ftom here, except with 
the mind's eye. The yellow outline 
of the coast is well defined against the 
blue Mediterranean ; even the beat of 
the surf, and the ships may be seen 
sailing in the bay of Adra, the nearest 
point of the sea, but beyond this the 
eyesight must be helped by the imagi- 

**From the sunmiit of the Veleta, 
Granada and the red towers of the 
Alhambra are well in view; and on 
the other side, looking down into the 
Alpnjarras, the villages of Gapileira, 
Bnbbion, and Pampaneira at the head 
of the barranco de Poqueira. But it 
will not be the puny and distant 
habitations of man that first arrest the 
attention, in this stupendous pano- 
nuna. The eye will probably first be 
^Qght by the imposing mass of the 
Pic de Mulhaha^en, the cairn of which 
Wwk^ 20 S. of E. from the Picacho, 

and distant as the crow flies only 
3 miles. A little to the left of this, 
looking across the Corral, is the' Fioo 
de la Aloanba, the third highest of 
tlie range, and beyond this a ruddy 
glow rests on the mountains of the 
Sierra Bermeja ( Vermilion mountains) 
where Don Alonso de AguUar and the 
flower of the Spanish chivalry fell : 
beneath vmids fiie verdant river so 
celebrated in Spanish song, although 
out of view — 

•* Eio verde, rio verde, 
TiQto Tas en saogre viya 
Entre tf y Sierra Bermeja 
Hurio gran caballeria." 

Though separated by so short a dis- 
tance, it is not easy to pass from the 
Yeleta to the Xnlhaha9en. Any one 
wishing to do so should first retrograde 
toward the Gol, and then descend a 
little, skirting the S. side of Uie ridge 
that connects the two sunmiits; but 
by this route it will occupy 4 hours. 
To descend from the Yeleta on tlie 
E. side facing the Mulhaha^en is both 
difficult and dangerous, though not 
absolutely impossible to a first-rate 
cragsman. To the N. side the moun- 
tain falls away in an absolutely verti- 
cal, in some places undercut, precipice 
of 580 metres, — 1900 feet, to the 
corral de Yeleta. To descend upon 
this from the siunmit is impossible, 
though about an hour N.N.W. of the 
sunmiit there is a narrow ledge, by 
which, with care, a descent may be 
effected into the corral. This corral 
de Yeleta is one of the most striking 
features in the scenery of this range. 
Travellers can find rough sleeping 
accommodation there. It is called the 
* corral ' from a fancied resemblance to 
the walled enclosure into which cattle 
are driven at night in this countiy, and 
the traveller in the Pyrenees will at 
once be reminded of a Pyrenean cirque ; 
to that of Trumouse especially it bears 
a dose resemblance. Seen from above, 
and at a first glance, the almost circular 
wall of rock running round from the 
north-eastern shoulder of the Yeleta to 
the north-western flank of the Alca- 
zaba, would appear to form but one 
huge enclosure ; but a closer inspection 
wiU show that this is 4ivided by two 


Boute 103a. — Ascent of the Sierra Nevada. Sect. VI. 

medial ridges into three distinct 
gorges ; that to the west being the corral 
from which issues the one glacier of 
the Sierra Nevada, the birthplace of 
the river Genii, and the most southerly 
glacier of Europe. The other two 
gorges are equally wild, partly a mass 
of rocks, partly a mass of snow ; and 
at the head of the easternmost, under 
the flanks of the Mulhaha^en, are 
cradled 4 little lakes, mere mountain 
tarns, of which the largest is dignified 
by the name of Laguna larga. All 
three gorges have a common issue in 
the Barranoo del Infiemo, to the N., 
and require a separate day if visited. 

"The course to the Veleta neces- 
sitates one night upon the mountain. 
If fire is not an object, and wraps 
have been brought, the lover of fine 
sunset effects may well bivouac among 
the rocks, within ten minutes of the 
actual simimit. There is no regular 
cabane, but the rocks may be arranged 
to form a protection against the wind. 
If fire is a desideratiun, the quarters 
may be selected about two hours from 
the summit, N. of the Machos peak, 
and W. of the Veleta, just above the 
borreguiles. Here, at a height of 
2835 metres, = 9300 feet, it is no hard- 
ship to pass the night with a roaring 
fire of juniper, and a luxurious bed of 

** The descent to Lanjaron from the 
Pico de Veleta requires a good 6 hours. 
To return to Granada the Domajo 
roi\te may be again taken ; or better 
still, descend northward from the 
Pefion de San Francisco, and so down 
the Barranoo de San Juan into the 
Genii valley, which is struck about 1 
hour above Guejar ; thence 4 hours to 

" The miners' cabins no longer exist 
at the lower part of the corral where 
the river Gouil makes its turn to ihe 
west, but the traveller, if he starts 
from this point, where the former 
manager's house once stood, may very 
well ascend the Veleta and return the 
same day. This house is situated 8 
hours from Granada, and there is an 
excellent mule-path all the way; so 
that provisions may be taken to any 
extent. To reach this house leave 

Granada by the N.E. comer, passing 
under the walls of the Alhambra, 
above the right bank of the river Genii. 
For the first hour the road is carried 
among cactuses and prickly pears to 
the little village of Senes, and another 
hour to the little village of Pinillos, 
where there is a steep ascent occupying 
2 hours to the town of Guejar de la 
Sierra, a dirty little town on the right 
bank of the Genii, of which the rearing 
of silk- worms forms the principal in- 
dustry. Beyond this there is neither 
house nor village, but there is a posada 
here where bread, wine, ham, and eggs 
may be had. From just below the 
posada the Pico de la Alcazaba is in 
view bearing E.S.E.,and, looking south 
across the Genii, the ruined hermitage 
of San Gerdnimo with the Domajo 
range beyond. Above Guejar the 
rocks pass from calcaire to schist, and 
the path continues on the right bank 
of the stream for 1 hour and 40 minutes. 
On reaching the hill of La Fuente it 
crosses to the left bank, along which 
it continues with a gradual ascent, till 
it reaches the miner's house. Shortly 
after crossing the Genii a stream is 
seen on the right, which descends irom 
the Barranco de San Juan. The scenery 
here becomes very picturesque, and 
besides other good plants, the beautifiil 
little fern, t£e annual maiden hair, 
Grammitis leptophyUay is very abun- 
dant on all the rocks, though after 
June it begins to wither away, and must 
be sought tor fresh in shady situations. 
30 minutes before reaching the miner^s 
house, just at the bend of the corral, 
there is a magnificent view of the high 
mountain at the head of the corral, a 
perfect subject for a picture. 

"This house is 8 hours from Gra- 
nada, perched above the left bank of 
the stream, at a height of 1572 metres, 
=5393 feet above the sea. From here 
it is an easy day to explore the corral ; 
or in a long day that may be oombined 
with the ascent of the Rco de Mulha- 
hacen, as follows : Start early, and 
follow the track which leads to the 
mines, 2 hours ; and then, leaving that 
on the left, pretty nearly where the 
first snow-patches commence, tit 2400 
metres, = 7874 feet, make for the up- 

'Ljiuiii,^t:u uy ■v — »■ x^^ <^ -« i >:, • • 


Boute 103a. — Sierra Nevada, 


permost plateau at the foot of the 
glacier ; tiie rocks here are all gneiss, 
with fine specimens of spicalar iron. 
Up to this point the plants, though 
Alpine, attain to a certain height and 
luxoriance ; but on attaining the last 
plateau, 2800 metres, = 9185 feet, 
thongh the sward between the snow- 
patches in midsnmmer is stUl gay with 
flowers, they are dwarfed and more 
glacial species. Gentians, Flantago 
nivalis^ Banunculus gracilis and B, 
oeetoseUaBfoliiM. Traversing this pla- 
teau to the N.W. extremity of the 
glacier, it is there easy to mount the 
rocks that form the moraine. Upon 
this moraine, and here only on these 
mountains, the writer noticed the 
Ranunculus glacialiSy which plant, 
though not always the highest grow- 
ing, seems unable to exist without the 
contiguity of some glacier. 

" From the moraine, passing on to 
the glacier, the traveller will soon 
convince himself, that although in- 
significant in size, it is in all respects 
a true glacier. Not only is there blue 
ice, but miniature crevasses, dirt- 
bands, and little moulins which re- 
ceive the streams that trickle across 
its surface. This glacier is about 
600 metres across by 500 in length ; 
in its highest part being 2921 metres 
=9585 feet, and in its lowest 2859 
metres =9380 feet, above the sea-level* 
No rope is necessary; but as the 
Tipper part of the glacier is steeply 
inclined, at the close of summer when 
the snow is off, it might not be easy 
to cross it withoat an axe. In June 
there is no difficulty. The rocks un- 
der the Veleta are a sheer precipice, 
80 the traveller must make for the 
eastern side ; whence, mounting the 
steep shaly rocks, he will soon find 
himself on the ridge, some 400 metres 
E. of the Picacho de Veleta, at a height 
of 3340 metres, =10,958 feet, and con- 
sequently 147 metres, =482 feet, below 
the peak. 

** Prom here the Pico de Mulhaha^en 
is in view due W. It is a rough up 
and down scramble for 2J hours to 
reach the summit, keeping on the 
Bonth side of the ridge wiich con- 
nects it with th^ Yeleta, Midway 

between the two peaks a mule-track 
is crossed, which winds up from the 
central gorge, and then is carried 
round the south flank of the Mulha- 
he^en to Trevelez, forming a com- 
munication between that place and 
the mines on the north side of the 
range. A little further on, about one 
hour below the summit of the Mulha- 
ha^en, a small circular lake is passed 
on the right, the Lago de Oaldera. 
Notwithstanding its exposition due 
south, and the burning sun, it is late 
in the summer before me ice is melted 
from this lake, whose height is given 
byBoissier 3081 m^es= 10,110 feet. 
Just beyond this, before mounting tiie 
final cone of the Mulhaha9en, there is 
a peep over the ridge upon the four 
little lakes, which are cradled in the 
third gorge on the N.W. flank of 
the Mulhahacen, the largest of which 
is dignified oy the name of Laguna 

*^In ascending the Xiillialia9en, 
the same plants are found as those 
already mentioned on the Veleta ; and 
in addition to these the Papdver pyre- 
naicum, of a deep orange cmour, rather 
less red than that found in the Pyrenees, 
but the same plant. As the rocks 
of the Mulhaha9en are precisely the 
same as that of the Veleta and Al- 
cazaba, it seems strange that this 
rare and beautiful little plant should 
only grow on the former mountain; 
but so it is. I believe it is not found 
anywhere in the south of Spain ex- 
cept on the W. and 8. W. flanks of the 
Mulhahacen, where it is pretty abun- 
dant at an elevation of from 3400 
metres up to the very top. 

'* The descent from the MulhahaQen 
may be made on the southern side 
wilSiout the slightest difficulty, either 
to Capileira or Trevelez, that to the 
former place occupying 5 hours, and 
to the latter barely 4 hours. 

" On the south side of the range, in 
the country of the Alpujarras, there 
are 3 stations, which may serve as a 
starting-point from which to explore 
the mountains Lanjaron, Capileira, 
and Trevelez. Each of these has its 
advantages and disadvantages. Lan- 
jaron (to th^ W.) is by far the most 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.'w.^^-t t'*^. 

424 Boute 103a. — Sierra Nevada : Laryaron, Sect. VI. 

end of the town, and follow the path 
earned northwaidB, on the eastern side 
of the gorge. 

"From Lanjaron to Oapileiia, 4 
honrs, by a good mnle-path passing 
through the village of Bayaica, and 
leaving the town of Oigiba below on 
the rt, and thence up the Barranco de 
Poqueira above the rt bank of the 
stream, which the path crosses at a 
very picturesque mill and cascade jnst 
below the village of Pampaneira. 
From this village it requires 4 houn 
to reach Trevelez. Take the path 
mounting the ridge due W., and 
gradually bearing to the N. after it 
has passed the two villages of Pitres 
and Portugas, beyond which it tra- 
verses an upland plateau with a 
luxuriant growth of cistus, dwarf 
oaks, and other shrubs, and finally 
descends into the gorge of Trevelez, 
at the head of which is seen the vil- 
lage, just on the last confines of culti- 

** The village of Trevelez is situate 
at the foot of the S.E. buttress of the 
Mulhaha^en, on the rt bank of the 
stream, and at a height of 1625 metres, 
=5333 feet, above the sea, being the 
highest village in the Alpujarras, and 
though larger than Gapileira, it afforJs 
much worse inn accommodation. In 
the Posada the traveller will find ab- 
solutely nothing; and it is only on 
paying the money beforehand that a 
few eggs, oil, bread, and wine may be 
procured in the village. For bed the 
traveller will have to content himself 
with the floor, and, unless curious in 
entomological discovery, let him be- 
ware how he indulges in the luxniy 
of any covering. Indeed, such is the 
dirt and discomfort of Trevelez, that 
I can scarcely recommend it as bead- 
quarters ; though to any one prepared 
to fare there, it is a very convenient 
station from which to ascend the peaks 
of Mulhaha9en and Alcazaba. The 
Mulhaha^en may be ascended from 
the village in 4 hours. Passing out 
of the village by the N.N.W. comer, 
make for the ridge forming the N. 
side of the gorge ; once on this, the 
Pic de Mulhaha^en is in sight, bear- 
ing N.W. ; skirt this ridge over woks 

dvilised and the most accessible. 
There is a coach-road firom Granada, 
and a diligence daily in the season. 
(See Bte. 116.) 

'^Laigaron has been not tmfairly 
named d paradso de las AlpuJ arras. 
Like all the villages of the Alpujarras, 
it is entirely Moorish in appearance. 
It is perched, at an elevation of 2296 
feet, on the 8. side of the sloj^es of the 
Sierra, witli a deep ravine in front; 
and the narrow shelf on which it sits 
is one tangle of pomegranates and 
peaches, figs and oranges, which are 
ranged in terraces above the streaoL 
It possesses 14 mineral springs, con- 
sidered finer in quality than tiiose of 
Vichy, the waters of which are im- 
pregnated with hydrates of magnesia 
and soda. The bathing season is from 
the 15th June to 15th September. Be- 
low the town is a Moorish castle on 
a knoll with a fine view; and the 
broken hills abound with subjects for 
artists, whilst the botany and geology 
are as rich as they are comparatively 
unexplored. The Pop. is 3000. 

**Inn8: San Rafael, Fonda Grana- 
dina, Yiuda de Begera. Visit the de- 
lightful Paseo del Paraiso. The Oalle 
Beal, or principal street, divides the 
town most curiously in two zones of 
vegetation, the upper part chestnuts 
and oaks, the lower oranges, lemons, 
palms, and sugar-canes. The snow- 
cured hams well merit the attention 
not only of the mountaineer but of the 
gastronomer, and the oranges are im- 
surpassed in Spain, though they are 
not ripe until the end of August, and 
the traveller who may have come 
earlier for the sake of the mountain 
fiowers, must content himself with the 
oranges of the preceding season, some 
of which are always preserved hang- 
ing on the tree. 

^The main drawback to Lanjaron 
as a station for excursions is its dis- 
tance from the high peaks of the 
range, from which it is practically as 
far removed as Granada. It is im- 
possible, from here, to ascend the 
Veleta and return in the same day, 
though this is quite feasible with the 
westernmost and lowest peak of the 
Caballo. Start early from the e«st 


Boute 103 a. — Lanjaron. 


and finow-beds till the summit is at- 
tained. There is no possible difficulty 
for the most timid. 

"The Pico de Alcazaba may be 
reached in about the same time. 
Follow the gorge of Trevelez north- 
vard for 1 hour, and then bear up the 
gorge which divides the two moun- 
tains, keeping to the north or Alcazaba 
aide. The southern peak of the Al- 
cazaba, that first attamed, is not the 
highest. The highest is the most 
northern peak, which is 40 minutes 
&rther. On the western and northern 
sides the precipices of the Alcazaba 
are most imposing ; and the mountain 
is only accessible on the S. and S.E. 
In the basin between the Alcazaba 
, and the Mulhaha^en there is a small 
I lake, and skirting this» the moun- 
! taineer may pass from, one peak to the 
other without much difficulty, though 
it requires a little care. 

**From the yUlage of Trevelez, cou- 
timiing up the gorge, you may pass 
by the Port de Vacares into the Genii 
▼alley, and so to Granada. The mule- 
path crosses the river at Trevelez, and 
is carried up the left bank of the 
stream ; but it is a very long day. As 
Ottensheim states the conti-ary, I may 
mention that the fishing in the river 
of Trevelez is all a fiction. To the 
best of my belief there are no trout 
worth speaking of, either in this or in 
any other river of the Sierra Nevada. 

*• Both at Trevelez and at Capileira 
the snow lies deep for several months 
in the year, and from all appearances 
the fall is quite as heavy on the south 
as on the north side of the Sierra. 
The tropical plants are left far below ; 
but even at Trevelez fruit-trees, such 
as the walnut, apple, and mulberry, 
produce and ripen. And the cultiva- 
tion extends much higher, up to 2300 
metres (7546 feet), the highest culti- 
vated plants being rye, centeno; and 
the large kind of pulse, Cicer arietinurrif 
which is so much used throughout 
Spain under the name of garhanzoe, 

"At places like Trevelez the tra- 
veller has the dignity of sleeping 
under a roof, but that is all. He will 
not get much repose, and will certainly 
miss the enjoyable sensations of sleep- 

ing on the mountain side, 'sous les 
belles ^toiles.* To camp out, how- 
ever, with any enjoyment, a fire is 
absolutely necessary, and one of the 
great drawbacks of the Sierra Nevada 
is a scarcity of wood of any kind. 
Three little prickly plants, Alysswn 
spicatum, Astragalus aristatuSt and 
Arenaria pungens, are the only growth 
approaching an under-shrub, at any 
height on the south side of the range. 
Queer stuff to handle for fuel, and 
still more queer for a bed, but above 
2500 metres, = 8202 feet, this is the 
only material. On the north side it is 
different. In most places there is an 
abundant growth of juniper, both the 
conmion juniper and the savin, the 
last growing rather the lowest. 

** Owing to many discomforts, and 
especially to the burning sun and 
wretched accommodation, the Sierra 
Nevada cannot compete with the Alps 
and Pyrenees. The range has, how- 
ever, one great advantage over all 
other European mountains, viz. that 
during the summer and early autumn 
months that important element of 
mountaineering, the weather, need 
never be considered, for it is quite sure 
to be fine, both by night and by day. 
The only rencontre on the mountam 
itself will be with an occasional acfi^ 
quiero, or man employed to keep tlio 
aqueducts running which irrigate the 
plains below. 

"In the way of sport the Siena 
Nevada does not hold out great at- 
tractions. There are a few izards, 
Antilope rupicapray upon the Sierra, 
apparently exactly the same animal 
as that of the Pyrenees ; also a kind 
of wild goat somewhat resembling a 
bouquetm, the Capra xmgra. Fish- 
ing in the stream is a delusion ; but 
for the botanist the Sierra Nevada 
has attractions, probably superior to 
any other mountain-range in Europe. 
On these sunmiits plants of the Syrian 
mountains may be seen growing side 
by side with the Arctic flora of Green- 

* The traveller interested in the florA of the 
raDKe should consult the very exact and beau- 
tiful work by Edmond Boissier of Geneva, 
* Voyage botoiiique dans le ^idi de I'Espagne,' 

426 Boutes 103b, 104.— JfarcAewa, dtc, to Granada. Sect. VL 

the edifice at its head is called el 
Bollo. El RoUo meant the gallows, 
usually built of stone, and outside 
the town; and from the steps being 
worn round by walkers sitting down, 
roUo in time obtained the secondary 
meaning of a promenade — a pretty one 
that ends in a gibbet. Ecija has also 
a charming alameda outside the town, 
near the river, with statues and foun- 
tains representing the seasons, an open 
theatre, and a new and magnificent 
Flasa de Toroi, built on the site of a 
Roman amphitheatre, where some of 
the best bull-fights in Spain take 

ROUTE 103b. 


Rail. One train daily. 27 m. 

Marehena Stat. Pop. 13,224. 

lOi^ m. Fuentes Stat. Pop. 3908. 

7 m. Lninana Stat. 

lOi m. Edja Stat. Pop. 24,979. 
Jnn .' Parador de la Diligencia. Ecija, 
Astigi (of Greek origin, and the eity 
par excellence), in the time of the 
Romans, was equal to Cordoba and 
Seville : it rises amid Us gardens on 
the Genii, the ^reat tributary of the 
Guadalquivir, just where it becomes 
navigable. Ecija is a well-built, gay- 
looking, improving town, but still 
socially very dull. Some ctf the Moor- 
ish gates and massive towers remain. 
From the extreme heat it is called the 
Sarten de Andaluda. This roasted 
and toasted town bears for arms the 
sun, with this modest motto, Una sola 
sera Uamada la CHydad del Sol ; thus 
Bsetican frying-pans assume the titles 
and decorations of an Heliopolis. 

The Flaia Mayor, with its pretty 
acacias and Amazon fountain, may be 
visited, and the Azulejo-studded ch. 
towers : the columns in those of Santa 
Barbara and Santa Maria are Roman, 
and were brought from a destroyed 
temple, once in the Oalle de los Mar- 
moles. The house of the Marquis de 
Cortes is painted in the Genoese style : 
here the king is always lodged. Of 
other finely balconied and decorated 
mansions, observe those of Pefiaflor, 
Benameji, and Yillaseca. The clois- 
ters of San Francisco and Santo Do- 
mingo may be visited. There is a 
fine but narrow bridge over the Genii ; 

Paris, 1839-45, 2 vols. In addition to this he 
may also like to look at the • Paseos de Granada,* 
by Simon Rojas Clemente, Madrid, 180Y ; and 
•Madera, Andalusia, la Sierra Nevad*, y loe 
PirineoB,' a gossiping book by Frank Pfeudlen 
d'Ottensheim, Seyilla, ia48. 

ROUTE 104. 


ANTBQUEBA — Rail. See * Indicador.* 

SeviUe Stat. 

2| m. Doi Hermanas Stat. 
6 m. TJtrera Junct. Stat. 
10 m. ^ahal Stat 

6 m. Faradas Stat. 

7 m. Marohena Stat. Pop. 11,600. 
Visit its ancient church of 5 naves. 
The Arcos family have a palace here. 

8 m. Loi Ojueloi Stat 

17i m. Ofluna Stat Pop. 16,000. 
The apex of the triangular hill npon^ 
which this healthy town is built i 
crowned by a castle and the ColegiaU 
The streets are picturesque and straj 
gling, the balconies of the houaa 
are ornamented with superb camatioj 
pinks. Osuua takes its name froii 
Osuna, daughter of Hispan, who maf 

• For local details, consult * EcUa y M 
Santofl,' Martin de Roa, 4to., Sevllla, 1629; ad 
the * Adicion • of Andres Florindo, 4to., Se^i 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.'w^^-i i'*^ 


Boute 104. — Antequera, 


lied Pyrrhns, a killer of boars ; lience 
the arms of the city, a castle with 2 
boars chained to a wiudow. The Ro- 
mans called the place Gemina Urba- 
norum, because 2 legions, and both of 
Borne, happened to be quartered there 
at the same tune. The city was taken 
from the Moors in 1240; Philip II. 
granted it to Pedro Giron, whom 
.FraD9ois I. used to call Jje hel 

Visit the Golegiata, built in 1584, in 
the mixed Gothic and cinquecento 
style. Obs. the Crucifixion by Ribera ; 
it was mutilated by the French imder 
Soult, but restored afterwards by 
Joaquin Cortes. The Retablo of the 
high altar contains 4 gloomy paint- 
iogs by Ribera : it was brought from 
Naples bv the celebrated Viceroy 
Duke. The marbles of the pavement 
are fine. Visit the underground por- 
tions of this ch. The Patio del Se- 
pulcro is in Berruguete taste. The 
vaults are supported by Moorish 
arches. Obs. in ^e aaorUtia, a Christ 
by Morales. 

Leaving Osuna, we pass Laa Agiias 
dnloes, whose sweet waters create an 
oasis in these aromatic deheaas, 

10^ m. Fedrera Stat. Pop. 1300. 
[To the 1. lies Estepa; some traces 
of the ancient Astapa are yet visible. 
This guerrillero hill-fort rivalled Nu- 
mautia : when besieged by the Romans, 
547 u.o.,its inhabitants destroyed them- 
selves, their wives and children, on a 
funeral pile, rather than surrender.] 

6^ m. La Boda Stat. Here the rly. 
from Cordova to Malaga is joined. 
Hence to 

12} m. Bobadilla Junct. Stat. Buf- 
fet. 25 minutes are allowed. The 
line to Granada branches off. Get into 
a carriage marked Granada. 1st dass 
passengers do not change. 

2 m. Apeadero Stat. 

8 m. Antequera Stat. Inn : Posada 
de la Castafia. Pop. 30,000. This 
city was an important Roman station. 
The ancient town was situated at 
Antequera la Vieja. The remains of 
a palace and a theatre, almost perfect 
in 1544, were used as a quarry to 
build the convent of San Juan de 
Piw; a few fragmentfii were sayed by 

Juan Poroel de Peralta in 1585, and 
are imbedded in the walls near the 
Aroo de loi Gigantei, going to the castle 
court Others were then brought 
from Neseania, 7 m. W., where a 
hamlet was erected in 1547 for the in- 
valids who came to drink the waters 
of the old Font divinns, now called 
the Fuente de Piedra, because good 
for stone and gravel complaints. 

The city was recovered from the 
Moors in 1410 by the Regent Fer- 
dinando, who hence is called *• El In- 
fante de Antequera.** Ho gave the 
city for arms the badge of his military 
order, La Terraza, the "vase" (quasi 
de terra), the pot of lilies of the Vir- 
gin, under which the mystery of the 
divine incamation was shrouded. This 
order, the earliest in Spain, was 
founded in 1035 by Garcia of Navarre. 
The Inhab. are ohiefiy agricultural. 
In the fertile plain near the town is a 
peculiar salt laguna, or lake. It is 
now famous for its industry of woollen 
cloths and blankets. They are very 
finely dyed. 

The Golegiata, gutted by the in- 
vaders, has been partially refitted; 
but poverty of design unites with po- 
verty of material. 

The castle is Moorish, built on 
Roman foundations. Obs. the Bar- 
bican. Ascend the Torre Mooha, with 
its incongruous modem belfry. Obs. 
the Roman frieze and cornice at the 
entrance. The view is striking; in 
front, the Lovers* Rock rises out of the 
plain, and to the rt. the three conical 
hills of Archidona. The castle is much 
dilapidated. The curious old mosque 
in the enclosure was converted by the 
French into a storehouse. 

Antequera is the place selected by 
the proverb which indicates the ten- 
dency in Spaniards of each person 
taking first care of himself: Saiga el 
sol por Antequera (venga lo que viniere), 

Antequera was thd home of the 
great Alcaide Narvaez, el de la gran 

* See the curious *H!storla,' &c., by Fran- 
cisco Balbi de Corregio, 4to., Milan, 1598. Con- 
sult for local history, • Panegericos,' &c., Pedro 
de Espinosa, hvo., Xeres, 1628 ; ' Historia de 
Antequera,' Francisco Espinosa y Aquilena, 
8V0., reprinted, Malaga, 1§4^,_ _ ^^^ _ 


Monies 104, 105. — Seville to Granada, dec. Sect. YI. 

An interesting exoursion may be 
made to the Cerro de Xenoal, with a 
good guide, in the mountains near 

Ascending the height on the old 
road to Malaga is a Iu8u8 ncdurm, 
called el Torcal, an assemblage of 
stones which look like a deserted 
town, well worth a visit, and similar 
to the Ciudad enoantada at Cuenea. 

Just outside the town, on the road 
to Archidona, is la Gueva de Xengal, a 
prehistoric chamber built of enormous 
stones under a tumulus which has been 
cleared off, which looks E., and is 
some 70 ft. deep; it was examined 
for the first time in 1842, by Bafael 
Mitjana, an architect of Malaga. He 
got the interior cleared out, by as- 
suring the Antequeran authorities, but 
not antiquarians, that treasures were 
buried there. It was long known by 
the shepherds and neglected, and is 
one of the best prehistoric monuments 
which exist in Spain. See Fergussou. 

On leaving the town the rly. reaches 
the banks of the Teguas, and the Pe&a 
or Feflon de los Enamorados, which 
rises like a Gibraltar out of the sea of 
the plain. Here, it is said, a Moorish 
maiden eloping with a Christianknight, 
baffled their pursuers by precipitating 
themselves, locked in each other's 
arms, into a stony couch.* 

5 m. La FeSa Stat. 2300 ft. 

7| m. Archidona Stat. Pop. 7714. 

8| m. Salinas Stat. Soon the line 
passes over a fine viaduct at Bio Frio, 
a branch of the Genii, 1900 ft. above 

tflA AAA 

13 m. Loja Stat. Pop. 17,998. Gasa 
de Hu^spedes, Las Quintanas, Galle de 
la Oaridad. Before reaching the Stat., 
which is beyond the town, the Genii 
is crossed by a fine iron bridge. 

Loja is surrounded by fine springs of 
water. In one of these, La Alfaguara, 
the washerwomen may be seen stand- 
ing in the running water washing the 
linen. The river is most picturesque, 
and the artist will find ready subjects 
for his pencil at Los Infiemos. The 
Iglesia Mayor and San Gabriel are fine 

* See the story at length in • Mariana/ xix. 
22, and in Souther's balifui op '^ili^ and Ma- 

buildings of the 16th centy. The fruits 
at Loja are first-rate, and the river 
abounds in orayfiysh. 

This picturesquely placed town, 
being the key to Granada, was onoe 
of great importance. Ferdinand and 
Isabel besi^ed it in 1488, and took 
it after 34 days' siege, very much by 
the aid of the English archers under 
Lord Rivers. It was to Loja that the 
Oran Capitan, Gonzalo de Gc>rdoba, re- 
tired from the suspicions of the un- 
grateful Ferdinand. 

The rly. traverses a beautiful plaio, 

5^ m. Huetor-Tajar Stat. Pop. 

6} m. Tooon Stat. 

6J m. mora Stat. Pop. 8051. 

6 m. Finos Fuentes Stat. Pop. 4109. 
It was at the bridge of Pinos that 
Columbus was stopped by Isabel's mes- 
senger. To the rt. Jies the 8oto de 
Boma. The Palace itself is about 
1^ m. distance from the stat. To the 
1. obs. the Sierra Elvira. 

4 m. Santa Fe Stat. Pop. 4931. 
(See, for this now unimportant place, 
Rte. 103.) 

6 m. Granada Stat. Terminus. 
(See Kte. 103.) Omniims to the hotels 
in the town and Alhambra. 

ROUTE 105. 


Two trains daily. 

15 m. Sevilla Stat , 

5 m. Gerraja Stat. 

21 m. Alcala de Ouadaira. Stat. 
Inn : Pai ador de las Dibgencias. Pop. 
7964. This remarkably g^lubrious 


Boute 105. — Alcald de Quddaird. 


little town was the Punic Hienippaj 
"a place of many springs." Its mo- 
dem name signifies the " castle of the 
river Aira," that river sweeping round 
the base of the town, and feriiilising 
this garden of flora and Pomona. It 
is also called de los Panaderos, ** of the 
bakers,'' for it has lODg beeii the oven 
of Seville. All classes here gain tiieir 
bread by making it, and the water- 
mills and mule-mills (atahonas) are 
never still. The mills exceed 200 in 
number. The com is very carefully 
ground, the flour being passed through 
several hoppers to secure its fineness. 
The dough is worked and reworked as 
is done by our biscuit bakers : hence 
the close-grained caky consistency of 
the Andaludan bread. 

The castle of Alcaic is one of the 
finest Moorish spedmens in Spain. 
It surrendered to St Ferdinand, Sept. 
28, 1246, the garrison having frater- 
nised with Ibn 1-Ahmar, the petty 
kiDg of Jaen, who aided the Christians 
•gainst the Sevillians. No part of the 
Moorish city remains but the small 
mosque, which is now dedicated to 
San Miguel, on whose day the place 
was taken. Obs. the tapia walls, the 
subterranean com granaries (called in 
Moorish, mazmorras), the cisterns {al- 
gibes), the inner keep, and the huge 
donjon tower (la torre) mocha, built by 
the Spaniards. 

Visit the Church of San Sebastian, 
and obs. the pictures ti^ere by Fran- 
cisco Pacheco, father-in-law to Velaz- 
quez, and in the Chureh of Santiago a 
" Purgatory," also by him. The Con- 
vento de las Moi^jas contains a retablo 
with six small bas-reliefs by Montafies. 
The " Santa Clara receiving the Sacra- 
ment'' is the best ; his small works are 
rare and l^eautiiul. 

Visit the Molino de la Mina, whence 
Pedro Ponce de Leon (in 1681) took 
the title of marquis. The excavations 
iu the rock are very picturesque. 
Hence the city of Seville is supplied 
with water by means of an aqueduct ; 
the first portion is enclosed by a brick 
caHeria, Some of the tunnels are 6 
miles in length. The Boman portion 
of the works was restored in 1172 by 
JtUnf Abtt Jaciiby but was subse- 

quently allowed to go to decay by the 
negligent Spaniard. The aqueduct, 
on approaching Seville, is carried into 
the city upon some 400 arches called 
**Loi Oa&oi de Oarmona," from their 
running along parallel to the road 
leading to that city. 

The sportsman will walk over the 
flats between AlcallL and Seville with 
his gun. The artist will visit the 
valley of the Guadayraand sketch the 
Moorish mills and towers, which Iriarte 
also sketched; he who, according to 
Murlllo, was fit to paint Paradise — so 
relative is praise! This Iriarte, by 
the bye, was almost the only purely 
Ifimdscape painter which Spain has 
produced down to the present centy. 

li^ m. Oandul Stat. 

3 m. Xairena Stat. Pop. 4758. 

2 m. Yiso Stat. Pop. 6369. 

lim. Garmona Stat. Inn: Fonda 
de las Diligeucias. Pop. 15,344. (Rte. 
86.) This clean white town — the 
Moorish Earmunah — with its Oriental 
walla, castle, and position, is very pic- 
turesque. It rises on the B. extremity 
of the ridge, commanding the plains 
both ways. The prefix car indicates 
this " height" The old coins found 
here are inscribed "Carmo," Florez, 
* M.' i. 289. CfiBsar fortified the city, 
** the strongest in the province," which 
remained faithful to the Groths until 
betrayed to the Moors by the traitor 
Julian: St. Ferdinand recovered it 
Sept. 21, 1247, and his standard is 
borne every anniversary to the Her- 
mitage Sn. Mateo, founded by him. 
He gave the city for arms, a star with 
an orle of lions and castles, and the 
device " Sicui Lucifer lucet in Aurora 
sic in WancUdid Carmona** Don 
Pedro added largely to this castle, 
which he made, as regarded Seville, 
what Edward HI. did of Windsor, in 
reference to London; here, in 1368, 
he kept his jewels, money, mistresses, 
and children. After his defeat at Mon- 
tlel, his governor, Martin Lopez de 
Cordoba, surrendered to Enrique on 
solenm conditions of anmesty, all of 
which were immediately violated, and 
himself and manjr brave soldiers exe- 
cuted. The site is still called el Bio 
del Cuchillo. Obs. the tower of San 


Ikoute 106. — CSrdoha to Malaga. 

Sect. VI. 

Pedro, which is an imitation of the 
metropolitan Giralda; remark the 
massive walls and arched Moorish city 
entrance. - The church of Santa Maria 
is of excellent Gothic, and huilt hy 
Antonio Gallego (ob. 1518). The 
" Descent of the Cross " is by Pacheco ; 
a Venetian-like San Cristobal has been 
repainted. The Alameda with its 
fountain, between a dip of tho hills, is 
pleasant. Its fair (April 25) is a 
picturesque sight, and should be visited 
by the artist. The striking gate lead> 
ing to Cordova is built on Boman foun- 
dations, with an Herrera elevation of 
Doric and Ionic : the alcazar, towering 
above it, is a superb ruin. Don Pedro 
and the Catholic kings were its chief 
decorators, as their badges and arms 
show. The view over the vast plains 
below is magnificent ; the Bonda and 
even the Granada chains may be seen ; 
it is somewhat like the panorama of 
the Grampians from Stirling Castle, on 
a tropical and gigantic scale.* 

ROUTE 106. 


Two trains daily, in 7 hours. 

Gdrdoba Stat. See Bte. 85. 

Upon leaving Cordoba the line to 
Sevilla branches to the rt. The Gua- 
dalquivir is crossed upon a fine bridge 
supported upon tubular piles. 

l^ m. Torres Cabrera Stat. 

6i m. Femaa Nnflei Stat. Pop. 
4328. In the Panoquia, obs. tiie 
Crucifix used by the earliest Christian 
missionaries in Japan. 

* Consult 'Antigiiedadee de Garmona,' Joan 
Salvador Bantisca de Arellano, 8vo., SevUla, 

9J m. Xontilla Stat. Pop. 13,U7. 
This beautifully-situated town is cele- 
brated for its wine. Here was bom 
Gonzalvo de Cordoba, sumamed el 
Gran Capitan. The palace near the 
town belongs to the Duke of Medina- 

Si m. Agnilar Stat. Pop. 11,659. 
Near Aguilar is another palace and 
estate belonging to the Medinaceli 

3^ m. Puente Genii Stat. Fop. 
10,9^5. The river Genii is crossed. 
8 m. Gasaziohe Stat. Pop. 3420. 
7f m. La Soda Stat. Pop. 1644. 
6| m. Fuente de Piedra Stat. Pop. 
1207. Several mineral springs in this 
neighbourhood are considered effica- 
cious in diseases of the urinary organs. 
At a distance of J m. is a curious saline 
lake, which is nearly 9 m. in circum- 

6i m. Bobadilla Junct. Stat. (Here 
the line by Antequera to Granada 
branches to the 1. Route 104.) 

Travellers should avail themselTes 
here of the 20 min. halt for r^esb- 

[A rlv. is planned which is to go fiom 
Bobadilla to Gibraltar by the Ibllow- 
ing stations :— Bobadilla, Camp^lofl, 
Teba, Alberquilla, Bonds, Jimena, 
Algeoiraf . This route branches off to 
Eitepona and Xarbella at Castellar. 

6i m. Oobantes Stat. DiUgence$toJ 
Bonda, 54 kilometres, fare in berlina 
52 reales, 30 m., meet the 7 a.h. and 
3.20 P.M. trains from Malaga. The 
new road is good. [A road idso crosses 
the Sierra de Peilarubia to Teba 
(6} m.), a picturesque town of 4641 

The line — now rapidly descending 
—passes through a series of 12 tunnels 
(the total length of which is 3| m.), 
and over 6 great bridges to the magni- 
ficent gorge of the Hoyo (liteially 
" hollow," or '* grave "), through which 
railroad and river pass side by side, 
divided at times by a thin wall of 

A magnificent viaduct 325 yds. long, 
was destroyed in 1873 by a landslip, 
and the line now passes over a traoL 
skirting the upper part of the gorge 
where this took place. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Lonion-John. Murray, C 

Digitized by '»^_j>^v^ -t I' 


RotUe 106. — Alora — Malaga. 


The savage grandeur of this part of 
the line will compare with the wildest 
mountain passes in Switzerland, the 
Styiian highlands, and the Tyrol. 

Soon the sublime changes for the 
beautiful, and the richly cultivated 
plain of AxLdaluoia Baja opens to the 
view. The stunted oak is replaced by 
the stately palm ; the luxuriant orange- 
groves, the creeping vines, the tropical 
(Joe, aJternate with the sombre-tinted 
olive, and vast hedgerows of prickly 

The Guadalhorce is again crossed 
before reaching 

13 m. Alora Stat. Pop. 9874. This 
picturesquely-situated town . is sur- 
rounded oy vineyards and olive plan- 
tations, and some of the finest orange 
4 and lemon groves in the world. It is 
I fo sheltered by the hills around that it 
f is attracting the attention of the Ma- 
laga merclutnts as a winter residence, 
r vhUe the vegetation of this veritable 
' garden of the Hesi)erides forms a still 
more appreciated shelter from the heats 
, if summer. 

Another bridge crosses the Guada- 
lhorce before reaching 

5 m. La Fisarra Stat. Fop. 3298. 
Omnibuses for the sulphur-baths of 
Garratraca meet the trains during the 
bathing season, &om July to October. 
Boad bad, but interesting. Horses and 
mules can be obtained at the Posada 
adjoining the stat. for those who prefer 
riding. A bridle-road leads through 
.Garratraca for Bonda. 

Leaving Pizarra, obs. to the rt. of 
&e line the ruins of a hill-fort behind 
the little town of Cartama. This little 
place offered an obstinate resistance to 
the troops of Ferdinand in 1485. 

7} nL Cartama Stat. Pop. 4932. 
ThiB was formerly a Koman station of 
lome importance, and a recently found 
bronze tablet of river-dues proves that 
the Guadalhorce was then navigated 
18 hig;h as this by Boman galleys.* 

Diligences meet the trains for the 
town (I m.), and for thB charmingly 
ritoated pueblos of Alhaurin (Pop. 
7445), 5 m., and Ck)in (Pop. 10,014), 
12 m., both well worth a visit. 
4} m. Campanulas Stat. 
* Bee BerUuga'B * Egtudios Bomanos.' 

6 m. BEalaga Terminus. A plenti- 
ful supply of cabs and buses meet the 


Inns : Fonda Alameda ; Roque Ar- 
nau, an excellent courier^ who speaks 
English, is to be heard of at this Hotel. 
Hdtel de Londres, moderate ; both have 
a south aspect H6tel de Lertora, on 
the opposite side of the Alameda. 
Hdtel Victoria, No. 33 on the Mole. 
South aspect. 

As regards management, prices, and 
cuisine there is not much to choose 
between Hotels. Booms, board inclu- 
sive, from 30 reals, according to size 
and aspect. 

Casas de Hu^spedes : Mrs. Walsall, 
Alameda Hermosa, third floor. Fonda 
de Madrid, Garros, 8. Hotel de 
Europa, Muelle, 19. These three have 
a sea view. Fonda del Universe, 
Molina Larios, 10. 

Restaurants : El Divan, underneath 
the Hotel de Londres. Cafe of the 
Fonda Alameda. La Loba, Plaza de 
la Constitucion. In these chops and 
steaks are to be had. 

Cafes: El Universal and El Siglo, 
Oalle de Granada. La Espafia in the 
Plaza de la Constitucion. 

Bachelors, to whom expense is no 
object, will get on very well at any of 
these establishments. 

Malaga is supplied with first-rate 
bottled ale by Mr. Hodgson, Puerta 
del Mar, next door to the Fonda de la 
Alameda, at whose establishment Eng- 
lish goods and provisions of all kinds 
can be obtained. 

Clubs : El Circulo Malaguefto, on the 
Mole. Visitors can procure free intro- 
duction for 10 days from a member. 
A large number of English and Conti- 
nental periodicals, billiard-rooms, &c. 
Monthly subscription, 40 reals. El 
Cfroulo Mercantil, Puerta del Mar, a 
popular and respectable club : monthly 
subscriptious, 20 reals. El Liceo, Pla- 
zuela de Alvarez, Carreteria. Fo- 
reigners admitted gratis for 15 days, 
on introduction by a member: sub- 
scription, 20 reals monthly. This club, 

Ljiyiu/_eu uy >^_.'w.^-t t'*^. 


Houie 106 ^—-Malctga .* Directory. 

Sect. VI. 

founded on the site of an old convent, 
possesses a ball-room in which are held 
the meetings of its musical society, the 
yearly exMbitious of pictures, local 
antiquities, flower-shows, &c. There is 
also a library and classes in literature, 
&c., and a Sociedad Filarmdnica. 

Theatree : Be Cervantes^ sometimes 
Italian operas. A large, handsome^ 
and well-appointed house, will con- 
tain 3000. Obs. the ceiling painted 
by Ferrandiz (an epitome of all the 
industries of Malaga). El Principal : 
Spanish dances and comedy. Circo de 
la Victoria is used for gymnastic en- 
tertainments and bull-flghts of an 
inferior description. 

Plaza de Toroa: Malaga formerly 
possessed one of the finest bull-rings 
in Spain. This has long ago given 
place to streets built on its site. And 
in 1874 another large bull-ring was 
erected in the rear of the Koble 
Hospital on the old Mole. This 
latter building was presented to the 
town by the executors of the late Dr. 
Noble, in the year 1861, and is used 
as a dispensary and an infirmary for 
sailors, captains, &c., who, by paying a 
small sum for board and lodging, are 
satisfactorily attended to. 

English Consul : E. Wilkinson, Esq., 
Peligro, No. 7. Vice-Consul: J.Mark, 

American Consular Agent : H. C. 
Marston, Esq. Vice-Consul : John R. 
Geary, Esq. 

English Chaplain: Rev. W. West, 
M.A. Service on Sundays at the British 
Consulate at 11 a.m., and 3.45 p.m. — 
N.B. Subscriptions are earnestly re- 
quested on behalf of this Ch., and also 
on behalf of the Eng. Cemetery. Visitors 
icill do well to remember how largely 
these institutions have to depend on 
their support. Government aid not being 
noio to be depended on. 

Medical Men : Dr. Emilius Bunsden, 
Alameda, 46. Clarence Visick, Esq., 
Plaza del Obispo, No. 2 (opposite Ca- 

Bankers : Travellers can cash their 
circular notes and letters of credit at 
Messrs. John Clemens & Sou, Alameda 
de los Tristes, No. 2. Messrs. Crooke 
Brothers & Co., Alameda, No. 21. 
Messrs. William Huelin & Sons, Ala- 
meda, No. 42. Messrs. Rein & Co., 
Alameda Hermosa, No. 4. Don Tomas 
LarioB, Alameda, 30. Seiiores de 
Larios, Alamed^t, 2 and 4. 

Professors of Languages : Rev. Fede- 
rioo Mesa y Gordon, Pasaje de Gordon, 
Carreteria. Sra. Dofia Carolina Cas- 
tillo, Salinas, No. 15. 

Post Office: Calle de Oasapalma, 
Calle Granada. 

English letters posted till 6 a.h. ; the 

9 P.M. mail delivered next morning. 
Telegraph Office: in the Custom- 
house, or Aduana, open night and day. 

Baths : Las Deliclas, Oetlle de 8aa 
Francisco, Carreteria. Bafios de Ortiz, 
opposite Post Office (bath, 4 r,). Tem- 
porary baths erected in the Port, op- 
posite Custom-house, in the summer 
months. The water is more or leas 
impure, from the shipping. 

Books : There is a small circulating 
library at the Consulate, under the care 
of the Chaplain. Visitors are requested 
to protect and contribute to tbis in- 
dispensable institution. Se&or Moyai 
Puerta del Mar, has a circulating li- 
brary and news-room. Subscription, 

10 reals monthly. 

Cab Fares : 4 reals the course ; 8 
reals the hour. Outside the town, 12 
reals the hour. For more than 2 per- 
sons, or at night, 2 reals extra. 

*Bus Fare : from station 1 real. 

Visitors desirous of seeing at th^ 
ease the neighbourhood of !A£daga, can 
avail themselves of the 7 A.M. or 3.20 
P.M. trains, alighting at Cartama, Fi- 
zarra, Alora, or Bolmdilla (where thef 
can lunch), returning by the evening 
train. There are daily diligences at 
cheap rates for Churriana, Torremoli- 
nos, &c., on the west, and to Yelec 
Malaga on the eastern side of the 

Biding Horses can be obtained at 
a dollar a day &om Juan Nogales, a( 



Boute 106. — History. 


the Central Bailway Office, Puerta 
del Mar, 24. 

Boat Hire : Always bargain before- 
hand : th6 usual charge is, to and from 
steamers, each person and each article 
of luggage, 2 reiJs. The boatmen are, 
like most others, regular land-sharks ; 
all disputes should be referred at once 
to the office of the Capitan del Puerto, 
exactly opposite the landing-place. 

Malaga, with its population of 
116,143 souls, is situated at the S.£. 
corner of an extremely fertile Vega, 18 
m. long by 9 m. wide. Its climate is 
one of the most equable in Europe, 
although the wind is often very try- 
ing. Invalids, especially those af- 
^ ited with asthma, chronic bronchitis, 
ipient phthisis, &c., often derive re- 
rkable benefit. Winter, in our sense 
the term, is almost unknown. This 
proved by the large and profitable 
Itivation of the sugar-cane, which 
kiUed by the slightest frost. The 
mean average temperature, during the 
{months of November, December, Ja- 
mary, and February is 56° 7'. That 
" Pau is 41°, that of Nice 47°. The 
iter often passes without the ther- 
meter having fallen below 50°, even 

The peculiar characteristics are con- 
>nt sunshine and dryness of the air ; 
a to the S. and to the sea, it is 
tered to the N. and E. by moun- 
The summer heat is so tem- 
by the steady sea breeze, that 
jy Spaniards have resort to it for 
Bain falls on 29 days in the year on 
average, seldom for more than a few 
at a time. Unfortunately, to the 
y of the farmers, the quantity is 
ie to great variation, some years 
too small to be recorded, and in 
sufficient to damage seriously 
. land and crops. The drawback 
the climate is the occasional preva- 
of land winds or ^* terrals." Pass- 
over the heated plains of the in- 
in summer, they acquire a dry- 
and heat highly depressing to 
ftoBe not hardened to them, while in 
winter, on the contrary, they bring all 
{he coldness of the snow-covered sierras 
cC the interior with, a dryaeea which 
[SpoMH 1882.] 

makes them very irritating to some 
invalids. Fortunately, they never las t 

Malaga is the capital of its province 
(the totol provincial population being 
446,660), and is the residence of civil 
and military governors, and the see 
of a bishop, su£fragan to Granada. 
The city bears for its arms the two 
tutelar martyrs San Ciriaco and Santa 
PaulOf with the castles of Alcazaba 
and Gibralfaro, and the Tanto Manta 
of Ferdinand for a motto. The city is 
divideii into two quarters by the Gua- 
dal-medina, or ''river of the city." 
This watercourse, which never had a 
name of its own, is used as a highroad 
or street in the summer and autumn, 
being then entirely destitute of water ; 
but in winter it becomes at times a 
devastating torrent. It is alike the 
bane and the antidote of the city, for 
its deposits are gradually blocking up 
the harbour, whilst its freshets cleanse 
away the plague-engendering accumu- 
lations of filth to which the inhabitants 
are strangely indifferent. This will 
soon find its remedy in the present 
scheme for the improvement and ex- 
tension of the port, the deviation of the 
Ouadal-medina to the west of the town, 
the present bed being converted into 
gardens, and the formation of a boule- 
vard to encircle the town. 

Phoenician Malaga, like Cadiz, is of 
immemorial antiquity. The name is 
taken either from Melech, ** king's 
town,*' or from Melach, ** salt-fish." 
The ancient city, having, like Cadiz, 
deserted Tyre for rising Carthage, and 
then deserted Carthage for rising 
Rome, made terms with Sdpio, and 
became a municipium. It was taken 
by the Berbers under Tarik, in the 
year 710. When in possession of the 
Moors, it is described by Basis as '*a 
paradise on earth." It was recovered 
from the invader by Ferdinand I., Aug. 
18, 1487, after a dreadful siege. The 
king broke every pledge, and followed 
up his triumph by confiscations and 
autos de fe. The manes of the mur- 
dered Moors were avenged by the 
French under Sebastiani, who sacked 
the city, Feb. 5, 1810, at the same 
time exacting 12 millions of reals in 
2 p 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy ^^-.■w.^^-i i'*^ 


Boute 106. — Malaga: Cathedral. 

Sect VI. 

gold and silver. Again in 1823 the 
French under Loveredo entered the 
unresisting city : they drew out on the 
Alameda the cartridges which they 
had loaded on the Bi&soa, and threw 
them in the face of the " patriotic ** 
inhabitants, their promenade militaire 
being concluded. The city, however, 
shared with Lugo in taking the lead in 
the Espartero pronunciamento. May 
20, 1843. 

After the dethronement of Isabel 
II., in 1868, the Malagueilos distin- 
guished themselves by an obstinate 
resistance against the Madrid authori- 
ties, and on Jan. 1, 1869, General Ca- 
ballero de Iloda«j entered the town with 
6000 men, after some severe fighting, 
the Federals having fortified every 
available position with barricades. The 
bridge at the end of the Alameda was 
the site of one of these which was 
shelled by a gun-boat from the mouth 
of the river. 

A few weeks before the abdication 
of Amadous (Feb. 1873), the Republi- 
cans made a demonstration, which was 
promptly suppressed. 

After the abdication of the king, the 
Bepublicans came out in an entirely 
new light. The troops then in Malaga, 
to the number of about 1000, disbanded ; 
and their arms and ammunition were 
seized by the populace. The citizens 
fled all over the country. All the 
local authorities having disappeared, 
the whole government of the town re- 
mained in the hands of the federals. 
By degrees a oonununistic element 
appeared, desiring more substantial 
gains from the new order of things. 
Disagreements arose, and a volunteer 
captain, who had been elected alcalde, 
was shot, June 25. During this time 
the republicans quarrelled among 
themselves. Each fraction of this 
party struggling for the command of 
the town, the inhabitants were kept in 
constant alarm, for they went the length 
of firing cannon in the streets, and 
threatening to bombard the town. The 
volunteers were paid by contributions 
laid on the inhabitants and tradesmen. 
They also seized the funds of the cus- 
tom-house and other government esta- 
blishments. Seven convents of nuns, 

were pulled down; but what mosteon- 
cems travellers is, that foreign subjects 
were not interfered with. 

Visit first the Cathedral. It occupies 
the site of the mosque, which, upon 
the flight of the Moors, was con- 
verted into a church, of which nothing 
but the early Gothic ' portal of the 
Sagrario now remains. The present 
mixed Corinthian edifice was b^^ 
in 1538, by Diego de Siloe, and only 
completed in 1719, after having been 
partly destroyed by an earthquake 
during the year 1680. The original 
design having been departed from by 
each succeedmg architect, the edifice 
now presents a motley appearance, in 
which all the defects of the worst 
periods of art are apparent. There 
are seven entrances; the principal 
fa9ade of the N. doorway consists of 
three fine arches resting on Corinthian 
pillars. It stands between two toweis, 
the one drawn out like a telescope, 
with a pepper-box dome, some 300 fk 
high, the other being unfinished. The 
interior consists of &ree aisles divided 
by fluted pillars of the Corinthian 
order, placed back to back on ill-pro- 
portioned pedestals. The arches which 
support the roof do not spring directly 
from these pillars, but rest on column! 
in the cornice. The Altar Mayor wu 
designed by Alonso Cano: the five 
frescoes of the Passion are by Cesar 
de Arbasia (1580). The choir seats 
were carved, 1592-1631, by Vergarathe 
younger. The stalls were designed, 
1658, by Luis Ortiz and Giuseppe 
Michael. The fig^ures carved in high 
relief of the stalls of the cathedral ars 
the finest specimens which exist in 
Spain of the 17th cent The 40 statues 
of saints were carved by Pedro de 
Mena, a pupil of Cano. The chapek 
in the Cathedral are indififerent That 
dedicated to Nuestra Se&ora del Bo- 
sario contains a large picture by Alonso 
Cano, of •* Our Lady of the Eosaiy.*' 
The Gapilla de la Goneepoion contains 
a "Coucepcion" which is attributed 
to Mateo Cerezo, but doubtful. The 
Capilla de San FranoiBOO has a Virgin 
and Dead Christ, ascribed to Morales, 
but €dso doubtful. Ascend the Cathe- 



BotUe 106. — Churches — Promenades. 


dial tower for the glorious view which 
it oQmmands. 

Obs. the fine old Gothic door with 
the curious oimle/o, which is opposite 
the Santo Tome Hospital, and the door 
of the hospital itself, and old window 
or ajimez. 

The Bishop's Palace is in the square 
to the ri of the Cathedral, at the other 
dde of the Fuerta del Sagrario. 

The Church of Santiago was a 
mosque ; the brick tower and some 
aailejos yet remain. 

The Church of la Vifgen de la Ym- 
toria, erected by the Franciscans in 
1518, and rebuilt 1694, was the first 
Christian edifice built after the Moors 
had been driven out of the city. To 
the rt. of the Altar Mayor is the 
loyal standard of Ferdinand, and to 
&e 1. that taken from the Moors. 

The Chapel of San I^andsco de 
Paula, close by, was erected upon the 
site of the tent of Ferdinand I., which 
he occupied during the siege of 1487. 

The Church of Los Santos MUrtires 
eontalns some painted sculpture repre- 
lenting St. James, St. John, and other 
, apostles and martyrs. 
\ The Karket-pla[oe, Fuerta del Mar, 
I deserves attention fix>m its occupying 
I the site of the Atarazana or Moorish 
\ arsenal. The beautiful horseshoe arch 
has been introduced into the central 
gateway. A distance of 400 yards now 
mtervenes between the sea and this 
spot where ships were moored in the 
time of Boabdil. 

Ascend now the Ctibralfaro, the ** hill 
of the Pharos." The ascent is easy, 
and the view ^m the top is superb. 
The noble Moorish castle, the Alcaiaha, 
is connected with the fortifications on 
the bin itself by the Fuerta de Hierro, 
ftfiue horseshoe gateway incongruously 
ornamented wim old Boman columns. 
The Fuerta de la Cava, is conuected 
hjr the vulgar with La Cava, Count 
Julian's daughter, whose violation by 
Don Bodrigo was the cause of the 
Moorish invasion, a questionable story 
at best. The Moorish castle was built 
in 1279, and is at once a palace and 
a fortte8B.—K.B. Permission (always 

granted) must be obtained from the 
governor of the castle. 

The best views of Malaga are ob- 
tained from the Cathedral tower, from 
the Convent La Trinidad, from the 
Castle, from the summit of the Light- 
house, and from the hills Santa Fitar, 
8 m., and Jotro, 6 m. from the town. 

The principal Promenades of the 
town are the beautiful Alameda, and 
the Flaia de Biego (or Ueroed), where a 
cypress and willow-shaded monument 
has been erected to Torrijos and his 
49 confederates, who were shot down 
by General Moreno (Dec. 11, 1831), as 
rebels and traitors, on the beach near 
the Bly. stat. The drive along the 
Velez Malaga road to El Falo is also 
very pleasant. It passes the English 
Cemetery, the first Frotestant burial- 
ground permitted in Spain. Mr. Mark, 
father of the late Consul, planted and 
enclosed the ground in 1830. About 
280 gravestones nestle amongst the 
cypresses and tropical vegetation of 
this blossom-laden ** God's acre." The 
view from the principal terrace is 
superb. The first Englishman buried 
here was Captain Boyd, who was one 
of the 49 patriots executed without 
even the form of trial by the dastardly 
scoundrel Moreno, the English Consul 
being unable to obtain even 24 hours' 
respite for our countrymen. 

Half a mile further on, the Camino 
Nuevo winds to the 1. round the Castle 
hill, returning to the Victoria Convent, 
now a Military Hospital. Here begins 
the old diligence rte. to Granada. It 
is a steep ascent for the first 6 miles, 
with superb views of mountain scenery. 
A Httle way up this road on the 1. is 
the Spanish Cemetery and the Alameda 
de Capuchinos, ending in a plaza, 
which, as well as that m front of the 
Victoria, has been laid out as a garden 
by Sr. Mitjana as a gift to the town. 
To the rt. is the road to San Jos^ and 
the Concepcion. To the 1. the Calle de 
los Capuchinos leads past the Tannery 
of Dn. Fernando Camara^ and some 
new convents, the refuge of the nuns 
whose former homes have since the 
revolution been turned into handsome 
streets. In Calle de la Farra on the 


BoiUe lOQ,— Malaga : Wines — Gommerce, Sect. VL 

1. is the Cuna or Foundling Hospital. 
Straight on we reach the Guadal- 
medina. Here on the 1. is the Asylum of 
San Juan de Dios, where the sisters of 
San Vicente de Paul strive to educate 
and partly support 600 poor children 
from the voluntary contributions of 
the ladies of Malaga. In this and the 
sister asylum of San Manuel, near the 
Bly. stat., the girls are taught all 
kinds of embroidery and Valenciennes 
lace. These, and the neighbouring 
establishment of San Bartolom^, for the 
support of orphan boys, are most de- 
serving institutions in urgent want of 
help. Across the bed of the river we 
see the Civil Hospital. To the rt. of 
it is the beginning of the rom&ntlc 
Arroyo de los Angeles, passing the 
old Franciscan Convent of that name, 
now the Lunatic Asylum. On the rt. 
is the Sierra Coronada ; the view is 
well worth a climb. Returning by 
the bed of the river, we pass on the 1. 
the prison, ice factory, and vegetable- 
market ; on the rt. is the Calle de los 
Marmoles, leading to the factories of 
sugar, chocolate, and of the porous 
earthenware for which Malaga is 
famous, and ending in the Antequera 
Bd. This, with the Cartama and Ohu- 
riana Bds., beginning north and south 
of the Bly. stat., am)rd very pleasant 
drives in a westerly direction. 

The sweet Muscatel wines of Malaga 
are well known ; they are the " Moun- 
tains** of our ancestors. The stores of 
Messrs. Scholtz Brothers contain every 
variety of Malaga wines, from the 
DuJce of 1788 to their Ldgrimas of 
1840, which took the gold medal of 
the Paris Exposition; they are also 
medallists of the Vienna Exposition 
for the general superior quality of 
their wines. MovUiUaf a wine formerly 
used by the Jerez growers to blend 
with their lower-classed wines, is now 
acknowledged by connoisseurs as un- 
equalled for delicacy of flavour and 
bouquet, and freeness from acidity. 
MontUla and all descriptions of dry 
wines produced in the south of Spain, 
will be found in the stores of Messrs. 
Crooke Brothers, Loring Brothers^ and 
of Mr. John Mark. 

Vald&pettas, an excellent red wine, 

sometimes equal to the best claiets; 
ManzaniUa, so called from its apple- 
like flavour, very dry and free from 
alcohol ; and ChinchiUa, &c., aie local 
wines, well worthy of a trial. 

Malaga is celebrated for its raisins. 
The process of making up may be seen 
at the stores of Mr. Clemens, one of 
the largest merchants in this line. 
The Muscatel is chiefly used, and the 
amount of labour bestowed on the 
arrangement of each box will surprise- 
the beholder. The Muscatel does not 
bear exportation so well as the Almeria 
grape, but a few are packed here in 
kegs in cork-dust. 

The district produces 90,000 cwt. of 
sugar yearly, manufactured in 4: large 
sugar-mills. There are 2 large cotton- 
mills belonging to the Messrs. Larioe, 
employing 4000 hands. 

The commerce and resources of Ma- 
laga are rapidly increasing. 3000 
vessels visit the port annually. There 
are many new streets, and much im- 
provement is visible in paving and 
sewage. A great deal of builcSng is 
constantly going on. Seilor Mitjana 
has improved the industry of fans to a 
very great extent, and has built a large 
suburb of 300 houses. Since the in- 
troduction in 1875 of the abundant 
waters of Torremolinos, Malaga has 
been supplied with excellent water. 

At the long-established iron- works 
of Don Thomafl Heredia, all the pro- 
cesses used in iron manufacture can be 
seen, including smelting of the ore. 

There are also various fdbrica* for 
the manufacture of chocolate, liquorice, 
lead-smelting, &c. 

Fruits: The most important, as 
articles of diet of the people, are the 
orange, lemon, breba, or black flg, the 
dried fig, grapes, sweet melons and 
water-melons, quince, the higo-chumbob 
or prickly pear, pomegranate and olire. 
In addition to nearly all the common 
English fruits, there are the sweet 
lemon, bitter orange, obirimoya, or 
custard - apple, plantain, guava, and 
Japanese medlar. 

Vegetables : The tomato, pimiento (a 
non-pungent capsicum), the Batatoj or 


JRoute 107. — Malaga to Gibraltar. 


sweet potato, garbanzo, a large coarse 
pea, berengena, or egg-plaDt, cardo, 
are most abundant ; and besides tbese, 
the ordinary run of English vegetables. 

The dryness of the climate prevents 
the produce of colder climes reaching 
perfection here. 

Fish : The market is well supplied. 
The Janqueta is a good imitation of 
Greenwich whitebait. Soles, red mul- 
let, sardines, boquerones, a sort of 
anchovy, and oysters, &o., are plenti- 

Objects of Interest: Travellers in- 
terested in antiquities should visit the 
lovely estate of the Marquis of Gasa 
Loring, ** La Conoepoioii,^ i h. drive, 
where, in a small temple of Grecian 
style, are Koman remaus, principally 
from Cartama. Here may also be seen 
part of the interesting Roman brouzes 
(tablets) found at Osima, theremainder 
of which are at the Arohsdological Mu- 
seum at Madrid. They are very rare 
and remarkable specimens of Boman 
mimicipal law.* The beauty and luxu- 
riance of the vegetation of this estate, 
and of the adjoining one of San Joi^, 
the property of Don Thomas Heredia, 
viU be a genuine surprise to the visitor. 
The magnificent bamboos are worth 
alone the visit ,* botanists will see with 
great pleasure the enormous arums 
grown there, and cycads. These haci- 
endas, with those of the ** Retiro," a 
sort of ruinous St. Cloud, and the 
'•Consula," in Ohuriana, ** Teatinos,** 
on the Antiquera road, &c., are beauti- 
ful oases in the sea of sun-burnt lulls 
rarrounding Malaga. 

Steam eonvmunicaJbions : Besides the 
A'Jriana, Algeria, and Maria steam- 
boats, travellers can avail themselves 
of the numerous trading-vessels call- 
ing at Gibraltar, Cadiz, Lisbon, and 
Vigo. There is weekly direct commu- 
nication with England by Hall's boats, 
agent, Messrs. Crooke Brothers; and 
Anchor line, agent, Wm. M*Culloch, 
Esq. ; and by way of Gibraltar by iiie 
P. and 0. steamers, andBibby's Liver- 
pool line. For Marseilles, Carthagena, 

* The student will find every information on 
the tnt^ect in the learned work l^ Berlanga, 

Valencia. &c., the Villes and a Spanish 
line sail twice a- week. The Villes also 
call on their way to Havre, agent, 
Don Emilio Scholtz. 

There is also weekly communica- 
tion with the United States by the 
Anchor and other lines of steamers. 

The traveller's attention is directed 
to the new route to Lisbon by way of 
Cordova, Belmez, Almorchon, and Ba- 
dajoz. By this rte. much time and a 
long sea-voyage is saved. 

ROUTE 107. 


Diligence and Horsebach, 

Luggage can be forwarded by sea 
addressed to some hotel. 

Horses can be procured with side- 
saddles for laoies, from Nogales, Hotel 

Two routes are given for the conve- 
nience of travellers; the quickest and 
most comfortable is 

Route A. Leave Malaga by the mom« 
ing train, 7 Ajf .,for Cartama, Pop. 4932, 
(see Rte. 106), where diligences meet 
the trains for Coin, Fop. 1014, 12 m. 
Coin is reached between 11 and 1 2 a.m. 
From Coin to Marbella, Pop. 7666, the 
journey must be continned on horse- 
hack; owing to the roughness of the 
road, the 4 leagues cannot be done in 
less than 6 hours. Horses can be had 
from Juan Guerrero, at Coin, 20 rs. 
each, as &r as Marbella ,* no English 
side-saddles, ^'omu^oM for ladies. 

On the road from Coin to Marbella^ 
two villages are passed. The hamlet 

I and Castle of Uonda (Munda), where 
the Waterloo of antiquity is supposed 


Boute 107. — Marbelta — Est^ma. 

Sect. VI. 

to have been fought. The exact site 
is, however, unfaiown: bo much for 

Here (or wherever it was) Caesar, 
March 17, 47 A.O., defeated the sons of 
Pompey: this the "last of battles," 
left the conqueror without a rival, and 
gave the world to one master. GsBsar 
arrived from Home in 24: days (Suet in 
Vit. 66). The first news of his coming 
was conveyed both to his own troops 
and to the enemy by bis actual arrival. 
Hirtius, a friend of Gsesar, describes 
the plain, and the bright sun which 
shone out as if the gods had made it 
a day of triumph. In the midst of 
the fight the veterans, flushed with 14 
years of victory, wavered, and Caesar 
himself for a moment even despaired, 
and is said to have meditated suicide 
(Suet, in Vit. 36). He fiung himself 
from his horse, and cast o£f his helmet 
that he might be known : the day was 
won, not by the soldiers, but by the 
general (Veil. Pat. ii. 55). The con 
queror then remarked that previously 
he had always fought for victory, but 
then for his very life. 3O,0OO of the 
enemy were slain, and a rampart of 
dead bodies was raised around Munda.* 

Ojen. Pop. 2313. Famous for its 
excellent brandy. 

14 m. Uarbella. Inn: Fonda de 
Sandalio Chioote. 

English Vwe-Ckyiiml : Dn. M. Cal- 

U, 8. A. Consular Agent: Dn. M. 

This pretty town, with a pretty name 
(Pop. 7666), has much changed of late, 
in consequence of the enormous mineral 
wealth in its immediate neighbourhood 
having attracted various mining com- 
panies, who have formed a rly. from the 
mines, 7 m., so that the trucks can 
carry the ore, and discharge by means 
of a fine iron pier direcUy into the 
ship's hold. The deposits of iron ore 
in the vicinity are of a richness and 
extent scarcely equalled in the world. 
It was taken from the Moors in 1485. 
Queen Isabel is said to have exclaimed, 
when visiting it with her victorious 

• For further detaila, read 'Munda Pom- 
peiana,' by Jose y Mannel Olivez, 4to., Mad., 

husband; « Que Mar tan bella ! " The 
town has long had the reputation of 
beiug not only fair but fraiL Like 
Potiphar's wife, Marbella is said to 
steal raiment: — 

** Marbella es bella, no entree ea ella; 
Quien entra con capa, sale sin ella." 

The views from the AJameda are charm- 
ing. The rock of Gibraltar rises in 
the distance, and Ceuta with its white 
walls can be seen on the opposite 
African shore. 

A diligence leaves Marbella at 5J 
P.M., arriving at Estepona, Pop. 9918, 
between 8 and 9 at night, 5 leagaes 
(28 m.). 

Leaving Marbella, obs. to the it 
the estates of the late General Grandan. 
The luxuriant sugar-cane hero grows 
to perfection. The Guadalmazas is 
forded twice, the Eio Verde once. 
Shortly after crossing the latter stream, 
we reach 

18 m. Estepona. Inn : Posada del 
Caballo Blanco. The owner of the 
diUgences from Marbella to Estepona 
hires horses for Gibraltar, 50 reals 
each. If on horseback a halt should be 
made here to breakfast. The ohaige 
for beds is 4 reals each. The host ii 
apt to be extortionate as to food o^ 
dered. Pop. 9978. This town was the 
Mtehbunah of the Moors, the CilniniM 
of the Bomans. A few arches remain 
near Las Bovedas of the ancient aque- 
duct of Salduba. A walk may be 
taken to the Hedionda or fetid Bxirro- 
gate-water spring at Manilba. The 
town supplies the Bock with splendid 
fruit and vegetables. The Sierraff da 
Casares abound in game. 

The road is very rough from Este- 
pona to Gibraltar, €Uid must be con- 
tinued on horseback — ^it takes 7 houn 
to do it leisurely. 

5 m. Venta de la Torre. 

3 m. Venta del BioGnadiaro. Here 
the Guadiaro is forded. 

8 m. San Boqne. Pop. 8453. liiolnn. 
Leaving San Boque, the lines are 
crossed, passports demanded, &c. 

4 m. Gibraltax . (See Bte. 96.) 

Boute B. The other route is by dili- 
gence, daily, to Benahnadena. Fop. 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.'w^^-i f»^. 


Itoute 108. — Malaga to Granada, 


Leaving Malaga, we pass between 
the rly. stat, and the asylum for aged 
poor, presented to the town by Don 
Martin Larios, holding about 300. 

On the 1. is a succession of ootton- 
mills, iron, lead, and sugar-works, 
and then an excellent road, running 
through large plantations of sugar- 
cane, brings us 

4 m. to the Gnadalhoroe, crossed by 
a fine girder bridge. On the 1. is one 
of the sugar-mills of the Messrs. He- 
ledia. A mile to the rt. is Chnrriana. 
Pop. 2716. This picturesquely situated 
village is the chief country resort of 
the Malagaedos in the early summer 
months. The view from tiie neigh- 
bouring hills is superb, including the 
whole Vega and its surrounding moun- 
tains, and even the distant Sierra Ne- 

4 m. TorremolinoB. Pop. 2131. 
Prom the Sierra above the town flows 
'' the never-varying stream forming the 
chief water-supply of Malaga. 

ajm. Arroyo delaMiel. Pop. 1972. 
Here the purity and abundance of the 
water has caused the establishment of 
several paper-mills. 

4 m. Benalmadena. 

Horses must be in readiness at Be- 
nalmadena to take travellers along the 
coast to 

4 m. Fuengirola. Pop. 4306. In the 
valley which here opens to the sea, 
sugar-cane is extensively cultivated. 
Inn : Posada del Salvador. Poor ac- 
commodation, but clean ; try the Guz- 
eo^ (a cold soup made of vegetables, 
oil, and bread). The Sierra de Mijas 
range forms a fine background to the 
town. Here, in 1810, Lord Blayney 
immortalised himself. 

The road passes at a considerable 
elevation almost through the pictu- 
resque town of Mijas, parallel to the 
sea. To the 1. is " La Perla," the 
estate of the estate of the English 
Vice-Consul, Mr. John Mark. The 
load now descends to the beach. 
. This road is more picturesque, but 
it takes a longer time. The distance 
from Banalmadena to Marbella is 9 

Here take the diligence to Estepona, 
and follow to Gibraltar (see rte. A.) 

Leaving Fuengirola, obs. the Torre 
de Gala de Buna, the Torre de Gala 
Moral, and the Torre de los Ladrones, 
the scene of many bold and bloody 

EOUTE 108. ' 


68 m. 

This route is given in case any tra- 
veller should wish to cross the moun- 
tains. There is no longer a diligence, 
but a carriage may be hired at Malaga. 

The excellent circuitous Gamino 
Ordinario winds up a circuitous route, 
over the wild mountain barrier which 
shelters Malaga to the N.E. Glimpses 
of Malaga are constantly obtained 
during the first two hours of ascent. 
The cold upon the summit of this 
barrier is often intense during the 
summer nights, and great-coats and 
wrappers are needed. 

4 m. Venta de la Herradura. 

10 m. Colmenar. Pop. 7200. 

The road continues at a high eleva- 
tion and passes the 

2 m. Venta de los Homajos, and 

4 m. Venta de Alfeimate, where the 
road descends to 

14J m. Iioja. Hence the traveller 
may continue by rail to Granada. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

440 Boute 109. — Malaga to Chranada, hy Alhama. Sect. VI. 

The fine sugar-maniifactory belong- 
ing to the Marquis of Larios may also 
be visited. Taste the excellent inosta- 
chones for which this town is famous. 
To the rt. on the road to Alhama are 
the villages of Torroz and Keija ; the 
former famous for its oranges, whioh 
are considered the best in Andaluoia. 
The view from the lighthouse is very 

The road now becomes infamous. 

7 m. Vifiuela (Pop. 1644) is pleasant; 
nature here is fruity and verdurous. 
It is the home of Pomona and Floo. 
After crossing the mountains at the 
Yentana de Zaparaya, Alhama is 

14 m. Alhama. Inns: Parador de 
San Francibco; Posada de los Oaba- 
Ueros. Pop. 7760. The place is so 
called from the baths, AI Hammim 
(whence our Hummums in Coyept 
Garden). The town, wild and pio* 
turesque, is the Bonda of these alpine 
districts ; it is perched on the edee of 
an awful rent in the hills, round which 
the river Marohaa sweeps^and is backed 
by its own sierra, in which the Tejee 
rises 8000 ft above the sea. It was the 
land-key of Granada, and its romantie 
capture, Feb. 28, 1482, by the Marquis 
of Cadiz, spread consternation into the 
Alhambra, and paved the way for the 
final conquest of Granada. The well* 
known plaintive ballad commencing 
*'Ay! de mi Alhama I " (which Byioa 
trani^ted " Woe is me, Alhama I " but 
it should be '* Alas 1 for my Alhama ! **) 
expressed the national lamentation « 
the Moors. 

Alhama continues to bear for its ann0 
a castle with two keys, emblematic of 
its being one of the keys of Granada. 
It was the Astigis Juliensis of tba 
Komans. In the Moorish period it wii 
much frequented for the baths (which; 
can be visited next day when riding 
past them). The traveller may looi 
at the aqueduct on the Plaza, peep 
over the tajo, and pass on to the ch^ 
with its single tower. Passing ^ 
arch at the head of a staircase whid 

ROUTE 109. 


64 m. 

This is a much more interesting 
route than by Loja (Rte. 104), but it 
must be ridden. Hire horses of Juan 
Nogales. (See Malaga, Rte. 106.) Two 
days are required. Sleep at Alhama. 

Those who prefer to shorten the 
horseback route may send on their 
horses and guide to Yelez Malaga, 
and take the afternoon diligence from 
Malaga to that town, sleeping there 
and starting early the next morning 
-for Alhama and Granada. 

The road to Yelez Msdaga is good. 
The sea and Atalaya towers lie to the 
rt., the vine-clad mountains to the 1. 

18 m. Yeles Malaga. Inns : Fonda 
de Aguilar en el Casino. Casino, open 
without an introduction from a mem- 
ber. Cafe in the Casino. Pop. 23,579. 
This town, the Menoba (or Sex Sesta) 
of the Romans, rises with its spires 
and fortress, on a gentle eminence i m. 
from the sea. The picturesquely situ- 
nted parroquia of Santa Maria is full of 
Moorish remains. Obs. the towers of 
the two parroquias. Above the town 
rise the lordly mountains of Tejea, 
whose barren peaks look coldly down 
upon the land overflowing with oil and 
wine, the hatatay the indigo, and the 

The town was taken from the Moors 
by Ferdinand in person, wlio, having 
himself killed a Moor, was so pleased 
that he gave the city for arras his own 
figure on horseback spearing an in- 
fidel. Obs. in the Gh. of the Eneama- 
oion, the Sacramental plate used by 
him after his victory. The Ermita de 
San SebastiaiL was founded by the same 
king in 1489, in honour of Sebastian 
Pelao, who saved the king's life from 
the spear of an infidel, by placing 
himself between the king and his an- 

leads into the ch., is a most picturesqnl 
house, in which many varieties m 
architectural style are introduced it 
juxtaposition. Here are the GoUul 


Boute 110. — Malaga to Bonda, 


windows of the 16th centy., the pecn- 
L'sr *'6aK" ornament so frequent in 
Toledo ; and projecting ornaments such 
as occur at Salamanca and Guadalajara , 
with an Aragonese character of solid- 
ity, all combined in this singular 
fa^de. Many of the houses of Alhama 
are eouas aolarea, or the &imily man- 
sions granted to those who assisted at 
the conquest ; the stone of which they 
are built is much corroded. The popu- 
lation is clad in brown like that of 
La Mancha, for the gay Andaluz Majo 
has disappeared. 

The view of tiie tajo from the CJon- 
Tent is striking. Below tears the 
foaming Marchan, winding through 
ravines and rocky pinnacles. The 
whole 8oene,itonda on a smaller scale, 
is made for the painter : on the ledges 
of the beetling diffe picturesque houses 
topple, with trellised vines and hang- 
ing gardens, while below boil the 
streams of water-mills and cascades. 
Alhama is seen to best advantage at 
its fair time, Sept. 8. 

The road to Granada descends from 
Alhama. Continuing up the bed of the 
river, and passing a picturesque mill, 
to the L, at a short distance, are the 
inineral baths. The sulphurous waters 
issue out of a dip in the hills, in 
that sort of position so common to 
warm springs. They are strongly 
impregnated with nitrogen gas, con- 
sidered to be beneficial for dyspepsia 
and rheumatism. The bath called el 
SaSo de la Beyna is circular, has a 
dome over it like the Pantheon at 
Bome, a round opening to the sky, 
and quite in the style of the Bomans, 
by whom it was probably erected. 
The Moorish bath, el Ba&o faerte, so 
called from the heat and strength of 
the water, as it is nearer their source, 
is well preserved and very picturesque, 
with its emerald pool and spiry clouds 
of steam. There are two seasons, viz., 
from Ist April to end of May, and 
from 1st August to end of September. 
The road reasoends, soon to descend 
by a deep gorge to 

6 m. Cadn, a wretched village, 
placed at the bottom of a funnel. Re- 
sflcending, it continues to the poor 
Ttnta de HneUna, and thence to 

6 m. La Mala (Arabic^ MaWta), 
Pop. 576, with its gaZ^pans and mi- 
neral baths. It now enters the Vega 
of Granada, spread out like a green 
carpet below the towering Sierra 
Nevada, which is seen in all its alpine 

12^ m. Oraaada. (See Bte. 103.) 

ROUTE 110. 


This bridle route is seldom used. 

The most comfortable Tnanner of 
reaching Bonda is from the station of 
Gohantes, on the line from Cordova to 
Malaga. A daily diligence meets (he 
train. — Rte. 106. The ailigence which 
leaves at 7 p.m. for Eonda, arrives at 
1 A.M. The return diligence leaves 
Eonda at 1 a.m. and reaches Oobantes 
at 7 A.M. Places can only be secured 
at Malaga. Berlina, 50 rs. ; interior 
40 rs. ; seat by driver, 40 rs. The 
road is very good. As the diligence 
arrives in the middle of the night, it is 
well to write beforehand to the hotel, 
otherwise the house is closed and it is 
difScult to gain admittance. For de- 
scription of road to Gobantes, see 
Rte. 106. 

Those who ride this magnificent 
mountain route must rough it indeed. 
Attend to the provend, for nothing but 
thin gazpacho and bad-flavoured wine 
can m ohtained at the wretched venta 
at El Bnrgo, the only halting-place 
upon the way. Engage horses and 
guide at Malaga (see Rte. 106), and 
arrange for their proceeding over-nigh t 
to Pizarra — a station on the Cordova 
and Malaga Kly. — ^there to be in readi- 
ness for an early start unon^he follow- 


Boute 110. — Pizarra — Sonda. 

Sect. VI. 

ing morning. Proceed to Pizarra by 
the early train, arriving abont 7 a.m. 
You will require 9 hrs. to ride thence 
to Bonda. 

18 m. Fiiarra Stat. Pop. 
From this point the diligence-road 
leading to the baths of Garratraca is 
followed for f m. The river is forded, 
and the wind-blown stony dehesa is 
traversed, by a gradual ascent, to a 
point whence a pathway to the 1, 
leads to the picturesquely placed town 

6 m. Casarabonela. Posada, wretch- 
ed. Pop. 4639. Splendidly situated. 
To the S.E. is Coin, a little lower down 
Cartama and ALhanrin el grande, 
with their pretty Moorish towers — 
the country is splendid. On leaving 
Casarabonela the country suddenly 
changes, the track becomes very rough 
until the Puerto de UartmeBis passed. 
As soon as the port is passed all 
vegetation disappears. In the valley 
are large blocks of red granite. 

The track now descends by a cir- 
cuitous route to the wretched town of 

8 m. El Burgo (Pop. 3149), bridge, 
lively little trout-stream, and wretched 

From Burgo a singular natural 
causeway leads up in a zigzag direction 
towards the entrance to the Dientes 
de la Vieja. The wildness of ihe 
scenery here surpasses description. 
The barely visible track winds in and 
out between huge boulders, now skirt- 
ing the edges of deep ravines, now 
traversing the slippery surface of 
slanting ledges of rock, until a stretch 
of compai-atively level table-land is 
reached: then the difficult descent 
into the Puerto de los Empedrados 
oonmiences. Here it is necessary to 
dismount and scramble down the 
almost precipitous mountain side as 
carefully as possible, leaving the guide 
to look after the horses. 

Emerging from this defile by the 
Puerto del YiexLto, the horses can again 
be mounted. An open country is soon 
reached, although the track continues 
bad, and progress slow and tedious. 

After crossing the stream Tore, the 
hacienda of Uolinilla is passed to the 

1. Then from the crest of a hill beau- 
tiful Ronda is first seen nestling in the 
midst of its vega, and relieved upon an 
azure-blue mountainous background. 
In the middle distance is the noble 
aqueduct which formerly supplied the 
Roman Ronda with water. 

A long wearisome ride of 1} hr. has 
still to he accomplished, although the 
city appears so near at hand. 

The aqueduct being at length passed, 
the new coach-road between Ronda and 
Bobadilla is reached, along which a 
canter of ten minutes brings the tired 
horse and his rider to their comfort- 
able quarters in the Posada de Bnena 

11 m. Bonda. Inns: Posada de 
Buena Vista, finely situated; Hotel 
Rondefio, open to visitors; 30 rs. s 
day. Guides 12 rs. 

CoMtio in the El Burgo with its old 
ruined castle bridge. 

BuU-ring, in the Plaza de San Ca^ 
los. This handsome ring should be 
visited by all tauromachians. Tlje 
fights are considered amongst the best 
in Spain : they take place during the 
annual fair, viz. on the 20th, 2l8t, 
22nd, and 23rd of May. 

Andalucian Costume. Ronda is » 
good place to obtain an outfit of thil 
picturesque and elegant costume. Tk 
leggings can he bought of Manuel Condit 
Calle Nu&va, No. 3 ; the breeches, vedf 
and jachety of Velasco, CaUe de Linor 
ceros, No. 24; the faja (body scarf) 
of JHego Buifemandez^ CaUe de Lin<t' 
ceros, No. 18 ; and the sombrero (Jio^ 
of Gaspar Carril, Calle de los Bemediott 
No. 11. 

Ronda (Pop. 18,793) is undoubte^ 
most picturesque. There is indeed 
but one Ronda in the world. The 
Moorish town is divided from the ne* 
quarter by the Tigo, a stupendous rent 
in the mountain — some 200 feet widj 
and 350 feet deep — ^which looks as if 
it might have been cleft by the 
scimitar of Roldan, to render almost 
mipregnable this favourite stronghold 
of the Moor. 

Ronda, say the Spaniards, is ^ 
Tivoli of Andaluoia ; but Trajan, al- 

Bonda & Granada. Itoute 110. — Sonda: the Quadalvin, 


though an Andaluz, built no villa here, 
and its MsBceoas was the Moor, from 
whom it was taken by surprise in 
1485. The old town is only accessible 
&om the S. by a narrow and difficult 
ascent guarded by a fort. 

The Gnadalvin (the ** deep stream "), 
called lower down El Guadiaro, girdles 
the city as the Uaroliaa does Alhama, 
the TagOB Toledo, and as the rivers 
Hnecar and Jooar encircle Ouen^a. 

Commence sight-seeing with the 
modem bridge, which spans the gulf at 
ita narrowest point, and connects the 
new with the Moorish town. It was 
built in 1761 by Jos^ Martin Alde- 
gnela, and consists of one noble arch of 
l\0 ft, with a mean height above the 
loeky foundation of 290 ft. The archi- 
tect was subsequently dashed to pieces, 
by accidentally falling from the parapet 
into the chasm below. Looking over 
the parapet whence he fell, it is indeed 
"dizzy to cast one's eyes below!" 
The Moorish mills look like toy cot- 
tages, and the miller-men like white 
ants, so small does every object ap- 

Those who are in search of the pic- 
turesque should now descend to the 
level of the lowest Moorish mill, visit- 
% on the way the old bridge of San 
lugael, which crosses the Tajo at the 
opposite extremity of the old town: 
thence pass out of the city by the 
Moorish castle. The view from below, 
looking up some 600 feet to the oloud- 
Bpspended bridge, is very fine. The 
river — black as Styx — ^which, heard 
but not seen, has long struggled 
through the cold shadows of its rocky 
prison, comes dashing joyously down 
into li^ht and liberty ; the waters boil 
in the bright burning sun, and glitter 
like the golden shower of Danae. The 
giant element leaps with delirious 
wund from rock to rock, until at last, 
broken and buffeted, and weary from 
diinng the numberless wheels, it sub- 
sides into a gentle stream, which steals 
iike happiness away, down a verdur- 
ous valley of fruit and flowers. The 
Boene, its noise and movement, baffle 
pen and pencil, and, like Wilson at the 
FaUs of Temi, we can only exclaim, 

**Well done, rock and water, by 
Heavens I" 

In the town, visit the Dominican 
convent; the Moorish tower stands 
on the verge of the chasm. There is 
another Moorish tower in the Galle del 
Puente viejo. 

Visit, in the Calle San Pedro, la 
Casa del Bey Uoro. built in 1042 by 
Al-Motadhed, who drank his wine out 
of jewel-studded goblets formed from 
the skulls of those whom he had him- 
self decapitated (Conde, ii. 26). Here 
is la mina de Bonda, a staircase cut 
down to the river in the solid rock. 
Descend to the singular Nereid's grotto 
below, which was dug by Christian 
slaves, in 134:2, at the command of Ali 
Abou Melee. The bitter task of lower- 
ing and raising water passed into a 
proverb, Dios me guarde del zaqtie de 
Bortda ; the steps were origiually pro- 
tected with iron ; these were replaced 
with wood, which General Rojas, the 
governor, who lived in the house, used 
up, in 1833, for his kitchen firing ! The 
descent and ascent are difficult and 

Ronda is an intricate old Moorish 
town of tortuous lanes, and ups and 
downs. The houses are small ; the 
doors are made of the fine Nogal^ or 
walnut, which abounds in the fruit- 
bearing valleys. 

The Alcazar is the property of the 
Girons, and the Duque de Ahumada is 
hereditary governor. It was destroyed 
by the French, when they retired, from 
sheer love of destruction. The land- 
gate of the city was repaired by 
Charies V. 

Visit, both at sunrise and sunset, the 
rose - garnished Alameda, 1 minute's 
walk from the inn, to the rt. It hangs 
over a beetling cliif, whence is an 
almost sheer descent of nearly 1000 
feet to the level of the valley below. 
The view over the vega, with the 
mountain panorama to the rt., is splen- 
did. Here the vultures — ^which the 
natives swear are eagles — may fre- 
quently be seen hovering and circlinff 
around in the air, attracted by dead 

The fruit of Ronda, especially the 


Boute 111. — Bonda to Gibraltar, 

Sect VI. 

Peros, Ciruelds and Melocotanes, are 
excellent ; indeed the apples and pears 
of Bonda are proverbial. Being highly 
salubrious, the longevity of the place 
is proverbial. The proverb says, " En 
Bonda loa hombres a ochenta eon ^ 
llonea." These hardy octogenarian 
chickens, according to M. Bocca, used 
to hide amongst the rocks, and amuse 
themselves with popping at the French 
sentries. Amongst Bonda's toorfhies 
may be mention^ Vicente de Espinel, 
born here in 1551, who died at the age 
of ninety : he was one of the best 
musicians, poets, and novelists of 
Spain, and translated Horace's * Art of 
Poetry.' He was a priest, and invented 
the Spanish compositions called de- 
cimas, or JCspineleSj and also added the 
5th string to the guitar. Espinel had 
served in the campaigns of Italy, and 
in his tale of Marcos de Obregon — 
translated by Major Langton — ogives 
his own adventures. 

The fairs and Fiestas held here are 
of the first order. May 20th is the 
time to see Bonda, its bulls and MajoSy 
in their glory. This is the great 
leather, saddlery, embroidered gaiters, 
garters, mantas, and horse fair, to 
which many detachments of English 
officers ride from the Bock and home 
ill one day. The Maestranza^ or 
equestrian corporation of Bonda, takes 
precedence over all others in Spain. 

Excursions from Bonda. — (1) An 
excursion can be made to Bonda la 
Yieja (the Boman Arunda), which lies 
7 m. to the N. of the Moorish city. 
The infidels, who invariably chose 
new sites for their principal cities, 
used up the ancient Boman one as a 
quarry for their Bondah. The ruins 
of the Boman city — considerable in 
1747— now scarcely exist, and do not 
deserve a visit except from the anti- 
quarian and coin collector. The 
coinage is described by Blorez (M.I. 
153). See Marbella, Bte. 107. 

(2) A day's excursion can be made 
to La Gneva del Gato, a hitherto un- 
explored stalactical cavern about 9 m. 
N.W. from Bonda. The road of course 
is only a bridle-path. Take provisions. 
Several lives hiave already been sa- 

crificed in tlie attempt to explore 
this dangerous cavern, and it \a com- 
monly reported that no one who has 
once entered has ever reappeared at 
the sur&ce again 1 There is no doubt, 
however, that a properly organised 
expedition would be able to over- 
come all difficulties. The river which 
emerges from this cavern takes the 
name of the GiMddevin, Now ride 
over the hill to the magnificent Gorge 
of the Znmidero, some 2} m. distant 
from the Cueva. Here tne river (as 
yet nameless) disappears under ground, 
at a spot so wild and picturesque 
that it is surpassed in interest dj 
few Alpine scenes. Thence return to 
Bonda. N.B. This excursion will take 
about 8 hrs. 

(3) A pleasant ride can be taken 
through the Hnerta of Bonda to some 
old Moorish baths — without a name, 
and destitute of any EstableGimiento— 
about 2 m. from the town. Here 
people ride out during the season 
(July and August) to bathe, dance, 
and enjoy themselves, the numerous 
CoMLS de campo in the immediate 
neighbourhood affording lodging ac- 
commodation to ladies and invalids. 
The waters are of the Harrogate class, 
and similar to those of Garratraoa. 

ROUTE 111. 


12 Leagues. 44 m. Horseback hj 

There are two roads &om Gibralttf 

to Ganoin (8 hours' ride). A. by flt» 

Boqne, and thence down the hUl o& 

I the eastern side by the Venta de Odffn, 

Randa & Granada. Boute 111 . — Gaucin ^San Boque. 


sod the rood between the Loroa and 
Aloadeia Crags, leaving on the left 
the Almoraina woods, and passing 
the village of Tesorillo to the Yenta 
de Asebnchal, 5 hours, where a hedt 
should be made to lunch and feed the 
liorses. After leaving the Venta, the 
road passes along the valley of the 
Onadairo and Jennal. After passing 
along the junction of these rivers by a 
ford called Pasada Eeal, the line of 
the Jennal alone is followed by the 
Yenta de los Hogales along and. across 
the river bed to the foot of Gaucin. 

B. The other road, which is unr 
ioubtecUy the hesty is by Eastery Beach 
over Marshairs Bank to the ^lage of 
Gfuadairo, 2 hours and a half; the river 
is crossed there, and the road con- 
fi&aes for a long time along the valley 
to the Venta de los Nogales, where the 
tune road is struck to Gaucin hill. 
The mid-day halt is at Yenta de la 
Pahna, 3 J hours. 

The state of the weather exercises a 
eonsiderable influence* on the choice of 
the routes ; in wet weather that by the 
Tenia de Asebnehal is the one to take, 
is the Guadairo can be ci-ossed in a 
ferry boat higher up than Pasada Heal, 
which in wet weather is dangerously 
liigh. From the foot of Oanoin hill to 
^ftrador de los Ingleses, there is a 
little more than an hour's ride over a 
terrible road. 

17m. Oauoin. Pop. 4761. Inn: 
Paiador de los Ingleses; travellers,35rs., 
guide, 10 rs., lunch, 6 rs., horses 12 rs. ; 
^mfortable. This most romantically 
•ituated town is built on a cleft ridge. 
The road which scales it is a tremen- 
dous ascent, by a sort of dislocated 
tburcase in a hanging garden. To 
ftose coming from (Hbraltar the moun- 
^n wall presents a splendid appear- 
tuce. Here Guzman el Bueno was 
iffled (Sept. 19, 1309), in the 53rd 
par of his age. Having secured the 
^^, ascend me Moorish GasUe^ much 
Mattered by an explosion, April 23, 
1^3. The view is glorious. Gibraltar 
DBes like a molar tooth in the dis- 
fence, and Africa looms beyond. In 
tile hermitage of the castlo was a 

small image of the Infant Saviour, El 
nino Dios, now in the parish church. 

There are two roads fix)m Oanoin to 
Sonda, the mountain route by Atajate, 
and the lower one by the Cortes Yalley. 
The traveller who wishes to see fine 
mountain scenery should go by the 
upper road, and return from Bonda by 
the lower. The latter is certainly 
farther, but not such bad going. It is 
six hours by the upper road, and must 
all be doue at a walk. Atigate is half 
way. Ronda is caught sight of within 
an hour and a half off. 

For description of Bonda, see p. 

On leaving Bonda take the road by 
the Corte's Yalley, 6^ hours to Gaucin ; 
the river is reached in | of an hour 
from the start. The halting-place is 
at the Yentorillo de Jimena, 3 hours, 
shortly after which the river is left 
behind, and the road passes through 
scanty woods. Shortiy before readi- 
ing Gaucin the mountains are passed 
by a picturesque road. 

If time is an object, by leaving 
Oauoin to Bonda at 7 in the morning 
there will be time enough to see Ronda 
in the same afternoon, and return the 
next morning. 

Leaving Gaucin for 

20 m. San Boque. No Inn, The 
town (Pop. 8453) was built in 1704 by 
the Spaniards, after the loss of Gib- 
raltar, when they used up the remains 
of time-honoured Garteia as a quarry. 
It is named after its tutelar saint, San 
Roque. The town is healthy and 
cheap : a family can live here for half 
the expense necessary at Gibraltar. 
It is the chief town of the Campo de 
Gibraltar, and has always been made 
the head-quarters of the different 
Spanish and French armies, whicli 
have not retaken the Rock. San Roquo, 
from being made the summer resi- 
dence of the families of the oflacers 
in garrison at Gibraltar, is snug and 
English-looking, with brass knockers 
on the doors. 

The road now leads to the water's 
edge. At every step in advance Spain 
recedes, and England re-appears, after 
passing the " Lines" These " Lines," 


Boute 112. — Bonda to Seville, 

Sect. VI. 

the frontier boundary, were once most 
formidable, being defended by two 
superb forts, erected in 1731. by 
Philip y. : they are now heaps of 
ruins. One was called after Philip's 
tutelar saint, Felipe, the other after 
Santa Barbara, the patroness of Span- 
ish artillery. They were so strong, 
that when the French advanced in the 
last war, the Spaniards, unable even 
to destroy them, called in the aid of 
our engineers under CoL Harding, 
by whom they were eflfectually dis- 

A large town has risen on their ruins, 
now containing more than 10,000 inha- 
bitants, who are dependent on Gibral- 
tar for subsistence, and its size is 
gradually increasing. It now contains 
a church, a bull-ring commenced 1880, 
and a newspaper is published there. 

A narrow flat isthmus of sand, 
divided into the Neutral Ground and 
the North Front, separates the Eock 
from the Lines, styled now La Linea 
de la Concepcion. 

The N. side of Gibraltar now rises 
bluflfly, bristling with artillery: the 
dotted port-holes of the batteries, ex- 
cavated in the rock, are called by the 
Spaniards "los dientes de la vieja,'' 
the grinders of this stem old Cerbera. 
The town is situated on a shelving 
ledge to the W. 

N.B. The Gates of Gibraltar being 
closed at sundown^ the hour varying, tra- 
vellers should on no account delay 
their arrival beyond 5 o'clock. It is 
veiy difficult to obtain entrance when 
tiiey are once shut. The alternative 
is to sleep at San Eoque, but there is 
no good Inn there. 

7 m. Gibraltar. See Bte. 96. 

ROUTE 112. 


60 m. 

The beginning of this road musk be 
ridden, but there is a branch line ftom 
Moron and Osiina to Utrera, on the 
Seville line, which joins the Seville 
trains twice a day. 

The country is wild and stony. 
The ride is eminently lonely, but 
picturesque. Passing the almond and 
walnut groves of the valley of the 
Qnadiaro, we enter a dehesa of cistiu 
and quercus Quexigo. 

8 m. Setenil. A poor spot, inhabited 
by a straggling population. Pop. 3313. 

7 m. Olyera. Inn: a decent PosadA 
without name. Pop. 8219. This town 
has long enjoyed an imenviable repn* 
tation as a refuge for the man of blood ; 
hence the proverb, ** Ma;ta al hmbn 
y vete d Olvera,'* kill your man and 
fly to Olvera. The inhabitants on one 
occasion, being compelled to funiidt 
rations to a French detachment, foisted 
on them asses' flesh for veal; tbil 
insult, says M. Bocca, was throvii 
always into their, teeth : " Vous ova 
mangS de Vane a Olvera," * 

The women of Olvera, according to 
Bocca, were ceaseless in their oppo* 
sition to the French, while the mascu- 
line gender of Andalucia yielded? 
these are the worthy mothers of the 
noble mountaineers, into whose fast* 
neases we now enter. 

In the Sierra de Laita are remains 
of old silver-mines, and loadstone! 
and emeralds are found here. 

14 m. Heron Stat. Inn : Fonda d0 
laEstacion. Pop. 14,949. This town 

* The 'Guerre en Espagne,' by M. Rocc«,il 
a charmiDg. well-written book, and one of the 
beet French military accounts of the WtfOj 
Independence. It details hardships endared jV 
his countrymen in these hungry hills, where vt 
one cook there were a thousand guerilla »btfp* 
shooters. Booca afterwards married HadtfM 

Digitized by VJ4^-^^ -i ii^ 

Bonda & Granada. Routes 113, ll^.-^Bonda to Motnh 

(the Arumi of the ancients) is built on 
irregular aoolivities, with the remains 
of its once almost impregnable castle 
to the E. erected by the Moors on 
Boman foundations ; it was blown np 
by the retreating French. The chalk, 
Cdl de Moron, makes the fSfttal white- 
wash, by which so much mediieyal 
and Moorish decoration has been ob- 
literated. The tortas de Moron have 
a Peninsular celebrity, and are excel- 

Here the train leaves for Seville, 
1 train daily, 21 m. See hours in 


ROUTE 113. 


Leaving Bonda by picturesque de- 
files, the Cuesta de la Viila is left be- 
hind. Then commence dehesas y de»- 
pcblados, delightful to the wild bee 
and botanist. 

14 m. Zahara. Pop. 2630. This 
pictnresque Moorish town is perched 
like an eagle's nest upon the summit 
of a pyramidal hill. It is so fortified 
by nature with rocks for wall, and 
river for moat, as to have been almost 
impregnable before the invention of 
artillery. Its capture by Muley Aben 
Hassan, in 1841, was the first blow 
Btrock in the war which ended, in 1492, 
by the conquest of Granada. 
I After tracking and crossing the 
Gvadalete the 

7 m. Piiarto is reached. Pop. 2300. 
i'rom this mountain portal the robber 
bands were formerlv accustomed to 
descend, and infest the high road from 
Beville to Cadiz. 

The long and tedious track continues 

13 m. Coronil Stat. Pop. 4445. 
The stat. is 3 or 4 miles from the town 
of Coronil. Inn : Posada Nueva. See 
^Indicador' to time the journey to 
Seville. 2 trains daily. * Indicador.' 

18 m. SeviUe. See Bte. 86. 

ROUTE 114. 


Granada. See Bte. 103. A daily 
diligence runs between Granada and 
Beznar. The road is excellently engi- 
neered ; at one point between iBeznar 
and Motril it is carried through a 
tunnel 328 yards long. 

The road leaves Granada by the 
Puente de Genii, and 2 miles after- 
wards reaches the village of Armilla 
(Pop. 1189), whence it continues 
through the wonderfully fertile vega 

5 m. Alhendin. Pop. 2005. Near 
this little town is the hill Ml tiUimo 
sttspiro del Moro (Bte. 103). 

5J m. PaduL Pop. 3668. 

3i m. Durcal. Pop. 2601. This 
little village is pleasantly situated, in 
the midst of a fertile plain watered by 
the Durcal. The alpine views of the 
Sierra Nevada from Durcal are superb. 

4 m. Talara. Pop. 1000. The im- 
mediate neighbourhood is well wooded. 
Here grow immense quantities of es- 
parto-grass and flax. 

2 m. Bemar. Inn : El Parador, de- 
cent. Pop. 918. Near this little ham- 
let, obs. a mill where an artist might 
linger a week. Some olive-tree planted 
by the Moors are gigantic. Between 
Bemar and Yelez the bridge of 

.by Google 


Boute 115. — Chranada to Almeria, 

Sect. YL 

TaUate is passed, remarkable for its 
great height over the river. Here oc- 
curred interesting episodes of the war 
of the Morisooes during the campaign 
of Don Juan of Austria.* 

12 m. Velei de Benaudalla. Fop. 
3930. This picturesque town — "the 
land of the children of Audalla" — ^is 
generally called VeleziUo. The castle 
rising on an adjoining knoll is in ruins. 
The Bio Grande (which, however, is 
only " a large river " in rainy weather) 
here joins the Guadalfeo. 

Descending a romantic gorge, and 
traversing the defiles of the Sierra de 
Liyar, whence fine sea views are ob- 
tained, the road enters 

8 m. Hotril. British Vice-Consul: 
Dn. P. J. Llorca. Inn : Casa de Hu^s- 
pedes, La Dorotea — ^bad. Casino open 
to visitors. Theatre in the season. Pop. 
16,311. This exceedingly healthy 
town is inhabited by an amphibious 
agricultural population, dusky as 
Moors, and lies in a green vega of 
rich alluvial soiL It has now become 
the great centre of sugar-making in 
Spain, the vega is laid out in sugar- 
plantations, and the trade increases 
daily. The region is full of fish and 
fruit. The sea having receded about 
f of a mile, Motril has ceased to be 
a port, the present port of Motril being 
now situated 6^ m. E. of the town, 
upon the site of the small fishing- 
village originally cal led Calahonda. A 
railway is projected from Calahonda 
to Granada. The most thriving part 
of the town is situated at El Baradero, 
three miles bevond; the best houses 
are there, and the large sugar refineries 
of Srs. Larios, Babaza, and La Chica. 
They are well worth a visit. Carnages 
are to be hfiid with one or two horses 
at reasonable prices with which to drive 
in the Yega. 

* See 'Las Alpqjarras,' by Alarooc, Mad. 

ROUTE 115. 


A bi-weekly service of 
with 8 places connects Almeria with 
Granada. This ** coach and six " takes 
3 days to accomplish the journey,^ 
stopping the first night at Guadix, and 
the second night at the venta kept by 
Dofia Maria. 

The road is mountainous and bad,j 
and the progress slow. 

The city is quitted by the Puerta de 
Fajalausa (the ** gate of the almond- 
trees **), and a two-hours' ascent leadi, 

6 m. Huetor de Santlllan. Fop.i 
1253. The road continues to asoendf, 

Sas$«ing lofty crags and picturesqnft 
efiles to I 

4 m. La Venta de la Crns del Puerto^ 
after which the magnificent passes d 
el Prado del Bey, and los Bientesde li 
Vieja are traversed, to bumt-up 

12 m. Dieona. Pop. 1428. Thid 
pleasantly situated village lies at thi 
foot of the snowy Sierra de Araaa. 

A long and tedious ride now interj 
venes before reaching the first night'd 
halting-place. When approaching \ 

8 m. Fnndlena (Pop. 1043), obs. the 
numerous cttevaa scooped out of the 
soft hillocks to the rt. and 1. of the 
road : they are inhabited by a numeroiM 
gipsy population. 

13 m. anadix. Inn: Parador da 
las Diligencias, decent. Pop. 11,520. 
Guadix (wadi-cuh, ** the water of life > 
looks cheerful among its mulberry- 
groves. It is a bishopric, sufi^ragan to 
Granada, and claims to have been con- 
verted by SaxL Torooato, one of tbd 
seven prelates sent expressly to Spain 
by St. Peter and St. Paul. The Cathe- 
dral is unimportant: the view trom 
the Faseo in its front is fine. Coming 
out towards the bishop's palace» oba 
a Roman stone, let into the wall, and 
inscribed *• Colon Aocis." Henfia by 

Bonda & Granada. Boute 116. — Almeria : Cathedral 

the Calle de la HnzallA to the ruined 
Hoorish castle. Walk up to the Plata 
ornamented with oolumna of the 15th 

Goadiz was once renowned for its 

[From Gnadix (^ m.) are the mine- 
Mi springs of Oraena. Inn : Parador 
tie la Oasta&a; tolerably good, but 
dear. These hot sulphur and cold fer- 
raginous springs are much frequented 
fiom Granada and Madrid, during the 
kmporada (1st August to 15th Oc- 
jtDber), when a daily omnibus runs be- 
tveen Granada and the baths; fare 
10 T. each way. The bathing aocom- 
nodation is wretched, and the vicinity 
libadeless and unpioturesque. j 
\ Leaving Guadix, a roaa branches oflF 
.to the N.E. to Baza and Murcia. Obs. 
: the extraordinary character of the sur- 
lounding countiy, which resembles a 
itonny sea whose waves have been 
•oddenly transformed into solid sub- 
^•tances. The pointed hillocks, sandy, 
farthy, and tawny, and destitute of 
py vegetation except the luxuriant 
IMparto-grass, are excavated into caves 
4i^ch form the wretched homes of 

The road now skirts the Sierra de 
iMa, by the Yenta de los UaaoB and 
^^M2a, to the second night's resting- 
; place at 

30 m. The Yenta de BoSa Xaria. 
Thence by Las Aleubillas and the 
Venta de la Bambla to 

17 m. CkUtor. Pop. 2437. The river 
Almeria is crossed. 

H m. Benapadnz. Pop. 1161 . 
! 3|m. Almeria. British Vice-€km8ul : 
Dn. Pedro Barron. U. 8. A, Consular 
\Aqeini: H. F. Fischer, Esq. Inn: 
I Jonda de Tortosa, comfortable and 
I Jeaaonable, 19, Paseo del Prfncipe. 
! I'onda Malaguefia, Gaf(^ in the Paseo 
icl Principe. Casino good. Ateneo 
vith foreign newspapem ; visitors are 
admitted. Carriages, here called gon- 
dolas, are on hire. Pop. 40,030. This 
improving seaport was Ihe Portus 
Jugnns of the Bomans, and the Al- 
J<E&niat of the Moors. Under the 
Romans it was the "great port" of 
^ffto with Italy and the East, whilst 
nuder the Ifbomh independent ohief 
[%<», 1882.] 


Ibn liaymtCn, it was a perfect Algiers, 
a pirate port and pest ; then Granada 
was considered only its farm: thus 
says the proverb — 

** Qnando Almeria em AlmerU 
Granada era su alqoeria.*' 

The Moors were driven out of the city, 
Oct. 16, 1147 ; with them much of its 
importance departed also. Under the 
Spaniard it is no longer, as sang its 
Arabian eulogist, " a city tohere^ if thou 
toalkeBty the stones are pearh, the dust 
gold, and the gardens a paradise;*' 
still the site is a l^osom of plenty, 
as the luxuriant figs, cacti, oranges, 
lemons, maize, and sugar-canes testify. 
Large export of esparto for English 
paper-mills; alsooffruits, and especially 
grapes, which are exported to England. 
Almeria is the see of a bishop, and 
the residence of civil and military au- 
thorities. It is walled in with forts to 
the sea^board, and was conmxanded 
by the Moorish fort el Keiran, now 
called the Alcazaba. The remains of 
the Moorish moles, and tiie former 
atarazanas (or dockyards) may still be 

The Cathedral is Gk>thic in charac- 
ter, and dates from the middle of the 
14tii centy. It is almost a castle, hav- 
ing been so constructed as to enable it 
to resist piratical attacks: four massive 
towers are built into its angles, and its 
walls are embattled. Additional forti- 
fications were added in 1517, but the 
earthquake of Sept. 22, 1522, damaged 
the whole edifica Its principal tower 
is unfinished. Obs. the rich Corinthian 
facade, with the medallions of St. Peter 
and St. Paul and the Virgin. The in- 
terior ia whitewashed, and the capitals 
are mostly Corinthian in style. Obs., 
in the Capilla de la Yirgen del C&rmen, 
the fine marbles in ti^e pulpits and 
altars. Obs. also the tomb of Fray 
Diego de Villola, a benefactor of the 
ch. The stalls are the work of Juau 
de Orca (1558-80): they are elabo- 
rately sculptured, but are wanting in 

The promenade on the XueUe is the 
favourite paseo in winter ; it commands 
piotvu^squo viewi of U\Q town, caatla, 


Boute 116.— ^anaJa to Adra. 

Sect. VI. 

and harbour. The Alameda, wifh its 
double avenue, is a charming eununer 
resort: it is situated between the 
Puerta del 8ol and the Puerta de 

A rly. t$ in course of contiruetion 
from Luiares to Almeria. 

Hie Mediterranean steamers aU touch 

There is a fine foundry at Almeria 
belonging to Sr. Larios, and a good 

Siper manu&ctory on the road to 

The women are African-looking, and 
the men dark and dressed in a semi- 
Moorish costume. 

JExeursions, (1) To the baths of 
Alhamila (7 m.). Seasons from May 
Ist to June SO^ and from Sept. Ist 
to October 81st. The site is charm- 
ing, the views most picturesque, and 
the waters are said to possess valuable 
medicinal properties. The accommo- 
dation is, nowever, poor, and capable 
of much improvement 

(2) Excursion to SI Cabo de Gata 
(the ** Cape of Agates "). distant 15 m. 
in a direction S.E. This celebrated 
rock, containing crystals, spars, and 
agates, is the ancient Promontorium 
Charidemi, the Moorish Sheyran. Ac- 
cording to the nautical adage— 

** At Cape de Gat take care of yoqr hat." 

The Tela Blanoa is a white spot, a 
landmark to travellenf on this windy 
promontory. Visit the cavern in the 
XontaSa del Siijo, where amethysts 
are found. 

(3) Excursion to tiie marble quar- 
ries of Macael, 25 m. N. of Almeria. 
The leagues are long and uncertain, 
the accommodation rough in the ex- 
treme. The road passes Bioja and 

Macael is a poorly built toWn, mta* 
ated near the Sierra de Filabrei, 
whence the view over the country is 
singular, as it resembles a stormy sea 
suddenly petrified. Kaoael is one 
block of the finest white marble, 
whence were extracted the thousands 

of pillars used by the Moors in the 
construction of the Alhambra, and the 
patios of Granada and Seville. Now 
these splendid quarries are hardly 
worked. — ^N.B. The naturalist, sports- 
man, and equestrian tourist may make 
for Linares, instead of returning to the 
coast. The road N. passes Furdkeni 
(5 m.), Baia (25 m.), Oreera (14 m.), 
Seguia (17 m.), iBLatorale (21 m.), 
Baeia (22 m.), and linares (11 m.). 
In the neighbourhood of Qrotra is the 
vast pine-forest of Seifiira (Saltas 
Tigiensis), covering an area of 230 
miles by 190 miles. It abounds in 
game of every sort, wolves indiided. 

ROUTE 116. 


This excursion is full of interesir-, 
historical, arttstic^ and geological. Tba 
traveller should master his Presoott 
or Mendoza * beforehand, so as full j to 
understand the historical incidents con* 
nected with the route. Sleep the M. 
night at lAUJaron, the second at Djijar. 
N,B,-^A daily diligence service is etta- 
Uished hettoeen] Granada and Laiya- 
ron. Office hdow the Hotel Vietoriik 
Beyond Lanjaron a horsepaih. 

This excursion skirts the S. beset 
of the Alpiyarras, the last mouniaiii 
refuge of the Moor. The. name AXpOf 
jarras» in An^bic AJbuoDarrait iB derived 
from Alba 8erra, Washington Iimg 
derives it from Ibrahim Albuxana. 

This territory was assigned to Bo- 
abdil by the treaty of Granada^ of 
which everv stipulatioa was sooi 
broken, and tke Moriscos oraelly 
hunted out like wild beastsiuntil finally 


& Granada. Boute 116. — Lar^aron — Betja. 


expelled by the feeble Philip III. in 
161i) ; but their resisianoe in this wild 
glen, and these roadless hills, was 
desperate. Most of them when banished 
went to Tetuan and Sal^ where they 
took to piracy, and avenged themselyes 
upon all Christians by peculiar ferocity. 
Tlrns the Spaniards, who had before 
expelled the wealthy Jew, now com- 
pleted their folly by the banishment 
of the industrious Moor. 

The route to Adra passes along the 
road described in Bte. 98 by — 
9 m. Alheadin. Pop. 2005. 
2 m. Suspire del Hero. 
5^ m. Fadul. Pop. 3668. 
3^ m. Dureal; Pop. 2601. 

4 m. Talara. When the road 
branches to 

9 m. Lai^aron. Imm : Fonda Gra- 

^ nadina, gooid; Fonda de San Rafael, 

good. Pop. 4168. This charming 

Swisa-like town is justly called **el 

! Fataito de las Abpujarras,'* (See Bte. 

, 103a.) 

The rest of the road to Adra mtist 
be performed on horseback. 

Leaving Lanjaron, visit Las ICinas 
de los Foaos, which were worked by 
tiie Komans. 

5 m. Oijiva. Pop. 4407. Here the 
' mill and ctocade of Fampaueira, and 

tiie Sarranoo de Foquelra may be 
; visited. Obs. how every possible spot 
; is cultivated with fruit-trees. Some of 
' tiie gigantic olives are of the time of 
: the Moors. 

The broken road now winds up the 
bed of the Bio Ghrande ; if the waters 
are low, the rider should go by the 
Angostura del Bio, a Salvator-Bosa- 
like gorge, which the torrents have 
forced through the mountain. The 
terrific perpendicular rocks which rise 
on either hand afford splendid sections 
and strata for the geologists. 

£mei]^g, the scenery becomes less 
interesting as the river-bed widens. 

17 m. Cidiar. Pop. 2110. Inn; 
Posada; wretched. The sweet hams 
of this district are excellent, especially 
those of Trevelez up in the mountains, 
10 m. from C^ar, and 3 m. only be- 
Jow the smnmit of Xnlaliao^xii. Yerjr 

Kitle salt is used, the ham being placed 
in a weak pickle for 8 days, and then 
hung up in the snow. 

Thence across the Bio Trevelez, a 
delicious trout-stream, to 

lOJ m. UJijar. Inn: Posada, de- 
cent. Here sleep. This Moorish capi- 
tal of the Alpujarraa (Pop. 2789) is 
still inhabited by a half-Moorish race, 
although they speak Spanish. The 
women, with their apricot-cheeks and 
black eyes and hair, gaze wildly at the 
stranger from little port-hole windows, 
which are scarcely bigger than their 
heads. Visit the Colegiata, which was 
built on the site of the mosque. 

11 m. Beqa. Pop. 15,731. This 
busy, improving town lies under the 
Sierra de Oador, a mountain of lead, 
7000 ft. high and 30 m. in circum- 
ference. The mines were first dis- 
covered at the close of the last century, 
and have been worked ever since. 
The ore, however, occurs in uncertain 
quantities, sometimes in veins, some- 
times in hoUadas or pockets. The 
finest ore sometimes yields 70 percent, 
of pure lead. Smelting and fiai;tening- 
houses have been erected on the coast, 
worked by English machinery. The 
miners occupy rude stone huts on the 
hill ; the working is injurious to the 
health, and no women are allowed to 
remain near the mines. At the edge 
of the Oador is an old Phcenician 
mine, called La Sabina, about which 
the ignorant and superstitious natives 
narrate infinite fables. Berja is full of 
mules and asses, upon which the ore 
is still carried to Adra, the sea-port, 
for, in spite of the traffic, the roads are 
still iniquitous, as when described by 
the Moorish poet — 

'* The valleys are gardens of Eden, but the 
roads are those of Hell ! " 

So indeed may most of Andalucia be 
described, for the province is the para- 
diso of the poet, and the inferno of the 
donkey and mule. 

Winding along this mule-track, down 
a goree of a river, we reach Alqueria, 
and thence through siigar-plantations, 
Y(e p-rnve ftt 

LjiyiLi^eu uy -vj vJ^v,^** l\_ 


Boute 117. — Adra to Malaga. 

Sect. VI. 

5^ m. Adra. Brituh Vice-Congul: 
J. Benet, Esq. Consular Agent : Dn. 
B. Medina. Inn: Posada Nueva, 
decent. Pop. 11,405. The old town 
"Aff^pa (Strabo, iii. 236) was founded 
by the Phoenicians, who judiciously 
built it on the Honte Cristo hill. The 
modem town is built below, and is 
constantly exposed to fearful inunda- 
tions from the river Adra, and to the 
agues bred by its swamps. The port 
is tolerable, but exposed to the W. 
Some smelting-works have been esta- 
blished here on the English principle. 

BOUTE 117. 


This long and tedious route must be 
ridden. Sleep the first night at Motril, 
the second at Yelez Malaga, or at Al- 

Leaving Adra, the fine English 
smelting-houses are passed to the 1. 

9 m. La Babit&, a sort of port to 
Albuaol, which latter town lies 3 m. 
inland, and is most rich in vines, rai- 

sins, and brandies, the latter of which 
are largely exported to Jerez, to be uped 
in the manu&cture of sherries for the 
Encrlish market. 

Now the sands become African, and 
the fishermen who dwell in the <ih)za$ 
(Arabic^ "huts made of reeds*') are 
dusky as Moors. 

17 m. Ghialohos, Pop. 4256, near 
Cartel de Ferro. The fruits in this 
locality are first-rate, and the finest 
raisins, after those of Malaga, which 
are exported come from this locality. 
The long range of vine-clad hills com- 
mences soon after passing this village, 
and a very steep track l^kds to 

10 m. Motril, (See Bte. 114.) 

The road continues along the sefr 
coast to 

4 m. Salobreaa, Pop. 3710, oncothe 
important Shcdithaniah of the Moors 
Their rock-built castle is now a ruin. 

10 m. Almvfieoar. Pop. 8100 (the 
** Al-Munnecab," the gorge, of the 
Moors). It has a poor port and a 
ruined castle. Here sugar and cotton 
(azuoar y aXgodon, Moorish things and 
names) are grown. 

14 m. Torre. Pop. 7151. The whole 
of this district was, under the Moon, 
a luxuriant garden, now deihems y (ie- 
poblados attest the dominion of the 

14 m. Velei Malaga. Pop. 23,579. 
(See Bte. 106.) The traveller who 
wishes to visit Granada can proceed 
N., via Alhama, by Bte. 109. 

From Yelez-Malaga to 

18 m. Malaga. (See Bte. 106.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

iDtrod. ( 453 ) 



The petty Beino de Xnrda contains about 6C0 square L. It is of an irregular 
sliape, about 25 L. long by 23 broad, and is bounded tq the E. by Valencia, to 
the K. by Cuen^a and La Mancha, to the W. by Granada, and to the S. by the 
Mediterranean. It is thinly peopled and very dry : drought, indeed, is the 
local curse ; and frequently,' for many months in succession, not one drop of 
rain falls on the parched riverless portions. The artificial remedies, the 
Presas and Pantanos, and methods of irrigation introduced by the intelligent, 
industrious Moors are well worth notice. Where they exist under this ardent 
BUD, the well-watered portions and Huertas compensate by their prodigious 
fertility, producing the palm, orange, and carob-tree, silk, soda, bass-plant, 
led peppers, and wines. The mineralogy is most interesting, especially in 
the mining districts near Cartagena. The best line of route is that which 
comprehends Lorca, Murcia, Cartagena, Elche, and Alicante. The springs 
and autumns are the fittest seasons for traTcUing : the former are all flower, 
the latter all fruit. Murcia was the cherished province of the Carthaginians, 
and was destined by them to replace their loss of Sicily, as it contained those 
mines which enabled the family of Hannibal to make war against Rome itself. 
The Gk>ths of Marcia made honourable resistance against the Moors, and their 
ij leader, Theodimah — Tadmir Ben Gohdos — ^was allowed to retain an indepen- 
1 dent sovereignty during his life ; hence the province was called Belad Tadmir, 
■\ a word often confounded with TadmoTy a country of palms, which do indeed 
flourish here. Under the Moors Murcia became one continuous "garden," 
I and hence was called El Bastan, and sometimes Uisr, Egypt, to which it was 
' compared. When the Kalifate of the Ummeyahs was broken up, Murcia 
I split oflF into an independent state under the Beni-Tahar family, which ruled 
from 1038 to 1091 ; after this, internal dissensions led to the triumph of the 
Spaniards. The Moorish Murcians were reputed to be obstinate and dieobe- 
dient ; and their province, lying in an out-of-the-way comer, is still considered 
W Spaniards to he the Bceotia of the South. The physiognomy of the lower 
classes is African, but the beauty of the women very great. The male 
costume is the same as that worn by the peasants at Valencia. Supersti- 
tious, litigious, and revengeful, they remark of themselves and their pro- 
yince, that the heaven and earth are good, but all that is between them 
is bad— " ^ cieZo y sudo 68 hueno — el mtresuelo mah,'* The littoral plains, 
especially about Cartagena and Alicante, are much subject to earthquakes, 
uid are rendered insalubrious by salt-marshes. The salt made from them 
is chiefly shipped to the Baltic. The sodarplant grows abundantly : of the 
four kinds— the barilla, algazal, sosa, and salicor— the first is the best. It 
is a low-tufted spreading bush, of a greenish colour, ripening into a dull 
brown. The plants when dry are burnt on iron gratings over pits ; and the 
valine particles sink below in a vitrified mass. An acre of barilla will pro- 
duce a ton of alcali, but it is an exhausting crop. Herje},^ft]lgp^thg,^#r^o- 

454 Murda: JURne^ — Mcmufactures. SeciVH, 

grass (stipa, or Macrochloa tenacissimd) grows wild in vast quantities ; hence 
the district of Cartagena was called by tiie Greeks, rh ffirotpTdpiov — r^ lovyyAptov 
iredioy, and by the Komans Campvs Spartarius, The name of esparto 
is said to be derived &om (rirflp<o, conserere^ and the plant resembles the vpear- 
grass which grows on the sandy sea-shores of Lancashire. This wiry grass is 
very tenacious in fibre, and is worked up by the natives into the same infinite 
purposes as are so accurately described by Pliny (' N. H.* xix. 2) ; such as 
matting baskets, soles of sandals, ropes, &c. It is also exported largely to 
England, France, the United States, &c., as the best substitute for rags, in 
the manufacture of paper. " The favour in which it is held by the British 
paper-maker may be gathered from the fact, that between 80,000 and 100,000 
tons are now imported into this country annually." Esparto was first used as 
a substitute for rags by the French, specimens of paper made from its fibre 
having been exhibited in the Algerian department of the Exhibition of 1851. 
Of this material was manufactured the Iberian whips described by Horace 
(Epod. iv. 3). The grass, when cut, is dried like hay, soaked in water, and 
plaited ; it is then white, and is very enduring. The hand manufacture, as 
formerly, employs multitudes of women and children. Snails, especially a 
kind called SerranoSf are much eaten in these districts. 

Murcia is a metal-pregnant district. Here the antic^uarian will find the iden- 
tical shafts of the Csurthaginians reopened, after a discontlnuanoe of so many 
centuries ; and the same districts are again made busy by this ancient source^ 
wealth and industry. Spain has long supplied the world, both the old and new, 
with the precious metals— herself the Peru of antiquity, she enriched Tyre and 
Home with bullion from her own bosom, as in later times she supplied Europe 
from her Transatlantic possessions. The Phoenicians, the first to discover her 
metallic wealth, long kept the secret to themselves with a jealous monopoly, 
which their descendants Imitated in regard to their golden colonies in the New 
World. The merchants of Tyre found the natives of Tarshlsh (the South of 
Spain) much as the aboriginal Indians were when discovered by the Spaniards, 
and totally unacquainted with the conventional value of the precious metals 
as a representative of wealth, for no mention whatever is made of coin. They 
treated them simply as materials for the construction of the meanest utensils, 
for mangers and water-vessels (Strabo, ill. 224). The Phoenicians carried 
bullion away in such quantities, that when their ships were freighted to the 
full they made their anchors of silver (Diod. Sic. v. 358, Wess.). The old 
shafts burrowed into the mountains, b^ which rivers were turned off, are dis- 
tinguishable from the Moorish by bemg round, while the latter are square. 
Job f xxviii. 7) alludes to these Phoenician tunnellings, the remains of some of 
which are still thought to be traceable at Eio Tinto, and at Santo Espiritu, 
near Cartagena. These shafts (the Cuniculi of the Romans) were called hy 
the natives arrugia, in which the Iberian or Basque root W, ** water," is 
evident. The wells, pozos, were called agangas and agogas ; for the Bomans, 
mere military conquerors, preserved, nay derived, these technical terms from 
their more ingenious predecessors, just as the Gotho-Spaniard adopted the 
nomenclature of the Moor. 

The Carthaginian land proprietors in these districts were then, and are 
now, poor ; they have allowed foreign capitalists, with foreign science and 
machinery, to work the ancient mines. The amalgamation of works of 8a& 
Isidore, at Escombrera, and La Begenerada, at Almazarron, deserve notice. 
The bonanzas of La Esperanza, La Observaoion, and Emilia, of San Oinas, on 
the Bioo Cerro de Oro, may be visited : at the mine of Santo Zsplritii a 
Carthaginian shaft, supported by masonry, was discovered in 1841.* 

* The mineralogist and specalator is referred, for information oonoemingthe mines of Mnrd*, 
to the * Uistoria Natural ' of Bowles ; the ' Comentarios de las Ordenansas de Minas,' AnU»io 
Xavlerde Gamboa, folio, Mad., 1761, translated by Richard Heathfield, Longman, 1830; ato 
' Begistro de las Minas de la Corona,' Tomas Gonzalez, 3 vols.^ Mad., 1832 ; and * Minero fiBpafloi,' 
Nicacio Anton Valle, Mad., 1841. 

IhtarocL Valencia: Climate'^IrrigcUion. 455 


B lUino de Yaleneiay althotigh one of the smallest pfovinoes in Spain, 
yields in feitility and delight to few of the others. The Moon placed their 
Paradise at this spot, oyer which they imagined Heaven to be suspended, and 
that a p(»tion of it had fallen down on earth, *^ ooeluili hio oecidisse putes,** 
whfle the Jews forgot in it even their Sion. This province consists of 888 
square leagaes of 20 to the degree, and of these only 240 are level land, beine 
eniefly the maritime strip, which extends in length about 64 m. It is defended 
from the cold eentral table-lands by a girdle of monntains, which act not 
only as a barrier against the winds, but are ma^zfnes of. timber and fdel, 
reservoirs of snow (an article of absolnte necessityX and sources of rivers. 
Its width varies from 6 to 20 L., bein^ narrowest near Orihuela, and widest in 
the centre. The mountains abound with iharbles and minerals. The botanist 
and geologist should make excursions to the Sierra of Espadan, when near 
Cutellon de la nana. 

To invalids and consumptive patients the climate of Yalenda is decidedly 
sapeiior to that of Italy: although tho capital itself is not healthy, there is 
8 most delicate softness in the air, which is so dry withal, that salt undergoes 
no change. Bain is very scttrce; frosts are almoist unknown, whilst the sea- 
bieeae tempers the summer heats, and the l^h mountains offer verdurous 
retreats^ To botanists, the Flora of Valencia is that of a natural hothouse, 
and unrivalled in Oolour and perfume. The Huerta, most truly the Garden, 
18 irrigated by tiie Turia, or Guadalaviar, Arabic^, Wadda-Uabyddh, the white 
river. This great vena porta is so much drained or bled, sangrado, for the 
use of the huerta and the city, that when it reaohes the capital in its natural 
bed it is almost dry. The Moors have bequeathed to the Valencians their 
hydiaulio scienee by which they exercised a magic control over water, wielding 
it at their bidding; they could do all but call down the gentle rains from 
heaven, that best of all irrigations, <igua del dehy el mejor riego. The net- 
work of artificial canals is admiraUe. The oaaal de Bey on the Juoar, near 
Ihitilla, and the whole water-system about Alcira and Ajamesf, deserve the 
closest examination of our engineers and f^culturists. The still-existing 
technical terms prove whence the theory and practice were derived. 

The artist will sketch the picturesque noria (Arabic^ anaawG^y or large 
water-wheel, which, armed with jars, descends into the well, and as it rises 
discharges the contents into a reservoir. 

The Enerta of Yalenoia is irrigated by 8 canals, of which the Xonoada is 
the chief main-trunk artery or pincipal cfmalt Arabic^ ** canna mucannal,** 
apd supplies all the smaller veins, acequias^ Arabic^ ** ciquia'* of the circula- 
tion: tms is managed by a reticulated network of minute ramifications, and 
dams, azudcu, Arabic^ mdd. The idea is simple, but the execution is most 
diificnlt : and often the greatest triumph of the hydraulist is where his works 
are least apparent, for however level these plains in appearance, they are by 
no means so in reality^ The chief object was to secure a fair distribution, so 
that none should be left dry, none overflooded. When the engineer ceases, 
the legislator begins, for since water here, as in the East, is the life-blood of 
the soil, and equivalent to fertility and wealth, the apportionment' has always 
been a source of solicitude and contention. The regulating tribunal de tos 
ofemUeroSf or del riego de las aguas, instituted by Alhaken Almonstansir 
Billiur, still exists in its primitive and Oriental form and force; 7 judges, 
chosen by each other, out of the yeomen and irrigators, the Idbradores, y ace* 
miieroe fi the Huexta, sit at 12 o'clock every Thursday, in the open air, on 
Benches at La Faerta de los Ap^^stoles, ** the gate *' of the cathedral, and decide 
all complaints respecting irrigation in a summary way. In this court the 

456 Valencia: Productions. SeotVII. 

patriarchal judges decide without appeal ; the discussion is carried on vivd 
voce in i)ublio.* 

The rich alluvial plains of Valencia, which bask in the never-fiedlmg, all- 
vivifying sun, know no agricultural repose ; man is never weary of sowing, nor 
the sun of calling into life. The produce is almost incredible under this com* 
bined influence of heat and moisture. Bice, arroz, Arabic^ arooz (oryza), is 
the great cereal staple, and the pest of the province. This source of wealth, 
sustenance, and life, is also one of disease and death. The rice-stalks shoot 
up from tufts into most graceful ears ; as heat and water are absolutely neoes^ 
sary for this grain, many portions of Valencia are admirably calculated by 
nature for this culture, since the rivers, which in some places are sucked np, 
reappear in marshy swamps, or marjalssj and in lakes, of which the AJbuJera, 
Arabic^ ** the Lake/' is the most remarkable. In these arrozdUs, or rice- 
grounds, the sallow amphibious cultivator wrestles with fever amid an 
Egyptian pla^e of mosquitos, for man appears to have been created here 
chielly for their subsistence. The mortalihr in these swampis is frightful, and 
few labourers reach the age of HO. The culture of rice was introduced by the 
Moors ; the grain enters largely into the national cuisine of the Valenciaus, 
their pUafs and poUoe con arroz. 

The province produces wine, oil, barilla, esparto, hemp, flax, cochineal, and 
fruits, especially figs, almonds, dates, oranges, and grapes ; of these last the 
** Valentias *' are made ; they are a coarse raisin, exported firom Denia, and 
called there Lejias^ from the sugary lye in which they are dipped. The honey 
is also delicious ; from this and almonds is made the celebrated sweetmeat 
turron. Silk is another staple, and the Huerta is covered with the white 
mulberry, "food for worms." The animal spins its cocoon, and ia then 
destroyed in boiling water ; the process is nasty, but as the peasants, seated 
under their vines and figs, wind out the golden tissue, the grouping is pictu- 
resque. The Base and black silk, for MantiXUM and 8ay<u, is equal to any- 
thing made in Europe. Valencia is deficient in animal and cereal produc- 
tions ; com and cattle are brought from the Gastiles and Aragon ; both man 
and beasts eat the ^arrqfas or sweet pod of the Gturrofcd, Algarroho (Arabicc 
el gharctob'); this is the carob-tree [Ceratonia siliquestris). These pods or 
husks, which ripen early in August, were the food of the Prodigal Son, and 
are eveiy where hung up like kidney-beans outside the ventas, as signs of the 
neat accommodation within. The over-irrigation diminishes the flavour of 
vegetables, which lose in quality what they gain in quantity ; ** Irriguo nihil 
est elutius agro." Hence the proverb allusive to the aqueous unsubstantial 
character of Valencian men, women, and things : ** La came es yerba, la yerba 
agua, el hombre mug&r, la muger nada,** This is, however, a mere play upon 
words, for those who eat the national *' PoUo con arroz " will never talk abont 
the mere *^ idea of a dinner," whilst as for the women, they will speak for 
themselves. The lower classes in the Huerta, who toil under an African suo, 
live on water-melons, cucumbers, and gazpacho. 

The sea-coast, like that of the W. of the Peninsula, is the terror of mariners ; 
yet it is not the iron-bound barrier which fronts the fierce Atlantic, but a low 
sandy line, fringing the quiet Mediterranean ; stiU it is open and portless. 
The sea has a dLposition to recede, and the coasts to get shallower from the 
detritus brought down bv the river's freshes. The whole line is studded with 
Torres y Atalayas, raised as watch-towers against the African pirates. About 
the year 1610 more than 200,000 industrious Moorish agriculturists were 
expelled by the bigot Philip III. In the next century Valencia, having 
espoused the Austrian side in the War of Succession, was all but depopulated 
by the French in 1718, and her liberties taken away ; but Philip V., with all 

* F.Xde Bormll, foL, Valencia, 1831, and * L'Irrigation dans le Royaume de Valenoe^' 
Janbert de Fassa, with Clements R. Markham's ' Irrigation in Eastern Spain.' 

Introd. Inhabiianta — Costume, 457 

his enmity, conld not onfertilise the soil. The population recovered like the 
vegetation, and however in onr times trampled down by the iron heel of 
Socbef s military ooonpation, has kept pace with subsistence, and now the 
proyince contains more than a million inhabitants. The peasant is gay and 
cheerfol, his mind and costume being alike coloured by the bright and 
exciting sun, which gilds poverty and disarms miseiy of its sting. The fine 
cUmate is indeed hemth and wealth to the poor ; it economises fire, clothes, 
and lodgings, three out of the four great wants of humanity. Since the death 
of Ferdinand YII. numbers have gone to settle in congenial Algeria ; but in 
compenBation, while pauper SpaiSards emigrate to iUfrica, French fortune-, 
hunters flock to Spain. 

The upper classes are among the most polished of Spain, and the Yalencian, 
if unwarlike, has always distinguished himself in art and literature. 

The lower classes are fond of pleasure ; their national song is called la 
Fiera, and their dance La BondaUa, or roundabout. They execute this well 
to tlie tainborU and dtdzayna^ a sort of Moorish clarionet requiring strong 
lungs and ears. The dialect commonly used, the Lemosio, is less harsh than 
the Catalan, which some have attrit>uted to the admixture of a French 
Auvergnai idiom, introduced by the number of volunteers of that nation who 
assisted Don Jaime in the conquest of Valencia. The narrow streets of 
Valencia seem contrived for murder and intrigue, which in fact they were ; 
oonsequently, in 1777, a night-watch was introduced by Joaquin Fob, copied 
from ours, and the first established in Spain: the guardians were called 
Serenos, ** clears," from their announcing the uswd fine nights, just as our 
Oharleys ought to have been termed ** oloudies.** 

The Valencians are great drivers of mules and horses, and many migrate to 
Madrid, where the men are excellent Caleseros, and the women attractive 
Tenders of delicious agraz, horchata, and iced drinks. 

The physiognomy of the Valencians is African, The burning sun not only 
tans their complexions, but excites their nervous systems : hence they are 
hif^hly imaginative and superstitious ; their great joys and relaxations are 
religious shows, pasoa, pageants, processions, Comparsas y Bocas, and acted 
mirades and church spectacles. The dramatised legends and the ^ Miradea 
de San Vicente Ferrer,' the tutelar of the city, rank first in these *' Fiestas de 
Calle** or street festivals. The Dia del CorpuSy or procession of Christ present 
in the Sacrament, is one of the great eights of Spain. 

The male oosttune of Valencia is antique and Asiatic : the men wear the 
hempen sandal or alpargaia, called also espardinies, and their legs are either 
naked, or covered with stockings without feet ; these Greek leggings, greaved, 
the media VaJenciana, are a common metaphor for a Spanish student s purse. 
The white linen drawers are very dassicat and are called calces de trdveta, 
hragas, or sarahueUs, the original Arabic name. Those curious in the learn- 
ing of breeches may compare them with the Oelto-Gallo bra^ccx, the Greek 
KhturaiSf the Bomaio foustaneUit the Highland kilt, and the bragon hras 
of Brittany. These are the small-clothes which Augustus, when at Tarragona, 
put on in order to please the natives, as George IV. did the kilt at Edinbiu-gb. 
Their waists are girdled bv a gay silken sash, faia ; the upper man is clothed 
with a velvet or gaudy jacket, chaleco, jaleco^ with open shirt-sleeves ; over the 
fihoulder is cast tiie manta, the many-coloured plaid, which here does the duty 
of the Castilian capa ; on the head, and long, lanky red-Indian like hair, is 
hoond a silk handkerchief, which looks in the distance like a turban. 

The Valendan women, especially the middle and better classes in the 
capital, are by no means so dark-complexioned as their mates ; singularly well 
formed, they are among the prettiest and most fascinating in all Spain ; they 
sit at work in the open streets, and, as they wear nothing on their heads but 
their hair, •* their glory," they have to us a dressy look. Their ornaments are 

458 Valencia: Wimen. SeciVIL 

moBt olassioal ; the roll of hair, el mono, is pieiced with a silTe]^^t pm, witb 
^obs, the acm oruyUoria of Martial ; it is called agtdla de rodete ; the 8ilTe^ 
gUt oomb is theiMtnato, and .one of a wnyilar triangular shape is called fopteso, 
la Rate; this is frequently engraved with the great local patroneas, miegbra 
SeAora de los Desamparadof,* 

* The collector of Valenclan topography and local history will consalt the foUowiDg works, 
Tiz. :— *0or6nica' of Pero Anton Beuther, 2 vols. foL, VaL, 154S-61 ; 2nd part, 1551-63; or the 
edition 1 voL foL, VaL, 1604-5 ; very rare to complete ; the volume with the linajet di^teased 
the nohUity, who bought it up and humt it ; the * Cair6nyGa * of Bfartin de Vicvaoa, black letter, 
2 vols. foU Val., 1564 ; ' Anales del Reyno de Valencia,' Fnmdsoo Diego^ fol., Yal, 1613; the 
* Historla.' in two parts, by Pero Anton Benther, VaL, 2nd edit 1651 ; 3rd edit. 1604 ; the 'His- 
toria,' 1^ Gaspar Escolano, 2 vols, fol., Val., 1610-11 ; * Sagrarlo de Valencia,' Atoon del Castillo 
Soloreano. 1 voL duo.. Val., 1635 ; ' Reefimen Hiatoria de Valencia,' Pasqoal Esclapes de GuiUo, 
4to.. VaU 1738. And for the worthies^ ' fiscritores del Beyno de Valencia*' Vioente Ximeno, 
2 vols., fol., VaL, 1747-49 $ * Biblfoteca Valenciana,' Justo Pastor Fuster, VaL, 1827, both of which 
are excellent works. For natural history, the excellent 'Observadones,' Antoido Josef Oava- 
niUes, 2 vols, fol.. Mad., 1795-07, with a veiy aceorate map of the province. Oonsnlt also hmt, 
vol. iv., and ' Espafla Sagrada,' viiL ' Historia de Valencia^' Vicente Boix, 3 vols. 4to., 1845. 

N.B.~0ollector8 of Spanish books will find some excellent basil skins for their bindingiat 
Valencia, caAleApdl^jai chit^peadot or ja^peados : the colours are gay, the patterns fiuitastic. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



121 Madrid to Cartagena by Ar- 
ehena and Mnrda. BaU .. 459 

122 Madrid to Alioante by La 
Encina. Rail 463 

123 Madrid to Valenoia by Aloa- 
lar, Albaeete, AhnanJBa, and 
Jatlva. Bail 464 

124 Granada to Murcia by Baia 
and Loroa. Diligenoe-road 481 

Murcia & Valencia. Botde 121. — Madrid to Cartagena. 





125 Oariagena to Alicante by 
Orihuela and Elohe. Dili- 
gence 483 

126 Alicante to Valencia by Al- 
ooy. Diligence 484 

127 Valencia to Benia by Silla. 
Bail and Horseback .. .. 485 

128 Gastellon to Horella. DUi- 
gence-road 486 

ROUTE 121. 

AND MUBOIA. 325^ m. 

2 trains daily, in 18} hrs. 

Xadrid is in Bte. 2. 

The Bte. as far as Chinchilla Stat. 
18 described under Bte. 123. 

185 m. Chinchilla Jupct. Stat. Pop. 
5957. Here the line to Valencia and 
Alicante branches to the L 

The rly. now traverses an unculti- 
vated and desolate district to 

7} m. Foio CaiXada Stat., where the 
country becomes more fertile. 

18 m. Toharra Stat. Fop. 7148. 
Obs. the old ruins in the neighboup- 
bood. There is a small Estableci- 
niento supplied from a cold sulphurous 

^ m. HellUL Stat. Inn : La Nueva 
Fonda, a tidy country hotel. Hellin, 
lUunum (Pop. 13,400), is a well-paved 
little town lying on the slope of the 
Segnra chain. Visit its parroquia 
consisting of 3 aisles. Obs. the boveda, 
nipported by pillars, and the masonry 
uf the marble pavement at the entrance. 
Visit the Hermitage of the Bosario for 
the view ; the Ptuos which it contains 
define. Hellin was dreadfully sacked 
by the French under Montbrun (Sche- 
peler, iil. 495). [6 m. distant are the 
nuneial springs of Azaraque, and 13 m. 
distant are celebrated sulphur-mines, 
blown to the Bomans.] 

12^ m. Agramon Stat. The district 
around is watered by the Sio Hondo. 

6| m. Las Xinai del Xiuulo Stat. 

4i m. Calasparra Stat Pop. 4796. 
Much rice is here produced. 

15^ m. Cieia Stat. This charm- 
ingly situated town (Pop. 10,870) rises 
above the river on a peninsular table : 
its neighbourhood is incredibly fertUe. 
On on opposite hill are the remains of 
an ancient Boman town. 

6i^ m. Blanoa Stat. Pop. 3061. 
The annual crop of oranges grown in 
the immediate neighbourhood averages 
25,000 boxes a year. 

8 m. Arohena Stat Pop. 3498. 
The rly. stat. is 4 m. distant from the 
baths. Inn: £1 Establecimiento, only 
open in the season. Archena pos- 
sesses one of the most important 
mineral-water springs in Spain. The 
water is sulphurous and the highest 
in temperature in Spain, and highly 
beneficial in the treatment of ulcers, 
sMn-diseases, &c. ; the accommodation 
is indifferent 

3| m. Lorqui Stat. Pop. 1300. 
Here much rice is grown. Near 
Lorqui is the site where PubHus and 
Oneius Scipio were defeated and killed 
by Massinissa in the year 211 b.g. 

2^ m. Algaaias Stat. Pop. 2220. 
The neighbourhood is watered by the 
rio Xnla. 

1^ m. Cotillas Stat. Pop. 2063. 

4i m. Aloantarilla Stat Pop. 4172. 
Here the cochineal (or nopal) is much 

4f m. Hnrda Stat. Inn: Fonda 


Boute 121. — Murcia, 

Sect. VII, 

del Gomercio, Antigua de Padron, in 
the Oalle de la Triperia, comfortable 
and reasonable. Casino : visitors ad- 
mitted on introduction by a member. 
Caf^: dalle de la Triperia. Theatre 
in course of construction: the old 
theatre was burnt down in 1876. 

Bull-ring in the corral of the former 
convent of St. Agustin. Photographer, 
Dn. J. Almagro, Torreta 5, good local 

Murcia, the capital of its province 
(Pop. 91,509), is situated in the midst 
of a most fertile hiterta, 15 m. in 
length and 10 m. in breadth. Monte 
Agudo forms a magnificent feature in 
the landscape. The whole district is 
full of beauty. The town is most pic- 
turesque, one mass of varied colour. It 
is watered by a magnificent Moorish 
contrivance, called the Contraparada, 
and by the river, which is here mn" 
grado, or bled to death. The city arms 
are six crowns with an orle of lions and 

The present city was built by the 
Moors (from the materials of the Bo- 
man Murgi) about the commencement 
of the 8th centy. Its river, the Segura, 
is the Tader of the ancients, and the 
Skehurah of the Moors. During the 
year 1879 there was a fearful inunda- 
tion at Murcia) the whole plain was 
under water for a distance of 20 miles. 
About 1000 houses near Murcia were 
knocked down or carried away. In 
consequence of this a large number of 
houses for the working classes have 
been built round the town. The river 
fiows beside the promenade of the 
Malecon, girt in with rare tropical 
shrubs. Following the river up its 
source, the visitor v^U find luxuriant 

Murcia was taken by the Spaniards 
under St. Ferdinand in 1240. It re- 
belled and was reconquered by Alonso 
el Sabio, who left, as a precious legacy, 
his heart and bowels to the dean and 

Visit the Cathedral : founded 1358, 
modernised in 1521. Its tower was 
begun 1522 by Oardiual Mateo de 
Langa, and finished in 1766 ; it rises in 
compartments, like a drawn-out tele- 
scope. The view from the top is superb, 

and the ascent easy, by a succession of 
sloping flats. The bells are very fine. 
The fa9ade to the principal entrance of 
the Cathedral is by Jayme Bort, and is 
GrsBco-Eomano in style. Notice the 
Portada de log Apdstoles, which is 
Gothic, also the door of las Ligrimas, 
ascribed to Berruo:uete. Portions of the 
interior are Gothic, especially the 
niches behind the Coro. Obs., in the 
chapel, an alto-relievo, in stone, of the 
Nativity ; the sculpture itself is not 
good, but the general effect is striking. 
Opposite, in a gaudy frame, is a pretfy 
Madonna and Child. The EetaUo is 
modem ; the old one was burnt twenty 
years ago, at the same time as the 
organs. Much fine silver belonging to 
the high altar was lost at the same 
time. In a niche near the entrance to 
the 1. is the sarcophagus containing the 
heart and bowels of Alfonso el Sabio. 
To the N. are preserved the bones of 
San Fulgencio and Santa Florentina. 
the latter of whom was sister to the 
great Archbishop San Isidora The 
Saoristia Mayor has some fine wood- 
carving of 1525: the portal is rich 
plateresque. The Custodia is by Peres 
de Montalbo (1677), and is of eleganl 
design. In the Capilla del Sagrari* 
is a Marriage of the Virgin, painted 
in 1516 by Juanes. In the Capilbi 
de Ids Veles are some singular stone 
chains, the badge of the Molina 
family; in this chapel may be seen 
the sculptured figure of St. Geronimo, 
by ZarciHo. The portal of bluish- 
veined marble is enriched with statues 
of royal and local saints, prominent 
amongst whom is San Hermenegildo, 
who was bom at Cartagena. In the 
Capilla de San Jose is a good copy of 
Eaphael's " Holy Family." This car 
thedral was much shaken during the 
earthquake of 1829. 

The ancient Chnroh of Sta. Catalina 
may be visited, in the Plaza of the 
same name. The Capilla Mayor is 
fine. In the chapels of the 8ae» 
Familia and Beposo some interesting 
old tombs will be found. A monastery 
of Knights Templar is supposed to have 
existed on one side of the church. 

Next visit the Churoh of San Hioolai, 
where is an exquisite marble *'St. 

Xiircia & Valencia. Bmite 121. — Murcia — Cartagena. 

Anthony," by Alonso Oano. The 
saint is of wood, about 18 inches high, 
and clothed in the brown dress of the 
Capachin order. Obs. also a Joseph 
and Infant Jesus, by Mala. 

In the Ennita de Jesus are deposited 
Ihe sculptured Paaos representing the 
Passion of Our ix)rd, by Zaroillo, the 
Murcian sculptor ((1707-1748).! 

Travellers are recommended to spend, 
if possible. Holy Week at Murcia. The 
night and day processions are most 


^^isit the picture-gallery of Sefior 
D. Jo6^ Maria Estor, Galle de la Ter- 
neria, which is courteously shown to 
strangers. Obs. a St. Peter by Pedro 
de Moya (nat. in Granada in 1610, ob. 
in 1666), who studied the Yah Dvck 
school in London, 1 641 ; a *' Martyrdom 
of St Sebastian," by Espinosa, a por- 
trait of ** Don Baltazar Marradas on 
horseback,*' attributed to Velazquez, a 
"Head of St Francis," by Zurbitfan, 
a bust and hands of St Peter by El 
Greco, a "Head Study" bv Alonso 
Oano, a "Jacob's Dream" by Pedro 
Nufiez de Yillavicenoio, &o. 

Xnreia is the land of f owers. It 
supplies Madrid with roses and early 
vegetables during the winter months. 
The fresh dates are excellent. 

The Paseos del G&rmen and Florida 
BUnea are the favourite walks. The 
PUua de la Coiurtitnoion is planted 
with orange- trees. The Traperia and 
Flateria are the busiest streets. The 
mantas y alforjas and monteras (man- 
tles, saddle-bags, and caps) of Murcia 
have long been renowned. 

The admirer of fine views should 
walk out towards el Kaleoon, a most 
delightful promenade, bordered on each 
aide by an almost tropical vegetation. 
Beoiains of the old Via Cruds still 
exist. The country jjeople come in 
masses to pray at the cufferent stations 
on Holy Friday. 

The Almndi (Arabic^ "Granary") 
is still a com magazine. The Alcazar 
was fortified in 1405 by Enrique 11. 
The post-office and prison contain 
Moorish remains. Without the town 
IB the sanctuary of Fuen Santa. The 
view from there is magnificent 

A plw9a^t 4riye va»j be taken to 

the • Villa Caradoc,* which belonged 
to the late Lord Howden. The gar- 
dens are beautiful. 

Huroia to Alicante by Orihuela and 
Elche. Diligences daily, 9 hourSt 
through a beautiful road. 

A diligence for Loroa leaves the 
Fonda Francesa daily. Railway pro- 

Leaving Murcia, the rly. makes a 
wide circuit round the town, which 
remains in sight to the 1. 

3^ m. Beniajan Stat, surrounded by 

2 m. Orihnela Stat. The town of 
the same name is 4 leagues distant, 
and there is no means of conveyance 
but a small sprin^less cart. (See Bte. 
125.) To the rt is Torre Aguera, and, 
farther off. La Gasa Blanca. The 
whole district is fertile beyond de- 

11^ m. Biqnelme Stat. 

6^ m. Baliioas Stat. Soon after 
passing Balsicas, a land-locked bay 
opens to the 1. It is called £1 Mar 
Henor, and is 10 m. long and 5 m. 

4| m. Paoheoo Stat. 

3 m. La Palma Stat 

7h m. Cartagena Stat Terminus. 
Inns : Gran Hotel del Universo ; 
Fonda Francesa; Fonda de Paris, 
prices high, but good acconmiodation. 
CJafes in the Fonda Francesa, and in 
the Calle Ancha. Pop. 75,901. 

Tramway: cars leave their station 
every half-hour for the Villa de la 
Union and Herrerias. 

English Vice-Consul: William Mel- 
vain, Esq. 

U. 8. A. Consul: Dn. Carlos Molina. 

English goods merchant : Wm. 

Cartagena, the Cardiage Nova, the 
" New Carthage," was founded by the 
Barca family when they meditated 
making themselves independent rulers 
of Spain. Its capture by Scipio is 
given by Livy (xxvi. 42). It con- 
tinued to flourish under the Romans, 
who fortified it and called it '* Colonia 
Victrix Julia." The place was, how- 
ever, almost destroyed by the Goths, 
who were not a naval people: San 
IsidQio (who wa«i bom »t Cartagepa ip 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -.^j'w^^-i f»^ 


Boute 121. — Cartagena. 


595) describes the rain occasioned by 
them (Orig. xv. 1). 

After the abdication of King Ama- 
dous in Feb. 1873, when the Republic 
was proclaimed, Cartagena dcKslared 
itself into a separate canton in direct 
opposition to the government of Bladrid. 
Boque Barcia and General Gontreras 
placed themselyes at the head of the 
movement and formed a federal govern- 
ment. They coined money, seized the 
ships belonging to the nation which 
were in the Anenal, and everything 
of any value which they could lay 
their oands on. An army of regular 
troops sent by Castelar, then President 
of the Spanish Republic, besieged 
Cartagena, and with great difficulty 
took possession of the town. The can- 
tonal chiefs fled to Algiers on board 
Spanish men-of-war, after blowing up 
those they could not use. 

Cartagena is still one of the three 
arsenals of Spain (the other two are 
Ferrol and San Fernando) ; the basins, 
dockyards, hospitals, foundries, and 
barracks are all on a g^nd scale. 
There is a floating dock capable of 
taking in the largest ironclads. To 
see the arsenal an order must be pro- 
cured from the Comandante de Manna. 
At the head of the harbour there is a 
good parade. A very fine Quay is being 
constructed aloug the sea7fao6 of the 
town, by which a space of ground will 
be recovered between the sea and the 
base of the ancient ramparts, and ves- 
sels will be able to lie alongside Ihe 
mole. A marine school fbr sailors is 
in a man-of-war in the harbour. Obs. 
the walls crumbling into holes from 
the cannon-shot of the regular troops 
during the cantonal insurrection of 
1873. A mound of earth to the N.E. 
of the city near the ramparts is the 
grave of 500 oantonals who were killed 
by the explosion of their powder- 

The port is the largest in Spain 
after Vigo, and the best and safest on 
the Mediterranean coast. The tunny- 
fishery, the export of barilla, and the 
mining and smelting are the chief 
occupations of the place. 

The best street of Cartagena is the 
CaU« Ifayoir, the ^est Plaza ig Iia^ 

Herced. The recent drainage of the 
Almajar (a lake formed by the raiiiB 
near the town) has made Cartagena 
one of the healthiest winter residences, 
— winter, in our acceptation of tiie 
term, being in fact unknown. 

The Aleaiai was built by Alonso d 
Sabio in 1^44 ; he gave the city for 
arms the Alcazar itself washed by 

The old Cathedral dates, from the 
18th centy. The reredos of the high 
altar is richly carved. It contains two 
chapels. That of the Duke of Veragua, 
the ancestor of Christopher Columbns, 
is hung with fine old tapestry. A 
column is pointed out in the church, 
and another in a back yard whidi 
belonged to the Roman temple, which 
existed where the cathedral now stands. 
The only other church which deserves 
notice is that of iSanto Maria de Grada. 

The traveller should ascend to the 
top of the ruined CaHtillo de la Conoep- 
oion ; it was formerly a Roman fortress. 
The view is magnificent. In fvmt is 
the entrance to the harbour, bristling 
with fortifications. To the rt the 
arsenal and dockyard, dominated by 
the fortresses of Oaleras and AtalajB. 
Behmd; the Almajar, stretching away 
towards Murda. To the rt., in tirt 
foreground, the Hospital de la Caridad. 
It is capable of receiving 600 patients, 
and is worth visiting. Beyond this, 
the picturesque old fort Castillo de la 
Mora, «nd several lead mines and 
smelling furnaces. 

Visit the mines 8 m. distant, taking 
the tramway. 

Steam communication (see Introdiui- 
tion). The Comp^ Valery Fr^s has 
a steamer leaving Oran on Wednesday 
evening, touching here oH Thuisday 
morning, and then proceeding to MA^ 

The mines of the province aw veiy 
important; lead and silver abound. 
The beds of the numerous ravines in 
the vicinity are also metal-pregnant, 
and the debris left by the winter raim 
often yield 35 per cent of lead, in an 
almost pure state. The recent intro- 
duction of improved noachinery, and 
the employment of skilled foreign 
laboijr, have increased tl>e production 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -^-.■w^^-t t'*^. 


BaiUe 122. — Madrid to Aluxmte. 


of minenJ, and thereby benefited the 
entire difitriot, and undonbtedly in- 
eieaaed a hundredfold the actual profits 

i of the mining proprietors. 

During 1 879 the following ores were 
exported from Cartagena: Argenti- 
ferons lead ore, 12,000 tons, yalued at 
216,0002. ; manganiferons iron ore, for 

' the mamifactnre of Bessemer steel, 
208,000 tons, valued at. 145,0007. ; or- 
dinary iron ore, 50,000 tons, yalued at 

BOUTE 122. 

madudXto alioastk. 284| m. 

BatL 3 trains daily, in 14^ hrs. 
i For route as far as La Enoina, see 
: Bte. 123. 

^ 285 m. La Enoina Juno. Stat. Here 
i the line to Valencia branches to the 1. 
I This line of rail as far as Alicante 
I passes through a fertile and beautiful 
^ country; in snmmer the grapes trail 
• up the embankments. 

8} m. Caudete Stat. Pop. 5389. 
, (The town is situated on rising ground, 

3 m. to the rt. of the stat.) 
; 8} m. Yillena Stat. Pop. 11,890. 
! Change for Alooy. Diligence daily. 
I BaUway projected. Obs. tbe armorial 
I bearings upon the houses. Tbe streets 
i are narrow and winding. The Oastle 
I is still a grand object ; it rises from a 
fertile plton backed by the Cenro San 
I Leairing Yillena, an old castle is 
seen at a little distence, perohed very 
picturesquely on a conical hill. 

6i m. 8az Stat Pop. 8346. (To 
the 1., after leaving this stat., obs. the 
town of Petrel. Pop. 8170.) 

4} m. Elda Stat. Pop. 4328. The 
coontiy is wonderfully fruitful. The 
hills abound in aromatic plants, so 
much eeteemed amongst the Moors in 

olden times, that even now their de- 
scendants occasionally come over from 
Morocco to gather simples in the 
neighbourhood. Obs. tiie ruins of the 
Moorish Alcazar. 

8 m. Monovar Stat. Pop. 8638. 

3} m. Hovelda Stat. Pop. 8839; 
fiunous for its mineral baths. ^ 

13f m. flan Yieente de Baspeig 
Stat. Pop. 3718. 

4} m. Alioaate Stat. Terminus. 
Inns: Fonda Bossio, well situated 
near the Alameda, most comfortable ; 
Fonda del Yapor, &cing the sea and 

Canno, on the Paseo de la Beyna. 
Yisitors admitted for 14 days upon in- 
troduction by a member. 

Theatre : near the Fonda Bossio. 

BvU-ring: will seat 11,000 persons. 
Fights in June, July, and August. 

H. B. M. VioeCongfd : T. W. Cum- 
ming, Esq. 

U.8,A, Consul: William L. Giro. 

Bankers: Jasper White & Co. 

Medical Man: Sefior D. Yieente 

£ae^: Bafiosde Bonanza. Excel- 
lent sea-bathing during the summer 

Alicante (Pop. 35,551) has few histo- 
rical associations ; it extends along the 
shore of its fine open hay--a roadstead 
rather than harbour. The city bears 
for arms its castle on waves, with the 
four bars of Catalonia. The under 
town is oleian and well built, and the 
whitewashed houses looked extremely 
picturesque when approaching tlie 
city from the sea. The immediate 
environs are bare, and the general 
aspect is uninviting. The Castle of 
Santa B&rbara conmiands the town 
and bay. It is 400 feet high, and 
should be ascended for the extensive 
view. The rock of which it is com- 
posed is friable; tbe black chasm was 
blown asunder by the French in 1707, 
after title battle of Almansa, when 
Gen. Bichards and his garrison were 
destroyed by the mine. The Castle 
de San Fernando crowns the Cerro de 
Tosal to the N. of the town. 

Yisit the Church of San Hioolas de 
Barg. The firjst stone was laid in 
1616 by Agustin Bernardino; the 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.'w.^^-x t'*^. 


Boute 123. — Madrid to Valencia, 

Sect. vn. 

ch. is in the Gweoo-Romano style, of 
good proportions, but left incom- 
pleted. ITie noble portal was built 
in 1627. The interior would be fine 
if not blocked up by the Coro. 

The Ghnreh of Santa Clara was 
originally founded to receive the 
sacred sudario (one of the three nap- 
kins with which St. Veronica wiped 
our Saviour's face on his way to Cal- 
vary). It was brought here from 
Borne during the 15th centy. 

TheAynntamiento and the Bishop's 
Palace, Ac, may be looked at. 

The Fietore Gallery of the Marques 
de Algorfa contains about 1000 paint- 
ings of the Spanish and Dutch schools. 
Some may be originals, but the great 
majority are well - executed copies, 
amongst which obs. a copy of Bubens's 
"Deposition," which is in Antwerp 

The Tobaooo Factory should be 
visited'; it employs about 4500 women 
and girls, many of them strikingly 

The principal Paseos are those of 
the Capuchinos and San Francisco out- 
side the town ; the Alameda, in its 
centre, very striking and Oriental- 
looking ; and along the mole, at the 
extremity of which a fixed light is 
visible at a distance of 15 m. 

The countless Mediterranean craft, 
piled with esparto-grass, is most pic- 
turesque. In August there is an illu- 
mination in memory of a local saint. 
Bide out to the village of Hncha Miel, 
5 m. ; the melon crop is worth seeing. 

The private gardens of Pinohermoso 
and Peaacerrada may be visited by 
floricultural amateurs. 

The trade of Alicante consists in the 
export of esparto (Macrocldoa tenacis- 
8ima)—oi which enormous quantities 
are exported steam-pressed— of grapes, 
raisins, almonds, wine, liquorice, saf&on, 
and minerals from Almagra. 

The Hnerta of Alioante lies some 
distance to the N. of the town ; it is 
irrigated from the artificial Pantano 
de Tibi (14 m. distant), which every 
one should ride or drive out to see, 
and also from the Asuds de San Juan 
7 ICnchamiol. This work, as the word 
Sudd denotes, is purely Arabic, The 

compuertas (hatches) are very ingeni- 
ous. In this Huerta the succession of 
crops never ceases ; there is no winter, 
one continual summer' reigns in this 
paradise of Ceres and Pomona. The 
farms are very Moorish-looking, fenced 
in with hedges of canes {Arundo donax\ 
or tied up with the esparto-grass. The 
olives, especially the grotaly are fine; 
the caro&-trees are nun^erous and very 
productive. The celebrated Abqve 
wine is here produced ; it ought to be 
made from tiie Moscatel grape, but the 
Forcallada and ParreU are also used. 

To Elohe by daily diligence or tor- 
tana, 4 hours. The drive is beautiful. 

Steamers from Alioante. Steamen 
touch at Alicante from and to all the 
Mediterranean ports at least three 
times a week. A French line also 
connects it with Havre. 

BODTE 123. 


S06f m. 

Two trains daily, in 16 hrs. ^ 

9 m. Oetafi Stat. Pop. 9490. Obs^ 
in its Parroquia^ some good paintini^ 
by Claudio Coello, and a retablo 
painted by Alonso Cano. 

2 m. Santa Paula Stat. 

2^ m. Pinto Stat. Pop. 2098. Heie 
is a ruined castle, in which the Pnncesi 
of Eboli was confined by Philip II. 

8^ m. Yaldemoro Stat Here is s 
military college for the instruction of 
cadets for the guardia civil of Spain* 
Pop. 2261. 

41 m. Ciemporaelos Stat. Pop. 2478. 
In the neighbourhood are consider^^^^ 
saline springs. 

u,y,u..u by Google 


Boute 123. — Madrid to Valencia. 


di m, Araigues Stat. Pop. 8155. 
(Buffet). I«7i: Fonda del Norte. To 
the 1. lies the rich valley of the Tagus, 
beyond which rise the heights called 
el Anover del Tajo. Here is the Boyal 
CJhateau of Aranjuez, surrounded by 
its beautiful park and grounds (see 
Kte. 4.) 

9} m. CastilleJG Juuct. Stat. Change 
iraiDS for Toledo. Hte. 4. 

5|m. YillasequiUa Stat. Pop. 1276. 
The district is populated by well-to- 
i do fumers. To the rt. are the vine- 
i yards of Tepes, which produce a fine 
^ white wine held in considerable esti- 

. 6} m. Hnerta de Valdeoara Stat. 
;.Pop. 1705. Celebrated for its breed of 
-f sheep. 

] llf m. TemUeque Stat. Popt3428. 
I llf m. YillaoaSIas Stat. Pop. 5105. 
I 8^ m. Qnero Stat. Pop. 1724. 

8| m. Aloasar de San Juan Junct 
Stat. (Buffet). The line for Andalucia 
^d Portugal (Rtes. 85 and 70) here 
Ibranches rt. Alcazar (Pop. 8397) is 
* very ancient town engaged in various 
Inanufacturing industries : soap-mak- 
»ing, chocolate refining^ saltpetre ma- 
'Itnfacture, &c. From this Stat. El 
Joboso (15 m.), the natal place of 
the and Dulcinea, can be visited. 
ly. to Quintanar de la Orden (16 
), a small agricultural town of 7235 

4| m. Campo de Criptana Stai Pop. 
«560. 06«., to the rt., the cluster of 
24 windmills built upon a stretch of 
elevated ground immediately behind 
the town, and called la Sierra de los 
lEolinos. They are said by the people 
«f the place to have belonged to Don 
Qoijote ! 
10 m. Zanoaia Stat. 
9 m. SoouellamoB Stat. Pop. 3130. 

A little town situated in the midst 
of an extensive and extremely fertile 
plain ; much charcoal is manid[actured 
in the groves of ilex and Spanish oak 
which abound in this district. 

10} m. Yillarobledo Stat. Pop. 

IH m. Ifinaya Stat Pop. 2030. 

10 m. La Soda Stat. Pop. 6002. 

Hi m. La Gineta Stat. Pop. 8288. 

Hi m. Albacete Stat. (Buffet). Inn: 

[%i«n, 1882.J 

Fonda del Beloj, clean and reasonable ; 
cafe. Pop. 18,589. Albaoete, Ara- 
bic^ Al'hasetj is situated in a very 
fertile district, being* irrigated by the 
Ghzifltixia canal, which tends much to 
the increase of com and saffron. This 
town has been called the Sheffield of 
Spain, but its trade has been almost 
extinguished by German and English 
competitors; now not more than half 
a score small manufactories exist, and 
the coarse cutlery turned out by them 
is better adapted for killing men than 
cutting bread and meat ; the Spanish 
test of a bad knife is that it won't cut 
a stick, but will cut a finger {CuchiUo 
mcUo eorta el dedo y no el pdh). The 
main articles of manufacture in Alba- 
cete are its daggers, and puiicUes (or 
sword -knives). The handles are 
adorned in a semi-oriental style, often 
with much inlaid work, mother-of- 
pearl, and coarse niello. There is a 
murderous, business-like look about 
the blades, which run to a point like a 
shark, or a pirate felucca. The Autumn 
Fair in September is moet picturesque ; 
the population fix)m the neighbouring 
villages pour in and encamp outside the 
town. The silver buttons worn by the 
peasants, and to be bought in the town, 
are decorative and worth buying. 

Excursion. — 6 m. off, may be visited 
the fine property of ihe Marques of 
Salamanca, Los Llanos, a great game 

12i m. Ghinohilla Stat. The line 
to Cartagena (Bte. 121) branches rt. 
Pop. 5957. The station is 3 m. from 
the town, which rises on an abrupt 
scarped hill, girdled by poor modern 
walls built out of the older ones in 
1837. The height is crowned by a^ 
casUe, which was blown up by the' 
French, and offers a fine specimen of a 
mediaeval hill-fort. This town is very 
clean, and most of the smaller houses 
are built in caves. 

12 m. El Yillar Stai. 

13^ m. Alpera Stat. Pop. 2931. 
Visit near here the remarkable Moor- 
ish barrier (Pantanol which stret(^es 
across between two hills, and is con- 
structed of enormous blocks of stone, 
cemented together : it is of huge pro- 

Digitized by ViV^QlC 


Boute 123. — Almama — Jativa, 

Sect. VII. 

12} m. Almansa Stat. Fop. 7876. 
Inn : no Fonda — an indifferent Posada. 
Its Moorish Castle is situated to the 
N.W. of the town, and crowns the 
snmmit of a hill. Alraansa is well 
built and flourishing. The neighbour- 
ing Vega is irrigated by the Pantano 
of Albnf era, a &ae reservoir of water, 
which is here an element of almost in- 
credible fertility under this tropical 
sun. Visit, a short mile from Almansa, 
an insignificant ohelisk, which marks 
the site of one of the few battles in 
which the English have ever been 
beaten by the French : the action was 
fought April 25, 1707. Here, as at 
Fontenoy, traitors on both sides fought 
against their country, and for the 
enemy, the Frendi bein^ commanded 
by an Englishman, Berwick, who was 
natural son Of James 11., and nephew 
to Mariborough, and the English being 
commanded by a Frenchman, Henri de 
Ruvigny, whom William III. created 
Earl of Galway. The French victory 
was complete, but their laurels were 
stained by the ferocious sack of Jativa, 
contrary to the terms of its capitula- 

12 m. La Znoina Junct. Stat. 
(Buffet). Here the line to Alicante 
(Rte. 122) branches rt. The rly. soon 
enters a tunnel 1655 yards long, and 
thence traverses an undulating plain, 
green with foliage and teeming with 
produce, to 

6jt m. Fnente la Hi^era Stai Pop. 

Hi m. Mogente Stat. Pop. 4165. 

8 m. MonteiM Stai Pop. 1071. 
Here to the rt. are the ruins of the 
picturesque castle of Hontesa, with its 
subterranean galleries, once of vast 
extent, of which some portions may 
still be visited. It was the stronghold 
of the knightly order of the Montesa, 
founded in 1318, after the suppression 
of the Knights Templars. The moun- 
tain torrent Hontesa is crossed. 

3i m. Alendia de Crespins Stat. 

Pop. 1006. To the 1. is a fine estate 
belonging to the Marques de Beliscft. 

5} m. Jfttiva Stat, (called also San 
Felipe de Jativa.) Pop. 14,412. Inn: 
Fonda Mayol,in theOallede Moncada 
fair. Here the reader of Ariosto (xxviii. 
64) may fancy himself in the identical 
hotel where the fair Fiametta played 
her pranks on Giocondo and his com- 
panion, after they had quitted Valencia. 
Jdtiva was the Boman SetaJbis, and was 
celebrated for itscastleandlinen inann- 
fnctures: its fine handkerchiefe wen, 
all the fashion at Rome, and are praised 
by Pliny and Martial as equal to thosej 
of Type, from whence the art was ii 
troduced. An ancient inscription 
tabis Herctded condita diva mana,' 
records its Phoenician foundation, 
was also called Valeria Augusta b; 
Bomans and Xaiiva by the M 
from whom it was taken by Eiii 
Jaime I. in the year 1224. £1 JU 
Don Pedro made it a city in 1347, an 
gave it for arms a castle with his ban 
gules, and the four bars of Gataloni 
In the war of succession the town, Ml 
Zaragoza, was defended with benl 
firmness and bravery, and when at U 
it surrendered, its name was chan^ 
for that of San Felipe by the enrag( 
invaders. The rivers Albarda ai 
Guadamar dispense fertilitjr over tl 
Huerta : the climate is delicious, 11 
plain a paradise of flowers and firf 
The Oolegiata, dedicated to San FeB 
(see Gerona, Bte. 137), was built i 
1414, and since Dorieised ; it has a fifl 
dome and an unfinished portal. At tl 
altar of San Gil, the holy hinqjoy or fd 
nel, is blessed on the Ist of every Sept,^ 
to be carried round to all honsei 
The JBeja del Coro, in black and gnM 
and the pink marble Baldaquino of ft 
altar deserve notice — fThe marblea i 
Jativa are rich and infinite ; visit tb 
quarries at Boixoarro, in the Siirt 
Orosa, 9 m. N.E.]— Obs. Nuegtra St 
flora de la Armada, a singular viigH 
of great anticjuity ; also Nttesira 8e^ 
de Agosto, rising from a sarcophagi! 
supported by gilt lions. Ask to see • 

•See* Vinje literario,' L 10, bj VilUnM^J 
Mad., 1803; a useM volume aa regards tM 
ecclesiastical antiquities of Xativa. 


BouUe 123. — Jaiiva: Castle, 


beantiM castodia, the gift of Pope Ga- 
lixtos in. (Borja) to his natiTe dty. 
The Qotiiic &^e of the Hoipital is 
very rich and lemarkable. In the Cdlle 
de Moncada, is the palace of the Mon- 
cada £imily : obs. an ajimez or window 
divided by thin lofty marble shafts, 
which is quite Yalenoian. The Ala- 
meda, with its palm-trees, is shady and 
Oriental. The Ovale, with its fountain 
de lo8 veinte y euatro caflos (with 24 
spoats), supplies the town with the most 
delicious water ; water indeed abounds, 
being brought in by two aqueducts. A 
Plan de Toxos has been raised on the 
ruins of the Cdrmen oouTent, which will 
Beat 10,000 spectators. In the suburbs 
ascend the zigzag cypress-planted teiv 
races of the Monte GalTario : the view 
k reiYi^iing ; the grlind castle is liere 
seen to & best advantage. Next 
ascend to this castle, taking the Campo 
Uato in the way, and the hermitage, 
flan FelitL, said, under the Moors, to 
have been a Mosarabic temple: obs. 
the horseshoe arches, the ancient pillars 
and jaspers, inside and outside, and 
theBoman inscription, " Fulvio L. F.," 
aear the remarkable holy-water basin, 
liohly carved in figures ; the rotable is 
iet m a frame of 15tb-cent. workman- 
ihip. Near the content El Mont 8ant 
Is a Moorish cistern. 

The Castle is of a vast size ; the Torre 
Is la Campana at the summit com- 
mands the panorama of the garden of 
Valencia, whldii, with all its glories, 
lies below. The fertile plain, level as 
the aea,i8 whitened with quintas spark- 
hug hike sails. In this castle were 
confined the Infamies de la Cerdoj 
the rightful heirs to the C5rown, but 
dispoei^saed by their unole, Sanoho el 
Bravo, about 1284. The Duke of 
Ked^suftceli is their lineal descend 
ant Here also Fernando el Gatolioo 

Snsoned the Duke of Calabria, the 
tful heir of the Crown of Naples, 
t ill-fated prinoe surrendered to 
Genzalo de Cordoba, who swore on 
his honour, and on the sacrament, 
that his liberty ^ould be guaranteed. 
[ No sooner, however, did the prisoner 
touch Spain, than every pledge was 
! broken. This is one of the three 
I deeds of wliich Gonzalo repented on 

his death-bed : but Ferdinand was the 
real culprit; for, in the implicit obe- 
dience of the old Spanish knight, the 
order of the king was paramount to 
every consideration, even in the case 
of friendship and love (see the beau- 
tiful play of 'Soncho Ortiz'). This 
oode of obedience has passed into a 
proverb — Mae jpesa d Bey, que la ean- 
gre : and even if blood were shed, the 
royal pardon absolved all the guilt — 
Mata, que el Bey perdona. Here also 
was confined the infamous CsBsar 
Borgia (or more correctiy Boria\ a pri- 
soner of Gonzalo, and to whom also 
he pledeed his honour; the breach of 
this pledge was the second act of which 
he repented when too late. TheBorjas 
were an ancient family of Xativa, and 
here was bom Rodrigo Borja (after- 
wards Pope Alexander VI.), in July 
1427. The &mily long monopolised 
the simple see of Valencia, and when 
Alonso de Borja became its bishop, in 
1429, it was raised to be an arch- 
bishopric by Innocent UI., and Bodrigo 
was named by his uncle Calixtus ni.„ 
the first prunate ; when Bodrigo too 
became pope, July 9, 1492, he ap- 
pointed (Aug. 31) his natural son, 
CsBsar, as his successor to the see, 
which, after CsBsar's renunciation, he 
bestowed upon his kinsman Juan de 
Boija, and again, when he died, upon 
another relation, Pedro Luis de Borja. 
Thus five of this fiunily held the 
wealthy see in succession, and two of 
them became popes. The Borja family 
also produced the celebrated saint 
Frandsoo de Boija,* who was 4th 
Duke of C(andia : he was converted 
from mundane things by the frightfal 
sight of the corpse of Isabel — ^wife of 
Charles V^ — ^wlien he opened the coffin 
to verify the contents before the autho- 
rities of Qranada. 

Jativa was also the birthplace^ of 
Joe€de Bibera, .the painter, who going 
voung to study at Naples, was called 
by the Italians ^*Zo Spagnoktto,'* the 
little Spaniard. He was oom Jan. 12, 
1588. Beyond Jativa the railroad 
enters into a fine country, bordered pn 

* For the miracles of San Franctsoo de Borja, 
see his ' Vlda,' by Pedro Ribadeneyra, Madrid, 
1592 ; and ' Heroyca VIda,' Madrid. 1726. 
2 H 2 


Boute 123. — Valencia. 

Sect VIL 

each side by orange-plaututions. Here 
a diligence nins daily for Alcoy, Denia, 
and Albufera. 

5 m. MannelStai. Pop. 1593. Here 
are large rice-plantations. 

After passing tbis station, obs. to rt. 
of the Ime a picturesque little ruin, 
perched on the top of a precipitous 
nill, surrounded by orange^grovesi. 

4f m. CaroajenteStat. Pop. 11,980. 

The vast plain is thickly planted with 

mulberry and orange- treed ; many of 

the latter are of enormous size : much 

»Uk is produced in the neighbourhood. 

38. the picturesque water-wheels and 

<e low oriental-looking peasants' coi- 

;es, each shaded by a duster of 

itely palms. 

[From this station there is a steam 
tramway to Gandia (22 ro.), and 
thence to Denia by diligence (14 m.). 
See Rte. 127.] 

3} m. Aldra Stat. Pop. 15,811. 
The Hiierta of Alcira is called the 
Jardin del Beino de Valencia: the 
scenery around is most beautiful, and 
the palm-trees glTO the landscape a 
most oriental appearance. This is a 
district girdled with rivers, and inters 
sected by canals, where the system of 
irrigation handed down from the 
Moors, and the method of cultivating 
tiie Arrozale8 ^rice-grounds) can be 
excellently studied. 

2i m. Algemen Stat. Fop. 7846. 
Visit its ch., which contains several 
paintings by Bibalta. 

6i m. Benifii76 Stai Pop. 3615. 
Obs. an ancient palace with a high 
and picturesque tower, and a domed 
ch. with two steeples of handsome pro- 

6 m. 8illa Sijat. Pop. 3968. Near 
here, to the 1. of the rly., is the Lake 
of Albufera (see Bte. 127). 

Change here for the Albufera. 

[A branch rly. leaves Silla for the 
]^OTt of Cnllenu Two trains daily 
(16 UL). (See Bte. 127.) 

"1 m. Sollana Stat Pop. 1482. 
^ m. Snoea Stat Pop. 13,328. 

6 m. Cullera Stat. Pop. 10,972. 

3 m. Catorraja Stat. Pop. 5475. 
The road to Valencia continues to 

2 m. AUa&r Stat. Pop. 2247. 
which is the centre of the celebrated 
Hiierta of Valencia. 


$ 1. Hotels. Cafes, Casinos, Post and Tele- 
graph Offices, Consuls. Doctors. Bank- 
ers. Amusementii, Baths. Masters, 
Sliops. Carriages, Tramwajs . . 468 

6 2. Historical Notice 470 

3. Cathedral, Bishop's Palace . . . .471 

6 4. Churches. Audiencia 473 

9 6. Museo, University. Gates, Librarie«, 

Cigar Manufactory, Oordens, Port, 

Steamers 477 

^ 6. Excursions 481 

§ 1. Hotels, Cap^ Casino, Post Ain> 
Telegraph Oppioes, Consuls, Doc- 
tors, Bankers, Amusements, Baths, 
Masters, Shops, Carriages, Tram- 

3} m. Yaleneis del Cid Stat. Inns: 
Hotel de Paris, Calle del Mar, 52; 
Fonda de Madrid, Plaza de VUlarasa, 
5; Gran Hotel de Oriente, Calle de 
las Barcas, 11 ; Gran Hotel de Europa 

7 del FeiTO Carril, Plaza de la Ssta- 

Cafes: De Europa, Calle del Mar: 
Cafe de Paris, Calle de la Reina ; del 
Nuevo-Mundo, Calle del Mar. 

Bestaurant: attached to the Hotel 
de Paris, in the Calle del Mar. 

Casinos : El Casino, Plaza del Homo 
de San Andres, No. 5 ; visitors free for 
one month upon the introduction of a 
member : the * Times ' and other £ng* 
lish papers; Circulo de lo Bat Penat; 
Cf rculo literario lemosin ; Sociedad de 
Agricultura, Plaza de Mirasol; Cir- 
oido Yalenciano, Plaza de San Fran- 
dsoo. No. 8; visitors free for one 

Post'C Calle de Oaderers. 

Telegi ": in. the Calle de 

Dn. Mf 

English I .v Joseph Henif 

Dart, Esq. 

American Consula. . * Oie Sea* 

port Grao : R. Lowenst 

Doctors : Doctor Crc o las 




Archbiahaps FaJLaca 








Scat Jiuui 


San SaJyador 

B 3. 










. A,2. 

PwertcuJLeL Cuarl» 


BotaavLa Garden 




La, Glorieta, 




Featro do lalVincesa, €2. || 

Soad^ioGraa . 



I Htjtd dcFaris . 


2 ronJUv2iadrid 




Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Route 12S. — Valencia: Directory. 

Avellanas ; Seilor Justojuez (homoeo- 

Bankers: Trenor hermanos, Galle 
del Tronguete de Caballeros ; Camiila 
bermanos, Calle Campaneros. 

Theatres : Teatro Principal, Calle de 
las Barcas; Teatro de la Princesa, 
Galle del Bey Don Jaime ; Teatro del 
Cid, Plaza de la Bocha; Teatro de 
Apolo, Calle de Segniola ; Teatro 
Cafe de Buzafa, Calle de Buzafa. 

Plaza de Toros : outside the Puerta 
de Buzafa (close to the rly. stat.). It 
was built 1857-60, and belongs to the 
trustees of the Provincial Hospitsd. It 
will seat 15,851 persons. The fights 
take place during the months of May, 
June, July, and August. 

Tiro de Pichon : near the iron bridge 
of the railway to the Grao (pigeon- 
shooting is one of the favourite pastimes 
of the Vaiencians). Matches on Thurs- 
days and general holidays, in the after- 

Baihs : De Diana, Calle del Trdnsito, 
open all the year round ; de Espinosa, 
Calle de Caxniceros, No. 14 ; open in 
summer only ; del Hospital Provincial, 
open during the year. Sea-bathing at 
d Grao and CahafUd. 

Apothecary : Domingo Creus, No. 4, 
Plaza Santa Catalina. 

Langtuige Master : Mr. Tapper. 

Bookseller: Mariana y Sanz, No. 7, 
Calle de la Lonja. 

Silver Ornaments : in the Plateria. 

Mantillas, &c.: Madame de Guix, 
Calle San Vicente. 

Fans : Oolomina y Domiuguez, No. 
29, Calle de Zaragoza. (N.B. A fan 
is cedled a pahnito in the Valencian 

GUrces : Masfamer,No. 35, Calle del 
Mar. Valencian gloves are good and 

Aiba4!ete Knives and Daggers : Gen- 
uine specimens can be bought in the 
Calle de los Hierros de la Lonja. 

MaTUae Valencianas: Calle de las 
Mantas : Madame Lajara, Calle de la 
Lonja del Aceite. 

Good velvets, in all colours, are to 
be had for 13g. 6d. a yard. The da- 
masks and silks for ecclesiastical pur- 
poeeQ made here are excellent. The 

best are to be met 

with at Garln 

Azulejos: there are several manu- 
factories of these tesselated pavements 
(or tiles for in-door use), for which 
Valencia has long been celebrated; 
any pattern can be imitated. The rich- 
est colours are the blues, blacks, and 
purples. The clay is of a chocolate- 
brown colour. The white varnish is 
given by a mixture of barilla^ lead, 
and tin; the ovens are heated with 
furze, and the clay is baked 3 days 
and 3 nights, and requires 4 days to 

N.B. No doubt the manufacture of 
the celebrated Eafael ware (or Mor- 
jolica% carried on in Pisa and other 
Italian cities, arose from some speci- 
mens carried from Majorca (Majolica) 
by the Italians. 

Ckirriage Fares : The Tartana is the 
Valencian substitute for the cab, or 
berlina: it resembles a dark green 
covered tax-cart, and has been com- 
pared to the cabin part of a Venetian 
gondola, placed on two wheels. The 
name is taken from a sort of felucca, or 
Mediterranean craft. They are prin- 
cipally constructed without springs. 
Those with springs are charged 1 r. per 
course extra. 


The course (carrera) . « , . 4 r. 

The hour — Ut hour .... 6 r. 

Each succeedhig hour . . . . 4 r. 

The day 30 r. 

From 7 p.m. to 12 at night half 
a fare extra is charged ; from midnight 
to 6 A.M. double fare. From rly. stat. 
to hotel 2 r. per person, and 1 r. for 
each article of luggage. 

A branch railway and a good service 
of Tramways leave the Plaza del Prin- 
cipe Alfonso every few minutes through 
the principal thoroughfares of the town 
to the seaports of the Grao and Ca- 

A steam tramway is in course of 
construction from Utiel to Yalenoia. 

Trains every hour to the Grao and 
Cabailal, leave the station in the Ce^Ue 
de Buzafa. 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -.^j'w^^-i i'*^ 


Boute 123, — Valencia : History. 


§ 2. Historical Noncn. 

Yaleneia is the capital of its pro- 
▼inoe, the see of an aronbishop, and the 
residence of a captain-general (former- 
ly of a yiceroy) ; it has an Audienda, 
a UniTersity, and the usual prisons, 
hospitals, &c. The Pop., including 
the suburbs, is 142,057. The arms of 
the city are the four bars of Catalonia, 
with a bat» indicative of Tigilanoe, ** d 
quien vda^ todo se revda." Valencia 
has a cathedral and 14 parish churches. 
The city in shape is almost circular; 
the Tuiia traverses the N. base : the 
sandy bed of this exhausted river is 
crossed by 5 wide bridges, which serve 
as viaducts in times of inundations. 
The tapia, battlemented walls, built 
in 1366 by Pedro IV., were very per- 
fect and picturesque; they were un- 
fortunately pulled down in 1871, to 
give employment to the poor. There 
were 12 gates ; some retain their towers 
and machioolalions ; that of Serranos, 
began in 1849, and of M Ouarte, 1444, 
are used as prisons (Kewgates). Near 
the latter is the highly interesting 
Botanical Gardens. The city inside 
is very Moorish and closely packed, 
with tew gardens within the walls; 
the streets in general are narrow 
and tortuous, and the houses lofty and 
gloomy-looking, but admirably calcu- 
kted to keep out the enemy, heai. 
The roofs are flat, with cane cages for 
pigeons, of whioh the Valendans are 
great fimciers and shooters. 

The name of Valencia is fondly 
derived from, or ooosidered equivalent 
to BOMA, because *Ft&fjni in Greek 
signifies power, as Valencia does in 
Latin. Valencia was founded by De- 
cimus Junius Brutus (140 b.o.) for the 
veterans who had warred under Viri- 
atus CLivy, ep. Iv.). It was destroyed 
by Pompey after his defeat by Ser- 
torius ; when rebuilt it became a '* Co- 
lonia," and the capital of the EdetanL 
The Goths took possession in 413. It 
was subsequently captured by the 
Hoors (A.D. 712) under 'Abdu-l-'aziz, 
son of Musa Ibn Nossevr, and annexed 
to the kingdom of Cordova; when the 
Ummeyah dynasty fell to pieces, it 

threw off his allegiance in 1056. The 
Christians, as usual, took advantage 
of these intestine dissensions between 
rival rulers and Alonso VL placed 
Yahya on the throne, and surrounded 
him with Spanish troops. This created 
an insurrection : a reoel chief^ one Ibn 
Jehaf, murdered Yahya, and a pretext 
was afforded for Spaoish interference, 
and the celebratedguerrillero, the Oid^ 
aided by the local knowledge and in* 
fluence of Alvar Failez, took Valencia, 
which capitulated after a si^e of 20 
months, a.d. 1094>5. The first act of 
the Cid, whose perfidy and cruelty ia 
the theme of the Arabian annalists^ 
was to bum Ibn Jehaf alive on the 
great plaza.'" Here he ruled despoti- 
cally until his death in 1099, when the 
Moors (Oct. 25, 1101) dispossessed hit 
widow Ximeoa : but Valencia was re- 
taken Sept. 28, 1238 (others say Sept 
29, 1239), by Jaime I. of Axagon, and 
was afterwards brought into the Gas* 
tilian crown by FenSnand's marriage 
with Isabel, being inherited by their 
grandson Charles V. The tot blow 
to its prosperity was dealt by the 
bigoted and barbarous expulsion of the 
industrions Moriseoes* under Philip IIL 
The second was given by Philip V., 
who robbed it of ito liberties and gold, 
because it had opposed the Fronch 
claim to the crown. 

The firit thing whioh the Cid did on 
capturing Valencia was to take his 
wife and daughters up to a height, and 
show them all its glories. Asoend, 
therefore, the cathefial tower, which 
is open from 8 to 12 A.M., and from 2 
to 5 P.K. ; it is called El Ifigiielete^ be- 
cause its bells wero first hung on Si 
Michaers Feast This isolated oct- 
angular Gothic belfry is built with a 
brownish stone, 162 ft. high, and dis- 
figured by a modem top. It was 
raised in 1381-1418 by Juan Franck 
(see the inscription), and was intended 
to have been 850 ft. high ; the paoo- 
rama is very striking, nay, to tbe 
northern children of the mist and fogt 
the bright sky itself is wonder enough* 
The air is also so olear and dry that 
distant objects appear as if quite ckwa 
* See Gonde, Xerif Aledris, 169, and m(f9 


Baute 123.— Cathedral 


at hand. By looking at the plan of 
the town, the difiposition will be soon 
uoderstood. The Bpires rise thickly 
amid blue and white-tiled domes; to 
the N.'are the hills of Mujviedio (Sa- 
guntmn) ; the Huerta is studded with 
Alqttmas, farm-houses, and cottages, 
thatched like tents, and glittering like 
pearls set in emeralds. In the Mi- 
guelete is the great bell, La Vela, 
whiob, like that of the Alhambra, gives 
warning of irrigation periods* 

§ 8. Cathedrasl, Bishop's Palace. 

The Cathedral, La Seo, the See, now 
a poor Italian edifice, was built on the 
site of a Boman temple of Diana* It 
was dedicated to th© Saviour by the 
Christian Goths, to Mahomet by the 
Hoors, and to the Virgin by the 
Spaniards. This cathedral was raised 
to metropolitan rank, July 9, 1492, by 
Innocent VIH.; Bodrigo de Boija, 
afterwards Alexander VI., being the 
first archbishop. The suffragans are 
S^orbe, Orihuela, Mallorca, and Me- 
norca. This edifice, one of the least 
remarkable of Spanish cathedrals, has 
heen rilely modernised inside and out- 
side; begun in 1262, by Andres de 
Albalat, the third bishop, the original 
edifice was much smaller, extending 
only to the ehapel of San Francisco de 
Borja ; it was lengthened in 1459, by 
Yaldomar; but as the height of the 
first building was , preserved, it now 
appears low and disproportioned to the 
lengths The original style was Gothic, 
bat tile interior was Corinthianised in 
1760 by Antonio Gilabert; the prin- 
cipal entrance is abominable, the re- 
ceding circular form being in defiance 
of all architectural propriety. It was 
modernised by one Conrad Budolph, a 
Crerman, and presents, a confused un- 
sightlv jumble of the Corinthian order, 
vith bad statues of the loqal saints, 
Vicente Ferrer, Luis Beltran, and 
others by IgnaciQ Yergara, a pupil of 
Bemina. The Gothic interior has 8 
naves, with a semicircular termination 
behind the high altar. The transept 
and fine ciinborio, built in 1404, are 
the best portions : here 2 Gothic gates 
ffK^e each otber ; one. de he A^iistoles, 

with figure of the Virgin and seraphims, 
the other del Paiatt, with the heads 
of the 7 couples who contributed to 
repeople Valencia, when conquered by 
the Christians (see Madoz, xv. 376); 
behind the E. end is the celebrated 
chapel of Nnettra Sefiora de los Desam- 

The Corinthian Silleria del Coro is 
carved in walnut: this with the bronze 
portal were given by the Canon Miedes. 
The elaborate Trascoro was wrought 
in alabaster about 1466, although it 
scarcely appears so old. A variety of 
holy subjects in high relief, 6 on each 
side, are set in 8 reddish pillars with 
gilt Corinthian capitals: the high 
altar was unfortunately modernised in 
1862. The original retablo was burnt 
on Easter Sunday, May 21, 1469^ having 
been set on fire by a pigeon bearing 
lighted tow, which was meant to repre- 
sent the Holy Ghost in some religious 
ceremony. The Altar Mayor was re- 
stored in 1498 in exquisite silver-work 
by Jaime Castellnou and Juan Ivo, 
but most of the bullion was stripped 
off and melted in 1809. The painted 
door-panels, once framed with plate, 
escaped, and of these Philip IV. well 
remarked, that if the altar were of silver 
they were of gold : they are painted 
on both sides and in a very fine Floren- 
tine manner, and are masterpieces, 
attributed to Pablo de Aregio and 
Francisco Neapoli, pupils of Leonardo 
da Vinci, 1506, They were ordered 
and paid for by Bodrigo Borja in 1472, 
who, whatever his vices, was a magni- 
ficent prince, as his decorated chambers 
in the Vatican still evince. Obs. par- 
ticularly the Nativity, Ascension, Ado- 
ration, Pentecost, the Death, Besur- 
rection, and the Ascension of the 
Virgin. The finest is perhaps that to 
the bottom on the rt. ; the dead figure 
is grand, while those in the foreground 
are superior to Masaccio. Obs. also 
the landscape in the Besurrection ; 
these grand things, here buried in a 
napkin, ought to be better known in 
Europe. The walls were painted in 
fresco by P. de Aregio and Francisco 
Neapoli ; but all was destroyed in the 
barbarous ** improvements " of Arch- 
bishop Cameros in 1674-82t 


Boute 123. — Valencia: Cathedral. 


Next obfl. the painted doors be- 
hind the altar, especially the Christ 
seated; this grand work has been 
injured by the key, and the friction of 
opening and shutting. Here, in the 
first pillar at the right of the high 
altar, are preserved the shield, spurs, 
and bridle of Jaime the Conqueror. 
Part of the old retabh exists, and is 
put up in the Capilla de San Pedro. 
At the Transaltar is an elegant tomb, 
with plateresque ornaments and pillars : 
obs. in the superb painted windows the 
rich greens of the centre one, and the 
purples and scrolly gold-work of the 
others. Near the Puerta del Arso- 
bispo is the chapel of San Vicente 
Ferrer: obs. 2 fine pictures of him 
and his model and master, Saint 
Dominic. Thence pass to the 3 
Sacristias; over the door of the first 
is a grand "Christ mocked before 
Pilate," in darkish style: also obs. 
on the other side, and opposite the 
door of the sacristy, a ** Christ bear- 
ing his Cross," equal to Sebastian del 
Piombo, by Bibalta; also a '* Depo- 
sition," ascribed to Gerardo de la 
Notte; a "Conversion of St. Paul;" 
and a "Saviour with a Lamb," by 
Juanes; an "Abraham and Isaac, 
by Espinosa; and a truly Baphael- 
esque Holy Family, by Giulio Romano, 
in which St. John gives the Saviour 
a blue flower. Obs. also a crucifix 
of ivory which once belonged to San 
Francisco de Sales, and the ivory 
hdculo of St. Augustin, which is kept 
here in a case. 

The Belioario in the Sala Capitular 
was once rich in relics and gold and 
silver. Among Las Beliquias, as de- 
scribed by ViUanueva (ii. 22), obs. a 
Bible which belonged to San Vicente 
Ferrer, with marginal notes in his own 

An arm of St. Luke is kept in a 
handsome case, and a portrait of the 
Virgin, said to be his work, in a Gothic 
silver frame. Ask to see the fine santo 
calix ; * brought from the monastery 
of San Juan de la Fella in 1399, it is 
made of a hair-brown sardonyx, 4 

* In tbe picture bj Juan de Juanes, at the 
Madrid gallery, of the Last Sapper, our Saviour 
])0(d8 U^ chaliee in l^is l^a^d, 

inches in diameter, evidently an an- 
tique. The base is formed of another 
sardonyx cup in an inverted position. 
The stem is flanked by gold enapielled 
handles, vertical. On the bands are 
set pearls, emeralds, and rubies. It is 
a fine bit of goldsmith's work, and is 
interesting as giving specimens of the 
works of four periods — the Boman,tbe 
9th, 15th, and 16th centuries; it is 
kept in a silver case ornamented with 
enamel and an engraving of the Dead 
Saviour in the Virgin's arms. A solemn 
festival and service is performed to this 
relic, Aug. 31. 

The Sala CapitrQar Antigua was 
built in 1358 by Pedro Compte. This 
chapter-house is most interesting, quite 
a picture in colour and style ; it was built 
as a class-room for students. It con- 
tains a fine crucifix by Alonso Cano of 
life size, and rather unpleasing from 
the open mouth, but it is carefully mo- 
delled. Obs. in this chapel a chain 
hung on the wall, which formerly 
closed the old port of Marseilles, and i 
was carried off as a trophy of war by i 
the Spaniards. (See Murray's Hand- \ 
booh for France.) Inquire also pa^ I 
ticularly in the saoristia to see file i 
ternOf and complete set of frontcdet, \ 
or coverings for tbe altar, which were | 
pui'chased in London by two Valen- 
cian merchants named Andrea and 
Pedro de Medina, at the sole by 
Henry VIII. of the Bomish decora- 
tions of St. Paul's. They are em- 
broidered in gold and silver, are about 
12 ft. long by 4, and represent sub- 
jects from the life of the Savour. 
In one — Christ in Limbo — are intro- 
duced turrets, evidently taken from 
those of the Tower of London. They 
are placed on the high altar from 
Saturday to Wednesday in Easter 
Week. [A temo means a chasuble and 
two dalmatics, worn at high mass by 
three priests.] Inquire also for a miMoI, 
said to have belonged to Westminster 
Abbey before tbe Beformation. 

In the altar of San Miguel is a Vir- 
gin by Sassoferrato, and above, a fine 
Christ holding a globe. Inquire also 
for a " Virgin " and for a superb po^ 
trait of the priest Agnesio, by Juanes; 
hip ** Baptism of the Saviour," overtime 

Valencia. Boute 123. — Bishop's Palace — Churches. 

font or pila, is also very fine. The 

expression of patience ana devotion in 

the Son's face is very remarkable. In 

the Chapel of San Lnii is the tomb of 

Aiohbishop Ayala, 1566; the prelate 
f lies in his robes: the fresco paintings 
L are by Josef Vergara, and bad. The 

Chapel of San Sebastiaa contains several 

paintings by Orrente, of which observe 

the tutelar saint, the masterpiece 

of this Yalencian Bassano. Bibalta, 

when told that he was going to paint 

it, said, "Then you will seo a fine 

Santo de lana" alluding to his sheepish 

style. The s^ulchres of Diego de 

Corarrubias, ob. 1604, and Maria Diaz, 

his wife, are fine. Obs. the exqui- 
site ** Christ in a violet robe, with 

the wafer and chalice," by Juanes, 

and portions of the alabaster screen, 

whicii originally formed the BetaUo of 

the high altar; the ** Christ bearing 

his Gross," by Bibalta. The Sala 

Capitiilar has been modernised, in 

white and gold, with pinkish marble 

pillars. The Capilla de San TraneiBOO 

de Bozja is painted in fresco by the 

poor Bayeu and Goya. In an altar to 

the N., in a glass case and covered with 

dust, is a grand Ecce Homo, which 

probably is by Bibalta. 
Leaving the Pnerta de los Aptfstoles 

is an incongruous modem brick build- 
ing stuck on to the cathedral, the old 

gate contrasting with an open circular 

white Ionic erection, which, with its 

double gallery, looks like a Flaia de 

Toros ; an arched passage leads to the 

chapel of Knestra SeSora de los Desam- 

parados, the Virgin of the Unprotected. 

The chapel, modernised in the 17th 

century, is in the vilest taste. The 

iogrcLda imdgen, richly arrayed and 

decorated, is placed under a superb 

camarin of jaspers ; it was carved in 

1410, by order of the Spanish antipopo 

Luna, Benedict Xlll., who destined it 

&r the chapel of a lunatic asylum; 

others say it was made by 3 angels in 

3 days, a legend which is painted in 

the picture here by Orrente. Above the 

gate of the camarin there is a fine pio- 

tore by Juanes, which represents the 

Virgin giving gifts to orphans of a 

confraternity. The other pictures are 

not worth looking at. The splendid 


antique jewels with which this image 
was covered were sold almost for their 
weight, by permission of the clergy in 
July; 1882, to the sorrow of lovers of art. 
The Prelate's Palace is close to la 
Seo : it once contained a fine library, 
formed in 1762 by Don Andres 
Mayoral: the chapter library was 
also very rich in medals, antiquities, 
and liturgical codices, which, in 1812, 
was burnt in consequence of a grenade 
which burst there during the occupa- 
tion of the French. The shelves have 
in some sort been refilled. 


The Colegio de Corpus or del Patri- 
area, in the Plaza del Patriarca, is a 
museum of Bibaltas. It was foimded 
in 1586, and finished in 1605 by the 
Archbishop Juan Bibera, a scion of 
that powerful family of Seville. He 
is generally called " El Santo Bibera,'' 
having been canonised in 1797: ho 
died in 1611, aged 78, having been 
primate of Valencia 42 years ; see the 
engraved stone in the middle of the 
transept. He was a ferocious perse- 
cutor of the Moriscoes.* The noble 
Corinthian chapel of the college was 
built by Anton del Bey, after, it is 
said, a plan of Herrera. It is some- 
what dark, the windows being very 
small ; the walls again, like those in 
the temples of Babylon (Baruch vi. 
21), are *' blacked through the smoke 
of the incense oflfered to the queen of 
Heaven " — nigra foedo simulacra fumo ; 
moreover the daylight is purposely ex- 
cluded by desire of the founder, who 
wished to give the impressiveness of 
**a dim religious light" to the cere- 
monies. The Miserere on a Friday 
morning is one of the most interest- 
ing services connected with Church 
observances in Spain : be there at 10 ; 
ladies must go in black with a manto, 
a mantilla made of some thick mate- 
rial ; soon after that time the obscurely- 
lighted chapel is rendered darker by 
drawing blinds over the windows, and , 

* One of his pulpit diatribes is printed by Dr. 
Geddes in hid 'Tracts' (i. 166. 3rd edit, Lood., 
1730). His life has been written by Francisco 
Escriba, 4to., Valencia, 1612, and by Juan Xi- 
iQenez, fol., Iv>oipa, 1734. 


Boute 123. — Valencia: Colegio de Corpus. Sect. VII. 

shutting the doors: the whole space 
above the high altar is now covered 
with a purple pall, the colour of mourn- 
ing ; none stand near it save the sUent 
choristers; next a priest approaches 
and prostrates himself; then ail kneel 
on the ground, and the solemn chant 
begins. At the first verse the picture 
above the altar descends by a noiseless 
unseen machinery, and the vacancy 
is supplied by a lilac veil with yellow 
stripes ; as the chant proceeds this is 
withdrawn, and discloses one of a faint 
grey, which, when removed, discovers 
another of deep black, and then after 
a lengthened pause another aud the 
last. The imagination is thus worked 
up into a breathless curiosity, wliich 
is heightened by the tender feeling 
breathed out in that most beautiful 
of penitential psalms. Then at once 
the last veil of the temple is as it were 
rent asunder, and the Saviour appears 
dying on the cross; soon a choir of 
silvery voices are heard as if in the 
distance, and the pall closes over the 

The sculptor should' examine this 
crucifix as a work of art. (By appli- 
cation to the rector, and a fee to the 
8(zerigtan, it can be seen in the after- 
noon, when the chapel is closed to the 
public ; get a ladder and lights, and 
then will be revealed the ropes and 
contrivances by which all this scene- 
shifting is managed.) The carving is 
one of the finest in Spain, but nothing 
is known of its origiu. It belonged 
to the founder, and was placed here 
by his express order, as a relic, from 
the number of miracles which it 
worked. To us it appeared to be Flo- 
rentine, and of the time of Jean de 
Bologna. The material is a dark 
wood ; the feet, extremities, and ana- 
tomy are very fine : observe the broad 
modelling of the forehead, and the 
lines about the mouth, where character 
resides ; as death is here represented, 
the absence of life, which is so felt 
in painted sculpture, does not offend. 
The whole church deserves a careful 
inspection, as here RibaUa is properly 
to be estimated: in the first chapel 
to the 1. is one of his masterpieces, 
and pai^ted in a style between Titian 

and Yandyok, "San Vicente Ferrer 
visited on his sick-bed by our Saviour 
and Saints ;'* he rises on his pallet, his 
expression of humble giatitude haiv 
monises well with the kindness and 
sympathy e:dubited towards him : the 
light is unfortunately bad. Next pass 
to the high altar, which is a superb 
pile of green marbles and jaspers; 
the crucifix is concealed by a grand 
''Last Supper " by Bibalta; the head 
of an Apostle with a white beard is 
eqnal to anything painted by the old 
Venetians ; the Judas in the foreground 
is said to be the portrait of a shoe- 
maker by whom Bibalta was worried; 
above the Supper is a charming ^ Holy 
Family," also oy Bibalta ; in the small 
recesses on each side of the altar are 2 
fine pictures on panel in the style of 
Juanes ; in that to the rt. our Saviour 
is at the column^ in that to the L be 
bears his cross. The cupola is p«unted 
in fresco, with martyrdoms and miracles 
of San Vicente, and holy subjects, by 
Bartolom^ Matarana (Kill-£rog). Tbs 
picture in the Capilla de las Aaimii 
IS by F. Zuccaro. The body of fiie 
founder is preserved in a saroophagiis, 
and lies clad in episcopal robea^ witb 
a orozier between the legs ; the gol& 
and silver ornaments were stripped off 
by Suchefs troops: the features aro 
pinched and wasted; the gorgeoas 
copes and trappings mock the mo^ier* 
ing mummy. In the Capilla de 8ai 
Xanro is anoQier of these melancholy 

The Baoxistia is fine, and was bdlt 
by Geronimo Yavari. The wardrobes 
with Porio ornaments are good ; in an 
inner room is the Beliquario, Obs. a 
small altar painted by Juanes, and tb» 
picture of a dead jHrelate, with Satan 
and an angel contending for his soul, 
which belonged to El Santo Bibera, 
and was always kept in his room as a 
mementomorL Notice also an ivory and 
a bronze crucifix of Florentine work, 
and a small relief in sold which repre- 
sents the Virgin and Saviour at tbe 
sepulchre. The Sala Oapitular con- 
tains a few pictures, but the light iM 
very bad. The fine Doric and Ionic 
cloisters, with an Italian marble colon- 

Valencia. B(mte 123. — Churches — Casa Consistorial. 


nade, were ereoted in ihe Henera 
style by Guillem del Bey; obs. an 
antique Gens, which has been bung- 
lingly ropaixed. Here are 4 piotnres 
by Jnanee Stradanos— The Asoenaion, 
Birth, Supper, and St J4>hn : they are 
kept covered, except on- the festival of 
OMppttt ChrUtL Next ascend by a noble 
staircase to the library : over the door 
is a statue of Hereales. Here are some 
portraits of Spanish kings, &c. The 
lectoral lodgings are also upstairs, and 
contain fine pictures; inquire for a 
portrait of Clement YIH^ and for that 
of the founder, an intelligentF>looking 
old man with long pointed nose and 

Snare beard ; it is by Juan Zarinefia ; 
» for a Christ in the Qaxden of 
Olives, by Bibalta ; and bv the same 
master a superb Christ at the Column, 
painted in the style of Sebastian del 
Fiombo : obe. also a Christ bearing the 
Gross, \sy Morales, and a noble picture 
of a Brnta in a brown dress, by Bibalta. 
N.B,'^The afternoon igthehegt time to 
fee theteintereding objects. Ladies not 

Visit next the Chureh of flan Martin ; 
over the door is a bronze equestrian 
liatne, made in 1495, of the tutelar 
^Tiding his rioak ; it weighs 4000 lbs., 
and the horse is heavier. In the in- 
terior is a martyrdom of San Menas, 
and in the vestry the portrait of a 
Hahop, by Goya. 

Visit by all means the Chnroh of flan 
KeoUti, originally a Moorish mosque, 
the fr^ooes are by Dionis Tidal, a 
{apii oi PalcMuino. The oh. is dis- 
ignred by stucco abortions. Calix- 
tos 111. was curate here, and his me- 
Uion is placed over the principal 
ttitrance. Obs. especially the paints 
lags by Juanes over both the altars, 
to the rt<^ the Altar Major. Onthe 
I is a Cendcoh, kept under a case, 
which is considered by Cean Bermudez 
to be his masterpiece. Notice also 8 
analler pictures of much beauty, and, 
above all, those ccmnected with the 
Creation. The paintings on the right- 
hand altar are inferior, and were pro- 
bably finished by the sohcdars o{ Juanes, 
On an altar in the side aisle are other 
jpietores hy this master, some due ; and 

in the Saoristia 2 heads of Christ and 
the Virgin, painted on a round panel 
in his best style, and a fine silver 
chalice, 15th century, a present from 
Pope CaUxtus III. 

The Chureh of San Salvador poa- 
sesses the identical miraculous image, 
El Cristo de Be^frutt a curious sculp- 
ture of the 13th century, placed there 
in 1250, which is described by all 
local historians as made by Nioodemus, 
and on whieh St. Athanasius is said to 
have written a treatise. The tradition 
is that it navigated by itself from 
Syria^* and worked its way up to Va- 
lencia against the river-stream; a 
monument, erected in 1738, marks the 
spot where it landed. In San Esteban 
is the body of San Luis Beltran, who 
was bom dose by ; an oratory marks 
the sacred spot 

As San Vicente was baptised in this 
ch., his ^ Bautismo** is still regu- 
larly performed here by appropriately 
dressed characters on April the 5th. 
On the Sunday following Easter Sun- 
day a raised place is put up in the 
cathedral, on which is represented the 
baptism of St. Vincent by means of 
15 ot 20 large dressed figures called 
htiUos ; representing the priest, the 
sacristan^ the Viceroy and hia wife^ 
&c. This ceremony is the remem- 
brance of a religious play, atUo^ which 
formerly was represented here. His 
mirades are represented during his 
eentenary (the last was in 1855) in 
the open streets, where altars are 
ereeted to him; these exhibitions on 
the Meroado, Xros Alt, and Flan de 
la Congregaoion, are so extraordinary, 
that they must be seen to be credited. 

The Casa Connstorial, or Audieneia, 
must be visited; it is a noble Doric 
pile : the view from its balustrades is 
fine. The basement story, raised a 
little above the ground, is now divided 
into several pubhc ofiSces. The ceiling 
of the saloons is sumptuously carved 
and gilt in the mudejar style, with 

* Compare Santiago at Padron. and the Cristo 
de Burgos; also compare the Wooden Hercules 
that sailed much in the same way ficom tbQ 
same country, Tyre» (Pai|S. viLj. 3.) 


Boute 12S, — Valencia: Caaa Conmtorial. Sect. VII. 

honeycomb pendatives of Moorish 
architecture. ABcoDding to the first 
floor and entering the anteroom of 
the great saloon, obs. the portraits of 
the kings of Spain, hung around below 
the cornice : el Salon de Cortes is a 
noble room. The 4 busts which adorn 
it are said to represent Dn. Pedro II., 
who created the Diputacion ; Dn. Al- 
fonso III., who remodelled it; Fer- 
dinand the Catholic, who authorised 
the construction of the building ; and 
Philip I., in whose reign it was com- 
pleted. It has its walls painted in 
curious old frescoes by Oristdbal Zari- 
fiena, 1592, and Peralta* (but since 
vilely gone over with oil) ; in the centre 
the Virgin and Child, with an angel on 
each side — on the rt St. George and the 
Dragon, and on the 1. an angel holding 
the arms of the city. These subjects i*Te 
repeated all over the building. The 
lower part of the walls has a dado of 
modern tiles. Above it every avail- 
able place is occupied by fresco paint- 
ings, representing the members of the 
Cortes assembled in session. The 
space to the 1. contains portraits of 
the deputy, the accountant, the admi- 
nistrator, and the treasurer clad in 
their robes. Continuing to the L are 
three pictures encompassing the dais 
at the bead of the room. The first is 
that of Bras Ecclestich, as it is called 
by the inscription. The Archbishop 
of Valencia, the Master of the knightly 
Order of Montesa, the Bishops of Se- 
gorbe, Tortosa and Segorbe, dressed in 
their robes, are figured here. The 
compartment next to this, at the head 
of the room, bears the ins. Sitiada dd 
SeHors Bimbtats de la generalUat del 
Regne de Valencia. To the rt. are the 
3 treasurers, to the 1. the assessor and 
imidic. This painting, which bears 
me painter's signature (Cristoval Za- 
riliena), has been much Injured by 

To the 1. and opposite the Eccle- 
siastics, is a picture marked Estre- 
mio Brae Militar, It represents 40 
figures seated in four rows. The third 
in the second row has a scroll in his 
hand, with the letters P. R. F., which 

• Consult • Descripcion de la Diputacion de 
Valencia/ ^rral, 1834. 

has been taken to mean FraneiMo 

The three remaining panels depict 
the procurators of the 33 cities and 
villages represented in the Cortes. 
The most remarkable figure is that of 
a porter in the middle panel. 

Between the two front windows is a 
figure representing Justice. 

All round the room above the paint- 
ings is a narrow cloistered gallery, 
supported on consoles, elalx^rately 
carved, the interspaces being filled 
up with coats of arms, busts of the 
Kings of Aragon, and memorable inci- 
dents in sacred and profane history. 

The ceiling is carved in honeycomb 
pendatives. The tout ensemble of this 
noble room is one of the finest which 
can be met with, inside or outside of 
Spain. The wood carvings were finished 
in 1561, as the inscription tells ne, 
which is in an oval on the third oolonm 
of the gallery to the left. In the 
library is a curious MS. relating to the 
city's commerce in the 15th century. 
The chapel of the Virgin and 3 adjoin- 
ing courts contain uotiiing remarkable 
but some pictures by Zurbaran. In 
the Ayimtaiiiiento, or Casa iCngAiiM— , 
are kept in a chest the sword and 
banner, seilera^ of James the Con- 

Visit the Colegio, founded in 1550 
by Santo Tomas de Villanueva, arch- 
bishop of Valencia, with its quaint ir- 
regular Patio. In the Cuarto rectoral 
is the grand picture, by Bibalta, of this 
prelate surrounded by scholars. The 
Santo was buried in San Agustin (d 
8oc<$8\ in a noble sepulchre. This 
building serves now for the preeidh 
oorrecoional, a reformatory philanthro- 
pic penitentiary, which was founded by 
Don Manuel Montesinos : it is dean 
and well managed. The prisoners are 
employed at different works, and the 
silent system observed. See the aoooont 
of the Sistema, by Vicente Boix, 1850. 
The dtadel was built by Charles V. to 
defend Valencia against Barbarossa. 
On its N. side is the Plaia de Tetnas. 
The convent was founded by Jaime In 
who laid the first stone; it was a 
museum of art of all kinds, until de- 
9olat^ by Suphet, who bpmbarde*} 


JSotffe 12S.—CaUe de CahalU^os. 


Valencia from this side. The pictures 
which it contained are now in the 
Hnseo. Once the lion of Valencia, it 
rmdoxibtedly deserves a Tisdt. Obs. the 
Doric portal and statues. The chap- 
teivhouse and cloisters are in excellent 
Gothic ; thelatter,planted with orange- 
trees and surrounded with small cha- 
pels, was the burial-place of the Escala 
family, whose sepulchre was most re- 
marlQBible on account of the costume 
of 2 armed knights. In the Capills del 
Capftnlo, which is supported by 4 airy 
pillars, San Vicente Ferrer took the 
cowl. His chapel, by Antonio Gilabert, 
is a pile of precious green and red 
marbtss, jaspers, and agates. The 
chapel of San Luis Beltran, where 
his uncorrupted body was kept, was 
adorned with pillars of a remarkable 
green marble ; here were the beautiful 
tombs of the monks Juan Mico and 
Domingo Anadon. The chapel of the 
Tirgen del Sosario was all that gold 
decoration could make it, and con- 
trasted with the severe sombre Gothic 
<xf the Capilla de los Beyes, founded 
by Alonso V. of Aragon, and now the 
limteon ProTincial. Here are the 
poor Berruguete sepulchres of Rodrigo 
ICendoza, ob. 1554, and Maria Fooseca 
kis wife. 

The Calls de Caballeros is, as its 
name implies, ike aristocratic street of 
Valencia. These Valencian houses 
have an air of solid nobility : a large 
portal opens into a patio, with arched 
eolonnades, which are frequently ellip- 
tical ; the staircases are remarkable for 
their rich banisters, and the windows 
•ire either Gothic or formed in the 
a^mez style, with a slender single shaft 
^Uriding the aperture : the long lines 
of open arcades under the roofs give an 
Italmn lightness in these modernising 
days. Of the most remarkable houses 
obeerve the fine specimen '*Za Ccua 
de Salicofrasy' witn noble patio and 
marble colonnade. The upper corridor 
is charming, with slender o/imespillars. 
liook at the portals and doorways. 
Another good house is in the Galle Ga- 
direis: obs. that of the MarqttSs de dos 
Aguoi^ Plaza de Villarasa, which has 
s grotesque portal, a fricassee of nalm- 
trees, Indians, serpents, and aosurd 

forms, the desigpi of one Rovira and the 
work of Vergara. The house-fancier 
may visit those of Pinohermosoj C. del 
Gcbemador Viefo, and of Baron Llauri, 
with its fine Genoese marbles. 

The vast mansion of the Cande de 
Parsent, Galle de Don Juan de Villa- 
rasa, contains some good pictures: 
obs. the Adoration of Shepherds, a 
St. Catherine, Christ breaking the 
Bread at Emmaus, by Bibalta. llie 
picture-gallery of 8r. La Quadra con- 
tains 2 Juanes, 1 Francisco Uerrera 
el Viejo, 1 Oano, and 4 pictures attri- 
buted to Murillo. The gallery of the 
Conde de Villarea contains several fine 
paintings : obs. a Juanes, representing 
the Virgin and Child, St John, St 
Joseph, and St Catherine. 

The Aoademia de Vobles Artes of 
San Carlos, Calle de la Porteria del 
Carmen, contains some second-rate ob^ 
jects of art, and bad pictures with 
good naXoes, a Transfigwation by Bi- 
balta, a San Sebouiian by Bibera and 
some portraits of poets from the monas- 
tery of Murta. 

§5. MusEO, Ukivebsity, Gatjds, 
Libraries, Cigar Manufactory, 
Gardens, Port, Steamers. 

XI Kuseo is in the Calle de la Por* 
teria del Cdrmen, in the same old con- 
vent in which the academy of Nobles 
Artes has its gallery. N.B, The cata- 
logue of this MweOypMUhed in 1867 
(JHce 2 r.), t» useless^ several of the 
pictures being wrongly numbered^ and 
also wron^y named. This provincial 
Museum was established upon the 
suppression of the convents in 1836. 
It contains 1125 pictures, the vast 
majority of which are worthless rub- 
bish. The best are placed in a Sola 
by themselves. The artists represented 
belong more especially to the great 
Valencian School. The chief painters 
of fthis school were, 1st, Vicente Juaaes 
(or Joanes), bom 1523 ; died 1597 : he 
has been called the Spanish Baphael, 
and was bom at Fuente la Higuera, 
and buried in the 8anta Cruz, but his 
ashes were removed to this Cdrmen in 
1842. 2nd, Frandsoode Bibalta (bom 
1551; died 1628); Castellon de li^ 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -.^j'w^^-i i_'»^. 

478 Boute 123. — Valencia: El Museo— Paintings. Sect. VII. 

581, a fine Martyidom of San Sebas- 
tiaQ; No. 664, San GejEonimo ; No. 
711, Santa Teresa. 

Sspinon : of this artist 7 imporiant 
works can here be studied, yiz. No. 
184, St. Louis Archbp. of Toksa; 
No. 186, San Peter PasquaL ; No. 236, 
portrait of a Nun ; No. 348, portrait of 
Padre Mos ; No. 402, San Peter; No. 
672, Santa Magdalena ; No. 788, a 
Holy Family. 

Pedro <lrre&te is lepresented by No. 
580, Santo Domin|:o recalling a dead 
man to life ; and No. 586, the behead- 
ingof St. John. 

The Museum also contains the fol- 
lowing pictures, viz. : a fine CruciiixioD 
(No.676)of Jticm BibaUa, painted when 
he was 19 years old. A Virgin, with 
St. John and the Magdalen (No. 570) 
by OrUtdhdL ZarineHa ; a Santa Kn- 
lalia (No. 567) by Qu&rchiM;im 
battle-pieces (Nos. 720, 729, 735,741), 
by EsUban March, ; the Virgin d 
Bosario and 2 Saints (No. 282); the 
Oonception of the Virgm (No. 296); 
Hell and Purgatory (No. 555); and a: 
Martyrd<»u of San Fabian (No. 687); i 
by radre Borrds; a Virgin de U 
Meioed (No. 137), by VicenU Lopai 
an Ecstasy of San Ignacio Loyola (Nft 
138), by JoM Camaron; a Beatifica* 
tion of San Qaspar de Bono (No. 224)^j 
by Mariano MaeUa ; a Santa TenM 
with ai^eU (No. 388), by Andr4 
Vacaro ; a portrait of Veiazquez the 
painter, attributed to <die painter hiia* 
self (No. 684): a portrait of JfuHBa 
(No. 662X attributed to. him; an In- 
fant Christ (No. 392) by AJUnuo (kmi 
a beautifully painted Magdalen (N«< 
777X by CWto BoUsi; a fine Virgia 
and Child (No. 671XcaUed a Zeononi* 
da, Vinci; another Virgin and Child 
(No. 677), said to be by Andrta i/A 
Sarto; and an indifferent sea-pieoa 
(No. 659), attributed to Sahador AMa* 

Plana was his birthplace and the ch. of 
San Juan dd Mercado, in Valencia, his 
place of sepulture : be was the painter 
of San Vicente Ferrer (t. e, a local 
painter of a purely local subject), just 
as Murillo was the painter of the Con- 
ception, so worshipped by Sevillians.* 
3rd. JtMWf Bibera (Spagnoletto— or the 
littU Spaniard), bom at Jativa, 1588, 
died at Naples, 1656, whfiare he led the 
Hispano-Neapolitan school : he was a 
fine colourist,and painted martyr sub- 
jects in a decidedly Carayaggio style. 
4th, Jaointo Oertfnimo Espiiioia, bom 
in Cocentaina, 1600, died at Valencia, 
1680, and buried in ch. of San Martin : 
he imitated the Canacoi schooL 5th, 
Pedro Orrente, bom at Monte Alegie, 
1560, died at Toledo, 1644 : he was 
the Bassano of Spain, and painted 
principally cattle, and Adorations of 
Shepherds: he was the master of 
Pablo Pontons (whose pictures are 
seldom seen out of Valencia) and of 
Esteban March, a painter of battle- 
pieces, who died at this place in the 
year 1660. 

The masterpieces of these 5 chief 
painters of the Valenoian school should 
be especially observed. 

Vicente Juanes has only 5 paintings 
in the Koseo, viz. No. 661, an Ecce 
Homo ; No. 688, Assumption of the 
Virgin; No. 700, a Cena; La Puri- 
sima. Nos. 701, 766, two very fine 
portraits of El Salvador. 

Eraneiseo Bibalta is represented by 
8 excellent examples: No. 569, St. 
Francisco embracing Christ at the 
Cross, formeriy in the convent. o^ the 
Capuchinos ; No. 635, Assumption of 
the Virgin; No. 708, St. Peter the 
Apostle; No. 709, The Conception of 
the Virgin ; No. 735, portrait of Leo- 
nardo de Arfe; No. 755, St. John. the 
Baptist : No. .. 759, San Bruno ; No. 
743, a portrait : and the celebrated Ckm- 
eepeion^ whicb < was painted by the 
Jesuits, and which was formerly in the 
church of Los Santos Juanes. 

JoMfh Bibera: of this painter, 3 
examples only are in the Museo : No. 

* There is a picture in Magdalen Chapel, 
Oxford, which is probably by Frandsoo Kibalta, 
although ascribed to artists to whose works it 
has not the remotest resemblance. 

Jn the Saloon of Aatiquities (fiof 
merly the chapel of the Convent) it 
the Altar of King Jaime L of Aiagoo, 
with its singular retablo, quainily 
painted in ou by an unknown artiflt 
Here are. also three interesting punt^ 
ings (from convent of Santo Donun^) 
by El Bosco (Jerome Bosch of Bois to 


Route 123. — Mercado — Longa de Seda, 


Doc), representing the Crowning with 
Thonis, and Christ at the Pillar, and 
ia the Garden. Obs. in this saloon 
I several ancient pieces of sculpture, 
espedaUy a reclining effigy of tho dead 
San Vicente Martyr, which is grace- 
fully carved in alabaster. 

In one of the galleries in the cloisters 
isa la^e modem painting of Don Qui- 
jote and his faithAil Sancho, by Fer^ 
ran, a young Catalan artist of consider- 
able talent. Valencia possesses a school 
of BQodem artists of great merit. 

The VaiTersidad is situated in the 
Plaza del Colegio del Patriarca : it is 
a fine large red buUding and much fre- 
qneoted by students. 

The Eseoela Pia, a tolerable semi- 
nary, was built in 1738 by the Arch- 
bishop Mayoral: the rotunda is very 
noble, but has been iniured by light- 
ning. The green marbles of Cervera 
used here are rich: obs. the San 
Antonio, a fine picture by Bibalta, 
painted something like Guerdno. The 
saint in black holds the chUd in his 
arms, while an angelic choir hovers 

The Puerta del Serrano, built in 
1349, is one of the principal entrances 
to the city : its two grand polygonal 
towers flank the narrow archway, 
above which obs. the rich tracery 
panelling of the windows, the whole 
surmounted by a cornice of deep ma- 

The Puerta del Guarte, built in 1449, 
should also be visited, although of less 
noble proportions than Uie former. 

The Temple was the tower called 
Alibufatf on which the Cross was first 
hoisted. This chureh once belonged to 
the Templars, and was given to the 
order of Montesa in 1317 : ruined by 
an earthquake in 1748, it was rebuilt 
in 1764 by Miguel Fernandez. The 
portico is fine : obs. the circular altar, 
with choice jaspers and gilt capitals, 
under which is the Virgin's image, and 
the doors leading to the Presbiteiio. 

The principal plaza, called El Ker- 
Mdo, is in the heart of the city, and 
was the sito of tournaments and execu- 
tions, where the Cid and Suohet put 
prisoners to death without trial or 
mercy. The market-place is well sup- 

plied, and visitors ought to go there in 
the morning. The flowers are very 
fine and cheap, and the vegetables and 
fruits in all seasons most wonderful in 
size and colour; and the costume of 
the peasants most picturesque. Here 
is the Lonja de Seda, the silk hall, a 
beautiful Gothic building of 1482, very 
similar to that of Palme^ one of the 
finest examples which exist in Europe 
of civil architecture of the middle ages. 
It has the same spirally-fluted column, 
without capitals, branching out on 
the roof like the leaves of a palm-tree. 
It is divided into three aisles by four 
columns along each side of the hall. 
There is a curious corkscrew staircase 
leading to the upper rooms. The archi- 
tect's name was Pedro Compte. It 
is the Chamber of Commerce. The 
exterior architecture is best seen by 
entering a pretty garden attached to 
it ; obs. the beautiful Gothic windows, 
medallions with heads, and coronet-like 
battlements. Opposite to the Lonia is 
the church of the Santos Juanes, which 
has been disfigured with heavy over- 
done ornamente in stucco and Chur- 
rigueresque. The much-admired cupola 
is painted in fresco by Palomino, and 
is a poor performance; San Vicente 
figures like the angel of the Apoca- 
lypse. The retahlo, by Mufloz, is bad ; 
the mavble pulpit was wrought at 
Genoa by one PonzanellL 

Thei Plaia de Santa Catalina is the 
mart of gossip, and the fair sex re- 
turning from Mass make a point of 
passing through it to see and to be 
seen. The hexagon tower of the 
ohurob, built in 1688, is disfigured by 
windows, and rococo pillars and orna- 
ments. The Gothic interior was made 
into a straw magazine by Suchet, who 
tore down and destroyed the glorious 
altar de los PlateroSy painted by Bi- 

LilM-arieg, d:o. The BibUoteoa del 
Arioliisnado in the archbishop's palace 
(formerly the Com Exchange) contains 
about 10,000 vols. : open to visitors 
gratis. The Vnivendty Library is well 
arranged; that founded by Bayer in 
1785 was burnt by the French in 1812, 
but has been replaced since from the 
suppressed convents, and now contains 

480 Route 12S.-^Valencia : Gardens, Promenades, dc. Sect. VII. 

42,000 volumes. Among them is a 
copy of the rare Tirante Lo Blanc, of 
yrhioh the finest known is in the 
Grenville library of the British 
Museum : it also possesses some rare 
bibles, books of chivalry, and Spanish 
dnquecenios, and some vellum MSS., 
e.g.y a Virgil, Pliny, Livy, and Aristotle, 
with excellent illuminations, which 
formerly belonged to the ConverUo de 
lo8 Reyes, and escaped Suchet's fire- 
brands, by having been sent to Majorca 
before his arrival. 

The Soeledad Eooii6mioa, in the 
Plaza de las Moscas, contains some rare 
books and objects of natural history. 

The Aduana (formerly the Custom- 
house) is an extensive Government 
establishment for the manufacture of 
cigars : it employs about 3600 women 
and children. Visitors are admitted 
upon presenting their cards to the 

Valencia abounds in pleasant walks ; 
take one to the river, or rather the 
river-bed, for it is so drained for ir- 
rigation, that, excepting at periods 
of rains, it scarcely suffices for the 
washerwomen. The massive bridges 
and their strong piers, which seem to 
be sinecures, denote, however, the ne- 
cessity of protection against occasional 
inundations. Thus the Pnente del Kar 
was carried away in the flood of Nov. 
5, 1776. The Valencians are great 
pigeon - shooters. The dip at La 
Peohina is the resort for el tiro de las 

Valencia once abounded in inscrip- 
tions, most of which were buried in 
1541 under the bridge Serrsnos, by a 
priest named Juan Salaya, because 
pagan. The next bridge, walking to 
the rt, is that of La Trinidad, built in 
1356 ; then comes the Beal (the Moor- 
ish Jerea — Arabice Sharea, **of the 
law ") which fell in during the reign 
of Charles V., and was restored at his 

Crardens, Promenades, Bridges, &c, 
l?he Jardin Botinioo is near the Puerta 
del Cuarte. It is beautifully laid out 
and carefiiUy kept, and abounds in 
rare exotics, which flourish herein all 
the luxuriance of a tropical clime. It 
^as the best collection of plants, espe- 

cially cacti, of any in Spain. The 
Jardm de la Beina is also rich in 
tropical plants and trees, and is a 
favourite resort of the citizens. The , 
summer promenade is the Olorieta, 
laid out with orange-trees and palms. 
A military band usually plays dur- 
ing the evening hours. It was 
planted in 1817 by Elio, who coq* 
verted into a garden of Hesperus a 
locality made a desert by Sachet, who 
razed 300 houses to clear a glacis for j 
the adjoining citadel. When Elio was 
massacred in 1820 by the Constitution- 
alists, because a royalist, they selected 
this very garden for his place of execu- 
tion, and the Valencians wished to 
tear up even the trees and flowers, j 
because planted by a royalist hand ! 

The fashionable paseo is the Ala- 
meda, N.E. of the city: its long 
avenue, shaded by overarching bran- 
ches, continues to el Grao (the gradw, 
or step to the sea). This agreeable 
drive is the lounge of the natives, who 
flock in the tramways to the Orao in < 
the summer for the sea-bathing. Tlie 
temporada de Bafios is a gay period. ' 
The baths are thatched with rice- \ 
straw. The road is then thronged 
with tartanas, which convey both 
sexes to their immersion. The shore, 
however, is ill adapted for bathing, 
being of a boggy nature, and much 
inferior to the fine sandy beaches on 
the northern coast. 

The Port of Valenda is itself one of 
the finest in Spain, with a minifMm 
depth of 20 ft. Vast sums have been 
expended since 1792 in its construc- 
tion; the Muelle (or mole) has been 
pushed forwards iM two piers, and all 
that is now wanted to make it the 
safest as well as the finest harbour in 
Spain, is to extend one of the piers in 
a more slanting direction, so as to pro- 
tect it more effectually against the S. 
and S.W. gales, to which it is at pre- 
sent much exposed : its roadstead was 
originally bad, and liable to be choked 
wiSi sand from the Tnria. 

jV:J5. The TaHf for landing andem;' 
harking from and to the steamers, is 
4 r. eaxih person, 2 r. for a portman' 
tea% and 1 r. for each smaller piece of 
luggage. The charge for a Tartana to 

Murcia & Valencia. Boute 124. — Granada to Murcia. 

or from the dty is 6 r. Travellers may 
go to Valencia by rail or tramway. 

Railways : to Tarragona and Barce- 
lona (Rtes. 134, 136), to Cartagena 
(Bte. 121), to Madrid (Rte. 123). 

Steamers : to Marseilles at frequent 
interyala: to Malaga, Alicante, and 
Cadiz, three times a week (see hand- 
bills). To Palma (in the island of 
Majorca) every Sunday and Tuesday 
at 3 P.M. 


§ 6. Excursions from Valencia. 

(a) To the Lake of Albufera 8| m. 
Take the Madrid line to Silla Stat., 
wliich is close to the lake. . (For de- 
\. tails of this excursion see Rte. 127.) 
r (6) To Burgasot (Pop. 2567), N.E., 
¥ a favourite resort of its citizens : visit 
[ its Moorish mazmorrds, or caves, which 
^ were used as gi-iauaries: the deep 
I spacious cdmaeenes (or crypts), 39 in 
J number, are still partially used as 
* storehouses for corn and grain. 
».' (c) An excursion can also be made 
: to the Oartuja de Portaoeli, in the hills 
: near Olocau, about 9 m. from Valencia. 
This suppresHcd convent commands a 
finy view of the plain and sea ; it was 
founded in 1272 by the bishop, Andres 
de Albalat, and was once a museum of 
art. Here Alonbo Oano took refuge 
after the death of his wife ; . for her 
imputed murder by him, is an idle 
Cdluinny ' ot* the gossiping Palomino, 
1 unsupported by auy evidnce: had it 
/been tme, would Pliiiip IV. huve 
made him a caiiou, or been his patron ? 
He carved for the mo.iks a crucifix, 
an.l jiainted sevei al pictures, nrj w gone. 
This maje&tic convent v. as renowned 
for its ffescoas' and ricli mai-lde^. : now 
it id dcoolate, yet the picturesque 
wootled mountain situation is un- 
changed. The superb aqujduct is of 
tbe time of the Catholic sovereigns. 

The wine "wno raTido" is excel- 
lent. Ail this district, lip to 1609, 
was inhabited by industrious Mo- 

{d) To Mnrviedro {Sa^guntum) 12 m., 
see Bte. 134. Very interesting; take 

(e)Td Jativa, a district of extra- 
ordinary fertility, see p. 466. 
[Spain, 1882.] 

ROUTE 124. , 

187 m. 

The route ia previously described 
under Ete. 115, as far as 

43 m. 0uadiz. Inn : Parador de 
lias Diligencias. Pop. 11,520. (For 
description of this town and its neigh- 
bourhood; see p. 448.) 

12 m. Venta de Gor. The town lies 
to the rt. 

4 m. Venta de Baid. 

11m. "Baza. Inn : Posada del SoL 
Pop. 12,895. This ancient city, the 
Roman Basti, the Moorish Bdstah, is 
inhabited by an agricultural popula- 
tion. Fragments of antiquity are con- 
stantly being found in thi;} surrounding 
vega, and are as constantly neglected 
or broken to pieces by the peasants, to 
see if they contain treasure. Baza 
was taken from the Moors, Dec* 4, 
1480, . the Spaniards ' being led by 
Isabel in person. Some of the cannon 
used on that occasion may still be 
seeii near the rose-planted Alameda. 
They are composed of bars of iron 
bound together by hoops, and are 
moved by rings of cord, not having 
been mounted on whe Is. 

The Gothic Coiegiata is very ancient. 
It contains the fine tomb of the patron, 
San Maximo. Its silleria del Coro is 
finely carved in walnut-wood, arid its 
organ is considered one of the best in 
Spain. The Custodia is the work of 
Juan Ruiz of Cordova. 

The women of Baza are amongst 
the prettiest in Spain: they arc fair- 
complexioned, and clad in green sayas 
with black stripes and red edgings; 
their feet are Stindalled, their step 
elastic, and they carry their baskets 
and pitcherson their heads ina classical 

The plain around Baza is called Is 
Hoya; it is ploughed up by ravines 
and Brobdignagian furrows. It pro- 


Boute 124.— Granada to Murcia, 

Sect. VTL 

duces a rich red vine which would 
be excellent were it properly pre- 
pared, and not rendered undrinkable 
to fion-Iberian palates by the admix- 
tnre of <tguardie7Ue distilled from ani- 

Hence the road traverses the pretty 
Alameda, poplared on either side, to 

15^ m. Cnar de Baia (Pop. 7486), 
which lies in a valley below its Moor- 
ish castle. Many of the inhabitants 
live in caves dug in the hill-side. 
' Ascending a broken rid^e, a miser- 
able venta is passed, at me summit 
from vfhxch. streamlets descend both 

" 10 m. Chirivel (Pop. 2657) is in a 
district of flax and hemp. 

^he road now enters a wild country. 
Obs. the two rooky knobs distant 3} 
m. apart ; they are called La Uoxga 
And £1 Trayle. The stream which 
waters the intermiediate plain is 

11 m. Velez de Bubio. Inn : Posada 
del Rosario, a huge building, but 
wioiting in everything but the barest 
necessaries. Pop. 9446. Its white 
houses lie under the castle in a pictu- 
resque hUl-girt position. 
' Near it is the Fuente del Oato, a 
ferruginous mineral spring, excellent 
for nervous disorders. [3 m. to the 
K. is the town of Velea-Blanoola. Pop. 

The road descends from Velez-Rubio 
into the valley called la Bambla de 
Kogalte, and thence through the pass 
of the Puerto de Lunbreras. [Here a 
ditour COD. be made by a mountain- 
p$ih to the 1. to visit the noble castle 
of Xiquena; the stone pines are mag- 
nificent. Thence, still to the 1., to the 
Pantano of Lorca, an enormous dyke 
built across a narrow valley. It is 
1500 feet high, the base being 84 
feet thick. This dyke was commenced 
in 1755 by a private irrigation com- 
J)any, for the purpose of forming a 
reservoir lake. It was finished in 1789, 
and the reservoir was filled for the 
first time in February, 1802. It gave 
way on the 30th of April, destroying 
the suburb of San Gristdbal and much 
of the dty of Lorca, and oomi^etely 
desolating a lar^ tract of opuntry 

for a distance of 50 m. This disastei 
was similar to that which occurred 
at Holmfirth, near ^^uddersfield, in 
March, 1852.] 

30 m. Loroa. Inn: Posada de San 
Vicente. Pop. 53,057. This town 
was the Elicroca of tiie ancients, the 
Lorcah of the Moore ; it is built under 
the Honte de Oro on the banks of the 
Sangonera (or Guadalentin), which 
enters the Rio Segura a little below 
the town. Visit its Moorish castle for 
the superb view it commands. The 
tower Espolon and the long lines of 
walls are Moorish; the Alfonsiiis is 
Spanish ; it was built by Alonso el 
Sabio, who gave the city for arms his 
own bust resting on the parapet 
of this tower, with a key in one hand 
and a sword in the other, with the 

*' Lorca solum grattim, castnim saper astn 

locatmn. ^ 

EnBe xninas gravis, et regni tntissima clavis. 

The fa9ade of the Colegiata is Co> 
rinthian ; its interior is <£urk, and iti 
tower is composite, with a pepper-bM 
dome. Visit the Church of Santi 
Maria, built in the Gothic style. Obi 
also the pillar and Roman inscriptid 
in the Corredera. 

Lorca suffered terribly during fl 
inundations of 1879 ; the suburbs wtf^ 
more than half gone, and what was 
series of well-cultivated farms wi 
turned into an Immense mud plain. 

14} m. Totana. Pop. 9648. Ha 
the hugest tinajas (water-jais) rt 
made. The greater part of the popi 
lation are gipsies. Obs. the fine for^ 
tain supplied by an aqueduct 1} m. 

Alhama de Hnrda. Pop. 
Here are sulphur-springs and » --- 
some Estableeimiento. There are t«< 
seasons, viz. from 15th of April tt 
30th of June, and from 1st of Sep- 
tember to the 31st of October. 

18 m. librilla. Pop. 2667. TWl 
mud-built village is the head-qnaritti 
of the Murcian gipsies, whose oostmni 
is very picturesque ; these dark ohlt' 
dren of tne Zend traffic much in tiift 
snow from the mountains of the Sieii> 
de Espafia^ which rear their lof^ sus* 
mits in the neighbourhood. 


rcia & Valencia. lUmte 124. — Cartagena to Alicante, 

Now in the distance rises the ca- 
thedral tower of Morcia: tall whis- 
pering canes and huge aloes hedge the 
way, intermingled with the stately 
palm and the gigantic sun^ower, whose 
seeds the people eat. Tlie peasants, 
vith white handkerchiefis on their 
heads, like tnrbans, are dusky as 
Moors ; but the women are pretty by 
nature, and especially picturesque in 
their oostnme, composed of blue sayas 
and yellow bodices. . 

ISm. Knrda. (See Bte. 121.) 

KOUTE 125. 


Ain> EiiGHE. 70 m. Diligence daily. 

This Bte. is interesting. It leaves 
fte Cabo de Palos, 18 m. to the E. 
The shallow land-lock lake of la 
itflff^— ^^ de Koroia is passed. The 
bimtry is covered with the esparto- 
|ni8S, the pahnito, and the liquorice. 
* Here the road improves. 

38 m. Orihuela (Pop. 20,868) looks 
very Oriental and picturesque amid its 

Balm-trees^ square towers, and domes, 
i was the Auriwehh of the Moors, the 
^edi8 of the Goths, who here made a 
%mt stand under Theodoric their king. 
Visit the Cathedral, which was bar- 
Wised in 1829 by one Ripa. The 
'Irishoprio was created in 1265. The 
^Ushop's palace was built in 1733. Obs. 
"fte mie gate of the Colegio, erected in 
1548, now an educadonal establishment 
oontaining upwards of 60 youths. The 
wmidpal archives are curious. The 
Alameda del Ghorro is a charming 
joomenade. The Segnia, which di- 
vides the town, fertilises the neigh- 
bcnning plain, and makes Orihnela 
independent of rain — 

** LlneT* o no Uaer* 
Trigo en Orihuela.'* 


Thus says the proverb, and the jrigantic 
vegetation attests the fact The cli- 
mate is delicious. The dusky pea- 
santry, in their white hraqaa and 
striped mantas^ look like Greeks. 

Leaving Orihuela, the metal-preg- 
nant ridge of the Cerro de Oro is seen 
to the rt. This district is very subject 
to earthquakes; one in March, 1829, 
did a great deal of damage to the 
villages in the vicinity of the Cerro. 

The small town of Gallosa de 8e- 
gnra is now passed to the rt. It lies 
under a castle-crowned rock, and has 
a good ch. of the time of Charles Y. 
with images by Zarcillo. 

7 m. iObatera. Pop. 3432. 

11} m. £lohe. Pop. 19,596. Po- 
sada Nueva del Sol, decent, situated 
in the Garretera de Alicante at the 
entrance of the town ; make bargains 
beforehand, they are apt to overcluirge. 
Elohe is the lUice oi the Romans, and 
lies 7 m. from the sea. The town is 
divided bv a ravine, which is spanned 
by a handsome bridge. This **city of 
palms,*' with its Moorish houses, flat 
roofs, and delicious climate, wants only 
the Bedouin to make it truly Oriental- 
looking. Its Aloanr is now a prison. 
The Chnreh of Saata Kaiia has a fine 
portico, and a Tabernacle made of 
precious marbles; in this church is 
held the festival of the Assumption 
of the Virgin (August 15th), which 
is curious and picturesque. The palm^ 
trees around the oity, many of them 
of a great age, may be counted by 
thousands. They are raised from 
dates, and fed with a brackish water ; 
they grow slowly to some 50 ftet in 
height, each rim in the stem denoting 
a year's growth. The ihdt (dates) are 
inferior to those of Barbarv. The 
females alone bear fruit, whi<m ripens 
in November; the males bear white 
flowers, which blossom in May; tho 
farina £rom these flowers impregnate 
the females.* The male and female 
barren palm yield a considerable profit 
by their leaves, which ate used for the 

* The Moon made nae of fhe nude dost long 
before DnoiaiiB dieoorered the sex of plante. 
The ciurtom to etiU IbUowed in filche of de- 
poeitlDg the poUen ertiflciAUy on the female 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Soute 126. — Alicante to Valencia. 


processionfi and decorations of Palm 
Sunday. The trees from which the 
supply is taken aie bound up to keep 
the leaves white. The femiJe fruit is 
exported to England and Italy, the 
refuse being used as food for cattle. 
Vines, pomegranates, madderand green 
crops are cultivated below the palms : 
the whole is irrigated by the copious 
streams of the Yinalopo river, and the 
artificial lake situated 3 m. off. Travel- 
lers in the neighbourhood should not 
omit this unique and interesting ex- 

Leaving Elche, the route traverses 
an extensive plain to Alicante in 2 hrs. 

18^ m. AUeante. (Bte. 122.) 

ROUTE 126. 


The quickest way is to take the rly. 
train vid. Enoina Junction (Bte. 123). 
The steamer may also be taken. The 
<}arriage-road is, however, pleasant to 
those to whom time is no object. 

The first village passed is 

8 m. KuQhamiel. Pop. 3514. The 
gardens of the estate of Ravalet be- 
longing to the Count de Gasa Bojas 
may be visited. 

18J m. Jyona. Pop. 6411. This 
ancient town lies below its castle in a 
picturesque position. Famous for its 
excellent sweetmeat (iumm), made of 
almonds or filberts. 

The Faataao de Tibi is passed (see 
p. 464), the town of Tibi being left 
3 m. to the 1. Pop. 1849. 

10^ m. Alooy. Pop. 32,186. Inns: 
Del Comercio; De las Diligencias. 
Casino : In the Galle de San Nicolas ; 
visitors admitted without the introduc- 
tion of a member. Circulo Comercial, 
in the same street. Caf^s : Del Casino 

and del Circulo. Photographer: Azory, 
good local photographs. Tne Bull-ring. 
Gas manufacture and fine new hospital 
were left to the town by one of its in- 
habitants. The churches are not worth 
seeing. The industries of Alcoy con- 
sist of iron foundries and paper manu- 
factory. The hand-made paper for 
cigarettes is unrivalled in Europe. 
WooUenblankets for the use of thearmy. 
Alcoy is one of the most growing towns 
in Spain ; the paper trade alone has 
doubled since 1 868. The town is built 
in a funnel of the hills, on a tongue of 
land hemmed in by two streams crossed 
by bridges. The houses on the N.E. 
side hangover the picturesque gardenf 
and ravines. The pdadHtas de Alecf 
(sugar-plums made of almonds) ai^ 
excellent Paper-mills, cloth-miUflt 
and factories of various kinds exist 
near the town. The city's patron suw 
is St. George^ who is said to have bett 
fought on the side of the Spaniaidii 
against the Moors in 1227. IDs saiat*] 
ship's anniversary day is the festival flC 
Alcoy. Sham fights en costume m 
celebrated on the first day (22nd April)j 
and on the 24th the Alarde or revietj 
completes this mediasval Moorish spetf 
tacle. ^ I 

Excursions : Las Guevas de Cortejj 
2 m., a charming walk, and tM 
equally picturesque Molino del Choft 
rador, l| m. ' 

There is a diligence daily from Alit 
cante to Alcoy, 28 m., on a new loaii 
Visitors wishing to go to Alcoy fro* 
Madrid and Alicante must get out at 
Yilleua stat., where a daily diUgeuoi 
meets the train, 24 m., to Aloof. 
Bailway projected. 

6J m. Conoentaina. Pop. 7941. Vial 
its Moorish tower called el CastUhi 
notice the weeping-willows and Gapn* 
chin convent, in which are some ^ 
tures by Juliano. 

6^ m. Albayda (Pop. 3453). with iii 
old manorial residence, is now passed, 
and the road continues to 

3 m. Jaliva, a stat. on the rly. fron 
Madrid to Valencia (see Bte. 128) 
Here take train to 

34 m. Valencia (described in Bt» 

Diligence for Alcoy, 24 m. 


Murcia & Valencia. Boute 121 » — Valencia to Denia» 


ROUTE 127. 

TALENCIA TO D£NIA« 49^ mileS. 

This interesting excursion should 
be made by every visitor to Valencia, 
taking the lake of Albufera by the 

I Railway to the port of Cullera ; 2 
(trains daily. 

The rly. to Madrid can be taken as 

7J m. Silla Stat. Pop. 3966. Near 
which the lake of Albufera commences. 
This celebrated lagoon, the Albufera, 
Arabic^ Albdhar, " the little lake," is 
flie see and throne of Flora and Po- 
jnona, and extends about 9 m. N. 
*nd S., being about 27 m. in circum- 
Jttence, and from 3 to 12 ft. deep. It 
aarrows to the N., separated by a strip 
Isf land from the sea, with which a 
«anal, Perello, that can be opened and 
Ant at pleasure, communicates. It iti 
M by the Turia and the Aoequia del 
ley. It fills in winter, and is then 
a complete preserve of fish and wild- 
fowl. The fishermen dwell in huts, 
exposed to agues and mosquitos. 70 
sorts of birds breed here in the hroza, 
bush, and reeds; the small ducks and 
teal .are delicious, especially the Foja. 
There are 2 public days of shooting, 
. Afi 11th and 25th of Nov., when many 
' hundred boats of sportsmen harass the 
water-fowl, which darken the air. The 
: dehesa, or strip between the lake and 
I aea, abound with' rabbits and~ wood- 
cocks {gaUinetas), This lake and do- 
i main, valued in 1813 at 300,0002., a 
; royal property, was granted to Suchet 
by Buonaparte, who created him a 
French Due by the title of Albufera, 
in reward for his capture of Valencia, 
The English Duke, at Vitoria, how- 
ever, unsettled the conveyance; but 
Ferdinand VII. would have confirmed 
the gift to Suohet, although he ii^e 
difficulties about the Soto of Granada, 
which had been granted to our Duke 

his deliverer, to whom, strange to say, 
this very Albufera was contemplated 
being given, had not the jealous Valen- 
cians raised objections. Charles IV. 
made it over to the minion Godoy, but 
it again bdongs to the Crown, and 
application for shooting and fishing 
permits must be made to SeHor Inten- 
dente del Real Patrimonio in Valencia. 

Sollana Stat. ^ 

lOi m. Sueoa Stat. Pop. 13,318. A 
town placed in the centre of las tieiras 
de Arroz, one of the richest rice-pro- 
ducing districts in Europe. 

3 m. Cullera Stat Pop. 10,972. A 
port admirably placed at the mouth 
of the Rio Jucar. The town is sur- 
rounded by walls flanked by towers. 

A fine fioating bridge is now crossed, 
and then the Yenta de Kirance, the 
Venta de Jaraoo, and the Orao de 
Oandia are passed to 

12 m. Oandia. No /wn« — ^numerous 
private houses where comfortable lodg- 
mgs can be obtained. Pop. 7588. 
This ancient wall-encircled town has 
a fine palace where the sainted Duke 
de Borja lived. Obs. the paintings by 
Gaspar Huerta. From Gandia the 
Honduber may be ascended, and the 
caves under the Siguili near to Beni- 
dolelg (9 m. distant) may be explored. 

The Rio Alcoy is now crossed by a 

3^ m; ^liTia. Pop. 7442. A busy 
little agricultural and fruit-producing 

13 m. Denia. Pop. 8676. British 
Vice-Consul: J. Morand, Esq. U.S, 
Consul: Dn. J. D. Arguimbau. This 
ancient town, with its picturesque old 
fortifications^ is the capital of its Mar- 
quesado, and was once a strong place. 
Now neglected, and without defence, 
its harbour is not what it was when 
Sertorius used to make it his naval 
station (Strabo, iii. 239). It lies on, 
nay, in the sea, under the rock el 
]Cong6, which rises about 2600 ft., com- 
manding the views which gave one of 
the ancient names Emeroscopium^ de- 
rived from this peep-of-day look-out 
for pirates ; the present name is a cor- 
ruption of Dianiuniy from a celebrated 
temple to Diana of Ephesus. It now 
curries on a busy trade in raisins, 

486 Baute US.—OagteUon de la Plana to Mordla. Sect. VII. 

The Hong6 slopes down to the Cape of 
San Antonio, and at its back from Be- 
nia basks the beautiful town of Jabea 
(Pop. about 4000), which the lovers 
of Claude Vemet and Salvator Bosa 
should visit : indeed the whole Marina, 
like the coast of Amalfi, is a picture : 
you have a beauteous sky, blue broken 
necullands, a still deephgreen sea, with 
craft built for the painter skimming 
over the rippling waves, and a crew 
dressed as if for an opera ballet ; then 
inland are wild mountain gorges with 
mediaeval turrets and caslles, placed 
exactly where the artist would wish 
them, and rendered more beautiful by 
time and ruin. There are many cuevas 
or grottos in the mountains, one espe- 
cially called del Organo, and the Cueva 
del Oro. 

ROUTE 128. 


48 m. 

Castellon de la Plana is described in 
Rte. 134. 

Thence the rte. to Morella follows a 
N.E. direction to 

7 m. La Puebla. Pop. 2018. 

4f m. Cabanes, Pop. 3030, near 

which the road passes through an old 
Boman arohway. 

8} m. Las Cueyas. Pop. 683. 

8^ m. Saliadella. Pop. 1584. 

3 m. San Xateo. Pop. 3554. The 
neighbourhood is thickly planted with 

16i m. Korella. Pop. 6665. This 
hilly capital of its hilly jxir^ieZo waii 
the Castra Mlia of the Somans, and 
the winter (quarters of Sertorius. Being 
on the frontier of Aragon and Yalencta^ 
it has always been an important mill* 
tary positibGu in time of war. Its steep 
streets, Moorish walls and towers, rook- 
built castle, and noble aqueduct, com- 
bine to make it strikingly picturesque. 
Visit la Terra de Zeloquia and tiie 
Iglena Hayor, which was built ia 
1317 ; its choir is singular, being raised 
on arches and pillars ; the clergy as- 
cend by a curious staircase, whick 
winds round a column. Obs. thd 
picture of Jaime offering a bit of the 
true cross, which is attributed t»; 
Bibalta. Its castle-rapparently 
pregnable — ^was the chief hold of Ofln 
brera during the Carlist struggle ; hi 
scaled its walls by ropes fumi^ed b| 
a psurtisan within, on the night of ilj 
25th of Jan. 1838. Here he also twio^ 
beat back the Gristino troops undot 
OroaandPardifias. Morella was tafcaii 
hj Espartero in 1840, on which ooofr-i 
sion a magazine blew up, oausiDg gres^ 
damage and loss of life. The religioai 
procession to the Virgen de VaUibonok 
which takes place on the first Saturdaf 
in May once in every six yeara^ is a 
strikingly picturesque scene. 

Prom Morella, a road N., by way of 
Alcaaii, leads to Zaragoza (44} m.> 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

latrod. ( 487 ) 


Thb principality: of Catalonia (CaiaZuHa) constitutes the north-eastern comer 
of the Peninsula : in form triangular, yntii the Mediterranean Seafor t^ebafle, 
it is bounded to the N. by the Pyrenees, W, by Aragon, S. by Valenci*. It 
extends about 140 m. E. to W. and 150 m. N. to 8., wiiSa. a population exceeding 
a million and a half. The sea-board extends about 240 nules, the principal 
ports being Barcelona, Tarragona, Salou, and Bosas. Catalonia is the Lanr 
cashire of Spain, and Barcelona is its Manchester. The chief industry is cot- 
ton spinning and weaving, from ^50,000 to 270,000 bales of cotton are annually 
imported into Barcelona for the consumption of the mills. The silk damaabs 
made here are excellent^ and their black and white blondes are in gr^t 
demand. Besides being wholesale luanufacturena^ the Catalans ar^ am^igst 
the best tradesmen of the Peninsula. Barcelona itself embodies Spain more 
thoroughly than Marseilles or Genoa. Catalonia develops one-third of the 
Uring forces of the kingdom. The diligence and railway system of Spain 
commenced here. 

The principal rivers empty themselves into the Mediterranean^ the Fluvia* 

near Fi^eras, the Tor near Gerona, the Llobregat near Barcelona, and the 

franooli near Tarragona ; but the Ebro is the erand natural aorta, however 

little use has been made of it. The Cenia divides Catalonia from Yfdencia. 

The climate and productions vary according to the elevations : the hills are 

cold and temperate, the maritime strips warm and sunny ; hence the botanical 

range is very n'eat ; but whether climate or soil be favourable or not, the 

industry and laoour of the Catalan surmounts most difficulties, and the terraced 

rocks are forced to yield food, de leu piedrcu Bcusan pcune9. The Catalans ar9 

the richest of Spaniards, because they work and produce tiie most The 

Tarragona district, as in the days of Pliny, furnishes wines, which, when 

ranciosy or matured by age, are excellent; the best are those of Prioraio, 

and the delicious sweet msdvoisies of Sitges. These, with a great deal of 

inferior stufi^ are shipped off at Barcelona to Bordeaux, to enrich the poor 

clarets for English markets. Nuts, commonly called Barcelona nuts, are also 

a great staple. The (dgarroba, or carob pod, is the usual food for animals. 

The principality abounos in barilla, especially near Tortoea. On^ of the most 

important productions of Catalonia is Cork, vast forests of these trees covering 

the hill-sidea of the province of Gerona. The scenery of Catalulia is very 

fine. The traveller who climbs the alpine peaks of Monserrat will find the 

province can compete with the passes of Tyrol. The rivers pour and foam 

down the hills ; the small villages, such as Papiol, axe, during the vintage, 

purple with the fruit of the wine-press. The growth of the vine is becoming 

daily more extended in Catalonia, and the farmers who lavished their toil and 

money would hardly have been justified if the demand were not likely to 

meet the supply. The province is divided into the four provinces of 

Tarragona, Barcelona, L€rida, and Gerona. Tarragona is the most fertile ; 

Barcekma the bus^ and pine-clad ; L^rida the province of desolation ; and 

Gerona of semi-alpme scenery. u,y ./^u uy ^ ^ ^. -* ^^ 

488 Catalonia. Sect. YIII. 

The geology of Catalonia, according to Mr. Pratt, is characterised by a series 
of ridges running N.E. and S.W., parallel with the coast. Towards the N.E. 
they are interfered with by intrusive rocks of granite, porphyry, and lava, and 
are frequently disturbed at other parts of their course. The oldest sedimentary 
rocks are chiastolite schists, resting on granite. Limestone, with oolitic 
fossils, near Figueras, is associated with the above rocks. The tertiary rocks 
are of great extent and interest Ridges formed of hills of nummulitic rocks 
occur respectively at Gerona, Vifh, Caldas, and Villafranca. Miocene 
tertiary deposits are found near Barcelona. Marbles and minerals are found in 
the mountains, with jaspers and alabastt^rs ; the finest at Tortosa and Curvera. 
Iron is plentiful in the Pyrenees, and coal at Kipoll, Tortosa, and Camprodon. 
The salt-mountain of Cardona is quite unique. 

There are eight cathedral towns, of wliicii Tarragona (the metropoUtan), 
Oerona, and Barcelona, are the most Interesting. Among the objects best 
worth seeing are the Pyrenees, the salt-mines of Cardona, Monserrat, and 
the town and antiquities of Tarragona. The antiquarian will find the whole 
province full of objects of tlie deepest interest. 

The Catalans are neither French nor Spaniards, but a distinct people 
in language, costume, and habits; indeed, their roughness and activity are 
enough to convince the traveller that he is no longer in high-bred, indolent 

Catalonia is the strength and weakness of Spain ; and no province forming 
part of the conventional- monarchy de las Espaflas has hung more loosely to 
the crown than this classical country of revolt, which has been ever ready 
to fly oflf. Bebellious and republican,' well may the natives wear the blood- 
coloured red cap of the much-prostituted name of Liberty ! Their murders 
of prisoners during the civil wars were frightful. The Puitdea, or plebs, wore 
gridrions k la San Lorenzo, and cried Modrdos d la poda ! (Moderates, to 
the frying-pan !) Others; to show their Voltairian progress, dragged images 
of Christ about by the neck. The Catalonians in peaceful times are, however, 
industrious and'honest. Physically strong, sinewy, and active, they are patient 
under fatigue and privation, and form tlie raw material of excellent soldiers 
and sailors, and have, when well commanded, proved their valour and intelli- 
gence by sea and land. The Catalonians, under the Aragonese kings, during 
the 13th century, took the lead in maritime conquest and jurisprudence, 
nor was trade ever • thought lo be a degradation, until the province was 
annexed to the proud Castiles, when the first heavy blow was dealt to its 
prosperity. Then ensued constant insurrections, wars, and military occu- 
pations, succeeded by the French invasion, and IJie consequent loss of the 
South American colonies. 

The national costume of the Catalan peasants, like their painted stuccoed 
houses, is rather Genoese than Spanish. The men wear long loose cloth or 
plush trousers of dark colours, which come so high up to the armpits that they 
are all breeches and no body. Their jackets are very short, and are hung in 
fine weather over their shoulders. In winter they use a sort of capote or 
gambote, which supplies the Spanish capa. Another peculiarity in the head- 
gear is, that they neither wear the sombrero gacho of the S., nor tho monUsra 
of the central provinces, but a g<yrro (gorri means red in Basque) or red or 
purple cap, of which the Phrygian bonnet was the type ; the end either hangs 
down on one side or is doubled up and brought over the forehead, and has a 
high-treasonable, Bobespierre look. This costume is fast disappearing, and is 
replaced by the blouse, cap, and hat of the French ouvrier. The white 
mantillas worn by the women are now seldom seen. The wearers are fond of 
broils, are gross feeders, and given to wine, which they drink after the fashion 
of the Bhytium vessels of antiquity ; they do not touch the glass with their 
Jips, but hold up the porron (a round-bellied bottle with a spout) at arm's 

Introd. Catalonia. 489 

length, pouiing the contents into their mouths in a vinous pambola ; they 
neter miss the mark, while a stranger generally inundates either his nose or 
his neckcloth. The women are generally neither handsome nor amiable ; they 
lack alike the beauty of the Vatendana^ the gracia y aire of the Andaluza. 
The ordinary costume is a tight bodice, with a handkerchief, mocadd, or a 
serge mawto on the head. Their amethyst and emerald earrings are quite 
Moorish, and so large and heavy as to be supported by threads hung over the 
ears. They speak a local, and to most an unintelligible language — ^a harsh 
Limousin, spoken with a ^Tiff enunciation.* 

The history of Catalonia is soon told. The neighbour France, from the earliest 
period, began her aggressions, and the Celtic Gaul invaded and harassed the 
Iberian. The border races at last united, by a compromise rare in the history 
of rival neighbours, into the Geltiberian^ which, partaking of both stocks, 
inherited the qualities of each, and became the most aurivorous, cruel, per- 
fidious, brave, and warlike population of the Peninsula. Catalonia was the 
first conquest of Borne ; and here that empire, raised by the sword, first fell 
by the sword, fbr by this province the Goths also entered Spain, and it still 
bears the record in the name Gothalunia. The Goths were welcomed by the 
people oppressed by the rapine and extortion of Roman governors, and free and 
independent bands of Bacaudm or Bagaudm rose against them, as they did iu 
our times against the French ; the Goths were dispossessed by the Moors, or 
rather the Berbers, the real ravagers of the Peninsula. These in due time were 
beaten by the Spaniards, aided by the troops of Charlemagne, whose principle 
was to uphold all who were enemies to the Kalif of Cordova. When tlie Moors 
were driven back beyond the Ebro, the reconquered province was divided into 
departments or Feguerias, and governed by deputed counts. The national 
liberties were secured by a code of Usages, and the people were represented by 
local parliaments or Universidades. The sovereignty became hereditary about 
104O, in the person of Eamon Berenguer, who allied himself with the French 
and Normans ; hence the introduction of their style of architecture. Catalonia 
was united to Aragon in 1137 by the marriage of Ramon Berenguer IV. with 
Petronila, the heiress of Ramiro el Monje ; and both were incorporated with 
Castile by the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabel. 

Always hankering after former independence, Catalonia has never ceased 
to be a thorn to all its foreign possessors. The pages of history are filled 
with the outbreaks of this classical province of revolt. It rebelled against 
Pedro III. of Aragon, in 1277 and 1283 ; again in 1460, against Juan II., by 
espousing the cause of his son Don Carlos, and afterwards by declarmg itself 
a republic, which was not suppressed until 1472. It yielded only a surly 
allegiance to the Austrian dynasty while in vigour ; but in 1640, seizing on 
Philip IV. 's infirmity as its opportunity, it threw itself into the arms of Louis 
Xin., who proclaimed himself Count of Barcelona, taking, in 1642, Perpiuan, 
the great object of Richelieu, and thus depriving Spain of Roussillon, her 
north-eastern bulwark, at the moment when she lost her western in Portugal. 
This insurrection, put down in 1652, was renewed in 1689. Louis XIV., at 
the peace of the Bidassoa, 1660, guaranteed to Catalonia her liberties, which 
his grandson Philip V. abolished altogether, having previously carried fire 
and Bword over the ill-fated province. Then a heavy income-tax was laid on, 
as a punishment, in lieu of all other Spanish imposts, but this, by unfettering 
commerce, proved to be a saving benefit, since the native industry expanded 
once more. There has never been a modern insurrection (if we except that 
which commenced in the autumn of 1868), whether for the French or 
against them, whether for a Servile or Liberal faction, in which the Catalans 
have not taken the lead. After the revolution of 1868 part of Cataluna 

* The'Dioclonario Manual,' by Roca y Cerdii, 8vo., Barcelona, 1824, is & useful interpreter 
wtween the apauisU and Catalan. ^ ^^ ^ GoOqFc 

490 Catalonia. Sect. VIH. 

became republican, pulled down churchea, burnt municipal archiyes, and com- 
mitted other exceeses. In 1874-75 the inhabitants of the mountainB of 
Oatalufia declared themaelyea for Don pirlos. Placed between two fires, and 
alternately the dupe and victim of Spain and France, they haye no reason 
to love their neighbours, although willing to side with either, afl suits their 
private and local interests.* 

* The student of Spanish history will refer to the following works^viz., ' Descripcion de 
Catalonia/ Marca, fol.; 'Cristal de la Verdad/Oah. Agast. Rlus, 4to., Zar., 164»; * Atrooes 
Hechos Franceses,' Luis de Crnzamonte, 4to., 1633 ; and * Pasagios fatales del mando Franoes,' 
B. D. dd Bocabert, Zar., '4to^ 1646; 'Gatalofia Uostrada,' Esteban de Corbera, Napcdes, 1678; 

* Anales de Cataltma.' Narciso Fellu de la Pefta y Farell, 3 vols, fol., Bar., 1709 ; alao the 

* Memoirs of Dunlop.' For the wars of succession. Lord Mahon's excellent history. For oom- 
merdal history, * Memorias sobre la Marina,' Antonio Capmany, 4 vols. 4to.. Mad., 1779-42; 
and * El G<Sdigo 6 Libro del Consulado,' 2 vohi. 4to.. Alad., 1791, by the same able author. For 
the ecclesiastical, Florez, * Esp. Sag., xxiv.. Parte 1. 2. And for Roman inscriptions, the * Sylooe* 
of Josef Finestres, 1762. For botany, * £1 Cat^logo,' by Dr. Miguel Colmeho. For CataJjoi 
authors, consult ' Memoria para una biblioteca de escritores Gatalanes,* 4to., Bare., 1836, with 
Appendix by Juan Oomunas, Burgos, 4to., 1840. * 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Catalonia. Boute 134. — Valencia to Tarragona, 




134 Valencia to Tarragona, by 
Mnrviedro, Oaitdlon, and Tor- 
tOBa. BaU 491 

135 Tarragona to L^da,by Beos 
and Poblet. Bail and Dili- 
gence 501 

136 Tarragona to Barcelona, by 
Martorell. Bail, &o 503 

136a Barcelona to the Honaitery 
of Hontserrat 515 

136b Barcelona to VillanueYa and 
Vails 617 

137 Peipignan to Barcelona, by 
Oerona. A. Coast line by 
Arenyi. B. Inland line, by 
Oranollen. Bail 517 

B017TB • PAGB 

138 Barcelona to TTrgel and Pnig- 
oerd6. Bail and Diligence . . 523 

139 Barcelona to Ban Juan de lai 
Abadesas, by Vioh and Bipoll. . 

140 Barcelona to Tonlonse, by 
Bibas and Pnigoerda. Bail, 
Horseback, and Carriage 

142 Barcelona to Ax, by TJrgell 
and Andorra. Bail, Dili- 
gence, &c 525 

143 Barcdona to L&rida, by 8a- 
badeH, Honiftrol, Xanrefa, 
and Bellpnig. Bail .. .. 527 

144 L^rida to Fraga. Carriage- 
road 532 



j BOUTE 134. 


141^ m. Three trains daily, in 8 hrs. 

A halt at Sag^nntum wiU well re- 
. pay the trayeller. 

Valenda. See Bte. 123. 

The Bly. Stat, is near the magnifi- 
oent Plaza de Toros. 

9^ m. Albnixeoh Stat. The railway 
now skirts the sea ; to the rt. is seen 
the fair city of Valencia several miles 
before it is reached. 

2 1 m. Pnig Stat. Pop. 1732. 

If m. Fniol Stat. Pop. 2917. Here 
is a modem yilla belonging to the 
Archbishop of Valencia. The sur- 
lonnding oonntry is one immense olive 
plantation, intersected with luxuriant 

4 m. MuBviEDBO or Saouhto Stat. 
Pop. 6208. Inn : Posada de San Joa- 

Jnin, close to rly. stat. : a primitive 
nn, 3 good bedrooms with iron bed- 
steads, and clean linen. Food scarce. 
Xwiedro lies on the Pblancia. 

The long lines of walls and towers 
crown iSe height, which rises above 
the site of Sagnx^nm, founded 1384 
years before Christ, by tiie Greeks of 
Zaoynthus (Zante) (Strabo, iil 240), 
and one of the few emporia which the 
jealous Phoenicians ever permitted 
their dreaded rivals to establish on 
the Peninsular coasts. Murviedro was 
formerly a seaport, but now the fidhde 
waters have retired more than 3 m. 
No Iberian dty has been more de- 
scribed in history than the city of 
Saguntum. Being the fnmtier town, 
allied to Borne, and extremely rich, it 
was hated by Hannibal, who attacked 
it The obstinacy and honors of the 
defence rivalled Numantia. Sil. Itall- 
cus (i. 271) gives the sad details. The 
town perished, said . Florus (ii. 6, 3), 
a great but mournful monument of 
fidelity to Bome, and of Bome's neglect 
of anally in the hour of njeed; Sagun- 
tum was revenged, as its capture led 
to the second Punic war, and ulti- 
mately to the expulsion from Spaiu of 
the Carthaginian. It was taken in 
535 A.U.O. See also Pliny, iii. 3 ; and 
read on the site itself Livy, xxi. 7. It 
was rebuilt b^ the Bomans, and be- 
came a munioipiumy but fell with the 

492 Bte, 134. — Murviedro — Saguntum — VillareaL Sect. YIII. 

at the same time a spectacle of nature 
and of art. The Theatre is of small 
proportions, the scena remains. A few 
fragments of sculpture, neglected as 
usual,- and mutilated, are let into a 
wall at the E. side of the scena. The 
local arrangements, such as are common 
to Roman theatres, resemble those of 

Ascending to the Castle, near the en- 
trance are some buttresses and massy 
masonry, said to be remains of the old 
Saguntine castle. The present fortress 
is altogether Moorish, and girdles the 
irregular eminences. The citadel, with 
the towers San Fernando and San 
Pedro, probably occupies the site of the 
Sanguntine keep described by Livy 
(xxi. 7). Suchet stormed the fortress 
from this side. The castle is rambhng 
and extensive, with some Moorisli 
cisterns, built on the supposed site of 
a Boman temple. The Views on all 
sides are very extensive, especially 
looking towards Valencia, from what 
used to be the governor's garden, 
which overhangs the extreme S.E. 
edge of the fortress. Descend into the 
dungeons below this garden, where 
prisoners condemned to chains for life 
were confined. The gloomy cells— 3 
in number — are in perfect preservation. 
This fortress is the key of Valencia. 

Next visit the little Ch. of San Salva- 
dor (near the rly. stat.). It is of very 
ancient date. Obs. the ceiliiig of wood. 
Local tradition accords to this ch. the 
honour of being the oldest in Spain. 

5 m. Almenara Stat. Fop. 1184. 
Obs. its old castle perched upon a 
neighbouring hill. 

2^ m. ChileolieB Stat. Pop. 573. 

6 m. Kules Stat. Pop. 4383. Sur- 
rounded by tuiTcted walls and entered 
by 4 gateways. [Near this stat. are 
the mineral springs of Villavieja de 
Nules ; the waters are ferruginous and 
strongly carbonated.3 

3^ m. Burriana Stat. Pop. 10,039. 

4 m. Villarreal Stat. Pop. 12,916. 
This little town has the title of Mar- 
quisat. The octangular tower of its 
ch. is remarkabl^lof^ and imposing 

empire, the remains having been ever 
since used by Goth, Moor, and Spaniard 
as a quarry above ground. As with 
Italica, mayors and monks have con- 
verted the shattered marbles to tiieir 
base purposes. Mutilated fragments 
are here and there imbedded in the 
modem houses; so true is the lament 
of Argensola : — 

" Con tnarmoles de nobles inacripciones 
Teatro un tiempo y araSi «n Sagvmio 
Fabrican hoy tob^tuM y muones." 

The name Murviedro (Murbiter of 
the Moors) is derived from these Muri 
veteres, Muros viejos; the la vieja of 
Spaniards, the iraXaia of Greeks, the 
citta vecchia of Italy — Old Sarum.* 

The great Temple of Diana stood 
where is now the convent of La Tri- 
nidad. Here are let in some 6 Eoman 
inscriptions^ relating to the families of 
Sergia and others. . At the back is a 
water-course, with portions of the walls 
of the Circus Maximus. In the suburb 
San Salvador a mosaic pavement of 
Bacchus was discovered in 1745, which 
has since (cosas de EspaAa) disap- 

The famous Theatre, placed on the 
slope above the town, was much da- 
maged by Suchet, who used the stones 
to strengthen the castle, whose long 
lines of walls and tower rise grandly 
above ; the general form of the theatre 
is, however, still one the most per- 
fect existing. The ruins were en- 
closed by a substantial wall in 1867 
(key at the house of the Alcalde : it is 
lent upon application, graiis). The 
Boman architect took advantage of 
the rising ground for his upper seats, 
which look N.E., in order to secure 
shade to the great mass of the spec- 
tators, who thus, seated in balcones 
de sombra, as at a modern bull-fight, 
must, like those in the Greek theatre 
at Taormina, in Sicily, have enjoyed 

• So the Italian names Viterbo, Orvleto, Cer- 
vetii, and others, represent the Urbs votus, 
Vetua nrbs, Ceres vetus, &c. Fragments of the 
onoe famous red pottery are found, the Calioes 
Saguntipi, Man. xiv. 108. on which the Conde 
de Lumiares wrote an 8vo, * Barros Saguntinos,' 
Val. 1772. Many reins are dug up here : Indeed, 
the mint of Saguntum struck 27 specimens. 

'•)rea'M.'n. ^60.) 

Catalonia. Boute 134. — Castellon de la Plana — ViTiaraxtz. 493 

in its effect. The rly. now crosses a 
bridge over the Mijares to 

3 m. Castellon de la Plana Stat. 
(Buffet). Inn : Fonda de Espafia, very 
bad. Pop. 26,814. 

Castellon is called " of the plain," 
because Jaime I., in the year 1233, 
removed tlie town from the old Moor- 
ish position, which was on a rising 
ground IJ m. to the N. This flourish- 
iug place, in a garden of plenty, is 
uninteresting. It is fed by an admir- 
able acequia; tlie costumes of the 
peasants are extremely picturesque. 

Here Francisco, Ribalta, the painter, 
was bom, 1551. 

There is a provincial Huseo. In the 
Casa Capitular, on the Plaza de la 
Gonstitucion, and in the Ch. of La 
Sangre, are some of the best works of 
Ribalta, and of Carlos Maratta. Visit 
the Ch. of the Sepuloro : it is so called 
from a tomb at the high altar, which 
was said to have been sculptured by 

The Torre de las Campanas is an 
octagon, 260 ft. high, and built in 
1591-1604. These towers or belfries 
are very common in Aragon and Cata- 

This place may be made the head- 
quai-ters of the naturalist, who hence 
i can make excursions to the hilly group 
i las Santas ; to PeSa Golosa, the highest 
; knoll, and the nucleus of the chain ; 
'. and to Espadan, where mines of copper, 
■ dnnabar, lead, &c., abound. The chief 
I mineral baths are at VillaTieja (9 m. 
I from Kales). 

The lover of rustic fetes should alr 
tend, the 3rd Sunday in Lent, the 
pilgrimage to S*. M*. Madalena, on a 
hill 3^ m. E. ; a grand procession is 
made to the site of the old town. A 
Porrat^ or Fair is then and there held 
at noon, and Gayates, illuminated cy- 
presses, carried at night. The whole 
is very picturesque.* 

Hxcuraions : The ecdesiologist may 
visit the Cneya Santa, near the Alon- 
blai; the Carthusian Vail de Cristo, 
near Altura ; and the Bemadine con- 

* There is a statistical 'Memoria of Castellon 
de la Plana,' by Santillan. 1843. 

vent at Benifas&, built in 1238 by 
Jaime I. 

7i m. Benioasim Stat. Pop. 906. 
Situated on a little bay. Obs. its beau' 
tiful ch., which contains some pictures 
by Cameron. 

7} m. Torreblanoa Stat. Pop. 2405. 

3 m. Alcala de Chisvert Stat. Pop. 
6102. Obs. the very fine church tower 
and castle opposite. 

12^ m. BenioarM Stat. Pop. 7911. 
JBritishVice-Constd: Don M. Javaloyes. 
This ancient town is surrounded by 
walls; it has a sort of fishing* port 
called el grao, but its population is 
miserable amidst plenty. The ch. ha^ 
an octangular tower. The district 
around is celebrated for its red and 
full-flavoured vnnes, which are ex- 
ported largely to Bordeaux, to enrich 
poor clarets for the Eiiu;lish and 
American markets; the wines, when 
new, are as thick as ink, and deserve 
their familiar appellation, ** black 
strap." Much bad brandy is also 
made here. During the vintage the 
mud of the town is absolutely blood- 
red with ^ape-busks, and the legs of 
the inhabitants died a rich crimson 
colour from treading the vats. Great 
improvements have taken place in the 
manufacture of the wine here and in 
other towns of this distiict. 

[3 m. to £. is PeSiisoola. Pop. 2730. 
A miniature Gibraltar, it rises 240 ft. 
out of the sea, and is inaccessible by 
water. It is connected with the land 
by a narrow strip of sand. Here Pope 
Luna (Benedict XIII.) took refuge, 
1415-23, after he was declared schis- 
matic by the Council of Constance. 
Visit el Bufador del Papa, a singular 
aperture in the rock, through which 
the sea-waves boil and foam.j 

2im. VinaraozStat Pop. 9844. This 
busy old sea-port is encompassed with 
crumbling walls. Its inhabitants — 
half p^usant, half sailor — are em- 
ployed in agricultural and piscatorial 
pursuits ; the sturgeons and lampreys 
caught here are elLcellent. The Due 
de Venddme, descendant of Henri IV., 



Boute lS4.—Torto8a: Gothic Cathedral. Sect. VIII. 

died at the Pdkusio of Yinaraoz, from 
gorging the rich fish of the place ; his 
body was removed to the Esoorial by- 
Philip v., who owed his throne to the 
gormandising duke. The bay is open 
and unsafe, the palms are exceedingly 
oriental, and the Cheitupas which skim 
the deep-blue Mediterranean sea are 
truly picturesque. 

9t m. UUdeoona Stai Pop. 6007. 

4 m. Santa Bfirbars Stat. Pop. 8500. 
The rly. now crosses a beautiful sus- 
pension-bridge, which was not opened 
until the 6th August, 1868, great diffi- 
culties having been en<!ountered in 
obtaining a secure foundation upon 
which to rest the piers. 

4 m. ToBTOBA Stat. Inn : Fonda, 
in the Plaza, bad. Pop. 23,808. 

Tortosa is a picturesque scrambling 
old city, placed on a doping eminence, 
and parted by a cleft or harraneo : it 
rises grandly over the river Ebro, with 
its fortified walls, buttressed old castle, 
and imposing cathedral. The streets 
are narrow, and the houses massive 
and gloomy-looking. The city is sub- 
ject to inundations from the Barraaoo 
del Baitro, in spite of a subterranean 
drain on a large scale. 

Tortosa, Dertosa, once an important 
city of the Ilercaones, was called by 
the Bomans, " Julia Augusta Dertosa" 
It had a mint, and the coins are 
described by Oean Ber. 'S.' 30, and 
FioTez,*M.*i. 376.* 

According to Martorell, the local 
annalist. Tubal first settled at Tortosa, 
Hercules followed, and then St. Paul, 
whose local name is San Pau, and 
who here instituted MonsefLor Buf 
as bishop (Bufus, Ep. Bom. xvi. 13). 
Under the Moors Tortosa became, in 
the words of the conqueror, *^ gloria 
popuiorum et decor universes terrsSf** 
and was the key of the Ebro and of 
this coast, just as Almeria was in the 
south. It was besieged in 809 by 
Louis le Debonnaire, son of Oharle* 

• For the bistory, see * Esp. Sag., xlU. ; • His- 
toria de la Santa Cinta,* Francisoo MartoreL y 
de Luna, duo., Tortosa, 1626. * Tortoea fidelX- 
slma,* Vioente Miravel y Foroadell, 4to., Mad., 


magne, who was beaten off. He re- 
turned, however, in 811, and captuied 
the town. It was soon recovered by 
the Moors, and became a nest of pi- 
rates, and a thorn to Italian commerce. 
Hence Eugeuius HI. proclaimed a cru- 
sade against it, ana the place iras 
taken in 1148, nominally, by the Spa- 
niards under Bamon Berenguer, but 
in reality by the Templars, Pisans, 
and Gtenoese, who flight and gained 
the battle, just as they had previously 
done at the pirate port of Almeria. 
The Moors made a desperate although 
unsuceedsfiil attempt, in 1149, to re- 
capture the town. The inhabitants, 
reduced to despair, meditated, like the 
Sa^ntinee, killing their wives and 
children, but one of the husbands 
revealed the plan to his spouse, who 
collected all the women, and deceived 
the infidels by mountiDg the battle- 
ments, while the men sallied forth 
and routed the Moors. Don Bamon, 
in consequence, decorated them with 
a red military scarf, the OTder of La 
Hacha, and considerately permitted the 
amazons to receive dn^»es free from 
duty, and at marriages to precede the 

Tortoea was taken by the French 
under Orleans (afterwards the Begent). 
July 15, 1708, who compelled the gar- 
rison, in defiance of the laws of civi- 
lised warfare, to enlist in ihe French 
service. In the War of Independence 
it was shamefully surrendered to Sa- 
chet by the Oonde de Alachay Nov. 2, 

The Gothie Cathedral occupies the 
site of a mosque built in 914 by Abd- 
ur-rahman, as a Oufic inscription pre- 
served behind the Saeristia recorded. 
The name of the tower, Almudena, if 
an evident corruption of the Al Mwd- 
din, or the summoner of the fidthful to 
prayers. The cathedral was dedicated 
to the Virgin in 1158*78 by the Bishop 
Gaufiredo. The chapter was formed on 
a conventual plan, the canons living in 
community after the rules of the oraer 
of St Augustine; this- arran^;emeDt 
was confirmed in 1155 bv Adrian IV. 
(Breakspeate^ the En^lisJ^ pope)^ and 
the identical boll is printed in the Ssp. 
/8ti^.,xlii.,303. The present caUiednlf 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Catalonia. Boute 134. — Tortosa — Tan^agona. 

built in 1347, has a fine approach, but 
the principal classical facade, with 
massive Ionic pillars, has been mo- 
demised, and, with its heavy cornice, 
is ont of character with the Gothic 
interior, where also the demon of C%wr- 
rigueriimo has been at work. The E. 
end terminates with a semicircular 
apsis. The eoro is placed around th6 
high altar, and not in the central 
nave, as is more usual. The fine SU- 
kria, with rich Corinthian ornaments, 
"poppy-heads," and saints, was carved 
by Cristdbal de Salamanca, 1588-93; 
The ancient pulpits with basso-relievos 
deserve notice. The beautiftil reja 
de coro was raised by Bishop Graspar 
Pouter, and is enridhed with jaspers 
and Berruguete details. The iron re/a 
to the high alt^r is equally remarkable : 
the modem orerdone organs are sadly 
out of character. The cathedral is full 
of precious marbles, especially the 
chapel of the Cinta, but the paintings 
on the cupola, and the style of archi- 
tecture, are beggarly, when compared 
to the materials. The baptismal font 
is said to have belonged to Benedict 
XUI., who gave his golden chalice to 
the chapter. The relieario is still rich 
in sainted bones, left behind by Su- 
chet, who only carried off the gold 
and silver mountings. Ask to see a 
Moori^ ivory casket Obs.,in the Oa- 
piUa de Santa Oandia, the inscriptions 
of the tombs of the 4 first bishops — 
Gaufredo, ob. 1165; Ponce, ob. 1193; 
Gombal, ob. 1212 ; and Ponce de Tor- 
rellas, ob. 1254 : obs. also the tomb of 
Bishop Tena. Look at the portal lead- 
ing to the cloister, and its 5 statues. 
A small portion, also, of the original 
conventual buildings yet remains, and 
a curious old chapel with red and 
green pillars. Adrian YI. was Bishop 
of Tortosa. 

The Colegio, founded in 1632 by 
Bartolom^ Ponz, was improved in 1528, 
and confirmed as a college in 1545: 
the elegant cloisters are Doric and 
lonio, with medallions of royal per- 
Bdnages from Ramon Berenguer down- 
wards, wrouffht in a fine Aragonese 
style. In the ch. of San Juan is the 
grand eepulehre and kneeling figure 
of ]^hop Juan Bautista Yeschi, ob. 


1660; and a miracle-working cru- 

Ascend to the ruined castle, witli 
its wide^ ill-kept bastions, moats, &c., 
all Jiors de combat ; the views over the 
town and environs are splendid. There 
are also some ancient mazmorrcks. 

The line of railway from Tortosa to 
Tarragona is most beautiful. 

8 m. Amposta Stat Pop. 8453. 

6 m. AmpoUa Stat. A fishing-vil- 
lage situated on a small creek. 

6^ m. Atm^lla Stet. A fishing-vil- 
lage, prettily situated on the sea. 

10 m. Eospitalet Stat Here was 
formerly a hospital for pilgrims. Obs. 
several ancient Gk>thic edifices now in 
ruins, but venr picturesque. 

8^ m. Oambxlls Stat. Pop. 2472. 
This town was the Roman Oleaster, 
and obtained its present appellation 
in 1080, from Alberto CamDrils,who 
rebuilt it in that year. It is placed 
on a plain called el Campo de ^Tarra- 
gona, and is the centre of a consider- 
ble export corn, wine, and fruit trade. 

4^ m. Salou Stat This is the rival 

Sort to Tarragona; it has, however, 
ecreased in size and importance since 
the harbour at Tarragona has been 

The rly. traverses a beautiful coun- 
try to 

6f m. Tarragona Stat. Inns : Fon- 
da de Paris ; Fonda de Europa, on the 
Rambia de San Carlos, kept by an 
Italian, civil people ; both fair Posa- 
das — charge 12 pesetas a day =48 reals. 
Fonda de las Guatro Naciones, near the 
rly. station, moderate and fairly good — 
27 reals a day. 

Cafe : Del Casino on the Rambla, 
teom 6 to 8 pesetas. 

JBrUUih Viee-Conetd : S. MacAn- 
drew, Esq. 

U,8,A, Commercial Agent : A. Mul- 
ler, Esq. 

Casino : above the Oaf^ del Casino. 
Yisitors admitted free for one month 
upon the introduction of a member. 
No English newspaper. 

Thea^e: on the Bambla^ small and 
second-rate. Operas during the winter 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Boute 134. — Tarragona, 

Sect. VIII. 

Fost-qffice and Telegraph Office: in 
tlie Oalle de Sail Agustin, on the 

Wine Exporters : Messrs. Bonsoms, 
Muller, and Bacot, an extensive and 
liighly respectable American firm (Mx, 
Muller is U.S.A. Vice Consul; ; Srs. 

Tarragona is one of the most in- 
teresting cities in Spain, Pop. 24,178 ; 
in the time of the Eomans it exceeded 
a million ; its climate is delicious and 
remarkably salubrious ; the air is mild, 
but from its great dryness bracing and 
enjoyable. The sea-bathing is excel- 
lent. As a winter residence for in- 
valids few places in Europe can equal 
it, whilst the walks are varied, and the 
carriage-drives numerous, leading in 
various directions through shady pine- 
woods and oak-plantations, and over 
heath and aromatic wastes, where the 
wild lavender, the thyme and other 
sweet-smelling shrubs perfume the air 
even in mid- winter. The town is abun- 
dantly supplied with every luxury in 
the shape of fruit, fish, and wild-fowl ; 
the inhabitants are a busy and pros- 
perous race, and are exceedingly hos- 
pitable. It has a little Theatre and a 
small Casino, to which strangers are 
admitted free for a month upon the 
introduction of a member. 

Rising as it does above the Francoli 
and the sea, on a limestone rock some 
760 ft. high, it is peculiarly salubrious. 
It was selected by the Phoenicians as 
a maritime settlement. They called it 
Tarchony wliich Bo(^hart interprets, a 
*' citadel;" and such ever has been, 
and still is, the appearance and cha- 
racter of this " Aree potens Tarraco." 
The Cyclopean Remains occurring 
in the upper quarter date, no 
doubt, from prehistoric times. Con- 
veniently situated for communication 
with Rome, this strong point was 
made the winter residence of tlie 
Praetor. The fertile plain and " aprica 
littora" of Martial (i. 50, 21;, and 
tlie wines of " vitifera Latelania," the 
rivals of the Falernian, still remain 
as described by Pliny, *N.H.' xiv. 16, 
and Mart. xiii. 118. The brothers 
Publius and Cneius Scipio first oc 

cupied Tarragona, which Augnstus 
raised to be the capital, having win- 
tered here (26 b.c), after his Canta- 
brian campaign; here he issued the 
decree which closed the temple of 
JanuB. The favoured town was inti- 
tuled " CkiUmia victrix togata turriia^'* 
togata being equivalent to imperial, 
since the gens togata were the lords of 
the world. It was made a conventus 
JuridicuSy or audiencia; had a mint, 
and temples to every god, goddess, 
and tutelar ; nay, the servile citizens 
erected one to the emperor, "Diw 
Augusto," thus making him a god 
while yet alive. This temple was after- 
wards repaired by Adrian, and some 
fragments in the cloisters of the cathe- 
dral are said to have belonged to it. 

Tarragona was taken by the Goths, 
and became their capitaL The Moors, 
under Tarif, " made of the city a 
"heap*' and the ruins remained unin- 
habited for 4 centuries. The metro- 
politan dignity, removed by the Goths 
to Vichy was restored in 1089, to the 
disgust of Toledo, between which see 
and that of Tarragona there have 
always existed disputes as to primacy. 
Tarkuna, or rather the site, was granted 
in 1118, by San Oldegar of Barcelona, 
to Robert Burdet, a Norman chief, a 
warrior, as his Norse name Burda, " to 
fight,'* explains. His wife, Sibylla, 
during her husband's absence, kept 
armed watch on the walls, and beat 
back the Moors, after which the city 
grew to be a frontier fortress, auJ 
nothing more ; for Christian commerce 
centred at Barcelona, while Moorish 
trafiic preferred Valencia. 

Tarragona is still a plaza de amtm, 
by name at least; as for all real strengtli 
of war it is entirely unprovided. It 
consists of an upper and under town ; 
the under is protected by a range of 
bastions fronting the Francoli, the 
port, and mole, while an inner line of 
works protects the rise to the upper 
town. A wide street, the HainUa, 
i-uiis at this point almost K. and S., 
and is defended to tlie sea-side by th« 
bastion Cdrlos V, The tipper town is 
girdled with rampairts and outworks: 
Siat of the memorable dlivo should be 
visited for the view of Tarrstgona. 

Catalonia. Boute 134. — Tarragona: Cathedral. 


The walk rojind the lofty ramparts 
is striking : even the ruins speak Latin 
and bear the impress of Caesar : what 
a sermon in these stones, which preach 
the fellen pride of imperial Kome 1 By 
making the circuit of the walls from the 
Torre de Filatos a good idea may be 
had of the Cyclopean or Pdygoncd 
walls. Before reaching the modem 
gateway, del Sosario, there is one of 
the interesting cyclopean doorways not 
imJike a Celtic dolmen. An ancient 
tower adjoining the Archbp.'s Palace 
is said to be of mediseval and 
Boman, resting on cyclopean con- 
struction. Part of the bases of the 
aiormous walls near the C&roel, or 
Cnurtel de FHatos (Pontius Pilate 
being claimed by the Tarragonese as a 
townsman), have been thought to be 
I anterior to the Romans. This edifice, 
i said to have been the palace of Au- 
gustus, half destroyed by Suchet, has 
' since been made a prison. Thebossage 
work of this ruin upon ruins resembles 
[ that of Merida and Alcantara; the 
t thickness of the walls in some places 

exceeds 20 ft. 

, Many remains of antiquity are 

j constantly foimd at Tarragona.* The 

I student wUl find tliere ruins of the 

! different buildings which constituted 

' a Roman city of importance ; Temple, 

Palace, Thermae, Circus and Amphi- 

f theatre. Ancient Tarragona was 

used as a quarry in rebuilding the 

modem town, many proofs of which 

may be seen at the end of the 

Eambla in the Almacen de Artilleria, 

Obs., in the Calle Esorivianias Yiejag, 

tiie window and lintel made of 

I Boman remiiins, and two singular 

1 Hebrew inscriptions. There are Ro- 

' man inscriptions in the courtyard of 

I the archbishop's modern palace, and 

in the cathedral cloister, and in several 

private houses. In the staircase of 

the house of the Marquis de Montolin 

may be seen a Roman sepulchre, the 

figures are fine. The boesage stones 

* Shiploads of antiquities, it is itaid, were 
carried off by the English in 1722, and Florez 
(E»p, Sag. xziv. 2) is grateful to the foreigners 
for baving thu» preserved what the dbandono y 
igmorancia of bis countrymen would have let 
perish; some of them are now at Lord Sti^n- 
}x>pe*8 seat, Chevening. 


in the Campanario, and walls of the 
cathedral, prove that they once be- 
longed to former edifices. 

The Cathedral, one of the most noble 
and interesting specimens of Gothic 
architecture in Spain, was built (a.d. 
1089-1131) upon the ruins of a pre- 
vious ch. which had been recovered 
from the Moors. The approach, as is 
usual in Catalonia, is by flights of 
steps, 18 in number, from the busy 
market-place, de las Ck>la8. The effect 
has been well calculated. 

The original plan of the cathedral 
is very simple. The principal fa9ade 
consists of a deeply recessed portal, 
flanked by two massive piers ; it rises 
to a triangle with a truncated point. 
The bases of the piers are decorated 
with a series of relievo archlets, and 
above are 21 statues of Apostles and 
Prophets under Gothic canopies, 9 of 
them being the work of Maestro 
Bartolome (1278), and the rest of 
Jaime Cascales (1375). The fa9ade 
was finished in 1280 by Archbishop 
Olivella, who retired to the monastery 
of Escomalbou, stinting himself of 
everything to save money for God's 
work. The iron pattern covering the 
doors, like a net of needlework, the 
hinges, knockers, and copper hullse 
were added in 1510, by Archbishop 
Gonzalo, as his arms denote ; he lies 
buried on one side, and to the 1. a 
prelate of the Medinaceli family. 
The lintel of the portal, of one block 
of marble, is supported by an elegant 
figure of the Virgin and Child, and 
above is the Saviour, seated in the 
attitude of judgment. At his feet 
are figures representing the Last 
Judgment : this fine work is attributed 
to Bartolome, 1278. The superb rose- 
window was commenced in 1131 by 
San Olegario, aided by Robert Burdet, 
who went especially into Normandy 
for his ^rrison and architects. 

The interior of the cathedral is Ro- 
manesque, with its low massive piers, 
simple, severe, and majestic ; the pila, 
or baptismal font, is a Roman bath, or 
sarcophagus, found in the palace of 
Augustus ; the grand retablo was con- 
structed Qf Catalonian marbles, by 
2 K 


Boute 134. — Tarragona : Cathedral. Sect. VIII. 

Pedro Juan and Guillen de Hota, in 
1426-34. The principal subjects of 
the basso-relievos are from the Martyr- 
dom of Santa Tecla, the tutelar of 
Tarragona. The lower part is of 
marble and alabaster, the Mpper of 
delicately carved wood, with £gures of 
saints under canopies : it has been re- 
stored lately with great judgment. Her 
grand and picturesque festival is cele- 
brated on the 23rd of September; with 
sky-rockets, dances, &c., on the plaza. 
Her chapel, which was modernised in 
1778, is rich in red marbles, Corinthian 
pillars, and sculptured relievos of 
her history by one Carlos Salas. Obs. 
the tomb ana costume of the Archbp. 

The gorgeous windows in the tran- 
sept were painted by Juan Guarsh, 
1574, and are exceedingly rich. The 
elegant Gothic chandeliers are mo- 
dem, and were made at Barcelona: 
the SUlerio del coro. is excellent, and 
carved in 1478 by Francisco Gomar 
and his son. Obs. the archbishop's 
throne and the re^a : the organ, one of 
the best in ,the province, was designed 
by Canon Amigd, of Tortosa, in 1563. 
Many tombs here are extremely an- 
cient; behind the altar is that of 
Cyprian, a Gothic archbishop, 683; 
obs. those in the 1. transept, in chests 
resting on stone corbels; the dates 
range from 1174 to 121.5 ; several of 
the deceased were killed in these foray 
periods (Hugo de Cervello, Viladpmals, 
&c.). At the back of the Coro was 
constructed in 1854 the sepulchre of 
Jaime I. ; his remains, and those of 
other royal personages, having been 
broug^ht from Poblet, where they ori- 
ginally rested in splendid tombs of 
the 14th centy , which were made use 
of for the present sepulchres. The 
Carlists destroyed this fine building in 
1835, and mutilated tbe statues of the 
kings. The Capilla del Sabramento, 
with its noble and truly classical Co- 
rinthian i)ortal, was built in 1561-86 
by the Archbishop Agustin, the first 
of modem coin-collectors, from a 
design of his own, corrected by the 
Canon Amigd ; he died in 1 586, leavii^g 
S^mta Tecla and this chapel his sole 
heirs : His fine tomb is the work of the 

celebrated Pedro Blay, 1590. The 
chapel was originally the refectory of 
the canons when they lived in com- 
mon ; the roof is richly decorated with 
painting ; the marble retubh is filled 
withpamtings by Isaac Hermes, 1587. 
Of ihe sculpture, the Aaron and Mel- 
chizedec are by Albrion and Nicholas 
Larraut, 1538; the bronzes of the 
saarario are by Felipe Volters, 1588. 

In the rt. transept, near the altar 
del Santo Cristo, obs. the mde and 
most antique ships and crosses let into 
the walls : the badge of the cathedral 
is a cross in the shape of an Egyptian 
Tau. The chapel de la Vfrgen de 1m 
flastree (the Tailors' Virgin), built in 
the 14th centy., is worth examining on 
account of the novelty of form of the 
gallery which runs along the upper 
parts. Obs. also a large oas-relief at 
the end, which represents the Virgm 
and Child : it produces an admirable 
architectonical effect. The chapel 
under the oi^gan, erected in 1252, tjf 
Yiolante, wife of Don Jaime, to her 
sainted sister Isabel of Qungary, ii 
very ancient. The oapilla de San Jmt 
and that of San Fructuoso, a tutelar 
of Tarragona, ob. 260, were erected ly 
Pedro Blay: another local tutelar is 
San Magin, who when alive dwelt in a 
cave, was brought in to the Boman 
governor like a wild beast, and exe- 
cuted. The t&mo, which, like that of 
Valencia, is said to have belonged 
to St. Paul's of London, is used at 
£aster. There is also some fine Flemish 
tapestry with which the billars art 
hung dn grand festivals. There are 
four fine Gothip tapestries. Among the 
tombs obs. near the altar that of JW 
de Aragon, Patriarch of Alexandni 
ob. 1334. Near theSaoristU is th^ 
of Archbishop Alohk) de Ara^n, o 
1514 : obs. also that, by Pedro my, ' 
Archbi^opGas^ar deCervanies Gaei 
who was at the Council of Trent Tl 
allegorical statues are fine ; especial 
those of Archbishop Pedro deCardon 
and of his nephew Luis, also' arel 
bishop, with the elegant scroUwoi 
i^nd chil(dreii :. finer . still is ihat i 
Archbishop Juan Teses, under a C( 
rii^ian pavilion ibyPedro^l^y* 

The exquisite CloiMwr id a fiidsei 



Boute 134.-r-G%i4fc&»-; Mii^ea. 


of antiquity and architecture. The 
door from the cloister into the churbh 
is the finest of all the cathedral doors. 
It is A rotoid-ardhed doorway with 
fonr engaged Shafts in 6ach jamb and 
8 central shaft, with a subject sculp- 
tured on eAch face. Three only are 
visible : these represent the Procession 
of the Kings : their Worship of otit 
lord ; atid the Nativity. Ascend the 
terrace of the resident canon's house 
to obtain a view of the truncated 
towers of the cathedral,, their win- 
dows, the machicolations of the cir- 
cular end, the rich projecting Gothic 
chapel^ and the square transept with 
ro8©-wmdow. In the cloisters beloW, 
the toointed windows are divided by 
smaller round-headed Norman arches, 
Vhile in the space above are circular 
openings i«rith Moorish Ornaments, 
A cornice of chequer and billet 
mouldings, with a fringe of. ^ngtailed 
toches, rests on corbels 6t heads; 
6bs. j)articularly the Eoiiianiesqtie 
capitals and fantsistic carvings, among 
fhem a rat and cat funeral, and a 
&ck-flght (6n the cabitals Which 
4re under fhis abacus) m which: the 
%in^ and! heads of the birds are so 
nigenidusly arianged as to conform to 
] the Ordinary dutlines of the 13th-centy. 
i design : the Norman srigiag or chevron 
f is remarkable. In the wails ar^ eni 
;l>edded fragments of Roman £lduli> 
i tore, said to be po!rtion^ of th6 temple 
of Augustus ; obs. also a Moorish arch 
:; of t^ Iffihrab 6r orat6rv ; the C'ufic in- 
j scrfptiofil sti^tes that it ,^aA made by 
GiAfair f6i the prilic6 ABdalla Ahdu-r- 
, rahman, ** the servant of God — of the 
cottpas^ioiiate,"' in the yfedr of ihe 
He^ ^9, ^.tf, 9^0: Among fh© 
Bepiachralin8.<Jnt)tiortsi^ one a.d. 1194 
to Rainiuildus Bone Wemofie. Otljier 
rnBcrijitioiis {''m Company;' ^m 
Comj^yiyy" &c. j, denote space jdlolitea 
to each company b^ the British Quarter- 
master generals' defdrtment .a§ tem- 
pordij harrttdk Accommodation during 
the . Feninsular War. the central 
garden AS beantifta. .the contrast of 
the exquisite vegetation and colour 
is J)erfectloj. (%^, i\xe cloistQr bU^pels; 
The two '0othic ones are virbrthy. of 
notice; and the 6hitpel of the Magdalen 

has several interesting pictlares on 
panel and a ^ood reja: N'eiar the ca- 
thedral is the Ciiartel del Pdtriaroa, 
formed out of a Roman . ediflfce, and 
mudh injured by Suchet.*' 

The little dlLvreh of Sfta i^ablo; 
immediately behind thie cathedral; is 
Romanesque, and of great interest; 
behind the altar there are. Roman re- 

The CknxiAi of l^aata tebla; la Yieja^ 
is near the cathedrals it is most; in- 
teresting. Ob^. the coii]dbes, pdrtiils, 
and widows, which are all b^nti- 
fulh' carved. 

Near the Badtion del tore, tqid dosQ 
to the sea^shere, are' a f6w miBshiJpen 
archies of the Boikaii Alninhitii^eatrey 
now the Presidio; severarro^s of 
s«itB are still viable. Fortipns of a 
circufii 1500 ft. long, now bniit ovei^' 
can bd traced betweisn the baStibn or 
Charles V. and Santo Po joSngo; , 

Visit the interestmg Muaeo of Jin- 
tiqnities, which contains an immense 
number of Mgmehts of Roman stajnes'. 
Among them notice a* miffble statue of 
BfiUJchus; d fragmeht of Yenus; a Stone 
coffin with a carving refjr^entin^ the 
Rape of Pros<5ri)ine, forpaerly in iha 
cloister of. the\cath'edral; frf^ents 
from the Temple of Juifriter^bsts-relief^ 
of a sacrificing priest, tesselatbd pietyer 
iherit with a fine head of Medc^'Sno 
brown vasesj" an interesting ^ainSi' 
genealogy re^sehiing tjie iedfgree 
off the kings pf Aragon; several Arabic 
fi^^ents' of difieiren^ kb^ '^d m 
much as still remains of- the beStlfm 
Gothio sculptTires of JPohlet: .T;he'f 
have been te-arrftnged by the intelli- 
gent curator. . ' ' ■ « : 

There is also a i«t^ t^ottvidt' Es- 
tablishment art Tafra^ohai, at thd' 
Roiti^ atmphitheatte, where liOb 
convicts -are employed in qii 

Th^ KTole bifier at TaxragcJ 
chiefly cbnstrtictpd out if the tuiits 
of the ancient amphitH^fa*e. tt ^as 
first coinmeiifted in 1491, tMei ^d 
snperinlendeilcfe ef Arntatt fe)iichS5 
it has been miicl^ enlaf£ed . ^thd^ifcid 
entrandd de^ehedi cind Ibrms d very 
safe dhd cbi^odtoiis harbbUi- ^ W' 

' „ '_.' • • '/ ■^■- '^.'- » u J«j' uiAi ' 
• See Bunnel Lewis on Tarzigona. Jour; of: 
Archeolog. Institute, No. 145, l'8ao. 

500 Bte. ISL — Tarragona: Promenades, WalhSy dc. Sect. YIII. 

numerous vessels who here come to take 
in cargoes of nuts,oranges,oil,and wine. 
Some of the native wines are excellent, 
and can compare with those grown in 
any part of Spain. More than 20 
different qualities are here produced 
(principally for the United States) by 
Bonsoms, Muller, and Bacot. Those 
who are interested in wines will do 
well to visit their cellars, near the 
Puerta de Francoliiif and inspect the 
processes by which the fine native 
wines iare adapted to the peculLir 
tastes of each European or New World 

Tairagona was sacked by Suchet in 
1811. It was invested by the Anglo- 
Sicilian army under Sir John 
Murray, June 3, but he raised the 
siege before the advance of Soult, 
June 12, leaving 19 guns in the 
enemy's hands — "an operation per- 
haps the most disgraceful that ever 
befell the British arms," — Napier, 

Promenades, Walks, &c. — ^These are 
numerous and pleasant: the Paseo 
del Oliyo continues along the ram- 
parts to the Paseo de San Antonio, 
and is much frequented ; the Bastion 
del Toro, and the Paseo de San Antonio. 
Obs. on tiie Paseo de San Antonio, a 
beautifully carved Gothic marble 
cross : on the cross itself is an exqui- 
sitely carved figure of the Saviour in 
full reliei^ whilst below are bassi- 
relievi of the Virgin with Child, and 8 
Apostles. Without the gate of San 
Antonio (a few minutes' walk in a 
direction N.E.) is a detached fort, 
now in ruins, from the ramparts of 
which the finest view of all is obtain- 
able: to the rt. is the intensely blue 
sea dotted with lateen-rigged feluccas : 
in front the fair plain, one mass of 
luxuriant vegetation, with the tomb of 
the Scipios in the distance, and the 
elevated Torre de Bara more distant 
still, whilst directly below, to the 1. is 
seen a portion of the Boman Aqnednot, 
with its almost perfect single tier of 
lirches, 39 in number, spanning a val- 
ley some 1000 ft. across. 

This Boman Aqnednot runs — ^partly 

underground— from the Puente d*Ar- 

• See 'Cat. of Exppsicion VinicoU,' Mad.. 

mentara to the inner town, a distance 
of nearly 20 m. It crosses tlie dip of 
this valley to the immediate vicinity 
of the modern town (N.E.), but a far 
more interesting point of view is that 
obtained where it spans a valley 3 m. 
from the town on the road to Leiida. 
The arches are here in a double tier, 
1 1 feet and 26 feet above : those which 
are loftiest rise 9f> ft. The length of 
the 26 arches is 740 ft. It is called el 
Puente de Ferrera^^ or by the vulgar 
del Diablo, they givinp^ as usual all 
praise to "the devU,*' as pontifex 
maximus. In this respect, however, 
the real devils in Spain were the 
clergy, as the Puentes del Obispo, 
Arzobispo, Cardenal, &c., best prove: 
thev were truly Aaifioves, or as San 
Isidore interpreted the word, AarjfAova^ 
skilful and intelligent, and to know- 
ledge they added wealth and benefi- 
cence. The view from above is 
charming ; the rich ochre - coloured 
aqueduct, stretched across a ravine, 
with here and there a pine-tree 
staring out of the palnuto-dad soil, 
looks truly the work of those times 
when there were giants on the earth. 
Ruined by the Moors, it so remained 
upwards of 1000 years, until the Arch- 
bishops Joaquin Santian Armaiia de 
Valdivieso and Armauac made use, iu 
the last century, of part of the old 
aqueduct in order to construct one 
which carries water in the present day 
to the town. The rest, which threat- 
ened to fall down when abandoned, 
was repaired in 1855-1856. The 
aqueduct is 3 m. distant &om the 

Make an excursion 3 m. to the N.E. 
of Tarragona, along the sea-coast^ to a 
Eoman sepulchre, called La Torre de 
loB Esoipiones, although the real place 
of burial of the Scipios is unknown; 
the picturesque road runs amid pine- 
clad hillocks, which slope down to 
sheltered bays, where fishermen haul 
in their heavy nets, and where painted 
barks sleep on the lazy sea; on the 
ridges above bird-catchers spread their 
toils. The monument is .30 ft. high, 
square, and built of a dark ochre- 
coloured stone ; it lies close to the road, 
amid g^cti, ^loe?, and aromatic shrubs, 

Catalonia. Boute 135. — Tarragona to Ltrkla. 


all life and colour ; two injured figures, j 
in mournful attitudes, stand on the , 
front; an alabaster inscription runs 
above the two figures ; it is almost il- 
legible, and is worn away by time and 
sea-air. The view towards Tarragona 
is ravishing. The rock-built city is 
seen with its lines of wall sloping down 
to the mole, which is studded with 
white sails, while the neutral-tinted 
distant hills and the deep-blue sea 
peep through vistas of the red branches 
of the pines, and the dark velvet of 
then- tufted heads. The beauty of the 
} •present is heightened by the poetry of 
, the past, and a classical Claude-like 
feeling is inspired by the massive 
Roman tomb ! 

A little further on, along the same 
road, may be seen the Roman archway 
of Sura or Bara, 6J m. from Tarra- 
gona. It may also be visited by rail, 
see Index. 

Railway from Tarragona to Lerida. 
(Rte. 135.) 

Steamers frequently to Barcelona, 
Valencia, and Cadiz. 

ROUTE 136. 

RAIL. 54 m. 

Tarragona Stat. (See Rte. 134.) 
5J m. Villasooa Stat. Pop. 3291. 
4i m. Eeus Stat. Pop. 27,(591. Inn: 
Fonda de Paris, fair. Clubs : El 
Ciruelo, El Olympo. Thero is a Pro- 
testant Chapel in the town. This 
lively manu'acturing town contrasts 
witU stately Tarragona. It is the great 
seat of the manufacture of French imita- 
tion wines, principally Mdcon, Chablis, 

and Champagne. Mr. Francisco Gill 
and Mr. Btjule will show their cellars 
to visitors. It manufactures cotton, 
woollen, and silk goods, soaps, &c. Al- 
though the older portion was built in 
1151, the modem town may be said fco 
date from 1750, about which vear 
several English settled there, an<f es- 
tablished a commerce in woollens, 
leathers, wines, and brandies. Ascend 
the tower of the Ch. of San Pedro for 
the view, which is splendid. The mer- 
cado is the centre of commerce and 
loungers. The Arrabal is a sort of 
boulevard. Monday is the market- 
day. The women are the prettiest in 
CutaluHa. Reus distinguished itself 
for its cold-blooded murder of monks 
in 1835, and by its participation in the 
"little warrings" of 1843, in which 
General Prim and General Zambrano 
both " assisted ; " they were each sub- 
sequently created Gonde de Reus I 
Reus, during the years 1869 to 1874, 
has been the centre of constant politi- 
cal disturbances ; first the republican 
party burnt the principal buildings 
and murdered several of the inhabit- 
ants, and secondly by the Carlists, 
who committed in the same manner 
every excess in the town. The 
great painter Fortuny was bom here ; 
his heart is in the Gh. of San Pedro. 
The suburbs are full of handsome 
viQas belonging to the rich mer- 
chants of the town. Visit (1 m.) the 
Ermita de la Misericordia, the view 
from it gives a good idea of the fertility 
of the country. 

4J m. La Selva Stat. Pop. 3421. 

3| m. Alcober Stat. Pop. 3040. 
Alcober has numerous traces of the 
occupations of the Moors; the old 
church, called La Mezquita, is Roman- 
esque ; it was formerly a mosque. 

2 m. La Plana. The railroad here 
crosses a fine iron bridge ; the country 
is very fine. Here change for Vails ; 
diligence daily, railway in construc- 

4f m. La Elba Stat. Pop. 1549. 
Here are several cotton factories. 

4^ m. Montblanch Stat. Pop. 4866. 
This decaying old town, with its walls, 
towers, and four gates, is placed in the 
midst of an unpr^ucti ve district. The 


Bqute 135. — Espluga — Pohlet 

Sect. vin. 

kings of Atf^ciB celebrated Gortes 
here in the nuoale ages ; if has also a 
good Bomanesqiie churoh. 

•From Montblaiich to L^da the rly. 
traverses the grand chain of the Sierra 

$ m. XQ»liiga Stat, Pop. 3536. 
{"rom this station may be most con- 
Tenientlj made an ^kucurnon to the 
JKonastery «f Pqblet (4 m.). It is 
seen from the line. Gonveyance may 
be obtained here. 

[The once celebrated Cistercian Kon- 
«^erj of Poblet is situated at the en* 
.irahce to the fertile valley of La Conca 
de ^arberd. Its mitred abbot reined 
in Palatinate pomp. The foundation 
was after this wise. In the time of 
the Moors a holy hermit named^ Poblet 
retired here to pray, but an emir, when 
put hunting, caught him and put him 
in prison ; however, angels from heaven 
having broken his chains three suc- 
cessive times, the Moor repented and 
granted him all the territory of Har- 
deta. When the Ohristums recon- 
quered the country in 1140, the bodv 
of Poblet was revealed to the Church 
by nnraculous lights, in consequence 
of which Bamon Berenguer IV. 
immediately built the convent Bl 
Santo, and confirmed to the clergy 
who discovered the holy bones me 
whole of the extensive Moorish grants. 
Thus enriched, the convent became 
the Escorial of Aragon, and was first 
used as a burial-place of the Aragonese 
Mn^, and afterwards of the Dukes of 

A walk of about 1^ miles along a 
bad road brings the traveller to Poblet. 
Cross the stream and pass through 
the village, enquiring for the guardian, 
who is not always to be found at the 
monastery. On entering the gate, you 
pass on the left hand the workshops 
of the different classes of artizans, 
and just before arriving at the second 
gateway you see on the right the 
small Chapel of St. George, built a.d. 
1442, with stone altar and groined 
roof. Within the gateway there 
is, on the left, the Hospital de 
los Poveres, and also an old chapel, 
by far the oldest part of the existing . 
buildings. Before entering the great J 

church, 1^ the: palace of the abbot is 
^een m. '^e rising ground to the right 
pCli^'bjuirQk has a fine nave of 7 bays, 
the arches -pi which are very slightly 
pointed ; on each side of the crossing 
were the royal tombs raised on flat 
arches ; the monuments remain, except 
the one of Jaime el Conquistador, 
which has been removed to Tarragona ; 
but they are ^sa4ly destroyed, and the 
effigies have ^sappeared. The mag- 
nificent retabto of Baireal alabaster is 
also much injured. Passing round 
the aisle behind the high altar, which 
contains five chapels, you pass into 
the Cemetery of tiie Monks with the 
Ch. of St. Stephen, and from thence to 
the Biblioteca and Archive, 2 rooms of 
2 aisles each, opening into one another, 
the pillars having plain capitals. 
From thence you arrive at the great 
cloister on b. side of the ch., of 
rich pointed work of 7 bays on all 
sides except on that towards the 
ch., where the work is earlier, with 
7 bays of round arches and midwall 
shafts. From the side opposito to 
this opens the Glorieta, a rich covered 
hexagon containing the fountain. To 
the E. opens the very fine Sala 
Capitnlar, which is supported by 4 
pillars ; the doorway and windows are 
lovely, and on the floor are the deeply 
incised monumental stones of the 
abbots. From the cloister you pass 
into the Befectorio,which has a pointed 
vault : the staircase and base of the 
reading pulpit are left. Thence yon 
go up to the Palaeio del Bey Xartixi, 
containing the royal apartments, 
below which is the great Bodega, 
where the wine was stored, the ar- 
rangements of which are curious and 
complete. From the upper rooms of 
the Eoyal Palace, after passing over 
the top of the cloister, you enter 
the Chocolateria, and beyond, the 
grand Novioiate room is arrived at, 
extending all the way over the Sala 
Capitular, Biblioteca, and Archive 
Behind these JEU*e two beautiful rooms, 
the Tesoreria and the Archive de 
Manuscritos, with very fine windows; 
and from these, returning into the 
Noviciate room, you pass down a flight 
of steps into the S. transept of m 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -.^j'w^^-t t'*^. 

Catalonia. Boute 136. — Tarragona to Barcelona. 


ch. The last room to be visited 
18 the great Sacristy, opening out of 
N. transept Philip, Duke of Wharton 
(suhjeot of Pope's satire), died here, 
agea 32, without a friend or servant.] 
The railway continues to 

5 BL YimboU Stat. Pop. 1652. 

6 m. YinaiaEa Stat. Pop. 1007. 
Tin. Tloresta Stat. 

6 m. Boijas Stat. Pop. 3786. 

2 m. Jvaeda Stat 

19 m. L^ridft, a stat on the Barce- 
lona and Zaragoza line of rly. (See 
Rte. 143.) 

ROUTE 136. 


6f m. Two trains daily, in 3} hrs. 

Leaving Tarragona (Rte. 135), the 
Rly. crosses the rio Gaya by a nne 

6} UL AltafuUa Stat Pop. 911. 

l| m. Torredembara Stat Pop. 
2437. Obs. the octangular keep of its 
mined castle. Visit. the wonderful 
Roman arch, the Arco de Bara; its 
npan is 17 ft : it is best seen from the 
Barcelona mde. The inscription, now 
de&ced, ran thus : — ^£x testamento L. 
Licini, L. F. Serg. SuraB consecratum "* 
—the friend of Pliny the Younger. 

9} m. YendreU Stat Pop. 5292. 
The neighbourhood is most beautiful : 
to the rt. is the Mediterraneah in the 
distance, to the 1., an undulating and 
richly-cultivated plain. A nolway 
is planned from YendreU and Rivas 
along the boast to Barcelona. The line 
here crosses the Bly. which conies from 
Bcurcelona to Yilianueva and Vails. 

4f m. Arbds Stat Pop. 1659. Obs. 
the beautiful retdblo in ite ch. 

4^ m. Xoigos Stat This hamlet 
takes its name from a monastery, the 
ruins of which still exist a short dis- 
tance to the rt of the line. 

3 m. Yillafranea del Paaadif Stat 
Pop. 6656. The houses of this ancient 
walled town are picturesque, and built 
in the Gothic style; the streets are 
narrow, tortuous, and iU-paved, and 
the inhabitants miserably poor. Its 
Parroqnia has a noble nave ; the lofhr 
belfry is crowned by a bronze angel. 
Founded by Amilcar, Yillafranea was 
the earliest Carthaginian settlement 
in Catalonia ; it was retaken from the 
Moors A.D. 1000 by Ramon Borrel, and 
was then declared free, and endowed 
vrith privileges in order to entice 
setflers — hence its name. 

p^ot far from Yillafranea, at San 
Miguel de Erdol, may be seen some 
interesting ruins of a fortress and se- 
pulchres carved out of the living rock. 

About 7 m. to the N.E. of ViUa- 
£ranca is the hamlet of San Martin de 
Sarrooa, with its beautiful ch. built in 
the Roman-Byzantine style.] 

2| m. Xa Oranada Stat. Pop. 959. 

5| m. San Satuniino Stat Pop. 2790. 

4} m. Oelida Stat Pop. 1966. Obs. 
the ruins of an old castle which is 
said to be of Roman origin : a portion 
of this castle is now turned into a ch. 

3i m. Kartorell Stat Pop. 4222. 
Inn : Posada de la Cruz, bad. This 
littie town, the Tolobris of the Romans, 
is the station for Collbato and Mont- 
serrat, and for the mineral baths of 
Puda. Visit its magnificent Bridge 
over the Llobregat; this Puente 
del Diablo is undoubtedly one of the 
finest Roman remains in Spain. The 
centre arch of red stone is 133 ft. wide 
in the span, and is a work of the 
Moors; the triumphal arch at the 
further extremity is Roman. The 
foundations are perfect and are 
wrought with bossage masonry, as 
at Merida and Alcantara. There 
is a similar bridge over the Tedi 
at Ceret. AcconUng to an inscrip- 
tion, this bridge was built by 
Hannibal in honour of Hamilcar, 
A.U.O. 535. It was repaired in 1768 by 


Route 136. — Barcelona: Directory, Sect. VIH. 

Charles III. : the bridge is so narro^e 
and steep that it is inaccessible to 
vehicles. Railway in construction from 
Martorell to iSan Vicente de Castellet 
and to Montserrat. 

5i m. Papiol Stat. Pop. 1104. The 
beautiful range of Montserrat is still 
seen to the rt. 

If m. Xolins del Bey Stat. Pop. 
2948. Here is a- fine bridge across the 
Llobregat, of 15 arches. A tunnel is 
now passed through, and afterwards 
the old Castillo de Papiol is seen 
perched upon a hill. 

2i m. San Telia de Llobregat Stat. 
Pop. 2658. 

If m. Cornell^ Stat. Pop. 1615. 
Obs. its old ch. of the 12th centy. 

[To the 1. upon rising ground is 
the town of San Boy, Pop. 967. There 
is a large and well-arranged lunatic 
asylum at San Boy. Its Parroquia is 
called la Catedral de Llobregat.] 

If m. Hospitalet Stat. Pop. 8605. 
This little town was formerly called 
Santa Xnlalia de Proyenzana. It is 
built on the site of the ancient Labe- 
dontia, and is situated in the fertile 
plain called the Pla de la Xarina. 
Here is the agricultural College of San 
Isidro, attached to which is a model 

1^ m. La Bordeta Stat. The neigh- 
bouring plain is watered by an ad- 
mii-able system of artificial irrigation : 
the water is obtained from the Eio 
Llobregat. Obs. to rt. the mountain 
of San Pedro Xartir. 

1^ m. Sans Stat. Pop. 15,390. Here 
the maiiufacturing suburbs of Barce- 
lona commence. 

2 m. Barcelona Stat. 

A railroad has been constructed 
through the town by the Oalle de 
Aragon to connect this line with the 
French one. (A commodiotis omnibus 
meets every train. Fare to either of 
the hotels^ each person, 1 or 2 r. ; each 
tnmh or box, 2 r.) 



$1. Hote^^, Protestant Churches and 

Schools, Gafee, Clubs, Post and 
. Telegraph Office, Consuls, Bankers, 

Shop-people, Theatres, Baths . . 604 
$ 2. Cabs, Tramways, Railway stations. 

Steamers 505 

$ 3. Historical Notice, Promenades, 

Streets, Squares, Fort, Port . . .506 

$ 4. Cathedral 508 

J 5. Churches, Town and Parliament 

House, Exchange,. Lonja, Uni- 

ver8ity,Museum8, l^braTies,Private 

Collections, Markets, Factories . . 610 
$ 6. Environs 514 

§ 1. Hotels, Protestant Churches 
AND Schools, Cafes, Clubs, Post 
AND Telegraph Office, Consuls, 
Bankers, Shop-people, Theatres, 

Inns on the EamJbla : Hotel Central 
and Falcon, from 7^ pesetas ; English 
spoken ; Fonda de las Cuatio Naciones, 
dear, and fallen off. Fonda de Oriente, 
from 6 pesetas. Fonda de Espafia, 
Calle de San Pablo, 5} pesetas. 

Ca8a^,.de Suespedes oxe numerous 
and comfortable, clean and moderate : 
La Americana, Bambla del Centre 36, 
2do, f£Qm 20 r. ; Estebans, Hernandez 
Vidrio 10 entresuelo ; 16, 20 and 24r. 

Cheap Hotels in the Calle de Bo- 
queria, from 12 r. 

English Churcfi, No. 38, Paseo de 
San Juan. 

Spanish Protestant Churches and 
Schools, in the Calle de 6racia,[Bar- 
celoneta, and Calles de Femandina, 
Asalto and Abaxedor. 

CafSs: De Colon, on the Bambla 
(* Galignani's Messenger *) ; Las De- 
licias, on the Kambla ; Suizo, in the 
Plaza Beal ; C&U de Paris. 

Restaurants : De Francia, PIa» 
Keal ; De Paris, Martin, first rate; 
Laffitte, in the Liceo, opposite to 

At all the Cafes on the Bambla 
dishes are served a la carte at all 
hours, at reasonable prices. 

Clubs ; Cireulo del Liceo, in the 
theatre of the same name on the 
Bambla; Circulo de Barcelona; C<r- 

Diqitizeu uy -"^-j >^>' '^^fS ' ^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


!Route 136. — Cabs, Tramways, dc. 


etdo Equestre.vnth. an excellent riding- 
school ; Ateneo BarcdoneSj with a good 
library and reading room. 

Post and Telegraph Offices: at the 
Plaza de Catalufia, near the Paseo de 
Gracia, at the extreme end of the 
Bambla, far from the centre. 

English Consul: J. Pratts, Esq., 
1, Oalle de Cristina ; Vice- Consul : T. 
Witty, Esq. 

American Consul : Frederick Her- 
man Schenck; Vice-Consul: Emanuel 
Casagemas, Esq. 

Bankers: Compte and Co., No. 4, 
Calle Palau ; Ortenhach and Co., No. 
10, Oalle Mercell; Vidal and Quadras, 
Xo. 2, Calle de Isabel Segunda. 

Grocer and wine-merchant: Marti- 
gnole, Calle Escudillers, No. 10. 

Booksellers : Verdaguer, Bambla, 
Xo. 5 ; Bonne'bault, Kambla, No. 22 : 
I Piaget, on the Bambla. 
I Glover : Madame Sitg^s, Pasaje 
' Bacardi. 

. Bootmaker : Freixja, Calle de Escu- 
; dillero. 

Theatres : Gran Teatro del Lloeo, on 
the Bambla. This is the Italian Opera 
House of .Barcelona, and is justly re- 
puted to be one of the first in Europe, 
both in regard to its size (it will seat 
4000 persons), its fittings, and the 
quality of the opera company, which is 
usually engaged for the winter season. 
Price of box, 80 r. ; of stall (butaca), 
12 r. to 30 r. ; entrance, 6 r. 

Teatro Principal, on the Bambla: 
Spanish comedy, drama, and dancing. 
Box, 60 r. ; stall, 10 r. ; entrance, 4 r. 

Teatro Bomea : here low comedy is 
performed in the provincial dialect. 
Teatro del Circo Barcelones. 
Teatro de Novedades, Paseo de 
Teatro Lfrico, for concerts. 
In the summer there are a great 
number of open-air theatres, and 
vocal and instrumental concerts. 

Plaza, de Toros : situated E. of the 
town near rly. stat. for Perpignan. 
The bull-fights here are much inferior 
to those at Madrid, Valencia, &c., the 
Gatalonians not being lovers of the 

Baths: The best are in the Pasaje 
de la Paz, or de los Bafios, always 

open. Calle del Arco del Teatro, No. 9, 
open winter and summer. Sea-batlis, 
hot and cold, at Barceloneta. Bussian 
baths, Calle de Mina, 6. Hot sea- 
baths nt the same establishment. 

§ 2. Cabs, Tramways, Bailway Sta- 
tions, Steamers. 

Cahs : Cab-stands on the Bambla, 
Plaza del Angel, at rly. stats., and iu 
most of the leading thoroughfares. 


The Course— by day, 1 horse, 4 r. . . 2 horses, 6 r. 

Do. — after 8 p.m. « 6r...2 „ 9r. 
The Hour— by day, 1 horse, 8 r.. .2 horses, 10 r. 

Do. — after 8 p.m. „ 10 r.. .2 „ 15 r. 

Tramways ply all over the town. 

Bailway Stations: For Villanueva 
and Vails,, Muelle San Bertran. 

The trains from France join the 
Valencia and Tarragona lines by a 
branch line down the Calle de Aragon. 
The central station is opposite the 
Custom House. 

For Zaragoza, Calle de VillanneYa. 
For Martorell, Tarragona, and Valen- 
cia, Bambla de Catalnila. For Sarria, 
Flaia de Catalnila. 

A shorter and more direct line is 
planned between Madrid and Barce- 
lona, passing by Qiiadalajara,BrLhnega, 
Xolina, Teruel, Albalate, Xora, Vails. 
It will be probably some time, how- 
ever, before the line is finished or ready 
for traffic. 

Steam Communication : Steamers to 
Marseilles (in about 22 hrs.): fare, 
Ist-class cabin, 220 reals, table not 
included, every Sunday, 10 a.m. A. 
Lopez and Co.'s steamers run from 
Barcelona to Valencia, Alicante and 
Cadiz twice a month. The office is at 
the Plaza del Palacio, No. 1. To 
Palnia (Balearic Isles) by excellent 
steamers, on Wednesdays and Fridays : 
fare, 1st cabin, 160 reals ; 2nd cabin, 
120 reals; — ^to Mahon (do.) on Wednes- 
days : fare, 1st cabin, 160 reals. Also 
steamers direct to Lisbon, Algiers, 
Southampton, Hamburg, Genoa, and 


Boute 136. — Barcelona : Promenades, Ac 

Sect Tin. 

§ 3. Historical Notice, Peombnades, 


Barcelona, one of the finest, an4 
certainly the most prosperous city oi 
Spain, is an enormous hive of manu- 
facturing industry of machinery for 
ship-building and all kinds of iron 
work; it is, however, free from the 
usual annoyances and appearances 
which we are accustomed to associate 
with a Manchester, a Leeds, or a 
Sheffield. It has still preserved its 
beauty imtamished, and rejoices in 
one of the most lovely sites in Europe. 
The mills and their tall chimneys are 
most of them ensconced in the vine- 
clad valleys which surround the town. 
The population of Barcelona, accord- 
ing to ihe official census of 1877, is 

Barcelona is admirably adapted as a 
winter residence for invalids; it pos- 
sesses all the social advantages of a 
capital city; it has a good opera-house ; 
its carnival season is reputed to be the 
gayest in Spain; whilst it enjoys a 
winter temperature warmer than that 
of Bome or Naples^ The townsfolk 
are hardy and long-lived, industrious, 
and hospitable. 

Barcelona is the capital of its pro- 
vince, the see of a bishop, the residence 
of the Captain-General, and the seat of 
an audiencia. It has a fine University, 
commercial academies, and several 
civil, military, artistic, and benevolent 
institutions, which are less commonly 
met with in other Spanish towns. 

Promenades. — Barcelona abounds in 
beautiful promenades ; the first which 
was made was the Bambla. It runs 
nearly N. and S. from the sea right 
across the city, and its double row of 
&ie trees shoot up higher and higher, 
a^ording grateful shade. In the upper 
part, Bambla de San Jos^, is the flower 
market ; it was once a streamlet, la 
Biera del Xalla, of the " Mall " which 
bounds the "W. side of Barcelona. The 
word Bambla (Arabic^ Baml — sand), 
means a river-bed, which in Spain, 
being often dry in summer, is used as 
a road, just as the Corso (the Spanish 
Ckm) became a Cours at Marseilles, 

and a race-coune at Bome. The 
Bambla is one of the great aortas, the 
Tfnter den Linden of Barcelona, the 
jEashienable promenade by day and 
night. The best hotels, theatres, &c., 
are placed there, and it is the scene of 
the renowned carnival. 

From the Plaza de Catalufia at the 
upper end of the old Bambla' is the 
Paseo de 0racia, ending at the suburb 
of the same name, now a town of 
85,000 inhabitants. This main avenue 
throws out others which follow the 
line of the old bastions leading to the 
Farque, which is the most important 
promenade of Barcelona, The trees 
and fine shrubs an(J' flowers are ad- 
mirably combined with fountains and 
lakes much in the style of the Bois de 
Boulogne. The avenue of magnolias, 
almost as large as English oaks, is 
beautiM, and contains a splendid cas- 
cade, restaurant, &c. A Mmewa of Fine 
Arts, Museo MartoreU, is in* construc- 
tion. This park has been built on the 
liand occupied by the citadel, the 
ancient - ft)rtreas, which with Mont- 
jiiich, h&s been llie terror of the town 
since the time of Philip V. The 
municipality boiio^ht this land, with 
the obligation of building barracks for 
the soldiers. This' park was laid out 
by public competition,and the gardener 
sent by the municipality to study in 
Belgium two ^ears. The arrangement 
of the plants is first-rate. 

The Xiirall^ del Mar, a fine broad 
quay, now passes across the site of the 
demolished Fortjof Las Atarazanas to 
the sMrts of Montjuich, all that now 
remains of the fortifications of Barce- 
lona. On the W. side the old bastions 
up to the Plaza de Catalufla are being 
laid out in a line of avenues. 

Most of the foreign consuls have 
removed to the fine new hotels in the 
Paseo de Gracia. 

The cemetery is finely laid out. 

Streets, squares, &c, — The principal 
streets in Barcelona are well paved, 
well lighted, wide, and long. The 
Oalle de Fernando is the handsomest 
—full of fine shops. The Calle Ancha 
is also a long and busy street ; it runs 
parallel with the Muralla del Mar. 
The Oalle de la Plateria is the home 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.'w.^^-t t'*^ 


Baute 136.— PZa2?a«, Port. 


of the goldworker and silversmith; 
here is a profase display of native 
jewelry to suit all tastes, much of it 
is quite classical and antique: the 
prices of gold and silver articles are 
very moderate; the, quality of the 
metal is generally good, but the work- 
manship simple and wanting in finish. 
The large and characteristic ear-rings, 
arracctdasy which were worn in Cata- 
lulia, are fast disappearing. Some may 
still be seen, ornamented with stones, 
in the silversmiths' shops in this street. 
A good series exists at the South Ken- 
sington Museum among the Spanish 
peasant jewellery. 

Flaia Seal: this square is an imita- 
tion of the Palais Royal in Paris. It 
is surrounded by handsome and lofty 
houses, and haa a fowniain surrounded 
by a group of the three Graces in its 

Flaia del Palado. Here is a beau- 
tiful fountain in Carrara marble, repre- 
senting the four provinces of Cata- 
lonia, viz., Barcelona, Lerida, Tarra- 
gona, and Gerona. A winged genius 
crowns the monument. The escut- 
cheon of the Marquis de Campo- 
Sagrado, formerly Captain-General of 
Catalonia, forms the principal front. 
Obs. the proud motto on this face of 
the monnment, "Despuea de Dios, la 
Casa de Quirds'* 

Flan del Padro. Here is an obelisk 
erected 1672;. and a statue of Santa 
Eulalia, the tutelar of Barcelona. 

Flaza del Teatro, in which is the 
Teatro Principal — it forms a part of 
the Rambla. 

Philip Y. pulled down 2000 houses, 
37 streets, and 3 churches, to make 
room for a species of entrenched camp, 
the former fortress, which no longer 
exists. However, to compensate for 
this wholesale destruction of property, 
one Pedro Cermeflo was employed 
(1755-78) to raise the new suburb, 
called Baroeloneta. The houses of 
Barceloneta are low and painted red, 
with a very Genoese look ; the streets 
are well paved, and run in straight 
lines, and the place is tenanted by 
shipbuilders, washerwomen, and fishe]> 

The Tort of Xontgiiich, S. of the town, 

is placed upon an isolated hill 752 
ft above the sea-level. It commands 
both the city and the port. It was the 
Mon8 Jovis of the Bomans ; the Mons 
Judaicus of the middle ages, having 
then been inhabited by Jews. The 
fine zigzag road which approaches it 
was constructed by Boucali. The su- 
perb fortifications are very strong, and 
well provided with cisterns and case- 
mates. In the War of Succession it 
was surprised and taken, Sept. 14, 
1705, by Lord Peterborough — that Don 
Quijote of English history. Consider- 
ing the apparent inaccessibility of the 
place, its capture may well be con- 
sidered to have been one of the most 
brilliant feats of modem times. It was 
from these batteries that Barcelona was 
bombarded by Espartero in the insur- 
rection of 1842, and again in the Fro- 
nunciamiento of 1843. 

The view from the summit of Fort 
Montjuich is magnificent. N.B. Per- 
mission to enter the fortress can be 
obtained from the commandant, or by 
simply sending in your card to the 
ofiicer on duty, who will send an orderly 
to escort the visitor round. 

The Port of Barcelona is large and 
commodious; it has been very much 
improved. The E. mole has been pro- 
longed to about one-third of its former 
length, and brought so near the end of 
the W. mole as to render the enlarged 
area thoroughly secure under any 
wind. It has 8 to 10 metres' depth in 
the innermost harbour, and 12 to 14 
near the moles' end. Many works are 
in progress ; when completed they will 
place Barcdona in point of convenience 
for merchant shipping with Marseilles. 
The concession for the harbour works 
was granted in 1438 by Alonso V. of 
Aragon; they were, however, only 
commenced in 1474, under the super- 
intendence of Estacio, a famous hy- 
draulic engineer from Alexandria in 
Egypt The works were extended in 
1880. The trade of Barcelona is in- 
creasing to a very great extent. The 
fine houses built at the Ensanohe, on 
each side of the road to Gracia« and in 
the space from the University to St 
Paul, give a fair idea of the improve- 


Boute 13G. — Barcelona : Cathedral. Sect. VIII. 

ment a)id riches of the town. The land 
covered by good comfortable Iiouses 
since 1870 is greater than that of the 
town itself before the outer walls 
were pulled down in 1868. If the 
riches and population contmue to in- 
crease at the same ratio, the town will 
spread itself over the space allotted, 
which is 10 or 12 times larger than 
that formerly occupied by the town. 

§ 4. Cathediial. 
The Cathedral, la Sen or Seo. This 

most interesting ch. is situated in the 
old town. It was built on the site of 
a pagan temple. The old cnthedral was 
converted by the Moors into a mosque, 
and was afterwards enlarged by Count 
Ramon Berenguer. The first ch. was 
consecrated alx)ut the year 1058 ; but 
of this little now remains except tlie 
doorway leading from the cloister into 
the S. transept, and another leading 
into the chapel of Sta. Lucia, at the 
S. W. angle of the cloister. The rest of 
the ch. was commenced 1298, and it 
was still in progress in 1329. The first 

A. Capilla Mayor. 

B. Goto. 

C. Nave. 

D. Aisles. 

E. I>antera.; 

F. Tansepts. 

G. Pulpit. 

H. Bisliop's Throne. 
1. Reja. 
K. Old Screen, 
li. Modern Screen. 
M. High Altar. 
N. Steps down to Chapel 

of Sta. Kulalia. 
0. Steps up to Altar. 
P. Sacristies, &c 
. Q. Cloisters. 
B. Chapels. 

Plan op Barcelona Cathedral. 

uvcliitect seems to have been one Jayme 
Fabre, of Palma in M allorca. He was 
succeeded in 1388 by El Maestro 
Koque, who had an assistant, one Pedro 
Viader. Roque, who is said to have 
commenced the cloister, was succeeded 
b^ Bartolom^ Gaul, and finally Andres 
Escuder placed the last stone of the 
vault on the 26th of September, 1448. 

This cathedral is a type of the eccle- 
siastical architecture of Catalonia, and 
is distinguished for the great heigl»t 
and width of its nave. The W. endw 
surrounded by an elegant octagon. 
Obs. the flight of steps at the approach, 
the belfry towers, the lofty rouf, sup- 
ported by slender elegant piers, the 
splendid painted glass, the semicircular 


Boute 136. — Cathedral, 


colonnade wliioh girdles tlie high altar, 
and below it the chapel crypt, with its 
rieli and depressed arch ; a profusion of 
Saracens' heads are used as bosses and 
corbels.* The infusion of a Norman 
^tyle cannot be mistaken. The principal 
fa9ade is unfinished, with a bold front, 
poorly pamted in stucco, although the 
rich chapter for tliree centuries re- 
ceived a fee on every marriage for this 
very purpose of completing it. Obs. 
the screen of the coro, the carved pul- 
pits and winding staircase ; tlie organs 
are of sober-coloured wood, with Sara- 
cens' heads beneath. The Betablo 
Mayor is composed of a dark stone, 
with pointed arches, and blue and gold 
ornaments; the pillars which cluster 
around it, forming an open semicircular 
frame, instead of the usual solid walls, 
have very light and elegant eifect. 

I Ou each side is a spiral pillar of red 
marble, supporting an angel with a 
torch: the series of connecting gilt 

I arches is delicate and singular; the 
chapels round the altar are Ghurrigue- 
resque, and filled with bad retahlos, 
sculptm-e, and over-gilding. In a 
chapel crypt below the high altar, 
hke the sepulche of St. Peter's at 

; Bome, lies the body of Santa Eulaliat 

f tlie " well-speaking " Patrona of the 
city, to whom the present cathedral is 

I dedicated.! The interesting alabaster 
shrine carved with reliefs is raised 

• on spiral pillars of antique jaspers 
with Corinthian capitals, taken from 
some ancient temple. The curious 
inscription round the rim is given in 
the Esp. Sag. xxix. 320. The splendid 
gold custodia in the Sacristia alone 
escaped the French. Obs. it welh 
Ou the base is represented the entn'^ 
of Juan II. into Perpignan, Oct. 28, 
1473, after he had defeated the French 

Ramon Berenguer, and his wife Al- 
mudis, are buried near the SacHstia : 
their tombs were restored in 1545. 

Here, in the choir in 151 9, Charles V. 
celebrated an installation of the Golden 
Fleece, the only one ever held in Spain ; 

• These Saracens' heads are found In most of 
tbe churcbes in Barcelona. 

t yide her ' Autlientlc Life,' written by Ra- 
iqoQ ()e PontiicU y Gumps. Muiirid, I77u. 

and in truth that Burgundian order 
passed away with tlie Austrian dynasty, 
although claimed and used by the 
Bourbon Kings of Spain. The arms 
of the Knights Companions, and of our 
Henry VIII. among them, are blazoned 
on the canopied stalls. The bishop's 
throne is similar to that of Exeter. 
The order of Montesa was instituted 
in this cathedral, July 22, 1319. Look 
well at the picturesque effect of the 
coro, and fine painted glass. 

San Olegarius lies buried in his own 
chapel to the rt. on entering ; he was a 
Frenchman, and died in 1137; obs. 
his tomb with paintings by Vila- 
domds, and also his statue in the 
trascoro, with marble reliefs of the Mar- 
tyrdom of Santa Eulalia, set in a Doric 
framework. Made a saint by Inno- 
cent XI. in 1675, he has since been 
tutelar of the Catalans. His biogra- 
phies, besides that in the * Espaua 
Sagrada,^ are numerous.* 

The Cathedral has two towers ; the 
arched support of that with the clock 
deserves notice; the great bell was 
cast in 1393. 

. The panorama from the summit is 
glorious ; flocks of pigeons, as at Va- 
lencia, fly about, being forced by their 
proprietors on the house-tops to thus 
air themselves. Near the door of 
ascent is the elegant Gothic Cloister, 
with its pleasant court of oranges and 
sparkling waters. Let into the walls 
are some tiurious sepulchral stones, 
dating from the 12th to the llth 
century. Here was the canonical 
aviary in which certain sacred geese 
were kept like those of the Eoman 
Capitol. Notice the Fuente de kin 
ocas, and the beautiful one of St. 
George, with the horse's tail formed 
out of a jet of water. 

Obs. the sculptured eflBgies of tailors 
with their shears, and bootmakers with 
their boots. The guild of the latter, 
el gremio de los ZapateroSy in 1208, were 
benefactors to tlie cathedral. Descend- 
ing the great steps is their cam, covered 
with symbols, and their patron Sau 

• Select that by Antonio J. G. de Caralps, 4to., 
Barcelona, 1617, or an earlier in 8vo., by Jaii^e 
HcbuHuso, Barcelona, 160^ 


Boutel36. — Barcelona: Churches. Sect. VIII. 

Maxcos, preferred by the orthodox 
Catalans to our St. Crispin. 

To the rt of the cathedral steps is 
the Gothic Almoyna, the canon's Al- 
moiaj; to the 1. the ancient arch- 
deacon's house, open daily from 1 to 3. 
Notice the fine staircase. Near the 
cathedral is the Plan del Bey, and the 
ancient palace of the Gothic kings. 
The Gothic chapel, Santa Agueda, of 
the 13th century still exists. It has 
been desecrated, and was nearly pulled 
down a few years ago. It is now used 
as a museum for artistic objects of the 
middle ages, and contains already se- 
veral interesting fragments of sculpture 
and early Spanish pictures. Visitors 
must apply for admission to the Custo- 
die, No. 14, in the same Plaza. At the 
back of this palace, and forming part 
of the Plaza itself, is the Arohiyo de la 
Corona de Aragon, which contains a 
large collection of well- arranged im- 
portant historical documents. In the 
Arehivo of the cathedral there are 
some curious records of religious festi- 
vals called, Exempkma. 

§5. Chubohes, Town and Pablia- 
MENT House, Excbakge, Lonja, 
XJniversitt, Museums, Libraries, 
Private OoLLEonoNiB, Markets, 

Ohnroh of Santa Xaria d6l Kar. 
This is the grandest church after the 
cathedral in Barcelona. It was erected 
on the site of a chapel of the Gothp. In- 
scriptions near the S. door record the 
date of the rebuilding, 1328 ; it was 
finished in 1483. It is a tall and wide 
S-aisled church, with chapels between 
the buttressed. The W. portal is fine, 
and the painted glass rich in greens, 
blues, and reds. The gilded royal 
pew faces the handsome LouiB-XV. 
organ. Obs. the semicircular fhime- 
work of pillars that surrounds the high 
Altar, wmch unfortunately was modetn- 
ised in 1843, with red mairbles, gilt 
capitals, tawdry sciilptured angels, and 
an image of the Virgin : to the rt. is a 
^od statue .of San Alqjo, and, behind 
the choir, some pictures by Viladomat, 
representing the Passion of Christ. 

Near the W. end of the town, en- 
closed in a barrack, is the very old 
Ch. of San Pablo del Campo, so called 
because once outside the town, like 
our St. Martin-in-the-Fields at Cha- 
ring-cross ; it resembles the San Pablo 
at Tarragona, and is akin to some of 
the primitive churches in Gkdicia. It 
was built in 913 by Wilfired II., as is 
shown by an inscription let into the 
wall near the cloister. It is a small 
cross, with dome at the crossing and 
3 apses. Obs. the small double cluste^ 
ing pillars with engrailed arches, and 
the Norman Romanesque capites of 
boars, griffins, and leaves. 

San Pedro de las Pnellieul was built 
in 980 hj Count Sunario and his wife 
Eicheldi, after the same style as San 
Pablo, when the earlier church, erected 
by Louis le D^onnaire,was destroyed 
by Al-Mansiir. It has u dome in the 
centre resting on detached columns. 
Obs. the sin^lar capitals, in one of 
which the pnckly piear is introduced; 
the women, when at mass in this low 
dark ch., muffled in tiieir white man- 
teUinas de punta, look like the dead in 

The Ch. of Santa Ana, built m 1146 
in the form of a cross, by Guillermo U., 
patriarch of Jerusalem, and in imita- 
tion of the church of the Sepidchre; 
unfortunately, the transept and Presbi- 
terio hate been modernised. Obs. the 
beautiful (juiet cloister j and monument 
<tf Don MiguelBohera,whp commanded 
at the battle of Eav^niiia, and was 
captain of iMe galleys' to Charles V. 

The Chnroh of San Jaime, which was 
built in 1394, has been restored. 

The single nave at San Just y Pastor 
i$ fine : it was built in 1345 on the site 
of an earlier churcli, skid to have been 
founded by Santiago. This church 
ha9 been restored, the plan being to 
imitate the colours and decoration of 
the middle ages, so generklly used in 

The Gothic ch. of la Oonpepoioil in 
tlie Calle de Ara^|[on has been rebuilt; 
ii was formerly m the Plaza de Jun- 
queraz. , Obs. the, fine s^toe of tbe 
Lnmaculate Ooncepcion by BatMo^ the 
Oatalonian scidptor. 

Santa Karia del Pi, built in 1880; 


Baute 136. — PMk Buildinga, &c. 


has a noble single nave 64 ft. wide, a 
chapel between buttresses, a good W. 
portal, and fine detached tower. 

The interesting old Cliapel of San 
Kignel, 1002, was i>ulled down in 1873. 
The sculptures which were saved may 
he seen in the Museum formed in the 
Chapel, Plaia del Bey. 

In Belem, formerly the JTesnitas, a 
specimen of Italian masonry, are some 
rich marbles, some pictures ascribed to 
Yiladomat, and the identical sword 
offered by Loyola on the altar of the 
Virgin at Montserrat 

The Casa Consifltorial (or Town-hall), 
and the Casa de la Biputadon (Par- 
liament House), face each other on 
opposite sides of the principal square, 
near the cathedral. The Casa Oonsis- 
torial was built 1369-1378 : inside is 
an inscription dated 1373. The N. 
front is Gothic, and very original and 
picturesque. Obs. the enormous winged 
St. Michael, and arch-stones of the 
doorway. It has a beautiful patio or 
quadrangle, oblong in plan with deli- 
cate arches all round : obs. the twisted 
pillars, the rich detail of its Aiimez 
windows, &c. The Salon de (aento, 
90 fL long, 45 ft. high, on the first floor, 
mnst be visited ; where the meetings 
were held to appoint the councillors. 

The archives of the Casa de Aragon 
may also be visited ; they are second 
only to Slmancas; they are on the 
2na floor, and open from 10 a.m. to 1, 
and 3 to 7 p.m. Besides a large 
number of well-arranged documents. 
they contain an interesting t)icture by 
Luis Dalmau, 1465; a fine silver 
reli^nary, arms; miniatures, and other 
curious objects may also be seen there. 

The Diputacion Provincial, founded 
1365, was rebuilt 1609 by Pedro Blay 
in the Herrera style, in this build- 
ing is establishlBd the Andiencia 
territorial* Obs. the delicate arcades 
of its beautiful jxitio. The patio is of 
three stages in height, with an ex- 
ternal staircase of very picturesque 
design. The bha^l is dedicated to 
8t. George. On no account must, this 
chapel be passed, over without a visit. 
The altar frohtal l-epresetiting; iSfc 
George killui'g the dr&on Mb tute- 
lar saint of Cataln^) Ikmk of the 

finest embroideries in the world. A 
splendid set of priests' vestments, a 
magnificent illuminated missal, and 
set of tapestries may be seen at this 
chapel. Look at the beautiful court- 
yard planted with orange-trees. Fol- 
lowing to the left, the visitor may 
go to the large saloon of the Diputa- 
cion, called of St. George. It con- 
tains a large painting in oils by the 
artist Fortuny, a Catalan by birth. 
Fortuny was pensioned in Rome by ttie 
Diputacion^ and painted by order this 
episode of the campaign m Morocco 
for this room. His early death unfor- 
tunately left the picture unfinished. 
Look at a beautiful water-colour pic- 
ture by the same artist representing 
a Beau of the last centy., which is in 
the secretary's room. 

The Casa Lonja (or Exchange), once 
a superb Gothic pile, is situated on tiie 
Plaza de Palacio. It was built in 
1383, and "beautified'* by a French 
architect in 1770. The existing pile, 
reared in 1772 by Juan Soler, is 
heavy, has many faQades and a Tus- 
can portal. One noble Gothic-pillared 
saloon in the interior has fortunately 
been spared. In the large modem 
saloon are a Laoooon and a statue of 
an Aragonese soldier, by Canapeny, 
and two gladiators by Bovey. In the 
two rooms set aside as a museo^ obs. 
25 good paintings by Yiladomat re- 
presenting the life of St. Francis, 
rescued from the convent of San 

The Palacio del Gapitan General, 
near the Casa Lonja, was built by 
the municipal authorities in 1414 for 
a cloth hall, but the building wa^ 
turned into an armoury in 1514. jft 
was modernised by Koncali, aiidl is 
without architectural interest* 

The Adoana was built in 179!^, 
by Count Roncali ^ here is the Tuscan 
again, and heaviness ad nauseam ': 
the veiatioiis its criticisms entailed on 
the designer caused Jus aeath in 1794. 

JThe Abadeiiu^,de B^enas ^^lems is a 
Ool^edtion of piqtiires o^ ho greiat merit, 
iind piutilated antiqUitied : |i Proser^ 
bine 1^ tlie best. Some Bom^,!! sewersi 
cioaqa^, 0^ cldveqiieras'^ s^ijl exist in 
the Calle de la Boqnerie and that de 

512 Boute 13Q. — Barcelona : Museo ; Houses. Sect. YIII. 

Junqueras: in the Qefatura Politioa, 
on the staircase, is a colossal female 
foot, said to have been part of a Juno. 

The new TTniYeraity in the modem 
town is a noble pile of building. It 
was commenced in 1872. The great 
hall is built in the Moorish style, the 
carved doors are well designed. The 
University is attended by 2000 students. 
There are 85 primary schools attached 
to it. The library contains upwards of 
40,000 vols, arranged with great taste* 
in handsome cases proceeding from 
convents of Catalufia, Some of the 
MSS. are of great historical interest. 
Barcelona contains also a great number- 
of educational establishments anddiife- 
rent academies. 

The Episcopal Library contains some 
15,000 vols., and valuable MSS., 
coins, &c. 

The Archivo del Seal Fatrimonio 
has been deposited, since the fire which 
occurred in the palace in 1875, in the 
Capitania General. 

The Archivo de la Catedral and 
Archivo de la Corona de Aragon have 
already been described in their proper 

The Xnseo Arqueol6gico is in the 
church of Santa Agueda, a lofty and 
well-shaped edifice in the Plaza del 
Rey, adjoining the palace of the kings 
of Aragon, at present the convent of 
Sta. Clara, of which this church served 
as the chapel. The preservation of 
this church is due to the zeal of the 
Provincial Committee of Monuments. 

The chapel of Sta. Agueda consists 
of a high and well-shaped nave (Gothic 
of 13th centy.). In the fa9ade there 
are small windows of painted glass 
containingrepresentationsof celebrated 
persons of the history of Catalonia. 
The belfry is one of the most note- 
worthy in Barcelona. The Museum 
of Architecture and Antiquities is 
temporarily installed here. The 
specimens amount to upwards of 1000. 
On the side walls of the chapel is shown 
an important series of keystones, arid 
slabs containing inscriptions of the 
middle ages, engraved medalh'ons of 
the Benaissance. In the presbytery 
are some tombs of the Catalonian 
bishops. On the floor js f^ valuable 

mosaic representing a Roman drous, 
25 ft. long and 10 ft. wide, found at 
Palana. Between two Roman pillars 
is a statue in Greek drapery. In the 
choir is a choice selection of Roman 
pottery. On the principal altar is to 
be seen an arrangement of old frames 
of the 15th century. Outside the Ch. 
stands a large collection of slabs aud 
Roman epitaphs, fantastic gorgets 
and slabs bearing inscriptions in He- 
brew. Within the rails a tall pillar is 
worthy of mention as belonging to the 
temple of Herctiles, in Barcelona. 

The house of the Cardenas, near 
the Bajada de San Hlguel, with a fine 
patio. Obs. also the staircase, the 
elaborate roof, the spiry pillars, window 
decorations, carvings, and coats of 
arms. El Palau, Calle del Templaris, 
belonged first to the Templars, and 
then became the palace of the wives 
of the Counts of Barcelona. The 
chapel alone remains, it has been 
lately restored. Casa de Centellas 
(restored) near El Falan, Casa de 
Balmases, in the Calle de Moncada, I 
with a fine Renaissance patio. 

The principal Roman antiquities to | 
be found in the oldest portion of the 
town are but fragments, having for 15 
centuries been ill-treated by Goth, 
Moor, and Spaniard. In the Calle dd 
Paradis, the upper floor is occupied 
by the AsociacionCatalanista d* excur- 
sions Cientificas ; some colunms built 
up by houses are supposed to have 
been the termination of the aqueduct 
from Collcerola, of which an arch re- 
mains in the Calle de Capellans : there 
are 6 in one house ; 1 is seen in the 
patio, 3 in a room, and 2 in an upper 
garret. These have been called the 
tomb of Hercules, Ataufus, &c. Oppo- 
site the Fnerta de Santa Looia of the 
cathedral, in cam 15, caMed^'dd Arc^' 
dianoy are some Roman inscriptioM» 
and a good sarcophagus with hunting 
reliefs, now used as a water-tank. A 
better marble, with a Roman fem^e, 
called here Priscilla, and a head of a 
Bacchus, exist in the Casa del Pinoi» 
Plaza Cucurulla. The plateresque 
cinquecento ornaments of this ancient 
mansion deserve notice, but they have 
been barbarpusly whitewashed, *^ 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^j'w.^^-i i'*^ 


Bouie 136. — Barcelona : Bistory. 


the house of Sefior Bails, Calle San 
Podro Biga is another sarcophagus, 
wed also as a tank. 

Artists may wish to visit the studios 
of the eminent brother sculptors Yall- 
mitgana and Rosendo Nooas— Calle 
de GftsanoYas. 

Markets, — The botanist, ornitholo- 
gist, and artist will, of course, visit the 
new Karket near the Parque, where 
all sorts of vegetables and fruits, and 
birds of sea and land, are sold. The 
markets Boqueria and Santa Gatalina 
are built on modem plans. 

The Hospido, Poor House, may be 

visited ; it is very well ordered. There 

is also an excellent school for deaf and 


The Espana Industrial is worth a 

i visit. In the suburbs, open on Thui-s- 

■ days, by card given by director, Calle 

j de Siereta, 30. It is the largest cotton 

I &ctory in Spain, and employs 1000 

j hands. « 

4 ^ Barcelona, according to local annal- 

k ists, was a lAletanian city, founded of 

course by Hercules, 400 years before 

Bome. Kefounded 225 b.o. by Amilcar 

Barca, father of Hannibal, and thence 

called Barcino, it became the Carthago 

Kova of the N. coast. The Punic city 

mus small, and only occupied the hill 

Taber, or just the present site around 

the cathedral. In 206 b.c. it was made 

a colonia by the Bomans, and called 

"Favienta Jviia Augusta Pio Barcino.** 

It was, however, eclipsed by Tarragona, 

the Boman capital, and by Emporied, 

a busy Greek sea-mart. Taken (about 

^ 409) by the Gothi-Alani, it soon rose in 

importance, and coined money with the 

legend Barcinona ; two councils were 

held here in 540 and 599. When the 

Koors destroyed Tarragona, Barcelona, 

awed by the example, capitulated, 

was kindly treated, and became a 

new metropolis. After many changes 

and chances daring the 8th and 9th 

centuries, in 878 it was ruled by an 

independent Christian chief of its own, 

whose 12th descendant dropped the title 

of Count of Barcelona, on assuming 

that of King of Aragon. During the 

middle ages, like Carthage of old, 

Barcelona was the lord and terror of 

the Mediterranean, and divided with 

[Spain, 1882.] 

Italy the enriching commerce of the 
East. The prosperity of those times has 
left its mark bdiind in the churches 
and other buildings. Trade was never 
held to be a degradation, as among the 
Castilians ; accordingly, heraldic deco- 
rations are much less frequent on the 
houses here, wherethe merchant's mark 
was preferred to the armorial charge. 
The Catalans, then at peace and free, 
for the Spanish and Moorish struggle 
was carried on far away in the S., were 
protected by municipal charters and 
fueros ; their commercial code dates ^ 
from 1279, and El Ommlado dd mar 
de Barcelona obtained the same force 
in Europe as the Leges Bhodia had 
among the ancients. It was then a city 
of commerce, conquest, and courtiers, 
of taste, learning, and luxury, in fact, 
the Athens of the troubadour. Here, 
April, 1493, did Ferdinand and Isabel 
receive Columbus, after his discovery 
and gift of a new world. But the Cas- 
tiUan connexion, with its wars, pride, 
and fiscal absurdities, led to the decay 
of Barcelona, and the citizens soon 
discovered the danger: thus when 
Charles Y. came there, he was only 
received as their nominal king ; hence 
their constant desire to shake off that 
foreign yoke. Thus, in 1640, ihej rose 
against the taxation and violation of 
tiieir usages by Philip lY., and threw 
themselves into the arms of France; 
turning, however, against her in the 
War of Succession, and espousing the 
Austrian cause. 

When the glorious career of Marl- 
borough was arrested by party moves, 
Barcelona was left alone to combat her 
two powerful neighbours, France and 
Spain. Louis XIY. then sent Berwick 
with 400,000 men to aid Philip Y., 
whilst an English fleet, under Wishart, 
blockaded their former allies. The 
city refused to yield unless its"/ttero«" 
were secured, and was therefore stormed 
by the French ; Sept. 11, a white flag 
was hoisted, but in vain; Mata y 
Quema was tiieir war-cry, and Berwick 
applied the torch himself ; and when 
the sword, fire, and lust had done their 
worst, all the privileges guaranteed by 
France were abolished by Frenchmen 
(Mahon, is.). 

Digitized by VjC*.J^ i-.^ 


BaiUe 136. — Barcelona: Envirom. Sect. Vlll. 

Buonaparte obtained Barcelona by 
perfidy ; he knew its importance, and 
called it the **ftr8t city^* and key of 
Spain ; " one which could not be taken, 
in fair war, with less than 80,000 
men.'' Accordingly in Feb. 1808, he 
sent Dnhesme with 11,000 men, but in 
the character of allies, who desired, as 
a *' proof of confidence and harmony," 
that his troops might alternately mount 
guard with the Spanish ; this request 
being granted, he seized the citadel on 
the 28th of Feb., having drawn out 
his soldiers under the pretence of a 

The working classes have always 
been a turbulent set. After the resto- 
ration, the Conde de Espafia ruled the 
town with a rod of iron ; but in 1827 it 
rose in favour of Bon Odrlos, and ever 
since has taken the lead against every 
established authority. 1 1 opposed Ohris- 
tina in 1834, and "pronounced" for 
Espartoro in 1840, and against him in 
1841-2-3. Being "aU for itself," it 
is in fact always ready to raise the 
banner of revolt. 

December 2l8t is the fair of Barce- 
lona ; it is frequented by the peasantry 
from every part of the Province. The 
artist will do well to sketeh the pretty 
payesast and their mocados, who assem- 
Dle OQ Ihe plazas and alamedas during 
the fair days. The Bambla is fiUed 
with men and turkeys, and the Plateria, 
Bocaria, and Moncada streets are 
blocked with booths and purchasers. 
Cbristmas-day and New-year's-day are 
devoted to dancing and eating, espe- 
cially in the consumption of a sort of 
wafer called NeudaSy and an almond 
sweet called Tummes, January 17th is 
the day of San Antonio Abad — patron 
of Gatalonian peasants and pigs ; then 
quadrupeds are blessed. Obs. on this 
occasion the costume of the mideteers, 
and the huge loaf (tortell) which they 
each carry slung to their saddles. 
Febmary 12th is the festival of Santa 
Eulalia, the patron saint of the Bar- 
celones. The Ist day of Lent is kept 
as a holiday, and people go out into the 
country " to bury the carnival." The 
Camival of Barcelona is to Spain what 
that of Borne wcls to Italy; and 
strangers who enjoy such ttoisy scenes 

will do well to visit Barcelona during 
its concluding days. The 23rd of Apiu 
is the feast of St. Jorge. 

§ 6. Environs. 

^vifons o/Bareelona. The country 
round the city is extremely beautiful. 
Amongst the country houses of the 
citizens, d Laherinto, belonging to the 
Marquis of AlfarhU(, and the Carmen 
of Sellor Anglada, both near Horta, 
are the most renowned. Gracia,N.W. 
of the town, is a place of hoUday 
resort. It is situated at the foot of 
San Pedro M&rtir, a pretty hill, and is 
laid out with tea-gardens, restaurants, 
&c. Still farther from the city is 
Sarrii, which is connected with Bu- 
celona by a short rly. and tramway 
(Stat, at the N.W. end of the RamblaX 
upon which local trains run every 
I hour, on Sundays and holidays. 1 m. 
from 8arri6 is the picturesque con- 
vent of Pedralves. A carriage can be 
hired at the station which takes visiton 
to the monastery. Taste at FedralTtf 
the excellent requesones, sort of ens* 
tard. Those mJeule by Serajina, « 
Estebet, are the best. Following the i 
mountain is the church of VaUvidr** 
ras. Obs. the pictures in this chorch. 
Beyond is the highest point called 
Tibidabo ; the view is splendid ; a ca^ 
riage-road will soon go the whole way* 
The art-student ought to visit fltt 
Cugat del Vall^ 6 m. from Barcelona, 
a most interesting Bomanesque church. 

Excursion to the Monasteby op 
MoNTSEBBAT. (See Bte. 136a.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

[ Catalonia. Bte, 136 a. — Barcelona to Monastery of Montserrat, 515 

naturalist of the community, it riseB 
an isolated grey mass, about 14 m. 
in circumference, with a range of 
height of 3993 ft., and is made up 
of masses of pmnades and isolated 
piles of rook. There are calions and 
gorges with almost perpendicular sides, 
and precipices with mule-paths wind- 
ing along their faces. The rent which 
divides this tremendous wall of rock 
is said to have been made at the mo- 
ment of the Crucifixion. From the 
plain the mountain skeleton rises 
nobly out of its wooded base, and 
the Convent with its cypresses and its 
gardens soon become visible. Nothing 
can surpass the beauty of the scenery 
in every season of the year. The 
artist will find landscapes of every 
variety, the botanist the richest variety 
of flora, Mr. Hare thus describes in 
his ** Wanderings in Spain " his ascent 
of the mountain. "It had frozen all 
night, and nothing could be lovelier 
than the effect of the thick hoar-frost, 
every delicate leaf and blade of grass 
being encrusted with ice, and standing 
out like glistening diamonds against 
the grey fog. Without having seen 
a fog no one should leave Montserrat, 
for glorious as it is at all times, this 
natural veil lends an indescribable 
softness and mystery to the views, and 
the moment when the curtain draws 
up and the sun bursts forth victo- 
riously is so intensely splendid. We 
were then in one of the, high rock- 
terraces, several miles above the con- 
vent, where no sound except the occa- 
sional cry of an eagle broke the entire 
stillness, for not a breath of air stirred 
the frost-laden boughs. Suddenly the 
mist rolled away, and in the distance 
was revealed on one side the long ex- 
panse of the Mediterranean, from Bar- 
celona to Tarragona, with the shining 
threads of rivers leading up to it 
through numberless towns and vil- 
lages, and on the other the vast range 
of the Pyrenees, quite covered with 
snow, against the softest of blue skies. 
Deep below were the most tremendous 
abysses of rock, often perpendicular 
precipices of two or three thousand 
feet, but, wherever any soil could 
lodge, filled with the wealth of innu- 
_2 L 2 

ROUTE 136a. 


This interesting excursion ought on 
uo account to be omitted. It can 
hurriedly be made in one day by start- 
ing from Monistrol, 32 m., a station 
on the Barcelona and Zaragoza line 
(fite. 143), by the early train, and re- 
taming on the same day. Tickets can 
be taken at the Despacho, at the 
Sambla, at Barcelona; the bargaining 
and squabbUng at Monistrol is thus 

HoniBtrol Stat 

Every train is here met by huge 
omnibuses, drawn by six mules, which 
take the traveller up the fine road to 
the monastery. A railroad is planned 
up the mountain from Monistrol. On 
arrival you go the Hospederia, and a 
room and linen will be given to you 
gratis, on asking, for which it is custom- 
ary on leaving to give a liinoma of not 
less than 10 or 20 reals a day. A 
lay friar, called Jules, who speaks 
French, will give travellers aU the 
assistance they require ; he attends to 
keeping the rooms in orider, water, &c., 
and food must be procured at the 
hotel, candle bought, &o. The restau- 
rant is close at hand. The upper 
room is reserved for those who pay 
4 rs. a meal, those in the lower room 
half tiie price. Permission is given to 
occupy the rooms 3 days, and by special 
permission 9 days granted. 

The extraor(finary mountain " Mens 
Serratus," upon the summit of which 
the convent is placed, consists of the 
tertiary conglomerate so common at 
the base of the Pyrenees, and, as fre- 
quently takes place in rocks of this 
class, gives rise to the most extraor- 
dinary and fantastic forms. Ac- 
cording to Amettler, a celebrated 


Boute 136a.. — Monastery ofMontserrat Sect. VIII. 

nierable lovely shrubs, box, alitemns, 
lanrestinus, filararoca, lentisch, euphor- 
bia, and flowering heath, all ever- 
greens, which, according to the old 
Bpanidi tradition, are permitted to 
bear their leaves all the year roiuid, 
because they sheltered the weariness 
of the Virgin Mary and the Holy 
Child during their flight into Egypt. 
Where these could not find foothold 
the sides of the rock are clothed with 
cascades of honeysuckle, smilex, and 
jessamine. High in the rugged crags 
remains of ruined hermitages seemed 
as if suspended over the face of the 
abyss, so utterly inaccessible that one 
would have thought the inmates could 
only have reached them by a miracle, 
and that it was quite impossible that 
ihe troops under Sucbet should have 
climbed up thither to rob or murder 
when they hunted the hermits like 
chamois along the cliffs.'* 

The monastery owes its founda- 
tion to the miraculous image of the 
Virgin, the handiwork of Luke the 
Apostle, which was brought to Bar- 
celona in the year of our Lord 60, 
by St. Peter. The legend is, that at 
the time of the Moorish invasion, in 717, 
the Goths hid it in the hill, where it 
remained until 880, when some shep- 
herds were attracted to the spot by 
heavenly lights, &c., whereupon Gon- 
demar, Bishop of Vique (guided also 
by a sweet smeU), found the image in a 
cave. Accompanied by his clergy, 
the good bishop set out on his retuni 
to Manresa carrying the holy image 
with him, but on reaching a certain 
spot the Virgin obstinately refused to 
proceed farther; thereupon a small 
chapel was built over her, where she 
remained 160 years. The spot where 
the image first refused to move is still 
marked by a cross with an appropriate 
inscription. A nunnery was after- 
wards founded which (in 976) was 
converted into a Benedictine convent, 
it contained 900 monks, and was blown 
up by the French. The modem con- 
vent is like a factory. The church is 
in course of restoration. A chapel 
where the image now rests was founded 
in 1592, and opened by Philip II. on 
the nth July, 1699. The convent 

itself was suppressed in 1835, but a 
certain number of the holy fathers 
were allowed to remain. TheirnumLer 
at the present time is 19. 

There is a school attached to the 
monastery, the Esoolaisia, where a 
number of youths are taught music, 
their singing of the Salve on Saturdays 
is most impressive. 

After youi- arrival at the monastery, 
visit its church, with the sacristy, and 
the Camarin (or wardrobe) of the 
Virgin, now full of trumpery. The 
image of the Virgin behind the altar 
is shown to visitors at certain houis : 
it is black, and carved out of wood. 
The retablo of the ch. was carved by 
Esteban Jordan ; the magnificent r^a 
was a masterpiece of Cristobal de Sala- 
manca, 1578.* On this site (see the 
mural inscription) St. Ignacio Loyola 
watched before the Virgin (1522) pre- 
vious to dedicating himself to her 6B 
her knight, and prior to his founding 
his order of Jesuits. He laid Lis 
sword on her altar, which is now pre- 
served in El Belem at Barcelona. 

2nd day. Bise early and make the 
ascent of the mountain, 3 hrs. Sen 
Geronimo, guide, with horse or mule, 
18 rs. ; take luncheon with you. Mr. 
Hare says : " The view from the highest 
peak is surpassingly magnificent. The 
whole of Catalonia, tossed and riven into 
myriad fantastic forms of hill and clefti 
lies beneath, bounded only by the snowy 
ranges and the sea. So tremendons 
are the gorges into which you look 
down, that the eye can scarcely fathom 
their awful depths, and the birds 
descending into them vanish away in 
the distance. Two little rooms remain 
of the ruined hermitage; it would be 
hard to find a more heaven-inspiring 
place than this silent mountain-ped^ 
It contains a full-sized representation 
of Fray Juan Ouririy in marble, con- 
templating the cross, a work of great 
merit. The remains of the other he^ 
mitages may be visited, which formed 
a " via crucis," beginning at the he^ 
mitage of Santiago and ending with 
that of San Geronimo. These hermit- 

• For further details of what the place wtf 
before it was destroyed by the French, see 
' Local Guide,* sold on the spoi. 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy '.^j'w^^-i L'*^ 

Catalonia. Bts. 136b, 137. — Barcelona to Villaniieva, etc. 517 

ages are rather cottages than caves, 
now cmmbling into ruins and fast dis- 
appearing. The anchorite who once 
entered one never left it again alive ! 
There is a little hut at San Gtordnimo 
where the traveller can get a capital 
breakfast any time after Easter. 5 hrs. 
are necessary to make the tour of the 

3rd day. Take a precipitous .path 
which winds around the gorge beneath 
the convent to the cave where the 
image was concealed during the Moor- 
ish occupation, angels guiding the 
priests vrho bore it to a place of 
safety. The chapel, or cave, is 
perched on the edge of the ravine; 
behind it there is a pretty Grothic 
cloister with a well. There are a 
thousand subjects for the pencil, the 
nigged pathways with their stone 
crosses, the ancient evergreen shrubs, 
combining at every step into better 
combmatiou with the delicate pinks 
and blues of the mountain distance. 
The air is the purest and most reviving, 
and even in January the air is not 
colder than in the valleys, and on the 
higher terraces almost too hot. 

Before returning to Barcelona the 
traveller may visit the fine caves of 
Gollbat(5; all necessary information 
and gvides can be obtained at Mont- 

The f§te of the Virgin takes place 
I on the 8th of September, on which 
occasion trains in connection with 
omnibuses run continually between 
Barcelona and the sacred shrine. Not 
less than 100,000 persons visit Mont- 
serrat yearly. 

ROUTE 136b. 


The station is on the port at the 
foot of Montjuich. 2 trains daily. 
This coast-road is picturesque, and is 
an agreeable excursion from Bar 

The line after leaving Barcelona 
crosses the river Llobregat, leaving on 
the right the villages of Sans, Hosta- 
franohf, and Hotpitalet. The lunatio 
asylum of Llobregat is seen in the 

Prat de Llobregat Stat. 

Vila de Cans Stat. 

Cattail de Fill Stat. 

Shortly after leaving Castell de Fill 
the tunnel of La Falconera is reached, 
it is 700 m. long ; the country here is 
very beautiful — a fine stone bridge 
crosses the Sierra de Yallearca. 
Twelve tunnels of different sizes are 
passed in this section: obs. the ruins 
of the Castle of Oarat The road is in 
parts as fine as the Comiche. 

Sitges Stat. The wines of this 
locality are excellent, especially the 
Malvoisy. The women of Sitget aie 
the most beautiful in Catalonia. 

Villanueva Sttit., Pop. 13.592, a 
tidy and thriving commercial town, 
well provided with good casinos and 

Railway in construction to Vails. 

ROUTE 137. 




Two Btes. to Gerona : 1st by Arenys, 
123^ m. ; 2nd by GranoUers, 118ji m. 

For the stations from Perpignan to 
Banvuls-s.-mer and Cerbere, where the 
train from Spain joins the French line, 
see "Guide de Chaix." The trains 
from France stop at Port Bou. The 
frontier is situated between Port Bou 
and Cerbere. 

Perpignan. — Inns : Hotel Bosc, 
rooms fair, but destitute of all 
decent sanitary acconunodation ; H. de 
I'Europe ; H. Petit Paris, good. Pop. 

Visit the Cathedral (founded 1324 
by Sancho II., King of Majorca), 
within consistipg of a single broa4 


Boute 137. — Perpignan to Barcelona. Sect. 'VIII. 

nave ; and the Citadel, separated from 
the town by a wide glacns. From it 
there is a magnificent view over the 
vine-festooned plain of Bonssillon. 
(For further particulars, see Murray's 
Handbook for France, Ete. 94.) 

Two trains daily to Barcelona. 

Port Boa Stat. Spanish Custom 
House (Passports): change trains. 
Buffet — ^-hour's halt. The station is 
in a gully between 2 tunnels. 

1 m. Cnlera Stat France. 

4^ m. Llansft Stat. Pop. 2029. 

8 m. Vilajuiga Stat. Pop. 885. 

3 m. Parelada Stat Pop. 1563. 

4 m. Eigaeras Stat. — Inm : Fonda 
Dessaya ; Fonda del Comercio. Pop. 
12,267. Philip V. was married from 
the parish church. Its citadel, the 
Castillo de San Fernando, is one of 
the strongest fortresses in Europe. 
It has 9 proof magazines, and bomb- 
proof barrack accommodation for 
20,000 men and 600 horses. Cermifio 
was the military engineer who con- 
structed this admirably contrived 
system of defence. The view from 
this castle is superb. Permission to 
visit it is at once obtained (on appli- 
cation) from the Governor. A religious 
procession, called La Professo de la 
Tramontana, takes place on the last 
Monday in May and the two following 
days. The pilgrimage originated in 
1612, and takes its name from the 
north wind, which generally blows 
during the days devoted to the festival. 

Travellers for Junquera change 
3 m. VilamaUa Stat Pop. 360. 
IJ m. Tonyi Stat. 

1 m. San Miguel Stat. Notice its 
beautiful Bomanesque church and 

3 m. Camallera Stat. 

3^ m. San Jordi Stat 

l|m. FlossdStat Pop. 456. Here 
the road for La Bisbal and Palamos 
branches off. 

2i m. Bordils Stat. Pop. 822. 

2 m. Celrd Stat. Pop. 1724. 

5 m. Oerona Stat. 

11^ m. Oerona. — Inns : Fonda de 
Espaaa; Fonda de los Italianos— both 
}ir(> rqnally bad. The Fonda de 

Espa&a occupies a fine old house. 
Pop. 17,149. The city, which is pictu- 
resquely placed on the rapid river OlUl, 
is well-built and massive, and lies un- 
der the fortified Montjuich Hill. It is 
of triangular form, with streets narrow 
but clean, and has 3 plazas. Gerona 
is the capital of the province, and the 
see of a bishop. 

The Mercadal, a suburb parted off 
by the Ofla, is very ancient, indeed 
Gerona (Gerundd) is of the remotest 
antiquity : much of it was destroyed 
during tiie French siege and bombard- 
ment It bears for arms, or, the 4 
Catalan bars gules, and an escutcheon 
of waves azui*e. 

Gerona boasts that it was the first 
town in which Santiago (St. James) 
and St. Paul rested when they came 
to Spain ; which, by the way, neither 
did. It was taken in 785 by Charle- 
magne, when it was in possession of 
the Moors ; the latter re- took it again, 
and sacked it (796). It was soon re- 
covered by its "Counts,*' and afte^ ' 
wards — ^passing to Aragon — ^it gave ' 
the title of Prince to the King's eldest 
son. Of the Moorish period there re- i 
mains an elegant bath in the Capu- 
chin convent, a light paviHon rising 
from an octangular stylobate. 

The Cathedral * is a lar^e and hand- 
some ch. It was founded by Charle- 
magne in 786, pulled down, and re- 
built 1016, and reconsecrated 1038; 
in 1312 a chapter was held, at which it 
was resolved to rebuild the chevet of 
the ch. with 9 chapels, and the work 
was probably complete before 1346, 
for in that year the silver altar, with 
its retablo, &c., were placed where 
they now stand. In 1416 a dispute 
arose whether the bold plan of Guil- 
lermo Boffy should be adopted, to 
construct the nave of a single span 
vault equal in width to the choir 
and its side aisles. This proposition 
of his was deemed so hazardous, that 
the chapter refused their sanction 
until a junta of architects should 
have been summoned, and should have 

* Views, plans, and full descrlptioiis of the 
churches of Gerona are given in Street's ad- 
mirable work, p. 318, &cv^^^'^ 


Boute 137. — Gerona : Cathedral. 


been examined individually on oath 
as to the advisability of the scheme. 
A jniy of 12 was accordingly called, 
and they decided on the single vault 
plan. These deliberations evince the 
serious consideration with which the 
mighhr works of mediaeval days were 
reared. The first stone of the bell- 
tower was laid in 1581, and the west 
front, together with the superb flight 
of 86 steps leading up to it, were 
oommenced, 1607, by Bishop Zuazo. 
Before entering, look at the Puerta de 
los Aptfstolefl. The interior of the ch. 
is ex^emely grand. The clear width 
of the nave, unsupported by piers, is 73 
ft, and its height is admirably propor^ 
tioned to these enormous dimensions. 
It is probably the widest Gothic vault 
in Christendom. The silleria del Core 
still preserves some of the primitive 
seats carved in the 14th centy., although 
most of it was modernised in the 16th 
centy. Obs. in the presbytery or choir 
the episcopal throne raised aloft behind 
file isolated altar. The interesting 
retahlo is made of wood, covered with 
silver plates, and is surmounted by 
three processional crosses ; it is divided 
into niches and canopies, which con- 
tain subjects in relief fix)m the Life of 
our Lord and the B. V. The date of 
this monument and the Baldachin is 
from 1320-1348. The Baldachin is 
also made of wood covered with thin 
silver plates ; it is supported on shafts 
ornamented with enamelled coats of 
arms. Obs. also two interesting 
caskets, one Arab the other Gothic, 
which hold relics, on the high 
idtar. The frontal, which was 
similar in style although made of 
gold, was given to the cathedral by 
&e Countess Ermesindis, the second 
wife of Count Berenguer. It was 
unfortunately carried off by the French 
during the late war. Obs. the sepul- 
chres of Bamon Berenguer II. over 
the door of the Sacristy (Cap. de 
Egtopa\ and his wife Ermesendis, 
ob. 1058 ; of Bishop Anglesola ; and 
in the chapel of San Pablo that of 
Bernardo de Pau. Next visit the 
Cloister, which deserves a special men, 
tion. It was built in the 14th cenW., 
and forms an irregular trapezium with 

four unequal sides. Look at the 
beautiful and elaborate carved capitals 
similar to those at Yich and BipoU. 
In the Galilee and the Cementerio de 
lot Vegros are some very ancient 
lapidarv inscriptions. In the Sala 
Capitumr is the Archive and some 
objects of the highest artistic interest. 
In the Sacristry may be seen the 
church plate, among which observe 
three fine processional crosses of the 
15th and 16th cents., one of which 

Flam ov Gbboma Gathedsal. 

is made of enamelled gold. There is 
also a good painting by Munllo. A 
copy of the Apocalypse, finely illumi- 
nated, dated 974 ; look at it A Bible 
written in the 13th centy. by Bernard 
de Mutina ; it contains a memorandum 
written by Charles V. of France (1378). 
It was bought in Paris in the 15th 
centy. by a Bishop of Gerona. In 
some of the capital letters Arabic 
inscriptions occur, *Qtod isour refuge* — 
J Aj^ ftJJ\— often repeated. Ask to 

Ljiyii!/_eu u'y >^_.'w.^-t t'*^ 


Boute 1S7. — Oerona: Churches, 

Sect. VIIL 

see a most remarkable piece of em- 
broidery, worked in crewels as early as 
the 12th centy., covered with figures 
and inscriptions similar to those used 
in Spanish MSS. of that period. This 
embroidery has been cleaned and pre- 
served, thanks to exertions of the 
dean of the cathedral, Sr. Se^ales. 
Ascend the square belfry, from whence 
the panoramic view is beautiful. 

The Chnroh of San Pedro de los 
Gkdligans is a fine Romanesque build- 
ing with a lofty octagonal steeple; 
the apse of the church forms a 
tower in the town wall. It is 
probably of 10th-century construc- 
tion, and consists of nave and rude 
aisles of four bays, the piers being 
plain and square. The east end is 
partly built of stone, partly of black 
volcanic scoriae, which is evidence of 
an extremely early date, in fact, this 
ch. is probably one of the earliest ex- 
amples of the Italian Bomanesque to 
be met with in Spain. In the Cloisters 
of this church may be seen the Museo 
Provincial. Obs. the interesting Roman 
and Christian sepulchres. It contains 
also fragments of architecture and 
Roman sculpture of the middle ages 
and some indifferent paintings. 

The Ck)llegiat6 Church of San Felin, 
to the W. of the Cathedral, is ap- 
proached by a staircase placed between 
the bases of two polygonal towers, one 
of which remains un&iished. In this 
ch. the Christian rites were performed 
during the time (8th century; that the 
Moors converted the Cathedral into a 
mosque. Its beautiful truncated spire 
forms a prominent object in almost 
all the views obtained of the city. From 
the earliest times this ch. was half a 
fortress. Embedded in the wall on 
each side of the presbytery may be 
seen 8 interesting sarcophagi, two of 
them Roman, which represent the 
Rape of Proserpine to the rt., to the 1. 
a Bon-hunt. The remaining 6 are 
Christian, and belong to the 4th or 5th 
century. They represent Susanna and 
the Elders, subjects from the life of 
Christ, Moses, Daniel, Abraham, gen- 
erally to be seen in these monuments. 
One of these sarcophagi, painted and 
^It, is over the high altar of the 

church, and contains the body of the 

Also notice the windows of the 
Fonda de Espaila. They are beautiful 
examples of 12th-century shafted work, 
and the capitals are well carved with 
men and animals. 

There are several interesting old 
houses in the Plasa de las Coles and 
the Plaaa opposite the Cathedral. The 
fa9ade of the archbishop's palace is 
picturesque. Walk round the town 
from there ; the views are fine. 

Gerona* in the War of the Succession, 
made a desperate resistance with 2000 
men against 9000 troops of Phihp V., ' 
who abolished its university and all 
its liberties. 

In June 1808, Gerona, garrisoned 
with 300 men of the Ulster regiment, 
under O'Daly, beat off Duhesme, El 
Cruel, with some 6000 men. He re- 
turned with fresh force in July, 
boasting that he would arrive on the 
24:th, attack on the 25 tl), take it on 
the 26 tb, and raze it on the 27th: 
but he was baffled and beaten off j 
again by that marine gadfly Lord ; 
Cochrane. Not daring to go near the I 
sea, Duhesme retreated, Aug, 16, by , 
the hUls, pursued by Caldagues, and 
lost his cannon, baggage, and reputa- 

Gerona was again besieged in May, 
1809, by the French with 35,000 men, 
under Verdier, St. Cyr, and Augereau. 
The governor Mariano Alvarez, left in 
want of everything, even of ammuni- 
tion, was brave and skilful, and well 
seconded by some English volunteers 
under the gallant Col. Marshall, who 
took the lead and was killed in the 
breaches : Pearson, Nash, and Candy 
also distinguished themselves. The 
women of Gerona also enrolled them- 
selves into a company, dedicated to 
Santa Barbara, the patroness of 
Spanish artillery. The enemy bom- 
barded the city — ^the resistance was 
most dogged — general after general 
failed, and the siege became so unpop- 
ular that Lechi, Verdier, and otnen 
took French leave. At last famine 
and disease effected what force of arms 
could not. Alvarez became delirious, 
and with him Geronp, fell, December 

Catalonia. JRoute 137. — Gerona to Barcelona dc Empalme. 521 

12, 1809 ; for Samaniego, his successor, 
forthwith capitulated. The defence 
lasted 7 mouths and 5 days, against 7 
open breaches. The French expended 
60,000 balls and 20,000 bombs, and 
lost more than 15,000 men.- 

Fomells Stat. Pop. 

Bindellott Stat. Pop. 814. 

Caldas Stat. Formerly the site of 
Boman baths. Pop. 1844. 

SUs- Stat. Pop. 1083. 


There is a railway in construction 
from Gerona to Olot. 

From Gerona 2 lines of rly. lead to 
Barcelona ; the lines branch at the 

17 m. Empalme Jimction Stat. 
The first (A), along the sea-coast, is 
the preferable route. The latter por- 
tion of this rly., viz. the 15 m. from 
Mataro to Barcelona, was the first 
railroad ever laid down in Spain. 

A. C^tast line, — Oerona to Bareelona. 

The ravine of the Tordera is seen rt. 

6J m. Tordera Stat. Pop. 2928. 

^ m. Blanes Stat. Pop. 5395. The 
rly. now crosses the Tordera over a 
handsome iron bridge. 

6^ m. Catena Stat. Pop. 3367. 

2ym. San Pol de Mar Stat. Pop. 
HIO. An iron bridge crosses the 
river San Pol. 

3^m. Cane Stat. A little pictu- 
resque port. Pop. 3346. 

^m. Arenys de Mar Stat. Pop. 
4598. Tliis is a picturesque little city 
at the foot of the Arenys de Mnnt. It 
has dockyards ; linen, lace, and soap 
inanufactories ; and also an excellent 
training school for youths intended 
for the mercantile marine service. It 
is under the direction of the Barcelona 
Chamber of Commerce. Good bathing 
in the summer. 

On leaving Arenys the newly esta- 
blished mineral baths — BaiLos de Tito 
"Tare seen to the rt. They are con- 
sidered most efficacious in skin and 
rheumatic disorders. 

^ m. Caldetas Stat. Obs. to rt. the 
mned Castle of Booa^erti. There are 

also valuable mineral springs here. A 
fine stone bridge now crosses the river 
Llevaneras, and the ancient castle of 
Vofre Amau rises to the rt. 

4J m. Matard Stat. Inn: Parador 
Nuevo. Pop. 16,816. This is a busy 
prosperous manufactuiing town, with 
wide streets and elegantly furnished 
houses, many of which are painted 
with pretty alfresco designs. The 
Parish Chnrch contains some good 
paintings by Viladomat and Montafla. 
Obs. also its silleria del coro. 

Outside the town are the carbonated 
mineral springs of Argentoxia, recom- 
mended in nervous and urinary dis- 

3i m. Vilasar Stat. Notice the 
Moorish watch-towers in the imme- 
diate vicinity,' and also the castle 
of Vilasar, which is in excellent pre- 
servation. The neighbourhood fur- 
nishes strawberries and other fruits to 
the Barcelona markets. 

2i m. Premift Stat. Pop. 1700. 

2J m. Masnou Stat. Pop. 4680. 
Here is a fine Church, with elegant 

2 m. Mongat Stat. Obs. the castle 
(of same name) upon a height. It 
was heroically defended against the 
French in 1808, and all its. little 
garrison put to the sword. 

There are important glass works in 
this thriving manufacturing town. 

1^ m. Badalona Stat. Pop. 13,742. 
This is a very ancient town, anterior 
to Barcelona. It is situated upon the 
river Nesos, and is surrounded by 

4f Barcelona Stat. Omnibus to the 
city 1 r. ; for every trunk, &c., 1 r. 
Family omnibuses 8 r. for 2, and 12 r. 
for four persons. (Ete. 136.) 

B. Inland Kna.—Bmpalme to Barce- 

Quitting the Empalme, or Junct. 
Stat., the rly. crosses the torrent of 
Santa Colona. 

3 m. Hostalrioh Stat. Pop. 1475. 
This is a very picturesque old town, 
with walls and towers little injured 
either by time or the invader, It 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.'w.^^-t i'*^. 


Boute 137. — Empalme to Barcelona, Sect. YIII. 

stands on the Tordera in a fertile 
valley shaded by cork oaks. This 
fortress and its lofty Citadel played 
an important part in the Civil War of 
Catalonia, 1461, and again in 1649 in 
the War of the Succession. It was 
bombarded by the French, and was 
one of the last places which they 
abandoned, 1814. Some houses near 
the tnrreted ramparts are curiously 
lighted by windows opening in them. 

3} m. Breda Stat. Pop. 1480. The 
town is one mile from the station. 
Fair Posadas, that of Pons is the best. 
The earthenware made here is excel- 
lent. Notice the ruins of the ancient 
castle of Montoliu on a hill. Get out 
here for the excursion to Montseny. 

Travellers who wish to become 
further acquainted with the fine moun- 
tain vegetation and scenery of Catar 
lufia, are advised to visit Montseny. 
The ascent is easily made from Breda 
Stat. At the tidy Posada kept by 
Pons, guides and mules may be pro- 
cured. Juan Lloren is a safe and 
trustworthy guide. 

The highest point is the Tnro del 
Home, 2i m. from Santa 7e 6670 ft. 
above the sea-level; the views are 
splendid over the chain of the 
Pyrenees. A useful little guide of the 
excursion, printed in Spanish, Catalan, 
and French, can be foimd at Breda. 

3 m. Oualba Stat. Pop. 638. 

2 m. San Celoni Stat. Pop. 2420. 
Scenery very picturesque. Here the 
Knights Templars had an encamp- 

2J m. Palan Stat. Pop. 664, situated 
in a fertile and beautiful valley. 

3i m. Llinas Stat. Pop. 1163. 

2i m. Cardeden Stat. Pop. 1482, 
After passing through a tunnel, the 
rly. now enters the lovely valley of 
Congost. The landscape is dotted with 

3J m. Granollers Junct. Stat. 
Change here for Vich, KipoU and San 
Juan de las Abadesas. Pop. 5557. 
Capital of the Valles. This is a busy 
little manufacturing town. It has an 
Interesting ch. of 14-centniy construc- 
tion. Especially observe six very 
remarkable paintings on panel, repre- 
senting episodes from the life of St, 

Stephen ; they have been exhibited at 
the Exhibition of Eetrospective Art, 
held at Barcelona, and published in 
the Album issued by the exhibitors. 
Some traces of an earlier ch. remain in 
the round-arched western door. Near 
are the sources of several mineral 
springs. Visit in the environs ttie 
ruins of the Castle of la Boca; the 
ch. of San Felin de Canovellas, in the 
B;^zantine style ; the sanctuaiy of San 
Migael del' Fay ; and also notice the 
Monte de Monseny. Conveyances to 
Puigcerda. (Rtes. 138, 139, and 140!) 

After leaving Granollers ^e railway 
passes through an iron tubular bridge. 

4i m. Montmelo Stat. Pop. 540. 
Another tubular bridge carries the 
line over the Parets. 

^ m. San Yioente de Mollet Stat 
[From this stat. there is a branch line 
to the baths of Caldas de Monbny. 
There are 10 thermal establisdunentB. 
Board, lodging, and bath, 25 r. per 
da^. Pleasant promenades in tiie 

Another iron oridge is now crossed' 
which spans the Siera de Caldaa, after 
which a second bridge carries the lino 
over the Siera Seca. To the rt. opens 
the vast plain of Valles. Another 
bridge over the Sipollet. 

3i m. Monoada Stat. Pop. 1397. 
Obs. the ruins of an ancient castle. 

3 m. Santa Coloma de Oramanet 
Pop. 1584. The scenery around ii 
very fine, and the beautiful monntain 
range to rt adds much to the general 

i m. San Andres de Palomar Stat 
Pop. 14,265. Situated at the junction 
of the two lines of rail — ^to Gerona and 
Zaragoza. A busy manufacturing and 
commercial neighbourhood. 

i m. Horta Stat. Pop. 3313. The 
wooded hills around are dotted with 

1 J m. Clot Stat. The population of 
this district is busily employed in vari- 
ous manufacturing industries. Many 
large establishments are to be seen on 
either hand. 

2 m. Barcelona Stat. Omnibusei 
and cabs to the city. (See Bte. 196.) 

Digitized by VjOOQI-^ 

GataloBia. Bis. 138, 139. — Barcelona to Urgel and San Juan. 623 

Soler. This diBtriot has always been 
the heart and centre of Catalan out- 
breaks and pronuneiamientos. 
The charming ride continues up the 

ROUTE J 38. 


OR BY tIrbaga and PONS. (See 
Route 143.) 129Jm. 

Barcelona. See Rte. 136. 
The rly. must be taken as far as 
391 m. Hanresa. Pop. 16,451. (Bte. 
143.) From Manresa diligences go 

1 daily to Cardona. From hence the 
road ascends the Valley of Cardona 

I to 

14^ m. Suria. Pop. 1774. The 

route, still ascending by a zigzag 
< path, reaches 

, 10§ m. Cardona. Pop. 4352. (Rte. 
i 143). A fine bridge of 7 arches spans 
:j the Bio Cardona, and a mule-track suc- 
ceeds. Here horses or mules must be 

lOJ m. Solsona. Pop. 2360. This 

ancient city (the Setelix of the 

i Romans) was made a bishopric by 

Philip n. in 1593. Its Gothic ch., 

, consisting of one nave, is very ancient. 

lOJ m. Oliana. Pop. 1024. The 
portal of its ancient church is com- 
posed of two fine Doric columns, each 
carved out of a solid piece of stone. 

Hence the defile el Paso de los tres 
Puentes is entered ; the road continues 
through a gorge unsurpassed in gran- 
deur by any in the Alps, to 

13J m. OrgaHa (Pop. 1012), and 
hence to 

16^ m. La Beu de Urgel. The 
Posada will furnish a clean bed. Pop. 
2082. This most ancient /Seo or bishop- 
ric (founded in 820) lies below the 
Pyrenean spur, between the beautiful 
rivers Yalira and Segre, the former of 
which flows down the Swiss-like valley 
of Andorra, through the little territory 
of which the Bishop of Urgel is en- 
titled the sovereign prince. (Andorra 
is described in Bte. 142.) The gloomy 
old town of Urgel is commanded by 
the citadel which crowns Las Horoas 
(the "Gallows Hill"). The plains 
below — ^the granary of Catalonia — are 
irrigated by a canal planned by Juan 

Oarganta, a gorge enclosed between 
the S.W. tail of the Canigli Alp, gene- 
rally called El Corregimiento de Fnig- 
oerdi. The hamlet of Pnente de Yar 
is passed at a distance, and then the 
village of Martinet. The tract con- 
tinues to 

^ m. Bellver. Pop. 1919. This 
beautiful Swiss-like village (the Ptdcher 
Visus of the ancients) is built on the 
scarped hill which rises above the 
Segre. Obs. its old ruined castle, and 
its collegiate. 

From Bellver there are two carriage- 
roads to Puigcerdd; the one winds 
along the 1. £«ink of the Segre, pass- 
ing ttirough the hamlets of Pratz, Das, 
and Alp, the other traverses the rt. 
bank of the stream, passing through 
the defile of Isobol, and the village of 
Bolvir, to 

9}m. Pnigoerda. Pop. 2293. Fonda 
Nueva fair. This chief town of 
Spanish Cerdafla is built in a valley 
where the Banr and Arabo unite with 
the Segre. It has a Colegiata and a 
fronted paseo. In the Plaza is a 
good statue of white marble of Cabri- 
netty. Being a frontier town, it has 
witnessed the horrors of border war- 
fare. Puigcerd^ may be made head- 
quarters by the angler and sportsman ; 
tiie trout are fine, and the shooting in 
the adjoining forests of the Cabra 
Montaraz, or Bouquetin, is excellent. 

BOUTE 139. 


For the first part of the route, as far 
as GranoUers, a stat. on the Barcelona 
and Perpignan Bly., see Bte. 137. 

18 m. Granollers Junot. Stat. See 
Bte. 137. Change for 3an Juan de las 
Abadesas. * 

524 Eie. 139. — Barcelona to San Juan de las Ahadesas. Sect. YIII. 

4f m. La Oarriffa Stat. Pop. 1569. 

6| m. San Martin Stat. 

9| m. Centellas Stat. Pop. 1964. 
An interesting old town with remains 
of the fine Castle of the Count of Cen- 
teUas. This picturesque hamlet, placed 
amongst wild mountainous scenery, 
has a fine ch. built in the Corinthian 

3i m. Ballengi Stat. 

6i m. Vioh Stat. Pop. 13,055. 
Inn: Fonda de la Plaza. This ancient 
town has a fine Cathedral with 3 naves, 
the cloisters of which date from the 
14th centy. : it has been restored. 
The great philosopher Balmes is buried 
in the centre of the Cathedral. The 
present promenade forms a part of the 
open space which divides the new 
from the old quarter of the city. The 
houses in the Plaza Mayor are pic- 
turesque. There is a fine painting on 
panel at the Town Hall. At the 
Circulo Literario there is a good 
library, and some art objects exhibited 
by the members. 

Leaving Vich, the valley of the Ter 
is ascended. The river is crossed by 
an iron bridge. Obs., near Gurb, the 
ruins of an ancient castle. 

5^ m. Manlleu Stat. Pop. 5305. 

4f m. Torrelld Stat. Pop. 2836. 

4f m. Ban Qniriod Stat. Pop. 1986. 

7i m. Ripoll Stat. Pop. 2704. This 
picturesque town (the Rivis Pollens of 
the ancients) is placed at the juncture 
of the rivers Fresser and Ter. Its 
valley is charming: the Ter in its 
course to Vioh flows, near Boda and 
Amer, through some narrow and very 
picturesque rocks. RipoU was nearly 
destroyed during the civil wars. Its 
magnificent castle was built by 
Abbot Oliva in the 10th centy. ; here 
rest the remains of Wilfred el VeUoso, 
Borrel II., and Ramon de Beren- 
guer, former lordfi of RipoU. Obs. its 
curious cloister, especially the Roman- 
esque capitals covered with sculptured 
figures of the highest interest, superior 
to those at Tarragona and Gerona. The 
doorway of this ch. is Romanic and 
must be observed. It contains most 
curious reliefs — the months of the 
year, battles, lives of saints. The tran- 

sept and the 7 apses must be looked at. 
This is the earliest part of the church, 
12th centy., and of a very uncommon 
style. This church, which had been 
much injured at the beginning of the 
present century, is in course of restora- 

Omnibuses all the year round over 
a good road to Bibas. 

[Near this town is the volcanic hill 
Montsaoopa, which the geologist should 
visit. Craters also exist on the Honte 
Olivet, on the Pnig de la Oarrixiada, 
to the N.E., near BoBoh de Tosoa, and 
at Santa Margarita de la Cot.] 

61 m. San Juan de las Aliadessa 
Stat. Pop. 2220. Several interesting 
churches of the middle ages may be 
visited here. The most remarkable 
is San Juan, founded by Wilfred el 
Velloso, 864-898. A fine enamelled 
cross exibts of this period, in which 
Christ is represented in the dress of 
a Byzantine emperor. In the sacristy 
other interesting crosses may be seen. 
Some fine altar frontals, photographs 
of which may be seen at the book- 
sellers — Verdaguer, Rainbla, Barce- 
lona: obs. one, called de las Brujat^ 
of the 11th centy., on account of the 
strange figures it represents, in the 
Camarin over the high altar, badly 
restored in the last centy., which 
represents the crucifixion of our Lord. 
It is the most ancient wooden sculp- 
ture in Spain. The head of Christ, 
which opens with a silver padlock, 
contains relics. The church, although 
not the primitive one, is Romanesque 
in style. The Parish Church is fuso 
Romanesque — the cloister is of a 
later Gothic, and similar in style to 
Santa Ana of Barcelona. 

Obs. the pleasant Plaza, surrounded 
by porticos, its pretty fountain, &c. In 
the neighbourhood is a considerable 

Omnibuses from San Juan daily to 
Camprodon (6 m.), railway in con- 

Camprodon. Pop. 1172. The town 
is built on the 1. bank of the river 
Riotort, and it has also a good Roman- 
esque church. 

X m. from Camprodon there is » 

Catalonia. Bis, 140, 142. — Barcelona to Toulouse and Ax. 525 

Romanesque convent with a cupola] at 11 a.m.; lunch there. Diligences 
and an interesting 15th-cent. ch. corresponding "with all trains arrive at 

Boads conduct &om Camprodon into Tarasoon ; take the train at 2 p.m., 

Fiance. Road in construction to Olot : 
at present the journey must he per- 
formed on horseback. 

ROUTE 140. 


This is the most direct route from 
Barcelona to Toulouse; it can easily 
be performed in 3 days, even by ladies ; 
nearly all by carriage, except between 
PlanoUet and las Molinas, 17 Eng. 
miles, easily done in 4| hours or less. 
It passes through some of the most 
splendid scenery in the oriental 

Utday. Barcelona to Ripoll Stat. (See 
Bte. 139) by rail, by early train. Gran- 
ollers to San Juan de las Abadesas, 
opened 1880. Consult *Indicador.' 
BipoU to the Baths of Bibas, 8 m. 
Diligence daily. Accommodation may 
be had at one of the bathing establish- 
ments, but the traveller bound for 
Puigcerdi will do better to pay the 
mayoral of the diligence 3 or 4 pesetas 
more and proceed to the town of (2 m.) 
Bibas. Fonda San Antonio, comfort- 
able for a Spanish mountain inn. 
Order horses to Planolles for the next 
day*8 journey, secure a two-wheeled 
trap (tartand) to Planolles, and send a 
messenger over to Puigcerda to have a 
carriage ready the other side of the 
mountam at las Molinas. The people 
Me reliable in this part of Spain, and 
execute orders with great punctuality. 
2nd day. Leave Ribas at 6 a.m. 
with the tartana for (3 m.) Planolles. 
^ood riders may leave Ribas on horse- 
back, saving the expense of the tar- 
^aoa. Bide to Tosas, lunch there, and 
proceed to (17 m.) las Molinas, where 
the carriage ordered from Puigcerda 
awaits you, drive to (10 m.) Puigcerda. 
Inn good. (Rte. 138.) 

3id day. Leave Piiig06rd& at 3 a.m. 
"-carriage about 80 ps.— arrive at Az 

and arrive at 6 p.m. at 

Toulouse. — See 

Handbook of 

ROUTE 142. 


Excursion No. 1. 

For Barcelona to Urgel see Rte. 138. 

The wild mountain - path leaves 
Urgel in a N. direction, entering the 
pleasant valley of Yalira Anserall, 
and crossing the Rio de Yalira by a 
rustic bridge. The custom-house is 

San Julian de loria. 

This is one of the six communes con- 
stituting the federation of Andoria, 
and was formerly the capital of the 
republic. The road continues along 
the rt. bank of the mountain stream 
to Santa Colonna (Pop. 110), and 
thence to 

Andorra. — Inn: Hostel de Calonnes, 
intolerable. Pop. 860. This quaint 
capital of a singular republic is built on 
the banks of the Rio Valira, It has 
few ancient monuments. The rude 
native is half smuggler, half smith, 
looking when grimed by smoke and 
busy at his forge like a devil in Pai-a- 
dise. There is scarcely any public 
instruction ; not even a primary school 
exists in the valley. Trade is con- 
fined to the manufacture of coarse 
cutlery, cloth and linen. The most 
important building is the Casa de 
villa, where the council-general holds 
its sessions, where also the syndics 
lodge, and sometimes the consuls and 
the councillors. It is a house of very 
modest appearance, situated at one 
end of the town, in a position natu- 
rally fortified. A dilapidated stair- 
case leads to the council chamber, a 
vast hall with an imposing aspect, 
surrounded with oak benches. Obs. 
the tableau representing Chiist. The 


Boute 142. — Andorra — Ax, 

Sect. VIII. 

archives are kept in an armoury secured 
with six locks: they are considered 
sacred, and no stranger can see 

The republic of Andorra has no 
written laws ; no functionary or magis- 
trate receives any fixed emolmnent, 
the expenses of the government being 
defrayed from dues levied from those 
who pasture their flocks on communal 
ground. The armed force consists of 
600 men, one from each family, being 
a tenth part of the population of the 
valley ; when necessary, however, all 
the available population may be called 
to arms. To the rt. of the town are 
the heights, and the old Moorish 
castle of Carol, a name derived from 

The valley of Andorra is a neutral 
territory, bearing the title of a re- 
public. Situated to the S. of the 
French department of the Ariege, it is 
surrounded on the three other sides 
by the province of Lerida. The pas- 
toral and picturesque valley covers an 
area of ground 28 m. long by 20 m. 
broad. It is watered by the rivers 
Valira, Ordino, and Os, and is one of 
the wildest districts of the Spanish 
Pyrenees ; its timber is floated down 
the Balira and Segre to Tortosa for 
exportation. The name Andorra is 
derived from the Arabic Aldarray **a 
place thick with trees." Here is found 
the Gahra Montesa, with bears, boars, 
and wolves. This valley, ceded in 
819 by Louis le Debonnaire to the 
Bishop Sisebuto, has maintained a 
sort of primitive independence midway 
between France and Spain. Geogra- 
phically considered, it ought to belong 
enturely to Spain, being on the Spanish 
side of the watershed. Two Veguiers, 
one appointed by France, the other by 
the Bishop of Urgel, are in fact the 
joint Presidents of the Republic. The 
internal government is carried on by 3 
syndics and a council. 

Leaving Andorra, Esoaldas is next 
reached. It is a picturesque hamlet, 
with a fine trout-stream which sup- 
plies water-power to the rude iron- 
forges. Its sulphurous mineral waters 
are held in much repute. At Mont 

Melons are three lakes, enclosed by 
lo^ and fantastic walls of rock. 

From Escaldas proceed up the valley 
of Embalire to Camillo (or more cir- 
cuitously by the Val de Arensal, which 
is entered by a beautiful gorge) : then 
hj a narrow defile to Urdino. A broken 
ndge separates it &om Camillo, where 
is a curious old church. 

In about 1 hr. the traveller arrives 
at the hamlet of Salden: thence de- 
scending by a difficult road, the rooks 
of Avignole and PoursaiUe rise in front 
Here the Ariege finds its source. Now 
crossing the frontier by the Pont de 
Gerda, the hamlet of 

Hospitalet<Pop. 131) is reached. A 
carriage road connects Hospitalet with 
Merens (Pop. 703), from whence Ax 
can be easUy reached. (The wlioU 
distance may he traversed between 
Urgel and Az in 17J hours^ viz, frm 
Urgel to Andorra m 4 hrs, 20 min.,and 
from Andorra to Axin 13 hrs, 10 min.) 

. Az. Inns : Hotel Sicre, good; ; 
Hotel Boyer, comfortable and reason- 
able. This prettily situated town, of 
1640 Inhab., is a kettle of boiMng 
waters ; more than 30 springs bubble 
up in different parts of the town, vary- 
ing in temperature from 160° to 190° 
of Fahr. ; thev are the hottest in the 
Pyrenees. A hospital has been erected 
by Government for military patients; 
near to it is an ancient batii, esta- 
blished in the year 1200 a.d., for the 
use of lepers ; it is still called Bassiii 
des ladres (Lepers' Basin). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Boute 143. — Barcelona to Lerida* 


ROUTE 143. 

[OABDONA salt-mine]. 

112f m. 

Two trains daily, in 7 hrs. 

This Mly. opens the readiest way to 
viiit Xontserrat. 

From Barcelona the traveller should 
secure the l.-hand side of the carriage : 
the rly. returns along the line of rail 
for G^mui as far as 

6| m. Monoada Stat. Pop. 1397. 
It then passes over a stone bridge and 
trayerses a beautiful and richly culti- 
vated plain to 

2i m. SerdaSola Stat. Pop. 712. 
Here the wonderful serrated ridge of 
Montserrat comes into view to the 1. 
Obs., between this and the next stat., 
a house with a tower : it has a very 
good round-arched ajimez window. 

5 m. Sabadell Stat. Pop. 18,248. 
The cotton and worsted mills, paper 
manu&ctories, tanneries, and distil- 
leries, give this place the appearance 
of a Yorkshire or Lancashire town. 
The situation is very fine. The 
fectory owners are most liberal. The 
head hands are sent for instruction to 
England. Men's wages 21^. per week. 
Girls, 18«. In 1877, 13J miUions of 
francs of goods were sent into Spain. 
Workmen's balls are given in this and 
other factory districts of OataluM on 
Sundays and Thursdays. 

To the 1. is the village of Creu Alta, 
and the beautlM valley of Paraiso, 
with its ruined castle, which once be- 
longed to the Caballeros de Egara. 

6i m. Tarrasa Stat. Pop. 11,045. 
Between the station and the town is 
au interesting group of three Romanic 

churches— San Pedro, San Miguel, and 
a baptistery. In San Pedro may be 
seen an altar on which are engraved the 
names of the bishops who assisted at 
the Egarense Council, celebrated here. 
Obs. two iron candlesticks of the 14th 
centy. Li tiie baptistery Roman 
columns have been made use of in 
buildmg the churdi. This is a cloth- 
making district. Seven tunnels are 
passed through, and the rivers Llo- 
bregat and Cardona are crossed. 

Ylladeoaballs Stat. 

5 m. Otesa Stat. Pop. 2648. f This 
is the stat. for the celebrated mineral 
springs of La Puda, 2 m. distant. 
Omnibus meets each train, 5 r. each 

La Puda. Inn : El Establecimiento ; 
it will accommodate 360 guests and 
is comfortable and reasonable in its 
charges — 24 to 30 r. per day. The 
sulphurous and saline waters of Puda 
are highly recommended in cases of 
consumption, bronchitis, asthma, &c. 
The season commences in the middle 
of June and ends in September.] 

After leaving Olesa the rly. crosses* 
the Buxadell : it then traverses a wild 
and secluded valley clothed with the 
evergreen verdure of oaks, pines, and 
olive-trees. A series of short tunnels 
are then passed, and a magnificent 
view is again obtained, to L, of the stu- 
pendous ridge of the Monserrat, with 
its monastery and gardens overhanging 
the ravine, through which flows the 
river Llobi-egat. 

6i m. Monistrol Stat. Pop. 2229. 
The town lies nearly 2 m. from th© 
stat., on the road to Montserrat and to 
the ravine of Llobregat. Omnibuses 
to and from the monastery of Mon- 
serrat (8 r.) meet all the trains. Inn : 
Posada de Ignaoio de Loyola; two 
comfortable bedrooms. Steam tram- 
way to Berga in construction. 

The mountain of Montserrat is de- 
scribed in Rte. 1S6a. A railway 
planned to ascend. 

3^ m. San Yioente de Castellet 
Stat. Pop. 1782. Iron bridge over 
the Llobregat. Railway in construc- 
tion to Martorell. 

5} m. Manresa Stat. (Buffet.) Pop. 



Boute 143. — Manresa, Cardona. Sect. VIII. 

16,451. A most picturesque city (the 
Boman Munorisa and capital of the 
Jacetani), busily engaged in the manu- 
facture of cloth, cotton goods, and 
spirits. Its grand Collegiate Church, 
La Seo, is built of yellow greystone 
perched on the summit of the dark 
rocks, broken into a thousand pictu- 
resque hollows, which are filled with 
gaidens ; deep down flows the Llobre- 

fat, crossed by its tall bridge, ending 
y a richly carved stone cross on a 
high pedestal. The Seo deserves 
the attention of the tourist, from 
the magnificent scale of the plan. 
A fragment of the old ch., consecrated 
1020, still remains on N. side ; the ex- 
isting ch. was, however, probably com- 
menced about the year 1328, but not 
completed until early in the 15th centy. 
Its plan is remarkable as giving the 
widest span of nave which is to be found 
in a church* with aisles and a clere- 
story. Obs. an altar-frontal, which is 
a most beautiful specimen of em- 
broidery : it is 10 ft. long by 2ft. 10 in. 
in height, and the work (all done on 
fine linen doubled) illustrates the Cru- 
cifixion and 18 other subjects drawn 
from the Old and New Testaments. It 
bears the inscription in Lombardic 
capitals *^Geri : Lapi: Rachamat: ore : 
Me fecit: In Florentia.'* The exterior 
of the Coro is divided by Gothic niches 
and coarsely painted with bishops and 
saints. The font is very elegant. Obs. 
the usual Saracens* heads under the 
organ, which repeat the Barcelona 
type ; also notice the tomb of Canon 
Molet, and that in the cloisters sculp- 
tured vyith the efifigy of a dying 

The Cueva de Ban Ignado should be 
visited, where Ignatius Loyola did pe- 
nance, and is said to have written his 
book. The cave is lined with marbles 
and poor sculpture by Cdrlos Grau; its 
portal was, however, left unfinished in 
consequence of the expulsion of the 
Jesuits from Spain. Obs., at the altar, 
the saint writing his book, and his 
first miracle, that of saving a boy's 

* This ch. and the embroidered frontal are 
fully described by Street, * Gothic Architecture 
of Spain,' p. 340. 

fowl from a well. ♦ His crucifix is also 
shown, from which blood is said to have 
streamed out. The view from the es- 
planade in front of the cave is magni- 
ficent, Thejagged outline of Montserrat 
rises in the distance, a vast precipitous 
mass witli grand pointed pinnacles, 
whilst at mid height is seen the Con- 
vent, from whence the Virgin smiled 
continually at the Jesuit saint as be 
wrote at his book, and did penance in 
his cave. 

[Tourists may visit from Manresa 
the Salt-Mlnes of Cardona (distant 24 
Eng. m. Omnibuses and carriages to 
the mines. The route from XaniMa 
runs through a wild country, where 
pine-trees are mingled with vines. 
Suria, an ancient-looking, unwhite- 
washed town (Pop. 1774), rises on a 
hill over the Cardona, whose stream 
and valley is passed through, mitil, 
ascending a stony rise, Cardona ap- 
pears, with its castle towers, long lines 
of fortifications, straggling houses, 
cypress gardens, and arched buildings. 
Here is a tolerable Posada. The cele- 
brated and inexhaustible mine lies 
below, to the 1., before reaching the 
bridge. N.B. An order, always grant- 
ed, is necesswy from the steward of 
the Duke of Medinaceli. The mine 
is an absolute mountain of salt, 
emerging in a jagged outline, nearly 
500 ft. high and a league in circum- 
ference; it differs from the mine at 
Minglanilla, as being on the surface; 
these are the aAes oovktoi mentioned 
by Strabo (iii. 219). The salt pinnacles 
shoot forth frota a brownish earth, like 
a quarry of marble dislocated by gun- 
powder. The colours of these saline 
glaciers vary extremely, and are bril- 
liant in proportion as the weather is 
clear. When the sun shines they look 
like stalactites turned upside down, 
and are quite prismatic, with rainhow 
tints of red and blue. There is a 
peculiar mixed colour, which is called 
arlequino. Visit the Fnrad Mioo, the 
Hole of the Squirrel, said to be a mile 
in depth. The miners make Uttle ar- 
ticles of this salt (as is done with the 

* For details, see * Among the Spanish Poor/ 
by Rev. H. 0. Rose. BenUey, 1811. 

Catalonia. Baute 143. — Bajadell — BeUpuig. 


fluor^Murs in Derbyshire) which never 
liquefy in the dry air of Spain.] 

Leaving Manresa, the country still 
ooDtinues froitful and picturesque. 
Cork-tiees, stone-pines, olives, and 
er^green oaks, clothe the sides of the 
i&yines and the lock-strewn plain. 

7} m.Bajad0U Stat Pop. 438. The 
riy. now traverses a beautiful valley 
planted with pines. Obs. ruins to rt. 
and I. perchea on neighbouring hills. 
The line passes throi^h 6 tunnels to 

7^ m. Calaf Stat. Pop. 1361 : town 
to &e rt. very picturesquely situated. 
Here the country becomes bare and 
desolate, but glimpses are obtained of 
scenes of wild beauty ; valleys clothed 
with evergreen pines and oaks; and 
plains of an intense ochre tint strewn 
with huge boulders of a pale green 

8 m. Sant Ouim Stat., for Igualada 
Pop. 518. Soon after leaving San 
(rmm, obs. to rt the ruined castle 
of Santa F^, and a little farther on 
the vilU^e of MoxifiEao6 Mnrallat 
which consists of 15 houses enclosed 
within huge walls entered by a single 

lOJ m. Cervera Stat Pop. 1746. 
Cervera is built on an eminence which 
descends towaids Barcelona. To this 
place Philip V., in 1717, transferred the 
university from Lerida (which has since 
been removed to Barcelona). The huge 
imsightly university buildings are now 
deserted and fast going to ruin. There 
are two churches, ana the Dominican 
Convent has a fine cloister. Here, 
ou the 5tii March, 1469, Ferdinand^ 
and Isabel were married. 

9 m. Tarrags Stat Pop. 3478. 
This little town with its ancient fort 
is built upon the banks of the Bio 

I Ceivera : it rises in the midst of the 
' Uuio de Urgel, a monotonous plain 
which continues to Bellpuig. Railway 
phumed to Igualada. Diligences leave 
Tinaga for Pons and the Seu de 

8 m. BeUpuig Stat Pop. 1712. A 
, small hamlet beautifully placed upon 
[.Spain, 1882.] 

the side of a gentle eminence which 
rises from the plain about ^ m. S. of 
the stat To the 1. it is crowned by 
the ruins of the solar or family man- 
sion of the noble house of the Angle- 
solas. Visit its oh., which contuns 
the superb tomb of Bamon de Gardona, 
Viceroy of Sicily: it was raised by 
his widow Isabel, in the year 1522. 
The sarcophagus, is placed within 
a deep recess, the external * arch of 
which is supported by caryatides. 
The armed noble lies on a splendid 
cinquecento umo, which is enriched 
with mythological and marine deities. 
The basement is divided into three 
portions : in the centre is a sea-battle ; 
the others are inscribed with Latin 
verseSjOn tablets supported by children 
whose noses are much mutilated. Upon 
a broad pedestal below the tomb are 
two sirens kneeling. The baseftaent is 
elaborately sculptured with horses and 
marine monsters. Obs., above the 
caryatides, theVirgm and Child upheld 
by angels and surrounded by a vesica 
piscis of cloud. In the 1. comer is 
the name of the Neapolitan sculptor, 
** Joannes Nolanus foMebat.'* This 
magnificent tomb was formerly in the 
Franciscan Convent which lies a little 
way out of the village of Bellpuig. 
[Visit this once celebrated convent, 
which was founded in the 16th oenty. 
by Don Bamon de Cardona. It is now 
deserted and in a very ruinous state 
(obtain the key at the white house to 
the 1. opposite the fountain). The clois- 
ters are very fine ; they are formed of 
three galleries, the capitals are orna- 
mented with well-sculptured figures 
and foliage, and the beautiful newel 
staircase which leads to these galleries 
is of verv peculiar merit. Obs. the 
fountain bmlt into the wall of one of 
the passages: the water issues from 
the mouths of diminutive lions, whilst 
above is a beautifully carved Virgin 
and Child. The church itself is now 
completely stripped of every vestige of 
architectural ornamentation and is 
used as a store-house for farm produce. 
Obs. the slender yet elegant cross 
outside the Puerta de Lerida: it is 
elaborately carved with figures. 
6i m. Molleroia Stat Pop. 1009. 
2 M 


Boute l^S.—Bell-lloch—Lerida. 

Sect. Yin. 

Gm.BeU-UoohStat. Pop. 798. Here 
the first view is obtaiiied of the castle 
hill of L^rida^ crowned by its imposing 
catliedral tower. Obs. the fine castle 
(restored) belonging to the Conde de 
JBell'Uoch. He resides in Barcelona, 
and is a collector of works of art. The 
river Segre is crossed by a fine bridge 

8} m. Lerida Stat. (Buffet). Inns : 
Hotel de Espaiia ; Fonda de San Luis, 
thoroughly Spanish, but tolerabla 
Cafe de las Cuatro Puertas. Cafd del 
Gran Salon. Casino de Artesanos, 
Calle Mayor, .39 — visitors admitted. 
Pop. 23,683. This interesting old city 
consists mainly of one long and rather 
winding street, running parallel to the 
river and witliin the long line of houses 
which face the river itself and the 
Alameda; it is a charming place to 
stay at. A bridge, partly stone, partly 
wood, crosses the nver, and connects 
it wilii the paseo, or promenade, where 
the citizens walk out on Sundays and 
feast-days. Behind the town the for- 
ress hill abruptly rises to an elevation 
of about 300 ft. Its summit is crowned 
by the old cathedral. 

Lerida, llerda, is probably derived 
from the Syriac lUi lofty ; being one 
of the keys of Catalonia, it has from 
time immemorial been the theatre of 
sieges and war. When a Celtiberian 
city, it is well described by Lucan 
(B. C, iv. 13), **Colle tumet modico,'* 
&c., and the foundations of the present 
fine stone bridge are built on those of 
the Komans. It was held for Pompey 
by Afranius and Petreus, who were en- 
camped on Fort Garden, until out- 
generalled and beaten by Cffisar : here, 
therefore, read his terse despatches 
(B. C, i. 37, &c.), and compare them 
with those of our Duke before Badajoz, 
for the iron energy of their swords 
passed into their pens. Everything 
was against them both, the elements as 
well as man ; but both, left wanting in 
means, supplied all deficiency in them- 
selves and triumphed. lUrda soon 
recovered its prosperity, and had a 
mint : for the coinage see Florez (Med., 
ii. 450). It became a Munioipium and 
a university, one, however, of such dis- 

agreeable " residence,*' that the recu- 
sant youth of Rome were threatened to 
be rusticated there (Hor. E. I. xx. 13). 
In after times Lerida was made the 
chief university, the Salamanca of 
Aragon, and its annalists boast witli 
pride of its pupils, San Vicente Fairer 
the inquisitor, and Calixtus III., a pro- 
fligate pope. 

The Goths, after the downfaU of the 
empire, patronised Lerida, and held 
here a celebrated council, having raised 
it to a bishopric in 546. Mooriah 
Lerida was sacked by the French in 
799, but recovered and rebuilt in 1149 
by Ramon Berenguer, who restored the 

During the Catalonian revolt of 1640; 
Lerida chose Louis XIII. for its kin^ 
and Leganes, the general of Philip 
IV., by railing in his attempt to retain 
it, entailed the downfall of his kiiis> 
man, the great Conde Duque Olivarei 
Thereupon Philip IV. came in person 
to the siege, and defeated La Motk^ 
who commanded the invaders. The 
French, in 1644, failed to regam ilt 
whereupon the Grand Oondd opened 
another siege to the tune of viote 
but Gregorio Brito, the Portuguese 
governor, sallied out and drove fid^ 
dlers and Frenchmen headlong before 
him . Next day Brito sent to the Grand 
Conde some iced fruits, begging him to 
excuse his non-return of the serenade 
compliment from want of a catgut, bnt 
promising if his previous accompani- 
ment was agreeable, to repeat it ae 
often aa his highness did him the 
honour to perform before L^da ; bnt 
the Great Condd soon departed n 

Lerida, in the War of Succession, 
was again long besle^din 1707 by the 
French under Berwick and Orleans. 
It capitulated in November, but never- 
theless was most cruelly and faith- 
lessly sacked. However, it was avenged 
July 27, 1710, by Stanhope, who at 
Almenara, 12 m. distant, completely 
routed Philip V. TheEnglish bayonet- 
charge was irresistible, and the Freocb 
fled in every direction. Philip escaped 
by mere accident ; his baggage b«^ 
taken. *• Had there been two honn 
more daylight," wrote Stanhope, "not 


Eoute 143. — Lerida: (Mhedrah 


a Frencliman would have got away.'* 
Bat there is notiiing new in this — so 
wrote Wellington after Salamanca, 
3Iarlborough after Bamilies. Philip 
v., afterwards, writhing under recoUee- 
tioDB of this disgrace, transferred the 
university to Cervera. 

The city, in the Peninsular War, was 
taken hy Suchet, May 14, 1810. Gen. 
Harispe haying seized upon Fort Gar- 
den and the town, the unarmed inha- 
bitants, women and children, were 
driven out on to the glacis and there 
exposed to the fire both of the citadel 
md the invader ; thus they were 
liarassed all night and next day by 
theUs, until the Spanish governor, 
Garcia Conde, overpowered by the 
frightful scene, hoisted the white flag. 
Lerida is the second city of Cata- 
; Ionia, and is strongly fortified : the 
^ engineer may examine the W. side, the 
I fort Garden, el Filar, and San Fer- 
inaado; the artist and ecdesiologist 
\ ahonld ascend the hill to the old Ca^ 
' fhedral, 300 ft. over the Segre, which 
commands a glorious hiU and plain 
: panorama. 

The Cathedral can only be visited 
^ permission of the military authori- 
tiea. An application to the officer on 
j^oaid is sumcient to gain admittance. 
The site of the cathedral has long been 
oecnpied, the first ch. having been 
erected as early as the 6th century. 
' The first stone of the existing ch. 
I waa laid by King Pedro 11. on tho 
|SSnd July, 1203, and its consecra- 
:tion took place on the Slst Oct, 
1 1378. The edifice was, however, far 
from completed in that year, for in 
1323 the work of the cloister and tower 
waa still in progress; in 1391 Guil- 
leimo Colivella contracted to execute 
the statues for the doorway, and in 
U90 Francisco Gomar contracted for 
the erection of a grand porch. The 
tower was probably completed about 
the year 1410. The greater part of 
the ch. and the fine doistery through 
which it is entered from the W., dates 
froni 1278. It consists of nave, with 
2 aides, transepts, triapsal E. end, 
yd ia one of the finest and purest 
™ly Pointed churches Mr. Street has 
ever seen, though most of the windows 

are round-headed. It is said to have 
been originally designed by Pedro Der- 

The genefal plan of the ch. presents 
features of extreme novelty, whilst the 
details of every part are of the highest 
merit. The steeple is octaf^onal in 
plan, and of 5 stages in height ; it 
nas the appearance of greater height 
than it really possesses, in great mea- 
sure owing to the enormous altitude of 
the cliff, upon the edge of which it 
stands. Though most of the windows 
are round-headed, the main arches 
are pointed. One of the remarkable 
features of this ch. is that its external 
roofs are of stone. There are at pre- 
sent three entrances to the Cathe<ual, 
that in the S. transept being the finest : 
niches at either side of the richly- 
sculptured arch contain statues of St 
Gkkbriel and the Virgin. 

The interior is floored across at mid- 
heig:ht of the columns to serve as 
soldiers' dormitories, but the stone- 
work and tracery is HtHe injured in 
consequence. In the Capills de Jesiu 
lies a natural son of Don Pedro el Catd- 
lieo, 1254. This pretty chapel is in 
the apse of the cathedral, and is used 
as the soldiers' chapel. Look at the 
transept and obs. the rich tracery of 
the outer arches and the columns of 
the semi-moresque cloisters. Ascend 
to the belfry of the tower, from 
which a superb prospect is obtained. 
In the highest point of the mountain 
there is a building used now as a pow- 
der-magazine ,* it was a palace in the 
middle ages, and had previously been a 
Moorish castle and Christian temple. 

The desecration of this sacrea pile 
dates from 1707, when the French 
made it a fortress; nor has it ever 
been restored to pious uses, for in the 
piping times of peaoe the steep walk 
proved too much for the pursy canons, 
who, abandoning their lofty church, 
employed General Sabatini (!) to build 
them a new cathedral below in the 
convenient and Corinthian style. 

In the sacristy of the new cathedral 
may be seen a most interesting dalma- 
tic and cope of ^old tissue woven with 
a Cufic inscription. 

The Chnroh of San Loreiuo, near the 


Boute lU.—Lenda to Fraga. Sect. YIII. 

old cathedral, has some very good 
tracery windows (1270-1300). 

Pilgrims on their road to Zaragoza 
and Oompostella may \risit, at the 
FUunielar de la Peseaderi, the Pen del 
Romeo, where the apostle Santiago 
ran a thorn into his foot by night; 
angels thereupon appeared with lan- 
terns : a pious custom was thus esta- 
blished which is still adhered to by 
the boys and girls of L^rida. 

Near the gate of Boteros some sepul- 
chres have been discovered which 
are supposed to be of the Celtic period. 
Celtic coins were discovered near them. 

In the street near the ruins of the 
Ch. of San Juan, described by Street, 
obs. an old Romanesque house with 
a fine row of ajimez windows, the 
shafts and capitals of which are exqui- 
sitely sculptured. It is cidled La CW 
de la Ciuoad. 

Bailway in construction from L^rida 
by Rivagorzana to the French frontier. 

The line continues to Zaragoza, and 
by Tunella and Borjas to Tarragona. 
(Bte. 134.) 

ROUTE 141 


Lerida (see preceding Rte.). 

6J m. Alcarrai. Pop. 1860. The 
road hence descends through the valley 
of Cinca to 

9j^ m. Fraga, miserable Posada. Pop. 
6739. This poor, rough, ill-paved 
place is worthy of its name, derived 
from FrcMosa — stony. Its dismantled 
Castle is built on the slope of a hill 
above the Cinca, which is crossed by 
a neat suspension-bridge. TheParxo- 
qnia de San Pedro was formerly a 
mosque. The environs of Fraga abound 
in pomegranates and figs: the small 
green ones are delicious, and when 
dried, are an article of considerable 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Sect. IX. Introd. ( 533 ) 


El Beino de Aragon. — ^The kingdom of Aragon, once a separate and inde- 
pendent state, was, Castile alone excepted, the most warlike and powerful one 
in the Peninsula. It extends in length about 140 miles E. to W., and about 
200 miles N. and S., and is encompassed by mountains on all sides — ^viz. the 
Pyrenees, the Sierras ofMorella, Albarracin, Molina, and Soria. The Efaro 
flows through the central basin, N. W. to S. E., and divides the kingdom almost 
equally. Works are now in progress which when completed will render 
i| a portion of this river navigable. The climate varies according to locality and 
i elevation: generally speaking, the province, from being so exposed to 
I mountains, is much windblown ; thus the plains over which the cutting blasts 
\ descend from the Moncavo, the home of -ffiolus, are most miserable. The chief 
wmds are El Cierzoj the N. W., keen and cold ; El Bochorno, the S. E., hot and 
sultry ; and El Faqtieno, the W. (Favonius), which brings showers, warmth, 
and fertility. The vegetable productions are varied, as the soil ranges from the 
snow-capped mountains to the sunny plain under latitude 41°. The botany 
and flora of the Spanish Pyrenees, as well as the natural history, geology, 
and mineralogy, have yet to be properly investigated. The Montes abound 
with game, the Ibones (hill lochs) and streams with trout The population is 
under a million and a half, which is scanty for an area of 1 5,000 English miles. 
I Aragon, too ungenial for the Moors of the plain, was ohid^y pneopled by the 
Berber mountfoneers, but they were soon expelled by the children of the 
Goth, who, as early as 819, united together in the fastnesses of Sobrarbe, 
where their primitive laws were drawn up, which became the model of the 
Fueros of many other cities. The government was conducted by patres et 
Seniores, heads of families and elders, and from the latter word flie Spanish 
term SeiSor or lord is derived. These Fueros were digested into a code by 
Vital, bishop of Huesca, and confirmed in that town in 1246, by Jaime I. 
The early kmgs were scarcely more than president, and each vassal held him- 
self tingly to be as good as ms king, whilst united they held themselves to be 
better. About the year 1137 Petronilla, daughter of Bamiro el Monge, and 
heiress of the crown, married Bamon Berenguer, sovereign count of Barcelona ; 
thus military Aragon was incorporated with commercial Catalonia, and the 
united people extended their conquests and trade alike by sea and land, 
becoming masters of the Mediterranean, Naples, Sicily, and Valencia. All 
these acquisitions were carried to the the crown of CastUe by the marriage, in 
1479, of Ferdinand, heir-apparent of Aragon, with Isabel ; thus the first link 
of their golden wedding-nng joined Aragon to Castile^ and the last link 
connected the New World to Spain : all these consolidations descended from 
them to their grandson Charles Y. As Ferdinand had jealously maintained 
his separate nghts as a sovereign perfectly independent of Castile, the 
AiBgonese, after his death, insisted on the continuance of their own peculiar 
■Fueros (or laws), which almost guaranteed republican institutionB under an 
oetensible monarchy. ^ 

634 Aragon: Navarre. Sect. IX. 

The Parliament met in four Brazos, branches — the clergy, the nobility, the 
ffentry, and the people — ^and each voted separately, the consent of all four 
being necessary to pass a law. The greatest jealousy against the monarch 
was exhibited in all matters of finance and persoiial liberty, while a high officer, 
called el Justicia (the impersonation of masculine Justice), was the guardian 
of the laws, and a Juez medio between the king and his people. In all appeals 
when the Fuero8 was infringed, the appellant was said to be manifestadot &c. ; 
his person was thus brought under the custody of the court, as by our Habeas 
Corpus, and his cause removed from ordinary tribunals, as by our writs otquo 
warranto and certiorari. The society at large was secured by the *' Union or 
a confederacy, whose members, in case the kmg violated the law, were absolved 
from allegiance. This element of ctwunion was abolished in 1348, when Pedro 
ly . cut the parchment to pieces witli his dagger, and having wounded himself 
in his haste, exclaimed, Talfuero sangre & Bey hahia de ooetar, ''Such a 
charter must cost a king's blood : *' hence he was called El del PuHal. (Hig 
curious portrait in this attitude was destroyed by the French in 1808.) In 
1591 the notorious Antonio Perez fled to Zaragoza, and appealed to Juan 
Lanuza, the Juttida, whereupon Philip II. mardied an army into Aragon, emd 
hanged the judge, with whom perished this privilege : and whatever liberties 
were then respected were abolished in 1707 by PhUip Y. Zaragoza has now 
an Audiencia or tribunal de Jutticia, with a jurisdiction over the entire 

The Aragonese are a vigorous, active race : they are warlike, courageous, 
and enduring. Their costume differs from the Oatalonian, and knee-breeches 
take the place of pantaloons, as broad-brimmed slouching hats do of the red 
Phrygian cap or handkerchief. Tho lower classes are fond of red and blue 
colours and wear very broad silken sashes. The favourite national air and 
dance is La Jala Ara^oneea, which is brisk and jerky, but highly spirit-stirring 
to the native. The arms of Aragon are " Or, four bars gules, ' said to have 
been assumed by Wilfred el VeUoso, who, when woimded in battle, drew bis 
bleeding fingers across his golden shield, a truly soldierlike blazon. 

The finest portions of the Pyrenees lie in Aragon, and present a varied field 
for geological and botanical research ; while the French slope is full of summer 
watering-places, social and civilised, the Spanish side is still the lair of the 
smuggler, and of wild birds and beasts. All who venture into the recesses 
must attend to the provend, and take a local guide. 

The chief secondary jpaaaea are the Puerto de Maya and Puerto de Bonoes- 
▼alles in Navarre; and those of Gaafrano, Pantioosa, Oavamie, VieLui, Breeha de 
Boldan, and Maroandan in Aragon and of Plan de Anse, Puigcerdi, and the 
Ck>l de Partus in Oatalonia. 

The valleys in Aragon are among the most beautiful in the whole range, 
especially those of Anso, Gaafrano, Biesoas, Broto, Oistain, and Benaaque. The 
highest points or pinnacles are called Puigs in Catalonia, Pueyos in Aragon, 
Puertos in Galicia, Poyos in Navarre, and Puys in French : these words are 

* For the ancient constitutional curiosities of Aragon, consult Geronimo Zurita; the early 
edition of the • Anales ' of this Spanish Coke is rare, 6 vols, fol., Zaragoza, 1563-80-85. It wis 
republished in 7 vols. fol. in 1610-21, and continued by Vinoendo Blasco de Lanuza, 2 vols., 
1622, and by Bartolome Leonardo de Argensola, 1 vol. fol., 1630 ; * Cknonaciones,' kc. Gerdnimo 
de Blancas, 4to.,Zar., 1641; by Miguel Bamon Zapater, 1 vol. fol., 1633; by Diego de Zt^as 
Rabanera y Ortufla, 1 vol. fol., 1666 ; by Diego Joseph Dormer, 1 vol. fol. 1697 ; and by Jose de 
Panyano, 1 vol. fol., 1705. All this series was printed at Zaragoza. * Corona real del Hreneo,' 
Domingo de la Bipa, 2 vols, fol., Zar., 1685 ; and his * Defeusa Hist6rica de Sobrarbe,' foU ZW' 
1675. Consult also * Anales de Aragon,' B. L. Argensola, 1st part, fol., Zar., 1630 ; and 2iid ptft 
by ITztaroz, fol., Zar., 1663 ; ' Teatro Histdrico de las Iglesias de Aragon/ Lamberto Zangou- 
Pamp. 1782-5, 4to. 4 vols. This excellent work was continued by Ramon de Huesca, 1786-iMl. 
6 vols, 4to. ; the complete set is in 9 vols. : * Los Reyes de Aragon,' Pedro Abarca, 2 vols. foU 
Mad., 1682-4. Consult also * Sacra Themidis Hispans Arcana,' 8vo., Mad., 1780, which was 
compiled by the learned Juan Lucas Cortes; it was purloined by one Oeraid de Frankenan, » 
Dane, who published it as his own. For Aragonese authon^ consult * La Tassa,' 8 vols. 4to. 

Introd. Aragon: Navane, 535 

said to be comiptionB of Podium^ an elevation. The depressions at the heads 
of valleys or iiecks of the ridges are called CkMs, and in Gastilian CoUddon, and 
over them the passes of intercommunication are carried ; hence they are called 
Puertos, gates, clxxyrways, port» ; and the smaller ones Portillos* Of these, in 
the whole range, there are some 70 or 80, but scarcely half-a-dozen of them 
are practicable for wheel-carriages. They remain much in the same state as 
in the time of the Moors. 

The botany and geology of the Pyrenees, 

** Which like giants stand 
To sentinel enchanted land," 

have yet to be properly investigated. In the Pyrenees rude forges of iron 
abound, conducted on a small, imscientific scale, and probably after the un- 
changed primitive Iberian system. Fuel is scarce, and transport of ores on 
muleback expensive. The iron is inferior to the English, and dearer ; the tools 
and implements used on both sides of the Pyrenees are at least a century 
behind ours ; while absurd tariffs, which prohibit the importation of a cheaper 
and better article, prevent improvements in agriculture and manufactures. 
The natural woods of these Saltibs Pyrensd have long been celebrated, and 
Strabo (iii. 245) observed how much more the southern slopes were covered 
than the northern ones. The timber, however, has suffered much from the 
neglect, waste, and improvidence of the natives, who destroy more than they 
consume, and rarely replant. The sporting in these lonely wild districts is 
attractive, for where man seldom penetrates the /eras naturie multiply : the 
bear is, however, getting scarce, as a premium has long been paid for the head 
of every one destroyed. The grand object of the Cazador is the Cobra Monies 
(Capra Jbex\ the bouquetin of the French, now nearly extinct, and the 
izzard, the chamois of Switzerland. The fascination of this pursuit leads 
to constant accidents, as this shy animal lurks in almost inaccessible localities, 
and must be stalked with the nicest skill. The sporting on the French side 
is far inferior to that on the Spanish, where the feathered and finny tribes 
have been left comparatively undisturbed. Accordingly the streams abound 
with trout, whilst those which flow into the Atlantic are well-stocked with 

The gigantic Pyrenean mountain chain which divides Spain from Franco 
forms the N. boundary of both Aragon and Navarre. It constitutes a portion 
of the dorsal chain which comes down from Tartary, and Asia, the W. extremity 
of which will be found in Galicia. The spurs and offsets penetrate on both 
sides like ribs from a backbone, into the two countries. The chain attains 
its greatest height in the Maladetta, a group or knot forming an outlier N. of 
the chain, and nearly midway between the two seas, whose loftiest sununit, the 
Pio de Nethou, rises 11,168 ft. above the sea. Next to it rank the Fio de 
PosetB, 11,047, Monte Perdido (M. Perdu, 10,994 ft.), and Cylindro, 10,914 ft., 
also outliers on the Spanish side. The Garonne has its source at the foot of 
the Maladetta, In advance of tlie main chains oni the N. side rise the Canigon, 
near the E., and the Pic dn Midi, near the W. end of the chain. 

The Pyrenean range was called by the Romans Monies and Salius Pyrenei ; 
and by the Greeks Tivfyqvriy probably from a local Iberian word. According to 
the Iberians, Hercules, when on his way to ** lift*' Geryon's cattle, was so hos- 
pitably received by one Bebryx, a petty ruler in those mountains, that the 
demi-god got drunk and ravished his host's daughter Pyrene, who died of 
grief; whereupon Hercules, sad and sober, made the whole range re-echo with 
her name. Bochat (Can. i. 35) supposes that the Phoenicians called, these 
ranges Purani, from the forests, Pura signifying wood in Hebrew. 

• The equivalent terms on the French side are Cd, Sourque, Hourquette, Fourque, Breche, 

Digitized by VjOOv IC 

636 Aragon : Navarre. Sect. IX. 

The width of the range is narrowest to the E., being only about 20 miles 
across near Tigaoraa, wnile the heights are the lowest at the W. extremity, 
seldom exceeding 9000 ft. The width opposite Pamplona ranges at abont 40 
miles. Seen from a distance the general outline appears to be one monntain- 
rid^e, with broken pinnacles ; but, in fact, it consists of two distinct lines, 
which are parallel, but not continuous. The 'one which commences at the 
ocean is at least SO miles more in advance towards the soutii tiian the corre- 
sponding line which commences from the Mediterranean. The centre is the 
point of dislocation where the ramifications and reticulations are the most 
intricate ; it is the key-stone of the system. Here is the source of the Graremie, 
La Ckurona ; here the scenery is the grandest, and the lateral valleys the 
longest and widest. The Spanish or S. front is most in advance, is the 
steepest, and descends abruptly ; while on the French or N. side the acclivities 
shelve down in tiers with a succession of terraces, dips, and basins. 

Some of the higher valleys contain sources of warm springs under a covering 
of snow. The most celebrated spas are on the French side, or at least those 
which have hitherto been most known and frequented by foreigners, Spaniards 
are as fond of so(v-bathin^ and warm baths as of medicinal waters. The accom- 
modations at the Spanish baths are third-rate, when compared wiib the spas 
of Germany, France, or England, 

El Beino de ITavarra. — ^Thisonce Independent kingdom was called Vascmia 
by the ancients. Its present name is derived from Nav, a common Iberian pre- 
fix, which signifies ** a plain under hills,'' and is the best description of the 
province, which, shaped in an irregular square, 80 miles in length by 60 in 
width, is bounded to the N. by the Pyrenees : the whole population is under 
350,000, and is chiefly pastoral, agricultural, and given to iron-mining. The 
Ebro, which flows to the S.E., and the Bidasoa, which runs to the W., are the 
main trunks that receive the smaller mountain tributaries. Thus the province 
is both sheltered and irrigated. 

The kingdom is divided into five MerindadeSj'OT departments, each of which 
has its petty capital : they lie thus — ^Pamplona N., Ta&lla S., Olite in the 
centre, Estella E., and Sangnesa W. The N. barrier is very mountainous, 
being composed of the western slopes of the Pyrenees, which dip down to the 
ocean from Monte Perdido, and these wild and broken ^lens became the natural 
fastnesses of the unconquered natives, when retiring before the Romans and 
Moors. They found their Pelayus against the latter in Chirci Ximenez, and 
made common cause with the highlanders of Aragon, until about 842, when 
Ifiigo Arista was chosen king of Navarre at Pamplona, while the national 
liberties were guaranteed by the celebrated Fueros de Scbrarhe, The kmgdorn^ 
bears for arms ** gules and chains or," in memorial of the achievement of 
Sancho lll,,el Ftierte, who broke down the chains of the Moorish general's tent, 
at las ITavas de Tolosa. Navarre was annexed to Castile in 1512, by Ferdinand 
el CcMico, partly by force and partly by fraud (see Prescott, * Ferdinand and 
Isabella,' ch. 24): Jean d'Albret, the rightful heir, being abandoned by 
his French allies, who profited by his ruin, the territory was partitioned; 
Ferdinand seizing all S. of the Pyrenees, while the N. portion ultimately passed 
with Henri lY. to the crown of France. The French side is Interesting to 
Englishmen, as having been long possessed by the Black Prince, and being the 
scene of many of Froissart's deligntful narrations. The interconununicati(»u 
between Navarre and Aragon, N. of the Ebro, are carried over a desolate 
country, while those S. of the Pyrenees are extremely mountainous and difficult, 
and are seldom traversed except by smugglers. 

The Navarrese peasants are simple in their habits, having few wants and 
fewer vices. They live very much to themselves, tending their flocks on the 
wooded hill-sides, and cultivating their vines in the warmer valleys and plain'' 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.'w.^-t t'*^. 

Introd. Aragon: Navarre, b^l 

The wines produced in Navarre are excellent ; those known as Peralta, Azagrat 
and Cascante being deservedly popular. The mountains are not so high as 
those in Aragon : the Altobisoar reaches, however, 5380 feet, and the Adi 8218 ; 
the valleys are beautiful, especially those of Baitan (Arabic^ the Garden) 
Santisteban, and CinooTillJUi. The scenery is alpine and picturesque, and the 
shooting and fishing excellent. 

The highlanders of Navarre are remarkable for their light, active physical 
forms, l^eir temperate habits, endurance of hardships and privation, and indi- 
vidual bravery and love of perilous adventure ; the pursuits of the chase and 
smuggling form their usual occupation : thus their sinewy limbs are braced, 
and their hawk-eyed self-reliance sharpened. Naturally, therefore, they have 
always been first-rate guerillerros. Placed by position on the borders of France, 
Aragon, and Castile, and alternately the dupe and victim of each, necessity 
has forced them to be always on their guard against neighbours whom they 
fear and abhor ; thus a spirit of nationality bums in every heart. A watch 
and ward system of an armed armistice dates from their earliest laws ; as, by 
the ¥uero8 de Sdbrarhe, a provision was made, that by a given signal of danger 
the whole male population should hurry to the first place of meeting (Abarca, i. 
115). This preparation still exists along the Pyrenean frontier; and the 
Catalan borderer is called Somaten, from the [summoning tocsin-bell. As 
Sertorius made Huesca his stronghold, so Mina sallied forth from " his country/* 
from the glens of Navarre, with his bold followers, a race that never will be 
extinct in these hills.* 

• The best works to consult on Navarre are the * Espafia Sagrada,* zxxiii. ; • Historis apolo- 
getica y Descripclon del Rejmo de Navarra/ Garcia de Gongora, fol., Pamplona, 1668 ; *Investl- 
gtciones Ulst6ricas,' Josef de Moret, fol., Pamplona, 1665, or the later edition of 5 vols, fol., 
Pamplona, 1766; ' Anales de Navarra,' &c., fol. 6 vols., Pamplona, 1684; ' Congresiones 
Apolog^ticas,' Josef de Moret, 4to., Pamplona, 1678 ; * Diccionario de has Antigfledades del Keyno 
de Navarra,' Yanguas y Miranda. There is a paper on the royal genealogy, by Joaquin Traggia , 
in the 3rd vol. of the * Memorias de la Academia de Historia.* 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Soute 148. — Lertda to Zaragoza. 

Sect. IX. 


148 Lerida to Zaragosa. Excur- 
sion to the Monastery of 
Sigena. Rail 538 

148a Zaragoza to Puente de 
Hijar 548 

149 Zaragoza to Madrid, by Gala- 
tayud, Alhama (Excursion to 
Piedra), Medinaoeli, Sigtl- 
eua^ Guadalajara, and Aleala 

de HenareB. Rail .. 549 

150 Zaragoza to Hueooa and Pan- 
tioosa. Rail and Diligence • 558 

151 Zaragoza to Barbastro and 
Bagn6res de Luohon. Rail, 
Diligence, and Horseback . . 561 

152 Zaragoza to Jaca, with Ex- 
cursion to the Monastery of 
San Juan de la Pe&a. Rail 
and Diligence 5C2 

156 Calahorra to the Baths of 
Amedillo, by Amedo. Dili- 
gence during the bathing 

157 Alfaro to Soria. Diligence 

158 Alfaro to the Baths of Fitero. 
Diligence during the season 

159 Alfaro to the Baths of 
Gravalos. Diligence during 
the season 




160 Alfaro to Miranda del Ebro, 
by Calahorra, Logro&o, and 
Haro. Rail .. 566 

161 Soria to Madrid, by Almazau 
and Sigtienza. Diligence and 
Rail 568 

162 Soria to Logrofio. Diligence 569 

163 Zaragoza to Pamplona, by 
Tndela, Oastejon, and Olite. 
RaU 569 

164 Tudela to Tarazona, with 
Excursion to Moncayo and 
tlie Abbey of Veruela. Car- 
riage-road 574 

167 Pamplona to St. Etienne de 
Baigorry, by Bonoesvalles. 
Horseback 575 

169 Pamplona to Logrofio, by 
Pnente de la Beina, Estella, 
and Viana. Excursion to 
Ihrache. DUigence-road .. 577 

170 Pamplona to San Sebastian. 
Oarnage-road or Rail . . . . 578 

171 Pamplona to Bayonne, by 
Alsasua. Rail 578 

172 Pamplona to Bayonne, by 
Sorauren, Eliiondo.the Valley 
of Baitan, and TTrdaz. Car- 
riage-road 579 

ROUTE 148. 


Two trains daUy, in 6 hrs. 

Lerida. (See Rte. 143.) 

The stations on the line are — 

llf m. Baymat Stat. 

4 m. Almacellas Stat. Pop. 1361. 

13 m. Binefar Stat. Pop. 1629. 

6| m. Monion Stat. Pop. 3816. 
This is a dismantled fortress, with a 
grand old castle, which was formerly 
an impregnable military position. 
Bridge over the Cinca. Obs. to the 

rt. a handsome iron bridge, over which 
passes th£ diligence-road to Barbastro. 

4 m. Selgua Stat. Pop. 1066. 

[From this place there is a branch 
railway to Barbastro, 2 trains daily, 1 

Gaatejon Stat. 

Barbastro Stat.] 

19 m. SariSena Stat. Pop. 3364. 
[From Sarifiena a pleasant excursion 
may be made to the monastery of 
Sigena, 9 miles. Horses may be 
obtained at Sarifiena. 

This interesting monastery, of nuns 
of the order of St. John of Jerusalem, 
was founded in 1188 by the King of 

by tnt 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 





JBoute 148. — Zaragoza : Directory. 


Aiagon, Don Alfonso II., and Dna. 
Sanoha de Gastilla. It is surrounded 
by 8 turreted wall. To the rt. on 
entering is the doorway, a very fine 
specimen of Romanesque architecture. 
Under the tower is the tomb of Rodrigo 
de IJzana, who died at Muriel with 
his king, Don Pedro. Some interesting 
paintings have come to light during 
the restoration of the church; the 
chief objects of interest which it 
contains are the sepulchres of the 
foundress and other noble ladies. 
The dress worn by the nuns, who may 
be seen at Mass in the choir, which 
dates from the 12th century, is most 

8 m. Polinifio Stat Pop. 495. 
^ m. GraSen Stat. Pop. 899. 

10 m. Tardienta Junct. Stat. Pop. 
H81. [A branch rly. from hence to 
Hnesca, 9 m. distant. Two trains 


8 m. Vioien Stat. Pop. 2276. 

2 m. Hnesca Stat. Pop. 11,536. 

Local trains in conjunction with all 
the trains between Zaragoza and Bar- 
celona. See Rte. 150.] 

The road to Zaragoza continues to 
6 m. Almudeyar Stat. Pop. 2945. 
Obs. the ruins of an old castle in the 
neighbourbood of this little town. 

12^ m. Znera Stat. Pop. 1916. 
Here is an ancient parochial church 
deserving the attention of ecdesio- 

8i m. ViUanneya de Oallego Stat. 
Pop. 1180. La Huerta near here, 
which is now an uninteresting plain, 
was doubtless, under the Moors, a 
garden, as the name implies. 

7} m. Zaragosa Terminus (omni' 
frwa to the principal hotels, 2 r.). 
■" .-B. The terminus of the Ectstem line 
i»atthe N,E. side of the city. The 
^^rnUnw of the railway line to Madrid 
M to ftc the city, A bridge 
over the riyer Ebro connects the two 


^ 1. Hotels, Protestant Chapel and School, 
Cafes, Casino, Theatres, Bull- 
ring, Post 0£Bce, Promenades . . 639 

2. Historical Notice 640 

3. Cathedrals— La Seo, £1 Pilar . . .641 

4. Churches, Leaning Tower, Old 

Houses 645 

$ 6. Museum, University, Hospital, Poor 

House, Promenades 646 

{ 6. Gates, A^aferia 647 

9 7. Excursions 647 

§ 1. Hotels, Cafes, Casinos, Theatres, 
BuLL-BiNG, Post Office, Pbome- 


Zaragosa. — Pop. 86,126. Inm : 
Fonda de las Cuatro Naciones y del 
Universo: a large, clean, and well- 
furnished house, good. Fonda de 
Europa : rooms small but clean. 
Gran Fonda de las Cuatro Naciones 
y del Universo, in the Calle Don 
Jaime I. (kept by an Italian) : a large, 
clean, and well-furnished house ; g(X)d 
cuisine. Fonda de Europa, on the 
Plaza de la Constitucion : rooms small 
but clean. Charge : 80 r. a day, all 

Protestant Chapel and School, 

Caf4s: Gran Caf^ Suizo on the Paseo 
de Santa Engracia; Cafi^ Constancia 
on the Coso ; Cafe' del Universo on the 
Plaza de Arilio. 

Casino in the Casa del Conde dc 
Sastago, situated upon .the Coso. 
Strangers admitted free for one month, 
upon the introduction of a member. 
French papers and periodicals, but no 
English newspaper. Casino also in 
the Casa de los Infantes. Strangers 
admitted under the same conditions. 

Theatres : There are 2 theatres, £1 
Principal, and Variedades. The first 
only is worthy of a visit. Spanish 
plays and dancing, palco, 40 to 50 r. ; 
stall (butaca) 6 r. 

Plaza de Toros : Bull-fights in Aug. 
and on 13th and 14th Oct., during 
the Fiesta de la Virgen del PUar, are 

Boute 148.^ Zaragoza: History. 


held in honour of the Yiigin, and the 
profits go to the public charities. 

Post Office : on the Paseo Sta. Bn- 

Promenades : The Coso is the prin- 
ciple street; and wus the fashionable 
promenade ; now, however, the Paseo de 
Santa Engracia is the more favoured 
alameda. It begins at the Coso, and 
terminates with the modern iron Puerta 
of Sta. Engracia. The bronze statue of 
Pignatelli, a benefactor of the town, 
cast in Germany, and erected 1858, 
is insignificant and poor. 

§ 2. HiSTORioAL Notice. 

Zaragoza is the.time-honoured capital 
of Aragon. It is the capital of the 
province, the residence of a captain- 
general, with the usual military and 
civil authorities, and is the seat of an 
atidiencia. It has a university, and 
is the see of an archbishop (created 
1318), whose suffragans are Huesca, 
Pamplona, Jaca, Tarazona,and Teruel. 
The city bears for arms " Gules, a lion 
rampant, or," granted (say the natives) 
by Augustus Caesar. 

Zaragoza was the Celtiberian Sal- 
duba; out when Augustus, a.o. 25, 
became its benefactor, it was called 
Csesarea Augusta, Kcuffapavyovtrra 
(Strabo. iii. 225), of which the pre- 
sent name is a corruption; always a 
free city or Colonia immunis, having 
its own charters, it was a Conventus 
Juridicus, or a seat of judicial assizes. 
It had a mint, of which Florez (* Med.' 
i. 186) enumerates sixty-six coins, 
ranging from Augustus to Caligula. 
There are no remains of the Roman 
city, which Moors and Spaniards have 
used as a quarry, and whatever an- 
tiquities have been turned up, in dig- 
ging new foundations, have gene- 
rally been reinterred as ** useless old 

This city set an early example of re- 
nouncing Paganism, and here Aulus 
Prudentius, Sie first Christian poet, 
was bom, a.d. 348 (some, however, say 
at Calahorra). Then the city could 
boast of primitive martyrs, and real 
Christianity ; now, however, the Virgin 
reigns paramount. It is, and always 

Sect. IX. 

has been, a city of relics ; thus in 542, 
when besieged by the French, under 
Ohildebert, the burgesses carried the 
stole or Esiola of San Vicente round 
the walls, which at once scared away 
the invaders (Esp. Sag,, viii. 187; 
XXX. 127). But the French grew wiser 
in 1200 years; anc^ when the Duke of 
Orleans, in 1707, overran Aragon with 
troops, tho old stole was powerless to 
prevent the invaders from taking the 
town fortiiwith. 

Zaragoza was captured by the Moora 
in the 8th centy., but the victors being 
chiefly of Berber extraction, soon waged 
war against the Kalif of Cordova. Thns 
their Sheikh, Suleyman Al-Arabi (the 
Ibn Alarabi of old Spanish Chronicles), 
went in 777 to Paderborn, to implore 
the aid of Charlemagne; but when 
this especial champion of Christian 
Europe against the Saracens, thus in- 
vited, entered Aragon in 778, the per- 
verse people refused to admit their 
allies into tiieir garrison, and rose upon 
them when returning to France by 
Koncesvalles. Zaragoza was recovered 
from the Moors in 1118 by Alonso d 
Batallador, after a siege of 5 years, 
when the stubborn population had al- 
most all perished from hunger. Neve^ 
theless, as most things in Spain are 
accidental, in 1591, when Philip II. 
advanced on Zaragoza, the citizens 
** c(ymmitted themselves to such safety at 
their heels might procure <Aem, abandon- 
ing their guest, Antonio Perez, and 
presently after the city of Zaragoza 
(Comewayle in Somers* Tracts, m. 

This city, like others in Spain, rose 
after the executions of Murat on the 
dos de Mayo, 1808 ; on the 25th, Gni- 
llelmi the governor was deposed, and 
the lower classes were organised by 
Tio Jorge Ibc/rt, Gaffer George, one 
of themselves. A nominal leader of 
rank being wanted, one Jose Palafo^ 
an Aragonese noble, who had jiw 
escaped from Bayonne in a peasants 
dress, was selected, partly from aoa* 
dent, and because he was an hijo w 
Zaragoza and handsome ; for in Spain, 
as in the East, personal appearance M 
always influential. Palafox had servea 
in the Spanish royal bodyguards, ana 

Aragon. Boute 148. — Zaragoza: History; Cathedrals, 


therefore, as Mr. Vaughan justly says, 
necessarily " knew nothing whatever of 
the military profession ; " according to 
Toreno (vi.) and Schep. (i. 205), he 
was totally unfitted for the crisis ; but 
he was in the hands of better men: 
thus his tutor Bosilio Boggiero wrote 
his proclamations, the priest Santiago 
Sas managed the miraculous, while 
Tic Jorge commanded, and with two 
peasants, Mariano Cerezo and Tio 
Marin, for his right and left hands, 
did the fighting : all the means of de- 
fence under Guillelnii (says Southey) 
were 220 men, 100 dollars, 16 cannon 
and a few old muskets. Lefebvre 
arrived June 15, 1808, and had he 
poshed on at once must have taken 
the place, but he paused, and thus 
enable! Tio Jorge to prevent a coup- 
de-main: to the French summons of 
surrender, the bold Tio replied, " War 
to flie knife." The invaders in their 
strategics did not evince either com- 
mon humanity or military skill ; but 
the defeat of Dupont at Bailen relieved 
Zaragoza, which, when it occurred, 
was on the point of surrendering; 
then Lefebvre retired Au^. 15, boast- 
ing, and with truti), that he had left 
the city " un amas de de'combres.*' See 
Behnas (ii. 115). 

Zaragoza was again invested, and 
attacked, by Buonaparte's sagacious 
saggestion« on both sides, and especially 
from the Jesuit convent on the other 
bank of the Ebro, which the Spaniards 
had neglected to secure. Now four 
marshals conducted the siege, Lannes, 
Hortier, Moncey, and Junot ; and after 
62 days of dreadful attack and resis- 
tance, plague and famine subdued 
Zaragoza. The city capitulated Feb. 
20, 1809, the rest of Spain having 
looked on with apathy, while Infanta- 
do, with an idle army, did not even 
move one step to afford relief. 

Zaragoza is placed in a fertile plain, 
which is irrigated by the broad and 
lapid-flowing Ebro; this river sepa- 
rates the city from its suburb, and is 
crossed by a massive stone bridge of 
7 arches. The streets, which have been 
modernised, are well paved and lively ; 
but those which intersect the city at 
right angles to the Ck>so are tortuous. 

narrow, ill-paved, and gloomy. The 
whole of the city is excellently lighted 
with gas, and well supplied with 
wholesome water. The houses in the 
old streets are built up with solid and 
massive masonry, and are indeed castles 
— ^in medisBval days no doubt impreg- 
nable — but now battered and dilapi- 
dated, and turned into wood-stores 
and granaries. Many of their stately 
saloons are used as stables, whilst the 
noble patios are converted into farm- 
yards and dungheaps. The architect 
should observe the superbly carved 
soffits, rafters, and external cornices of 
many of these ancient mansions. 

Commence sightseeing at the noble 
stone bridge over the Ebro, which was 
built in 1437. Standing on the bridge, 
the two cathedrals rise in front, for 
Zaragoza, like Cadiz, has 2 metropoli- 
tans, whilst Madrid, the capital of this 
land of contrasts, has none. The chapter 
resides alternately for 6 months in each 
of these cathedrals, which in exterior, 
interior, and creed, are also complete 
contrasts : one is an ancient severe ch. 
raised to the Saviour; the other a 
modem theatrical temple dedicated to 
the Virgin. The former edifice rises 
to the S. or to the 1., looking from the 
bridge, and is called the 8eu or Seo 
{Sec^s, See; Cathedra^ Cathedral). 
The style is Gothic. 

§ 3. Cathedrals— La Seo, El Pilae. 

The metropolitan Ch. of the Saviour, 
or La Seo, is one of the most sumptuous 
temples of Spain. A ch. here was 
celebrated at the time of the Goths. 
Being used as a mosque during Arab 
supremacy, it was reconsecrated after 
the capture of the city by Alfonso I., 
sumamed the Warrior, by Bishop 
Pedro de Lebrana on the 6th January, 
1119. Beneath its high arches 
numerous councils have been held, 
and the solemn coronations of the 
kings of Aragon have taken place. 

This temple was declared metro- 
politan by Pope John XXn. in 1318. 
It was much modernised outside, by 
Julian Yarza, in the pseudo style 
1683. There are evidences of the 


BoutelAS. — Zaragoza: CathedraU. Sect. IX. 

existence of an earlier Bomanesqne 
ch. in one of the windows, and in a 
portion of the buttresses Obs., at the 
N.E. angle outside, a remarkable ex- 
ample of brickwork, inlaid with 
coloured tiles, evidently of 14th-centy. 
date. The patterns of these tiles are 
Moorish in character; and they are 
of various shapes and sizes, and 
coloured blue, green, red, buff, and 
white. The Tower is octangular and 
lofty, and decorated with Corintluan 
pillars. It is drawn out into 4 divi- 
sions (or stages) like a telescope, and 
was finished by Juan Baptista Oontini 
in 1685. The whitewasned frippery, 
and the vile statues of Apostles, were 
added by one Arali in 1790. This 
belfry tower was struck by lightning, 
April 7, 1850, and somewhat injured. 
Another tower was designed, but re- 
mains in an unfinished state. The gate 
of La Pavorderia is of the better period 
of Charles V. The Pavorde is peculiar 
to Aragon, Catalufia, and Valencia. 
The word has been derived by some 
from pascoTj pavi, because certain ra- 
tions were furnished by the dignitary 
known by this name. 

The interior is remarkable for its 
breadth, having 4 aisles to the nave 
and chapels between the buttresses. 
Visit the small separate chapel at the 
1. of the door. The fine Moorish ceiling 
and beautiful sepulchre in the wall, 
covered with Gothic figures and orna- 
mentation, and worthy of a special 
notice ; obs. also the light-red marble 
pavement, with broad rays of black 
marble diverging from the bases of the 
piers; and also the roof, which is 
studded with gilt rosettes and wheels. 
Many of the portals have quite a 
Moorish character. The very rich 
retahlo of the high altar was erected in 
1456 by B. P. Dalmau'de Mur; the 
3 divisions are canopied by Gothic 
shrines. The singular mosaic work, 
angels bearing shields, the Adoration, 
Transfiguration, and Ascension, were 
wrought by Martinez de Donatelo. 
The under-divisions are smaller and 
somewhat heavy. Obs. the sedilia to 
the rt. used by el Sacerdote, who con- 
secrates the Host, el Diacono, who 
reads the Gospel, and el SvMiacono, 

who reads the Epistle. Near is the 
fine tomb and recmnbent figure of 
Archbishop Juan, ob. 1531, and of 
Archbishop Alfonso, ob. 1520 : to the 
1. is deposited the heart of Don Balta- 
zar, son of Philip IV., who died here 
of small-pox, Oct. 9, 1616, aged 17. 
He was the Infante so often painted 
by Velasquez. The octangular Cimborio 
was commenced by Benedict IH., and 
finished, as a Gothic inscription re- 
cords, in 1520. Here Ferdmand d 
Catdlico, bom at Sos in 1456, was bap- 
tised. The Coro is Gothic ; obe. the 
archbishop's throne: good famtolf 
1418. The fine cinquecento trascoro 
was executed in 1538 by Tudelilla of 
Tarazona, who had studied in Italy. 
It includes statues of the martyrs St 
Lawrence and St Vincent : four deli- 
cate reliefe, which represent episodcB 
of the martyrdoms of the two deacons, 
twelve balustrade colunms and a 
cornice with bizarre sculptural work, 
crowned by half shells and group 
of angels; also a tabernacle of six 
columns, which incloses a crucifix; 
the materials are clay, stucco, and 
marble. The workmanship is coaise, 
but the general efiect is strikingly 
rich. Obs. the San Lorenzo with his 
gridiron, and the magnificent r^ct, with 
figures, masks, and bold scroll-work. 
A tabernacle of black and white 
Salominic pillars marks the spot where 
the Virgin spoke to the Canon Funea, 
who kneels beside it. It constitutes as 
a whole a veritable museum. The 
chapels are generally inclosed in their 
own parclose. Obs. the reja of that 
dedicated to San Gabriel, which, 
although dark, is of excellent plate^ 

In the chapel of San Miguel lies 
Gabriel de Zaporta* ob. 1579. His 
ef9gy, clad in his merchant robes, is of 
Italian sculpture, and savours rather 
of the Pantheon than of a Christian 

In the chapel of San Bernardo obs. 
the retahlo and carving, especially the 
Circumcision, and the tutelar, to whom 
the Virgin dictates a book. The superb 
sepulchre and recumbent figure of the 
foimder. Archbishop Fernando, grand- 
son of Ferdinand the Catholic, is by 


Boute 14:S, — Zaragoza: Cathedrals. 


JDiego Morlanes, son of Juan, an ex- 
cellent Biscayan sculptor, who intro- 
dnoed the tedesque style into Zaragoza 
in the 15th centy. Diego, who in- 
herited his talent, adopted the cinque- 
cento, which was next the prevailing 
taste. The small alabaster **Besur- 
rectiwi " is by Becerra, who gave it to 
Diego, with whom he liv^ on his 
retain from Italy; by Diego also is 
the enriched tomb opposite, of Ana 
Gurrea, mother of the prelate. It is 
placed rather too high to be well seen. 
The Capilla Santiago is Churriguer- 
esqne, and in strange contrast with 
the preceding, especially the tomb of 
the founder, Archbishop Herrera ; the 
staoco ornaments are ridiculous, the 
bad paintings by one Baviela. In that 
of ICaria la Blanoa are collected the 
gravestones of early prelates, which 
were removed when the cathedral was 
repaved ; obs. also the arch and pilas- 
ters. The tutelar is San Pedro Arbues 
de Epila, who, like Thomas k Becket, 
was murdered. This deed was per- 
petrated by one Vidal Durans, on the 
15th Sept., 1495, close to the column 
on the Epistola side of the ch. His 
body is buried under the haldaquino of 
black Salominic pillars. This ferocious 
inquisidor while aHve had goaded the 
citizens to madness. His kneeling 
effigy is by Jos^ Bamirez, and the 
paintings by Francisco Ximenez of 
Tarazona. This martyrdom has, at 
least, done fine art a good service, for 
it was chosen hy Murillo for one of his 
finest pictures, just as Titian selected 
for his masterpiece another Dominican 
Peter, who was also a persecutor, and 
also a victim to popular revenge. Fer- 
dinand caused the murderers of Arbues 
to be hmnai alive, adding sundry com- 
bustible Jews to improve the bonfire. 
(Pulgar, Chro. chr. 95.) The opposition 
of the Zaragozansto the holy Mbunal 
arose from there being very few rich 
Jews or Moors living among them, 
therefore they suspected that this 
engine was armed against their own 
persons and properties.* 
Visit next the Sacristla, and obs. the 

* For an account of this inquisidor, and his 
beatification by Alexander VII., April 17, 1664, 
nee Llorentp,' • Hirtoiro,' i. 192, Paris edit., 181 7. 

plateresque door. Here are some fine 
ternos; one, a pontifical, cost 14,000 
dollars; also a casidla, embroidered 
with Adam and Eve, which was 
brought at the time of our Reforma- 
tion from the old Cathedral of St. 
Paul's, London. Obs. an enamelled 
chalice of 1655, a plateresque and 
rather overcharged silver cuatodia of 
1537 ; some silver busts, one especially 
fine Italian work of the 14th centy., 
beautifully decorated with translucent 
enamels and Gothic inscriptions, given 
by Benedict XIII. In the Capilla del 
Kadxniento is a classical retablo, and 
some pictures by Juan Galvan, who 
painted the cupola in fresco. In the 
Sala Gapitnlar are some paintings 
attributed to Bibera, and one fine Zur- 
baran : notice the drapery in the Dead 
Christ. The pavement of this room is 
very fine ; it is composed of tiles, azu- 
1^08, made at Valencia in the begin- 
ning of the present centy. 

Leaving; the Seo to the rt. is the 
vast arohiepiscopal palace, which was 
gutted and plundered by the French. 
Near was the beautiful Gasa de Dipu- 
taoion, or Parliament-house, which 
was built in 1437-40 by Alpnso V. 
The saloons were magnificent, and 
contained the rich national archives 
which came down from the earliest 
period, and the excellent library, while 
the walls were ornamented with por- 
traits of Aragonese worthies ; but al- 
most everything was destroyed by the 
invadera, and a Seminario was erected 
on the site in 1848. The inscriptions, 
now removed, are preserved in * Jn- 
scripciones Latinos, Geronimo Blan- 
cas, 4to.. Zar., 1680. 

Opposite the Cathedral of La Seo is 
the Lonja, the Exchange, built in 
1551, in the plateresque taste; it is 
decaying fast. Remark the project- 
ing and enriched soflSt of this square 
brick edifice, and the heads of kings 
and warriors let into circular frames in 
a fine Holbein taste ; the towers are 
tiled with white and green Azulejo, 
The interior is noble and solid, and is 
undoubtedly one of the finest ssdoons of 
the Renaissance style which exist in 
Spain. Look at the gilt pendentif ceil- 
ing, and Gothic inscription round the 


Boute 14&.—-Zaragoza: El Filar, 

Sect. IX. 

cornice ; obs. the Doric columns and the 
staircase. Next visit 

The Cathedral, el Pilar, so called 
from the identical pillar on whicli the 
Virgin descended from heaven; the 
clustering domes outside are roofed 
with green, yellow, and white glazed 
tiling, which glitter in the sun; the 
edifice has been much modernised. 
These *• improvements," begun in 1677, 
at a period of vilest taste, were planned 
by the presumptuous Herrera el Moz, 
and were not an^ended by the academ- 
ical Ventura Bodriguez, who, in 1753, 
rebuilt portions, and left di-awings for 
the facade. The building, spacious 
and lofty, is in details tawdry and in- 
cx>ngruous. It is quadrangular, in 
length about 500 ft., with naves and 
aisles ; the pillar and its image are 
placed at the end, and is thus inclosed, 
like the house of the Virgin which the 
angels moved from Palestine to Lo- 
retto. The interior is unpleasing. The 
poor frescoes in some of the cupolas are 
by Bayeu and Moya; the tomb of 
the Duque de Montemar, a general of 
Philip v., is the perfection of abomi- 
nable rococo of 1763. The retablo in 
San Lorenzo is a poor performance of 
Ventura Bodriguez. Tne ancient coro 
is fine and of better times ; the Si- 
lleria, 115 elaborate choir stalls, a 
splendid work of the Benaissance, was 
admirably curved in oak by Juan 
Moreto of Florence, in- 1542, with 
subjects principally connected with 
legends of the Virgin. The superb 
reja is the masterpiece of Juan Celma, 
1574. The Gothic Altar Mayor is 
composed of alabaster from the quar- 
ries of Esoatron. It consists of 3 grand 
canopied niches of the richest Gothic, 
with 7 smaller compartments below. 
To the 1., Santiago as a pilgrim, and 
San BrauUo, who is buried here, keep 
watch and ward over the whole. The 
subjects are different events connected 
witii the local miracle. The all- 
engrossing subject is the "Assumption 
of the Virgin : " the infinite forms and 
figures baffle pen or pencil. This, one 
of the masterpieces of Damian Fer- 
ment, is certainly the finest thing of 
the kind in Aragon ; but the detestable 

new colouring of parts of the cathedial 
makes this noble old work look some- 
what dark and dingy. In the ci^t 
beneath, the canons used to be bnned, 
an arrangement common in the cathe- 
drals of Aragon and Catalonia. 

The chapel of the Filar is raised in 
the centre of the cathedral, and is 
placed near the altar in the centre of 
a circular chapel ; this oval adytnm 
was designed by Bodriguez ; it is sur- 
rounded by a silver reja, and lamps 
are always burning before it. It is 
open on 3 sides, while the roof being 
perforated admits the cupola above, 
on which the Virgin's descent is 
painted in poor fresco by one Antonio 
Velasquez, 1793, who was not even 
distantly connected with his immortal 
namesaKCi The pavement is of the 
richest marbles; the retablo is much 
overcharged with statuary and detail; 
obs., among the medallions, the De- 
scent of the Virgin and the Vision of 
Santiago, by Bos^ Bamirez ; and some 
others by the poor Academician 
Manuel Alvarez. The Filar is not 
wholly seen ; but at the back there 
is a hole in the casing through whidt 
the devout may kiss the consecrated 
marble. The material, which, from 
being covered with dust, looks like 
wood, is of the purest alabaster, as 
all may learn for themselves by ob- 
serving the hand of Santiago, which 
is constantly cleansed by pious kisses. 
The marble steps are osculated and 
worn by unceasing devotion. Inside 
the silver railing none may enter 
save kings, cardinals, and the ap- 
pointed priests — ^women being ex- 
presslv prohibited. The holy imsge 
itself 18 small and carved out of a resinr 
ous almost black wood. The figureiB 
very ancient; it holds the in&nt in 
one hand, and collects its drapery with 
the other. As a work of art it i^^ 
curious and interesting specimen oC 
early Christian sculpture. Oct. 12 ir 
the anniversary of the descent of tba 
Virgin : on that day 60,000 pilgrim* 
have been known to flock into the 
town and visit the shrine. 

This Filar is the consolation and 
support of the people of Zaragoza »! 
peace and in war. Ck>untle8s are thftj 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy -.^j'w^^-i f»^ 


Boute 148. — Sfngrario ; Churches. 


meodicantfl, the halt, blind, and lame, 
who cluster round the shrine and beg 
charity for the Virgin's sake. The 
lamps are hung outside the shrine in 
order to preserve the ** simulacro " 
from smoke — the " Foeda nigro si- 
mulacra fumo*' to which Horace 
alhides (in. Od. vi. 4). The 22nd 
Feb. is a grand lamp-lighting day 
here. All around the shrine are sus- 
pended votive offerings, usually made 
of wax, in the shape of models of the 
members afflicted, and healed by the 
Virgin's hitercession. 

The Sagrario of the Filtfr is formed 
in great measure of private gifts, which 
have been offered rather for the pur- 
pose of being sold for the benefit or 
io be used for the decoration of the 
temple rather than to be placed on the 
image itself. Among them are watches, 
Waistcoat-buttons, and inkstands. In 
1870 the dean and chapter made a 
aelection of objects of this kind, and 
of several finely-set diamonds, and 
aold them by auction. The sale pro- 
duced about 20,000^., and with this 
iDoaey the cathedral was finished. 
l^heSouth Kensington Museum bought 
for 4002. some of Sie most remarkable 
specimens of Spanish goldsmith's work; 
among them a medallion of gold and 
iDck-crystaU the gift of Henri IV. of 
France, an enamelled gold *' steinkerk" 
which belonged to Navarens,.&c. Look 
at a diajnond necklace and cross, 
imongst the finest things of the kind 
in Spain. 

Several interesting objets d*art are 
kept ia the sacristy of the Cathedral ; 
among them is a fine^Oliphant, or hunt- 
ing horn, with carvings of the 13th 
century ; a silver galley of the 16th, 
and a large quantity of church-plate of 
different kinds.* 
I Prints of the Pilar and of the Vir- 

i * Goiuiat * Esp. Sag.' zxx. 426 ; * Fundacion/ 
! «., Lniz Diaz de Aux., Zar., 1605 ; ' Fundacion 
KOagnsa,' Diego MurlUo, Barcelona. 1616; 
'(blmnna Immobilis,* Jnan Lecana, 4to., Lug- 
Bft 1661; *Ba8e de la Tradicion/ Pab. de 
(wra.Mad. 1720. For official details, *Goin- 
Peodio,' and VilUfane, Mad., 1740, pp. 406 to 
^ ; ' Historla Cronol6gica,* Jnan Andres, 4to., 
wgoza, 1776 ; * Oompendio de MUagros.* Jose 
*—- 4to., Zar., 1780. Qui decipl vnlt, 

«», 1882.] 

gin's Descent are sold at the door of 
the cathedral. 

§ 4. Chubches, Leanh^g Towkb, Old 


The Chnroh of San Pablo, the most 
interesting after the Seo, is a 13th- 
centy. building with E. apse. Obs. its 
high altar, which is attributed to 
Damian Ferment, but is probably by 
one of his pupils ; this retablo is made 
of wood, and it is believed he always 
worked in alabaster. The cupola is 
painted by Gerdnimo Secano. In the 
Gapilla de San Kiguel is the tomb of 
Diego de Monreal, Bishop of Huesoa 
(ob. 1607). The ch. dates from the 
year 1259; the Coro is fitted with 
stalls executed about the year 1500; 
there is a Renaissance reja to the E. 
of the Coro. The fine octagonal 
steeple, which rises from llie N.W, 
angle of the nave, is of brick: its 
general effect is very graceful; tiie 
glazed tiles which have been used to 
fill in the brick patterns give it a very 
Moorish look. 

The Church of Santiago was built on 
the site of the house where the Apostle 
James is said to have lodged when on 
his tour through Spain. In the Xubbo 
Provinoial at Zaragoza, and Arqneo- 
Mgieo at Madrid, may be seen some 
very interesting capitals of columns of 
the 12th centy. bdonging to this ch. 
The originals are blocked into the 
wall. It boasts of a Campana GodcL, 
or bell cast by the Goths. The retablo 
of its principal altar represents the 
Virgin's visit to the saint 

Ctetn Kiguel is situated near the 
Puerta del Duque de la Victoria. The 
porch is richly sculptured; in the 
centre, under a colossal scallop shell, 
is the figure of the tutelar. 

The Convent of Santa Engraoia, to. 
the 1. of the Paseo of Santa Engracia, 
was destroyed by the French in 1808. 
This beautiful ch., commenced in the 
richest Gothic of Ferdinand and Isa- 
bel, was completed by Charles V. in 
1507. Their life-size statues may be 
seen there in very good preservation. 
They were sculptured by Morlanes, and 

546 Bouie 14:8, — Zaragoza: Museum; University. Sect. IX. 

the wealthy merchant Gabriel Zaporta 
in 1550, in the richest cinquecento 
style. The magnificent staircase has 
a rich roof, with groups of musicians 
sculptured in exquisite taste. Obs. 
the beautifully decorated paUo, with 
the fluted pillars, and the projecting 
medallions with most Italian-like 

Theold Ayuntamiento is in the ?Uia 
del Sen. The fine saloon has a lofty 
sculptured roof supported by 24 co- 
lumns. The walls are covered ^th 
coats of arms and banners. 

are the best likenesses which exist of 
the Catholic kings. The portal in the 
form of a retablo is filled with sculpture, 
the work of Juan Horlanes, 1505. No- 
thing but this portal now remains above 
ground. The elegant semi-Saracenic 
cloisters, with round-headed arches, 
were the exquisite design and work of 
Tudelilla, and there reposed the ashes 
of the learned Zurita and Blancas, 
which, with their splendid libraries, 
were burnt by the invaders.* The 
curious subterranean chapel or crypt 
was rebuilt by the architect Gironza 
after the French invasion. Three most 
interesting marble sarcophagi, with 
figures in relief, may be studied ''in 
this crypt : they illustrate the origin 
of Christian sculpture, and are as early 
as the 4th or 5th centy. The sub- 
jects they represent are similar to 
those of Ihis period, of which so many 
exist at the museums of Rome, Mar- 
seilles, Genoa, &c. 

The Torre Ifneva in the Plaza San 
Felipe, is an octangular clock-tower 
built in 1504, . and one of the finest 
examples of its kind anywhere to be 
met with. The face of the work is 
diapered with brickwork patterns and 
at a distance looks Moorish, but the 
design and execution is much coarser 
than in Moorish towers of the same 
dimensions. This beautiful tower leans 
some 10 ft. out of the perpendicular, 
like the towers of Pisa and Bologna ; 
this, however, is not a silly triumph 
of an architect, but has been caused 
by the sinking of faulty foundations : 
its foundation has been recently re- 
stored (1860), and the great mass of 
unsightly brickwork which had been 
previously erected removed. The tower 
is now supposed to be secure fiom 
further decline. 

Obs., among other ancient houses, 
la Casa de los Gigantes, and la del 
Comerdo in the Calle Santiago, with 
its fine azulejos, ceilings, and windows; 
the Casa de Gastel Florit ; the Palacio 
del Gonde de Argollo in the Plaza de 
San Felipe; and the Casa Zaporta 
(called also " de la Infanta '*) in the 
Calle San Pedro, which was built by 

• Consult ' Hlstoria del SuUerraneo Santua- 
rlo,* by Leon Benito Marton, fol., Zar., 1737. 

§ 5. Museum, Untvebsity, Hospital, 
PooB-HousE, Pbomenades. 

The Faseo de Santa Engrada is a 
well-paved promeimde about half a 
mile long, which terminates at one end 
by the Plaza de la Constitucion, and 
at the other by the Puerta de Sta. 
Engracia, through which is seen a 
vast expanse of olive-groves, fine 
houses, and the distant Sierra de 
Algairen. It is the usual aftemooa 

The Museo Hacional, in the old con- 
vent of Santa Fe, contains two toe 
Boman statues without heads, a co- 
lossal bust, and several other i^mains 
of the Boman period, a good coUectioQ 
of primitive pottery, vases in zones, 
found at Celsa (Telsa), many import- 
ant Arabic remains found at the Castle 
of the Aljaferia : some early Christian 
antiquities, and the sepulchre of Friar 
Aliaza, who played so important a part 
in the marriage negotiations of Prince 
Charles of England. Among many 
indifferent pictures there are some 
good paintings on panel of the early 
Spanish school — ^a picture by Piom- 
bino, the Ascent to Mount Calvary, 
and a series of pictures of scenes from 
the life of St. Bruno by Verdusano, 
an artist of Amgon. 

The XTniverBi^, in the Plaza de la 
Magdalena, is a new and uninteresting 
building : it was built in place of the 
noble old university which, with its 
precious library, was burnt by the 
French during their siege of the citT. 

The Hospital General is one of ta^ 


Boute 148. — Gates; Excursions, 


hrgestiu Spain, and is dedicated to 
the Virgin. The former was burnt by 
the French, when all the patients were 
roasted alive. 

The Gasa de Miserioordia is a large 
hospital, or poor-house, in which 800 
persons, young and old, are taken in 
and employed at different trades. 

El Portillo is the N.W. gate of the 
city. Here Agustina, the Maid of Za- 
rago^a, fought by the side of her lover 
—an artilleryman — ^and, when he fell 
mortally wounded, snatched the match 
from his hand and worked the gun 
herself. Hence she is called la Arti- 
Uera. (Bead Byron's * Childe Haxold/ 
cantos Iv., Ivi., Ivii.) This amazon, 
although a mere itinerant seller of cool- 
ing drinks, vied in heroism with the 
noble Condesa de ZurUa^ who on a 
similar occasion, amidst the crash of 
war, tended the sick and wounded — in 
looks and deeds a ministering angel. 

§ 6. Gates — ^Aljaferia. 

Outside the Portillo, 15 min. drive 
from the Coso, is the Aljaferia, the 
palace of the Moorish kings, or sheikhs, 
and afterwards the residence of the 
Kngs of Aragon. It is an old irre- 
gular citadel, and was built by the 
Moor Abu Giafar Ahmed, Sheikh of 
Zaragoza, and hence called (Hafariya : 
this palatial fortress was assigned to 
the Inquisition by Ferdinand 3ie Ca- 
tholic, partly to invest the hatred tri- 
bunal with the prestige of royalty, 
and partly because the strong walls 
offered a security to the judges after 
the murder of Arbues. Hero also An- 
tonio Perez was confined in 1591, and 
liberated by the populace. Suchet, 
having first damaged the palace with 
his bombs, used it as a barrack ; after- 
wards it became a military hospital, 
and was degraded into a prison during 
the civil wars, — hence its present 
condition. It is a true type of dila- 
pidated Spain, fallen from its pride 
of place ; some taXk of restoration has 
taken place, but "no /wwcte"— the 
old story — has allowed decay to be let 
alone; nothing has been done. Obs. 
the once splendid staircase, adorned 

with the badges of Ferdinand and 
Isabel. One room is called el Salon de 
Santa Isabel because the sainted queen 
of Hungary was bom in it in 1271 : 
above hangs, luckily out of reach, and 
in contrast with present decay, the 
glorious blue and gold artesonado roof 
with stalactical ornaments. Notice an 
elegant gallery, and a rich cornice 
with festoons of vine-leaves: a Gothic 
inscription bears the memorable date 
1492, which was that of the conquest 
of Granada, and of the discovery of 
the new world; and the first gold 
brought from it was employed by 
Ferdinand in gilding this ceiling. 
The only thing that remains of the 
time of the Arabs is a small octagonal 
mosque. From the esplanade of this 
palace there is, in clear weather, a very 
fine distant view of the Pyrenees 
(Mont Perdu, &c.). 

The gate of El Heroismo is closed. 
It was so called from the ashes of 
martyrs which were found on the spot, 

§ 7. Excursions. 

A pleasant drive of about 4 m.may be 
made to the Gasa Blanca, a country inn 
placed near the locks on the Canal de 
Aragon, and which is much frequented 
by the townsfolk, especially on the 
festivals of San Juan (June 24th), and 
San Pedro (June 29th). Take first 
the road to the hill called de Torrero, 
through a beautifid avenue called 
el Faseo de las Damas : below this, on 
the 20th Aug. 1710, Stanhope came 
up with PhiUp v., who was flying 
from his defeat at Lerida; but the 
German allies hesitated to advance, 
when the English general charged, 
alone, crying, '* This is a day to re- 
trieve Almansa,'* and it did so most 
effectually : although our troops were 
footsore and starving, they drove 
the foe everywhere before them, who 
abandoned cannon, 63 colours, and 
everything. The French version was 
'* Here Stanhope obtint quelques avan* 
tages ! " (Biog. Un. xliii. 430). Stan- 
hope's first care then was for tiie 
disabled French, for ** among the 

LjiyiU/ieu uy ■% — ■ W& '»JN ^i4 '•^ 

548 Boute 148a. — Zaragoza to Fuente de Hijar, Sect. IX. 

wounded/ said he, "there are no 
enemies" (Mahon, viii.) The heavy 
Austrian Charles now entered Zara- 
goza in triumph, and the crown might 
have been his, for Stanhope urged an 
immediate advance on cowed Madrid, 
but, like our Duke, he was thwarted 
by the pottering generals of his ally, 
and mediocre ministers at home. 

Ascend the hill to the church. From 
the pretty public gardens which sur- 
round the Ch. of San Fernando, a 
beautiful view of the city is obtained. 
To the back of the church is the canal. 
El Canal de Aragon was one of the first 
to be begun in Europe, as it probably 
will be the last to be finished. This 
grand conception was projected in 
1528 by Charles V., in order to con- 
nect the Mediterranean with the At- 
lantic ; vast in promise, slow in exe- 
cution, and impotent in conclusion, 
only 8 leagues were cut by 1546; 
then the affair languished until 1770, 
when one Ramon Pignatelll advanced 
it a few more leagues. It now connects 
Zaragoza with Tudela, and boats occa- 
sionally ply backwards and forwards 
with passengers. This canal suggested 
that of the Canal da Midi to Louis 
XIV., which was begun in 1861, and 
finished with Roman magnificence. 
This canal is at present in the hands of 
a company, and is chiefly used for 

€k) on to Bnena Vista, } m. further to 
the rt. The view from this point is 
superb : below in the distance lies the 
city with the Sierra de Jaca as aback- 
ground,and the snow-capped Cabeza de 
Xoneayo to the extreme 1. Follow the 
canal again throu^ an extensive olive 
wood to La Casa Blanea, crossing the 
RioHuerbaby the towing-path of the 
canal. The engineer should examine 
the skilful manner in which this deep 
gorge is crossed by the canal. At the 
Casa Blanoa Marshal Lannes signed 
the stipulations for the surrendering 
of the city. 

Now drive back by way of the Alja- 
feria, the extensive Cayalry Barraelos, [ 
and the Flaia de Tores, entering the 
city by the Pqrtillo gate. 

Railways,— "To Madrid (Rte. 2); 
to Barcelona (Rte. 136) ; to Pamplona 
(Rte. 163) ; from Zaragoza to Puente de 
Hijar (Rte. 148a). 

ROUTE 148a. 


ZaragOEa Stat. 

El Bnrgo Stat. Pop. 785. 

7. de Ebro Stat Pop. 2255. 

Pina Stat. Pop. 2828. 

Qninto Stat. Pop. 2529. 

LaZaidaStat. Pop. 377. 

Araila Stat. 

Fuente de Hgar Stat 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Boute 149. — Zaragoza to Madrid, 


ROUTE 149. 

JABA, AND ALCAlX. 214} m. 

Two trains daily, in 11 and 14 hrs. 

The Railway Station for Madrid is 
to the S.E. of the town, outside the 
Puerta del Carmen. The line to Pam- 
plona (Rte. 163) branches at 

9\ m. Las Casetaa Junct Stat. Pop. 
348. The rly. crosses the River Jalon 
and the Canal de Ara^n. 

8 m. Grisen Stat. Pop. 351. Obs. 
the rich olive-plantations, which clothe 
the country with a sombre verdure all 
the year round. 

5| m. Flasenoia del Jalon Stat. 
Pop. 891. To the i-t. is the Llanura 
de Flasenda, an immense plain : to the 
1. the country is mountainous. 

4} m. Bueda Stat Pop. 856. 

^ m. Epila Stat. A beautiful little 
town of 3587 Inhab., situated in a well- 
cultivated district. 

2} m. Salillas Stat. Pop. 746. 

3| m. Calatarao Stat. Pop. 2075. 
Many Roman architectural remains 
have been found here. 

3 m. Biola Stat. Pop. 2223. Its 
ch. is surmounted by an elegant stone 
square tower of a red colour, with 
octagonal belfry. The country around 
is bcsautifol and fertile. Several tunnels 
we now passed to 

6 m. Xorata Stat. Pop. 1959. Here 
are several oil and corn-mills. 

^ m. Mor§s Stat Pop. 648. Obs. 
a picturesque ruin near this little 

Z\ m. ParaouelloB de la Bibera Stat. 
Pop. 921. The peaches and other 
fruits of this district are excellent. 
The mineral springs here are famous 
for cutaneous disorders. In the parish 
Ohwreh a splendid <cr»o may be seen, a I 

I very first-rato specimen of ecclesiastical 
I embroidery of the beginning of the 

16th century. 
Many tunnels, bridges, and ravines 

are now crossed — 18 bridges and 11 

tunnels — between the stations of Ricla 

and Calatayud. 

8} m. Calatayud Stat. (Buffet). 
Inn : Fonda de la Campana. Posada, 
tolerable. The city lies to the rt., 
and is f m. from the station. Pop. 

Calatayud, the second city of Ara- 

fon, is a genuine Aragonese town : it 
as an imposing look, imbedded among 
rocks, with its noble castle. The hills 
are grey, barren, and crumbling, as are 
the ruined edifices which are built out 
of them and among them. This city, 
now dilapidated and dull, is of Moorish 
origin, as the Arabic name implies, 
being the ** Castle of Ayub,** of Job, 
the nephew of Musa, who, to construct 
his new frontier town, used up tho 
remains of ancient BibiliB as a 
quarry. [That old Iberian city lay 
about 2 m. E. at Bambola, and was 
celebrated for being the birthplace of 
Martial^ and the site of a victory gained, 
A.u.c. 680, by Quintus Metellus over 
Sertorius. It was also renowned for its 
superior steel and streaois, " aquis et 
armis nobilem." The fourteen medals 
coined at Bilbilis are enumerated by 
FlorezrM.i.l69).] Modem Calatayud 
must closely resemble ancient Biloilis 
as describea by Martial (x. 103) : it is 
cold and cheerless, being exposed to 
the blasts of tlie dreaded Moncayo, 
Mons Caunus, Calvus. This bald 
sierra, a mass of schists, slaty rocks, 
and limestone, divides the basins of 
the Ebro and the Duero, and, being a 
detached elevation, catches the clouds, 
and remains to this day the dwelling 
of ^olus and Pulmonia, as in the days 
of Martial (i. 50, 5). 

Martial himself, although au Ara- 
gonese by birth, was in truth rather an 
Andaluz gracioso. He Went to Rome, 
where he neglected business, and took 
to writing epigrams and composing 
seguidilUss, like his countrymen Salas 
and Quevedo. The characteristics of 
his style are well summed up by his 

550 ' Boute 149. — Cahtayud — Alliama de Aragon. Sect. IX. 

friend Pliny in his * Epistles ' (iii. 21), 
as partaking salts et feUis, of salt, 
sal Andaluza, and gall ; dirt might 
have been added. Martial toadied 
Bomitian, by whom he was knighted, 
when alive, "but the cahaUero abused 
the emperor when dead. He took 
disgust at being neglected by Trajan, 
his paisanot and return ed to Spain sSter 
35 years' absence, whence he wrote 
an account of his mode of life to 
Juvenal, which — rude as it was when 
compared to the luxuries of Kome — 
he asserted that he preferred to that 
of the Eternal City, exclaiming like a 
true Spaniard, who is wretched out of 
Spain, * sic me vivere^ sic juvat jperire ** 
(xii. 18). 

Calatayud has two Colegiatas. One, 
el Santo Sepnlcro, was built in 1141, and 
originally belonged to the Templars : 
the altar of the sepulcro is made of the 
marbles of the province. The second, 
Santa Maria, once a mosque, has an 
elegant cinquecento portal, erected 
in 1528, by Juan de Talavera, and 
Esteban Veray ; it has a lofty belfry, 
but the interior is disfigured with 
stucco-work of bad taste. There are a 
few second-rate pictures by Aragonese 
artists. The pavement, put down in 
1639, is of a marble called Clarahoyd, 
which resembles the Parian ; the belfry 
is octangular, as is common in Aragon 
and Catalonia. 

The Dominican Convent has a 
glorious patio with three galleries 
rising one above another; obs. a portion 
of the exterior enriched with pseudo- 
Moorish work, like the prisons at 
Guadalajara, although, when closely 
examined, it is defective in design and 
execution; seen, however, from afar, 
it is rich and striking. 

The city arms are truly Celtiberian, 
** a man mounted without stirrups and 
armed with a lance:" such a charge 
occurs constantly on the old coins. A 
cross has been placed in his other hand, 
and the motto ** Bilbilis Augusta '* sub- 

* Consult the local histories, *Tratado del 
Patronato,' Miguel Martinez del Villar, 4to., 
25aragoza, 1598; and 'Eloglo,' by Jeronimo 
Escuela, Alcali, 1«61. 

Cataiayud has a theatre, a Plaza de 
Torost and several pretty paseos and 
alamedas. Its environs are verv fertile, 
and its hemp is considered to be equal 
to that produced in Granada. The red 
wines grown in the Campos de Cari- 
Sena (about 25 m. distant) are con- 
sidered the best in Aragon. Visit the 
caves in the rocky hills once inhabited 
by Moors ; also some curious stalactite 
caves near the city on the Camino d» 
la Soledad. A pleasant excursion can 
also be made to the ruined Castillo 
del Reloj. 

A railway is planned and will shortly 
be carried out from Val de Zapan to 
San Carlos de la Bapita, firom which a 
branch will connect the main line by 
the coal-mines of XTtrillas with Cala- 
tayud, Teruel, and Sagnnto. 

After leaving Calatayud, the riy. 
traverses a rich and fertile plain to 

4f m. Terror Stat. Pop. 1013. 

3i m. Ateoa Stat. Pop. 3213. This 
little town is embellished with a 
church, the tower of which is Moorish, 
and a handsome town-hall. 

7f m. Alhama de Aragon. Pop. 1278. 
The mineral springs of this valley aie 
highly recommended in cases of gout, 
stone, gravel, and chronic rheumatism. 
These springs were called by the 
Romans Aquss BiXbilita'nsa: the two 
founts (viejos and nuevos') which are 
now most in use were first discovered 
by the Moors. Inn : Las Termas de 
Matheu, 30 r. to 40 r. a day. Sam 
Fermin and San Eoque more reason- 
able. Season commences in June, and 
terminates in September; but the 
establishment, which is provided with 
every comfort, and is excellently well 
managed, is open all the year round. 
Opposite the establishment, on the 
other side of the river, there is a lake 
of gaseous water, upon which asthmatic 
patients cruise about in boats. 

[A delightful excursion may be mode 
from here by carriages or omnibus to 
the monastery of Piedra. This Bene- 
dictine monastery was bought by the 
present proprietor after the confiscation 
of conventual estates in 1839. "What 
was left of the building has been con- 


Boute 149. — Huerta — Sigiienza. 


verted into a good Hotel, charge 31 r. 
a day. The scenery is most beaati- 
fuL There are twelve cascades, one 
of which is 150 ft. high ; caves with 
stalactites, and happily the soenej^ is 
left to its wild simplicity and effect. 
The artificial breeding of fish has been 
carried out there with great success. 
Abundant springs of water in the 
sheltered bottom supply a series of 
lakes swarming with trout of all sizes, 
and salmon in the first stage of the 
experiment. While the temperature 
at Alhama is warm, the traveller may 
find in the shady glens of Fiedra much 
that will interest him, and may vary 
the temperature at his convenience 
by climbing the mountain, or seeking 
the moister atmosphere of the water- 
Ms. The church is not devoid of 
interest, and in one of the chapels in 
the adjoining forest, 2 miles off, is a 
carious altar of the 13th centy. The 
fine relicario at the Academy of history 
at M^idrid, came from this Monastery.*] 

4} m. Cetina Stat. Pop. 1160. 
Obs. the embattled fort, which once 
protected this vUlage : now it is decay- 
ing fast. 

4i m. Aiiia Stat Pop. 1553. This 
little hamlet is placed on the border 
of Axagon : the houses are built of red 

The Bly. now enters upon the arid 
and desolate plain of Castile. 

14} m. Aroos de Xedinaoeli Stat. 
Pop. 1113. Obs., on the top of a hill, 
a mined castle and the remains of a 
Boman arch. 

[A short walk from Arcos is the 
little town of Huerta (a garden). It 
possesses the remains of one of the 
finest Bemardine monasteries which 
Spain has ever possessed ; it was built 
on the site of a palace of Alonso Y III. 
(in 1142-7), and was the scene of his 
amours with the dark-eyed Jewess 
Bachael, of her tragical death, and 
his bitter repentance. Part of his 
stables remain, but the rest of the 

• For ftirther detailB, read * Descripcion del 
Monasterio de Piedra,' to be bought on the 

edifice has been much altered. There 
still exist, however, two noble clois- 
ters: the one with a double colon- 
nade is most elegant. Obs. also the 
silleria del corOy and the stall of the 
abbot. Near the high altar was buried 
Bodrigo Ximenez de fiada, the war- 
like primate, lyho fought at las Ka^ai 
de Tolosa; his ashes now repose at To- 
ledo. The convent was also the burial- 
place of el Banto Sacerdote, Martin de 
Finajoia, and others of his family; 
of Perez, Martinez, Manriques, Mufioz, 
and pthers who died fighting the Moor 
during the 13th and 14th centurj^es.] 

10 m. XedinaeeU Stat. Pop. 1182. 
This town, of 1800 Inhah., is not a 
"city of heaven" either metaphori- 
cally or really, but simply the " city 
of Salem;" it was once the strong 
frontier hold of a Moor of that name, 
and, accordingly the scene of many 
conflicts between the Moors and the 
Christians. Here died the celebrated 
Al-Mansilr "the victorious," the Gid 
of the Moors, bom 938, died 1002, 
and the most terrible enemy of the 
Christians. Medinaceli is built be- 
neath a steep hill, and presents a 
most picturesque appearance as seen 
from the rly. ; it gives the title of duke 
to the noble family la Cerda, the 
rightful heirs to the crown of Spain ; 
Fernando, the eldest son of Alonso 
el Sabio (called la Cerda from a pecu- 
liar tuft of hair on his face), died 
during his father's lifetime, leaving 
two children by Blanche of Bourbon. 
These infant Dukes of Medinaceli were 
dispossessed by their uncle Sancho el 
Bravo, but they and their descendants 
long continued to claim the crown 
upon every firesh coronation, and to 
be fined a small sum pro forma : the 
fieunily tomb is in the parochial church. 

13 m. Aleuneza Stat. Pop. 379. 
The river Henares is seen to the L of 
the line. 

8f m. Sigfiensa Stat. Pop. 4497. 
Fonda de Ventura, tolerable. Casa 
de Hu^spedes. This, the chief town 
of a district possessing fine plains and 
plenty of water, might, with proper 


Boute 149. — Sigiienza: Cathedral. 

Sect. IX. 

cultivation and roads, be made the 
granary of Spain. The ciiy is said to 
have been built by fugitives from 
Saguntum, but the site of the Celti- 
berian Segontia was distant 2 m. from 
the city of Sigiienza, and it is still 
called La ViUa Vieja. The city yet 
retains a portion of its ancient walls 
and gates : it is built in the shape of 
an amphitheatre on the side of a hill, 
sloping down the valley of the 
Henares: the upper town is steep, 
with its height crowned by the epis- 
copal palace of alcasar, for the bishop 
of Sigiienza was once its temporal lord 
or seiior. 

The Oothie Cathedral is a fine sub- 
stantial building of first-rate interest, 
and well preserved, and, as Mr. Street 
suggests, undoubtedly the work of 
Spanish artists. The date of its foun- 
dation is unknown, but it was restored 
by King Don Alfonso after he had taken 
Sigiienza, Toledo, and Medinaceli from 
the Moors. It was dedicated on the 
19th of June, 1102. The two western 
steeples are of the very plainest pos- 
sible character, pierced with narrow 
slits, which dimly light the interior of 
each tower. The buttresses are of 
enormous size: the western door is 
round-arched : the simple fa9ade be- 
tween the two towers has a medallion 
of the Virgin giving the CasuUa to 
San Ildefonso, placed over the central 
pKortal. The interior is striking, espe- 
cially the 24 noble clustered piers 
which support the middle and highest 
of the three naves. The original 
windows generally remain; the rose- 
window in the south transept is re- 
markable for the vigorous character 
of its design, and is undoubtedly one 
of the finest in Spain. The rich Gothic 
tiUefia del coro was carved in 1490; 
the much admired trascorOf with red 
and black marbles, was raised in 1685 
.by Bishop Bravo, to receive an image 
of the Virgin which had been miracu- 
lously preserved from the Moors. The 
simple and classical retablo of the 
principal altar was raised in 1613 by 
Bishop Mateo of Burgos : it is com- 
posed of three tiers, of the Ionic, 
Corinthiauyand Composite orders ; the 
bassi-relievi of Faith, Hope, and 

Charity deserve notice. Obs., in the 
presbiterto, the recumbent effigy of the 
first bishop, Don Bernardo, a Bene- 
dictine monk, who had taken the 
Iiabit at Cluny, and who was a native 
of France. This Bernardo was after- 
wards created Archbishop of Toledo, 
and was killed in battle near the 
Tagns. The relics of Santa Labrada, 
the patroness of the city, are preserved 
in a niche in the transept : obs. the 
details of the retablo above the tomb : 
the sculpture represents the samt 
as ascending to heaven, whilst the 
founder, Bishop Fadrique, of Portugal, 
kneels in a highly wrought niche 
below.'^ In the chapel dedicated to 
this saint there are ax beautiful pic- 
tures on panel, Italian style of the 
beginning of the 16th century. In 
the chapel of San Marcos there i» 
an interesting triptych of the end of 
the 15th century, composed of 28 com- 
partments containing pictures on 
panel, with ornamentation in gold. 
They appear to be by early Spanish 
artists. A Gk)thic inscription, which 
is concealed by the altar, runs round 
the lower part. The chapel is very 
dark, and must be seen wltli artificial 
light. The chapel of Santa Gatalins, 
near the door which opens to the 
market-place, contains flags taken 
from the English in 1589. It wasdedi* 
cated to St Thomas of Canterbniy, 
a few years after his martyrdom, by ' 
Bishop Jocelyn, who came over to 
Spain with Queen Leonora. Obs. a 
delicate plateresque portal and reja, 
and some superb sepulchres with 
recumbent figures; eg. of Martin , 
Vasquez de Sosa; Sancha, his wife; i 
Martin Vasquez de Arce, 1485; and 
a fine armed Knight of Santiago. 
Notice that of the Bishop of Oanaiia, 
Fernando de Arce, ob. 1522 : the pre- 
late lies at full length on the uma. 
Another sepulchre, of older date, fills 
the centre of this assemblage of monQ- 
mental art. In the sacristy of this 
chapel may be seen an altar composed 
of different pictures on panel. Obs. 
the portal of one of the chapels to the 

* Fee her DIfe, * Discnrso de la Vida, Scc,J» 
Santa Librada,* Diego E. Gonz, C!hantufl y CI* 
lauri 4to., Mad., isott. 


Boute 149. — Guadalajara, 


north side, one of the most curious 
specimens, and most admirably com- 
bined, of Gothic, Moorish, and Benais- 
sance styles. The adjoining Capilla 
de San Francisoo Xavier has also 
a picturesque portal, and in the semi- 
drcnlar chapel is the tomb of Bishop 
Bravo, with a fine crucifix. The portal 
to the sacrista or sagrario is in best 
plateresque, and in the same style is 
the wood-carving inside, while the reli- 
oono is filled with statuary and minute 
sculpture, and the r^a is excellent. 
It contains some interesting chalices 
ornamented vrith enamel, and a silver 
temple and stand for the monstrance, 
fine work of the 16th century: the 
jewels in the centre are very fine. In 
an adjoining room are two sculptures 
representing the Crucifixion, which are 
▼orth seeing. Look in the sacristy 
at a large piece of ancient gold-tissue. 
The Sala Capitular is covered with 
good Flemish tapestries. An Italian 
triptych which is worth noticing hangs 
in this chapel. The Gothic cloisters, 
with delicate windows and enrich- 
ments, were finished in 1507, by 
Cardinal Bernardo Carvajal, and were 

Kved in the last century by Bishop 
lUon, who disfigured the general 
character with his coat of arms. Ex- 
unine the doors and contiguous 

The church of San Vicente is Ro- 
manesque, but much injured. On 
the Epistola side of the high altar is 
a picture on panel of the Virgin, by 

The Geronimite Colegio was founded 
by one of the Medinaceli family, who 
lies buried in the transept, ob. 1488. 
Obs. the tomb of Bishop Bartolome 
deRisova, ob. 1657, and the classical 
cloister of Tuscan and Doric. Sigii- 
enza has pleasant walks on the river- 
banks, which were laid out by Bishop 
Diaz de la Gueira, for the bishops 
have been signal benefactors to their 
city : they raised the aqueduct, which 
crosses a glen below their palace, and 
supplies the town, and is a work of 
truly Roman intention, solidity, utility, 
and grandeur. The Gothic castle over 
the town is uninteresting. 

10 m. Baides Stat. i 

4} m. Matillaii Stat. Here are the 
ruins of a castle. 

7 m. Jadraque Stat. Pop. 2000. 
Large quantities of fruit are sent from 
this neighbourhood to Madrid. [10 m. 
to the N., at the foot of the Sierra de 
Pela, are the celebrated silver-mines of 

8 m. Espinosa Stat. Pop. 415. To 
the 1. obs. a fine oak forest, which 
belongs to the Duke of Osuna. 

8| m. Hnmanes Stat. Pop. 1042. 

6 J m. Yunqnera Stat. Pop. 1013. 
Obs. to the 1. the ancient convent 
of San Francisco. 

1\ m. Guadalajara Stat. Pop. 8371. 
Buftet. Inn : Fonda del More, Calle del 
Barria; Gasa de Huespedes, de Dn. 
Eugenie Cafias, Calle Major baja, both 
indiflferent. Travellers are recommended 
to visit Guadalajara from Madrid, 
and nott o sleep there. This ancient 
poverty-stricken city was the Arriaca 
of Antoninus, the Caraca of Ptolemy 
and Plutarch, the Wdla-l-hajarah 
(river of stones) of the Moors. The 
town, especially when seen from San 
Antonio, outside the walls, rises in> 
a fine jagged outline with crumbling 
battlements, while the gardens of the 
Mendoza palace hang over a wild 

Guadalajara was reconquered from 
the Moors by Alvar Fafiez de Minaya, 
whose mounted effigy the city bears for 
its arms. The readers of old ballads 
will be familiar with this relative and 
right-hand of the Cid, to whom he 
gave his precious sword (Duran, v. 
154.) Alvar was a fierce guerrillero of 
that exterminating age, and, like his 
master, spared neither age nor sex, 
hewing the infidel to pieces ; hence the 
Moorish annalists never mention the 
name "Albarhanis" without adding 
•*May God destroy him I" (Moh. D., 
ii., Ap. 32> The feudal lords of Guada- 
lajaravfere the Mondozas, the Maecenas 
family of the Peninsula. Visit their 
palace (Palace of Dulce del In/antado), 
built in 1461, in which the great 
Cardinal Mendoza, Rex Tertius, died. 
The style is an admirable example of 
Mudejar architecture; the capricious 
and artistic desimis arejjoareeljr exe- 


Boute 149,— Chiadalajara. 

Sect. IX. 

cuted, yet as a whole it is veiy striking. 
The fa9a(le is studded with project- 
ing knobs, while an ample annorial 
shield, with satyrs for supporters, 
crowns the portal : high above runs an 
elegant row of Moorish windows, from 
whence FrauQois I. beheld the tourna- 
ment given him by the Duque del In- 
fantado, whose magnificent hospitality 
is described by eye-witnesses.* The 
then duke lived in almost royal state ; 
his retinue, body-guard, &c., are de- 
tailed by Navagiero. On entering the 
house the patio is singularly effective, 
albeit not of the most correct taste; 
over the arcades are strange sculptured 
lions, with heads like hedgehogs, and a 
profusion of scrolls and shields, and 
the ball ornament. The splendid 
artesonado ceilings, being out of reach, 
mock with their gilded magnificence 
the indigent misery of the walls below, 
and the azulejos retain their Prima- 
ticcio desi^s. Obs. the ceilings in a 
saloon which overlooks the garden, 
and another which bears the arms of 
England, with the Tudor badges and 
supporters. The Sala de Linajes, once 
the saloon of the genealogies of the 
proud Mendoza, was long ago converted 
into a magazine. Obs. the huge 
chimney-pieces, and especially that in 
the long gallery, which Fran9ois I. so 
much admired, and NufieZ de Castro 
has desciibed in bad verse. This 
palace was completely gutted by the 
French. It is now in tolerable good 
preservation, and made use of as a 
school for the orphan sons of officers. 

Next visit Ban Frano^soo, with its 
simple imposing outside. It was 
cruelly ill-used in the civil wars, 
having been turned into a fortress, as 
it commands the town; founded in 
1200 by Dofia Beren^ela for the 
Templars, it was rebuilt in 1393 by 
the Admiral Mendoza. Obs., in the 
Capilla de los Davalos, a sweet statue 
of a sleeping female holding the cordon 
of the tutelar ; here youth and beauty 
have met with an untimely end, cut 
off in their prime. 

• See ♦ Hechos de Alaroon,' x. 302, fol.. Mad., 
1666; and Uistoria de Peecara,* viii., ch. 3, 
• Zaragoza, 1662. 

Now descend into the Tauteon, 
where reposed the ashes of the Men* 
dozas, the brave, the pious, the learned, 
and the magnificent. The sepulchre, 
worthy of their goodness and great- 
ness, rivalled in rich marbles those 
of the Medici at Florence and of the 
Escorial. Begun in 1696, and finished 
in 1720, at the then enormous cost of 
180,000Z., it contained twenty -eight 
tombs, and among them that of the 
duke who had befriended Francois I. ; 
but his ashes, in 1809, were cast to the 
wmds by the French, who also broke 
the precious marbles into pieces. In- 
fantado, after their expulsion, long left 
the vault purposely imrestored, as a 
mute but eloquent record of revolu- 
tionary philanthropy. 

Near the Mendoza palace is a pseudo- 
Moorish brick building, now used as 
a prison: opposite is the College of 
Engineers, once a royal manufactoiyi 
a French scheme of Philip V., who 
wished to force Spain, a naturally 
agricultural country, into making bad 
and dear wares. 

Next visit the Plaza de Santa Maria, 
and obs. the picturesque arcades of 
San Miguel, once a mosque, with its 
colonnaded entrance, round buttress 
pillars with pointed heads, horseshoe 
arches, machicolations, and herring- 
bone patterns under the roof. An in- 
scription states that it was consecrated 
as a Chrtstian Ch. in 1540. The Ch. 
of San Esteban has the Toledan circu- 
lar apsis, and rows of arches on the 
exterior, and presents a curious jumble 
of styles. Alvar Fafiez, the Cid's right- 
hand companion in 79 battles, lies 
buried inside, with many other ancient 
knights of good family, In the Miuwo 
amid some bad pictures, obs. the 
fine tomb of Dofia A. de Mendoza, 
brought from the convent of Lupiana. 
The Gasas ConsistOTiales built in 1585, 
have a good gallery and balcony.* The 
River Henares is crossed by a bridge 
built in 1758 on Roman foundationa. 

* There is a * Historia,' fcc, of aa«(tal^|« 
collected partly by Fernando Pecha, a Jeswj 
but published under the name of Alonso IWJJ 
de Castro, fol., Mad., 1633; consult also -AJ- 
gUedad de Guadalajara,' Hair. Campunno, W" 
Mad., 1661. 


Bouie 149. — Alcald de Benares^ 


[Excursions can be made from 
Guadalajara to 

(a) Lupiana (Pop. 614—6 m.), with 
its once celebrated monastery of San 
Bartolome, the first founded in Spain 
for the Older of St. Jerome. It was 
the work of Diego Martinez in 1330. 
The fiHe Gothic cloisters were bnilt by 
the primate Carrillo in 1472. 

(6.) The baths of Trillo (Pop. 798— 
30 m.), pleasantly situated on 1. bank of 
the Tagus, see Rte 2: a diligence 
service during the season. The 
htpederias afford decent accommoda- 
tion for visitors. The nine hydrosul- 
phate springs of Trillo* are perhaps 
the most efficacious in Europe for 
rheumatic disorders, St. Vitus* dance, 
epilepsy, ophthalmia, &c. Season com- 
mences in June and terminates in 

^ m. AxoqnejDa Stat. Pop. 422. 
Near here the ' Marquis de Sierra 
Bnllones (General Zabala) has a 
. country seat. 

' 8 m. Aloali de Henares Stat. Pop. 

^ 14,241. Inn : Fonda del Universo, 

[ Alcala de Henares. The place looks 

I imposing when seen from afar, with its 

old waUs, its conical roofs, and its 

towers. It has a theatre, a plaza de 

tons and two pretty alamedaa. 

Here was bom the immortal Cer- 
vantes, who was baptised in the ch. 
of Sta. Maria, Oct. 9, 1547 : and also 
Antonio Solis, the historian of South 
America. The house in which Cer- 
vantes was bom is marked by an 
inscription in the wnU. 

The old city, Alcalfi la Vieja, was 
bnilt on the Gerro de San Juliaxi del 
Tuo, and was called Com'plutum, quasi 
confluviiism, from the junction of rivers. 
It was taken by Alonso VI., who was 
encouraged by a vision of the Cross in 
the air, which was seen by the Archbp. 
Bernardo, a sharp-sighted Frenchman, 
to whom the monarch granted all the 
lands near the sight of his vision ; the 
place soon grew imder the fostering 
protection of the Toledan primates, 
and indeed is their creation. Bernardo 
built a hermitage on the hiU of la 
Vera Cmx, ** the trae cross," to which 

a retdbU) was given in 1492 by Pedro 
Gumiel. This worthy architect of 
AloaUl is generally called " the honour- 
able," d HonradOf because his works 
never exceeded his estimates. The 
Archbp. Tenorio erected the wall and 
bridge in 1389 ; but the greatest bene- 
factor was Cardinal Ximenez (or 
Cisneros, as he is generally called by 
Spaniards), who, having been educated 
here, remembered in his day of power 
the school of his obscure youth, and 
raised it in 1510 to be a universitv, as 
Wolsey, imitating him, tried to do at 
Ipswich. He endowed it most magni- 
ficently, but the funds have been sadly 
sequestrated and robbed. It once had 
19 colleges, and 38 churches, and was 
so amplv provided, that Erasmus per- 
petrated a pun ou Complutum by call- 
ing it ncanrKoincv, from the abundance 
of wealth, and the ** cumpUmiento "of 
all learning. Ximenez, disgusted at 
Ferdinand's suspicious ingratitude, re- 
tired to Alcala after the conquest of 
Oran, and devoted his time and income 
to his new building. During his re- 
gency he amassed much treasure, with 
all of which, when Charles V. reached 
Spain, he endowed his university, say- 
ing, "had an angel asked mo for it 
before my sovereign's arrival, I should 
have thought him a devil ; and should 
he ask me again for it now, I should 
think so still.'' Alcala became to Sala- 
Inanca, what Cambridge is to Oxford ; 
and Fran9ols I., who, when a prisoner, 
spent here 3 days of continual festival, 
being welcomed by 11,000 students, 
remarked that *' one Spanish monk 
had done what it would have taken a 
line of kings in France to accom- 
plish." The celebrated Polyglot Bible 
was printed here (in 6 vols, folio, 
1514-17), hence it is called the Com- 
plutensian. Ximenez, its proiector, 
spared neither pains nor cost, and lived 
to see the last sheet in typo ; but after 
his death Leo X., warned by Card. 
Pole of the danger to which the Tiara 
might be exposed, in thus letting the 
people "search the Scriptures," delayed 
the publication until 1522, and then 
limited it to 600 copies. The expense 
of the edition exceeded the then most 
enormous sum of 52,000 ducats ; throe 

Ljiyii!/_eu uy >^_.x^-.^-t t'*^ 


Boute 149. — Alccdd : Episcopal Palace. Sect. IX. 

copies only were printed on vellum, 
one for the Vatican, one for Alcala 
(now moved to Madrid), and a third 
which was bought by Mr. Standish 
for 522Z., and afterwards bequeathed to 
Louis Fhilippe,is now in the fine library 
of the Due d'Aumale; the text, in 
Hebrew, Greek, Latin, and Chaldaic, is 
not very highly esteemed by Biblical 
critics. The MSS. employed by the 
editors of the Old Testament of the 
Polyglot were carefully transfeiTed 
from Alcala to the University Library 
at Madrid. The MSS. made use of in 
preparing the New Testament had 
Deen borrowed from the Vatican 
Library, and were restored to that 
collection again. A catalogue of the 
MSS. by Dn. Jose Gutierrez and the 
investigations made by Dr. James 
Thomson on this subject will be found 
in an 'Account of the Printed Text 
of the Greek New Testament, with 
Kemarks on its Revision upon critical 
Principles.' By James Prideaux Tre- 
gelles, LL.D. Bagster, 1854. Ap. to 
sect. i. p. 12. The old story of the 
parchments liaving been sold to a 
rocket-maker is true, but it was only 
the covers of the MSS., when they 
were re-bound. 

AloaUl is now a poor and ignorant 
place, for the removal of the university 
to Madrid has completed its literary 
ruin. It is a shadow of the past, and 
latterly hos been left in sad abandon- 
ment Visit the Colegio Mayor de San 
ndefoiuo, which Ximenez began in 
Tapia, and when Ferdinand objected 
to the humble material, replied, that 
it became him, a creature of the dust, 
to leave marble for his successors. 
Hence the inscription, ** Olim lutea 
nunc marmorea.'* The San Ildefonso 
was sold to one QuintOy who began 
pulling it down for the sake of the 
materials. When the body of Ximenez 
was found, the corporation bought 
back the desecrated walls with an 
intention of preserving tho site as a 
sepulchre for their former benefactor. 
The original XTnivernty was designed 
by Pedro Gumiel, and finished in 1583 
by Rodrigo Gil. The fa9ade of three 
storeys, with statues, is constructed! 

with marble of a beautiful ivory 
colour, with a grey granite basement : 
the cordon of St. Francis is symbolic 
of the founder's name and order. There 
are 3 patios; in the Doric, Ionic, 
and Berruguete style : that called d 
Trilingue was completed in 1557. The 
chapel built by Gil de Ontaiion is 
magnificent : here the rich Gothic is 
tinctured with Moorish decoration, 
azulejos y lienzoa. Obs. the fretted 
arches under a matchless artezonado 
ceiling, with ribbed panels and Al« 
hambra stars. 

The Faraninfo, the grand saloon, or 
hall of former ceremonials (so called 
from the professor who presented can* 
didates for degrees) : look at the a- 
quisite plateresque upper galleries; 
the lacunares of the artezonado roof 
are very rich. Near the entrance door 
may be seen the last picture painted 
by Garducho — a St. Jerome. Ximenei 
died at Boa, near Valladolid, Nov. 8th, 
1517, in his 81st year, broken-hearted 
at the ingratitude which Charles V. 
showed, like his grandfather, towardi 
an old and faithful minister. 

The Episoopal Falaee, with square 
towers and leaden spires, on which 
many primates have laboured, is still 
unfinished : it occupies the site of the 
old alcazar, of which a massive tower 
yet remains : the plain solid exterior 
contrasts with the beautiful courts and 
decorations inside, wrought in a warm' 
coloured marble. The windows of the 
first patio resemble those by Berni- 
guete in the Alcazar of Toledo ; the 
second patio is plateresque, with rich 
cornices and balustrades, and wa« 
built by the primates Fonseca and 
Tavera : the exquisite carved ceilinffl 
and plateresque staircase and facade 
to the garden deserve notice. This 
building has been restored at a con- 
siderable expense, and since 1861 has 
been devoted to the Archivo Hid&rito: 
apers proceeding chiefly from the 
n(|uisitions of Toledo, and most inte^ 
estmg as throwing light upon horrow 
hardly to be believed which happeoed 
at the terrible trials of the Trihnna!; 
and those belonging to the Pabbc 




Boute 149. — Alcald to Madrid, 


Offices in Madrid of an historical 
eliAiacter, have been collected here. 
The archives are open daily to the 
poWic, and amateurs will find civil 
employ^ who will show them auto- 
graphs and other literary curiosities. 
AlaJi was repeatedly sacked by the 
French : hence the churches and con- 
vents are now plateless, pictureless, and 
desolate. In the San Diego is the grand 
aepnlchre and recumbent statue of the 
primate Alonso de Carrillo, ob. 1542. 
Ttie principal ch., el Xagiitral, is Go- 
thic It has an excellent reja by Juan 
Franc^ and an elaborate nlleria dd 
torn. The Cardincfl lies buried here ; 
ha effigy, clad in pontificalibus, re- 
poses on a most superb raised uma, 
the masterpiece of Dominico el Fioren- 
tino. The epitaph records the great 
commissionB of this friar, general 
Ticeroy, and cardinal. The reja^ or 
halnstrade was wrought by the Yer- 
f^ttiB, father and son, 1566-73 ; the 
lich cinquecento ornaments struggle 
between Pagan and Christian devices ; 
ttamine it well, although the inscrip- 
tion invites the traveller to admire the 
' Tirtaes of the deceased in preference. 
Here lies also Pedro Gumiel, el Hon- 
wdo, now forgotten and dishonoured. 

The tutelar saints of AlcaU are 
/wto and Pcutor, who were put to 
death Aug. 6th, 306, when aged 7 and 
9 years.* 

The only convict female establish- 
ment in Spain is at Alcali : 800 wo- 
ineD are employed in work of different 

[The mineral -baths of Loeohes 
(Pop. 865) are distant 1 mile. Ac- 
commodation indifferent : diligence 
nrvice during the season — 15th June 
to 15th Sept. The waters are strongly 
impregnated with sulphate of mag- 
nesia, and are recommended for rheu- 
matiffln and all kinds of skin-diseases. 
The diligence takes travellers to 

* BibfldeneTra (U. 444) gives all detalla; see 
also Pmdentius '" ' 

t (U. 444 

lo> A. 

. iv. 41); oonsult Also 

'VUa y ]lartyrlo> A. Mor&les, AlcaU. 1668; 
'Monmnentos de Ice S. M. Jnsto y Pastor,' 
J. F. Andrea Ustarroc, Zarairosa, 8vo., 1644. 
For local hialory, oonsalt 'Hlstoria, &c., de 
Oompliito,* Higael de Fortllla y Esqulvel, 

the Nuevo Bastan. The Palace and 
Dominican Convent, to which the 
Conde Duque de Olivares retired 
when disgraced by Philip IV., may be 
visited; he died here in 164:-{. The 
Church, in the Herrera style, bears 
his arms and a statue of the Virgin ou 
its front. He is buried in the ch., 
which is plain, and stripped of its 
famous Rubens, now in the Grosvenor 
Gallery, London.] 

6^ m. Torrejon de Ard6s Stat. Pop. 

Not far from the station is an estate 
belonging to the Duke of Osuna, called 
La iiameda, to visit which a ticket 
from the administrador at Madrid is 

The river Jarama is now crossed to 
2} m. Ban Temando Stat., where is 

a royal ch&teau in ruins (not worth 

seeing) and park. 

4J m. Vioalvaro Stat. Pop. 1895. 
Here the stone is obtained with which 
Madrid is paved. 

2} m. VaUeoas Stat. Pop. 3124. 
Obs. to the 1. an isolated hill crowned 
with a small ciiapel ; it is called the 
Srmita de los Angeles, and marks the 
centre of Spain. The Ely. to Alicante 
now branches 1., and the custom-house 
magazines (called '* docks") are seen 
to the rt. 

4^ m. Madbid Terminus. Omni- 
buses and cabs to the Puerta del Sol 
and every part of the town (see Rte. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

5r>8 Boute 150. — Zaragoza to Hueaca and Panticosa, Sect. IX. 

OscaJ* Boman Osca was destroyed by 
the Moors, but afterwards rebuilt by 
them. It was recovered by the Chris- 
tians in 1096, after a siege of 2 years, 
and an obstinate defence. The see of 
Huesca, which dates from the 6th 
centy., waa restored by Don Pedro I. 
m 1096. 

BOUTE 150. 



ZaragMa. See Bte. 148. 

The line to Barcelona is retraced to 

14i m. Tardienta Stat. Pop. 1481. 
Thence the Branch Blv. traverses a 
level and well-cultivated country to 

7i m. Videa Stat. Pop. 276. 
Thence to 

23} m. Haesea Stat. Terminus. 
Inns : Fonda de la Union, in the Calle 
de Zaragoza, 30 r. ; Fonda de Espafia, 
Oalle de San iVictoiiano, 2 r. — dili- 
gences leave these Hotels daily for 
Pauticosa ; Casa de Hu^spedes, del 
Sol; none good. Omnibus from the 
station. Casino in the Coso ; strangers 
admitted on presentation of their 
cards. Cafe in the Coso. Pop. 11,536. 


Plaza de Toros, 

This chief town of its province is the 
see of a bisliop, suffragan to Zaragoza, 
and the residence of the usual pro- 
vincial autliorities. Huesca is a fine 
specimen of an old Aragonese cily : its 
antiquity is very great. Originally 
called Ileosca, it became the capital 
of the Vascitaui, and was afterwards 
chosen by the gtierrtUero Sertorius as 
the seat of a university (founded a.u.o. 
677), ostensibly for the education of 
noble youths, but in reality to hold 
them as hostages to ensure their fathers* 
allegiance. The Bomans, unable to 
subdue Sertorius by fair fight, set a 
price on his head, which induced 
Perpenna, one of his officers, to plan 
his assassination, which he effected 
(a.u.o. 680) by murdering his cliief at 
a banquet. The city under Sertorius 
had become an important place. Un- 
der the Bomans it became a rauni- 
cipium, and was called " Urbs victrix 

The Cathedral, a beautiful Gothic 
edifice, was designed in or about 1400 
by Juan de Olofczaga, a Biscayan ar- 
chitect. It was not completed until 
1515. It is well placed on the spaciom 
Plasa de la Sec, where many fine 
buildings are grouped. The W. door- 
way is said by Cean Bermudez to be 
the work of the original designer. 

This fine middle-pointed doorway is 
studded with rows of large statues of 
Apostles, &c. Above the portal the 
tympanum has the Virgin and Child 
in relief; on the sides are sculptured 
the Adoration of the Kings, and the 
Saviour appearing to the Magdalen. 
Higher up, under a sort of canopy, » 
a carved model of the cathedral as 
originally designed by Olotzaga. There 
are two other old doorways worthy of 
notice. The interior consists of a 
nave and aisles of four bays in length, 
with chapels between the buttresBes. 
The Teredos behind tlie high altar 
is finely carved in alabaster : it is the 
masterpiece of Damian Forment, 1520- 
1533. Each of the three compart- 
ments into which it is divided is 
elaborately carved with figures in high 
relief. The subjects are " Christ bear- 
ing his Cross to Mount Calvary," 
*• The Crucifixion, and " The Desoent 
from the Cross." Obs., in the basement 
at the sides of the altar, the medallion 
portrjiits of the artist and his wife. 
The Reja at the W. end of the choir ii 
modern. Descend (wUk tapers) into 
the subterranean chapel of the Lasta- 
nosas, constructed by the coin-collector, 
Don Vicencio Lastanosa. Obs. the 
full-length portraits of himself and 
brother, a canon ; Don Vicencio lies 
clad in armour as engraved in his 
book : the epitaphs on me two marble 
sarcophagi below were written by 
himself. Obs. the retahh of the little 
altar: it is of black marble, with 


Botste 150. — Huesca : Churchea, de. 


twisted columns and pietre dure. The 
N. cloister is the oldest portion of the 
cL, but has little to interest the seneral 
observer except some cnrious old tombs 
corbelled out from the walls. Obs. 
especially the monument erected, in 
1522, by Damian Ferment, in memory 
of one of his pnpils, and the tomb of 
Ordas, a knight, whose escutcheon is 
carved with a bell. Notice a silver 
Omtodia in the Grseco-Eomano style, 
the work of Jose de Velazquez of 
Pamplona, 1601, and a great quantity 
of finely worked church - plate, the 
greater part of the best Spanish Re- 
naissance style. These objects are 
kept in a fine carved wooden press in 
the sacristy. Ascend the belfry tower 
for the glorious panoramic view. 

The Chureh of Ban Pedro el Viejo is 
of earlier date than any part of the 
cathedral. Its consecration is said to 
have taken place in 1241. Mr. Street 
thinks that, "judging by its style, it " 
(the design) ** can hardly be later than 
the middle of the 12th centy., with 
the exception of the raised vault of 
the lantern, which was finished, how- 
ever, before the consecration."* The 
eh. consists of a nave and aisles of four 
bays. Its hexagonal tower is placed 
near the N. transept, whilst the cloister 
occupies the S. side of the edifice. 
The W. doorway is filled up. The 
retciblo of tbe high altar dates 1603. 
In one of the chapels are the remains 
of Justo and Pastor, the two children 
who were martyrised by Dacian at Al- 
calil de Henares. The dilapidated but 
still very interesting cloister contains 
several arched recesses for monuments. 
The capitals of the columns are very 
remarkable. Obs. a curious Boman 
sepidchre and several early Christian 
ones, some of which bear inscriptions 
as early as 1200, and also six enormous 
stone coffins, each resting on the backs 
of lions : their dimensions are — depth 
2 feet; length 7 feet. 

The Episcopal Palace occupies the 
site of a former mosque. 

The Umvendty (which, in reference 

• Vide •Gothic Architecture in Spain,' by 
George Edmund Street, F.S.A., I<ondon, 1865, 
p. 365. 

to the ancient one, bears the name of 
Sertorio) was founded by Don Pedro 
IV., in 1854 J it is now closed. The 
patio with Doric pillars is fine. 

The Palaoio de los Beyes de Aragon 
is now a college. Below it is a vault, 
la Campana (the "bell"), so called 
from the following incident. In the 
year 1136 King Bamiro II., being 
thwarted by his turbulent aristocracy, 
consulted Frotardo, abbot of San Pedro 
de Tomeras : the learned priest, who 
either had read* Ovid's 'Fasti' (ii. 
704), or possessed naturally a Tar- 
quinian instinqt, was walking in his 
garden when the royal messenger ar- 
rived, and simply, by way of answer, 
cut off with his stick the tallest cab* 
bages. Bamiro thereupon summoned 
his grandees to consult on the casting 
of a bell, which should be heard all 
over Aragon : and as each man arrived 
singly, he cut off his head, casting 
the bodies into the vault ; they were 
afterwards taken out, and buried in 
San Jaaa de Jenualem, a curious old 
church said to have been consecrated 
in 1241, and which once belonged to 
the Templars. Visit the rooms inside. 
Obs. the curious old nails to which the 
tradition is that the heads were hung. 
In the Colegio de Santiago, opposite 
to the bishop's palace, there is an 
interesting collection of pictures, which 
have been collected and presented to 
Huesca by the late distinguished an-< 
tiquary Don Valentin Garderera, a 
native of Huesca. They are mostly 
specimens of early Spanish painting ; 
many of them are by artists of the 

In the Ch. of San Lorenzo there is 
an interesting silver shrine containing 
relics, and in a passage near the 
sacristy two good early Flemish pic- 

A railway is planned from Huesca 
to the French frontier, which will 
pass through the following stations: 
Alerre, Esqnedas y Flasencia, Ayerbe, 
LapeSa, Anrtnigo, Caldearenas, La- 
tras y Homa, Sabiafinigo (Station for 
Baths of Fanticosa), Taoa, VillantLa, 
Canfranc, French frontier. 


Route 150. — Hueaca: Panticosa, 

S?ct. IX. 

Excursions from Haetoa. — (A.) A 
pleasant ride can be taken to the 
Honaiterio de Honte Aragon, 3^ m. 
from the town. It is now in ruins. 
Obs., in a kind of crypt, the tomb of 
Alonso d Batallador. Notice also a 
retciblo let into the deserted chapel, 
which was formerly in the cathedral 

(B.) Another ride can be made to 
the Ermita de San Miguel de Fooes 
(4 m.), which contains some ancient 
tombs, and some singular arched 
work. The views obtained of the 
bold mountain chain to the N. are 

[( 0. ) A diligence leaves Huesca daily 
for the baths of Panticosa, during the 
season — the summer months — ^in 16 
hours. A stoppage of one hour is 
allowed at Jaoa for dinner. The 
country traversed is exceedingly pic- 
turesque. The following villages lie 
on the route : 

Hnesoa. Pop. 11,536. The road 
leaves the town by Esquedas and 
Flasenoia, shortly afterwards the vil- 
lage of 

Ayerbe is reached. On the hill 
above are the remains of tlie old family 
mansion of the house of Ayerbe. The 
road descends into the valley following 
the course of the river Oallego, until, 
at 37 kilometres beyond, the fine Bridge 
of Murillo is crossed. The road con- 
tinues on the right side of the river 

4 kil. Malloa de Biglos. 

5 kil. Santa Haria de la FeSa, 
situated at the foot of two high moun- 
tains at the junction of the Sabin 
and Oallego nvers. The road passes 
through the hamlets of Anranigo and 
Bemu$8 and ascends Honte Oroel, 
from the summit, 1070, there is a 
fine view of Jaca, backed by the snowy 
heights of the Pyrenees. 

21 kil. Jaoa, see Bte. 152, p. 562. 
(Here the road to France branches off 
by Canfranc, Aspe, Urdos, Oloron, &c.) 

Leaving Jaoa, the road continues 
through a fertile plain by Cartilana, 
crossing the river Aurin to 

Biosoai. Pop. 1261. Posada near 
the bridge, decent. This is a good 
sporting quarter. It is divided by the 

river Oallego. In the quarter of San 
Fedro, there is an interesting old 
house which belonged to the famUy of 
Aeines. The parish church of San. 
Salvador is most interesting, it was 
built by the Knight Templars. After 
leaving Biesoas the scenery increases 
in grandeur, and charming Swiss- 
like views are obtained. On the 
right is the picturesque sanctuary of 
St. Helen, built in 125.3. It is a great 
resort for the country people of the 
neighbourhood, who come here to 
drink the waters and picnic at the 
sanctuary. Passing the village of 
Saqnea the new bridge is crossed, and 
fine woods at the junction of the 
Oallego and Caldares. The river is 
crossed by the bridge Esoarilla to 
Fantioosa, 1217 m. above the level of 
the sea. 10 kilometres beyond is the 
bathing establishment of Panticosa. 

8f m. FaatieoBa. A small DUigenee 
brings travellers who have come on 
horseback from Gabas and the French 
frontier to the Baths of FantiooBa in 
an hour and a half. Pop. 609. Inns : 
There are Estahlishments open during 
the bathing season (15th June to 30th 
September). Of these La Casa d