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Germany^ Holland^ and Belgi 







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Constantinople. Greece. 


The present volume completes the series of Handbooks of Italy, being 
the continuation of that on Borne : it embraces the Southern Provinces 
of the Peninsula, which until lately formed the continental portion of 
the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, and that part of the Papal territory 
which lies between Rome and^the frontier of the Italian kingdom on 
the side of Naples. 

Considerable alterations have become necessary in this new edition, 

from the recent political changes that have blotted the Neapolitan 

monarchy out of the map of Europe, the extension of railway and steam 

navigation communications, from the information kindly transmitted 

^ to the editor on the remoter provinces hitherto little visited by the 

Vjo British traveller, and especially from a careful examination of almost 

^ every object and place of interest at Naples and in its environs during 

a recent residence in that capital 

The editor has to express his acknowledgments to several corre- 
spondents who have enabled him to correct errors and to supply 
^ omissions in the former editions of this Quide. Fully sensible that 
others stiU exist, which can only be rectified by persons on the spot, 
^ he begs again to solicit the assistance of travellers who can supply 
information from personal observation, and thus render the Handbook 
of Southern Italy more useful to his countrymen. 

All information relative to changes in the lines of roads and rail- 
ways, to steamboat communications which are constantly varying, 
and to hotels, will prove particularly acceptable, and can be sent to the 
Publisher, 50, Albemarle Street, 

A Handbook for the Island of Sicily, after many years of careful 
preparation, is now in the press, its appearance having been hitherto 
delayed by circumstances beyond the publisher's control, arising from 
the absence from England, on the public service, of the gentleman to 
whose care the task had been confided by the Publisher. 

LoTidon, Dec. 1862. 




Pbeface ...•..,.. V 

List of Routes .•...,.. vii 

Alphabetical List of Rides and Excursions FitOM Naples . viii 

Introduction ........ xi 

Preliminary Information ...... xl 



Naples — General Information . 


Description of Naples 


Environs of Naples . * 



. 182 ] 

I Routes continued .... 

. 341 1 


. 415 



(To fiudlitate reference, the names are printed in iboXUsi In those Routes under whidi 

they are fully described^) 



140. Rome to Naples, by AlbanOyT^I- 

letri (by riyO* ^^ Pontine 
Marshes, Terracinc^ Fondi, 
Mola di GaetOf Capua, and 
Aversa; with excursions to 
Cort, Norma, Pipemo, 
Gaeta, the Ponza islands, 
Sessa, Roccamot^na, &c. . 2 

141. Rome to Naples (by rly.), by 

ValmoWtmie, Ferentino, Fro- 
sinoue, Ceprano, & Ger- 
manOf Teano, and Capua; 
with excursions to Anagniy 
Segni, Alatri, Collepardo, 
Aquino, Pcntecorvo, and 
Monteeasino 22 

142. Terni to Naples, by Hietif 

Civita Vttcale, Antrodoco, 
Aquila, Popoli, Solmona, 
Isernia, Venafro, and Ca- 
pua; with excursions to 
Ijeonessa, Norcia, Amatrice, 
S, ViltorinOf the Cic^no 
District, the castle ot Pe- 
trella, the lake of Scanno, 
Barrea^ Aljidena, and La 
Meta 36 

143. Ancona to Naples, by Porto 

di Fermo, Griulia Nuova^ 
Pescara, Chieti, Popoli, 
Solmona, Isernia, and Vena- 
fro ; with excursions to As- 
coli, Teramo, CivitHln del 
Trtmto, Gran Sasso d^ Italia, 
Atri, Ottondj Lanciano, 
Vasto, and the Maiella . 50 

144. Naples to Rome, by S. Germano, 

Arre, Isola, Sora, the valley 
of Roveto,Avezzano, Taglia- 
cozzo, Carsoli, and Tivoli; 
with excursions to Arpino^ 
Atina, and Ceiano, and an 
account of Lake Fucino . 57 

. . I>AOK 

Naples — 

General Information . . • . 69 

Greneral Topography ... 79 

Historical do. ... . . 81 

Population • . • • • 84 

Climate 84 

Antiquities 86 

Gates ....... 87 

Ports 88 

Bridges . « 89 

Castles 89 

Larghi and Fountains . . 93 

A<][ueduct8, &c 94 

Pnncipal Streets, &c. . . .95 

Theatres 97 

Festivals 98 

Churches 101 

Cemeteries 129 

Colleges and Scientific Insti- 
tutions 130 

Hospitals 132 

The Museum 1 33 

Ancient Paintings . . . .136 

Mosaics 1 38 

Egyptian gallery • . • .139 

Sculpture do 139 

Inscriptions. • • • • .145 

Bronzes • 146 

Cinquecento collection . . . 1 48 

Glasses • . 149 

Pottery . . . . . , .149 
Reserved cabinet • « . • .159 

Papyri ISO 

Gems 151 

Medals 15S 

Small Bronses . . • • . 1 53 
Vases . . . . . . .155 

Modem PaintinKS— 
Italian schools . . • • 1 58 

Gapid'Opera 159 

Bysantine, Neapolitan, and 
other Italian schools • . 161 

Libraries 164 

Archires 166 

Royal Palaces 166 

Private Palaces and Museums 168 
Villas 172 






Ehvibons. j.^q^ 

Antignaao . 179 

Bagnoli 176 

Camaldoli 179 

Capodimonte • 179 

Faorigrotta 176 

GrotU di PoKuoli 173 

Gxotta di Postlipo 17b 

Ninda 178 

Pianan 176 

PoKrioReale 180 

Posiiipo, Strada Nuova of ... 176 

Virgil's Tomb 173 

Vomero 179 


Agerola 277 

Agiop^li 293 

Amaia 269 

Aiigtl 28! 

Atrani . . - 277 

Campanella, Panta^ella . • 961,270 

Capod'Orso 280 

Capri ', 263 

Csrotto 256 

CastellamnuBra 2S0 

Cava 983 

Cetara 980 

Conca 276 

Ercbia 280 

Fanne 276 

Giagnano 253 

Herculaaenm ....... 202 

Letters 253 

Licosa 293 

Maiuri 280 

Haasa Lubrense 261 

Meta 256 

Minori 279 

Nocera 281 

Nola 294 

Festum 287 

Fa;fl(an! 281 

Palinuro 293 

Palma 294 

Piano di Sorrento 255 

Policaatro 294 

Pompeii 207 

Portici 188 

Positano 277 

Praiano 27<i 

Ravello 278 

Resina « 183 

Salerno 285 

Sanseverino 295 

Santangelo, Monte 253 

Samo 295 

Scafkti 280 

Scala 278 

Sorrento 256 

Torre Annunziata 207 

Torre del Oreoo 2(6 

Tramonti 270 

Vallo 293 

Yelia . 293 

Vesuvius 183 

Vettica 277 

Vico 255 

Vietri . 284 

Westbut Durucr. 


Agnano, Lake of 327 

Aroo Felice 322 

Afltroni . * 328 

Averntts, Lake of . . . . . . 310 

Itaeolf 315 

Baia 313 

Casamicciola 333 

Cento Camerelle 316 

Coma 320 

Elyaian Fields 819 

Forio 334 

Fusaro. Lake of 319 

Orotta del Cane 3%7 

Orotta Dragonara 3i8 

OratUGinlia 311 

lachia 329,83ft 

Lacco • . 334 

Lioola, Lakeof 324 

Lltemam 324 

LncriDua, Lake 312 

Mare Morta 317 

Milisrola SIS 

Mlsenam 318 

Monttf Barbaro 826 

Monte Nuovo ....... 308 

Monti Leucogei 308 

Moropano 335 

Nerone, Scufe di 313 

Panza 335 

Patria, r^ke of 326 

Pisciarelli 808 

Piscina Mirabilis 316 

Pozzuoli 298 

Procida . 328 

Sibvl's Cave 321 

Solfatara 307 


Aceraa 837 

Alife 339 

CaiuKzo 839 

Cancello 337 

Carditello 341 

Gisalnuovo 337 

CaserU 338 

Maddaloni 337 

Matese 339 

Piedimonte 339 

Ponte delta Valle 338 

Sta. Maria 340 


145. Naples to Campobasso and 

JLarino, by Maddaloni and 
Guardia Sanframondi ; with 
excursions to S. Agata de* 
Gotif Telese, Cerrelo, and 
Boiano ...... 341 

146. Naples to 5e»«>«n/o, by -^rteiiro, 

the Caudine Forks, and 
Monie Sarchio .... 345 

147. Avellino to Salerno, by the 

Mercato di Sanseverino and 
Baronisi; with excursions 
to Solofra, Serino, and Penia 349 




148. Naples to Otranto, through • 

Avellino, Ariana, Foggia, 
Cerignolaf Canosa, Bcurletta^ 
Tranij Molfetta, Barif Ta- 
rantOj Manduria^ and L^ce ; 
with excursions to the Lake 
of AmsatictuSt Bovino,Ascoii, 
TroiOf Luceray Sansevero^ 
Monte S, Atigeh, JRuvo^ 
Terlizzi, BitontOy Franca- 
villa, and Oria .... 350 

149. Bari to Brindisi, by Mola^ 

PolignanOf Monopoliy and 
Ostuni 375 

150. Lecceto Gallipoli; with ex- 

cursions to Nardb and Gar 
latina .377 

151. Naples to Melfi, by 3/tfro, 

Aiellnj and Bionero; with 
excursions to Monte Vulture, 
VenoaOf And Laoello . . 378 

152. Naples to Po<«»ra . . . 383 

153. Potenza to Bari, through 

Gravina, Altamura, and 
Grump • • 384 

154. Potenza to Taranto^ through 

Matera and Castellaneta . 385 


155. Naples to Reggio, by Eboli, 

the Val di Diano, Lago^ 
negro, Ccutrovillari, Cassano, 
Cosenza, Tirivlo, Maida^ 
Monteleone, Tropea, PtUmi, 
Bagnara, and Scilla ; with 
excursions to Paola and the 
W, cooAty the Silay Catan- 
zaro, JSicaatro, S, Stefano 
del Bo9COf Peaiedatlilo, and 
Bova 385 

156. Taranto to Castrovillari) by 

the sites of Metapontum and 
Heracleia 406 

157. CastroTillari to Catanzaro, hj 

Cassano, the sites of Sy bans 
and ITiurii, Corigliano, Ro^ 
aantj, Cariati, Strongoli, Co-' 
irone (Crotona), and Cutro . 408 

158. Catanzaro to Reggio, round by 

the £. coastt through SquiU 
lace, Gmrace, the site of JLocri 
Epizephyrii, Boccella, Ar^ 
dore, ana Capo Spartivento ; 
with excursions to Casal- 
nmwo^ Stilo, and /8L Maria 
de* Poln 411 



/« /J -*> - 



Pfaui of Naples tofac9 69 

Pfanof Museum at Naples ., 134,135 

Map of Enrirons of Naples to face - M^ 

Plan of Pompeii ^, 207 

Section of the Walls at Pompeii 210 

Planof the Ruins of Pajstum 288 

Map of South Italy and Naples at the end. 


1. General Topography, — 2. Classical Topography, — 3. Ecclesiastical 
Establishment, — 4. Agriculture, — 5. Commerce and Manufactures, — 
6. Fine Arts : a. Ancient Architecture ; B. Medusval and Modem 
Architecture; c. Sculpture; d. Painting, — 7. Books on the Country, 
— 8. Majps, — 9. Chronological TaUes, 

1. General ToPOGRAPHT. 

The kingdom of Naples, or the continental portion of what until lately 
formed the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, known as the Dominj di gud del 
Faro, comprises the S. and the most beautiful half of the Italian 
peninsula, bounded on the N.W. by the Papal States, on the N.E. by 
the Adriatic, on the S.E. by the Ionian, and on the W. by the Mediter- 
ranean sea. 

In ancient times the Tiber was the boundary between Upper and 
Lower Italy. The acquisitions of the Holy See in the miadle ages 
changed the ancient landmarks, and transfeiTed a portion of Southern 
Italy to the Popes. The frontier -line which now divides the provinces 
of STaples from the Papal States, with few trifling exceptions, was 
before the recent political changes the same as it was at the establish- 
ment of the monarchy by the Normans in 1130. It commenced on 
the Adriatic at the N. bank of the Tronto, and terminated on the 
shore of the Mediterranean, about 2 m. E. of Terracina. The length 
of this line of frontier, following its numerous windings, was about 
210 m. ; the direct distance is not more than 115. 

The area included within these limits was estimated at about 31,595 
EngUsh square miles. 1 he length of the kingdom, measured along the 
curved line of the chain of the Apennines, from the Tronto to the Capo 
Spartivento, was 350 m., the breadth varying considerably. From the 
mouth of the Garigliano in the Bay of Gaeta, to the mouth of the 
Trigno on the Adriatic, Ls 70 m., and about the same from Salerno 
to the mouth of the Carapelle; from Capo di Licosa to Bari 112 m., 
and to Brindisi 150 ; from the shore N. of Paola to S. of the mouth 
of the Crati it is 29 m., and only 16 between the Gulfs of Sant' Eufemia 
and of Squillace. 

The chain of the Apennines runs through the centre of the Neapolitan 
provinces. Their highest peaks are in the Abruzzi, where the Monte 
ComOy or Gran Sasso d*Italia, between Teramo and Aquila, is 10,154 
English ftHbove the sea, and Monte Amaro, the highest peak of the 
Maiella group, is 9130 ft. ; in the Terra di Lavoro,the Monte Mileto, the 


highest peak of the Matese, 6745 ; in Basilicata, Monte Ddlcedorme, 6875 ; 
iu Calabria, Monte Oocuzzo, 5620 ft., and Montalto^ the cuhninating 
point of the Aspromonte, 4380 ft. 

The principal rivers are, — on the W. coast the Liris or Garigliano, 
the Vdtumo, and the Sele. On the Adriatic, the Tnmto, the VomanCf 
the Pescara, the Sangro, the Trignoy the Biferno^ the Fortore^ and the 
Ofanto. On the Ionian sea, the Bradano, the Basente, the Agri, the 
SinnOy and the (7ra^e. The inconsiderable amount of tide renders the 
mouths of these rivers useless as harbours, except for very small 

The principal harbours and roadsteads frequented bj shipping are, — 
on the W. coast, Gaeta, Naples, Castellammare, Bai», and the little Bay 
of Tropea ; on the Ionian sea^ Taranto and Oallipoli ; on the coast of 
the Adriatis^Otranto and Brindisi, both greatly deteriorated by accumu- 
lations of isand, Bari, Molfetta, Bisceglie, Trani, Barletta, Manfredonia, 
Termoli, Ortona, and Pescara; but most of the latter are now only 
accessible to small vessels. 

There are few lakes. The largest are, — ^the Lago Fucino or Celcmo 
in the Abruzzi, the Leigo di Fondi ia Terra di Lavoro, the Lago Lesina 
and Lago di 8a2pi in Oapitanata^ and the small volcanic lakes of 
Agnano, Avemus, &c., near Naples. ' 

The principal islands are the Ponza group off the Bay of Gaeta ; 
Ischia, Procida, and Capri in the Bay of Naples ; the Isola di Vino in 
the Gulf of Policastro ; and the islands of Tremiti in the Adriatic. 

The kingdom is divided into 16 provinces, of which Basilicata and 
Capitanata are the largest, and Abruzzo Citra and the Provincia di 
Napoli the smallest. Tne population bears no proportion to the super- 
ficial extent of each province, the natural conformation of the country 
and various local circumstances combining to increase it in some and 
to diminish it in others. The number of inhabitants was estimated in 
1788 at 4,815,182; on the 1st Jan. 1853, they amounted to 6,843,355, of 
whom 3,368,008 were males, and 3,475,347 were females ; and in 1861 
to 7,061,952, including the annexed Papal possessions of Pontecorvo 
and Benevento. In the returns for 1840, when the entire popula- 
tion was 6,113,259, the following classification of the trades and pro- 
fessions of the adult population is given; — 29,783 secular clergymen ; 
12,751 monks ; 10,449 nuns ; 25,572 civil and military officers ; 
5981 persons engaged in public instruction; 7920 lawyers; 15,906 
physicians ; 12,666 merchants ; 13,476 artists ; 536,320 artisans ; 
1,823,080 agriculturists ; 70,970 shepherds ; and 31,190 seamen. By 
the same returns it appears that the births in 1839 amounted to 
226,087, viz. 116,142 boys and 109,945 girls ; and the deaths to 186,893, 
viz. 96,273 men and 90,620 women. Among the latter were 37 persons 
upwards of 100 years of age — 15 men and 22 women. The number of 
foundlings received in 1850 in the hospitals of the kingdom, exclusive 
of Sicily, amounted to 2791 boys ana 2639 girls. The deaths in the 
same hospitals during the year amounted to 1334 boys and 1319 girls. 
The annexed table shows the distribution of the population by pro- 
vipces, on the 1st Jan. 1861, with the chief towns of each, and the dis- 
tricts (Distretti) into which they are divided. ^ 



Provinces, or Prefectures. 


















Districts, or Subprefectures. Population- 

Chieti 113.383 

Lanciftno 115,827 J 338,698 

Vasto ...... 109,488 

Terama 137,690 

Civita di Penne . . . 102,345 

Aquila . • 
Civita Ducale 
Solmoua . . 

Potenza . 

Melfi . . 
Matera . 

Coseiiza . . 
Paola . . 
Rossano . . 

Reggio . 
Gerac^ . 

Cotrone . 

Foggia . 
Bovino . 

Larino . . 
Isernia • . 


















Napoli ...... 513,532 

Castellammare . . . 161,877 

Pozzuoli 70,699 

Casoria 131,012 

Salerno 264,565 

Vallo 111,776 

Sala. . . • . . . 96,114 

Campagn» 109,134 

AvelUno 177,632 

S. Angelo de' Lombardi . 116,650 

Ariano 89,654 

Bwi 269,503 

Barletta 218,984 

Altamura 86,173 















Provinces, or Prbpectores. Districta, or Subpretectcires. Population. 

TERRA DI LAVORO. Caaerta 239,226 

Caserta. Piedemonte 51,967 

Sora 144,761 \ 643,830 

Gaeta 133,178 

Nola. , 74,098 

TERRA ly OTRANTO. Lecce 116,769 

Lecce. GallipoH 115,532 ^443465 

Brwdisi 93,965 

Taranto 122,199 


BENEVENTO. Benevento 97,150 

S. BartolotnTOeo . . . 62,655 \ 238,260 
Gerreto 78,455 

Population in 1861 7,061,952 

2. Classical Topography. 

There is no country in Europe whose population is composed of so 
great a variety of races as the kingdom of Naples. These races were 
never extinguished or absorbed by the conquests of Rome, or by the 
political changes during the middle ages. In the capital there has sJways 
been a mixture of many nations ; but in the provinces we still find the 
descendants of the Marsi, the Samnites, the Bruttii, the Lucauians, the 
Calabri, the Greeks, and other races of antiquity. The wars of these 
tribes with Borne thinned their numbers, and deprived them of their 
independence, but did not destroy their nationahty. Even the Latin 
colonies planted among them failed to effect more than a temporary 
fusion. Long after the allied states had compelled Home to admit them 
to the rights of citizenship, their national customs were regarded with 
curiosity by the Roman men of letters ; and the most striking proofs 
which we possess that their, ancient habits were never- extinguished 
are to be found in the poets and historians of the empire. The Greeks 
resisted even more successfully all the efforts of Rome to amalgamate 
them with her own people. When the Samnite and the Oscan lan- 
guages had ceased to be spoken, Greek remained the language of the 
inhabitants of the coasts, and survived the downfall of the Roman em- 
pire. It appears that when the inhabitants of the Greek cities of 
ApuUa found it necessary for the purposes of trade to speak Latin, 
they still used their native tongue in their intercourse with each other, 
a fact which explains the epithet bilingties, applied by the Romans to 
the citizens of Canusium. During the Byzantine rule the kingdom 
received the greatest infusion of foreign blood and foreign habits since 
the period of the ancient colonisation ; but these Greek settlements 
were confined chiefly to the qoasts of Apulia and to certain districts of 

Such were the circumstances of the Neapolitan provinces when they 
were invaded by the Barbarians of the North. These tribes overran 
the country without X)ccupying it. The Lombards, who followed, left 


but little impreaaion on the national character. The Normans, by the 
foundation of the existing monarchy on the basia of feudal institutions, 
amalgamated the mixed races into one people without destroying their 
distinctive features. Hence we find that amidst all the changes of 
dynasty, from the Norman conquest to our own times, the varied 
elements of the population have retained the national character, the 
domestic habits, the amusements, and even in some instances the 
language of the ancient races thev are descended from. In the 
neighbourhood of the Lake of Celano the traireller will find the 
descendants of the Marsi, still known for their skill as serpent- 
charmers, as they were in the time of "Virgil. In the neighbour- 
hood of the Pelasgic cities he will find the Greek costumes still worn 
as gracefully by the female peasantry aa on the figures which adorn 
the vases of Magna Grsecia. In many of the cities of Greek origin 
on the coast he will see the hair of the young maiden coiled as on the 
statues of the Grecian sculptors. In Apulia and in Calabria he will 
frequently find articles of costume of which he wiH recognise the pro- 
totypes in the bas-reliefs and paintings cf Pompeii and Herculaneum. 
At Naples he will observe the Mimica of the Greeks still in use, as the 
unspoken but expressive language of the great mass of the people. 
At Ischia and Procida he will see the national dance performed as 
of old to the sound of the timbrel, and in Greek costumes. In the 
agricultural districts, at a distance from the capital, he will find im- 
plements as primitive and prejudices as inveterate as those which 
characterised the farmer of Roman times. In all the ports of the S. 
coast he will recognise in the Phrygian cap and the capote of the sailors 
the patterns represented in the paintings of the Pompeii taverns. 
In some districts he will find the Greek and in others the Latin 
element predominating in the language of the peasantry ; in others 
he will be struck by the prevalence of Oscan M'ords. The great festival 
of Monte Vergine will remind him of the Dionysiac procession ; and half 
a century has scarcely passed since the remnants of the worship of 
Priapus were extirpated from Iseniia. We shall now take a brief and 
rapia survey of the ancient geography of the country. 

JBeginning with the northern provinces, two of the Abruzzi formed 
portions of countries which were until lately divided between Naples 
and the Papal States. — Abruzzo Ui/tra I. in its upper portion formed 
part ofPicenum, whose territory extended as far N. as Ancona,and whose 
capital, Asculum Picenum, bore nearly its modern name — Asccli, The 
central porjbion of the province was the country of the Frcetutiiy whose 
capital, Interamna Prcetutiana, is the modem Teramo, The lower dis- 
tricts between the Vomanus and the Aternus were inhabited by the 
Vestini, whose capital, Pinna, is the present Civita di Penne, Abruzzo 
XJi/TBA II. includes part of Sabina and Samnium. In the Sabine portion 
the principal city was Amitermim, of which ruins still exist at JSafi 
Vittorino. The central district was inhabited by the Marsi, within whose 
territory were the Locus Fucinus and Alba Fucensis. In the valley of the 
Imele and the Salto, in what is now the Cicolano district, were the cities 
of the Aborigines and Arcadian Pdasgi, described by Dionysius of Hali- 
camassus as in ruins and deserted in his time. Between the E. shore of 
the Fuoinus and the mountains of Maiella was the territory of the 
Fdigni, whose chief cities were Corfimum and Suimo. Abbuzzo Citba^ 


comprises the territory of the Marrucini and Frentani, Their capital, 
Teate^ is the modern Chieti, The Freutani occupied that portion of the 
province which lav between the Sagrus and the Fronfo, Their territory 
therefore included the entire coast of the present province of Mohse 
and part of Capitanata. Molibe, sometimes called Sannio, in comme* 
moration of the Samnite races which constitute the bulk of its popu- 
lation, comprises that portion of the territorv of the Frentani, in 
which their capital, Larinum, was situated. The W. districts of Mo- 
lise were occupied by the Caraceni and the Fentri, whose cities of 
Aufidena and JEsamia still bear the names of Alfidena and Jsemia, 
Tbrra di Lavobo, extending from the Liris to the range of mountains 
which bounds the Qulf of Naples on the £., includes the greater part 
of Campania Felix, The S. limit of that territory was the Hilai'us, now 
the Self, near Paestum ; but the modem province is bounded by the 
Samo, the ancient SamuSj on whose W. bank Fompeii was situated. 
Between the frontier at Terracina and the hills beyond the Liris, the 
Terra di Lavoro includes a part of the Volscian territory. In that 
district, watered by the Liris and Fibremis, were Sera ana Arpinum. 
Pbovincia di Napou includes all the maritime district of Campania, 
from the Lago di Patria, near the site of Litemum, to the Mons 
LactariuSy now Monte Sant* Angela, behind Castellammare. Principato 
Ultra comprises the territory of the Hirpini, one of the most powerful 
of the Samnite tribes. Principato Citra includes the E. portion of 
Campania, which was occupied by the Picentini, and extended from the 
Samus to the SilartiSy and that district of Lucania which was comprised 
within the windings of the latter river from its source to the sea. It 
embraced the coast from PsBstum to Policastro, including the Fosidium 
Framontoriuanjiiow Funta deUa Licosa, and the Fromontorium Falinurum, 
The principal cities of the Picentini were Nuceria and Salemum^ which 
have very nearlv preserved their ancient names as Nocera and Salerno. 
In Lucania^ within the limits of this province, the chief cities were Posi* 
doni% called by the Bomans FuBstvm; Velia, or Etlia; Fyru*^ or 
Buxentum, now FoUcastro; and Scidroe, the modem Sapri, Oapi- 
TANATA, extending from the Fronto (Fortore) to the Aujidus (0/anto), 
occupies that portion of Apulia to which the Greeks save the name 
of Apulia Daunia, or '' the parched Apulia." In tue N.E. angle 
of this province is the promontory of Mons Qarganiui, — Terra di 
Bari occupies the S. pomon of the Apulian plain, which was distin- 
guished from the N. by the name of Apidia Feucetia, or " the Apulia 
abounding in fir-trees.'' This district extended from the Aufidus to 
the borders of ancient Calabria, which were situated about liiidway 
between Barium and Brundusium. Its principal cities were Canusium, 
Cannce, Ruhi, Butuntum, and Onatia. Many of these places have been 
made familiar to the scholar by Horace's account of his journey to 
Brundusium. — ^Terra d' Otranto was Calabria, a term now applied 
to a different part of the kingdom. The N. district of this country 
of the Calabri was called Messapia ; the E., lapygia ; the S., Salen^ 
tina. The principal cities were Brundusium, Rudiis, Lupi<e, or Ly^ 
cium; Hydruntum, Manduria^ Uocentum, CaUipolis, and Tarentum» — 
Basilicata occupies the W. borders of Apulia and the greater part of 
Lucania, the exceptions being those outlying portions which are com- 
prised in the provinces of Principato Ultra and Calabria Citra. The 


principal objects of interest comprised in this province were Ventma, 
the birthplace of Horace, and the extinct volcano of Mons Vultur, 
Within the Lucanian frontier, in the province of Basilicata, were 
Ferenturrif AcTterontia, JSantia, Fotentia, Metapontum, Htradea, and 
Siris, — Calabria Citra occupies the S. portion of Lucania and part 
of Bruttium, which extended from the Lucanian border to the ex- 
treme point of Italy. The Bruttii were regarded as one of the 
most uncivilized races of Italy. Sybaris held them in subjection, 
but on the destruction of that city they asserted their independence. 
Ennius tells us that they spoke the Oscan language, but became 
familiar with the Greek from their continued intercourse with the 
Greek cities on the coast. The country is now divided into Calabria 
Citra, Calabria Ultra II., and Calabria Ultra I. Calabria Citra in- 
cludes that portion of ancient Lucania which lies S. of the modern 
frontier of Basilicata. Within this territory were Lagariay ^baris, and 
ThuHi, Further inland is Consentia, the Bruttian metropolis, the 
modem Cosenza. The central and S. districts of this province consist 
of a vast tract of mountain pasturage and forest, which still bears the 
name of Sila — a tract from which several of the maritime nations of 
antiquity derived the masts and timber for their fleets. — Calabria 
Ultra II. commences on the Ionian Sea, N. of the Promontorium Cri- 
missa, now the Punta deW Alice, and traverses the range of La Sila in a 
S. W. direction, to the Savuto on the shores of the Mediterranean. The 
principal objects of classical interest on the Ionian are Petilia, now 
Strongcli ; Croton, the principal seat of the Pythagorean philosophy ; the 
Lacinium Promontorium^ on which stood the Temple of Juno Lacinia, 
ScylaccBumy now Squillacey gave the naine of the Smus Scylacceus to the 
modem Gulf of Squillace. On the Mediterranean the principal places 
of interest were Terina, founded by Crotona and -destroyed by Hannibal, 
and Hijyponium, with its Temple and Grove of Proserpine. — Calabria 
Ultra I. is the most southern province of the kingdom. The principal 
sites of classical interest on the Mediterranean coast are Metaurum, how 
Oioja ; Mamertium, the modem Oppido; the OrataiSy now the Solano; the 
classical rock of Scylla, which still preserves its ancient name ; Bhegium ; 
the promontory of Leucopetra, now Capo dell* Armi; and the river 
Caicinvs, now the Amenddea, which divided the Ehegian from the 
Locrian territory. On the E. coast, Cavlon ; the river Sagra, which 
witnessed the overthrow of the Crotoniats by the Locrians ; Locri Epi- 
zephyriiy one of the most ancient cities of Magna Grsecia ; the Zephyrium 
Promontorium, now Capo di Bruzzano; and Merculis Promontorium, 
now Capo Spartivento. 

3. Ecclesiastical Establibhmknt. 

The ecclesiastical jurisdiction was defined by the Concordat of 1818 
with Pius VII. The Roman CathoUc religion is therein declared to be 
the exclusive religion of the country. The church establishment of 
the continental provinces, as then settled by the union of several of 
the smaller sees, consists of 19 archbishoprics, 64 bishoprics, 3 ab' 
bacies, 72 clerical seminaries, and 3746 parishes. The Archbishoprics are 
those of Naples, Benevento, Acerenza and Matera^ Amalfi, Ban, Biindisi , 


Capua, Chieti, Conza, Cosenza, Lanciano, Manfredonia, Otranlo, Reggio, 
Rossano, Salerno, Santa Severina, Sorrento, Taranto, Trani. The 
Bishoprics are S. Agata de' Goti and Acerra; Andria; S. Angelo de' 
Lombard! and fiisaccia ; Anglona and Tursi ; Aquila ; Ariano ; Ascoli 
and Cerignola ; Avellino ; Aversa ; Bisignano and San Marco ; Bitonto 
and Ruvo ; Bojano ; Bova ; Bovino ; Calvi and Teano ; Capaccio ; 
Cariati ; Caserta ; Cassano ; Castellammare ; Castellaneta ; Catanzaro ; 
Cava and Samo ; Cerreto Telese and Alife ; Conversano ; Cotrone ; 
Gaeta ; Gallipoli and Nard6 ; Gerace ; Gravina and Montepeloso ; 
Ischia ; Isemia ; Lacedonia ; Larino ; Lecce ; Lucera ; Marsi ; Melfi 
and Rapolla ; Mileto ; Molfetta Giovenazzo and Terlizzi ; Monopoli ; 
Muro ; Nicastro ; Nola ; Nusco ; Oppido ; Oria ; Penne and Atii ; 
Policastro ; Potenza and Marsico; Pozzuoli ; Sansevero ; Sessa; Sol- 
mona and Valva ; Sora Aquino and Pontecorvo ; Sauillace ; Teramo ; 
Termoli ; Tricarico ; Trivento ; Troja ; Tropea and Nicotera ; Ugento ; 
Venosa. The most celebrated Conventual Establishments are those 
of Monte Casino, La Triniti della Cava, and Montevergine. Each 
diocese has its own independent administration, consisting of the 
bishop as president, and two canons, who are elected every three years 
by the chapter of the diocese. When the monastic orders were 
partially suppressed in February, 1861, the number of establishments 
for men was 1020, containing 13,611 inmates, with a net revenue of 
3,323,785 francs (132,950?.) ; of nunneries, 276, occupied by 8!)01 
females, possessing an income of 4,772,794 francs (190,9122.), or about 
24Z. each. There are about 2000 Jews in the kingdom. 

4. Agricui/turb. 

The total area of the continental kingdom is supposed to contain 
25,275,645 moggia, or 20,220,516 English acres. Of this quantity the 
returns of the land-tax show that only 11,430,972 acres are actually 
cultivated. Signer Granata, the able professor of practical chemistry 
and agriculture in the University of Naples, in his work on the Rural 
Economy of the Kingdom, classifies the agriculture of the continental 
provinces under three distinct systems, which he calls the Mountain 
system ; the Campanian system : the Apulian system. 

The Mountain System includes the cultivated districts of the kingdom 

fenerally, with the exception of the plains of Campania and Apulia, 
lut the term does not apply to the higher ranges of the mountain chain 
which occupies the centre of the kingdom. The farms in this class are 
of small extent, varying from 2 to 7 English acres. The rotation 
generally begins with spring wheat or maize. When the summer crop 
is gathered in, the ground is prepared for wheat, which is sown in 
autumn. This is followed in the second year by another crop of wheat, 
or, in elevated situations, by one of barley, oats, or beans. Two years 
of rest succeed, during which the herbage which springs up is grazed 
down by sheep. Of late years an improved system has been intro- 
duced, in which the rotation on light soils is as follows : 1st year 
fallow, with maize or potatoes ; 2nd wheat ; 3rd rye ; while on strong 
soils, manured by sheep, it is in the 1st year fallow, with potatoes ; in 
the 2nd wheat ; in the 3rd beans ; in the 4th barley. 


The Campanian System prevails from the Bay of Gaeta to Sorrento, 
including the islands of the Bay of Naples. It differs from the moun- 
tain system in the larger size of the farms, in the advantages of a light 
and rich volcanic soil, and in the abundance of manure. There is 
therefore no fallow in the rotation of crops, the ground being kept from 
year to year in a state of high cultivation. One of the characteristic 
features of the Campanian system is the cultivaticm of grain crops 
under the shade of trees. This practice has frequently been noticed 
by travellers as a proof of bad farming ; but in this district it is found 
that the soil, when thus protected, produces both grain and grass of 
better quality, though perhaps in smaller quantities. This deliciency 
in the amount of the crop is more than made up for by the farmer 
being enabled to combine arable husbandry with the cultivation of the 
vine, the mulberry, and the orange. If he prefer the vine, he plants 
elms or poplars on which to train it ; if the olive or the mulberry-tree 
be the object, he plants them in rows from 30 to 40 feet apart, thus 
leaving ample room for raising a crop of com or of green food between 
them. In many farms another permanent crop is obtained by the 
introduction of the stone-pine, which towers over all other trees without 
depriving them of sunshine, and is a source of considerable profit in a 
country where its fruit is considered one of the delicacies of the table. 
The rotation in these farms is managed with great skill. In the 
beginning of October, red clover and artificial grasses, rape, or lupins 
are raised, to provide green food for cattle from December to March. 
In April the land is ploughed. Maize is then sown in furrows ; with 
beans, potatoes, or gourds in the spaces between the maize. When 
these summer crops are gathered in, wheat is sown. Sometimes hemp 
takes the place of maize in the first year, and spring wheat in the 
second, when the ground is manured by sheep. Another rotation in 
frequent use is hemp with manure in the 1st year ; wheat in the 2nd ; 
spring wheat in the 3rd ; and wheat in the 4tn. It is calculated that 
the land thus cultivated yields on an average fifteenfold per moggio, 
which is equal to about eighteenfold on the English acre. A good deal 
of madder-root has been of late years grown in the valley of the Samo, 
as well as cotton about Scafati, Pompeii, &c. 

The Apulian System, known as that of the Tavdliere, is peculiar to 
the great plain of the Puglia, which presents a vast treeless flat, parched 
in summer, but in winter clothed with luxuriant herbage. The soil is 
a thin layer of vegetable earth, on an argillaceous bed, sometimes deep 
and rich, resting partly on Apenuine limestone, and partly on a deep 
bed of gravel mixed with clay, forming a kind of argillaceous breccia 
of the tertiary period. From the earliest times the Samnite shepherds 
were accustomed to resort to this plain for the winter pasturage of 
their flocks. The Romans imposed a fixed tribute on the right of 
grazing upon the plain. The tax was continued by the Lombards, the 
Ureeks, and the Normans, peculiar privileges being granted to the 
shepherds from time to time, to reconcile them to the exaction. 
Under the last three sovereigns of the House of Anion, the tribute 
assumed the character of a tax upon cattle througnout the whole 
kingdom, viz. 20 golden ducats for 100 oxen, and 2 ducats for 100 
sheep. Up to this time the migration of the flocks, whatever the sum 


payable as tribute, had been purely voluntaiy. In 1442 Alfonso I. 
made the migration compulsory , To reconcile tne farmers to this inno- 
vation, the price of salt was reduced in their favour, and various 
immunities and privileges granted, such as the exemption from the 
tolls exacted by the barons and from the excise duties levied by the 
crown, the protection of their produce by the prohibition of imports of 
wool and cheese^ &c. Thus tho Spanish Mesta, with all its evils, was 
transplanted from the Sierra Nevada to the plain of Apulia. The 
plain itself was capable of affording pasturage to upwards of 900,000 
sheep, allowing 60 acres to every 100 head. The concourse of cattle 
which the new law brought into the plain soon made the crown lands 
insufficient for their accommodation. To meet this deficiency Alfonso 
purchased the right of grazing on the lands of the neighbouring barons, 
convents, and townships, distinguishing these tracts by the name of 
ristori. These new pastures were, estimated to supply food for 268,740 
sheep. Two other tracts of pasturage were subsequently added, one in 
the Terra d*Otranto, the other in the Abruzzi, each capable of accom- 
modating about 25,000 sheep. The total number, therefore, for which 
pasturage was provided, was very nearly 1,241,000. The price paid by 
the farmer for five months' grazing was 88 carlini for every 100 head 
of sheep, equivalent to Ih 98, 4d. For the purpose of conveying the 
flocks to and from the plain, three great roads, still called the Trat- 
turi delle Fecore, were opened, one commencing at Aquila, another at 
Celano, the third at Peschio Asseroli. Certain tracts adjacent to the 
great roads were rented by the crown as resting-places, under the 
name of riposi laiercdi, on which the cattle were allowed to graze 
for 24 hours during the maroh. Two general resting-places were 
also provided for them on their arrival on the plain, to give time 
to the proper officers to apportion the pasture, one being near Larino, 
the other in the Murgie of Minervino. No cattle were allowed to 
approach the plain by any except the appointed roads, on which at 
certain points stations were established, where each proprietor was 
required to declare the number of his flock. After this declaration 
had been verified by the officers, the number was duly registered, 
with the amount of tax payable thereon. As soon as the pasture 
was partitioned, the farmers were stationed, under the name of locatf, 
in certain districts, according to the province from which they came, 
each division being called a nazi<me. These nations were allowed to 
hold an assembly, at which they elected four deputies by ballot to 
represent them at the dogana at Foggia, to superintend the collection 
of the tax, to defend the interests of the farmers before the magis- 
trates, to regulate the supply of food and the distribution of salt, 
and to decide all disputes among the shepherds conj;Lected with the 
pasturage. The tax was always collected at Foggia, where the farmera 
were compelled to sell the whole produce of their stock. One half 
of the tax was collected after the sale of the live stock, the other half 
after the sale of the wool. When the amount sold was not sufficient 
to meet the tax, the stock of wool on hand was stored in the custom- 
house of Foggia as security for the balance. No farmer could remove 
his flocks fi'om the plajn without a passport, which was never granted 
until the crown dues were satisfied. The TavoUere became a mine of 


wealth. During the war which arose out of the Partition Treaty of 
Granada^ Apulia was the battle-field of the contending armies, and the 
destruction of the cattle gave a blow to the whole system, from which 
it would never have recovered if the viceroys had not revived it as an 
instrument of extortion. In 1602 the system* had become so odious, that, 
though the viceroys had allowed the farmers to declare the number of 
their flocks instead of having them counted by the officers of the 
dogana, the number on which the tax was paid was only 588,947, about 
half the number of Alfonso's time. To make up this loss of revenue 
the tax was then doubled, an experiment which threatened the system 
v^ith ruin, and which it was vainly attempted to repair by again dimi- 
nishing it, and exempting the cattle of the poor from the compulsory 

On the accession of Charles III. the system was made the subject of 
official inquiry. It was found that the farmers had been in the habit 
of taking more land than they required for pasture, and had broken up 
and sown with com a portion of that which had been assigned to 
them, thereby realising large profits at the low rate which they paid 
for pasturage. The people of Foggia, also, were found to have in- 
duced their friends wbo had seats at the local board to give them, 
at a low price, the best lots, \diich they underlet to the farmers at 
a high rent. To check these evils, it was proposed to make a par- 
tition of that part of the pasturage which had been subject to annual 
distribution, by letting the land on lease for a fixed term of 6 or 
more years. This scheme was partially carried out by Ferdinand I. 
But the French revolution broke out, and the events which followed 
struck at the root of the whole system. The farms held under the 
crown were declared, by a law of 1806, to be heritable fiefs of those 
who were in possession ; and the occupants of lands which had been 
assigned to them for grazing were acknowledged as owners of such 
lands, on payment of a fixed rent proportioned to the number of 
their cattle ; the rents, however, as well as the feudal charges payable 
on all kinds of land, were redeemable at the option of the holder. In 
1817, two years after the restoration of Ferdinand, the system was 
partly re-estabHshed. The land was taken firom those who had been 
settled on it ten years before, and the rents and charges were declared 
to be irredeemable. The compulsory migration is now at an end ; but 
the farmers and breeders in the neighbouring mountains voluntarily 
bring down their flocks to a great extent. The administration of the 
pasturage is now confided entirely to the Intendente of the province. 
U'he tolls and rents paid to the crown and other owners of the pasturage 
are still considerable, and are said to amount on an average to more 
than 80,0OOZ. per annum. 

Such is briefly the history of the Tavpliere, to which we shall only add 
a few details relating to the constitution of the flocks. The mandra, or 
the general flock, is under ihe care of a TnassofirOj or chief shepherd, a sotto- 
massaro, or under-shepherd, and a capo-buttaro, or head di^ryman. The 
flock is subdivided intc several morre, each morra under the care of a 
shepherd, a dairyman, and an upper-dairyman, who has charge of the 
cheese. To each rruyrra two dogs and a mule are attached, the latter for 
carrying the utensils for making cheese, and the baggage .of the shepherd. 


The chief shepherd, the head dairyman, and the upper dairyman receive, 
in wages, 24 ducats (3/. 18s.) per annum, with food, consisting of hread, 
oil, milk, goats' cheese, and salt, and a dress of sheepskins, a coarse 
shirt, breeches of the coarsest cloth, and sandals. The under-shep- 
herd receives 18 ducats (3/.) per annum ; and the under-dairyraan re- 
ceives 8 ducats (XL 6s. 8^.) for the first year, which is increased at the 
rate of a ducat a year, until he is 16 years of age, when he becomes 
an under-shepherd. When the flocks are in the pastures, all these 
people live and sleep on the ground under a tent of skins, the wives in 
their absence attending to the crops in the mountains, or supporting 
themselves by spinning. 

The number of Hve stock in the kingdom, according to a report pub- 
lished, is stated to be as follows : — sheep, 4,000,000 ; goats, 600,000 ; 
mules and asses, 600,000 ; oxen and cows, 300,000 ; horses, 60,000 ; 
bufialoes, 40,000. The sheep most in request are the white fine-wooUed 
breed, known by the local name of pecore penttli. They are shorn twice 
a year, once entirely in the spring, and only half in the summer. The 
wool is mostly sold and exported ; a smaJl quantity, however, is now 
manufactured into cloth at Arpino and other places of the kingdom. 
From the milk of the sheep a cheese is made which constitutes the food 
of a large proportion of the people, and is a more immediate source of 
profit to the farmer than the wool. The result of this is, that the 
breed of sheep which produced the delicate white wool of antiquity has 
long siDce disappeared, and more attention is paid to the milk and 
cheese than to the wool. The horses*^ which had formerly great celebrity 
in Italy, have degenerated in the last century, when a heavy tax, laid 
upon their exportation, induced the other states, which drew their 
stocks from Naples, to turn their attention to breeding. Still some of 
the horses of Capitanata and Calabiia are fine animals, and are remark- 
able for that compact form which justifies the boast of the Neapolitans 
that the Balbi horses in the Museum are the type of the existing race. 
Mules are abundant in the Abruzzi, the Terra d'Otranto, and other pro- 
vinces on the Adriatic. Homed cattle have hitherto been less attended 
to than they deserve, except on the farms of the richer nobles. Cows' 
milk is seldom made into butter, except for the supply of the capital, 
. olive- oil being used in its stead in all parts of the kingdom : the milk 
is used in making cheese. The oxen are used in ploughing and for 
draught. Buf aloes are also used for draught in the Terra di Lavoro and 
part of Apulia, and their milk is made into cheese. The swine are 
generally black, and in the warmer regions devoid of bristles, as in and 
about the capital. Many districts are still as famous for hees as they 
were in classical times. 

The crops throughout the kingdom present us with nearly every de- 
scription of tree and plant known in the temperate and torrid zones. 
The com produced in the continental provinces is estimated, on a full 
year's average, at 42,000,000 tomola, which, calculated at 6 tomola to 
the quarter, gives 8,400,000 English quarters. The Vine is of universal 
cultivation. When a vineyard is to be planted,* the ground is usually 
prepared for two years previously ; a light calcareous or argillaceous 
soil is, if possible, selected ; and when the nature of the ground permits, 
a gentle elevation is preferred to a level surface. The mode of pro- 


pagation is either by layers or by cuttings. In the third year the plants 
begin to bear fruit. Tiie vintage commences at the end of September. 
The grapes are collected in a vat sunk beneath the floor, in which they 
are generally allowed to remain for a few days before they are trodden 
out. The liquor is drawn off into casks, but so little skill is exercised 
in the treatment of the wine, that a large quantity of the whole pro- 
duce is fit only to be converted into brajidy, in which form it is 
exported to foreign countries. The Olive flourishes best in dry and 
stony districts, and in plains or slopes open to the S. On the hiUs the 
produce is less, but the quality of the oil is superior. There are 
numberless varieties. That of Venafro, known by the local name of the 
Sergia, is said to be one of the best, and is supposed to be the Lacinia 
of Pliny. There are three modes of propagation, by slips, by shoots, 
and by grafting runners or slips on the wild olive. Propagation by 
slips is performed in winter, and in 10 years the slip becomes a pro- 
fitable tree. Shoots require many years before they become productive. 
Grafting by slips is performed in March and April, and is the most 
expeditious mode of propagation, the fruit being produced in 5 years. 
The flowering takes place in June, and the fruit begins to ripen in 
October, when it is fit for being preserved for the table. If required 
for making oil, it is allowed to remain on the tree, where it soon turns 
black, and reaches maturity in December. The oil-mills of the present 
day differ very little from those which have been discovered in the 
ruins at Pompeii and Stabiaj. The average annual exportation from 
the continental provinces is about 31,800 tuns, the value of which, at 
23/. the tun, would be 731,400/. The exports from Sicily are said to 
be 4200 tuns. The oil of Vico, Sorrento, Massa, and of some other 
places near Naples, is in high repute. The oil of Terra d'Otranto, how- 
ever, is by far the most important in a commercial point of view. 
That province and the Terra di Bari are the chief seats of the culti- 
vation, about two-thirds of each being covered with olive-grounds. 
T'he Mulherry^tree, under the Aragonese dynasty, was an object of 
general cultivation ; but the heavy duty imposed on silk in the last 
cent. (3 carlini per lb.) discouraged the farmers from planting them, 
and it has only been in recent years that the cultivation has been 
resumed. The raw silk of the provinces of Napoli, Terra di Lavoro, 
the two Principati, and Calabria, is excellent, and finds a ready market 
abroad. The Fig is extensively cultivated in the eastern provinces. 
The Almond is a very profitable tree, but it is liable to be mjured by 
sudden changes of temperature whilst in flower. The Carouha grows 
better near the sea-shore, and is a striking object with its grotesque 
fruit-pods, which form an important article as the food of horses. The 
hazel-nut is extensively cultivated in the neighbourhood of Avellino. 
The Orange and the Lemon are propagated by layers. A twig is 
struck ill a pot in the autumn, and is separated from the tree in May, 
v^hen it is transplanted : it requires 6 or 8 years before it becomes 
productive. The Date-palm produces fioiit, but cannot be said to 
ripen in any part of the kingdom. The Tobacco-plant is cultivated 
in the Terra d'Otranto, on the table-land behind the Capo di Leuca, 
"wbero it is considered the best in Italy. The Cotton-'plant is culti- 
vated in the provinces of Naples, Terra di Lavoro, Bari, Otranto, Basil!- 


cata, and Calabria. It is said to thrive best in the Terra d'Otranto 
and the Maremma of Basilicata, where the soil is light and swampy. 
The plant begins to blossom in July, and towards the beginning of 
October the capsules begin to burst. Bice is grown in the marshy dis- 
tricts beyond Salerno and in the Adriatic provinces, but its cultivation 
is highly injurious to the health of the localities. The Liquorice-rooi is 
grown to a great extent in the Calabrias, from whence the greater part 
of the extract called liquorice-juice is brought for the French and 
English markets. Saffron grows wild in the pasture-grounds about 
Aquila, Taranto, and Cosenza. Manna is produced in abundance in the 
three Calabrias. The climate of the Terra di Bari and of Calabria is the 
best suited for the production of Currants. The small island of Dino 
in the Gulf of Policastro, and the still smaller Isola Cirella, a few miles 
further S., are particularly celebrated for them. 

6, Commerce and Manufactures. 

Naples, before its annexation to the Italian kingdom, had 
little foreign trade in proportion to its extent and population. 
The average value of the exports from the continental provinces 
was about 1,750,000?., of which France received about 685,000?. ; 
Austria 435,000?. ; Sardinia, 210,000?. ; Great Britain, 185,000?. ; the 
Papal States, 103,000?. ; Tuscany, 90,000?. ; Sicily, 35,000?. ; the United 
States, 2600?. The average imports are valued at 2,400,000?., of 
which Great Britain furnishes, in round numbers, 950,000?. ; France, 
710,000?. ; Austria, 235,000?. ; Sardinia, 147,000?. ; Sicily, 109,000?. ; Tus- 
cany, 68,000?. ; the Papal States, 43,000?. ; the United States, 10,000?. 
The principal British imports, in the order of amount, are cotton manu- 
factures, cotton twist, iron, coals, woollens, worsteds, sugar, cod-fish, 
pilchards, tin, and hardware. The principal exports to Great Britain 
are olive-oil, silk, liquorice, brandy. 

Manufacturing industry had made considerable progress within the 
last 30 years. Naples has manufactories of gloves, soap, perfumery, 
silks, artificial flowers, coral ornaments, earthenware, hats, and carriages. 
Torre deU' Annunziata and Gragnano are celebrated for their fabrication 
of maccaroni. In the Terra di Lavoro, S. Maria di Capua has a con- 
siderable trade in leather ; Piedimonte has cotton and copper mills, 
and manufactories of paper, cloths, serges, and skins ; Arpino main- 
tains its ancient reputation for woollen cloths made of Apulian wool ; 
and Sora produces both cloth and paper. In the Principaio Citra there 
are seversJ cotton-mills near Salerno, set in motion by the waters of the 
Irno ; Samo has a factory of beet-root sugar ; Cava, manufactories of 
linen, cotton, ropes, and cordage ; Vietri has a small manufactory of 
bottles and pa{>er ; and Amalfi, paper and maccaroni mills, the |>ro- 
duce of which is exported largely to the Levant and South America. 
In the Principato Ultra, Avellino has a local celebrity for its manufac- 
ture of hats ; and Atripalda, iron-foundries, fulling and paper mills. 
In the Basilicaia, Matera and some of the other inknd towns produce 
a good deal of liquorice-juice. In Molise, Campobasso, Agnone, Froso- 
lone, and Lucito are the principal seats of the manufacture of a coarse 


hardware. Agnone has copper-works ; Colletorto maintains a trade in 
hats, dressed skins, and wax candles ; and Isemia has several manu- 
fJEU^tories of woollens, paper, and earthenware. Abruzzo Gitra is known 
for its production of rice and saffron. In Abruzzo Ultra II., several 
towns maintain a small local trade in skins, hats, and paper. The Terra 
di Bari suppHes a great part of the kingdom with salt and nitre. In 
the Terra d* Otranto, Brindisi supplies the E. coast with maccaroni ; 
GallipoU has several mills for carding and manufacturing the cotton of 
the province ; and Taranto is known for the gloves and stockings knit 
from the lana pesce, the silken tuft by which the pinna ma/rina, a bivalve 
shell, attaches itself to the rocks. Calabria Gitra is the principal seat 
of the manna trade, and has several manufactories of liquorice-juice. 
Calabria Ultra II. shares in the trade of manna, and has a considerable 
traffic in saffron ; great quantities of liquorice-juice are produced about 
Cotrone ; and Cataiizaro has manufactories of silk tissues. In Calabria 
Ultra /., Reggio has some reputation for its dried fruits, essential oils 
of citron, lemon, and orange flower, and its silk manufactures. 

6. Fine Artb.— (a.) Anoiknt AROHiTEoruBB and Art. 

In the Handbook for Central Italy we have referred to the styles 
of architecture of ancient Italy, anterior to the Eoman period. These 
remarks apply equally to Southern Italy. In the Northern provinces 
of the kingdom we fijid not only examples of polygonal constructions, 
but some of the most remarkable remains of what has been called the 
Pelasgio period now existing in Europe. There are very interesting 
examples of it in the oldest parts of Cora ; in the Cicolano dis- 
trict ; in the acropoUs of Atina ; and in that of Sora. The Felasgic 
remains of perhaps a less remote period are also very numerous ; 
at Norma, Ferentino, and Segni, the walls are still either per- 
fect or traceable throughout their entire circuit. AQ these remains, 
however, are surpassed by the acropoUs of Alatri, the best specimen 
of this ancient mode of construction which exists in Central Italy. 
Arpino, . in addition to walls of great extent, has a pointed gateway 
of massive polygonal blocks differing from every other Known specimen 
of entrances to ancient fortresses. Of Greek architecture Naples pos- 
sesses the most splendid monuments in the world in the temples of 
Paestum, constructed in the most massive style of the older Doric, and 
of which one at least is coeval with the earliest Grecian colonization on 
the shores of Italy. Of Eoman architecture there are remains in 
every part of the kingdom ; but those which give Naples an interest 
beyond any other district in Europe are to be found at Pompeii and 
Herculaneum, for there only are we admitted to the domestic mode 
of hving of the ancient Eomaus, and enabled to study their habits and 
their public institutions. At Benevento we see the magnificent arch 
raised to Trajan ; and at S. Maria di Capua the amphitheatre, more 
ancient and more complete as far as regards its substructions than the 
CoUseum itself. In Painting^ Naples is especially rich in specimens 
of Roman art, obtained from Pompeii and Herculaneum. Many of 
these bear evidence of having been the work of Greek artists. Of 
Mosaics, Naples has also some fine examples. Though intended merely 

[S. Italy,'} b 


as pavements, and in most cases coarsely executed, tbey have the same 
general character as the paintings, and were evidently the work of Greek 
artists. One of the finest yet recovered from Pompeii bears the name 
of Dioscorides of Samos in Greek characters, and the Battle of Issns, 
one of the grandest known works in this branch of art, was probably 
the production of Greek hands. The Sctdpture in the Museum is of 
mixed origin, but of a highly interesting character. The collection con- 
tains some noble examples of pure Greek a^, and a large number of 
specimens of the Roman period. Tlie Terracotta or Italo-Greek VaseSf 
now found exclusively in the tombs of the ante-Roraan period, bear the 
clearest evidence of Greek origin. AU the most beautiful specimens 
have been obtained from the sites of the early Greek colonies in Magna 
Grsacia ; whilst many of them bear in Greek characters the names of 
the artists and of the personages represented upon them. The col- 
lection of Bronzes found at Herculaneum and Pompeii surpasses all 
others that exist in this branch of sculpture. 


The early connection of Naples with the Eastern empire prepared 
the way for the introduction of a style of architecture which was a com- 
bination of Roman and Byzantine. With the exception, however, of the 
Priory of S. Nicola at Bari, there are now few unmixed specimens of that 
style in the kingdom ; for the Normans engrafted upon it the Gothic 
style, producing that singular mixture which is now known as Gotho- 
Saracenic. To the Norman period belongs the Abbey of the Holy 
Trinity at Venosa. After the accession of the House of Anjou to the 
throne, Gothic architecture was exclusively patronised by the sovereigns 
of that dynasty, and most of the ecclesiastical edifices of the capital are or 
were originally in that style. Of Castellated architectu/re the Neapolitan 
provinces have more examples than perhaps any nation in S. Europe. Our 
space will only allow us to mention the baronial fortress of Melfi ; Lucera 
and Castel del Monte, built by Frederick H. ; Avezzano, the stronghold 
of the Barberinis ; Popoh, of the Cantelmis ; Isola and Sora, of the Pic- 
colominis and Buoncompagnis ; and Castel di Sangro, of the Counts of 
the Marsi. The church architecture of Naples presents scarcely an 
unaltered specimen of the religious edifices of the 14th, I6th, and 16th 
centuries. Many of the earher churches, which in their original state 
must have been magnificent examples of Angevine Gothic, have been 
barbarously spoiled by modem alterations, and by an excessive passion 
for tasteless ornament introduced by the Spaniards. Some of the old 
palaces also, which were erected in the pointed style, have lost nearly 
all their distinctive features, and are now interesting chiefly as marking 
the passage of the Gothic into the style of the Revival. Maestro Bfwno, 
a Venetian, in the beginning of the twelfth centuiy, is the earliest 
architect of whom we have any record at Naples. He was employed 
by the Norman king, WilHam I., to design the Castel dell' Ovo and the 
Castel Capuano. 

(c.) Sculpture. 

The Neapolitan sculptors derived their earliest instruction frona 
Byzantium. The few bronze doors of the churches still preserved were 


the work of Byzantine artists. Those at Amalfi date from the year 
1000 ; of Monte Casino, made at Constantinople on the model of those 
of Amalfi, from 1066 ; of Atrani from 1087 ; of Salerno from 1099 ; 
of Benevento, also made at Constantinople, and remarkable for their 
elaborate reliefs, from 1150; and those of RaveUo from 1179. The 
churches of Naples abound in sepulchral monuments of the 14th, 15th, 
and 1.6th centuries, which it would require a separate volume to describe 
in detail, or to do justice to their merits as illustrating the revival and 
progress of sculpture. 

(d.) Painting. 

It has been frequently suggested by Italian writers on the Neapolitan 
school of painting, that the antiques and arabesques which have been 
discovered in the neighbourhood of the capital must have had an im- 
portant influence in forming the style of the earlier masters. If this 
remark had been restricted to the artists of the 16th and 17th centuries, 
who undoubtedly studied with diligence the frescoes and ornaments 
brought to light by the excavation of the Boman tombs at Riteoli 
and other places in the western district, its accuracy might be ad- 
mitted ; but the late period of these excavations, and the still later 
period of the discovery of the buried cities, appear to throw great 
doubt upon the theory as applied to the older masters. There is 
perhaps more reason for assuming that the mosaics which the By- 
zantine artists, from a very early period of the connection of Naples 
with the Eastern empire, introduced into the Lombard and early 
Gothic churches, were the source of that large infrision of Byzantine 
art which characterised the Neapolitan school in the first stages of its 
development. At a later period, on the accession of the house of 
Aragon, the patronage of Flemish painters by Alfonso I. brought the 
artists of Naples into intimate association with the masters of that 
school, and this association was subsequently strengthened in a more 
direct manner by the connection of the Netherlands with Spain, while 
Naples was governed by the Spanish Viceroys. 

As it would be out of place, in a work of this kind, to enter into a 
detailed account of the Neapohtan school of painting, we shall, for the 
convenience of the traveller, confine ourselves to a chronological hst of 
the most celebrated Neapolitan artists, in the three branches of paint- 
ing, sculpture, and architecture. For those, however, who desire more 
detailed infonnation on the Neapolitan school of painting, we must 
refer them to Kugler's Hemdbook of the Itahan Schools,* and to Miss 
Farquhar's useful httle volume on Itahan Painters.f 

* Handbook of Paintincj — the Italian Schools : by Kugler. Edited by Sir Charles 
Eastlake, P.R.A. 2 vols.^Svo. 1855. 

t Biographical Catalogue of the principal Italian Painters : by a Lady. 1 vol. 
12mo. 1855. 

b 2 



B. D/ 

1230. Masuocio I. is the first Neapolitan architect of the Revival. He ig 1306 
supposed to have been thepupil of a Byzantine artist ; or more 
likely of the school of Fuccio, who was brought to Naples by 
the Emperor Frederick II. to complete the Castel Capuano. 

1291. Musuccio II, His pupils were : — 1388 

1. Giacomo de Sanctis ....•••• 1435 

2. Antonio Bamboccio, also called Baboccio (fl. 1420). 


Pietro and Ivpolito del Donzellof better known as painters. 

Agnoh Aniello del Fiore, a pupil of Ciccione, 
JaUonio Fwrewtino of Cava. 
Luigi Impo (fl. 1.532). 
1478. Giovanni (Merliano) da Noia, a pupil of Aniello del Fiore, 1559 
celebrated as a sculptor. 
Ferdinando Manlio, his pupil. 

Cola delV Amatrice (fl. 1514-35), who was also a painter. 
Battista Marchiroloy of Aquila (fl. 1573). 
Dionisio di Bartolommeo (fl. 1592). 
1675. Ferdinando Sanfelice, 

1718. Carlo Zoccoli . 1771 

1700. Luioi Vanvitelli, who erected the royal palace of Oaserta. • 1773 
Domenico Fcntana (fl. 1600), his son Ginlio Cetare (fl. 1620^, 
Carlo Fontana (1634-1714), Cogitno Fanmga (1591-1673), and 
Ferdinando Fuga (fl. 1740), although much employed at Naples, 
where they erected many buildings, were not Neapolitans. 


1230. Masuccio /., already noticed as an architect; seems to have been 1306 

the restorer of sculpture in Naples. His works are in the Minu- 

toll chapel (p. 102). 
Pietro degli Stefani, a brother of Tommaso, the painter (fl. 1 3th cent.) 
1291. Masuccio IL Some fine tombs in the churches of Sta. Chiara, S. 1388 

Domenico, and S. Lorenzo (pp. 110, 113, 119), are attributed to 

him. His pupils were : — 

1. Antonio Babogcio, called often Bamboccio, an architect as well 
as a sculptor. His finest works are — the Gothic doorway of S. 
Giovanni de* Pappacoda, and the tomb of Aldemoresco in S. 
Lorenzo (pp. 118, 120). 

2. Andrea Ciccione, whose masterpiece is the Tomb of Ladis- 1455 

lans in the ch. of S. Giovanni in Carbonara (p. 117). 
Agnolo Aniello del Fiore, Ciccione* s pupil. 

Giuseppe Santacroce 1537 

1478. GIOVANNI MERLIANO, called also, from his birthplace, Gio- 1559 

vanni da Nola, a pupil of Aniello del Fiore, and perhaps the 

best Neapolitan sculptor. His works in Naples are numerous ; 

but bis masterpiece is the monument of Don Pedro de Toledo, 

in the ch. of S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli (p. 116). 
Salvatore deW Aquila, sdmamed l*Ariscola (fl. 15th cent.), whose 

best works are at Aquila (p. 40). 
Silvestro Salviati dell* Aquila (fl. 1506), whose masterpiece is in 

the ch. of S. Bernardino, at Aquila (p. 40). 


Annibale Caccavello, a pupil of Merliano (fl. 16th cent.). 

JJomenico (TAuria (fl. 1600). 

SanmartiTW (ti. 16th cent.). 

Domenico Antonio Vaccaro (fl. 18th cent.). 


1230. ToMMASO DEGLi Stefani, a contemporary of Cimahie, and the 1310 
founder of the Neapolitan school of painting. The illustrations 
of the Passion in the Minutoli chapel in the Cathedral, and the 
Madonna at the high altar in Sta. Maria la Nuova (pp. 102, 
122), are his best works extant. 

1260. Filippo Tesauro, his pupil. The Virgin and Child with several 1320 
Saints, in the Museum, is the only painting attributed to him. 
Maestro SimonBy Tesauro*8 pupil, and the friend and assistant of 1346 
Giotto in the paintings the latter executed at Naples. A painting 
in the chapel of St. Thomas Aquinas, in the ch. of S. Domenico 
(p. 112), is said to be his first work ; but his best paintings are in 
the ch. of S. Lorenzo (p. 1 19). His pupils were : — 

1320. 1. Gennaro di Cola, to whom the frescoes in the Chapel del Croce- 1370 
fisso in the ch. of the Incoronata (p. 119) are attributed. 
2. Maestro Stejanoney whose best work extant is a Magdalen on a 1390 
gold ground in the Braucacci chapel in S. Domenico (p. 111). 

1350. 3. CoLANTONio or Nicola Antonio del Fiore, the same, according 1444 
to De Dominici, as Nicola di Tommaso del Fiore. He appears 
to have painted in oil as early as 1371. His masterpiece is the 
S. Jerome in the Museum. His pupils were : — 
1. Agnolo Franco^ whose best frescoes are in the ch. of S. Do- 1445 
menico (p. 111). 

1382. 2. ANTONIO SOLARIO, called lo Zingaro, a travelling tinker, 1455 
who, having fallen in love with Colantonio's daughter, became 
an artist to win her hand. The frescoes illustrating the life of S. 
Benedict, in the cloisters of S. Severino (p. 129) are considered 
his masterpiece. His most eminent pupils were : — 
1. Niccolodi Vito (fl. 14G0). 

1430. 2. Simone Papa the elder, who imitated the style of Van Eyck. 1488 
His masterpiece is the painting of S. Jerome and S. James invok- 
ing the protection of the Archangel Michael for two Neapolitans. 

1405. 3. Pietro del Donzello 1470 

4. Ippolito, or PoUto del Donzelld, Pietro's brother. Their best 
works are in S. Domenico and Sta. Maria la Nuova (pp. 1 13, 122). 

5. Silvestro Buono, or de* Buoniy whose masterpiece is in the 1484 
Basilica of Sta. Restituta (p. 103). His pupils were: — 

1. Bernardo Tesauro (fl. 1460-1480), whose fresco of the Seven 
Sacraments in the ch. of S. Giovanni dei Pappacoda (p. 118) has 
nearly disappeared. 
1475. 2. Giovanni Antonio d* Amato, called Amato' il T^ccAio, whose best 1555 
painting is in the ch. of Sanseverino (p. 129). His pupils 
were : — 
1490. 1. Giovan Vincenzo CorsOy who studied also under Perino del 1545 
Vaya, and whose masterpiece is the Christ Bearing the Cross, in 
the ch. of S. Domenico (p. 112). 
1505. 2. Pietro Negroni, from Calabria, whose masterpiece is the Virgin 1565 
and Child with St. John, in the Museum. 

b 3 


1506. 3. Simone Papa the younger, whose best works are in the choir of 1567 
the ch. of Monte Oliveto (p. 127). 

1535. 4, Giovanni Antonio (TAmato, callA Amatoil Giovane • • 1598 

1414. Antonello da Messina, who is said to haye introduced the Van 1493-6 
Eyck method of oil-painting into Italy. 
Cola deW Amatrice (fl. 1514-35), a native of Amatrice in the 
Abruzzi (p. 37), who resided cluefly at Ascoli ; two of his good 
works may be seen in the Museum of the Lateran at Rome. 

1480. ANDREA SABBATINI, called from his birthplace Andrea di 1545 
Salerno, a pupil of Raphael, and the. founder of the Neapolitan 
school in the 1 6th cent. He was inspired with the determmation 
of becomings painter, by Perttgino's large painting of the Assump- 
tion in the cathedral (p. 102). He cannot be studied out of 
Naples, where his worics are numerous. His best pupils were : — 

1. Francesco Santafede (fl. 1560). 

2. Cesar e Titrco. 

1509. 3. Giouan Filippo Criacuolo, whose best painting is in the ch. of 1584 

Sta. Maria Donna Regina. 
1520. Francesco Imparato, Criscuolo's pupil, who studied afterwards 1570 

under Titian, and whose best pictures are in the Gesii Nuoyo and 

in S. Pietro Martire. 
Polidoro Caldara da Caravaggio came to Naples in 1527, and took 

up his residence in the house of his friend Andrea di Salerno. 

He painted at Naples many works, which had some influence on 

the Neapolitan school. His pupils were : — 
1508» 1. Giovan Bernardo Lama, whose best painting is the Deposition 1579 

from the Cross, in the Maseum. 

2. Marco Cqrdisco, called Marco Calabrese (fl. 1542). 

3. Francesco Curia, who was also a pupil oi Lionardo da Pistoia . 1610 
1560. Fabrizio Santafede, a son oi Francesco, He was so popular an 1634 

artist that in 1647 the populace spared a house merely from its 
having frescoes by him. His masterpiece is the Coronation of 
the Virgin in Sta. Maria la Nuova. 

1568. Giuseppe Cesari, called the Cavalier d* Arpino, from his fiither's 1640 
birthplace. He was the head of the school of the Idealisti, His 
pupils were : — 
Luigi Roderigo, of Messina, and his nephew Giovan Bernardino 
Koderigo. They both fl. in the 1 7th cent. 

1558. Belisario Corenzio, a Greek by birth, who studied under Tin- 1643 
toretto. He was the leader of a conspiracy formed with Carac- 
ciolo and Spagnoletto to prevent foreign painters from working at 
Naples. He died by falling from a scafiblding whilst painting 
in the ch. of Sanseverino (p. 128). 

1580. Giovan Battista Caracciolo, a pupil of Michelangelo da Cara- 1641 
vaggio, and afterwards an imitator of Annibale Caracci. The 
picture of S. Carlo in the ch. of S. Agnello is one of his best 

1588. GIUSEPPE RIBERA, called lo Spagnoletto, a native of Xativa, 1656 
in Spain, or, according to De Dominici, of Gallipoli, in the pro- 
vince of Terra d'Otranto, where his parents had settled. He 
formed his style chiefly upon the works of Michelangelo da Caror 
vaggio, and became one of the most remarkable of the school 
of the Naturalisti. The Deposition from the Cross in the ch. of * 
S. Martino (p. 125) is considered his masterpiece. 


Francesco Fracanzano, a pupil of Ribera, who, having joined in an 1657 
attempt of rebellion against the Spaniards, was executed by poison. 
His masterpiece is the Death of St. Joseph, in the ch. of the Os- 
pedale de' Pellegrini. 
Pompeo delV Aquila, and Marco Mazzaroppi of S. Germano, were 
also good painters of the 16th cent., whose best works are at 
Aquila, and at Monte Casino. 
1585. Massimo Stanzioni, Caracciolo*s best pupil, called the Guido 1656 
Beni of Naples from his attempt to imitate Guido, with whom he 
was intimate whilst in Rome. His best works are in the Certosa 
of S. Martino. His pupils were : — 
1. Francesco^ called Pacecco di Rosa . . . . .1654 

1613. 2. Anneila di Rosa, his niece, who was murdered by her husband 1649 
through jealousy either of Stanzioni or of her superior powers as 
an artist. 
3. Agostino Beltrano, who fled for safety to France . . .1665 

1622. 4. Bernardo Cavallino ........ 1656 

5. Domenico Finoglia, who painted in the Certosa of S. Martino • 1656 

1598. 6. Andrea Vaccaro, who at first imitated Michelangelo da Cara- 1670 
vagaiof and in his later works Guido. 

1600. AnieUo Falcone, a pupil either of Spagnoletto or of Stanzioni, or 1665 
perhaps of both. He and his pupils, among whom was Salvator 
Rosa, formed themselves into a company called Compagnia delta 
Morie, whose object was to murder the Spaniards. After Ma- 
saniello's death, Falcone fled for safety to Paris, whence he was 
allowed to return through Colbert's intercession. He painted 
battle-pieces chiefly. His pupils were : — 

1615. 1. SALVATOR ROSA, who became afterwards a pupil of Spagno- 1673 
letto's. His first master was his brother-in-law Fracanzano, 

1612. 2. Domenico Gargiulo, called Micco Spadaro, His masterpieces 1679 

are the Insurrection of Masaniello, and the Plague of 1656, in 
the Museum. 

1613. Mattia Prett, called il Cavalier Calabrese, a pupil of Guercino, 1699 

He was born at Tavema in Calabria, and died at Malta, where 
he had been made a Knight of St. John. 

1623. Francesco di Maria, a ^npii of Domenichino . . • . 1690 
1636. Giovan Battista Beinaschi, of Turin, who settled at Naples, and 1690 

belongs to the Neapolitan school. 

1632. LucA Giordano, at first a pupil of Spagnoletto, but afterwards he 1705 
worked with Pietro da Corlona in Rome. He imitated with ease 
the style of any artist, and had such a rapidity of execution that 
he earned the nickname of Luca fa Presto, His paintings are 
numerous in Naples. 

1662. Paolo de Mattei8,fT0xa QWenio, Giordano* shes\-<^\i^\\ . . 1728 

1657. Francesco Solimena, of Nocera, a pupil of Francesco di Maria 1747 
and of Giacomo del Po, and the competitor of L. Giordano. His 
earlier works are the best ; he became tame and mannered as he 
advanced in years. The Conversion of S. Paul and the Fall of 
Simon Magus, in the ch. of S. Paolo (p. 127), are his best paint- 
ings in Naples. His pupils were : — 

1674. 1. Onofrio Avellino, who had been previously a pupil of Giordano 1741 
2. Francesco de Mara (fl. 1743). 

1676. 3. Sebastiano Conca, from Gaeta 1764 

They all preserved the faults and exaggerated the peculiarities of 




1684. Bernardo de JDominid, a pupil of Preti and of the German Beich. 
He painted landscapes and bambocciate, but he is better known 
as the historian of the Neapolitan school of art ' 

7. Books. 

In the Introduction to the Handbooks for Northern and Central Italy will 
be found a list of works, many of which will be equally useful to the traveller 
in the southern provinces. We shall only add some other works which espe- 
cially regard the kingdom of Naples. 

Those who are willing to devote time to the study of Neapolitan history 
will find ample materials in the * RaccoUa di tutti i piu rinouuiti scrittori deit 
Istoria Generaledel Regno,' Naples, 1769-77, 25 vols. 4to. It contains Capece- 
latro, Di Costanzo, Pontanus, Porzio, CoUenuccio, Costo, Parrino, Gianuone, 
and many anonymous authors, or of secondary importance. Of Giannone's 

* Storia Civile del Regno di Napoli ' there are several other editions ; one of 
the best is that published by Bettoni at Milan, 1831, 9 vols. 8vo. 

The perusal of Colletta's * Storia del Reatne di Napoli * from 1734, when the 
Bourbon dynasty was established, to 1825, will be indispensable to those who 
wish to know something of modern Neapolitan history. The best edition 
is that of Florence by Le Monnier, 1848, 2 vols. 12mo. An account of the 
events from 1846 to 1853 will be found iaRanalli's * Istorie Italiane,* Florence, 
1855, 4 vols. 12mo. 

In the last century Bernardo di Dominici, himself a painter, wrote the 

* Vite de Pittorif Scultori^ ed Architetti Napolitani ;* an indifferent compila- 
tion, but the only one on the subject. The original edition of 1742, 3 vols. 
4to., is not easily found ; and a reprint at Naples in 1840 in 4 vols. 8vo. 

Giustiniani's * IJizionario Geogrc^fico, Naples, 1797-1805, 10 vols. 8vo., and 

* Dizionario de* Monti, Zaghi, e Fiumif Naples, 1812, 3 vols. 8vo., with all 
their faults and omissions, are still the best geographical accounts of the king- 
dom. A new improved edition is in course of publication. 

^ The * Guida di Napoli,* 2 vols. 4to., published by the government at the 
time of the Scientific Congress held at Naples in 1845, contains much valuable 
information with regard to the city of Naples and its neighbourhood. 

8. Maps. 

Although a trigonometrical survey of the continental dominions was under- 
taken many years ago, under the direction of the late General Visconti, very 
little progress has been made in it as regards the publication of its labours since 
his death, the latter being confined to maps of the capital and its vicinity, and of 
Gaeta: nine of these maps are very accurate, and alone can be purchased ; those 
particularly of the environs of the city, of the islands of Ischia and Capri, 
of Vesuvius, and of the environs of Gaeta, are very beautifully executed. A 
large map in several sheets was published at the end of the last century by 
Antonio Rizzi Zannoni, and, for the provinces, it was long the only one that had 
any claim to accuracy ; but it is very deficient, and the compilation of the 
French D^p6t de la Guerre, by Bacler d'Albe, is equally so ; indeed, all the 
modem map-makers have copied Zannoni*s in their works on Italy. The coasts 
have been laid down with more accuracy by Captain (now Admiral) W. H. 
Smyth, and until lately have constituted its only maritime surveys, if we 


except some additions to the chart of the Bay of Naples by the Ufficio Topo- 
grafico; since 1856, M. Darondeau, an able hydrographical engineer attached 
to the French Depdt de la Marine, has continued his labours on the W. coast 
of Italy, as far as Cape Minerva. His surveys of the Straits of Messina and 
of the Ponza and Lipari Islands form most valuable documents for navigators, 
in consequence of the errors he discovered in all previous charts, especially of 
the latter interesting volcanic group. 

A publication by the late Cav. Marzolla, of the topographical department, 
consisting of fifteen maps of the provinces of the kingdom, completed in 
1853, will be the most useful map-guide to the Neapolitan provinces. The 
details are chiefly derived from Zannoni's maps, but the author has been 
enabled to introduce several rectifications, and, what is most important for the 
traveller, the many roads made since Zannoni's time; the scale is 3g7?s^« 
Besides the topographical details, very useful data on the statistics, produc- 
tions, &C., of each province, have been introduced on their respective sheets. 
There is also a good general road map by the same author in two sheets. 

9. Chronological Tables. 

THE NORMANS, a.d. 1042—1194. 

I. Counts of Apulia. 

1042. William Bras-de-Fer, son of Tancred of Hauteville, proclaimed Comes 
ApulicB by the Normans assembled at Matera. 

1046. Drogo, \.. vj-ofhers. 
1050. Humphrey, r^ ^^omevs. 

1057, Robert Guiscard, eldest son of Tancred of Hauteville by his 2nd wife, 
and half-brother of William, Drogo, and Humphrey. 

II. Dukes of Apulia and Calabria. 

1059. Robert Guiscard^ having conquered Calabria, assumes the title of Dux 

ApulicB et Calah'ioB, 
1085. Roger Bursa, 2nd son of Robert by his 2nd wife Sigelgaita. 
1111. William, eldest son of Roger Bursa. 
1127. Roger, 2nd son of Roger the "Great Count of Sicily," and nephew of 

Robert Guiscard. 

III. Kings of Naples and Sicily. 

Foundation of the Monarchy, 

1130. Roger, having conquered Amalfi and Naples, is proclaimed King. 

1154. William I. (The Bad), only surviving son of Roger. 

1166. William II. (The Good), son of William I. 

1 190. Tancred, Count of Lecce, natural son of Roger, son^of King Roger. 

1194. William III., eldest son of Tancred. 


THE SUABIANS, 1194—1266. 
House of Hohenstaufen. 

1194. Henry I. of Naples, and VT. Emperor of Germany, only son of 
Frederick Barbarossa, succeeding to the crown of the Two Sicilies by 
virtue of his marriage with Constance, the daughter of King Roger. 

1197. Constance alone, in the name of her only son Frederick. 

1198. Frederick II., Emperor of Germany, only son of Henry VI. and 

1250. Conrad, second son of Frederick II. 
1254. Manfred, Prince of Taranto, natural son of Frederick II., first as guardian 

of Conradin, only son of Conrad, and afterwards as King, on the false 

report of Conradin's death ; deposed by Urban IV . ; he was killed at 

the battle of Benevento in 1266. 

HOUSE OF ANJOU, 1266—1442. 

Kingdom of Naples. 

1266. Charles I. of Anjou, Count of Provence, 7th son of Louis VIII. of France 
by Blanche of Castile, and brother of Louis IX. (St Louis.) He lost 
Sicily in 1282. 

1285. Charles II. the Lame (Carlo il Zoppo), son of Charles I. 

1309. Robert the Wise, third son of Charles II. 

1343, Joanna I., daughter of Charles Duke of Calabria, only son of Robert 
the Wise, who survived him. She married her second cousin Andrew, 
a son of Charles King of Hungary, who was murdered at Aversa in 

1381. Charles III., of Durazzo, sometimes called "Carlo della Pace," son of 
Louis Count of Gravina, grandson of Charles II., and second cousin 
of Joanna I. He married Margaret, his first cousin, daughter of 
Charles of Durazzo, who was executed for the murder of Andrew, and 
granddaughter of Charles II. 

1386. Ladislaus, son of Charles III. 

1414. Joanna II., sister of Ladislaus. The Durazzo line ended in her. 

1435. Renato of Anjou, Duke of Lorraine, succeeded as the heir of Joanna II. 
in virtue of her will and testament, in opposition to her previous 
adoption of Alfonso of Aragon. 

I. Kings of Sicily, 1282 — 1496. 

1282. Peter I., King of Aragon, succeeded to the throne as the husband of 

Constance, the daughter of Manfred, and sole heiress of the house of 

1285. James I. « the Just," son of Peter III., abdicated in 1291 in favour of his 

brother, on becoming King of Aragon by the title of James II. 
1291. Interregnum to 1296. 

1296. Frederick II., brother of James the Just, died near Palermo in 1337. 
1337. Peter II., eldest son of Frederick II., who had been associated in the 

government by his father since 1321. 


1342. Louis, son of Peter IV. 

1355. Frederick III., younger brother of Louis. 

1377. Mary, daughter of Frederick III., and Martin of Aragon her husband, 
son of Martin I., King of Aragon. 

1402. Martin I., husband of Mary, succeeding on her death without issue. 

1409. Martin the Elder (Martin I. of Aragon, II. of Sicily), father of the last 
king, so that Sicily became again united to the crown of Aragon. 

1412. Ferdinand the Just, King of Aragon and Sicily, second son of Eleanor 
of Aragon and of John I. King of Castile, and brother of Henry III. 
King of Castile. 

1416. Alfonso v., the Magnanimous, King of Aragon and Sicily, son of Fer- 
dinand the Just, who, having conquered Naples, became 

II. King of NAPiiES and Sicily. 

1442. Alfonso I., formerly only King of Sicily, called the Magnanimous ; the 
heir of Joanna II. by her furst adoption, and the heir of the house of 
Hohenstaufen by the female line, and through it of the Norman kings. 
He entered Naples on June 2ud, 1442, and expelled Renato d'Anjou 
from the kingdom. At his death Naples and Sicily were again 

III. Kings of Sicily. 

1458. John II., King of Aragon and Navarre, second brother of Alfonso. 
1479. Ferdinand II. (Ferdinand the Catholic), son of John II. 

IV. Kings of Naples. 

1458. Ferdinand or Ferrante I., natural son of Alfonso I., legitimated by the 
Pope in 1444. 

1494. Alfonso II., Duke of Calabria, eldest son of Ferdinand I. 

1495. Ferdinand II., Duke of Calabria, eldest son of Alfonso II., who renounced 

the kingdom in his favour. 

1496. Frederick Prince of Altamura, second son of Ferdinand I., brother of 

Alfonso II., and uncle of the last king, despoiled of his kingdom by 
Louis XII, of France and Ferdinand the Catholic, died at Tours in 
1554 ; with him ended the Aragonese dynasty. 

Partition of the Kingdom, 1500 — 1504. 

By the Treaty of Granada, signed November 11, 1500, and confirmed by Pope 
Alexander VI. and the conclave of Cardinals in the following year, 
Ferdinand the Catholic of Spain and Louis XII. of France agreed to 
divide the kingdom of Naples between them. The Treaty provided 
that the King of France should possess the city of Naples, the Terra 
di Lavoro, the three Abruzzi, and half the revenue produced by the 
Tavoliere of Apulia, with a confirmation of the title of King of 
Naples and Jerusalem, which he had previously assumed. The King 
of Spain, who had for many years been King of Sicily, was to possess 
Calabria and Apulia, and the remaining half of the revenue of the 
Tavoliere, with the title of Duke of Calabria and Apulia. The pos- 
session of the provinces not mentioned in the treaty soon led to a war 
between the contracting parties. Hostilities commenced in June, 


1 502, and in little more than eighteen months the Fi:ench were de- 
feated in fonr battles, and by the military genius of GonsaWo de Cor- 
el oya the 'whole kingdom became, like Sicily, a Spanish possession. 


1502. Gonsalvo de Cordova, for Ferdinand the Catholic 
, The Duke de Nemours, for Louis XII, 

Kingdom of Naples and Sicily. 
1504. Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Spain, son of John II. 


1503. Gonsalvo de Cordova. 

1 507. Don John of Aragon, Count of Ribagorsa. 

1508. Don Antonio Guevara, High Steward of Spain. 

1509. Don Raimondo de Caridona. 

Spanish Sovereigns or the House of Austria, 1616 — 1700. 

1515. Joanna III. (Joan of Castile), daughter of Ferdinand and Isabelki; pro- 

claimed queen on the death ox her father, and abdicated in the fol- 
lowing year in favour of her son. 

1516, Charles IV., afterwards the Emperor Charles V., son of Joan of Castile 

and the Archduke Philip I. of Austria, Duke of Burgundy, son of the 
Kmperor Maximilian I. 


1522. Don Carlos de Lannoja (Lannoy). 

1527. Don Hugo de Moncada. 

1528. Philibert, Prince oi Orange. 

1 529. Cardinal Pompeo Colonna, Archbishop of Monreale. 
1532. Don Pedro de Toledo, Marquis de Villafranca. 
1554, Cardinal Pacecco. 

1554. Philip II. of Spain, the husband of Queen Mary of England, son of the 
Emperor Charles V. by Isabella of Portugal. 


1 555-58. Don Fernando Alvarez de Toledo (the celebrated Duke of Alva). 

1558. Don Juan Manriquez de Leon (as the King's Lieutenant). 

1559. Cardinal de la Cueva (as the Kind's Lieutenant). 
1559-71. Don Parasan de Rivera, Duke d'Alcalk. 
1571-75. Antoine Perrenot, Cardinal de Granvelle. 

1575-79. Don Inigo Lopez Hurtado de Mendoza, Marquis of Mondejar. 
1579-82. Don Juan de Zuniga, Prince of Pietrapersia, 
1582-86. Don Pedro Giron, Duke d'Ossuna, 
1586-95. Don Juan de Zuniga, Count de Miranda. 
1595-99. Don Euriquez de Guzman, Count d'Olivares. 

1598, Philip III. of Spain, son of philip II. by his fourth wife Anne of Aus- 
tria, daughter of the Emperor Maximilian II. 




1599-1601. Don Fernandez Ruiz de Castro, Count de Lenios. 

[1601-3. Don Francisco de Castro, left lieutenant by his father, 

the Viceroy, at his death.] 
1603-10. Don Juan Alfonso Pimentel d'Errera, Count de Benevente. 
1610-16. Don Pedro Fernandez de Castro, Count de Lemos. 
1616-20. Don Pedro Giron, Duke d'Ossuna. 
1620. Cardinsd Borgia (as the King's Lieutenant). 

1620-22. Cardinal Don Antonio Zapata (as the King's Lieutenant). 

1621. Philip IV. of Spain, son of Philip III. by Margaret of Austria, sister of the 
Emperor Ferdinand II. 


1622-29. Don Antonio Alvarez de Toledo, Duke d'Alva (grandson of 

the** Great Duke"). 
1629-31. Don Fernando Afan de Rivera, Duke d* Alcaic. 
1631-37. Don Manuel de Guzman, Count de Monterey. 
1637-44. Don Ramiro de Guzman, Duke de Medina de las Torres. 
J 644-46. Don Juan Alfonso Enriquez, Admiral of Castile. 
1646-48. Don Rodriguez Ponce de Leon, Duke d'Arcos. 
1648. Don John of Austria, natural son of Philip IV. (from January 

to March). 
1648-53. Don Inigo Valez y Tassis, Count d'Onate. 
1553-59. Don Garcia d'Avellana y Haro, Count de Castrillo. 
1659-64. Count Penaranda. 

1665. Charles II. of Spain, son of Philip IV. by his second wife, Mary Anne 
of Austria, daughter of the Emperor Ferdinand III. 


1664-66. Cardinal Pascual of Aragon. 
1666-71. Don Pedro Antonio of Aragon. 
1671. Don Federico de Toledo, Marques de Villafranca. 
1672-75. Don Antonio Alvarez, Marques d'Astorga. 
1675-83. Don Fernando Faxardo, Marques de los Velez. 
1683-87. Don Caspar de Haro, Marques del Carpio. 
1688-95. Don Francisco Benavides, Count de Sant' Estev^n. 
1695-1700. Don Luis de la Cerda, Duke de Medina Celi. 

£nd of the Spanish^ or elder branch of the House of Austria, 

War of the Spanish Succession, 1700-1713. 

1700. Philip V. of Spain, Duke of Anjou, and grandson of Louis XIV. of France, 
was declared heir of the kingdoms of Spain, Naples, and Sicily by his 
grand-uncle Charles, the late King. The succession, on the other hand, 
was claimed by Leopold I., Emperor of Germany, for his son the 
Archduke Charles, as the heir of the elder branch of the House of 
Austria. A war ensued, and lasted for 1 1 years. 

Viceroys during the War. 

1702. The Marques de Vigliena. 
. The Duke d'Ascalona, 



Kings of the House of Austria, 1707-1734. 

Kingdom of Naples : afterwards of Napies and Sicilt. 

1707. Charles VI., Archduke of Austria, second son of the Emperor Leopold I., 
by his third, wife Eleonora Magdalen Teresa, Princess of Palatine 
Newburgh (afterwards the Emperor Charles VI.). Count Daun en- 
tered Naples with the imperial army, July 7th, 1707. 
During this reign Sicily was taken from the Duke of Savoy by Philip V. of 

Spain (in 1713). It was restored to the crown of Naples in 1720 by the war of 

the Quadruple Alliance, the island of Sardinia being giyen to Victor Amadeus 

in exchange, with the title of King of Sardinia. 


1707. Count von Martinitz. 

1708. Count Daun. 

. Cardinal Grimani. 

1710. Count Carlo Borromeo. 

By the peace of Utrecht in 1713 the House of Bourbon was excluded from 
Italy ; Philip was confirmed as King of Spain, by the title of Philip V. ; Naples 
was made over to the German branch of the House of Austria ; and Sicily was 
separated from Naples and given to Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy. 

1715. Count Daun. 
1719. Count Gallas. 

. Cardinal Schrotembach. 

1721. Prince Borghese. 

. Cardinal, Von Althan. 

1728. The Ball Portocarrero. 

1733. Count Von Harrach. 

1734. Giulio Visconti, Count della Pieve, the last of the Viceroys. 

Kingdom of Naples and Sicily. 

Don Carlos, the younger son of Philip V. of Spain, by his second wife 
Elisabetta Famese, of the house of Parma, seized the kingdom of Naples, and 
subsequently that of Sicily. In 1734 he was crowned at Palermo; in 1738 
his title was acknowledged by the Treaty of Vienna ; in 1 744 he defeated the 
Austrians at Velletri, and compelled them to evacuate the kingdom ; and in 
1748 his title was acknowledged by the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle. His reign 
dates from the coronation at Palermo, and he may therefore be described as 
follows : — 

1734. Charles of Bourbon VII. of Naples, in order of succession, and by the bull 
of investiture of Pope Clement XII. ; generally called Charles III, 
by the Neapolitans, as he succeeded in 1759 to the throne of Spain, by 
the title of Charles III., on the death of his elder brother Ferdinand VI., 
and abdicated the throne of Naples and Sicily in favour of his third son 
Ferdinand, then in his eighth year. 


1759. Ferdinand IV., third son of the preceding, by the Princess Amelia Wal- 
barga, daughter of Frederick Augustus King of Poland. By his 
father's act of abdication, Ferdinand was proclaimed King of Naples 
and Sicily by the title of Ferdinand IV. During his minority (1759- 
1767) the kingdom "was governed by a Regency presided over by the 
Prime Minister, Tanucci. 
1799. General Championnet enters Naples with a French army on January 23, 
and proclaims the Repuhhlica Partenopea. 
On the 14th of June of the same year Cardinal Ruffo takes Naples, and re- 
establishes the government of Ferdinand IV. 

Kingdom of Naples. 

1806. On the 14th of January, a French army, under Massena, took possession 
of Naples and proclaimed King Joseph Bonaparte ; Ferdinand retiring 
to Sicily. 

1808. A decree of Napoleon, of July 15, proclaimed Joachim Murat King of 
Naples, instead of Joseph, called to the throne of Spain. 



1815. By the treaty of Casalanza^ May 20, 1815, Naples was restored to Fer- 
dinand, who, by the provisions of the Treaty of Vienna in 1816, 
assumed the title of 
1816". Ferdinand I., King of the Two Sicilies. 
1825. Francis I., son of Ferdinand I., by the Archduchess Maria Carolina of 

Austria, sister of the Emperor Joseph II. 
1830. Ferdinand II., son of Francis I., by his second wife the In&nta Isabella 
of Spain. Married Ist, in 1832, the Princess Maria Christina, 
daughter of Victor Emmanuel King of Sardinia ; she died in 1836 after 
giving birth to Francis, Duke of Calabria, the hereditary Prince; 
2nd, in 1837, her Imperial Highness Maria Teresa Isabella, daughter 
of the Archduke Charles of Austria, by whom he left nine children. 
Francis II. Duke of Calabria, proclaimed king on the 22nd of May 1859 ; 
married to Maria Amelia, daughter of the King of Bavaria, in .January 1859. 

In consequence of the misrule and tyranny of the three last kings of the 
House of Bourbon, the utmost discontent had taken possession of all classes, 
and had attained a state of revolution in 1859, when the successes of the 
French and Sardinians in N. Italy against the Austrians, the separation of 
Parma, Modena, Tuscany, and the Roman States, and their willing annexation 
to the new Italian kingdom, and the refusal of Francis II. to listen to any 
concessions, led to his downfall, after the siege of Gaeta, in February 1860, 
since which the Neapolitan kingdom has been annexed to the dominions of 
Victor Emmanuel, forming a population of 7,062,000. This great event was 
hastened- by the invasion of Sicily by General (Jaribaldi, who, landing with 
a handful of brave fellows at Marsala on the 11th May, 1859, in a short period 
was able to liberate entirely that island from the Royal troops, and, traversing 
the provinces from Reggio at the head of his triumphant band, to enter Naples 
on the 7th September, the King retiring on Capua, and ultimately on Gaeta, 
where, after a brave defence, he delivered up his last stronghold to the Italian 
General, CialdinL Since then, the ex-Royal Family have lived in exile at 



§ 1. Passports xl 

§ 2. Mouey . • • • • xl 
§ 3. Weights and Measures • xli 
§ 4. Roads xlii 

§ 5. Railroads • • . • .xlii 

§ 6. Posting xliii' 

§ 7. Vetturini xliii 

§ 8. luDS • xliii 

§ 1. — Pabspobts. 

Most of the annoyances under this head are now done away with, the regula- 
tions being the same as elsewhere in the Kingdom of Italy, where British 
subjects furnished with Foreign-office jmssports are allowed to travel 
without hindrance. The principal trouble to the British traveller will 
be when embarking on board the steamers for the Papal States, the 
visa of the Consul of that country being necessary, and this, for a 
very trifling gratuity, will be obtained by the masters of the principal 
hotels, or at the offices of the steamboats. 

§ 2. Money. 

Since the annexation of the Neapolitan provinces to the Italian kingdom, 
the decimal system, having the franc, or lira nova Italiana, for its unit, has 
become the official currency : still, as hitherto the coin most frequently 
met with is the old Bourbon coinage, it will be useful that the traveller 
should be acquainted with its divisions and relative values. In the shops 
the Neapolitan currency is chiefly adopted, whilst in hotels accounts are 
generally made out in francs and centimes. 

The coinage of Naples is arranged on the decimal system. By the law 
of April 15, 1818, silver was declared to be the basis of the currency, and 
the ducat to be its unit. In accordance with this law, four silver and four 
copper coins were issued from the Mint — the ducato of 10 carlini, tlic 
mezza-piastra of 6 carlini, the tart of 2 carlini, and the carlino of 10 grani, 
in silver ; the mezzo-carlino of 5 grani, the cinquina of 2J, the grano, and 
the tomese (the mezzo-grano of Naples and the mezzo-bajocco of Sicily). 
By another law of 1818, three gold coins were introduced ; the (/iida nuova 
or oncetta of 3 ducats, the quintuplo of 15 ducats, and the decupio of 30 
ducats. Before this law was enacted, the gold coin in common use was the 
pezza of 1783, containing 6 ducats, which was superseded by a decree of 1826, 
ordering the coinage of a new oncia of 6 ducats, but somewhat less in value. 

Many of these coins have disappeared from circulation. The ducat 
especially may be said to have ceased to exist, while the scudo of 1804, 
containing 12 carlini, has taken its place. The importance, however, of 
such a coin as the ducat in a decimal system has induced the Government 
and the bankers to retain it in their calculations. The result is that the 
ducat is used for all accounts of merchants and bankers, and for legal 
contracts, whilst the piastre is the medium of circulation ; hence a banker's 
note is always calculated in ducats and paid in piastres. 



Gold coins occur only in small quantities. The current silver coins are 
the piastra or sctfdo, the mezza-piastray the tart, and the carlino ; 
and the copper coinage consists of pieces of 5, 3, 2, 1 centesimi. Until 
the introduction of the metrical system under the present Government, 
all accounts were kept in ducats, carlini, and grani. The Eoman scudc, 
and the Spanish dollar, called by the Neapolitans cdlonnato, are worth 12i 
carlini or 125 gtani ; the gold Napoleon passes for, generally, from 450 
to 460, according to the rate of exchange ; the English sovereign is, at 
the ordinary exchange, worth 572^ grani. It will be convenient to reckon 
it in round numbers at 580 grani, and consider 4d, as the value of the 
carlino. Since Oct. 1, 1862, the copper coinage of the Bourbon govern- 
ment has ceased to circulate, being replaced by that on the decimal system. 


Pezza, of 1783=6 dacati 
Oncia „ 1818=3 ,, 
Onda „ 1826=6 » 


Piastra j =12 carlini 

Ducato =10 M 

Mezza-Pia8tra=: 6 „ 
TaA =2 „ 

Carlino =10 gmoi 

Me^zo^arllnosBs 6 „ 

In coins of 5 centimes. 

t. d, 

20 9 

I 10 4i 

20 9 





at the 


of £80. 







60 2 7 







and Deaari. 

4 11 Y 
2 3 7 
4 7 4 

9 4 8 

7 9 

3 9 5 

15 8 

7 9 

3 9 





25 60 
12 75 
25 50 










19 41 

9 28 

18 67 

3 60 
3 00 





Soldi, and 


32 7 

2 10 





31 GO 
14 64 
29 28 





§ 3. — Weights and Measures. 

The metrical or decimal French standard is now the official one of the 
Italian kingdom ; still, as the former units are often employed, the follow- 
ing are their relative value in English units. 

The Neapolitan mile was considerably longer than that of the other 
countries of Italy, being the geographical mile of 2018 yards of 60 to a 
degree, or nearly 1-^'g English mile. The post of 8 miles = ^^ Eng- 
lish miles. The canna, of 8 palmi, 83 inches. The pcUmo, 10| inches. 
The legal moggio or land measure '83 of an English acre. The caraffa or 
unit of liquid measure. The harUe,oi 60 carafe, 9^ imperial gallons. 
The hoUe of 12 barile, 1 17fjj imperial gallons. The tomoh or grain measure, 
1^^ imperial bushel. The trapeso, or unit of weight, 13^ Troy grains. 
The rotoloy If^ lb. avoirdupois. The cantaio or cantajo, of 100 rotoli, 
196 lbs. The Neapolitan ton is of 1000 kilogrammes, or 2205 lbs. avoir- 
dupois, or 35 lbs. less than the English. 

xlii § 4. ROADS. — § 5. RAILBOADS. 

§ 4. — ROADB. 

The post-road from Rome to Naples, and those from Naples to l5ovino, 
to Venafro, and to Eboli, were the only roads of any length in the king- 
dom practicable for carriages at the commencement of the present century. 
During the French occupation some efforts were made, for military pur- 
puses, to remedy this defect ; but it is only since 1815 that most of the 
roads we shall describe have been constructed. Many other roads have 
been since opened, which greatly improve the internal communication of 
the kingdom, and connect most of the provincial towns of any importance 
witli the capital. 

All these roads are in good condition. In some the engineering is remark- 
able ; and many of the viaducts, bridges, and substructions deservedly rank 
among the good works of their class in Italy. ITie roads are divided into 
Consular, Provincial, and Communal, and are under the direction of a ge- 
neral Bo^rd, called the Direzione Oenerale de* Ponti e Strode, a dependency 
of the Ministry of Public Works. There is a fourth class of a few 
secondary roads called Cammini de* Siti Peali, which lead to the royal 
residences in the neighbourhood of the capital. 

With regard to postal arrangements, the roads are divided into Cammini 
deUa Regia Posta, and Cammini Traversi, The former are the high post- 
roads of Puglia, Calabria, Abruzzi, Rome by Terracina, and Campobasso ; 
they are supplied with regular relays of post-horses, and the post-oflSce 
couriers run along them. The Cammini Traversi are all the roads branch- 
ing ofif from them, on which there are no relays ; although the postmasters 
at the last stations will furnish horses to proceed by them, at an increased 
rate, but fixed by the government. 

In many remote parts of the kingdom the only means of communication 
from town to town is by bridle-paths, a kind of drove-road, called via 
naturale, which has been made by going over the same track for ages, and 
is practicable for carts and for the light carriages of the coimtry. But tra-* 
veiling over them is generally slow and rough. 

§ 5. — Railboads. 

Two lines are now open, — one from Naples through Portici, Torre del 
Greco, Torre dell' Annunziata, Pompeii, Scafati, Angri, Pagani, Nocera, 
Cava, to Vietri and Salerno, with a branch from Torre dell' Annunziata to 
Castellammare ; the other from Naples to Capua, through Casalnuovo, 
Acerra, Cancello, Maddaloni, Caserta, and S. Maria di Capua, with a branch 
from Cancello to Nola, Samo, and Sanseverino. Both these lines have 
trains running every two hours during the day, and at moderate fares. 

1. The Portici and Salerno line was the first railway opened in Italy. It 
was constructed by a French company, and opened in 1839 to Portici, 
and to Vietri, about 28 miles from Naples, in 1860, passing through 
Salerno and Eboli : it will form the first part of the great line from Naples 
to Ancona, and to the S.E. provinces of the kingdom. 

2. The Caserta and Capua line was opened in December, 1843, as far as 
Caserta, and was extended to Capua in 1845. It was constructed at the 
expense of the Government. The line passes immediately in front of the 
royal palace of Caserta. This railway extends to the Papal frontier at 

§ 6. POSxr^TG. — § 7. VETTURiNi. xliir 

Ceprano, passing by Teano and San Germane, and conniects Naples with 
Rome ; it was opened in its entire extent in August, 1862. 

Four other lines of railway are projected, some of which are in progress. 

1. Between Ceprano, by Sora, the valleys of the Liris and Roveto, to the 
Lake of Fucino, and from there, by Celano, Sulmona, and Popoli, to the 
Adriatic, joining the line from Ancona to Naples at Pescara, 145 Eng. m. 

2. From Naples, by Vietri and Salerno, to Eboli, Conza, and Foggia, 
111 m. 

3. From Ancona along the Adriatic to Otranto, passing by San Bene- 
detto, Pescara, Termoli, San Severo, Foggia, Barletta, Ban, Brindisi, and 

*Lecce, with a branch line from Bari to Taranto, 463 m. 

4. From Taranto to Reggio, parallel to the coast-line, with a branch to 

The three first lines, of 719 Eng. m., have been approved by the legis- 
lature, and their execution granted by the Italian Government in Aug. 
1862, to the Bastoggi company, who have engaged to complete them in 1868. 
The survey of the fine from Taranto to Reggio is as yet only in progress. 

§ 6. — Posting. 

The regulations as to posting will be shortly the same as in other parts 
of the Italian kingdom. See Handbook of N, Italy, 

} 7. — ^Vettueini, 

The remarks which we have made on the subject of the Roman vetturini 
in the Handbook for Centred Italy apply equally to those of Naples, with 
this exception, that the vetturini of Naples have long had the reputation of 
being the worst in Italy. As, however, there are some roads unprovided 
with public conveyances, the traveller to a certain extent is dependent on 
the vetturino for his means of transit from one place to another, unless 
he can content himself with the common carriages of the country. In 
some of the remoter provinces, and especially in the mountain districts, 
he will find it difficult to procure any kind of carriage, and must then 
obtain horses, one of which, as the sumpter-horse, will carry two port- 
manteaus, and enable the padrone, who generally travels on foot, to get a 
lift occasionally. In many of the provincial towns there is a kind of open 
carriage with two horses, capable of travelling from 5 to 7 in. an hour. 
The price is from 4 to 5 piastres a day, allowing nothing for the back journey ; 
for a light country cart with two horses, in which 6 m. an hour may be 
travelled, 3 piastres for the first day and 2 piastres for the second. For 
three horses for a long day's journey, two for the travellers and one for 
the baggage, the usual price is 4i ducats a day. All engagements with 
vetturini should be drawn up in writing and attested by some person in 
authority. A vetturino, like all other travelling carriages, pays 1 ducat per 
wheel on crossing the bridge at Capua. 

§ 8.— Inns. 

In addition to the information respecting inns given in detail in our 
accounts of the different towns, we may here observe, as a general rule, that 
travellers should make their bargain with the landlords on their first 

zliV § 8. INNS. 

arrival. All foreicn^ers make it a rale to adopt this precaution, and for this 
reason they not only pay about a third less than English travellers, hut 
escape the annoyances and delays of disputed bills. The principal hotels 
in the capital rank among the best, but also the most expensive. Within the 
last few years the landlords have lessened one source of cost, by the intro- 
duction of tables-d*h6te and cofifee-rooms ; but we are convinced that they 
will still further consult their own interests by adopting in every branch of 
their establishments, and especially in the charges for apartments, a scale 
of prices which will put an end to the reproach that they have the dearest 
inns in Italy. The third-rate inns of Naples have not the pretensions or 
the comforts to justify high prices ; and for this reason they are usually fre- 
quented by foreigners, who are less dependent than Englishmen on com- 
fortable quarters for the enjoyment of travelling. There is perhaps no city 
in Italy which offers in itself more inducements than Naples to prolong a 
residence ; and we trust that the landlords of the respectable hotels will 
in future insure the lengthened sojourn of English travellers, by adopting 
a fixed scale of charges consistent with the known expenses of life at 

In the provinces, the towns, and even the cities, are very unequally pro- 
vided. In some the inns are not inferior to those of the second class in the 
capital ; in others they are scarcely worthy of the name. In the remote 
districts the osterie are as bad and comfortless as they were in the time of 
Montaigpe, except that the wooden shutters have mostly been replaced by 
glazed panels. The cookery in such places is on a par with the accom- 
modation. The traveller in the mountain and inland districts who can 
make his own omelet, and instruct the padrona how to cook a dish of ham 
and eggs, will find these commodities in the highland villages, where even 
milk and butter are rarely to be met with. As soon, however, as English- 
men begin to diverge from the beaten track, and make excursions through 
the beautiful regions to which their attention is directed in the following 
pages, the inconveniences we have mentioned will gradually disappear. 





FoiJ'K principal roads lead from the 
Roman States to Naples : — ^by Terra- 
cina, — hj Ceprano, — by Rieti, — by 
Ancona. They all join before arriv- 
ing at Capua. 

I. The first leaves Rome by the 
Gate of S. Giovanni, and passing 
through Albano, Velletri, Terracina, 
and Mola di Gaeta, reaciies Capua, 
129 m. from Rome. It follows in 
a great part of its course the ancient 
Via Ajppia, and presents more objects 
of classical and historical interest 
than any of the others. It is the 
best known of all the routes, and 
offers the most comfortable accom- 
modations for travellers. The post 
from Rome to Naples follows this line, 
and the travelling on it is excellent. It 
is also that followed by the public dili- 
gences between these two cities. As, 
with the exception of the pass of Itri, 
there are no mountains on this route, it 
is the most eligible for invalids, espe- 
dally in winter. It is,, however, some- 
what objectionable in the autumn, 
as it traverses the Pontine Marshes ; 
and care should be- taken at all sea- 
sons by travellers in delicate health to 
avoid crossing them in the night. 

II. The second, now traversed in 
a great part of its length by railway, 

leaves Boine by the Porta Mag- 
giore, and, passing by Valmontone, 
Frosinone, Ceprano, and San 
Germane, falls into the first 4: 
miles before Capua, and 109 miles 
from Rome. It follows the Via 
Ldbicana to the 31st fnile near 
Valmofitone, and afterwards the Via 
Latina, There are no post stations 
on it, which is unimportant now that 
the rly. is open, and the inns are 
inferior to those on the firgt route; 
to which, however, it is preferable in 
summer and autumn, as being com- 
paratively free from malaria. It 
passes through a beautiful country, 
it affords an opportunity of visiting 
the Benedictine monastery of Monte- 
casino, and it runs so neai^ the 
Pelasgic remains at Segni, Feren- 
tino, Alatri, and Arpino, and the 
falls of the Liris at Isola, that 
the traveller who can spare a couple 
of days can easily visit them. The 
railway between Rome and this line 
combines the picturesque sites of 
Frascati, Albano, and velletri, and 
forms the great line of communication 
between Rome and Southern Italy. 
The most convenient plan will be to- 
go to Naples by the first and return to 
Rome by the second of these routes. 



Iir. The tliird proceeds through 
Rieti, and hy Civita Ducale, Antro- 
doco, Aquila, Popoli, Sulmona, Castel 
di Sangro, Isemia, and Venafro, falls 
into the second at Gajanello, where 
it joins the railway from Naples to 
Borne before reaching Capua. This 
route, which follows the Via So- 
laria as^ far as Antrodoeo, is the 
most convenient for travellerB who 
come from Florence by Perugia, and, 
after visiting the falls of Temi, wish 
to avoid Rome. The road is in- ex- 
cellent condition, has relays the whole 
way from Antrodoeo to Naples, and 
passes through a most beautiful coun- 
try, often presenting scenery quite of 
an alpine character. But most of the 
inns on it are very bad, and the tra- 
veller must be prepared to undergo 
a good deal of discomfort. 

IV. The fourth starts from Anoona, 
and', following the coastof the Adriatic 
as far as Pescara by rly., strikes inland 
to Popoli, where it joins the third. It 
is the most convenient for persons 
who come from the Romagna or 
the Marches, or who have reached 
Ancona by steamer from the Ionian 
Islands or Trieste. From Pescara, 
the road is in good condition and can 
be posted the whole way;- but the 
inns are also very indifferent. 

V. There is a fifth route from 
Rome to Naples, which is scarcely 
followed but by some artist or stray 
tourist dis}x>sed to undergo priva- 
tions- and discomforts for the sake 
of the fine scenery which it offers ; 
especially as a portion of it can only 
be travelled on horseback. It leaves 
Rome by the Porta S. Lorenzo, follows 
the Via Tihurtina to Tivoli, and after- 
wards the Via Valeria to Tagliacozzo, 
and by Avezzano, Civita di Roveto, 
Sora, and Isola, it joins near Arce 
the second route. It passes through 
very wild and picturesque scenery, 
and affords an opjwrtunity of visiting 
the Lake Fucino, the Claudian Aque- 
duct, the source of the Liris, and its 
fall» at Isola ; but there is a great 
want of inns on it, and those that 
exist are very indifferent and dirty. 

We must, however, repeat once for 
all, that the traveller who attempts 
to follow any of the last three routes, 
and especially the fifth, must be pre- 
pared to submit to some discomfort, 
and expect few of the conveniences 
to which he has been accustomed on 
the great post-roads. It would be 
advisable that before starting he 
should procure letters of introduction 
to some of the re«dent proprietors. 

ROUTE 140. 


4 Kil. by Railway, and 1 5| Posts, 

By Railnay. 
Rome to Torre di Mezza Via . . . 
(Oto returning to Rome this post only | 
charged as 1^.) 
Torre di Mezza Via to Albsmo . . , 

Albano to Velletri 

<A toll of 5 pauls is levied on all post- 
aarriages crossing the viaduct between 



Albano andXariccia since the suppres- 
sion of the post station at Genzano : a 
at^liorse both ways.) 

— Rom. posts. 

Velletri to Cistema . . .... 1 

Cisterna to Torre de' Tfe Ponti ... It 
Torre de' Tfe Ponti to Bocca.di Fiume . 1 

Bocca di Finme to Mesa 1 

Mfesa to PoDte Maggiore 1 

Ponte Maggiore to Terrachfla .... 1 

Terracina to Fondi ' li 

(In returning from Naples k post is paid 
from Fondi to Portella, but not vice 

Fondi to Itri 1 

(A third horse to every pair^ but not 
vice vana*}^ 



Itri to Mola 1 

(A 3rd horse from Mola to Itrl, as far as 
the tomb of Cicero or L'Epitaffio, but 
not vice versa.) 

Mola to Garigliano 1 

Garlgliano to S. Agata di Sessa ... 1 
(A 3rd horse to every pair, but not vice 
S. Agata di Sessa to Sparam'se .... 1 
(A 3rd horse to every pair from Spara- 
nise to S. Agata, but not vice versa.) 
Sparanise to Capua (15 kil. by rail) . , 1 

Capua to Aversa 1 

Aversa to Naples 1| 

(The i post, both ways, is charged for a 
royal post.) 

The distance between Capua and 
Naples, 44 kil., can also be performed 
by rail. 

Before leaving Rome passports must 
be signed by the British consul or the 
American minister, and the police.. 

Persons who travel post must obtain 
an authority for post-horses from the 
postmaster at Rome. The diligences 
on this road leave Rome every day, 
except Sunday, at 7 a.m., and reach 
Naples in 30 hours. The fares are 1 1 
and 12 scudi. The malle poste leaves 
Rome on Tuesdays, Thursdays and Sat- 
urdays, at 5^ p.m., takes two passengers, 
and reaches Naples in 26 hours. The 
fare is 1 5 scudi. The administration 
of the diligences at Rome and Naples 
will furnish carriages and post horses 
at a fixed scale of prices for the whole 
journey, by which the traveller can 
remain as long as he wishes on the 
road. In a li^ht carriage, travel- 
ling post, the journey, from Rome 
to Terracina, occupies 10 hours, and 
fromTerracinato Naples aboat 1 2 hours. 
Those who wish to sleep two nights on 
the road should make Velletri or Cis- 
tema the first resting-place, cross the 
Pontine marshes in good time on the 
second day, and sleep at Mola di Gaeta } 
they will thus reach Naples easily on 
the third day. The vetturini sleep two 
nights on the road, at Cisterna, which 
ought to be avoided after the middle of 
May, on account of its malaria,* and 

• On this subject we have received a letter 
ftom an experienced English physician at 
Naples :— " Travellers should be warned against 
irteeping at Cisterna. We have constantly cases | 

Mola di Gaeta or S. Agata, at each of 
which there are tolerable inns,' arriving 
early enough on the third day at Capua 
for the last railway train to Naples, 
or even at Naples by the high road. 
Travelling in this manner, Terracina 
and S. Agata will be the breakfast sta- 
tions; and as this causes a detention 
of about 3 hours, the traveller will 
have time to see everything worth 
visiting at the former plaice. The fare 
of a vetturino carriage from Naples to 
Rome, with 4 horses, and capable of 
conveying a family of 6 or 7 persons, 
is now from 15 to 20 napoleons, ac- 
cording to the season. The time when 
the charge is highest is during the 
spring, when travellers are hurrying 
away to be present at the ceremonies 
of the Holy Week, or at its close. The 
vetturino will engage to pay alJ hotel 
expenses on the road .at the rate of 
6 to 8 francs a-day, but we would 
scarcely advise persons studying their 
comfort to adopt this plan, although 
more economical than paying their own 
bills. For persons posting, the best plan 
will now be, in the spring or summer 
months, to sleep at Albano or Velletri, 
or to leave Rome by the first rly. 
trains for those places. In this way 
Mola di Gaeta can easily be reached 
on the first day before dark. If by 
Vetturino, by leaving early, or by send- 
ing on the carriage to Velletri the 
evening before, Terracina can be 
easily reached the same day, which 
will be a betrer sleeping place than 
Cisterna ; S. Agata on the second ; 
and Naples, without employing the 
Capua Railway, in the afternoon of 
the third day, giving ample time for 
seeing what is worth visiting at Terra- 
cina, Mola, MinturnsB, and Capua. 

The posting on this road is excellent, 
across the Pontine Marshes. 

On leaving Rome we traverse the 
Piazza Trajano, skirt the N. side of the 
Coliseum, and, passing St. John La- 
teran, leave the city by the Porta di San 
Giovanni, and enter at once upon the 

of malaria fever arising from so doing, amongst 
persons arriving from Rome, l^ord S. fell a 
victim to this; and many others, both before 
and since, have suffered from the same cause." 
(JR, S. Jao. 18«a.) 

B 2 


Campagna. The post-road to Albano, 
the Via Appia Nova, is of modern con- 
struction ; it runs nearly parallel to the 
ancient Via Appia (on the rt.), but does 
not join it until H reaches Le FrattochU 
>1 mi from the city.* 

It is scarcely possible to exaggerate 
the effect produced by the first two 
stages of this route. Classical enthu- 
siasm is not exclusive, for even the 
most ordinary mind cannot be insensible 
to the impressions excited by the aspect 
of the delate Campagna. As far as 
the eye can reach, the plain is covered 
with ruins, pre-eminent among which 
are the long lines of the Claudian 
and Anio Novus Aqueducts, spanning 
the dreary waste with their' gigantic 
arches. These ruins appeal more power- 
fully to the imagination than any other 
antiquities of Kome. Their construc- 
tion bespeaks a grandeur of conception 
and of purpose, and the desolation of 
the scene is peculiarly in accordance 
with the reflections suggested by them. 

The details of the route from Rome 
to Nemi are described in the Handbook 
of Borne (p. 377). We shall therefore 
merely mention the different stages of 
this portion of the journey, and resume 
our narrative at Velletn. By taking 
the early railway train persons posting 
can reach Terracina early in the after- 
noon,, and by vetturino in the same 
day, by, in the- latter case, sending on 
the carriage the day before to Yelletri. 

1 Albano. Inns: The Hotel de la 
Foste, now very good ; and de Fussie, 
very iair. 

On leaving A>bano the^st rd. crosses 
the gigantic viaduct which spans the 
valley that separates it from Lariccia, 

* The stations 
Capua, were — 

Ad Nonam or 
Tres Tabernae 

Tres Taberns, 
Forum Appii, 

en the Via Aj^k, as far as 


near CUtemct. 

Foro Afpio^ 



near MoCia, di Gaeta, 

near Ponte di Garigliano. 


Sta, Maria, di Capua, 3 m. 
beyond the modem Capua, 
the ancient Caailinum on 

■ the Via Latina^ 

and, passing the piazza of the latter 
town, having the Chigi Palace on the 
1., and the church opposite, traverses 
two smaller viaducts before reaching 
Genzano. The church and convent 
between Lariccia and Genzano, at Gal- 
loro, belongs to the Collegio Romano 
of Rome, to whose members it affords 
an agreeable villegiatura in summer. 

\By Failway. — On leaving the Cen- 
tral Railway Station the line cuts 
through the city wall not far from the 
Porta Maggiore, and, following the line 
of the Aqueduct, runs across the plain 
for 9 m. to the station of Ciampino, 
where the branch to Frascati strikes 
off on t. From here it soon crosses 
the ancient Via Appia, near tole Frat- 
tocchie, at the foot of the ascent to 
Albano, and winds round the base of 
the Alban hills, through some deep cut- 
tings, leaving Boville, the hills of Tor 
Savelli and Albano, on 1. until reaching 

27 kil. (from Rome)Za OccAtnaStat. 
From here Albano is 2{m., and Lariccia 
2 m. distant. A good road of 18m. leads 
from La Cecchina to Porto* d' Anzio : 
continuing along the W. base of the 
Alban hiHs, and leaving the picturesque 
town of CivYta Lavinia on 1., we soon 
arrive at the 

4 kil; Civita Lavinia Stat., the large 
town of Genzano being 2 m., aad Nemi 
4 m. on left.] 

From Civita Lavinia the railway 
continues along the hills, passing over 
a eousiderable iron viaduct before 
reaching Velletri. 

At the 21st m. the post-road quits 
the Appian, and makes a detour of 
several miles to pass through Velletri, 
but it rejoins the ancient road 
2 miles before reaching Cistema, 
leaving on the right the picturesque 
heights of Monte Giovi, the ancient 
Coriolif and of Civita Lavinia, the pro- 
bable site of the still more classical 
Lanuvium-. Velletri is entered by a 
gateway built in 1573 from the designs 
of Vignoh, 

9 kik Velletri Stat. (Inn: La 
Fosta, large, but dirty), the capital of a 
Legation and the see of a bishopric 
conjointly with Ostia, always held by 
theCardinal Dean of the Sacred College. 
Nearly oue-flfth of the population of 


the province, extending from Genzano 
to the Neapolitan frontier, is within the 
walls of Velletri. (12,000 Inhab.) The 
city is picturesquely placed on the lower 
slopes of the Monte Artemisio, which 
forms the N. boundary of the Pontine 
Marshes. It occupies the site x>f the 
Volscian city of Velitros^ whose hostili- 
ties with .Rome date from the reign of 
Ancus Martins. It was surrounded with 
a foss and vallum by Coridls^us, and 
was so frequently in collision with the 
Romans that they at length, after the 
close of the great Latin war in b.c. 338, 
destroyed its walls and transported 
its local senators to Rome, where they 
are said to have become the ances- 
tors of the distinct caste called the 
Trasteverini. The family of Augustus 
was originally from Velitrse, and Sue- 
tonius states that the house in which 
the emperor was born was in his time 
still shown in the neighbourhood. In 
the sixth cent. Velletri was occupied by 
BelisariuSf and it subsequently suffered 
from the Lombard invasion which 
ruined so many towns on the Appian. 
In 1744 the hiUs on the N. of the town, 
were the scene of the Jt)attle in which 
Charles III. of Nicies gained a victory 
over the A-u&trian army under Prince 
Lobkowitz, which secured the Two 
Sicilies to the Spanish branch of the 
house of Bourbon. 

Velletri has little to detain the tra- 
veller. Its mediaeval walls and towers 
are fast falling into ruin ; and the Museo 
Borgia, which foonerly gave an interest 
to the city, has been removed to Naples, 
and to the Propaganda College at Rome. 
The lofty campanile of Santa Maria in 
IViviOf built, according to the Gothic 
inscription on its wallfi* in 1353, is sup- 
posed to have bepn an ex-voto for the 
deliverance of the city from the plague 
which desolated it m 1348, during its 
siege by Nicola Caetani, X^ord of Fondi, 
From the piazza to the 4^athedral the 
street traverses nearly the whole city. 
The Palazzo Lancellotti, built by Mar^ 
tino Longhi, is celebrated for its stair- 
case, its fine terraces and loggia, from 
which the view over the subj^acent 
plain and the Volscian Mountains, 
embracing Cora and Monte fortino, is 
very beautiful. On the rt hand is the 

Palazzo Pvbblico, in whose wall is pre- 
served an inscription called the Lapide 
di Lolcirio, referring to the ancient 

The cathedral, dedicated to St. Cle- 
ment, rebuilt in 1660, ;has a picture of 
the .Coronation of the Virgin, and. some 
legends of saints, by Oiovanni Balducci* 
The columns of the subterranean chapel 
evidently belonged to ancient buildings. 
The paintings which coveredthe walls, 
many of which were attributed to the 
school of Perugino, have mostly pe- 
rished. In. the sacristy is the lavamano, 
or basin for al)lution, presented by Car- 
dinal della Jlovere, afterwards Julius 
II., when bishop of Ostia and Velletri. 
Another eminent bishop of this dio- 
cese was Latino Orsini^ better known 
as the Cardinal Zfotinusy one of the most 
learned prelates of the 13th cent., who 
is believed by some Italian biographers 
to be the author of the beautiful hymn 
** Dies tree. Dies ilia,'* 

The ch. of Santa Maria deW Orto has 
a picture by Gio Battista Rositi, reprc- 
sentlqg the Virgiji and Child in a 
temple, sustained W angels in Roman 
costurnel U is praised by Lanzi for its 

Velletri is badly built, and its streets 
are narrow and inconvenient. The hill 
on which it stands is volcanic, several 
basaltic eruptions being seen in the 
numerous quarries in its outskirts which 
supply the paving-stone for the town. 

The w^men are beautiful, and their 

Graceful costume adds much to the 
ignity of their persons. The neigh- 
bourhood of the city, as of all the hilly 
region fropa Xjenzano, is celebrated for 
its wines, 

A regular .diligence conveyance, in 
correspondence wj,th the railway train, 
runs from Velletri to Cisterna and Ter- 
racina, with a bi^anch vehicle to Sezze 
and Piperno. 


No tiflveller who takes an interest 
in the antiquities of Italy will. grudge 
the time necessary to make an excur- 
sion to Coal and Norma, the ancient 



Cora and N^orba, which contain eome 
very important riiius. Cori is 1'2 m. 
from Velletri, by a carriage-road. It 
has a small /nw, where travellers will 
^nd tolerable fare. About midway 
from Yelletri the road passes a small 
lake called Logo di Oiulianelh, and a 
little farther on the village of the 
sam^ name. 3 m. before Cori the 
road runs at the foot of the peak 
of Hoccq^ Massima, on the summit of 
which is perched one of the most inac- 
cessible villages in Italy. It is supposed 
to occupy the site of the ancient Ar- 
tena. The approach to Cori is through 
olive plantations, and commands a 
magnificent view over the lower por- 
tion of tlie territory of the Volsci. On 
the 1. are the church and convent of 
S, Francesco, with a fine road used 
as the public promenade. Cori is 
situated on a bold hill, presenting 
from the plain the appearance of a 
pyramid crowned by the ruins of its 
ancient temples. Two torrents, flowing 
through the deep ravines which bound 
the hill on the E. and W., unite below 
its W. angle under the name of the 
Fosso cfe* Ficchumif and fall into the 
Teppia, which empties itself into the 
Pontine Marshes. The to wn is separated 
by an olive-grove into two parts ; the 
upper, which was the site of the an- 
cient Acropolis, is called Cori a monte, 
the lower Cori a valle, Cori occupies 
the site and preserves the name of 
one t>f the most ancient cities in 
Italy. Virgil and Diodorus mention 
it as a colony of Alba Longa ; whilst 
Pliny states that it was founded by 
Dardanus, which would make it one of 
the oldest settlements in Europe. It 
was one of the 30 cities which formed 
the Latin League in B.C. 493. The 
walls exhibit constructions of four 
different periods ; 1st, the irregular 
rough masses of stone put together in 
the ordinary Polygoi al style, with 
smaller stones, apparently from the 
neighbouring torrents, filling up the 
interstices of the larger blocks; 2nd, 
polygonal masses of Pelasgic work- 
manship ; 3rd, similar polygonal walls, 
the stones of which are more carefully 
cut, and adapted with greater precision, 
marking the best period of this style 

of construction; 4th, smaller stones 
covering the older work, and resem- 
bling the style of the time of S} ila. 
The hill appears to have had three 
circuits of walls ; the 1st, exhibiting 
the most ancient style of masonry, 
is seen at the lower part ; the 
2nd, near the ch. of Sant* Oliva, and 
by the side of the road to the cita- 
del ; the 3rd, surrounding the citadel, 
and exhibiting the workmanship of 
the second period. The ruins of these 
three circuits might, according to 
Nibby, lead to the conclusions — that 
the most ancient c\tv was situated on 
the lower flanks of the hill between 
the Piazza Tassoni and the Porta Nin- 
fesina ; that the acropolis was built by 
the Alban colony of Latinus Silvius; 
that the Romans enlarged the fortifica- 
tions of the citadel in the 4th cent, of 
Rome ; and that the city was restored 
and the temples added in the time of 
Sylla. Ascending to the citadel, the first 
object is the ruin called, but without 
any authority, the Temple of Hercules, 
A portion of the building now serves 
as a vestibule to the ch. of S. Pietro, 
which contains an ancient square 
marble altar, supporting the baptismal 
font, with rams' heads and mutilated 
gorgons. Beyond the adjoining gar- 
den is the beautiful tetrastyle portico 
of a temple of the Doric order ; the 
columns, of travertine, retain traces 
of stucco ; the doorway is narrower at 
the top than at the bottom, and over 
it the inscription : — M manltus m f l 


cords its construction by the Duumvirs 
of the town. The columns are very 
graceful and carefully worked, and the 
style of the building bears a resem- 
blance to that of the Sibyl at Tivoli. 
Nibby thinks that the altar in the ch. 
and the figure of Minerva at the foot 
of the «teps leading to the Palace of the 
Senator on the Capitol at Rome, which 
was found among these ruins, show that 
the temple was dedicated to Minerva, 
and not to Hercules, as is commonly 
supposed. In the descent from the 
citadel to the lower town masses of 
the ancient wall are seen on each side. 

ROUTE 140. — CORI. NORMsi. 

and fragments of capitals and columns 
built into the walls of private houses. 
The ch. of Sant* Oliva has evidently 
been erected upon ancient foundations, 
supposed, on the authority of an in- 
scription, to be those of a temple to 
Esculapius and Hygeia. Jn the Strada 
S. Salvatore is a house built between 
two columns of the portico of the 
Temple of Castor and Pollux, The piazza 
below is supposed to cover the st^s 
leading to the temple. Thetwo columns 
of the portico resemble in material those 
of the upper temple, but they are of 
the Corinthian order, of beautiful work- 
manship, and of far superior style and 
execution. The inscription, though 
mutilated, is sufficient to show the most 
important &,cts : . . .. mxastori 


CALvivs M F P N. lu the Via delle 
Colonnette are fragments of tesselated 
pavement and Done columns, .and an 
inscription relating to the ancient cis- 
terns for supplying the city with water. 
The Piazza Montagna also contains 
some broken columns and inscriptions. 
Below the Via delle Colonnette is the 
Pizzotonico, marking the position tof 
an ancient Piscina; the walls, ap- 
parently Roman, are of great extent. 
On the W. side is a fine specimen of 
the more ancient walls, formed of huge 
blocks of limestone. In the Casa Vet- 
tori are two Doric columns the remains 
of some temple. 

Beyond the Porta Ninfesina/ on the; 
road to Norba, where another mass of 
the wall is well preserved, is a mag- 
nificent ancient bridge of a single, arch, 
called Ponte della Catena, spanning the: 
deep ravine, 76 ft. Mow the parapet. 
It is built of enormous square masses 
of tufa, and is one of the most rema^k' 
able monuments of its kind. Its pre* 
servation without the slightest injury 
for upwards of 20 ceutunes is aston- 

The present town has 4000 Inhab. 
A great portion of its modern walls 
were erected in the 15th cent, by La- 
dislaus King of Naples. It is well 
built and clean, and so high above 
the marshes as to be free from mal- 

There ig a bridle-road of 4 J hour^ 

from Cori to Segni, crossing the N. 
shoulder of the Volscian range. It 
passes near the picturesquely-situated 
town of Rocca Massima. 

Another bridle-road of 5 m. leads from 
..Cori to Norma y near the site of the ancient 
Norba, one of the 30 cities whichform«d 
the Latin League. In B.C. 492 it be- 
came a colony of the Romans, who 
established it as a check to the in- 
roads of the warlike Volsciacs. During 
the -civil .wars it was betrayed into 
the hands t of Lepidus, the general of 
Sylla; but the garrison put themselves 
and the inhab. to the sword, and set 
fire to the town, which was never re- 
built. The ruins are upon the highest 
point of a rocky ridge, N. of the 
modem village, and may be seen 
from the high road between Cistema 
and Torre Tre Ponti. The walls are 
estimated by Sir William Gell 7000 ft. 
in circuit, and the blocks as varying 
from 3 to 10 ft. in length. They ex- 
,hibit fine exan^ples of Polygonal con- 
struction. Four gates may still :be 
traced, of one, of wliich there are consi- 
derable remains. Within the walls is a 
large ,quadrilateral enclosure of poly- 
gonal masonry, containing channels 
for the .conveyance of water. Wells 
and reserv<}irs .are found near it, 
with remains of -a temple. The Acro- 
polis, in the centre of the town, ap- 
pears to .hav£ been surrounded by a 
triple wdll. Subterranean aqueducts, 
and passages leading to sallyports, have 
been found under its site. Below the 
modern village are the ruins .of JVui/tr, 
a town of the middle ^ges, wi^ a dis^ 
mantled castle and monastery. The 
small lake near it is mentioned by 
Prliny for. its floating islands. The little 
'.river ^ymphcEus, which had its origin 
in the lake, gave the name to the 
modern town. A road from here falls 
into the post-road at the 40th m. from 
Rome, halfway between Cisterna m^ 
Torre Tre Ponti. Thcibest road fjpom 
Cori to Norma will be to foUaw that 
from Cori to ffir-as the 
Molo d% NinfayWdfi from; there to ascend 
to the modern a^d asci^At tillages. 



The post-road on leaving Velletri 
descends graduall;^ to the plain, and 
2 m. before arriving at Cistema re- 
joins the Via Appia, passing through 
the extreiaity of the oak forests of 
Cisterna, once the favourite haunt of 
the i^otorious brigand Barbone. They 
form a valuable portion of a vast estate 
extending to the mountains, a feodal 
possession of the Caetani family. The 
forest on eaeh side of the road has 
been cleared for a few hundred yards, 
to prevent the concealment of robbers. 
Juvenal's description of the bad cha- 
racter of the Via Appia applies in so 
many particulars to the modern route, 
that it is an illustration of the invete- 
racy of habit which Italy affords : — 

Interdnm et ferro Bubitus grassator agit rem, 
Armato quotles tatsB custode tenentur 
Igt Pomptiu^ palua et Gallinaria p|uvs. 

Sat. ni. 305. 

Before reaching Cisterna some 
branches of the Fosso delle Castelle, one 
of the branches of the Astura, are 
crossed; and at the 3 1st m. from Romd 
fiome remains of an aqueduct may be 
seen on the rt., traversing the valley. 

Cistema (1 700 Inhab. — Inn, La Posta, 
much eomplaioed of for its want of 
comfort and exorbitant charges) ought 
to be avoided as a sleeping-place after 
the middle of May, since many persons 
who have passed the night there have 
been attacked with fever after arriving 
at Naples ; indeed, since the opening of 
the rly. to Velletri, there will be no neces- 
sity for the traveller halting here, where 
there is nothing to be seen. Cisterna 
stands on the last elevation above the 
Pontine Marshes. In the middle ages 
it was called Cistema Neronis, a name 
derived perhaps from the works under- 
taken by Nero for extending the canal 
of the marshes. The town of Ubihrm, 
whose inhabitants are called "little 
frogs" by Cicero, is believed to have 
stood in its vicinity, but Cistema is 
supposed to have risen from the ruins 
of Tres Tabemw, The greater part of 
the town is concealed from the road by 
the large mansion of the Caetanis. 
On the other side of the piazza is a 
vast store for grain grown in the adja- 

cent countr)'. Between Cistema' and 
Porto d'Anzio is Campomorto, the scene 
of the victory gained in 1482 by 
Roberto Malatesta and Girolamo Kiario, 
the generals of Venice and the Pope, 
over the armies of Naples and Ferrara, 
commanded by Alfonso Duke of Cala- 
bria, and now the centre of one of 
the largest cattle-farms of the Roman 
States, belonging to the Hospital of 
S. Spirito. There is a good view of 
Norba on the 1., at the ^e of Monte 
Gorgoglione, all the way from Cis- 
terna ; and farther on of Sermoneta, 
an interesting town on the declivity of 
the V4)lscian Mountains, remarkable 
for its large baronial castle. Sermo- 
neta was a feudal possession of the 
Caetanis, to -the head of which fkmijy 
it gives a ducal title. It can be most 
easily visited from Torre Tre Ponti, 
from which it is 5 m. distant. 

1^ Torre Tre Ponti; a solitary post- 
station, marking the site of I^eponthetn, 
— the Tripus of the middle ages. ^ a 
ra. beyond this the Ninfa is crossed by 
a Roman bridge, bearing on each para- 
pet inscriptions recordmg its having 
been repaired by Trajan, 

The Pontine Marshes, Pomptince Pa* 
ludes, properly begin here. Their 
length, from Sfettuho to Terracina, is 
36 m. ; their breadth, from the moun- 
tains to the sea, is from 6 to 12 m. 
The extent of land recovered by the 
modern drainage may be estimated as 
covering at least 13,000 acres. Their 
least accessible swamps are now almost 
entirely tenanted by herds of buffaloes, 
wild., bloars, stags, and wild fowl ; and 
where they are traversed by the high 
road, a few solitary post-houses, whose 
inhabitants carry in their livid counte- 
nances the fatal evidence of malaria, 
are the only signs they give that man 
even exists within their limit». Pliny 
states that 24 cities were once to be 
found here; and we learn from Livy 
that the Pomptinus Ager was cultivated 
and portioned out to the Roman people. 
Of the 24 cities, several stood upon the 
mountains and on the coast, where their 
ruins are still traceable ; so that Pliny's 
statement is not a proof that the plain 
was inhabited. There i», however, no 
question of the fact that Rome drew 



her supplies of grain from the Volscian 
plain; and the principal plain in the 
territory of the Volsci being the marsh, 
there can be little doubt that the 
marshes in the early history of Rome 
were cultivated. 

** When this district," says Dr. 
Cramer, " was occupied by flourishing 
cities, and an active and industrious po- 
pulation was ever ready to check the 
increase of stagnation, it might easily 
be kept under ; but after the ambition 
of Rome, and her system of universal 
dominion, had rendered this tract of 
country desolate, these wastes and fens 
naturally increased, and in process of 
time gained so much ground, as to ren- 
der any attempt to remedy the evil 
only temporary and inefficient. The 
primary cause of the evil must doubt- 
less have be^n the want of a fall in tl^e 
Pontine plains, for the rivers which rise 
in the chain of the Volscian mountains 
bounding the marshes to the N.E., to 
carry off their waters into the sea, 
especially as they are apt to overflow 
in the rainy season. It is supposed 
that, when Appius constructed the 
road named after him, he m^e the first 
attempt to drain these marshes; but 
this is not certain, as no such work is 
mentioned in the accounts we have of 
the formation of this Roman way. But 
about 130 years after, there is a posi- 
tive statement of that object having 
been partly effected by the consul 
Corn. Cethegus. Julius Ca?sar was the 
next who formed the design of ac- 
complishing the arduous task; but it 
is doubtful whether he ever actually 
began it. It therefore remained for 
Augustus to carry the plan into execu- 
tion, which n^ust have been attended 
with success, fpr we do not hear of any 
further works of that kind becoming 
necessary till the reigns of Trajan and 
Nerva. Inscriptions are extant which 
testify the interest which they took in 
these beneficial projects. The last un- 
dertaking of this nature, before the 
downfall of the Roman empire, was 
formed under the reign of Theodoric 
the Goth, by Ceecilius Decius, and ap- 
parently with good effect." 

Bonifkce VIII., in the 13th cent., 
was the first pope who attempted to 

drain the marshes; Martin V. and Six* 
tus V. followed his example; but no 
substantial benefit was effected until 
the time of Pius VI., who restored the 
canal of Augustus under the name of the 
Linea Pia^ and constructed the modem 
road. The expense of the works is 
said to have been 1 ,622,000 scudi (about 
337,916/.) ; and the annual cost of 
keeping them up is estimated at 4000 
«cudi (844/.). For several miles of this 
route, the road of Pius VI. is con* 
structed on the Appian. The tall 
elms on each side give it the appear* 
ance of an avenue, which continues for 
so many miles in a perfectly straigh 
line that it produces a wearisome effect 
upon the traveller, which the occasional 
picturesque scenes on the mountains 
on the 1. of the marshes are not suffi- 
cient to counteract. The road for a 
considerable distance skirts the great 
canal called the Canale della Botte, the 
Decennovium of Procopius, originally 
made by Augustus, and memorable in 
the journey of Horace, who embarked 
upon it and proceeded in a boat tp 

About midwiiy between Torre Tre 
Pouti and Bocca di Fiume, the spot 
still called Foro Appio marks the site 
of Forum Appiiy the station on the 
Appian way between Tres Tabernse 
and Terracina. There is a small 
inn, where a lunch may be procured. 
It was at this spot that Horace em? 
barked in the evening on the canal :-r 

Inde Forum Appi, 
Differtnm naatia, canponibus atque matignls. 

JSat. I. V. 3. 

It has a higher interest for the Chris- 
tian traveller^ as the spot where St« 
Paul first met his countrymen from 
Rome. " And so we went towards 
Rome. And from thence, when the 
brethren heard of us, they came to 
meet us as far as Appii Forum, and 
the Three Taverns : wnom when Paul 
saw, he thanked Gpd, and took cou* 
rage." Acts xxviii. The road follows 
the canal all the way to the next 
station, 2 m. before reaching which a 
road branches off on tbe 1. to 

Sezze (6000 Inhab.), one of the most 
conspicuous objects amopg the moun- 

B 3 



tains on the 1. of the road, occupying 
the site of the ancient Volscian town of 
Setia, the birthplace of Caius Valerius 
Flaccus, the author of the Argonatdicon. 
It was the place where, from its strong 
position, the Carthaginian hostages 
given at the close of the second Punic 
war were confined. The old road from 
Rome to Naples passed at the foot of 
its steep hill. The only objects of 
interest at Sezze are the ruins of a 
building called the Temple of Saturn, 
and some remains of the ancient 
-walls. Before ascending the hill to 
Sezze, the road continues along its 
base to 

Pipemoy 7 m. further. It preserves 
the name of Privemum, the birthplace 
of Camilla, and famous for its long 
struggles against Rome ; but the ruins 
of the ancient city are 1 m. to the N., 
and in the plain, near the high road^ 
leading to Frosinone. The plain of 
Piperno is situated in the midst of the 
Volscian Mountains, the pinnacles sur- 
rounding it being crowned with the 
picturesque castles and villages of 
Rocca Gorga, Maenza, Rocca Secea, 
and Prossedi. 3 m. further S. is the 
Cistercian monastery of Fossanwyoa, in 
which St. Thomas Aquinas died, on his 
way to the Council of Lyons in 1274 ; 
according to Villani, of poison admi- 
nistered to him by order of Charles I. 
of Anjou, King of Naples. Its site may 
be seen from the high road in the valley 
through which descends the Amasenus. 

5 m. beyond Fossanuova is Sonnino ; 
and in a parallel valley^ and 6 m. from 
Prossede, San Lorenzo— two villages 
celebrated for their picturesque female 
costumes, and notorious as the head- 
quarters of the most daring bands of 
brigands that have infested in modern 
times the road from Rome to Naples. 

Returning to the post-road— 

1 Bocca di Fiurne, a post station. 

1 Mesa; on or near the site of the 
station Ad Medias, between Forum 
Appii and Tarracina. On each side 
of the entrance to the post-house is 
an ancient milestone, with inscriptions 
of the 6th year of the reign of Trajan ; 
and near it are the remains of a large 
ancient tomb, on a huge quadrangular 

base cased with large blocks of lime- 
stone brought from the neighbouring 
Volscian mountains. 

1 Ponte Mdfffjiore, soon after passing 
which, the streams of the Ufente and 
AmnsenOj the ancient Ufens and Ama- 
senm, are crossed near their junction 
beyond Mesa at the 68th m. The 
Amasenus is mentioned by Virgil, in 
describing the flight of Metabus and 
Camilla: — 

Ecce, fugae medio, sninmis Amasenus abundans 
Spumabat ripis; tantus «e nubilxia imber 
Ruperat ; ille, innare parans, infaiitin amore 
Tarda tur, caroque oneri timet. — Aen. xi. 547. 

The inscription relative to the works of 
Theodoric on these marshes, which is 
preserved at Terracina, was discovered 
here. Midway between Ponte Ma^- 
giore and Terracina were situated in 
the days of Horace the grove, temple, 
and fountain of Feronia, 

qnarta vix demom «xponimur hora ; 
Ora mauusque tua lavimua, Feronia, lympha ; 

Sat. I. V. 23. 

but the traveller will not find any 
traces of the locality. A fine olive 
plantation has been lately made on the 
declivity of the adjoining mountain by 
Count Antonelli,and forms a remarkable 
object from Ponte Maggiore on the 1. 
The modern road leaves the line of the 
Appian at the base of the hill of Ter- 
racina, the latter running more to the 
1., and nearer the base of the mountain. 
A fragment of it may be seen in a 
stable nearly opposite to the inn. 

1 Terracina (5000 Inhab.— /wn ; 
La Pasta, tolerable, but make your 
bargain beforehand), the Anxur of the 
Volscians, the Trachina of the Greeks, 
and the Tarracina of the Romans, who 
made it one of their naval stations. 
Its Volscian name was retained by the 
Latin poets, who frequently allude to' 
the beauty of its position : 

Mlllla tumpransi tria repimus; at que subi- 

Impositum saxis late candentihus Anxur. 

HoK. -SfaM. V. 25. 

nemus, o fontes, solidumque madentis arente 
Littus, et aequoreis splendidus Anxur aquis. 

Maut. X. 51. 

On entering Terracina the traveller 
will not fail to recognise, in the palm- 



trees, the orange^gfOTeB, the aloe, the 
pomegranate, and the prickly pear, his 
approach to the bright and sunny cli- 
mate of the South. He will find that 
Terracina is not merely the frontier 
town which separates the States 
of the Church from the Southern 
Provinces of the Italian Kingdom, but 
the point where a line of demarca* 
tion may be drawn between the phy- 
sical characters of the two territories*. 

It is picturesquely situated at the 
base of the extreme S. point of the 
Volscian mountains, which here ad- 
vance so precipitously intp tjje pea ?s 
to leave scarcely room for t^e passage 
of the road. It is the frontier town of 
the Papal States, and passports must be 
viseed by the police before quitting it 
for Naples. 

Its bishopric, now united to that of 
Pipemo and Sessa, dates from the ear- 
liest ages of the church, the first bishop 
being S. Epafi-aditus, said to have been 
a disciple of St. Peter's, a.d. 46. The 
high road passes through only a portion 
of the town, which is situated chiefly 
on a steep elevation above it, crowned 
by an ancient monastery ; and higher 
still are the ruins of the palace of 
Theodoric. Beyond the mn is a 
detached mass of rock rising boldly 
above the road, a conspicuous and pic- 
turesque object, which forms so charac- 
teristic a feature in the scenery of 
Terracina. It was formerly inhabited 
by a hermit, whose cell may be 
descried about half up its side. There 
are few places which present so paany 
memorials of the nations and ll^iu^- 
doms which have successively exer- 
cised their influence on the destiny of 
Italy. The ruins which we find here 
recall the Volscians, the Greels-s, the 
Romans, and the Goths ; whose monu- 
ments still exist side by si4e with the 
works of the modern pdpes. 

The Cathedralf dedicated to St. Peter, 
is supposed to occupy the site of the 
temple of Jupiter Anxur. The beautiffifl 
fluted marble column^ were talferi from 
the ancient bujldii!!^," together with 9 
marble vase covered with bas reliefs, 
and a fragment of mosaic.^ In the 
Piazza is the inscription relating to the 
attempts of Theodoric to restore the 
Appiau Way. Above the town are 

considerable remains of Pelasgic walln 
and some ancient reservoirs for w^ter j 
but the most conspicuous and pic- 
turesque ruins are those of the Palace 
of Theodoric on the summit of the pre- 
cipice. No one who can spare a couple 
of hours should omit visiting this ruined 
palace of the Gothic lawgiver. Beside^ 
the view, which is ver^ beautiful, and 
extends, on the one side, over the 
whole expanse of the Pontine Marshes, 
and op the other, ovpr the coast as far 
as Ischia, embracing the Ponza islands* 
the building itself is extremely in^- 
terestin^. Many of the corridors an^ 
chambers are perfect, and resemble in 
their arrangement those of Nero's Pa- 
lace in Rome. Near the path leading 
to it are the ancient quarries^ on the 
side of the cliff, where there are several 
Roman inscriptions, left by the work- 
men in former days. The asceht ought 
not to be attempted withouf a guide, 
an office which any of the 'numerous 
boys who are always hanginfg about the 
iun will readily discharge for a paul. 
The ancient Fort is now -^iearly filled 
up with sand, but its taassive niole, 
and the size of the basin, ^id to be 
upwards of 3800 feet in circuit, still 
attest its importance as one of the prin- 
cipal naval stations* of the.JSbmans. 
The rings f^r mooring the vessels may 
still be seen in the. S^ angle of the har- 
bour. The palace. ,Df;iPius VI. is per- 
haps 'a,n' appi^j^ndt^ememorial of the 
immense etiprt^ ^made' by that pope in 
draining . the.' marshes, It commands 
one of the fiqeiSt views .on this coast of 
It^ly'l A new, pier has been kteiy ru?i ' 
out >beyoad the ancient port, whick 
affords protection to the sm^ll vessels 
frequeiitii^g it from westerly winds. 

Passports must be vise'd at Terracina, 
for which a fee of 1 paul is paid; and' 
no one is 'allowed to proceed' towards 
Rome if his p'assport does not bear the. 
visa of the papal Consul at Naples. 
' The noble prompntory of Circe, the 
Promontorium Circayum of the ancients, 
no^. Moi^e Circello, is^a perpendicular 
mass of limestone, almost isolated at 
the extremity of the Pontine Marshes., 
It may be easily visited from Terra- 
cina. Thoc d(i^t^nce to San Felice by 
the roadjY.hWh- ^^^ close to the sea* 
shore ^s 10 m; ' I'L&re are few spots in 


this part of Italy which are more fa- I following the Appian, skirts the base 

mous in ancient poetry than this pro- 
montory, regarded by the Romans as 
the fabulous island of Circe* 

VroKima CircaeaB raduntur llttora texre. 
Dives ioaccessos ubi Solis filia lucos 
Assiduo resonat canto, tectit-que superbis 
Urit odoratam noctnrua in Inmina cednam, 
Arguto tennes percurrens pectine telaa. 
Hihc exaudiri gemitus, irsque leonum 
Vincla recusantum «t sera sub nocte raden- 

Setigerique Bues, atqne in pnesepibas nrsi 
Saevire, ac forms magnorum ululare lapomm ; 
Quos hominum ex facie Dea seeva potentibUB 

Induerat Circe In vulttts ac tecta feraruni. 
Qnse ne moastra pii paterentur talia Troes 
Uelati in portus, neu litora dira snbirent, 
Neptuiins ventis implevit vela secundis, 
Atque fugam dedit, et praeter vada fervida vexit, 

ViRG. Aen, VII. 10. 

On the summitpf the mountain, which 
commands one of the most striking 
prospects in Italy, §ome mips may still be 
traced, which are believed to be the re- 
mains of a Temple of the Sun, or, more 
probably, of the ancient citadel. The 
city of CirccRiiy one of those captured 
by Coriolanus, which was in existence 
in the time of CJicero and was th,e spene 
of the exile of Lepidus, is supposed to 
have been situated either at San Felice 
on the S. side of the promontory, or 
in the neighbourhood of Torre di Paola 
on the W. Ruins are still visible at 
both places. From the agreeable posi- 
tion of this city near the sea, and the 
facilities it afforded for hunting the 
wild boar, it was the frequent residence 
of miany eminent Romans. Polybius 
mentions his having often enjoyed the 
boar-hunt in il^ neighbourhood. It 
was one of the favourite retreats of 
Cicero, of Atticus, and, in later times, 
of Tiberius and Domitian. Among the 
Roman epicures it was famous for its 
oysters :— 

CJrcaiis njftta forent, an 
Lncrimun jui saxum, Rutupiiiove edita fundo 
Ostrea, callebat primo deprendere morsn. 

Juv. Sat. IV. 140. 

Ostrtea Circseis, Miseno oripntur echini. 

' Hob. Sat, n. iv. 33. 

A large cavern called the Grotta 

della Maga deserves a visit. It is cele- 
brated for its stalactites. 

On leaving Terracina, the road, 

of the mountains, which advance so 
precipitously into the sea that there is 
mer«*ly r<oom for the road. This narrow 
pass is the Lautuke, where a battle was 
fought between the Romans and the 
&uunites, B.c, 315 ; in the second Punic 
war, it was the stronghold of Fabios 
Maximus, who held the -de^le, and 
prevented the passage of Hannibal by 
the Appian. About ^ m. to the 1. on 
the slope of the hills is the RetirOy a 
convent of Zoccolanti friars, supposed 
to stand on the site of a villa 
where the Emperor Galba was boru. 
The lake on the rt., called Lago di 
Fondij is the Lacus Fundmus, or Amy- 
clanus. The latter name was derived 
from the city of Amyclce, which stood 
on the plain between the lake and the 
sea. Its foundation was ascribed to 
a band of Laconians ; who, according 
to Pliny and Servius, were compelled 
to abandon it by swarms of serpents. 
Other writers refer to this city the 
legend of the destruction of the Laco- 
nian Amyclse in consequence of the 
silence imposed by law upon the in- 
hab. as a punishment for numerous 
jalse alarms of invasion. When the 
enemy at length pame, no one dared to 
announce their approach. This view is 
favoured by the epithet of tacitce Amy^ 
cicB applied to it by Virgil. On either 
side of the road, after leaving Ter- 
racina* may be seen the remains of 
numerous Roman tombs. The papal 
frontier is crossed at the Torre dell* 

About 4 m. from Terracina we reach 
the tower called Torre de* Confini (66 m, 
from Naples), or La Portella, from the 
arched gateway upder whiph the road 
passes, a small castle with bastions, 
whicji is the frontier station of the king- 
dom of Italy. Beyond Portella, on the 
1., is the village of Monticelli, upon a 
height above. The Neapolitan pro- 
vince of the Terra di Lavoro is now 
entered, one of the most fertile and 
most interesting districts of Southern 
Italy. Some remains of tombs skirting 
the Appian are seen on the 1. before 
reaching the gate of 

IJ m. Foindi (5500 Inhab. — Tnn: 
Locanda Bafbarossa^ very indifferent), 

BOPTE 140, — FOlfDI. — ITRT. 


a dirty ajud miserable town, which 
retains the nearly unchanged name of 
Fundi, celebrated in Horace's Journey 
for the amusing importance assumed 
by the prstor :-- 

FundoB, Aufidio Lusco praetore libenter 
Linquimus, insani ridentes prsemia scrihse, 
Prsetextam, et latum clavum, prunaique 
batillum. SaU l 5. 34. 

The family of Livia, the "jirife of 
Augustus, came priginally from Fundi. 

The main street is built on the 
Appian Way, and some portions oi its 
pavement have been preserved. The 
polygonal walls may also be traced for 
a considerable distance^ especially on 
the rt. of the gate by which we enter 
the town. ThjB principal ch., dedicated 
to St. Mary, j^ in the Italian Gothic 
style, with some round almost Norman 
arches. The interior is sadly neglected, 
and has an old fresco and some speci- 
mens of Gothic mouldings. The cell 
in the Dominican convent in which 
St. Thomas Aquinas taught theology 
is now ponverted ipto a chapel. An 
orange tree wjiiich l^e planted, ^nd a 
well called after him, are also shown. 
The general appearance of Fondi, and 
the wild costume and sinister counte- 
nances of the inhabitants, confirm the 
ill repute it has home for centuries, as 
the robberp*-nest pf tl^e frontier. No 
two towns in Italy have contributed so 
many " heroes" to the army of brigands 
as Fondi ^nd Itri, I^ the 16th cent. 
Ferdinand the Catholic bestowed the 
estate of Fondi, with the title of Count, 
on Prospero Colonna. The widow of 
his kinsman Vespsusiano Colonna was 
the Countess Giulia Gonzaga, whose 
beauty was )SO reiparjcable that its fame 
had reached even to the Turkish court. 
In 1534, while she was residing in 
the castle, Heyradin Barbarossa, the 
brother of the famous pirate Aruch 
Barbarossa, the usurper of Algiei*s, 
landed on the coast during the night, 
and attempted to carry her pff in order 
to present hpr to Soleimap II. T)jie cla- 
mour of the Turks roused the countess 
in time to allow her to escape. She 
jumped from the windpw of her bed- 
room, and fled naked, in the dead of 
the mght, to the mountain^, where she 
poncealed herself, Barbarpssa, disap- 

pointed of his prize, sackM and de- 
stroyed the town, and carried off many 
prisoners. An inscription in the church 
records the event. The Turks again 
sacked the town in 1594. 

The CcBovbus ager, one of the most cele- 
brated wine countries of the Komans, 
seems to have been the low hilly tract 
from Fondi to Sperlonga, and border- 
ing pn the iSinus Amyclanua, 

Gascuhom, et pnelo domitam Calend 
Tu bibes uvam. Mea nee Falernse 
Tepiperant vites, neque Formiaoi 
Pocula colles, 

HoR. Od, 1. 20. 

The range of hills, the Monte Calvi 
and M. Furca, extending from Fondi 
to the sea, produces good wine even 
in our day^. In the neighbourhood of 
t^e town are some interesting Eoman 
ruins, a house built on a terrace of 
polygonal construction, and below it 
^ mass of reticulated masonry, still 
bearing the name of Varonianus, its 
supposed owner. 

On leavipg. Fpndi (f^om which an 
additional horse is required) the road 
for 4 m. traverses the plain, ascending 
gradually to the foot of the pass leading 
to Itri, winding up the mountains amidst 
scenes of a lonely aspect, which seem, 
both by the natural foiTnation of the 
country and by the facilities of escape 
from oije frontier tp the other, peculiarly 
fitted to be the haunt of the brigands 
of both states. During the 16th cent, 
this pai56 was the head-quarters of Marco 
Sciarra, the captain of banditti who 
immortalised himself by the com].li- 
ment he paid to Tasso. It is related by 
Manso, that Sciarra, hearing that Tasso 
was on a visit at Mola di Gaeta, sent to 
offer him, npt only a free passage, but 
protection by the way ; assuring him, 
that he and his followers would be 
proud to execute his orders. Near the 
foot of the p^ss is a £ort comniand- 
ing the road, and along th^ ascent 
stations for the gendarmeria, by whom 
the road js now well guarded, and 
there i^ no danger of this kind. From 
the summit of the pass a d*^scent of 
1 m. leads to 

1 Itri (4500 Inhab.), a miserable 
town picturesquely placed on a lofty 
hill, apd surmounted by a ruined 



castle. If enjoys the pre-eminence | 
of being the birthplace of Michele 
Pezza, better known as />a Diaxxylo, 
a nickname he earned by escaping 
pursuit for two years, whilst under 
sentence of decapitation, prior to 
his employment as a political agent. 
In 1799 he, with his band, held the 
passes from Portella to Mola di Gaeta, 
and his career was one continued series 
of wholesale murders. Both he and 
Marmnone, another chief of brigands, 
notwithstanding their atrocities, were 
loaded with honours by the Koyal 
family of Naples during the struggle 
of 1799. In 1806, Fra Diavolo, hav- 
ing landed from Sicily at Sperlonga, 
was encountered by a French detach- 
ment, and defeated. In the hope .of 
finding a way of escape to Sicily, he 
remained with a small band for two 
months, wandering by night from forest 
to forest to evade his pursuers. At 
length, wounded and alone, and worn 
out by want and fatigue, he went dis- 
guised to seek repose and buy oint- 
ments at Baronisi, a village near Sa- 
lerno, where, suspicion being raised, he 
was arrested, recognised, and con- 
demned to death, A carriage- road of 
16 m. has been lately opened from Itri 
to San (}ermano, and another across 
the hills to the fortress of Gaeta. 

[About 8 m. from Itri, by a moun- 
tain path, is Sperlonga, a fishing village 
on a sandy headland. It was anciently 
called Spelunca from the numerous 
natural caverns in the rock. It was 
in one of these caverns that the Em- 
peror Tiberius, who had here a villa, 
was saved by the physical strength of 
Sejanus from the death which the fall 
of the rocks at the entrance inflicted on 
his courtiers. This cavern is^m. from 
the village, and has still remains of seats, 
divisions, and ornaments in stucco. The 
path that leads to it by the water-side is 
bordered with Hom^n remains. Bar- 
barossa made Sperlonga a resting-place 
for a night previous to his attacking 
Fondi, The best way of visiting Sper- 
longa will be in a boat from Gaeta, a 
distance of 9 m.] 

On leaving Itri the road descends 
the hill amidst vineyards and forest 
trees. As it approaches the coast the 

scenery increases in beauty, and clas- 
sical interest becomes more absorbing. 
Shortly before reaching Mola the road 
opens upon the lovely bay of Gaeta, 
bounded on the S. by its headland, co- 
vered with bright battlements and 
villas. In the distance are Ischia and 
Procida ; and further still we may de- 
scry the blue mountains which form the 
£. curve of the bay of Naples, and the 
well-known outline of Vesuvius. As 
we advance, a massive circular tower, 
in the midst of the vineyard on the 
rt., and overhung by a carrouba 
tree, is •& picturesque object in the 
landscape, and would probably be 
selected by the artist as a striking 
feature in every view of the bay from 
this road, even if it did not possess a 
higher interest as the Tomb of Cicero. 
This massive sepulchre too closely re- 
sembles the other buildings of the same 
kind on the Appian to leave any doubt as 
to its real destination; it consists of two 
stories resting upon an immense square 
base, and is surmounted by a small lan- 
tern with windows. On the hill above 
the road some vestiges of foundations 
may still be traced which probably mark 
the site of the temple dedicated by 
Cicero to Apollo; and on the shore, 
as we shall presently see, considerable 
remains still exist to denote the posi- 
tion of the Formian villa. The inter- 
vening space is now covered with wood 
and vineyards ; and the locality an- 
swers so well to the description of 
Plutarch, that classical enthusiasm may 
be pardoned for accepting the tradition 
which supposes this tower to have been 
erected on the spot where the cen- 
turion overtook the litter in which the 
great orator was escaping to the sea-side, 
and where the champion of freedom 
fell beneath the sword of the tribnne 
whose life he had saved by his defence. 
In spite of the apparent probabilities 
in favour of this building, antiquaries 
have suggested that the square ruins 
on the hill above the road are more 
probably the remains of the tomb, Tra- 
dition, however, often ^ better authority, 
has given this tower the name of Torre 
di Cicerone. 

The little suburb of Castellone cH 
Gaeta is supposed to mark the site of 



ibrmicey the capital of the LoestrygoneSj 
and the well- known scene of the inhos- 
pitable reception of Ulysses. Some 
portions of its ancient walls and a gate- 
way may still be traced. The wealthy 
family of Mamurra, who was himself a 
natire of Formi«, had engrossed so 
great a part of the locality, that Ho- 
race (who slept there at the house of 
Murena, the brother of lAeinia, whom 
Meeaenas married) calls it the "eity of 
the Mamurrae**— f7rfe« Mamvrrarum: — 

la Mamurrarum lassi deinde urbe manemog, 
jtfureiia prsebente domum, Capitone culinam. 

Sat. I. 5. 37. 

The line of onast from Castellone 
to Mola was lined until lately with 
remains of extensive substructions, 
terraces, yaulted passages, baths, and 
grottoes, which appear to have be- 
longed to different Roman villas. 
The greater part have been destroyed 
in transforming the Villa Caposele mto 
the modern royal villa, the only portioji 
now visible being included in the gar- 
dens below the AJbergo di£Jicerone,con- 
sisting of a large hall and about a dozen 
of smaller rooms. The Formian Villa 
of Cicero occupied probably the site 
extending from the royal villa to the 
gardens of the inn, at the base of which 
is the little port erected by King Fer- 
dinand II. 

5 m. Mola di Gaeta. (6000 Inhab.— 
Inns : the Villa di Cicerone^ good and 
well situated, kept by Giordano, who is 
not always civil to his guests. It is 
situated on the hill before descending to 
the town, and adjoining the Villa Xieale; 
it is one of the best between Boanc 
and Naples, and for persons travelling 
by railway and posting, can be reached 
in a day (12 hours) from the former, 
and on the second for those with vet- 
turino horses. The view from the 
windows in front over Oaeta, its for- 
tresses and citadel^ is one of the most 
lovely in Italy. Albergo della Posia^ in 
the town below and on the sea-shore, 
is very indifferent.) As the prices at 
the Mola inns have been frequently 
complained of, it may be well to make 
a bargain beforehand. 

The Formian Villa of Cic^o.— The 
ruins in the grounds of the Villa Capo- 

sele were until lately the chief objects 
of interest at Mola. Below the terrace 
of the inn, which commands a beautiful 
prospect, the gardens are filled with 
masses of reticulated masonry, which 
are supposed to have been the baths of 
the Formian Villa, the favourite resi- 
dence of the great orator, the scene of 
his political conferences with Pompey, 
and the calm retreat ;n which he en- 
joyed the s<5ciety of Scipio and Lslius. 
It is consolatory to find that, however 
much doubt may have been raised as 
to the precise purposes of these ruins, 
the lapse of two thousand jears has 
not altered the mi^estic mountains 
which surround the l^y ; the sea still 
washes the bright beach upon which 
the illustrious philosopher loved to 
ramble; th^ 

Temperate dulce Fonniae litus 

is aiS mUd and lovely as when Martial 
celebrated it ; and the Etesian breezes 
durinff the summer season are still as 

frateiul as when Plutai:c.h wrote his 
escription of the spot. Independently 
of these associations, the bay of Gaeta 
recalls the well-known descriptions of 
Homer, Virgil, and Horace, Local at- 
tachment has reconciled the scenery of 
Mola with that nientioned in the 
Odyssey, And even the fountain of Ai^ 
tadttf where Ulysses jnet the daughter 
<it Antiphates king of the leSBStrygoneB, 
is identified with one still flowing. The 
wine ,of the neighbourhood, so cele- 
brated by Horace, has not lost its re- 

Quanquam n^c Calabrs mella ferimt apes, 
Nee Mestrygonia Bacchus in amphora 
Laoguescit mihi. 

"Qo^, Od. iir. 19. 


A pleasant excursion of 4 m. alon^ 
the shores of the bay, whioh abound 
everywhere with the ruins of Koman 
villas, brings us to Gaeta, the ancien.t 



Caieta. Before reaching it a long 
Tillage, called the Borgo, extending 
along the beach, is traversed, beyond 
vhich all strangers are prohibited pro- 
ceeding. The town of Gaeta stands at 
the base of a rounded hill, crowned by 
the tomb of Munatius Plancus, now a 
fortress, and on a projecting headland, 
which advances into the sea and forms 
the N, end of the extensive bay anciently 
called the Sintts Caietanna, and still 
known a3 the Golfo di Oaeta, The W. 
side of the bay was studded with Roman 
villas. Scipio Afncanus and Leelius 
were in the habit of retiring there 
and amusing their leisure with picking 
up shells on the beach. The port and 
promontory, to which Virgil has given 
an immortal interest as the burial place 
of the nurse of iEneas, are picturesque 
objects from all parts of the surround- 
ing country : 

Tu quoque littorfbus nostris, JEnela nutrix, 
JBternam moriens famam. Gaieta, dedisti ; 
£t none servat honos sedem tuus. 

^n. vn, 1. 

After the feill of the Roman empire, 
Gaeta was one of the three Greek mu- 
nicipalities whiJC^h became the refuge 
of the civilization of Rome, Amalfi, 
Gaeta, and Naples subsequently ad- 
vanced to independence on the ruins 
of the Eastern empire, too enfeebled 
to offer opposition to the change. 
Their chief magistrate bore the title 
of dogCf duca, or ipata ; their wealthy 
merchants had ships and settlements in 
the great ports of the Levant. The 
bluff promontory of Gaeta, united to 
the main land by a low and narrow 
isthmus, strengthened by walls, and 
backed by the defiles of the Csecuban 
mountains, gave to this ancient settle- 
ment that natural strength which has 
made it in our own times the key- 
fortress of the kingdom. The city 
consequently survived the invasions of 
the Lombards and the Saracens, and 
did not lose its liberty until the 12th 
cent., when it was absorbed, along 
with the other free cities of Southern 
Italy, in the Norman conquest. The 
position of Gaeta is extremely beau- 
tiful, and its rich orange, lemon, and 
citron groves give it a peculiarly south- 
em character. It is the chief city of 

a district, and the see of a bishopric. 
It has 14,000 Inhab., including the gar- 
rison. The Cathedral contains the stan- 
dard presented by Pius V. to Don John 
of Austria, the eommc^ider of the Chris- 
tian army at the battle of Lepanto, 
The celebrated column with 12 fcu^es, 
on which are inscribed the names of 
the 12 winds in Greek and Latin, is 
one of ihe most curious monu^ients in 
the town. On the highest point of the 
promontory is the circular building 
which forms so conspicuous an object 
in t^e landscape. It is shown bj the 
inscription to be the tomb of L. Mu- 
natius Plancus, and is now called the 
Torre d^ Orlando. The other antiquities 
of Gaeta are the remains of the am- 
phitheatre and theatre, the vestiges of 
a temple, and the villas of Scaurus and 
Hadrian. The beauty of the women 
is very striking. 

The Citadel of Gaeta has always 
been one of the strongest positions in 
the kingdom of Naples. The castle 
was enlarged by Alfonso of Aragon in 
1440. During the invasion of Naples 
by the French army of Louis XII. 
in 1501, Gaeta was obliged to sur- 
render by the distressed circumstances 
of Frederick of Aragon. In the war 
which arose out of the partition treaty of 
Granada, it was the last stronghold of 
the French, and was besieged and cap- 
tured by Gonsalvo da Cordova, after the 
battle of the G arigliano,in 1 504. Charles 
V. built anothercastle and strengthened 
the fortifications by the addition of im- 
portant outworks. In 1734 it was 
besieged by the Spaniards under the 
Duke di Liria and Charles III., and 
dishonourably surrendered by Count Tat- 
tenboch. During the French invasion 
of 1798, the fortress, commanded by the 
Swiss General Tschudy, surrendered 
at discretion to the army of General 
Rey ; an event so disgraceful that- it 
was regarded as an act of treachery, 
for the garrison contained 4000 soldiers, 
70 cannon, 12 mortars, 20,000 muskets, 
and supplies for a year. After the 
treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle the fortifica- 
tions were again strengthened, and the 
citadel was enabled to sustain the me- 
morable siege of 1806, which is well 
known from the operations of our 

ROUTE 140. — GAETA. — ^PONZA. 


navy on the coast in support of the 
besieged. At the approach of the 
French army under Massena, the 
feeble regency of Naples engaged to 

five up all the fortresses of the king- 
om. The citadel of Gaeta was com- 
manded by the Prince of Hesse Philip- 
stadt, who answered the summons of 
the regency by saying that he should 
disobey their commands for the higher 
commands of honour and of war. The 
prince, assisted by the English .fleet 
upon the coast, gallantly held out until 
the fall of Scilla in July 1806 ; and on 
the 18th of that month, after t^n days', 
continued firing, the fortress honourably 
capitulated. The palace of the governor 
was the residence of Pius IX^ in 1850, 
after his flight from Rome, and has 
since been much enlarged by Fer- 
dinand II. In the tower of the citadel 
lies buried the Constable de Bourbon, 
who was killed at the capture of Rome 
in 1627. The military defences of 
Gaeta had been immensely strength 
ened and extended of late years, aijud it 
was one of the strongest places in 
Italy. It formed the favourite residence 
of the sovereign. An extensive line 
of batteries along the shore encircle 
not only the old castle but the adjoin- 
ing hill, and a magnificent Gothic 
church, dedij^ated to St. Prancis, 
was erected. The royal residence was ; 
at the junction of the hill of Munatius i 
Plancus and the fortress or castle; 
along the former roads have been 
carried in different directions, and the 
Roman tomb, formerly of difficult ac- 
cess, can now be reached in a carriage. 
In 1860 Gaeta again underwent a 
memorable siege. King Francis II., 
after being obliged to abandon hisj 
•capital in the summer of that year, and 
making an unsuccessful stand to main- 
tain himself on the lines of the Vol- 
turno and Garigliano, was at last 
(in November) forised to shut himself 
np in this his last stronghold, with a 
considerable army. After a siege of 
several weeks Gaeta surrendered to 
the Italian army, commanded by 
General Cialdini ; the last Bourbon 
king taking refuge on board a French 
man-of-war, by which he was conveyed 
to Civita Vecchia. At the time of the 

surrender (Feb. 23, 1861) 800 pieces 
of cannon formed the defences of this 
celebrated fortress. 

About 30 miles S.W. of Gaeta are 
the islands of Ponza, Palmarola and 
ZaunoTie^ with some smaller rocks. 
They belong to the district of Gaeta, 
and have 2000 Inhab. Ponza, Pon- 
tia,f 12 nx. in circumference, is the 
largest It received the thanks of the 
senate for its devotion to Rome in the 
second Punic war. Tiberius banished 
to this island his nephew Nero, the son 
of Germanicus^ who )>ut an end to his 
life here. It is also interesting as 
the spot on which many of the early 
Christians suffered martyrdom during 
the reigns of Tiberius and Caligula. It 
gives nam^ to the naval victory of 
June 14th, 1300« in which the fleet of 
Frederick of Sicily, under Corrado 
Doria, was defeated by that of Robert, 
Duke of Calabria, under Ruggiero di 
Loria. Palmarola, 5 m, from Ponza, 
is the ancient Palmaria; and Zan- 
none«6m. from Ponza, and 12 m. from 
Capo Circello, is the ancient Sinonia, 
Ponza figures in our naval history as 
the sfiene of one of the most spirited 
achievements of the last war. The 
island was occupied by the French, 
and, its possession being considered im* 
portant to our operations, Capt., after- 
wards Admiral Sir Chs. Napier, having 
under his orders the Thames and the 
Furieuse, ran under the small mole, 
which was bristling with cannon, and 
captured the island without the loss of 
a man^ before the enemy could recover 
from the panic produced by so unex- 
pected an intrusion. For this gallant 
achievement Sir Charles had the title 
of Count of Ponza conferred upon him 
by Ferdinand I. These islands, highly 
interesting to the geologist, have been 
described by Brocchi, the celebrated 
Italian geologist, and by Mr. Powlett 
Scrope. Zannone, the island nearest to 
Gaeta, is composed chiefly of limestone 
covered with trachyte; the limestone 
being converted into dolomite at the 
point of contact. The other islands 
are entirely volcanic, although no trace 
of a crater has yet been discovered, 
Ponza is composed of prismatic tra« 
chyte, accompanied by a semi-vitreous 



conglomerate, eucloeing fragments con- 
verted into obsidian, pearlstone or pitch- 
stone porphyry. On this conglomerate 
the trachyte, which forms the gi*eat 
mass of the island, rests. 

25 m. S. of Gaeta, and about mid- 
way between Pouza and Ischia» are the 
islands of Ventotene and San Stefano, 
with 750 souls. At San Stefano was 
an ergastolo or prison for state cri- 
minals during the Bourbon government. 
Ventotene, the ancient Pandaiaria^ is 
the island to which three princesses of 
imperial Rome were exiled. Julia, the 
only daughter of Augustus, the beautiful 
wife of Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius, 
was banished by her father to this island, 
on account of her dissolute life. Her 
daughter, Agrippina, the wife of Ger- 
manicus, was sent also to this island 
by Tiberius, and allowed to perish by 
hunger. Octavia, the daughter of the 
Emperor Claudius and Messalina, and 
the divorced wife of Nero, was banished 
to Pandataria by the Empress Poppsea, 
who compelled her to commit suicide 
by opening her veins, and then ordered 
her to be beheaded, and her head car- 
ried to Rome, that she mi^ht behold 
the features of her rival in death. 

Leaving Mola di Gaeta for Naples, 
the road enters the plain of the Gari- 
gliano, across which the drive is beau- 
tiful. 3 ra. from Mola on the rt. is the 
picturesque headland of Scauro^ with 
its little fishing port. The bridge over 
the little stream which the road crosses 
near Mola was the last point at which 
the French ineffectually attempted to 
rally after their rout on the banks ot 
the Garigliano in 1503. 

[Two m. beyond Mola a bridle path 
of 18 m. branches off on the 1. to San 
Germane. Leaving Castelonorato and 
Spigno on hills to the 1. it crosses the 
Ausente, a tributary of the Garigliano, 
and reaches a secluded plain where this 
small stream rises. Here several re- 
mains of buildings, and broken marble 
pillars and capitals, scattered among 
vineyards and thickets of myrtle, are 
supposed to point out the site of Aiwona, 

a city destroyed daring the seccmd 
Samnite war by the Romans, who, ac- 
cording to Livy's account, put all its 
inhabitants to the sword— nu//us moduc 
cadibus fuit. In the ch. of S. Maria del 
Piano, supposed to stand on a temple of 
Hercules, there are some tombs of the 
15th cent. Along the path, for the 
last 5 m., are considerable remains of 
an old Roman road which connected 
the Via Appia and the Via Latina be- 
tween FormicB and Casinwn, A gentle 
ascent, from which there is a mag- 
nificent view over the bay of Gaeta, 
leads to Fratte (3000 Inhab.), a village 
on the ridge of hills. In its principal 
ch. there are two ancient sarcophagi^ 
and a large marble pedestal with an 
inscription showing that it was dedi- 
cated to Hercules. Leaving Roc^ 
GugUelma on an apparently inaccessible 
rock on the 1. and passing under the 
dreary village of Castelnuovo, the path 
descends to S^ Gregorio, beyond which 
the Liris is crossed by a feriy-boat. 
Half a mile on the 1. of the patn, near 
the river, at a spot called Terame, are 
several riuns supposed to belong to 
Interamna Lirinas, an ancient city of the 
Volscians. Passing next through the 
village of Pignataro (4000 Inhab.), 
where several antiquities have been 
found, 4 m. further the path reaches S. 
Germane (Rte. 141).] 

On the 1. of the road, before reach- 
ing the bridge over the Garigliano, a 
long line of arches of an aqueduct are 
seen stretching across the plain, and the 
road at length passes close to the theatre 
and the amphitheatre which mark the 
site of the city of Minturn-e; both 
close to the post-house. The plain in 
which they stand, formerly marshy but 
now well cultivated, although un- 
healthy, replaces the swamps in which 
Marius concealed himself jamong the 
rushes from the pursuit of Syila; and the 
memorable exclamation of the mighty 
Roman, Homo! audes occidere Camm 
Mariumf will not fail to command 
respect for the ruins of MinturnaB as 
long as one stone remains upon another. 
The town of Traetto (6000 Inhab.), 
which is seen on a hill on the 1. J m. off 
the road, arose out of the ruins of 



The Battle of the Garigliano, which 
has given great interest to this plain, 
was fought Dec. 27, 1503, on the right 
bank of the river, a short distance 
above the point where it is crossed by 
the present road. The position of the 
French was not far from the road. 
They occupied the rt. bank of thfe river, 
which is near the heights below 
Traetto, and less marshy than the 
1., amon^ whose swamps the Spanish 
army under Gonsalvo da Ck)rdova re- 
mained encamped for fifty days, exposed 
to all the miseries of the rainy season, 
awaiting the attack with a constancy of 
purpose which contrasts strongly with 
the impatience of the. French, upon 
whom the climate had begun to exer- 
cise its fatal influence. The French 
made some show of an attack by carry- 
ing a bridge across the river from their 
position, but it was productive of no 
important result^ except one oi the 
most chivalrous exploits of the Chev. 
Bayard, who is said to have defended 
it single-handed against 200 Spanish 
cavalry. Gonsalvo at last threw a 
bridge across the river at Suio, and 
surprised the French in their position, 
who, already worn out with sickness, 
fled across the plain to the bridge of 
Mola, and Gonsalvo at the close of 
the day was master of the kingdom. 
Pietro de' Medici, who, after being 
expelled from Florence, had become 
a follower of the French camp, at the 
first rout of the army embarked at the 
mouth of the Garigliano with four 
pieces of cannon, which he hoped to 
carry to Gaeta, but the crowd of fugi- 
tives who rushed into the boat was so 
great that it sunk, and he and all on 
board perished. 

1 Garigliano: a post station. The 
river Gariglianons crossed by a suspen- 
sion bridge, erected in 1832. A toll of 
2 carlini {Sd.) is paid for each horse in 
passing it. The Qttrigliano is one of 
the important rivers of Southern Italy. 
As the ancient LiriSy it separated La- 
tium from Campania; and its sluggish 
stream was noticed by many of the 
poets : — 

Kon rura, qius Liris quieta 
Mordet aqua, tacitumus nmnis. 

HoK. Od. I. 31. 

Before crossing the river, the modem 
road quits the Appian, which may be 
traced along the sea shore to Mondra- 
gone (3000 Inhab.), marking the site of 
Sinuessa, mentioned in the journey of 
Horace, who there met Virgil and his 
other friends : — 

Plotius, et Yarius Sinaessse, Yirgiliusque 
Oocuniint ; aniiuse, quales neque caudidiores 
Terra tulit, neque queis me sit devinctlor alter. 
qui eomplexuB, et gaudia quanta fuenint ! 

Sat. I. V. 39. 

Farther on the sea-shore, at a place 
called La Posta, are remains of an arch, 
supposed to mark the site where the 
Via Domitiana leading to Pozzuoli 
branched off from the Appian, and 
where an arch was erected to Domitian. 

The road from Garigliano to Sant* 
Agata passes over a rich plain for 6 m. 
until the ascent over the hills of Sant* 
Agata: during this part of the road the 
traveller will have some magnificent 
peeps up the plain of the Liris, backed 
by the snowy range of the Central 
Apennines. As we ascend towards Sant' 
Agata the volcanic rocks of the Cam- 
pagna Felice are met for the first time 
— the hills to the rt. are of limestone, 
and extend to the sea-shore, ending in 
the rocky promontory of Mondragone. 

8 m. Sunt* Agata, situated near the 
summit of the pass. (/«»s •• La Posta, 
and the Casa Wuova; two houses be- 
longing to the same proprietor ; often 
the sleeping place of the vetturini 
between Terracina and Naples. The 
Casa Nuova, from the windows of 
which there is a fine view over the town 
of Sessa and the hills of Rocca Monfina, 
will be best suited for families.) 

[Half a mile from Sant* Agata, from 
which it is approached by a long high 
viaduct, and prettily situated among 
the hilis, is Sessa (18,000 Inhab.); 
which stands on the site of Suessa 
Aumnca^ and contains many ancient 
remains, particularly the ruins of a 
bridge, still called P(mie Aurunca^ and 
of an amphitheatre. The cathedral 
contains inscriptions, a mosaic pave- 
ment, and other antique fragments ; in 
the ch. of S. Benedetto there are ex- 



tenBire raulto, supposed to be the re* 
mains of a Roman resenroir; and in 
the monastery of S. Giovanni there is 
a cryptO'porticus, remarkable for the 
large size of the stones with which it 
is built. The hill on which Sessa is 
atuated is a mass of volcanic tufa, in 
which have been discovered painted 
chambers, erroneously supposed to ha^e 
belonged to a city covered by a 
volcanic eruption. Sant' Agata will 
be ^ the best place from which to 
visit the volcanic group of hills of 
Rocca Monfina, lying about 5 m. from 
it, nearly midway between this road 
and that from San Germano. The 
innkeeper at Sant' A^ata will furnish 
l^ides and donkeys to visit this interest- 
ing volcanic region ; the ascent will be 
about 6 m., during which Sessa can be 
visited, as it lies on the line of road, 
and if the traveller prefers he can de- 
scend to Teano on the opposite declivity 
of the range, still 4 m. farther. The 
detached hills, which appear to have 
originally formed the outer edge or en- 
circling ridge of its great elevation crater, 
enclose a space nearly 9 m. in circumfer- 
ence. Within this space are two smaller 
cones, the highest of which, called 
Jlfontagna di Santa Croce, attains an ele- 
vation of 3200 ft., or about 400 ft. lower 
than Vesuvius. The igneous rocks of 
Rocca Monfina are remarkable for their 
large and perfect crystals of leucite. 
On the summit of one of its highest 
narrow ridges, called La Serra or Ln 
Cortinella, some fragments of ancient 
walls built of lava, and massive sub- 
structions, probably of a temple, are 
traceable, which have been identified 
with Aaruncaj the capital of the Av^ 
runci, who occupied this small volcanic 
district. In B.C. 337 the Aurunci, 
being hard pressed by the Sedicini, 
abandoned Aurunca, which was de- 
stroyed by their enemies, and took 
refuge at Sessa, which was hence dis- 
tinguished by the epithet Aurimca,^ 

Leaving Sant' Agata, we pass through 
the village of Cascano, situated on a 
saddle-back of secondary limestone 
upon the ridge of Monte Massico, ex- 
tending from the hills of Sessa in a 
$. direction to Mondragone, and pre- 

serving the name of a tract which the 
Latin poets have made familiar by their 
praises of its wines : — 

Kst qui nee veteris pocuU MassicI, 
Kec partem soUdo demere de die 

Hon. 0(1.1. 1. 

The Falemus Ager is considered to 
be the tract extending from the Massic 
hills to the Voltumo, and including 
therefore the neighbourhood of Mon- 
dragone, near which was the Fausttamit 
Ager, in which the choicest Falemian 
was produced. 

3 miles beyond Cascano a road on 
the .1. leads to Teano, before reaching 
which, on descending from the heights 
of La Montagna Spaccata, the view 
over the plain of the Voltumo and the 
Campania Felice is magnificent. A 
beautiful drive across a fertile plain 
le;ads to Francolisi, a picturesque castle 
aboi/« the osteria. Near this the road 
crosses the Savone, deeply encased, the 
Piifer Siivo of Statins, which has its 
origin in the mineral springs near 
Teano; and 2 m. farther is the post 
station of 

1 Sparanise, The village of Sparanise 
is at a short distance on the 1. A good 
road of 1 2 m. branches off on the rt. to 
Mondnigone from this post station; 
close to which the railway from Capua 
to S. Germiano crosses. 4 miles from 
Sparanise, at Lo Spartimento, the upper 
road from Rome through Frosinone and 
San Germano falls into this. [The 
traveller can proceed from the station 
at Sparanise to Naples in 2} hours 
''see p. 35).] Before reaching Capua 
we cross the Volturno {Vultumus) 
upon a bridge rebuilt by Frederic II., 
whose statue is placed near the gate 
of the city. This ^ river is often 
mentioned by the Roman poets for 
the rapidity of its current. As 
Capua is a fortified .town, the formality 
of having the passports visaed, even 
though the traveller be merely passing 
through it, is required. A. toll of 4 
ducats is exacted for a close carriage, 
and of 2 for an open one. 

8 m. Capua. (10^000 Inhab. Tnns • 
La Posta, very dirty and ill kept ; 
// Belvedere, bad and dirty.) It 

ROaXE 140.— CAPUA. — ^AVEESA. 


does not stand on the site of ancient 
Capua, but on that of Casilinum, well 
known for its gallant defence against 
Hannibal. The position of ancient 
Capua is to be sought at Santa Mctria, 
2 m. distant 

Modern Capua was built in the 9th 
cent., and is the see of an archbishop, 
who is always a cardinal. It stands 
on the 1. bank of the Voltumo, which 
forms so extensive a curre as to 
surround at least two thirds of the town. 
Its fortifications, first erected in 1231 
by Fuccio Fiorentino, were reconstruct- 
ed and enlarged by Vauban on the 
modem system. They were remodelled 
and strengthened with earthworks in 
1855, under the direction of a Russian 
officer. In 1501 Capua was trea- 
cherously taken and sacked by Csesar 
Borgia, when 500O of its inhab. perish- 
ed by the sword. Near the nunnery a 
terrace is showti from .which m^y 
ladies> to avoid dishonour, threw them- 
selves into, the river. Capua now ranks 
as one of the three military stations of 
the first class in the kingdom. On the 
Ist of Nov. 1860 it was taken by the 
Italian army from Francis II. after the 
battle of the Yoltumo ; when the King, 
after a gallant defence, was obliged to 
retire on the Garigliauo and Gaeta. The 
Gothic cathedral has preserved some 
granite columns of unequsd size frem 
the ruins of CasUinum, and on the 
high altar there are two fine co- 
lumns of verde antico. In the subter- 
ranean chapel, which is of the Norman 
times, are a Roman tomb with bas> 
reliefs and a Piel^, and an Entombment 
by Bottiglierif erroneously attributed 
to Bernini. The ch. of the Annunziata 
is supposed to be built on the ruins of an 
ancient temple. Under an arch of the 
Piazza dei Giudici, beside the church, 
are preserved some ancient inscrip- 
tions, probably from ancient Capua, 
and a curious bas-reli«f of Jupiter, 
Minerva, and Diana, with a representa- 
tion of a tread-wheel, with men inside 
working it, from the sepulchral urn of 
a certain Proseus, a Redemptor or con- 
tractor. It was from the Piazza de* 
Giudici that Borgia, while receiving 
the ransom s^eed upon for peace, gave 
the signal for the massacre.- 

There are two roads from Capua to 
Naples; one through Santa Maria di 
Capua, the other through Aversa, 
which is the post road. The road 
through Santa Maria is 3 m. longer, 
buianords an opportunity of examining 
the ruins. of Ancient Capua {Excvr. 
from Naples), There is also the rail- 
road through Caserta, which will be 
the most expeditious mode of reaching 
Naples. The railway station at Capua 
is immediately outside the gate leading 
to the capital. 

The country by the Aversa route to 
Naples is a continued vineyard. It iis 
marked by its extraordinaiy fertility, 
and is reputed ta be one of the richest 
in Europe. 2 m. beyond Capua the 
road dtirts the village of S. Tammaro. 

9 ni. AvEBSA (18^00 Inhab.), founded 
by the Normans in 1030. It has ac* 
quired celebrity for its lunatic asylum, 
the Maddalena, established by Murat, 
and capable of containing 50U persons. 
This institution, under the direction of 
the Cavalier Linguiti, was one of the 
earliest to throw aside restraints, and 
to rely on mora! influences founded on 
the basis of occupation and amusement 
for the cure. The suppressed Celestiue 
convent of San Pietro a Maiella stands 
on the site of the mediseval castle 
which was the scene of the murder of 
Andrew of Hungary, the husband of 
Queen Joanna I., by whose supposed 
connivance he was called out of his bed 
to receive pretended tidings of great 
urgency from the capital, and strangled, 
by the conspirators in the garden of the 

[About 2 miles E. of Aversa is the 
village of S, Elpidio, where some ruins 
still mark the site -of the Oscan city 
of Atella, celebrated in the history of 
Roman literature for the satirical farces 
called the Foibuke AtellanoB, which were 
represented in the Oscan language 
on the Roman sta^e lon^ after the 
Latin was the prevailing idiom. These 
farces are supposed to have been the 
prototypes oi the performances in the 
theatre of San Carlino which are 
so popular in Naples at the present 
day ; and the Neapolitan Pulcinella is 
regarded as the uneal descendant of 



the Oflcan Maccus, so well known by 
the Pompeii paintings. The pedigree 
of the immortol Punch may therefore 
date from an antiquity more remote 
than Rome itself.] 

The wine of ATersa, called the 
A^rinOf — 

Quel d' Averaa acido Asprino 
Che Don so ■' % agresto, o vino. 

is often prepared and sold as eham? 
pagne in Italy and in the Levant. 

On leaving Aversa the road con- 
tinues to run through a highly fertile 
country, but it is so flat that it com- 
mands no view of the bay, and Na- 
ples is not seen until we are close upon 
the barrier. At Capo di Chino, whence 
the road is carried down a deep cutting 
in the tufa hill, the road from Caserta 
falls into this. The octroi station is 
on the summit of this descent. 

7 m. (charged 1| post) Napijm. 

Hotels: Des Etrangers; La Gran Bre- 
tagna; la Vittoria; de PAngleterre; de 
VAmerique ; le Crocelle ; de la Rusak ; la 
Ville de Rome (see p. 70). 

ROUTE 141. 


260 kil. = 161|Eng. miles. 

This is now the great highway be- 
tween Rome and Naples, since the 
opening of the rly. The line it the 
same described in the preceding route 
(p. 4) as far as Velietri, from whence 
it strikes across the plain to Valmon- 
tone, and afterwards follows nearly 

* Alihongh completed for seyeral montha^ 
and in perfect working order, the Roman Go- 
remment lias np to the present (Oct. 1862) re- 
fased to allow this rly. to be opened to the 
public as &r as Ceprano, a state of things 
which, however, cannot long continue ; the line 
is in activity from the Italian frontier at 
IsoletU to Naples. 


the line of the post-road and ancient 
Via Latina tp Capua. 

Trains will leave Rome twice a-day, 
performing the journey id about 9 hrs. ; 

Rome to 
Ciampino ........ 


La Ceodiina (for Albano and Lariccia) 
(Mvita Lavlnia (for Genzano) . . . 



Segni ......... 

I^rgola (for Anagni) 








San Germano 

Rooca d' Evandro 





Teano ..'....... 


Pignataro ........ 


Santa Maria 



Cancello , . 

Acerra ......... 




14 1 






























By this route the traveller will be 
enabled to visit all the most interesting 
places of the highly classical region 
which the line traverses — Velietri, 
Con, Anagni, Segni, Ferentino, Frosi- 
none, Sora, Arpino, San Germano, and 
even Palestrina and Genazzano. Om- 
nibuses and other conveyances at the 
different stations for the principal 
towns in their vicinity ; most of which, 
in the Papal portion of the railway, 
are at some distance from the railway ; 
and a daily conveyance from ^Velietri 
to Cistema, Pipemo, Terracina, Cori, 
&c. Light vehicles may be found 
also at Frosinone for Alatri, Veroli, 
and CoUepardo, 

The rly. leaves Rome by a cutting 
through the Aurelian wall near the Porta 
Maggiore, adjoining which is the Tomb 
of Eurysaces the BaJcer. [The carriage- 
road, the ancient Via Labicana, is tra- 
velled over for 27 m. as far as Valmon- 
tone, 4 m. beyond which we enter upon. 



the Via Latina, at the Roman station of 

Ad Bivium* The dreary Campagna 

begins 2 m. after leaving Kome, and for 

many miles the ruined aqueduct which 

spans the plain is the only object 

to attract attention. On the 1. of 

the road is the Torre Pignatara, the 

ruined mausoleum erected by Ck)n- 

stantine to his mother St. Helena, in 

which the porphyry sarcophagus in the 

Museo Pio-Clementino was found. 8 m. 

from Rome, on the rt., are the extensive 

farm-buildings of Torre Nova and the 

plantation of picturesque stone pines, 

which form so marked an object in this 

part of the Campagna, and belonging 

to Prince Borghese. Some miles farther 

on the I. is the tower of Castiglione, 

which marks the .site of Gabii, and a 

little way beyond the large farming 

establishment of Pantauo, where some 

topographers place the site of the Lake 

of Regillus. At the 15th m. we pass 

on the rt., on a hill, the half-4eserted 

village of Colonna, on the site of Labi" 

cum, and which gives its name te the 

great baronial family who held it as 

their fief since the 11th cent. On 

the 1. w<as a small dried-up lake, by 

some supposed to be that of Regillus. 

The lava which once issued from its 

margin is quarried £or paving stones. 

3 m. beyond the Osteria di CJolonna, 

the road to Zagarolo and Palestrina 

strikes off on the 1. A description 

of these places wiH be found in the 

* The Via Labicana issued, from the Pw'^a 
Fsquilma,aDd after reaching Lai)icum, near the- 
station Ad Quintanas, fell into the Via Latina 
at that of Ad Picias. 

The Via Lativa left Borne from the Porta 
Capena of the Servian wall, and from the Porta 
Latina of the Aurelian, and fell into the Via 
Appia at Capua. The Stations on it were: — 

Ad Decimum^ CiainpifW (f >. 

Rohoraria, fix Mdara. 

Ad Pictas, Lvgnano (f ). 

Ad Bivium, near Valmontone. 
Compitum Anangnihum below Anagni. 

Ferentinnm, Ferentino^ 

Frusino, Frtxinone. 

Fregellanum,- €h-otto d' Opt, &r 

Ceprano ? 

Fabrateria Falvaterra (f ) 

Aqninnm,. Aquino. 

Casinura, S. Germano, 

Teauum, Teano, 

Cales, - Calvi. 

Casillnum^ Modem Capua. 

Qapuar Sta, Maria, 

Handbook for Rome, art. " Excursions." 
Shortly before arriving at Lugnano, the 
road leaves the Comarca, and enters 
the Legation of Velletri. Zugnano is 
a village of 1000 Inhab. on the site of 
Dipinte, though some topographers sup- 
pose it to be the ancient Longianum, 
from the similarity of the names. On 
the rock above it is an old baronial 
eastle, now belonging to the Rospigliosi 

The rly. on leaving Velletri tra- 
verses the low region between the Alban 
Hills and the Yolscian Mountains on 
the rt., upon which the towns of Cori 
and Rocca Massima form very pic- 
turesque objects, passing on rt. the 
small lake and town of Giulianello, 
until reaching 

15 kil. Valmontone Stat., which is 
2 m. from the town on the 1., and 
about the same distance from Monte 
Fortino on the rt. (2500 Inhab. ; 
Inn: Loc. del Principe Doria, outside 
the town, a tolerable Italian osteria;. 
omnibus from the stat. for Pagliano 
and Genazzano, and light vehicles for 
Palestrina, m. distant). The town 
(the ancient Tolerium ?) stands on a 
hill (1106 ft. abeve the sea) of vol- 
canic tufa,, surmounted by an old ba- 
ronial mansion, and surrounded by 
the ruins of walls with quadrangular 
towers of the middle ages. Several 
antiquities may still be traced, among 
which are the remains of its ancient 
walls, eomposed of square masses of 
tufa, a sarcophagus of the time of Sep- 
timius Severus with bas-reliefs, now 
used as a cistern, and numerous sepul- 
chral excavations in the rocks in the 
neighbourhood. Valmontone was a 
fief of the Conti family, who received 
it from Innocent III. On the extinc 
tion of their line, it passed to the 
Sfbrzas, the Barberinis, and last of all 
to the Pamfilis. Its vast palace, built 
by a Prince Pamfili in 1662, commands 
a beautiful view. After many years 
of neglect,, it has within the last few 
years been restored and re-occupied by 
Prince Doria Pamfili, whose eldest son 
bears the title of Prince of Valmontone. 
The church, built in the 17th cent, 
by the Pamfilis, from the designs of 



Matteo de' Rossi, contuns some pic- 
tures by Giro Ferri, Brandi, and other 
artists of the 17th cent. On the hills 
above the town are the Kttie ch. of the 
Madonna delle Grazie, of the 11th, 
and the convent of St. Angeh), dating 
from the 13th cent. 

The pedestrian or the artist woaM do 
well to visit from* here several interesting 
places lying off the road, ass Palestrina, 
.Cave, Genazzano,. Paiiano, and others 
whose picturesque beauty and associa- 
tions with the history of the middle 
ages would amply repay the additional 
time devoted to such an excursion. 
They will be found described in the 
**ExcursK>n8 from Rome/' handbook 
for Centrai Italy j Fart IF, 

Monte Fortinoy 4 m. S. of Yalmontone, 
and 2 m. from Uie rly. stat., a town of 
2500 Inhab., on one of the last spnr»of 
the Volscian Mountains; is supposed to 
stand on the site of Ecttra, one of the 
most ancient towns of the Yolscians, 
the only ruins of which that are now 
to be seen are some rude and massive 
polygonal walls at a place called La 
Civita and II Fiane delta Nebbia, about a 
mile S. W, of the village. They consist 
o^ blocks of limestone with smaller 
stones filling up the interstices as at 
Cora and Norba, and probably formed 
part of the defences of the citadel of 
this Volscian stronghold. 

The rly. on leaving the Valmontone 
Stat, follows the Majorana torrent to 
where it joins the Sacco. At the 31st 
ancient ra. from Rome the Sacco is 
crossed by the carriage-road, near 
where stood the Mutatio' Ad Bimtm of 
the Via Latina. 

2 m'. farther we arrive at 

8 kil. Segni Stat. The town of Segni, 
the ancient Signia (there is a tolerable 
country inn kept by Gaetanini), is at 
some distance (3^ m.) fi'om the station, 
and is reached by a road constantly 
ascending from the plain. Signia is a 
place of very remote antiq-uity, having 
been colonized by Tarquinius Priscus, 
as a check on the Vokci and ffemici. 
The modern town, although the seat 
of a bishop, is a poor place, containing 
3500 Inhab. ; it stands out as a great 

ance, occupying the declivity of a hill, 
its highest point being 2193 ft. above 
the sea. The whole summit was en- 
closed within walls, extensive remains 
of which, in the most massive poly- 
gonal style, may be traced through 
the greater part of their circuit. The 
modern town occuphis the lower part 
of this summit. Ascending through 
its streets, just above the last houses 
stands the ch. of St. Peter, occupying 
the site of an ancient temple, the oella 
of which is included in the modem 
edifice. The walls are built in regular 
courses of rectangular blocks of tufa, 
but rest on a basement of two stages of 
polygonal blocks of limestone. Ad- 
joining the ch. is a well-preserved 
circufair reservoir for water, evidently 
of the Roman period. A path leads 
fr^m the church of S. Pietro, along 
the brow of the hill, to an ancient gate, 
known by the name of Forta Saracinesca, 
a very remarkable specimen of the 
polygonal style, generally known as 
Cyclopean. The two sides consist of 
hu^e blocks converging upwardly, over 
which the roof or architrave is Ibrmed 
of three very large stones stretching 
across. Issuing from this gate, and 
tnmi<ng to the right, the walls may be 
traced all round the brow of the hill, 
and for the most part preserved to a 
considerable height. There is also a 
second or advanced line of wall, and in 
a similar style, lower down, and in 
front of the principal circuit, through- 
out a considerable part of its extent. 
Somewhat below the ch. is another 
gate in the line of walls, and three 
others in other parts of the circuit ; 
one, the Forta in Lucino, is not inferior 
to the Porta Saracinesca in the massive 
style of its construction, but it is seen 
to less advantage, being choked up 
with earth and rubbish. The entire 
circuit of the walls of Signia is about 
the same as of those at Norba. 

The view over the valley of the 
Sacco from Segni is very fine. 

There is a road from Segni to 
Anagni (for riding only) which crosses 
the Sacco and the rly. There is also 
a rough riding-road, or bridle-path, 

bastion from the Volscian Mountains, I from Segni across the mountains to 
and presents a very striking appear- j Cori, so as to avoid the long circuit by 



Monte Fortino and Gin1ian«llo ; it will 
take about 4| hoars, and commands 
magnificent views, winding round the 
N. shoulder of the Volscian Mountains 
at a high level, and passing near the 
picturesque little town of Rocca Massima, 
probably on the site of Artena, The 
descent from the brow of the ridge to 
Cori is long and steep, but the view 
over the Pontine Marshes, from Yel- 
letri to the Circean Promontory, the 
Alban Hills, and ancient Latium, is 
very fine. There is another path, more 
direct, over the ridge, instead of round 
the shoulder of the mountain, between 
Segni and Cori, but scarcely passable, 
except on foot. 

From the Segni Stat, the rly. con- 
tinues parallel to the Sacco for about 
8 m. to the 

14 kil. Sgurgola Stat. This is the 
nearest point to Anagni, about 7 kil., 
the road ascending constantly from the 
river. At the base of the hill on which 
the latter stands is the Osteria di 
Fontana, which occupies probably the 
site of the Compitum Anagnmimi, a sta- 
tion or mutatio on the Via Latina. From 
here the modern road ascends (as the 
ancient did), passing by the chapel of 
Santa Maria delle Grazie to 

Anagni (6000 Inhab.), the ancient 
Anagniaf the capital of the Hemici, 
described by Cicero in his defence of 
Milo as a munidjnum omatissmium ; and 
by Virgil as a wealthy city : — 

quos, dives Anagnia, pascis. 

JSn. VII. 684. 

In the middle ages it was the favourite 
residence of several popes and anti- 
popes, and the seat of the conclave 
which, after receiving the furious letter 
of Frederick II. callmg the cardinals 
the sons of Belial, elected Innocent IV. 
It was the birth-place of Stephen VII., 
Innocent III., Gregory IX., Alexander 
IV., and Boniface VIII. The latter, 
after his quarrel with the Colonnas, 
against whom he had launched the most 
violent anathemas, was involved in that 
memorable quarrel with Philip le Bel 
in which the French clergy obtained 
their peculiar privileges. Philip was 
little calculated to submit to the pre- 
tensions of the Church, and Guillaume 
[8. Italy,'] 

de Nogaret, who had demanded that 
Boniface should be arraigned for simony 
and heresy, collected a band of mer- 
cenaries, and allied himself with the 
forces of the Colonnns. The gate of 
Anagni was opened to them by trea- 
chery; the French and their allies 
entered the city Sept. 7, 1303, crying, 
Vive le roi de France, et meure Boniface! 
At the first alarm the pope had put 
on his robes, and was sitting in his 
pontifical chair when the conspirators 
entered ; his age and venerable appear- 
ance awed the boldest of their party, 
and no one ventured to lay hand upon 
his person. After three days the people 
recovered from their finst surprise, 
drove out the French, and set the Pope 
at liberty. Boniface, hastening to Rome, 
put himself under the protection of the 
Orsinis, the hereditary enemies of the 
Colonnas, but was soon after found 
dead in his bed. Anagni has been 
a bishop's see since 487. 

The present cathedral was com- 
menced in 1074, on the site of an older 
ch.; and though it has been greatly 
altered in modern times, retains mucn 
that is interesting. The floor of the 
choir is a fine specimen of that class of 
mosaic called Opus Alexandrinum, and 
was executed in 1226 by Giov. Cosi- 
mati, the author of so many similar 
works at Borne, and by his sons 
Giacomo and Luca, the whole at the 
expense of Bishop Alberto and the 
Canon Orlando Conti, afterwards Pope 
Alexander IV. There is also here a 
fine paschal candelabrum in white 
marble inlaid with mosaics, bearing 
the name of Vasaletto, an otherwise 
unknown artist. The chapel on the rt. 
of the high altar was erected by a 
nephew of Boniface VIII., and con- 
tains the sepulchral 'monument of a 
member of the Caetani family, in 
white marble, inlaid with mosaics, and 
surmounted by a Gothic cano]^ — it 
most probably was by one of the 
Cosimatis also. Among the other 
members of the same great baronial 
house is that of a certain Peter, " qui 
nutrivit D. Bonifacinm, Pap. viii." 
But the most interesting part of the 
existing cathedral is the subterranean 
chapel dedicated to St. Magnus, which 




18 coTered with paintings of the 13th 
cent., relating to the life of the patron 
saint. From an inscription we learn 
that his remains were removed here 
in 1231, the chapel having been con- 
structed for their reception, and the 
frescoes executed by order of a cer- 
tain Peter, whose monument we have 
seen in the Caetani chapel. The style 
of these paintings bears a close resem- 
blance to those at Rome, and to the 
mosaics of the same period. 

On the outside of the ch., high up 
near the roof, is a sitting statue of a 
Pope on a throne under a Gothic 
canopy, which has in front the Caetani 
shield in mosaic. There is little doubt 
that it represents Boniface YIII., who 
was buried in St. Peter's, and whose 
monument, or what remains of it, with 
his recumbent statue by Mino da 
Fiesole, is now in the subterranean ch. 
of the Vatican Basilica. 

There is a tidy little country inn at 
Anagni (kept by Pampanello). Al- 
though of very unpromising appearance 
outwardly, it has some clean bed- 
rooms. Opposite to it is a large medi- 
aeval building on arches, probably the 
Municipio or Town Hall. 

There are some ruins of the ancient 
city, among which are massive walls of 
travertine with their phalli, reservoirs 
of baths, Roman inscriptions, &c. &c. 

9 kil. Ferentino (Stat, in the valley, 
4 kil. from the town, which is situated 
on a hill 1360 ft. above the sea; omni- 
buses in correspondence with the 
rly. trains; Pop. 8000$ the Hotel des 
EtrangerSf clean and tolerable), on a 
hill, the ancient Ferentinumy a city of 
the Volscians, which afterwards came 
into the possession of the Hemici. In 
the year 1223 a congress was held here 
between Honorius III., the Emperor 
Frederic II., and Jean de Brienne, titular 
King of Jerusalem, at which the mar- 
riage of Frederic with lolanda, the 
only daughter of Jean, was arranged. 
Considerable remains of its massive so- 
called Cvclopean walls, built of the lime- 
stone 01 the hill, still exist, with four 
gateways, in a more regular style of 
masonry than that seen in many of the 
other Pelasgic cities. The walls may be 
traced completely round the hill ; some 

of their blocks are polygonal, otherff 
rectangular. The view from the sum- 
mit is very fine. The bishop's palace, 
built upon ancient foundations of a 
massive character, contains several in* 
scriptions recording restorations made 
by Lollius and Hirtius. The Cathedral 
is paved with fragments of ancient 
marbles and mosaics. In the little ch. 
of S. Giovanni Evangelista is a stone, 
now used as a baptismal font, bearing 
a dedicatory inscription from the people 
of Ferentinum to Cornelia Saloniua, the 
wife of the " unconquered " Gallienus. 
The Porta del Borgo has two inscrip- 
tions, one in honour of Julia Augusta, 
the other of Marcus Aurelius An- 
toninus. Near the gate of S. Maria 
Maggiore is an inscription with pi- 
lasters and pediment hewn in the solid 
rock, recording the munificence of 
Quinctilius Prisons to Ferentinum, the 
erection of a statue in the Forum by 
his grateful fellow-townsmen, and the 
liberal donations which he had pro- 
vided for distribution on his birthday 
among the citizens, the inhabitants, the 
married women and the boys. These 
gifts afford a curious insight into the 
customs of Roman life. There are 
crustula and mulsum (buns and methe- 
glin) for the grown-up people, with the 
addition of sportiUce (presents of money) 
for the Decurions, and nucum sparsiones 
(scattering of nuts) for the boys. The 
stone is called by the country-people 
La Fatin, 

9 kil. Frobinone Stat. (8000 Inhab. 
— Inns : Locanda de Matteis, at the foot 
of the hill, tolerable; Locanda di Na^ 
poll, halfwaj^ up the ascent to the 
town, very indifferent.) The town is 
also on a hill 960 feet above the sea, 
at the N. base of which runs the tor-» 
rent descending from the mountains 
of the CoUepardo. Frosinone, the 
Frusino of the Volscians, is the capital 
of an important Delegation, comprising 
a superncial extent of 555 square m. 
It contains some remains of a Romau 
amphitheatre. The female costumes at 
Frosinone are highly picturesque, and 
are frequently made the subjects of 
study by foreign artists. F/tisino was 
conquered by the Romans a.u.c. 450, 



and is mentioned by Plautus in the 
* Captives/ and by other Latin writers, 

fert concitus inde 
Per juga celsa gradum, duris qua rupibus 

Bellator Frusino. 

Sil. Jtal. xn. 530. 

Omnibuses from the station, which 
is 2 m. from the town, on the arrival 
of the trains, where conveyances will 
also be found for Alatri and Veroli. 

There is a road from Frosinone to 
Piperno and Sezze, passing through a 
depression in the Volscian range, by 
Prossedi, a feudal possession of the 


The best way of making the excur- 
sion will be to hire horses or a calessa 
at Ferentino, which is 10 m. from 
Alatri, or at Frosinone. The road 
to Alatri branches off on the 1., 3 m. 
after leaving Ferentino, — that from 
Frosinone at the bottom of its hill; 
both joining at the Osteria della Ma- 
donnella. In coming from Naples to 
Rome, the best starting-point will be 
from Frosinone. The ride along the 
plain is beautiful, the scenery striking, 
and the country highly cultivated. At 
Alatri there is a small but poor 
inn, the Locanda Teresa ; but travellers 
should endeavour to procure letters of 
recommendation to some resident in the 
town. In recent years an apothecary 
has shown great civility in procuring 
proper guides, and even in affording 
accommodation at his own house, for 
which a suitable remuneration will be 
expected on leaving. 

Alatri (10,000 Inhab.) is one of the 
most flourishing towns of the pro- 
vince. It has been the see of a 
bishop- since a.d. 551. Its anti- 
quity is proved by its ruins. It is 
one of the five Satumian cities, the 
names of which begin with the first 
letter of the alphabet, — Alatri, Arpino, 
Anagni, Arce, and Atina. In the ' Cap- 

[S. Italy.'] 

tives * of Plautus it is mentioned under 
the name of Ax«<r^iav, though the 
allusion is by no means complimentary ; 
for Ergasilus, the parasite and epicure, 
in announcing to Hegio, the father of 
the captives, the safety of his son, 
swears in succession by Cora, Prgeneste, 
Signia, Phrysinone, and Alatrium ; iand 
when asked by his host why he swears 
by foreign cities, he replies that he does 
so because they are just as disagreeable 
as the dinner he had threatened to give 
him. This remark in the presence of a 
Roman audience shows that the drama- 
tist was sure that it would gratify the 
prejudice of those to whom it was ad- 
dressed. There may also have been a 
political meaning, as all these cities took 
the part of Hannibal against Home. The 
citadel of Alatri is the most perfect 
specimen of Pelasgic construction to be 
found in Italy. It stands on the crest 
of the hill on which the town is built ; 
another wall of a similar construction 
may be traced round the hill below the 
present town, which still preserves the 
ancient gates. The Acropolis is built 
of polygonal blocks of stupendous size, 
put together without cement. The 
gateway is perfectly preserved ; its roof 
is formed by three enormous stones, 
resting on the side walls, which still 
show the channels for the door. The 
wall seen from outside this gateway is 
magnificent ; and the lofty bastion, ex- 
tending into the neighbouring garden, 
is at least 50 ft. high, and composed of 
only 15 courses. The walls of Alatri 
convey a better idea of these extra- 
ordinary fortifications than any other 
polygonal remains in Italy. The gate- 
way resembles the entrance to the 
Treasury of Atreus, or the Tomb of 
Agamemnon, at Mycsenfle. On the op- 
posite side of the fortress, in a garden, 
is another passage, the roof of which 
is of long flat stones, decreasing in size 
upwards, as the roofs of many cham- 
bers in the Etruscan tombs; It was 
either a sewer or a postern. Above 
the entrance to it is a bas-relief repre- 
senting the mystic sign of the phallus. 
Another bas-relief is close to the Porta 
San Pietro, the principal gate of the 
modem town. In the walls near the 
Porta di San Francesco is a sewer 



about 3 ft. high, constructed in the 
form of a truncated cone, about 2 ft. 
wide above and 1 ft. at the base. 

At about an hour's ride from Alatri 
is one of the most remarkable caverns 
in Italy, called the Grotta di Collepardo. 
The women of Collepardo (1000 Inhab.) 
are the rivals of those of Alatri in beauty. 
The bridle-road is very rough, but the 
worst part of it may be avoided by goins 
round through Vico, which, although 
longer, is more agreeable. The entrance 
to the grotto is in a deep valley, through 
which flows one of the upper branches 
of the Cosa, a tributary of the Sacco. 
The descent is steep, tind occupies at 
least half an hour. The cavern is one of 
the largest in Italy ; it consists of two 
principal chambers, from which smaller 
ones branch off. The length from the 
entrance to the furthest extremity is 
812 yards; it is entirely -excavated in 
the secondary limestone rocks. The 
roof and sides are covered with magni- 
ficent stalactites in every variety of 
ibrm ; but the effect is injured by the 
smoke of the hemp torches whicn the 
guides use to light it up. 

A mile from Collepardo is a plain at 
the foot of the mountains which form 
the frontier of the Papal States. In the 
midst of it is one of the wonders of Italy, 
— the Pozzo di Antulloy the most curious 
object in the district, and much more 
easy of access than the grotto. It is an 
enormous pit sunk in the limestone of 
the plain, nearly half a mile in circum- 
ference, and not less than 200 ft. deep. 
Its nearly vertical sides are incrusted 
with stalactites, and in many places 
clothed with ivy and other creepers. 
The bottom is filled with shrubs and 
trees of considerable size, forming a 
perfect jungle, in which nestle a colony 
of wild pigeons and numerous other 
birds. The peasants of the vicinity 
sometimes descend by means of cords, 
to convey their goats to fatten in 
the summer season. It can only have 
been formed by a sudden sinking of 
the calcareous beds at the surface, 
which covered an extensive subter- 
ranean cavern. 

3 m. higher up th$ valley of Collepar- 
do is the Certosa di Trisulti, founded in 
1208 by Innocent III., and finely situ- 

ated among, woods, backed by the 
mountain crests of the Cima Rotonaria. 
The ch. coataius some paintings by 
Cav, d'Arpino. 

A bridle-road leads from Alatri to 
Isola, passing by Veroli (7 m.), the 
ancient Verulw^ a well-built town on a 
hill commanding a. magnificent view. 
6 m, farther is Casamari, formerly a 
Trappist convent, supposed to derive 
its name from the villa of Caius Marius, 
probably the Cirrh<saton of Plutarch, 
which appears, from inscriptions found 
upon the spot, to have been situated on 
the rt. bank of the Liris. 2 m. beyond 
this is the papal dogana; and 3 m. 
farther on Castelluccio, a Neapolitan 
frontier station. Of late this part of the 
frontier has been infested by bands of 
political brigands, and will be far from 
safe for the tourist as long as this in- 
iquitous system, fomented at Kome, is 
allowed to exist. 

Leaving Frosinone, the road descends 
rapidly along the Marengo torrent; 
about half-way and upon a rising 
ground on the rt. of the line is the vil- 
lage of Pofi, in the neighbourhood of 
which is a small volcanic crater. 

6 kil. Ceccano Stat., close to the vil- 
lage, and near the Sacco. This will be 
the nearest point to the once brigand 
villages of Sonino, the country of Card. 
Antonelli, of S. Lorenzo, Prossedi, Pi- 
pemo, and the principal sites on the 
Volseian mountains. 

6 kil. CepranOf Stat. 3 kil. from the 
town (Inn: Locanda Nuova, large and 
tolerable), is the last town of the 
Papal States, and passports must be 
signed before leaving it. The river 
Liris becomes the Garigliano after its 
junction with the Sacco, the ancient 
Trerus, here called the Tolero, aboiit 
2 m. below the town at Isoletta. Soon 
after crossing it, by a bridge built 
by Pius VI. on the foundations of 
one of Roman times, passports are 
demanded and signed at the office of 
the Italian police ; but the custom- 



house is at the Railway stat. of Isoletta, 
a short distance beyond the frontier. 
The inscription on the bridge record- 
ing its restoration by Antoninus Pius 
is a modern copy of one which was 
discovered on the spot. In the middle 
ages Ceprano was for a time the 
residence of Pope Pascal TI. during 
his contests with the Emperor Henry 
IV.; in 1144 it was the scene of the 
interview between Pope Lucius II. and 
King Roger of Sicily; and in 1272 
Gregory X. was met here by the 
cardinals, on his return from the Holy 
Liand to assume the Papacy. When 
Charles of Anjou invaded the kingdom 
of Naples in 1266, the Count of Caserta, 
Manfred's brother-in-law, who was left 
at Ceprano to defend the passage of 
the Garigliano, retired at the approach 
of Charles, and the strong fortress of 
Kocca d*Arce was also treacherously or 
cowardly surrendered. These events 
are immortalised by Dante in the 
Inferno : 

£ r altra, II cni ossame ancor s' accoglie 

A Ceperan, Ik dove fu buglardo 
CiascuQ Pugliese. 

Inf, xxvm, 15. 

About 3 m. from Ceprano, near S. 
Giovanni Incarico — recently the scene 
of a barbarous act of incendiarism by a 
I^elgian adventurer, the Marquis of 
Trezignies, at the head of a band of 
political brigands, who very deservedly 
paid with his life his atrocious conduct 
— ^just within tiie Italian territory, are 
some ruins supposed to be those of 
Fakrateria, a station on the Via Latina, 
and a Volscian city where Cicero tells 
us that Antony and his friends con- 
cocted plots against him, and which 
Juvenal mentions as a quiet and cheap 
country town, like Sora and Frusino. 
Fabrateria Vetus is supposed to have 
been on a hill near it, on the rt. bank 
of the Tolero, where the village of 
Fdlvaterra now stands. 

On the 1. bank of the Liris, nearly 
opposite Ceprano, at a place called 
Grotta dtOph are also some remains, 
which are identified with the Volscian* 
city of FregellcBf colonized by the Ro- 
mans B.C. 328. Hannibal laid waste 
its territory in consequence df its hav- 

ing destroyed the bridges over the Liris 
to impede his passage. Owing to a 
revolt against Rome it was so far 
destroyed by the praetor L. Opimius, 
B.C. 125, that in the time of Strabo it 
was a mere village. 

There are four custom-house stations 
on the Italian frontier beyond Ce- 
prano : — 1st at Isoletta, on the 1. bank of 
the Liris ; 2nd at 8, Giovanni Incarico, 
on the rt. bank of the Liris ; 3rd at Colle 
Noci, near Arce ; 4th at Castelluccio, 
higher up the valley. 

Travellers who desire to go on 
to Naples will proceed at once by 
railway. Those who wish to enjoy beau- 
tiful scenery, and to examine the re- 
mains of one of the most interesting 
cities of the Volsci, are recommended 
to make an excursion from Ceprano to 
Isola and Arpino. There is an ex- 
cellent carriage-road the whole way, 
and 8 hours will be sufficient for the 
excursion ; so that by leaving Ceprano 
at an early hour the traveller can visit 
the falls of the Liris at Isola, the site 
of Cicero's villa at Arpino, and return 
through the latter and reach for the 
night S. Germano, where there is 
better accommodation. 

3 m. Colle Noci, the Italian frontier 
custom-house on the road to Naples. 
Leaving Arce and its mediaeval castle 
on the 1. (Rte. 144), the road proceeds 

8 kil. Melfa Stat., the ancient Melpis. 
The rly. from here to San Germano 
passes for many miles through vine- 
yards interspersed with elms and oaks, 
along a magnificent plain bounded on 
each side by mount^dns. 

On the hills on the 1. is the pic- 
turesque town of Rocca Secca, the 
birthplace of St. Thomas Aquinas, The 
plain below it was the scene of the vic- 
tory of Louis of Anjou and his Floren- 
tine allies over Ladislaus King of 
Naples. The young Louis crossed the 
frontier with an army of 12,000 men, 
on the 19th May, 1411. The forces of 
Ladislaus were drawn up at Rocca 
Secca, awaiting the attack. Louis led 
his troops in person, and such was their 
impetuosity that the army of Ladislaus 
was totally overthrown, and nearly all 
the barons were taken prisoners. Ladis- 




laus fled, first to Rocca Secca, and 
from there to San Germano. At either 
place he might easily have been made 
prisoner, if the conqueror had been less 
anxious for pillage ; but the soldiers 
were so desirous to obtain money that 
they sold even their arms to the highest 
bidder. Ladislaus, on hearing of this 
result, observed: "The day after my 
defeat, my kingdom and my person 
it^ere equally in the power of my ene- 
mies ; the next day my person was 
safe, but they .were still, if they chose, 
masters of my kin^om ; the third day 
all the fruits of their victory were lost. ' 
Ladislaus sent money to the invaders 
from San Germano. His troops occu- 
pied the defiles, of the road to Naples, 
and Louis retired to allow Ladislaus, in 
spite of his defeat, to become master of 
the Papal States. Farther on, Palaz- 
zuolo and Fiedimontef beautifully placed 
among the hills, are passed ; and as we 
advance the most prominent object in 
the landscape is Monte Casino, crowned 
by its celebrated monastery. 

5 kil. Aquino Stat. 

[Opposite to Palazzuolo, 1 m. on the 
rt. of the road, is the town of Aquino, 
the ancient Aquinum, the birthplace 
of Juvenal, and of the Emperor Pes- 
cennius Niger, a municipal town of 
considerable importance, called by 
Cicero frequens municipium, Juvenal 
mentions it : 

Ergo vale nostri memor ; et qnotfes te 
Boma tuo refici properantem reddet Aquino ; 
Me quoqae ad Helvinam Cererem, Testramque 

Convelle, a Cnmls. 8cU. lu. 318. 

The plain on the N. of the modem 
town abounds in ruins, the most remark- 
able of which are a deserted church of 
the early times of Christianity, built 
upon the site of a temple of Hercules, 
and now known as the Vescovado. In the 
walls are many fragments of Latin in- 
scriptions. The front is approached by 
the steps of the ancient temple, com- 
posed of white marble, and still re- 
taining the bases of its columns, which 
formed a portico 60 ft. long. The 
doorways of the ch. are ornamented 
with fragments o^ancient* cornices of 
great beauty, richly carved with acan- 
thus-leaves. The interior exhibits 

many peculiarities. The nave is divided 
from the south aisle by four round 
arches, and from the north by six. In 
the walls of the nave are six small 
round-headed clerestory windows. Six 
round windows occur in the south 
aisle, and a lancet one over the altar. 
The roof has disappeared, and the 
ground inside the ch., which has been 
used as a cemetery in recent times, is 
overgrown with bushes and encum- 
bered with ruins. Among these are 
two stone sarcophagi, without covers. 
In the wall near me door is a bas- 
relief, with a sitting figure in the 
middle, numerously attended. All the 
costumes are Roman. Close to the 
ch. is a Triumphal Arch, with Co- 
rinthian columns, through which there 
is now a watercourse, called the Mi- 
viera della Madonna del Pianto. Be- 
yond this, a narrow lane leads to 
the other ruins, passing over one 
of the few remaining portions of the 
Via Latina; the pavement is almost 
perfect. The ancient gateway of the 
city, now called Porta S. Lorenzo, is 
square, and beautifully built of mas- 
sive blocks. The roof is vaulted, and 
springs from the four angles ; the 
projecting stones to receive the upper 
hinges oi the double doors are still 
perfect. In a line beyond this gate- 
way are some fragments of the city 
walls, built of large blocks without 
cement, the ruins of a Temple of 
Diana, of a Theatre, and, further on, 
of Temple of Ceres, now called S. 
Pietro. The Temple of Diana, now 
the ch. of Santa Maria Maddalena, 
is very massive. Numerous frag- 
ments of Doric columns, triglyphs, 
and portions of the frieze attest its 
ancient magnificence. The columns 
appear to have been about 4 ft. in 
diameter. Numerous inscriptions are 
seen in the walls of the city, many of 
which appear to be sepulchral. 

About 3 m. S. of Aquino is Ponte- 
coRVo, the capital of a small state 10 m. 
in circuit, with 7500 Inhab., which un- 
til the recent political changes belonged 
to the Pope. It is situated on the 1. 
bank of the Liris, and, united to 
Aquino and Sora, is the see of a bish- 
opric. 9t was founded in the 9 th 



centy. by Hodoaldo d' Aquino, one of its 
early counts. It fell under the Normans 
in the 11th centy., and in the 12th was 
sold by Bobert Count of Cajazzo to the 
monastery of Monte Casino. In 1389 
Boniface IX. took it from the monks 
and ^ve it to the Tomacellis, who 
held It till 1406, when it was restored 
to the monastery by Innocent VII. In 
1469, the army of Pius II. captured it 
on their march into Naples in support 
of John Duke of Anjou. It was seized 
in 1758 by Charles III. Napoleon be- 
stowed it upon Bemadotte, with the 
title of Prince. It was restored to 
the Church, with Benevento, by the 
Congress of Vienna. It now forms a 
part of the Italian province of the 
Terra di Lavoro. In the 11th and 12th 
cents. Pontecorvo was the residence 
of several Greek emigrants from Cala- 
bria, who settled here and at Aquino, 
founded monasteries, and introduced 
in the Church ceremonies, it is said, the 
Greek ritual. It has a medisBval castle, 
a cathedral, a good bridge, and a small 
iiospital. Some ruins in its neighbour- 
hoou have been supposed to be those 
of Interamna Ziriruxs ; but that ancient 
city of the Volscians is, upon better 
authority, placed at Terame, 6 m. farther 
E., near Pignataro.] 

A cross road from Aquino to San 
Germano joins the post line near the 
tower of San Gregorio, under the 
town of Piedimonte. This tower stands 
on Eoman foundations — probably of a 
tomb — ^and has many Latin inscriptions 
on its walls. 

San Germano is not seen until the 
road turns round the' base of Monte 
Casino, when the imposing ruins of 
the amphitheatre, situated close to the 
post-road, open upon the view. 

10 San Germano (7900 Inhab.— Inns : 
Alhergo Roale, rather dirty ; and Villa 
JiapidOf outside the town, tolerable) oc- 
cupying a part of the site of the ancient 
Casinuniy is picturesquely built at the 
base of a hill, on the summit of which 
stands the feudal castle, with its pic- 
turesque towers, which was carried 
by storm by the army of Charles of 
Anjou. The plain in front of the town 
is watered by the Rapido, the ancient 

Casinum, a town of Latium, was 
colonised by the Romans B.C. 312, and 
is often mentioned during the 2nd 
Punic War. Hannibal on one occasion 
ravaged its territory, but did not at- 
tempt to reduce the town. Its most 
remarkable ruins are passed on the 1. 
in entering the modem town from the 
Roman side. The path leading to 
them from the inn, passing above the 
present high road, was one of the an- 
cient streets. In many places the 
pavement is preserved, and exhibits 
marks of chariot wheels. The first 
object that occurs is a building sup- 
posed to be a Tomb, which stood 
on the Via Latina, now converted 
into a ch. called the Chiesa del Croci' 
fisso. It stands on the 1. of the path, 
above the mins of the amphitheatre. 
It is a small square building, with four 
recesses or niches. The roof is arched 
as a cupola, and, like the walls, is 
constructed of massive blocks of 
travertine. The entrance door has 
been much altered to suit it to the 
existing ch. 

Above this are the remains of the 
Theatre, built of reticulated masonry. 
It is entirely ruined ; but one chamber, 
apparently connected with the stage, 
still exhibits the ancient highly polished 
white stucco. The Amphitheatre, below 
the tomb, is still an imposing ruin. 
Its walls were coated with reticulated 
masonry. Five entrances are now 
traceable; three of these front the road ; 
on the other side the building seems to 
rest a^nst the mountain. The seats 
of the mterior have disappeared, and the 
arena has been converted into a field. 
It was built at the expense of Umidia 
Quadratilla, a matron of Casinum, 
mentioned in Pliny's letters. The in- 
scription recording this fact is pre- 
served in the museum of Monte Casmo. 
Vmidia, C, F. QvadratUla, Amphithea- 
trvm et Templvm. Casinatibvs sva, pecv- 
nia. fecit. Nearly opposite, on the 
banks of the Rapido, are the ruins of 
the Villa of Varro, of which he has 
left us a detailed description. M. An- 
tony made it afterwards the scene 
of his orgies, as we learn from Cicero, 
who adds : Studiorum enim suorum M, 
Yaaro voluit esse Ulud, non libidinum, 



diversorvtm, Qnce in iHa villa ante dice- \ 
bantur 9 qua cogitabanttir ? q^uB Uteris 
mandabantur f Jura populi Romania mO' 
nttmenta majorumf omnis sapienticB ratio, 
omnisque doctrina, — Phil. ii. 40, 

Some of the modem churches are 
built with fragments of ancient build- 
ings. One of them contains 1 2 marble 
Corinthian columns; and outside the 
door of another is a colossal vase, 
a votive offering of T. Pomponius to 
Hercules, as recorded in an inscription 
now almost illegible. 

San Germano was a place of im- 
portance in the middle a^s. The 
Emperor Otho IV. took it on his 
invasion of the kingdom of Naples 
in 1210. The legates of Honorius III. 
received here the oath of Frederick II. 
to undertake a crusade to the Holy 
Land ; and his successor, Gregory IX., 
concluded in it a treaty of peace with 
the same emperor. The town is as 
well known for its foggy climate as 
Casinum was in former days. 

• Nebnlosi mra Caslnl. 

SiL. Ital. IV. 22T. 

The Monastery of Monte Casino 
is situated on the lofty hill above the 
town, and is 2^ m. from it. Travellers 
may visit it and return to San Ger- 
mano in 4 hours. It is without excep- 
tion the grandest monastic establish- 
ment in Europe. Its undoubted anti- 
quity, its interest as the residence of 
St. Benedict and the cradle of monach- 
ism, its literary treasures, the learn- 
ing and accomplishments of the breth- 
ren, all combine to place it above 
the rivalry of every similar institution. 
It was founded by St. Benedict in 
5*29, on the site of a temple of Apollo ; 
a fact commemorated by Dante : 

Quel monte, a cni Cassino b nella costa, 
Fu freqnentato gi& in sn la cima 
Dalle gente ingannata e mal dispnsta. 

E quel son io che sn vi portal prima 
Lo nome di Coliil, che in terra addUBse 
La verity che tanto ci subliraa : 

E tanta grazia sopra me rilusse 
Che io ritrassi le ville circonstanti 
Dair empio calto, che 11 mondo sednsse. 

Par. XXII. 

The Monastery is a massive pile, 
more like a palace than a convent, but 
without much architectural pretension. 

although its great extent and general 
simplicity make it an imposing edifice. 
It is entered by a low rocky passage, said 
to have been the cell of the founder. 
The courts to which this leads com- 
municate with each other by open 
arcades. The centre one is supplied 
with a cistern of delicious water, and 
is ornamented with statues of St. 
Benedict and his sister Sta. Scolastica. 
A handsome flight of steps leads to 
the upper quadrangle, in which the 
ch. is built. In a cloister which 
runs round it, supported by granite 
columns from the temple of Apollo, 
are placed marble statues of the prin- 
cipal benefactors of the ch. Over the 
door a Ijatin inscription records the 
foundation of the abbey, and its sub- 
sequent vicissitudes up to the year 
1649. The ch. erected by St. Bene- 
dict was destroyed towards the end of 
the 6th centy. by the Longobards, re- 
built in the 8th by the Abbot Petro- 
naces, burnt by the Saracens in 883, 
repaired by the Abbot Johannes, and 
again rebuilt by the Abbot Desiderius 
in 106.5. It was consecrated in 748 
by Pope Zacharias, and again in 1071 
by Alexander II. It was totally de- 
stroyed by an earthquake in 1349, and 
restored in 1365 by Urban V. In 1649 
it fell down in consequence of the neg- 
ligence of the workmen during some 
repairs. Towards the close of the 1 7th 
cent, it was once more rebuilt with 
greater magnificence than ever, in its 
present form. It was completed in 
1727, and on the 19th May in that year 
it was consecrated by Benedict XIII. 
The centre door' is of bronze, and con- 
tains, in inlaid silver letters, a cata- 
logue of all the tenures, fiefs, and other 
possessions of the abbey in 1066, when 
the door was manufactured at Con- 
stantinople, by order of the Abbot 
Desiderius, who afterwards became 
Pope under the name of Victor III. 
The interior of the Church far sur- 

S asses in elegance and in costliness of 
ecoration every other in Italy, scarcely 
surpassed by St. Peter's itself. The 
floors of Florentine mosaic, the profu- 
sion of rich marbles, and the paintings, 
give it an unapproachable superiority. 
On each side of the high altar there 



is a handsome mausoleum ; one is the 
work of Fmncesco Sangallo, erected at 
the expense of Clement VII. to the 
memory of his nephew Pietro de* 
Medici, drowned in the Garigliano 
p. 19) ; the other to Guidone Fieramoscay 
last prince of Mignano. The high 
altar is rich in precious marbles. St. 
Benedict and Sta. Scolastica are buried 
beneath it. The subterranean chapel 
contains paintings b^ Marco da Siena 
and Mazzaroppi, which have suffered 
much by damp. During his residence 
in the monastery, Tasso was a con- 
stant visitor to this chapel. The 
choir of the ch. is of walnut wood. 
Nothing can surpass the exquisite 
sculpture of its flowers, figures, &c. 
Fifty Corinthian columns, with orna- 
mental bases, divide the seats from each 
other. The panels forming the backs, 
48 in number, are carved in every va- 
riety of pattern, with flowers, birds, or 
foliage, and a portrait of some religious 
•character in the middle. The doors 
pf the sacristy and those opposite to 
them leading to the convent are 
superb. The chapels on each side 
the altar, the Cappella delV Assunzione, 
and that of the Addolorata, are perfect 
specimens of Florentine mosaic, which 
is lavished equally over the floor, walls, 
and altar. On the space over the 
doors is a fresco by Luca Giordanoy 
representing the consecration of the 
ch. by Alexander II. The Chapel 
of the SS. Sacramento, and the ceiling 
of the nave, representing the miracles 
of St. Benedict and the monastic 
virtues, are also by Giordano, who 
has inserted his name with the date, 
1677. The chapel of S. Gregory 
the Great contains a picture of the 
Saint, by Marco Mazzaroppi, whose 
principal works are to be found here. 
The Martyrdom of St. Andrew, over 
the door in the side aisle, is also by 
Mazzaroppi, The organ is one of the 
finest in Italy. The Hefectory contains 
a fine painting of the miracle of the 
loaves and fishes, by Bassano. 

The Library of Monte Casino will 
always have a peculiar interest for the 
scholar, as the sanctuary in which 
many treasures of Greek and Latin 
literature were preserved during the , 

dark ages. Even in the early history 
of the monastery, copies of the rarest 
classical MSS. were made by the monks. 
To the Abbot Desiderius, who greatly 
encouraged these transcripts in the 1 1th 
cent., we are probably indebted for 
the preservation of the Idyls of Theo- 
critus and the Fasti of Ovid. The 
library contains at this time- upwards 
of 10,000 vols., among which are some 
cinque'-cento editions of great rarity and 
value. The oldest MSS. are : — a trans- 
lation by Rufus of Origen's Commen- 
tary on St. Paul's Epistle to the Ro- 
mans, of the 6th cent. ; a Dante of 
the 14th, with marginal and inter- 
linear notes ; a Virgil of the 14th 
copied from another MS. of the 10th 
cent, in Lombard characters, which 
supplies the termination of many 
verses incomplete in other copies; 
original MSS. of Leo Ostiensis and 
Ricardo di San Germano: and the 
Vision of Frate Alberico, wnich some 
suppose to have given Dante the idea 
of tne Divina Commedia. 

The Archives, however, contain by 
far the most valuable of all the trea- 
sures of the abbey. They comprife 
about 800 original diplomas and char- 
ters of emperors, kings, dukes, and 
barons, beginning with Ajo, Prince of 
the Lombards, in 884 ; and a complete 
series of all the bulls of the popes 
relating to the monastery from the 
11th cent. Many of the charters have 
portraits of the princes by whom they 
were granted. The seals attached 
to them sdone would be a curious 
study. This inestimable collection of 
the political and religious history of 
the middle ages has been carefully ar- 
ranged and copied into six folio vo- 
lumes. Among the numerous letters is 
the correspondence of Don Erasmo Gat- 
tola, the historian of the abbey, with 
Muratori, Tiraboschi, Mabillon, Mont- 
faucon, and other learned men of his 
time. At the end of an Italian version 
of Boccaccio, De Claris Mulieribus, are, 
the letter of Mahomet II. to Nicholas 
v., in Which he complains of the 
armaments raised against him by the 
Pope, and promises to become a Christian 
as soon as he arrives at Rome with his 
army ; and the answer of the Pope, 



declaring that he is not to be duped by 
the pretended promise of conversion. 
A sella halnearia of rosso antico, found 
at Suio, on the banks of the Garigliano, 
is preserved here. The Tower, which 
is believed to have been the habitation 
of St. Benedict, contains some pictures 
by L, Giordano J Novellif Spagnoletto, &c., 
remains of the great collection, which 
was carried off to enrich the ^lery at 
Naples. The cloisters of this part of 
the building have been converted into 
a eallery of inscriptions and antiquities, 
cmlected chiefly among the . ruins of 

The inmates of the monastery con- 
sisted in 1858 of 20 brethren in 
holy orders, 14 lay brothers, 16 novi- 
ciates, and a large number of pupils 
for the priesthood, and receiving 
a general education. The members 
of the community must be persons 
of independent means. The revenues 
of the establishment were formerly more 
than 20,000/. a year ; they now scarcely 
exceed 3000/. The Abbot foi-merly held 
the rank of first baron of the kingdom. 
But though the high and palmy days 
of Monte Casino have passed away, tne 
hospitality of the brethren continues to 
be extended to strangers with unaffected 
kindness and courtesy. Several large 
and comfortable rooms are set apart 
for the accommodation of visitors, and 
a cordial welcome is never wanting. 
The view from the convent is singu- 
larly fine. The plain of the Liris as 
far as the frontier of the Roman States, 
including the towns of Cepi-ano, Aquino, 
and Arce, the high cultivation of the 
country, the picturesque forms of the 
distant mountains, combine to form a 
panorama of the highest interest and 

During the spring a few days may 
be spent veiy agreeably at San Ger- 
mano, from which several excursions 
can be made. A road of 4 m. leads to 
Pignataro, near which are the remains 
of Interamna Lirinas (Rte. 1 40). Ano- 
ther, along the Rapido, passing near 
the villiages of S. Elia and Belmonte, 
reaches Atina (11 m.) and thence 
descends to Sora (12 m.), from which 
24 m. more will bring us back to San 
Germano (Rte. 144). Aquino and Pon- 

tecorvo are within short drives from 
San Germano ; and the pedestrian may 
ascend Monte Caira, a mountain on the 
N.W. of Monte Casino, 4942 ft. high, 
whose summit commands one of the 
finest panoramas in Italy, extending 
from Monte Cavo, near Albano, to the 
Camaldoli, above Naples. 

After leaving Saji Germano, the 
villages of Cervaro, S. Vittore^ and S, 
Pietro-in-Fine are passed on the ridge 
on the 1. 

10 kil. Eocca <f Evandro Stat. Here 
the hills approach each other and 
the country becomes wild and bar- 
ren ; till, issuing from the pass 
called Gole di Mignano, the village of 
that name, surrounded by forests of 
oaks and chesnut trees, opens upon the 
view, on the rt. When seen from the 
distance Mignano has a striking effect, 
but as we approach nearer it presents 
a melancholy appearance. 

7 kil. Mignano Stat. Near this 
are seen the first traces of the vol- 
canic deposits of Bocca Monfina, 
Passing 8 kil. Presenzano Stat., from 
which the rly. reaches the 

7 kil. CaianieUo Stat., near which is 
the Taverna di Caianelli, a country inn. 
The post-road from Cfprano is joined 
by that from the Abruzzi, and by two 
others. One of these on the 1., follow- 
ing probably a branch of the Via Latino , 
leads by Vsurano, after crossing the Vol- 
tumo, to Alife. (^Excursions from Naples.) 
Another follows the direction of the 
Via Latinay of which traces are visi- 
ble, passes after 5 m. through Teano, 
and 2 m. beyond rejoins the Abruzzi 
road. To foUow this branch lengthens 
the route only 1 m., but gives an 
opportunity of visiting Teano. Two 
m. before reaching tne latter town, 
in a ravine on the rt., are the chalybeate 
springs, called Acqua delle Caldarelle^ the 
ancient Aquos Sinuessance of which Pliny 
thus recoi^is the virtues: — Sterilitatem 
foeminarum et virorum insaniam abo- 
lere produntur. 
. 6 kil. Riardo Stat. 

6 kil. Teano Stat., in the plain below 
the town. 

Teano (5000 Inhab.), the ancient 
Teanum Sidicinum, according to Strabo 
the most important city of Campania 

ROUTE 141. — ^TEANO. — CALVI. 


next to Capua, situated on the slopes 
of Eocca Monfina, is approached by a 
terrace commanding a nne view of the 
neighbouring country. It was at Tect- 
num that most of the Capuan senators, 
whilst waiting in confinement their 
sentence from Kome, were put to death 
in B.C. 211 by the Consul Fulvius, 
agaiust the opinion of his colleague 
A. Claudius. During the war between 
Antony and Octavian the commanders 
of the Legions in Italy met here 
with a view to reconcile them. The 
modern town is the residence of a 
bishop of the united dioceses of Teano 
and Calvi. The streets are narrow. 
The massive remains of the baronial 
castle built by Marino Marzano, Duke 
of Sessa, the partisan of John of Anjou 
in the 1 5th centy., are of immense 
extent; the stables alone are capable 
of containing 300 horses. A monu- 
ment in the cloisters of the suppressed 
convent is supposed to bear the effigy 
of this rebellious vassal and kins- 
man of the house of Aragon. The 
cathedral contains many columns taken 
from ancient buildings, and a sarco- 
phagus with bas-relieS ; in front of the 
door are two sphinxes of red granite. 
Numerous inscriptions, built into the 
walls of this and other buildings, speak 
of the city as a colony of Claudius, 
and refer to the baths, to several 
temples of Ceres, Hercules Victor, 
and Juno Populonia. The ancient 
theatre, now called la Madonna delta 
Grotta, still retains several of its sub- 
terranean vaults. The large remains 
of the amphitheatre are close to the 
road outside the town. The Ospizio 
of the monastery of S. Antonio, 2 m. 
from the town, perched on the crest 
of the hill, commands a magnificent 
prospect. The great volcanic crater 
of Rocca Monfina is seen towering in 
the distance on the N.W. of Teano. 
(Rte. 140.) 

On leaving Teano, the railway passes 

7 kil. Sparanise Stat. 

6 kil. Pignataro Stat. 

9 kil. Capua, 

At a solitary tavern, called Torricellay 
a wretched place on the post-road, 24 m. 
from Naples, the Teano road falls again 

into that from the Abruzzi; following 

Calvi (2 m. from the Sparanise and 
Pignataro Stations on the railway), 
the ancient Cales, containing scarcely 
more than a dozen houses, and a 
small ruined castle of the middle 
ages. The ground for many miles is 
encumbered with ruins, and quantities 
of coins are found by the peasants in 
the neighbourhood. The best remains 
existing are those of*a temple, a ruined 
arch of brickwork, and the theatre. 
The temple is the most interesting. 
Several chambers are well preserved, 
and are lined with reticulated maspnry. 
In the first chamber are numerous 
fragments of bassi-relievi in stucco on 
the inner wall ; among them some sit- 
ting figures, a tripod, and palm-leaves 
may be traced. The ruin is now called 
Sta, Casta, " But the most interesting, 
perhaps I should say the most pic- 
turesque, object," says Mr. Craven, 
'* is a small fountidn formed of a 
marble slab, bearing on its surface a 
very well executed bas-relief of elegant 
design, composed of festoons of vine- 
leaves and grapes with a mask in the 
centre. Tms relic is placed against 
the base of $. steep rock covered with 
creepers, forming one side of a singular 
little volcanic glen, bearing in its whole 
extension the marks of innumerable 
conduits, probably for the purpose of 
supplying baths or thermse." Some 
fine specimens of Roman gold orna* 
ments have been recently found here. 

The wines of Calvi are celebrated by 
Horace — 

Caecubmn, et prolo domltam Caleno 
Tu bibes uvam ; mea nee Falernss 
Temperant vites, neque Formiaui 

Pocula colles. 
Od. I. XX. 

At Lo SpartmentOf 4 m. beyond the 
Sparanise Stat., the carriage-roads from 
Rome through Terracina and S. Ger- 
mano join at the 20th m. from Naples, 

4 m« from C<qma (Rte. 140), which is 
16 m. by the post-road, and 27 by 
railway, from Naples, 




ROUTE 142. 


Posts. Mileii. 

TemltoBietl 1« 

Kieti to Civita Ducale (Neapo- 
litan frontier) 8 

Civita Dacale to Antrodoco . . li 12 

Antrodoco to Vigllano .... 1 8 

Vigliano to Aqufla 1 8 

About 49 

Post or Conndar Road of the Abruzzi. 

Aqnila to civita Ketenga . . . li 
Civita Retenga to Popoli . . . U 
Popoll to Solmona ..... 1 
Solmona to Rocca Valloscura . 1 
(An extra horse for every pair, 
but*not vice verso.) 
Rocca Valloscura to Koocarasa . 1 
(An extra horse for every pair, 
but not vice verta.) 
Roccarasa to Castel di Sangro . Of 
Castel dl Sangro to Piano di ForoU 1 1 
(An extra horse from Piano di 
Foroli to Castel di Sangro.) 
"Piano di Foroli to Isemia ... I 
(An extra horse from Piano dl 
Foroli to Isemia.) 

Isemia to Venafro 1) 

(An extra horse from Venafro 
to Isemia for every pair, but 
not vice versa.) 
Venafro to C^anlello .... It 

C^anlello to Calvl li 

Calvi to Capua 1 

Capua to Aversa * I 

Aversa to Naples 1 

(A half-post both ways is 
charged for a royal post.) — — 

]6i « 138( 

About 178 

Railway from Sparanise, near Calvi, 
■to Naples. 

Travellers ftom Florence, who are 
desirous of proceeding to Naples with- 
out passing through Borne, may quit 

the Roman road at Temi, and proceed 
by Rieti to Aquila, where they will fall 
into the high post-road of the Abruzzi. 
The postmaster of Temi will supply 
horses to Rieti ; but at the latter place 
the postmaster cannot be depended 
upon, and travellers may have to send 
over to Civita Ducale for horses to go 
on to Aquila. 

With the exception of a short space 
near Antrodoco, the road is excellent, 
and is the ordinary route of the pro- 
prietors of the Abruzzi to Rome. 

After reaching Papigno {^Handbook 
for Cent, Italy, Part I.Rte. 107), the road 
immediately ascends the steep hill 
above the Falls, so that travellers who 
wish to visit them, en route, mav quit 
their carriage at Papigno, and rejoin it 
again at the summit. Thence the road 
proceeds for about 2 m. along the 1. 
bank of the Velino, passing the village 
of Pie di Luco, and its small lake, the 
ancient Locus Velinus, with its water- 
lilies and picturesque banks. The villa 
of Axius, the friend of Cicero, is sup- 
posed to have stood near it. The road 
crosses to the rt. bank of the Velino, 
close to its junction with the Turano. 
From the rich cultivation of the plain 
and tl]|e fine scenery of the valleys the 
drive into Rieti is very interesting. 

16 Rieti (13,200 Inhab. — Inns : La 
Campana, in the Piazza, indifferent ; La 
Posta, in the Corso, wretched), the an- 
cient Reate, Its chief branches of in- 
dustry are agriculture and grazing, and 
it supplies Home with large quantities 
of cattle. The Cathedral, originally a 
Gothic building, dates from 1456 ; in 
the chapel of S. Barbara the statue of 
the saint is by Bernini, and the monu- 
ment to Isabella Al&ni is by ThonoakU 
sen. One of the columns of the sub- 
terranean ch. is a Rovobh, milliarium. In 
the street leading to Porta Accarana 
is an ancient statue, without hands and 
head, called Marbo Cibocco, and said, 
without any authority, ,to . have once 
represented Cicero. 

Beate was one of the most important 
Sabine towns, and in antiquity equalled 
by few of the cities of ItsUy, since it is 
said to have been the first seat of 
the Umbri, considered the Aborigines 



of this part of Italy, and to have de- 
rived its name from JRhea, the Latin 
Cybele : — 

. . . magnaeqae Beate dicatnm 

Coelicolum matri 

Siii.lTAL.vni. 417. 

It was celebrated for its mules, and 
still more for its asses, which some- 
times fetched the price of 60,000 ses- 
terces, about 484/. The valley of the 
Velinus, in which it is situated, was so 
delightful as to merit the appellation 
of Tempe ; and for their dewy fresh- 
ness, its meadows were called Bosea 
rura Velini. Rleti is exposed to inun- 
dations caused by the violent stonns 
which occur in the Apennines and cause 
the Velino and Turano to overflow their 


Kieti is conveniently situated for 
exploring the aboriginal cities in its 
neighbourhood. Travellers who feel 
disposed to visit them would do well 
to obtain letters of introduction at Rieti, 
for they must be wholly dependent on 
the hospitality of tiie resident pro- 

After crossing the plain of Rieti, a 
bridle-path skirting Monte TerminUlo, 
called also the Montagna di Leonessa 
(6998 ft.), after passing Cantalice, 
reaches Vedutri. On the 1. are Morro 
Vecohio, identified with Marrubiimiy and 
Palazzo with Palatium, From Vedutri 
the path winds up the mountain, at 
each turning offering magnificent views 
of the beech forests that stretch away 
over the declivities of the Terminillo, 
of the vale of Rieti with its lakes, the 
gorge of Temi, the hills of Spoleto, 
and a long line of country westward. 
After passing through a park-like wood, 
a long descent over barren slopes of 
rock leads to 

Leonessa, 16 m. from Rieti, built 
about 1252 under the patronage of 

Frederick II. It is surrounded by vil- 
lages, and shut out from the rest of the 
world by an amphitheatre of moun- 
tains, scarcely passable in winter. It 
is entered by a picturesque Gothic 
Arch combining strikingly with the 
mountain ridge above, and a ruined 
castle on one of its crags. The chs. 
of S. Pietro degli Agostiniani, and Santa 
Maria fuori della Porta, have handsome 
Gothic doorways. From Leonessa the 
path follows one of the streams that 
enter the Comoj a tributary of the Nera, 
to CasciOf 8 m,, which from its acro- 
polis-like hill is supposed to have 
been a place of some importance, and 
to have preserved the name of the 
Casci or aoorigines ; 6 m. further, is 

Norcia, the ancient Nursia, celebrated 
for the coldness of its climate, — 

Qui Tiberim Fabarimqne blbunt« quos fri- 

gida misit 
Narsia. Vibo. ^n. vn. 715. 

It was an episcopal see in the early 
ages of Christianity, and St. Eutychius, 
one of the reputed disciples of St. Paul, 
is said to have been its first bishop. 
It retains portions of its Etruscan 
wall, and was the birthplace of St. 
Benedict, of Sta. Scolastica, and of 
Vespasia Polla, the mother of the Em- 
peror Vespasian. In the time of Sue- 
tonius the monuments of her family 
were still existing at Vespasice, 6 m, 
from Nursia. Norcia was almost en- 
tirely destroyed by an earthquake in 
1857. A carriage-road in progress from 
Ascoli to Norcia is completed from 
the latter to Spoleto (see Handbcok of 
Central Italy, Rte. 99). 

Instead of returning bj* the same 
route, the traveller may proceed to 
Aquila through 

Amatrice, which is reached by a 
bridle-path of 12 m. from Norcia, and is 
situated near the head waters of the 
Tronto. It had its origin in the middle 
ages, and was once of considerable im- 
portance. It is now a forlorn place; 
wasted by earthquakes and dissensions, 
which scattered its population into 45 
villages by which it is encircled. There 
are some interesting chs. with paint- 
ings, mostly retouched, by Cola delt 
Amatrice, The chs. of S. Agostino 
and San Francesco have beautiful' 



Grothic doorways. From Amatrice, a 
path of 6 m. leads to CWita Reale, and 
2 m. from it, at the head of the valley 
and close to the source of the Velino, is 

ColliceUif a hamlet near the site of 
Falacrinum, Vespasian's birthplace. On 
the hill above the ch. of S. Silvestro in 
Falacrino are some ruins supposed to be 
of the house of the Flavian family, in 
which Vespasian was bom, and which 
he preserved in its original state, and 
often visited. Locum incunabulorum 
assidue frequentavitf manente villa qualis 
fuerat olimf ne quid scilicet ociUorum 
consuetudini deperiret, — Suet, viii. 2. 
There are traces of an old winding 
ascent to the top of the -hill. The path 
reaches next Montet^eale (7 m.), from 
which a new road of 10 m. joins the 
road from Antrodoco to Aquila, near 
Coppito, half a mile from Aquila. 

San Vittorinot about 3 m. from Aquila, 
on this road, is a hamlet on the iknks 
of the Aterno, supposed to occupy the 
site of Amitemnm, a powerful Sabine 
city of great antiquity, which assisted 
Tumus against iEneas : 

Una ingens Amiterna cohors, prisciqne 

Ereti manus omnis, olivifeneqne Mutuscss : 
Qui Nomentum urbem, qui Rosea rura 

Qui Tetricaa horrentes rapes, montemqne 

Casperiamque colunt. . . . 

^n. vn. 710. 

On the hill is a square tower with 
old inscriptions, and a sculptured lion 
built into its walls. Below it is a ch. 
in which S. Victorinus, an early bishop 
of Amitemum, is buried. His mar- 
tyrdom is represented on some bas- 
reliefs in the wall ; a tablet bears the 
date 1174 ; and there is a subterranean 
ch. used as a place of worship and 
burial by the early Christians. This 
hill seems to have been the Acropolis 
of Amitemum, for terraces may be 
traced down to the plain. At the foot 
of the hill, behind the village, are some 
polygonal walls, and in the plain are 
the ruins of an amphitheatre con- 
stmcted of brick, in the style of 
imperial timed. The river runs com- 
pletely through the ancient theatre, 
which is easily traced; foundations 
of other edifices are visible in various 

parts of the plain, and even in the 
bed of the nver. Amitemum was 
the birthplace of Salluat the historian. 

From Rieti the road ascends the 
valley of the Velino as far as Antrodoco, 
and in picturesque beauty is hardly to 
be surpassed. At a mile from the 
road, on the rt., the Salto falls into the 
Velino. At Casotto di Napoli, a ruined 
house between Rieti and Citta Ducale, 
is a hill called Lesta, retsdning traces 
of ancient fortifications and polygonal 
walls : it is supposed to mark the site 
of X^^a, the capital of the Aborigines. 
An ancient fountain still exists near the 
entrance eate. About half-way between 
Rieti ana Citta Ducale was the line 
of boundary between the States of the 
Church and the kingdom of Naples. 

5 m. Citta Ducale (2100 Inhab.), 
formerly the frontier town of the king* 
dom of Naples, built in 1308 by Robert 
Duke of Calabria, was once a place of 
considerable strength, and its ruined 
walls still make it a picturesque object. 
It is the chief town of the district. 

The country between Citta Ducale 
and Antrodoco, which is extremely beau- 
tiful, follows the valley of the Velino : 
the lower hills are covered with vines 
and olives, while the higher ridges are 
clothed with forests. The gaseous 
emanations of sulphuretted hydrogen 
from the pools which occur on either 
side of the road, some bubbling up 
with violence, form the AquoeCutUioB, the 
modem Bagni di Fatemo (4 m.), which 
were nauch resorted to by the Romans 
for their medicinal properties. Vespa- 
sian visited them every year, and it was 
while residing here that his death took 
place, in a.d. 79. The most remarkable 
of these pools is the Fozzo di LatignanOy 
the ancient Lacus CutilicB, situated on 
the 1. of the road at the foot of the hill 
on which stands the village of Fatemo, 
and below the ruined terrace of a Roman 
villa or bath. The stream produced by 



its violent action is strong enough to 
turn a mill ; and some masses of incrus- 
tations of carbonate of lime and vege- 
table substances become occasionally 
detached, and assume the appearance 
of the floating island mentioned by 
Dionysius of Halicamassus. Varro 
called the Cutilian Lake the Umbilicus 
Italice, because he supposed it to be 
exactly in the centre of the peninsula. 
From, this circumstance some writers 
confounded it with the Amsanctus of 
Virgil, misled by the " Fst locus TtalioB 
medio." (Rte. 148.) Not far distant, but 
nearer Rieti, are ruins of a large building 
supposed to be the palace of Vespasian. 
Near the road, and running parallel to 
it for some distance, are remains of the 

Via Salaria* 

. The Velino is crossed beyond Bor- 
ghetto shortly before 

8 m. Anti'odoco, {Inn : small and 
poor, outside the gates.) Nothing can 
surpass its romantic position. It is 
situated upon the Yelmo, at the point 
where the river emerges from its deep 
glen at the foot of Monte Calvo, to 
pursue a W. course towards Rieti. 
Where the two valleys join, there 
is a deep glen or defile, called the 
Passo di AntrodocOf and formed by the 
flanks of Monte Calvo, which begin to 
close in upon the Naples road at Rocca 
di Corno ; so that the town is situated 
at the junction of the three glens, and 
forms a striking object from whatever 
quarter it is seen. Its ancient name 
Interocrea (between mountains) was 
derived from this position. Above the 
town, overlooking the river, rises • a 

* The Via Salaria traversed the Sabina and 
teraiinated at Hadria. it derived its name 
from its being tbe road by which the salt made 
on the shore of the Mediterranean, chiefly about 
Ostia» was imported into the interior of the 
country. The stations on it were— * 

Eretum, Grotta Marozza, 

Vlcus Novus, Otteria yiwva. 

Beate, Bieti. 

Cutiliae, Bagni di PcUemo. (?) 

Interocrea, Anirodoco, 

Falacrinum, near ColliceUi. (?) 

VicusBadies, • ~near /Zi«ra. (?) 

Ad Oentesimum, Fresunco. (?) 

Asculum Picenum, AmcoU. 

Castrum Truentinum, near Torre di Jfariin 


Castrum Novum, near Oiulia Ifuova, 

Hadria, Jtri, 

ruined castle of the Vitelli family, but 
from the height of the surrounding 
mountains the view from it is circum* 
scribed. The Monte Calvo, a spur from 
the mass of the Terminillo Grande, 
rising behind the town on the E. and 
N., is sometimes ascended for the sake 
of the prospect. It commands the plains 
of Aquila and the country as mr as 

From Antrodoco an interesting walk 
or ride up the valley of the Velino, as 
far as Sigillo (6 m.), will afford an oppor- 
tunity of seeing some imposing speci* 
mens of ancient engineering. The Via 
Salaria was carried through this narrow 
defile, supported on terraces rising from 
the river's edge, and at times carried 
along the brink of precipices to admit 
its passage. The most striking of these 
cuts is about 100 ft. high, and had, till 
recently, a tablet with an inscription 
stating that the substruction was raised 
during the reign of Trajan. 

The narrow, pass, through which the 
road to Aquila proceeds, has on several 
occasions ^been the scene of hostile en- 
^gements with the armies which have 
mvaded Naples. In 1798 a ^ndful of 
peasants held it so as to repel a column 
of the French army ; in 1821 the Nea- 
politans under Gen. Pepe allowed the 
Austrian army to pass with scarcely 
any opposition. The road is extremely 
beautiful ; the land is rich and well 
watered, and the hills are luxuriantly 
wooded. One of the remarkable fea- 
tures of the road is the number of 
ruined castles: beyond the Madonna 
della Qroita is one of considerable ex- 
tent, much resembling those of the 
Tyrol; and at the extremity of the 
glen is another of great lizQ, clothed 
with ivy, and forming a very pic- 
tures(][ue termination to the valley on 
the side of Aquila. The road crosses 
the Atemo beyond Coppito, where 
another (3 m.) branches off on the h 
to S. Vittoririo and Amatrice. 

17 m. Aquila (12,100 Inhab.—Inn : 
Locanda del Sole, large, but badly fur- 
nished and wretched), founded by the 
Emperor Frederick II. as a barrier 
to the encroachments of the popes, 
is the capital of Abruzzo Ultra II., 
the see of a bishopric and of the 



tribunals of the proyince. It is well 
built, with good streets and a large 
number of handsome palaces and chs. 
The lower classes have emigrated in 
considerable numbers in recent years. 
In 1706 the city was nearly destroyed by 
an earthquaJce ; 2000 persons perished 
in one ch., a g^at part of the city was 
overthrown, and from its effects it has 
never recovered. 

Aquila is fiiU of interest; and its 
antiquities and chs. will rei)ay a visit. 
St, Bernardino da Siena^ the principal ch., 
has a fa9ade begun in 1525 and com- 
pleted in 1542, by Cola delP Amatrice. 
It is composed of three orders, one over 
the other ; the lower being Doric. The 
workmanship is unusually elaborate, 
and, in spite of the heaviness, it is im- 
posing. Over the principal door, which 
IS Corinthian, are bas-reliefs of the Ma- 
donna and some kneeling saints, one of 
which is the portrait of Girolamo da 
Norda, the architect of the two lateral 
doors. In the interior, the roof and its 
compartments are handsome ; the mar- 
bles are from the mountains in the 
neighbourhood. The monument of 
San Bernardino is a fine specimen of art 
after the Revival. It is a large urn 
of white marble, wrought with elegant 
arabesques and decorated with statues 
and other sculptures in high relief. It 
was executed in 1.505 by S^vesiro Sal- 
viaii deli' Aquila, at the expense of 
Giacomo Notar Nanni, a merchant, 
and it cost 9000 ducats. It formerly 
enclosed a silver chest containing the 
ashes of the saint, and executed by 
order of Louis XI. ; but the French 
in 1799 broke open the monument and 
carried it off. Near the altar is a mo- 
nument to a Contessa di Montorio. It 
represents a mother and her infant in a 
recumbent posture, and was the work 
of Salvatore deW AquUa, Near the altar 
is a large picture of the Crucifixion, 
by Buter. 

Sta, Maria di Collemaggio is encrusted 
with white and red marble. The fa*> 
^ade alone of the original Gothic 
building remains. The porch is ex- 
tremely rich. The central doorway is 
rounded, consisting of four bands, three 
of which are spiral, the other being 
composed of small figures of saints or 

angels. The canopied niches are of 
great variety; the twisted pillars are 
richly carved. The niches were once 
filled with statues, of which only seven 
now remain. The two lateral door- 
ways have two columns on each side, 
elaborately twisted, but partly con- 
cealed by plaster. The three rose 
windows, though now blocked up, are 
still extremely beautiful. Above the 
porch a balcony runs along the front 
of the building, fh>m which the bishop 
of the diocese reads, on every 29th of 
August, the bull in favour of Aquila,. 
granted by Celestin V., who was con- 
secrated pope in this ch. in 1294, and 
was afterwards buried in it. The in- 
terior of the ch. has a rich roof, and 
the floor contains several monuments 
to bishops of the order of the Celestins. 
The monument of Celestin V., erected 
in 1517) is of marble and covered with 
a profusion of arabesques. The choir 
is Gothic altered into the classic style. 
The body of the building was ruined 
by the earthquake of 1703. In this 
ch. are preserved some remarkable 
paintings by Ruter, the pupil of 
Rubens. He was a Celestin monk, 
and has left here some interesting 
works, as they contain portraits, and 
supply a field for the study of costume. 
The more important are t^ Coronation 
of Celestin V. in the presence of 
Charles II. of Anjou, and his son 
Charles Martel ; the defeat of Braccio 
at the siege of Aquila; and the life 
and miracles of Celestin V. 

Many of the other churches and 
public buildings exhibit fragments of 
Gothic architecture. 8(mta Maria di 
Pagcmica has a fine doorway, with rich 
carving, and a ruined rose window. 
San SUvestro has a window and door- 
way, with old Gothic side windows 
closed up, and a picture of the Baptism 
of Constantine, considered one of the 
best works of art in the city. Inside 
the Gothic doorway there are some 
frescoes by the school of Giotto. San 
Domenico has a handsome window. S, 
Maria di Soccorso has a simple but very 
pretty facade ; II Vasto has a splendid 
Gothic window; San Marco has two 
Gothic doors ; and Santa Giusta has the 
richest window in Aquila; the bands 



rest on figares in different attitudes, and 
of very grotesque forms. Behind this 
ch. is an old Gothic house with a room 
painted in fresco ; over the entrance is 
an inscription with the date 1462, and 
a quaint Latin distich alluding to the 
name and arms of the proprietor. In 
the Strada Eomana is a curious old 
house with Grothic windows, porches, 

The Palazzo Torres contains a pic- 
ture gallery, among which are : — a* 
Magdalen by Annibale Caracci ; a St. 
John by Guercmo ; a Magdalen by 
Paolo Veronese ; Martyrdom of St. 
Gathering by Barocdo ; the Democritus 
of Guido ; Christ with the Cup by 
Andrea del Sarto ; an admirable portrait 
of Card. Torres, by Domenichino, But 
the chefs-d'oBuvre of the gallery are 
the Stoning of Stephen, on copper, by 
Domenichmo, and the Last Supper by 
Titian, on marble. 

The Palazzo Dragonetti has also some 
psdntings, among which are several by 
Pompeo delC AquHa, a native artist of 
the 16th cent. 

The Citadel, built in 1534 by the 
Spanish engineer Pirro Luigi Scriva, 
is one of the most massive and im- 
posing fortresses of the 16th cent, in 
Italy, though useless against modem 
artillery. A is a regular square flanked 
by low round towers; its curtains are 
24 ft. in thickness, and the fosse which 
surrounds it is 70 ft. broad and 40 ft. 
deep. Over the eateway are the arms 
of the Emperor Charles V. The walls, 
built with extraordinary strength, have 
been unaffected by any of the earth- 
quakes from which the city has suf- 
jfered. A portion of the fortress is now 
used as a prison, and a small garrison 
is maintained in it. 

The old Palazzo del Govemo, built also 
in the time of Charles V. by Battista 
Marchirolo, was the residence of his 
natural daughter Margaret of Austria, 
who, after the death of her husband 
Ottavio Famese, was made Governor 
of this province. It is a large building, 
with a lofty tower ; but a portion of it 
was thrown down by the earthquake of 

The siege of Aquila and the death of 
Braccio Fortebraccio da Montone are 


among the most interesting passages in 
Italian history. The battle, which 
ended in the overthrow of that con- 
dottiere, the rival of Sforza and per- 
haps the most complete specimen of 
the Italian chivalry of the 1 5th cent, 
was fought between the city of Aquila 
and the hill of San Lorenzo, June 2, 
1424. The combined armies of Joanna 
II. of Naples, Martin V., and Filippo 
Maria Duke of Milan, under the com- 
mand of Jacopo Caldora, were three 
or four times superior in strength 
to that of Alfonso of Aragon, com- 
manded by Braccio ; and yet the battle 
would undoubtedly have been decided 
in Braccio's favour, if his signals had 
not been misunderstood by his reserve. 
In the flght Braccio was wounded and 
thrown from his horse ; his followers 
fled, panic-struck at the sight, and the 
day was lost. Braecio was carried into 
the tent of Caldora, where he was 
treated with all consideration ; but he 
neither spoke after he fell, nor noticed 
even his own followers whom Caldora 
summoned to attend him. The sur- 
geons declared that his wound was not 
mortal ; but he, determined not to sur- 
vive his defeat, died on the 5th June, 
after passing three days without food, 
and without utterin^^ a word. The 
astrologers had- predicted that neither 
Sforza nor Braccio would long survive 
each other, and the death of Sforza by 
drowning in the Pescara is supposed 
to have caused Braccio to believe that 
his own days were numbered. His 
body was taken to Rome by- Lodovico 
Colonna, where Martin V. refused it 
the rites of burial as of an excommu- 
nicated person; and it still remains 
unburied in one of the churches of 
Perugia. {JIandb,for Central Italy, Rte. 

From Aquila a new road has been 
constructed, through the passes of 
Monte San Franco, to Teramo (Rte. 148). 
There is a diligence three times a week 
between Aquila and Popoli, in corre- 
spondence with the direct line from the 
latter to Naples ; there is also a regular 
diligence of 4 pi., which leaves Naples 
every Tuesday, Thursday, and Satur- 
day at midday for Teramo, as well as 
a vettura corriera taking 1 passenger. 




The excursion to Amitemtan (3 m.) can 
be made directly from Aquila. 

A wild pass over the mountains leads 
from Aquila to the Lake of Celano by 
Rocca di C^gno, Bocca di Mezzo, and 
Ovindoli. (Rte. 144.) 

In the Abruzzi the traveller will see in 
their homes the zampognari, or pifferarif or 
bagpipers, who so regularly visit Rome 
and Naples every Christmas that the 
season would seem wanting in one of 
its ancient customs in the eyes of the 
Romans and Neapolitans if they did not 
come to greet it with their carols and 
their hymns. Durine the rest of the 
year they live chieny on the profits 
realized by their six weeks' visit to 
Rome. Their dress at home is quite 
as picturesque as it is at Rome ; pointed 
hats, plush or sheepskin breeches, and 
short cloaks, colourless from exposure 
and wear ; a costume which the pencil 
of Penry Williams has made familiar 
to all travellers* 


The traveller who is desirous of in- 
vestigating more fully the early anti- 
quities of Italy, will have an oppor- 
tunity, while in this neighbourhood, 
of visiting the Cicolano District, lying 
between Avezzano and Rieti, on the 
rt. bank of the Salto. The excur- 
sion must be made on horseback, and 
can be undertaken either from Rieti, 
from Civita Ducale, or from Aquila. 
There are few parts of Italy so little 
known. The country presents an 
almost unvarying succession of deep 
ravines lying between steep hills 
of moderate elevation and profusely 
wooded. Upon these hills, scattered 
over a considerable tract, are the re- 
mains of a series of ancient cities, 
described by Dionysius of Halicamas- 
sus as being the towns of the Abo- 
rigineSf entirely ruined and deserted 
when he wrote.- Martelli, a local an- 
tiquary, was the first who proved the 

accuracy of the descriptions of Diony- 
sius, and Mr. Dodwell and Mr. Keppel 
Craven subsequently confirmed part of 
his observations. It is exceedingly 
difficult to determine the position of 
these towns from the ancient names ; 
but Torano, near Sanl^ Anatolia, at 
the N. base of Monte Velino, which 
possesses vestiges of Cyclopean walls, 
IS considered to be the Tiora of Diony- 
sius', where St. Anatolia suffered mar- 
tyrdom under the emperor Decius. The 
sites of the other towns mentioned by 
Dionysius are still undetermined, and 
will probably never be ascertained with 
perfect accuracy ; but the traveller will 
derive sufficient interest in finding a 
cluster of cities whose massive walls 
and other ruins mark the position of 
the aboriginal settlements precisely as 
they are described by that historian. 
The district is now inhabited by shep- 
herds, whose villages are scattered over 
the valley of the Salto. The pro- 
prietors reside on their estates, and it 
IS to them that the traveller must look 
for hospitality; it will, therefore, be 
desirable that he should provide him- 
self with recommendations to some of 

On the borders of this district, about 
3 m. on the E. side of the Salto, which 
formed the frontier of the Papal States, 
is the village of PetreUa, once a feudal 
possession of the Colonna family. In 
the castle here, now in ruins, was com- 
mitted towardiis the close of the 16th 
cent, the murder of Francesco Cenci, at 
the instance of his wife and daughter, 
a crime that has been rendered cele- 
brated by the poetrjr of Shelley, and in 
the person of Beatrice by the pencil of 

" That savage rock, the castle of Petrella, 
''Tis safely wall'd, and moated round about : 
Its dungeons under ground, and its thick 

Never told tales ; though they have heard 

and seen 
What might make dumb things speak." 

The story has been told by Keppel 
Craven in his Travels through the 
Abruzzi, and more accurately still, as 
derived from a cotemporary MS., in 
an article of the 'Quarterly Review* 
(April, 1858). Francesco Cenci, the 

ROUTE 142. — THE CENCr. 


victim, was a Roman noble, the son 
of a Treasurer or Minister of Fi- 
nance of Pius v., who had amassed, as 
such functionaries were wont to do, a 
colossal fortune — a man of debauched 
and most dissolute habits : he had 
been twice married, having several 
children by his first wife, two of whom 
were murdered in their* youth ; of 3 
who survived, Beatrice was the eldest, 
and remarkable for her beauty, which 
has been handed down to us in Guido's 
lovely portrait now in the Barberini 
gallery at Rome. Subjected to every 
species of ignominy and insult, Beatrice 
and her stepmother Lucrezia, unable 
to bear up against it, were determined 
to rid themselves and society of such a 
monster — for which purpose, aided by 
a certain Monsignore Guerra, who be- 
came enamoured with Beatrice, they 
employed two paid assassins to waylay 
Francesco on his annual journey to the 
Castle of Petrella, his usual summer 
residence. This part of their design 
having been thwarted, the two women 
resolved to have the murder perpetrated 
in the very den of his iniquities. On 
9th September, 1599, Lucrezia and her 
stepdaughter having previously drug- 
ged with opium the unfortunate wretch, 
it was Beatrice who introduced the 
murderers into her parent's room, who 
instigated them, when faltering, to the 
act, who virtually assisted in it, and who 
emboldened, by her threats and persua- 
sion, the assassins to their parricidal 
act, eifected nearly in the same way as 
Jael slew Sisera of old. The closing 
scene is described in an almost cotem- 
porary document as follows: — " Ben- 
trarono (the assassins Martino and 
Olirapio)), resoluti aspettati dalle Donne, 
onde porta su un oochio del dormiente una 
frezzOy I'altro con un Mariello gliela con- 
ficcb in testa, e una altra conficcarono nel 
coUo, onde quella misera anima fu rapita 
del Diavolo {como si crede)" The 
crime having been discovered, and one 
of the murderers having confessed 
his guilt, the stepmother Lucrezia, with 
Beatrice and her brothers, after being 
tortured, confessed also their partici- 
pation in the murder— were tried and 
convicted: the circumstances under 
which the two women had instigated 

to, and participated in, the tragedy, 
were, however, such as to offer some 
extenuation for such an atrocious act, 
and, although no doubt could be enter- 
tained of their guilt, yet many of the 
leading families of Rome, with whom 
they were allied, made great efforts to 
obtain their pardon from the reigning 
Pontiff Clement VIII. Whilst all was 
uncertainty as to their fate, a nearly 
similar crime, the murder of a princess, 
Santa Croce, by her son, decided theirs. 
Beatrice and Lucrezia were ordered to 
be beheaded ; Giacomo Cenci, the elder 
brother, to be quartered; whilst the 
younger, Bernardo, then only 15 years 
of age, was pardoned at the intercession 
of the celebrated lawyer Farinacci, 
but on the cruel condition of being 
seated on the scaffold when the rest of 
his family suffered their sentence. This 
inhuman exhibition took place in front 
of the Castle of St. Angelo at Rome, on 
the 11th of September, 1599. The 
Castle of Petrella is now a picturesque 
ruin. The Cenci family still exist at 
at Rome, having taken the additional 
name of Bolognetti for a feudal inherit- 
ance ; they are lords of Vicovaro, the 
ancient Varia, on the road from Tivoli 
Subiaco (see Handbook of Home, Environs)* 
The large possessions of the Cencis^ 
which were confiscated on the con- 
demnation of the murderers of Fran- 
cesco, were restored by a decision of 
the courts of law in the reign of Paul 
v., and have not passed into the hands 
of the Borghese familj, his descend- 
ants, as is generally believed at Rome. 
From Petrella the traveller may 
proceed to Antrodoco, to Citta Du- 
cale, or to Rieti. The last route will 
be the easiest, following the Salto 

The road frx>m Aquila to Naples is 
a branch of one of the four great post- 
roads of the kingdom, called the Con« 
sular Road of the Abruzzi. The dis- 
tance to the capital is 16.} posts; 
128^ m. 



On leaying Aquila, the road de- 
scends the valley of the Atemo. At 
the 5th m., on a hill on the other side 
of the river, is Fossa, which marks 
the site of Aveia, a city of the Vestini. 
From the high groand the view towards 
Aquila is extremely fine. The nu- 
merous villages scattered over the 
valley, the cultivation of the land, the 
windmgs of the river, and the snowy 
mountams in the distance, combine to 
form a scene of peculiar interest. 

l^ Civita Retenga^ a villa^ with 
an old castle on tiie hill, is Sie half- 
way house of the vetturini. It is at 
the 112th m. from Naples, and is 
15 m. from Aquila. About 5 m. east 
is the town of Capestrano, the birth- 
place of S. Giovanni da Capestrano, the 
Franciscan who headed the crusade 
against the Hussites in Bohemia, after- 
wards joined the army of John Hun- 
yades against the Turks, and was pre- 
sent at the battle of Belgrade, in 1456. 
He died soon afterwards at Villach, and 
was canonized in 1690 by Alexander 
VIII. In the church of Capestrano is 
buried Alfonso Piccolomini, Duke of 
Amalfi, who was murdered near Sol- 
mona by Carlo Sanframondi, Count of 
Celano, in 1498, two years after his 
marriage with the beautiful Joanna of 
Aragon. Beyond Navelli the road 
enters on a cheerless elevated plain, and 
is carried by skilful windings down the 
mountains that form the N. boundary 
of the valley of Solmona. The view of 
this valley, encircled by mountains and 
diversified by the richest vegetation, is 
very striking. 

IJ Popoli (6100 Inhab.— Inn: La 
Pos^a, tolerable), a dirty town situated at 
the foot of the mountains, at the junction 
of the roads from Aquila, Solmona, and 
Chieti, and 1 m. below the union of 
the Atemo with the Gizio. The ruined 
castle of the Cantelmis, dukes of Popoli, 
is finely placed on an eminence above 
the town, and adds greatly to its pic- 
turesque appearance. The ch. and 
many of the houses exhibit the same 
peculiarities of architecture as those of 
Aquila and Solmona; the most con- 
spicuous is the dilapidated Cantelmo 
palace, with its finely arched Gothic 
windows and armorial shields. A rail- 

I way is to connect Popoli with Pescartf 
and Anconaon one hand, and with Naples 
I on the other, by Solmona, the La^e of 
i Fucino, Sora, Ceprano (from which a 
! branch to Rome), San Germano, and 

A circular tower, without door or 
window, over the bridge of the Ater- 
no, has an inscription with the words 
Bestal Restal — but its history is un- 

A straight and level road along the 
rt. bank of the Gizio leads to Solmona. 
1 m. beyond Popoli are the ruins of 
// Oiardmo, a villa of the Cantelmis. 

[About 2 m. further a mountain road 
(16 m.) branches off on the rt. to 
Avezzano and the Lake Fucino. It 
passes by Pentima, near which, in an 
elevated plain, are the ruins of the 
ancient Corfinium, the capital of the 
Pelignif the seat, during the Social war, 
of the allied nations, who changed its 
name to ItcUica, and adorned it with a 
spacious Forum and Senate-house. The 
Gothic ch. of S. Pelmo is built of stones 
taken firom the ruins, many of which 
exhibit inscriptions. The Via Valeria 
may be traced near it, bordered in many 
places by the ruins of ancient tombs. 

1 m. further, at Baiano, are remains of 

2 ancient aqueducts constructed to con- 
vey the waters of the Atemo and the 
Sagittario to Corfinium. From Baiano 
the road ascends through fine scenery 
and oak forests to Goriano Sicolif where 
the valley of the Atemo opens towards 
Aquila. Hence a narrow glen, which 
was traversed by the Via Valeria^ leads 
by La Forchetta to the summit of the 
Forca Caruso, the ancient Mons Tmevs^ 
a mountain pass, through which the 
N.E. wind blows sometimes in winter 
so violently as to render the pass im- 
practicable. A rapid descent leads by 
Colle Armele to the shores of the lake 
of Celano, from which a level road of 
6 m. leads to Avezzano. (Rte. 144.)] 

1 m. Solmona (12,200 Inhab. — Inn : 
La PacCy a suppressed monastery of 
the Jesuits, extremely dirty), the chief 
town of a district, and the see of a 
Bishop, occupies the site and retains 
the name of the birthplace of Ovid. 

Sulmo mihl patria est, gelidls uberrimns 
undis. Triit. Vf. 9. 



The position of the town, in the 
centre of the basin watered by the Gizio, 
and surrounded by lofty mountains, is 
so highly picturesque^ that the traveller 
will hardly wonder that Ovid was so 
much attached to it, and found it too 
far away from the scene of his exile ; 

Sulmonis gelidi, patriae, Germanice, nostras ; 
Me miserum, Scytbico qnam procal ilia solo 
est. Fast. IV. 81. 

The earthquakes of 1803 and 1804 
destroyed many public buildings. It 
abounds in curious fragments of Gothic 
architecture, but the streets and houses 
have a ruined and unfinished appear- 
ance. The Palazzo del Cormme, or Town 
Hall, is a remarkable specimen of the 
cinquecento style. The three doors are 
richly carved, and one has a pointed 
arched canopy with foliation of great 
beauty. The pointed windows above 
are even more richly worked ; they are 
inserted in a square frame elaborately 
carved, and show the combination of 
■the Gothic and classic styles. Over 
the rt.-hand window is the date 1 522. 
The house of Baron Tabassi has an 
elaborate window with the inscription : 
" Mastro Petri da Como fece questa 
Porta, A.D. 1448." In the principal 
street is the Cancelleria^ in front of 
which is a wretched statue of Ovid in 
clerical robes, holding a book inscribed 
S. M. P. F. This street is divided 
from the public square by an aqueduct 
with pointed arches, built in 1400. 
Near it is the fine doorway of the ch. 
of S. Francesco cT Assistf destroyed by 
the earthquake. It consists of round 
arches resting upon six columns, and is 
one of the finest examples of this style 
in Italy. The ch. in its original state 
must have been a noble structure, as it is 
shown by the rose window and doorway 
of the other front. Another rose win- 
dow and doorway of Italian Gothic 
may be seen at Santa Maria della Tomba, 
The interior has a nave with pointed 
arches, resting on five low massive 
columns, with capitals of diflferent 
styles, greatly resembling our old 
English churches. The square marble 
pulpit is Gothic, resting on columns. 
Tl>e Cathedral retains fragments of its 
original Gothic architecture. The 

Nunziata is a hospital for the mainte* 
nance and education of the foundlings 
of the Abruzzi. Solmona is celebrated 
for its sugarplums (Confetti di Sol- 
mona). A great deal of the parchment 
used by bookbinders at Rome and else- 
where was formerly manufactured in 
this neighbourhood. 

2 m. from the town, at the base of 
the barren ridge of the Morrone, is the 
suppressed Monastery of S. Pietis) Cele^ 
stmOf one of the most magnificent re- 
ligious edifices in Europe, built with 
materials taken from the public build- 
ings of Corfinium, which were destroyed 
for the purpose. It was founded as the 
chief seat of the order of the Celestins, 
in honour of Pietro da Morrone. The 
French Government suppressed it, and 
it is now used as a house of industry for 
the juvenile paupers of the metropolis. 
The domestic arrangements of the mo- 
nastery are probably more complete than 
those of any other similar building in 
the world. The ch. retains most of 
its marbles and decorations. In a dark 
recess is a remarkable monument of 
the Cantelmo family, by Silvestro 
Salviati, In front of the monastery 
are some springs, which bear the 
classical title of Fonti d'Amore ; and 
on the slopes of the hill some ruins 
of reticulated brickwork are shown 
as the Stanze d* Ovidio, the remains, 
perhaps, of one of the poet's villas. 
Higher up the hill, above these ruins, 
is a small stone hut, placed on a pro- 
jecting ledge of the mountains, which 
has acquir^ peculiar sanctity as the 
Hermitage of S, Pietro da Morrone, It 
was from this retreat, in 1294, that 
Pietro da Morrone was dragged, at 
the age of 76, to fill the papal throne, 
under the name of Celestin V., a dig- 
nity he abdicated five months after- 
wards. Here the archbishop and the 
two bishops, who had been sent by 
the conclave to announce his eleva- 
tion to the Papal chair, fell upon their 
knees before the hermit, and so asto*- 
nished him with the news, that he 
sought to escape from his new and 
unexpected honours by flight. It was 
here also that Charles II. and his son 
Charles Martel came to conduct the 
new Pope to his coronation^ and held 



the bridle of his mule as he made his 
solemn entry into the city of Aquila, 
where his consecration took place in 
the presence of a vast multitude that 
had assembled to see the ceremony. 

The memory of Ovid naturally gives 
great interest to everything connected 
with Solmona. When its inhabitants 
revolted against Alfonso of Aragon, he 
suspended the sentence of fire and 
swor^ in honour of the poet ; proving, 
says his historian Panormita, that he 
was more generous than Alexander, 
who spared nothing at Thebes but the 
house of Pindar, Scarcely any vestiges 
of the ancient city remain; but the 
cold and abundant streams which the 
poet described among the characteris- 
tics of his native valley, still form its 
remarkable feature. 

Pars me Sulmo tenet Pellgnl tertia ruris ; 
Parva, sed irriguls ora salubris aquis. 

Amor, II. 18. 

A post-office courier daily from Sol- 
mona to Naples, taking one passenger ; 
and a Government diligence 3 times a 
week, with 6 places. 


Travellers who are interested in wild 
mountain scenery should devote a day 
to an excursion to the Lake of Scanno, 
It cannot be less than 15 m. from Sul- 
mona, most of which must be performed 
on foot. The path ascends the course 
of the SaggittariOf a bright mountain 
stream, called also Aoqua delta Foce, 
from the peculiar defiles through which 
it passes near Anversa. This gorge, 
through the whole of which eagles and 
ravens abound, is in every respect one 
of the most singular in the chain of 
the Apennines. The village of An- 
versa, which stands on an eminence on 
the rt., with its shattered castle com- 
manding the entrance of the pass, and 
the hamlet of Castro di Valva hanging 
almost over the vale from a precipi- 
tous rock on the opposite side of the 
torrent, add greatly to its picturesque 
character. At its extremity, near Villa 

Lago, the Sagittario is seen bursting 
forth from the high mass of rock 
which forms the boundary of the glen. 
Here, at a spot called the Stretti di 
S, Luigi, the pass becomes of such 
fearful height and narrowness as to be 
totally impassable in rainy or stormy 
weather. Into this chasm the stream 
emerges through subterranean com- 
munications from the lake, which is 
about 1 m. distant. After leaving the 
ravine of the Sagittario, a short ride 
across a plain brings us to the lake. 
*'The Lago di Scanno," says Mr. Lear, 
** is really one of the most perfectly 
beautiful spots in nature, and the more 
for being in so desert a place. Its dark 
waters slumber below bare mountains 
of great height, and their general effect 
might recall Wastwater in Cumber- 
land, but that every craggy hill was of 
wilder and grander form, and that the 
golden hues of an Italian September 
evening gave it a brilliancy rarely 
known in our own North. At the up- 
per end of the lake, which may be 1^ m. 
m length, an avenue of beautiful oaks, 
dipping their branches into the water, 
shade the rocky path, and lead to a 
solitary chapel, the only building in 
siffht, save a hermitage on the moun- 
tam beyond." A path of 1 ^ m. along 
the Sagittario leads to the town of 
Scanno (3000 Inhab.), situated in a nar- 
row valley of little interest. It has a 
local reputation for the beauty of its 
women, and for the Greek' character 
of their costume. 

From Solmona to Rocca Valloscura, 
a straight road leads to the base of the 
lofty range of mountains which bound 
the plain on the south. In this extre- 
mity of the valley the country is rich 
and highly cultivated, interspersed 
with cottages and hedge-rows which 
recall some of the beautiful home- 
scenes of England. The ascent begins 
under the town of Pettorano, where 
there is a tolerable country inn, and 
continues with little intermission for 
5 m. At Pettorano the last view over 
the valley of the Gizio and the plsdn 
of Solmona is one of those rare pros- 



pects which are never forgotten by 
the traveller; it is one of the finest 
scenes of its kind in Italy. The whole 
plain, 13 m. long, is spread out like a 
map at the foot of the pass, and the 
distant prospect is bounded by a long 
line of snowy mountains, above which 
the Gran Sasso d' Italia is conspicuous. 
The Gizio rises in the ravine below 
Pettorano. A wild defile, 2 m. in 
length, brings us to 

1 Rocca Valhscura, (1120 Inhab. — 
Inn: La Posta, tolerable.) This vil- 
lage well deserves its name, for it is 
placed in a deep precipitous ravine in 
one of the most desolate quarters of the 
pass. The ascent which follows is very 
steep, and the country is wilder and 
more dreary than that already passed. 
It is, however, a perfect picture of this 
peculiar class of scenery: the rocks 
in the deep ravines below the road are 
often so curiously broken that they 
have all 4he appearance of Pelasgic 
walls. At 2 m. from Valloscura we 
enter on the Piano di Cinquemiglia^ 
which forms the summit of the pass. 
This plain, which, at the 82nd m. from 
Naples, is 4298 ft. above the level of 
the sea, and is enclosed by much higher 
mountains, is perhaps the most wintry 
spot in Italy. The sudden falls of 
snow, and the stormy winds to which 
it is exposed, make it dangerous and 
often impassable in winter, and some- 
times even late in the spring. Heavy 
falls of snow have been known to 
take place even in June. In February, 
1528, 300 Venetian soldiers perished 
in crossing it; and a similar fate 
awaited 600 Germans under the Prince 
of Orange in March, 1629. A double 
line of high posts marks the direction 
of the road through it. In June and 
September it is one of the principal sta- 
tions of the shepherds on their annual 
migration to Apulia. In the spring 
they bring their flocks from the plains 
of the Tavoliere to the mountain val- 
leys above Aquila, where they take 
up their summer quarters, and towards 
the middle of autumn they return to 
Apulia for the winter. At the S. ex- 
tremity the road is carried through a 
narrow pass, offering one of the finest 
views on the whole journey, to 

8 m. Roccarasa (1450 Inhab.), a pic- 
turesque place, which is the highest 
inhabited village in South Italy: the 
Casa Angeloni is 4370 ft. above the 
level -of the sea. From here a road 
branches off on the 1. to Palena and 
Lanciano. (Rte. 143.) 

A long and steep descent leads down 
from Roccaraso to the valley of the 
Sangro. The mountains are bolder in 
their forms than those already passed, 
and are covered with dense forests of 
oaks, among which bears are bred and 
hunted. The views over the beautiful 
valley of the Sangro and the mountain- 
tract beyond Isemia, with the snowy 
range of the Matese in the distance^ 
are very fine. 

f Gastel di Sangro (5100 Inhab. — 
Inn : La Posta, clean ; the best on this 
road: the landlord supplies horses), a 
curious old town at the base of a rocky 
hill at the extremity of a plain 6 m. long 
and 2 broad, through which the Sangro 
(Sarus) winds its course. It is sur- 
mounted by the ruins of the feudal 
castle of the Counts of the Marsi . Many 
of the houses are remarkable for their 
architecture. They generally have coats 
of arms over the doors, a common prac- 
tice in the Abruzzi. One near the inn 
bears the date of 1374. A diligence 3 
times a week branches off here for 
Ortona on the Adriatic, passing through 


The traveller fond of alpine scenery 
may make an interesting excursion from 
Castel di &aigro to S. (yermano ; but he 
should not undertake it without first 
securing a good guide and letters of 
introduction to some resident propri- 
etor at Alfidena and Picinisco. The 
best way of obtaining them is by ap- 
plying to the local authorities at Castel 
di Sangro. From this town a path of 
6 m. leads along the plain of the Sangro 
to the village of Scontrone, placed on its 
1. bank, in the midst of 4)ine-forests. 
From here the path ascends the river 



through a romantic yalley, which gets 
wilder and narrower as it approaches 
iSarrea (1500 Inhab.)) placed on the top 
of a mountain overhanging the deep 
ravine through which the Sangro flows. 
This river rises near the village of 
Gioia, one of the coldest spots in Italy, 
from under the group of mountains 
which enclose the Lake Fucino on the 
S.E. ; it runs below the villages of Pes- 
casfi^roli and Opi, in an upper valley 
shut in on the N. by the Monte Greco or 
Cimazza (7875 ft.), and on the S. by 
the mountain on which stands Barrea, 
which from this circumstance derived 
its name (barrier). From this upper 
basin the Sangro has found its way to 
the lower valley through a very deep 
gorge cut through the sides of the 
mountains. This gorge is so narrow 
as to be spanned by an old Gothic 
bridge of a single arch nearly 1 50 ft. 
in height. From Barrea we retrace 
our steps southwards, following the rt. 
bank of the river, to Alfedena (2100 
Inhab.), a convenient sleeping-place for 
the first evening. It stan£ opposite 
Scontrone, on the bank of the Bio Ibrto, 
a small stream which runs through 
the town, and through a narrow cleft 
in the rock precipitates itself into a 
dark and deep chasm. In the parapet of 
the bridge over it is encrusted an old 
Oscan inscription. Alfedena retains 
nearly the name but not the site of 
AufidenUf a city of the Caraceni, the most 
northern tribe of the Samnites, which 
was taken by storm by the consul Cn. 
Fulvius, B.C. 238. On a hill on the 1. 
bank of the river are some remains of 
polygonal walls. From Al fedena a moun- 
tain-path of nearly 18 m., great part of 
which is to be walked, crosses a high 
ridge of the mountain oiLa Meta by the 
Pasao del Monaco, During the ascent 
the views of the stupendous rocks and 
frightful precipices of La Meta, which 
on this side mils almost perpendicu- 
larly, are really magnificent. The path 
traversing the high valley (4795 ft.), 
in which is the source of La Melfa^ 
near the chapel of the Madonna del 
Canneto, descends to Picinisco (1200 In- 
hab.), the 2nd night's rest, situated on 
a lower slope of La Miele. The easiest 
vray of ascending this mountain is 

from Picinisco, where good guides can 
be hired. July and August are the 
best months to undertake it. The time 
required is about 12 hours; but the 
view from its highest summit (7480 ft. 
high), extending from the Monte Como 
in the Abruzzi to the Monte Albunvo 
near Psestnm, and from the Adriatic to 
the Mediterranean, fully compensates 
the fatigue of the ascent. The chapel 
of 8, Maria del Canneto^ in August, is 
the scene of a Festa to which thousands 
of peasants, in their picturesque cos- 
tumes, flock from the adjoining pro- 
vinces. From Picinisco a good path of 
6 m. leads to Atina, from which there 
are roads to Sora and San Germano. 
(Rte. 144.) 

From Castel di Sangro the high road, 
after a tedious ascent, passes through 

EionerOy a miserable village, beyond 
which the road commands, on the rt., 
the small plain of the Voltumo, with 
those windings from which the river 
is supposed to derive its name. 

[A pa^ of nearly 5 m. leads from 
Rionero to the source of this river and 
Castel lone, near which are the ruins of 
the Lombard monastery of iS'. Vincenzo a 
VoltumOf so famous in the middle ages 
as to have been visited by Charle- 
magne, and in later times celebrated 
for its archives and collection of 
chronicles. It was suppressed and 
destroyed at the French invasion, when 
its collections were transferred to 
Monte Casino. The walk from Rio- 
nero to its ruins, and back to rejoin the 
high road at the Tavema di Vandra 
near the 62nd m. from Naples, will not 
take, for a good pedestrian, more than 
5 hours, and the tourist who can afford 
the time will be highly repaid by the 
beauty and singularity of the scenerj-.] 

A descent of 4 m. brings us to the 
post-station called 

1 J Piano di Foroli, on leaving which 
the road passes the Tavema di Vandra, 
a miserable osteria, and then rapidly 
descends into the valley of the Vandra, 
from whence it ascends a high mountain 
called // Macerone, the last spur of the 
Apennines. At the cottage of the gen- 



darmes at its base the view, looking 
back over the mountains of Hoccarasa 
and the valley of the Vandra, and S. 
over the district of Isemia and the 
snowy peaks of Matese in the distance, 
is beautiful beyond description. On 
the 1., built on a high precipitous rock, 
is Miranda, with a large baronial castle. 
1 Isemia (8000 Inhab. — Inns: Xo- 
coinda Stefano and La Posta ; both very 
bad), the ancient JEsemia^ a city of 
Samnium. Its commanding position, 
and the massive remains of its poly- 
gonal walls, which still exist as the 
foundation of the modern ones in 
nearly their whole circuit, afford a 
proof of the military skill which the 
Koman historians ascribe to the Sam- 
nites. During the Social War, after 
the fall of Corfinium and Bovianum, 
it became for a time the head-quarters 
of the Italian allies. The high road 
passes outside the E. wall, between the 
city and a deep valley watered bv the 
Fiume del CavaUere, In the lower 
part of this bottom is a rocky mound, 
with an old circular eh. dedicated to SS. 
Cosma and Damiano, now used as the 
public cemetery. The fame of these 
saints in the cure of disease was so great, 
that people from all parts of the king- 
dom formerly crowded to their shrine 
at Isernia, during the September fair, to 
purchase masses for their restoration to 
nealth, or to make ex voto offerings for 
benefits received* Ked wax models of 
different parts of the human body 
affected by disease were exposed for 
sale to those who came in search of 
health. Many of these offerings were 
of such a character that Sir William 
Hamilton and Mr, Payne Knight, who 
in the last cent, investigated the origin 
of the ceremony, believed it a rem- 
nant of the worship of Priapus. In 
1780 the government, to suppress the 
scandal, prohibited the sale or presenta- 
tion of the objectionable class of ex voto 
offerings; but the practice had taken 
so firm a hold on the public mind that 
when Sir Kichard Colt Hoare visited 
the town 10 years later, he was able to 
procure specimens of the forbidden 
emblems. The fair is now remarkable 
chiefly for the display of costumes of 
the inhab. of the Abruzzi and Terra di 

Lavoro. Below the ch. is a precipi- 
tous hill covered with an ilex grove, 
among which is the monastery of the 
Capucciui, remarkable for the pictur- 
esque beauty of the site. 

The modem town has manufactories 
of woollens, paper, and earthenware, is 
the see of a bishop, and the chief town 
of a district. It consists chiefly of one 
long and narrow street, running along 
the crest of the hiU. In the middle 
of the town is a fine old fountain, with 
6 rows of arches supported on short 
columns of white marble of different 
designs. Near the ch., destroyed by the 
earthquake of 1804, is an old tower, 
supposed to have belonged to a gateway 
of Norman times, at the base of which, 
on each angle, are 4 mutilated statues. 
In the adjacent street are foundations 
of massive buildings, and a rudely 
sculptured lion, apparently as ancient 
as the Samnites themselves. Among 
the inscriptions discovered in the town 
is one in honour of Septimius Pater« 
cuius, prsefect of the Pannouian cohort 
in Britain^ and of the Spanish cohort in 
Cappadocia, and Flamen of the Emperor 
Trajan : another is in honour of Fabius 
Maximus, insiavratori inoenivm pvbli- 
corvm. The antiquities appear to have 
been destroyed in the middle ages, 
when the city was fortified, as many 
semicircular towers and walls of that 
period are still to be seen. The fre- 
quent earthquakes have also contributed 
to their destruction. The great cu- 
riosity of Isemia is the ancient aque- 
duct, hewn in the solid rock. It begins 
at the bridge on the Solmona side, 
where the water enters the channel. It 
is long, and has six airholes or spira- 
coli, the deepest of which is said to be 96 
palms (82} feet). It supplies the foun- 
tains and manufactories with water. 

From Isernia a road leads by Boiano 
and Campobasso (Rte. 145.) 

A rapid descent from Isemia brings 
us to the valley of the Volturao. along 
a beautiful road. At the 60th m. from 
Naples we pass under the hamlet of 
Macchia ; and the village of Montaquila 
is seen on a hill above the rt. bank of 
the Voltumo, which is crossed, at the 
47th m., by a fine bridge, where, leaving 
the town of Monteroduni 2 m. on the 



1., we enter the province of the Terra 
di Lavoro. The approach to Venafro 
is extremely beautiful ; a rich succes- 
sion of groves and highly cultivated 
rfades, surrounded by hills covered with 
fine oaks, recall in many parts some 
of the finest combinations of English 

1§ Venafro (3500 Inhab. Inn; Lo- 
canda Maccarri, with tolerable beds, 
but nothing to eat; there is a fair 
caS4 adjoining), the ancient Yenafrwm.^ 
is beautifully situated at the W. ex- 
tremity of the plain of the Voltumo, 
8 m. from the river, on the lower slopes 
of the lofty mountain of Santa Croce, 
upon which, about half way up its 
side, are the ruins of an old tower. At 
the base of the mountain rise the copious 
springs which form the Fiume di San 
Benedetto. Another spring in the neigh- 
bourhood retains the name of the Fims 
Papiria, The slopes of the hills are 
still ex>vered with olive-groves, as in 
the days of Horace : — 

insnper addes 

Pressa Venafranae quod bacca remisit olivae. 

Sat. II. 4, 68. 

viridique certat 

Bacca Venafro. 
Od. II. 6. 

Its antiquities have nearly all dis- 
appeared, and the only vestiges now 
remaining are some fragments supposed 
to belong to the amphitheatre, a small 
portion of the polygonal walls, and 
some inscribed stones. The modem 
town, ]^laced below the site of the an- 
cient, 18 the see of a bishop, and is 
highly picturesque at a distance. . The 
feudal castle of the Caracciolo family, 
occupying a commanding position above 
it, had formerly fresco portraits of the 
horses for whose breed the family were 
famous ; but it has lost all its grandeur, 
and is now hardly worth a visit. Many 
of the inscriptions recording the names 
of the personages to whom the horses 
were presented or sold are curious; 
one is dated 1524. Venafro was twice 
desolated by the plague in the last cent. 
After Venafro, the road for many 
miles is perfectly level. At the point 
where it approaches the Volturno, a 
stone bridge, called the Ponte del Re, 
leads into the Royal Chase of Venafro, 

which abounds with majestic oaks and 
is full of wild boars. The road pro- 
ceeds at a little distance from the rt. 
bank of the river, passing on the rt. 
the villages of Vallecupa, Rocca Pipi- 
razzi, and Sesto. The hills are finely 
wooded: the high cultivation of the 
plains gives great variety to the land- 
scape, and the mixture of rock and 
mountain with the other features of the 
country is calculated te remind the tra- 
veller of many parts of Devonshire. 

Leaving Presenzano on the rt., at 
the 34th m., from near which the rail- 
way is open to Naples, passing by 
Riardo, Teano, Pignataro, and-Capua, 
and continuing along the post-road to 

li CawjtwWfo, Stat., where' 
this road falls into that 
from Rome by Ceprano at 
the Qvadrwium, and from 
which the rlwy. is open to 
Naples (79 kil. = 49 m.), in 
3 hours, by 

Riardo • . 
Santa Maria 
Caserta . 
Maddaloni < 
Caucello . . 
Acerra . , 
Casal Nuovo 
Naples . 


79 J 

140, 141. 

ROUTE 143. 


Railway in progress. 

Leaving Ancona, the road passes at 
the 18th m. through Loreto {Hand, for 
Central Italy, Rte. 88), and reaches 



21 m. Porto diBecanati(S00O Inhab.), 
a small town on the coast. Thence to 
Civita Nuova, where it crosses the 
Chienti, which separates the Delega- 
tions of Macerata and Fermo. 

18 m. Forto d% Fermo (there are 3 
Inns here ; the Lione very good in 1 857), 
prettily situated on the Adriatic and 
much frequented during the villeggia- 
tura season. It is the Casirum Fir- 
manum of Pliny. The scenery in its 
neighbourhood is very fine. From 
Porto di Fermo a road of 4 m. leads to 
Porto di S. Elpidio, 4 m. beyond which 
is Porto di Civita Nuova; from the 
latter a very good road of 13 m. to 
Macerata. (See Handbook of Central 
Italy, Rte. 88.) Another road branches 
off to 

[Fermo (18,990 Inhab.), Firmum 
Picenum, the see of an archbishop, 
and capital of a district which con- 
tains 110,482 Inhab. It is situated 
5 m. inland on a hill commanding 
a great extent of interesting country. 
During the Social War Pompey took re- 
fuge here after his defeat by Judalicius 
and Afranius, the latter of whom he 
eventually defeated under its walls. It 
was occupied by'^sesar on his march 
from Rimini. It was taken and retaken 
by Belisirius and Totila. The cathedra 
is dedicated to Sta. Maria Assunta. 
One of the chs. is supposed to occupy 
the site of a temple of Juno. The 
college was founded in 1632, by 
Urban VIII. The neighbourhood 
abounds with charming scenery, and 
the inhabitants are courteous and in- 
structed. "At Fermo," says Valery, 
"are still shown the ruins of the house 
of Oliverotto, one of the model tyrants 
proposed by Machiavel in his Prince, 
Oliverotto declared himeelf prince of 
Fermo, after having massacred his 
uncle, who had brought him up, and 
the principal inhabitants of the town, 
at a banquet ; his reign did not exceed 
a year, as he was waylaid and strangled 
at Sinigallia, with Vitellozzo, his tutor 
in crime and in war, a victim worthy 
of his more dexterous rival Cesar 
Borgia." The citadel of Fermo was 
one of the last strongholds which 
Francesco Sforza possessed in the 
March of Ancona, during his struggle 

\S, Italy.] 

with the pope and other Italian princes 
in the 1 5th cent.] 

Before reaching Porto di Ascoli, 5 
m. off the road, is 

\_^Ripatransone, 5000 Inhab., situated 
on a hill surrounded by walls; it is 
supposed to occupy the site of the 
£truscan city of Cupra Montana, Pius 
V. in 1571, gave it the title of city; it 
has a cathedral dedicated to S. Gregory 
the Great. In the hill beneath the 
town is a remarkable cavern.] 

The road passes the pretty villages 
of Grottamare {Cupra maritima) and 
San Benedetto. 

25 m. Porto di Ascoli, the former 
Papal frontier. From here a road 20 
m. to the rt. leads to 

[AscoLi, Asculum Picenum, the capital 
of a province with 91,916 Inhab. It 
occupies a beautiful position, on the 
Tronto, close to the Neapolitan frontier; 
it is the see of a bishop, and, although 
a dull and dilapidated place, it has 
12,000 Inhab. It was the first city 
which declared against Rome at the 
commencement of the Social War. It 
sustained a memorable siege by Pom- 
pey ,Vho compelled it to surrender and 
beheaded its principal inhabitants. Dur- 
ing the Gothic wars it was besieged 
and taken by Totila. Its cathedral is 
said to have been built by Constantine, 
on the ruins of a temple of Hercules. 
It was the birthplace of Nicholas IV. 
The fortress was built from the de- 
signs of Antonio SangaUo, and several 
of the public buildings were designed 
by Cola dell* Amatrice, whose I^ast 
Supper, painted for the oratory of the 
Corpus Domini, gained for him a dis- 
tinguished name throughout the pro- 
vince. From Ascoli a carriage-road 
will soon be opened to Spoleto, pass- 
ing by Arqnata and Norcia: it crosses 
the central ridge of the Apennines 
(see Handbook of Central Italy, Rte. 
99) ; and a mountain bridle-path leads 
by Civitella del Tronto from Ascoli 
to Teramo, 22 m.] 

1 m. The Th)nto(Truenttts), once the 
boundary of the Papal and Neapolitan 
States ; on its S. bank is Martin Sicurv, 
the Roman station of Castrum Truen- 
tinum, (Inn: Locanda Cesarini,) Tronto 
is 1 m. from Porto di Ascoli. 



Between the Tronto and Pescara the 
shores present a plain extending from 
the Apennines to the sea, and vary- 
ing from several m. to only J m. in 
breadth. It is highly cultivated, and 
enjoys a mild temperature, but has 
little to interest the traveller. 

10 m. Oiulia Nuova (5054 Inhab. 
— Inn : small but tolerable), on a 
hill 1 m. from the shore, is the cus- 
tom-house station for the province. 
It was built in the 15th cent, by 
Giulio Acquaviva, Duke of Atri, who 
removed thither, as a healthier spot, 
the remaining inhabitants of Castrum 
Novum, which was then called San 
Flaviano, froni the body of a saint of 
that name brought there from By- 
zantium in the middle ages. The 
ruins of S. Flaviano are below Giulia 
Nuova on the 1. bank of the Tordino 

The plain near them was the scene 
of the drawn battle, fought July 27, 
1460, between the armies of John Duke 
of Anjou, commanded by Niccolb Pic- 
cinino, and of the Milanese allies of 
Ferdinand I. of Aragon, commanded 
by Alessandro Sforza and Federigo 
di Montefeltro. This battle, one of 
the most sanguinary conflicts in Ita- 
lian history, lasted 7 hours, during 
the last 3 of which by torchlight. 
When the generals of each army re- 
called their men, neither was in a 
position to pursue the other, or to do 
more than retire from the scene of 
carnage, leaving all the baggage on 
the field. * At daybreak the ravine 
near the castle was filled with the dead 
and dying; and a local chronicler re- 
cords that there was not a foot of 
ground near it which was not covered 
with ** bodies, blood, and armour." 


From Giulia Nuova a road of 14 m. 
leads along the 1. bank of the Tordino, 
through a well-cultivated country to 

Teramo (8600 Inhab. — Inn: toler- 
able), the ancient Interamna, the capital 
of the province of Abruzzo Ultra I., 
and the see of a bishop, situated just 
above the junction of the Tordino and 
the Vezzola, and the residence of 
many rich families. The Gothic Ca- 
thedralf once remarkable, has been sadly 
nobodernised. In the neighbourhood are 
remains of an ancient amphitheatre, 
ruins of temples, baths, and aqueducts ; 
many statues have also been found here. 
The hills above the town command 
fine views of the Gran Sasso d' Italia. 

From Teramo commences the great 
post-road of the Abruzzi, for that from 
Aquila to Popoli is merely a secondary 
branch. The distance from Teramo 

to Naples is 21| posts. The mail 
courier travels it daily, 
journey in 38 hours. 

performing the 

A bridle mountain path of 14 m. 
leads from Teramo by CampU to 

Civiteila del Tronto (1800 Inhab.), 
placed on a hill near the Salinello. Its 
castle is built on a rock of travertine. 
From the town to the sea-shore, rounded 
masses of breccia, containing fossil 
shells, mixed with pebbles, occur. In 
1557 the Duke de Guise, who com- 
manded the army of Henry II. leagued 
with Paul IV. against Philip II., laid 
siege to Civiteila, which was defended 
with great bravery by its garrison. The 
inhab., even the women, joined the 
garrison in the defence. After three 
weeks, the Duke de Guise, mortified at 
the Pope's failure to provide him with 
reinforcements, and unwilling to risk a 
battle with the Duke of Alva, who at 
the head of 22,000 men was advancing 
from Giulia Nuova to meet him, raised 
the siege, and retreated towards Rome. 
A new road (41 m.) has been opened 
from Teramo to Aquila. It follows 
the 1. bank of the Vomano, passing 
near SenaHca (200 Inhab.), which was 
for many centuries the smallest re- 
public in the world ; it then traverses 
the narrow valley of Tottea, and by 
the wild passes of Monte San Franco 
passes into the valley of the Atemo. 

The Ascent of the Gran Sasso 
B* Italia, called also the Monte Como, 
is best made from Teramo; but travellers 
who undertake it must be prepared 



to find scarcely any accommodation. 
In fact it should not be attempted with- 
out getting letters of introduction at 
Teramo for some of the proprietors 
residing at Montorio or Isola. The 
middle of July is the best time for the 
ascent. On leaving Teramo the new 
road is followed as far as Montorio; 
whence, after crossing the Vomano, 
a mountain path will lead by Tos- 
siccia to Isola, where mules and guides 
must be obtained, and where the night 
is spent. Isola (800 Inhab.) stands at 
the foot of the Gran Sasso on a penin- 
sula nearly surrounded by two small 
streams, the Maroiae ana the Ruzzo. 
The single pyramid of Monte Como, 
broken mto tremendous precipices, 
rises immediately above it, and is 
scarcely ever lost si^ht of during the 
whole ascent. A wild path of nearly 
8 m. but which will take about 4 
hours, leads from Isola to the Marcme 
or Arapietra, a rocky ridge surrounded 
W rich pastures, where mules are left. 
The tourist ought to be at this spot by 
sunrise ; the rest of the ascent must be 
made on foot. The scenery of the 
ascent is perfectly Alpine in its cha- 
racter, presenting a magnificent variety 
of wood-crowned hills, torrents, water- 
falls, and precipitous ravines, which 
constitute some of the most striking 
scenes in Italy. The height of Monte 
Como is 10,154 Eng. ft. Chamois 
are met with in the upper ranges. 

About 6 m. E. from Isola is CastelU, a 
small village that acquired some cele- 
brity for a manufactory of the so-called 
Ahruzzi earthenware, which was carried 
to such perfection as to be placed on a 
level with that of Faenza. The art 
is now lost, but some of the specimens 
in the cabinets of the curious are re- 
markable for correctness of design and 
vivacity of colour. 

After leaving Giulia Nova the Tor- 
dino is crossed, and 2 m. farther is 
Monte Pagano, where there are three 
inns with fair accommodation. About 

2 m. farther S. the Vomano , a broad 
stream, very formidable when swollen 
by the winter torrents of the Gran 
Sasso, is forded. 3 m. beyond the 
Vomano a road branches off to 

[Atri (10,100 Inhab.), the see of a 
bishop, on a commanding eminence 
5 m. inland, with an extensive and 
most striking view. There are few 
cities in this part of Italy which have 
such high claims to antiquity as Hadria 
Picena, Its coins, of which there is, or 
was, a complete series in the local col- 
lection of the Sorricchio family, are 
amongst the heaviest specimens known, 
exceeding in weight the oldest Koman 
asses, and have been assigned to a very 
remote antiquity, some referring them 
to the Etruscan, others to the Greek 
settlers, and others to the Roman 
Colony established there about 282 
B.C. The family of Hadrian came 
originally from this city, though the 
Emperor was born in Spain. Nume- 
rous remains of public edifices, baths, 
and walls attest the size and conse- 
quence of the city. It had a port at the 
mouth of the Piomba (Matrinus), In 
the neighbourhood are several subter- 
ranean chambers, regularly distributed, 
and resembling those at Syracuse. The 
tribune of the cathedral, one of the 
most perfect Gothic buildings in the 
Abruzzi, is covered with frescoes.] 

Farther S. is the post station of the 
Osteria Galvano, ij posts, near the 
inn of Sihif which is cleaner than 
usual in these parts. After crossing 
the Piomba, a road leads to 

[CiviTA Santangelo (7300 Inhab.), 
4 m. inland, supposed to be the ancient 
Angulus of the Vestini.'\ 

After fording the Salino Maggiore, 
Salinas, a dangerous stream when swollen 
by heavy rains, a road branches off to 

[CiviTA Di Penne, Pmna (11,000 
Inhab.J, picturesquely situated on a hill 
14 m. inland. It was the chief town 
of the Vestini, and during the Social 
War resisted the Roman army that 
besieged it. It still exhibits remains of 
ancient buildings. It is now the chief 
town of the district.] 

E 2 



The road, before reaching Pescara, 
skirts a low range of hills on the rt. 
covered with villas, which form the 
commune of Castellammare (4000 In- 
hab.), and are frequented during the 
bathing season. 

25 Pescara (1450 Inhab. — Inn: La 
Posta ; very bad), the ancient Atemum, 
is a fortified town at the mouth of 
the ,river of the same name. It is 
a dull and miserable place, situated 
in an unhealtby plain, heavily afflicted 
with malaria. It owes its importance 
wholly to its being a military station. 
The fortress was built by Charles V. 

At the mouth of the Pescara, Sforza 
di Cotignola, the celebrated condottiere, 
then in the service of Joanna II., 
perished while leading his army across 
the river on the 3rd of January, 1424. 
On that day he marched out of Ortona 
with his victorious army on his way to 
Aquila. It is related that he received 
many warnings by dreams and by the 
predictions of astrologers against setting 
out, and that his attendants considered 
as an evil omen the accidental fall of 
his standard-bearer when leaving Or- 
tona, by which the banner was torn. 
But Sforza declared that if such omens 
frightened others, they would not 
frighten him. The fortress of Pe- 
scara was occupied by the troops of 
Braccio di Montone, and, all the ordi- 
nary fords having been impeded by 
the garrison, Sforza determined to cross 
the broad but insecure mouth of the 
stream. Stormy weather increased the 
dangers of the passage. While stand- 
ing in the middle of the river, direct- 
ing the troops, Sforza saw his favourite 
page, Mangone, carried out of his depth; 
in endeavouring to save him, the hind 
legs of his horse slipped, and the weight 
of his heavy armour prevented his 
making any effort to save himself. 
He instantly disappeared, but his iron- 
girt hands were twice seen above the 
waves, as if imploring assistance. The 
horse rose again, but Sforza*s body was 
never found. 



From Pescara a tolerable country 
road runs along the shore in a S.£. 
direction to 

4 m. Francavilla (4300 Inhab.), placed 
on a hill between the Alento and the 

6 m. Or^oTW (11,860 Inhab.) occupies 
the site, and retains the name of Ortouy 
a naval arsenal of the Frentani, Placed 
on a promontory projecting into the 
sea, it commands an extensive view 
of the Adriatic, the Maiella Mountains, 
and the distant Gran Sasso. Its port 
has been blocked up, but it still ex- 
ports great quantity of wines, which 
are the best in this part of Italy. 
Ortona was the favourite winter resi- 
dence of Margaret of Austria, widow of 
Alessandro de* Medici and of Ottavio 
Famese. She died there in a magni- 
ficent palace she had erected, and which 
still exists, but in a dilapidated state. 

A public conveyance starts from 
Ortona 3 times a week for Lanciano to 
Castel di Sangro, where it corresponds 
with the diligence and malleposte from 
Teramo and Aquila to Naples (May, 

The road quits the coast, and proceeds 
inland to 

7 m. Lanciano, Anxanum (13,900 
Inhab.), the see of an archbishop, and 
the chief town of the most populous 
district of Abruzzo Citra. The neigh- 
bouring country, as well as all the 
shores of this mountainous province, 
is fertile, and has extensive olive- 
grounds and vineyards, producing a 
species of malmsey (Malvasia), Lan- 
ciano is built on three hills, two of 
which are connected by a remarkable 
bridge referred to the 3rd cent., and 
called the Bridge of Diocletian, The 
cathedral, called S, Maria del Ponte, is 
built upon this bridge. The house of 
Anjou endeavoured to increase the 
prosperity of Lanciano, and conferred 
on it the privilege of coining money. 
In the middle ages it was famous for its 
fair which lasted 29 days. It was at the 



siege of Lanciano in 1423 that Braccio 
and Sforza first measured arms together. 

[A new road, called Frentana^ 47 m. 
long, has been opened from Ortona 
by Lanciano to Roccarasa, where it 
joins the high post road (Rte. 142). 
'I'he tract which is finished starts from 
Boccarasa, and, skirting the S. flank 
of the Maiella, reaches Palena (12 m.), 
and 4 m. farther Taranta ; whence, by 
a long gallery through Monte Ciricolo, 
arrives at Lama, 2 m. off. From the 
latter place a via naturale leads to Casoli 
(8 m.), and thence to Lanciano (14 m).] 

A good via naturale from Lanciano 
crosses the Sangro near its mouth, the 
Osento, and the Asiuello, and proceeds 

18 m. Vasto d'Ammone (11,490 
Inhab. Inn: indifferent), Histonium, 
on a hill a few hundred yards from the 
sea. Numerous ruins of ancient edi- 
fices attest its former grandeur and ex- 
tent. In the Piazza there is an old 
inscription, which records the fact of 
L. Vederius Pudens having at thirteen 
years of age borne away the prize of 
Latin poetry in the contests held at 
Rome m the temple of Jupiter Capito- 
linus. Jacopo Caldora, the leader of 
the combined armies of Joanna IL, 
Martin V., and Filippo Maria Visconti, 
built a palace, of which there are large 
remains. Vasto is still a place of some 
importance ; its olive-grounds are rich. 
The Palazzo of the d'Avalos family, 
formerly its feudal lords, which was 
enlarged and furnished by the Marchese 
di Pescara,the conqueror of Francis I., 
is said to be still in the same state and 
with the same furniture and pictures 
as when the hero's wife, Vittoria Co- 
lonna, inhabited it. Both Vasto and 
Ortona suffered much in the 14th centy. 
from the ** Free Companions " of Fra 

: In summer it is possible to proceed 
from Vasto to Termoli (18 m.) by a 
via naturale, and thence to Foggia; but 
the traveller would have to undergo 
great hardships and discomforts. Ter- 
moli will be visited with greater facility 
from Naples (Rte. 145), 

A line of rly. is projected from 
Pescara to Ceprano, passing by Chieti, 
Popoli, Solmona, Celano, the valley of 
Roveto, Sora : when completed it will 
form the most direct line of communi- 
cation between the shores of the Adri- 
atic and Naples. 

On leaving Pescara the road follows 
the rt. bank of the river, which in the 
upper part of its course is called Aterno, 
the ancient Atemus, but below Popoli 
assumed the name of Pescara in the 
7th centy. Cicero and Livy state that 
during the 2nd Punic war it was re- 
ported, among other prodigies, that the 
Atemus had flowed with blood: Se^ 
natui nunciatum est Atemum flumen san^ 
guine fluxisse. The prodigy is seen 
sometimes in our days, when there is • 
a sudden and heavy rain after a long 
drought in the upper valleys of Castel- 
vecchio and Subequo, abounding in 
deeply coloured ferruginous sand. The 
Pescara is the boundary between the 
provinces of Abruzzo Citra and Abruzzo 
Ultra I. 

Osteria di Carahha^ at the foot of the 
hill of Chieti. Close by it on the 1. an 
ascent of 2 m. leads to 

1 Chieti (20,200 Inhab. — Inn: 
Aquila d'Oro, tolerable), the capital of 
the Abruzzo Citra, the ancient Teate 
Marrucinorum : 

Cui nobile uomen 
Marruciiia domus, clarumqae Teate ferebat 

SiL. iTAL, XVII. 457. 

It stands on a hill commanding a fine 
view, is the see of an archbishop, and 
the residence of many rich families. 
The Abbate Galiani, who, as Neapoli- 
tan Secretary of Embassy, shone among 
the ** beaux esprits" at the court of 
Louis XVI., was a native of Chieti. 
The order of the Theatins took their 
name from this place, their founder, 
Paul IV., having been its archbishop. 
Of the many remains of Teate, the 
most remarkable are — seven large 
halls, part, perhaps, of some Thermsc, 
near the Tintoria, ruins of a gateway, 
and of a large theatre near the Porta 
Beaky and several inscriptions built 
into the walls of the cathedral, some 
of which refer to the Asinian family, 
to which Asinius Pollio, the friend of 



Horace and of Vir^l, belonged. The 
churches of S. Paolo and of Sta. Maria 
del Tricaglio (a tribus callibus) stand on 
the foundations of temples of Hercules 
and of Diana Triria. From Chieti 
there is a road of 16 m. to Lanciano. 

Hetuming to the high road, 12 m. 
from the Osteria di Carabba, we cross 
the Orta, a mountain stream, and 1 m. 
beyond, on the 1. bank of the Pescara, 
are the ruins of a monastery, dedicated 
to the Holy Trinity , and called Scm 
Clemente, It was founded by the em- 
peror Louis II. for the purpose of 
receiving the body of that pope, which 
he obtained from Adrian II. in 866. 
Remains of the church and monastery, 
some bas-reliefs, and the brazen gates 
•inscribed with die names of the pos- 
sessions of the establishment, still attest 
the extent and wealth of the founda- 

[The tourist fond of wild scenery 
may follow here a path on the 1. which 
by S, Valentino leads to Eoccamorice 
(4 m.), situated on one of the lower 
slopes of the Maiella, About 3 m. from 
the latter place, at a spot called For- 
nelliy fine large crystals of sulphate of 
strontian are found. From Roccamo- 
rice the path ascends the valley of the 
Orfenta to the Piano del Molino, where 
it is abruptly closed by the peaks of 
Monte Cavallo, Monte Mucchiaf and 
Mo7ite Ainaroy the highest peak of the 
Maiella group (8956 ft.). Here the 
Orfenta has its origin from a beautiful 
double waterfall descending from the 
stupendous buttresses of Monte Cavallo 
and Monte Mucchia. Another path 
descends from the Piano del Molino 
through Caramanico to Salle^ whose 
inhabitants, as well as those of Musel- 
iaro and Bolognano, villages near it, 
have long enjoyed the reputation of 
manufacturing the best strings for mu- 
sical instruments. From Salle the 
tourist may either rejoin the hi^h road 
below Tbcco, or, crossing the ndge of 
the Morronej whose highest peak is 
6862 ft., descend to Solmwia (Rte. 142) 
through the long and narrow gorge of 
Valle di Mala Cupa, covered with thick 
Ibrests in which the Santolina Alpina 
grows most luxuriantly. TB« excursi«Q | 
by S. Valentino and Roceamoriee to the » 

waterfalls of the Orfenta, and thence 
through Caramanico and Salle to Tocco» 
will occupy a little more than 5 hours, 
and therefore, by starting early from 
Chieti, it will be possible to accom- 
plish it and reach ropoli in the even- 
ing. But if it is proloDged by crossing 
the Morrone and descending to Sol- 
mona, it will take at least 8 hours, as 
most of the excursion must be made 
on foot.] 

1 Turn, post station. Half way be- 
tween Turn and Popoli is the village of 

Tocco (4000 Inhab.), picturesquely 
situated on a cliff overhanging the road 
on the 1. It was the birthplace of Carlo 
di Tocco, a lawyer of the 12th centy., 
from whom the Princes of Monte- 
miletto descend. 

The valley beyond this contracts into 
a narrow gorge about 3 m. long, called 
Intermontif whose steep limestone sides 
appear to have been cut through by the 
river Pescara forcing its way betweea 

4^ m. PopoLi, situated at the upper 
end of the pass, where the Atemo by 
a sudden bend changes its direction to 
the N.E., and becomes the Pescara. 
Here this route falls into Rte. J42, 
p. 44. 



ROUTE 144. 


When the projected rly. from Ce- 
prano to Pescara will be open, the part 
of this route as far as Avezzano can be 
performed by rail. 

The scenery of this route is very 
beautiful ; the way of seeing it to the 
best advantage will be to follow it from 
Naples to Rome, going up the valley 
of the Liris. The inns are execrable, 
and in some places there are none ; it 
will therefore be useful to get letters 
of introduction to the resident pro- 
prietors before leaving Naples. There 
IS a regular mail carriage starting daily 
from Avezzano at 4 p,m., perform- 
ing the journey to Naples in 20 
hrs. ; and a diligence with 4 places 
every Mon., Wed., and Frid. at 4 p.m. 
The mail cornier leaves Naples at 
6 P.M., and the diligence on Tues., 
Thurs., and Sat. at 2 p.m. This will 
be the quickest mode of reaching the 
shores of the lake of Fucino. This 
trajet by carriage now commences 
from the rly. stat. of Isoletta, b^ which 
means this interesting excursion may 
be made in a day. The traveller 
majr start by the early morning train, 
which will give him time to visit 
the Amphitheatre at Santa Maria 
{Excursions from Naples)^ and pro- 
ceed by the next train to Capua, from 
which he will reach S. Germane 
in the afternoon. On the 2nd day he 
can visit in the morning Montecasino, 
leave S. Germano soon after 12, see 
the remains of Aquino and Rocca 
d'Arce, and go to Sora ; or by taking 
the rly. to Isoletta, reach Sora on 
the same afternoon. On the 3rd day 
visit Arpino, the falls of the Liris, 
the island of S. Paolo, the lake of Posta, 
and return to Sora. The 4th day ascend 
the valley of Roveto, visit the Falls of 
Morino or Civita d*Antino, see the en- 
trance of the Claudian Aqueduct below 
Capistrello, and the CunicoH under 
Monte Salviano, and sleep at Avezzano. 



On the 5th day visit Celano and Albe« 
and reach Tagliacozzo. 

At the latter place horses must be 
hired to proceed to Tivoli. The beau- 
tiful and interesting country along this 
route, as far as Sora or Avezzano, may be 
explored as an excursion from Naples. 

Starting from Naples, the rly. passes 

Casalnuovo • . kiL 11' 

Acerra • . • • 4 

Cancello . • • • 7 

Maddaloni • • 

Caserta • • • 
St Mana di Capua 

Capua • • • 

Pignataro • • . 

Sparanise • • 

Teano • • • < 

Riardo • • • «. 

Caianello • • • 6 1 

Presenzano • • • 7 

Mignano . • • • 8 

Rocca d'EvandiX) • 7 

San Germano • • 10 

Aquino • • • • 14 

Melfa • • • • 5 

Isoletta • • ^ • 8 

Ceprano • • . • 2; 

5 m. Arce (1500 Inhab.) is the 
Italian custom-house station on the 
road from Ceprano to Isola, on the 
slope of a conics& hill crowned by the 
mediaeval fortress of Rocca d'Arce. 

The position of Rocca d* Arce, still oc- 
cupying the site of the ancient Arx, is 
very striking. It has many remains 
of polygonal walls, and is a picturesque 
object S'om aU parts of the surrounding 
country. It was strongly fortified 
during the middle ages, and was con- 
sidered impregnable. It is supposed 
to be the ancient Arcanum, near which 
was the villa of Quintus Cicero, men- 
tioned by his brother in his letters to 
Atticus, and in the dialogues De Le- 
gibus : locum (Estate umbrosiorem vidi 
nunquam. Many inscriptions have been 
discovered in which the names of the 
Cicero family occur. Some ruins <on 
the east are called Vaja di Cicerone, 
or Cicero's Bam, and a ruined aqueduct 
is supposed to be that which Quintus 
employed the architects Messidius and 
Philoxenus to construct. 



From Arce we proceed parallel to the 
1. bank of the Lins ; but the river is sel- 
dom visible from the road. Soon after 
crossing a sulphurous stream, we see on 
a hill on the rt. the village of Fontana, 
and on the 1. beyond the frontier 
Monte S. Giovanni, formerly known 
for its vast and wealthy monastery 

At the 4th m. from Arce a road of 4 
m. branches off on the rt. to Arpino. 
Close , to the road, a few m. before 
reaching Isola, the Liris forms a series 
of rapids, called La Natrella, close 
to the small island of San Paolo. Near 
it is a ruined arch, the remains of a 
Roman bridge which here crossed the 

7 m. Tsola (4800 Inhab. — Inn : small, 
but clean), remarkable for the Fcdh of 
the Liris, It is built on a small island 
surrounded by two branches of the 
river, at the foot of an elevated plat- 
form on which stands the old feudal 
castle of the former dukes of Sora. 
The river is divided by this mass of 
rock into two branches, which rush 
down from the platform on. either side 
of the castle, forming the principal cas- 
cades. The first faU is. perpendicular, 
and is nearly 100 feet high ; the second 
is at the extremity of the town, where 
the main branch of the river rushes 
down an inclined plane, many hundred 
feet in length, forming a majestic com- 
bination of cascade and cataract. At 
the foot of the fall is a cloth manufac- 
tory, through which the water is car- 
ried to turn the mills. 

The finest view of Isola and the 
upper valley of the Liris as far as Sora 
is from the hill of S. Giovenale, facing 
the town on the rt. of the road. 

Isola has several cloth, linen, and 
paper mills, which supply the northern 
provinces of the kingdom. The tra- 
veller cannot fail to be struck with 
the peculiar beauty of the women of 
Isola, Sora, and Arpino. They are 
amongst the handsomest in Italy. 
Their costume is perfectly Greek. 
They wear sandals pointed at the toe, 
red petticoats, and blue and red striped 
aprons, behind as well as in front, pre- 
cisely in the manner of the modem 
Greeks. The pitchers which they 
carry on their heads are quite classical 

in their forms. From Isola the tra- 
veller may cross into the Roman States, 
and visit Casamari (4 m.) {Rte. 141, p. 
28). After leaving Isola the road 
ascends a gentle slope, at the end of 
which is the Cartiera del Fibreno, the 
paper manufactory of Mons. Lefebvre, 
created Count of Balzorano, the 
machinery of which is driven by 
the Fibreno, which here falls into the 
Liris. In the gardens of this gentle- 
man are the Cascatelle, or little falls, 
of the two rivers. Those of the 
Fibreno, although coming from the 
manufactory, are very fine, and would 
be considered striking in any other 
place j but those of the Liris are so 
beautiful as to monopolise admiration. 
The inclined sui*face of rock down 
which the river rushes is broken trans- 
versely in five or six places, and at 
each of these a separate cascade 
is formed. The Fibrenus is men- 
tioned by Cicero as remarkable for the 
coldness of its waters. It abounds with 
delicious trout. 

About a mile beyond this is the 
monastery of S, Domenico Abate, on the 
Isola S, PaolOf an island formed by the 
Fibreno shortly before its falling into 
the Liris, and identified with the Insula 
Arpinas, Cicero's birthplace, the scene 
of his dialogues De Legibus, and the 
spot where he composed his orations 
for Plancius and Scaurus. The ch. was 
built from the ruins of Cicero's Arpine 
villa ; in its walls, seen from the front 
garden of the monastery, are several 
fragments of Doric ornaments, tri- 
glyphs, and bas-reliefs. The subterra- 
nean ch., said to date from 1030, is 
curious for its architecture, approach- 
ing that of the early Saxon style in 
England ; it is the place where S. Do- 
menico Abate died. The low columns, 
of granite and marble, with capitals of 
different orders, were also taken from 
the ruins of Cicero's villa. At the dis- 
tance of 10 minutes' walk is an inscrip- 
tion, placed, it is said, many years ago 
by an English traveller, and now almost 
illegible, stating that it marks the exact 
site of the villa, but no remains of foun- 
dations are now visible. Cicero was 
very fond of this island, and in one of 
his dialogues he reminds Atticus that 

ROUTE 144. — Cicero's villa. — ^arpesto. 


his ancestors had lived there for many 
generations, and that his father had 
rebuilt the, villa: — Ego vero, cum licet 
plures dies abesse^ prcesertim hoc tempore 
anni, et amo&nitatem kanc et salvbritatem 
seqiior; raro autem licet. . , Hcec est mea 
et hujits fratris mei gennani patria ; hie 
enim orti stirpe antiquissima ; hie sacral 
hie genus, hie majorum multa vestigia. 
Quid plura ? hanc vides villamj ut nunc 
quidem est, lautius cedificatampatrisnostri 
studio ; qui cum esset infirma valetudine, 
hie fere cetatem egit in Uteris. Sed hoc 
ipso in loco cum aws viveret, et antique 
more parva esset vilkif ut ilia Curiana in 
Sabinis, m£ scito esse natum ; quare inest 
nescio quid, et latet in animo ac sensu meo, 
quo me plus hie locus fortasse delectet* - 
he Leg, ii. 1. In the reply of Atticus 
we have a description of the site as 
complete and graphic as if it had 
been written yesterday: — Sed ventum 
in insulam est, hac vero nihil est amcenius, 
etenim hoc quasi rostro funditur Fihrenus, 
et divisus cequaliter in duos partes, latera 
hose adluit, rapideque dHapsus cito in unum 
conflait, et tantum complectitur quod satis 
sit modicoB palestrce loci ; quo effecto, tan- 
quam id habuerit, operis ac muneris, ut 
hanc nobis efficeret sedem ad disputandum, 
statim preecipitat in Lirim, et quasi in 
familiam patriciam venerit, amittit nomen 
obscurius, Lirimque multo gelidioremfacit ; 
nee enim aliud hoc frigidius fiumen attigi, 
quum ad multa adcesserim ut vix pede 
tentare id possim. We learn from his 
letters to Atticus that Cicero had here 
a library which he called Amalthea, in 
imitation of the name by which the 
great library of Atticus in Epirus was 
designated. Martial tells us that the 
island afterwards became the property 
of Silius Italicus: — 

Silins Arpino tandem succnrrit agello ; 
Silius et vatem non minus ipse tulit. 

^. XI. 49. 

Some antiquaries have placed Cicero's 
villa at Camello, another small island 
1 m. higher up the stream ; but the 
unmistakeable description of its situa- 
tion given by Cicero, the local inspec- 
tion of the place showing that the 
Fibreno falls into the Liris shortly 
(statim) after forming the island of San 
Paolo> the remains found on the spot, 

and the tradition connected with it, 
leave no doubt whatever on the sub- 
ject. The great interest that every 
classical traveller must necessarily 
attach to a spot so full of associations 
with the great Roman orator and states- 
man will be our apology for having 
entered into these details. 

Above the island, crossing the Liris 
at an oblique angle, are the ruins of a 
Roman bridge, called the Ponte di Ci- 
cerone, Only one of its three arches 
is now standing. After seeing the con- 
vent of S. Domenico, travellers, before 
going to Sora, may visit Arpino. A road 
to it (4 m.) turns off to the 1. soon after 
passing the paper-mills on the Fibreno, 
and another lower down from Camello. 
The views of the fertile and varied 
country which it commands, as it 
winds gradually up the mountain, are 
very beautiful. 

Arpino (1 3,450 Inhab.), the Volscian 
city of Arpinum^ the birthplace of Cicero 
and Caius Marius, two of the most 
illustrious names in Roman history. Its 
situation on two hills is so beautiful 
that we are at no loss to account for 
the partiality of Cicero, who, in one 
of his letters to Atticus, applies to it 
affectionately the description which 
Homer makes Ulysses give of his be- 
loved Ithaca. The ch. of San Michele 
is said to occupy the site of a Temple of 
the Muses, and nine niches in its walls 
are supposed to have contained their 
statues. The Palazzo Castello is the 
reputed site of the house of Marius, 
and the Strada della Cortina is pointed 
out by local tradition as the site of 
that of Cicero, though there is no 
authority for supposing that he had 
any dwelling here, except his native 
house at S. Paolo. The Palazzo del 
Comnne is decorated with statues of 
Cicero and Marius; the College is 
called the Collegio Tulliano; the armo- 
rial shield of the town consists of the 
simple letters M. T. C. ; and the inha- 
bitants still show their veneration for 
the great orator by frequently giving 
their sons the Christian names of Marco 
Tullio. The town has thriving manu- 
factories of paper, ribbons, and cloth. 
Many inscriptions preserved in the 




walls of the chs. and other buildings 
show that the ancient city was also 
remarkable for its woollen manufac- 
turers and fullers. The ch. of S. 
Maria di Civita occupies the site of a 
temple dedicated to Mercury Lanarius. 
Cicero's father, according to Dion 
Cassius, was a fuller, and the name 
Tullius is of frequent occurrence in 
these inscriptions, as is that of Fafidius, 
which is mentioned more than once in 
Cicero's letters. Another inscription 
in the possession of the Vito family 
records the name of Titus Egnatius, the 
friend whom Cicero recommends to 
P. Servilius Isauricus as the generous 
companion of his exile, who had shared 
with him all the pains, the difficulties, 
and the dangers which he had under- 
gone during that most unfortunate pe- 
riod of his life. Modern Arpino was 
the birthplace of Giuseppe Cesari, the 
painter, better known as the Cav. Arpino, 
whose house is still shown. The town 
has a theatre, but no good inn. 

The ancient citadel stands on the 
summit of the hill above the town, and 
is still called Civita Vecchia. The ascent 
is steep, but the ruins will amply repay 
the trouble. The Cyclopean walls are 
not so perfect as those of Alatri, as 
they were built upon and fortified in 
the middle ages, but enough remains 
to mark the strength and extent of the 
massive fortress. The finest relic to 
be seen here is the pointed gateway 
called the Porta dell* Arco. It is con- 
structed of enormous polygonal blocks 
of stone, without cement, gradually 
converging upwards; and is unique 
as a gate, although in its general form 
and structure it bears some similarity to 
those of Mycense and Tiryns and to 
certain pointed archways in the Etrus- 
can sepulchres of Cervetri. Near it 
are the remains of the ancient cloacoe, 
of massive blocks, and in the same 
polygonal style. Some portions of an 
ancient pavement, retaining the marks 
of chariot- wheels, are also visible. The 
large square tower in the citadel is said 
to have been for some time the resi- 
dence of King Ladislaus. Lower down 
is a fine Roman arch, now used as one 
of the entrances to the modern town. 

Of the history of Arpinum we know 
little more than that it was one of the 
five Satumian cities; that about B.C. 
302 its citizens obtained the Roman 
franchise, and later, B.C. 188, were en- 
rolled in the Cornelian Tribe, and 
obtained the right of suffrage ; and 
that M. P. Cato and Pompey said it 
deserved the eternal gratitude of Rome 
for having given her two saviours. In 
the 15th centy., at the commencement 
of the war between Ferdinand I. and 
John of Anjou, Arpino embraced the 
Angevin cause, and was attacked and 
captured by Orsini, the general of Pius 
II., who favoured the claims of Ferdi- 
nand. The Pope, on hearing that 
Arpino had fallen, gave orders that it 
should be spared on account of Cicero 
and Marius, " Parce Arprnatibiis ob Caii 
Marii et Marci TiUlii memoriam.** 

If the traveller visits Arpino from 
Ceprano, on his way to Naples, he 
may rejoin the rly. at the Melfa or 
Aquino stats. 

On returning to the high road below 
Camello, we follow the Liris to the 
gate of 

3 m. SoRA (12,300 Inhab. — Inn small 
but clean;, the chief town of a district, 
placed in a fiat but not unpleasant posi- 
tion, and half surrounded by the Liris, 
which makes a bend round the citj'. 
The houses are large, and the streets 
wide and well paved. On a rocky hill 
immediately behind it, closing as it 
were the entrance of the upper valley, 
are the remains of the Cyclopean walls 
of the ancient citadel, and the ruins of 
the feudal castle, which was the strong- 
hold successively of the Cantelmi, the 
Tomacelli, the Buoncompagni, and 
other powerful families. Sora, which 
gives a ducal title to the latter family, 
is the see of a bishop, and was the 
birthplace of Cardinal Baronius. In 
1229 it was taken and burnt down by 
Frederick II. In front of the cathedral 
there are several ancient inscriptions 
and fragments of sepulchral monuments. 
The ancient Sora was taken by the 
Romans from the Volsci, who revolted 
against the Roman settlers and admitted 
the Samnites, who were in turn expelled 
by the Romans. It was one of the 



refractory colonies in the second Punic 
war, and many years afterwards it was 
recolonized by order of Augustus. 
Juvenal represents it as one of those 
country towns in which an honest man 
might reside with comfort in that age 
of corruption : — 

Si potes avelli Circensibns, optima Soree, 
Aut Fabraterise domus, aut Fniainonc paratnr, 
Quanti nunc tenebras uuum conducis in annnm. 

Sat. in. 223. 

The strong position of Sora, and its 
importance as a frontier fortress upon 
the great military road to the Abruzzi, 
has recently attracted the attention of 
the government. 


From Sora a road across the moun- 
tains leads by Atina to S. Germano, and 
may be followed by travellers on their 
return, instead of passing again through 
Isola and Arce. 4 m. from Sora the 
road passes on the 1. the small lake 
of La Fosta, from which the Fibrenus 
takes its origin. This beautiful sheet 
of water at the foot of a mountain, on 
the slopes of which are the villages 
of La Posta, Vicalvi, and Alvito, is of 
great depth, and so clear that the co- 
pious springs which supply it may be 
seen bubbling up from the bottom. It 
abounds with wild fowl and delicious 
trout. 8 m. beyond it, after a consi- 
derable ascent through a picturesque 
country, we reach Atina, which retains 
its ancient name and position on a hill, 
1300 ft. high, near the river Melfa. 
The view from it, embracing the Castle 
of Sora and the plain of the Melfa, is 
very striking; but the peculiar posi- 
tion and the lofty and bleak Apennines,, 
which bound the horizon on all sides, 
and especially towards the S., give the 
place a wild and desolate aspect, and a 
dreary and inhospitable character to the 
landscape. Virgil speaks of Atina as 
a powerful city, ** Atina potens" long 
before the foundation of Rome, and 
Cicero represents it as one of the most 
distinguished cities of Italy in his day. 
Some of the streets retain traces of their 

ancient pavement. Its polygonal walls, 
detached portions of which are still 
visible, enclosed the whole summit of 
the hill, part only of which is now 
occupied, and on the highest point, 
where probably the citadel stood, they 
are better preserved and of much larger 
blocks. There is also a gateway of 
Roman architecture, called the Porta 
Aurea, remains of an aqueduct, sub- 
structions of two temples, and nume- 
rous sepulchral monuments and inscrip- 
tions. 2 m. from Atina the road is 
carried through the pass of Cancello, 
1682 ft, high. At the 4th m. it skirts 
the village of Belmonte^ placed oa a 
barren hill ; on the rt. lower down it 
crosses the rapids under the pictur- 
esque and thriving village of St, Elia, 
and after the Uth m. reaches S. Ger- 
mano. The scenery on coining down 
towards S. Elia is extensive and very 
beautiful. From Atina a bridle-road 
leads to Fiomisco, (JRte, 142, p. 48,) 

The road from Sora to Capistrello 
traverses the Val di Eoveto in a N.W. 
direction, ascending the 1. bank of the 
Liris. The word Eoveto signifies a 
thicket, and is well applied here, for 
the valley is one continued forest of 
oaks. The road passes 6 m. from Sora, 
below Balzorano (3000 Inhab.), a town 
placed on the slope of a rocky hill 
crowned hj a baronial castle of the 
Piccolominis. Numerous villages are 
scattered over the lower hills on each 
side of the valley, which is narrow and 
bounded on either side by lofty moun- 
tains. Those on the Papal frontier 
are covered with dense forests, which 
abound with wolves, and with the lynx, 
called by the peasantry gatto-pardo. 

About 7 m. beyond Balzorano we 
leave, neai'ly 2 m. off the road, on a 
high mountain on the rt, 

XCivita Antino (1800 Inhab.), the 
Antinwm of the Marsians. It exhibits 
remains of its polygonal walls, and a 
gateway, still an entrance to the vil- 
lage, and called Forta Campanile, There 
is no inn, but the hospitable house of 
the Ferranti family has for many years 
liberally and cordially received travel" 
lers. In the vestibule of the house are 



preserved many Latin inscriptions, one 
of which to Varia Montana by her sur- 
viving parents is very touching.] 

About 8 m. beyond Bolzorano, and 
on the opposit side of the river, at 
the junction of a stream called Lo 
Schioppo or RomitOf below the village 
of Morino, the Falls of the Romito are 
visible. A path of 4 m. ascending 
along the course of the stream leads to 
them. They are situated in a fine 
natural amphitheatre, formed by Monte 
Crepacore and Monte Cantaro. The 
principal waterfall, called Lo Schioppo, 
springs from the edge of the rock with 
great force, at a greater height than 
that of Temi, and in falling forms such 
a curve as to admit of passing behind 
it. About 4 m. farther on we reach 

14 m. Cwitella Roveto (2200 Inhab.), 
where some refreshment can be got. 
It stands upon a height on the rt. bank 
of the river, between two small tribu- 
taries of the Liris. 3 m. beyond, the 
valley contracts into a defile, on the 
1. of which is the village of Canistro on 
the top of a high and thickly wooded 
hill, and further on Pesco Canale, 
situated on a projecting rock which 
almost closes up the valley. The road, 
after passing through a narrow gorge, 

6 m. CapM#reWo(1400Inhab.),perched 
on a mountain bank at the junction of 
the valley of Roveto with the upper 
valley of Nerf a. In ascending to it 
the road passes by the mouth of the 
Emissary, formed by Claudius, for 
draining the lake Fucino, and of which 
we shall speak in describing that lake. 
This is the best point for examining 
the construction of this magnificent 
. work. From Capistrello the road is 
carried through the upper extremity 
of the Campi Falentini, along the line 
of the Emissary, passing by some of its 
CSmicoli or air-shafts. Tagliacozzo is 
seen at a distance on the 1. On ascend- 
ing Monte Salviano, which is covered 
with the wild sage (salvia) from which 
it derives its ncune, a magnificent view 
of the lake is obtained, backed by an 
amphitheatre of mountains, amongst 
which the Velino on the N. and the 
lofty range of the Maiella on the S. are 
ieen rising majestically above the others. 

The whole scenery bears a strong re- 
semblance to some of the finest land- 
scapes of Switzerland. In descending, 
the road proceeds along the plain bor- 
dering the lake to 

7 m. Atezzano (4700 Inhab.— /«» 
small and dirty), the chief town of a 
district, situated in a fertile plain co- 
vered with almond-trees and vmeyards, 
at a distance of about 1 m. from the 
lake. The ch. of S. Bartolommeo con- 
tains an inscription recording the thanks 
of the Senate and people of Rome to 
Trajan for the land which he had 
reclaimed from the lake. The baronial 
castle, built by the Colonnas, and now 
the property of the Barberini family, 
is a conspicuous object from the shores 
of the lake. It contains many Roman 
inscriptions discovered in the neigh- 

The Logo Fucino {Fucinus), called 
also Jjago di Celano, is said to have an 
area of 36,315 acres, and to be 35 m. in 
circumference. It is subject to rises 
and fiiUs, which are difficult to explain ; 
hence its depth is subject to consider- 
able variations. In 1853 its deepest 
part was found to be 53 ft. near S. Bene- 
detto on the eastern shore. Bein? 2230 
ft. above the level of the sea, fiost is 
not uncommon along the shores, and the 
lake itself is known to have been frozen 
over in 1167, 1229, 1695,1683,and 1726. 
It is well stocked with carp, pike, tench, 
and barbel. Its scenery is fine, espe- 
cially towards the S. angle and on the 
E. shore, where the lofty mountains 
which overlook it offer good subjects 
for the pencil of the artist. These 
mountains abound with lynxes and 
wild boars ; the banks of the lake with 
vipers, and the lake itself with water- 
snakes. The ancient Marsi, the inhabit- 
ants of this district, are celebrated 
by the Roman poets for their skill in 
charming serpents ; and some of their 
descendants, even at this day, are found 
all over the kingdom earning a liveli- 
hood by the exhibition of their art : — 

Quin et Marrubia venit de gente sacerdos, 
Fronde super galeani et fellci comptus oliva, 
Arcfaippi regis missu, fortissimus Umbro : 
Yipereo generi et graviter spirantibus hydris 
Spargere qui sonmos cantuque mauuque sole- 
Mukebabgue iras, et marms arte levaimt. 



Sed non Dardaniae medicari cnspidis ictum 
Evaluit : neque eum juvgre in vulnera cantus 
Somniferi, et Marsis qiuesitsB in montibus 

herbse. ^ 

Te nemm Angitice, vitrea te Fucintu undo, 
Te liquidi flevere lacus. 

ViKO. JEn, VTi. 760. 

The history of the attempts made to 
relieve the towns on the shores of the 
lake from the destructive inundations 
to which they have been subject is 
given at great length by the Latin 
writers. The absence of any visible 
outlet for the abundant streams which 
flow into it led to the belief that its 
waters were discharged by unseen 
channels; and hence any unusual in- 
undation in the valleys of the Velino 
or the Tiber was at once attributed to 
this cause. The Marsi petitioned Julius 
Caesar to devise some means of carrying 
off the superabundant waters ; but no- 
thing was attempted until the reign of 
Claudius, who undertook to construct 
an emissary at his own cost, provided 
the Marsi gave up to him the land 
reclaimed by the drainage. The result 
of this arrangement was the emissary 
which conveys the waters into the 
Liris by a tunnel 6123 yards long, 
cut through the Monte Salviano, almost 
in a direct line to Capistrello, and upon 
which 30,000 men were employed for 
eleven years. It is about 13 ft. in 
height and 6 in breadth, and its upper 
end, nearest the lake, at the spot called 
the Inciley is about 15 ft. below the 
bottom of the deepest part of the lake ; 
its general fall is about 1 in 810. It 
is in part cut through a solid calcare- 
ous rock, and in part through a loose 
slaty marl. It has 33 shafts {pozzi), 
from which, no doubt, the works were 
conducted and ventilation established 
within. The brickwork lining of parts 
of the emissary and some waJls about 
the entrance and the cunicoli and stair- 
cases remain in a fair state of preserva- 
tion; and in those parts where it has 
been carried through the solid rock the 
distances carved by the Roman work- 
men are still to be seen sharply cut. 

The naumachia and gladiatorial 
games which took place in honour of 
the event, in the presence of Claudius 
and Agrippina, are described by Sue- 
tonius and Tacitus; but when the 
"waters were let into the passage, they 

met with an obstruction which caused 
them to regurgitate with such im- 
petuosity that the bridge of boats, on 
which the emperor and his court were 
assembled, was nearly destroyed. Ta- 
citus, after recording the heroic bravery 
of the malefactors who manned the 
fleet for this cruel display, describes 
the panic caused by this accident, 
and the accusations heaped by Agrip- 
pina upon Narcissus, the director of the 
works, who recriminated by an attack 
on her character and ambition. It is 
believed that at a subsequent period 
Claudius completed this magnificent 
work, which Pliny' ranks among his 
greatest undertakings. Trajan ap- 
pears, from the inscription at Avezzano, 
to have recovered some land in the 
neighbourhood of that town, and Hadrian 
also made an attempt to drain the lake. 
In 1240, the emperor Frederick II. or- 
dered the emissary to be re-opened, but 
the work was stopped by his death. In 
the last cent, the Abbate LoUi examined 
its course,and induced king Ferdinand to 
turn his attention to the subject and at- 
tempt to repair the emissary in 1 786, but 
the war that soon broke out put an end 
to it. The work was resumed in 1826, 
and was much advanced in 1831, es- 
pecially on the side of Capistrello, when 
it was suspended. 

In 1853 the Neapolitan government 
granted in perpetuity all the land that 
might be reclaimed by drsdning the lake 
to a Company, who invited Mr. C. Hut- 
ton Gregory, an English engineer, to 
prepare plans for the restoration of the 
emissary. Mr. Gregory in 1854 recom- 
mended the enlargement of the emis- 
sary to an oval section about 14 ft. 
wide and 20 ft. high, straightening it 
in parts where it is crooked, and reduc- 
ing the bottom to a uniform inclina- 
tion. His plans embraced a complete 
system of sluices at the upper end to 
regulate the entrance of the water 
from, the canal which was proposed to 
be cut to the deepest part of the lake. 
The estimate for the whole of these 
works was £217,000. Mr. Gregory 
expected that they would require 18 
months to construct; that 18 months 
more were to be allowed for drawing off 
the water, and tJbat about 30,000 acres 
of land would be reclaimed. Since 



then the draining has been undertaken 
by a company, at the head of which is 
Prince Torlonia, and is now progressing 
according to the plans of the late emi- 
nent French engineer, M. de Montricher, 
who brought the waters of the Durance 
to Marseilles. The operations, which 
were completed in August (17) 186?, 
consist in widening the emissary and 
in preventing its future deterioration by 
extensive arching in masonry through 
the strata of clay and loose gravel m 
which a considerable portion of it is 
excavated, and in forming a large 
basin where the emissary leaves the 
lake so as to regulate the discharge of 
its waters. Instead of sinuous direction, 
the present emissary follows a straight 
one with an increased section of 250 
sq. metres instead of 1 50 as in that of 
Claudius; the fall for the water is 1 in 

From Avezzano there are roads to 
Celano, Magliano, and Tagliacozzo ; to 
the latter place we shall proceed after 
visiting those towns near the lake 
which deserve particular observation. 

6 m. Celano (6500 Inhab. — /nn, a 
common tavern), the most important 
town on the lake, is beautifully situated 
on a hill about 4 m. from its N.E. 
angle. The views in its neighbourhood 
are extremely interesting. The Piazza, 
or market-place, is itself a picture. Its 
Castle is a fine and striking specimen 
of the mediaeval military arcMtecture 
in Italy. It was built about 1450 by 
one of the three husbands of the 
Countess Covella, and was till very 
recently in good preservation. The 
interior of this building, with its carved 
doorways and windows, chapel, &c., 
well deserves a visit. In the ch. of 
the Convento di Valk Verde, below 
the town, is the chapel of the Picco- 
lomini, which was painted by Giulio 
Bomano, Celano was the birthplace 
of the Beato Tommaso di Celano, who 
died in 1253, and is considered by 
some to have been the author of the 
Requiem of ' Dies Ira, dies ilia,' 

The Contado of Celano is noted in 
Italian history for the misfortunes of 
the Countess Covella, and for the cruel 
and unnatural warfare waged against 
her by her son Ruggierotto. She 
was the last descendant of the Counts 

Ruggieri, of Norman extraction, who 
held a considerable tract of the neigh- 
bouring country. Her son, desirous 
of possessing himself of his mother's 
lands, joined the Anjou party, and 
prevailed upon their captain, Piccinino, 
to support him in wresting the Con- 
tado from her. After seizing Celano, 
they besieged the Castle of Gagliano, 
in which the Countess had shut herself 
up in the hope of holding out until she 
should receive aid from Ferdinand of 
Aragon. But, after a few days, the 
fortress was carried by storm. Picci- 
nino seized the treasures on his own 
account, and consigned the strongholds 
of the Contado to Ruggierotto, who 
threw his mother into prison. Napoleone 
Orsini, who, in the name of Ferdinand 
and Pius II., destroyed the remnants of 
the French party m the Abruzzi, de- 
feated Ruggierotto, who set his mother 
at liberty to plead his cause with 
the Pope, who claimed the Contado 
himseli. But Ferdinand, to avoid a 
quarrel, granted it, in 1463, to Antonio 
Piccolomini, Duke of Amalfi,the pope's 
nephew and his own son-in-law, as a 
dower of his natural daughter, Mary of 

There is a road (18 m.) practicable 
for carriages from Avezzano and Ce- 
lano to Popoli, whence the traveller 
may proceed to Rieti or Ancona 
(Rtes. 142, 143). It will take about 6 
hrs., and proceeds through Coll' Ar- 
mele, situated on a hill at the foot of 
which the ancient Cerfennia stood, and 
through the pass called Forca Caruso, 
Groriano-Sicoh, and Bajano. (Rte. 142.) 

A bridle-road leads from Celano to 
Aquila (23 m.). It crosses the cold 
pass of Ovindoli to Bocca di Mezzo, situ- 
ated in a dreary plain, and the only 
place which affords the least accom- 
modation. Between Rocca di Cagno 
and Aquila we pass the mediaeval 
Castle of Ocra. From Celano, descend- 
ing to and following the eastern shores 
oithe lake, we reach 

San Benedetto, the site of Marruviimi, 
the capital of the Marsi — 

Marrnviuin, veteris celebratum nomine Marri, 
Urbibas est illis caput. 

SiL. Ital. vin. 507. 

It was a flourishing town under the 



empire; in the middle ages it was 
called Marsica, and was the birthplace 
of Lieo Ostiensis and Boniface I V. ; 
but now it is a miserable hamlet 
near the banks of the Giovenco, the 
ancient Fitonius, a stream flowing 
into the lake from the valley of Or- 
tona a' Marsi. Numerous remains 
have been found in its neighbourhood^ 
and during the long drought of 1752 
considerable ruins, now covered with 
water, were exposed, from which 
statues of Nero, Agrippina, Claudius, 
and Hadrian were obtained and carried 
to Naples. East of it, about 2 hours* 
walk from the lake, is 

Pescina (4370 Inhab.), picturesquely 
placed on the side of a gorge watered 
by the Giovenco, and the see of a 
bishop, still called Vesoovo de* Marsi, 
Its chief object of interest is the old 
house, perched on a crag jutting over 
the ravine, in which Cardinal Mazzarin 
was born on July 14, 1602. From S. 
Benedetto the path follows the shore 
in a S.E. direction to 

Ortucchio, placed on a low peninsula 
near the shore, and exposed to constant 
injury from the rising of the waters. 
It has a picturesque old castle with a 
drawbridge well preserved. ^ Beyond 
the mountain of San Niccolo, also in 
the S.E. angle, the town of Archippe, 
said by Pliny to have been swallowed 
up by the lake, is supposed to have 
stood. Farther on the mountains 
come so near the shore that it is not 
possible to proceed by land. On a 
promontory, about 4 m. further, 

Trasacco (1400 Inhab.), supposed to be 
a corruption of trans aquas, and to have 
been built on the ruins of a palace of 
Claudius ; it is situated in a fertile plain 
abounding in vineyards, almond plan- 
tations, and cornfields. It has nothing 
of interest except some ruins of a 
Gothic building and a picturesque old 
tower, in which Odensio, Conte de 
Marsi, resided in 1060. Several in- 
teresting inscriptions have been found 
near it. A path of 4 m. along the shore 
leads to 

Luco (2650 Inhab.), near .the site of 
the Lucus AngiticPy the celebrated grove 
of Angitia, the sister of Circe and 

Medea, commemorated by Virgil in the 
passage already quoted. At a later 
period a town grew up on the spot, 
which is called Angitia in inscriptions, 
but whose inhab. are called Lucenses 
by Pliny. Its ancient walls may still 
be traced, and on part of them the ch. 
of Santa Maria, mentioned by Leo Os- 
tiensis, was built. 

Beyond Luco, and before reaching 
the mouth of the Emissary, there are 
two natural subterranean channels, 
where the water of the lake is absorbed 
with great force and with an audible 
noise ; the ancients believed that this 
water reappeared in the two fine 
springs of the Laghetto di Sta. Lucia 
and of La Serena or Fonte Cerulea, 
in the valley of the Anio, and on the 
road from Tivoli to Subiaco, the 
former furnishing the water carried 
to Rome under the name of Aqtia 
Marcia, The name of La Fedogna, 
given to the spot, is considered a 
corruption of Fitonvus, the Giovenco, 
which was once supposed to pass 
through the lake without mixing with 
its waters. The chapel of S. Vin- 
cenzo is said to occupy the site of 
a temple dedicated to the deity of the 
lake under the name of Fucvnus, which 
occurs in votive inscriptions discovered 
near the spot. 

The best way of visitinff the towns 
on the lake will be to hire a two- 
oared boat at Avezzano. 3 m. N. of 
the latter town is the village of 

Albe (200 Inhab.), the ancient Alba 
FucENSis, famous in the history of 
Rome for its fidelity to the Republic, 
and as the head-quarters of the Legio 
Marsica, which Cicero eulogises with 
so much enthusiasm in his Philippics. 
Alba occupied the treble crest of an 
isolated hill ; at present, the convent 
and ch. of S. Pietro, built amidst the 
ruins of the ancient city, occupy the 
first, an old tower of the middle ages 
occupies the second, called CoUe di 
Fettorino, and the modem village the 
third and highest. Alba was the pri- 
son of Syphax king of Numidia, Per- 
seus king of Macedonia and his son 
Alexander, Bituitus king of the Ar- 
vemi, and other royal captives. Its 
walls present one of the most per- 


feet specimens of ancient fortification 
to be found in Italy. The polygonal 
blocks are so carefully put together 
that the interstices scarcely appear, 
and although the courses are irregular, 
the wall is perfectly smooth. The 
remains of an amphitheatre and of some 
baths are still visible. The ch. of S. 
Pietro is built upon the site of a tem- 
ple, the colonnade and portico of which 
have been incorporated with it. The 
pavement is composed of ancient 
mosaics, and numerous fragments of 
columns are preserved in different parts 
of the buildmg. The view which it 
commands is very fine, embracing the 
plain of Tagliacozzo on the W., the 
valley of the Salto towards Rieti, and 
the entire lake on the S. 

In descending from Albe we leave, 
on a hill on the rt. bank of the Imele, 
the village of Magliano (2200 Inhab.), 
in the midst of a district known in 
Roman times for its iron and copper 
mines ; and join the road below, which 
is in very good condition as far as 
Tagliacozzo, along the line of the Via 
Valeria, passing by the hamlet of 
Capelle and 

Scarcola (1500 Inhab.), on the lower 
declivity of a steep hill bordering the 
Campi Falentmi, close by the spot 
where the young Conradin, the last 
of the house of Hohenstaufen, and the 
flower of the Ghibelin chivalry, were 
defeated by Charles I. of Anjou, on 
the 26th of August, 1268,— a battle 
which was followed by the execution 
of Conradin, and the preponderance of 
the Guelph party throughout Italy. 
The success of this conflict has been 
ascribed to the advice given to Charles 
by Alard de St. Valery, a French no- 
bleman, who was on his return from 
the Holy Land, and whose services on 
this occasion are commemorated by 
Dante: — 

E U da Tagliacozzo 
Ove senz' arme vinse il vecchio Alardo. 

Inf. xxvin. 11, 

"After the battle, the king," says 
Vasari, " sent for Niccold da Pisa to 
erect a very rich church and abbey on 
the site of his victory, wherein should 
be buried the great numberof men killed 

in the battle, and where, in accordance 
with his command, masses might be 
performed by many monks, night and 
day, for the benefit of their souls ; and 
the building beinff finished, Charles 
was so well satisfied with the work that 
he paid Niccol6 great honours and re- 
wards." This Cistercian monastery is 
now in ruins, but it retains the name of 
Santa Maria della Vittoria, An image 
of the Madonna, which was executed 
in France by order of Charles, and is 
covered with fiewa-de^lis, still exists in 
the ch. of Santa Maria in Scurcola. 
5 m. further across the Campi Palen- 
tini, following the line of the Via 
Valeria, we arrive at 

9 m. Tagliacozzo (6800 Inhab.), 
the most important town of the district, 
situated on the rt. bank of a deep ra- 
vine in which the Imele takes its ori- 
gin. The inn or tavern is wretched, 
but an introduction to the Mastroddi 
family will be sure to obtain admission 
into their hospitable palazzo on the 
piazza below the hill. Its fine stair- 
case contains some marble fragments 
and Roman inscriptions. 

The excursion to the Cicolano dis- 
trict (Rte. 1 42) may be accomplished 
from Tagliacozzo. Another may be 
made to the Sources of the Liris below 
the village of Cappadocia. The scenery 
is wild and romantic beyond descrip- 
tion, and, the path being only 5 m., 
there will be time to see it after 
reaching Tagliacozzo, if the traveller 
be a good pedestrian. — Mules or horses 
and a guide must be hired to proceed 
to Tivoli, about 30 m. distant. The 
path follows in great part the line of 
the Via Valeria* which connected J./6a 
with Tibw, passing by 

• The Via FoZma was opened by M. Valerius 
Maximus, about b.c. 260, from Tibur to Cor- 
finium, and subsequently carried as far as 
Hadria. The stations on it wcr&— 

Tibtir, Tivoli, 

Carseoli, near Carsoli. 

Alba Fucentia, Albe. 

Marrubium, S. Benedetto. 

Cerfennia, near CoW Armele, _ " 

Statul8e, Goriano SicoU, 

Corfinium, S. Pelino. 

Interpromium, Below S. TaUntino, 

Teate, Ckieti. 

Hadria, Atri, 



3 m. JRocca di Cerro (400 Inhab.), 
on a hill bounding the pass on the N. W ., 
and commanding an extensive view of 
the^valley. From here the path de- 
scends along the Mola torrent, leaving 
the hamlet of Colli on the rt., to 

8 m. Carsoli (1000 Inhab.)» with a 
ruined castle, which preserves the 
name of Carseoli, a station on the Via 
Valeria, the site of which may be 
traced in the vineyards about 2 m. be- 
low, after crossing the Turano, in the 
wood or Macchia di Sessara, and in the 
plain of Cavaliere, which is encircled 
by towns perched picturesquely on 
their hills. Great part of its walls, 
built of massive blocks, portions of 
towers, an aqueduct, &c., are still 
visible. Carseoli was for a short 
time the prison of Bitis, the son of 
the king of Thrace, Ovid, who passed 
by it on his way to Sulmona, tells us 
that it was a cold place : — 

Frigida Carseoli, necolivig apta ferendis. 
Terra, sed ad segetes ingenioBus ager. 

Hac ego Pelignos, natalia rurei, petebam ; 
Parva, sed assiduis uvida semper aquis. 

Ffist, IV. 683. 

The pavement of the Via Valeria still 
bears marks of chariot- wheels. Several 
inscriptions have been found in the plain 
and along the line of the Valeria, re- 
cording the Collegium Dendrophorum, or 

corporation of woodcutters, who mu^t 
have been of great importance in a 
country so wooded as the Abruzzi. 1 m. 
beyond the ruins is Cavaliere, the 
former Neapolitan frontier station. 
There is a tavern, where some 
refreshment may be obtained. Be- 
yond this, following the Valeria for 
3 m., we reach Arsoli (^Arsula), the 
Papal frontier station, and afterwards 
KovianOf a feudal castle of the Sciarras, 
close to the rt. bank of the Anio, 
which the road follows to S. Cosi- 
mato. A bridle-path on the rt., 
avoiding the circuitous route by Arsoli, 
ascends to Hio Freddo, also a frontier 
station, on a hill at iJie head of a 
deep ravine, through which runs a 
stream of the same name that falls 
into the Anio, and thence it joins 
the other before reaching S. Cosimato. 
From Arsoli the road is practicable 
for carriages, and, if one has been 
ordered from Tivoli, the traveller will 
save a ride of 16m., and may employ 
the time thus gained by visiting Xicen^ra 
and the Sabine farm of Horace, near 
Roccagiovine, 6 m. on the rt. 2 m. 
from S. • Cosimato is Vicovaro, the 
ancient Varia, and 6 m. further Tivoli, 
Descriptions of all these places will 
be found in the Handbook of Heme, En- 

( 69 ) 







§ 10. 

§ n. 

§ 12. 
§ 13. 
§ 14. 
§ 15. 

§ 16. 
§ 18. 
§ 19. 


Hotels •••••• 70 

Lodgings 71 

Trattorie, Restaarants . . 71 

Cafes 71 

Passports and Police Regu- 
lations 72 

Public Conveyances, Steam- 
ers, Railways . • • 72 
Porters, Boatmen, &c. . • 72 
Foreign Consuls . . . • 73 

Bankers 73 

Post-Office 73 

Electric Telegraph ... 73 

Physicians ..... 74 

Surgeons and Dentists • . 74 

Apothecaries . . • • 74 
Booksellers, Stationers, and 

Photographs .... 74 

Reading Rooms . . . • 74 

Teachers of Music ... 74 

Mttsicsellers ..... 75 

Teachers of Languages . • 75 

Tradesmen, Shops . . • 75 

a. English Warehouse. 

b, English Saddler. 






c. Modes, Dressmakers. 

d. Sicilian Silks. 

e. Tailors. 

/. Boot and Shoe Makers. 
g. Coiffeur. 

Naples Soap. 
Coral & Lava Ornaments. 
n. Snuffs and Cigars. 
0. Views of Naples, 
p. Imitation EtFuscan Vases. 
q. Antiquities, 
r. Old Lace, Panusols, Fans. 
s. Baker. 

t. Embroidery, Wools, &c. 
§ 21 . Valets de Place .... 
§ 22. Carriages,Hackney Coaches, 
Riding Horses, &c. • . 

§ 23. Omnibuses 77 

§ 24. Boats 77 

§ 26. Baths 77 

I 26. English Church . • . 77 
§ 27. Artists* Studios .... 77 



In coming from Rome by the post- 
road, the city is entered by the 
suburb of San Giovanniello, and by 
the Strada Foria. The first objects 
which attract attention are the large 
building of the Albergo de* Poveri, 
or poor-house, and the Botanic Gar- 
den. The Strada Foria terminates in 
the Largo delle Pigne, at the upper 
end of which is the National Mu- 
seum. Passing next the Largo del- 
Mercatello, we enter the StfSfda di 
Toledo^ the main artery of Naples. 
The Toledo and the Foria divide the 
city into two nearly equal portions : 
that on the 1., towards the sea, is 
the old city ; that on the rt. is com- 
paratively modem. Of late, to avoid 
the crowded thoroughfare of the To- 
ledo, travelling carriages pass through 

the Borgo di S. Antonio to the sea- 
side at the castle of the Carmine, 
and thence along the Marinella, the 
Largo del Castello, and the Largo del 
Palazzo, to the strangers* quarter on 
the Sta. Lucia, the Chiatamone, and the 
Chiaia. As they are to drive at a foot 
pace, the visitor has an opportunity of 
observing the medley of strange sights 
which surprise every one who passes 
for the first time through the tumul- 
tuous confusion which prevails in all 
the leading thoroughfares. If the tra- 
veller arrives by the rly. from Capua, 
he will proceed from the rly-stat. 
through the Porta del Carmine, near 
the Largo del Mercato, and along the 
latter part of the same route, to the 
Santa Lucia and the Chiaia. Persons 
arriving by sea are detained on board 



until the Health Office formalities are 
gone through, and the passports are 
examiued) which is now done in a 
short time. For information respecting 
landing, hoats, &c. see § 7. 

vius, but the lower floors do not pos- 
sess this advantage, owing to the 
prospect being intercepted by the 
Royal Casino in front, which, however, 
is about to be removed. Farther on 

upon the Quay of Santa Lucia is the 
§ 1. Hotels, — The principal hotels, ^ (fiT. de Hussie, kept by Orlandi, a large 

and especially those resorted to by 
foreigners, are situated on the sea- 
shore upon the Riviera di Chiaia, the 
Largo della Vittoria, and their eastern 
continuation the Chiatamone and Quay 
of Santa Lucia. 1'he Gran Bretagna 
and fiotel d^AngleterreJon the Chiaia, 
are well conducted, command fine views 
over the western portion of the Bay, 
and overlook the Villa Reale. The 
fVittoria J on the Largo of the same 
name, the largest hotel establishment in 
Naples, is kept by Zir (who is also 
owner of the Gran Bretagna), and is 
very well managed and comfortable. 
Its situation is close to the Villa Reale, 
and several of its windows command 
fine views over it, the Bay, and the 
hills of Posilippo. Good table-d*h6te. 
The inconveniences formerly com- 
plained of here, from the smell of drains 
which empty themselves into the sea 
close by, and from the dost in the ad- 
jacent square, have been or are likely 
to be soon removed by carrying the 
former for a considerable distance out 
to sea, and by paving the latter and 
planting ornamental gardens in it. 
Beyond the Vittoria, on the Chiata- 
mone, is the H, des Etra/ngers, kept by 
one of the brothers Gargiulo of the 
Sirena and Tasso at Sorento, a very 
obliging man, who has long lived as a 
travelling servant with English fami- 
lies, and who speaks English. This 
hotel is very comfortable, and well 
situated, being close to the sea, and less 
exposed to smells from drains; the 
windows command good views of the 
Bay, the range of Posilippo, Capri, 
the Sorentine Promontory, &c. ; ex- 
cellent cuisine and table-d'hote at 
9 carlini (3s.). H. d*Amerique, near the 
Vittoria, on the Chiatamone, kept by 
Nobili. Table-d'hote 8 carlini. The 
Crocelle, good table-d'hote, and gene- 
rally improved of late, the upper 
rooms commanding a view over the 
eastern part of the Bay including Vesu- 

establishment, verv well spoken of, the 
landlord and his wife speaking English, 
with a good table-d*hdte at 8 carlini ; 
and nearly opposite, and close to the 
water's edge, the H. de Rome^ newly 
fitted up. The two latter hotels have 
a good look-out from the windows 
towards the sea, and the advantage of 
being nearer to the centre of the city, 
theatres, &c. H, Washington, near the 
Vittoria, on the Largo della Vittoria. 

The charges in all these hotels differ 
little. From the end of Oct. to the end 
of Mdy these charges are : — bachelor's 
room from 8 to 12 carlini (2s. 8d. to 4s.) 
a-day. Apartments, consisting of a 
sitting-room and 3 bed-rooms, from 4 to 
7 piastres (16s. to 28s.), according to size 
and position. Dinner in private apart- 
ments 1 piastre (4s.) ; ditto, table-d'hote, 
from 8 to 10 carlini (2s. 8c?. to 3s. 4J.). 
Breakfast, tea, coffee, or chocolate, 
bread, butter^ and eggs, from 4 to 5 
carlini (Is, 4d, to Is. 8c?.). Ditto with 
the addition of a hot dish of meat 6 
carlini (2s.). D^jeiiner k la fourchette 
from 6 to 7 carlini (Is. 8J. to 2s. 4c?.). 
Tea in the evening 3 carlini (Is.). 
Service 2 carlini (8c?.), and servants' 
board 8 carlini (2s. 8c?.) a day. Of late 
the hotel-keepers' bills are generally 
made out in francs. 

Second-rate inns, less expensive, are : 
E, de Geneve, in the Strada Medina, now 
one of the best of this class ; Hotel de 
Montpelier, in the Largo S. Ferdinando, 
entrance from the Strada Nardones, well 
situated for those who dislike the sea- 
air ; H. du Globe, in the VicoTravaccari, 
near the Fontana Medina ; H. de France, 
in the Largo del Castello ; and La 
Speranzella, in the street of that name 
near Toledo: frequented chiefly by 
commercial travellers, people of the 
country. There are besides many 
third-rate inns, generally frequented 
by Italians and Germans, in which 
the charges are considerably less ; but 



their general management, particularly 
in regard to domestic matters and to 
the style of living, is much inferior. 

§ 2. Private Lodgings, — As a general 
rule, lodgings and house-rent are very 
expensive at Naples. The best are 
on the Biviera di Chiaia and on the 
Chiatamone. Those on the Santa Lucia 
have a fine view over the E. portion of 
the Bay and Vesuvius, but are less com- 
fortable in winter ; and being exposed 
to the N.E. winds, should be avoided by 
persons in delicate health. In the Largo 
del Castello, and opposite the theatre of 
San Carlo, there are lodgings, but of an 
inferior description, and seldom occupied 
by English. The best furnished apart- 
ments for large families are:— in the 
Palazzo Caramanico on the Chiatamone ; 
and in the Ischitella, the Ruggiano, the 
Satriano, theValle, the Bugnano kept by 
Corby, and the Serra Capriola palaces, 
on the Riviera di Chiaia. They cost 
from 150 to 300 ducats a month from 
November to April. In the Serravalle, 
on the Chiatamone, and in the Pig- 
natelli Strongoli, the Lefebvre, the 
Davalos, the Casa Parete and many 
other houses on the Chiaia, very good 
apartments can also be had from 
100 to 180 ducats a month. Smaller 
but comfoi*table ones in the Vico 
Carminello, Strada S. Pasquale, Strada 
Sta. Teresa, and Largo dell' Ascensione, 
all places frequented by strangers, 
cost from 60 to 150 ducats a month. 
On the Riviera di Chiaia, No. 117, there 
is a good lodging-house, well spoken of 
by persons who have lived in it, kept 
by Madame Schia^si, an Englishwoman; 
and a similar establishment, but infe- 
rior. Hotel de P Europe, by another per- 
son of the same name in the Strada 'di 
Santa Teresa k Chiaia; and Mrs. Corby, 
established for several years at No. 127, 
Riviera di Chiaia, has several very 
comfortable apartments for hire, and, 
having a cook in the house, will sup- 
ply board if required to her lodgers. 
Lower down, on the Mergellina, there 
are several lodging-houses enjoying 
a fine view, but they are rather distant 
from the frequented quarter of visitors. 
In the immediate neighbourhood of the 
city some good houses cau be hired, such 

as the Villa Angri, the Villa Scaletta, 
the Villa de Mellis, &c., on the Posi- 
lipo; the Villa Tommasi, the Villa 
Ruffo, &c., at Ca]^odimonte ; the Villa 
Maio, and the Villa Cappelli, on the 
Infrascata ; the Villa Ruffo, the Villa 
Lucia, the Belvedere, the Villa Ric- 
ciardi, and the Villa Tricase, on the 
Vomero. Their prices vary very much 
according to the time of the year; 
in summer and autumn being much 

§ 3. Trattorie, Hestavrants. — All very 
inferior and uncomfortable. M?^s, 
Byme'Sf an Englishwoman, Largo S. 
Caterina a Chiaia, one of the best in 
Naples as to food and wines, however 
it may appear otherwise from the out- 
side. Tables-d'hdte at 1 J and 7 o'clock 
in summer, and at 6 in winter— 
6 carlini. La Trattoria Gennaro, Strada 
Vittoria a Chiaia, fair and moderate 
in charges. La Villa di Napoli, 48, 
Largo S. Ferdinando ; La Ville de Paris, 
210, and Corona di Ferro^ 247, Toledo. 
Dinner sent to private lodgings costs 
from 6 to 8 carlini a head. In the trat- 
torie dinner is served either a la carte 
or by the dinner. By the carte the price 
varies according to the choice; but a 
very tolerable dinner, including dessert 
and ordinary wine, may be had for 6 
or 8 carlini (2s. and 2s. 8c?.) a head. 
The oysters of the Lake Fusaro, which 
are sold at the stalls at Santa Lucia, 
are amongst the delicacies of Naples. 

§ 4. (7a/es.— The Cafe d/Europa (al- 
though very inferior to those in the 
large towns of Northern Italy), in 
the Largo S. Ferdinando, is the best. 
A cup of coffee costs 5 grani ; cup of 
chocolate, 6 to 10 gr. ; breakfast, 
coffee, bread and butter, 2, with eggs 3 
carlini. There is also a restaurant 
here, but uncomfortable from the crowd 
at dinner-hours, and the universal sys- 
tem of smoking in it. Ices, — ^I'he water 
of Naples is generally cooled with snow, 
and so necessary is this article to the 
people, that the shops, like those of the 
apothecaries and bakers, are exempted 
from the law which compels all others 
to be closed on religious festivals. The 



gelati (ices) of Naples are very good ; 
the best are to be had at the Cafe' 
d'Europa, at Benv€nuto*s under the Pa- 
lazzo Miranda, and at the Cafe Nocera, 
at the corner of the arcade of Francesco 
da Paola. For the Neapolitan confec- 
tionary the best shops are Ferroni^s, 
Strada Santa Brigida, Gucher's in the 
Palazzo Berio, Toledo, and Salzano's, 
51, Strada S. Brigida. 

Caution is generally recommended in 
the use of ices, fruit, and all the effer- 
vescent and acid wines. The best 
water is said to be that of the cloisters 
of S. Paolo, in the Strada dei Tribunali ; 
Fontana del Leone at the Mergellina ; 
F. Medina, near the Largo del Castello ; 
and the F. di San Pietro Martire. The 
greater part of the water used in 
drinking is brought into cisterns in 
the houses from the aqueduct of Carmi- 
gnano, and is considered excellent. 

§ 5. Passports and Police Regulations. 
— The police regulations are now the 
same as in the other large towns of the 
Italian kingdom, where strangers, and 
especially English holding Foreign- 
office passports, will be subjected to no 
kind of trouble. On leaving Naples 
for Rome the signature of the Papal 
Consul is necessary ; or for France, 
that of the French Consul ; the latter, 
however, is no longer necessary for 
British subjects. The Police Office is 
at the Questura, forming part of the 
Palazzo dei Minister!, in the Largo del 

§ 6. Public Conveyances, Steamers, 
Railways. — A statement of the dif- 
ferent public conveyances that start 
from Naples for the provinces is given 
at the head of each Route from the last 
published post-office " Elenco." The 
General Diligence Office is at the Uffizio 
delle Poste in the Palazzo Gravina, 
Strada di Monte Uliveto. 

Steamers sail regularly from Naples 
for the Italian ports and Marseilles. 
French Messageries Imperiales, every 
Tuesday, for Oivita Vecchia, Leghorn, 
Grenoa, and Mai*seilles, in 4 days ; 
every Saturday for Civita Vecchia 
and Marseilles, in 2 days ; every Mon- 

day for Malta and the Levant. Nea- 
politan steamers, very good boats in 
general, every Tuesday for Civita 
Vecchia and Marseilles. Italian Govern- 
ment Contract Boits for Leghorn and 
Genoi, every day except Sunday at 
2 P.M., arriving at Leghorn the next 
day about 4 p.m., and starting again for 
Genoa at 9 p.m., so as to reach the 
latter the next morning, generally in 
time for the early railway trains to 
Turin, Lago Maggiore, Milan, Bologna, 
and Ancona, 1st class fares, 9 If. 50c., 
and 126f. 50c. : a deduction of 20 per 
cent, in these charges being made to 
families of 3 or more persons. Italian 
boats for Palermo, Tues., Fri., Sat., and 
Sun., fares 8 and 5 dacats ; for Pizzo, 
Paola, Messina, Catania, and Syracuse, 
every Monday ; the boats to Messina 
corresponding with those that sail from 
thereon the 2nd, 1 2th, and 22nd of every 
month, for Cotrone, Gallipoli, Brindisi, 
Bari, Manfredonia, and Ancona; for 
Ischia, calling at Procida, during 
the spring and summer months, every 
day at IJ p.m., returning from Jschia 
every morning at 6^; fares 6 and 3 
carlini. For Capri and the Blue Grotto 
twice a-week in fine weather, generally 
returning to Naples on the same even- 
ing ; fares for the excursion 24 carlini. 
Railways to Rome, passing by Oa- 
serta, Capua, S. Germano, Oeprano, 
Frosinone, Anagni, Velletri, and 
Albano. To Nola and Samo, branch- 
ing off from the former at Can- 
cello. To Vietri and Salerno, passing 
by Pompeii, with a branch to Castel- 

§ 7. Porters, Facchini, Boatmen, 4'C. 
— From no class of Neapolitans is 
the traveller on his arrival doomed 
to experience greater annoyance. If 
he arrives by vetturino, he will be 
escorted to his hotel by a number of 
them, whose demand for unloading the 
luggage is always exorbitant, and regu- 
lated by no fixed tariff; if by sea or 
by diligence, there is a kind of under- 
standing that 3 carlini is a sufficient 
remuneration for accompanying him 
with his luggage to his hotel. As to 
boatmen, the charge is 3 carl, per 
person for landing him from the 



Steamer ; as to putting him on board, 2 
will be ample remuneration. Of late 
the complaints against the facchini, 
boatmen, and cab-drivers, by persons 
arriving at Naples by steuners, have 
been loud and well deserved. It may 
not be here unnecessary to repeat to 
travellers the caution given in the 
Handbook of Rome — ^not to listen to 
the recommendation by persons sta- 
tioned at the gates, or going on board 
the steamers on their arrival, as re- 
gards hotels. Strangers arriving, espe- 
cially by sea, will do well to fix on their 
hotels, irrespective of such recommen- 
dation ; and to call for the commis- 
sionaire of that they intend to go to, 
and who will be found in general in a 
boat lying off the steamer : by doing 
this they will avoid annoyance and ex- 
tortion, both on getting ashore and in 
passing their luggage through the 

§ 8. Foreign Consuls. — ^The British 
Consulate is in the Palazzo Calabritto, 
Strada di Chiaia; Consul-General, E. 
Bonham, Esq. French Consul, Mons. 
Soulanges Bodin, on the Chiatamone. 
American Consul, 

§ 9. Bankers, — Baron C. M. de 
Rothschild, 14, Strada Sta. Maria in 
Portico ; Messrs. Iggulden and Son, 
at the entrance of the Villa Reale 
(they are Messrs. M'Cracken's agents 
for forwarding packages to England, 
and are in every respect most obliging 
to their customers) ; Messrs. Turner 
and Co., 64, Strada S. Lucia ; Messrs. 
Cumming, Wood, and Co., 4, Vico 
Travaccari; Messrs. Degas and Sons, 
53, Calata Trinitk Maggiore ; Messrs. 
Routh and Co., 1, Vico Alabardieri ; 
Messrs. Rogers, Brothers, and Co., 
American bankers, 52, Largo del Cas- 
tello ; Messrs. Meuricoflfre and Sorvillo, 
52, Largo del Castello. 

§ 10. Post Office, in the Palazzo Gra- 
"vina, Strada Montoliveto. — The foreign 
mails, Le. to France, England, Ger- 
many, the N. of Italy, including Rome 
and Tuscany, are now despatched every 
day by the land route ; but in conse- 
quence of the length of time employed 
(8 days to Paris and 9 to England), 

almost all the correspondence with 
these two countries now passes by the 
steamers sailing for Genoa and Mar- 
seilles : of the latter there are 2 French 
mail packets and 1 Neapolitan; they 
leave Naples on Tuesdays and Saturdays 
at 3 P.M. By this conveyance letters 
reach Paris on the ;4th morning and 
London on the evening of the same 
day : they may be sent prepaid or not, 
hut if not prepaid mil he charged douhle 
postage (Is.) on delivery in England 
—the prepayment is 60 cent. By the 
steamers between Naples and Mar- 
seilles, but which touch at Civita 
Vecchia, Leghorn, and Genoa, letters 
employ 2 days longer. The letters for- 
warded by Genoa, every day except 
Sunday, at 12'30, arrive there in about 
40 hrs. by the Post-office contract boats, 
which call at Leghorn, and take 48 
more to reach Paris, and 60 to London : 
employing altogether to England about 
4 days. The English letters by the 
Marseilles route arrive in Naples on 
Tuesdays and Thursdays, and if not 
prepaid cost 1 fr. 20 c. Letters for 
Malta are despatched every Monday by 
the French mail steamer, and must be 
prepaid. Mails by the great post routes 
are despatched to all parts of the king- 
dom every day at 8 p.m., and need not 
be prepaid, and to Sicily by the contract 
steamers 5 times a-week. The Post- 
office is open from 9 to 1 2 a.m., and from 
4 to 8 P.M. It will always be better in re- 
ceiving letters from England to have 
them addressed to the care of some 
banker or merchant, or to an hotel, 
the masters of the latter having a box, 
in which all letters for persons residing 
in it are placed, until taken away by 
some authorised person. 

There are branch offices where letters 
can be prepaid until 1 o'clock to go by 
the steamers, and until 7^ p.m. by the 
inland mails, in the Via di Chiaja, near 
the ch. of Sta. Caterina, in the quarter 
inhabited by foreigners, and in the Via 
Foria in the centre of the old city. 

§ 11. Electric Telegraph Office, 67, Lar- 
go del Castello. — A message to Rome 
costs 6 lire ; to Loudon, passing through 
Rome, 13*50; to other parts of the 
United Kingdom, 14-76; to Paris 12 fr. : 



the despatch not to exceed 20 words, 
every 10 additional ones being charged 
half the above rates. Despatches of 
the same number of words to places in 
the Italian kingdom and Sicily from 3 
to 7 lire according to the distance. 

§ 12. Physicians. — Dr.Roskilly, a gen- 
tleman of great local experience, who 
has been in practice for upwards of 40 
years at Naples, Palazzo Friozzi, on 
the Chiaia; Dr. Bishop, Member of the 
College of Physicians of London, Pa- 
lazzo Caramanico, 7, Chiatamone ; 
Dr. Sim, Member of the College of 
Physicians of London, Palazzo Salza, 
Riviera di Chiaia; Dr. Dapples, a 
Swiss, and Member of the London 
College of Physicians, has practised 
in England; Dr. Pineoffs, a German 
physician in the English military 
service, and Fellow of the College 
of Physicians of London ; Chev. Ra- 
maglia, physician of the late Court, 429, 
Toledo ; Dr. Lopiccoli, 3, Vico Cam- 
pane a Toledo ; Dr. Prudente, 89, Strada 
Costantinopoli ; Dr. Rocco Rubino 
is the most eminent homoeopathic phy- 
sician. (There is an Hospital for British 
subjects and Americans : see p. 133.) 

§ \3, Surgeons. — CavalierePalasciano; 
Dr. Testa ; Dr. Felice de Reuzis ; Dr. 

Accoucheur. — Professor Capuano. 

Dentists. — Giill, Strada di Chiaia ; 
Bullot, Strada di S. Carlo, 

§ 1 4. Apothecaries. — Pharmacy of 
the British Legation, kept by Pat- 
terson, 261, Riviera di Chiaia; Kemot, 
1 4, Strada S. Carlo ; Bemcastel, 7, Largo 
Carolino ; Ignone, 6, Strada di Chiaia. 
There is also an Homoeopathic Phar- 
macy at Dragone's, No. 88, Strada di 
Chiaia; and another keptbyHartenstein, 
a German, at 388, Strada di Toledo. 

§ 15. Booksellers. — Detken (a book- 
binder also), Largo di Palazzo, has the 
best assortment of English and foreign 
books, maps. Handbooks, and Guide- 
books of Naples and the kingdom — 
English spoken; Nobile, 166, Toledo; 
Rondinella, 233, Toledo; (old books) 
Montuori, 48, Strada S. Anna de* Lom- 

bardi ; and Vittorio, 13, Strada S. Biagio 
de' Librai. 

Stationers. — Detken, Largo di Pa- 
lazzo ; Girard, 184, Toledo ; Caputo, 
Strada di Chiaia; Tipaldi, 57, Strada 
Montelivoto (sells English water-colours 
and drawing materials). 

Photographs may be procured at Det- 
ken' s, especially those by Revo — land- 
scape views, statues of the museum. 
Sec. ; and by Sommer — landscapes and 
stereoscopic views ; or at Grillet's, 28, 
Santa Lucia, and at Bourdin's in the 
Villa Reale : the two latter are French 
artists, who have made a large series 
of views not only of the environs of 
Naples, but throughout the provinces. 

§ 16. Beading Booms. — ^Mrs. Doranfs 
British Library and Reading-room, 267, 
Riviera di Chiaia, deserves encourage- 
ment. The reading-room is supplied 
with the leading London papers, Gali- 
gnani, the Quarterly, Edinburgh, and 
other Reviews, the principal Monthly 
Magazines, Army and Navy Lists, and 
the ordinary books of reference. Sub- 
scription for the library and reading- 
room, entitling the subscriber to take 
home one work at a time, 2 piastres a 
month ; 5j for 3 months. For the 
library alone, 1 J piastre a month ; 4 p. 
for 3 months. For the reading-room 
alone, 1^ p. a month; 3 p. for 3 months. 
Subscribers may have the newspapers at 
their own lodgings hy paying a small 
sum extra. Detken* s circulating library 
of foreign books, Largo di Palazzo. 
Dufresne's Cabinet de Lecture, well 
supplied with modem French works, 61, 
Strada Medina. Tempestini's Gabinetto 
letterario, 56, Strada S. Brigida; Pero, 
19, Strada S. Giacomo. 

§ 17. Teachers of Music. — ^There are 
a great many ; we shall only give the 
names of some of the best among them. 
(Singing.) — Signor Pappalardo, 49, 
Largo S. Ferdinando ; Ferrarese, 13, 
Vico S. Teresella degli Spagnoli; 
Floriuo, Professor at the Conservatorio 
di Musica: Mugnone, Salita Tarsia, 
Palazzo del Comune ; Paturzo, 22, Vico 
S. Giuseppe ; Holmes, 34, Strada di 
Chiaia; Biscardi, 171, Strada di Chiaia; 
Consalvo, 27, S, Maria in Portico. 



(Piano,) — Signor Coop, 57, Salita S. 
Mattia; Cerimele, 8, Strada S. Annadi 
Palazzo ; Lanza, Palumbo, and Serrao, 
at the Conservatorio ; Catalano, 37, 
Strada Fonnale ; Busso, 26, Strada 
Mag^nocavallo ; Albanese, 24, Trinity 
degli Spagnuoli. ( Fto/m.) — Signor Pin- 
to, Ospizio de' Ciechi a Cbiaia ; Gravig- 
li^, at Girard's. ( Fk>/onc«//o.)— Signor 
Ciandelli, 46, Strada Concordia Tarri- 
tiello. (Harp,) — Signor Albano, 17, 
Vico de* Greci. Mad. Marrao, Vico 
Lucia. For composition {contrapunto), 
Carlo Conti. Any change in the ad- 
dresses of all these ma.8ters can be ascer- 
tained at Detken*8 Librarj. 

■ § 18. Music Sellers, — Girard, 49, Lar- 
go S. Ferdinando; Clansetti, 18, Strada 
S. Carlo. Foreign music only at 
Detken's, who keeps also the collection 
of Neapolitan songs. Pianos may be 
hired of Helzel, 138, Largo Sta. 
Caterina a Chiaia^ and at Siever's, Pal. 

§ 19. Teachers of Languages, — Italian. 
— Signor Calvello, Palazzo Calabritto ; 
Signor Graziosi and Signor Notarangeli, 
to be heard of at Dura's Library ; 
Signor Paladini, 3, Vico Campane ; 
Signor Trilli, at Messrs. Iggulden and 
Son's; Federico Guarini, 19, Vicodella 
Strada Nuova ; Pizzofalcone Mazzano, 
17, Trinity de Spae^uoli; Muro, to be 
heard of at Detken s Library ; A. Spa- 
docci, 32, Strada San Carlo. German 
Master, — Morhoff, 47, Strada di Santa 
Caterina da Siena. English and French,^^ 
Mr. Hinchcliffe, 95, Strada Nardones ; 
Mr. Holmes, 37, Strada Fonnale ; Mr. 
Oates, 83, Strada Speranzella ; Mr. 
Manning, 7, Salita Petraio; L. Peintner, 
who speaks English, teaches Italian and 
French, 52, Vico Conte di Mola ; Miss 
Wolf, 95, Strada diChiaia, isagooddaily 
p;oveme68, and gives lessons to ladies 
in English, German, and French ; Sig- 
nora Almerinda Capocci, and Signora 
Virginia de Simone, both good parlatrici 
and daily goYernesses. 

§ 20. Tradesmen and Shops, — ^Travel- 
lers ought to bear in mind that in Naples 
bargaining is the rule, and beating down 
a necessity; if they do not, they may ex- 
.pect to be imposed upon. 

IS. Italy,'] 

a. English Warehouse, — Stanford's, 
next door to Messrs. Iggulden's Bank. 

b. English Saddler,— ^Lewis, 5, Largo 

c. ModeSf SUk WarefumseSf and Dress' 
makers, — Cardon, 209, Strada di Chiaia, 
expensive; Giroux, 216, ditto ; Madame 
Nethery, 235, Strada di Chiaia, first 
door ; Pszenny-Fass, Palazzo Cala- 
britto ; Madame Ricco, 8, Strada S. 
Caterina a Chiaia ; Valentino, 55, Vico 
Lungo del Celso. 

d. Sicilian Silk from Catania, a cheap 
article. — ^Tragala and Auteri, 288, To- 

e. Tailors. — ^Lennon, 2, Strada S. Ca- 
terina a Chiaia ; Mackenzie, 50, Largo 
Cappella, under Palazzo Partanna ; 
Tieck, 15, Vico Travaccari; Schultz, 
19, Largo S. Caterina a Chiaia ; Teso- 
rone, 185, Plassnel, 205, and De Vallier, 
256, Toledo. Perinot, French tailor, 
Strada di Chiaia. 

/. Boot and Shoe-makers, — ^Burrington, 
English bootmaker, Palazzo Par- 
tanna; Patella Largo Garofklo; for 
ladies — ^Toro, 61, and De Notaris, 189, 
Strada di Chiaia ; Finoia, Palazzo Mi- 
randa, Strada S. Orsola a Chiaia. 

g. Coiffeur, — Zempt, 6, Strada Sta. 
Caterina a Chiaia. 

h. Glovers, — Cremonesi, 50, Largo S. 
Ferdinando; Zempt, 6, Strada di Chi- 
aia; Bosa, 179, Toledo; Sangiovanni, 
76, Strada diChiaia; Montagna, 294, 
Toledo; Budillon, 19, Strada Sau 
Carlo, and 198, Strada di Chiaia ; 
Prattico, 23, Strada S. Giacomo; 
Pellerano, 35, Strada Nardones, 4th 
floor, one of the best workmen for 
gloves made to measure: no shop! 
The gloves of Naples are the best in 
Italy; a good pair costs from 3 to 5 
carlmi {is, to Is, Sd,), Naples gloves, 
bein^ made of lamb-skin, are always 
inferior to the kid gloves, properly so 
called, of Paris ; but in the manufac- 
ture of lamb-skin for gloves the Nea- 
politans have certainly an advantage 
over their French competitors in the 
same material. 

t. Naples Soap, — At Zempt's per- 
fumery shop, 6, Strada di Sta. Cate- 
rina; and Bellet and Co., successors 
of Arene, 180, Toledo; the price 
is 3 to 5 carlini (Is, to Is. &d,) a pound 



for the best quality; there are two, 
the brown and the white ; the latter is 
to be preferred, the excess of alkali 
(potash) being removed from it, and 
which, when left, is likely to irritate 
the skin. 

k. Coral, Lava^and Tortoise-shell Works, 
&c, — Boken, Palazzo Partanna, prices 
exorbitant^ Balzano, 10, \j3xa0 Vit- 
toria; Palchetti, 1, Strada S. OEiterina 
a Chiaia; Taglia^rri, 43, Sta. Caterina 
a Chiaia ; Labriola, 209^ Riviera di 
Chiaia is perhaps the best for work in 
tortoise shell. The pretended lava 
ornaments are generally made of 
varieties of ordinary limestone, found 
in fragments amongst the ancient vol- 
canic deposits at the foot of Vesuvius 
in the Fosso Grande. 

L Watchmakers. — Ingold and Rey- 
mond, Strada S. Caterina a Chiaia. 

»i> Jeweller, — Vigliarolo, 150, Strada 
di Chiaia. 

«. English and Foreign Snuffs andCigars. 
— 57, hargo di Palazzo, in the same 
Palace as the Cafe di Europa. 

0. Views of iVap^es.— Gatti and Dura, 
18, Strada del Gigante. The views in 
guache, a style so peculiar to Naples, 
may be had in great variety here; 
those of La Pera and of Cesare Uva, 
266, Riviera di Chiaia, are the best. 

j9. Imitation' Etruscan Vases and Terra- 
cottas, — Giustiniani, 1 to 1 6, and Colon- 
nese, 2]>,.27, and 69, Strada Marinella; 
MoUiea, Strada Sta. Lucia, who has 
successfully imitated Urbino or Ra- 
phael ware in coarse pottery. Gius- 
tiniani, one of the best manufacturers, 
has also a shop in the Strada S. Lucia. 

q. Antiquities, Etruscan Vases, old 
China, etc, — Barone, Palazzo della 
Rossa, in the Strada della Trinitk 
Maggiore, No. 6, first floor, a short 
way beyond the ch. of Sta. Chiara, 
but on the opposite side of the 
street. Di Crescenzo, 87 and 88, S. 
Lucia; Cal\, 16, Strada S. Caterina a 
Chiaia. Donna Serafina» Strada Cos- 

r. Old Lace, Mad. Cali, 159, Riviera 
di Chiaia. Parasols, Fans, — Martino, 
211, Riviera di Chiaia. 

s. Baker, — A French baker, Largo 
S. Ferdinando, makes excellent &ncy 
and other breads. 

t. Fancy Embroidery, German Wools, 
etc., — ^Au Gagne Petit, 21, Strada San 

§ 21. Valets-de-place,' — ^Their fee is 
from 8 to 12 carlini aday. Antonio di 
Antonio, who may be heard of at the 
H. des Etrangers, is a good cicerone for 
the city and its environs,and an excellent 
trayelling-servant for persons wishing 
to proceed to Sicily and through the 
provinces, where he has travelled with 
several of our countrymen, by whom he 
is recommended highly for his intelli- 
gence, honesty, and activity ; he speaks 
both French and English. 

§ 22. Carriages, Hackney Coaches, and 
Horses for hire. — ^The charge for job car- 
riages for the city and immediate 
vicinity is 3 ducats a day, with a buona^ 
mano of 4 to 6 carlini to the driver ; for 
half a day the charge is 18 carlini. In 
winter, when the carriage is hired by 
the month, the common charge is from 
70 to 80 piastres per month, stipulating 
for an open carriage by day and a close 
one by night ; and that the engagement 
is for a calendar month, otherwise a 
dispute may arise abouU the 31st day. 
The buonamano per month is 5 piastres. 
Hackney carriages are hired either by 
the course or by the hour. By the hour 
the tariff is as follows : — carriage with 
2 horses, 1st hour, by day 2 fr.. by 
night 2.25c. ; every subsequent hour, 
1.60; cabriolets, or carozzelli, 1st hour 
1.50, every subsequent one 1 fr. by 
day, and by night 1.65 and 1.25. If 
the last hour be only commenced, it is 
charged as a whole one. By the course 
a carriage with 2 horses, 1 fr. 10c. 
and 1.50 ; cabriolets, • 50 and 65c. 
The usual charge from the Chiaia, 
Chiatamone, or Santa Lucia, to the 
Museum, is 1 franc. The fares here 
given are those on week or working 
oays^ on Sundays and feast-days there 
is an additional charge of from 25 
to 50c. by the course and the hour. 
The course does not exceed half 
an hour, and must be within the 
limits of the city. When carriages 
are taken for 5 or 6 hours a bar- 
gain should be made, paying 2 carl, for 
every hour, or at most 3 for the first 



and 2 each hour afterwards. The fol- 
lowing is the general charge (but an 
understanding must always be come to 
beforehand) for the different con- 
veyances to the environs : a car- 
riage with 3 horses, for the whole day, 
5 ducats ; with 2 horses, for the whole 
day, 4 due. ; with a huonamano of 5 
carlini; a cabriolet with 1 horse, the 
whole day, I ducat, 60 gr. Biding- 
horses are to be hired at me Palazzo 
Partanna; the charge from 20 ducats 
to 2 piastres a day, 1 piastre for a ride 
of 4 or 5 hours in the afternoon, and by 
the mouth 30 piastres. 

§ 23. 0mnt&i<3&s (generally inferior and 
uncomfortable). — 1. The line running 
from the Villa Reale to the Albergo de* 
Poveri, passing through the Chiaia, the 
Toledo, and by the Museum. — 2. The 
line of the Tribunali : from the Largo 
S. Ferdinando to the Larghetto S. 
Onofrio alia Vicaria, passing through 
the Toledo. — 3. The Railway line : 
from the Largo del Castello to the 
railway station, outside the Porta del 
Carmine. — ^Fares, 5 grani. 

§ 24. Boats,*— A boat with 4 oars 
costs per day 3 piastres ; with 2 oars, 
from Naples to Portici, 1 due. ; a seat 
in the market boats which sail daily for 
Sorrento, Castellammare, Capri, Torre 
del Greco, or Ischia, costs 20 grani. 

§ 25. Baths. — There is a large esta- 
blishment in the Strada della Pace, 
leading from the Largo di S. Caterina 
to the Chiatamone. 

§ 26. English CAwrcA.— The Ch. of 
England service is performed twice on 
every Sunday in a large apartment at 
the British Consulate. The ch. is sup- 
ported partly by a grant from the 
Treasury, and partly by the contribu- 
tions of English residents and travellers. 

The present 6haplain is the Rev. Pel- 
ham Maitland, M.A.; Divine service at 
11 A.M. and 3 p.m. A. Protestant church, 
of which the clergyman will hold his 
appointment from the Foreign-office, is 
now in progress of construction, on a 
piece of ground granted to the British 
I residents, by the Italian Government. 
I It is situated in the centre of the 
I foreign quarter in the Via di San 
I Pasquale, behind the Chiaia. The ser- 
vice of the Church of Scotland is per- 
; formed in a large apartment at 5 Chiata- 
mone, by- the Rev. Mr. Buscarlet, at 
1 1 A.M. and 3 p.m. every Sunday. The 
French Reformed and German Luthe- 
ran services in the Prussian premises 
at 10 and 12 (noon) on Sundays, by- 
Rev. Pastors Roller and Remy. 

§ 27. Artists (Sculptors). — Ange- 
lini, in the Albergo de Poveri; 
Persico, and Call, in the Largo delle 
Pigne, under the Museum; Solari, 
Strada Fonseca. {Painters.) — Manci- 
nelli, 31, Vico S. Spirito ; Smargiassi, 
13, Strada Bisignano ; Guerra, in the 
Museum; Carelli (Gonsalvo), 66, 
Carelli (Gabriele and Achille), 57, 
Riviera di Chiaia — ^a family of artists ; 
Gonsalvo and Gabriele are excellent 
drawing masters in crayon and water- 
colours, who paint views in oil and 
water-colours of the costumes and 
scenery round Naples ; Verloet, Largo 
Ascensione a Chiaia ; Morelli, Palazzo 
Celentano a Pontenuovo ; Di Napoli, 
Vico S. Aniello ; Gigante (Giacinto), 
Salita della Salute; Duclerc, S. Teresa 
a Chiaia. Pietracola is an excellent 
painter of portraits in miniature; Cesare 
Uva, 266, Riviera di Chiaia, is a painter 
in gouache of landscapes — a class of 
art nearly peculiar to Naples, consisting 
of paintings on silk ; the principal 
artists in this branch are De Crescenzo, 
19, Chiatamone, Romano, and Signora 

F 2 





§ 1. General Topography • • 79 
§ 2. Historical Topography . ,81 

§ 3. Population 84 

§ 4. Climate 84 

§ 5. Antiquities • • • • « 86 
§ 6. Gates ••..•• 87 

§ 7. Ports 88 

§ 8. Bridges -^^89 

§ 9. Castles 89 

§ 10. Larghi and Fountains • . 93 

§ 1 1. Aqueducts, &c 94 

§ 12. Principal Streets and Public 

Places 95 

§ 13. Theatres .,,.•. 97 
§ 14. Festivals 98 

§ 15. 




Churches ••••.. 101 

Cemeteries 129 

Colleges and Scientific In- 
stitutions 130 

Hospitals 132 

The Museum 133 

Libraries • . • • • .164 
Eo^al Palaces • . • ,166 
Private Palaces and Mu- 
seums 168 

Villas ....... 172 

Drives and Rides • • •173 
Plan for Visiting Naples • 181 
Excursions 182 


The city of Naples, situated in 40° 
52' N. lat., and 14° 15'E. long., dis- 
putes with Constantinople the claim of 
occupying the most beautiful site in 
Europe. It is built on the N. shore of 
the Gulf, which is upwards of 35 Eng- 
lish m. in circuit, from the Capo della 
Campanella on the S.E., to the Capo 
di Miseno on the N.W. ; and more than 
52 m. in circuit, if we include the is- 
lands of Capri and Ischia, from the 
Punta Carena, the S. point of Capri, to 
the Punta dell* Imperatore, the W. point 
of Ischia. 

The country which lies along the N.E. 
shores of this Bay is an extensive flat, 
continuous with the great plain of the 
Campania, The river Sebeto, Sehetus, 

flows through it. In ancient times it 
was a marsh; it is now under cultiva- 
tion principally as market ^rdens, 
from which the capital derives its very 
abundant sum)ly of vegetables. Be- 
tween Naples and the chain of the 
Apennines, Vesuvius rises insulated in 
the plain, its lower slopes studded with 
densely-peopled villages. Along the 
coast, between Vesuvius and the sea, are 
the towns of Portici, Resina, Torre del 
Greco, Torre dell* Annunziata, and the 
sites of Herculaneum and Pompeii. 
Beyond the Sarno, at the extremity of 
the plain, and at the point where the 
coast suddenly bends to the W., is the 
town of Castellammare, near the site of 
StabicBy at th6 foot of the Monte Sant* 
Angelo, the highest point of that moun- 
tain range which forms the S.E. 
boundary of the Bay, an ofishoot from 
the main chain of the Apennines. Be- 
tween Castellammare and the Capo della 


Campanella are the towns of Vico, Sor- 
rento, and Massa. About 4 m. from the 
extremity of the Promontory lies Capri,* 
which is about 17 m. from -Naples. 

The coast to the W. of Naples, as far 
as the Promontory of Misenum, is more 
broken and irregular. The Promon- 
tory of Posilipo separates the Bay of 
Naples from that of Pozzuoli, and con- 
ceals Misenum. FoUowinff the coast 
is the island of Nisita. Further on, and 
more inland on the rt., are the extinct 
craters of the Solfatara, of the Lake of 
Agnano, and of Astroni. Beyond these, 
oil a tongue of land, stands Pozzuoli ; 
passing which is the Monte Nuovo, 
and farther 5till the Lak^ of Avernus, 
the Lucrine Lake, the ruins of Cumse, 
the Lake of Fusaro, Baia), the Elysian 
Fields, the Mare Morto, and the port 
and promontbry'of Misenum. Beyond 
Misenum are? the islands of Procida and 
Ischia. Th6 BSiy between Ischia and 
Capri is 1*4 ni. wide, its depth from W. 
to E. is about 1 5 m. 

Naples' itself is built at the base and 
on the slopes of a range of hills which 
have the' geheral form of an amphi- 
theatre. This range is divided into 
two natural *crefecents by a transverse 
ridge bearing in its different portions the 
names of Capodimonte, St. Elmo, and 
Pizzofalcone, and terminating on the S. 
in the small promontory on which 
stands the Castel dell* Ovo. The 
crescent which lies to the E. of this 
ridge includes the largest and most 
ancient portion of the city, extending 
from the flanks of Capodimonte and 
St. Elmo to the Sebeto, and including 
within its circuit the principal edifices 
and public establishments. It is inter- 
sected from N. to S. by a long street, of 
which the lower portion is the Toledo ; 
and is perhaps more densely peopled 
than any town of the same extent in Eu- 
rope. The crescent on the W. of St. 
Elmo is the modem city, known as the 
Chiaia. It is connected with the E. por- 
tion by the streets which occupy the de- 
pression between St. Elmo and Pizzofal- 
cone, and by a broad road which extends 
along the shore at the foot of Pizzofal- 
cone, to the Villa Reale and the Mer- 
ginella on the W, This, street or 

quay bears in its varions parts the 
names of Gigante, Santa Lucia, Chiata- 
mone, and Vittoria. The Chiaia forms 
a long and somewhat narrow strip of 
streets and squares occupying the space 
between the sea and the lower hills of 
the Vomero. A broad street, called the 
Riviera di Chiaia, running parallel to 
the shore, bordered on the N. by hand- 
some houses, principally where the 
foreign visitors reside, and on the S. 
by the public gardens called the Villa 
Reale, passes along its whole length. 
At the extremity of the Chiaia are 
the quarters of the Piedigrotta and 
the Mergellina. From the former the 
Grotta di Posilipo leads to Pozzuoli. 
From the Mergellina a good road winds 
over the S, face of the promontory to 
the same iown. 

The len'ffth of "Naples from the Gra- 
uili barracks to the Mergellina is 4 m. ; 
the breadth from the Capodimonte to 
the Castel dell' Ovo is 2i m. 

There are more than 1300 streets, in 
which the houses are regularly num- 
bered. The principal streets are called 
Strade; the cross streets, Vichi; the 
smaller streets, Vicoletti; the lanes, 
Strettole; the hilly streets leading from 
the new ' to' the old town, Gulate ; 
those leading to the suburbs, Salite; 
those which* are so steep as to re- 
quire steps, Qradoni; those which have 
many branches, Rampe, Very few of the 
streets bear the name of Via, but here 
and there the term Rua, a record of 
the Angevine dynasty, is met with. 

The streets were not lighted until 
1806, when oil lamps were first em- 
ployed. In 1840 these were super- 
seded by gas in the large thorough- 
fares. The Largo delle Pigne, the 
Riviera di Chiaia, and the Toledo are 
the only streets which have a footway. 




Some of the local antiquaries assign 
a Phcenician origin to Naples, and re- 
gard the story of Parthenope, the Syren, 
as the poetic tradition of the event. 
The ancient writers, however, agree 
in representing it as a Greek settle- 
ment, though the circumstances of its 
foundation are obscurely narrated. It 
seems that a colony of the neighbour- 
ing Cumse first settled on the spot, and 
gave the city which they founded the 
name of Parthenope ; and that subse- 
quently they were joined by a colony 
of Athenians and Chalcidians^ with 
some settlers from Pithecuscs (Ischia), 
who built for themselves a distinct city 
under the name of Neapolis, or the new 
city ; upon which Parthenope assumed 
the name of PalcepoliSf or the old city. 

I. During the Greek period. — ^The tes- 
timony of Livy leaves no doubt that 
Palwpolis and Neapolis, though distinct 
in name^ were identical in language, in 
customs, and in government. But all 
attempts of the local antiquaries to de- 
fine with accuracy their extent and 
situation, in spite of the learning ex- 
pended upon the task, have failed. It 
IS however supposed that a line drawn 
from the Porto Piccolo to the Porta 
Alba, and thence in a semicircle 
through the Largo delle Pigne and the 
Porta S. Gennaro, to the Castel del 
Carmine, will include the site both of 
Palaepolis and Neapolis, Excavations 
made within this circuit have 'brought 
to light Greek substructions, fragments 
of Greek sculpture, and Greek coins. 
Of this space, Palmpolis is supposed 
to have occupied the flat coast from 
the present Porto Piccolo to the Castel 
del Carmine, and to the Porta Nolana 
inland; while Neapolis occupied the 
higher ground immediately behind it. 

At a very early period Pakepolis and 
Neapolis became united as a Republic. 
They allied themselves to Home about 

B.C. 400, and at a later period their walls 
were so strong as to offer resistance 
to Pyrrhus, Hannibal, and Spartacus. 
When the Romans became masters of 
the world they looked with favour on 
a Republic which had retained its inde- 
pendence without joining in the wars of 
other States, which had always afforded 
a generous asylum to the exiles of 
Rome, and which possessed an irre- 
sistible fascination m the luxuries of 
its climate and its habits, and in the 
beauty of its scenery. In the plenitude 
of the imperial power and of the intel- 
lectual greatness of Rome, her em- 
perors, her statesmen, her historians, 
and her poets took up their residence 
on the shores of Naples. 

2, Under the Romans, — During the 
Civil Wars a body of partisans of Sylla, 
having entered the city by treachery, 
massacred most of its inhab. B.C. 82. 
Augustus is said to have united the 
two Greek cities, and to have restored 
their walls and towers. Like Virgil, 
and other illustrious men of his reign, 
Augustus resided frequently at Naples, 
and most of his successors followed his 
example. Tiberius, during his stay, 
made the island of Capri infamous by 
his excesses; Claudius assumed the 
Greek costume and became an officer 
of the Republic; Nero acted on its 
theatre; Titus assumed the office of 
its Archon; and Hadrian became its 

3. Under the Goths, — ^The walls of 
Naples, which were complete at the 
conquest of Italy by Odoacer in 476, 
continued perfect down to the invasion 
of the Goths under Theodoric, whose 
successors appear to have exercised a 
gentle sway at Naples, and to have so 
strengthened its wsdls as to make it one 
of the most powerful of the fortified 
cities of Italy. In 536 it defied the 
skill and resources of Bdisarius, who, 
however, turned aside the aqueduct 
and marched his troops into the city 
through its channel. Besides being 
laid under subjection to the Eastern 
Emperors, Naples was sacked and 
almost depopulated by the conqnerors. 




In 543 the walls resisted the attack of 
Totila, who, after a protracted siege, 
reduced the city by famine, and levelled 
its fortifications to the ground. 

4. Under the Eastern Emperors, — 
When the Gothic kingdom had been 
subdued b^ Narses, he seized Naples, 
and made it subject to the Exarchs of 
llavenna. It was then governed nomi- 
nally by dukes appointed by the em- 
perors, but was allowed to retain its 
own laws, magistracy, and municipal 
institutions. Under these dukes, the 
walls were rebuilt to resist the invasion 
of the Longobards, who besieged the 
city without success in 581. The impe- 
rial authority gradually became so weak 
that it was unable to prevent the citi- 
zens from assuming the right of elect- 
ing their own governor by the title of 
Console or Duca, 

5. Under the Republic and the Lorn- 
hards. — For nearly 400 years after she 
threw off the yoke of the Eastern Em- 
pire Naples retained its independence. 
It was besieged twice by the Longobard 
dukes of Benevento ; in 81 5 by Grimo- 
aldo II., who was bought off by the 
duke Teotisto, a Greek, for 8000 golden 
solidi; and in 821 by Sicon IV., who 
was aided by Theodore, the former 
duke, who had been driven into exile. 
After a protracted siege the Longobards 
withdrew, but they compelled Naples 
to become tributary to the Duchy of 
Benevento. In 1027 Pandolfo IV., 
prince of Capua, besieged and took 
Naples from Duke Sergio, on account 
of the hospitality the latter had af- 
forded to Pandolfo Count of Teano. 
But in 1030 Sergio recovered the city 
with the aid of the Greeks and of those 
Norman adventurers who had already 
begun to make their valour felt in 
Southern Italy. In reward for the 
services received, Sergio gave the Nor- 
mans some laud, between Capua and 
Naples, upon which they built Aversa, 
and of which he conferred on their 
leader, Rainulfo, the title of Count. 

6. Under the Normans. — The Normans 
made no attempt to possess themselves 
of Naples tDl 1 130, when Roger besieged 

it, and after a protracted siege com- 
pelled it to surrender. He had the cir- 
cuit of the walls measured, and found 
that it was a little more than 2 m. 
Roger was the same year proclaimed 
King of Naples and Sicily. William I. 
(the Bad), his son, extended the circuit 
of the walls, built Castel Capuano 
and the Castel dell' Ovo. The walls 
appear to have been completed by his 
successors William II. and Tancred, in 
whose reiffn the city was unsuccessfully 
besieged by Henry VI., who claimed 
the kingdom in right of his wife Con- 
stance, the only daughter of Roger. 

7. Under theSuabians. — ^Frederick II. 
founded the University of Naples, and 
by making the city his residence be- 
came also the founder of its greatness 
and prosperity. In 12.53, after a siege 
of ten months by Conrad, his son, 
Naples was compelled by famine to 
surrender at discretion. Conrad demo- 
lished the walls, which were soon after 
restored and enlarged by Innocent IV. 

8. Under the Angemne dynasty, — Chas. 
I. made greater efforts than any of his 
predecessors to eive strength and im- 
portance to Naples. He removed the 
seat of government from Palermo to 
Naples, extended the city on the £. 
side as far as the Piazza del Mercato, 
filled up the marshy tract between the 
old walls and the sea, and built in 1 283 
the Castel Nuovo. He also repaired its 
walls, paved the streets, destroyed the 
ancient palace of the Neapolitan Re- 
public, began the restoration of the 
cathedral, and built several churches 
and monasteries. His son Charles II. 
built the Molo Grande and the castle of 
St. Elmo, enlarged the city walls, and 
strengthened the fortifications on the 
sea-side. Naples was besieged and 
captured in 1387 by Louis II. of Anjou ; 
it was again besieged in 1420 by Louis 
III. of the same family, who was driven 
off by Alfonso of Aragon, and was be- 
sieged and captured by the same Alfonso 
on his own account in 1423. In 1425 
the city walls were enlarged towards 
the sea by Joanna II. Alfonso again 
besieged the city, though without effect, 
in 1438, in 1440, and in 1441 ; but in 



1442, after a protracted siege, he en- 
tered it through the canal of an 
aqueduct, called the Fozzo di S. Sofia, 
which was pointed out to him by two 
deserters, and thus put an end to the 
Angevine dynasty. 

9. Under the Aragonese dynasty, — ^Fer- 
dinand I. extended the city walls toward 
the E. from the Carmine to S. Giovanni a 
Carbonara, and employed Giuliano da 
Majano to fortify them. He opened 
new gates, some of which are still 
standing, at least in name, as are por- 
tions of the walls. He also restored 
the cathedral, erected a lighthouse on 
the Molo, and introduced the art of 
printing and the manufacture of silk. 

10. Under the Spaniards.' — On the 
accession of Ferdinand the Catholic, 
Pietro Navarro, the engineer, was em- 
ployed by Gonsalvo da Cordova to mine 
the Castel dell' Ovo. In 1518 the city 
was besieged by Lautrec, and in 1535 
it received its greatest and last enlarge- 
ment from the viceroy Don Pedro de 
Toledo. He extended the fortifications 
from S. Giovanni a Carbonara to the 
hill of St. Elmo, including the hill of 
Pi2zofalcone, passing along the site of 
the present Piazza delle Pigne, the 
Fosse del Grano, and the Mercatello, 
and rejoining the Angevine walls at S. 
Sebastiano. These walls were built of 
massive blocks of tufa, and were fur- 
nished with bastions and curtains. 
Don Pedro also filled up the fosse of 
the Angevine fortifications on the W. 
side, and opened the Strada di Toledo 
on its site. He constructed the main 
drain in the Piazza Pignasecca, form- 
ing the entrance to the system of 
sewers which he carried to the sea. 
He also built the royal palace, which 
was occupied by Charles V. when he 
landed here on his return from his 
African expedition, and was known as 
the Palazzo Vecchio till 1 842, when it 
was pulled down. In 1 540 he converted 
the old Castel Capuano into the Palace 
of the Tribunals and the General Re- 
cord Office of the kingdom. Of the 
other viceroys it will suffice to mention 
that in 1558 the Duke of Alva im- 
proved the works of the Mole; in 1577 

the Marques de Mondejar built the 
Arsenal; in 1586 the Duke d'Ossuna 
laid the foundation of the present 
Museo Borbonico as the viceregal sta- 
bles; in 1696 the Count d'Olivares 
commenced the Riviera di Chiaia ; in 
1600 the Count de Lemos added a new 
wing to the Palazzo Reale for th« 
reception of Philip III. of Spain; in 
1607 the Count de Benevente opened 
the street of Poggio Reale; in 1615 
the Count de Lemos converted the 
viceregal stables of the Duke d'Ossuna 
into a university ; in 1634 the Count d€ 
Monterey built the viaduct of Pizzo&l- 
cone over the Strada di Chiaia ; in 1 640 
the Duke de Medina gave his name 
to the Porta Medina; in 1649 the 
Count d'Onate erected the first theatre 
built in Naples, called the Teatro di S. 
Bartolommeo, which was pulled down 
when Carlo III. built that of San Carlo ; 
in 1668 Don Pedro Antonio of Aragon 
built the Dock which adjoins th^ 
Arsenal; and in 1695 the Duke de 
Medina Cell, the last of the Spanish 
viceroys, completed the Chiaia. 

If the viceroys did little for 
the public works at Naples, we can- 
not say as much of the zeal with 
which they removed many of her 
works of art. As one example out of 
many, we may mention that the Mar- 
ques de Villafranca, on resigning the 
viceroyalty, which he held only for 
two months, in 1671, carried back with 
him to Spain the statues of the four 
rivers from the fountain on the Mole, 
the statue of Venus from the fountain 
of the Castel Nuovb, and the statues 
and sculptures by Giovanni da Nola 
from the Fontana Medina. 

1 1 . Under the House of Austria. — The 
emperors of Austria governed the king- 
dom by their viceroys, who were mostly 
Germans. In the brief space of twenty- 
seven years there were not less than 
13 viceroys, 4 of whom held offitce for 
only half a year each. Amidst such 
changes in the executive, the public 
works were wholly disregarded. 

1 2. Under the Spanish Bourbons. — The 
conquest of Naples by Don Carlos, the 
younger son of Philip IV., and his 

E 3 



accession to the crown by the title of 
(Charles III., were important events in 
the history of modern Naples, which 
owes to him her present development 
in wealth, in population, and in extent. 
He enlarged the Palazzo Reale, com- 
pleted the harbour of the Molo Grande, 
constructed the street of the Marina, 
built the theatre of San Carlo, the 
Albergo de* Poveri, and the palace of 
Capommonte, etc., and fortified the 
shores of the bay. His son, Ferdinand 
I., and Joseph and Murat during the 
French occupation, effected also great 
improvements ; the Strada di S. Carlo 
air Arena, the Strada del Campo, the 
Mergellina, the roads of Posilipo and 
Capodimonte, the promenade of the 
Chiaia, and* the piazza of the Palazzo 
Keale were constructed; the Botanic 
Garden, the Museum, the Academy, 
and other public institutions were esta- 
blished. During the short reign of 
Francis I. the new harbour for ships 
of war was begun ; and the reign of 
Ferdinand H. has already seen the 
completion of the Ch. of S. Francesco 
di Paola, the extension of the Chiaia, 
and other works of permanent utility 
and ornament. 


The population of Naples for some 
years past has been steadily increasing. 
In 1830 it was 358,550 ; in 1845 it was 
400,813. In 1850 there had been 3051 
marriages; 14,991 births, viz. 7606 
males and 7385 females, amon^ whom 
1977 were foundlings and 124 illegiti- 
mate children; and 15,015 deaths, viz, 
8133 males and 6882 females, a num- 
ber above the average mortality, which, 
calculated for ten years, shows an ex- 
cess of births of nearly 11 00 per annum. 
On the 1st January 1851 the population 
was 416,475; viz. 203,483 males and 
212,992 females ; and at the beginning 
pt 1861, 417,436, 

§ 4. CLIMATE. 

The following notice on the climate 
of Naples has been kindly communi- 
cated by an eminent English physician, 
who practised there for many years.. 
It will prove acceptable to visitors 
and assist them in the selection of a 

** The climate of Naples may be 
called tonic and bracing, in comparison 
with that of Rome, which is soft and 
relaxing ; and, if we were to compare 
it with any place in England, it most 
nearly resembles that of Brighton; 
although, of course, the temperature is- 
much higher in the former than in the 
latter place. Like Brighton, the au- 
tumns are delightful, and the spring 
months, February and March, often 
very trying to delicate lungs, from the 
cold dry winds which then prevail." 

"Naples, however, is neither sub- 
ject to the same degree of cold in 
winter nor the same heat in summer 
as either Roiue or Florence; during 
the two hottest months of the year 
(July and August) the heat of the sun 
is 80 tempered by the sea and land 
breezes, that the thermometer seldom 
rises to 84<^ of Fahrenheit and is often be- 
low 80^, while in winter it seldom falls 
below 40°. Snow seldom falls in the 
town of Naples, or, if it does, it melts 
immediately ; but it often lies on the 
surrounding Apennines for weeks or 
months, and it is when the wind blows 
from these snow«capped mountains 
that the air is coldest and most trying 
to delicate constitutions. These winds 
are most prevalent in the months of Feb. 
and March, and these are the months of 
the year when the mortality is greatest; 
while, on the oth^r hand, those of 
June, July, and August, when the heat 
is the highest, are perhaps the most 
free from illness, since the habits of 
the inhabitants lead them to work 
early in the morning and late at 
night, and to rest during the heat of 
the day ; so that they are seldom ex- 



posed to the excessive heat of the sun. 
The time when the heat is most felt 
is during the prevalence of the scirocco 
winds, for then the sea aikd laud 
breezes are for a time suspended ; but 
these winds seldom last for more than 
three days, and, though enervating for 
the time, they leave behind no bad 

" The greatest quantity of rain falls 
during the first two or three weeks of 
September ; during the months of June, 
July, and August there is little or 
none, and by the end of the last of 
these mouths the grass is nearly burned 
up by the heat ; but as soon as the .rains 
fall everything revives, and from the 
end of September till the middle or 
end of December the climate is that 
of an English summer; and this is the 
season when the superiority of the 
Neapolitan climate over that of Rome 
is the greatest. In Feb. and March, on 
the other hand, the weather is usually 
very variable, and N. or N.E. winds 
prevail ; circumstances which render 
these two months very trying to deli- 
cate lungs ^ and it is generally under- 
stood that the climate of Rome, which 
is softer and less variable, is then pre- 
ferable in such cases." 

"There is a prevalent opinion in 
Home that the sulphureous vapour from 
Vesuvius is injurious to consumptive 
patients who reside at Naples: this, 
however, is quite at variance with the 
fact that the Neapolitan physicians 
send their patients from Naples to 
Santo lorio, a place situated at the 
bottom of the mountain, and find that 
they do better there than in the city. 
As to the localities in Naples most 
suitable to invalids, travellers . have 
little choice; for the only situation 
where houses fit for foreigners to in- 
habit can be found are in the quarter 
of the Chiaia and Sta. Luoia. Of 
these, the best are to be found from 
the Crocelle on the E., along the 
Chlatamone and Riviera di Chiaia, to 
where the road of the Mergellina and 
Piedigrotta separate on the W, These 
houses have a southern aspect, and are 
protected by the Vomero and Pizzo 
Falcone from the N. and N.E. winds, 
and when the lungs are sound no 

situation can be more agreeaole; but 
where pulmonary affections exist, the 
streets which are situated behind the 
Riviera di Chiaia, and consequently 
farther remove^ from the influence Oi 
the sea, are considered preferable, al- 
though they are generally of an in- 
ferior description, as to accommoda- 
tion, to those in the Riviera di Chiaia. ^ 
The houses best suited to such invalids 
are in the Vico Carminiello, the Stra- 
da San Pasquale, the Strada Santa 
Teresa, . and Chiaia. Those on the 
quay of Santa Lucia are much exposed 
to the N.E. and easterly winds, and 
therefore very unsuitable to invalids, ex- 
cept during the autumn and late in the 
spring, when they are very agreeable 
and cheerful, from their facing Vesu- 
vius, and overlooking the city and the 
eastern portion of the ba^. What has 
been said of Santa Lucia is equally 
applicable to the few houses which are 
to be had in the Mergellina ; they are 
cold in winter, but very agreeable in 
the autumn or early in summer. 
Houses built upon the tufa rock are 
generally considered to be damper and 
less healthy than those which are at 
a distance from it; but this, if true, 
onlv applies to the rooms in the rear, 
which are generally occupied by ser- 
vants or used as kitchens ; and a long 
experience would scarcely bear us out 
in saying that these occupants are less 
healthy than their more comfortably 
located masters." 

I^otwithstanding this favourable re- 
port of the climate of Naples, it must 
be acknowledged that of late years it 
has proved far from healthy to foreign 
visitors ; and it is an indisputable fact 
that many British and American visi- 
tors have contracted fevers which ha\e 
ended fatally in Rome and Florence on 
their return journey. This can be 
traced to the parts of Naples they have 
inhabited, the neighbourhood of the 
Chiaja and of the I^reo della Vittoria, 
where many of the hotels most fre- 
quented by strangers are situated, and 
which have been rendered pestilential 
by the drains which run near them to 
empty themselves into the sea close by. 
This nuisance,' now in process of being 
removed, is especially due to tht; 



opening of a main drain opposite the 
Piazza della Vittoria, the contents of 
which, spreading themselves over the 
sea when there 16 little movement in 
its waters, give rise to » most disagree- 
able and unwholesome effluvium. It 
so happens, therefore, that often this 
most fashionable quarter of the city is 
mach more unsalubrious than the most 
confined quarters of the old city. The 
remedy for this evil is, however, in 
the hatds of the municipal authorities : 
by flushing the main drain from time 
to time and by carrying its mouth 
farther into the sea, so that its outfall 
will at all <^m^s be some fleet below the 
level of the water. 


There are few remains in the imme- 
diate vicinity of Naples, though the 
country around is covered with ruins 
of temples, theajres, and villas, and 
her museum is rich in monuments of 
Greek and Rpman art. 

The fragments of the Temple of Cas- 
tor and Pollux are preserved in the 
facade of the Ch. of San Paolo, which 
occupies its site (see p. 127), They 
consist of two columns, a portion of 
an architrave, and two torsi. 

Of the other temples scarcely any- 
thing has survived except the names. 
The sites of the Temples of Neptune and 
of Apollo are occupied by the cathedral, 
the old basilica of Santa Restituta 
being supposed to stand on the foun- 
dations of the temple of Apollo; the 
site of the Temple of Ceres is occupied 
by the Ch. of S. Gregorio Armeno; 
that of the Temple of Mercury by the 
Ch. of SS. Apostoli ; that of the Temple 
Of Vesta by the little Ch. of S. Maria 
Botonda in the Casacalenda Palace ; 
and that of the Temple of Diana by the 
Ch. of Sta. Maria Maggiore, 

The Catacombs y or rather those por- 
tions of them which are called Le Cata- 
combs di San Gennaro, are situated on 
the flanks of the hill of Capodimonte. 
"J'he only entrance now open is that at 
the Ch. of S. Gennaro de' Poveri. The 

Ch. of S. Gennaro was erected in the 
8th centy. on the site of the small 
chapel in which the body of S. Janu- 
^rius was deposited by S. Severus in 
the time of Constantine. The altar, 
the episcopal chair cut in the tufa, and 
some paintings on the walls are still 
preserved in it. The catacombs are 
excavated in the volcanic tufa in the 
face of the hill. They form a long 
series of corridors and chambers, ar- 
ranged in three stories communicating 
with each other by flights of steps. In a 
part which was closed at the beginning 
of the present centy. is a ch. with three 
arches, supported by columns cut out of 
the tufa rock, with an altar, episcopal 
seat, and baptistery of stone ; in another 
part is a fountain which was probably 
used for baptismal purposes. Along 
the walls of the corridors and cham- 
bers are excavated numerous hculi^ or 
niches, in which may still be seen ske- 
letons, and «> rude delineations of the 
olive-branch, the dove, the fish, and 
other symbols of the early Christians^ 
with here and there a Greek inscrip- 
tion. These niches were formerly 
closed by slabs of marble, many 
fragments of which, baying inscrip- 
tions, form the pavement of the Ch. of 
S. Gennaro. 

The antiquaries of Naples have ex* 
pended a great amount of learning and 
research in discussions on the origin of 
these catacombs. Some have identified 
them with the gloomy abodes of the 
Cimmerians of Homer; others have 
considered them the Zau^mto? or quarries 
from which the ancients extracted the 
tufa stone for building purposes ; while 
others have supposed that they were 
excavated by the early Christians as a 
place of refuge fk'om persecution and of 
repose after &ath. Passages and cham- 
bers so extensive and intricate could 
not have been the work of men who 
sought concealment for their religious 
worship; and it is to the Greek colo- 
nists that the construction of these 
catacombs is now generally ascribed. 
There is no doubt, however, that both 
the Romans and the early Christians 
subsequently appropriated them to their 
own use, — the latter for the purposes 
of worship as well as of sepulture. S. 



Januarius, S. Gaudiosus, S. Agrippinus, 
and other Martyrs, subsequently canon- 
\ ised, were interred in them. Hence the 
\ catacombs in the middle ages were re- 
garded with peculiar sanctity, and the 
dergy of the city had to visit them 
at least once a year. They be- 
came the burial-place of the victims 
of the plague of 1656; and the Abate 
Romanelli, on exploring them in 1814, 
found several bodies of the plague 
victims still entire, and clothed in the 
dresses they had worn in life. The in- 
scriptions discovered in them relate ex- 
clusively to Christians, not one having 
been found which belongs to Pagan 
times. The extent of the catacombs is 
said to be very great. 
• The Fonti Rossi is the modem name 
given to the remains of the Julian 
aqueduct, AquaJtdia, about 60 m. long, 
constructed by Augustus to supply the 
Eoman fleets at Misenum with water. 
It commenced at Serino, in the Princi- 
pato Ultra, and was fed by the waters 
of the Sabeto. The remains now 
visible lie in a deep cutting on the slope 
of the hill of Capodimonte, and are built 
of solid masses of tufa, lined with red 
bricks, from which the epithet Rossi 
is derived. Before reaching this valley 
the aqueduct separated into two 
branches. One of these proceeded into 
the heart of the city, and furnished it 
with its principal supply of water down 
to the time of Belisarius, who broke 
down this branch, and marched his troops 
through the channel. The other branch 
crossed the Vomero, where its remains 
may still be seen At that point it 
again divided, one branch proceeding 
to the Roman villas on the point of 
Posilipo, the other by Monte Olibano 
to Baise and Misenum, where it ter- 
minated in the Piscina Mirabilis. The 
ruins of the Ponti Rossi were repaired 
in 1843, when care was taken to pre- 
serve their antique character. 

The Anticaglia, in the street of the 
same name, are the two arches and 
other remains of an ancient theatre. 
From the fragments which may still 
be traced in some cellars in the neigh- 
bourhood it must have been of con- 
siderable size. 

On the outer wall of the monastery 

of Sta. Maria Egiziaca a Forcellia is 
a tablet with a Greek inscription, sup- 
posed of the time of Domitian, rela- 
tive to a statue and other honours 
decreed to Tettia Casta, a priestess. 

§ 6. GATES. 

With the exception of a few frag- 
ments of its wall and ditch, Naples re- 
tains nothing of its mediaeval fortifica- 
tions but its 3 castles and a few of its 
modernised gates, which, being sur* 
rounded by streets and houses, are now 
within the city. They all have a bust 
of S. Gaetano placed over them in con*- 
sequence of a vow of the municipality 
to that saint during the plague in 1656. < 

The Porta Capuana stands on what 
was the high road to Capna before the 
new road by Capodichino was opened. 
It is decorated with the arms of Fer- 
dinand I. of Aragon, by whom it was 
erected, as well as the walls of the city 
in this direction. The modem orna- 
mented gate dates from 1535, when 
Charles V. made his entry into Naples-. 
The bas-reliefs and statues of St. 
Agnello and San Gennaro were then 
placed over it. The two towers which 
flank the gate are of the time of Fer- 
dinand I., and were called VOnore and 
La Virtuy names still inscribed upon 
them. The road which passes out of 
this gate is the post-road to Avellino 
and La Puglia. 

The Porta Nolana, situated at the ex- 
tremity of the Strada Egiziaca, opens 
on a road which leads to the Arenaccia, 
and formerly also to Nola. It is also 
flanked by two round towers, and has 
a bas-relief of Ferdinand I. over it. 

The Porta del Carmine, near the Ch. 
of S. Maria del Carmine, stands on 
the hi^h road to Portici, Salerno, and 
Calabna. Here stood the Porta della 
Conceria of Don Pedro de Toledo. Of 
all the gates, it is perhaps the best 
preserved, between its two massive 
round towers, bearing the names of 
Fidelissima and La Vittoria ; over the 



arch is the statue on horseback of King 
Ferdinand in low-relief. There are 
several remains of round towers be- 
tween this gate and the Porta Capuana, 
forming portions of the Arragonese 
"wall on this side of the city." 

The Porta Medina, m a small 
street on the "W. of the Toledo, was 
built according to its inscription by the 
Viceroy Duke de Medina, in 1640, from 
the designs of Fansaga, but at the 
expense of the inhabitants of the dis- 

The other gates are the Porta AJhiy so 
called from the Viceroy Duke of Alba, 
but more generally known by the name 
of Porta Sciuscella^ in the Largo Spirito 
Santo; and the Porta di San Germaro^ 
near the Piazza delle Pigne. These 
gates are comparatively modern, and 
oflFer no interest. 

The other entrances to the city which 
, have no gates are the Strada del Campo, 
and the Strada di OapodichinOf both of 
which lead to the point called // Campo, 
where the roads to Caserta and to 
Capua branch off; — the Strada di'Ca- 
podimonte, leading to the Palace of the 
same name, and thence into the road 
to Capua by Aversa; — the Strada di 
PosilipOy and of the Qrotta, both leading 
to Pozzuoli and Baise. 

§ 7. PORTS. 

Naples has three ports, the Porto 
Piccolo, the Porto Grande, and the 
Porto Militare. 

The Porto Piccolo, although now only 
adapted for boats, 'Us historically inte- 
resting, as the last remnant of the 
ancient port of Palsepolis. It extended 
inland as far as the site now occupied 
by the Ch. of S. Pietro Martire. 
Hence the whole of this district of the 
city is called the Quartiere di Porto. 
The foundations of an ancient light- 
house are to be seen near S. Onofrio 
de' Vecchi, and gave to a small street 
adjoining the name of Lantema VeC' 
chia. The harbour which now remains 
is little more than a basin or wet dock. 
The shallowing of its water has been 
going on for a considerable period. On 
the point of the Molo Piccolo, which 

separates the Porto Piccolo from the 
Porto Grande, is the Immacolatellay in 
which the Captain of tlie Port and a 
branch of Uie Board of Health have 
their offices — the general landing-p]ac« 
from steamers. On the other side of the 
port is the Custom-house. The district 
on the S.E. of this port is call^ Uie 
MandraochiOf a term m which some of 
the local antiquaries recognise the 
Phoenician designation of the old har- 
bour, and others the original market- 
place for herds, mandre, of cows. It 
IS inhabited by the lowest populace, 
whose habits have given rise to the 
proverb educato al Mandracchio, 

The Porto Grande was formed in 
1302 by Charles II., of Anjou. He 
constructed the Mole called the Molo 
Grande, which was enlarged by Alfonso 
of Aragon. At its extremity, at the 
close of the 15th centy., a lighthouse 
was erected, which was destroyed by 
lightning and rebuilt in 1656, and lastly 
reduced to its present form in 1843. 
Charles III., in 1740, completed the 
harbour by carrying a pier to the 
N.E. nearly as long as the mole itself, 
leaving the lighthouse at the elbow 
and converting its whole length towards 
the sea into a battery of long 32-pound 
^ns. This fort was so much extended 
in 1792 as to cover the whole arm 
erected by Charles. Under this pier 
are moored all passenger and mercan* 
tile steam-vessels. The harbour itself 
has suffered, like the Porto Piccolo, 
from the accumulation of the sand and 
mud, but it has still 3 or 4 fathoms 
in its deepest part. It is considered 
safe, as ships when once within the 
mole are protected from all winds; 
but the heavy swell which rolls into 
the bay after a S.W. gale makes it some- 
times difficult to enter. A much more 
extensive port is projected, which will 
include a considerable extent of the 
present roadstead, the foundations of 
the piers having been laid in May, 
1862, by King Victor Emmanuel. 

The Porto Militare is a new harbour 
exclusively for ships of the Navy. It 
was begun in )<626 by Francis I. The 
old mole of the Porto Grande forms its 
boundary on the N.E., and on the S.W. 
it is enclosed by a broad and massive 



p)er mnning into the sea in a S.E. 
direction for a distance of 1200 ft., to 
terminate in an arm bending to the N.E. 
The depth of water in this harbour is 
about 5 fathoms. 

Frigates and the smaller ships of war 
sometimes anchor within the head of 
the Molo Grande; but the usual an- 
chorage is about a mile S.S.E. of the 
lighthouse, where the depth of water is 
from 25 to 38 fathoms. 

§ 8. BRIDGES. 

Although there are four bridges, so 
called, at Naples, there is only one 
which is properly entitled to the name, 
the others being viaducts which span 
the valleys or depressions within the 
city itself. In fact, there is only one 
stream at Naples to require a bridge, 
and that is the Sebeto, the classic Sebe- 
thuSf a small and shallow stream. 

Nee tu carmialbus nostris indictus abibis, 
CEbale, quern generasse Telon Sebethide 

FertTir, Telebomn Capreas cum regna teneret 
Jam senior. Vuto. u£<rt. vn. ?34. 

The bridge over the Sebeto, called 
the Fonte della MaddalenOf was built by 
Charles III. on the site of a more an- 
cient one, called the Ponte di Guiscardo. 
It derives its present name from the 
adjoining ch. of La Maddalena. 

The Ponte di Chiaia is a viaduct, 
built in 1634, as a means of communi- 
cation between the hills of Pizzofalcone 
and Sant' Elmo. It was rebuilt in its 
present form in 1838. 

The P(ynte della Sanitd is a very noble 
viaduct, built in 1809 by the French 
as part of the new road which they 
constructed from the Toledo to Capo- 
dimonte. It derives its name from the 
suburb of La Sanitk, which is reputed 
to be one of the healthiest quarters of 

The Ponte dell* Immacolatella is situ- 
ated at the northern extremity of the 
Strada del Piliero, near the Molo Pic^ 
colo. It was built by Charles III. and 
rebuilt in 1843 by Ferdinand II. 

§ 9. CASTLES. 

The Castel Nuovo, with its towers 
and fosses, massive in bulk and irre- 
gular in plan, has been sometimes 
called the BastUe of Naples, although 
its position near the port and the iso- 
lated fortress which occupies its centre 
give it a more general resemblance to 
Sie Tower of London. 

It was begun in 1283 by Charles I. 
from the designs of Giovanni di Pisa, 
in what was then called the French 
style of fortification in contradis^ 
tinction to the German manner, which, 
we are told, was so displeasing to 
Charles in the Castel Capuano. Charles 
did not see it completed. His suc- 
cessors used it as their palace, being 
at that time beyond the boundaries of 
the city, and near the sea. About the 
middle of the 15th centy, Alfonso I. 
enlarged it by the addition of another 
line of walls and towers, protected 
by a deep fosse and round towers at 
the comers, two of which may be still 
seen on the side of the Strada del 
Molo. Of the outer wall of Alfonso, 
these circular bastions are supposed 
to be the only portion now remain- 
ing, the greater part of the present 
works being attributed to Don Pedro 
de Toledo, who built the square bas- 
tion^ about 1546. The castle consists 
of 5 towers of great diameter— 3 to- 
wards the Piazza del Castello, 2 towards 
the sea; the whole united by a curtain, 
now a range of lofty edifices, destined 
as barracks. In 1735 Charles III. 
reduced the whole to the form in 
which, with few exceptions, we now 
see it. The chief object of interest 
in the Castel Nuovo is the Triumphal 
Arch erected in 1470, in honour of the 
entry of Alfonso of Aragon into Naples 
in 1443, by Pietro di Martino, a 
Milanese architect, or, according to 
Vasari, by Giidiano da Maiano, It stands 
between two of the old Angevin 
towers, whose massive walls contrast 
singularly with its classical style and 



elaborate decorations. Compressed be- 
tween these solid towers, it gives, at 
first sight, the appearance of a trium- 
phal arch which has been elongated 
upwards. This, however, was no fault 
of the architect, who had designed 
his work on a different scale for the 
Piazza del Duomo ; but the interest of 
Niccol6 Bozzuto, a veteran officer of 
Alfonso, whose house was to be pulled 
down to make room for the monu- 
ment, induced the king to order the 
site to be changed to the Castel Nuovo. 
It consists of an archway flanked by 2 
fluted Corinthian columns supporting a 
frieze and cornice, and an attic contain- 
ing the bas-reliefs of Alfonso's entry 
into Naples, in the execution of which 
contributed the sculptors Isaia da Pisa 
and Silvestro dell* Aquiia, Upon this 
rests another frieze and cornice sur- 
mounted by a second arch, probably 
destined for an equestrian statue, which 
supports four niches containing statues 
illustrative of Alfonso's virtues. Over 
the first arch is the inscription Al- 
PHONSvs Rex Hispanvs Sicvlvs Ita- 


bas-relief is very interesting as a speci- 
men of the sculpture of the 15th centy. 
It represents Alfonso entering Naples 
in a triumphal car drawn by four 
horses, in the style seen on ancient 
medals, attended by his courtiers and 
authorities of the city, all of whom are 
dressed in the costume of the period. 
Over it is the inscription Alphonsvs 
Rfxsvm princeps hanc condidit ar- 
CEM. The three statues of St. Michael, 
St. Anthony Abbot, and St. Sebastian, 
and the two recumbent ones, on 
the summit of the arch, are by Oio- 
vanni da Nola, and were added by Don 
Pedro de Toledo, On the inside 
of the arch are some high reliefs 
of warriors. Passing under this 
arch we enter the piazza by the cele- 
brated Bronze Gates, executed by the 
monk Guglielmo of Naples, and repre- 
senting in various compartments the 
victories of Ferdinand I. over the Duke 
of Anjou and the rebellious barons. 
Imbedded in one of the gates is a can- 
non-ball, fired, according to Paolo 
Giovio, during one of the contests 
between the French and Spaniards in 

the time of Gonsalvo da Cordova. It 
was fired from the interior of the castle 
by the French, who had closed the 
gates at the first notice of the approach 
of the Spaniards. The ball was unable 
to penetrate the gate, and has since 
remained so imb^ded in the metal 
that it cannot be removed though it 
can be turned round. Beyond the gates 
are the ch., the barracks, and a build- 
ing which is' said to date from the time 
of the Angevin kings, and in which is 
the magnificent hall used as the prin- 
cipal Armoury, called the 8ala di 8, 
Luigi, or the Sola delle Armi, This 
hall has been at different times a 
room of royal audience, a saloon for 
state festivals, a music hall, and a 
court theatre. Within its walls Ce- 
lestin y. abdicated the pontificate in 
1294, and the Count of Samo and 
Antonello Petrucci were arrested by 
Ferdinand I. of Aragon (p. 107). In 
another room, converted into a chapel 
dedicated to S. Francesco di Paola, 
that saint had his famous interview 
with Ferdinand I. of Aragon as he 
passed through Naples on his way to 
France, whither he had been summoned 
by Louis XL The picture of the saint 
is ascribed to Spagnoletto, In the ch., 
dedicated to Santa Barbara, the Corin- 
thian architecture of its principal 
entrance is by Giuliano da Maiano. It 
exhibits, in the details of its deco- 
rations, after the usual manner of 
the time, an incongruous mixture of 
sacred and profane objects. Over the 
door is a beautiful bas-relief of the 
Virgin and Child, said to be also by 
Majano, with low rel lefts on the lintel of 
subjects from the life of our Saviour, 
and in the centre of the fa9ade a hand* 
some wheel Gothic window. In the 
choir, behind the high altar, is a picture 
of the Adoration of the Magi, which has 
been the subject of much^ controversy. 
Vasari attribute it to Van Eyck, and 
says it is one of the first works which 
he painted in oils, after his discovery or 
•rediscovery of the art of oil painting; 
Vasari adds that it was sent by some 
Italian merchants trading in Flanderi 
as a present to Alfonso I., and that on 
its arrival at Naples every painter hast- 
ened to view it as a curiosity. Others 



ascribe it to ZingarOf or to his pupils 
the Donzelliy on the evidence that the 
countenances of the three Magi, being 
portraits of Alfonso I., Ferdmand I., 
and another royal person of the 
time (perhaps Lucrezia d'Alagni), Van 
Eyck, who painted it in Flanders, 
could not have introduced the portrait 
of the king whom he had never seen. 
To evade this objection it has been 
sometimes stated, though without his- 
torical evidence, that the countenances 
of the Magi were retouched and 
changed into portraits by Lo Zingaro. 
Near the sacristy is a small statue of 
the Virgin with the child in her arms ; 
it is attributed to Giuliano da Maiano by 
Cicognara, who praises the elegance of 
the figures and the richness of the 
drapery ; and on the 1. of the high altar 
a handsome ciborium, with reliefs, pro- 
bably by the same sculptor. The 
whole of the interior of the ch. has 
been remodelled in the ordinary exe- 
crable Spanish taste of the ISthcenty., 
no trace of its original painted archi- 
tecture remaining, except the fa9ade 
and spiral turrets of the facade. 
Behind the choir is a singular 
Winding Stair of 158 steps, leading to 
the summit of the Campanile. It 
has been ascribed to Giovanni da Pisa, 
but it is more probably a work of the 
15th cent. A covered gallery between 
the castle and the psdace afforded a 
means of retreat from the latter in case 
of popular.commotion.* 

The Dockyard and Arsenal adjoin the 
Castel Nuovo and the Royal Palace. 
The Arsenal was founded by the Viceroy 
Mendoza in 1577. The Wet Dock, or 
Darsena, was begun in 1668 from the 
designs of a Csurthusian monk called 
Bonaventura Preati, who, having been a 
carpenter in early life, and acquired 
some knowledge of engineering, in- 
duced the Viceroy Don Pedro of Aragon 
to intrust to him the construction of a 
new dock. In spite of all remonstrance, 

* By a recent decree of tbe Govemijaent all 
the portion of the Castel Nnovo that ouald 
threaten the city is to be pulled down, leaving 
only what may be called the monumental or 
historical portion, described in the above para- 

he persisted in excavating it on the 
narrow site below the palace. During 
the progress of the work, the accumu- 
lation of water proved too much for 
the engineering talents of the monk. 
The Viceroy at length employed the 
able architect Francesco Ficchiattiy who 
completed the works with great ^ill. 
Considerable additions have been made 
to them of late years, particularly 
since the introduction of steam-navi- 
gation. The Darsena now commu- 
nicates with the Porto Militare, and 
by the latter with the sea. 

Castel dell* Ofx>, so called teom its 
oval form, stands on the small island 
which Pliny describes under the name 
of Megaris, and is now joined to the 
mainland of Pizzofalcone by a causeway 
on arches 800 ft. long. Some antiquaries 
supposed Lucullus to have had a villa 
on this island, and identified it with the 
Oastrum Lucidlanum of the 5th cent., to 
which Odoacer consigned Bomulus 
Augustulus at the fall of the Western 
empire. Others have placed the 
Castrum Luoullanum at rfisita, and 
Mazzocchi extended it to the whole 
shore of the Bagnoli, and even to the 
Lake of Agnano. But Chiarito has 
shown that it was on the hill of Pizzofal- 
cone, which in the middle ages was also 
called Echya, Emplu, &c. In the 4th cent, 
this island was given by Constantino 
to the church, and was called the Isoia 
di S. Salvatore. The castle was founded 
in 1154 by William I. on the designs 
of Maestro Buono, It was continued 
by Frederick II., who held within 
its walls a general parliament in 1218, 
and in 1221 intrusted the work to 
Niccol5 da Pisa; it was completed, 
however, as Vasari tells us, by his con- 
temporary Fuccio, Charles I. added 
considerably to the castle, and made it 
occasionally a royal residence. Robert 
the Wise employed Giotto to decorate its 
chapel with frescoes, no trace of which 
now remains. Friendly interviews 
took place in the castle between Giotto 
and his royal patron, who seems to 
have been always happy in the society 
of the witty painter. A century later, 
when Charles Durazzo was besieged by 
Louis of Anjou, the castle appears to 



have been a place of some strength, 
from Froissart's statement : " It is one of 
the strongest castles in the world, and 
stands by enchantment in the sea, so 
that it is impossible to take it but by 
necromancy, or by the help of the 
devil." This allusion to necromancy 
was probably suggested by the fate of the 
magician described in the same chroni- 
cles, who had. by means of his enchant- 
ments^ caused *^ the sea to swell so 
high," that he enabled Charles Durazzo 
to capture within the castle '* the queen 
(Joanna) of Naples and Sir Otho de 
Brunswick ;** and whose offer to prac- 
tise the same treacherous man<£UTre 
upon Charles Durazzo was rewarded 
by the Count of Savoy with the loss of 
his head. The castle was besieged in 
1495 by Ferdinand II. after it had sur- 
rendered to Charles yill. of France, 
and was reduced to ruin by his soldiers ; 
the period of its restoration in its pre- 
sent form is not exactly known. 

Castel Capuano, founded by William 
I., on the designs of Buono^ was com- 
pleted in 1231 by Frederick II. from 
the designs of Faccio. It was the 
Palace of the Suabian, and occasionally 
of the Angevine sovereigns. The mur- 
der of Sergianni Caracciolo, the Grand 
Seneschal and favourite of Joanna II., 
by order of Covella Ruffo, Duchess of 
Sessa, took plae-e within its walls on the 
night of the 25th of August, 1432, after 
a ball. Covella came out of the ball- 
room to see her victim, and stamped 
with her foot on his bloody corpse. 
Don Pedro di Toledo, in 1540, con- 
verted it into a palace, and established 
here the different law-courts which 
were scattered through the city, and 
which still hold their sittings within 
its walls. They consist of several 
rooms, opening out of two large halls 
on the first floor ; the latter, constantly 
filled with lawyers and litigants, off^r 
one of the busiest scenes in Naples. 
From the Criminal Court a stair leads 
to the cells on the ground and lover 
floors, which are capable of receiving 
many hundred inmates, and have of 
late years acquired an unfortunate cele- 
brity as the prisons, the horrors of 
which have been too painfully veri- 

fied on the fall of the last Bourbon^ 
sovereign of Naples. 

Castel Sant* Elmo, called in the 14tli 
cent. Sant* Erasmo, from a chapel dedi- 
cated to that Saint, which once crowned 
the summit of the hill. The origin of 
the name Ermo has given rise to much 
controversy; some writers derive it 
from the EnMB, said to have stood on 
the spot to mark the division of the 
territories of Neapolis and Puteoli ; and 
others from 8, Antelmo, one of the 
founders of the Carthusian order. The 
castle was founded by Robert the Wise 
in 1343. The king's commission to 
his grand chamberlain Giovanni di 
Haya to construct a " fortified palace " 
on this hill still exists. The archi- 
tect was Giaoomo de Sanctis. A centy, 
later, under Ferdinand I., it was 
known as the Castello di S, Martino, 
from the neighbouring monastery. 
This monarch- employed as engineer 
and architect Antonio da Settignano, 
and his friend Andrea da Fiesole, upon 
its works. From this period to the 
middle of the 1 6th cent, no particulars 
of its history have been preserved, and 
nothing more is known than that Don 
Pedro de Toledo built the castle in its 
present form upon the plans of Luigi 
Scriva. Some additions were made to 
the castle in 1641 by the Duke de 
Medina ; and with these exceptions, we 
probably see the very building erected 
by Pedro de Toledo. Sant' Elmo is too 
conspicuous a feature in the landscape 
of Naples to require a detailed descjrip- 
tion. Its enormous walls, with the 
counterscarp and fosses cut in the solid 
tufa, and the mines and subterranean 
passages with which it is said to abound, 
formerly obtained for it the reputa- 
tion of great strength; but it is no 
longer capable of offering any effec- 
tual resistance to a combined at- 
tack by sea and land. Beneath it, 
in the solid rock, is a large cistern. 
The view from the ramparts is very 
fine, embracing not only the city aud 
its bay, but the district of the Campo 
Phlegreii W. of Naples. Since the 
fall of the Bourbon dynasty the Castle 
of St. Elmo has been dismantled and 
its cannon removed, so that the visitor 



will experience no difficulty in obtain- 
ing admittance. 

Castel del Carmine, a massive pile, 
founded by Ferdinand I. in 1484, when 
he enlarged the walls of the city, and 
erected most of the modern gates, and 
enlarged by Don Pedro de Toledo, is 
used as barracks and military prison. 
It was the stronghold of the populace 
in Masaniello's insurrection in 1 647, and 
after that event it was fortified : during 
the political persecutions in 1796 it 
was here that many of the patriots 
were immured by order of Queen Caro- 
line and Cardinal Ruffo. 


The large open spaces called Piazze 
in other parts of Italy, in Naples are 
invariably called Larghi, corresponding 
to our term "squares." The Largo 
del Castello, the largest in Naples, con- 
tains two fountains, called the Fontana 
degliSpecchi, or the Fountain of Mirrors, 
and the Fontana Medina, The latter, 
situated at the extremity of the Largo, 
towards the mole, was built by the 
Viceroy de Medina from the designs of 
Domenico Auria and Fansaga. It con- 
sists of a large shell, sustained by four 
satyrs; in the centre of the shell are 
four sea-horses, with Neptune in the 
midst of them throwing up water from 
the points of his trident. At the base 
are four tritons seated on sea-horses, 
with lions and other animals discharg- 
ing water from their mouths. It is 
the finest fountain in Naples. 

Largo del Gesit, in the Strada Trinitk 
Maggiore, has in its centre the obelisk 
call^ the Gugliadella Concezione, erected 
in 1747, from the designs of Genoino. 
It supports a statue of the Virgin in 
copper gilt. The obelisk is covered 
with sculptured ornaments by Botti- 
glieri and Pagano, in the worst possible 
taste. The colossal bronze statue of 
Philip IV. by Lorenzo Vaccaro, which 

formerly stood in this Largo, was de- 
stroyed by the Austrians in the be- 
ginning of the last cent. In the Largo 
di Monte Oliveto, near this* is a foun- 
tain, designed by Cufaro in 1668, and 
ornamented with a bronze statue of 
Charles V. 

Largo del MercatOf near the ch. of the 
Carmine. — A great market is held here 
e'«ry Monday and Friday, which offers 
many facilities for studying the cos- 
tumes of the lower orders. It is also 
the historical Square of Naples, the 
scene of the tragedy of Conradin in 
1:J68, of the insurrection of Masa- 
niello in 1647, and of the executions in 
1799. There are three fountains, the 
most important of which is called the 
Fontana di Masaniello, 

Largo dello Spirito Santo, or del Mer- 
catello, at the top of the Toledo. — It 
contains the monument erected in 1757 
by the city of Naples in honour of 
Charles III. It was designed by Van- 
vitelli, and consists of a hemicycle sur- 
mounted by a marble balustrade with 
26 statues representing th« virtues of 
that sovereign. The centre, where an 
equestrian statue of the king was to 
be placed, was until lately the entrance 
into the Jesuits' College of S. Sebas- 

Piazza del Fennino, or della Selleria, 
contains the Fontana dell* Atlante, con- 
structed of white marble in 1532, by 
Don Pedro de Toledo, from the designs 
of Luigi Imp6. The statue of Atlas 
by Giovanni da Nola, which gave name 
to the fountain, has disappeared; but 
the dolphins which remain are by him. 
In the Vico Canalone near this Largo 
is the Fontana de* Serpi, so called from 
the bas-relief of an antique head of 
Medusa with serpents. 

Largo del Palazzo Peale, — This fine 
and spacious piazza was reduced to its 
present form in 1810, when four con- 
vents which formerly stood upon the 
site were removed. On one of its sides 
is the Royal Palace ; on another is the 
Palace of the Prince of Salerno ; the 
third, forming a semicircle, is occupied 
by the ch. of S. Francesco di Paola and 
the porticos leading to it In the middle 
of the square are the two colossal eques- 
trian bronze statues of Charles III. and 



of Ferdinand I. of Bourbon. The two 
horses and the statue of Charles are 
by Canova ; the statue of Ferdinand is 
by Call. The history of the figure of 
Charles is an epitome of the political 
changes of Naples itself. It was ori- 
ginally modelled as a statue of Napoleon; 
It was afterwards altered into one of 
Murat, and was finally converted into 
that of ChaYles. In the small square «f 
the Royal Palace beyond the Theatre 
of S. Carlo, on each side of the en- 
trance to the king's gardens, are two sta- 
tues of horses in bronze, cast at Peters- 
burg, and presented to Ferdinand II. 
by the late Emperor of Russia: each 
is held by a naked male figure. In 
the same gardens is an Artesian well, 
producing nearly 300,000 gallons of 
water every 24 hours; more exactly 
(May 31, 1861), 54 cubic metres per 
hour, or 1296 tons in 24 hours. 

Largo della Vittoria, at the eastern 
entrance to the public gardens of the 
Villa Reale. In the centre is a foun- 
tain, supplied from an Artesian well 
sunk here in 1859. 

Among the other fountains may be 
mentioned the Fontana Soapellata, be- 
hind the ch. of the Nunziata, the work 
of Giovanni da Nola in 1541 ; the Fon- 
tana Coccovaia, by the same artist^ in 
the Strada di Porto; the F(mtana del 
Sebeto, erected in 1590 from the de- 
signs of Carlo Fansaga, and decorated 
with statues .of the recumbent Sebetus 
and Tritons ; and the Fontana del Ratto 
d'Europa^ in the Villa Reale, the work 
of Angelo de Vivo in the last cent. 


The Acqua di Carmignano, the modem 
aqueduct of Naples, was constructed by 
Alessandro Ciminello and Cesare Car- 
mi gnano, at their own expense, in the 
beginning of the 1 7th century. It com- 
mences at Sant' Agata de' Goti, and 
conveys the waters of the Isclero into 
the city by a circuit of about 30 m. It 
was so damaged by the earthquake of 

1631, that it became necessary to seek 
a new supply at Maddaloni, whence the 
water is conveyed into the former chan- 
nel at Licignano. From its source to 
that place the channel is covered with 
masonry, and from Licignano to Naples 
it is subterranean. In 1 770 a furmer 
supply was obtained by directing into 
the channel the surplus waters of the 
aqueduct at Caserta. Most of the city 
fountains and houses are supplied from 
this aqueduct. 

The Acqua delta BoUa, derived frooi 
springs on the declivity of Monte Som- 
ma and the hill of Lautrec, is brought 
into the city by a covered channel 5 m. 
long. It supplies the lower quarters of 
the city. The surplus watera of this 
aqueduct are discharged into the Sebeto. 

Qaanto rioco d' onor povero d' onde. 


The water supplied by these aque- 
ducts has often, at first, an un£eivourable 
effect upon strangers. 

City Springs. — ^There are four in 
different quarters of the city : the Tre 
Cannoli in the street of the same name ; 
the Acqua Aquilia in the Strada Conte 
Olivares; the Acqua Dolce at Santa 
Lucia ; and the Acqua del Leone in the 
Mergellina. The latter is in great re- 
pute as the purest spring; the court 
and many of the families residing along 
the Chiaia, which is not supplied with 
good water, send to it daily for their 

Mineral Waters. — ^There are two 
mineral springs within the city, which 
have great local celebrity — the Acqua 
Solfweoy in the Strada S. Lucia, con- 
taining sulphuretted hydrogen and 
carbonic acid gas, at a temperature of 
64^ F. ; it IS used extensively in 
eruptive diseases, and as a general 
alterative, and is said to be as effi- 
cacious as it is popular ; and the Acqua 
Ferrata di FizzofcUcone, a chalybeate 
spring, situated in a cave near the 
sea, below the Casino on the Chia- 
tamone. It is a very useful chaly- 
beate, and the large quantity of carbo- 
nic acid gas which it contains (nearly 
7 cubic inches in a pint) renders it 'a 



grateful stimulant to the stomach. Its 
temperature is 68^. 

Artesian Wells. — ^The inadequate 
supply of water, especially in the upper 
part of the town, induced the Munici- 
pal authorities some years ago to enter 
into a contract with the French en^neer 
M. Degousse, for sinking two Arte- 
sian wells — one near the King's Palace, 
and the other on the Largo della Vit- 
toria, near the Chiaia : the former, after 
many years' labour, and attaining the 
depth of 48G yards below the level of the 
sea, has reached two abundant sources, 
which rise to within a few yards of 
the surface, producing a mass of water 
of 1296 tons daily, but of a qua- 
lity which renders it unfit for domestic 
purposes, being a mineral water in the 
strictest sense, containing an immense 
volume of carbonic acid gas, and hold- 
ing in solution a considerable quantity 
of supercarbonate of lime with a little 
magnesia and iron. To the geologist 
the^e borings will prove interesting. 
After traversing a considerable mass of 
volcanic tufa, the tertiary pliocene strata 
were cut through, and the two springs 
in question appear to be entirely derived 
from them. The second boring, in the 
Largo della Vittoria, has reached a 
spring of purer water. The chief ad- 
vantages to be derived from both will 
be either by employing their water 
as a motive power — or what would be 
still more useful, to flush the pesti- 
lential drains in the lower part of 
the cit^, now a source of so much 
inconvenience and insalubrity. 



The VUla Heale, along the Riviera 
di Chiaia, is the favourite promenade 
of Naples. Its length is about 6000 
feet, and its width about 200; it 
forms a long narrow strip, separated 
from the Riviera di Chiaia by an iron 
railing, and from the sea by a wall and 
parapet. The lower classes, peasants, 
and servants in livery are only admitted 
once a year, at the festival of Sta. 
Maria di Piedigrotta on the 8th Sep- 
tember. The ground is divided into 
walks, planted chiefly with acacias and 
evergreen oaks. One part of it con- 
tains a shrubbery of deciduous plants 
and evergreens, with some Australian 
shrubs, date-palms, bananas, &c. The 
Villa was first laid out in 1 780, to nearly 
half its present length ; another portion 
of the same extent was added in 1807, 
and a third portion of about 1200 feet 
was added in 1834. The first half is in 
the Italian style, the remainder is an 
attempt to imitate the less formal plea- 
sure grounds of England, by the intro- 
duction of winding paths, grottos, a 
loggia towards the sea, and two small 
temples to Virgil and Tasso. The large 
granite basin which forms the central 
foimtain, where formerly the Toro 
Famese stood, was brought in 1825 
from Salerno, where it had been 
brought from Paestum by King Roger. 
The Toro Famese was then removed 
to the Museum, as it was found 
that the sea air was iigurious to the 
marble. Several other ancient sta- 
tues were removed at the same time, 
and replaced by indifferent copies of 
some of the admired works of anti- 

The Riviera di Chiaia, of which the 
Villa Reale may be said to form a part, 
was begun by the Count d'Olivares, 
and completed by the Duke de Medina 
Celi, the last of the Spanish viceroys. 

The Saxta Lucia is one of the fish- 
markets, especially for oysters and 
many varieties of shell-fish, of which 
the Neapolitans are extremely fond. It 
was once a very dirty street; but it 



was enlarged and widened as we now 
see it in 1846. It has a fountain 
adorned with statues and bas-reliefs 
by Domenioo d'Auria and Giovanni da 
Nola, One of the bas-reliefe repre- 
sents Neptune and Amphitrite, the 
other a contest of sea divinities for the 
possession of a nymph. 

The Toledo, — ^This celebrated street, 
the main artery of Naples, is about 
1^ m. in length, from the end of the 
Largo del Palazzo to the Museum ; 
and if we include the Strada di 
Capodimonte, as far as the Ponte 
delta Sanitk., its length is nearly 2 m. 
It was built in 1540 by the Viceroy 
Don Pedro de Toledo, on what was the 
western fosse or ditch of the old city. 
It separates the Naples of the middle 
ages, which lay between it and the 
Castel del Carmine, from the modem 
city, which extends to the westward 
along the S. slopes of Sant' Elmo and 
the Chiaia. It is the greatest thorough- 
fare in Naples, the site of the princpal 
shops; from morning to night it is 
thronged with people and with car- 

The Marinella, a long, open beach, 
extending from the port by the Castel 
del Carmine to the Ponte della Mada- 
lena, was once the head-quarters of the 
Lazzaroniy a class which is now almost 
extinct, or at least has lost those 
distinctive features which travellers 
half a cent, ago so graphically de- 
scribed. The people to whom the 
term is now applied are, for the most 
part, boatmen and fishermen, two of 
the most industrious and hard-working 
classes in Naples. The habits of these 
men are still as amphibious as those 
of their predecessors ; they may be 
seen here standing beside their boats 
in the water for an hour at a time, or 
lying on the beach, and basking in the 
sun, regardless of the stench arising 
from the sewers which empty them- 
selves into the sea. As a class they are 
universally acknowledged to be abste- 
mious and frugal, and they continue, 
what Matthews found them, " a merry, 
joyous race, with a keen relish for 
drollery, and endued with a power of 

feature that is shown in the richest 
exhibitions of comic grimace." — " If 
Naples," says Forsyth, " be a Paradise 
inhabited by devils, I am sure it is by 
merry devils. Even the lowest class 
enjoy every blessing that can make 
the animal happy, — a delicious cli- 
mate, high spirits, a facility of satisfy- 
ing every appetite, and a conscience 
which gives no pain. . . . Yet these 
are men whose persons might stand as 
models to a sculptor; whose gestures 
strike you with the commanding ener^ 
gies of a savage ; whose lanffuaire, 
gaping and broad as it is, when kmdled 
bv passion bursts into oriental meta- 
pnor; whose ideas are cooped, indeed, 
within a narrow circle — ^but a circle in 
which they are invincible." 

The Nolo, built in 1302 by Charles II., 
is one of tiie favourite promenades of 
the lower classes, where we may see 
on every afternoon the national cha- 
racter developed without any restraint. 
Till within a few years ago the Mclo 
was the favourite resort of the Cantab 
stone, who read, sang, and gesticulated 
tales of Rinaldo and his Paladins, out 
of a mediseval poem, called // BinaldOj 
to a motley audience seated on planks 
or standing. The Cantastorie are now 
to be found on the shore of the Mari- 
nella beyond the Molo Piccolo. In the 
later part of the last cent, the Molo 
was often resorted to by Padre Rocco, 
the Dominican, of whose influence 
over his excitable audience many 
anecdotes are told. On one occa- 
sion, it is related, he preached on this 
mole a penitential sermon, and intro- 
duced so many illustrations of terror 
that he soon brought his hearers to 
their knees. While they were thus 
showing every sign of contrition, he 
cried out, ** Now all you who sincerely 
repent of your sins, hold up your 
hands." Every man in the vast multi- 
tude immediately stretched out both his 
hands. " Holy Archangel Michael," ex- 
claimed Rocco, " thou who with thine 
adamantine sword standest at the right 
of the judgment-seat of God, hew me 
off every hand which has been raised 
hypocritically." In an instant every 
hand dropped, and Rocco of course 


poured forth a fresh torrent of elo- 
quent invective against their sins and 
their deceit. 

§ 13. THEATRES. 

The Teatro Reale di San Carlo, adjoin- 
ing the royal palace, is celebrated 
throughout Europe as one of the largest 
buildings dedicated to the Italian opera. 
It owes its origin to Charles III., by 
whose order it was designed by the Sici- 
lian Giovanni Medrano, and built in the 
short space of eight months by the Nea- 
politan architect Angelo Carasale. It 
was iirst opened with great solemnity 
on the 4th Nov. 1737. During the 
performance the king sent for Carasale 
into his presence, and having publicly 
praised him for his work, remarked 
that, as the walls of the theatre were 
contiguous to those of the palace, it 
would have been convenient for the 
royal family had the two buildings 
been connected by a covered passage ; 
« but," he added, •* we will think of it." 
Carasale took the hint, and did not re- 
main idle. No sooner was the evening's 
entertainment concluded than he ap- 
peared before the king, and requested 
him to return to the palace by an ex- 
ternal communication opened in the 
course of three hours. In this short 
space of time walls of enormous thick- 
ness had •been demolished, wooden 
bridges and stfdrcases constructed, and 
the necessary roughness of the work 
disguised by draperies, mirrors, and 
lamps. The theatre, the extempore 
passage, and the merit of Carasale 
form^ the general subject of conver- 
sation. Ere long his accounts were 
called for by the Camera deUa Som- 
maria, and, not being able to satisfy the 
auditors, he was threatened with im- 
prisonment. The beauty of his work, 
the oniversal-applause, the &T0ur of his 


sovereign, the respectability of his past 
life, and his present poverty were of 
no avail to him. The inquiries of the 
Sommaria were renewed, and at last the 
unfortunate Carasale was imprisoned in 
the castle of St. Elmo, where, during 
the first months, he lived on the sup- 
port his family with extreme difficulty 
procured for him, and afterwards was 
obliged to subsist on prison fare. He 
lingered there for several years, till at 
length grief and want put an end to his 
miserable existence. His sons sunk into 
poverty and obscurity, and even the 
very name of the unfortunate architect 
would have been by this time long for- 
gotten, did not the. merit and beauty 
of his work perpetually recall him 
to the memory of posterity. In the 
last cent this theatre resounded with 
the melodious notes of Anfossi, Gu- 
gliekni, Pergolesi, Cimarosa, Paesiello, 
and other great masters of harmony, 
and in our days it has echoed the ap- 
plause of an audience enchanted with 
the melodies of Rossini, Bellini, Doni- 
zetti, and Mercadante. The Donna del 
Lago, the Mos^, the Sonnambula, the 
Lucia, the Giuramento, &c., were first 
brought out on this stage. Having 
been accidentally burnt down in 1816, 
it was rebuilt in the space of seven 
months by Niccolini; but the walls 
having remained uninjured, no altera- 
tion was made in the original form. On 
entering it for the first time, when it is 
lit up at night, the stranger cannot fail 
to be struck with its great size and the 
splendour of its genef^ effect. It has 
SIX tiers of boxes of 32 each. The 
prices are doubled on state occasions. 

The Teatro del Fondo, built in 1778 
in the Strada Molo, the second of the 
two royal theatres, is a miniature San 
Carlo, being under the i^me manage- 
ment, supplied by the same singers, 
dancers, and musicians, and likewise 
devoted exclusively to operas and 
ballets. The two establishments are 
opened on alternate nights. 

The Teatro de* Fiorentini, in the 
street of the same name, is the oldest 
theatre in Naples, and is so called from 
the ch. in its vicinity. It was built in 
the time of the viceroy O&ate for the 



Spanish comedy. It afterwards became 
the theatre of the opera ba£Ga. It is 
now chiefly deyoted to the Italian 
drama, and is very popiUar. 

The Teatro NuooOf in the street of 
the same name, built in 1724 by Cara- 
sale, is chiefly devoted to the opera 

The Teati'o San FerdinandOf near Fonte 
NuoYo, is a theatre of occasional ama- 
teur performances. 

The TecUro delta Fenice, in the Lft^gp 
del Castello, is devoted to opera buna 
and melodrama. It has two perform- 
ances daily. 

The Teatro Partenope^ in the Largo 
delle Pigne, is one of the popular thea- 
tres in which broad comedy and fctrces 
are performed twice a day in the Near 
politan dialect. 

The Teatro di San Carlino, in the 
Largo del Castello, is the head quarters 
of Pulcinella, and the characteristic 
theatre of Naples. The wit of Pulci- 
nella and the humour of the other perr 
formers make it a fistvourite resort of all 
classes. The performance is always in 
the Neapolitan dialect. The awkward- 
ness which is the characteristic of a 
clown is combined in Pulcinella with 
a coarse' but facetious humour, which 
popular licence has made the vehicle 
of satire. He is therefore in great re- 
quest, and his performances take place 
twice a day, morning and evening. 
"What," says Forsyth, "is a drama 
in Naples without Punch, or what is 
Punch out of Naples? Here, in his 
native tongue, and among his own 
countrymen, Punch is a person of real 
power ; he dresses up and retails all Ihe 
drolleries of the day ; he is the channel 
and sometimes the source of the pass- 
ing opinions ; he can inflict ridicule ; 
he could gain'a mob, or keep the whole 
kingdom in good humour. Capponi 
and others consider Punch as a lineal 
representative of the Atellan farcers. 
They find a convincing resemblance 
between his mask and a little chicken- 
nosed figure in bronze which was dis- 
covered at Rome ; and from his nose they 
derive his name, a puUiceno pudlicinella I 
Admitting this descent, we might push 
the origin of Punch back to very re- 
mote antiquity. Punch is a native of 

AteUa, and therefore an Oscan. Now 
the Oscan farces were anterior to any 
sta^e. They intruded on the stage only 
in Its barbarous state, and were dis- 
missed on the first appearance of a 
regular drama. They then appeared as 
exodia on trestles; their mummers 
spoke broad Vohcan; whatever they 
spoke they grimaced like Batus ; they 
retailed all the scandal that passed, as 
poor Mallonia's wrongs. Their parts 
were frequently interwoven with other 
dramas, conaertaque fabellia (says Livy) 
potissimum Atellanis sunt. Quod genus 
ludorum ab Oscis acceptum; and in all 
these respects the Exodiarius corre- 
sponds with the Punch of Naples." 


The traveller who has witnessed the 
imposing church ceremonies at Rome 
will not find much novelty in the 
religious festivals of Naples, except 
that they appear to constitute an im- 
portant element in the amusements of 
the people. Like their Greek pro- 
genitors, the Neapolitans, on sdl occa- 
sions, associate their devotions with 
their pleasures. 

The veneration for the Virjtin Mary 
is universal in Naples. At the angle of 
several streets and in many shops there 
is a picture of the " Madre di Dio," 
with one or two lamps burning per- 
petually before it. It will, therewre, 
not be surprising to find that the two 
great festivals of the people are in 
honour of the Madonna. 

The Festa di Piedigrotta, the great 
popular festival of Naples, which takes 
place on the 8th of ^ptember, is one 
of the most, singular displavs of national 
character and costume which we can 



meet with at the present day in Europe. 
This festa, which is commonly be- 
lieved to have been instituted by 
Charles III. in commemoration of 
the victory of the Spaniards over the 
Austrians, at Velletri, in 1744, dates .at 
least as far back as the middle of the 
16th cent., and the Spanish viceroys 
used to visit the ch. in great state on 
the 8th of September, lining the Chiaia 
with soldiers, as until lately. In honour 
of the day all the available troops of 
the continental dominions, amounting 
often to 30,000 men, were marched 
into the city, and, after having defiled 
before the king and royal family 
in the piazza of the palace, they pro* 
ceed to line the streets from the palace 
to the ch. of Piedigrotta, including the 
long line of the Chiaia. At 4 o'clock 
his majesty and the royal family, in 
their state carriages, attended by the 
ministers and the great officers of the 
Court, and escorted by flying footmen, 
wearing powdered wigs and no hats, 
set out in procession through this 
double line of soldiery, whose brilliant 
uniforms give unusual gaiety to the 
scene. E^ch prince proceeds in a sepa- 
rate carriage and in the order in which 
he would succeed to the throne. After 
performing their devotions at the ch., 
the royal family returned to the palace 
in the same order ; and the rest of the 
day wasa scene of unrestrained rejoicing 
to the thousands of gaily-dressed pea- 
santry who come from all parts of the 
kingdom to swell the throng of merry- 
makers in the city. The Viiia Beale was 
on this day open to all classes, and is 
full of numbers of country people from 
the environs, in their gay national cos- 
tumes. It was formerly the practice 
among the common people of the en- 
virons to stipulate m marrying that 
the bride should be taken to this 

The Feata di Monte Vergme takes 
place on Whit Sunday, and derives 
Its name from the sanctuary of the 
Madonna di Monte V ergine, near Avel- 
lino (Bte. 148). Three days are usu- 
ally devoted to the festival. At the 
sanctuary the Neapolitans are met by 
crowds of pilgrims from every pro- 

IS. Italy.} 

vince in the kingdom; great, therefore, 
are the varieties of costume, and strong- 
ly marked are the shades of national 
character and the differences of dialect, 
to be observed in this gathering of 
many races. Here the ethnologist may 
study the peculiarities of the descend- 
ants of Greeks, Samnites, Etruscans, 
Bruttii, Marsi, Lucanians, Longobards, 
Normans, Suabians, Proveh9^s, and 
Aragonese. The archsologist may ob- 
serve the population of Naples indulg- 
ing in customs and observances which 
denote immistakably their Greek origin. 
Their persons are covered with everv 
variety of ornament ; the heads of both 
men and women are crowned with 
wreaths of flowers and fruits ; in their 
hands they carry garlands or poles, like 
thyrsif surmounted with branches of 
fruit or flowers. On their return home- 
wards, their vehicles are decorated 
with branches of trees intermixed 
with pictures of the Madonna pur- 
chased at her shrine, and their horses 
are gay with ribbons of all hues, and 
frequently with a plume of showy fea- 
thers on their heads. The whole scene 
as fiilly realizes the idea of a Baccha- 
nalian procession as if we could now 
see one emeraing from the gates of old 
Pompeii. On their way home the 
Neapolitans take the road by Nola, 
where they stop on the Sunday evening, 
and the next morning, Whit Monday, 
they proceed to the other great sanc- 
tuary — 

The Madonna deli* Arcot 7 m. from 
Naples, at the foot of Monte Somma. 
A great number of the people, who 
cannot afford to go to Monte Vergine, 
visit the Madonna dell' Arco, where 
they dance the Tarantella and sing 
their national songs. From that place 
to Naples the road is a continued 
scene of dancing, singing, and re- 
joicing, mingled with a kind of rude 

The Festa di Capodimonte takes place 
on the 15th of August, on which day 
the grounds of the Palace of Capodi* 
monte are thrown open to the public, 
and to vehicles of all descriptions ex- 
cept hackney carriages. 



The approach of Chrisfmns is indi- 
cated by the arrival of the Zampognari, 
the bagpipers of the Abruzzi, who 
anmially visit Naples and Rome at this 
season to earn a few ducats from the 
pious by playing their hymns and carols 
beneath the figures of the Madonna. 
The appearance of these mountain 
minstrels, with their pointed hats, their 
brown cloaks, their sandals, and their 
bagpipes, is as sure a sign of Christmas 
as the vast collections of good cheer 
which the Neapolitan tradesmen expose 
with such quaint fancies and devices 
in the principal streets and squares 
during the week preceding Christmas 
Day. On Christmas Eve, and on Christ- 
mas Day, there is a solemn service in 
the cathedral, and another in the Cap- 
pella Reale ; and from that time to tne 
2nd of February, the day of the Purifi- 
cation, the principal churches, and a 
few private houses, exhibit Presepi^ 
or representations of the Nativity. 
In some cases they are worked by 
machinery, displaying not only the 
scenery, the buildings, and the furni- 
ture, but the domestic occupations and 
economy of the Holy Family. The 
king and the royal family usually spend 
the Christmas at Caserta, where a fine 
Presepe is exhibited to the public in one 
of the rooms of the Palace. 

At Easter^ on the Thursday, and on 
Good Friday, the principal churches 
exhibit a representation of the Holy 
Sepulchre. At vespers on the Wed- 
nesday, Thursday, and Friday, the 
Miserere of Zingarelli is sung in the ch. 
of S. Pietro a Maiella, Easter Day is 
a universal holiday; in the morning 
the common people go to Antignano, 
and in the evening to Poggio Reale. 

On Ascension Day there is a festival 
at the Ch. of the Madonna at Scafati, 
near Pompeii, and another at the pretty 
village of Carditello beyond Casoria, 
on the road to Caserta. 

On the Festival of Corpus Ikmini 
the archbishop and clergy in procession 
carry the host to the ch. of Santa Chiara, 
where formerly they were met by the 
king and the royal family. After the 

archbishop had given his benediction 
to the king, his majesty accompanied 
the procession to the cathedral, the 
streets on this occasion being lined 
with troops. On the day of the Qiudtro 
Altari, or the octave of Corpus Domini, 
the host is carried in procession from 
the ch. of S, Giacomo degli Spagnvoli, 
through the streets of S. Carlo and 
Toledo, and back again to S. Giacomo, 
stopping at four altars erected with 
great magnificence for the occasion in 
different parts of the route. The king 
and court witnessed this procession, in 
which the military took part, from the 
balcony of the theatre of S. Carlo. 

Festa di S. Oennaro. — ^There are two 
festivals of S. Januarius, the first in 
May, and the second in September, 
as noticed in our description of the 
Cathedral, where the liquefaction of the 
supposed blood is described. On these 
occasions the theatres and all other 
places of public amusement are closed. 

The Festa di S. Antonio Abate j for the 
blessing of the animals, is observed in 
Naples, as in Rome, on the 17th Janu- 
ary, and is continued on every succeed- 
ing Sunday until Lent. The horses 
and other beasts are brought to the Ch. 
of S. Antonio, gaily caparisoned with 
ribbons, amulets, and other ornaments ; 
and after receiving the benediction, are 
walked three times round the court of 
the ch. The ceremony is very popular 
with the Neapolitans, who show great 
attachment and kindness to their do- 
mestic animals. 

The Lottery, — ^The love of gambling 
in the lottery absorbs the thoughts of 
all classes of society, from the ranks of 
the higher nobility down to the ragged 
lazzarone. Many of the lower orders 
can read nothing but the figures of the 
lottery ticket, and the beggar invests in 
gambling the grani which he implores 
so earnestly fiom the stranger ; the 
numbers run from 1 to 90, five of 
which are drawn every Saturday after- 
noon, in *the large hall of the Castel 
Gapuano. Any sum, however small, 
may be played on any of these num- 
bers in combination not exceeding five. 



The favourite plan is to play on the 
occurrences of the day, which is ac- 
complished by means of a gambling 
dictionary, called La Smorfia, in which 
every word has its corresponding num- 
ber, so that there is no event of public 
or personal interest, be it a battle, a 
murder, a robbery, or a suicide, — no 
topic of domestic life, from an accouche- 
ment to a wedding, which may not be 
made the subject of play. This im- 
moral institution gave the late Govern- 
ment a clear receipt of nearly 220,000/. 
a year ; but is likely to be abolished. 

§ 15. CHURCHES. 

The churches of Naples, upwards of 
300 in number, have received less 
attention from travellers than they de- 
serve. Many of them, though injured 
by earthquakes and disfigured by res- 
torations, especially during the Spanish 
rule in the 17th and 18th cents., are 
remarkable for their architecture and 
their works of art. They contain a 
collection of mediaeval tombs not to be 
met with in any other city of Italy, 
and which not only interest us by 
their historical associations, but afford 
a study of contemporary art and cos- 

The Cathedral (Cattedrale, Duomo)^ 
between the Strada dei Tribunali and 
the Strada dell* Anticaglia, is built 
upon the site of two temples dedi- 
cated to Neptune and Apollo, from 
the ruins of which it probably derived 
its numerous columns of granite and 
ancient marbles. The present building, 
which has retained its original archi- 
tecture in its lofty towers, its aisles, 
and the arches of the nave and that of 
its tribune, dates from the time of 
Charles I. of Anjou, who commenced 
building it in 1272, from the designs of i 
Masnccio I. It was continued by his 
son Charles, by means of a volun- 
tary tax by the people in 1298, and 
dedicated to the Virgin of the Assump- 
tion. It was not completed till 1316, 
under his son Boberti In 1456 it was 

damaged by an earthquake, and was 
restored by Alphonso I., from the de- 
signs of the Donzelli, with the aid of 
the principal families in Naples, who 
built each a portion, and, as a memorial 
of the event, had their arms sculptured 
on the pillars of the building. The 
facade, destroyed by an earthquake in 
1349, was rebuilt in 1407 from the 
designs of Bahoccio; it was modern- 
ised in 1788; and the interior was en- 
tirely restored and repaved in 1837 
at the expense of the late Archbishop 
Caracciolo. The interior consists of 
a Gothic nave and two aisles, sepa- 
rated by pilasters, to which are affixed 
some of the ancient granite col- 
umns above mentioned, supporting 
a series of pointed arches. In the 
1 7th cent Archbishop Inigo Caracciolo 
caused them to be coverea with stucco, 
which was removed by the late prelate 
who presided over the diocese. In 
front of each pilaster is a half figure 
in alto-relievo of some sainted bishop 
of Naples. The paintings on the roof 
of the nave are by Vincenzo da Forli^ F. 
ImparatOy and Santafede ; thejatter was 
so popular an artist in his native city, 
that the people, in the revolt of Masa- 
niello, spared a house which they 
were on the point of setting fire to, 
when they were told that it contained 
two rooms painted by him. The paint- 
ings on the walls of the transept, repre- 
senting saints and the Annunciation^ are 
by Luca Giordano, The S. Cyril and S. 
John Chrysostom are hy Solimena, Over 
the great entrance are Monumental 
Statues of Charles I. of Anjou, 
of Charles Martel, King of Hun- 
gary, eldest son of Charles II., and of 
his wife, Clementia, daughter of Ro- 
dolph of Hapsburg. They were erected 
in 1599 by the Viceroy Olivares. The 
two large pictures over the side doors 
are by Vasari, who was brought from 
Rome in 1546 by Ranuccio Famese, 
then Archbishop of Naples, to pjint 
them for the doors of the organ. The 
one on the 1. door represents the patron 
saintfi of Naples, whose heads are por- 
traits of Paul III., of Alcssandre, 
Ranuccio, Pier Luigi, and Ottavio Far- 
nese ; and of Tiberio Crispo and Asca- 
nio Sforza. The baptismal font, on 

Q 2 



the 1. of the entrance, is an antique 
rase of green basalt, sculptured with 
Bacchanalian emblems, masks, &c., 
in relief. Continuing along the 
1. aisle, in the second chapel is 
a picture of the Incredulity of St. 
Thomas by Marco da Siena, and a 
go€4 bas-relief of the Entomb- 
ment, by Oiowmni da Nola, In the 
ehapelof theSeripandis, 4th in 1. aisle, is 
a large painting of the Assumption, 
by Pgrugino; it formerly stood over 
the high altair : in Ae lower part are 
portraits of the Dbnatarii for whom i 
was executed. In the 1. transept is the 
s^olchral memorial of Andrew King 
oc Hungary, husband of Joanna I^ so 
barbarously murdured at Aversa ; and 
near it the Tomb of Innocent IV^ 
who died at Naples in 1254, erected in 
13)3 b^ tiie Ardibishop, Umberto di 
Montono, from the designs of Pietro 
degli Stefani — it was restored and altered 
in the 16th eent., to which may be 
attributed the anachronism of the triple 
tiara ; close to here is the door leading 
to the Sacristy, with n«meroms portraits 
of Arehbps. of Naples. On the 1. of the 
high altar is the handsome Gothic cha- 
pel of the Capece Galeota family j over 
the altan* of which is an ancient picture 
in. the Byzantine style, represent! nff 
our Saviour between SS. Januarius and 
Athanasius. The tribune or high altar 
offers nothing of interest ; but beneath 
it, and entered by a double flight of 
marble steps, is the richly sculptured 
subterranean chapel, called the ooN' 
TESSioNAii OF San Gennaro, built in 
1497 by Cardinal Oliviero Carafa. The 
marble roof is supported by ten Ionic 
columns, seven of which are of cipol- 
lino. Under the high altar are de- 
posited the remains of St. Januarius, 
and near it is the kneeling statue of Car- 
dinal Carafa. Returning to the ch., 
on the rt. of the choir is the Tocco 
chapel, also in a handsome Gothic style : 
it contains the tomb of St. Asprenus, 
one of the early Bishops of Naples, the 
side walls being decorated with fres- 
coes representing events in his life. The 
Minutoli Chapel, opening out of the 
comer of the rt. transept, is an in- 
teresting monument of the 13th cent., 
illustrating the revival of art in Naples. 

It was designed by Masuccio I. The 
paintings in the upper part illustrating 
the Passion of our Lord are by Tommaso 
degli Stefani; the lower ones, of mem- 
bers of the Minutoli family, by an un- 
known hand, are interesting for the 
costumes, but they all were unmerci- 
fully painted over some years ago. The 
altar is by Pietro degli Stefani, and the 
Tomb of Card. Minutolo over it, sur- 
moun ted by an elaborate Gothic canopy, 
bj Baboccio, The tombs on either 
side, of Archbishops of this family, 
formerly stood in the adjoining transept, 
and are of the 1 4th and 1 5th cents. In 
this chapel Boccaccio has placed the 
scene of the nocturnal adventure of 
Andreuccio, the jockey of Perugia, 
who stole the ruby of the deceased 
Archbishop Minutolo. The rich 
Gothic canopy over the Archbishop's 
chair, at uie extremity of the 
nave, is a fine specimen of the 
sculpture of the 14th cent.; the torse 
columns which support it are re- 
markable for their rich foliation, and 
the canopy for the elegant tracery 
of the arch, both of which, according 
to Professor Willis, have no parallel 
on the N. of the Alps. The Brancia 
chapel contains the fine tomb of Car- 
dinal Carbone by Baboccio ; and in that 
of the Caracciolo Pisquizi family is a 
large wooden crucifix, attributed to 
Masuccio I. 

The Basilica of Santa Restituta is en- 
tered by a door opening out of the 1. 
aisle, and is interesting as having been 
the ancient cathedral for the Greek 
ritual ; like the chapel of St. Januarius, 
it is open to the public on Sunday in the 
forenoon. It is supposed to occupy 
the site of a Temple of Apollo, from 
which were probably derived the 
ancient Corinthian columns which 
surround the nave, and the two hand- 
some fluted ones in white marble on 
each side of the tribune. Near the 
entrance are the tombs of the learned 
Mazzocchi, and of the eminent anti- 
quarian Canonico Jorio. The founda- 
tion, erroneously attributed to Con- 
stantine, dates from the middle of the 
7th cent., but the whole ch. was re- 
stored at the end of the 17th, leaving 



nntoaclied the pointed arches of the 
nave and the Gothic chapels of the rt. 
aisle. On the roof of the nave is a 
painting hy Luca GiordanOy representing 
Santa Restituta's hody carried by Angels 
in a boat towards Ischia. Behind the 
high altar, in the choir, the picture 
of the Virgin with the Archangel 
Michael and Sta. Restituta, by Sil- 
vestro BuonOf with its predella of stories 
of -the saint, is a work of interest in the 
history of art. The chapel o£Sta. Maria 
del PrincipiOj on the 1. side of the ch., 
contains a very ancient mosaic restored 
in the 14th cent. ; it represents the 
Virgin and Child in Byzantine cos- 
tume, and is called "del Principio," 
because it is said to have been the 
first representation of the Vir^n 
venerated in Naples. On the side 
walls are two curious bas-reliefs of the 
8th cent., which formed part of the 
ambones or pulpits erected by Bishop 
Stefano in the 8th (?) cent. ; each 
is divided into 15 compartments, one 
containing histories from the lives 
of SS. Januarius and Eustatius, the 
other of S. Joseph. The cupola of the 
chapel of S, Qwoannx in Fonfe, at the 
extremity of the rt. aisle, formerly 
the baptistery of the ch., is covered 
with paintings and mosaics of a very 
early period ; in the style of some of 
those at Ravenna. In the corners are 
the four evangelists, and in the centra 
of the cupola a handsome Labarum of 
Constantino surmounted by a hand 
holding a wreath, probably of the 
time of Paschal II. 

Opposite to the entrance to the Ba- 
silica of Sta. Restituta, in the rt. aisle of 
the cathedral, is the chapel of San 
Gennabo, cailed also the Cappella del 
Tesoro. It was erected by the citizens in 
fulfilment of a vow made during the 
plague of 1 527 ; but the building was not 
commenced till 1 608. It was completed 
after 29 years, at an expense of 500,000 
ducats. The design of the chapel was 
thrown open to competition of all the 
artists of the time, and the one chosen 
was by the Theatine monk Grimaldi. 
It is considered a very able work. The 
form is that of a Greek cross: the 
magnificent gates, from the designs of 

C. Fonzaga, were executed by Biagio 
Monte and Soppa, occupied 45 years 
of their labour, and cost 32,000 ducats. 
The interior is rich in ornaments. 
It has 6 altars with 42 columns of broo- 
catello marble. The intermediate niches 
contain 19 bronze statues of saints, 
protectors of Naples. The pictures in 
the different chapels, painted on copper, 
are masterpieces of Domeuichiuo and 
Spagnoletto. By Domenichino there are 
5 oil paintings and some frescoes. The 
paintmgs are — 1. The Tomb of St. 
Januarius, with the sick waiting to be 
cured. 2. The Martyrdom of the Saint 
(injured). 8. The Miracle of the Tomb 
restoring a young man to life, as the 
corpse isicarried past in the funeral pro- 
cession. 4. The woman curing the 
sick and deformed with the holy oil 
from the lamp hanging before his 
tomb. 5. The saint curing a demo- 
niac; this picture was miish^ by 
Spa^oletto. The painting by Spa- 
gnoletto in the chs4>el on' the rt. hiuid 
represents the saint coming out of a 
fiery furnace. It is very fine and 
powerful in its gmieral effect. Aii 
these paintings, which had been mi- 
serablv retouched by Andres, a Ger- 
man, m the 1 7th «ent., were restored 
in 1840 by Andrea della Volpe. The 
frescoes of the roof, the lunettes, &c., are 
also by Domenichino. That over the 
door of the Tesoro commemocates the 
eruption of Vesuvius of 1G31 . The 3 fr%»- 
coes within the railing of the princijial 
altar represent — I. San Grennaro before 
Timotheus, whom he restores to sight, 
and by whose order he suffers death. 
2. His exposure to lions who refuse to 
devour him. 3. His torture by being 
suspended to a tree, &c. The cnpola 
was begun by Domenichino^ but he was 
obliged to relinquish it to escape the 
persecutions of the Neapolitan artists. 
It was then intrusted to LaMfranoOt 
who refrused to execute it, unless all 
the work of his great predecessor was 
effiiced. Owdo was also sent for to 
decorate this building, but he was 
very shortly compelled to quit the city 
to escape the threats of Spagnoletto 
and of Corenzio, who tried to poison 
him. The siteCRisTY of the Tesoro con- 
tains a painting by Stanzioni, which 



represents the saint curing a demoniac ; 
some paintings by Giordano; a rich col- 
lection of vestments and sacred ves- 
sels; the silver bust of San Genuaro 
made for Charles II. of Anjou in 1306, 
and covered with the most precious 
gifts from the generosity of different 
sovereigns, and amongst others aparure 
in ememlds and diamonds by Joseph 
Buonaparte during his short reign 
over this kingdom ; 3 silver statues and 
45 busits of the saints protectors of 
Naples; and a beautiful pencil draw- 
ing ,by Dornenichino of San Gennaro's 

In a tabernacle behind the high altar 
are preserved the two phials containing 
the Blood of S, Januarius, The lique- 
faction takes place twice in the year, 
and is each time repeated for ei^ht 
successive days. The first liquefaction 
commences on the Saturday which pre- 
cedes the first Sunday in May, in the 
ch. of S. Chiara, after which the blood 
is reconveyed to the cathedral, where 
the liquefaction is repeated during the 
seven following days. The second 
festival commences in the cathedral on 
the 19th of September, and continues 
in it to the 26th, always including the 
Sunday following the 16th, which is 
the saint's day. When S. Januarius, 
according to the tradition, was exposed 
to be devoured by lions in the amphi- 
theatre of Pozzuoli, the animals pros- 
trated themselves before him and be- 
came tame. This miracle is said to 
have converted so many to Christianity, 
that Dracontius, the proconsul of Cam- 
pania under Diocletian, or his lieute- 
nant Timotheus, ordered the saint to be 
decapitated. The sentence was executed 
at the Solfatara, a.d. 305. The body 
was buried at Pozzuoli until the time 
of Constantine, when it was removed 
to Naples by S. Severus, the bishop, 
and deposited in the ch. of S. Gennaro 
extra Moenia. At the time of this re- 
moval, the woman, who is said to have 
collected the blood at the period of the 
martyrdom, took it in two bottles to S. 
Severus, in whose hands it is said to 
have immediately melted. There is no 
mention of any liquefaction from this 
time down to the 11th cent., but the 
tradition asserts that the bottles were 

concealed during the interval. In the 
9th cent, Sicon, Prince of Benevento, 
removed the body to that city, of which 
the saint had been bishop. In the time 
of Frederick II. it was removed to the 
Abbey of Monte Vergine, where it vras 
forgotten, and it was only rediscovered 
on removing the high altar in 1480. In 
1497 it was brought back to Naples 
with great solemnity, and deposited in 
the cathedral. The tabernacle which 
contains the phials is secured by two 
locks, one key being kept by the mu- 
nicipal authorities, the other by the 

The Liquefaction is the greatest re- 
ligious festival in the capital, and 
such is the importance attached to it 
by the Neapolitans, that all the con-, 
querors of the city have considered it 
necessary to respect it. M. Valery, 
who witnessed it in September 1826, 
gives the following description of the 
proceedings : — 

" Some time before the ceremony, a 
number of women of the lower orders 
placed themselves near the balustrade 
as a place of honour ; some old faces 
among them were singularly character- 
istic. These women are called the re- 
lations of S. Januarius; they pretend 
to be of his family, and when the saint 
delays the liquefaction too long, they 
even think themselves privileged to 
waive all show of respect and to abuse 
him. They repeat in a hoarse voice 
Paternosters, Aves, Credos ; were it not 
in a chapel, no one would have ima- 
gined their horrid clamour to be 
prayers, and for a moment I thought 
the scolding had begun. About ten 
o'clock the phials were taken out of the 
tabernacle; one was like a smelling- 
bottle, but contained only a mere stam 
of blood; the other is rather larger j 
both of them are under glass in a case. 
They were shown to the persons ad- 
mitted within the balustrade. . . . The 
miracle was complete at noon, as it 
had been foretold me, and the roar of 
cannon announced the happy news." 

It is curious to contrast this account 
with the description of the ceremony 
by the Earl of Perth, Lord Chancellor 
of Scotland at the fall of the Stuarts, in. 



"whose cause he was one of the most 
distinguished exiles at the close of the 
1 7th cent. Lord Perth's letters, written 
to his sister, the Countess of Errol, are 
preserved at Drummond Castle, and 
nave been published by the Camden 
Society. In one of them, dated from 
Kome, 1st Febiniary, 1696, is the follow- 
ing account : — 

" The 20th of January we were in- 
vited to goe see Saint Gennaro's ch., 
and the reliques were to be shown me, 
a favour none under sovereign princes 
has had these many years. They are 
kept in a large place in the wall with 
an iron door to it plated over with sil- 
ver ; it has two strong locks, one key 
is kept by the Cardinal-archbishop, 
and the other by the Senate (which is 
composed of six seggie, or seats, for «o 
they call the coiincells), five of nobility, 
and one of the commons, who chuse 
two elects. . . Every one of the six rule- 
iug governors of the Senate (or the 
deputies of the seggie) has a key to the 
great iron chest where the key of the 
armoire of the relicks lyes ; so that all 
the six must agree to let them be seen, 
except the two ordinary times in the 
year when they stand exposed eight 
days, and the senate and bishop must 
both agree, for without both concurr 
only one lock can be opened. Tfeey 
had got the bishop's consent for me, 
but how to gett all the deputies of the 
nobility and the elect of the people to 
concurr was the difficulty ; however, 
my friends gott the deputies to resolve 
to meet ; three mett, but one said, * I 
have a friend a dying, upon whom 
depends my fortune ; he has called me 
at such an hour, it is now so near ap- 
proaching that I hope the stranger 
prince (for so they call all the peers of 
Brittain) will forgive me if I go away.' 
They who were there begged him to 
stay but a moment (for they must be 
all together), but he could not delay. 
So going down he mett the other three 
deputies below, and said that he saw 
God and his saint had a mind I should 
see the miracle, and so he returned, 
and I gott an invitation to go to ch. 
The relicks are exposed in a noble 
chap ell upon the Epistle side of the 
ch., lyned with marble, the cupola 

richly painted, as is all that is not 
marble of the walls. Ten curious sta- 
tues bf saints, patrons of the town, 
done at full length, bigger than the 
naturall, of coppar, stand round the 
chappell high from the floors, and 
statues, to the knees of silver, just as 
big, of the same saints, stand below 
them. The fac^ of the sltsr is of massy 
silver cutt in statues of mezzo-relievo, 
or rising quite out from the front, with 
the historj"^ of Cardinal Carafia's bring- 
ing back the Saint's head to Naples. 
The musick was excellent, and all the 
dukes and princes who were deputies 
must be present. They placed me in 
the first place, gave me that title they 
gave the Vice-Roy (Excelenza), and 
used me with all possible respect. The 
first thing was done was, the archbishop- 
cardinal, his viccar general, in presence 
of a nottary and witnesses, opened his 
lock; then the Duca de Fiumaria, in 
name of all the princes present, opened 
the city's lock, and the old thesaurer 
of the ch. (a man past eighty) stept 
up upon a ladder covered with crimson 
velvet and made like a staire, and first 
took out the Saint's head, put a rich 
mitre upon it, an archbishop's mantle 
about the shoulders of the statue (for 
the head is in the statue of the saint), 
and a rich collar of diamonds with a 
large cross about its neck. Then he 
went back and took out the blood, after 
haveing placed the head upon the Go£h 
pele side of the altar. It is in a glass, 
fiatt and round like the old-fashioned 
vinegar^glasses that were double, but it 
is but single. The blood was just like 
a piece of pitch clotted and hard in the 
glass. They brought us the ^lass to 
look upon, to kiss, and to consider be- 
fore it was brought near unto the head. 
They then placed it upon the other end 
of the altar, called the Epistle sid«, and 
placed it in a rich chasse of silver gilt, 
putting the glass so in the middle as 
that we could see through it, and then 
begun the first mass : at the end the 
old thesaurer came, took out the glass, 
moved it to and fro, but no liquefection: 
thus we past the second likeways, only 
the thesaurer sent the abbat-Pignatelli, 
the Pope's neai'est cousin, to bid me 
take courage, for he saw 1 begun to be 




somewhat troubled, not so much for 
my own disappointment, but because the 
miracle never faills but some grievous 
affliction comes upon the city and king'* 
dom, and I began to reflect that I 
haveing procured the &vour of seeing 
the reUcks,and the miracle failling, they 
might be offended at me, though very 
unjustly. After the third ma«s no 
change appeared but that which had 
made the thesaurer send me word to 
take courage, viz. the blood begune to 
grow of a true sanguine coUour : but 
when the nobles and all the people saw 
the fourth mass past the Gospell and no 
change, you would have heai'd nothins 
but weeping and lamenting, and all 
crying, ' Mercy, good Lord ! pitty your 
poor supplicants ; Holy Saint Gennaro, 
oiir glorious patron ! pray for us that 
our blessed Saviour would not be angry 
with us I' It would have moved a heart 
of stone to have seen the countenances 
of all, both clergy and people, such a 
consternation appeared as if they had 
all been already undone. For my part, 
at sea, at receiving the blessed sacrament 
in my sickness when I thought to ex- 
pire, I never prayed with more fervency 
than I did to obtain of our Lord the 
favour of the blood's liquefaction, and 
God is witness that I prayed that our 
Lord would give me this argument 
towards the conversion of my poor 
sister, that I might say I had seen a 
miracle, which her teachers say are 
ceased. The fourth mass ended with- 
out our haveing the consolation we were 
praying for, and then all begun to be 
in despair of succeeding, except a very 
few, wh^ still continued praying with 
all imaginary fervour. You may judge 
that sitting three and a half hours on 
the cold marble had made my knees 
pretty sore ; but I declare I felt no ex- 
terior pain, so fixed were my thoughts 
upon the desire of being heard in my 
prayers. About the elevation in time 
of the fifth mass, the old thesaurer, who 
was at some distance looking upon the 
glass, cry'd out, * Gloria Patri et Filio 
et Spiritui Sancto,* and run to the 
glass, and brought it to me. The blood 
had liquified so naturally as to the 
colour and' consistency that no blood 
from a vein could appear more lively. 

I took the relick in my arms, and with 
tears of joy kissed it a thousand times, 
and gave God thanks for the favour 
with all the fervour that a heart longing 
with expectation, and full of pleasure 
for being heard, could offer up: and 
indeed, if I could as clearly describe to 
you what I felt, as I am sure that it was 
something more than ordinary,! needed 
no other argument to make you fly into 
the bosome of our dearest mother, the 
Church, which teaches us (what I saw) 
that God is wonderfull in his saints. 
The whole peoplej^called out to heaven 
with acclamations of praise to God, who 
had taken pitty of them ; and they 
were so pleased with me for haveing said 
betwixt the masses that I Was only 
grieved for the city, and not troubled 
at my not being so privileged as to see 
the miracle, that the very commonest 
sort of the people smiled to me as I 
passed along the streets. I heard the 
sixth mass in thanks^ving. And now 
I have described to you one of the 
hapiest forenoons of my life, the re- 
flection of the which I hope shall never 
leave me, and I hope it may one day be 
a morning of benediction to you too ; 
but this must be God's work. The 
Principe Palo, a man of principal 
quality, came to me at the end of the 
sixth mass, and in name of all the 
nobility, gave me the saint's picture, 
stamped on satine, and a silver lace 
about it. It is an admirable thing to 
see blood, shed upwards of one thou- 
sand three hundred years ago, liquify 
at the approach to the head. The 
Roman lady who had gathered it from 
off the ground with a sponge, had in 
squeesing of it into the glass lett a bitt 
of straw fall in too, which one sees in 
the blood to this very day." 

The door of the right aisle opens 
upon the small Piazza di S. Gennaro, 
in the centre of which stands the 
Columtiy erected in 1660, from the de- 
signs of Fansaga, supporting a bronze 
statue of the saint by Finelli. 

Adjoining the Cathedral is the ex- 
tensive Archiepiscopal Palace^ the front 
of which is on the Largo Donnaregina. 
It was founded in the 13th cent, from 
the designs of Maglione^ and entirely 
rebuilt in 1647^ by Cardinal Filomarino. 



In the great hall is an ancient Neapoli- 
tan calendar, 23 palmi in length, and 3 
in height, found last cent, in the walls 
. of S. Giovanni Maggiore. 

S. Agnello Maggiore, commonly called 
S, Agnello a Capo-Napoli, from its stand- 
ing upon one of the highest points of 
the old city, in the Largo S. Agnello, 
not far from the Museum, was founded 
in 1517, on a small chapel which 
dated from the 6th cent. : it has heen 
so altered as to have lost almost 
every trace of its original Gothic archi- 
tecture. The St. Jerome, in mezzo re- 
lievo, in the 1. transept, the recumbept 
statues on the tombs of the Poderico 
family, by one of whom the present ch. 
was erected, and the handsome altar 
and fine statue of Santa Dorothea, in 
rt. transept, are by Giovanni da Nola, 
The handsome high altar erected over 
the grave of the saint, with its bas-re- 
liefs of the Passion below, and the still 
finer one of the Virgin surrounded by 
Angels, with SS. Agnellus and Eusebius 
kneeling before her, is a good work of 
Santacroce, The bas-relief of the Ma- 
donna and Child and the Souls in Pur- 
gatory, in the Lettieri chapel, 5th on 
rt., is by Domenico d* Auria, In the 
opposite chapel is a Greek picture of 
the Virgin, called S, Maria intercede, 
supposed to be of the time of Justinian ; 
the only ancient part of it is the head : 
it is supposed to have been painted 
by Tauro in the 6th centy. The pic- 
ture of S. Carlo by Caracciolo, in the 
2nd chapel on rt., is mentioned by Lanzi 
as one' of the happiest imitations of 
Annibale Caracci. 

8. Agostino degli Scahi, in the Salita 
S. Baffaele, built in 1600, contains two 

Sictures by Santafede^ the S. Francesco 
i Paola, and the Madonna by Marco 
Calabrese ; the Annunciation and the 
Visitation by Giacomo del Po ; the St. 
Thomas of Villanova and the St. 
Nicholas of Tolentiiio by Giordano, 
The pulpit is much admired. 

S, Agostino deUpi Zeoca, in the Via of 
the same name, a spacious ch. with a 
lofty and imposing tower, founded by 
Charles I., and rebuilt from the de- 
signs of Ficchetti in the 17th cent. 
In the third chapel on the rt. is the 

Tomb of Francesco Voppohj the celebrate- 
ed Count of Samo, who with Antonelk) 
Petrucci plotted the famous ** Conspi- 
racy of the Barons " against Ferdinand 
I. of Aragon, by whom both of them 
had been loaded with riches and the 
highest honours of the state. Some 
time after the insurrection had been 
partly subdued, and its chiefs had 'sur- 
rendered -on the feith of a treaty gua- 
ranteed by Spain and the Pope, the 
Count of Samo and Petrucci were 
arrested in the hall (now the Sala 
d*Armi) in the Caste] Nuovo, whilst 
summoned there for the intended mai> 
riage of the count's eldest 'son to the 
daughter of the Duke of Amalfi, the 
king's son-in-law. They were publicly 
beheaded in front of the castle, in 1487, 
a few months after Petrucci's sons, 
imprisoned at the same time, had been 
beheaded in the Lango dd Mercato. 

S, Angelo a Nth, in the Strada Nilo, 
built in 1385, by Card, Brancaccio (ob. 
1428), contains, on the rt. of the high 
altar, his Tonib, erected by order of his 
friend and executor Cosmo de* Medici. 
It was the joint work of Donatello and 
Michehzzo, who has thus described it 
in a letter preserved by Gaye, in the 
"Carteggio degl' Artisti :"— ** Wehave. 
a tomb in hand for Naples, intended for 
Messer Rinaldo, Cardinal de Brancacci, 
of Naples. We are to have 850 florins 
for this tomb, but have to finish and 
take it to Naples at our own expense ; 
they are now working on it at Pisa." 
It consists of a sarcophagus supported 
on the shoulders of three figures in full 
relief; in front of the sarcophagus is a 
bas-relief of the Assumption, by Dona- 
tello, remarkable for beauty and ex- 
pression. On the urn lies the statue of 
the cardinal, and on each side stand 
graceful female figures drawing aside 
the curtains ; above is a bas-relief of 
the Virgin and Child, with SS. Peter 
and Paul, and on the attic a relief of 
the Almighty and two figures of angels 
sounding the last trumpets. Near this 
tomb stands another covered with ele- 
gant arabesque sculptures, of a nephew 
of Card. Brancaccio. On the opposite 
side of the ch. is the monument of 
another Cardinal of the same family, in 
the worst -style of the 17th centy., by the 

o 3 



two Ghettis. The fresco in the lunette Fiammingo, The Lions which support 

over the principal door of the church 
is by Colantonio del Fiore, but being 
outside, and covered with glass, can 
scarcely be seen. It represents SS. Mi- 
chael and Bacculus presenting Card. 
Brancaccio to the Virgin and Infant 
Saviour. The picture of St. Michael, 
at the high altar, is by Marco da Siena. 
Those of St. Michael and St. Andrew in 
the sacristy are by lommaso degli Ste- 
fanif or, according to others, by AnjiolUo 
Ruccadirame, and are interesting as 
examples of art in the middle of the 
15th centy. The side door opening into 
the Strada dei Libraii is decorated with 
arabesque reliefs, land has over it a 
good statue of St. Michael. The Bran- 
caccio Library, founded as a part of this 
establishment in 167.5, is described in 
our account of the Libraries. 

S. Antonio Abate, near the Albergo 
de' Poveri, c(»ntains a work of very 
great interest in the history of art, a 
picture of St. Anthony and two angels, 
painted on a gold ground, with lateral 
compartments, each containing two 
saints, by Niccola del Fiore, according 
to the inscription at its bottom, Nicho- 
laus Thomasi de Flore pictor, 1371. 
The style of this painting bears a close 
resemblance to that of Giotto. 

88, Apostolif in the Largo SS. Apo- 
stoli, not far from the cathedral, a fine 
ch. when in better repair than at pre- 
sent, is said to . have been founded 
by Constantine on the ruins of a 
Temple of Mercury ; it was rebuilt in 
1626 from the designs of Grimaldi. It 
is rich in frescoes and decorations, all 
much faded, and in want of restoration. 
The vault of the nave and choir, the 
four Evangelists on the pendentifs of the 
cupola, the galleiy of the choir, &c., are 
hy Lanfranco; the paintings of the cu- 
pola and the Fall of Lucifer by Benasca ; 
the lunettes of the nave by 8olimena ; 
the two paintings of the ti'ansept by 
Luca Giordano, Over the door is the large 
fresco of the Pool of Bethesda, by Lan- 
franco, the architectural details of which 
are by Viviani, The Filomarini Chapel, 
in the 1. transept, erected in marble,from 
the designs of Borromini, has over the 
altar a bas-relief of a Concert of Chil- 
dren, one of the most graceful works of 

the altar-table are by Finelli, The 
five mosaics, executed by Gio, Battista 
Calandra, are copied from paintings 
by Guide ; the originals were pre- 
sented by Cardinal Filomarino to 
Philip IV. of Spain; the principal sub- 
ject in the centre is the Annunciation. 
The mosaic portraits of the Cardinal 
and his brother Scipio are copies from 
Pietro da Cortona and Valentino by 
the same Calandra. In the PiynatelH 
Chapel, in the opposite transept, and 
entirely similar to the Filomarino, the 
four Virtues round the Immacolata 
are by 8olimena, and a bas-relief repre- 
senting a Concert of Youths by Botti- 
glieri. The fourth chapel on the 1. 
contains a St. Michael by Marco da 
8iena, and some paintings by Benasca, 
Beneath the ch. is a Cemetery, con- 
taining the Tomb of Marini the Poet, 
who died in 1625, with an inscription. 
This cemetery, which was painted by 
Lanfranco, was formerly the scene of a 
strange festival on the day follow- 
ing that of All Saints. The bodies 
of the members of a oonfratemitd, 
who subscribed for the privilege of 
being buried in a peculiar earth 
which prevents decomposition, were 
disinterred on that day and exposed 
to public view in the dresses which 
they wore when living. On this 
occasion the cemetery was decorated 
with flowers and evergreens ; the bodies 
were decked out in all their finery, 
with flowers in their hands; and a 
long inscription over each recorded 
the name, age, and particulars of death. 
The present Archbishop of Naples put' 
an end to this disgusting exhibition 
some years ago. 

Z* Ascensione, in the Largo Ascen- 
sione a Chiaia, rebuilt in 1622 from 
the designs of Fansaga, contains a S. 
Anna, and a beautiful painting of S. 
Michael, both by L, Giordano. 

8, Brigida, in the Strada Santa Bri- 
gida, between the Toledo and Largo del 
Castello, built in 1610 by Dofiia J nana 
Queveda, a Spanish lady, contains 
the Tomh of Luca Giordano, who was 
buried here in 1 705, before the chapel 
of St. Nicholas, on the rt. of the high 
altar. The frescoes of the cupolaj 



painted by him a few years before his 
death, although executed with great 
rapidity, and as a trial of skill against 
his competitor Francesco di Maria, are 
among his best works. The picture 
of St. Nicholas in the chapel of the 
saint is also by Giordano^ and is one of 
his many imitations of Paolo Veronese. 

S. Carlo aU'Areni, in the StradaForia, 
built in 1 602 and afterwards enlarged 
from the designs of Giuseppe Ntwolo, 
had gone to ruin, and the mon«fitery 
annexed to it had been changed into 
barracks. When the cholera raged at 
Naples in 183t> the municipality made 
a vow of restoring this eh. The resto* 
ration was executed by Francesco de 
Cesare, The frescoes of the cupola and 
the picture of S. Gioyanni da Caiasanzio 
are by Gennaro MaldareUit and the S« 
Francesco di Paola by Michele de Napoiu 
The painting of S. Carlo administering 
the sacrament to the dyin^ from the 
plague by Giuseppe MancineUii'AXin%i)i\hQ 
finest works of the modern Neapolitan 
school. The municipality were so much 
pleased with it that they gave the artist 
double the price agreed upon. On th« 
high altar is a fine marble crucifix by 
Michelanjelo Naccarino, which shad re- 
mained long forgotten in a dark comer 
in the ch. of Lo Spirito Santo. 

8. Catenna a FormeUOf near the Porta 
Capuana, is highly decorated, was re- 
built in 1523 on the designs of An- 
tonio Fiorentino. Its cupola was the 
first in Naples, erected in imitation of 
Brunelleschi's at Florence. The bones 
of the generals slain at the siege of 
Otranto in 1481 were buried in this ch. 
It contains a painting of the Virgin 
and St. Thomas Aquinas, in the 1. 
transept, by Francesco Curia, the Epi- 
phany by Silvestro BuonOj and the Coi^ 
version of St. Paul by Marco da Siena, 
The monuments of members of the 
Spinel li di Cariati family, on the piers 
beneath the dome, are by the Milanese 
sculptors Scilla and Giannetto, 

Santa Chiara^ in the Strada Trinity 
Maggiore, founded by Robert the Wise 
in 1310, was begun in the Gothic 
style by a foreign architect, who left 
his work so incomplete that it was 
almost rebuilt about eight years after- 

wards by Masuccio II. The interior, 
having no aisles, presents the appear- 
ance of a large and splendid hall rather 
than that of a ch., and in its original 
state must have appeared much vaster, 
before the present ranges of chapels and 
the galleries above encroached on its 
width. The elaborate ornaments with 
which the bad taste of the last centy. 
has overloaded it cost 100,000 ducats, 
By the advice of Boccaccio, King 
Robert brought Giotto from Florence 
and commissioned him to cover the 
interior with frescoes. The subjects 
of these paintings were taken from 
the Old and New Testaments: those 
from the Apocalypse were said to have 
been treated in accordance with the 
suggestiozis of Dante. Whatever may 
have been their merits, they were de- 
stroyed in the 18th cent, by a Spanish 
magistrate called Barionuovo, who or- 
dered all Giotto's paintings to be white- 
washed over, saying that they gave to 
the ch. a dark and melancholy look. 
Nothing but a head of theVirgin, called 
the Madonna delle Grazie, in one of the 
chapels on the 1., escaped this act of Ibe- 
rian Vandalism, On the 1. of the prin- 
cipal entrance is the tomb of Onofrio 
di. Perma^ the secretary of king La- 
dislaus, by Babocdo, which has been 
converted into an altar, over which 
there is a fresco of the Madonna throned, 
an interesting work of Francesco, son 
of Maestro Simone, the friend of Giotto, 
The first picture on the roof ©f the 
ch., the large one in the middle, repre- 
senting David playing the harp before 
the ark, and the 3 circular paintings 
on the roof over the choir, are by &■ 
Conaa, The S. Chiara putting the Sara- 
cens to flight, on the roof of the navQ, 
is by Francesco di Mura ; the third 
large fresco, and the Four Doctors 
of the Church by the side of it, are 
by Bonito, The Four Virtues are by 
Conoa, The Holy Sacrament over the* 
High Altar, and the picture over- the 
principal entrance, representing King 
Robert assisting at the building of the 
ch., are by Francesco di Mura, The 
Sanfelice Chapel, 8th on 1., contains 
a picture of the Crucifixion by Lau' 
franco, and an ancient Sarcophagus orna- 
mented with a bas-relief of the mar-. 



riage of Protesilaus and Laodamia, 
which serves as the Tomb of Cesare 
Sanfelice» Duke of BodL .The Balzo 
Chapel contains the Tombs of the family 
of that name, with some rude ba8-relie& 
reclining on the sepulchral urns ; and 
the Cito Chapel has some sculpture by 
Sammartino, But the chief interest of 
the ch. is derived from its Royal. 
Tombs, which are valuable monuments 
in the history of mediaeval sculpture. 
Behind the high altar is the magnificent 
Gothic Monument of King Robert 
THE Wise, designed during that 
monarch's lifetime by MastMcio If,, but 
only finished in 1350. A few days be- 
fore his death, in 1343, Robert assumed 
the habit of the Franciscan order : he 
is here, therefore, represented in his 
double character of a king and a friar ; 
as the one he is seated above, attired in 
his royal robes; in the other he is 
lying on his sarcophagus in the gown 
of a Franciscan, but bearing the crown« 
The inscription on the tomb— Cemite 
Rc^ertum regem virtuie refertumr^s at- 
tributed to Petrarch. This beautiful 
monument is barbarously hidden behind 
the unseemly high altar of the last 
centy., and can only be seen by ascend- 
ing to the back of the latter by 
means of a ladder. On the rt. side of 
this is the very beautiful Gotluc Tomb 
OF Charles the Iu^u&triouSi Duke 
OF Calabria, the eldest son of Robert. 
On a bas-relief in front of the sar- 
cophagus on which the young prinpe 
is extended in his royal robes covered 
with fleurs-de-lis, he is represented 
sitting in state in the midst of the 
great officers and barons of the king* 
dom, his feet resting on what have 
been supposed to represent a wolf 
drinking with the lamb at the same 
fountain, to typify the peace which 
might have been expected from his 
reign, although both animals appear to 
belong to the porcine species. This 
tomb is also the work of Masuecio Il», 
and is engraved by Cicognara as a 
fine example of the sculpture of the 
14th cent. The next is a monument 
supposed to be of Mary of Valois, the 
wife of Charles the Illustrious. It also 
consists of an elaborate Gothic canopy, 
the sepulchral urn being supported by 

figures of Abundance, and resting on 
lions couchant. This tomb has often 
been described as that of her daughter 
Queen Joanna I., and an inscription 
giv«n, which does not exist on it. 
Queen Joanna, accordinji; to contem- 
porary historians, was privatelv buried 
m an unknown comer of the ch. : Ossa 
Neaqx^m reportata, wMo exequiarum, 
NSQUB sepulcbi Bonobb, m aede divae 
Clarae, et loNOTo loco sita sunt. On the- 
opposite side are the tombs^lst, of 
Mary, the infant child of Charles the 
Illustrious, with a recumbent 6tatae» 
ob. 1343; 2nd, of Mart, Empress of 
Constantinople and DuctiEss of Du*- 
razzo, sister of Joanna I., and the wife 
of three husbands, — Charles I., Duke of 
Durazzo, Roberto del Balzo, Count of 
Avellino, and Philip of Taranto, titu- 
lar Elmperor of Constantinople. Mary^ 
is represented in her imperial robes, 
with a crown on her head. 3rd, of 
Agnese and Clementia, two of the four, 
daughters of Mary of Durazzo by her 
first husband Charles. Aonesb, like 
her mother, is mentiwied in the in- 
scription as Empress of Constantinople, 
having married, after the death of her 
first husband (Can della Scala), Gia* 
oomo del Balzo, Prince of Taranto, 
Emperor of' Constantinople. Cle« 
MENTiA died unmarried. Near the 
door on the 1. side of the ch. is the 
small elegant monument of Antonia 
G audi NO, by Giovaimi da Nola, with a 
graceful inscription by Antonio Epi- 
euro, the poet, commemorating her 
death at the age of 14, on the very 
day appointed for ker nuptials. Near 
here, on one of the piecs, is the altar of 
the Madonna delle Grazie, whose paint- 
ing of the Virgin and Child, almost 
hidden under v^uable ex-votos, is as* 
cribed to Giotto. On the wall of the next 
chapel is the tomb of Raimokdo Ca- 
bano, who rose from being a Moorish 
slave to the post of High Seneschal of 
the kingdom under Joanna I., and was 
a chief actor in the murder of her 
husband. The chapel on the rt. of the 
high altar, over the door of which is a 
fleur-de-lis, is the burial'piace of the 
royal family of the house of Bourbou. 
It contains the Tombs of Prince 
Philip, eldest son, and of five other 



children of Charles III. The inscrip- 
tions were written by Mazzocchi. The 
Tomb of Prince Philip is by Sanmar- 
ttno. On each side of the high altar 
are two handsome torse marble columns 
which serve as candelabras. The pulpit, 
a work of the 13th cent., has some 
strange reliefs on its front and sides of 
scenes of martyrdoms ; the bas-reliefs 
in front of the gallery over the en- 
trance, and which support the oi^an, 
deserve examination ; they represent 
the history and martyrdom of St. 
Catherine of Alexandria. There 
are several ancient sepulchral monu- 
ments in the chapels of Sta. Chiara, 
both interesting from the persons 
whose memory they perpetuate and 
as works of art. The Refedtory of 
the small Convent of Franciscan Friars 
attached to the ch. of Santa Chiara has 
a large freseo attributed by some to 
Giotto, but more probablj by Maestro 
Simone, in which the Virgin and St. 
John the Evangelist, St. Francis and 
St. Anthony, and St. Louts, colossal 
fibres, are presenting to the Saviour, 
King Robert, his son Charles, his second 
Queen Sancia, and Mary of Valois, with 
other members of the family. Of the 
original Gothic fh^ade the central door 
and a circular window above alone re- 
main. The adjoining monastery, im- 
mense in extent, contained, until lately, 
400 nuns of the order of St. Claire or 
Chiara. *" 

The Cctmptmiie of Sta. Chiara is one of 
the most successfhl works of Masucoio 
Il.f or, according to others, of his 
pu{»l Giacomo de Sanctis, and is classed 
among the finest specimens of archi- 
tecture after the Revival. It was ori- 
ginally intended to consist of five 
stories, each illustrative of one of the 
five orders : 1 . the Tuscan ; 2. the Doric ; 
3. the Ionic ; 4. the Corinthian ; 5. the 
Composite; the death of King Robert 
left It unfinished at the second, which 
was added in the 15th, and the Ionic 
in the early part of the 1 7th cent. In 
Masaniello's insurrection in 1647, this 
Campanile was seized and fortified by 
the Spanish troops against the populace, 
who had fortifiedtheDellaRocca Palace 

Crocelle, in the Chiataoaione, so called 

from having originally been the Ch. of 
the Crociferi, is also called S. Maria a 
Cappella. It contains a monument to 
the Rev. J. C. Eustace, author of the 
* Classical Tour,' with an inscription in 
Latin verse by the Abate Campbell. 

8. Domenico Maggiore, in the Largo S. 
Domenico, founded in 1285 by Charles 
II. from the designs of Masuccio I., 
in spite of the alterations made by 
Novello in the 15th, and by Vac- 
caro and other architects in the 17th 
and 18th centuries, is still a noble 
edifice in the Gothic style. It is rich 
in works of art which, like the ch. 
itself, carry us back to the middle 
ages. Of late years, 1850-53, it has 
undergone an extensive restoration and 
ornamentation, and at present is one of 
the most magnificent of the sacred edi- 
fices of Naples : it consists of a fine 
nave and side aisles, out of which open 
7 chapels on either side. The Gothic 
arches and pilasters have been regilt 
and covered with stucco ; the fiat 
roof, of the 18th centy., is out of 
keeping with the rest of the building ; 
over the arches are paintings of Saints 
of the Order ofSt. Dominick; the tran- 
septs are short: and although the tri- 
bune retains its Gothic character, it 
has been spoiled by placing the large 
oi^n at the extremity of its choir. 
Commencing on the rt., the first chapel 
is dedicated to St. Martin, now belonging 
to the Salutzo fiimily, originally to the 
Carafiu{ : the arch over the entrance is 
handsomely decorated with arabesques 
and military emblems ; the picture of 
the Virgin with SS. Dominick and 
Martin, over the altar, is by Andrea da 
Salerno ; the unseemly monument of 
a General Saluzzo is in the worst taste 
of the age we live in. The Madonna in 
the sefcond chapd is by A. F)^anoo ; the 
S. Dominick and Magdalen on either 
side are by Stefcmone ; the fine tomb of 
Archbishop Brancaccio,to whose fisimily 
this and the next chapel belonged, is 
of 1341. The 3rd chapel is covered 
with frescoes by Agnolo Franco, repre- 
senting the Crucifixion, the Supper of 
Emmaus, the Resurrection, and St. John 
the Evangelist. The 4th or Capece 
chapel contains a good altarpiece of the 
, Crucifixion by Oirohmo Capece, The 



5th has a painting of ^. Charles over 
the altar; and on the side walls, 2 of the 
Baptism in the Jordan and of the* As- 
cension, by Andrea da Salerno. Follows 
the Dentice chapel, only remarkable for 
the tomb of Dialto da Kaone, who died 
in 1338. The 7th chapel, or of the 
Crucifix, forms a ch. in itself, as it con- 
sistsof several chapels: it hasmany good 
sepulchral monuments. Over the prin- 
cipal alt^r is the picture, by Tommaso 
degli Stefani, of the crucifix which is said 
to have spoken to St. Thomas Aquinas 
when composing his Samma Theologies, 
The crucifix is said to have exclaimed, 
*^ Bene scripsisti de me, Thoma; quam 
ergo mercedem recipieaf" to which the 
saint replied, " Noti aliam nisi te," In 
front of the altar is a bas-relief in the 
most Berninesque style, representing 
that miraculous conversation ; on each 
side of the altar are pictures of Christ 
bearing the Cross, by Gian Vincemo 
Corso, and a Deposition, attributed to 
h Zinjaro or to Albert Durer, The 
tomb on the 1. of this altar, of Fran- 
cesco Carafa, is a fine work of Agnello 
del Fiore ; that opposite, of another 
member of the same family who died 
in 1470, was commenced by the same 
artist, but finished by GiXnjanni da Nola, 
In the small chapel on 1. of the prin- 
cipal altar is a good tomb of Ettore 
Carafa, Count of Ruvo, covered with 
military emblems and arabesques; in 
the adjoining one a fresco of the Vir- 
gin, by a painter of the early Nea- 
politan school; and in that next the 
entrance from the nave, the painting of 
the Madonna della Rosa» attributed to 
Maestro Simone, but hidden behind a 
miserable modem daub : on the opposite 
side, amongst several sepulchral monu- 
ments, is the fine tomb of Conte Buc- 
chianico, and of his wife Catarinella 
Orsini, one of the most remarkable 
works of Agnello del Fiore, The 8th 
chapel, which forms the entrance to the 
Sacristy, and is dedicated to S. Thomas 
Aquinas, has a good altarpiece of the 
patron Saint by Luoa Giordano, The 
fine Gothic tombs of members of the 
Aquino family date from the mid^e of 
the 14th centy. : above that (on the rt.) 
of a Countess of Terranuova, with its 
beautiful recumbent statue, is the 

earliest painting of Maestro Simone, re- 
presenting the Virgin and Child upon a 
gold ground. The Sacristy , richly paved 
in marble, contains the presses made 
of the roots of trees, the roof painted 
in fresco by Solimena, and a fine 
picture of the Annunciation by an un- 
known hand. Bat it is chiefly cele- 
brated for 45 large wooden chests 
covered with crimson velvet, among 
which are ten of the Princes and 
Princesses of the Aragonese dy- 
nasty. Most of them have no inscrip- 
tion. The remains which at present 
can be identified are those of Fer- 
dinand I.; Ferdinand II.; his aunt 
and queen Joanna, daughter of Ferdi- 
nand I.; Isabella, daughter of Alfonso 
II., the -wife of Gian Galeazzo Sforza, 
Duke of Milan; Mary, wife of the 
Marchese del Vasto ; Cardinal Louis 
MoNCADA d'Aragona, Dukc of Mont- 
alto; Maria della Cerda, Duchess 
of Montalto, &c. The chest which con- 
tained the remains of Alfonso I. of 
Aragon is still here with its inscription, 
but the body was removed to Spain 
in 1666 by the viceroy Don Pedro 
d' Aragon. In another chest is pre- 
served and shown to the curious, still 
dressed in Spanish costume, what was 
considered to be the body of Atito^ 
nello Petruccif who, born in humble life 
at Teano, rose by his talents to be 
secretary of Ferdinand I., and joined 
the "Conspiracy of the Borons," but 
which has been lately shown to 'be 
that of his son Giovanni Antonio Pe- 
trucci, Count of Policastro, who was 
executed a few months before his father. 
In another chest are the bones of Fer- 
dinando Francesco c?'-4t?a/os, the celebrated 
Marquis of Pescara, one of the heroes 
of the battle of Ravenna, and the con- 
queror of Francis I. at the battle of 
Pavia. He died of his wounds at Milan 
in his 36th year. Over his tomb hang his 
portrait and his banner. He was the 
husband of the jio less celebrated Vit* 
toria Colonna, who retired to Ischia 
at his death, and there sung his 
achievements in verses which ob- 
tained for her the title of divine. In 
the Tesoro adjoining the Sacristy was 
preserved, in a silver casket, the heart of 
Charles II. of Anjou ; it was stolen on 



the suppression of the convent during 
the French occupation. Entering the 
rt. transept is a good bas-relief of St. 
Jerome; and beyond the chapel of St. 
Hyacinth, on the adjoining pier, the 
monument of Galeazzo Pandone by 
Giov. da Nola^ the bust of the deceased, 
the arabesques and angels on which are 
very beautiful. High up in the wall of 
this transept is the tomb of Bertrando del 
Balzo, attributed to Masuccio IT, A door 
leads from this transept into what once 
formed a part of the primitive ch., 
and now a passage to one of the side 
entrances ; here are ranged several 
tombsj^the most remarkable being those 
of Porzia Capece and of her husband, 
IJernardino Rota, by Giw, da Nola, Of 
the 2 chapels opening from this pas- 
sage,the first, dedicated to St. Dominick, 
has over the altar a painting in 3 com- 
partments ; the central one, of the patron 
Saint, is said to be his portrait, brought 
here by the first members of his order, 
10 years after his death ; on each side 
are figures of saints, and upon the wall 
on the 1. the Madonna delle Grazie, with 
St. John the Baptist and St. Antonio, by 
Agnolo Franco, There are some good 
tombs of the 14th centy. lately removed 
here from other parts of the ch. lu the 
next chapel is a triptych over the altar, 
of the Virgin, Child, and. Saints, of the 
early Neapolitan school, and some monu- 
ments of the 16th centy. Between 
these chapels is the monument to 
Zingarelli, the eminent musical com- 
poser. The only objects of any in- 
terest in the chapels opening out of 
the rt. transept are 2 pictures on each 
side of the altar of S. Domenico So- 
riano (on the rt. of the choir), repre- 
senting S. Catherine and Mary Magda- 
len, by the brothers J)onzello ; in which 
have been introduced the portraits ot 
Alfonso 1. and of the celebrated Lucre- 
zia d'Alagni. The high altar is a mag- 
nificent specimen of Florentine mosaic 
• work; erected in 1652, from the designs 
of Cosimo Fanzaga, with 2 seats on 
either side, and 2 fine columns of 
verde antico supporting candelabra. 
There is nothing of peculiar interest in 
the 4 chapels opening out of the 1. tran- 
sept, if we except the copy by L. Gior- 
dano of the Annunciation by Titian in 

the Pi^atelli chapel, under a hand- 
some cinquecento arch ; the original 
painting was carried off to Spain by the 
Viceroy d'Aragona. Near this chapel 
is a second bas-relief of St. Jerome bj' 
Agnello del Fiore, The tomb built into the 
wall of this transept, above the Pigna- 
telli chapel, is that of Giovanni di Du- 
razzo and of Philip Prince of Taranto, 
who died in 1332-35, sons of King 
Charles d' An jou n.,with alon^ inscrip- 
tion in leonine verses. Entering from 
here the 1. aisle, the first (or 8th reckon- 
ing from the principal entrance), dedi- 
cated to St. Maria delta Neve, has over 
its altar a beautiful alto-relievo, with a 
statue of the Virgin in the centre, and S. 
Matthew and S. John the Baptist on 
either side, perhaps the chef-d'oeuvre 
of Giovanni da Nola ; it was erected 
in 1536 by Fabio Arcella, and stood 
formerly against one of the piers of 
the great arch. In this chapel and 
near the side door is the monument 
of the poet Marini ; and opposite 
that of Bartolommeo Pipi, with a good 
statue of Christ standing on the urn. 
Over the sarcophagus of the former 
is his bronze bust, by the Milanese 
sculptor Bartolommeo Visc(»iti, This 
monument has a peculiar interest for 
Englishmen. The bust was executed 
by order of Giovan Battista Manso, 
Marchese di VUla, the heir and execu- 
tor of the poet, and placed in a chapel 
under his (Manso' s) house in the Largo, 
de* Gerolomini, where it was seen, 
towards 1640 by Milton, who thus 
alludes to it. 

Ille (J/artnt) itidem, moriens, iibi (ifttnso) 

soli debita vales, 
Ossa tibi soli, supremaque vota reliqtiit : 
Kec manes pietas tua clara fefellit amici ; 
Vidimus arridentem operoso ex aere poetam. 

SylwTuin — Mansus. 

At the death of Manso, in 1645, his 
house and chapel having been pulled 
down, the bust was lost. It was found, 
however, in 1682, and, in compliance 
with Manso's will, his executors placed 
it on a monument they erected in the 
cloisters of the monastery of S. Agnello 
Maggiore. When this monastery was 
suppressed, the monument, by order of 
King Murat, was placed in 1813 where 
it is now seen. In the next or Kuffo Bag- 



nara cbapel the picture of tbe Martyr- 
dom of St. Catherine is hy Leonardo da 
Pistoia; and some tombs, amongst which 
is that of Leonardo Tomacelli (1519) : 
the notorious Cardinal Fabricio Ruffo, 
who played so important a part in the 
commotions of the Neapolitan provinces 
at the close of the last centy^ in connex- 
ion with Lord Nelson and Lady Hamil- 
ton, is buried here. In the 6th chapel 
are several tombs of the Carafa family, 
and a painting of a saint dressing the 
wounds of St. Sebastian. The next 
chapel contains several tombs of the 
Andrea family, and a picture of S. 
Antoninus, with the portrait of the 
Donatorio below. The 4th chapel, 
belonging to the Rota family, has a 
fine statue of St. John the Baptist over 
the altar, by Giovanni da Nola; and 
the monument of the poet Bernar- 
dino Rota, with figures of the Amo and 
Tiber, by Domenico (f Auria, In the 
drd chapel on 1. the picture of the Mar- 
tyrdom of St. John the Evangelist is 
by Scipione Gaetano : the tomb of An- 
tonio Carafa, called Malizia, with a 
recumbent figure, under a canopy, en- 
closed with curtains, and supported by 
statues, is a good specimen of the sepul- 
chral monuments of the 15th centy.. 
The 2nd chapel on 1., dedicated to the 
Rosary, is in the style of the 17th cent., 
and is only remarkable for its miracu- 
lous Madonna di S. Andrea. The last 
chapel in 1. aisle, or next the principal 
entrance, dedicated to St. Stephen, 
contains a painting of the Infant 
Christ placing a crown on the head 
of St. Joseph, by Luca Giordano, 
and on the side walls an Adoration 
of the Magi, attributed to Albert 
Durer, and a Holy Family by Andrea 
da Salerno. The adjoining Monas- 
tery contains many memorials of St. 
Thomas Aquinas, who was, in 1272, a 
professor in the university which was 
then established within its walls. His 
salary, fixed by Charles of Anjou him- 
self, was an ounce of gold monthly, 
equal to twenty shillings at the pre- 
sent time. The little cell in which 
the great theologian studied is still 
shown (it has been converted into a 
chapel); as well as his lecture-room 
and a fragment of his chair. Several 

of his works were composed here, and 
such was his fame that his lectures 
were frequently attended by the sove- 
reign and the principal personages of 
the kingdom. In this hall the Accademia 
Pontaniana holds its sittings. In the 
adjoining piazza dt San Domenico, 
which opens into the Strada Trinitk 
Mi^giore, is what, is called the Obelisk 
of sT Domenico, supporting a bronze 
statue of the saint. It was designed 
by Fansagaf and finished by Vctccaro in 

S, Filippo Neri, or the Gerdomim, in 
the Strada de' Tribunali, is one of the 
most richly decorated churches in 
Naples. It was erected in 1592 from 
the designs of Dionisio di Bartohmmeo, 
The facade, originally designed by 
Dionisio Lazzari, was altered and 
covered with marbles in the last cent. 
by Ferdinando Faga^ and is much 
admired. The statues are by Sanmar^ 
tino. The cupola is also the work of 
Lazzari. The interior consists of a nave 
and two aisles, divided by 12 columns 
of grey granite with Corinthian capi- 
tals, supporting a heavy architrave, 
with a heavier flat roof composed 
of compartments containing gilt bas- 
relieft. The whole ch. is loaded with 
an excess of ornament. The frescoes 
in the lunettes over the columns are 
by Benasca, The large fresco over 
the principal entrance, representing 
Christ driving the dealers out of the 
Temple, is a celebrated work by Ltica 
Gtordano, with the architectural details 
by Moscaiiello, The large picture over 
the high altar is by Giovan Bernardino 
Siciliano, and the two upon the side- 
walls by Corenzio, The rich chapel of 
S. Filippo Neri, on the 1. of the Tri- 
bune, desiffned by Giacomo Lazzari, 
has a painting on the cupola, represent- 
ing S. Filippo in glory, by Solimena, 
with numerous figures. The picture 
of the patron saint at the altaf is a 
copy from Guido, who is said to have 
retouched it. The chapel Delia Cou- 
cezione has a cupola painted by Simo- 
nelli, representing Judith showing the 
head of Holofemes to his army ; and a 
picture of the Conception by Cesare 
Fraoanzano, The chapel of the Ruffo 



Scilla family, in the 1. transept, is de- 
corated with fluted Corinthian columns 
and six statues b^ Pietro Bernini^ father 
of Lorenzo, a picture of the Nativity 
by Bonccdliy and an Annunciation above 
by Santafede. The chapel of S. Fran- 
cesco d'Assisi (5th on 1.) contains a 
picture of the saint in prayer by Guido, 
executed as one of the competitors for 
executing the frescoes in the chapel of 
St. Januarius in the cathedral. In 
front of this chapel, at the foot of a 
pillar of the nave, is the sepulchral in- 
scription of GlAMBATTISTA VlOO, the 
author of the " Scienza Nuova," who 
died in 1744, and who with his wife 
was buried here. The chapel of S. 
' Agnese (6th on 1.) contains pictures by 
Roncalli and Giordano. In the chapels 
in the opposite aisle, the Adoration 
of the Magi is by Corenzio; the St. 
Jerome (in 3rd on 1.) struck with awe 
at the sound of the last trumpet is by 
Gessi; the picture in the Chapel of the 
Holy Sacrament is the last work of 
Santafede^ who was cut off by death 
before it was completed ; the S. Alessio 
dying (over the 1st altar on 1.) is by 
Pietro da Cortona, The Sacristy con- 
tains several good paintings; among 
which may be mentioned the fine 
fresco of S. Filippo Neri in glory, by 
L, Giordano ; on the altar the Baptism of 
the Saviour, and over the altar the 
Flight into Egypt, by Guido; the 
mother of Zebedee conversing with 
the Saviour, by Santafede; an Ecce 
Homo and St. Andrew the Apostle, by 
Spagnoletto ; the Crucifixion, by Marco 
da Siena ; heads of the Apostles, by 
Domenichino; St. Francis, by Tinto- 
retto : two pictures of Christ bearing 
the Cross, by Bassano; the Nativity 
and the Adoration of the Magi, by An- 
drea di Salerno; a Holy Family, by 
Mignard ; Jacob and the Angel, l^ 
Palma Vecchio ; St. Sebastian, by Cav, 
ArpmOy etc. The vast Monasterv ad- 
joining contains the library, which is 
described under the head of Librakies. 
S, IVnncesco di Paola, in the Largo 
del Real Palazzo, was begun in 1817 
from the designs of Bianchi of Lugano, 
and is a kind of imitation of the Pan- 
theon. The front fiicing the square 
is of a different style from that of 

the more noble edifice at Borne, 
consisting of an Ionic portico of 6 
columns and 2 pilasters surmounted 
by a bare tympanum ; the Ionic capitals 
have been also disfigured by the in- 
troduction of fleurs-de-lis into their 
ornaments : the interior is covered with 
costly marbles ; 30 Corinthian columns 
of Mondragone marble encircle the 
interior of the building; the confes- 
sionals are also of marble. The high 
altar, designed by Fuga and brought 
here from the ch. of SS. Apostoli, 
where it formerly stood, is all of most 
costly jasper and lapis lazuli. The 
two columns near it, which support 
candelabras, are of a rare Egyptian 
breccia, and were taken from the ch. of 
S. Severino. . The paintings and sculp- 
ture are all by modem artists. Begin- 
ning on the 1. of the principal door, 
the statue of S. Athanasius is by 
Angeh Solaro, and the Death of S. Jo- 
seph by Camillo Guerra, Neapolitans; 
the statue of S. Augustin by Tommaso 
Amaud, a Neapolitan, and the Madonna 
della Concezione by Gasparo Landi, a 
Roman; the statue of S. Mark by Fab- 
hris, a Venetian, and the St. Nicholas 
by Natale Carta, a Sicilian ; the statue 
of St. John the Evangelist by Tenerani ; 
the picture behind the high altar, of St. 
Francesco di Paolo restoring a dead 
youth to life, by Camuccini of Rome ; 
the statue of St. Matthew by Finelli, and 
the Last Sacrament of St. Ferdinand 
of Castille by Pietro Benvenuti, of 
Florence; the statue of S. Luke by 
Antonio Cali, a Sicilian; the statue of 
St. Ambrose by Tito Angelini, a Neapo- 
litan, and the Death of S. Andrea da 
Avellino hy Tommaso de Vivo; the last 
statue is St. John Chrysostomus by 
Gennaro Catty a Sicilian. A double 
gallery runs round the church, at the 
base of the drum, which supports the 
cupola, and at its summit the vault is 
divided into square sunk panels with 
rosettes ; the central opening is much 
too small for the proportions of Ihe 
cupola, whilst the latter is much higher 
in proportion to its width than the 
all-perfect one of the Pantheon. 

8. Gennaro extra moenia. See Cata- 
combs, page 86. 



Girolomini, See S. Hlippo Neri, 

Gesit Vecchio, in the Strada del Sal* 
vatore: it "was formerly attached to 
the large convent of the Jesuits, now 
occupied hy the University, built from 
the designs o{ Marco di Pino: it contains 
a picture by Solimena, and a Nativity by 
Marco da Siena. 

Gesit Nuovo, in the Largo Triniti 
Maggiore, built in 1584, in the palace 
of Koberto Sanseverino, Prince of Sa- 
lerno, from the designs of Pietro Pw- 
redo, a Jesuit. It is in the form of a 
Greek Cross. It formerly had a cu- 
pola magnificently painted by Xan- 
franco, but it was destroyed by the dread- 
ful earthquake of 1683, and nothing 
remains of the paintings but the four 
Evangelists on the pendeotifs. Over 
the principal entrance is a large fresco 
of Heliodorus driven from the Ten • 
pie, by Solimena, The chapel of Sta. 
Anna contains some frescoes by Soli- 
mena^ executed when he was only in 
his 18 th year. The frescoes over the 
arch of the high altar are by Stan- 
zioni. In the chapel of S. Ignazio, in the 
1. transept, erected by Carlo Gesualdo, 
Prince of Venosa, and designed by 
Fansaja, by whom also are the statues 
of David and Jeremiah in it, the pic- 
ture of the saint is by Imparato, the 
three frescoes above it by Spagnoletto, 
and the roof by Corenzio. 1 n the oppo- 
site chapel the S. Francis Xavier is by 
Bernardino Siciliano, and the .3 paint- 
ings above it by L. Giordano. The 
high altar is a magnificent specimen of 
modem decorative art, having 3 large 
bronze bas-reliefs, that of the Last 
Supper in the centre, and busts of 6 
saints of the order of the Jesuits in 
front, and a splendid tabernacle. The 
pillars and walls of this fine ch., as we 
see in many belonging to the Jesuits, 
are covered with a great variety of 
coloured marbles. The ch. of Gesu 
NuDvo and the adjoining convent were 
the head-qnarters of the Jesuit Order 
in the kingdom of Naples before their 
expulsion in 1860. 

S. Giacomo degli Spagnuoli, in the 
Largo del Castello, was built in 1540 
by Don Pedro de Toledo, from the 

designs of Ferdinando Manlio, as the 
ch. of an hospital for Spanish soldiers. 
The tombs on the sides of the stairs at 
the entrance from the piazza are by 
Michelanjelo Naccarino. The Tomb of 
Don Pedro de Toledo, behind the 
high altar, is the maste/piece of Gio- 
vanni da Nola. This noble monument 
ment consists of a square sarcophagus 
on a richly decorated pedestal. Four 
very graceful female statues emblema- 
tical of Justice, Prudence, Fortitude, 
and Temperance, stand at the comers 
of the pedestal. In front of the sar- 
cophagus is the inscription ; on the 
three others are bas-reliefs of his entry 
into Naples, of the achievements of the 
viceroy in the wars with the Turks, 
and particularly his victory over the 
corsair Barbarossa. These bas-reliefs 
were much admired by Ribera, L. 
Giordano, Massimo, and Vaccaro, 
and Salvator Rosa often copied them. 
Upon the sarcophagus kneel statues of 
Don Pedro de Toledo and of his wife 
in the attitude of prayer. The sculp- 
ture and decorations of the monu- 
ment are in the best taste. The tomb 
was intended to be sent to Spain, but 
it remained in Naples by order of Don 
Pedro's son. Among the pictures in 
this ch. are — ^in the 3rd chapel on 1., 
a Deposition by Bernardo Lama; in 
the 4th on rt., the Virgin and Saints 
by Bernardino Siciliano; the S. Gia- 
como by Marco da Siena, in the 5th 
chapel on 1. ; the Assumption in the 
1. transept, by Angelo Criscuolo ; and a 
picture of the Virgin and Child under 
glass attributed to Andrea del Sarto. 

8. Giorgio de' Genovest, in the Strada 
Medina, contains the celebrated picture 
of St. George killing the Dragon, by 
Andrea da Salerno, 

S. Giovanni a Carhonara, in the Strada 
Carbonara, opening out of a forecourt 
on 1., and approached by a flight of steps 
designed by Sanfelice, was built in 1344, 
from the designs of Masuccio II., and 
restored and enlarged hj Kin^ Ladis- 
laus in 1400. It still retams in its outer 
walls some traces of its original pointed 
architecture, which, except in its choir 
and magnificent sepulchral monu- 



ments, has entirely disappeared in the 
interior^ since the unseemly restorations 
lately completed. The interior is a 
frightful specimen of Neapolitan mo- 
dernization. Opposite the entrance is 
the Capella de* Miroballi, by an unknown 
artist of the 15th cent., enclosing the 
tomb of Trojano Miroballo, the far 
vourite of Ferdinand I. of Aragon ; it 
has something of the form of a triumphal 
arch, supported on crouching lions, and 
surmounted by a statue of St. Michael. 
In the pilasters which support the arch 
of the high altar are the statues of St. 
Augustin and St. John the Baptist. Im- 
mediately behind the high altar is the 
Tomb of King Ladislaus, erected to 
him by his sister Joanna II. in 1414. It 
is the masterpiece of Andrea CicGhne, 
and is as high as the ch. itself. It has 
three stories : the lower, now con- 
cealed by the altar, consists of four 
colossal statues of Virtues, which sup- 
port the rest of the monument. In 
the centre of the second, in a round- 
headed niche, are the crowned figures 
of Ladislaus and Joanna seated on 
their thrones, with two Virtues sitting 
near them, in pointed niches on each 
side of the central one. The Sarco- 
phagus containing the body is placed 
on the third story of the monument, 
over the central group ; in front of it 
are 4 sitting crowned figures; lying 
upon it a figure of Ladislaus enclosed 
in a tent-like covering with curtains, 
which angels are drawing aside: the 
w^hole is surmounted by a pointed 
canopy, with the inscription Divus 
Ladislaus. On the summit is the 
equestrian statue of the young, king, 
sword in hand. On each side of the 
tomb are frescoes of St. John the Baptist 
and St. Januarius by Bisuccio. Behind 
this monument, in the Gothic chapel 
of the Caracciolo del Sole family, is 
the tomb, also by Ciccione, of Ser- 
GiASNi Caracciolo, grand seneschal 
of the kingdom, the favourite of Joanna 
II., assassinated at the instigation of 
Covella Ruffo, Duchess of Sessa, in 
1432. A statue of. Sergianni, holding 
the dagger in his hand, in allusion to his 
murder, stands on the sarcophagus, 
w^hich is supported in front by statues 
of saints chietiy military. The lines on 

the sarcophagus were written by Lo- 
renzo Valla. The frescoes of this 
chapel, representing the life of the 
Madonna, are by Leonardo da Bisuccio 
of Milan, one of the last pupils of 
Giotto. The chapel of the Caracciolo 
Rossi, on the 1. of the high altar, was de- 
signed by Girolamo Santacroce, in the 
form of a circular temple. The statues 
of four apostles, in the lateral niches, 
executed as a trial of skill, are S. Peter 
by Merliano, S. Paul by Santacroce, S. 
Andrew by CaccaveUo, and S. James by 
the Spaniard Fedro della Piatta. The 
mezzo-rilievo of the Epiphany and 
the bas-reliefs of the altar are also 
by Delia Piatta. The two Evangelists 
and the small statues of S. John and 
S. Sebastian on the same altar are by 
Santacroce. The tombs of Galeazzo on 1., 
and Colantonio Caracciolo opposite, are 
by Scilla and Domenico d'Auria. The two 
half busts, with their pedestals, are by 
Finelli and Sanmartino. In the sacristy, 
formerly the Somma chapel, is a small 
picture by Bassano, a bas-relief on the 
altar attributed to Caccavello, and fifteen 
of the series of twenty-four frescoes 
which Vasari was commissioned to 
paint for this ch. in 1646. They 
represent subjects from the Old Testa- 
ment and from the life of S. John the 
Baptist; the landscapes and most of 
the figures are by Voceno, whom Va- 
sari induced to accompany him to 
Naples as his assistant. The presses 
of walnut-wood were executed from 
Vasari's designs. At the opposite ex- 
tremity of the ch. of S. Giovanni a 
Carbonara is the handsome chapter- 
house, covered with frescoes; and 
opening out of the court from which 
we entered the ch., the chapel of 
the Seripandis, over the altar of 
which is a large painting of the Cruci- 
fixion by Vasari: At the top of the 
stairs, before descending into the street, 
is another chapel, with a pointed de- 
corated door, dedicated to Sta. Monica, 
which has been also barbarously mo- 
dernized; it contains the fine sepul- 
chral monument of Ferdinando di San 
Severino, Prince of Bisignano, with 
several small statues, and the name of 
the sculptor, Ojms Andreaw de Fhrentia, 
for its only inscription. Beneath the. 



stairs leading to the eh. is the chapel of 
the Madmna Consoiatrice, erected to 
coDtain a miraculoas image of the 
Virgin, discovered by the felling of the 
stucco of the wall in a joiner's hoose, 
which began by restoring sight to the 
tradesman's blind daughter, as we are 
told by a long inscription, as also of the 
numerous other miracles, such as releas- 
ing Naples from earthiiuakes, eruptions 
of Vesuvius, and civil commotions, 
which it produced — a singular memo- 
rial of ignorant creduli tv. The adjoin- 
ing convent of S. G. C, founded by King 
Ladislaus, is possessed by monks of the 
Order of S. Augustin. Close to 8. Owo. 
a Carbonara was the arena for gladiar 
torial games, which were kept up so 
late as the time of Petrarch, who de- 
scribes the horror with which he wit- 
nessed one of these combats in the 
presence of Queen Joanna I. and King 

S. Giovanni Evangelista^ in the Strada 
de' Tribunali, was built in 1492 from 
some old designs of Ciccione^ by Pontanus 
the poet, who covered the interior with 
Greek inscriptions, and had two of the 
outer walls inscribed with moral 
maxims. His own monument and that 
which he erected to his friend Pietro 
Compadre bear inscriptions from his 

S. Giovanni Maggiore^ in the Largo 
of that name, stands on the site of a 
temple erected by Hadrian to Antinous. 
It was reduced to its present form in 
1 685 by Lazzari. The bas-relief of the 
Baptism of the Saviour, in the 3rd 
chapel on 1., is one of the best works of 

S, Giovanni de' Pappacoda, adjoining 
the ch. of S. Giovanni Maggiore, is re- 
markable for its Gothic portal by An- 
tonio BcUtoccio. It has a square-headed 
doorway, with a pointed arch above it, 
c>ontaiuing statues of the Virgin and 
Child between St. John the Baptist and 
St. John the Evangelist, with an inscrip- 
tion commemorating the building of 
the ch. by Artusio PappacModa, the 
grand seneschal of King Ladislaus, in 
141 fi. Above is an elaborate niche 
containing a statue of S. John with 
three pinnacles j that in the centre is 

surmounted by St Michael slaying the 
Dragon; the other two by statues of 
the Archangels Raphael and Gabriel. 
The bell-tower is of the same p«riod, 
and has remains of handsome decora- 
tions : notwithstanding the rudeness of 
the figures as works of art, the eflfect of 
the whole is very good. The interior 
has been entirely modernized ; it con- 
tains 2 good sepulchral monuments 
of the 16th centv. (1536) to a cardinal 
and a bishop of the family of Pappa- 
coda, and 4 statues of the Evangelists, 
probably of the school of Merliana 
This ch. is seldom open except early on 
Sundays. The large palace in front was 
built by the Filomariuis, Dukes della 

S. Qregorio ArmenOj in the Vico of 
the same name, between the Strada de' 
Tribunali and the Strada di San Biagio 
di Librai, attached to a convent of Be- 
nedictine nuns, stands on the site of a 
temple of Ceres. It is preceded by a 
deep portico, over which, m the interior 
of the ch.^ is the gallery for the nuns. 
The intenor is overcharged with stuc- 
coes and gilt ornaments, which give to 
it a heavy appearance : many of the 
frescoes, especially those on the cupola 
and pendentives, are much injured, the 
best bein^ over the arch on rt. of high 
altar. The three paintings over the 
entrance and those of the cupola and 
the choir are by L, Giordano, who 
painted his own portrait, at the age of 
50, on the 1. over the door, as the man 
pointing out to the Greek nuns where 
to settle. The Ascension is by Bernardo 
Lama, the Annunciation is by Pacecoo 
deJRosa, and the S. Benedict adoring the 
Virgin is attributed to Spagnoletto. 

L'lncoronata, in the Strada Me- 
dina, retains its Gothic architecture in 
its groined roof, and some of its 
chapels: the present ch. consists of 
the nave and left aisle, the rt. one 
having been destroyed ; it is consider- 
ably below the level of the adjoining 
street. It was built by Joanna I., 
to commemorate her coronation and 
marriage with her cousin Louis of Ta- 
ranto, in 1352. She incorporated in 
the ch. the ancient Capella Regis, or 
chapel of the Palazzo di Giustizia 



of King Robert, in which her mar- 
riage had taken place, and where 
Giotto had painted his frescoes men- 
tioned by Petrarch. These celebrated 
frescoes are over the gallery at 
the W. end, from which they only 
can be seen, where the four triangular 
compartments of the Gothic roof con- 
tain each two subjects, seven of which 
are illustrative of the Seven Sacra- 
ments. The eighth is an allegorical 
representation of the Triumph of Reli- 
gion, in which are King Robert and 
his son Charles the Illustrious, dressed 
in purple robes, holding banners covered 
with the fleurs de lys. Baptism is re- 
presented by immersion. The two half 
figures of this fresco, one of which is 
crowned with laurel, have been sup- 
posed, without any authority, to be 
portraits of Laura and Petrarch. Holy 
orders are illustrated by the pope con- 
secrating a young priest, reuitence 
is represented by a woman confessing 
to a priest, while three penitents are 
leaving th^ church, clothed in black 
and scouring themselves with rods. 
Marriage by the nuptials of a prince 
and princess, surrounded with sdl the 
pomp and festivities,; of a court. The 
prince is putting the ring on the finger 
of his bnde, while a priest is joining 
their hands. They are accompanied 
by a brilliant court : several knights 
and ladies are dancing, while priests, 
musicians, and attendants complete the 
different groups, amongst which the 
portrait of Dante may be recognised. 
It is impossible not to be struck 
with the extreme beauty of the 
female heads and the gracefulness 
of their attitudes. Indeed, the pic- 
ture is a perfect study of the cos- 
tume and manners of the early part of 
the 1 4th cent. In the Chapel del Cro- 
cifisso, at the end of the 1. aisle, there 
are other paintings in the style of 
Giotto, attributed to Gennaro di Cokt, 
a pupil of Maestro Simone. They repre- 
sent, on the 1. wall, the coronation of 
Queen Joanna with her husband Louis, 
the Carthusians doing homage to her 
for her rich endowment of the hospital 
which she founded near this ch. and 
presented to their order, and in the 
spaces of the wall her marriage and 

other events of her life. The paintings 
on the opposite wall are relative to S. 
Martin, a battle or tournament, and two 
equestrian figures of SS. George and 
Martin: these frescoes have suffered 
greatly, but have been partially cleaned ; 
those upon the wall behind the altar 
are entirely effaced. 

S, Lorenzo, in the small Largo of the 
same name, in the Strada dei Tribunali, 
was begun by Charles d*Anjou I., to 
commemorate his victory over Manfred 
at Benevento, and finished under Robert, 
in 1324. It stands on the site of the 
Basilica Augtistalis, where the senate and 
people of Naples held their assemblies. 
It was built in the Gothic style from 
the designs of Maglione, a pupil of 
Nicola da Pisa, and completed by Ma- 
succio II,y who raised the vast arch 
which separates the aisle from the 
choir. S. Lorenzo retains little of its 
Gothic style, except the great mar- 
ble doorway, and the ambulatory with 
chapels which surround the choir, and 
which, although neglected and unte- 
nanted, are fine specimens of the archi* 
tecture of the period. A window in the 
chapter-house is also remarkable. The 
3 statues and bas-reliefs with the ara- 
besque ornaments of the high altar are 
by Giov.da Nola, The S. Anthony on a 
gold ground, in the chapel of the saint 
in the 1. transept, and one of the Coro- 
nation of Kin^ Robert by his elder 
brother St. Louis, bishop of Toulouse, 
in the 7th chapel on rt., are by Maestro 
Simone. The St. Francis giving the 
Rules of his Order is attributed to 
Antonio Solario (lo Zin^ro). The large 
picture over the principal entrance 
IS by Vincenzo Corso, and represents 
our Saviour and St. Francis above, and 
several cotemporaiy portraits below 
adoring the Sacrament. The choir 
contains the tombs of Catherine 
OF MssTsajL, first wife of Charles 
the *' illustrious " Duke of Calabria 
by Masftccio IT, It stands over the 
doorway leading into it, and is flanked 
by spiral columns resting on lions, 
supporting a Gothic canopy, on the 
front of which, turned towards the 
ambulatory, is abas-relief of St. Francis 
receiving the Stigmata. Of Joanna 
DuBAZZo^ Countess of £u, and her hus- 



band Robert d* Artois, both of whom 
died of poison on the same day in 
1387. It is supported by three Virtues. 
Above two angels are drawing back 
a curtain to show the recumbent 
figures. On the opposite side of the 
choir are the tombs of the Princess 
Mary, the infant daughter of King 
Charles Durazzo, and of Charles I., 
Duke of Durazzo, who was killed 
at Aversa by Louis of Hungary, 
for the part he took in the murder 
of King Andrew. The two latter 
tombs are by Masucoio IT. On the 
pavement near the entrance of the 1st 
ch., and on the rt., is the sepulchral 
slab memorial of Oiamhattista Porta, 
the celebrated natural philosopher of 
the 15th cent., who suggested the first 
plan of an Encyclopsedia. Giamhattista 
Manso, Marchese di Villa, the friend and 
biographer of Tasso, is buried in the 
chapel of his family. In the passage 
leading from the ambulatory into the 
sacristy is the tomb, in a good style of 
art, of Aniello Arcamone, and an an- 
cient bas-relief of Pope Leo II.; and 
in the small chapel in the 1. aisle, next 
to that of S. Anthony, the monument of 
Vito Pisanello, minister of Ferdinand 
the Catholic, ob. 1528. In the cloister 
is the tomb of Ludovico Aldemoresco, 
executed in 1414 by Antonio Baboccio, 
and remarkable for its elaborate bas- 
relief. In this ch. Boccaccio, whilst 
leaning against one of the columns in 
meditation, first beheld the fair dam- 
sel whom he celebrated under the name 
of Fiammetta, and who is supposed to 
have been Mary, the natural daughter 
of King Robert. In the chapter-house 
Alfonso I. held the Parliament in which 
his natural son Ferdinand was pro- 
claimed heir to the throne, by the title 
of Duke of Calabria. Petrarch resided 
for some time in the adjoining mo- 
nastery; and on the night df the 
24th Nov. 1343, frightened by a 
hermit who predicted the awful storm 
of which he has left us so interesting a 
description in a letter to Giovanni Co- 
lonna, descended from his cell into the 
ch. to join in prayer with the friars. 

S. Maria degli Angeliy in the Largo 
Pizzofalcone, built in 1600 from the 

designs of Grimaldi, is considered by 
Milizia the best proportioned ch. in 
Naples. It contains a fine Holy Fa- 
mily by Andrea Vaccaro, mentioned by 
Lanzi among his best works, a S. An- 
drew by De Matteis, a S. Carlo Borromeo 
by Bernardino Siciliano, and in the Ge- 
race chapel a Holy Family by Katale 
Carta, and some bas-reliefs by Tito An- 

S. Maria dell* Annunziata, in the Stra- 
da deir Annunziata, was founded by 
Queen Sancia, wife of King Robert, 
and, with the exception of the sacristy 
and treasury, entirely destroyed by fire 
in 1757. It was rebuilt in 1782 by 
Vanvitelli, and is now in point of clas- 
sical architecture one of the finest 
churches in Naples. The grand cornice 
is supported by 44 Corinthian columns 
of Carrara marble, partly sunk into 
the walls. The paintings over the high 
altar and in the transepts are by Fi^an- 
cesco di Mura. In the passage out of 
the rt. aisle are two bas-reliefs, of the 
Nativity and Deposition, and of the 
Descent from the Cross — the latter by 
Merliano, The CarafFa chapel on the 
I. is highly but heavily decorated. From 
this opens the treasury, a large hall, 
with an altar at one end, and the tomb 
of Alfonso Sancio at the other, which, 
as well as the bas-relief over it, is by 
Domenico d* Auria. The frescoes of 
the roof of the sacristy and treasury 
are by Corenzio. The presses of the 
sacristy are covered with bas-reliefs, 
illustrating the life of the Saviour, by 
Merliano. In front of the high altar a 
slab of marble with an inscription re- 
cords the Sepulchre of Joanna II. 
This ch. is attached to the foundling 
hospital of the Annunziata, one of the 
most extensive charitable institutions 
in Naples. 

;S^. Maria del Carmine, in the -Piazza 
del Mercato was founded by Margaret 
of Austria, who arrived too late to 
save the life of her unfortunate son, 
and devoted the sum she had brought 
for his ransom to found a ch. and con- 
vent, in which his body and that of his 
cousin might repose. The Grave op 
CoNRADiN is behind the high altar. It 
has no other inscription than the letters 



R. C. C. (Begis Conradini Corpm.) A 
cafe not far from the ch, is said to 
stand on the place of his execu- 
tion, and in the ch. of Santa Croce 
al Mercato, called also the Furga- 
torio del Mercato, was preserved the 
small porphyry column which formerly 
marked the spot, and which had the 
following inscription in Lombard cha- 
racters, commemorating the treachery 
of Giovanni Frangipani, Count of As- 
tura, by whom Conradin was betrayed : 

Asturis ungue leo pullum rapiens aquilinum 
Uic deplumavit, acephalumque dedit. 

The present king of Bavaria, when 
Crown Prince, a descendant of the 
house of HohenstaufFen, erected here 
in 1847 a marble statue to his me- 
mory. It was modelled by Thor- 
waldsen and executed by Schdpp of 
Munich, by whom also are the bas-re- 
liefs on its pedestal, representing Con- 
radin taking leave of his mother Eliza- 
beth ; and the separation of Conradin 
and Frederick of Baden on the scaffold, 
before their execution. The ch. contains 
also the grave of Masaniello, and the 
Tombs of the Marques del Carpio, Car- 
dinal Grimani, and Aniello Falcone the 
painter. It has on the roodloft a cele- 
brated Crucifix, which the Neapolitans 
hold in great veneration, and which 
is exposed to view only on the first 
and last days of the year. It is said 
to have bowed its head at the siege 
of 1439, to avoid a cannon-ball which 
passed through the ch. The interior 
of this ch., originally of pointed archi- 
tecture, has been altered, as many 
other edifices in Naples, during the 
Spanish rule; there still remain, how- 
ever, some traces of the Gothic style in 
the groined roof of the nave and tribune. 
The Campanile was designed by Con- 
forte, and finished by Nuvolo. 

8, Maria della Catena, in the Strada 
Sta. Lucia, erected in 1576 by the 
fishermen of the district, has a me- 
lancholy interest. It contains the 
grave of the unfortunate Admiral Ca- 
racciolo, whose body was buried here 
when it rose to the surface three days 
after his execution in 1796 — one of 
the greatest blots on the fame of 
Nelson, who, if he did not directly 

contribute to if, did nothing, certainly, 
as he might easily have done, to pre- 
vent it. 

8. Maria Donna Begina, in the Largo 
Donnaregina, behind the cathedral, is 
a handsome ch., consisting of a wide 
nave, out of which open 4 chapels on 
either side. It is attached to a large 
convent of Franciscan nuns, and de- 
rives its name from Queen Mary of 
Hungary, wife of Charles II., who* 
erected the convent and died within 
its walls in 1323. The present ch. was 
rebuilt in 1620, from the designs of 
Guarini, The painting of the high 
altar, in 9 compartments, is by Cri- 
scuolo. The two large ones, on the side 
walls of the choir, representing the 
Marriage of Cana, and Christ preach- 
ing, and the frescoes in the inner choir, 
are by L. Giordano, In the Comunichino, 
on one side of the high altar, is the 
Tomb of Quebn Marv, with her re- 
cumbent statue, the work of Masuccio 
n. There are some good paintings in 
the different chapels. The brass and 
iron railings which separate them from 
the nave are in very good taste. One 
side of the square in which this ch. is 
situated is formed by the Archiepis- 
copal Palace. 

8, Marixj, Dorma Eomita, in the Strada 
del Salvatore, rebuilt in 1 535, by Mor- 
mandi. In the Duce chapel is a paint- 
ing of the Virgin with St. Paul and 
St. John, by Micco Spadaro, and two 
Greek inscriptions referring to Theo- 
dore duke of Naples in 821. 

8. Maria delle Grazie a capo Napoli, 
in the Largo of the same name, was 
built in 1500 from the designs of Gia- 
como de 8anctis, The oil paintings and 
frescoes over the door, the tribune, 
the roof of the nave and transept, and 
on the upper walls, are all by Beinaschi, 
who was buried in this ch. in 1688. 
The Giustiniani and Senescalli chapels 
contain the two rival bas-reliefs of Mer- 
hano and 8antacroce, The work of the 
former is the Incredulity of St. Thomas'; 
that of Santacroce is the Deposition from 
the Cross. The statue of the Madonna 
delle Grazie in the sacristy is also by 
Merliano. The fine bas-relief of the 
Conversion of St. Paul is by Domenico 



d' Auria. The painting of the Madon- 
na, with S. Auarew and S. Matthew, 
on the 1. altar of the transept, is one 
of the best works of Andrea da Salerno. 
On the Ft. of the great door is the 
tomb of a member of the Braucaccio 
family by Caccavello : on the 1. is 
another tomb of the same family by 

S, Maria la Nuovay in the Largo of 
the saxAe name, out of the Stra£i di 
Montoliveto, erected in 1268, by Gio- 
vanni da Pisa, on the site of the an- 
cient Torre Mastria : it was rebuilt in 
its present form in 1599 by Franco. 
Among the numerous paintings of thp | 
flat gilt ceiling is the Coronation of 
of the Virgin by Santafede. Those 
of the cupola, with the four Franciscan 
writers, St. Bonaventura, Duns Scotus, 
Nicolaus de Lyra, and Alexander ab 
Alexandre, are by Corenzio. The fres- 
coes of the roof of the choir are by 
Simone Papa the younger. The first 
chapel on the rt. hand contains a pic- 
ture of the archangel Michael, once 
attributed to Michel Angelo, but now 
ascribed to Amato il vecchio. In the 3rd 
chapel is the Crucifixion, with the 
Virgin, the Magdalen, and St. John, 
by Marco da Siena, The chapel of the 
Crucifix contains some frescoes by 
Corenzio. The monument of Galeazzo 
Sanseverino, rich in bas-reliefs, in 
the rt. hand transept, is a fine work 
of the 15th cent. A chapel near it 
contains a beautiftd crucifix in wood 
by Merliano, Over the high altar is 
a Madonna by Tommaso degli Stefam, 
formerly in the ch. of the Castel Nuovo. 
At the extremity of the nave, on the L, 
and nnder the organ, are two graceful 
children, painted by Luca Giordano 
in his youth. The chapel (2nd on 1.) of 
S. Giacomo della Marca is more a ch. 
in itself than a chapel, having 7 altars. 
It was erected by Gonsalvo da Cordova, 
whose nephew, Ferdinand, Duke of 
Sueca, raised the two Monuments on 
each side of its principal altar to the 
memory of his distinguished adver- 
saries, PiBTBO Navarro (who, fall- 
ing into the hands of his enemies, 
strangled himself in the prison of 
the Castelnuovo) and Lautrec, who 
besieged Naples for Francis I. in 1528, 

and died there of the plague in the 
same year. These monuments are at- 
tributed to Merliano, They afford a 
fine example of the chivalry of the 
period, and the language oi the in- 
scriptions, written by Paolo Giovio, 
breathes the magnanimity of a generous 
conqueror. The chapel at the rt. of 
the high altar contains a picture attri- 
buted to Spagnoletto: the frescoes re- 
presenting events of the life of the 
patron, on the vault, are by Stanziqni, 
On the 1. of the high altar itself is a 
lofty monument to 3 members of the 
Afflitto family, Counts of Sangro. The 
refectory of the convent contains fres- 
coes by Pietro and Polito del Donzello^ 
representing the Annunciation, the 
Nativity and Adoration of the Magi, 
our Lord led to Mount Calvary, and 
the Coronation of the Virgin. The 
heads of St. John, and of one of the 
Magi, in the picture of the Calvary, 
are portraits of Ferdinand II. Duke of 
Calabria, and of his father Alfonso II. 
of Aragon. 

S, Maria del Parto, on the promon- 
tory at the W. extremity of the Mergel- 
lina, was founded by the Servite monks, 
on the site of a villa which Frederick 
of Aragon had given to Sannazzaro. 
The destruction of this villa by Phili- 
bert de Ch&lons, Prince of Orange, 
grieved Sannazzaro so much that he 
retired to Rome, and bequeathed its 
site to the monks. The ch. derives 
the name del Parto from Sannazzaro's 
well-known poem De Partu Virginia, It 
contains his Tomb in the small choir 
behind the high altar. The design 
and execution of this fine monu- 
ment were confided by the executors 
of Sannazzaro to Gifolamo Santacroce ; 
but in consequence of a dispute 
which arose between them and the 
monks, who favoured the preten- 
sions of their co-religionist Fra Gio^^ 
wmni da Montorsoliy whom they had 
brought to Naples for the purpose, it 
was agreed to employ both these artists 
and to divide the work between them. 
It is consequently supposed that the 
monument was designed by Santacroce, 
and, being left unfinished at his death, 
was completed by MontorsoU, On each 
side are the fine statues of Apollo 



and Minerva, to which a religious 
scruple on the part of the monks, or, as 
some assert, a desire to save the statues 
from the rapacity of a Spanish viceroy, 
induced them to give the names 
of David and Judith which we see 
engraved beneath. On a bas-relief 
between the statues, in the centre of 
the monument, is a group of Neptune 
and Pan, with fauns, satyrs, nymphs, 
and shepherds singing and playing 
on various instruments, evidently in- 
spired by Sannazzaro's 'Arcadia.' 
Above tnis bas-relief is a richly- 
sculptured sarcophagus containing the 
ashes of the poet, and surmounted 
by his bust, crowned with laurels, 
having on each side an angel, one 
holding a book and another a gar- 
land of cypresses. On the bust is the 
Arcadic name he had assumed — Acnus 
Stncerus. On the basis of the monu- 
ment is the gp-aceM distich by Cardinal 
Bembo : — 




Before the 1st chapel on rt. is the sepul- 
chral slab of Diamede Carafa^ Bishop 
of Ariano, and over the altar a 
curious painting, by lAonardo da Pis' 
toja, representing St. Michael con- 
jquering the Demon. The saint is said 
to be a likeness of the bishop ; but the 
devil has the head of a pretty woman, 
who is reported to have tempted the 
prelate before he entered into holy 
orders. It is known amongst the 
lower classes at Naples as H JJiavolo di 
Mergellina or di MerceUino, 

8» Maria del Pianto, on the hill, of 
Lautrec, was erected at the time of 
the pla^e of 1656, whose victims were 
buried m the vast oavam degli Sporti' 
glioniy beneath. The ch. contains a 
picture by Andrea VaooarOj represent- 
ing the Virgin restraining the tnunder- 
bolts whicn the Saviour is about to 
hurl against the city ; and two pictures 
by G'torc^anOy.relating also to the plague, 
and executed, it is said, in the brief 
space of two days. The view from the 
terrace before the ch. is one of the 
finest in Naples. 

IS. Italy. "l 

S. Maria di Piedigrotta, near the en- 
trance to the Grotta di Posilipo, ac- 
cording to local tradition, was erected 
in 1353 on the site of a much older 
chapel, in consequence of a dream 
which led to the discovery of an old 
image of the Madonna, which is so 
great an object of devotion at the 
national festival to which it gives its 
name. (Page 98.) The ch. has 
undergone a general restoration of 
late: in the 1st chapel on the 1., 
gaudily restored, may be seen hun- 
dreds of ex'Votoa in wax, of every shape 
and kind, in acknowledgment of cures 
supposed to have been operated by the 
intercession of the miraculous injige of 
the Virgin. The bones of a pretended 
St. Theophilus, from the Catacombs at 
Rome, have been recently added to the 
relics in this chapel. 

S. Maria delld Pieth d^/Sangri, in the 
Calata di S. Severo, near the ch. oi 
San Domenico, is the family chapel 
of the dukes of .Sangro, princes of San 
Severo. Raimondo <n Sangro reduced it 
to its present form in 1 766, and decorated 
it with a profusion of marbles, rich cor- 
nices, and capitals from his own de- 
signs. Under each arch is a mauso- 
leum of one of the San Severo princes, 
with his statue ; and in the pilaster 
adjoining it is the tomb of his prin- 
cess, with a female statue representing 
one of the virtues for which she was 
remarkable. The allegorical statues, 
beginning with the first pilaster on the 
rt. of what was originally the principal 
door, are, — Education, by the Genoese 
sculptor Queiroli; Self-Control, by Ceie- 
brano ; Sincerity and Vice undeceived, 
by Queiroli, On the opposite side are. 
Modesty, by Corradini; Conjugal Affec- 
tion, by Persico; Religious Zeal, by 
Corradini; Liberality, by Qtieiroli; and 
Decorum, by Corradini, The statue of 
Cecoo di Sangro, coming out of an 
iron chest which represents his 
tomb, tally armed, over the door, is by 
Celebrano ; the altars and statues of S. 
Oderisio and Santa Rosalia, who are 
claimed by the Sangro family as their 
kindred, are by Queiroli, These works, 
however they may excel in manual 
dexterity, are worthy only of the school 



of Bernini, and show how mechanical 
i art becomes when it falls into a state of 
j decline. The Modesty, a portrait of the 
f mother of Raimondo, represents her 
covered with a long veil, through 
which the form and features are dis- 
cernible. The Vice tmdeceived is a like- 
ness of Raimondo's &ther, and repre- 
sents him struggling to extricate him- 
self from a large net, an allusion to 
man's delivery ftom the snares of vice 
by the aid of his good genius. The Dead 
Christ, lying on a bed and covered 
with a sheet, which is represented as 
adhering to the skin by the sweal of 
' death, is by Giuseppe 8ammartino, For 
these three monuments the Govern- 
ment of the day is said to have offered 
the sum of 30,000 dollars. The large 
bas^elief over the hi^h altar, repre- 
sentinff the Passion, is b^ Ceiebrano. 
This chapel has suffered seriously from 
neglect and earthquakes, and is seldom 
Open after an early hour. 

S. Maria della Pietd de* Turchinif in 
the Strada Medina, has a cupola 
painted by X. Giordano. On the ceiling 
18 a Nativity and the Assumption, by 
Annella di Rosa, who was murdered by 
her husband in a fit of jealousy. The 
Guardian Angel, in one of tbe side 
chapels, is by Stanzioni, In the Con- 
.fratemita, the Finding of the Cross, and 
the Deposition, are by Giordano. 

S. Maria Regina Cosli, in the Largo 
Beginacoeli, belonging to nuns, who 
devote themselves to visiting the sick 
and instructing young ladies, was re- 
built in 1590 by Mormandi. The paint- 
ings on the roof are by Stanzioni; and 
a S. Augustin in the 2nd chapel on the 
1, by Giordano, 

S. Maria della SarUth, in the Strada 

Sanitk, built on the designs of Mwolo, 

has a subterranean ch. beneath the high 

altar, and contains some good pictures 

^ by Giordano, Bernardino Siciliano, Vac- 

S^aro, &c. 

^- " S. Martino. — ^The Certosa or Carthu- 

^•v sian convent and ch. of 8. Martino, 

- situated near the Castle of St. Elmo, 

* ^ is celebrated for the magnificence of its 

Vorks of art, and for the fine views 

.. over Naples from it. The extensive 

monastic buildings were, under the 

French government, converted into a 
military hospital ; but the monks were 
restored in 1831, although much dimi- 
nished in numbers, there being only 
about 30 inmates at present: the ch. 
and cloisters form one of the very in- 
teresting objects to be seen by the 
foreign visitor at Naples: two roads 
lead to it, one from the Ponte di 
Chiaia, passing behind the castle of 
St. Elmo, the other from the Largo 
della Carita in the Toledo ; or still 
better, from the Strada delle Sette 
Dolori, which opens into the Toledo, 
o^osite to that leading to the SS. 
Biagio del Libraj. By both roads 
the ascent is rapid, and by means of 
stairs for a good part of the distance, 
and will require half an hour for the 
pedestrian. At the bottom of each of 
these ascents donkeys will be found 
for hire. The building was begun 
in 1325 by order of Charles Duke 
of Calabria; but it was entirely re- 
built and reduced to its present form 
towards the middle of the 17th centy. 
The first artists of the time were em- 
ployed to decorate it. In the vestibule 
are some rude frescoes, two of which 
represent the pretended massacres of 
the OEirthusian brethren in England, 
in the reign of Henry VIII. The 
interior oi the ch. is perhaps one 
of the most splendidly decorated in 
Europe. The floor, piers, walls of the 
chapel, Sec., are all encased in finely- 
coloured marbles, fi>rming a real Flo- 
rentine Mosaic on a large scale. Out 
of each side of the nave open 4 chapels; 
and behind the high altar, separated 
from the nave by a beautiful open-work 
screen of marble, the large choir. The 
frescoes of the Ascension on the roof 
of the nave, and tbe twelve Apostles 
between the windows, are by Lan- 
franco. Over the principal entrance 
is a Deposition in oils by Stanzioni,. 
which, it is said, had become rather 
dark, and Spagnoletto persuaded the 
monks to allow him to wash it. Instead 
of cleaning it, he injured its effect 
by using some corrosive. liquid. The 
result is* still apparent, for Stanzioni, 
on being informed of this treachery, 
refused to retouch the painting, declar- 
ing that it should remain a monument 





of Spagnoletto's enmity. The two 
fine paintings by the side of this 
worky representing Moses and Elias, 
are by Spagnoletto, who also painted 
the twelve figures of Prophets in 
the angles over the arches of the 
chapels on each side of the nave, 
which excel in force of expression and 
variety of character. The Choir is 
ridh in works of art. The frescoes of 
the vault are by Cav. d*Arpmo, who 
left one of them unfinished, the Supper 
at Emmaus, whenhe fied from Naples to 
escape the persecution of Corenzio. It 
was completed by Berardino, The Na- 
tivity at the end is one of Guido's 
most beautiful works, but he was cut 
off by death before it was completed. 
Such was the value set upon this 
work by the monks, that, although 
they had paid Guido 2000 crowns, they 
refused to allow his heirs to refund any 
portion of the money. The fresco over 
the Nativity is byLanfranco. On the side 
walls of the choir are, on the 1., the Last 
Supper, by Spagnoletto, in which he has 
successfully imitated the style of Paolo 
Veronese; and the Washing of the 
Feet, by Caraccioh; on the rt. is the 
Last Supper, by Stanzioni ; and the In- 
stitution of the Eucharist, by a painter 
of the Venetian school. The two 
marble statues in the niches of the choir 
are by Finelli and Domenico Bernini. The 
marble ornaments of the ch. were all 
designed by Fansaga^ who sculptured 
the ros&ni or colossal rosettes on the 
pilasters at the entrance to the chapels, 
in grey marble; the beautiful pave- 
ment in marble mosiac is by the Car- 
thusian Fresti. The high altar was de- 
signed by SoUmena. The Chapels, 
five in number on each side, of which 
only 3 open into the nave, contain — 
The 1st on the rtt of the door, dedicated 
to the Madonna del Kosario, a painting 
by Domenico Vaccaro, — The 2nd, a Ma- 
donna by Stanzioni, two pictures by 
Andrea Vaccaro ; the frescoes on the roof 
are bv Corenzio, — The 3rd, the S. John 
baptizing our Saviour, by Carlo Maratta, 
painted, as the inscription tells us, in 
his 85th year ; the lateral paintings by 
De Matteis ; the frescoes of the ceiling, 
representing the Saviour amongst the 
Blessed, by Stanzioni; and the two 

marble statues of Grace and Providence 
by Vaccaro. — The 4th, S. Martin, attri- 
buted to Annihale Caracci, two lateral 
paintings by SoUmena, and the ceiling 
painted by Finoglia, — The 5th, which 
forms the choir of the lay brethren, a 
painting on the altar by Vaccaro, and 
the landscapes in fresco on the walls by 
Micco Spadaro, On the opposite side — 
The 1st from the high altar has a S. 
Nicholas by Facecco di Fosa. — The 2nd, 
indifferent paintings by La Mwra. — The 
3rd, dedicated to St. Bruno, is entirely 
painted- by Stanzioni, — ^The 4th has a 
bas-relief of S. Gennaro and the Virgin 
by Vaccaro, two lateral paintings by Ca- 
racciolo, and the frescoes on the ceiling 
by Corenzio. The last chapel was painted 
by De Matteis. A door from the choir 
leads on the 1. to the beautiful Sacristy, 
which is fully equal to the rest of the ch. 
The roof, divided into several compart- 
ments, is painted by Cav. d'Arpino / the 
Ecce Homo is by Stanzioni; Peter's De- 
nial by Michelangelo da Caravaggio ; and 
the Crucifixion by Cav. d'Arpino, con- 
sidered by many as his finest work. The 
presses which surround it are in fine 
tarsia-work, with carved wood reliefs. 
The Tesoro adjoining contains the De- 
position FROM THE Cross, the master- 
piece of Spagnoletto, over the altar; and 
on the vault the Triumph of Judith by 
L. Giordano, said to have been painted 
in 48 hours, when he was 72 years old. 
The history of the Brazen Serpent on 
the vault over the altar is also by the 
same artist. In the presses around are 
numerous relics, tastefully arranged. 
On the opposite side of the choir is 
the Sal a del Capitolo, or the Chapter- 
house, the frescoes on the roof of which 
are by Corenzio, 10 paintings on the 
walls by Finoglia, at one end St. John 
preaching in the Desert by Stanzioni, 
and above it a fine Flagellation by 
Ltuia Cambiaso. The small hall del 
Colloquio, beyond this, has several sub- 
jects from the life of San Bruno by 

The cloister of the adjoining convent 
forms a grand quadrangle, which has 15 
Doric columns of white marble on each 
of its sides, and is adorned with statues 
of saints by Fansaga and Vaccaro. 
The view from the convent is of 




surpassing beauty. From the Belvedere, 
fit the extremity of the convent garden, 
the eye embraces the whole city of 
Naples, its Bay, and the rich plains 
stretching towards Nola, backed by the 
^stant Apennines. 

The Monte della Misericordia, in the 
Strada Tribunal i, erected in 1601, from 
the designs of Picchiatti, is an octagonal 
ch. with 7 altars, each devoted to a 
work of charity. The altarpiece is by 
Caravaggio, the Samaritan and the S. 
Peter by SantafedCy the S. Paolino by 
CorenziOy and the Redeemer by Giordano. 
The building adjoining this ch^ has 
hirge revenues, which are dispensed 
to the deserving poor;, several beds 
are maintained m the hospitals; the 
debts of persons suddenly reduced to 
poverty are liquidated; the indigent 
$ick are maintained at the Baths of 
Ischia ; and small dowries are given 
to poor girls. 

Monte Oliveto, and its once splendid 
Benedictine monastery^ in the Largo of 
the same name, were founded in 141 1 by 
Guerrello Origlia, the fiivourite of King 
Ladislaus, from the designs of Ciccione, 
The monastery is now occupied by the 
offices of the municipality, and the 
convent garden has been converted 
into a market. It was in this convent 
that Tasso found an ajsjlum in his 
sickness and misfortunes m 1588, and 
repaid the kindness of the monks by 
writing a poem on the origin of their 
order, and by addressing to them one of 
his finest sonnets. The ch. is a perfect 
museum of sculpture, but its architec-i 
tural beautvhas been completely ruined 
by restoration during the Spanish rule. 
In the porch, on rt. of the door, is the 
tomb of the celebrated architectZ)(wn^nico 
Fontana, who died in 1 607. In the inte-t 
rior of the ch.,in the 2nd chaj^el on the 1., 
belonging to the Piccolominis, and over 
the altar, is a celebrated bas-relief of the 
Nativity by Donatello, or, according to 
others, by his pupil Antonio KosselUno, 
Above the Nativity is a Choir of re- 
joicing angels, by RosselUno; " the angels 
singing," says Vasari, " with parted 
lips, and so exquisitely finished that 
they seem to breathe, and displaying 
in all their movements and expression 

so much grace and refinement, that 
genius and the chisel could produce 
nothing in marble to surpass this work." 
The bas-relief of the Crucifixion, in 
the same chapel, and the beautiful 
Tomb op Mart of Aragon, the natural 
daughter of Ferdinand T., and wife 
of Antonio Piccolomini, Duke of 
Amalfi, are by RosselUno. The tomb 
is nearly similar to that erected in 
the ch. o^ San Miniato at Florence, by 
the same artist, to the Cardinal of Por- 
tugal, and which was so much admii-ed 
by the Duke of Amalfi, that he commis- 
sioned Rossellino to execute such a 
one for his deceased, duchess. Another 
work of considerable interest in this 
chapel is the picture of the Ascen- 
sion by SUvestro d^ Buoni. In the 
Marini Chapel, the 2nd on rt, is the 
relief of the Annunciatiofi, by Benedetto 
da Maiano, It represents the Virgin 
and angels in the centre, with statues 
of St. John the Baptist and St. Luke 
on either side, and below, forming a 
kind of predella, seven small low re- 
liefs> relative to events in the life of 
our Saviour, and the Death of the 
Virgin. In the same chapel are several 
tombs of the Marini family. The 
Pezzo and Liguori chapels contain the 
works of two distinguished sculptors, 
who were commissioned to deco- 
rate them with the productions of 
their chisels. The Pezzo Chapel, the 
first on 1. of the entrance to the ch., 
has a statue of the Madonna between 
St. Peter and St. John in high relief, 
and on the front of the altar the bas- 
relief of the Saviour calling St. Peter 
in the ship, by Santacroce, In the 
Liguori Chapel, in a corresponding 
place on the rt. of the entrance, are 
statues of the Virgin and Child with St. 
John and other samts^ and the bas-relief 
below, relative to a miracle by S. Fran- 
cesco da Paola. By these works Merliano 
achieved for himself a high rank 
among the sculptors of the 16th cent. 
The same artists nave left other works in 
this ch. The chapel, 6th on I., contains 
a St. John Baptist by Merliano, The 
Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre, reached 
by a passage out of the rt. transept, 
contains a singular group of full-sized 
figures kneeling before a statue of our 



Saviour in painted terra-cotta by Mo' 
d mino, in which the principal figures are 
likenesses of celebrated contemporary- 
characters. Sannazzaro is introduced as 
Joseph of Arimathea; Pontanus as 
Nicodemus ; Alfonso II. as St. John ; 
In the d'Avalos chapel is the Ma- 
donna surrounded by angels and 
worshipped by S. Benedict and S. 
Thomas Aquinas, one of the best paint- 
ings of Santafede. The choir contains 
frescoes of Simone Papa the younger, 
representing different histories of the 
monks of the Olivetan order ; and seve- 
ral sepulchral monuments, amongst 
others those of Alfonso II. and of 
Guerrello Origlia, by Giovanni da Nola, 
entirely similar; that of Archbishop 
Kanaldi, ob. 1500, &c. &C. Over the 
principal entrance to the ch. is the 
organ, by Catarinozzi of Subiaco (1497), 
considered one of the finest toned in 

8, Paoh Maggiore, opposite to the ch. 
of San Lorenzo, in the Strada Tribunali, 
is built on the site of a temple of Castor 
and Pollux, erected by Julius Tarsus, a 
freedmau of Augustus, and prefect of 
Naples during the reign of that em- 
peror, and of which two fine Corinthian 
columns, with a portion of the archi- 
traves, still erect, stand out from the 
modern fa9ade : it was ruined by the 
earthquake of 1688, and rebuilt three 
years later after the designs of 
Grimaldi, one of the brothers of the 
Theatine order, to whose house it iS 
attached. Besides the two erect columns, 
there are the bases of others, and two 
mutilated torsos supposed to belong to 
the divinities to ^hom Tarsus raised 
the temple. The interior is highly de- 
corated with inlaid marble-work and 
paintings ; none, however, of the latter 
of any great merit. The ceiling oi 
the choir and transept was painted by 
Corenzio. The frescoes on the vaults 
of the nave are by Stanzioni. In the 
passage leading oat of the rt. tran- 
sept to the Sacristy is a Deposi- 
tion, by Marco da Siena; and in the 
2nd chapel on the rt. a large picture 
of the Nativity, attributed to the 
same master. The Sacristy, a splen- 
did hall, contains numerous frescoes j 

those of the Conversion of St. Paul, and 
of the Fall of Simon Magus, are con-^ 
sidered the chefs-d*oeuvres of Solimenor, 
The Cloister, which is said to stand on 
the site of. the ancient theatre in 
which Nero appeared as an histrion^ 
has 24 Doric columns of granite^ which 
probably belonged to it. At the foot 
of the stairs leading to the ch« is a 
pedestal, surmounted by a bronze sta- 
tue to S. Gaetanino, of the Theatine 
Order. The part of Naples where this 
ch. stands was the centre of Roman 
Naples ; the neighbouring ch. of St. Lo- 
renzo being on the site of the Forum of 
Augustus; S. Gregorio Armeno, also 
close by, on that of a temple of Ceres. 

8. Pietro ad Aram, in the Strada of the 
same n^me, derives its designation from 
an altar at which the Apostle S. Peter 
is said to have o&ciated and to have 
baptized St. As^renus> the first bishop 
of Naples, and Santa Candida. It 
contains an alto-relievo representing 
the Descent from the Cross by 8anta* 
croce in 2nd chapel on 1. ; a statue of 
S. Michael, with a cinque-cento altar- 
piece in marble, 1st chapel on 1. ; and an 
alto-relievo of the Madonna dell e Grazie, 
beneath which is a Descent from the 
Cross, both probably by Merliano, in 1st 
chapel on rt. This ch. is attuched to 
a large Franciscan convent. 

8. Pietro a MaieUa, in the Strada S. 
Pietro a Maiella, near the Largo del 
Mercatello and the Toledo, was built by 
Giovanni Pipino of Barletta, the favour- 
ite of Charles II., whose tomb in the 
1. transept has a long inscription in 
Gothic characters and in leonine verses^ 
recording his death in 1316. The ch. 
consists of a high Gothic nave and aisles> 
and two fine arches at the intersection 
of the tra,nsepts, but the .pointed archi* 
tecture has been greatly spoiled by sub* 
sequent restoration, and the profusion 
of reliefs introduced on the arches and 
chapels. It was formerly annexed to a 
monastery of the Celestins, but con* 
verted of late years into the Conservatorio 
or CoUegio di Musica, The paintings on 
the vault of the nave, representing the 
actions of Pietro Morrone in his soli- 
tary hermitage on Monte Maiella^ and 



on the Papal throne as Celestin V., 
and those of the transepts, representing 
the life of St. Catherine of Alexandria, 
are considered amongst the best works of 
Cav. Calabrese. The altarpiece in the 
chapel of S. Pietro Celestino is by Stan- 
zioni, the frescoes by De Matteis. The 
statue of St. Sebastian and the bas-relief 
in the chapel near the sacristy are by 
Merliano, , 

8. Pietro Mca'tirejin the small Piazzetta 
of the same name, at the extremity of 
the Strada del Porto, founded by Charles 
II., was entirely remodelled in the last 
centy. Near the entrance is a curious 
bas-relief of Death chasing a Merchant, 
with a dialogue. It was erected in 1361 
by one Francischino di Pignale, who 
twice had escaped being drowned. The 
interior contains the Assumption of the 
Virgin, and a Madonna in glory, by 
Silcestro de* Buoni, and an interesting 
bas-relief of the Madonna crowned, 
which appears from the shape to have 
formed the ornament of a Gothic door- 
way. The three pictures of the impri- 
sonment and martyrdom of St. Peter 
Martyr are by lyancesco Imparato. In 
the choir are the tombs of Bea- 
trix OF Aragon, daughter of Ferdi- 
nand I., and widow of Matthias Cor- 
vinus. King of Hungary ; of Isabella 
i>i Chiaramonte, first wife of Ferdi- 
nand I.; of Don Pkdro of Aragon, 
brother of Alfonso I., who was killed 
during the siege of Naples in 1439 ; 
and of Cristoforo di Costanzo, 
Gi-and Seneschal of Joanna I. There 
are several other tombs of the 1 5th and 
1 Gth cents. The large Dominican con- 
vent, to which this ch. was once at- 
tached, has been converted into the 
government tobacco manufactory in one 
of the most crowded and dirtiest quarters 
of the old city. 

SS. Pietro e Paolo, in theVico de'Greci, 
founded in 1518 by Thomas Palaeolo- 
gus, is the ch. of the Greeks, the Greek 
liturgy being in use here. The frescoes 
are by Corenzio. 

SS. Severino e Sossio, in the Largo S. 
Marcellino, attached to the extensive 
monastery of Beuedictins of Monte 

Casino, was enlarged and modernized 
in 1490 from the designs of Francesco 
Mormando. The Cupola, painted by 
the Flemish artist Scheffer, was one of 
the first erected in Naples. The fres- 
coes of the vaults of the choir and 
transept are by Corenzio, who lost his 
life by falling from the platform while 
retouching one of them, and is buried 
in the ch. The interior consists of a 
wide, nave lined on each side by 7 
chapels. The Ist on the rt. has a 
Nativity of the Virgin, and the 3rd her 
Assumption, by Marco da Siena, both 
much injured ; in the 2nd, a sculptured 
altarpiece by Naccarini, of the Madonna 
delle Grazie between St. John the Bap- 
tist and St. Mark; the Annunciation 
in the 5th chapel is by Criscuolo, and the 
frescoes on the side walls by Corenzio. 
The 6th chapel, belonging to the Cimi- 
tile family, has been recently restored. 
The painting over its altar is an Ado- 
ration of the Magi, by Marco da Siena ; 
and a good modem monument to the 
last princess of that house. Beyond 
this IS the passage leading into the 
sacristy, in which is the Tomb of Andrea 
Bonifacio, who died in childhood. The 
dead child is represented lying in the 
funeral urn surrounded by weeping 
children, two of whom support the 
cover of the urn. In front is a statue 
of St. Andrew. This very graceful 
composition is attributed by De Domi- 
nici to Merliano, while others ascribe it 
to Pedro della Piatta, Opposite to it is 
the Tomb of Giamhattista Cicara, by Mer- 
liano, with handsome statues and ara- 
besques. Both tombs have inscriptions 
by Sannazzaro. On the 1. of the entrance 
to the sacristy is a small chapel, over 
the principal altar of which is a picture 
of the Virgin with the Saviour and 
Saints, by lo Zingaro : and on the altar of 
the 4th chapel the Madonna and Child 
with Saints, by Andrea da Salerno. 
Entering the rt. hand transept, the large 
painting of Christ nailed to the Cross 
is by Andrea da Salerno; the several 
sepulchral monuments under the 6upola 
belong to personages of the Mormile 
familv, Dukes of Campochiaro, who 
contributed largely to the construction 
of the ch. Opening out of this transept 
is the San Severino chapel, in which are 



the Tbmhs of the three brothers of that 
name, who were poisoned in 1516 by 
their uncle Ascanio, that he might suc- 
ceed to their property. These fine 
monuments, which are by Merliano, 
are nearly alike ; upon each sits a 
figure in armour, resting on his 
helmet. In the 1. transept is the 
Gesualdo chapel, over the altar of 
which is a group of a Pietk, by Do- 
menico d'Auria. The statue over the 
tomb of Vincenzo Carafa in the transept 
itself is by Naccarini, and the picture of 
the Crucifixion on the side wall by 
Mca^o da Siena. In the recess of the I. 
aisle, out of which opens the side door 
of the ch., are three pictures of some 
importance; that of the Baptism of 
Christ is .on very doubtful grounds in- 
deed attributed to Ferugino ; the Adora- 
tion of the Madonna by S. Catherine 
and S. Scholastica in the clouds, with 
purgatory below, is one of Q, Imparato'a 
finest works'; and the St. Michael and 
other Archangels considered as (r. 
d*Amato's chef-5'oBuvre. The Cloister of 
the adjoining monastery, an imposing 
specimen of Ionic architecture, from the 
designs of Cicciorie, contains the master- 
piece of lo Zingaro. This celebrated 
work represents in fresco, arranged 
in seventeen large compartments, 
the Life of St. Benedict Although, 
executed in the early part of the 15th 
cent, and injured by retouching, these 
frescoes are still remarkable £or what 
Lanzi calls the " incredible variety of 
figures and subjects," for their pictu- 
resque backgrounds, and for the beau- 
tiful expression of the countenances, 
which, as Marco da Siena said, seem 
living. The greater part of the exten- 
sive cloisters adjoining this ch. have 
been converted into the General Archives 
of the kingdom. (See p. 166). 

S. Severo. See S. Maria delta Pieta 
de^ Sangrif-p. 12.3. 

S. Teresa, in the Strada di Capodi- 
monte, was built about 1600 by Con- 
forti. It contains -several pictures, 
among which are the Visitation by 
Santafede^ Sta. Teresa by De Matteis (in 
the choir), the Flight out of Egypt, S. 
Giovanni della Croce, and the frescoes 
of the transept by Giacomo del Po ; two 
pictures by L, Giordano, painted in the 

manner of Guido; and some pictures 
by Stanzioni, in the chapel on the rt. of 
the high altar. In the garden of the 
monastery was discovered a few years 
ago an ancient burial-place, adjoining 
the Museum, and described by Gius- 
tiniani as Grseco-Roman. 

S. Teresa, in the Largo S. Teresella 
a Cbiaia, was built in 1650 .by Fan- 
saga, who executed the statue of the 
saint on the altar. It contains — The 
Repose in Egypt ; the Presentation ; 
S. rietro d* Alcantara ; and the Appari- 
tion of Santa Teresa to her Confessor, 
by Giordano, 

Trinita Maggiore, See Gesit Nuovo, 


There are two general cemeteries 
for Roman Catholics, under the name 
of Camposanti, one for Protestants, and 
one for the victims of the cholera. 

The Camposanto Vecchio, between the 
Strada Poggio Reale and the Strada 
del Campo, is the old cemetery of 
Naples. It is used only for those who 
die in the hospitals, and for the poorer 
classes. It is approached by an avenue 
of cypresses. The ground forms a 
parallelogram of upwards of 300 feet, 
surrounded on three sides by a lofty 
wall, and bounded on the fourth side by 
an arcade. It contains 366 deep round 
pits, some of which are arranged under 
the arcade, but the greater part are in 
the area. These pits are covered with 
large stones; one of them is opened 
every evening, and cleared out to make 
room for the dead of the day. A priest 
resides upon the spot, and towards even- 
ing the miscellaneous funeral takes 
place. The bodies are brought by their 
relatives or by the hospital servants, 
and left to be disposed of at the ap- 
pointed time, unattended, in most in- 
stances, by any relations. 

The Camposanto Nuovo, on the S. 
declivity of the Poggio Reale, and 
about 2 m. from the Porta Capuana, 
was began during the French occupa- 
tion, and remodelled on an improved 



plan in 1837, It Is very beautifully 
laid out, more like a flower-garden 
than a cemetery, the monuments being 
scattered through the plantations and 
groves in a very tasteful manner. 
Notwithstanding that intramural in- 
terment is still permitted, although 
with great difficulty, at Naples to 
the nobility possessing family chapels 
in the churches, there are already 
sevend good monuments in the Campo 
Santo. At the upper part is the ch., 
still unfinished, a handsome Doric 
edifice, with a good Pietd, by Gen- 
naro Call, in its tribune, and behind a 
large oblong square", surrounded by a 
portico of fluted Doric columns, out of 
which open 102 proprietary chapels, be- 
neath each of which are the family 
vaults of the owners. The colossal figure 
of Religion in the centre of the quad- 
rangle is by Angelinif a modem artist. 
What distinguishes this burning-ground 
liowever from all others in Italy, is 
the number of what may be called sub- 
scription vaults belonging to confrater- 
nities, or burial clubs, the members of 
which pay a small annual sum, are 
attended during illness, and buried 
after death free of expense : to such 
bodies belong the numerous sepulchral 
chapels or houses studded over the 
declivity of the hill of Poggio Reale. 
In another part of the ground those 
who cannot afford to pay for separate 
graves are interred pele-meie and 
without coffins, nearly as in the Cam- 
posanto Vecchio; but as the fee is 
small, not more than half a dozen 
bodies are deposited during the three 
days each pit remains open. At the 
S. W. extremity is a space set aside for 
Neapolitan great men, its present occu- 
pants being two or three physicians and 
the eminent jurist Nicolini. From 
this spot, however, the view over the 
plain and the declivity of Vesuvius 
IS most magnificent. From nowhere 
can the Somma, with the Fosso Grande 
and the Pedamentina, be better seen. 
The visitor will not fail to- remark 
the lava-currents of 1850 and 1855, 
which, flowing like a cascade down the 
Fosso Grande, extended so far into the 
plain as to threaten the villages of S. 
Jorio and Somma. The whole course 

of this current can be clearly dis- 
tinguished, its dark colour contrasting 
with the luxuriant vegetation by whicE 
it is surrounded. Attached to the 
Campo Santo is a Capuchin convent, 
in the private oratory of which the 
bas-reliefs on the altar are by Giovanni 
da Nolo, aod were formerly in the ch. of 

The Campo Santo dei Protestanti, the 
Protestant burying*ground, opens out of 
the small Largo di Santa Maria della 
Fede, a short distance beyond the 
Porta Capuana, on the 1.; it is very 
neatly kept, but far behind those^ of 
Rome and Florence for the elegance 
aud taste of its monuments; it is en- 
tirely supported by the burial fees 
received. The great proportion of the 
persons interred here are English, Ger- 
mans, and Swiss, some Russians, and a 
few citizens of the United States. 
Amongst our countrymen, the Mar- 
gravine of Anspach, called on her 
monument Princess Berkeley, with her 
son, Keppel Craven the traveller, and 
their friend Sir William Gell, lie in 
the same tomb. Nearly opposite is 
that to the late Countess of Coventiy. 
The last resting-place of Matthias, the 
author of some elegant Italian poetry, 
is marked by a marble slab near the 
entrance gate. 


The University (Regia Universith 
degli Studj) occupies the Convent 
of 11 Gesu Nuovo, the college of the 
Jesuits, a fine building, considered the 
best work of Marco di Pino, in the 
Strada del Salvatore, where it has been 
lodged since 1780. It is under the 
direction of a president, assisted hj a 
rector and a general secretary. The 
president superintends all the afiairs of 
the Universitv, administers its laws, 
and directs the system of education. 
He is, by virtue of his office, the head 
of a committee of six professors who 
form the board of public instruction. 
The University has 54 different chairs, 
or professorships. The library is de- 
scribed under Libraries. The coUec- 



tions of Mineralogy and other branches 
of Natural History have recently been so 
increased that new halls have been con- 
structed to receive them. The series 
of minerals from Vesuvius is by far the 
finest ever formed of the varied pro- 
ducts of that celebrated volcano, and 
of the environs of Naples. 

The Chinese College {Collegia de* 
Ctnesi), situated on one of the upper 
slopes of the Capodimonte, near the 
Ponte della Sanitk, the only establish- 
ment of the kind in Europe. It was 
founded in 1732 by the celebrated 
Father Ripa, who visited China as a 
missionary from the Propaganda, re* 
sided at Pekin for 13 years in the 
service of the emperor as a portrait" 
painter, and who has left so interesting 
a narrative of his residence in the 
Celestial Empire. The institution was 
intended for the education of young 
Chinese, who are brought to Europe, and 
who, when sufficiently educated, arfe 
sent back to China as missionaries. It 
is under the management of a congre- 
gation, consisting of a rector and tutor, 
assisted by other ecclesiastics. The 
students are required to make five 
vows: 1. To live in poverty; 2. To 
obey their superiors ; 3. To enter holy 
orders ; 4. To become missionaries in 
the East under the control and direction 
of the Propaganda ; 5. To devote their 
lives to the Roman Catholic church 
and to enter no other community. As 
the instruction is given in Latin^ the 
new pupils, on their arrival, are unable 
to avail themselves of the rector's aid 
until they have acquired some know* 
ledge of that language from their 
countrymen. Nearly 60 have been 
educated here since its foundation, and 
two of that number accompanied Lord 
Macartney's embassy to China as inter- 
preters. The Refectory contains the 
portraits of Father Ripa, of the ditfe^ 
rent rectors, and of the Chinese who 
have been members of the college. 
The portraits of the latter are usually 
taken on their departure for China. 
The revenues of the institution amount 
to about 6,000 dttcats, but as this sum 
is insufficient to defray the expenses, 
the deficiency is made up by the Col- 
lege of the Propaganda at Rome. 

Attached to the college is a small mu» 
seum of Chinese curiosities. 

The College of Music {Conservatario 
di Musica) occupies the monastery of S» 
Pietro a Maiella. It supplies 1 00 pupils 
with gratuitous instruction in music and 
singing, and also admits other pupils on 
payment of 9 ducats a itaonth. It is un- 
der the direction of three royal commis» 
sioners and a director. It has great repu* 
tation as a school of music. Bellini was 
brought up in it. The present director 
is Mercaoante, who succeeded Zinga- 
relli. The Library contains a very 
valuable collection of musical works \ 
among which are the autograph oom- 
po8itit)us of Paesiello, Jomelli, and 
other masters of the Neapolitan school. 
Within the college is a small theatre ia 
which the pupils rehearse their compo- 

The Medico-Chiruiigical Colleos 
{Colhgio Medico Chirurgico), in the sup- 
pressed monastery of S. Gaudioso, id 
the national school of medicine and 
surgery. There are nearly 120 pu*- 
pils. Lectures are delivered here on 
the different branches of professional 
science, and the students have the use 
of a pathological museum, &c. Ana- 
tomy, surgery, and the practice of 
medicine are taught at the Hospital 
Vegr IncwrahUi^ which, by a subterra*- 
nean passage, communicates with the 

The Royal Society {Societci Heale) 
has a president and a secretary, both 
appointed for life by the king^ It is 
divided into 3 branches : Ist Accademia 
delle Scienze, of 30 members. — 2nd. Ao 
cademia Ercolanese di ArcheologiOy of 20i 
— 3rd. Accademia di Belle Artif 10. Each 
of these academies has a president 
appointed triennially, and a perpetual 
secretary, besides a number of honorary 
and corresponding members. They 
meet twice a month, except in May 
and October, in one of the halls of 
the University. The Accademia delle 
Scienze and the Ercolanese publish theii* 
Transactions {Atti) under the direction 
of their secretaries. 

The Accademia Pontaniana, which 
derives its name from the celebrated 
writer Pontanus, holds its sitting in 
the convent of S. Domenico Maggiore, 

B 3 



is a literary as well as a scientific iusti- 
tiition, consisting of an honorary pre- 
sident for life, a president elected 
annually, a perpetual secretary, and an 
unlimited number of members, resident, 
honorary, and corresponding. 

The AccADEMiA Medico-Chirurgi- 
CA holds its sittings in the Hospital of 
the IncurdbUi. It has *a president, a 
secretary, and an unlimited number of 

The Botanic Garden {Orto Bota 
nico), near the Albergo de* Poveri- 
was founded in 1809, and completed in 
1818. This garden, under the direction 
of the late Professor Tenore, who has 
been succeeded by his nephew, acquired 
great reputation. Though deficient in 
well-constructed stove and green-houses, 
and badly supplied with water, it is re- 
markable for Its out-door collection of 
trees, which will not fail to interest the 
botanical traveller. 

The Observatory (Beale Osserva- 
torio di Capodimonte) is situated on that 
part of thfi Capodimonte which was 
called by the Spaniards Miradois from 
the beauty of its view. It was begun 
in 1812, from the designs of Gasse, and 
completed in 1820, on the plans of the 
celebrated Piazzi. It is about 500 feet 
above the level of the sea. It com- 
mands an horizon unbroken in every 
direction, except towards the Castle 
of St. Klmo. The observatory, entered 
by a vestibule of six Doric columns of 
marble, is an elegant building. The 
Director is aided in the management of 
the observatory by a second astronomer 
and an assistant. The second astrono- 
mer is bound to give gratuitous lectures 
to any students who wish to form an 
astronomical class. Under the direc- 
tion of Piazzi, this observatory obtained 
an European celebrity. The present Di- 
rector is Signor Capocci j the under Di- 
rector, Signor de Gasparis, has proved 
himself a worthy successor of Piazzi, 
having discovered 7 of the numerous 
small planets observed since 1801, in 
which year Ceres was discovered by 
Piazzi, at this observatory. 


There are no less than GO charitable 
foundations in Naples, richly endowed, 
including the following Hospitals: — 
The Sfmta Casa degV Incurabili, founded 
by Francesca Maria Longo, in 1521, 
and enriched in later times by numerous 
benefactors. Its ample revenues are 
administered by a president, and three 
ijovernors appointed by the government. 
It is a vast establishment, open to per- 
sons of both sexes, and of every rank 
and condition. It has separate wards for 
particular diseases, such as pulmonary 
consumption, which is considered con- 
tagious at Naples. Sometimes there 
are not less than 2000 patients, besides 
large numbers who are sent to various 
convalescent establishments belonging 
to the hospital in the suburbs. Patients 
whose cases are hopeless are removed 
to the dying ward, vulgarly known as 
Antecarnera della Morte; a most barbarous 
and inhuman practice, which ought to 
be abolished. The hospital is in high 
repute as a medical school. This 
establishment is said to have been 
hitherto very badly managed, and its 
revenues, larger than those of most 
hospitals in Europe, applied to other 
purposes than the relief of the poor 
and helpless. Ospedale de* Pellegrini^ in 
the Strada Porta Medina, attached to 
the ch. of Trinitli de* Pellegrini, is an 
hospital for the sick and wounded of all 
classes, and for accidents generally. For 
good management and order, it ofi^ers 
quite a contrast with the Incurabili. It 
has a convalescent establishment at 
Torre del Greco, where the sick are re- 
ceived for eight days. — Ospedale della 
Pace^ in the Strada dei Tribunal!, built 
on the site of the Palace of Sergianni 
Caracciolo: it is under the direction 
of the brothers of S. Giovanni di 
Dio, several of whom have received a 
regular medical education. It is also 
very well managed, and is chiefly 
for acute medical cases. — Ospedale di 
S. JSligio, on the Largo del Mercato, 
for females, with a Conservatorio for 
the nuns who • attend on the sick. 
— Ospedale della Pazienza^ Cesar ea, in 
the Strada Infrascata, ' for infirm 
women, founded by Annibale Cesareo 



in 1600. — Ospedale di Santa Maria 
della Fede, in the Largo of the same 
name, the Lock Hospital. — Ospedale 
del Borgo di Loreto, in the street of that 
name, erected under Ferdinand IL — 
Ospedale di 8. Francesco^ in the Largo 
di S. Anna, the hospital for the prisons, 
formerly a convent. — Ospedale della 
THnitdy in the Strada de* Sette Dolori, 
the Military Hospital, formerly the 
splendid monastery of the Trinitk. The 
eh. was built by Grimaldi, and the vesti- 
bule by Fansaga. — Ospedale del Sagra- 
mento, in the Strada dell' Infrascata, 
another Military Hospital, formerly a 
Carmelite Monastery. — Ospedale de* 
Ciechiy in the Chiaia, for the blind, 
founded by Ferdinand L in 1818. 200 
blind are here instructed in useful 
works and in music. As a general rule, 
the situation of all the hospitals at 
Naples is objectionable — in the centre 
of a dense population, and in dirty 
quarters of the town. 

Albergo de* Poverty or Eecliisorio, a 
vast building in the Sthida Foria, not 
far from the Museum and Botanic Gar- 
den. It was begun in 1751 from 
the designs of Fuga, and was in- 
tended by its founder, Charles III., as 
an asylum where all the poor of the 
kingdom might be received and taught 
some useful occupation. The building 
would have been J m. in length, and 
have contained a ch., and four large 
courts with fountains. Of this design 
not more than three fifths have been 
completed. One side is occupied by 
the males, the other by the females. 
Some of the inmates are instructed in the 
elementary branches of education; in- 
cluding music and drawings while 
others are brought up to trades. There 
are also schools for the deaf and dumb, 
and for mutual instruction. The boys 
brought up in it are generally sent into 
the army. Several smaller institutions 
are dependent on the Albergo de' Po- 
veri, which, with its dependencies, con- 
tains about 5000 persons. 

British Hospital, — There is an In- 
stitution for British and Americans, 
in the Vicoletto delle Belle Donne, sup- 
ported by the voluntary subscriptions 
of foreign residents, a self-imposed tax 
of I dollar on each British and American 

/ § 19. THE MUS 

vessel frequenting the Port, and by 
payments of the inmates who are able 
to do so; the attendance being given gra- 
tuitously by the English medical gen- 
tlemen practising at Naples. Patients 
pay 6 carlinl a-day. The hospital can 
admit about 30 persons, and is well de- 
sei'ving of the support of our benevolent 
countrymen. Applications for admis- 
sion must be made at the British Con- 
sulate, Pal. Calabritto, 

Formerly called theT Museo Bor^ 
Nice, now the Museo Nazionale. — Open 
to the public daily from 9 to 3. Fees, 
formerly very numerous, have been 
rigorously forbidden under the present 

The building, called also the Studj, 
tras begun in 1586 by the Duke d'Os- 
suna, as the cavalry barracks, but the 
deficiency of water rendering it wholly 
unsuited to such a purpose, it was re- 
modelled by the Count de Lemos in 
1616, from the designs of Giulio Cesare 
Fontana, as the University. After the 
earthquake of 1G88, it became the seat 
of the Tribunals; and in 1705, after the 
revolution of Macchia, it was changed 
into barracks till 1 767, when the Univer- 
sity was again placed in it. In 1780 the 
university was removed to theGeshVec- 
chio Convent, and this building was ap- 
propriated to the use of the Academy of 
Science-s. In 1790 it was considerably 
enlarged for the purpose of receiving 
the royal collections of antiquities and 
pictures. Ferdinand I., in 1816, gave 
it the name of Museo Reale Borbonico, 
and caused to be placed in it all the 
antiquities and pictures from the royal 
palaces of Portici and Capodimonte. 

To describe, in detail, the various ob- 
jects of this museum would require 
volumes. We shall only point out 
those objects which possess the greatest 
interest. There is no published cata- 
logue of the Museum, although two are 
in progress, by Messrs. Minervini and 
Salazzaro : the only printed assistance 
which the visitor will for the moment find 
will be in the * Naples, ses Monumens 
et ses Curiositees,* by S. Aloe, secre- 
tary of the Museum, 1 vol. 12mo., 186 1, j 



two-thirds of which is dedicated to a 
description of its collections; but the 
catalogue is meagre, and often so in- 
accurate as to be of comparatively little 
use ; and the more so as, the numbers 
on each object being on paper, these 
small labels frequently disappear, partly 
by design, often by negligence: still 
this is the only one which he can con- 
sult. It is sold by the porter of the 
museum for 9 carlini, and contains a 
notice of the most remarkable objects. 
As the different branches of the mu- 
seum, and especially the galleries of 
statues and pictures, are constantly 
undergoing re-arrangement, the tra- 
veller must not be surprised if 
some of the objects are no longer 
in the same places, or without the 
corresponding numbers of reference. 
Photography, which has done so much 
towards illustrating the collections of 
Rome and Florence, was forbidden in 
the Museo Borbonico until lately.* 

The museum is divided into 17 col- 
lections, which may be thus classed in 
the order in which we shall describe 
them i--— 

On the ground floor, — I. Ancient Fres- 
coes; II. Mosaics and painted Mural 
Inscriptions and Fresco Ornaments; III, 
Egyptian Antiquities ; IV, Ancient 
Sculpture; V. Inscriptions, Toro and 
Ercole Farnesi ; VI. Larger Bronzes. 

On the staircase, — VII. Cinquecento 
objects; VIII. Ancient Glass; IX. 
Terracottas and Cumeean Collection. 

Upstairs. — X. The Papyri from Her- 
culaneum; XI. Gems; XII. Medals 
and Coins ; XIII. Reserved cabinet ; 
XIV. Smaller Bronzes ; XV. Etruscan 
or Italo-Greek Pottery ; XVI. Modern 
Paintings ; XVII. Library. 

The localities from which the objects 
have been derived are indicated by 
letters. The letter (B) signifies the 
Borgia Collection ; (C) Capua ; (C A) 
Capuan Amphitheatre j (Cu) Cumte; 
(F) the Farnese Collection; (H) Her- 
culaneum; (L) Lucera; (M) Mintur- 

* The different departments in the Museum 
are now undergoing a thorough re-arrangement ; 
but no catalogue has hitherto been published. 
One by C5av. Minervlnl, of the Ancient Frescoes 
and Cumae Antiquities, and another, of the Mar- 
bles and Bionzes, by Sig. Salazzaro, are nearly 
ready.— (Oct. 1862.) 

nse; (N) Naples; (P) Pompeii; (Pz) 
Pozzuoli; (S) Stabise. 

On entering the Vestibule by a gi- 
gantic glass screen, the principal objects 
of interest are a colossal statue of 
Alexander Severus (F) ; Flora (F) 
and the Genius of Rome (F) in 
marble ; Urania, so called by Visconti, 
who was misled by the globe, which is 
a modern addition (it is now considered 
to be Melpomene) (F) ; the models 
of the two equestrian statues of Fer- 
dinand I. and Charles III . bv Canova, 
which stand in the square of the Palace. 
On the stairs are two graceful statues 
of Danzatrici (H). 

The first door on the rt. of the grand 
entrance leads to 

I. The Collection of ancient 
Fbescoes found at Heeculaneum and 
Pompeii. It contains more than 1600 
objects, and is constantly increasing. 
These relics of ancient art are, with 
few exceptions, curious rather than 
beautiful. With all their occasional 
gracefiilness and expression — ^with all 
their marvellous variety of invention 
and fancy— they can only be regarded 
as the house -decorations of a provincial 
town. Historical . subjects are rare, 
and no painting has yet been discovered 
which the ancients themselves have 
recorded with praise. The finest 
specimens are in the division opening 
from the vestibule on the rt., consisting 
of 2 chambers, and especially in the 
furthermost, which has been just re- 
arranged in excellent taste, according 
to the subjects. The most important 
specimens in this psCrt of the collec- 
tion are : — 

293. Two quails feeding. — 324. A 
Parrot drawing a Car driven by a Grass- 
hopper, supposed to be a caricature of 
Nero led by Seneca (H).— 320. A Griffon 
drawing a Car with a Grasshopper for 
Charioteer (H). — Pylades and Orestes 
chained and conducted to the Sacrifice (P). 
— 368. A serpent, with the inscription 
Venus Flagiaria, — 372. Caricature, re- 
presenting iEneas carrying off An- 
chises, and leading Ascanius, with 
dogs* heads (P).— The Seven Days 
of the Week, represented by the Seven 
Planets (P). — 373, 432. The Re- 



venge of Antiope, Dirce bound to the 
horns of the Bull (P).— 397, 733, 734. 
Vendors of their wares in a Forum. — 
491. The Sacrifice of Iphigenia, a 
beautiful painting, representing the mo- 
ment at which Calchas is about to strike 
the blow. Iphigenia is borne to the altar 
by two men, and is appealing piteously 
to her father, who stands with his head 
veiled and turned away, to conceal his 
grief. Above is Diana in the clouds, 
w^ith the hind which was to supply the 
place of the victim (P). It is supposed 
to be a copy of a famous painting of 
Timanthe, described by Pliny. — 497. A 
young lady at her toilette ; 498. a family 
concert; and 499. the tragic poet: 3 
small well-rendered subjects. — 502. A 
Love Bargain-^ two young persons pur- 
chasing a little Cupid from an elder 
woman, who pulls him by the wings 
from a cage, in which others are con- 
fined as birds : one of the most popular 
of the whole collection, full of grace 
and spirit (S).— 505, 506, 507. The 
Danzatrici; a series of 13 dancing- 
^rls, discovered in a chamber (P) • 
in 1749: remarkable for their grace- 
ful attitudes and variety of costumes.— 
656, 766. Fine groups of Mars, Venus, 
and Cupid. — 552. Hercules killing the 
Nemean lion, a very fine composition. — 
556. Ariadne abandoned at Naxos (H) ; 
remarkable for its pathos and poetry. — 
566. Chiron teaching Achilles to play upon 
the Lyre (H). — Theseus killing the 
Minotaur; very fine, although the 
colours are faded (H). — 567. Telephus 
nursed by the Hind, with Hercules, 
Pan, and Fortune, the seated figure 
being the personification of Tegea, 
with the Lion and Kagle, the em- 
blems of the Peloponnesus : the colours 
in this picture are well preserved, al- 
though the style is rough and in- 
ferior (H). — 568. The Centaur Nessus, 
with Dejanira and Hercules (P). — 569, 
Achilles delivering Briseis to the 
Heralds of Agamemnon, found in the 
house of the tragic poet (P), is con- 
sidered one of the finest specimens of 
ancient painting. Patroclus leads in 
Briseis, who is presented to the heralds 
by Achilles, whose head is ftill of fire 
and animation. The colours, which are 
now faded, when first dbcovered were 

fresh, and the flesh had the transpa- 
rency of Titian. — 570. Thetis with Isis 
before Jupiter.— 571. Meleager, Ata- 
lanta, and her mother's brothers. — 572. 
Orestes discovered by Iphigenia. — 
The Infant Hercules strangling the Ser- 
pent (H). — 579-582. Four monochromatic 
{one-coloured) paintings on white marble 
(H), the only known examples of this 
mode of painting. The first, very fine, 
represents Theseus killing the Centaur 
Eurythion. The second, five young 
females, two of whom are playing 
at Astragaliy with their names, Aglse, 
Hilaria, Leto, Niobe, and Phcebe, 
This picture bears the name also of the 
artist, Alexander of Athens. — 586. A 
House-scene, or banquet^ where the 
arrangement of the eating-tabie and the 
mode of drinking maybe observed, with 
the maid serving at table (H). — 
Ulysses discovering himself to Penelope 
(St). — Polyphemus receiving a re- 
pulsive Letter from Galatea, brought 
by a Love riding on a Dolphin (H). — 
591. Venus and Adonis. — The Educa- 
tion of Bacchus by Silenus. — 597. A fight 
between a child and an infant Satyr, in 
which old Silenus is seen setting them 
at each other, a ludicrous composition. 
—605,607. The liope-daneers (P) ; found 
in the same apartment as the Danzatrici. 
— 622. A lovely Nereid, or Bacchante. — 
704, 707. Bacchantes. — 676. Perseus 
delivering Andromeda from the Sea 
Monster.— 677. Marriage of Zephyr 
and Chloris. — 678. Medea meditating 
the death of her Children, who are amusing 
themselves at play (P). — 692. Group 
of Priam and Cassandra before the 
statue of Apollo.— 693. The Three 
Graces, very like the ancient marble 
group in the cathedral of Siena, repro- 
duced in Raphael's drawing in the 
National Gallery. — 696. Theseus the 
conqueror of the Minotaur, a very large 
composition, found in the temple of 
Hercules at H. — 717. Agamemnon con- 
ducting Chryseis to the Ship which is to 
convey her to her Father (P). — The Pier 
of the Fullonica, removed from the 
peristyle of the House of that name CP), 
is a most curious illustration of ancient 
trade. It is covered with paintings re- 
presenting the different operations of a 
dyer and scourer, — the dyers in the vats 

ts I 



treadiug the cloth, the wringingt the 
drying, the cardiDg, the frame for fumi- 
gating and bleaching, and the screw-press 
ror finishing. Men, women, and chil- 
dren are engaged in the occupation. — 
718. Massinissa and Sophonisba, one of the 
purely historical paintings found at 
Pompeii. Sophonisba holds the cup with 
the poison, which Massinissa, who is 
embracing her, induces her to take to 
prevent her being carried in triumph to 
Kome. Scipio seems astonished at such 
an exhibition of female resolution. — 739. 
A Maid peeping into a letter of her mis- 
tress's, an everyday scene in our own 
times. — 744. A Blind Man led by his 
Dog, to whom a boy gives a piece of 
money (P).-r753. A drunken Hercules, 
with Cupids carrying off his club. — 765. 
Chanty, better known as the Carita 
Greca, the story of Perona saving the 
life of her father Cimon, as recorded by 
Valerius Maximus (P).— 10B5. The 
marriage of Bacchus and Ariadne, a fine 
composition (P). — Under glass is pre- 
served in the 2nd room the skull of a 
female, found embedded in the ashes, on 
which there is an impression of the 
breast and part of the chest, now 
scarcely to be recognised, from the 
house of Arrius Diomedes at Pompeii : 
near it were found her gold ornamei\.ts 
and a purse containing money: it is 
probable she was enveloped in the vol- 
canic matter when trying to escape. 

II. The Gallery of Mosaics, Mu- 
ral Inscriptions, and Fresco Or- 
naments. (1st door on the 1.) — ^The 
mosaics are in the 1st room; some 
of them are very interesting. — 2. Niche 
for a fountain. — 4. A Pugilist on apedes- 
tal. — 5. A fine group of masks and flower- 
wreaths. — 7. A Cat devouring a Bird 
(P). — 8. A Siren or Harpy, a fine speci- 
men, found at Rome on the Palatine. — 
10. A thievish Magpie stealing a mirror 
out of a basket (P). — 20. Aerates riding 
on a Tiger, holding a vase in his hand 
one of the fine mosaics of the collection 
found in the House of the Faun at Pom- 
peii. — 22. A Comic Scene (P), in which 
three actors masked are sitting at a table. 
In the upper part of this Mosaic and of 
No. 24 is the name of Dioscorides of Sa- 
mos. — 23. Choragium or theatrical re- 

hearsal (P), represents the Choragns in- 
structing the actors. Two have their 
masks raised, and are taking their final 
instructions ; another is putting on the 
tunic, and a female musician is tuning 
the pipes. — 24. Another Comic Scene (P) 
by the same hand, — a pleasing composi- 
tion of a man, two women, and a boy 
playing various instruments, and wear- 
ing omamentedmasks. They were found 
in the house of.Diomed. — 25. Lycurgus 
attacked by a panther and Bacchantes, 
for ordering the vines to be destroyed, 
— 27. Theseus in the Labyrinth conquer- 
ing the Minotaur (P).— 28. A Cock- 
fight (P). — 29. A Skeleton grasping a 
vase in each hand, supposed to be one of 
the emblems which the ancients had 
before them at their feasts (H). — 30. 
Phryxus and Thelle. — 31 to 34. Four 
columns of stucco covered with Mosaics 
(P). — A Pavement, representing in 
black Mosaic on a white ground the 
signs of ihe Zodiac, with Uie Rape of 
Europa in the centre (L). — 36. The 
three Graces. — 39. A good Mosaic, 
forming a portion of a floor, represent- 
ing several species of sea fishes. — A 
large circular fragment of a Mosaic 
floor, representing a lion in repose in 
the centre, surrounded by Cupids.— 
Large Mosaic found at Lucera, repre- 
senting the signs of the Zodiac on the 
outer part in black and white, and 
the Rape of Europa in the centre in 
coloured materials. — 41, 42. Birds. In 
this and the following rooms are several 
of the mural inscriptions, chiefly from 
Pompeii, roughly written upon the 
stucco of the walls, and of the still 
ruder scratchings on plaster, called 
graffiti, illustrated by Dr. Wordsworth 
and the learned Jesuit Garucci. 

In the 4 rooms beyond that of the 
Mosaics have been deposited the ordi- 
nary ornamental wall-paintings from the 
houses of P and H, and several fmore 
elaborate compositions more recently 
discovered : amongst which is worthy of 
notice, a large one (1476) having 2 
iserpents and an altar below ; and a fe- 
male in a boat above, drageinff after it 
another containing a bird m its cage ; 
a. juggler with 2 dancing cobra capello 
snakes ; triremes or galleys filled with 
soldiers (P) ; a good representation of 



tbe sacred Ibis of the Egyptians; a 
beautiful group of Cupids; rope- 
dancers. In the centre of the 2nd 
room is an CEdiculum or Sacrarium 
f .om the house of Julia Felix at Pom- 
peia. The objects in this part of the 
Museum are in great confusion, many 
without numbers, and most with 3 or 
4 different ones. 

III. The Collection of Egyptian 
Antiquities. (2nd door on the rt.) — 
It was augmented by the purchase of 
the collection of Cardinal Borgia. We 
shall only notice a few of the principal 
objects. — -A sepulchral monument in 
granite with bas-reliefs of 22 figures 
and hieroglyphics (B).- — A fragment 
of a sarcophagus of black granite, 
covered inside and out with hiero- 
glyphics. In 1762 Niebuhr saw this 
fragment at Boulac, and published a 
sketch of it in his Travels. — ^A Pas- 
tophorus, or Egyptian priest, in black 
basalt, one of the fine examples of 
this numerous class of statues (F). — • 
A statue of Serapis, seated on his 
throne, with his right hand restii^g on 
the head of Cerberus, found in the ves- 
tibule of the Serapeon (Pz). — ^The Isiac 
table, found in the Iseon (P). — ^A 
square tablet of lead covered with hie- 
ratic characters, alluded to by Zoega in 
his work on the Obelisks. — Bust of Isis 
in green basalt. — Head of Ptolemy V, 
in marble.— Small statue of Isis, with 
gilt and coloured drapery, holding the 
sistrum in the right hand, and the 
keys of the Nile in the left (P),— ;A 
singular representation in relief of Osiris. 
It was once painted, the traces of colour 
being still visible. — ^A bas-relief of 
Osiris and Isis (B). — Five Canopic 
vases in Oriental alabaster (B). — A case 
containing various sacerdotal objects 
used by the priests. — Male torso in 
basalt, covered with hieroglyphics 
(B). — ^The celebrated Papyrus, with 
Greek characters, which dates from the 
2nd or 3rd cent, of our era, and which 
Schow states to have been found in 
a subterranean building at Memphis, 
with 40 others, enclosed in a box of 
sycamore-wood. They were ofiered 
for sale to a merchant who, not knowing 
their value, purchased this one only, and 

sent it to Cardinal Borgia : the others 
were consumed in lighting the pipes 
of the Turks. The Greek characters 
are most valuable for their antiquity. 
The manuscript is written in columns, 
and contains the names of the workmen 
who constructed the dykes and chan- 
nels of the Nile. — Group of a Pasto- 
phorus and an Isiac priestess in basalt, 
supposed to be one of the most ancient 
monuments of this class. — An Ibis of 
white marble, with the head, neck, 
and feet of bronze (P). They stand 
upon two fine columns of Egyptian 
breccia. — Ten Presses, containing a 
variety of miscellaneous smaller ob- 
jects. And in a second room some mum- 
mies, in their cases, of men and animals. 

IV. The Collection of Ancient 
Sculpture (2nd door on the 1.) occu- 
pies 3 large galleries called Porticos^ 
several smaller ones or Cabinets, and 
an open court. 

1. First Portico, called that of the 
Miscellaneous Objects (dei Miscellanei), 
— 1. {Et.) Bust of Ptolemy Soter ? (H). 
—11. Bust of M. Jun. Brutus (F).— 14. 
A Wounded Amazon on horseback 
(F). — 16. The Wounded Gladiator, 
well known as the "Farnese Gladi- 
ator," a very fine statue, full of feel- 
ing, and painfully true to nature. John 
Bell considers it one of the noblest in 
the museum. The head, arms, and feet 
are modem, but very ably conceived. 
— 20. A Warrior in Greek marble, 
once supposed to be Etruscan, but 
now generally regarded as an example 
of early Greek sculpture (F). — 22. A 
Young Gladiator in the act of fighting, 
although wounded in the thigh : sup- 
posed to be a copy of Praxiteles. — 
Theseus wounded at Aphidue (F). — 
(Z^.)— 25. Fine head of Sileaus.— 29. 
A Dacian King as a prisoner (F). — 35. 
The statue of M. Nonius Balbus, with 
an inscription, showing that it was 
erected to him as praetor and proconsul 
by the people of Herculaneum. It was 
found without the head, and the pre- 
sent one, although antique, obviously 
does not belong to it — 51. His father 
M. Nonius Balbus ; 43. his mother Vi- 
ciria Archas, a robed statue in Pentelic 




marble ; 30, 32, 40, 48, 59. five of his 
daughters, one of which has marks of 
gilding on the hair. It would appearfrom 
the arrangement of the female figures, 
and from their having been all found in 
the theatre, that the inhabitants of Her- 
culaneum displayed their affection for 
this family by placing their statues 
there, under the allegorical forms of 
different Muses. The statue of a 6th 
daughterii^as presented by the Prince of 
Elbeuf to Prince Eugene, and is now in 
the Dresden Museum. — -A Dead War- 
rior and (53 ) a Dead Amazon (F). — 
54. Bust of Coelius Caldus. 

2. Second Portico, called the Portico 
de' Balhi from the celebrated equestrian 
statues of the elder and younger Balbus. 
78. The Priestess Ewnachia, a fine statue 
erected by the dyers (P).— 80. Gany- 
mede AND THE Eagle, full of grace and 
beauty beyond almost any other ex- 
ample of the same subject (F). — 119. 
Hercules and Omphcdey a Roman sculp- 
ture (H). — Hercules and lole, in Greek 
marble, but of Roman workmanship(F). 
This group is supposed to have supplied 
Tasso with the ideas of his fine descrip- 
tion in the Gerusalemme, Canto xvi. — 
123. ^sculapius (F), a fine Greek statue 
said to have been found in the island of 
the Tiber at Rome, where there was a 
temple of that demi-god. — 126. Bacchus 
and Ampelus (restored erroneously as a 
Cupid), a fine group in Greek marble 
(F) ; the same subject as in the gallery 
at Florence, but in a better style. — 
147. Statue of Juno (F).-— 142. Good 
Hermes of Socrates, with an inscription 
in Greek. — 1 50. Statue of Minerva in 
archaic style. — 152. A Faun carrying the 
hoy Bacchus on his shoulders, a charming 
group of Greek workmanship (F), 
well restored by Albaccini from other 
antiques %f the same subject. The 
Faun holds in his hands the cymbals ; 
his laughing countenance is turned 
towards the boy, who grasps with one 
hand the Faun's hair to maintain his 
position, and with the other holds out 
a bunch of grapes with a tantalising and 
yet playful air, while he looks down 
upon the Faun's laughing face with an 
arch and affectionate expression, which 
is nature itself. — 179. Colossal statue 

of Antinous as Bacchus. — 186. Statue 
in fine military costume, restored as 
Julius Csesar. — 195. Bust of Alexander 
the Great as the son of Jupiter Am- 
mon, with two small horns appearing 
from the hair: the wry neck, which 
is very evident, and the dignified, but 
pensive features, which are so well 
known from other examples, leave no 
doubt that this is a true likeness of 
Alexander, flattered by the insignia of 
his assumed divinity. It is in Greek 
marble, but of Roman sculpture (H). 
— 198. The equestrian statue of Marcus 
Nonius Balbus, the younger. At the time 
of the French invasion of 1799, while 
the statue was in the palace of Portici, 
the head of Balbus was struck by 
a cannon-ball and dashed to atoms, 
but the loss was repaired by the sculp- 
tor Brunelli, who collected the frag- 
ments, and from them formed a east, 
upon which the present head was ac- 
curately modelled. The inscription on 
the pedestal shows that this statue, 
like all the others of the family of 
the Balbi, was erected at the public 
expeuse. — 199. Marcus Nonius Balbus, the 
father, the companion statue to the pre- 
ceding. The head and one band were 
missing, and were supplied by Canardi, 
who copied the former from that of the 
statue in the 1st Portico. These eques- 
trian statues, both found in the Basilica 
of Herculaneum, have suffered more 
than any others which have been disin- 

The Farnese Bacchus, an exquisite 
figure in a graceful posture, standing on 
tiptoe, with his right hand raised to 
gather the bunch of grapes. The head 
and arms are restored by Albaccini. 
In this portico have been deposited two 
sarcophagi, which were, till very re- 
cently, at Mileto in Calabria. The 
larger of them, of Roman workman- 
ship, representing a chariot race, had 
been used as the tomb of Count Roger, 
the Norman, and was lying near the 
ruins of the Abbey of the Holy Trinity 
which he had founded at Mileto. The 
smaller one, with good alto-relievo 
representing the battle of the Amazons, 
had been handed down as the tomb of 
the Countess Eremberga, Roger's wife, 
and was in the piazza of that town. 



3. TTiird Portico, called of the Empe- 
rorsy an interesting collection ; for al- 
though many of the statues are inferior 
as works of art, they afford a good op- 
portunity of studying the features and 
expression of the rulers of the Boman 
World. In the centre is (264) the sit- 
ting Statue of Agrippina, the wife of 
Germanicus. This figure was con- 
sidered by Winckelmann finer than 
those of the Capitol or the Villa Albani, 
She sits in a cushioned chair of simple, 
but elegant form ; her posture is easy, 
graceful, and dignified ; her hands are 
clasped and resting in her lap ; the 
drapery is finely disposed, and the whole 
expression is that of pensiye resigna- 
tion. 209. Bust, attributed by some to 
Hannibal, and by others to Brutus (C). 
—210. Colossal bust of Titus (F).— 
— 215. Julius Cjesar, a colossal bust in 
Carrara marble, considered by Visconti, 
who describes it in the 4th vol. of his 
Museo PioClementino as the finest like- 
ness known. It represents the Roman 
hero in middle age, with the hair 
still upon his forehead: the counte- 
nance is serene and beaming with in- 
telligence (F). — 218. Statue of Vitellius. 
— 220. Colossal bust of Antoninus Pius, 
of exquisite workmanship and in the 
finest preservation (C A). — 221. Colos- 
sal bust of Hadrian, a very dignified 
and noble countenance (F). — 223. Bust 
of M. Aur. Carinus, or of Antoninus 
Pius. — 226. Heroic statue of Tiberius ; 
and 230, another of the same em- 
peror, holding a Cornucopia. — 233. 
Cglossal sitting statue of Claudius, 
found without the head and arms. 
The discovery of a statue of Claudius 
in a similar attitude, at Veil, is the 
sole foundation for the name given 
to this fragment. It was the first 
large statue found at H, and it 
became the basis of the collection 
subsequently formed.— 236. Statue of 
Trajan, or rather a Torso with the head 
of Trajan added by the restorer. It 
is remarkable for the fine bas-relief 
on the cuirass, representing Minerva 
between two dancing figures (M). — 
238. Bust of Lucius Venis, remarkable 
for the minute workmanship of the 
beard. — 239. A fine statue of Lucius 
Verus, with a head of great expres- 

sion (F). — 240. Good bust of Probus. 
— 242. A statue of Caligula. The 
Komans, in their abhorrence of his 
character, destroyed every memorial 
of Caligula at his death. It was 
found by the Marchese Venuti, broken 
into fragments (M). The head was 
used by the ferrymen of the Gari- 
gliauo to steady the wheels of the car- 
riages which passed the river in the 
boat, and the remaining fragments were 
found lying in the yard of a small 
osteria in the neighbourhood. The 
whole were put together by Brvmelli, 
who restored the legs, the 1. hand, the 
rt. arm, the neck, the beard, and the 
1. ear. The countenance is that of low 
cunning and meanness ; the armour 
is fine, and embellished with a spirited 
bas-relief representing a horse (pro- 
bably the favourite one which Cali- 
gula made a senator) pounced upon by 
a griffon, while a soldier in vain en- 
deavours to hold him by the bridle. 
The chief interest of the statue is 
derived from its having been preserved 
to our times in spite of all the efforts 
of the Romans to blot out the me- 
mory of their oppressor. — 250. Bust 
of Gallienus ; a finely executed work 
for the period. (C). — 255. Lucius 
Verus, a noble statue, wearing a 
cuirass decorated with two griffons, 
and a Gorgon's head, as an emblem 
of prudence. Part of the neck, the 
rt. arm, the 1. hand, and the legs are 
restorations by Albaccini (F). — 258. A 
colossal seated statue in the attitude 
and costume of Jupiter, restored with 
a modem head as Augustus, on the 
supposition that the sculptor intended 
to represent his apotheosis as a piece 
of flattery to him while living. The 
only authority for it is an antique cameo 
in which Augustus is so represented 
(H). — 259. A finely executed bust of 
Caracalla ; fully expressive of ferocious 
passions and habitual cruelty (F). This 
bust has been much praised by Winck- 
elmann, as worthy of Lysippus. 

Opening out of this portico is a 
hall containing — A fine Porphyry 
Basin, which, from the serpents on 
the handles, the reliefs of poppy- 
heads and marsh plants, has led to 
suppose it was a lustral vase fix>m a 






temple of .^sculapius in the island of 
the Tiber. Round this hall are arranged 
numerous bas-reliefs, amongst which 
may be noticed (403) good reliefs of 
a Trireme (P). — 320. Bacchus arriv- 
ing for a banquet with Icarius and 
Erigone. — 354. Comic Actors on the 
stage. — 358. Good relief of Carya- 
tides. — 3^6. A nocturnal sacrifice to 
Pf iapus, found in the island of Capri ; 
the male figure on horseback is sup- 
posed to be intended for Tiberius. 
There is an interesting collection of 
Kun-dials of different forms from 
P. and H.— 408. Good bas-relief of 
Mercury, Eurydice, and Orpheus. — 
410. Sepulchral Trapezophyrum, or 
support of a table, with ngures repre- 
senting Scylla and the Centaur as guar- 
dians of the infernal regions. 

4. The Open Court j or Cortile, ad- 
joining this gallery, contains a mis- 
cellaneous collection of antiquities of 
second-rate importance. 

5. Hall of the Flora, opening out of 
the centre of the Portico of the Balbi : 
131. AntinouSf a very graceful and 
life-like statue, though much re- 
stored. There is an air of melancholy 
about the features, but the limbs are 
beautifully finished (F). — Juno, a 
statue of large size, full of dignity and 
expression. The drapery is transparent 
and gracefully disposed (F). — 137. The 
colossal statue known as the Flora 
Farnese, found in the baths of Cara- 
calla at Rome, and celebrated as one 
of the masterpieces of ancient sculpture. 
Though upwards of 12 feet in height, 
it is so finely proportioned and so 
graceful, that the unnatural effect of 
a colossal statue is not felt,, and the 
sp2ctator sees only one of the noblest 
specimens of the female form which 
Greek art has handed down to us. 
The head, the arms, and the feet were 
supplied by Delia Porta and Albaccini, 
who, without any authority, gave it the 
character of Flora. Visconti thought 
that it represented H(ype, and according 
to others Venm Genitrix. — 143. Aris- 
TiDES, perhaps the finest statue in the 
Museum, discovered in the Villa of the 
Papyri at H, and ever since named and 

described as Aristides, thoush other • 
critics have endeavoured to show that 
it represents JEschines, It is as grand 
an embodiment of high intellectual 
power and calm dignity of character 
as was ever expressed in marble. The 
countenance is placid and dignified, the 
curling of the hair and beard graceful, 
the drapery exquisite. Canova con- 
sidered it one of the most marvellous 
monuments of ancient art. — This 
gallery contains also the grandest Mo- 
saic which has yet been discovered at 
P, found in 1831 in the House of the 
Faun. The subject has given rise to 
much learned disquisition; but it is 
now generally admitted that it repre- 
sents the Battle of Issus, and that the 
two principal figures are those of 
Alexander and Darius. The composi- 
tion is crowded with figures and horse- 
men in the very heat of the fight. 
One war chariot only is introduced, 
corresponding with the account of 
the battle given by Q. Curtius. The 
colouring is most vivid, and the exe- 
cution perfect. Behind the Mosaic 
and on either side of the Flora are — 
138. The Farnese Minerva, a colossal 
statue in Parian marble, nearly 7^ ft. 
high. Imposing in proportions and 
severe in design, this noble statue 
realises all our classical ideas of the 
Goddess of Wisdom. It was found at 
Velletri, and purchased for 36,000 
piastres. It is entire, with the excep- 
tion of the arms, which are restored. 
126. Bacchus, a fine statue of Roman 
sculpture of the time of Hadrian : the 
hands are restorations by Albaccini 
(F).— 147. Juno, a fine statue (F). At 
the S. extremity of the Portico of the 
Balbi we enter 

6. JIall of Jupiter, — Colossal sitting 
statue of Jupiter Stator (Cu); an un- 
doubted specimen of Greek art, very 
dignified and imposing, though cruelly 
retouched and scraped. — 414. The 
Torso Farnese, or the Torso of Bacchus 
(F), a masterpiece of Greek art, re- 
garded by some as a work of Phidias. 
Nothing can be more elegant than the 
graceful attitude of the neck and the 
body, or more soft and true to nature 
than the exquisite delicacy of the flesh. 



It differs from the Torso Belvedere, — 415. 
Sarcophagus, with a bas-relief represent- 
ing a Bacchanalian festival, with Bac« 
chus drunken in his car, and Hercules 
resting upon lole (F).^-421. Bacchus 
drunken, a highly finished and most ani- 
mated bas-reuef, considered by Winck- 
elmann one of the finest bas-reliefs of 
Grecian art. — 422. Psyche (C A), a 
fragment full of feeling, grace, and 
beauty, and ascribed by some to Prax- 
iteles. The surpassing loveliness of 
the countenance is combined with 
elegance of form and delicacy of 
attitude. It would seem, from the 
posture of the figure and the ex- 
pression of her countenance, as if a 
Cupid stood on her right, and they 
were apparently in conversation. It is 
probably the most beautiful representa- 
tion of Psyche in existence. — 446. 
Roman Sarcophagus, with a rough bas- 
relief representing llie gods present at 
the creation of man by Prometheus 
(P).--456. A beautiful Greek bas- 
relief of Venus and Helen, Cupid and 
Paris or Alexander, and Pitho, the 
goddess of persuasion; all of them, 
except Cupid, have their names in 
Greek characters. 

7. ffall of Apollo, or of the Coloured 
Marbles, — Crouching statues of Barbae 
rians, in Pavonazzetto marble, with 
heads and hands in black. — 467. Apollo 
Musagetes, in green basalt; Apollo, in 
the act of repose, bends his right arm 
gracefully over his head, and suspends 
his lyre with the left. — 471. Bust of 
Marcus Aurelius when young ; the 
head, beautiful and delicately worked 
in Carrara marble, is inserted in 
a bust of oriental alabaster (F). — 
472. Statue of Ceres and of Isis, in 
the dark grey marble called bigio 
morato, greatly restored (F). — 473. 
Bust of Annius Verus,— 481. StcOue of 
Diana of Ephesus, in oriental alabaster, 
with the head, hands, and feet of bronze. 
This fine specimen of Roman sculpture 
is in the highest state of preservation, 
even in the minutest details. The cha- 
racteristic emblems of the Dea Matrix, 
whence arose the epithet of multimanv- 
mea, are also well preserved. The head 
is surmounted by a species of circular 

diadem with eight chimseras; and there 
are three lions on each arm. On the 
breast are various zodiacal signs, with 
four winged female figures, supposed 
to typify the four seasons (F). — 487. 
Statue of Meleager, in rosso antico.— 
493. Bust of Junius Brutus. — 494. A 
curious Mosaic, the ground slate, the 
figures consisting of dancers, persons 
engaged in sacrificial operations, &c., 
in giallo antico, in the style of the 
pietre commesse of Florence. — 497. Bust 
of Julia Pia. — In the middle of the 
hall is (501) a semi-colossal sitting 
statue of the Apollo Citharcedus, of a 
single piece of porphyry, except the 
head, hands, and feet, which are of 
white marble. It is crowned with 
laurel, and wears a theatrical cos- 
tume. It holds the lyre in the left, 
and the plectrum in the right hand. 
The drapery is finely arranged and ad- 
mirably chiselled. The rarity of the 
material gives great value to this 
statue, independently of its merit as a 
work of art (F). 

8. Hall of the Muses, — It contains the 
statues of the Muses found in the theatre 
at H; some of them are very good. 
Mnemosyne, Terpsichore, and Clio are 
in Pentelic marble. — 509. Sitting statue 
of Apollo Musagetes, remarkable for the 
sculpture of the feet (F).— 528. Alto-ri- 
lievo of four figures, of exquisite work- 
manship, supposed to represent Apollo 
or Baccnus and the Graces (F).— 53 1 . In 
the middle of this hall is the splendid 
Vase of Greek marble, covered with bas- 
reliefs representing the Birth of Bacchus, 
Mercury is represented consigning the 
infiuit child to the nymph Nysa, with 
Bacchantes and Fauns playing on mu- 
sical instruments, who are rejoicing at 
the birth. A graceftil wreath of vine 
leaves and tendrils surrounds the rim 
of the vase. Overthe central group of 
figuresis inscribedjthenameof the sculp- 
tor, Salpion of Athens. This unrivalled 
specimen of art, which has been de- 
scribed by Mont&ucon, Spon, and other 
writers, was found among the ruins of 
ancient Formise, in the bay of Gaeta, 
and it lay for a long time on the beach, 
where it was used bv the boatmen to 
moor their boats: the marks of the 



ropes are distinctly visible. It was 
afterwards removed to the cathedral of 
Gaeta, where it was used as the bap> 
tismal font. It stands on a Puteal, ^ith 
reliefs of Jupiter, Mars, Apollo, ^scu- 
lapius, Bacchus, Hercules, and Mer- 
cury (F). 

9. B^aU of Adonis, — 534. A good 
statue of Bacchus, from St. Agata 
dei Goti . — 536. The Hermaphrodite 
Bacchus ; a singular but character- 
istic statue, with very light and well- 
arranged drapery. It has been greatly 
restored (P).~538. Winged statue of 
Cupid, of Greek workmanship, sup- 
posed to be one of the antique copies 
of the Cupid of Praxiteles (F), — 
554. Pvteal, or mouth of a well, with 
a bas-relief of the best times of Greek 
art, representing the process of wine- 
making by Silenus and the Satyrs CN). 
On it stands a Veiius with a dolphin, 
on which sits Cupid holding a pigeon. 
(558) Cupid entangled in the folds of a 
dolphin; a curious and well-executed 
group (F). In the middle of the apart- 
ment is (556) the Adofiis (C), a foiely 
proportioned and highly finished figure. 
It has been restored in parts. The col- 
lection of the statues of Venus, which 
formerly constituted the Hall of the so- 
called Venus Gallypige, and which were 
for several years hidden from the public 
view, through motives of false deli- 
cacy, have been recently removed here. 
The principal figure of the collection 
is the Venus Callipyge, found in the 
Golden House of Nero, and long con- 
sidered to be one of the Venuses of 
Praxiteles. The rt. leg, the rt. hand, 
half of the 1. arm, the whole of the 1. 
hand, the naked part of the breast, and 
the head are restorations by Albaccini. 
Notwithstanding these extensive addi- 
tions the statue is very graceful and 
worthy of its fame.- The other Venuses 
have been much patched by restora- 
tions, and have scarcely any claim to 
beauty ; many, indeed, are portrait 
statues of the goddess. 

10. Hall of Atlas, OT of Illustrious Men. 
•—It contains a number of busts and 
statues of ancient poets, orators, etc. 
Here stood formerly the Aristiies,- — 

562. Statue of Cicero in the act of 
speaking; the head, hands, and right 
foot are modem (H). — 592. Bust called 
Plato, but which is a good head of Bac- 
chus on a modem bust (H). — 589. Bust 
of Socrates (F).— 566. Homer,a dignified 
and venerable statue, of Greek sculp- 
ture, finely preserved (H). — 575. Bust 
of Demosthenes, of Greek sculpture 
(H). — 582. Bust of Herodotus, with his 
name in Greek characters (F), — 585. 
Statue of Sylla; the head is that of 
Sylla, but it is only an adaptation to 
another figure (H) . In the middle of the 
hall is the kneeling (597) Statue of 
Atlas sustaining a celestial globe ; a 
very interesting monument of Roman 
art, and one of interest to the student of 
ancient astronomy. Of the 47 constel- 
lations known to the ancients, 42 may 
be distinctly recognised ; the five want- 
ing are Ursa major, Ursa minor, 
Sa^ttarius, E(|[uus, and Canis minor. 
The date of this sculpture is probably 
anterior to the time of Hadrian (F). 

11. Hall of TtWtMS.—eol. A Vestal, 
a favourite bust, known by the popular 
name of the Zingarella (F). — 613. Bust 
of Themistocles, supposed to be the copy 
of a fine antique (H). — 620. Colossal 
head of Alexander the Great— 624, 627. 
Two colossal busts of Juno, very fine 
and well preserved, the first of Greek, 
the second of Roman workmanship (F). 
— 645. A fine bust of Homer in Greek 
marble (F). — 652. A beautiful Vase, 
ornamented with bas-reliefs represent- 
ing a Bacchanalian procession (H). — 
648. A double Hermes, with heads of 
Herodotus and Thucydides, inscribed with 
their names in Greek characters (F) 
— 649, 650. Two beautiful candelabras, 
ornamented with chimseras, heads of 
rams, storks, &c. (F). — Vase with 
bacchanalian reliefs in an early Greek 
style ( F ). — 653. A quadrangular 
Pedestal of Greek marble, erected 
in honour of Tiberius by the 14 cities 
of Asia Minor, which he rebuilt after 
they had been damaged by an earth- 
quake. Each city is represented by a 
symbolical figure wearing its national 
costume, and distinguished by the name 
inscribed below it. It was found during 
Addison's visit in 1693, in the Piazza 



della Malva (Pz). — 654. Colossal Read of 
. Tiberius on a modem bust (F) ; one of the 
best portraits of the imperial tyrant in 
his early youth. The room beyond this 
contains a miscellaneous collection of 
smaller marble objects lately discovered 
at Pompeii — busts, statues, architec- 
tural ornaments, weights, mortars, &c. 
— 552. A statue of Diana from Pom- 
peii, in a very Archaic style. — 903. 
A good group of a stork devouring a 
lizard (P). — 21. A bust of Antoninus 
Pius (B). — 22. A good bust of Sabina ; 
23. id. of Faustina the Elder : both 
from the Thermee at Baiee. 

V. The CoixECTioN of Inscriptions, 
or the Mused Epigrafico^ the Toro 
and the Ergole Farnesi. — At the en- 
trance from the court are the two 2Wo- 
peen columns of cipollino, so called from 
having been discovered in the villa of 
Herodus Atticus, called Triopium, on 
the Via Appia, near Rome ; they have 
each a Greek inscription, which has 
been illustrated by Visconti. The Mmeo 
Epigrafico contains upwards of 1600 
inscribed monuments from Hercula- 
neum, Pompeii, Stabise,Pozzuoli,Baiae, 
Cumse, Ischia, Capri, and other places 
near Naples, and several from Rome 
which belonged to the Farnese Collec- 
tion. Those in the two halls on the rt. 
and 1. of the entrance are chiefly from 
P and H, amongst which are most 
worthy of notice — in the division on 
the rt., those relative to the restoration 
of the Temple of Isis at Pompeii, by 
N. Popidius Celsius ; after the earth- 
quake of A.D* 61 ; of the Temple of 
Cybele, Matris Deum, in the 17th year 
of the reign of Vespasian, after the 
sacne awful visitation, terrje motv 
OONLAPSVM. ; of several dedicatory 
ones by L. Mammius to Antonia, Ger- 
manicus, and Claudius; and a cu- 
rious set of standard measures of 
capacity, set up in the Forum by 
Clodius Flaccus and NarcsBus Caledus 
the Duumvirs, by order of the De- 
curions. In the corridor on the 1. 
are similar inscriptions, in beautifully 
formed letters, to L. Mammius Rufus, 
who repaired the basilica and the 
theatre, with its orchestra, at his own 
expense, pecunid sua; and to M. 

Holconius Rufus Celer, who did the 
same with regard to the Crypta and 
Tribunalia, The inscriptions are ar- 
ranged in the 8 classes. Sacred, Hono- 
rary, to public functionaries, Sepul- 
chral, Oriental and Greek, Oscan, early 
Christian, and Miscellaneous. — 1414. 
The Toro Farnese. This celebrated 
group is described by Pliny as one of 
the most remarkable monuments of 
antiquity. He tells us that it was 
brought from Rhodes to Rome, and 
was the joint work of the Rhodian 
sculptors Apollonius and TauriscuSf who 
cut it from a single block of marble. 
Asinius Pollio, the great patron of art 
in the time of Augustus, is believed to 
have purchased it. It was found in the 
Baths of Caracalla, much injured. The 
principal restorations were made under 
the superintendence of Michael Angelo 
by Bianchi, who added the head of 
the Bull, the upper part of the 
figure of Dirce, a great portion of 
the figures of Amphion and Zethus, 
and the whole of that of Antiope 
except the feet. The group was 
placed by Michael Angelo in the 
court of the Farnese Palace at Rome, 
where it served to decorate a foun- 
tain. In 1786 it was brought to Na- 
ples, and placed in the Villa Reale, from 
which it was removed to this museum. 
The subject b the tale of the revenge 
of Antiope and her two sons (Zethus 
and Amphion) on Dirce, for having 
seduced the affections of her husband 
Lycus, King of Thebes, who, being 
enamoured of her, had despised and 
repudiated his (|ueen. Her two sons, 
enraged at the msult offered to their 
mother, resolved on tying their victim 
to the horns of a bull. But Antiope 
interposed, and prevailed with the 
young men to restrain th^ animal, 
and unbind her rival. Several animals 
are represented in relief round the base. 
— 1415. At the opposite extremity of 
the gallery is the Farnese Hercules, 
or the Hercules of Glycon. It was 
brought by Caracalla from Athens to 
adorn his baths, and was found among 
their ruins in 1540 by Paul III., 
but the legs were wanting. Car- 
dinal Alessandro Farnese employed 
Michael Angelo to supply them, and 



from his model in terracotta the missing 
limbs were executed and added to the 
figure by Guglielmo della Porta. 
Twenty years afterwards the original 
legs were found in a well, 3 m. from 
the baths, on the property of the Bor- 
ghese family; but Michael Angelo 
was so well satisfied with the resto- 
rations of Guglielmo della Porta that 
he would not idlow then! to be replaced. 
The antique legs remained in the 
possession of the Borghese family un- 
til a few years since, when the present 
Prince Marc Antonio Borghese pre- 
sented them to the King of Naples, 
who restored them to the statue. 
This celebrated statue represents Her- 
cules resting on his club, which 
seems to bend beneath his ponderous 
arms ; " while the expression of com- 
plete fatigue, both in the countenance 
and limbs, is combined with a display 
of strength, even in repose, wnich 
is perfectly supernatural. Upon the 
rock upon which rests the club, is 
inscribed the name of the Athenian 
sculptor Glycon. Few statues of an- 
tiquity were so admired by the 
ancients themselves as the Hercules 
of Glycon. It was impressed on 
the money of Athens, and after- 
wards on the coins of Caracalla; 
there is reason to believe that the 
Romans had many copies of the 
statue executed by their best artists. 
One of them is in the Palazzo 
Pitti at Florence, and there is a small 
bronze copy in the Villa Albani at 
Rome. In modern times much has 
been written on the powerful execution 
of the statue, and it has been often 
described as a masterpiece of sculpture. 
But the anatomist John Bell, maintains 
that it i^ unworthjr of such praise, for 
the reason that it is not true Xq nature. 
The other two heroic statues here are 
called Tiberius and Atreus : they have 
been much restored, a head of Corn- 
modus being adapted to the latter. 

A very curious Calendar has 
been removed to the Hall of the 
Toro. It consists of a square block 
of white marble, on the 4 sides of 
which have been inscribed the 12 
months of the year: at the head of 
each is a representation, in relief, of 

the sign of the zodiac, followed by 
the name of the month, with the number 
of its days, the nones, and the mean 
length in hours of the day and night ; 
the designation of the corresponding 
sign of the zodiac, the name of the tute- 
lary divinity, the most important agri- 
cultural occupations of the month, and 
its principal religious festival. Thus we 
see that January had 31 days, that the 
nones were on the 5th, the hours of 
the day 9| and of the night 14}, that 
the reeds and canes were to be cut 
down, the sun in Capricomus, that 
Juno was the tutelary divinity, and 
that the Penates were to be sacrificed 
to. This calendar is interesting also 
as. showing the period of the sowing 
and reaping ; thus we see the former, 
Sementes IHticarice, in November, and 
the latter, Vicia Pabularium, Secatiir, 
and Segetes Lustrantur, in May ; in Sept, 
the apples are gathered, poma legunt ; 
showing that it was made for the dis- 
trict — probably the environs . of Rome 
— in which it was found. In the 
outer court are several early Christian 
inscriptions from the catacombs, but 
arranged without order, several muti- 
lated statues, sepulchral cippi, mediae- 
val sarcophagi ; and in the niches around 
senatorial statues from Herculaneum. 

VI. The Gallery of Bronze Sta- 
tues, the most extensive and interest- 
ing collection of this kind in the world, 
consists for the greater part of objects 
discovered at Herculaneum and Pom- 
peii. Many of these are of great 
interest and beauty : indeed this is per- 
haps the most interesting part of the 
Museo Nazionale ; and from the ar- 
rangement, as well as the determination 
of the objects in it, is by far the most 
satisfactory of the whole collection, 
although at present the labelling of 
the d fferent , objects is much ne- " 
glected. — 2, 5, 8, 22, 34. Six statues 
of actresses or dancerSy found in the 
proscenium of the theatre at H. The 
finest of the group is the one (No. 34) 
which binds his hair with a fillet inlaid 
with silver, an ornament characteristic 
of the dancing girls in the time of Ho- 
mer. — 6. Bust of Ptolemy Philometor. 
—7. Bust of Caius Ceesar.-- 9. Bust of 



M. Lepidus. 10. Bust of Livia, with 
an artistical coiffure or wig (gaierus), of 
excellent workmanship (H). — 52. 
The Sleeping Faun. The right arm 
bent back over the head ; the disposition 
of the limbs, and the half-opened lips, 
are beautifully true to nature, and in- 
dicative of the deep sleep which follows 
active exercise. It was found in 1756 
. in the villa of the Papyri at H. — 
14,24. Busts of the philosophers Hera- 
clitus and Democritus, — 17. JBust of 
Berenice; one of the finest and most 
graceful portraits in the gallery. When 
exhumed in 1756, the eyes and lips 
were encrusted with silver, of which 
the traces are still visible (H). — 18, 20. 
Two Discoboli in the act of watching 
the direction of the discus which they 
have just thrown ; most spirited and 
life-like figures, full of natural grace 
and expression (H). — ^Fine and well- 
preserved busts of (23) Ptolemy Phi- 
ladelphus, and 21. Ptolemy Soter, both 
wearing the diadem (H). — 31. Pto- 
lemy Alexander (H). — 69. Ptolemy 
Apion.— 26. A colossal statue of a 
female in the act of adoration, 
called also Pudicitia and Faustina. 
— 30. Fine statue of an attendant on 
the altars, called one of the young Ca- 
milli, in the Hall of the Bronzes, at 
the Capitol (Rome;,— 33. Fine bust of 
Caracaila, — 37. Bust of Commodus ? — 
39. Bust of Antinous, as Bacchus, from 
Rome. — 41. Statue of Antonia, the wife 
of the younger Drusus (H). — 43. Male 
bust, called Scipio Africanus, but with- 
out the scar seen on all the well-au- 
thenticated heads of that celebrated 
character, one of the finest and most 
characteristic heads in the Museum. 
It was foupd in the villa of the Papyri 
at H.— 46. Bust, called M. Agrippa(P). 
— 49. Colossal statue of Nero Drusus 
in sacrificial robes, remarkable for its 
fine drapery, &c. (H). — 50. Bust of 
PlatOy attributed by others to Zeuxippvs. 
It is a grand bust, somewhat severe in 
character, but of beautiful workman- 
ship (H). — 53. Bitst ofArchytas, with his 
head bound with the national fillet of 
Tarentum ; a most interesting portrait 
(H). — 56. A lovely small statue of the 
Venus Anadyomene, found at Nocera 
dei Pagani. — 54. Heroic statue of Clau^ 
IS. Italy.} 

dius Drusus, found with the inscription 
which is now inserted in the pedestal, 
stating that it was bequeathed to the 
municipalities by the son of Lucius 
Seneca, in honour of Drusus. The ring 
on the finger of the left hand bears 
the distinctive lituus of Roman nobility 
(H). — 57. A small and graceful statue of 
Fortune standing on a globe (P). — 58. A 
small Statue of Apollo f holding in one hand 
a lyre, and a plectrum in the other ; the 
eyes are of silver. A beautiful and pre- 
cious work of art (P). The features are 
so perfectly feminine, that it has been 
called the Hermaphrodite Apollo.- — 59. 
The Dancing Faun, the most beautiful 
of all the bronzes found at Pompeii; 
the house in which it was discovered 
retains the name of the " House of the 
Faun." Nothing can surpass the light 
and graceful character of this figui'e. — 
60. Bacchus and Ampelus, a very ele- 
gant small group, with silver eyes, 
standing on a semicircular base inlaid 
with a garland of silver olive leaves. 
It was found in 1812, with other ob- 
jects of value, in the dyer's caldron 
(No. 82) at P, in a room of the House 
of Pansa. Marks of some linen fabric 
may still be traced upon the surface of 
these figures; and it is supposed that the 
owner, in his anxiety to save his trea- 
sures, had wrapped them in a linen 
cloth, and was in the act of removing 
them in the bronze caldron, when the 
fiery eruption compelled him . to seek 
safety in fiight. — 61. Colossal statue of 
Augustus deified, holding the sceptre in 
his right, and the lightning in his left 
hand, in imitation of Jupiter (H). — 62. 
Small statue of Caligula m armour, with 
the representation of the Quadriga and 
a Victory on the cuirass, in inlaid metal 
and silver (H).— 63. Bust of CI. Marcel- 
lus (F). — 66. Bust of Seneca, with glass 
eyes, a speaking and most intellectual 
head, with ragged locks of hair falling 
over the brow. It is one of the finest 
bronze busts in the Museum (H). — 64. 
Portion of a statue of Diana, found with 
that of Apollo (No. 81), near the 
Forum at Pompeia ; the hole in the back 
of the head is shown by the custode 
as that through which her priests, by 
means of a tube, the statue being at'^ 
tached to a wall, delivered the oracles of 




the divinity to her devotees — a pure 
invention. — 70. A fine group of the in- 
fant Hercules killing the Serpents, with 
the Labours of the demigod round the 
base, a fine work of the 15th century. — 
76, 76. Two deer, the size of life, very 

gaceful and full of nature (H). — 77. A 
RUNKEN Faun reposing on the lion's 
skin, and imitating with his fingers the 
music of the castanets ; an admirable 
work, showing the power which ancient 
artists had to idealise a coarse subject 
(H).— 78. In the centreof the Hall is one 
of the Bronze Horses from the Quadriga 
of Nero, from near the Temple of Her- 
cules at H.— 79. Mebcury in befose, 
the size of life. The figure inclines 
gently forward ; the limbs are in the 
soft bloom of early manhood ; the pro- 
portions are perfect, and the sweet 
expression most beautiful. It is in 
admirable preservation, nothing being 
wanting but the caduceus, of which 
there is still a fragment in the right 
hand (H). — 81. A running Hermaphro- 
dite^ called the Pythian Apollo; the 
head that of a female ; a fine statue ^H). 
— 83. A large bronze water-cock, which, 
after the lapse of 18 centuries, still 
contains watCF, being hermetically 
closed, as is rendered evident hj shak- 
ing it. It was found probably in the 
baths erected by Tiberius at Ponza. 
— 84. Colossal head of a Horse, one of 
the very noblest specimens of Greek 
art which has been preserved to our 
time. It is the only remaining portion 
of a colossal horse which stood in the 
pronaos of the Temple of Neptune, 
now occupied by the Piazza di San 
Gennaro. The lower orders considered 
it had been the work of Virgil, and to 
be endowed with miraculous powers 
in curing the diseases of horses; to 
remove the latter superstition. Cardinal 
Carafa, archbishop of Naples, had the 
statue melted down in 1322, and the 
bronze converted into bells for the 
cathedral. His kinsman, Diomede 
Carafa, Conte di Maddaloni, saved 
the head from such Vandalism, and 
had it placed in his palace, where it 
remained until 1809. — 95. Bitcephalus,Q. 
small but exceedingly beautiful statue 
of a horse, with silver head-band and 
bridle. As it was found at H., in the 

same spot with the equestrian statue of 
Alexander, it is supposed that it was 
intended to represent Bucephalus. — 
95. A small statue of Alexander the 
Great mounted on Bucephalus; one 
of the most interesting objects in the 
Museum. Alexander is a noble figure; 
the head, divested of the helmet, and 
bound simply with the royal diadem, 
is full of heroism and animation. The 
horse is quite equal to his rider in energy 
and vigour; the trap])ings elaborately 
worked, inlaid with silver ornaments. 
The rare occurrence of statues of Alex- 
ander, and the exquisite workmanship 
of this group, almost entitle it to be 
considered unique (H). — 100. A small 
statue of Fortune, with the attributes of 
Isis : a beautiful work of art in the 
highest state of preservation. The 
pedestal and ornament on the head are 
inlaid with silver (H). A dancing 
female figure, very graceful, standing 
on a globe, and with a silver collar (H). 
— 107, A small equestrian statue of 
an Amazon (H). Amongst the most 
recent additions to this department is 
a beautiful statue of Narcissus, 2^ ft. 
high, from P. Besides the busts and 
statues there are several large bronze 
caldrons in the centre of the Hall. In 
the recess on the 1^ the model of a 
Fountain discovered at P. has been 
set up, with bronze figures from the 
excavations there, placed round the 

VII. The Cinquecento Collection 
contains 1200 specimens arranged in 
3 rooms, preceeding the collections of 
Terra-cottas and Roman Glass, among 
which the following may be mentioned : 
In the First Room, some early Christian 
paintings from the catacombs, and 
several busts of Boman personages, tlie 
heads in white, the busts in coloured 
marbles. In the Second Room, a Sa- 
cramental Tabernacle, in bronze, de- 
signed, it is said, by Michael Angelo, 
and cast by Jacopo Siciliano. A bas- 
relief of the Passion of Our Saviour, 
in alabaster, which belonged to King 
Ladislaus, and was presented by his 
sister Joanna II. to the monks of 
S. Giovanni Carbonara. A bronze bust 
of Dante, said to have been made 



from a east taken after death. A bronze 
bust of Ferdinand of Aragon. Two mar- 
ble busts of Paul III. and of Charles V. 
In this room a splendid bronze chest, 
known as the Gassetta Faimese, and in 
the form of a temple, adorned with re- 
liefs and with 6 oval intaglios on rock 
crystal, representing the Combats of the 
Amazons, between the Centaurs and 
the Lapithse, Meleager and Atalanta, a 
procession of the Indian Bacchus, a 
Bace in the Circus, and a Naval Action 
between Xerxes and the Greeks. They 
were executed by Joannes de Bemardi, 
of Castel Bolognese. The sword and 
poniard of Alessandro Famese, with 
an agate handle which bears the 
inscription dvce tvtvs achate. A 
numerous collection of sacramental 
vessels, carved figures in wood and 
ivory. A few specimens of Majolica, 
and of a handsome blue pottery, with 
the Famese arms, of the time of Paul 
III. ; a series of mediaeval seals ; a 
globe in brass, brought from the East 
as a present to Cardinal Borgia, and 
described by the astronomer Toaldo. 
It bears an Arabic inscription. A 
bronze patera, used as an armlet, with 
two Arabic inscriptions. Some curious 
pictures brought from India, and a col- 
lection of miscellaneous objects from 
the South Sea Islands. 

VIII. The Collection of Ancient 
Glass is very extensive. It consists 
of upwards of 4000 specimens, includ- 
ing almost every article into which 
glass is capable of being moulded, 
and occupies a room beyond the 
Mediaeval or Cinquecento collection. 
Many of the specimens show the re- 
markable skill which the Romans had 
attained in this branch of manufacture. 
Among them are wine -bottles, plates, 
water-jugs, cups, decanters, cruets, 
tumblers, urns, chalices, scent-bottles, 
pots of rouge and perfumes, funnels, 
lK>ttles of medicines, fruit-dishes, neck- 
laces, cinerary urns still containing 
human bones, &c. &c. The window 
glass found in the villa of Diomed (P) 
shows how early its use had become 
essential to domestic luxury. Among 
the vases is one of remarkable beauty, 
containing human ashes, discovered in 

a tomb attached to the House of the 
Mosaic Columns '(P) in 1837. It re- 
sembles the Portland vase in styltf, 
grace, and elegance of execution. The 
reliefs are in a white semi-transparent 
material, which appears to have first 
coated the whole body of the vase, and 
then to have been removed by the 
workman. When discovered it was 
broken in three places, but the frag- 
ments were carefully collected, and the 
whole has been restored with great 
skill. There is a flat vase (2776) 
with a handle in the same kind of glass, 
on a stand; and a very fine (277«) 
though broken specimen of a tazza,made 
up of fragments of coloured smalt 
and glass remelted, in the centre of 
the room. The collection of lachri- 
matory vases, &c., in coloured glass 
and smalt, from Magna Greecia, is far 
inferior to that in the British and other 

IX. Terre Cotte, or Unpainted 
and Coarser Pottery.- — This collec- 
tion, which is very extensive, is ar- 
ranged in 8 rooms beyond the mediaeval 
objects and ancient glass. The speci- 
mens in the First Boom are principally 
coarse vessels connected with domestic 
economy, very similar to those now in 
use in this country. In the recess of the 
window are two GUraria, or cage vases, 
in which the ancients fettened dormice 
(^ftVes),which they considered as a great 
delicacy for the table. In one of the 
presses opposite the entrance is a fine cup 
in red Arezzo ware, covered with bas- 
reliefs, and with the hospitable inscrip- 
tion, BIBE, ABQCE DE MEO. — Eoom II, On 

the floor are several Etruscan sepulchral 
urns in terracotta, each having a re- 
cumbent figure on the lid ; and near the 
window two colossal statues of Hy^eia 
or Juno, or of ^sculapius or Jupiter, 
found at Pompeia ; 2 puteals, or mouths 
of wells or cisterns, with reliefs. In 
the presses are preserved the cele- 
brated Volscian bas-reliefs found at 
Velletri, and formerly in the Museo 
Borgia there ; they are unfortunately 
mere fragments, but in a good early or 
Etruscan style : they represent war- 
riors on horseback and in chariots; 
traces of the painting still exist on 




them. la another of the presses in 
this room is a curious collection of 
those money-boxes, still used in many 
countries on the continent, and in 
France called tires tires, in which coin 
can be introduced but not withdrawn 
without breaking the vessel, a mode 
used by children and the lower orders 
to deposit their savings: in one of 
these vases are the hoardings of an 
inhabitant of Pompeii, 18 centuries 
ago, consisting of several coins of the 
reign of Vespasian. The collection of 
earthenware lamps, in such |^eneral use 
amongst the poorer classes, is very ex- 
tensive in this room. — Boom III, The 
presses here are filled with reliefs in 
terracotta, but very inferior to those to 
be seen at Rome, in the Vatican col- 
lection, with small busts, votive figures, 
legs, arms, &c., statuettes, and numerous 
unpainted vases, some with Etruscan 
forms. A series of 350 votive offerings, 
chiefly from Calvi, has been lately 
placea here. 

The collection of the late Prince of 
Syracuse, purchased by the Prince of 
Carignano, and hence called the Museo 
Carignano, has been recently placed in 
the suite of small rooms on the opposite 
side of the landing from which the 
Ciuquecento and Terre-cotte apart- 
ments is entered. This collection con- 
sists principally of Terre-cotte vases, 
one of the finest having a bas-relief 
of 13 figures representing the Ama- 
zons and the Lapiths. There are many 
specimens of coloured glass of great 
elegance, ladies' ornaments, combs, 
toothpicks, a paper-knife, kitchen uten- 
sils, &c. &c., and the wax head found 
in a tomb at Cumse a few years ago, 
supposed to have been the portrait of 
its occupant. 

X. The Reserved Cabinet, near 
the Cabinet of Gems, a part of the 
Museum to which admission formerly 
was only granted on a special applica- 
tion from an Ambassador, is now open 
to all comers. 

XI. Rooms of the Papyri. — This 
collection excites the strongest interest, 
not merely for the intrinsic value of the 
ancient writings, but also for the skill 
with which masses of blackened mat- 

ter, buried for centuries, and changed 
by the action of air and moisture into 
what were at first considered to be sticks 
of chai'coal, have been unrolled and 
successfully deciphered. Nearly the 
whole collection was discovered in 1 752, 
in a suburban villa at Herculaneum, in 
a small room which had evidently been 
a library, for the papyri were ranged 
in presses round t{ie walls of the 
apartment. The workmen destroyed 
those which were first discovered, 
thinking that they were mere pieces 
of charcoal; but on the opening of 
this room the remarkable arrangement 
of the rolls excited curiosity, and led to 
the discovery of Greek and Latin words. 
The whole collection in the villa was 
then carefully preserved, and deposited 
in the Royal Museum at Portici, toge- 
ther with seven inkstands of various 
forms, a stylus and its case, bronze busts 
of Epicurus, Zeuo, and Hermachus^ 
bearing their names in Greek letters, 
and other articles which were found in 
the same apartment. The first person 
who suspected the real character of the 
papyri was Pademi, who, in a letter to 
our countryman Dr. Mead, expressed 
his conviction that the supposed sticks 
of charcoal were MSS. altered by the 
action of the fixe. A long time elapsed 
after this discovery was verified by furr 
ther observations before any practical 
means of unrolling the papyri was de- 
vised. The papyrus was formed of 
thin laminse of the vegetable tissue of 
the rush whose name it bears; and 
these lamina) were pasted together so 
as to form a long narrow sheet varying 
from 8 to 16 inches in breadth. The 
surface was polished with some hard 
substance, and the ink was then ap- 
plied with a reed or calamus. This 
ink, however, being a simple black 
fluid, without a mordant, was liable to 
be effaced by the application of mois- 
ture. The utmost skill and caution 
were therefore necessary in unrolling 
the papyri to preserve uninjured the 
writing upon their surface. Mazzocchi 
tried in vain the plan of placing them 
under a bell glass in the sun, believing 
that the moisture and heat would detach 
the leaves. The Padre Piaggi at length 
invented an ingenious machine for 



separating and unrolling them, which, 
although tedious in its operation, is 
still used as the best that has yet been 
suggested. Sir Humphry Davy visited 
Naples for the purpose of ascertaining 
irhether the resources of chemistry 
could not be made available in dis- 
covering a more expeditious and cer- 
tain process of unrolling. After ana- 
lysing several papyri, he tried various 
experiments with more or less success, 
but at last he relinquished the undei> 
taking, from disappointment, it is said, 
at the failure of his plans. The num- 
ber of papyri now exceeds 1750, of 
which about 500 have been success- 
fully unrolled. Several volumes of 
the transcripts have been published 
—3 in 1861, and 2 in 1862. No 
MS. of any known work has been 
discovered; and so far as the exami- 
nation has yet advanced, the library 
seems to have consisted chiefly of 
treatises on the Epicurean philosophy. 
Two books of a Treatise de Nature by 
EpicuruSt and some on Music, on Vice 
and Virtue, and on Rhetoric by Philo- 
demus, a philosopher from Syria, who 
appears to have visited Rome in the 
tmie of Cicero, are the most im- 
portant of these discoveries. Nearly 
all the MSS. have lost their first leaves, 
but the titles are repeated at the end. 
They are written in columns contain- 
ing from 20 to 40 lines in each, and 
without stops or marks of any kind to 
indicate the terminations of sentences 
or the divisions of words. The letters 
of the Greek MSS., with the exception 
of the A>, are all capitals ; some of them 
are peculiar in form, and bear accents 
and marks of which all knowledge has 
been lost. The A, A, E, a, m, p, and 2, 
as Winckelmann pointed out nearly a 
century ago in his letter to Count Bruhl, 
diflfer in character from all other ex- 
amples of ancient writing with which we 
are acquainted. The columns are from 
3 to 4 inches in width, and are separated 
from each other by spaces of about an 
inch ; they are also in some cases di- 
vided by red lines. 

XII. Collection of Gold and 
Silver Ornaments, and Vases, 
Cameos, Gems, and Articles of 

Food, Colours, &c. {Oggetti Preziosi), — 
The mosaic which forms the floor of this 
apartment is ancient ; the portion at the 
entrance is the watchdog chained, with 
the inscription Cave Canem, Beware of 
the Dog, found at the entrance to the 
House of the Tragic Poet at Pom- 
peii. This room is surrounded by 
presses. On entering, in the two on 
the left are preserved the silver 
ornaments and vases: amongst the 
latter are particularly worthy of notice, 
— a silver yase from Herculaneum, with 
reliefs representing the Apotheosis of 
Homer; two with reliefs of victories ; a. 
large series of spoons ; a very curious 
sundial in the singular form of a' 
shoulder of bacon ; on its surface are 
engraved the names of the months and 
certain lines to enable the observer to 
determine the hour by the projection 
of the shade cast by a style upon them; 
from mathematical or gnomic con- 
sideration it would appear that this 
singular little instrwnent was con- 
structed rather for the latitude of 
Rome than for that of Pompeii, where 
it was found. Another remarkable' 
specimen in the same press is what 
from its form appears to have been a 
reading-glass, or concavo-convex lens : 
the decomposed state of the glass pre- 
vents its magnifying powers being now 
ascertained. Press 2 contains three 
very handsome tripods or incense-' 
burners ; two very beautiful cups 
with rich foliage in high relief; two 
small vases with reliefs of male and 
female centaurs and lovely Cupids; 
a series of silver vessels found at 
Pompeia, in the House of Meleager ; a 
collection of rings from the Greek 
tombs of Armento in the province of 
Basilicata; and a collection of plate, 
including jelly-moulds, dishes, &c., 
discovered at Pompeii in 1836. Press 3 
contains gold ornaments, amongst which 
are worthy of notice— a gold chain, 
armlet, necklace, a matrimonial ring 
and earrings, found with a female 
skeleton in the House of Diomed at 
Pompeii (see p. 215); several armlets 
with serpents* heads, some with inscrip- 
tions, from the same place; graceful 
brooches with small figures of Bacchus 
and other divinities; a series of gold 



articles from the tombs at Ruyo, cele- 
brated for their Etruscan vases, con- 
sisting of a beautiful lady's necklace 
formed of heads of the bearded Bacchus, 
acorns, &;c. Earrings richly chased ; 
two small coloured smalt bottles, 
on handsome gold stands — they 
served to contain perfumes; a hand- 
some necklace from S. Agata dei 
Goti, the ancient Saticvia ; a portion of 
another ftom Nola, composed of richly 
chased gold cylinders, inlaid with gar- 
nets ; several rings from Heifiulaneum 
and Pompeii — amongst the uitter, one 
(468) having still the finger-bone of the 
wearer in it ; a Roman bulla worn round 
the neck; an ibex or bouquetin in 
massive gold from Edessa in Asia — 
it belonged to the Museo Borgia; gold 
leaf, necklaces, earrings, fibulee, hair- 
pins, &c. &c. Before the window is 
the celebrated Tazza Famesey in onyx 
or sardonyx, considered as the most 
precious object of its kind that has 
been preserved io us. It consists of 
a shallow cup of 8 inches in diameter, 
richly decorated with reliefs both 
within and without. Outside it is 
ornamented with the head of Medusa, 
covering the whole surface; within 
with a richly sculptured group of seven 
figures, which have given rise to much 
antiquarian discussion as to the sub- 
ject it represents. Visconti considers 
it to refer to the fecundation of Egypt 
produced by the overflowing of the 
Nile, personified by the figure of an 
old man seated beside a tree, and a 
female on a sphinx ; whilst Quaranta 
supposes it to be relative to the festival 
of the harvest, instituted by Alex- 
ander the Great when he founded 

The presses on the right-hand wall 
contain, first, several articles of food 
and of household use— 4ates, walnuts, 
figs, pine-kernels, pomegranate-seeds, 
eggs, oil desiccated, &c. Not the least 
curious object here is a loaf of bread 
on which is impressed the baker's 
name, Q. Cranius. Portions of nets, 
with the needles used in making them ; 
jars, in earthenware and glass, con- 
taining oil, olives, and grain; corks 
for bottles ; and a slab with spatula for 
preparing pills. There are also several 

carbonized remains of wearing apparel,.- 
of ropes, nets, sea-shells, such as 
tritons, conies, cypres, &c., still pre> 
serving their colours. In one of these 
presses is the purse, containing coins 
of the reign of Claudius,^ found with 
a skeleton in a house at Pompeii. Xu 
two other presses are preserved the 
contents of a colour - dealer's shop, 
consisting of masses of different 
colours, all metallic, of sulphur, 
pumicestone, talc — ^in this case a variety 
of foliated gypsum; and in that on 
the rt. of the entrance is a large ispeci- 
men of Amianthus tissue or cloth, 
used in burning and collecting the 
ashes of the dead — ^it was found in a 
cinerary urn near Vasto, in the 
Abruzzi; beneath some interesting 
sculptures in ivory of recent discovery 
a{ Pompeii, amongst which a small 
statue of Hercules, nearly in the same 
attitude as the Ercole Famese ; frag- 
ments of a small group which appears 
to have been a copy of the Toro Far- 
nese; and a small statue of Venus, 
remarkable for being covered with a 
gold coating. 

In a series of glass cases in the 
centre of the room are the cameos, 
intaglios, rings, &c. Some of the 
cameos are very beautiful: such as 
Jupiter destroying the Titans ; a fine 
head of Medusa; lola with the club 
of Hercules ; a head of Lysimmachus 
homed ; a copy of the part of the 
Toro Famese group which represents 
the son of Antiope releasing Dirce 
from the bull's head, and which is said 
to have been used under M. Angelo's 
direction in the restoration of that 
celebrated specimen of ancient statuary ; 
a good head of Augustus, and one of 
Tiberius in paste. Amongst the intag- 
lios are a good likeness of Galba ; a 
cornelian in the form of a bulla, with 
the heads of Marcus Aurelius and 
Lucilla engraved upon it ; a cornelian 
with the head of Apollo, surrounded 
by the 12 signs of the Zodiac ; Ajax 
and Cassandra, &c. In the 3rd ease 
are several specimens of onyx and 
cornelian prepared for the work of 
the cameo engraver. The 4th case 
contains a very rich collection of 
finger-rings. One from Euvo has a 



large but coarse emerald set into it: 
the stoue is pierced with a caTity, in 
which poison is supposed to have been 
secreted. (85) A massive gold ring with 
a fine male head, probably of Marcus 
Brutus, with the name of the Greek 
artist Anaxalas beneath : it was dis- 
covered in a Roman tomb near Capua, 
and forms one of the important addi- 
tions of recent date to the collection of 
Oggetti Prezwsi, 


numbers, it is said, 40,000 specimens, 
and is particularly rich in medals and. 
coins of Magna Grsecia, Sicily, and of 
the Middle Ages. Formerly very diffi- 
cult of access, it is now thrown open 
to the public, 

XIV. The Collection of Smaller 
Bronzes occupies 7 spacious rooms, 
and brings before us the objects of 
every-day life of the inhabitants of 
Pompeii. As most of them indicate 
their use, we shall only point out the 
most remarkable. The marble floors in 
all the rooms have been brought from 
ancient edifices at Pompeii, Hercnla- 
neum, Capri, &c., after having under- 
gone, however, considerable repairs. 
1st lioomf containing chiefly kitchen 
utensils, such as cauldrons, saucepans, 
frying-pans, &c. In the centre on 
a mosaic table is a portable stove, 
in the form of a mediseval castle, having 
towers at each comer, with a compart- 
ment surrounding for heating water, 
on the same principles asin our modem 
kitchen-ranges. The machicolations 
are supposed to have been used to sup- 
port spits over the central brazier. In 
the presses may be seen nM)ulds for 
jellies, in the form of birds, rabbits, 
hareS) &c.: the collection of steelyards, 
balances, and weights is very interest- 
ing : discovered at (H), in 1 758. Many 
of the scales and bidances, and weights, 
are similar to those now in use at 
Naples. A pair of scales has its beam 
graduated, with a moveable weight at- 
tached to it, to mark the fractional parts. 
One of the steelyards is marked on the 
beam with Roman numerals from x to 
xxxx, and bears an inscription showing 
that it had been compared with the stand- 

ard in the Capitol, in the reign of Vespa- 
sian: — ^EXACTA. IN. CAPiTo/to. Several of 
the counterpoises of these steelyards 
present some points of interest. One of 
them is in the form of a bust of Rome 
Triumphant, wearing a helmet on 
which are small figures of Romulus 
and Remos. The lamps and lamp- 
stands ofier remarkable variety and 
grace of invention and of form, some 
with fine reliefs; in the centre a 
beautiful tripod supporting a brazier. — 
2nd Itowa,y containmg candelabra : the 
pavement fh>m Capri. In the centre 
IS one of the most elegant candelabra 
yet discovered at P. It stands 3 ft. 
high. On a rectangular plinth rises 
a rich angular pillar, crowned by a 
capital. On the front of the pillar 
is a comic mask, and on the oppo- 
site side the head of a bull, with the 
Greek word Bncranion. From the ex- 
treme points of the abacus, four orna- 
mented branches project; the lamps 
which now hang from them, though 
ancient, are not those which belonged 
to the stand, and were not found with 
it. . . The pillar is not placed in the cen- 
tre, but at one end of the plinth. . . The 
space thus obtained may have served 
a stand for the oil-vase used in supply- 
iujg; the lamps. The plinth is inlaid 
with silver, representing vine-leaves, 
grapes, &C.9 the leaves of which are of 
silver, the stem and fruit of bright 
brass. On one side is an altar with a fire 
upon it ; on the other a Bacchus naked, 
with his thick hair plaited and bound 
with ivy. He rides on a panther, and 
has his 1. hand in the attitude of holding 
reins ; with the rt. he raises a drinking- 
horn. This beautiful lamp was found 
in the house of Arrius Diomedes at 
Pompeii. • — 3rd Room, a large hall, 
containing 8a,orijicial Vessels, The 
marble floor is from Stabise. Two 
seats, or bisellia, in bronze, with inlaid 
ornaments in silver, and heads of horses 
and swans, of beautiful workmanship, 
like Uiat found at Osimo, now in the Mu- 
seum of the Collegio Romano at Rome ; 
a very curious vessel for heating water 
'(1386), on the principle of our tea-urns, 
having like the Russian samovars a space 
for charcoal in the centre ; and another 
apparatus (1384) on the same principle of 



the water surrounding the fire, on a hand- 
some tripod; a beautiful tripod (1359) 
for a brazier, each arm ornamented with 
winged sphinxes, and the rim of the 
bi*azier itself decorated with reliefs of 
flower- wreaths and bulls' heads ; a fine 
tassa, or fiat bowl (1436), with inlaid 
fiowers in silver ; a small statue of a 
Cupid (1462) carrying off a goose; a 
sitting Mercury (1464); one of the 
finest vases from Hereulaneum, and 
with reliefs of a stag and bull attacked 
by grifibns ; a Greek helmet (26^) from 
RuYO, enclosing the skull of ilv owner. 
In the centre of this room are several 
leaden vessels for holding water, with 
rude cast reliefs; and a triclinium 
(1393), used by the Romans at their 
meals. A Roman Congius, or measure 
of capacity, bearing also an inscriptton 
of having been verified at the Capitol 
in the 6th year of the reign of Ves- 
pasian; (766) a lovely figure of Cupid on 
a dolphin, supporting a lamp, recently 
discovered at P. — 4th Room, the mar- 
ble flooring from Heroulaueum: the 
principal objects here consist of arms, 
both from Magna Graecia and Roman. 
On the presses stand military trophies, 
eonsisting of shields, helmets, verese, 
spears, &c. : four of these were dis^ 
covereid in the Greek tombs at Psestum 
and Ruvo. One of the finest specimens 
of Roman armour is a helmet (2888), 
with reliefs of the death of Priam and 
Cassandra, and of the flight of ^neas : 
it was discovered at Pompeii. On the 
walls are several bell gongs, with their 
flappers in iron; in the presses nu- 
merous inscriptions ; and in the centre 
of the room a fine oval vase (2789), with 
combating Samnite gladiators for the 
handles; it has inlaid ornaments in 
sUver : (2809) an Etruscan helmet in 
bronze, with two long wings, similar in 
form to that formerly in the Campana 
Collection at Rome, now at Peters- 
burg. — 5th Hoonif containing surgical 
and musical tnsiHim,ents^ &c. The mar- 
ble floor is from Pompeii. In the centre, 
on a mosaic table (P), is a very elegant 
portable stove, used probably for warm- 
ing the rooms and for boiling water. 
The surgical instruments are very cu- 
rious, and differ little from many now 
in use. One of these instruments is 

very similar to the speculum uienyvhich. 
was invented as a new instrument in 
modem times. This collection will be 
well worth a detailed examination of 
the professional traveller. The writing 
materials in the first press on the 
right comprise numerous ink vases 
with remains of ink; one of which 
with seven faces, found at Turri- 
cium, the modem Terlizzi, in the pro- 
vince of Bari, has the seven divinities 
that presided over the days of the week, 
inlaid in silver — ^it is probably of the 
time of Trajan ; it was illustrated by 
Martorelli in two 4to. vols., de Thcca 
Calamaria; the calamus, the style 
and its case, the tabulsB or tablets 
covered with wax and separated from 
each other by a button or umbilicus, 
which prevented the pages touching 
when closed, and a reed cut in the form 
of a modern pen. The musical instru- 
ments comprise the flute, the sistrum, 
cymbals of bTas8,and a singular clarionet 
without lateral holes but surrounded 
by metal tubes, the real object of which 
has never been satisfactorily explained. 
The tesseres, or tickets, for the theatre 
are numbered. The bells for cattle pre- 
sent no difference from those which are 
still in use in the country; fish-hooks, 
&c. The articles for the toilet comprise 
mirrors of metal, pins, ivory bodkins, 
rings, necklaces, combs, earrings, brace- 
lets, hairpins, the ornaments called 
buUse, and pots for rouge. Loaded and 
ordinary dice. The distaffs, spindles, 
thimbles, and small spinning-wheels 
show what were the chief occupations 
of the Roman ladies. A very curious 
instrument of seven tubes in ivory 
covered with bronze, similar to the 
modem bagpipe of the Abruzzi moun- 
taineers, or Zampognari, found in the 
barracks at Pompeii . The other articles 
include door-hinges of bronze, locks, 
keys (a set of which were found with a 
skeleton in the House of Diomed at 
Pompeii), latches, bolts, door-handles 
richly worked, screws, bridles, stirrup?, 
&c. On each side of the door are the cele- 
brated Heracleian Tablks, two oblong 
square plates of bronze, found, in 1732, 
at Luce, on the bank of the Salandrella, 
in Calabria, near the site of ancient He- 
racleia, and illustrated by Mazzocchi. 



The first Table, engraved 300 years be- 
fore the Christian ei*a, describes a field 
sacred to Bacchus, which had been ap- 
propriated by some inhabitants of He- 
racleia ; it records the steps taken, in a 
general assembly of the citizens, to re- 
store the land to its religious uses, to 
define its boundaries, to settle the terms 
on which it was to be let, the mode in 
which it was to be cultivated, &c. 
The second Table records the same 
arrangements in regard to a field sa- 
cred to Minerva. Both inscriptions are 
in Greek characters. The reverse side 
of the latter has on it a Latin inscrip- 
tion, a fragment of the Lex Sorviiia, 
enacted b.c. 45, relative to the census 
of the population of towns, in regard 
to the distribution of bread and the 
making of the roads: it is a most 
important document for the ancient 
municipal laws of Italy. A portion of 
the first table had been sold at Rome 
in 1735 to one of the Fairfax family, 
who carried it to England, where 
it was published by Maittaire in 1736. 
The Cavaliere Guevara recovered it, 
and presented it to Charles III. Be^ 
fore the window the iron stocks found 
in the quarter of the soldiers at Pom- 
peii, consisting, like those still seen in 
seme of our English country towns, of 
a set of square spaces for the legs on an 
horizontal bar, closed by another move- 
able one; four skeletons were found 
with this instrument of punishment, 
and are supposed to have belonged to 
prisoners at the time the town was over- 
whelmed. — 6th Moom contains miscella" 
neous objects. In the centre a marble 
table, enclosed in a bronze rim, and 
supported on very graceful legs, on each 
of which is a figure in relief, holding a 
rabbit. In the 1st press on right a very 
various and highly ornamented farrier's 
Loof-cutter; several flesh -hooks, simi- 
lar to those so long supposed to have 
been instruments of Christian martyiv 
dom; some good engraved paterse or 
mirrors ; in one of the presses a col- 
lecidon of lead weights, bearing the 
words Emis and Habebis ; several beau- 
tiful lamps ; on the floor are leaden vases 
used by the ancients for containing 
water ; 3 iron furnaces made of welded 
bars of that metal ; iron gratings, tires 

for chariot-wheels, &c.— '•7th fioowi, con- 
taining objects discovered daily at P 
or other places. As the objects here 
are constantly varying, any notice of 
them would be useless. The collec- 
tion of small bronzes is about to be re- 
arranged : indeed, no part of the Mu- 
seum more requires it, from the indis- 
criminate mixture of objects of every 
kind : let us hope that a good descrip- 
tive catalogue will be one of the results 
of this change.* 

XV. Collection op E>rRUscAN or 
Italo-Gbeek Vases.^ — One of the most 
important in Europe. It contains up- 
wards of 3600 specimens placed in a 
suite of S robms, at the extremity of 
the Halls of the Small Bronzes. It is 
one of the best arranged departments of 
the Museum, forming quite a contrast 
with that of the small bronzes. The 
numbers on red paper correspond with 
those given in the last edition of 
Aloe's Catalogue (1861), which de- 
scribes the most important speci- 
mens. The rooms are paved in 
ancient mosaics, - all greatly restored 
and repaired. Is* or Circular If all 
contains several of the smaller vases 
from Southern Italy, the ground in 
general black, the paintings white or 
coloured; the large black vases with 
gilding on the neck, in the form of an 
Etruscan necklace, are from Cnmee, 
closely resembling those from Cy- 
renaca in the British Museum. In the 
centre of the room, the vase No. 690, 
found at Armento, represents the Gods 
presiding over the feasts of the Amber^ 
valia ; three in the style of those from 
Cervetri, with rude black and red 
figures arranged in zones ; one (685) 
with representations of lions, antelopes, 
and other animals. In the presses are 
several for domestic use in coarse black 
ware, similar to those found at Cervetri, ^ 
Chiusi and Sarteano, &c., in Tuscany. 
Two models of Italo-Greek tombs have 
been i^aced in this room, to show how 

• That in Aloe's work is incomplete, and 
many of the labels (on yellow paper) to indicate 
the objects described by that author hare been 
removed, probably in order to render the assist- 
ance of the attendanis requisite, or to induce 
the purchase of an illustrated work they sell 
to visitors. 

I 3 



the rases of the collection haye been 
generally found. — 2nd Boom, The mo- 
saic here is formed of coloured marbles, 
and represents flowers and , naval em- 
blems. Vase 1755, Orestes and Electra 
sitting on the tomb of Agamemnon, 
with their names in Greek letters. 
No. 1758, of a beautiful shape, 
from the Basilicata, represents Cupid 
in his chariot, the figures white on 
a black ground; 1769. the carrying 
off of Paris; 1767. Perseus slaying 
Medusa on one side, and on the other 
the metamorphosis of Pegasus; 1762. 
Hercules carrying off the Tripod ; 1 1 50. 
Agamemnon carrying off the daughter 
of Chryres; 1708. combat with the 
Amazons on one side, and Theseus and 
Antiope on the other. — 3rd Boom, The 
floor a handsome black and white 
mosaic from Pompeii. 1988. A sacri- 
fice, showing vanous utensils used, 
amongst others a painted Etruscan yase ; 
1986. a combat of the Centaurs and 
Lapithse; 1979. Ampelus riding on a 
panther, with a genius above and a chace 
below, from S. Agata dei Goti, the 
ancient Saticula; 1983. combat over 
the body of Patroclus. — 4th iZoom. Vases, 
chiefly from Ruvo and Canosa. The 
white and black mosaic on the floor 
represents sea monsters and dolphins, 
surrounded by the walls of a town, and 
a fisherman with his landing-net in 
the centre. 21 96. a very beautiful vase, 
with paintings relating to the marriage 
of Bacchus and Ariadne; 2200. the 
Oath of Pelops and CEnomaus with the 
principal gods, each having his name in 
Greek ; 2202. Perseus presenting the 
head of Medusa to Minerva. — 5th Boom. 
The mosaic here is in white, black, and 
coloured marbles. In this apartment are 
some of the finest vases, as regards exe- 
cution, in the Museum. The pearl per- 
haps of the collection (2422), placed on 
a column, and under glass, was found at 
Nola, enclosed in a rough terracotta 
outer one, and is in as good preservation 
as the day it came out of the potter's fur- 
i^ace. It represents the Burning of Troy, 
with the leading incidents of the closing 
scene of the Iliad. At the altar is Priam, 
prepared to receive the deathblow from 
Pyrrhus, while the dead body of Polites 
lies at hit feet,' Hecuba is sitting dis- 

consolate on the ground, and Ulysses 
and Diomed stand by, spectators of the 
scene. Beyond this group is Ajax 
threatening Cassandra with death, as 
she clings to the Palladium for safety^ 
In the distance, ^neas is seen with 
Anchises on Ms back, and leading 
Ascanius to the ships. The vase is 
marked with the Greek word KAAOS, 
three times repeated^ to signify how 
beautiful it was considered by the 
ancients : it contained human ashes. 
2421. A very fine vase from Ruvo,- 
with the combat of Achilles and 
Penthesilea; 2419. a very beautiful 
vase or olia, with a representa^ 
tion of the Greek Neoinia, or Roman 
Vinaliat the closing feast of the vint- 
age, with a sacrifice to Bacchus — it 
was found at Nooera; 2412 a Baccha- 
nalian procession, headed by Marsyas 
and brought up by Oinos, Bacchus, and 
Mystis ; 2410. an Indian Bacchus and 2 
Centaurs despatching a Greek warrior. 
— 6th Boom, The floor here is formed 
of a mosaic from Herculaneum, in 
coloured marbles. A great number 
of the vases in this room are painted 
with black figures on a red ground, dif* 
ferent from the majority of those of 
Magna Grecia: many are from Vulci 
and Etruria, properly so called. The 
gigantic vase m the centre was found at 
Ruvo ; 2460. a handsome one with paint- 
ing of a very ancient style, with coloured 
figures of Jupiter in a chariot accom* 
panied by Mercury and,Minerva, and on 
the opposite side a combat. 2481. ^neas 
carrying off Anchises, with Ascanius, 
Creusa, and Achates. In the presses 
around is- a fine collection of paterse, 
or shallow vases with handles, many 
having representations of fishes and 
animsds ;* 2839 and 2840 are a splendid 
pair with white wreaths of vine-leaves 
inside and figures out. The series of 
coloured painted vases in this room is 
also very beautiful. — 7th Boom, The 
presses here are filled with vases of a 
miscellaneous kind; the drinking-cups 
in -die shape of bearded heads of men,, 
of horses and stags, are very beautiful ; 
2855. a yery valuable vase represent- 
ing the sepulchral cippus of a cer- 
tain L^ius, surrounded by plants of 
the funereal asphodelus, with a Greek 



inscription; a large one (2087) of 
Hercules slaying toe Minotaurs, and 
another (3089) of Hercules and Cen- 
taurs, are in the best style of ceramic 
painting; 2873. aBalsamariovase, with 
a representatiop of one of the Labours 
of Hercules; there are several other 
fie:ures,with their names, and that of the 
maker, Asteas. This remarkable vase 
was/ound at Psestum. 2883. a fragment 
of a large vase, with a portion of a com- 
position full of spirit and anatomical 
expression, of the Titans attempting to 
reach Olympus. 3135. a small Bal- 
samario irom Locri, with a lovely 
female figure playing upon a lyre, with 
the inscription, KoXcSokc;, ' How pretty 
you are.* Sth Room, The mosaic of the 
floor here is in coloured marbles from 
Pompeii. The remarkable objects here 
are the 5 gigantic vases on the fioor of 
the apartment, from Ruvo and Ganosa, 
all placed on ancient and moveable 
pedestals, the bottom of each ending 
in a cone that fits into a corresponding 
base in pottery, the latter rarely deco- 
rated ; one (3255) the principal sub- 
ject being the death of Archemorus, son 
of Lycurgus King of Thessaly and 
of Eurydice ; on the narrow part is 
the history of (Enomaus and Pelops ; 
lower down are Hipsipyle, Eurydice, 
and Amphiarius, and belowfthis a very 
interesting scene of a female laying out 
the body of Archemorus, with servants 
bearing vases to be placed in the 
tomb of the deceased; several of 
the figures on this vase, which was 
discovered at Ruvo, have their Greek 
names affixed. Another (3252), also 
from Ruvo, is remarkable for the 
bas " reliefs in red terracotta on the 
neck; the paintings below represent 
Diana in her car drawn by -stags, and 
Hercules carrying off the Cretan bull ; 
3256 is the largest known painted 
vase, being 5 ft. 8 in. high, and 
7 ft. 2 in circumference, the principal 
Subjects being combats of the Greeks 
and Trojans, of Achilles and Penthe- 
silea, &c. ; 3253, from Canosa, 
although not so large, is one of the 
most interesting in the Museum : the 
paintings on it represent Darius medi- 
tating the conquest of Greece, with 
Jupiter and Mercury above assuring 
Greece of their support: below is 

seen the minister of Darius, seated at 
a table, receiving the subsidies from 
certain towns, and holding a tablet, on 
which is written in Greei characters 
"8 talents," probably the amount lyiiig 
before him in a bag ; all the principal 
figures have their names affixed in 
Greek characters. The last of the 
large vases in the centre of the room, 
also from Canosa, 3254, recently dis- 
covered, represents the history of the 
death and sacrifices at the tomb of Patro- 
clus. The funeral pile, with the words 
in Greek, TiarpoKXov Ta<l>o<r, " the 
tomb of Patroclus," on it. Whilst a 
human sacrifice has been made, and 
other victims await their fate, Achilles 
pours out libations. On one side the 
body of Hector is seen attached to the 
car that was to be drawn three times 
round the bier ; the old man with a 
lyre is supposed to be intended for 
Homer. Near this fine vase, and upon 
a marble column, are 3 beautiful 
Bcdsamarii, or bottle-shaped vases ; the 
largest (2991) has bas-reliefs of the 
punishment of Marsyas, of Apollo, and 
of the Muses; the second (2890) with 
a group of an Amazon on horseback 
pursued by a griffin ; and the third, 
perhaps the most remarkable of all, 
with a painted relief in different colours, 
and traces of gilding. 

The large collection of vases from 
Cumse, made by the late Count of 
Syi'acuse, has been arranged in the 
apartments on the Entresol, opposite 
to the Ancient Glass and Terre-cotte 

XVI. The Gallist of Paintings 
contains some works of the highest 
class, which stand out like gems from 
the mass of indifferent pictures, nearly 
900, which serve only to illustrate the 
history of the inferior schools. Permis- 
sion to copy is granted by the Director. 
The Gallery is divided into — I. the 
schools of other parts of Italy, and 
masterpieces; (on the rt.) 11. the 
Neapolitan and foreign schools. Wc 
shall only notice some of the most 
remarkable pictures in each room. 



§ a. The Italian Schools. 

1st Eoom. BoLooNESE School. 

Lodovico Caracci, The Entombment of 
the Saviour. — 13. Gttercino, St. Jerome 
inspired to write his Meditations. 
.. 2nd Room. 27. Lanfranco, The Vir- 
gin and Child, with St. Francis in 
Adoration. — 38. Lodovico Caracci, The 
Fall of Simon Magus. 

3rd Room. 72. Albania Santa Rosa, of 
Viterbo, in Glory.— 73. Guido, The In- 
fant Saviour sleeping near the Symbols 
of the Passion ; Ulysses in the Island of 
the Phseacians (badly restored). — 
76. Annibale Caracci, A satirical picture 
of Caravaggio, who is represented as a 
savage. In one comer is Caracci 
himself, laughing at his rival, — 88. Par- 
megianinOf Portrait of Amerieo Ves- 

fucci; 95. The Virgin caressing the 
nfant Saviour, very graceM and ex- 
pressive. — 92. Bernardino Zuini, St. 
John the Baptist. — 96. Schidone, a Holy 
Family. — 98, E, Sirani, Timoclea 
hurling the Thracian Chief into the 
well. — 99, Salvator JRosa, St. Roch in 
the Desert. 

4th Room (a 4). 1 19, 1^. JPi^ocaccini, 
The Annunciation. — 128, Correggio, A 
Study for a Deposition ; 140, Sketch 
of the Nativity. — Schidone, The nu- 
merous works of this painter ex- 
ecuted for Ranuccio I., Duke of 
Parma, passed into the Farnese col- 
lection. — 122, an Ecce Homo. — 
139 and 160, Portraits of the Shoe- 
maker and Tailor of Pope Paul III., 
the first a fine expressive head of an 
old man with a grey beard. — 150, a 
Soldier announcing to the Jewish 
women the Massacre of the Innocents. 
—1 51,1^. Mohf aVision of S.Romualdus. 
—141, The Holy Familjr in Glory, with 
Saints; 144, Irene dressing the wounds 
of St. Sebastian. — 145, Cesare da 
Sesixfy The Adoration of the Magi, 
considered deservedly one of his finest 

5th Room. Venetian School (o 5). 
176, Sebastiano del Piomho, A Poiv 
trait called Anne Boleyn. — TintorettOf 
Portrait of a Venetian Gentleman. — 
180, Schiavoni, Christ before Herod. — 
— 181, Giovanni Bellini, The Holy 

Family, with St. Barbara and other 
figures, among which Bellini's own 
portrait — 182, Garofalo, The Arrival of 
the Magi. — 176, Giorgione, A Portrait 
of A. Sanseverino, Duke of Salerno. — 
189, Bassano, Sketch of the fresco of St. 
Benedict supplying the Multitude with 
Bread, painted for the Refectory of 
Monte Casino. — 1 94, Bartolommeo Viva- 
rini. The Virgin and Child throned, 
with several Saints. It bears the paint- 
er's name and the date of 1469. — 197, 
Alvise Vivarini, The Virgin and Child 
with two saints, signed and dated 

6th Room (a 6). 208-219, Caniletti, 
Twelve Views of Venice ; a fine 
series. — 220, Annibale Caracci, The Vir- 
gin, with the Infant Saviour, and 
S. Francesco d'Assisi in adoration, 
painted on two sides of a slab of ala-. 
baster.— 223, Titian^ Portrait called his 
Wife, in a black dress. — 225, P. Verotiese, 
Portrait of Cardinal Bembo; 226, 
Portrait, supposed to be of Giulio 
Clovio, holding the celebrated Farnese 
Missal. — 229, Holbein, Portrait of Eras- 
mus, interesting not only on account of 
the friendship which subsisted between 
them, but also from its bearing the 
signature of Holbein. — 236, Titian, 
Portraitof a Cardinal— 237, Tintoretto, 
The Saviour accompanied by the. 
Apostles ; the naked man, whispericg 
in the Saviour's ear, is supposed to be 
intended for Lazarus ; 240, Portrait of 
Don John of Austria ; 244, Portrait of 
Alessandro Farnese. 

7th Room. Roman School (a 7). 
S. Francesco d'Assisi at prayer; The 
Descent of the Holy Spirit. — Pietro da 
Cortona, The Holy Family.— 281, Carlo 
Maratta, The Holy Family.— 246, Pan- 
wm, The Reception of Charles III., 
escorted by Grandees of Spain, by 
Benedict XIV., in the Palace of Monte 
Cavallo ; 286,Charl€s III., accompanied 
by a numerous retinue, on the Piazz^ 
of St. Peter's; 247, The Coliseum, 
with the Arch of Constantino and 
other Ruins. — 267, Perugino, The Vir- 
^n and Child, with the Magi arriving 
m the distance, and a very pleasing 
landscape; 262, The Virgin and Child, 
with St. John the Baptist, very doubt- 
ful. — 264, Pinturicchio, The Assump- 
tion of the Virgin, in an oval above, 



surrounded by angels playing on 
musical instruments, with numerous 
saints below and a fine landseape in the 
background; a beautiful and charac* 
teristic specimen, although somewhat 
injured, of the great master of the 
Umbrian school. — 269, Raphael (?), The 
Virgin with the Infant Saviour and S. 
John.— 280, Filippino Lippi (?), The 
Holy Family. — 266, Kapha£l, The 
Holy Family, a repetition of the Ma- 
donna del Passeggio of the Bridgewater 
gallery, considered at Naples to be the 
ori^nal. — 276, Sassoferrato^ The Holy 
Family at their daily occupations. 

(a 8.) Gallery of Capi ©'Opera. 

This part of the gallery is at this 
moment undergoing a thorough and 
judicious restoration and arrangement. 

351, Bassano, The Raising of Lazarus 
esteemed one of his finest works. — 376, 
Giovanni Bellini^ The Transfiguration, a 
fine picture, with a pleasing landscape. 
— ^357, Annibale Caracci, A PietX, the 
dead body of Christ in the lap of the Ma- 
donna, attended by weepmg angels, 
pointing to the instruments of the Pas- 
sion. The youthful Hercules sitting 
between the roads of Virtue and Vice. — 
373, Agostino Caracci, Rinaldo in the en- 
chanted gardens of Armida. — 37 7, Po/i- 
doro da Caravaggio, Christ bearing the 
Cross. The scene is the meeting of 
Santa Veronica and the Saviour at the 
moment when he sinks under the weight. 
— 340, Claude Lon^aine^ The " Eoerian 
Landscape ;*' a celebrated picture 
with temples and. a lake, in the fore- 
ground of which is a group of the Nymph 
Egeria, attended by her companions. 
— 341, Correggio, The Marriage of St. 
Catherine ; a small picture, admitted 
by all critics to be one of the happiest 
examples of the ^race and harmony 
of colour for which Correggio was 
i;emarkable. The subject, taken from 
one of the visions of St. Catherine, 
represents her betrothal to the infant 
Saviour, who is placing the ring upon 
her finger, while the Virgin, one of 
the sweetest faces which Correggio ever 
painted, guides his hand with an ex- 
pression of tenderness. In the counte- 
nance of St. Catherine meekness and 
beauty are combined with innocence 

and gracefulness. She holds the palm- 
branch of martyrdom in her right hand, 
while the sword lies upon the block on 
which she kneels. — 346, The" Zinga- 
RELLA," or the " Madonna delConiglio," 
a most beautiful and touching composi- 
tion. It represents the Virgin resting 
during the night out of Egypt, with the 
infant Saviour sleeping in her lap. It 
derives the name of "Zingarella" (or 
the Gipsy) from the turban worn by the 
Blessed Mother, and that of the ** Ma- 
donna del Coniglio" from the rabbit 
(conirfio) introduced in the foreground. 
361, The Madonna sleeping, with the. 
infant Saviour lying on her bosom ; a 
composition full of grace and tender- 
ness, painted in crayons, more proba- 
bly bv Parme^anino. — 35.5, 356, Cor- 
reggio s two paintings of the Coronation 
of the Virgin by the Saviour; they are 
copies, by Annibale Caracci, of the fres- 
coes executed by Correggio in the ch. of 
San Giovanni at Parma, which were de- 
stroyed in enlarging the choir in 1584. 
Although copies by a painter of another 
school, they are faithful representations 
of Correggio's style and colouring. 
— 344, Domenichino, The Guardian An- 
gel defending Innocence from the snares 
of the Evil Spirit, and directing her to 
Heaven. One of the most pure and 
charming compositions in the gallery. 
It was painted for a Sicilian family^ 
whose arms are upon the picture, 
and was bought by the late king for 
20,000 piastres. It bears the name of 
'the pauter and the date 1615. — 339, 
Albert Durer, The Nativity. The 
Virgin and Joseph under the ruins of 
an ancient portico are adoring the in- 
fant Saviour, while angels and cheru- 
bims celebrate the birth of our Lord. 
By the side are the burghers of Nu- 
remberg, for whom the picture was 
painted, attended by St. Margaret 
holding a crucifix, and by persons be- 
longing to various religious orders. A 
beautinil landscape fills up the back- 
ground. The whole picture is remark- 
able for its varied composition and rich 
colouring. Although it bears Durer's 
monogram, and the date 1512, it has- 
been attribute to J. Mabuse. — 
379, Garofalo, The Dead Christ, 
with the Three Marys, St. John, 
and Nicodemus weeping over the 



body. It is considered Garo^o^s 
masterpiece. — 374, Guercino, The Mag- 
dalen, a beautiful and finely coloured 
picture, — 349, Bernardino IJuim, The 
Virgin and CMld, highly finished, and 
rich in colouring. — 338, PcUma Vecchio, 
St. John the Baptist recommending to 
the protection of the Madonna two 
members of the Venetian family of 
Yidmani, with St. Jerome on the left of 
the group. — 369, Simone Papa ( Veochid), 
St. Jerome and St. James invoking the 
protection of the Archangel Michael 
for two noble Neapolitans, for whom 
this picture . was painted. — 373, Far- 
fnegianino. Portrait of a Knight, called, 
without any kind of reason, that 
of Christopher Columbus. — 350, 
Portrait of the painter's Mistress, 
in a singular but rich costume. — 
865, Sdbastiano del Piombo, a Portrait 
called of AlexanderVI. ; but as that Pope 
died when Sebastiano was only seven 
years of age, it is believed that it is 
the portrait of Clement VII. (Giulio 
de* Medici), mentioned by Vasari, who 
says that Clement did not then wear 
the beard by which he was afterwards 
distinguished. — 364, The Holy Family : 
the Virgin is represented covering the 
infant ^viour with a veil ; a picture of 
great celebrity and beauty. — 368, Ea- 
phael. The Holt Family, called the 
** Madonna del divino amore.'* The in- 
fant Saviour is sitting on the Virgin's 
knee and blessing St. John, while Eliza- 
beth supports his arm, and Joseph stands 
looking on in the background. Nothing 
can be imagined more pleasing than 
this composition. Some German critics 
have attributed the picture to Giulio 
Bomano; but it bears abundant evi- 
dence that it is the work of Baphael. 
It was painted for Lionello da Carpi, 
from whom it passed to his son, the 
Cardinal da Carpi. — 371, Portrait of 
the Chevalier Tibaldeo.— 372, Por- 
trait of Cardinal Passerini. — 369, A 
Portrait of Leo X., sitting at a table, 
and attended by the Cardinal Giulio 
de' Medici (afterwards Clement VII.) 
and Cardinal de' Rossi, by Raphael. 
It has often been maintained, especially 
by the Neapolitans, that this picture is 
the original, and that the picture at 
Florence is the copy. This assertion, 
however, is totally at variance with 

the history of the copy as related by 
Vasari. It appears that when Fe- 
derigo II., Duke of Mantua, passed 
through Florence on his way to Rome 
to pay his respects to Clement VII., 
he was so struck by the beauty of Ra- 
phael's picture, then hanging in the 
palace of the Medici, that he begged 
the Pope to present it to him. The 
Pope granted the request, and sent 
orders to Ottaviano de' Medici, then 
Regent at Florence, to have the picture 
removed to Mantua accordin^y. Ot- 
taviano, unwilling that Florence should 
lose so fine a work of art, employed 
Andrea del Sarto to paint an exact copy, 
which was sent to Mantua, and received 
by the Duke with great satisfaction. 
Even Giulio Romano, who was then 
living at Mantua, had no suspicion of 
the originality, and it was only when 
Vasari arrived at Mantua that he was 
undeceived. Vasari had been a pupil 
of Andrea del Sarto, and was an inmate 
in the palace ' of Ottaviano de' Medici 
when Andrea was painting his copy* 
He was therefore a witness of the whole 
transaction, and as a proof of the fact 
he pointed out to Giulio Romano the 
sign made by Andrea to distinguish his 
work, adding that this sign was neces- 
sary because, when the two pictures 
" were together, it was not possible to 
say which was by Raphael, and which 
by Andrea." This sign, it is said, was 
Andrea's own name, written on the 
edge of the panel, and therefore con* 
cealed by the frame. If this statement 
be correct, it is evident that there would 
be no difficulty in ascertaining which 
is the original, and which the copy. — 

380, I^a BartohmmeOf The Assumption,, 
with St. John and St. Catherine kneel- 
ing below. — Gitilio Bomano, The Holy 
Family, called the "Madonna della 
Gatta," perhaps the finest of Giulio's 
works. It resembles Raphael's Holy 
Family called "The Pearl," in the Mu- 
seum of Madrid. — 343. Andrea del Sarto, 
Bramante showing the plan of a build- 
ing to the Duke of Urbino. — 345, Schi- 
done, Charity, a very true and pathetic 
picture. — 347, Cupid in meditation. — 

381, 8odoma, The Resurrection. — 336, 
Spagnoletto, Silenus and the Satyrs, a 
powerful and characteristic picture, 
bearing the inscription — Josephus a 



Bibera Hispama Valentin^ et Academicus 
Homanus faciebat Fartenope, 1626. — 353, 
St. Jeromb startled from his prayers 
b^ the sound of the last trumpet ; a 
picture hardly to be surpassed in power 
of execution and truth of colouring. 
— 337, Titian, The celebrated Magda- 
^ LEN in prayer, her eyes swollen with 
weeping, and her countenance expres- 
sive of the deepest penitence, but still 
retaining all her charms. It bears 
Titian's name. — 842, Portrait of 
Pope Paul III. (Famese), one of 
his best and most interesting por- 
trsdts; painted at Rome in 1646, 
for Cardinal Farnese, by whose invita- 
tion he had visited Uiat capital. — 
367, Unfinished portrait of Paul III. at- 
tended by his nephew Pier-Luigi and a 
Cardinal. 348, Portrait of Philip II. 
of Spain; a masterpiece of portraiture, 
powerfully expressive of the projector 
of the Armada. The inscription, TtYtanus 
K, Eques CcBs.y F,, commemorates the 
order of knighlliood conferred upon the 
painter by Charles V., with an annual 
•revenue of 200 crowns, chargeable on 
the Treasury of Naples.^366, Marcello 
Vemtsti, A copy of the Last Judg- 
ment of Michael Angelo, executed m 
the Sistine Chapel under the direction of 
Michael Angelo himself, who esteemed 
it so highly that he presented it to Car- 
dinal Famese. — 360, ^fu^r^a Sohrio, or lo 
Zmgaro, The Virgin and Child throned, 
attended by St. Peter, St. Paul, St. Se- 
bastian, St. Asprenus, Santa Candida, 
and other saints. One of his most in- 
teresting productions : the Madonna is 
a portrait of Queen Joanna II. The 
female figure on the right of St. Peter is 
the daughter of Colantonio del Fiore, 
to win whose hand Solario became an 
artist. The last figure at the extreme 
left behind St Asprenus is the painter 

§ 6. Byzaktine, Neapolitan, and 
OTHER Italian Schools. 

Ist Boom, opening out of the landing- 
place on the opposite side of the great 
stairs (b 1). — Byzantine and early Ita- 
lian Schools. — The Saviour with the 
Madonna and St. John the Evangelist, 
a Triptycon. — ^The Trinity with the 

two Archangels in adoration ; below, 
the Virgin and Child between St.. 
Basil and St. Athanasius. It bears the 
name of the painter, FHippo Quella,. 
13th cent. — St. George and the Dragon 
(nth cent.)— The Saviour with the 
svmbols of the Eucharist, painted on 
silver (12th cent.) — J^'arly Neapolitan- 
School, — 93, Lo Zingaro, The Virgin and 
Child throned, wi& St. Jerome, Beato* 
Nicola Martyr, and another Saint ; in a 
lunette above, the Martyrdom of B. Ni- 
cola, with a portrait of Ferdinand of 
Aragon as St. Nicholas, in a rich dress 
kneeling before the Virgin. — 104, Maes^ 
tro Simone, The Virgin in Prayer, on 
panel. — Gennaro di Cola, St. Anne, with 
the infant Virgin and an Angel, formerly 
in the ch. of the Incoronata. — Maestro 
Stefanone, St. James and two Angels, on 
panel. — Zingaro, The Holy Spirit de- 
scending on the Virgin and Apostles. — 
88, Silvestro Buoni, The Assumption of 
the Virgin, with the Apostles weeping 
for her Death ; remarkable for the ex- 
pression given to the heads of the Apos- 
tles: dated 1336.— The Virgin and Child 
throned, attributed to Taddeo Qaddi.*^ 
Calabrese (^Matiia Freti), His own Por- 
trait, represented in the act of painting 
the portrait of his mistress. — 61, Carlo 
Coppola, The Largo del Mercato during, 
the Plague of 1656, with the Scaffold 
erected for the Execution of those wha 
were supposed to have introdaced it.-» 
94, Criscwlo, The Martyrdom of St. Ste- 
phen ; St. Paul is introduced as a young 
man, a spectator of the scene. — 89, i^i- 
Hppo Mazzola, The Deposition from the 
Cross, with the painter's name and the 
date 1500.— 90, Id, A good Deposition. 
120, The Virgin with St. Chiara and St. 
Agnes. — 6, Micco Spadaro, Portrait of 
Masaniello smoking his Pipe.— 46, View 
of ^e Largo del Mercatello during the 
Plague of 1656. — 47, The Revolution of 
Masaniello in 1647, remarkable for its 
variety of costumes and its exact re- 
presentation of national character. — 
48, The municipalily of Naples present- 
ing the Keys ofthe City to Don John of 
Austria on the Largo del Mercato, in 
1648.— 92, Lo Zmgaro, Virgin, St. Fran- 
cis^ and St. Jerome. — 54-84, Several 
small paintings, some I^zantine^ 
others of the Florentine masters of the 
14th centy. — Andrea da Salerno, The 



Assumption of the Virgin. The 
Apostles are portraits of the twelve 
principal members of the Accademia 
rontaniana during the presidency of 
the Duca di Montella, by whom this 
picture was commissioned; among them 
are Sanuazzaro, Giovanni Cotta, and 
Giano Anisio. 

2nd Boom (6 2) contains paintings of 
the more recent Neapolitan school. — 
160, Gakibrese (Mattia Preti\ S. Nicholas 
of Bari in ecs^y ; one of his best works. 
— 169, PacecGO di JRosa, S. Peter bap- 
tizing Sta. Candida; one of his best 
works. — 132, Luca Giordano, The Virgin 
attended by S. Domenico, S. Rosa, and 
other Saints. — 184, St. Francis Xavier 
baptizing the Indians : said to have been 
painted in three days as a trial of skill. 
—134, /</., A Deposition. — 163, The 
sketch for the large picture at Monte 
Cassino of Alexander II. consecrating 
the church there. — 157, // Monrealese 
(Pietro Novelli), St. Paul.— 133, Roderigq 
(II Siciliano\ The Virgin investing S. 
Xldefonso with the sacerdotal Robes; 
one of his best works. — 127, Salvator 
Eosa, Christ disputing in the Tem- 
ple: at the right of the picture is 
his portrait. — 129, The Parable of 
the Mote in thy Brother's Eye: a 
singular composition, in which the 
parable is treated literally. — 1 28, Micco 
S^adaro, The Court of the Certosa of 
S. Martino during the Plague of 1656, 
filled with the principal brethren and 
numerous citizens; among them are 
Micco Spadaro himself and Salvator 
Rosa. In the left corner of the painting 
above are the Virgin and St. Bruno in- 
terceding with the Saviour, who sends 
St. Martin to drive away the Plague, 
personified by a haggard woman. 

3rd Room (6 3). — Cat?. d'Arpino, The 
Saviour praying in the Garden of Olives, 
with a moonlight effect. A Glory of 
Angels, very beautiful. — 221, Ippolito 
Donzello, The Deposition from the 
Cross : one of the few works of this 
painter now extant. — 243, Criscmlo, a 
Triptycon: the Trinity contemplating 
the Nativity of the Saviour; it bears 
the painter's name and the date 1545. 
■ — ^232, Francesco Curia, The Virgin and 
Child, with S. Domenico, S. Rosa, and 
other Swnts ; considered his best work. 
—193, Pietro Donzelli, The Crucifixion ; 

portraits of Alfonso and Ferdinand of 
Aragon are introduced on the right of 
the picture. — ^221, Ippolito Donzelli, the 
brother, a Crucifixion with the same 
portraits.— 196, 197, Pietro Domelli, The 
Virgin and a group of Saints. — 220, 
Marco Calabrese, A fine picture of Stl 
Augustin disputing with the unbe- 
lievers. — 229, Cav, Arpino, Our Lord 
and the Samaritan: 240, id., S. Ni- 
cholas di Bari; 244, S. Michael. — 
203, St. Jerome in his Study ex- 
tracting THE Thorn from the 
Lion's Foot; a celebrated picture, 
beautifully painted, true to nature in. 
every part, delicately finished even' 
in the minutest details, full of power 
and expression; it has been gene- 
rally attributed to a Dutch painter, 
perhaps to John of Bruges. It 
bears the date 1436, and is said by 
Lanzi to have been painted for the 
ch. of S. Lorenzo, and to have been 
transferred by the monks on account 
of its great merit to the sacristy, where 
it was the admiration of strangers. In 
spite of this circumstantial statement, 
other critics have latterly attributed it 
to Van Eyck. — 248, Bernardo Zama^ 
The Deposition from the Cross, with 
S. Bonaventura contemplating the 
scene, and St. Francis kissing Uie Sa- 
viour's hand ; in the upper part is the 
Annunciation: a finely composed and 
expressive picture. — 235, Pietro Negt\m, 
The Virgin and Child, with St. John, 
considered the masterpiece of this 
painter. — 219, Poderigo {II Siciliano), 
The Trinity contemplating St. Johji 
the Baptist and St. Francis ; the master- 
piece of the artist, with his portrait 
and name. — 224, Saloator Rosa, S. 
Francesco di Paola in prayer. — 230, 
Andrea di Salerno, The Three Mira- 
cles of St. Nicholas. — ?27, Another 
smaller painting of the same sub- 
ject. — 208, The Adoration of the Magi, 
a very beautiful picture, universally 
esteemed one of his best works. — 
225, St. Benedict, with S. Maurus and 
S. Placidus, and the four Doctors 
of the Latin Church. — 226, Fabrizio 
Santafede, The Virgin and Child 
throned, attended by St. Jerome and an- 
other saiot ; with the artist's name, and 
the date 1695. — 206, Spagnoletto, St. Se- 
bastian, a fine half figure, with Spagno- 



letto*s name. — In a cabinet opening 
out of this chamber are the two 
Cartoons* by Saphael^ of Moses on 
Mount Sinai, and the Holy Family ; a 
large one of Men in Armour, attributed 
to Michel Angela; and several smaller 
ones by ^«. Caracci, ParmegianinOy Dome- 
nichmOy Mazzokiy Zuccherif L.diCredi, &c. 

4th Room (6 4).^-298, Fm Angelicoda 
Fiesole (?), Pope Liberius, surrounded 
by Cardinals and municipal authorities, 
tracing the foundations of the Ch. of 
S. Maria ad Nives, now S. Maria 
Maggiore, at Rome. Painted on panel 
in distemper; remarkable for great 
beauty of expression and for the deli- 
cacy of the details. It is. with more 
probability attributed to Tommaso di 
Stefano.— 286, Bernardo Gatti, The Cru- 
cifixion ; a very ^rand and finely com- 
posed picture, richly coloured, and 
universally regarded as his masterpiece. 
' — 295, FUippino Lippi. The Annuncia- 
tion, with St. John and St. Andrew. — 
277, A Holy Familjr.— -297, Another 
Holy Family and Samts.— 278, Bdldas- 
settle Peruzziy Portrait of Giovanni Ber- 
nardo, the engraver. — ^323, Marco da 
Siena, The Circumcision, containing the 
portraits of himself and his wife ; 
one of his best works. — 315, Matteo 
Giovanni da Siena, The Massacre of 
the Innocents; an expressive but 
exaggerated work by this very rare 
master, painted for the ch. of Sta. Cate- 
rina a Formello. It bears the inscrip- 
tion: Matteus Joarmi de Senis pitwit, 
Mccccxviii. ; but Lanzi shows that 
Matteo could not have been in Naples 
in that year, and suggests that an l 
has been omitted, and that the cor- 
rect reading is 1468. — 275, Andrea del 
Sarto, Virgin and Child. 276, A male 
portrait. — 285, Vasari, an unfinished 
Presentation of the Saviour in the Tem- 
ple.— 290, Sandro BotticeUiy A Holy 
Family, incorrectly attributed to J/a- 
mccio. — 293, L, da Credi, Nativity. — 
296, Fra Angelica, The Virgin sur^ 
rounded by Cherubim. — 299, Bronzino, 
A Holy Family.— 316, L. da Pistqfa, 
A Holv Family .-^3 19, Cosimo Roselli, 
The Marriage of the Virgin. 

5th Room (h 5). — 363, Sebastian 
Bourdon, A Holy Family, with a good 
landscape. — ^362, Portrait of Ranuccio 

Famese.— 378, Albert Cuyp, Portrait of 
the Wife of a Burgomaster of Amstei^ 
dam ; a delicate and finely-coloured- 
picture. — 380, Bembrandt, Portrait of 
himself in advanced age: 381, Portrait 
of Steiveds, his pupil : 382, Portrait of 
an Old Man. — 360, Vandyke, Portraits 
of the Princess of Egmond ; 353, of a 
Magistrate ; and 376, of a Man un- 
known. — 336, Van Eyck, A Village 
Festival, with his name. — 372, Wouver- 
mans, a Bivouac on the Banks of a River. 
— 348, Claude, A good Landscape. — 
361, Holbein, Portrait of the Emperor 
Maximilian I. 

6th Room (6 6).— 404, Peter Breughel, 
The Parable of the Blind.— 436, Jan 
Breughel, a Village Fair near Rotter- 
dam. — 476-482, Adam Elsheimer, six 
pictures on copper, remarkable as speci- 
mens of colouring and minute finish. 
The subjects are: — 1. Ariadne aban- 
doned by Theseus. 2. Ariadne and The- 
seus at the Bath. 3. The Rape of Gany- 
mede. 4. Dsedalus and Icarus. 5. 
The Fall of Icarus. 6. Icarus carried 
to the Tomb. — 493, Gherardo delle Notti, 
Interior of a Building by Moonlight. — 
465, Tenters the Elder, The Interior of a 
Public-house, very characteristic. — -- 
461, Tenters the Younger, AViolin-player, 
on copper. — 94, Vandervelde, Landscape 
with Shepherds, &c, — Van der Weyder, 
The Deposition from the Cross, painted 
in the first manner of this very rare 
master. — 390, Luca di Leyde, A Triptych 
of the Crucifixion. — 392, The Woman 
taken in Adultery. — 405, 406, 407, 
Michael Wohlgemuth (?), A Triptycon, 
formerly in the Certosa of S. Marti no, 
representing the Adoration of the Magi, 
who are said to be portraits of Charles 
II., Charles Duke of Calabria, and Ro- 
bert the Wise. The names, in Latin, 
of the two latter occur on the sides. 
— 468, Wouvermans, a Horse resting. 
Shepherds guarding their Flocks. — 85, 
A good Deposition, of the early Ger- 
man school. — 391, An Adoration of 
the Magi, attributed to Van Orley, In 
the middle of this room are some 
models in cork; the principal of which 
are — ^The three temples, portions of 
the walls and gates, and of the Greek 
tombs at Paestum ; of different edifices 
at Pompeii ; of the Temple of Serapis 



at PozKuoli ; of the circular church at 
Nocera ; and part of the amphitheatre 
at Santa Maria di Capua, &c. &c. 

Beyond this hall is another (67) still 
larger, which contains several paintings 
of remale figures, which, like the statues 
of Venus below stairs, were shut up 
firom the public eye from the same 
motives of false delicacy, the most 
remarkable being two paintings of 
Danae by Titian and Tintoretto ; Loves 
and Death of Adonis, by P. Vercneae ; 
4 naked figures, by Massimo ; 2 copies 
of Raphael's Frescoes in the Famesina 
Palace at Rome ; the fable of Atalanta, 
with a fine painting of Modesty and 
Vanity, by Guido ; Susanna and the 
Elders, by Massimo ; a sleeping Venus, 
hj Luoct Giordano; Venus and Adonis, 
with Cupid keeping watch, and a 
Venus with a Satyr and Cupids, by 
An. Caracoi; a Venus and Cupid, by 
Bronzino, &c. 


There are four libraries in Naples 
open to the public : the B. Borbonica, the 
Brancacciana, dell* UmDersith^ and dei 
Girohmini. The average number of 
persons who frequent them is about 
500 annually, consisting chiefiy of 
young men from the provinces, who 
come to the capital to study some pro- 
fession. Books are never lent out. No 
introduction or recommendation is re- 
quired for admission ; books on the for- 
bidden list or Index cannot be consulted 
without an express permission from the 
Pope. The late government allowed for 
the purchase of new books 600/. per 
annum to the Borbonica, 82/. to the 
Brancacciana, and 20/. to the Univer- 
sity ; and each of them is entitled to a 
copy of every work printed at Naples. 

The Bihlioteca Borbonica was founded 
in 1780, and first opened to the public 
in 1804. The hours of admission are 
from 8 A.M. to 2 p.m. daily, with the 
exception of Sundays and other holi- 
days. One room is set apart for the use 
of the blind, who pay persons for read- 
ing to them. There are — 1st, A general 
Catalogue of the printed books, in 1 vol. 

fbl., printed in 1800; 2nd, The first 
vol. in fol. of Monsignor Rossi's Ca- 
talogue, printed in 1832, and containing 
a catalogue raisonne of the Bibles and 
BibliciU literature ; Srd, JanneUi's Cata- 
logue of the Latin MSS., in 1 vol. 4to., 
printed in 1827; 4th, Cirillo's Cata- 
logue of the Greek MSS., in 2 vols. 
4to., printed in 1826-1832; 5th, A 
Catalogue of the Cinquecento Books, in 
4 vols, fol., printed in 1828-41. 

The Library occupies the magnifi- 
cent saloon in the Museum, about 200 
feet in length by 70 feet in breadth, 
with other smaller apartments attached 
to it. On entering the part of the li- 
brary allotted to readers, by a door on 
the E. side of the building, the visitor 
receives from one of the custodi a 
printed paper on which he writes the 
titles of the books he wants, and the 
press-marks specified in the catalogue, 
and gives the paper to one of the under 
librarians, who takes down the books, 
writes their titles on the printed paper, 
and gives both the paper and books to 
the visitor. When the visitor goes 
away, he returns the paper and books 
to the custode near the door, who, on 
inspecting them, and finding them 
right, bows to the visitor, which is tibe 
sign for the sentry to let him out. A 
visitor cannot receive more than three 
volumes at a time, but he is allowed to 
change them as often as he pleases. 
The MSS., the cinquecento editions^ 
and other rare books or prints are 
not given out indiscriminately; any. 
person who wishes to examine them 
must obtain a special permission. The 
library is managed by a principal Librar 
rian, called the Prefetto, three libra- 
rians or Biblioteoari, and. six under- 
librarians, etc. 

The library contains upwards of 
200,000 printed books, of which 6000 
are works of the 15th cent., and 4000 
MSS., in two separate rooms. Most of 
these were derived from the Famese 
collection, from the library of the 
Prince of Tarsia, and from those of 
suppressed monasteries. 

The collection of Printed Books con- 
tains the fijTst book printed at Naples ^ 
Uie earliest edition of Bartolo's Zectura 
super Codicem, printed in 1471 by 



Sixtus Keissinger, who had been in- 
vited to Naples by Ferdinand of Aragon ; 
the iBsop in Latin and Italian, printed 
by Keissinger (1485), with engravings 
on wood; the Latin work of Janus 
Marius, on the Propriety of Old Words 
(1475), printed by Mathias Moravius, 
also invited to Naples by Ferdinand 
of Arapon ; a Missal, printed by Mo- 
ravius in 1477 ; and many other works 
printed at Naples in the 1 5th centy. 
The Library is rich in Aldine editions 
and collections of works printed by the 
Etiennes, the Giunti, the Grifi, the 
Elzevirs, Barbou, Baskerville, Foulis, 
Bodoni, &c. 

Among the Greek MSS. are a NewTes- 
tament, referred to the 10th cent. ; the 
Alexandra of Lycophron, from which 
Manutius derived the fragments issued 
from his press; the Paralipomena of 
Homer, by Quintus of Smyrna, of the 
year 1311. Among the Latin MSS. are 
the Bible of the ISth cent., in 2 vols., 
called the Biblia Alfonsmuy from Al- 
fonso I., who presented it to the monks 
of Monte Oliveto; the Codex of St. 
Prosper of Aquitaine ; the Institutiones 
GrammaticcB of Charisius Sosipater, of 
the 8th cent.; the fragments of the 
Treatise of GargiliusMartialisi^e Fomis, 
a palimpsest discovered by Cardinal 
Mai ; the Commentarium in D. Diony- 
sium Areopag. de CoBlesti Hierarchia, et 
de divinis Nominibus, in the handwriting 
of St. Thomas Aquinas, which is an- 
nually exhibited on the festival of St. 
Thomas in the ch. of S. Domenico; 
various illuminated Missals and Brevi- 
aries; the celebrated Famese Missal, 
called La Flora, from its beautiful 
miniatures of flowers, fruits, and in- 
sects ; the Mintumo and two other 
dialogues of Tasso; the Correspond- 
ence of Paulus Manutius and Cardinal 
Seripandi respecting the publication of 
the Scriptures; and the works of St. 
Thomas Aquinas and other Fathers. 
The unrivalled Uffizio of the Virgin, 
written by Monterchi, and illustrated 
with miniatures by Gitdio Clovio, which 
he executed for Cardinal Alessandro 
Famese at the cost of nine years' 
labour, and which might be called 
the gem of illuminated works, for- 
merly here, had been removed to the 

king's private collection in the palace,, 
where it was of very difficult access and 
only seen by special favour of the 
librarian of the King, who eanried it 
away, with several other precious 
works of art, on being driven out of 
the country in 1860. 

The Biblioteca Brancacdana, attached 
to the ch. of S. Angelo a NUo, was 
founded in 1675 by Cardinal Francesco 
Maria Brancaccio, Bishop of Capaccio,. 
and is the oldest library in Naples. It 
has since received considerable addi- 
tions from other sources. It has a 
principal librarian, called Frefetto. The 
library is open to the public for two 
hours before sunset daily, except on 
Sundays and on the festivals and holi- 
days on which the Borbonica is closed. 
It has an alphabetical catalogue of the 
printed books in one vol. fol., dated 
1750, and a MS. catalogue for the MSS. 
It contains about 70,000 printed books^ 
and 7000 MSS.; the latter consisting 
chiefly of very valuable chronicles 
relating to the history of Naples. The 
library is rich in works on juris^ 

The Biblioteca delV University was 
founded in 1823, chiefly with the 
Biblioteca Municipale, which had been 
formed in the suppressed monastery of 
Montoliveto out of the Taccone library 
and libraries of suppressed convents. It 
is open to the public on the same days 
and at the same hours as the Borbonica. 
It is managed by a superintendent. The ' 
catalogues are MS. The number of 
printed books is about 25,000, among 
which is a valuable collection of works 
of the 15th cent., and a series of books 
by the etirly printers of Naples. 

The Biblioteca de* Gerolomini, in the 
Largo deir Arcivescovado, is the li- 
brary of the monastery of the Padri 
deir Oratorio of S. Filippo Neri. It 
was founded in 1720, with the purchase 
of the Valletta library. It is supported 
by the monks out of their own reve- 
nues; they expend annually in the 
purchase of new books about 36 ducats. 
It is open to the public on the same 
days as the Borbonica, from 9 to II 
A.M. It contains 18,000 printed books,, 
and 60 MSS., of which there is a MS. 
catalogue. Among its MSS. is the 




celebrated Seneca of the 14th cent., with 
the beantif 111 miniatures of Zingaro, 

Other Libraries. — ^There were seve- 
ral priyate Libraries ; but none of them 
equal to the Tarsia, the Belvedere, 
the Berio, and the Cassano Libraries, 
which were sold on the abolition of 
entails. The Libraries of S. Do- 
menico, S. Giovanni in Carbonara, 
S. Severino, and of the Certosa of S. 
Martino, were dispersed on the sup- 
pression of the monasteries by the 
French in 1806. The following may 
be mentioned as the most important 
of the private Libraries to which ac- 
cess can be obtained on application : — 
The FiUoli, in the Strada S. Liborio, 
containing a complete series of the 
works cited in the Vocabolario della 
Crusca. — ^The Fascot in the Vico Grotta 
della Marra, remarkable for its numis- 
matic collection, including a complete 
series of the coins of the Two Sicilies 
from King Roger to Ferdinand II. ; a 
series of all the coins of the Lombard 
duchies, and medisval republics of 
Southern Italy; and an mteresting 
collection of medals and tokens of 
the Neapolitan nobility. — The Poli- 
castro, in the Strada Ferrandina, con- 
taining a complete collection of works 
printed in the city of Naples. — ^The 
Santo Pioj in the Vico della Pietra 
Santa ; rich in princeps editions of the 
classics, in Aldines, in early Bibles, 
and in works of the early Italian poets, 
among which is a Codex of Dante of 
1378, and the Petrarca printed on parch- 
ment at Venice in 1470. — ^The Volpicella, 
in the Strada Montesanto, containing 
a good collection of works by native 

The Archives. — ^The National Ar- 
chives, called the Grande Archivio Gene' 
rale del Hogno, formerly in the Palazzo 
de' Tribunali or Castel Capuano, was 
removed in 1844 to the apartments 
of the suppressed Benedictine Monas- 
tery of SS. Severino e Sosio, in the 
Largo di S. Marcellino. The collec- 
tion is divided into four sections, — 
1. Historical and diplomatic, which 
extend from the beginning of the 8th 
cent, to the close of the Spanish vice- 

royalty, embracing the periods of the 
dukes of Naples, Salerno, and Amalfi ; 
of the Norman dukes and kings; of the 
Swabian, and of Angevin, Arragonese, 
and Spanish sovereigns, &c. ; 2, Fi- 
nancial ; 3. Judicial ; 4. Municipal. 
Among the first are the original code or 
*< constitutions" of the emperor Fre* 
derick II.; a portion of a register kept 
by the same sovereign, written on cot- 
ton paper in 1239-1240; the Acts of 
the sovereigns of the house of Anjon, 
amounting to 380,000 documents alone, 
which were formerly preserved at the 
Mint, and hence. called della Zecca; 
and a great number of charters and 
diplomas from suppressed monasteries. 
The collection is remarkably well ar- 
ranged, and very rich in historical 
documents. A large room on the 
ground floor, which was formerly the 
Chc^ter-houae of the monks, has fine 
paintings by Corenzio, His picture of 
■the Miracle of Loaves and Fishes, al- 
though containing 117 figures, is said 
to have been finished in 40 days. It was 
restored in 1840 by Nicola della Volpo, 


The Palazzo Reale was begun in 
1600 by the command of Philip III., 
in the viceroyalty of the Count de 
Lemos, from the designs of Domenioo 
Fontana^ and is considered the master- 
piece of that architect. The front, 520 
ft. long, presents the Doric, Ionic, and 
Composite orders in the pilasters of 
its three stories; the Doric of the 
ground story, in Fontana's design, 
formed an open portico, with three en- 
trances flanked by columns of granite 
from the Isola del Giglio. Many 
of the arches have been walled up to 
give solidity to the building. The 
first and second floors have on each front 
21 windows. The principal court has 
a double row of porticos. The palace 
was partly destroyed by fire in 1837, 
and has been since repaired and en- 
larged by Ferdinand II., especially 
towards the Piazza di S. Carlo, where 
a garden has been planted, and two 
colossal bronze horses, presented to his 
Majesty by the late Emperor of Kussia, 



in recollection of his reception in Italy 
in 1844. These statues are by Russian 
artists, and cast in St. Petersburg. The 
grand staircase, which was constructed 
in 1651 by the viceroy Oiiate, lead- 
ing to the state apartments, has been 
recently restored with great magnifi- 
cence, and ornamented with works of 
modern sculptors. The Chapel is re- 
markable for its altar of precious mar- 
bles, formerly in the ch. of Santa 
Teresa, and the statue of the Concep- 
tion by Fansaga. The state apartments 
contain still some good pictures, al- 
though several were carried off by 
Francis II. when he fled in 1860. 
Among the rest, The Madonna and 
Child by Eaphael, a picture executed 
for the convent of S. Antonio at 
Perugia, whence it passed to the 
<Jolonna family at Home, and from 
them to the King of Naples. This 
is one of Raphael's most interest- 
ing works, and is supposed to have 
been painted immediately after his 
first visit to Florence. The most 
remarkable paintings in the state 
apartments are — The Workshop 
of St. Joseph, and the Visit of St. 
Joachim to Elizabeth, by Schidone; a 
portrait of Henry VIII., by Holbein; 
those of Alessandro Famese and Gon- 
salvo de Cordova, and a Magdalen, 
by Titian ; the Orpheus, and the Christ 
disputing with the Doctors, by M, A, 
Caravaggio ; the Virgin and S. Bruno, 
by Spagnoletto ; St. Ignatius, by Staz' 
zioni; the Marriage of St. Catherine, 
by Schidone ; Portrait of General Gon- 
salvo, by Titian; the S. Catherine 
and the S. John by Annibale Caracci; 
two portraits by Eemhrandt and F<?- 
lasqtiez ; Joseph's Dream, by Guercino; 
the Rebecca by Albani; the Death 
of Cesar and Virginia, by Ca- 
muccini. The handsome tapestries in 
the throne-room, representing the dif- 
ferent provinces of the kingdom, were 
made at the Albergo del Poveri in 
1818. In the second floor are the pri- 
vate apartments occupied by the Bour- 
bon kings, which contain some pictures 
by Rvbens and MieU and many of 
modern artists. Adjoining these apart- 
ments is an extensive library, which 
occupies 8 large rooms, and contains 

a valuable collection of prints and some 
original drawings by the most cele- 
brated artists. In another part of the 
apartments is a cabinet of philosophical 
instruments and apparatus. 

On the ground floor of the palace 
is the Armeria, which consists 
of a good collection of armour, 
amongst which are most worthy of 
notice, the helmets and shields of the 
Norman king Roger, of Ferdinand I. 
of Aragon, of Alexander Famese, and 
Victor Amadens of Savoy ; the swords 
given by Ferdinand I. to Scanderbegj 
and by Louis XIV. to his grandson 
the Duke of Anjou on his accession to 
the Spanish throne. As a collection of 
mediaeval and Renaissance armour it 
is far behind those at Turin and in the 
Tower of London. In the garden on 
the N. of the palace is the Artesian 
well noticed at p. 94. 

Palazzo Reale di Capodimonte, the 
suburban villa of the king, was begun 
by Carlo III. from the designs of Me- 
drano, and finished by the present king. 
It stands upon a lofty hill, command- 
ing an extensive view of the whole 
city, and is a favourite retreat of the 
court. The palace is a vast, heavy 
rectangular building, and, being built 
on the site of an ancient stone-quarry, 
it has been necessary to strengthen the 
foundations by an extensive series of 
substructions. It is badly supplied with 
water. The rooms are spacious, and 
contain a collection of pictures by 
modem artists: the most remarkable^ 
perhaps, being that of Judith showing 
the head of Holofemes, bv Benvenuti 
of Florence, and left unfinished at the 
artist's death. The grounds are about 
3 m. in circuit. They are beau- 
tifully situated, and well laid out; 
part in the formal style, with a thick 
wood of evergreen oaks; and part in 
the English park style, with winding 
drives, &c. 

To visit the royal palaces, orders 
must be obtained, and which are 
granted with much facility at an office 
in the palace. Most of the hotel- 
keepers will be able to procure these 
orders, without which admittance can 
scarcely be obtained.. 




The palaces of Naples, with few ex- 
ceptions, have scarcely any claim to 
architectural l;)eauty, when compared 
with those of Upper Italy. We shall 
notice the most remarkable either for 
architecture, for the objects of art 
they contain, or. for their historical 

Palazzo Angriy in the Piazza dello 
Spirito Santo, was designed by Luigi 
Vanvitelli about 1773, and completed 
by his son Carlo. It contains a small 
collection of pictures, among which is 
a Christ at the Column, by Titian ; a 
Job, by Spagnoletto; S. Sebastian, by 
JSchidone; St. Peter, by Gherardo delle 
NoUi; St. Orsola, by Caravaggio; a Ma- 
donna and Child, attributed to Cor- 
reggio ; and some portraits of the Doria 
family by Bubens and Vandyke, 

Palazzo AvellinOy in the Strada S. Grio- 
vanni in Porta, founded in the 14th 
cent., and rebuilt in its present form in 
1616, by Camillo Caracciolo, Prince 
of Avellino, after the great victories 

fained under Philip II. and III. of 
pain ^n the Low Countries, France, 
and Italy. 

Palazzo Bagnara, or 8. Antimo, in the 
Ijargo del Mercatello, built in 1660, 
from the designs of Carlo Fontana, 
by Fabrizio Ru£fo« who captured a 
Turkish galley conveying the Sultana 
and her daughter to the coast of Syria, 
and expended in the building the trea- 
sures found in the galley. The Sultana 
died a few days after the capture, but 
the daughter lived to become a Domi- 
nican nun. It now belongs to the 
Prince of S. Antimo, and contains a 
gallery of pictures and sculpture by 
modem Italian artists. 

Palazzo Berio^ in the Strada Toledo, 
l)uilt about 1740 by the Marchese di 
Salza, Giovanni Berio, was formerly 
famous for its gallery of pictures and 
library, which have been dispersed. 

Palazzo Bisignano, in the Strada Con- 
«tantinopoli, built in the 16th cent, by 
the Ferrao family, though spoiled by 

some additions in the last cent., is still 
an edifice of imposing magnificence. 
The frescoes, now much damaged, were 
executed by Polidoro da Caravaggio, 
when he fled to Naples in 1532 from 
the sack of Rome. 

Palazzo Calabritto, the residence of 
the British consul, where the Church 
of England service is performed every 
Sunday, was the palace of the Duca di 
Calabritto, but it has long passed into . 
other hands. The fagade, the grand 
doorway, and the staircase are by Van- 

Palazzo Carafa, built in 1512, on the 
summit of Pizzofalcone, by Andrea 
Carafi9i, Count of Santa Severina, who 
adorned it with fountains and gardens. 
Some portions of his edifice may still 
be traced ; but after the popular tumults 
of 1651 die government purchased it, 
and converted it into barracks. It is 
still used for this purpose, and a por- 
tion of the palace is occupied by the 
royal topographical office, Vffizio Topo' 
grafico. This establishment has two 
branches, — ^the one is devoted to the 
construction and engraving of maps 
and of hydrographic surveys ; the 
o&er contains the military library, the 
national collection of charts, plans of 
cities, models of fortresses, §cc. 

Palazzo Carafoy in the Strada S. 
Biagio de' Librai, built b^ that branch 
of the Carafa fiimily which bore the 
title of Princes of Montorio. Paul IV., 
and his nephew Cardinal Carafa, by 
whom the fagade and cornice were 
added, were born in it. The lower 
part of the building is now converted 
into shops; but the beautiful cornice 

Palazzo Caramanico, in the Strada 
Fontana Medina, now the property of 
Barone Compagni, is one of the oest 
specimens of Fuga*8 skill. 

Palazzo Casacalenda, in the Piazza di 
S. Domenico Maggiore, built in 1770 
from the designs of Vanvitelli, is im- 
posing from its mass. The elliptical 
arches of the courtyard supported by 
marble columns and pilasters, and the 
principal stiurcase, are admired by 

Palazzo Cassaro, belon^ng to the 
Prince ^of Cassaro, contains a gallery 



•of pictures, among wHeh are the Cal- 
vary by Adam Ehkeimer; a Madonna, by 
Barocdo; a fine pastoral landscape, by 
Breughel; a landscape with a waterfall, 
by Saimtor Rosa ; the Marriage at Cana, 
by Tintoretto; St, Peter penitent, by 
Spagnoletto ; the Holy Family, hj Par- 
migianino ; the Madonna and Child, by 
Jjuca d* Olanda, etc. 

Palazzo Cellammarey near the ch, of 
S. Orsola, in the Strada di Chiaia, re- 
stored in its present form by the Duke of 
-Giovenazzo, who purchased it in 1727, 
and had the apartments decorated by 
Giacomo del Po, and other artists. It 
is now the property of the Duke of 
'Cellammare. The extensive gardens, 
which surround the palace, command 
fine views of the bay. 

Palazzo Colotma, — In the 1. angle of 
the 3trada Mezzocannone are the re- 
mains of the palace of Fabrizio Co- 
lonna. Grand Constable of the king- 
dom, who employed Caraoaggio in 1527 
to decorate it with paintings in chiaro- 
scuro, some of which, though defaced 
by time, are still to be seen, with 
beautiful windows of the same period. 

Palazzo Corigliano, in the Piazza di S. 
Domenico Maggiore, built about 1500 
from the designs of Mormando, whose 
skilful adaptation of the Doric style to 
the purposes of modem architecture 
. may still be seen in the ^und floor of 
the palace. The 'intenor is remark- 
able for its rich decorations in the 
style of the last century. 

Palazzo Costa, in the Strada S. Anto- 
niello alia Vicaria, contains the collec- 
tion formed by Professor Costa, illus- 
trating the geology, mineralogy, zoology, 
and botany of the kingdom. 

Palazzo Cuomo, a deserted palace, 
attached to the monastery of S. Severo, 
was designed by Agnolo Aniello del Fiore, 
and was the residence of Lucrezia 
-d' Alagni, for whom Alfonso I. wished 
to divorce his queen. The details of 
some of the windows are of an elabo- 
rate character. 

Palazzo d*Avalo8,. in the Piazza del 
Vasto, which belonged to the last de- 
scendant of the Pescaras, the Max- 
chese del Vasto, recently dead, was re- 
modelled in the last cent, by Cioffredo, 
and contains many objects of interest, 

foremost among which are the Csesars 
by Titian, and seven tapestries pre- 
sented by Charles V. to the Mar- 
quis of Pescara, as an acknowledg- 
ment of his services at the battle 
of Pavia in 1525. They represent 
scenes of that victory : the figures, as 
large as life, are portraits of the lead- 
ing personages who were distinguished 
in it. They were executed in Flan- 
ders from the drawings of the first 
artists in Italy, the figures being de- 
signed by Titian, and the ornamental 
portions by Tintoretto, The Csesars 
by Titian are only eleven in number; 
the twelfth is in the Grand Ducal Gal- 
lery, at Florence : its place is here sup- 
plied by a copy by L, Giordano, The 
collections of paintings, objects of art, 
and historical interest in this palace, 
haTe been bequeathed (Sept. 1862) by 
the descendant of the hero of Pavia to 
the National Museum. 

Palazzo Fondi, opposite the Fontana 
Medina, built from the designs of Van' 
vitelli. It contains a gallery of pic- 
tures, among which are the Martyrdom 
of S. Januarius, one of the finest works 
of Calabrese; four landscapes by Sal^ 
vator Rosa; the portrait of Marini, the 
poet, by Caravaggio; a Holy Family 
by Schtdone; a small portrait of S. 
Filippo Neri by Domenichino ; the Ma- 
donna Addolorata by Lionardoda Vinci; 
the head of S. Bonaventura, and a re- 
plica of the Holy Family of the Louvre, 
by Raphael (?) ; Diana and Calisto by 
Rvhens ; two Venetian scenes by Canon 
letti ; a portrait of Joanna II. by Zingaro ; 
a portrait of himself by Rembrandt ; the 
Palace of the Inquisition at Madrid by 
Velasquez; and some portraits of the 
Genoese mmUy of Marini by Vandyke, 

Palazzo Galbiati, m the Piazza S. 
Domenico Mag^ore, was the residence 
of Antonello Petrucci, the secretary of 
Alfonso I. of Aragon. Its marble door- 
way is said to be the work of Agnolo 
Aniello del Fiore, 

Palazzo Giusso, or Delia Torre, in the 
Piazza S. Giovanni Maggiore. The 
fine fafade, with its columns of the 
coniposite order,^was built about 1650, 
by Cardinal Filomarino, of the Dukes 
della Torre. Few palaces in Naples 
are constructed with so much solimty. 



The present proprietor, Signor Giueso, 
lias a good collection of drawings and 
« fine Cabinet of Medals. 

FcUazzo Gravina,, in the Strada di 
Monte Oliveto, is still the finest palace 
in Naples as a work of art, though 
despoiled of its original proportions. 
The barbarous attic above the fine old 
cornice, and the Doric gateway of white 
marble, are modem additions. The 
palace was built at the close of the 15th 
cent, by Ferdinando Orsini, Duke of 
Gravina, from the designs of Qabriele 
d^Agnolo, and is considered one of the 
best works of the period. On the frieze 
was the inscription which declared the 
4iospitality of the founder in the an- 
nouncement that he erected the palace 
for himself, his fiunily, and all his 
friends : — Sibi suisque et amicis amnVjus a 
fundamentis erexit. It was obliterated a 
few years ago when Count Ricciardi 
bought it. The palace belongs now to 
the government, and is tenanted by the 
General Post and other public offices : 
from here the mc^le paste carriages and 
diligences start. 

Palazzo Maddaloni, a massive pile, 
standing isolated in the Strada Toledo, 
was erected by the Marchese del Vasto, 
but afterwanis became the palace of 
the Dukes of Maddaloni. The door- 
way and the staircase were designed 
by Fajisaga. The interior contains a 
hall of fine proportions, with a large 
oil painting on the ceiling by Francesco 
di Mwa, representing the siege of 
Naples by Alfonso I. of Aragon. In 
this hall the Supreme Court of Justice 
holds its sittings. 

Palazzo MariglianOf in the Strada 
S. Biagio dc' Librai, called also Pa- 
lazzo della Jiiccia, from the title of 
its founder, Bartolommeo di Capua, 
Prince of Riccia. It was begun in the 
1 5th cent, by Ciccione^ and completed 
at a more recent time. The graceful- 
ness of the details adds to the general 
effect of the design ; and though its 
original features are injured by the 
shops which now occupy the basement, 
it IS still one of the most elegant 
palaces in Naples. 

Palazzo de* Mimsteriy in the Largo del 
Costello, called also S. Qiacomo, from its 
occupying the site of the ancient monas- 

tery and hospital of that name^was begun 
in 1819 by Ferdinand I., and completed 
in 1825 by Francis I. from the designs 
of Luigi and Stefimo Gasse, for the 
purpose of uniting the principal publie 
offices under one roof. It covers 
nearly 200,000 square feet of ground, 
and contains 6 courts, 846 apartments, 
and 40 corridors. The principal vesti- 
bule contains statues of King Hoger, of 
Frederick II., Ferdinand I., and Fran- 
cis I. The Exchange, or Bolsa, which 
forms a part of it, contains a statue of 
Flavio Gioia. 

Palazzo Miranda^ in the Strada di 
Chiaia, built in 1780 by Barba for 
the Duchess of Miranda, is now the 
property of the Prince of Ottajano. 
The collection of pictures includes the 
St. Jerome in the Desert, and Mary 
weeping over the Dead Body of the 
Saviour, by Spagnoletto; Joseph and 
Potiphar's Wife, by Guido; the Mar- 
riage of St. Catherine, by Aiberi 
D%u-er(jt)\ the Banquet of the Gods, 
and an allegorical painting of the Tri- 
umph of Beauty, by Bvbens, &c. 

Palazzo Miroballo, in a little street 
of that name, in the midst of the old 
and crowded Quartiere del Pennino, 
built in 1462 by Giovanni Miroballo, 
the favourite of Ferdinand I. of Aragon, 
from the designs of Cicciotie. There 
only remains visible the beautiful door- 
way, profusely covered with sculp- 
tured arabesques and trophies. 

Palazzo Monticelli, in the Strada Ban- 
chinuovi: an interesting specimen of 
the domestic architecture of the 15th 
century, attributed to Anionio B(d)OCcio. 
The ground floor, with its fa9ade still 
decorated with the lilies of the house 
of Anjou, was built by Antonio and 
Onofrio di Penna, the former the privy 
councillor, the latter the secretary, of 
King Ladislaus. An inscription over 
the doorway of white marble, gives 
1406 as the date of its erection. This 
palace was long inhabited by the cele- 
brated mineralogist Don Teodoro Mon- 
ticelli, and contained his rich collec- 
tion of Vesuvian productions, which 
was purchased by the University after 
his death. 

Palazzo Ptawura, in the Vicolo Cin- 
quesantiy near the ch. of S. Paolo, was 



built bj" Giulio de Scortiatis, the fa- 
vourite and counsellor of Ferdinand I. 
of Aragon. It was afterwards the re- 
sidence of Marini, the poet. Its marble 
doorway has elaborate and delicate 
sculptures of trophies and acanthus- 
leaves. On the ancient wooden gates 
are arabesques and figures in relief. 

Palazzo Eegina, in the Vico Bisi, be- 
hind the statue representing the Nile, 
was, in the 15th centy., the residence 
of Antonio Beccadelli, the historian, 
better known as the Panormiia, who be- 
oame the private secretary and bio- 
grapher of Alfonso I. of Aragon. 

Palazzo Sanfelice, in the Strada della 
Sanitd, built in 1728, by Sanfelice, the 
architect, for his own use, is remark- 
able for its double geometrical stair- 
ease. The chapel contains four colossal 
marble statues of the four seasons, 
with some bas-reliefs, by the school of 

' Palazzo Sansevero, in the Piazza 
di S. Domenico Maggiore, built in the 
16th centy. fix)m the designs of 6r*ot>ann« 
da Nola, and remodelled in the last 
eenty. by Raimondo di Sangro, who 
employed Corenzio to decorate the 
interior with frescoes. It remained 
in a neglected state until within the 
last S years, when it was subdivided 
into several smaller houses. This palace, 
oh the night of the IGth October, 1590, 
was the scene of a domestic tragedy. 
Carlo Gesualdo, Prince of Venosa, and 
the nephew of S. Carlo Borromeo, dis- 
covered his wife with Fabrizio Colonna, 
Duke of Andria, and killed both her 
and her paramour on the spot. He then 
retired to his castle at Gesualdo, and 
devoted the remainder of his life to reli- 
gious exercises. He was buried in a 
ehapel at the ch. of Gesk Nuovo^ 
erected at his expense. 

Palazzo Santangelo, in the Strada di 
S. Biagio de' Libra!, was begun iB the 
13th centy., from the designs of Ma- 
succio I., and restored in 1466 by Dio- 
mede Carafa, Count of Maddaloni. The 
sculptures of the beautiful doorway 
in white marble, designed by Agnoto 
Aniello del Fiore, are characterised by 
their delicacy and grace: as well as 
the original inlaid wooden doors, they 
bear amidst their carved ornaments the 

[S. Italy.'} 

arms of Diomede Carafk. The fa9ade 
and the staircase were originally 
adorned with statues, busts, and bas- 
reliefs, but only .two of them remain. 
In the eourt^yard was formerly pre- 
served the colossal bronze head of a 
horse, now in the Museo Borbonico. 
Its place has been supplied by a copy 
in terra cotta, placed here by the Sant- 
angelo family, who have converted 
the palace in the course of the last few 
years into a Museum of art. Among 
the pictures are several fine landscapes 
by Salvator Rosa ; the Entombment by 
Vandyke / an interesting portrait by 
Albert Durer, with his monogram and 
the date 1608 ; portraits of Rubens 
and himself on ^ne canvas by Vandyke; 
portraits of the Marchese di Pescara 
and Vittoria Colonna by Sebastiano del 
PiomJbo ; a Head of an Angel by Cor* 
reggio; a sketch in oils of the Last 
Judgment hy Michael Angelo; the Holy 
Family, one of the finest works of 
Ghirlandaio; and the Assumption of the < 
Virgin by Michael WoMgemuthy painted 
for the family of Volkamerin of Nu- 
remberg, and dated 1479. The collec- 
tion of coins and medals formed by the 
late Marquis Santangelo is one of the 
most complete in Italy, and is particu- 
larly rich in all that can illustrate the 
numismatic history of the kingdom 
of the Two Sicilies from the earliest 
period of the Greek colonisation to the 
present time. 

Palazzo Satriano, in the Piazza della 
Vittoria, formerly the property of the 
Ravaschieri family, was in 1675 the^ 
residence of the Marques de los Velez, 
one of the viceroys of Charles II. The 
facade, courtyard, and staircase were 
restored by Sanfelice. 

Palazzo StiglianOf in the Strada To- 
ledo, was built for the Viceroy, Duke 
d'Ossuna, bv Fansaga, It became the 
residence of John Van den Bynden, the 
rich Flemish merchant, whose daughter 
brought it, by marriage, to the Prince 
of Stigliano, a branch of the Colonna 
fi&mily. It has been -sold and divided 
into several apartments. 

The Palace of the late Comi of Syra- 
cuse, on the Riviera di Chiaia, for> 
merly of the Prince of Torella. It 
was built in 1535 by Ferdinand Alar- 



con, Marchese della Valle Siciliana, the 
general of Charles V., and it was then 
BO far from the city, that a tower, still 
visible, was added to the building as a 
security against any sudden descent of 
the Turks, It was entirely modernised 
in 1838. 

Palazzo della Vicaria Vecchiay in the 
Strada Forcella, near the ch. of S. Giorgio 
Maggiore. The entrance doorway, 
the basement, the windows of the 
first floor, and the pilasters of the 
Composite Order, are the only remains 
of the original palace erected in the 
early part of the 16th cent. In a niche 
in the courtyard is a broken statue re- 
presenting Hercules and the Nemsean 
Lion, and a bas-relief with a portrait of 
Queen Joanna II. 

§ 23. TILLAS. 

Villa Regina Isabella, on the Capodi- 
monte, derives its name from the late 
Queen Dowager, the grandmother of the 
lately deposed King. It was built in 
1809, for the Duke of Gallo, from the 
designs of Niccolini; it is founded upon 
arches and substructions of a massive 
character. The situation is extremely 
picturesque, and the gardens are laid 
out with skill ; but the chief interest 
of the Villa is the view, especially 
towards Naples, which is nowhere seen 
to more advantage. The interior is 
fitted up with elegance and taste. It 
contains some pictures, including the 
"Holy Family by Lionardo da Vinci, well 
known by several engravings ; a Holy 
Family by Andrea del Sarto ; the Cleo- 
patra of Correggio, one of his most beau- 
tiful works ; and a series of family por- 
traits of the House of Bourbon. In the 
collection of antiquities, etc., is a 
bronze table, found at Psestum in 1829, 
with a Latin inscription relating to the 
election of a Protector of that City. 
The villa is now the property of the 
Conte del Balzo, the queen's second 

Villa Angriy on the sununit of the 
hill of Posilipo, the property of the 
Prince of Angri, commands a fine view 
of the bay. 

Villa Anspach, on the hill of Posilipo, 
built by the Margravine of 'Anspach, 
whose son, Mr. Keppel Craven, left it 
by his will to the Minutolo family. It 
is built in the form of a Grecian-Doric 

Villa Belvedere, on the Vomero, be- 
longed formerly to the Principe di Belve- 
dere. It is now let out in apartments. 

Villa Floridiana, on the Vomero, de- 
rives its name from the second wife of 
Ferdinand I., Lucia Migliaccio, Prin- 
cess of Partanna and Duchess of 
Floridia, upon whom it was settled by 
his Majesty. At her death, in 1827, 
it was divided into three portions, of 
which the largest devolved to her 
daughter, who married the Conte di 
Monte Sant' Angelo, by whom the 
second portion was purchased and re- 
united to her inheritance. The Casino, 
built by Niccolini, is a fine square build- 
ing with two flights of marble steps 
leading to the garden, which com- 
mands beautiful views of the bay. 

Villa Oerace, called also Serramarina, 
beautifully situated at the end of the 
hill of Posilipo close by the sea. It 
belongs to the Duke of Terranova of 
the Gerace family. 

Villa Lucia, the third portion of the 
Villa Floridiana, the property of the 
Count Grifeo. It is approached by a 
winding road and by a bridge of inge- 
nious and bold construction thrown 
across the valley. The view from it 
is celebrated for its beauty and extent. 

Villa Maio, on the Infrascata; the 
property of the Marchese Maio, com- 
manding a fine view of the bay. 

Villa Ricciardi, or Villa de* Camaldoli, 
built on the hill of the Vomero by Fran- 
cesco Ricciardi, Count of Camaldoli, 
Minister of Justice under Murat It 
is remarkable for the beauty of its posi- 

Villa Rocca Romana, on the slope of 
Posilipo, the pagoda of the Duke of 
the same name, well known for its 
zoological collection and handsome 

Other Villas.— -The Villa Ruffo, near 
the castle of S. Elmo, on the Vomero, 
long the residence of the Cardinal 
who plaj^ed so important a part in 
the pohtical events of 1799 ; the 



Villa PallianOy on the side of Capodi- 
monte; the Villa Eegina, on the Vo- 
mero, remarkable only for the fine view 
it commands; the Villa TWcas^, beau- 
tifully placed at the extremity of the 
Collina di Chiaia, where it joins the 
hill of Posilipo ; tiie Villa Soaletta, on 
the hill of Posilipo ; the Villa Salza, or 
JRocca Matildey beautifully placed on 
the sea-shore of Posilipo ; etc. 


At the extremity of the Riviera di 
Chiaia the broad street divides into 
two branches : that on the 1. ifi the 
Mergellina ; that on the rt. is the Strada 
di Fiedigrotta, which leads to the en- 
trance of the Grotto by a deep cutting 
through tufa rock. 

1. Grotta di PozzuoU^ or di Posilipo. — 
It is a .tunnel excavated in the, older 
volcanic tufa, nearly from E. to W, . It 
is 2244 ft. long, and 21^ ft. wide. Its 
height is unequal ; at the £. entrance it 
V^ is 69 ft., in the centre it is only 26. It 
is ventilated by two circular air-shafts, 
^\. which pierce the roof in an oblique 
^V* ^ direction, and is lighted day and night 
V by Jamps. We find no mention of this 
tunnel before the time of Nero, though 
%5j*v attempts have been made to show that 
it must have existed from the earliest 
'^ times of CumsB and Naples. A pas- 
sage of Strabo has been quoted as 
referring to this grotto, but it un- 
J* doubtedly refers to that near the 
J^ Punta di Coroglio (p. 178); otherwise 
\ his description of its having many air- 
\ shafts, and being wide enough for two 
v carriages a-breast, would be in direct 
opposition to Seneca's and Petronius's 
descriptions, and to the fact that the 
Grotto had no air-shafts before they 
were opened by Alfonso of Aragon. 
Seneca, who passed through it on his 
way from Baise to Naples, describes it as 
a long prison, so full of dust and mud 
and so gloomy that there was nothing 
but "darkness visible." Totnm athU' 
tarum fatum mihi illo die perpetiendum 
fuitf a ceromate nos hapJie excepit in 

Crypta Neapolitana. Nihil illo careers 
longius, nihil Hits faucibus ohscvrius quoB 
nobis prcestantf non ut per tenebras vide- 
amus sed ut ipsas: eadem via eodem die 
hito et puhere laboravimus, Petronius 
describes it as being so low that it was 
necessary to stoop in passing through. 
In the middle ages it was believed to be 
the work of Virgil. Petrarch says that 
in his time the people regarded it as 
formed by the magic incantations of 
the poet. King Robert^ he tells us, 
conducted him to the Grotto, and 
asked him what he thought of the 
popular belief. "Relying," says Pe- 
trarch, ** on the royal humanity, I 
jestingly answered that I had no-irhere 
read thit Virgil was a magician. To 
this the king, assenting with a nod, 
confessed that, the place showed traces 
not of magic, but of iron, non illic 
magieif sedferri vestigia confessus est,'* In 
the 15th cent, it was enlarged by Al- 
fonso I., who lowered the floor, opened 
the two air-shafts, and raised the roof 
at the extremities. The walls exhibit 
a proof of this enlargement in the 
marks left by the axles of vehicles in 
the sides, many feet above the level of 
the present floor. In the centre of the 
tunnel there is a little recess, now 
forming the chapel of the Virgin, be- 
fore which a lamp is always burning. 
In the 16th cent. Don Pedro de Toledo 
paved its floor. Charles III. renewed the 
pavement and repaired the roof and 
sides as we now see them, strengthen- 
ing the roof in places where it was 
decayed, by erecting arches to sup- 
port it. 

2. Tomb of Virgil. — Near the 
E. entrance to the Grotta is the 
Roman columbarium known as the 
Tomb of Virgil. The ascent is by 
a winding path called Salita S. An- 
tonio di Posilipo, whence we descend 
through a vineyard to a platform on 
the brow of the precipice, on which 
the Tomb is built. It is now clothed 
with ivy, and the site nearly con- 
cealed; but, when it was first built, 
must have been visible from the ancient 
road and from the coast* from which it is 
about J m. distant. The Tomb consists 
of a chamber about 1 5 feet square, with a 
vaulted roof, and lighted by 3 windows. 




In the walld are 10 niches for cinerary 
urns, a doorway ,and what appears to have 
been a larger niche in the ruined wall 
opposite the entrance. Virgil had a villa 
on the shores of Posilipo, in which he 
composed the Eclogues and the Georgics. 
The iEneid also was written either in 
this villa or in Naples. After finishing 
the 12th Book, and before he had 
revised the poem, he set out by sea for 
Greece to meet Augustus on his return 
from the East, a voyage which Horace 
has invested with a melancholy in- 
terest by that touching ode in which 
he prays that the ship may bear him 
safely to the Attic shores. 

Sic te diva potens Cypri, 

Sic ft-atres Uelense, lucida sidera, 
Ventorumque regat pater, 

Obstrictis aliis, prseter lapyga, 
Navis, quae tibl creditum • 

Debes Virgilium, finibas Atticig 
Reddas incolumem, precor ; 

£t serves animaB dimidiam mesa. 

Od. 1. 3. 

Virgil met Augustus at Athens, but 
being attacked by illness at Megara, 
he was obliged to return to Italy. He 
landed at Brundusium in a very feeble 
state, and died there a few days after- 
wards, B.C. 19. His remains, at his 
request, were conveyed to Naples for 
interment, but the precise site where 
his ashes were deposited is not men- 
tioned by any cotemporary writer. The 
evidence which connects this monu- 
ment with the Tomb of the poet is 
by no means so weak as was su^ 
posed by Cluverius, who founded his 
objection on a too literal interpre- 
tation; of some verses of Statins. 
This poet, who was bom at Naples 
about half a cent, after Virgirs death, 
describes his visits to the Tomb, tell- 
ing us that he followed the shore to 
reach it, and composed his verses while 
reclining within its precincts : — 

...En egomet somnum et geniale secatns 

Littus, ubi Ausonio se condidit hospita porta 

Parthenope, tenaes ignavo poUice chordas 

Pulso, Maroneique salens in margine tempi! 

Sumo aninium, et magni tnmulis adcanto 

magistri : 

Hiec ego Chalcidicis, ad te, Marcelle, sonabam 
Littoribus fractas ubi Vesbius erigit iras, 
iBmula Trinacriis volvens incendia flammig. 

From the mention of Vesuvius in 
these lines, and from the use of the 

word littus, Cluverius inferred that the 
Tomb was on the shore at the foot of 
the volcano ; but if a single line may thus 
be separated from the context, which 
is a general description of the scenery 
commanded from the locality, we might 
as well contend that the words Chal- 
cidicis littoribus would fix the site of the 
Tomb on the shores of CumsB. This 
expression, which is obviously inap^ 
plicable to the neighbourhood of Vesu- 
vius, is the strongest argument against 
the theory of Cluverius, and of those 
who, like Addison, have followed his 
authority. Taken in connexion with 
the rest of the passage, it shows that 
the Tomb was situated near the W. 
shores of the Bay of Naples ; but it 
proves nothing which will identify the 
locality, unless the opening lines may 
be considered to indicate that Naples 
and Vesuvius were visible from the 
spot. Cotemporary with Statins was 
Silius Italicus, whose idolatry of Virgil 
was so ffreat that he made a pilgrimage 
to Naples for the purpose of visiting 
his tomb. Silius found it so de- 
serted that it was kept by a solitary 
peasant From this degradation he 
rescued it by purchasing the grounds 
in which it stood, having previously 
become the owner of the VUla of Cicero 
at Arpinum, to which Martial alludes. 

Silius baec magni celebrat monumenta Maro- 
Jugera facundi qui Ciceronis babet. 
Heredem dominumque sui tumulique larisqne 
Non alium mallet nee Maro nee Cicero. 

JBp. XI. 48. 
Jam prope desertos cineres, et sancta Ma* 
Nomina qui ooleret pauper et unus erat. 

Ep, XI. 49. 

Having thus become possessor of the 
site, he was accustomed, as Pliny tells 
us, to approach it with the same rever- 
ence as he would show to a sacred 
edifice, and to keep, on the spot, the 
birthday of Virgil more religiously 
than his own. These facts, however, 
afibrd no evidence as to the site of the 
Tomb. The Neapolitan antiquaries 
have adduced a more direct evidence 
in the Life of Virgil attributed to 
Donatus, a writer of the 4th cent. 
In this work it is stated that the ashes 
of Virgil were placed in a tomb on the 



Via Pideolan^, cryptam Pausilypanam 
versusy near the Grotta di Posilipo, at 
the 2nd milestone from the city. The 
old gate of Naples called the Porta Pu- 
teolana, destroyed in 1300,^88 situated 
on the spot now occupied by the obelisk 
of S. Domenico, a position which cor- 
responds exactly with the distance of 
the obelisk from this Tomb. But there 
is reason to believe that the Life attri- 
buted to Donatus was written much 
later than the 4th cent. We can there- 
fore rely no more on Donatus as 
an authority than on the testimony of 
St. Jerome to the same effect, as 
given in the Chronicle of Eusebius, 
which Heyne and other critics now 
suppose to have been interpolated. 
Although, however, we may question 
the authenticity of both these works, it 
is impossible to doubt that the date of 
their composition was sufficiently early 
to afford strong collateral evidence of 
the antiquity of the tradition which con- 
nects the ruin with the Tomb of Virgil. 
From the earliest period of the revival 
of letters this tradition has been un- 
broken, and we know that it was ac^ 
cepted without question by all the older 
masters of Italian literature. Petrarch 
was escorted to the spot by King 
Robert, and he is said to have planted 
a laurel upon it. Boccaccio acknow- 
ledged the truth of the tradition by feel- 
ing his love of letters kindled by the 
religio loci^ and by renouncing in the pre- 
sence of the Tomb the mercantile pur- 
suits to which his father had destined 
him. At this period of the 14th cent, 
there is evidence that the Tomb was en- 
tire. Capaccio, in his " Historia Puteo- 
lana," cites Alfonso Heredia, Bishop of 
Ariano, who was living in 1500, and was 
a canon of the neighbouring ch. of S. 
Maria di Piedigrotta, to which the farm 
containing the Tomb belonged. The 
bishop is said to have possessed records 
proving that the Tomb was perfect in 
1326, and that it liad 9 small columns 
supporting a marble urn, with the well- 
known inscription on the frieze : — 

Mantua me gennit, Calabri rapuere, tenet 
Parthenope ; cecini pasctta, nira, duces. 

He says that the urn and columns, and 
some small statues which decorated tHe 

Tomb, were given by Robert of Anjou 
to the Cardinal of Mantua for removal 
to Virgil's birthplace ; that the Cardi- 
nal, returning by sea, died at Genoa, 
and that all trace of the precious relics 
perished with him. Giovanni Villani, 
in his Chroniche de Napole, published 
in 1526, also describes the form and 
arrangement of the Tomb, and 
says that the marble which contained 
the epitaph, carved in antique cha- 
racters, was entire in 1326. Pietro di 
Stefano, in his Descrizione de* Luoghi 
Sacri, confirms Capaccio's statement 
respecting the existence of the urn 
at the beginning of the 14th centy., 
but states that King Robert removed 
it to the Castel Nuovo, for its better 
preservation ; but though Alfonso of 
Aragon had diligent search made, not 
a trace of it was found in the middle 
of the 15th centy. Eugenic Caracciolo, 
in his NapoU Sacra, published in 1623, 
states that a stone had been discovered 
in the neighbourhood, bearing the in- 
scription — Siste, Viator, qucBSO, pauca 
legito, hie Maro situs est. Cardinal Bembo 
in the 16th cent, has shown his belief 
in the tomb by the epitaph which he 
composed for Sannazzaro (see p. 123). 
To a different pen must be attributed 
the inscription which was placed here 
in 1554: — 

Qui Cinereg? Tumuli hac Vestigia? Condi- 
tur olim 
Ille hie qui cecinit pascua, rura, duces. 

Capaccio tells us, that there were for- 
merly these two other lines : — 

Quod scissus tumulus? Quod fracta sit uma 
quid inde ? 
Sat Celebris locus nomine vatis erit. 

• The laurel supposed to have been 
planted by Petrarch disappeared in the 
beginning of the present cent, under 
the knives of visitors of all nations; 
and the one planted as its successor 
by M. Casimir Delavigne has as little 
chance of perpetuity. The Margravine 
of Baireuth in the last cent, had a 
branch of Petrarch's laurel cut off 
and sent to her brother Frederick the 
Great, accompanied by some lines 
written by Voltaire expressive of the 
appropriateness of such a gift to his 
military glory and poetic talents; and 



the Kassian Admiral CzemischeflF made 

a similar present to Voltaire himself 

during his residence at Ferney. We 

have no space to record the many other 

reminiscences of the tomb. It has now 

become venerable by the homage which 

the great men of six centuries have 

paid to it; and where such pilgrims 

have trod, posterity will regard the 

spot as one of those consecrated sites 

upon which genius has fixed the seal 

of immortality. 

Vespero h gia coUi dove sepolto 

E '1 corpo, deutro a1 quale io fiEiceftombra : 
Napoli r ha, e da Braudizio e tolto. 

Dante, I*urg. iii. 25-27^ 

3. Faorigrotta, At the W. extremity 
of the Grotto is the village of Fuori- 
grotta, where several roads branch off. 
The Ist turn on the rt. joins the new 
road by Orsolone to Capodimonte (No. 
8). The 2nd leads to Pianura^ a village 
3 m. off, at the foot of the hill of the 
Camaldoli, near the extensive quarries 
of pipemo, a peculiar variety of volcanic 
rock much used for building purposes 
at Naples. A new and better road 
branches off about § m. on to the Lago 
di Agnano and to Astroni. The con- 
tinuation of the road from the Grotto 
proceeds to Bagnoli, and was con- 
structed in 1568 by the Viceroy de Rir 
vera. At the W. end of Fuorigrotta is 
the little ch. of S. Vitale, in which Gia- 
como Leopardi, the poet, is buried, with 
a simple monument erected to his me- 
mory in the porch. Not far from the 
ch. are two inscriptions, one bearing 
the words Hinc Puteolos, to indicate the 
direction of the new route ; the other, 
Hinc Romam, to show that th€ Agnano 
road falls into the Via Campana from 
Pozzuoli to Rome beyond the Solfatara. 
The road to Bagnoli is bordered on 
each side by poplar and mulberry-trees 
festooned with vines; the valley through 
which it runs, bounded on the 1. by 
the ridge of Posilipo, is cultivated with 
wheat, maize, and flax. 

4. Bagnoli, a cluster of three or 
four houses on the shore of the Bay, 
has two warm mineral springs. The 
first of these, the Acqua di Bagnoli, re- 
sembles Seltzer water in its large 
amount of muriate and bicarbonate of 
soda, with free carbonic acid gas ; the 

temperature is 104® Fahr. The Acqiux 
di ** Svbveni homini *' is of the same 
character, but with more than four 
times the amount of muriate of soda. 
The temperature varies with the sea- 
son from 82^ to 107^ Fahr. Bagnoli 
is the birthplace of the physician 
Sebastiano Bartolo, the reputed in- 
ventor of the thermometer, who inves- 
tigated the mineral waters of this dis- 
trict in 1669, and published the re- 
sults under the name of Thermologia 
Aragcnia, At Bagnoli we enter on the 
road to Pozzuoli, but we shall reserve 
our description of it for our excursion 
to the W. district near Naples. 

5. The Strada Nuova of Posilipo leaves 
Naples by the Mergellina and joins the 
road already described at Bagnoli. It 
was constructed in 1812, but the de- 
scent towards Bagnoli was not finished 
till 1823. Before leaving the Mergel- 
lina we pass under the ch. which con- 
tains Sannazzaro's tomb (p, 122). Be- 
yond, on the rt., is the VUla Angri, 
and further on, on the 1., are the pic- 
turesque ruins of the Palazzo di Ikmn* 
Anna, often misnamed della Regina Gio- 
vanna, built in the 17th cent, by Fan- 
saga for Donna Anna Carafa, the wife 
of the Viceroy Duke of Medina. It 
was erected on the site of a more an- 
cient palace of the princes of Stigliano, 
of whom Donna Anna was the last 
heiress ; it has never been finished, and 
is now converted into a glass manufac- 
tory. The road winds round the hill by 
a gentle ascent through villas and gar- 
dens. Many of the villas are beautifully 
situated. After passing on the 1. the 
Lazzaretto or Quarantine, the Eoc- 
ca Romana, the Rocca Matilde, and the 
Minutolo Villas, a road on the 1., pass- 
ing by the entrance to the Villa de 
Mellis, or Palazzo delle Cannonatey the 
residence of Hackert the painter in 
the last cent., and by the Villa Gerace, 
descends to the Capo di Posilipo, the 
Phalerum of the Greeks, from ^«Xaf ic, 
a gull, whose Latin name, mergus, is 
supposed to have been the origin of that 
of Mergellina. The little ch. of S. Maria 
is supposed to occupy the site of 
the ancient Pharos. Boats can always 
be hired here to row back to Naples. 
Further on, a road on the rt., crossing 






the highest ridge of Posilipo, falls into 
the road of the Vomero (No. 7). After 
passing through a deep cutting, the 
road reaches an esplanade from which 
there is a magnificent view over 
Bagnoli, Camaldoli, Pozzuoli, Baise, 
Ischia, &c. Descending from here along 
the W. side of the hill, and passing by 
[ the entrance of the Grotta di Seiano, it 
^reaches the sea-shore, and at Bagnoli 
falls into the road from Fuorigrotta. 

Just before entering the deep cutting 
ire have mentioned, and passing a small 
tavern on the 1., we reach a path opened 
in 1835 with a view to construct a road, 
which was abandoned on account of the 
crumbling nature of the volcanic ashes 
of which most of the coast is hereabouts 
formed. It skirted the S.W. side of the 
hill, under the Punta di Coroglio, aflford- 
ing a great variety of views. By fol- 
lowing'this path we reach the villa Maz- 
za, which contains a collection of Latin 
inscriptions found among the ruins, the 
fragment of a column, and the niche of 
the cella of a temple. Lower down is 
the little island or rock called La 
Oajola, covered with ruins. Against 
the opposite cliff, close to the sea, are 
remains of what is supposed to have 
been the Temple of Fortune, or of 
VeivjLs Euplasa. The spot is now mis- 
named la Scuola di Virgilio. It was 
there, as Statius tells us, that the Alex- 
andrian merchants, on their visits to 
Puteoliy returned thanks for their pros- 
perous voyage. The little cove on the 
W. of this rock is called the Marechiano 
(smooth water). The ground all around 
is covered with the ruins of the Villa of 
Vedius PolliOf the celebrated Pausilypum, 
Tieiv^is rns >>.v^ns, which gave the whole 
promontory a name expressing freedom 
from care. These ruins, overgrown with 
myrtles, ericas, and Spanish broom, 
and partly covered by the Villa Mazza, 
spread over a considerable space. They 
extend down the slope of the hill and 
along the shore as far as Nisida. The 
most conspicuous is the Casa Fiorelli, 
a building of three, stories, the lowest 
of which was probably a bath. But it 
is not the hill, or even the shore, which 
will give an adequate idea of the extent 
of this villa. The sea itself is filled 
for a considerable distance with enor- 

mous masses of substructions; the tufa 
cliffs are cut away to form part of the 
vast plan, and the mountain is pierced 
with tunnels and canals to supply the 
fishponds and the baths. It is diffi- 
cult to form a conception of the 
magnitude of these works without ex- 
amining them in a boat. Large oblong 
masses of tufa may thus be seen under 
water, isolated by deep channels from 
the cliff of which they once formed 
part ; and in other places spacious 
chambers may be traced. The best 
plan for exploring them is to drive to 
the Capo di Posilipo, there hire a boat, 
and rejoin the carriage at the foot of 
the hill, where the Strada Nuova 
reaches the shore, opposite to Nisida. 

It would be hopeless to attempt to de- 
fine these masses of ruin.* We know that 
Vedius PoUio constructed extensive 
fishponds for the muramcB, or sea-eels, of 
which Pliny, Dion Cassius, and Seneca 
write with such astonishment. Dion 
tells us that these fish were fed with 
human flesh ; Pliny mentions one 
which was known to be more than 60 
years old; and Seneca records a least 
given by PoUio to Augustus, at which 
a slave who had broken a glass was 
sentenced to be thrown to the fishes; 
an order which the emperor arrested by 
directing all the glasses of the villa to 
be cast into the ponds instead of the 
intended victim. PoUio bequeathed 
the villa to Augustus, but history has 
recorded no fisicts of interest in con- 
nexion with his possession of the pro- 
perty. The Fishponds which have 
acquired such a barbarous notoriety 
are still visible. 

The buildings brought to light by the 
excavations of recent years have been 
supposed, from their position, to belong 
also to the villa of Vedius Pollio. The 
Theatre has its seats cut out of the tufa 
rock. It has a double cavea of 17 rows 
of seats, with a corridor above, ascended 
by a lateral stair, and two tribunes at 
the extremities of tLe orchestra. The 
absence of the foundations for the 
stage suggests the probability that the 
scena was constructed of wood so as 
to be removable. The stone rings for 
the velarium are still visible in the 
upper part of the outer walls. Some 



interesting antiques were found among 
the ruins, including wall paintings, 
several rare marbles, and the head 
of a statue of Bacchus. A large 
square building, near the theatre, deco- 
rated with pilasters, having two chan- 
nels for rain-water and semicircular 
loggie built along the face of the hill, 
one above the other, is supposed to 
have been a place for games. The 
Odeon, with its portico of stuccoed 
columnS) is the most perfect of these 
remains. It has 12 seats arranged in 
two divisions, a semicircular scena, 
a recess for the musicians in the or- 
chestra surrounded by six columns of 
cipoUino with capitals of rosso antico 
of excellent workmanship, and a hall 
in the middle of the area, with a seat 
for the emperor apart from the rest 
of the audience. In a niche of this 
hall were found a pedestal for a statue, 
and two columns of black marble 
with white capitals. The whole 
building was faced with costly marbles. 
Among the sculptures found in the 
ruins may be mentioned the beautiful 
statuette of the Nereid rising from a 
shell, now in the Museum ; the 
headless statue of a Muse, one of 
the finest draped figures of that collec- 
tion; and some finely-carved candel- 
abras. The Basilica^ divided into a 
nave and two aisles by a double row of 
columns, and the Hemicycley are near 
the Odeon. Numerous fragments of 
columns,, capitals, and cornices of pre- 
cious marbles, have been found in the 
same direction. Beyond are the ruins 
of other buildings, porticoes, nym- 
phsea, reservoirs, &c. Amidst all 
these vestiges of magnificence, the 
Grotta di SeianOy called also di PosilipOf 
is perhaps the most interesting which 
time has spared. It is a tunnel 
cut through the ridge of the Posilipo 
hill near the Punta di Coroglio, in 
order to afford a communication be- 
tween Naples and PozzuoFi. It is 
2755 feet in length, being 500 feet 
more than the Grotta di Pozzuoli : it 
is also wider and loftier, is strength- 
ened internally by arches of masonry, 
and has several lateral air-shafts opening 
towards the sea. Strabo,who describes it 
fi*om personal observation, tells us that 

the engineer was a certain Cocceim, who 
had also been employed by Agrippa, the 
son-in-law of Augustus, to make the 
subterranean passage from Cumffi to 
the Lake of Avernus. The grotto 
has been cleared out. During the pro* 
gress of the excavation an inscription 
was discovered showing that it had been 
restored by Honorius in the 5th centy. 
Opposite the Punta di Coroglio is the 
little island of 

6. NisiDA, Nesis, the NJjr^^ of Strabo, 
an ancient crater, 1^ m. in circum* 
ference. The lip of the crater is broken 
down on the S. side, where it forms 
the little harbour called the Portn 
Pavone. On the N. side, nearly op- 
posite to the Punta di Coroglio, is a 
rock now occupied by the lazzaretto. 
It is said that the island was connected 
with the shore of Bagnoli by a bridge 
thrown across the strait from this 
rock, and that from the N.W. point 
a mole formed a harbour — the pla^ 
cidtts limon of Statins. We learn 
from Cicero that the son of Lucul- 
lus had on this island a villa, where 
Brutus retired after the assassina- 
tion of Csesar. In this villa Cicero 
held his conferences with Brutus on 
affairs of state ; and several of the 
letters to Atticus are dated from it. 
Nothing can be more touching than 
the picture he draws of the great re- 
publican during his retirement at Ni- 
sida: — Corpus aberat liberatoris, libertatis 
memoria aderat ; in qua Bruti imago cerm 
videbatur. At hunc his ipsis ludorum die^ 
bus videbam in insula clarissimi adol^ 
scentis Luculli, propinqui sui, nihil nisi de 
pace et concordia civium cogitantem. Eunf 
dem vidi postea Velice cedentem Italia, ne 
qua oriretur belli civilis causa propter ee. 
— Phil. X. 4. The villa was subse- 
quently the scene of the parting of 
Brutus and Portia, on his retirement to 
Greece, prior to the battle of Philippi. 
Although thus frequented by the ^eat 
statesmen of republican Rome, Nisida 
appears to have been subject to me- 
phitic vapours and gaseous exhalations 
from some portions of its crater as late 
as the middle of the 1st centy. Lucan 

Emittit st.ygium nebulosis aera saxis, 
Antraq,ue lethiferi rabiem Typbonis anhelant. 



Pliny celebrates its -wild asparagus, for 
which it still retains its fame, and it 
enjoys an equal reputation for its 
grapes, its olives, and its figs. In the 
15th centy. Joanna II. had a villa on 
the crest of the island, which was 
converted into a fortress to check the 
fleet of Louis of Anjou. It is now 
used as an Ergastolo, or prison for crimi- 
nals, some of the most eminent victims 
of Bourbon tyranny having been confined 
in it. In 1624 the Duke of Alva erected 
the Lazzaretto on the rock near the 
shore. In 1832 a new port between 
Nisida and the mainland was con- 
structed by the engineer Fazio, by 
means of two open moles built on 
arches thrown over the ancient piles, 
like the mole of Pozzuoli. The two 
moles form a port, having an area of 
20,666 square feet, and are united by a 
spacious causeway 1290 feet in length. 
The W. mole has a small revolving 
light at its extremity. 

7. Antignano, Vomero. — A road leaves 
Naples by the Strada Infrascata on the 
W. side of the Museum, passes the 
Villa Maio on the 1., and on the rt. the 
ascent to the Arenella, the birthplace of 
ScUvator Bosa, and the Due Porte, and 
proceeds by the Strada S. Gennaro to 
the village of Antignano. In the latter 
place was the " Portico Antiniano," as 
Pontanus calls the villa of Antonio Bec- 
cadelli, or Panormita, who there com- 
posed his history of Alfonso of Aragou, 
and his licentious ffermaphroditus. The 
village is the scene of a popular Festa 
on ^Eister Day. From Antignano a 
road on the rt. joins the new one 
from Capodimonte ; another on the 
1. ascends to the Castle of S. Elmo, 
and thence returning by the Buffo, 
Lucia, and Floridiana Villas, falls into 
the main road proceeding from Anti- 
gnano to the Vomero at the Villa Bel- 
vedere. A steep descent, called Salifa 
del Vomero, leads from this point to the 
Chiaia. Here the road takes the name 
of the Strada Belvedere; it passes the 
Villa Regina, and traverses the crest 
ef the Collina di Chiaia until it joins 
the hill of Posilipo, passing, near the 
point where it turns S., the Villa Ric- 
ciardi on the rt., and on the 1. the Villa 
Tricase and the Villa Patrizi. At the 

latter place it is joined by the Salita 
di S, Antonio di Posilipo, which ascends 
from the Mergellina, passing by Vir- 
gil's tomb. Thus far the road has 
followed the direction of the old Via 
Antiniana leading from Pozzuoli to 
Naples, considerable remains of wliich 
can still be seen descending on the rt. 
to Fuorigrotta, on reaching the high 
ground above this village. Here we 
command an extensive view of the W. 
district, which will give us a correct 
idea of the locality, and enable us to 
trace the ancient and the modern roads. 
Those to the Lake of Agnano, the 
ancient one by Monte Olibano, the 
Rivera road to Bagnoli, the hill of 
the Camaldoli, the summits of the Sol- 
fatara, the Monti Leucogei, the site of 
Baias, the promontory of Misenum, 
the intervening flat of the Mare Mor- 
to, the island of Procida, and that of 
Ischia rising with its pointed peak 
of Epomeo behind it. 

Following the ridge of the hill, and 
traversing the small villages of Posilipo 
and Santo Strato, the road falls into the 
Strada Nuova nearly opposite the 
Punta di Coroglio (No. 5). 

8. Capodimonte is reached by a beau- 
tiful drive called Strada Nuova di Capo- 
dimonte, which from the palace descends 
to the Strada di Foria, near the Al- 
bergo de* Poveri, by the romantic drive 
of the Ponti Eossi. There are several 
other fine drives about Capodimonte ; 
which may be easily traced on the 
annexed Map of the Environs of Na- 
ples. — I. A new road, affording beau- 
tiful views of the bay and the envi- 
rons, from the village of Capodimonte, 
passing by the Villa Regina Isabella, 
and by the valley between the Camal- 
doli and the Vomero, proceeds to the 
Lago d' Agnano ; and a branch on the 
1. joins, at Fuorigrotta, the road of 
Bagnoli. — II. The Strada Nuova di Mi- 
ano surrounds the Royal Park, and 
joins, at Secondigliano, the road from 
Capua. — III. To Polvica, Chiaiano, 
and Marano, a large village (10,000 
Inhab.).— IV. From the latter road, 
at the 4th mile, a branch road on the 
1., passing through chestnut copse and 
vineyards, falls into the road No.' I. 

9. The Camaldoli, — This Monastery 




was founded by the Marqtiis of Pescara, 
the conqueror of Francis I. at Pavia, and 
occupies the E. crest of that semicir- 
cular ridge of hills which forms the N. 
boundary of the Phlegncan Fields. 
The peak on which it is built is the 
highest point of this ridge, and is the 
loftiest of all the hills on the N. and W. of 
Naples, being 1488 feet above the sea. 
As the last part of the ascent must be 
made on horseback or on foot, the best 
plan is to drive to Antignano, where 
donkeys are always to be procured, 
or to Orsolone from Capodimonte, 
ordering beforehand donkeys to be 
there, and from either place ride to the 
monastery, a distance of nearly 3 m. 
Ladies are not allowed to enter the 
cloisters, but they can equally enjoy 
the view from the Caparma di Ricciardi, 
on a projection of the ridge, just 
below the garden of the monastery. 
The Telegraph-tower is the best place 
to enjoy the panorama of the N. side. 
The view is very beautiful and em- 
braces a scene of a peculiar character, 
historical as well as physical. It com- 
prehends the principal region of vol- 
canic action in Southern Italy, and 
many of the most important sites im- 
mortalised by the poets and historians of 
antiquity. It commands a noble view 
of the Bays of Naples and Gaeta and 
the Gulf of Pozznoli, looking down on 
one side upon the Capital, and on the 
other on the craters and lakes of the 
Phlegrsean Fields, the promontories of 
Posilipo and Misenum, the town of 
Pozzuoli, the islands of Nisida, Procida, 
and Ischia, the sites of Baise, Cumas, 
and Liternum. On the S. the prospect 
is bounded by Capri and the Punta 
della Campanella. Following the Sor- 
rentine promontory, we recognise the 
towns of Massa, Sorrento, and Castel- 
lammare, the Monte Sant' Angelo, the 
mountains at the foot of which stand 
Amalfi, Salerno, and Avellino, and the 
rich plain at the foot of Vesuvius in the 
foreground. On the N. the eye ranges 
over the whole of Campania Felix as far 
as the chsdn of Apennines, embracing 
in this part of the panorama Madda- 
loni, Caserta, Capua, Monte Tifata, the 
volcanic group of Rocca Monfina, Gaeta, 
the.Formian hills, and Monte Circello 

far beyond it. On the W. the prospect 
is terminated by the sea and by the 
islands of Ponza in the distant horizon. 
The ch. of the monastery contains 
some pictures, the best of which 
are a Last Supper, by Stanzioni, 
and the Santa Candida, by Marco da 
Siena J in the Sacristy. 

A steep descent through rocks and 
forests leads from the Camaldoli to the 
village of Piawjra, On the S. side of 
the hill of Camaldoli is the village of 
Soccavo {sub cavo montis). The de- 
scent on this side, over the bare brown 
desolate hills which succeed the wooded 
regions, and afterwards through close 
lanes to Antignano, is one of the most 
striking features of this excursion. 

10. Poggio BealCy one of the favourite 
promenades of the lower orders, is 
a long, straight road, beyond the Porta 
Capuana, planted with trees and em- 
bellished with fountains, and pre- 
serving the name of a £&TOurite retreat 
of many successive kings of Anjou and 
Aragon. At the close of the 15th 
cent. Alfonso II. built a palace on the 
spot, and surrounded it with grounds 
and gardens which extended to the 
sea. In the 17th cent the Due de 
Guise described the spot as one of the 
most beautiful in the world, but it was 
destroyed in the military operations, 
of which Naples was subsequently the 
theatre. The gardens have been 
changed into market gardens, which 
supply Naples with vegetables ; of the 
palace there are only remaining a few 
crumbling ruins. — Poggio Reale is on 
the high road to Apul ia. A t the Barriera 
Doganale a road on the 1., encircling the 
Camposanto Nuovo, ascends to Capo di 
Chino, and meets the roads from 
Caserta and Capua ; a road on the rt. 
leads straight to Barra, S. lorio, and 
Portici, whence we may return to 
Naples. The latter drive may be pro- 
longed by taking the road which we 
cross just before reaching Barra, and 
following it to Cercola and the Ma- 
donna deir Arco (p. 99), and visiting 
the VUla Santanfjelo in the village of 
Pollena, on the N.W. flanks of Somma, 
a villa of considerable elegance and 

PLAN FOR visirma naples in seven days. 


§ 25. Plan for visiting the city of 
Naples in Seven Days. 

1«^ i>ay. Museum.— Antiquities on 
ground floor, page 136. Ch. of S. 
Teresa, 129. San Gennaro dei Poveri, 
Catacombs, 86. Ponte Kossi Aqueduct, 
87. Pal. of Capo di Monte, 167. Ob- 
servatory, 132. Chinese College, 131. 

2nd Day. 'Museum. — Upper floors : 
MediaBval Collections, Ancient Terra- 
cottas, Glass, Manuscripts, Jewellery 
and Bronzes, Etruscan Vases, 146. 
Ch. of S. Agnello, 107. Ch. of S. 
Maria a Capo Napoli, 121. Albergo 
dei Poveri, 133. Botanic Gardens, 132. 

3r<i Z)a!/.^ Museum. — J'aintings and 
Library, 157 and 164. 'Ch. and Con- 
vent of S. Martino, 124. Castle of 
S. Elmo, 92. Returning to the city 
by the Prison of Sta. Maria Appa- 
rente, the Ponte di Chiaja, 89. Ch. 
of p. Maria degli Angeli, 120. Ch. of 
Santa Maria della Catena, 121. Ch. 
of S. Francesco di Paola, 115. 


4^A Day.— Royal Palace, Armoury, 
and Gardens, 166. Arsenal and Dock- 
yard, 91. Largo del Castello, 93; and 
Caste! Nuovo, 89. Palazzo dei Minis- 
teri, 170. Ch. of S. Giacomo dei 
SpagnuoH, 116. Ch. of Santa Brigida, 
108. Pal. Gravina and Post-office, 
170. Ch. of Monte Oliveto, 126. Largo 
and Ch. of Gesu Nuovo, 116. Ch. of 
Santa Chiara, 109. Ch. of S. Paolo 
Maggiore, 127. Ch. of S. Angelo a 
Nilo, 107: Brancacciana Library, 165, 
University and its Collections, Ch. of 
Gesu Vecchio, 130 and 116. Ch. of San 
Giovanni Maggiore, and of San Gio- 
vanni de' Pappacoda, 118. Pal. Monti- 
celli, 170. Ch. of Santa Maria la 
Nnova, 122. Largo and Fontana Me* 
dina, 93. Ch. of S. Giorgio de* Geno- 
vesi, 116. Ch. of the Incoronata, 118. 

5th Day, Toledo, 96. — Palaces: Mad- 
daloni, 170. Angri, 168. Ruffb-Ba- 
gnara, 168. Ch. ofS. Pietro a Majella, 
127. Conservatory of Music, 131. Ch. 
of S. Gregorio Armeno, 118. Ch. of 
S. Filippo Neri and Library, 114 and 
165. Ch. of S. Domenico Maggiore, 

111. Ch. of La Pieta de' Sangri, 123. 
Pal. S. Severo, 171. Ch. of S. Lorenzo, 
119. Pal. Santangelo, 171. Ch. of 
Monte della Misericordia, 126. Ca- 
thedral of S. Gennaro, 101. Ch. of 
Donna Regina, 121. Ch. of SS. Apos- 
toli, 108. Ch. of S. Giovanni a Car- 
bonara,- 116. Ch. of S. Caterina a For- 
mello, 109. Castel Capuano, 92. Porta 
Capuana, 87. Protestant Cemetery, 

6th Day. —Molo, 96. Port and Light- 
house, 88. Ch. of S. Pietro Martire, 
128. Great Market in the Strada del 
Porto, and old town, 93. LaMarinella, 
96. Largo del Mercato, 93. Ch. of 
S. Maria del Carmine and II Purga- 
torio del Mercato, 120. Porta del 
Carmine, 87. Campo Santo, or Great 
Cemetery, 129. Ch. of S. Maria del 
Pianto, 123. Returning to Naples by 
the Porta Nolana, 87. Ch. of the An- 
nunziata, 120. Ch. of S. Pietro ad 
Aram, 127. Ch. of SS. Severino e Sosio, 
128. Archives, 166. 

7th Day. — Chiatamone, 80. Largo 
della Vittoria, 94. La Chiaja, 95. Villa 
Keale, 95. English Church, 77. Pal. 
d' Avalos, 169. Ch. of I'Ascensione a 
Chiaja, 108. Pal. Siracusa, 171. Ch. 
of S. Maria di Pedigrotta, 123. Tomb 
of Virgil, 173. Mergellina, 173. Ch. 
of S. Maria del Parto, 122. Pal. of 
Dofia Anna« 176. Strada Nnova di 
Posilipo, Villas Rocca Romana, Minu- 
tolo, &c., 176. Ruinsof Villa of Vedius 
PoUio, 177. Tunnel at the Punta di 
Coroglio, 178. Nisida, 178. Bagnoli, 
176 and ■ 297. Returning by Fuori- 
grotta, 176. Grotta of Pozzuoli, 173. 


Plan for visiting the most in- 
teresting Sites in the vicinity 
OF Naples. 

1st Day. — Grotta of Pozzuoli, 173. 
Lakeof Agnano and Grotta del Cane, 
327. Astroni, 328. From the latter the 
tourist can proceed on foot, or on horse- 
back, by the hot springs of the Piscla- 
relli, 308 ; across the Monies Leucogcei, 
to the Solfatara, 307 ; the Temple of 
Serapis, 300 ; and Pozzuoli, 298j return- 



ing to Naples by BagnoVi, 297 ; Nisida, 
17S ; and the Strada Nuova di Posilipa, 

'2nd Day, — LaGrottadi PozzuoU, 173; 
and Fuorigrotta, 176. Pozzuoli, 298. 
Monte NuoTO and Lucrine Lake, 308 
and 312. Lake of Avernus, 310; and 
Grotto of the Sibyl, 311. Arcp Felice 
and Caiufle,320. Lake of Fosaro^ 319. 
Port and Bains of Misenum, 317. 
Cento Camerelle and Piscina Mirabilis, 
316. Baoll, Bacoli, and Baise, 313. 
Stafe di Nerone, 313. This excursion, 
except the ascent of Monte Nuovo, may 
be performed in a carriage. 

3rd Day, — TiUas on the Vomero, and 
Antignano, 179. Camaldoli, 179. Ex- 
cept the ascent to the Monastery, this 
day's excursion can be performed in a 

4th jDay.— Besina by Rail, 183. As- 
cent to the crater of Vesuvius, 183, 
Quite enough for one day. 

M Day, — Pompeii by Rail, 207. 
Torre dell' Annunziata, 207. Torre del 
Greco, 206. Portici and Palace, 183. 
Herculaneum, 202. 

6th Day, — Castellamare and Stabi», 
250. Vico and Meta, 255. Sorrento, 

7th Day. — From Sorrento to Massa 
and the Punta dellaCampanella, Nerano, 
returning by U Deserto and Sant* Agata, 

Sth Day, — ^From Sorrento to Conti di 
Fontanelli and Telegrafo di Mare 
Cuccola, 261 ; to Scaracatoia, 260. 
Visit, on return to Sorrento, the Cathe- 
dral, Loggia, and Ch. of S. Antonino, 
258. Walls and gates. 

9th Day, — Sorrento to Capri, 263. 
Town of Capri, 264. La Certosa, 
II Capo, 265. Palaces of Tiberius, 265. 
La Marina piecola and Grotta Verde, 
267. Anacapri, 266. 

10iAi)ay.-^rotta Azzurra,266. Re- 
turn to Naples. 

ll^A Day.— Naples to Nocera, 281. 
Cava and its Monastery, 283. Vietri, 
284. Minor!, 279; Majori, 280; and 
Amalfi, 271. 

I2th Z>ay.— -Amalfi to La Scala, 278 ; 
and Ravelio, 278 ; returning to Salerno 
to sleep, 285. 

13M Day, — Salerno to PsBstom, 287 ; 
returning to Naples by Rail. 

14M Day.^Naples to Nola, 294. 
Palma, Samo, and Sauseverino, 295. 

I5th Day, — Naples to Maddaloni, 
337. Caserta, 338. Santa Maria di 
Capua, 340. Capua, 20. 

16M Day. — Naples to Benevento from 
Cancello or Maddaloni stations on Rly., 

nth Day, — ^Naples to t*rocida and 
Ischia, 329, by steamer. Ischia may 
be seen in a day ; but as the steamers 
leave Naples in the afternoon and return 
at an early hour, it will be better to 
devote two to the excursion, which 
will enable the tourist to visit several of 
the villages, and to ascend the Monte 
Epomeo, 335. 

Other agreeable excursions can be 
made from Naples : to Avellino, in great 
part by rail, 352 ; to the towns at the 
base of Vesuvius — Barra, San Jorio, San 
Giorgio di Cremano, Cereola, Sant' 
Anastasia, Somma, and Ottajano ; from 
Sant' Anastasia and Somma the geolo-< 
gist can examine the Monte Somma, in 
the ravines descending to these villages, 
and ascend to its highest point, the 
Nasone, to San Germane, and Monte 
Casino, now so accessible by railway, 
and even to Isola, Sora, and Arpino (the 
birthplace of Cicero), 31 and 57 ; and 
to the Phlsegrean Craters of Monte 
Barbaro and Cigliano, 326 ; as far as 
Licola and Patria, the Litemum of 
Scipio Africanus, 324. 


The South-eastern Distbict. 

neum, torre del greoo, torbb 
dell' annunziata, and POHPEIL 

The Bailroad from Naples to Vietri 
and Salerno passes through Portici^ 
Torre del Greco,Torre dell* Annunziata, 
(from which a branch strikes off on the 
rt to CastellammareJ, Pompeii, Scafati, 
Angri, Pagani, Nocera, and Cava, 
performing the distance in 1} h. ; and 
to Castellammare in 1 h. 

The Post Road follows the same line, 



but now is seldom resorted to, as the 

Railway is much more convenient. For 

several m. out of Naples it is a dead 

level, and is generally travelled over 

with great rapidity. The distances 

are: — 

Post. Miles. 
Naples to Torre dell' Annunziata . =10 
Torre dell' Annunziata to Nocera . = 11 
Nooera to Salerno .... =8 

Leaving Naples by the crowded quays, 
and passing the Castle of the Carmine, 
the road proceeds along the Marinella, 
crossing the Sebeto by the Ponte^ delta 
Maddalena, and passing on the ft. the 
massive building called / Granili, built 
in the last cent, as public granaries, and 
converted by Ae present king into bar- 
racks. The road then coasts the E. 
shore of the bay, but it is so completely 
shut out from the sea by the numerous 
villas^ palaces, and houses which stretch 
almost as far as Torre del Greco, that 
it has more the character of a long^ 
dusty street, than of a high road. 

The first of the suburban villages tra- 
versed by the road is S. Giovanni a Te- 
duccio; on the 1. of which, ^ nx. inland, 
is Barra, a large place (12,000 Inhab.). 

4 m. PoRTici, is supposed to derive 
its name from the Forticum Merculis, 
mentioned by Petronius as the por- 
tico of a temple of Hercules at the W. 
end of Herculaneum. The road passes 
through the courtyard of the Palace, 
built by Charles III. In one of its 
apartments were deposited the ob- 
jects discovered at Pompeii and Hercu- 
laneum before their removal to Naples. 
The palace, which is only remarkable 
for its beautiful situation at the head of 
the bay, contains some good pictures 
by modem French artists, among which 
are Gerard's portraits of Napoleon in his 
imperial robes, of Madame M^re, and 
of Murat ; Wicar*s portrait of Massena ; 
the well-known Capuchins by Granet ; 
and several pictures by -De Dominici 
representing the adventures of Don 
Quixote. One of its rooms is inlaid 
with China imitating flowers, fruits, 
birds, and animals, the produce of a 
manufEu^tory founded at Capodimonte 
in the last cent, by Charles III., which 
was remarkable for the choice and exe- 
cution of the drawings, copied chiefly 

from the frescoes of Herculaneum ; but 
which was given up under the French 
government in 1807. Portici, as well 
as S. Jorio and Barra, during the, 
spring and autumn vUleggiatura, are a 
favourite resort of the Neapolitans. 
From the little Fort %pd Mole of 
Granatello on the sea-shore there is a 
fine view of the bay. After passing 
through the courtyard of the palace we 

Resina, built upon the volcanic tufift 
and lava which cover HERcnLANEnM. 
It nearly retains the name of Retina^ the 
ancient port of Herculaneum, and has 
10,000 Inhab. and many country seats. 
The largest of them is La Favorita, 
formerly the Villa of the late Prince 
of Salerno, which contains a Mosaic 
found in one of the Palaces of Tiberius 
at Capri. This villa, like the Palace of 
Portici, is built on the lava of 1631. 


The ascent of Vesuvius is usually 
commenced from Resina; but on some 
occasions, when the lava takes the 
course of Bosco Reale, as it did in 1850, 
the ascent from Torre dell' Annunziata 
is preferred, as affording a finer view of 
the current. The traveller may pro- 
ceed to it either by the railway or in 
a carriage. As the railway station at 
Portici is at a distance from the town, 
and is infested by self-called guides, 
and hirers of horses and mules, who are 
most importunate in their ofiers of ser* 
vices which are too frequently both 
dear and worthless, the easiest way 
ibr a party will be to take a carriage 
from Naples to the Hermitage, which 
will cost 6 piastres, including coach- 
man's buonamano, and will enable them 
to visit Herculaneum on the way. A 
carriage with two horses will convey 
the traveller from Naples to Resina, for 
8 carlini, in less than an hour. At 
Resina there are several guides who 
let horses and chairs for the ascent; 
but, to avoid imposition, the tra- 
veller should endeavour to secure the 
services of Fasquale Gozzolino, who 
resides in the main street, the only 
guide who has any scientific know- 
ledge of the mountain. As there 



are numerous impostors ready to per- 
sonify GozzoliuO; the traveller, to 
avoid deception, should either write 
beforehand to secure him, or go 
direct to his residence, which is in 
the main street, with his name over 
the door, asd which will be pointed 
out by any respectable shopkeeper. 
His charges are 12 carlini as guide, 12 
carlini for each horse or donkey, and 
48 carlini for a portantina with 4 bear- 
ers to ascend the cone, — ^the latter how- 
ever is required only for ladies and deli- 
cate invalids; and 6 carlini for each 
guide who assists in ascending to the 
summit of the cone. A great-coat or 
cloak, and a warm neckerchief, to put on 
as soon as the ascent is effected, a strong 
walking-stick, and stout boots, may be 
mentioned as necessary during the ex- 
cursion. It is no longer required to 
take provisions from Naples on ordinary 
occasions, as supplies may be had at the 
Hennitage, or from the people of Re- 
sina, who follow parties with baskets 
of bread, eggs, wine, and fruit, on the 
chance of finding customers. It is, how- 
ever, otherwise during an eruption, when 
hundreds of people besiege the Hermit- 
age, clamorous for refreshments. At 
such a time each party should take its 
supplies from Naples. When a stream 
of lava is rolling slowlv down the moun- 
tain, the kettle is boiled on its surface 
and eggs are cooked in its crevices. 
Coins also are usually dropped into the 
lava, which is then detached from the 
mass, and preserved as reminiscences. 

The drive from Resina to the Her- 
mitage occupied with good horses 1^ h., 
before the road was interrupted by 
the lava-currents ; it is now imprac- 
ticable for carriages. A good ^lalker 
will require 2 h. ; to descend 1 h. 
Frora that point we proceed on horses 
or donkeys for about half an hour fur- 
ther to file Atrio del Cavallo, whence 
the ascent of the cone, which must be 
performed on foot, generally occupies 
about 1 h., varying of course with the 
state of its surface. A good walker 
will employ 2 hrs. from the observa- 
tory, and to descend the same distance 
1 h. At times it is necessary for the 
guides to assist the traveller, by strap- 
ping a leathern belt round his waist, 

and pulling him up the steep incline by 
main force. At the Atrio del Cavallo 
there are generally gensdarmes, one of 
whom usually ascends the cone for the 
protection of strangers. It is customary 
to give him a present of 2 carlini on 

Vesuvius, the t» 0^011 olt^ivtov of Strabo, 
the Vesevus and Vesbiitsofihe Romans,one 
of the most active volcanos in the world, 
rises in the midst of the plain of Cam- 
pania, and is surrounded on the N. and 
the E. by mountains of Apennine lime- 
stone. On the W. it is open to the plain 
of Naples, on the S. its base is washed by 
the sea. It is about 30 m. in circum- 
ference. It rises by a gentle declivity 
to what is called the first plain, which 
is about half a m. above the level of the 
sea, and about 5 m. in diameter. This 
plain forms the base of Monte 8omma, 
whose highest point, the Punta del Na- 
sone, is 3747 ft. (6091, according to Nea- 
politan engineers) above the sea. Monte 
Somma extends for about 2 m. in an 
irregular semicircle round the N. and 
E. of what is now called Vesuvius, 
the two mountains being separated by 
the deep semicircular valley called the 
Atrio del Cavallo, The height of the 
eruptive cone of Vesuvius has varied 
during the last 20 years from 4070 ft. 
in Aug. 1847, to 3400. 

For more than 300 years Vesuvius 
has been the only active crater among 
the volcanic group of the Bay of 
Naples, which includes Ischia, Procida, 
the Solfatara, Monte Nuovo, and Vesu- 
vius; in connexion with which we 
may mention the extinct inland vol- 
canoes of Rocca Monfina and Monte 
Vulture. Before the Christian era 
Ischia and the Solfatara appear to have 
been the only Italian craters which 
were active within the historical period. 
Stromboli, the most northern of the 
Lipari islands, is the only permanently 
active volcano in Europe, and lies about 
70 m.N. of iEtna, about 120 m. S.E. of 
Vesuvius. Those who are fortunate 
enough to visit Naples while an eruption 
is in progress will compare, with lively 
interest, the phenomena they may Vit- 
ness with the details of those which 
former observers have recorded. We 
shall therefore give a list of the most 



remarkable eruptions recorded by his- 
torians and contemporary observers. 

Before the reign of Titus, Vesuvius 
showed no signs of activity. Some of 
the local antiquaries saw a proof of its 
having been active in the names of the 
sites in its vicinity, which they con- 
ceived to have reference to fire, and to 
derive from Phcenician roots. For, ac- 
cording to them, the Phoenicians, in all 
fceir colonies, gave the rivers, the moun- 
tains, the headlands, and the cities, names 
expressive of some local peculiarity. 
Thus the name of Vesuvius is derived, 
according to these antiquaries, from the 

Syriac 2^2">K^ \2 Vb Seveev, the place of 

flame ; or, more literally, " in it, flame :'* 

that of Herculaneum from t<">^p niH 

Horoh Kalie, " pregnant with fire ;'* that 

of Pompeii from fT^Q D-IB Pum Peeah, 
** the mouth of a burning furnace ;** that 
of SummanuSf one of the surnames of 
Jupiter, perpetuated by the present 
Monte Somma, from ri^ Somman, " the 

obscure ;" and that of Stabise from ^DCJ' 

Seteph or Sheteph^ " the overflow," a root 
from which, in Martorelli^s opinion, the 
Italians have also obtained the word 
stufa. From this early period, down 
to the establishment of the Romans in 
Campania, the mountain appears to have 
been known as the Mons Summaims^ and 
to have been crowned by a temple dedi- 
cated to Jupiter, In the 'Syntagma 
Inscriptionum * of Reinesius, and in the 
Benedictine 'Explication des divers 
Monumens,* will be found inscrip- 
tions to Jupiter Summanus; and an 
inscription was found at Capua, 
with the words Jovi Vesuvio sacrum, 

The ancient geographers recognised 
the volcanic character of Vesuvius from 
the analogy of its form with that of 
^tna. Their descriptions, though brief, 
supply us with some facts which will 
aid us in tracing the history of the 
mountain. Diodorus Siculus was the 
first to describe Vesuvius as volcanic. 
Bom at Agyrium, on the flanks of 
^tna, he must have been acquainted 
with volcanic phenomena, as that moun- 
tain was twice in activity during his 
lifetime. On examining Vesuvius he 

found, as he tells us, many signs that it 
had been in activity in ancient times. 
Vitruvius mentions a tradition in his 
day that the mountain had emitted 
flames. Strabo, who wrote a few years 
later, describes it as having a truncated 
cone, with a barren and ashy aspect, 
" having cavernous hollows in its cine- 
ritious rocks, which look as if they had 
been acted on by fire." Whence he in- 
ferred that ** in some former time there 
had burst from these cavernous orifices 
a*fire which had now become extinct." 
Seneca remarked that Vesuvius in 
former times had given out more than 
its own volume of matter, and had fur-* 
nished the channel, not the food, of the 
internal fire ; in ipso monte non alimentum 
habit sed viam, Velleius Paterculus, 
who died under Tiberius, and Plutarch, 
in his Life of Crassus, in describing 
the escape of Spartacus, give incident- 
ally an interesting account of the con- 
dition of the mountain at that period. 
They state that the rocky hollow on the 
summit was clothed with wild vines, 
and that it was accessible only by one 
very steep and narrow passage on the 
side opposite to Naples. When Spar- 
tacus (A.u.c. 681) and his followers 
had entered this pass and encamped 
in the plain of the crater, Clodius be- 
sieged him in his retreat by occupy- 
ing the pass and cutting ofl; as he 
supposed, the only means of escape. 
The gladiators, however, made ladders 
of the vine-boughb, " like ship-ladders, 
of such a length and so strong that 
they reached from the top of the hill to 
the very bottom. With these they all 
descended except one, who remained to 
throw down their armour to his com- 
panions, and then descended himself, 
last of all. The Romans, having no 
suspicion of this movement, were as- 
sailed in the rear by the gladiators, who 
had marched round the mountain, and 
were put to flight with the loss of their 
whole camp." 

From these facts it is very probable, 
independently of geological evidence, 
that Somma, which now forms the N. 
peak of the mountain, was a part of 
the wall of the original crater. The 
most cursory examination of the crest 
of rocks comprising Somma is suffi- 



cient to sho-w that it is the segment of 
a circle: and it has been proved by 
careful measurements that this circle, 
if continued round the mountain, would 
include the whole of the more modem 
cone of Vesuvius within it, and give a 
centre which corresponds exactly with 
its present site. Somma, therefore, 
and the mountain of which it formed 
a part, was probably the Vesuvius de- 
scribed by the ancient geographers 
before the reign of Titus. Its flanks 
were then covered with luxuriant veg^ 
tation, and Pompeii and Herculaneum 
were flourishing cities at its base, 

r Talem dives arat Capua, et vicina Vesevo 

ViBO. <reo9y. n. 324. 

In the 6drd year of our era, during 
the reign of Nero, the mountain began 
for the first time to give signs that the 
volcanic fire was returning to its an- 
cient channel. On the 5th February 
the whole neighbourhood was convulsed 
by an earthquake, which, as Seneca 
records, threw down a great part of 
Pompeii and Herculaneum. In 64 
another earthquake occurred, which 
injured Naples and destroyed the the- 
atre, where Nero had been acting a few 
minutes before. These earthquakes 
continued at intervals for 16 years. 

1. The 1st eruption occurred on the 
24th August in the year 79, during the 
reign of Titus. It is memorable not 
only as the eruption which destroyed 
Pompeii and Herculaneum, and caused 
the death of Pliny the naturalist, but 
also as having had his nephew, the 
vounger Pliny, for its historian. In 
his two well-known letters to Tacitus 
(vi. 16 and 20), describing the death of 
his uncle, Pliny says that about one in 
the afternoon his mother informed his 
uncle, who was stationed with the 
Roman fleet at Misenum, that a cloud 
appeared of unusual size and shape. 
** It was not," he says, " at that dis- 
tance discernible from what mountain 
it arose, but it was found afterwards 
that it was Vesuvius. I cannot give a 
more exact description of its figure 
than by likening it to that of a pine- 
tree, for it shot up a great heignt in 
the form of a trunk, which extended 

itself at the top into the form of 
branches ; occasioned, I imagine, either 
by a sudden gust of £ur which impelled 
it, the force of which decreased as it 
advanced upwards, or the cloud itself, 
being pressed back again by its own 
weight, expanded in this manner. It 
appeared sometimes bright, and some- 
times dark and spotted, as it became 
more or less impregnated with earth 
and cinders. This was a surprising phe# 
nomenon, and it deserved, in the opinion 
of that learned man, to be inquir^ into 
more exactly. He commanded a Libur- 
nian galley to be prepared for him, and 
made me an offer of accompanying him, 
if I pleased. I replied it was more agree- 
able to me to pursue my studies . . . 
He went out of Uie house with his 
tablets in his hand. The mariners at 
EetincBf being under consternation at the 
approaching danger (for that village 
was situated under the mountsun, nor 
were there any means of escaping but 
by sea), entreated him not to venture 
upon so hazardous an enterprise .... 
£^ commanded the galleys to put off 
from land, and embarked with a design 
not only to rfelieve the people of Eetinw, 
but many others in distress, as the 
shore was interspersed with a variety 
of pleasant villages. He sailed imme- 
diately to places which were abandoned 
by other people .... He now found 
that the ashes beat into the ship much 
hotter, and in greater quantities; and 
as he drew nearer, pumice-stones, with 
black flints, burnt and torn up by the 
flames, broke in upon them : and now, 
the hasty ebb of the sea, and ruins 
tumbling from the mountain, hindered 
their nearer approach to the shore. 
Pausing a little upon this, whether he 
should not return back, and instigated 
to it by the pilot, he cries out, * For* 
tune assists the brave : let us make the 
best of our way to Pomponianus,' who 
was then at Stabise ;" — where he perished 
during the night. 

In the second letter Pliny describes 
more minutely the phenomena which 
attended the eruption ;—" There had 
been, for many days before, some 
shocks of an earthquake, which the 
less surprised us as they are ex- 
tremely frequent in Campania ; but 




they were so particularly violent that 
ni^ht, that they not only shook every- 
thing about us, but seemed indeed to 
threaten total destruction . . . Though 
it was now morning, the light was ex- 
ceedingly faint and languid ; the build- 
ings all around us tottered ; and though 
we stood upon open ground, yet, as the 
place was narrow and con&ned, there 
was no remaining there without dan- 
ger : we therefore resolved to quit the 
town. The people followed us in the 
utmost consternation ; and as, to a 
mind distracted with terror, every sug- 
gestion seems more prudent than its 
own, they pressed in great crowds 
about us in our way out. Having 
got to a convenient distance from the 
nouses, we stood still, in the midst of 
a most dangerous and dreadful scene. 
The chariots which we had ordered to 
be drawn out were so agitated back- 
wards and forwards, though upon the 
most level ground, that we could not 
keep them steady, even by supporting 
them with large stones. The sea 
seemed to roll back upon itself, and 
to be driven from its banks by the 
convulsive motion of the earth ; it is 
certain at least that the shore was con- 
siderably enlarged, and that several sea 
animals were left upon it. On the 
other side, a black and dreadful cloud, 
bursting with an igneous serpentine 
vapour, darted out a long train of fire, 
resembling flashes of lightning, but 

much larger Soon afterwards 

the cloud seemed to descend and cover 
the whole ocean ; as indeed it entirely 
hid the island of Caprese and the pro- 
montory of Misenum. My mother 
strongly conjured me to make my 
escape, which, as I was young, I might 
easily do : as for herself, she said, her 
age and corpulency rendered all at- 
tempts of that sort impossible. How- 
ever, she would willingly meet death, 
if she could have the satisfaction of 
seeing that she was not the occasion of 
mine. But I absolutely refused to 
leave her, and taking her hand I led 
her on: she complied with great re- 
luctance, and not without many re- 
proaches to herself for retarding my 
night. The ashes now began to fall 
upon us, though in no great quantity. 

I turned my head, and observed be- 
hind us a thick smoke, which came 
rolling after us like a torrent. I pro- 
posed, while we had yet light, to turn 
out of the high road, lest she should 
be pressed to death in the dark by the 
crowd that followed us. We had 
scarce stepped out of the path when 
darkness overspread us, not like that 
of a cloudy night, or when there is no 
moon, but of a room when it is shut 
up and all the lights are extinct. No- 
thing there was to be heard but the 
shrieks of women, the screams of 
children, and the cries of men : some 
calling for their children, others for 
their parents, others for their husbands, 
and only distinguishing each other by 
their voices; one lamenting his own 
fate, another that of his family ; some 
wishing to die from the very fear of 
dying ; some lifting their hands to the 
gods; but the greater part imagining 
that the last and eternal night was 
come which was to destroy the gods 
and the world together. Among these 
were some who augmented the real 
terrors by imaginary ones, and made 
the frightened multitude falsely believe 
that Misenum was actually in flames. 
At length a glimmering light appeared, 
which we imagined to be rather the 
forerunner of an approaching burst of 
flames, as in truth it was, than the 
return of day. However, the fire fell 
at a distance from us. Then agsdn we 
were immersed in thick darkness, and 
a heavy shower of ashes rained upon 
us, which we were obliged every now 
and then to shake off, otherwise we 
should have been crushed and buried 
in the heap At last this dread- 
ful darkness was dissipated by degrees, 
like a cloud of smoke ; the real day 
returned, and even the sun appeared, 
though very fiiintly, and as when an 
eclipse is coming on. Every object 
which presented itself to our eyes, 
which were extremely weakened, 
seemed changed, being covered over 
with white ashes, as with a deep snow. 
We returned to Misenum, where we 
refreshed ourselves as well as we could, 
and passed an anxious night between 
hope and fear — though indeed with a 
much larger share of the latter, for the 



earthquake still continued, while se- 
veral enthusiasts ran up and down, 
heightening their own and their friends' 
calamities by terrible predictions.** 

This description is not only interesting 
in itself, but is valuable as affording 
the evidence of an eye-witness as to 
the nature of the eruption. On this 
point the statement of Pliny is entirely 
confirmed by scientific observations on 
the materials which cover the buried 
cities. It appears that no lava flowed 
from the crater on this occasion, only 
ashes, red-hot stones, and loose frag- 
ments of volcanic materials being eject- 
ed. Many of these masses which have 
been found at Pompeii are not less than 
8 lbs. in weight, while those which fell 
upon Stabise, 4 m. further, weigh only 
a few ounces. The crater vomited at 
the same time enormous volumes of 
steam, which fell upon the country 
around in torrents of heated water, 
charged with the dry light ashes which 
were suspended in the air. This water, 
as it reached the soil, carried with it 
in its course the cinders which had 
fallen, and thus deluged Herculaneum 
with a soft, pasty, volcanic mud or 
alluvium, which penetrated into places 
which neither scorise nor stones could 
have reached, and did far more damage 
than any other product of the eruption. 

Hie est pampineis viridls modo Vesvins umbris, 

Presserat bic luadidos nobilis una lacus ; 
Haec Juga, quam Nisse collets, plus Bacdius 

Hoc nuper Satyri monte dedere cboros ; 
Haec Veneris sedes, Lacedsemone gratior illi ; 

Hie locus Herculeo nomine clarus erat : 
Cuncta jacent flammis, et tristi mersa favilla« 

Nee Supcri vellent hoc licuisse sibi. 

Martial, Ejpig. iv. 44. 

The effect of this eruption was to 
destroy the entire side of the mountain 
nearest to the sea, leaving, as the only 
remnants of the ancient crater, the 
little ridge on the S. flank now called 
La Pedamentma, and that portion of the 
wall which, under the name of Somma, 
encircles about two-fifths of the new 
cone. This cone is the present Vesu- 
vius, which has continued to be the 
almost exclusive channel of eruption 
to the present day. 

2. The second eruption occurred in 
203, during the reign of Septimius Seve- 

rus. It is described by Dion Cassius 
and by Galen, the former of whom 
availed himself of its occurrence to 
compile from the traditions of the in- 
habitants his record of the destruction 
of Pompeii. It is important to remark 
that JEtna remained dormant from a.d. 
40 to A. D. 251, while Ischia, which was 
in eruption 1 70 years before the first 
eruption of Vesuvius, was dormant 
until A.D. 1302. 

3. In 472. This eruption is de- 
scribed by Ammianus, and by Procopius, 
who says that it covered Europe with 
ashes, which fell even at Constanti- 
Hople and at Tripoli. It is supposed 
to be the eruption which destroyed the 
villages erected by the poorer inhabit- 
ants of Herculaneum and Pompeii on 
the site of those cities after 79. 

4. In 512. It is supposed to be the 
catastrophe described by Cassiodorus in 
the letter which in the name of Theo- 
doric he wrote to Faustus, commission- 
ing him to ascertain the damage sus- 
tained by the people of Naples and Nola, 
and to make a proportionate reduction in 
the tribute payable by them. It is also 
mentioned by Procopius, who says that 
the ashes were carried as far as Tripoli ; 
and from his passage, in which he 
clearly describes lavas, it is argued that 
this eruption produced the first flow of 
lava from the cone formed in 79. 

5. In 685. It is not described hy 
any contemporary writer, but figures 
in the legends of S. Januarius, and is 
mentioned by authors of the 1 5th and 
16th cent. 

6. ^ina burst into activity in 812; 
and in 993 Vesuvius was in action. 
This eruption is mentioned by the 
Benedictine Rodolph Glaber. 

7. In 1036. It is described in the 
chronicle of the Anonymous Cassinen- 
sis, who says that the lava reached 
the sea: — Vesuvius eructavit incendium 
ita ut usque ad mare discurreret. 

8. In 1049. It is mentioned in the 
Chronicon Cassinense of Leo Ostiensis. 

9. In 1139. It is mentioned by the 
Anonymous Cassinensis, and more fully 
described by Falco Beneventanus, the 
secretary of Innocent II., who states 
that the eruption of lava (Jgnem validum 
et flammas) lasted 8 days, and that of 



ashes 30 days. In the interval from 
this to the next eruption, in lS06,JEtna, 
which had heen dormant for 357 years, 
was three times in eruption ; the Sol' 
fatara poured out a stream of lava in 
1198, the year in which Frederick II. 
succeeded to the throne of Naples ; 
and in 1302 Ischia discharged into the 
sea a lava-stream of great size. 

10. In 1306. It is described by Lean- 
dro Alberti in his Descrizione di Tatta 
V Italia, who states that he found it 
mentioned in the chronicles of Bologna. 
In the interval of 1 94 years from this 
to the next eruption JStna exhibited 
unusual activity, and the central and 
northern provinces of the kingdom, 
were convulsed by most violent earth- 
quakes. The first shock occurred on 
the 5tb, and the last and worst on the 
30th December, 14.56. The cathedral 
and the ch. of S. Pietro Martire at 
Naples were destroyed ; Isemia and 
Brindisi were utterly thrown down, 
and the inhabitants buried under their 
ruins. 40,000 souls are said to have 

11. In 1500. It is described by Am- 
brosio Leone of Nola, from personal 
observation. It was a slight eruption, 
leaving, however, a crater 5 m. in cir- 
cumference, and 1000 paces deep, ^tna 
was active from 1535 to 1537. On the 
29th September, 1538, Monte Nuovo was 
thrown up beyond Pozzuoli. Between 
the 11th and the 12th eruption there 
elapsed 131 years, during which Vesu- 
vius became so covered with Vegetation, 
that in the 17th cent. Bracciui found 
the sides of the crater overgrown with 
brushwood and forest^trees, haunted by 
wild boars. At the bottom was a plain 
with cattle; and in the middle of this 
plain was a ravine in the floor of the 
crater, through which a winding path 
led down for about 1 m. among rocks 
and stones to another and a larger plain, 
which was covered with ashes and had 
three small pools of warm brackish 
water. JStna exhibited, through the 
whole of this period, extraordinary ac- 

12. On the 16th December, 1631, 
one of the greatest eruptions of modem 
times occurred. Braccini and Lanelfi 
each made it the subject of a separate 

work. About the same time Castelli 
published his account of the Incendio 
del Monte VesuviOf Crucio his Vesuvius 
Ardens, and Varo his Vesicviani Incendii 
JHifitoricB. In the work of Braccini we 
find a description of the mountain be- 
fore, during, and after the eruption. He 
says that about midsummer the plain 
of the Sarno was convulsed by earth- 

3uakes, which occurred so repeatedly 
uring the six following months that 
many persons from Naples ascended 
the mountain to ascertain whether any 
change had taken place in the interior. 
They found the crater filled with vol- 
canic matter, and no longer concave 
but perfectly level with its margin, 
while noises were heard beneath the 
surface. On the 16th of December, at 
early dawn, the cone poured out from 
its S.W. fiank a column of vapour so 
loaded with ashes as to have the appear- 
ance of black smoke, which assumed the 
usual form of a pine-tree, followed by 
discharges of stones and flashes of vol- 
canic fire. The column of vapour was 
carried over nearly 100 m. of country, 
and was charged with so much electri- 
city, that several men and animals were 
killed by the ferilU or flashes of light- 
ning which continually darted from 
it. These were succeeded by a great 
earthquake, during which the sea re- 
tired to a distance of ^ m. from the 
shore, and then returned with such 
violence that it covered the land 30 
paces beyond its former limit. At th^ 
same moment the summit of the cone 
poured out seven streams of lava, one 
of which took the direction of Torre 
deir Annunziata, where it formed the 
beds now visible on the W. of the 
town ; another destroyed two-thirds of 
Torre del Greco; a third destroyed 
Hesina, which had arisen on the site of 
Herculaneum ; another destroyed the 
village of Granatello and part of Por- 
tici, where it flowed into the sea and 
formed the bed on which the Royal 
Palace and La Favorita were subse- 
quently built. 1 8,000 persons are said 
to have perished in this catastrophe. 
The ashes were carried by the wind to 
the shores of the Adriatic, to the Greek 
islands, and to Constantinople ; and 
the eruption was followed by discharges 



of vapour and hot water, which fell in 
the form of torrents of rain upon the 
slopes of the mountain, killed great 
numbers of persons at Portici and Torre 
del Greco, and inundated the country 
as far as Nola and the hills. The erup- 
tion did not entirely cease till February 
1632, when it was ascertained by mea- 
surement that the cone had lost so 
much o# its height that it was 1530 
ft. lower than Monte Somma. In 1632 
^tna burst into activity, and was 
again active in 1645 and in 1654. 

13. In July 1660. From the Gior- 
ndle del IncetidiOy by Carpano, it ap- 
pears that the eruption was confined to 
showers of ashes, which cleared out 
the crater, and left its walls so preci- 
pitous that the interior was inacces- 
sible. From the mar^n three small 
orifices could be seen m action at the 
bottom of the. gulf, corresponding in 
their position with the three pools 
observed by Braccini 30 years before. 
In 1676 also, according to Sorrentino, 
the crater threw up a perpendicular 
column of lava like that which made the 
eruption of 1779 remarkable. In 1669 
j^tna was the scene of a great eniption, 
by which the Monte Rossi was formed 
and Catania overwhelmed by the lava. 
It was again in action in 1682. 

14. On the 12th August, 1682. It 
changed the aspect of the mountain. 
It filled up a portion of the great cavity, 
and from the centre threw up a small 
cone having on its summit a little cra- 
ter which discharged ashes. This cone 
in 1685 was visible from Naples. In 
1689, a succession of small discharges 
had nearly filled up the large crater, 
and the central cone had increased so 
much that the two cones, from a dis- 
tance, presented the appearance of one 
large and unbroken mountain. The 
summit, however, was lower, by about 
1200 feet, than Somma. 

15. On the 12th March, 1694. JEtna 
began to discharge ashes in the same 
month ; and it had been twice in action 
in the interval between the present and 
the last eruption of Vesuvius. In April 
several streams of lava flowed for five 
days from the summit of Vesuvius, 
taking the direction of S. Giorgio a 
Cremano, and of Torre del Greco. An 

Irishman, Dr. Connor, physician to 
John Sobieski, King of Poland, wrote 
two descriptions of it. He tells us that 
on the fifth day the viceroy ordered a 
deep trench to be cut a mile from the 
sea, in order to intercept it. The lava 
ran into the trench and consolidated 
in it. He adds that the current va- 
ried from 20 to 1 50 paces in breadth, 
from 15 to 80 paces in depth, and was 
4 m. in length. 

16. In September, 1696. A portion 
of the cone was blown away on the side 
nearest Torre del Greco ; and a stream 
of lava issued from the breach. 

17. In May, 1698. It was described 
by Antonio Bulifon. A stream of lava 
flowed towards Resina. From this time 
throughout the whole of the 18th cent, 
the eruptions were very frequent. 

18. On the 2nd July, 1701. Two 
streams of lava flowed from the coue, 
one of which destroyed some vineyards 
near Ottaiano, the other flowed towards 
Viulo. JEtna was in action in March, 

19. From the 20th May to August, 
1 707. It had been preceded by such 
frequent earthquakes, accompanied by 
such numerous but feeble explosions 
of ashes, and was followed by so many 
others in quick succession, that it is 
sometimes described as having begun 
in 1 704 and ended in 1 708. Signor Val- 
letta described the phenomena of this 
eruption in a Latin letter to the Royal 
Society of London. In the end of July 
internal noises were heard in the centre 
of the mountain, which were followed 
by the emission of smoke and fire. 
The crater then ejected enormous quan- 
tities of ashes, accompanied by peals 
of thunder and flashes of lightmng. A 
shower of stones was next emitted, 
and a stream of lava flowed from the 
lip of the crater, and almost reached 
the sea. On the 2nd of August, at 4 in 
the afternoon, the crater ejected over 
Naples a shower of ashes of such den- 
sity that the city was involved in dark- 
ness. It was impossible to recognise 
either person or objects in the streets. 
The city resounded with the shrieks 
of women ; the clergy carried the relics 
of St. Januarius in procession to the 
Porta Capuana J and tJie churches were 



crowded with people. About 2 hours 
after sunset the wind shifted, and the 
ashes were driven seaward. 

20. It commenced on the 18th Febru- 
ary, and continued to the 8th Novem- 
ber, 1712. In April a stream of lava 
flowed from the cone towards Viulo. 

21. The mountain was again in ac- 
tion on the 7th June, 1717, and was 
not tranquil until the 18th. Bishop 
Berkeley, who was residing at Naples, 
communicated to the Royal Society his 
observations on the state of the moun- 
tain from the 17th April to the 18th 
June. The eruption began with an 
earthquake. A stream of lava was 
emitted from an aperture in the S. flank 
of the cone, while the other mouth at 
the summit sent forth showers of ashes. 
On the 10th Bi^op Berkeley examined 
the lava-current, which had then de- 
scended to within 4 or 5 m. from Torre 
del Greco. He calculated that the height 
to which the stones were projected was 
1000 ft. above the orifice from which 
they issued. The lava of this eruption 
is said to be that which is still visible 
in the Fosso Bianco, 

22. In May and June, 1720. It was 
an eruption of ashes without lava. In 
1723 AiJtna was in action. 

23. On the 26th July, 1728. It 
produced a new cone within the crater 
of the old one. 

24. On the 14th of March, 1730. 
The weather, according to the account 
of Dr. Cirillo, had been so severe that 
the neighbouring mountains were co- 
vered with snow. The crater appeared 
to emit fire to a vast height, and threw 
out huge stones to almost half the per- 
pendicular height of the mountain. 
The ashes were carried by the wind to 
a great distance. In 1735 there was 
an eruption of Mtna, the two moun- 
tains during the whole of the 18th 
cent, appearing to alternate in their 

25. On the 20th of May, 1737. On 
the 17th the declivities of the moun- 
tain were covered with such a mass of 
white ashes that from Naples it had 
the appearance of snow. On the 20th 
vast clouds of smoke and ashes rose 
from the crater until an hour after 
fiunset, when the flanks of the cone 

poured out a stream of lava of such 
vast bulk, that before it reached the 
edge of the plain it had become nearly 
1 m. wide and had advanced 4 m. 
in 8 hours, its solid contents being esti- 
mated at 33,587,058 cubic feet. The 
torrent ran down the declivities, and 
divided into four lesser, torrents, one of 
which stopped 1^ m. from Torre del 
Greco; the 2nd destroyed part of the 
monastery of the Carmelites and closed 
up the high road to Salerno ; the 3rd 
ended under Torre del Greco near the 
sea (where, as we may still see, it became 
prismatic) ; and the 4th ended at a 
small distance from the new mouth. 
The crater at the summit poured out 
also a stream of lava which separated 
into branches. One took a course 
towards the Hermitage ; another flowed 
towards Somma, where it destroyed a 
nunnery; another took the direction 
of Ottaiano, where it did immense 
damage. The ashes which accom- 
panied this eruption were scarcely less 
destructive. An English traveller who 
visited the spot at the time says that 
all the trees and vines bent under the 
weight of these ashes; and several 
branches and even trunks of trees were 
broken by the weight. Dr. Serao pub- 
lished a description of this eruption. 
The Prince of Cassano also describes 
the ashes on the ground at Ottaiano as 4 
palms high, and adds that many houses 
were crushed by their weight. Twenty 
days after this eruption the Prince 
observed that cold damp vapours, called 
moffete, issued from the fissures and 
cavities, not of the new lava-currfent, 
but of the older ones of the plain. 
They rose about 3 palms high, moved 
along the surface of the ground, and, 
after a progress of some paces, disap- 
peared. Animals which happened to 
graze where they passed, and a Tere- 
sian friar, who inadvertently breathed 
the vapour, were killed by it. JEtna 
burst into eruption in 1747, and re- 
mained in action, with occasional in- 
tervals, till Vesuvius recovered its ac- 

26. On the 25th October, 1751, and 
continued for 25 days. The lava 
issued from the side of the mountain 
into the Atrio del Cavallo, and in the 



space of 6 hours rafl 4 m. into the plain, 
where it covered a large tract of culti- 
vated country and destroyed many 
villas and vineyards. The current 
varied in breadth from 60 yards to ^ m., 
and was about 5 m. in breadth at the 
point where it terminated. The cen- 
tral cone sank down, leaving an immense 

27. On the 3rd December, 1754. It 
was preceded by a succession of small 
explosions within the crater, which 
became filled with scorise. In the night 
of the 2nd December the E. side poured 
out, in the direction of Bosco del 
Mauro, a stream of lava 60 feet broad 
at the upper part aud 100 yards broad 
as it traversed the plain. Another 
stream, from the S.E. side of the crater, 
separated into numerous streams, which 
flowed towards Bosco-tre-Case, and were 
in motion for 49 days. .3Stna was in 
action in. March, 1755, the year of the 
great earthquake of Lisbon. 

28. On the 24th January, 1758. 
Signor Pademi, who was superin- 
tending the excavations at Hercula- 
neum, tells us that the mountsdn threw 
out immense quantities of lapilli, ashes 
and lava. During the night vapours 
charged with ashes burst out with 
greater vehemence. JSfna was in 
eruption in the following year. 

29. On the 24th December, 1760. 
It proceeded from several cones which 
opened suddenly at the base of the 
mountain, one m. above the Camaldoli, 
about midway between the crater and 
the sea. For four days previouly there 
had been violent earthquakes, and five 
occurred on the 23rd. Sir Francis 
Eyles Stiles, who was at Naples, com- 
municated two papers to the Royal 
Society on this eruption. When the 
earthquakes had ceased, the mountain 
threw up a vast quantity of black 
smoke, which rose to a great height. 
The ashes that fell from it at Nola, 
Nocera, and other places 12 m. distant, 
resembled the falling of a heavy 
shower. At the same time two co- 
lumns of smoke were seen rising from 
the S.E. declivities of the mountain 
now called Le Piane^ followed by violent 
explosions which proceeded from 15 
small craters, pouring out ashes. Two 

of these craters threw out torrents of 
lava, which, uniting, flowed down to^ 
wards the sea in one vast current. The 
current was arrested, about 200 paces 
from the shore, by some rising ground, 
which caused it to spread, to the 
breadth of 400 yards, and to become 17 
palms in depth. The Abate Bottis, 
who drew up an account of this erup- 
tion by order of the Archbishop of 
Naples, ascertained that the stones pro* 
jected by these small craters attained 
such a height that they, took 8 seconds 
in falling to the ground ; that a stone 
estimated to weigh 260 lbs. was thrown 
90 paces, and a smaller one 390 paces. 
One of the craters was again in action 
in July, 1761, but it emitted only 
smoke and flame. Three of the craters 
were visible from Naples during liie 
eruption. They still exist under the 
name of Bocche or Voccoley but have 
never since been active. 

30. The eruption of the 28th March, 
1766, has been described by Sir William 
Hamilton, and by Dr. Morgan of Phila-* 
delphia, in the Transactions of the 
American Philosophical Society. A few 
days before the eruption the smoke shot 
up in the form of a pine-tree. In the 
evening of the 24th March, after a slight 
earthquake and a discharge of ashes 
and lapilli, the lava overflowed the Up 
of the crater. The current divided into 
two branches, which ran down in the 
direction of Portici, but soon lost them- 
selves in a ravine. Sir William Hamil- 
ton estimated the rate of this current at 
a mile an hour. On the 31st he ob- 
served that a little cone had been formed 
by the accumulated stones and scoriae 
in the centre of the crater, from which 
beautiful girandoles of red-hot stones, 
far surpassing the most astonishing 
artificial fire-works, were thrown up 
every minute to an immense height. 
On the 10th of April the flank of the 
mountain opened opposite Torre delP 
Annunziata, about a m. below the lip of 
the crater, and poured out with great 
violence an immense stream of lava, 
which flowed with unusual velocity. 
This stream divided into three branches, 
which ignited the cinders of former 
eruptions in their course, so that as 
they descended to the plain they pre- 



sented the appearance of a sheet of fire 
4 m. long and in some places 2 m. 
broad. In two places the lava en- 
tirely disappeared in subterranean fis- 
sures, and emerged again at a lower 
level free from scoriae. The crater dis- 
charged quantities of ashes and scoriae, 
■which did great damage to the vine- 
yards. The mountain was not tranquil 
until December. — On the 27th April 
^ina discharged two streams of lava 
from a new mouth 12 m. distant from 
its summit. 

- 31. On the 19th October, 1767. After 
the last eruption, a plain, resembling 
the Solfatara, formed within the crater 
at a depth of only 20 ft. below the rim. 
In the centre of this plain was a small 
cone, which, after increasing slowly, be- 
gan, in August, to discharge lava, which, 
gradually overflowing the lip, ran down 
the mountain in small streams. These 
streams ceased on the 1 8th October, 
but on the 19th the fiank of the moun- 
tain opened, about 300 ft. below the 
margin of the old crater, on the side 
towards Ottaiano. From this point the 
violent rush and extreme liquidity of 
the lava was observed by Sir William 
Hamilton, who described it in a letter 
to the Earl of Morton, then President 
of the Royal Society. Another stream 
of lava forced its way out of the same 
place from whence it came the pre- 
vious 'year. The first stream ran into 
the Atrio del Cavallo; and when it 
ceased on the fifth day it was more 
than 6 m. long, 2 m. broad at its ex- 
treme point, and from 60 to 70 ft. deep. 
In October, 1768, it had not cooled, 
and a stick inserted in its crevices took 
fire immediately. It filled up the Fosso 
Grande, which in one place was 200 ft. 
deep, and 100 ft. broad. The other 
current flowed with great rapidity to- 
wards Portici, but clmnged its course 
when only 1^ m. from the village, and 
proceeded to S. Giorgio a Cremano, 
which it reached. The Royal Palace 
of Portici suffered considerably from 
the shock of the explosions which ac- 
companied this eruption. In Naples 
religious ceremonies were performed in 
all the churches ; and the mob set fire 
to the gate of the Archbishop's palace, 
because he refused to bring out the 

relics of S. Januarius, which he was 
obliged to do on the 22nd. On the 25th, 
the day after the lava ceased to flow, 
vast columns of vapour loaded with 
black ashes issued from the crater, 
charged with electricity, lightning con- 
tinually shooting from it, followed by 
peals of thunder. The ashes fell in 
great abundance at Naples, and the 
decks of ships 60 m. distant were cor 
vered with them. 

32. On the 14th March, 1770, a new 
vent opened in the flanks of the moun- 
tain 300 ft. below the crater, on the side 
of Pompeii, and poured out a stream 
of lava 2 m. long and 2700 paces broad. 
On the 10th August a stream of lava 
was thrown out from the crater, which 
destroyed all the vineyards at Torre del 
Greco. In December another stream 
descended into the Atrio del Cavallo, 
where it overran the great current of 
1767. The crater continued to be dis- 
turbed till the 14th May, 1771, when a 
flow of lava from the flank took a course 
towards Resina, but stopped short of the 
town at a distance of 5 m. from the 
point of issue. On the 27^ a stream 
flowed towards the Bosco del Mauro. 
Shortly after these eruptions a small 
cone formed in the centre of the crater, 
and continued to enlarge itself till 1773, 
when it threw out a small stream which 
flowed into the ravine called the Canaie 
dell* Arena, 

33. On the 3rd January, 1776, two 
streams of lava were thrown out, — one 
from the summit of the cone, the other 
from a new vent in the N.W. flank. 
Both flowed for 3 days, and united in 
the ravine of the Cancroni, They form* 
ed channels from 2 to 6 feet wide, and 
from 7 to 8 feet deep. The scoriae on 
their surface frequently formed arches 
over the stream, the sides and top of 
which were worn perfectly smooth by 
the passage of the red-hot lava, forming 
large hollow cylinders, from whose 
inner surface stalactites of salt were 
subsequently formed. 

34. The year 1779 was remarkable for 
one of the most extraordinary eruptions 
on record. It conmienced on the 8th, 
and terminated on the llth August. 
The mountain had been disturbed for 
4 months previously. In May a cone» 



1 5 feet high, had discharged a stream 
of lava from the N.W. flank, a quarter 
of a mile below the crater, which flowed 
into the valley in a current 50 feet 
broad. On the 29th July the flank of 
the central cone burst, and discharged 
a stream of lava into the Canale deir 
Arena, which flowed down to, the Can- 
croni. On the drd August the flank of 
the great crater opened, on the N. side, 
and poured out a stream of lava towards 
the Piano della Ginestra. On the 5th 
August a shower of stones and scorise 
was thrown up to a height of 2000 feet 
A stream next burst forth from the 
middle of the cone, and ran down for 
about 4 m. towards Portici. So great 
a quantity of ashes fell at Ottaiano and 
Somma that, they rendered objects im- 
perceptible at a distance of 10 feet. 
With these ashes were filaments of vi- 
trified matter like spun-glass. The birds 
were suffocated by the vapours, and the 
leaves of the trees were scorched and 
covered with saline matter. The heat 
was intolerable at Somma and Ottaiano, 
and was felt as far as Palme, Sarno, 
and Lauro. On the 8th, at 9 p.m., an 
explosion occurred which shook Portici, 
Torre del Greco, and Torre dell' Annun- 
ziata. **In an instant," says Sir W. 
Hamilton, in a letter to Sir Joseph 
Banks, " a fountain of liquid transparent 
fire began to rise. . . The height of this 
stupendous column of fire could not be 
less than three times that of Vesuvius 
itself.*' The light emitted by it was so 
vivid that the whole country was illu- 
minated for 10 m. round, and Mr. Mor- 
ris, who was residing at Sorrento, found 
it sufficiently strong to enable him to 
read the title-page of a book. The fall 
of the column was partly perpendicular, 
covering part of Monte Somma, the cone 
of Vesuvius, and the Atrio del Cavallo ; 
toad partly on the country round Otta- 
iano, where it destroyed woods and vine- 
yards, and broke in the roof and win- 
dows of nearly every house. Some of 
the stones which fell upon the town 
weighed upwards of 100 lbs., and the 
depm of ashes in the streets, a few 
days afterwards, was 4 feet. After the 
fall of this column the black cloud 
increased and advanced towards Naples, 
so highly charged with electri<»ty that 

it was feared that the lightning darting 
from it would destroy the city. One or 
two flashes were seen to strike Monte 
Somma, as it passed, and to ignite the 
grass and brushwood on its surface. 
The city was in a state of agitation ; 
the theatres were closed, religious 
solemnities performed in the churches, 
and the relics of S. Januarius carried in 
procession. On the 9th another violent 
explosion occurred, but, as there was 
little wind, the column was almost per- 
pendicular, and the greater part of its 
bulk fell back into the crater. Some of 
the larger stones which were thrown off 
by this column as it rose burst like 
rockets into a thousand fragments, which 
assumed a spherical form as they fell. 
On the nth the eruption ceased, but 
the rain which fell greatly damaged 
the vegetation of the country around. 
The ashes of this eruption fell at Bene- 
vento, Foggia, and Manfredonia, a dis- 
tance of 100 m. — In May, 1780, jEtna 
was in eruption, and asain in April, 
1781. In 1783 1[ Calabria was deso- 
lated by terrible earthquakes. 

35. From the 12th October, 1784, with 
little intermission, to the 20th December, 
1785, die lava flowed from the rim of 
the crater, and from some fissures in the 
flank opposite Monte Somma, dividing 
into several streams which ran towards 
the village of S. Sebastiano. Mean- 
while, within the crater, which in 1783 
was an inaccessible gulf 250 feet deep, 
a new cone was formed by these erup- 
tions, and before the close of 1785 it 
had risen above the rim of the old crater. 

36. On the 3 1 St October, 1 786, the new 
cone threw up vast quantities of scoriae, 
followed by a stream of lava which de- 
scended for six days into the plain, de- 
stroying several vineyards 4 m. from 
the crater. 

37. In July, 1787, the crater dis- 
charged a small stream of lava into the 
Atrio del Cavallo, which ran till the 
2 1 St of December. At the same time 
JStna threw out clouds of ashes and 
lapilli, some of which fell at Malta and 
Gozo. It was also in action in March, 

38. The most important eruption 
since those of 79 and 1631 commenced 
in February, 1793, and continued with 



scarcely any intermission till Midsum- 
mer, 1794. It attained its height on the 
1 5th June, 1794, therefore it is known 
as the eruption of 94. The crater had 
thrown out small streams of lava in 
July, 1788, and in September, 1789, 
but they never passed beyond the val- 
leys on the sides of the mountain. In 
February, 1793, Dr. Clarke traced the 
lava to its source and found it issuing 
from an arched chasm in the side of 
the coBe " with the velocity of a flood," 
having '* all the translucency of honey," 
and flowing in regular channels "cut 
finer than art can imitate, and glowing 
with all the transparency of the sun. 
On the 12th June, 1794, an earthquake, 
which was an effort of the volcano to 
clear itself of the matter which closed 
the channels of its internal fires, shook 
the whole Terra di Lavoro, and even 
the country beyond it as far as Bene- 
vento and Ariano. Between Vesuvius 
and the coast the surface of the ground 
was seen to undulate like a sea, from 
E. to W. The water of the springs 
and wells considerably diminished, a 
sign that a great eruption was at hand. 
Subterranean noises were heard at Re- 
sina, and smoke was seen to issue at 
various points between Torre del Greco 
and the mountain, showing that the 
earthquake had produced a fissure about 
3000 feet long, down the W. flank. In 
the night of the 15th a small mouth 
below the base of the great crater, at a 
point now called Pedamentina, and not 
much more than 1600 feet above the 
level of the sea, discharged a stream 
of lava and immense volumes of black 
smoke. A second mouth opened lower 
down, followed by others in quick suc- 
cession, in a straight line towards the 
coast between Resina and Torre del 
Greco. Fifteen of them were counted 
by Sir W. Hamilton. The explosions 
from these mouths, some of which are 
still visible near Resina, resembled the 
reports of heavy artillery, and were ac- 
companied by a hollow subterranean 
murmur. E^ch mouth was distinctly 
seen from Naples to pour out a sepa- 
rate stream of lava. These streams 
united as they approached the plain and 
rolled on steadily towards the sea. The 
smoke coUected above them into an 
[S, Italy.] 

enormous mass of clouds, which was 
carried by the wind towards Naples, 
discharging in its course incessant 
flashes of lightning. The lava at first 
threatened Resina; it then altered its 
course towards Torre del Greco, over 
the current of 1631, in a vast broad 
stream. It passed through the centre 
of the town, enveloped the cathedral, 
several churches, and the greater part 
of the houses, in a stream of lava vary- 
ing from 12 to 40 feet in thickness, and 
advanced 380 feet into the sea in a mass 
1204 feet wide and 15 feet high, pre- 
senting as it cooled a tendency to 
assume a columnar structure. This 
current, which may still be examined 
at Torre del Greco, was so unusually 
fluid that only 6 hours elapsed from 
the time when it left the crater till it 
entered the sea, a distance of more than 
4 m. As it passed through the town it 
illustrated, by its effect on metallic sub- 
stances, the intense heat of liquid lava, 
even when it has been exposed for 6 
hours to the atmosphere ; iron was 
swelled to four times its volume, and its 
internal structure entirely changed ; 
silver was rapidly melted, and glass 
was converted into a stony milk-white 
mass. Breislak calculated that the 
bulk of the whole stream of lava was 
46,098,766 cubic feet, and that that 
portion of it which entered the sea was 
13 millions of cubic feet. During these 
lateral eruptions the central cone of 
Vesuvius had been entirely inactive. 
On the morning of the 16th it opened 
near the summit on the side of Ottaiano, 
and discharged with great velocity a 
stream of lava which destroyed a wood 
on the E. side of the mountain. The 
ashes which accompanied this discharge 
fell at Taranto, and at places in Calabria 
140 m. distant. When the smoke cleared 
away, it was seen that the S.E. side of 
the crater towards Bosco-tre-Case had 
&Ilen in, reducing the height of the 
lip on that side by 426 feet. The sea 
at Torre del Greco, on the 1 7th, when 
Sir W. Hamilton examined the lava, 
was in a boiling state at the distance < f 
100 yards from the new promontory, 
and no boat could remain near it on 
account of the melting of the pitch on 
her bottom. For nearly a month after 



ExomsiaNS from Naples. — ^Vesuvius. 

this entption the crater ponred ont 
enormous quantities of aqueous vapour, 
loaded with fine white ashes, which, 
descendibg in torrents of heavy rain, 
deluged the whole country with volcanic 
mud. Many of the ravines, like the 
Fosso Grande, were nearly filled with 
ihis mud, which hardened as it cooled, 
forming a white pumiceous tufik. The 
loss of life at Torre del Greco is believed 
to have be^n confined to the sick and 
aged, whom there was no time to remove 
from their houses. Of the 1 8,000 Inhab. 
the greater part escaped to^ Castellam- 
mare; others to Naples, and some, 
whose retreat was cut off before it was 
possible to quit their homes, saved them- 
selves on the tops of the houses, and 
on the next morning escaped by walk- 
ing over th6 scoriaceous sur&ce of the 
moving lava. King Ferdinand tried to 
induce the inhabitants of Torre del 
Greco to rebuild their town on a safer 
spot, but they refused to abandon the 
Old site, ^tna was in action in 1798, 
1799, 1800, and 1802. 

39. From the 12th August, 1804, to 
the drd December. It had been pre- 
ceded by a very severe earthquake, 
called the Tremuoto di S. Anna from 
having occurred on the 26th July, the 
festival of St. Anne. It gave warning 
of its approach by the diminution of 
the water of the springs. It began 
with a violent explosion of stones and 
scorise, followed by a discharge of lava 
from an opening in the western side of 
the crater. On the 29th August, from 
an opening in the S. flank of the 
mountain, another stream of lava came 
out, which separated into several 
branches that ran down into the culti- 
vated tract between Camaldoli and the 
Casino del Oardinale. It was ex- 
tremely fluid, and in 5 hours it reached 
the sea, near Torre Scassata. 

40. On the 12th of August, 1805. 
The lava overflowed the rim of the 
crater on the S.E. side, and wa^ seen 
by Humboldt, Von Buch, and Gay- 
Lussac, who were on the mountain at 
the time, to shoot suddenly from the 
margin to the base of the cone. It 
descended with great velocity into the 
plain in three streams; one of them 
crossed the high road on the east of 

Torre del Greco, where it may still be 
seen; the other stopped short about 
midway between that town and Torre 
dell' Annimsiata. 

41. On the 4th September, 1809, a 
new mouth opened on the S.E. side 
of the crater and discharged a stream 
of lava which flowed into the Atrio del 
CavalKK During the remainder of 1809 
the mountain was more or less dis- 
turbed, and oAitinned so for about 4 
years. JEtna was in action in March, 
1 809, and in October, 1811. 

42. On the I2th June, 1813, loud 
explosions were heard, followed by- 
volumes of smoke and showers of scorise 
and ashes, which glowed like fire with 
the reflection of the lava which filled 
but did not o<verfl<yw the crater. 

43. In December, 1813. On the 
24ih there was an earthquake which 
was felt at Naples. On the 25th a 
violent discharge of ashes was followed 
by an eruption of lava, which divided 
into two branches and flowed towards 
Torre del Greco. At night one of the 
currents ceased, while die other con- 
tinued running till the next day towards 
Bosco-tre-Case and Bosco Reale. M. 
Menard de Groye visited the mountain 
during the eruption, and published a 
description of it. 

44. On the 22nd December, 1817. 
Two small cones, formed in the crater 
during the 4 years elapsed since the 
last eruption, poured out streams of 
lava, one of which took the direction 
of the Camaldoli, the other that of 
Bosco del Mauro. The crater con- 
tinued to be more or less disturbed 
during 1818 and 1819. In the latter 
vear, and again in 1S20, it was visited 
by Sir Humphry Davy, who published 
an account of his observations in the 
Philosophical Transactions, ^tna was 
in action in May, 1819. 

45. In April, 1820. It commenced 
by a discharge of lava from a new 
mouth in the S. flank of the mountain, 
followed by the appearance of 6 others 
in a direct line on the N.W. flank. 
From each of them a stream of lava 
issued, which united and flowed into the 
Fosso della Vetrana, where it may still 
be examined. 

46. On the 22nd October, 1822. Early 



in the year the water in the wells 
had diminished. A new mouth had 
opened near the 6 lateral ones of the 
last eruption; and on the 23rd and 
24th February it poured out several 
streams into the Atrio del Cavallo. On 
the 23rd October the great cone suddenly 
fell in with a loud crash. The crater^ 
after several shocks, threw out two 
streams of lava, one of which overran 
the old lavas in the direction of Bosco- 
tre-Case, the other ran down the W. 
side towards La Favorita and Hesina. 
It was at first § m. in breadth, but it 
afterwards spread to the breadth of a 
m. Another stream issued from a new 
cone, and followed the same course; 
and a 4th issued from one of the old 
voccole of 1794, and ran in the direction 
of Torre del Greco. These lavas were 
not cool when Sir Charles Lyell exa- 
mined them 6 years afterwards. The 
•ashes and stones thrown out closed 
the high road from Resina to Torre 
deir Annunziata. For 4 days they fell 
in one continued shower, and they did 
not cease entirely for 12 da^s. The 
atmosphere was so filled with frag- 
mentary ashes aUd black augitic sand 
that the day was converted into night. 
This darkness prevailed as far even as 
Amalfi, where the ashes fell to a depth 
of several inches. Their depth on the 
declivities of the mountain was ascer- 
tained by Monticelli to be 3 feet, and on 
the plain from 16 to 20 inches. The 
vapour from the crater, which rose to 
the height of nearly 10,000 feet above 
the level of the sea, discharging flashes 
of lightning, was condensed into showers 
of heated water, which fell in torrents, 
and deluged the villages of S. Sebastiano 
and Massa. The rain formed, as it de- 
scended, small pisolitic globules by the 
attraction of the more minute particles 
of fine volcanic sand, many of which 
may be examined in sUu at Pompeii in 
thin layera mixed with a loose brown 
tufa. One mass of lava, many tons in 
weight, was thrown into the gardens 
of .the Principe di Ottaiano, 3 m. dis- 
tant. On the 26th a cloud of fine 
ashes issued from a fissure in the mar- 
gin of the crater, and appeared to de- 
scend the side of the mountain, causing 
great alarm among the inhabitants of 

the plain, who supposed it to be a 
stream of boiling water, until Monti- 
celli ascertained its real character, and 
satisfied the people that the^ had been 
misled by an optical delusion. Tiiis 
eruption left the crater as an irregular 
gulf, 3 m. in circumference, and nearly 
2000 feet in depth, the sides of which 
were inaccessible on account of their 
steepness and their constant evolution 
of steam combined with hydrosulphuric 
and hydrochloric gas. But if the depth 
were really 2000 feet, it must have ra- 
pidly decreased by the dilapidation of 
the sides, for Mr. Babbage, on examin* 
ing the crater soon after the eruption, 
ascertained that its bottom was 938 
feet below the highest part of the rim, 
and 459 feet below the lowest part. 
The height of the eruptive cone was 
reduced to 3400 feet. 

47. On the 14th March, 1828, an 
eruption took place from a rent in the 
side of the crater on the E. side. It 
commenced with the appearance of a 
quantity of smoke, followed by a dis- 
charge of stones and of some lava. On 
the 22nd a stream of lava issued, which 
ran round the base of the crater into 
the Atrio del Cavallo. Showers of 
stones were thrown out, most of which 
fell back into the crater. The eruption 
terminated by several shocks of an 
earthquake, which did damage at 

48. On the 18th September, 1831. 
The small cone in the centre of the 
great crater had been so rapidly in- 
creasing, that it was more than 1 50 feet 
above the circumference of the crater, 
which was filled to the brim with tha 
accumulated scorisB. The cone on the 
1 8th Sept. discharged a stream of lave 
which ran down the mountain towards 
Bosco Reale. On the 25th December 
another stream was poured out from 
the cone in the direction of Resiua. 
Other streams succeeded it at intervals 
of a few weeks, till February, 1832. In 
Au^st, 1 833, the water in the wells at 
Resina began to diminish, and on the 
1 3th three streams of lava descended 
in the direction of Torre del Greco, 
dividing, as they advanced, into nume- 
rous streams. 

49. In August, 1834. It commenced 

L 2 



with a series of violent explosions. 
Two streams of lava were next thrown 
out, one over the margin of the crater, 
the other from the base of the old cone, 
accompanied by flames, which M. Abich 
assures us were produced by hydrogen. 
One stream lost itself in the Atrio del 
Cavallo ; the other flowed down S.E. 
towards Bosco Reale, advancing with 
great rapidity in a vast current nearly 
J m. broad, and from 18 to 30 ft. deep, 
which did not stop until the 8th day, 
when it had run a distance of 9 m. It 
engulfed the village of Caposecco, sparing 
only 4 houses out of 500. Pompeii was 
at one time in danger of being buried a 
second time. The heat evolved by this 
stream of lava was felt at Sorrento. The 
old cone disappeared, and the plain 
which formed the floor of the crater 
sank down into a double abyss, divided 
by a narrow ridge of lava. 

50. On the 6th March, 1838, several 
streams of lava were poured out from 
the great crater, which descended slowly 
into the valleys of the mountain. In 
Jan. 1839, two streams flowed from the 
lip of the crater, one of which traversed 
the Fosso Grande, the other ran towards 
Ottaiano. At the same time the crater 
threw upon Torre del Greco and Torre 
deir Annunziata a great quantity of la- 
pilli and black sand composed of regular 
crystals of augite and tourmaline. The 
crater was changed by this eruption ; 
the interior assumed the form of a funnel 
300 feet deep, accessible to the bottom. 
In 1841 a small cone began to form over 
the mouth in the centre, and to pour out 
lava and red-hot stones in such abun- 
dance that in 4 years its bulk was so 
increased as to be visible from Naples. 
In 1845 ^tna was in action. 

51. On the 22nd April, 1845. A 
mouth at the base of the central cone 
threw out a small stream of lava 
which excited interest among the geo- 
logists, on account of the crystals of 
Imcite which it contained; a mineral 
previously supposed to be confined to 
the ancient lavas of Monte Somma. 

52. On the 13th November, 1847. 
Ten small streams of lava overflowed 
the great crater on the E. and S.E. 
sides, and ran down towards Ottaiano, 
Bosco Reale, and Torre del Greco. In 

December, 1849, scarcely a weekpassed 
without an eruption, small but interest- 
ing on account of the crystals of leu- 
cite which were again ejected. 

53. From the 6th February, 18.50, to 
the end of the month. The central cone, 
at the beginning of 1850, was about 
70 ft. higher than the Punta del Palo. 
It was composed entirely of scorisB, and 
had at its summit a funnel-like crater 
of about 100 ft. deep. On the 7th 
the S.E. side of the cone opened and 
poured out a mass of lava which de- 
scended in three streams, two of which 
advanced upon Ottaiano, destroying a 
tract of the estate belon^ng to the 
Principe di Ottaiano ; the third took the 
direction of Bosco Reale. On the 9th 
the lava was advancing with a front of 
about li m. broad and 12 ft. deep upon 
Bosco Reale, which it reached and en- 
veloped shortly before 9 at night. The 
wood, containing some fine oak, ilex, 
and ash-trees was entirely consumed. 
The large trees, as soon as uiey were en- 
veloped in the flowing lava, poured out 
jets of hissing steam from every knot 
and branch, and then exploded with a 
loud noise, projecteil upwards to a 
height of from 10 to 20 ft. As they 
were consuming they threw up a 
stream of bright clear fiame. The lava 
was estimated to have covered a surface 
of 9 square m. During the whole night 
the mountain was enveloped in a 
shower of red-hot scorisB and stones of 
a considerable size, producing a mag- 
nificent effect, but entailing imminent 
danger on the persons who ascended 
the crater to witnessjit. This eruption 
changed the aspect of the mountain. 
The walls of the old crater were broken 
down ; and the central cone was reduced 
in height and form. Its summit, when 
the eruption ceased, was about 2 m. 
in circumference ; its crater was 150* ft. 
in depth, and accessible to the bottom. 
On the 20th August, 1852, ^tna burst 
into action, and continued so till the 
middle of November. 

54. Towards the close of 1854 
Vesuvius showed symptoms of con- 
siderable activity, and after several 
earthquake movements an extensive 
fissure opened near the base of the 
Punta del Palo in January, 1855, 



showing well the structure of the 
cone, formed of concentric layers of 
ashes and lava. On the 1st of May 
following commenced the great erup- 
tion of that year, and from the summit 
of the cone a stream of lava flowed 
down its sides into the Atrio del 
Cavallo, and from thence into the Fosso 
de' Cancroni, from which it gradually 
reached the plain, committing dreadful 
ravages through a highly cultivated dis- 
trict : dividing into two streams, one 
took the direction of San Jorio and 
Portici, stopped before reaching the 
former village; whilst the second, after 
threatening with destruction the large 
villages of Massa di Somma and S. 
Sebastiano, followed the line of a 
watercourse as far as the hamlet of La 
Cercola in the plain, the extreme point 
it attained. A curious particularity of 
the lava of this eruption was the great 
length of time it maintained its high 
temperature, and the production in its 
fissures, even to a very late period, of 
that peculiar mineral substance called 
Cotunnite, a chloride of lead. Of late 
years it was this eruption which per- 
haps inspired the greatest terror, it 
being at one moment feared it would 
reach Portici, and even the Ponte della 
Maddalena in the suburbs of Naples. 

65. From the end of May, 1855, to 
the same period in 1858, Vesuvius re- 
mained in comparative quiescence. In 
December of the latter year, and con- 
temporaneously with the great earth- 
quake movements in the Sasilicata, it 
exhibited more activity ; the old crater 
on the summit had gradually become 
filled up, having only two small erup- 
tive cones in its centre, from which 
large masses of vapour, with occasional 
eruptions of ashes and lava, were 
thrown out, the latter gradually add- 
ing to the elevation of the cone, which 
attained a greater height than perhaps 
at any former period, exceeding con- 
siderably that of the Punta del Palo, 
which was now no longer visible. On 
the 27th of May, however, after some 
violent earthquake movements, a new 
crater was formed half way between 
the top of the cone and the Atrio del 
Cavallo, and soon after a much more 
extensive fissure in the Piano delle 

Genestre, on which rose several craters 
which poured forth a river of lava 
into the Atrio del Cavallo, one branch 
taking the direction of the Fosso 
della Vetrana, and the other empty- 
ing itself by a magnificent fiery cascade 
into the Fosso Grande, which it nearly 
filled up ; thus enveloping almost 
entirely the hill on which stand the 
Hermitage and the observatory. Other 
fissures of eruption opened about the 
same time in different parts of the 
great cone, and especially on the 
summit; this eruption threatened to 
invade the plain at the foot of Vesu- 
vius, like that of 1855. 

Between 1858 and the end of 1861, 
Vesuvius remained without any re- 
markable movement; the terminal 
crater being nearly filled up, emitting 
from time to time clouds of vapour 
and eruptions of ashes only. On Dec. 
8, 1861, after several shocks of earth- 
quake, which were severely felt along* 
the W. base of the mountain from 
8 A.M. until 3 P.M., Torre del Greco 
became suddenly enveloped in dark- 
ness, owing to the clouds of ashes 
erupted from a number of small cones 
which opened at a distance of 700 
yards behind the town. These cones, 
11 in nuinber, were ranged on a fissure 
of about 2000 yards in length, and con- 
tinued in eruption for several days, one 
of them only emitting a current of 
lava. During this time Torre del 
Greco was nearly destroyed, the 
ground being rent in every direction ; 
the fissures thus produced by earth- 
quake movements emitting volumes of 
mephitic gases, whilst the adjoining 
coast-line was raised for a considerable 
distance to a height of d§ English feet. 
These gaseous emanations continued 
for several weeks along the W. base of 
Vesuvius ; they consisted chiefly of 
carbon. The small volcanic cones were 
at a lower level (1000 feet) than those 
which in June, 1794, destroyed the 
same town. 

Summary. — ^The principal feujts esta- 
blished by these eruptions are; — 1. 
When the crater is nearly filled up, or 
its surface a little depressed below the 
rim, an eruption may be considered near 
at band. The periods of rest occur when 



the crater has been cleared out by a 
violent explosion, or by a series of small 
eruptions. 2. When the mouth of the 
crater is so small or so narrowed by 
accumulated matter as to be unequal 
to the free discharge of the lava col- 
lected in its central reservoir, lateral 
openings are formed, which, being 
nearer the source of heat, discharge 
the lava in a state of greater liquidity 
than the great crater, and, meeting a 
less incliued surface, it is enabled to 
flow in a continuous current, which is 
almost impossible at the high angle of the 
surface ^ the cone, 3. The cohesion 
of a lava current causes it to move 
slowly in the form of a tall ridge 
or embankment, the surface of which 
gradually loses its state of fluidity as 
it becomes cooled by the air, and, 
aided probably by the escape of heated 
vapour from the interior of the mass, 
cracks into innumerable fragments or 
•corise, some of which form a deep layer 
on the surface, while others roll down 
the sides and make a regular channel 
for the advancing current. As these 
scorise are bad conductors of heat, they 
enable the central portion of the mass 
to retain its fluidity for a considerable 
time, and to preserve its heat for months 
and even years ; at the same time they 
make it possible to cross the current as 
it flows. 4. The earthquakes which 
precede and accompany an eruption are 
probably caused by the effort of the 
elastic vapour to clear the internal 
channel when it is obstructed by masses 
of solid matter. 5. The smoke from 
the crater is aqueous vapour, more or 
less dark as it happens to be charged 
with ashes. When this vapour con- 
denses in the atmosphere it descends 
in the form of warm rain, which as- 
sumes the consistency of mud when 
the vapour is loaded with ashes in 
excess, and when the ground on which 
it falls is covered with fine frag- 
mentary matter. 6. The fire which 
is seen above the crater' during an 
eruption is not flame, but the reflection 
of the molten lava within the crater 
upon the clouds of vapour and ashes 
held in suspension which accumulate 
above it. 7. The lightning which is 
sieen playing and darting from the edges 

of these clouds is the effect of the elec- 
tricity which is produced by the rapid 
condensation of vapour into water, and 
by^the conversion of water into steam. 
8. The diminution of the water in the 
springs and wells on the dechvity and 
at the foot of the mountain is re- 
garded as an indication of an approach- 
ing eruption, without any satisfactory 
explanation of the cause being yet 

Geological Structure. — The lower beds 
of La Somma, like the lower strata of 
the plains around it, are of enormous 
thickness, and consist of a compact 
whitish tufa, formed of fragments of 
pamice and ashes, supposed by M. Von 
Buch to have been formed under the 
sea before the mountain was upheaved. 
This tufa contains some shells of species 
still existing in the Mediterranean, and 
numerous erratic blocks of limestone, 
some of which have been rendered so 
crystalline by the action of heat that 
they may be called marble (this is 
the pretended lava of Vesuvius, firom 
which cameos are made by the artists 
of Naples) ; and a coarser ar^Uaceoas 
limestone containing fossil shells of the 
tertiary period ; both of which have been 
evidently torn from their original site 
by the volcanic action. On some of 
these erratic masses serpulse or sea- 
worms of existing species and of great 
delicacy have been found adhering. 
Upon these beds of tufa, which consti- 
tute more than half the height of 
Somma, rest numerous currents or beds 
of leucitic lava, supposed to be derived 
from the ancient eruptions of the moun- 
tain. They incline outwards at an angle 
of 26°, and alternate with beds of scorise 
to the very summit, the whole being 
intersected by dikes of compact lava. 
The best place for examining this cu- 
rious structure will be in the Fosso 
Grande^ a ravine in the flanks of Somma ^ 
on the 1. of the road to the Hermitage, 
where they have been exposed by the 
action of torrents, and in the ravines 
descending towards the villages of Sant 
Anastasia and Somma. The Atrio del 
Cavallo is the best point for observ- 
ing the numerous lava dikes of the 

The cone of Vesrwius has been ascer- 



tained at yarious times, when portions of 
its sides have been rent or broken down, 
to be composed of concentric beds of 
lava, scorise, and tufa, which dip out- 
wards in all directions from the axis of 
the cone, at an angle varying from 30° to 
40° at their upper part, but become hori- 
zontal as thej approach the precipitous 
escarpment of Somma. The lowest of 
these beds are intersected by vertical 
dikes of augitic lava frcTm 400 to 500 ft. 
high, which, from their hard compact 
structure and the depth at which Uiey 
occur, are evidently more ancient than 
any eruption of which we have record. 
The Punta del Palo, which formerly 
constituted the highest margin of the 
crater, has been the subject of fi'equeut 
measurements in connexion with the 
S.E. margin opposite Bosco-tre-Case, 
which had been the lowest since the 
eruption of 1794. When Sanssure mea- 
sured these margins barometrically in 
1773, he found that their height was 
equal — 3894 ft. above the level of the 
sea. In 1794, Poli, by barometric mea- 
surement, ascertained the height of 
Punta del Palo at 3875 ft, while Breis- 
lak made it 3920 ft. In the same 
year the S.E. margin, after the eruption, 
was found to be 426 ft. lower than 
Punta del Palo. In 1805 Humboldt, 
on whose authority we give these fi- 
gures, measured both jpoints barome- 
trically in conjunction with Gay-Lussac 
and Von Buch, and ascertained their 
relative heights to be 3856 and 3414 ft. 
above the level of the sea. In 1810 
Brioschi, by trigonometrical measure- 
ment, made the height of Punta del 
Palo to be 4079 ft. ; in 1816 Visconti, 
by the same means, 3971 ft. In 1822 
Lord Minto, by barometrical observa- 
tions, calculated the height of the same 
point at 3971 ft., Monticelli and Covelli 
at 3990, and Humboldt at 4022 ft.— 
the height of the S.E. margin in the 
same year, according to Humboldf s 
measurement, being 3491, a difference 
of 531 ft. The most accurate measure- 
ments of all, those by the late Professor 
Amante, in 1847, made the Punta del 
Palo only 3949 ft., and of the highest 

goint of the crater itself, on the 7th 
[arch, 1850, 4236 ft (1291 metres), 
since which it has been lowered to 4075, 

as determined in June, 1 858, by Professor 
Schiavoni: it would ^appear, therefore, 
that it had been gradually increasing in 
height since Saussure's measurement in 
1773 until 1850. 

Minerals, — The catalogue of Vesuvian 
minerals, which was formerly so volu- 
minous, has been reduced to about 40 
species by the accurate observations of 
Professor Scacchi of Naples, one of the 
best of living mineralogists, who found 
that many of the new ones, named in 
honour of men of science, were identical 
with others which had long been known. 
By far the greater part are found in 
the more ancient lavas of Somma, or in 
the masses of limestone and other de- 
tached blocks imbedded in the volcanic 
conglomerate, and which were ejected 
by tne ancient eruptions of that moun- 
tain. Vesuvius produces onl^ augite 
(the most abundant of the whole), 
hornblende, mica, sodalite, breisla« 
kite, magnetic iron, and leucite in 
detached crystals. Somma produces, in 
addition to all these, sarcolite, giobertite 
(carbonate of magnesia), fluorine, apa- 
tite, quartz crystals, lazulite, periolw 
or crystals of pure magnesia, and mel* 
lilite (varieties of which have been 
called at various times humboldtite, 
somervillite, and zurlite); aragonite, 
monticellite, sommite or nepheline, 
davyiteand cavolinite; anorthite, chris- 
tianite, and biotine ; oomptonite, hauyue,' 
zircon, atacamite (chloride of copper), 
mica crystals, olivine, felspar, sal wi- 
moniac, idoerase or vesuvian, pyra- 
midal garnet, meionite, pyroxene, titar 
niferotts iron, &c. &c. An interestins 
species, the cotunnite, a cloride of lead, 
has been found abundantly in the 
current of 1855, produced by sublima- 
tion in the fissures of the lava as it has 
cooled. The traveller will find most 
of these minerals for sale at Resina, 
where the several guides add td their 
ordinary avocations that of ' inineni 
collectors, at the season when not en* 
gaged in conducting strangers. Pas- 
quale Gozzolino is the most intelligent 
for his mineralogical knowledge; but 
all are rather exorbitant in the prices, 
and will require to be beaten down. 

In 1844 a Meteorological Observa- 
tory was erected near the Hermitage, on 



a ridge 2080 ft. above the sea, for the 
purpose of collecting precise scientific 
information on the phenomena of the vol- 
cano. It was placed under the direction 
of the celebrated natural philosopher 
Melloni, whose subsequent persecution 
forms one of the many acts of tyranny 
towardsmen of genius of the Neapolitan 
Bourbons. It is now under the direc- 
tion of Signor Palmieri, and contains 
the necessary instruments for the 
ordinary routine of meteorological 
research, and an ingenious apparatus 
invented by the present director for in- 
dicating the occurrence of earthquake 

The slopes of Vesuvius produce a 
wine which, under the name of Lacrima 
Christif is now so well known in Engla&d 
that it is unnecessary to describe its 
qualities ; we shall therefore content our- 
selves with quoting Chiabrera's eulogy 
of its merits, observing merely that me 
white kind appears to surpass the red in 
retaining the peculiar delicacy of fla- 
vour which distinguishes it : — 

Chi fu de' contadini il si indiscreto, 

Ch' a sbigottir la genie 

Diede nome doleate 

Al vin, che sovra gli altri il cuor fa lieto? 

Lacrima dunque appellarassi un riso^ 

Parto di nobilissima vendemmia ? 




After a visit to Vesuvius the traveller 
will no doubt take an early opportu- 
nity of exploring the cities which were 
buried under its eruptions. 

The entrance to Herculaneum is at 
Besina, at the domer of the main street 
and the Vico di Mare. The fee is 6 
carlini to the two custodi, who provide 
torches. The excavations called the 
Scavo Nttovo are at a little distance 
from the theatre, but are under the 
control of the same keepers. 

We have already mentioned that 
Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Stabise were 
destroyed by the eruption of a.d. 79 — 
Herculaneum to a considerable extent 
by the volcanic mud wliich accom- 
panied the eruption, Pompeii and Sta- 
biee by showers of ashes and pumice- 

The three cities were situated at 
nearly equal distances from each other, 
— Herculaneum on the site now occu- 
pied by Portici and Eesina, about 4 
m. from Naples ; Pompeii, on the rt. 
bank of the Samo, 6 m. from Hercula- 
neum ; and StabifiB on the rising ground 
on the flank of Monte S. Angelo, 4 m. 
from Pompeii. 

Q-reek tradition ascribed the origin 
of Herculaneum to Hercules, hence 
Ovid called it Serculea urbs. It was 
successively occupied by the Oscans, the 
Tyrrhenians ana Pelasgians, and the 
Samnites. Livy states that the Consul 
CarviUus took it from the Samnites in 
B.C. 293 ; though some critics suppose 
that Livy's passage refers to another 
Herculaneum, situated somewhere in 
the interior of Samnium. It joined in 
the Social War, but was besieged and 
taken by Didius 80 B.C. It obtained 
the rights of a municipium, and the 

Erivilege of being governed with its own 
iws by the Demarchs and Archons, 
who are mentioned in many inscrip- 
tions. Several distinguished Bomans 
had villas in the city or its suburbs : 
Servilia, the sister of Cato of Utica and 
the mother of Brutus, resided here in a 
villa given her by her lover Julius Cse- 
sar ; Tiberius confined his niece Agrip- 
pina in another villa, which was de- 
stroyed by her son Caligula, in order 
to obliterate every trace of the cruelties 
she had suflered. 

The city is described by Strabo as 
situated on a projecting headland, and 
exposed to the S.W. wind, which made 
it unusually healthy ; and the historian 
Sisenna, who flourished B.C. 91, in a 
fragment preserved by Nonius, de- 
scribes it as built on elevated ground 
between two rivers, and surrounded by 
low walls. Its port was called Retina^ 
a name preserved in the modem Be- 
sina. • The name of Herculaneum lin- 
gered on the spot till the middle of the 
5th cent., when the eruption of 472 
destroyed the cluster of houses which 
the poorer citizens had erected on the 
site after the destruction of the city. 
The ancient line of the Herculanean 
coast was ascertained, during the exca- 



vations of the last cent., to be between 
the S. extremity of the royal palace and 
the Mortelle, and the headland men- 
tioned by Strabo, about 95 feet within 
the present line of coast. 

In A.D. 63 it was seriously injured 
by the earthquake. — " One part of Her- 
culaneum," says Seneca, " was de- 
stroyed, and what remains is not safe." 
In 79 it was overwhelmed by torrents 
of volcanic mud, which filled all the 
buildings nearly to their roofs, and 
hardened as it dried into a coarse 
tufa, upon which, in subsequent erup- 
tions, showers of ashes and streams of 
lava were deposited to a depth varying 
from 70 to 112 feet. Sir William 
Hamilton calculated that these accumu- 
lations were the work of six distinct 
eruptions. They are divid^ by thiu 
strata of vegetable soil, in wnich Lippi 
discovered land shells, which lived 
upon it during the intervals of the suc- 
cessive deposits. 

The destruction of the city was not 
attended by any great loss of life. The 
discovery of only two skeletons in the 
earUer excavations, one of which, from 
the cast made by his extended arm 
upon the tufa, would appear to have 
perished in the attempt to save a bag 
of gold, is a proof that the inhabitants 
had time to escape : while the very 
rare occurrence of money and other 
valuables is another proof that they 
were* able to remove all the valuables 
which they could carry. Winckelmann, 
on the evidence of a dedicatory in- 
scription, containing the words signa 
translata ex ahditis locis ad celebritct- 
tern thermarum severianarum^ &c., 
supposed that the Romans made an 
attempt to excavate the ruins : but the 
Abate Fea observes that the term ah- 
dita loca is of too frequent occurrence 
in inscriptions to be regarded as a con- 
firmation of this idea. It has often been 
stated that firom the 5th to the 18th cent, 
the ^stence of Herculaneimi, as well as 
of Pompeii and Stabiee, was entirely for- 
gotten. Yet we find these cities men- 
tioned in several works of the 15th, 
16th, and 17th cent. ; though Hercu- 
laneum was supposed to be buried 


under where Torre del Greco now 

The discovery of its real site is due 
to a fortuitous circumstance. In 1709 
the Prince d'Elboeuf, of the house 
of Lorraine, was building a casino at 
Portici, near the GranateUo, which he 
wished to decorate with marbles. 
Hearing that a person at S>esina, in 
sinking a well, had discovered some 
fragments of statues and mosaics, 
he bought the right to search for 
more. This well, which happened to 
strike upon an ancient well, is now to 
be seen in the CortUe S. OiacomOt in 
the main street of Besina, or behind 
the stage of tlie theatre underground, 
and is about 90 ft. deep. Near its bottom 
was a passage, which led into founda- 
tions, which we now know to be the 
walls of the proscenium of the theatre. 
For five years the Prince continued his 
excavations without appearing to have 
any precise knowledge of the history 
or the name of the site he was ex- 
ploring, and brought .to the surface 
numerous statues and fragments of 'an- 
cient sculpture. At length, on the 
discovery of one of the female statues of 
the family of the Balbi, Count Daun, the 
Austrian viceroy, interfered, claimed, 
in the name of the State, the restitution 
of aU that the Prince had discovered, 
and prohibited the removal of any 
other fragments. Some of the statues 
which the Prince d'Elboeuf restored, 
Count Daun sent to Prince Eugene at 
Yienna, and at his death they were pur- 
chased by Frederick Augustus, King of 
Poland and Elector of Saxony, for Ms 
palace at Dresden, where they are stiQ 
preserved. The war of the Quadruple 
Alliance called Daun into more active 
service, and the viceroys who succeeded 
him held office for too short a period to 
give any thoi^ght to the discovery of an- 
tiquities. For 30 years, therefore, the 
excavations were abandoned. 

In 1737 Charles III. determined to 
build a palace at Portici. Colonel 
Alcubier, a Spaniard, who had the di- 
rection of the works, represented to the 
king the existence of the well from 
which so many antiques had been ob- 

L 3 



tained. His majesty ordered Aloubier 
to resume the excavations; but un- 
luckily this officer was so ignorant of 
antiquities, that, on finding an inscrip- 
tion in bronze letters, he had the letters 
detached without copying it, in order to 
send them to the king. He explored the 
great theatre, and found a quadriga 
lying broken on the ground; but in- 
stead of carefully collecting the parts, 
he had them carted off to Naples, and 
thrown, like rubbish, into tiie Gastel 
Nuovo, where they lay until part of 
them was melted down into busts of 
the king and queen ; and out of other 
fragments the hone was restored, now 
in the Gallery of Bronzes in the Museo 
Borbonico. He remoyed the paintings 
from the walls without preserving any 
trace of the beautiful arabesque deco- 
rations with which many of them were 
surrounded. The colonel was at last 
removed, and succeeded by a Swiss, 
Carl Weber, who arranged all the ob- 
jects, as they were found, in the palace 
of Portici, and Couart was employed 
under his direction to restore the sculp- 
tures. So little was at first known of 
the true name of the site, that Mr. 
Sloane, who was in Naples in 1740, in 
an account of the excavations to the 
Boyal Society, described it as being 
considered by some to be a city called 
** Aretina in the time of the Romans, 
and by others Fort Hercules, where the 
Komans usually embarked for Africa." 
In the same year Mr. Knapton 
descdnded into the well and found 
in the interior of the theatre ** great 
quantities of timber, beams, and rafters, 
broken and entire, lying some one way, 
some another, and all converted into 
perfect charcoal, except where it had 
been moistened with watar, where it 
was like rotten wood." The whole 
place was filled with firagments. In 
1750 a long narrow passage sloping 
down into the theatre, at a point where 
it is about 65 £eet bdow the level of 
the street, was cut through the solid 
rock, and is still the only way by which 
the traveller can descend to examine 
the building. 
About tMB time the king was in- 

duced to bring the Abate Baiardi from 
Parma, and confer upon him an annual 
pension of 5000 ducats, in order that 
he might write a complete account of 
the researches which his majesty in- 
tended to prosecute in the buried cities 
of the district. The result of this ar- 
rangement, afiber the labour of Gve 
years, was the production of Baiardi'i» 
ludicrous work in 5 large quarto to- 
lumes, in which he attributed the origin 
of the cities to Hercules, and indulged 
at such length in his favourite theory, 
that he began with the history of the 
demigod ab ovo, and had scarcely 
brought him to the 24th year of ma 
age at the close of the 5th volume. 
The king, weary of this learned pedan- 
try, committed the work to the mem- 
bers of ^e Aecademia Srcolanese, 
which he founded on purpose, and 
under whose direction the large work 
known as JPUture di BreolanOf &c^ in 
9 foL vols., was published. 

The excavations were continued for 
nearly 50 years, but with few hands, 
and in a desultory manner. The diffi- 
culties of excavating on such a site were 
as considerable as the expense. The 
buildings were filled with a material 
which there were no means of re- 
moving in any quantity to the sur&ce ; 
the tufa and the hard lava presented a 
perpetual obstacle to the progress of 
the workmen ; and the two towns on 
the overlying strata made it dangerous 
to excavate without taking immediate 
measures to support the soil above by 
substructions. As soon as one portion 
was excavated it was filled up with the 
rubbish from the site which was next 
explored; while, for the security of 
the houses above, it was found neces- 
sary to build up the most interesting 
edifices as soon as they had been rifled 
of their treasures. Shafts were sunk in 
every direction to ascertain 1^ limits 
of the city; yet no certain knowledge 
of its size was obtained, and the ex- 
plorers do not appear to have reached 
the walls or any of the gates. It was 
ascertained, however, that the city was 
built on a stream of lava, and that the 
houses were generally of one stozy. 



The Theatre, when first discovered 
and cleared, must hare been a very 
instructiYe object. It is now so en- 
cumbered with the buttresses built to 
sustain the rock above it, that it is little 
better than a labyrinth ; and although 
some of it-8 details are very interesting 
as illustrating the architecture of a 
Boman theatre, yet a better idea of 
the general arrangement of such a 
structure is obtamed firom that at 
Pompeii* The area consists of 19 rows 
of seats, about a foot high by 8^ 
feet wide, divided into six compart- 
ments or cunei by seven lines of stairs, 
called vomitories by the Romans. These 
stairs led directly horn the semicircular 
enclosure of the orchestra to a broad 
corridor, above which was a portico 
with three other rows of seats. The 
orchestra is about one- third larger than 
that of San Carlo. At the back of the 
stage the volcanic matter which filled 
the building still exhibits the cast of the 
mask of a human face. When it was 
discovered it was as well defined as 
if it had been taken in plaster of 
Paris, and was perfectly uninjured. 
Over the architraves of the side-en- 
trances to the orchestra two inscrip- 
tions were found; one recording the 
erection of the theatre at the cost 
of Lucius Annius Mammianus Bufus, 
Judge and Censor ; the other the name 
of the architect, Numisius the son of 
Publius. In a passage at the back of 
the stage is the well which was the 
origin of the excavations, l^e ground 
about it is very slippery, so that it 
must be approached ¥rlth caution. At 
the rt. end of the proscenium is a rect* 
angular base, which evidently bore a 
statue. It has the following inscrip- 
tion; — Ap. CloMdio* C. F, Fulchro. 
Cos. Imp. Serculanetues. Post. Mort. 
At the 1. end is another with that 
to M. Nondo Balbo JPrtst. et Pro- 
cons. The roof and upper part of 
the building were supported by large 
square pilasters, built of red brick with 
marble cornices, the sur&ce b^ng lined 
with marble slabs or decorated with 
paintings, many of which are now in 
the Museo Kasionale. Bronze statues 

of Drusus and Antonia, and of the 
Muses, were found in other parts of 
the building. In the galleries stalac* 
tites are continually forming by the 
percolation of water. The number of 
persons that the theatre would contain 
is variously estimated ; Winckelmann 
says 35,000; but others, with more 
probabiUty, have reduced it to 10,000. 
Although there is nothing except 
this theatre to be seen under ground, 
it may be interesting to state briefly 
the principal discoveries which were 
made. On the S. side of the theatre 
was a temple, standing near it in a 
public square in which the two eques- 
trian statues of the Balbi were found. 
From this temple a wide street, paved 
with blocks of lava, bordered with foot- 
pavements and lined with porticoes, led, 
almost due E., to another temple, also 
in a square. In the middle of the street 
on the K. side was a Basilica, 228 feet 
long and 132 feet broad, surrounded by 
a portico of 42 columns, and decorated 
with paintings. Over the entrauoe 
was an inscription recording that M. 
Nonius, the Proconsul, erected it, with 
the gates and the city walls, at his own 
cost. On the S. of the street of thd 
basilica vf&ce several squares of build- 
ings arranged on a regular plaa> and 
with straight streets. On the IB), of 
these was anoth^ temple ; and on the 
W., divided by what appeared to be 
the course of a small stream, was a 
large villa surrounded by a gai*den, 
with an oblong square court before 
it, surrounded by a portico sup- 
ported by stuccoed fluted columns of 
brick. In the angles were termini 
and busts ; in front of each terminus 
was a fountain ; and in the middle of 
the court was a lai^er fountain deco- 
rated with jstatues. In one of the rooms 
were found the Papyri now in the Museo 
Borbonico. The cabinet which eon* 
tained them had been converted into 
charcoal. Some of the richest treasures 
in the Museum were discovered in this. 
viUa. Among them the statues of Aris- 
tides, Agrippina, the Sleeping Faun, 
the Mercury ; the busts of Plato, Scipio 
A&icanus, Augustus, Seneca^ D^mos- 



thenes, &c, ; beautiful mosaics and 
specimens of furniture, linen, and food. 

The Scavo Nuovo was commenced 
near the sea in 1828, and continued till 
1837. The principal objects disco- 
vered were : some Koman tombs, ap- 
?arently subsequent to the eruption of 
9; a house in which a skeleton was 
found near a brown vase ; a large dila- 
pidated building, which is supposed to 
have been an inn ; and a country villa 
of great extent, called the Casa di 
Argo^ from a painting of lo guarded 
by Argo which was foimd in the 
dining-room. But the interest of this 
excavation was diminished by the dis- 
covery that the site had been before 
examined by the Prince d'Elboeuf. 

The geologist will be much interested 
by a walk along the coast from the 
Granatello to Torre deU' Annunziata. 
There is scarcely a spot in the whole 
distance of 6 m. which does not afford 
evidence of the mode in which the 
lava-currents have entered the sea. 
The cliffs are all composed of lava, 
which sometimes exhibits a columnar 

A pleasant drive of 2 m. from Besina 
leads to 

ToBBE DEL Geeco, a flourishing 
town (15,000 Inhab.), built upon the 
lava-current of 1631. The road, on 
approaching it, passes the streams of 
lava by which it was destroyed in 1737 
and 1794. The first flowed through 
the E. side of the town; the second 
entered on the W., and advanced with 
such rapidity that 400 persons perished. 
This current has a tendency in its lower 
portion to assume the columnar struc- 

In Dec. 1861, Torre del Greco was 
again visited by an almost similar cala- 
mity, although with less loss of life, on 
the 8th a series of 11 small cones open- 
ing on a line about 700 yards above the 
town. Almost every house in the place 
was injured from the effect of the severe 
earthquake shocks that preceded their 
appearance, followed by a dense fal] 
of ashes. The streets were rent with 
fissures, from which issued volumes of 
mephitic gases for several weeks, and 

the adjoining sea-beach was raised to a 
height of more than 3 feet above its 
foftner level, and in a considerable 
extent (p. 199). 

In spite of the calamities by which 
Torre del Gh*eco has suffered, its inhab. 
appear to be perfectly imdisturbed by 
anticipations of any future catastrophe. 
Indeed, so little seems to be thought 
of earthquakes and eruptions, that the 
Neapolitans have a joke on their own 
exemption from the misfortunes of their 
neighbours, Nctpoli fa i peccatif e la 
Torre lipaga. The whole road along 
the base of Vesuvius, from Besina to 
Torre deU' Annunziata, bears the same 
evidence of volcanic violence ; but every 
part of it is so densely populated, that 
the vUiages on the road from S. Gio- 
vanni a Teduccio to Torre Annunziata 
contain more than 72,000 Inhab. 

In the neighbourhood of Torre del 
Greco the construction of the railway 
to Castellammare brought to light, in 
1842, the remains of the Koman sta- 
tion of OpZontum^ marked in the Peutin- 
gerian Table 6 m. from Herculaneum, 
a distance which nearly agrees with this 
site. They consist of several hous^ 
separated from each other by small 
streets, and corresponding in character 
and arrangement to the assemblage of 
taverns which constituted what was 
called a "Mutatio," or post-station, 
in S>oman times. They were found in 
a priest's vineyard, beneath a mass of 
ashes and pumicestone. A few mosaics 
with a sculptured fawn and panther 
were the only antiques discovered in 
the ruins. 

Between Torre del Greco and Torre 
dell' Annunziata, on one of the vol- 
canic hills on the slope of Vesuvius, is 
the Convent of the CcMnaldolif which 
deserves a visit on account of the fine 
panorama which it commands of the 
Bay of Naples and of the arid de- 
clivities of the volcano. It stands on 
an isolated hill covered with a forest of 
oaks and rising from a dark and broken 
surface of black lava, to which the fresh 
vegetation around the convent offers a 
strikiag contrast. 

Before we enter Torre deU' Annun- 
















ziata we pass Torre Scassata^ near 
which the geologist may examine a 
branch of the lava-cmrent of 1631, 
which, where it is quarried for building 
stone, is columnar, like basalt. 

4 m. ToEEE dell' Annttnziata 
(16,000 Inhab.), agreeably situated in 
an angle of the bay, has numerous 
manufactories of maccaroni. ^ m. from 
it, close to the sea-shore, on the Naples 
side, are the mineral waters known 
under the name of Acqua Termo-Mine- 
rale Nunzicmte. This spring contains 
carbonate of iron and magnesia, with an 
excess of carbonic acid gas. It has a 
temperature of 90^, and is said to be 
beneficial in stomaoh affections. It issues 
with some violence and in considerable 
volume from beneath a mass of lava, 

About 1 m. beyond the S. extremity 
of Torre dell' Annunziata is — 

The railroad from Naples to Salerno 
has a station close to Pompeii ; 5 trains 
run daily, employing about an hour. 
The station is near the quarter of the 
Forum, and is about equidistant from 
the two main entrances to the city. 
The best plan, if this route be followed, 
will be to walk or drive from the sta- 
tion to the Street of the Tombs, quit 
the ruins by the modem entrance at the 
barracks, and thence proceed to the 
amphitheatre. It may be more con* 
venient for families, and at the same 
time as economical, to proceed to 
Pompeii in a carriage, the fare for which 
ought not to exceed 5 ducats. The 
journey can be performed from the hotel 
at Naples in less than 2 hrs. : in this case 
it will be better to get down at the Street 
of the Tombs, send the c£|,rriage on to the 
H6tel Diom^de, and, after having seen 
the principal ruins, and lunched or 
dined there, drive to near the amphi- 
theatre, which, at the end of a long day's 
excursion, will save a fatiguing walk. 

Inn: — JIdtel Diom^de, close to the 
railway and to the Forum, where fair 
accommodation can be had, and where 
the visitor wiU find a tolerable lunch, 
or early dinner : indeed, persons wish- 
ing to study Pompeii in detail can take 

up their quarters at the Diomede, which 
is better than the inns at Torre dell' 
Anunziata, and where the coach- 
drivers for interested motives may en- 
deavour to locate travellers : there are 
3 or 4 bedrooms : judging from the 
visitors' book the fare is better than one 
would expect to find in such an out- 
of-the-way place : the owner is repre- 
sented as civil, attentive, and moderate 
in his charges. Horses may be procured 
here for the ascent to Vesuvius on 
the S. side at 1 ducat each, the fee to 
the guide being 12 carlini; time em- 
ployed 2 to 2^ hours, nearly the same 
as from S>esina. Ladies can also ascend 
from Pompeii in portantini or arm- 
chairs, for which 4 guides are necessary, 
and the charge 4 dollars. The road 
passes through the village of Bosco tre 
Case to the foot of the Cone, where 
horses must be left ; from this point 
the time occupied being from 20 to 30 

Guides : 15 in number, appointed by 
the government, and easily recognised 
by their uniform. Some of them are in- 
telligent men, but these are exceptions ; 
most of them can speak French, even 
a few words of English. The fee for a 
party ought not to exceed 10 carlini^ 
and half that sum for a single person ; 
this must even include* all the pictures 
and other objects which are kept under 
lock and key ; even the Temple of Quiri- 
nus, and the House of the Augustals, 
where an attempt may be made, but 
which ought to be resisted, to levy a 
separate gratuity. As the whole amount 
received by the guides goes into a com- 
mon purse, divided at the end of the 
week between them, an additional 
carlino to the guide may be given for 
himself, if the visitor is satisfied with 
his services. A few coppers should 
be taken for the boys who sweep the 
mosaics, generally covered with ashes. 
As a general rule, the traveller will find 
that the smaller his party the better ; 
and that Pompeii will be seen to more 
advantage on a second than on his first 

Situation and History. — Pompeii was 
situated on a rising ground of the older 



volcanic rocks of the GampaniA, which 
appears to hare formed a peninsula, 
surrounded on two sides by the sea, 
which almost washed the walls on the 
W. and S., and bounded on the E. by the 
Samo, which was formerly navigable for 
a short distance above its mouth. The 
position of the city must have given 
it some importance as a commercial 
port, and also as an agreeable watering- 
place. Although Seneca calls it "a 
celebrated city^" we know little of 
its history. Its origin is generally 
ascribed to the Oscans, and its name 
is supposed to have been derived from 
the word no;uirc<a, store-houses. It 
was subsequently occupied by the 
Etruscans and the Samnites. In the 
Social War it was besieged by Sylla after 
he had destroyed Stabiffi, and was only 
saved by a diversion made by Gluen- 
Uus, who compelled the Boman general 
to give him battle in the neighbourhood 
of Nola. After this, the proceedings 
of Publius Sulpicius, the tribune, com- 
pelled Sylla to return to Rome to quell 
the sedition excited by the intrigues of 
Marius. Fonipeii aft;erwards made her 
peace with Bome, was admitted to the 
rank of a municipium, and, like Her- 
culaneum, was allowed to retain the 
privilege of being governed by her own 
laws. Sylla, however, appears to have 
dismantled the fortifications, and to 
have established a military colony in 
the suburbs, to keep the citizens in 
check, — ^a proceeding which gave rise 
to frequent disturbances, followed by 
appeals to the Boman senate, in which 
OLcero took a conspicuous share. Under 
Augustus the city received another 
colony, consisting chiefly of disbanded 
veterans, who were located with the 
colony of Sylla in the suburb outside 
the walls, subsequently called the Pc^/ut 
Augustus Felix. Under I^ero, A.D. 55, 
Pompeii became a Boman colony. 
Long, however, before this event, it 
was one of the £ftvourite resorts of 
the Boman aristocracy. Gossinius, the 
Boman eeneral, made it his head-quar- 
ters in the Servile War, and was nearly 
surprised and captured by Spartacus 
whUe he was bathing on the beach. 

Gicero had a villa in the Augustan sub- 
urb, in which he wrote his * Offices' 
and received Augustus, BalbuS, Hir- 
tius, and Pansa as guests. Glaudiua 
took refuge within its waUs from the 
tyranny of Tiberius, and his son Drusus 
lost his life here 1^ choking fr^m 
swallowing a pear. IDuring the same 
reign Fhedrus resided here as a refiigee 
from the persecutions of Sejanus ; and 
Seneca himself tells us that all his early 
youth was passed at Pompeii. Tacitus 
st&tes that in a.d. 69 a quarrel, occa- 
sioned by some provincial sarcasms, 
took place in the amphitheatre between 
the people of Nuceria and Pompeii, 
which endbd in a sanguinary fight 
{atrox cades) in which the former 
were beaten with great loss. They 
went to law, and finally appealed to 
Nero, who gave judgment against the 
Pompeians. He sentenced B^ulus 
and the other ringleaders to be ba- 
nished, and ordered all public spectades 
and theatrical amusements to be sus- 
pended in the city for the space of ten 
years. There is still extant in the 
Street of Mercury a rude drawing, a kind 
of political caricature, commemorating 
theevent, with the inscription, Campamy 
victoria una cum Nucerinis periistis. 

Destruction. — ^While under this in- 
terdict, the city was visited by the 
earthquake of Feb. 5, a.i>. 63. Tacitus 
says that it threw down the greater 
pturt of the city. Seneca adds that it 
damaged many places in its neighbour- 
hood, swallowed up 600 sheep, and 
deprived many people of their reason. 
So great was the terror which it in- 
spired that the Pompeians abandoned 
the city for a time. Thev returned, 
however, in the course of a lew months, 
and began to repair the damage. An- 
other earthquake in the following year 
appears to hiEive done still greater mis- 
chief, for we find many of the floors 
out of their level, the columns bear 
evidence of having been violently dis- 
located, and the walls of the public 
buildings show marks of having been 
rent or thrown down. The citizens 
were rebuilding the shattered edifices 
when the erupSon of Aug. 24, 79, oc- 



ciirred, the details of which are giyen 
in our account of Vesuvius. Pompeii 
was overwhehned by showers of scoriee, 
pumice, and ashes, no hiva haying 
ever reached it. The roofs of the 
houses, being mostly of wood, were 
broken down by its weight.* The 
number of skeletons hitherto dis- 
coTcred is inconsiderable considering 
the population, a fact which proves that 
the inhabitants succeeded in escaping : 
and as the lowest strata which now 
cover the ruins are found to have been 
disturbed in many places, it is sup- 
posed that many of the citizens re- 
visited the site and removed such pro- 
perty as could be easily reached. In 
some instances the houses have been 
found disturbed in a much rougher 
manner than their owners would have 
been likely to adopt ; in one remark- 
able case, in the house of Castor and 
PoUux, we shall find that considerable 
ingenuity was exercised to reach two 
chests containing money. For these 
explorations, facilities were afforded by 
the partial re-occupation of the site, for 
it appears that many of the lower classes 
built dwellings upon the ruins after Ye- 
Buvius had relapsed into inactivity, and 
that these villages were destroyed by 
the eruption of 472, after which the 
site was abandoned. Subsequent erup- 
tions deposited successive layers of 
volcanic matter, and we may now dis- 
cover several distinct strata of scorise, 
tufa, and lapilli, varying in thick- 
ness according to the violence of the 
eruption which produced them, and 

* The mode in which Pompeii was buried has 
led to a good deal of discussibn among geologists — 
one party, amongst whom may be cited the great 
fitlihorities Von Buch, £lie de Beaumont, and 
Dufresnoy, maintaining that Uie mass of ashes 
and pumice, which now buries the mined city, 
belonged to the ancient eruptions of the Cam- 

' ];)anian volcanoes, perhaps of the Somma, and was 
carried down by the rains and earUiquake convul- 
sions whldi attended the eruption of a.i>. 79 ; 
whilst the other consider this deposit as having 

* been vomited by Vesuvius itself. It is certain that 
the modem Vesuvius has never thrown out mate- 
rialvH such as we see covering Pompeii, and that 
they are entirely stmilar to those which cover the 
declivities of the Somma and the surface of the 
Campania, and which are generally oMisidered to 
have been vomited by the volcanic vents that 
preceded the formation of the modem Vesuvius. 

covered by about 2 ft. of rich vegetable 
mould. The name, however, appears 
never to have been lost, for the term 
Cmwjpus Fow/pema occurs frequently in 
the chronicles and ecclesiastical docu- 
ments of the middle ages. With such a 
record perpetuated in the hving lan- 
guage of the country, and with the 
upper wall of the Great Theatre still 
visible above the surface (for there 
is abundant prooi^ that it was never 
entirely buried), it seems almost in- 
credible that Pompeii should have re- 
mained imdiscov^red and forgotten 
until the middle of the last century. 
Still more extraordinary is the fact 
that the architect Domenico Fontana^ 
when employed by the Count of Samo 
in 1592 to construct an aqueduct 
for conveying the water of the Samo 
to Torre deu Annunziata, could have 
carried its channel under the city, tra- 
versing the Forum and three Tem- 
ples, and sinking his air-shafts over 
morQ than a mile of its surface, with- 
out having his curiosity excited by the 
foundations of ancient buildings which 
must have impeded the . progress of 
his work. Another century elapsed 
before Macrini, observing numerous 
traces of houses and walls in the more 
exposed portions of the surface, con- 
jecikured that they might possibly mark 
the site of the long-lost city of Pompeii. 
Discovery. — It was not till 1748, 
when a countryman, in sinking a well, 
discovered a painted chamber contain- 
ing statues and other objects of anti- 
quity, that anything Uke a real interest 
in the locality was excited. Charles 
III., in whom the discovery of Her- 
culaneum had awakened a desire for 
further explorations, ordered the exca- 
vations to be prosecuted. In 1755 the 
amphitheatre was deajred out, and from 
that time to the present the works have 
gone on, with more or less activity, 
sometimes aba|Qdoned for several years 
togethe^ And sometimes resumed for a 
few mohths; do that, after 110 years* 
labour, not more than a fourth part of 
the city has yet been uncovered. For 
some years past few excavations have 
been made, except when some royal or 



distinguished personage has happened 
to be passing through Naples. The sum 
of 6000 ducats, about lOOOZ. per annum, 
is allowed for repairs, excavations, and 
incidental expenses, an amount alto- 
gether inadequate to do more than is 
at present accomplished. If we may 
regard the results of the last 100 years 
as an index of the future, it will follow 
that, as it has taken 110 years to exca- 
vate one quarter of the city, more than 
3 centuries, at the same rate of pro- 
gress, must elapse before the whole site 
will be cleared. 

Walls and Towers. — The walls have 
been traced throughout their whole ex- 
tent fipom 1812 to 1851. They are 
about 2 m. in circuit, and enclose an 
elliptical spape, presenting scarcely any 
angle except in the neighbourhood of the 
Amphitheatre. On the "W. there are 
fewer traces of the wall ; probably the 
rapid slope of the ground towards the 
sea rendered it unnecessary on that side; 
or, if it ever existed, it may have been 
destroyed during the siege by SyUa, and 
not rebuilt afterwards. The area thus 
enclosed by the sea on the one side and 
the walls on the other is estimated at 
160 acres, exclusive of the suburbs. 
The greatest length of this area is 
f m. : the greatest breadth is less than 
i m. The walls were of great solidity 
and width, and had a double parapet ; 
the outer one {d) being 25 ft. high, ac- 
cording to the inequalities of the ground, 
the inner (b) varying from 30 to 40 ft. 
The width of the space between them (c) 
was abcKit 15 ft., which would easily 
allow 2 chariots to pass abreast. They 
had square towers, apparently of several 
stories, placed at irregular intervals in 
their circuit, the least distance between 
them being near the gates. The face 
of the out«r wall inclines slightly in- 
wards ; the inner one was strengthened 
by an agger (a), and was ftimished with 
flights of steps to afford convenient 
access on the city side, as may be seen 
near the extremity of the Street of Mer- 
cury. The walls are built of large blocks 
of volcanic tufa and travertine, in hori- 
zontal courses, and without cement. 
For the most part the blocks are beau- 

tifully fitted, some of them 8 feet long. 
Many of the stones are inscribed either 
with Felasgic or Oscan characters, fine 
examples of which may be observed 



Section of the Walls at Pompeii. 

a, a, Agger and steps leading to it; 5, \ inner 

wall; d,d, outer wall; e, e, parapets. 

on the inside of the wall, also near 
the end of the Street of Mercury. In 
the upper courses the style of building is 
much more recent, resembling the r^u- 
lar isodomon of the Q-reeks. These 
upper courses, however, have been fre- 
quently broken and rudely repaired ; 
showing the effect of breaches and the 
hurried manner in which those breaches 
were filled up. Both the outer and 
the inner wall had parapets. The 
Towers covered the entire breadth of 
the wall, were pierced by archways to 
allow a passage to the troops, and had 
little sallyports at their base to afford 
an exit in time of siege. They are evi- 
dently more recent than the walls, being 
constructed of small pieces of tufa and 
lava stuccoed at the sides, and are all 
more or less ruined, especially on the 
outer side, as if they had been purposely 
dismantled, probably by SyUa at the 
close of the Social War ; for neither 
earthquakes nor sieges can account for 
so extensive and systematic a demolition. 
The Gates are 8 in number ; beginning 
with the N.W. they stand in the follow- 
ing order : — 1. The Herculaneum Q-ate, 
on the Via Domitiana ; 2. The gate lead- 
ing to Vesuvius ; 3. A gate leading to 
Capua ; 4. Gbte leading to Nola, on the 
Via Popilia ; 5. &ate of the Samo j 6. A 
gate leading to Stabise ; 7. The gate of 
the Theatres ; 8. The sea gate leading 
to the harbour. They are all mere 
ruins, except those of Herculaneum, 
Nola, StabifiB, and the sea, which we 
shall hereafter refer to. All the gates 
were placed on the declivity of the 



rising ground upon which the city was 
built, as will be evident from the de- 
scents leading from them, especially 
towards the sea, and on the sides of 
Kola, Herculaneiun, Stables, and espe- 
cially towards the shore, as seen in the 
recent excavations in the rear of the 
Diomede Hotel. 

. The Streets are for the most part very 
narrow ; it is clear that not more than 
one carriage, narrow as the ancient 
chariots were, could pass at a time 
in any but the principal thoroughfares, 
the widest, not including the side foot- 
way, about 93 English feet. The pave- 
ment is composed of large polygonal 
blocks of lava, closely fitted together j 
and it is usually bordered by a kerb, 
elevated in some places a foot or more 
above the carriage-way. The ruts of 
chariot-wheels are everywhere visible, 
crossing and recrossing each other in 
the broader streets, but worn into one 
deep rut in the smaller ones. In the 
larger thoroughfares raised stepping- 
stones are frequently seen in the centre 
of the street, for the convenience of 
foot passengers in times of rain ; 
stones and sometimes steps for mount- 
ing horses also are placed at the side 
of the pavement, in accordance with 
the law of Caius Gracchus, Be mis 
muniendis, and holes are found in 
the kerb opposite the principal houses 
and shops for fastening , the halters. 
Whan the width allows it, thwe is a 
narrow pathway in front of ihe houses, 
paved with a coarse mosaic of brick- 
work, and occasionally stuccoed. Here 
and there, where the angles of the pave- 
ment have been broken, they have been 
repaired with clamps of iron. At the 
entrance of many of the streets lists 
have been found containing the names 
of those inhabitants who were entitled 
" to vote at the elections of the SBdiles or 
duumvirs. Of the streets which have 
been traced, 5 may be considered as 
the principal thoroughfares of the city. 
The first, called Consular or Domitian, 
led from the Herculaneum Gate to the 
Forum, and is broken by several junc- 
tions with minor streets, forming trivia, 

or places where three ways meet : the 
2nd, of which only one portion, called 
the street of Abundance or of the 
Dried Fruits, has yet been excavated, 
appears to have traversed the city in a 
straight line from the gate of the Samo 
to the Forum ; the 3rd ran parallel to 
the former from the Gate of Nola to 
the sea, and has the names of Street of 
th&Bath8,ot Fortune, and oi Nola; the 
4th led in a line from the Gate of Vesu- 
vius to that of Stabiffi, passing the 
quarter of the New Thermse and of the 
Theatres ; the 5th from the N. wall of 
the city to the Forum, and is one of the 
widest which has yet been opened, and 
is now known as the Street of Mercury 
in the upper part, and the Street of 
Forum in the lower. 

From the existence of stepping-stones 
in the pavement it has been supposed 
that some at least of the surface water 
ran through the streets into the sea j but 
it is seen that the principal thorough- 
fares were supplied with sewers, and 
that there was a regular system of 
house drainage. Mazois gives a draw- 
ing of a sewer beneath one of the streets, 
whose locality he does not mention ; he 
states also that he saw a drain leading 
to a sewer, closed by an iron grating, 
by which one of the fountaias of the 
Forum discharged its surplus waters ; 
several openings into the subterranean 
drain have been lately discovered in 
the Street of Stabise, near where that 
of Abundance intersects it. The very 
solid nature of the pavement renders 
it very improbable that the subter- 
ranean sewerage of Pompeii will ever 
be completely ascertained. 

Public Buildings. — The pubUc edifices 
and monuments of Pompeii are fcrue 
interpreters of its' history. Tlie more 
ancient are Greek in their style, the re- 
cent Roman. The basements of some 
of the Temples date evidently from the 
Greek colonisation, and one at least of the 
Temples stiQretains the peculiar features 
of Grecian architecture, and appears to 
have undergone very little change. In 
general, however, the older Temples 
have been replaced by others of the 



Koman period. The fonns as usual have 
heen retained, but the principles of Greek 
art have been corrupted or rejected alto- 
gether. Examples of this may be met 
with in all the buildings of the Doric 
style throughout the city. Long taper- 
ing columns are found in the place of 
the massive well-proportioned ones of 
Grecian Doric. Instead of 20 flutings, 
the Greek standard of the time of Peri- 
cles, each column is channelled with 
an indefinite number, and often the 
inferior third is coated with smooth 
painted stucco; and whQe the Greek 
column always stands upon the floor 
without a base, the Boman, as we 
see it at Pompeii, is elevated on a 
pedestal. The Ionic capital also, which 
in Greek architecture was invariably 
marked by its simplicity, is here 
loaded with ornaments, and in some 
instances is different in its essential 
features &om all other examples of Ionic, 
even of Boman times. The Corinthian 
likewise differs from that of Greece in 
the inferior character of the foliage. 

Domestic Architecture. — If Pompeii 
had not been visited by two destructive 
earthquakes, which must have effected 
extensive changes in its external fea- 
tures, we should have found it a more 
perfect example of a Koman city of the 
third class. Hence we find marks of 
hasty renovation and repair, generally 
with the commonest materials. The pri- 
vate dwellings, with few exceptions, are 
small and low. Few have been dis- 
covered with an outer portico towards 
tiie street, and that may be more ap- 
propriately described as an ornamental 
doorway. Even the Villa of Diomedes 
has no better entrance than a mere 
porch formed by a column on each 
side. The domestic architecture is 
entirely that of a people accustomed 
to pass the greater portion of their 
day in the open air. As the prin- 
cipal houses are on one plan, we 
shall avoid repetition by giving a brief 
description of the arrangement of an 
interior, which will serve as a type of 
the whole. The front of the ground- 
floor of the larger houses, like that of 

the modem palaces of Naples, was gene- 
rally occupied by shops, which are 
proved by numerous inscriptions to 
have been an important source of profit 
to the owner ; and we have a curious 
illustration of the commercial character 
of the city in the fact that some of 
the richest mansions had their private 
shops communicating with the in- 
terior, in which the proprietor evidently 
sold the produce of his farms. Where 
there were no shops, the outer walls 
of the ground-floor were stuccoed, and 
generally painted, often with bright 
colours. The upper floor alone had 
windows, and very few houses had a 
third storey. The internal arrange- 
ment varied according to the rank and 
circumstances of the occupant, but, 
as a general rule, all houses of the 
first and second class may be said to 
have been divided into two parts, in 
accordance with the domestic customs 
of the Bomans and their double life, 
the first being public, and the second 
private. 1. The public part, being 
intended for the reception of the 
clients of a patrician, comprised several 
suites of apartments. On the side 
next the street there was generally an 
open space called the a/rea, either 
wholly or in part surrounded by a 
portico with columns. Within this 
portico was the porch, or prothyrum^ 
and the vestibule, containing one 
or more rooms used as waiting-rooms 
or as the porter's lodge. The vestibule 
opened on the hall, or atrium, the prin- 
cipal apartment of this division, where 
the proprietor gave audience to his 
clients. It was always a large space, 
covered with a flat roof on the sides, 
open to the sky in the centre, and with 
a cistern beneath the floor to catch the 
rain which descended through the aper- 
ture called the impluvium. The walls 
were often decorated with paintings, and 
the pavement was generally of marble 
or mosaics. Beyond this there was oc- 
casionally a small court, or cavcedium ; 
but as it is frequently wanting, the 
cavaedium and the atrium have been 
supposed by some to be identical. 
Open to the atrium was a chamber 



called the tahliftum, supposed to have 
been a depository for family records and 
documents, and in some of the larger 
houses to have served also as a dining- 
room. At the sides were smaller apart- 
ments called ahe, and frequently rooms 
for the reception of strangers, called 
IwspiHa, 2. The communication be- 
tween the public part and the private 
was effected by narrow passages called 
fauceSf and sometimes by the tablinum 
also. On entering the private division 
there was a spacious court, called the 
peristyle^ entii^y open to the air in the 
middle, but surrounded by a covered 
colonnade^ which answered the double 
purpose of a passage between the dif- 
ferent apartments, and of a sheltered 
promenade in wet weather. In the cen- 
tre was usually a garden, decorated with 
statues and fountains, from which the 
whole quadrangle has been also called 
the Viridarium. One of the rooms en- 
tered from the peristyle was the dining- 
room, or triclinium^ so called from the 
broad seats which projected from the 
wall and surrounded the table on three 
sides, and enabled the luxurious Romans 
to recline on couches at their meals. 
The wealth of the owner was generally 
lavished on the decorations and fur- 
niture of this apartment, although it 
was never very spacious, the largest yet 
discovered being only 20 ft. on each of 
its sides. Next were the sitting-rooms, 
or (Bci, saloons, richly decorated, and 
frequently opening on the garden. 
In these the Pompeian ladies passed 
their time. Another large room was 
the parlour, or exedra, supposed to 
be a reception-room for the visitors 
of the family. The library, or biblio' 
theca^ was generally a small apart- 
ment, as little space was required for 
the papyrus rolls. The picture-gal- 
lery, or jnnacothecay also opened on 
the peristyle. The baths were usually 
in one angle, as was also the larariunij 
or place for the household gods. The 
bedrooms, or cubtoula^ which were ex- 
tremely small and inconvenient, ac- 
cording to our modem notions, were 
arranged together in two divisions; 
the first, comprising those for the men, 

Called the androniUs, was always sepa- 
rated from that of the females, which 
was called the ffyntBconitis or gyncecewm. 
In some of the larger mansions the an- 
dronitis appears to have been situated 
on one side of the atrium in the public 
division. In others, as in the House of 
Sallust, the female apartments occupy 
a distinct quarter of the mansion, called 
the tienereum^ and corresponding in 
many particulars to the harem of East- 
em countries. It had there its separate 
court, portico, peristyle, and tridmium, 
a separate stove, water-closet, and stair- 
case leading to the terrace above, a 
flower-garden and fountain in the centre 
of the court, and the bedrooms on one 
side, protected by a lodge for a slave 
whose duty it was to prevent intrusion. 
The second floor appears to have been 
occupied as store-rooms and as the 
apartments for servants. Many of these 
rooms had windows, some of which 
were evidently glazed. The roof was 
flat and was converted into a terrace, 
planted with vines and flowers so as to 
form a shady promenade, or pergula. 
All these upper parts were generaUy 
built of wood, which, with the flat roofs, 
affording a regular lodgment for the 
ashes of the eruption, will explain 
the reason why scarcely any trace of 
them has been preserved. In the rear 
of the mansion was an open space or 
flower-garden, called the xystus, which 
was planted with flowers, decorated with 
fountains and statues, and sometimes 
furnished with a simuner-house, con< 
taining a stone triclinium, a table, and 
a fountain, and covered with a treUis for 
vines or creeping plants. !None of th« 
houses have any vestige of a chimney, 
although charcoal has been found in 
apartments both of Pompeii and Her^ 
culaneum. None have been discovered 
which we can regard as the dwellings 
of the poor, ^and it remains to be 
proved by fature excavations whether 
the lower orders inhabited a separat-e 
quarter of the city, or whether Pom- 
peii really had any pauper population. 
Stables and coachhouses are also want- 
ing, even in the larger mansions and 
the villas, the only apartments ap- 



proaching to stables being three or four 
rooms in the barracks for the troops, 
and a small chamber in a baker's 
house in which were found the bones 
of an ass, which was used, as we 
know from a bas-reUef, to work his 
com-miU. Eyen the inns form no ex- 
ception to this remurk, for the skeletons 
of horses which were foimd in them 
were lying in the yards, and not in any 
apartment to which the term stable 
could be applied. Another deficiency 
is the absence of anything in the nature 
of an hospital, although the instru- 
ments in the Museum indicate that sur- 
gery had attained a high degree of per- 
fection in the city. 

The Shops were very small and mean 
in appearance, and were all of one cha- 
racter, haying the business part in front 
and one or two small chambers behind, 
yery like to what we see at the present 
day in the older quarters of Naples. A 
few only of the better class appear, from 
the occasional occurrence of a ruined 
staircase, to haye liad any second floor. 
The shop was open to the street, and was 
closed by yery wide sliding shutters. 
In front it had a broad counter of ma- 
sonry, with three little steps at the end 
next the wall for the display of the 
goods, and a smail oyen in the opposite 
end, where the articles sold were for 
consumption as food or drink. Many 
of the shops had the names of their 
^^ owners written oyer them, mostly in 
red paint. Others had signs in terra 
cotta, to denote the trade which was 
carried on within them. Thus a goat 
indicated a milk-shop j two men carry- 
ing an amphora a wine-shop ; two men 
fighting, a gladiatorial school ; a man 
whipping a boy hoisted on another's 
back, the residence of a schoolmaster ; 
and finally, the checquers, the ancient 
ornament of the throne of Osiris, occu- 
pied its station on the doorposts of the 

Present State. — The names of many 
of the houses are derived from the 
paintings which they contained, or from 
the royal personages in whose honour 
they were excavated. The most im- 
portant paintings and all the principal 

objects of interest and value have been 
removed to the Museo Borbonico. An 
impression that Pompeii is destined 
to be again destroyed has caused the 
builcUngs to be abandoned to gradual 
decay. Hence many of the decorations 
described by the earlier writers have 
been lost. Of late the practice has been 
adopted of supplying the place of the 
objects removed by coloured casts, and 
of allowing the pictures to remain in 
situ under the protection of glazed 
frames, for they perish rapidly on being 
exposed to atmospheric changes. We 
shall notice concisely the principal 
buildings as they occur in our passage 
through the city, and shall trouble the 
traveller vdth as few technical details 
as possible. The architect and the anti- 
quary, who require more detailed in- 
formation, will find it in the works 
of Mazois, G«ll, Donaldson, Overbeck, 
and Fiorelli j * and those who may wish 
to connect the various objects with the 
domestic life and manners of the people 
may consult the volumeon Pompeii pub- 
lished by the Society for the Diffusion 
of Usefal Knowledge. The figures which 
follow the names in our list signify the 
year in which the object was excavated. 
As we have reoonunended in a pre- 
ceding page, the visitor will do well 
to commence his visit by the Street of 
the Tombs ; examining afterwards the 
quarter between the gate on this side and 
on the 1. of the street of Herculaneum, 
and proceeding to the Forum, and 
afterwards to the theatre, the gate of 
Stabise, and the amphitheatre: the 
whole will not occupy less than 3 hrs., 
and double this time may be usefully 
dedicated to it. Except in the vicinity 
of the gates, and especially near that of 
Herculaneum, the walls offer little 
interest, being buried for the greater 

* Signor Fiorelli, the present superintendent 
of the excavations, is now publishing a work on 
the discoveries niade at Pompeii in chronolo- 
gical order, ' Pompeinarum Antiquitatum His- 
toria,' the first volume recently published, 
I embracing nntil 1818, and a Journal of the 
' eveiy-day operations now in active progress. 
' Signor Fiorelli's map of the parts of the city 
j uncovered, will be found the best hitherto pro- 
• duced. All these works may be procured at 
Detken's library. 



part under the soil. We will suppose 
that the visitor has reached Pompeii 
by the railway, from which a few hun- 
dred yards will bring him to the H6tel 
Diom^de, close to which is the station 
of the Guides; leaving this, he will 
pass the excavations round the Sea- 
gate of the city ; the road leading to it 
from the shore, and from it to the Forum, 
ascends rapidly : on one side of the gate 
are a niche and a pedestal, where frag- 
ments of a statue were found, and nu- 
merous houses outside the wall, which 
is here well preserved, as is also the gate 
itself, although the arch has fallen in. 
From here a walk 'of 5 minutes will 
bring him to the 

I. Street of the Tombs (1763-1770, 
1811-1814). — ^Approaching Pompeii by 
the road from Torre dell' Annunziata, 
we enter it by the Via JDomitiana, a 
branch of the Appian Way. Before it 
reaches the gate it traverses the suburb 
called Pagus Augtistus Felix, which 
appears to have been the aristocratic 
quarter of the city. Everything in this 
suburb is Boman. On either side the 
road is bordered by tombs of every 
variety of form and taste, recalling, 
although on a diminished scale, the an- 
cient glories of the Appian as it once 
emerged from Eome upon the Cam- 
pagna. At the commencement of the 
street, on the rt., is the 

Villa of Diomedes (1763), one of the 
most extensive private residences which 
have been discovered, and peculiarly in- 
teresting as the only perfect specimen 
of a suburban villa. It is called the 
Villa of Diomedes on the slender ground 
of a tomb of M. Arrius Diomedes 
being on the side of the road opposite 
it. A flight of six steps between 
the remains of the two columns which 
formed the entrance-porch leads us 
from the street into the peristyle — an 
open space, which was surrounded by 
porticos supported by Doric columns. 
The lower third of the colunms is plain 
and covered with stucco painted red, 
the upper two-thirds fluted. In the 
centre is an open court containing an 
Im^hiviwn, by which the cistern oi the 
villa was supplied with water. On the 

rt. of the peristyle a flight of stairs lead 
to the upper floors, where the apart- 
ments of the females probably were. 
On the 1. are the baths, the dining^ 
rooms, a gallery overlooking the garden, 
the reception-room, and an open loggia, 
which conmianded a view of the sea, all 
decorated with graceful arabesques and 
other ornaments. On^e of the bath-rooms 
was lighted by a window which con- 
tained, when firet discovered, 4 panes 
of glass 6 inches square. Opening out 
of the peristyle is a semicircular room, 
looking on a garden and lighted by 3 
windows : it was probably the tricli- 
nium. In another room near it the dis- 
covery of the rings of a curtain which 
closed an alcove, and a cavity in masonry 
in which were several vases for perfumes 
and cosmetics, lead to the supposition 
that it was a bed-room; alongside is 
the small room for the servants in 
attendance. On one side of the loggia 
were the bed-rooms for the women, from 
which a stair communicated with the 
apartments for receptions. . In the N. 
angle of the peristyle, close to the road, is 
a staircase leading to a court on a lower 
level, which contained the kitchens and 
other domestic offices. A long corridor 
runs from one side of this court to the 
portico surrounding the garden, for the 
use of the servants ; on the other side 
is a staircase for the use of the fEunily. 
In the centre of the garden are the ruins 
of a fountain and an oblong square space 
surrounded by 8 columns, which appear 
to have supported a trellis. In the outer 
wall of the portico is the garden-gate, 
which opened upon a flight of steps 
leading to the sea-shore. On the N. 
side of the portico, at a lower level, is a 
long enclosure approached by a flight 
of steps : it is supposed to have formed 
a winter promenade. Beneath the por- 
tico are the cellars of the jjj^&. Several 
amphoree were found in ff em, leaning 
against the wall, with their pointed 
ends stuck in the ground to keep them 
in an upright position, and now fixed 
there by the volcanic deposit. A skele- 
ton, supposed to have been that of the 
unknown owner of this villa, was found, 
with that of an attendant, near the gar- 



den-gate, the one still holding in his 
grasp the key of the villa, the other 
carrying a purse contuning 100 gold 
and silvee coins of the reigns of Nero, 
Yitellius, Vespasian, and Titus. The 
members of lus family seem to have 
taken refuge in these cellars, where 18 
of their skeletons were found near the 
door, as if they had tried to retrace 
their steps after haying found that 
above ground afforded no shelter. 
From the gold ornaments on the necks 
and arms of nearly all these skeletons, 
it is probable they were mostly ft^nales. 
Two were the skeletons of children, 
whose skulls still retained some fair 
hair. After they had perished, pro- 
bably from suffocation, the floor of the 
cellar was inundated with a fine allu- 
vium, which hardened upon the bodies 
and took casts, not only of their forms, 
but even of the most delicate texture 
of the linen which they wore and of the 
jewellery which adorned their persons. 
One, a cast of the neck of a young girl, 
pasrt of which still exists in the halls 
of the ancient paintings at the Mu- 
seum at Naples, possessed considerable 
elegance of torm. 

Tomb of the Arrian family (1774). —