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Full text of "A handbook for travellers in South Wales and its borders, including the river Wye. With a travelling map"

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PA' 



I 



J ■ ■■■■ _JiJL±Z 

A 



HANDBOOK FOR TRAVELLERS v 

I 
I 

. 7 



IN 



SOUTH WALES 



AND ITS BOEDEES, INCLUDING THE EIVEE WYE. 



WITH A TRAVELLING MAP. 



LONDON: 
JOHN MUEEAY, ALBEMAELE STEEET. 

1860. 

The right qf rranilotUm U TetcroeO. 



I 

LONDOV : P&UITSD B7 W. CLOWVB AND 802CS, StAMWOBD STREET, 

AND CHAHIKO 0B068. 



PREFACE. 



During the last twenty years tlie general features of Sontli 
Wales have undergone great changes in social, commercial, 
and even" geographical points of view. 

The enormous development of mining enterprise and the 
opening of new railways have peopled districts which were 
. formerly uninhabited. New towns have iarisen, new harbours 
have been formed; and the fair counties of South Wales, 
particularly those of Gwent and Morganwg, have woke up to 
a new phase of existence. 

The Editor has brought the information in this Handbook 
up to the present day, in the hope that it will really guide 
the traveller to what is most worth seeing. Having lived 
the greater portion of his life in the district that he has 
endeavoured to delineate, he believes that it may be depended 
upon. But if any inaccuracies or misstatements should be 
met with (and both will occasionally creep in), he will be 
obliged if his readers will kindly write to him on the subject, 
in order that a speedy correction may follow, to the care of 
Mr. MuBBAT, Albemarle Street. 

Cefnmawr, Beaufort 1 1860, 



o."^ 



CONTENTS. 



Introduction 



PAGE 
V 



EOUTES. 

%* The names of places are printed in italics only in those routes where the places are 

described. 



Bonte Page 

1 Chepstow, by Llandaff, Cardiff, 

Newport, Swansea {Gower), > 
Tenby, Pembroke, to Milford 
Haven, by S. Wales Railway. 1 

2 Hereferdjby^SossandJfonmouM, 

toGhepiitow. The Wye . 40 

3 Newport to Hereford, by Rail . 48 

4 Cardiflf to Brecon, by Merthyr 

TydviL-^lBS Vale Railway . 57 

5 Abergavenny to Neath, by Mer- 

thyr Tydvil and Vale of Neath 69 

6 Llanelly to Newtown, by Llan- 

deilo, Llandovery, Llanwriyd, 
Builth, and Llandrindod * • 75 



Bontd Page 

7 Monmouth to Carmarthen, 

through Abergavenny, Crick- 
howell, Brecon, and Llan- 
dovery 82 

8 Hereford to /rai/,Brecon,Builth, 

and Rhayader .... 101 

9 Kington to Aberystwith, 

through Rhayader . . . 107 

10 Carmarthen to Aberystwith, 

through Llampeter . . .119 

11 Haverfordwest to 8t, David's, 

Fishguard, Cardigan, and Car- 
marten 123 

12 Cardigan to Carmarthen . .131 



Index 



135 



INTRODUCTION. 



PAGB 

I. Physical Featubes v 

II. Geology vii 

III. Manufactures AND Products.. .. .. .. .. .. xiii 

IV. Communications , .. xix 

Y. Antiquarian View xx 

VI. Social View ., .. xxiv 

VII, Glossary of Welsh Words as occurring in the con- 
struction op Welsh Names xxviii 

VIII. Points OP Interest FOR the Geologist xxix 

IX. Skeleton KouTES ; .. .. xxx 



I. Physical Features. 



Few countries are more diversified than S. Wales, or present greater 
contrasts and variety in scenery. All the requisites of perfect land- 
scape, — ^mountains (though seldom rising to the grand), desert moors, 
wooded hills, smiling valleys, broad rivers, and rushing torrents, — ^all 
offer themselves in turn to the view of the traveller. The mountain 
ranges may be divided broadly into 4 groups, each forming the charac- 
teristic feature of a quarter of the country, and each giving rise to one 
or more of the principal rivers. 

1. The S,E. Division, comprising roughly the district between 
Abergavenny and Llandeilo on the N., Newport and Kidwelly on the 
S. — The space between these towns is almost entirely filled up by one 
massive group, which in fact constitutes the coal-basin of S. Wales, 
bounded on the N. and E. by the valley of the Usk, and on the W. 
by that of the Towey. The principal eminences in this range are the 
Blorenge (1600 ft.), Mynydd Llangynider, Brecon Beacons (2862 ft.). 
Mount Capellante or Carmarthenshire Beacons (2598 ft.), Talsam, 
Cribarth, and Trichriig, the northern slopes of which give rise to the 
Usk and its tributaries, the Senni, Tarell, &c. On the southern slopes, 
however, a different arrangement prevails ; and instead of a tolerably 
uniform line of old red sandstone and mountain limestone hills 
extending E. and W., lofty and narrow ridges containing coal-mea- 
sures are thrown out in a general direction to the S^ or S.W., most 
of them running nearly to the sea-coast. In consequence of this the 
valleys change their direction to due N. and S., the cowxtx^ x^ -aisss.<^ 
broken and romantic, and the 8tteai.Tci^ i^arccrN^t «£i^\SNS3^«5y\sss^\»sssi^- 



vi I. Physical Features, Intxod. 

The most noticeable of these ridges are Cefn Crib, Cefn Gelligaer 
(1650 ft.), Mynydd Merthyr, Mynydd Llangeinor, Craig-y-Llyn, 
Mynydd March Howell, Cefn Drim, and Mynydd Cam Goch, from 
whence emerge the Ebbw, Ehymney, Taff with its feeders Rhondda 
and Cynon, the Llynvi, Ogmore, Afon, Neath, Tawe, Lloughor, and 
Gwendraeth rivers. It must not be forgotten, too, that the Usk, after 
flowing due E. from Trecastle to Abergavenny, turns abruptly to the 
S. to fall into the Bristol Channel at Newport. 

2. The S,W, Division, which we may imagine to be bounded by 
Cardigan and Llandovery on the N., Pembroke and Carmarthen on 
the S., is fchiefly marked by the Precelly Hills (1754: ft.), running from 
E. to W. and dividing the county of Pembroke into two parts. From 
thence a range of high ground continues to Llandovery, occupying 
the district between the Cothi, Towey, and Teifi. 

The principal streams arising from these hills are the Cothi and 
Gwili, joining the Towey near Carmarthen ; the Tav and the Cleddan, 
which fall into the Bristol Channel at Milford Haven; besides the 
Gwaine and Nevem, which fall into the sea at Fishguard and Newport 
respectively. 

3. The N.E. Group may be again subdivided by the Wye, which 
runs through the centre of it in rather a circuitous course. Between 
the great valleys of the Usk and Wye are the Black Mountains and 
Hatterill Hills, an immense block of mountains, of which the principal 
heights are Pencader (2545 ft.), Pen-carreg-calch (2250 ft.), and 
Penallt Mawr, with the outliers of the Sugarloaf and Skyrrid ; while 
further to the W. are the ranges of Cefn Llyddlo, Mynydd Epynt, 
and Bwlch-y-groes, together with the high grounds round Llanwrtyd 
known as the Forest of Esgob and Dry gam. These mountains give 
birth to the tributaries of the Usk and Wye: of the former, the 
Grwyney, Honddu, and Yscir; of the latter, the Monnow, Yrfon, 
Chweffm, Claerwen, and Elan. The district N. of the Wye is wild 
and isolated, consisting chiefly of Radnor Forest and its outliers, which 
embraces the whole of Radnorshire and includes the picturesque 
scenery in the neighbourhood of Builth and Rhayader. The Edw, 
Ithon, and Marteg are tributaries to the Wye from these highlands, 
though the most northerly portion is watered by the Teme, Lugg, and 
Arrow, which flow in an easterly direction through the fertile plains of 
Herefordshire. 

4. The N, W, Bivisi(m is the wildest of the whole, comprising on 
the S. the extensive chain of mountains between the Towey and the 
Teifi, or in other words between Llandovery and Tregaron. Although 
extending over a very large area, they nevertheless afi'ect a S.W. 
bearing, a similar though smaller chain iTinning in the same direction 
between the Teifi and the sea. The most lofty eminences in this 
gronp are the Tregaron Mount (1754 ft.) and Craig Twrch near 
Llampeter. The sources of two of the finest rivers in S. Wales, the 
Towey and Teifi, are to be found in these hills, and that of the Aeron 
in the parallel range of Mynydd Bach, 



Introd. n. Gedogy. vii 

All these are separated by the Ystwith from the N. Cardiganshire 
mountains, amongst which Plynlimmon (2463 ft.) is the most con- 
spicuous ; indeed, physically speaking, these latter would seem to be 
placed by the deep valleys of the Ystwith and Kheidol within the 
catalogue of N. Wallian hills. Besides these principal groups, there 
are of course many less important heights, which are ailuded to or 
described in the respective routes. 

II. Geology. 

For the study of the Lower Bocks there is no more interesting county 
than the southern portion of the Principality, which offers frequent 
and instructive series. Of course a summary cannot attempt to take 
in detail the minutiae of such an important and widely-spread subject ; 
for them the geologist is referred to the 'Memoirs of the Geological 
Survey,' vol. ii., which contains a most valuable article by the late 
Sir H. De la Beche on the Formation of Rocks in S. Wales ; the 2nd 
edition of * Siluria,' by Sir Rod. Murchison ; and various articles in the 
* Greological Transactions ' and * Geologist Magazine.' 

1. The most recent formation in S. Wales, excluding the alluvial 
and drift deposits (the latter of which may be observed at Pentyrch 
and Hensol near Llantrissant), is that of the Idas. A large portion of 
what is called the Vale of Glamorgan is composed of lias rocks, resting 
in different localities on different bases, and overlying this district in 
a rather irregular manner, the results doubtless of denudations subse- 
quent to the liassic epoch. Though absent at many points, the lias 
may be described in general terms as extending from near Cardiff to 
Pyle, where (and from this place to Bridgend) it reposes on the triassic 
marls. From the mouth of the Ogmore to Cowbridge it is found 
resting on upturned and disturbed carboniferous limestone, and spread- 
ing out in a somewhat peninsular form past Colwinston to Ewenny. 
Near Southemdown (Rte. 1) and Dunraven it is well seen, lying 
horizontally on the upturned mountain-limestone, and ugain at the 
entrance of Cowbridge from Bridgend. At Llanblethian, a little to 
the S., the carboniferous limestone rises up abruptly, being folded on 
all sides by the lias. Near Peterston-super-Ely it is observed resting 
on the old red. A good locality for studying these rocks is on the 
N. side of Barry Island, where they, together with the new red marls, 
are tilted up by a fault. Detached outliers are found to the E. of 
Newport, resting upon the old red and capping the knolls on the rt. 
of the rly. at Llanwem, Lliswerry, and Bishton. The best points for 
the geologist and collector are Llanwem, Maindee near Newport, 
Penarth Head, and Lavemock Point near Cardiff (where the lias rests 
on triassic marls), Southemdown, and the coast generally. There are 
also some tolerably good quarries between Llandaff and St. Fagjans^ 
though, as a rule, lias fossils in S. Wales ate not ^NssA-axi^., 

2. The Triassic series are not e^i^^^^Xft «si^ ^^<R>.\.«Sw\KQ^;^^i^^^«5a^>^^ 



yiii n. Geology. Introd. 

conveniently studied in sections where they are found covered by lias, 
such as Penarth Head, Superficially they are observed forming the 
level grounds in the neighbourhoods of Caldecott and Mathern, as 
also in small patches at Peterston near St. Fagans, Coity, and from 
thence to Pyle. 

3. The Dolomitic or Permian Bocks are considerably developed, and 
may generally be found occupying the slopes of the mountain-lime- 
stone hills. Small isolated patches are seen near Chepstow and 
Mathern, but the great bulk of this formation is in tiie district of 
Llandaff, Kadyr, and St. Fagans, from whence a broad line, often 
interrupted either by a covering of lias or a protnision of carboniferous 
limestone, occupies the southern slopes of the hills more or less the 
entire distance to Kenfig Point. The most important and interesting 
locality for studying these rocks is at Llantrissant, Llanharan, and 
Llanharry, in connexion with the haematite workings carried on at 
these places (Rte. 1). Permian deposits will also be found at Bon- 
vilstone, Cowbridge, Coity, and along the southern slopes of Newton 
Downs. . . 

4. The Carboniferous System is extensively and beautifully observed 
in the great S. Wales coal-field, which is perhaps the most perfect 
and regular coal-basin in the whole world. In shape it is, strictly 
speaking, that of a pear, with the smaller end towards the W., 
its greatest length being from Pontypool to Kidwelly, about 70 m., 
while the greatest breadth is about 25 m., from Merthyr or Hirwain to 
Cardiff'. The Pembrokeshire field is not included in this measure- 
ment, diflfering a good deal in the arrangement of beds and quality of 
coal, and being separated by a considerable interval of old red sand- 
stone. The basin is bounded on the N., E., and N.W. by a tolerably 
uniform belt of mountain limestone and millstone grit, and on the S. 
partly by the waters of the Channel, beneath which, indeed, many coal- 
measures run, and partly by the interlacement of liassic and dolomitic 
rocks just described, 

o. The Mowntain Limestone on the N. extends from the Blorenge. 
Mountain near Abergavenny, in a nearly straight line to Llandeilo, where 
it bears off S.W, to the sea-coast at Kidwelly, the average thickness 
being somewhat over 500 ft. There are also two conspicuous outliers, 
viz. Pen-carreg-calch near Crickhowell and Carreg-Cennen (on which 
the famous castle is built), giving proof of the immense amount of 
denudation that has taken place. From their superior height and 
rugged escarpments, the limestone hills of the N. crop present infinitely 
finer scenery than those on the S., which, as we have seen, are often 
obscured by permian and liassic deposits. From Pontypool south- 
wards to Risca, and thence westward to Caerphilly and Pentyrcb, the 
limestone is uninterrupted ; but S. of Llantrissant it becomes consider- 
ably covered up by the dolomitic conglomerate, although large surfaces 
are exposed between Cowbridge, Penlline, and Llanharry to the N., 
and to Caerau on the E. It is again well seen between Bridgend and 
St. Bride's, as also forming the heights of Newton Down, Proceeding 



Introd. n. Geology^ ix 

westward, these rocks are found to be increasing in thickness, as shown 
in the magnificent coast-range of Mumbles and the cliflfs of Gower 
(Rte. 1), which attain a depth of about 1500 ft. Finally they reap- 
pear in S. Pembrokeshire, forming the S. border of that coal-field. Jt 
must not be inferred from ^ybat has been said that the Pembrokeshire 
field does not belong to the main basin, either geologically or geogra- * 
phically, but it is thought more convenient to describe it separately ; 
the mountain limestone, however, may be treated of at once. Like 
that of S. Glamorganshire, it appears at intervals, forming narrow 
bands across the country. One, very thin, extends from the coast near 
Amroth to Haverfordwest ; a second from Tenby to Pembroke, through 
and parallel to which the old red sandstone of the Ridgeway rises up ; 
and a third comprising the splendid coast-range of St. Gowan's Head 
and the Stack Rocks. The geologist will be at no loss to obtain sections 
either here or in any other portion of the field ; nor, generally 
speaking, will he fail in obtaining good typical fossils. The best 
localities may be briefly pointed out: Llanelly, Llangattock, Trefil 
near Tredegar, Castle Morlais, Penderyn, Dinas Craig, on the N. crop ; 
Caerphilly, Castell Coch, Llantrissant, Mumbles, Worm's Head, Tenby, 
and Caldy Island on the S. border. The rocks on the N. are univer- 
sally worked to supply the furnaces of the ironworks ; but on the S. 
the discovery of the hasmatite ores at Pentyrch and Llantrissant has 
given them a value, the limit of which cannot be defined at the present 
early stage of the mining operations, 

^. The Millstone Grit may be well studied over the whole of the 
N. crop of the S. Wales basin. It lies on the mountain limestone, and 
forms a table-land with a southerly inclination, from which most of 
the rivers of the coal-field take their rise, to run due S. to the Bristol 
Channel. The junction of these beds with the mountain limestone is 
marked by a quartzose conglomerate, locally called pudding-stone. On 
the S. crop the millstone grit soon disappears near Pentyrch. There 
are, however, beds at Bishopston in Gower (Rte. 1), known as the 
Black Shales of Gower, which attain a considerable thickness. Their 
position is somewhat obscure, but it is not improbable that they belong 
partly to the millstone grit series and partly to that of the (locally 
named) Farewell Rock, a series of rocks, intermixed with thin coal- 
beds and layers of ironstone, which is almost universally found in this 
basin lying on the millstone grit. It is so called because the colliers 
consider that there is no coal worth working in this rock, though in 
some places the seams are found rather valuable. Along the whole of 
the N. crop this Farewell Rock series is remarkable for being the 
horizon of a marine shell bed (coal and ironstone), which was traced by 
the writer for upwards of 60 m. It may be examined at Beaufort, 
Rhymney Gate, Pontneath Vaughan (Rte. 5), and Cwm Amman 
(Rte. 6). 

y. The Coal Measures are of the greatest thickness near Neath^ 
where the lowest strata are 700 fatliom^ \iRiVy« HX\^ ^Nk\a\^>^ ^ '^ 
upper ones in the hilly distncts. T\ife7 c^Ti\yi X^'sK. ^-ss.xs^k.^^^'^^ 



X u. Geology. Introd, 

N. crop, for the reason that the **basseting" or inclination towards 
the crop is of a more gentle character than it is on the S., where 
the beds emerge at a very steep angle of inclination. The area of the 
coalrfield is estimated at about 640,000 acres, the thickness of the 
workable coal dififering in different places, viz. at Merthyr about 55 ft., 
on the N.E. crop 35, and on the S. outcrop upwards of 100 ft. The 
lower measures are best seen in Monmouthshire, Breconshire, and N. 
Glamorganshire, and the upper measures in the centre of Glamorgan 
and Carmarthenshire. Although the basin is so uniform externally, 
it is by no means so in its interior arrangenients, as there is an 
enormous saddle or anticlinal line running E. and W. from Newbridge 
in the valley of the Ebbw, to Pontypridd, Maesteg, and Llanelly in 
Carmarthenshire. A little S. of this is another smaller anticlinal axis, 
and between the two a deep trough. The lower measures are tbe 
most worked in Monmouthshire, although there is one very prolific 
vein, the Mynyddswlyn, belonging to the upper measures, which sup- 
plies the red ash coal to Newport and Cardiff. 

In the centre of Glamorganshire the veins are much more disturbed, 
and the upper measures are worked in the Rhondda and Ely valleys, as 
also at Llanelly in Carmarthenshire, where the very highest beds of 
the whole series are to be found. The middle coal-measures, known as 
Pennant Grits or sandstones, form a marked feature over the whole of 
the basin, as they almost invariably cap the long narrow ridges of 
hill which run from the millstone grit table due S. In the N.E. 
portion of the district they are comparatively worthless, only a few 
thin veins being found ; but they attain greater importance near 
Swansea, being upwards of 2000 ft. in thickness, and, according to 
Sir W. Logan, containing in the Town Hill 12 seams of coal. 

One of the most interesting features in the basin is the chemical 
change that takes place in the coal, making enormous differences both 
in it« value and practical uses. 

This change is the conversion of bituminous or free-burning coal to 
anthracite or stone-coal, and is so gradual in its operation that it is 
diflBcult to fix the precise spot where it commences. It is first observed 
to any extent at Rhymney, and gradually increases westward towards 
Merthyr and the Taff valley. Beyond Hirwain, at the ironworks of 
Onllwyn, it is so far completed that the coals which at Rhymney were 
all bituminous are now all anthracitous, and this peculiarity obtains 
through the Swansea valley (Rte. 1) to the very extremity of the coal- 
field. With regard to the cause geologists are not agreed, some con- 
sidering it to be purely chemical and still in operation, others with more 
probability regarding it only as a result of past igneous action arising 
from the near presence of trap rocks to the coal-measures. . The chief 
chemical difference consists in the great increase of carbon — the 
bituminous coal of Ebbwvale in the E. of the field containing about 
75 per cent., while that of the Swansea valley has 93 per cent. Apart 
from the value of the various coal-measures to the different ironworks, 
the seams which are of the greatest commercial importance are the 



Introd. n. Geology, xi 

steam coals of the Aberdare valley, which from their cleanly and 
smokeless qualities are used in vast quantities by the Admiralty. 

The geologist can frequently obtain good fossils of the carboniferous 
era. Ferns are plentiful in many localities, particularly in the N. 
crop,* while several seams furnish shells (marine or brackish water), 
and fish remains (vide articles in * Geologist ). 

The Pemhrokeshire coal or culm field is wholly anthracitous and 
extremely contorted. It would seem that the lateral pressure which 
acted over the whole of the coal-field came from the S. W., and produced 
its greatest effect on that portion of the county, gradually weakening 
as it diverged from the centre. There are some valuable coUieriesL at 
Bonville's Court and Kilgetty near Tenby, besides some small ones at 
Nolton in the northern field, which is surrounded on either side by 
Silurian and trap rocks. 

The iron-ores, which are associated with the coal-beds, are described 
in Article III. 

5. The Old Red Sandstone occupies a considerable area, for the most 
part surrounding the coal-basin on all sides but the S., and comprising 
a large portion of Breconshire, Monmouthshire, and Herefordshire. 
This area, however, has been subjected to enormous denudation, for 
the effects of which we may take as an example the valley of the Usk, 
in which the softer marls have been worn away, leaving the upper and 
harder beds of conglomerate comparatively untouched, and standing 
prominently forward. " Thus the country towards Leominster, Brom- 
yard, and Hereford is chiefly formed of the marl series with its corn- 
stones, while the Black Mountain heights, such as Pencader, 
Penalltmawr, &c., and the Vans of Brecon, are crowned by hard sand- 
stones and conglomerates in slightly inclined beds, the remains, no 
doubt, of those which once covered the marls to a greater extent 
northward." To the E. of ]Pontyx)ool the old red is interrupted by 
the Silurian elevation of Usk, which stretches from near Ragland to 
some few miles below the town of Usk (Rte. 3). On the S. of the 
coal-field these rocks are visible between Newport and Cardiff, from 
whence they range westward, passing beneath a higher arch of car- 
boniferous limestone near Cowbridge. 

A narrow strip of old red is observable at the W. of the coal-field, 
separating it from the Silurian rocks ; and, again, in S. Pembrokeshire, 
alternating with bands of Silurian and carboniferous rocks. The lower 
marls and corns tones have, to a certain extent, disappeared as they 
travel westward. In Breconshire and Herefordshire bands of corn- 
stones are frequently met with, and have proved, especially in the latter 
county, very productive of old red fish remains. The following are 
the best localities for the geologist : — For comstones and brownstones, 
near Abergavenny ; the Skyrrid ; Pontrilas ; Bwlch between Crickhowell 
and Brecon ; the Daren above Crickhowell, where are to be found the 
equivalents in position of the Dura Den Bed in Fifeshire '^ tha V^\is.\ 



xii II. Geology. loti-od. 

Sawdde near Llangadock, where there is a junction with upper Ludlow 
rocks ; between Freshwater and West Angle Bay ; Caldy Island and 
Hook Point, in Pembrokeshire, where the old red is seen to overlie 
the Silurian strata. 

, 6. The greatest* portion of S. Wales is occupied by the Silurian 
rocks, which are so characteristic of the country as to have given 
name to the Silurian system, the most important and perfectly elabo- 
rated system of modem geologists. 

a. The TilestoTieSy which form the uppermost layer of the whole 
system, and are a transition between the Silurian and old red rocks, 
are visible "along the whole of the eastern frontier of the Silurian 
rocks " (particularly from Kington to the Treweme Hills on the Wye), 
and furnish many beautiful typical fossils. The geologist should not 
fail to visit the localities of Bradnor Hill near Kington (Rte. 9), and 
Horeb Chapel in Cwm Dwr, between Trecastle and Llandovery (Rte. 7). 

/3. The Ludlow rocks, Upi)er and Lower, constitute a large area, 
extending from Knighton and Presteign in a S.-westerly direction, and, 
in fact, comprising the greatest portion of the county of Radnor. The 
upper rocks may be traced along the eastward slopes of Bradnor and 
Hergest Hills, near Kington, and from thence to the Trewerue Hills, 
near Clyro on the Wye. From thence a narrow prolongation is thrown 
out into the very heart of Breconshire. 

Both Upper and Lower Ludlow are finely exposed in the escarpments 
of Mynydd Epynt and Bwlch-y-groes, where they rise from underneath 
the old red in a rapid anticlinal flexure at Alt-fawr and Com-y-fan, 
Their junction with the old red can be well seen at Cwm Dwr, and on 
the banks of the Sawdde, near Llangadock. From thence to the 
mouth of the Towey these rocks gradually become a thin band, eveiy- 
where surmounted by old red. It is remarkable that the middle 
division, or Aymestry limestone, soon thins out after leaving Ludlow, 
and in Radnorshire entirely disappears. The ravine of Water-break- 
its-neck, near Radnor (Rte. 9), shows good successions from the Wenlock 
limestone, through the Ludlow rocks up to their junction with the old 
red. They are again visible in S. Pembrokeshire at Llampeter Velfrey, 
near Narberth, and forming cliffs on the sea-coast at Marloes Bay to 
the N., and Freshwater to the S. of Milford Haven. The Usk valley 
of elevation too must not be omitted, where the Ludlow rocks rest 
upon Wenlock limestone, and are very fossiliferous. 

y. The Wenlock limestone " thins out entirely in Radnorshire, and 
is scarcely to be recognised in the counties of Carmarthen, Brecon, and 
Pembroke ; its place being only marked in the cliffs of Marloes Bay, 
near Milford Haven, by some fossils, and a small quantity of impure 
limestone immersed in grey and sandy shale." The lower member of 
this series, the Woolhope limestone, is observed at Corton, near 
Presteign, to be subordinate to a black shale, which rests on Pentamerus 
grit. The altered limestones of Nash Scar are described in Rte. 9. The 
Wenlock series is a very prominent feature in the Usk valley of 
a}evat2on. 



Introd. in, Manufaxitures arid Products, ?iii 

d. The Upper Llandovery Bock is observed in Radnorshire at Gorton, 
in the form of the Pentamerus bed just alluded to, as also on the western 
slopes of the hill of Old Radnor, and again to the W. of Builth, resting 
uncomfonnably on Llandeilo flags. The best spot, by far, for examining 
these Llandovery rocks is in the tract extending from the river Sawdde 
to the N.E. of Llandovery, and particularly in the heights of Noeth 
Grug, where both zones are observed conformable in one united mass, 
and with clear relations to the superior and inferior strata. 

€. The Caradoc or Bcda formatifm comprises the vast area of 
slaty and schistose rocks in the counties of N". Carmarthen and 
Cardigan, in which occur the lead-mines of Nant-y-Mwyn, and the 
gold-mines of Gogofau, near Llandovery (Rte, 7). On the 1. bank 
of the Towey, and especially at Cilgwyn Park, a good succession may 
be seen of Llandeilo flags, surmounted by beds full of Caradoc fossils, 
and gradually ascending into the Pentamerus beds of the Llandovery 
rocks. The same rocks are again observed, though to a small extent, 
in Pembrokeshire, at Llampeter Velfrey, and Sholeshook, near Haver- 
fordwest. 

»y. The Llandeilo formation plays an important part in the district 
which extends from Builth to Llandegley and Llandrindod, and again 
at Llanwrtyd Wells, at all which localities it is abundantly associated 
with igneous rocks. They are best developed in the neighl)ourhood of 
Llandeilo (Rte. 7), where they emerge from beneath the Caradoc series. 
In Pembrokeshire the beds are not of so calcareous a character as they 
are in Carmarthenshire : here they are found at Llampeter Velfrey, as 
also forming a portion of the cliffs at Musclewick Bay near Haverford- 
west. The best localities for obtaining fossils are Wellfield, near 
Builth, Llandeilo, Golden Grove, and Mount Pleasant near Car«» 
marthen. 

Below these rocks the scantily fossiliferous beds, the Lingula flags, 
are observable only at Whitesand Bay, near St. David's Head, in which 
the Lingula Davisii occurs. Here also are small patches of Longmynd, 
or Cambrian formation. Igneous rocks, though not so abundant as in 
N". Wales, are to be met with in many districts, as the eruptive rocks of 
Stanner near Kington (Rte. 9), Cameddau Mountains near Builth, Esgair 
Davydd, and the hills round Llanwrtyd, the island of Skomer, and 
portions of the coast of the neighbouring mainland, as well as the wild 
picturesque cliffs of St, David's and Strumble Heads, 



III, Manufactures and Products 

may be classed under four heads — viz. CoaZ, Iron^ Copper, and Lead, 

1. Coal. — The geological formation of the South Wales Coal-field, 
the arrangements of the measures, and the changes from bituminous 
to anthracite coal, are described in pages ix-xit» \t t\^<et'^*ssst?^ ^sgo^ 
remains to give a brief summary oi \\;& c^-oiTaRrtcvai^ '^'°^'^^''^^^%<^S^ 
is not exported from this \)aam \jo \}ci^ ^ia!CCL^ ^"sXeviX. 'Coai^ ^gt'ss^^v 



xiv lii. Manufactures arid Products, Introd. 

other fields, owing to the enormous requirements of the large iron- 
works, most of which consume as much as can be supplied by their 
collieries. Every week, however, sees an increased supply of coal 
thrown into the London market, and every year sees fresh collieries 
opened to meet the demand. The total number of pits in South Wales is 
about 330, which produce between 7 and 8 million tons annually. The 
districts which yield most coal for sale, irrespective of the iron manu- 
facture, are the central portions of the field, such as the Vales of Neath, 
Ehondda, and Ely ; and many of the mining establishments, particu- 
larly those of Messrs, Powell, Fothergill, Nixon, and others, are on a 
wonderfully complete scale, and produce coal in such inexhaustible 
quantities as effectually to dissipate any apprehensions lest this valu- 
able material should ever fail us. As an example the new Naviga- 
tion Pit at Mountain Ash may be taken. It is 18 ft. in diameter insidfe 
the walling, and divided into four compartments, two of which are for 
the drawing of coal, one for sending the workmen up and down, and the 
fourth for the drainage. Notwithstanding the great depth of 370 yards, 
a carriage containing 2^ tons of coal can be wound up in one minute, 
and the whole colliery is estimated to supply more than 1000 tons 
a-day. The mineral property extends over an area of 7 m. long by 
3 m. in width, covering from 4000 to 5000 acres of this 4-foot coal. The 
reader may therefore form a slight estimate, from this one case, of the 
boundless resources of the coal-field. In quality this coal is smokeless, 
which, ever since 1840, has been more or less sought after for the 
working of steamboats. The French government has been using it 
exclusively for some time past, being convinced of its great superiority 
over other kinds. It is also employed in this country by the Ad- 
miralty, the Peninsular and Oriental, Royal Mail, Cunard, and other 
mail-packet companies. 

2. Iron. — The principal iron-works are situated either on the N. 
crops of the ceal-basin, or else at a locality, such as Maesteg, where the 
lower measures are raised near the surface by an anticlinal line, or 
axis. The perpendicular depth of the coal and iron strata is 11,000 ft. 
in the northern, and 8000 ft. in the southern trough ; this measure- 
ment of course including large amounts of rock, clod, fire-clay, rubbish, 
&c. The ironstone is found, interstratified with the coal-measures, and 
generally accompanying them, in the form of " pins," or thin bands, 
frequently highly coloured with peroxide — layers of greater thickness 
occurring in rock — and round nodules of ironstone, disseminated at 
unequal distances through shales and "clunch." These nodules are 
generally rich in percentage, containing sometimes in the interstices 
small brilliant crystals, and sometimes impressions of plants. The 
great practical division of the ironstones is into argillaceous or clay 
ironstones, and carbonaceous or blackband ; the constituent substances 
of the latter being carbonate of iron, carbonaceous matter, alumina, 
and silica, with a trace of lime. 
• It is advisable to give a brief account of the mode of manufacture 



IntrocC in. Manufactures and Products, xy 

although, for particulars, the traveller is referred to Mushet on Iron and 
Steel, or Wilks*s Iron Manufacture. 

The three materials necessary for the reduction of ore, and the pro- ^ 
duction of pig-iron, are coal or coke, ironstone, and limestone. The 
coal is usually, though not always, converted into coke by burning it 
in ovens, or in long heaps, for seveYal days in the open air, where they 
gradually smoulder, and eventually burst into brilliant hecatombs of 
flame. The ironstone, which may consist of the argillaceous nodules, 
blackband, haematite, or, in fact, any variety, is roasted before it 
is taken to the furnace, for the purpose of getting rid of the carbonic 
acid and sulphurous properties, while the water is evaporated without 
being decomposed ; for were the raw iron-ore to be subjected to the 
intense heat of the furnace, the water and acid would be instantly 
decomposed, the oxygen would unite with the iron, and part of it would 
oxygenate the sulphur, which would have the effect of producing iron 
quite unworkable, from the great quantity of oxygen in combination. 

The result of roasting, like the coking of the coal, is to cause the 
mass to lose greatly in weight, commonly about 35 per cent. The 
ores are roasted in large square heaps, carefully built together, which 
produces, especially by night, a most beautiful appearance, from the 
pale blue flames which flicker over them. The ore and the coke, being 
thus fully prepared, are taken to the top of the furnace, into which 
they are thrown in certain " charges" or proportions, together with one 
of limestone ; the object being to present to the metal of the ore suffi- 
cient fuel, at a great heat, to take up the oxygen, and also that the 
limestone may serve as a flux to facilitate the separation by uniting 
with the earthy portions of the ore. 

The furnace is a large cupola-shaped building about 50 ft. high, with 
openings at the top and bottom, the latter of which is called the hearth 
or fireplace, and the former the tunnel-head. The interior, though 
hollow, is not even all the way up, but contracts a little above the 
hearth and again near the top. The contracted portion is termed " the 
boshes." The furnace is kept alive by the blast, blown in at a certain 
temperature by a steam-engine, which finds admittance at the hearth 
by means of tubes or pipes called " tuyeres.'* The charge is put in at 
the top and exposed to the action of the fire for 12 hrs., at the end of 
which time the metal is reduced and collected into a dam or reservoir 
at the bottom of the furnace. As soon as it rises to the level of the 
dam an opening is made, and the ore runs out in a fiery jubilee, 
lighting up the nooks and crannies of the casting-yard with wonderful 
effects that only a Rembrandt could paint. Before it is allowed to 
come out, moulds of sand are made for it to run into ; and when cold, it 
is taken up under the well-known name of ** pigs,*' the principal channel 
being dignified with the name of the " sow." The pig or cast-iron is 
in the state of a carburet of iron; the ore having been an oxide, the 
hydrogen and carbonic oxide formed during the pro^e«s^ q»^ ^asciss^i^Q^^ss^ 
remove the oxygen from the OTe,^\i\0c^^^^\'&\i'i^<:>\£i^'3^^:»^^ 
slag or scoriae whicb has acc\im\x\a.W^ toroi^ "Cc^a x^^^^a^'^o. ^^ "^ ^ 

\ 



xvi xiu Manufactures and Products. Introd, 

to flow by itself into a tram, from which it is emptied when cold in 
square vitreous-looking masses, giving the place in which they are 
deposited the aspect of a burnt-out volcano. Even this refuse, however, 
has been turned to account, for it is used for building walls ; indeed an 
association called the Patent Slag Company was formed for working it 
up into articles of domestic use, suCh as bottles, tables, &c. At many 
works the gases escape from the top of the furnace, causing, by their 
combustion, a magnificent body of flame ; but in others the top of the 
furnace is closed, and the waste gases conducted to the boiler of the 
blast engine, where they economise in the generation of steam. An 
important item in the smelting of iron is the blast, which may be used 
in two ways — ^with hot or cold air. 

Until 1830 the cold blast was in universal employment, but sirce 
then the former has gained ground, for the reason that a cold current of 
air passed into the furnace at great pressure cools the fuel below the 
temperature necessary to effect the union of the carbon of the fuel with 
the oxygen of the air ; but the hot air is forced upon it in a condition 
favourable to its uniting immediately, causing instant and vivid com- 
bustion. The usual temperature of the hot blast is about 612° Falir. 
Cast-iron is a carburet of iron, which, when wrought, is decarburetted, 
becoming more tenacious, and.having the property of welding at a great 
heat. This is effected first by passing the iron through the refinery, 
which is a shallow coke fire blown with blast, by which it is greatly 
decarburetted, and, when run out again, cools in the form of a cake or 
plate. It is then taken to the puddling furnace, where it is again 
exposed to an intense heat, and worked up with a long bar for about an 
hour and a half, during which time the metal ferments. Before it is 
taken out, the particles of metal adhere together, and form into balls, 
which are transferred in masses of dazzling brilliancy to the action of 
the squeezers ; after which the iron is termed puddled bar. It is again 
heat«d in the "balling" furnace, and finally rolled out between 
enormous rollers into rails of requisite thickness, the ends of which 
are cut off by the circular steam saw, which concludes the fiery enter- 
tainment with a shower of Catherine wheels. 

History of the Trade, — The antiquity of the iron-trade is very 
great, for it is well known that the Romans had forges in Great 
Britain in the time of the Emperor Adrian, a.d. 120, at which they 
fabricated the arms and weapons for the troc^s. The Forest of Dean 
was then the principal source of iron, which was taken across to Bath 
to be fashioned into shape ; but subsequently furnaces were established 
in South Wales as well, as is proved by the not unfrequent discovery 
of ancient beds of slag and cinders. Casting iron seems to have been 
first heard of in the reign of Edward III., who used cannon in the 
invasion of Scotland. Under James I. an act was passed that timber 
should not be felled to make charcoal for smelting iron, particularly in 
the county of Sussex, then the most famous county for that mineral. 
The trade therefore languished ; but in the reign of Charles II. one Dud 
J?udlejr published a curious work, entitled * Metallum Martis,' describing 



Introd, III. Manufactures and Products, xvii 

the experiments of smelting •iron with pitcoal. His attempts to bring 
it into use failed, however, and charcoal still continued the order of the 
day until 1713, when Mr. Darby of Coalbrookdale tried pitcoal again 
with success, of course necessitating further improvements in the way 
of furnaces, &c. Notwithstanding this, the trade still declined, although 
there was an increasing demand for iron, which was answered by large 
importations from Russia and Sweden. 

The following table will show the number and make of the furnaces 
in South Wales in 1740 :— 

Breconshire . . . . 2 ; making 600 tons. 

Glamorganshire.. .. 2; „ 400 „ 

Carmartiienshire .. 1; „ 100 „ 

Monmouthshire .. 2; „ 900 ,, 

2000 

As long as charcoal was used for smelting there was no occasion for 
any great blast power ; consequently the earliest means in use was a 
bellows worked by hand or water. But when the coal became available, 
the blast was obliged to be increased, the earliest contrivance being a 
forcing-pump or a steam-engine. The number of coal furnaces then 
gradually increased, so that in 1788 the number of tons of iron turned 
out in Breconshire and Glamorganshire was 8200. In 1790 the large 
and powerful engines made by Watt came into requisition, whereupon 
the trade increased, and the number of furnaces amounted in 1796 to 
25, and in 1806 to 39, producing 78,000 tons per annum. 

During this period many improvements were added, the principal one 
being that of puddling and rolling the iron, patented by Mr. Cort, who, 
like many other inventors who have a claim on the gratitude of the 
country, was allowed to die in poverty, while othgrs have thrived on 
his ingenuity, A very important result was obtained in 1837 by 
Mr. Crane of Yniscedwin Works, who had erected a furnace in the 
anthracite district, but for a long time failed in smelting his iron with 
this coal, which was apparently rather a hindrance than otherwise, and 
could only be used by mixing it largely with bituminous coal. As he 
was one evening blowing up the decaying embers of his fire, in which 
was a solitary lump of anthracite, he noticed, whenever he directed 
the flame on to it, a black mark on the spot where the air had impinged. 
Struck with this fact, he saw why the anthracite was worse than useless 
in the furnace, for the immense volume of cold blast was actually 
retarding the smelting process. He therefore substituted hot blast for 
cold, and succeeded in making the anthracite available, thus giving a 
considerable impetus to the iron-trade of that portion of the field. 

At present there are in blast in the S. Wales coal-field — 

Glamorganshire 79 

Breconshire ,, 18 

Carmarthenshire 2 

Monmouthshire ,, ,, .. ^^k 



xviii III. Manufactures and Products. Introd. 

producing in 1858 about 950,000 tons of iron, of which about 60,000 
is turned out from the anthracite works. In 1858 there was also 
25,000 tons of hasmatite ore raised from the Llantrissant district. 
The number of collieries in the coal-basin is over 330, from which there 
are brought up in the course of the year upwards of 8,000,000 tons 
of coal. 

3. CoppBB. — The copper-trade of S. Wales is far from being of the 
same importance as the iron-ti-ade, which is extended over the whole 
coal-field, while the former is limited to a small portion of it. There 
is also this difference, that iron is a produce of the district in which 
it is worked, whereas the copper has to be brought to this country 
to be smelted, partly from Cornwall, partly from Chili, Valparaiso, and 
Burra Burra in S. Australia. The principal works are in the neigh- 
bourhood of Swansea, Neath, Aberavon, and Llanelly, though the ore 
is mostly sold at the former town at public " ticketings." In 1857 the 
total quantity disposed of at Swansea was 37,657 tons, of the value 
of 574,889?. The process of preparing the copper does not present the 
bustle and activity, nor the glare and brilliancy, of an iron-work. The 
visitor who glides over the bridge over the Tawe at Llandore will be at 
once struck with the peculiarly melancholy, lurid scene that presents 
itself whenever the thick vapours roll away. 

The ore is first of all put into a reverberatory furnace to be calcined 
and exposed to an intense heat, in order to disengage the sulphur and 
other volatile impurities. The calcined and cooled ore is then trans- 
ferred to a second furnace, in which the metallic oxides and earthy 
matters float on the surface of the metal, and are skimmed off as slag, 
the melted copper being allowed to flow off into a pit of water, where 
it becomes granulated in cooling. Of such value is the metal con- 
sidered that even Jhe slag is taken back to the yard and carefully 
broken up to see if any particles of copper are left behind ; if this is 
the case, it is again melted. As a great deal of sulphur is still to be 
found in the metal, it is again melted in a third and fourth furnace, 
and then run into pigs, which are taken to the roasting furnace ; the 
sulphur, which hitherto has been retained in just sufficient quantities 
to protect the metal from oxidization, being now eliminated as rapidly 
as possible. The last process is refining, after which the copper 
is ready for the market in any shape that may be required. The 
smoke and vapour which is disengaged from these works is of the most 
nauseous and disagreeable kind, and apparently most pernicious to 
vegetation, as the traveller cannot but notice in looking up the Vale of 
Tawe. It does not, however, appear to affect human life or health, as 
the workmen and those who dwell in the manufactories appear to enjoy 
both in a remarkable manner. The chomical constituents of the vapour 
are sulphurous acid, which is most abundant and penetrating, sulphuric 
acid, arsenic, both in the metallic form and as arsenious acid, and 
fluoric compounds, perhaps in the shape of hydrofluoric acid. 

The copper-smelting trade (putting aside all conjectures as to Roman 
workings, &c.) was first begun in Cornwall in 1670, but the absence 



Introd. IV. Communications^ xix 

of coal, and the expense of bringing it, soon caused the transferring of 
the works to Clifton near Bristol. A Mr. Coster was partly owner and 
manager of this [establishment, as also one at Eedbrook on the Wye. 
Subsequently the trade was removed to Aberavon, where it still exists, 
as it has done at Swansea from an early part of the last century. 

4. Lead. — The principal mines where this valuable ore is worked 
are in the slaty Lower Silurian rocks in Carmarthenshire and Cardi- 
ganshire. Traces of lead, and sometimes remains of old workings, are 
found also in the southern carboniferous limestone-range of the coal- 
field ; but little or none is obtained at present. Tokens of mining are 
apparent everywhere near Aberystwith, particularly on the road to 
Plynlimmon (Rte. 9) and near the Devil's Bridge. It appears that in 
1858 in Carmarthenshire and Cardiganshire there were raised 8110 
tons of lead and 39,000 oz. of silver ore. — Mining Records, 

5. Patent Fuel. — There is also a large manufacture of patent fuel, 
which is principally carried on at Swansea. It consists of a preparation 
of culm and tar, compressed by machinery into the form of a brick, 
and is largely used for shipping purposes. 



IV. COMMTJNICATIONS. 

To meet the requirements of the manufacturing districts, of late 
years a large number of railways and canals have been constructed, 
and S. Wales bids fair to be intei-sected by the former as copiously as 
any English county. The canals at present in use are — 

1. Newport and Brecon. 

2. Monmouthshire. 

3. Cardiff and Merth3rr. 

4. Neath Valley to Swansea, 

5. Swansea Valley. 

6. Kidwelly. 

The great trunk line consists of the S. Wales, from Gloucester to 
Milford Haven (Rte. 1), which is fed by the Hereford, Ross, and 
Gloucester (Rte. 2) ; Newport, Abergavenny, and Hereford ; Eastern 
and Western Valleys and Taff Vale Extension (Rte. 3) ; Taflf Vale and 
Rhymney Valley (Rte. 4) ; Vale of Neath (Rte. 5) ; Swansea Valley 
(Rte. 1) ; and Llanelly and Llandovery (Rte. 6). The other railways 
in progress, or for which bills have been obtained, are Merthyr and 
Brecon; Merthyr and Abergavenny; Brecon, Hay, and Hereford; 
Craven Arms to Knighton ; Knighton to Llandrindod and Llandovery ; 
Llanidloes through Rhayader to Llandovery ; Rhayader through Builth 
(to join the Brecon and Hereford, and Brecon and Merthyr lines) ; 
Swansea Valley ; Carmarthen and Cardigan ; Tenby Branch. 



XX V. Antiquarian View. Introd. 



V. Antiquarian View. 

Of the many interesting antiquities with which South Wales ahounds* 
the most striking and characteristic are those primeval remains of the 
early inhabitants of which the Cromlech affords such good examples. 
As in many parts of Devon and Cornwall, traces of the Celt are fre- 
quently evident, and sometimes in a very perfect state. The stone 
circles or Druidical circles are occasionally to be foimd, though seldom 
of any great size. They consist of a number of stones disposed around 
a central pillar, in a ring of varying size, and were doubtless connected 
with the rude worship of the Druids. Good examples are at Cam 
Llechart in the Swansea Valley, on Cefh Bryn, Gower, the Precelly 
mountains, at Bedd Taliesin near Aberystwith, and on the mountain 
above Trecastle. 

Cromlechs are numerous, although few are very perfect, owing to 
the destructive tendencies of the ignorant farmers, who have frequently 
broken up the slabs to serve for wall-copings or gate-posts. The crom- 
lech was formerly thought to be used in the sacrificial rites of the 
Druidic priests, but it is now generally allowed that they were sepul- 
chral monuments, designed to mark the resting-place of some great 
warrior or chieftain. The greatest number of cromlechs, as well as 
those in the best preservation, are met with in Pembrokeshire, which, 
perhaps from its comparative isolation, abounds more than any other 
part of South Wales in primeval remains. The principal ones in this 
county are Llech-y-Drybedd, on Tre-icert farm near Nevem, Pentre- 
Evan (Rte.ll), Longhouse near Trevine (Rte. 11), Mathry, St. Nicholas, 
Llanwrda, Trellys, and Ffynondruidian, the last four in the peninsula 
of Strumble Head. There are others at St. Nicholas, Dyffryn (Rte. 1), 
in Glamorganshire, besides Arthur's Stone on Cefn Bryn, Gower (Rte. 1) ; 
in Herefordshire, at Moccas Court (Rte. 8) ; and in Monmouthshire, at 
Newchurch, between Caerwent and Usk. In this category may be 
included the Buckstone* near Monmouth (Rte. 2), which, though no 
cromlech, but a natural curiosity, was an object of high veneration. 

The " Maen-hir " (plural, meini-heirion), or upright stone, is very 
common all over South Wales. Whether they were used to denote 
burial-places, or scenes of battle, or, some particular event, does not 
appear very clear ; the supposition that they were placed as boundaries 
appears improbable, as they are commonly found on the most barren 
ranges of hills. In similar localities the cairns or " carneddau " are 
met with, studding the summits of the mountains with their grey 
heaps of stones. The cairn and the tumulus or ** barrow" un- 
doubtedly mark the places of interment of warriors or chiefs, whose 
burying-places were thus rudely perpetuated to posterity. There are 
several tumuli on the Precelly hills, and also on the Ridgeway between 
Tenby and Pembroke, Most of the Welsh tumuli have at different 

* See NichoUa' ' Forest of Dean/^a very instrnctive little book, by a worthy clergyman. 



Introd. V. Antiquarian View, xxi 

times been opened and found to contain a " Kistvaen " or stone chest, 
in which is an urn filled with ashes. . 

South Wales is particularly rich in inscribed stones^ which were used 
to denote not only the place of interment, but also the name of the 
buried person. In some cases, too, sculpture has been add^d to the 
name. They datie from the Roman era, and continued in use for some 
time subsequent to it. The antiquarian who is interested in inscribed 
stones and crosses should consult the papers of Mr. Westwood in the 
• Archasologia Cambrensis.' 

The following are the principal stones worth visiting. In Brecon- 
shire, the Maen Llia on the Brecon and Ystradfellte road (Rte. 5), and 
near it the sculptured stone of Dervacus or Maen Madoc ; the Maen-y- 
Morwynion or Maiden Stone, at the Gaer near Brecon (Rte. 7) ; the 
sculptured stone at Llandevailog near Brecon ; in Llanspydidd church- 
yard ; at Llanynis near Builth ; in the wall of Defynnoc church ; 
in the wall of Ystradgunlais church (Rte. 1) ; the Yictorinus Stone at 
Bwlch ; in Glanusk Park ; the Catacus Stone in Cwmdu church wall ; 
those of Peregrinus and Valens at Tretower ; and the Turpillian Stone 
at Crickhowell (Rte. 7). In Glamorganshire are the stones on the 
Gellygaer Mountain near Merthyr Tydvil ; that of Arthen in Merthyr 
church wall (Rte. 4) ; the Ogham Stone at Kenfig (Rte. 1) ; and the 
Brancuf Stone at Baglan church ; besides some others in the vicinity of 
Aberavon. In Cardiganshire — ^in Llanarth church near Aberayron 
(Rte. 10), and the Virgin's Stone near Llampeter. In Carmarthenshire 
— the Eidon Stone at Golden Grove. Pembrokeshire — at Caldy Island, 
at Cilgerran church, and that of Sagrannus at St. Dogmael's Priory. 
In connection with them may be mentioned the wheel sculpttfted 
crosses at Margam Abbey and Llantwit churchyard, Glamorganshire. 
Of a different type, but of a much more beautiful kind, are the slender 
elevated crosses in St. Donat's, Carew, and Nevem churchyards. 

British roods and boundaries are few, although it is very probable 
that mauy of the Roman roads followed the course of the British track- 
ways. The Via Flandrica or Fford Fleming is the best defined 
example, extending from near Roch Castle to the village of Ambleston 
in Pembrokeshire. Offa's Dyke is in many places very perfect, and 
can be well examined in the neighbourhood of Knighton, and from 
thence by Kington to Bridge SoUars on the Wye. It was unlikely that 
it served any other purpose than a line of demarcation. 

Boman Boads, — Many of the Roman stations of South Wales have 
had their position definitely fixed, while some are still rather conjectural. 



Blestiam was Monmouth. (?) 

Burrium „ Usk. 

Gobannium „ Abergavenny. 

Magna „ Kenchester. 

Tibia Amnis „ Cardiff. (?) 

Bannium „ Gaer, near Brecon. 

Kidum ,, Neath. \ 

Bovium „ Cowbridge. (?) \ 



Leucanim was Lloughor. 
Maridunum „ Carmarthen. 
Menapia „ St. David's. 

Loventium „ Llanio, nr. Tregaron. 
AdVicesimum „ near Ambleston, 
Isca Silut\irDL ^^ C)%K^«t««!^. 



>^ 



N^TiXA^VVaxwco. ., C^tnr^q^* 



xxii V. Antiqiuzrian View, lutrod. 

There were also Koman stations at Llanfair-y-brjrn near Llandovery, 
and Oaerfagu near Khayader. Traces of the Via Julia, which ran 
between Aqua Solis (Bath) and Menapia, are visible at Caerwent, 
Oaerleon, near Tredegar Park, Newport, and in Pembrokeshire between 
Menapia and Roch Castle. The Sam Helen or Sam Lleon, connected 
Nidum with Bannium, the station at Llanfair-y-bryn, Loventium, and 
eventually Deva (Chester). It can be traced on the hills above 
Rheola, in the Vale of Neath, and from thence to the Maen Llia near 
Ystradfellte; again at Llanfair-y-bryn, and crossing the hills near 
Llampeter to Llanio. A road is also visible from Caerfagu up the vale 
of the Clywedog to Abbey-cwm-hir, and from thence through the pass 
of Bwlch-y-sarnau to Caersws. The Roman towns of Caerleon and 
Caerwent are described in Rte. 1. Traces of roads are also to be found 
at Cayo, and from thence to the Grogofau mines, which it is well known 
were worked by the Romans for gold (Rte. 7). 

Camps are numerous in every part of the country, for there is scarcely 
a height that does not possess some tokens of defence or intrenchment, 
showing how fiercely and repeatedly the ground was disputed inch by 
incb. The following are the principal camps that may be examined ; 
Monmouthshire — Sudbrook near Chepstow, Coed-y - Bunedd, Gaer 
Pawr, and others near Usk ; in Herefordshire — Caer Caradoc, Wapley 
Hill, and Coxwall Knoll, in the neighbourhood of Knighton and 
Kington; Dinedor, Kenchester, and Eaton Bishop near Hereford, 
Doward near Monmouth, and Mouse Castle near Hay ; Breconshire — 
Crag Hywel on the Table Mountain, Crickhowell, Miarth near Grlanusk, 
SI web near Brecon ; in Carmarthenshire — at Cam Goch near Llandilo ; 
in Glamorganshire — Harding Down (very perfect) in Gower ; and in 
Pembrokeshire, at St, David*s Head and Dinas Head. The British and 
Roman forts at Penlan, close to St. David's, should also be visited. 

The Mediaeval remains are numerous, though, perhaps, not so much 
so as might be expected, considering the extent of the country. As 
th^ are described more or less in the respective routes, it will be 
sufficient here to show, under general headings, the various kinds of 
antiquarian buildings. They may be divided into — 

1. Military — such as the Castles of Pembroke, Cilgerran, Llawhaw- 
den, Llanstephan, Kidwelly, Aberystwith, Chepstow, Newport, Calde- 
cott, Ragland, White Castle, Caerphilly, &c., with a long list of others 
in more or less preservation. Some of them, however, such as Manor- 
beer, must be looked upon more in the light of a castle residence than 
as an exclusively military building. 

2. Monastic — such as Tintera, Monkton, St. Dogmael's, Strata 
Florida, Ewenny, Neath, Llanthony, and Talley abbeys. 

3. Ruined chapels — as St. Gowan's, St. Tecla's, the Nun*s, and St. 
Justinian's chapel near St. David's. 

4. Domestic remains — o. Ecclesiastical, as Moynes Court, Lorn" 
phejr, St David's Palacej, Llanddew. 8, Civil, as St. Fagan's, Fonmon, 



Introd* 



r. . Antiquarian View, 



ZXlll 



St. Donat's, Llantwit Town-hall, Derwydd, Devannor, Porthaml, 
Gwemyfedd, Porthmawr, and Court Bryn-y-Beirdd, &c, 

5, Ecclesiastical — as Llandaflf, St. David's, and Hereford Cathedrals. 

6. Parochial. — ^The churches in South Wales are barren in interest, 
considering the number of them ; and although isolated cases happen 
where the parish church affords evidence of former grandeur, yet it is 
as a whole that this class of edifice will be found most interesting to 
the student. A strong family likeness runs through the churches of 
different portions of the country, as in Monmouthshire, where the 
Somersetshire type most prevails ; or Gower and Pembrokeshire, which 
are remarkable for their rude military buildings. The churches best 
worth the attention of the tourist are — 



MonmotUTishire, 

*1. St. WooUos, Newport, 

1. Chepstow. 

1. Mathem. 

1, Magor, 

1, Christ Church. 

1. Caldecott. 

1. Caerwent, 

7. Abergavenny. 

3. Grosmont. 

2. St. Thomas, Monmouth. 
7. MitchelTroy. 

3. Usk. 

Carmarthens?ure. 

7. Llandeilo. 

1. Carmarthen (St, Peter's), 

1. Kidwelly. 

Radnorshire, 
9. Pilleth. 
9. Presteign. 

Cardiganshire, 
9. Llanbadam Vawr. 
10. Llanddewi Brefi, 
12. Cardigan. 

Herefordshire, 
3. Eilpeck. 
8*. Madley. 
9, Kington. 



Brec<mshire, ■ 
7. Criekhowell. 
7. Partrishow. 
7. Tallyn. 
7, Brecon. 

St. Mary's. 

Christ's College. 

Priory. 

Olamorganshire. 
Lantwit. 
St. Donafs. 
St. Bride's, 
Coychurch. 
Coity, 
Newton. 
Swansea. 
Ilston. 
Llangenydd. 

Pembrokeshire, 

Tenby. 

Pembroke. 

Gumfreston. 

Carew. 

Penally. 

Manorbeer, 

Hodgeston. 

Cheriton. 

Haverfordwest. 

Llawhawdeh. 
11. Nevem. 
11. Cilgerran. 



* The numbers denote ttie Routes. 



xxiv VI. Social View, Introd. 



VI. Social View. 

A glance at tlie map, or a very short consideration of the physical 
features of South Wales, will make it obvious that, as regards climate, 
agriculture, &c., many variations must be met with. Even in the same 
county, and often in a very small area, surprising diflFerences of tem- 
perature exist ; the high grounds and mountain-ranges presenting the 
appearance of severe winter, while the sheltered lowlands along the coast 
are luxuriating in a mild and spring-like atmosphere. Indeed in some 
districts, as South Pembrokeshire, the climate is seldom rigorous, even 
in the depth of winter-* evidence of which is seen at Stackpole Court, * 
where plants, which require in other parts of England the protection of 
a greenhouse, flourish well in the open air. It is this fortunate circum- 
stance that makes Tenby such a valuable place of winter residence for 
the invalid. The agricultural products of the country are of course to a 
great extent influenced by its external features, although the science of 
Ginning has immensely improved within the last twenty years, and 
done much to remedy the natural disadvantages of the soil. Agricul- 
tural associations have been formed in almost every county ; and the 
efforts of the large landowners to better not only the condition of the soil, 
but the social position of their tenants and labourers, have met with 
great success. The richest and best lands are generally to be met with 
in the alluvial valleys of the large rivers, as the Usk, Wye, Towy, 
Teifi, &c. The valley of the Usk may be said to be the most fertile, 
and to produce some of the finest crops. The lands on the slopes of the 
hills, and in the smaller tributary valleys, are of course more backward 
and less prolific ; the hills themselves, though useless for produce, being 
very valuable for sheepwalks. Immense flocks of sheep, as well as 
large numbers of horses and ponies, are pastured on them, forming in 
the mountain-regions of Cardiganshire and Carmarthenshire the prin- 
cipal resource of the farmer. The vast population which occupies the 
mineral districts offer a never-failing market for the farmers for many 
miles round ; those who are near enough supplying the more imme- 
diate agricultural produce, while those of Cardiganshire traverse the 
country with their light carts filled with salt butter and bacon. Until 
lately the mining population was a great deal too busy in the bowels of 
the earth to think of what might be done on the surface ; but within 
the last few years a great saving must have been effected by the en- 
closure of large quantities of waste land, on which good though rather 
late crops are grown. Even Merthyr, smoke-blackened and coal-grimed as 
it is, possesses its Agricultural and Horticultural Association, the effects 
of which have been in many instances to cover the desolate-looking 
" tips " and rubbish-heaps with rows of potatoes or turnips. Besides 
the actual amount of produce, it will be easily imagined what a softening 
influence such tastes and occupations have upon the hitherto rude miners 
and colliers. The character of this section of the Welsh population has 
fFoader/uUjr improved m the last ten or fifteen years, which must be a 



Introd. VI. Social View. xxv 

source of congratulation to those who remember the lawlessness and 
ignorance which characterised Chartism, and the fearful riots to which it 
gave birth. Of course, where the amount of labour is so enormous, mis- 
understandings will often arise, which if not adjusted cause strikes and 
bitter feelings between master and man ; but even these latter, unfor- 
tunate as they are, are seldom or never marked by appeals to physical 
force. This improvement must be ascribed principally to education and 
the force of public opinion, which amongst this class of people is a 
powerful motive. It must be confessed that Dissenters have been the 
principal agents in humanizing and softening the mass, the Church of 
Wales having been, with a few honourable exceptions, deplorably back- 
ward in seeking their flocks. Throughout the whole of the country a 
very great change is apparent : the number of churches and schools 
have very much increased both in the dioceses of Llandaflf and St. 
David's, and a more earnest spirit is apparent both amongst clergy and 
laymen. Whether the Church has done veiy much in coping with 
Dissent seems doubtful ; and it is to be feared that not very much 
will be done until the hostility of feeling evinced by many of both 
parties, but principally of the latter, is considerably mitigated. As 
might be naturally expected, the number of dissenting chapels is very 
much greater in the mining districts than in any other part of Wales, 
and indeed bears a marked superiority to buildings of the Established 
Church; but then it must be remembered that these are the very 
districts which have far outgrown any parochial ministerings; and 
that, as a private speculation, it is far more easy to run up a meeting- 
house than it is to provide a church. The improved tone which 
has grown upi so rapidly has also, to a large extent, reached the 
large employers of labour, who indeed are the responsible parties for 
bringing together such vast masses of people ; but while noble examples 
of liberality can be quoted, there are still some ironmasters who are far 
from being imbued with care for the requirements of the men that 
they employ. Serious crime is a rare thing in South Wales, particu- 
larly in the agricultural districts ; and even in the manufacturing towns, 
when we come to consider that the population is by no means all Welsh, 
but includes large numbers of persons from Somersetshire, Wiltshire, 
Ireland, &c., the judicial courts are remarkable for their freedom from 
grave offences. It would be well if the seaport towns could say the 
same, though in their favour it should be urged that, apart from the 
usual mixed and floating population of a seaport, there is a large influx 
of foreign sailors. Notwithstanding the absence of crime, there is 
often to be met with a sad want of truth and straightforwardness, and 
a love of prevarication. Every magistrate who sits in a Welsh police- 
court, and every judge of assize, have abundant opportunities of noticing 
this propensity ; and even old Giraldus, who in his day had as many 
opportunities of knowing as most people, gives the following testi- 
mony : — " These people are no less light in mind than in body^ and taxs: 
by no means to be relied upon ; they scte e^W^ \SlT%^\ \r» ^sA^ee^j^^ 
anj action, and are as easily checked iTOTcv'wco^^cvvXATi^^^* ^^^c^_^j^^ 
fS. Wales.] ^ 



\iSi 



xxvi VI. Social View. Introd. 

respect to oaths or truth, and never scruple to take a false oath for the 
sake of any temporal advantage." — B. ii., Hoares Trandation, With- 
out suhscribing to this very sweeping clause, it must nevertheless be 
confessed that it is a fault lamentably prevalent. 

Au i^este^ the Welsh are a kindly, generous, and impulsive race, often 
gifted with a lively imagination and poetic temperament. Associated 
with these is a strong love of music, the cultivation of which in many 
districts is carried to a surprising pitch. Nobody can hear the national 
Welsh airs, such as * Ar hyd y nos/ * The March of the Men of Harlech,' 
and * Poor Marianne,' without being struck with their great originality 
or pathos. In many parts of the principality, meetings or congresses of 
Welshmen, called Eisteddfodd or Cwmrygyddion* are occasionally held, 
at which prizes are offered for the best performances on the harp, or the 
best piece of poetry. The principal object of these meetings is to keep 
up the Welsh literature, which otherwise would be in some danger of 
being extinct ; whether they really have any such results seems ques- 
tionable, but at all events they serve as useful fields for local genius, 
and also for keeping up the germ of nationality which is such a distin- 
guishing feature in Welsh character. Travellers should resort to these 
meetings, where, mixed with much buffoonery, they will hear good 
Welsh music, and see traits of Welsh character. 

In South Wales the use of the English language is certainly very 
much increased to the detriment of the Welsh ; and as the pushing for- 
ward of new railways breaks down the barriers of isolation, so we may 
expect the latter dialect to become less common. There are not very 
many districts where the tourist will not be able to make himself 
understood, except perhaps in the remote and hilly portions of Car- 
marthenshire and Cardiganshire — districts where the red flannel gown 
and the high-peaked hat still form the characteristic dress of the women, 
and where the perplexing answer of " dim Saesoneg *' as frequently as 
not issues from the mouths of the " charming Welshes." In the border 
counties English is universally spoken as well as Welsh, which is the 
case also throughout the mineral basin, where most of the children are 
able to speak the two languages. South Pembrokeshire, however, and 
the peninsula of Gower, are almost exclusively and wholly English, not 
only in dialect and expression, but in the very names of the villages. 
This peculiarity is owing to their colonization, in the 12th century, by 
the Flemings, who have handed down, from generation to generation, 
characteristics which have never yet been destroyed or effa(^ by con- 
tact with the Welsh. 

Many old customs and superstitions have become obsolete within the 
last ten or twenty years, in consequence of increased education and 
facilities of intercommunication with the rest of the country. Some of 
them may be mentioned as both interesting and curious. The supersti- 
tion of the Sin-Eater is said to linger even now in the secluded vale of 
Cwm Amman in Carmarthenshire. When a person died, the friends 

* Pronounced Goomreg^thion. 



Introd. VI. Sockd View. xxvii 

sent for the sin-eater of the district, who on his arrival placed a plate 
of salt on the breast of the deceased, and on the salt a piece of bread. 
He then muttered an incantation over the bread, which he finally eat, 
thereby eating the sins of the dead person. This done, he received the 
fee of 2s. 6d., and vanished as quickly as he could, the friends helping 
his departure by the aid of sundry blows and kicks, if they could catch 
him ; for as it was believed that he took upon himself the sins of the 
defunct, he was looked upon as a social Pariah for whom nothing was 
too bad. The custom of placing bread or a plate of salt on the breast 
of the corpse is by no means uncommon in many parts of "Wales. 
Another curious custom is still in existence — that of the Cefyl Pren, 
which occurs in cases where popular indignation is excited by any 
gross infringement of domestic rights or proprieties. A large crowd, 
one of whom is dressed up with a horse's head, assembles before the 
door of the delinquent, who, after undergoing an immense amount of 
vituperation and a hideous noise of old kettles and cleavers, is at length 
burnt in effigy, by which the sacred wrath pf the people is at length 
appeased. 

To turn to more pleasing customs, we may mention the ** Pylgain," 
or **Plygain," whfch was formerly very common in some of the 
churches of the princiimlity (particularly that of Crickhowell)on Christ- 
mas morning. At six o'clock the church was brilliantly illuminated, 
while Christmas carols were sung. It is almost a pity that a custom 
so innocent and so pleasing should have fallen into disuse. 

A very pretty habit was lately prevalent at Tenby on New-year's 
morning, when children knocked at the doors, and, having obtained 
admittance, sprinkled the articles of furniture with water, at the same 
time singing the following quaint verses : — 

** Here we bring new water firom the well so clear, 
For to worship God with this happy new year. 
Sing levy dew, sing levy dew, the water and the wine. 
With seven bright gold wires and bugles that do shine. 
Sing reign of fair maid, with gold upon her toe. 
Open you the west door, and turn the old year go. 
Sing reign of fair maid, with gold upon her chin. 
Open yua the east door, and let the new year In."* 

Of all the Welsh superstitions, that of the fairies was for long most 
rooted and wide-spread. Glamorganshire appears to have been the 
head-quarters of this favourite idea ; and many are the stories and 
legends of the "little men in green" devoutly believed by many a 
peasant. 

The Vale of Neath in particular was tenanted by fairies ; and there 
are doubtless many living in the vale now who would be loth to trust 
themselves in certain spots at night-time, for fear of intruding upon 
their haunts. 

The Welsh notion of fairies is that they are the souls of persons who 
were not good enough to enter Heaven, nor bad enough to be sent to 

* The tourist who is interested in old local customs will find tho«A c>^ T^iAs^ ^^-wsriw^^i^. 
length in an interesting little book published by MT.'Mlaa^Ti» VXi«t\\\yc«c\ask.. 



xxviii 



VII. Glossary of Welsh Words, 



Introd. 



Pandemonium. They therefore remain on the earth, taking a benevo- 
lent interest in good actions, and equally disliking anything mean or 
underhand. 

VII. Glossary of Welsh Words as occurring in the construction 

of Welsh Names. 



Aher, the fall of a lesser water into a 

greater, a confluence. 
Afon, river. 

Aeron^ fruits, brightness. 
Al, power, very, most. 
Alltf a woody cliff. 
Ar, upon, bordering on. 
Aran, a high place, an alp. 
Back and Bychan, little; Frm, Fach, 

and Fychan. 
Ban, lofty; pi. Bandu, eminences. 
Bedd, a grave. 
Bettws, a station, a place between hill 

and vale. 
Blaen, an end, point, the head of a 

vale. 
Bod, an abode, dwelling. 
Braich, arm. 
Biig, summit. 

Bron, breast, a slope of a hill. 
Bryn, a mount, hill. 
Bu, an ox. 

Bvolch, a defile, pass. 
Cad^ defending, battle. 
Coder, chair, stronghold. 
Cae, field. 
Caer, a fort, city. 
Cantref, a division of a county. 
Capel, chapel. 
Carreg, stone. 
Cam, heap of stones. 
Camedd, ditto ; pi. cameddau, 
Castell, fortress. 
Cefn, back, ridge. 
CU, a retreat ; pi. ciliau, 
Clavcdd, dyke, hedge. 
Clogwyn, precipice. 
Coch, red. 
Coed, a wool. 
Cors, a bog. 

Craig, rock ; pi. creigiau, 
Croes, a cross, a turn. 
Crug, a mound. 
Cwm, a dingle. 
Cymmer, a confluence. 



Dau, two. . 

De, south. 

Dol, a meadow. 

Dinas, a city or fortified post. 

Dnos, a door, a pass. 

Du, black. 

Dwr, water. 

^yffn/^, a valley. 

Eglwys, church. 

^pynt, an ascent. 

Errjo, acre. 

Esgair, long ridge. 

Fach and Fychan, vid. Bach, 

Fawr, vid. Mavor^ 

Ffin, limit. 

Ffordf passage. 

Ffynnon, a well. 

Flnr, bright hue. 

Oaer, same as Caer, 

Oallt, vid. Allt, 

Garth, a buttress hill, a cape. 

Gelli, grove. 

Glan, a shore, brink, 

Glas, blue, green, 

Glyn, a glen, 

Gwaelod, the bottom. 

Gwaen, a plain. 

Gwem, a wateiy meadow. 

Gwydd, wood. 

Gwyn, white, fair. 

Hafod, a summer residence. 

Hen, old. 

Heolf a street. 

Hir, long. 

/s or Ts, lower. 

/sa/, lowest ; TJchaf, highest. 

Han, an enclosure, churchyard, and 

hence generally used for the church 

itself. 
Llech, a smooth diff. 
Lluest, encampment. 
Llwyd, grey, hoary. 
Llvoyn, wood, cope. 
Llyn^ lake. 
Llyr, water, the sea. 



IntiocL VIII. Paints of Interest for the Geologist. 



XXIX 



Llys, a palace, 

Maen, stone. 

MaeSf field. 

Mallf bad. 

Mawr, same as Fator, great. 

Melin, mill. 

3foe4 bald, same as Foel. 

Monad, isolated situation. 

Morfa, sea-marsh. 

Mynachf monk. 

Mynydd, mountain. 

Nantf brook. 

Neuadd, a hall. 

Newydd, new. 

Or, edge, side, rim. 

Pant, hollow. 

Pen, head, top. 

Pen^naen, the stone end. 

Pentref, village, subui'b. 

Pistyll, a cataract. 

Plas, hall, place. 

Pont, bridge. 

Forth, gate. 

Fwll, ditch, pool. 

Rhayader, fall, cataract. 

^Atu7, ascent. 



i2^, a moist plain. 
Rhudd, purple. 
Rhyd, ford. 
Sam, causeway. 
Tafam, tayem. 
Tal, the front, head, tall. 
Tarn, spreading. 
Tir, eailh, land. 
Tomen, mound. 
Traeth, a sandj beach. 
Tre, house, a small town. 
Tri, three. 
r/w<f, footofahill. 
Twlch, knoll. 
Twr, tower. . 

Sm>sf*i» nose, ca/* • o •' ■ 
Ty, house, mansion. ^ 
Uchaf, highest ; see Isaf, 
r, the. 
Fm, in, by. 
Fn, into. 
Tnys, island. 

Tspytty (hospitium), a place of refresh- 
ment. 
Tstrad, a vale. 
Tstwith, flexible. 



The traveller who wishes to learn the Welsh language is recom- 
mended to study Spurrell's Grammar and Dictionary, as heing the most 
easy and concise. 



VIII. Points of Interest for the Geologist. 



Penarth Head, near Cardiff, for triassic 

marls overlaid by lias. 
Barry Island. 
Southemdown, lias limestone resting on 

upturned carboniferous limestone. 
Llandaff, permian, and drift of the Taff 

Valley as far as Pentyrch, 
Llantrissant, dolomitic conglomerate 

overlying the haematite deposits. 
Castell Coch, limestone rocks. 
Coal-measures at Maesteg. 
Anthracite coal at Cwm Amman. 
Marine coal shells at Rhymney Gate, 

near Merthyr. 
Fish remains, marine shells, and ferns 

at Beaufort and Ebbw Vale. 
Limestone rocks of Gower and Worm's 

Head. 



Black shales of Bishopston. 

Bone caves of Bacon Hole and Paviland, 
Gower. 

Limestone rocks at Tenby. 

Junction of ditto with old red at 
Caldy Island. 

Contorted strata of limestone of S. Pem- 
brokeshire. 

Cornstones at Pontrilas, Herefordshire. 

The Skyrrid Hill, near Abergavenny. 

Cornstones of Bwlch, between Crick- 
howell and Brecon. 

The Daren near Crickhowell, and Pen- 
carreg-calch. 

Brad nor Hill iilestones at Kington. 

Tilestones of Clyro Hills, near Hay. 

Horeb Chapel tilestones, Cwm Dwr, 
Trecastle. 



XXX 



IX. Skeleton Routes, 



In trod. 



Ludlow rocks of the Epynt and Bwlch- 
y-groes Hills. 

The Usk valley of elevation. 

The Wenlock limestone and Pentamerub 
bed at Gorton, near Presteign. 

Kash Scar. 

The eruptive rocks of Stanner, &c. 

The Llandeilo rocks, near Builth (Well- 
field), and the trap of the Carneddau 
Hills. 

The lower Silurian rocks of Llanwr- 
tyd. 



The Llandovery beds at Noeth Crug 

(Llandovery). 
The Gogofau gold-mines. 
Valley of the Sawdde, near Llangattock. 
Cilgwyn, near Llandovery, 
Llandeilo. 
Mount Pleasant, Carmarthen. (Lower 

Silurian.) 
Purple slates at St. David*s. 
Treffgam Hills. 

The Sam Cynfelin, near Aberystwith. 
Lisbume and Goginau lead-mines. 



IX. — Skeleton Eoutes. 



A. CHIEF PLACES OF INTEREST, ARRANGED ACCORDING 

TO COUNTIES. 

Those best worth seeing are marked tmth an asterisk. 

1. Monmouthshire. 

Chepstow. *Castle. Portwall. Ch. Tubular Bridge. *Piercefield 

Grounds. Mathern Ch. and Palace. Moyne's Court. **Wynd- 

cliff Hill. Bannagor Rocks. **Tintern Abbey. 
Monmouth. ♦St. Thomas's Ch. ♦Bridge-gate. Town Hall. 

♦Kymin Hill. *Buck8tone. Stanton Ch. Doward Hill and 

Camp. *Symond's Yat. *Coldwell Rocks. *St. Briavel's 

Castle. Troy House. Trelcch Ch. and Stones. Mitchel 

Troy Ch. Treo wen Manor-house. 
Banian. * * Castle. 
Usit. ♦Castle. Ch. Silurian Rocks at Llanbadock. Llangibby 

Castle. Camps at Coed-y-Bunedd and Graer-fawr. Cromlech 

at Newchurch. 
Porthskevoitt. Sudbrook Chapel and Camp. ♦Caerwent. ♦Calde- 

cott Castle and Ch. Dinham, Llanvair, Troggy, Penhow, and 

Pencoed Castles. View from Pencae-mawr. 
Magor. Ch. 
Newport. View from ♦St. WooUos Ch. ♦Castle. Docks. ♦Caer- 

leon. Amphitheatre and *Museum. Malpas Ch. 
Pontypool. Tin-works. Trevethin Ch. Blanafon Iron-works. 

♦Crumlin Viaduct. ♦Twm Barlwm Hill. 
Brynmawr. ♦Nantyglo or ♦Ebbwvale Iron-works. Blaina Works 

and Ch. Scenery of ♦Ebbw Valley, Clydach Valley, and 

♦Pwl-y-cwm Waterfall. 
Abergavenny. ♦Ch. Castle. ♦Skyrrid and ♦Sugar-Loaf Hills. 
• Blorenge Mount. White Castle. ♦Cwmyoy and Llanthony 

Abbey. 

2. Herepordshibe, as far as relates to Rtes. 2, 3, 8, 9. 

Hereford. ♦Cathedral. Town Hall. Castle Gardens. Blackfriafs. 



Id trod. ix. Skeleton Routjes. xxxi 

Dinedor Hill. Holme Lacy House. *White Gross. Madley 

Ch. Kenchester. 
Boss. ♦Oh. View from *Royal Hotel. Wilton Castle. *Goodricli 

Court and *Castle. Welsh Bicknor Ch. 
Pantrilas, Vale of Monnow. *Gro8mont Ch. and Castle. ♦Sken- 

frith Castle. *Kilpeck Ch. 
Kington. *Ch. Bradnor Hill. Offa*s Dyke. 

3. Breconshibe. 

CricJchowell. *Ch. Castle. ♦Camp on Table Hill. ♦Porthmawr 
Grateway. ♦Llangenau Ch. Valley of the Grwyney. Partrishow 
Ch. *Tretower Castle. Cwmddu Ch. View from Bwlch Pass. 
Ttirpilian and Victorinus Stones. *Llangorse Lake. ♦Tallyn 
Ch. Valleys of Dyffryn Crownan and Glyn Collwg. 

Brecon. St. Mary's Ch. *Priory Ch. *Christ's Coll. *Castle. 
The Graer. Maen-y-Morwynion. The *Beacons. Llanddew 
Palace. Inscribed Stones at Llandevailog Ch. Llanspydidd 
Ch. 

Devynnoch. Ch. Vale of Senni. 

Hay. Ch. Castle. ♦Cusop Valley and Black Mountains. Mouse 
Castle. Cromlech at Moccas. ♦Clifford Castle. Gwemyfed 
Manor-house. ♦Bronllys Castle. 

BuiUh. Park Wells. Aberdw Ch. •Pwllddu. ♦Cwm Bedd 
Llewellyn, 

Llanwrtyd. ♦Vale of Yrfon. ♦Llanddewi Abergwessin. 

4. Glamorganshire. 

Cardiff. ♦Bute Docks. ♦Castle. St. John's Ch. 

Llandaff. ♦Cathedral. Bishop's Gateway. Sully Castle. Barry 
Island and Castle. ♦St. Nicholas Cromlech. Fonmon. 

Llantrissant. Iron Mines. View from Ch. 

Cowbridge. Beaupr^. ♦LlantwitCh. and Town Hall. ♦St.Donat's 
Castle, Ch., and Cross. Southemdown. Ograore Castle. 
♦Ewenny Priory. St. Bride's Ch. Merthyrmawr Crosses. 

Bridgend. »Coity Ch. and Castle. Newton Ch. Coychurch. 
♦Margam. "Aberavon Works. 

Neath. Castle. ♦Abbey. ♦Neath Valley. Resolyen. ♦Pont 
Neath Vaughan. ♦Waterfalls on Heppste, Mellte, and Pyrrdin. 
♦Perth yr Ogof. Ystradfellte. Maen Madoc, and Maen Llia. 

Swansea. ♦Castle. Ch. ♦Museum. ♦Docks. ♦Copper Works. 
Ynispenllwch Tin Works. Pontardawe Oh. Cam Llechart. 
Yniscedwin Iron Works. Ystradgunlais Ch. Capel Colbren. 
♦Scwd Hen Rhyd Waterfall. 

Gower. ♦Oystermouth Castle. ♦Mumbles Rocks and Lighthouse. 
*Caswall Bay and ♦Coast Scenery. Pwllddu Point. ♦Bishops- 
ton Valley and Ch. ♦Ilston Ch. ♦Bacon Hole Bone Cave. 
Pennard Castle. ♦Cefn Bryn. ♦Arthur's Stone. ♦Penrice 
Castle aiid Ch. *Oxwich Castle. Paviland Caves. ♦Worm's 
Head. Rhosilly. Llangennith Ch. ♦Harding Down Camp. 
Llanmadoc Bone Cave. Weobley Castle. Lloughor Castle 
and ♦Bridge. 

TaffVale. ♦Castell Coch. ♦Caerphilly Castle. ♦Pontypridd Bridge. 
♦Rhondda Valley. ♦Craig-y-Llyn. *Aberdare. ♦Merthyr 
Ironworks. Dowlais. ♦Pontsam Waterfall. ♦Morlaia GesttA. 



xxxii K. Skeleton Routes, Introd. 

5. CABMABTHia^SHIBE. 

LlaneUy. Copper Works and Docks. 

KidweUy, Oh. and *Oastle, *Llanstephan Castle. Llaughame 
Castle. 

Carmarthen, *Ch. Obelisk. Whitland Abbey. ♦Cwm Gwili. 
Oynfil. Abergwili. *Dryslyn Castle. Grongar Hill. ♦Llan- 
deilo Oh. *Dynevor Castle. *Carreg Cennen Castle. Court 
Bryn v Beirdd. Source of the Lloughor. ♦Camgoch. Llan- 

gdidock. ♦Talley Abbey. Vale of CothL *Qogoh,n Mines. 
ynVU Oh. Llandovery Castle. Llanvair-y-Bryn Oh. ♦Capel 
Ystrad Ffln. Twm Shon Catti's Cave. Vales of Doeithiau 
and Pysgottwr. 

6. Radnorshire. 

Bhayader. Vales of ♦Elan and ♦Clarwen. Road to ♦Builth, 
Llandrindod. *Oefnlys Castle. ♦Abbey Cwm Hir. Devanner. 
Camps in Cwm Aran. Stanner Rocks. ♦Water-break-its-neck. 
Penybont. Old Radnor Oh. Pilleth Oh. Knighton. Camp^ 
at ♦Caer Caradoc and Ooxwall KnoU. Presteign Oh. 

7. Cardiganshire. 

♦Upper portion of the Wye. Plynlimmon. ♦Falls at Port Erwyd. 

♦Parson's Bridge. *Devil's Bridge. ♦Goginau Mines. ♦Llan- 

badarn Vawr Oh. 
Aherystvnth. ♦Castle. Plas Crug. ♦Craiglais. Vale of Clarach. 

♦Sam Cynfelin. Cwm Ystwith Mines. *Hafod. *Eglwy8 

Newydd (*Cbantrey's Monum.). Lisburne Mines. Llanavan. 

♦View from Ffairrhos. Ystrad Meirig School. ♦Strata Florida 

Abbey. ♦Lakes of the Teivy. Tregaron. 
Cardigan Oh. ♦St. Dogmael's Abbey. ♦Kenarth Bridge. 
Newcastle, ♦Castle. 
Llampeter, College. Llanvair Clydogau Mine. ♦Llanddewi 

Brefi. ♦Llanio. Vale of Aeron. Aberayron. New Quay. 

Castle Nadolig. Llanrhysted. 

8. P£Mbroej:shire. 

Narberth Castle. ♦Saundersfoot. ♦Tenby Church ; ♦Castle. 
Caldy Island. St. Catherine's. ♦Penally Oh. Lydstep 
Caves. ♦Manorbeer Castle and Ch. ♦Stackpole Court. Cheri- 
ton Oh. ♦St. Gowan's Head and Chapel. ♦Coast to Stack 
Rocks. Castle Martin and Warren Oh. ♦Pembroke Castle. 
♦Monkton Priory. ♦Lamphey Court. *Hodgeston Ch. ♦Gum- 
freston Ch. Cfirew Ch., *Oastle, and Cross. Upton Castle. 
Benton Castle. ♦Pater Dockyard. ♦Milford. ♦Haverford- 
west and St. Mary's Ch. Picton Castle. Slebech. ♦Llaw- 
hawden Castle. ♦Broadhaven. ♦Roch Castle. View over 
St. Bride's Bay. ♦Solva. ♦St. David's Cathedral, College, 
and Palace. Nun's Chapel. Whitesand Bay. Penlan Fort. 
*St. David's Head. Cam Llidi. Penberry. ♦Trevine Crom- 
lech. ♦Fishguard. *Goodwick. 'Spot where the French 
landed. Cromlechs near Strumble Head. Precelly Hills. 
♦Dinas Head. Newport Castle. ♦Nevem Ch. and Cross. 
♦Pentre-evan Cromlech. ♦Cilgerran Castle. 



Introd. IX. Skeleton Tours. xxxiii 

B. SKELETON TOUB OF ONE MONTH 

through the Southern portion of South Wales, 

DAYS. 

1. London to Tenby (by rail\ Narberth Eoad Station. 

2. Tenby Castle. Oh. Walls. Penally. If tide admits, visit Lydstep. 

Excursion to Caldy, or drive to Saundersfoot. 

3. Excursion to Manorbeer, Stackpole Court, Cheriton Ch., St. Gowan's 

Head, Stacks, and sleep at Pembroke. 

4. See Monkton, Lamphey, Carew, Pater, and sleep at New Milford. 

5. Visit Milford, and by train to Haverfordwest, St. Mary's Ch. ; if 

omnibus serves, to St. David's in afternoon. (It is a glorious walk 
for a pedestrian, who must take care on reaching Newgale to 
follow the road and not cut across the marshes.) 

6. St. David's. Cathedral, College, Palace. If time, visit St. David's 

Head or the Nun's Chapel near Caerfai. (The tourist should 
endeavour to spend Sunday here.) 

7. Cromlech at Trevine, and on to Fishguard (there is no conveyance). 

Visit Goodwick and Carreg Gwasted. 

8. Excursion to Precelly Hills. The pedestrian had better not return 

to f^hguard, but descend to Newport. 

9. Dinas Head, Newport Castle, Nevern Ch. and Cross, Cromlech at 

Pentre Evan ; Cardigan. Visit Cilgerran. 

10. In morning visit St. Dogmael's Priory. By coach to Newcastle 

Emlyn and Carmarthen. 

11. Visit Llanstephan and Kidwelly, and back to Carmarthen, or on to 

Llanelly. 

12. From Carmarthen to Llandeilo by coach, or from Llanelly to Llan- 

deilo by railway. Visit Dynevor Park, Carreg Cennen Castle. 

13. Cam Goch, Llandovery. Excursion either to Gogofau or up the 

Valley of Towey to Capel Ystrad Ffin. 

14. To Swansea by rail. Visit Castle, Docks, Museum, and by omnibus 

to Oystermouth Castle and Mumbles. 

15. By Swansea Vale Kailway to Pontcirdawe, and on by omnibus to 

Ystradgunlais. If time permit, visit Waterfall of Scwd Hen Rhyd. 
If the tourist prefer, he can spend this day in an excursion to the 
Bone Caves of Gower and the Worm's Head. (There is no con- 
veyance.) 

16. To Neath and Vale of Neath. Get out at Glyn Neath Station, and 

visit the Waterfalls. The first train ought to be taken to allow of 
this. In the evening take the last train to Merthyr TydviL 

17. Visit Iron-works, Pontsam, and Morlais Castle. In afternoon by 

coach to Brecon. 

18. Visit Priory Church ; ascend Beacons. 

19. By coach to Crickhowell. Visit Castle, Ch., and Llangenau Valley, 

and in evening to Abergavenny. 

20. From Abergavenny by rail to Pontypool, and from thence by Crumlin 

and Quaker's Yard to Cardiff. Visit Docks. 

21. Visit Llandaff Cathedral ; if possible, let it be Sunday. 

22. By Taff Vale Rail to CastcU Coch and Caerphilly. 

23. From Cardiff to Cowbridge by rail and omnibus (if driving, visit 

St. Nicholas Cromlech), and thence by Llantwit Major, St. Donat'Sv 
Ogmore, and Ewenny Priory, to Bridgend, 



xxxiv IX. Skeleton Tours, Introd. 

DAYS. 

24. From Bridgend to Newport. Visit St Woollos, or else, if time 

permit, Oaerieon. In afternoon by train to Usk and Ea^lan. 

25. From Baglan to Abergavenny (a magnificent drive), and on by rail 

to Hereford. (A pedestrian may get out at Llanvihangel Station, 
visit Llanthony Abbey, and be back in time for the la^t train to 
Hereford.) Conveyances must be obtained at Abergavenny, as 
there are none at Llanvihangel. 

26. Visit Cathedral, and, if on proper days, Holme Lacy ; in after- ' 

noon to Boss by rail. 

27. From Boss to Monmouth by coach or water. Visit Goodrich 

Court and Castle, Symond's Yat, and Bnckstone. 

28. Monmouth to Chepstow by coach (dependent on packet) or by i 

water. Visit Tintem and Wyndcliff. 

29. Chepstow Castle. Mathem, Caerwent, and Caldicott. From 

Porthskewitt Station. 

30. Chepstow to London, &c. 
[This tour, including Sundays, will be about 33 days.] 






J 



C. A TOUB OF SIX WEEKS. 

1. From London to Kington by rail, vi& Ludlow. 

2. Kington to Bhayader by coach. Excursion up Vale of Elan. 

3. Excursion to Abbey Cwm Hir, Llandrindod, and Cefn Llys Castle. 

4. By coach to Builth along the Wye, Hay, and Brecon. 

5. Visit Priory, Castle, the Gaer, Bieacons. 

6. By coach to Llandovery and rail to Llandeilo. Visit Dynevor Park 

and Carregcennen Castle. 

7. From Llandovery by coach to Llanwrtyd Wells and Builth. (A 

pedestrian may start early, go up to Capel Ystrad Ffin, cross the 
mountains to Llanwrtyd, and catch the coach to Builth in the 
evening.) 

8. From Builth to Abeiystwith by coach. 

9. Visit Castle, Llanbadam Vawr, Constitution Hill, Clarach Vale, &c. 

10. By omnibus to Devil's Bridge^ visit Hafod, and sleep at Devils 

Bridge. 

11. Excursion to Strata Florida Abbey (if time, to Llyn Teivy), and on 

to Tregaron (no conveyance). 

12. From Tregaron to Loventium, Llanddewi Brefi to Llampeter, where 

catch the coach to Carmarthen. 

13. Carmarthen to Tenby (Narberth Road) ; on way visit Llawhawden 

Castle. 



14.) 
to 



Same as No. III. 
23.) 

24. Swansea, &c. 

25. Worm's Head, Gower. 

26. Swansea Vale (No. IV.) 

27. Neath. Abb^ Visit Briton Ferry and Margam. 

28. Vale of Neath Waterfalls ; in evening to Merthyr to see its * Ironworks. 

29. Merthyr to Abergavenny by coach. Visit Ch., Castle (if time, ascend 

Sugar Loaf). In evening to Crickhowell by coach. 



IntrodU ix. Skekton Tours, xxxv 

DAYS. 

30. Back to Abergavenny, and by rail to Pontypool, Orumlin Viaduct, 

to Quaker's Yard, and so to Cardiff. 
31.) 

32.iasNo.III. 
33.1 

34. To Newport by raU. Visit St. Woollos Ch., Castle, Docks. Ex- 

cursion to Caerleon. 

35. To Pontypool, Usk. Kaglan by rail. 

36. as No. III. 

37. Hereford. Cathedral. Kilpeck Ch. (St. Devereux Station), Boss. 

38. Boss to Monmouth. If time permit, excursion to Grosmont Castle. 

39. Monmouth to Chepstow. Tintem, Wyndcliff. 

40. Chepstow Castle. Mathem. From Forthskewitt to Caerwent and 

Csddecott. 

41. From Chepstow to Gloucester, &c., or by steamer to Bristol. 

D. PEDESTEIAN TOUB THBOUGH THE HEABT OF WALES, 

which may be added to or mhstitvted for any of the days routes 

mentioned before. 

Arriving at Pontypool from Hereford or NewpOTt. 

1. From Pontypool across the Crumlin, Sirhowy, Bhymney, and Taff 

Vales. A not very long walk, but fatiguing, owing to the height 
and number of the hills to be crossed. 

2. From Pontypridd to the head of the Bhondda valley, across Craig y 

Llyn to tne Lamb and Flag in Neath Valley. About 26 m. 

3. Visit Waterfalls and Scwd Hen Bhyd, returning by Ystradgunlais by 

omnibus to Pontardawe, where take train to Swansea. 

4. Swansea to Worm's Head, Grower. 20 m. Sleep at Pitton farm- 

house. 

5. Betum to Swansea, visiting the remaining places not seen the day 

before. 

6. Take train to Aberafon ; walk through Cwm Avon to Maesteg, and up 

through Glyn Corrwg into Vale of Neath. A good day's work. If 
possible, try and catch the last train to Merthyr. 

7. From Merthyr by Castle Morlais up the Valley of the Lesser Taff to 

Beacons, and down to Brecon. 

8. Walk or by coach to Llandovery, and in afternoon visit Llandeilo, 

&c., returning to Llandovery. 

9. Start early, and walk up the Towey to Capel Ystrad y Ffin. Visit 

Twm Shon Catti's Cave, and thence up the Vale of either the 
Doeithiau or Pysgottwr to Tregaron. This is a long walk, solitary, 
and requires a nne day and a good map. 

10. From Tregaron to Strata Florida, Llyn Teivy, and sleep at Hafod 

Arms. 

11. Visit Parson's Bridge, Falls of the Bheidol at Pont Erwyd, and 

ascend Plynlimmon. In evening by coach to Aberystwith. 

12. By coach firom Aberystwith to Llangurig, and walk to Bhayader. 

13. Up the Vale of Elan and Clarwen to Drygam mountain, and descend 

by the Vale of Yrfon to Llanwrtyd Wells, and in evftiaixi% \s^ 
omnibus to Builth. 



xxxvi IX. Skeleton Tours, In trod. 

DAYS. 

14. From Builth to Hay. 

15. From Hay, across the Black Mountains, to Llanthony Abbey, and 

down the Honddu to Llanvihangel Station. 

These routes may of course be altered or interpolated with others in 
every possible way. 

K. A COAST WALK OF A FORTNIGHT. 

1. From Cardiff, by Penarth Head, Aberthaw, Barry Island, to Llantwit 

(a very poor inn). 
2.- By St. Donats, Southemdown, to Bridgend, from whence take the 

train to Swansea. 

3. To Mumbles, Caswall Bay, Pwllddu Point, and up Bishopton Valley 

to Gower Inn. 

4. By Paviland to Worm's Head (sleep at Pitton Farmhouse). 

5. Back to Swansea or Gower Eoad Station over Harding Down and 

Cefh Bryn. Take train to Kidwelly. 

6. Take train to Ferryside, cross ferries at Llanstephan and Llaughame, 

and follow coast to Saundersfoot and Tenby. 

7. Round by Manorbeer to Bosheston (?). As there are no inns in this 

district, the pedestrian must endeavour to put up at a farmhouse. 

8. To Pembroke and Milford. 

9. Milford to St. David's. 

10. To Fishguard by St. David's Head. 

11. To Cardigan. 



HANDBOOK 



FOR 



SOUTH WALES. 



ROUTES. 

*•* The names of places are printed in itaZics only In those routes where the placet are 

described. 



ROQTE 



Chepstow, by Llandaff, Cardiff, 
Newport. Swansea {Gower), 
Tenby, Pembroke, to Milford 
Haven, by S. Wales Railway . 

2 Hereford , by Boss and Monmoidh, 

to Chepstow. The Wye 

3 Newport to Hereford, by Rail . 

4 Cardiff to Brecon, by Merthyr 

2Vc?i7»/.— TaffVale Railway . 

5 Abergavenny to Neath, by Mer- 

thyr Tydvil and Vale of Neath 

6 Llanelly to Newtown, by Llan- 

deilo, Llandovery, Llanwrtyd, 
BuUth, and Blandrindod 



PAGE 



40 
48 

57 

69 



75 



ROUTE PAGE 

7 Monmouth to Carmarthen, 

{hroM^ Abergavenny, Crick- 
howell, Brecon, and Llan« 
dovery 

8 Herefoixi to j?ay, Brecon, Builth, 

and Rhayader .... 

9 Kington to Abeiystwith, 

through Rhayader . 

10 Carmarthen to Aberystwith, 

through Llampeter . 

11 Haverfordwest to St. Davids, 

Fishguard, Caidigan, and Cai- 
maithen 123 

12 Cardigan to Cannai-then . .131 



82 



101 



107 



119 



ROUTE 1. 

PROM CHEPSTOW, BY SOUTH WALES 
RAILWAY, TO MILFORD HAVEN. 

Chepstmo (Pop. 4332) {Hotels: 
Beaurort Arms, good ; George) may 
be considered as the best starting- 
point, whether the tourist arrives 
from Bristol by steamer or by the 
South Wales Railway from Glou- 
cester. 

On emerging from the deep cutting 
of mountain limestone, a fine view 
of the town is gained, as the train 
glides over the Tubular Bridge, a 
bold conception of the late Mr. Bru- 
nei, though, in itself, scarcely har- 

[8. Wales.] 



monizing with the rest of the scene. 
It consists of two superstructures 
divided into four spans, the whole 
being 600 ft. long. The tubes are 
supported at intervals upon the 
chains by vertical trusses^ and are 
about 152 ft. above low-water mark ; 
the river piers being sunk to a depth 
of 50 ft., Tmtil they rest on the moun- 
tain limestone. 

The town is situated almost en- 
tirely on the W. bank of the Wye, 
about 4 m. from its confluence with 
the Severn, and, viewed ft*om the 
opposite side, presents a very pic- 
turesque appearance ; the most 
striking feature being the ruined 
castle, forami^^ «& \\. ^^\fc^ ^-^ss^ '^^ 



Eoute 1. — Chepstow. 



S. Wales. 



the steep limestone cliffs, which I forming a natural dry moat to the 

1 J i i.v J. »_ _J ;_ 1._1J i» L mi__ J AT T7* _iJ — 



descend to the water's edge in bold 
escarpments. 

The counties of Monmouth and 
Gloucester are here connected by a 
handsome iron bridge of 5 arches, 
erected 1816. At the upper end of 
the principal street is a stone gate, 
part of the ancient fortifications ; 
out more perfect specimens exist in 
the walls, flanked at intervals by 
towers which surround the old Port, 
commencing a little below the bridge, 
and extending by the W. gate round 
the whole town, almost to the bridge 
again. 

The Ch., once conventual, belong- 
ing to the Priory, contains, in the 
lower part of the tower, a consider- 
able portion of Norm, architecture ; 
at the W. end is a circular portal 
richly adorned with chevrons and 
zigzag mouldings, above which is a 
vue modern tower. A central tower 
was begun, but the remains of it have 
. been removed, and a new chancel 
thrown out to the B. The nave is 
ancient, although a little later than 
the front ; its rows of circular arches 
are supported on massy and square 
piers.. "A little attention ascer- 
tains the truth, that among the ac- 
cumulations of successive periods of 
barbarism there lies concealed the 
nearly perfect nave of no contempt- 
ible Norman minster." — E. A, F. 
Here is a monument to Henry, 2nd 
Earl of Worcester, bearing his marble 
efflgy under a canopy supported by 
Corinthian pillars. Under a slab in 
the chancel is interred Hen. Marten, 
who died 1680, aged 70. The m- 
scription is very puerile. 

By far the most interesting object 
in Chepstow is the Castle, of great 
extent and tolerable preservation, 
highly picturesque in form, and 
most striking in its situation on a 
high platform of rock, on one side 
washed by the Wye, and, on the 
other, separated from the town wall 
by a deep dingle, prettily clothed 
with greensward and timber, and 



fortress. The entrance on the E. side, 
facing the bridge, is by a gate^house 
flanked with circular towers, still 
retaining its ponderous doors, not 
indeed original, but old, coated with 
iron plates, and cross-barred within. 
The entrance vault is grooved for 
the portcullis, and pierced with the 
usual apertures for stockades. The 
ground-plan of the fortress is an 
irregular parallelogram, divided into 
courts, each with its separate de- 
fences, one being the formidable 
river cliff, on the edge of which the 
N. wall is built. In the Domesday 
Book it is spoken of as Castellum de 
Estrighoiel. Though a castle was 
built here by the Norman, Pitz- 
Osbome, Earl of Hereford, in the 
11th cent., and though portions of 
that structure may still be seen in 
the keep, most of Chepstow must be 
looked upon as the work of the 
reigns of the three Edwards, with 
additions even of later date. It 
belonged to the Clares, including 
Richard Strongbow, to the Bigods, 
and, long afterwards, by exchange, 
to the Herberts, from whom its 
present owners, the Somerset family, 
acquired it. On entering the first 
court on rt. are the offices, including 
the kitchen, marked by its wide 
chimneys, and, below it, a chamber 
excavated in the rock, an opening 
in which overlooks the river ; this is 
called a dungeon, but was more 
probably a cellar. On the 1. is a 
very fine drum-tower, in which Hen. 
Marten, who sat in judgment and 
signed the death-warrant of Charles 
I., was confined for 20 years. He 
appears to have been treated with 
great lenity, was attended by his wife 
and family, and allowed to go out 
at times on parole ; his apartments 
were spacious, light, and airy, not- 
withstanding Southey's different 
opinion on the subject : — 

*• Not to him 
Did Nature's fair varieties exist : 
He never saw the sun's delightful beams, 



S. Wales. 



Eoute 1. — Chepstow. 



Save when thro' yon high bars he pour'd 

a sad 
And broken splendoar." 

Marten was in fact the buffoon of 
the Regicide council, and from his 
insignificance was spared the fate 
which fell on six of his colleagues 
in that bold deed. In an upper 
story is an oratory of singular beauty. 
The 2nd court is converted into a 
garden, and beyond it rises the 
original Norm, keep, the nucleus 
and oldest part of the whole work, 
though much altered, and pierced 
with pointed windows. In the ori- 
ginal walls are courses of bricks 
and tiles, possibly taken from some 
Boman works. The chief apart- 
ment within was evidently the 
hall. Behind the last, or western 
court, is another entrance, defended 
by drawbridge, moat, portcullis, &c., 
even more strongly if possible than 
the main entrance, but of inferior 
work and later date. The castle was 
several times taken and recovered 
by the two parties in the civil war, 
and was even at one time besieged 
by Cromwell in person, who, pressing 
forward to quell the insurrection at 
Pembroke, left it to be reduced by 
his lieutenant. Col. de Ewer. It 
was defended till death by the loyal 
Sir Nicholas Kemys with a very 
small garrison. The Royalists, when 
nearly starved, prepared to escape 
down a rope into a boat on the river, 
when a republican soldier, discover- 
ing this, swam across and cut the 
boat adrift. The castle was then 
taken by assault, 1645. 

The hills around Chepstow afford 
excellent views of the beauties of 
the surrounding country, and show 
in a remarkable degree the charac- 
teristics of the scenery of the car- 
boniferous or mountain limestone. 
On the W., Hardwick, an old seat of 
the Thomas family, purchased and 
improved by the late Bp.Coplestone, 
commands an admirable view of 
Chepstow, the venerable fortifica- 
tions of the old Port, and the mouth 



of the Wye. On the other hand, by 
crossing the bridge and mounting 
the hill, a good view is gained of 
Piercefield (the residence of J. 
Russell, Esq.), the rocks on the W. 
bank of the Wye, and the Wynd- 
cliff. 

The Wye is navigable for large 
vessels up to Chepstow Bridge, the 
tide rising higher here than at almost 
any other point on the coast of 
Britain, commonly to 40 ft., but not 
unfrequently, after a prevalence of 
winds which drive the sea into the 
Bristol Channel several ft. above its 
mean level, the tide has reached an 
elevation of 50 ft. This is probably 
owing to the jutting out of tiie rocks 
at Aust and Beachley. 

At the entrance of the river is an 
islet, upon which are the ruins of 
an ancient chapel, said to have been 
built in the year 47, commonly 
called St. Tecla's or Treacle chapel, 
one of the old " Free chapels" whicli 
were independent of any parochial 
jurisdiction; but the true meaning 
of the word appears to be simply a 
translation of " Beachley," or the 
place on the shore. 

Here is a ferry to the opposite 
coast, called the Aust or Old Passage 
(formerly the Trajectus Augusti), 
the distance being about 1 m. 

On the road to Chepstow from 
Beachley, on rt., is Sedbury Park, the 
seat of G. Ormerod, Esq., the learned 
historian of Cheshire, through whose 
groimds Offa's Dyke, which com- 
mences in the parish, may be easily 
traced. 

To the N. of the Dyke are lofty 
precipices, conspicuous from the 
railway.* Between these Severn 
cliffs, 6uid an ancient beacon on the 
plain adjoining, a Roman potter's 
kiln was discovered a few years ago ; 
and in 1859 entrenchments of what 
seems to have been a summer camp 
(castra aestiva) connected with Caer- 
went and the Passages. Draining 

* Noticed in the Geologicxd Trau&.,^viV\.,^ 
and a\ao \si ArcUaol. nq\. tl^ats.. ,^SSa.^\sia3^« 



Itoute 1. — Mathem. — Caei^ioent, 



S. WAIiBS. 



lias already produced much Boman 
pottery and other remains. 

Cars can be obtained at Chep- 
stow for excursions to Tintem, 5 m. 
(Rte. 2 ) ; and boats are kept for the 
same purpose, for which, advantage 
should be taken of the ascending 
tide. There is a coach daily to 
Monmouth, 16 m. (Rte. 2), on the 
arrival of the packet, which plies 
daily to and from Bristol according 
to tide. 

Distances :— ^Gloucester, 27 m. ; 
Newport, 16 m. ; Tintem, 5 m.; 
Wyndcliff, 3 m. ; Ragland, 12 J m. ; 
Monmouth, 16 m. ; Bristol (by 
water), 18 m. ; Caerwent, 5^ m. ; 
Caldecott, 6 J m. 

As the traveller leaves Chepstow 
Stat, he skirts the banks of the 
Wye for a short distance, and gains 
some pretty peeps through the open- 
lugs in the moimtain limestone 
cutting. 

2 m. on rt. is Mathem^ a pleasant 
sunny spot, containing the remains 
of the ancient palace, of quadran- 
gular form, inhabited by the Bishops 
of Llandaff until 1706. The ch. is 
ancient, with some E. E. arcades, 
and possesses a tablet to the memory 
of the martyr Theodoric, with an 
inscription by Bp. Godwin. 

Close by is Moyne's Courts built 
by Fmncis Godwin, Bp. of Llandaff 
about the 17th cent. A little further, 
on the rt. of the railway, is the Park 
and old mansion of St. Pierre, for 
many centuries the seat of the family 
of Lewis, an early offshoot from the 
Morgans of Tredegar when surnames 
were yet unfixed. The house, though 
old, has been modernized, but re- 
tains a Gotliic gateway with flanking 
towers of the 16th cent. 

5 m, Porthekewit Stat. About 1 m. 
to the 1. is the New Fassage^ which 
has existed from time immemorial, 
and was suppressed by Cromwell 
under the following circumstances : — 
Charles I., after leaving Ragland, 
rode hither, and had scarcely crossed 
when a party of republican soldiers 



followed in pursuit, and compelled 
the boatmen to ferry them over. 
The crew, being royalists, landed 
them on a reef where they were 
overwhelmed by the tide before 
they could reach the land. Crom- 
well, on being informed of the 
calamity, abolished the ferry, which 
was not used again till 1747. {Foa- 
hrooke.) 

Overlooking the Channel are the 
remains of Sudhrook Chapel^ and a 
British camp defended by triple 
ramparts. 

Soon after leaving the station the 
round towers of Caldecott may be 
seen on the i-t. It is a good speci- 
men of military architecture, the 
principal portion being Gothic, 
mostly late Dec. ** The most strik- 
ing portion of the castle is the 
gateway of the great entrance, where 
part of the battlement rests on 
corbels sculptured into heads, and 
supporting small pointed arches, 
instead of the horizontal stone. 
The whole building is remarkable 
for the excellence of its masonry."' 
It originally belonged to the Bohun 
family, from whom it passed to 
Thomas of Woodstock, Duke of 
Gloucester, and was annexed to the 
Duchy of Lancaster by Hen. VIII. 
The ch. is unusually large, having 
a side aisle, nave, chancel, and a 
bold tower. The windows are good, 
and there is an example of the Dec. 
cinquefoil in the chancel. 

[li m. to the N. W. of Caldecott 
is Caerwent, the Venta Silurum of 
the Romans, aud an important gar- 
rison of the 2nd Augustine Legion, 
situated on the Via JuUa, which 
ran from Caerleon (Isca Silurum) 
through Caerwent to StriguUa (Chep- 
stow). Considerable fragments of 
its ancient walls on the plan of a 
parallelogram exist, although much 
overgrown with trees and shrubs. 
The masonry is tolerably perfect on 
W. and S. sides, on which are 2 
bastions, 'built up against the wall, 
but not incorporated with it. Where 



S. Wales. 



Route 1. — Newport, 



the facings have been removed, the 
zigzag or herringbone fonn of build- 
ing is observable. Many Roman 
remains have been found here, par- 
ticularly 2 tesselated pavements, 
fragments of which are still to be 
met with in the orchard; besides 
portions of columns, statues, and 
coins of the reigns of Severus and 
Grordian III. The road to New- 
port intersects the place at right 
angles. 

The ch. has probably been built 
out of the materials of the Roman 
city. It has a porch with a rich 
doorway and a remarkable series of 
E. E. arcades with rather flat arches, 
in the S. wall of the chancel. 

There are some inconsiderable re- 
mains of other fortresses in the 
neighbourhood. 1^ m. to the N. W. 
of Caerwent is Dinham Castle, of 
which there are but few vestiges, 
overgrown with wood. 

Llanvair Castle, 2 m. from Caer- 
went, is prettily situated on the road 
to Usk across Wentwood Forest. It 
possesses a square and 2 round 
towers, blended with a farmhouse. 
On the stile at the entrance of the 
churchyard is the following quaint 
inscription :— 

*' Whoever hear on Sonday 
Will Practis Playing at Ball, 
It May be be Fore Monday 
The Devil will Have you all." 

Proceeding 3 m. on the same road, 
the tourist will arrive at Troggy or 
Striguil Castle (so called in the Ord- 
nance map, though the only " Stri- 
guil " Castle known in the records of 
tlie realm is Chepstow), at the foot 
of Pen Cae Maur, from which there 
is a fine view of the Vale of Usk. 
An octagon tower with arched win- 
dows is all that is left. At New- 
church, a little to the N., is a large 
and perfect cromlech. 

On the road to Newport, 3 m. from 
Caerwent, stands the well-known 
wayside inn of the Rock and Foun- 
tain, and opposite to it Penhow Castle, 
which, like Llanvair, has been turned 



into a farmhouse. A square cm- 
battled tower forms the principal 
remains. This was the cradle, and 
for many centuries the residence, of 
the St. Maur family, before they 
migrated into Western England. 

Pencoed Castle lies between Pen- 
how and Magor, 2 m. from each, 
overlooking Caldecott Level, and 
is an old mansion of the date of 
Henry VIII., built from the ma- 
terials of the castle, and possessing 
a gateway with a circular arch. It 
was long the seat of a branch of tlie 
Morgan family. It is evident that 
these and the many other petty cas- 
tles with which this part of Mon- 
mouthshire is thickly studded were 
built for the protection of Wentwood 
district, probably by the retainers 
and tenants of the Bohuns and the 
de Clares.] 

As the train glides over the flat 
marshes of Caldecott Level, on the 
1. is the Bristol Channel, bounded 
by the mountain limestone ridge be- 
tween Bristol and Alveston, and on 
the rt. the prettily-wooded range of 
Wentwood Forest. 

10 m^ Ma^or Station. Here is a 
large handsome ch., having an E. 
E. tower with Perp. alterations. 

14 m. Llanwem Station. On rt. 
is Llanwem House, the seat of Rev. 
Sir C. Salusbury, Bart. 

The wooded knolls and elevations 
on the rt. are frequently capped with 
small outliers of lias. 

17 m. Netoport (Rte. 3) {Hotels : 
King's Head, Westgate ; both pretty 
good), a flourishmg and rapidly 
increasing port on the rt. bank 
of the Usk, about 4 m. from its 
confluence with the Severn. The 
tide rises to a height of 40 ft. It 
enjoys a largely increasing traffic, 
owing to the enormous importation 
of coal and iron from hence, its posi- 
tion being at the point where the 
busy and densely populated valleys 
of the Usk, Afon, Ebbw, and Sirhowy 
rivers converge. Some of this traffic 
has ho^N^Net, V3 \X\^ ^^\\!«^'^Afe^ 



6 



Route 1. — Caerleon, 



S. Wales. 



policy of its men of business, and 
the superior foresight and spirit of 
the late Lord Bute, been diverted 
to the port of Cardiff. Several 
railways meet or pass through 
Newport, viz. the South Wales, the 
Western Valleys, Eastern Valleys, 
and the Newport and Hereford lines, 
while a fifth, connecting it with 
Bristol, is in course of formation. 
A canal runs to Pontypool, joining 
the Abergavenny and Brecon Canal, 
while a second accompanies the 
Western Valleys Railway up to 
Crumlin. Steamers ply daily to 
Bristol in from 2 to 3 hrs., according 
to tide, and to Cork twice or three 
times a month. For the accommo- 
dation of large vessels which were 
prevented approaching the town 
from want of water, a large and 
commodious dock was opened in 
1842, at an expense of 200,000Z., and 
having an area of 4.^ acres. A still 
larger one, possessing an area of 
7| acres, was opened in 1858, the old 
dock not being of sufficient extent 
for the rising commerce of the port. 
A fine view of the town and St. 
WooUos Ch., backed up by the 
Blorenge and Twm Barlwm Moun- 
tains, is to be obtained from the 
docks, wliich are situated in the dis- 
trict of Pillgwenlly or Pill. Within 
the last few years the well-built 
suburb of Maindee has grown up on 
the opposite side of the river. 

The Cdstle stands upon the rt. 
baiiJr'of the Usk, between the bridge 
and the railway. Its river front is 
perfect, but almost all the rest, save 
some scanty walls and a couple of 
towers, is either destroyed or con- 
cealed by the building of a modem 
brewery. It was founded by Robert 
of Gloucester, but the present ruins 
are late Perp., with round-headed 
arches, well worthy of attention. 
The town is famous for the attack 
made on the night of the 4th of Nov. 
1839, by the Chartists, under tlie I 
leadership of John Frost. The Mayor, 
Mr., now Sir Thomas, Phillips, gal- | 



lantly read the Riot Act from the 
windows of the Westgate Hotel, 
until a wound in the arm compelled 
him to desist and order the soldiers 
to fire on the mob, a proceeding 
which effectually dispersed the 
wretched rabble. He received, what 
in his case was really the honour of 
knighthood for his conduct on that 
occasion. Traces of the conflict are 
still to be seen in the front of the 
building. 

By the main street is a sitting 
statue of the late Sir C. Morgan. 

The Ch. of St. WooUos is inte- 
resting, both from its noble situation 
on Stow Hill, and its architecture. 
" No better or more typical Norm. 
interior on a moderate scale can 
be desired." The principal feature 
is the E. E. chapel of St. Mary, 
which contains some mutilated mo- 
nmnents, and is connected with the 
nave by a beautiful Romanesque 
door adorned with the Norm, orna- 
ments of billet and chevron, and 
having this peculiarity, that the 
inner order rests upon a pair of 
large detached columns. The ch. 
was restored in 1858. 

Distances : — Chepstow, 17 m. ; Car- 
diff, 12 m. ; Caerleon, 3 m. ; Bristol, 
28 m. ; Pontypool, 8^ m. ; Ebbwvale, 
20 m. ; Abergavenny, 17 m. 

[3 short m. up the rt. bank of the 
Usk is the once famous city of 
Caerleon (the Isca Silunun of Anto- 
ninus), where the 2nd Augustan 
Legion was for years in garrison, 
once the capital of S. Wales, and 
the seat of the metropolitan see, but 
now a decayed village. Giraldus 
Cambrensis describes its tlieatres, 
temples, and palaces, though in a 
declining state as far back as the 
14th cent. : but its chief remains of 
antiquity are a Roman amphitheati^'; 
a bank of earth heaped up in an oval 
form 16 ft. high, called Arthur's 
Round Table; some fragments of Ro- 
man wall, though not so perfect as at 
Caerwent ; and an artificial mound 
300 yds. in circumference. How- 



S. Wales. 



E(mte 1, — Tredegar Park. 



ever, the Roman remains found here 
from time to time are most numerous. 
They have been figured and drawn 
by Mr. Lee, of the Priory (Longman, 
4to., 1845). A local museum has 
been erected here by the instrumen- 
tality of the Caerleon Antiq. Ass., 
which is well worthy of inspection. 
"Though not in themselves very 
important, these early relics of the 
first introduction of civilization into 
the extremities of our island by 
Roman conquest must surely be in- 
teresting to any reflective mind. 
The mutilated records of the occupa- 
tion of this remote station by the 
2nd Augustan Legion — the comme- 
moration of the rebuilding of their 
barracks — the restoration of their 
temple — the monuments of their 
oflicers, showing them to have been 
established here with their wives 
and families — the votive tablet in- 
scribed to Fortune and happy events 
by the bride and bridegroom, and 
sepulchral inscriptions of widows and 
cluldren to deceased husbands and 
parents — the fragments of their 
liousehold utensils — the needles and 
fibulse of the ladies — the remains of 
their villas in the town and suburbs, 
with their tesselated floors and 
baths — the camp which exercised 
their discipline, and the amphithe- 
atre which witnessed their sports, — 
all these bring before the mind's eye 
a vivid picture of the circumstances 
of the times which first destroyed 
the insulated separation of Britain 
from continental Europe, and ad- 
mitted her within the sphere of the 
civUized world." (F.D. 0.) 

The church is Norman. In Bri- 
tish times Caerleon still held an im- 
portant place, as being the archie- 
piscopal see of the holy Dubritius, 
sometime Bishop of Llandaff, who 
afterwards moved his cathedral to 
Menevia (St. David's). The suburb 
on the opposite side of the Usk is 
still called Ultra Pontem, on the 
liill above which stands with fine 
effect the old tower of Christchurchy 



partly Perp. and partly E. E. In the 
interior is the monimiental stone 
of a saint, upon which persons were 
accustomed to repose all night on 
the eve of Trinity Sunday, in the 
hopes of being released from their 
infirmities. There are extensive 
tin-works at Caerleon near the con^ 
fluence of the Afon river with the 
Usk.^ Between this place and New- 
port by the roadside is St. Julian\ 
now a farmhouse, but once the 
abode of Lord Herbert of Cherbury, 
whose armorial bearings remain over 
the entrance.] 

Soon after leaving Newport, is on 
the rt. Tredegar Park^ the residence 
of Lord Tredegar. The house, a 
large red brick building of the time 
of Charles II., is situated on a flat, 
but on the edge of a prettily un- 
dulating park, througjii which the 
Ebbw river flows. The approach is by 
avenues of noble chestnuts. One 
room, called the Oak-room, because 
floored with planks made from a 
single tree, is 42 ft. by 27. The 
Western Valleys Railway runs 
through the park on its way to 
Ebbwvale and Nantyglo (Rte. 3). 

Lord Tredegar, better known in 
Wales as Sir Charles Morgan, repre- 
sents in the female line the great 
Monmouthshire family of Morgan, 
and thus inherits very large estates 
in Glamorgan, Monmouth, Brecon, 
and London. He is also landlord of 
the well-known Tredegar works. 

The traveller is now in the ancient 
province of Nether Gwent, and the 
line, crossing the Ebbw, is carried 
across a large alluvial marsh, the 
continuation of the Caldicott Level, 
known as the Wentloog Level. These 
flats extend as far as Cardiff, on an 
average about 2 to 3 m. wide, and 
are defended from the sea by a bank 
of very liigh antiquity. On the rt. 
the old red and limestone hills which 
form the S. border of the South 
Wales coalfield are a prominent fea- 
ture, and it is evident th'A.t t\s5«^ 



8 



Eoute 1. — Cardiff. 



S. Wales 



against the sea, which washed their 
hases and covered these alluvial 
lands. 

22 m. Marshfield Stat. Soon 
afterwards the Bumney river is 
crossed, the boundary between Eng- 
land and Wales, Monmouth and 
Glamorgan. 

2 m. on rt. is St. Mellon 8^ a fine 
old church of the 14th century, 
built on the ruins of a former Nor- 
man edifice. It possesses a peculiar 
lopsided chanceL 

14 m. to the rt. of St. Mellon's, on 
the opjK>site side of the Rumney, is 
Cefn Mabley (Ool. Kemys-Tynte), a 
curious old house of the Kemys 
family. 

1 m. beyond is Ruperra (Hon. F. 
Morgan), built by Inigo Jones, and 
commanding an extensive view of 
the Severn and Somersetshire hills. 
W. of Ruperra is Newhouse (W. 
Wyndliam Lewis, Esq.), an ancient 
seat of his family. Soon after enter- 
ing the county of Glamorgan, leav- 
ing the village of Roath to the rt., 
the forest of masts betokens the 
approach to 

Oardiflf. {Hotels: Cardiff Arms, 
the county Inu ; Angel, fair; Queen's 
and Mountstuart, near the docks, 
both commercial.) 

Cardiff (Caer-tiff, from Tibia 
Amnis), the old county town of Gla- 
morgan, a distinction now shared 
with Swansea. It stands on the 1. 
bank of the Taff, . 2 m. above its 
opening, in common with the Ely, 
under the headland and roadstead 
of Penarth. After centuries of 
struggle between poverty and com- 
petence Cardiff is now an important 
and rising place. 

Pop. In 1801 1,018 

„ in 1861 18,351 

„ in 1860 . . . . abuut 36,000 

Its position, at the lowest fordable 
point of the Taff and on the plains 
between tlie hill country and the sea, 
caused its occupation by the Romans 
and Normans as a fortified station. 



Its modem growth is due to its being 
the outlet of the mineral produce, coal 
and iron, of the Taff and its tribn- 
butary valleys, brought hither by its 
canal and railways, and attracted by 
its magnifipent docks. The Glamor- 
ganshire Canal, opened 1794, com- 
municates from Merthyr and Aber- 
dare with the sea by a sea-lock 103 
ft. long and 13 ft. leap on the sill, 
at the Taff. This, having been found 
insufficient, was reinforced in 1840 
by the Taff Vale Railway, by which 
the whole of the coal traffic and 
nearly all that in iron is now carried 
on (Rte. 4). The Rhymney Railway, 
opened 1858, leaves Cardiff upon 
the Taff Vale rails, and diverges 
from it at Walnut-tree Bridge to 
pass into the valley of the Rhymney 
(Rte. 4). The Bute Docks, opened 
in 1839, were completed in 1859. 
This noble work was projected by 
the late Marquis of Bute, who, with 
a prescience only rivalled by that 
of the great Duke of Bridge water, 
staked his whole estate upon the 
undertaking, and lived to see about 
half of it completed. Since his 
death the works have been carried 
on, still at the expense of the estate, 
by trustees, and have very recently 
been completed at an outlay of pro- 
bably not less than a million ster- 
ling. The West Dock, that first 
opened, has sea-gates of 45 ft. open- 
ing ; depth on the sill at springs 28 ft. 
Si in., at neaps 18 ft. 7^ in. ; and a 
lock 152 ft. long by 36 ft. broad : 
the area of basin is upwards of 20 
acres, and the length of quays 
8000 ft. The East Dock has gates 
of 55 ft. opening ; depths on sill 31 
ft. 8^ in. and 21 ft. 7 in. ; with an 
outer lock 220 ft. by 55 ft., and an 
inner lock 200 ft. by 50 ft. The area 
of this basin is 46 acres, dc pth 25 ft., 
breadth 300 ft. and 500 ft., and 
length of quays 9100 ft. Here is 
besides a convenient tidal harbour. 
The roadstead of Penarth affords 
excellent anchorage, and is sheltered 
from the west or prevalent wind by 



S. Wales. 



Route 1. — Cardiff Castle. 



the heaclland so named, which is 
200 ft. high. 

The dock-gates open upon a broad, 
deep channel formed in the mud, 
and kept open by a scour or back- 
water supplied by the Taflf. The 
whole work is executed in a very 
masterly manner, and it is to the 
public spirit of Lord Bute and his 
trustees that the town of Cardiff is 
indebted for the lead which it has 
secured before every other port in 
the Channel. Fostered by the suc- 
cess which has attended the Bute 
Docks, a company has been formed 
to create the rival establishment of 
tlie Penarth Harbour and Dock8 at 
tlie mouth of the Ely. A tidal basin 
has just been opened, and a dock is 
in progress. These works are con- 
nected with a railway which joins 
the Taff Vale near Pentyrch. The 
exports in coal and iron from Car- 
diff were in 1857,— coal, 1,442,938 
tons ; iron, 278,487 tons. The ton- 
nage of the port in the same year 
was 6839 vessels, with a register of 
1,081,080 tons. The effect of all 
tliis trade has been a corresponding 
increase of Cardiff. Not only has 
a complete town sprung up about 
the docks, but suburbs have risen 
towards Koath and Maindy, at 
Penarth, Canton, and along the 
road to Llandaff. Large masses 
of buildings have sprung up like 
mushrooms in these neighbourhoods 
and near the railway stations, and 
Cardiff can boast of being at once 
the most public-spirited as well as 
immoral town in South Wales. 

Until recently it only possessed 
1 ch., St. Mary's, mentioned by 
Speed as being in danger, and 
which was washed away by the Taff 
in 1607 : a later St. Mary's, built in 
1842, deserves but little notice. 

St. John 8^ the parish ch. of the 
greater part of the old town, has 
a celebrated Perp. tower of great 
height, with handsome open battle- 
ments and pinnacles, which form a 
conspicuous object in the sun»und- 



' ing scenery. The W. door is de- 
corated with a nail-head moulding ; 
and within are 2 curious altar-tombs, 
with effigies and canopies, in honour 
of Sir William and Sir John Herbert ; 
the ruins of whose seat, the White 
Friars, are still seen in the castle 
garden. 

The Castle (Marq. of Bute).— This 
fortress consists of a spacious quad- 
rangular court, enclosed on 3 sides 
by a lofty earthwork, erected by the 
exterior wall and buttress towers. 
The fourth side, towards the river, 
is defended by a lofty wall, and in- 
cludes the inhabited buildings. 

In the court, towards its N. side, 
is an artificial mound, 75 ft. high, 
crowned by a polygonal shell and 
Perp. tower, which no doubt super- 
seded an earlier Norman building. 
The gateway, and Black or gate- 
house tower, are on the S. or town 
side of the court. Here Robert, 
the eldest son of the Conqueror, is 
said to have been shut up by his 
brother for 36 years, until his death 
in 1133. The tower, however, is of 
much later date. Until the last 
centy. a wall extending from the 
gate-tower to the top of the mound 
divided the court into two parts 
— one of which contained the 
Shire Hall, also destroyed. The 
inhabited buildings are not ex- 
tensive : they are composed of a 
fine central multangular tower, 
boldly machicolatcd, and of some 
E. E. work, including certain tur- 
rets towards the court; but the 
whole was much altered about 60 
years ago, and received consider- 
able adfitions on the N. wing. The 
cellars seem to be Norman. The 
reception-rooms contain a few pic- 
tures of the Herberts and the Wind- 
sors (from whom the Stuarts inhe- 
rited the property) : one of Edward 
Lord Windsor, with his wife and four 
sons, playing at drafts— an ancient 
piece ; also Lady Windsor by Knel- 
ler ; and a whole-len^tk Q,t Jx^^"^^ 
> JefErica. \\. \^ tl"c>\, \xw<gtcjvi^;^^'i ^^^"^ 



10 



Route 1. — Llandaff. 



S. Wales. 



so good a military position was oc- 
cupied, as tradition asserts, by the 
Romans; but unquestionably nothing 
remains of ^arlier than Norman 
date. In 1089 the subjects of Rhys, 
Prince of Wales, rebelled against 
him under the leadership of Einon 
ap Colwyn, who fied->^ Jestyn ap 
Wrgan, lord of Glamor^aji, whose 
daughter he was to marry on con- 
dition that lie obtained Norman 
aid against Rhys. He therefore 
brought over Fitzhamon, in 1091, 
with 12 knights, with whom he de- 
feated and killed Rhys on Hirwain 
Common. Jestyn refusing his 
daughter to Einon, the Normans, 
who had been dismissed, were re- 
called, and Jestyn, in his turn, 
overtlirown in a battle fought at 
the Heath near Cardiff ; where- 
upon Fitzhamon and his 12 Pala- 
dins established themselves in the 
district of Cardiff. To him suc- 
ceeded, by maternal descent, the 
De Clares, De Spensers, the Beau- 
champs, and the Nevilles ; who suc- 
cessively enjoyed the estates until 
they passed, at Bosworth, into the 
hands of Henry VII., who gave 
them to William Herbert, 1st Earl 
of Pembroke, whose heiress carried 
the property to the Windsors ; by 
marriage with whose co-heiress the 
Marq. of Bute became po8sesse<J of 
them. The castle is occasionally 
visited by the Marchioness of Bute 
and her son, at present in his mino- 
rity. 

A short distance E. of the castle 
are the scanty remains of the Friary, 
the fragments of a religious house 
long the seat of the Herberts. A 
garden and walks have been made 
on the W. side of the river, just 
across the bridge, by Lady Bute, 
who permits the public to make use 
of them. 

Steamers ply daily to Bristol, ac- 
cording to tides ; also to Burnham, 
on the opposite coast, and to Cork, 
in alternation with Newport. 

Distances. — Llandaff 2 m. ; New- 



port 12 m. ; Bridgend 20 m. ; Cow- 
bridge 12 m. ; Merthyr 24 m. ; 
Rhymney 24 m. ; Caerphilly (by 
Rhymney line) 9 j m. ; Bristol (by 
steam) 32 m. ; London 170 m. 
Leaving Cardiff station, the railway 
crosses the Taff and the alluvial 
flats of Leckwith, having Penarth 
Head to the 1. and Canton to the rt. 

31 m. Ely Stat. 1 m. on rt. is 
Llandaff (the Bp. of Llandaff ; the 
Deanery, the Dean ; 4 m. rt. 
Greenmeadow, H. Lewis, Esq.), the 
Cathedral slowly rising from the 
ruin and desolation of ages. It is 
placed upon the rt. bank of the Taff, 
upon its margin and at the foot of a 
steep slope, upon and above which 
stands the straggling village of about 
700 Inhab., which forms the titular 
city of Llandaff. The situation is 
one of uncommon beauty. The 
broad river ripples over a pebbly 
bed, fringed with overhanging al- 
ders, and winds its way across the 
fertile meadows that first attracted 
the Norman spoiler. The sheltering 
hill boasts several fine trees, while 
its side is thickly studded with 
graves, and its crest is crowned with 
the old-world village street, with 
its cross, and the ruins of the Bi- 
shop's fortified palace. 

The Cathedra.1 is dedicated to St. 
Dubritius and the St. Teilo whose 
remarkable sanctity was attested in 
the * Liber Landavensis ' by the mi- 
raculous triplication of his mortal 
parts.' Three churches, viz. Llan- 
daff, Llandeilo, and Penally, near 
Tenby, having each laid claim to 
the honour of receiving the saint's 
bones, agreed to settle the point by 
praying him to reveal the secret ; 
whereupon, with a policy which 
cannot be too much admired, three 
distinct but exactly similar bodies 
appeared to the supplicating 
churches, each one of whom bore 
off his remains in triumph. The 
edifice is composed of a W. tower, 
nave, choir, aisles, Lady Chapel, and 
chapterhouse. 



S. Wales. 



Eottie 1. — Llandaff Cathedral. 



11 



The arch from the choir into the 
Lady Chapel is a splendid Norm, 
example, and was the work of Bishop 
Urban, who presided over the see 
in 1120. 

The side walls of the choir or 
presbytery are also Norm., although 
pointed arches of the 12th cenfy. 
were afterwards added ; and in the 
S. wall a curious appearance is pre- 
sented by an interpolated pointed 
arch intersecting an original Norm, 
window. That the same additions 
were made to the N. wall was clear 
from the fact, that during the re- 
storation a Norm, stringcourse was 
discovered remaining along it. The 
S.W. and N.W. doors in the aisles 
may be referred to about 1160, and 
are fine specimens of Norm, doors, 
the former being most rich in deco- 
ration, and having a moulding re- 
sembling an Etruscan scroll : the 
latter is surmounted by a dog-tooth 
moulding, and is a valuable example 
of the E. E. feature combined with 
decided Norm. 

The Chapterhouse, attached to 
tlie S. side of the ch., is in the Tran- 
sition from Norm, to E. E., and con- 
sists of 2 stories, the lowest of which 
has a vaulted roof, springing from a 
cylindrical column ; it is lighted by 
narrow trefoil windows. The nave 
and W. half of the choir are decided 
but peculiar E. E. ; the pier shafts 
have a slightly elliptical section, and 
the foliage of the capitals is lilia- 
ceous. There was no triforium. 
The W. front, which, in its general 
arrangement, is very like the ca- 
thedral of St. Eemi, in France, is 
an exquisite specimen of the Pointed 
style. It has a fine round-headed 
door, with a central pendant, and a 
figure of St. Teilo in the tympanum. 

In the 2nd story are a centeil and 
2 smaller side windows, which, with 
their intermediate piers, are faced 
by an arcade of 5 lancet arches, 
resting on their shafts and set off 
with E. E. moulding. 

The top story presents an early 



pointed arcade, rising to the centre, 
so as to correspond with the gable, 
in which is an image of St. Dubritius. 
The Lady Chapel is constructed in 
the variety of early Dec. which the 
late Dean Conybeare denominated 
Tangential from the style of the 
windows, which are lancets of two 
lights, supporting a circle on the 
backs of their arches. 

The N.W. tower is said to have 
been built by Jasper Tudor, Duk^ 
of Bedford, who received from Henry 
VII. the lordship of Glamorgan, 
and died childless 1495. 

The tower is Perp,, and was for- 
merly crowned with an open- worked 
parapet like that of Cardiff. The 
S.W. tower, which matched the other, 
was blown down by a storm in 1722. 
The restoration of the cathedral was 
commenced by Dean Knight in 1842, 
and since then has been proceeded 
with imder the careful superinteiid- 
ence of the late Dean Conybeare. 
The presbytery, or choir, is finished, 
and presents a most beautiful ap- 
pearance from the chasteness of the 
execution and the richness of the 
carving, which is more particularly 
conspicuous in the Norm, arch in 
front of the Lady Chapel, in which 
the peculiar moulding is preserved, 
consisting of a circlet marked by 
studs, enclosing a flowerof many pe- 
tals ; in the reredos behind the high 
altar, in which the roses, the devices 
of the Tudor family, are emblazoned 
on the panels ; the sedilia on the S. 
side ; and the pulpit. All these are 
sculptured with a delicacy and 
purity scarcely to be surpassed. 

The restoration of the nave is 
being rapidly proceeded with, and a 
fine effect will be produced when 
the disgusting Italian wall which 
at present separates them is taken 
down. 

There are some good monuments 
in the ch., though sadly muti- 
lated — including one of Teilo, by 
the sedilia, before y^hft-afc ^^jcJs* S^» 



12 



Boute 1. — Llandaff, — SuUy, 



S. Wales* 



making purchases of land, &c., to 
swear to their bargain ; Bp. Braose, 
1287 ; Lady Audley in a long robe, 
with two monks bearing escutelieons 
at her feet ; an emaciated figure in 
her winding-sheet, in memory of a 
lady who fell a victim to disap- 
pointed love ; Sir William and Dame 
Jenetta Matthews, 1528 ; and the holy 
St. Dubritius. In the Chapterhouse 
is a curious painting, on board, of the 
Coronation of the Virgin, the angel 
represented with swallow s wings. 
A single shaft raised upon steps, 
composed in part from that of Dun- 
dry and in part from that of St. 
Donat's, is in progress' of erection 
in the churchyard over the grave of 
Dean Conybeare. 

Llandaff is a place of high anti- 

Jiuity, and, if not the first Christian 
ane erected in this island, was cer- 
tainly the seat of the first Christian 
bi^opric, having been founded early 
in tlie 5th centy. The first bishops 
were Dubritius and Teilo, still re- 
vered as holy persons tliroughout 
the principality. Bishop Urban, 
consecrated 1108, commenced the 
cathedral (though perhaps all that 
he built was a portion of the pres- 
bytery), wliich was completed by his 
successors down to Bishop Marshall. 
The see was utterly impoverished 
at and* soon after the Reformation, 
when the Bishop caused himself to 
be announced at court as the Bishop 
oi " Afli" informing the sovereign in 
the quaint humour of the age that 
the land was taken away. Although 
many of its later prelates held con- 
siderable Church preferment else- 
where, none of their wealth has 
been given or bequeathed to the 
restoration of their cathedral. About 
X717 Llaudaff was in serious danger of 
being abolished altogether, a proposi- 
tion having been entertained of mov- 
ing the see elsewhere. In 1730, how- 
ever, the sum of 7000Z. was collected 
for the purpose of preventing the 
whole building from going to ruin, 
and sufficient evidence of the vil- 



lanous manner in which this money 
was expended is given in the Italian 
doorway and facade which at pre- 
sent shut off the choir from the 
nave. Brotiier Esni was tiie last 
Dean of Llandatf, in 1120, and from 
that time for more than 700 years 
that office was vacant until the 
appointment, by the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners, of Dean Knight, by 
whom the new works were begun. 
They are still being carried on in a 
most judicious and careful manner 
by Messrs. Pritcliard and Seddon, 
the diocesan architects, and already 
the sum of 8000i. has been ex- 
pended. 

The apathy and carelessness both 
of the bishop and chapter, as well as 
of the wealthy 'inhabitants of the 
county, has, until lately, been a dis- 
grace to the principality, and it is 
to be hoped that funds will not be 
wanting for the completion of this 
noble edifice.* At the end of the 
village are the ruins of the Bishop's 
Palace, said to have been spoiled by 
Owen Glendower. The gatehouse is 
tolerably perfect, and is the entrance 
to. the garden of Bishop's Court, the 
residence of Bishop Ollivant. The 
village contains vestiges of several 
Dec. and Perp. buildings. A fine 
college has just been completed in 
a commanding situation on the 
Cardiff road, overlooking the hilk 
of Caerphilly, for the maintenance 
and education of 30 children, from 
moneys bequeathed in the reign of 
Henry VII. by a Mr. Howell to the 
Drapers* Company. A similar build- 
ing is in course of erection at Den- 
bigh. 

[8 m. on 1. of Ely Stat, is Sully 
House (Sir I. . B. Guest, Bart.). 
The late eminent geologist. Dean 
Conybeare, was for many years re- 
sident rector of Sully, and an at- 
tentive student of the lias, new red 
sandstone, and magnesian limestone, 

* In addition to the smn reqaired for the 
completion of the bailding, a Rubscriptlon is 
on foot for the purpose of obtaining an organ. 



S. Wales. Rorde l,~Si. Fagan's. — Fonmon, 



13 



which in that district repose hori- 
zontally upon the upper edges of 
the mountain limestone. 

Sully Island is of small area, con- 
taining probably the smallest camp 
in Britain. In the church, which is 
much modernised, are the monu- 
ments of the family of Thomas of 
Llwyn-madoe, and an E. E. piscina. 
Near it is a fragment of the castle, 
also of E. E. date. 

At Cogan Filly between Sully and 
Cardiff, is an old house,- the seat of 
the Herberts of Cogan. 

1 m. 1., on a hill, is Caerau Church, 
standing in the enclosure of a camp, 
whence its name is derived. Some 
have placed here the " Tibia Amnis" 
of the Itineraries, though it seems 
difficult to understand why it should 
not have been at Cardiff. Beyond, 
2 m. further, is Court-yr-alla (Lieut.- 
Col. Rous), corrupted from Court- 
yr-raleigh, it having been long a 
seat of the Raleighs of Nettlecombe ; 
and almost in its grounds are the 
ruins of Dinas Powis Castle, built 
by Sir Milo de Reizni.J 

33 m. St. Fagans Stat. On rt. 
the castle, church, and village crown 
a steep bank, at the bottom of which 
runs the Ely (Afon-lai, slow river). 

The Castle, Baroness Windsor, 
was built in the 12th centy. by Sir 
Peter de Vele, and the present pic- 
turesque high-gabled square house 
placed witliin its court by the 
Gibbon family, from whom it came 
to the Lewises of the Van, of whom 
the baroness is heir^s. The church 
and village were almost rebuilt by 
the late Hon. R. W. Clive. 

At the battle of St. Fagan's the 
Welsh insurgents, presbyterians and 
royalists, to the number of 8000, 
who had risen to resist the growing 
tyranny of Cromwell and the army, 
were defeated with great loss (1648) 
by Col. Horton, when many out of 
the best Glamorganshire families 
were killed. 

[2 m. 1. Coedriglariy the seat of the 
late Rev. J. M. Traheme, whose col- 



lections for the history of Glamorgan 
are reported to be very extensive. 

8^ m. 1. Wenvoe (R. Jenner, Esq.), 
a modem house, built by the Thomas 
family on the site of on old castle. 

7 m. 1. Barry Osistle and Island, 
the former in ruins. The latter is 
accessible at low water, and presents 
a fine sandy bay and some good sec- 
tions of the magnesian and mountain 
limestone, &c. 

8 m. 1. Porthkerry (E. Romilly, 
Esq.), above a valley of exceeding 
beauty, opening out into the sea. 

4 m. 1. Dyffryn (J. Bruce Pryce, 
Esq.) ; and at St. Nicholas, hard by, 
is a cromlech, considered to be the 
largest in Britain. The upper stone 
measures 24 ft. by 17, forming the 
roof of a chamber about 14 ft. in 
length, 15 in width, and 6 in height. 

There is a second cromlech, not 
so interesting, close to Dyffryn 
House, and a tliird near Cotterell : 
the names of places in the neigh- 
bourlu)od show it to have been a 
place of great Druidical resort. Thus 
Dyffryn Golych is the Valley of 
Worship, Cotterell a corruption of 
Coed-yr-Hoel, &c. 

9 m. 1. Fonmon (R. O. Jones, 
Esq.), a late Norm, or B. B. castle 
of limited dimensions, but the only 
one of the 12 castles of Glamorgan 
which remains and is inhabited. It 
was purchased from the St. Johns 
of Bletsoe by Col. Philip Jones, 
the celebrated Parliamentary com- 
mander, ancestor to the present 
owner. Fonmon was often visited 
by John Wesley, whose chamber is 
still preserved and honoured at Fon- 
tigary , an adjacent farm-house. Near 
Fonmon is Ahertkaw, situated at the 
mouth of the Cowbridge river, cele- 
brated for its hydraulic lime, ob- 
tained from the lias pebbles on its 
beach. Near it also are the ruins of 
Penmark and East Orchard Castles.] 

Leaving St. Pagan's, on the 1. are 
ruins of St. George's, and on rt. of 
Peterston Castles. 

36 m. PeleT%twi^\»X>. \^w^,X\s^, 



14 



JRoute 1. — Ltantrissant. — Cowbridge, S. Wales; 



is CottereU (Admiral Sir G. Tyler) 
and St. Nicholas Church and Rec- 
tory (Rev. W. Bruce). 

2 m. 1. Bonvilstone (R. Bassett, 
Esq.), and 1 m. farther the dis- 
parked park and ruined house of, 
Llantrythid^ the old seat of the 
ManseUs, Bassetts, and Aubreys.] 

Passing the fine castellated man- 
sion of Hensol (Rowland Fothergill, 
Esq.), which enclosed the old house 
of Judge Jenkins, ancestor of the 
Earl of Shrewsbury, who is Baron 
Talbot of Hensol, the traveller ar- 
rives at 40 m. Llantriasant Stat. 

[1 m. on rt. are the hfipmatite iron- 
mines of Cornel and Mwyndy, in 
which the ore is woirked open-cast 
like a quarry. As far as its geo- 
logical position has been made out, 
it appears to lie on the carboniferous 
limestone and to be covered by a 
stratum of magnesian or Permian 
limestone, the whole overlaid by 
drift. Leland says in his ' Itinerary,' 
"There are two faire parkes by 
south of Llantrissant, now unimpalid | 
and without deere. There is yren j 
now made in one of these parkes, I 
named Glinog." The discovery of 
these deposits is likely to affect 
materially the iron-works of the 
South Wales basin. 

Most of the largest works are 
situated on the N. crop of the field, 
where the argillaceous ore has been 
for some years getting more scanty, 
compelling the importation of red 
ore from Whitehaven and Barrow, 
and more recently from Devon and 
Northampton. 

The discovery of the Llantrissant 
ore, which, though not so rich, is 
close at hand, will no doubt injure 
the more distant markets, as the 
carriage from hence to the works is 
scarcely one-third of that from Cum- 
berland. 

At Llanharryy 3 m. S., a bed has 
been found, 5 ft. in tliickness, to- 
gether with remains of Roman work- 
ings and pottery, showing that they 



were well acquainted with the re- 
sources of the district.] 

2 m. to the N. is the town of 
Llantrissant (the Church of Three 
Saints), finely situated on a range 
of hills, and presenting a picturesque 
and rather continental appearance. 
It is however a dirty little place, 
of which a nearer inspection will 
scarcely repay the tourist, save for 
the view from the Graig, above the 
churchyard, wliich embraces a large 
extent of country, including nearly 
the whole of the Ely valley. The 
ch. is Norm. There are considerable 
traces of a camp on the hill to the 
rt. Here also is the ruin of an 
Edwardian castle. 

2 m. N. of the town is CasteUau 
House (Mrs. Smith), formerly be- 
longing to the Traherne family. 

On the 1. 5 m. is the pleasant 
little town of Cowhridge {Inn, the 
Bear), of 1100 luhab., principally 
known from its grammar school, 
founded by Sir Leoline Jenkins in 
the reign of Charles II., and at- 
tached to Jesus College, Oxford. 
The endowment fixed in money is 
small, but the fellows have spent 
5000?. or 6000Z. upon the buildings, 
and have made considerable exer- 
tions to raise the character of the 
school. It is said that Pelagius and 
Judge Jeffreys — questionable men 
both — were natives of the town. 

The church is singular, having a 
north aisle to the cliancel, and a 
south one to the nave. Cowbridge 
was formerly called Pont-vaen, and 
was thought by some to be the site 
of the ancient Bovium. 

Cowbridge was anciently fortified, 
and the waUs, buttresses, and a gate- 
way remain nearly perfect on tlie 
S. side. 

Distances, — Cardiff 12 m. ; Bridg- 
end 8 m. ; Llantwit 3^ m. 

Conveyance. — ^An omnibus twice 
a-day to Llantrissant Stat. 

[An interesting excursion should 
be made from here through Llantwit 
and Ewenny to Bridgend. 



S. Wales. Boute 1. — Lhntwit, — 8t, Donates Castle, 



16 



1 m. lAanblethian, occupying a 
fine fidtuation, overlooking the town 
and vale of Cowbridge, of which it 
is the mother church. Here is the 
inhabited castle of St. Quentin's. 

On the opposite hill is PenlUne 
Gastle (the seat of J. Homfray, 
Esq.). The keep retains some Nor- 
man herring-bone work. 

A little to the S. of Llanblethian 
is the castellated mansion of Llan- 
cUmgh (B.. Boteler, Esq.), and to 
the 1., m the valley of the Thaw, 
are the remains of Beaupr^ (pron. 
Beanper) House (Mrs. Bassett), the 
ancient seat of that family, the only 
one now remaining, in the male line, 
of the original Norman settlers. It- 
is a curious mixture of Greek with 
Gothic architecture, the ornamental 
portions of which were executed by 
a native artist named Richard 
Twrch. 

5J m. is the ancient village of 
Llantwit Major, formerly a school 
of divinity, very celebrated in the 
Welsh Church about the 5th centy., 
foimded by St. Iltyd, and boasting 
among its scholars Gildas the histo- 
rian, St. David, and, as some accounts 
affirm, Taliesin, the chief of bards. 

Many of the abbots of Llantwit 
were bishops of Llandaff, and the 
saints of Llantwit monastery are 
said to have had for their habitations 
400 houses and 7 halls. 

The church is the most interest- 
ing relic. What is called the new 
church, which is apparently the 
older of the two, is of the time of 
the 13th centy., and possesses a 
nave, aisles, and chancel, with a 
good rood-screen, in which are 
vacant niches, which are said to 
have contained images of the 12 
apostles. The capitels of the S. 
side are of E. E., though there have 
been alterations down to tlie Perp. 
period. The font is Norm. Ad- 
joining is the old church, of about 
the 15th centy., in which are some 
extremly old and curious tombs — 
particularly a coped stone with a 



row of lozenge-shaped compartments 
down the middle, an arabesque 
ornament on one side and a series of 
interlaced rings on the other. The 
inscription on the side is " Ne petra 
calcetur que sub jacet ista tuetur." 
There are also some mural paintings 
in the church. At the W. of the 
old church are the remains of the 
Lady Chapel, about 40 ft. in length. 
Two or three interesting stones stand 
in the churchyard — one, probably 
Runic, on the 8., and two Norman 
ones on the N., besides the shaft of 
a cross erected in the 6th centy. to 
the memory of Iltutus. The other 
antiquities in Llantwit are the Castle, 
or ratlier a castellated house, and 
the Town-hall, built by Gilbert de 
Clare, a picturesque old building, 
with a flight of steps to it, and gable 
bell, with an inscription. Nothing 
is to be seen inside. 

1 m. to the S.E. is the village of 
Boverton, thought by some to be the 
Boviimi of Antoninus, though others 
place it at Cowbridge. There are 
traces of the castellated house of the 
Seys family — originally a grange 
belonging to the lords of Cardiff. 

1 m. Dimland, the seat of R. N. 
Came, Esq. On the coast are an- 
cient embankments called the Castle 
DitcheSy and at Tressilian (Dr. Came), 
a little beyond, a good many caves 
are accessible in the cliffs, in one of 
which tradition asserts that mar- 
riages were celebrated. 

1 J m. St.Donafs Castle, command- 
ing a beautiful view over the Chan- 
nel, while the church nestles snugly 
in a wooded dingle, which runs down 
to the shore. The castle, which was 
built by Sir W. Stradlingf and for 
6 centuries the seat of that family, 
and now the property of T. Drake, 
Esq., is an extensive rambling pile, 
partly inhabited, and although not 
possessing any architectural beau- 
ties it has a good effect. The gate- 
way is curiously carved, and there 
are singular medallion circles over 
it aiid. <ys<ei Vsifc ^Q<5rKs\sv*^^ o^^sbSv.- 



16 Route 1. — Dunravsn Castle, — Ogmore Castle, S. Wales. 



rangular court, whicli is battle- 
mentcd, each merlon being pierced 
with an eyelet. There is a good oriel 
window in the court, and the inte- 
rior is said to contain some wood- 
carving, but admission is strictly 
forbidden by the two eccentric old 
ladies who inhabit the castle. Arch- 
bishop Usher resided here for some 
time as a guest during the troubles. 
The church contains the Stradling 
chapel, in which are some curious 
paintings on panel of the 16th centy. 
relative to that family ; also a monu- 
ment to Sir Thomas Stradling, who 
died in 1738, aged 28, the last of 
his race, who had possessed the 
castle for 700 years. The church- 
yard is a delightful little nook, and 
carefully tended. The visitor should 
remark the cross, one of the most 
elegant in Wales, the subject on the 
head being the Crucifixion. On the 
opposite bank are the ruins of a 
watch-tower, said to be erected for 
the purpose of giving intelligence 
to the lord of St. Donat's of wrecks, 
for which, and for the fearful prac- 
tice of wrecking, this coast had ob- 
tained an infamous notoriety. 

1^ m. Monknash ; where are ruins 
of a monastic bam and buildings, 
which formerly belonged to the 
priory of Ewenny. 

2 m. on 1. is Dunraven Castle, the 
in part modem seat and inheritance 
of the dowager Countess of Dun- 
raven, occupying a romantic situa- 
tion on a rocky promontory called 
Twryn y Witch (or the Witch's 
Nose), projecting into the sea, at a 
height of 100 feet above it, between 
two deeply indented bays. Near it 
formerly -etood the Castle of Dun- 
drivan (Castle of the Three Halls), 
where, according to tradition, Cara- 
doc formerly kept his summer court. 
If we may give credit to another 
story, a more recent possessor of the 
castle, Vaughan by name, was in 
the habit of alluring vessels to the 
coast by putting out false lights, 
that he might profit by the wrecks 



driven ashore, to which he was en- 
titled as lord of the manor. In the 
very midst of his crimes, however, 
he lost his own tliree sons in one 
day, and, looking on this event as a 
judgment from heaven on his ini- 
quities, he sold the estate to the 
family of Wyndham. Some curious 
caverns are worn by the sea in the 
rock beneath the castle. Through 
one of them, called the Wind Hole, 
the sea is forced at times in lofty 
jets. On the opposite side of the 
bay is the somewliat melancholy- 
looking watering-place of Southern- 
down, containing a few poor lodging- 
houses and a pretty good inn re- 
cently built. The coast is about 
300 ft. high, and is interesting to 
the geologist from the horizontal 
stratification of the lias limestone, 
giving the cliffs a most peculiar ap- 
pearance. Fossils are plentiful, 
especially ammonites and gryphaea 
incurva. 

1 m. St. Bride's Church, restored 
in 1853, contains an incised slab 
and richly carved altar-tomb to the 
Boteler family of Dunraven. A 
stone coffin is placed under the N. 
wall in the churchyard. 

Passing over Ogmore Down, where 
the mountain limestone reappears, 
and skirting the tangled forest of 
Ewenny Park, the traveller arrives 
at (2 m.) Ogmore Castle, a very re- 
markable example of a small square 
Norman keep, prettily situated at 
the junction of the Ogmore and 
Ewenny, which is here crossed by 
a 'bridge of stepping-stones. Not 
much is left of the castle except the 
keep. Looking towards the sea the 
view is intercepted by the enormous 
sand-hills which infest and advance 
upon the coast nearly as far as 
Briton Ferry. On the opposite side 
of the Ogmore is Merihyr Mawr 
(J. C. Nicholl, Esq.), m whose 
grounds are two fine sculptured 
crosses. Following the course of 
the Ewenny IJ m. is the ancient 
and venerable priory of Ewenny^ 



S. WALESi EoiUe 1. — Ewmny Priory, — Bridgend. 



adjdning which, and fonning part 
of the buildings, is the seat of Col. 
TurhervUle. It was an old mo- 
nastic edifice, founded by Maurice 
de Londres, some time after the 
Conquest, for monks of the Bene- 
dictine order. The church and all 
the conventual buildings were sur- 
rounded by strong walls, many of 
which still exist ; and the principal 
gateway, which was defended by a 
portcullis, is in good preservation. 
The church is probably the best 
specimen in Wales of a fortified 
ecclesiastical building, of the union 
of castle and monastery in the same 
structure. It consists of a nave, 
choir, and presbytery, with a S. 
transept ; the N. transept, together 
with the chapels, having been de- 
stroyed. The tower is of very mas- 
sive construction, with battlements 
pierced with cross eyelets and but- 
tresses of enormous thickness. The 
nave, which is now used as the 
parish church, is shut off from the 
rest, and has a blocked arcade of 
pure Norm, on the W. wall. The 
choir and presbytery are the finest 
examples of Norm, in the princi- 
cipality, and, dimly lighted as they 
are by the plain round-iieaded lights, 
are "dark and solemn — a shrine 
for men who doubtless performed 
thieir most holy rites with fear and 
trembling, amidst constant expecta- 
tions of hostile inroads." The roof 
is a fine specimen of Romanesque 
vaulting. Over the 3 western bays 
is a barrel vault, but tli« eastern 
bay has groined cellular vaulting. 
The pavement was formed of an- 
cient glazed tiles, curiously em- 
blazoned with coats of arms and de- 
vices, and tiiere are tombs of Maurice 
de Londres, Roger de Remi, and 
some of the Carne and Turberville 
families. The priory is placed on the 
bank of the Ewenny, which here 
runs through an extensive marsh. 

On the road between this and 
Cowbridge, 3 m. from the latter 
place, is a tract of common called 



the Golden Mile, from a tradition 
that the Welsh chief Jestyn ap 
Wrgan here paid down the sum in 
gold for which he had engaged the 
services of the Norman Fitzhamon, 
his 12 knights and 300 men, to de- 
feat his enemy Rhys ap Twdwr. 

2 m. from Ewenny is the neat 
little town of Bridgend^ 49 m. 
{Hotelt Wyndham Arms.) Dis- 
tances— Cowbridge, 7 m. ; Cardiff, 20 ; 
Neath, 18; London, 190; Porth- 
cawl, 5; Southemdown, 5. Bridg- 
end is a neat thriving place, on the 
Ogmore, wliich divides it into two 
portions. Old and New Castle. In 
the latter district, on a wooded emi- 
nence overlooking the town, are the 
church and rectory (Archdeacon 
Blosse), and the remains of the New 
Castle, consisting of a Norm. door-, 
way and court. Both the Ogmore 
and Ewenny are good fishing rivers.] 

[An excursion may be made to 
Newton Nottage and Porthcawl, 5 m. 
The Neath road is followed through 
the village of Laleston, 1^ m., as far 
as the turnpike, where a lane turns 
off to the 1., passing Tythegstone 
Court (R. V. Lord, Esq.). Newton 
Downs, along which a Roman road 
may be traced, affords extensive 
views over the Channel. Tlie village 
of Newton is wretched and tumble- 
down, almost devoured by the en- 
croaching sand-heaps, but the church 
has a good carved stone pulpit, re- 
presenting the Flagellation of our 
Saviour, and there is an inscribed 
stone in the churchyard, near which 
is a well which flows only when the 
tide is out. The parsonage at Not- 
tage (Rev. C. Knight), where Queen 
Anne is said to have been a guest, 
is a quaint old house, which was re- 
stored by the late Rev. H. Knight. 

Porthcawl is a small harbour, the 
outlet of the produce of the Maesteg 
iron-works, whicli is convoyed by a 
tramroad from thence. One or two 
lodging-houses and good bathing are 
to be met with.] 

2 m. ftoia.lit\viL^<evA QW^X^.-six^ ^qxXsx^ 



18 



Bcmte 1. — Maesteg, — Mar gam Abbey, S. Wales. 

large quantity of iron is turned out. 
It is shut ill entirely by ranges of 
hills, which, higher up the valley 
at Glyncorrwg, become more pre- 
cipitous and wild. From hence the 
traveller can cross the mountains 
between Glyncorrwg and the Vale of 
Neath, a fatiguing though beautiful 
walk, or else proceed from Maesteg, 
and rejoin the railway at Cwm Avon, 
5 m.J 

3 m. on 1., at Kenfig, is a singular 
stone inscribed with Ogham cha- 
racters, and an extensive fresh- 
water pool close to the sea. The 
coast is uninteresting, and overrun 
with sand-burrows which have co- 
vered up the once fertile soil. 

2 J m. beyond Pyle, on rt., is Mar- 
gam Abbey, the seat of 0. R. M. 
Talbot, Esq., M.F., and Lord-Lieut, 
of the county. The house is a mo- 
dern edifice, designed chiefly by 
its owner : its principal features are 
2 facades and a tower, beautifully 
situated on a rising ground, backed 
by a hill 800 ft. high, and covered 
from top to bottom for about 2 m. 
with a noble oak wood. The sea- 
air, however, has exercised con- 
siderable influence in keeping down 
the heads of the trees to an uniform 
level, none overtopping the rest, so 
that at a distance, it looks like a 
huge clipped hedge. The Abbey 
was founded 1147 by Robert of 
Gloucester (Fitzhamon's son-in-law), 
for monks of the Cistercian order, 
and was sold at the dissolution to 
Sir Rice Mansel, an ancestor of the 
present owner. The only portion 
of the Abbey remaining is a clus- 
tered column of tlie chapterhouse, 
the beautiful groined roof of which 
was sufi'ered to faU in 1799. There 
is an inscribed stone and wheel- 
cross in the churchyard. The W. 
end of the abbey-church has been 
preserved in the present parish 
church, which contains monuments 
of the Bussy, Talbot, and Mansel 
families. The circular door at the 
W. end — its moulding resting on 



Church and Castle. The former, 
which was judiciously restored in 
1859, is a fine cruciform edifice of 
the 14th centy., with a Dec. tower, 
containing a massive groined roof. 
Some of the windows are geometri- 
cal, others Dec. There are several 
monuments ; one of them rejoicing 
in the following inscription : — 

"Awake, dvU mortals, see yr. dvbious stay, 
Frail is ovr make and life soon posts away ; 
Myriads of chances take away ovr breath, 
And mvltifacious ways there are to death ; 
Beneath one lies estemd for life and age, 
By thvnder forcd to qvit this worldly. 

stage; 
Tremendovs death, so svddenly to be 
From life's short scene moved to etemitJ'." 

The Castle is an extensive ruin, 
although not possessing any archi- 
tectural points of interest. It was 
built by Pain de TurberviUe in 1091, 
and was held by a curious tenure, 
viz., that the lord of Coity was to 
follow the lord of Cardiff wherever 
he went when he came into the 
neighbourhood to hunt. 

The church at Coychurch, 2 m. 
from Bridgend, on the Llantrissant, 
is worth visiting, as forming with 
Coity and Ewenny an unusually fine 
trio of churches for S. Wales. It 
very much resembles the former, 
although of larger proportions. 

Quitting Bridgend, the line mns 
up a steep incline between Stormy 
Dovm on the 1. and the millstone 
grit of Cefn Cribtvr on the rt., imme- 
diately upon which, at a steep angle 
of inclination, the coal-beds repose. 
There are numerous collieries at 
Bryndu and Tonddu. 

53 m. Pyle, celebrated for an 
excellent building-stone, not imlike 
that of Rock Abbey. Here the 
Llynvi Valley tramroad, about to be 
converted into a railway, is crossed 
on its way to Porthcawl. 

[A very pretty excursion can be 
made by the pedestrian from here to 
Maesteg^ 9 m., or, should he cross the 
hill of Mynydd Bayden, about 7. 
Maesteg is a large isolated mining 
town of 14,000 Inhab., where a 



iS. Wales. Boute 1. — Cwm Avon, — Briton Ferry. 



19 



pilasters with knots or bands, re- 
peated in other parts of the building 
— deserves notice. 

The modem mansion possesses 
in its details much originality and 
beauty, and contains several antique 
statues, ancient furniture, and some 
fine paintings by the old masters — 
among them St. Augustine with 
the Virgin and Child, by P.Veronese; 
a Vandyke; some Oanalettis, &c. 
The orangery, within the ground, is 
celebrated for its fine trees, many 
of which are 20 ft. high. There is 
a story that the original trees from 
which they sprung were sent over 
to Charles I. by Sir Henry Wotton 
from Italy, but that, the vessel 
having been shipwrecked on the 
Welsh coast, the trees were reared 
here, and, when the owner of Margam 
offered to resign them after the 
Restoration, he was requested by 
the King to retain them as a gift. 
There is a gigantic bay-tree here 
80 ft. high : indeed, trees and shrubs 
of all sorts seem to attain unusual 
vigour in the mild climate of the 
Vale of Glamorgan, which permits 
even the myrtle and arbutus to 
flower in the open air. Contrary to 
the general rule of nature, which 
condemns to external ugliness the 
spot where mineral wealth abounds, 
this beautiful domain teems below 
the sur£Eice with coal and iron, as 
yet scarcely touched. 

1 m. from Margam, on the sea- 
shore, are the Taibach copper - 
works ; f m. from which are the town 
and harbour of Aberavon^ or more 
properly Port Talbot, 61 m., in- 
tended for the import and export of 
coal, copper, and iron ore to and 
from the neighbouring works, more 
especially the busy manufacturing 
district of Ctmn Avon, 2 m. on rt., 
where are situated the immense 
works of the Governor and Com- 
pany of the Bank of England. A 
more busy, and at the same time 
picturesque, place can scarce be 
conceived. 



The Valley of the Afon is shut 
in by lofty hiUs, rising almost pre- 
cipitously from the level of the 
river, while every foot of ground is 
occupied with copper and iron 
works, the communications of which 
are maintained by numerous loco- 
motives constantly speeding to and 
from. 

A handsome church, with a lofty 
spire, recently erected, shows that 
Cwm Avon is not utterly devoted 
to Mammon, as is too often the 
case in the works of S. Wales. On 
the summit of Foel stands the 
colossal chimney, to which a flue is 
carried along the slope of the moun- 
tain for 1100 yds. It is 8 ft. high 
and 15 wide, costing 4000Z., its ob- 
ject being partly to detain those 
particles of metal which, in the 
ordinary way, are carried off by the 
smoke, for which purpose it is acces- 
sible by doors, and partly that the 
enormous mass of copper -smoke 
vapour might not be allowed to 
settle in the valley, so as to be pre- 
judicial to the health of the popula- 
tion. At Fontrhydyven is a fine 
water-wheel set in motion by a 
stream brought from the opposite 
side of the valley by a stone aque- 
duct 460 ft. long. 

The rock of Craig-afon presents a 
singular effect, seeming as though it 
were blocking up the entire valley. 
Beyond Port Talbot the line skirts 
the shoulder of well-wooded hills, 
commanding a fine view over the 
mouth of the Neath, the Mumbles, 
and bay and town of Swansea, the 
site of the latter marked by the 
dense clouds of white copper-smoke 
everlastingly hanging over it. 

On rt. is Baglan House, once the 
resort of Mason, who composed here 
his beautiful elegy : — 

" Coventry is dead ! attend the strain. 
Daughters of Albion." 

64 m. Britm Ferry, the port of 
Neath, situated at the mouth of the 
river. Large docks are in 12l:o^c^'^s.^ 



w 



BKmU 1>— Jf«rflL— Hifif ^ l-mau >, %Vauesl 



iuMMU^ hm/M F^ftrr, 4li»«db- ai 

s^^fmy U»m\j^ miih foA » riliai l^ert. 
Tht^f ^hwr^h in fiwaiui msA prettr, 

lihr«mM^^ ; JUrtLyT, 23, XeadL is 
wtftUty mUtnUA mout the Hboota of 
w^ tiif*^ *4 VnU of Sibnih, or Xadd, 

M^mAA^', }/r(:^\ih, li i^jors much 
ffff^ff^iff phifshA. m a cfud-Aistnei 
ffy ht^ rk9iftnrt»M of wbkh maoT 
lr#>fi« tif», sifi^l e^^yper wofiu are set 
ffffitHf, A €is%tiSi\ frrmi Aberaant 
fffUti^ mm:h <^^i anrl ir^jn« as does 
uUtf Uui XuXts <ji Xeath HaiiwaT, an 
ituptfrXt^ui Ut4:i\nr to tfuj 8. \('ales 
lifM;, A nUmmtsr hum t/> BriifU^l 
twl<wj a ^t'Aik. In the town arc a 
|(oo<l fi;HUtwny awl Umarn, remains 
ftf iini (n%niU% which lj4.'loriged to 
iltntiyu ftp Wff^ftM, and which was 
l/unit in 1 21^1 , Tiie church is poor, 
htii tufttUiUtn uu ancient tower and 
mmi4i hat^rhnientM t/f the family of 
MiM;kworth of On/ilL On the hill 
H^nmi iUtt Utwti uiutuln (hutU (¥i. 
th ikrutti, Vtm{,)f tnuui a seat of the 
JMa^^kworihH, and fi'/w the property 
</f Mr, (imnt, who loner remii/xl there. 
U \n fur wile, and has become 
tUiUfritmn fratfi iin liavin^ l>een the 
mumti of a ceh;hfat<'d (Mlueationul 
WM'Ciilatlon by Mr. Jiulhwk M'elj- 
sW, who uropom'A fo turn it into 
Ml univerMiiy, a mfnUim Utopia of 
leanihtK. 

1 n\, on I. are the beautiful ruins 
of Nffulh Ahlmy^ defalked by the 
smoke and cotil-duHi of tlio neigh- 
bouHn^ exbfUMive eojipi'r and iron 
works, 'rhou^li now mo uuMightly 
and (uinifimiimted with bhutk Hiiiintt, 
It wiiM oriKiuully a Hiructuro of great 

extent luid ntuK»iA(^<'<^<^(^* ^"<^ if* <1(^ 
scribed by L(;iund um *' the fUircHt 



^hfPf'm^S^M^k^EssJ' It 

331 llil In- CadbftB*! «&t Gnonillk' «f 

frjT Gny fiau^ Tilt- dupdfitrict van 

GbteTpdJUrr 1>iiL i^ciztf dsiViOTis^d, 
aijd t&ie bG«s««- tLn*£eskrii vrtik a 
ae^c^ be vnte £uii to depttit imdei- 
tt«e gnidiasiiCie of a mosik, wbo be- 
tEsjed liim into has encfl&icii' hands 
aa 'l.bnlfisHant Castle. The nnna. 
wbieh are exteosiTe, axe cLitAT 
K £. and £. Dec beades lata- 
buildings br Sir P. Hobr, erected 
about 1630. There is a cniioits 
cirpt Called a lefeetorr. Even in 
its desolatioD Xeath Abl<eT still 
looks in^wedng, though the state of 
the ruins reflects little credit on 
their owner. 

To the S., on the rt. bank of the 
Xeath, are the establishments called 
the Crcfwn Copper Works, connected 
with Swansea harbour by means of 
Tennant's Canal, which runs &om 
Aberdylais to Swansea, by the side 
of Crymlyn bog, where Jestyn ap 
Wrgan is said to have lost his life. 

1 m. to the N. of the abbey in the 
Clydach valley is Duffryn^ the mo- 
dem seat of Howell Gwvn, Esq. 

The high hill of Myuydd Drim 
intervenes between Neath and 
Swansea, causing the railway to be 
carried up a steep incline, at the 
summit of which is lAansamlet Stat., 
70 m. It as rapidly descends into 
the Vale of Tatoe, which hereabouts 
and all the way to Swansea exhibits 
an unparalleled scene of desolation, 
to which a beautiful contrast is 
offered on the rt. by the distant 
hills at the head of the Swansea 
valley. The soil is naturally un- 
fertile. The deleterious influence 
of the fluoric or arsenical acids from 
the copper-works arrests the naturally 
Htuntetl vegetation, so that there are 
no trees, and instead of grass a dry 
yellow sickly growih of chamomile 



S. Wales. 



EoiUe 1. — Swansea, 



21 



barely covers the ground. To the 
traveller who crosses the Llandore 
bridge at night, the livid glare from 
the numerous chimneys, the rolling, 
fleecy, white clouds of smoke which 
fiU. up the valley beneath him, the 
desolate-looking heaps of slag on 
either side, might well recall Dante's 
line — 
"Voi che entrate, lasciate ogni speranza." 

The extensive village to the rt. is 
Morristorif where the workmen and 
coUiers reside who are employed in 
the adjacent works. The Tawe is 
crossed by a bridge of one arch of 
95 ft. span. 

The river accompanies the railway 
on the 1., lined with the nimierous 
buildings belonging to the Upper 
Bank, Hafod, Middle Bank, and 
White Kose works. 

At Llandore the main line pro- 
ceeds to Llanelly, while a short 
branch conveys the traveller to 
SiDansea^ 75 m. Hotels: Mack- 
worth Arms (tolerable) ; Castle ; 
Cameron Arms. Distances : — Lon- 
don 216 ; Bristol by water 66 ; 
Neath 8; Carmarthen 28; Llanelly 
12 ; Brecon 36. Pop. 36,000. Swan- 
sea or Abertawy, which contests 
with Cardiff the metropolitan su- 
premacy of S. Wales, is situated 
on the rt. bank of the Tawe, at its 
mouth, which by means of piers of 
masonry projecting from either side 
forms a convenient harbour opening 
into the bay of Swansea. Jt has 
greatly increased in size, inhabitants, 
and prosperity, in the last 30 years, 
within which time the vast resources 
of the coal-field in the midst of 
which it is situated, and to which 
it owes its good fortune, liave been 
explored and brought to bear. Yet 
it is not a himdred years ago that 
the first great coal-owner who sub- 
stituted coal-waggons for the old 
sacks and packhorses employed to 
transport lus coals to the quay, was 
threatened by the people with pro- 
secution "for turning the beet vvi 



their cellars sour by the jolting of 
his heavy carts." The smelting and 
refining of copper is the staple trade 
of Swansea and the chief source of 
its prosperity ; the ore is all brought 
from a Glance, not merely from 
Cornwall and Devonshire, but across 
the Atlantic and round Cape Horn, 
from Cuba, the W. coast of South 
America, and Valparaiso. The ex- 
planation of this is that the fuel ia 
more bulky than ore, and it is 
cheaper to bring the copper to the 
coal than to tale coal to the cop- 
per ; besides, the vessels which 
bring the ore return laden with coal 
and patent fuel. Thus most of the 
copper is brought from the various 
mines to be smelted in this neigh- 
bourhood, and at Llanelly, Pembrey, • 
Neath, and Port Talbot. The ore 
is sold at a kind of auction held in 
one of the hotels, termed ticketings, 
and a vast quantity is disposed of in 
an incredibly short time. 37,000 
tons were sold in 1858 in Swansea 
alone. The docks occupy a con- 
siderable space in the heart of the 
town, but were long found to be 
inadequate to the growing require- 
ments of the trade. After a long 
delay a large floating dock was 
opened in 1859, formed by the side 
of the harbour in th.e Burrows. It 
contains an area of 13 acres, its 
lengtli being 1500 ft., and breadth 
360. The half-tide basm is 430 ft. 
long by 370 broad, and communi- 
cates with the docks by a lock 
300 ft. in length, having 3 pairs of 
gates. The N. side is lined with 
warehouses and staiths for shipment 
of coal, which is brought to the 
water's edge by the South Wales 
Kailway. The whole extent of the 
docks is furnished with Sir Wm. 
Armstrong's hydraulic apparatus, 
the extent of pipes being l| m., and 
the pressure upon them 700 lbs. to 
the square inch. On the eastern 
side of the mouth of the harbour 
are the copper-works of Port T^w- 



22 



BoiUe 1. — Swansea, 



S. Walis. 



canal has its tenninus. A canal 
also runs np the Swansea valley for 
a distance of 16 m. An important 
trade is carried on in patent fuel, 
composed of a mixture of culm and 
tar compressed into the form of a 
square of the shape of a brick ; and 
a large number of hands are em- 
ployed in the manufactories on the 
1. bank of the river, which sup- 
ply the Irish and Anglo-Brazilian 
steamers starting from Milford 
Haven. 

Nearly in the centre of the town, 
at the back of the post-office, but so 
'built roimd that it is very difficult 
to see, stand the remains of the 
castle, consisting of a tower sur- 
mounted by an open gallery, sup- 
porting a very elegantly - carved 
parapet, — supposed to have been 
built by Bishop Gower about 1330, 
since it agrees m style with portions 
of his palaces at Lamphey and St. 
David's. A castle was origioally 
foimded here in 1099 by Henry de 
la Bellamonte, Earl of Warwick, 
who introduced into it a garrison of 
English and Flemish colonists who 
were settled in the peninsula of 
Gower. The existing portion is 
used as a store-room for the mUitia. 

In the parish church of St. Mary's, 
among other monuments is that of 
Lady Elizabeth Gordon, a lady of 
royal connexion, and daughter of 
the Earl of Huntley, who was given 
in marriage by the King of Scotland 
to the pretender Perkin Warbeck; 
she afterwards married Sir Matthew 
Oradock, a Welshman, and High 
Steward of Gower. Their tomb 
lies N. of the chancel in the Herbert 
chapel, and consists of an altar- 
tomb of Bath ooUte, bearing their 
effigies. There is also a ffiie Brass 
to the memory of Sir Hugh Johnys, 
of Llandymor Castle, in Gower. 
The church of St. John is built on 
the site of an ancient chapel of the 
Knights of Jerusalem. 

The Royal IrtstittUion of South 
Wales is a handsome Grecian build- 



ing, with a portico, erected in 1840 
by a local society for the promotion 
of science and literature. It pos- 
sesses a theatre, library, and museum 
of natural history and geology, in 
which is an interesting and unique 
collection of bones of mammoth and 
other animals found in the lime- 
stone caves of Gower ; also a series 
of coal-plants from the district, 
though poor and ill-arranged. 

The T(ywn HaU is a fine building 
of the Corinthian style, in front of 
which stands a monument of the 
late J. H. Vivian, Esq., M.P. 

The new Post Office^ in Castle 
Bailey Street, would do credit to 
any town in the kingdom. 

Swansea was formerly resorted to 
as a bathing and watering place; 
but fashion has been driven away 
by commerce, and all the pro- 
menades have been swallowed up 
by the docks, so that the bathers 
have been forced to retreat to the 
Mumbles — added to which, the town 
is not always pleasant as a resi- 
dence, owing to the copper-works, 
which fill the air with the fimies 
whenever a N.E. wind blows. 

Gower, the poet, is supposed to 
have been a native of Swansea, as 
well as Beau Nash, the celebrated 
master of the ceremonies at Bath, 
who was bom in Goat Street, 1673, 
in a house now removed. Savage, 
the imfortunate poet, resided here. 

The geology of the Swansea dis- 
trict is interesting. The hill of 
Kilvey on the E., and the Town 
Hill overhanging it on the W., are 
composed of Pennant sandstone, 
which is of enormous thickness, and 
possesses some valuable scams of 
coal. Sir Wm. Logan, who do- 
voted much attention to this portion 
of the field, found rolled pebbles in 
the actual coal, the d^ris of former 
seams which had been broken up, 
transported thither. 

An omnibus runs to the Mumbles 
on the arrival of^ each train, and 
steamers ply to Bristol, Ilfracombe, 



S. Wales. 



Boute 1. — Yniscedwin,'' — Gower. 



23 



Belfast, Glasgow, Milford Haven, 
and Tenby : also a daily coach to 
Ystradgui]Jals. 

[A pleasant excursion can be 
made up the vale of the Tawe by 
the Swansea Vale Railway, which 
runs along the opposite side of the 
river to the S. Wales line, cross- 
ing it near Llansamlet. The moun- 
tains begin to assume a more pic- 
turesque aspect and bolder outlines, 
while the reappearance of wood 
and vegetation bears evidence of 
the diminished effect of the copper- 
works. 

6 m. GlaiB Stat. On 1. are 
TnispenUwch tin-works, one of the 
largest establishments in "Wales, till 
lately the property of the Llewellyns. 
On the Gedionen mountain, which 
rises behind, is a mineral spring, 

8^ Pontardawe is the present 
terminus of the line, although it is 
eventually to be carried as far as 
Ystradgunlais. Here the road from 
Neath to Cwm Amman crosses the 
Tawe by a bridge with one arch 
similar to the one at Pontypridd, 
with the exception of the circular 
openings. At Pontardawe is a 
handsome church, lately erected by 
the munificence of J. Parsons, Esq. 
There is an omnibus to Ystradgun- 
lais from hence. 

On a hill by the roadside, 2 m. 1., 
is a large and unusually perfect 
stone circle, known as Cam Llechart. 
The road from here runs by the side 
of the Swansea Canal, and imder the 
bold hill of Craig-garw, affording 
beautiful views of the Carmarthen- 
shire beacons, to Ystalyfera iron- 
works, 12 m., which possess 8 blast 
furnaces. 

13 m. Yniscedwin Iron- works, 
where the Tawe is joined by the 
mountain-stream of the Twrch, and 
the traveller enters Breconshire. 
The coal-measures, which in the 
S. and E. divisions of the coal-field 
are bituminous, are here anthracite, 
a species of coal which for many 
years was considered practically 



useless. .The late Mr. Crane, of 
these works, made the discovery in 
1836 that, by using hot instead of 
cold blasti the anthracite made re- 
markably good iron, a circumstance 
which has since trebled the value 
of these beds, and caused a large 
increase of furnaces in this district. 

14 m. Ystradgunlais^ where the 
antiquarian will find in the church 
two inscribed stones — one built into 
the outside of the E. wall, marked 
Hic JACiT, and another, forming one 
of the steps of a staircase on the S. 
side, with the inscription adivne. 

16 m. Lamh and Flag Inn, situ- 
ated at the head of the Swansea 
Canal, 1^ m. from which the little 
river Llech joins the Tawe. The 
tourist should by all means follow 
this romantic little stream as far as 
Capd Colbren, where at the water- 
&11 of Scvpd Hen Rhyd the Llech 
tumbles over the rock at a height 
of 100 ft., allowing the visitor to 
pass dryshod under the fall. Sir 
W. Logan discovered some erect 
fossil coal trees, of the class named 
Sigillfuria, in the bed of the river. 
In the primitive little church of 
Capel Colbren is a curious old tomb- 
stone, and close by are remains of a 
Roman road. From hence the Cri- 
harth moimtain forms a striking 
object in the scenery, and is in- 
teresting to the geologist from the 
intrusion of such a large mass of 
mountain ^limestone into the coal- 
measures. " A road follows the gorge 
of the mountains, passing under the 
noble Fan Gehirach, through Senny, 
to Brecon, 36 m. from Swansea.] 

[Another excursion should be 
made from Swansea into the penin- 
sula of GotoeTf interesting from its 
scenery, antiquarian remains, and 
the character of its inhabitants, 
who to this day bear traces of their 
ancestors, the Flemings, introduced- 
by Henry I. in the hope that, by 
their hardy and industrious habits, 
they might prevent it from belis.^ 
the tlie>«i.tte ol ^MOa. \wN%-^wji«csssv&^ 



24 



Route 1. — Oystermouth Castle, — Mumbles, S. Wales. 



fights between the Welsh and the 
Normans. Even at this lapse of 
time the Gk>wcrians have kept them- 
selves tolerably aloof from their 
Welsh neighbours, neither " marry- 
ing or giving in marriage," and 
preserving their distinctiveness in 
customs, dress, and language. The 
road follows the curve of Swansea 
Bay, so that the tourist enjoys fine 
sea views all the way to Mumbles. 
At St. Helen's (Col. Morgan) a road 
to rt.branches inland, past the pretty 
church of Sketty, to the Gower Inn, 
5^ m. 

1^ m. is Singleton, the seat of Mrs. 
J. H. Vivian, where art has been 
happily blended with nature in the 
management of the grounds, which 
yield to none in the principality for 
beauty. The mansion is Elizabethan, 
with a pinnacled tower, and super- 
seded a former building, called the 
Marino. To the back of Singleton 
is Parkwern (H. H. Vivian, Esq., 
M.P.) ; on the high ground to the 
rt. is Sketty Park (G. Morris, Esq.) ; 
and higher up Hendrefoilan (L. L. 
Dillwyn, Esq., M.P.). 

2^ rt. Woodlands Castle (Graham 
Vivian, Esq.) is finely situated under 
Cfine Wood, though spoilt by its 
proximity to the arsenic works. 

3 J m. Norton village, beyond 
which the old ruin of Oystermouth 
Oastle breaks in upon the view, 
finely placed on an eminence over- 
looking the bay, and backed up by 
an immense cfiff of limestone. It 
has been partly restored by the 
Duke of Beaufort, under the anti- 
quarian superintendence of G. G. 
Francis, Esq., of Swansea. The 
plan of the castle is irregular, its 
general figure being an isosceles 
triangle. The gateway has been 
flanked by two towers, which have 
been removed at some early period, 
so that the inner and concave seg- 
ment forms now the outer wall, and 
thus throws forward the gateway. 
What may be called the keep is 
certainly the oldest part of the 



building. This is placed at the 
N.E. angle, is quadrangular, of 3 
stages, heavily buttressed, with re- 
cessed chambers in the buttresses. 
The upper story is the chapel. It 
is of one date, E. Dec, and the 
additions are not much later. It 
was probably built by Henry de 
Bellamonte, to serve as a link in 
the border chain of castles. Near 
it is the church, with a fine em- 
battled tower, and some Perp. win- 
dows. 

A little beyond is the village and 
watering-place of Mumbles (Inns: 
Mermaid, and George), which has 
considerably increased since the new 
docks have spoilt the bathing at 
Swansea. It is snugly situated un- 
derneath the high escarpment of 
mountain-limestone cliffs which sea- 
wards terminate in two rocky islets, 
on the fiirthest of which stands the 
Mumbles lighthouse. Much stone 
is fUmished here and sent to Swan- 
sea by a tramroad which accompa- 
nies the turnpike-road. The Bay, 
which is seen to advantage from 
here, is thought by many to bear a 
strong resemblance to that of Naples 
in its outline, -v^iich is singularly 
graceful. Since the time of man, 
however, ancient records point to a 
considerable extent of wood which 
has been submerged by the sea, a 
fact borne out by geological appear- 
ances, such as the discovery of trunks 
of trees, hazel-nuts, &c., at lower 
water. At LiUiput, close to the 
village of Norton, Sir W. Logan 
found a seam of coal cropping out 
on the sea-shore with only a thin 
covering of sand. 

2 m. from Mumbles is Cawsall 
Bay (where is a tolerable hotel and 
boarding-house), an extremely pretty 
bit of marine landscape : the pedes-, 
trian should, however, walk along 
the cliffs by Langland's Bay and 
Whiteshell Point, where the coast is 
fine and rugged. 

IJ m. Piolddu Head, a splendid 
mass of limestone forming a well- 



». Wales. 



Moute 1. — Govser, — Bene Ccms, 



25 



known searmark. The pretty wood- 
land glen should be followed to 
BishopstoTif 2 m. As is usual in 
limestone strata, several geological 
curiosities are to be met with, as 
enormous pits or depressions, and 
the disappearance of the river, which 
runs underground for more than a 
mile. The rocks in this dingle are 
known to geologists as the Black 
Shales of Gower. Bishopston Church 
has an embattled tower, and, to- 
gether with the schools, forms a 
pretty object at the hetid of the glen. 

2 m. inland is Gower Inn, primi- 
tive but comfortable, built by Mr. 
Talbot for the accommodation of 
tourists, for whom no other exists in 
the peninsula, save what a farm- 
house may afford. It is charmingly 
placed at the junction of two or 
three glens, well wooded and each 
with its accompanying streamlet. 
It is a lovely walk to lUton (remark- 
able for its saddleback roof), and also 
to the Green Combe. Near the inn 
are Landgrove Farm and the Court 
House, where traces of Flemish (?) 
architecture are still visible. 

The wooded demesne opposite is 
Kilvrough (Capt. Penrice). 

The geologist should not omit to 
visit the Bone Cave of the Bacon 
Mole, on the coast, about 1 m. from 
the Gower Inn, where a guide should 
be procured. This cave was sys- 
tematically blasted to obtain the 
bones which were found in succes- 
sive layers : 1st, alluvial earth, con» 
taining recent shells and bones of 
ox, red deer, roebuck, and fox ; 2nd, 
bear, ox, and deer; 3rd, manmioth, 
rhinoceros, hysBua, wolf, bear, ox, 
and deer ; 4th, mammoth, badger, 
and polecat. Below this, and upon 
the limestone floor, were shells of 
Clausilia nigricans, Littorina littor- 
alis, bones of birds, and arvicola. 
The mammoth bones are deposited 
in the Swansea Museum and are 
remarkable for their size, one tusk 
being 2 ft. roimd and 5 ft. 5 in. 
long. All these different layers 

18. Wales.'] 



were separated by deposits of sta- 
lagmite, the only traces of man 
being some pieces of British pot- 
tery. Another cave, the Michin 
Hole, destitute of bone remains, 
exists to the W. of this. 

Pennard Castle is commandingly 
placed, overlooking a " pill," doubt- 
less at one time occupied by the 
sea. Little remains but a bold 
gateway with rude flanking towers 
of Edwardian times ; but the whole 
neighbourhood has been inimdated 
by sand, which, tradition asserts, 
was blown over in one night, but 
which has evidently been the work 
of four or five centuries. The bo- 
tanist will find Draba aizoides grow- 
ing on the walls of this castle about 
the month of August. 

Soon after passing Penmaen 
Church, Oxvnch Bay, the finest in 
Gower, opens out. The ruins of 
Penrice Castle, and the modem 
mansion of Q. E. Talbot, Esq., M.P., 
are placed embowered in wood at the 
W. angle of the bay. The remains of 
the former, which was foimded by 
the old Earl of Warwick to secure 
his acquisitions in Gower, consist of 
some large towers rounded inwardly. 
Penrice Church should be visited for 
the beauty of its situation. 

Oxmch Church and Castle stand 
on the promontory of the same 
name, which bounds the bay on the 
W. Inside the former is an altar- 
tomb to Sir Rice Mansell, the 
founder of the castle, temp. Hen. 
VIII. The latter is more of a mili- 
tary residence than a castle, and is in 
part " a large Perp. mansion, carried 
along at the complete elevation of 
a tower, the walls of which are 
dotted rather irregularly with a 
niunber of square-headed windows 
of two lights, and single-light win- 
dows with depressed heads." Tra- 
dition asserts that an affray took 
place here, respecting a wreck, be- 
tween Sir George Herbert and Sir 
Rice Mansell, in which Lady Anno 
Mansell was killed b^ ^^\R>\ssi, 



26 



Boute 1.' — Gower,^^ WomCs Head, 



S. Walbs. 



A walk of 2 m. will bring the 
traveller to Port Eynon, a fishing 
village, formerly renowned for smug- 
glers. The cliifs become bold and 
precipitous, and the walk from hence 
to the Worm's Head, 5 m., is as 
&ie as anything in the county. At 
Paviland are two bone-caves, de- 
scribed by Dr. Buckland in *Di- 
luvisB BeUquianaB.* In them were 
found recent shells and bones of 
elephant, rhinoceros, bear, fox, hy- 
aena, woll^ horse, deer, ox, rats, and 
birds, besides the skeleton of a 
female (probably coeval with a 
British camp on the summit), frag- 
ments of ivory, ornaments, and 
coins. These caves are very diffi- 
cult of access from the clifEs, but 
the necessary path can be shown 
by inquiring at a farmhouse near. 
** The geologist will be struck with 
the similarity of the caves at Ban- 
well and on the Mendips on the 
opposite coast, which « are in the 
same formation as these." — A Week's 
Walk in Gower. 

Worm's Head, 20 m. from Swan- 
sea, is the most westerly point of 
the peninsula, consisting of two 
rocky headlands running out for a 
mile, and separated from the main- 
land and each other by causeways 
which at low water are left bare 
by the tide. The traveller should 
endeavour to time his visit so as to 
be enabled to walk across, which 
can be done during a space of 5 h. 
The rock scenery is fine and bold, 
the outer point being 200 ft. above 
the sea. A curious noise is emitted 
from the blow-hole, caused by the 
hollowing out of the rock beneath, 
into which the waves rush, driving 
the air before them till it escapes 
by the external orifice. In stormy 
weather it is a dangerous headland, 
and many a fine ship has been lost 
on this coast, and in particular the 
* City of Bristol ' steamer, which was 
wrecked in Rhosilly Bay in 1840. 
A local tradition asserts that a 
Spanish galleon or treasure-ship was 



lost here, and it is said that at 
different times the sands have 
shifted, exposing coins and dollars 
to view. 

The quarries here are extensively 
worked, vessels coming over from 
Minehead and the Somersetshire 
coast to take in their cargo of lime- 
stone. The fossil collector will find 
it well charged with crinoidal re- 
mains, spirifer, cyathophyllum, &o. 

The quaint, weather-beaten little 
village of BhosUly is placed at the 
head of the bay, and at the foot of 
the downs. A comfortable lodging 
can be obtained at the house of a 
farmer named Beynon at Pitton. 

3 m. from Bhosilly is Llangenydd 
Church, the largest in Gower, hav- 
ing a side tower and a blocked 
Bomanesque arch on its eastern 
face ; and 2 m. beyond is LUmmadoc^ 
where is another bone-cave on the 
coast. 

On the return to Gk)wer Inn the 
tourist should visit Harding Down 
and the well-preserved remains of 
the camp on its summit ; and from 
thence should proceed to Reynold- 
stone, near which is Stouthall (£. 
Wood, Esq.), and along the ridge 
of Cefn Bryn, an elevation of old 
red sandstone which runs like a 
backbone through the peninsula, 
fianked on either side by the moun- 
tain limestone. Numerous cairns 
and Druidical circles are to be found 
on it, besides the £Etmous cromlech 
of Arthur's Stone, mentioned in the 
Welsh Triads as " the big stone of 
Sketty," and one of the wonders of 
Wales. It consists of an enormous 
mass of millstone-grit, apparently 
resting on nine upright supporters,, 
but resting only on four (it having 
tumbled, after a severe frost, about 
30 years ago), the whole rather 
sunk in a basin nearly full of rough 
stones. It is situated on the N. 
slope of Cefn Bryn, near the turn- 
pike-road which runs from Reynold- 
stone to Swansea. 

2 m. to the N. is Wehley Castle, a 



S. Wales. . EoiUe 1. — Lhughor, — KidweUyJ 



21 



large structure in fair preservation, 
placed on the bank of the estuary 
of the Burry river, and a little to 
the W. of it are the scanty remains 
of Llandymor or Bovehill Castle. 
The view from the siunmit of Oe&i 
Bryn is one of the finest in the 
coimty, embracing the whole of 
Gower, with the Bristol Channel 
and Devonshire coast, on the S. ; 
Tenby, the Carmarthenshire hills 
and coast, the town of Llanelly, the 
Swansea valley, and the Brecon 
Beacons to the W. and N. The 
distance from Penmaen at the foot 
of the hill, to Swansea across Fair- 
wood Common, is 7 mj 

78 m. Gower Road Stat. 1^ m. rt. 
Penllergare, the beautiful seat of 
J. Dillwyn Llewellyn, Esq., brother 
to the Member for Swansea. 

80 m. Lloughor^ once an important 
place, the ancient Leucarum, and 
5th stat. on the ViS, Julisl, but now 
a miserable little village. A ruined 
square tower is all that remains of 
the castle. The railway, as well 
as the turnpike-road, crosses the 
estuary of the Burry river by a 
bridge more than J m. long. To 
the 1. is the small port of Penclawd 
on the Gower coast, where some coal 
is shipped. On the other side the 
river are the Spitty copper-works 
(a corruption of Hospitium). 

The Ime runs through a flat and 
marshy country to the busy port 
and manufacturing town of Llanelly 
(83 m,, Rte. 6.), where a branch 
railway passes off to Llandeilo Vawr 
and Llandovery {Inns : Thomas 
Arms, Stepney Arms). It has risen 
into considerable commercial im- 
portance from the mineral trea- 
sures in its vicinity, and its ready 
access to the sea, which renders it 
an outlet for a large part of the 
S. Wales coal-field. Nearly the 
whole town, which includes 16,000 
Inhab., depends for its prosperity 
upon the Cambrian copper-works, 
belonging to the firm of Neville, 
Sims, Willyams, and Co., together 



with the accompanying silver, lead, 
and iron works. There are also tin- 
works, and a pottery. Large docks 
have been formed in connection 
with the Llanelly Railway, whence 
great quantities of anthracite coal 
are exported. The chinmey of the 
copper-works is 231 ft. high, and 
is a conspicuous object for miles 
around. The ch. is a fine old build- 
ing in the centre of the town, with 
an embattied tower, the base of 
which is much broader than the 
top. There are also two new ones, 
one of which is in the Wem district, 
and another at Velin-foel. 

The railway from hence is carried 
over ,a long embarkment, close to 
the water's edge, passing on the rt. 
Stradey (D. Lewis, Esq.). 

87 m. Pemhreyy a small port where 
a considerable amount of coal is 
shipped, brought from the Gwen- 
draeth valley to Kidwelly, and thenee 
by a canal. The copper-works be- 
long to Messrs. Elkington, Mason, 
and Co. The little town is placed 
at the foot of Mynydd Pembte^ 
remarkable for its fine views over 
the sweep of Carmarthen Bay, the 
peninsula of Gower, and the Bay of 
Swansea, with the distant hills of 
Somerset and Devonshire beyond. 

92 m. Kidwelly Stat. This town, 
which formerly enjoyed some pros- 
perity, but is now almost decayed, 
owing to the port having become 
sanded up, stands on the Gwen- 
draeth, f m. rt. of the stat. Inn: 
Pelican (primitive). It contains a 
number of old houses, which appear 
to date as early as the 1st and 3rd 
Edw. ; but the chief lion of the 
place is the Castle, which, though a 
ruin, is tolerably perfect, and of con- 
siderable extent, on the rt. bank of 
the river, which separates it from 
the town. In plan it is a quadrangle 
with 4 curtains and round towers, 
the E. side overhanging the river ; 
round the 3 other sides is a narrow 
coiu^, or outer bailey, girt within a 
curved curtaiia. ^^W^ ^\. ^^^, ^^^^^ 



28 



Eoute 1. — Ferry side, — Llaughame, S. Wales. 



grand gatehouse, at the N. a smaller 
gateway, and upon the intermediate 
wall 3 mural towers. The whole 
is encircled by a deep moat, which 
completes the main defences. Out- 
side this, at the N. end, is a sort of 
outwork defended by a mound and 
ditch, and beyond this is a second, 
defended in the same way. The 
grand gatehouse opens upon the 
site of a barbican defended by a 
ditch. The approach passed through 
this across a detached sort of out- 
work, finally defended by a gate- 
house, the ruins and portcullis arch 
of which remain. The date of the 
whole is E. Dec, of the era of Edw. 
I. The staircase and battlements 
are tolerably perfect, and only one 
tower has fallen. The chapel, con- 
taining a polygonal apse, is a spaci- 
ous chamber with a clerestory and 
vestry attached. The great hall and 
state bed-chamber seem to have been 
in the upper story of the gatehouse, 
of which the doorways are carved. 
The whole presents many attrac- 
tions both to the artist and anti- 
quary, who will both find their 
account in a day spent here. 

The castle was originally built by 
Maurice de Londres, a descendant 
of one of Fitzhamon's paladins, in 
the reign of King John, who is said 
to have sought refuge here while at 
war with the barons. The existing 
edifice probably succeeded that 
which was built in 1223 by Griffith, 
son of Llewellyn Prince of Wales. 

The ch. is a handsome building, 
though previous to its restoration it 
grievously suffered from mutilation 
and neglect. It possesses a tower 
and lofty spire, nave of an unusu- 
ally large space, transepts and 
chancel with a wood roof, and 
carved piscina.. It is of Dec. date. 
In the interior are some mutilated 
effigies, and in a niche over the 
doorway an original statue of the 
Virgin and Cliild. 

96 m. Ferryside, celebrated for its 
extensive cockle-fishery, and, as a 



rising watering-place, much fre^ 
quented by the good folks of Car- 
marthen and neighbouring towns. 
It overlooks a large expanse of sand 
at the mouth of the Towy, and the 
headland and ruined castle of 
Llanstephan, with the little village 
snugly embosomed in the trees by 
the water's edge. Across the river 
is a much-frequented ferry. The 
view of the sands and Carmarthen 
Bay from the hill at sunset is one 
not to be forgotten. The walls of 
Llanstephan Castle are of consider- 
able extent, and, at a distance, have 
an imposing appearance, though 
they are a mere shell. It was built 
in 1138 by the sons of a Merioneth- 
shire prince, but soon after fell into 
the hands of the Flemings and Nor- 
mans, from whom it was retaken by 
the son of Rhys Prince of South 
Wales. 

In the woods beneath stands the 
Plas, seat of Sir Jas. Hamilton, Bart. 

[3 m. beyond Llanstephan is the 
decayed port and town of Llaughame 
(pronounced Lame), on the rt. bank 
of the mouth of the Tav, across 
which is a ferry. Here is a Norm, 
castle, besieged for three weeks by 
Cromwell, which is inhabited and 
not shown to strangers. In the ch. 
is a set of priest's robes given by Sir 
Guide de Brian, who bequeathed 
lands to the parish, and rebuilt the 
castle, which had been destroyed by 
Llewellyn ap Jorwerth, in 1215. 
From hence to Tenby is a beautiful 
walk of about 15 m. through Marros 
and AmrothJ 

From Ferryside the railway keeps 
close to the Towy, in the course of 
which beautiful peeps are obtained 
of the fertile and well- wooded 
country on both sides. 

Onrt. is Iscoed (R. Goring Thomas, 
Esq.). It was the seat of Sir T. 
Picton, from whence he went to join 
the campaign of 1815. 

Passing through a short cutting 
in the old red sandstone, the 
traveller arrives at 102 m. Carmar- 



S. Wales. EoiUe 1. — Carmarthen, — Llangunnor. 



29 



then. Hotels: Ivy Bosh, Boar's 
Head (commercial). Distances : — 
London, 244 m. ; Pembroke, 43 m. ; 
Llandeilo, 14 m. ; Ferryside, 8 m. ; 
Cardigan, 30 m. ; Bristol, by. steam, 
138 m. ; Tenby, 26 m. ; Aberystwith, 
62 m. ; Swansea, 26 m. 

Conveyances : — To Aberystwith, a 
coach every alternate day ; Cardigan, 
daily ; Llandeilo, daily ; to Bristol 
and Tenby, by steamer weekly, 

Carmarthen, the Maridunnm of 

Ptolemy, stands high on the rt. bank 

of the Towy, aflfording lovely views 

of the vale. 

** To Maridunum, that is now by change 
Of name Cayr Marrddin call'd, they took 
their yfa.j."—Spen£er. 

. It is the county town, of 11,000 
Inhab., but possessing little of in- 
terest. In the Town-hall are por- 
traits of Sir T. Picton, by Shee ; of 
Sir W. Nott, and Mr. Jones, of 
Ystrad, M.P., by Brigstocke. 

The parish Church, which has 
been restored, contains a monument 
of Gen. Nott ; one to Bishop Farr, 
who was burnt in the market-place 
for his religion; and a mutilated 
but remarkably fine* altar-tomb to 
Sir Rhys ap Thomas, K.G. (died 
1527), who commanded the Welsh 
imder Henry at Bosworth. The 
effigy is in armour and Garter robes, 
and on its 1. is a small figure of his 
wife. 

At the W. end of the town stands 
the Obelisk to the memory of the 
gallant Picton, replacing a monu- 
ment by Nash, which was pulled 
down in 1846. 

There is also a statue of Nott in 
front of the Town-hall ; and a ra- 
ther poor monument, in Lammas 
Street, in memory of the officers 
and men of the 23rd Welsh Fusi- 
leers who fell in the Crimea. The 
banners of the same regiment hang 
up in the chancel of St. Peter's 
Church. On the river-side is a 
lovely walk, looking up the vale of 
Towy to Merlin's Hill and Aber- 
gwili ; and near it is a fragment of 



the priory. The scanty remains of 
the castle are incorporated with the 
counly gaol. It was taken by Owen 
Glendower, and finally dismantled 
by Cromwell, and afterwards used as 
ruin. 

I m. on the W. of the town is the 
Training School for South Wales ; a 
very handsome building, erected by 
the Welsh Education Committee in 
1847 at a cost of 8000Z. On the 1. 
bank of the river is 

Llangunnor Church, a primitive 
little building, with some fine old 
yew-trees, and a superb view of the 
Towy. Sir R. Steele was buried here 
in the vault of tiie Scurlock femily, 
who were related to his 2nd wife. He 
is said to have written * The Con- 
stant Lover' at Ty-gwyn, a farm- 
house near the town. 

The quay extends for some dis- 
tance to the rt. of the bridge ; but 
the niunber of vessels belonging to 
the port is not large, as the navigation 
of the river is difficult and devious. 
The so-called Carmarthen and 
Cardigan Railway joins the South 
Wales line at Myrtle Hill, and runs 
into the heart of the town. 

II m. 8t. Clears,* a little port on 
the T^v, at its confluence with the 
Gywin. The site of the castle is 
marked by a tumulus. 

[3^ m. 1. is Llaughame (p. 28)]. 

1 J m. rt. Llandowror. 

116 m. Whitland Stat. 2 m. rt. 
is Whitland Abbey, the seat of 
the Hon. W. Yelverton, who has 
erected a modem house on the site 
of Alba Lauda. This monastic 
house was founded about the 5th 
centy. by Paulinus, and was after- 
wards occupied by the Cistercians. 
But little remains of the ancient 
building, save some portions of 
clustered pillars. The situation on 
the Tav is extremely pretty. 

* St. Clears obtained a notoriety in 1843 
as being the head-quarters of the Rebecca 
rioters, who, for more than a year, kept Car- 
marlhenshlre in perpetual hot water with 
their determined attempts to destroy all the 
turnpike gates. 



\ 



30 



Rovie 1. — Saundersfoot — TerAy. S. Wales. 



122 m. Na/rherOi Boad. The 
Precelly Hills form a fine back- 
ground to the landscape on the rt. 

Conveyances— Coaches to Tenby, 
13; Cardigan, 18. 

The road from hence to Tenby 
is over very high ground— in some 
parts bleak, and in others sheltered 
and wooded. 

3^ m. Narherth (Inn: Eutzen 
Arms), a small town placed on the 
slope of a hill, and on the bank of a 
little stream which joins the E. 
Cleddau. 

Not much remains of the Castle, 
which was built by Sir Andrew 
Perrott on the introduction of the 
Normans into Pembrokeshire, and 
afterwards given by Henry VIH. to 
Sir Rhys ap Thomas. 

At Llanddewi and Llampeter Vel- 
frey, 2 m. 1. of Narberth, " the schists 
and dark roofing slates of the 
Precelly hills have graduated into 
calcareous flags (Llandeilo flags), 
which here bear thick argilla- 
ceous subcrystalline dark-grey rocks, 
traversed by veins of white calc 
spar, and constituting fine masses of 
lunestone, which are largely worked 
for lime — the only Silurian rocks in 
Wales used for such a purpose." — 
{Silv/ria.) Some good fossils can be 
obtained in a quarry at Boheston 
Wathen, 1^ m. rt. of Narberth. 

A little farther on are the ruins 
of Llawhavoden Castle, on an emi- 
nence overlooking the Cleddau. 
The principal remains are a noble 
gateway, with a bold roimd arch 
flanked by 2 towers of great strength, 
with open buttresses. There are 
other octagonal towers and some 
trefoil lancet-headed windows. It 
was in fact the castellated episcopal 
residence of the Bp. of St. David's, 
which gave rise to the saying, " that 
when he was at St. David's he was 
a bishop — at Llawhawden a baron 
— and at Llamphey a country gen- 
tleman." This residence was spoilt 
by Bishop Barlow (Rte. 11), who, 
bent on enriching himself " per fas et 



nefas," stripped all the lead away. 
The church contains a monument 
of Bishop Houghton, 1388. 

4 J m. Tem'pMon^ a village formerly 
belonging to the Blnights Templars. 

7^ Begelly. On 1. the seat of J, 
Child, iJsq. The appearance of pits 
in the neighbourhood of Begelly 
Common indicate that the traveller 
has come upon the coal or culm 
beds of the Pembrokeshire basin, 
which is exceedingly contorted and 
disturbed. 

10^ m. a branch-road to 1. leads to 
Saundersfoot {Inn: Picton Castle), 
a small port, where a considerable 
amount of coal is shipped, and 
iron ore, principally from the Bon« 
ville's Court and Kilgetty mines. 
The scenery is diversified and beau- 
tiful ; the coast is rocky and bold ; 
while the cliffs are frequently wood- 
ed to their very edge. On the high 
ground above SaimdOTsfoot is Hen 
Castle (E. Wilson, Esq.). 

p?he pedestrian may follow the 
tramroad to Kilgetty, thence to 
Amroth and Marreos, the church- 
tower of which is a well-known 
landmark at sea. 

The road continues to Green" 
bridge, where the river vanishes 
through a cavern and reappears at 
Pendine, a small bathing-place to 
the rt. Prom hence along the 
coast to Llaughame (p. 28) is a 
pretty walk.] 

13| m. From the high ground 
graceftd Tenby appears, rising like a 
gem from the sea, affbrding a beau* 
tiful contrast to the bleak coimtry 
behind. 

Hotels : Coburg, Gatehouse, White 
Lion (all tolerable, except in the 
matter of attendance, which is bad). 
Conveyances: Coaches to Pater to 
meet the S. Wales Railway at New 
Milford (p. 38) ; also to Narberth- 
road Station. Steamers to Bristol, 
Carmarthen, and Ilfracombe. 

Tenby is beautifully situated on 
the summit and sides of a peninsula, 
bounded by steep rocks which form 



S. Wales, 



Eoute 1. — Tenln/* 



31 



a lofty basement to the town, over- 
looking the bay of Carmarthen, into 
which a rocky promontory stretches 
ont, crowned by the ruins of the 
Castle. Of late years it has extreme- 
ly improved, and may now rank as 
one of the best and most fashionable 
watering-places in Wales, much re- 
sorted to on account of its salubrity 
and the excellent bathing upon its 
fine, smooth, and extensive sands. 
The season lasts from June to the 
end of Oct., though each year in- 
creases the number of winter resi- 
dents, who are attracted by the mild- 
ness of the climate. Lodgings are 
plentiful and afford good accommo- 
dation, the best being situated in 
the Norton, Croft, Lexden, and Bel- 
mont Terraces. 

As a commercial town Tenby has 
declined, though in the reign of 
Henry Vllt. it was a flourishing 
place, **very wealthy by merchan- 
dise." It contains a considerable part 
of its ancient walls, embattled and 
pierced with loopholes, together with 
flanking towers and one gate, de- 
fended by a semicircular bastion on 
arches, which was probably erected 
when the walls were repaired (1588), 
on the alarm of the approach of the 
Spanish Armada. Although the 
Welsh name Dynbych y Pyscoed — 
" the precipice of fishes " — implies 
that it was long ago a fishing vil- 
lage, its origin is ascribed to the 
colony of Flemish clothiers, driven 
by inimdation from their own coasts, 
who settled here in the reign of 
Henry I. and introduced a perma- 
nent spirit of commercial enterprise. 

The Castle, which stands on the 
peninsula, served as an asylum for 
Henry of Kichmond, while a child, 
under the protection of Jasper Earl 
of Pembroke, until he could embark 
here and escape to Brittany, which 
he did by the help of White, a 
wealthy Tenby merchant, who land- 
ed there safely. The only portions 
which remain are, the keep or watch- 
tower, some parts of the walls, and 



the main entrance gateway. Walks 
have been formed on the Castle Hill» 
and from this elevated terrace a 
charming view is presented of Car- 
marthenshire, its rocky headlands 
and sweeping bay ; ofthe distant isle 
of Caldy ; and, further out to sea, 
that of Limdy ; while, directly oppo- 
site, the Worm's Head stands out in 
bold relief, with the embouchure of 
the Burry river and the smoke of 
Llanelly to the 1. ; on the S. the 
scene is closed by Giltar Point. 

At the extremity of the Castle 
Promontory rises St. Cafherines 
Eock, isolated by the sea at high 
water, but approachable across the 
sands at low tide. Its inclined fo- 
liated strata have been perforated 
through and through by the action 
of the waves, formiug a marine ca- 
vern. There are many others, aris- 
ing from this cause, all along the 
coast, some of them extremely cu- 
rious and picturesque. 

The Churchy conspicuous from far 
and near from its elevated spire, 
which serves as a landmark far out 
to sea, was built 1250, and is chiefly 
in the E. E. and Perp, style. The 
principal objects of interest in it are 
the singular form ofthe W. doorway ; 
the chancel, which leads to an alter 
by a handsome flight of steps, and is 
decorated with a wooden roof, cradle- 
shaped, and furnished with curiously 
carved bosses. It is rich in sepul- 
chral monuments, the most remark- 
able being a marble effigy of a ske- 
leton in a recess, and that to the 
memory of the Whites, rich mer- 
chants when Tenby was a flourishing 
port. One of these was mayor when 
Henry of Bichmond embarked, and 
received from him when king a lease 
of the crown lands in the vicinity as 
a reward for past services. This 
monimient is of marble and bears 
two reclining figures, habited in the 
costume of their calling, and some 
bas-reliefs. There is also a kneel- 
ing figure in memory of Wm. Bisam, 
1633, and a tombstone to Walter 



32 



JRoute 1. — Penally, — Manorheer, S, Wales. 



Vaughan of Dunrayen Castle, of 
wrecking notoriety. 

Slight remains of a Carmelite 
house exist opposite the ch. Tenby 
is a cheap and pleasant place of re- 
sidence, particularly to those who 
take pleasure in scenery, geology, 
or natural history. The lover of 
marine fauna will find ample occu- 
pation by the sea-shore, for Tenby 
has been made famous by Mr. Gosse 
for the number and beauty of its 
actiniae and zoophyties; while the 
botanist will find a goodly list of 
ferns in the woods of Penally or 
Saundersfoot. The cliflfe, which con- 
sist of carboniferous limestone, and 
form the southern border of the 
Pembrokeshire coal-field, have been 
much contorted in various places. 
In the limestone of Caldy crinoids 
are abundant, while the upper beds 
of Giltar Point are full of pro- 
ductsB. The old red underlies the 
limestone of Caldy, and the line of 
junction can be well traced from 
thence to Skrinkle Bay between 
Lydstep and Manorbeer. 

The Eidgeway, a high groimd 
rising E. and W. between Tenby and 
Pembroke, consists of an uprise of 
old red flanked on each side by 
limestone. 

From observations made by Mr. 
Mason, the spirited and intelligent 
librarian, the coast appears to have 
undergone considerable changes of 
level, particularly in the neighbour- 
hood of Amroth Castle ; and it is 
evident that -the sea within recent 
times occupied the valley leading to 
the village of St. Florence. 

[A very charming excursion can 
be made to Pembroke by the coast, 
returning by the direct road. Pass- 
ing the Marsh Bridge over the Bitec 
is, 1 m. pn rt., Hoyle's Mouth, a cu- 
rious cave, which nms into the lime- 
stone for 159 ft. It is, in fact, a 
series of caves connected by narrow 
passages. 

2 m. the (juiet little village of 
JPemiUy, with its church embowered 



in trees. It possesses a nave and 
transept with a good stone- vaulted 
roof, and an altar-tomb to William 
de Eaynoor, 13th centy. There is a 
cross in the churchyard. Penally, 
according to the legend, is one of 
the three places honoured by being 
the receptacle of St. Teilo's bones 
(p. 10). The view to the 1. of Caldy 
Island is fine. This island is about 
1 m. long by J m. broad, and con- 
nected with it at low water is the 
Isle of St. Margaret ; on the former 
are a lighthouse and the residence of 
C. Kynaston, Esq., lord of the manor ; 
and in the S. wall of the chapel is 
an inscribed stone to the memory of 
Catuoconus. Boats can be obtained 
at Tenby for the excursion to Caldy. 

4 m. 1. the village of Lydstep, and 
some beautiful caves on the coast, 
only to be visited at certain times of 
the tide, duly mentioned in the 
'Tenby Observer.' The whole of 
the coast scenery from Proud Giltar 
to Lydstep is very grand. 

6 m. Manorbeer Castle, of which 
the ruins are extensive and almost 
unaltered save by the destroying 
effects of time, and present a good 
example of a feudal fortress upon a 
commanding site, frowning down 
upon the coast below. A lofty em- 
battled wall, pierced with loopholes 
and retaining part of its ramparts 
within, surrounds the whole. The 
entrance gateway, originally ap- 
proached by a fortress and draw- 
bridge, has lost one of its flanking 
towers. The moat remains, and 
there are grooves for two portcul- 
lises within the circular gate. The 
windows of the domestic apartments 
as usual face inwards. In the lodging 
part of the castle stands the great 
hall with a simply vaulted roof. 
Taken as a whole, " it seems to have 
been constructed by the family to 
whom it belonged more with a view 
to convenience and safety than with 
any vain object of an enormous dis- 
play of feudal power." — E. A, F. 
Manorbeer was in 1146 the birth- 



S. Wales. Bauie 1. — Chmton. — St, OowcsrCs Head, 



33 



place of Giiald de Barri, better 
known as G^iraldiis Oambreneds, who 
flourished in the latter part of the 
12tii and beginning of the 13th cen- 
turies, and was author of an Itine- 
rary or Description of Wales, com- 
piled while attending Baldwin 
Archbishop of Canterbury on his 
nussion to preach the Crusades 
"^amongst the Welsh. 

He has left a flaming description 
of his native place, its flsh-ponds, 
its vineyards, its hazel-groves, and 
other attractions, rendering it in his 
estimation *' the pleasantest spot in 
Wales," but contrasting singularly 
at present with the desolate ruins 
and miserable village. 

The church is one of the mcytt sin- 
gular in the county. The tower is 
placed on the N. side, in the angle 
of the chancel and transept. " The 
principal notion conveyea is one of 
the wildest irregularity and inco- 
herency among t£e several parts — 
the tower, the attached N. transept, 
the quaint N. aisle, are all thrown 
together apparently without any 
further connexion.** In the interior 
the arches are very curious, rising 
from square piers without capitcd 
or impost. The vaults of the nave, 
S. "aisle, and transept are worth 
notice, as is also a tomb of the 
De Barris. 

On the cliffs at the bottom of the 
cove are a cromlech, and two or three 
remarkable Assures in the old red 
sandstone about 100 ft. in depth. 

7 m. from Manorbeer is StacfgMie 
Court, the seat of the Earl of Caw- 
dor, lord lieut. of the county ; a 
large mansion built of dark-blue 
limestone, on a height overlooking 
a narrow valley, which is occupied 
by the waters of a creek running up 
from Broadhaven, which is here 
crossed by a bridge. The house 
contains a few good pictures, in- 
cluding an Albert Durer and a por- 
trait or Lord Cawdor by Sir Joshua 
Reynolds. By the side of the stair- 
case in the hall are ranged the mus- 



kets which were taken by the Pem- 
brokeshire militia from uie French, 
who landed at Fishguard. On the 
side next the lake is a noble terrace. 
The groimds and gardens are highly 
picturesque, and a peculiar feati^e is 
the luxuriant growth of the exten- 
sive woods which cover the sides of 
the valleys down to the water's 
edge ; as fine timber is scarcely to 
be met with elsewhere, owing to the 
constant force of the sea blasts. 

In the church of Cheriton, which, 
like all the others on Lord Cawdor's 
estate, has recently been restored at 
his expense, is a recumbent figure 
of a cross-legged 'knight in armour 
lying beneath a sculptured canopv. 
It represents Sir EUdur de Stack- 
pole, the reputed founder of the 
church, who assumed the cross at 
the appeal of Archbp. Baldwin. 

On the coast near Stackpole is a 
fine cave. The clifEs in the neigh- 
bourhood and all the way to Linney 
Head are remarkable for the extra- 
ordinarily contorted strata of tiie 
limestone, but the grandest scen- 
ery is exhibited near St. Oovoam't 
Head, which rises to a height of 
160 ft. above the sea, and is tra- 
versed by a narrow and deep fissure, 
hemmed in by a precipice of lime- 
stone on either side, acce^ble by a 
flight of rude steps, which it is said 
cannot* be counted twice without 
missing. The chapel of St. Go wan is 
built across the chasm, consisting of 
a rude and dilapidated ceU. That 
holy anchorite ^ho is supposed by 
some to be the knight Sir Gkiwaine, 
of Arthur's Bound Table) spent his 
latter days in this remote ceU, con- 
ferring by his prayers and sanctity 
of life a blessing on various objecte 
around. Within the hermit's sanc- 
tum is " the wishing place,'' a fissure 
in the rock just large enough to 
hold one person. Whoever seated 
in this rock repeats his wish therein 
with full faith, turning him or her- 
self round each time he utters it, 
will before tiie year is out have tha 



34 



Rovie 1. — Bosheston Mere. — Pembroke. S. Wales. 



desire aceomplislied. According to 
the tradition, St. Gowan was con- 
cealed in this recess, which closed 
over him to secure him from his 
enemies, and again opened when 
they had passed. A little below the 
chapel is St. Gowan's well, whither 
patients even of the upper classes 
sometimes repair to drink of the not 
very clear stream, which is supposed 
to be imbued with miraculous vir- 
tues. But the healing influence of 
the saint's prayers attaches itself 
most to a deposit of red clay occu- 
pying an angle of the cliffy derived 
from the decomposition of the rock. 
" The lame and blind pilgrims are 
still conveyed by their niends down 
the rude steps chiselled by the holy 
man, and, after being anointed with 
a poultice formed of the moist clay, 
are left there for several hours to 
bask under the summer's sun." — 
Murchison. 

A little further to theW. is a still 
narrower and very deep fissure, 
rising up from the sea, but whose 
sides nearly meet above, called the 
Huntsman's Leap, from a story of 
two persons who leapt over it with 
their horses at full speed. 

Further to the W. is Bosheston 
Mere, a very small aperture, which, 
like a winding funnel, gradually 
widens below until it spreads out 
into an extensive vault opening to 
the sea. During the prevalence of 

fales from the S.W., the sea, driven 
y wind and tide into the cave, is 
ejected through the upper hole in 
jets 40 or 50 ft. above the ground, 
like the spouts of the Geysers. The 
cause of this phenomenon is pro- 
bably the quantity of air driven into 
these vaults along with the water, 
until, being surcharged, the pressure 
from wit\iout of wave heaped upon 
wave ejects air and water from the 
aperture with the impetus of a forc- 
ing'piunp. The arches and fissures 
into which the rock is hollowed by 
the effects of the surge, as well as 
the contortions of l£e limestone 



strata, are well seen in BuUslaughter 
Bay, where there are some splendid 
caverns. Between this bay and the 
Stack Bocks is a magnificent black 
caldron, formed of precipitous rock, 
with a noble natural arch opening 
out, through which the sea boils into 
the caldron. The cliff is almost 
severed by deep fissures from the 
land. The Stacks are two lofty 
rocks detached from the coast from 
time immemorial, the favourite 
haunt of sea-fowl, which, especially in 
the months of Jime and July, resort 
hither in myriads to build. Tliey 
chiefly consist of a species of auk 
{Alca torda, Linn.), here called 
eligug, and are in such numbers that 
it is scarcely possible to distinguish 
the rock, so closely do the young 
birds sit upon it. The clouds of 
winged creatures hovering around 
this spot, and the discordant cries 
with which they fill the air, add 
much to the singular effect of the 
scene. Beyond the Stacks the sea 
has worn the rocks into two re-: 
markably lofty arches, leaning like 
flying buttresses against the cliffs, 
whose height must here exceed 150 
ft., and it is really fearful and dizzy 
to look down on the foaming sea 
below. 

From hence to Pembroke the 
road leaves the coast, parsing on 1. 
the Chapel of Fhmston ; and 3 m. 
Warren Church is placed on an emi- 
nence, ^m.rt. is StTwinnell's, on the 
same commanding ridge of hill; and 
1 m. 1. that of Castle Martin, which 
gives its name to the hundred, cele- 
brated for its breed of black cattle. 
Passing on the rt. Orielton, lately the 
magnificent seat of the Owen family, 
the tourist arrives at.Pemferofce, 9 m. 
from Stack Bocks. {Hotel : Golden 
Lion.) Distances : —Tenby 10 m., Pa- 
ter 2, Milford 7, Haverfordwest 14. 

The old town of Pembroke, con- 
sisting mainly of one single street, 
occupies a ridge projecting into one 
of the nimierous pills or creeks 
branching out from the harbour of 



S, Wales. 



Boute 1. — Pembroke. 



35 



Milford Haven, ** which about a mile 
beyond the town creketh in so that 
it ahuost peninsolateth the town, 
that standeth on a very main rokki 
ground.'* — Leland. It is an ex- 
faremely dull unassuming town, 
though the chief in the county, con- 
taining nearly 9000 Inhab. ; but it 
is recommended to travellers by the 
objects of interest in its vicinity, and 
by its extensive ruined castle, placed 
on the extremity oi the ridge on 
which the town is built, and standing 
forth "^on a promontory washed on 
either side by the arms of a salt- 
XTater inlet, over both of which 
bridges are thrown. 

It is not seen to such advantage 
at low water, as the receding tide 
leaves bare unsightly banks. Its 
outer defences, and especially its 
main gateway, show in their breaches ' 
and shattered tower the eflfects of 
Cromwell's attack in the memorable 
sioge which he partly conducted in 
person. This castle was very large 
and 'strong and doubly warded ; the 
outer ward is now a green meswiow 
hemmed in by walls and towers 
partly overgrown. The stone roof 
of one of them is shattered and its 
walls fissured. Here Leland was 
shown the chamber where Henry 
Vn. was bom, 1457, marked by a 
chimney bearing his arms : but the 
room now usually pointed out as the 
place of his birth is in the inner 
court, on the 1. and to the N. of the 
round tower. His mother Catherine 
Beaufort, the last legitimate de- 
scendant of John of G^unt by 
Catherine Swynford, took refuge 
here from the persecution of the 
Yorkists soon after the battle of 
Tewkesbury. Henry of Bichmond 
while still a child was conveyed by 
his mother, and his uncle Jasper 
Earl of Pembroke, to France, and 
remained a fugitive there from the 
time he was five years old. Within 
the inner court is the chapel, having 
pointed arches. A passage, now 
stopped up, led from this point to 



the castle to a very large cave, 
called the Wogan (Welsh, Ogof), in 
the limestone which forms the base- 
ment. The communication was by 
a wooden staircase now removed, 
but the cave, may be entered from 
the outside. It probably served as 
a salljrport. Some have supposed 
that the garrison drew their supply 
of water from a spring or reservoir 
within it, and that in the siege be- 
fore alluded to the reduction of the 
place was principally effected by 
the enemy having found the cave, 
broken down the staircase, and thus 
cut off the supply of water. The 
principal buildmg in the inner court 
is the keep, a circular tower 75 ft. 
high and 163 ft. in circumference, 
of 5 stages, gradually diminishing 
upwards, having walls 17 ft. thick 
below and 14 ft. above, the whole 
surmounted by a cone-shaped roof of 
masonry and still perfect. It is 
accessible by a winding stair ren- 
dered difficult from the stones being 
broken, the only assistance being by 
a rope that dangles from the top, so 
that a false step would be serious. 
There is a narrow path outside the 
walls above the waterside bv which 
the Wogan cave can be reached. A 
legend states that it is connected by 
a subterranean passage with Hoyle's 
Mouth at Tenby, but imfortunately 
the interposition of the old red 
sandstone renders it impossible. 
The siege referred to occurred in 
1648, when the revolted Parliamen- 
tarian officers, Col. Llaughame, with 
Powell and Poyer, mayor of the 
town and governor of the castle, 
having been defeated at the battle 
of St. Fagan's, retired hither with 
the remnant of the force which had 
so ineffectually proclaimed the royal 
cause. They entered tlie castle 
May 8th, 1648, and Cromwell in 
person following close after them 
appeared before the walls on May 
2l8t, and, receiving a refusal to his 
summons of surrender, " assembled 
his corps after sunset, when the 



36 



Eoute 1. — Lamphey. — ffavetforckoest, S. Wales. 



fanatical Hugh Peters foretold that 
the ramparts of Pembroke, like 
those of Jericho, would fall before 
the army of the living Grod. From 
prayer and service the men hastened 
to tifie assault — the ditch was passed, 
the walls scaled; but they fotind 
the garrison at its post, and after a 
shoil but sanguinary contest Crom- 
well ordered the retreat." — Lingard. 
After a regular siege of six weeks, 
the fortress was at length gained 
for the Parliament. The three 
commanders, having been tried by 
a court-martial, were condemned to 
be shot, but the sentence was exe- 
cuted upon one only, by lots drawn 
by a young child, the prisoners 
being im willing to trust their fates 
to themselves. Two of the lots 
were numbered "Life given by 
God," and the third, left blank, fell 
to Poyer, who was shot in Oovent 
Garden, 1649. 

The antiquary will find interest 
in visiting the remains of the Priory 
Church of Mpnkton, an ancient Norm, 
edifice, possessing a vaulted nave 
and 2 blocked incipient geometrical 
windows. The choir is roofless and 
is merely " a Dec. parochial chancel 
on a large scale." There are 2 
churches in Pembroke, one of which, 
St. Mary's, is remarkable for its mas- 
sive steeple. 

The excursion to Stack Bocks, 
9 m., and St. Gtowan's Chapel, 13 m., 
can be undertaken from here. 

2 m. N.W. of the town is Pem- 
broke Dock or Pater (p. 38). 2 m. 
on the Tenby road are the ruins 
of Lamphey (Llan Fydd),the Ch. of 
St. Faith, once the palace of the 
Bp. of St. David* s, now enclosed 
within the garden of Lamphey Court, 
the modem mansion of Mr. Matthias, 
by whom the remains are studiously 
preserved. They consist of part of 
a chapel with a fine E. window of 
Perp. style, and the great hall ad- 
joining, a long vaulted building, 
having a staircase outside, leading 
to what was probably the dormitory. 



Its walls are surmounted by a para- 
pet raised upon an open arcade, like 
the castle of Swansea, and it is sup- 
posed also to have been built by 
Bp. Gower, 1335.* A similar arcade 
is seen aroimd an isolated tower now 
standing in the midst of the kitehen 
garden, shrouded with ivy ; its use, 
except for ornament, is dubious. The 
whole edifice was surroimded by de- 
fensive walls ; it stands in the bottom 
of a valley, and is thus sheltered 
from the sea wind which sweeps this 
country, shrinking the growth of 
trees and giving a bare character to 
the landscape. The episcopal estate 
of Lamphey was alienated to the 
crown in the reign of Henry VHI., 
who bestowed it on Devereux, Vis- 
count Hereford. His son the Earl 
of Essex, the unfortunate fetvourite 
of Queen Elizabeth, spent many years 
of his youth at Lamphey Palace. 

1 m. rt. Hodgeston Church, re- 
markable for a very slender steeple, 
a Dec. chancel of great beauty con- 
taining some richly canopied sedilia, 
and a double piscina. ^ 

The road to Tenby runs for the 
greater part of the way along the ele- 
vated Bidgeway, commanding exten- 
sive views of the country on each side. 
At the 4th m. a detour can be made 
to Carew Castle, 2 m. 1. (p. 39). 

6 m. On 1. } m. is St. Florence, to 
which the sea reached within the 
memory of man, showing therefore 
that the level of the vale must have 
risen. The church is an excellent 
specimen of the local Pembroke- 
shire type. This road rejoins the 
coast-road at Penally.] 

129 m. Clarbeston Boad. From 
hence the line is carried through a 
more picturesque part of the country, 
as it follows the circuitous windings 
of the Cartlett brook to Haverford- 
west, 134 m. (Bte. 11) (JHbteZ; Cas- 
tle), which is finely placed on a hill 
overlooking the waters of the western 

* It is the opinion of some antiquaries that 
the arcade was the only portion of Gower^s 
work. 



S. Wai£b. 



Baaie 1. — MUford Haven, 



87 



Cleddan. It is a clean, well-built 
town, and presents an appearance of 
liyelkiess, partly owing to its excel- 
lentmarkets, andpartly to the number 
of persons who have made it their 
resLdence from motives of retirement 
and economy. Little remains of the 
castle except the keep, which is oc- 
cnpied by -the connty gaol ; but St. 
Mary's Church is one of the finest 
in S. Wales and should not be for- 
gotten by the visitor. It possesses 
a clerestory, an unusual feature in 
Welsh churches. The nave is re- 
markable for the beauty of its roof 
carving, and is separated from the 
side aisle by pointed Gurches resting 
upon clustered pillars, with sculp- 
tured capitals. A lofly arch sepa- 
rates the nave from the chancel, 
which has a very finely-traced E. 
window. Indeed, each window de- 
serves careful notice. 

St. Martin's Church appears to 
have been an appendage to the 
castle. 

Conveyances : — Omnibus to St. Da- 
vid's, 16 m., on Tuesdays and Satur- 
days ; Fishguard, 14 m., 3 times a 
week ; Newport, do. 

5 m. to E. is Picton Castle (the 
seat of Eev. J. H. Phillips), strik- 
ingly placed, a little above Ihe con- 
fluence of the 2 Cleddaus, which 
are here of considerable breadth. 
The ancient castle was besieged 
during the civil war, when under 
the care of Sir Bichard Phillips. 

Close to Picton is the fine demesne 
of Slebech (Baron.de Butzen), where 
is still preserved a sword used at the 
installation of the Knights of St. 
John. 

In the county of Pembroke, as 
&r N. as Haverfordwest, the Welsh 
language is not spoken ; its inhabit- 
ant^ like those of Gower, being 
supposed to be the descendaiits of a 
colony of Flemings, who, driven from 
their own country by a fearful in- 
undation caused by a rupture of the 
sea-dykes (1105), were settled here 
by Hen. I., along with the Norman 



conquerors of the country. On the 
accession of Hen. II. the settlement 
was reinforced by the Flemish mer- 
cenaries who had served under 
Stephen, and were banished hither 
by the new king. Engaged in con- 
stant feuds and open warfare with 
their Welsh neighbours, they re- 
tained their own manners and 
customs as well as language for ages, 
and it is remarkable that the line 
which divides the English and Welsh 
Janguages is distinct and defined. 
The cottages of the peasants an^ 
frequently built of mud, and display 
peculiarities of structiure supposed 
to be derived from their Flemish 
ancestors. 

139 m. Milford Bead Stat., from 
which Milford is 3 m. on the rt. A 
branch line .is being constructed to 
it (Hotel : Lord Nelson.) Milford 
is splendidly situated on the rt side 
of the Haven, about 6 m. from its 
mouth, between two small creeks 
opposite an anchors^e called the 
Man-of-War Bead. It was entirely 
the creation of Hon. C. F. GreviUe, 
who inherited the property from his 
uncle. Sir W. Hamilton, the British 
Envoy at the court of Naples, and 
the portion that is finished consists 
of 3 parallel streets ranged along 
the hillside, commanding fine views 
of the harbour. It has ^en now for 
years a dull desolate place, extin- 
guished by the removal of the Boyal 
Dockyard in 1811, followed by that 
of the Irish Post-office and packet 
establishment, by which trade was 
reduced to stagnation, and many 
houses shut up. A brighter future, 
however, is dawning upon it : the 
imequalled capabilities of the Bbven 
are again being recognised. A well- 
appointed service of Irish as well aa 
Brazilian steamers has been started 
from the terminus of the S. Wales 
Bailway, and a short time will see 
the great chain of railway communi- 
cation completed between Man- 
chester and the northern manufac- 
turing districts, a few short links 



88 



Route 1. — Neyland, — Pater. 



S. Wales. 



only being wanting. As a harbour, 
Milford Haven has not its equal in 
the whole world ; for it is capable 
of anchoring in safety the entire 
fleet of England. There is a hand- 
some ch. erected in the town by 
Mr. Greville, on a spot which was 
designed to be the centre. It con- 
tains a vase of red Egyptian por- 
phyry, brought to this country by 
Dr. Pococke, and inscribed to the 
memory of Nelson ; it was intended 
to serve as a font, but was pro- 
nounced too heathenish. There is 
also the twisted vane of the main- 
mast of the French admiral's ship, 
L'Orient, blown up at the battle of 
the Nile. 

The estuary of Milford Haven 
stretches for 10 m. inland, varying in 
breadth from 1 to 2 m., having 5 bays, 
10 creeks, and IB roadsteads affording 
anchorage to the largest first-rate. 
The tide, passing up through its 
ramifications into the very heart of 
the county, washes the towns of Pem- 
broke and Haverfordwest, situated 
-at the extremity of two of its forks. 
It is well sheltered from storms by 
undulating hills around, but, very 
destitute of trees, and only scantily 
clad with vegetation, they present a 
desolate rather than a picturesque 
aepect. A vessel may safely run in 
without anchor or cable, as there are 
from 15 to 19 fcithoms of water in 
most parts. Its importance was ap- 
preciated at an early period, and is 
attested by historical events which 
have occurred here. From Milford 
HAven the fleet of Hen. II. set out 
to conquer Ireland, and here the 
French invading army, 12,000 strong, 
sent over to co-operate with Owen 
Glendower against Hen. IV., effected 
their landing. Here Henry, the Earl 
of Bichmond, afterwards Hen. VH., 
disembarked with a scanty retinue of 
followers from Brittany ; but being 
received with open arms by Sir Bhys 
ap Thomas, and a chosen body of 
Welsh troops under his command, 
set forth to win a crown at Bosworth. 



Fortiflcations have recently been 
added by the Grovemment at Popton 
Pt., South Hook Pt., Blockhouse 
Pt., Dale Pt., Stack Bock, and 
Thorn Island. 

144 Neyland, or New Milford 
(JHotely South Wales, good), the ter- 
minus of the South Wales Bly., situ- 
ated directly opposite Pater and 
Hobbs Point. The railway runs 
down to the water's edge, where 
baggage and goods are transferred 
to the Irish steamers. The distance 
&om London is 285 m. A steamer 
conveys the traveller to Hobbs 
Point, formerly the point of departure 
for the Irish mails. 

To rt. is Pater, consisting of a 
modem settlement (of above 6000 
Inhab.), principally small artizans* 
houses, collected roimd the royal 
dockyard, which was established in 
1814 by liie side of the Haven, hav- 
ing deep water close by at most 
times of the tide. 

It occupies an area of 80 acres, 
surrounded by a high wall flanked 
by 2 martello towers. There are 12 
building-slips for vessels of all sizes, 
including first-rates and war-steam- 
ers, covered with sheds protected 
by roofs of iron. There is also a 
dry-dock for the reception and re- 
pair of first-rates. Pembroke is es- 
sentially a building-yard, and the 
stores here are limited to enormous 
stacks of timber of various kinds — 
oak, deal, and larch. The Nasmyth 
steam-hammer and saw-mill are par- 
ticularly worth notice. As it is not 
a fitting-dock, the vessels when ready 
are towed round to Devonport or 
Portsmouth to be finished. The 
dock is defended by a fort to the 
W., which mounts 24 guns, and by 
the 2 martello towers, which each 
moimt 3. Large barracks have also 
been erected on the hill above, and 
there is a hut-encampment at Hobbs 
Point. 

The yard is shown on application, 
except at the dinner-hour between 
12 and 2. 



S. Wales. 



Eaute 1. — Carew* 



89 



Coaches ran 3 or 4 times daily 
between Pembroke Dock and Tenby, 
11 m., for which passengers are 
booked through at reduced rates 
from Paddington or any station on 
the line. A railway between Pem- 
broke Dock and Tenby is in con- 
templation. 

2 m^l. the pretty church and yU- 
lage of Cosheston. 

3 m. 1. Paskeston (N. Boch, 
Esq.). 

5 m. Carew, celebrated for its ex- 
tensive ruined castle (called locally 
"Carey Castle"), which lies to the 
1. of the road, placed on a slight 
eminence above one of the creeks of 
Milford Haven, which washes its 
base on two sides. In. the village 
stands a very ancient and beautiful 
cross, of a single shaft, H ft. high, 
probably Saxon or Danish, covered 
with Bunic carvings, traces of an in- 
scription no longer legible. A bar- 
bican or outwork, much shattered 
and shrouded with ivy, leads to the 
principal gate of the castle. The 
princes of South Wales are believed 
to have had a fortress here, given 
by one of them, Sir Rhys ap Tewdr, 
with the dower and hand of his 
daughter, to the Norman baron Ge- 
rald de Windsor, Castellan of Pem- 
broke in the reign of Henry I. It 
is probable that some part of Ge- 
rald's castle exists on either side of 
the great gateway, that being de- 
cidedly the oldest part remaining. 
Within it stood the chapel. On the 
opposite side of the court, facing 
the gateway, are the state apart- 
ments, originally approached by a 
broad flight of steps leading to the 
great banqueting hall. Here Henry 
of Bichmond was received on his 
way to Bosworth by Sir Bhys ap 
Thomas, who then owned the castle 
and large estates in Carmarthen- 
shire. Bang Richard HI., suspecting, 
not without cause, that Sir Rhys 
had been intriguing with Bucking- 
ham, sent commissioners to him to 
administer the oath of allegiance, 



and to demand his son as an hostage. 
The Welshman readily took the oath, 
but instead of resigning his boy con- 
trived to satisfy the king with a 
letter, containing, among other as- 
surances of loyalty, a voluntary pro- 
testation that, "should any one iU- 
affected to the state dare to land in 
this part of Wales, where I have 
command, he must make his entrance 
over my body." When the Earl of 
Bichmond landed on Sir Rhys's do- 
main he is said to have quieted his 
conscience by lying down on his 
back, or placing himself under a 
bridge, while Richmond passed over. 

The inner face of the W. side of 
the castle court is the most modem 
of the whole, and said to have been 
built by Sir Rhys liimself in a rich 
form of late Perp. ; it proclaims, by 
the style of its architecture, that it 
was erected during the reign of the 
Tudors. It must have been a struc- 
ture of great magnificence, though 
now reduced to a mere shell, and 
its large, square, lantern-like win- 
dows are much dilapidated. This 
wing was evidently built without 
any view to defence, but it is con- 
nected with the round flanking 
towers of an earlier period, which 
occupy the angles of the edifice. 
The great hall is remarkable for the 
lofty porch which forms the en- 
trance. 

Carew church is decorated with a 
good Perp. tower. Not far from 
Carew, to the N., is Upton Castle, 
which possesses a gateway with a 
double arch, somewhat resembling 
Llawhawden, but on a smaller scale. 
9 m. on rt., close to the road, is 
Gumfreston Church, a good specimen 
of a Pembrokeshire church, with a 
baptistery and a beautifully deco- 
rated piscina, within which stands 
the sancte bell. 

11 m. Tenby (p. 30) is by this 
route 296 m. from London. 



FROM HEREFORD, BT ROSS AND 

MONMOUTH, TO CHEPSTOW- 

The Biver Wye, 

Hereford (Rte. 3) is quitted by 
the broad-gauge line connecting this 
city with Gloucester and the Great 
Western Railway. It runs in loving 
fellowship with the Wye as far as 
Boss, where the tourist has the choice 
of continuing his journey either by 
land or water. Soon after leaving 
the Barton Stat, it crosses the Wye 
at Eign, and passes, 2 m. on 1., Bo- 
therwds, the seat of C. T. Bodenham, 
Esq., an old-fashioned red brick 
house, built about the time of 
James L, who is said to have stopped 
here for a night and enjoyed the 
hospitality of Sir Hoger Bodenham. 
On the rt., and, indeed, partly tun- 
nelled under by the Bly., is Dinedor 
Hill, from whence a lovely view is 
obtained of the surrounding country, 
causing it to be a favourite summer's 
walk with the townsfolk of Hereford. 
On the summit is a Boman camp, 
supposed to be that of Ostorius Sca- 
pula. Soon after passing Botherwas, 
a fine range of hills backs up the 
landscape on the 1., gradually ap- 

? reaching the river towards tne S. 
'he villages of Mordiford and Foum- 
hope lie at the base of these hills, 
which are classic ground to the geo- 
logist. They are the outlying ridges 
of the great Silurian valley of ele- 
vation, of which Woolhope is the 
cenlare, and which has been the scene 
of a considerable portion of Sir Bo- 
derick Murchison's labours. The 
high grounds seen from the rly. are 
the upper Silurian beds, the dome 
of Garadoc sandstone being situated 
at some distance on the other side 
of them. The whole of this eleva- 
tion rises abruptly out of the old red 
sandstone, of which all the coimtry 
around Hereford is composed. 

4 m. rt. Holm Lacy House (Sir. E. 
F. Scudamore Stanhope, Bart.), one 



40 Route 2.— The Wye.— Hereford to Chepstow. S. Wales. 

ROUTE 2 ®^ ^® finest seats in the county. The 

building has 3 fronts with projecting 
wings, the N. and E. fronts being 
200 ft. in length, while the S. front 
is 150. In the interior are some 
splendid apartments, especially the 
saloon, which is decorated with beau- 
tifid wood-carvings by Grinling Gib- 
bons. There are also some mmily 
portraits, paintings by Holbein, Van- 
dyke, and Sir Peter Lely, and a head 
of Lord Strafford, copied in crayons 
from Vandyke by Pope. The gar- 
dens are extensive, and laid out in 
a similar plan to those at Hampton 
Court. The estate came into the 
possession of the Scudamore &mily 
in the reign of Edward III. by the 
marriage of Lady Clara Lacy with 
one of the memoers. The greater 
part of the mansion, however, is of 
comparatively modem date. Visitors 
are admitted on Tuesdays from 10 
A.M. to 1 P.M., during the months of 
July, August, and September. 

The Church, in the Norm, style, 
is situated near the river, and con- 
tains some family monuments, in- 
cluding one of the Duchess of Nor- 
folk, who died in 1820. 

4^ m. Holme Stat. A bridge has 
newly been erected over the Wye to 
accommodate the villages of Fown- 
hope and Mordiford. 

6 m. The line runs imder the 
BaUingham Hill, crosses the Wye, 
and again burrows underground, 
emerging into partial daylight be- 
tween the steep red-sandstone cut- 
tings of Fawley, 8 m.' 

3 m. rt. is Harewood, the seat of 
Sir Hungerford Hoskyns, Bart. A 
forest which once occupied this dis- 
trict contained the castle of Earl 
Athelwold, who was assassinated in 
968 by King Edgar. 

The line now crosses the Wye 
twice within a very short distance, 
and soon arrives at (12 m.) the pic- 
turesque town of Bo88 {HoteU : Bar- 
rett's Royal Hotel, very good, and 
commands an exouisite prospect ; and 
King's Head). The most prominent 



S. Wales. JRouie 2.r-'The Wye. — Boss. — Goodrich Court. 41 



featare in the view of the town is the 
church, a very fine one, the spire of 
which shoots upwards from amidst 
8ome lofty trees and forms a well- 
known landmark. It contains the 
tomb of John Kyrle, the " Man of 
Boss/* the subject of a poem by 
Pope. He was bom in 1637, in a 
house still existing, and devoted 
much time and labour in beautify- 
ing the churchyard and planting 
elms, two of which, being cut down 
by a. barbarous churchwarden, forced 
their way through the wall into the 
pew which he is said to have occu- 
pied. 

<* Whose causeway parts the vale with shady 
rows? 

Whose seats the weary traveller repose ? 

Who taught that heaven-directed spire to 
rise? 

'The Man of Boss,' each lisping babe re- 
plies." 

The town, which contains about 
3000 Inhab., stands on the top of a 
considerable precipice, upon the 
edge of which are the Boyal Hotel 
and the partially-restored ruins of 
the old castle, overlooking the wind- 
ings of the Wye. A house in Church 
Lane still exists in which Charles I. 
once slept. 

Conveyances : — Gloucester and 
Hereford by rail; to Monmouth 
coaches daily. 

Distances : — Gloucester 18 m. ; 
Monmouth lOJ ; Chepstow, by the 
Wye, 38. 

A public boat runs in summer from 
Boss to Goodrich, Monmouth, Tin- 
tern, and Chepstow daily. 

At Boss the traveller bids adieu 
to the locomotive, and journeys ei- 
ther by the turnpike-road or water ; 
in either case following a route pro- 
bably imrivalled for that peculiar 
style of scenic beauty that results 
from the mixture of rich and well- 
cultivated grass-land with abrupt 
cliffs, lofty hills, and woods descend- 
ing to the water's edge. At the 
bottom of the descent the Wye is 
crossed by an old bridge of 5 arches, 
defended by Wilton Castle, the shell 



of which remains as a picturesque 
ruin at the water's edge on the rt. 
It was destroyed in King Charles's 
time, and is now the property of 
Guy's Hospital. For about 3 m. the 
road runs close alongside of the river, 
affording good views of its graceful 
windings. At one point the pictur- 
esque spire and turrets of Goodrich 
Court are well seen, and beyond it 
the rugged outUne of Goodrich 
Castle, the last fortress except Pen- 
dennis which held out for the king. 
On the rt. of the road the cliff is 
prettily draped with wild brier and 
eglantine falling from above. 

15J Pencraig Court, commanding 
a fine view ; and J m. beyond, on the 
summit of the hill, is Goodrich Court, 
the seat of the Meyrick family, at 
the entrance of which is a handsome 
lodge with an Edwardian arch, drum 
towers, and high shingled roof. The 
house, a modem one, was built in 
the same Edwardian style by Sir 
Samuel Meyrick in 1828, to form 
a depository for his museum of 
curiosities, amongst which the arms 
and armour are unrivalled in any 
private collection in Europe. In the 
domestic apartments, which are not 
shown, are miniatures of Anne of 
Cleves and Henry VIII. by Holbein, 
and a portrait of Nell Gwyn by Lely. 
The same attention is paid to the 
arrangement of the antique fur- 
niture as to the exterior appearance 
of the mansion. Visitors are ad- 
mitted on the payment of one 
shilling. Separated by a dingle, and 
on an eminence to the 1., overhang- 
ing the river, is Goodrich Castle. 

18| m. Whitchurch, picturesquely 
situated in a deep hollow, with a 
small church by the river side. 

From thence the road ascends by 
the side of the Little Doward Hill, 
passing 20 m. on 1. the Leys, the 
charming seat of T. Booker Blake- 
more, Esq., situated on a steep slope 
at the bend of the Wye, and com- 
manding unrivalled views both up 
and down the river. 



42 



Eoute 2« — ColdweU Bocks, 



S. Wales, 



[The tourist by water from Boss | 
loses companionship with the road 
at Goodrich Court, and sails down 
the current of " devious Vaga," 
which indeed becomes so meander- 
ing, that the distance from hence to 
the Leys, which by road is only 4 m., 
is not much less than 12 by water. 
After pcwsing the Court, the beauti- 
ful situation of Goodrich CasUe at 
once arrests the attention. Ex- 
ternally the most striking feature 
of the ivy-clad ruins is the gate- 
way, showing beneath its arches the 
lofty window of the opposite tower. 
The plan of the castle was a paral- 
lelogram, flanked by round towers 
at the angles, and the entrance is 
carried tl&ough a narrow passage 
50 ft. long, con^ructed for a number 
of successive portcullises. On the 
W. side is the banqueting hall, and 
on the S., festooned with ivy and 
clematis, the keep, said to be Anglo- 
Saxon, and certainly the most an- 
cient part of the castle. A small 
fort, erected by one Gk)dric, seems 
to have been the origin of Goodrich, 
whose principal history however 
took place in the civil war, when it 
held out gallantly under Sir Richard 
Lingen for the king against a Parlia- 
mentary army under Col. Birch. 
The keep is said to have been built 
by one Macbeth, an Irish com- 
mander, as a ransom for himself and 
son, who were made prisoners in the 
fortress. 

From the S.W. window is a de- 
lightful view of the vale of the 
Wye, with Ross in the distance, 
backed up by the wooded outline 
of Penyard ffill ; in the foreground 
are Walford church and village, and 
on the rt. the woods of Bishopswood. 
In Goodrich church is preserved a 
chalice presented by Dean Swift, 
whose grandfather was the loyal 
vicar of the parish in the time of 
the rebellion. 

At Kerne Bridge, just above 
which on the rt. is a barn, the re- 
mains of Flcmesford Priory, a road 



crosses the river from Boss to Mon- 
mouth on the 1. bank, passing 
through the pretty village of Wal/ord. 

The scenery now becomes more 
diversified, the Wye flowing be- 
tween beautifully wooded hills. 
About J m. below the bridge on 
1. is the villa of Hazlehurst, and 
lower down Bishopsioood House 
(W. Partridge, Esq.). 

On a considerable eminence, the 
river winding with snakelike turn- 
ings on each side of it, is Courtfield 
(Col. Vaughan), occupying the site 
of a house of the Coimtess of Salis- 
bury, where Henry V. is said to 
have been nursed; and in WeUh 
Bicknor Church, on the rt. bank, is 
a monumental efSgy supposed to 
have been that of the king's nurse, 
but declared by the late Sir Samuel 
Meyrick to be of the time of Ed- 
ward I. 

From LydbrooJc, on the 1. bank, 
nearly opposite Courtfield, a tram- 
road runs into the Forest of Dean, for 
the conveyance of coal and minerals. 

Dropping down the stream, the 
tourist next arrives at ColdweU 
Bocks, which present a combination 
of river scenery as fine as any in 
Britain. The rt. bank is guarded 
by a range of high precipitous lime- 
stone rocks, overhung with under- 
wood and traversed by deep gullies, 
while on the opposite side the de- 
licious hill of Rosemary Topping 
aflbrds a magnificent and beautiful 
contrast. At the termination of 
this range of crags the Wye takes 
a sudden bend and a sweep of such 
imexpected length, that the dis- 
tance across the neck of the penin- 
sula, where the tourist can rejoin 
the river, is only 600 yards, while 
its windings extend for more than 
4 m. To save time, the visitor 
is recommended to send the boat 
round by Huntsham (where there 
is a ferry, granted by Honry IV. 
to the family who still hold it in 
possession) and Whitchurch, and as- 
cend **8ymond'8 Tatt or Gate, a high 



8. Walks. 



'Boute 2. — MomamofuJUh. 



43 



Wit ooonpying fhe interval between 
the bend. From the summit a view 
18 gained nnriyalled for beauty and 
variety. On the rt. are the romantic 
rnins of Goldwell, with the river 
running in a deep gorge below ; on 
fhe L is another reach at New Weir, 
hemmed in by the steep sides of the 
Great Dowaid, while in the distance 
tiie eye ranges over the villages, 
woods, and hills, for miles and 
miles. The two river scenes on 
each side ahnost bewilder the spec- 
tator, who is fairly puzzled to make 
ont its course, and it almost seems 
as if some Colossus could sit on the 
hill with a foot in the stream on 
each side. 

* The scenery is equally beautiful 
at New Weir, where formerly existed 
a salmon weir. This fish was for- 
merly so plentiful that the appren- 
^ces of Boss are said to have had a 
clause inserted in their indentures 
to the effect that they should not 
be obliged to eat it more than three 
times a week. On the rt. bank is 
fhe lofb^ encampment of the Great 
Dowarcl, jagged with many quarries. 
Another tiun of the river brings the 
tourist in front of the lAiUe Doward 
Hill, on which is a British camp, 
still retaining traces of ramparts. 
At its foot, sloping down to the river, 
is the park of the Leys (p. 41), soon 
after which the river again joins 
fellowship with the tump&e-road.] 

21} on L Dixton, a small ancient 
ehnioh with a low broach spire. 
[tlie wooded hill above, on the op- 
podte bank, is the Kymin, from the 
flinnmit of which is a glorious pano- 
rama of the country round for many 
a league. Walks have been made 
through the plantations to apavilioft 
and a temple, built to record the 
naval victories obtained by the 
English during the American war. 
It was erected in 1800, and the 
frieze is decorated with medallions 
of British admirals. From hence a 
short but beautiful walk through 
Bewdley Wood will bring the visitor 



to the BuckUone, one of the most 
celebrated Bocking-Stones in Eng- 
land. It is situated on a conspicuous 
eminence, the circumference being 
about 53 fr. and the apex of the 
point about 3 fr. in diameter. It is 
said to have derived its name from 
being the usual spot for hearkening 
to the hounds when in pursuit of 
deer through the forest. The stone 
itself is of old red conglomerate, 
and it is most probable that it has 
bJBen detached m)m the imderlying 
rock by natural causes. Stanton 
Church is of late Noiin. character, 
with E. E. and Dec. alterations. It 
possesses an ancient stone pulpit 
and a font apparentiy &shioned out 
of a Boman altar.] 

22} m. Monmouth (Btes. 8, 7). 
Hotds: Beaufort Arms, good; White 
Swan ; King's Head. The entrance 
to the town is rather striking. On 
the 1. is the parish churoh, with a 
handsome Dec. tower and spire, 
while in front of it a Perp. oriel 
window and panelled wall remain 
as fragments of the priory, known 
as Geoffrey of Monmouth's study. 
On the rt. the road is seen almost 
to overhang the Monnow, the 
market-house standing c^uite on the 
edge of the cliff. Passmg these is 
the market-place, ambitiouisly called 
Agincourt Square, containing in 
front of the tbwn-hall a statue of 
Henry V., on which is an inscrip- 
tion recording his birth in the town, 
Aug. 9, 1387. 

** Ay, he was porn at Monmouth, Captain 
Gtower." 

So that the waters of the Wye may 
not wash the fact out of the me^ 
mories of the modem Fluellens. 

The portcullis, which henceforth* 
for many miles, will be seen every 
now and then, will remind the tra- 
veller that he is now within the vast 
hereditary possessions of the house 
of Somerset ; and if he stay at this 
particular Bieaufort Arms, he may 
discover that there still " is salmons * 



i 



44 Bmte 2. — The Wye.-^Bedbrook.'—St. BriaveVs. S. Wales. 



in the Wye. The main street is 
broad, and the houses strike one 
with an air of ancient irregularity 
that is highly respectable. The 
road to Haglan crosses the Monnow 
by an old bridge, upon which stiU 
remains the Welsh or Bridge Grate, 
with two side passages, under which 
Henry V. hos doubtless often passed. 
Just outside on the 1. is the ancient 
and highly-enriched late Norm, 
chapel of St. Thomas, which has 
been restored in good taste. Only 
a small fragment of the great hall 
of the caaS.e remains. Monmouth 
is believed to have been built on 
the site of the Boman station 
Blestium, though few or no Boman 
relics have ever been found: it is 
certain that it was afterwards a 
Norman walled town, of which the 
only gate left is the Bridge Gate 
just described. The town possesses 
an almshouse and grammar school, 
founded by William Jones, a native 
of the place, who amassed a fortune 
in London in the reign of James I. 

Conveyances. — To Chepstow a 
coach daily, to meet the packet. 
To Boss, coaches daily. To Usk by 
rail (Bte. 3). 

Distances. — Chepstow, 15 J m. ; 
Abergavemiy, 17 m. ; Baglan, 8 m. ; 
Usk, 12 m. ; Tintem, lOJ m. ; Boss, 
lOJ m. ; Gloucester by road, 26 m. ; 
Grosmont Castle, 10 m. 

Crossing the Wye, the tourist per- 
ceives that Monmouth is situated in 
the centre of a wide basin, sur- 
rounded on all sides by undulating 
hills of great beauty. 

23J m. on rt. bank of the river, 
on a wooded eminence, is PenalU 
Churchy and behind it, in the middle 
of a common, stands a large oak-tree, 
having a stone seat at its foot. 

" When a corpse is brought by, on 
its way to the place of interment, 
it is deposited on this stone, and the 
company sing a psalm over the body. 
Psalmody over the corpse signifies 
the conquest of the deceased friend 
over hell, sin, and death. Here is 



an evident continuation of the oak 
and stones of Druidic and Celtic 
customs altered into a Christian 
form. ' ' — Boscoe. 

Near PenaUt is Troy Rouse, a seat 
of the Duke of Beaufort (Bte. 7). 

24 J m., at Bedbrook, are extensive 
tinplate works, though now unfor- 
tunately at a standstill. They are 
supplied with fuel from the coal- 
mines in the Forest of Dean, which 
extends for many miles on the 1. 
bank of the Wye. The hill on the 
1. is Highbury t the site of an ancient 
encampment. A brook runs through 
the village, separating the counties 
of Monmouth and Gloucester. 

[At Newland the visitor will find 
a large church, with a fine tower of 
the Somersetshire type. 

Coleford is about 3 m. from Bed- 
brook.] 

26J m. a pretty Gothic cottage, 
called Florence, stands close to the 
roadside on the 1., shrouded in laurels 
and other evergreens. The river is 
now and then enlivened by the sail 
of a barge descending, or a party of 
boatmen rowing their vessel up- 
wards against the stream. 

The road continues along the 1. 
bank of the Wye, until at 27J m. it 
is carried across to the rt. bank by 
a handsome iron bridge ; a little be- 
low which on 1. is Bigswear House, 
a seat of the Bookes, descended 
from the admiral whe captured Gib- 
raltar. The hills behind it are 
crowned with the village church 
and ruined castle of St. Briave'a,* 
probably named from St. Bride's 
well on the outskirts, beneath a 
Gk>thic arch. The church is partly 
of Norm, architecture, very ancient, 
and contains a monument to the 
Warren family; the effigies are of 
the 17th centy. The mouldings of 
the transept aisles are terminated by 
snakes' heads, similar to those at 
Glastonbury. The modem tower 

* See NichoUs' ' Forest of Dean ' for the 
most complete account of that district and 
of St. Briavel's CasUe. 



S. WJLtn. MtnOi 2.— 7%d TI>.-^2WI^.— Tih^em Ahbet/. 4o 



cwmmindii a fine view. The great I 
gateway of tiie oastlc^ which is sap- 
posed ta have been buUt in the reign 
of Heniy I^ is defended by two 
round towers, lately nsed as a prison 
fbr debtors. The castle was once 
ooeiroied by the Lord Warden of 
the Forest a£ Dean. 

[!2i( m., on rt, is ** 2VeZ6fl^ so called 
ftom a group of m<moliili stones, 
locally associated with Harold, near 
tiie yulage. Olose by is a tmnnlns, 
said to have been the site of a castle 
(XP the Glares. The chnrch is E. 
I>eo., and in the churchyard are 
Bome cnrions gravestones with flo- 
riated crosses; also a sun-dial, on 
which are engraved the three curio- 
filties of Treiech, viz. the stones, 
the tmnnfais, and a well.] 

29{. Near a bend in the river is 
situated the pretty little village of 
Idamdogo, its cottages rising one 
above another, interspersed with 
gardens and orchards, and backed 
By woods. On the hill-side to the 
L isti^e small fall of Gleddan Shoots, 
which, however, is only worth visit- 
ing in rainy weather. 

d2 m., on L bank, is Brockweity a 
verylitfle whar^ at which a good 
deal of business. is carried on; large 
trows from Bristol transfer their 
cargo to Wve bu^es, and there is 
a considerable trade in shi|)building. 
Thus far &e tide ascends the Wye. 

82} Tmtem Parva, Its church, 
de&oed by modem alterations, and 
paved witii stones cut out of the 
monumental flagstones of monks 
and abbots from &e abbey, contains 
some fragments of Norm. work. 
A little above it, at the road-side, 
stand the scanty remains of the 
mansion of the abbot of Tintem, 
containing little more than a por- 
tion of an E. Dec. window. It is 
said to have been sacked by the 
soldiers of the Parliament. 

33 m. Somewhat encroached upon 
by the high road, which is carried 
within a stone's throw of its vene- 
rable walls, stands Tintem Abbey 



occupying a narrow slip of level 
ground on the meurgin oi the river, 
encircled by hills which form a 
thickly-woooed amphitheatre around 
it; and although the solitude is 
broken and the seclusion destroyed 
by the neighbouring manufactories, 
the beauty of the situation and the 
elegance of the buildmg triumph 
over this, and Tintem remains me 
most romantic ruin in Britain. In 
distant views, the four arms of the 
cross of the church, each terminating 
in a pointed gable, seen in perspec- 
tive, has a peculiarly good effect. 
It gains, however, upon a nearer 
approach, when the elegant forms of 
the pillars and arches, " the beaufy 
of composition and delicacy of exe- 
cution which distinguish it above 
most other Gothic edifices in this 
coimtry, can be examined and appre- 
ciated." Its architecture exhibits 
a transition from the E. E. to tiie 
Dec. slyle, and the portions of carv- 
ing still preserved, the fragments of 
basses, keystones, &c., exhibit foliage 
of most varied ^cy and elaborate 
execution. Although the roof is 
gone, and one or two pQlars have 
fallen, the walls aie entire, and the 
stone, well-chosen and durable, has 
been littie injured by the weather. 
Even the mtdlions of the windows 
remain tolerably perfect, and the 
view of the distant hills and woods 
seen through them is very pleasing. 
The length of the church is 228 ffc., 
of the transepts 150 ft, and its height 
70 ft. It is neatly kept by persons 
appointed by the Duke of Beaufort, 
to whom it belongs, and is carpeted 
with velvet tur^ beneath which, in 
the S. aisle of the nave, a fragment 
of the original pavement, composed 
of glazed tiles, bearing the arms of 
the Bigods and the Glares, has 
lately been found. Although the 
abbey was founded in 1131 for 
monks of the Cistercian order by 
Walter de Clare, the existing church, 
commenced by and carried through 
by his successors, the Clares, Mar- 



46 



Eottte 2: — lantern,— 'Moss Cottage. S. Wales. 



shalls, and Bigods, was not com- 
pleted till 1287, or 156 years later. 
It was suppressed at the dissolution 
of the monasteries, and granted by 
Henry VIII. to Henry Earl of 
Worcester, from whom it has de- 
scended to the Dukes of Beaufort. 

Here is a broken cross-legged 
figure of a knight in chain-armour, 
thought to be either Hichard de 
Clare (called Strongbow), the con- 
queror of Ireland in the reign of 
Henry II., or Roger de Bigod. 
There is also the tomb of 6m eccle- 
siastic, bearing carvings of cross 
and several fish. An ornamented 
but mutilated doorway led into the 
cloisters, beyond which, to the N. 
of the nave, are remains of monastic 
buQdings. In the centre the re- 
fectory was provided with a pulpit, 
from which homilies were read 
during meals ; on one side was the 
kitchen, communicating with it by 
buttery-hatches through the wall, 
and on the other the dormitories. 
In 1847 the remains of an Hospi- 
tium, or smaller convent for the 
entertainment of strangers, were 
discovered in the orchard during 
the progress of some excavations. 

There is a ferry over the Wye 
here, on the abbey side of which 
was the arch of the water-gate. 

On the opposite bank of the river 
a pleasant walk up the hills and 
ttirough the woods leads to the 
"Devils Pulpit" from whence a 
fine view is obtained of the Wye, 
and not far off a peep of the Severn. 
Offa's Dyke, designed as a partition 
between England and Wales, crosses 
the tongue of land between the two 
rivers, and terminates on the Severn 
near Tidenham. Though oblite- 
rated by cultivation, traces of it 
may be discovered on the common 
near this. 

The village {Inn, Beaufort Arms) 
is situated in a hollow, whence 
descends a small stream, made use- 
ful in turning the machinery of 
some forges and iron-works about 



1 m. to the rt. They are famed for 
the manufacture of horse-shoe nails 
and iron wire. The first mills for 
wire-drawing in Great Britain were 
established here in the reign of 
Elizabeth by a colony of Flemings 
and Germans, about 1565, before 
which time all the wire made in 
England weis forged by the hand. 

The traveller will soon perceive 
that the river is again entering into 
the rocky limestone district. A 
hill on the 1., on which the cliffs 
first show themselves, presents an 
appearance as though it had par- 
tially let fall its mantle of foliage to 
expose a bit of its bare rocky side. 

The high road slopes gradually 
upwards from behind the abbey, 
carried along the shoulder of the 
hill and at tha foot of the pre- 
cipice, on a sort of terrace. A little 
way along it one of the best distant 
views of the abbey may be enjoyed. 
The rugged cliflfe on the 1. are called 
Bannagor Crags; those on the rt., 
rising gradually, attain their greatest 
height in the ♦* Wynddiff, 35 m., the 
summit of which displays one of the 
most remarkable and beautiful views 
in England, not surpassed in gran- 
deur by any other river-scene in 
Europe. From the water-side the 
ascent is both long and steep, and 
those who travel in boats had better 
make a distinct excursion hither 
from Chepstow by land. At a dis- 
tance of 2 m. from Tintem, and 3 
from Chepstow, the road reaches 
the Mo88 Cottage, a pretty little 
summer-house, built by the Duke 
of Beaufort to accommodate visitors, 
who may obtain some homely re- 
freshment here, but usually bring 
their provision-basket with them. 
The face of the hill above it, though 
almost precipitous, is thickly clothed 
with wood, among which are a great 
number of yews. Zigzag walks, 
neatly made, and eked out with fre- 
quent flights of stone steps made of 
rude slabs of slaty rock to overcome 
the steepness, wind upwards among 



~JYTf-rr-- 



B» WAtK Bimie 2.-86. ArvoaCs.—PkrcefiM. 



47 



file inmlcs of fhetreefl^ the I>roken 
fragmentB of whioh offer frequent 
ana grateM seats to the weary. 
About two-thiids of the way up a 
passage is offered by a natcualfifih 
sure or grotto in the rock. The 
8iimmit» surmounted by a tuft of 
trees^ is at a height of nearly 900 ft. 
above the Wye. Over the tops of 
the trees the spectator looks down 
upon the road, and, far below it, on 
fhe river, whioh at this point nu^es 
an extraordinaiy bend in the shape 
of a horseshoe or loop, just backing 
the foot of theWynddiffl This 
very tortuous course encircles a 
email peninsula, occupied by the 
fueoL of JAanoawtt whose chequered 
patchwork of fields and lines of 
paths and hedgerows are so com- 
pletelv diq>layed at his feet as to 
xeeemble a map ; indeed, the owner 
can scarcely need a land survey of 
hia estate, which lies open to every- 
body's view. On the rl, just where 
tile Wye disappears, close to the 
towers of Ghepstow, rises a long 
soar of white clifi^ a part of the wall 
called the Twelve ApogUes, stretch- 
ing nearly across the middle dis- 
tance behind Llancaut peninsula. 
And now comes the striking and 
peculiar feature of the view : above 
the tops of this range of precipices 
appears a wide stretch of the estu- 
ary of the Severn, with vessels and 
steamers upon it, villages . and 
churches beyond it This view 
extends on the rt. down to the 
islands of Flatholme and Steep- 
holme at the mouth of the Bristol 
Channel. It is difficult at first to 
perERiade one's eye that the broad 
streak of water rising thus high up 
against the horizon is on a level, or 
at least only a few inches lower 
than the deeply-sunk, serpent-like 
river in the abyss below. An oblique 
path runs from the top of the Wynd- 
cliff to Tintem, as does a similar 
path to St. Arvan's, by which the 
necessity of descending to the Moss 
Cottage is avoided. The tourist by 



water, after turning his back upon 
the Wyndclifi^ skirts the peninsula 
of Llancaut on the 1., and on the rt. 
the rocks and woods of Piercefield, 
the banks of the river closing into 
a gorge walled with lofty precipices. 
The high picturesque buttresses on 
the rt., wi& tufts of trees shooting 
out of the crevices between them, 
are the Twelve Apostles, while a 
13th is named St. Peter's Thumb, 
and another the Lover's Leap. 

36 m. 8t Arvan's, — ^A road on 
rt. branches off to Monmouth over 
the high grounds of Chepstow Park 
Wood. [On the opposite side of 
the Wye, about I m. 1., is LUmcaitt 
Chapd, a building of primitive style, 
containing a lecden font of early 
date and curious workmanship. It 
stands on a mural peninsula, en- 
closed by the bold rocky eminence 
of the Bannagor and Tidenham 
crags. This secluded spot was the 
scene of a most sanguinary conflict 
in 1642, when it was occupied by a 
party of royalists under the inde- 
fatigable Sir John Wintour, in order 
to fortiiy it and keep the passage of 
the Wye. Before their position was 
secured they were attacked during 
the period of high water by a supe- 
rior force of the enemy, and of 180 
royalists scarcely 20 escaped, among 
whom was Sir John Wintour, who 
fought his way through the enemy 
to the Tidenham tockb, and, being 
closely pursued by their dragoons, 
galloped in desperation over the 
shelving precipice, escaped imhurt 
on the ground below, and got away 
by swimming the river. The place 
of this succeissful achievement is 
still pointed out as "Wintour's 
Leap." Offa's Dyke commences in 
this parish.] 

On rt. a road leads to Usk, 11 m., 
over part of Wentwood Forest, pass- 
ing, 2 m. on 1., Itton Court (E. 
Curre, Esq.). 

37 m. on 1. Piercefield (J. Eussell, 
Esq.) stands in an unrivalled situa- 
tion, overlooking the Bristol Channel 



48 



Route 3. — Newport to Hereford. S. "Wales. 



and the opposite Glonoestershire 
hills. The grounds are extensive 
and varied, but were laid out in the 
day when the beauties of nature 
were considered as secondary to 
those of landscape-gardening, which 
developed themselves in grottos and 
other architectural monstrosities. 
Near the entrance to the park is 
the site of the former priory of 
Kynemark, attached to the conven- 
tual church of ChepstoWy 38 m. (Ete. 
1), whose venerable castle, over- 
hanging the river, and apparently 
forming part of the precipice, is a 
fit closing scene to the prodigal 
beauties of the Wye. The distance 
from Ross to Chepstow by water is 
about 38 m. 

ROUTE 3. 

FROM NEWPORT TO HEREFORD, BY 
RAIL. 

The traveller quits Newport 
(Rte. 1) by the Hereford Railway, 
which uses the same stations and the 
same line as far as Pontypool as the 
Eastern Valleys Railway, following 
for the first mile or so the rt. bank of 
the river Usk, and having on 1. the 
barracks, which overlook the town. 
l/J m. on 1. Malpas Court (T. Pro- 
theroe, Esq.) and Oh., once attached 
to the cell of Oluniac monks. 

2J m. Llantamam Stat., near 
which, on the rt. bank of the Afon 
Llwyd, is Llantamam Abbey (Mrs. 
Dowling), formerly an establish- 
ment for 6 Cistercian monks, but 
now a more modern Elizabethan 
mansion, erected from the materials 
of the old abbey. 

4 m. Cwmbran Stat., to 1. of 
which are the iron-works belonging 
to Messrs. Hill and Batt. At inter- 
vals the traveller catches a glimpse 
of the long range of mountain lime- 
stone On the 1. which forms the 
eastern boundary of the S. Wales 
coal-field, commencing with the pro- 
minent hill of Twm Barlwm, near 



Risca,. and running due K. as far as 
Abergavenny. 

5 m. at Pontnewydd are tin- 
plate works ; as also at Pontrhyh-y- 
run, a little further on. Soon after- 
wards the line draws nearer to the 
mountains, which, losing their rather 
monotonous outline, break up into 
groups, between which mountain 
streams, with their primitive purity 
somewhat tarnished by the refuse 
of tin- works and collieries, rush down 
the wooded glens to join the Afon. 
The clouds of smoke which hang 
over the valley to the 1. betoken 
that the traveller is approaching 
the busy manufacturing town of 
Pontypool, 8| m. {Inn : Crown), 
which in point of situation yields to 
none in Wales. Few towns have so 
improved in appearance of late years, 
a fact probably owing to the per- 
sonal residence of the Lord Lieut, 
of the county, 0. Hanbury Leigh, 
Esq., at Pontypool Park, who, with 
a noble munificence, presented the 
inhabitants with a Town-hall, of 
Italian architecture. The streets 
and shops have in consequence much 
improved, though the former still 
retain a good deal of the charac- 
teristic iron-work dirt about them. 
Iron and tin works employ a large 
population, and Pontypool has the 
credit of being one of the very 
earliest seats of the iron trade, which 
was commenced in 1560 by an an- 
cestor of the Lord Lieut., one Rich. 
Hanbury, a goldsmith of the city 
of London. As coal was not then 
used in the smelting of iron, he 
employed charcoal, to obtain which 
many hill-sides, now bare, were de- 
spoiled of their timber. It is said 
that, at the time of Mr. Hanbury's 
undertaking, the whole of the 
mineral property was let for 98. id. 
This town also attained celebrity in 
the reign of Charles II. for the ma- 
nufacture of japan ware by Mr. All- 
good, which obtained a great sale 
under the name of Pontypool ware. 
This trade, however, has long been 



S. Wales. 



JRoute 3 . — Crumlin .^-^JRisca . 



49 



extinct. -The Park is pleasantly 
situated on an eminence on the rt. 
of the town, from which it is sepa- 
rated by the river, and the beauty 
of the lawns and woods which sur- 
round it on every side proves that 
iron-work smoke is by no means- 
fatal to vegetation. The house con- 
tains some family portraits. 

[A very pretty excursion can be 
made from Pontypool to Crumlin 
and the Taff Vale by the loop line 
which branches off from the Here- 
ford Railway, intersecting the valleys 
of the Ebbw, Sirhowy, and Rhym- 
ney, and joining the Taff Vale line 
a little above Quaker's Yard. For 
the first 5 m. the railway follows the 
defiles of Ciom Glyn, a romantic and 
well- wooded pass between the moun- 
tains of Cefn Crib and Mynydd 
Maen, which . in many places ap- 
proximate so closely as barely to 
leave room for the turnpike-road 
and the rails. Emerging from the 
tunnel at the head of the pass, the 
tourist gazes with astonishment, not 
unmixed with a feeling of insecurity, 
as he is carried across the vale of 
the Ebbw at a height of 210 ft. on 
the celebrated' Crumlin Viaduct. 
The village of Crumlin (Inn : Via- 
duct) lies immediately under the 
bridge, from whence the view both 
up and down the valley is of the 
most lovely character. Exactly un- 
derneath are the foimdry at which the 
materials of the bridge were fitted 
together, the white cottages of the 
workmen, the small station of the 
Western Valleys Railway, and the 
rushing sti-eam of the Ebbw, all di- 
minished to Liliputian size ; while 
lower down is Crumlin Hall, the 
modem and somewhat fantastic resi- 
dence of Mr. Kennard, at whose 
works the erection of the viaduct 
was carried on. The whole of the 
view is shut in by steep hills, rising 
directly from tlie water's edge, and 
clothed with wood to the veiy sum- 
mit. 

The bridge itself is one of the 

IS. JVales.^ 



most splendid engineering works in 
Great Britain, and consists of 10 
openings, each of 150 ft. span and 
210 ft. high, the piers being a series 
of cast-iron pillars fastened together 
by diagonal braces. The cost of the 
whole was about 40,000?. 

From hence the visitor may pro- 
ceed by the Western Valleys Railway 
to Newport (12 m.), passing I'm. 
Newbridge, and 2 m.iz>ercan?, where 
there ard^large coal and coke works. 
In the woods to 1. is Abercam House, 
a seat of Lord Llanover. The val- 
ley here takes a sudden curve, from 
which the Crumlin bridge appears 
as though it were hanging across 
like a cobweb, so delicate and faii-y- 
like do its lines contrast with the 
dark hills beyond. 6 m. Biscay a 
populous and thriving place chiefly 
dependent on the collieries, tinplate 
and chemical works of Pontymistcr 
and Tydee. Beautiful views are ob- 
tained of the wooded valley of tlic 
Sirhowy, which here falls into the 
Ebbw. The Sirhowy Railway from 
Tredegar here joins the Western 
Valleys hne. The steep and pre- 
cipitous mountain to the 1. just over- 
hanging the town is Tiom Barlwm 
(p. 48), believed formerly to have 
been the site of a Druidic court of 
assize. On the hills to the rt. is a 
village with the unpronounceable 
name of Mynyddswlyn. 10 m. Bas- 
saleg. The ch., with an embattled 
tower, is on the-rt., just on the out- 
side of Tredegar Park (Rte. 1), tho 
seat of Lord Tredegar, tlirough 
whose domains the railway runs to 
12 m. NewportJ 

PFrom Crumlin the same line fol- 
lows up the Ebbw to Pont Aherbeeg^ 
at which place the Ebbw Fach and 
Fawr effect a junction of streams, 
amidst scenery as romantic as any in 
S. Wales. The branch line to 
the 1. continues to Victoria and 
Ebbw vale iron- works, 6 m. (Rte. 5), 
while tLat to the rt. runs to Aberte- 
lery tin-works and the iron-works of 
Blaina and Ka.wtN^«^,^\^.V^>-^'^-'^'\ 



50 



Eoute 3. — Ahersychan. — Ush 



S. Wales, 



The main lino of the loop con- 
tinues across the Sirhowy valley at 
Blackwood to the Rhymney valley, 
which it crosses at Hengoed by a 
handsome stone viaduct, which con- 
nects it with the Rhymney Railway 
(Rte. 4). Although there are not 
many individual objects of remark in 
these valleys, each of which bears 
a striking similarity to its neighbour, 
yet the romantic character of the 
scenery, combined with tl!e import- 
ant manufiactures of the district, 
which involve such vast interests, 
make it a pleasant and very interest- 
ing digression for the tourist. 
[Another excursion may be taken 
by the visitor who has not seen this 
diversified county, up tlie valley of 
the Afon by the Eastern Valleys line 
to Blanafon, 6 m., passing 1 m. Pont- 
newenydd station. On rt. is Treve- 
thin (pron. Trebden) church, the 
mother church of the whole district, 
restored in 1847. 

2 m. Ahersychan, a straggling po- 
pulous "village, entirely dependent 
on the British Iron-works, which 
are seated on the Jiill-side to the 1., 
overlooking tlie little valley of the 
Sychan. 

6 m. Blanafon, another important 
work at the head of the Afon and 
on the southern slope of the Blo- 
renge mountain (Rte. 7), from which 
is obtained one of the finest views 
imaginable of the Vale of Usk. 
From here to Abergavenny is 6 m.] 

Soon after leaving Pontypool the 
geologist will perceive a change in 
the character of the country as 
evinced in the cuttings and embank- 
ments. The red sandstone, which 
appears emerging from beneath the 
carboniferous limestone, gives place 
to the light-coloured shales which 
announce at Little Mill junction, 9 
m., the upper Silurian beds. The 
branch railway to Usk and Mon- 
mouth runs for a great portion of 
the distance immediately across the 
Usk Silurian valley of elevation, 
which like that of Woolhope (Rte. 



2) protrudes in a pear-shaped dome 
through the old red. 

4 m. Usk {Inn : Three Salmons), a 
pleasant, sleepy little town of about 
1000 Inhab., exquisitely placed on 
the 1. bank of the river of the same 
name. Overhanging the town, at 
the entrance from Abergavenny, are 
the ivy-clad ruins and round tower 
of the castle, which add very much 
to the beauty of the villa of F. Mac- 
donnell, Esq., in whose grounds 
they stand. The castle formerly 
belonged to the Clares, and subse- 
quently to Edward IV., Richard III. 
(who are said to have been bom 
here), Henry VII., and William 
Earl of Pembroke, and sustained 
numerous devastations at the hands 
of Owen Glendower. The church is 
a large embattled structure, formerly 
attached to a priory of Benedictine 
nuns, and contains, affixed to a 
screen, a brass plate with an inscrip- 
tion, of the reading of which anti- 
quarians are divided. Usk was 
doubtless a place of some antiquity, 
and is supposed to have been the 
BuiTium of the Romans ; there are 
besides an unusual number of camps 
and ancient fortifications in the 
vicinity — the chief of which are 
Graeg-y-gaercyd, about 2 m. to the 
N.W. ; Court-y-gaer, near Wolves 
Newton ; and Graerfawr,between Usk 
and Chepstow. [About J m. from the 
town on the Caerleon road is Llan- 
baddock church, near which the 
geologist will observe an interesting 
section of contorted Silurian strata 
on the rt. 3 m. rt. is LlangibbyCastle 
(W. Williams, Esq.).] From Usk the 
railway continues its course up the 
valley of the Olwoy, through a plea- 
sant undulating country, to Llan- 
denny, 7 m., and from thence past 
Raglan, 8 m., and Dingestow, 13 m., 
to Monmouth, 16 (Rte. 7). 

13 m. Llanvair Stat., near which 
to rt. tlie Usk is crossed by a 
chain suspension bridge, only pass- 
able for foot passengers. On the 
opposite side of the Usk is Brynder- 



S. Wales. Eoute 3. — Penpergwm. — Llanvihangel, 



51 



wen, the seat of W. Stretton, Esq., 
and above it is the wooded eminence 
of Coed y Bunedd, a large encamp- 
ment, 1440 ft. in circumference. 
The view from the summit, and in- 
deed from the turnpike-road from 
Usk to Abergavenny, is most lovely, 
particularly towards the W., which 
commands the whole range of the 
Blortenge, the sharp cone of the 
Sugar-loaf, and the more massive 
Skyrrid. [1 m. on 1. is Pantygoitre 
(A. Berrington, Esq.).] 14 m. Pen- 
pergwm Stat., where the line 
crosses the Usk close to the primi- 
tive-looking church of Llangattock. 
1 J m. on 1. is Llanover Court (Lord 
Llanover). From hence a pic- 
turesque and varied 3 m. brings 
the ta-aveller into the heart of 
the Vale of Usk at Abergavenny, 
17 m. {Hotel: Angel), Rte. 7. 
Passing at the back of the Lunatic 
Asylum, the railway soon enters the 
vaUey, formed on the 1. by the out- 
lying shoulders of the Sugar-loaf, 
and on the rt. by the Skyrrid Vawr, 
or the great fissure. It is commonly 
called the Holy Moijmtain, and de- 
serves meotion from the curious 
superstitions connected with it, 
derived from Eomish times, and not 
yet eradicated from the minds of 
the Welsh peasantry. It receives 
its name from a fissure dividing it 
into two imequal parts, and pro- 
duced, according to the popular 
legend, by the earthquake at the 
Crucifixion. Near the top stood a 
small chapel, no traces of which re- 
main, dedicated to St. Micftael, and 
the resort in former times of large 
multitudes, chiefly Boman Catholics 
of the lower classes, who repaired 
hither on Michaelmas eve on a pil- 
grimage to the saint. Until lately 
it was customary with the Welsh 
farmers and peasantry to send from 
a considei-able distance for sackloads 
of earth out of tlie fissure of the 
Holy Mount, which they sprinkled 
over their stables, pigsties, and even 
houses, to avert evil, especially re- 



serving portions of it to strew over 
the coffins and graves of themselves 
and their relatives. The geological 
structure of the Skyrrid consiSs of 
beds of brownstone, capped witii 
quartzose conglomerate. These beds 
are interspersed with concretions 
which, when exposed to the influence 
of the atmo^here, in the escarp- 
ment of the mountain, have been 
washed out, leaving conically-shaped 
cavities imitating in their outUne 
horseshoes, rings, &c. The view 
from the summit is magnifloent, 
comprising a panorama of great ex- 
tent-— the Channel and Somerset 
hills to the S., Hereford and tiie 
Woolhope range to the E., and as 
far as the Church Stretton and Clee 
hills on the N. At the foot on the 
Abergavenny side is LlanddewiCourt 
(Capt. Wallbridge). From Aber- 
gavenny a continuous incline of 4 
m. brings the traveller to LXanvi- 
hangel Crucorney, 21 m. On rt. the 
fine timber denotes the whereabouts 
of Llanvihangel Court (the seat, of 
the Hon. W. Rodney), chiefly re- 
markable for its magnificent avenue 
of firs, which are considered the 
finest in the kingdom. The house 
is ancient and was formerly the pro- 
perty of the Arnolds, from whom it 
passed into the Harley family in 
the reign of Queen Anne. 

[Llanvihangel is the nearest stat. 
to Llanthony Abbey, about 7 m. 
distant on the 1. ; but as no convey- 
ance can be obtained at the village, 
it would be better for the non-pedes- 
trian visitor to start from Aberga- 
venny. The way lies up the valley 
of the brawling Honddu, and 
the views which greet the tra- 
veller at every step are lovely, par- 
ticularly at Cwmyoy, 3 m., where 
the mountains are almost grand in 
their sudden curves and precipitous 
escai-pments. The eye ranges over 
long reaches in the Vale of Ewias, 
which becomes more secluded and 
solitary at every step, and imi^res&Q,"^. 
one stiow^Vj ^>2g. \>tv^ '^Xx^^-^'^ ^*s^ '^^^ 



fettfi 3.— Zim'Aoiiy Abieg. 



52 

loealhy for a coDv^ntiiAl eata . 
loeiil. Lla,ilhOHi/. procx-ilr 
hf the Welih " IJanildewi N 
Hratddti," or the Chnreh of Da- . 
Uie Hondiiii, standa in the V.. 
£iria^ deep and ailent in the ■ 
of the Black Monntaina, in I: - 
sng;lc of Monmouthshire, " tbe ] 
|iart5 of ttie UlU Sad tbe .., 
itself^" as in tbe <]egcnptii.i:i 
GiraldoB, "enriched with pj'.a; 
meadows, intetsperaed with f 
fields, and now and then enlj t.- 
with woods and coppicea." 1 
Cistercian prioT? appeikrs to !i< 
tirely of one dale, abont the l.i 
part of the 12ih cenly, anbseqii.ii 
the erection of St.David'scatli^.: 
The rains show it to haio been > 
ciform. with a centml and tK'- 
towere. Tlie 3 lower atageg <jf 
latter, and the lower stage -'jf lliii 
W. &ont connecting them, rtiniuii 
tolerably perfect. The ruins, ii p"i- 
tion of which was fitted up liv Sir 
M.Wood as a sLooting-box, ai-v now 
the prmjcrtj ofWaltet Savage Lan- 
dor. The K. iide of the navo, in- 
cluding the triforium, remain^ hut 
tho H. side is down, as ore also bulli 
aisliss; portions of tho transept Jiow- 
OTcr ore standing, and a part of tlio 
control tower and choir. S. of mid 
connected with tho 8. transijit ;.-! 
tho Chaptcrhoose, now niin«d. liii 
oblong room Irith a poly^ooiil ]■;. 
end ; and joining tlio two la iiu 'ib- 
lonp chamber 24 ft. by 11 ft, Tsultcd 
and grained, and in good preserva- 
tion. At the a.W. corner of tho 
qiiadroiiglo lay the Prior's Uoaat^, 
wliloli, with the adjoimng tower of 
tlio ch., forms the inn. A fra;!;meiit 
of tho cover of a tomb of E. K. iliito 
is HuppoBcd to linvo covered the 
bonus of Walter Karl of Hoceford. 
who was buried in the Chapter- 

Tho whole length of tho cliuroh 
wiis 212 ft., and of the tranaopts 



S. AVales. 



th3l at that time the whole nave, es- 
. cepi the Toot, remained ; and Uuit 
the E. window was of Dec. date, no 
- donbt an insertion in the place of 
■ lancet windows like tboK of the W, 
,:: cnd_ In 1800 the riews given by 
V Coie were drawn, in which 2 stories 
■- ! of the central tower, cleat of tbe 
1< V roof, remained, and at the W. end a 
' <!' triple window and 4 ranges of point- 
^■Ai ed arcades. The W. m>nt fell in 
Ml- . I80I-3, and much of the S. aisle and 
;- 1 nave in 1837. The general style of 
!'L- tho architecture is transition from 
. r;- Norm, to E. E., and is in many re- 
\:v apects peculiar, "the ^>cciAl cha- 
i t> raeteristio being the close reproduc- 
t.il. tiou of the features of a very laMie 
rii- ! chnreh on a very small scale." The 
\V. ' conventoal bnildings covered 7 acr. 
tlje ' enclosed within a walL The ruins 
llie of the refectory remain, bat tbe 
itin I hospitium is a bam. There ia also 
i"i-- a eurioos vaulted sewer, ond a viva- 
Sln rinm or Sahpond E. of tho church. 
~~ Inland states this priory to have 
been ori^ially a cell of the patron 
saint of Wales, in favour of which 
conjechtre tho name is the only 
tangible evidence. Southej, with 
a licence exeecdmg that of Laure- 
ates, afBrroB, 
" Htre was tt, elnu^t, that tlie patron Hint 






ihMrDDii.hbi 



In 1100, in the reign of Henry I., 
William, a Norm, knight and teller 
of De Lacy, who conquered the dis- 
trict of Ewias, retired hither t« lead 
the life of an anchorite, and was 
joined, in 1103, by Emtaius, chap- 
lain to the Empress Maude. Their 
joint chnioh, dediooted in 1108 to 
St. John the Baptist, is probably the 
Norm, parochial chopcl of 8t, Da- 
vid's, atill stajiding, as does tlie priory 
in the parisli of Cwmyoy. Enriched 
by tlio De Lacys, and fiivoured by 
Henry, Maude, and the celebrated 
minister and churcli -builder Bogcr 
Bishop of Snium, 1107, a monasteiy 



S. Wales. 



Route 3. — Kentchurch, — Grosmont, 



63 



was founded, of which Emisius be- 
came 1st prior. Walter of Glou- 
cester, Earl of Hereford and Consta- 
ble of England, ended his days here 
in a monastic habit. Robert de 
Betun, miraculously called, became 
2nd prior, and brought great store 
of sanctity, and some of worldly fame 
and pelf, to the house. In 1129-31 
he became Bishop of Hereford. In 
the government of Robert de Braci, 
3rd prior, the convent, being sorely 
beset by the insurgent Welsh, took 
advantage of a gift of lands from 
Milo Earl of Hereford, and the monks 
migrated to Gloucester in 1136, 
where they built and occupied a 
2nd Llanthony near that city. The 
4th prior was William of Wycombe. 
Clement, the 5th prior, ruled be- 
tween 1150-70, and made great ex- 
ertions to move the conventual esta- 
blishment back to Ewias. As it is 
evident that the present building is 
not earlier than his priorate, we must 
conclude it to have been wholly his 
work, constructed with a view to 
lead back his flock, and enable them 
to dwell in safety. After his death, 
liowever, the priory seems to have 
fallen into neglect; and in the 
reign of Edward IV. a royal licence 
finally merged Llanthony of Ewias 
in her daughter of Gloucester, al- 
leging as a reason the turbulence 
of the people, and, proh pudor ! the 
irregular lives of Jolm Adams the 
prior, and his 4 canons. A particu- 
lar interest attaches to this esta- 
blishment on account of the con- 
temporar}' histories of Prior Betuh 
(1131), Prior Wilham of Wycombe 
(1137), and one of its monks (from 
1103 to 1203). It was also described 
by Giraldus Cambrensis C1188). An 
excellent liistorical account of the 
priory, with copious extracts from 
clironicles, was pubhshed by the 
Rev. G. Roberts in the 'ArclisDologia 
Cambrensis,' vol. ii., and also an 
architectural paper by E. A. Free- 
man, Esq., in the 3rd series of the 
same, vol. i. 



The road continues up the valley 
for 4^ m. to the mountain village of 
Capel y Ffin, from whence a path 
across the escarpments of the Black 
Moimtains leads to Hay, about 14 m. 
from Llanthony. Between the Priory 
and Cwmyoy a path to 1. goes over 
the hill at Dial-garreg to Partrishow 
(Rte. 7) and Crickhowell, 7 m.] 

24 m. Pandy Stat. The Hat- 
terill, or Black Mountains, here 
sweep off to the 1. towards Old 
Castle and Longtown, two villages, 
each possessing the fragments of a 
castle. 

29 m. Pontrilas, near which on 1. 
the line passes Pontrilas Court (J. 
Watson, Esq.). The scenery in this 
locality is of a broken and lovely 
character, especially to the 1., in the 
neighbourhood of the villages of 
Ewias Harold and Abbey Dore. 
[On rt. about li^ m. is Kentclmrch 
village and Coui-t (the residence of 
C©1. Scudamore), a castellated man- 
sion, said to have been built by 
Henry IV., situated in an extensive 
park on the western slope of Garway 
Hill. 1 m. further are Grosmont 
church and castle, situated on an 
eminence on the rt. bank of the 
Monnow. That it was originally 
a place of importance is evident 
from the traces of causeways issuing 
from the village, and also that a 
market is still kept up. The church, 
of Transition Norm., is of unusual 
size, consisting of a nave, aisles, tran- 
sept, and chancel, with an octagonal 
tower and spire. The celebrated 
necromancer, John of Kent, is said 
to have been buried here. Of the 
castle, once the favourite residence 
of the Dukes of Lancaster, the re- 
mains are not very extensive, con- 
sisting principally of a gateway, and 
baronial hall lighted by 5 win- 
dows. There is, also, a beautiful 
Dec. chimney similar to the one 
at St. Briavel's Castle, between 
Monmouth and Chepstow. The 
fortress was invested by Llewellyn, 
but was relieved by Henr^j ILL., -9^ 



54 



Eoute 3,*— Hereford, 



S. Wales, 



whose arrival the Welshmen " saved 
their lives by their legges." 1 m. 
S. of Grosmont is the Crraig hill, 
which, although of no very great 
height, is a striking object in Mon- 
mouthshire landscapes, on account 
of its isolation ; and on the other 
side of it is Skenfrith Castle, a for- 
tress of a trapezium form, sur- 
rounded by a curtain wall with 
towers and a circular keep. From 
hence to Monmouth (Rtes. 2, 7) it 
is 7 m., passing on 1. Hilstone House 
(O. Cave, Esq.).] 

29f m. Kenderchurch, on the 
summit of a little hill on the 1. of 
the railway. 

32 m. St, Devereux. On an emi- 
nence on rt. are the scanty re- 
mains of Kilpeck Castle, and Kil- 
peck Church, one of the purest and 
most interesting specimens of Norm, 
architecture that is to be found 
in Great Britain. It was founded, 
together with a priory, now de- 
stroyed, by Hugh Fitzwilliam, and 
in 1134 was made over to St. Peter's 
Abbey at Gloucester. Its most re- 
markable features are the chancel, 
which is in the form of an apex ; 
the corbel table all round the 
building, which includes upwards of 
74 designs of heads, hmnan figures, 
and beasts ; and the doorway, which 
is decorated with zigzag, nailhead, 
and star mouldings. The wall in 
the immediate neighbourhood is 
covered with elaborate ornaments. 
The church was restored in 1848 by 
the late Mr. Cottingham. [1 m. 
from Kilpeck on the rt. are Mynde 
Park (T. Symons, Esq.), Bryngwyn 
(J. Phillips, Esq.), Lyston (E. Ling- 
wood, Esq.), and the long ranges of 
Saddlebow and Orcop Hills.] 

35 m. Tram Inn Stat., a little 
beyond which, on 1., is AUensmore 
House (Mrs. Pateshall). 

40 m. Passing on 1. the wooded 
demesne of Belmont (F. R. Wegg- 
Prosser, Esq.), and crossing the Wyo 
by a handsome new bridge, the 
traveller arrives at the cathedral 



city of Hereford. (Hotels: Green 
Dragon, City Arms, Mitre.) Here- 
ford, in the times of the Heptarchy 
the capital of the Mercian kmgdom» 
is situated in a fine spacious valley 
of old red sandstone, watered by 
the Wye and Lugg, and bounded on 
all sides by picturesque ranges of 
hills, most of which are wooded up 
to their very summits. The centre 
of a large and important agricul- 
tural county and a cathedral city, it 
has always maintained a staid and 
quiet dimity which contrasts plea- 
santly with the bustle and restless- 
ness of a manufacturing town ;. 
although within the last few years, 
the convergence of 3 or 4 lines 
of railway has imparted to its 
streets a degree of animation to 
which it was long a stranger. The 
city is of great antiquity, and was 
known in the Roman era imder the 
name of Caerffawyd, or the " town 
of beech-lrees," a small place, pro- 
bably dependent on the large station 
of Magna Castra, about 4 m. distant 
(Rte. 8), and it is said possessed a 
large church as early as the reign 
of Offa, in the 8th century. The 
castle, which was described by Le- 
land as the finest and strongest in 
England, was commenced, together 
with the gates and city walls, by 
Ethelfleda about 905 ; but it was 
during the reign of Athelstan tliat 
the city attained its highest pros- 
perity. 

The first great reverse was sus- 
tained in 1055, when Llewellyn ap 
Grufydd, Prince of Wales, invaded 
Herefordshire,- killed the bishop and 
canons, burnt the cathedral, and 
destroyed the walls of the city, 
which were subsequently rebuilt 
and strengthened by Harold. In 
the 13th centy. Edward I. was con- 
fined in the castle, from whence he 
made his escape ; here also, in 132G, 
Edward II. was deposed, and Hugh 
Despencer, his chief favourite, 
hanged. In the 17th centy, Here- 
ford was besieged three times by 



S. Wales. 



Houte 3. — Hereford Cathedral, 



55 



the Parliamentary troops, on one 
occasion of which it was successfully 
held against the Scotch Covenanters, 
imder the Earl of Leven, hy Bar- 
nabas Scudamore. The castle, of 
which no traces now remain, was 
ruinous in Leland's time, having 
being allowed to fall into decay 
after tlie subjugation of Wales by 
Edward I.; some portions of the 
walls, however, remain in fair pre- 
servation, though of the six gates 
there is not a vestige. 

The principal object of attention 
in the city is the venerable cathedral, 
the noble tower of which stands forth 
from out of the plain, visible for 
many a mile. The see is believed 
to be one of the oldest in Britain, 
the line of bishops having continued 
unbroken since at least the division 
of the Mercian dominions in 676; 
but the origin of the present cathe- 
dral may be considered to date from 
the 8th cent. ; when the assassina- 
tion of KingEthelbert at the palace 
of Offa, of whom he was a guest, 
caused the erection of a tomb and 
shrine, by way of penance for the 
crime. The actual building, how- 
ever, was begun by Bp. Athelstan 
in 1030, a portion of whose work 
still remains In parts of the S. tran- 
sept, the S. aisle of the choir, and 
the vaulted entrance to the chapter- 
house. Bp. Lozing, in 1110, erected 
the nave, and the ancient W. front, 
which is said to be the most perfect 
example of arcade work that ever 
existed. Unfortunately for archi- 
tecture, Bp. Braose built in 1200, 
not only the first central tower, but 
also an equally large western tower, 
which, long too heavy for its founda- 
tions, fell in 1786, crushing the W. 
front in its fall. The N. transept, 
which has been restored with sin- 
gular skill and good taste by Gilbert 
Scott, Esq., was originally added by 
Robert de Betuno (1131), prior of 
Llanthony abbey, and was enlarged 
in the 14th cent., when a separate 
aisle w^as added to accommodate 



the shrine of the saintly Bp. Canti- 
lupe. like most cathedrals which 
have risen under' the superintend- 
ence of successive prelates, Here- 
ford Cathedral ofiers specimens of 
many different styles of architecture. 
The nave, which was reduced some- 
what in length by the so-called 
improvements of Mr. Wyatt in the 
W. front, rendered necessary by the 
fall of the western tower, was built 
by Bp. Lozing, and presents, in the 
columns and circular arches which 
separate it from the aisles, beautiful 
examples of Norm, decorations of 
zigzag, nail-headed, lozenge, and 
other mouldings, which become 
more elaborate as the choir is 
approached; while just below the 
clerestory windows is a range of 
arcades with pointed arch. The 
windows on the N. side of the nave 
are E. Dec. In the N. aisle is the 
highly ornamented monument of Bp. 
Booth, the builder of the adjoining 
porch, whose effigy is guarded on 
each side by an angel. In the S. 
aisle are an ancient font, with the 12 
Apostles (much mutilated) repre- 
sented in relief on the outside, and 
an altar monument of the Brydges 
family. The N. porch is a fine 
example of Perp., erected in 1530. 
The N. transept, known also as St. 
Catherine's aisle, is lighted on the 
N. by a very fine geometrical window 
with circular tracery, and with a 
smaller one above. It would seem 
as though this transept was built 
and decorated with all the magnifir 
cence that the architects of ihe 
period could lavish upon it, so as to 
make it more worthy of the recep- 
tion of the Oantilupe shrine, which 
is contained in an aisle adjoining its 
E. side. This aisle also contams 3 
geometrical windows, and ** an upper 
range of semicircular arches, the 
earlier Norm, form being erected 
over the later E. Eng. ; an unusual 
vestige of the Transition, noticeable 
also at Llanthony Abbey." The 
sanctum sanctorum is the al&isssu ^^ 



5G 



Eoute 3. — Herefoi^d Cathedral. 



S. Wales. 



St. Cantilupe, Bp. of Hereford in 
1275, who obtained such reputation 
for his learning and virtues, that on 
his death, in 1282, his bones were 
sent from Italy to his own cathe- 
dral, and a festival held with 
extraordinaiy pomp to celebrate 
his canonization. The miraculous 
powers of the new saint, who is 
known as St. Thomas of Hereford, 
were great, and attracted many 
pilgrims and much coin of the 
realm from credulous devotees. A 
cast of the shrine, which is of Pur- 
beck marble, is preserved in the 
Crystal Palace at Sydenham. The 
choir, built by Bp. Lozing, is a rich 
specimen of Norm, architecture, and 
contains a particularly fine eastern 
arch, under which is an altar-screen 
of Caen stone, bearing recessed 
panels, with subjects relative to the 
Passion sculptured in alto-relievos. 
This was erected in memory of 
Jos. Bailey, Esq., M.P., formerly 
member for the county. On the S. 
side of the choir is an ancient relic, 
in the shape of a small statuette of 
King Ethelbert, who was supposed 
to have been buried here in 793. 
Under an arch, close to the N. aisle 
of the choir, is a beautiful E. Eng. 
canopied monument of Bp. Peter do 
Aquablanca (1268), 

The Lady Chapel, which was 
restored by Mr. Cottingham about 
1850, is lighted by lancet windows, 
the 5 at the E. front being filled 
with stained glass representing 21 
episodes in the life of our Lord, put 
up»iu memory of Dean Mereweather, 
who devoted much care and atten- 
tion towards the restoration of the 
catliedral. Tlie other monuments 
in this chapel are of Humphrey 
Bohun, Earl of Hereford ; Joanna 
de Bohun of Kilpeck, Countess of 
Hereford ; and several bishops. To 
the S. of the Lady Chapel is the 
Audley chapel, a fine example of 
Perp. architecture, the roof of 
which is composed of fan-tracery 
vaulting, painted and gilt. On the 



N. of the choir is another cliapel, 
also with fan-tracery ceiling, erected 
by Bp. Stanbury in the 15th cent. 
The S. transept is supposed to have 
remained imtouched in some por- 
tions since the days of Bp. Athel- 
stan, and contains the earliest work 
in the whole building, although the 
windows were altered in the 14th 
cent. From hence there is an 
entrance into the chapterhouse, 
where a number of relics are pre- 
served. At the present time the 
nave is the only portion of the eh. 
which is used for the celebration of 
divine service, though it is hoped 
that before very long the choir will 
be again available. The sum of 
27,000Z. lias already been spent in 
the restoration, but much remains 
to be done; how completely and 
how rapidly depends on the libe- 
rality of those who would wish to 
see one of the finest cathedrals in 
England occupying its proper posi- 
tion, in ecclesiastical architecture. 
A very large niunber of bishops and 
deans are interred here, for a list of 
whom, as well as an excellent' and 
very full account of the whole 
building, the visitor may consult 
with interest 'A Handbook for Here- 
ford,' published by Mr. Joseph 
Jones, to which the writer of this 
notice is much indebted. 

The Bishop's Palace is situated 
on the S. side of the cathedral, 
fronting the river, and the Deanery 
is on the E. It contains a port- 
able shrine representing on its sides 
the assassination of Ethelbert. 

A pleasant promenade is to be 
found in the Castle Green, over- 
hanging the river and oiFering ex- 
tensive views of the country to the 
S.W. In the centre is a column 
erected in 1809, to commemorate 
the victories of Nelson. Although 
modern taste has decorated the 
streets of Hereford with many nice 
shops and residences, it still con- 
tains a goodly number of old houses, 
the chief of which the visitor will 



S. Wales. 



Route 4. — Cardiff to Brecon, 



67 



find in the old Town hall, erected 
in the reign of James I.; the 
Butchers' ifill in St. Peter's Street, 
which is decorated with a large 
amount of carving ; and an ancient 
house of the 17th centy. in East 
Street. In addition to these, Gwynne 
Street is said to have been the 
birthplace of the fair Nell Gwynne, 
as was a small street leading out of 
Widemarsh Street that of Garrick. 
At the b6u;k of the same street, and 
in an angle formed by it and 
Coningsby Street, are the ruins of 
the Black Friars* Monastery, founded 
in the 13th century, near which is 
a mutilated though stiU beautiful 
Dec. hexagonal cross, supposed to 
have been used for the purpose of 
preaching. The churches or Here- 
ford, though ancient, possess but 
little of interest, though their posi- 
tion, generally at the termination 
of a street, adds considerably to the 
picturesque quaintness of the town. 

Distances : — London, 144 m. 
Newport, 41 m. ; Shrewsbury, 51 m. 
Ludlow, 23 m. ; Leominster, 12 m. 
Abergavenny, 22 m. ; Boss, 12 m. 
Gloucester, 30 m. ; Ledbury, 14 m. 
Malvern, 22 m. ; Worcester, 30 m. 
Hay, 20 m. ; Brecon, 34 m. ; King- 
ton, 19 m. ; Aberystwith, 80 m. 

Conveyances : — By rail to New- 
port, Gloucester, and Shrewsbury ; 
a coach daily to Malvern and a 
coach daily to Hay ; a coach every 
alternate day dm*ing the season to 
Aberystwith through Builth and 
Rhayader ; also daily to Builth. 



I 



ROUTE 4. 

FROM CARDIFF TO BRECON, BY MER- 
THYR TYDVIL — TAFF VALE RAIL- 
WAY. 

Cardiff (Rte. 1). The terminus 
of the Taff Vale Railway is situated 
in Crockherbtown, close to the New- 
port Road, but the trains run and 
the line is measured from the Docks, 
IJ m. distant. It was opened in 
1841, and was constructed under 
considerable engineering difficulties, 
overcome with great skill by the 
late George Bush, Esq., engineer to 
the Company. 

The Taff and its tributary valleys 
include some of the finest scenery 
in S. Wales, and much that for 
sunny, smiling beauty is unrivalled 
in Britain. The Taff owes much of 
its charm to the extremely imequal 
breadth of its valley and to its sud- 
den and imexpected windings. The 
Rly. has several sharp curves, an 
Inclined plane, and a tunnel upon 
its course. The canal between 
Cardiff and Merthyr cost 100,000?., 
and was opened 1798. There are 
40 locks upon it, and it rises nearly 
600 ft. 

4J m. Llandaff Stat. (Rte. 1); 
on approaching which the grey 
tower of the cathedral and the 
groves and summer-house in the 
Dean's garden are seen about 1 m. 
on the 1., with the neat little church 
of Radir. 

A little beyond the stat. is the 
junction of the Tidal line, which 
runs down to the new harbour and 
docks of Penarth, joining the Ely 
Valley Rly. 

The whole of this part of the line 
is upon a loose drift of sand and 
large stones plentifully spread over 
tlie valley of the Taff. On the rt. is 
the Heath (Wyndham Lewis, Esq.). 

I m. further on the rt. is a fine 
wooded bank, at the base of wliich 
sweeps tlic river supplying Melin- 



< 



58 



Eoute 4. — Castell Coch Pass. 



S. Wales. 



griffith Tin-plato Works, the pro- 
perty of T. W. Booker Blakemore, 
Esq., whoso residence of Velindra 
crowns the top of the bank. 

64" m. Pentyrch Stat, stands just 
without the picturesque pass of 
Oastell Coch, overshadowed on the 
1. by the Lower and immediately 
beyond, the Great Grarth, 981 ft. 
above the sea. To the rt. of the 
stat. is OreenmeadoiOf H. Lewis, 
Esq., a branch of the Lewises of the 
Van, an ancient Glamorganshire 
family. } m. on 1. are the Pentyrch 
Iron-works, the property of the 
Messrs. Booker, where the iron is 
manufactured to supply the tin-plate 
works of Melingriffith. 

The situation of Castell CocTi, so 
called from the red tint of the 
material with which it was built, is 
admirable, overhanging the pass on 
a precipitous escarpment of moim- 
tain-limestone. Its plan was that 
of a triangle, having a round tower 
at each angle, of which the N. is 
in the best preservation. In style 
it is probably E. E., about the reign 
of Henry III. It was the key of 
the upper country. " A beacon-fire 
upon the headland of Penarth, an- 
swered here and on the opposite 
Grarth, would be repeated from the 
summits of the distant mountains of 
Brecon and Carmarthen, and would 
at once spread the tidings of inva- 
sion over the whole of the southern 
coast."— 6?. C. 

Through this peiss Owen Glen- 
dowr is supposed to have descended 
when he burnt the episcopal palace 
of Llandaff and ravaged Cardiff. 
"The vale of T^f was necessarily 
the scene of many of the great 
transactions of war, as it now is of 
those of peace, between England 
and S. Wales, and the pass and 
fortress of Castell Coch form the 
boundary and key between the 
coimtry of the mountain and the 
plain. From hence, in the words 
of a yet extant triad, may be seen 
the length and breadth of *that 



beautiful country, the land of the 
courteous and gentle people, where 
the wives are honoured and the 
walls white.' Up this pass spfed 
that Saxon band who, fearing not 
God nor regarding man, placed the 
celestial crown of martyrdom upon 
the temples of the maid of royal 
birth. Here stood * Aneurin of the 
flowing eulogy, chief of bards,' and 
poured forth his animating strams 
while his half-clad and ill-armed 
countrymen waged bloody but im- 
succcssful war against the iron-clad 
bands of the invader." — Wehtm, Re- 
vieio, 

[Of m. Walnut Tree Bridge Stat, 
belonging to the New Rhymney 
Rly., which will be described here, 
since the same line of rails is made 
use of by the two companies. The 
valley of the Rhynmey does not 
join that of the Taff in any way, 
but turns off in the opposite direc- 
tion by Bedwas and Machen, event- 
ually communicating with the val- 
ley of the Ebbw at Bassaleg near 
Newport. In consequence of cer- 
tain differences existing between 
the proprietors of a tramway run- 
ning down the valley to Newport, 
the dock company, the freighters 
and coalowners in the valley, the 
new Rhymney Rly. was constructed 
and opened in 1857, thus forming 
an outlet for the mineral produce 
of the district at Cardiff, and di- 
verting a considerable amoimt of 
traffic from Newport, a misfortuna 
which it will be long ere it re- 
covers. The tcrmimis at Cardiff" is 
in Adam St., from whence the line 
is the same as that of the Taff Vale,. 
from wliich it diverges through a 
deep cutting at Walnut Tree Bridge 
Stat., arriving at 

10 m. Caerphilly {Inn, Castle, 
unassuming but comfortable), situ- 
ated at the very eastern edge of 
Glwnorganshire, behind a ridge of 
hills wliich on the S. separate it 
from Cardiff (7 m.), and on the W. 
from the Taff vale. To the former 



S. Wales. 



Houte 4. — Caerphilly, 



59 



towQ there is a direct road over 
the limestone hills and past New 
House. The village itself is poor 
and straggling, and the houses ap- 
proach rather near to the baronial 
walls of the old castle, which is 
one of the most extensive as well 
as interesting ruins of a feudal for- 
tress to be met with in the country, 
though on the whole, from its level 
position and the want of vegetation, 
less fitted to employ the pencil of 
the artist than the pen of the anti- 
quary. It has been rendered un- 
tenable by the agency of gunpowder, 
evidently applied by sMlfid engi- 
neers ; nevertheless, it is one of the 
best examples remaining of a forti- 
fication of the 13th centy., appearing 
from the style of its architecture to 
have been built about the reign of 
Edward I. In the reign of Edward 
II. the king's favourite Hugh le 
Despencer is said to have repaired 
its works in order to withstand a 
siege from Queen Isabel, the she- 
wolf of France, and her minion 
Mortimer. The unfortunate Ed- 
ward sought refuge in its walls 
when flying from Bristol attended 
by- the younger Despencer, in 1326 ; 
but^ after a vain attempt to raise 
his Welsh subjects in his defence, 
was compelled to seek an asylum in 
the priory of Neath, leaving De- 
spencer to hold out the castle 
against the queen. The- amount of 
the store of provision^ and live find 
dead stock found in the castle when 
it capitulated has been rated on 
doubtful authority at 2000 oxen, 
12,000 cows, 30,000 sheep, 600 
draught horses, and 2000 hogs ; of 
salt provision, 200 beeves, 600 mut- 
tons, and 1000 hogs ; also 200 tons of 
French wine, 40 tons of cider, and 
wheat enough to feed 4000 meif for ! 
4 years. When and by whom its 
destruction was brought about is by [ 
internal evidence attributed to the 
Parliament after the great rebel- 
lion. 

The siege in the time of Edward 



II. is almost the only asceriaiBed 
historical fact respecting Caerphilly. 
The castle is described by Leland 
and others as standing on marshy 
ground, partly surrounded by a 
mere or lake. At present its walls 
are washed on the S. and S.E. sides 
by Nant-y-Gledyr, a tributary of the 
Rhymney; but there is evidence 
that anciently its waters were not 
merely employed to fill the two 
moats which surrounded tiie for- 
tress, but were also, as at Kenil- 
worth, spread over a considerable 
tract by damming them up, thereby 
increasing the strength of the place- 
and the (Efficulty of approaching it. 
The main entrance on the E. side 
of the castle was approached by a 
raised causeway and pier of ma- 
sonry, detached in the middle of 
the moat, the gaps on each side of 
the pier being crossed by draw- 
bridges. The Gatehouse, flanked 
by two turrets and surmounted by 
a tower 60 ft. high, was guarded 
by portcullis and stockades, and 
flanked by loopholes in the turret 
walls. On the lower story are re*- 
mains of a small fireplace and oven, 
apparently for heatmg pitch, lead, 
&c., for the annoyance of besiegers; 
here also was the apparatus for 
raising the drawbridge. This part 
of the moat being now generally 
dry, owing to the stream having 
been turned away from it, the pre- 
sent entrance to the castle is by a 
small postern to the rt. of, the gate- 
house, now a battered hole on a 
level with the moat. On passing, 
it is seen that an abyss or chasm 
about 29 ft. deep and 5 wide sepa- 
rates the gatehouse from the long 
wall or curtain stretching N. from 
it on the rt. By help of this gap 
and of a wall (now levelled with 
the earth) carried from tlie gate- 
house to the inner moat, this long 
rampart and outwork was separated 
from the rest of the edifice, so that, 
even if it were taken, the body of 
the place would be still safe and 



60 



Bout^ 4. — CaerphUly, 



S. Wales. 



cut off from it. The communica- 
tion between it and the gatehouse 
was kept up by drawbridges or 
planks of wood easily removed. 
This curtain, flanked towards the 
moat by 3 buttress-towers, stretches 
N. 360 ft. ; a gallery of wood ran 
along behind it, allowing the gar- 
rison to man the defences, and 
it terminated in another postern, 
flanked by 2 buttress-towers and 
provided with portcullis and draw- 
Dridge. This long curtain at pre- 
sent looks unfinished, but it was 
never intended for more than an 
outwork; and when the castle was 
in a state of defence, the groimd 
behind it was flooded and converted 
into a lake. The opposite and cor- 
responding curtain or wing ex- 
tended to the dam and sluices by 
which the river was arrested so as 
to form this inundation. This dam, 
being the keystone of the water 
defences, was strongly guarded by 
flanking towers on each side and 
by a " t^te du pent " on the oppo- 
site side of the stream. Those who 
dismantled this castle let out the 
waters of the lake by blowing up 
a large part of this curtain and 
wall, 15 ft. thick, including 2 but- 
tress-towers, and the rivulet now 
flows through the gap, being crossed 
by a rude wooden bridge which 
rests on one of the broken frag- 
ments of masonry, serving instead 
of a pier. 

To return to the great gatehouse. 
Standing within its portal on the 
N. are the foundations of wall which, 
with the chasm before mentioned, 
sepai'ated the N. curtain from the 
body of the place; on the S. the 
ruined lower story of the castle 
mill, set in motion by a rivulet 
from the stream ; and W. the quad- 
rangular body of the castle itself. 
It was also insulated by a moat, 
now dried up and covered with 
greensward, except where encmn- 
bered by ruins. It was surrounded 
by an outer wall with gates on the 



E. and W. sides, approached by 
drawbridges, within which stood 
lofty gatehouses and the chief 
buildings of the place, overlookii^ 
the outwork and leaving narrow ter- 
races between. The outer gate on 
the E. side has been crushed by 
the ruins of the inner gatehouse, 
wliich has been separated by an 
explosion into two parts — one half 
remaining upright and tolerably 
perfect, while the other has fallen 
in fragments towards the moat. 
Originally provided with gates, port- 
cullis, stockades, and holes in its 
roof for pouring hot metal or pitch 
on the heads of assailants, on the 
first floor is a large room with a 
wide fireplace. Passing through 
this gatehouse, you enter the inner 
court or bailey of the castle, which 
in its original state must have been 
very imposing. In front rises the 
western gatehouse, tolerably perfect ; 
on the 1. is the Great Hall, having 
rich windows and a doorway with 
ogee-shaped arches and decorated 
ballflower ornaments in the mould- 
ings; the corbels which supported 
its wooden roof are of triple-clus- 
tered columns. E. of the hall is 
the chapel. From the side of the 
hall, opposite the fireplace, proceeds 
a wide passage slanting downwards 
to the moat, here of great breadth, 
and proved by the mai'k on the 
walls to have been about 12 ft. 
deep. The passage is curiously 
vaulted by a series of arches hang- 
ing one below the other like in- 
verted steps : at its lower entrance 
was a place for storing boats. The 
moat or lake is now fine green- 
sward. Between the E. gatehouse 
and the hall are the offices : the 
kitchen, called the Mint and pro- 
vided with fireplaces with thick 
walls, had once a vaulted roof. 
There is great difficulty in identi- 
fying the rest of the offices ; one is 
provided with an oven and open 
tank. The inner bailey was de- 
fended at the angles by 4 lofty 



S. Wales. 



Houte 4. — Ystrad. — Hengoed, 



61 



and very thick bastion-towers, upon 
which the chief violence of the 
demolishers of the castle has been 
expended, so that they have all 
been more or less overthrown. One 
of these in the S.E. comer, on your 
1. hand as you enter the inner court, 
is the leaning tower, 80 ft. high 
and projecting 9 ft. over its base. 
It must have been mined and blown 
up with gunpowder ; but the cylin- 
der of masonry, 10 ft. thick, was so 
solid, that even its parapet remains 
perfect; and though it is split in 
twain by the explosion, it has only 
slid downwards, sinking for some 
depth into the earth and leaning 
over at an angle, though not be- 
yond its centre of gravity : the rest 
of the tower, towards the court, has 
been broken in pieces. At the W. 
end of the hall are the state apart- 
ments. Galleries in the thickness 
of the wall, looped towards the 
outside, rxm round a part of the 
castle and are still accessible, though 
the removal of every fragment of 
iron and most of the freestone has 
led to the demolition of many stair- 
cases, and the sills, mouldings, &c., 
of the doors and windows through- 
out the building. On the W. side 
of this bailey rises the W. gate- 
house, conducting to the back en- 
trance of the castle, which was 
strongly defended by an outer gate- 
house, the side walls of which are 
now broken through, approached by 
a drawbridge over the moat, the 
hollow pier for sustaining which 
remains. This led to the hornwork, 
an irregular polygon of earth. A 
dam or ridge of earth extended 
from this hornwork along the N. 
side of the castle and separated the 
moat from the lake beyond it; the 
water was admitted from the moat 
into tbe pond through a sluice in 
tliis dum. In addition to these 
works, composing the fortifications 
of the ancient castle, there rises on 
the N.W. angle, detached from this, 
xin eminence crowned with a more 



modem fort or redoubt evidently 
thrown up after the discovery of 
gunpowder, probably during the 
wars of the great rebellion, to ren- 
der the place tenable. Its shape is 
an irregular quadrangle, with rude 
bastions at the 4 corners surrounded 
by a fosse.* 

Near Caerphilly, and partially 
built of its materials, is the Van, 
long the seat of tlio ancient Gla- 
morgan family of Lewis, but which 
passed out of the male line by an 
heiress to the Earls of Plymouth. 

1 m. from Caerphilly is Pwl-y-pant, 
the picturesque cottage of Mr. Wil- 
liams. 

15 m. Ystrad Stat. The vale of 
the Rhymney here narrows con- 
siderably, and presents a pleasing 
contrast to the broad amphitheatre 
of hills in which the castle-city of 
Caerphilly is situated. YstradOhurch, 
on rt., is a neat tasty building, partly 
erected by the Rev. Geo. Thomas, 
whoso residence — the Court — is but 
a short distance on the rt. 

16 m. Hengoed, the June, of the 
Taff Vale Extension Rly. with the 
Rhymney line. The former, which 
connects the Taff Vale with the 
Newport, Abergavenny, and Here- 
ford Rly. at Pontypool, is carried 
across the vale by a lofty viaduct, 
the tall narrow arclies of which form 
a prominent feature in the scenery. 

On the mountain to the 1. is the 
white tower of Gdligaer Church, 
which overlooks many a ridge of 
hill and many a narrow valley. As 
the name implies, this was the site 
of a Roman encampment, and there 
are traces of a Roman road leading 
to the village, besides several monu- 
mental stones on the Gelligaer moun- 
tain. 

Several old houses exist in this 
parish, and at a farm-house near 

* See a full description of Caerphilly by 
G. T. Clarke, Rsq., In the West of England 
Journal, and also the ♦ Archceologla Carabren- 
sis,' from which this notice is chiefly de- 
rived. 



62 



JRoute 4. — BedmUy. — Newbridge. S. Wales. 



Llancaiacli it is said that Charles II. 
once passed the night. 

17 m. Pengam, or Pontdberpengam. 
On rt. close to the Stat, is a hand- 
some school erected from the funds 
of a charity left to the parish of Gel- 
ligaer. The scenery hero is of a 
charming description, notwithstand- 
ing the intrusion of several collieries, 
which, however, do not interfere as 
much as might be expected. The 
quaint old bridge — the river, now 
rushing over its rocky bed and now 
forming clear deep pools — the woods 
feathering down to the water's edge 
— and the overlapping of the hills 
as the valley winds about, present a 
picture over which the artist might 
well be tempted to linger. 

On the hill to rt. stands BedweUy 
Church, the mother-church of large 
districts which have risen up with 
their teeming populations witliin the 
last half-century. The thickly in- 
habited ironwork towns of Tredegar, 
Ebbwvale, and Sirhowy (Rte. 5), 
but too thinly provided with church- 
accommodation, are all within the 
parish of Bedwelty, which extends 
fi)r 7 or 8 m. in each direction. 
Amongst the documents in the ca- 
thedral of Llandaflf, one was dis- 
covered to the effect that one ser- 
mon a month should be allowed to 
be preached in the church of Bed- 
welty on the application of the in- 
habitants of the parisli. 

19 m. Bargoed Stat. A handsome 
viaduct carries the Rly. across the 
mouth of the Bargoed Rhjrmney 
valley, which here joins that of tho 
Rhymney river. It is contemplated 
to carry a branch Une up to the 
head of this vale, which abounds in 
mineral produce, at present but little 
developed. 

21 m. Tir Phil, where are exten- 
sive collieries and coke-works. A 
parallel Rly. runs from the Rhym- 
ney Works, on the opposite side of the 
valley, but instead of proceeding to 
Cardiff it turns off to the 1. at Bed- 
was, near Caerphilly, and has its 



outlet at Newport. It is still called 
the old Rhymney line, though being 
in the hands of a few private capi- 
talists it is only used to convey mine- 
rals. It has, however, been consi- 
derably damaged by the new Rly., 
which was mainly constructed with 
a view to counteract tho extremely 
high tolls and general monopoly 
which a shortsighted policy had es- 
tablished. 

23^ m. PonUottyn, a populous 
suburb attached to 

24^ Ehyinney Iron-works (Rte. 
5).] 

8 m. from Cardiff Tag's WeU Stat., 
so called from a tepid medicinal 
spring which bubbles up in the bed 
of the river, and which is sometimes 
employed as a bath for rheumatic 
patients. W. of this Stat, the coal- 
measure sandstones of the Garth 
Hill, and on the E. the correspond- 
ing lieight of Craig-yr-Alt, are well 
seen. From hence there is a foot- 
path to Caerphilly, 4 m. The line 
is now completely within the coal- 
field, symptoms of which begin to 
be apparent everywhere in the num- 
ber of collieries and levels in the 
bill-sides. The curves near this 
Stat, are very sharp, and in some 
places the line rims along a narrow 
shelf on the mountain-side 100 ft. 
above the river. 

12 m. Treforest Stat., opposite to 
which on rt. are Mr. Orawshay's tin- 
plate works and the pretty little 
church of Glyn Taff. 

Newbridge, 13 m., or Pontypridd 
{Inns : New Inn ; White Hart), has 
become a considerable place, the 
rising prosperity of which is due to 
the number of collieries opened in 
the neighbom'hood and in the 
Rhondda valley, which joins the 
Taff Vale on the 1. Not far from 
the Stat, is the well-known bridge 
of Pontypridd (or bridge of the 
earthen hut), "a single arch span- 
nmg the Taff, 140 ft. span and 35 ft. 
height, completed 1755 by a self- 
taught country mason, William Ed- 



S. Wales. 



Eoute 4. — Newbridge. 



6a 



wards, whose history is related at 
length in the 'Pursuit of Know- 
ledge,' V. ii. p. 353. He undertook 
in 1746, at the age of 27, to build a 
bridge over the Taff at a spot where 
the river is broad and its banks low, 
and completed a very light structure 
in 3 arches, giving security that it 
should stand for 7 yrs. Within 3 
yrs., however, a flood occurred of 
extraordinary height, which carried 
down trees, hay, &c., before it in 
such quantities that they were 
caught by the piers and formed a 
dam, behind which the water accu- 
mulated to such a height that 
the bridge at last gave way 
under its pressure. Edwards then 
conceived the bold design of span- 
ning the river with a single arch of 
the present dimensions, and com- 
pleted it. But the lowness of the 
approaches and the want of natural 
abutments of firm rock rendered it 
necessary to load the spring of the 
arch on either side with a great mass 
of masonry, and before the parapets 
were finished the pressure on the 
haunches drove up the crown of the 
arch and it fell in. Unshaken in 
courage, he renewed the attempt 
upon the same scale, but lightened 
the masonry by perforating it with 3 
cylindrical tunnels, 9, 6, and 3 ft. in 
diameter. This expedient succeeded. 
The bridge has stood unshaken since 
1755, and the cylindrical apertures 
have given an air of great lightness 
and elegance to the structure. 

The Rialto at Venice is 98 ft. in 
span ; one of the arches of the Ro- 
man bridge of Nami is 142 ft. ; and 
an old bridge over the Allier, in the 
department of Haute Loire in France, 
181 ft; But in 1750 no arch in Eng- 
land had much more than half the 
intended span of Pontypridd, and 
the existence of works which the 
architect could never have lieard of 
detracts notliing from the boldness 
of his undertaking. His success 
secured to liim high reputation and 
mucli employment during the re- 



mainder of his life, and he brought 
up one of his sons in the same pro- 
fession; indeed a large propoiiion 
of the best and handsomest bridges 
in Wales were constructed in later 
years by the two Edwardses, father 
and son. Owing to its extreme steep- 
ness, however, it is almost impracti- 
cable for carriages, so that another 
bridge was made near it in 1857. 
On an eminence facing the river 
stands the Maen Ohwyf, or rocking- 
stone, "where the bards and min- 
strels from time immemorial occa- 
sionally congregate in order to con- 
fer the .different degrees of bardism 
on aspiring candidates." There are 
at Newbridge large chain and cable 
works belonging to Messrs. Brown 
and Lenox, where the chain-work at 
Brighton pier was fabricated. The 
whole of the neighbourhood is very 
pretty, and a day may be well spent 
in rambling over the hills that sur- 
round it. 

[A very beautiful excursion may 
be made up the valley of the Blum- 
dda, which contains some of the 
most beautiful scenery in S. Wales. 
Of late years, however, the seclusion 
and romance of the vale have been 
much broken by the search after its 
mineral treasures, and a Ely., shortly 
to be converted into a passenger-line, 
traverses it up to the very head. 
"The Rhondda rivers rise in that 
noble chain of hiUs which forms the 
southern border of the Neath and 
Aberdare valleys, the bold escarp- 
ments of which are so prominent at 
Hirwain. They are delicious moun- 
tain streams, affording many a sub- 
ject to the artist, who would find 
here unlimited employment for his 
pencil. For the first 4 m. the valley 
is like the others, narrow and pic- 
turesque, with well -wooded hills 
rising directly from each side of the 
river." 

About 2 m. above Newbridge are 
some rapids, which, when the river 
is at all full, are worth stopping to 
look at. 



64 



Route 4. — Cymmer, — Navigation, 



S. Wales. 



* 4 m. Cymmer ; a rather populous 
village, situated, as the name im- 
plies, at the confluence of the Rhon- 
dda Vach with the Rhondda Vawr. 
Cymmer will ever be remembered 
with grief and woe by himdreds in 
Wales, for it was the scene of the 
most widely-spread calamity that 
this district has ever known. On 
the morning of July 15th, 1856, 
114 colliers were swept into eternity 
at one fell swoop by an explosion of 
firedamp in a pit belonging to Messrs. 
Insole. There was not a house in 
Cymmer that had not a corpse in it, 
and scarcely a married woman who 
was not made a widow by that ter- 
rible calamity. 

The pedestrian will do well to as- 
cend the valley of the Rhondda 
Vach for about 2 m. and then cross 
the hill to the 1. at Pen Rhys, so 
called because Rhys returned hither 
after his defeat at Hirwain, — and re- 
join the road at GelU-dawel. 

10 m. Ystrad-y-Fodwg is a lonely 
and primitive little village, the only 
one in the whole vale, with a small 
church by the river side. The val- 
ley is rather wider here, and there 
are a few good farms; the hills, 
however, become more precipitous 
and bold, particularly on the 1. at 
Craig-yr-Afon and Craig-Ogwr, where 
there is a grand amphitheatre of 
mountain as fine as anything in the 
ficenerv of the coal-basin. 

At Cwmsaebraen the glen is still 
wilder and narrower, and quite alp- 
ine m character. Here is a large 
colliery belonging to the Marquis of 
Bute, who owns almost the whole 
valley, and derives a large revenue 
from the royalties of the various 
mines. 

Ty-neioydd, a little higher up, is 
iin old Welsh farm-house, for many 
generations the residence of the 
family of Edwards, whose present 
representative still holds it. The 
pedestrian can ascend the opposite 
mountain at Cwm Selsig and cross 
over into the defiles of Glyn Oorrwg 



(Rte. 1), a difficult and fatiguing 
walk, and one not to be undertaken 
without the aid of an Ordnance map. 
" Above Cwmsaebraen the glen be- 
comes wilder and the road steeper 
and less cared for. The Rhondda 
sparkles beneath like a silver stream, 
and at the very head of the dingle 
the waterfalls can be discerned leap- 
ing over the rocks. Huge bloc^ of 
stones lie around in co^usion, and 
it is evident that the traveller 
has left for a time the regions of 
civiUsation and commerce and is 
fairly alone with nature. The as- 
pect of this glorious scene must be 
strangely different in winter-time, 
and the cairns by the roadside are 
memorials of the severity of the 
weather, by which sundry poor way- 
farers have lost their lives." — G.P.B. 

From the top of the mountain a 
magnificent view is gained over the 
vale of Neath and Aberpergwm to 
the 1., with Hirwain and Aberdare 
valley to the rt. Far in the dis- 
tance range after range of hill rises 
up until the Beacons close the view, 
while just at the foot of the steep 
escarpment of Oraig-y-Llyn the lake 
of Llyn Vawr snugly reposes. The 
pedestrian can walk from here over 
Bwlc-y-Lladron to Aberdare, or 
clamber down the precipitous gullies 
of Craig-y-Llyn to Pontwalby in the 
Vale of Neath (Rte. 5). The whole 
distance from Newbridge to the Vale 
of Neath will be about 27 m.] 

16 J m. Navigation Stat., so called 
from the canal-office here. Here 
the valley of the Cynon joins the 
Taff, and up it a branch-line and a 
branch-canal are carried up to Aber- 
dare. The whole of this neighbour- 
hood is exceedingly pretty. A plea- 
sant walk of about 2| m. may be had 
by ascending Craig-yr-efan on the 
rt., and from thence to Llauvabon, a 
small mountain village. 

[From Navigation a branch-line 
runs to Aberdare, 8 m., the valley 
of the Cynon exhibiting the same 
characteristics as its neighbours. 



S. Wales. 



Route 4. — Aberdare. — Merthyr, 



G5 



4 m. Mountain-Ash Stat.,* to the 
rt. of which rises the eminence of 
Tvoyn-^yn-hychan^ from whence, on 
a fine day, the view extends from 
the Beacons on the N. to the Bristol 
Channel and Somerset hills on the 
S. Just below it, on the Taff Vale 
side, is Daren-y-cig-fraUy the seat of 
a great landslip of the coal- measures, 
which have left a precipitous scarp, 
and lie in broken heaps below. 
The scaur is crowned with beech 
and oak wood, and the view both up 
and down is wide and beautiful. 

6J m. Treaman Stat., near which 
is ^Qyjfryn, the seat of H. Bruce, 
Esq., M.P. ; and to 1. Aheraman, an 
Italian mansion, in a well-wooded 
park, belonging to Crawshay Bai- 
ley, Esq., M.P., whose iron -works 
are to the 1, of the house. The 
pedestrian may follow the course of 
the little river Amman, and cross 
over into the valley of the Rhondda 
Each. 

. 8 m. Aberdare (Rte. 5), a flourish- 
ing iron-work town, which has risen 
from a small village with wonderful 
rapidity. Five - and - twenty years 
ago the population was only a few 
hundreds, whereas now it is nearly 
20,000, most of whom are dependent 
on the numerous collieries and iron- 
works. The latter principally be- 
long to Messrs. Hankey and Fo- 
thergill, whose seat (Abernant 
House) is close to the town. This 
valley is particularly celebrated for 
its valuable and rich seams of steam- 
coal, which has been recognised by 
her Majesty's Government as being 
the most useful for the navy. There 
are two churches, one of which, 
St. Elvan's, is a handsome Dec. 
building, with a fine peal of bells. 
A branch railway to Hirwain con- 
nects Aberdare with Merthyr and 
Swansea.] 

Directly after leaving Navigation 
the line ascends an inclined plane 
'i m. long, rising 1 in 20, and 

* See account of IMcssrs. Nixon and Go's 
new colliery at p. xiv. 



worked by a stationary engine of 
40-horse power. 

Passing through Godre-coed Tun- 
nel, it is carried over the Taff* on 
a stone viaduct, built on a curve, 
the scenery on each side being of 
a wild and very picturesque cha- 
racter, to 

18 m. Quakers' Yard June. The 
little village, so called from having 
been the site of a buryingrplace for 
the Society of Friends, is beautifully 
situated in a curve of the valley 
shut in on all sides by hills. 

Here is the June, of the Taff Vale 
Extension Ely. to Pontypool. 

[2^ m. rt. Llancaiach Stat,, placed 
on a bleak desolate mountain, and 
surroimded by collieries. A large 
number of extensive faults cross this 
portion of the coal-field ; one in par- 
ticular of 100 yds., running S.E. ; so 
that- the coal, which is worked by 
level at Tophill colliery, is obliged 
to be worked by a deep pit at Llan- 
caiach colliery only a few hundred 
yds. distant. 

3 m. Hengoed June. (p. 61).] 

At Quakers' Yard the Bargoed 
Taff river falls into the Taff. 

22J m. Troed-y-rhiw Stat. The 
valley hwe widens considerably, 
and, although its moimtains are not 
less high, they are not seen to such 
advantage. On rt. of the Stat, are 
the long ranges of the Plymouth 
Iron-works, the property of Mr. 
Anthony Hill, who resides close by. 
They are neatly constructed and 
well arranged, but as yet they boast 
not a church. 

Passing under the viaduct of the 
Vale of Neath Ely., the train arrives 
at 

24J m. MeHhyr Tydvil (Rte. 5). 
Hotels: Castle; Bush. Distances: 
Abergavenny, 20 ; Brecon, 17 ; 
Neath, 23. " The ancient histoiy of 
the Merthyr district gave little pro- 
mise of its present wealth and popu- 
lation. Tydvil, the sister of Rlmn 
Drcmrudd, was the daughter of 
Bi-ychan, the Celtic Christian prince 



66 



Eoute 4. — Merth/r TydvU. 



S. Wales, 



of Garthmadrin. Pagan Saxons 
from Loegria burst into the peaceful 
valley, carried fire and sword into 
its recesses, and ruthlessly slaugh- 
tered the virgin with her kinsfolk. 
A future age erected a church to 
the memory of the event, and the 
village took the appropriate name 
of * Tydvil the Martyr,' or *Merthyr 
Tydfil.' Such is a legend of the 
Cambrian martyrology, and the 
foundation of the history of the dis- 
trict, * of which,' as old Fuller 
observes, * every man may believe 
bis proportion/" — Westm.Bev. The 
present town, which, with the 
neighbouring works of Penydarren, 
Cyfartha, and Dowlais, has a popula- 
tion of nearly 70,000, has arisen in 
the last 50 years from an incon- 
siderable village, by reason of the 
vast manufactories of iron that have 
sprung up in that period. It might 
have been supposed that a large 
portion of that wealth, which has, 
on the whole, found its way to each 
class in its degree, would have mani- 
fested itself in the arts of cleanli- 
ness, and that the metropolis of the 
iron trade would have exhibited in 
a pre-eminent degree the charac- 
teristics of a well-built, well-ordered 
town. This, however, has been the 
case to a very limited extent ohly ; 
and, although the apathy of the 
inhabitants has, within the last few 
years, been stirred up, and public 
opinion has shamed the wealthy 
proprietors out of their neglect, 
much remains to be done. The 
streets dre now lighted and drained 
imder the superintendence of a 
Local Board, and a suburb of neat 
villa-like houses has sprung up in 
the S. portion of the town ; but the 
rows 01 workmen's cottages which 
form the mass have still many de- 
fiq^encies, and more particularly that 
of water. Although the town is 
surrounded by clear and copious 
springs, and the river Taff flows 
through it, clean water is stiU a 
desideratum, which it is to be hoped 



will be soon supplied, as there 
appears to be at last a chance of the 
establishment of large water-works^ 
a questio vexata which has agi- 
tated Merthyr for the last 10 years. 
As may be expected, the usual con- 
sequences of such a state of things,, 
lias followed : fever, smallpox, and 
cholera liave from time to time 
reaped a rich harvest amongst the 
inhabitants. From calculations of 
the Health of Towns Association it 
appeared that, while at Tregaron in 
Cardiganshire, the most healthy dis- 
trict in South Wales, 12*1 per cent, 
of the population live to betr^en 
80 and 90, in Merthyr only 2*6 per 
cent, attain to it. For this state of 
things there was no excuse. It 
stands 500 ft. above the sea, open to 
the Sim and wind, and on declivi- 
ties sufficiently steep, with the aid 
of the frequent rains, to keep the 
streets free from all accumulations. 
It is surrounded by lofty mountains 
on every side, from whence at night 
the view is wild and vivid in the 
extreme, the whole valley being 
lighted up with the glow of the 
different works. 

Merthyr, though becoming a little 
more like a civilised and well-or- 
dered town, has no public buildings 
of any interest. The parish church 
is an extremely plain building; in 
the outer wall is an inscribed slab 
of old red sandstone, the inscription 
of which is considered to represent 
"Arthen," a brother of St. Tydvil. 
St. David's new church is a neat 
building, erected in 1846. 

The iron trade of S. Wales sur- 
passes in magnitude that of any 
other district of the United King- 
dom. "The seat of the manufac- 
ture is also placed in a highly pic- 
turesque coimtry, upon a border 
abounding in traditions, where the 
Celts and Saxons were long in conflict, 
and still are but imperfectly united ; 
and is thus invested with a descrip- 
tion of interest which seldom at- 
taches to any manufacturing or 



S.Wales. Route A, — Cyfartha. — Morhk Castle, 



67 



commercial operation, however im- 
portant in other respects." 

The Penydarren works are situ- 
ated just outside the town on the N. 
They were long the property of the 
late Alderman Thompson and Mr. 
Forman, but are now unfortunately 
closed, from pecimiary difficulties, a 
serious blow to the town and trade 
of Merthyr generally, and still more 
so to the many hundreds of workmen 
who were thus thrown out of employ. 
About 2 m. on the road to Aber- 
gavenny is Dowlais (Kte..5). 

Merthyr can boast of being the 
place where the first locomotive 
steam-engine was ever launched, in 
1805, by Messrs. Vivian and Treve- 
thick. It was tried on the Taff 
Vale line, or rather tramway, on 
which it ran pretty well as far as 
Pontypridd, from whence, however, 
no inducements could prevail upon 
it to stir. 

For a general description of the 
iron manufacture, see p. xiv. 

Conveyances. — To Neath and Car- 
diff by rail. A coach to Aberga- 
venny every morning, and also to 
Brecon every afternoon. A line 
is also in progress to Talybont in 
the Vale of Usk, from whence one 
branch is to be carried to Krecon, 
and another across the river to join 
the Mid -Wales Ely. Omnibus to 
Brynmawr and Tredegar every 
afternoon. 

1 m. on L are the Cyfartha works, 
tho property of Mr. Crawshay, se- 
cond only to Dowlais in magnitude, 
and on the whole the best adapted 
for a visit. About 1765 Mr. An- 
thony Bacon received from Lord 
Talbot, of Hensol, a lease for 99 
years of the mineral ground, about 
8 m. long by 4 broad, at the rate of 
200Z. per annum. He erected a 
furnace at Cyfartha, and supplied 
Government with cannon mitil 1782. 
It passed through several hands into 
the ownersliij) of Messrs. Crawshay 
and Hill, the former of whom com- 
menced life as a sharp Yorkshire 



lad, who went to London to seek 
his fortune, and began by sweeping^ 
out the warehouse of his master — 
one of the many instances ^hich 
this country has afforded of shrewd, 
liardworking men, who have won 
their way up to fortune and inde- 
pendence by their own exertions. 
The works contain 7 furnaces, be- 
sides puddling and rolling mills on 
an immense scale. To the 1. the 
road to Aberdare and Swansea 
stretches up the side of Mynydd 
Aberdare. Immediately above the 
works, on the rt., stands CyfaHJia 
Castley the residence of R. Crawshay, 
Esq. It is in a good position, backed 
up by wooded hills, and its generar 
appearance, for a modeni. castle, is 
not amiss. The round tower is very 
good indeed, and the grounds are 
neatly kept. 

At Cefn Coed-y-Cymmer^ a dirty^ 
straggling suburb, the road crosses 
the lesser Taff, just above the 
June, and enters Breconshire. 

[A lane on the rt. leads to the 
romantic little fall of Pontsam, 
The river, nearly concealed by large 
masses of rock, falls into a deep 
basin, which is crossed by a. rustic 
bridge, erected over two rocks of 
equal height, having no more than 
18 ft. between. Above it towers 
the lofty limestone cliff, at the top 
of wliich Morlais Castle is perched, 
appearing at a much greater height 
than it really is. The remains are 
extremely dilapidated, consisting of 
some portions of ruined towers, in 
one of which a chamber was cleared 
out in 1846. It is about 90 ft. in 
circumference, having a groined 
roof supported by a central piUar. 
The situation is grand and com- 
manding, and the view to the N., up 
the valley of the lesser Taff to the 
Beacons, is very fine. It is thought 
by some antiquarians that Morlais 
was never completed : at all events 
it appears to have been built by the 
Normans as part of a system of border 
castles intended to overawe the tur- 



70 



EoiUe 5. — Brynmawr. — Nantygh. S/Wales. 



scantier. The traveller would na- 
turaUy anticipate that at this height 
(1200 ft. above the sea) population 
wonld greatly diminish, but the 
reverse is the case. This upland 
district of bleak and barren moor, 
swamp, and bog, 60 years a sheep- 
walk, destitute of human habitation, 
is now converted into a teeming hive 
of human beings. 

From hence to Merthyr, town suc- 
ceeds to town, almost like a con- 
tinuous street, the principal objects 
on which the eye rests being tram- 
ways and railways, machinery for 
raising coal, and "tips," the raw 
unsightly heaps of rubbish ejected 
from the coalpit mouths, inter- 
spersed with pools and tanks formed 
by damming up the streamlets, 
while at intervals of 2 or 3 m. the 
groups of colossal chimneys, cones, 
and blackened walls and roofs, with 
their accompaniment of smoke and 
flame, announce that the visitor is 
approaching an iron-work. Were 
there no other appearances, those of 
the inhabitants would be sufficient. 
Groups of colliers with features 
imdistinguishable from coal-grime, 
each with his " pick " and candle ; 
miners with paie faces, but with 
more erect gait than their brethren ; 
and women, from the nondescript 
style of their garments, apparently 
of the epicene gender, with cheeks 
bronzed from exposure to the wea- 
ther, and ankles of Amazonian pro- 
portions, are met at every step. 

The impulse given to the iron- 
trade by the construction of rail- 
roads in Great Britain and other 
countries was nowhere more felt 
tlian ill this district. Wages rose 
high (as indeed they always arc, 
when compared with those of agri- 
cultural laljourers), and masters 
made enormous fortunes. Within 
the last few years, however, com- 
]>etition has told immensely on the 
S. Wales trade ; the number of 
coUcries and furnaces everywhere 
erected, and the discovery of new 



{ ores and new fields, particularly 
in S. Yorkshire, Cleveland, North- 
amptonshire, and Somersetshire, 
have considerably diminished tiie 
profits of the iron-master, and con- 
sequently of the workman, as there 
is no trade so sensitive to fluctuation 
as the iron trade. Until within the 
last few years, the population was 
left to increase with no adequate 
provision for its instruction, tem- 
poral or spiritual. The wealthy 
owners, who derived large fortunes, 
seemed to overlook the responsi- 
bilities and obligations that they 
had incurred by bringing such large 
masses of people together, and, as 
a consequence of tiiis blameable 
neglect, ignorance, disorder, and 
disafiection were rampant ; and were 
it not for the endeavours of the 
Dissenters, religion and morality 
would have been almost wholly 
unknown. Fortunately for S. Wales, 
however, a healthier and better 
spirit has been rapidly growing 
amongst all classes : church ac- 
commodation has been extensively 
provided, together with large schools 
of every class : while the work- 
people . have done much to raise 
themselves in the social scale, and 
yield to few in the same rank of 
life in intelligence, industry, and 
morality. 

9 m. Brynmawr {Inn: Griffin, 
bad) ; a large iron-work town, 
comprising with Nantyglo about 
8000 Inhab., principally composed 
of those employed in the Nantyglo 
works. A neat ch. has been erected 
just outside tlie town, although the 
great bulk of the people patronise 
tiie chapels, which abound. There 
are also 83 beer-houses ! 

[1 m. 1. are the extensive works of 
Nantyglo {Inn : Bush), the property 
of the Bailey family, who have ac- 
quired from them all their euonnous 
wealth. They consist of 7 furnaces, 
and enormous rolling and puddling 
forges, from which immense quan- 
tities of rails are turned out. Apart 



S. Wales. 



Eoute 6. — Coed and Iron Works, 



71 



from the interest of the works, how- 
ever, Nantyglo is intensely dirty and 
uninviting. Here is a station of the 
Western Valleys Railway. (Rte. 3.) 

1| m. lower down the valley of 
the Ebbw are the Coalbrook and 
Blaina works (Messrs. Levick and 
Simpson), possessing pretty much 
the same characteristics, though the 
situation is more picturesque, placed 
between two very high and steep 
ranges of hills which separate the 
Ebbwfach valley on the 1. from that 
of the Afon, and on the rt. from the 
Ebbwfawr. Almost the whole of 
the N. crop of the basin is a repeti- 
tion of these narrow vallevs, enclos- 
ing streams that issue from the high 
ground of table-land, and run dueS. 
to the Bristol Channel. More atten- 
tion has been paid at Blaina than at 
most works to the education of the 
inhabitants, and a beautiful ch., in 
the Norm, style, was erected in 1855 
in place of the old parish ch., which 
was almost burnt down the year 
before. From hence to Newport by 
rail is about 18 m. Rte. 3.3 

10 m. Beaufort Iron-works, a long 
straggling street of about 1 m. in 
length, of exceeding dirtiness, and 
affording nothing whatever to inte- 
rest the tourist. These works also 
belong to Messrs. Bailey, and con- 
tain 7 furnaces, but no forges, the 
pig-iron being taken to Nantyglo by 
railway. 

The geologist will be able to find 
fish remains in most of the tips or rub- 
bish-heaps from the pits; and many 
of the coal-seams, particularlv the 
Ellid coal, furnish good specimens 
of fossil ferns. 

1 m. 1. are the Ehhwvale and Vic- 
toria Iron-works, conducted by the 
Ebbwvale Iron Company, and em- 
ploying about 9000 people. The 
forges and mills at these works arc 
models of order and regularity. From 
the hills of Llwvdcoed and Mamliole 
on the rt. and 1. maguificeut views 
of the suiTounding coimtiy can bo 
obtained. To the N. the long, high 



table-land of millstone grit and 
limestone, with the old red sand- 
stone mountains of the Vale of Usk 
beyond, Pen-carreg-calch and the 
Cader, the Beacons overtopping aU, 
' on the left, and the Skyrrid, Sugar- 
loaf, and between them the far-dis- 
tant Malvems on the rt. ; to the S. 
the ridges in the neighbourhood of 
Newport and CaerphSly, the blue 
Channel and the faint hills of Somer- 
setshire, form a panorama at once 
varied and extensive. " In the direc- 
tion of Merthyr, wave after wave of 
mountains rise up to the eye of the 
spectator, separated only by the al- 
ternations of light and shade, and 
the waving masses of smoke which 
rise from the valleys, telling of the 
tens of thousands who are gaining 
their livelihood in the bowels of the 
earth. It is a grand and beautiful 
contrast, and to a lover of nature 
there is a peculiar pleasure in being, 
as it were, isolated from the world 
below, and reflecting on tho vast 
changes that these old hills have un- 
dergone. Here is a cairn, the resting- 
place, perhaps, of some old Briti^ 
warrior; there is a steam-engine, 
every beat of which brings civiliza- 
tion nearer and widens the distance 
between the present and the past. 
It is even in man's recollection when 
these valleys, now so crowded with 
human life and industry, were un- 
trodden, save by the shepherd, or 
by people who, as Archdeacon'Coxe 
expresses it in his Travels, * ven- 
tured into the wilds of Monmouth- 
shire for the purpose of searching 
for grouse.' "— G^. P. B. 

At Ebbwvale is a station of the 
Western Valleys to Newport 18 m. 
(Rte. 3). 

11 2 m. Sirhowy WorJcs^ belonging 
to the same firm as those at Ebbw- 
vale ; and 12 m. 1. Tredegar, contain- 
ing a population exceeding 8000, all 
of whom are dependent on the iron- 
works. Tredegar certainly bears the 
palm of being the dirtiest and most 
mipleasant town in all the hill disr 



72 



Boute 6. — Dowlais, — Vale of the Cynon. S. Wales. 



trict. A railway runs from henee 
to Risca through the valley of 
Sirhowy. 

14 m. At Bhymney Gate the 
Rhymney river separates the coun- 
ties of Brecon, Glamorgan, and Mon- 
mouth. About J m. to rt., in the bed 
of the brook, the geologist will find 
an interesting bed of fossil marine 
shells of the coal period. 

[i m. 1. are Rhymney and Bute 
Iron-works, the property of a joint 
stock company, who have endea- 
voured in their construction to en- 
graft some fine art even upon iron- 
works, the furnaces being built in a 
massive Egyptian form. From hence 
the tourist may pay a visit by the 
Rhymney Railway to Caerphilly 
(Rte. 4).] 

The road now passes over the de- 
solate and bleak Waun Common, 
which, however, forbidding as it 
looks, teems with mineral wealth. 

17^ Dowlais, one of the largest 
establishments in Great Britain, con- 
taining 17 furnaces, and enormous 
rolling-mills and forges. The as- 
pect of the works at night is a sight 
not to be forgotten, and the beacons 
are lighted up with their glow for 
miles round. They were brought 
to their present perfection by the 
energy and perseverance of the late 
Sir John Guest, M.P., who ranked 
as one of the foremost iron-masters 
in tlie country. Under his care the 
sanitary and social condition of the 
people, who number at this work 
about 16,000, was considerably 
raised, after having been for many 
years at a state of neglect and degra^ 
datiou horrible to contemplate. A 
handsome buildmg on the rt. has 
been erected to his memory, to serve 
a^ a library and institution. Close 
to the furnaces, and in fact touching 
them, is Dowlais House, the resi- 
dence of G. Clarke, Esq., the ma- 
naging trustee. 

Descending a long and very steep 
hill, which seems almost intermi- 
nable, and pas^g the now silent 



Penydarren works and house, the 
traveller arrives at 

20 m. Merthyr. Inns: Castle, 
Bush. (Rte. 4.) The Vale of Neath 
Railway is on the broad gauge, and 
an important tributary to the S. 
Wales line, which it joins at Neath. 
Since its formation many new col- 
lieries have been opened in the 
Vale, and much ore is imported by 
it for the use of the difterent works. 
After leaving the station it crosses 
the Taff Vale Railway, the river, and 
the canal, on a loffy viaduct, from 
which an extensive view is gained 
down the vale. The hill inter- 
vening between Merthyr and Aber- 
dare is pierced by a long tunnel, on 
emerging from which the train ar- 
rives at 

Ahemant, 24 m. The vale of the 
Cynon is now visible for a consider- 
able distance. Here are the furnaces 
of Messrs. Fothergill and Hankey, 
with numberless collieries ; indeed 
the whole valley is a continuous 
hive of manufacturing industry. 
Below Abernant is (1 m.) Aherdare 
(Rte. 4), backed up by the noble 
ranges of Daren y Bwlchau, Cefn 
Rhosgwawr, and Mynydd Bacli, 
which separate the Cynon from the 
Rhondda valley (Rte. 4). 

In every direction, as far as the 
eye can reach, tokens of mining 
activity present themselves — coal- 
pits with their gloomy-looking 
engine - houses — long stacks of 
chimneys belching K)rth fire and 
white jets of steam, coke-ovens with 
their long rows of dull light — and 
networks of trafnroads and railways — 
all combine to make it a busy scene. 
The line is carried on the northern 
slope of the valley past Llwydcoed 
25| m. to the watershed of the 
Cynon, the dreary and desolate moor 
in which Hirwain (27^ m.) is placed. 
It is a populous though scattered 
village, dependent on the iron-works 
of Messrs. Crawshay ; and though 
situated in as forbidding a spot as 
can well be imagined, there is a 



S. Wales. 



Eoide 5. — Vale of Nhath. 



73 



certain grandeur in the bold sweep 
of tlie mountains, particularly in the 
escarpment of Craig-y-Llyn, which 
rises directly from the moor in an 
unbroken line. Hirwain Common, 
or Hirwain Wrgan, was the scene of 
a great battle between Rhys ap 
Tewdor and Jestyn ap Wrgan, after- 
wards drowned in Crymlyn Bog, 
near Swansea (p. 20). 

After leaving Hirwain the scenery 
begins to improve. On an eminence 
2 m. rt. is the parish church of 
Penderyn. The line now descends 
the watershed of the Neath, and 
speedily exchanges the barren deso- 
lation of the hills for the wooded 
and smiling valley. On emerging 
from the Pen-cae-draen tunnel the 
geologist will notice on the rt. 
Craig-y-Dinas, a singular protrusion 
of the carboniferous limestone rocks, 
running in a sharp point into the 
coal-measures and fon|iing what is 
termed "a leaf." The highly in- 
clined strata of the sandstone-beds 
are well seen as the train rushes 
down the steep incline. On the 
opposite side of the vale, on rt., is 
PorU-Neath'Vaughan, and 1 m. fur- 
ther the populous hamlet of Pont- 
walby and the iron-works of Aber- 
nant, a little .distance from which is 
the station of- GlytirNeath 34 m. 
The inn (Lamb .and Flag, not a very 
comfortable one) is about f m. 
from the station ; it is nevertheless 
the most convenient house in the 
neighbourhood for visiting the 
waterfall district. For about 2 m.. 
the tourist returns up the valley, 
but on the northern side, to Pont- 
Neath-Vaughan or Fechan (Angel 
Inn), a romantic little village placed 
in the most exquisite situation at 
the confluence of the united streams 
of the Neath and Pyrddin with the 
Mellte and Hepste. It is under the 
shadow of a narrow gorge, through 
wliich the Neath flows, crossed by a 
picturesque bridge of one arch. 
From the Lamb and Flag to this 
village the excursion can be taken 
[S. Wales.] 



in a carriage, but the remainder 
must be performed on a pony or on 
foot, unless the touiist wishes to 
proceed at once to Ystradfellte, 
about 4 m. to the N. A guide 
should be obtained at Pont-Neath- 
Vaughan. The course of the rivers 
and brooks, for whose scenery the 
Vale of Neath has been so justly 
praised, is rather intricate, and it 
will help the traveller briefly to 
indicate the geograpliy of the dis- 
trict. There are four main rivers, 
besides some tributary streamlets — 
the first of which, the Pyrrdm 
(pron. Purthen), rises in a largo 
swamp on the mountains to the N.W., 
near Oapel Oolbren, and 1^ m. above 
Pont- Neath-Vaughan luiites with 
the Nedd or Neath river, which has 
its source about 8 m. due N. 
under the lofty summit of Fan Nedd. 
The Mellte, perhaps the largest of 
the group, is formed by two streams, 
the Llia and the Dringarth, rising 
respectively near Fan Llia and F(in 
Drmgarth, in the same great range 
of mountain as the Neath, but about 
a mile or two to the E. ; while the 
Hepste rises considerably to the 
E. and unites with the Mellte at 
Oilhepste. All these rivers, to- 
gether with the small tributary of 
the Sychrhyd, unite to form the 
main stream of the Neath. 

The first point is Craig-y-Binas, 
the limestone rock before mentioned 
{ante, p. 73), at the foot of which runs 
the Sychrhyd, separating the coun- 
ties of Brecon and Glamorgan. The 
view from the rock, extencfing down 
the whole length of tha vale, with 
Swansea Bay in the distance, is one 
of the most lovely in aU Wales : — 

*• Round him rock 
And cliff, whose grey trees mutter to the 

wind, 
And streams down rushing with a torrent 

h-e." 

There is here a ciuious appearance 
of concentric strata which has been 
tlie Bica Maen or Bow of Stone. 



7-i 



Boute 6. — PoHh-yr-Ogof. 



S. Wai-es. 



Hepste is the Cil-hepste Fall, where 
the river dashes on a precipitous 
scarp of the rock about 50 ft. high ; 
leaving a path beneath the fall, 
along which the visitor may pass, 
and, if necessary, take shelter from 
the rain. Just below are the lower 
falls, or rather rapids, which should 
not be omitted to be seen, though 
it requires more of a scramble to 
reach them. Crossing some high 
ground, the visitor next arrives at 
the Mellte river, upon which, at 
Clyngwyn, there is an exceedingly 
beautiful fall, containing a larger 
body of water than even that at 
CU-hepste; but as it is distributed 
over a greater distance, the effect is 
by no means so fine, besides which, 
there ia no access to it from below, 
as precipitous rocks close up all the 
approaches. There are two otlier 
falls below the one at Clyngwyn. 
About 1^ m. higher up the MeUte 
flows through a very curious cavern 
called Porth-^r-Ogof (Gate of the 
Cave), about 40 ft. liigh, 20 ft. wide, 
and about 600 yds. in length. From 
the entrance can be seen a gleaming 
mass of calcareous spar, assuming 
very much the form of a child, and 
hence called "Llyn y Baban," or 
Pool of the Child. The visitor can 
penetrate for a considerable dis- 
tance ^vith the help of lights, but it 
is very fatiguing and scarcely repays 
tlie attempt. In the middle of the 
cave the river is rejoined by a por- 
tion of its stream wliich disappeai-s 
near Ystradfellte church, and ilows 
undergi'ound as far as Porth-yr-Ogof. 
The fecene during a flood is of tlic 
wildest description, as the river has 
been frequently swollen to a height 
above tiie entrance, which has been 
well nigh blocked up with trees and 
debris brought down by the torrent. 

•• Turbidus hie cceno vastaque voragine giirges 
^stuut." 

Ystradfellte is a small village, re- 
markable only for the beauty of its 
situation among the mountains, and 



its being as it were the last trace of 
civilization for many weary miles be- 
tween it and Brecon, which is about 
18 m. distant. [The road puisnes 
tlie desolate valley of the Llia, and 
is joined about 3 m. from the village 
by Sam Helen^ which runs from the 
Vale of Neath to the Gaer, near 
Brecon (Rte. 7), in a N.E. direc- 
tion, crossing the Resolven Moun- 
tain and the ridge of Cerrig-Llwyd 
to the 1. of Ystradfellte. Near ils 
junction with tlie turnpike is a stone 
called Maen-madoc, inscribed — 

"Dervaci Alius Julii ic jacit" 

The highest point of the pass is 
marked by the Maen Llia, a huge 
upright lozenge-shaped stone, visible 
from a long ^stance on both sides. 
The road tiien descends by the side 
of Y Fan Frynach, and joins the 
Merthyr and Brecon road near 
Glanrhyd.3 

From Porth-yr-Ogof the visitor 
may cross flie high ground on the 
rt. bank of the Mellte, and descend 
to the Neath river, and from thence 
to the Pyrddin, which presents 2 of 
the most lovely falls -of the whole 
group. 

The upper one is called Sewd 
Einon Gam^ or Crooked Einon's Fall, 
and presents an unbroken sheet of 
water dashing on at a height of 80 ft. 
"The sides of the clift* are com- 
pletely clotlied with verdure, and 
richly-coloured and delicately-tinted 
fohage. On the top, in majestic 
triumph and ineffable dignity, a 
single oak throws its broad arms 
over the falling waters, which, from 
its size and moss-covered tiTink, 
must have been the associate of the 
stern clift* for many generations 
past.' ' 

The lesser fall, or Scwd Gladis 
(the Lady's Fall), is } m. nearer 
Pont-Neath-Vaughan, and is about 
40 ft. in lieight, possessing, though 
in a less degree, very much the 
beautiful features of the former. 
Near it stood a rocking-stone, which, 



S. Wales. 



Houte 6. — Llanelli/ to Newtoum. 



75 



by an act of wanton Vandalism 
which cannot be too strongly repre- 
hended, was overturned in 1850 by 
a party of navvies who were em- 
ployed on the railway. [If the 
pedestrian can afford time, he may 
follow the Pyrddin to its source, a 
distance of 5 m., and visit the little 
ch. of Capel Colbren and the water- 
fall of Scwd Hen Rhyd on the 
Llech, which in height exceeds 
them all (Rte. 1).] 

Close to the stat. of Glyn Neath 
is Aberpergiomj the scat of the Wil- 
liams mmily, and one of the most 
charming and romantic spots in S. 
Wales. The fine growth of the 
timber, tlie undulations of the park, 
and the precipitous escarpments of 
the mountains produce a combina- 
tion of effects rarely to be met with. 

On a bank immediately above the 
stat. is the pretty cottage of Ynis-laSt 
the residence of the Misses Williams, 
members of the same old family, 
well known for the services rendered 
by them to Welsh literature and 
Welsh national music. ^ 

The Vale of Neath gradually 
widens in its downward course, and 
becomes more beautifully clothed 
with trees, and more graceful in the 
outiincs of the hiUs on either side. 
The river glides along in chaiining 
reaches, though in a more peacefid 
stream than &gher up the valley ; 
and running very near it, the canal 
from Abemant to Neath offers 
many pretty scenes between its- 
wooded banks. On the rt. is Bheola 
(N. E. Vaughan, Esq.), second only 
to Aberpergwm in the singular 
beauty of its situation : and a little 
further on is Besolven stat., 37 m., 
near which on a bank to the 1. is a 
very pretty church. 

41 m. Aherdylais, where are the 
extensive tinplatG works of Messrs. 
Williams and Co. : also a small 
waterfall on the Duluis, wliicli, 
however, is scarcely worth visiting 
after those of the Pvrddin and 
Hepste. 



From hence to Neath the valley 
rapidly extends. On 1. is the GnoU 
(Rte. 1), and on rt., 1 m. from Neath, 
the ch. of Cadoxton, which contains, 
amongst its parochial curiosities 
the pedigree of the family of Wil- 
liams, engraved on sheets of copper, 
and occupying 4 long pages. 

From Aberdylais the railway runs 
in a straight line to Neath, 43 m. 
Hotel: Oastie. (Rte. 1.) 



ROUTE 6. 

FROM LLANELLY TO NEWTOWN, BY 
LLANDEILO, LLANDOVERY, LLAN- 
WRTYD, BUILTH, AND LLANDRIN- 
DOD. 

LlaneUy (^Hotels: Stepney Arms, 
Thomas Arms), Rte. 1, is quitted 
by the Carmarthenshire Railway, 
which, originally planned to convey 
mineral produce from the anthra- 
cite coal districts in the N. of the 
county to the port and harbour of 
LlaneUy, has become an important 
inland passenger-line, and a valuable 
feeder to the S. Wales Railway. 
Until witliin the last few years it 
extended only into the mineral val- 
ley of Cwm Amman, but in 1857 
a branch was made to Llandeilo, 
where it amalgamated with the Valo 
of Towey line to Llandovery, and 
is destined to become still more 
important by being the outlet of the 
traffic through the heart of WwVcis^ 
from ^lawc\\e^Ve\ \.q ^^V^ic^x^^^^NVixx. 



i»> 



R/nn •?* — ISirunT'i ^J yivtixm. 



S. Wales. 



wijcis "v:.oii ;tMj"irf ii»i rr^^-^i^ 
pom.ci ;c diif r-tii: i:iii .".mintir.'rr 

bp.iiii -imirf ^i:^ re i l»:'r:u ■fCDcr'jr:"* 
in*. liiif Tilfr :i: iii»r Lj:a:£?it:r a: 

frrci S^rAZaeA v: CAT-.-i^lrc, Tie 

pels ocL ii.e chAracicr of a n-^cntjiiiv- 
strv^isi. wLile the h:;!s ^bich Ane 
of o^ijsidcrable height. ^radtiallT 
approach e^oh other as the tiavelltr 
xteais the sreat lanse of the Black 
Mountains. 

12 m. FaiU^fyimon junction, from ' 
whence a branch line of 5 m. nma 
up the narrow Tale of Cirm Amman, 
principally for the purpose of bring- 
ing the anthracite coal to the sea. 
It is situated in the Tery heart of 
the mountains, which offer some of 
the most beautiful scenery in the 
country, and a pedestrian can cross 
the high ground intervening between 
the Amman and the Twrch, and 
descend into the Swansea valley at 
Yniscedwin (^Rto. 1), or follow the 
turnpike from Neath across the 
mountains to Llangadock in the 
Valo of Towey. Cwm Amman ap- 
I>ears so remote from the bustle of 
the world, that the visitor is almost 
surprised to find a pretty church 
and a rather extensive market-liouso 
for the use of the inhabitants. 

15 m. Llandyhie is a pretty vil- 
lage placed lust undemeatli the 
08earpm(;nt of mountain-limestone 
rock >v]iich forms tho nortliorn 



-;cTX3iLzrr of the coal-field. The 
.i.iLl-air:ad;ir^s in this locality are 
.-jc^cCed zi isbe iseQSt extiaordinaiy 
•niLiTzgr. izii ^e limestone at Tbir 
Cam Lauf s r:I!«=d into view within 
Cjt j?:!i»fril E. isl W. lines of the 
■.■Tnil-&ji. i:i tL-e- same manner, 
il^.:cir!i =f.^ to snch an extpn^ — 
u Criborfih Ximitaxn in the Swan- 
5f4 villey. izil Dinas Craig in the 
VaI-: -.f X^jLth I E:e. 5 . 

I =- rt- i< OlitnAir W. Da Bms- 
icc Ej>»i. « ri whoise grounds there 
is Jk pc^rHT oa^scadr of the IJoogfaor, 
wLi'.'b. ssjTSts i'.'CL a hole in the 
ni-.^-'nBjiz. in »coh abundance as to 
riLm a —-■T vrrr shorslr afkerwaida. 
LlazjiTfe church has a lofty em- 
Ciinlct^ tower, a:::^! contains a m<Niii- 
si-rnt to Sir Harry Vaughan of 
IXrwy.id, who held a command in 
the army in the time of Charles L 
From hence to Carreg Cennen Gastle 
is aK>ut 3 m- .^Rte. 7 . 

16 ni. Drrvrifdfi wai^ the residence 
of the Van^han and Stepney family, 
and contains some antique fumitiiFP*, 
probably about the age of Henrr 
VIII. 

20 m. As the railway crosses the 
Towoy the tourist obtains a charm- 
ing view, both up and down the 
vale, of the picturesque town of 
Llandeilo {Hotel: Cawdor ArmsX 
and of the woods and park of 
Dynevor to the 1. Llandeilo and 
the whole route to Llandovery 
(31 m.) is fully described in Rte. 7. 

From Llandovery an omnibus 
runs daily to Llanwrtyd, and every 
second dfiy to Builth and Llandrin- 
dod Wells ; also daily to Brecon. 

32 m. rt. Llanfair-y-hryn church, 
the former site of a Itoman station, 
evidences of which have occasion- 
ally turned uj) in the form of bricks, 
coins, and truces of Roman roads. 

34 ni. 1. Glanhrane Park, formerly 
the splendid seat of the Gwynne 
family, but now belonging to 0. 
Bailey, Esq., M.P., and the resi- 
dence of Cui)t. Ijewes. 

35 m. a road to rt. continues over 



S, Wales. Route 6. — Ltanwrtyd. — Vale of Yrfon, 



11 



the hilly and bleak Oefa Llwyddlo 
to BiiUth. 

As the traveller ascends the nar- 
row dell through which tlie Bran 
flows, the woods begin to thin, and 
about the 38th m. all vegetation 
ceases, on nearing the ^vild-looking 
pass of the Sugar Loaf Hill. Al- 
though of no very great elevation, 
yet the aspect of the whole locality 
is gloomy and forbidding, the road 
being carried round the mountain 
at a formidable height above the 
stream. The boundary-line between 
the coimties of Carmarthen and 
Brecon is passed about ^ m. on 
the other side of the Sugar Loaf — 
a fact which is curiously obvious by 
the sudden and apparent change in 
the state of the roads, which, fortu- 
nately for the timid traveller who 
has to descend the pass, are very 
good in the former county, and 
equally bad in the latter. From 
hence it is a dull and uninteresting 
drive over a very high and dreary 
table-land to 

42 m. Llanwrtyd Wells, which, 
remote and isolated as it seems, yet 
enjoys a large share of the patronage 
of the valetudinarian population. 
"The wildest mouutains form the 
vestibule to the deep repose of this 
green and sylvan temple of Hygeia 
— a narrow dale running up into the 
heart of grand hills, below which 
the bowered river serpentines." — 
Mountain Decameron. The river 
Yrfon is crossed at the hamlet of 
Pont-rhyd-y-feir by a narrow bridge, 
fix)m which a few hundred yards 
brings the visitor to Dolycoedt the 
principal boarding-house. The 
scenery, wliich has been hitherto 
rather monotonous, becomes more 
broken and romantic as the visitor 
penetrates further into the moun- 
tains, following the river Yrfon as 
his guide. Many beautiful walks 
and excuraions are to be made in 
tliis district, and Llanwrtyd will 
make a convenient luilting-place for 
tlie pedesti'ian who wishes to explore 



the upper part of the vales of 
Towey and Yrfon. [This latter river 
rises in the mountains to the N.W. 
of Drygarn, about 11 or 12 m. from 
Llanwrtyd. The first object of in- 
terest is the wooded hill of Pen- 
dinas, which rises on the rt. bank 
of the stream, on the opposite side 
of which, at the farm of Llwyngwy- 
chyr, is the cave of a notorious rob- 
ber called Rhys Gethin, who, not 
content with pillaging the king's 
subjects, was wont to insult the 
king by the following couplet : — 

" The king owns all the island 
Except what has been apportioned to Rhys." 

5 m. on 1. LlynderWt the solitary 
residence of the family of Roberts. 

6 m., at the confluence of the 
Gwessin with the Yrfon are the 2 
small chiu'ches of Llanddewi and 
Llanvihangel Abergwessin, the former 
bein^ only 30 ft. by 15, and of most 
primitive structure. Why 2 churches 
should be placed within a few yards 
of each other seems a marvel not 
easily explained, particularly when 
the vast size of the parishes is taken 
into account. 

8 m. the river runs through the 
most wild and romantic scenery, 
the rocky sides of the glen rising 
to a considerable height, and at 
Camddwr hleiddiau^ or the Wolves* 
Leap, it runs at a great depth be- 
tween vertical rocks almost touch- 
ing each other. About 3 m. to the 
N.E. the tourist can, if he chooses, 
ascend Drygarn Mountain, or the 
Druid*s Cairn, and descend on the 
other side into the valley of the 
Claerwen, and on to Rhayader.] 

[Another exciu'sion can be made 
up Glen Henog, across Mynydd 
Trawsnant, into the Vale of Towey, 
down which the traveller proceeds 
to Capel Ystrad y Ffin and Twm 
Shoii Catti's Cave (Rte. 7). The 
cave is merely a rift in the rocks, 
and the renowned robber T^vm Shon 
Catti was in sober phrase nothing 
more ihssxs. TV\o\wv5.^ ^Q\\^^,^sy\.^"<«^<2» 



78 



Boute 6. — Llangammarch. — Ctcm LleweUyn, S. Wales* 



firequontcd this cave when coiirtmg 
the heiress of Ystrad y Ffin. The 
aspect of the locality, however, is 
wild and romantic enough to found 
any amount of legendary lore upon 
it.i 

The geology of the district round 
Llanwrfyd is of a most interesting 
character. ** In proceeding from the 
Llandeilo tract to the N.E. we first 
meet with eruptive masses of por- 
phyry and other rocks at Llanwrtyd 
Wells, and tlien black schists and 
flags of tliis age, often highly 
altered, again prevail. The beds 
are so slaty and crystalline, tliat 
the highly-inclined cleavage of the 
slates is the only feature visible to 
the unpractised eye ; the real strata 
undulating or dipping at a much 
lesser angle. If the spectator stands 
on the summit of Esgair Davydd, 
he overlooks a wide area to the 
S.E., and has beneath his feet and 
for a certain distance before liim 
a mass of these lower slaty rocks; 
while in the dull round hills of the 
middle ground are spread out the 
Upper Silurians of the Mynydd 
Epynt and Bwlch-y-groes." — Silu- 
ria. The wells, which consist of a 
sulphuric and chalybeate spring, 
were discovered in 1732 by the Rev. 
Theophilus Jones, vicar of Llan- 
gammarch, and are due "to the de- 
composition of sulphuret of iron, 
which has been largely accumulated 
at some of those points where the 
trap has been intruded into pyritous 
shale." The well is called in Welsh 
Ffynnon Drewllyd, or the stinking 
well, owing to the fetid odours of 
the water, which is considered by 
many skilful analysts to be equal to 
that of Harrowgate. It is especially 
useful in scorbutic and cutaneous 
diseases. 

47 m. Llangammarch, a small vil- 
lage with a mineral spring, situated 
at the confluence of the Cammarch 
with the Yrfon. The scenery, which 
for the whole distance from Llan- 
wrtyd has been iminteresting, im- 



proves and contmues to do so all 
the way to Builth. 4 m. to 1. on 
the banks of the Cammarch is 
Llwyn-madoc, the seat of H. Thomas, 
Esq. 

49 m. at Mass-cefn-ford is a neat 
roadside inn, a convenient hostelrio 
for anglers in the Yrfon and neigh- 
bouriiig streams. A road to the rt. 
leads over the Mynydd Epynt to 
Brecon, passing by the side of Cwm- 
graig-ddu precipice, terminating a 
narrow dingle, which, viewed from 
below, presents a sublime appear- 
ance. Tliis range of hills, with 
Mynydd Bwlch-y-grocs, forms an 
enormous mass of mountain, the 
escarpments of which, showing the 
Upper Silurian beds, accompanies 
the traveller on the rt. nearly the 
whole way from Llanwrtyd to Builth, 
and forms an unmistakeable feature 
in the landscape, though taken 
singly they are rather monotonous 
in their outline. 1 m. to 1. is Llarir 
Ueonfel church, which contains some 
mural monuments of the GwjTine 
family. Close by are traces of the 
Roman road Sam Helen, connecting 
Mariduniun with Deva, and uniting- 
with the branch from Bannium. 

50 m. 1. the church of Llauafan 
Fechan, and 53 m. on rt. is Cefii-y- 
hedd and Cwm Llewellyn, sacred to^ 
every Welshman as being the scene 
of the death and burial of IjlcwcUyn 
ap Gnifiydd, the last Prmce of 
Wales, in 1282. During the final 
sti'uggle for Welsh independence, 
he came to his castle of Abereddw 
on the Wye, for the puipose of hav- 
ing an interview with the cliieftains ; 
and being nearly surprised by the 
English forces imder Sir Edward 
Mortimer, rode away in flight, hav- 
ing had his horse's shoes reversed, 
in order to deceive his pursuers, as 
the snow lay deep upon the ground. 
The manoeuvre was, however, trea- 
cherously made known to tlie Eng- 
lish by Madoc Goch Min Mawr, the 
blacksmith whom Llewellyn em- 
ployed. The imfortmiate prince. 



S. Wales. 



HoiUe 6. — BuUih, 



79 



after being refused admittance by 
the inhabitants of Builth, crossed 
the Yrfon near Llanynis, but with 
his party of followers was speedily 
overtaken by the English, one of 
whom, by name Adam de Fi-ankton, 
killed him and cut off liis head, 
although at first ignorant of the 
quality of his victim. His body was 
buried at Cefn-bedd-LIewellyu. A 
short distance to the 1. is Llanqan- 
ten cliiurch, situated on the bank of 
the Chwelfru, which falls into the 
Yrfon. 

55 m. the road crosses the Yi-fon 
by a neat bridge a short distance 
only from where it joins the Wye, 
and in less than a mile enters the 
town of 

56 m. BuiUh {Hotel: Lion, good) 
(Rte. 8), the ancient Bullsemn, a 
picturesque little town of 1200 
Inhab., situated on the Wye, across 
which a bridge of 6 arches connects 
the counties of Brecon and Eadnor. 
The town consists of 2 parallel 
streets, which form irregular ter- 
races on the side ofa steep declivity. 
The only remains of the Castle, 
which was erected before the Con- 
quest, are a fragment of the north 
wall, of unusual thickness; it was 
destroyed by a fire, together with 
the old town, in 1692. 

The air of this locality is con- 
sidered very salubrious, and its 
mineral springs at Park Wells, about 
a mile from the town, attract many 
visitors during the season, for whose 
accommodation a Pump-room has 
. been erected. The waters flow from 
three springs, saline, chalybeate, 
and sulphureous, said to be perfectly 
distinct, though originating within 
a few feet of each other. Builth is 
a very popular fisliing station for 
anglers ; trout and salmon being 
found in great abundance in the 
Wye and Yrfon ; the Chweffru, Edw, 
and Dilionw, arc also good lisbiug 
streams. The salmon-fishing fur- 
nishes excellent sport in April and 
May. 



The country round Builth affords 
many opportunities for . the geolo- 
gical tourist. " In the hilly district 
between it, Llandrindod, and Llan- 
degley, the Llandeilo formation rises 
to the surface in the form of a 
nigged ellipsoidal mass, throughout 
which, igneous rocks, both stratified 
and eruptive, prevail. Whether col- 
lected at Wellfield or other places 
near, or in the flagstones N. of the 
Cameddau Hills, the Ogygia Buchii, 
Ampyx nudus, Agnostus McCoyii, 
and the Lingula attenuata, are foimd 
in abundance, with beds full of 
Orthis calligramma, and other -cha- 
racteristic shells. On the flanks of 
the Cameddau hills (about 2 m. to 
the N.) there are amorphous masses 
of igneous rock, which have broken 
through and highly altered the 
Llandeilo flags." — Siluria. 

Distances. — Brecon, 16 m. ; Llan- 
dovery, 24 ; Llanwrtyd, 13 ; Llan- 
drindod, 7 ; Rhayader, 14 ; Hay, 20 ; 
Hereford, 40 : coaches to Aberj'st- 
with and Hereford every alternate 
day; omnibus to Llandrindod and 
Llandovery every alternate day. 

Crossing the bridge over the Wye, 
a road on 1. leads to Khayader, 13 m. 
(Rte. 9), the high ground above it 
being occupied by the beautiful 
woods and park of Wellfield (E. 
Thomas, Esq.). 

56 m. Llanelwedd Church, very 
prettily placed on the banks of the 
Wye, from which the road now parts 
company. A road on rt. goes to 
New Radnor (Rte. 9), 13 m. 

57i m. Pencerrig House, another 
seat of the family of Thomas, with a 
fine lake in the grounds, after pass- 
ing which the tourist ascends a long 
hiU to, 61 m., the little hamlet ol 
Hoicey. On the 1. is Disserth Hall ; 
on rt., on an eminence above the 
road, are vestiges of an ancient en- 
trenchment known as Caer Ddu. 
From hence a drive of a mile over the 
breezy common brings the ti'avellev 
to the primitive watering-place ol 
X?«uc?ruidod\VviV\%,v:n.\sv. ^\NSi, >^-ixxx- 



80 



Eoute 6. — Uandriivdod Wells. 



S. Wales. 



cipal and best accommodation is to 
be obtained at the Pump House 
Hotel and the Rock House. The 
mineral waters of Llandrindod have 
been known to possess efficacious 
power ever since 1696, and as long 
ago as 1749 a large hotel was opened 
by a Mr. Grosvenor, termed Llan- 
drindod Hall, an establishment 
which obtained an extensive repu- 
tation, but ultimately became the 
resort of gamblers and such ques- 
tionable characters, that it was 
eventually pulled down. Nothing, 
however, has been able to destroy 
the health-restoring influences of 
the place; its situation on a wide, 
elevated common, the efficacy of its 
mineral springs, and the compara- 
tive freedom from tiic usual water- 
ing-place dissipation, all combine to 
make it much sought after by.tlie 
valetudinarian. 

•* Blest Spring ! where pale disease may 
quaff 
New life, till spleen and vapour laugh, 
Till palsitid nerves their tone resume, 
And age regains its faded bloom." 

Tiie springs are three in number, 
consisting of chalybeate, saline, and 
sulphureous, and are considered to 
be especially useful in scrofulous 
and cutaneous diseases. The church, 
to the rt. of the road, is some little 
distance from the Pump-house, and 
is well placed on the spur of a hill, 
overlooking the plain, which is 
watered by the "Wye, the Ithon, and 
the Yrfon. 

Near it is a lead-mine, supposed 
to liave been worked by the Romans ; 
indeed the number of entrenchments 
and tumuli scattered over the com- 
mon and in the vicinity prove that it 
was a station of some importance. 

About 1^ m. to the N.E. is Gefn- 
Llys Church, placed at the bottom 
of a deep valley, a steep hill rising 
directly above it from the banks of 
tlie Ithon. On its summit formerly 
stood Cefn-Llys Castle, which was 
built by Ralph Mortimer in 1242, 
and fell into the possession of the 



Crown in Edward IV.'s reign. " The 
well-wooded and deep valley near 
the little church is singularly beau- 
tiful, where the Ithon, emerging 
from this volcanized region through 
a narrow gorge of trap rock, passes 
between cliffs about 40 ft. high, 
&om the sides of which a single 
plank serves as a bridge over the 
stream." — Murchison. 

Distances. — Newton, 23 m. ; Rhay- 
ader (by Newbridge), 13 ; Builth, 7 ; 
Abbey Cwm Hir, 9J ; Penybont, 4. 

Coaches : an omnibus to Llando- 
very every alternate day ; to King- 
ton daily. 

63 m. A road to the 1. crosses the 
Ithon to Llanyre, situated on a 
Roman road which ran from Caer- 
fagu, between Rhayader and Knigh- 
ton, probably to Builth (Bullaeum). 

G5 m. Crossing the Ithon, on 1. is 
Llanhadam Vaivr Church, possess- 
ing a S. doorway of apparently 
very early Norm, work, with some 
curious carving in the tympanum. 
A little further the road is crossed 
by another from Rhayader 8 m., to 
Kington 16. 

[66 J m. A road on 1. nms up the 
lovely valley of the Clywcdog for 
4^ m. to the ruins of Abbey Cwm Hir, 
or the Abbey of the Long Vale. 
" The whole of tliis disti-ict is di- 
versified with hill and dale, and 
abounds in woods and fertile en- 
closures in a more copious propor- 
tion than most of the adjoining dis- 
ti-icts ; thus clearly proving the 
superior industry and improving 
culture of the monks, whose nmne- 
rous groves of majestic oaks formed 
the grand and beautiful character- 
istic of their domains, while the 
gloomy recesses of a winding and 
watere<l valley inspired devotion. 
The Vale of Cwm Hir exactly cor- 
responds with this description; for 
it is a delightful and fertile bottom, 
watered by the river Clywedog, and 
is envu'oned by an amphitheatre of 
wood-clothed lulls." 

The Abbey, according to Lcland, 



S. Wales. 



Boute 6. — Abbe^ Cwm Hir, 



81 



was founded in 1143 by " Cadwa- 
thelon ap Madok for Ix monkes" 
of the Cistercian order, and was 
dedicated to St. Mary. In 1231 
Heniy II. marched his army into 
the country to punish Prince Llew- 
ellyn ap lorwerth, who had com- 
mitted depredations on the monks. 
A portion of the ai'my having been 
lost through the treacherous guid- 
ance of one of the monks, the king 
was much enraged, and would have 
burnt the abbey, which was however 
saved by the payment of 300 marks. 
It was finally destroyed in 1401 by 
Owen Glendower in one of liis pre- 
datory excursions. After falling into 
various hands it became the property 
of Sir Wm. Fowler, who built the 
Abbey Church in 1680, concerning 
whom the following doggrel was 
ciurent : — - 

" There is neither a parlc nor a deer 
To be seen in all Radnorshire, 
Nor a man with five hundred a year 
Save Fowler of Abbey Cwm Hir." 

The site of the ancient abbey was 
cleared out in 1827, showing the 
dimensions of the nave to have been 
242 ft., and verifying the statement 
of the old antiquary "that no church 
in Wales is scene of such length, as 
the foundation of the walles then 
begon doth show." Nothing but a 
few fragments remain of the ancient 
building, the stones of which were 
to a large extent incorporated in 
1816 with the mansion close by, 
now the residence of T. Phillips, 
Esq. It is supposed, however, that 
some pointed arches were removed 
from here to the chiurch at Llanid- 
loes. The fish-ponds which sup- 
plied the monks are still visible, as 
are also portions of earthworks which 
crossed the valley for its defence at 
equal distances above and below, 
and enclosed a space of about 
10 acres, which doubtless possessed 
tlie right of sanctuary. 

A Roman road runs by the Abbey 
to the head of the dingle of the 
Clywedog, from whence it crosses 



into the valley of the Marteg by a 
pass called Bwlch-y-samau. South- 
wards it communicated with the 
Koman station of Caerfagau (p. 80), 
while on the N. it led to Oaersws, 
thus connecting the Silures and the 
Ordovices. 

A little below the abbey, at the 
junction of the Crych with the 
Clywedog, is the modernised manor- 
house of Devanner, erected about 
the time of James I. 

Abbey Cwm Hir is 9 m. &om 
Llandrindod, 16 from Builth, and 7 
from Rhayader .3 

68 m. The road again crosses the ^ 
Ithon near the village of Llanddewi ' 
ystrad enny, which abounds in old 
entrenchments. 

About J m. beyond the road is 
carried on thfe 1. bank of the Ithon, 
between 2 hills of considerable 
height, on each of which was a 
camp, and others are to be met with 
at the head of Cwm Aren, 3 m. to 
the rt. 

71 J m. on rt. is the Churcli of 
Llanhister^ to the rt. of which, 1 m., 
is the old mansion of Llynwent, 
built in the reign of Elizabeth, 
which, though much altered, ex- 
liibits some tmces of its former 
architecture. 

72 m. LlanannOj near which are 
the slight remains of a very strong 
fortress, called Castle Dynbod, de- 
molished by Llewellyn ap Grufydd 
in 1640. 

Following the windings of the 
Ithon, the traveller next passes 
Llanhadarn fynydd, and at 78 m. 
bids adieu to the Ithon, along whose 
banks he has journeyed so many 
mQes, and to the county of Radnor. 
From Camnant Bridge, where the 
road enters Montgomeryshire, it is 
about 6 m. to Neictoim. 



^% 



82 



Eoute 7. — Monmouth to Carmarthen, S. Wales, 

I with the old yews has a picturesque 
I appearance. The churchyard, which 
is entered hy a lich-gate, contains a 
slender cross of great antiquity, 
carved with mystic characters. In 
the wall of the S.W. angle of the 
tower is an inscription supposed to 
refer to the founders, and in the 
interior a handsome Communion- 
tahle, brought from Italy. 

1 m. rt. is Wonastow Church and 
Court, the latter an old manor-house 
of the 16th centy. 

5J m. on rt. f m. is Dingestota 
(Rte. 3) Church, close to which are 
slight ti*aces of the castle. Din- 
gestow Court (S. Bosanquet, Esq.) 
is an old Elizabethan house re- 
pointed, placed in a commanding 
situation. 

About 1 m. to the back is Treoicen, 
former seat of the Herberts of 



ROUTE 7. 

FROM MONMOUTH TO CARMARTHEN, 
THROUGH ABERGAVENNY, CRICK- 
HOWELL, BRECON, AND LLAN- 
DOVERY. 

Quitting Monmouth (Rte. 2) by the 
bridge-gate over the Monuow, take 
the road to the 1., the other being the 
old road to Abergavenny, compara- 
tively dull and uninteresting. 

For about ^ m. it follows the 
course of the Monnow, overlooking 
the vale of the Wye and Chippen- 
ham Mead, where the races are 
annually held. 

1| m. Crossing the little river 
Trothy, on 1. is Troy Houset the seat 
of the Duke of Beaufort, a respect- 
able mansion with a huge roof, 
placed imder the shelter of a hiU 
and by the side of the Trothy, from 
whence it derives its name. It is 
said to have been built by Inigo 
Jones, and contains some family 
portraits of the Herberts, Somersets, 
&c., including Lord Herbert of Cher- 
bury when a boy, and the Marquis 
of Worcester, the defender of Rag- 
lan; also two old oak chimney- 
pieces, one curiously carved with 
scriptxiral subjects. A cradle, said 
to bo that in which Henry V. of 
Monmouth was rocked, and a suit 
of armour worn by him at Agincourt, 
were at one time shown ; but they 
seem to be of a more recent date. 
There is a good specimen of Eliza- 
bethan ceiling and cornice in one 
room, and a panelling of the time of 
James I. in the adjoining one. 

3 m. Mitchd Troy. The church, 
which is on the rt., is Dec, and 



a 

Llanartli, dating from about the 14th 

centy. 

8 m. above tlie road, embosomed 
in trees and draped mth ivy, are 
seen the heavily machicolated towers 
of Baglan, and on 1. is the church, 
an uninteresting building of debased 
Perp. Inside are the monuments 
of the Somerset family, comprising 
those of WiUiam. 3rd Earl of Wor- 
cester, 1588; Edward, 4th Earl, 
1628 ; and Edward, 2nd Marquis of 
Worcester, author of* The Century 
of Inventions,' 1667. 

About ^ m. from the village are 
the ruins of the castle, standing upon 
rising ground, yet well-nigh hidden 
within a grove of venerable trees. 
The entrance gatcAvay is placed be- 
tween two angular towers, remark- 
able for their bold triple machicola- 
tions, resembling those of an Italian 
castle. Raglan was not begun be- 
fore the reign of Henry V. :. it 
therefore exhibits one of the latest 
forms of the feudal castle passing 
into the modem style of fortification. 
Its grey towers, planted with the 
angles pointed outwards, are an 
approximation to the bastions of 
modem fortresses. On the 1. of the 



S. Wales. 



Route 7. — 'Raglan Castle, 



83 



entrance rises the hexiigonal keep, 
a noble and lofty pile of masonry, 
called the "Yellow Tower of Gwent." 
A singular feature is that it is out- 
side the main castle, and, though 
better adapted for defence, does not 
appear to be older than the rest of 
the building. It stands within an 
outer circuit of low curtains and 
bastions within a broad moat. One 
side of it was blown up by order of 
Cromwell, but the staircase remains, 
and from the top a good view can 
be gained of the smroimding coim- 
try, including on the E. the Kymin 
Bfill above Monmouth, and on the 
W. the Blorenge and the Sugar Loaf 
beyond Abergavenny. It was within 
the moat that the ingenious author 
of *The Century of Inventions,' 
while Lord Herbert, erected some 
curious waterworks, which on one 
occasion, at the beginning of the 
Long Parliament, were made to play 
upon certain troublesome Puritans 
who had entered the castle to search 
for arms— my lord being a papist — 
" by which, when the several engines 
and wheels were set going, much 
quantity of water, through the hollow 
conveyances of aqueducts, was to be 
let down from the top of the high 
tower." It is not improbable that 
this was "the most stupendous 
water-commanding engine" which 
formed the last article in the * Cen- 
tury of Inventions,' and which con- 
tained, in fact, the germ of the 
steam-engine. After the Restora- 
tion such an engine was erected by 
the Marquis at Vauxhall, where it 
was seen by Cosmo de' Medici in 
1669. 

A panegyric of this invention, pre- 
fixed to tlie * Century,' says of it — 

*• The heavens admire, the centre stands 
amazed, 
To see such streams by so small forces 
raised." 

Ill 1663 the marquis obtained a 
patent for i)9 years for this engine ; 
but if the Raglan engine erected 
" at the beginning of the Long Par- 



liament " was really the same, this 
gives a much earlier date to the 
invention. — See * Apophthegms of 
the Marquis of Worcester.* 

The drawbridge which connected 
this tower with the rest of the castle 
has been destroyed and replaced by 
a bridge of planks. This keep-tower 
is supposed to have been added by 
the first marquis in the reign of 
James I. or Charles I. The rest of 
the edifice was probably built by 
Sir William ap Thomas and his son, 
the friend and favourite of Ed- 
ward IV., created by him Earl of 
Pembroke, the first of that title of 
the name of Herbert. 

The entrance-gateway, before de- 
scribed, leads into the first court, 
now carpeted with greensward and 
surrounded by ivy-mantled walls and 
towers. At the further end, oppo- 
site the gate, was the kitchen, occu- 
pying the lower story of a penta- 
gonal tower, and provided with a 
wide fireplace. Below it is a sort 
of cellar, called the Wet Larder. On 
the rt. is the breach made by the 
batteries of Sir Thomas Fairfax, 
from one of which 4, and from an- 
other 2 mortars, carrying grenades, 
opened upon the walls at a distance 
of 60 yds. The memorable siege of 
1646 by the forces of the Parliament 
deserves a more detailed notice. It 
was commenced in the spring of that 
year by Sir Trevor Williams and 
Col. Morgan, but 2 months later 
was taken in hand more warmly and 
skilfully by Fairfiax, who, having 
" finished his work over the kingdom 
except this castle," marched from 
Bath in August with all the material 
necessary for " reducing the garrison 
to the obedience of the Parliament." 
The veteran Marquis of Worcester, 
then in his 84th year, had already 
made enormous sacrifices of men 
and money in the cause of his im- 
fortmiate master, and had equipped 
and maintained at his own charge 
an army of 1500 foot and 500 horse, 
though to little profit, since tkQ.^$>«.^x5i. 



84 



Boute 7. — Raglan Castle. 



S. Wales. 



routed without striking a blow be- 
fore Gloucester. He had more than 
once afforded a hospitable reception 
to King Charles in his house of 
Baglan ; and now, with his daughter- 
in-fiiw the Countess of Glamorgan, 
liis 6th son Lord Charles, his chap- 
lain Dr. Bailey, and a few trusty 
friends, he'underwent all the priva- 
tions of a siege, and with a garrison 
amounting at first to 800 men he 
boldly determined to resist to the 
last the attack of the enemy. For 
above 2 months the defence was 
maintained with unflinching bold- 
ness and determination. Several 
summonses to surrender were firmly 
refused. To one of these, made by 
Col. Morgan, and backed by what 
he would have had the marquis 
believe was "a true copy of His Ma- 
jesty's warrant to several garrisons 
to yield upon terms," he replied, 
" Truly, sir, it is not in the power 
of man to make me think so un- 
worthily of his Majesty : that to one, 
in the opinion of the world, that 
hath given himself and femily so 
great a demonstration and testimony 
of his and their faith and fidelity 
towards them, that he would not 
please so much as to name his name 
or Ragland, I entreat you give me 
leave to suspend my belief. And 
for your second summons, it makes 
it too evident that it is desired that 
I should die under a hedge, like a 
beggar, having no home left to put 
my head into, nor means left to find 
me bread. Wherefore, to give you 
answer, I make choice (if it so please 
God) rather to die nobly tlian to 
live with infamy." At length the 
near approach of the covered ways 
of the enemy's engineers, now acting 
under the vigorous orders of Fairfax, 
the effects of the cannonade, the 
diminution of the garrison from 
800 to about 400, and the dearth of 
l)owder and provisions, compelled 
the marquis to listen to terms. The 
Parliamentary general granted fa- 
vourable conditions, and on the 19th 



of August the garrison marched out 
with flying colours, after a siege of 
10 weeks. The Parliament however 
refused to ratify tlie articles granted 
by Fairfax. The aged marquis, 
already on the verge of the grave, 
was despatched to London and com- 
mitted to the custody of Black Rod. 
He survived his misfortunes but a 
short time; and Raglan, shattered 
by the siege and further demolished 
by its captors, has never again been, 
made habitable. The chief cause 
of its destruction however was the 
depredations of the peasantry, who 
for years resorted to the castle as to 
a quarry, and built out of it their 
houses, bams, and pigsties, until the 
Duke of Beaufort interfered to pre- 
serve what remained of it : 23 stair- 
cases had thus been demolished or 
removed. 

On the 1. hand, or W. side of the 
first court, stands tbe great hall, in 
the Tudor style, still distinguished 
by its large Oriel window, but within 
reduced to bare walls, with remains 
of a large fireplace on one side and 
the arms of the first marquis and 
last occupier of this castle, now 
nearly effaced. The buttery-hatches, 
by which provision-dishes were con- 
veyed to the banqueting-board, still 
remain in the end wall. Side by 
side with the hall is the chapel, 
almost entirely stripped, except two 
caryatid figures, perhaps part of a 
chimney-piece. These two apart- 
ments divided the 1st court from the 
2nd or Fountain Court, so called from 
a fountain, adorned with a statue of 
a white horse, of which no traces 
remain. 

** The fountain train that rans both day and 
night, 
Doth yield in shewe a rare and noble sight." 

Churchyard. 

On one side of it is the grand stair- 
case and entrance (in the style of 
James I. or Charles I.) which led 
to the state apartments. Those 
in the N.E. angle of the court 
were occupied by the imfortunate 



S. Wales, Eoute 7. — Raglan Castle. — Clytha, 



85 



Charles I. during his two visits here 
when a wanderer after Naseby in 
June and Sept. 1645. On his 2nd 
visit here he received the news of 
the base surrender of Bristol by his 
nephew Rupert, the final blow to 
the royal cause. The long series of 
services of the house of Somerset 
to the cause and person of Charles 
were but ill requited by his son. 
The old marquis had expended 
nearly 60,000Z. in equipping armies 
for the king to an extent which 
scarce any other nobleman in the 
country could have accomplished; 
he had seen his castle demolished 
by his enemies, his estates and re- 
venues, to the amount of 20,000Z. 
a-year, confiscated, and ho died a 
prisoner. His son, Edward Somer- 
set, the author of the * Century of 
Inventions,' and the first person 
who had a vision of the great dis- 
covery of the steam-engine, was bom 
at Raglan, and after many years 
spent in the service of Charles I. 
he accompanied his successor in liis 
exile, and, by undertaking for him a 
dangerous mission to England, in- 
curred a long imprisonment in the 
Tower. At the Restoration he re- 
ceived back his estates in an im- 
poverished condition, but was com- 
pelled to surrender the patent of 
nobility granted to him " in preju- 
dice of the peers," 'and never could 
obtain the smallest indemnification 
for the 20,000Z. which he and his 
father had expended in the cause of 
the Stuarts. Under a considerable 
portion of the buildings, on the W. 
side of the Fountain Court, run 
subterranean chambers, which ro- 
mantic tourists regard as dungeons, 
but they are nothing more than 
cellars, sewers, or sinks. A gate- 
tower leads out of this second court 
upon the terrace, i)ointcd out as 
Charles I.'s Walk, and commanding 
a pretty prospect. Here were plea- 
sure-grounds and fish-ponds ; and it 
is not improbable that a consider- 
able lake, formed by damming up 



the rivulets, contributed to the 
strength of the castle on this side. 
The ancient deer-parks are now en- 
closed. 

Raglan Castle is a famous locality 
for picnic parties, many of whom 
come from a very long distance ; it 
is also the head-quarters of the 
Monmouthshire Archery Club, which 
meets here 3 times aryear. 

9J m. Cross JSychan, from the 
high groimd of wliich the traveller 
obtains a noble view of the valley of 
the Usk. The long mass of the 
Skyrrid Vawr and the tall sharp 
cone of the Sugar Loaf are seen 
from 6 to 10 m. on the rt., while in 
front and more to the 1. is the huge 
shapeless mass of the Blorenge. 

[A road to the rt. leads to Mon- 
mouth, through Bryngwyn (Arch- 
deacon Crawley), Tregaer, and Din- 

gestow.3 

11 m. rt. ClytJia (W. Jones, Esq.). 
The house, a handsome freestone 
building with an Ionic portico, is 
seen through the trees. It contains 
some good Italian pictures, but it is 
not shown. The building on the 1. 
on the hill, called the Castle, is a 
family mausoleum, erected in 1790 ; 
the view from it of the Vale of Usk 
is magnificent. 

[A road to the 1. leads to UsJe 
6 m. (Rte. 3), passing, 2 m. 1., 
Coed-y-Buneddf an ancient encamp- 
ment on a wooded hill ; Brynderwen, 
the seat of W. Stretton, Esq. ; and 
5 m. Llancayo.3 Just before arriv- 
ing at Clytha the road passes through 
a deep cutting in the upper Silurian 
rocks, in which several typical fos- 
sils are to be found. These rocks 
constitute the extreme or outer 
covering of the Usk valley of eleva- 
tion, so well known to geologists. 
At the bottom of the hill the old 
red sandstone reappears. 

11| m. at the Swan, a road-side 
inn, the Usk first shows itself, and 
on the rt. [a road leads to Llanarth 
Court (Jolm Herbert, Esq,")^ tha 



86 



Moute 7. — White Castle. — Abergavenny. S. Wales. 



liandsome seat of an ancient and re- 
spectable Roman Catholic family. 

5 m. Llantillio Crosseny Park (Col. 
Clifford, M.P.) and Church, very 
prettily situated. It is a spacious 
building, principally Dec, with later 
work in the large chapel on the N. 
side of the presbytor}\ In the 
churchyard is an alter-tomb erected 
by Col. Clifford to the memory of 
his son. 

To the N. of the park are vestiges 
of an old fortified house, said to 
have been tlie residence of Sir 
David Gam. 

On an eminence 1^ m. to the N. 
is Mhite Castle^ a large oval build- 
ing with G bastions, which must 
have been entirely lighted from the 
inner court. There is no keep, but 
the outer works are very perfect. 
But little is known of its history, 
except that a Sir Gwyn ap Cwarth- 
vold is said to have lived here when 
the Norman invasion took place, 
and that it was a renowned place in 
Queen Elizabeth's reign. This road 
continues through Llanvihangel Ys- 
tem Llewin to Monmouth, passing 
Rockfield.] 

12 m. rt. Llansaintfread (Lady 
HaiTiet Jones), and 

12 J m. 1. a road leads to Ponty- 
pool and Usk. 

The GraigHiUj an isolated wooded 
eminence, is a conspicuous feature 
in the landscape on the rt. 

14 m. 1. is the primitive Church 
of Llangattochy sitiiated on the bank 
of the Usk, on the other side of 
which, under the shadow of the 
Blorenge, is Llanover, the seat of 
Lord Llanover, better known as Sir 
Benjamin Hall. 

From hence the Newport, Aber- 
gavenny, and Hereford Ely. (Rte. 
3) runs parallel to the turnpike- 
road. 

16 m. rt. are the fine old woods 
and a glimpse of the old house of 
Coldbrookf the ancestral seat of F. 
Hanbury Williams, Esq., and once 



the residence of the famous Sir 
Charles Hanbury Williams. 

From hence the road runs down 
a gentle incline into the old town of 

17 m. Ahergavennij (JEiie, 3) {Hotel: 
Angel). Distances : — ^Newport, 17 
m. ; Hereford, 22 ; Merthyr, 20 ; Bre- 
con, 20 ; Crickho well, 6. The new road 
enters between the castle on the 1. 
and the school on the rt., behind 
wliich are seen the tower and Perp. 
window of the old priory-church. 
Abergavenny (the Gobannium of 
Antoninus) is a rustic town of about 
4500 Inhab., chiefly remarkable for 
the beauty of its situation in the 
Vale of Usk (the garden of Wales), 
at the junction of the small stream 
the Gavenny — 

" The brook that christeneth Abeiigeney." 

Druyton. 

It is surrounded on every side, 
says Churchyard, 

" by mountains broad and high. 
And some thick woods, to pieasc the gazer's 
eye" — 

the chief of these being the Skyrrid 
Vawr and Vach on the rt., the Blo- 
renge on the 1., and the Sugar Loaf, 
with its shoulders of the Deri and 
the Rolben, at the back of the town. 
The church (St. Mary's) has been 
severely handled in former times, 
and altered by modem churchwar- 
dens in a lamentable manner. It 
was once a fine cruciform structure, 
a chapel of the Benedictine priory, 
and the choir retains part of its 
rudely-carved oaken stalls. It con- 
tains a number of ancient monu- 
ments, which, although grievously 
mutilated, have once been very 
splendid, witli effigies of alabaster, 
&c., and will still interest the anti- 
quary. They chiefly belong to the 
families of the Herberts and other 
lords of Abergaveimy, and occupy a 
chapel in the S. aisle. The finest 
are to Richard Herbert of EAvias 
Harold, son of William 1st Earl of 
Pembroke, a marble effigy, >>dtli 
hands upraised, in armour, the. head 



S. Wales. 



Route 7. — Abergavenny. 



87 



resting on a helmet, the coats of 
arms emblazoned in faded colours 
at the sides, and at the back smaller 
figures of his children. Under an 
arch between the choir and the 
chapel is Sir Richard Herbert of 
Coldbrooke and his wife ; the figures 
and sides much mutilated. In the 
middle stands the tomb of Sir Wil- 
liam ap Thomas and Gladys his 
wife (a daughter of the renowned 
David Gam), the parents of William 
Herbert 1st Eurl of Pembroke, and 
progenitors of the noble family of 
that name. Underneath a window on 
the N. side of the choir is an effigy 
in wood, not ill-carved, of a cross- 
legged knight in mail, believed to 
be Lord Hastings of Abergavenny. 
Another altar-tomb, from the style 
of the armour, the bascinet, and 
hauberk, evidently very ancient, is 
supposed to be Sir Edward Neville. 
At the N. end of the choir are 2 
female figures, names unknown. 
There is also a curious statue of 
wood, rudely carved, of an old man 
with a long beard, called Abraham, 
but doubtless intended for St. 
Christopher, the saint who is said 
to have borne the Saviour on his 
shoulders, and the patron of la- 
bourers and the classes to whom 
bodily strength is essential. In 
popish times every corpse was 
presented before it previous to 
interment, and a few years ago the 
custom had not entirely disap- 
peared. 
The Castle,— 

*• The rent Norman tower that overhangs 
The lucid Usk,"— 

a shattered and shapeless ruin, on a 
mount near the S. extremity of the 
town, was founded by the Norman 
Hamaline de Boliun soon after the 
Conquest, and, during the long period 
of struggle between the Welsh and 
their imperious and tyrannical mas- 
ters the Lords Marcliers, was repeat- 
edly the scene of bloody deeds and 
murdei-s. Giraldus observes "that 



it was dishonoured by treason oftener 
than any other castle in Wales." In 
two instances it is asserted by the 
Welsh historian that their chieftains 
were invited under pretence of friend- 
ship and the adjustment of differ- 
ences within these wails, and while 
seated unarmed at the board were 
assassinated by their Norman enter- 
tainers in defiance of the laws of 
hospitality. The lordship passed in 
time from the house of Braose to 
Cantilupe, Hastings, Valence, Her- 
bert, Grey, Beauchamp, Neville, 
with whom it has remained since 
the reign of Henry IH., the title of 
the Earl of Abergavenny being de- 
rived fi-om this castle. 

The ruins are now partly occupied 
by a private house, and the enclo- 
sure within the walls is now con- 
verted into a garden. A public ter- 
race walk runs along the outside 
and commands a charming view. 

The town was once famous for its 
manufacture of flannel, and after- 
wards for that of wigs made of 
bleached goat's hair, but both these 
sources of industry have departed, 
leaving nothing in their stead. In- 
deed, as a commercial town, Aber- 
gavenny can scarcely be said to 
have been improved by the opening 
of the rly., and it derives most of 
its importance from the markets, 
which are largely attended by cus- 
tomers from the hill-districts. There 
is excellent fishing to be obtained in 
the Usk under certain regulations. 

A bridge of 15 arches carries the 
Merthyr road across the river, and 
close beside it, but on a higher level, 
is another, over which a tramroad 
from Nantyglo is taken, producing a 
curious but not impicturesque effect. 

Beyond it, 

" far and wide, 
Blackening the plain beneath, proud Blorengo 

lowers, 
Behind whose level length the western sun 
Dims his slope beam." — iyotheby. 

The Blorengc is a mass of old red 
sandstone ca\>^ed by cw:bQ\v?^^<iX55N>s. 



i 



88 



Route 7. — Abergavenny, — Crickhowelh. S. Wales. 



and millstone grit, and is the comer- 
stone of the N. crop of the S. Wales 
coal-field, which here turns to the S. 
to Pontypool and to the W. to Mer- 
thyr. The remainder of tlie valley 
and the hills to the rt. are composed 
of old red sandstone, which extends 
uninterruptedly into Radnorshire. 
Comstones are, however, frequent, 
and they may be observed cropping 
out in the cuttings of the. rly. 

The Sugar Loaf mountain is fre- 
quently ascended on account of the 
view from its top, which is accessible 
to within 100 yds. of the smnmit by 
a light carriage, an excursion of 
about 4 hrs. 

The Skyrrid Vawr, or Holy Moun- 
tain, is described in Rte. 3. The 
only modem pubUc building in 
Abergavenny worth notice is the 
Lunatic Asjjrlum, which is placed in 
a commanding situation overlooking 
the town and vaUey ; a handsome 
structure in the early Pointed style, 
erected in 1850 at a cost of 40,000Z., 
for the reception of lunatic patients 
of the joint counties of Monmouth, 
Hereford, Radnor, and Brecon. 

There is also a neat set of alms- 
houses and a church erected by 
Miss Rachel Herbert in 1839. 

Conveyances : — an omnibus daily 
to and from Merthyr through Bryn- 
mawr, and a coach to and from 
Brecon. 

Llanthony is about 10 m. from 
Abergavenny (Rte. 3). Leaving 
Abergavenny, on the 1. is the Union 
House and the road to Merthyr. 
The tourist now skirts the hill-side 
along the 1. bank of the Usk. The 
tops of the moxmtains are barren 
and craggy, but tlieir slopes are 
checkered with plantations and en- 
closed fields dotted about with white 
cottages. The low ground is chiefly 
very rich meadow, which, however, 
frequently suifers in floods of the 
river. 

18 m. rt. Pentre (Mrs. Wheeley). 

19 m. 1. Llamcenarth Church, with 
a Perp. tower, and beyond it, on the 



other side of the Usk, the villas of 
Aberbaiden and Tymawr (G. Over- 
ton, Esq.). To the rt. is tiie Graig 
Hill, a wooded shoulder of the 
Sugar Loaf, yielding a large quan- 
tity of cornstone, worked into lime 
under the name of bastard-limestone. 

21 m. a stone on the roadside 
marks the boundary between Eng- 
land and Wales. On rt. is Sunny- 
hank (C. Parkinson, Esq.), and im- 
mediately beyond it the village of 
Llangwryney, where the little river 
Gwryney joins the Usk, which hard 
by is crossed by a neat lattice-girder 
bridge, erected in 1859 for the con- 
venience of the residents on either 
side the river. On 1. 2 m. is the 
village of Langenau (p. 89). 

22 m. rt. Court-y-goUen (Ven. 
Archdeacon Davies), in whose park 
stands an upright stone, 13 ft. high, 
probably Druidical. On the opposite 
side of the river, well sheltered by 
a wooded bank, stands Dan-y-parfe, 
the seat of Capt. Crawsliay. The 
tourist, if fortunate in his season and 
day, will xmderstand why this part 
of the Usk is so extolled. The 
woods feather down to the water's 
edge ; the river winds freely and in 
graceful cuitcs, and a thousand 
rippling rills from the mountains 
water the banks and produce a rich 
profusion of wild-flowers. Many 
neat and pretty villas are scattered 
about, giving the place an aspect of 
trinmess and smiling prosperity; 
and the valley looks equally well in 
the bright green of spring or the 
golden tmts of autumn. 

23 m. Crickhowell {Hotel: Bear), 
called by Leland " a pretty townlet 
upon Usk," though the epithet is 
applied rather to the situation, 
which is cliarming, than the town 
itself, which, however, has much 
improved within the last few years. 
At the E. end, near the Aberga- 
venny road, stand the ivy-clad i-uins 
of tlie castle, now reduced to the 
fmgments of a square and round 
tower. It probably owed its origin 



S. Wales. Eoute 7,—^CrickhovDeU, — Llangenau, 



89 



to some of the Norman conquerors 
of Brecknockshire, Burghills or Tur- 
bervilles, to whom the manor was 
granted by Bernard Newmarch ; but 
it was in a state of decay as long 
ago as the rciga of Elizabeth. 

The Church is a spacious build- 
ing with a broach spire, founded in 
1303 by Lady Sibyl de Pauncefoot, 
but much metamorphosed by the 
addition of 2 plain aisles. It has 2 
transepts, called respectively the 
Gwernvale and Rumsey Chapels; 
also 2 fractured moniunental effigies, 
in recesses of the wall of the chan- 
cel, of a cross-legged knight, and a 
lady supposed to have been the 
foundress ; and a marble moniunent 
to Sir John Herbert and his lady, 
1666. The view from the church- 
yard, looking up the Vale of Usk, is 
very lovely. 

Near the W. extremity of Crick- 
howell stands a picturesque Gotliic 
gatewa)'-, originally attached to an 
old house of the Herberts, built in 
the reign of Henry VII., and called 
Porthmaior, formiiig the entrance to 
the residence of E. Seymour, Esq. 
Through it is seen a landscape of 
extreme beauty. A long bridge 
leads across the Usk to Llangattock, 
1 m. 1., with a fine old church and 
picturesque churchyard. Near it 
IS Llangattock Park, a beautifully 
wooded domain of the Duke of 
Beaufort. In the cliffs of the 
mountain limestone of the hill 
above, which frowns over the vil- 
lage, is a curious cave, which pene- 
trates into the rock for some dis- 
tance, and was formerly called Eglws 
Faen. It was probably used as a 
place of concealment. It is said 
that on the table-land of the moim- 
tain above was fought a great battle, 
in 728, between Ethelbald and the 
force of Glamorgan. 

Crickhowell receives its name 
from an ancient British camp, 
nearly triangular in form, which 
crowns tlie aummit of tlio Table 
Mountain, or Ctrreij llowell^ about 



2 m. to the N. of the town. It has 
been attributed to Howell ap Rhys, 
Prince of Gwent, who made war 
with the lord of Brecon, and pro- 
bably used this as his frontier en- 
trenchment. 

Smollett, in * Humphrey Clinker,' 
mentions " Crickhowell flannels," 
which were formerly in high re- 
pute ; but they aie no longer manu- 
factured. 

[A very pretty excursion can be 
made to Llangenau, 2 m., where the 
famous well of St. Cenau formerly 
enjoyed the repute of miraculous 
powers, and amongst other proper- 
ties possessed that of giving the 
mastery of a house to the first of a 
new married couple that drank of 
it. 

Hence the following incident is 
related by a Welsh Benedick : — 

" I hasten'd as soon as the wedding was 
done. 
And left my wife In the porch, 
But i'faith she had been more clever than 
me. 
For she took a bottle to church."— Car«to. 

St. Cenau is evidently the same 
saint as St. Keyne, who also has a 
well in Cornwall, to which the same 
mii-aculous powers are attached. 
The church is one of the most pic- 
turesque little buildings in the 
county, situated close to the bank 
of the babbling Grwyney, in a very 
deep dell, overshadowed by hanging 
woods. On the opposite side is 
Penydarren (M. Roberts, Esq.). 

The whole of the walk up the 
dingle to Llanhedr is most lovely, 
and presents an endless variety of 
wood, water, and hill. 

6 m. further, in a dell to the 1. 
of the Sugar Loaf, is Partrishow 
Church, a little, primitive, seques- 
tered spot, buried in the lieart of 
the mountains, with scarce a house 
in siglit. It is very small, consist- 
ing only of a chancel and nave, but 
it is remarkable for a roodloft of 
great delicacy and beauty of execu- 
tion. It \%\\Vi\;Vi,NVi,\ \\\ 'Ci.^ViX^ ^SS^vS^r 



90 



Eoute 7. — Tretomr Castle,-^ Cwmddu, S, Wales. 



pidated condition. In the valley 
below the church is a bridge over 
the Gwryney, called Pont-yr-Esgob, 
or Bishop's Bridge, from whence 
Baldwyn, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
preached the Crusade in company 
with Giraldus Cambrensis. From 
hence a bridle-path may be followed 
to Llanthony Abbey (Rte. 3), about 
6 m. On the return to Crickhowell, 
about 1 m. from the town, the 
tourist should inquire for an in- 
scribed stone, which lies near the 
roadside, at a farm called Tyn-y-lad. 
It has the inscription — 

TVRPILLI IC lACIT 

PVVERI TRILVNI DVNOCATI. 

The road to Brecon is carried on 
past scenes of surprising beauty. 
24 m. on 1. is Glannant (Mrs. 
Bevan), on rt. Gwemvale (Mrs. 
Phillips'), and across the river, under 
the wooded bank of the Llangattock 
Hill, is Llanwyse (Mrs. Hotchkis). 
On the rt. the rugged escaipment 
of the Daren mountain stands well 
out, and contains beds interesting 
to the geologist as being the equiva- 
lents of the yellow and grey sand- 
stones of the old red formation at 
Dura Den in Scotland. At the very 
summit of the mountain is Pen- 
carreg-calch, a lai'ge mass of mill- 
stone grit and carboniferous lime- 
stone, now an outlier of, but for- 
merly joined to, the South Welsh 
coal-basin, ere denudation had 
scooped out such a vast hiatus in 
the valley of the Usk.J 

26 m. 1. is Glanusk Park, the 
handsome seat of Sir Jos. Bailey, a 
modern Elizabethan structure in a 
pretty park, with a 3-arched bridge 
and a castellated lodge, all in very 
good taste, and needing nothing but 
time to make it perfect. Just above 
the bridge, in a most enchanting 
situation, on the bank of the river, 
and commanding sj^lendid views of 
the neighbouring hills, is Penmyarth 
Chui'ch, erected by the late Sh* J. 
Bailey as a family mausoleum. 



Near it in the park is an inscribed 
stone. 

[A little way on the Crickhowell 
side of Glanu£&, a road to rt. goes to 
Talgarth, 10 m. 

l| m. on 1. Tretower Castle, now 
reduced to a single round keep- 
tower, not unlike Launceston, and 
some ruinous walls. It does not 
appear to have been a very import- 
ant post, " but since the Conquest 
was the castellated mansion of the 
Picards, lords of Ystradyw. It was 
afterwards fortified by Henry IV. ; 
but as soon as the neighbouring 
castle of Dinas was destroyed, Tre- 
tower returned to its former insig- 
nificance. In Tretower Court are 
some good specimens of Perp. do- 
mestic architecture, the mansion 
being of the 15th centy. 

3 m. Cwwddut a pleasing little 
village, situated amidst most roman- 
tic scenery, and celebrated as the 
residence of the Rev. T. Price 
(Camhuanwc), a man well known 
for his poetic imagination and ardent 
love for the Celtic remains and 
customs of his country. The church 
is a spacious building, with an em- 
battled tower, and has a stone built 
into it with the inscription 

CATACVS HIC JACET FILIVS TESER- 
HACUS. 

A little above the village is 
Goer, the site of a Roman station, 
by the side of which the Via Julia 
passed from Isca Legionimi to Mari- 
dunum, or Carmarthen. 

7 m. On a lull on rt. above the 
road is JJinas, the mere outline of 
a castle, probably of the age of 
Edward I., and retaining some curi- 
ous traces of an excavation or well, 
like that at Morlais, near Merthyr. 
The castle was probably destroyed 
in the time of Owen Glendower. 

From here the road winds at the 
foot of Mynydd y Troed to Talgarth, 
3 m. (Rte. 8), and joins the Brecon 
and Hay roadj. 

From Glanusk the road runs at 



S. Wales. Route 1 ,—Llangynider. — Td-y-Llyn, 



91 



the base of the Myarth, upon which 
is an old encampment. On the 
other side of the hill overlooking 
the Usk is GHffaes (W. H. West, 
Esq.). At the foot of the Bwlch 
mountain a road to 1. leads to Llan- 
gynider^ a small but beautifully situ- 
ated village, in the neighbourhood 
of which are some of the finest bits 
of scenery in S. Wales, particu- 
larly at Dyflfryn Orownan and Buck- 
land Mill. 

The road now rises, and winds 
considerably, until at 28 m. it 
reaches the summit of the Bwlch 
Pass, and descends the slope of 
Mynydd Buckland into the Vale of 
Brecon. Looking towards Qrick- 
howell the view is almost grand ; 
on the 1. the enormous mass of 
Penallt Mawr, Pencarreg Caleb, 
and the Daren, with the Sugar Loaf 
ending the view, while the rt. is 
occupied by the Myarth in the fore- 
ground, and the long ridges of the 
Llangynider and Llangattock moun- 
tains behind. Here the traveller, 
looking at his map, becomes aware 
that he has crossed a gi-eat moun- 
tain ridge, extending N.E. and S.W., 
from the S. side of which rise most 
of the streams of Monmouth and 
Glamorgan, though the main rivers 
of the Wye and the Usk rise beyond 
it, and traverse it by the two deep 
passes of Builth and Crickhowell, 
upon which therefore the Norman 
castles were thickly planted, as 
were, on even higher summits, those 
of the earlier Welsh. The great 
valley N., and at the foot of the 
scarp, is that of the Upper Wye and 
Upper Usk, whose courses are 
marked by the towns of Hay on the 
one and Brecon on the other, with 
Talgarth between them. The tra- 
veller who visits Breconsliire will 
find his account iu mastering this 
piece of Welsh geography. 

There is a fine view, from the 
other side of the Bwlch, of Llangorse 
Lake, or Llyn Savaddan, to which a 
road leads on rt. from the turnpike, 



passing the ruins of Blaen-lyfihi 
Castle. This lake, which lies 2 m. 
to the rt., is about 5 m. in chcum- 
ference, and abounds with most 
beautiful scenery, although of rather 
a melancholy character. It ranks 
as the second lake in Wales, after 
Bala. In 1235 the monks of Brecon 
obtained permission from the Priory 
of Llanthony to fish in it 3 days a 
week and daily in Lent, provided 
they used only one boat. A tradi- 
tion of a submerged city, to be seen 
at times below the wave's, is attached 
to it. 

*' Stnicturas sedlBcii 
Ssepe vldebls initi 
Sub lacu ; cum sit gelidus 
Mirus auditur sonitus." 

This lake is much frequented for 
the sake of its pike-fishing, and in 
whiter for its wild-fowl shooting. 

On the 1. bank is Treherfedd^ the 
seat of R. Raikes, Esq., and the 
beautiful little church of Llangasty 
Tal-y-Llyn, lately restored in very 
good taste. It possesses a nice peal 
of bells, which have a peculiarly 
charming effect when heard from 
the lake. 

The road at the E. of the lake 
passes through the village of Llan- 
gorse, the church of which has a 
good cradle roof, to Talgarth, 8 m. 
from Bwlch. 

30 m. 1. under the mountain is 
Bucldand (J. P. Gwynne Holford, 
Esq.), a house whose only beauty is 
in its situation, which can scarcely 
be surpassed. The private drive 
for a mile along the Usk is very 
fine. By the roadside stands an in- 
scribed stone, called the Victorinus 
Stone. 

31 m. rt. Llansaintfread Church, 
a humble edifice, somewhat eclipsed 
by an ostentatious tomb to Col. 
GwjTine Holford, quite out of keep- 
ing with the church or scene. 
There was formerly a curious epi- 
taph in this church, running as 
follows : — 



92 



Route 7. — Brecon, 



S. Wales. 



" As I was 80 are yee, 
As I am you shall be ; 
That I had that I gave. 
That I gave that I have ; 
Thus 1 end all my cost, 
That 1 left that 1 lost." 

[32 in. 1. on the other side of the 
VSl is the village of Talyhont, 
placed at the foot of Tor Voel, and 
at the entrance into Glyn Collwg. 
From hence a tramroad i« carried 
up to Rhymney Iron-works (Rte. 5), 
for the conveyance of pit wood and 
agricultural produce to the mining 
districts. The Brecon and Merthyr 
Railway commences at this spot. 

One of the finest glens in South 
Wales, and probably the least known 
and frequented, is Glyn Collwg^ 
running up into the heart of the 
Beacons for about 6 m. The 
scenery at the head of the glen is 
very fine, and will well repay the 
pedestrian who is willing to under- 
take a long and fatiguing walk up 
the glen to the Beacons and down 
to Brecon]. 

33 m. IyZan?iamZac/i Church, shaded 
by magnificent yews, and close by 
Peterstone (Capel Myers, Esq.). 

At Manest Court, on rt., is Ty-iltid, 
the remains of a ** Kistvaen " of 
Druidical times. 

35 m. 1. The Usk is here crossed 
by 2 bridges, one carrying the road 
which leads from Brecon to Taly- 
bont and Llangynder, and the other 
the Brecon and Pontypool Canal. 

1 m. 1. are Llanfrynach Church, 
and Maesderwen (Parry de Winton, 
Esq.). 

35 J m. 1. Dinas (John Lloyd, Esq.), 
charmingly placed in a bank of wood, 
bolow which is the race-course. 

The approach to Brecon^ 37 m. 
(Rte. 4), is extremely pretty. On 
rt., at the entrance of the town, are 
the Barracks. Bo^Z; Castle (good), 
with a garden commanding a fine 
view. Brecon is one of the most 
picturesque and beautifully situated 
towns in the principality; it is 
seated on the Usk at the point 
where two smaller streams, the 



Honddu and Tarel, pour into it, and 
the wide amphitheatre of hills and 
mountains around, broken in outline 
by the convergence of so many 
valleys opening towards this centre, 
is strikingly picturesque. The main 
feature in this panorama is repre- 
sented by the twin peaks of the 
Beacons, or Van (Rte. 4), the most 
elevated mountain in S. Wales, 
rising in great sublimity about 5 m. 
to the S. of the town, to a height of 
2862 ft. These peaks are called by 
the Welsh Arthurs Chair. 

A bridge of 7 arches over the Usk 
connects the town with the suburb 
of Llanfaes on its S. side. There 
are 3 principal streets, leading re- 
spectively to Abergavenny, Carmar- 
then, and Hay, the latter being 
called the Struct. The CasUe Hotel 
occupies the site of the ancient 
fortress, by which the Norman, 
Bernard Newmarch, in the reign of 
Rufus, secured the possessions which 
he had gauied by his sword from 
the Welsh prince of Brecknock. 
The castle is built out of the ruins 
of the old Roman tower situated 
3 m. higher up the Usk, and New- 
march made this lordship his resi- 
dence, and the capital of his march. 
The castle afterwards belonged to 
.the groat baronial families of Breos 
and Bohun Earl of Hereford. It 
stands on an eminence in an angle 
between the rivers Honddu and 
Usk ; and the waters of the Honddu 
appear to have been carried round 
it to fill the .moat. The scanty 
ruins remaining consist of 2 square 
towers in the garden of the hotel, not 
older than the tiDie of Edward III., 
and of a lofty mound, on which 
stood the keep. 

Within the walls of this castle 
the union of the rival houses of 
York and Lancaster, and the 
scheme for dethroning Crookback 
Richard, and inviting Henry VII. to 
take his place, was concerted be- 
tween Stafford Duke of Bucking- 
ham, its owner, and Morton Bishop 



S. Wales. 



Route 7. — Brecon, 



93 



of Ely, committed as a prisoner to 
his care by Richard. The prelate, 
a wily politician and diplomatist, 
appears to have gained over the 
Duke, although the confidant of 
Bichard and the accomplice of his 
Itlaf^EBst crimes, by insinuating that 
his services in placing his master on 
the throne had not been sufficiently 
rewarded, although made governor 
of the royal castles, chief-justice and 
chamberlaia of Wales, and lord high 
constable of England — that he had 
been unjustly refused 

" The earldom of Hereford and the move- 
ables 

Which you have promised I shall possess. 

And Is it thus ? Repays he my deep ser- 
vice 

With such contempt ? Made I him king 
for this? 

let me think on Hastings, and begone 

To Brecknock while my fearful head is on." 

The result of the conference held 
in the Ely Tower of Brecknock 
Castle was, that the bishop was 
allowed to escape to Henry of Rich- 
mond in Brittany, and that the duke 
lost his head at Salisbury. 

The mound on which the keep 
stood is enclosed within a garden, 
now separated by the road from the 
rest of the ruins. The greater part 
of the castle was pulled down at the 
great rebellion by the townspeople 
to prevent its being fortified or 
garrisoned by either of the contend* 
mg parties, and thus involving the 
place in the miseries of a siege. 

On a height a little to the N. of 
the castle, on the rt. bank of the 
Honddn, stands the church of St. 
John, originally the chapel of the 
priory, founded in the reign of 
Henry I. by Bernard Newmarch, 
seized with compunction for the 
deeds of violence by wliicli he had 
obtained his possessions, and willing 
to disgorge a part of his booty to 
tlie Churcli, in the hope of securing 
peace to his soul after death. By 
the management of the baron's con- 
fessor, a monk of Battle in Sussex, 
the priory of Brecon was made de- 



pendent on that abbey. But little 
of the original edifice can be de- 
tected in the existing church, a 
large cruciform structure, partly 
shrouded with ivy, and shaded by 
venerable yew-trees. The chancel 
and transepts are chiefly in the E. E. 
style, lighted at the E. end by 5 
lancet windows. " The church was 
doubtless commenced at the close 
of the 11th centy. ; but probably 
the nave might not be com- 
pleted till towards the middle of the 
12th. The choir, transepts, and 
presbytery were rebuilt during the 
13th ; and the 14th gradually trans- 
formed the Norm, nave into a 
Dec. building." — i7. A. F, A 
wooden screen separates the choir 
fi"om the chancel. The tower, 
which is for the most part Dec. with 
Perp. alterations, is singularly mass- 
ive, reminding the visitor strongly 
of the tower of Llanbadam Vawr, 
near Aberystwith (Rte. 9). The 
S. transept was anciently called by 
the Welsh " the Chapel of the Red 
Men ;" meaning the Normans, for 
whose use it was appropriated, while 
the Welsh occupied the other side. 
There is a curious Norm, font, deco- 
rated with monsters' heads. 

Portions still remain of the Priory 
walls and of an embattled gateway. 
The Priory House, contiguous to 
the churchyard, belongs to the Mar- 
quis of Camden. King Charles I.,, 
a fugitive after the fatal battle of 
Naseby, was received here by Sir 
Herbert Price ; and George IV. 
passed a night here in 1821, after 
his return from Ireland. 

The Priory wood is a lofty grove, 
covering the steep slope at whose 
base runs the Honddu. There are 
pleasant walks beneath the shade 
of the fine trees and along the water- 
side ; and another promenade along 
the banks of the Usk, under the old 
town walls. 

St. Maiy's Church is situated in 
the very heart of the town, and was 
enlarged in 1858. It was originally 



94 



Route 7. — Brecon, — The Goer, 



S. Wales. 



a Norman building, the traces of 
which are visible only in the N. 
aisle, but it appears 1^ have been 
enlarged about the 14th centy. The 
tower is a good Perp. " of the Somer- 
setshire type." 

The College of Christchurch, be- 
fore the Refcrmation a convent of 
friar-preachers, was converted into a 
seat of learaing, under a dean (the 
Bishop of St. David's) and 19 pre- 
bendaries, in the reign of Henry 
VIII. It no longer enjoys the pri- 
vilege of conferring degrees, now 
transferred to the College of Llam- 
peter. 

The chapel of the college, in tlie 
suburb of Llanfaes, a small ancient 
building of E. E. style, but repaired 
and modernised soon after the Re- 
storation, contains an antique stone 
cross, brought from the Aubrey 
Chapel, which stood close at hand ; 
the monuments of Bishop Bull and 
of several other bishops of St. 
David's, together with one of 
Richard Lacy and his wife, bearing 
their recumbent effigies in the cos- 
tume of the time of James II. 

St. David's Church, in the district 
of Llanfaes, fell down in 1852, but 
was rebuilt in the early Pointed style 
in 1859. 

In 1755 Mrs. Siddons was born 
here, at the Shoulder of Mutton, a 
public-house in High Sti-cet, while 
her parents were on a professional 
tour. 

The trade of Brecon consists in 
wool, leather, and hops, and is as- 
sisted by a canal to Abergavenny 
and Newport ; and fui-ther advantage 
will doubtless accrue to the town 
after the completion of the railways 
to Hereford and Merthyr. The as- 
cent of the Beacons occupies about 
4 hrs. (Rte. 4). 

Distances. — Merthyr, 17J m. ; 
Crickhowell, 14 m. ; Abergavenny, 
20 m. ; Builth, 16 m. ; Hay, 15 m. ; 
Hereford, 35 m. ; Llandovery, 21 m. ; 
Swansea, by Glyn Tawe, 36 m. 

Conveyances. — Coaches daily 



through Crickhowell to the New- 
port and Hereford Rly. at Aber- 
gavenny ; to Llandovery daily j to 
Merthyr daily ; to Hay daily. 

Leaving Brecon, the road crosses 
the Usk by a bridge of 7 arches 
into the suburb of Llanfaes, passing 
at the outskirts of the town the 
county gaol. From hence there is 
a fine view of Brecon, with the 
river, bridge, and castle in front, and 
the church and woods of the Priory 
above all. The road now for 12 m. 
lies very near the Usk, but sepa- 
rated from the great mountain es- 
carpment on its 1. by a sub-escarpment 
of broken ground, richly wooded, 
and in parts very fertile, and pre- 
senting frequent scenes of great 
beauty. 

38 m. 1. road to Merthyr (Rte. 4), 
up the valley of the Tarell, and a 
little above is Ffrwd-grech (Col. 
Pearce), in whose grounds is the 
very pretty little waterfall of Rhyd- 
goch. 

39 m. Llanspyddid Church, early 
Dec, and sun-ounded by venerable 
yew-trees. In the churchyard is a 
tomb traditionally said to belong to 
Brychan Breichiniog. To the rt. 
1 m. is Ponnoyre, the handsome seat 
of Col. Lloyd Watkins, M.P., Lord- 
Lieutenant of the county. 

40 J m. rt., on the other side of 
the Usk, at the confluence of the 
Yscir, is Aberyscir Church, planted 
round with yew, opposite to which, 
on the 1. bank of the Yscir, is the 
Gaer, a rectangular camp, supposed 
to be identical with Bannium, a 
British town, which preceded Breck- 
nock, and was adopted as a station 
by the Roman general Ostorius Sca- 
pula. The Norman conqueror of 
Brecknock tmnsferred its stones to 
build his castle lower down the 
Usk, where the county town now 
stands. The spot is called the 
Gaer. Several ramparts still exist ; 
and the foundations of walls in 
places from 3 to 6 ft. high, pai*tly 
overgrown with underwood, have 



S. Wales. 



Route 1 ,—Trecttstle, — Llandovery. 



95 



'withstood the depredations of man 
and the waste of the elements. 
From hence a Roman road leads 
N. to a stone called Maen-y-morwy- 
nion (the Maiden Stone), with sculp- 
tured figures still in good preserva- 
tion ; and still further N. a Maen- 
hir, — all memorials connected with 
Celtic traditions. 

42 m. the little church of Capel 
Bettwe, and Penpont (Penry Williams, 
Esq.), a modem Italian house, in a 
lovely park along the Usk, and 
close to the "Pont," whence it 
takes its name; and ^ m. heyond 
is Abercandais, a seat of the same 
fSamily. 

46 m. At Senni Bridge the road 
crosses that stream at its confluence 
with the Usk. A little further on, at 
Glanusk (P. M. Pell, Esq.), a tram- 
road stretches up the hills to the 
1. to convey fuel from the collieries 
and works in Glen Tawe, passing 
the Carmarthenshire Beacons and 
Scwd Hen Rhyd Waterfall (Rte. 1). 

Close to Pont Senni is a farm- 
house, which sustains the name of 
CasteU Ddu, or Black Castle, from a 
fortress no longer existing, where 
formerly the constable of the sur- 
rounding forest resided. 1 m. to 1. 
is Devynnockf a large village over- 
hanging the Senni. Into the tower 
of the church is bmlt an inscribed 
stone. 

46^ m. The road crosses the Usk 
by a bridge of one bold arch, much 
resembling Pontypridd (Rte. 4), and 
then gradually ascends the hill on 
the 1. bank to 

49 m. Trecastle {Inn, Camden 
Arms), a large pretty village in the 
parish of Llywel^ having on rt. the 
mound and rather extensive eartli- 
work of the castle, which was 
founded by Bernard Newmarch. 
Tlie road and the river, after 38 m. 
of company, now separate, the latter, 
now a mere broolc, rising about G m. 
S.W., and within ^ m. of Llya-y-fan- 
vaic)\ a deep, fisliless, mountain ; 
tarn, seated imder the higlicst peak I 



of the Carmarthenshire Beacon^ or 
Van, also sometimes called the 
Black Mountain. This mountain, 
a. very picturesque object, is cleft in 
two by a deep and narrow fissure, 
through which runs the boundary 
line of the county. The W. summit 
Hes in Carmarthenshire, and the E., 
or Trecastle Beacon, in Breconshire, 
rising 2596 ft. above the sea-level. 

50 m. rt. Llywd Church, with a 
fine old tower. 

The road here slowly ascends the 
back of a second escarpment, di- 
viding the counties of Brecon and 
Carmarthen, and here called Mynydd 
Bwlch-y-groes ; it then winds past 
Horeb Chapel, round the base of the 
Black Mountain, through the ro- 
mantic glen of Cwmdwr, and de- 
scends to the side of a small stream, 
the Gwydderig, a tributary of the 
Towey. The geologist here emerges 
upon the Silurian formation, the 
upper members of which constitute 
the escarpments of Mynydd Bwlch- 
y-groes and Mynydd Epynt. " The 
junction of the Ludlow rocks with 
the old red sandstone is well laid 
open in numerous places, especially 
in the narrow valley of Cwmdwr, 
where the tilestones, on wliich 
Horeb Chapel stands, are full of 
the casts of shells, among which are 
characteristic forms, such as the 
Trochus helicites. Turbo Williamsi, 
Bellerophon trilobatus, and many 
others." — Siluria. 

53 m., at Halfway, may be seen 
in the brook a good section of ver- 
tical strata. On 1. is a small obelisk, 
erected to commemorate the turn- 
over and destruction of the mail- 
coach over a steep of 130 ft., the 
driver and passengers escaping un- 
hm't. 

After passing Velindre (E. Jones, 
Esq.) the valley expands, and in 
the midst of meadows that vie with 
lawns in softness and hue the road 
approaches Llandovery, 58 m. — 
Hotel, Castle (lUe. G) — situated on 
the Bran, which a niilci hcilovt \csv\va» 



96 



Route 7. — Valley of the Tower/, 



S. Wales. 



the Towey, into which celebrated 
valley the tourist enters. On a 
knoll is the mere ruined shell of 
the castle, whose date is uncertain, 
but whose origin may be traced to 
the Norman usurpers of this county, 
who were enabled only by such 
means to keep what they had seized, 
in defiance of the rightful owners. 

The other buildings are the parish 
church, which is, strictly speaking, 
in the parish of Llandingat, and 
has a Perp. tower; the church of 
Llanfair-y-bi7n on the N. of the 
town (Rte. 6) ; and the Welsh 
Collegiate Institution, a handsome 
Tudor building, founded by T. 
Phillips, Esq., of Brunswick Square, 
London, in 1849, to provide a good 
classical education for Welsh boys. 

There is a curious old house at 
the E. end of the town, built in 
1620 by Vicar Prichard, whose 
Welsh poems are held in high re- 
putation by his countrymen. 

A mile from the town, on the 1. 
bank of the Towey, is Torino the 
residence of Mr. William Rees, the 
learned publisher, from whose press 
have issued so many Welsh works of 
high reputation. 

Distances. — Llandeilo, 12 m. ; 
Carmarthen, 27 m. ; Brecon, 21 m. ; 
Builth, 23 m. ; Llampeter, 18 m. ; 
Capel Ystrad-y-Ffin, 10 m. ; Gogo- 
fau mines, 10 m. 

Conveyances. — Coach to Brecon 
daily, and omnibus daily to Llanwr- 
tyd and Llandrindod Wells. By rail 
to Llandeilo and Llanelly. 

[A very interesting excursion can 
be made from Llandovery up the 
valley of the Towey to xstrad-y- 
Ffin, 10 m. At 7 m. are the lead- 
works of Nant-y-mwyn and Rhandir- 
mwyn, belonging to Lord Cawdor, 
situated on the hillside above the 
stream, and worked by levels. 

8i m. on 1. is Ckom Gwenffrwd, 
a wild mountain dingle of great 
beauty, up which a road runs for 
some little distance round Mynydd 
Mallaen to join the Cothi. A little 



above the spot where it reaches 
that river is a deep pool, called 
Pwl-llfan, from whence hill tracks 
can be followed to Loventium and 
Tregaron. 

9^ m. on 1. the united streams of 
the Doethiau and the Pysgotwr fall 
into the Towey, the former river 
rising in the large lake of Llyn 
Berwyn, from which place to Tre- 
garon would be about 5 m. ; but the 
pedestrian should not attempt to 
thread the mazes of this wild and 
difficult country without a guide, or 
at the very least an Ordnance map. 

10 m. Capel Yatrad-y-Ffin and 
Twm Shon Catti's Cave, perhaps 
more easy of access from Llanwrtyd 
(Rte. 6).] p. m. from Llandovery 
the new road to Llampeter crosses 
the Towey by a handsome suspension 
bridge of 225 ft. span. 6 m. 1. a 
road leads down the romantic little 
glen to the village of Llanwrda 
and Glanrhyd Stat. 7J m. 1. *a 
road branches off to Llansawyl, and 
across a very moimtainous and 
rugged district into the Vale of 
Teifi. From this elevated spot is 
a lovely view of the Vale of Cothi. 

10 m. on rt., on an eminence 
covered with trees and brushwood, 
are the Roman mines of Gogofau, 
and within the demesne is JDolau- 
coffiy^ the seat of J. Johnes, Esq. 
Many remains of Roman potter3.% 
baths, and ornaments, have been 
foimd here, aflfbrding proof that a 
Roman station must have existed 
in connexion with the mines ; and 
amongst other relics Mr. Johnes 
possesses a " Torch Awr," or golden 
chain or necklace. Tradition also 
points to a large tower built of brick, 
from whence it has been called " The 
Red Tower of South Wales." 

It is probable that the Romans 
worked these mines for gold ; and 
the Geological Survey has dis- 
covered a specimen of free gold in 
the quartz of one of the lodes. 
" The majority of the workings, ex- 
tending to a considerable depth for 



S. Wales. RcnUe 7. — Pumsant. — Uangadock, 



97 



some acres over the side of the hill, 
are open to the day, or worked like 
a quarry; and the rock through 
which the lodes run — a portion of 
the lower Silurian rocks — is in many 
places exposed, and exhibits beds 
much broken and contorted, though 
having a general tendency to dip 
northward. Here and there a sort 
gf cave has been opened on some of 
the quartz veins, and in some cases 
has been pushed on as a gallery 
about 6 to 7 ft. high and 5 or 6 ft. 
wide." — Mem. of Geol, Survey. 
Near the workings is a 4-sided stone 
indented with circular hollows, evi- 
dently caused by the stone being 
employed as a mortar for the pur- 
pose of breaking up the ore. Rather 
more than 1 m. behind Gogofau is 
the church of Cynjil Cayo, a large 
ancient church, supposed to have 
belonged to a monastic institution. 

10| m. Pumsant, a fishing station 
on the Cothi, where there is a little 
roadside inn. 

The road, after ascending a long 
range of hills, from the summit of 
which, at 14 m., is a magnificent 
view of the hills of Cardiganshire, 
descends to 18 m. Lkmpeter (Rte. 
10).] 

The geology of Llandovery and 
its neighbourhood is extremely in- 
teresting. The Caradoc sandstone 
of the Lower Silurian formation is 
largely developed, and most of the 
mines, such as Nant-y-mwyn and 
Gogofau, occur in these quartzose 
rocKs, which alternate with Slaty 
schist. There beds are also ob- 
served full of typical fossils, and 
overlying the Llandeilo flags, S. of 
Llandovery, at Oilgwyn Park and 
Blaen-y-cwm, near Llangadock. To 
the N.E. of Llandovery the beds 
known as Llandovery beds are found 
" in tlie elevated moory grounds of 
Mwmfre, and to rise up into the 
bare and stony hills of Noeth- grug 
and Cefn-y-garreg, about 1500 ft. 
above the sea. Wild and unin- 
habited, this small tract is truly re- 

[S. WcUes.^ 



markable as being the only one in 
England and Wales wherein the 
lower and upper zones of the Llan- 
dovery or Pentameri rocks have 
as yet been observed in one united 
mass, and with clear relations to 
the inferior and superior strata." — 
Siluria. 

There are two roads to Llandeilo, 
— one by the W. bank of the Towey, 
through Llanwrda, and the other on 
the E. bank, through Llangadock. 
" In medio tutissimus ibis ;'* there- 
fore the tourist will find it most 
convenient to go by the Vale of 
Towey Ely., which joins the Llanelly 
line at Llandeilo. 

60 m. rt. Llwyn-y-brain (Major 
Rice), and a little further on 1. Dol- 
y-carrog (C. Bishop, Esq.). 

62 m. Llampeter Road Stat., and 
63J Llangadock, a small decayed 
town, with an old church, prettily 
situated between the rivers Sefni 
and Sawdde, at the foot of the 
Black Mountains, over which a road 
is carried S. through Cwm Amman 
(Rte. 6) and Pontardawe (Rte. 1) to 
Neath. During the contest between 
the English and Welsh in the reign 
of Edward I. a complaint was made 
to the Archbishop of Canterbury of 
the atrocities of the English soldiers. 
who had plundered the church or 
Llangadock, and, after woxmding 
the priest before the altar, converted 
it into a stable for their horses. 

About 3 m. S.W. of Llangadock, 
on the summit of a detached hill, 
called Cam- Croc/i, projecting in front 
of the mural ridge of Trichrflg, is a Ro- 
man encampment, in the form of a re- 
.gular parallelogram, of the age of the 
Llandeilo flags. " One of the largest 
faces is a natural wall of quartz 
rock, the beds of which, dipping to 
the N.W., present a bold precipitous 
face to the Vale of Towey. The 
other walls, which in places are still 
20 to 30 ft. high, have been formed 
by piling large and shattered blocks, 
which, from their angularity, give a 
Cyclopean character to these des.':^- 



98 



Rovtel. — lAandeilo Vawr. 



S. Wales. 



late and venerable ruins." — Jfur- 
dhison. 

2 m. up the Sawdde, in the low 
grounds to the N. of Blaen Dyffryn 
Gkurn, formerly stood a cromlech, 
which was desta*oyed by the stupidity 
of a peasant. According to the 
tradition of the country it was the 
last place in Britain where human 
sacrifices were offered, and even 
down to recent times the spot was 
chosen for reconciling friends by the 
contending parties shaking hands 
over the stone-heap. 

65 m. Ghmrhyd Stat. On rt. are 
the village of Llanwrda, and a road 
joining the Llandovery and Llam- 
peter road, about 3 m. from Gogofau 
mine. 

67 m. TaUey Boad. 2 m. on rt„ 
on an eminence, is Manoravon (D. 
Pugh, Esq., M.P.), and on 1. Ta- 
liaris, the handsome seat of W. Peel, 
Esq., from whence it is 2 m. to the 
picturesque town of 

69 m. Ilandeilo Vawr {Hotel, 
Cawdor Arms), a town of about 
2000 Inhab., curiously plastered, as 
it were, against the precipitous face 
of a high hill, rising above the rt. 
bank of the Towey. The new road, 
though less difficult than the old, 
still performs a steep ascent to reach 
the centre of the town, where, pass- 
ing through the churchyard of St. 
Teilo (who gives his name to the 
place), it again descends to the level 
of the river, which it reaches at the 
foot of the bridge. This is one of 
the three fortunate places which 
were honoured by being the de- 
pository of St. Teilo's bones, the 
other two being Llandaff and Penally, 
near Tenby (Rte. 1). The church 
(from which there is a most lovely 
view both up and down the valley) 
was rebuilt in 1848, and is one of the 
best churches in the Principality, 
consisting of a nave, chancel, aisle, 
and transept, and an old steeple 
which belonged to the former build- 
ing. One of the finest organs iu 
Wales is placed on the ground-flooi 



The rocks around the town con- 
sist of a coarse slate of a dark 
colour, frequently calcareous, and in 
part true limestone, which abound 
with the characteristic fossils of the 
Llandeilo flags. ** Extending north- 
wards to Llangadock and S. to 
Carmarthen, these flagstones rise in 
the form of a broken elliptical mass 
from beneath overlying strata on 
both banks of the Towey, thus mark- 
ing an extensive line of excavation 
in which that river flows." A sec- 
tion has been laid open on the side 
of the railway at PanUadis, about 
1 m. on the Llandybie road, where 
the beds dip to the E. by S. at an 
angle of 75^, exhibiting an arched 
arrangement of strata where a dome 
of grits and sandstone emerges 
from the overlying beds. The most 
abundant and typical fossil is the 
trilobite, particularly the Asaphus 
and Ogygia Buchii, besides many 
Lower Silurian forms of shells. The 
latter fossU is very abundant in a 
small deserted quarry on the 1. of 
the road to the Rly. Stat., about 
100 yds. from the town. Llandeilo 
is chiefly celebrated for the beauty 
of its vicinity, and the number of 
interesting objects lying within a 
short distence of it. Immediately 
outside the town, on a curve of the 
rt. bank of the river, is Newton or 
DynevorTa.Tk. (Lord Dynevor), which 
is diversified with most beautiful 
woods and undulations, arising from 
the remarkable* dislocations of the 
flagstone strata, which have divided 
it into separate knolls, now covered 
from top to bottom with noble trees. 
The mansion is modem, but con- 
tedns two ancient decorated chairs, 
said to have been used by Sir Rhys ap 
Thomas. Upon a headland are seen 
the ivy-clad ruins of Dynevor Castle, 
which, however, are so much over- 
grown as very much to impair the 
effect and impede the view. The 
original form of the castle was 
cii'cular, and it was fortified with a 
double moat and rampart, but now 



S. Wales. BoiUe 7. — Dynevor, — TaUey Abbey, 

the priticipal features are a square 
and round tower, overhanging the 
precipice, and some battlemented 
walls, part of the original enclosure. 
Dynevor was the stronghold and 
residence of the early princes of 
S. Wales. The first castle on 
this spot was built by Roderic the 
Great, and descended from him to 
his son Cadell, but was destroyed 
and rebuilt more than once before 
the present structure arose. The 
story runs, that one of ilie first 
owners of Dynevor confined within 
these walls his father and his 
younger brother, having deprived 
the latter of his sight, to seciu-e for 
himself the inheritance. The blind 
youth, however, knowing every pas- 
sage and corner of the castle, groped 
his way to his parent's cell, burst 
open the door and set him free. 
The estate was granted by Henry 
VII. to Sir Rhys ap Thomas Fitz 
Urien, one of the first and most 
faithful supporters of his cause, to 
whom he owed the throne. His 
grandson was, nevertheless, one of 
the victims of the tyranny and cu- 
pidity of Henry VIII., who caused 
him to be seized on a frivolous 
charge of treason and beheaded, 
and his estates confiscated, 1531. 
Lord Dynevor is lineally descended 
from Urien, Prince of Reged. 

On the bank of the Towey, within 
this domain, Spenser has placed 
the cave of Merlin : — 



99 



•* There the wise Merlhi, whilom wont, they 
say. 
To make his wonne low underneath the 
ground 
In a deep delve far from the view of day, 
That of no living wight he mote be 

found 
When so he counsell'd with his sprights 
around. 

And if tliou ever happen that same way 
To travel, go and see that dreadful 
place ; 
It is a hideous, hollow, cave-like bay, 
Under a rock that has a little space 
From the swift Tyvi, tumbling down 
apace 
Amongst the woody hills of Dinevowr. 



Bat dare not thou, I charge, in any case 
To enter into that same baleful bower, 
For fear the cruel fiends should thee un- 
ware devour." 

Fairie Queene, lii. cant 3. 

[A pleasant excursion can be 
made from Llandeilo to Talley Ab- 
bey, and through the Vale of Cothi 
to Gogofau (p. 96). 

3 m. 1. is the wooded domain 
of Taliaris (W. Peel. Esq.), and 
8 m. TaUey Abbey, placed in a 
most lovely situation in a deep vale, 
at the head of two lakes, formerly 
belonging to the Abbey, which, in 
the time of Henry VII., was richly 
endowed. The ruins of the Abbey, 
though small, harmonise well wifli 
the scenery around ; the only por- 
tion remaining being the finely pro- 
portioned arches which supported 
the central tower. 

9 m. 1., occupying the bank of a 
well-wooded knoll, and overhanging 
the Cothi, is Rhydodyn (Sir J. 
Hamlyn Williams, Bart.). From 
thence the road runs along the 
1. bank of the river to Pumsant 
and Gogofau, about 7 m.l 

Before quitting LlanJeilo an in- 
teresting excursion may be made 
to the ruins of Carreg Cennen CasUe, 
situated about B m. S.E. of i^e 
town, in a smaller valley lying be- 
hind a double barrier of hills, which 
is the S. prolongation of the ridge 
of Trichrug. From the very steep 
and rough ascent leading from the 
bridge one of the best views is 
gained of the Vale of Towey, includ- 
ing the whole of Dynevor Park. 
After about 2 m. of ascent a foot- 
path, somewhat devious, strikes out 
of the road to the castle, which ap- 
pears conspicuously rising out of the 
narrow ravine of the Cennen. It is * 
one of the most striking and pic- 
turesque ruins iu Wales, planted on 
an isolated and precipitous rock of 
mountain limestone, rising to a 
height of nearly 300 ft. above the 
stream, and surrounded by bleak 
and bare hills of sande>ticivv5:, \Ss>» 



^ V: 



■» * 



100 



Botite 7. — Grongar HUl. — Golden Grove. S. Wales, 



buildings, inaccessible on all sides 
but one, and almost impregnable 
before the discovery of gunpowder, 
occupy the entire platform which 
forms the summit of the rock, not 
more than an acre in extent, and 
consist of 2 equare towers on the 
N. side, defending tlie entrance, a 
large round tower, and an octagonal 
tower. The very curious passage, 
descending through the solid rock 
for more than 100 ft., and called 
"The Well," is supposed by Sir R. 
Murchison to be a natural fissure, 
and not an artificial excavation. 
The only water to be obtained from 
it is the scanty droppings from tlie 
rock, and the only receptacle for 
it a basin incapable of holding 2 
gallons. Hence it was clearly not 
a well. It is lighted, at intervals, 
by lateral loopholes pierced through 
the limestone. The view from the 
top of the rock is most extensive, 
commanding interminable valleys 
and ridges, the vistas of which ex- 
tend to the sea on one side, and 
a long reach of the Vale of Towey 
on the other. 

The history of these ruins has 
not been recorded ; antiquaries 
have claimed for them a British 
founder, Urien, one of the Knights 
of the Round Table, or a Roman 
origin, but the existing constructions 
are probably not older than Henry 
III. or Edward I. 

About 1 m. to the S. of the castle, 
at Cwrt Pen-y-Banc, or C wrt Bryn-y- 
Beir^d, are the remains of a con- 
siderable mansion nearly coeval with 
the fortress. Close to it is Llygad 
Lloughor, or the source of the 
Lloughor river, in a cavern, from 
whence it issues in a considerable 
stream (Rte. 6). There are 2 roads 
from Llandcilo to Carmarthen, one 
on either bank of the Towey. As 
there is an omnibus daily to and fro, 
the tourist will probably take the 
one on the rt. bank. 

A road may also be followed 
through Dynevor Park to Grongar 



HiU^ near the margin of the Towey, 
under the village of, 73 m., lAar^ 
gaihen (4 m. from Llandeilo). It is 
j not in itself an object of much in- 
j terest, though rendered so by the 
j verses of the poet Dyer, who was 
I bom in the mansion of Aber&rlasney. 
' 1700 :- ^ 

I " Grongar Hill invites my song. 

Draw the luidscape bright and strong ; 
Grongar, in whose mossy cells 
Sweetly musing Quiet dwells." 

A hawthorn-tree on the top of the 
hill is pointed out as that under 
which he wrote the poem, and it 
commands a most enchanting pro- 
spect, worthy of a poet's song : — 

" Ever charming, ever new ! 
^Vhen will the landscape tire the view ? 
The fountain's fall, the river's flow. 
The woody valleys warm and low ; j 

The windy summit wild and high. 
Roughly rushing on the sky ; 
The pleasant seat and ruiu'd tower. 
The naked rock, the shady bower. 
The town and village, dome and farm, 
£ach gives each a double charm 
As pearls upon an ^thiop's arm." 

There are traces of a camp on the 
hill-top. 

A ferry across the river leads 
from this to Golden Grove, a seat of 
the Earl of Cawdor, inlierited by 
him from the Vaughans, Earls of 
Carberry. The old house, which was 
burnt down, stood amidst the gar- 
dens seen on the 1. of the road ; 
but the modern house stands on a 
platform high up the hill-side. It 
is Elizabethan, with a number of 
gabled windows, and a tall cen- 
tral tower. In the interior are 
some portraits of the Vaughan 
family, and one of " Siicharissa,'* 
liady Dorothy Sidney ; also a Gana- 
letti and a Luca Giordano. Near 
the site of the old house is a grove 
of old oak-trees, where a walk for- 
merly existed, called after that ex- 
cellent prelate Jeremy Taylor, who 
resided hero during a season of 
adversity after the death of his 
I master, Charles I. Taylor's second 
, wife, supposed to be a natural 



• • *> 



S. Wales. 



Moide 8. — Hereford to Hay. 



101 



daughter of Charles, possessed a 
small estate in the neighbourhood, 
called Mandinam, which then be- 
longed to Richard Vaughaii, Earl of 
Carberry, and upon his bounty and 
hospitality the divine appears to 
have been supported when deprived 
of his living by the Puritans. With- 
in, the walls of Golden Grove he 
preached his yearly course of ser- 
mons when the churches were 
closed against him; and there he 
wrote several of his works, as • The 
Life of Christ,' and hi^ Catechism 
for children, which he named * Gold- 
en Grove' in compliment to his 
patron. Just underneath the park 
is Llanvihangd Aberbythyrch, where 
Jeremy Taylor is said to have kept a 
school. 

75 m. 1., upon the top of a huge 
hill, which seems to block up the 
valley, are the extensive earthworks, 
ivy-clad walls, and tower of Dryslyn, 
one of the Edwardian castles of this 
valley, erected by one of the princes 
of the house of Dynevor, and on the 
opposite side of the river is a tri- 
angular tower or monument to Nel- 
son, erected by Sir William Paxton. 
A little to the S. is Llanarthney 
church, and on the 1. of the road 
Middleton Hall, the fine seat of 
E. Abadam, Esq. 

80J m. on rt. Merlin Hill, fabled 
to have been the birthplace of the 
magician. 

82 m. Ahergxmlif a large village 
situated at the confluence of the 
Gwili with the Towey, containing 
the palace and grounds of the Bp. 
of St. David's, built in 1830. There 
is a pretty church with a spire, 
built in E. E. style. On the oppo- 
site side of the river is Llangynnor 
Cliurch (Rte. 1). From Abergwili 
the road keeps along the rt. bank of 
the Towey to 

84 m. Carmarthen (Rte. 1). 



ROUTE 8. 

FROM HEREFORD TO HAY, BRECON, 
BUILTH, AND RHAYADER. 

Quitting Hereford (Rtes. 2, 3) by 
the western road, which crosses the 
Newport and Abergavenny railway, 
the first object of attention to the 
traveller is at 1 m. the junction of 
the Weobley road, marked by the 
White Cross, of Perp. date. It con- 
sists of an hexagonal flight of 7 
steps, surmounted by a shaft 6 ft. in 
height ; the sides are panelled and 
contain shields of arms. It was 
erected by Bp. Charlton in 1347 in 
gratitude for the departure of the 
plague. 

2 m. at King's Acre, on rt., is a 
road to Kington. 

3 m. on 1., at Sugwas, was once a 
palace of the Bishops of Hereford : 
fmgments of it are incorporated in 
the present mansion, erected in 1792, 
when the chapel was taken down. 

The road now approaches the 
winding sweeps of the Wye, and at 
5 m. on rt. passes a little to the S. 
of Kenchester, occupying the site of 
the Roman station Magna, mentioned 
in the Itinerary of Antoninus, which 
stood upon the ancient Watling St. 
The form of this station is an ir- 
regular hexagon, inclining to a 
parallelogram ; the area, 21 acres, 
now divided into two enclosures, is 
raised at least 4 ft. above the level 
of tlie adjacent country, and was 
surrounded by a wall, the foundations 
of which may yet be traced. Roman 
coins and a few remains have been 
found hete. 



102 



Eaute 8. — Madky, — Monrmgton. S. Wales. 



On 1. New Weir (J. Griffiths, 
Esq.), situated on a steep ascent 
above the river, which, indulging 
here in one of its beautiful curves, 
affords from its serpentine course 
extensive and picturesque views. 
Guy's Hospital possesses in Here- 
fordshire about 30,000Z. per annum in 
land, and has a large estate in this 
neighbourhood. 

6J m. on 1., overhanging the road, 
is the small early Dec. church of 
Bridge Sailers, At this spot is the 
commencement of Offa's Dyke, 
which is distinctly visible the whole 
way to Mansel Gamage, and from 
thence due N. to Upperton. The 
traveller frequently gains fine views 
on the 1. of the high hills which 
contain the sources of the Monnow 
and other tributaries of the Wye and 
Usk. 8 m. Gamons (Sir H. Cot- 
terell, Bart.), a modem castle, well 
placed in a thickly-wooded park, 
overlooking the windings of the 
river. 

[Between the villages of Byford 
and Bridge Sellers a ferry conveys 
horses and carriages across the river 
to Madley, an extensive parish, with 
a curious church, principally of 
Dec. character : it has a polygonal 
apse, under which is a fine octagonal 
crypt, with a central shaft and good 
groining. The windows are mostly 
of 2 lights, showing the first and 
middle Pointed styles much inter- 
mixed ; but one, at the E. end of a 
small chapel, is a large one of 5 
lights. At the W. end is an em- 
battled tower, surmounted by a high 
turret, called by the inhabitants 
" Jacob's Chair." In the chancel are 
remains of stalls, with desks and 
miserere seats, and on the rt. of the 
altar are sedilia of decorated cha- 
racter, ornamented with the wall- 
flower. The font is a remarkable 
specimen, and claims a rank of 
earlier date than the church : it is 
hollowed out of a large block of 
plum-pudding stone, resembling in 
size and form that at Eilpeck, though 



having one circular column. The 
bells were brought in 1538 from the 
dissolved abbey of Dore. In the 
adjoining parish of Eaton Buihop is 
a large British camp, enclosing an 
extent of 30 acres, fortified with 
single works, except towEirds the 
S.W. It appears to have been only 
a temporary station. The Eoman 
road called Stone Street runs, in 
good preservation, between the 
churches of Madley and Eaton 
Bishop. 

2 m. on rt. is Ttbberton Court 
(Mrs. Lee Warner), a large brick- 
built mansion on an elevated site, 
once a seat of the Brydges family. 
The library contains a complete 
collection of the Elzevir classics.] 

10 m. on rt., above the road, is 
the little church of StauntorironrWye, 
and on 1., between it and the river, 
are Monnington church and village, 
with its long avenue known as Mon- 
nington Walk. On the opposite side 
of the river are the woods of Moccas 
Court, the seat of Sir Velters Oome- 
wall, Bart. Monnington was for- 
merly the residence of a powerful 
family of that name, one of whom 
married a daughter of Owen Glen- 
dower, who, according to tradition, 
died here and was buried in the 
churchyard, a.d. 1416. No memo- 
rial marks the place of his sepul- 
ture, but in 1680 a grave supposed 
to have contained his remains was 
discovered. The body was " whole 
and entire, and of goodly stature.'* 
The upper stone was carefully re- 
placed and the earth cast upon it. — » 
Harl, MS8. 

lOJ m. on 1. a road leads across 
the Wye through the village of Bred- 
wardine to Moccas Court, which 
stands on an easy ascent near the 
river in a finely-wooded park, con- 
taining a fine specimen of weeping 
oak, the largest tree of this varieiy 
known in England. The parish 
church, a curious structure of much 
simplicity, with an eastern apse, is 
considered to be the oldest in the 



to b 



S. Wales. 



JRouie 8. — Eardidey, — Hay, 



103 



county. On an eminence adjoining 
the park is a large and peculiar 
kind of British cromlech, called 
King Arthur's Table. The incum- 
bent stone, now broken in the 
middle, is elliptical in form, 18 ft. in 
length, 9 ft. broad, and in thickness 
2 ft. It was originally supported by 
11 upright stones, some of which are 
fallen; other stones are scattered 
round, and there is also a small 
mound near it. [From Moccas a 
turnpike-road runs on rt. bank of 
the Wye to Hay, 8 m., passing 
Hardtmck (Col. Powell) and Mouse 
CastleJ} 

12 m. Letton Court (Rev. H. 
Blissett), and 13J m., at Willeraley^ a 
road to rt. leads to Kington, passing, 
1 m., the village of Eardisley, where 
the family of Baskerville was seated 
from the reign of William I. to 
1640. A small portion of their 
once well- fortified castle remains. 
The church consists of a nave, N. 
aisle, and low embattled tower, hav- 
ing an Anglo-Norm, font curiously 
sculptured. Coke, Bishop of Here- 
ford,- ejected by the Parliamenta- 
rians, died at his paternal seat of 
Lower Moor in this parish, 1646, 
and was buried in the chancel, i m. 
from the church is the Eardisley 
oak, a fine old tree with an immense 
head, wider than that of the Cow- 
thorpe. The trunk is 18 ft. high and 
30 ft. in girth, and it covers alto- 
gether a surface of 324 ft. in cir- 
cular extent. — Loudon. 

15 m. At the village of Winforton 
the tramroad from Kington joins 
fellowship with the road in its course 
to Brecon. 

16 m. on 1. Whitney Court (T. 
Dew, Esq.), and 17 m. the Wye is 
crossed by a frail wooden bridge, 
common to the turnpike and tram- 
roads. 

18^ m. rt., between the road and 
the Wye, are tlie scanty remains of 
Clifford Castle^ the reputed birth- 
place of Fair Rosamond. The walls 
cover a natural knoll, isolated by a 



deep ravine. This fortress was 
built by William FitzOsborn, Earl 
of Huntingdon, and was during 2 
centuries the baronial residence of 
the Lords de Clifford, and after- 
wards of the Giffards, one of whom 
married the heiress of Walter Gif- 
fard, grandson of Walter de Clifford, 
father of Fair Rosamond. On the 
opposite bank of the river is Cahalva, 
the seat of Sir J. Romilly. 

20 m. On 1. is the Moor, the seat 
of Mrs. Pennoyre, overhanging 
which is Mouse Castle, an eminence 
of considerable height, the summit 
of which ia embraced by an en- 
trenchment 50 yds. in diameter. 
This small area is defended by an 
embankment of earth thrown up 4 
yds. perpendicularly, and by a deep 
fosse, which towards the E. presents 
on the inner side a solid wall of 
natural rock, based by the clearing 
of the fosse, so as to expose an up- 
right front of stone 8 ft. high, with 
a gradual descent of 8 ft. more to 
the bottom of the ditch. Ramifica- 
tions with ditches and similar em- 
bankments extend towards the town, 
the declivity being on all sides very 
rapid. Although the smallest, this 
is the strongest camp in the county. 

20J m. Hay (Swan Inn\ so called 
from the Norman-Frencn "haier," 
to enclose, is a small quiet town of 
about 1500 to 2000 Inhab., pic- 
turesquely situated on the rt. bank 
of the Wye, in a rich agricultural 
district. The remains of the castle, 
"the which," according to Leland, 
" hath been some time right stately," 
is represented by a Gothic gateway 
and wall, placed on an eminence 
overhanging the town. It was built 
in the time of Henry II., and de- 
stroyed in the border wars by Glen- 
dower in 1403. On its site now 
stands an ivy-covered manor-house, 
with gables and tall chimneys, the 
residence of the Rev. W. L. Bevan. 
The church, a rather plain building, 
is romantically situated on the bank 
of the river at the W, etJi-d <^1 ^^ 



104 



Boute 8. — Glasbury, — Talgarth, 



S. Wales. 



town, separated by a deep ravine 
from a mound and square platform, 
the remains of an ancient fortifica- 
tion. It consists of a nave and 
chancel with a tower, and contains 
an ancient silver chalice, dedicated 
to *' our Lady Paris of the Haier." 

The scenery in the neighbour- 
hood of Hay is very beautiful, par- 
ticularly on the S., where the Black 
Mountains end in an escarpment of 
great heiglit, offering many pretty 
and romantic dinglee, amongst which 
Cu8op valley offers many attractions. 
The landscape to the S.W. is 
worthily closed by the towering 
summits of the Breconshire Beacons. 
Coaches to Brecon, Hereford, and 
Builth daily. 

On the rt., on the Radnorshire 
side of the river, is Clyro Court, tlie 
seat of J. M. Baskerville, Esq. On 
leaving Hay the visitor passes on rt. 
some almshouses built and endowed 
by Mrs. Harley of Trebarried, and 
on 1. 21 m. Oakfield (H. Allen, 
Esq.). 

The subordinate beds in the vici- 
nity of Hay afford a most excellent 
tliick-bedded stone of a delicate 
green colour, of which the town is 
built. To the S. and E. the 
comstones or calcareous portion of 
the old red, while to the N.W. the 
lower portion is seen, consisting of 
red marl and tilestones resting on 
the Silurian rocks of Radnorshire. 
The country on leaving Hay is flat, 
but the prospect on the 1. affords an 
imposing view of the lofty Hatterell 
range, or Black Mountains, rising 
2000 ft. above the level of the sea, 
and sweeping for many miles above 
a broken wooded foreground. 

23 m. on the high ground above 
the Wye on 1. is Maeslough Castle, 
the modem mansion of Walter de 
Winton, Esq., built in 1829. Gilpin 
described the situation on which 
the present house stands as "the 
finest of its kind in Wales." 

24 m. Glasburyy a pretty English- 
looking village, with a modem Norm. 



church in good taste. Radnorshire 
and Breconshire are here connected 
by a wooden bridge across the Wye. 
1 m. to the 1., on a cross-road from 
Hay to Talgarth, is Tregoyd, the 
seat of Viscount Hereford, and near 
it Crwemyfed (Col. Wood), an an- 
cient Elizabethan mansien, where 
Charles L was entertained by Sir 
Henry Williams in 1645. The cotirfc- 
yard is flanked by 2 round towers. 

25 m. Three Cocks Inn (clean and 
comfortable), a favourite resort of 
amateur fishermen. From hence 
the tourist to Builth branches off to 
the rt., the other road continuing 
to Brecon, 10 m. Above the inn and 
in the grounds of Gwemyfed are 
entrenchments of British construc- 
tion, called the Gaer. 

[On road to Brecon, 1^ m. on 1., 
is Porthhaml, containing a fine em- 
battled entrance-tower. 

2^ m. the small village of BronUySt 
the castle of which is remarkable 
for its round tower, supposed by 
some to be fabulously ancient and 
built by the Phoenicians, but in 
reality only a keep of the 13tli 
centy., erected after the model of 
the round tower of Pembroke Castle. 
The church possesses some Norm, 
windows and a detached campanile. 
1 m. on 1., nestling under the sha- 
dow of the Black Mountains, is 
Talgarthf about 1400 Pop., a borough 
by prescription, without privilege, 
jurisdiction, or municipal officers, 
but placed in an interesting vicinity. 
The church, consisting of 2 aisles, 
is superior to most in the coimtry ; 
the tower contains 6 bells, and 
solidity rather than elegance pre- 
vails. 

About 3 m. to the S.E. is Pen- 
coder, or the Cradle Mountain, 
2545 ft. above the level of the sea. 
From Talgarth a walk of 3 m. will 
bring the tourist to Dinas Castle 
(Rte. 7), from whence a pass leads 
into the Vale of Usk to Crickhowell, 
9 m. The parish of Talgarth, once 
the seat of the ancient family of 



S. Wales, Movie %.—Tremcca, — PwU Ldu, 



105 



Gunter, includes, 1 m. on the Llan- 
gorse road, Treveoca House, founded 
in 1752 by Howel Harris, a disciple 
of Whitfield, for Calvinistic Dis- 
senters, who lived in common, on a 
system similar to that of the Mora- 
vians. The conmiunity at one time 
numbered 150 persons, who culti- 
vated land and worked at various 
trades ; but, although raised by the 
untiring zeal of the founder, who 
devised estates to trustees for the 
continuance of the system, few per- 
sons can be indued "to be happy 
by a certain regulation, to forego 
the pursuit of their own objects 
after their own manner, at their 
own peril, and for their own ad- 
vantage." Selina, Countess Dowager 
of Huntingdon, resided at Trevecca- 
isaf, and made Tredustan Court an 
establishment for teachers of the 
Whitfield Methodist Connexion. 

5 m. from Talgarth on rt. is Llyn 
Savaddan^ or Llangorse Pool (Kte. 
7), the Clamosum of Giraldus, about 
5 m. in circumference. It was fre- 
quented by the monks of Llanthony, 
who had leave of fishing, the lake 
abounding in perch, trout, eels, and 
pike, the latter sometimes attaining 
the size of 30 or 40 lbs.] 

6J m. on rt. Talacchddu, and 9 m, 
on rt. Llanddew church, an ancient 
and beautiful, though sadly muti- 
lated, cruciform church, with a 
chancel in the lancet style. Near 
the church are the remains of a 
palace of the Bishop of St. David's, 
one of the episcopal residences or- 
dered to be retained by a statute in 
1342. It possesses a doorway built 
by Bp. Gower. 

Descending a very steep and cir- 
cuitous road down the narrow valley 
of the Honddu, the traveller arrives 
at 15 m. Brecon (Rtes. 4, 7). Hotel: 
Castle.] 

Leaving the Three Cocks, and 
soon after crossing the little river 
Llyflfni, tlie road keeps to the rt. 
bank of the Wye to 28 m. Llyswen, 
where was formerly a palace of the \ 



Welsh princes. 29 m., on opposite 
bank of the river, is Boughrood 
Castle (J. Olutterbuck, Esq.), a 
square house near the site of an 
ancient fortress. 29J m. Llangoed 
Castle (Sir J. Bailey), d. most at- 
tractive spot, from the magnitude 
and position of its fine woods, which 
extend for 2J m. sloping down to 
the Wye. 32| m. Erwood, " a small 
hostelrie. Where a pedestrian tourist 
who can rough it may sometimes 
sleep." 

On an inconsiderable elevation to 
the rt., called Garth Hill, £ire the 
remains of a British camp. 

[By crossing the ancient ferry 
called Cefyn Twm Bach an oppor- 
tunity is afforded of visiting the 
PwU DdUf or the Black Pit, about 
1 m. from the village of Llan- 
stephan, a place not easily found 
without a guide. " The little river 
MAchwy has worn a very deep and 
gloomy channel in its descent from 
the mountains. Savage rocks, 
slightly fringed with brushwood, 
impend over the river, and one of 
vast size projects so abruptly across 
the glen, as apparently to close it. 
Here stood the Castle of the Black 
Rock, of which little else than the 
name remains ; but the surrounding 
peasants devoutly believe that it is 
the favourite resort of the fairies. 
Curious legends are circulated in 
this secluded neighbourhood. Ac- 
cording to tradition, one of the an- 
cient Welsh princes kept prisoners 
in a castle on the summit of the 
rock, from whence they were not 
unfrequently hurled into the tre- 
mendous pool below. There is a 
difficult passage round the foot of 
the Black Rock to a singular water- 
fall about 40 ft. high, surrounded 
by accessaries which very greatly 
heighten its grandeur. You feel 
astonished, but hardly pleased, in 
this wild and gloomy hollow, and 
value sunshine when you leave Its. 



106 



JRoute 8. — Aheredw, — Llanvorthwh 



S. Wales. 



is a smaller waterfall lower down." — 
GUffe. 

36J m. AheredWt on the opposite 
side of the river, was the himting- 
seat of Llewellyn, the last native 
Prince of- Wales. The remains of 
the castle, much hidden by foliage, 
occupy the summit of a mound, 
partly natural, which stands at the 
entrance of the highly picturesque 
glen of the Edw. The church 
stands on an eminence, round which 
the Edw flows, above the castle, 
and opposite to a lofty range of 
rocks partially concealed by trees. 
An excavation in the rock retains the 
name of " Llewellyn's Cave." The 
imfortunate prince was killed in 1 292 
by a party of Herefordshire men, 
and buried at Cwm Bedd Llewellyn 
onthe Yrfon(Kte. 6). 

39 J the road crosses the little river 
Dihonw, on which a fearful flood 
occurred in July, 1853, carrying 
away at Dolfach, 1 m. up the stream, 
a whole house, the tenants of which, 
a widow lady, with her children, 
were all drowned. 

41 m. Builth (Hotel Lion), Rte. 6. 

The road to Rhayader now crosses 
the Wye, and follows the 1. bank 
instead of the rt., as heretofore, 
having the woods of Wellfield (E. 
Thomas, Esq.) on the rt. This 
route is one of the most romantic in 
S. Wales, traversing an extremely 
picturesque country, in which fine 
woods, precipitous moimtains, and a 
river ever changing in its aspect, 
are the principal elements. 

At 45 m. the road crosses the 
IthoUt which flows from the Mont- 
gomeryshire hills to join the Wye at 
this spot. 46 m. is the little village 
of Newbridge, where a bridge crosses 
the river to Llysdinam Hall, the 
seat of Mrs. Venables. At 48 m. 
on the rt. the high peak of Volevan 
Hill overhangs the river, which, 
from this spot to its very source, is 
environed by mountains almost from 
the water's edge. The road runs 
an a terrace at a considerable height 



above the Wye, passing 49 m. on 1. 
Doldowlod, the residence of W. W, 
Gibson, Esq. 

50 m. Pen-lan-oleu (H. Llngen, 
Esq.), situated at the foot of the 
huge mass of Rhiw Gwraidd. 

J m. further, on the opposite 
bank, "the small village and tiny 
ch. of Llanwrthwl looK out from 
the mountain nest of wood and 
heather upon the broad river below, 
whose course runs through woods, 
only allowing occasional peeps of 
the opposite towering hills, also 
belted with avenues and groups of 
fine trees." — Roscoe. 

52 m. Closer and closer runs the 
road by the river-side to Aher- 
dauddwr^ where an exquisitely lovely 
scene presents itself. On rt. the 
grand woody crag of Gwastaden 
mountain rises boldly from the Wye, 
which here receives on its rt. bank 
the waters of the Elan, after wind- 
ing roimd the base of the Com 
Gafallt. " The scene constantly 
varies as we view the two vales of 
the Wye and Elan in different posi- 
tions, ever lovely, ever new; while 
on the rt. the huge crags maintain 
their stem, harsh features, gradually 
deepening in tone from the clearly- 
seen rocks and heather in the fore- 
ground to the dim yet rich purple of 
the distant peaks." From hence a 
beautiful drive along the N. side of 
Gwastaden brings the tourist to 54 
m. the romantic little town of 
Rhayader (Rte. 9). 



S. Wales. Eoute 9. — Kington to Aherystmth, 



107 



ROUTE 9. 

FROM KINGTON TO ABERYSTWITH, 
THROUGH RHAYADER. 

Kington (Pop. 3200— Hotel : Ox- 
ford Arms) is a favourite starting- 
place for tourists to Aberystwith, 
whither a coach runs daily, convey- 
ing passengers who are brought to 
Kington by thQ railway Ifrom Leo- 
minster. It is a prettily situated 
little town, surrounded by hills, that 
immediately on the N. being called 
Bradnor HiU, on the summit of 
which are the remains of a quad- 
rangular camp commanding a most 
extensive view. Leland was imable 
to determine whether this camp was 
British, Roman, or Saxon, whilst 
some antiquarians attribute its ex- 
istence to the Druids. Its houses 
are surmounted by the church, 
which, though much modernised, 
contains many portions deserving 
inspection, particularly a fine ala- 
baster tomb in the S. aisle to 
the memory of Thomas Vaughan 
and his wife Ellen of Hergest Court, 
in the 15th century. Mrs. Siddons 
made her first appearance on any 
stage in a barn-theatre in this town. 

1 m. S. is Hergest Court, an an- 
cient mansion, situated in a fertile 
plain on the bank of the ri\er Ar- 
row, for ages the residence of the 
powerful family of the Vaughans, 
who were, with their relative Sir 
David Gram, distinguished for their 
bravery at Agincourt. The private 
chapel, a spacious stone building 
near the house, is now used as a 
granary. 3 m. N.E. on the road to 
Presteigii is the rural village of 
Titley, The Court, situated on 
rising ground, was rebuilt in 1776. 
It has an extensive and well-stocked 
deer-park, and on the demise of 
Lady Coffin Greenly^ 1839, passed 
to Sir Thomas Hastings. Here was 
an ancient priory subordinate to the 



Abbey of Tyrone in France. On 
the suppression of alien priories it 
was given by Henry V. to Winchea- 
ter College, and still belongs to that 
establishment. In this parish is 
Eywood, the paternal estate of Ed- 
ward Harley, Auditor of the Imprest 
and brother of the Lord Treasurer, 
who enlarged the mansion, which is 
placed in a well-wooded locality, 
surrounded by an extensive range of 
pleasure-grounds, containing some 
good-sized lakes. It is the principal 
residence of his descendaiit. Lady 
Langdale. Titley is a stat. on the 
Leominster railway. 

The geologist will find a day in 
the neighbourhood of Kington well 
spent, particularly at Bradnor HiU, 
where the Upper Ludlow and tile- 
stone rocks of the Upper Silurians 
are well developed. The quarries 
abound with characteristic fossils, 
as Trochus helicites, Modiolopsis, 
Beyrichia, Onchus, Pteraspis, and 
the enormous extinct crustacean, 
the Pterygotus, the last two of which 
were discovered by Mr. Banks of 
Kington. Coaches to Aberystwith 
and Llandrindod daily. 

Distances : — Hereford 20 m., Hay 
14, Radnor 5, Presteign 7, Knighton 
14, Leominster 14. 

The first part of the next stage 
lies through an exceedingly pretty 
vaUey bounded by high hills planted 
with woods, in which larch predo- 
minates, and having something of 
the character of parts of the Black 
Forest in Germany. For nearly 3 
m. it runs parallel with the tram- 
road constructed in 1812 from the 
canal at Brecon through Hay to 
Kington. It is used for supplying 
this district with coal, and conveys 
in return lime and agricultural pro- 
duce into Breconshire. At 2J m. a 
stone marks the boundary of Here- 
fordshire and Radnorshire, and con- 
sequently of England and Wales, 
after whicli the road, turning ab- 
ruptly to the N., passes, at a little 



108 



R(Me 9. — Old and New Radnor, 



S. Wales. 



Old Radnor, perched on a rocky 
height, with its venerable church, 
containing a beautiful carved roof 
and oak screen, an ancient font, and 
some handsome monuments to the 
family of Lewis of Harpton. The 
hill of Old Kadnor, and the three 
neighbouring heights of Stanner, 
Hanter, and Worzel, possess high 
interest to the geologist. They con- 
sist of trap or greenstone, resem- 
bling the rare hypersthene rock of 
Coruisk in the Isle of Skye. It has 
been evidently thrown up from be- 
low by volcanic influence and in its 
ascent has dislocated and turned up 
the superincumbent beds of lime- 
stone, converting it mto hard marble 
when the two rocks come into con- 
tact. In some instances the trap 
veins have penetrated the limestone, 
and in others have carried up and 
enclosed fragments of shale. The 
limestone thus raised to the surface 
by the intrusion of the trap is the 
only stratum of the kind which can 
be worked between this and the sea- 
coast of Cardiganshire ; it is conse- 
quently most extensively quarried 
and burnt here. "In tracing the strata 
northwards, other masses of lime- 
stone more or less amorphous are 
seen near Old Radnor, which, in 
proportion as they approach the 
eruptive masses of Stanner, are 
themselves subcrystaUine and em- 
bedded, with coats of serpentine 
upon the surfaces of the joints. On 
the contrary, in receding westward 
from the line of eruption into the 
Vale of Radnor, the limestone begins 
to resume its bedded character, 
resting on the pebbly Pentamerus 
conglomerates which range by Old 
Radnor church and Yat Hill." — 
Siluria. 

Soon after passing Old Radnor, 
Harpton Courts the seat of the Right 
Hon. Sir G. Cornewall Lewis, Bart., 
appears at the extremity of the vista 
formed by a fine broad avenue of 
trees. About ^ m. to rt. of the road 
are four upright stones of great an- 



tiquity. Passing on rt. Dovmton 
Hall (Sir E. Cockbum), the traveller 
arrives at 

6 m. New Radnor (Eagle, poor), 
an instance of a town once suffi- 
ciently important to have given its 
name to the county (which was 
created in the reign of Henry VHI.) 
having dwindled away to a mere 
village, many of the small cottages 
composing it being in ruins. The 
business of the county has been long 
ago transferred to Presteign as being 
more suited from position and im- 
portance. "The mound on which 
the castle stood, and fragments of 
tlie walls which surroimded the 
town, are still to be seen ; but the 
whole was destroyed by Glendower 
in 1401, who at the same time be- 
headed the garrison of 60 men in 
the castle yard."— i'^. L. The Welsh 
name of this place, Maes-y-ved, 
meaning " the imbibing meaidow,'* 
is derived from the circumstance of 
the small stream, the Somergill, 
being absorbed in dry weather by 
the gravelly soil of the Vale of Rad- 
nor ; but it reappears on reaching a 
bed of clay. 

Giraldus Cambrensis commences 
at tliis place his * Itinerary,' written 
wliile he followed in the suite of 
Baldwin, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
who in 1188 undertook a mission to 
preach the Crusades in Wales. The 
country round New Radnor is ex- 
ceedingly hilly and wild, many of 
the principal summits rejoicing in 
rather curious nomenclature, such 
as the Fron and the Wimbles to the 
N. of the town, and the Smatcher to 
the S. The valley again contracts 
and appears blocked up by a pic- 
tiu-esque conical hill, called the 
Mynd, near which, up a narrow gully 
on the rt., is situated an interesting 
cascade, called Water-bredk-its-Neck, 
descending from a height of 70 ft. 
This cascade, one of the largest and 
most celebrated in Wales, is to be 
found on a rocky hillside about 1 m. 
from the turnpike road. ** The rocks 



S. Walks. Eoute 9. — Penyhcmt, — Fresteign, 

form a nari'ow, high amphitheatre, 
over which the water is precipitated 
in scattered portions, and, falling 
into a dark pool, meanders away 
among the fragments of rock until 
it gains the more open glen.'* — 
Eoscoe. 

N6w commences the long ascent 
of Bad/nor Forest^ whose summit is 
2163 ft. high, consisting, in spite of 
its name, of bare open bills, aflford- 
ing pasturage to sheep and horses. 
The horses, like the sheep, are 
tended and collected by dogs. " Ori- 
ginally this was a bounded forest ; 
i. e., if any man or beast entered the 
said forest without leave, the former 
was to lose a limb and the latter to 
be forfeited, unless a heavy ransom 
were paid and other grievous exac- 
tions submitted to." This, however, 
was remedied in the reign of Eliza- 
beth. 

9 m. on the slope of a hill in as- 
cending, j;he little ch. of Llanvi- 
hangel Nant-mellan is passed, re- 
markable for the ancient yew-trees 
by which it is surrounded. At 9^ m. 
on 1. a road branches oft' to BuUth, 
passing close to the small lake of 
Llyn-hilyn. 

On the opposite descent lies 
Llandegley, and near it a strong sul- 
phur spring, much frequented during 
the summer for drinking and bath- 
ing {Inn : Burton Arms). Near the 
churchyard is a singular range of 
rocks abounding in quartz crystals. 

15 m. Penyhont {Inn: Severn 
Ajrms) is a pleasant village with a 
suspension bridge over tlie Ithon. 
The Hall is the residence of J. G! 
Severn, Esq. From hence Llan- 
drindod Wells are only about 4 m. to 
the 1. (Rte. 6.) 

[A road to the rt. leads to Knigh- 
ton and Presteign. For 9 m. the 
way runs over the high ground of 
Radnor Forest and through tiie vil- 
lages of Lianviliangcl rhyd-ithon 
and Bleddfa, in which parish, close 
to the junction of the Knighton and 
Presteign roads, stands an old mau- 



109 



sion of the 17th centy., called Mo- 
nachty, 9 m. From thence to Pres- 
teign is 7 m. through the valley of the 
river Lugg. Pilleth^ 10^ m., was the 
scene of a battle between Glendower 
and the English under Sir Edmund 
Mortimer, who, as Shakespeare de- 
scribed him in speaking of this 
battle, 

*' In single opposition hand to hand 
Did confound the best part of an hour 
In changing hardiment witii great Glen- 
dower. 

There is a good Dec. church in this 
village. 

Presteign, or Llanandras {Hotel: 
Radnorshire Ajnns), to all intents 
and purposes the capital of Radnor- 
sliire, is a pleasant little town, situ- 
ated on the Lugg, which separates 
it from Herefordshire. 

The Ch. consists of nave, chancel, 
aisles, and a square embattled tower, 
and contains some tapestry repre- 
senting the entry of Christ into Je- 
rusalem, a fine stedned glass window, 
a good brass, and some monuments 
to the neighboui'ing families. As 
the county town, Presteign possesses 
a Sliire-haU and Jail. To the W. 
are nice walks on an elevated posi- 
tion, called the Warden, the site of 
the former castle, commanding ex- 
tremely pretty views of the sur- 
rounding country. Many beautiful 
seats are in the neighbourhood, the 
principal of which are BouUihrookt 
1 m. on the Knighton road (Sir 
Harford Brydges) ; and Knill Court 
(Sir J. Walsh), between Presteign 
and Radnor, contains in its exquisite 
grounds the ivy-grown church of 
Knill, where Sir Samuel RomUly 
lies buried. Offas Dyke runs close 
by, crossing the wooded hills of 
Herrock and Knill Garraway in its 
course to Knighton. Between Knill 
and Presteign is the bold rock of 
Nash Scar, formed of the Woolhope 
limestone of the Upper Silurian, 
which has been altered by heat, and 
" fused into one subcrystalline mass ; 
the atittiV^viOL Q\ia.\aa\.'^^ Vwv\xv%\i'^'ess^ 



110 



Eoute 9. — Knighton. — Rhayader. S. Wales. 



destroyed, and the shale associated 
with the limestone obliterated." 

Wapley Hill Camp, 3 m. to the 
S.E., is a perfect and interesting 
remain, said to have been originally 
thrown up by the Eomans, occupied 
for a considerable time by Caracta- 
cus. 

Mynachty, on the Penybont road, 
is about 5 m. from Knighton, which 
will become a convenient starting 
point for Aberystwith as soon as 
the . Central Wales Railway from 
Craven Arms station is completed. 

Knighton {Hotel : Chandos Arms), 
anciently called Tref-y-clawdd, or 
the Town on the Dyke, is pleasantly 
situated on rising ground overlook- 
ing the rt. bank of the Teme, which 
flows between the counties Radnor 
and Salop, The only antiquities in 
the town, which is clean and well 
built, are an old mansion, once oc- 
cupied by the Brydges family, and 
another at the E. end, of the time 
of James I. The principal object of 
interest, however, is Offa's Dyke, 
which passes through the town. 

" There is a famous thing 
Callde Offae's Dyke, that reacheth ferre in 
length." 

The neighbourhood of Knighton 
abounds in military remains of past 
ages, particularly Caer Caradoc, 
about 3 m, to the N., said to have 
been defended by Caractacus against 
the Romans under Ostorius; and 
CoxwalX Knoll, 5 m. to the E., on the 
summit of which are vestiges of an 
ancient fortress, probably forming 
part of the same chain of defences. 
Knighton is 1 3 m. distant from Cra- 
ven Arms station on the Shrewsbury 
and Hereford railway.] 

16f m. a road branches on the N. 
to Newton, and on the S. to Llan- 
drindod and Builth (Rte. 6). 

17 m. The little river Clywedog 
is crossed, close to its junction with 
the Ithon. 

19 m. A Roman road runs across 
the turnpike, at a spot called Caer- 



fagu, by many antiquaries supposed 
to have been the site of the Roman 
station of Magos, many remains hav- 
ing been found in the vicinity. 

20^ on rt. the small church of 
Nantmel, and 21 m. on 1. is 
Llwyn-harried, the residence of B. 
M. Evans, Esq. 

A little to the S. is Llwyn-Gwyn^ 
a lake about I m. in circumference, 
formerly held in great veneration by 
pilgrims, who came from afar to 
'visit it. 

25 m. Bhayader {Hotel : Red Lion), 
a mean-looMng town of 1000 Inhab., 
on the I. bank of the Wye, sur- 
rounded by barren hills. Its Welsh 
name, Rhaiader Gwy, signifies " the 
cataract of the Wye ;" but the slight 
fall whence it was derived was. 
nearly destroyed by widening the 
channel and removing the rocks in 
order to build a bridge over the 
river, in 1780. The town itself al- 
though in a situation of great beauty, 
possesses no objects of interest ; but 
the tourist and fisherman wDl reap 
their reward in exploring the vales 
of the Wye, the Claerwen, the Elan, 
and the Marteg. 

Coaches run daily to and from 
Kington, Aberystwith, and Builth. 

Distances : Builth, 14 m. ; Aberyst- 
with, 33 m. ; Devil's Bridge, 19 m. ; 
Llandrindod, 11 m, ; Abbey Cwm 
Hir, 7 m. ; Llanidloes 12 m. 

[A very beautiful excursion may 
be taken to Cwm Elan, 5 m., passing 
by the little church of Llansaintfread 
Cwmddaudwr. Crossing the sum- 
mit of Cefn Craig-y-Foel, which 
Mr. Cliffe thinks is only surpassed 
by one other mountain in Wales for 
warmth and beauty of colour, the 
tourist drops suddenly into the Vale 
of Elan, opposite the park and man- 
sion of Cwm Elan (L. Otway, Esq.), 
"the paradise of the district, created, 
like Hafod, out of bare and culture- 
less land." It was originally formed 
by a Mr. Groves, who many years 
ago piu*chased 10,000 acres of land, 
and planted largely. Bowles, in his 



S. Wales, Emite 9. — Rhayader to Aberystwith. 



Ill 



poem of * Oombe Elian/ thus cele- 
brates the vale :-r- 

•« Pass the hill. 
And throt^ the woody hanging, at whose 

feet 
The tinkling Elian winds, pursue thy way." 

The views higher up the vale are 
very striking, particularly about a 
mile from the house, where the 
river dashes imdemeath an alpine 
bridge. On returning to Khayader, 
the visitor should keep along the 
banks of the Elan, winding round 
Oraig-y-foel, opposite which the 
Elan is joined by the Clarwen, which 
rises in the hills between Rhayader 
and Tregaron. A little above the 
jimction of the two rivers is Nanty- 
gmUtt the residence of T. Lewis 
Lloyd, Esq. ; and still higher are 
the lead-mines of Dalrhiw and Nan- 
tycar. From hence a good pedes- 
trian may cross the moimtain to 
Drygarn, and descend by the vale 
of the Yrfon to Llanwrtyd Wells. 
(Rte. 6.)] 

From Rhayader there are 2 roads 
to Aberystwith. The new road, 
finished in 1834, is 1 m. longer than 
the old ; but, as it avoids many steep 
ascents and descents, is far prefer- 
able. It is traversed by mails and 
coaches, and is usually followed as 
fiir as Dyffiyn Castell by persons 
travelling post. For 18 m. it is 
carried up the 1. bank of the Wye, 
here a mere torrent descending 
through a valley bounded by steep 
and bare hills. Cultivation gra- 
dually diminishes as the traveller 
mounts higher. The road is sup- 
ported for the most part of the way 
on a terrace over the shoulders of 
the hills; at times descending to the 
margin of the river, at others winding 
along at a height of 100 ft. above it, 
and in many places bounded by an 
almost precipitous descent. 

28 m. on rt. the little river Marteg, 
after passing by St. Harmon's, joins 
the Wye, which at this point is sin- 
gularly picturesque, becoming at the 
Nannerih rocks " narrower and more 



rocky; being, in fact, a chasm through 
which the confined waters roar and 
struggle along in loud chiding an- 
ger." The beauty of the glen of the 
Marteg is soon to be disturbed by 
the formation of the railway from 
Llanidloes to Rhayader. 

29 m., between the road and river, 
is Glangwy, the pretty little seat of 
F. Foxton, Esq. 

35 m. Llangurig, a small village 
in a lovely situation. Here the 
road to the 1. branches oflf to Llan- 
idloes, 5 m. 

40 m. we take leave of the Wye, 
crossing it, but still ascending by 
the course of the Afon Tarenig, ite 
tributary, as far as the Plinlimmou 
Inn, beyond which, at a place called 
Steddfa Gurig, the narrow ridge 
forming the summit-level is crossed. 
This, or Dyfifryn Castell, is the best 
point from which to ascend the 
enormous mass of Flirdimmon or 
Pumlimmon, 2463 ft. above the 
level of the sea. It rises in 
the midst of a dreary waste, en- 
compassed by bogs and morasses; 
and its top, distant 10 m. from 
Llangurig and 12 m. from Llan- 
idloes, will scarce repay the toil 
of an ascent, which on no account 
should be attempted without a 
guide. The moimtain of Plinlim- 
mou is more properly 3 mountains, 
which may be considered as the 
centre of a large group, spreading 
into subordinate chains. 

It is famous for the 5 rivers which 
burst from its flanks: the Dulas; 
the Rheidol, springing from a lake 
on the summit called Lygad Rhei- 
dol, or the Eye of the Rheidol, and 
joining the sea at Aberystwith ; the 
Llyffnant, a tributary of the Dovey ; 
the Wye (Gwy, in Welsh, meaning 
river), issuing from two copious 
springs on the ^E. side of the 
mounta,in ; and the Severn — se- 
cond of British floods — which 
has its source on the N.W. de- 
scent of the mountain, not 2 m. 



112 



Boute 9. — Llanhadam Vaivr. 



S. Wales. 



a lake called Llyn Bugeilegau. It 
rushes down through gaps in the 
slate rock, a mere mountain-torrent, 
to Llanidloes, and thus far is called 
by the Welsh Havren. In the fast- 
nesses of Plinlimmon, Owen Glen- 
dower took his stand in 1401, at the 
outset of his career, with a handful 
of determined followers ; and, issuing 
hence, spread havoc along the Eng- 
lish borders, which he assaulted in 
various inroads. 

" Three times hath Henry Bolingbroke made 
head 
Against my power : thrice from the banks 

of Wye 
And sandy-bottom'd Severn have I sent 

him 
Bootless home, and weatherbeaten back." 

Shakespeare. 

The view from the summit, if the 
weather be clear, is yer^ exten- 
sive ; embracing Cader Idris and the 
Snowdon chain on the N., the Breid- 
din hills on the N.E., and Cardi- 
gan Bay to the W. 

At Sieddfa Gurig the tr&veller 
enters a different valley (whose wa- 
ters flow in an opposite direction to 
those of the Wye), bounded by 
mountains whose rugged outline 
proclaims them to be composed of 
slate. Every now and then the ap- 
pearance of a solitary building, with 
its fast -driving waterwheel and 
heaps of dirty refuse, proclaims that 
lead abounds, and that this is the 
district of mining adventurers. 

46 m. from Castell Dyffryn^ where 
there is a solitary posthouse, a road 
to the 1. strikes off to the Devil's 
Bridge, 3 m. 

48 m. Pont Erwyd {Inn : Druid). 
It is worth while to stop and look 
at the falls of the Oastel and 
Kheidol, which unite in a wild 
rocky gorge close to the river and 
the road, but at a considemble 
depth below thorn. 

A few himdred yds. before reach- 
ing the river a rough cross-road 
strikes over the hill, and in about 
1 m. falls into the old post-road to 
the Devil's Biid^e at Yspytty Cyn- 



ijBL, For more than 3 m. from Pont 
Erwyd the road ascends, bare moor 
and hills surrounding it on everjr 
side ; but on arriving at the summit 
of Cefh Brwyno a rapid descent 
takes place all the way to Aberyst- 
with. From here magnificent views 
are to be obtained over Cardigan 
Bay, particularly if the visitor iSip- 
pens to arrive at sunset. 

53 m. on 1. are the Coginau lead- 
mines, one of the most extensive in 
Cardiganshire, and which, as well as 
the Lisburne mines in C wm Ystwith, 
are the most available and the best 
worth the inspection of the visitor. 
The appearance of the nimierous 
large wheels, situated one above the 
other at different levels — the sombre 
grey hue of the jagged hills — the 
long, low sorting-houses, and the 
noise of the stamping-machines, — 
aU combine to throw a mysterious 
effect over the scene. 

At the village of Capel Bangor 
the road joins company with the 
Rheidol, which forms, for the rest 
of the way, an agreeable feature in 
the landscape, which it enlivens 
with its sinuous windings. 

59 m. the village of Llanhadam 
Vawr is passed, famous for the Ch. 
of St! Padarn or Patemus, a saint of 
great renown, who founded a mo- 
nastery here in the time of the holy 
Dubritius. It is an ancient cruci- 
form structure of about the 12th 
centy., chiefly remarkable for its 
venerable and massive tower, rising 
from the centre and supported by 
4 massive piers. It also contains a 
number of round-headed windows, 
which contribute much to the air 
of solidity and strength. There is 
a good doorway of the 12th centy., 
forming the entrance into the S. 
side of the nave. In the interior of 
the ch. are monuments to the fami- 
lies of Nanteos and Gogerddan. 
In the churchyard are some very 
ancient sculptured stone crosses. 

60 m. Aherystwiih (5000 Inhab. 
Hotels: Bellevue, facing the sea — 



S. Wales. 



BotUe 9. — Aherystwith^ 



113 



▼eiy good ; Gogerddan Anns — good ; 
Talbot)is very prettily situated on the 
sea-fihore, between tiie hills at the 
mouth of the Bhddol, which, after 
passing under a bridge of 5 arches, 
here unites itself with the Yst- 
with in an artificial channel, and 
both together &11 into the Bay 
of Cardigan. The union of the 2 
rivers was effected in order (by 
gtrengthening the current and in- 
creasing the voluBie of water) to 
scour out the harbour. It is a sort 
of Welsh Brighton, resorted to in the 
summer-time for sea-bathing, and 
abounds in lodging-houses, of which 
the best are to be found on the 
Terrace, a crescent &cing the sea 
and following the curve of the 
beach. In front of it are the bath- 
ing-machines, and hot salt-water 
baths are provided near at hand and 
in the town. The beach shelves down 
very rapidly ; and as the tide comes 
in at times with great force, bathers 
should be cautious not to advance 
too &r lest they should be caught in 
the draught : at such times it is dan- 

ferous to attempt to swim. The 
each is remarkable for the quan- 
tity of pebbles to be found on it — 
sUch as cornelians, onyx, &c. ; the 
searching for which is often the 
principal occupation of visitors, who, 
particularly after a storm, wander 
up and down with bent backs and 
downcast eyes. Their discoveries 
prove a rich harvest to the lapi- 
daries, and afford as much disgust 
to the overloaded coachmen of the 
return-coaches. The harbour hav- 
ing become obstructed by the forma- 
tion of a bar at its mouth, a new 
pier has been constructed, project- 
mg on one side 300 and on the other 
1(W yds. into the sea. On a lofty 
rock overlooking the sea stand the 
ruins of the castle, originally found- 
ed by Gilbert de Strongbow,a greedy 
and unscrupulous Norman baron, 
who received a licence from his 
master, Hen. I., founded on the char- 
ter of " the strong hand," to seize as 



much as he could of the lands of 
the Welsh chieftain Oadwgan ap 
Bleddyn ; and the result was, that, 
by the aid of a superior force, he 
dispossessed him of all Cardigan- 
shire, and secured it to himself by 
building strouj^ castles. The existing 
remains, consisting of a gateway 
and fragments of towers and walls, 
are probably of the time of Edward I. 
Mr. Bushel, the fortunate proprietor 
of the neighbouring lead and silver 
mines, established here a mint, with 
permission of Charles I., to pay Ms 
workmen. He afterwards showed 
his gratitude by lending the king 
40,000Z., by clothing the whole of 
his army, and by raising, at his 
own expense, a regiment among his 
miners. The pieces thus coined are 
marked with the Prince of Wales's 
Feathers^ and are common in the 
cabinets of collectors. The castle 
was besieged by the Parliamenta* 
rians during the civil war, and was 
bombarded by Cromwell from the 
neighbouring height of Pendinas — 
such at least is the local tradition. 
From the -time of its capture its 
present decay may be dated. The 
hill and the ruins are now rendered 
accessible by agreeable public walks. 
Adjoining the castle are the public 
rooms and the ch., of which all that 
can be said of it is that it offers 
suitable accommodation. Below the 
castle, at the end of the Terrace, is 
the Castle House, a building of fan-' 
tastic design, erected by Nash for 
the late Sir Uvedale Price, Bart. 
In the environs of the town, on the 
banks of the Bheidol, is Plas-crug, a 
ruined castellated house, said to 
have been the residence of Owen 
Glendower ; and near it is a chaly- 
beate spring, whose waters are said 
to resemble in their properties those 
of Tonbridge Wells. 
I [Many pleasant walks and ex- 
I cursions can be taken in the neigh- 
, bourhood. The hill on the N. of 
, the town, called Constitution Hill, or 
, Craig-lais, is also traversed by a.^^^ 



114 



Eoute 9. — Borth. — Cwm Ystmth^ .. 0. Walks, 



able walks ; and there is a path 
stretching N. along the clifis as far 
as Borth Sands, 5 m., overlooking 
the estuary of the Dovey, and com- 
manding splendid views of the sea 
and its bold coast, which affords 
scenery of the highest picturesque 
order. On the N. side of Craiff-lais 
are the pretty river and vale of Cla- 
rach, the well-wooded demesne of 
Cwm Cynfelin (the seat of M. D. 
Williams, Esq.)» ^^^ t^© ch. of Llan- 
gorwen. 

1 m. further is a curious reef or 
causeway, running, it is said, for 
7 m. out to sea, and believed to be 
the remains of a Koman road called 
Sarn Cynfelin. According to tradi- 
tion, a large tract of land known 
as Oantreflf-y-Gwaelod, or the Low- 
land Hundred, formerly occupied 
the site of Cardigan Bay. This 
county, which possessed 16 fortified 
towns and population and riches 
without end, was devastated by a 
fearful irruption of the sea, which 
utterly destroyed it. Sam Cynfelin 
and other causeways resembling it 
are considered to be the only vestiges 
of this once flourishing district. 

5 m. Borth is a wretched-looking 
fishing village by the side of the 
marsh and estuary of the Dovey, 
across which there is a ferry to the 
town of Aberdovey in N, Wales. 

The visitor may vary his excur- 
sion by returning to Aberystwith by 
the Machynlleth road, which the 
Aberdovey road joins near the ro- 
mantic village and church of Llanvi- 
hangel geneur-glyn. Gogerddan, the 
seat of Pryse Loveden, Esq., is 3 m. 
from the town, on the same road, 
but not visible from it. (The Devil's 
Bridge is described at p. 115 and 
Hafod at p. 116.)] 

Coaches and conveyances : — daily, 
to and from Shrewsbury; to and 
from Kington through Rhayader ; — 
every alternate day, to Hereford 
through Builth ; to Machynlleth, 
Dolgelly, and Carnarvon ; to Aber- 
ayron, Llampeter, and Carmarthen ; 



to Oswestry through Machynlleth. 
An omnibus daily to Devil's Bridge ; 
a steamer once a week to Bristol 
and Liverpool. 

Distances : — Llanidloes, 28 m. j 
Newtown, 41 m. ; Welshpool, 54 m. ; 
Shrewsbury, 72 m. ; London, 226 m.; 
Liverpool, 115 m. ; Bhayader, 33 m. ; 
Eongton, 60 m. ; Hereford, 80 m. ; 
Devil's Bridge, 12 m. ; Machynlleth, 
18 m.; Oswestry, QQ m. ; Buabon, 
68 m. ; Aberayron, 16 m. ; Llampe- 
ter, 29 m. ; Carmarthen, 51 m. ; Car- 
digan, 23 m. ; Aberdovey, 11 m. 

To return : the old road from 
Bhayader to Aberystwith is shorter 
by 1 m., but considerably more hilly 
and not so good as the other. Cross- 
ing the Wye, on the rt. is Dderw 
(T. Prichard, Esq.), the scene of an 
atrocious murder in Henry VIII. 's 
time, when a party of Cardiganshire 
banditti lay in wait for the judge 
who was coming to the assizes, and 
shot him through the heart. The 
assizes were consequently removed 
to Radnor and Presteign. 

2 m. on 1. Gwyn Llyn, a lake of 
considerable size, surrounded on 
every side by high hills. The road 
now ascends the steep hill of Pen- 
rhiw-wen, and about 6 m. descends 
again into the vale of the Elan, whose 
1. bank it follows almost to its very 
source, afterwards crossing the 
watershed and joining the valley of 
the Ystwith, in which, at 14 m., are 
the celebrated lead-mines of Ctom 
Ystwitht one of the earliest worked 
and most profitable inCardiganshire. 
Large fortunes have been made 
from them and other lead-mines in 
the district. From the mine named 
Cwm Symlog, Sir Hugh Middleton 
drew 2000L a month, and acquired 
the vast wealth which he expended 
so unprofitably to himself, and so 
much to the benefit of others, in 
forming the New River to supply 
London with water. 

A handsome stone bridge carries 
the road over the Ystwith to Pentre 
Brunant, 15 m., halfway between 



S. Wales. 



Boute 9. — Devils Bridge. 



115 



Aberystwith and Rhayader. From 
henoe the road, quitting the Ystwith 
and leaving Hafod 2 m. on the 1., 
makes a long ascent until it reaches 
the Arch, and then follows the ra- 
vine of the Mynach to (18 m.) the 
DeviVa Bridge (in Welsh Pont-y- 
Mynach, «. e. Monk's Bridge). {Inn : 
Havod Arms ; large and tolerably 
comfortable, but attendance bad.) 
It is finely situated, overloolmig 
from a height of 300 ft. the leafy glen 
of the Bheido], while immediately 
below the house runs the narrower 
gorge of the Mynach, which here 
joins the Bheidol, filling the air with 
the roar of its waters. The Devil's 
Bridge is not more than 30 yds. from 
the house on the roadio Rhayader, 
and might easily be passed without 
exciting attention, so completely is 
the narrow gorge which it spans 
choked up by trees and shrubs. 
It consists, properly speaking, of 2 
bridges — a lower one, now a mere 
curve of rude masonry, built, it is 
said, in the 11th or 12th cent, by 
the monks of Strata Florida Abbey, 
whence comes its Welsh name ; and 
a more modem arch immediately 
over it, of about 30 ft. span, built in 
1753, at a height of 120 ft. above the 
torrent, which is barely perceived 
among trees and rocks, working its 
way through the dark abyss below. 
There is a similar double bridge on 
the Pass of St. Gothard among the 
Alps ; the modem and upper arch 
having been made, as is the case 
here also, to avoid the inconvenient 
descent to the lower and older one, 
which in both instances, from the 
boldness of its construction, has 
been attributed by the wondering 
peasantry to the architecture of 
the devil, the satanic Pontifex Max- 
imus. 

The best way to see the bridge is 
to cross it, and, taking a path to the 
rt., descend to the water's edge ; 
having provided yourself with a 
guide, for the landlord — deeming the 
" water privilege " all his own — 



keeps the picturesque scene safe 
under lock and key. immediately 
under the bridge the gorge is re- 
duced to a mere crack in the slate 
rock, over which, to all appearance, 
a man might stride. The torrent in 
descending towards it rushes jmd 
boils among the hard rocks — 

" The fall of waters, rapid as the light. 
The flashing mass foams, shaking the 
abyss " — 

and, by the aid of the small stones 
which it whirls along with it, has 
scooped out the sides into grooves, 
giving to the bed of the stream the 
appearance of a succession of huge 
caldrons. The original rent miwt 
have been formed by some great 
convulsion of nature, since no power 
of water, in the present state of the 
globe, is capable of effecting it. 

Most engravings of this bridge re- 
present in one and the same view 
the waterfalls also ; but in this the 
licence taken by the painter is as 
great as that allowed to poets, since 
from no point accessible at present 
can the bridge be seen at the same 
time as the falls, owing to a bend in 
the ravine. The falls may be seen 
by taking another pathway on the 1, 
of the high road, about 30 yds. be- 
yond the bridge, which leads by a 
rude staircase cut in the splintery 
rock through the underwood to a 
promontory projecting between the 
Rheidol and Mynach, just above 
their junction j but the best path is 
in front of the hotel, commanding 
beautiful views of the falls individu- 
ally. In times of flood, when the 
channel is full, the stream presents 
a magnificent spectacle, descending 
amidst rocks and rich foliage in a 
succession of leaps, respectively 18, 
60, 20, and 110 ft. high. The 4th 
descent is to the fall of the Elieidol, 
opposite the hotel, in which the 
cataract is 70 ft. in height ; the roar 
of waters, together with the narrow- 
ness of the ravine, the exquisite 
foliage on all sides, and the towering 



i 



116 



Houte 9. — Hafod. 



S. Wales. 



mountains which close it in, all 
combine to make a rare picture. 

On the hill opposite the bridge is 
an ancient fortification called Gastell 
fan Gwrach. 

About If m. on the Rhayader 
toad is the little ch. of Yspytty 
Cynfyn (from its name formerly an 
hospitium), in the churchyard of 
which are 4 large Druidical stones ; 
and about J m. on the 1., in a deep 
and gloomy defile, is the Parson's 
Bridge, which the tourist should not 
neglect to visit, from its very wild 
and picturesque beauty. A hand- 
rail is thrown from rock to rock 
and secured by chains, while the 
Kheidol foams underneath, confined 
between two projecting rocks. 

The road to Aberystwith is ex- 
tremely hilly and steep, occasionally 
affording exquisite peeps into the 
valley of the Rheidot and about 3 m. 
from the town, on the 1., is Nanteos 
(Col. Powell, M. P.). 

[The X)evil's Bridge is the most 
convenient point from which to 
make an excursion to Hafod, Strata 
Florida Abbey, and Tregaron. The 
visitor who only wishes to go as far 
as Hafod should arrange to return 
to Aberystwith by the new road 
along the Ystwith to Llanavan. For 
rather more than 3 m. the old Rhaya- 
der road is followed, through the 
Arch built by the late Ool. Johnes 
to commemorate the jubilee year of 
the reign of George III. From 
hence a rapid descent for a mile 
will bring the tourist to Hafod, the 
princely estate of W. Chambers, 
Esq., where the beauties of nature 
and art have beem mingled in a 
rarely happy manner. Like many 
large estates and show-places, Hafod 
has known many vicissitudes and 
changed owners several times. The 
property, originally a wild and barren 
glen, came into the hands of a Mr. 
Paynter, and subsequently in 1783 
of Col. Johnes, who, at once seeing 
the improvements of which it was 
susceptible, from that time devoted 



the remainder of his life and fortune 
to that object. The bleak hills 
were planted with the almost in- 
credible number of 3,000,000 of 
trees, besides many acres that were 
sown with acorns; and with what 
success the densely-wooded hiUs and 
valleys all round attest. A large 
Gothic mansion in the bad taste of 
the time was erected by Mr. Bald- 
wyn of Bath, in which Col. Johnes 
accumulated valuable treasures of 
art and literature, including paint- 
ings and a library imique for its 
collection of MSS., among which 
were illuminated MSS. of Froissart. 
In addition to these rarities he 
printed at his private press transla- 
tions of Froissart and Monstrelet's 
Chronicles. In 1807 the whole 
house, with nearly all that it con- 
tained, was burnt to the ground, at 
a loss to the owner of 70,000?. No- 
thing daunted by this calamity, he 
set himself to repair the damage, 
had his house rebuilt by Nash, a 
great portion of whose work still 
exists, and made a fresh collection 
of books and MSS. Col. Johnes, 
however, died in 1816, in strait- 
ened circumstances, after which, the 
estate, having been taken into Chan- 
cery, fell into sad decay until 1841, 
when the Duke of Newcastle bought 
it for 62,000?. In 1845 it was resold 
to H. Hoghton, Esq., for 94,000?., 
under whose auspices the present 
improvements, including the bell- 
tower, erected in the Italian style 
by Mr. Salvin, were carried out. 
The contrast between the old house 
of Nash, with its puerility of design, 
and the Italian roofs and terraces of 
the new portion, is very striking and 
almost ludicrous; but when the 
whole is finished, after the designs 
of Mr. Salvin, Hafod will yield to 
few places in the kingdom for beauty 
and extent. The Ystwith flows 
through the grounds, amidst con- 
stantly varying scenes, and numerous 
tributeiry brooks rush down the hill- 
sides in cascades of every height, 



8. Walbb; BotUe 9. — lAshume Mines. — Llanafan, 



117 



many of tbem nnfortanately hidden 
from view by the luxuriant growth 
of trees; a judicious thinnmg, advan- 
tageous alike to the timber and the 
landscape, is constantly being car- 
lied on by the present owner. The 
principal object of attraction in the 
groimds is the Firan fall, which, 
alUiOUgh of no great magnitude, is 
very romantic, the visitor being 
made to approach it through a tun- 
nel in the rock ; there are also 
several other very pretty falls in the 
pounds. The ch., called in Welsh 
JEglwysNewydd, is charmingly placed 
on the hill-side, not far from the 
entrance lodge. It contains one of 
Ohantrey's finest sculptures, a most 
exquisite monument to the memory 
of miss Johnes, in white marble, 
representing the parents standing 
at the death-bed of the daughter. 

There is a good painted window 
in the S.W. transept, which was 
brought to this country from Hol- 
land. 

On a commanding wooded knoll, 
not fer from the ch., is an obelisk 
erected by Mr. Johnes to the memory 
of the Duke of Bedford. 

The visitor will do well to leave 
Hafod by the southern entrance, 
near which the Ystwith is crossed 
at the picturesque little hamlet of 
Pont-rhyd-y-groes.J 

On the opposite ascent are the 
famous Lishume lead-mines, employ- 
ing a large number of people. Two 
of the most important veins of ore 
in Cardiganshire, the Fronfraith and 
the Log-y-las, are worked here, pro- 
ducing in 1857 about 3000 tons of 
lead. The veins, from 4 to 6 ft. in 
thickness, run E. and W., sending 
out thinner veins from the main 
lodes, the traces of which are con- 
stantly to be found in the beds of the 
brooks and ravines on the sides of 
the hill. Unless the visitor be a geo- 
logist, an inspection of the interior 
of a lead-mine is scarcely wortli the 
trouble, as at the very outset a com- 
plete miniug dress has to be donned, 



and a long distance of wet dreary 
passages to be traversed before he 
arrives at the scene of operations* 
Having descended a fatiguing num- 
ber of steps by ladders, crept into 
the hole where the miners are at 
work, and become accustomed to the 
vapours of powder-smoke, he will 
find that the lode does not possess 
much of the glittering appearance 
that a specimen of lead-ore in a 
cabinet presents. 

[From the Lisbume mines the 
tourist who does not wish to proceed 
to Strata Florida can return to 
Aberystwith through Llanavan. A 
new private road, open to visitors, 
has been formed by the mine-owners 
on the southern bank of the river, 
which joins the old Aberystwith 
road at Pont Llanavan. 

Many fine bits of river-scenery 
occur, particularly at Craig Column 
menod, or the Dove's Rock, a very 
high perpendicular rock, appearing 
to stand out in the very course of 
the stream. At Pont Llanafan the 
river is crossed by a road which 
leads on the 1. to Ystrad Meirig and 
Tregaron. Some romantic scenery 
and a waterfall are to be found in a 
dingle which accompanies this road 
a little to the W. 

From Llanafan, the ch. of which 
contains an ancient silver Com- 
munion dish, presented by the Earls 
of Lisbume, a ride of 10 m. will 
bring the traveller to Aberystwith, 
passing on the rt. bank Crosswood 
(Welsh, Trawscoed), the beautiful 
park of the Earl of Lisbume, the 
principal land-owner of the district. 
On the opposite side of the river is 
Birchgrove (Hon. W. Vaughan). 

2 m. further, opposite Llidiau (J. 
Parry, Esq.), the road quits the 
valley of the Ystwith, and ascends 
high ground to Aberj^stwitli, passing 
on rt. Nanteos, the seat of Col. 
Powell]. 

From Yspytty Ystwith a bad road 
leads over high groimd to Font-rhyd- 
vendigaid, 5 m. from Hafod. Though 



118 



JRoule 9. — Strata Florida Ahbey, S. Wales, 



the character of the country on each 
side is barren, yet the views of the 
mountain ranges are magnificent, 
particularly at Ffair-rlios, which 
commands on the N. the Mont- 
gomeryshire hills, as far as Oader 
Idris, and on the S. the valley of the 
infant Teifi, with the long, desolate 
ranges of hills that extend almost 
without a break from Llandovery 
into Shropshire. From this little 
hamlet a road to the rt. leads to 
Ystjad Meirig (2 m.), and to the 1. 
to the mountains, in which are the 
lakes and source of the Teifi, 3 m. 
Pedestrians, however, will do better 
by visiting these lakes from Strata 
Florida. At Ystrad Meirig is a cele- 
brated grammar-school founded by 
one Edward Kichards in 1757. A 
cell formerly existed here belonging 
to the Abbey of Strata Florida, from 
whence the village was called 
Yspytty Ystrad Meiric, the third 
•• hospitium " that was established 
in this district, the others being 
Yspytty Cynfyn and Yspytty Yst- 
with. Pont-rhyd-vendigaid, or the 
Ford of the Blessed Virgin, is a rather 
dirty little hamlet, convenient only 
for those anglers who wish to try their 
fortunes in the waters of the Teifi. 
There is a small roadside inn here. 

1 m. on the 1. are the melancholy 
ruins of Strata Florida Abbey, 
situated at the foot of swelling hills 
on the 1. bank of the Teifi, although, 
according to some antiquaries, the 
original foundation of Cistercians 
was on the river Fliir, about 2 m. to 
the S., and still bears the name of 
'•Yr Hen Monachlog," or the old 
Monastery. This was in all pro- 
bability founded by Rhys ap Tudor, 
whose grandson, Rhys ap Grufydd, 
erected the abbey in 1184. 

For many a long year the "rich 
monastery of Strat-flur" was the 
centre of civilization, and dispensed 
hospitality to all comers, as well as 
serving as an asylum for the hard- 
pressed independence of Wales, and 



a mausoleum for the greatest and 
noblest in the land. 

In 1238 Prince LleweUyn ap Jor- 
werth held here a grand assembly 
of lords and barons, who swore 
fealty to his son, but after his death 
troublous times fell upon the esta- 
blishment, which was burnt down 
in Edw. I.'s reign. « The abbot of 
Strata Florida foolishly promised 
the king that on a certain day, and 
at a certain place, he would bring 
the country of Cardigan into amity 
with the king ; but when the king, 
with an armed force, was waiting 
for a very long time, no one of the 
Welshmen came to the appointed 
spot. Therefore tlie king said, in a 
passion, *Burn, bum;' and so the 
fire, which never cries out * Enough,* 
in like manner wrapped both the 
abbey and the country in a flame. " — 
Wliarton. 

The monks of the abbey owned 
almost all the country round ; and, 
according to Leland, "al the mon- 
taine ground betwixt Alen (Elan 
river) and Strateflur longgeth to 
Stratefleere," as well as a large 
tract of hill between Builth and 
Llandovery. After the destruction 
of the abbey by Edward it gradually 
dwindled in importance until it 
was finally dissolved by Hen. VIII. 
Whilst in the zenith of its pro- 
sperity, it was famous for being the 
repository of the national records of 
Wales from 1156 until 1270. 

In Lelands time *' the chirch was 
large, side ilid, and crosse ilid ;" but 
all that is left of this once famous 
building is a very beautiful round- 
headed Norm, arch, which formed 
the W. entrance to the ch. ** The 
co-ordinate arclies, which make up 
the whole, are bound together by 3 
crosiers on each side," presenting 
the appearance of a deeply recessed 
arcade. On the walls, and also the 
pavement^ were glazed tiles, many of 
which have been dug up at diff'erent 
times. The utter desolation of the 
whole building is much increased 



S. Wajjbs- Route 10. — Carmarthen to Aherysiwith. 



119 



by file' iMgieot that is yisible all 
round it — a neglect that would take 
but little trouble on the part of the 
owner to remove. Within the pre- 
oincts of the abbey stands a small 
and mean parish eh. There is a 
GnriooB (dd picture on panel in the 
ncdghbonring farm-house, which re- 
pxesentB Temptation, and is said to 
nave belonged to the monks. 

From the abbey the pedestrian 
can make a long excursion to the 
Mouree of the Teifi, 3 m., which 
^nerges from Llyn Teifi, a moun- 
tain lake of consideiable size, while 
tributary streams issue from three 
smaller lakes, Llyn-hir, Llyn-y- 
gorlan, and Llyn-Egnani These 
lakes haye a wild and desolate 
character peculiarly their own : " of 
al the pooles none stondeth in so 
rokky and stony soile as Tyre doth, 
that hath withyn hym many stonis. 
The ground al aboute Tyve, and a 
great mile of towards Stra^er, is 
horrible, with the sight of bare 
stonis, as cregeryri mountaines be." 
From this lake, which, like most 
mountain tarns, bears tiie uncanny 
character of being unfathomable, 
issues the dear s&eam of Tcivi, 
which brawls over many a tocky 
bed ere it becomes the noble river 
that flows under Cardigan bridge. 

** ISth I must stem thy stream, clear Teivy, 
yet before 

The Muse vouchBafe to aeiie the Cardiganian 
diore 

8be of thy soaroe will dng in all the Cam- 
brian coast: 

Which of thy castors once, but now canst 
only boast 

Tbv Salmons, of all floods most plentifiil in 
thee."— Z)rayton. 

Beavers are said to have been 

at one time plentiful in this river, 

a fact alluded to not only by the 

poet, but also by Giraldus Cam- 

brensis : — • 

" Inter universos Cambria; seu etjain 
Loogriae fluvios ; hie solus castores habct." 

After passing Pont-rhyd-vcndi- 
gaid, the Teivy flows through a very 
flat and marshy district, the road 



continuing near its eastern bank for 
6 m. to the little town of Tregaron 
(Bte. 10). 



ROUTE 10. 

PROM CARMARTHEN TO ABERYST- 
WITH, THROUGH LLAMPETER. 

A coach leaves Carmarthen (Ivy 
Bush) every alternate morning at 8, 
returning the next day. The same 
road as that which leads to Llan- 
deilo is followed until the outskirts 
of the town are fairly cleared, when 
it turns off to the 1., up the vale of 
the Gwili, leaving the village and 
pretty church of Abergwili to the 
rt. , The rapid Gwili is crossed op- 
posite CcuUe Figgyn, the beautifdlly 
situated seat of W. O. Price, Esq. 
Here a road to 1. goes to Gynfll and 
Newcastle Emlyn, 18 m. For the 
next 10 or 12 m. the road to Llam- 
peter is carried over a succession of 
high grounds dividing the valley of 
the Towey from that of the Teifl. 
The country is for the most part 
bare and iminteresting, containing 
a thin and scattered population; 
thougli from the summits of the 
hills many a lovely view is gained 
into the Vale of Teifi and the hills 
around Tregaron. 

At 15 m. on the opposite side of 
the rivcT is High Mead, the residence 
of Capt. D. S. Davies. 



120 



Houte 10. — Lldmpeter, — Llanddewi Brevi. S. Wales* 



16 m. on rt. Penygaer, a conical 
eminence, commanding a wide and 
varied view, the summit defended 
by a fosse and vallum. At the base 
are traces of Sam Helena which was 
carried in neariy the same direction 
as the T. R., in its course from 
Maridunum (Carmarthen) to Loven- 
tium (Llanio). 

At the village of Llanyhyther, a 
pleasant little fishing-station, on the 
1. bank of *' Teivy's clear stream," 
a road diverges to the 1., crossing 
the river and leading to Llampeter 
through Llanwnnen. The other 
passes a small lake called Llyn 
Pencarreg, and keeps along the 1. 
bank to 23 m. Llampeter (Inn: 
Black Lion ; comfortable), also 
called Pontstephen. It is a clean 
insignificant little town, placed in a 
very pretty valley girt on all sides 
by wooded hills. The only object 
of attraction is St. David's College, 
founded in 1827, by Bishop Burgess, 
for the instruction of 70 students in 
divinity, who are ordained from hence 
principally with a view to supply 
the Welsh Church with ministers 
capable of officiating in the Welsh 
language ; the education being be- 
stowed at a lower rate than at 
either of the universities. The 
college, a handsome quadrangular 
building, designed by Cockerell, was 
erected at a cost of 20,000L, and 
occupies the site of the ancient 
castle, no vestige of wliich remains. 
Llampeter is a good fishing-station 
and comfortable head-quarters for 
the tourist who wishes to visit Tre- 
garon. 

Distances : — Aberayron, 15 m. ; 
Llandovery, 18 m. ; Pumsant and 
Gogofau mines, 8 m. (Rte. 7) ; Tre- 
garon, 11 m. ; Newcastle Enilyn, 
21 m. ; Llandyssil, 11 m. [A very 
interesting excursion can be made 
to the ancient Loventium and Tre- 
garon. The turnpike-road is carried 
up the valley of the Dulas, passing 
at 3J m. on 1, Derry Ormond, 
the seat of J. J. Jones, Esq. ; but 



the more direct road is that which 
runs on the rt. bank of the Teivy, 
which is crossed at the silver-lead 
mines of Llanvair-Clydogau. From 
hence the Sam Helen is followed 
all the way to Llanio; a junction 
apparently taking place between the 
Roman road" which led from Mari- 
dunum and that from the station of 
Llanvair-y-bryn, near Llandovery. 

The mine of Llanvair, the pro- 
perty of Lord Carrington, has 
yielded a large quantity of silver* 
The whole of this parish and the 
neighbouring one of Cellan are very 
rich in monumental stones, cairns^ 
and camps, all betokening the prox-. 
imity to an important high-road and 
station. The principal of these are 
Llech Cynon, an enormous. stone on 
a circiilar raised tumulus ; the 
Bedd-y-Vorwyn, or the Virgin's 
Grave, to the S. of this; some 
large cairns on Waun Cellan moun- 
tain; and Castell Allt-goch and 
Castell Goytre on the hills on the 
opposite bank of the Teivy. 

7 m. on the northern slope of 
Craig Twrch is the little village of 
Llanddewi Brevi^ which, insignifi- 
cant as it now appears, once held a 
high position amongst the ecclesi- 
astical councils of Wales. Here it 
was that St. David held a synod in 
the year 519 for the purpose of 
checking the increasing heresy of 
Pelagius ; and here the holy Dubri- 
tius, tired of the cares of office, gave 
up to him his archbishopric, and 
retired to solitude and meditation 
in Bardsey Island. Near the ch., 
foimded by Thomas Bee in 1187, 
but since modernised, are the ruins 
of an ancient collegiate establish- 
ment which was erected at the 
same time. They are still called 
Lluest Cantorion or Chanters' Re- 
sidence. From Llanddewi a pe- 
destrian can make a lovely excursion 
up the vale of the Brenig, passing 
the old mansion of Voelalt, across 
the mountains, descending by the 
glen of the Pysgottwr to the Vale of 



S. Wales. Boute 10, — IVegaron, — Aherayron. 



121 



Towey (Bte. 6). The way is lonely 
and intricate, and onght not to be 
undertaken without an Ordnance 
map or a guide. 

I m. to I. and on the tumrake-road 
between Llampeter and Tregaron 
is the farmhouse of lAanio, occupy- 
ing the site of the ancient station of 
Loventium^ through which the Sam 
Helen nins from Maridunum to 
Machynlleth. Specimens of pot- 
tery, coins, &c., have been tamed 
up by the ploi^h ; and the foundap- 
tion of a buildmg was discovered in 
a field called Caer Castell. Three 
stones, one of which is used as a 
seat at the £Eurm-door, are mentioned 
by the late Sir Sam. Meyrick, in- 
scribed ** Caii artis manibus primus," 
" Overioni," and " Cohors SecundsB 
Augusta fecit quinque passus." 

A little farther on the road from 
Llanddewi crosses the Teifi on the 
rt 

II m. Tregaron (Bte. 9) {Iim: 
Talbot), a little town of about 800 
Inhab., prettily situated on the 
river Berwyn, about 1 m. above its 
confluence with the Teifi. In the 
churchyard are some ancient monu- 
mental stones. The most feunous 
historical celebrity of Tregaron was 
Twm Shon Gatti, a famous swindler 
and robber who flourished in the 
17th centy. By many he has been 
described as the leader of banditti 
who ii^ested the country, but in 
reality he was a gentleman, an anti- 
quary, and a poet, who in the earlier 
part of his life was rather a " mau- 
vais sujet " and lived a good deal 
by his wits. He subsequently re- 
formed, married an heiress, ana be- 
came high sheriff of Cardiganshire. 
From Tregaron the tourist may 
walk up the valley of the Berwyn 
to Llyn Berwyn, a lake of consider- 
able size in the heart of the mountain, 
and from thence make his way to the 
Towey or the head of the Doeithiau. 
Another and preferable route is to 
Aberystwith by Strata Florida and 
Hafod (Rte. 9). A third route is to 

[8. Wales:] 



cross over to the valley of the Aeron 
and rejoin the high road to Aberay- 
ron.] On the outskirts of Llampeter 
a road to the rt. leads to Tregaron, 
up the vale of the Dulas, at the heetd 
of which is a conspicuous obelisk, 
erected by Mr. Jones of Derry Or- 
mond to the memory of the late 
possessor of Ihe estate. 

24 m. 1. FdLocndalet the residence 
of J. B. Harford, Esq., lord of tiie 
manor. The road is carried up a 
series of high and bleak hills until 
27 m., when a refreshing view is 
gained of the valley of the Aeron, 
affording, with its cultivated land, a 
pleasant contrast to the barren 
mountains around. The source of 
the Aeron is on Mynydd Bach, a 
range of hills between the Teivy 
and the sea. The scenery, while 
never very romantic, is always pretty 
and agreeable. At 28 m. a branch- 
road runs by LlanUear (Oapt. J. 
Lewis) in a direct line to Aberyst- 
with, so that the traveller who 
wishes to save time would do well 
to follow it as £Bff as Llanrhystid, 
where the Aberaeron road rejoins 
it. The V£Je of Aeron is dotted 
with several pleasant seats : amongst 
them, on 1. at 80 m., is Breinog 
(Capt. Yaughan) ; Tyglyn- Aeron 
(Mra. Mllnwood) on rt. ; and Llanay- 
ron, on 1. (Mrs. Lewis). At 84 m. 
Llanwehayron the scenery is highly 
picturesque, the road being carried 
on a precipitous escarpment over- 
looking the Aeron, both banks of 
which are beautifully wooded. 

86 m. Aberayron {Hotel: Fea- 
thers ; comfortable), a small water- 
ing-place, which, however, owing to 
the improving care of the load- 
owners in the neighbourhood, has 
gradually been rising in the estima- 
tion of sea-bathers. From a little 
retired village it has become a rather 
important market-town, at which a 
good deal of county business is 
transacted. The situation is beau- 
tiful, boimded on each side by steep 
cliffs, and the wide Bo^ ciC CwsAk'^iBSi. 



122 



Eoute 10.^ — Llanarth, — Llanrhysted, S. Wales. 



before it. A new eh. has been 
erected here, as the parish ch. is 
at Llanddewi Aberarth, about 1 m. 
distant. On the shore is a circular 
camp known as Castell Oadwgan, 
and supposed to have been founded 
by Oadwgan ap Bleddyn in 1148. 
[The road from Aberayron to Car- 
digan, which is 28 m., runs rather 
inlknd and is uninteresting; but 
some fiiie scenery is to be met with 
by following the coast. 4 m. is the 
village of Llanarth^ the churchyard 
of which contains an inscribed stone 
bearing a cross with 4 circular holes 
at the junction of the arms. The 
story runs, that a disturbance was 
once caused in the church by the 
Evil One, and that the vicar was 
sent with bell, book, and candle to 
drive him out. He pursued the in- 
truder so briskly up to the top of 
the tower, that the latter had 
nothing to do but to leap over the 
battlements, which he did, coming 
plump amongst the gravestones, and 
leaving traces of his arms and ^ees 
on the stone in question. 

On the coast to the rt. are the 
small harbour and bathing village 
of New Quay, containing a popula- 
tion of about 1800 persons, prin- 
cipally engaged in fishing and 
shipbuilding. On 1. is Noyadd 
House (J. Boultbee, Esq.). 

14 m. on rt. Castle Nadolig, a 
strong fortified camp, nearly semi- 
circular, well situated for command- 
ing the passes of the South. 15 m. 
1. Tyllwyd (Oapt. Pritchard). 

1 6 m. on the coast to rt. is Aher- 
portht another of the little primitive 
fishing and bathing places in which 
Cardiganshire abounds. Between it 
and Penbryn is an inscribed sepul- 
chral stone. 

23 m. Cardigan (Rte. 11).] 

The road from Aberayron to 
Aberystwith runs for several imles 
on the face of extremely steep clifl's, 
commanding magnificent sea-views, 
as well as the whole coast-line of 
Cardigan Bay and the ranges of 



FlinUmmon, Cader Idris, and the 
North Wallian Hills. Few roads 
present such a glorious panorama. 

38 m. the village of Aberarth, 2 
m. to the rt. of which is Monachty 
(the seat of Alban Gwynne, Esq., 
tiie lord of the manor). 

41 m. 1. Llansaintfread ch., situ- 
ated between the road and the sea. 
42 m. rt. Altllwyd (Mrs. Hughes). 

At Llanrhysted^ placed at the 
mouth of the river Wjrrrai, is a fine 
^ew ch. The road is joined on rt. 
by a cross-road to Uampeter ; pass- 
ing Mabus, the seat of J. L. Phillips, 
Esq. The cliflfs, which for the last 2 
or 3 miles have sunk, again become 
lofty and precipitous and frequently 
abound in caves and fissures. 

48 m. From the top of a steep de- 
scent, dignified by the name of 
Chancery, a fine view is gained of 
the Ystwith and its wooded banks 
as it winds at the bottom of the 
vale. At 49 m. it is crossed at the 
bridge of Llanychaiam, a pictur- 
esque little village, with the ch. 
close to the 1. bank of the river. 
On 1. is Bryn-Mthin (W. Richards, 
Esq.), situated at the foot of the 
Altwen Cliff", a favourite walk from 
Aberystwith. Passing the turnpike 
at Piccadilly, from whence two other 
roads, to the Devil's Bridge and 
Llanavan, diverge, the tourist arrives 
at 52 m. Aberystvjith (Rte. 9). 



S. Wales. Houte 11. — Haverfordwest to St, David^s, 



123 



ROUTE 11.' 

FROM HAVERFORDWEST TO ST. 
DAVID'S^ FISHGUARD, CARDIGAN, 
AND CARMARTHEN. 

The rpad from Haverfordwest 
(Rte. 1) to St. David's (16 m.), 
though generally passmg through a 
bleak portion of Pembrokeshire, is 
pleasantly variegated with hill and 
dale, and ever and anon commands 
magnificent panoramas extending 
for many miles round. Twice a-week 
(on Fridays and Saturdays) an om- 
nibus drags its slow course over the 
hilly road, being the only connecting 
link between the ancient city of St. 
David's and modem civilization. 
The nomenclature of the various 
villages and hamlets will remind the 
traveller that he is in the country 
colonized by the Flemings. " This 
tract was iiiabited by the Flemings 
out of the Low Countries, who, by 
the permission of King Henrie the 
First, were planted here. These are 
distinctly knowen still from the 
Welsh ; and so neere joined they are 
in society of the same language with 
Englishmen, who come nighest of 
any nation to the Low Dutch tongue, 
that this their little country is termed 
by the Britains Little England be- 
yond Wales." 

[6 m. from Haverfordwest, on the 
coast, is Broadhaven, a pleasant little 
bathing-place, possessing a fine ex- 
tent of firm sand and splendid coast 
views, in which the barren and soli- 
tary islands of Skokom and Skomer 
form a prominent object. Through 
the village runs a coast-road N. and 
S., by which the pedestrian can pro- 
ceed from St. David's to Milford 
Haven, thus avoiding Haverford- 
west altogether. To the S. of Broad- 
haven the coast presents some very 
interesting geological sections, — 
" the lower Silurian rocks, much dis- 
located and associated with those 



bands of trap which form a striking 
outline in the Skomer Isles, plunge 
rapidly to the S.E. and sink under 
the stmta of the mainland " (Siluria) 
— the whole series dipping under the 
old red sandstone at Hook Point.! 

5 m. on rt., on the summit or a 
high ridge of groimd, are the scanty 
ruins .of Keeston Castle. A very 
extensive view is gained from hence 
over Haverfordwest and the Vale of 
Cleddau. The landscape on the rt. 
of the traveller consists of long 
ridges of elevated moor, which look 
somewhat dreary on a close inspec- 
tion. The high grounds in front are 
the Plumstone and Treffgam Hills, 
both remarkable for the number of 
remains of tiunuli and camps as well 
as for the isolated masses of rock, 
appearing to the distant eye like 
some ruined town. Behind them the 
chain of the Precelly Hills rise to 
the height of 1700 ft. (p. 130). 

8 m. on rt. Boch Castle^ a con- 
spicuous object in the scenery i(yt 
miles around, from its commanding 
position, overlooking the bay of St. 
Bride's. This castle, winch is 
of no great extent, although larger 
than a first view would warrant, con- 
sists of a picturesque tower built on 
the edge of a rocky ridge running 
E. and W. It was built in the 13th 
centy. by Adam de Rupe, who also 
founded the priory of Pill, near 
Milford, and experienced some rough 
treatment in the civil wars when it 
was garrisoned for the King under 
Capt. Francis Edwards. The view 
which here breaks upon the traveller, 
especially on a fine evening at sun- 
set, is most impressive. The eye 
wanders over St. Bride's Bay, and to 
the rt. the whole country as far as 
St. David s : the principal feature 
in the scene being the jagged out- 
line of St. David's Head in the far 
distance, that aj^pears like a purple 
bank of clouds rising out of the 
plain. 

9^ m. The road descends to the 
beach and crosses the N«.\»<5fvU. 



124 



Eoute 11. — St. Damd^s. 



S. Wales. 



brook, the boundary between the 
hundreds of Bhos and Dewisland. 
Tradition asserts that a large tract 
of country lies buried beneath the 
waves and the sands of Newgale, 
and is borne out by the fact that 
traces of a submarine forest have 
been detected. Giraldus Cambrensis 
mentions the appearance of trunks 
of trees "stancUng in the midst of 
the sea with very black earth, and 
several old blocks like ebony ; so 
that it did not appear like the 
sea-shore, but rather resembled a 
grove." 

Ascending the steep hill on the 
opposite side, the tourist passes on 
1., 11 m., a tumulus, the only re- 
mains of Poyntz Castle, or Castrum 
Pontii, once one of the principal 
granges belonging to St. David's. 

13 m. the beautiful little village 
of Solva, placed in such a narrow 
creek that its situation is not seen or 
expected until the road fairly tum- 
bles into it. The windings of the 
river between the steep fimks are 
highly romantic, but detrimental to 
the navigation, which is rendered ra- 
ther dangerous by a pyramidal rock 
standing in the very centre of its 
mouth. The principal business car- 
ried on here is the loading of vessels 
with stones used in the erection of 
the Smalls lighthouse, although 
many visitors come here during the 
summer for the sake of the bracing 
air. 

From Solva a walk of 3 m. will 
bring the traveller to 16 m. the 
city of St. David's, the ancient Me- 
napia of early days, placed in a cor- 
ner of Great Britain apparently re- 
markable for nothing but its desolate 
appearance and extreme isolation. 
" Hie etenim angtilus est supra mare 
Hibernicum remotissimus ; terra sax- 
osa, sterilis, ot infoecunda ; nee syl- 
vis vestita nee fluminibus distincta 
nee pratis omata ; ventis solum et 

Srocellis semper exposita." This 
escription of old Giraldus will apply 
with almost equal eflfect in the pre- 



I sent day ; nevertheless, the very de- 
j eolation of the country adds to the 
•^^feeling of interest with which the 
visitor examines a city so replete 
with noble associations. Inn : Com- 
mercial. St. David's itself is a mere 
village, consisting of one principal 
street and two cross ones, at the 
junction of which stands tgi ancient 
cross; but its principal attractions 
are its grand old cathedral and the 
ruins of the college and bishop's 
palace hard by. None of theise 
buildings, save the top of the great 
tower, are visible from any portion 
of the village, until you are close 
upon them ; for, like the sister 
church of Llandaff, tlie cathedral is 
placed in a deep hollow, isolating it 
still more from the city to which it 
gives its name. There is, however, 
between the two a great difference. 
" The effect of Llandaff is a mixture 
of that of a ruined abbey and that 
of an ordinary parish church. St. 
David's, standing erect amidst de- 
solation, alike in its fabric and its es- 
tablishment, decayed, but not dead ; 
neglected, but never entirely for- 
saken, — still remaining in a comer 
of the world, with its services unin- 
terrupted in the coldest times, its 
ecclesiastical establishment entirely 
untouched, — is, more than any other 
spot, a link between the present 
and the past ; nowhere has the 
present so firm and true a hold 
on the past." — Jones and Freeman's 
*8t. David's: 

The usual entrance into the close 
is that leading from the town on the 
S.E. through a gateway, above 
which is an octagon tower, formerly 
used as a consistory court and record 
office ; but the aspect of the cathe- 
dral from this gate is very far infe- 
rior to the approach from the N.E., 
which includes in the view the ruins 
of the chapel and the chapterhouse. 
In shape tiie chxirch may be 
briefly described as cruciform, with 
the addition of 3 chapels of inferior 
height to the E. end of the choir 



S, Wales. Eoute 11. — St. DavicPs Cathedral. 



1^5 



whild, on the B. face of the N. 
transept, is a lofty building of 3 
stages containing the chapterhouse. 
The dimensions are withm, from E. 
to W., 290 ft., while those of the tran- 
septs are 120 ft. Externally, the 
principal features are the W. front, 
which was restored at the end of the 
last centy., with modem antique 
flying buttresses and massive pinna- 
cles ; and the nave, and aisles, of 
which the roof has been lowered: they 
contain 2 doorways, that of the N. 
being Norm., and the southern one 
ornamented with sculpture repre- 
senting the root of Jesse. The 
tower, which gives the idea of being 
rather topheavy, consists of 3 
stages, the lowest being Norm., 
and scarcely rises above the level of 
the original roof; the middle stage is 
Dec, while the uppermost is Perp. 
The S. transept contains 4 Perp. 
windows in 2 stages. The walls of 
the choir are embattled, and rise 
with a beautiful though melancholy 
effect from the roofless and ivy- 
covered ruins of the Lady Chapel 
and chantries on each side. 
. .Ojdc entering the cathedral a view 
isigaijpied, in its way probably im- 
equalled in any ch. in Great Britain, 
owing to the extreme richness of 
decoration and numberless minutiae 
of the nave, which is transitional 
between Romanesque and Gothic, 
l^e visited should observe the great 
{qpan of the pier arches, which are 
alternately round and octagonal, and 
in particular the grace of the foliage 
of the two shafts attached to the 
first pair of piers from the E. Those 
between the N. aisle excite feelings 
of some apprehension as to their 
stability, from the extreme bulging 
— the N. wall also has a considerable 
outward leaning. Observe too the 
peculiarity of the triforium. The 
arches of the windows, below which 
the triforium range is formed, are 
enriched with chevrons, while from 
between them rise exquisite vaulting 
shafts of the ceiling. The triforium 



arches themselves are plain and 
pointed, without shafts. 

The roof, in itself only a flat ceil- 
ing of timber laid upon the walls, is 
probably unique in its singularity 
and extreme richness, produced by 
the use of numbers of vast pendants. 
"Both the arches themselves, and 
the straight lines which join the 
principal panels, drip with minute 
loliations like lacework, in a style 
of almost Arabian gorgeousness." 
The interior of the tower consists of 
4 noble arches, of which the western 
is round, and very richly adorned, 
while the others are pointed. A 
decorated arcade rises, each arch 
forming a small triforium. 

The style of the interior of the 
transepts is Transitional Boman- 
esque, with pointed arches and foli- 
age of the Somersetshire type. 

The presbytery consists of 4 bays, 
and contams massive piers support- 
ing pointed arches with mouldings, 
and at the E. end an extremely rich 
triplet of Norm, and E. E. inter- 
mixed with a profusion of rich 
Bomanesque moulding ; below it is 
a rich string, and above it a large 
Perp. window. To the E. of the 
choir, and a little on the N. side 
of it, is Bp. Vaughan's or Trinity 
Chapel, which, together with one 
to the E. of that again, have their 
roofs whole, while all the other 
chapels are open to the day. The 
former is a fine specimen of late 
Perp., and contains an exquisite 
fan-tracery roof. The Lady Chapel, 
unfortunately roofless, is of Transi- 
tion from E. E. to Dec, though con- 
taining some Perp. windows. At- 
tached to the N. transept is a 
peculiar-looking building, of which 
the lowest stage, formerly St. 
Thomas's chapel, is now used as a 
chapterhouse. 

The principal objects of interest in 
the cathedral are the beautiful stone 
rood-screen, the work of Bp. Gower, 
the central division of which forms 
the entrance to the chftvt^ ^\!^'^ 



126 



Baute 11. — St. DamTs — History. S. Wales. 



those on either ade contain tombs, 
that of Grower himself being on the 
extreme rt. ; the grotesque carvings 
of the stalls in the choir ; the tomb 
of the Earl of Bichmond, father of 
Hen. VII.; and the shrine of St. 
David, within the third arch from 
the E. on N. side of the presbytery, 
in former days an attraction to 
legions of devoted pilgrims, includ- 
ing several kings and princes. 
Giraldus Oambrensis, the interest- 
ing old topographer of S. Wales, 
is also said to be buried here. A 
curious old clock stands above the 
roodloft, which strike* at such an 
apparent expense of suffering and 
fearful groaning, as to provoke the 
risible faculties of the visitor. 

The history of the see commences 
about the end of the 5th centy., 
when St. David, who had succeeded 
the holy Dubritius as Archbishop at 
Gaerleon, removed the see to the 
wilds of Menevia, though by some it 
is supposed that St. Patrick esta- 
blished a monastery in still earlier 
times. Amongst the pupils attracted 
by St. David's learning and piety 
were St. Aidan, St. Teilo, and 
Patemus, the patron saint of Llan- 
badam. It was about this time that 
the Pelagian heresy was checked 
by the preaching of St. David at 
the great synod held at Lland- 
dewi Brefi (Rte. 10). The present 
cathedral was built by Bp. Peter do 
Leia in 1176, after it had "beene 
often destroyed in former times by 
Danes and other pyrats," although 
in successive years it became much 
dilapidated, at one time by the fall 
of the tower, which crushed the 
choir and transepts, and at another 
by an earthquake, to which the very 
insecure-looking bulging of the N. 
wall of the nave may be attributed. 
At the hands of different prelates 
it underwent different degrees of 
enlargement and decoration, ac- 
cording to the devotion or archi- 
tectural capabilities of each, though, 
of all the long line, of bishops, 



Grower, who flourished in the 14tli 
centy., did more to adorn it than 
any other. In contrast with whom 
stands Bp. Barlow, in 1536, who, 
not content with alienating much of 
the Church property, is said to have 
stripped the lead off the Bishop's 
Palace as well as from the castle at 
Llawhawden (Bte. 1), in order that 
he might provide portions for his 
five daughters, who married five 
bishops. 

Of late years some careful restora- 
tions have been carried on in the in- 
terior by Mr. Butterfield, and consi- 
derable improvements made in the 
services, which are now, as in other 
English cathedrals, held daily. 

Adjoining, and on the N. side of 
the cathedral, are the picturesque 
ruins of 8t Mary's College, founded 
in 1377 by Bp. Houghton. They 
are even in a more dilapidated state 
than the chapels before mentioned, 
little being left but a rather elegant 
tower and chapel, with some good 
E. Perp. windows, which was built 
over a crypt. Divided from the rest 
of the cathedral buildings by the 
river Alan are the remains of the 
Bishop's Palace, splendid in its very 
desolation, and offering examples of 
richly decorated domestic architec* 
ture, almost unique. This palace, 
which is of quadrangular form, is one 
of the masterpieces of Bp. Gk)wer, 
and will at once strike the visitor 
for the beautiful arcade and parapet 
that runs round the whole building. 
The only other examples of this 
delicate ornament are Swansea 
Castle and Lamphey Court (Rte. 1). 
The parapet consists of a series of 
open arches resting on octagonal 
shafts, surmounted, though now only 
visible in a few places, by a corbel- 
table, and a battlement. On the S. 
side is the great hall, entered by a 
richly decorated porch, over which 
are two niches containing statues, 
supposed to represent Edw. II. and 
Queen Philippa. 
The window at the E. end is a 



S. Wales. Boute 11, -^Caerfcu, — Whitesand Bay, 



127 



Toee window of singular beauty and 
design, the tracery of which forms 
a complete wheel wifch spokes 
radiating from a central quatre- 
foiled circle. 

At the western extremity of the 
hall stands the chapel« marked by 
an elegant bell-turret, having a 
broach spire. The whole of the 
palace, cathedral, and other build- 
ings stand within the close, which 
was defended by a wall a mile in 
circumference. 

The lover of rock scenery will be 
amply gratified by exploring the 
numberless little creeks and bays 
with which the coast abounds. 

At Caerfai, a little to the S., the 
purple sandstone quarries of which 
furnished the stone for building the 
cathedral, are the ruins of the Nuns' 
chapel, dedicated to St. Nonita. A 
second chapel, to St. Justinian, 
existed on the coast at Porthsti- 
nian, about 2 m. to the W., where 
travellers bound to the opposite 
Isle of Ramsey were wont to per- 
form their devotions. This island 
is separated from the mainland by a 
strait 1 m. in breadth, and is ter- 
minated at each end by rugged and 
precipitous hills which contribute 
much to the savage effect of the 
scenery. Nevertheless it is by no 
means barren, but possesses a pro- 
ductive farm and good land. Mul- 
titudes of sea-birds breed here, 
insomuch that different localities 
amongst the rocks are named the 
Organ and (he Choir, from the noise 
of the birds frequenting the cliffs. 

At the S. end of the island are 
two very small ones, named respec- 
tively Ynis Bert, or the Kite's 
Island, and Ynis y Cantor, or the 
Precentor's Island. 

To the W. lie a group of insulated 
and dangerous rocks, known as the 
Bisliop and his Clerks, " who preache 
deadly doctrine to their winter 
audience, such poor seafaring men 
as are forcyd thcther by tempest ; 
onlie in one thing they are to be 



commended, they keepe residence 
better than the rest of the canons 
of that see are wont to do." — Fenton, 

The " deadly doctrine " was fear- 
fully illustrated in February of tiiie 
present year (1860) by the wreck of 
the Nimrod steamer on these islands, 
when every soul perished. 

A little N. of Porthstinian, and 
about 2 m. N.W. of St. David's, is 
Whitesand Bay, Underneath the 
burrows which border this bay, 
traces of walls have occasionally 
been found in places where the sand 
has blown away. A legend is cur- 
rent amongst the natives that they 
belong to the primitive ch. founded 
here prior to the erection of the 
catheihral; but almost all antiquaries 
are agreed as to this being, the 
locality of the ancient Boman sta- 
tion Menapia. To corroborate this 
opinion, this spot has been proved 
to have been the terminus of two 
great lines of road, one being the 
Via Julia, extending from Aqua 
Solis (Bath); and the other being 
the Via Flandrica, or " Fford Flem- 
ing," which is supposed to have 
connected Loventium with Menapia. 
It is however considered by other 
antiquaries to have been an early 
British road made use of by the 
Komans. Apart from these memo- 
rials of a departed people, the great 
number of primaeval antiquities in 
this immediate neighbourhood all 
prove the former importance in 
which this country was held. 

There is a remarkable fort and 
earthwork called Penlan just ^ m. 
from the cathedral, overlooking the 
river Alan, popularly ascribed to 
Boia, a Graelic chieftain, who erected 
it for the purpose of persecuting St. 
David and his monastery. 

Rising out from the plain in an 
abrupt precipice of 100 ft. is St. 
David's Head, the ancient Octopi- 
tarum, a bluff peninsula, cut off by 
an ancient stone fortification called 
Clawdd y Milwr, or the fence of the 
soldiers, a rampart of stones ftQm.'X^ 



128 



Eoute 11. — TVevine. — Fishguard, S. Wales. 



to 100 ft. broad. The whole of the 
range of cliffs looking northward 
are exceedingly fine, and present an 
appearance of much greater height 
than really belongs to them, in con- 
Bequence of the monotony of the 
country inland. Close to the head, 
and in fact forming part of the sea- 
range, is Cam Llid% from the sum- 
mit of which an extensive and beau- 
tiful view is gained of ttie whole 
promontory of Dewisland (or David's 
Land), Strumble Head, and the 
Caernarvonshire hills to the N., 
while in clear weather the moun- 
tains of Wexford and Wicklow are 
visible. 

At the foot of Cam Llidi is a 
rocking-stone, now dismounted ; 
there, is also a cromlech on the Head, 
besides several "meini hirion" in 
the neighbourhood. Those, how- 
ever, who wish to study minutely 
the antiquities of St. David's will do 
well to obtain Jones and Freeman's 
splendid work, to which the writer 
of this notice is much indebted. 

The road to Fishguard passes 
through a desolate and bleak 
country, though relieved at inter- 
vals by peeps of St. George's Chan- 
nel on the 1, hand and the Precelly 
mountains on the rt. ; the principal 
interest of the route however lies in 
the numerous DruidiCal and British 
remains so profusely scattered about. 

17J m. on rt. Dowrog Pool, a small 
tarn about 1 m. in circumference, 
affording good wild-fowl shooting. 

19 m. on rt. is Penherry, a noble 
headland, which towards the sea de- 
scends in a sheer precipice called 
Trwyn-ddualt. From hence the road 
follows for a time the course of the 
Fford Fleming or Via Flandrica 21 
m. on 1. to Llanrian, passing by 
Trevaccoon ( — Harris, Esq.) 24 m. 
The populous village about IJ m. to 
1. is Trevine, the site of a grange or 
palace belonging to the Bishops of 
St. David's, of which a vault still re- 
mains. Near it on the farm of Long- 
bouae is one oi the most perfect 



cromlechs in S. Wales, consisting 
of 6 upright stones, on 3 of which, 
which are 5 J ft. high, rests a very 
thick capstone 16 ft. in length, 
thus forming a chamber open lonly 
on the N. side. On the coast is 

Ahercdstellf a little harbour fre- 
quented by coasters. At 25| m. 
there are two other cromlechs dis- 
mounted in a field on the 1. of the 
road. 

26 m. 1. Mathry ch. and village. 

30^ m. the road joins the direct 
turnpike from Haverfordwest to 
Fishguard. [At 8 m. is Ford, where 
the Roman road or Via Flandrica 
crosses the turnpike ; and 3 m. to 1. 
is the station of AdVicesimum, about 
1 m. to the N.E. of Ambleston ch. 
The scenery at St. Dogwell*s is very 
picturesque. 

10 m. are the Treffgam rocks, 
from whence a very extensive view 
is gained. 14J m. Haverfordwest.] 

32 m. Fishguard. {Hoida : Com- 
mercial, and Great Western, both 
tolerable; the latter commands a fine 
sea-view.) It is a pretty little town 
of some 1700 Inliab., divided into 
two distinct portions, the forme^ of 
which, or the upper town, occupies 
the cliffs, while the lower town con- 
stitutes the seaport and harbour. 
Altogether it is one of the most pic- 
turesque places on the whole coast, 
and offers many attractions to the 
visitor in quest of scenery. The 
harbour is formed at the mouth of 
the little river Gwaine, which issues 
from a narrow and beautifully 
woodrd glen directly into Fishguard 
Bay, ?ii which a large number of 
vessels can ride safely at anchor in 
6 fathoms of water, no matter how 
bad the weather is outside. In- 
deed this bay is about the only re- 
fuge on the coast between Milford 
Haven and the Bay of Cardigan, 
and from this cause, as well as its 
proximity to the Irish coast, which 
in clear weather is distinctly visible, 
Fishguard was originally selected 
to be the terminus of the South 



S. Wales. 



Eoute 11, -^Mshguard. 



129 



Wales Railway, before it was finally 
fixed at Milfoid. Beyond its pic- 
tmesque sitaation the town presents 
nothing remarkable. The opposite 
headland, 1 m. from the town, is 
dotted with the white cottages of 
Goodwick, which from its fine sands 
and loyely situation offers many 
charms to enjoy sea-bathing in a 
quiet retired spot. The line of coast 
at the back of Goodwick, with its 
many indentations and headlands, 
form Sirumhle Headt the southern 
boundary of Cardigan Bay. The 
inland district, known as Pencaer, is 
wild and mountainous, though con- 
taining a great many early British 
stones and cromlechs. About 3 m. 
from Groodwick, following the cliffe, 
is Carreg-gvjastad Point, in the pa- 
rish of Llanwnda, a spot historicsdly 
celebrated for the landing of the 
French in 1797. A body of men, 
1400, under the command of General 
Tato, were disembarked at this point 
and proceeded inland as far as Fish- 
guard, committing ravages in their 
career. At this juncture, however, 
they were beat by a body of yeo- 
manry under Lord Cawdor, the Lord- 
Lieutenant of the county, and, being 
by some misapprehension deserted 
by the ships, which had left the 
coast, were obliged to surrender un- 
conditionally, and lodged in the 
gaols of Pembroke, Haverfordwest, 
and others in the district. A large 
number of Welshwomen, in their 
characteristic red petticoats, viewed 
the transaction from the neighbour- 
ing hills, thus giving the enemy the 
notion that they were surrounded 
by much larger forces than really 
were present. It may be mentioned 
that the parish of Llanwnda was the 
scene of the clerical labours of the 
historian and topographer, Giraldus 
Cambronsis. 

[A very pleasant excursion may 
be made from Fishguard to the Pro- 
celly mountains, which run like a 
backbone through Pembrokeshire 
from E. to W., dividing the county 



into two portions. The route lies 
through or alongside of the valley of 
the Gwaine to New Inn, from whence 
a steep walk will bring the tourist 
to the summit of MoeL-Otom-CeruDyn 
(1700 ft.), the Bald Head, or the 
Hollow of the Wash-tub, so called 
from the curious crater-like shape 
of the top of the mountain. The 
Precelly hills, taken as a range 
about 7 m. long, form a connected 
hill-chain with some outliers. The 
principal eminences are — on the E. 
Moel Trigam and Cam-menyn ; on 
the W. Bwlch-gwynt and Foel Eryr ; 
while Moel Cwm-Cerwyn is in the 
centre. Lying in the centre of the 
county, these bleak hills are crossed 
by roads running N. and S. from 
Haverfordwest andKarberth toCardi- 
gan, as well as by the Via Flandrica, 
which was carried along the S. flank. 
The view from the summit of any of 
these hills in clear weather is grand, 
comprising the whole of Pembroke- 
shire and parts of Cardiganshire 
and Carmarthenshire, besides a vast 
expanse of sea, terminated on the 
W. by the coast of Ireland. The 
tourist who determines upon the ex- 
cursion should be very particular as 
to the state of tiie weather, as fre- 
quently, after all his exertions, the 
hills become enveloped in thick 
mist, rendering sight-seeing out of 
the question. Throughout the whole 
of the range tiie remains of crom- 
lechs, meini-herion, camps and tu- 
muli are profusely scattered, proving 
the former importance of this pcurt 
of Pembrokeshire. 

A very fine British urn was dug 
out of a tumulus by .the late Mr. 
Fenton, which was unfortunately 
broken by the carelessness of the 
workmen.3 

Fishguard is di^tant from St. 
David's 17 m. ; Haverfordwest, 14^ 
m. ; Newport, 7 m. ; Precelly Hills, 
11m. 

Conveyances : — An omnibus 3 
times a week for Haverfordwest, and 
going on to Newport. 



130 



Route 1 1 . — Newport, — Nevern . 



S. Wales. 



The road to Newport is carried 
down a steep descent to the old 
town, crossing the Gwaine. On rt. 
is Glynammel, the seat of John 
Fenton, Esq., the son of the learned 
antiquary and historian of Pem- 
brokeshire. 

36 m. on 1. is Dirvos Head^ a fine 
promontory forming a conspicuous 
landmark at sea. A broad intrench- 
ment separates it from the main- 
land. 

On rt. is the steep outlying range 
of the Precelly Hills, the most 
northerly point terminating in Cam 
Englyr, a peculiar volcanic-looking 
hill which rises 1500 ft., directly at 
the back of 

39 m. Neioport {Inn: Llwyngair 
Arms), a pleasantly situated little 
town, which in former times is said 
to have monopolized most of the 
trade of the county. Owing, how- 
ever, to a great mortality occasioned 
by a plague, the market was removed 
to Fishguard, which henceforth 
flourished at the expense of its 
neighbour. It possesses a small 
harbour at the mouth of the river 
Nevern, but the navigation is im- 
peded by a bar. Its only attraction 
is the castle, founded by William, 
son of Martin of Tours. It over- 
looks the town and bay, and was, 
until very recently, a picturesque 
ruin ; but has now, however, been 
incorporated with a modern dwelling- 
house by the lord of the manor, 
T. D. Lloyd, Esq. The principal 
feature in it is a very elegant tower 
of the 13th centy. rising from a 
square base into a circular form, 
and surmounted by an upper poly- 
gonal story of later date. On the 
N. side is a vaulted chamber, with a 
central E. Dec. pier, from which 
spring 8 ribs. The ch., wliich is 
said to be also of the 13th centy., 
has been modernized in the very 
plainest form. 

39 m. on 1. Llwyngair, the finely- 
wooded seat of J. A Bowen, Esq., 
40 m, 



[The traveller who wishes to 
take Cilgerran Castle on his way 
to Cardigan should pursue the 
straight road through Eglwys Ervj, 
the distance being about 9 m.] 

40 J m. Nevern church and village, 
with the steep wooded dingle and 
brawling river, form as picturesque 
a landscape as one could wish to 
see. In the churchyard is a very 
fine cross of the 9th centy., orna- 
mented with network;* somewhat 
similar to the one at Carew (Rte. 
1). The ch. contains a coffin-lid 
with an early Greek cross. On an 
eminence above are traces of Llan- 
hyvor Castle, probably the fortress 
of Martin de Tours before he married 
the daughter of Rhys ap Grufydd, 
and removed to Newport. 

On a bye road, about IJ m. from 
Nevern, is the cromlech of Pentre- 
evan, only equalled in Wales by that 
of St. Nicholas near Cardiff (Rte. 1). 
Its height is such that 6 persons 
on horseback can be conveniently 
sheltered. There are also remains 
of an old mansion of Hen. VII.'s 
time, inhabited by Sir James ap 
Owain. 

The road to Cilgerran crosses 
the Nevern at Pord Baldvjyn, from 
whence the archbishop of that 
name, accompanied by Giraldus, 
preached the crusades. 

42 m. on 1. the solitary little 
chapel of Bayvil. The road, which 
has been continually ascending from 
Nevern, presents some fine views 
over Newport, Dinas Head, and 
Fishguard, while on rt. the Precelly 
Hills are seen to great advantage. 

4H J m. on 1. are 5 singular tumuli 
called Crugiau Kemmes. 

49J m. Crossing the Teivy by a 
fine stone bridge, the visitor arrives 
at the county town of Cardigan 
(Hotel: Black Lion, tolerable). Kte. 
12. 



S. Wales. Boute 12. — Cardigan to Carmarthen, 



131 



ROUTE 12. 

FROM CARDIGAN TO CARMARTHEN. 

Cardigan, or Aberteify as it is 
called in Welsh, does not possess 
very much to interest a stranger, 
though it is a convenient resting- 
place from which to visit the sur- 
roimding country. Hotd: Black 
lion, tolerable. Although the 
county town, possessing about 3000 
Inhab., it is rather behindhand 
with ftie rest of the world, as yet 
not even being lighted with gas ; 
and from its inconvenient position 
as regards the rest of the county, 
much of the public business has been 
transferred to Aberayron (Bte. 10). 
But little remains of the castle, 
which is surrounded by buildings, 
and itself converted into a modem 
dwelling, but the keep, a circular 
tower, stUl retaining its underground 
passages and dungeons, now serving 
the purposes of cellars. It under- 
went many assaults, particularly in 
the 12th centy., at the hands of 
Hen. I. and the Welsh alternately, 
and changed owners at least a dozen 
times until 1240, when Gilbert Mar- 
shall rebuilt it. Finally it was 
taken by the Parliamentary army 
under Gfen. Llaughame. 

The ch., a spacious Perp. build- 
ing, has been lately restored, and 
contains a good canopied piscina. 

Distances:— Carmarthen, 30 m. ; 
Aberayron, 23 m. ; Newport, lOJ m. ; 
Newcastle, 10 m. ; Narberth Eoad 
Stat., 18 m. Conveyances : — Coach 
daily to Carmarthen ; 2 coaches 



daily to Narberth Eoad Stat., on 
the S. Wales line. 

The scenery from Cardigan to the 
mouth of the Teivy is very pretty, 
particularly at the village of 8t 
Dogmad's, 1 m., where the ruins, 
though scanty, still exist of the once 
fisimous Abbey of St. Dogmael's, 
which was only second in size and 
importance to Strata Florida. 

The remains consist of the W. and 
N. walls, the N. transept, and parts 
of buildings attached to the E.side. 
This ancient ch. was finished in the 
time of Hen. I., by Robert, son of 
Martin de Tours, who was seized of 
the lordship of Kemmaes in the 
reign of Wilfiam the Conqueror ; and 
was also the founder of Newport 
Castle. In the grounds adjoining 
are a coffin-lid and slab decorated 
with crosses, and an inscribed stone, 
known as the Stone of Sagrannus, 
marked with Ogham characters. A 
portion of the site of the abbey is 
now occupied with a neat E. £. ch. 
in very good taste ; and the whole 
churchyard and grounds of the Bev. 
H. Vincent, to whose antiquarian 
care the remains are indebted for 
their preservation, make one of the 
loveliest pictures imaginable. There 
is some mie rock and cave scenery at 
the mouth of the Teivy, though the 
river above the bridge &r exceeds 
it in beauty. "At one time it winds 
its silent way between the hills, 
filling the intervening space with 
its clear deep waters; except, in- 
deed, where sometimes a narrow 
path is saved, seemingly to entice 
the feet of the delighted passen- 
ger; — ^its high and sloping banks 
covered with trees of the richest 
verdure, now gracefdlly dipping their 
pendent branches in the stream, 
or bristling on the summit in the 
stately forms of the fir and pine— 
and then again, as if rejoicing at its 
escape from such seclusion, sending 
its laughing tide, through many a * 
romantic dale, in full career to the 
main." — Boscoe, 



132 



Boute 12. — Ctlgerran, — Nevocasde. S. Wales, 



GUgerran CasHe may be visited 
by road or by water — the latter 
affording the greatest variety of 
scenery, and showing the ruins off 
to the best advantage. The road 
on the L bank of the Teivy is about 
3J m. The ruins of Cilgerran in 
themselves are considerable and in- 
teresting to the antiquarian ; but its 
principal beauty lies in its match- 
less situation, which is superior to 
anything in Wales. The landscape 
has all the accessaries of rock, wood, 
and water. The river flows in a 
winding reach between lofty banks, 
on the one side soft and wooded, 
and on the other precipitous and 
rocky ; while the whole pass is com- 
manded by the frowning towers of 
the castle, which stand boldly out 
as though part of the cliff on which 
they are built. The chief features 
of the ruins are 2 very massive 
round towers with curtains, and a 
gatehouse. Cilgerran was most pro- 
bably one of the series of fortresses 
erected in the time of Edward I. to 
overawe the natives of Cardigan- 
shire. 

The Ch. was restored in good 
taste in 1855. In the churchyard is 
an inscribed stone with Ogham cha- 
racters. The visitor will be struck 
with the appearance on the river, or 
before the doors of the fishermen, 
with the coracleSy which are used on 
the Teivy to such an extent that 
they may almost be said to be pecu- 
liar to it. In shape it is a kind of 
oval canoe, formed of basket-work 
covered with sailcloth, about 4 ft. 
long and 3 ft. wide. Its extreme 
lightness enables the owner to carry 
it on his back after having finished 
his fishing expedition. 

The route firom Cardigan to New- 
castle Emlyn is along the rt. bank 
of tiie Teivy, one of the loveliest in 
the principality, and the traveller 
will regret leaving the wooded and 
luxuriant valley for the bleak hills 
which he has to cross ere he can 
reach Cannarthen. 



1 m. on 1. is Llangoedmore, the 
seat of Col. Vaughan ; and 2 m. on 
rt. Goedmore (Mrs. Uoyd), in a most 
enchanting situation, almost oppo- 
site Cilgerran Castle. 

3 m. Llechrhyd, a pleasant little 
village and a good station for anglers. 
A large weir formerly existed here 
which precluded the salmon firom 
ascending the river, and was there- 
fore desfioyed in 1844 by a Isurge 
body of Rebecca rioters. Here the 
Teivy is crossed to the lovely 
grounds of GasOe Malgvyyn (Mrs. 
Gower), from whence a road to the 
rt. leads to CUgenan Castle. 

6 m. rt. Stradmore, and 1. 1 m, 
Blaenpant^ the seat of W. O. Brig- 
stocke, Esq. 

7 m. The Teivy is crossed at the 
picturesque bridge of Kenarth, fa- 
mous for its salmon leap, at whi<Ui 
100 fish have been taken in a single 
morning. The river above the 
bridge falls in a bold sheet over a 
ledge of rocks, and, together with 
the primitive little vUlage and water- 
mill, forms a scene of rare beauty. 

10 m. In the parish of Kenarth is 
the little town of Newcastle Emlyn 
{Inn: Salutation), one portion of 
which, Atpar, is situated in Cardi- 
ganshire and the remainder in Car^ 
marthenshire. The Teivy meanders 
in a most capricious manner round 
the Castle Hill, which it almost sur- 
rounds as though by a broad natural 
moat. 

Newcastle is supposed to have 
had a Boman origin, but took its 
name from the fortress (of which 
but Uttle remains) erected by Sir 
Hhys ap Thomas. Although some 
little distance from the town, the 
views over the vale will amply repay 
the visitor. 

13 m. on 1. between the road and 
the river is Dolhaidd-fach (Capt. 
Elliot), and 13J m. on rt. Llys- 
newydd (W. Lewis, Esq.). At 15 m., 
the village of Llangeler, the road 
finally quits the valley of the Teivy, 
and commences the ascent of the 



S. Wales. Houte 12, — Newcaatk to Carmarthen, 



133 



bleak Penboyr HiUa. Barren and 
cold OB tliey appear, Bome magnifi- 
cent viowB are gained at iutervals — 
BometiniL-a a mamunUr? pceji at the 
distautTeiTj, and tlie ranges of blua 
monnlainB in the neighbourhood of 

About tbe I9th rui]e the road 
rapidly deacenda through a very 
romantic dingle to 22^ m. Cyiiwyl 
El/ed. Tlie remaining portion of the 
route lo Cannaithen ia by tlie course 
of the rivet Gwili, wbiuh winda 
through niirrow raTiuuB clothed on ; 
each Bide with wood. A railway is : 
in course of formation through this ' 



dingle A-om Carmarthen to Llan- 
dyBsil, intended to form an iniport- 
ant link in tlie grtfut trunk line Irom 
MmiohcBtur to MUford Haven. It 
will probubly be completed aboat 
theendof IgtiO.andwilinm tliroagh 
the villagt-B of Conwell, Uanpump- 
Baint, and Pencoder. at wtiicli latter 
place there ia to be a jonction with 
the Llaadovery line. 

Passing on 1. tbe beautiful woods 
of Ctimi Gtmli (G. Pbillipa, Esq.), 
and CHstlo Piggyn (W. O. Price, 
Esq.), tbo road falls into the Ltan- 
deiio turnpike road about i m. from 
29 m. Curmurthen (Btes. 1 imd Tj. 



INDEX, 



ABDBV. 




BVIteA. 




OATHEDBiU, 






BuiDlom, anctcnt, 04, 




c. 


A. 




Ban(oed.lal.,6j. 
ltarry«stJeuidl.liiDd, 


,. 


Cadoiton, il. 


Ah\y.j Cwm Hlr, Ha. 




BofflM^,49. 




Caerau, ij. 






BaiutonAnns,69, 




CMrCarad^irio. 


AbmiTlli, l!l. 




t™i.work», 7., 




Canfaga, 81. 110. 


Aberoion, 19. 




Besupri!, ij. 




Qwrfai. 117. 






B«l»i.lly,S,. 






Atarairo.W 




itegellj, I"- 




*^?™tob^^^^^^f^ 


Abet«»KU.iiB. 




Blg-wm. 6B, 










"Blbbop nod tab CkAi,-' 


Cai^rphllly.iBi cosUe, (9-61 , 






rock.. 11,. 






Abenlilaia Upplnte-ivorkB,!;. 








Aberalw. 1064 (sstle. 106. 






Csldwill caatle, 4, 




Blalnalrf;n.»irla,li. 




CMjia^.,C 


ehurcb, B6; eoitle, 


8-ji 


BtBD<lf«I, 50. 




Cwops. mcknt, dU, 4. U. 


bide, e 1 ; LUDB Uc A>f Inm, 


Bli-adfs, ID9, 




*'■*'' '^/^?<;2*'»i 






BloraiRe, Ihe. B,. 






l^t^llT^n"!. 




Bont!,*aYei,ls, 16. 
Bwtl1.11,. 




(Ws of aSiUi' Wniea, ate. 


A^d^]aul. 11. 








Uapel llonBor, ii!. 






Bovawn, is. 














~Culbren. 11 ; watoTBll, 


Abcn^fcHoii, fo. 










Abertflly, 1(1. 
Ab^rtluw, ij. 




'i^X/;^^ry^'::i. 


Nart-dilii.68. 

Tair Veclian. 68. 


Abei7>'w!£' III; bnUit, 


9I!SLMiry'ii:hiirch.9,; 
college mil cbDpel. 94; 


=?'?&.'?■&,. 


itj; a»i]»,ii]; ml 


■ge. 


tnKle, 9ti couvuyu 


OCB, 


morcp. 9: ehurcbffl, 9; 


iu;ioin«™liprii.g. 




■»■ , . 




ca«lo,9! iilBWrtcuil polloo, 






-— . ™:e ot 91. 




10; Ihclriarj-. lOialcam. 


Ad VicuUmun. Ehnow 


■U- 


Bredwnnline, loj. 






liOD, 1)9. 




Drenig.TBlDD/LbB.llc: 




OanllKaDiiii; ci»t1e,iji, 




Jiey, 


IS"-."-- 




Corew villngH and Mlllf, 19, 


Afiin.'viillFyofliie,i9. 










lS"u?b£^ ^'konw, 








10 AlioiTsHritta, 119. 






BruckwtU, 41. 




CatTCB C™iKn Clutle, no. 
CamtEwasUd Mnt. iand- 
iDg ofTreDcb IrooiB «t.n9. 


^^^mX' ^"^ 




BranUy^ 104. 
Bryodstwf D. jo. 




AiiUqnlUei of SciuUlV 


«!«. 


BStor9'°' 




&ailllCadwfM.JS; ^ 
Cocbp.H,i8. 


Anhiirs Chair, 92, 




Buckalone, rocktag-sl 




CsiUe tMIrbes, IJ. 










Alpir, HI. 




Bullth, T); rolncnil rerbiBs. 
79 i Ki:uliK(yoitlie<fislrtct, 


Nadollg, 111. 










Ca»wall Daj. !4. 


B, 




U^U lr™-woib!. 11. 




Cnthrjilralai 


Bicen Hole iooe-Mvc, 








He'Sfor.l',!^ 


BwlanHoiBe, i^. 








St David'a, 114. 



136 



INDEX. 



CEFN. 

Bryn, 26. 

Coed-y-Cymmer, 67. 
Cefn-Llys, 80. 
Cefn Mabley, 8. 
Cefn-y-bedd, 78. 
Cellan, antiquities at, 120. 
Cenau, St, 89. 

Chepstow, i; castle, 2; 
• Offa'8 Dyke, i. 

to Milford Haven, i. 

Cheriton, 33, 
Cilgerran castle, ij2. 
Cil-hepste fall, 74. 
Circles, Dmidical, xx, 2}. 
Clarach, river and vale, 114. 
Clarbeston Road, 36. 
Clears, St., 29. 
Cleddaus, the rivers, 3 7 ; fall, 

45- 

Clifford Castle, loj. 

Clydach valley, 69; iron- 
works, 69 ; falls, 69. 

Clytha, 85. 

Clywedog, 80. 

Coalbrook Ironworks, 71. 

Coal - measures of South 
Wales, ix ; commercial 
importance of, xiii ; num- 
ber of collieries and their 
produce, xviii. 

Coedriglan, i;. 

Coed-y-Bunedd, 85. 

Cogan Pill, ij. 

Coginau lead-mines, 112. 

Coity church and castle, 17. 

Coldbrook, 86. 

Coldwell Rocks, 42. 

Collieries, 18, 2), 49, 62, 64, 
65. 

Copper trade and works of 
South Wales, xviii ; works, 
19, 20, 21, 27. 

Coracles, 132. 

Com-ddu, 68. 

Cosheston, 39. 

Cothi, vale of, 96. 

Courtfield, 42. 

Cowbridge, 14. 

Coxwall iCnoU, no. 

Cojrchurcb, 18. 

Cnbarth mountain, 23. 

Crlckhowell, 88. 

Cross, Perp., near Hereford, 
loi. 

Cross Bychan, 85. 

Cromlechs, xx, ij, 26, 33, 
10;, 128, 129, 130. 

Crumlin Viaduct, 49. 

Cusop valley, 104. 

Customs, popular, in South 
Wales, xxvi. 

Cwm Amman, vale of, 76. 

Cwm Avon, 19. 
CmnbrAa, 48. 



EYWOOD. 

Cwmddu, 90. 

Cwm Elan, no. 

Cwm Glyn, 49. 

Cwm Gwenffrwd, 96, 

Cwm Hir, vale of, 80. 

Cwm Llewellyn, 78. 

Cwmsaebraen, 64. 

Cwmyoy, 51. 

Cwm Ystwith lead-mines, 

114. 
Cwrt Pen-y-Banc, 100. 
Cyfartha iron-works, 67 ; 

Castle, 67. 
Cymmer, 64. 
Cynfil Cayo, 97. 
Cynon, vale of the, 72. 
Cynwyl Elfed, iji. 



D. 

Dalrhiw lead-mined, in. 

David's, St., Head, 127. 

Dderw, 1 14. 

Derwydd, 76. 

Devil's Bridge, 115; falls, 

115. 
Devil's Pulpit, 46. 
Devynuock, 95. 
Dinas castle, 90. 
Dinas Head, ijo. 
Dinedor Hill, 40. 
Dingestow, 82. 
Dixton, 4J. 

Doethlau river, source, 96. 
Dolfach, 106. 
Doves' Rock, 117. ^ 
Dovey estuary, 114. 
Doward, Great and Little, 43. 
Dowlais iron- works, 72. 
Dowrog pool, 128. 
]>ruidical remains, xx. 
Dryslyn castle, loi. 
Dunraven castle, 16. 
Dyffrin, ij. 
I^rflFryn Castell, in. 
Dynevor Park, 98 ; castle, 98. 



E. 

Eardisley, 103. 
Eaton Bishop, 102. 
Ebbw river, 49. 
Ebbwvale iron- works, 71. 
Edwards, Wm., his bridge 

over the Taff, 62. 
Elan, vale, no; river, in. 
Ely Stat., 10 ; river, 13. 
Erwood, loy. 
Ewenny priory, 16. 

river, 16. 

Ewias, vale of, 51. 
Eywood, 107. 



HAFOD. 
F. 

Fairies, popular belief in, 

xxvii. 
Ferryside, 28. 
Ffair>rhos, 118. 
Fishguard, 128; bay, 128; 

neighbourhood, 129. 
Flanesford priory, 42. 
Florence, 44. 
Fonmon, jj. * 
Fownhopc, 40* 
Fuel, patent* manafacture 

of, xix, 22. 

e. 

Gaer, 90 ; ancient camp, 94, 
104. 

Gamons, 102. 

Gelligaer, 61. 

Geologist, points of interest 
for, xxix. 

Geology of South Wales, vii. 

Giraldus Cambrensis, birth- 
place, 33 ; residence, 129. 

Glanrjiyd stat., 98. 

Glanu^ Park, 90. 

Glasbury, 104. 

Glendower, Owen, sapposed 
grave, 102. 

Glyn CoUwg, 92. 

Glynhir, 76. 

Glyn-Neath, 73. 

Gnoll, 20. 

Gobannium, ancient. 86. 

Gogofau, Roman mines, 96. 

Golden Grove, 100. 

Mile, 17. 

Goodrich castle, 42. 

Court, 41. 

Good wick, 129. 

Govilon, 69. 

Gower, the poet, supposed 
birthplace, 22. 

, peninsula of, 23. 

inn, 25. 

Road stat, 27. 

Greenbridge, 30. 

Grongar Hill, 100. 

Grosmont chnrch and castle. 

Si- 

Gumfreston, 39. 

Gwaine, valley of the, 129. 

Gwent, Nether, ancient pro- 
vince of, 7. 

Gwemyfed, 104, 

Gwili river, 119. 



Haematite iron mines, 14. 
Hafod, 116. 



HALFWAY. 


LLABELI.V. 




LLADQHAIiKE. 


Hjlfwij-, 91. 


Klrg'iL Acre. lol. 




.lanolly to Newlown, 15, 


HsrdlDB [luwi., I6. 


KInglmi. loi ; geology 






llAn«i»i.v. 






ilanWr.y.bryn, 76. 


HatpWn Court, 108. 


VI AberyBlwim, 10' 




LUinfolit.69. 


Hsvrronl-eBt. }6. 






LUuifirnMh, fll. 


in Cfltmarlhmi, ilj. 


Kn"gS,Vio. 






H»r, loj 1 mtle, iDl I geo. 


KoUl. 109. 








Kjmln, 11.^,4,. 






„'°4. 


Ky^t J"^, lh^^"M« 


of 


.luoguly Tal-y-Lljn. 91. 


nMigDeil. 5i. 






Llangnlhf n, 10a 


H.i..yV.,birtI.pl«e,^i, 








Henry VU., blrihplnce, if. 


L. 






Hed«il,i4. 








HfptlB rtvpr, 1). 


Limb jiud Flag ion, ij. 






Hereford, Hi WsWricid mi- 


jimphey, ib. 




DuDBoiw lake,9M°<i vil- 


b™. s4; "IbainL 5!: 
Lady cluiprL. {6; i»l«^. 


!sp-a.,..b,v 


les. 


lage. 91. 


Sj-r-,.'""™-;',; 






.langwiyiiej, M. 


«niM.n. 


LeTM^'4". '°'"^^' 




Llmgytdder, 91. 


KiCI»p«loi..40. 


LLllipul. 14- 






to Rhiyider. loi. 


LlibDroe Ifod-mliiBv 1, 




.Unharry, 14. 


HBrg«lCuurt,ioi. 


Utile Mill Junclkin. 50. 




Llanio, ill. 


Highbury, «. 


IJmgto, 110; college 




-Luillponrel. 78. 


Hir~aln, ll. 






H«lBMt™, iS. 


Vefrr^j^Vo.*^' 




Ll«M.er, B6. 


HolmLiieyHanM.^o. 


Ui«tUa.,n. 




Llanrhysled, 111. 


H-lms ilal.. «. 
loLj Muunuln, 51. 






Lmiiriau. 118. 


LWiantoT'i^' 






luyls^illoulbcave, ]!. 












Cw^iJf^' 


Huiiumiau'aYetp, ,4. 


Court, ei. 




LlMiarliDpy, 101. 




LIuiBU'phui cmtlc, 18. 




Ij™lMd«/ffi>ydd. 8.. 




Ll.nt«4m .tat. i>^ Abbey. 








48. 




l.lanb^rSo!"' '"■ " 






Il8i™, IS. 


LUidblsler, Bi. 






JnsailMl BlOOEfc HXl, IB, 1], 






.l.nlIlsHU.1. 14. 


iri;MS/'U";o'riS.'"V! 


Llinceiecb slat, and ooUiery, 


.laotrylbld. 14. 


6(, 




.lm.t-11 M.g-r, It. 


rnqdlormarulKlare,..; 


LlunoiBlpeiiLiijnls.41. 




.lanv»iro,.ile,'5. 


hlrtoryof Ibe Wide, nvl; 


LlimdiiT. ■□; ivthedral. 




«il»er-l«dmlnet.loi 


fornices In Suulh W«lM 






•nUqn llei. 120. 


uhI their prodoM. ivit. 


Llinddew. 101. ' ' 




.tit., ,0, 




LlanJde».i,jo,n. 




Lla.vlh»n',^lAberby.hyrob, 


iBcaSli'grnm, *qclcnl, 6, 


AlierarUi. uj. 








Bre^'»°- J 






llhon ilveV, to. 








h\,v/nt'f^hl\i^ 






J. 




g«- 


genenr-gljn, 1T4. 




U.gy.9a. 




Nnnl-iiiMllui. IK,, 


Jcffreji. Judge, blrtLp]a«, 


Ll4ddQP^45. 




rliyd-ltliuii. 109. 












Llandovery. ,( ; buM 


"BS, 




K. 


aiTJHss,*' 




I.laowem Blat., s. 


pMlon CMtle, m. 


Llandrindod Wells. 99; 


mi- 


ilto^nt'^''' 




li™i eprinB^, to; 


■Bll- 


Li™"rlliwl,.oS, 








Linli^Ityil NVr-ils. 77! p;o- 


enflg, .8, 






logy >,! Ill- ili.lficl. 73. 


enlehuR*. ji. 


Llandybie, 76. 




LlwycLlJm.'iii. 


KldwoLly, MioiBtle. J7, 


Lluelwedd,'T9. 




ElpskfM.' 


LlBDelly.i7;n.pperBiid 


Iron 


LUnyi-, 80, 


Kln«ArtBiit'.Tibls, !□,. 


wort., ,-, i d^t«, n 







138 



INDEX. 



LLAWHAWDEN. 

Llawhawden castle, jo, 
Llech river, 23. 
Llechrhyd, 152. 
Llewellyn ap Gruffydd, scene 

of his death and burial, 78. 
Dewellyn's Cave, 106. 
Llla, valley of the, 74. 
Uonghor, 27. 
— — river, sonroe, 100. 
— — vale of, 76. 
Llwydcoed, 72. 
Llwyngwychyr, cave, 77. 
Uwyn-Gwyn, lake, 110. 
Llyn Teifl, 119. 
Llynwent, 81. 
Llyswen, 105. 
Llywel, 95. 
Longtown, Si' 
Loventium, ancient station 

of, 121. 
Lydbfook, 42. 
Lydstep, j2. 



Madley, 102. 

Maen-hirs, xx, 95, 128, 129. 

Maen-y-rnqrwynlon, sculp* 

tured stone, 95. 
Maes-cefn-ford, 78. 
Maesteg, 18. 

Magna, Roman station, loi. 
Magor Stat., 5. 
Magoe, Roman station, no. 
Malpas, 48. 
Manorbeer Castle, 32. 
Manufactures of S. Wales, 

xiil, 
Margam Abbey, 18. 
Marshfield stat., 8. 
Marteg river, in. 
Marten, Heniy, his prison, 2. 
Mathem, 4. 
Mathry, 128. 
Melingrifflth tinplate-works, 

57. 
Mellte river, 7 j ; falls of, 74. 
Menapia, ancient, 124. 
Merlin's Cave, 99. 
Merlin Hall, loi. 
Merthyr Mawr, 16. 
Tydvil. 65 ; its trade, 

66 ; conveyances, 67. 
Milford Haven, 17. 
Milford, New, 38. 
Mitchel Troy, 82. 
Moccas Court, 102. 
Monknash, 16. 
Monkton priory church, j6. 
Monmouth, 4?. 

• • to Carmarthen, 82. 

Monnington, 102. 
Monnow, river, source, 102. 
MordifoTd, 40. 



PABSON. 

Morlais Castle, 67. 
Morriston, 21. 
Moss Cottage. 46. 
Mountain Ash stat, 65. 
Mountain ranges of South 

Wales, v. 
Mouse Castle, loj. 
Moyne's Court, 4. 
Mumbles, 24. 
Mynachty, no. 
Mynyddswlyn, 49. 

N. 

Nantmel, no. 
Nantycar lead-mines, iix. 
Nantyglo iron-works, 70, 
Nant-y-mwyn lead-work8,96. 
Narberth, jo. 

Road, JO. 

Nash, Beau, birthplace, 22. 
Navigation stat., 64. 
Neath, 20 ; abbey, 20. 

river, 73. 

vale of, 7 J. 

Nevem, ijo. 

Newbridge, 62, 106; bridge 

of Pontypridd, 62; rock- 

ing-stone, 6j ; chain and 

cable works, 6j. 
Newcastle Emlyn, ij2. 
Newgale brook, i2j. 
Newhouse, 8. 
Newland. 44. 
New Passage, 4. 
Newport, 9 ; docks, 6 ; castle, 

6 : St. WooUos church, 6. 

to Hereford, 48. 

Newport, 130 ; castle, ijo. 
New Quay, 122. 
Newton, 98. 

Nottage, 17 ; Downs,i7. 

New Weir, 43. 
Neyland, j8. 
Norton, 24. 

0. 

Octopitarum, ancient, 127. 
OflFa's Dyke, j, 46, 102, 109, 

no. 
Ogmore Castle, 16. 

river, 16. 

Old Castle, 5^. 

Olwey, valley of the, 50. 

Oxwich Bay, promontory, 

church, and castle, 25. 
Oystermouth Castle, 24. 

P. 

Pandy stat., 5j. 
Pantyfynnon, 76. 
Parson's Bridge, 116. 



PORT. 

Partrishow, 89. 

Pater, 36, i8. 

Paviland bone-caves, 26. 

Pembrey, 27. 

Pembroke, J4; tasUe, ^5; 

Dock, j6, J 8. 

Penallt, 44. 

Penally, 32. 

Penberry, 128. 

Pencader, 104. 

Pencaer, 129. 

Pencerrig House, 79. 

Pencoed castle, 5. 

Pencraig Court, 41. 

Pengam, 62. 

Penhow castle, 5. 

Penlan, fort, 127. 

Pennine castle, ijf. 

Penmyarth, 90. 

Pennard castle, 2$. 

Penpergwm stat, 51. 

Penpont, 95. 

Pen Rhys, 64. 

Penrice castle, 25, 

Pentre Brimant, 114. 

Pentre-evan cromlech, ijo. 

Pentyrch stat. . and iron- 
works, 58. 

Penybont, 109. 

Penydarren iron-works, 67. 

Penygaer, 120. 

Peterston slat, ij. 

Picton Castle, 37. 

Piercefield, 47. 

Piran fall, 117. 

Plinlimmon mountain, in; 
its river-sources, in. 

Pont Aberbeeg, 49. 

Pont-ar-Daf, 68. 

Pontardawe, 23. 

Pont-ar-dulais, 76. 

Pont Baldwyn, ijo. 

Pont Erwyd, 112. 

Pontladis, 98. 

Pont Llanafan, 117. 

Pontlottyn, 62. 

Pont-Neath-Vaughan, 73. 

Pontnewydd tmplate-works, 
48. 

Pont-rhyd-vendigald, 118. 

Pont-rhyd-y-groes, 117. 

Pontrhydyven, 19. 

Pontrilas, $i. 

Pontsam fall, 67. 

Pont Sennl, 95.) 

Pontwalby, 75. 

Pont-y-Mynach, 115. 

Pontypool, 48. 

Pontypridd, 62. 

Port Eynon, 26. 

Talbot, 19. 

Tennant copper-works, 

21. 



METBCiWL. 


STBianu 


TWM. 






BiigarloafHm,7i. 


PorUdttrr^,ii. 


Sdwd Hm KtiTd watafaU, 1 j . 








8nSyH'oiMe[iI. 




SIddoiu. Un., Mrthplace. 94, 


iBlaod. 11. 


PorllH^Ogof, ciie, 14. 


Bin-»Ur, Uie, Drt. 




PoynlnaiUe.114. 


Kngl«lon,i4. 






Sirbowy Iron-worlci, 71. 


Bw^ea, Ji; tnuta, 11; 




SksleUm lODtes aod toDn, 


dccb,ii;caitte,iiipiib- 


ft^^ofsLb WBlMXliL 




UcbnildUga, llicelBliit- 


PBlddn^^M- 


Sk«itHtliCai(]a,!4. 
SkTirld Vawr, Ji. 


Hjinond'B'"fi*4i- ' 


PwUWo, loi. 


Slebacb, Ji- 




P^IMST 


Social Tiew of Sooth Walo, 




P)rndlnri«r.i,i£.llM4. 


X.W. 


T. 




BolTa.114. 


Tiff tlrer, 8, 57 ; BooroeB, 58. 


Q. 


BontbWala: phyrtial fe.- 




Qaaken' YnH Junction, 6;. 


ifff'-SSs 






B. 


cUl view, mvj glgBiai; 


Talybont. 9J. 




of WeiBb words, iivllli 


Ta.ive,.al8 0f,10!ri™,ji. 


Btiaoc. Old, loS ; e«>I°eT of 


poInU ot intewst tor Uw 


Taylor, Jeremy, at eoldm 
(Srnve,ico. 


. ^fv. TOS ; cucade, 10a. 


gEologiht, jjrtJi Btelclon 




Telfl rivgr. Bonra, 119. 


F<mBt,T09. 




Tello, St.. 10. 


Eaglan, 81 : cistle, Sr-as. 
EiEw.r8, lb ;a.mh Wales, 


Sl.Arvans.47. 

Bl. Briavera chnreh and 


Tdvy river, moBlbof, 1(1! 
fall^ HI. 




caatle, 44. 




Tiltayi. 49 ; EMtom Val- 




T^^,' jo'; 'Sclent walla. 


n6;BlBboi)'BPalaca,ii5. 


Une's Uock, ji; church. 




Three Cocks Inn, 104. 


Bhl«.7,. 


81. DognuelU ijl ( abbey. 


Tibberlon Conn. 101. 


EmnMy,We,in. 
Bedbrwk Unp1aI&.woiks, 44. 


SLDfflial'aCMtle.iJ. 


Tintera Virri^ 41. 
— Abbey, 45. 


St.FanD'B atat. ij ; outle, 
u;l>.tt]e, u. 


TU Phil. 61. 


Kon»i,6,>d.,T... 


TtUejBlaL.ioj. 
Towe^, vale it, 77, 96. 


^iTn^r..,. 


St.' norence, i5. 
St.Qowwi'8Head.jj, 


Rlioiiddii TiUc; ud rWiat, 






6). 


StMargJSJ'lalaod.,!. 


Tr«asUe,9J;'feKon,9l. 


Mumney Onle md Iron- 


8L MeUon's. B. 




SCNlcbolas,!!. 


Tredegar, 71. 


, vaie of U», 61. 


St. Plem.i. 
Slackpole Coart. jj. 


Eai*. 7. 


SUgtwij.Oa. 3% 14- 


Tnlbreel aUC., 61. 


RlKa,49. 


ElackB, tbe, }^. 


Tregaron, in. 


Bwds. anient. Eri. ii. 61, 


Stanlun. 4!. 




78,80,81,91,101,114,110, 


. SlaUona, Rmoin, ixl, sill. 






■j6. 81, 90, IDI, 111,111, 


TrmiUm,ca>aaiif. 


Robnlim WaUien, Jo. 




Tretower Cutle, 90. 


B«bCuUe,ii;. 






BocWng-Blonea, 4{. 6). "3. 


Guanien:atCaidlfr, 10; at 




R088.4O!Maiirf.4.. 


Tenby, io. 


Trevin*. (18. 




Bteddf»Gm1g.iii. 


Tro«l-y-rlil»aUt,.6j. 




Sleele, Sii R., bnrlil-place. 


Rupeira,8. 


!9. 


TSm.J'tei^e near Cbep- 




Sloiie circles, xs. I). 




s. 




"Twc'lve''Apc8Uai.-47. 
Twm Barium, 48, 49. 


^^Tid]'- 


SltalaFIOTldaAbbey, 118. 


Twm Shon Cany, 111; hia 


Str^l Caallc, I. 





140 



I2iD£X. 



TYDVIL. 

T^dvll the Martyr, 65. 
Ty-newydd, 64. 

IT. 

Upton Castle, ^9. 

Usk town and castle, $0. 

river, 5, 50 ; valley of 

elevation, 50. 

V. 

Vaenor, 68. 
Van, the, 61,95. 
Venta Silumm, ancient, 4. 
Victoria iron- works, 71. 

W. 

Walford, 42. 

Walnnt-tree Bridge stat., 58. 



WORCESTER. 

Wapley Hill Camp, no. 

Water-break-its-^eck, cas- 
cade, 108. 

Waun Common, 72. 

Webley Castle, 26. 

Welsh Bicknor, 42. 

Wentloog Level, 7. 

Wenvoe, ij. 

Whitchurch. 41. 

White Castle, 86. 

Whitesand Bay, 127. 

Whitland stat., 29. 

Abbey, 29. 

Willersley, 103. 

Wilton Castle, 41. 

Winforton, loj. 

Wonastow, 82. 

Woodlands, 24. 

Worcester, Marquis of, water- 
works erected by, at Bag- 
Ian, 8j ; birthplace, 85. 



YJjrWITH. 

Wonn'B Head, i6u 

Wye, thfi rtver, 3, 40; ■odtm^ 

III. 
WyndcUff, 46. 



Y. 

Tnisoedwin Inm-worioi^ ij. 
Ynispenllfrcb tin-woflH^ ij. 
Yrf<m river, source, 77. 
Yscir river, 94. 
Yspytty C^fyn, 112, 116. 
Ystalfen fron-worin, 2}. 
Ystrad, 61. 
Ystradfellte, 74. 
Ystradgunlais, 2j, 
Ystrad Mcirig, 118. 
Ystrad-y-Fodwg, 64. 
Ystwith river, iij ; val^j 
114. 



THE END. 



LOK)X)N : PKIMED BY W. GLOMES AND POK8, STAHFURD ETK££T, 

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